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Teff (Eragrostis abyssinica). 
Oil of Ben. 

r t 



Cape Boxwood (Buxus Macowani). 

' -- 



Sisal Hemp. 
Mauritius Hemp. 



Manila Hemp (Musa te.vtilis, Nees.) 

Plantain and Banana Fibre (Musa sapientum, 

E. Br.) 
Pine-apple Fibre (Ananas sativa). 




Bowstring Hemp. 



Botanical Stations in the West Indies. 



Annatto (Bixa Orellana, L.) 



Tree Tomato (Cyphomandra betaeea, D.C.) 
Chocho (Sechium edule, Sw.) 

Cherimoyer (Anona Cherimolia, Mill.) 




Annatto {Bixa Orellana; L.) 

Notes on Articles contributed to the Museums of 

the Royal Gardens, Kew, from the Colonial and 

Indian Exhibition, 1886. 



Onion Disease at Bermuda (Peronospora Schlei- 
deniana, De Bary). 



Colonial Fruit [Canada]. 



Cub.'lH ( Piper cubeba, L.) 



Food Grains of India — 

[1. Bambusa Tulda, Eoxb. 

2. Pankumflavidum, Ketz.] 

Broom Boot or Mexican Whisk (Epicampes 

macro*™, Benth.) * W 
Contrayerva (Dorstenia brasiliensis, L. ; Dor- 
stemaContrajerva, L.; Aristolochia odoratissima, 
Introduction of Brazil Nut to Eastern Colonies. 
Castilloa rubber (Castilloa elastica, Cerv.) 



52789. Wt. 16855. 




No. 1.] JANUARY. [1887. 

IT is proposed to issue from time to time, as an occasional 
publication, notes too detailed for the Annual Report on economic 
products and plants, to which the attention of the Staff of the 
Royal Gardens has been drawn in the course of ordinary corre- 
spondence, or which have been made the subject of particular 
study at Kew. It is hoped that while these notes will serve 
the purpose of an expeditions mode of communication to the 
numerous correspondence of Kew in distani parts of the Empire, 
they may also be of service to members of the general public 
interested in planting or agricultural business in India and the 

W. T. Thiselton Dyer, 
1st January 1887. Director. 



I.— TEPF. 

i I'.vaijrostis ahi/ss'utica.) 

Inquiry having been made at Kew with respect to an Abyssinian 
cereal ot economic value, suitable for cultivation at high elevations, 
steps have been taken to collect information on the subject, as well as 
to obtain a supply of seed tor distribution. 

The following "letters and extracts afford a very complete account of 
Toff; seed will in duo course be forwarded to such Botanic Gardens 
in India and the Colonies a^ are suitable for its experimental cultivation. 

Ttheff, Tteff, Thaff. 

Teff is one of the cereals indigenous to Abyssinia. It is cultivated 
in a great number of provinces at a hei^hl wliicb varies between six 
and seven thousand f< t above the sea level. 

Like all other cereals, Teff presents several varieties, some depending 
on its relative height, others on its general colour. 

Thus there is— 

1. Green Teff: or Tchangar ; 

2. White Teff : Ttsada Tthef ; 

3. Red Teff: Beneigne Tthef ; 

4. Purple Teff: Kqhaie Tthef. 

These ditlerent varieties are all cultivated alike. Tell' requires four 
months from the time it is placed in the earth for its grain to become 
perfectly ripe. In the neighbourhood of Gondar, Teff is sown in 
August and reaped at the end of November or beginning of December. 
Jn good years, it returns about 40 time- the <>Vi\, and only 20 times in 
bad years. 

The flour of Ted' is very white, and produces a bread of excellent 

Extract from Brucc's Travels- to ,/i„orer <h> S.nnn of th< A'l/r. 

Vol. VII., pp. 184-6. 

{Eragrostis abyssinica.~\ 

This grain is commonly sown all over Abyssinia, where it seems to 

illy on every sort of ground; from it is made the bread 

which is commonly u-ed throughout Abyssinia. The Abyssinians, 

e plenty of wheat, and some of it of an excellent quality. 

They likewise make as fine wheat bread as any in the world, both for 

colour and for taste ; but the use of wheat bread is chiefly confined 

to people of the first rank. On the other hand, Teff is used by all sorts 

of people, from the king downwards; and there are kind.-, of it, which 

are esteemed fully as much as the wheat. The best of these is as white 

as Hour, exceedingly light, and easily digested. There are others of a 

browner colour, and some nearly black ; this last is the food of soldier- 

and servants. The cause of this variation of colour is manifold ; the 
Teff that grows on light ground having a moderate degree of moisture, 
but never dry; the lighter the earth is in which it grows, t he better 
and whiter the TefF will be ; the husk, too, is thinner. The Teff, too, 
that ripens before the heavy nun-, is usually whiter and finer; and a 
-reat deal depends upon sifting the husk from if, after it is reduced to 
flour, by bruising or breaking it in a stone mill. This is repeated 
^■veral times with great care, in the finest kind of bread, which is found 
in the houses of all people of rank or substance. 

The fruit, or seed, is oblong, and is not so large as the head of the 
smallest pin; yet it is very prolific, and produces these seeds in siieh 
quantity as to yield a very abundant crop in the quantity of meal. 

Royal Gaudkn?, Ki:w, to Korkign Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, 23rd June 1886. 

I am directed by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to bring under the notice 
of Lord Rosebery the desirability of obtaining seed of a valuable cereal 
commonly sown all over Abyssinia, where it seems to thrive equally on 
every sort of j .ii is made the bread ordinarily used 

in that country. 

2. It is called locally Teff, Ttheff, or Thaff, and known to botanists 
as Eragrostis abyss'uiira. 

3. It appears to be an indigenous Abyssinian cereal cultivated at 
hiu'h elevations, from 6,000 feet to 7,000 feet above the level of the 
sea, (it which there are several varieties depending on size and enloura- 

4. No specimens of this grain are in the Museums of Economic 
Botany i 

under article Teff, is given in Brace's Travels, Vo 

5. These facts have been ascertained in consequence of iuquiri 
made at Kew for seeds of Teff, and it would appear to .Mr. Tle-e!t 

hill stations in India, to elevated" portions of our colonial empire, ai 
indeed, to all places where maize and wheat cannot be suceessfu 

7. Mr. Thiselton Dyer would, under these circumstances, esteem it 
favour if you will be good enough to lay this letter before Lo 
Rosebery, and ask that the Vice-Consul at Berbera be instructed 
endeavour to procure a bushel or so of seed of Teff and forward it he 
by first convenient opportunity. 

(Signed) ' D.'Morris. 


Foreign Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

SiBj Foreign Office, 18th November 1886. 

With reference to your letter of the 23rd of June, \ am directed 

by the Earl of Iddesleigh to transmit to you herewith a copy of a 

:Vum Her Majesty's Charge d' Affaires at Cairo, respecting 

two bags of Tscheff (Eniyraxft* ■ Mr. Portal 

has procured through the kindness of General Gene, the officer 

The bags of seed have not arrived at this office, and I am to inquire 
whether they have been received at Kew Gardens direct from 

The Assistant Director, (Signed) J. Pauncefote. 

Enclosure in Foreign Office Letter, No. 1. 

No. 41G. 
My Lord, Cairo, 16th October 1886. 

With reference to Lord Rosebery's despatch to Sir E. Baring, 
No. 138, of the .'Kith J inn- la-f, forwarding copy of a letter from the 
Director of Kew Gardens, asking that, if possible, samples should l>e 
pnx'iired of a cereal called Teff or Tcheff (Eragrostis abyssinica), I 
have the honour to report to your Lord-hip that through the kindness 
<,i the Italian Acting Consuls iciieral, I have been enabled to forward to 
v. .in- Lordship two bags of the seed roqi v, t h lias been pn.eiir. I 

tbr him at his request by (ieneral dene, the officer commanding the 
Italian garrison at Massowah. 

(ieneral C.'iu' explains that one of the bugs contains white Tcheff 
:,nd the other rod Tcheff, that both sorts are cultivated in the same 
manner, but that the former is more generally preferred by the well- 
to-do natives on account of its colour. 

I have the honour to enclose copy of M. Venanzi's note to me, and 
of my reply, in which 1 have taken the liberty of conveying to him and 
to (Ieneral Gene the thanks of your Lordship for the kind and 
courteous readiness which they have shown to comply with the request 
contained in Lord Rosebery's despatch above quoted. 

The bags containing the seed have been forwarded by sea to the 
address of the Foreign Office. 

I have, &c, 

The Earl of Iddesleigh, G.C.B. (Signed) G. 1L Portal. 

Foreign Office Letter No. 2. 
Alexandrie, 1-i 

qu' aujourd'hui meme 

Foreign Office to Royal Gardens, Ke w. 
Sir, Foreign Office, 2nd December 1886. 

With reference to riiy lettei of 1 I i previous 

correspondence relative to the Tchef seed wliich has been proeur. 1 
for Kew Gardens through the kindness of the Italian officer command- 
ing ji.t Mus.<ow-:ili, i am directed by the Earl of Iddesleigh to forward to 
you the accompanying paper which has been sent to Sir E. Baring 
by M. de Martino, the Italian Agent and Consul-! ieix-ral at Cairo, giving 
various details as to the nature, qualities, mode of cultivation, &c. of the 
cereal in question. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) J. Pauncefoti:. 

Cultivation ofThafor Thief. 

lawn grass. 

There are two kind- : white Thaf and red Thaf. Both are, moreover, 
of two different qualities, according to the time ..t -..w in-, and are in 
eonsequence distinguished by the names of the seasons; " Thai-Haga iz " 
and " Thai- Tseddia." The first is called " hagaiz," from the name of 
the season which, according to Abyssinian leekoning. includes all our 
winter and the commencement of our -firing; ii is -own at the end of 
Mi'ii-al'ii. in Myazya and Ghembot (March, April, and May). The 
M-ciTnd is called ■•Tseddia." from the name of the commencement of 
the rainy season, which follows that of Hagaiz and precedes that of 
Keremt ; it is sown in June and at the commencement of July. 

Thai- Hagaiz is of slow, and Thaf -Tseddia of rapid growth. These 
produce great difference in quality, Thaf-Hagaiz being con- 
siderably *uoerior; the white, especially, is used for the table by 
the Court and Chiefs. Thaf-Tseddia is of very interior quality, ami the 
flabby .ake. or the " Tabita," which is produced from its flour, is as 
disagreeable to chew as if it were mixed with sand. 


due to being twn iu<.n!h- 1m uei in th gimn I 

I ought, however, to add thai " "cannot be 

eently for one another. The experimc r w ■!: i ho native- 

. - !■:.■ 

the -eoond. Tii.- di.derence between them, both in the case of th- white 
oi- r, d, is ij:i i naked eye, by the want of plumpne ■ 

cteristi « i. » hi I- i'n ' . the other. 

they come up. Sown at the end of March or in April and 
May, tho\ rri\ t n itn i tl ih beginning f September. Sown n 
June or July the eroo m -v he leaped in October. 

They are cultivaie'd in" th wi.nn re-ion. of th - Kmialia." or low- 
land-, at an altitude of from 1,300 to 1,800 metre-, and especially in 
ti temporal; region- of the " Ouayne-Dega," at an altitude of from 

The Thaf conies up very vigorously in heavy land-, but its huge and 


tuft is ric 

slier in herba< 


iberanec^of it- 




it to he lai 

(he weight „f 

A ".y"- 

ared ground. 


id eleaned 

■unls lightly 


three or four 
ploughings in 
hickly on the 

It is not n. v, io cut it. 

for when too ripe and hied, the grain shed> "in th? wind" and at the 

early morning, and is placed in heap- with the < ai- iuvu'd-, > d nn, < d 
to preserve it from the rain ; it is then left to ripen and to undergo a 

_ I. ' . ' ' !,■■'':: 

and has none of th- hittenu-- f -onic other kinds of grain. 

(Signed) E.CotLBEAUx, 
Mi--ionnaire apostolique en Aby.-sinie. 

Water - 

Starch, &e. 

rhe ratio between the albuminoid-, or lie-h-lormors, and the heat- 
ers, or force-producers (calculated as starch), is here 10. This ratio 
ess satisfactory than l )U t j s near th a t 

Panicmn MiHarc. 


Considerable interest attaches to the origin of Oil of Ben, which is 
supposed to have been exclusively used many years ago by watch and 
clock makers. It was said to possess special properties, amongst others, 
that it would : , that it remained liquid under very 

low temperatures, and, lastly, did not become rancid. 

Whether such an oil was a natural product or the result of a special 
treatment of olive and other oils is not clearly known. 

For many years an effort has been made by the Hon. II. J. KomMe. 
of Jamaica, to prepare Oil of Ben from the seeds of Moringa pterygo- 
■tperma, which is well known as the horse-radish tree of tropical 
countries, .and ■ I in both the East and West Indie-. 

The seeds of this tree yield 30 per cent, by weight of a cfear, limpid, 
almost colourless oik It has a specific gravity of 0-912 at 00° F., 
it is fluid at 77° F., and solid below 60° F. After separation of the 
solidifiable portion it forms a clear oil, of which a fine specimen from 
Madras, more than thirty years old, is now in the Kew Museum. 

If this oil were proved to be identical with Oil of Ben there is no 
doubt its production would be immediately undertaken on a large scale. 
Dr. Watt states that Morhiga pterygospcrma is so extensively culti- 
vated in India that that country alone could easily oiioueh. and with 
profit, supply the whole world with Oil of Ben. Similar conditions 
exist in the West Indies, where the oil can be produced, by cold 
pressing, at about 8s. to 10*. per gallon. 

In the Report of the Director of tl at, Jamaica, 

for the year 1883, it is stated that, — " Great interest is still being taken 
" in the extraction of Oil of Ben from the seed of the common horse- 
" radish tree {Moringa jUcrygospcroKt). Last year I took with mo 
" to England a fine sample of oil prepared by pressure by Mr. Kennedy. 
" The report which I received from Messrs. Silver and Co. was as 
'• follows: — ' It i-< an in this market, the sample 

'• - is far from being bright, and in its present state would be useless 
" ' for either of the trades named in j i ei r 1 

" ' Whatever the oil may be in the West Indies, it appears to be verv 
• ; ' tender here, and although <ml\ ah.-ut three parts congealed now. 
" ' would in the winter months be entirely so.' 

"If Moringa pterygospcrma yields the true Oil of Ben, the prepara- 
" tion evidently must be different to that hitherto pursued ; and it is 
" possible that the tender condition of the sample submitted to Messrs. 
4i S. W. Silver and Co. was owing to the presence in it of a large 
" proportion of stearine which should be removed." 

The properties and value of the oil of Moringa pterygosperma 
having been so far determined, the next question was to discover 
whether any other species of Moringa yielded the true Oil of Ben. 
The genus Moringa consists of only three species, and these are 
M. pteri/uiispcniia, Gaeitn, V. apfera, Gaertn, and M. roncancusis. 

The latter is probably only a form of M. pterygosperma with larger 
leaflets ; and it can very well be passed over in the present inquiry. 
. >iga aptera. 

Tliis latter species has a comparatively narrow distribution, and 
appears to be confined to Upper Kgypt. some par.s of Syria, and Aden. 
At the latter place it was collected b . in 18-17, and 

he describes it as a " weeping tree, about 17 feet high, yield in a: a re, I 

In Irby and Mangle-" Travels in Petraea and the Dead Sea, p. ■WW. 
there is the following reference to this tree :— " A very singular plant 
" grows near the hot sources [Callirrhoe springs], of the bulk and 
" stature of a tree; its foliage does not seem to differ from that of the 
" common broom. It bears a pod hanging down from it about a foot 
" or fourteen inches in length tinted with convex ribs from the end to 

Sp < imens in the Kew Museum marked " Seed of a tree near the hot 
" springs of Callirrhoe," evidently refer to the above, and are undoubtedly 
Moringa aptera. 

The Kew Herbarium possesses specimens collected by Lord in the 
Sinai Peninsula in 1868, by Lowne at Engedi in 1864, by Ehrenberg 
"i \i ib i i I-,, i !, i; ! i in \! - i i Ml !- I 
Thebais in 1885. 

The following note appears on a specimen from Gay's Herbarium : — 

- IMil.- m'a dit, le 17 Octobre 183.5, qu'il fall .it rapporter an Moringa 

- apt, r.',, le Moringa mix Ben de sa PI. .Egypt. Illustr., p. 81. Les 
" graines qui se vendent dans les boutiquo< du Cairo et d'Alexandrio. 
" sous 1c nom de habbat et ghalz, et dont on extrait l'huile de Ben, 
•• i.p])artient an Moringa aptera, Gaertn." 

According to Decaisne [Ann. des Se. Xat. 2- ser., Vol. IV., pp. 204, 

i parait certain que cc sont clles qui produiscnt, par 1'express 

irs cotyledons, l'huile de Ben du commerce, c'est du moins l'opin 

-. Van Eheede et Rumphius, qui s'entendent long 

- ' ! i ' ■''' d'nsages auquels on emploie les fcuilles ou 

■s dii Mnruigrt iifcri/gnspcnua no di-ont eependant pas qu'on 

>roduit et de l'arbre lui-meme, sou; 
II le oito daiis son voyage au Mont 

In the hope of obtaining seeds, ap 

Dear Sir, 

from the Lebano 

get the information you wanted about the Ben-oil. 

1 V.' ;l ' ! '! ; ! '•' " : "'" ' ! ; Alr ' 1 ian oil Passes here, but nobodv knew 
Ai "'" -' "■ ' ! ' '■' I " ; --■ although I showed specimens 
** appears to me prob.,! : • that M„rii _ :i oil is not now 
!airo, but that it is imported from elsewhere, if at all 

mga ap/ora (faertn (Moringa arabiea, Lam., Hyperanthera 
• -,nideea.idra, Vaht.\ grows wild in the East- 
id it often in the mountains 

MHiiii ul Kosser, near the Reel Sea; uu tin (iibil Al-n I iur. in \V,-nh 
Hendosse, the northern limit was in Wadi Hauaschieh, northward of 
Gebel Gharib. The tree occurs also frequently on the borders of the 
Nubian desert; I found it there on the Gebel Soturba (22° North Lit.), 
on the Gebel Waratab, near Suakin, on the Gebel Iskenab, at the road 
Suakin-Kassala. I have specimens of it in my herbarium from the land 
of the Habab (between Suakin and Massawa), also from Aden and 

nowhere to be found, 
whilst V pterygosperma is largely distributed. I have about 5 lbs. 
of seeds of the latter, which are at your disposition, if you need any. 
Tlu— -ceds develop well here, and contain much oil. 

I am sorry not to be able to send you the desired seeds of M. aptcra. 
I am, &c. 
(Signed) G. Schweinfurtii. 

P.S. — The Arabian mime among the Bedouins in Egypt is "El Yes- 
" sar " for M. aptera, while " El Ben " is the Arabian (or Persian) name 
for M. pterygosperma. 

In 1885- seed of Moving a aptvra was received from Mes-rs. liaage 
and Schmidt, of Erfurt. : • ,1 to Jamaica, 

Demerara, Dominica, Calcutta, and Ceylon. In May of the present 
year a few seeds were obtained from Mr. Ernest A. Floyer, Inspector 
General of Egyptian Telegraphs, who mentions that the Arabic name 
of the tree is " Yessar," and describes the tree as growing to a height 
of 20 feet. He further mentions that in the valley of Kittar, a mountain 
gorge with a single pool of water, surrounded by 96 miles of troche 
and waterless desert, " The tree has leaves in long spines like a tamarisk, 
" and has copious sprays of waxy flowers, with a beautiful smell like 
" fresh hay, and an additional merit, xnx good camel fodder." 

A few seeds additional to the above were received from Dr. Schwein- 
1'nrth in June of this year, which, with seeds previously received, were 
sown at Kew, and yielded several strong plants. 

It is a noticeable point with regard to young plants of Moriuga aptrra 
that they form a tuberous root, during the first year's growth, <>r o.m- 
siderable size. This tuber, it appears, is eaten by the Bedouins, and in 
taste is very similar to the common radish. 

As regards the oil yielded by the seeds of Mormga aptrra, nothing 
as yet can be done. When the plants now growing in the Kn.-t and 
West Indie- have produced seed they will he tested with tin- view, and 
the subject again brought under notice. 

its t.. Ill- «»(!>;, n\ ni'.-t K \. 
For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 




No. 2.] FEBRUARY. [1887. 


(Buxus Macowani.) 

The record of the discovery of a new species of Buxus in South 
Africa is a matter of some interest, not alone from a botanical point of 
view in consequence of its being the first representative of the genus 
discovered in South Africa, but economically, because it is 
the wood may yet become an article of commerce in this country as a 
substitute for true Boxwood for wood en graving. 

The history of the introduction of this wood to the notice of the 
London hardwood merchants has been given in the " Journal of the 
Society of Arts" for March 19«h, 1886, p. 465. In April 1885 [ 
received a letter from Mr. W. M. E. Welby, of East London, Cape 
Colony, asking me to give him what information 1 could on the subject 
of Boxwood or its substitutes for wood engraving, and further stating 
" Ihaveacon . P hard woods 

" growing on my farm that I am anxious to (urn to some account, and 
" if the wood in question is really valuable, possibly you could oblige 
" me with the name of some respectable firm with whom I could 
** communicate with t 

Iii replying tii this letter I gave Mr. Welby the name of Mr. C4odfrey 
S. Saunders, then of 106, Fenchurch Street, a gentleman who has had 
an extensive experience in hard woods, and to whom the Kew Museum 
is indebted for frequent reports upon various woods that have been 
received from time to time. I also asked that a good sample of the 
wood might be sent for the Muse a haps prove a 

better specimen than that of the Cape Box (Celastrus biuifhlins I..) 
already contained in the Museum, with which I assumed the wood 
referred to by Mr. Welby was identical. In July I received another 
letter from Mr. Welby, of which the following is an extract, " Acting 
" upon your advice T have addressed a box of wood samples to Mr. 
" Godfrey S. Saunders, Fenchurch Street, and have enclosed therein a 
" piece of Boxwood for you which I have asked him to be kind enough 
" to hand over to you. Immediately on receipt of your letter, I wrote 
" to the Conservator of Forests for the scientific name of the Boxwood, 
" but have not yet received his reply. I may state, however, thai the 
" name mentioned in a newspaper art u Ihu. Should 

" this not prove correct, I will write and inform you. Unfortunately 
** I forgot to put some leaves in the box, and therefore enclose a few 
" herein. I have never seen the tree in blossom, nor do the natives 
" seem to know what the flower is like. If, however, it does bear a 
" flower, I wiD u some future date. The tree grows 

" to an average height of 30 feet, and as a rule does not exceed 12 or 14 
" inches in diameter." 

Upon examining this wood, and comparing it and the small specimens 
of foliage sent with those of Celastrus buxifolius, I found that they did 
not agree, but that the foliage very nearly resembled that of true Box 
..ipervirens), and upon comparing this sample of Cape Box- 
wood with Black Sea Boxwood, I found the two woods to be almost 
identical, so that it was clear the Cape Boxwood was none other than a 

In September 1885, Mr. Godfrey 8. Saunders wrote to me as 
follows: — Ah h the arrival of Mr. Welby's 

wimples, two other samples of the same sort of wood reached here to 
some friends of mine, so I have had the opportunity of testing not only 
Mr. YV's, which had been seasoning for two years, but also the fresh 
wood. I have had pieces distributed amongst six practical men, and 
liioiiLdi the; all : . ■■ ! ' vourahly of its appearance, they all unite in 
raying that it does not cut smoothly, but "harsh," " ragged," and that 
the cutter "blurrs" on the wood, whereas genuine Box cuts quite 
smoothly. There is also a nasty tendency to split from the centre 
outwards, instead of the clean way in which Boxwood splits, so that the 
end of every piece has a series of star shakes. In addition, every log I 
have cut has very many black specks, .juite spoiling it for first rate 
work, even if good in other respects. 

The Indian Forester for November 1885 drew attention to the arrival 
at the West India Dock of 55 pieces of ( bpe Boxwood, weighing nearly 
three tons, and described the logs as being of good sizes, and sound and 
clean grown, and possessing a closeness of grain almost equal to the best 
Abassian Boxwood, so that it was thought it would be suitable for 
engraving purposes. 

In the report of the Conservator of Forests, King William's Town, 
for the year 1881. p. 23, it is stated " The coast forests have come int., 
• notice during the year by the discovery that the so-called Cape Box- 
" wood is of value for engnning and other purposes, for whirl, real 
« Boxwood is used. The area of Box producing forest in I 


" River Valley is estimated at 15 square miles. Box also occurs in the 
" valley of the Keiskama River, near the coast, but has not as yet been 
" detected west of tins in the vallew- of the Fi<h River, Kowie River, 
" and Bushman's River. A li-w r.-:il Box l.vr< (««,,•«, snapcrrirms) 
" have been planted out in the forests in the King William- Town, 
" Stutterheim, and East London divisions, and supplies of Box seeds for 
" stocking the nurseries ;n . : is and India. That from 

" India, the produce of the Himalayan Box, will probably prove of the 

Under the head of East London Forests, at p. 51 of the same Report, 
the folhm-ing occurs : — " The event of the year for these forests has been 
" the discovery of the con pe Boxwood. This is a 

" small tree like the generality of trees in the East London forests. It 
" is rarely met with over a foot in diameter by 25 of bole, but it is suf- 
•■ liciently abundant to i u mi -i> a large supply of wood. Submitted to 
" an expert it has been <i about one penny a cubic 

'• inch, if seasoned, free from cracks. 

" Cape Box, Kafir (Gara-gara) does not. appear to coppice, but has a 
" good natural production from seed. The tree was placed on the 
" reserved list a year ago; previous to that it had been sold at 5*. the 
" waggon load for firewood. A linear survey . . 

" the object of getting an estimate of the quantity of Boxwood in the 
" East London forests, is now being executed by Captain Ricketts, the 
u local Ranger." 

At the end of 1885 Professor Macowan, Director of the Botanic 
Gardens, Cape Town, forwarded to Kew specimens which enabled 
Professor Oliver to describe and figure the South African Box as new 
species of liu.vus, under the name of Buxus Macotoani [Icones Planta- 
rum, t. 1518]. 

Amongst the woods shown in the Cape Court the recent Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition wen- some -mail samples of this Boxwood, the 
general appearance of which was not such as to recommend it to the 
notice of wood engravers, notwithstanding that the Cape catalogue 
referring to this wood says : — "When Cape Boxwood is better known 
- in the Knglish market, it is anticipated that an export trade will be 
•• established. Small shipments have already been made to introduce the 
■• wood which is verv favourablv reported on for engraving purposes," 
and it is further stated that the Timber Trades Journal of 22nd 
August 1885 declares this wood to be one of the best yet put forward 
as a substitute for the ever decreasing supply of true Box. The success 
here anticipated has scarcely yet been borne out by experience. But 
there is little doubt that a wood suitable tor engraving purposes is 
greatly in demand. If the present Cape Boxwood does not fully meet 
the requirements of engravers, the subject is one which deserves 
attention at the Cape and elsewhere. It is but natural to supp>-e that 
among so many Colonial timbers the: ; : identical 

with Boxwood, may possess so many desirable qualities as to commend 
it for general use. 


The following correspondence lias passed between the Colonial Office 
and Kew in regard to industries at Mauritius. 

As some of the industries treated here are the subject of inquiry 
from other Colonies, the correspondence will prove of interest, not only 
to Mauritius, but to other portions of 1 1 -ions : — 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

riiiiii- Street, 17th August 1 
a your letter of the 2nd of May, I at " 
by Secretary Colonel Stanley to transmit to you, for such observation 

With reference to your letter of the 2nd of May, I am directed 

thereon as Sir Joseph Hooker may have to offer, the accompanying 
copy of a despatch from the Governor of Mauritius, enclosing the pre- 
liminary report of a Committee which had been appointed to inquire 
into nn. 1 report upon the best means of encouraging the cultivation of 
other products besides sugar. 

Colonel Stanley will feel obliged for any suggestions which Sir 
Joseph Hooker's experience may enable him to make as to the industries 
-vhich would be most likelv to meet with success in Mauritius, and the 

, C.M.G., (Signed) John Bra: 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, 18th August 1885. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
August 17th, transmitting, for the information of Sir Joseph Hooker, a 
copy of a despatch from the Governor of Mauritius, witli enclosures 
relating to the promotion of new planting industries, in the Colon}'. I 
am to make tl papers: — 

2. Tobacco is only an exhausting crop, in the sense that its quality 
rapidly deteriorates on soil which is not kept to a high standard of 
fertility. In Cuba the alluvium brought down by rivers perpetually 
renews the soil on which the tobacco is grown. But tobacco never- 
theless of average quality is grown to an enormous extent in various 
parts of the world. If it can be grown "of a quality sufficiently good 
to command remunerative prices in Reunion " it would certainly seem 
to deserve encouragement in Mauritius. 

3. With regard to tea, Sir Joseph Hooker thinks that due caution 
must be exercised. Mauritius will have to meet the compel itie.ii of 
Ceylon and India, in which the cultivation is capable of almost i. Melinite 
expansion. Tea, moreover, to be a profitable industry, is entirely depen- 
dent on an exact adjustment of the supply of labour.' It must" also be 
remembered that the extension of tea' 1 dtivaiion in Mauritius means 
the ultimate destruction of the little remaining high-level forest. 

' t undoubtedly to be paid to Cinchona. 
e report of Her Majesty's Consul at Reunion, 

25th, 1881, whi 

tan;. . 

rultivfiUftiif.i'r'inclinnn fi ri ].fiivi.tiyi.iv--nis no pl.v-icid dillieulth ■.-. I 
may also refer to mv letter ..i March 7tli, 1*«1, to Sir Robert Herbert, 
which was referred to the Government ..i .MnuvithiP. but elicited no 

Theeeonomj in thi largt expa 
of Mauritius upon quinine, presumably imported from Europe, would 
. vnt activity in the matter. 
5t The leaf See in Ceylon has onfortn 

tended to Mauritius. Liberian coffee, though 
L [,\ cultivation may nW> be carried on at : 
There is believed lo be a steady demand tor this kind of coffee m the 
United States. 

6 \s to silk, if if h intended to grow any of the mull, 
kinds, Sir Joseph Hooker cannot e> climate of 

Mauritius will be found too hot, and the Indian Tasar silks have not 
yet 1: 

" With regard to wneat, sr, u is n; 

'" >ta ' local consumption. The 

vation of oil-seeds is a more promising industry, and for these tnere 
would be probably a good market at Marseilles. 

8 Something might be done prohabi f "Hy selected 

situations. The cultivation ofVn; ' ■' mion in 18o() 

after the failure of the sugar cane. It is now said to be ti- 
of that island. The preparation ,1" the pods is peculiarly an industry 
suited to the resources of small proprietors. 

9. Sir Joseph Hooker 

,,f proprietor., with -nimble hue: ; . .-hue- oi 

choice woods, such as Ebony and Sandal. For th> -■ there is always a 
demand and a market. The cultivation of spices, such as Cloves, is abm 
worth attention. . . . 

10. It is to b« regretted tl ,< tie r . nil hbr. .ndu-ir 
has not prospered. That there mm, be a so id bottom to it Sir Joseph 

, ,,< 1. Tin aloe iibro produced n tie , Ion; 

■ ravom Manilla Hemp, again, is ■ staple 1 1 n 

its kind, i'innllvC hiua(;ra-.thoe_ 

preparation otherwise then by band, is a hh- 

could be overcome, wee: -lore it. it is excinn n 

, „,. eal deal of attention in Kurope at .1 

;!„. 111;l! ter. to Miuly the whole u ,W,on ..) tb- 

France and Emrlauil Cival interest i- now taken m the ■: 

Sonera! Wmafeit his busings to thoroughly 

- ?** S *? "SSll, ™>J Hi™ « marked in mv letter of May 2 

(Signed) W. T. Thisei.ton Dyer. 
, Esq., D.C.L., C.B., 

Royal Garden, TCf.w. in Coloxtae Office. 
Sir, Royal Garden-., Kew, L'ud December 18S<;. 

Referring to my letter of August 18th, 1885, in which T sag 

a report on the economic plains to which, in tlio present e<-. 
lion of the ■ be given, I have now the honour to 

inform jou that I have been favoured by Mr. Home with copies of the 
enclosed paper. 

2. This document reflects great credit on Mr. Home's knowledge and 
' t under the attention of the residents in 
uggest many practicable developments 
vi new cultural industries. 

?>. Mr. Moms, the Assistant Director of this establishment, having a 

randum, which I hive t he honour" to submit to the Secretary c . 

the hope that the suggestions it contains may be of some service to the 

Government of the colony. 

I am, &c. 
Edward Wingfield, Esq., (Signed) W. T. Thiselton Dyer. 

Colonial Office. 

The " Report on the Agricultural Resources of Mauritius," prepared 
by Mr. Horn- ,,f Tne p rese nt 

position of local industries outside and beyond that of sugar, which, it 
may be observed, is the staple industry of the island. 

2. The intention and idea of the report evidently has been not so 
much to sngg» -., enlarge the 

scope and area of the „ MO f stuted 

to the production of sugar. 

.".. r riint Mr. Home is solicitous as regards sugar as well as other 
ihing- is apparent in several pages of the report, and no doubt, in 
.'oinmon with all who feel an interest in the island, he is anxious to 
improve ih ( . cultivation of the sugar cane, and to see produced at a 
minimum cost the finest grades of sugar which improved machinery and 
the best scientific methods can produce. 

4. In view of the expenditure already incurred by planters, local 
societies, and by Government, in introducing new variety 



claim. ' J 

5. After stating this much by way of introduction we now come to 
the suggestions made by Mr. Home respecting the promotion of such 
ln : - 1 ;n,iil " "l.l ones, which offer some hope of 


6. The cocoa-nut, which comes first on the list, would appear not to 

■• Mauritius which its value and merit deserves, 
and the suggestion made by Mr. Horn- to secure the planting of cocoa- 

nuts on the Pas Geometriques deserves the attention of Government. 
Unless there are some grounds for assuming that cocoa-nuts do not 
thrive so well at Mauritius as in other tropical places in the Indian 
Ocean, it is somewhat anomalous that this fertile island cannot grow 
even enough green cocoa-nuts for the use of the inhabitants. It would 
appear that, in the year 1884, nearly Rs. 30,000 were spent on green 
nuts imported from other countries, while the total value of the produce 
of the cocoa-nut palm imported from abroad and consumed in the 

:t, ! 

of periodical 1 

which must operate very | t the establishment of trees 

as a permanent cultivation. It would appear, however, from Mr. 
Home's remarks, that he does not apprehend any - serious loss arising 
" to cocoa-nut plantations from these hurricanes." If this, as it is 
presumed to be, is the result of experience and observation extending 
over many years, there is no reason why this industry, at least, is not 
greatly extended in all suitable localities. 

8. With regard to the cultivation of cacao (chocolate), coffee, cin- 
chona, and tea the case is quite different. These are not likely to thrive 
except in well-sheltered situations, to escape hurricanes, and, in localities 
Hillieii-ntly cool and moist, to be beyond the influence of prolonged 
droughts. Cacao is the least likely "to thrive in Mauritius. Come, 
might thrive if relieved of the attacks of the Ceyh.n eoli'eedeaf disease, 
but of this, however, there would appear to be little hope at present. 
For local consumption Liberian coffee might be grown, but the tree 
■ ielding this, although better able to withstand the disease, being larger 
than the ordinary coffee, is all the more liable to be damaged by 

9. The cultivation of the several species of cinchona, except ].. rhao- 
to a limited extent v>'<\ hark ( Cinchona succirubra), is not likely to be a 

for that species and sufficiently protected from destructive winds must 
1 to afford scope for anything more than a limited industry. 
The eupiva hark trees ( KVmiji.a ; will grow at a lower elevation than the 
true cinchona trees, and experiments with these from seed lately sent 
from Kew would afford more hope of success. 

10. Tea is grown in Ceylon from sea level up to an elevation of 
0,000 feet, but " the average altitude of the larger districts is about 
4,000 feet above sea level." It is possible that 
tions exist for cstaldishirg 
borne in mind that unless 1 

in the London market at a cost without duty r 
per pound, there will 1 

iargo eoi 
will be , 

► ship " in the near futi 
very hardy and grows ever\ whore. The chief pruhloms, however, are 

(that is. securing for it a warm, hum .te) to ensure 

large ■•Slushes"; and to have at hand an abundant -upply of cheap 
labour. The large numher of tea plan's, estimated at about 30,000, 
already in the island should afford a ready means of testing the capa- 
bilities of a tea industry as well as the cost of production. 

J 1. As regards the cultivation of cereals and pulse such plants as maize, 
rice, millets, and gram. I-, peas, all deserve to be 

grown on a large scale, not only to su tit also, when 

favourable markets offer, for export purposes. The consumption of rice 

in the colony is very large, and all of it is imported. If there is an 

t rice in the 

island, the free Coolies might be encouraged to start the c ulthation b\ 

having leased to them srrall plots of Government land at nominal rate-. 

1 experinn n- u an estate in Jamaica, proved very 

' l! '" i? on new to the habits of the people, 

ngst email settlers, it is no. 

of the Mauritius Government it might assume the shape of a grant of 
land or lease for a certain number of years, or a bonus on results, both 
- withdrawn. 

12. Maize or Indian corn, il suitable to ihe country, should require 
only to be brought prominently before the people to be grown to any 
extent required to meet at least local circumstances. For dry district- 
there is no cereal which is so well adapted to yield regular' crop- as 
Guinea corn and other more or less known species of Sorghum. They 
afford a large supply of green food for cattle and horses, they bear cut- 
ting, and the grain is capable of being utilised in a variety of ways both 

13. The Indian immigrants no doubt might be induced to establish 
the cultivation of gram (Cicer arietimini) in Mauritius, which it is 
noticed is imported to the value of Rs. 673,280. Again dim 
mdicta) is imported to the value of Rs. 349,546 annually. It is a 
matter for consideration, and to be decided solely by local circumstances, 
whether these two plants can be grown so cheap 

at Mauritius as in Southern India; but in view of the enormous > um s 
now paid for imported gram and dhal the subject is one of considerable 

14. A careful inquiry into the disease said to affect the crops of dhal 
(known locally as Ambrevate or Ambrevade) is obviously necessary j 

be suggested should be taken to deal 
with it. It is possible that the introduction of fresh seed may be 
"us as a first step towards resuscitating an industry which 
p pears to have assumed <;•« i j u Mauritius. 

b~>- The ci as, to grow at least two - 

fruits a '..1 man s and pin -ap| e S ar, undoubted. The returns on the 
exports of these two fruits at Jamaica and the Hahamas amount in the 
aggregate to nearly a quarter of a million sterling. Hence it is not a 
question of producing a large variety of fruit so much as of producing 
'■in aplv and in large quantities a few commercial fruits f, 
is a general demand. 

16. It appears from Mr. Home's report that regular and rapid com- 
munication ox.sts between Mauritius and the Cape of Good Hope, and 
again by Ihe : , s between Mauritius and Adelaide 
;i h<-,<. circumstances obviously suggest the proper outlet fori,, 

;• ■ ' '■.■-■■■■- ; .■'■<•..,■... .-.::;,; ., v "..., .. 

subsidy to ens;: Luring tile voyage, the 

., need only be made aware of what 

n in other colonies to avail themselves of such 

tavourable met industries. 

17. Pine-a; ut special storage for a voyage of 

o in a cool hold. For a voyage of 10 to 18 days they 
require to be kept in a special cool chamber, the temperature of which 
should be regularly maintained at about 45° Fahrenheit. Under such 
conditions not only pine-apples, but also bananas, avocado pea.-, bread- 

' ' ' : 
West Indies, the steamer taking generally 18 days for the whole 

18. Such fruits as cannot be exported in a fresh state might be 
canned or dried, and under this hea Singapore in 

ately brought to notice. 

19. Purposely here attention is drawn only to a few special fruits, 
but it is plainly evident that at Mauritius the subject <>f fruit growing 
for export purposes (either in a fresh or canned state) has not been 
seriously entertained nor lms tin- subject received the attention it 

20. Allied to fruit growing is the subject of growing market-garden 
produce, for which no doubt there would be considerable demand in a 
fresh state at the Cape or at the diamond fields, if preserved and put up 

21. Mr. Home has very rightly discussed at some length, and given 

lion respecting starches, dyes, oils, spices, fibres, 
-Ilk, india-rubber, gutta-percha, tobacco, tanning miiterials. timbers and 
fancy woods, all of which deserve attention, and many are undoubtedly 
capable of being successfully produced in the colony. 

22. It is not proposed to discuss these here in detail. As circum- 
stances arise they should be kept in view, and, as a first step to give 
effect to the suggestions offered, it might be desirable to obtain the 
lMt, " st amI : ! iespecting them and where neeessarv 
introduce the plant- require,] for certain new industries. 

23. As regar ,. ,v!„ il tt . r old or new, it is desirable 

rid other information of a popular character be 
pivjKiivd for gen, a! di-ti 1. t, i in t]„ M, d. Su.-l, notes and infor- 
I,,at,nn I r " ' i< might also contain exact informa- 

tion as regard- ' . ; ., ir ; u , r the 

produce, and. n .., that mav be necesgary to familiarise 

the people w, fl ; . . ncw tQ them> 

24. .Mr. Home's report has dealt with the agricultural resources and 

us in a manner never don,- before; 
and it follow , ld j U( i icious effort on the part of the 

government and the people themselves, it cannot fail to produce results 
of a beneficial and permanent character. 

D. M. 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Colonial Office, Downing Street, 
OIK ' , . . , 13 December, 1886. 

,. G A» reply to your letter of the 2nd instant, I am directed by 
Mr. Secretary Manhope to convey his ,h, n U l the observations bv 

£f ° n Mr * H ° rnes report on ^ ■*«— ~ i 




No. 3.] MARCH. [1887. 


It is proposed in the following notes to deal briefly'with fibres derived 
from tropical endogenous or monocotyledonous plants which yield what 
are known in commerce as Sisal Hemp, Manila Hemp, Bowstring 
Hemp, and Mauritius Hemp. These are used chiefly for rope making 
and cordage, and are to be distinguished from flax, cotton, and other 
fibres used purely for textile purposes. 

The large and increasing interest taken in fibre plants and the 
numerous references made to this establishment on the subject render 
it very desirable to place within reach of cultivators in India and the 
Colonies a summary of information on the subject. 




The Hemps above enumerated are derived as follows :- 
i. Sisal Hemp, 

Agave rigida, Mill. 
(A. Ixtli, Karw. 
A. elongata, Jacobi. 
A, Sisalana, Perrine.) 
ii. Mauritius Hemp, 

Furcrtea gigantea, Vent. 
iii. Manila Hemp, 

Musa textilis, Nees.* 
iv. Bowstring Hemp, 

The fibres of endogenous plants, the chief of which 
above, are generally white if 
easily discoloured and also 

mucilaginous and saccharine matter associated with them. Hence it is 
important that they should be cleaned either by mechanical •■ 
processes as soon as possible after they are harvested. The resulting 
fibre, if of good quality, is white, bright, and glossy, and the 
filaments are straight and free. 

Although grouped together here for convenience of treatment, the 
plants yielding these hemps require severally \ e 

under cultivation, and it is important to bear in mind that they will 
objects for remunerative culture only under certain special 

For instance the Agave plants yielding Sisal Hemp flourish in the 
dry districts of Yucatan, they requi r - tion. and the 

fibre is cleaned by means of cheap 

attainable in few Britith Colonies. * 

Manila Hemp is produced entirely in the Phillipine Islands from a 

species of »,. [Mum textilis). It requires rich 

moist forest land, and while in its native country it is found to be easily 

rately successful under cultivation 

" -i industry is supported by an abundant and 

Bowstring Hemp is scarcely an article of commerce at present 
although locally it is used for many purposes, as in Ceylon, India and 
found W6St C ° aStS ° f AfriCa ' Whei ' e SpecieS ° f Sansevieria ™* 

Mauritius Hemp is obtained from Purer tea gigantea, known in the 
island as Aloes vert, but elsewhere as the green or foetid aloe. It is a 
large unarmed species, native of tropical America, but found in both th< 
- and also at St. Helena. At Mauritius it has 
n.eously on abandoned sugar estates It is easy 
o cultivation, and partakes much of the character and habit of the 
ferS £ g Sl8al , H lT Machinery has been used for preparing 
™*™™ •*»*«* wlule good prices ruled the industry wasfairl? 


Under this term are included fibres derived from probably more than 
one species of Agave, and it is probable also that one species of Furcraea 
is used. According to the locality where the industry is carried on of 
the port of shipment the fibre prodn. i Sisal Hemp, 

which I- 1 1 1 1 ■ recognised name in ilic Kuglisk market; or Jenequen or 
Hencquen Hemp, which would appear to be the term more commonly 
used in the United States. Pita is another Central American fibre, but 
whether the produce of an Agave (A. americana) or of a Bromeliad 
(Knratu.s ViinnUri) \< not quite clear. Prol.nblv it is loosely applied to 

" narrow, still" leave-, entire, and terminated by a stiff black spine. 
" These leaves are seldom more than two feet long, little more than an 
" inch broad, being of a glaucous colour. The side leaves stand almost 
■■ horizontally, but the centre leave- are folded over each other and 
,c enclose the flower-bud." 

This may be accepted in a large sense as the representative species of 
which there are several sttb-specio ami \ariettes cultivated by the 
natives of Yucatan from time immemorial. 

According to Dr. Eugelmann (Trans. Acad. Science, St. Louis, Vol. 
III., Dec. 1875) a common native species in Yucatan called Chelem by 
the aboriginal io! a e' 't' 1 - - id.-ntii 1 » li {gun rig'xhi ot Millet bin 
a number of varieties, characterised by longer leaves or the absence of 
spines, have been recognised, to which names more or less distinct are 
now applied. 

Mr. Baker has given a Synopsis of the Genus Agave in the Gardener 's 
V K VII. and VIII., New Series, 1877). The plants men- 
tioned below are included under the group Rigidce, having the edge 
of the thin horny leaf without any distinct border, and the teeth (when 
present) small but distinct and deltoid. He remarks that this is a con- 
siderable group of which A. lurida and A. rigida may be regarded as 
the types intermediate between the groups Americanae and Ahideac. 

From a study of plants at Kew, Mr. Baker was inclined to look upon 
A. Ixlli, Karw., as the type and A. rigida, Mill., A. elongata, Jacobi, 
and A. Sisalana, Perrine, as syonyms or varieties. But as in the first 
place A. rigida, Mill., has the priority in point of time, and (if we follow 
Dr. Engelmann) also represents the old aboriginal fibre plant of Yucatan 
(the Chelem), it would be better to retain this as the aggregate specie- 
and place the others among the varieties which ha\e arisen in course of 
long cultivation in different parts of the peninsula of Yucatan. 

4-6 ft. long, pale green 

plant of A. riffida, was, according to Miller, brought from Vera Cruz, 
but his own specimens were collected in Yucatan by Dr. Schott. He 
states that Dr. Perrine, and Dr. Schott independently studied and 
described in Yucatan this rent forms and 

economic uses (Senate Doc. 300, Washington, March 12th, 1838; the 
l ' r '' 1 ' Bthl Report oi eAg cultural Department at Washington for 
1 869. According to Dr. Engelmann, " both agree that there is a common 
** native species in Yucatan, called Ck* i inhabitants; 

" but from time immemorial a number of varieties, all characton-od bjf 
■r.ger leaves, and one also by the absence of marginal spitteft, 
'" :m<l ,1 t] ni_ mil i. them- [ - , ho uu,-mrli\ >,.; purity of their 
" fibre, have been cultivated by the natives of Yucatan, and are a staple- 
" product of that country to this day, furnishing the well-ki 

. The people know them as Jenequen (Schott) or Henequcu 

-*— reports, the Yaxci (Yashki) 

>ci (Sacqui) with the largest 

ie last, prodi 

quantity; ^ 

r leaves and poor fibre, stands probably 

" wild plant. Dr. Perrine mentions another variety, Istle, evidently 
" the Ixth of Karwinski, as furnishing a fine fibre called Pita. 
" These plants yield a return of leaves when four or five years old, 
" and may last 50 or 60 years under proper management ; the flower- 

■ ing scape is cur on as soon a- I feet high, when, evidently. 
; branches continue the growth of the plant, which ia 
• long alive by being prevented from flowering. 
'•Th*. tnnik^of the- wild plant of Vu. .■.-.ran'," which I refer with little 
riffida, is 

gida, is 1-2 feet high ; leaves 14-2 feet 

ride, contracted above the broader base 

i apart, 

5 in diameter, straight, or often somewhat twisted, terete 
at base but not channelled, dark red-brown, a dark 
-gin extending down the leaf-edge for several inches and 
bearing the uppermost teeth. Scape 12-15 fa 
J&Trf] ^perigone 16, tubes 6^7. !■■ 

« nnwJ ^ \ 2 TT ,nSeite i d ab °. Ut the mldd,e ° f thG tllbe ' ' bl °<> d -™l 
upwaids 1-inch longer than the perigone ; anthara t. 
long; styles at last as long as stamens. 2 

"A. I, Hi vvhich in 1872 flowered in the gardens of the late M 

: hllum '{» many other A ._, g Wl a charac 

ter which may be of some value). I believe this is the'first time 

• 1 !Tn h ° IX " ,,; ' V " ! " " n ' h -"'•ed; • they identify the 

B71 is W»™. „ . • 
er, from a plant whfch flowered at Kew in 1871 (Bof Ma^t 589^) ^ °' 

"With the- name of lunnifolia 1 designate the variety known as 

" palh (1 - ngui>l 1 \y < mi i i 1 ngei spiny 1 s. I " i . l ■. 

" 3~\-S inches wide : [lowers very similar to llioso of the wild plant. 
'• but iil:- 1 ts greenish. ' i<> > < '/aid , d bi > i p ldT. pro- 

" to this form if the description did not expressly mention a channelled 

"Agave Sisalana is the name that Dr. Perrine gave to the plant 
" known to the natives of Yucatan as Va.n-i, the most valuable of the 

•• Florida some thirty-live or forty years ago, during his eiForts to accli- 

" matize c ■■ is in that almost tropical 

" portion of our territory, eilbrts which were aided by Congress by a 

'• large ".ran: of land, bu! which were destroved, together with his own 

" life, iliuiiig the subsequent Indian wars. With this Agave, however, 

" he has been successful, aa it is now I'ulh nai ura ii/ed. and is quite 

'• abundant at Ivev 'West and the adjacent coast. J >r. Parry found it 

" therein full bloom in February 1871. and gives the following des- 

" feet long and 4-G inches wide, generally smooth-edged, but here, ami 
u there bearing a few unequal, sometimes very stout and sharp teeth ; 
" terminal spine stout, often twisted, purplish-black ; scape 20 or 25 

k ' feet high, panicle 8 feet long and half as wide. One of the largest 

pi mi examined had jl n n - i the | , , »est I n< u th 

" middle) 2 feet long, upper and lower ones shorter. The flowers are 
'• slightly larger Than those' described, with a shorter, thicker ovary, 
k " stamens | j tl the tube. The plants bore no 

" fruit, but produced an abundance of buds, by which they propagate 
'■ themselves and from which this interesting form has been multiplied 
" in this country and in Europe. 

"If this plant is, as is most probable, only a cultivated variety of 
"• A. rif/ida, it is of f . b-r lii -wuly and the 

'• understanding of the Agaves, indicating, as it does, the extent of 
" variation which they may undergo. It shows that the size of leaf 
'■ and scape, or colour of leaf, are of no great specific value, and also 
'• lhat the presence or absence of spiny teeth on (he margin is not an 
'• unaiicrable character, not any more than ihv carl daemon- margin 
'• deeurreut from the terminal spine. The presence of a trunk, the 
" proportions of the leaf fin ./. rif/ida and all its varieties the length 
'• equals 12-11 times tin' width), probabh the form of the terminal 
' ; spine, the character of the inflorescence, and, above all, the form and 
(i proportions of the flower and its parts, remain constant, and j . rhap- 
" also the proliferous character of the inflorescence of some species." 

In a Report on fibre plants prepared by the late Director of the 
Botanical Deparim m. Jamah-a, in 1881, it is mentioned that with 
regard to the value of . : ■ : forms as the sources 

of the Si-ad hemp of i - ,-s deserving 

In Yucatan the Agaves are planted about 9 feet between the 
plants each wav, with intervals of 15 or 18 feet at certain distances 
for carting out the leaves and young shoots. In regularly planted areas 
there should be 100 plants to the acre. Plants put oui as suckers about 
li to 2 feet high commence to yield in the fourth or fifth year and they 
"continue to do so for fifty or sixty thus and even longer." 

As an example of what the probable returns may i.e from a >>isal 
hemp plantation, it is stated by Dr. Pi tl t 1 \\ t t f o 

live years old yields on an average 'Jo leaves per annum, the aggregate 

o-veen leaves there is obtained by hand scraping one pound of clean 
marketable fibre, which at .'is/, per ton is worth a little over fourpence 
per pound. 

The annual gross return per acre may therefore be set down at 400 

pounds .:,, fibre, which at It/, a pound, gives a -ros- yield of 6/. 13s. 4r/. 

The actual cost of prod ■ the fibre would vary 

s of the locality; but; where ordinary 
[ preparation of the leaves, and especially 

where i 
I of simple and die cost should not exceed 

one penny per pound. Hence the net returns may be set down at aoour 
o/. per acre per annum. 

The export of Sisal hemp exceeds that of any other article of Mexicai 
growth. The export value of fibres from Yucatan in 1883 reached the 
large sum of 658,000/. 

Dr. Schott, in the Report of the Department of Agriculture, United 
States of America for ISO'.), remarks thai "while other products of 

- Yucatan agriculture n,; ceome unprofitable either 
" in consequence of adverse climatic features to which the peninsula is 
" subject, or through commercial fluctuations, the Sisal hemp has never 
" been subject to such dra lie universal 
" usefulness of its fibre and the unconquerable vitality of I he plant, 
'' which easily survives the effects inherent to the nature of a riverless 
" rocky desert, and the severe trials of a six months' tropical sun. For 
'■ a knowledge of the Sisal hemp plant/' continues Dr. Schott. "its 
" culture and uses, Yucatan is indebted to the Maya Indians, the direct 

- descendants of those remnants of the Toltecs who, after the fall of 
•• their empire in the valley of Mexico, emigrated to Central America 

locally as Sac, 
ty of iibiv.\vh 

i fibre exported from Yi 

The land whicl 

gravelly, stony, an, 

tin- latter, the 41111111 n v ..i iihn yielded would be comparatively small. 
For convenience of carri.-ig- m <l ir.Mi.-r.-il ninii:i».-ni.-iif l.-v.-l "hin.I i~ 

Plantations are established by simply clearing the land of trees and 
scrub. Stumps are uprooted to give an even surface. Shade Efl ■ ffifr 
advantage. Plants are generally put out during the rainy season, at 
12 feet by 6 feet (equal to 605 to the acre) in holes proportional to their 
size. All fibrous roots and lower leaves are removed before planting 
to facilitate new growth. It is estimated to cost « four shillings and six- 
, dig holes, drop suckers, and plant." A well 
'.ms an extensive system of roads all converging on 
flic w..rk>, which latter are placed in } ,s central position as possibly 

After planting, the chief cultural oj.riMtiuDs iU ,. .-onlined to keepin- 
the fields clear of weeds, and rem,,.: , around the 

parent plants. These latter are utilised to extend cultivation by being 
planted in nurseries, or are thrown away. Their removal is considered 
necessary to the success of the plantation. 

A fibre plantation started with plants about 1± feet high, begins to 
yield in about three years after planting. Any appearance of the 
feet high it is 
? purposes would 

The length of leaves cut for fibre should not be less than 3 feet ; their 
ripeness is judged by the colour and by their position in the rosette. 
Consequently the outer leaves are always cut first, being the oldest.' 
The harvesting of the leaves, which goes on all the year after once 
started, is effected in the following manner: — Men armed with suitable 
knives select ripe leaves, cut them close to the trunk, remove prickles 
from the edge, and point and make them up into bundles of 50 each. 
Thirt \ such bundles is a day's task. These bundles are put out on the 
edge of the cart road, and are taken up by drays, carrying 1,500 leaves 
to a load, to the works. Cutters, carters, and machinists are paid so 
much per 1,000 leaves. 

The works are placed near a regular supply of water. The power of 
ha onqrine and the number of machines required all depend on the size 
1 for every 

thoroughly dried. __ . 
desired to bleach the fibre to a high degree of whiteness it is left out all 
night and during the next day and carefully turned. The fibre is made 
up into bales by means of a screw or hydraulic press; care being taken 
to keep the fibre straight and prevent " fringes." 

Each plant when matured yields 30 to 35 leaves per annum, and the 

return of hemp is at the rate of 1,000 to 1,200 pounds per acre, or about 

ei i pet annum The net return on a fibre plantation in 

Plants received at Kew from Yucatan marked " Sisal Hemp " are 
now growing in the Succulent House No. 5, and lately an experiment 
was made to test the quality of the fibre yielded by them. 

The fibre was extracted by Mr. W. E. Death's fibre machine, and the 
eporl was received upon it from Messrs. Ide and Chi 
brokers, of Mark Lane : — 

" We are in receipt of the parcel containing a leaf of Agave Ixfli and 
H sample of hemp made from leaves grown in the gardens. These arc 
" most interesting to us, and we have much pleasure in reporting 
" favourably on the hemp. The quality and strength are very satis- 

" factory, while in respect of colour, lustre, and iiuciicss of film- your 
" sample is superior to the average Sisal hemp that come- to this 
" country. The value of this article is exceptionally high fit present, 
" 27/. per ton in London. You will see from the statistics given in 
" enclosed ran ' | 8 exten- 

•• xiyely used both in England and America. It enters into .•oiupetiiion 
" with Manila hemp and was regarded as an adulterant of the latter in 
" rope; but as its price is now nearly as high as that of Manila the 
" ropemakers have not the same inducements to mix the hemps." 


A hemp industry was started at the Mauritius to utilize the large 
number of plants of Furcvcea gigantea, Vent., wis 

3 on low lying lands \ 
one of the oldest and best known species of Fun-ma, and is now 
universally -r . ;i | America and also in India, 

Ceylon, Mauritius, and St. Helena. The trunk below the rosette of 
bes a height of 2 to 4 feet. The leaves are 4 to 7 feet long, 
bee broad at the middle, unarmed, bright green and channelled 
down the face. The scape or terminal flowering stem reaches a height 
of 20 to .30 feet. Like all the other Purer; 

long bulbillse in place of or in addition to flowers, which 

falling take root and reproduce the plant. It has often flowered under 

cultivation in England ; the last time at Kevv being the autumn of 1874. 

A full account, with description, of the various species of Furcraa is 

•T C Baker in CttrdtmW C),rn„hh- lls7!>. op. (523. <J2 4 ). 


(c. tab. 20l'.'>: Decandolle, Plant.-s Grasses, t. 126. 

Although Furcrma gigantea, known locally as this rerf, is the chief 
fibre plant in Mauritius, there is evidence that Furcraa mbe>,» . 
found there as well as species of Agaves snch as A. americana and 

Bojer (Hortus Mauritianus, p. 353) mentions the Aloes vert (Furcraa 
gigantea) as common in 1837, and state. •• Coif <„r la Montagne 

all, so the latfc pecieshitre 

been received at Kew from the Mauritius Botanic Gardens. 

Furcrua gigantea is supposed to have been introduced from South 
America to Mauritius about 17!»0. It has evidently found a congenial 
home there, for without any effort on the part of man it has covered 
med sugar estates to such an extent as to lay the 
foundation of a considerable fibre industry. The leaves are often 8 feet 
m length and from 6 to 7 inches in breadth. The pulp of the leaves 
when crushed gives off a strong pungent odour, and hence this species is 
sometimes called the joettd ,//,>,, The juice i> strongly , o: . 

■«■" wrought iron: it is .said to produce less effect on cast 
ir PJjj Miu1, •' ive on brass and copper 

P to an elevation of 1,800 feet above 
the level of the sea. It has, however, more generally disseminated itself 

-■■ i ■ ■ i : !..:,.! :„,; ., 

estates that have become too diy for cane cultivation 

A fibre industry was started at Mauritius about 12 years ago when 

«■•■<■ - '-tt,„ K ,v ;1H11 ,.,. „ i, ,1. The cui leaves were fim passed 

by hand in 

This process was soon found unsuitable as the fibre was discoloured and 
rendered weak; consequently it obtained comparatively low prices. 
Attention was then directed to extraction by means of grato MM 01 
scotching machines. Many machines have since been tried, and H i- 
believed that the purely mechanical difficulties connected with cleaning 
the fibre have been for the most part overcome. The amount of fibre 
obtained from leaves of the Aloes vert was at the rate of 3 per cent, by 
weight of green leaves. ^ The yield of iil>re was at the rate of about H 
tons per acre. A set of six machines driven by a steam engine of 8-horse 
power i nominal) cleaned l,15o pounds of fibre per .lay. whirl, is ai i]„- 
rate of 197 pounds for each machine per day. 

At one time there were eight fibre or hemp companies formed with a 
total capital of Rs. 1,182,500. The total quantity ..[' fibre exported in 
1872 was 214 tons, of the value of 4,934/., which would be at the rate ot 
21/., 13*. per ton. In 1880 it had increased to 662 tons, which -old in 
England at 28/. to 32/. per ton. Some samples in 1SS2 sold as high as 
;n/, per ton. Since that time low prices have ruled, and tin's added !. 
i he met that the cost of production was considerably increased tend. -d 
to discourage the industry. It is evident the industry was fust started 
to work off the leaves of self-grown plants which were ready a " 

When these leaves were exhausted it remained 
either to wait until the plants were regrown or to procure .supplies oi 
leaves at increased cost from the surrounding country. Thia latter 
course being adopted at a time when the market value of fibre was low 
rendered the enterprise unremunerative. In the returns of lS.s."> we find 
dial Mauritius hemp imported to this country amounted to 2 5. 5 tons of the 
.aiueof 39/. per ton. In Messi-. f den ml < 'hrUiie's monthly circular, Dec. 
i >s«». Mauritius hemp is quoted "in good demand" at 28/. per ton. 

The following extracts taken from Mr. Home's Report on the Al-t;- 
. ultuial Resource- <>i M. wily explain the circum- 

stances under which the fibre industry was started and the causes which 
have operated to produce the present depression, which in the interest 

>»! ihe island ii I- hoped will 1...- o,il\ of a temporary character 

"The industry of extracting fibres from the leaves of the Alois nrt\* 
' by no means exhausted. There is ground for believing that Ii has 

■ \ei a future iii Mauritius The fall in the price of this fibre in the 
; European markets broke several local companies that were formed 
; for the working of the aloe estates. There was far too much money 
: invested in them for them to pay." 

'< On many of the estates self-sown plants abounded in great numbers. 
Ii wa> from the leaves of these that the companies made money and 
jfeiid large dividends when the price of the fibre was good. ' The 
plants had grown naturally on the land, and their presence on it had 

1 not cost a cent. In such cases results materially differ from those of 

crops of regularly laid out plantations with low prices for 

the produce. The soil and climate of the localities referred to favour 

' the growth of the plants in such a degree that little expense need be 

■ incline. i in introducing it to new grounds. The plant produces 
; plantlets in great abundance in this colony. These plantlets grow 

\ h "ipat..u-iy Ob the pareni plant, and adhere to it till they have 
; developed into almost perfectly formed plants. When the youu«- 
piam lets drop from their parent they are perfectly fitted to stand by 
themselves; Excepting the want of roots they are perfect The 
roots are emitted as soon as the plantlets come in contact with the 
moist soil, even when they are lying on the surface of the ground. 
Il seems, therefore, that to increase this plant rapidly and cheaply 
over a >r] yen :ijva. due advant aire should be taken of its peculi.-oiri.". 

; of Mauri 

" and the facilities which it naturally affords for propagation and 

At St. Helena Fur era a gigantea has been for some time under 
cultivation as an introduced plant. Experiments on a small 
been carried on, and samples of fibre have appeared in t ! ■ 
market. (Report on Resources of the Island of St. Helena, Colonial 
Office, African No. 275, 1884.) 

Messrs. Collyer and Co. reported in 1883 on fibre from St. Helena a- 
follows : — 

"Aloe fibre {Furcvaa gigantea) St. Helena. Good length, full 
" strength, rathei .lull mlour, -mioralh well cleaned but with some 
" runners untouched and barky. Value 28/. to 30/. per ton. This 
pie is very different in appearance from the Furcraa gigantea 
, owing probably to differences of both growth and treat- 
While on the subject of fibre from Furcra-a gigantea it may not be 
inappropriate to say a few words as regards the merits of another specie-. 
Fura-tra oibensis. This, as already pointed out, is possibly one of the 
plant- nn.l.-r the name of Cnjin, from which some of the Yucatan fibre 
is obtained. 

It differs from l\ gigantea in that it has no distinct trunk, or a very 
short one. below the rosette of leaves. The latter are 3 to 5 ft. long, 
about 5 inches broad at the middle, hi i-ht e.recn, rigid in texture, and 
armed wiih n -ubii. hooked, brown prickles. 

It is a native of tropical America and cultivated in most tropical 
countries. A \ -irmly of ihi- p| ; ,m — /■:,■,»/«„*/*. \ sir. ;„,n»i. — i- liumivd 
and described in Bot, Mag., t. 0543. 

In addition to flowers it produces bulbils on the flowering scape, from 
which the plant is readily increased. The plant is common in Jamaica, 
and it is said Uiat there " would be no difficulty in establishing there a 
der cultivation." The fibre is white, strong, and bright 
yield, at the rate of 2-05 to 3-15 per cent, by weight of 
From experiment- carried on at Jamaica under a committee 
appointed by Government it was found that leaves of Furema <■>,/„ „ s Ls 
weighing 360| pounds yielded 28 pounds of greon fibre, which when 
perfectly dry weighed 1\ pounds. Tin's was at the rate of 2-05 per 
cent, by weight, ot -mm loaf. In the report of the Committee this 
plant and its fibre are described as follows : — 

" Silk grass (Fum-n,, <■„!,< „,i, } Leavo 5 to 6 feet long, generally 
2 arm.-d with .-mm- piiekhv. bm sometime- unarmed or with few 

prickles. Common in Jamaica and mi-hi b lar-oh 
u /r C6 ' • Value ° f fibre — ("•) 28/ -> S ood quality, but might be whiter ; 
" (*-),f airl y clean, fair colour, value about 28/. per ton ; (r. ) superior 
* to Sisal and worth 27/. per ton. A good fibre, not quite sufficiently 
" white in the centre." 

The above plants constitute the chief species of Agave and Kurcnva 
yielding commercial fibres. 

It may be mentioned here that many Agaves yield fibre, but the fibre 
may, as m the case of the Jamaica Keratto, prove unsuitable for indus- 
trial purposes. The Brokers' Report on Keratto fibre was—" little 
t strength: not an even (but a curly) fibre: towy : value 12/. to 14/. 

Plants yielding true Sisal Hemp might be obtained from Yucatan in 





No. 4.] APRIL. [1887. 


{Musa textilis, Nees.) 

This is one of the most important of cordage tilnc -, and the whole 
supply comes from the Phillipine Inlands. The imports <>l Manila 
hemp to Great Britain amount to alioni ITO.Ooo 1 .;iE*--. and to tin 
Iiiitod Siat- about 160,0110 link-, equal to about .10.000 tons per 
annum. The fibre i- yielded ley a member ol' the banana or plan- 
tain family known localh as .\baea [Mumi tr.itilis), (lie apparent 
stem of which is made up of sheathing leaf stalks. The habit of growth 
and treatment of the plant under cultivation ace identical with tho>e 


i;VKK vvj. SI'OTTIS 1 

From a report by Consul Honey, (bit. A Manila, loth April 1879, wo 
gather that this plant thrives best in soils largely composed of decayed 
vegetable matter. Hence, freshly cleared forest land is essential. 
Hilly land, about 200 feet to 500 feet elevation, is considered more 
suitable than low-lying land, probabl .linage. The 

Manila hemp plantations are situated where there is a rich volcanic 
soil, and where the climate is hot and humid with a heavy rainfall. 
The plants suffer severely during drought. Although seed is produced 
means of suckers put out when about 
3 feet high, and about 8 to 9 feet apart. These form a root-stock, from 
which numerous -tern- an -u<- ■cs-.i\ ypioduced. The land is cleaned 
of weeds about twice a year. The first crop is reaped at the end of the 
second year after planting ; a full crop is not obtained until the fourth 
year. The vie c which the 

plantation is exhausted. The stems are fit to be treated for fibre just 
before they begin to flower. In stems that have been allowed, to 
flower the fibre is said to be weaker and of less value. They are cut 
about afoot from the ground and the leaves removed. Each stem is 
then stripped or resolved into its component layers, and these are again 
.livid.-d into strips or ribbons about 3 inches wide. Usually each layer 
or leaf-sheath is divided into three strips. The outer layers contain a 
coarser and stronger fibre than the inner, while fibre from near the 
middle is of a fine silky texture, and capable of being utilised without 
spinning or v. IreSB and ornament. 

The method of preparing the fibre is very simple but effective. Each 
8fcrip,ifl a fresh anccnl a1 condition, is taken up by hand and drawn 
ween a blunt knife and a hard smooth board," which are 
attached to a light portable frame. This process, repeated several times 
if" necessary, removes all the watery particles and pulp, and there 
remains in the hand of the operator a beautifully white ami lustrous 
fibre. The fibre is thoroughly dried in the sun and afterwards packed 
in bales for shipment. Hemp not properly dried or exposed to rain 
becomes discoloured and loses strength. On the other hand, hemp from 
the outer layer of the stem is of a reddish colour, but i 
It is a characteristic of Manila hemp that :" 
and in an ordinary dry condition ' 
a damp climate it has been known 

Cordage, ropes, and indeed everything made from Manila hemp can 
be easily converted ?ni<. paper of excellent quality. 

The cost of establishing a Manila hemp plantation in the Phillipincs, 
including cutting down I'ore.-t, cleaning and planting, is about 57. to 
8/. per acre. This does not include the cost of the land. After this 
the yearly expense of we. ; . u the plantation in full 

bearing i- at the i ate „f :!ik. i„:j^. ,,. t ..„.,<.." T he yield during the 
fourth and subsequi nt years is al the rate of 400 to 700 pounds of dry 
hemp per acre. "A labourer working under pressure can clean nearlv 
> : 20 pounds of hemp per diem ; but as a rule the quantity cleaned bj 
" one man working st< .-lily, da\ )y day. averages about *I 2 pound-.'' 
g down the stems and 
splitting them while the other cleans the fibre. "At the current 
" value of be. , ; -. , , 

' introduced should 

From these particular- ii will be -ecu tin- Manila hemp imiu-uy 

to be favourably combined in the Philippines, and hence there is 
produced an exceptional article in large demand at a n 
cheap rate. The conditions of soil and climate may pos-iMy be found 
elsewhere, but, as a ltvce—arv adjunct In these, there nin-t be an 
abundant ai .our adapted to a rural industry. 

A plant of Manila hemp [Musa tc.rt.ilis) maybe seen in the Palm 
ll.aise at Kew. For the purpose of illustrating the industry there are 
very complete sets of exhibits in the Kew Museum, No. 2. These 
include the raw fibre, cables, ropes, twine, fine muslin fabrics, " haif 
stuff," and paper of all kinds, the latter being made from old Manila 

The valuable character of the fibre yielded by Mhsii tcrfitts ha- 
nnturalh drawn attention to it as a val i mh:-tr : ;d plant, and during 

the last GO years it has been introduced to India and elsewhere for 
experimental culture. Plants of Musn t<\> fills wore cuhivafi-d at 
Calcutta in 1822 ; specimens were introduced to the Madras Pre-i- 

Islands this fibre plant lias been thoroughly established. 

Experiments in India so far have shown that plants of Musa tc.ttili* 
can be successfully grown in many district- ; but it is not yet clearly 
shown that the, li'bre can be cleaned so expeditiously and so cheaply 
as to compete successfully with fibre from the Phillipines. 

After a svstt math seVies of ti als in id by the Ch rock Company 
nt Madras H1 fSSo. it is Mate! that plant- nut out in 18(5 1 grew well 
and yielded numerous shoot-;. 17<> stems, weighing about GO pounds 
each, weti> cut down i - - ;ind pa-sed through 

Death u d Piiwood machines. lie - piodu< J l.V» pound- of (dean 
fibre, or I ■ 19 per cent, of the green stem. The cost of cleaning the 
fibre was at the rate of 61. per ton, while the fibre itself, described a- 
" poor, weak, and flaggy, with some clean fibre of good colour," was 
valued in Loudon at 10/. per ton ; the best alone was valued at 2of. per 
ton. The minute upon this of the Government of Madras is that 
" unless much improvement both in the method and cost of production 
- of this fibre can be made, the cultivation cannot be made remunera- 

Manila hemp plants have been introduced from Kew to Jamaica, and 
to other portions of the West Indies. In favourable situations they 
grow well ; but not so readily as the ordinary bananas and plantains. 
As the fruit is valueless they can only be grown for the sake of the 
fibre and this alone does not appear to offer sufficient inducement to 
plant up large areas. Usually the return from a fruiting stem of the 
common banana or plantain would be from 6d. to 2s., depending upon 
the -;,e of the bunch. The return from the Manila hemp plant would 
according to experience in the Phillipines be about one pound of fibre, 
the local value of which would be only 2d. to '6d. 




(Musa sapientnm, R. Br.) 

In connection with Manila hemp son* kde to fibre* 

produced by other species of the genus Musa. The late Dire, 'tor ol 
ill.-- Botanical Department, Jamaica, discusses the subject as follows :— 
"It would appear that the fibre of th< [the banana 

'« is valued at about 12/. or 15/. per ton. This it will be noticed is only 
" one-third the value of the best qualities of Manila hemp. There are 
" in both the East Indies and West Indies numerous wild species of 
" Musa .which might yb-bi u<k>.1 lihre, but so far none appears to have 
" been found equal to the plant yielding Manila hemp. The following 
" facts have been elicited by recent experiments. A b nil ten i t 
•• alter fruiting, cut as is usual with the country people, about 2 feet 
" above ground, and denuded of its foliage, weighed 108 pounds; this 
•- bring divided into three lengths of 1\ feet each and split longitudi 
" nally into several pieces was prepared by beating and washing by 
" baud, and yielded 25 ounces of clean marketable fibre, which is at 
" the rate of 144 per cent, of the gross weight. The fibre of the 
" lower portion of the stem, as also the fibre in the petioles of the leases 
" was not extracted. 

"A smaller banana, cut under bid , that is, 2 feet 

" from the ground, and denuded of its foliage, weighed 41 pounds. 
••' This was "divided into two lengths of 2i feel each, and after being 
" split longitudinally into several pieces was prepared by hand, and 
» yielded 6£ ounces of good clean fibre or at the rate of 1 -02 per cent. 
" on the gross weight. 

"At the Hup- "r::i: * ; ,t;..:i -'milar experiment w,iv conducted with 
" banana stems which yielded very much the same results. Two 
" banana stems cut after fruiting, at two feet from the ground, and 
" denuded of their leaves, weighed 147 pounds. These yielded 33 
" ounces of clean fibre, or at the rate of 1'44 per cent, on the gross 

"From ordinal stems of banana, cut after fruiting at about 11 to 
" 2 feet above ground, a settler might easily prepare about \\ pound- 
" of clear fibre, but if the stems are large, and if the whole length is 
" used as well as the petioles of the leaves the amount of fibre might 

"With plantain "stems- the results are more satisfactory than with 
" the banana, both as regards the yield and the quality of the fibre. 

"At the Castleton Gardens, a plantain Mem weighing, when cut and 
" dressed, 25 pounds, was prepared in exactly the same manner as the 
•• banana stems above >'- ' \ ounces of clean fibre or 

" at the rate of 1*81 per cent, on the gross weight. At the Hope 
" Plantation a plantain stem weight. ■■ 25 pounds, 

" yielded 9 ounces of clean fibre or at the rate of 2 '25 per cent, on the 
" gross weight. The plantain fibre is whiter and finer than the banana 
•■ fibre, and^t approaches more nearly to the line glossy character of 
" the fibre of the Manila plantain. 

"For purposes of comparison I had ihe fibre of a small stem of the 
•• .Manila plantain, which, cut at (> inches above ground and trimmed, 

" weighed 10 pounds, prepared in the same manner as the banana and 
" plantain fibre, and the result was,'} ounces of a beautifully fine and 
' ; glossy fibre. This is at the rate of 1 ■ s7 jar cent, on the gross weight 
"In Jamaica another plantain is known as the Abyssinian plantain, 
Jfitsa i.iiMh. which is tlie largest species of this genus, li wn< 
" discovered by the traveller Bruce in Abyssinia, and is remarkable a> 
" being represented on ancient Egyptian sculptures. Specimens of this 
" plantain growing at the Government Cinchona Plantations »t :>(>(,(> 
" fe.-t have often leaves 20 feet long, the stem is about 8 feet in cir- 
" cumference at the base, rises to a height of 25 feet and weighs 
" probably about a quarter of a ton. 

"Specimens of fibre prepared from this plantain are of excellent 
■■• quality. Taking a portion of the central stem about 4 feet long and 
" weighing . ;,; nuru . (; s. was obtained 

* by beating and washing by hand. This is at the rate of 1 • 16 per 

" This plant might be grown extensively for its fibre, and it should 
" prove valuable, but of course not equal to 31. textilis, which is un- 
" approachable as a fibre plant," 

It maybe mentioned that samples of all the banana and plantain 
(dm- noticed above are to be seen i D the Kew Museum, No. 2. 

From the same source we find that about 2,000,000 banana stems, 

ts nit is gathered, are cut down every year in Jamaica, which 

- attempt being made to 

utilise ,he hbre they contain. It is suggested that the merchants who 

: r B small sum for clean 

and well-dried fibre, and take it in small lots as it comes to hand. The 

merchant might afterwards sort and pack the fibre and pul it up in 

tightly compressed bales tor shipment. Some such plan as this, suited 

to load circumstances, evidently oifers the best means of starting a 

banana-fibre industry in the West Indies. 

In the course of ihe energetic efforts made by Governor Sir Williai i 
Robinson, K.C.M.G., to develop what .^^ -' ;| , 

lrimdad, at- , i, ocn directed to the utilisation of 

fibre from both the cultivated and wild species of Musa. 

A "red banana," very commonly cultivated as B shade and fruit 
plant and the supply of which is said to be almost inexhaustible. |, :i . 
been brought forward as a possible source of commercial fibre. 

A sample of fibre prepared from this red banana was recently sent 
to -Kew, and the opinmn of Messrs. ide and Christie obtained upon it 
11|,;| '■■ ■! L886, is as follows:— 

<< We think highly of this fibre, for which we consider there might 
■ a eaaa ° i a bitter 

" colour. We are inclined to think its dull hue is probably the result 
' of inexperience in its treatment, either by allowing it to steen too 
" long in rather foul water or from the leaves bein" to 
|| discoloured before treatment. The attention of preparers should be 
" directed to tlie production of a fibre of the bright natural colour of 
the enclosed specimen of Manila hemp, and were quantities of the 
" new fibre produced of thi 
" 21/. or 25/. per ton, to-day, in the London 

great consequence when fibres are used for the p, eduction ,!'■« h te 
^ hemp ropes. Of corns > in the manufacture of tanvd rope colour 

- Z^tnTarTsXmtrrred'' ^ ' *"**' ^^ ^ an<1 NeW 

making. But 1. 

fibre or "half-stuff" of banana and plantain should be delivered i 
Europe at a cot not exceeding 4/. to 61. per ton, depending on con- 
dition. For p:ip< r-making it might be sufficient to cut the stems into 
short pieces, and then divide them longitudinally into numerous 
narrow strips. These, after being passed between rollers to get rid 
of the water and mucilage, might be dried in the sun, and afterward - 
nut up in compressed bales for shipment. 

'--'■- i question Hi' cot. and it can 
tuntries like Peuierara, Trinidad, and 
i thousand acres are occupied hy banana planta- 
tions, and where sufficient material lies close at hand to maintain a 
moderately large industry. 

For some years considerable interest has been taken by the Govern- 
ment of Bengal in the subject of the utilisation of plantain stems for 
the manufacture of paper. In a report presented by Dr. King, 
Superintendent of the Royal Botanical Gardens, ax Calcutta, he 
mention- :--■■ Sinn r< < eiving these papers I have gone into the whole 

" proceeding further, I wish to explain that in the following remarks 
" the term plantain fibre is used to designate the fibres of the various 
" kinds of plantain found wild and cultivated within the Indian 
" Empire, but does not include the fibre of the Manila plantain ( M»s,i 
- t(,vtilts),\\\w'\\ is a fibre of an altogether exceptional kind. The 
" fibre of' the Manila plantain, usually known as Manila hemp, is one 
" of the most valuable fibres known, and is worth in London ^r.-m 
" 30/. to 40/. a ton, a price that takes it quite out of the range of raw 
■• materials for paper. 

" I have ascertained, by reference to a huge English paper maker. 
" that if it can be delivered cheap enough, plantain fibre would be 
" readily bought in England for paper-making. Quotations as to the 
" exact value of the fibre can hardly be given until a trial shipment 
" has been put on the home market. Esparto is the fibre against 
" which plantain fibre would be pitted as a raw material for the paper- 
" maker, and the price of the best Spanish esparto now (1883)_ stands 
" in London at about 10/. per ton. It is not likely that plantain fibre 
« would be so valuable as esparto, but it might bring as much as 11. to 

■ Calcutta, has for some 
l for paper-making, and 
satisfactory. " The company purchase the 
roughly dried stems from contractors who collect them 'from villages in 
th.-' neiL'l bourliood. The price paid by the mill is 'As, Cut. to \s. per 
cur ace,,, din- to quality. In this instance the preparation of the fibre 
is very- simple. The plantain stem is cut down 

outer sheathing portions are cut into strip- and thoroughly dried in the 
sun. The leaves and central core being useless only about two pounds 
of rough fibre are obtained from each stem. By this rough mode ot 
preparation the fibre is not freed free 
it can be utilised on the spot it is doubtful whether it could be exported 

Aii attempt was made in the latter part of 1883 
thousands of acres of wild 

cheap rates. Il was found, howe\ . a. that any attempt at crushing the 
stems in a fresh state entailed heavier machinery than could be easily 
moved from place to place, and the idea was ultimately abandoned 
without any : ; his, however, 

Dr. King is of opinion that plantain stem-- in India will eventually 
become available a- paper material, am! considering the immense 
number grown for shelter, shade, and food purposes, the subject i- "I 
considerable importance, both to the people of India and to papet - 


(Ananas sativa.) 
L note may be added here on the fibre yielded by the leaves 
j-applo plant. Although not at present in commercial us. 
e has a future of considerable importance before it. It is fin 

stronger than that yielded by any other plant and in the Phillipines, 
where the West Indian Ananas lias become thoroughly naturalized, a 
beautiful fabric known as " pina cloth " is made from it. A rope of 
pim.-apple fibre 3} inches in circumference bore a strain, tit Calcutta, 
of 57 cwt. 

There are several samples of fibre of a wild pine-apple (Bromelia 
sykestui, Willd.) from the West Indies and Central America at Kew, 
but there is no record of their commercial value. A sample supposed 
to be from this plant was lately sent from Trinidad, upon which the 
brokers reported as follows :— " Not yet in commercial use, but destined, 
" we think, to a successful future; fine, soft, supple fibre, strong and 

" g 1 colour, ample length; say 30/. per ton and upwards." 

The fibre of the Jamaica pinquin (Bromelia Pinguin, L.) would 
appear not to be of high value. The plant covers hundreds of acres in 
the plains and lowland- i was made sometime 

ago to prepare the fibre for commercial purposes. The report of brokers 
upon a sample of 90 pounds was as follows :— " A long tow/el Id w.-nlv 
• fibre, of bad colour, coarse, no strength, and only fit for breaking up. 
" Similar to St. Helena hemp tow, but not so good. We si 
" 12/. to 10/. per ton the utmost value." Several samples of this pin- 
uum fibre, from Jamaica and elsewhere, cleaned both by hand and bv 
machine, are to be seen in the Kew Museum, No. 2. 

If the leaves of this plant were cut up, roughly dried, and placed in 
compressed bales, they might prove of value for paper-making . To 
establish this point it would be necessary to forward to England abmo 
half a ton of dried leav- ; - ■ -' 






This at present is not an article in commercial use; but attention 
may well be directed to the capabilities of numerous species of 
S t ,),s< ricria for producing fibre of great value. Plants of Sansevieria, 
of which there are 10 or 12 species, aie very abundant on both the 

east and west coasts of tropical Ai'i i-a, which, indeed, may be looked 
upon as the head-quarters of the gc 
zeylanicd) is indigenous to Ceylon ; 
along the Bay <>t' Bengal, c\iendhi : .> 
of China. The leaves of these plai 

„ ^pottiswooiu:, i 

ARLES BLACK, 6, North Bridge. Edis 

abound in a very valuable fibre, remarkable alike for fineness, elasticity, 
and for strength. 

Usually the leaves are not more than 1 }, to 2 feet long; in some 
,-pceies such a- N. //'""" " v ' s :iud <V vi/liinlriru I lie leaves attain a 
length of 3 or 4 feet : while in one species, native of tropical Africa, ihe 
leaves under favourable circumstances attain a length of 9 feet. In 
this species, for particulars of Avhich and for samples of its fibre we are 
indebted to Sir John Kirk, G.C.M.G., Consul-General at Zanzibar, the 
quality of the fibre is exceptionally good. We have doubtless here a 
new fibre plant of great value.* 

In the treatment of the leaves of Sanscvierkt by machinery, the great 
drawback hitherto experienced has been their comparatively small size, 
and the difficulty of cleaning the fibre contained in them in an expedi- 
tious and remunerative manner. These circumstances would not obtain 
in the case of the plant brought into notice by Sir John Kirk. Indeed, 
for moist tropical climates, as opposed to the dry, hot, and arid districts 
of Yucatan where the Sisal hemp is grown, this and S. longiflora if 
they are really distinct would be likely to prove of exceptional value as 
fibre plants. 

It may be mentioned that all species of Sanscrier/a prefer a rich iimm -I 
soil and a comparatively humid climate. They are essentially tropical 
plants and iio not thrive in a temperature less than 60° Fahr. Under 
such conditions they grow rapidly and establish themselves permanently 
by means of large spreading fleshy rhizomes or underground stems. It 
is true they will grow in comparatively dry districts, and even in soils 
pregnated with salt ; but their growth under such circum- 
dow and the leaves are seldom large enough to produce 

Dr. Roxburgh propos. d _m becalled 

Bowstring hemp, because the natives of the Circars make their best 
bowstrings of them. On the other hand, small samples of fibre from 
8. !/><;■»< usis, which have appeared in the London market, have been 
cm bowstring hemp. These fibres are very firm, hair-like 
and silky, and closely resemble those of the pine-apple ; they are said 
to take dyes very readily; and the tow is mentioned by Royle to have 
been converted into good paper at Trichinopoly. 

Plants of Sansevieria are already abundant in a wild or semi-cul- 
tivated state in most tropical countries. They are capable of being 
propagated very readily. Usually the underground stem or rhizome is 

vided and planted ; but plants may also be raised from seed, or from 
nto small pieces, readily 

of this plant Mr. Baker remarks as follows: — 

" Wf have a specimen in flower from BuchanaD, 'Shire highlands, Zambesia. 

xcellent fibre.' So far as can be judged bya rough sk. 

; ism plant; and there seems no reason whv it should DOl 

— iL S. longiflora, Sims, in Bot. Mag. t. 2634, of whioh we have specimens from 

Guinea, Angola, &c." 

A full botanical description of the several species of Sanseviena 
bo found in a monograph of the Asparagack^e, in the fourteenth vol 
of the Journal of the Linnean Society, pp, 546-550, by Mr. J. 
Baker, F.B.S. The description given in the following notes are « 
tributed by Mr. Baker. Tin - *pcei< ■> aiv i-.-strictod to those which 
now under cultivation at Kew, and of which specimens of fibre 1 
been prepared and examined. The plants may be seen in the \ 
Transept of the Palm House at Kew ; while the specimens ot fi 
are in Kew Museum, No. 2. 

The species, or well-marked sub-species, of Stmsn-irria* of w 
we have living plants at Kew, are se\en in number, am! they mu 
readily classified according to their leaves in three groups, as follow 

I. Leaves comparatively thin and flat :— 

1. S, guineensis. 2. S. loiu/tflma. 

3. 8. Kirkii. *• S. thyrsi flora. 

II. Leaves semicircular in transverse section at the mi Idle. <l< 
hollowed down the face :— 

stems than proper leaves : — 

t 'figured' and deser bed, long before the da;. 
'.[■ I aureus in the year 1701, by Commelinus in his "Horti Medi.-i 
, , I^ri,..;,,;; ffnb. 20, unde. 
the name of <• Aloe gnineensis radi- 

" undulatim variegatis." Linnaeus . -i !l ._' '. 

: ind -" did .liiceiuiu, who liguiv,! and cai-etullv d.-enbrd it m l«,o in 
his Hortus Vin.lobonensis, vol. L. p. 67. t 81. It ha- 
lanceolate leaves, 3 or 4 feet long. :i inches . ; r„a,| : 

.lually to an acne ap.-x. not d, to. 
copiously mottled on both surfaces 

■ v ' lli, ' U l-l-e-tuthc -iSlHL-hel-.M a the 

tube. It 
gathered by P>; 

:. from O 

Sehweinfurth and Grant, and I 
t likely the same from the Zamb, 

^ipJoliu Kirk in iNt)t); the latKr accompanieu uya 
r ' * ;stone expeu 

/. a nibeM N. ( /^,n,, S upp.-ai- to !„■ cab d ■ L 
Sir John Kirk speak/of it as "yielding a val 

j.-nip." It is described as "growing in great abundance 
B f woods. 
Mr. Home, Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Famplemoussea 

thrives well in Mauritius in damp marshy places in tin 
... I have no doubt that it would thrive well in the W0 

regards the spellit 

regards cultural treatment, the following information is taken 

from notes prepared by the late Director of the Botai 
Jamaica, on this and S. zeylanic 

" In the first instance plants may be put out at 3 feet by 3 feet, 
" which, alio v uhs, would give about 3,000 to the 

" acre. If the soil is kept well broken and moist, these plants bv the 
" extension of root suckers, will spread in all directions, so that ulti- 
" mately the whole ground, with the exception of certain paths, which 
•• should lio kept permanently open, will be covered with plants. As 
" regards the time which must elapse between planting out and the 
" first yield of leaves suitable for fibre, there would appear to be a great 
" difference of opinion. Plants which 1 saw at St. Thomas at three 
" years old were only just ready to be cut ; and Baron Eggcrs, who 
•• had planted them and kept them under close observation c 
" whole of that time, was of opinion that Sansevieria plants could not 
" be depended upon to yield a crop before three or three and a half 

experience coincides with this, but necessarily much must 
• oi cuicivanou pursueu. 

" From actual trial tests in India, where one-third of an acre was 
•• cultivated with Sansevieria zeylanica, it appears that full grown 
" leaves of three to three and a half feet long (their actual age is not 
" mentioned) yielded about 1 lb. of clean fibre for every 40 lbs. of 
" fresh leaves. That is, the weight of clean dry fibre was at the rate 
" of 2| per cent, of the fresh leaves. Dr. Roxburgh calculated that 
" one acre would yield 1,613 pounds of clean fibre at a gathering, two 
" of which may be reckoned on yearly, * in a good soil and a favourable 
" ' season, after the plants are of a proper age.' 

" This would be at the rate of 1^ tons of fibre per acre per annum at 
" the end of three or three and a half years, of the gross value (at the 
" rate of 30/. per ton) of 45/. Whether this return can be depended 
" upon for the West Indies on an extensive area I am unable to say." 

In an experimental trial carried on at Jamaica, 1,185 pounds of green 
leaves of S. guineensis yielded 29 pound- In .unices () f ,lry fibre. This 
•>. :i cleaned by machine. The reports of brokers were as follows :—((/.) 
" Value, 18/. per ton, mixed lilac partly uncleaned ;" (b.) "Poorly 
" cleaned, a good deal of mixture in it, not so strong, value about 25/. 
« per ton ;" (c.) " No good in the state sent; it has a lot of bark in it, 

- and requires more div-dng : both ends are clean, but the centre i" 
"dirty. Price, if dressed properly, would be as good as S. zeylanica, 

In September last, His Excellency Sir William Robinson, Governor 

<>! lYinidad. forwarded !o l\e\v, -ample- of (ibre ,,♦ this -pecies, which he 
stated had been prepare.! - ;it ,j lt , convict depot at Chaguanas without 

- the aid of machinery of any kind." The report of Messrs. Ide and 
Christie on the Trinidad sample was as follows : — 

" In point of cleanness and softness of fibre it seems well prepared ; 
'• hut to compete Mice— i'uily with Manila hemp it would require to be of 
" a better colour and of equal if no! -up.ador strength. We value it for 

- rope-making purposes at 20/. per ton in London. The small piec. oi 

specimen machine-cleaned from Jamaica, sent by Mr. lb Morris, 1N84, 

•• ;< i/ftai/fd. mottled, unarmed, common ami easily propagated." A 
specimen Crom Trinidad, cleaned by hand, forwarded In, Coveruor Sir 
William Robinson, and valued by Messrs. Id. and Christie at 'JO/, per 
ton. Also a leaf, roj)e, and fibre from S.K. Africa, sent by Mr. T. 
Baines. A specimen of leaf and libre from Sir .John Kirk appear- 
under the following label. '-Maculated Sansevieria, called ' Konje,' 
" near Iaipata, IS6(>." Tins is probably identical with S. (/uinrn^is. 

2. Sansevieria longiflora, Sims, a native of equatorial Africa. wa ■ 
first figured and described by Dr. Sims iu 1826 at tub. 2,(534 of (he 
Botanical Magazine. The leaves are very like those of .V. ;i»un aisi,, 
but as grown with us, they are larger, flatter, not so firm in texture, 
and not invariably blotched with green. The best character by which 
it may be known from S. t/ithicoisis is the flower, which is ;{i or 
I inches long, instead of 12 inches. We have specimens in the Herb- 
arium with flowers as large as this from ( inim-a gather, d by I'.arter and 
Mann: from the Congo by Prof. C, Smith ; from the Zambesi country 
by Mr. Buchanan; from Angola by the late Mr. Monteiro ; from 
Niam-niam Land by Dr. Schweinfurth. Whether all Ihcse are the 
same species it is impossible to say at present. There is also a large 
flowered species, called Sa,t.s<vi<ria hrach-ata. which wa- gathered by 
Dr. Welwitsch in Angola. 

In 1879 Sir John Kirk forwarded through the Foreign Office a 
specimen of fibre from the leaf of a species of St,,.*t rioia ibimd 
growing on the mainland opposite the i-land of Zanzibar The speci- 
men sent was the produce .,1' a single leaf, the length of which was 
9 feet. The report of Messrs Noble on this specimen was as follows :— 
" We have carefully examined the fibre from East Africa; it is worth 
" as a hemp 22/. per ton at the present time" (1879). 

Recently Sir John Kirk has been good enough b> furnish nor. 
regards the plant yielding ! hb lihre. which 
onclude thai ' 
ote, p. 2.] 
"It grows abui: en -»« mammim 

island of Zan. b. tw, i n that and I 

is used by the natives to yield a long and useful fibre of which I sent 
specimens to Kew some years ago. 

"The plant has flowered with me at Mbweni in the island of 
Zanzibar, but the soil being too dry and sandy it did not succeed 

« very well. 

" The flowers I 
" spike, as in an. 
t* my flowering speciu 

" able to send home the inflorescence for identification. The leaves 
" which yield the fibre are at first flat and clouded, but after a time the 
" lower part becomes much elongated, round and grooved on the upper 
" side, the end only remaining flattened and not so mottled. 
" It is a plant worth being introduced to our tropical colonies." 
Several plants of this species are growing in the Palm House at Kew, 
from which it would appear that it is a very free growing and robust 
species. Some leaves from these plants were lately tested for fibre by 
mean, of Death's fibre machine, which yielded at the rate of 1"69 per 
cent, of clean dry fibre. The report of Messrs Ide and Christie on 
specimens thus prepared was as follows : — " A very bright, clean, strong 
" fibre and in every way a most desirable commercial article. It would 
" compete with the best Sisal Hemp for rope-making purposes. Value 
" 301. per ton." 

There is little doubt that from the robust habit and size which this 
species is capable of attaining, that it is a most valuable fibre plant. 
As reported by Sir John Kirk, a single leaf of what we take to be the 
same species under favourable circumstances attains a height of 9 feet ; 
and from one such leaf excellent fibre weighing § oz. has been produced. 
This and other examples of fibre are in the Kew Museum, No. 2. 

.3. Of Sansevieria Kirkii, Baker MS., we know the leaves only, o 
identh a distinct species. It was sent to Kew by Sir John ] 

i October 1881 as a native of the east coast of Africa. We have had 
it in cultivation at Kew since that time, but so far it has not flowered. 
The leaf is oblanceolate in shape, and very horny in texture. We have 
only grown it to a length of 2 feet, with a breadth in the middle of 
3 inches. The leaf is dull green, with a distinct brown edge, and is 
much mottled on both sides. The base is much thicker, and its edges 
are more incurved than in either of the three other comparatively flat- 
leaved kinds, and down the back of the lower part of a leaf run about 
five distinct grooves, a character which distinguishes it readily from 
S. f/nineensis and S. lonyiflora. 

Specimens of fibre prepared iY., m N. Kn-im, yielded at the rate of 1'69 
per cent, by weight of the green leaf. They were described by Messrs. 
Ide and Chi i • hut very clean and good 

" colour : the strength fair. Value 271. per ton." 

4. Sansevieria thyrsiflora. Timid)., is the species on which the genus 
Sansevieria was liisl constituted l>y Thunberg, in the year 1794. The 
leaf is nearly fiat and does not reach above a foot or a foot and a half in 
length, and is an inch and a half or two inches broad at the r 
abundant mottling and a distinct red edge. The flower does not differ 
from that of S. guineensis. It is a native of the eastern part- of Cape 
Colony. Zeyher gives the place of growth as " Uitenhage, in woods of 
- Z\ v.irikops and many other places in the east of the colony ; Kei of 
" the Hottentots ; a decoction of the root used for dysentery." 

The leaves of this species, growing at Kew, were too small to be 
tested for fibre. 

5. Sansevieria zeylanica, Willd., is a very well known and well- 

it. It is a native of Ceylon, and, long before Linnaeus, was 
figured and described by Roy en, Conn; ;, There are 

.;::... .■:.•; .■'■;. ■ ■ • , •.■-..■-'■•> '■ < ■ 

1 or 2 feet long, rounded on the back, deeply channelled down the face, 
' or i inch thick in the middle, in colour dull green, copiously banded 
with white, with a distinct red margin. The peduncle and flower spike 
are each about a foot long, the flowers being rather smaller than in S. 
guineensis, but quite similar in structure. It is well figured in Redoute's 

Ltliaeea- lab. 290, and in the Botanical UcgiM.-r. t.-.h. 1W, m the year 

In Ceylon this species is known under tlie Singhalese name of 
XtijtiiiiJa. It i>- indigenous to the hotter parts of tin- island, ami tin 
fibre yielded by it is used in numerous, ways, such as strings, ropes. 
mats, and of coarse kind of cloth. In India the plant is known as 
Moorca, Moorga, or Marool. Sir William Jones, in the Asiastic He- 
searches, Vol. IV., p. 271. mention- >'. zryhiiiica under its ancient 

• k plant the ancient Hindoos obtained a ver\ lough ela-tie thread called 
" Maurvi, of which they made bowstrings; and which, for that reason, 
" was ordained by Menu to form the sacrificial zone of the military 
" class." Dr. Roxburgh describes the plant as common on the jungly 
salt soils along the coasts, growing under the bushes, and easily propa- 
gated, on almost every soil, limn tin- slip.- which issue in great abun- 

be renewed often, if at all, as the plain i- perennial. The leaves, when 
thus cultivated, are from .'! to I feet long. 

Mr. Home makes the following note on ihi- plant .a Mauritius:— 

" Several species of Sansevieria are common here in waste lands, near 
•' the site- id' old gardens, and h\ the road -ides. They are not so 
" readily nor so cheaply established on laud as the tilers rert. But they 
" yield a good fibre, which is used for cordage, &c. It has the reputa- 
" tion of being one of the strongest of fibres. It is known by the name 
'• of Boir.strunj hemp and Moorra."' 

Generally in Ceylon and India the natives prepare fibre from this 
plant byre! -j. and -craping. lull grown leaves 

yield at' the rate of 7 ; S7 per cent, by weight ofthegreen leaves. Owing 
to the smalluess of the individual leave- they are dillicult to clean by 
machinery, hut if it were possible to separate the fibre by a chemical 
process, this plant would become of great commercial value. 

Of samples of N. zcylanica fibre the Kew Museums contain one 
specimen from Cexlon, -ent In l>r. G. H. K. Thwaites, under the name 
ol' Xevtnda fibre; one labelled Moorga or Bowstring [hemp, from 
Jamaica, from Mr. D. Morris, 1884. with the following "note attached; 
— " Longest leaves ;;.', to to 4 feet hum. narrow, mottled, unarmed, very 
" common, and very easily propagated eiiher by root, suckers, portions 
" of the leaf, or *>v<\." ' There are also samples from the Hotanic 
Garden, Mauritius, Bent by Mr. Duncan ; from Mysore, obtained from 
the India Museum, besides rope and twine from Balasore and twine from 
Cuttack, likewise Irom the India Museum: a Cingalese whip and nose 
string;: tor harnessed hillock- from Kandv. -ein b_\ Mr. J. A. Ferdiuandus ; 
a sample of paper half stutl from the India Museum ; and some fibre, 
dyed iii two colours (red and blue), from Madras, by Dr. Hunter. 

' Samples of lihre of S'. zcylauicii prepared at Jamaica by machinery, 
in 1 sib I, were described ; rokers : — («.)" Beautiful 

"< fibre, rather heavv and hard, might be whiter, value verv uncertain. 
" 20/. to 35/. per ton;" (/>.) "Bather dull in colour and short in 
" growth, fairly well cleaned. Value about 30/. per to n ; " (<•.) " Might 
•• be whiter, 'it i- almost too good for roping purpose-. Worth about 
« 30/. per ton." 

6. Of Sansevieria cylindrica, Bojer, m excellent figure and a full 
account by Sir William Hooker will be found at lab. 5,093 of the 
Botanical Magazine. It is a most distinct and curious looking plant. 

rouad, bsjh ci ing, reaching 

when fully developed a length of ,3 or 4 feet and a thickness of about 
an inch. The peduncle is about a foot long ; the raceme much longer, 
with clustered cylindrical flowers just like those of rfitiitcaisi.s in 
structure, but only about an inch long. It is spread across South 
Africa from Zanzibar to Angola. Our Kew plants were received by 
the Foreign Office from Angola in 1859 under the name of Ife, and an 
abundant supply of its fibre and ship's cables and other ropes manu- 
<>wii iii tin- Portuguese Department of the Paris 
Exhibition in 1858. 

In the description attached to the figure of the plant in the Botanical 
Magazine mentioned above, Sir William Hooker adds the following 
particulars : — 

"About three years ago (that is in 1857) there were received at the 
" Foreign Office, and "transferred to the Admiralty, samples of a 
" peculiar fibre and cordage under the name of Ife, said to be derived 

at the Portuguese Settlement, Angola, ^ 


" pl;.nt-> which were' placed in tie cellars of the foreign Oll'iee. and 
" by the kindness of our valued friend, G. Lenox-Coningham, Ksq., 
" forwarded to Kew, were they soon recovered, and have since 
" flowered. The habit of the plant was that of Smiscricria, but the 
" leaves very dark-coloured, and quite terete and solid in the interior, 
" very unlike any known species of that genus. Mv duties at the 
" Paris Exhibition of 1855 led me to the careful investigation of the 
" vegetable products, and I was there agreeably surprised to bud mosf 
•' extensive samples. i„ the Portuguese 1 )epartment, of the raw mate- 
-. and manufactured .articles, ship-cables, rope, beautiful 
- cordage, .v... of tli. sane m leria e, 1 amongst ' The products of 
" Angola,' it is thus stated in my • Report ' : — > /■>/„■, marked, from San- 
•being a MS. name of Dr. VVelwit-ch 

" 'leaves, which is in cultivation at Kew. The < 
" ' made of this plant appear t 
" 'experience may prove then, to be.' Experiments recently made 
'• with this cordage have shown it to bo the strongest and best fitted 
" for deep-sea sounding of any fibre known ; indeed this is the less 
- surprising, seeing that other speeies of Sansevieria (the well-kn,,wn 
" S. zeylanka and auineensis, for example) are cultivated in almost 
" all tropical countries on account of the strength .and durability of the 
" fibre, under the name of Bowstring Hemp." 

Of samples of S. r y //,,,/,•/, y, fibre in tlie Kew Museums there is one 
specimen from Mauritius, sent by Mr. Duncan ; fibre of the Probo and 
rope and cordage made from it, probably ,V. cylindrica, Sierra Leone 
Commodore A. Eardley Wilmot, H.M.S. "Rattlesnake." The follow- 
ing note ace, mien:—-" Grows abundantly, can be 
" easily propagated." There is also a specimen labelled Mokhosi fibre 
and leaf, probably S. njlindriva, used . \- c mar ked 
S. K. Africa, T. Baines, Esq. 

Specimens of fibre pre; fog at Kew, by Death's 

fibre machine, were described by Messrs. Ide and Christie as follows: — 
" This is the second best fibre amongst the samples sent, and except 
" *M it does not appear as strong, it is almost eouai 

Value 2^/. 
7. We 1 

appear as strong, it is almost equal to S. Loiu/ijlo, 

pi, nit--, probably from Kasl Africa, have never flowered, but in leaf 
character they are very similar to #. cylindrica. I'mlercultivation tiny 
are shorter and more slender, with rather deep. t \eriieal grooves, butno 
hands or markings. A small sample of the libre of S. sitlrata was pre- 
pared, and the broker's report upon it \v;is as follows :—" Similar to 
" fibre of Fun- Ma cubntsis and of about equal strength. It is, how- 
" ever, cleaner, and would abo •■ mipare witli Mauritius hetnp. Value, 

It is quite possible that other species of Sanscvieria may be found in 
tropieal Africa, whilst some more more or less distinct may lie under 
cultivation in colonial gardens. The illustrations given on page 3 of 

this Ibdl. in will assist in i ■ et n of the species mentioned 

here. Specimens of any others will be gladly accepted for the Kew 

In his synopsis «,f' quo '} ^ Mml er 

of additional species of Smi*rri< rhr. which are now lost to cultivation, so 
far as we are aware, and of which no figures or dried specimens are 

than we possess material- for indi\ iduali-ing or lecognising at present. 
Of plants once in cultivation which Haworth briefly notices, we should 
be glad of information or specimens of the following: S. Inli nmis, 
S. n,sifoli<i, S. ,/lnnru, S. /><>! t/ph >/l l«. S. yrnudinispis, >'. jwmihi. ami 

As regards maehinerv f r the * i 'hese plants the 

subject is one which lies outside the scope of the Bull* t hi. Maehin.rv 

i Yucatan and Mauritius for 

■ made MiitaMe 

better, however, than refer to the literature given on this subject in 
Spon's Encyclopa dia. Div. iii., pp. 923-930. 

methods under experimental trial, some of which may prove ultimately 

successful. _ .. 






Considerable inteiesi ami activity is hcing shown m the \\ . -I Indian 
Islands in order to reduce as much as possible the depression into which 
they have fallen consequent upon the low price of sugar. Many of the 

tortile lands in those i-dand.- have been w. II adapted to the romuneraihc 
cultivation of the sugar-cane; but owing to the koen_ competition ol 
beet sugar and to fiscal questions affecting its production, the price <>l 
e.-me sugar is now so low that this ehief industry oi' tin We-t Indie- 
tor the hist, hundred years i- carried on under ciiruni-tances of extreme 

If improvement- in cultivation were adopted, and if such high 
scientific -kill as is applied to the manufacture of beet sugar were 

th it oaar-gro i ia in the \\. -t 1 i i • ould still 1 



The object of this Bulletin, 
of sugar, but to indicate the di 

prudent to seek for means to all 

mation oi* surface, :ui<l elevaiion above ilie sea, in the nuiuber and 
character of population, and in local feeling and sympathy, it is dilUculi 
to generalise as ngards the causes of failure in the past or of the 
remedial measures most likely to be successful in the future. 

The spirit which now animates the people of the West Indies a 
regards the outlook of their industries is well expressed in a memorial 
forwarded to the Secretary of State by the people of St. Lucia, dated 
20th April 1886. This memorial states :— 

"That since the settlement of the island (of St. Lucia) the inliabi- 
jvoted their energies to the cultivation of the sugar-t 

exclusively: the sugar industry having been found, with 


" That causes have lately c 

below the cost of production, and although the 

danger which threatened them roused the people to make efforts by 

the importation of the most modern machinery, and the most 

approved scientific appliances for the economy of labour to secure 
the greatest outcome from sugar-cane ; still but a small section of 
the people is in a position to take ad\nulage of these means, the 
>\ which necessitates an outlay of capital beyond (he 
reach of the peasant proprietary class which forms the bulk of the 
_ portion of the population, and is the backbone of a count ry 

"The people of St. Lucia are now eager to ti 
plants, which are as yet unaffected by the cau 
about the depression in the cane industry, 
which offers a reasonable prospect of profit. 

' surrounds the future of the sng 

death to the Colony that other means of existence be a 
| within reach of the people, not only to avert an in 
1 trophe, but at the same time to lay the foundation < 

imaica, British Honduras, the Leeward Islands, with headquarters 
Antigua, Barbados, the Windward Islands, with headquarters at 
renada, and Trinidad. These six Colonies ha\. an aggregate area 

i order to show ihe ivlntivo -:,. :md impoi tniic. of these Colo 

the following table may he usefully consulted : — 

Area in Population 


Chief Industries 

Square in' 


of importance. 



:, 8 o,so4 


Fruit, sugar, run, 

Turks Islands 

British Honduras 




Mahogany, logwood. 

Windward Island.,— 


Sugar, cacao. 

™ m - - 




SU root'. r "" 1 ' arr ° W 

Tobago - 




Sl n g u(s' nUn ' C ° COa " 






' Viipin'UamK 

Small produce. 

X 41 -4<* 


Antigua - 




Trinidad - 




The chief sugar islands at present are Barbados, Antigua, St. Yince 
Trinidad, and Tobago. Jamaica still produces sugar and rum t« 
large extent; but during the year 1886 the chief export of tins isla 
was fresh fruit, which wa< shipped to the United States of America 
the value of 231,522/. The export of sugar was 202.791/., and of n 
184,514/. At Trinidad cacao is largely grown, and the export value 
this article is nearly two-thirds that of sugar. Coffee, spices, fibres, a 
fruit might very ea>ih he added I., the productions of Trinidad, a 
no doubt under the energetic administration of the present (Jovern 
Sir William Kohin-on. K.< '.M.( i.. steps will he taken in this directs 

gradual supersesi-ion o| 

also largely „ 

the suitability of its so 


the West." In ISSo ( 

of 5,526/. The are 

and climate to the growth of nutmegs, i 
vanilla, will be known as the "spice ish 
■enada exported <)87 cwt. of spices, of the 
planteil with nutmegs is yearly incn 

lecay, and. produi ■ '<' ll{ MTOwroot. 

ul under cultivation < n the hands , fa few persons, and 

of the land 

land for small industries CM 

Under favourable circums 

-ugar. and if low prices had 

readily be obtained. 

ces St" Lucia is well adapted to produi 
ruled for so many years, no doubt i 

seriously retards native enterprise, and prevents the growth of the 

prosperity which, however, it is felt, must come sooner or later to 

Dominica is third a- r.card- • ize of the British West India Island , 
bul a i regai da utilise only a little 

better than Tobago. This is due to a variety of causes. The greater 
part of Dominica i- slid unopened virgin forest. The population i 
small and widely scattered. The old industries of sugar and coffee are 
in a state of decay, and no new ones have taken their places. Cacao, 
lime, Liberie radually being 

taken up, and the aggregate result of these, it is hoped, will in a few 
years bring prosperity to one of the most interesting of our possessions 
lil the West Indies. 

Antigua, like Barbados, is comparatively flat as compared with the 
othei islands, net . i phintatioi h \ been -o 1 oly extended over 
it that very little woodland is now left. Like Barbados, also, sugar i ■ 
the chief industry in Antigua, and if evei new indie-! ries are establi In d. 
there, the pro. ■ . adual one, and they will be only taken 

up when the remunerative growth of i'ailed. Pine- 

apple culture is carried on to some extent, but both in the export of fresh 
fruit to England and the United States, and in canning it there is room 
for considerable expansion. Antigua would afford a good field foi the 
i of fibre plants, and such plants as Fitrcr„-i/ 
<i'iij<t,<i<<t and /•'. Cnhinsis, native to the West Indies, which support a 
fibre industry on the abandon, d es|.,, r ., „f Mauritius, diould be largely 
planted. The ,; be adapted to the extraction ot 

tribute to reduce the cost of carting, and of all cultural operations. 
This subject, both :,- regards Sisal and Mauritius hemps, it may be 
added, has ■<< l-cussed in Bulletin No. 3, for Mm eh 


Owing to the pioneering efforts ot Messrs. Sturge. of Birmingham. 
Moutserrat tor its lime-juice, the 

produce of th« linn tre< iCiirii.-, „,,!>< <i ear. uvula), md in this respra 
they have hem ilted. not only this island, but many -people i n the other 
i'dands that have taken up the cultivation as imitator ■■. fume-juice isan 
article in limited demand ; but it is hoped the Moutserrat Company 

adapted, and s fully utilise the resources of this small but inter!-, in',.; 

St. Christopher ;,nd Nevis are two islands lying closely together. 
noted under one Government in 1883. The former is coveted with 
«-'-*•-'-- -lopes of Migar-eane. -Mc-pini: all round the island towards the 
central cone, known as Mount Mi-erv. It is fa irlv prosperous, owing 
to Hi.- number and character of its population. Nevis is also chiefly 
d'~- voted to - : its importance to the 

enterprise of Sir T.Graham Briggs, Bart., who has spent enormous 
sums, not only in the endeavour to improve the character and efiioioney 
of the sugar estates, but also to introduce other industries suited to lh"e 

The Virgin Islands, with a scanty population, are chiefly devoted to 

the cultivation of small produce by the peasantry, and to some 
rudely prepared M,gar. fdbre plants are abundant, and might he 

1,031 to the square mile, it. is well adapted to carry on the careful a 
systematic cultivation of any plant suited to its soil and clima 

Tobacco, fibres, arrowroot, aloes an; subject- receiving attention 01 
small scale, but nearly the whole of the land under cultivation is devoi 
to sugar-cane, and to growing sweet potatoes, the latter as an int. 
mediary crop. What the future of Barbados will be, if it is compel] 
to relinquish sugar cultivation, it is difficult to gee. The people a 

return a certain fixed portion of the produce. Under such circum- 

.-tances the cultivation i- usually von poor and the syste-ni would appear 
not to be adapted to an\ other produce than sugar. As shown in the 
table on page 3, it is evident that within the area of 114 square miles 
at, Tobago, free from hurricanes and destructive -tonus, there must be 
very favourable openings for the prosecution of small Industrie- ; and 
cocoa-nuts, fruits of various kind-, cacao, coffee, spice-, arrowroot, 
"insier. and indeed inost tropical products are eapahh- of 
to ii„ productions of an island which should be no less prosperous than 
the neighbouring islands of Grenada and Trinidad. 

After thus briefly ie\ sties of the 

Colonies included in the West'lndian group, it i- important to notice 
that with the exception of two islands, viz., Antigua and Barbados, it 

: . , 

..ther cultivation than that of the sugar-cane. This fact is an impor- 
tant one a- bearing upon the possibility of embarking upon what are 
known as •■'minor industries." and it is evident that by too close an 
adhesion to the pureh -mgar-growing hal : : 

act injuriously to their i i interest- and neglect the numerous resources 

at their command. 

In an article contributed to X«t>,n by Mr. 1). Morris, vol. xxxv. 
No. 898, pp. 248-250 (January 13, 1887) it is pointed out :■— 

"In purely sugar island-, *uch . u permanent 

" improvement is lo be sought in more economic and improved -y-tem- 
•• of cultivation, added to which there should be a concent i 
" purely manufacturing processes under what is known as t 
" system. This latter system is already in existence ~ A 
>• St, Lucia, British Guiana, and in 
« f and it is proved beyo ' « ■Of** 

" is treated as a highly specialised in 1 i-tn , fin.-i ml better qualities 
" are produced, and the expenses are considerably diminished. Plan- 
•' ters are therefore recommended to confine themselves as much as 
" possible to the purely cultural operations of a sugar estate. Under 
" snek a division of labour there would follow a more careful trial of 
« different varieties of the sugar-cane, adapted to the different soils, a 

" tion of all nuee canes of the highest 

" saccharine richness. In Barbados, Trinidad, and Jamaica, there are 
" already Government analytieal ehemi-ts who are qualified to give 
" valuable information to planters as regards sods and manures; and 
" from a report recently pr.pmv.l at Barbados by Professoi Harrison it 
•• is evident that much good would result from a larger ulili-ation of 
• chemical knowledge as applied to sugar cultivation, both in tha 
" interest of the individual and of the general c 

« During the last five or six years efforts have been made to increase 
" the efficiency of West Indian industries by a wider and more general 
•• application of scientific methods not only to the sugar-cane but to all 
" other plants which may be found suitable to the circumstances of the 
'• several islands. Hitherto two ! • r- have been 

-, one at Jamaica and the other at 
" Trinidad. From these centres, but especially from that of Jamaica, 
" economic plants and information by means of annual reports and 
" other publications have been regularly furnished, and such agencies 
" have greatly assisted in enlarging the scope of experimental culture." 
In the Eeport of the Royal (West Indian Finance) Commission, 
appointed in 1883, Paragraph No. 1247, it wa- stated that there was 
t growing inclination «>n th, planters in other West Indian 
Colonies to apply for seeds and plants to the botanical establishment in 
Jamaica, which could supply . -a. di island with what it required in the 
most economical manner. Sir Joseph Hooker, commenting on this 
report, at the request of the Secretary of State, in a letter date*! 
00il January 1885, expressed the opinion f 
" " West Indi 
by the extension to other islands, unprovided v 
establishment, of the operations so successfully pursued in Jamaica. 

A systematic endeavour to promote cultural industries in the West 

Indies by means of small hotanical establishments in each island 

connected with Jamaica has now been under consideration for some time. 

! the special character and scope of the establishments or 

^'tiun. which were intended to 1,, maintained, at a small expense, in 

each of the islands, Mr. Morris, Director of the Botanical Department, 

ingestions in a letter addressed to the 

28th October 1884 :— 

^Being .opporfed ly the Government, it is very desirable that a 

"'" 'officer or a. board appointed by Government should be 

harge of ^ the proposed botanical station, and that all 
ice relating to it be carried on through such officer or 

of a botanical 

entirely depend 

'• 'be dlivet charge of the station should be left to M»me etliciel, 

'• ment ofheer who would have knowledge of plant life, and 1 
" d.^nte a little time daily to its working and management. 
^ "Possibly the Colonial engineer or U„. Crown surveyor 
* * *n some Colony, while a mem! 

. ants from the Bot) 
variably I 
" ^or starting a botanical station a few acres of land in a sheltered 
and protected (fenced) situation, and within reach of water is the 
first requisite. A small potting and tool shed are all the building 
actually required, while bambu for pots, and banana leaves and 
wattles tor shading purposes can be had close at hand in most 
West Indian Colonies. The station as alreadv mentioned should be 
"■» the s t . a , f Government, close to the chief shipping port of 
y, and well placed as regards 

•• hut jlld 

<?ing from \* 

-Ik:' 1 ki 

omc fiv 

» plant,, 

" under 

present circumstan 

ent benefit 1 

already [i 


• endeavour 

to prom 

more likely to be oi 
West India Islands nol 

nd thus develo[ 

resources. In a Despatch, dated 1 4th February 188*5, the Secretary of 
State addressed the Governors of Barbados, Leeward Islands, Bahama;, 
and British Honduras, as follows : — 

14th February 1S^. 

additional clerical assistance, undertake to communicate with and 
supply all the proposed botanical stal H necessary 

that any of them should be connected with Trinidad. 
•* A contribution of 201. a year from each Colony, Presidency, or 
Island in which a botanical station i 

As a result of deliberation m ihr r-laml- concerned, tin- Secretary ot 
State, Colonel F. A. Stanley, now Lord Stanley of Preston, was able 
to communicate their acceptance of the scheme in the following despatch 
addressed to the Officer administering Government of Jamaica : — 

M Colonial Office to Officer Administering the Government 
of Jamaica. 

" Colonial Office, Downing Street, 
u Sir, 9th February 1886. 

" I H.vvi tin lionoii! to :i< 'knowledge the receipt of your de- 

(rfth reference to the proposal made 

" in 1884, that botanical stations should be established in some of 

" the West India islands in connexion with the Botanical Department 

' to tin Governors of the Windward and Leeward Islands, of Bahamas 
despatch, of which a copy is here- 
1 with .■!:.■]..-, .|. fran-inittinc: copie- of Mr. M 

1 of October 1884, and recommending the adoption of the scheme in 
' those Colonies. 

" The Colonies and Presidencies named as follows : — Barbados, 
4 Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Anti-un, Si. ' 
' Monl- M,i. Dominic , BritM lloiidm i-, r< pr< par. 
' botanical stations and to provide 201. a year each towards the 
; expenses of the Jamaica botanical establishment carrying out the 

" I trust that the Government of Jamaica will see its way to 
' this scheme to be carried into effect; and in thai case ii will I," 
1 desirable that you should communicate direct with the Governors 
1 of Barbados, the Windward Islands, the Leeward Islands, ; .n< 
' Honduras. 

; (Signed) F. A. Stanley." 

Consequent upon a change in the directorship of the Department at 
Jamaica, and the prolonged quarantine regulations maintained against 
•! liarbi-d- -. n u.t. impiwMbleto place the scheme in opera- 
tion at once. At Grenada, however, a mmj.1I Urania g.-.rden is in course 
of being established under the charge of Mr. W. R. Elliott, formerly of 
the Botanical Department, Jamaica, who has issued a first report on 
the work already done; while under sanction of an Act of the Legis- 
lature, a sum of 100/. was granted to establish a botanical station at 

Dodd's Reformatory, Barbados. In a letter, dated 6th July 1886, 
addiv^Hl I., the Colonial Otlice. the Assistant Director, Royal Gardens, 
r, referred as follows f ' 

" th. r. 1 

" Barbados 

" nursery for 

—.._ I was shown the area of nearly 90 acres in 

extent, upon which the sugar-cane experiments were being con- 

■ and was impressed not only with the suitability of the 

tor the purposes in view, but also with the zeal and capibilii v 

•• <-f Professor Harrison, Chemist to the Agricultural Society of Bar- 

^ bados, and Mr. Bovell, the Superintendent of the Reformatory, who 

evidently had entered upon the experiments with aptitude and 

" knowledge of a special character. 

"Although this is the first year of the experiments, the report 

•• presented to the Government of Barbados is given in the current 

'■ number of the 'Sugar Cane,' and also with more complete tables 

" in the 'Barbados Agricultural Gazette' for June 1886. It is a 

valuable contribution to sugar-cane literature, and deserves special 

"It will be observed, on a perusal of this report, that the chief 

- points , -ought iii the experiments were, first, the influence of some 
" 21 different kinds of manures on the growth by weight of canes 
" isolated in different plots; and, secondly, the influence of these 
" different manures in producing a certain number of pounds per acre 
" of crystalline sugar. 

" It would appear from these experiments that sulphate of ammonia, 
" by many believed to be an excellent manure for sugar-cane, is 
lly worthless when used alone, but very valuable when used 
" with the addition of either superphosphates or potash salts. Farm- 
" yard manure, when obtainable, is evidently the best of all manures 
" for sugar-cane, and gives relatively a larger yield of crystalline sugar 
" than any other. 

"There are many other points upon which it is possible to dwell in 
" this report, but as Professor Harrison and Mr. Bovell hope to carry 
" on these experiments from year to year, there are good grounds for 
•• hoping that an advance will b. m 

" of the sugar-cane, and it is for those who believe that the future of 
" the sugar-cane depends upon the scientific improvement of its agri- 
" culture to carefully watch such experiments, and turn them to the 
" best advantage as their several circumstances will allow." 

At St. Lucia consequent upon the approval of the Secretary of State 
of a vote of 300/. in its support, a botanical station is being established 
near Castries under Mr. John Gray, lately <>f Jamaica, -an cxpeiienc, d 
" horticulturist, and a man calculated to be of great service in diffusing 
" horticultural Knowledge amongst the people of St. Lucia." This 
-tat ion is supervised h\ : commii rnment. 

At Dominica, Antigua. Montserrat, Xevis, and St. Kitts, so far, 
stations have not been started, but it would appear that interest in 
the scheme has by no means failed. If Dominica had been in a more 
prosperous c. been possible, as suggested by 

Dr. H. A. Alford Nicholls, to establish a central botanical * si 
therefor the whole of the Leeward Island-. Alreadv. owing to the 
keen interest taken by the late Dr. fmrav. and latterh'bv Dr. Nicholls 

lii:i!-.-:i'. a laige number ot' very valuable plants have been > 

garden with seeds and r 

been sent out from Kew in exchange for Dominic 

tied by the unaided efforts of the two gentlemen above-men- 
tioned. The site of a garden might be obtained within easy reach of 
the town of Roseau; and there are few men in the Leewai 
possessing rest in economic plants 

than Ur. Nicbolls, who is evidently willing to assi.-t a - far as possible in 

g a botanic garden in an island likely to benefit so largely by 
it as Dominica. 

Perhaps no island requires more assistance in the prosecution of small 
industries than St. Vincent. This i- -, ,1 a botanical 

garden, which, however, was removed to Trinidad about 60 years ago. 
The following particulars respecting the c 1J **- 

''This garden was established in 1761. It is situated in a small 
M \ alley, about a mile from Kingstown, where 40 acres of land are 
'" -rill the property of the Crown, and where the Lieutenant-Governor's 
" residence i- situated, i ; viie-tliird was devoted 

" to the garden, the rest being waste. 

" Superintendents, at liberal salaries, were from time to time sent out 
" from England, and much care and labour were expended by I he 
" Imperial Government upon it. The superintendent employed 12 

" That its success attracted due notice in England is gathered from 
" tin- that Dr. G. Young, tin Or-r superintendent whose name is 
" recorded, received in 1772, from the Society of Arts, a gold medal, 
" in recognition of the flourishing state of the garden. 

" Valuable contributions were made ir,, m distant eon n tries, from the 
" East Indies, from South America, and from the Pacific Islands In 

« here 300 plants. This valuable fruit is now conn „.,,.. s,. \ ,\, ,„" 
- Nutmeg, « nnamon, cm., s, md allspice were also planted in the 
" island. A number of rim- mitim-' tr< i- .till attests the eare originally 
" bestowed upon them." 

At the request of the Secretary of State, the following memorandum 
was recently prepared (18th February 1887) by the Assistant Director, 
Kew, relative to the steps to be taken to give practical effect to the 
'St Indies: — 
"To set the scheme in operation it is necessary in the first place that 
the Government of Jamaica (in accordance with the terms of the 
" Secretary of State's Despatch, 9th February 1886) commit 
" acceptance of the scheme, and the date when the Jamaica Botanical 
«• Department will be ready m act, to the Governors of Barbados, the 
Leeward Islands, and British Honduras. 
" Seeds may very conveniently be distributed by pattern and parcel 
post-: but the transit of plants is a subject which requires special 
1 arrangements will have to be made for carrying 
58 and in a careful and successful manner. 

botanical stations (see paragraphs 22 
I 23, letter No. 558, 28th October 1881) 1 mentioned that freight 

a out by 

representation might he made- ny tho islands concerned to 
directors of the Royal Mail Company to carry all economic pla 
calculated to lay the foundation of new industries free of chai 
A concession of this character has been made and can 
the P. and O. and other eastern steamship companies for 1 
"A similar concession made in the West Indies would g 
impulse to tlie distribution of plant*- ami reduce the cost at which 
they might be distributed to the several botanical stations. 
"Action on this point would more appropriately come from the 
I Societies of the several islands and not from Govern- 
ment. But it is a subject which very intimately concerns the success 
of the botanical station scheme, and should. 'if possible, he set I led 
before the scheme is placed on its trial. 

"Anoccasi.. j hints as regards new industries, 

■- !'<>r distribution, and :n:y general information affecting 
the relations of the central establishment to the stations is an im- 
portant feature in the scheme. Arrangements might be made to 
issue such bulletins, or at least a preliminary one. as soon as the 
director of the Botanical Department at Jamaica is prepared to set 
the scheme in operation. 

" A complete schedule, to bo varied from time to time a 

. should be prepared of s < ie for distri- 

bution at the Central Kstablishinent, and the cost at which they could 
be delivered appear as 

'• It is important that applications for seeds and plants in connexion 

with any island be received at Jamaica from some recognised person, 

such as' the Colonial Secretary or officer in charge of the station. 

The Central Establishment would thus correspond with only one 

person in each island, and that person would forward n 

and make payments for everything received from the Central 


"^The control of each station would be entirely in the hands of the 

local government. The connexion with the Central Establishment 

would be confined to dealing with applications for information on 

local industries, for seeds, plants, or other purposes of a purely 

"When communicating the adoption of the scheme to the other 
' islands, the ( biv. i nnieiit of .Jamaica will no doubt exactly define the 
1 lines on which it is to be worked. The contribution of 20/. per 
: annum agreed to be paid by each of the local Governments to 
Jamaica might be defined as intended to provide extra clerical 
the head office and to cover cost of printing the 
dletin, and other matters specially relating to the 

of which would 

" fact whether they an - for ft private 

" for the station. 

" It might be useful to state clearly at the outset that the Central 

■' Iv-tabli-hm d its duty and obligations by placing 

■■ plains in good oi'diTnu King-ton, No question 

'• of liability should arise as regards plants damaged or lost in transit. 
" The stations must necessarih bcai all risks of this character. They 
" should therefore interest themselves to secure careful treatment tor 
u the plants by officers of the Royal Mail Company, and make the best 
" arrangements they can with the directors as regards transhipment-. 
'• freight charges, &c." 

From the details given above, it will be observed that the scheme of 
botanical -fation- for the West Indies i- one which seeks to meet the 
special circum ;ll mm placed, and to do so in 

the most flexible and economic.! i maimer, and it i- evident that by the 
adoption of such a scheme, which practically amounts to a botanical 
purposes, the-e islands will be enabled 

, F.L.S., a highly quali 
the post of director of the Botanical Department at Jamaica appears t«» 
offer every hope of-ucoe-s to the scheme. It is also antic! 

'id to the smaller islands, Jamaica as a centre 
will li.-r-.-lf derive, both directly and indirectly, considerable benefit 
from such vigorous Mini systematic working as would naturally arise in 
her own area as well as from a larger interchange of plants and seeds 
with the neighbouring islands. 

Considerable interest is being taken at Kew in this attempt to group 

in a position to help each other in tic 

development of local industries. The discussion of this -e 

already raggi : , ltions in the 

several West African Settlements which are making an effort to 

turn to good account their natural productions. These have not 

hitherto be. u so largely utilised as they might be. The efforts 

-<> many years to assist Colonial industries by Kew ha- 

naturally thrown upon this establishment a large share in solving 

the botamco-economic questions which have affected the Colonies 

- of growth, it is only 

rea-on.-ible to expect, that well-marked groups of Colonic- .-hould 

combine as regards questions of scientific and industrial interest, 

and that Kew should deal directly onlv with the recognised centre' 

from which would be distributed such special informalhrn and -uch 

collections oi seed- ;unl plant- m- are -peciallv suited to local circum- 

'<"!>; time fo time be reinforced from Kew. 

i lure are good grounds for believing that the scheme will 
tnal n, the \\e, ; Indies and the experience gained there 
Ul11 - n ' ' : ''--'-i " i-'<yuc_ down the details of a further "-. 
may prove of great value to the West African Settlements. 

D. M. 

inted by Eyre and 
the Queen's most Ex< 

flf-r MajesU '- Station, 






(Bixa OreUana, L.) 
From the seeds of Bixa OreUana is obtained a colouring substance 
which is known under various names. It is called Annatto, Arnatto, 
or Annotto in Jamacia ; in the French islands it is known as Roucou, . 
Urucu, Rocour ; while on the Spanish Main ihe Indians cull it Achiotl. 
This colouring substance has long been known and used for varioii- 
purposes. It is, however, liable to so many fluctuations and tin- pries 
generally are so low, that it has never received serious attention in Brit Mi 
< ol. inies, and hence few, if any, plantations have been exclusively 
devoted in such colonies to the Annatto plant The Annatto of 
is practically, therefore, a forest product obtained from wild 
did plants, and the supply has only kept pace with the 
Of late year- a slight revival ha- taken place in the use of 
ulture and preparation, which 
is proposed to supply as briefly as possible in the following 


axy substance 
3 the fingers a red colour. This waxy 

The Annatto plant is a native of tropical America, but is now 
vhere it is often 
I g r owin g freely in waste places and 
an. mi. i native villages. It seldom attains a greater height than 8 to 
12 feet, but is of stout bushy habit, and well furnished with bright 
beart-ahaped pointed leaves. These are about 4 inches long and 2 
broad, with rather a long petiole, and dotted. The showy flowers are 
produced in loose panicles at the ends of the branches, with live petals 
of a rosy and sometimes of a white colour. Tl 
P TOPCT0O 8, yellow, tipped with purple. The fruit c 
or mitre-shaped capsule covered with soft -piimlc-. 
ripe, splitting into two valves, on tl ' ' 
numerous (30 to 40) seeds. These 
of grape seeds, t ' 
readily stains the lingers a red 

the seeds yields the Annotto of commerce, and gives the plant 
industrial value. 

Annotto plants are readily raised from seed, and are of a hardy 
character. They prefer cool, moist situation-, such as the banks of 
streams, and luxuriate in shaded places in and around dwellings. They 
an-, howcvw. readily established on comparatively poor soils, and 
although the growth under such circumstances is necessarily less 
robust, the yii.-M in -on Is i- f'airlv lar^v. It' a plantation of Annatto is 
proposed to be established, plants may first be raised in seed beds in 
ted during the rainy season when about 6 or 8 
inches high. The distance apart of permanent plants raav varv from 
10 to 15 or 20 feet, according to the character of the soil and tie- 
nature of any subsidiary cultivation that may be carried on. In many 
cases seeds may be sown at once in the places where the permanent 
plants are desired, and of the seedlings grown, the strongest only is 
ultimately retained. A> c oats do not eat the leaves 

of Annatto, planters in the West Indies often utilize hilly pasture lands 
"'-"ting Annatto upon them. In this way very little expem 

I should the price of the produce prove of 

n unremunerative character, no steps are taken to gather the crop. 

Ihe range of cultivation for Annatto is a wide one. In the West 

\ grows readily from sea-level up to an altitude of 2,000 feet. 

■ > grow up to 3,000 feet, but it is partimlarly 

ads. It appears to be well adapted for moist 

nal temperature of 75° to 80° Fah. 

rainfall, and hence is not suitable for arid 

. ct to prolonged droughts. Under favourable 

s Annotto plants begin to yield seed in about two years, and 

remain fruitful for a long period. 

t> St t? Ut T is , su PP° sed t0 be wi W at Jamaica and St. Lucia, in the 
British West India Islands, and in the former island it has been extended 
by partial cultivation. The export of Annatto seeds from Jamaica in 
1886 consisted of 369,284 pounds, of the value of 7,693/. At Guada- 
loupe, one of the principal French islands, Roucou, as it is there called, 
T?o£ n im P ortant article of export, and the returns show the existence 
? Q oJ . C0U P lanta t'ons, employing 1,044 labourers. The export in 
1883 consisted of 700,500 kilos of prepared Roucou. [Flag Annatto.] 

As regards British Guiana, the Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, 

writing m 1881, remarks as follows :-« Though the Annatto plant is a 

^ native ot British Guiana, and abounds on the banks of some «.f \\v 

rivers, it does not appear to be cultivated at all, nor is the fruit of the 

" NV, I > plant turned to any commercial account. All the Annatto that is 
" exported from British Guiana is first imported, and the source from 
' 'a hieh it i-onu-s so far as I have been able to gather, is French Guiana. 
" A portion may occasional!} c,,i, ,<■ from Surinam.*' A- ma\ natuialh 
be expected, a plant of so hardy a character, and the seed of which i» 
so easily carried from place to place, has long been established 
throughout the Tropics. At Ceylon the plant is supposed to have been 
introduced by the Dutch, and so long ago !t * is-fi it was „sed as a dve 
plant by basket makers at Kalutara. 

In the Report of the Director ^of the Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, for 
1881, it is mentioned, " Several gentlemen have made inquiries as to the 
" mode in which Annatto is prepared tV-r the market : and, as I could 
" find no vers -count, I applied to the authorities at 

" the Royal Gardens, Kew, for information, and have received several 

-Bixa Orellana 
" naturalized in other hot coui 
" (Roucou is the French name), however, is prepared almost wholly it 
" the French colonies, chief';, Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guada- 
" loupe (which each produce about 400 — 500,000 kilos), but lately 
• taken up also in Reunion and the Indian Possessions of France. 
" The Guadaloupe samples were the best at the Paris Exhibition." 

In India the two forms of the species, one with pink Howers and 
brown capsule and the other with white flowers and greenish capsule, 
are well represented. Dr. Buchanan, writing in 1833, mentions the 
Annatto plant as follows : " The Bixa, an American plant, is now 
•• rapidly spreading over Bengal, the inhabitants having found it a 
; - useful yellow dye. which 1 1 ,,.-.- employ to give their cloths a temporary 
" colour in the Dolyatra, or festival of Krishna. With this also they 
" colour the water, which, on the same occasion, they throw at each 
« other with squirts. For these purposes it is well qualified. HI the 
" colour easily washes out, and the infusion has a pleasant smell. By 
" rhetn it is called Lot/am, and they say that before it grew commonly 
" in the country, the dry fruit was brought from Patna, Probably 
" some other fruit wa- then i .rough t. and its „se has been superseded 
" by that of the Bixa, to which the natives have given the old name, 
" as there can be no doubt of its be ■ •. audits fruit 

" could scarcely have been brought here from the West Indies. In 
" many parts it is called European Turmeric." 

As regards the preparation of Annatto it would appear that varum- 
methods are used, with the result that an article is produced with a wide 
range of merit and a corresponding variation iu market value. At the 
reqii, -t of this establishment, inquiry was made respecting the method 
adopted in French Guiana, and the Superintendent of the Botanic 
Gardens at British <■:; the French 

Consul at that place. The manufacture of Roucou is as follows : 

" Pick the small red seeds from the husk, put them in fresh and clear 
" water to soak for not less than two days, then pass them through a 
" mill or crusher. When crushed let them remain 24 hours in fresh 
" water; after this pass them through a sieve; the residue is again 
" passed through the mill until nothing remains of the seeds. 

" The produce of the seeds so prepared is put in water until it has 

•ecome perfectly clear, the paste is boiled during 

" the paste is \A; .ring holes, a 

" on it, and a cloth at the bottom to prevent the finely crushed powder 
" from passing through. When the above process has been gone 
u through, the paste should be in a fit state for shipment. It is then 
" packed in layers, with plantain leaves between each layer to retain 
" the necessary amount of moisture and to check acidity." 

A method for preparing Annatto, at one time prevalent in the West 
by Dr. Macfadyen in the Flora of 

" substance known by the names of I 

" Boucou in France, is procured. It is collected by pouring boiling 
" water on the seeds in any convenient vessel ; after -taring the whole, 
" the water, with the farina suspended in it, is poured off; and this is 
" repeated till the naked seeds are left. The water, after allowing it to 
" stand for some time, is then to be poured off clear, leaving the Arnotta 
'• which has settled at the bottom. The addition of an acid is said to 
"' hasten the process. The sediment is afterwards to be placed in 
" shallow vessels and dried by evaporation in the shade. When it has 
" acquired a proper consistence, it is to be made into cakes or balls; 
" after which it is to be thoroughly dried till hard, when it is in a fit 

To this Dr. e general remarks as regards Annatto 

and its local uses in the West Indies, which, as they occur in a book 
now comparatively scarce, may be usefully included in these notes : — 

" Annatto is of a resinous nature, and dissolves more completely in 
" alcohol than in water. When prepared lor mar lit il is moderately 
" hard, of a brown colour externally, t and dull red within. It is 
)f two or thr< 
consistence of paste, wrapped up in large i 
• packed in casks. The roll Annatto is much harder, and of a very supe- 
! rior quality, containing a larger proportion of the colouring matter. It 
1 was formerly employed in dyeing silk, to produce the colour called 
' Aurora. As the addition of an alkali !ity, it is the 

1 practice, when used in d; 

' of potash. It is now, however, but seldom employed as a dye in 
' Great Britain. The Indians mix it with oil, or with lime-juice and a 
! gum, to make the crimson paint with which they anoint their bodies, 
; not so much for the purpose of ornament as to protect them from the 
'• attacks of insects. It is said to be esteemed by painters as a colour. 
' In Gloucestershire it is employed under the name of cheese colouring, 
! to give a yellowish-orange tint to cheese, and in Holland to butter. 
' It has never had any great character as a medicine. It is a gentle 
' purgative, and a light stomachic; it has been employed in dysentery, 
! and as an antidote for the bitter Cassada. The Spaniards use it in 
1 their chocolate and soups to heighten the flavour and to give a rich 
1 agreeable colour. In Jam 
3, mac 
od salt to the consistence of cream, which, i 
" well-corked littles, will keep for several years." 

A method recommended by the Director of the Botanic Gardens at 

Ceylon for preparing Annatto, and v , t n followed 

in the manufacture of some fine samples of Annatto lately exported 

from that island, is as follows :— " The best method of preparation 

appears to he (there aro some discrepancies in different accounts) the 

jV.HowiMLi ;:— ' Hie, with .hen pul P N envelope-. an^Mmnded in a 

wooden mortar, and. after adding hot water, the mixture is left ,,. the 

.,-\vnd davs after v\hich it i- pav-e.l through a mcyc. 

is then left to ferment for eight days, when the water is 

_ ., n ,Ithe deported pulp ; ,:r |„ l^vme <,.n,eutn.«ol by 

^ ■ , acquired the consistency of 

1^—2 kilos weight. These 

lave a lively orange-yellow 

kilo. In Cayenne it would 

five hours, and 

-ater. It is also 

to fetch an inferior price." # * * 

It is used as a dye 

" reb^vooftndlilS'but to ^£mr, though beautiful at first, soon 
,i ence it has been abandoned for more permanent dyes. 

used toco!.. |i(Mt isemployed 

' £l!^S?lC^ process of extracting and preparing 

" Thfmefncl described above for .be preparation of Annatto a 
fi^bb! SCfc pro g d D co;he«V"fl,g, 

Irotefor Annatto, improved methods of preparation wonld donbtb 

soon adopted Government Analytical Chemist at. la 

Mr. J. j.-oowiey, .c.v. ^ th ;nu j | )n u, an 

has prepared powdeied A Pruned one oui 

..rating fro-h ripe seed ( ' 

:i..„rh 1!I matter oi 
=S^rafotr;,e,dv,.d,i,. 1 t 1 i, ,,trac, and,i 

\ ; .mo ul' commerce, was shown at the Jamaica Court at the 
New Orleans Exhibition in 1885, and attracted considerable attention 
At the late Colonial and I: i\m Kvhil.irion there were numerous 
samples of Annatto seeds shown from Jamaiea. Mr. !' i 
f ( 1S H X H bited aseriesof l ,r< l' 11 ' '"•"- " '"'< I' "rn ,1, m , bed as follows :— 
„ r 7 - Ann . atto seeds in natural state. 298. Annatto and lard free 
•:■ \ ,.. ■ , 

. itttto seed and 

" " , ' \" 1 ■ , " 1 v,ilU,tt " " , " 1 ! .niifiti'.ii „t 

•colouring matte! with ;nu ..1, .-...mnus Mib-tun.-*-. .'JO,;, :i()i. .;,,,-] 

Colours from Annatto precipitate and Annatto paints." 

In a letter received at Kew in 1881, from a firm dealino- lamely in 

Annatto, it is stated that "the best flag Annatto is decidedly from 

'•"'"I 'i "-'I t„(..»ni. lr. \ , v „t ;l. [, i, t ,| 

it it comes now direct from the French pons I ;,.. s e ds 

« l^ fl re 5 U /. was 5 edin ^e Preparation^ .. -, «„,,,„,, ,„■■ 

" clear fluid! „ oil is some- 

shade Others use an evaporating pan for this purpose. \ 

**FaZtZA* l-getortune 

in it One pound of good Annatto will colour one ton ol .•!>,,.. 
i G u Ua( ^P e Annatt0 is of » fine colour, but is too acid I fol om' 

« tflur^I^S* ^f circulaili V 8 stated:-- The dubious mode 

* whence L n n ' T l S ^f in th ° Freneh '' 

whence the supplies have been chiefly derived, will, it is thought, — 
long be abandoned. It has been proved to be « »!™22E2, 

"Then followed the liquid extract, which largely superseded but bv 
non-tendon gelation" «»weeniess ana 

" Yo„ will see that there is the feelieg that etre Lid be f W , 

■''--••^i". , ":i::.7.:^r , ;rn&r d 

values between 'Cayenne' he.-i mid this -Ceylon' was too great to 

induce us to go on buying, except in small lots occasionally for mixing 

' ' hjuiring tlic value, our brokers tell us 

" the United States of America, and there 

« fetching 3s. Gd. per lb. ! 

"Best 'Portal' Cayenne is not worth l.v. to-day. so that wo arc 
" open to doubt the statement, to that <xt>n!: bur it all leads to tliis, 
" that if our Jamaican friends would prepare a few cwts. of pustr on 
" the Ceylon svstem lliev would relieve the depiv--ed romlition of 
" their Annatto market. No doubt this method of the Cingalese must 
<• be ascertained, but that difficulty might be bridged over by inquiries 
" instituted by those who are known to ask for a public purpose rather 
" than by interested dealers. 

" If, therefore, you could add this to the many far more valuable 
" branches of investigation, which, no doubt, ' run ' your time already 
" too closely, we feel sure you will excuse the mention of it. 

" Any facts as to Annatto preparations, &c. we should be glad to 
give so far as they are known on this side only." 

" \ letter, it was mentioned that the tendency 
t the present time is not to manufacture Annatto, 
export the seeds in a cured state. Owing to the fact 
that prepared Annatto is subject to a heavy duty in America, while 
.-. :1 - .-, raw ,, r . ■ h.rt. are admitted free of duty, m-owei- 
have found it more advantageous to ship seeds than prepare the 
Annatto. As stated above, Annatto seeds were exported during 
the vear 1886, chiefly to America, from Jamaica to the extent of 
369,284 pounds, of the value of 7,693/. ^ '■ 

" give so far as they 

In reply to this 

in the West Indies a 

special process of dyeincr. Annauo ha- 1 n found ot service in the 

-,eiu- ha- been gi%en to the cultivation, which 
has rescued it from the stagnation in which it had remained for more 

lhan 20 u'iivs It i- oinv nirbt. l.ov. r\ >■; . l- -...i i!.:i .\i 

the demand is distinctly limited ; it may. however, receive attention a- a 
subsidiarv subject, and to meet the < • i> evidently 

better tutrather the seeds and. ahoi can-fully drying tlx-m in the sun 
until quite "cured." t • -■ ''-'^ :,s ;l rnw product. 

Annatto seeds at Jamaica u-nally -ell locally for <W. to lod. pel 
pound. Preparations of Annatto are sold in London, according to 
Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges. Cvriax. and Parries Prices Current, dune 
1887, as follows :—" Spanish flag, re-rolled, No. 1, 3*. 3d. per pound; 
« Cake (Fulwood), 3*. 6d. per pound; extra super, 3s. 9d. per 
« pound." , " __ 

A further letter, which ha- l,-u> n-ccned lrom U.-sr- . .S U 
Clement- A Co.. dated 17th June 1887, contains some useful hints, 
which may be of service in the colonies :— 

" We are much obliged l.o yom r. pi; on \, nn t , I iction 
" It should not be ova : taking the 

" place of paste and lias (h: wrapped in flag) Annatto is too low to 
pay, being procurable ii ■" 1 - Pf »]>• 

- deed 8d. was a very high price for it several years ago. We do 
use the seed continuously and the paste and flag also. 
"The latter from Guadaloupe is now about the value of the seed, or 
under 3d., but the Cavenne best brands are more than thrice that in 
firsthand— more than 9rf. per lb. 

" There is when certain colours are prevalent, a large demand tor 
flag Annatto or cotton and for silk dyeing, and we must expect 

" !••■>: 

" In< 

shows that addiction t 

from const mil | . while by a versatility of treatment 

produce may always fetch the highest value for that form of it most 
in demand at the time. 

' Our colonial friends might reasonably vie with the French West 

Indians in sending pai " 
they would observingly '( etter method, 

Indians in sending paste and flag Annatto to European markets, 
they would observingly 'distil out,' as it were, a better met. 
approaching, « i the Cayenne or 

" Guadaloupe, drive the two latter from these market; 

" There is another form of Annatto, viz. ' Eoll ' from Brazil. It is 

'• worth in its best state of cure 1*. 9d. per lb. to-day, and even more 

'• i- ask.-d by the brokers. This sort has very little staining power, 

" l'u) i- plea«ant..>r smelling, and is put up in rush baskets of about 

« 40 lbs. each, a p,«u;ently ». much as a man could trot with on his 

shoulder. Why this kind cannot be made by our colonists we are at 

« a loss to know. Is the Brazil Rocou or Bixa another species ? [No.] 

ired to persuade Demerara shippers here in Bristol to 

—- + aken up in British Guiana. Inquiries were 

that, though the trees were abundant, the 

• industry was not large enough, side by side with sugar and rum, to 

; engage their attention Perhaps, though, other of our West Indian 

; friends might profitably give some time to this as one of the smaller 

<i- might' ,,«,-, out' as profitably 

om their grasp. And the wish ' 

foster effort after s—^ «,k*«*-* * ,. & 

! our excuse for diverting 

A^rinTv 1W00d ^ d " Bland ' l™ ° f the oldest naanufa^turers of 
rfSStS n l C ° U l r7 ; ^TT ^ {t WOuld be of 8ervice to Powers 
of Annatto to learn that seed should only be shipped to London where 
appliances for preparing Annatto locally entirely fail It is in their 
opinion, better to prepare good high class Annatto in the Colonies than 
only fetch about 3f rf. to 6rf. per pound for 
mouldy^ consignments are dear at i 

ecame estaonsned in London, it would supersede most 
•rench Annattos, which are, as a rule, of inferior quantl^ "" ^^ 

ies o? A e rL« U T m ° f E r ° mi ° Botan y there is a ™y interesting 
>nes of Annatto from nearly every portion of the Tropics. These 

of cake Annatto from Madras, 
>od's Annatto, one of the best prepa 
i. S. Hill and Son ; Annatto from vam 
Annatto from Bntish Guiana, International Exhibition!^ 

. .. '* *-™ xniiuinu rrom xnaOJ 

i crab oil from British ( 
, used by Indians, 

In the Bulletin, No. 6, June ! 
fulness a scheme which has been d 
Botanical Gardens to the smaller i 
issue of that Bullet ition has been received, which 

now given in order to complete the' historical sequence. Tt will 1 
noticed that the Government of Jamaica is prepared to adopt tl 
scheme from the 1st August next. 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

g IR> Downing Street, 3rd June 1887. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to 
transmit to you, for your information, with reference to your letter of 
the 19th of February last and previous correspondence, the accompany- 
ing copy of a Di-spa'tch horn tho Governor of Jamaica, ing to the 
proposed establishment of Botanical Stations in the West Indies. 

The Director of the Royal Gardens, Robert G. W. Herbert. 

Enclosure No. 1. 

Sir Henry Norman to Sir Henry Holland. 

Jamaica, No. 15. 
SlB> King's House, 10th May 1887. 

With reference to the correspondence, which I had the honour 
to hold with you while recently in England, on the subject of the 
scheme for the establishment of a system of Botanical Station-, in the 
West Indies, having its centre at Jamaica, and with reference to an 
interview I had with Mr. Thwlton Dyer and Mr. Morns at Kew last 
March, I have the honour to forward, for your information, copy of a 
letter which I have addressed to tiie Governor of Barbados, and to the 
Governors of the other Colonies, mutatis mutandis, interested m the 
matter, after receiving the remarks of Mr. r • 

Gardens and Plantations, on the memorandum which Mr. Morris 
submitted to you. 

The Right Hon. Sir Henry Holland, Bart., 
G.C.M.G., MP., 

Enclosure No. 2. 

No. 3421. 

King's House, Jamaica, 
Sir, 9th May 1887. 

I have the honour to inform you that the Secretary of State for 
the Colonies communicated to me a copy of a Despatch which Lord 

I> fh\ li i Mivs« 1 to you. in < ' with the Governors of other 

West Indian Islands, transmitting copies of a letter from Mr. Morn?. 
the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations in Jamaica, now of the 
Royal Garden-. K'ow, respe.-ting a proposal made in 1884 that Botanical 
n some West India Islands in con- 
nexion with f tiea, and recommending 
the adoption of the scheme in those colonies. 

2. I would further inform you that 1 am advised that the colonies 
named in the margin are prepared to join with the colony under your 
Excellency's :idmini>tration in .-•-. nous, and to 
provide tw, ry pounds (20/.) a year each towards the expenses of the 
Jamaica Botanical Establishment in carrying out the scheme. 

3. I have recently received a cop\ ,,[' a mi1 — |U -,, memorandum 
from Mr. Morris to the Colonial Office, setting forth some of the 

fails of the scheme, of which I beg leave to enclose a copy 
for your Excellency's information, inviting your remarks upon it. 

4. I desire to inform you that this colony is prepared to adopt the 
proposed scheme from the 1st August next, or from any subsequent date, 
and I would suggest that the local superintendent of the Botanical 

(eon the subject direct 
with Mr. Faweett. the Director of 7* 

Public Gardens and Plantations i 

As regards the ( 

) the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company for the free carriage, 
> carriage at low rates, of plants. 

(Signed) H. W. Norman, 


Dominica.— Reference was made in Bulletin, No. 6, pp. 9 and 10 

to the collection of economic plants already made at St. Aroment! 

by the late Dr. Imray and Dr. H. A. Alford Nicholb. 

Many of these plants have been sent out from Kew in exchange for 

contributed al the private expense of the two 

gentlemen above mentioned. In connexion with the establishment of 

I tarden, it may be useful to place on 

Baobab, or Monkey Africa. 
Candle-nut - - Pacific I 

i: ind 

Artocarpus integrifolia - 

Jack Fruit 


„ Lakoocha - 

Averrhoa Carambola 


„ Bilimbi - 

Blimbing - 
Blood Wood - 

Norfolk Isld. 


E. Indies. 

MaleBambu - 



Trop. America. 

Tea - 

Caryophyllus aromaticus 

Cavia Fi>tula - 

Clove- - - - 
Purging Cassia 


E. Indies. 



Satin Wood 


o Cainito 

Star Apple 
Star Plum - 

Cinnamomum (M^ 1 ^- - 


„ zeylanica 



I itnis nit 1 ca - 

Citron - - - 



Siberian Coffee - - 

Kola Nut - 




Tonquin Bean - 


Durian - - - 

Ind. Arch. 




Oil Palm - - - 

W. Trop. Africa. 

Kpipremnum mirabile - 
Eriobotrya japonica 

Loquat - - - 


Trop. America. 




India-rubber - 


„ macrophylla 

Furcraea cubensis var. in.-rmis - 

W. Indies. 

Galactodendron utile 



„ Mangostana 

Mangosteen - 

Ind. Arch. 

Grias cauliflora 

Guaiacum officinale 

Lignum vita3 - 
Indian Sarsaparilla 

Ilemidesmus indicus - 

E. Indies. 

Para Rubber - 

Jatropha podagrica 

Malay Apple - - 

E. Indies. 


Kirkii - 

African Rubber - 

E. Trop. Africa. 
E. Indies. 

" Mignonette " Tree - 


Barbados Cherry 

Brazil! 1165 " 


E. Indies. 

iinacea - 


Genip Tree 

W. Indies. 

Michelia Champaca - 


E. Indies. 

Monstera deliciosa 


Moringa aptera 


KEsL ' ■ : 

N.E. Africa. 
Ind. Arch. 
S. America. 

Musa superba - 

Flowering Plantain 

Napoleona iinperialis - 




Phoraix dactylifera - 

Date Palm 

N. Africa. 

Phyllanthus distichus - 


E. Indies. 

Phytelephas macrocarpa - 

Ivory Nut 

| 8. America. 

Pithecolobium (Inga) Saman - 
Piper methysticum 


., tuberosa 
Strychnos nux-vomica - 

■;■•. , ... . m ■■■ 

Allspice - - - 
Kava-Kava - 
Black Pepper 
Jamaica Dogwood 

Tropical "Raspberry" 
African Hemp - 
Sweet Plum 
Hog Plum 


Java Almond 

African Bread-fruit 


Adam's needle - 
Ginger - - - 

W. Indies. 
Pacific Isds. 
E. Indies. 
W. Indies. 

Ma agascar. 

K. Indies. 

Society Islds. 


Eastern Tropics. 


w! Africa. 

Old World Tropics. 

f palms from various parts of the world, which are doing v 

Grenada.— The new Botanic Garden 

noticed. It is situated a, short distance from the t< 

on the road leading to Clarke's Court. The locality 

Excellency the Governor-in-Chief as a 

•• dble, and apparently i 

grant of 300/. was made by the Legislative 

and a further sum of 1,000/. was provided in 

lay out a Botanic Garden and 

Grenada has already been 

i the town of St. George, 

described by His 

' good site," well watered, acces- 

July 1886 to establish 
house for the Curator. The 
Garden are stated as follows : To introduce and distribute 
of great economic value, to supply practical hints respecting new 
•onusin^ industries, and to develop and improve ~ : -* 
In the first Report, lately issued, it ' 
Wanlian <-a-e> eoiit; mini: very valuable plants 


July last, and 108 packets of i 

stated that "two 
received from 
lie seeds have 

1 from the same sou 
The initiative as regards a Botanic Garden 
Excellency W. J. Sendall, C. 

Grenada is due to His 

im and to Captain Maling 

of the Garden Committee the success of the efforts so far 

A letter has lately been addressed to Kew by Mr. W. R. Elliott, the 
Curator, which, as it gives the most recent account of this Garden, may 
prove of interest. 

Mr. W. R. Elliott to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Botanic Garden, Grenada, 
Sib, llth June 1887. 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter in re the seed 
of Buchanania latifolia, received from you 

I am happy to be able to report good progress with our Botanic 
Garden here. The laying out is completed, and the Gardens are to be 
thrown open to the public this month. The water difficulty ha- been 
only partly surmounted, and during the late dry season considerable 
_ things alive. The wet season has, 
however, now commenced, and there is every sign of a repetition of last 
year's ; and it is to be hoped that before the dry season of next year 
returns we shall have a good water supply. 

The plants received from Kew in the two Wardian cases last year are 
tin i via- remarkably well; one plant of Manihot Glaziovh is 20 ft. 
high, and flowering profusely. I intend returning the cases in the 
course of two or three mails; one I am anxious to fill with a small 
palm I found growing on the summit of Irdous Camp, our second 
mountain in height, about 2,700 ft. This palm completely emers tin' 
entire summit of the hill, to the exclusion of every other tree; I believe 
ii i< Il,/ospnthe pubigem. Unfortunately, 1 was unable to obtain good 
botanical specimens, but succeeded in -jetting numbers of -mall plant-. 

By the mail leaving here on 26th instant I am sending, for determi- 
nation at Kew, a large parcel of specimens of ferns, &c. collected on 
this hill and elsewhere. 

I have a fine plantation of tobacco, about one acre, raised from the 
Havana seed you sent me. 

Yours very faithfully, 
D. Morris, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., (Signed) W. E. Elliott. 

Assistant Director, 




No. 8.] AUGUST. [1887. 

plants from the West Indies recently introduced to the East Indies, and 
which arc now established in the latter. These are the Tree Tomato 
(Cyphomandra betacea), the Chocho (Sechium edule), the Arracacha 
(Arracacia esculenta), and the Cherimoyer (Anona Cherimolia). 

i . 

of the Government of India. In 181 ires, fM only 

-iicre- i'ully accomplished in 1883. The Chocho was introduced to 
Ceylon by means of a single plant, which >ur\ivcd the journey direct 
froni .Jamaica to Ceylon, in January 1885. The Tree Tomato and 
!-. v, hic'.i traced well, and are inniv 
convenient f. a-. In a few years, no dmilit. all 

these plants will be n Baft, and they 

will lie foil : ._<:.. io di< t i ;' 1) 'ih European ■ 

and natives. Already the Chocho introduced to Ceylon as recently as 
J 88.3 is to be found in the local markets; and the Tree Tomato is 
mentioned "as a m men; India." 

All the four plants here mentioned are likely to thrive at Hill Ma:i.-n.- 
in India and e for coffee and cinchona cubical k «n. 

They are sub-tropical rather than tropical in their requirements, and 
hence no doubt they will be found of service in South Africa, in certain 
parts of Australia, Northern New Zeal. .. , i 1 in hill; districts gene- 
rally throughout our tropical possession! 
inarized will indicate their usefulness f 

1 plants may conveniently be obtained.] 



( Cyphomandra betacea, De Candolle.) 
Although called a tomato, this plant, which is a native of the Ande; 
■egions of Tropical America, is a large free-growing shrub or small tre 
1 attaining a height of 8 to 12 feet. 

1 order Solanaceae. 

It appears as Solanum betaceum in i ivanilles, Ic n. 599, tab. 524, 

which gives a fairly good figure of both the plant and the fruit. A 

large coloured ]>!, ••. ii 1. i -■- i 1 flowers appears in the Botanist's 

up.odmdi rli (,,,!, > ( ',,,>!, <!, Thn 1 s u< -. \ ol. 1. (1SS7k 
p. ;r'<;:. with a description by Mr. D. Morris. Fuller notes arc given bv 
lhe<ai.u .i (, ,<! <!,,>,,'. X.S.. Vo XXI I \ 1 19,1 S| , 

p. 510. The illustration from the Gardeners C!,r<hue!c. by kin ! per- 
mission of Dr. Masters, F.U.S., we are able to give on the - 

A much be 


1881, p. 470, 

seed of the plant fif 

■■ill°ZnZ e l 


ur, Willi 


:, which ; 

% greenish or 


h colour as 

re, about i 


inland of ..Central Amer 

ica it is ! 


a/, in Ja 

maiea as the " Tree Ton 

apposed ; 

beneficial a 




le Mercun 

Mr. Miers "lie 

ok. Journ. Botany 

of Pionandm beta 

doubtless the m 

ime fruit that 1 saw 

commonly used 

for cooking in lieu < 


The Tree Tom; 

Etto was introduced t 

i on old coffee planta 

'ca many ye 

ns. Its ,-ai 

erroneous name of " Grenadilla." Plants are grown at Kew in the 
Temperate House and also in the cool Economic House. Thej 
bear late in the autumn, and hence the fruit seldom ripens properly and 
is not in good order. Through the agency of the Botanical Department 
at Jamaica seed of this plant and information respecting it have been 
widely distributed throughout British Colonies, and it may now be 
considered fairly established in most of the regions of a sub-tropical 
fliai'art.-i Mii; A ; > I- growth. 

In the Report of the Director of the Botanical Gardens, Ceylon, for 
the yea! 188-1 ir i - stated that the (U/phouia.nlra hvUivva " is a (dose 
" ally of the ordinary Tomato, and a native of Peru and neig 
'■' countries, b krath America 

" and the West Indies. Its fruit, which is red, and the size of a 
" pigeon's egg, may be employed in all ways like the tomato, and 
" resembles it in flavour. Seeds have been received from Jamaica, and 
" there are now many young plants at Hakgala." 

In the Report for the year 1885, Dr. Trimen mentions that at 
at 6,000 feet some of the Tree Tomato plants "are now 11 feel high, 
" and the fruits produced an very line. They an < ui: -diaped, about 3 
' : inches long and 2 inches in diameter, and when hilly ripe are of a 
" bright yellowish-red colour. They make excellent tarts, are very 
" good stewed, and are much relished by most people when quite ripe 
" and eaten raw. like gooseberries. The plant is very robust and easy 
" to grow here, and 1 believe it will thrive and be verv profitable Irom 
" an elevation of 2,000 to 6,000 feet. Under favourable conditions 
" the plant remains in bearing for many (10 or more) years." 

In the last Report to hand, that for the year 1886, it is staled 
that -the 'free Tomato has spread rapidly through the hill country. 
' ; This fruit keeps well after being ga the icd. a nd n it has a tough -kin 
« and travels well it might be largely cultivated in the villages for sale 
" in the towns." 

Large quantities of seeds were also sent from Jamaica to the Madras 

| mrpose of establishing the plant in 

the ML ■ - a India. InaReporton 

the Shevaroy I ,d to the Society by Deputy Surgeon- 

General JShortt, it is mentioned : — 

"Through the kindness of the Society, I have received from time to 
" time a variety of seeds. Of these the Tree Tomato (Cf/plnmnnulra 
" h< facta) promi-es to prove a -reat sucr, -s. The >vvA- germinated 
" freely, and the plants shot up so wonderfully fast that some of them 
" are now between o and 6 feet in height, w'ithout a branch, but the 
" stems from their greenish appearance -eem a- if they w, re herbaceous 
" I have given them no particular care, and they have stood the test of 
" our hot weather very well indeed. I distributed the plants freely to 
" most of the planters and other permanent residents here." 

From a Report to the same Society, dated 29th October 1885, from 
Mercara, supplied by the Rev. Dr. G. Richter, it is stated :— 

" Ey yesterday's Banghy post I had the pleasure to despatch to your 
"address three ripe fruits of the "Tree Tomato" (Cyphomandra 

41 bctacut), and would now remark that in my experience the fruit 
" answers in every respect the purposes for which the ordinary tomato 
" is esteemed. As Mr. Morris, of Jamaica, stated in his letter to you in 
" April 1884, when he sent the seeds, it proved agreeable as chutney, 
" tried, stewed, and in a tart, and may be useful for jam and jelly. 
"In using the fruit the rind should be well removed, n - it has "a 

" peculiar and disagreeable flavour ; the pulp itself has a Savour of its 

" own, plca>antlv arid, nol like the ordinary tomato, Put motv resembling 

" that of the fruit of the Passiflom edulis. The plants wore grown in 

'■ rather damp soil and standing close together. I removed tliem in 

" September to different localities, but though full of fruit not one 

" tree died or suffered. Flowering in May the blossoms set well, and 

" the fruits stood the monsoon better than I had anticipated, as only 

" few of the fruits dropped, and some of the young trees bore over titty. 

" Now most of the trees show new flowers along with the ripening 

" fruits, which are larger than those J sent and may fully attain the 

* size of a duck's egg. I have given away some of the plants and I 

" hear they prove a success everywhere. So you have seeuivd the. 

« thanks of many for the introduction of this valuable economic plant." 
Having noticed than an unr'a\oumb!e impression had hem produced 
•it Madras ,■■, : spec tin-' the growth of the plant and character ol the fruit. 

Mr. Mo,, 3 letter to the Honorary Secretary, 

dated Kew, Gth July 1886:— 

" I notice that in your Report you do not speak very favourably of 
" the ' Tree Tomato ' in Southern India. 

"It is quite not be quite so good with yon a- H 

" undouht.nily is in the West Indies, but, on the other hand. 
" found on larger knowledge and experience to possess qualities which 
M may commend it to general approval. _ 

<« The fruit should be allowed to fully ripen on the tree. This is an 
" essential poi _- purposes all 

removed and the outer skin. Then cut the 
.. fegfcy ^n tew or cook as you would ■ 

<• | „, 1 ,i 1 .ormak. into jam or jelly. If found 1 

" water for a few minutes before u- - 111 be much 

» mil ,lo r . The plant,.- in Jamaica attribute to it very beneficial 
*. ,,,,,, u , ,«.„ ,,._., v,U livoi disease; and indeed my attention was first 
•' drawn to it under the name of ' vegetable mercury. I cannot say 
- ..nvthin i •'''- lor l lmV '' l,i " 1 '" ' 

" to test them; but I can o rtainh -peak highly of it as a fruit pre- 
" pared in the 'manner above described." 

A inftpr to the same effect was forwarded from Coonoor by 

.Madras as regards 
say is that on the ISilgiris every < 

Unfortunately my 
ids, and if yo 

» have any surplu 
« asked for some 

I or I could ha 

>seed I should 1m 

;u. ; i 

posed of hund 
of a supply, as 

1 am 

». I write this, 

. a- I 

for one (and 

am decidedly in 


lr of its propagation. 

, it being a 

'• valuable additio 

n to our li-nite. 

1 list 

of really tasty " 


as well as 

1 14th July 188(5 Depu 

■ .nnatio: 

n respecting the 

'•Of seeds and plants introduced 
« betacia, has proved a great sue. 
" 10 to 12 feet in height, and are 


Tree Tomato, , 

I hi 

ive not only 

•• sent the Society given and rip. ■ s but at the 

<■ la-t flower show I submitted 24 ripe fruits for exhibition. This fruit 

' promises to become a most valuable acquisition to Southern India 

>• ii< a vegetable and fruit producing tree. They not only thrive well 

" on these hills from 1,000 to 5,000 feet, but they have also succeeded 

" well in Travancore and other localities to which 1 have distributed 

" the seeds collected from trees grown here." 

"They might be taken for the Brinjal (Solatium Melange nn) were it 
" not for the' acid tiavonr it imparts to a stew or curry. I am indebted 
" to Mr. D. Morris, Director of the Botanical ("hardens, Jamaica, 
" for a supply of seeds independent of those I received from the Society, 

II appeals also to have been 31 d into the North- 

rest Provinces, and is noticed by Mr. Duthie in the following words in 
is Annual Eeport on the Saharunpur Gardens for the year 1886 : — 
" This plant is thriving as well as could be desired in the climate of 
Arnigadh. It has not a- yet produced fruit, but I expect to see a 
crop this season. It has withstood the winter w iihout any protection, 
and has thus proved to be quite hardy at this elevation. The plant is 
: very ornamental when of full growth, and on this account alons it 
: would always be worthy of a place in tin- garden. It is easily raised 

i the gardens. At present the stock of plan 
; Hong Kong the Tree ' 


s called Chuchu, in Jamaica Chocho, 

hayota, or Chahiota. 

The plant is i " 
somewhat stout 

having the appearance of a yam. The leaves a 
the touch, and five angled. The flowers are greon or yellow, with 
separate male and female flowers on the same plant. The fruit is pear- 
shaped, about three to five inches long, covered with soft prickle-, and 
or cream coloured. The one seed or kernel is like a large 
There are two well-marked varieties, (a) with flower and 
fruit of a pale green colour, and (b) with flower and fruit rather larger, 
cream coloured or white. 

As a West Indian plant reference is made to the Chocho by Hans 
Moan.- and Patrick Browne, hut it was first described U ud named by 
Swart/, hi. Ind. Occ, Vol. II., p. 1 150. It was mentionedand figured by 

des Antille* 
the Island of St Christopher, and gi' 
drawing of the fruit, whieh, lam-ever, lias nothing to 

recently (inured and described by ('ogninux in Flora. lb 

dried specimens and is not good. _ A better illustration 

" of Mexico and of Central America, ami w 

« India Islands and to Brazil in the eightee 

At present it is widely distributed in all 

and it has also been introdi d to Madoii 

from whence the fruit is sometimes sent tc 
the name of Chayote. 

flourishes ai 
.-ippaivntly fails in t lie 
requiring sub-tropic-d 

is-llcshv character. The sterv 
s or arbours ; but failing the* 

The R-v. R. T. Low,, - 
Flora of Madeira, p. 292) that boiled ] 
i-rhlv esteemed. It resembles a yoi 

arcely be distingc 


from the y 

, in 1814 (Hort. . 


>le, but is much 

dee, bv salt or s. 

•icy i. 


Mixed with Hi 

fruit i 

The vine bear, 
" , „'.,'_ „„ } „„ ,darhours The root of the ok 
being boiled or roasted is farinaceous and wholesome The 
... are very good if taken 
the fruit is boiled and fried with butter. 
The introduction of the Chocho to Ceylon was eil'.cted by 
|„. llotanieal Garden in that Wand. In the 1.. Pj^'^ \^\ 

rived, from which d'tenvard:- Hirm rooted rutting- wen 

11, it is stated that tin- '• ( 'lioelio " lias 
; Hakgala from the single surviving seed 

of those sent from Jamaica in January. 

Mr. Nock, Superintendent of the Hakgala Gardens, reports : — 

" After being nursed up in the propagating house for a few weeks 

" the plant was put out at the end of February into the nursery. It 

" commenced to bear in May and has continued to do so ever since, 

•• ,' ll- >i< I. n_ „n excellent en. p. Tin 1 V"'-. ':,M ■ (ti'iit) it pi odu< < -■ i- ; 

'■ pi ■nr-diaped, and the average weight is 3^ lbs. The plant being 

" pei tinial add< ureatly to its value. 

" As it is the first that has been grown in this country, it may be 

'• useful if I state the best way of - rival best in a 

!o 4 or 5 feet 
" in diameter and 18 inches to 3 feet deep ,. cording to the subsoil. If 
M the subsoil is good and free you may go to the depth of 3 feet, but 
" if it is clayey or likely to hold water 18 inches will be quite deep 
" enough. Place a layer of rough stones at the bottom of the hole to a 
" depth of (i i tge, and over this a few inches deep 

" of small twigs or half-rotted leaves to prevent the fine soil from 

: ' ■ . 
" be filled up with the following compost: one third ordinary garden 
" soil, one third half-rotted cattle or stable manure (cattle manure prc- 
'" i I ( 1 to h r n l_j <ul . <i i I -t 1 I, , i, , ■ j f (.Id • 
" and the remaining thii i may '■• t'ormed <! ! al'-mould, sand, wood 
" ashes, lime, and the sweepings of the poultry yard, in about equal 
" portions. When the hole has only been taken out about 18 inches 
" deep, it will be necessary to raise the soil 18 inches above the ground ; 
in every case except in very dry districts it is best to raise it. 
" The whole fruit, which is sent out in a germinated state, must be 
" planted about 3 inches deep in the centre of the hole. It begins to 
" grow at once, and in a week or 10 days it will have made a good 
" start. It is a creeper, and each plant will require a space of about 
" 20 feet square." 

" The Chocho also does very well at I Yr.ldeniya, but the fruit does not 
" there attain quite so large a size. 1 think it will be less suitable for the 
" lower elevations. I consider it to be a very valuaUe introduction, and 
-'_ a real addition to the vegetables of Ceylon. It most resembles the 
" vegetable ms -ova to the best 

\ r t e of that vegetable." 

" The Chocho of the West Indies (Seckium edule) has been widely 
*— rapidly I 

uropeans and by natives, and 
a t.d l)_v the latter, by whom it i 
ticed it for sale in the Kandy market at lc. to 2c. 

especially appreciated by the latter, by whom it is much esteemed for 

1886, Mr. Nock 
a great success 

is and natives. I should be 
>ugh to use your influence in 

- filing I ui n> from ,1 mn.-i ic;i the white variety of the Chocho ( wli;it 
" wo have is the green one), and I am under the impression thai the 
'• white variety will grow down almost, to sea-level, and the green one 
" here begins to feel uncomfortable below 2,000 feet." 

The Chocho has long been established ;ii 1 )arjerliiig, ;«n>l according 
to Dr. King is very common there. From thence It has recent l\ Ik n 
introduced to Saharunpur, and is noticed as follows in the Import of 
Mr. Duthie for the year 1885 : — 

" Sechium edule is called < Chocho ' in the West Indies, where if is 
•' cultivated. Both the fruil an<l root are eaten. The fruit is oblong. 
" about 4 inches long, and is considered to be wholesome and fattening. 
'• 'I l.o large lleshy io as much as 20 lbs., is 

" said to resemble a yam when cooked. The seed was sent to me from 

- Darjeeling by Mr. Gammie, who has successfully cultivated the plant 
" in his garden." 

In the Report on the Saharunpur Gardens for the year 1886 it is 
stated that-^ 

" The pecul 'Chocho 'of the West 

" Indies, has taken kindly to the climate of Arnigadh. and is likely to 
" prove a useful addition to our varieties of vegetables. Four pianta 
" were raised last year from seeds received from Mr. Gammie, Dai-joeling, 
" and as these ripened fruits the stock is now increased to 20 plain-. 
" It is expected that these will produce suliicient fruit this season for 
" sowing a moderate-sized plot. As each fruit contains only one seed, 
" the plant cannot be so quickly propagated a- other cueurbitaeeous 

- plants* hence a stock sufficiently large for distribution requires time 
" for production." 

In Mr. Morris's Report on the Island of St. Helena, dated January 
1884, attention was drawn to the desu g the Chocho 

to that island as a valuable and hardy vegetable. 

Subsequently arrangements were made with Dr. Michael ("Irabhain, <>f 
Madeira, lor the despatch of Chocho fruits from Madeira, to the < lovernor 
of St. rie'ena. Futon ; -cut by I >r, ( I rabhani 

miscarried, but in November of 1886 another lot was sent, and from a 
letter from the Acting Governor, Colonel Pdunt, KM-., to the Colonial 
( lllice. dated 12 February 1887, it appears that "many of the plants 

In the Appendix to the Report of the Superintendent of the llotanio 
Gardens, Singapore, for 1885, it is stated that the Chocho "established 
" on Penan g i -,-.s all other cucumbers 

" grown in the Straits." 

A plant of the Chocho is growing on the eastern side of the Succulent 
llousi I Kew, : dsov< Temjicrati • House. The 

large plant fruited the first year after ii was imported, but. it has never 
fruited since. the is allowed to 

reman the plant the seed germinates and develops both leaves and 

ioof< ; n situ. Specimens of fruits of Chocho are in the Kew Museum-. 
presented by L. A, Monteiro, Esq.; from Mexico, presented by D. 
Ilanbury, Esq. ; from Venezuela, under the name..f ('halt' /< n Cha>/ott\ 
j. resented by the ( ioverument of that Republic ; and starch prepared from 
the root of Chocho at Jamaica, presented by Dr. Macfadyen. 


{Arracacia esculenta, De Candolle.) 

in the high Lands of 

i article of food. The plant 


• , ...... \ ■ 


It is called in g 

rowth resembles the common parsnip. 
" lance to the celery, as a sub; 
ised. The root is a fleshy tuber of large size, bearing 
numerous knots or tubers on the outside. 

Of these the shoots on the upper surface inclining upwards give off 
leafy growths, marked about the base with horizontal rings bearing 
way. These shoots when 
ripe can be broken away from the parent tuber and form new sets for 
planting. The other shoots, which are given off below the ground, are 
got - • : : 1 1 ! ;. eight to ten in number; the la r < inches long 

ferencc throughout, tapering off suddenly and sending out a few fibres 
at the extremity. Their surface is nearly smooth, covered with a thin 
skin, marked across with transverse soars, like the roots of carrots. These 
underground shoots are called hljos (sons), and are the edible portions 
of the root, being more tender and more delicate in flavour than the main 
root or madre (mother). 

The Stem is 2 to 4 feet high, often streaked with purple. The leaves, 
rising directly from the root with long I irregularly 

pinnatifid. llw\ ate ,!• i '. ■ i < n a , I diii r _' above, paler beneath. The 
flowers borne in umbels are of two kinds ; those in the centre are imper 
feet or bear stamens only, and have a llat disk in the centre. 

The origin of this plant is uncertain. It is generally cultivated in 
Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador as a nutritious food plant. 
De Candolle states that "the species is probably indigenous in the 
" region where it is cultiyated, but I do not find in any author a 
«' positive assertion of the fact. The existing descriptions are drawn 
" from cultivated specimens." 

" The best in' i rniatinu a I .out t ! was given 

" by Dr. Bancroft to Si BMty be found in the 

•• ilnhmnnl Mnqnzhn; tab. .",,0<)2. A. IVde Candolle published in 
« La 5 Xotkv sm- lr, l>la„t<s />><„■<* drs Jardin Bot. de Geneve an 


From notes supplied to Kew in October 1882 by Mr. D. Morris, 
who had cultivated the Arracaeha ai .lamaiea, we find that it is propagated 
cither from seeder from " sets." the latter Icing offshoots from the 
main stem. v ! • <i. and grow with great facility. 

The valuable part of the plant is the root. During growth this gives 
rise to a number of small tubers or "fingers," eight or ten in number. 
The largest are from 8 to 9 inches in length, and about 2 inches in 
diameter. The\ are yellow or white in colour, with a smooth surface, 
and marked, like the carrot, with transverse scars. At Bogota, the 
main root is styled the madre, while the young edible tubercles or 
fingers are called itijos (or sons). The younger fingers are con- 
sidered the best, the older n nes being fibrous and strongly flavoured. 

The plant grows in almost any soil : it prefers, however, rich cool 
hollows, and in such situations is most prolific. It will even grow i "" 

Plantation, Jamaica, it is planted in ridges, like potatoes, about a foot c 
18 inches apart. 

The first crop takes from eight to ten months' to mature ; but, bein 
perennial, fresh shoots are continually thrown out which give a snccessio 
of crops for several years. It would, however, be better to plant ires 
"sets" at the beginning of every rainy senson, and so secure a eonstar 
supply of young fingers. 

To prepay 

then boiled ; a little salt 

young it is customary to change the water once or twice. After heiii.u r 
boiled, they may be grated and employed as an ingredient for thickening 
soup; or, better still. mashed, mixed with pepper, salt, and a 1"'' 
butter, they form a most palatable dish. 

Dr. Bancroft describes the following method of cultivating this p 
at Bogota : — After separating the upper tubers, or knobs, from the i 
detach from these the offsets, singly, each with its portion of the substf 
,vhich is then to be pared smoothly all i 

the outer leaves being stripped or cut off, so as to leave a sprout from h 
base of the offsets, these must be carefully cut out. Thus prepared, t 

, in a slanting direction, at c 
15 or 18 inches from each other, whether the ground be level or sloping 
Afterwards, at intervals of about two months, the soil ought to b 
weeded; and when -hi of lOor 12 inches 

or whenever they show a disposition to blossom, the budding tips shoul. 
be taken off, as the process of flowering would hinder the root fror 
coming to its greatest size, care being 

the budding extremities lest the growih of the , 

suffer ; with the same view, any luxuriance in the shoots ought to be 

prevented, since it must he at the expense of t 

time, and particularly after weeding the ground, fresh mould should be 
laid round the foot of each plant, to aid likewise in the enlargement of 

From a letter addressed to the British Consul- General at Bogota by 
Mr. Henry Burchall in 1878, it is gathered that Arracacha require- 
from 10 to [2 month- to reach maturity, hut the tubers may be gathered 
two months earlier if much wanted. In this case the produce i- of 
course smaller, but it is said to be equally wholesome and a-tveubiV 
to the taste. Mr. Burchall mentions that .lid or centra! portions of the 
root are never planted a second time, a< they produce the macho, or a 
(lowering stalk, and not edible roots. If seed is used in-tead ot ■■ -, i- " 

> Arracacha is given by Diaz in /;/ - tyrim/tor 
Venezolano, from which we take the following notes :— 
" The Arracacha is indigenous to Venezuela and New Granada, and 

« Botanists have distinguished it by the name of Arracacha csmf, „f„, 
« preserving thus its primitive Indi : it was the 

» first Spanish Colonists who called it Apio, generalising this name in 
" such a fashion that many Venezuelans do not now know what the 
" Arracacha is. 

"It is raised generally from division of the crown or rootstock, 
" provided with buds or shoots, and also from the seed, though less 
" advantageously from the latter. 

" If it be requisite to raise from seed, a seed-plot must be prepared 

and care taken that there is no lack of watering ; the young plants 
must also be thinned out where very crowded. When Jt is time for 

; : 
can be planted within the time, and they should be put meanwhile into 
that the roots are kept wet and thus unite better with the 
soil. The proper temperature is that of the cool zone at a height -■!' 

(yards), .and the soil requires to be light, eo 
,,1,-nfy of I well worked, as is necessary for all 

! ants grown for their roots. It can be cultivated down l<> 
antage, results improving gradually 
w ith the ascent from that level. 

" The proper season in natural non-irrigated lands is in the two 
springs of May and October, but in irrigated and highly cultivated 

n% or planting can be done at any time, the plant b 
well -u eded, va feral, ,1 earth* t up Kl ■ _ d t plants. If three 
months after planting they are tied up like endive, the shoots become 
; blanched and can be employed as salad or be stewed. 
" The ordinary use which we make of the Arracacha, which we call 

■ al-o Apio, is to boil it or use it for foreeil meats or fritters. This root 

■ yields a laige < jviant ii i ed to " sulu " for the 
' sustenance of invalids. It is in season at the fourth month. 

" The Arracacha requires a black soil, light and deep, which favours 
•' the development of the roots. To propagate it, it is cut in pieces, 
' each with an eye or bud, and these are planted separately. After three 
1 or four months' growth the roots are sufficiently developed for use 
' in the kitchen ; if left in the ground for a longer period (hoy acquire 
1 greater volume without depreciation of flavour. 

" The colour is white yellow or purple, but these variations do not affect 
vh is most esteemed is produced in 

• Lipaeon, a smalltown situated two leagues north of Santa Fe d<- 

"TheArrae: rery warm localities, 

' in such places they form much leafage, but the roots are poor and 

• in-ipid ; iii temperate rep inn.- the produce is nguiar. 1ml increases 
' considerably in the cooler parts of Columbia, in which tin medium 
' temperature is .">> |o M<> f'ahr., equal to 12 Keaumur and l.V 
' Centigrade. It is there that the root develops best and acquires the 
: most delicious taste. 

" The flavour is agreeable and slightly sweet ; the odour is peculiar, to 
nt to others. Amongst 
: animals this repugnance to the smell is not remarked ; on the 
: contrary, it to them and to excite 

: their appctin i 1 it :!;■;. -Ii..w a lively desire 

to eat, and all devout it with avidity and eagerly seek it. I have 
observi 1 that animals can consume large quantities of the Arracacha 
nly ration of food without, in a single case, the least repue;- 

"Tn connect u >n with 1 

t valuable, since in the transits from Honda 
c to Bogota it is the forage which they accept with the greatest avidity, 

■ and that which enables them the soonest lo recover from the poor 

■ condition in which they arrive. During the fir-t months, whilst 

• th, y an l.ecoinini: acclimati/ed. the Ai r .. adi.' i- ahm-t the only food 

" which will satisfy them, and they prefer it to green grass, hay, or any 
" other forage. 
" When the crop is collected the roots with buds are separated and 

•• preserved for some days in order to form with them a new plantation ; 
" but before planting them in the ground for development itis necessary 
" to shorten the stem attached to the bud to about an inch, because 
' ; it is sai'l th:it it th - [i < e.-j iii<. , be not taken the plants will n<>t yiehl 
" Arraeaehas nor acquire the same development as they do when sub- 
" jected to this mutilation. Furthermore, the leaves 
" which have already been formed; at the time of planting they 
" cut off at about two to three inches from the collar. 

"Among til I three chief 

" \ arieties ; the yellow, to which prol <-.r vanthorrhiza, 

« Avhicb is not applicable to the other; the white, so called because 
" the root is perfectly white, like some radishes and turnips; and the 
" violet or mulberry-coloured (mora/ it* ba( bai a 

'•' violet or mullierry-eoloured ring around the insertion of the crown, or 
" similarly coloured -pots upon the widest parts. 

" The yellow is the mo- the only <ort cultivated 

" in many localities ; it yields the largest crops, whether in numbers 
'' of roots or in their individual hulk. Of all the varieties tho yellow is 
" the most robust and resists best the inclemencies of the weather, but 
" unfortunately it is also the tardiest grower. 

'• The white is much in demand amongst connoisseurs, as it possess s 
" a more agreeable flavour, softer text tit .an . h culinary advantages : 
" amongst the cultivators it is esteemed for its 

« suffers more than the yellow when the meteorological conditions are 
" not favourable, and its yield is always less as regards weight. 

" The violet or mulberry-coloured (morada) appears to possess the 
11 same qualities as the white, and to resemble that variety very closcly 
• £ both with respect to its merit as an esculent and as regards its cul- 
" tivation." 

The attention of the Government of India having been directed to 
the value of Arracacha as a possible food plant for certain hilly districts 
of i hat count i v. several attempts were made to introduce it by seed and 
olfsets. In a 'letter addressed by the Director of the Royal Gardens 
i Office, date.! the lib January 1886, the introduction of 

Sir J. Hooker 

tubers of 
nform you that the various 
i made to introduce this South 
at last been rewarded with 

" supply of tubers obtained through the Foreign Office from Bogota, 
"nor from th d, the same source and transmitted 

" to India from Kew in the following year. 

•' the b lis in -1„! , iea. md Mr. M« n -. tin Diivcioi of I'ubl . ( bmletis 
- and Plantations in the Colony, stat. ' - l)e a most 

<• valuable food-plant,' and that for his own part he not merely likol 
'• it. but found it to become more palatable and desirable the longer it 
" was used. He added — 

« ' If the natives of India take to it as an article of food, I can con- 

' ' afford, witi ans of sustaining life under adverse 

' * circumstances.'" 
" A supply of tubers received at Kew from Jamaica was sent in 1883 
iur, Ootacamund, and Ceylon, and in 1884 to Calcutta, 

: for Darjeeling. Mr. Lawson, Director of Government Cinchona 
: Plantations, Parks, and Gardens, Nilgiris, reported in 1884 that plants 
: had been raised from the tubers sent from Kew. The result in the 
'• other two botani [ndia has not reached us. 

" From Ceylon Dr. Triuien has recently reported that he has raised the 

■ . [rr'iciidin from >eed <■', ■ unaica. He appears to 
; have obtained the tubers without diffl lance. Asa 
: matter of taste, he has a less favourable opinion of them than Mr. 
; Morris. But the point to which I wish to draw your attention is 
' that the introduction of the esculent into India is accomplished, ami 

; that its further diffusion need present no difficulty." 

In the Report of the Director of the Botanical Gardens, Ceylon, for 
884, the Arracacha is mentioned as " an umbelliferous plant, native 

■ \ the Andes of South America, where it is cultivated up to 
6,000 feet, was introduced into Jamaica in 1822, and produce- In-,' 

■ edible starchy roots, with the llavour somewhat of parsnip. Two or 
tlnee attempts t., import the roots in a living state into Ceylon have 

: proved com pi- |,. 13 i K) w succeeded in 

; raismg some young plants from see.!-, ent frm, Jmnai.-a which it i 
' hoped will in time develop the edible portion." 
In the Report for the year 1886 it is stated that— 
"The Arracacha is not generally liked by Europeans (though some 
hke it), but much enjoyed by all the natives who taste it. Mr. Nock 
11 kgala, and I am prepared to distribute 

■ • Government Agents small quantities to the headmen of 

or more elevation, in the hope of its culture being 

■ taken up by the vdlagers. Much m ,„.,[ in In(lia 

■ by t,,e Hitressful introduction of this vegetable in Ceylon, and in 
answers to applications we have sent boxes of the roots to the Botanic 

Agri-Horticultural Society of Calcutta, 
r of British Burmah." 
Dr. King, in his Report on the Calcutta Botanic Gardens for the year 
1886, mentions that — J 

«< A small supply of the tubers of an eatable, umbelliferous plant named 
Arracacha esculenta were sent to this garden from Kew two" years 

■ a..,,. As the climate of Calcutta was considered unsuitable for the 

. these tubers were sent to Mungpor, where, under Mr. 

-■ well. As the tuber* 

are still tew in number and too precious to be sacrificed for food, I 

"The seed of this new kind of vegetable was sown in this Garden, 
ine result is eleven plants; none are sufficiently grown yet to say 
more of them than that they look quite healthy." 
In the Report for 1883 it is stated that— 

;;<>■■ the valuable South American vegetable Arracacha there area 
lew plants still left, ami they are in a fairly healthy condition" 

ider cultivation at Kew, but it is , mt possible 
ing to the short period during which they can 

to produce good tubers 

i France s 
[. Vili 

Andrieux, p. 3). Specimens of the edible roots arc in the Kew Mu 
from Jamaica, 1884, presented by Mr. D. Morris; from the Botanic 
Department. Jamaica. ( ■> o u i! ud Indian Exhibition, 1886 ; and the 
is a specimen of starch prepared at Jamaica from Arraeacha present 
by Dr. Macfadyen. 


(^iwko Cherimolia, Mill.) 
This is a sub-tropicai member of the genus Anona, a native of lite 
Andes of Eucuador and Peru. Like the species which yield the sweet- 
sop, sour-sop, and custard-apple, the Oherimoyer is a tree of about 1.1 
feet to 20 feet high, with loose spreading branches and velvety leaves. 
In botanical character it appears to hold a place between the sweet-sop 
(A. squamosa) and the custard-apple ( A. retiffhitn) : the leaves partake 

that, of the ibrmer, and reticulated like that of the latter. 

As in most plants which have been a long time under cultivation, 
th, re are nun ..,* \ari : - y iv or less differing as regard- il ,- -!. . 

is the most d. ! - ii'in, of a flaky character. 

and possessing a slightlv agreeable acidits mingled witha luscious >\vo't- 
ness. The i' d velvety; they are genet 

of Magnolia f 'Id <" !i " P'»< i"i<i smitf 

as a substitute- for the Tonquin beau. The fruit i- usually the size and 
form of the sour-sop, of a light green colour, with a snowy-white pulp 

Do Caudolle, discussing the origin of this species, states that " the 

< : Cherimoyer is mentioned by Lamarck and Dunal as growing in Pern : 
■ ; but Fewilh'e. who was first to speak of it, says that it is rmlthaied. 
•• Humboldt and Donpland sm it cultivated in Venezuela and NYw 
» (iranada; Martius in Brazil, when th. seeds had Leei m.oduc. ! 

by Feuillee 

The Cherimoyer is very eommoi 
must have been introduced there 

annual rainfall oi about 



Cherimoyer trees available at 
sidered to be far superior to the 
custard-apple, sweet-sops, &c), 
climate in Ceylon." 
ardens for the year 1885, Mr. 


•om Mr. Morris, 

s of tin; Cherimoyer of Peru 
Director of Public Gardena ,t 
useless owing to their having 

^iib."V. l 'i-u!inJ'.' 

oportion arrived in good order 


in Southern In 

ember 1881:— 

dia the Cherimoyer was intro- 
^eon-General Shortt gives the 

io Agri-Horticultural Society ot 

,u Tt:K;:p; ] : 

post 18 seeds of thi' Cherimoyer 

, in El Aifi-irnltnr Vcnczohi„o. mentions that the fruit 

ve acid. The pulp 


B I L I, ET1 N 




1*. 8(1. per lb. ; 

fluctuates very much in price according t( 

TheY-htadaloupo Annatto 'is very in H rior, being very 
but bright in colour in cons ' bat the r 

it ; it is, however, oi' ve y little value for manufactur — 
therefore never realises such a high price as Cayenn 
over, it does i «nng matter 

I ,i » — nt in the ( -venue kind. Annatto seeds prineip 11) cone I'rom ilie 

'. . : . , . • . ■' ' ' 

into this country from Cayenne or Gn ' ^'' li:U( 

seen have bet l m 'i 11 -^')" 

before exportation. Large quantities eame into the London market \:\<i 
year very much deteriorated ' , due in cousoqu neo oi having been 
packed when damp ami '--' matter 

was -I'fiotiK ■ ana broken 

into small panieles%vidently "gathered before quite ripe), which is very 
objectionable for manufacturing purposes. We bought -ceds last year 
in London at \\d., 2d., 2\d., M., 4d,, and 6d. per lb., and those at (>d. 
were much the "cheapest for our purpose, since the labour and expense 

The supply of seeds on the London market always has been very 

intermittent, so that we cannot rel\ 

every season, and last year wc ordered two tons of sonn 
merchants which they could not supply. We are, therefore, decid* dly ol 
opinion that g< -I. -< i i hard, hoi A tto d. pro] rl> colli ted 
and dried, free from mould, would meet n country at 

such a price as would pay the growers well. If, however, they would only 
prepare the Annatto e. o in Cayenne, by washing 

in cakes or in a semi-fluid form, it would be better. We are quite sure 
that it would -o, as it would fetch a. very much 

login a- price tlian ti. ■■■ -. ant! we should be 

securing an industry for our own Colonies that is now entirely in the 
hands of the French. This is the reason why nearly all the Flag 
Annatto is sent to France, to en« ^ eg. ami the 

French merchants make a good profit out of it before it reaches us. Jf, 
therefore, it answers the French C< :• ■ <■ the Flag 

Annatto and export it to France, surely it would pay l he growers ol 
Jamaica and Ceylon to do likewise and expoil inline! to us. they 
would then get' a better price lor it than the Cayenne growers do, 
because they would .sive the intermediate profits of the merchants in 
Cayenne and France. They ought to be able to prepare the Flag 
Annatto in Jamaica and Ceylon quite as well and a- cheaply as the 
natives do in Cayenne : but it would not do for us io attempt it in this 
country from i there is first the cost : 

over here, and labour is too dear to attempt to compete with the natives 
of Cayenne in washing the colouring matter off the seeds. You will 
therefore, understand that we can buy the Flag or paste Annatto very 
much cheaper than it would be possible for us to prepare it ourselves 

fetch more than about 5d. or 6d. per lb. because of the competition 
with the Flag Annatto. Lisbon Roll Annatto is another kind that 
comes from Para, it is in a paste packed in baskets weighing about 
| ewt. each. It is wrap] s, and is principally used 

tor olouring butter, being of no use whatever for colouring cheese ; this 
also varies very considerably in quality. We bought it last year from 
2d. to 1*. 9d. per lb. according to quality. 

It has long been evident to us that sufficient cave i> noi taken in 
washing the colouring matter off the seeds, and in preparing the 
Flag Annatto for the market we often find that it is very much adulm- 
rated with farinaceous and other substances to increase the bnlk, whi< h 
frequently causes a large amount of trouble to the manufacturer^ We. 
in fact, seldom find two casks alike in quality or colour, and it is fre- 
quently kept until ferment iii. >n and 1 1; ■<■< mh r ><><i i ion set in, which of 
course" destroy the colour; some that we had from the Polynesian 
Inlands erui-i-ted simply of the colouring matter washed tVom the seed 
without admixture of any foreign substance. It wis in a semi-fluid 
state and very pure, but a little dearer than Cayenne Annatto, and we 
cannot sec any reason why the growers in Jamaica and Ceylon should 
not l»c able to teach she native- how 10 prepare it in this way. and wo 
could then take large quanfil ies ol fhi- kind oi Annatto annually, and 

!rn\\vi\ -huul 1 in ke the cxpi 
let them know how much we could give for it and the quantity \ 
would lake annually. 

The consumption ol Annatto throughout the world is of course 
limited. Our business has been established over 100 years, and for the 
last 50 years our importation of Annatto has not varied very much. 
bast year our imports of Anr.atto of the various kinds amounted to o\er 
.",( ),(")()() 1!,-.. the great bulk ol which was Cayenne r lag Annatto. Had 
we used the seeds only we should have required at least 200,000 lbs. for 

Annatto is principally us 1 For . . ring da 1 1 ml hutter, for which 
' lias to be specially prepared so as to be perfectly pure and 


following are among the many preparations 

of Annate 

3 manu- 


bave been presented to 1 

he Few 


Imperial Black Cake Annatto. 
Treble Strength „ „ 
Extra Superfine „ ,, 

Superfine Orange „ „ 
Fluid Extract of Annatto. 

Hotter Colouring. 

Butter Colouring prepared ii oil. 

Boll Annalto, Spanish. 

Cayenne Flag Annatto. 

Lisbon Roll Annatto. 


3 are 1 

used for a variety of purposes, viz., f<" 

»r colouriu 

g jellies, 

i h k ng icqiii • • hi 1-- work, am 

1 dyeing i.-n 

lieO, silk. 

tgs, straw-plait, feathers, wood, ivory, 1 

ami abo 

v : in giving a deep, r -dmdo to the simple yellows. 


use the raw Flag Annatto very extens 

1 reddish 

It is 

!ly known that two color 

irs can be 

from Annatto, 

yellow and red. 

52050. 500.-12/87. 

Since the receipt of the foregoing some extracts from the reports of 
American Consul- in various districts in South America on the subject 
of Annatto have appeared in the Pharmaceutical Journal for July lGth, 
1^7, p.. "j1. In l'itr:i. Consul Clayton states that it is the practice to 
allow the fruits to remain on the tree till wanted for use, the capsule 
does not readily burst, and the seeds remain for a long time in good 
condition. " With the most careless culture two full crops can he 
'• gathered every year. 

" The pigment is extensively used by ihe Indians in dyeing the 
" threads of hammocks, and by the wild Indians lor painting their bodies, 
" they mixing with it turtle oil or the fat of the peixe-bois (manatee). 
" In Para it is sometimes used to give colour to cooked rice, but I have 
•' uevei heiird of ii ~ 1 >< ing so u.-e<l on the Amazon. An infusion of the 

s considered by the Indians a remedy f 

: Annatto exported to the United Sta 

" The quantity of Annatto exported 

consular district during the Inst two years amounted to 27,435 lbs. 

and valued at 6,816 dollars." 

From Barranquilla Consul Vifquain reports that "the natives use 

the Annatto for colouring purposes. They are very fond of colouring 

victuals for the table here. It adds nothing, however, to its quality. 

The Indians use it as a defeasi he frisky and still 

more pugnacious mosquito. They crush the seeds and anoint their 

naked limbs with the stuff." 

In Porto Rico Consul Conroy says that " the country working people 

are fond of having planted near their little homesteads two or three 

: shrubs for the sal ;iS a condiment in 

1 colouring and seasoning their messes of rice and other food in place 

; of saffron or red peppers. 
" A very small quantity of Annatto is exported from this province 

: either to Spain or the United States, but no other preparation is gi\ en 

XVIII.— NOTES on Articles contributed to the Museums 
of the Royal Gardens, Kew, from the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition, 1886. 

In no previous exhibition held in London, not even inebidinu the 
i'n^t Cre.-.t Inhibition of 1851, were the vegetable products of the 
British Colonies and India so fully represented as tliev were :i | the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. In the London Exhibit ien <>l 
1H62, and in the 1\„- Kxhibitions of ISO? and 1ST*, the timber >,t i: ■• countries represented were very fullv shown. The 
''nh.nial and foreign timbcis n0 \ v contained in Museum 
No. 3 of the Eoyal Gardens, most ol ivhicl wen pro red from tin 
1 xh i .i - d>. (i ,ii 1 to. will 1 ilicient proof oi this mm; « I 

these specimens are unique both in size and figuring when polished. " 

At the Colon:,;! ;ii,d Indian Inhibition last year, though woods were 
!) . v " nienns omitted, othei ve-etabi, products* both niv md maiiufae- 
fu :; ,li - "•■i'' i themov| prominent. This wa^ parlieuhirl-. the ease in the 
(tionof fruits from the different Colonies, an. I specially from the 


The Kew Museums have always benefited largely from the several 
xhibitions, and, as might be expected, in no previous year have they 
ecn so exfenshely enriched as they were al the close of the exhibition 
ast year ; and this not only from the number of the specimens obtained, 
mt also from the interest attached to many. 


>rher individual possession. It was especially rich 
•titer authorities ni the exhibition. io help Kew to 
Th. followii - is received:— 

Cranberries. — The fn 



and Eesins, of -ev, ml -pei^ ..1 /•..,v////////'> the former bring t 

lion of Kueulyptus oils. 

Essential oil' ". A h ■'■'• rectified and non-rectiil 

powerful antiseptics, disinfectants, and deodorants, and are also used 
as rubefacients. 

K-sential oil of Env,il>, : . < ium tree ot Victoria. 

|t | l;1 , tuuir ■•■■- propettie-. ll is stated that in 

Mr. Boristo's fectorj a W -i G p nfau L2,O0O lbs. of Bucalypta 

oil are annually produced, and as many as six tons of Eucalyptus leave, 

da ted daily. ., , 

Eesin of Eucalyptus rostrata. The Red Gum of Victoria, deserd .u i 

Resin of Xui>'tl> >/<»" «>nfrf>/,<. Gross n <i V' India. Thi-u - 
is deposited on the trunks in large q;; > the hdh " 

leaves. It is of a dee]) amber colour, and I- usi i for staining wood-. 

Resin of '. I This is of an astringent 

character, and is known as Australian Catechu. 

Opium prepared from poppies (J'apcn, *<v/;,>ifcrum), grown in 

Victoria: it yield- 10 per cent. Morphia. 


Timbers formed the principal exhibits from this Colony, the most 
remarkable of which was a log of Jarrah ( Eura/yptus manjinalu ). 
This log measures nearly 10 fret long h\ ! feet inches diameter, and 

A magnifi !. J rrah, which baa dark, wavy 

trans\er>e e it measures some 1.1 I'cct long, by 

,!„„,, 2 feet (3 e wid , md wa < it a d polished for a counter 

top. Both these specimen- were > the museum 

of the Boral Gardens ' ' • 'hurrah 

wood has at . .iiontion of late years, a, 

j| has tin reputation of being the most d in hi of i 11 ■ Is for moist or 

.ie:.,::.--''.,... . - : , ; : : . :. : ■ =, 

: . _. ',:, ., but it also 

^The following woods were- also presented to the Kow Museum by the 

Karri (Et |.— A tree 80 to 100 feet high, the 

wood of which is of a deep reddish brown colour. Very hard and 
considered by some to he as durable as Jarrah. 


growing ti 
hard and . 
nave<. felloes, and railway waggon building. 

Morrell {Eucalyptus longicornis) .—Sir F. Von Mueller says this 
m;iv probably 1 ■ a variety of E. oleosa, from which it differs, however, 

more. The wood is nearly as dark in colour as the Jarrah ; it is 
extremely hard, and iwd for rafters, -hat!-, naves, spokes, harrow-, 
The leave- are said to be rich 

Tuart(/:> >hala). — A tree 40 to 50 feet high, the 

wood of which is strong and durable, and used for shafts, naves, and 

felloes of \vh ■ :-. ... 

York Gum {Eucalyptus loxophlcba).—A tree seldom exceeding 
so teet high usually of verv -ir-d-ht -rowih. ( >f tlm wood Sir F. Mueller 

says, " it is regarded as the very best in West Australia for naves ami 
" felloes on account of ii- - Sadie tobe 

" split into rails ; it is for this very reason preferentially sought for 

Raspberry Jain Wood {Acacia acuminata).— The produce ot a tree 

30 to 40 feu iiunlitl.-. Hie Wood i, 

u^c.l for teucii^ posts, for which It is considered very durable ; the dark 
colour and sc( .led character of the i o. 1 howevc recommends it as a 
likely wood for cabinet work. 

Sandalwood ' /-Vs./ /r/v *^V//^>V— A tree ;\0 f,,.i, the w 1 nl 

which is of '!<>ur, close, even grained, audi. aid. If 

furnishes!!. , Smdahvood a very lueram e export 

trade in which has for years been done, urine 
fine plants of Kinr/io austral is 

A large and interest S2» 

of the Royal gan •^tog '" ;l selection- 

Tamarinds', lb. fruits ol Tanmnntlus hn/ira, preserved in i u > - 

: countries, bm u is Iroin the \\ c i 

Indian island- and !nd!:i that the European market, are ]'i i.ieip.iMy 

ul7'd/ L i ' ' 1 ,,, mi , i I u ' 'm« - h u- I v-luuUV in the Polynesian 

1K | in the low-lvinii coast laud- ot 
,i ,. M- 1 < \'-.i 'P'lu«>. Mi. -it- s 
,''!',",' (ho Mauds of the Pacflie. We,-- Indies, &c, but also fot 
umcrous uses to which the lrui*-, I'd'tv, >ve. ai e put. 
\ considerable amount of attention hi 
years to the fmkivation of the 

Islands, and a number of large plantations have bee 

' .... ■■ ,. • ^ s . 11V iVeni the " Handbook 

The lbl 

uts. Tii 
!oprn, the average vain 

sells at from 16/. to 20/. 

As regards the husk fibre, it is stated that the bulk of the iibre 
prepared in Fiji has hitherto found a market in Australia and New- 
Zealand, but as the production increases it will be sent to other 
countries. " The husks from 7,000 cocoa-nuts produce about one ton 

" per ton, according to quality. Brush fibre or bristles is worth from 
" M/. to 30/. per ton, and yarn from 20/. to 30/. per ton in Fiji. The 

" of machinery, may be put down at from 5/. to 10/." 

Besides thr tint pi <. 'pal . itiel. - .- i i died ti an th< 

cocoa-nut palm, copra, cocoa-nut oil, and coir, the kernel of the nut is 
oaten in large mumtith s when young and fresh, and the hard, bony 
shell is mnde is, and other useful and ornamental 

articles. It is estimated "in Fiji, where the cocoa-nut thrives so 
luxuriantly that it will, ere long, compete with -ipir, tea, and coffee, as 

^Exhibition were afterwards obtained for the Museum collect 
together with a sample of the ground root. Kava root is the soi 
from whence the Fijian beverage called Kava is made, in for 
times by masticating the root, ejecting the saliva into bowls 
fermenting it. The root is known to have diuretic properties, and 
attracted some attention in this country of late for its medic 
value. During the period of the Inhibition a spirit was prepared I 
Kava root under the name of yagona, Kava schnapps, or aromatic 
and sold at the refreshment bars. It was described as "having 1 
the Royal drink of the Fijian and Samoan Chiefs from time 

traced, nothing but specimens of the wood itself, prepared i 
blocks and smoothed ready for engraving purposes, bavin- been 
received. The wood is of a very dark reddish brow n < oloin . close and 
even-grain, d, and ap) . i , outward app« aranc s 

it would seem to be a good substitute for boxwood. Upon submitting 
a sample to Mr. Robson J. Scott, the well-known boxwood block 
manufacturer, of 8, Whitefriars Street, B.C., for his ..pinion, 1 was 
favoured with the following, dated 17th June 1886:—"! think your 
" Fiji wood has no special claim for engraving purposes, its colour is 
■'■ bad and reduces its value. It would be only fii lor common work, 
- ior whi: h nature supplies us with a -uuicient, quantity of inferior 

Scott saj>, — -''Another word upon this wood. Cutting upon wood is 
" like drawing upon paper, if it is tinted there must be a' limit to the 
" density of the tint, or your drawing will be absorbed by the tint upon 
" which it is drawn. An engraver would have difficulty in observing 
" his progress while doing his work." 

Notwithst;: able report as to its use for engraving 

purpoM-, the wood might become useful where •, very hard, dense, and 

■•red wood is desirable. It is said that if a demand -dioul.i 

large supply ( 

lying groups of id'and- in 'the LViiic and the wood could be 1 
size up to two feet in diameter. 

The collection of Fijian timbers presented to Kcw have be 
arranged in Museum No. .',, and a description of them will be i 
corporal ed in the next edition of the Guide to thai Mihemii. 


A large and varied collection of vegetable products were obtained f 
the MiiMMini from this Comm le fifty-five specime: 

of drugs and forty specimens of woods. Amongst the former tl 

Groot BeUs {(hmUn r sis „./. ,/.e„/,/e,)._Thc plant is found aloi 

used in the f ■-■•ne<>, and eliest diseases 

as well as in flatulence. The plant abounds in an essential 
«>il, which is said to have a peculiar affinity to cajeput oil. 

Bok Buxhu (Agathosma viryata). — The plant grows on the 
mountain slopes, and is used for pulmonary complaints. 

Wild Celery 11 h , (. <!'■< >r n. If 1- lm n I all <n . 1I.« ( olmn in 

reputation amongst the people as a diuretic. A decoction <<|" the 
lea\es is used in dropsy and gravel* 

Wild Dagga (Leonotis Leonurus).—I\ grows wild in the Sandy 
( ape lints, and often on the roadsides, but is often grown in gardens on 
account of its beautiful (lowers. Ii has a peculiar -cent and a nauseous 
taste, and produces narcotic effects if incautiously used. In the form 
of decoction it is employed in chronic cutaneous eruptions. "The, 
" Hottentots are particularly fond of this plant, and smoke it instead 
" of tobacco, and take a decoction of its leaves as a strong purgative. 
" The Kafir name of the plant Umfincn-lin-cane is taken from the 
" sugar hirds sipping the sweets from the bottom of its long trump, t- 
'• shaped corolla, llefore the mouth of its corolla opens, which it do, s 
" when the stamens are mature, the nectar is intensely bitter, but at the 

Sour Figs {Mesembryanthemum eduk).— *' Few South African 

Wilde Als or Wormwood I 

" the latter being preferred by the colonists. A - 

■a a .v.llyrium in weakness of the eyes, and the pounded 

I are some of the most important Cape woods received :— 
• Laurel Wood (Ocotea [Orcodaphne] bullata).—A tree 
50 to 60 feet high, and a diameter of from 4 to 5 feet. The tree 
rarely grows upright from the fact, il is nde-ed, » i li.-it. most of the 
o aeedling is 
•• endowed wi < he ligneous 

" state it ve^uii plenh >\ ur, md to parlh p * f e< !\ in th< various 
"atmospheric w, rain, &c. It cannot stand douse 

■• ■ ■ ;r . ,...,■-,,... ... . ... ; 

" coppicing, v i!-. The trunk of an old tree dies 

" from the top downwards, and then from the base is produced a shoal' 
" of young shoots round the old dead trunk. These dead logs remain 
•■ Voiding a long time before decaying, and frequently yield -nod, 
" -ound timber. If the old trunk be not removed and suffered to decay, 
" ill young si iots put ail roots which run down the parent trunk, 
•■ owi'ii Lin i' ; '.o rod Young trees 

" in this manner ; windfalls." 

Three variet'e- of stinkwood are known at llu Capi, while, mottled, 
and ni'iu-ly black; these are said to be due probably to varying ren- 
ditions uf growth ratlin iil't'ercnecs. 

Krom the specimens i xhibit. d in the Museum it will be scon that (he 
wood is not. in excellent polish. Mr 

Ransome in his Report on Colonial Timbers says, " the wood proved 
" easy to work in all cases, and left fchi ' finish." 

Yellow Wood or Upright Yellow Wood (Podocarpus tatifnlut*).— 
rkably t 

n seed, 

and small trees 

arc abundant in 

the lble;-f. 

i the A 

lie months of May, 

to season for a year in 

a place sheltered 

ds. Uj 

proper season am 

splits 1 


it yellow colour 

, fine and close gi 

ig to Mr. 1! 

's report proved 

very easy to work. 

" It was 

cal frame, and * 

■as found to saw 

eery -lean 

i ipi 1 '« 1 

1. It Y> 

h the planing and 

I feed , 

of 40 feet a mi 

note, leaving a fin 

.; :u.d sere 

Outeniqua Yellow Wood {Podocarpus cIo//f/«ti/.s).—T} 
irgcr tree than th 
ban any other tree in the Colony. Notwithstanding t 

flooring board<, and .-imilar purposes, "there still 

i A! xai h a. < th. coast, and in the Amatola mountains. Bush 
" cutters have preferred to fell the smaller and more easily handled 
• timber rather than encounter the labour and difficulty of sawing and 
•• hipping these monsters. . . . One of the largest trees measured 
'• at Kin -na is 23 feet in circumference and 80 feet in height. In the 

" Amatolas trees of this size are more common. IV larger tree 
" measured tin re has a girth of -5 1 foot, and is 00 feet high." 

The wood, when well eaaoned, should be of 

u liojij yellow colour and a straight even grain, The slab presented to 

n.-iiig 20 feet lull- and 5 feel in diameter, show's 

a dark centre and some cracks, indicating that proper care was not 

taken in its seasoning. 

Black Iron Wood (Oka l„,u-folh>) —An erect tree, 10 to 70 ket 

Iii-h and 2 to 3 feet : : mrests and in 

£V sapwood is \ l I th I rtu 'I is <>l a darl 

, -.imilar to. but nuieli darker than 

common olive wood. " Decay frequently begins between the heartwood 

" andsapwood, and gra<b -d until nothing but the 

► Its bardnesa il is difflenlt to work. It is much used for the 
frame* oti of waggons. 

Amongst other Cape woods presented to the Museum which appear 

1 .vuig.— 
Cape Ash (Ehehcrgia cape ash) .— Tree 10 to 50 feet high ; 2 to 3 feel 

' "White Iron Wood (Toddalia \\',prW\ i 'uuen data). —Tree averaging 
20 feet, but - h ; 1 to 4 feet diam. 

Saffron Wood (Elaodendron croceim).— -Tree 20 to 40 or even 
00 fee' high, and 2 to 1 feet diam. 

The balk is used for fanning and dyeing. 

White Pear . I'It,.,,!.,*/,-^ /./,).— I ret 20 to M) oi M.indiii.r. 
70 feet high ; 1 to 2 feet diam. 

Cape Beech or Benkenwood (Myrsinc mclanophleos). — tree 
•20 .,, 2.") i< i hiL'h: 12 to IS inches diam. 

Red Els or Red Cedar (rV//r»^V/r^oe^). -Tree lo to 2o or even 
60 feet high; 2 to 3 feet diam. 

White Alder {Platyhphus trifoliatus).— Tree :,0 to 10 lect , 
2 to 4 feet diam. . 

Red Pear (Scolopia [Phoberos] Ecklonii).— Tree 50 to .So ket high ; 

■' attar (tfwfei w»«fafo<a).--Tree 20 to 30 feet high ; 12 to 15 inches 
" J Tlier (Nuxiajloribunda).—TveQ 20 to 25 feet high ; 15 to 20 inches 
' 'Red Wood or Cape Plane (Ochna arborca). —Tree 20 to 40 feet high ; 
12 to 18 inches diam. , 


Wild Chestnut (telodendron cape 
4 to 5 feet diam. . 

Keurhoom ( F»«y//*V/ <v/^«*/.s-) .— Tree 20 to 2o feet high; 

markable, perhaps, of all the Cape woods 
Umzumhit or U ' • "/ smdl b A ut c . ommo " 

>.;;<) to 35 feH. and a di mHei of 1 \ to 2 ket 1 in umbms , u 

■■ •• ■■■ ■: : 

'•most valuable Kaiir v..- !i,,lli t"'>s \s 

« splitting a billet out ol tin centn n| ( |. ; tree. lt!,ui,,n 
« but the knob to the thickness required. ( lubs and amulets ; 

• made from the wood iii the Transkei. Owing to the small size oi ih,. 

• live, and its curious habit of growth, it can onlv hi: used for ,-tuall work ; 

• xtiur appearance against (ho hard hut light coloured -apwood. . . . 
: Tlmzumbit will pmhahh bra valuable tree' if the Transkeian foivsis arc 
[ systematically worked. It is believed to be the hardest and heaviest 
' wood in South Africa." 

Reporting on this wood Mr. Ransome says : — " Being very hard, of a 
- somewhat greasy nature, and free from resin, Umzumbit is con- 

• sidored an excellent wood for hearings, the result of some experimeuls 

■ -bowing that it' wdl la-1 nearly seven limes as long as 


nd interesting as showing the progress made -inee the International 
Ixhibition of 1SG2, especially in the case of tea and maize. Some 
wnples of tea of very good quality were obtained for the Museum • and 
is interesting to know that the Vhina lea exhibited by Mr. lirickhill 
ras procured from plants introduced from the Royal Gardens, Kew, 

In connexion with the tea indu-tr\ i i \",,1 ,! the following extract 
rom the Natal Official Handbook will be found useful : — " Tea is now 
looked upon as one of the most promising industries of the coast. 
A few plants were introduced in the early days of the Colony from 
Kew, and seemed to do well. About 1863 some attention was given 
to the subject, but from want of skill in management, the samples 
produced did not find favour, and it was thought that the variety of 
the plant was one which won';., auketable article. 

It was not till the apparent failure of the coffee tree showed that 

efforts were made I'm the in, ortatio ,-,( t.,-h seed. This was 
obtained through Calcutta in l*/7, and the varieties imported were 
Assam hybrid and Assam indigenous. Since then the tea enterprise 
has made steady progress, and seems eminently adapted for small and 

•' its own merits in the London market. There are now 12 grow 

" acreage at present under tea is about 400 acres." About 
additional acres were prepared during the past year. The yield 

to the sea. It is the universal food ol ilu iiai.v. - and furnish,- tin 
settler with a very large proportion of his every day fare. It grows 
well under the rude>t preparation of the soil, am! yet repays almndaidh 
the outlay spent in thorough and careful cultivation. The grain i> 
irenernlly known under the name of mealies; jiU.nt I hive million 
hushels being the quantity produced in the (ninny in InM. I.a-I 
year's ( LsSfi) crop \va- so large that ii w.i- climated that it would he 
in excess of the home demand, and a channel for export 
would have to be sought. 

Amongst tanning substances, of which many were exhibited, those 

Intolwana or Elands Bontjes (Eh ^luwtonhizu 11,,-;-IhUu), which ha- 

Caffrum). The tr< 
wood is useful for c 

The following ai 
from Natal .— 

Ground Nut oil cake from Ar, 

Kx tract of American Aloe (A ; /,irr .nn, ?h<unn. used in medicine, 
Tobacco, in leaf and cut. Fenugreek, tbe seeds nt ( Tr,<,o«elUi l« ,<<,,,. 
Gr cecum), &c. &c. 


The exhibits from Ceylon were very numerous and very varied; 

.re the collections of woods and drugs. Neither 

the Museum of the Royal Gardens; 

nevertheless, a large number of specim. ii-, imludin- I K -• I- 
&C, were presented bv the Commission, of which the tnllnwing an 

'""" " lv ' •->■■"" ••■• • . 

which are valued I'm- their agivahlc urmna.tie character, and their 
Besides being used in medicine, 

,! ''' ll! ' ! " '^ " ' [ ' 1 "' " "' '" ' ' U sl"' finP l.nndle, of this 
Cinnamon (Vnuiumom,,;, z, uhnnvn, /).—Nme I e bn,,, 

a'J'i'h ' ,- i ,i tb. i, id. < \.n ..inn' uid d.lic.iu ila\oui. One bundle 
aed for the Museum. - »\ 

Vanilla.-The pud-like fruits of YauU! . 

p] !m t, native of Mexico, where aN«. now u . 
- >,.;i a- in Mauritiu ■ «* J™. 


graceful pain found throughoi 
rhina, the Phillipines, and the i 
Areea, or Betel Nut as it is mi 

OUgllOUt 1 

masticatory. The 

of Ceylon Tea were obtained for the Museum : 
, Broker 

—Flowery Pekoe, Pekoe, Broken Pekoe, and Pekoe Souchong. The 

tea industry in Cm Ion lias marvellously increased during the past 
10 years. In 187(3 only 2S2 lbs. wore 'exported, while in lH.s.'j the 
exportation had reached .">,79(>,(>N 1 lbs. 

Cinchona barks were fully illustrated 

by specimens, each 

six feet long, of the following species ■.— Cinchona s ... 

quill; ('. Lrtli/rriann, < ri-inal quill ; ('. offivnuifh, renewed quill 

A collection of 37 specimens of fruits, i : Qod<, and drmrs. new 
Museum, were also obtained from the Ceylon Commission. 


Besides the entire collections of fibres and woods exhibited ii 
court, several of which 
sample* ol remarkably 

tropical grass 


The collection of vegetable products presented to the Kew Museum- 
bytheComm , (|1 So||li . ,,- 

specimens, and included woods, barks, fruits, seeds, &c. 

I he following are among the most ting • 

■■ ; "'' ' ,ii; ' : . ■ ■ ; '- ■■■•.:. . , ,. 

Bamboo by splil . . riii „i !U ti n „. 

Damar ho„i - , > , a , ■ ., (k rhis is m instrument £or 
holding a kind of ,S'/, om/ . 

Betel Nut Fibre (Areca Catechu).— This is the fibrous husk of the 
A- .• i waste product it is said U> he 
i'" 1 :' ,; iiies. Considering the very general 

practice i«f Betel chewing »■ the Bart, and ti 

,,! .' L lh < '' 1'tat.on ,d this t ppa> ntly usole- m af, , ial bu ,„,„, 
making would seem to be a very prob , imtrieg wll l ero 

the Areca Catechu is common. 

Fine samples of the lb! , „ , , VOll ( .; jhcr in 

". spirit were aI<o obtained:— ' l 

Dookooa (Lansium domesticum), Rambutan (Xvphvlhim hnmuav,,,). 

xlomyrtm tomeniosa, Papaw franca Pa t J, t ,)\ 


By far the most important of the vegetable products exhibited by this 

■.and which were at the close of the Ivvhibitino ,„-, J .„ted 

Museum, were the woods. Some very fine planks of the 

principal timbers attracted a good deal of attention during the period of 

■ Lx!.'V:i, 

Billian or Borneo Iron Wood.— It is very hard ai Ahe&T . 

u than .10 p.T rent, stronger limn English < k n> i. -i ii hivakin 

" strain. . . . Tt is proof against the teredo and white ;mt. :m 1 

■ ; . • ' : 

•• Slra (- S» :! inn ( uid I hi m. " hnpoi md 

land, as it could be sold at the London I ),. k- wilh a good 

« ,, oiil 1 :)s. iv/. . Mil,! t, , and i. -lit tak. 1 place o( green- 

« heart and teak for many of the purposes for which those woods are 

Sumatra or Borneo Camphor Wood (Dryobaiuitnps m-omitim).— 

I'liis wood is remarkable as being the source of the well kiaovn 
Sumatra Can c^ often in large masses, 

in interstices of the wood. It is not so volatile as ordinary camphor, 
.,,,,1 i- harder and nunc brittle. The Chines 

, hard, and heavy. 

wood is of a dark brown colon 

Mirabou (Afzctia palembanica).— This is a stron ai d auv. hie * , o,| 
with a dark b:-..v.-.i-h "ig.iu. It - ! ,' ~" ,:m, > : "" 1 

is well adapted for furniture and cabinet work, as it works well and 
takes a ^oud polish. 

The other woods received at Kew are— 

Penagah, White Borneo Cedar, Greeting, and Russock. All of them 

,,, u ,o,Is ot mm, or le % Inc. Ib-id s tl -e^ rinu* sainpl. of 

Resins, were presented to Kew by the British North Borneo Company. 


The most striking exhibits obtained from this Colony were the 

..:.,. : . ^, : ......■, ,',• |.:. c- 

to the Royal Gardens by Everard II . I - ^ i 

Magistrate, Pomeroon river, of Greenh ■;.;h.,n- and 

TK.0T9,(Dimorplnni<lni I Uor, }< c<h<<) Tin ill ' i ' ol ihe talle-t 
of forest trcesof [Jritisii Guiana, logs lain obta labl. from IS 1<>~I 
inches square and 70 feet Ion-. (Jreenheari is on,- ot the na-t durahb 
wood, known. it is used for keel- -els. hou-e 

Iramiiiii-, mill timbers, wharves. &<:.. and ihe bark i< ii 
the we'll known alkaloid Bceberine, used a- a tonic and lebnrugc. The 
Mora is also a very large tree, growing to a height ol 2o.| !.■«■) and 
squaring I'd inches. The wood i 
used for ship and house b 
and n-, ,1 in medicine and hmning. Tl c (wo -\m cunens here alluded to 

of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, and measured some 28 feet in 

Besides these two logs, the Museum is also indebted to Messrs Park 
ngham, of Georgetown, Demerara, for 
specimens of native woods. Tin ><hm product obt: - 

Bananas and Plantams. Ochro seed 

idustnAca). Dried Sorrel 
flowers (.Hibiscus Sabdarifa Seeds of Ormosia dasycarpa. Rubber 


from Hevea spruceana. Dried Sweet Cassava in slices (Manikot 
Aipi). Ball and Sheet of prepared Balata from Miinusoj>s i/ln/.ns,,. 
Fruit- of Tonquin Bean (J)iptery.r odorata). Bark of Snimnihu 
amara. Fibre of the Monkey Pot tree {Lecythis nllarin). Fibre of 
Arassee {Cor chorus siliquosus), &c. (fee. 


From this Colony a collection of over 100 specimens were obtained, 
consisting of fruits preserved in fluid, seeds, barks, oils, &c. The 
following notes refer to a few of the most important. 

Ylang Tlang, the fruits of Artabotrys odor atissma.— From the 
flowers of this plant the well known perfume known as Ylang Ylang 

Star Apple {Cltrysuphylliin, Cainito).— The fruits are edible and 

Vuits are acid and arc used 

: cultivated and eaten as a 

Carambola {Anrrlma cammbota).— An acid edible fruit; used also 
or pickling. 

Coco Plum (Chrysobalanus Icaco).— The fruits, which are about the 
iize of an ordinary plum, have a sweetish ta.-te, and are eaten eithei 
aw or made into preserve. 

3 (Cyperus 

(jranatutn). Soap 

(S„pi„dns uurtpmlis). <i,mco). Bastard 

Andu, <,,„,;:>■„). LocuM Ueebark (Tly ;»<;,«■<, a,„ rburii '). 

,anha (Asclepias curassavica) . Balsam tree bark 

{A,„y, I, Isuinijira). Maiden Plum hark ( Gmtoeladia ini, ,/nfol, 

' :■:.-■.. ■'. . :. ;,,,■ - - 

// " / '"' '»<»"■■■ w. 'otea-dalea, Andropoyon 

vtt cuius, .hmij,, ,-,/, i,< n tl ii<h<< ,m . MUromeria obovata, Pimento o///Y/'/////,\ 
Morinya pteryyospvrntu. Guns nmlfera. Almntvs wulum „„'. 
I him <„ ,„/<,,.,. C.tlophylhim calaber, Fevillea cordifolia, Citrus 

tins iMjuki came a collection of .V, specimen 
>, averaging in size 3 feet by IS inches. T 
t well selected and prepared specimens, and hi 


A remarkably fine collection of fruits of this island, preserved in 
brine, were exhibited by Colonel Duncan. The whole , } f the collection 
W: >- pr.-s.-nte,l t,, ihe K ( .\ V .MuMMiin »t the close of Hie exhibition; and 
'_■""> ] »x i= — « U amongst others, the following :— Bread Fruit f.l//.,'-/,,,,,. 
'"'■'"'i. Jack Fruit (./. i„tryrij\di„). Papaw [Gn-iva /',/,„„„,). 

l W f e lJ°* at0eS "/""""" Untatos). Custard Apples I I, HiruGiu). 

Box fruits (ffura crepitans). Pois doux (Inya-laurina). Nutmeg 

fragrans). Gru Gru (Acrm-antio s 
',, Achras Sapota, &c. Many of these 
of exceptionally fine growth, and extremely well preserved. 


Dr. H. A. Alford Nicholls, F.L.S., who was a very large exhibitor 
from this island, and who is a valued correspondent of the Royal 
Gardens, the Museum being indebted to him for many previous contri- 
butions, kindly placed the whole of his collection at the disposal of Kew. 
A large number of interesting specimens were thus secured, including 
the following :— Guava bark {Psidium Guaiara). Very fine pods of 
Avm>\« Fanicsui,,,!. Hu<ks from seeds of Liberian Coffee; these are 
said to be worth from 1 to 2 cents per pound in the Unite.i Slates. 
where they are roasted and ground. Angelin bark (Andira inermis). 

! Dominica woods. 

md Montserrat, specimens in 


In this court the Belize Estates and Produce Company w. re large 

exhibitors of vegetable produce, and ihrough the courtesy of the 

ions were made to the Museums, 

Madu Cacao {En/thnna vmhn ■ t). Ironwood ( Laphnua lunnatoxylon) 
India Kubber (Castillou clastica) ; a remarkable twisted specimen ot 
Logwood {Hmnatoxylon campechiannm), and a fine buttressed base of 
a Mahogany trunk (Swietenia Mahagoni). 


The collections from Sierra Leone, Gambia, Gold Coast, and Lago 

m\ a large number were badly prepared or with- 
out names Some very large balls of rubber were obtained from Sierra 
Leone', Gambia, and Gold Coast; also samples of^ Indigo m — 

carpus cyanescens,- Laintlaintarn Seeds 

/.,/,/) the Oil Of Which ^ -XM-.-.l MM. >.-.;. 

,, ^ hair. Seeds of //^ V/ I 
, ie . A yoke for carrying loads made of the 

petiole of 

The exhibits from this recent addition to the British posses ions were 

lU t numerous. Vegetable products were poorly represented. The 

;im()I1 ,>tthe specimens obtained for the Museums:— Black 

Honey prepared from Carob beans (Ceratonitt Siliqua). These beans? 
!,,.!■;■: a large quantity of sweet pulp, and are used in Southern 
Europe for feeding horses, mules, pigs, &c, and even for human food 

r scarcity. (Quantities of flu beam re now imported into 

', and form one of the im-:. .;- >! cattle 

^it.i^p Spp^ m. ; ,i Gum (/'is,. ,i, T,Tctu...>fh,is\ Wood and 
Fruits of Arbutus Andrachne, &c. 

The enormous collection of vegetable products shown in this court 
made the selection for the Kew Museum one of some difficulty, nevertlie 
less a very large series was procured and removed to Kew. The fol- 
ding the nature of the exhibits. 

Among the more impo timber acquired for the 

Museum may be mentioned ;i line dub of Padoilk or Andaman Ifod- 
wood '{Pterin Andaman 

Islands. The wood is fan 1) b rd, of a deep red col 1, vbi h darl 
or becomes brown on exposure to the lii;ht ; it M,-on well, and fake- 
a good polish, for which reasons it is much used for furniture as well as 
for cabinet work, &c. 

Andaman Marble Wood {Diospijr,,-. Kurzii) is produced by an 
evergreen tree, native of the Andaman Islands, as its common name 
indicate-. This wood was an interesting feature in the Indian 
Economic Court on accoe fog of one slab, which 

resembled as nearly as possible what might be effected by the casual 
upsetting of an ink bottle, an appearance not to be found 'In anv othei 

.■ndwoud dealers Tin- Andaman 
and sheaths, of blades, and for furniture. 

A dug-out or canoe forme! from the hollowed out stem of the Tal or 
Palmyra Tree (Borassm flaheWfomu », «■;., secured for and has 
been placed in the .No. 2 Museum. The Hindoos also use the hollowed 
out stems of this palm for wafer pipe-; and *pli| in halt for gutters and 
open wafer channels. 

The highly interesting and instructive model of an Indigo factory 
which. ! a> now he-m placed in a sp< eiai east in Museum No. 3, was an 
object of particular attention during the Exhibition ; it show 
facture of indie through ill tin various processes, from the 
or harvesting of the crop to the finished manufactured product. 

Another model showing the collection of Toddy, from the Indian Date 
Palm {Phoenix sylvestris), and its subsequent conversion into sugar, has 
been placed in the No. 2 Museum. The collector of the toddy is 
. ..... 

cut spathe. J 

A very large collection of fibres was «tmt from ludia to the Exhibi- 
tion, and from these a. typical s.-f was -.footed for Kew. Among the 
more important of them may be mentioned the following :-- 

Jute -{Corchorus capsulars and C. olitorius). The former species 
yields the Jute fibre of Central and East Bengal, while the latter r- fhaf 


cultivated in the vicinity of Calcutta. Jute is au article of large and 
increasing importnt ion to Great Britain, being chiefly used in the 
:ind other fabrics. The people of India use a 
I--"",- '1'iaiitily of f bis tihr. mnialh for igrieultural an internal trail.' 
ieh an immense number of gunny bags leave India 
filled with sugar, wheat, rice, and other grains. 

Sunn Hemp {Crotalaria juncea). This plant is extensively culti- 
vated in India for its fibre, which by careful preparation becomes Mitt. 
fine, and whir. •, iih tlav. The waste is utilised in 

the manufacture of paper. 

Deccani H ; h prickly 

loins, generally r-nltivarcd in India ■. apparently wild cast of the Nor- 
tlicrn Chants. The fibre produced from this plant is considered 
id i nol -o good as the Stnm Hemp. In India it is used 
for nets and r. \ -. ; nd in ih Dacca district, Ih ngal, it is the chief fibre 
used in the manufacture of paper. It is also stated to be s 
met with as an adulterant of jute. 

Bauhinia Vahlii, an 

climbing plants of the Indian forests. 

than those of any other forest plant except the bamboo. The bark is 

made into strong ordag", which is used for suspension bridges, and the 
iihre h,-,s been employed as a matei g. The large 

Hat 'eaves are sewn together, and used as plates, cups, umbrellas, and 
rain-caps. The pods are roasted, and the seeds eaten. 

Coco nut (Cocos nucifera). The valuable coir fibre of commerce ia 
obtained from the fibrous pericarp. A fibre is also prepared from the 

lea! stalks, but compared to the coir it is unimportant. Coir is very 
largely used in the manufacture of mats and matting. The net of 
fibres at the base of the petioles is made into bags and paper, and is 
also used in Ceylon for straining toddy. 

Udal (Shrttitio .illos,,\ moderate sized tree, common in the 

loresls throughout India ;;ud P.nnua. The tree is,.,, highly valued fol- 
ks fibre, that in the more accessible Forest . it maybe said to occur 
chiefly as a bush from its branches being constantly lopped for the iibre 
they contain. The fibre is coarse but strong, and is made into ropes and 
coarse bags, and in Bengal, Burma, and South India, into ropes and 
breastbands Cor dragging timber. 

which is exposed to the sun in shallow wooden trays 

.■come inspissated to s ; ; iiK) grains 

when dried en the steam-table at 200° Fahrenheit yield 
least of soli, 1 matter. The opium at this con-istence is mixed up and 
trampled into a homogeneous mass, which is cut into portions of 
2 lb. 0-914 oz. weight, and moulded into cakes in a hand-press, and 
stamped with the device of an Imperial crown and the words " Bennros 
Opium." The cakes are then wrapped in two folds of Nepal pap. r 
(prepared from bamboo), the inner paper being smeared with a few 
drops of poppy oil to prevent adhesion. This form of opium is consumed 
oir her as a decoction or as prepared into madak or chandu for smoking 

3 selected from the exhibit of J 

Among the Fruits that of* the Apricot (JPrunus Armeuiaca) deserves 
special mention, as there seems no reason why it should not, in a dried 
state, become an article of export to this country. In the North of 
In, In it is » 11I i 1 1 t I in<I is nifiii -imI n Yfglmnibtan, 

Kashmir, and Chumba, in which countries the fruit is largely eaten by 
all classes, either when fresh or dried. From the kernels an oil is 
expressed which is used for burning ry purposes, 

and for the hair. In Damascus the stones are removed from the 
fruits and the pulp rolled out into thin sheets, in which form it is sold 

Another important article of food of the aboriginal tribes is afforded 
in the fleshy flowers or corollas of the Mahwa or Mahua Tree (Bassia 
latifolia), a la; union in the forests of Central India. 

and cultivated and self-sown throughout India generally. It is described 
as the most generally useful tree of the regions where "to occurs. Malm a 
flowers are also used as food for cattle, and are considered to be very 
pose they are now exported to Europe. A good 
spirit is also distilled from them, and they also afford sugar. 

Of a large collection of dyes, tans, &c, specimens of the under- 
mentioned were among the more important selected : — 

Safflower (Carthamm HnctoHus). — An herbaceous plant with larg. 
yellow flower-heads, cultivated as a dye crop all over India. The 
flowers afford both a red and a yellow dye. At one time the cultivation 
of safflower in Bengal was one of the most important industries, Hut 
the introduction of aniline dyes has almost entirely ruined the trade. 
The seed, known as Kurdee, is an important oil seed of India. 

) well known 
. 'hich appear 
Deiore me leaves in the hot season. The dried flowers known as " pulas " 
or " tesu," give a yellow dye which is extracted by simply 
water. The gum from this tree is sold under the name of Bengal Kino, 
and has the same properties as that obtained from Pterocarpus Mursu- 
pimii : it is said to bo used to purify indigo. The tree possesses 
valuable medicinal properties. 

Catechu, Cutch, or Kith (J meat. Ca/cc/ui). A common tree in most 
parts of India and Burma, attaining a height of from 30 to 40 feet. ^ It 
yields a valuable extract similar to G-ambir (Uncaria qamba r) obtain, d 
by boiling down chips of the heartwood ; it is used largely lor dyeing 
and tanning, by calico printers to produce metallic shades, and also 
as an astringent in medicine. The value of the catechu exported 
from India during 1884 was as fol- 

lows :— 1880-81, Rs. 42,66,415; 1881-82, lis. 2-3,30,S40 ; 1882-83. 
lis. ;;o,02,4:;i; 18*3-M. l!s. .••■.-,.32,000; 1884-85,Rs. 28,20,78.3. The 
i. u Ik of these exports consisted of Burma or Pegu cutch, but Bombay and 
the north-west provinces aUo export :l considerable amount, the cutch 
of the latter being more p . - ; a-, it is of a different 

nature: it is of a paler colour than Burma cinch, and i- baked into large 
cubes resembling (i.-iinb'r. Instead of bring boiled do 

Kath r 

deeoeiio,, and the Kath allowed to crystallize. The substance 
btained is afterwards thrown into cubes about \\ inches in size. 

ction oi a much purer 
acid eaten in pan by 
the natives of India. 

From the . :ll be seen that from several of the 

British Colonies represented at the late Colonial and Indian Exhibition 
no specimens were obtained for the Kew Museum. This, in the case 
of South Australia, St. Helena, Ascension, Malta, Hong Kohl;. and 1 1 .«■ 
Falkland Islands, is due to the fact that none of the exhibits were 
required for the Museum. 

With regar New Zealand the collections of woods 

from both Colonies were very perfect, especially those of Queensland. 
Many of them would have been very desirable additions to the Kew 
collections, the specimens already in our possession of woods from the 
former colony being very unsatisfactory representatives of its timber 
resources; but though frequent applications were made to the Exe- 
cutive Commissioners for both Colonic.--, tin- r< -- n 1 1 in each ea-c was 




o. 10.] OCTOBER. [1887. 


(Peronospora Schleideniana, De Bary.) 
The current Bulletin is occupied with the results of an inquiry 
oducted under the auspices of the Royal Gardens, into a disease 
ivaleiit at the Bermudas affecting the onion crop, which is a staple 
lustry of these small Mauds. Owing to climate and geographical 
sition these islands are enabled to raise large quantities of early 

■ corresponding American produce lias as yet scarcely shown itself 
ove ground. The onion crop, amongst others, raised from seed 
tained from TenerihV. has hitherto proved most productive: I nit 


From Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Bermuda to the 
Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Government House, 

Mount Langton, Bermuda, 
Sir, July 1, 1886 

The Legislature of this Colony have voted 
the purpose of securing the services for a short time of an Rg 
chemist, or other qualified person, to inquire and examine into the 
causes of the onion disease which exists in these islands, and to suggest 

It is believed that the cause is a small fly, which attacks the leaf and 

presents in many cmsos the formation of the bulb. 

It is impossible, so far, to'say whether this particular fly is imported 
in the seed fionp Tenerifl seed is imported), or 

u li.tlier it is bred on the spot. The idea which finds favour with the 
Board of Agriculture here, is to send a qualified person to Teneriffe to 
examine and' report on the method of raisin-; seed, and whether there 
I-, or lias hern, any failure of prop from disease or otherwise, and suh-_ 
sequently, for the same person to visit Bermuda during the growth of 
tin- onion crop (which is the staple crop of the island), and continue 
his researches on the spot. 

I shall feel greatly obliged if you can recommend a gentleman to this 
service, and will state what annual -alary he will require, which ol 
course will he in addition to hi- a.-lual travelling expenses. 
Believe me, &c., 

T. L. J. Gallwey, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 

From Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
Sir, August 12, J 88G. 

I have the honour to enclose a copy of a letter which I have 

received fiom ill'- Governor of I Jermuda. respecting the mission of a 
qualified person to that Colony, and to Teneriffe, for the purpose of 
inquiring into the failure of the onion crop in the former island. 

As the culture of this vegetable is one of the principal industries of 
the Colony, I regard the steps taken by the Legislature as judicious. 

After some inquiry 1 have ascertained thai Mr. Arthur E. Shipley, 
Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy in the Univei -ity of Cambridge, 

His official duties at Cambridge require his presence there after 
October. The present appears to be the proper time to investigate tin- 
Mr. Shipley is willing to go at once to that island ; and I am of 
opinion that that i- the best course that can be taken. 
I am, &c, 

W. T. Thiselton Djter. 

From Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Downing Street, 
Sir, 14th August 1866. 

In reply to your letter of the 12th instant I am directed la- 
Mr. Secretary Stanhope to request you to inform Mr. Arthur ShipliA 

ith the onion farmer 
variety of onion fo 
th of September, 

litted to the Governor of Bermuda. 
I am, &c, 

Edward Wingfield. 

:t on the Onion Crop in the 

>ccrelary Stanhope to proceed to 

the 20th August 1886, and pro- 
indcd at Santa Cruz on the _ 28th 

) the south - end of the island; I 
ud having spent a few days there 
light at Orotava on the north side 
I visited Tejina and spent some 
pplies a great part of the seed of 
.ir export. I left Santa Cruz for England on 

gentlemen :— Her Majesty's Consul Mr. Dupuis. Mi. Charles and 
Mr. Hugh Hamilton; Dr. Victor Perez and Mr. George Perez; 
Mr. Ueid, Her Majesty's Vice-Consul a! Orotava : and 1o Herr Wild- 
prel, Curator oi :!.. [Join : , 1 Gardens at Orotava ; and Mr. Mackay, 
United States Consul at Santa Cruz. 

There are two varieties of onion grown in the Canary Islands, the Varietie 
white and the red. These varieties are not permanent, hut pass into onions, 
one another under altered conditions of the soil, &c. The white 

of ToneriiFe, in* the neighbourhood of Santa Cruz. Those grown in 
Teneriffe gradually lose their character, become reddish in colour, and 
after three years cultivation are indistingaisliable from the red variety. 

The onions are a-rown from seed which i- scattered hv hand during Method c 
the month of October. The seedlings are transplanted into new bed's cultivate 
in the month of December. Before pla< i _ i ' ; < i th the end of the 
leaves is cut off for about one or two inches. The young plants are 
planted in rows at mM\.iK of : 1 . >it ci-dit inches. The harvesting of 
the onions commences about the 10th of April and continues through 

When gathered, the onions are left lying on the land for three or four 
days to dry in the sun ; th j ropes, and so prepared 

for sale. Only one crop a year is obtained. 

pumice stone, &c. ; these are very porous, hence the plantations are 
particularly well drained. 

As a rule only farm-yard manure is used, but in rare cases l*et in inn 
iriiiino: itnd ;i -jx-cial kind of manure first prepared t«>i tin < ■ .-I ' n.d 
plantations and known as Cactus guano, is employed with very good 
remits in some parts of the island. 

The young plants require frequent irrigation, the seedling before 
transplanting being well soaked eight or ten times. 

The strain of onions is preserved from deterioration by alternating the 
onion crop with Indian corn, or mor. usualh ^ i 1 . pot toes, <>i 1>\ 
planting the onions in newly cleared ground. Thus the same held 

eplauted sometime during 
November in furrows about one foot wide, and at a distance of about 
\2 ineiies or 11 inches apart from one .'mother. This distance is 
greater than exists between the onions grown for the bulb, which are 
planted too near one another to produce good "heads." Before planting 
the bulbs for seed, the top of each bulb is sliced off: by this means the 
number of heads arising from each bulb is increased; sonn-inn.- i- 
nianv as 10 heads will grow from one bulb. The young heads b.-m 
to appear above ground about 11 days after planting. The beads ripen 
during the end of June and the first half of July, and as each head 
matures it is picked ; the onion grower goes over the field everyday 
and picks out the ripe ones. The heads are then spread on sheets and 
dried in the sun, and the seed is separated by rubbing with the hand. 

About 1 lb. of seed is produced from every 20 onions, but the red 
seed is slightly heavier than the white. [All liie growers were of 
opinion that the seed for planting in the autumn must be gathered in 
the summer ol the same year, and that last year's <, r<\ will not 

The seed for export to the Bermudas is packed in air-tight tins 
which are soldered d< wn. These are shipped towards the end of. Inly. 
via Liverpool and New York. Great pains are taken to ensure (hat the 
seed is new, though as no difference can be defected between now and 
old se, ,|. the mi reliant- are largely dependent on the honesty of the 

t will be noticed that the amount of red seed shippec 

ble the amount of white. 

'he prices are about 'is. per lb. for the white, and Is. Qd. 

,y far the largest amount of seed exported is sent to the 1 
igh a small but steadily increasing amount is supplied tj tl 
es ; and it is worthy of remark that the merchant who 
Mackay, United States Consid at Santa Cruz, has re 

complaint as to any failure of crops from his correspondents in A 
although the crops in Bermuda raised from the same seed are r 
to be very defective. 

earlier than the red and thus commands a rather higher price. 
The onions grown in the Canary Inlands --niler from two 

often .-]M.|..eii ni' in i iu- Maud- iis the Onion (Valium, in some parts it is 
usual to dust the leave- with Mower- i»t suljilmr. and generally the same 
means are taken 10 arrest it- progress as prove eilieaeious with f 1 it 

the plant is gathered. 

This disease occurs chiefly in damp places, e 
soils, but if the ground is carefully c' 

such patches corn -pond ■. will th dampest parts of the field. 

tin' symptoms point to the conclusion ti t it is i II a fungus. 
Another form of evil which injures the onion i 

plant- a day or two after they have been transplanted in December. 
The leaves beg i to fad and fall back in themselves, becoming a Ml :• 
same time whitish in col to grow. Since thi- 


m. pullii i i p ill. l\A d pi; ut ■ ! n 1 i ;■!■ eii .; tin in 1 y h althy ones. 

This fading is probably to 1 a i hie weather 

at the time of 1 idling to strike 

There appears to be no trace in the Canary 1-lan.UuL any i:.-<u 
injury to the onion crop, such as is common in the English onion fields 
1 interviewed many of the large . i parts of the 

Island, and they were all unanimous ii l. ! n _ tl il < uich insect a- 
the onion-fly or indeed any kind of insect ever attacked their crops. 

be detected in the seeds. 

The onions have in noway deteriorated in .pialitv during the lasl 
few years: ■: . !,, v ,-ei\ hut this is due to the fact 

that increas vrorld has lessened the 

I the plants. 

are successful, seem to prove that the seed itself is good. It cannot be 
gathered from plants attacked wilh the M-eaivha or Qucsillo, as their 
grow tli is arre-ted, and they do not produce heads. It might, however, 
he advisable to recommend renewed precautions to ensure that none of 

cially if it is not thoroughly dry. may perhaps prove a source of danger. 

Kepokt by Mn. Aitrmi; Shipley on the Onion Disease in the 
At the request of Mr. Secretary stanhope, I visited the Bcrmu 
1 di < i.-i pi.\ i i,i morgth , nun ( ops du ng the preceding seasoi 

I left England about the middle of January, and reached Bermnds 
the last day of the same month, and I remained in the Colony until tht 
latter end of April 

The season of I he year during which [was in Bermuda permiltei 
me to see the whole, iiTowth and method of culture of the onion, from 

packed for exportation. 

Whilst in Bermuda ! lived at Hamilton, and established (here a smal 
'- 1 ' iat,t\ t..i ih, ,no .-j, i , p.! in\,-li'..i1ion of the diseased plants, 

they 1 

During my sojourn in the Bermudas, I received every possible alien- 
lion and help from 1 he officials of the Colony, and also from the farmers, 
who afforded me every facility for carrying out my investigations, and I 
bike this ,.; ; _ iny thanks 'for the assistance I 

received from everyone whilst carrying on my investigations. 

On my way back to England ! . nrbilsl in the 

Cited State of \ i-itiic J', ol , ^or Fulov,-. of Hazard Cimcrdty, 
Cambridge, Mass., the eminent authority upon plant diseases, and 
consulting with him upon the best reim '. ; - to adopt for the disease. 

■ ■ 
disease with son jural Board. 

It was not until I returned !o Knglami that [ could procure the book- 
neeessary for the completion of my :■ •' :'d\aMa:_'< 

Engineering College, a well-known authority upon fungoid diseases. 

longst the onion plantations during the I 
?ss than during the preceding year. This * 
spheric conditions being unfavourable to 

•nt of the fungus causing the disease. 

ion Mildew. 

All growth of the bulb is arrested as soon as the fungus has taken a 
good hold on the onion plant. This is due to the fact that the nutrition 
and other functions of the plant are interfered with by the presence of 
the fungus living |>;iniMiie;illy upon the onion leaves. The fungus does 
not itself attack the bulb, and the bulb does not rot, so thai it the 
plants are attacked when fully grown or almost so, the crop is not 

On its first , ■ has a stimulating effect upon the 

growth of the onion plant. This is shown by the shooting up of a 
long neck between the top of the bulb and the base of the leaves ; or, 
in other words, instead of the leaves separating from one another at the 
top of the bulb, a long stalk is formed between the bulb and the ba<e of 
the l,-ii\«.s, Kig. 1. The pressure of this stalk is a sure sign of the 
existence of the disease, and it affords a ready means of recognising 
affected plants in a large patch of onions. 

The conditions of the atmosphere which are favourable to the 
development and growth of the fungus, and hence to the progress of the 
disease, are heavy dews or rains followed by warm, moist, calm weather, 
and the absence of direct sunlight and strong winds. Shady and 
sheltered spots are usually the most liable to be attacked. 

The land along the south side of Bermuda usually keeps free from 
the disease, and this freedom from attack is attributed by the planters 
to the fact that there the onion plants are exposed to the early morning 
sun and to the prevalent northerly winds, which rapidly cause the dew 
to evaporate. 

The progress of the disease is sometimes arrested, after ii has 
appeared in a field, by cold windy weather and strong sunshine, but lids 
is rarely the case; as a rule, when it has once appeared it spreads with 
great rapidity, large fields becoming affected in the course of a single 

it will be 

When a thin slice of an onion leaf is examined through a microscope, 
it i.- -ecu that the tissue of the leaf is built up of a number of small colls, 
each with a definite wall. Inside this wall is the living matter of the 
plant, and in the cells near the surface the green substance- termed 
chlorophyll, which gives the plant its characteristic colour. These cells 
are shown at cc., Fig. 3. 

The cells are bounded on the outside by a special layer of cells, which 
form an outer skin for the leaf. These cells, shown at ep., Fig. 3., 
differ somewhat in appearance from those within. The layer which they 
compose is termed the epidermis. 

On a somewhat closer observation of the slice of onion leaf, it will be 
notice,! that the cells ha\ e not their sides in contact at all points, but 
that spaces occur here and there between the neighbouring cells. Such 
»r spaces are shown at ip., Fig. 3. fn other words, the 
cells are not packed closely together as bricks in a wall, but considerable 
space exist between them, as between bricks when piled up roughly in a 

these circulate through the tissues of the leaf, sto., Fig. 3. 

It is of the utmost importance for tin' health of tin- plant that these 
air-passages should be kept open, so that tin- air can have ready access 
to the cells of the leaf. 

The numb, i iiieh ihe air passes is very great, 

as many as 70,000 exist upon one square inch of onion leaf. 

return to the fungus which lives upon it, and then the importance of 1 ' 
this preliminary description will become evident. 

Fig. 2. represents tho surface of a small piece of the leaf of a diseased ^ 
onion plant examined under a microscope. The outlines of the cells 
forming the epidermis are shown at ep. ; sto. represents one of the 
stomata. througli which, in tin- healthy plant the air has access to the 

spaces between the cells composing the tissue of the leaf. At sto. it 
will be seen that the opening of the stoma is checked by a tubedike 
stem (st.), which protrudes from the leaf. 

At its outer end this tube splits into many branches, and a l the end 
of some of the branches is a little oval body, which hangs from ii like 
a drop of water. These little bodies are the Spores, and they ad as 
seeds. It is by their means that the fungus is able to reproduce it -elf. 
Some of the spores have fallen off from the ends of the branches, ami 
are lying on the leaf (si\). 

This branching stem with its spores is the mature fungus Prm„osj>nru 
Schleidcniana, and is the collection of these which causes the powdery 
appearance on the diseased onion leaf. 

There is a slight but distinct violet colour seen both in the fungus and 

If a thin slice or section of the diseased onion leaf, which passes 
directly through one of the stomata, be examined, it will 1m possible to 
follow'the stem of tlie fundus through the epidermis into the tissue of 
the leaf and see what comes of it. 

Such a section is represented at Fig. 3 ; sto. is the stoma, through 
which emerge in this case two stems. These branch at their outer 
ends, and some of the branches still bear spores ; others, however, have 
lost them. The lower end of each stem can be traced through the 
Stoma into the leaf, and theie ;t will be seen to split into two tubular 
root-like processes (re. ), u Inch in their turn branch again, and thus, 
by continually dividing, a meshwork of tubular roots is formed which 
passes in even : ween the cells. 

The injury which the fungus tlocs to the onion plant is chiefly due n 
this network of roots, an.l it is of two kinds. Firstly, by blocking : nj> 
the stomata and the passages between the cells it prevents the cireula 
tion of air through the tissues, and thus, in a measure, choke- the 
plant. Secondly, the fungus lives upon the substance- of the plant, 
absorbing, by mean- oi its meshwork of tubular roots, the nutritive 
matter formed in the cells of the leaf. 

The very intimate relation which exist- between the fungus and the 
tissue of the loaf is most noteworthy. The tubular 
"y arran 
i of which the cells 

As this network of roots grows and spreads through the tissue, sdme 

of its tubular branches force their wtiy into tlic neighbourhood of a 
stoma, and pass out through it into the air, Fig. 4. st. The young 
stem thus formed now commences to fork or brunch, as is indicated in 
Fig. •">, ST. The branches again « -mall portions 

of their tips are constricted oil' and form the spores before mentioned, 
II has been stated that the number of stomata upon the Onion leaf is 
roughly about TUSOu to the square inch. If the onion is badly diseased 
one of the branching stems of the ftu iCting into the 

air through about one stoma in every ten. In some cases two (Fig. 3) 
and even three (Fig. 4) stems may emerge from one stoma, so that on 
a square inch of a diseased onion leaf we may fairly estimate the 
number' of stem- of tin iungus as almost oue-tenth of the number of 
stomata, that is 7,000. If we take 20 as the average number of spores 
upon one stem, and that is rath- v rage, we find 

that a single -qmin inch of; diseas d onion 1 af may have the enormous 
number of (20 :. ;,0()()) 1 10,000 spores, each capable of reproducing the 
fungus, and hence the disease, 
oprodmtion. There are two methods by which the onion fungus reproduces itself: 
.Asexual. a , the asexual ; h, the sexual. Tin : oduetion is 

effected by means of the above-mentioned spores. Each spore is an 

Tie- <p.,n 

and the disease spread over a field, 

on an onion leaf it will, providing 

resent, begin to germinate. These 
■ssary to the germ i nation of the spore, 
•mth, and, secondly, a certain degree 
nfortunately, are seldom wanting in 

Willi resp, ct to the <■■ ; mim lion of these spores and the consequent 
.-piead ot' the disease, two or three points are worthy oi comment. 
Firstly, the spores will only germinate when a certain amount of 
[fern when th sui - -hin I rightly or the 
wind is bl i\ ing • ud < vapoi tion i~ pn moted, the moisture disappears, 
''"" -;"»' - a lime the progress of the disease is 

' ' " ' 1 « > * ! hiring calm, warm, humid weather, the 

disease, because many of the spores will be washed off by the rai 
to the earth where the\ cannot germinate. 

Secondly, the poAver of germination of the spores is not ret, 
indefinitely. After a certain time the spores die if they have not f 
the conditions favourable to their development. The length of 
during which : y r&ries according to the cii 

stances ; if dried up, they would die in ;, d;iy or two, but if the we 
were moist they would probably retain their germinating powers 
weeks. But as far as is ey do not retain 

vitality beyond the summer in which they are matured. They \ 

iot Inst over from one seas 

on to another. 

Thirdly, in connexion w 

ith remedial measures, it should be not 

hat the spores when ripe 

and whilst germinating are outside the 

,nd have not entered into 

thai intimate connexion with the lis-m 

oaf of the oni- 

ch is characteristic of the mature fungus. 

It has been stated above that the spores of the fungus do not retain I 
their vitality from one season to another, and it is obvious that the 
is limited by that of the onion upon 
which it lives. Hence there must be some means by which the fungus 
is enabled to last over the autumn and winter until he young onions 
of the new crop are ready to afford it a new home. This is effected by 
means of special evils Mailed Itcifnit/sjinri-.*, which are formed in llu 
following way. 

Certain of the tubular root-like p the meshwork 

inside the tissue of the leaf swell up at their ends. Thus a knob is 
formed full of living matter, and Shi- is cut off from the contents of ihi 

similar but smaller one is formed 
lmuch the same way. When these are both ripe a small canal i- 
i; n Led whid connects the h < knobs, and the contents of the smaller 
one passes through into tin 1 lg r, at 1 tin fuses with the contents 
of the latter (Fig. 8). After this is accomplished the larger knot, 
surrounds it-elf with a very thick wall or coat, and is now termed a 
resting-spore (Fig. 9). 

A very large number of these resting-spores are formed, so that in 

-/.cat number of these, each surrounded hy a thick coal, are formed. 

The function of ihc-e resting-spores is a wry important one: it is hy 
their means thai the lungu-s is kept alive from one season to another. 
'Their vitality is very great : not only do they retain their power of 
; .. i ■ uin I great lcnii h ol liin . pn h hh i i two oi tin i years, 

bill they arc capahle ot withst; i ! nions in the 

degree of temperature and moisture. This is largely owing to the 
thick wall which encases them. 

When a field of onion- has |, lV n de-troycd 
withered leaves arc crammed with resting-spores. The leaves fall to 
thousands of these little bodies, any one 
capable of reproducing the fungus, and hence the disease. 
They remain in the dried up leaves, or if the leaves are e 

! a new crop of onions grows up, tin 
them a suitable homo. Then with the lir-t moist warm day they h-iii 
to germinate, and soon the new crop of onions falls a vidua to the 
oduced from resting-spores which were ihemsclves produced 
from the fungus of the preceding crop. 

Schlcidcniaaa first reached Ben 

Canary Islands, and which is known there as La Ceniza or La Escarc 
so that, it is possible that it may have been imported thence with 1 

oroughl over From the is 

any traces of the spores < 

seed, both in the Botanical Gardens of Kcw and ('ambr 

perfectly free from the disease, ft is also to be observe 

European countries as well a- in some parts of the United States — 
would render it difficult to obtain seen uula market 

which would be entirely above suspicion. 

The thick black eoai which covers the seed is too dense and hard to 
be penetrated by the fundus, so that the seed cannot be direi ; 
by the fungus nor its germinating power affected. Although, in my 
opinion, the danger of infection by the seed is but very slight. J have in 
the section upon remedial imn.-ir- which any 

spores existing in the -eed might b. : oing the seed 

There seems to be some connexion between the extensive use of 
artificial manures and the origin and spread of- fungoid diseases. The 
I large crops destroyed by fungus which 
g the onion disease. The potato was 
years ago, and for about 250 years it 
flourished without, as t . r as is known, any disease appearing among the 
cultivated varieties. But about 50 years ago, the Potato Fungus, 
Peronospora i»t\ stuns (Phytophthora infestans, De Bary) made its 
appearance, and has never since disappeared. Its appearance was 
i euuh I v coincident with the first general use of artificial manures. A 
similar connexion might be shown to exist between the origin and 
spread of the onion disease fungus, which did not make its appearance 
tiil eight or 10 years ago, and the recent extensive use <.i 

may be better able to withstand the attack of the tungm 
it makes its appearance ? 
. What means may be adopted to prevent the appearance 
disease another year, or how can the disease he si 

At present no one strain of onions is known to withstand the attack 
I lie fungus better than another. Any experiments carried on with a 
vof testing the relative power «.f resisting the disease among the 

require observations 

over some years. As far as is known at present the red 

""ions suffer rather less than the white, bin our knowledge 

on this subject is too meagre to justify any recommendations as % 

the seed. 

The diseased onions do not produce flower head- ; there is, therefore, 

no fear that the seed is being weakened by being gathered from diseased 

germination or the spores, that whenever it is possible onions should 
sown where they will obtain the morning sun and a fresh bree 
They should never be placed at the bottom of a hollow, nor in a 
position which is too sheltered either from the sun or wind. That t 

by the fact that the disease is practically unknown on the southern si 


ground. Hence the plant at this period is peculiarly susceptible to the 
disease. In most parts of the United States and in some countries of 
Europe the seeds are sown generally by means of a drill, at <\u-h a 
distance apart as is deemed necessary for the bulb to fill, and the onion 
is nevei- transplanted. l>v this means a period of weakness is avoided. 
during which the plant would be ill-prepared to resist the di-.a-e -Ih.iiM 

ft is important to emphasise the fact that manures must not be 1 
looked upon as a means of curing the disease, but simply as a means of 

ible 1o artificial. () 

id an excellent manure fo: 

preferable to artificial. Of these that from t 

i supply. In 

i worth drawing the attention of formers to the eompresse. 
3 load of ashes to 10 oi 


Guano is a very good manure when used in conjunction with other?, 

but it should not be relied upon to the exclusion of natural immures. 

Owing to its very variable eompo.-ii ion it -hoidd always be purchased on 

i rime to time to see that 

what is supplied is up to the standard. 

It is needless to insist upon the necessity of keeping the ground 
clean and free from all weed-, which should, when gathered together, 

ii. When the onion disease has attacked tin- crops our attention i- 
dii-ectc.l to Two problems : Firstly, how to cure the crop ; and, secondly, 
how to prevent the disease spreading, [have postponed considering 
what means maybe ndoptod with a view of curing the diseased plants 
until the third part of this section, and at present I propose to consider 
what mean- may he adopted with a view of preventing the spread of 
the disease both' as regards space and time. How can the disease ho 
prevented from passing from one field to the neighbouring fields, or 

The means by which the fungus spreads from one centre in a field all 
over it and thence into - are, as we have seen 

above, the small spore- which, are abstricted from the ends of the 
hranehe- of the fungus. 

Owing to their very nnnute size and their lightness they float ensih 

in the air, and are borne in countless numbers toward- wiiiehe\ei 

direction the wind -ets. Other ag< nts by which they are dispersed are 

in-ect-. birds, and even snails and slugs; in short, the spores may fall 

■i ntation. 

'1'he spore- exist in ss weather is 

favourable, that is, warm and moist, the disease spreads with such 
rapidity that it is impossible to cope with it. But, on the other hand, 
if after the fust appearance of th" fungus the weather should change 
and become eo il ly be. confined to a small 

area of the affected field, and in this ca-( en*' rt's ma;. 1 . made to aru-l 
the progress of the disea-e >i success. 

All affected plants must be carefully collected and burnt. Since the 
presence of the fungus on an onion arrests the growth of ■.'' 
little is |n-t hy en Heeling die di.-eased parts, that i -, the leaves. The 
lailh, if it i- already formed, may still be used. 

Great care should he exercised in collecting the diseased plants, so as 
to avoid as much as possible knocking off the spores, and the plant 
should he i . ach as a tin 

box. If carried off loosely or in a basket 1 he-re i- much danger of the 
collector ,-preading the disease. 

rts collected 
the fungus 

at once; and it nts, a i a later stage produces immense numbers oi 
resting-spores, which are capable of living in the earth until the next 
season, and then germinating on the new crop and so carrying on the 
'; one season to another. So that by burning the affected 
ish the chance 
of its spreading. 

When it is impossible to burn the refuse it should be mixed with 
'pnVkhmo and buried at a considerable depth, but whenever it is 
possible, burning is safer. 

The same : 
If a field of o 


refuse of the plants must be burned. On no account must the refuse lu- 
ting into the ground; this is simply sowing tho seed lor a new' crop of 
fungus, which will be waiting for the next lot of onions planted on the 

If, whenever the disease makes its appearance, the affected parts of 

disease may be stamped out of the Islands. But this is only likely to 
be the case if the destruction of the refuse is universally pracli>ed. It 
is little use for one farmer to burn the diseased plants if his neighbour 
does not. And it must always be borne in mind that a small patch 
of diseased onions, only a few square yards in area, will produce 

nough spores to infect c 
It has 

that the onion disease is perpetuated from 
season to another by means oi resting snore-; which lie in the groi 
during the summer and autumn, and which germinate when the 1 
crop of onions begins to appear. In northern climates it is probi 
that many of the resting-spores are killed by the frost; unfortuna 
we cannot reckon upon the assistance of this agent in Bermuda. 

But the I'aci thai resting spores are in the ground suggests 
advisability of rotatin " 
cultivated suffer from 
as a rule interchangeable. For instance, the 

tomatoes. Hence, if potatoes or tomatoes be planted in a Held, t lie oa'rt h 
of which is full of the resting spores of the onion fungus, the latter will 
not germinate and ultimately die. 

There have been no direct experiments to determine iiow long the 
r power of germination, 
but probably not for more than two or three yeare. Hence, if a piece 
of land has been severely v - ted by th in- - . • ^ on! 1 be advisable 
to plant it with a different crop for a year or two. This would all'ord 
-ome chance of the resting-spores dying out. 

The rotation of crops, principally with potatoes, is Universally 
practised by the onion farmers ol Mad ia the 

i rope, not so much because of the disease, but as 
a means of preventing the exhaustion of the soil. Hence, apart from 
the chance of diminishing the amount of the disease, it would be 
advantageous to adopt this method of culture. 

In cases where it is impossible to rotate the crops, and whore onions I 
must be plan: infed-d last year, deep trenching i 

may be recommended. By this means the resting-spores would be 
buried at such a depth that they would fail to reach the surface and 
come in contact with the new onion crop. 

Planting early in the autumn has been lound 10 answer well in 1 
England as a disease. When this is done the 

onions are fully grown before the weather is warm and moist enough 
for the fungus to make it- ippoaranee. Owinc to tin diitereiio ii 

the same result would follow in the latter place, but the experiment 

If there is any reason to suspect that the farmyard manure is a 
means of infection, through some refuse of a dis -a-ed onion crop being 
mixed with it, or from any other cause, it would be advisable to water 
the manure with a weak solution of iron sulphate (F.SO,) before 
putting it on the land. One-tenth of a gramme in 100 grammes of 


water, or a solution of one-tenth per cent, is 

the spores of the fungus. Again, if the seed i 

infection, they may be soaked in a solution of tne same strengin. xms 

will effectually kill all the spores of the fungus, and leave the seed 

iii. In looking for some curative means by which it may be possible 
to rid the onion crop of the disease, the value of the knowledge of the 
life-history of the fungus causing the disease becomes apparent. For 
the question now arises, at what stage in the life-history of the fungus 
should we apply such chemical remedies as we may have at our 

We have seen that the fungus in its mature condition i- •: 

processes of the fungus form a network which everywhere penetrates tin 
tissue, and the greater part of the fungus spends the whole of its life 
inside the leaf. It is obviously not advisable to attempt to kill the 
fungus at this stage, since any eheinieals which would act upon the 
fungus would be almost sure to injure the leaf of the onion plant. 

On the other hand, when the spores are germinating on »he leaf they 
are outside the tissue, and have not entered into any close relation with 
the plant. Furthermore, the first outgrowths from the spores are very 
delicate and more easily acted upon by chemicals than the older parts of 
llie fungus, so that when a patch of onions shows signs of the presence 
of the disease the remedies should be at once applied, not so much with 
the hope of destroying the mature fungus already there, but with a view 
"f .!. Btroj ing th apoi 

thus arresting the progress of the disease both in the affected plants and 
also from them to others. 

The first of the chemical remedies which may lie applied to the 
diseased plants with considerable prospect of success is a mixture of 
freshly burnt quicklime and sulphur. 

There can be no difficulty in obtaining plenty of quicklime in 
IJermuda, and for this purpose it must always be used when freshly 
burnt as quicklime loses its cans:: goes chemical 

change when kept any length of time. After burning it should be 
crushed to a powder and mixed with powdered sulphur in the proportion 
of two parts of quicklime to one part of sulphur. 

This mixture may be sprinkled on the diseased plants by hand or 
more effectively ly menus of bellows, such as the Kentish hop-growers 
use for sulphuring the hops. 

The mixture should be applied before the dew is off the plants or 
after rain whilst the plant is still wet. 

The chemical interaction which is prodma d by the mixture of sulphur 
ami freshly-burnt quicklime leads to the formation of sulphurous acid 
and other allied gases. The gases are evolved slowly, and being readily 
diffusible they soon spread over the plant, and being easily soluble in 
water they dissolve in any moisture in the leaves, &c. The solution 
thus formed is strong enough to kill the germinating spores without 
injuring the plant, and it does not become concentrated to a dangerous 
degree. The final prod i a o the plant or soil, and 

t of sulphur 

valuable manure, especially 

A second chemical remedy which may bo used for the ■ : 
is iron sulphate (F,S0 4 ), and this has the advantage of being 
nadily s (; l u i,le in water, and hence can be applied in the liquid form. 
When in a weak solution the iron sulphate: will kill the fungus 


without killing the onion plant. The solution should contain o 
tenth part F 2 S0 4 to 100 parts of water. It may even be made 
strong as three- twentieths per cent, without injury to the plant, 1 
anything stronger than this is like to prove injurious, 
""he cuseast acred w" " 

thoroughly. The ground in the vicinity of the affected plants may a!-n 
be watered with advantage with this I * " 
which have fallen off will be destroyed. 

cted plants r 

th advantage with this solution ; in this way any spores 

i antiseptic properties iron sulphate forms a very 
d i i ho Journal of the Chemical 
Society, lSjsfj. Mr. (irilii uy experiments which all 

tend to show the value of this chemical as a manure. I will content 
myself with quoting from his paper the results of one experiment 
Mr. Griffith! 

sowed three plots of gr<> ml the >ame size with potatoes, 
of ground was not manured " 
of potatoes. The second plot, which \ 

The first plot of ground was not manured : from this he gathered three 
nured, gave six and 
half tons; whilst i: '.mured in the same 

way as the second, but with the addition of iron sulphate, lie obtained 
eight and a half tons of potatoes. This is only one experiment out of 
many which all tend to show the value of iron sulphate as a manure. 

The iron bu] "■ r the plants 

have been transplanted. About ha' uld be used to 

the acre : more than this is apt to prove harmful. 

It has been found that wheat crops grown in fields manured with iron 

nlph K h I - 'Hi i \ij ] -1 \vl • mildew, ind it ; - vet) probahh 

that if the land be treated in the manner indicated, potato and onion 

rops would also escape the fungus 

further advantage of being very easily obtain- 

aide at a very moderate cost. 

Sect. V. — Macrosporium PARAsmcuM. 

There is a second fungus found living upon the onion plant. This is 
known as Macrosporium parasiticum, and it is one of the Pleosporous 

This' fungus is only found upon the onion after it has been attacked 
by the /'tronospora, when the leaves are already dead or dying. It does 
no! attack the healthy plant. 

Macrosporium belongs to that ela- ..f fung; which are known as 
Saprophytes ; these are < - upon dead or decaying 

organic matter. They are unable to effect a foothold upon the healthy 
plant. Hence if the Pcronospora can be exterminated, the Macrosporium 
will disappear at the same time. 

The fact that the Macrosporium is, so to speak, a sequel to the 

and incompletely known life history of the fungus. But a short 
account „f its naked-eve appearance may be given. 

After the plant has already b. . w, k. ed .; tli / '• rouospora, the 
Macrosporium - patches of a deep black colour 

and velvety appearance. These grad; belts an inch 

or more wide round the leaf. Tin- is followed 

by a fluffy white growth, which <tand- out from the leaf for the distance 

of one-tenth inch. Whilst the Macrosporkim is growing the leaf con- 
tinue- to rot ; it docs not dry up as it does when only attacked by the 
l>er<niosp<,,-a. but the plant if tains a good deal of moisture, and when 
thoroughly rotten gives rise to n mo-t oliWi-ive smell. The bulb is also 

The dense black oh ,i .,! tliis fungus is so much more <■• 
than the whitish powder of the Peronospora that it is someti: 
to attack onion crops which have not suffered from the Peronospora. 
Closer observation, however, shows that it invariably follows the 

It is the / V harm to the onion crops, 

and the Macrosporium is only a sequel to it. Hence all remedial 
measures must be directed against the former, for with its extermination 
the Macrosporium will disappear. 

Sect. VI. — Insects. 

There is a very minute insect, a species of Thrips, which occurs 
occasionally, though not. in any great numbers, at the top of the bulb 
in the angles between the leaves of the full-grown onion plant. It 
(..•curs in the onion- usually in the larval condition, as a yellowish white 
grub with three pair-; of l< u'~, but no wiiili'.-. During ll stage it lives 
upon the substance of the onion leaf. The adult; insect has a much 
darker, brown and black appearance, and is provided with two pairs 
of wings. In this stage it is very much h>s common in the leaf than 
in the larval condition. 

This insect was found in comparatively few farms, and then in 
very limited numbers. It does not burrow through the leaf, and 
appears to cause very little damage to the onion plant. Should, 
however, the numbers increase largely, or should il appear upon the 
young seedlings, it might be the cause of serious loss. 

A simple way of getting rid of it is to water or spray the affected 
plants with a solution of iron sulphate, such as was recommended in 
Sect. IV. iii. This wouh , e effective in the case 

of ihe onion, because some of the soh < ,• angles ol 

the fe«ves where the insect most commonly occurs. 

Tho onion fly, Anthomyia ceparum, whose maggots do much harm by 
eating through the bulb <>t the onion, occurs so rarely in Bermuda, that 
ii hanlly calls for remark in this report. I only met with a single 
instance of it .luring my stay in the Colony. 

In case, however, that it should at any future time prove troublesome, 
it is worth mentioning here that Miss Onuernd lias successfully dealt 
with this insect by covering th< bulbs with a thin layer of earth, so that 
they no longer stand out of the ground. This in no way injures the 
plant, and prevents the fly getting at the bulb to lay its eggs. 

1. The onion d 
which lives parasitically upon the leaf c 

2. The atmospheric conditions which favour the progress of the disease 

me heavy dews or rains followed by warm, moist, calm weather, and the 
abs.mee of direct sunshine and cold winds. In favourable weather the 
progress of the disease is very rapid. 

3. The fungus lives in the tissues of the leaf, choking up the air 

I absorbing t.h, nutritive fluid formed in the cells. Its 

stem protudes through the storaata of the leaf into the air. 1 1 
bear spores at their tips. 

4. The reproduction of the fungus is effected by means of these spores 
which float about through the air, and also by means of certain special 

. ■ I by the fungus and known as resting-spores. These pass 
'lie winter in the earth, and are capable of retaining the power of ger- 
mination for two or three years. It is by their means thai tl 
is carried on from one season to another. 

5. One method of combating the disease is to make the onion plants 
jh strong as possible, so as to withstand the attacks of the parasite. 
Hence the sit repaired, good 
manures used, and the land kept clean and free from weeds. 

6. To prevent the spreading of the (lipase all aifected plants must be 
collected and burned. Whilst doing this care must be taken that the 
collector does not himself »1 ih. di-ea-e l»y e>ir\ing the refuse 
loosely. Rotation of crops, or, when this is impossible, 'deep trenching, 
would lessen the chance of the disease appearing. 

7. Diseased plants may be treated with a mixture of powdered 
-ul|»lii!r sue sprinkled by hand or by bellows ; 
or they may be washed or sprayed with a weak solution of iron sulphate 
(iyven vitriol). In both eases the fungus is destroyed without injury 
to the onion plant, Further, both these chemical rente lies have the 
additional advantage of being excellent manures. 

weakened if. As this only occurs as a sequel to the Pcrouo*pt>r<i. the 
extermination of the latter would involve the disappearance of the 
former. The Macro.y>orin»t does not attack the healthy plant. 

9. Only two kinds of insects, the onion thrips and the onion fly were 
met with, and the latter on only one occasion. The thrips were no! 
numerous and appeared to do little harm. They can easily lie removed 
by application of a solution of iron sulphate, such as is recommended 
in Section IV. iii. 

Should the onion fly ever prove a serious pest it may be dealt with 
by covering the bulb of the onion with a thin layer of earth. This 
prevents the fly approaching the bulb to lay its eggs. 

(Signed) Akthub E. Shipley. 

Christ's College, 

August 3, 1887. 


Fig. 1. — An onion plant which has suffered severely from the disease, 
showing the withered bent-down leaves and the long stalk. 

Fig. 2.— Surface view of the epidermis of an onion leaf with a 
fungus stem protruding through a stoma. Magnified about 200 
diameters, ep., epidermal cells ; sp., spores ; ST., stem of fungus 
(P. Schleideniana) ; sto., stomata. 

Fig. 3.— Section through an onion leaf, showing cells of the leaf and 
the air spaces between them in which the root-like processes of the 
fungus grow. The section passes through a stoma, and shows two 
stems of the fungus passing into the air and bearing spores ( x 200) ; 
cc, chlorophyll cells, which give the leaf its green colour ; DC, deeper 
cells not containing chlorophyll ; ep., epidermal cells ; IP., air passages 
between the cells ; sp., spores ; ST., stem of the fungus ; sto., stomata ; 
tp., tubular processes ramifying in the air passages. 


g. 4.— Surface view of epidermis of onion leaf showing a young 
protruding through a stoma, ef., epidermal cells; st., stem; 

slighter older stem hcgiiiuinir '<> branch; letters as i 

Fig. 6. — A spore beginning to germinate ; T., tubular outgrowth. 

Fig. 7. — A spore germi .,;< wtli fiit«i iny i lit- leal' 

through the stoma; sp., spore ; T., tubular nutyrowth ; sxo., stoma. 

Fig. 8. — The formation of the resting-spores ; an., small knob 
(Anthcridium) ; oc, large knob ( Oognium). 

Fig. 9. — The restinir-.-pori 

IWnnoy.oni »/</< ■/,/,>,/ /,//„/, De Bnry. Plate 

t /// iiiuhts Reserved.'] 




No. 11.] NOVEMBER. [188 


luanfit ! [Villi - nl.l' In ■ i-,,Vh • ,,! , xnorf'.-i'l tV-uii < ,,„ .' i ,' i 

Natal, the Australian O.Ioni,^, ami Xrw Zealand. 


be sufficiently high to cover the cost of bringing it from the Southern 

Hemisphere" Consequent upon the interest taken in fruit shown from 
all parts of the Empire at the late Colonial and Indian Exhibition, an 
,:'•;„! ha- been in.-i.l.- l.v tin- establishment to collect information as 
i-gards the capabilities of each Colony to grow and export fruit, and 
this information it is proposed to publish in this and subsequent numbers 
of the Kew Bulletin. As introductory to the information now given, 
those interested in the subject may usefully refer to the article " Fruit " 
in the '• Reports of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 188G " [London : 
Clowes and Son-!, and to a paper on "Fruit as a Factor in Colonial 
Commerce" published in tin- "Proceedings" of the Royal Colonial 
Institute, Vol. XVIIT., 1886-87, pp. 123-150 [London: Sampson 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 

I have the honour to report, fen Secretary 

of State for the Colonies, that considerable interest has been awaken. ,1 
in regard to tropical and other fruits by the display of fruits in the 
several courts ai the ( ' i •:< the sale of iniii in the Colonial market attached to this Exhibition. 

2. The fact that excellent fruits, such as oranges, lemons, pears, 
apples &c, can be obtained in a fresh state from the Southern Hemi- 
sphere (Natal, Australia, &c.) at a time when fruits of this kind are 
not obtainable in the Northern Hemis; he idea that, 
the resources of our Colon ! respect are capable of 
considerable expansion, and the subject one well worthy of being 
thoroughly investigated. 

3. The abundant character and the high qualities of the tropical 
fruits of the West Indies are well known, but it was only the other day 
(on the occasion of a lecture which I gave at the Colonial and Indian 
Inhibition) that many people realised that these fruits can be brought 
to England in a fresh state and are capable of contributing largely to 
the food supply of the inhabitants of these islands. 

•1. The fruit trade in the West India Islands is now of the estimated 
annual value of 7">0,<>0()/. ; but if suitable markets were forthcoming, 
and knowledge enlarged on the subject, there is no reason why this 
trade should not assume such proportions as would go a good way 
towards relieving the depression under which these islands are at present 

5. As regards the actual capabilities in this direction of other portions 
of the Empire, and especially of the < ape and Australian Colonies, 
little is accurately known at home; and hence I would venture to 
suggest that inquiry be made, and a summary of information published 

lion to the subject. 

6. I enclose herewith a number of questions which I have submitted 
to Mr. Thiselton Dyer, and I am directed by him to convey his 
approval of them, and to suggest that a copy of these question- be 
forwarded to each of the Colonial Governments with the request that 
the information desired be supplied as fully as possible, together with 

Information desired respects : (<>i,o\-i\ 

1. Please givo m list (giving both local and scien 
chid' fruits grown in the Colony in order of importanc 

2. During what months are the chief lVuils o 

■acli (approximately) : 

'iiv ihr wholesale prices locally ? 

3. What fruit;-- are at present exportcil (1) in a fresh, or (2) in a 

e timited \alue of each sort. 

4. Are all or any of the fruits mentioned above capable of being 
produced in much larger quantities than at present ? If so, what steps 
are necessary to start or develop a fruit trade ; and what inducement-. 
if any, do local men especially de-sire to open or extend a trade in 
fresh or preserved fruits, either with the Mother Country or neigh- 
bouring States? 

preserved? Please state kind, quantitv, and \.-dne. and the market i'mm 
whence derived. 

6. Plea-e add any special point- of interest connected v.ith the fruits 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Colonial Office, 
Sir, September 16, 1886. 

I am directed by Mr. Secretary Stanhope to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the 14th of August calling attention to the 

interest whieh ha- h - i to tropical and other 

tVi t- b\ tin disphn in the several Courts at tin Colonial and Indian 
- a li-t of questions respecting Colonial fruits 
which you suggest should be answered as fully as possible by the 
Colonial Governments. 

that Mr. "Stanhope fully concurs a- to the desirability of obtaining 
snch information, and he therefore proposes to transmit a copy of your 

H. Meade. 

: Gardens, Kcw 


U'fi'mct «i a i'i.mmittlf of tin Hnxorr; af.t.f. the Privy Council 
for Canada, apj mo Mto ( iovcrn<"»r-("ii'iwr:il 

in Council on the 19th July 1887. 

The Committee of the IViw Council have had under consideration 
a Circular Despatch, dated 1 7th November 1886, from the Right 
Hiiuonr:i1.1>' tin- Sen tarv el' Sinre for the Colonies, t ra i -mining a copy 
of . . . . a letter from (lie A-i-tant Director of the Royal Botanic 

Cnrdcns,Kew, calling attention to the inten-t which hasheon awakened 

at the Co!ni; i . !,i < i el, - lu a ii-t of qu, -tion ; 

j Colonial fruits, which he suggest.- should he answered a- 

the Assistant . Ml , R. d li. i i , k, n . „i ,„„ 

the accompanying report of Professor Saunders, Director of the 
\\k\h-\ imeiital Farms of Canada, containing categorical answers to a 
-erics of questions for the purpose of w respoctiii<> 

Colonial fruits. 

Clerk, Privy Council. 

ought best to append f 

V of taslo, and partly to th 
r:tll,er than 

A hansom! apple ol American origin. Free, v 
duetive. Fruit medium to large, nearly covered with 
cri>p, and of fair flavour. An excellent keeper, and 
111 quality u-aially command- a good price in the 
November to March. Is grown largely for shipment 

Golden Russet. 

Of American origin. One of the 
quality either for dessert or cooking. *ruit of large size, pale j 
colour, with stripes of purplish red, covered with a thin white bloom, 
Sea-on. I Vermin r lo May. Much grown for both home market and 
export. The trees are slow in coming into be;u i j. Init afterward 
produce regular crops. 

King. (King of Tomkins Co.) 

Believed to be of American origin. A large apple of a deep yclio<.\ 

colour, splashed ;ni<l .-haded with red. Flesh yellowish, juicy, with a 

iize. Uolour greenish 
uded with dull red On 
w, crisp, with a rich 
Tree forms a spread- 
son it is not largely 

Canada Reinettt. 

Probably of Canadian origin. A large and handsome : 
shaded with brown, and sprinkled with dots and pate 
Flesh nearly wh;: .* 

January to April. Tree vigorous and productive. 

popular early winter apple, valuable either for the table or 
;n. Size medium, colour yellowish white, marbled with pale 
t and red. and speckled with large brownish dots. Flesh nearly 
, tender, rich, and mildly subacid. Season, October to December. 

An old variety of uncertain origin. I'iiiii large, uic-. ni-'i yel 
striped and shaded with dull red. Flesh greenish white, tender, 
acid. Season, October and November. Tree vigorous and 

An American vara-tv who h 01 iginated in New York. Tree an early 
1 , „ , i t i„ in I Fniit oi medium size, dull yellow shaded with 
criiiisuii. Flesh yellowish white, fine grained, crisp, juicy, and of good 
flavour. A good dessert fruit. Season, November to February. 

Grimes' Golden. 
This is an American apple which originated in Virginia. Tree 

vigorous, hardy, and productive. Fruit of medium -i/e, golden yellow 
with pale yellow flesh; crisp, juicy, rich, and spicy. Season, December 
to March. An excellent dessert apple. 

An American sort. Fruit medium size, colour pale yellow, Griped 
and -priukled with greenish dots. I < r. with a rich 

aromatic flavour. Season, November to February. 

An American apple. A vigorous strong growci, and productive. 
dark green, becoming greenish yellow when ripe. Flesh 
yellowish," tender, crisp, juicy, and subacid. Much appreciated as a 
cooking apple. 

An American variety which originated 
to large, colour greeni-h yellow, bceomii 
dotted with brown specks, and marbled \ 
Flesh yellowish, line trained, tender, a 
qualitv. Season, \oveinhei to Maici 

Tree a heallhy vigorous grower am 

A small russet apple, probably of French origin. Tree a medium 
grower and good bearer. Colour of fruit grey or cinnamon russet. 
Flesh tender, rich, and high flavoured. An excellent dessert apple. 
Season, December to February. 

Cox's Orange Pippin. 

An English apple much esteemed as a dessert fruit. Tree rathe 

slow in growth, but a good bearer. Fruit under medium size, yellowisl 

splashed, and mottled with crimson. Flesh yellowish, juicy, rich, an 

high flavoured. Season, autumn months up to November. 


Origin unknown. Tree hardy, a rapid grower, and abundant beare 

Fruit of medium size, colour g bed with red. Fles 

white, tender, and juicy, with a pleasant flavour. A long-keepin 

Ben Davis. 

Of American origin. Tree very hardy, a free grower, and abundai 
bearer. Fruit medium to large, almost covered with red. Flesh whit 
moderately, juicy, subacid. An apple of line appearance and a goc 
keeper, hut inferior in quality. Season, December to March. 

Westjield seek no Further. 
An old and highly-esteemed American variety. Fruit medium 
large in size, colour dull red on a pale green ground. Flesh white, fii 
grained, tender, and high flavoured. Season, October to January. 

Originated in Pennsylvania. Tree a strong grower and productive. 
A large apple of a yellowish green colour, shaded with dull red v.\u\ 
sprinkled with large givy dots. Flesh .inicy, crisp, subacid. Used 
chiefly for cooking. Season, November to February. 


An America;, vanetv whieh originated in Minnesota. Tree hardy, a 
vigorous grower and productive. Fruit of medium size, t 
rich crimson on a pale vel'.mv ground. Flesh white, stained with red, 
good flavour. A variety which is coming greatly 
into favour. Season, November to February. 

New Jersey. Tree a 
:irer. Fruit large nMung. 
i blush od the sunny side. 

Flesh tender, juicy, 
" Bishop's Pippin." 

tender, juicy, with a sprightly llavour. Season, November to February. 

A native oi h'lmde [ A hardv I it,-, v.-rv vigorous and produc- 
tive. Size of fruit medium, colour light yellow, generally with a Marl; 

to Ai»ril. 

ml haml-ome apple ol medium oualily. Colour greem.di 
»h-d with stripes of purplish red. An excellent cooking 
n, October to January. 

l justly-celebrated Canadian apple which grows well in many parts 

he "Dominion, but attain- -real perfection in the neighbourhood of 
utreal. Tree moderately vigorous, hardy, and very i.rodm ttve. 
it of medium d/c, colour greenish yellow covered with fine deep red. 
di remarkably white, tender, juicy, and high flavoured. A handsome 
popular dessert fruit. Season, October to December. 

An apple ol German origin. Iree vigorous ami productive, an eatl\ 
bearer. Fiuit medium lo large, colour bright yellow when ripe, dashed 
ami creaked with red and orange, bledi tender, crisp, juicy, and high 

Anmipolis \ alley. Nova Scotia, where n i- produced in great perfection. 

A VCiy large and .du,\\\ ot l;u>,ian origin. Colour pale orange, 
brilliantly streaked and marked \ il bright led. Fh^h yellowish white, 
• •ri.-p. and juicy, chiefly u<cd for .-,... ..,\ productive! 

s. ,-.,„. iirtei.,-1 : ,„d November. 

U'gC <T(I]>,.. Seagull, S< |.l 

. well-known English cooking ; 

nicy, subacid. Season,. September amfOrtuber. 

vated for the home market, nndo 

ed colour, and coated with » whitisli bloom. Flesh white 

Tree a fair grower and 

pretty pale reddish cheek, 
quality. Season, Septeml 

Hm-bee, lor Jural markets, 
is nut adapted I'or -hipping t 

doubt linn- remunerative price-. In Hriti li ( ohuubia. where the trees 
appear to be entirely free from blight and do not sutler from fio^t, pear:- 
nre grown in the e.rc ;i n m abundance, and th: 
might be extended indefinitely in that Provi 

A winter pear uf very good quality. Tree moderately productive. 
Fruit of medium -i/e, obtuse j.ynfonm colour golden ru.set, with a 
reddish cheek. Flesh juicy, melting, sweet, and high flavoured. Season, 
November to February. 

Beurre d'Anjou. 
An excellent pear of French origin. Tree of vig 

productive. Fruit large, obtuse pyriform, coL 

faintlv shaded with crimson and 

kled with russet 
dots. Flesh whitish, juicy, melting, with a plea 
Season, October and November. 

'ruit large, obtuse 
ith brownish red. 
Season, Septem- 

A French variety. I >. 
medium to lar. • shaded with c 

side, and thickly sprinkled with minute dots. Fles 
wiili a brisk agreeable flavour. Season, October. 

Originated in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Fruit mcdii: 
obtuse pyriform, colour yellowish russet, becoming browuid 
sun. Flesh pleasant flavou 

November and December. 

Jlltitc Doyenne. 

, with a high rich flavour. Season, October 

An American pear which originated in Connecticut. A vigiuoii.s 

grower and highly productive. Fruit medium to large, rounded pyri- 

form, colour yellow, with small patches and dots of russet. Flesh 

■\, melting, and of fair quality. Season. September 

and October. 

An American pear which originated in New York. 

vigorous, and productive tree. Fruit medium in size, roundi 

I tint, Upcoming >nnu tin 

brown in the sun. Flesh whitish, very juicy, sweet, melt 

rich aromatic flavour. Season, October. 

Louise bon dc Jersey. 
This variety originated in Fiance. The tree is a vigor, 
and productive. Fruit medium to large, oblong pyriform, 
with a brownish red cheek, dotted with -ley. Flesh gret 

juicy, melting, somewhat astringent, with a rich flavour, g 

This is, without doubt, the richest and highest-tlavomvd pear grown. 
An American variety which originated near Philadelphia. The tree is 
vigorous, hardy, and pruducthe. Fruit small, ohovate, dull \cllowMi 
russet, sometimes with a red russet cheek. Flesh whitish, very jm.-y, 
sweet, and melting, with a very rich -piey i!a\our. Season. Septeinbei 
and October. 

A very pro. . 'y trom trance. *rmt 

nil with unequal sides, colour dull yellow, ; 

i crimson, and thickly covered with russet dots. Flesh 

hat panular, with a perfumed vinous flavour; 

of fair quality and handsome appearance. Season, October to 


*son, October to Dec. 

Dr. Reedcr. 
A seedling of Winter Nelis, which was grown in New York. Tre healthy,, and vigorous, and remarkably free from bligh 
1'niit :-mall to medium, obtuse pyriform, colour yellowish rus.sel. Fie.*, 
slightly granular, juicy, melting, sweet, and high flavoured. Sea-,01 
October and November. 

A pear of the very highest quality, of Belgian origin. Fruit laig< 
and handsome, pyriform, dark yellow, with a light coating of russet. 
Flesh white, tine -rained, melting, with a rich delicious flavour. 
Season, September and October. 

AI>o a Belgian pear. Tree vigorous and 
inclining to pyriform, colour deep yellow, n 
a reddish cheek. Flesh juicy, inciting, 
September and October. 

Supposed i i origin. Tree a strong growet. ven 

hardy and (productive. Fruit large, obtuse pyriform, pale yellow, 
nearly covered with patches of light russet. Flesh yellowish white, 
juicy, melting, sweet and rich, with a slight musky flavour. Season, 

Hart left or HUlium^ llonchntuiu. 
One of the most popular of all pears, an English variety, which \va 
early introduced into America. The tree is a rapid grower and ai 
abundant bearer. Fruit of large size, pyriform, yellow when ripe 
Fle.di while, fair grained, buttery, sweet, juicy, and high l!a\oun« 
Season, September. 

An American pear which originated in Massachusetts. Tree a 

.igomus grower and ;m almndani bearer. Fruit large p\ nlorni. pale 
yellow, faintly marbled and splashed wiih crimson v>here exposed to 
the sun. Flesh white, fine grained, melting, juicy, 1 ich, and sweet. 

A pear of American origin, a chance seedling found 
delphia. Tree a vigorous grower and highly productive 
medium size, pyriform, deep yellow, slightly russeted wit 
brown dots, and with a more or less crimson cheek. I 
melting, very sweet, with an aromatic flavour. Season, 

The Plum. 

Plums are grown successfully in different } 
of Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and ] 
are also grown in considerable quantities in the v 
especially along the shores of Lake Huron, 
Goderich, Meaford, and Owen Sound. Many tl 
M-nt annually to other points in the Dominion, a 
forwarded to the large cities in the United S 
usually picked hefoiv lull \ ripe, and in this 
-a a lordly ripening they will hear transportation 
days without serious injury. The following \ al- 
most esteemed : — 

whieh originati 

i quality. Season, late 

■vd in Flushing, Xew York. Tree 
i greenish, juicy, melting, sweet, and rich. Season, early 

An American varh t y of first quality, which originated in Maine. Tree 
hanh, \ igoious ami product Ivo. Fruit 1 1 1 • - il i 1 1 1 >i to huge, nearly round, 
with a thin tender skin, yellow, dolled and marbled with red on the 
<unny side, and covered with a thin bloom. Flesh yellow, juicy, sweet, 

Of English origin. Tree vigorous and productive. Fruit very large, 

Tree a vigorous grower and heavy 
of a dark reddish purple colour cove 
Flesh, yellowish, rather coarse, juicy, 

An American variety whi< it originated in New York. Tree \igorous 
and productive. Fruii very large, nearly globular, brownish purple 
with a l.Iue bloom. Flesh orange coloured, not very juicy, but sweet 
and rich when fully ripe. Season, August and September. " 

Slmrpe\s Emperor ( Viefnri't). 
T and ° 

An English variety. Tree vigorous and productive. Fruit large, 
Mae and purple on a yellow ground, covered 

.■ Fl.-.h yellow, coarse, not very juicy or sugary. Of 
medium quality Season, middle of September. 

An American variety which originated in Xew York. Tree a strong 
grower but only a moderate bearer. Fruit large, nearly round, of a 
deep yellow colour, wilh a pale crimson blu-h or orim-on dots. Flesh 
yellow, tine grained, sweet, and luscious. Season, middle to end of 

Flesh yellow, rather a 
and preserving plum. 


.^Highly esteeo 


rV, Golden 


An English variety 

the sunny side. Flei 
SWeet, and of good fla 

r. Tree vigorou 
ked suture, pale < 
di yellow, rather 


, Fruit 

are the Orange Qui] 

M. and 





The cherry 

vds we! 

11 in most of the 

s milder sect 

ions in Ontario 

of Nova Scotia, 

in British < 


Of the Bigai 

or He:, 

irries the \ 

following ar 

hoing supplied 

chiefly from 

Black Eagle, 

I the Niagai 


. Taria 

Downer's I 

.ate Red, G 

Knight's- Karl; 

r Blf 

tck, Ni 

ipoleon Bigarreai 

i, and Tnu 

lescant's B,ack 

IIC 0?'thp Duk« 

i,l Mon 

die's 1 


are Early Rich- 

mond, May D 



i Mor, 

■llo. and t! 

le common 

red or Kentish 

^Several vari 


are g] 

own i 

n great ah 

undance in 

the Annapolis 

Valley in Nova 


tia.p n 

i-.-ul ir! 

y, hour the 

Ih >r rivei 

district. They 

.11 UVCI « 

tire stud to he umfurml\ producti\e and pivfitaU". I'h, 

■ rrdling fruits, the relative qualities of which have not yet heen fully 

.';, Columbia till varieties of the cherry grow most luxuriantly 
and produce heavy crops. 

Golden, and Moorpark arc t 

The peach is grown 

sola. The crop is almost entirely con ■ market. Ihe 

varieties chiefly grown arc the Early and Late Crawford, Early Canada, 
Honest John, Early Meal rice, Hale's Early, Lemon Cling, and Royal 

• too short, to permit of the healthy growth of the vine 
g of the fruit. Now many hundreds of tons are anmiall; 

popular ami uid-iy ebb afd -orl-. all oH 
< meonl/YJlV i.e. \la-a Jit", '\l mm 

The Gooseberry. 
Ihiglbh gooseherries are not generally grown with much success in 
Canada, lor the reason that the berries mildew before 1 1 icy reach 
maturity and drop from the bunches; but there are several excellent 
'•ort : of a -mailer ize which do exceedingly well and hear large crops 
of very good fruit. These have been produced by improving tin- native 

This fruit is al-o -rownwiih unhersal -uccess. The Black Naples 
is the variety chielly etilthatcd, but the uild black currants of the 

North-west, ROtea k*d*onianim and R.Jhridvm, are highly esteemed 

\biiiitol,, and the territories, and 7/. fa«h,>„i,nnnn i being 
cultivated b 3 many with shocks. It. is believed to be a heavier bearer 
than Ihe P.lack Naples ; has a stronger flavour when eaten fresh, but 
when made into jelly or preserve is fully equal in quality to the Black 

The Red and White Currant. 

Many varieties of these useful fruits are grown with much Micee<s 

m every part of the Dominion. They >»<■<:> e.l ,„„ onlv in the Maritime 

are grown chiefly for family use, and to supply the local markets 

Ihose most earned, Victoria, Fay's Prolific, Versailles, Chorrv, 
Red Dutch, and White Grape. J 

The Raspbekrt. 

Many sorts of tliiMi>eful fruit are cultivated for market in Canada, 
vhich they have 

me European sm-t.s derived iVom liufms Idams, are not uniformly 
hardy, in some loc ilities they do well, but, in others thev - 
1,10 ffiuiate, the canes being partially winter-killed when low tem- 
peratures prevail in the abseneo of deep snow. 

The red varieties chiefly grown are Turner Cuthbert, Philadelphia. 
Brandy Wine, Clarke, Niagara, a,, of wJlire 

varieties, Caroline and Bunckle's Orange. 

The black cap raspberries are derived from Rubus occidental**, and 
the following are among those most esteemed :— Mammoth Cluster, 
Oregg Tyler, Ohio Hilbon, and Davison's Thomless. 

^'■"ti... Ib-itM. ( olum. .:.-.. Th, Kitratmm and -),■ 
! .uly bear heavy crops in some localities, but the Snyder, 
age, is more generally grown on ace,-; 
-reater hardiness and uniform productiveness. Many other s, irt s are 
1 in different parts of the Dominion. 

more generally and extensively cultivated than any othe 
arlj in the summer, when no othc 

hey are universally appreciji 

mshels find a ready -ale in th 

and large quantities are preserved or canned for use later in the se* 
There are from 40 to 50 varieties in general cultivation, the 
popular of which are the following;— Atlantic, Bidwell, Cumberl 
Tiiumph, Crescent, Cornelia, Cha 
Canada, Glendale, James Vick, Jersey Qi 
President Wilder, Sharpless, and Wilson's Albany. 

Wild Fruits. 

The Blueberry. 
Under this general term the fruits of several s 
are included, v. ring in all parts 

abundantly in„ rocky and sandy districts. The v; 

ylcanicmn, and V. corytnbosiiin. 
b sent to the cities and towns of C 
i the back townships and by the Indians. 

included, which are found « 

trieties which yield 
3 Vaccinium Cana- 

Immense quantities 
of Canada, being -atleavd 

is frmi is neai - om a quarter 

■eighths of an inch in diameter, and i.- of a dark blue colour, gei 
■overed with a light hloom. The skin is thin, and the pulp sw< 
U'innii'. with verv small seed-, and a pleasaiu acidulous, taste. 

The Saskatoon Berry. 
This is known also under the name of Poire. It is the product of 

■[on ><nii-hi< r itl.iit'olin. and is tome! .: 

and the Xorth-west Territories. The - f indifferent 

localities as well a~ in the size of the fruit and shape of the leaves. The 
iM-rriesare u.-ualh about hail an inch long and one third less in dia- 
meter; it is rather insipid to the taste, but is sweet and nutritious. It 
i- used by the settlers both fresh and preserved, and by the Indians 


■ Cranberry. 

Cranberries are 

in the Province of 
export. 0. mac 


Fruit of Oxycuccus mo 
indance in many parts 
nt Scotia, where they 

macrocarpus and 0. vulgaris , 
of the Dominion, esp eiali} 
ire an important article of 
rger portion of the crop 

Other Wild Fruits. 
In addition to the wild fruit- alrea ly re fern d to, wild plums occur i:; 

::■:■■ -: 

i!:e !: lit varies both in size and colour in a remarkable manner. The 
colours are red, yellow, and dark 

;•:- U. sl t varies also. In m/< they range tiom half an inch 
to an inch in diameter, varying in form from round to oval. 

Several bt» I tably Primus 

,ur ; ,;nimut. /'. sf-rnthtti, and P. tlanissa. The latter, which is* believed 
to i.e the S-, ili-west Territories, is the 

only sort rate . /'. ■•> rotinti i- sold in the market- 

and used for I r to cherry brandy. 

The wild smooth gooseberry. Rihes oxycantltoides, although of very 
small size, is a marketable product in the Province of (Quebec, and i- 
s.e,i to he equal in tla\ our to the cultivated sorts. The form found in 
the Maritime province- produces larger fruit and appears to be equally 


- .nid rural districts in very large quantities., especially the 
raspberrv. They are partly consumed in the fresh state and the 
remainder canned or preserved. 

Query 2— During wh • ; « ; h : whtA 

((uanuties of each appi !'.'• export : and what 

are the whole-ale prices locally? 

The early a: in August, and some of the later 

w inter sorts* will keep in a cool cellar in good condition until the follow- 

ingJune; the gieater " t of the crop, however, i- -:. : 
the month of October. 

Pears vary much in time of ripening, and cover tin- i-ca-on fiom 
August to February. Plums ripen in August an.! s : ; 
Cherries in June and July. The apricots ripen a week or two before 
the early plums, and the nectarine comes in the middle of the peach 
season, which extends from the latter part of August to the end of 

Grapes xipen in September, and some of the varieties, if stored in 
a cool place, may be kept in good condition until the end of De- 
cember. Gooseberries ripen in July, and black and rod currants during 
the same month. The raspberries "begin to ripen during the last week 

are marketable about the middle of June, and 'the later varieties prolong 
the season until about the middle of July. 

The quantities available var\ nine!!, depending upon the character 
of the season. The exports during 1885 much exceeded those of 1884, 
while the crop of 18-^6, being larger than the two preceding years, will 
show a much greater increase. The local wholesale juices of apples 
vary from one dollar and a half to two dollars per barrel ; pears from 
one to two dollars per bushel; plums from one to two dollars per 
bushel ; cherries from five to ten cents per quart ; peaches from two 
to three dollars per bushel ; grapes from four to eight cents per pound ; 
raspberries from six to ten cents per quart . currant- and ■_ 
from five to eight cents per quart ; and strawberries from six to eight 

(2; in a preserved state ? Please state the destination, the quantity, 
and the estimated value of each port. 

The exports of fresh fruits for the year ending on the 30th June 

18>(> were as follows : — Apples to Great Britain, 170,505 barrels, 
value $410,898 ; to the United States, 41,407 barrels, value £55.002 : 
toother countries; ks.U barrel-, value SlO.oOl. Other fruits wen- 
exported of the following value : — To Great Britain, 838 ; to the 
United States, $22,004 ; to other countries, $492. 

Query 4. — Are all or any of the fruits mentioned above capable of 
1 in much larger quantities than at present ? If so, what 
step- are necessary to start or develop a fruit trade, and what induce- 
ments if any. do local men specially desire to open or extend a trade in 
fresh or preserved fruits either with the Mother Country or neigh- 
bouring States ? 

larger quantities t 

the capacity of Canada for the production of fruit. A very large 
number of young orchard trees an y, which will 

shortly result in a greatly increased yield. The experience gained 
during the recent Colonial and Indian Exhibition 
the importance of cold storage in the transportal 

of the early ripening sorts, and it i- facilities k 

■n should be offered to the fruit growers of Canada so as to 

The Government of C 
provinces experimental farms, where maoj i x, 

arried on. new and ; ! '> O'oin all 

part- of the world with the view of enlarging the ana of fruit < ■ 
and increasing production. With- ,.ven as to the 


most profitable sorts to grow, and the excellent facilities now provided 
t'< ' rapid iran>port. it is believed that the energy of Canadian fruit 
growers will furnish all the other stim< ,,nd extend 

[a important branch ■ 
la. a li ties, furnish supplies for all the markets which may be open lo them. 
Query 5.— What fruits are now imported into the Colony either fresh 
or preserved? Please slate kind, quamit v. and value, and the market 

The imports of such fruits into Canada (as might in large proportion 

the United States, 231,37.^ 

from the United States, 51,085 quarts, ' value $4,914; cranberries 

-, 17,170 bushels, value 

. . 

United States, 389,868 lbs., value $27,340; peaches from the United 
States, .-SI2.SS0 lbs., value $42,571. 

Canned fruits from Great Britain, 1,512 lbs., value $149; from the 
I inted States. 502,; J91 lbs., value $34,495. 

Query 6. — Please add any special points of interest connected with 
the fruits of the Colony herein reported upon which are desirable to 
place on record. 

It should be borne in mind that a large proportion of the green or 

iresh fruits imp fr, m the United States consist of early 

ning sorts, which are obtainable from the southern portions of that 

—1 weeks in advance of Canadian fruiis.aud are in demand 

J s of the community who can afford to pay for 

D. M. 

r Majesty's Stationery 

[All Rights Reserved.] 




No. 12.] DECEMBER. [1887. 


(Piper Cubeba, L.) 

The rapid rise in value which in recent years has occurred in cubebs 
has drawn considerable attention to this pepper. It may be useful, 
therefore, to correspondents in the Tropics to have before them a brief 
summary of information on the subject. To this we are ena" 
drawings of the male and t m ile j ml oi Pip, , ( „!„ !>,,, L.. i.-il n from 
a Java plant, and one of Miquel's types, in the Knv Herbarium. This 
is Cubeba officii, li<, Mi,p 1( -1, .-mil ' /'i/nr eamla/inn, J fort, non Vahl. 
There are good figures of this species given by Berg and Schmidt, 
(Icwac/ise, t. 29a, and in Baillon, //W,./,-, ,/,<? Plant,,. 
Vol. III., fig. 508. The plant figured by Bentley and Trimen (except 
i he di 'tails which are correct) in Med. Plants, plate 243, as from the 
Eoyal Gardens, Kew, has been proved to be Piper Chaba, Ilunt.-r 
[Chavica olii ; ,■ long-pepper group. 

The cubeb plant, like those which supply the black pepper and the 
long pepper, - ith smooth round stems, which are 

somewhat swollen at the joints. The leaves are alternate, on short 
Btout stalks, with a lanceolate blade of about 5-6 inches Ion"-, 

r Hasdiitg Sum] i 

J Twopence. 

terminating in a sharp point. The base of the leaf is often unequal and 
somewhat folded in drying. The flowers are unisexual, and appear on 
separate plants (dioecious). They consist of cylindrical solid spikes 
coming off opposite the leaves. The male spikes are long and slender, 
while the female spikes are shorter, thick, and fleshy, and provided 
with a short peduncle. 

The fruit (which appears only on female plants) is small, 
similar in si/.f in ck pepper. It is, however, provided 

with a stalk-like base, which is a little longer than the globular 
extremity. Numerous fruits, when approaching ripeness, are ranged 
horizontally on a common axis, forming a lax raceme (see engraving). 
This pepper appears to be found wild only in Java, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. In the former islands cubebs are regularly grown, and they 
form an important (though irregular) article of export. They often 
come to this ■ !■>!«■ An'onlin-r <° Descourlitz, 

cubebs were at one time cultivated as an introduction by the French in 
the West Indies. At present 1 hey are unknown there. 

The produce of other species o!' Piper are sometimes called cubebs, 
as, for example, the native cubeb <>l f"V)i which 

is Pip,r hnrh,,,,,,,,,, (V. I)e (';, .loll,.. The eul>eb pepper of \Ve>t 
Tropical Africa is Piper Clusii, Cas. De Candolle. This latter, 
according to Stenhouse, quoted !> I 

Piperin and not Cubebin. Under the stimulus of high prices, numerous 
adulterants are being introduced to increase the bulk of true cubebs. 
Amongst these Piper crassipes, Korthals, has been lately de.-crihed 
(Pharm. Journal, [3], XV., 653, and XVIII., p. 269). The fruits of 
J'ipc- ntnhium, A. Dietr., a plant of wide distribution throughout the 
Malay Archipelago, are also introduced. These are smaller tlian true 
cubebs, and have a stalk-like base only half the diameter of the 
globular extremity. 

The„cultivation of cubebs appears to be very similar to that of the 
ordinary black pepper. Trees are requisite for shade and for supporting 
the vines. At the foot of these the young plants are th - 
When fully grown the cubeb vine climbs to the height of 18-20 feet, 
and forms a large bush. In Java small plantations are specially 
devoted to cubebs; but latterly they have been cultivated also on 
coffee estates by European planters. 

The fruits are gathered when full grown, but before they are quite 
ripe. They are then carefully dried l • hence on 

i called " tailed pepper." Cubebs have 
ceous" taste. The smell is 

Highly aromatic, and by no means disagreeable. 
Cubebs have stimulant and <" 

properties. The chief use of 
cubebs in European countries has been for various forms of syphilitic 
disease. Latterly they have been largely used in America" in the 
preparation of asthma cigarettes. 

According to the Chemist and tiruggist the price of cubebs has 
always been subject to sudden and violent fluctuations. In 1865 the 
price averaged 77 s. 6d. per cwt. • from 1875 to 1880 cubebs could be 
bought at prices ranging from 25*. to 55*. per cwt. Since 1880 the 
teadily gone up, and "good genuine cubebs" in 1886 realised 
20/. to 22/. per cwt. 

In the Kew museums there are specimens of the fruits of Piper 
Cuhrha Prom Nepaul and Madras, India Mus urn : tliesc are probably 
bought in bazaars, and not grown locally. Commercial cubebs from 
Java and Sumatra are represented by samples contributed by Messrs. 
Burgoyne, Burbidges, and Co. West African cubebs, the produce of 

Piper ri,mi, are represented by specimens from the Yon i: 

I rber; from Sierra Leone by Dr. Clark; from Bahi 
from the West Coast of Africa by negroes, under li it* nam ■ ot " Irivi," 
by Mr. J. Wethcivll: ami ir-.m the Sierr; 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886, under the name of « Yaray, by 

illustrating the products of Piper . 

usually used for purposes of adulteration, which are probably 
the fruits of Piper crassipes. 


{Lysiloma Sabicu, Benth.) 
In the Bahamas Court at the late Colonial and Indian Exhibition 
there were shown specimens in ttu form of shi 
known locally as "Horse-flesh Mahogany." It 
"heavy and rather hard wood, mu< h val I for tl ft im ng of houses, 
higb class joinery, and ship-builders' purposes." It was said to be 
" impervious to all insects and of very great durability, having been 
found perfectly sound after a century of exposure." 

One of the specimens was presented to the museums of the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, but its botanical origin was then unknown. The value 
of the timber being unquestionably of a high order, it was thought 
desirable to ascertain more about it, and, if possible, to del ermine 
exactly the species yielding it. With this view, a communication, 
dated 27 November 1886, was addressed to the Colonial Office, and at 
the Stance of H.E., H. A. Blake, C.M.G., Governor of the Bahamas, 
Mr. Fred. Taylor was instructed to prepare specimens of the foliage, 
flowers and fruit of " Horse-flesh Mahogany" and forward them to 
Kew. The specimens were recently received here, and Professor Oliver 
arrived at the ■ ■• eiv identical with L>/siloma Sabicu, 

Benth., a species which has long been known to yield the celebrated 
Sabicu wood of Cuba, Hence, the point would appear to be established 
that the Horse-flesh Mahogany of the Bahamas and the Sabicu wood of 
Cuba are botanically one and the same thing. 

Sabicu wood, also known as Savacii and Savico wood, has been 
imported in considerable quantities from Cuba, where alone the tree was 
supposed to exist. It is described as a " dark coloured wood, very 
*' heavy, excessively hard, and extremely durable, the two latter qualities 
" rendering it of great value to the shipbuilder, by whom it is much 
" esteemed." The stairs of the building for the great exhibition of 
1851 were made from this wood, and, notwithstanding the immense 
number of people who passed up and down, the wood was found, ' " 

5 exhibition, to be scarcely at all the worse for wear (Treasury 
ot Botany, p. 704). Sabicu wood has also more recently been used for 
shuttles and bobbin?, but the demand for this purpose was never very 

Since the botanical identity of Hi and Sabicu 

wood has been established, it has been found that timber, under the 
name of " Sabicu," had already been exported in small quantities from 
the Bahamas, and in the " Report of Governor Robinson on the Blue 

F .Dan4erfi.eld.lkYi, London 

Lysiloma S abi c u, B e r tf [ \ . 

Book of the Bahamas for 1879," p. 10, it is stated that 66 tons were 
shipped in 1879 and 167 tons in 1878. Further, in a letter dated 
5th May 1887. Messrs. G. S. Saunders and Co., New London Street, E.V., 
inform us that they had received ■ a log of Sabicu from Jamaica, but 
under a nondescript name"; while several imports of genuine wood had 
been received from the Bahamas, but generally small and badly grown, 
and (which Cuba and St. Domingo wood is not) very liable to " wormy 

It is evident that at the Bahamas the tree is much smaller than in 

Cuba, and, probably owing to the soil or climate, it seldom attains a 

greater height that 30 feet. The stem also would appear to be stunted 

1, owing to exposure to strong winds. The trees in Cuba are 

I sterna several feet in diameter. 

Specimens of Sabicu wood in the Kew museums are (1) from the 

jived Nov. 10, 1855 ; (2) from Messrs. Saunders, received 

. " (3) 

t been added the fine piece or " ship's knee " received 

I Horse-flesh Mahog Conrl at the Colonial and 

96. As regards the latter specini 
of the museums points out that the Bahamas wood is com 
light in weight, of a reddish colour, with occasional dark streaks. The 
rings are clearly defined, while the medullary rays are wide and 
numerous. The pores are small, scattered, and each contains a white 
deposit. This wood is much softer Jban the regular Sabicu wood of 

We are enabled, by permission of the Bentham Trustees, to add to 
this note a plate prepared for the Icones Plantarum of the plant 
yielding Sabicu wood. This will, no doubt, prove of coi 
interest to correspondents in the West Indies ; and it may also lead to 
the tree being recognised as growing in other places than those here 


{Agave heteracantha, Zucc.) 
Under the name of Mexican fibre or istle, a short and 
harsh and stiff fibre comes into the London market, 

manufacture of cheap nail and scrubbing brushes, and for 
purposes where a substitute for animal bristles is allowed. ] 
Ide and Christie mention "that this fibre is pretty largely imported 1 

brush-making purposes, and its value in London [15th October 1887] 

is 2(]f. per ton. The i :;n-<' of value of late years has been from 221. 

per ton to 50/. per ton. The fibre is quite unique as a vegetable 
" substitute for animal bristles, and i ture of cheap * 

" brushes of all sorts." 

The origin of this Mexican fibre or istle has been involved in a good 

deal of doubt, but we believe that we have been able to trace its origin 

i material collected many years ago, and now available at 

hment. Some specimens of a stiff fibre and brushes in the 

K.w mu^unn were roc, iv„I iiom Dr. Parry in 1879, and said to be 

derived from Agave Lechugmlla. Dr. Parry wrote the h 

to Torrey's Botany of the Mexican Boundary, which was published in 
1858; and he states on page 11, speaking of the vegetation of the 
cretaceous formation, " Upon the rocky ledges a small species of Agave 
" grows in abundance: The low leaves, which are pointed with sharp 
" spines, are very troublesome to the foot traveller ; they are, however, 
" of some use to the Mexicans, who employ the strong fibres they 
'* contain in making coarse ropes. The plant is known to the people 
" of the country as ' Lechaguia.' " 

According to Torrey, in Botany of Mexican lluundnry Sumy, 
p. 213, it appears there is a distinct species of Agave of this name 
[Agave Lechuguilla, Torrey], and "the fibres of the leaves are used 

Gardeners' Chronicle, Vol. VII. (new series), p. 527, is placed under 
Agave Poselgerii, Salmdyck. Engelmann on the other hand looked 
upon A. Poselgerii and A. Lechuguilla as identical with Agave 

and the same plant ; and ot these Aga\ 

- iv years ago.* 

It would appear, therefore, that l\.n \ '-" -[..■.' mi;. •.-, of fibre and 
samples of br re derived from Agave heteracantha, 

Zucc., the local name of which is Lerhu-uilh. This' name is, however, 
by no means restricted to this species. Sereno "Watson (Proceeding* of 
the American Academy, Vol. XI., p. 16) mentions ''Lechuguilla'" or 
" Lechigilla " as the native name of Agave guttata and A. varirgata. 
These latter are species belonging to quite another group, and as 
different as possible from A. heteracantha. It is very possible, there- 
fore, that the name Lechuguilla, like Kerrato in the "West Indies, has 
a wide stretch of : i -.Main parts of Mexico and the I'i ii- ,1 
States, and that it is applied indiscriminately to various species of 

There is at Kew a very large collection of living Agaves, in which 
are represented most of the species here concerned. 

By the courtesy of Messrs. Death and Ellwood, Engineers, Leicester, 
we have been enabled to extract fibre from the leaves «,|' At/are 
Ixtirncnolhii. Zucc. : I. ,ijl, ant a, Sdmdyek ; //. h»n ida, Lemaire ; 
A. Kerchovei, Lemaire ; A. lop ha nt ha, Schiede ; A. univittata 
Haworth ; and A. multilineata, Baker. All these yield a coarse and 
somewhat rigid fibre, but the fibre of A. heteracantha, allowing for rhe 
age of the plant, comes nearest to the commercial fibre known in London 
as Mexican fibre or istle. 

All these species, it maybe mentioned, belong to a distinct set of 
Agave.-, tin '• , es ol which i . . ' ., , •• ,,,[ by a continuous horny 
margin, and hence placed together |,y ]; a ker under the group Mar- 
ginatae, of which the distictive characters are,— •• . due of the leal' 
«' furnished all the way down from the top to the bottom with a 
" distinct horny border, of . { \, ( . teeth." 

The species of Agave which yield Ni.-al hemp and fibres suitable for 

g and weaving, are discus, d u ■ /,' '/,//„ for March 

[No. 3, 1887], Such fibre, aie ordinariK :i let. and often 5 and 

•re that what Bnl 

oniric, Vol. VII. , 

6 feet in length. They are soft and pliable, not so stout as the 
Mexican fibre or istle, and would scarcely answer the same purpose. 
This Sailer is -< !,, :. !!y only about a foot or a foot and a half in length, 
and is stout and rigid. 

There is little doubt, therefore, that Mexican fibre or istle is derived 
from a group of Agaves with short leaves, and from the material avail- 
able Si KJew, the evidence is strongly in favour of Agave hit 
Zucc, being the species chiefly concerned. Indeed the specimens con- 
tributed by Dr. Parry to Kew in 1879, afford direct proof on this point. 
Since the above remarks were written we have been favoured by 
Dr. Newberry with a reprint of an article of his in The Popular Science 
N Fvember 1887, entitled "Food and Fibre Plants of the 
" North American Indians." At page 10 we find he identifies the 
" ohugnilla ' I U raeamtka, and attention 

is particularly drawn to the size of the leaves, about a foot to 18 inches 
in length, and to the very strong character of the fibre contained in 

" Another less known but scarcely less valuable plant belonging to 
" ib<* -sun. _ I, : . It/art , is tin ' hrhuguilla ' {Agave heteracantha) 
" of Chihuah . ■ . the leaves are 

H from a foot to 18 inches in length, and grow in a tuft like those of 
" the century plant { . [ijurc ami ric/ntt/). Though separated with some 
" ditficulty from the parenchyma in which they are enveloped, the 
" fibres that traverse the leaves are numerous and very strong, and 
" are largely used by the Mexicans for the manufacture of ropes, 
" sacking, &c." 

In the Kcw museums there are specimens of Mexican fibre as fol- 
lows : — Prepared Mexican or istle fibre, from Mr. A. Eowbottom ; fibre 
used In the Indians for n aking ropes and coarse sacking, from Dr. Parry, 
is"!); a piece of cordage and Mexican hair bradi. made from Mexican 
ii re, eonfribured also bv Dr. Parry; and Mexican fibre or istle as sold 
in London (value L'i7. per ton), received from Messrs. Ide and Christie, 


In an illustrated work entitled the " Food Grains of India," published 
iu ls-ii>, for the Committee of Council on Education, and based upon 
information acquired by the India Office in connexion with the late 
India Museum, Professor Church deals somewhat fully with the ali- 
mentary value 

A few notes on the cultivation of some of the crops have been incor- 
porated with the work, while an endeavour has been made to show how 
a knowledge of the composition of the several food grains may be 
the adjustment of dietaries. 

Under cereals the classification and characteristics of millets, maize, 
rice, wheat, and bamboo rice are discussed. 

Since the publication 
< Mended his investigate 

merits of two other grains, viz., the Mitenga bamboo, Bambusa Tulda, 
Roxb., and Panicum flavidum, Retz. The results, given below, are 
intended to be a continuation of, and supplemental to, the information 
already given in the handbook : — 

Bambusa Tulda, Eoxb. Synonym : Dendrocalamus Tidda, Nees. 
Hind, Peka. Beng, Tulda, jowa, mitenga, matela. Burm, 
Theiwa, thoukwa, or thaikwa. 
This is the common bamboo of Bengal and grows abundantly every- 
where. It is also found in Pegu and Martaban, down to Tenasserirn, 
: q ChittagO g ai I els whei (Kurz). The tender shoots 
are eaten as pickles by the natives. The plants flower in May. The 
grain examined was received at Kew through the Government of India 
from the Conservator of Forests, Bengal. 

A sample of the grain of this bamboo gave, when freed from husk, 
the following numbers on analysis : — 

Water - - - 13-5 per cent. 



Oil - 

These per-< 
of Bambusa c 

larger, 70 of them weighing 100 grains, while 300 grains of the latter 
species are required to make up the same weight. 

Panicum flavidum, Retz. Synonym : Panicum brizoides, L. 

Tel., Oda, or Woodoo-gaddi. 

This grass is widely distributed in the East Indies. Roxburgh 

describes it as common in every soil and situation, even in deep water ; 

" ' ) 4 feet long, and again on 

i soil that is dry and barren, only as many inches. It grow 

:inged purple. The grain here 
described Avas obtained through the Government of India from the 

superintendent of the <iov< nnncm Botanical Gardens, Saharunpore. 

This species of Indian millet is occasionally employed as fc 

especially in times of famine. The husked grain gave on analysis 

following results : — 

Water - - - 11-8 per cent. 

Albuminoids - 9 1> „ 

Starch - - - 54-1 „ 

The small grains of thi !i more indigestible fibre 

than any species yet examined, but they s.iv . v .■ptimially rich in oil or 
fat, containing nearly twice as much of this constituent as any other 


{Epicampes macronra, Benth.) 

o£ *J e ^P° xt 0f Her Ma J est 7's Consul at Vera Cruz for the year 
1886, Mr. Baker draws attention to a comparatively new industry 
connected with the preparation and export of what is called << Broom 

This root was exported from the port of Vera Cruz last year to the 
aggregate value of 58,632/. The bulk appears to have been^hipped to 
Germany and France, while the quantity shipped to Y 

Chronicle, Vol. II. (third series), p. 101] h 

that the broom root exported from Vera Cruzs is know,; I 

« 'Mexican or French Whisk. It is used by the Gen 

French to mix with Venetian whisk, dorivod from ihe mni 
/m#o» Gty*/™, for the manufacture of dandy bi 

at exceedingly low prices. The broom root, therefore, appears ?o be 
acheapsubsrn .' Uen made 

into brushes and thoroughly dry it is apt to be. 

A.Z ^« reason it has never found much favour in England. 

As the botanical origin of broom root was unknown, el 

reign Office to obtain specimens of the plants 
G r S 1 1 ^T heSe s P eeimens were obligingly forwarded to Kew by 
the plant yielding the so-called broom root is a g 

is Zacaton. This is a plant with coarse tufted leaves, found widelv 
dtstnlmt.-dovor the hi,]:! iu.Vht of six 

<• The roots, in the condition in which they are°e X ported 
are called « Raiz de Zacaton." These roots are about nine inches to a 
: "", : : - ■-■-- . ' . . .• ■ , 

inch m diameter. They have evidently undergone some cleansing and 
bleaching process which g.ves them a bright appearance and a pale 

, uutu 01 wnicn evidently belonged to the genus 
was Epicampes macroura, Benth, [Cinna maeroura, 

determined without flowers. There c 
' 5 derived from c 

to the genus Epicampes. 

Sereno Watson, Botany of California, Vol. II, p. 277, mentions the 

.'""' l»'»»-b-».:.s San l.i.,o Comity, (idi 
in Mexico and eastward in Kew Mexico and Western Texas It is 
known as " Wood litvd-grass." It rowing verv 

owiah green colour, prrowii 
dities and apparently in tufts. The rigid sterna "are used 
by the Indians for making baskets. 


Dorstenia brasiliensis, L. 
Dorstenia Contrajerva, L. 
Aristolochia odoratissima, L. 

Contrayerva, as usually known, consists of the root-stock and roots 
(scaly rbizomata) of Dorstenia brasiliensis, L., and Dorstenia Contra- 
jerva, L. The former is a native of the forests of Tropical America 
from Venezuela <<> lhaxil, while the latter is chiefly confined to the 
West India Islands and Venezuela. According to Pereira (Mat Mod., 
Vol. II., p. 12.12), /> hr ,///. , vi.-l. - "tin ennirayerva root usually 
" met with in the shops." It is described as composed of 
curved roots of a yellowish brown colour. The taste is warm, bitterish, 

The name contrayerva is an Indo-S applied to 

species of Dorstenia, on account of the counter-poison propotties 
supposed to be possessed by them. They are, however, little used now, 
and for all practical purposes are ol>-<>h t >. I hey had been employed 
in fevers of a low type, and in other diseases requiring a mild, 
stimuli :t. and ili ipl m-tie tn it i mt, A full description with plate is 
given of Dorstenia Contrajerva, L., bv Doseourtil/ in Flore Medicate 
des Antilles, Vol. 111.. j» 2o<i. r 207. " The only figure we have met 
with of Dorsh ^ia brasiliensis, L., is given by Nees von Esenbeck in 
Plantes Medicinalcs, Dusseldorf, t. 99. 

Contrayerva, as usually in use, therefore refers to the roots of species 
of Dorstenia. In Jamaica, however, this term is invariably applied to 
a species of Aristolochia, while roots of Dorstenia are thore called 
Spanish Contrayerva. From dried specimens and living plants lately 
contributed to Kew by " nt, damaica, and by 

Joseph Shearer, Esq., of Vale Royal, there is no doubt thai .l.unai. a 
Contrayerva is Aristolochia odoratissima, L., a weak climbing plant, 
very common on roadside walls and banks. The flowers are variegated 
purple, with a lip 6 inches long and a tail nearly a foot long. The 
whole plant when dry has a pungent, disagreeable odour. It is figured 
by Sloane, t. 104, f. 1, and by Descourtilz (as above), Vol. V., t. 536. 
In Jamaica, wdiere horse-rearing is an important industry, this 
Contrayerva \ ' !; used in treatment as a powerful 

lias been so used for a long period. 
In Lunan's Hortus Ja/naiccnsis, Vol. I., p. 232, we find that — 

" This [plant] is called Contrayerva in Jamaica, from it- ■ 
* against poisons, but is in no respect like the Spanish contrayerva." 

"The roots and seeds are very bit iferous, and are 

" most excellent alexipharmics or counter-poisons, strengthening the 
" heart, stomach, and brain ; they cure the bites of serpents, and the 
" poison of Indian arrows. I am of opinion, it exceeds the Spanish 
" contrayerva, especially in dropsies." 

Long, in the history of Jamaica, p. 717, mentions that this 
■• ahminds oy<-ryvd]'T. - and thickets 

" on the south and north sides of the island, and rises frequently to a 
" efin>ide!;<'o>; lives and bushes. It destroys worms, 

** for which p ;. has a M rong smell) is chopped in 

«* small pieces, and given by the planters to their horses, mixed with 

» corn, which destroys bots, and wonderfully recruits the animals' rlesh 

u It is so abundant jn this island that it may be collected annually 

ion, if there was a demand for it at 

the home market ; and it seems to merit this encouragement, as it has 

« t:^zii^:^ ph7sicians to be su ^ rior in effi -7 ^ 


{Bertholletia excelsa, Humb.) 

trJ h loe 1 X t r Idi n g the « C r T?° n B , razil nuts of commerce is a lofty 
tree, localiv . . ■' rntivn nf fi, Q e™ 4. c ^ . y 

i , 

~ ' ^ ■- --- : - :• . - - . ::;■.'.:■■■■' 

■by Indians, in the fore^ U Jn brou ft' 

on the Rio Negro, and in the province of that name 

ftesh nm' tS 2 ' fT h Fehrnw 7 and March, and 

fresh nuts arrive in Europe in May and June. ' 

-2* awJWL at sro-r-rssr 

Ihe Brazil-nut tree is a native only of South America and St i. 

;.■■ - ■ ■ ^ -..■■ 

It .... introduced to Jamaica as Ian- „ ,™ T'. '<'■ 

containing about 6,000 seeds, wer,, 

ment of that colony direct from Para. Seeds wcretat of i 
.:■. afterwards growing plant ^h'e 

«h_ere„ort of the Director of^Puhlic Gardens ,okMv,;,, .,,;.;:,;,,,; '.;: 

stated, " Befor 
tf the pericarps or f'ruif eases and .,>•',!■' 't'h '","'" '" 
fortnight, otherwise they take several months or 

s are a mn with shells intact, they remain in the soil a long 
" time without germinating. They don 
** succeeded in get ' 

"By removing the shells from the seeds before sowing they will 
« germinate in a very short time. At Kew, we had the jom 
«• throu-h the -oil :<;: vlng. The shells, in this 

« case, had been cracked 

The introduction of the Brazil-nut tree into our Eastern and Aus- 
tralian Colonies was in every way so desirable an object that this 
establishment, which has in many ways and for a long penod, served 
as a " half-way house " between the t\\ , y to t ,ke 

part in it. .V . been received from ■ 

Garden at Brisbane, Queensland, for seeds or plants of Bertholletia 
excelsa, about £ cwt. of fresh seed was obtained in June 18So, and 
forwarded to the Colony. The first report received oil this consign- 
ment was not encouraging. The superintendent, in a letter dated 
22 February 1886, states :— " I very much regret to say that the Ber- 
" tholletia seed, respecting which you took so much trouble, ha- not 
" been a success. Besides sowing large quantities myself without 
" delay, I distributed it over a wide range of Northern Queensland, 

that some of the seeds it' they were kept in a 

suitable situation ; but in order to ensure the introduction of the tree 

nd, a second lot of seeds were forwarded in July of the 

r. At the same time a lot was forwarded to the Botanic 

Gardens at Singapore. In acknowledging the receipt of the second lot 

of seeds, Mr. Cowan in charge of the Botanic Gardens at Brisbane, 

writes as follows : — " The previous consignment was submitted, to such 

■ there are now available 

« f.,r distri ' this valuable tree. This second 

" importation will enable a thorough trial to be made in all likely parts 
" of the Colony." 

Mr. Cantley, in reporting the arrival of the seeds at Singapore, men- 
tions that those which were packed at Kew in moist peat had begun to 
germinate on the voyage. The other sent dry, had not germinated, bat 
were placed under treatment at once. Mr. Cantley adds, " I have sent a 
" few of the seeds to the native states, where they are very anxious to 
" get anything of this kind." 

The further introduction of the Brazil nut to Eastern Colonies is a 
matter which does not appear to require arrangements of an exceptional 
character. Fresh seed may he obtained in London from reliable uur- 
chants in June and July of each year, and these could be sent 
cocoa-nut fibre or peat in an ordinary box as merchandise. On arrival, 
'•:■ - 

nela sown in ordinary 
nursery beds. It is necessary ; » a Id tl: ih trees do not come into 

' : . * 


The germination of the seeds of Bertholletia in the wild state, while 

enclosed in the wonderfully strong fruit ease (which, by the way, serves 

as an admirable protection against monkeys and other animals), was a 

matter which, for a long time, was involved in obscurity. This, however, 

has been cleared up by the observations of Mr. Barrington Brown 

F.f I.S., i„ MriiUh Guiana. Briefly stated, the process is as follows :—« In 

'" ' ,!l " '" ' "^ I ' I'- »-li' i lyin.i- mi lli, .'round, 1h r, is a small 

;; :;; i ;:': i ' [ ;- 1 : ' stalk, ThronghtJus, 

" th ! sho " t I* 1 ''"'/ " ! Ml« [••Weto effect an 

" ili, iruii t-aso which in.lei-.l protects its roots and serves all the 

1 pot. The other seeds, unable to find an outlet 

id air, ultimately perish, and their 

- ' ' nourish the solitary plant which is destined to 

This latter, when it has grown to a certain 

which its roots have hitherto been confined 

' represent the family. This 
1 size, bursts the shell in 

up i 


{Castilloa clastica, Cerv.) 
This is one of the earliest described of rubber-yieldino- plants but 

: c dhie. o Si. Joseph Hooker (Trans. Lin So,' :■.. \ 
p. - !»). it is probabl,- thai m,.r< than on nib 
m Central America under this name. 

The Ule of British Honduras and Nicaragua is no doubt Castilloa 
elastica of Cervantes, but what is known locally as Tumi and -aid to 
yield a -ouita-percha,- is so tar undetermined owing to the absence of 

: - 

lb-port on tie- Caoutchouc of Commerce, 1872 
p. 12, t. 3) has been shown to belong to another genus, viz., Percbea 
(Genera Plantarum, Vol. III., p. 372). 

Plants of Cfisfilhm have been widely distributed from Kew to various 
trees are now found in Ceylon, 
• .aica. Tiinidad. and the west and east eoa-ts 
A Africa. 
The ori.i_M.ial stock of Kew plants was obtained by Mr. B. CW in 
1ST-, !, , tii, India Oiiin li m th, Nthum- , f p., ,. " ul d i t , ., , 
of Caucho. The identity of the Ule of British Honduras with the 
Caucho of Darien appears to be not t'ullv established. The points of 
difference so far noticed arc. however, very' slight. AYith regard to Ule, 
Sir Joseph Hooker mentions that -all the branchhls a 
" densely v : , u;v d h ;1 jrs . } ] le j, . , v , . 

'• abo\«»,"and densely hirsute or hirsutely tomentose beneath. On the 


<; vated in Ceylon (derived from the same source), have the brai .-1 lets 
" less clothed with hairs and the under surface of the leaves ! 

The above : ...dnaii,,.. oi'tli.- rubber- 

tea will serve to show the present 


Th plants di-tiil -it- 1 front Kb w. an I nnwuii.i , i dti vat ion in various 

•1 be more correctly termed according to the Dlace 

"< - ■ l>" < I' I < i - ' ■■ nMromtheUle 

of Mexico. British Bonduras, and 

their history. As regards the quality ... rubi ,,■ : . ;,],;. { in .„, [l,,^ A 


Castilloa, the Kew Report for 1882, p. 40, gives an account of the first 
sample of caoutchouc obtained from this plant in the < >I<1 W orhl. 

"In October 1882, the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
" Peradeniya, Dr. Trimen, forwarded to Kew a sample of the rubber of 
•• Cft*f.i//naelastica grown in the Experimental Gardens at Henoratgndde. 
•• Cevlon. This was sent from Kew in l.sTfj (,rr Kew Report, 1876, 
" p. 9). The sample was submitted to S. W. Silver, Esq., F.L.S., who 
" very kindly reported upon it :— ' On working and drying a portion of 
" ' this sample, the loss is 12-3 per cent; it is necessary to use warm 
" • water in washing this rubber; it becomes, on drying, in 
« • and shorter than Para rubber. It has a bitter ta^te, which is not 
'• ' removed on washing. The unwashed sample yields 1*9 per cent. 
" * ash, the washed sample gives 1 -2 per rent. The shortness of this 
" ' rubber would restrict it- u-e to some extent where tensile strength 
valued, Dec. 8, 1882, as worth 

The collection and preparation of rubbers as a forest product lias 
hitherto been almost exclusively in the hands of natives, whose only 
object has been to obtain as large a quantity as possible of a marketable 
character, without imv regard to the permanency id the industry or the 
quality of the article produced. In many localities the rubber trees 
have been so ruthlessly cut down or tapped, that they have been almost 
annihilated. In others, the preparation of the rubber is of so rude and 
unsatisfactory a character, that the waste must be enormous. Under 
these circumstances it is most important to extend knowledge of the 
subject, and it is to be hoped where rubber trees still exist under 
areful steps will be taken to regulate the tapping 
or bleeding, and to re-plant areas already denuded of trees. 

In the special instance of the rubber industry at British Honduras 
we have been lately favoured with the following correspondence ; — 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

" Colonial Office, Downing Street, 
"Sir, 11th November 1887. 

" I am directed by Secretary Sir Henry Holland to transmit to 

« which has been prepared by Mr. Alvan Millson, who was formerly 
" a district magistrate in British Honduras, and has now been appointed 
" to be a district commissioner in the colony of Lagos. 

" I am to request that the memorandum, which is sent in original, 
" may be returned with your reply. 

" D. Morris, Esq. (Signed) John Bramston." 

Notes on Castilloa Rubber Tree of British Honduras, 

by Mr. Alvan Millson. 

There is but little to be added to the admirable account given by 

Mr. Morris (now of Kew) of the Castilloa clastica in his book on the 

colony of British Honduras; but the cultivation and preparation of 

tee, and there La little. 

doubt that information which in any way lessens the difficulties at 

pre-ent ( iicouutered in dealing with Ibis article is worthy of statement 

• my own observation. The present 
methods may be classified under two heads : 

(i.) Cultivation :is ;i shade tree for other crops, and 

(ii.) Cultivation for its own sake. 

(i.) The rubber tree is a tap-rooted tree, of small foliage area, a lover 
1,1 l!l 1'' " '- ! - • ' :• } loam, well shaded by undergrowth, and appears 
to need surrounding low bush to force it to' its lull height. 

The natural deductions from the above facts are that while it does 
not exhaust the soil in which the surface rooting crop underneath it 
may be planted, it gives hut little shade unless planted at verv short 
distances. Until it has attained sufficient aiiin-thmim to sliadc itself (for 
it will not grow well if the sun gets at it- trunk) , 1 , < , , , ,. ! „ ,|, 
. i! niiKl be protected l>y some other shade tree. it> natural 
''•'' '' :i • llk,; llial ~' : the Jamaica pimento, being in old plmtations 
among the under-brush that so rapidly springs up in humid soils. If 
l ,! ' IM,a su ; - own .Moms, without which both 

the growth and flow of milk will he checked by the heat of the sun, it 
must of course ultimately damage the crop beneath it. ami, in the cU- 
of cacao, when both crops come to niaturitv about the same time both 
crops would be injured to an almost equal extent. 

(ii.) If grown as a special crop, the seeds should be planted, I 
behove, ai a distance not evceeding 15 feet from one anon 
be left for a year or two in uncleaned ground so as to allow the under- 
bush to shade them and stimulate their growth,— a small area of about 
a toot in diam U1 ,inil each plant.- -and only when 

sufficiently large to shade one another to a eerfc 
plantation be thoroughly brushed with a machete. 

On the plantation oi >]. L, \ b u .No 7. Rue des Petits Hotels, 
Paris), ,n the western district of British Honduras, several trees 
1 treated as just described reached a diameter of nine inches 
at a height of four feet from the g- ■■-,.. I fruited in 

less than four years. Other- in well-cleaned land did u> ■ 
this progress. 

Stakes, if set in the ground, make more apparent progress than seeds 
(seedlings should not, I think, be planted, on account of the extreme 
length and delicacy of their tap roots), but two or three \. ■■■ ■ 
show that the seeds make more certain and rapid progress. 

I have reason to believe that the ( astiiloa tkutica affects the 
neighbourhood of rivers chiefly, because the bush in such places is 
always stunted by the floods so as to allow the rubber trees to have 
full growth, and is yet sufficient to give the ground and stems full 
shade, t.'nder these circumstances the trees will reach a great size, 
while in identical soil in the open savannah they make no apparent 

Prt ptiratioti. — A gi-c ;-> been found in extracting 

the milk from the tree in a satisfactory manner. The 
employed is wasteful both of time and of the quantity and quality of 
the milk extracted. I append a rough sketch of a machine* invented 
by Mr. Blaneaneaux, of the Cayo, British Honduras, which avoids all 
these disadvantages. 

Coagufai o prevail for coagulating 

the milk are well described hv Mr. Morris. I cannot b t th k, 
however, that a plan suggested to M h.d'ehvre by a series of experi- 


M. Lefebvre's method.— The milk is. put into a barrel with a tap at 

the bottom, and three parts of pure litneless water arc added to every 
part of milk. After standing for twenty-four hours the water is drawn 
off through the tap and the process repeated twice more. The well 
washed milk is then pressed slowly in a finely perforated vessel and 
yields a quality of rubber free alike from undue viscosity and brittle- 
ness. A sample of rubber thus prep Extinguish from 

the smoke-coagulated Para rubber wh I lie market. 

The above account, given by Mr. Millson, is printed without any 

expre-n-n of ..pinion a- vs.n-U the value of the suggestions made. 

Experience alone can decide the circumstances best suited to the 

in different tropical colonies. There is also 

much more to be learnt and worked out as regards the best means to be 

adopted for tapping rubber trees, and for preparing the milk so as to 

irgest available amount of marketable rubber. 

The preparation of C rfbed by Morris (Colony 

I louduras, p. 76), as follows :— 

" At the close of the day the rubber-gatherer collects all the milk, 

'• washes it by means of water, and leaves it standing till the next 

He now procures a quantity of the stem of the moon-plant 

u (Calonictyon speciosum), pounds it into a mass, and throws it 

" jut. al.urkct «.t water. After this decoction has been 

the proportion of one pint to a gallon, 

" » until, whole d the milk is coagulated. 


I, kneaded into cakes, and placed under heavy weights to 

UwaU-ry pjiriiclc*. When pc-ffcth dmined and dry, the 

"1 'her cakes an m ,«!,.,, m Cil "^.» 

The idea respecting the preparation of rubber, as suggested above 

by Mr. Millson, without the aid of the moon plant or of alum, which 

latter is also sometimes used, would appear to be not entirely new. 

1,1 J 872 > lf ]< st "ted that if the juice of plants is not procurable 

about two parts of water are added to one part of milk, and allowed 

< to stand for 12 hours. The residue which separates from the water 

'• is poured into vats made in the ground and left to dry. This 

' urytng takes from 12 to 11 days. Sometimes the milk is simply 

^ poured on 1 W;il! ,,. j,,,,,.;, , n ,jj,, wcd t0 cvap0 . 

rate or otherwise disappear. The rubber, when dry, is subjected 

are in order to get rid of the balsas or pockets of watery 

D. M.