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The Yearly Volume of (lie Ken- Bulletin for 1887 may -(.ill b<- 
obtained from Me.^rs. Kvi:k ami SroTTiSAVOOOE, East Harding .Street, 
Fleet Street, E.C. Price, in boards, 2v. -id. per copy. By post, 
United Kingdom, 2s. Id. per copy; Foreign Countries and Colonies, 
2s. !()</. per copy. 

I Eights Reservt 




No. 13.] JANUARY. [1888. 

XXIX.— COLONIAL FRUIT— (continued). 

. which the fruit 

TheEeport received respecting the fruit- ofthi- t 
complete charaen r. hi forwarding the Report to 
Victoria, Mr. I). E. Martin, Secretary for Agricultu 

T may state that -n far it appears to n 

not in exec— of In.-al :i 

extend a trade in fresh or preserved fruits, I 

ambers in the vessels, are 

In order to ascertain the views of the wholesale fruit dealers on the 
-' : '• 
of the dealers. By one I was informed that the experiment of exporting 
fruit had been tried and proved a failure. .■ 

: as having been realized at the Indian and Colonial 

ti\ a -hip:.,, nt el trm! ,h an . xperiment, and 

s owing, to the cost *& the many 


for the fruit in a loss of 50/. He 

charges 7 per cent, on his sales, and that covers everything, but at 

home they had no fixed scale. 

uwers here could not be relied upon for packing 
A ,.»., ,~ ■ | boxes ready for exporting, owing to the fact that 

. : '' ' ■ ■ 

ck. The dealer 

after its arri 
treating fruit 

auxiliary means , iiieh growers here 

d packing, which fruit requires; and the jam lactorv furnishes as 

'">' ■ receptee • . as for sound fruit. He 

talogue of one of ; teen in Lond 

4.y 0n toTv'r 
f from 8*. to 10s. per case, the latter being of a 
superior class. Ti ,, would compare favourably 

vith the prices quoted, and v. ... .rowers here would 

lot be induced to try exporting. The lowest price obtained here for 
ipples is about 4*. a case. To export them at that price, the case 
,vould cost about 10*. by the time it was disposed of at home, owing to 
reight, repacking, commission, and other charges; and the case of 
ipples would not realize that price. At present the colony is not in a 
position to dispose ol its fnnt m an . \"p .n market. He stated the 

Ydon i Exhibition were misleading, for the reason thai - . fi •' is 

i procured here 

'all/o.l a '•< i : ;■ portion 

irket to the 

Iter class of it was grown so as to 
'the home in,. ! become a 

The Grape. 
The grape is esteemed the premier fruit of the Australian Colonies. 
The demand for the produce of the vine i- unlimited, as it can be used 
in sui-h a variety of ways ; as a table or <!.>— ert fruit, it is at once one 
of the most 1> . - i i _ i dde, and in the heat of 

surnni, r invaluable for the invalid. It is believed the grapes of Vic- 

for n isii -i ibl) South Australia or New South 

Wa! - Id i kl >n i.-. . tin - _i [>>■< contain a greater amount 

ID t he .Mall 5€ Dig be materially changed. 

The Apple. 

No doubt this is also a fruit of the greatest importance, and -inee the 

of soil. Orchards, like vineyards, require proper drainage, and a hirg.- 

amount of intelligence and industry to keep them free from the insect 

I rich are already decimating some of the best orchards of the 

From the 16,000 or 18,000 different varieties of apples, perhaps a 
selection of from 40 to 50 would be found sufficient for most grower- 
for export, cider, and drying. The exportation of the apple to 

-■•;.;•■.' :•■;' -i '■ '■' ■ .. • ■■-....' 

in tie near future, open up a, great market for the orchardist. 
The Pear. 

arion, home consumption (as dessert and cooking frur 

mil [x r\ i aking i Ik tret j"' s i goroush at i is 

The Peach. 

he apricot, this can also be grown 
i large well flavoured fruit, it requh 

warance in our peach orchards. The e<»t of labour and remedies 
well absorbs all the prosit.- oi the peach hem-try. and unless, 

ly pay for growing. 

The Nectarine. 
that has been said of the peach applies to this v. 

The Plum. 

Plums of all descriptions grow well in most di 

taliaa prunes should be very much more extens 
nlimited demand exists for these in their dry st; 

stricts of Victoria, i 
fruit. The French j 

The Cherry. 
This being one of the first fruits to come into 
rolific, it is sold at prices within the reach 

Monies, such as Queensland, New Zealand, & 

Jiniuierative prices. 

c, &c, and briug v 

The Orange and Lemon. 

The Fig. 

• - 

ethers, arc \;v\ prolific, and very excellent as a dcsvori iruit. The 
demand for f be, at no sta I dale 

unlimited. The cultivation of the fig is very simple, and th< 

to be subject to so great a number of pests as many other 
kinds of fruit. 

The Olive. 

number of a bastar 
been perfectly barret- 
scale blight, which ii 

great danger of be 

ie Colony, and 
:irely deatroyed 

The Wal 


This shou 

strict they would grow to a 

I. in addition to 

, plan, 


The timber in arte 
popular for dessert. 

Both bitt 
demand for 

er and s 

imited at present, ; 
The Qui 

Z eo 



— «* 

This is in 

' ■■■;' : 


The Raspberry. 
In many part3 of the Colony this can be grown lo perfection. In and 

around Lilh-I.-il.-, Daylo-i' >nl, nu.i lh- \V.->tcrn District, very large 

- have boon made. Tho fruit is in great demand in the 

son?on from private persons, who buy largely of this delicacy to 

their own jam in preference to buying the adulterated 

market under the name of " raspberry 

The Strawberry. 
Although one of the fim lits, the large amount of 

labour expended on strawberry culture renders it in many plat 

- l Tyhderma fragarim (or r- 

'■■■-); ; ! 

for tlio fruit .- < out ••nn tl. I -. dessert, or win( 

making. They m and used, both fc 

home consumption and export. They are both very valuable fruit 
and deserve a large amount of cultivation. 

There are many minor fruits which in time will, no doubt, be intn 
duced into these Colonies, but the foregoing are at present the on( 
h profitably increased. 

The fruit growers would, no doubt, be greatly benefitted, and thei 
future welfare ensured 10 a v. ry great extent, by the various Govern 
ments giving greater facilities t'ov rhn/ji tra -it over all railways,! 
refrigerating cur-, or other earring. - adapt, d lor speedy conveyance c 
fruit throughout the Colonies. Also the fitting of the mail steamer 

companies or private individuals for the production .,i' a 
. - ■ 
\,r-\ adapted for exportation or home consumption, such .- 
apples, pears, -. &i also potatoes, 

onions, carrots, parsnips, sweet herbs, &c, &c. 

i ,-■ 

Colony of V: . -<- ; was 2 17,-1 -9/. i he total value 

. : ■ . ■ : . -.■■, :.<,.:.. .■■■■:...._■". ~ : • : ; '•"■■■.■ 

than the value of the fruit exported from the Colony. 

South Australia, 

prepared for • John F. Pascoe : — 

;.;•■■■ ■ ' - : '■ : :.. ; ';.':»:.. 

and varies slightly in periods of years. Until 

live} .I's, [ eutwdeivd the apple our most imp. 

■ ■-■ • ■ -. 

>ur orchards, and made such sad havoc, our apple crops have 
ually decreased, and now they are of small commercial value; but 
1 hoping and believe this visitation is only temporary, and that it 

erries, pomegranates, olives, These are mostly 

rown in large quantities, :m<l gen< rally equal to fruits of the same kinds 

ad varieties as can be grown in ' We also grow, 

i small quantities, citrons, i \- passion fruit, 

II Fhe.prantit -a n'labh' for export I < >t -ive ; I can only state 

III. Cannot give quantities or value. 

No dried fruits exported worth mentioning, except almonds; and, 
considering that, with our excessive duties on dried fruits, we cannot 
keep them out of our market, we are not likely to export any. 

Grapes are exported to Victoria in large quantities, and realise 
good prices ; formerly we exported to all the neighbouring Colonies, 
especially New South Wales and New Zealand, but of late years those 
Colonies bav« ions for pre- 

venting the sprt .'mi oi '• Phylloxera','' a (ii-eu- . I 

doe- not exist in our Colony. Last year New South Wales relaxed the 
conditions wi1 ting district of Silverton. We send a 

few cases there now, and when the railway is completed, shall probably 


Pears to West, i . New South Wales, and Queens- 

land, and to England in small quantities. 

Apricots in large quantities, chiefly to Victoria. 

Peaches in large quantities, chiefly to Victoria. 

Loquats : during the season the trees bear heavily, these are sent in 
large quantities to Victoria. 

1 Wales in large quantities. 

IV. All the fruits 

oed in reply II. ca 

n be 

grown in 


quantities. We hav 

incentive, that is, a i 

to which we can 

chance of 

getting a fair return. 


many of our fruits 


: ' 

nt cheaper freights, reduced 



and a guarantee for t 

air and 

proper returns. 

A bushel of apples costing in Adelaide 4*., sent to England in the 
ordinary way, would have to realise nearly 9s. to pay the shipper net 
cost. To give you an example, — 

Per Orienl er," I sent last year to the Colonial 

and Indian Exl fhrit, which realized — 

"t u ' u< U (Uf pu !m-h, . • ;. t irit- ( on- d<r< _ tl - 

. if eertainly gives very little encourage- 
ment. It is incidents of this kind which disgust shippers. 

V. The qua : limited, our 

local supplies of popular fruits being in excess of all demands. 

export. Pine- 

;reat pecuniary los-. The kin, Is most afflicted are apples, pears, 

,11 the remedies suggested with little or no good effect, what is wanted 
3 a thorough scientific examination of our soils, &c. for the purpose of 

e effectual it must be done by the Government or societies. 

The following supplementary Report has been prepared by 
•Ir Thomas Hardy:— 

II. Grape-'; in D ; bei t • May A pp!e< fr-u \,»v, mccr to Ma\ 
Apricots from December to January. Oranges from Ma_\ n> Deermher 
Lemons all the year. Plums from November to .March. Cherries, 
November. Pears from December to April. Peaches fr..m becmUr to 
March. Loijiiat- from October to November. Nuts (V,,;n .January to 
Man-! I'll* jiiautit es available for export, and prices . 

III. Grapes are exp . <• ; no other 
fruit is exported in any quantity. 

in the n The orange and lemon, 

n the warm plains, the apple, plum, an 

The principal things wanted to open up and extend tl 

requii I 1 sail the 

markets, and the be*r time of the year to send away from here. 


VI. The g ,-..':,., \, ■ , i- the finest produced in 

Western Australia. 

llowinc is an extract a dcspatc 
> Sir H. Holland, date! Perth, Westcn 

arative commercial speculation to make wine for the Fie;, h market. 
ron_ f fulM.odied r.ial w*-U-;a-!cd wine <<( a Bur^uiah character, 

to believe it would be. 

^,. of /'/,,/Hohm i< unknown in \V 

• which purpose I am 
ight after. The vine 

uld he made aware of the unlimited soi 

which roigl d inexpensively 

eloped in Western Australia, I feel sure that the matter would 1 

pany formed 

ck of land. 

j chief fruits grown 

-:■■■'■■■■ ■ ■■ 

be suitable for fruit-growing, but it requires capital to >";< wlop this 

At present 1 1 1 • - -apply ot' tVnit is only sufficient for the vants .1' the 

Oranges and apples are imported into the CoK>iiy iVom Ad-la'n'a . 

een the Blackwood and Gerald- 

rowth of the vine. The citrus 

i the grape, but they require a 

.y soil east of the 

3 capital to Mart with than other 
ew in this Colony who can afford 
eceive any return for the outlay. 


jh tit-,' l.loveruor of Tasmania, prepared by Mr. F 

lent of the Bota Town :— 

e apple, JPynis Mains, is extensively grown, and th 

r to the curl and other 

The gooseberry, Ribes Grossularia, is largely p] 

for the manufacture of jam and also for export in a green 

state. The berries atraiu ;i in-. - /< in Mutable situations, and the crop 
is n-uaUv a heavy one. Fruit in season from middle of November to 
mi. Ml- of January. 

Currants. R id white. The two former are largely 

grown for th i, the fruit commencing to ri| 

uai'iiicr part- <>! tie- < i the lac -! districts it 

will hang on the bushes tiil late in April. The plants bear very 

Raspberry, Rubus hiatus. This fruit is von extensively grown in 
the moist bottom lands of the Colony, the canes 
the crop at times is so heavy as not to pay fur picking, and large 

exported in bi 

Grapes, Vitis vinifera. These do fairly well in the warmer parts of 
the Colony ; : M, Black Hamburg, Sweet 

. , • . ■ ■ .■■■-.- " ! - : : • ■ 

generally. The warmer cl i Colonies 

Tasmania could never 

',.■■•... :,.-'■■■ ■ ' ' ..'■■-■■■■■- • 

ries, Frayaria, are extensively grown, both for local con- 

well into January ; in moist seasons 
small gatherings late as May. 

; , 
Castanea vesca, are all cultivated to a limited extent, and thrive well. 
The walnut is the most extensively grown, and the nuts are ready for 
export during March and April. 

Filberts, Corylus Avellana, do well, and fruit freely in anil 
they are not as yet extensively cultivated. 

The quince, Cyibmiu rulynris. medlar. V 
, n ,1 .. :; . l/w//- niimi.A I blaei 

:tent, but only for local consumption, 
A demand ha£ ■ blackberries for the 

jam, whi.;h mii\ 1 ■'■■■' ■ < • nfualfj i. the cultivation of th- 


Th..- e» 

ikivation of the principal t'ru 

therto been 

regulated by the de 

well s- 

lited to the successful culture 

e foregoing 

thoroughly mature them thai 

i they ost 

uilly get in 


The climate of T 

, •■:;■<.:.- ■. ' . ■ : ■ . 

n that of the 

ter fitted to bring out 

qualities of 

all ordinary 

:■:. _-..-: 

i fruits, nud thence Tasmania-gi 

own appl, 

is and pears 

better flavoured as a rule, and are endowed 

Provided a payable market can be obtained, tb 
limit to the quantity of fruit that could be produced 

Provided a payable market can be obtained, there is practically no 
smania. The 

i of fruit 
aturally possess better keeping qualities. 

New Zealand. 

Reeves, Officer in Charge 

I. The chief fruits grown in the Colony are the Apple (Pyrus 

u f'r , t us <h„ ltt >tt,;n, th I' ai ,/',,- mttmm's). 

rubrutn et nigrum), Gooseberry 

>■■■'■ i 

November and December; tomatoes from i 

>ruary to end of March. 

cherries during December; peaches from Fel 

The Colony has no fruit to export : on tin 

1 contrary, we import large 

The wholesale prices are ruled by the pi 

-ices obtained for the fruit 

imported from Australia and Tasmania, ami 

Apples from 3s. to IS', per l>u 

shel of 401bs. ' 

Plums „ 6*. to lo.y. 

Pears „ 10*. to 17*. 6tf. „ 

Tliese prices vary according to the quality 
of the year. 

1 1 1 . ' 1 'radically the Colony has no fruit to e 

of the fruit and the season 

xport. For the year ending 
dand-grown fru 

March 31, 1886, the total value of New Zei 

IV.' All the fruits mentioned are capable 

<»t' b.-ing produced in very 

able to supply all its own wants in fresh 

Fruit-growing in the Colony is in a very bac 

ion, but more 




rely grown in cold vineri< 

•s: the 

produce realize 

( l.v.) per lb. wholesale. 

tl: i <• ird to app( ai mi u 

id fh,v, 

.stly superior to t 

smanian fruit. 

The . 

•uliivationoi these fruit- is 

aefive pr.-sp,.. r 

the Uni 

ted States during the montl 

i their markets ai 


however, has to be done 

8 way of learnii 


The Government is desirous to afford e 

very facility for 1 

of the i 

indu-lry. and has sanctioned the 

he School of I 


tare now being established 

in Whi 

at page 

s .3 and l) of a paper on tl 

ie prop 

osed School of '. 

the General AsM.-n.My dur 

last session ; ah 

' 1 , :in : i .'" 1 

of the Progress Report of 

the State Forests Deparl 

he school should nfj q i i i ring a compre- 

d_'o of pomology, in addition to forestry and agriculture. 

the cost of the teaching-staff. 

training of youth as fruit-growers necessarily includes 

- great is then inq rtanee nnu In 

iese, one of the most important is the sel< 

in a single dn - entirely neglected in the 

. Its important lew years ago 

1 in an Auckland 

is the prevalence of fungoid and insect pests. I need n 
upon the extent of om these causes, 1 

would enable the fruit-grower to recognize the different 
they make their fii ( ap >< n u ■ < . ni d teach him the line: 

ion before New Zealand- 

es of (iivai 

to a minimum. Other ad 

g a school of pomology. 
' ' ; looked upon as a source of revenue, 

•ees will be found as much as can be 

the stocks should be grown on the school reserve-, and crafted or 
budded by the students. This would -dm-i tin «.i i' 

and give the students greatei \uU n-i In th-ir work. Kverv 
year the new* introduced from Europe and 

America, and •.. ..■■ \ ... /. 

tested. The school would thus become, not m< i 

■wl,-,!-.. ; ; M ,l .listing an importan 

« Ministers beg tc 
" the subjoined scl 
The schedule?. : 
arranged in such a 
here. Schedules ! 
to the Cape of C 
Those interested it 

The substance of the information received from the Cape Government 

grown in the several divisions of Cape Colony, are published with 
special reference to the export of fruit. It appears from the numerous 

is made, that before a trade in fruit can be esta 
Great Britain, cheap and speedy transit to coast ports, and low freights 
thence must be secured. Information lias been sought as to the stage 
of ripeness at which the different kinds of fruits should be picked, and 
as to the proper method of packing. It has also been proposed that 

The principal fruits cultivated in Cape Colony, and likely to be 
icots, bananas, figs, Cape gooseberries 

i Pliv-nii-}, grapes, lemons, melons, nectarines, oranges, peaches, pears, 

Minds, and walnuts. Most of these 

fruit- < mid be grown in very large quantities in Cape Colony, if sufficient 

Are widely and generally cultivated. They are in season from January 

> March. The local prices vary from 4 d. to 3s. per 100 in Cape Town 

> about 6s. per 100 in Humansdorp. 

sty abundant. They are in season from December to February 
d prices vary from 3d. per 100 in the Eobertson division to 
. per 100 in Cape Town. 


These at 

'e confined to war 

m, sheltered, 

and well-w;: 

fl, 1} are i 

i season nearly all t 


1. The local prices vary i 

Grow in several divisions of the Colony " to perfection." They are in 
season from December to April. The local prices at Worcester are 2s. Gd. 
to 3s. 6 d. per bushel ; at Piquetberg, 6d. per 100; at Fort Beaufort, 
9d. to 1*. 6d. per 100. 

Cape Gooseberries 

Are derived from a species of Physalis (natural order Solanacece). 
They are semi-cultivated and wild ; they make admirable preserve ; 
very abundant, and when sold, can be bought for 2s. per basket. 

argely produced than any < 

. e proper seasons in immense m 

!>.'.•> nii..T to March. The local prices vary . 

' ' at Ma' ' 

quantities. They a 
prices vary consid 
l.ii-ln'1 : at Malmesbury, 

it/, to id. per pound at Robertson to 3d. per pound at Queen's Town, 
and 6d. per pound at Albert. 

Are in season from March to October. The price locally varies from 
Is.- per 100 at Riversdale to 6*. per 100 at Albert. 

Ara produced in large quantities. They are in season from Jan 
I v I"i • Tin local ; ric<- are '2,1. to Is. each in Stellenbosch, au< 
igh as Ad. to 2s. 6d. each in Cape Town. 

Are in season from January to March. They are sold local I' 
Robertson at 3rf. to 9d. per 100; at Oudtshoorn' at 6d. per 10')" 
"Worcester at 2s. per bushel. 

Ol excellent quality are 

The local prices are 'As. per bu 
per 100 in Cane Town, and \s 

Are in geas< February. At 

10*. per bushel. In other divisions the prices 
3s. 6d. per 100, according to quality. 

Almonds and 
Are in season from January to Mai 
'. to 9d. per pound. 

rhe information supplied as regards the quantity of fruit produced in 
h division and available for export is of a very useful character. 

ivil Commissioners, assisted by reports 

from fruit cultivate] 

:.:■.. ';:' : ..■.■ , .■■■.. ■■- ■ ■ , . . 

i, except plums, oranges, and lemons. 1 
ailable for export purposes is.— apples, o,( 
--. 10.000 : Cap. gi osol ■ >.' 
orange-, 1 ,000 ; peaches, 10,000; pea 

Clanwilliam Division. 
From this division large quantities of fruit are sent to oth 
in the Colonv. (irano- are u-ually =olil at 2s. i\d. per bushel, and 
molou* at 30.y."per loud Guavas at Is. 6c?. per 100 are available from 
Ma rcli to August. 

George Division. 

The fruit available for export is as follows :— Apples, 3,000 bushels ; 

apricots, 2,000; figs, 1,000; oranges, 50,000 (in number); peaches , 

plums, 500; quinces, 1,000; grapes, 

3,000 bask.; I at 2s. per bushel; figs at 6*. per 

lm-hel ; apples at 3s. per bushel. 

Humansdorp Division. 

Ladismith Division. 

t medicinal properties." Large quantities of fruit are available 

Mdlmeshurij Division. 

On dts]) oom Division. 
It is stated in the Report that a model farm should be established in 
ii1 trees supplied to growers. Any 

-. : ■ . '■■.:•:■■_ 

. - :-.;■■■•■...:■ i :•. 

grown. Figs rate of 3d. per 100; 

per 100; lemons, ts.6d. per 1,000; oranges. 2<>>. p ol - 1.000; peaches, 

In addition to tin- fruit- ahvadv nrmnr u-d. t ;- -tated that the 

• ;..-.■-. ■_■...-., . ,• ■ /.' -■■■■■■ . • , - - ■ • " : 

i ... - ti - r - .i , r I . *.. 1 . i>d. per 100 from April 

' •■ . :■ . .■■...<■■■■■: .. '. ■■■■■ 

nber) oranges would 
i, and chestnuts are 
Cape gooseberries, 


Queen's Town Division. 
To establish a trade in fruit it is necessary that there should be a 
guaranteed market at more than local rates; formation of 
company ; nominal railway rate* and lYei-l }s: lhl ] ,; ov , 
experiments, and in securing proper accommodation mi board ship. 
Robertson Division. 
Fruit of almost any known kind thrives to perfection. A syndicate 
should be formed, land pun has,.,! for fruit growing, and the work of a 

for export :— Apples, 8,000 pounds; apricots, 5.000 ; ban", 
figs, 20,000; peaches, 80,000; pears, 20,000; j 
60,000; grapes, 12,000,000. Apples, 6d. to M. per 100 : 
:<• 1 V. per pound; lemons. ls.Gr/. to 2s. 6d. per 100; pead 
9^. per 100; per 100. 

i Cape Tow,! ;u,d Jvin,b,-rl.n-. To inerea, 
export company should be start,-,] «-it|i En-lNh e ;i p 
export: — Apples, 100 tons; pears. 7o tons'; quince; 

Grapes, Is. M. to 3?. per bushel'; pears. Is. to 3*. pei 

Stoclenstrom Division. 
The following quantities available for export:- 
(n umber) } figs, 7(M i,000 ; peaches, 

50,000; plums, 25,000 ; quinces, 1,000,000. 

grown in Maurit 

jberry, "Framboise Maronne," Rubus rosm) 

' Govnv.;'7',...' band Cattleyanu 

There an- -vera! other <t 

litchi, from the 
e end of Januar 

the year. Mangoes from October to 
common in December, January, and 
.nuary. The peach, from middle of 

land to supply il 

e for export from Mauritius on an 

! ii.d.-d. If takes about all that is 

ces which rule 

the fruit market here, wholesale and 

wholesale and iet:il.jiM -ivea, 

of a rupee for one fruit. 

iine-apple is sold, in retail, at from four cents of a nip 
per fruit, depend ,i abundance or s 

uit. The wholesale \» ie. ■- of tins fruit, at the planta 
le-half to three-l'ourths of the above sums. 


The fresh fruits exported from th 
Ks. 253. They were sent to the " Ca 
said to be " not of local origin " in the Blue Book. 

However, the shi tng a .year consumes, 

while in harbour, quantities of the fruits grown in the Colony; and a 
good supply is generally taken away for consumption on the voyage. 
I have not foui the value of the latter. 

Some bunches of hauaiias are. I b-lieve, exported to Port Elizabeth ; 
' i Blue Book as of local origin. 

Ex, ! i ng cocoa-nuts, to th< 
the " Cape Colonies " in 1885 

' \t u 

! tv^ 2 1 fo 'o t tt t I 

■ dried fruits, the 

produce of Mauritius, export ec 
The value of the,,, nfeetione: 
it during 1885, was Rs. 1,085. 
The kinds are not given in tl 
have been mostly pickles and g 


• Book, but tlio 

and exported from 
y are supposed to 

There is room for all the ki 

ud : : : ^ 

fruits grown I 

iere being largely 

local su L 

The count aresl to .Mauritius is the 

Cape of Go,,,! Ii I , . -~ , _ , v. m j there and 

"■ ' ' <■■ ■■ ■■ " ■ ■ -. ••' !' : .. ; ■/.-■ 

■■ '■■-'■ ■ ' > ' ■•:.■.•-■■ -. v . 

that rhe cxisnim small trade : these fruits could he \ten, led, par- 

rklt eXPOlt t0 ° aPe P0 ' 

safely and fair profits on consh 

Portsi if they be la -heaply. 

rumour abroad am. - a the ,„ ,.pi, that the Colony 

.ly to tin Cape ,,t (;< 10 ,1 Hope. 

could not depend on o of fruit he required at a 

reasonable price. 

. . - 

Tin's nece^uy roem-xlon ln'tiwi'n tin 1 consutu" • of preserved trull 

••■•': .■■.:■■.:■;!,. - .■,..■ ■ : 

!'!;.• cuHivat. would then know thai ! • i- not ntering 
on what to him miuht <-<-</m a hazardous entcrpri-e ; and so also will 
the preserver, when the mutual connexion is understood. 

Fruit growing:, excepting that of mangoes, litehi-, ami a few other 
trade are in the tian. Is ot' Indian market 
I trailers. 


tone of the subject. It should be constantly kept before the public in 
ifferent ways or forms. 

Then, to sum up thi- no: . rl •> m •■•— ary steps to develop an export 

(1.) Rapid and regular steam communication, giving reasonable 
facilities '" ~'' ]•'■' '<'- '■• ;h1 and good airy 

>r the owners , ■,. .. r >, to carry I 

In 18S5 the value of imported c 

grapes ji.'ars. .Xii-.. i'roin South Africa, where 

year these fru ibound. Bui such imports have, 

when made. I itherto been 

;it tip 'i ! _ ' lolfsolf purchasers who combine to give 

their om d pric< s. Th I not carried 

on at a loss, no matter what I ablic may be. 

Dried fruits of the i 
1885 and consumed i-i ! 

Cape Colonies, i -1 t and i'>ane-< : date-; ill- 2062 from the Cape of 

Good Hop'-, India and Muscat : li-s ( R.. i»;, i,-,,,,, ,;„ I -i.r, .1 

prunes (Rs, 9-48) from France; pista " its Rs. 286) 

India, " The Cape " and France; wal 

: of other all sorts (Es. 274) from the United Kingdom, 


uauguraJ address of Sir Henry E. Roscoe, M.P., 

nee, and the mode in which they atv arranged 

■■■■■■ ■ ' '■_■■• .-■'•..:' 

possessed all the therapeutic or elementary properties of 
product, and they could be produced in -". 

! "■ : : : : ■: :' 

alarmed for 1 1 rtries. But while we may 

: ' ' ■ -■■■■ ■■- - ..i' : : - '■■ ■■: I".", : .-■ ■;.■.-.....:.. '. ..•,,:.. 

products, it is very dou :•; , , . : , , ,., -. 

find it an . • ter. The 

been discovered by chemical research, 

p -, = =J ng i r - ;•■ ! 

able instance is the production of an artificial sweetening aj 
saccharine, 250 times sweeter than sugar, prepared 

e is Dr. Constantin Fahlberg. 

commerce, and that it is anticipated that it will be largely employed for 

undergo as-imuiation wh n takeji as an article of to, ,1. and hence it 
may be used in cases where cane or ten. It may 

be safely employed, for instance, by diabetic patients and by persons 
suffering from gouty affections and liver complaint.-. Further, it is 
said, that on* ! to sweeten a cup of tea 

or coffee, and that it is very difficult if not impossible to distinguish 
whether a beverage is sweetened with saccharine or cane sugar. And 
accharine used in sweetmeats does not 
" create acidity," and in pharmacy its use will afford a wide field of 
usefulness. The manufacture of saccharine on the other hand i- said 
to be a costly process, and it cannot at present, nor is it even likely, to 
be sold as cheaply as sugar. 

Having thus briefly summarized what is known of saccharine, it mav 
intere-t tho-. \< 1 • an- ■ i _ i-« i dir-eth or indireeth in the production 
of cane sugar, to learn the views of so eminent an authority a< 
Sir Henry Roscoe, as to the probable influence of the discovery of 
In reply to a letter addressed 

to him from this e&tftblif 

which it was stated that corres- 


to judge as to the future 

of saccharine, Sir Henry Roscoe 


Sir Henry E. Roscoe, M.F., F.R.S., to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

10, Bramham Gardens, 

Wetherby Road, S.W., 

December 3, 1887. 

er 28, as to the probable influence 

,i the d m 

•uirar, I have to say that 1 

do not believe that saccharine is 

an article of 

common use like sugar. In the 

plao. 1 .!■' 

-. cchariiwan 

be prepared at a price likely to 

•■■•ial sweeten 

ing agent will, however, become a 



■rially aiieeted by !he inlrodmTim* 

[All Bight* Reserved.] 

B D L L E T I N 


No. 14.] FEBRUARY. [1888. 


(,','V'^K -- 't'i.'''. -i-.i'- l ",i'v -iv^Lk V'.r , 

rx.-hiiii-i- with C.loi.iiil. Indiiin. ;u;,l Foivi-n limanic (ii.r.l.-ns, a* well 





Ajacis, Reichb., S. Eur. 
Brunonianum, Koylc, Himal. 
clirilmirimin, Fisch., Siberia. 

caucaHcum, L., Caucas. 

Co.,soU S °Kur'. 
(.•i:i-<ifoliuni, Schrad., Cauc. 
— var. fol. rotundioribus 

— var. lludsoniana. 

l)oivantlia, Don." Hima 
Pulsatilla, L., Eur., et 

glabelluni,Turcz., M. Baical. 
grandiflorum, L.. China, etc, 
(cliincnse, Fisch.) 

palustris, L., Eur. 

radicans, Forster, 

triste, Fisch.. Siberia. 

vestitum. Wall.. Ilimal. 
nthis hyeuialis, Salisb., Eur. 

antiquorum, A.Br. 

colchicus, Rcgel, Levant. 

guttata- X colchicus, hybrid. 


(Atragene alpina, L.) 

recta. I,, Eiir.,ete. 

, L., S. Eur. 

ra, Pall.. Chi 

Paeonia— cont. 

albiflora, var. uniflora. 

arictina, And., Orient. 

— var. Sabini, And, 
tenuifolia, L., Siber. 
triternata, Pall., Taur., etc. 

(daurica, And.) 

aconitifolius, L., Eur. 
acris, L., Eur. 

— var. Correamij. 

— var. Steveni, Bess. 
arvensis, L., Eur. 
brutius, Tenore, Italy, 
chaerophyllus, L., Eur., etc. 
Cymbalaria, Pursh, N. Amer. 
falcatus, L., Eur. (CVrato- 

cephalus falcatus, Pers.) 
Flammula, L., Eur. 
■ — var. pseudo-reptan-. svtnc. 
Lingua, L., Eur. 
maritimus, Ph., Chili. 
parvi floras, L., Eur. 
repens, L., Eur. 
Reuterianus, Boiss., S. Eur. 

angustifolium, Jacq., S. Eur. 

— var. nigricans, 
aquilegifolium, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. purpureum. 
Chdidonii, DC, Sikkim, 


jlaucuin, Desf., S. Eiu. 
javanieum, Illume, Java, 
ninus, L., Eur. 

- var. adiantifolimn, Il'orf 

- var. affine, (Jord.). 

- var. collinum. (Wallr.) 

- var. elatum, Kegel. 

- var. uVxuosum, (Bernh.). 

- var. pubescens, Schlridi. 
-var. squamosum, (Steph.) 

i-iati,-ii>. L., Siber. 
raropteas, L., Eur. 

- var. Dciiavaiius, Hurt. 


, L., Me 

— var.' alba. 
Bocconia cordata, W., I 

majus, L., Eur. 

— var. fl. pi. 

— var. laciniatum, 

capnoides, Pers., ! 
glauca, Pnr>h.. L T i 

— caespit.- 
(E. team 

densiflora. DC., Bar. 

fu nutria f> > 1 i a , S\v . 


VViillidiLiuaJiouk, Himal. 

, (Limll.J 

. iVuin C';i])v. 
. " Danebrog.' 

', S.Eur. ' deltoidea, \ar. Kicltafli 

. Willi.. S. Km-. 


eracoides, DC, M. 

tonuifoiin. do, Ei 

flndnieensia, Wulf., Cai 

frigid*, Nm... Alps El 

hirta, L., N. Eur. 

hH-s.'ti:rrlM..:.t ! , 1 . ll']\v.. S. '] 



TTeliantheraura — cont. 

albiflorus, Hort. 

polifoliuni, Mill., Kur. 

hirsutus. Lam.. Mediter. 

Funmna, Mill. 

Tuberaria, Willd., Eur. 

platjsepalus, Sweet. 

vulgare, Gaertn., Eur. 

villosus, L.. Mediter. 


— var. rhodanthum, (Dunal.) 

leptophyllum, Dunal., Eur. 

— var. tomentosum, (Dunal.) 

niloticum, Pers., S. Eur., N. 



canina, L., Eur., N. Amer. 

pinna ta, L., Alps, Eur., etc. 

pumila, Willd., S. Eur. 

••-., Eur. 

pyrenaica, Rani., Pyrenees. 

D.dabordii, Hort. 

stagnina, Kit., Eur. 

Jooi, Janka, Tninsvlv. 

striata, Ait., N. Amer. 

lufea, 1 1 lids., Eur. 

Biiavis, Bbrst., Siber. 

— var. grandiflora. 

sylvatica, Fries., Eur. 

. :. 

— var. alba. 

odorata, L., Eur. 


— var. purpurea, Caucas. 

tricolor, L., Eur. 

palustris, L., Eur. 

— var. maxima, 

Patrinii, DC, India, etc. 

(V. primulifolia (Lour.) 

V. chinensis, Don.) 


Arenaria— cont. 

grantnifolia. Schrud.. S. Kur 

; -, Scbreb., 

fa^cioulafa, Gouan, Eur. 

(Alsine Jacquinii, KoeL . 
laricifolia, L., Eur. 

ticum, L., S. Eur. 
intosum, L., Eur. 
■atum, L. } Eur., N. An 

Cucubalus baoeifer. L . 

arenarius, L., Eur. 


ocymoides, L., Eur. 
officinalis, L., Eur. 

orientalis, L., Orient. 
Vaccaria, L., Eur. 

ClH.llkMi. C<, 





paniculata, L., Sil 

•on-. Will,!.. (V 
, Fisch., C'auc. 

KoUj-ka, Del., Egypt. 
M-.,r/(>i.eritbli:i. S.-r.". Taiiria 
, Wender., Siber. 

rlai).!f-tin;i. Jaeq., Cape, 
oolorata, Poir., Metliter. 
eonoidea, I.., Levant, etc 
nvtiea, L., S. Eur. 
depressa, Bbrst., Cauea*. 

tliurninora, Kun/e. Cape. 

fuscn, Li'nl 
tallica, L.. 

ju vena lis, Del., Egypt, 
linicola, Gmel., Germany. 
Mill. Portugal. 

llata, Ldl., Levant. 

imiM-ipula. L., Mediter. 

])endula, L., Sicily, etc. 
lVi->oonii, Tod. non Schott. 
pseudo-atocion, Dest'., X. Af 
repens, Patrin., Siberia. 


mic!-:t!lfllil. S,'1ll(-.-!;t.. Mr 


Ilyiif-i-j.-iini— row/. 

Inivitiiim. L.. Me<iiit>r. 
Iiv-.piloliuin. VVilld., 11mm- 

.■Iphi.-nni. 15. rf il.. Kin-. 

u II. I.. M- 


n : ai : , iil .| 1 -;^.V,'.,nT..'i:i,r.' .laaiooua, 

\VnJ.n,. t-rii\,M.-M,„'. j Malva 

( M. «l !„"„ 




■^ rivulnris To, 





; :'r 


mouse. L., S. Eu 

•wisii. (Mhlhro-.i 
. Dcsl'., Airier.-;. 


— g. I " ;:;: 

, DC, Daliur., 
, Suvot. ffinml. 


(T. peregrinum, Jacq.) 

lbus, L., W. Eur., Jap. 

(D. Fraxinella, Pers.) 
- var. purpureas. 


Cneorum tricocoum. L.. S. 

Adesmia muricata, 

Amphicarpaea monoica, 


DC, Chi 

l)u;ti<'a, L., Spain, Sicily, 
ehinensis, L., China, 
chlorostachys, Ldl., Himal. 
Cicer, L., Eur. 
falcatus, Lam., Siberia. 
-. L., Eur. 
-. E., Eur. 

Onobrychis, L., Eur., Sibr-r. 
pannosiiH, Fen/., Tarn-., etc. 
stipulatus, Don., Nepal. 
hulcatiis. L.. Siber., Taur. 

Begl., Turkei 

biflorus, E'lhrit.. Eur. 

capitatus, Jacq.. Eur. 

purpureus, Scop., S Eur. 

uralensis, Ledcl... Eussia. 
Dalea lagopus, Will,!., Mexico. 
Desmodium canadense. DC., ] 

intermedium, Lede 
r um Lens, E., Eur.. 

data, Wendl., Eur. 

microcalyx, Baker, HimaL 
neglectum, Ledb., Altai. 
obscurum, L., Eur. 

angulatus, L., S. Eur. 
Aphaca, L., Eur. 
articulate*, L., S. Eur. 
aureus, Benth. et Hook., Taur. 

(Orohus aureus, Stev.) 
( lymerium, L., S. Eur. 

(O. Jordan!, Tenore.) 
filiformis, Gay. 
lathyroides, B. et H., Siber. 

(O. lathyroides, L.) 
latifolius, L., Eur. 
— var. ensifolius, (Badaro.) 

polyphyllus, Ldl., N. Amer. 
— var. densus. 

:.pit-nl.Mt:i, W., Eur. 

( Hi itt'ioana, Mor.) 

■ a, Urban, N. 


imm., Eur. 

odoratus, L., Sicily, etc. 
:-. I... Siberia, c 
rotundifolius, Willd.,t'i 
sativus, L., Eur. 

sylvestris, L., Eur. 
tenuifolius. Desf.. Eur. 
tingitanus,' L., N. Afr. 
— var. atropurpureus. 
tuberosus, L., Eur. 
variegatus, B. et H. 
((). variesatiis, I 
varius, B. et H., S. 

Echinus, DC, S. Eur. 

. \Viiid . s i; 

rugosa, Desr., Eur. 
rigidula, Lam.. S Eur 

scutellata, Lam., Ear., e 


alba, Desr., Ear. 
officinalis. 1 1. -r . Ei 

a P-) | Ornithopus repamlu-. Poir., 

' i Oxytropis 

Al » er ' ! catnpestris, DC, Eur. 

foetida, DC, Alps, Eur. 

ochroleuca, Bung.-, Siber, 
r * Pliaseolus 

capensis, Thnnb., Cape. 
Wf^etC. (P. caffer, Ilaberl). 

("Wlltilli.Cu-S., (MVITf 

densiflorus, Benth., t'ali 
elegans, H. P.., Movi.-.. 
lutetis, L . EraiK-.-, <•!,•. 
micrauthus, Dough, N. 

Sewerzowia torkestam* 


subvillosM, L„ M« 
gtOcata, L., Medfo 


(fabacea, 1 

Cherleri, L., 

r.phylla, HI 
ophylla, l-'ll.. 

(V.gioant ( .a,Hook.) 

ryrok'iiM-, HoM, Tyrol. 
cniii ii'ilnliala. Mmmh-Ii, X ' 

(liuc-ma.,,, fl-i 
,L'iml.'iisLs I look.. 
(P. braces, Dc 


— var. msulnris, Schlcicli. 
aretioides, Lap., Alps. 

— var. primuliua. 
cassia, L., Alps., Pyren. 
c;espitos;i, L., Kur., etc. 

— var. docipirns, ( Khrli. i 

— V8T. liirta, ( Don.) 

— var. sedoides, (L.) 
Clusii, Goiian, Pyrenees. 

(lcucaiitliriuitolia. Lap. ) 
Cotyledon, L., Eur.. Alps. 

— var. pyramidal!-, i Lap. i 
crassifolia L., Siber. 

(Megasea crassifolia, Haw.) 

ernstata. Vent., Alps. 
, L ., Alps. 

— var. apennina, (Bert.) 

— var. subintegra. 
, Alps. 

Kolenatiana, Kegel, Siberia, 
lactea, Turcz., Temp. Asia, 
lingulata, Bell., Mavit. Alps. 

jides, Wulf., Eur. 

,r. purpurea. 

r. pygmaea, (Haw.) 


Aizoon, L., Siberia 
Anacampseros, L., 

, Sikkim, 
15,000 feet, 
hybridum, L.. Siberia. 

Rbodiola, DC, Eur. 
rubens, L., S. Eur. (Crassuk 
ntbens, L.) 

•pmiuui, Jj'.Tbt., Caucus. 


(Laggeri, Hort.) 

vernense, Lecon et Lamotte, 

barbatulum, Sehott, Eur. 
bicolor, Hort., Eur. 
Boissieri, Hort., Eur. 
Houtk-nvatium, Bill., 

Braunii, Funek., Germany. 
calcareum, Jowl., Eur. ' j 

Fancoanetii, Rent., Alps. 
Hinbiiatum, L. el S., Eur. 
fla.^cllitVinne, Fisch., Siber. 

Greenii, Baker, Fur. 

(S. violaeemn/llort.) 




.litlu.-a, Wilkl., Upper . Lythr 


.•■latum, I'uisli, N. Amer. 

Cupkea lanceolala, Ait., Mexico. 

Salicaria, L., Eur. 

(C. silcnoides, Noes.) 

viseosissima, Jacq., Amer. 

Zimapani, Roezl, Mexico. 

(C. silcnoides, var. Zimapani, 

virgatum, L., Eur. 




Circica lutctiaua, L, Eur., etc. 

e p ; 

iloWtan— cont. 

.X. Amer. 

parviHorimi, Schreb., Eur. 

— var. alba. 

u), Haenke, 

rhomboidea, Dgl., N. Amer. 


(C. gauroides, Hort.) 

— var. Fleischer!, (Hochst.) 


ulsinil'i ]• . 

roseum, Schreb^ Eur., etc. 

angustitolium L., Eur. 

tctragmiuni, L., Ear. 

coiH'iniiuni, F. et M., Calif. 

— var. graiuliflornm. 

Laniyi, Schultz, S. Eur. 

ira Lindh.Miiu-ri. Eng. et Gray, 

nummulariasfolium, C'unn., 

X. Amer. 

N. Zeal. 


— var. longipes. 

(L. miuuta, Hurt.) 



Ainnii glar.cifolium, L., S. ] 

An.-tlnun Sowa, Roxb., Lid 


dahurica, Fisch.. Dahu 
laevis, Gay., Spain. 


Ct'iviV.lmiii. Ilotlm.. Ku 

Apimii -ravcoVns I., Km.. 
Archangel ica 

officinalis H. .<!■;„'". i:,,!! 

major, L., Eur. 
Bupleurum' ' 

*erulago, L, S.Eur., N.I 
^igantea, Hoinem.. S. Eur 
sulcata. Di'si'., Italy, etc. 


virescens, Bth., Eur. 

vulgare, Graertn., Eur., etc. 

pubescens, Bbrst., Cauc, etc. 

— var. gnmniitVruin, (Willd.) 


villosum, Fisch.. Russia. 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L., Eur. 
Lagoecia cuminoides, L.. Greece. 
Levisticum officinale, Koch, Eur. 

Mim, Gouan., Pyren. 


■•i'l-. 1... Eur 
lim.i. L.. Em. 

• I acq., Carniol. 
peucedanifolia. Poll., Eur 
>pmia\ ( '])!■ ■ 

dasycarpuiu, R. et S., Orient, 
officinale, L., Eur. 
Ostruthium, Koch., Eur. 
(Imperatoria Ostruthium, 

tiiiuui, L. S 

v. K, Em.. , 

in., r s 

u, . 1 >.-;;. S. 

Serra, C 

Inn -. |ji:, ! 

pulclirum, Aitch. ft Hem> 

Ptvclioti- Ajowan, DC, In.lia 


Balansn\ Kent.. Orient, 
brachycarpa. (Juss., Sicily 

Candollei, DC, Nepal. 

, S. Eur., " pari 

hexaphylla, All., Italy, e 

. . S. Eur. 

aBgyptiaca, L.. Kgypt. 

i ■ ■ ... C-pia 
graeca, Boiss., S. Eur. 

agreste, Wallr., Eur. 

boreale, L., Eur. ^ 


iit'oliuui, Eis 

maritimum, L., Eur. 
(G. htunii 

Mollugo, L., Eur. 


|(isir(-ni!ii, lioiss., S. Eur. 
reeurvum. Keg.. Greece. 
rubrum, Scop.. S. Eur. 
-uc-Im-atum, All., Eur. 
-ub- Mollugo X verum. 
tenuissimum, Bbrst., Cauc. 
tiieoiric With., Eur. 
uliuiix'sum. L., Eur. 
«««. C.Eur. 

: Mollugo. 



nlliaria-foli:., Vahl, Caucas. 
montana, L., Eur. 

-vnr .rxaltata, (Mikau.) 

— var. iuuvo-vnnegata. 
Auricula, DC, Eur. 
f-arinala, Ui,l., S. Kur. 
c.ronata, Dutr., Mcdit. 
criocarpa, Desv., Eur. DC, S.Eur. 
Morisonii, DC, Eur., Taur. 

, F.'tM.',' Persia. 

tatarica, Soiiia I.. Sil.eria 

asper, Wall., Himal. 

inermis, Coulier. Nopal. 

--. var. Fullonu.n.'i L.) 
Morina longifolia, Wall., Ilin 

alpiua, L., Alps. 

arvensis, L., Eur. (Knau 

Columbaria, L., Eur. 

.,. L., Eur. 
:.. L., s. Ear. 

ilis, Lagas., Orient. 



{ A-U-rofcp i 
Pterocephalus, L., Orient, etc. 
lus Parnassi, 


L., Eur. 

ilecoli rans, Schrad., Eur. 
fiiiprMi'luliiia. Lam., Orient. 

li-uMicM, All.. S. Kur. 


[uarrosa, Nutt., N. 
Amer. (A. alteruitblius, 
DC.) (A. heliantboides, 

Ageratum conyzoides, L., N. Amer. 

strigosus, Less., var. 

Willdenovii, Harv., Cape. 
(A. annuus, Willd.) 

margaritacea, Bth. et Hook., 

Koyleana, DC, var. 

coneolor, Royl., Ind., 


— var. Linnagana. 
nobilis, L., Eur. 

— var. discoidalis. 

, Schkuli., Kur. (Lapp Linosyris, H 

.. >or, DC.) — var. (Lin 

var. Kotschyi. DC.) 

kmuifolius. L;uu., X. 
[Iort., Ku< 

no"-'!;.! I»yr. 

™^\ L ;fcS: B «r., 

Strnchevi, Hk. fil.,IIimul. 
tardiriorus, L., N. Amer. 

AsteT '" ' T * rie8 " te 

TlM-mswiii, Clarke, Himal. 
.rim-rvu! J)i-,V" Km'. 

New.) . 

— var. punctata. (DC.) 

alpimis, L.. Kur. 
Amolliis, L., Eur. 

Valiiii." llo«.k. ct Arn. Falk 

"?A T!'wn^',„liuHk' filj ' 

Curfi^ii. T. el (J.. N. Aim-r. 
dfthiirio.u*, Rcntl.., Daliurin. 

(G. dahiii-i.-;.. IH 
diffusus, Ait., N. Amor. 
Drummondii, Lindl., N. Amer. 
glaucus, T. et Or., llocky 


\ itniii'-u-. Linn.. N. Amer. 



in gracilis, Cray, Calif. 
S sylvestris, Cyril., Medit. 
min K-llidioides, L, Mediter. 

(A. l.-lxitoii.i'-.'L.II.) 
Isevis, L., N. Amer. 

linariifolius, L„ N. Amer. 


frondosa, L.. N. Amer. 
Iimuiiis, H.B.K., Chili, 
leucaiitba, Wilkl, X. Amer., 

tifolia, L'Herit.) 
ineisn, Benth., Siberia. fCali- 
meris incisa, DC.) 
Brachycome diversifolia, F. et M., 

Buphthalmum " 

salicifolmni, DC., Eur. 
speciosum, Schreb., Bur 

(Telekia spmosn. DC.) 

CV-lltam<?:t — (Out. 

— v;\x. yav-. 

Ih --, Cancan 
S<.-al»in>a, L., Eur. 

stenolepis, K. e 

(A. stenolepa, R, et. K.) 
Carthamus lanatus, L., S. Eur 


Cassiuia fulvida, Hk. fil. 


pilosa, Nutt., N. J 
villosa, Nutt., N. 

helenifolia (G. et G. 

Jacea, L., Eur., etc. 

vulgare, Lam.) 
— var. discoidenm. 
maximum, DC, Pyrenees. 
maoi-o|ih\lhmi, \V. ,-t Iv . Eur 

t V. ma.-rophyllum, Willd.) 
Parthenium, Pera., Eur. 

(P. Parthenium, Smith ) 
m, Pers., Eur. 

(P. parthenifolium, Willd.) 

pinnatitidum, L. til., Madeira. 


'nli<rin<-um, Pers., Hungary 
(L- uliginosmn, W cl KV) 
viscosum, Dest'., Spain. 
Chrysogonum virginianum, L., 

Cichorium Intybus, L., Eur. 

altissimus, Willd., N. Ame 
(Cirsium altissimum, Spr.; 

aracbnoideus, Bbrst., Cauca 

arvensis, Hoffin., Eur. 

cou^picuus, L.. Mrxiro. 
diacantlms, (DC), Syria. 

aciileata, DC, Eur. 

biennis, L., Eur. 

Dioscoridis, L.. Eur. 
multieaulis, Ledeb., Siber. 
paludosa, L., Eur. 
pulcbra, L., Eur. 

--"toVa. Hall", fil, Eur. 
tectorum, L. fil., Eur., Siberia. 

calendulaceum, It.Br., Cape. 
— var. hypocbondriacum, 

ianceolalu-. Jlnl 

(Cirsium lance 


auriculata, L., N. An 
coronata, Hook., K. j 
Douglasii, 1). ct II 
(Leptosyne DougU 

Stillmaui, I), et I 
(Leptosyne Stillm 

oxyodonta, DC, 
Cousiaia Hystrix, Mc 


acre, L., Eur. 

alpinns L., Eur., Amer., etc 

glabellus. Nmt, X. Amer. 

daueus, KYr. X. Amer. 

Erigeron — coat, 

philadelplneus, L.. N. Amer. 
pulchellu-. l;,'!.-r.|. TmU-tan 
salsuginosus, Gray, X. Amer. 

(Aster salsii2'inoup, Rich, i ( 
speciosus, DC, N. Amer. I 

(Stenactis speciosa, Ldl.) I 
strigosus, MuliL, X. Amer. 


, L., N 

orientale, DC, Orient. 

rutidolepis, DC, Austn 
apsis lavis, Per?., N. A 

— var. alba. (Rhodantl 

Manglesii, Ldl.) 
Milleri, Hort., 

Benth., Australia. 

(Acroclinium iv<uhii. Ilk.) 

. ot Pass., Medit, 

(M.-tahasNa-tiieiisN. DC) 
araehnoidea, Poir.. X AiV 

.»*„»• y""9- la ^ H , a ,^^ a .j 

i . 

bifrons, L., Eur. 


britanaica, L., Eur. 

Lonas inodora Gksrtn.-, Sicily. 

BuLouium. Jaeq., Eur., etc. 


ensiiolia, L., Eur., etc. 

grandiflora.Willr... Cam-as,.*.-. 
Selenium, L. Eur. 

(Ilurpa'carpus madarioidt-s, 

sativa, Molina., Oregon,, Calif. 

[lookcri, Clarke, Iliinal. 
Oculis-Christi, L„ S. Eur. 

— var. congesta, T. et Gr. 

— var. racemosa, Gray. (M. 

rhizocephala, Sehrenk.. Son- 


saE,' l! Eur. 

Matricaria" ^^ 

ruberos;). Lam.. Kur. (Jasonia 

tuberosa, DC.) 

Vaillantii, Vill, Kur. 

Iva .vautliiit'olia, Xutt., N. Amor. 

(Cyclachiena xanthiifoliu. 

disci form is, DC, Caucas. 

angustana, All., S. Eur. 
cracoviensis, Buck., Eur. 


flavida, Jord., France. 

hastata, DC, India (Mul- 

■ ? c ' ) 

undulata. I>deb.. Nil 

munis, L., Iv 

l'.;i>tlioni:. liridin-sii. Stem: 

OdliglodSii, Grav, Cal 
Douglasii, lfu>k. 

elegans, Torr el (,r.. 
glandulosa,ir«a,k.H A 
lictrroti iclia. < .:,!\. < 

.iahunVa. 1-w-li . Diihur. 
.■Hiiuid.-,, I.. Km (IMmin- 
tliia .cltioides, Gaertn.) 
. L., Eur. 
— var. indica., 

Peta?ile> vulgaris, Deaf., Eur. 


Prenanthes murali?, L., Eur. 

macrophyllus Bbrst., Caucas. 

Pyrrhopappus earolinianus, DC, 

quinquiculatus, Rgl., Asia 

Florida, Texas. 

snrr;i.'cnicii?, L., Eur., etc. 

Rodigia commutata, Spr., Crete. 

sibiricus, Lepeeh .. Siberia. ( L. 


ereticue, All., S. Kur. (He- 

thyrsoideus. DC, Siberia. (L. 

viscose, L., Eur. All .. Mediter. 

(H. polymorpba, DC.) 

Sericoearpus solidagineus,Nees., N. 

K.vlphini'a. Lam./siber. 


! Kulpiniii linearis Pall.) 


,,.,,,,„];, ,. 

oronata. L.. Siberia 

. maeropbylla. 


11 i. Ledeb., Caueas. 


phvlla, Desf.. S. Eu 

(Dracopis amplexinaulN. 

lifolia, Pbrst., Cauc 

californica, Gray, Calif. 

hirta, L., N. Amer. 

laeiniata, L. X. Amer. 


llile^l ll.ihulll, Michx., 

speciosa, Wend., X. Amer. 


■onnatum, L.) 

. eonjunctum, (Wil 

•imiuu. Kllioti.X.Ai 

(Newmanni, Hort.) 

Sanvitalia prooumben.?, Lam.. 

Teivbiulliinaceiim. Jaeq., 




denticulata. Ledb.. Sibor.ete. 

hypoleuca, Spr., Himal. 

' ebi.rne 

urn, Coss. et Dur., ] 

SeiilvnuH hispjiiiicus. L., S. Eur. 


mm, Gartner, Enr. 


.Hook^N Amer 

aureus, D., N. Amer. 

.' L., X." Aim-r. 

concolor, DC. N. Atr. 

chrysautl 1 
Eur., etc. 

— var 

Doronicum, L., Eur. 

Doria, L , Eur. 


aondil, T. et Gr., 

integrifolia, Desf.) 
;rotina, Ait., N. Amer. 
hortii, T. et Gr., N. Am 


barl.-ata, <J*rtn., S. Eur. 

virgata, Bert., S. Eur. 
Tragopogon (Geropogon glabrum, 

L.), S. Eur. 
Tripteris cheiranthifolia, Schultz., 

. Desf., S. Eur. 
picroiJf-s, Derf., S. Eur. 

pulehra, N. E. Brown, Cape. 

moid.-, B. et H., Amer. 
(Gutierrezia gymuosper- 

— var. fl. pi. 




Campanula— cont. Lobelia— cont. 

punctata, Lam., Siber., etc. syphilitica. L., N. Amer. 

pyramidalis, L., S. Eur. Tupa, L., Chili. 

var. alba, urens, L., Eur. 

rapunculoides, L., Eur. i Palmerella debili?, A. Gr., N. 

Reuteriana, B. et B., Orient. Phyteuma 

rhomboklea, L., Eur. campanuloides, Pbrst., Cauc. 



..ides. DC. Madeira. 


Calaxaphvlla. L., X. Amer. 


itiinii 'j-luiiiaiNuni. lioi--., Statice 

rioiit. alatavica, Kegel et Sch 

scons, Boiss., Dalma.ia. a Jicltiia. Vahl, K„ 

i.ristt«* B. & R, Ori,m. is,Xll,U "i'< \-- 


arvensis, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. carnea, Schraak. Ephemerum, L., France, e 

— var. ccerulea, (Schreb.) pyramidalis, Wall., Intl. 
Andrewee vulgaris, L., Eur. 

elongata, L., Eur. } Primula 

maxima, L., Eur., Caucas. elatior, Jacq., Eur. 

ficptonfrionalis, L., Eur., etc. floribuuda. Wall.. Himal. 

Asteroliuum stellatum, Link, Eur. denticulata, Sm.. Hid. 

— var. splcndidum. 

barystachys, Bunge, Japan. Valerandi, L., Eur. 


pi« s Vincetoxicum 

?ornuti, Dene, N. Amer. fuscatum, Reichb., S. I 

(A. syriaca, L.) nigrum, Mcench, Eur. 

uberosa, L., N. Amer. officinale. .Munch. Eur 



eapitata, Willd., Eur. 
— var. spha^roecphala. 

linva. L. Eur. 
Pncumonanthe, L., Eur. 

diffusa, Woods, A /oris. 
linarifulia. Pers., Eur. 
pulchella. Fries, Eur. 

sceptrum, Grisob, X. Amer. 
■^pteinfida, Pall., Caucas 

(G. golida, Hort.) 
— var. cordifolia. 
tibetica. King, Himal. 

(G. macmphylla. Hurt.) 

>acea pallida, Mey., S. Afr. 


grandiflora, Dough, N. Am 
linearis, Nutt., Calif, 
stenosiphon, K'un/c, ( 'liili. » 

'achilloa^'olia, Uth., Calif. 
ud., Calif. 

eapitata, Duiid.. (. alii, 
incis.. lith., Calif. 

K ot P., Chili, 

squarrosa, Hook, et Ar 
tricolor, Benth., Calif. 

. album, Hort. 
'. bipinnaturo, Hort. 
. grandiflorum, Hort. 
. pulchellum, (Bunge.) 
5, Willd., N. Amer. 
iioura, Cerv., Mexico. 


Dough, Calif. 
Bih.. Calif. 

campanularia, Gray, Calif, 
congesta, Hook., Calif. 
loa^a-folia. Ton-., N. Amer. 
Parryi, Ton., Califor. 
tanacetifolia, Bth., Calif. 
Whitlavia, Gray, Calif. 
Whitiavia grandifloi'B, 
— var. alba, Hort. 


officinalis, L., Eur. 
— var. alba. Hot t 
laxiflora, DC. Meditrr. 
Caccinea glauca, Ssvi, Persi 

maculata, L., Eur. 
major, L., S. Eur. 

Lithospermuin officinale, 

Balbisiana. -I< >r< l.. 

Lehm., Omphalodes linifolia, Moench, 

L., Eur. Symphytum 
i., Eur. asperrimum, Sims, ('mica-. 

, Azores. bulbosum, Scbimp., S. Ev, 

ir. — var. Zeyheri, Scbimp. 

grandiflorum, DC., Orient. 
5, Hort. ' (iboricum, Stev.) 



Sepium, R. 
— var. sylv; 

r. L., Medit. 
. albus. Hort. 
. striatum, Hort. 

riplicifolia, D. Don, Pen 


Atropa Belladonna. I... Kur. 
Browallia vi<cosa, H. B. K, 

Peru(B. Czerwiakowsk-vaiiH, 


— var. albus, Hort. 
orientals, Bbi>t.. C:\n>'. 
pusillus, L., Persia. 
Lycopew ' 

- Hil., Brazil. 

ropanda, \ 

t Hort.) 

— var. " Maryland." 

— var. <• Shiraz ." 

— var. '• Virginian." 
viridiflora, Lag. 

pinnatus, R. et P., Gh 
Scopolia lurida, Desf'., Ilin 

— var. Aia-lia. (Schlecht.) 

— var. black tubers, 
villosum, Lam., Eur. 



majus, L., Eur. 
Nuttallianum, Bth., Calif. 

, Hoffmg. et Link., 
l Stead., Atlas. 

: A 


Arcturus, L., Crete, As. Minor, 
glandulosa, Bouche. S. Eur. 

— var. grandiflora. 

glabra, L., N. Amer. 
Lyoni, Pnrsh, N. Amer. 

bicolor, Benth., Calif. 

— var. multicolor, 
grandiflora, Dougl., N. Amer. 
parviflora, Dougl., N. Amer. 


ainliimia, Alurr., (D. grandi- 
flora, Lain., D. ochroleuca, 

lutea, L., S. Eur. 
purpurea, L., Eur. 

— var. alba, Ilort. 

alpinus, L., Eur. 

Gratiola officinalis, L., Eur. 
Haberlca rhodopensis, Friv., 

Ianthe bugulifolia, Griseb., Turkey. 

-partca. Hoffin., S. Km- 

triphvlla. Will.L. S. Eur. 

tristis. Mill.. S. Eur. 

vulgaris, Mill., Eur. 
Alazus bicolor, Benth., Ind. 

cardinalis, Dou^i.. N. An 

bnvu-. L.. N. Amer. 

ringens, I,. N. Amer. 

floribimda, Lehm., Cape. 
, Benth., Cape. 
, Meyer. Cape. 

Pentstemon — cont. 

laevigatas, Solum!.. N. An 

— var. Digitalis, Gray. 
Digitalis, Nutt.) 

Lemmoni, Gray, Calif. 
ovatus, Dougl., N. Amer. 
pubesi-ens, Solum!., X. An 

— var. ca-rult-o'ii-. Hon 

icabunga, L , Eui 

rihira, Hbrst.. Ci pvivnai.-ii 
untlm pi'iltiiifiil 



— var. alba, H 

vtinalis, ],., Eur. 

niaerostacbyum, Griseb., 

— var. olympicum,(Boiss.) 
phoeniceum, L., Eur. Siber. 
mi. i Mill.) 
phlomoides, L., Eur., etc. 
pyramidatum, Bbret., Caucas. 

n, W. et K., Huu- I 

saxatilis, L., Eur. 

— var. Grievei, Hort. 

. L., Eur. 

- var. bumifusa. (Dirk.) 

— var. latifblia, (L.) 

— var. satureaefolia, Hort. 
virginica. L., X. Amer. 

— var. japonica, (Steud.) 

Walp., Cape. 

capensis, Bth.) 
selaginoides, Walp., Cape. 




Globularia — emit. 

vulgaris, L., Eur. 

\ Wilkommii, (Nym.) 

l'!ii-yiiiii Irpto-Tachya, L., X. . 

bonariensis, L., S. Amei 
carolimana.Michx., N. 
officinalis, L., Eur. 

\j iga < li;un;i'pity<5, Schreb., Eur. 

Ballota nigra, L., Eur. 

Calamintha alpina, Bib., Alps. 

Clinnpouium, Bth., Eur. 

grandittora, Lam., S- Eur. 

umlirosa. Reichb., S. Eur. 
Ccdronella cana, Hook., Mexico. 
Cleonia lusitanica, L., S. Eur.. N. 


nutans, L., Siberia. 

peivgrinum, L., Siberia. 
Ruy-chiana, L. Eur., Asia. 

ristata, Willd., S. Eur. 
ys laciniata, Buge, 
W. Asia. 
Horniinium pyrenaicum, L., Pyren. 

canescens, F. et M ., Syria. 

Royloana, Bth., Turkest., etc. 

album, L., Eur. 

, L., S. Eur. 

isatus, Bth., N. Amer. 

ehiuen-is, Bcuth . ('1:' •;<, .. 

exaltatus, L. fil., Eur., etc 
europreus, L., Eur. 

Mf|i-~.i otneiualis, L., Eur., etc. 
Mentha nlopecuroides, Hall., Em 

aquatics), L., Eur. 

gent His, L., Eur. 

piperita. Huds., Eur. 

pyramidalis, Ton.. S. Eur. 

R*'<iui.-nii, Bth., Cornea. 


var. umbrosa, Opiz. 
idis, L., Eur. 
var. crispa, Hook. 

multibracteata, Desf., Atl 
Mussini, Bbrrt., Cauci*. 
Nepetella, L., 8. Eur. 


Majorana, L., S. Eur. etc 

(Majorana borteusis, 

viilirare, L., Eur. 
var. album, Hort. 
— hirtum, Hort. 

1: , 


is, L., Eur. 

alba, Hon 
roM-n. U(„r. 
. L., S. Eur. 



bracteata. il 
i"n 1... S. Ku 

Virginia. . , Bth., X. Amer. 

— var. speciosa. Cray. (P. 

irabricata, Hook.) 

argontea. L., Mediter. 
Candelabrum, Boiss., Spain, 
elandestina, L., Greece, etc. 
coccinea, I.. Mexico (S 
pseudococcinea, Jaeq.) 


scordioides, L., Eur. 

— var. elongata, Hort. 

alpina, L., Caucas., etc. 
coccinea, Jacq., Mexico, 
grandiflora, Bth., Caucas., etc. 

(Betonica grandiflora, L. ) 
Betonica, Benth., Eur. (B. 

officinalis, L.) 

— var. alba, Hort, 
longifolia, Bentb., Caucas. 

syh.-iti.-a, L., Eur. 

canadense, L., N. Amer. 

. L., Eur. 

■ vie., Himal. 

. 1... Spain, 
pyivnai.-um, L.. Pyrenees. 

. L., Eur. 

interrupts, fcicbousb., Mu- 

• avandula-folta, Yabl, S. Eur. 
nilotica, Vahl, Egypt, 
nubia, Ait., Abyssinia, 
officinalis, L., S. Eur. 


arenaria. L., Eur. 
Coronopus, L., Eur. 
Cynops, L., 8. Eur. 
fuseesceiisi, Jord., S. 
Ispaghula, Roxb., Iu 
lanceolata, L., Eur. 

I'.Vh., Calif. (A. I Oxyb 


annuus, L., Eur. 

perennis, L., Eur, 

Telephium Imperati, ] 


chlorostachys, Wilkl., India, 
bypocbondriacus, L., Amer. 

— var. eaudatus, (L.) 

— \at. speciosus, (Don.) 
Hvidu.s L, N. Araer., etc. 

panieulatus, L., India, etc. 
polygamus, L., Ind. 
retroflexus, L.. Amer., etc. 
AlWsia ■ caudata, Jacq., Orient 
(Euxolus cau.iatus-Moii ; 

uberrima, Hort. 

ibiri.-:,. [... - 

sibirica, Fisch.) 
"tariea, L., Eur. ( 
I '.W.etK.) 

onentalis, Heyne, India, et 

(15. bcnglial.'iisis Ro\l..' 
trigvua. W. et K, E. Eur. 
vulgaris L., Eur., Afr., etc. 

album, L., Eur. 
Bonus-Henricus, L, Eur. 


nopodium— cont. 

Corispermum hyssopifolium, L. 

micrantlmm, Trautv. (Berlin, 

S. Eur. 


Eurotia ceratoides, C. A. Mey. 

optilii'uliuh., Sehrad., Eur. 

W. Himal. 

a, L., Eur. 
Quinoa, L., S. Amer., etc. 

Hablitzia tamnoides, Bbrst., 

LJlitmn vinratum, L, S.Eur. 
Vulvaria, L., Eur. 

Spinacia oleracea, L., Cult. 


,'<-\t>., India. | Phytolacca decaudri 


,. Br., Nepal. 
mrum rataricum, Gae 


affine, Don, 

Himal. (P 

Bistorta, L 


)on, Nepal 

Convolvulus, L., 



— compact 

).-t'., Eur. 

. I,.. Sibcr. 

molle, Don 


, Thunb., 

L.. Eur. 


F. Schm., 


Emodi, W« 


num, Will* 

ni. I,., Sibcr. 
Ribes, L., Syria, Persia. 
— rugosum, Hort. 
spiciforme, Royl<\ India. 

abyssinicus, Jae<|.. . \ l > \ .- - 
A('vm>a, L., Eur. 
alpinus, L., Eur. 

Hydrolapathum. llmK. Km 
nebroides, Campd., S. Eur. 

nepaleiiMs, Spr., Himal. 

9, L, Eur. 
— var. sylvt«stris. (Wallr.) 

L., S. Eur. 
A ■ hnn . N. A m< 
vo-karin-. L., N. Afr. 



Lagascae, Spr., Spain, 
Lathyris, L., Eur. 
medicaginea, Boiss., ,*• 

. (L.) 


terracina, L., Italy, etc. 
virgata, W. et K., Hungary 
as. L., Eur. 



Parietaria— cont. 
i, Gaud. (Conocephalus lusitanica, L., S. Eur. 

niveus, Wight.), India. Urtica 

Huuiulus japonicus, 8. et Z., j dioica, L., Eur. 

Japan. dcvata Banks, Madeira. 

i, L., Egypt, j — van. grai 

pilulifera, L., Eur. 
r. I — var. balearica, ( L. | 




Lrll.. Xatal. Iris— ron 

I . 
M.mni.-Ti. DC, Crete, 
ochroleuca, L., Siber. (I. 

gigantea, Carriers.) 
Pseudacorus, L., Km-., etc. 

— var. acoriformis. ( Bor.) 
- v;u-. Bastardi, (Bor.) 

soto>,,. Pallas, Siberia. 

sil.iriea. E., Eur.. Siberia. 

— var. acuta, (Willd.) 
Mbinca var. alba, Hort. 
spuria, L., C. Eur., etc. 

— var. deserf. 

Tolmieana, Heil>., N. Amor. 
Xiphiuni. L., Spain, etc. 
(Xiphion vulgar. •. Mill.) 

-(i'li.'v.k-. Ehr., Pyrenees 

<X. l.-.tifblium, Mill.) 
versicolor, L., N. Amer. 

yriiK-hiuiii liormudiana, L., 
.•aliforniVnm, Ait. I'., Calif. 
chilense, Hook., Chili, 
luteinn, Hort. 
striatum, Sua., Chili. 


ma communis, L., Eur 



mi, L., Eur. 

— var. Des._ 

StclltTiamiui, Willd., Siberia. 
-uhhiiNiituiu, L., S. Eur., etc. 
Suworowii, Kegel.. Turkcst. 

urceolatuni, Kegel, Turkey. 
ursinum, L., Eur. 
vernale, Tineo, Sicily. 
Victorialis, L., Eur.,Siber.,etc 

Liliugu, L., S. Eur., N. Afr. 

. Dorseii, Hurt, 
im L., Eur. 

nutans, L., Siberia. 

ii, Don, Siberia 
DO, Kar. ct ] 

i.. n.iii'. 

congesta, Ih 

jm. duneulari-, Wats., Calif. 

uniflora, Btli., Bueuos^Ayres, 

( Ti'itclcia uuiflora, Ldl.) 

speciosuni, Stev., 

limbriatuui. Willd.^ Orient. 


( iMivallaria majalis,L.,Eui\, Amer. 

, Caucas. 

ortliophyllum, Ten., S. Eur. 

tenuifoiium, Guss., Sicily. 


mnbellatuni, L., Eur., N. Afr. 


" anceps. Mocnch, Eur., etc. 

Meleagiis, 1.., Km: 

— var. striatum, IJort. 

pontica, Wahl., Kithynia. 

biflorum, Ell., N. Amer. (P. 
giganteum, Dietr., N. Amer. 

tem'l'h 'ni.i'M 1 ' 'fW-il ^ 


(P. latifolinm, Desf.) 

la neifolia, Spr., Japan. 

multinorum, A11.,N. T. Zone 

— var. fl. pi. 

vorticillatum. All., Eur. 

Pu-chkinia seilloides, Adams, 

Sieboldiana, Lodd., Japan. 

Caucas., etc. 


lyphu-pernii. 1 


Bri, S 




(H. Siebc 


fiavm, L., S. 


— var. Kwn 



(Bellevalia romana, Reichb.) 

aloi.les. .Moench, Cape. 

(Tovaria racemosa, Neck.) 

biflora, L., Caucas. 
Greigii, Kegel, Siberia. 

nigrum, L., Eur. 


Commelina I Tradescantia — emit. 

virffinicn, L., N. 

I. — var. latifolia, Hort. 

descant ia — var. pilosa, (Lchm.) 

erecta, Jacq., Mexico. — var. splendens, Hort. 



acutiflorus, Ehrli., E 
balticus, Willd., Eur. 
compressus, Jacq., E 

tar! (J. 

tenuis, Will 
trifidus, L., 

. El 


filiformis, L., Eur. 
lamproenrpus, Ehrh., 

, Eur. 





ramosum, Curtis, Em 
simplex, Hods., Eur. 

Tyl ' bil ,rr 


latifolia, L., 

. I... 



orieutale, Bbrst., caucas, etc. 


i Plantago, L., Eur. | Butom 


Triglochiu"palustre, L., Eur. I Triglochin palustre, 

liih |ialil-liv, V;i 

i, (Loisl.) 


acuta, L., Eur. 
adusta, Boott, N. An* 
anipullacea, Good., Ei 

— var. Oederi. (Ehrh ) 
glauca, Murr., Eur. 

■ \, N. Amer. 
lurta, L, Eur. 

. \VIi1!'!-l;-.. I*. 

Carex — cont. 

sylvatica, Hud-, r 
tenella, Schk., Am 
vaginata, Tausoh, \ 
vulgaris, Fries, N. 
vulpina, L., Eur. 

( 'ladiniM 

Eur., etc. (C. M 

(' M >riu- u-etus, Willd. 

Morrowii, 13oott, Ja 
ovalis, Good., Eur. 
paniculata, L., Eur. 
pendvda, Hnds., Em 

maxima, Scop.) 
punctata, Gaud., Eu 
remota, L., Eur. 
riparia, Curtis, Eur. 



Aira caryophyllea, L., Eur. 

"vmculatu,, I,, Eur. 
nigricans, Horncm., E 
prat<>nsis, L., Eur. 

, .Michx., N Ani.T 

Myuru.s L.. Kur. ( V. Myurus 

Phalaris— cont. Secale 

canadensis, L., S. Eur., etc. cereale, L., As. Minor. 

caarulescens, Desf., S. Eur.,etc. ! montanum, Guss., Sicily. 

paradoxa, L., S. Eur. \ Sorghum 
Pluenosperma globosa, Miuiro, cernuum, Willd., Ind. 

China. halepense, L., S. Eur., etc. 

Phleum >accharatuin, Mocnch, Int 

pratense, L., Eur. etc. 

— var. bndcnsis, (Haenkc). Aristella, L., S. Eur., etc. 

annua. L., Eur., etc. barbate, Desf.. X. Air. 

coinpressH, L., Eur. Calaniagrostis, Whlbrg., S. 
glauca. Sm., Eur. Eur. (Lasiagrostis Cala- 

Bttdetica, Ilaenke, Eur. magrostis, Link.) 

trivialis, L., Eur. iertilis, Desf., S. Eur. 

aria penmate, L., Eur., Siber. 
glauca, Beauv., Eur. 

;iuatus, Beauv., S. 

[All Rights Reserved.'] 



). 15.] MARCH. [1888, 


The flora of British Guiana is in course of being carefully and 

rintendent of the Botanic Garden at Georgetown. The 

■ the plants is carried on at Kew, * 
are added to the collections of Guiana 

Among the plants for which we are indebted 
to the zeal and sagacity of Mr. Jen man there are many of economic 
value. Recently we reeriv. <] from h in ■ :;■. : • • -.-.■ ieal -pecimens and 



j-\m< of Jpacynuceir. This, family is extremely 
inl>< i ] hints, and comprises all < 
of African and Malayan origin. The plant under notice a": 
Mr. Jenman's account n< _- plant, the stem of which 

trails on the !l. or o •:., [,-. . u ] >;•;,, u!s ...yer 

•' the tops of the highest trees above." He continues : " the flowers 
" are not quite out. I send also a sample of the rubber, which, if you 

" could obtain a report < 

" coloured from the creek water in wiw 

•' of water thai was there obtainable. The fresh i 

" rich beyond any I have before found in caoutchouc. The only 

" defect I experienced is that it dries slowly, remaining sticky for some 

Tlirough the kindness of Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S., to whose good 
offices in connection with the investigation of numerous si 

rubber thi- establishment is greatly indebted, we have been favoured 

by -the India-rubber, Gutta-percha, arid Telegraph Works Company, 

' teresting report, dated 20th January 

new kind of rubber from British 

i are informed that the substance possessed "so many 

" valuable properties, tha' it would he well to asm-turn Avhether a 

uantity could be placed in our hands for further experimenting. 

" The present quantity ' 

it w( Id b< i i l il to extract oi u til - tl 1 n_ qi .Ht t 

contains, so as to give this substance a position 

" of commercial importance. 

" We note tl 

" ' in peaty water ' ; this i 

• : being : able to report upon it. One side of il 

- sub-tain, ot ... n'-iiH-u-- .Lai. m!.., tal s . iden;l\ jioduced either 

ition of the resin itself, coi tance, or from 

*' The substance, as it is, cannot be worked at all with the present 


" sticky condition, quite r.i : ' edia-ruhber. 

'•When a substance of such promise is sent for examination, it is 
" not only important thai a larger supply should he available for the 
- purposes of a preliminary examination, hut for subsequent experi- 
" ments; frequently an application has been found for a vegetable 
" product b it, as it were, 

" as opportunity presents itself." 

So tar, there; appear good grounds for belie-. 

■la rubhei was extracted exists in an} quantity in the 
interior of ! : Hon of the rubber would be a very 

In connect* it maybe useful to draw attention 


t.nical Depart 

tronia}, is found 
woods of Manchester and St. Kli/aheth. and. so 
far," I have been unable to ■ bl rer or fruit." 

In the Report for the year 1SS I, pp. -10- (7. it is further stated that 

tains of Manchester and St. K . ellent rubber, 

presented some years ago to the Museum of the Pharmaceutical 

1 Society of Great Britain by Mr. John Sawyers, of Berry, ir 
; parish of Manchester. " 

** The plant yielding this rubber has now (thanks to further s 
mens sent to me by Mr. Bassett Key) been determined at K, 
Forsteroniaflorihunda" Gr. Don. 


(Pogostemon Patchouli var. mavis.) 
Patchouli is a well-known scent obtained by distillation from the 
saves ot a cultivated variety of Pogostemon Patchouli. It first became 
imiliar in Europe as a ch i ,,od with Indian 

i in a powdered state for 
scentmg drawers, after the manner of the old-fashioned lavender bag. 
Ine otto or e— ■: v.-\\ „;i u -.1" :, -lark brown colour, with an odour said 
to be more powerful than any obtained from the vegetal!. 
The chief -i ; „ :irs t0 come from the St! ai) 

tpelago, including Java. 

from the Art of Perfumery, by Pi,>«se, p. 171, and Spoil's K 

of Industrial Arts, Div. IV., p. 1425. V J F 

■■■■'•■.■ • - • ■:■..-..■,. 

its present commercial value. 

In Mr. Cantley's Eeport on the Forest Department of the Straits 
bettlements for 1886, he says :—« Plants of Pal 

u dem an<l f'"' : .,1 number have boon 

Picked i,,. lVt . s ;iIV lunv seIling at 17 doll . u .^ ;<Ml1 

"colonial product?. Hants raised from mm d arc reported t 
well, but to h;r. h w hen produced from c 

" that^Ia"? d een abl - " >" lt iT " W<?U knmVa 

i Im Sl 'i' ; Mir. ('. Curtis 

; -erintendent, Forest T 


"Penang, 17th August, 1887. 
1 have the honour to advise you of the despatch, per S.s. • Khedive,* 
of one small i plants for determination, and 

samples of Patchouli for an opinion as to their market value. 

of an acre has just d some valuable experience 

gained as to -cost cf novation. I..~ ot weight in ,,,„•.■ ot p,-,', na- 
tion, &c, details oi , ,[ j„ due course. 
"The samples numbered i and 2 consist of picked leaves, and stems 
and leaves together, the system of drying having been the same in 

"Sample 3 is dried leaves of Urena lobata, L., var. sinvata, largely 
ised to a. illiterate- Patchouli; and it would be interesting to know 
whether it contain M •;, added eotmir re 

increase the bulk. This i~ , | _-.. tm . i; ii: n ild 

n considerable quantity in cocoa-nut gardens and waste places near 
die s coast. Form-. ni three dollars 

o four dollars per picul (133^ lbs.), dried as per sample. 

" I trust you will not think me troublesome when I ask you to be 
good enough to submit the three samples to a competent judge of 
their market value, and by so doing you will be conferring a Benefit 
on agriculture, as we shall be enabled to form a definite opinion 
whether extended cultivation will prove profitable or otherwise. 
"Any information respecting the preparation, probable future 
demand. &< , - ^stance. 

« C. Curtis." 

" 2, New Bond Street, 

« Sth October 1887. 

" The sample No. 1 is excellent. The commercial value we estimate 

« to be about 80/. or 100/. per ton. No. 2 is less valuable pro rata for 

" the weight Ti0 attar on 

□ No. 3 you correctly describe as being used for the 

, ;i of the genuine leaves. We always iind it m the 

; rt'iim.Ty purpo-e<. If it yielded 

" an odourous essential oil on distillation, that would possess some 

* commercial value. The sample appears to us, however, to have but 

" a very slight camphoraceous odour. 

" We are expecting shortly the first consignment of Patchouli leaves 

•• from Mr. J. (.'. Fiilan, who is growing it experimentally in Dominica. 

" The demand for both leaves and attar of Patchouli, though not 

" very great, is steady and continuous. The attar fetches about 2s. 6d. 

to 3*. per oz. weig it. ( ^^ ^ Ldbin." 

Similar specimens were forwarded to Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges, 
Cyriax, and Farries, who oblig tog report: — 

« 16, Coleman Street, 12th October 1887. 
"lam in receipt of your favour of the 3rd ultimo, tog< 

{,Pogo$temon Patchouli, is good; 

Iks, and worth abcut Is. per lb. No. 2 is very 

iiv, w.a-ih about id. to ~nl per lb. No. 3, 

. n ,,t known on the market and is of no ■ 

•• ralne. 1 d< il I if should think 

" it would only be added to increase the bulk of Patchouli. 

"These valuations I have given you would apply to shipments of 
■ ,' . • ■ ' , ■ ... . :'.. : ■ ■ ■•■ ■ ■ ■ 

..:■..... ■.■■■■■ .:■ ■ ■ -. 

- pments. At the present moment 

.« ther. wa ■ • -a t-dr demand for good leaves. Any further information 
* you require I shall be happy to give you. 

On the present position of the market* as reg 
Mr. R.C.TVetti waa good enough to supply us with the following 

information :— 

" Mincing Lane, E.C., 

« 20th October 1887. 
" Referring to my letter of this date, I am glad to be able to give 
" vou a little information of a business character re Patchouli. 

" leaves arriving here not, as a rule, quite sa;i- 

" most sought after is the sample No. 1. which you -cut to Messrs. Piesso 
" and Lubin, i.e., a Fair] Ska. The presence of 

" many stalks in a bale of leaves reduces its value fully 25 per cent. 

" There is ever a good demand for leaves, as the London market 
" supplies the Continent as well as England. Buyers won! 
" prefer to buy the oil itself, but, as a rule, distillers in the East 
would fetch 
" 3.v., 'As. 6d., 3s. 9d. per oz. Packa^ -. . in-, <d 12 aii.l 22 oz. bottles 
•• The leav< . if good, 1.9. 

" to l.«. 3d. p. i !!) . l< - 2-1 perei nt. The pi. '-rot d- maud is ^oorf; 50 
" to 100 bales would sell were they here and of good quality. 

"Should the Government of the Straits Settlement < deeide to ship 
" the leaves or the oil, I should be glad to receive consignments and 
" sell them on the market for 3 per cent, commission, or to buy them 
ht, subject to approval of quality. 

" Should you think of him ght, » i j 

" business capacity, be able to give you, I shall be pleased to give you 

W B. C. Treatt." 
The above information will, no don to correspon- 

dents in tropical Colonies, and it will, fully serve to 

meet an inquiry which has reached this establishment respecting 
Patchouli from the Government of India. 

■ ■!:■■ ;..'.'•.-.'■■ ■ ' - ■■ ' .. ' ■■ . 

" the grown with reference 

" to the following points : (a) is the plant grovn 

" and the Kliasia Hills, and is it the ]'l<ctr<oit!w- P,tlchouli or (the 

" generally extended ; i inBengal"? 

To this, the following reply was add I Miiee : — 

" Royal Gardens, Kew, 30th January 1888. 
" The true irom simbiL'uitv. it is the Pogoste- 

« mon Poti Booker in the 

" Kew Journal of Botany, vol. i., p. 328, t, 11, from 

specimens. This stands in the Flora of British India (vol. 4, p. 634) 
as Pogostemou 'Patchouli, vat. Pilaris. My colleague, Prof. Oliver, 
the keeper of the herbarium of the Royal Gardens, is of opinion that 
it is doubtful whether this particular form, which is the economic 
plant of common. part of India. I agree with 

him in this opinion, as also in thinking that it may ultimately prove 

Dr. King, the S 

Calcutta as Pat 

"There is no evidence whatever in the Kew herbarium of the 
existence of any form of PogosU tried or scentless, - 

" There appears to be evidence, however, of the t xistence of a plant 
with a Patchouli odour, native to Khask and Assam. What this 
plant maybe is doubtful; hut it i- certainly not the Patchouli of 
place in the Flora < 

p. 024, as a doubtful J'h ctnnitlnis ( I'ltctra.tthiis Patchouli, Clarke). 
Whatever it may be, it is widely different from any form of Pogostemon 
" that if it has' the true 
There i 

borating the same 
1 essential oil. That, however, is a point to be worked out upon the 
' spot, upon which I can give no opinion. 

"What maybe regarded as feral states of Pogostemon Patchouli, 
1 probably usually scentless, are commonly indigenous in the Western 
£ Peninsula, from Bombay sou i . however, be local 

' scented forms which are cultivated, and, for an adit I know, the true 
: commercial Patchouli plant may be cultivated in Indian gardens in 
: the Peninsula. All this can only be ascertained by inquiry. If dried 
specimens of plants used as Patchouli could be obtained from different 
parts of India, the matter could be very readily settled by botauical 
e on at Kew. 

" W. T. Thisklton Dyer." 


Judging by the number of specimens sent to Kew, and the inquiries 
made respecting them, it is evident il .. exi-t- on 

the last three weeks, 10 specimens of so-called Indigo p] 

■•■■ ■'■■-.■■• - . : ■- . ■';.:■.. ;....-■. 

/. Anil, which it is well known ted in Wesl 

Africa. Others have consisted of leaves of tl e Voi nha 1 

rich specimens of flowers and of tin 
complete the material for identification. 

In one case, fruits of I Benth., have been sent 

The :• : •• -apof this fruit, locally called ""Blipp..." N „.,,[ !,, t i 1( . 
Niam-Niam and the Monbuttoo to dye themselves. The in 

■ I by our correspondent as colourless, 1 
a. deep bine colour in a day or two. The fruits 

' ■ ■ ':.'?.'.:•■. ' ■'''.,. . . , , 

- :- •:-■.::.' ' : ■■■•.;"..:..... 

; si • appeared to be the corms of an n Id p! , •. ' 

'■'•'• recently received from Old 
Calabar, as "beans which make a blue dye of a ver\ fa 

: : • :. -^ - ■! e- ■;■■■. ■ ■ - '■■-.''■...;■■'' 

useful for dyeing purposes. 

So far t!i ' icate that any of these Indigo plants 

other than Indigofera, are likely to prove of commercial vi 


ndigo plants (either /. tinctoria or /. Anil), are already 

native-, hut the preparation is so crude and 
that the produce i3 not likely to compete successfully with 
Indian and other sources of Indigo. 

The most promi-ing plant, n--\f t • -p •<•", - ,f /,>■/<)/ ,f. ra, is no doubt 

[ndigo. In a paper, read 

before the Linnean Society [Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xx., p. 1041. 

Mr. Thiselton Dyer, F.R.S., gave an account of this plant, which, in 

view of the revival of the subject, it may he well to plac ■ within reach 

oducts : — 

" It lias long been known from the observations of travellers, that 

" the natives of the West Coast of Africa obtained an alum. lam siipplv 

- of Indigo from plants cultivated for the purpose. And, as the species 
" of the genus Indigo/era have their head-quarters in the African 
" continent, it was n .,r perhaps :>■. - bioii that one 
" or more of them was the source of the dye in use amongst the 

bf thi- West Coast. 

"It was therefore with some surprise that I found amongst a 
" number of specimens received at the close of last jreai h 
" Alfred Moloney, C.M.G., Administrator of the Gold Coast Colony, 
i a of an arborescent leguminous plant, but obviously not an 
native Indigo. 1 drew Captain 
" Moloney's attention to the interest attaching to the matter ; and. as 
" the specimens received consisted merely ot 
'• secure a l.iitionai material sufficient for a h><- 
« He replied to me, on April 10, from Lagos, as follows :— 

" ' I am glad to find I have sharpened your appetite as to the Indigo. 
" ' The count!-- abounds with it ; but as the young shoots are the 
" ' parts from which the dye is made, you can realize the 5 

" ' securing flower and fruit. I do not despair, however 

" ' . . . . This tree might be largely developed here. It is climber, 
" ' and must be leguminous. The Yoruba for the tree is " EIu." ' 

"I placed Captain Moloney's materia!, such as it was in 
" my colleague Professor Oliver, who unites to a knowledge of the 
" affinities of plants which has become almost an m 
" acquaintance with the contents of tic in which it is 

" safe to say that no him irpass him. He speedily 

- ■■:■. 

by Barter in 1859. It is accompanied by a manuscript 

"'Indigo of the Yoruba country. Leguminous shrub of twining 
•• '• haldt and large growth. Flowers in loose panicles, at 
•' ' changing to a faded blue. Common near river-: pi 
" ' several hundred acres of this are about Abbeokuta. In cultiva- 
" ' tion the plant is kept about 7 or 8 feet high; 
" " are cut close, and it becomes short and spurred and ; 

" * Wistaria - y, when simihrly treated. Tin- leaves are gathered 

" ' young (as seen in the specimen), merely powdered in a m 
" « black pasty state, made into balls the size of double fists, and ctrl t£ 
** ' for the markets. In dyeing, one ball to a gallon m water is used : 
« ' the cloth allowed to remain four days. The !y i- f.xed with 

- ' potash; a fine deep blue is produced, very permanent.'" 

It is nawf d -liable that good specimens of the flowers and podsof 
the plant yielding Yoruba Indigo should be sent to Iv 

. We trust that sorm : tie- W<-? 

Coast will bear this in mind. 


The cultivation of Vanilla has been attempted in numerous tropical 
Colonies, but, with the sole exceptioi > Seychelles, 

it does not appear to have assumed an important | 

Colony. This is due to a variety of circumstances. In some Colonies 
the successful growth of the plant, 
owing to seasons of extreme severity in droughts or heavy rains. In 
others, the soil may be too retentive. In most of them, the need which 
exists for artificially fertilizing the flowers of Vanilla, :■• 1 the ear. 
necessary to properly cure the pods have, no doubt, com 

There are, however, no valid reasons why thi 
crtain portions. ;,t least, of the West Indian 
Colonies, of British Honduras, of the West African Sett! 
India, Ceylon, ad 1 - should not be successfully 

pursued With ihnt vi.-w. plants of Vai Ha have been forwarded from 
Kew to certain Colonies where they did not pn 
proposed now to give very briefly the chief p. 

The Vanilla plant is an orchid of dim there are pro- 

bably several • . i The more common 

i'lla planifolia, Andr. (V. chtricnhita, Siv.) ( > 
under cultivation arc V. aromatka, Sw., and 

i .. '•:■ ■■■ ■ :t ■ . . , . ■ , ■ . 

;. The specimens in the herbarium of this esta 
in their present state throw little light on the subject. Hence, a good 
series of leaves, flowers, and fruits of plants yield 
dried, or preserved in spirit, would be a valuable addition to the 

It appeal- that s. i.n, r , ,1,,.,,, Chh-it. i;,.],,,. f. (Xeni i 
Vol r, i 3 . [fithm is erf Paj i 

teenbed bj S , p. 215) us follows:— 

'' The fruit of this plant is hisrhlv esteemed as an aromatic hv the 

" which real Vanilla is c 

- or ' Little Yam! a. l M -cau-e. its fruit is T 

" any of the genus Vanilla found in the Isthmus." 

C*&nx*tio*.-~Aa n , ttation, it is important 

to bear in mind that the plants, br-im; climliers. it is necessary to 
provide them with support of some kind, "and genei 

trees, trellis-work, stone pillars, or" stoni 

ports for Vanilla. In Mauritius, the Seychelles, and Reunion, the stems 
Curcas are largely used. In addition to support, the 
of shade. This, however, 

, r . r er ripening of the pods. 

'.-•■■• : • '■ : ; .<.:..■■ ■ : :, . ,., .,.:• , -■ .. - , ,, . 

01 ln , cultivator, and not allowed to climb high up amongst the 

The ground arc 
h of a f 
perfect. The most favourable soil consist- of tin- rich loans, mix. 

surface and support by means of stones or rock work. Where obtain- 

■ ■'•■ .-.:■■ vi-r . .,.;.!., ■ : ■ , I...-; 

feet long, but all the better if four or five feet long. The 

first removed from the lower part, and three j< 

soil and covered to a depth of two or three inches. The uy 

- : mined against the snppnrt in th 
intended to grow. A single tree will carry several V 
depending upon its <\ze. The surface of the h 
by being covered with leaves or " mulching," and, in very dry weather. 

it should be regularly watered. 

Thus started, Va 

cuttings readily t 

grow and flourish. Depending upon the size of the < 

however, flower freely until the third and fourth years. 

Fertilization of the Flowers.— The first duty of the cultivator when 

~ , - ' ' ' 

reference to I on page 79. In the wi- 

dower by means of the 
agency of insects. Where these particular in>ecN are ak^nt. th.-ii 
work must be performed by the cultivator, or do 

it, is recommended that the work of fertilization should take place in 

lized as they open ; but of those that as, sue. -- i ,]. «.nh • 

k allowed to remain. If too many i r. the vine is 

apt to be weakened, and the quality of the produce lowered. 

The proc ■ ■ better under-toed by a reference 

herewith. The oidy in-truniein necessary is a 
small piece of bamboo or sharpened stick the thickness of a le 

When the flower is opened, it will be noticed that there are three 

epals and the petal- n sp, etiveh . One of 

and so distinct in 

form ar 

id colour, that 

-p. v.'l 

of a- 

the lip. Inside, anr 

. ' .V 


is a process which is 


called the column 

{see 5,fi 

g.2). The ei 

.1 el !h< col 

front view, is showi 

i at fig. t 

1. At a, fig. 5 

which the pollen mus 

,.: I'.-ni; 

At fig. 6 is represented a sect 

• V. ■_ 

nasses a] and 


notice.! that the stig, 

na is separated from th 

i upper 

Fig. r,.— Enlarged section through top ( 

Fig. 7. — Enlarged section through top o 
been transferred from a, Fig 


FrrtHization of Vanilla Jioinr (Delteil). 

column is removed, so as to expose the anther and stigma. The upper 
lip of tlu- stigma is then pressed upwards, and the anthers bmu: 

ic surface, as shown in figs. 3 tasi 7. 
i to the figures in the engraving will cle 

. about tlio third day. Hv th. end of the first 
month the fruit attains nearly its f is not fully 

developed until it is six or seven months old. 

Cnrincj the Pod-.— The pods are left on the vine until they begin to 
-eat one end. They are then gathered from 
day today, cai bei -e not yet fit to gather. 

When the day's gath. ring is corapl te I, the pods ■ plai 1 1 

•■■■■ ■"' 
:•■ in very hot. but n ■' Directly 

, M t'r, i this ;i - For the 

next >i\- or eiii'ht .lavs they an exposed on woollen cloths or blankets 
in the qui, while each night they are kept in a closed box, where they 
• h| fermentation Win i t'e , have become 
soft in brown, th pod.- m placed iodr> h -hade, they are 

liy anointed 
3npple and lustrous. When quite cured, 
late colour, pliable in texture, and perfectly free 
from moisture. The whole process of curing extends over several weeks 
In packing for the market, the pods are sorted according to length, 
and put up in packets of 50 pods each ; they are tied in the m 

tend. These packets are then carefully put up in closely 

boxes. When Vanilla pods arc in 

become covered with ai efilore-eence ot needle-iik. TystaT o| Vniiilli. 

ean is then soft, un. : . >u-, mil balsamic. 

Tlnwe v. ili. various modes el erowini: ai d 

■ rnsult I'ffn* < ■ Ulratinn h; 

I i VanUle, sa Culture 

( t s <! /',-' nit rtifioii, par A. Deiteil. Paris, ( hallamel Aine, 2, Rue Jacob, 

Vanill I plants ! O I 
at Kew, at Sion House, and other establishments. In 1878, some 
ch of which 

Mr. Piesse gives the following 

» In order to q\ lain the perfume . nods are cut 

< ; up -mall, : ! d put hit ■ on. ira'don ot | nn- alcohol, of a strength knowu 

" must remain together for. sa , tout we. <-. 1 h i me all that is 

it, which may then be 
« strained oil quit. < .r and bnVhi It N tl 

..' - . '. . ';'.' . ... :.'..' . « : . :• :- ' ■■ '. 

\ : ■, . i • 

mi r, stated t i! Morgan, an apothecary, 

. ■.., ; ... • r .. , ; 

.. i t »;,,-, t h t ■ .t w..s brought from abroad by some Spanish iner 
u ( .j , ,. • \. th. present rim* the total annual average crop of all the 
.« v i; . ; , , ,. ,, Y mi! a from the several countries which produce it 
" may be estimated at 80,000 lbs., representing a value of not less than 
« 150,000/." 


(Streblus asper, Lour.) 

;i the bark of the Paper 

era) is a circumstance which is well 

strating the uses of the bark oi 1 1 j i - 

Economic Botany at K.-v, from ( hina. 

It appears that in Siam paper very 

repared from Browssonetia, is obtained 

. This latter is a tree widely distributed 

find tropical Asia, where it is known under 

It does not appear, however, that it is used 

appreciable extent in any country except 

which has taken place hot ween this 
Foreign Office, contains practically all the 
the subject : — 

" Kew, 2.5th April 1887. 
- T haw- the honour to inform you that I observe in the Paper 
Makers' tion acquired 

by the late £ of paper in 

><[' Streblus asper (otherwise Tropins aspn-a), 
• a tree locally known us Ton-Khoi. 
" It is stated that legal documents and Government correspondence 
arc written on paper made from this material. Black paper, written 

talc, is also stated to be used for rough drafts. 
" The tree is a common one in tie I 
: seems worth while to tion about its use in the 

are of paper. The Museum of the Royal Gardens pose - - 
'• no specimens illustrative either of the raw material or of the product 
; derived from it. 
'• I venture, therefore, to express the hope that the Secretary of 
pn>v< of tie kit d « icr> nf tie M -, 
; Bangkok being invited to assist this establishment in procuring 
! specimens (1) of the raw material in its several stages; (2) of any 
'-tic implements employed in the manufacture ; to) of 
• paper. 
"It would be also des . should be 

i I>y a 'hied specimen of the tic. 
; flowers of the m e, in. order to make the 

! establishment in usual course. 

« W. T. Thiselton Dteb." 

"Foreign Office, 10th December 1887. 
" With reference to your left . f mn directed hv 

the Marquis of Salisbury to tiansmit to you a despatch from Her 
Majesty's Chargi , forwarding a report of the 

° In obedience to ii 

■ despatch, No. 21. of 29th April 1887, I 1 

: enclose a report, prepared h\ Mr, Iicekcti, Student Interpreter 

igard to the manufacture of paper from 1 
" of the tree called * Ton Khoi.' 

"Under my direction Mr. Beckett has made several visi 
■i ll.n ge where the paper is manufactured, and has procured i 

"Ton Khoi," its Manufactube and Uses. 

Mr. French, in his commercial report for the year 1885, in ; 
the process of the manufacture of native paper, writes as follows : — ° 

- Xari\. I';U»ei is v,..i'\, 1 1 1 1 < il out of" the bark of a tree called 
• ; 'Ton Khoi.' The process of manufaeture i- simple. The smaller 

■' -e ' ■ • - -< ■ ' ■ \ ' ..;-.■ ', : : , . ; 

" The bark is then stripped off, and broughl 

persons who make the paper. Th< put in water 

" for two or three days by the paper maker, and. having been cleansed 

t, are taken out and steamed over a slow fire for two days, a 

ii stone lime being sprinkled through the bark. It is then 

" steeped in water in earthen jars, and more lime is added. After a 

" few days it „,g been well washed to 

" free it from the lime, it is beaten with a wooden mallet [for about 

■ m. - a ma--, of *ott p-ilp A La- 

feet long, and of width varying from eighteen 

'• to five in«h. s. i-st ; /!n,,. n , -. , lt< , , i( . ,[ T i„. j.iilp. having first been 

again mix. -.illy poured out on to the frame so 

as to be equally distributed over if. The frame is then lifted out of 

the water, and a small wooden roller is run over the surface of the 

pulp. By this process the water is squeezed out and the pulp pressed 

together. The tram, with the pie;, on it is then set to dry in the 

sun. In the course of some ten hours it is quite dry, and the sheet 

of paper can then be lifted off the frame. It now only remains to 

smooth the surface. This is done by applying a thin paste of rice 

flour to the surface, and then i smooth stone. 

" A bl . ack paper, v | eneil, is made by 

The proces- of the manufaetiire having been thus described, some 

- ■■■ : 

y prove of interest. 

The place at which most of the native paper industry is carried on 
lies on the left bank of the River Menam, between six and » 
from Bangkok, consisting of a cluster of attap houses built on piles 
over the river and a creek =,ir midst. 

The average height of the " ton khoi " is about 30 feet. The branches 

grow in an irregular and straggling manner. The leaves are dark 

■ n shape, and acuminated, with a serrated edge. 

The petiole of the leaf is very short, the venation is reticular, and there is 

but a single midrib. 

The fruit, which is ripe during March and April, is small and dry, 
and is not put to any use by the natives of Siam. 

The bark, in addition to being employed in the manufacture of paper, 
is used by native doctors for medicinal purposes. It is boiled with a 
large portion of salt, and, when reduced to a pulpy state, it is supposed 

applied internally to the 

The native name for the frame of netting into which the pulp is 
poured is "Pkaneng," the price of which is one tied (2s.). The price 
of a sheet of the paper, as it is taken off a frame 6' 1\" x 1' 1", is one 
fnnang, equivalent to 3(7. English money. 

texture depending on the greater or 1.-- ■ r adm vim • oi wat, r with the 
pulp of the " toi kho . frame of netting. This 

thin paper is now falling into disuse, am! is _— idu-dh being relegated 
to remote districts of Siam, and to use by the poorer classes. 

The black paper mentioned in Mr, French's Report, and of which 
■ lea are enclosed, is mad of the outer and 
I rk, whils th< wl I is pn duced from the 
interior lining. The paper made of the oiitet ; •■ 
:'■■■■ -.:■ ■■:■■■■■■■■'.■■■ : . ■ ■ , 

certain quantity of rice. When folded in the shape of books of the 

is usually covered with a double coating of this 

The " Ton San oh " above mentioned is a shrub growing to the 
height of some 8 or 10 feet, and is of a pithy nature. 

The method of writing on white paper is either by the use of a 
European pen and ink, or, better, by means < i a nati\c pen formed of a 
ml 'oo, hollowed along the centre, and tapering to 
a point. This latter is used with Chinese ink (tin- same ; - ! 
which is sold in sticks at prices varying from U<7. to Gd. a stick. To 
write permanent characters on the black paper require; a no mean 
degree of skill and practice. The pen used is rhe -ana- as the one us, d 
for writing on white paper, the liquid employed being a mixture of 
lime either \ (a species of gum) or 

with i: kind of chalk called In the natives •• horadan." After the 

i varnish obtained from the '* ton jang." in order to fix the 
characters ar.d prevent erasures. 

The black books are extensively used in the native law-courts for the 
taking of evidence, &c. The evidence is written down by means of a 
chalk or steatit. pen il, an 1 i- < ipabh of easy erasun should i\ 
emendations be required. It is then read over to the witness or other 
person, as the case may be, and bound round with string, a seal of mud 
i d on the centre, in order to prevent the opening of the 
document until it is required at the trial. The witness then makes a 
mark in the mud seal p >rding to a more recent 

custom, i- iriven a sn dl w oden s, ,]. ^ •} which he stamps the mud, 
and which he carefully preserves for the day of trial. 

A scale of prices of th r sold is subjoined, the 

numbers corresponding with the numbers docketed on the snmph-s 
forwarded, viz. : — 

Book No. I. (white), equal to 5 phanengs =1 3 

" * I. (black) " 5 " =2 

„ -0 4.i 

ling to the successive 


W. R. D. Beckett. 

The specimens illustrating the industry which have been deposited in 
he Kew museums are as follows : — 

Section of trunk of tree ; a frame of netting ; native books, white and 
lack ; samples of i, . gea of preparation; hammer 

>r beating bark ; and mixing pot, with pigments and pens for writing. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
December 10th, transmitting a despn : ith returned) 

from Her Majesty's ( TAfl esat] _ , rding a report 

on The manufacture and the uses of paper from ' Strcblm uspa\ 

The cases of specimens have been duly received. The collection 
is extremely : objects transmitted are 

a v< rv il, -ira'h; ■ , «■ • —ion to the museum of this establishment where 
this curious industry has hitherto been wholly unrepresented. 

I venture to express a hope thi 3 :lte w in be 

convey to Mr. Gould an i. ■ -action at the 

ml very intelligent manner in which Mr. Gould 1 

>lish the report in an early number of the " Kew 

W. T. Thiselton Dyer. 


rera tenax, N.E. Br.) 
the Xatal Court at the late Coloi 

good deal of attention. Unfortunately 
"- ntlythee " 

the labels had becon m -| ., •■ ! <\ :-;m-it, and consequently the collee 
offer sue! , detailed inves. 

ligation, it is now ek 

u SiMseus, •. ' tedcl f attention, was really what is known 

sntiva In 
the Official Kep. rts p. 37s, ir I- -tat, ,\ by Mr. 1 F. ( ross, "that the 

■ yarn prepar fa colour, bleaching easily 
" under the ordinary treatment to a full white. It was 

■ soft to the touch, more nearly resembling an Angola ya 
■" -»»• o,.tton. No- hi,. b,-cn , r , of e 
'" f*m . '.^results of laboratory 

Mr. J Medley Wo> . A.L.S., , ltor o£ th 

Durban, to whose zeal and co-operation we are 

f readily t 

to have been forwarded by Mr. J. Kirkman, of l/inzinto. f' 
by Mr. Wood to belong to the natural on It Urticacece, but he had at 
that time been unable to obtain eiih r fruit or flowers, and it was 
unrepresented in the herbarium at Durban. 

Of nettles in Natal he states :— 

"There are several , ■ nt which rittnin a 

•• height oj iv or i\vent\ feet, v, -ti'm eicrht 

'• inches in diameter. < Miier- an ■•■_. hut half 

" an inch thick and four to five feet high. The I 
" are highly prized by the natives on account of the strong cord or 

l ode manner, from the fibre 
" therein. It is known to them by the name " imbor/o scmpi" 

In a letter, dated 23rd August 1887, Mr. Woods writes:— 

" By this post I send flowers of my No. 3,837, which appears to be a 
'• Uri't-a. It is a shrub about 8 to 10 feet high or more, and is, I 
" think, the plant producing the tibi be the second 

" best fibre shown at the late Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 

" The plant is not uncommon in the midland districts, but this is 
" the first time that I have seen the flowers. 

"It will be important, I think, to ascertain whether its fibre is 
ly of value ; it grows readily 
" in quantity if found to be payable 

Again on the 23rd November :— . 

" I have collected a quantity of seed for distribution, also staminal 
" flowers, of my No. 3,837, Urera sp„ but I am afraid that they are 
" scarcely recognisable. A specimen of bark shall be sent by next 
" week's post. I should like to have sent a larger quantity, hut the 
" messenger i si nt said thai ! • -he natives, 

"who use ti; jmats. Earn having the 

" plant propagated here, in ease it may be in demand." 

On invest L Ifr. Wood proved to be a 

new species, which has been .described and Bj 
JPlantarmn as Urera tcnax, N.E. Br. 

The bark, as sent here, appears to resemble in many respects that of 
uncleaned Ramie or Rhea (Bcehmeria nivea). The fibre is, 

i the best specimens of China grass. 

cumstances of Natal than 1 


(Camellia theifera, Griff.) 

JAMAICA TEA.— Recently, three samples of tea grown and prepared 

at the Government Cinchona plantation-, Jamaica, at an elevation of 

5,000 feet, were forwarded to Kew by Mr. W. Fawcett, F.L.S., Director 

. An account of the experiments in 

ia given in the Annual Report of the Botanical 

' l'"i- Hi- year issj, pp. 4,-,, .1,;. The first plant- of tea 

_ j i. '^Jamaica were supplied from Kew in 1869 (.see Kew Report, 

In 1883, and again in 1884, seeds of Assam hybrid tea were obtained 

i.y Jvw from the Lebong Tea Company and the Kungra \ 

i extend the 
- already existing, and di- ort amongst 

i. ;. 

only tea plantations in the New World, and ii tea wore prepared to 
lirementa there is a possibility of the industry 
being successfully established in the island. Various samples of 
v favourable 
reports have been received respecting them. It k 
" of all the J'. . i, s ,- ,r : . ,. n , i i, 

r some local effort to be made to determine the 

lisbing an industry on a satisfactory basis. The 

following very promising reports on the samples of Jamaica tea sent by 

. Fawcett have been kindly far -hment by a firm 

13, Rood Lane, 31st December 1 
No. 1.— Unassorted Tea. 


Dry leaf is good colour, and with a few tips, but is rather open, 
Hi. li.n.oi is i ,-k,full, «roo,l flavour. 
The infused leaf is bright and regular. Value, Is. 8rf. per pound. 

" : ■ ■ ■■■:- ' : 

if being better in colour 
hty and flavour. No. I is too soft in liquor and 

resembles China tea : Nos. 2 and 3 being more like Ceylon tea. ' 

some substance 
H uue "Eloign to tea ; tor 

The leaf of No. 2 is quite limp, instead of being crisp; the sample 
Jias been damaged in transit. 

Gow, Wilson, &, Stanton. 
MADAGASCAR TEA.— The following correspondence has been 
d to this establishment respecting expei 
scar : — 

Foreign Office, 29th September 1887. 
' 1 " Marquis of Salisburv to tra - 

• Horn Mr. Picker-ill. II. r Maje-tv^ Vice- 
to Mr. Haggard, Her Majesty's Consul in 

T , A . . „ Antananarivo, 6th May 1887. 

' ■■■'•.■ ■■■■■ ■•":: '. . : ' • . . . . . 


of his orchards situated about 2 i 
I there seems to be reason to believ 
■will be very enco 

I visited th< , ago, and found nearly 200 plants in a 

■ " : ' .:. :■ ^ . ■■.,... ,. ;, ;'. .. • 

12 months since the seed was sown. If \\,- 
\ ' ■" ■ ' ■ ' ■' l : ■ -' ■■ ■ - v • •. , , . , 

1 exportnl ].■•■■ ■ 

The publication of the 
made under favourable 

:l >" ten trade to furnish a quantity- of "seed di 
India or China. 

I should be happy to receive and distribute such contributi 
possibilities of prosperity in Madagascar. 

W. C. Pickers 

from Kew in 185( 

Durban Botanic Gardens.' The youn<* 
these were distributed in the Colony" and 
present tea industry in Natal. We are inf 
Prospect. Cmbilo, that he obtained 100 ],!.,„ 
many of which are still L'mwii^ v ,':!i him. 

tea. The results of the experimental cultu 
very clearly that the climate and soil rf 1 
growth of tea, and in 1877 seed of As 
Indigenous were imported by private ( >lai,t, 
the prospects of tea growing were .-<> -„o< 
<• Planter^' A.-ocint;,,,'; „„.„„„ =s,H_...i r K~ (1 
" ir.-m (alculta in coolie ships, freight free, 
the Government agreed to do. ^Several ' 

< ; iron; the first hatch of seeds about 5,000 plants were raised. In 
" 1880 the fi planted, a field of five acres 

" 10,000 planR In 18S6 th total aren nnd r tea en 

" pounds. It was expected last year that the amount of tea produced 
" would be 100,000 or 120,000 pounds." 

It maybe pointed out that the extent of country supposed to be 
. Natal is confined to a belt abou 
wi.iv'. nil »tii- j trail to tin sea. Tea has, however, been tried 
md, upon land 40 or 50 miles from the sea, where there is 
liability to frost, and so far il ha> j, roved successful. 

The tea in fcs infancy, but the results 

so far attain \ \>vo\ _ M L G. S ton, in the Report 

pies I R ■ i u. refers to the tea exhibits in the 

Natal Court at the Colonial and I li iE libition as follows : — 

" The thirty-seven samples shown in the Natal court are represents 
" tive of tea's ordinarily used in commerce. They are inn 
" much pro sol he ent 'prise Good seed 

" ha- evident^ I.—.;. |-1 ■ ili-l, and much care bestowed upon the 
" manipuhtioi of the tea Ihe dry leaf is for the mosl 

" bur also oi careful supervision The li [uors are of fair . 

-a,.. 1 . [,<■-- -.- tin- (-Went- to excellent tea. As a rule, they are too 

" highly fire bucfa requires but to be known to be 
• nedied." 




No - 16.] APRIL. [1888. 


" [ '•' ,; ; " . . :■. 

As the publicum „i tl IM of ,, u ,„,|, . 

■ < ■■ . ::,:; • -. : . 

■:h been determined to c. ,.- •• -,. ..... 

;n u„ „e :.. *_ ,i ! .- , . . UCH " 

publication will be c 

1 horticultural world generally. 



The present list embraces the new garden plants and 
names recorded between 1st October 1886 and 31st De< 
To these have been added the names of authors, which die 
in former lists. The full description _ of hybrids of gardei 
of garden varieties is not given, a 

The public 

3 confine i 

immediately follows the name. They are : — 
Hot ,,i, ,1 Ma--, i /; 1/— (, .i < I miiele, G. C— Gartenflora, 

C ;//.— [! t ion II './/. — I . L. — Eeichenbachia, R. 

—Revue Hnrticole. 11. 11.— Warner and William*' Orchid Album, 
W. 0. A.— Wan Plants, W. S. 0. P. 

The iibbreviiitions in the descriptions of the plants are: — Infl., 

,~L.. Leaves.— 77., Flowers.— Fr., Fruit.— H., Hardy.— 

//. ft.. IhdMinrdv.— G.. (iiveiilioiKO. — V., Stove.— Per., Perennial.— 

Shr., Shrub.—///', Indies.— Lin., Line = one twelfth of an inch.— 

Ft., Foot or Feet.— Diam., Diameter.— Pet., Petals.— Sep., Sepals. 

N.B. — Unless specified, all Orchids and Bromeliads may be considered 

tris, var. grandiflora, 

Andre. (B. H. 1886, p. 48 

Abies Nordmanniana. 

Conifer®. H. tree. Garden variety. 

Acanthus Caroli-Alexane 

ZabeJ. (G/?. 1887, p. 431, f. i'7hs» 

Acer platanoides, var. undulatum. 

H 1387, p. 166. 

Bnrnii, T. i 
Adiantum capillus-ven 

tatum.T- Moore. (C 

Adiantum hians, T. 

Adesmia balsamica, 

AdiantumWaltoni, T.Moore. (G.C. I the spu 

iEchmea flexuosa, Baker. (G. C. Been*. (G/Z. is: 

pale. Fl.-stem about 3 ft. hi-li, l-aiii.'lu 

Agave Henriquesii, 

JEchmeamyriophylla, Baker. < A'. J/. 

.flSchmea Weilbachii. nr. leodiensis, 

g*j | Agave Villarum, Andre. (& JET. 188$, 
Aglaonema nebulosum, x. i:. Br. 

Aerides odoratu 

Allamanda cathartica, 

Allium elatum, 

Aerides virens, \ 

and a reflexed, oblong, acut 
greenish-white hmb. Spadix i 

(M 81 H., v. 33, p. 155, pi." 611.) S. 

larg.r blade of the leaf is cordate - 

Uocasia marginata, N. E. Br. (G. C. 

bold habit. Petiole- 2-3 \ ft. ]«,i s. pal. 
green, marked with zig-zag blackish- 
brown bars, and the sheath broadly 


shaped, greenish-white. Spadix as long 

Alocasia Pucciana, An . ^n II. 

AlOCasia Villaiieuvei, Linden and Rod. 
the petioles spotted with brown, and the 

drooping, sweetly-scented tl. 1\ in. long, 
with a cylindric tube widening at the 
mouth, and five - 

itb red. New Zealand, 

Llsophila atrovirens, var. Keriana, 
Ba£er. (G. C. 1887, v. 1, p. 639.) 

Alyxia bracteolosa, Rich. (Gfi. lss 7 , 

-horth p. linn uia! . I 


Amaraboya amabilis, Linden. (ill.H. 
Amaraboya princeps, Linden. (III. H. 

magnificent shr., with sipiiirc st. 
large, showy, bright raneiiie tl., 

Amaraboya splendida, Lin 

lasonia calycina, Hook. f. (B. M. 

A. . ■ :■ .. 

1887, v. 1, p. 40.) Orchidea. L. 4 in. 


Lngraecum calligerum, Rchb. f. 

i <-. * '--7. \.-l. p. .Mi.) L. -I L'htly 

:eUnblon- till) >lei~e 

Angra;cum Grandidierianum, 

Anguloa Ruckeri, m. media v Bcl 

Ansectochilus Lansbergise, 

Ansellia confusa, N. E. Br. (Z. v. 2, 

p. 36.) Orchid, e. Tlii- is the plant 
the Botanical Register for 

' : 
W. Trop. Africa. 
Anthurium acutuin, N. E. Br. (G. C. 

A distinct-looking species about a ft. 
high, with slender petioles, mid tri- 

Anthurium Andreanum, var. flore 

' :^7. : , '"Li 'orden 

Anthurium brevilobum, N. E. Br. 

Anthurium punctatum, 

Anthurium Sd 

Anthurium Scherzerianum, var. i Asphodelus comosus, lkikur. . (,. 
parisiense, i *S87, r. I, p. 799.) I 

n. ';i . //-'. //. v. M. p. 47, pi. 16.) resemblm 

cJirysops, null . ij,,ii ^•.»>,i 

Leopoldi, Van Houtte. 
Aquilegia fl 

llata, Hancc. (G. C. Asplenium scanucns, •'■ >-'" _■■.<■■<■ 

Aster angustus, Tor 

Aratea platycaulis , n • k. . < r , r JV.i.'k,' ,'I !" "I" , llStl^ "condino 

Aster pseudamellus, . 

Aristolochia salpinx, 

Aster tricephalus, 

AthyriUlll filiX-fOemina, var. aero- , overlapping, dark green above, paler 

Clodon Wilsoni, Woll. (G. C. 1887, beneath. Cymes few-f!. 

.,<> description is given. Betula Medwedwwi, IJfjI. (G //., 

Azalia Obtusa, var. alba. Veiteh. ■ >< branches and 

Baeria gracilis, A. Gr. (G/Z. 1887, [ ) h 3tiole 1 r " 

i i i Betuui Haadoiina, i >»</ (Cry/. 1 887, 

,, ['tin iaVtmni a m. 1 r - v i > r I -.„ di 

Bakeria Vitiensis, Seem. (G#. 1887, ovate,acutel; 

Billbergia Gireondiana, Kran 

• . , ac _ (/| ._ /; li;,e.- re . S. Kpiplme. Garden hybrid. 

. 513, f. 122.) Gramineaj. H. Bollea poll 

internode appear to differ from ZygOpetaln 

Barleria rej 

Briza rotundata, 

Begonia cyclophylla, Hook. f. (B.J*. ! Brodiaea Doug] 

solitary, orbici Brnnsvigia Massaiana, Iin& 

bright rose-pinkfl.nnm. in diam. South i B^jjophylluin grandiflOTUm, } 

Begonia egregia, ; king plant, wore i 

Begonia Johnstoni, Oliver. (B. If. 

lent; pair -rem -potted uith red. Buvhngtonia caloplectron, 

Calanthe veratrifolia, var. Regnieri, 
Calceolaria Burbidgei. (G. C. 1886, 

iampanula 'Wanneri, 

Catalpa syringae, var. foliis argen- 

il. trc,. L. variegated. 

CatasetumBungerotlii, - 

Catasetum costatum, 

Catasetum cristatum. 

Catasetum galeritum, Rchb. f. (Z., 

spikelets. South China. 

p. 88', £810 

Cattleya Dukeana, Rcl 

• crocata, Veitch, p 

. 17. Syn. 

• delicata, Veitrh j 

:,'f\r l r - 

■ Dowiana, Veitcli, j 

• Eldorado, Veitch, i 

,.17. Syn. 

r- Warneri, Veitch, p. : 
•• Wilsoniana, Echh, f. 

— -_ v. r. Schofieldiana, 
Cattleya Harrisii, \ichK f. 
Cattleya Kimballiana, Lin 

■'■ ' 

oeJthe 1 is Cattleya Loddigesii, va 

Var. Candida, Vc 

Cattleya la.:- II . <; : . ■, / | 

— - Var. maculata, 

Cattleya Mossiae aurea grandiflora. 
37, v. 2, p. 219.) Garden 

Cattleya porphyroglossa. var. punc- 
Cattleya Schilleriana.var- Amaliana, 

Cattleya Skinneri, var. oculata, 
Cattleya sororia, Kchb. f. (G. C. 

Cattleya sp>: i 

Cattleya suavior, Kfhb 


Cattleya Wall: 

m. Veitch in his 1 

! ./-„.,.. .-„>. 

llchb.f. ' 

lliOT, Veitch. Syi 

iioederiana, Veil 
Cattleya Zenobia,E 

Ceratotheca triloba, k. M-y. 

Chrysanthemum margin 

' ■ 

Chrysanthemum multicaule, Desf. 

Cirrhopetalum Lendyan 

if;, r i-r. . ■_. 

Bulbophyllum Lendyanum, Rchb. i 

Cirrhopetalum stragulari 

areflesh-colourt'.l, <!<>. primi- to ivi .-uhI 

Coelogyne Hookeriana, w. brachy- 

Coelogyne macukta. _. vir:rnic;i. 
Coelogyne Sanderiana, Kehb. f. (G.c. 

with, 'tl.. th.'tVonr'lob'.'of rC lip 

Colchicum Troodii, Kotschy. (5. m. 
Corypha decora, Hull. (/i„U <\,t. 

';,';;,; Jj , : • rhomboidea, N. E. Br. (G. C. 

Claviga Ernstii, Hook, f. (/?. m. 

Clerodendron Rumphianum, Bull. ' ,\ \> , s u,Jh 

Stamens with claret- purple filaments. 

Crinum longifolium, var. Farinia- 

Crinum Mas 

Crinumvanillodormn, w.'i-.-.. < ///. //. 

and rather rereading segments. Congo, 

Croton Newmaniij, Bull. 


* tripe. ''Polynesia! 1111 

Cryptophoranthus mac 1 

See pieurothallis maculatus. 
Cypripedium allium, Rcl 

Cypripedium amanduiu. i' ;i f. 

Cypripedium Amesiami: 

(Dut!!p. 100 Garden hybrid. 

Cypripedium concolor, var. tonki- 

nense, Linden. (Z-. v. 2, p. 61, pi. 77 ; 

Cypripedium delicatulum, Echb. f. 

Cypripedium doliare, Echb. f. ( (;. c. 

i ssr, \ . 1, p. 447.) Garden hybrid. 
Cypripedium Horniauum, Echb. f. 

</ ('. 1887, v. 2, p. 428.) Garden 

Cypripedium insigne, var. Moore- 

Cypripedium Laurenceanum, 
coloratum. Echb. f. ((;. c. 

Cypripedium orbum, Echb. f. ( g 

1887, v. 2, p. 778.) Garden hybrid 
Cypripedium pleistor. 

iG.y. 1887 v. 2, 

plunerum, Kehi.. f. 
((7. ('. 1887, v. 1, p. 40.) Garden 

Cypripedium prsestans, Echb. f. 

: : '• - . . .-.■ i ,' .. 


Cypripedium Schrodene, na. splen- 

Garden hybrid. 

Cypripedium '. 

pedunculate, axillary, 3-flowered cyi 

Cytisus filifer, Besson. (i?. Zf. is 
to be a form of Genista sibirica, * 

nmik'voiis pale yellow tl. 


(_a. r. 

chlorostele, Rchb. 
Dendrobium chrysodiscus, R<-hi>. 1. 

.' v. 1, p. 111.) Garden 

Dendrobium cybele, Roife. (G. C. 

1887, v. 2, p. 778.) Garden hybrid. 

Dendrobium Falconeri, var. gigan- 

Davallia ferruginea, Des 

Delphinium Za 



Dendrobium hercoglossum, Rchb. f. 

Dendrobium bracteosum, 

Dendrobium inauditum, Rchb. 1 

i;. ■■■:.. :■..■■.-■.■ 

Dendrobium melanodiscus, Rchb. f. 
Dendrobium nycteridoe ;lo 

Dendrobium polypblebium, Echb. . 


Dendrobium rutriferum, i: 

Dendrobium Vanneriannm, Eel 

Dimorphotheca fruticosa, D. ( 

with pi.) Ebenace*. 
D. Kaki. 
Diospyros Wiseneri, < 

icemosa ? I*, f. 

The upper sep. is hooded 

' (■'■.■: ■ ■■:■.. 

i tngonopus, 

, 6 8 in. long, I to. h 

ffl. 1} in. in dim... S.|, ,;:! ; ,„- 

Escallonia revoluta, Pers. (/i. .V. 

)blong, 2-toothed, and the mid j Clarkei. 

1, Baker. (G. C. 

Epidendrum Mathewsii, 


ridendrum vitellinum, 

Surya vitienais, A. Gr. (G/L 1887, 

Ficus Cavroni, i 

• gigan- 

•lull yellow Fraxinus turkestanica, Carrn-re. (/.'. 

Eria muscicola, i 

-•' .■- ,,-iil -.:. 


Galeandra Descagnolleana, Rchb. f. 

Allied to (•. dn; ,. v.iti 
of modirate-Mzed ti, S. 

Galeandra devoniana, tot. Delpbina. 

Galeandra flaveola, Rchb. f. {<;. r. 

Geranium tuberosum, • 


Globbaalba, Morren. (B. H. v. 35, 

p. 286, pi. 20.) S. This 

ijm of G. albobracteata, 
Glyptostrobus columnar, 

(A H. 1881, p. 528.) Ck 

same as Taxodium distichum var. 
Goodyera Rodigasiana, Linden. (III. 

■ : . 

- : 

veola, Rchb. f. (G. C. 

■ ■ 


Hamanthus abyssinicus, Ho-b. 

Hebenstretia tenuifolia, s h, ,<i 


in. li _h v ith I rn ii 

■ - ■ ■:'. -ii • ■■ ■ ' . ,:•., !■., 

"•' - 

Hedysarummicrocalyx, Baku. ( /;.j/. 

t. i;i»;n.) r^Miiuinosif. H. Anorna- 


ght n purpie m N. W. ffi i a n mded by* numerouS" 

bracts. Brazil. 

Hibiscus coccineus, Walt. (< 

HelicophyllumAlberti, Bgl. (B. M. 

Aracea?. H. pet An \ 

Helicteres isora. i- ((>' r h-t, v ■>, 
Heliophila scandens, Harv. (<?. c. (a. a 1887, 

:■■ . 

Hyacinthus lineatus, Stemi. </;//. 

Hydrosme Leopoldiana, Mast, i (,. l\ 
and a horizontally spreading 3-branched 

Ilex camellisef olia, , Carriere. (li.H. 

Ilex Fischeri, of gardens, (E. H. 1887, 

reiisis, Baker. (Ill.H. 

■ - 

[pomcea Robertsii, Hook.f. («. ii/. 

tiful twiner, softly pubescent except the 
fl. L. petiolate, cordate acute. ;J-1 m. 

Iris Biliotti, Foster. (G. C. 1887, v. I, 

■ ■■ 

purple crests. I'rovui 
Iris Boissieri, Ilenriquez. (G. C. ] 887, 

■ ; ■' ., 

•lisum-tly bearded. Fl. purple. Por- 
Iris Duthieii. Foster. G. C. 1887, v. 1, 
p. 611.) it. Khizomo knotty and 

'■....■■■ ■ 

S e r S sUe'; ye tube IS 3 in. or more' long^; 

yellow with the veins 

>■■ ■ . '• 
red-lilnc with triangular crenate crest?. 

' : 

Iris Hookeriana, Foster. (<?. a 1887, 

nY,-hy. L. 1 ft. long. 

Scape about 5 in. long, 2-flowered. 
Fl.-tube i-| m. long; falls obovate- 

Iris Kingiana, Foster. ((,. c. l 

spots showing through ; standards erect, 
oblong-ovate, ] in. long, nearly \ in. 

Iris lupina, Foster. (G. C. 1887, v. 1, 
p. 738.) H. Rhizome Sesh 

L. 9 ins. or in 


Iris Sari, var. lurida, Boiss. (B. M. 

flowere.l. I 

larg.- blackish bietrh at the ba-e ; 

Minor. '"" 
Iris Vaga, Foster. (GJl. 1887, p. 201, 


Karatasacanthocrater,Bak,r. (/;. m. 

t. 6!)()4.) liromeliacoie. S\n. \i,f„- 

887, Kniphofia Kirkii, 

ate, 1$ in. by | in., reflexed, 

:■■■ ■■■;:... . . . _ . r 

Kniphofia pallidiflov.i. i: .1 . < 

fl. 4.Wines hug! \\ l i", ,s,'u 
Laburnum caramanicum, Bth. Leg 

!y I Laelia elegans— «>»/. 
st I — 7 Var. gigantea, Vc 

'" ' - — Var. Houtteana, 

:. . ■. ^ ' :" " - •' •■■ : '■■ '■ ' 

Lachenalia aureoxreflexa, Baker. 

venusta, I a,,,,ll . t -!■ in ~- '""'"I- - 

■ ' . ' . ...... ; . '. '•' . .. .. , ; ' ' 

— Var.xanthotr:. 

; ;;l ;. tl ;. t ;', iy ;;; , i ;J" /// - "'" ^»m'^-) 

Laelia elegaiis. Those i, 

Laelia Lindleyana, 

astrea lepida, T. Moore (G. C. 

L886, v. -■■■. p. 681.) s -. An elegant 
acuminae^ ^™£ 


Lselia pumila, ^>r. Curleana, i; ^ *' 

Leschenanlti a 

— Var. praestans, VetisL ( Paste* 

purpurata, var. Lowiana, 

Ligustrum japonicum, 

(T7. O. ^4. v. 6, P l. 269.) 

Laelia rubescens, var. alba, 

(VeitchMan. < 

lip. Syn. I. i,nhnrul(iris, Lindl. 

Lalia triophthalma, Veitch. (FeiVc/i 

1/, / , / . ;. p 97 i Syn 

Cattleya triophthalma, Rchb. f. 

Landolphia florida, Bth. (B. M. t. 

Ai.or.wt.- i- >■ Al,;r 

Lapeyrousia grandiflora, Baker. 

/;" .1/ t. *):>■> \ ■ Iri.lace.a-. G. A 

Liparis elegans, Ldl. (G. c. 1886, 

Littonia modesta, var.,Kei- 
Lonchocarpus Barteri, Benth. ( B. 3/. 

i . 

clustered pink tl.. uirl 
calices. Trop. Africa. 
Lycaste plana, var. Measuresiana, 

Imim'.I, spot., h. Tl. ."..> 

of the pet Bolivia 
; .nmeri, var. reginae, Wa. 

purplish dots on 

ata. j:. 

Masdevallia demissa, E 

Masdevallia Galeuiaua. Bchl 

[asdevallia glaphyrantha, Rchi>. f. ' 

p. 340.) Garden hybrid. Maxillaria Sanderii 

vallia ignea.var 
Masdevallia pusiola, 

Miltonia spec; meats, which 

Linden. (Z. v. 2, p. .'!!, pi. 02.) A ! are abruptly R-t]c\vd. ■,<, that tiny an. I 

::tabilis, ' 

Morina betonicoides, Bth. (B. M. i li " spreading : 

Mormodes platychila, 1 

Mutisia viciaefolia, » 

Nepenthes cylindrica, ' 

Nepenthes Mastersiana, Veitch, 

Nephrolepis rufescens, Sptitgerb. var 
tripinnatifida, Veitch. d ',-i/di < \ii. 


" ' Nephthytispicturata.N.l i'i ((, < 

Jffystacidinm filic 

Nerine Moorei, ^n. Lcichtiin. 

Nesopanax vitiensis, Seem. (Gfl. 

1^7. p. 7 1.) Araiiawie. S. A small 
tiv.-. with long-stalk.-d. large, digitate 1. 

lont., I -with yellow; lip yellow. Ecuador. 

Odontoglossum crispui 
Tar. angustatum, 

-. Wolstenholmize, 

Var. Hrubyanum, Rcl 

Odontoglossum cristatum, 

Odontoglossum Edithise, 

( u". s. o. /'., .s,-.-. ■•;, pi. •-- 

0. crispum, v*t. EdithiaB. 

Odontoglossum euastrum, 

r. Jenningsianum, 
limbatum, witch. 
- lobatum, Witch. 
. Pollettianum, N. B. 

Odontoglossum gracile, ] 

. I • • . 

i^V* s - v,,: °' u ' i,;< " nsi< """"- 

!!.:':. ,.!'S: E^ <>. 't**.<°<\ 

Odontoglossum Harry anum, llchb., 

f. (??. c. is?.',. ■» ■_••; P is.-,, „,i 

Var. HinilUS, Veitch. ( V,;frh 

i/.,',/. V-.'".',', ,!. :,:,' with 'fig.) A 

)/hni„s,{l"hb!t V ' '' "'"' 

— Var. inagmncum, w,iiuun,,n,i 

-at. ii nwnvt blotches, above the middle 

- ;/'■.... ;:-:■ 

Lip with a 1: 

Var. MulllS, Veitch. ( Veitch 

Var. Vuylstekeannm, Veitch. 

{VmUth Ma 

Odontoglossum hinnus, Rchb. f. (G. 

C. 1887, v. 1, p. 606.^ A curious- 

Odontoglossum lyroglos^ 

■■;'; ; : 


: -., •>■ ' ' ■ ■ •■ ■■■ 

j ones falcate. 1, . ,' . .. I . 

I':- .■:.' ■■_.. . -.. •-:■-•::-■. 

.' ..",;,:.. v.- .. ,; ;':' : " '■ 

Odontoglossum nebulosum, var. 

. III. \ li ' V, teh 

cordate, yellow blotch;:! and marked 

the same as the var. candidum. 

Odontoglossum Lindleyanum. ^." 
Coradinei, Veitch. (1 

Odontoglossum odoratuiu. \ n 

IJchb mil viil inn„/it!.»-i, Urhh 

Alan lC Wont., p, 55.) ' Smi. <> 

Var. ligulare, Veitch. (Veitrh 

Aran. Odont., p. 4:5.) Syn. O. 

Var. hebraicum, Veitch. ( 1 'rju-h 

Man. Odont., p. 56.) Syn. O. 

Var. mirandum, \ <--it<-ii. < I < ■</< ■/. 

Var. Leeanum, Veitch. (Vntch 

Ma,,. Od.nt., p. 56.) Syn. O. Lee- 

.VWm. CWo«f., p. 43.) Syn. 0. 

•;'v..-:;i _; :. . ■-...>. ■■■... '■ ■_ 

/,. T. 2, p. 37, pi. 65j <?. C. 1886, 

v. 26, p. 712.) Something in th. 

Odontoglossum Pescatorei. Gov 

11 ■ " ■'■ v - 

7t<rJY AkmoCn, va, with\vhh. th 

';'■/' :. : '■ ' '.'•;; ; \ 

:■ : . • •: ' ^.' • ' 

: .' ."'.: .", . •".- . : : 

'•,:■■. .V :,■'=■. - : ■': ;. 


disk, which has some radiating purple 

ar. leucoxanthum, 

Odontoglossum PoUettianum, V 
0. crispum w. PoUettianum. 

Odontoglossum Schil 

■ \vy species with compressed oblong 

■ ut ;i ii. hi-li, several flowered. Sop. 

liliiflorum, Veitch. {Veitch j 


887, v- 1, P- 380.) 

Odontoglossum Rosii, Lindl. 

Odontoglossum Schroederianum, 

JRchb. f. (G. C. 1887, 

0. crispum. 
Odontoglossum staurastrum, Bchb. f. 

.ii- ;■ ■ i ■ ; 

mauve stripes between the keels, ami 

Odontoglossum stauroides, var. 
Gravesianum, Rchh,£ (G. C. 1887, 

Var. Ehrenbergii, Veitch. Syus. 

O. lhnrsonuuntm, Kchb. f., and O. 
Ehmihiryii, Lindl. 

Var. Humeanum, Vciu-h. Syn. 

O. Humeanum, Kchb. f. 

Var. majUS, Carricrc. {li. //. 

same as the var. rilbescens, Witch. 

uontoglossum trrpudians, var. 

leucoglossum, Veitcb. {Veitch. 
Man. Odont., p. 67.) A var. with 
the ground colour of the lip white. 
— Var. xanthOglOSSUm, Veitch. 
{Veitch. Man. OSnt.. p. 67.) Has 
the ground colour of the lip canary - 

Oncidium Braunii, Rgl. {Gfl. 1886, 

- -21, t. 1235, f. a-c; K. II. 1887, 
ISulbs compressed. 

Oncidium hastatum, var. hemime- 

laenum, Kchb. t: ((>•'. c. 1 8-7. v. -j. 


Oncidium Jonesianum. 

Oncidium lutescens, I 

Oncidium tigrinum, 

Jphsmenus Burmauni. ■■ al 

dulum, N. E. Br. (G. C. 1886, v. 

Onnithidum ochraceum, Kchb. 

rowskia magnifica, Rgi. (Gfi. 

Oxalis catharinensis, N. v.. Br. 

15 lowered i fl. wh 


Oxalis imbricata, E. and Z., 

Panax fruticosum, var. multifidum, 

•andanus Augustianus, Lind. i 

Pandanus Grusonianus, Lind. and 

Bod. (///. //. v. 34, p. 35, pi. 12.) 


[I.' (lar.lm mv . .-f Setaxia italicn. Something m 

Paphinia Lindeniana, ifciii' (. ('■■ l^i^'liKl 

ino"n l.a-e the fnmt lobe liustatc, \vith phalaenopsis Foersterrnanii. (G. C. 

"'"' !!! ' 1 l' :1 I" ll!lte c,e?ts - 1887, v. 1, p. 244.) A small but 

Papperitzia Leiboldi, \i<-hh. i ij;. r ■. ^^.Jl'' 

' ! ; r ;';'^j an eivcMYinged crest. 

Phahmiopsis Hnvriettae, Rolfe. 

blunt ]>« in b t rl im, hain it.yh PhalaeilOl - 


PaSSiflora WatSOlliana, Masters, with brown circles or spots The lip 

.l.whe.l with violet m»ide. Pet. , .^ ... 

-> i! "' '" ' has small trian- 

Vv.'r" ,,-",":, ' r'Tr^! 

1887, !>• 3-.U, nth [.I.) - ehmVr. teeth, ami tin re U also a small three- 

'"^■, , '": t ! H ." 1 ■"■ "'' " l? ., ?.' Phoenix rupicola, far. foliis argenteo 

v .: .. • 

J;/ "'; Phytolacca decandra, var. albo- 

! ',' ' , -. (C,^. 188", 

'!'■■■ ■■'-.■■ .■'. ; -':''^-» '. '.;■ '.. ',''' : "'' ' /. : ' . •.. : ; ': . • -' ■ 

to'thciip. IVmerara. Picea excelsa, var. virgata, ('a.-j.arv 

Phaius Sedenianus, K<*hb. f. (/'•/• 

1887% 1 P 174. > (»rrlii.U-ie. Garden II. tree. A -> i,..nym of Abies excelsa, 

bybr i d ; r var. monstrosa, Loud, 

>•■ Liilinninii 

Pinus austriaca, ™r. foliis aurei 

Pinus koraiensis, ™. variegata, I Pogogyne nudiuscula, "»;.>. ^_< i,j 

(im'h-l'varilty. ' ' ''' ' "| p. -UT.') Labiat.r" ~ IF.' A K , tt v a. 

Piptanthus tomentosus, fttmchet. JJ^ ]'. 

Pitcairnia Roezli, Morr. ( n. 11. v. I 

Polemonium flavum, ' 

Pittosporum rbytidocarpum, A. 

r - 

Platanus occidentals, '■■•• foliis 
argenteis, sputh. (/«•.//. i>- r. \>. r,i.i 

Populus Eugenii, 
P. canadensis. 

Plerandra Grseflfei, no doubt a 

L °°" I Poth 


maculatus, >•• ' J'r. 

PleurothalRs picta, 

Pleurothallis tribuloides, 

I Primula capita t.a, ■ ■■ 

| Primula ob; 

j umbels of deep claret-purple 

Primula sapphirina, Hook, fl 

Th. {B.flt. 6'JHI A.; <;. c 
elcsant lutlc species, 1 i-3 in. 

Primula Venzoi. (G. C. 1887, 

: flora, Franchet. ( 

repia pandurata, K< w>- * 

Rhapis Kwamwonzick, Sieb. {ill 
Rhododendron albescens. 

PritchardiaThurstoni, ^'ii and in. 

Pseudophcenix Sargenti^ Wendi. 

Rhododendron graveolens, 

Jhododendron Led 
purpurea, Beg. 

Rhododendron yedoense, 

Psychotria sulpluirea. ^ • •>■ .<•."• 

,: . 
Ptelea trifoliata, jar. ami 

tr.v. Ganleri vnric-ty." 

; ' 
garden var. of P. semilata. 

. - . . . ■■•■■: : ' ' :' : 

Pyrethrmn Decaisneannm, Mux in,. 
Quercus sessiliflora, var. pendula, 

£&£=?■ £iff : 

Robinia pseudo-acacia, var. n 

( R. II. 1887, p. 

Romulea Macowani, Baker. (< 

Rosa platyphylla, Eed. (fl, u. 18 
I-. lot'..! Rosacea. H. A bro; 
leaved form of/?, mutiiflor,,. Thbg. 

R. Villosus, Ait. (see G. 
Saccolabium P< 

Schomburgkia Humboldtii, 

Saccolabium Smeeanum, Rchb. f. 

■ ■ 
\ ■■ <>( S. repens, - 1 io « m . ™ i 

Salix lasiandra, wwr. laftdi 

Sciadopitys verti< 
Scilla lingulata, 

Scolopendriinn officinale, - V..I- 

Selaginella tassellata, IJ'«H- t /:„<> 

Schizanthus Grahami, var. lilacinu 

Silphium albiflorum, 

ia leucoxantha, Rchb. f. j Strelitzia regina, var. citrina. (G. C. 

thetJbc. ' CostsTkica. ' 
Sobralia xantholeuca, William-. 

Solanum Wendlandii, ll-ok. i. < //. M 

jophrocattleya Batemanniani 

Batemaniana, Rehb. f. 
sophronitis grandiflora, var. aurai 

Staphylea Coul< i jit ri. a i, // 

Statice superba, Bgl. (Gjl. 1887, 

us kewensis, N- !-• Br. 

;•; Watsoni^N". v. \u. 
Strobilanthes attenuates, .Ta,^. < (,// 

Strobilanthes coloratus, T. And. 

Strobilanthes flaccidifolius, 


Stellera Alberti, 

"j' j Swainsonia Ferrandi, var. alba, 

m- ', cli.tlitd_ with 

Tapeinanthus humilis, 

. , i i./nn- 

Tecoma Ricasoliana, ' 

i rJbo-purpureuny 

Tridax bicolor, 

Thrixspermum ti- 
ll unguiculatus, Ldl. 
Thunbergia affinis, s. Moor,-, ta. < 

Tulipa linifolia. 

Ulmus campestris, ; Eevavdi. 

r ;' ' ■;.'■■';'. ' .' . .' , : ! .' . ' ' ■ - : ■■■■ . -■■ ■ ■ ' 

v.'-iiow-'thi-..:, ; (V bdhor^.tftiii,- 1 : 

Urginea macrocenti 

Tillandsia ch: 

-..- stralis, i 
. inflata, W:nvra. (//.//. i u ,,. i„ 11? . y\. < t(in : >; u hi-k -t 

, roiivolnti' spur -in. long. !>. Afn, 

1887, v. 1, p. 140.) 1 ■ E. Br. (G 

Vanda Amesiana, 

Touvnefortia ^ cordifolia, 
Boragintse. G. or H. H. SI 

i. (,. < . isssfi, v. -jr.. 
and pet., (if :i dark bmun i,anvcl 

fiont. Himalaya. 

andaDearei. iMib. f. ((7. C. 188( 

v. 26, p. 6 48. G^?. 1887, p. 340. 

Wats. (5. >/. 
I* H. H. per. 

t. G9G7.) Legumiuo 
climber, of great inter 

|. innate en.ling in l, . 

nsis, Thunb. (i?. H. 1887, 

Preissn, Endi. (#. J/. 

Venidium fugax, Hai 

Venidium hirsutum, 


Zygocolax Veitchii, Koife. (G. c. 

petalum Veitchii. 
Zygopetalum Crepeauxi, r,,,-^!, 

■I- Zygopetalum Veitchii, v.'iMi. n;. 




No. 17.] MAY. [1888^ 


(Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, Rich.) 

The ipecacuanha plant is a half-shrubby perennial not more than 

18 inches high, which grows in abundance under the shade of trees in the 

hot, moist forests of many parts of Brazil. It was cultivated in this 

country at Edinburgh at least as early as 1832, and flowered at Glasgow 

The part used in medicine is the dried roots. These are collected 
more or less all the year round, but less during the rainy season from 
the difficulty of drying them properly. As stated by 1'. 
Trim.-ii ( Medicinal Plants, vol. ii., 145), "From its stimul- 
" on the alimentary canal ipecacuanha has always been in repute as a 
" remedy in chronic dysentery and diarrhoea, and in large doses of 30 
" grains and upwards as almost a specific in 

" acute dysentery." 

For the last quarter of a century a ] - been made 

to introduce the ipecacua : with the 

,,: nt-. 1 1 is ovi- lint that the problem presented was out 

nj , ,. onli 1 dirnoult\ I'll. | < i< ( mil p ml P'' 1 - » - "'V lirtl 

I'll IVHllt - * - V ' 1 ' I"-. 

however, be.-n to .show that, it can hi- pr..[):ig:.l.-d le. 

js, by cuttings of the roots, or even 

The history of the introduction of I 

the Under Secretary to the G 
1888 :— 

" My attention had been directed to the introduction of the ipeca- 

- • . ,."i„ ;■:.:■■ i'- ■■■■■•' 

" but I was unable to procure any plant- until April I >(!(», when one 

•• plant w,- v,. m t » ,,.- by tin- overland rout.- '•;_ I >i H"- 

■ Calcutta in good health." * * * 

-The [dan: of ipecacuanha originally introduced into the i 
1 Gardens in 1866 is dead; but I now possess 

been artificially propagated from the original 
; one besides five growing at the cinchona plantations at Darjeelmg, 
place I sent one last year. I have thus 14 plants of 
1 ipecacuanha." 

On March 23, 1869, the India Office wrote to Kew requesting that 
ome plants of ipecacuanha may be procured and sent with care to 

°Sir Joseph Hooker replied, March 19: "1 can place two healthy 

llency the Governor in Council at 

and I hope soon to be able to supply more, but the plant 

.,,,, imported alive) is still excessively rare 

! and propagated but slowly." 

/ Mr. Henry Gayen^ from South- 
ampton c 

' The India Office wrote to Kew December ! 

•the two plants had perished after tl 
in India." 

On March 28, 1870, Dr. Anderson, 

«*ce: * The plants have I 
. and at the lowest levels of the - 

- at Calcutta 

. : ::;.,» ■■■ ■ <'■ ■ " ■ "' " ; : 

■■ ! i . Mclvor from Kew in 

... >./ ..- «..■. . . •. :'•■•■■ ■/ "■- --:" 

" cuttings have been made in India, all others having perished on the 

•- voyage, os country." 

of India, Dr. Anderson 
y plants of Cephaelis 

12. 5 

u Ipecacuanha as possible from botanical and private c 

■I V.uvn V ::~ Ho continues: "I communicated 
" Dr. Balfoi i n ,] h , Dniversta of 

" and both he and Mr. McNab, the Curator 
« there, promised to propagate as nmu\ cutting of ip,., a 
" plants in i 
" plants, in order that the besl |... 

•i on, that il occurred to Mr. Mcft 
" , ' , " ,T ^< '"'"•''- «'i-hl b, ;,'..„ ,th Hit..., „t ... ., ]... ,',- 
1 saw the first crop of these rid/. 

J 1 left Edinburgh I had the satisfaction of seein_ 

« rhizomes had struck root, and sent up a strong shoot. " I heard 

- ■ ■ ■ ■ 

^ - ■ >■■' ' ^ -:•. u.,. :,.. ; . - ,-, . ... , . . . 

transmission to India, along with the stuck I mav obtain from oth 
' . sou rces. I hare also pro. ,/. nr f Ip ecaC uan 

in London, from ', I, , ,. . w \}\ \ )f > maf | 0) b otn p t ^ e r0( 
and stems, during ti, , M k of im leave in England. I ha 

heard ot :i Inv more large plant, in nurseries and private ganlei 
some of which I .hall Ik- ah!,, to purchase or ohtain in exchange I 
seeds or plants from the Calcutta iiotamo (.aniens Cutting yy 

" seeds from the ] 

:. l.'r. . 


Dr. Anderson ^ 

He suffered from 

He was succeeded 

in the 

bv Dr. King, the 
to the Governmen 

I ..f lie 



u " At the be g inn 

ing of 


January, 1871, not 
i for rare plants and 

May 14, 187 

' ■ •■'■'' ' 


*' accordance with the orders of the Government of India, based on 

dts of the experience of the late Dr. 
" were forwarded to Sikkini a> <o«»n as [>r;tcr!.- 

'■ here. Th< '" "' tnis 

" plant, all attempts to propazin it ii tln-g den have b 
" and the cul like tnat of 

"cinchona as a p an 1 i t barge The 

•• plants arc at present under the immediate care of the European 

tion, and propagation is b( 
« on chiefly in one of the hot, deep valleys on the outer slopes of the 
■ ■ * Hitherto 

•■ the [lint 1] t- not perfected s 1 in this eon i 1th ugh Ho . - 

• h : ,v« uumentlybeen produced; we must therefore look to increase 
-• h\ cuttm-- and other artificial methods." 

From the report of Dr. George Henderson, offic 

. a! Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, to the I be m u m , I I J. •._ i!. 
May 31, 1873, it appears that the number oi 

Led Rungbee alive up to the end of March, L872, 

In 1872 and 1873 122 other plants were received, nuking a total _«>t 

380. Besides these Dr. Anderson took out to India in December, 1873, 

a. In the summer of 1871 he re- 

We partially stripped the plants of their root-, which \w cut 

•• into very small pieces and treated as ordinary cuttings. By this 

'• method our stcck of plants and cuttings was increased to about 300 

«• by the end of August, 1871." By a continuation of the method the 

- on the 1 st of January 1 873 was 3,066, and on 

On April 28, 1874, Dr. King repoi 

. He states: -The cultr ally confined 

- to Sikkim, where it has been conducted chiefly by Mr. Jaffrey of the 
■ cinchona establishment, to whom is largely due the credit ot its 

•• root and leaf cuttings was discovered progn-- was evi: 

•• Mr. Giiinniic, the re.-ident niana_ , ■ ' I 

■' quite aun.i that tin ipecacuanha cannot be successfully eni 
[n open spots where it m 

•■ .,■ ; , ; • :: ..-■■■■ - ■■■.■■■. 

: , '. -moist, shady spots where t! 

tin year to the Khasi 

,,,,-d l.v him to be quite as eflici. 

On Julv 10th, 1878; " A num 

lea at Singapoi 

I'ofily anccessfi plant from root-cuttings and 

and it grows luxuriantly under cover. But out of doors tlie low i 
temperature of the cold' w.-ather proves too severe for it. Durin; 

" obliged to give up all hope of the profitable cultivation of the dr 

Here its officii t of India closes. But the folio 

ing extract from a letter addressed to Kew by Mr. Ganimie, t 

ing, November 11th, 18S(i. illustrates in a -triking way the vari 

" growing experiments, but do so now. 

"Our original stock of plants came from Kew and Edinburgh; t 
•' great niajon'\ few plants from Kew differ 

" a good deal in appearand' from the Edinburgh lot, which ag£ 
•• differed gnatly iron each other. All the Kew plants were of o 

" this time we had all i In sorts mixed up together, and as we had, 

M growers under glass, the KeM \ Rre percent. 

" of the whole. Hut very -non the Edinlmrgh sorts began to dis- 
'■ appear, until, in the course of a year or two, there was not a single 

" the shadt ot h \ 1 1 _ t . -. \ h u •! t- >■.,..! . . p main 

■• from ihem almost hope].—. Still it strikes me that in pia es geo 

:i> better situated for ipecacuanha growing than Sikkitn. 

" that this particular variety i ; r sorts may 

" have failed. Probably our ip. may uvvc 

(traits Settlements for 1886, dated July 4. 1887, p. 20 
"Ipecacuanha (Cephaelis Ipnucuuuhn), a native 
plant which has been found generally 

" compact little bush of about 18 inches in height r i i > ■ 1 is very orna- 
■ ; mental when well in Hower. 1 

" in Johore, and paw thousands of plants in excellent health Tiny 
•' n-civ protected from the sun by pa! h ..,-..:' . I.v -itb- on 

•■.■::■■.■:.-:■ : 

" were put down a few yards apart. Soil, chocolate colour, rich in 
There can be little doubt That .?■>!, .>,•• >va< the ource o 

. -i-o old world. It was ar lust Mippo^d to be of Indian 

>h. Francis 

Ransom in the Journal of the Pharmac ■ mber 12th, 

1S37, p 100 II, ib.m.l 1 7 p,i «,.,( .,t ,n !( ,n« in th. loot, the 

drug being 1-66 per cent. He con- 

<■;■■.; -•■■■•■ ■ . ■ , : - . :■-■ ^ . '. . 

in root." 

Nothing is known of the, history of the plant -rowu in the Johore 

It is, however, probabl rived iron, 

tough four plants were sent from Kew to Singapore in 1875. 


■ that efforts are being 

any informa 


Consul Kanthack, Para, to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Sir, British Consulate, Para, April 3, 1888. 

I hate the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter c 
the 8th of February and a copy of your Despatch dated the 6th c 
February last past to Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State fo 
Foreign Affairs, and in reply I have the honour to inform you that th 
gum in question is not a produce of this district, but is found in con 
siderable quantity in the province of Piauhy, whence it is shipped r 
the port of Parnahyba in transit to this "port for transhipment t 

The gum which has thus appei 

chell this is probably Hymenaa Cox 

pale yellowish colour, and in appearance like gum arabic. 1 

it oozes out from the root or lower portion o 
and is said to dissolve by heat. Ti 
Angico [probably Acacia Angico, Mart.], and is a gun 

:_ out by cutting tin- hark. This gum dissolv 
and is considered a substitute for gum arabic. 

I shall endeavour to obtain from Parnahyba specimens o 
Bowers of these two kinds of gum, and shall be glad toft 


partakes raor 

closely allied 


export of these two products ar<< sugar, 700,000/. ; cac 

Efforts were made by Mr. Prestoe 

plants of Arabian I L - <"r m . -il. uu, . m» n < *> i 

■ ^ y. >■■:.•■ . . — : ■ ; ■.:■'■..";. .... 

was stated that, « . attended a forth® 

" off., planting in tin- Botanic Garden- is an unportan 

;; |j'v 'v';-"; 1 .■ ji-oia^ ... <;;, 

•■ ■'-•■- ' ■• ' ■ ■■ -. ■ '. ' -• ■•':■. .;. ■ : ' .;. "•' 

of the northern portion of the Island, east of the Maraval Valley 
In the upper part of St. Ann's Valley there are extensive plots o 
5 arc simply perfection." 

elevation, complete success would, no doubt, be attained. 

In the repoi of Trinidad coffee contributed to the 

• is stated that "they were of a 

'■ kind which would be very useful if picked with greater care, and 

-; quite five from I.. lack, broken, and defective beans. They were worth 

" in th«ir present stale 5:b. to '>'»-. per cwl., but might easily be made to 

•■ re.-dise .").v. to fi.v. u:ore by careful I'ickinii and pivparai ion 

" It is il uibtful if the Trinidad planters know how to remove the pulp 
• quickl) an *, and if they clean their parchment 

" well."' 

Mr. J. H. Hart, the recently Appointed Superintendent oi i: ■ 
Gardens at Tiinidad. ha- turned his attention to the ;■- 

coffee industrv in the island. In a letter addressed to 
Kew. dated :ird Man]; 1SS'<". he mention-: "1 send you three samples 

■ ;.:..:-. . <■ ■ ■ .■.■'.:■; _, . : ■ .-f ■ ■ • 

•• <aiiijdes, a< I believ, w'itl pro] ; appl tnces the coffee grown here 

" have been cleaned and prepared by fermentation." 

In reply to this request the iVdlowinu' letter with 
addressed to the Colonial Office : - 

Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, April 1 

I AM desired by Mr. Thiseltoti Dyer to inform you tha 

samples of coffee which 

the purpose of teal ni dad coffee. 

2. It appears that coffee cultivation at Trinidad has not so far proved 
a successful industry. The planters who have hitherto tried the 
cultivation have not been able to cure the produce in such a manner as 

' Trinidad coffee by curing 
it according to the method so well pursued in regard to the Blue 

coffee by about 25 per cent. 

5. Mr. Tl; - report of the b: 

as also the letter of Messrs. Shand and Haldane, will prove of i 
to Sir William Robinson, to whom they might be communicated 
purpose of drawing attention to coffee growing as a possible mi 

ending the industries of t' 

Kdwnrd WingH.dd. K.-q.. 
Colonial Office. 

(Signed) 'D. M 


Missbs. Shand and 

Haldane to Royal Gardens, Ki 


We rec. 

sure in enclosing report 

24, Hood Lane, E.G., April 7, 
avour rf 22nd ultimo, and we now hi 
and valuation made by Messrs. 

Smithett & Co., 41, Mincing Lane, of 
L'f'!n-:"i!!y adopted in Ceylon upon th 

A few estat. s in <Vyloi l.nt wry few if any n. pivptuv th u 

coffee for market In '■ "L i 1 sizing u|>on tin •- it.-.' the -tronu 

Full particulars as to e. ratio!,- will lie 

in Snb-tmpical Cultivation* by U. (.'. Hal. lane. Wackicootl. 1HS<>. 

(SigneI) rera SHl?D;HAL D ANE& l 
D. Morris, Esq. 

Dear Sirs, 41, Mincing Lane, E.G., March 27, 18 

as under experirm t t il cult vatio i it L'nniJa>l. met report as follow: 
Hybrid Mocha, of good liquor and flavour, the 
shape of the berry a ; rry 

Mocha ... - 85*. perewl 

Mocha, of indSfferenl vow, 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, April 23, 1888. 

In continuation of ray letter of the 11th instant I am desired by 
Mr. Thiselton Dyer to for the Govern- 

ment of Trinidad, the enclosed copy of a letter received from Messrs. 
on the subject of cleaning "parch- 

2. It would appear from this letter that an entirely new aspect has 
been given to the preparation of coffee for the English market by the 
establishment in London of a factory to clean parchment coffee in a 

West Indian colli c in tli<- AW lhtll<tl,> u,v tlir monrh <>i M:n- next. 
Owing to the falling off of coffee production in the East Indies to the 

tion in the West Indie- -dioul.l In- larireh augmented. "The difficulties 
*1 settlers in the preparation of coffee are 

' l\vor. 

Messrs. Lewis and Peat to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

6, Mincing Lane, E.G., April 17, 1888. 
In reply to your favour of the 16th instant we beg to inform 
at the system of importing coffee in the parchment is largely on 
irease, and some most satisfactory results have been attained, 
have recently sold large parcels from America which were 
d" here, and against 70.v. per cwt, obtained last year for the 
coffee cleaned on the plantation we obtained 86s. per cwt., 

[•parchment protects the bean fhionces which 

coffee must be pulped and the cherry got rid of 

that the parchment must be perfectly dried and kept from moisture 
" tsufficient drying is most damaging to after results, and 
t have the greatest care. 

here is no ad vantage in selling the coffee in parchment as much 
jr prices are obti here. The grower is more 

compensated for extra freight paid. i<>-s in weight, &c, by the 
a good out-turn of his coffee if properly cleaned here. Any further 
an furnish we shall be most happy to give you. We 

' ■"':■ ' - :■]■ 

• ". " W . ■ i "].•! SO.?, per cwt. The probable 1 »- i v/t-i^ht i- 
16 per cent, There would always be a markel 

■ ■,■■::: .<;.;;.;- V ■■:..:.<:; > ; 

would easily find a market. 

We remain, &c. 
(Signed) Lewts & Peat. 

SlR > Colonial Office, April 

one from AJessrs. L. vi- jwi.l V . i .1 , _ | ,, t 

og of "parchment" colli . 

Governors of the West Indian and other Col 
production of coffee. 


(Pogostemon Patchouli, var. suavis.) 
In the Kew Bulletin, IVo. 1.5. for March, ls*8. pane 7i 

i some interesting notes 
Penang, under the chaig. ■ : Mm (.,!:.. 
in the Fore- 1 Department. We are now enabled to supp 

1 beg to thank you for the determinations of Penang 
(1,140-1,201), and also for your kin. I letter of ltjih December/" 5 
ling to your remarks on patchouli, il may interest you to kn 

an acre of patcho i 1 i rh. L , . > , , , \ u 

On 3xx\y .. fghed i n a gre8] 

was 106 lbs. The loaves were then separated Ironi th, stems am 

weighed Nf -'. -good leaf," 69 lbs. : 

said that the samp!;' was <ro d. One valued it at *,/. \o wrf. p 

T! "- - : '"- : ■' week in January of thi 

:":: I * . ■■■■ - ;' • : : , r '. ■ ... .; . •' , . ,.,. ,. . :. ;.; 

good leaf" per annum. 

) time ago, •■■■■] ' to Kew, that the 

leaves of the Urena lobata are used for adulteration. 

Canyon inform me whether patchouli is used for any other purpose 
than for perfumery ? 

D. Morris, Esq. (Signed) C. Curtis. 


(Vitis .Martini, Planch.) 
An apparently new species of vine has been received at Kew from 

(birdons, Ffong Kong. It was sent by Mr. Ford as litis 

M ■■'> ■ l'lancl i ! •■ d specimens also "'contributed by Mr. 

Ford to the Kew Herbarium Professor Oliver bus identified the" plant 

a< f V//".s t.-hiipr/nri^H.n Martini of Planehon, but lie is doubtful 

whether it is specifically distinct from litis lnn-hnt,,. Wall., of Bengal 

and Burma As plains of th?-= vine liave b,,eii distributed from Kew to 

correspondents in the Colonies it is desirable to place on record all the 

avi lai • uforui; o respecting it. In the report of the ouoerin 

tcndent of the Botanical and Afforestation Department, Hone K,, !t -. 

: isso, the following interesting account is given of the 

oa vine : — 

"Another plant of considerable interest is a new tuberotis-rooted 

" vine, litis Martini, Planch., from Cochin China. It fruited ibis 

" year in Hong Kong f 

Last summer they started vigorously and showed flower about 
the end of May. Many of the bundles, however, failed to develop 
fruit, owing, apparently, U n \ f t f rt I 7 it on ; but there was a 
good average crop of bunches on the canes irrespective of the failures. 
The fruit was ripe in October, many of the bunches wci<rhiii<* a 
pound each. The berries, when ripe, are jet black, 1 
the average size of ordinary grapes. ' " 
tion to the size of the berry. The flavour is a peculia 
iciriity, very j * 

. great depth. When the shoots a 
t off all the weak ones, leaving only four 1 

width of 3 feet between the canes. All the lai 
pruned back to within one bud of the mai 


ei lateral- thai -how hunches ; hut it will he found that very few 
ill be developed on the lateral shoots, most of the bunches 
rom the main rods; but in the case of a bunch 
" springing from a lateral branch the branch should be stopped at the 
" second bud above the bunch. The laterals mij 
" till they are 2 feet long. It will then be seen if they are likelj 
" to throw out bunches or not. If not. prune them hark a- described, 
" and also pinch back all subsequent growth as it appears. It may 
" be found necessary to thin out the leaves to allow the sun to get at 
'• the branches, but in doing this great care should be taken not to 
" break or otherwise injure the leaf directly above the bunch. If this 
" happen to be accidentally removed the bunch below it will ripen 
" immaturely and soon shrivel up. It is an advantage to thin out the 
" bunches, leaving a space of 15 or 18 inches between them. It 
" is also advantageous to thin the bei I half of the 

each bunch; but I am afraid this \. 

lively grown, owing to the 
" labour it would entail. After the fruit is gathered the vim 
" no farther attention till spring. By way of experiment one lot of 
" plants were allowed to grow at will. Some of them threw up as 
" many as a dozen suckers and produced laterals in profusion, but they 
to flower. Another lot was transplanted into well-manured 
just as the crowns began to push in the spring; they, too, 
" failed to flower, and presented rather a sickly appearance da 

"The 'Horticultural Press' has already suggested that this vine 
" should receive the attention of vine growers in the wine-] 
" countries of Europe where the phylloxera has denud. .1 tie' vineyards 
" of the old class of vines. There being no phylloxera in Hong Kong, 
«« I cannot say whether the dreaded insect would spare this vine, but in 
" view of the wonderful improvements that have been and can be 
" brought about by skilful and persistent cultivation, it is not uu- 
ble to surmise that this new vine may ultimately become a 
" wine producer. It is easily cultivated, and seems to he well adapted 
« for a tropical climate, or a climate in which the resting season is 
«« comparatively cold and the growing season hot." 


The information contained in the following correspondence respectin 
ebom and sandal ' with considerabl 

interest. In the absence of botanical specimens of the plants in que* 
tion it is impossible to express an opinion as to their identificatioi 
The flora of the lowlands of Madagascar is very imperfectly known i 
present, and it is most desirable to draw the attention of Consuls aa 
all who may have the opport ol collecting an 

forwarding speci m>wd to yield ebony and sand: 

wood to Kew for the pun Mr- J- <>• Bake 

Principal Assistant in the Kew Herbarium, has for many years devote 

described the plant-, collected for the most part 1>\ the Rev. R. Barm 
in recent numbers of the Journal of the Linn, an Society. Tl 
work now necessarv i- ;<• • ''•!.■.. lagascar and nml 

collections of plants, which it is confidently anticipated will prove of tl 
hie interest. 

the heart wood of many different 
peeies of Diospym, M ihi !. - * 1.;;: ;• j. impossible to 

ing commercial ebony. Mr. Godfre 

that, "at present the only Mai 

Mirh.-rto we are depem 


|V: - ' ' ' v ! : r 

i labelled " Santal 

Eu : ffK -or, probably 

J n tl„, Kew Milium* thnv 

itTsl' .^P ^ _ fl ;°™ Madagascar and Zanzibar" 

roary 6, 1886, li 

by the \ 

The Foreign Office to Royal Ga 
Foreign Ol 

^ i<lly toymir 1. ttir of the 12th in.ta 

'nn-iil Knott's report, relating to the ebc 


In the Sakalava country, south of Manitirano. there mv !m-v tracts 
of forest in which the ebou\ tree !- found and cut by the > . 

!d to the Indian and Arab traders in 
ta. Some comes north to 
The Indian and Arab traders send it to M > n h ; .. -md Nossi Be, 

I wood, it fetches from 40 to 55 dollars a ton. 
[heard also wh ri f was in .Mnjumba l',av that ebony grows on the 
banks of Nemside Bay and is sent to Nossi Be, thai there were large 
trees there, hut i was unable to go as small-pox was raging in all the 
principal towns. 

I myself found ebony close to A\ nodes N.E. of 

marked in Oliver's map ioc 9 here both 

: from there to Amboli\o/y. a village on the 

southern entrance of Mojamba Hay. 1 did not discover any. but it 

seemed to recommence there in small quantities, and extended along 

i bank of the bay. At Ainpusainalavaini, on the bay there 

were larire quantities of small wood and a few large trees; and at 

t 10 miles inland, I saw several fine old trees of ebony. 

not far from there, 1 cut some -amnios of sandal-wood, 

> London, and informed that its value there is from 25/. 

From Soulala to south of 
said to be unsafe for a white 
And, again, south of Moranda' 
Sakalava villages there are Creole traders' agents for M< ■( 

In my opinion the only way the ebon} trade can be work. 
coast is by opening stations on the rivers where the ebony £ 

.. .'. '. • 
overseer at each station ; he, of course, would have to it 
goods, Ac. as the wag • goods, coin be 

value 'to the Sakalava-. This way would. 1 think, en-ure 
supply of good wood being the cutting of 

aggard, Esq., 

I. Consul for Mndagascat . 


{Brassica chirxensis, L.) 
lated 21st April 18S7, Mr. George Hughe,, 

packet of Shantung Cabbage seed, and I s 
introduce tbi- delicious cabbage into En 
north of China, is lettuce shaped, and weigh 

is nearly as gootl, if not quite, as sea kale : eaten raw, in a 
is of so delicate a flavour that I know of no vegetable in 
I to approach it. It ia an autumn cabbage, should 

,: nearlj ' as to give it a good white 

" heart. Tf it can be acclimatized in this country it will be a great 
" addition to our vegetables." 

The seeds received at Kew being few in number wen 
cultivated. They were sown in a heated pit on the 3rd M 
about a fori inated. They were pricked off into 

boxes, and v. inferred to pots. They were kept in 


tance from row to row. About the middle of July the plants wen 

tied up in the same way as Cos lettuce, and when well filled and 

re cut for use. They were pronounced to be excellent. 

The seed ripened only sparingly, probably owing to the dry weather of 

It is possible that this Chinese cabbage may prove a useful 
to English gardens. The kinds most highly esteemed at Pekin are 
those from the neighbourhood of the little town of Ngan-sun. These 
are said to be reserved for the table of the Emperor. They are eaten 
either raw in a salad or cooked and seasoned with salt. 

Under suitable circumstances the cultivation of this 
doubtless prove as simple ai 
Botanical specimens of Chinese cabbage were received at Kew in 1^6 
from Mr. F. S. A. Bourne, H.M. Consular Agent at Chungking. 
Under the native name of Pai-tsai he describes it "when vonni: it i- 

<• ;., pressed and used . " In the Index Florae 

S/„<>i\/-, Part I., p. 46, by Forbes and Hemsley, />V,/wV./ ,jw\. 
Linn. Amoen. Acad. IV., p. 280, is reduced under Brassio 
L. A list of Brassiaceous plants from China, with notes supplied by 
Mr. Bourne, is published by Mr. II Cimuiiclt, 

Vol. XXVI. [New Series], 1886, p. 40. 

A very complete account of the Shantung cabbage is given in 
I a Pf>t<if/>.< (/'nil >■«,-;, a,,- hixtuirv, culture et usages de 100 plantes 
rami sti/jf,y jit ii conrwes i 
Paris, 1885. Itisheredes 
chinensis, L.) Further information may be obtained from the 
di hi S<>ri>'fi' Cfiifm/t d'lTorfu'idfnre'dt France: Note sur la culture 
nice et de Bourbon, par M. Breon, Vol. XXII!. 

[All Rights Reserved.] 





The following important papers have been communicated to thi 

If successful, it will 


Financial Departm;.: h 26, 1888. 

Apprehensions of the extermination, in their native forests, of the 


30 years ago, the Government of India decided to take effect u 
introduce their cultivation into India. The collection of seed and 
seedlings in the wide tract of difficult country over which the best 
medicinal sorts an naturally scattered, was no easy task. But it was 
successfully ' Messrs. Markhani. l'i it 
Cross. Contemporaneously with these efforts on the parr.; 

were at work on behalf of their 

Malaya;: ( 'o , r:V,. ■■ i 1 v the year 18G2. Cinchona cultivation hadbeen 
' -1 : and M day a. '1 ! <■ I. •<•:. '• ties -el oted for 
the experiment of Cine!: were the \il-ui< and 

British Sikkim. And the excellence i en pr&red 

by the fact that the original nurseries in both localities have developed 

:■■' ' 

From these two centres, seed and seedlings have been fiveK distributed 

Ceylon, have been covered with Cinchona trees by private enterprise. 

two sorts: (1) quinine yielders, and (2) ,,n,<d Ail„i,,d yielders. Of 
the quinine yielders there are two t n/isuipi 

■ ■ 

alkaloid yielded, - 1 . , ate uKi, tuo kind'-, \i/., n d or s>n, i, I, ,/. vhieh 

has been in cultivation from the beginning, and a kind whi< 5 

into prominence during the past few years, and which, in annua! reports, 

has been referred tn a- ///////•/>/ hark, lb I Lark contai - • eonipara 

. with large proportions of Cincnoni- 

dine and Cinchonine. It had been chiefly used by druuLii.-t- in the 

of decoctions and tincture-, and had not keen used by 

. • - as a source of quinine. This red-bark tree was, 

however, the kind which, in the early days of the cultivation, it was 

:< .'.h.i ';..-:>. ■;.:... : - ■ . . : 

private, it greatly preponderated over the other sorts. 

3. The cull beyond the 

region of experiment, the next problem that presented itself was the 

For the private grower, the most 
course, up to the present time, has been to sell the crude bark in 
London. The object of Government was not, however, to secure a 
88, but to provide the people of the country, at the lowest 
possible rate, with an efficient remedy for the most prevalent of all the 
The first step for Government to take was, 
• ■\ - eth.-r it wa- really ; tact that .piinine is the only 
: ' - i 
«'.•■;. ...a- a.-...:: \ ■ ■:■■ 

It was true that quinine alone had got into Dl 
it alone of the Cinchona alkaloids had found a place in the British 

. tfoctwee, da oG ion », 
ph'u nt - it ! < n-titution of which 

-■ .:'■ . ■■...-:.-•■:•.:.■.,: ■ . , .-.:■■; ,- ; 

examination, to be unit table; and r! doids would 

also be found to bavi For the purpose of 


investigating this point, commissions of medical officers of all three 

a were formed during the years 1866 to 1868. These 

commissions were furnished with supplies of the three alkaloids, pure 

former not much less efficient than quinine itself. 

the next point to be settled was how best to utilize i!.- lar-e stock- o\ 
these alkaloids contained in the bark of the trees growing in the 
Government plantations. To do tV ! Wood, 

two professional chemists, were engaged in England, and were located 

dogial ;. as the result of 

hi- h.b'.iu-s invented ;• preparation of iv.l bark, which i, c called 

; • . : : ■ ' • ] : : . . : ■ . - '. '. 

hi the form of a non-crystalline powder. Qftb 

when Mr. Broughton resigned the service of Government. Mr. Wood, 

V. *,,:':; . . " • : - ■ , -- 

bark \va> i • muki fron it tin prepai ion now so well known as 
Cinchon* fehrifu^e. T; :'s, is in the form of a 

irfectly new product, unknown to pharma 

it was not clear bow il miedit be accepted Ivy the medical proh ssi 

the rudest apparatus li product bt i'av 

accepted by the medical profe-^ion, to i cplaee this simple pre 

■ing the first year of it: 

87,704 pounds have been issued from the factory. 

A preparation 

made and sold it name of Quinet 


Cinchona febrifuge had first been manufactured in Inc 

preparation existed. It is, therefore, a remedy for whicl 

as a substitute for quinine. It lias been so used by Goa 

own medical institutions, and it has been freely offeree 

public. Its sale has, however, been restricted to the 1 

•nil- „\ India. 

(calculated at 
be 587,616/., w! 

d to the Indian 

therefore, been 

very great, 

tent of Mr. Wood did not put an end to the experiments on 
:ture of quinine. Mr. .Gs aanager, took 

up with eoerg bj Dr. King, 

chemical friends, Mr. (iammie has l.,vn ahle to^perfect 
i the result that tie in yellow bark 

d in a form undi-tinuuishalde, either chemically or 
the best, brands oi Kiiropcan mauulacture. This can 
aply that, as lon<r as the supply of bark is kept up, 
rer cost Government much above 25 rupees per pound. 

-ay for tea ' 

a. Indeed, 

cannot continue very 1 

line;, ami which is imt likely fn recur. In the 

ic might be expected soon to i i-<- to 

red is to duck this rise in the price of a drm,' ot 

such general utility. 

cs of Government are due to Dr. King and his 

of utilizing these valua 

.ble medicinal barks. The Government has no 

desire to make a profit by the discovery, and the details are now 
produced in order that private growers of Cinchona may be enabled to 
take full advantage of the process, and that a permanent 'reduction in the 

disintegrator, and to get the powder of a uniform fineness it is passe 
through a scalper, which is a machine c<>mmoul\ used for sifting lloui 
The scalper is in the form of a box enclosinir a sloping six-side, 
revolving chamber, covered with silk ol 120 threads to the lineal inct 
It is driven at the speed of about thirty revolutions to the minute. An 
particles of the powe.-r which may h r ,.,,, eoarse to pass through th 
silk meshes drop out at the lower end of the revolving chamber and ar 

lime may be used instead o! it.' Th can-, . s..,h i- d> 
water and mixed u i,l, the bark. Then the oil is added, and th- whole is 
kept thoroughly intermixed in au agitating vessel. Should lime |> e 
m I, :t is mixed in fine powder with the dry bark before adding the 

3. The agitating vessels in use at Mungpoo are barrels with win^d 

, : -...-. - - :-. ,- , , ' . . ;■- \ 

3 depends on the product 

hot through 


acid have been used, the liquor is filtered (if necessary), heated and 
made neutral by adding a very weak solution of either caustic- soda or 
liquor ammonia. It is then allowed to cool, and as it cools I h 
form out. ] rated from the mother 

liquor by dri oth filter. After they have been thus 

crystals are dried. They arc next dissolved in about 
boiling water. The resulting liquor i- tilt. r. rl 
mal charcoal. On e, tiling alter filtration, the 
it, and they are separated as before from 
liqimr In ,. The crystalline mass obtained by 

filtration is then placed in small lumps on sheets of white blotting paper 

i ..■■ 
paper in a room heated to about 10 < i rature of the 

:!■.■<..:.■■■ , • . '. . ■ .■ : : e': ■ ! ;,: 'i,, 

san < v, . ' > \f ,-- .1- tin > _ ld< !. tl 

h'quor and precipitate i~ filters; and when the 

washed with a little 
ready for use. 

March 24, 1888. J. A. Gammie. 


{Coix Lachryma, L. var. stenocarpa.) 

The round shining fruits of a grass widely distributed in tropical 
\nown as Job's Tears. The fruits when young 

«'. ih< I'. 1 " MotjtUt, of th" natural m-der, 
Gramin.M . i- ; . i;dl -i'.m\ :n^ -rass, now commonly found in damp 

- tropics of both hemispheres. In many countries it is 
Vs far us we are aware, the fruit ] -- -- - 

h< ight of three to five i 

The cl..i 
for necklaces, and in vario 

u.-ual e, .lour is white. Imt ; 
pink, and £ 


The present variety of Job's Tears with long cylindrical involucres 
?ht into notice at the late Cokmi 
1886. In t : he clothing 

attracted considerable attention. As these were not represented in the 
Kew museums, application was made to the India Oilieo lor :i small 
■■■ ■•ju.-st of Lord Cross, was lately forwarded to 
Kew by the ( hief Commissions oi Burma. II- . .lucres in this 
from five to nine lines in length. They are usually more 
or loss lii-iionn. lapering at the ends to about on- lim in diameter. 
The meant]. ]j,. t . j n diameter. For herbarium 

"pecimons ot the plant ; , din-" those fruits, we are indebted to 
Dr. George -rant to the Director of A- 

by Mr. Griffith. Ii not. attached to pi. 1,764. in th h net 

Plaoturxui, Vol. VI II., Professor i ' 

" a letter from Mr. R. Bruce, of, Assam, to Mr. H. C. Read, 
" of the Eii olucres are known to the 

m the fondness of these birds for the berry." 

In an , 

office memorani 

lum, dated Simla, i 

!2nd December 


Dr. Wart- 

states, that " the 

! grain (of this variet 

y of Job's Tears) 

prove of any great economic value as 

a source of food, but 

an admirable cl 

used in Europe i 

" construction of artificial 

flowers, laces, bugle 

a purposes 

for which glass 

beads are being used. 

If eapabb of 

" dyed a deep black colou 

r, there might be a very extensive demand, 

d be infinitely inon 

the Exhibition, 

several gentlemen, e; 

specially from France, 


after seeds sui 

table for the above 

purposes. The i 

" ordinary spherical form. They seemed to think there was some 
" prospect even of the common spherical form coming into nse, but 
^ objected to its large size. This led the writer to show them 

Karen garment- with the cylindrical form of 
jre highly pleased with. In 
ter, the writer drew Mr. Tl 
s result that the present inquiry 1 

: decorations. This they th. In hopes of i 

drew Mr. Thiselto 


{Bochmcrut nivca var. toutcissima.) 
>wn under the several names of China Grass, Ramie, or 
to the natural order, Urticacea, and hence it is not a 
a species of nettle, some 1 ' 
wth, the common nettle of Europe. 


The specific name, nivea, was given to it on account of the white 
be leaves. A plant called in Assam, 
Rheea, and in the Malay Islands, Ramie, was believed by Roxburgh to 
be distinct from the Tchou Ma of the Chinese, and it was named by this 
botanist Boehmeria (Urticn ) ft <tuci,ssi>ita. In this plant there is an 
absence of t! nee on the under- side of the leaves, 

so characteristic of tin I nail other respects the 

two plants an ..meters. 

For purposes of classification, the Tchou Ma, or China Grass plant, 
n<it/u»<n'a nivea, may be accepted as the ry] ical -;■■ ci« -. and the Rheea 
or Ramie retained as a geographical variety of it, under the name of 
Bnvlnni it ,>>,, vai '< missi i I In- lit.ti - -< tin times known 
as the Green-leaved China Grass, a name which maybe conveniently 
retained for it. 

The fibre yielded by these plants has been long recognised as 
pre-eminent amongst vegetable fibres for strength, fineness, and lustre. 
Hence numerous attempts have been made to cultivate them, and to 
prepare the fibre in large quantities for commercial purposes. The 

given to those of a light loamy character. It is miai that the climate be moist and stimulating, in order to produce 

raised from 

Seed, but the more ready method is by root or stem cuttings. The roots 

being perennial, the stools become stronger and more vigorous every 

■■in these, fresh sets are easily obtained for extending the 

Numerous attempts have been made during the last 10 years to 
extract the valuable fibre which exists in this plant. The e\ 
processes hitherto employed may he briefly classed as either mechanical 
or chemical. In the "first, it has heen sought to extract the fibre from 
the green stems, by means of rapidly revolving beaters attached to a 
drnn, drhen by steam power. In s,, m e oa-,-, water is used to wash the 
lit. re while under the heaters. The chief difficulty experienced in tiiis 
metli d, i- th< -msd qua! tin of fibre cleaned per day. This has 
enhanced the cost to such an extent, as to render the process practically 
unreniunera! It < ! ■ > d processes, the Ramie stems are 

treated green or dry. The object sought is to treat the stem- eider 

.■:,...■:■.;.-■.. ■ , ■ , -..: .". i : 

gam in wl ea are immersed. After being thus 

treated, the t thed from the stems by hand or by 

mn hinery, and ar« sent ton irket intra form of ribbons. The question 
of cost is here also \ i r] , oder present circum- 

stances, that China Gra-s can onl; ' and prepared 

where there is an ahundance of cheap labour. 

of the finest and strongest known. If a process could be devised thai 

would extract and cl<:u, the lihre at a cheap rate, the results would 

of main years oi continuous efr'ort, the problem how to prepare the 

and under t t u place on 

record the latest facts that have been gleaned respecting the present 
position of the industry. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Foreign Office. 
Sir Royal Gardens, Kew, April 16, 1888. 

I am desired by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to inform you that con- 

in British Colonies in the culture of 

the Ramie plant, known as Rhea and China Grass (Boehmeria nivea). 

2. Hitherto the industry has not assumed large proportions anywhere, 
owing to the want of a thoroughly suitable machine to prepare the 

3. In the Foreign Office Report, for the year 1887, on the agriculture 
of the Barcelona district [No. 275, Annual Series, 1>^8], Mr. Consul 
Wooldridge states, that in the province of Cataluna, " Machines are 
" already in use, capable of decorticating the [Ramie] fibre on a 


4. Mr. Thiselton Dyer is of opinion that it is very desirable to obtain 
from Mr. Wooldridge the names of the makers of the machines which 
appear to have successfully solved the problem of decorticating Ramie 
stems. Any particulars he could add as regards the cost of the 
uKichinos. the power necessary to drive them, and the out-turn of clean 
fibre per day, would prove of the greatest possible interest to planters 

Mr. Consul Wooldridge to the Marquis of Salisbury. 
My Lord Marqois, Barcelona, April 25, 1888. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Sir James 
Fergusson's despatch, of the 19th instant, on the subject of the machines 
used in Cataluna for decorticating the stalks of the Ramie plant ; and 
I am directed to report to your Lordship the names of the makers of 
the machines, and to give any further particulars which might prove 
of interest to planters in British tropical colonies. 

Although the Ramie plant has been cultivated for many years in the 

north of Cataluna, it is only within the last two years that, through 

the inventio; Hiitie by a Monsieur Favier, member 

of the " Societe La Ramie Francaisi>," ii has bet.- a brought before the 

publie, &L Favier has a factory, called the " Fabrics Favier," at 

Torroella de Montgri, in Gerona, in the vicinity of the Ramie 

machines are at work. 

These machines are used to decorticate the stalks in a dry state, 

and exposed to the powerful rays of the sun for 

48 hours, as experiments and practice show that the operation on the 

It appears that M. Favier has been the first to solve the problem of 
feasor Obiols 

■ ." ■■■■:■ ' :■:'. I. ' 

" Centralb!a? : . uuiary 23, 1883, says :— 

"Although the use of the Ramie, as a textile plant, dat^ ■ 


" immemorial, the separation of the fibre from the stalk has been found 
" hitherto so surrouuded hope existed of any 

i able extension in its use; however, since M. Favier has dis- 
M covered a machine for the purpose of separating the fibre, a r 
" tion has been produced in the industrial world, and the cultivation of 
" the Ramie plant has tali portions." 

Another d< to the Favier one, has, 

however been invented by a Monsieur Billion, of Marseilles, who 

obtained a patent for it in Spain, but, being considered by M. Favier as 

a piracy, the latter prosecuted M. Billion, who eventually came out 

bough this machine has not been used in Spain, 

arsons consider it to be superior to the Favier one. 

Full descriptions are given of these machines in Professor Obiols' 
pamphlet (in Spanish), and can be purchased for a few pesetas. 

The Billion machine can produce 300 kilogrammes of fibre a day, 
showing an advantage over the Favier one. 

The Favier machine is not for sale to the public, the inventor 

preferring to establish factories near the plantations and purchase the 

produce from the agriculturists, and decorticate and manufacture 

as the " Societe La Ramie Francaise " is doing 

at Torroella. Neither, I believe is the Billion machine to be 

Theivis anothei machine, known as the " Agramadera (l!a\ 

vented by M. Kaulek, of Paris. Its size is a cubic metre, 

and it requires half a horse-power to put it in motion, and can be worked 

by the arm, '■ team. It is portable, weighs 350 kilos., 

ice is 2,000 fr. (80/.) It has been known to produce 175 kilos. 

of commercial Ramie, in ribbons, in 10 hours. 

Another machine has been invented in Barcelona by Don Demetrio 
Prieto for extracting fibre from textile plants, and many of his machines 
are in use, with success, in Mexico. The inventor is about to introduce 

The personnel required to work the Favier machine, and the cost per 
diem (in Cataluna), are as follows :— 

Two men to separate the extremities of the stalks - 75 

One man to introduce the stalks - - - 1 50 

One man to receive the fibre - - - 1 50 

One man to supply the stalks to the introducer - 75 

or about 4*. | kchine; and for, say, a 1,000 kilos, of 

dry stalks the ; would be as follows: — 

50 kilos, of extremities, or 5 per cent, of the whole weight. 
190 kilos, of fibre, or 20 per cent, of the whole weight. 
570 kilos, of wood. 
100 kilos, of pellicles, and 
90 kilos, of loss. 
Yet the wood, clea may all be utilized. 

about 10 horse-power of steam, the expenses and profits result as 

Cost of installation, 120,000 pesetas, or francs, each machine costing 
6,000 fr., with the necessary capital of 60,000 fr. 

Actual cost of stalks of Ramie (in Spain), 100 pesetas per 1,000 kilo*, 
and each machine decorticating 216 kilos, per day. 

4,320 kilos, of stalks - - - 432 00 

Lahnnr - - - - 108 00 

nses - - - 122 00 

Total - - 6G2 00 

57 per c 
9per c 

Total expenses - - - - 662 00 

Clear profit - per day 291 50 

r 117,150 pesetas per annum of 300 days of labour, which represent 
pproximately 48 per cent, of the capital. 

The Favier maehi ' M ~ the fibre and 

laking the threads clear of gum, for in the raw llamie which comes 
rom China and India, there is so much gum that it is most difficult to 
These macl) > v ■ nor yet within the reach 

•ulturists, that of M.Favier >>eing used by the inventor, and 
,/r . Billion having ceased to work in Spain. 
I have, &c, 
(Signed) Frank Wooldridgr. 


In the Kew Bulletin for the months of June and July 1887, there 

were discussed the details of a scheme of botanical stations for the West 

>S 'lenient the 

operations of the botanic -..!■:.■.- sdroa.iv t>tal>iMied in the larger 

Eh voted to the 

; . ■..-..;.. -• ; .. ■•-. ■-..-.:'■■■ .-<:•;!: 

•, -1 

Botanical stations, as die intended to 

be supervised by working gardeners, native or European, who have 
! ropics. 
Profiting by the experience gained in the West Indies, v 
sought to extend the system of botanic stations to the West African 
Colonies, which hitherto have been d agency of 

The prosperity of these colonies has chiefly depended on palm oil, 
ground nuts, and various forest products, more or less i 


'■Hum-!.,. These are ju-; n..v in a depressed state, and hence it is 
felt that some effort should be made to encourage the growth of coffee, 
cacao, maize, indigo, rice, cotton, ginger, 

'; and climate. 
Captain Moloney, C.M.G., the pri the Colony of 

Lagos, has a products. He 

has been in correspondence with Kew for many years, and co 
numerous specimens to the museums, as wdl" as dried plants for 
purposes of determination. Ik-eently, Captain M 

work on the i >f We.-i Africa, which 

on relating to the flora of tropical 

The principal West African Colonies are the Gambia, Sierra Leone, 
Gold Coast, and Lagos. The extent of these Coloi 
from thi i i st line o alone is 350 

the total ai a oi th from 24,000 

to 30,000 square miles. The staple products of this Colony are palm 
oil and palm kernels, but among other exports are copra (from the 
cocoanut palm), guinea grains, gum copal, camwood, and beniseed. If 
once the nar ilicent lands in this Colony were 

taught to cultivate econom sic manner for purposes 

of export, the material wealth of the Gold Coast might be enormously 

•Siena L coast line of about 180 miles, and 

are mainly supported by the trade whi 
from the interior. An effort has been made to 
establish a botanical station and model farm near Freetown in connexion 


finances of the Colony appear not to jus ii\ din et .e rioii being taken by 
the Government, but it is evident that, without ollleial support, the aid 
- i a ski i gardener, and r< _„, r ipplies of seeds and plants, the 

the settlement. 

. .;., 

The Colony and Protectorate of Lagos contains an area of about 

■ " - ■ 

'.-'■■■■ • ■ < .'':■-■ -■■■.■' '',;.::•;- 

separate Col ■ ■ ; the first Governor. 

Lagos has unrivalled water comn interior, and a 

amounting to nearly a 

--' '■■'■■■ ■■ ■■■••".. J ■■.:; ^ ■' , . ; ,■- i 

.•■.■:■■■■ . ' . .....■'. •. .■, 

excellent soil on the mainland, and good communication with the 

interior, offers every inducement to the extension of native cultures. 

The first botanical station on the " crald not be 

'. g>3, nor entrusted to more .-vinpathetic hv : [- 

bdoney. On the occasion of the latter's \ i sit to 

■hi- ■;:■:■ • ,;! ■. -■ ;'. 

te. This memorandum was based 

: : ' ■•■ ■'■'>■ ' ' ' ■■'■ . ':.. -.. 

The experiment as an Executive act may be left, in the f 
to the Governor, or it may be deemed expedient to pass 8 
to make provision for the establishment at Lagos of a be 
for the development as an industry of its economic botany. 


;". _ ■■;';:.: . .■■,■..• .■''.!:.■■>■- ■ . ' .■.-.,■:■'■ 

value (or likely t 



pursuits, and 

the general teudency of the rising educated youth to become 

md clerks.' 

established centre for the introduction and subsequent develop- 

of alien elements of economic botany of commercial importance 

nursery for ecor 

lomic tropical plants of commercial i 


ch an enterpris 

o must anticipate what commercial 
lit about by the steady distribution 

benefit may in 

onomic value a 

.mong the chiefs and people of the 

border the net- 

work of water which permeates the 

Colony and its 

1 generally prepiu 

Gar (J i iu 

m at 1*. per diem each. 
il cost of 20*. Cost of t 

■i, cpiai tcrs will li;'V< ' 

The mail & soil, comparative freedom 

from atmosp salt, good supply of fresh water on 

the spot, protection by hill or belt of trees against tornadoes or other 
strong winds, and aco water or by good road; 

enclosure, palm fence at first, later, a brick wall, as bricks can be made 
on the spot. For shading purposes, banana, plantain, and palm leaves 
can be had on the spot. 

In an executive sense, for the present, 
deemed to be a branch of the Public Works Department, and 

Honorary Committee. 

To ensure progressive management and healthy supervision, there 

should be an honorary committer of such gentlemen ;is the governor 

may appoint by the year, over whii preside. The 

chief points that require :it t.-i.t ion a- regard^ rln- -u[^rvision of the 

Seeds mum arrive, the assignment of plants 

ready for distribution, and t In- due supervision of the station, so as to 
'° l l'" '' i effi< » mpplying the special needs 

of the Colony. A small charge, sufficient to cover the cost, maybe 

cost must be class be charged accordingly. 

Gratuitous Distribution of Plants. 
^ Whenever it may be advantageous to the genera. 

ti may proceed under the authority in writing of the 

Cocoa Nut growth in ha?ids of 
Towards a future export of copra and i 
cocoa nut palm proceeds in the Colony of Lagos in the 
Government, whose lead has to some extent being folli 

Direction of efforts of Superintendent. 

In addition to the points mentioned under " objects " 
the establishment of >ucb an in-t.tufiuii as is proposed, the 
dent should be directed to the — 

(a.) Promotion 
{b.) 7 

r class of cotton and its extended growth. 
• c.) Culture of ti . and improvement therein by 

importation of suitable seed. 
(d.) Growth of ginger, cacao, pepper (red), and coffee. 
(<?.) Developmenl ,.. and of fibres. 

(/) Growth and judicious p ., Melaleucas, and 

the Casuarinas. 


Director of Kew, of plants suitable 

r.) Model kitchen -ai'deming. 

{ir.pi nd a list, liv the A-si-ta 

: Africa.* 

r colonies. " Eggs-in-one- 

Pxhhcutin,* if Proceedings, 
-agement and to bring home a proper i 

■ (Joy, 

Apprenticeship of Refugee Boys. 

Further, as to the establishment suggested, 1 wo • ' ■' '"' ik, ' >>■' ; in 

addition to the staff proposed, refugee (ex-slave) boys might be 

apprenticed under Government for such agricultural training as the 

• •tier, and I hope that, aft< r the conference I mean to have 
with the London Directors of the branch of the ITussey ( harily 
estahlished at Lagos, or. the advi.-a1>ilify of working their hoys half- 
timers as regards the industrial work of "the station, general benefit in 
such direction also may be derived. 

Industrial Education of Sons of Chiefs. 
I would venture also to urge upon the Government the desirability of 
ah a centre for the regular education therein of three or four 
sons of important chiefs in or outside the Colony. Their maintenance 
would not cost much, say, 100/. a year, and could form an 
charge to vote "Aborigines." The result of such a policy w 
of great value to the country. 

In drawing up this scheme, I have conferred personally with 
■ Dire; i ot K <v Garden-, whose experience 
I have utilized in some measure, for which I must give him my 
acknowledgments. I am also again indebted to the Director. 

In a scheme of this kind and extent, there must be many minor 
matters of ... and can, 1 think. In- 

left with advantage in the hands of the Governor of the Colony. 

selection of a suitable 

the botanical station at Lagos was entrusted to 

Kew. The difficulty as regards the climate of West Africa and its 

t 'or laborious service on the part of a European gardener 

was solved by obtaining a ereole gardener trained h\ the botanical 

'->■ ■ 

H :■< Nureeriee at Jamaica far seven rears, and 

■ ulture. i >n his \ Vil y | |,, ;n Jamaica 

Wardiai ca-e o| plants and unmet ons packets of seeds with which jo 
start operations at Lagos. In March of this year ; , t'urth. 

; , . ■ 

Calcutta, I from Kew to Lagos. 

\ tract from a letter received from 

[ shall be very gla 
! of fruit and timber trees of the 
1 Cedar, Juniper, &c. I am glad t 

" of a e coarse r kind 
" in the country a 

" from Kew, whk 

doing well. They look quite healthy, especially the Logwood, Annatto, 
Divi-Divi, Theobroma Cacao, <vc. lam still staying in the town of 
Lagos, the station-house being not yet completed." 
Again, on the 6th March last, Mr. MacNair wrote as follows :— 
" I have been engaged during the last two months making a road 
; from the entrain- 'a house, seven feet in width, 

and planted out with a bord< ■<. iree feet in width, 

anri mal-; n g u p a couple of beds round the house for flowering and 
■ nice. The 
' nursery is well sheltered witli large fiii trees, and in addition, I have 
' put up a shed covered with palm leaves for protecting the younger 
' plants. Our fence at present is a temporary one, made of palm 
| leaves, but I expect soon to have a good fence put up. I have 
f recommended a barbed-wire fence. My supply of water is not 
; enough for irrig) tngh for watering 

r plants. The river water cannot be used, as it is too salt, except in 
; the rainy seasons, when it is fresh. Tne Governor has supplied me 
; with a large quantity of Liberian coffee seeds, which have grown 
very nicelyr I an hi expect to get over 15,000 

plants, which the Governor intends to distribute amongst the 
principal native men of the country. I have planted out a few of all 
the different fruit trees which I have in stock, also a few Liberian 
coffee and cacao, about the place as an experiment. The plants from 
Kew are all in good condition, and doing well. The Logwood is fully 
• gs from it. C 
lis mail, and 
;ot a good su 

which I am making use of. The ■ 

encourage the growth of indigenous trees and plants of 

value, so that they may serve as a vi- 

feet in height, and I • 

rterly report is not ready for this mail, and will ,i 
couple of weeks. ... I have got a good supply 
books on hand ; also the Kew Bulletin, sent me by th 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Downing Street, May 5, 1888. 
I A3i directed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to 
tit to you, for your informal i 

inn at Lagos. 

Sir, Governm. , h 19, 1888. 

In reference to your despatches, No. 4,5, of April 7, and Xo. 144, 
t to forward th« Brti 
ion of this Colony, viz., for the quarter ended December 31, 

2. The work done up to the present time augurs well for its future 

and depot whence may 

be spread information on the utility, value, and mode of culture of trees 


and plants, and evettftu seeds and plants for 
cultivation among the natives effected. 

4. The sup. :vu,u ;,,!. i;i, Mr J. MacNair. i- a very good man for the 

post; a hard worker, wit . h» work, in 

'• ;i '■ ! '■■'.:■■ - ■■ _ : ' :■...-:. ' : . • . -':... ' 

-. • . : ■ 

iardens, Kew, to whom I 
would ask you to be good enough to supply a copy of the report now 

I have, &c. 


Eeport on the Botanic Station, Lagos, for the Quarter ended 
31st December 1887. 

At the end of the first quarter of 1887, the Eight Honourable the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies was pleased to approve of a scheme 
for the establishment. - i I -ancli of the Government at I... 

the local press, and appeared in the "Lagos Observer" of the 21st to 

28th January lss.s. T o make a start and t > have a suitable place for 

e rri\ , oi tl . - ,] i > t , f . tl 1 ■ - 

at Ebute Metta of Bisb \ suited for the purpose, 

■•.'.' ■■■■ [■:■■■ : . ■: ■ : '.!,.''...... , ■ .... :. 

carter. Mr. MacNair. \ naica for the 

post of superintendent, arrived with hi.- family in the Colony on the 

on the 19th January 1888. 

Ebute Metta. on the n on as the most suitable 

site for such an establishment. The site Um re fa 

features to be secured, \ : ng a slope down to the 

edge of the water-way, by which it is approached from Lagos in a 
quarter of an hour by steam launch, and half an hour by boat": a eum- 
good soil; freedom from an atmospl 

■ »- three miles from t'.ie -ea : protected 1 y a I 

f." ■ '. '■■.: ■ ■ : .: : ■,■ : : ' — -;. 

The area of the land enclosed is 3| acres, which has been cleared and 
temporarily fenced in with bamboo i 
11/. 15*. The work of grubbing, weeding, 1 
proceeds ; steel-barbed wire-fencing has been < 

This fence, when erected, is intended to have a height of 5 feet in eight 
tour lower being placed close together to prevent sheep, &c, 
from entering the garden, and supported by mangrove p ^s which 
resist the ravages of the white ant. 

on the si! . :: o-t of 121/. lib-. o</.. 

This nov ooe of the 


accommodation being intended for gardeners and apprentices. Both 
houses were in a dilapidated condition, the latter particularly so. 

Two wells have been dug at a cost of 6/. 5s., about 23 feet deep each, 
and give a depth of good water of about 2 feet 6 inches. In time they 
are to have pumps and water-butts fixed alongside. 

The present employes under the superintendent are represented by 
two 6ub-gardeners and two labourers. 

It is intended in time to take in a limited number of day scholars to 
iiing, when it is to be hoped educational bodies 
and parents will take advantage of the arrangement. 

A small botanical library has been supplied for the use of the 

In the quarter ending 30th June 1888, plants will be ava 

from time to time published. 

For Her Majeety's Stationery Office. 

[All Rights Reserved.'] 




fo. 19.] JULY. [1888. 


(ibur-i/lias, it is largely used as a 
I by Dr. Kino- to Mr. Koutledge 

to a good colour. The ultimate 

In the folio n dent of the Government 

lit a specimen to Kew for identifi- 

"I am sending a S pe"> men of I ant, which I 

- have been asked t<> identify. Ii is a native of the Nepal Terai, and 
" in tin- district of ( iorakhpur, at the extreme east of these provinces. 
" Its native nemo is A used in making ropes, 

" &c. It has been sent to me three times, but on each occasion 
" without flowers. It is said to flower only once in three years." 

This recalled a gra ■- Bunkuss appears, from 

: ; 
I. ndon Exhibition of 1862 (section 1, pp. 137, 168), as used in 
N.W. India for making ropes. 

to the laf (. ,■' ! Muriro, C.B.. F.R.S., in the hope thai hisinoom- 
■ to ascertain what it 

•' - ■■ .... : - . ' •. ,- . ■.■; 

(T -= in Act. IV ti i , i . 500; Spe< U ■ , t 336). He 

add ■■•!:—'• If i- And-n^nr/on involutes, Steudel, and A. nof„jio(/on, 
" Noes and Steudel. It is mentioned by name only a- •- 
;i A uif/i i in K"\'i - I usti in hs ( p. U6). Ir is vy e.oumion in a i 
and I have seen it from Afg 
Mr. Duthii known under 


■ ...: ■■■■■■■ :■■:'. . ■ ' 

was sent by him to the Kew Museum in 1880 (see Kew Report, 
1880, p. 60). 

We were indebted to 3 Inspector- 

!■■.,.■: : ■- ■■ ; ■ ■■■■,: :r. " ■ : ' ' . . , ■:-;,<;:.■., 

arimisly known as Bhabar, Bhaib, ami liai.ka- were all 

N.W. Provine. . 1382, pp. 7, 8) :— _ 

( A, ,(J,-f>pn,f , i r h>t >s. not as iias often h< en erroneously stated, 
Eriophorviri comosm :' ■ i from tracks of 

broken raviny ground outside I derable. . . . 

The grass grows abundantly on dry hare slopes, and no apprehension 
regarding the m£ mi be entertained. 

It is used chiefly for rope-making, and it is by no means impossible 
that the establishment of pap .a will eventually 

lead to the ( mph ■;. ;., : ■ : :hi- •_:: -- tor the manufacture of paper." 
Early in 1883 1 -! us with a copy of a report 

y Mr. C. E. Eib Paper Mills, to 

be Director of the Department of Agriculture and Commerce of the 
forth- West Proving he following obser- 

" Thif! grass we ha\e u-ed here, but not to any great extent, owing 

with jute. I found it not, to yield more than about 35 per cent, of 

stem gets 
for the great loss in the 

9 tops off, I have r 
" would be a good and cheap enough fibre for r. 

Dr. King, in his annual report for 1882-3, s 
as follows : — 

"In several former reports I have referred 
" the vernacular name bhabur as the p 
" I have now satisfied myself that 

I, but from Andropogon involutus. This gras 

•• '•: .■ ■; ■ . : .< :■ -.' ;■::„[. • \ ; .: . ,■ 

i. ' s kn .\mi .,- suba!, I'miM t], ( - , t j , i. t ean b, 
• c obtained in quite a 
" as a pap.r material a feasible project, and the people v 

• • ; j- h rate. But in ..nh-r lo cj.-t ft 
in sufficient quantity for local mana 

'" '■■ '•• '■'' -■• ' ; '^ ■' - • : : - •'■■•..;•■ " : ...■■:.•:. 

This i- only in accord 
u with the common e i 

- ' •■.:!:■ ! 

" pra-e-. but that, mi the contrary, trad.-r* -rill tbri.. „ 

" : ' ■■. ! ■' 

On December 1, 1883, the iaiv Mr. riioiua- lb ■■<'■■■''_■. who \vo< 

' ■ ..■■■ ; . , 

grass :— 

k _ " l j ' ' \'' ;r W1 ' !1 » ilk « a fair -beet of paper, much the same as fine 

The pt 

fospect of utilizing the 

irrass ^ 


1 be no 


■mild be 

cultivated. From the 
i, of Rampore Hat (pri 




: ! ' : ' 

. Horticultural Society 

..r i;V.i 

»r Oetoi 

. "O-) 

The Sabai or Babul gr 

wo crop 


thers. ° ' 

all. The-' 

it to our Chri: 

stian Colony jn Guma ] 

grows well. 

A 54763. Wt. 


" (3.) I have never attempted to propagate it by seed, but always by 
roots. When a clump or tuft is dug out, it may lie divided into as 
many small divisions of roots as one pleases, and these are put down 

interval between each root planted. It will yield a very trifling 

roots have spread -a good crop. The plot on 

which it is planted must be kept free from other grass. When it is 

be taken up entirely, re-divided in 

" or trade, so that I am unable, to say where ti 

" or at what price. We got a small quantity of the roots 

- have nn« a con-idc ibl q mtity. It -liould b. p mted in a <!r>, 

!„. r r. . . ion-,,. ,r>hor of (Jra^si-. ' l'.» tli. 
nthani Prustees, we aro indebted for the use of ti 

lie accompanying 


-/.'■■■- /■ .- 

f ;; V, ',",' ' I, v; '•;' ' 


depth, containing 

about 50 feet across, and i- situated in the middle of a cliff of flinty 

Little Cayman is 9 miles long and about a mile broad. Cayman Brae 

is 10 imle- long, and about a mile broad. Both these islands lie in a 

; distant about 70mile.-. 

The Cayman Islands are so far out of the regular trallie > f steamers 

is about 4,000. Little Cayman co into, vrhile 

- of Civilian I'.rae is -aid to be about 300 whites ind 
30 blacks. 

It is a remarkable characteristic of the inhabitants of these tropical 

tc\ are a temperate, strong, tall. healthy-looking people 

"i- coloured. They are doubtless descended from the 

The proportion of black people 

(negroes) i 5 comparatively small. 

The present governor ol Jamaica, Sir Henry Norman, has twice 
vi-ited the ( a\nian Islands. On the occasion of his more recent visit 
Mr. William Faweett, F.L.S.. 


lis visit. 

in ;! 

e the following 

jd from him wi 

of the a 

'egetable resou 

rces of tb 


a islands :— 

I hai 

!d from a 

ith the 

to the Cayman 
ind Cayman on 


. We left Jar 

■th May 

ningof the 8t 

h. The 


shore/but the 

Id not do ! 

10th I 


Vrtr :i ! v 


flic next day 1 

very few people at Little Caj 
are between 400 and .100 in 
of "ground provisions" (ya 

Grand Cayma:i 

but the lip I red. I enclose flowers only for the 

present, and I . as well as 

imens,* From what I saw of the interior the soil appeared to 


few lemons are produced, and great -re exported 

■ .. .. 

drought, and that canes grow s 
. the fruit is u 

e mahogany, and I rich would appear 

he island is sometl coral reef . The 

vllent shipbuilders, ami use llieii- native mahogany and 

wooded trees . rhetherl 

w,i~ si rry, dso, not t< - 

Was the rii hi st in :' d on than 

been 1 vtract t libi Hie J i K . t I / Uorrisii) 

,1 all the islands. 1 saw two trees of coffee growing not 

,.■■..■■ .: : ;,■. ■.■...-, . : ■ .. : 

pruned, then .p v..„ , _ (he previous drought. 

li,;- was ffee in these islands, and 

In little ( v i th.-n - mahogany, but no cedar {Cedrrln odortdu) 
md inC.i} !', ■ ■ < i ]> < ' . in' -:..! -(Mie.h ait\ m iim<: u y. 

.■■■■■:.■■;: , .,...,.■■. 

".I".' ;•" : ,■■ 

wind, travelling as often against ; t aiX often the 

■ I that it was the bud 

leaves which ,,,;•■ utr.-i't.'.l lir-< ■• - .-> gained 

ground the <■ - i es «Stt cutting 

the stem right through just above the ground it appeared pcri'eeily 
untainted and smelt and tasted sweet. At other tim , .. i ih< disease 
had made m< h i te, it smelt 

and tasted sour, and this occurred even when 

the "cabbage " wn< discoloured. The d;se«>lourati<>n was a purplish 
black, eventually becoming ipiite black. There v a- a -■ ur smell as of 

this befo e -tartini: is 1 \ .- f< Id t ! i f tin lis - , - i sumo as the 
Jamaica scale insect : but even if I had taken material for the purpose 

•>;■■• .;:'.: ■ . : ■ : . ; , . . .■. :.:■;.■•■- ■ ■■• ,'e'i ■ -l 

; the microscope. The d - a used by an 

insect, lull ;■' hold of the tr e,and decay has set 


cocoa-nut fly), and white larvee, which may be the cocoa-nut fly larva?. 
I did not see a trace of the Jan lie a heetl 01 th« >cal< inss et. 

W. Fawcett. 


The following corresponded h pas-ed b t ween this establis 
and the Crown Agents for the Colonies on the subject of 

shipped to this country by the Government of Cyprus as Valonia : 

May 25th, with end 


( her 

three samples of acorn 

2. This important 

much as 30,000 tons 

'( )ak. 

(I,, rcu> 

mercial supply is del 

■ived x 

PL> ; " 

Minor. Valonia from 



., i i-cups sent from Cyprus are not Valonia at a 
■ wav rcseiulile it. I Mie of the samples, in fact, 
the acorn-cups of the Holm or Evergreen Oak, so c 

■ ..■...■■.■■ 
4. In writing to the Colonial Offi 

r . n i i- i port on i'y^. i< t . the 
aent not to meet with t' 

island. It could probably be very easily raised from seed, and the 
Government of Cyprus could hardly do a wiser tl 
plant out year by "year a stock of this valuable tree. 

W. T. Thiselton Dyer. 

The Crown Agents to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Sir, Downing Street, June 16, 1888. 

I have the'honour to acknowledge the receipt and to thank you 
for your letter of the 4th instant. 

In accordance with your suggestion we have sent samples of the 
Cyprus acorn-cups to Mr. Evans of Bristol, and I enclose a copy of his 
report upon them, which we propose to communicate, with a copy of 
your letter, to the lsiand Government. 

Evans to The Crown Agents. 

66, Stackpole Road, Bristol, 

June 13, 1888. 

I am duly in receipt of your favour of the 9th. The p 

iples of acorns came in due course yesterday. I have 

rem, and beg to enclose copy of the ai 

will observe that although they conti tities of tannic 

tcid, yet the per-centage is so small that they would not pay to ship. 

If my memory is correct, a cargo of some similar acorn-cups was 

brought into Liverpool a few years since, winch was worthless, and 

. rboard in the Mersey. These cups are not Vale 
is Quercus Mgilops, eight or ten times as large, and giving from 25 to 
40 per cent, of tannin. 

There is no reason v, by Valonia should not be grown on the island. 
Fresh undried acorns could lie got from Smyrna, Aidin, or Borlo 
districts, or from the island of Rhodes, and no doubt the young plants 
would flourish there, if they were enclosed so that the goats and other 
animals could not get at them to destroy them. Valonia is and ever 
will be a precarious croj i 

Ir grows on the high grounds to the north of Cyprus, and it 
might, with little care and attention, form a < 

products of the country. I would also mention that there is another 

eli has been 

i centuries. 

At the Colonial and Indian Exhi Commie 

.-iouer to export is t< tan >tyle. There is a very 

tion. I believe a little encouragement, am! the growth of the same 
(It. Coriaria) would produce 

(Signed) W. N. Evans. 


rom the Island 



No. 1.— Que,; 

ens Pfceffit 


Organic acids 

Woody fibre - 

- 80" 


Organic acids 

Woody fibre - 

- 1 • 42 

- 11-44 


- 79-43 

100-00 worthless. 

No. 3. — Quen 

jus alt 


I ii jf 

100-00 not pay to 


practically useless foi ,1(1 pnrpos. - or hu-h; n Iry, and hence it becomes 
important question economii may be effectua 

eradicated al a -mall i-o>t. or. n it is n ..t i> — i ■ > 1 .Urate tin 
how they may most conveniently be utilised as olyVet.-* oi' pmdm-t 

set ami Graaii'-Iveinet, there nevertheless < 

Inrp-e areas inn' whieh - spread during the last 

50 years sn as t<> !■: ; 10 ;> seri< >us difficulty. The courses of streams, 

en completely 
over-run. and such places arc ovum-ally abandoned in despair. Thus 
there was a noied thicket ju.-i hi ] . , sss on the 

during about 10 years. The thicket 011 the site of the railway station 
at Cookhnis Drift, though not so large, was even more dense, and 

line, laboured . years I knew the place, to eradicate 

tin plant, I ■ '. . ' > little more than keep clear the arc;, 

ami en i - i ■ ml. F.\ en aftei the lh it < '< u ux . madt , n _r nd 

voting Opunti w i. -prin»"in.i,- lp everywhere ami bidding fair to 
recover the lost ground. 

I do not r! - • the disposal of any farmer will 

But where it occur- sporadically— here one. and there one— over the 
not so hopeless. Many 

in one sum to • the outlay. 

Stock, I an \ under the lee of a thicket < : 

in eld wind; v, itln r. an 1. b - les tin m -chief accruing (mostly to 

gMts] BWH ■ joints, they 

unction of leaves, 
)ting at any point 

of the pest by Ml 

probable future of these little villains, and at mv earnest sclic: 
brought up two load- of dry kraal-dung to cover them complete] 
enacted such an Ant<>-<la-fr over them, bv the help of a fire-sti 
effectually prevented all ; >r. The moral < 

experience i- PeM for rotting down at the 

The for 

plan said to be effect h 

consisted in feeding 

called, into a sort of mill, something like a bark-mi ,. with revolving 
vith im is completely 

lie passage throne!: . , ut of th- 

■ : ■ ■■'.;:-'.:,. .-:,.-.. ... . ' : 

compost heap. The attempt I speak of was made with no more 

perfect appliance than a i> u .-<>.] for mangolds, 

:h was accomplished to show that with a proper] 

I. tent \<o\ , an unlimit'd .p t ti 

IVssibh two 

Jr'atersoni, JJ.C.j. After . the sections w 

sprinkled over . h the imported r 

and his progeny fought like dogs over a bone. I do not think one 

usual singeing, the " leaves " were laid singly on a rude 

revolving table one foot square. On this worked a mechanical arrange 

>hp>, ihluhwt ti n! i t Up u.t.- 1 the material for a second 
. t angles to the former one. Thus the stuff was very rapidly 

• '.;■..■. r ■■ ■ ■ . ■ ■ ■ . ■. . 

Btrnisvogel [ostrich]. 1 believe I am correct in saying that these novel 

: other mischief when too freely used. 
Cooking by a process of steaming is worth a trial. 

The TJwrnl here permit me to speak of the thorn- 

less or nearly thornless variety of Opunlia, known to Colonists as the 
Chis, I suppose, is th [exico, chosen 

for its especial value in the cochineal industry, and for the fewness, 
■ ■ , - ■ ) 
iple thrashing 
with a bundli supplies their 

' : 

i-l»lad is, proprio mart*. That the kaal-blad has 
not been spread purposely over the length and breadth of the land in 
otherwise useless wastes is just one of the many things that make one 
id pity poor Africa. As I have said elsewhere, in a Garden 
Report, I think, " if by touch of a magician'* wand the \ - 
•• Prickly Pear along the Klyn Visch, Melk and Blyde Rivers could be 
" turned int. uid be small chance of hearing of stock 

M slowly : thirst." It would be a 

: . 

so succulent it is. I have not much of it as a spech „ < u , v .\ * r.i. n. 
bul each year since 1883 I sent every bit cf it that could be spared to 
the enterprising Luderitz at Angra Pequina, where it grew 

bct'on ! i> \ tii \ decease, informed me that a hungry span of oxen, 

were being grown, and had eaten them up to the last square inch. 

My argument, therefore, is very much to this end. If in this Colony 

W id ; ;i A . sed so much as to demand 

nee and Government expenditure for 

re of food material, good enough for an occasional 

haH time, mighl aol be encouraged to propag 

comparatively innocuous and easily m only known and propagated of all men. " A 

-■■■!' • ■:•:■■--;■.. ■_. , 

: '■■ ■ ' .'...,:.':• 

the stony randts [ridges] and kopjes ThilU] whieh ar- 
hahitat. an e\« |Hi-.nall\ lto.hI I'oo'.l, ^re.-dily devoured by horned stock 
and horses, occurring here and then- in the gr. atest abundance, vet 
T can only fall back on my oft-used organ 
uture years some Africander will arise to 

'■ : ■ -..■.. . ■ . ■ • ■ ■ ' ; ! 

1't-ckK P-a- ]■ .- t n. ,-uil .lll.«.i.t, it. 
:o the confusion which exists as regards 

different cour 

be prepared : 

kl;, IVars won limilit], - fir-t i n r<-« n 1 u</<:i 1 to t lie Atlantic 
island-, Mieh as tlio Canaries ami .Madeira, and from the-o cent'vs tiny 
I v spread to the Mediterranean region in one di; 

direction. Owing to the 
hi y are propagated by portions of the stem and by 

the dry regions*! N T ew World. 

y ■. :... ■■■. . ■■■!;.'-•--.■.■ ' . , :: 

<), HioiHinintfia, Haw , <>. di;-innx»n. Haw., it. riru.>-i„aiat. Mill., and 
Opuntia (JSopalea) coccinellifera, Mill. 

Opuntia Tuna, L.. is well described by Lowe in the Flora of Madeira. 

Tmt, ras or ; 

favourite fruit called Figos, 

and dried. 

i, Haw. [Cactus 

Dillenii, Ker in Bot. Rej;. IV., 

sidplmr-yellow flower, slightly 

a purplish pear-shaped fruit, is 

prickly pear of India. The very 

s plant are used gel 

lerally in the Canaries lor aifixing 

placed under .\,>palrii. the stein is grass green, 
; stem pieces. The areola? are very distant and at 
B8. The areola; at the summit of a young specimen 
d, small spines. The flowers are rrimsm), with the 
I closely surrounded by the bract-like petals. 

From specimens sent to Kew in 1886 by Mr. Joseph St avt nson, tin 
indefatigable Honorary Secretary of the Agri-Horticultural Society of 

Madras, it nj ] ; ,-it there are three species of Opuntia, more or less, 

ii the neighbourhood of Madras. These are 0. ii/i/rirmis, 
Haw.; 0. Dithnii', Haw.; and 0. mn,<acu.,tlu, t Haw. The latter, 
accord ine to Profe-sor Oliver (who disagrees with the synonyms in 
Flora Brit, !;■■ as indicus of Roxburgh. 

Owing to the immense tracts of country cover* 1 ufrh i'rlekh Pear 

ions attempts have been made either 


■ ■■■ ■ i v, • ■■,.■-.,.-,.,..■ ; . ; 

for tree seeds sown broi - of them. It was hoped 


them from the sun and from browsing animals, while the trees when 

grownup and forming a continuous canopy abov< would shade the 

Prickly Pea, plant- to such an ext, >rov them. 

Trichinopoly. th: t -em, margo-a [Sld'nt \-a,lirachta and tamarind 

tbtof the results of the system."' He refers to an 

■.■!-' ■!. '.:•■ ^ •'. . ■ ' . . ■•.,.,"•, 

upied exclusively by Prickl; P, is. He further 

a-ed shade growing trees 

lately to destroy the Prickly Pear plants. 
in Madras flu „ot been so 

tree seeds of a suitable character ni 

' <■: ' ' .'.■■:■■ ' 

r. Again in dry rainless district- in some parts of 
. •!,,-, de-cril.ed 1.) Professor M cOwan, tin plan 

in the Cana. 

According to !.■ ', the only plant used in i 

Canaries for rearing the Cacti) is Opnn 

There is little doulit tin- i ■ plant, but there 

equally little doubt that other species of Opuntia arc also used. As l 
specific name implies Opnuih, (Xnj,al,,i\ c< ccintlUfera is a recogni; 
(■•.cluneal plant. a any other on accoi 

O. Hmituitlcii, (). DIUrtiii, and (). n.issoi' rinisis, as also servi 
for the rearing of the cochineal insect. With regard to O. m 
souriensis it is stated that Meehan found plants in North Amer 

could live through the mtei -e cold ^hieh characterises the Eoc 
Mountains of the Colorado regions. 

It appears that cochineal culture has been attempted to be int: 

through the inter ConSol-General I 

Algiers. These were shipped from A'_ - to M dras to he phu 
under the" care o\ the Central Gaol, Coimbato 

On this point it is well to remember that according to Lowe v< 
zealous and careful attempts have been made to establish a cochin 
industry at Mad nod of the Canari 

but even there it u-nt. The failure is attribul 

to the difficult, ofpreservi d (young insects) 

re-stock the plants annually. Any experiments carried on in t 
e manner, and it 
evident that a fresh supply of insects would be required annually in 
successive broods are established on a large scale. 

Dr. Unnavia, of the Tndian 
consideration of the Madras l 
October 1884, the desirability of 

of grafting them on the wild ] 
It is well known that many m 
are remarkable for the ease wit 
another. Dr. Bonavia's sugges 

The principal species cultivate; 
sake of the fruit are O. Ficus-iruh 

the fruit N consumed in immense 

t Edible Cacti, see Gard. Chroc . 

In a letter to the Foreign Office fp • ' -I to this 

establishnient, dated 9th July 1886, Mr. Consul Bidwell draws attention 

ando de la Camara, on the cultivation of the 
Prickly Pear. : w, and 'the employment of the fruit 

■ ■ ! . . :■■■..:■.' 

" The Author states that his experiments, which have extended over 

' - 

district, on html hitherio u-e,] f have been 

r:i, or on land which could not otherwise be 

" The subject matter of the Paper is divided under three h< :• 
(1) the cultivation of the plants; (2) the process of fermentation; 

,,; : if . -'. ' .' ..;....,;'' : . ,.- . 

for the manufacture of the spirit, all of which are minutely treated." 

" The practical results obtained by the Author in various 

of 10 metres 

and two metres in width, produces at maturity, at Malaga, 

Mvoidini: to the situation, etc., from 2,000 to 4,500 pears or figs 

" These results wore obtained n nid, while 

"The weight of ihe i\< s < is stated to be about 13 to the kilogramme. 
From the experiments made for extracting the juice of 

ear that in a solution of 40 to 45 per cent, the odour and 

■■•■;..•■ ' - • : ..,-■■.:.- - :.,■.: :,.-•! I,-] . 

■' - ■ ; .■■■■' ■ •■■•■■:■■ - - -■.:!■..:■•'•-. 

■ ■ ■ 

of 70 to 75 per cent, the odour is much less apparent, while very little 

I pei ( out I he nri rag< qi antitj oi i i 
from the liquid is alleged to be eight per cent." 

'• Minute ted in the Paper, as well as regards 

the cost of cultivation as of the expenses of manufacture, which the 
(tea are the result of long and careful experiments on the 

The idea of utilising the Prickly Pear fruit as a source of alcohol is 

by no means been prepared from the fruit in some 

litis veil known that alcohol is the direct result of the 

fermentation of fruit-sugar. The utilisation of the Prickly Pear fruit 

-imply as a source of alcohol is a subject we have no desire 

to Bee ent< i th< credit of man- 

; the men a^'iit of 

; ■■:.-■■-.. ..■ ■ - :•;■, - t .."■-.. ■ ■: ■ !■;.<•■■.. 

. ■ , ■- ' ■■■■ ■ ■ .; ■ - ■■'■:!. . • ■'•■o ■■ ■■•■■ "' : 

n on.- to the men alcohol wl ich underlies even variety 
of wine We tht-rei'ore deprecate lite idea of preparing alcohol from 

Camara. Malaga : 

f producing 
racting the 
3 the Myrogene process alcohol 
is an essential element. In most colonies alcohol suitable for such a 

purpose is obtained with -real diuieulty, and at prices winch is 
practically prohibitive. 

If alcohol from Prickly Pear is capable of being rectified so as to be 
suitable for perfumery purposes a very extensive field of use! 
open to it. It .ni-ht also be utilised for pre-er\ in- fresh fnut for 
ch it might be 
rendered capable of assisting the growth of * 

ern India the stems of Prickly Pear plants „__„_ 

1 bridles) ha\, bee,, ml ^ — fully preserved 

m the stems under these 

as analysed by the Government Quinologist at Ootaca- 

found to consist of gum, albuminous substances. ; " 

the Pric 

Prickly Pear st 
supplies of fodder. 



been prepared by Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, late Director of the Royal 
<;.'■ :> us, be !i ,• e srieiit is^ue of the Botanical M 

By the courtesy of the publishers, Messrs. Lovell Reeve and Co., we are 
enabled to give a reproduction of the drawing of the plant from a 
specimen growing at Kew, to which has been now added a I 

" The plant producing the true Star Anise of China is here for the 

first time figured and described. For many years the fruit so called 

Linn, (see Bentl. and 

Trimeii, M,-d. PI., vol. i. t. 10). - ,,; /, ,.,./,•_ 

■■ '■ • • ■. :. :.■;<■■,;■: . : 

1. anisatvm of LUu. i . 

refer to Baillon's learned treatise, pul ~! i 1-7.. -Ad 

p. 1), and to papers by the late Dr. mid Dr. ihvt- 
schneider in the t 'hina Revi.-w ( vol. ix. p. 283, &c). It suffices here to 
observe that Lfhiisaf/nt, or relu/iosuin arespeei, - 

o of China was Dr. 

Embassy at Pekia, 

! plant was a reputed 


,(■ .'■ 


though commonly compared with aniseed, the taste is really more like 
that of fennel ; so that the name given to it by Redi (Experimenta, 
p. 172) in 1675 was Fceniculum sinense. In China the Star Anise is 
employed as a condiment and as a spice, and it is still used to flavour 
re it is the flavouring materia of 
Anisette de Bordeaux) and Italy. In England, according to Hanbury, 
it is used only as a >nl>stitute for oil of anise." 

j propriety of giving the new name of 
lant may be challenged on the ground that the Linnaean one of anisatum 
lould be retained for it, and another be adopted for the Japanese plant 
► long supposed to be the origin of the Star Anise. The objections to 
! twofold: ill- tii-t is that Linnaeus (Sp. Plant. Ed. 3, 

p. 664) clearly describes 

Kaempfer's Amcenitates for the same. He, however, 

Planta a me non visa, fide Ksempferi recepta, fort< AnisVf* 

officinarum, quod adjectum Tetraodonti ocellari ejus auget 

' The italics are my own. The passage shows thai 

not answerable for the reference of the Star Anise to 

The second objection is, that it would require the 

tese plant, for \ ' ' ' 

adopted. — J. 

•, the synonym ;carini might I 

* D. Hooker." 

Explanation of Plate. 
, Flower. Fig. 2, front view of stamen. Fig. 3, back view of 
Fig. 4, the carpels. Fig. 5, side view of single carpel : — all 
Between Figs. 1 and 4 is represented the mature fruit. 




o. 20.] AUGUST. [1888. 

LVI.— COLONIAL FRUIT— (contin ed). 


The exports of fruits from this island are of the annual value of fl 

Mr. J. IT. Hart Ik Tore his transfer to the charge of the Botanical 

, the island of Jamaica are Cocoa-nut (Cocos 

(lock if'//. i.l (I i Fruit (Cifms ,J, ,■„„,„„,<. var.) 

AvocadaPear QPersea 

(P,i t /i,tm G,f f /rff), Volume .Tor (/Vs.,///,.,-,.- 

uutcmcarpa), Nutmeg- {Mynsticr,, ( Haheite 


its keeping 
rop, (4) for 

> cultivation, 

■i ;■_' Auirn-t ami iolloving mouths. Supph 


is n very fine fruit, 
m^to^n - SUPPly ^ 

Lemon {Citrus Mxlira, var. F.immnn),).— Supply small, but o 

ely grown. 
Shaddock (Ci/rxs <hr„„>a ■„<,). —See Lemon. 

Avocado Pear (Pcrsea (/rahsslma).— Supply very good. In seasor 
from June to September at different elevations. Supply could be ver\ 
; • • 
Bread Fruit (Artocarpi's ;„, ;*,,).— Supply small comparatively, excepl 

i during most months of the j„_. 
by baking 9 ' three weeks. 

Neesberry ( te/trm Sap,,/,,).— ( hi «,|' tho 1110-t d, diea I oly flavoured 
and wholesome fruits grown. Gathered when "full," it "will -tand 
transport well. J 11 season Tune to November. 

Bilberry (]',,, ri „!„,), }>uri,lio„ah).—K wild mountain fruit which 
d: i) kosn fine coloured natural j el Iv, a C ood 
wine, and is excellent for tarts. June and August. 

Strawberry ( Fraijaria rrsr ff ).—A small variety resembling the Alpine 
species. In season on the mountains at 4,000 6 
of the year, wild. 

Star Ap] in ito) .—In season June to September. 

A Jruit dilhVult (o transport. 

ihm\-n(I>*;,// », <,„,,,< —Supply limited. Wild ; no good varieties 

tent. June and July. 
Pome d'or ( 1 >«>,,, 1,,,-a l«„nj ,■' mcarpa).— 

port. July, September. 
Nutmeg (Mj/rish^a frar/rans).— Mentioned lio're for sake of its peri- 
ire preserve, which only 

Otaheite Apple yEixjaia maluva „*■/*) an.l Rose Apple {Eugenia 
Juhih I.— Mn eelleiit pro-crws 1 1 

October. They pns^ss a flavour \ -mell of rose, 

Graphs (Jit is ri„if ( -m) , —Grown i 

.-■'•.n. ehieflv the Mu-\- ( r % 

Cherimoyer (A,i,,,,a ('},, rii»nlifi).— 

Sour Sop (A)n,i."i mt/rirafa). C'u-t 
Sop {A. squamosa), an 
ordinary value. June to October. 
Tree Tomato {< ',/j,h,,„irh!'lra /.-fa 
•■' Aj.rie-.t of Europe. 

iy --xioiit in two or thri 

2. Certain markets. 

3. The institution of a system of brands at port of export so that 

fruit of :i certain hraml should be r,f uniform quality : in a similar 
manner to tin; irovernmentiii induction of tbh -tnH'- in (ho province of 
Xova Scotia, which (iocs not p.-rmii .-ported. 

4. Abetter •' 

produce in the best mai 

■ agents. 
(', Telegraphic communi 

-..-.p, r > to place their prndm 

' Pine-apples, Bana 

Bahama Islands. 

l V., V , < Ji v N. t. 

.' The who! 

art of which is locally consumed, 

. Tin 

1*. to 2*. 6d. per bunch. 

The Cocoa-nut is also extensr ome. The annual 

•op is about 1,000,000 nut-, of which from 8,000 to 10,000 can be 

The Tomato is obtainable from December to March. It is raised 

lich are locally consumed. Owing to 
f this fruit after U-inu plucked, it is 
vith any prospect of success. It will 

Wholesale prices 4s. to 6s. per hundred. 

The Sapodilla. first crop, is in season in !■'■ 
the -eeoud crop in VuiiuM and September. Tin trc irrou - withou! 

.iv only (not ov 

The Water Melon is obtain 
September. The crop is aho 

In the other fruits enumerated, there is so little trade al 
they are unworthy of special reference in the replies to query 2. They 
fruits only in slmw that (hoy cnn 
be and are cultivated in the Colony, and that they only require the 
opening-up of markets for their profitable sale to make them become 
important articles of export. 

Bahamas Fruits exported in a Fresh State in 18 


Destination. | Quantity. 


Sweet Oranges - 


Avocado Pears - 

United Kingdom 

- | 388,800 doz. - 


'ortr-d in a Pi:e.<!-:i:vki> St a if 

I ^ 

D both fresh 
j developed with it. The 


only fresh frfi any prospect 

these only in limited quantities. No others will stand the long sea- 
voyage between the islands of the Colony and the port of London. To 
the markets of the United States, therefore, these islands have princi- 
pally to look for any further dee. U ;pnu n\ of i !umi- fruit trade. 
The steps necessary to bi Meet are : — 

(1.) The. tion. B ndeKerida 

and Southern (..'alifornia, those i-ljimls have to compete with Cuba, 
Jamaica, Porto Rico, and th.-t West In li:m Mauds, .11 , i 
cable conn. •. \s concerned, 

the Colony i (vantage ova it- West Indian com- 

petitors in the fact thai it h nearer to the market of demand. This 
i y lost by the fact tha »es not possess 

: -' 

is cable connexion, [a the f til I 


Colony, while on the other hand the consignee- i 

-:...<..- ...■..■..;■. ■ : , : '' 

are being sent to fhem tor -aie. Fruit being a 

: - : 

The necessary information is conveyed from the shipper to the consignee 

1 1 the dt - - th (.'eh s_v u'o handicapped, and labour imdei a great 

(2.) Inert the fruit. 


■::■:■■■'- "■ \ . ' - 

■■•■i...--.;,. ,. ;■•■•. . i . . ' . .. ... ; 

proportion of the fruit crops can I,e hulk being 

! . 
the Colony also labours under l ■■.u.d with 

those possess. mentioned. 

(3.) The removal of f 3 and other 

the United States. 
The imposition of these duties i -. { [\ ie oraU g e 

Apples were only pla. 
factories in these isfa 

pr< s. L-ved fruits impoi ted into the United Sta 
placing of Pine Apples on the free list by the " 

crippled the presen ml in I mi n s of the < oh 

have -uspended operations, and those in existence are not d< 

The remission of the duties referred to would therefore 
prove a great help ;1 use islands. 

(1.) Increased demand. 

The supply of tropical fruits imported into the United States from 
her places is fully, if not more than equal. u> the present ex- 

For the past few year- tl these islands 

have been unable to dispose of the whole of their crops. Until the 

■n-o. •' would he in wis- to extt'inl the cultivation of Pine 
Apples at least. Increased demand is a question of time, however, and 
e expected to keep pace wit] 1 population 

in the 1'nited States. 
(5.) Improved methods 

quality of the fruit. It i- a well-known fact that the fruits 

oin this Colony do not rate with those from other places. 

The Pino Apple- arc -iirpassed by those from < 'uba. .Jamaica, and Porto 

Hico, and the Oranges by those from Honda. Within the past few 

year- then has been 

. owing, it i- -uppoM-d, to the fact that all of tin 

fiuit can be improve! 

should be more generally and freely used. The fields and orchards 
should be kept clear of weeds. The Orange and other fruit trees should 
be regularly and carefully pruned and scraped. These important 

the trees and plant- ar<. usually in lit ion. They 

do not po-sess the necessary vit: I g periods of 

. ,■;'■. l.ecome t'h. piey'of the M'ale and othei in-eet- 

1 :... ■ : ' : • i ' ! ■■■.„■•■■ ■ , : 

for everv ounce of tln-m which nature ha- bestowed upon e 

and oughl to be gi ' purposes. 

As regards sugge-tioii- lor the improvement of the fruit indu-tiy in 

tie i'.ahamas it might be mentioned that the cuttings from the Pine 

preserved at the Pine Apple Factories could be 

• \\ inc. Spirits, or Vinegar. 

Oil of Orange and Oil of Lemon could be extracted from the skin of 

Hose flavouring or extract could be obtained from the 

Eose Apple. Saccharine matter could be extracted from tie 

- . yields a rich and At - p Valuable 

fibres can be obtained from the leaf or stalk 

Perfumer} could '• ge and other blossoms. 

(iuavas could bo more largely utilized in the m 


grown in Barbados are Bananas, Orang* 

Tamarinds Mar-,.,-. Star Apple-. I bdden Apple-. Avocado Pet 

Guavas. Grapes, Cashews, Sapodillas, Pine Apples, Chili Plui 
Pomegranates, Mammee Apples, and Papaws. 

2. (a.) What little fruit there i- is chiefly obtainable from Septe 

(c.) The wh 

five shillings 

3. (a.) No 

;<1 in a fresh stn 
apples, Pears, an. 
loaches. Plum* 

Cherries, (r.) Thei 

We are 


<1 to Mr. R 


SncirtV. In 

!■ til" fn 


new departure is 

British ms 

U'ke. en 

'- P^* 

■ •!-, «1 

ments to 


id nn a n 

loderate ses 

lie. F;ii 


of the new 

be greatly , 

.11. th • 

its are capable of be 


I quantities. I 
■ demand for St. Thomas, but tlie call . 

■•■■■■ • _ ■■■;■. ■-.■■■-. 

-ants. There is consequently no demand 

ago Bananas were in 
has fallen off very 

do and -ii[.ply 

^'■■ n ' 

There can scarcely be said to be any export trade in preserves 
boxes of succades for presents. 

Practically there are no imports of fruits, except a few ba; 
Apples in the fall of the year. But jams and jellies, candie< 
II'.-' is, Figs, ... rom E _. 'id and France, are pretty 

The - 


ruits vary considerably, and the months named i 
tables are not constant year after year. I ha\ 
' ! bought not only over a longer term i 

different months in differ. i( yeais. I'hc months named in the tables 
indicate, generally, when the fruits begin to be abundant. Smaller 
juantifics are procurable before and afterwards. 
The prices of preserves given are such as would be taken if large 
executed f competition 


sold at Is., and the 1*. 3d. articl 

I make no attempt to indicat 

think any estimate would be evei 

:■■■■ . ■:.. . :, '- • 

List of St. Luc: 





Bread Fruit blossom - 


Srf.perlb. - 


March - ". 

Cashew Nuts 

May, &c. - 


gberry(l) - 


is. ad. ", 


All the year 

Is. 3d. „ 



8d. " '. 

Is. 3d. „ 

Golden Apple 

November to March 

Gooseberry (2) 

u'&d " 


July G >ear - I 

8d. ' " I 

Is. 3d. „ 


Is. 3d. „ 


November -March - 


All the year 

8d. „ 


8d. " "- 

Shaddock (Pith) 

December - 


Is. 3d. „ 



May,&c. - 

is. 3d. „ 

St. Vincent. 

.Mi. Ilnirgins has prepar 

ed the following report on the fruits of 

Tin' prim 

the Banai 

varieties, > ] v- Pin ■ Apple-, 

Sipole, Jan 

(luliis). the Sugar Apple 

Sapoto). There are -ever 


The Banana is ripe th 
October, Pine Apples Jim 
November, I\I 
times in the year. The < 
St. Vincent, are very small 
and it takes nearly all tl 

fruit produced in St. Vincent in order 

lie Guava, the Orange, 
aiea Plums (,S>>;„//,« purpura,). Lii 
Jnmhnhinn). th G ldt'l Apple Sp, , 

' : •■■•■. : 

oughout the year, Mangoes from April 


" . ~ ' ■}■■ ' •' : 
tiautities of fruit available for export i\ 

e pre'-. Hi prodia li< u to -upply the' I. 

died at from three 1 

fruits for 1*. 2c?., according to the kind or quantity. Mangoes are sold 
at aboul fi i me fruits are very seldom 

put on the market. The pine apple is sold at from 2d. to 4d. each. 
The prices of these fruits are about half of the above when purchased 

il is otiK of late that Oranges have again sprung up. Dried fruits are 
not exported, and the value of confectionery i- almost ml, 

of fruit grown here— the local wants extend as opportunity for gratifi- 
cation occurs, and export i- in ir- infancy. The nearest <>•■ 
« t * mugni I -ii<- I r.d s r i .-.but that is more readily 
supplied from Jamaica, and the other larger Colon' 

New York and other 

Trinidad is already --■!.,,_ :!.• cultivation of the Banana for the 
Lmerican market ; and could our people be induced to see that money 
> in it, they would pr. . but to do this we 

\vn that should 1 

;here be a prospect of 

a sufficient supply 

Lie ther would : 

bt that cultivate: 

I and a very large 

ernment should 

n the possibility of 

practicalile to ca 

use them to include 

the growth of the 

no fruits importet 

I of any value in a fr» 

h state. Owing to 

tl killed our Cocoa-nu 

:he neighbouring Colonies for our supply 

v of dried and pre- 

., but the total vt 

lly to the fruit of 

all tropical lands. 


q respecting the 

fruits of Grenada has 

been prepared by 

the recently-establishi 

3d Botanic Gardens 

; grown at present a 

Oranges - 

December to May 

--! lorf. to 1,. per 100. 

Mango - 

Sapodilla - 

Avocado Pear - 

July to September 

- - J Is. to Is. 6d. per 100. 



Cashew ( Ana card 7 'urn occidi ntalc), Watr 
folia), Rose Apple {Eugenia Jnmhos), ( 
miiffularis). Star Apple {Chry«>i>li>/Ilitui i 
It is almost impossible to judge of the 
export. There ar 

..!!.. .• 


the chief fruits growii iu Tobago i 

Guava - 

- Psidium Guard. " 

Pine Apple 

Bananas - 

- Musa sapiadum. 

Sapodilla - 

' '..i-..,/, ..... 


Seville Orange 

Citron - 

Forbidden Fruit 

'■'■■■ ■ „anna, var. 

Grape Fruit 

Sugar Apple 

- Anona squamosa. 

Custard Apple 

' Anona reticulata. 

Sour Sop 

Jamaica Plum 

- Spondias purpurea. 

Hog Plum 

- Span Jia.l una. 

Chili Plum 


Governor Plum 

Avocado Pear 

Cherry - 

- Malpujhia pnuieifolia. 

Otaheite Goosebe 

Ty - Cicca distich,. 

Star Apple 

- Chrysophyllum Cainito. 

Mammee Sapota 

Cashew - 


: ;■ ■ :::::;:;, 


Water Lemon 

- Passiflura launfo/ia. 

Genip - 

- Melicocca bi)«aa. 

Tomato - 

- Lycnprrslriiui'fseuUutHm 

- Vitis viuifcra. 

- Coccoloba uci/cra. 

Bread Fruit 

Jack Fruit 


Golden Apple 

- Spondias lutea. 

Ground Nut 

- Arachis hypnr/cea. 

- Blighia sapida. 

Water Melon 

- Citrullus vulgaris. 

Such fruits as would be 

ugust. Oranges about 

e list which may be con 

Pine Apples gr 

crop. Bananas al 
sent to Trinidad, i 

despatch, and improved means of 

the island to another. It is said that 
been made by which Bananas can be ] 
America, from the out-bays, at Id. per 
would be necessary, to afford due not; 

: ' '■- *. * • . I . .-< i (1 in much larp i ., iai tiii. s than 
; " 

. . •• 
be depended on for pin,.: 

<< <•! the approach of the fruit- 
picking to be delayed to the 
might be shipped in the freshest 

latest possible momei 

1 -:■..-• 

fruits, and these only in small quantities. 

A largo variety of fruits can be produced in the < , lu !!V of the finest 

•■■'■■ ■■.■■■■'•■■■•■■. • * . ■:■•:.. !. .. ■.,'.. 

with the view of fruit growing and ; j success. 

The above Report was prepared by a Committee of the Tobago 
Keens, and D. McGillivray. 

Fn :1 d trator of Tobago to the Governor-in- 


teen a bar to its advancement. Fruit for V ■■.. 

■• later in the more northern islands." 

The followin; 
Botanic Garden 


respecting the fruits 

Orange - 

October to January 

-|l, a hundred. 

„ Portugal - 
Prat - 

Felf^r/to Jul ' 

Juneto'jid/ 1117 - 

Julyt.. W,,,l>« 


January to March 

: ?lllli y '" 

March to May - 

August to November 

-| About 6rf. a hundred. 


As regards the steps necessary to start and develope a fruit trade in 
•inidad, the most important is goodcomniunication'with European and 
nerican markets by means of vessels fitted especially for carrvinsr fruit. 
formation is necessary as regards the prices whieli fruit- are likely to 
dise in foreign m.i i . tuner of packing 

3m, the seasons at which they would command the highest prices, and 
? quantitii s lib \y t > be required at each shipment. 

Since the above information was received, Mr. Hart has prepared a 
mphlet on " The Banana Trade " at Trinidad, in which he has fully 
cussed the step* necessary to establish a fruit industry in the island. 

The following report on the fruit prodi 
3ritish Guiana has been prepared by Mr. G. 
botanist and Superintendent of the Botanical ( 

Prefatory Remarks. 

The export 

of fruit from the Colony is so small that it is only worth 

evidence that on a much larger scale a profitable export 

mitrht be created if the necessary arrangements were 

n. ;•,<!■■ for rhc 

extension of the trade. With this exception it may be 

said thai fruit 

is only grown to meet the local demand, and the extent 

of depression in t; seasons that affect 

mrably the prod u. J- there ever an 

be demand. I will review each of the principal fruits 

sently, but it may that were there a 

lent demand, it is very probable, with little effort, the 

increase to the same extent, the necessary time being 
he growth. In the country districts the majority of 

the opportunity of obtaining the common fruits, such as 

i- spar-e and 

widely scattered, ti mpli-died easily, 

mces have often, where the people are not cultivating on 

made on certain days, usually only Saturday, to obtain 

e towns and la rp ibably consume a 

y of fruit, were it made more easily available by a good 

vith the ground-pro rted, but it is in- 

At the height >: is fruit is imported 

that it is as common in Georgetown as, perhaps, any of 

its greater powers of keeping may probably, however, 

deceive one ;i.> 

" t<> the quantity actiniliv m,p..i-t<Ml. ( M" such importation 

List of the Fruits c 

iltivjiti'il in Guiana, arranged in il 

e sequence of the Qua 

tit,y grown tor lottal consumption or export. 


Principal Season. 

Amount available for Export] Wholesale Price.* | Retail Price.' 



cZ-„„ t '. 

fe&£' : : 

Bell Apple - '. 


January to December - 
January to December - 

September to December 

H^JlyTny It present" 

Hardly any '- 
Hardly any - 

SBS3S : 
IS : : 

24 cents to 72 cents per 
Varies with the crop - 

$10 to 315 per thousand 

2centsfor6to e 24° P " 
4 cents to 8 cents each. 

Not sold. 

The small expo; I ,,] almost entirely to Plantain 

nd Bananas. 

Other Fruits exported are oi ] average in valu 

ttle over a hundred dollars a year. 

QtJPre»erved I .,. value is not much over 

fruit. It does not exceed from four thousand 

raised here for export 
fore any considerable extension of cultivation t:ikcs pla/v, < 
tors must be assured of a market for the produce. Shipper: 
paired to afford this market. The cultivators bein", as a 
™bers of the From hand to mouth they cs 
lished from the Colony 

but in qualit 

Tocally < 

sumed. Tha . I(( bunches a 

year, and in vain.- fr-m s2.00) to .^.ouo. F,, r full information on the 
subject of this fruit as an article of export see the paper attached 

■ Trud.-." 

V I 

JA/,^/w>\— There is no cultivation in the proper sei 

ise of the term of 

this fruit. From its first introduction to the Colony 

ir was planted on 

the "Dams" of sugar estates, and the greater part 

and the want of 

drainage prevents its -j,, ending spontaneously. Fe< 

quence of this <• fruit' walks." as the°avenues of fruit 

were called, are not kept upon many estates now. 

Guiana fruit- precariously, a very dry year yields usua 
but in ordinary seasons the yield is light. At the i 

ormer old settle- 

ments on the rivers very fine trees are in mam place- 

found, but they 

rarely fruit, — the present occupiers say only about one 

» in seven years, 

extended. The kinds grown here are generally poor. 

tirst-class fruit among them. The Botanic Garden* an 

' endeavouring to 

duds by grafting 

:■'■'! ' 

J tu re the Indians grow this fruit more or less 
. The area of land, within reasonable 
ipted for the 
culture of this fruit is very large. None is exported. 

Guara.s.— These arc naturalised in pastures and other ; 
ated. The greater part ol 
animals, but some is made into jelly 
used is not however of 
inn. Ii consideration. There are three or four varieties, all of which 
;. on both the coast and interior lands, and might be 
Avocado Pear. — This tree does not thrive so well here as in the West 

hired in some places, but is chiefly consumed by si 

from the W< s1 mid climate 

The other fruits enumerated in the opening table are not of a quality 

in the opening table a 
ty to call for detailed i 

*t Stationery Office. 

[All Bights Reserved.] 




SEPTEMBER. [1888. 

LVIL— COLONIAL FRUIT— (continued). 

The following interesting and valuable Report i 
red by Dr. H. A. Alford 
Government Medical Officer, and a valued correspondent of Kew : 

Dominica has been prepared by Dr. H. A. Alford Nicholls, F.L.S 

From the tii beeffi justly < 

for its fruit. Of all the British Possessions in th U MMT \:.i : ".• B it is 

< I as having the best promise of the development of a large 

and remunerative fruit tv.uW. n«.t only with tlio United States and 

also mth Europe. T reen Dominica 

8 Forth America, with the exception perhaps of the 

small colony of Montserrat, are not adapted for the cultivation of most 

of the tropical and sub-tropical fruits, by reason of the droughts to 

which they are sometimes subject. Thus it happens that Dominica is 

tin iu';ire-i fi lit-pi'odunng i.-luml ot the Loss t -i Vntilles to the United 

States and Canada, and it is also the nearest of the West Indian fruit 



islands to Great Britain. This is an important fact in regard to 
the future of the fruit trade between Great Britain and North 
America and the Lessor Antilles for with so perishable an article as 
fruit even a t w hours curtail lent of an ocean voyage mean- some- 
times all the difference between profit and !o<s. I'os.-os-dng a fertile 

■s of Dominica for the culture of tropical and 
. iVuits can -c i ci \ Ik climated. There can, there- 

fore, be no doubt that when the natural advantages of the island 
become more widely known the necessary capital will be found to 
form farms for the growth of the various fruits and vegetables, that 
can be exported at a profit. 

The earliest recorded in-taie e of a trade in [)oi iini« i t 
in Atwood's history of the island, published in London in 1791. 
Atwood says, "The Lemon and the Lime Trees bear also \ 
" seeming" blossoms, and the fruit of both is in great abundance, 
" large, and of excellent quality. Of these, the latter espee- 
" quantities are often sent in barrels to England and Am.niea. Idie 
often supplied with them 
"from this country, especially those of Antigua and Barbados." 
What the old historian of Dominica wrote nearly a century ago is true 
even now, for quantities of the island fruit are exported not only to 
England and America but also to i - islands. 

It was not, however, until n cent year' that fruit 1. -cam a r : 
of export from the Colony, for "the successful prosecution of such an 
rieuee in what is styled "the handling" of the 


of the requirements of the markets 

schooners used to come to Roseau, the chief port of Doi 
Oranges, but owing to ignorance of the huy< : - and sel • rs the ventures 
did not pay; and it is '• as the Oranges irere 

knocked off the trees, and the bruised fruit was shipped roughly in bulk 

long before its port of d. As a case in point it 

may be mentioned that the Blue Books show that in the year 1851 the 
fruit exports from the island are estimated at 70:',/ , which sum includes 
1 \r,f., th< ( - With the exception 

of 1,019,800 Oranges shipped to the l", i; i S: ,;, -, ■■•. I \alm d at 1^"/ . 
there are no details given of the kinds ... i'r lit . <p< u I. mil as no 
more Oranges were shipped to America until man; 
must be asMim d that the venture i I - ne. About 14 

years ago, with a view of demons trati the island 

for a fruit trade-. I inch a :'■ v, t id shipments of Or uses and Shad- 
docks to Messrs. Keeling and Hunt, of Monument Yard. London. 
long xoynge by the Royal Mail steamers., longer 
in point of tim< th n if is n >, . u d ill trandiipmei - a' Barb i » and 

in London ' i fetched the highest price in the 

market, when I wa- tin - iial scarce, md as a consequence the 

several of our local merchants tin.- account -a!.-, l, u i nothing was dun..: 
to prosecute the trade, and things went on in their usual style, lor 
Oranges appear in the ofticial lists of exports for the years IsT'i and 
1877, and they then disappear again, as might he e ,o ei-- I. f OI - the 
shipments could not possibrj hai p I owing to 1 i 
the fruit. Probably there would haw.- been n > > ou-iderable fruit trade 


,i now but for the enterprise of some Americans who came 
1m the Island in the proper season, bought up Oranges and other kinds 
■ in to the New York market. These Americans 
went the right way to work. They refused to purchase Oranges that 
did not have the stalks attached and properly cut, and in this way tiny 
ensured, to a great extci it, truit. They 

rejected w\ . fruit, and what they bought they 

pack. ! ear. fully in suitable boxes, each Orange having been examined 
for bruises, and if found sound wrapped in paper specially imported for 
the purpose. Theresull I insignificant 

fruit trad- of the island. The Americans came back year after year, 
thereby showing the people that the trade was successful, and then local 
men began to take up the it that at the present time 

the Americans have to compete with resident shippers. 

Y\ itli the exception of the Limes, which are extensively grown in the 
island for the sake of th< .;;as, which are cultivated 

by the peasaj I shipped from the island is 

at have grown up, in most cases accidentally, in 
gardens, in odd corners of estates, and by the roadside. Considering 
that the expOl rid other fruit products, 

now reach in value a good deal over 1,000/. a year, or about one forty- 
eighth of the total value of the exports of the island these facts are 
very striking, and they are pregnant with promise for the future of the 
trade. Some of the planters and peasant proprietors are now turning 
their attention to the systematic cultivation of Oranges, Shaddocks, and 
other fruit trees on a small scale, but the only estal 
devoted entirely to fruit culture are those belonging to 
planters, who do not, however, ship the fruit in its natural c 
any considerable quantity. 

The chief fruits exported from the island are Oranges, ( 

. M:i 

and Pine Apples. The Tamarind is exported in a preserved state, but 
it is only when the prices are high in the home market that local 
shippers consider it worth their ' . and thus the 

! ly year by year. The juice of the 
Lime (both fresh and concentrated) has become a very important 
export from the island, and any account of the fruit trade would be 
incomplete -try, which was started in 

Dominica years ago by the late Dr. Imray, to whom the island ow 
account alone, an everlasting debt of gratitude. The Lime, which is the 
ree closely allied to the Orange and Lemon, has done much to 
help to revive the prosperity of Dominica ; and, as the industry is con- 
'■ ■ : 
■'■..'.;■■ .•:;■■■•■ : :■;. 
the "essential oil of limes," is obtained from the rind of the fruit. 
1 hi- oil is not yet very well known in the trade, but the demand for it 
\ ports of the article are accordingly running up 
: i. 

of the planters during the last two years. T< 

obtained from the Pine Apple. It is shipped principally to the United 
States, and it is used for lhivouring purposes. 

have made a careful examination of the Blue Book- kept at i ;< >\ > mm* nt 
Office, but as the relume far 1880 a lost, and a- no other copy exists 
in the island, I have been unable to go back for more than seven 

55172. 375.-9/88. Wt. 40. A 2 


ue oFFkuit and it- IY.oim < i- i ■.xi-.-kted from Dominic 
the Seven Years ended 1887. 

A during 










£: :: 

2 1 o 


^ i» 

7 6 

160 17 8 

6,616 3 3 





t and vegetables are included 

K for 

I for the year 1880, 1 have drawn up the 
the value of the same articles exported during tne se 1 
1879, and a comparison of the two tables will conclu 
satisfactory progress made in the prosecution of the 
notwithstanding the many disadvantages that the shippt 
have had to contend with. 

iven, to obtain any 

Uowing table showing 

the seven years ended 

ely show the 

& • "sa* 


case of Coco-nuts, were all included under the headings " fresh fruit " or 
" fresh fruit and vegetables." I pointed out, however, in 1886 to 
Mr. U. Murrain, the Chief Clerk in the Treasury Department, the 
advantage for statistical purposes in keeping proper records of the 
i a. new and growing industry, and since then that gentleman 
has entered the fruit exports in detail in the Blue Books. Thus I have 
been able to compile the following interesting table, which shows the 
kinds of fruit exported during the last two years, their estimated value, 
and the countries to which they have been exported. (See next page.) 

This table shows that a considerable trade in fruit is carried on 
between Dominica and the neighbouring islands — English, French, and 
Danish, more especially those lying between Dominica and the United 
States. Indeed as far as the northern Islands are concerned Dominica 
may fitly be described as their orchard. The commencement of a trade, 
too, has been made with the United Kingdom ; and, as I understand 
lit shipped to London was, in most instances, sold at a profit, 
it is to be hoped that there is here the germ of a regular trade between 
the mother country and this fine but neglected island. As will be 
noticed from the table, nearly half of the total exports goes to the 
United States, the Quebec Steamship Company and their officers having 
done all in their power to facilitate and to foster the trade, and I would 
here remark that it is to be regretted that the Eoyal Mail Steamship 
Company are not equally anxious to foster this local industry. 

Particulars of the fruit exports are given in the table under nine 
heads, but two of them, namely, Limes and Pickled Limes, are essentially 
the same, the latter being simply ripe Limes packed in brine, which 
preserves them remarkably well for a long time. 

The following are the average prices from which the values have 
been officially estimated : — , 

Bananas, per bunch - - - - 6 

Coco-nuts, per barrel - - -84 

Fresh Limes, per barrel - - - 7 G 

Pickled Limes, per barrel - - - 8 4 

Mangoes, per hundred - - - 1 

Oranges, per hundred 
Pine Apples, per barrel 
Shaddocks, per barrel 
Non-enumerated fruits, per barrel 

remembered, however, that this valuation is for fruit pro- 
j selected, and packed, ready for exporl 
packages and packing. In bulk the fruit c 
Thus, selecte ' 
ndred, and Lie 

perly pickled, selected, and packed, ready for export, and 
cost of packages and packing. In bulk the fruit c *" 
cheaper. Thus, selected and hand-picked Oranges 

; Dominica ii 
buy up fruit for export. 

Under the head of " non-enumerated fruits" are included a great 
number of various kinds other than those mentioned in the eight fore- 
going columns of the table. Perhaps, for its i ' 
a larger J ~ 

grown in the island ; and, in order to make the list as useful as possible, 
1 have given the local names, the botanical names, and the habitat of 
the fruits, as well as the season during which each 
kind is plentiful, and I have added such special information as appeared 
to me to be necessary. Each plant has been placed under its natural 
order, as such a classification is perhaps the easiest for reference. 

i varied number of fruits than any other part of the 
> kinds of fruit that are 

Table showing the Valu 

I of the different kinds 

of Fruit Exported 
to which the Fruit v 

from Dominica during tlie Years 1886-87, and the Countries 
as Exported. 








— * 




Guadeloupe - 


St Bartholomew - 

Montserrat - 

Totals - 

£ s. d. 


136 17 6 


71 11 8 




i 'i : 

197 13 2 
172 19 2 

-I . , 073 . .0 

5218 4 h 815 4 


1. Sour Sop (Anona muricata).—lh\\>iUit, Wc.t Indies. Season, 
May to October, but it may be obtau 

a soft pulp of a pleasant acid flavour. The pn 

The fruit is quite common in the island, the 
tree bearing it growing wild in many places. 

2. Custard Apple (Anona reticulata).— Habitat, West Indies. 

.riiary. This fine fruit occurs abundantly, and 

like the Sour & ip il a >v. - wil I in many places. It has a sweetish pulp 

ade into " Custard Apple 

Season, June to . 
pulp is much esteemed. Were fruit steamers with cold chai 
between the Antilles and London, Sugar Apples, Sour Sops, 
Apples could t .- [] ■! condition at the he 

a ready sale. 


Sorrel (HM* Africa. Season, 

ry. This fruit, the produce of an annual, is 
d. It makes an excellent jam, and it is used for 

Xovi-mWr to January. This fruit, the produce of an anui 
. It makes an excellent jam, and ii b Q 
■rv pleasant beverage, called " Sorrel drink 

The next day the pulp is strained 01 
sweetened with Mi^ar, hot (led off, an 
fermentation sets up, when it is ready i 

5. Mammee Applet >/ ,•■— ikbi t,\\.-t inda-. 

. Dee* mber. Ocean in abundance, 

and is exported in -mall quantifies to the neighbouring islands and to 
Aincrit-a. Tin- fruit has a thick leathery rind, and four large seeds 
v ,.,;,.;, ..,,. , ne what the flavour of an 

Apricot. In fad Zabncot w by the natives. 

lerry ( 

to Sept 
very common in the island. Th< 
mulin- jams, and tiny are also c 
exported only in cold chambers. 

7. Surinam Chen ^).-Habitai 

America. Season, April to July. Tins fruit is not growi 
extent in the island, for as it has somewhat of an aromatic t 
not much liked except by a few persons. 

■ Citron ( City i ■uuralised in the 

st Indies. The Citron grows well in the island, but it is not very 
mon as the fruit is usecf only in small quantities for the purpose of 


making the well known candied Citron peel. Some years ago, one of 
our shippers exported to America a few barrel- of tin'- rind preserved in 
brine, and he informed mo that the nil id.- sold ivadih at a profit, hut 
that he gave up the venture ;is lie could not ohtnin a sufheient iiumher of 
tht fruit > 11 ( i i> eul ited x<\ y e\t< nsi\ 1\ in ( ui si< i, win re 

the fruit is called " Cedrat," and the industry there is a very paying one. 
There is no reason whatever why it should not pay equa 11} 
Dominica, should any person be enterprising enough to " go in " for the 

9. Lemon (Citrus Mcdica, var. Limouum).— Habitat, East Indies, 
but naturalised in the West Indies. Season, dun.' to February. This 
fruit is rather scarce, but it grows well in the island and cm be propa- 
gated quickly. Several large varieties occur, and, although the fruit 
it-elf is too coarse to be useful for export, the rind is \;d . 

purpose of making the Candied Lemon Peel of commerce. A very 
fragrant essential oil is also obtained from the rind. 

10. Orange. (Citrus Auruntin,,,).— Habitat, Knsi indies, but natu- 
ralised in the West Indies. Season, September to February, but some of 
the trees bear much earlier than September. The ( )range ; 

in Dominica. It springs up wherever the seeds are thrown, and the 
seeds are often carried to odd places by birds. After the Lime, the 
Orange is the most important of Dominica fruits. The list of exports 
:\i during the years 1886-87 Oranges to the value of 
981/. 6s. Id. were export « I yet not one of the trees 

bearing this fruit was planted, it ma;. . w to the 

export of the produce. Thi- ini : t, and it is a 

•en of what tin id ind i~. c ipibn ot .'on - 1 h< ti. . s are 
raised from seed, and contrary to what I have often read, I find that 
they " breed true." Dominica seedling Oranges, or rather the best 
kinds of them, cannot be surpassed anywhere for lusciousness, sweet- 
ness, and delicacy of flavour. 

11. Sweet Lime. (Citrus Medico, var. Limetta).— Habitat, East 
Indies. Season, June to January. This delicious Orange is much smaller 
than the common kind. It has a thin smooth rind and a sweet pulp. 
It is lm-owii ; \ most of the fruit is bought up in tin- 
island, as it is considered one of the best of the Orange family in 
Dominica. But for the flavour the fruit is exactly like the Lime to 
which it is closely allied. 

. Tangerinci). — 
January. This fine and well known fruit is quite 
common in tne quantity. 

13. Seville Orange _ (Citrus Aiira,dium).— Habitat, India, but 
: in the West Indies. Season, June to February, i 
Orange occurs in abundance and it is used extensively for making 
marmalade. The rind is the source of the Orange-peel of the druggists 
and it is the aurantii cortex of the I: A valuable 

essential oil is also obtained from the skin b\ distillation, and it is 
sometimes exported from the island. The peel used to b 
it has not been exported lately. In 187*, :^ will be seen on reference 
•. ; • 
at 199/. 

H. Lime (Citrus Medica, var. ncidu).— Habitat, India, naturalised 

in the West Indies. Season. June to February, but Limes in more or 

. tity can be got in Dominica all the year round. After Sugar 

ducts and Cacao, Lime juice is now the most considerable export 

t Dominica. Several estates are devoted entirely to the culture of 


the tree, and there a 

and is the source of much of the ( itrie aeid mauulaetured there. The 
juice is usually com-ont rated from 10 or 12 to l,when it becomes a dark 
stuff like in appearance to molasses. The exports of the raw or natural 

the skin of the ripe Limes. As soon as this fruit becomes better known 
in England it will doubtless to a great extent re;. lie. the Lemon of 
Southern Europe. It is certainly a better fruit, an. 1 if contains more 
juice. At the time of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, at the 
request of Sir Augustus AM. i lev, I shipped a good many of our fruits 
to the Exhibition market. The Limes sold at the rate of 30s. a barrel, 
and I am told that they sometimes fetch this price at X.-w York. But 
last year I sent a small consignment as an experiment to a firm in 
Loudon, and they had difficulty in disposing of it at a price which did 

15. Shaddock (Citrus decumana).— Habitat, India, naturalised in 
tie- West Indi. - Season, October to February. This fruit occurs in 
abundance, and it is now i ral varieties 

-izes. One kind has a reddish pulp and another kind has a 
whitish one. Owing to the extreme thickness of the skin, the fruit 
-i; tor along time and it bears the long voyage to Europe 
remarkably well. 

16. Forbidden Fruit or Pomelo (atms <h-cn,iia,Ht,\n.\\ 

Paradi&i). — Habitat. India. Season, dune to February. I 
in the island, and could bo exported in large quantities. 

17. CarambO (Averrhoa Carambola). — Habitat, Asia. Season, 
November to February. Introduced this fruit into the i-Iand ^-me 
years ago from the Trinidad Botanic Gardens, it has taken well to the 
soil and climate, and it bears abundantly. 

18. Grape (Vitis vinifera). — Habitat, Asia. Seasons, January to 
March and October to December. The Grape-vine grows very well in 
the [aland, ; be raised for 

tin- early markets in Ann riea an I Finland it' Messrs. Smit ton's system 

followed. In Dominica the vines can be made practically to bear at 
the will of the gardener, as flowers are put out after < ach pruning, and 
if the vines be not pruned they will remain sterile for long periods. 
\ ..-. .'"•■- 

been lonir in the island, and the influence of soil and climate has no 
iy or obscured beyond recognition the characters 
of the original variety. 


19. Pllllll (S/„, tl <fin> }»',■/>//>■>>/;.— Habitat. West Indies. Season, 
May to August. The finer varieties of this fruit are much liked by 
many persons. The tree bearing the plum is quite common, and it is 
easily propagated by simply cutting off a branch and planting it in the 
ground during wet weather, when it soon takes root. A yellow tpecies, 
Spondias lutea, is also grown, but it is not so good a fruit as the 
Purple Plum. 

20. Golden Apple, or Pomme Cy there {SpenSa 

— HiJ,"i it. N..-,i } Ul. i '- <, -,.: . .!,'_, t - : .i .. ., .. 

common in the island, and it is esteemed by the people. It could, 

however, be exported in cold chambers only, as it soon spoils after 

21. MangO {Mongifira in,liva). - I Iabitat, East Indies, but 

; throughout the West Indite and South America. Season, 
April to October. The supply of Mangoes in the island is ; 

' ' he lowlands. The 

people being very fond of the fruit — indeed, 
• part c 

j along the 

roads, and throw the seeds away. The seeds soon germinate, and as 

are \ iry hardy the tree springs up in all directions, and 

it is found by the sides of all the roads and paths. There are many 

-. ; ' ' ■ 

and most luscious fruits. As will be seen from the table of exports, 

: islands. 

22. Cashew and Cashew N cidentale). — 

. f to September. The Cashew tree 

is wild in the island, and it Laves practically two "fruits" — the Nut 

and the "Apple." The iped swollen 

of the Nut, called by boti as a pleasant 

ked by many persons. It contains 

. which in Brazil is made i . The nuts 

trades them. 

They are shipped from the island in small quai """ 

bouring islands and to Europe. The 

23. Ground Nut. (Arachis hypor/aa.)— Habitat, West Africa. 
Season, April to dune. This net is cultivated in the Maud in small 
quantities «i; . - abundantly, 
and the cultivation could be indefinitely extended. It is the principle 

to Marseilles and there made into " olive oil!" A good deal of this 
West Indian 
be nut and 

make the oil on the spot, and thus save half a dozen profits to the 


24. Tamarind. (Tn>iwri»(bis jW;™.)— Habitat, East Indies. 
Season, July to September. The Tamarind occurs in great abundance 
in the island ; and, • I h;n ■ -h- wn. it i- a constant article of export 
in its j^v< - too acid to lie eaten raw. It is 

preserved in syrup. The common commercial article, known 
as "Tamarinds" is shell and 

packed into barrels, into which afterwards molasses is run and finds its 
way after a time : - of the fruit. 

25. Zicack. (('>'":■■ West Indies. 

Season. Xovember to January, This fruit is wild, and the shrub 
bearing it grows along the sea shore, and a little way in 
' ' t much esteemed, but many persons like the flavour. It is some- 


26. Fraise, or Redberry. (Rnbus rosafotius.) — Habitat, 

Northern India. Seasons, April to September. This fruit, which 

evidently (leaped tmm culi .n iam year* sigo is now a 1. and 

,,,.(•111-. :.'» i . • in r-'.'Vi ral di-tricis of the i-hml. 

By careful cultivat ion it might be so improved as to make a very fine 

take high rank. It is eaten with cream like strawberries, and is also 
made into jam. 

27. Strawberry. (Emgaria «.«■«.)- 

- scarce 

well in the mountains, and it even bears in the lowlands. The fruit i: 
not nearly so fine as the Eon verities, but this i 

probably due to the fact that no attention has been directed to th< 
I of the better kinds. 

28. Loquat. { tat, Japan. Season 
April to July. The Loquat i infea now, for it ha 
been introduced into the island only within the last few years, bo. 
the tree grows well, and I I tg np in several out 


29. Governor Plum. (Eugenia Jamanhh.a.) — Habit 
Indies. Season, July to September. This fruit has not h 
introduced into the island, ami it is therefore scarce now, but 
are being propagated, as the fruit is much liked. 

30. Malay Apple. {Eugenia natlaerc/sis^—lhiXAt 
Indies. Season, August to November. This fruit is rare in tl 
but it could be grown in quantity were there miv foreign 
for it. 

31. ROSe Apple. (Eugenia ./r.Wy.-.O— Habitat, We- 
Season, August to September. This fruit is common in the hii 
trees were ust ! I'm i as ] teetive cits for coffee ph 
The fruit is a good one, the flavour being somewhat like thn 
water, and hence its name. It makes an excellent preserve. 

Guava.. (Pddium Guava.)— Habitat, West Indies. 

perhaps, with 
Dominica. It c; 

abundance between December and May. It is not cultivated, as it is 

endemic en t - . it b 1 tl ^uava scrub soon 

takes possession of any of the lowlani hj Frogi- 

vorous birds are very fond of the fruit, and, as the small hard seeds 

■' ■ ■■■■'■ ' ■: i -. ' '■ i : ■■ ■■ . _ : ■ 

in the distribution of th. plants. Tiiere are several varities of this 

guava, I to< a large 4 •. u d thi 

commonest kin i- r. all very pleasant to tin t ,<^ The fruit makes 

anj person to take up the manufacture with a view to 
[ profit. 
33. Purple Guava. (Guava Cattleianum.)— Habitat, South 

America. Season, dune to December. This fruit 

superior in flavour to the common guava. It is not, however, 

in the island. 


34. Pomegranate. (Pumica Gwwofcwii.) —Habitat, North 
Africa. Season, April to July. This well-known fruit is common, and 
it grows to. i I ',u,l. It could easily be exported to 

Europe and America, but I believe that no attempt has been made to do 
so as yet. The rind is otion which is 

deservedly esteemed as a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhoea and 

Almond ( Termhutlia Catappa). — Habitat, West Indies. 
, although it occurs 


36. Musk Melon (Cueumis J/e/o).— Habitat, Asia Minor. This 
fruit is rather rare, but it grows well in the island and could be 
cultivated for export in large quantities. 

37. Water Melon ( Citrullus vulgaris).— Habitat, North Africa 
The Water Melon is not cultivated in Dominica to any e.\t 
thrives well, and the vine bears abundantly. 


38. Papaw (Carica Papaya).— Habitat, West Indies. Always in 
season. The Papaw springs up spontaneously about the ■ 

lands on the coast of the is abundant. It is very 

pleasant to [the taste, aud it acts as a digestive owing to the principle, 

iiich it contains. The half ripe fruits on being 
yield a milky juice, which, «**">- J-«— i -• 


39. Water Lemon (Passiflora /a«r(/b£a).— Habitat, West Indies. 
Season, April it occurs in great abundance, and the 

wild and cultivated. The fruit lasts very well, 
: n.l is mi^'ht 1 -hipped even now to the New York market were 
rare taken in the packing. It has a very pleasant sub-acid 
flavour, and it is a general favourite. 

40. Granadilla {Passiflora quadrangularis). — Habitat, West 
Indies. Season, April to July. This fruit is quite common in the 
island, but as ii dors not la-t long, is could be exported only in vessels 

■ humbers. 

41. Prickly Pear (Optmtia Tuna and Cereus, various species) 

—Habitat, W.-st In. lies. Season, October to December. The Prickly 

Pear is obtah nera of Cactese, and the fruit of all 

considerable fruit trade be developed 

L'i i kl\ 1'. ar> •., ..! doubtless become articles of export. ' 

42. Barbados Gooseberry (Peiresda acuieata).—Habit&t t 

West Indies. This fruit is rare, the scandent leafy shrub bearing it 
grows luxuriantly. It makes an excellent jam, 


43. Genip (Melicocca bijnga).—B.ab\ta.t, West Indies. Season, 
' y October. This fruit is not common, and it is not liked by 

many persons. It has a leathcrv rind, and a large I 
surrounded by a thin layer of sweetish pulp. It i 
long time, and could be easily exported if there were i 


44. Star Apple (C/n-//, ll/ ,/ ll/ // / n l i Cmutn).— Habitat, West Indies. 
Season, June to August. This fine fruit is rare in Dominica, but it 
grow- w ell in the island. If it could be introduced into the American 
and English markets it would, I believe, meet with a ready sale. 

45. Boni or DamSOn Plum {Chrysophylhtm oUviftfrmr).-- 
Habitat, West Indies. 9 mber. The fruit, which is 
the produce of a large and handsome tree, is sparingly grown. 

F4G. S&VOdill&( Sapota Achras).— Habitat, West Indies. Season, 

October to January. This fruit is much esteem 

during the season. It is usually picked from the tree in a half ripe 

condition and allowed to ripen in the house, as the frugivorous bats are 

very fond of it, and they make sad havoc amongst the ripe fruit. 

Messrs. Scrutton, Sons, and Co., having succeeded in getting this soft 

and easily spoiled fruit from Demerol lent condition 

by means of the cold chamber system, the Bxjm 

cessfully solved the question as to whether the more perish 

tropical fruits can be placed in the London m, 

The next thing to be done is to build up a successful trade in these Grafts. 

and, ns Dominica is the nearest tropical country to England capable of 

supplying frtti fact will be 

brought to the notice of those interested in the matter. 

47. Balata {fiinnrli,.; n-(uxn). — Habitat, Dominica and Jamaica. 

Si.i-oii, ,1 A\ l ■ Si ' - [ -,'..:■ id 'nut i> no' <uli.\atcd. hit 

Lb the produce of one of the finest and loftiest hard wood trees of the 

b teh cover so large an extent of the island. It is as large as a 
good sized Damson, the skin is yellowish brown, and the pulp is very 


48. Seaside Grape (Coccoloba uvifera).— Habitat, West Indies. 
Season, Sent. This fruit, as its name implies, 
grows close to the sea-shore. It is a pleasant fruit, and makes an 
excellent preserve. The fruits are sometimes steeped in rum, in the 
same way that Cherries are in brandy, and they give a very agreeable 
flavour to the spirit. 


sima). — Habitat, South 
is valuable fruit is very 

id, and it enter- large]; into the food supply of the 

-with eold chambers for fruit storage were to run 

lie island and London, the Avocado Pear and other 

' "rafter a ' 


50. Gooseberry (Cicca disticha). — Habitat, East Indies. 
Season, August to November. This tree, which, by (lie w;iv, Grisebach 

which is borne very abundantly, is u- I ring jams and 

other preserves. 

51. Candle Nut (Akurite* triloba). — Habitat, East Indies. 

- ,'itmber to December. This tree is rare in the i.dand, but it 
grows well and bears abundantly. It is called " Candle Nut," because 

The fruit is liked by many persons. 


-Habitat, South Europe, Asia, and North 

is always in season, but less plentiful tu 

ne. It grows well in Dominica, and 

might be mad is the only 

one that is e:e , at it is, I believe, the best of its 

53. Bread Fruit {Artocarpus incisa).— Habitat, Pacific Islands. 
Season, November to January. I really used as 


herefore, be exported in considerable 
quantities. The spikes of the male B 

the Citron and teen m-peel, and if introduced to the trade would no 
doubt meet with a ready sale. 

54. Bread Nut {Artocarpus incisa, var.)— Habitat, Pacific 

v. The tree producing 

this Nut is a variety of the Dread Fruit. The so-called " Bread Nuts" 

in] I i * laige fruits 

: - 

Bread-fruits. The seeds are somewhat like chestnuts in look and 

cooks for stuffing poultry. 

Jack Fruit at, East Indies. 


The seeds are eaten like the Bread-r 

d. and as tl ■ B people there - 

M theT * 

COCO-llUt (< i Countries. 

ys in season. The Coco-nut, b-iC- being exported in con- 
ible quantities, enters largely into the food of the people of 
nica. The tree is very con: rcely a garden or 

) splendid palms growing 

■ ■ivin. No 


dar >:■ 

;e is 

made of the fibrous husk, so that this 

,\h a 

te product in Dominica. The 

: oil is made 

'<• and bristles from the 1ms 

,ub; be a v. 



. If it pay to erect a factor; 

'til r, 

>oni : 

land are cheap, where water 

power can 

Date (Phcenix flavtyUf<ru).-l\nb\m, Africa and 

ely. Tlie Date palm grows 
; quite hardy. 

58. Pine Apple (Ananas saliva).- -Habitat, West Indies. The 

fVuit is in season from .May to September, and it occurs in the greatest 

abundance. It is not exported to any extent, lnii thai is simply because 

none of the planters have cared to " go in " for the cultiva 

tin- present disulvantagi uts condition (if the fruit trade. Within the 

last year or so, however, one of the most intelligent and enterprising of 

nur planters has started the cultivation for the purpose u! 

the juice, which he ships to the United States at a profit. Pine Apple 

jhi to be a success if introduced to the 1. 
the Imt season, for as a flavouring substance for ices, cooling dunk-. 
and such like, it would be quickly bought up. 

59,60. Banana and Plant? ••;.-- Habitat, 

the Old and New World tropics. These fruits occur in the greatest 
abundance, and they are always in season. They could be exported 
from Dominica in practically unlimited quantities. Many varieties are 
grown in the island, and they are of all sizes and flavours, from the 

Then; is a very larire trade in Mamma- between Jamaica and the 
tinted Stales, and there is no reason whatever why a portion of this 
trade should not be diverted io Dominica, i believe that the fruit ean 

t t\ a: movm? -o luvuiimth ; -* to lndnato 
A ■ 
tch have been 
introduced from ti !!.>}. d < m: dens, Kew : 

The MangOSteen ((inr.-i-da .!/,/„,/..>/„«,/). Hab., East Indies. 
The Baobab (J/.W-..;,/7r diktat,,). Hab., Tropical Africa. 
The Dlirlan (/-W,, Zilxthhuts). Hab, hid. Archipelago. 
The Monstera ( Mon *tera d< //<■/. s, .• ) . I fab., .Mexico. 


In the development of a large fruit trade Dominica In Lours under 
peculiar disadvantages. The island is so backward that the means of 

tion, and it thus happen therto exported has been 

hbourhood of 

Roseau and Portsmouth ; the two ports of entry on the leeward side of 
the island. The other districts are practically untouched by the present 

m be got from thera in the greatest a 
The roads, except for a mile or two round Riseau, the chief town, are 
simply bad bridle paths or goat tracks, and carriage by carts is entirely 
out of the question. Some years ago. with the \ i< w of op. ning up the 
coast trade, a few of the leading men in the island decided to get up a 
small company to start a con-ting steamer. i\Io-t. of t!ie capital v,a - 
readily suhscribed as it was thought that the Government would 

an interest of 5 per cent., for the members of the L 
Assembly and the Execut favourable to the scheme. 

" l Antigua — which as reirard- facility of commu- 
nication is as tar away from Dominica as is Lisbon from Berlin — very 
1 to in ih mi II outlay for the first year or 

so, and the ui lertaking mil p.pily fell to the ground. The entire 
absence of proper means of communir ei to another 

has much to do with the present backward condition of the island, and 
unless the country be opened up by good roads the fruit trade cannot 
possibly attain to anything like the large dimensions that th< 

the country render it capable of reaching. But, 
this, the trade might be greatly increased even under 
the present adverse conditions, were the means of transit to the great 
markets improved, were greater care taken at the ports of destination 
to look after the interests of shippers, and were the Government to 
endeavour to foster the trade by offering subsidies to steamship com- 
panies willing to run regal premiums to 
those planters and shippers who usually go into the trade in a serious 
manner. The Quebec S: > all they can to foster the 
trade, and th But their ships are 
not specially ndapted to carry fruit, and they do not arrive at the island 
with sufficient punctuality. In the case of Oranges it is necessary to 
commence the packing several days before the steamers are expected, 
1 1 iies the vessels come into port a day or so late, in which 
case there is a heavy loss in the fruit. The Royal Mail Steam racket. 
Company do not, I believe, specially desire to develop a fruit trade with 
;-■.'. .' 

o gone by the Company's vessels, and it has been tran- 
-'>.■_..;..•■■ ■:.■■. • ■ : • : ■ - ; ■•■',:■■.■■.: 

Iran - - : -. 1 1 antic ones. Oranges, Limes, and Shaddocks shipped in this 
way from Dominica have arrive,! in London after a fortnight's voyage 
: condition, thereby showing, beyond all doubt, that the i-land 
can easily supply the home markets with Oranges and similar fruits. 
The trade with London might be immediately increased it' Messrs. 
Scrutton, Sons, and Co., could be induced to make Dominica the last 
port of call for their direct line steamers ; but, as this would probably 
di-loeate their arrangement.-, they might require a subsidy for the first 
year or so, or until the trade l.eeame -uilicieiitly extensive to bear a 
good margin of profit. 

In the opening up. however, of a trade e-1 this sort it is to be expected 
that there will be frequent losses if the fruit be consigned to the open 
market and sold for what u win y one of the 

greatest obstacle- in the development of the industry. Our growers 

ires for the building tip of a 
a permanent trade that tlio nnseeut industry should be nursed by 
experienced persons. I ipped to London should 

I..- received In a firm willing to mice some trouble to obtain good prices 
for it, until wide channels for its disp pened up. In 

large and rich countries where men of capital can be found ready to 
embark in - this would be done as a matter of 

course, but Dominica is too poor and too backward to be able to go 

guarantee success. Experience has shown that the people of the island 
will not embark in a new undertaking unless it be satisfactorily 
demonstrated to them that there is moneyto be made in it. And really 
one cannot blame them. The cri-i , and the back- 

ward t condition of the country, has rendered local men cautious to the 
extreme. It follows, therefore, that a rapid increase of the fruit trade 
of the island cannot be expected to take place unless aid comes from 

Dominica is, as I have shown, p© ge of climate, 

fertility of soil, and geographical position, to become, for its size, one of 
the finest u pics. If these 

facts become known, men of capital in England and America may be 

5 ■■ ■ '• ■ : 

bund.-;, and if thU >\- . - fortunate 

for them as it will be for the future welfare of Dominica. 

H. A. Alford NicnoLLS. 

g inform n i vclopinent of the fruit trad 


Under the bead of the fruit trade of Dominica I confine myself 
prini-ipally to Oranges. a> bring the fruit in which the greatest trade is 

carried on, and it \ ! ieh J hav< trvvi^ii'.. Bananas, Fine Apples, 

and Limes are, to a limited extent, also exported from Dominica. There 
are several drawbacks to a successful development of the Orange trade. 
First, our fruit is sent too late to both the European and American 
markets, so that when it reaches those centres it has to compete with a 
vilify of Oranges than if placed there from May to August. 
instead of from September to December. This change of crop time 
could earilj a d were paid to pruning the trees at 

that end. Another drawback i- tin- eareles- and almost wanton manner 
in which the fruit is | B of any method in the 

selection or sortinj ; of Oranges. 

At present the majority of the Oranges sold in ihi- 

-- (who are not necessarily growers) from small 
proprietors and labourers, who have a few trees in or ti 
"gardens" (provision grounds) or cottages. These persons as a rule 

» decline to buy inferic 

shipped, and the irregulari 
his desti " 

ppose this desideratum i 
as the "trade" becomes sufficiently large, 

'egretted that the present mode of coin. 

llies, and P 

shipper and the consumer i lerived by a 

speedy transport pending the ineivase of the trade. 

The exportation of fresh preserved fruit is yet in its infancy, and I 
believe has hitherto been only tried experimentally. It now awaits 
y and success will he achieved. 
Preserves. — At present the sugar used in the 
to be imported from England and from 
America, weighted with a heavy freigl import duty, 

and before it reaches the markets another freight has to be incurred. 
It will thus be seen that West India preserves cannot in any way 
compete with the home-made sweets of England and the United States 
where sugar is cheaper than in its native land. 

After all that has been written on fruit-growing, perhaps the most 
important step necessary to advance the economical iudustrie.- of 
Dominica is the establishment of a botanical garden or station, under 

j plants supplied 


This small island has become the head-quarters of the Lime industry in 


at Lime Juice Company with which Mr. Joseph Sturge is con- 
nected. There were recently exported from Montserrat : — Lime juice 

iue of 10,300/., Green Limes of the val 
of the value ei .; of the value of <>.'{/. The prin- 

«errut are Jmm Aim- .-ado Peai -, 

tron, Cocoanut, Custard Apple, Date, 1 

purca), Java Plum {Eugenia Jambolana), Jack-fruit, Lemon, Lime, 
Manmna ^ je.te, M:i _-• . Mi .-n, Orange of - erai \ rities. Pineapple, 
Plantain, Pomegranate, Pomnie Pose ( /./,/■ 

Shaddock, Sour Sop, Star Apple, and the Tamarind. The Avocado 
Pear, Water Lemon, Bell Apple, <imv. a, I log I'lum, Lime, Mango, 
Mammee Sapote, Orange. Pineapple, Phmlain. mid ihe Shaddock are 
abundant. The Lime and I exported. 

Tlie months of June to December are the chief fruit months. At 
present there is so little demand Uu . ,md Pine- 

apples are grown for export. Of oti itiea available 

I lin&hte, 


Limes are exported fresh, preserved, or pickled. Lime juice is exported 
fresh and concentrated. Pine Apples are exported fresh and caadjgd, 
Bananas are exported in a fresh state. 

The production of fruit could be largely extended in Monts.-rmt if 
regular opportunities for shipment in suitable vessels at a low rate of 
freight were provided. 

The fruits o Colony are the ordinary bottled and 

Kingdom, and the canned and dried 
products of the United States. The trade in these is very limited. 

and Nevis. 

In these islands most of the tropical fruits found in the West 1 
3 cultivated to a small extent. At present these fru" 

locally, and little if any are exported. Tin 

Minion, Orange, J,:; . i Manimee Apple are fairly 

'■\ tension. The Shaddock, 

Guava, Cocoa .■ grown sparingly, and 

in the opinion of the Venerable Archdeacon Holme, to whom we are 
indebted for the above information, are not capable of being easily 

The pre- 
Apple jam, Mammee Apple jam, Mango jam, and Tamarinds. 

Virgin Islands. 

Mr. President Cameron has prepared the following information re- 

ihe fruits of the Virgin Isiands: 
In compliance with tamed in the Secretary of 

State's Circular Despatch of the 30th November 1887, I have the 
honour to to; n as I am able to give relative to the 

fruits of this Presidency. 

The only fi Of these there 

are three kinds, the horse and fig Banana and the Plantain. Many 
other! gr,,u- v, ;:!. <i:.-h a- Cuavas, Guava berries, 
Custard Apples, Avocado Tears, Sour Sops, and others. Banana-- and 
Sour Sops are obtainable all the year round. Mangoes come in about the 
end of May, Pears in July, and Gruavas and Guava berries a little later. 
The greater part ot what - l own is v, il hi. i'oi tvporr, and is 
actually exported. The production, however, is not on a scale to 
permit of wholesale dealings. All the fruits above-mentioned are 
exported in a fresh stat, , -rate. Their destination 

is St. Thomas. A fair quantity of the different kinds of Bananas are 
carried tln.-re, and real!.-.' from 40 to 75 cents a bunch. I am unable 
to give an estimate of the value of the various fruit exports ; they can, 
however, only amount in all to an insignificant sum. 

Bananas might, I imagine, be grown in very much larger quantities 
than at present, and the islands are fairly well situated for communi- 
cation with the United States. The development of a fruit trade, 
however, is impossible without the introduction of capital, there being 
no local men with either means or energy to take up such a business 


Islands are redeei 

they may possess 

the inducement offered. Unt 1. 1 1 ■ ; fore, th. Vir«ri . 
med from the utter isolation which renders them a 
all but the casual official, I fear that any resources 

tlir.N ! 

The Sugar Api 
common; Lemon, common, but no1 I quantities 

for home consumption ; Hitter Orange, cinninoi:, hears freely; Sweet 
Orange, not common, many trees have ceased to bear at all, and the 
remainder are very irregular in so doing ; Mandarin Orange, a few 
trees to be found ; "Grape I t. e. nmn,"h< rs pr< isely ; Graj , not 
common, most attempts f : Tamarind, 

;ii, fruit not of much use; Strawberry, a fair amount raised 
mmon, but not fruiting 
satisfactorily; Surinam Cherry {Eugenia unifiora), common, an 1 bear- 
ing freely; Guava, not very common, ii'uit uiisiUi-- ic-tory ; Pomegranate, 
bears freely ; Musk Melon and AY 

\\\ early summer ; Avocado Pear, a most valuable and highly 

rears in profusion and 

others barely at all, obtains a high price, as much as 4s. to Gs. a dozen ; 

Banana, common, bears prol'u-.-ly : civ, and is 

much used locally; Lo j int. < u icon, b« ars profusely. 

These fruits 

3 obtainable as follows :• 



Loeal Price,. 


January to May - 

2s. per quart. 

Loquat - 

January to March 




Sugar Apple 

December to April 


Julian,! August- - 

U. per lb. 


October to December - 

Gd. per dozen. 

Sweet Orange 

Do. do. 

1 s . 6d. to 2s. 6 d. per dozen . 



Uo trade. 

Guava - 


4s. to 6s. per dozen. 


October to December 


Do. do. 

Surinam Cherry - 


Quince - 

September to December - 

No trade. 

No fruits are exported I j ), Avocado 

more largely, but it is highly doubtful whether, under the l« neral cir- 
cumstances of the soil, the limited amount of cid 


difficulties of transport, any remunerative cultivation for export could bo 

Oranges, Apples, Tears, Grapes, and Water Melons are largely 

i,„ , ,rt -1 fro n the Vu\u ! Si it. -, «lr ice ;d 
- ; 

. . - 
West Indies, but since the discontinuance of this service in 1886 the 
■ . - 

There is no doubt that almost every tropical, sub-tropical, or ordinary 

fruit will grow in these islands, wh th remun m lively or not has 

never been ascertained. Many attempts have been mad' to in. luce the 

general cultivation of baits, but without much result. The planter is 

' • • 

verv large and profitable returns foi bis i; I o ..-. whilst : ■ 

he experiences a heavy loss on his year's work, and it is very difficult to 

start new id -as with i ^ h as Deen 

there is a ver\ ! ill lenia 1 oi t! u 1 irii • th winter a ' 

seasons when (he islands are thronged by American and Canadian 

visitors! In nnin quiit i, it is b l.\i I, "iul it htsb.eii ii. ptcnth 

, „ld b, not i a bl th • p u t i mdgard. n 

Large quantities of 

tteutiou to raising 

produce for the local market. 

very fine Peaches 

were formerly raised in these 

rears, in fact since 1 

L870, the fruit has been attacked 

when halt crown bv 

a highly destructn 

e insect which causes it to drop 

& perfect specimen c 

)f the ripe fruit is rarely if ever 

erous and grow luxuriantly, and 

it would be a great 

advantage if some 

remedy could be discovered to 

counteract and prev 

cut the ravages of t 


The following " Partieuhu s re-av.iii g the India-nd.her Trade in the 
« Mogaung District of the Upper Burma Forest Circle," extracted 
from the monthly proceedings of the Chief Com 
May le»S>. I for publication in the Bu/htm by 

tlie'Secrutary of State for India. 

Mr. Wairv. the author of the paper, is a member of the Chines,? 
Consular Service who has been sent to Burma for work among the 
Chin, se emigrants. 

From W. Warry, Esq., Political Officer, Iihaino, to the Chief Secre- 
tary to the Chief Commissioner, Burma, Bhamo, 9th April 1SSS : — 

per Burma to 

firms styled Mientsuan, Chengho, Fuhomei, Sunshenhsiang, and Paob* 
sing, respectively, were the joint concessionaires. The two first named 
were Fokienese merchants who supplied the bulk of the capital, and tho 
three last were Yiinnaiiese. who ■ ,-1 operations. 

The price received by the Burmese Government was Rs. 60,000 for tho 
first trie " ' 
Rs. 90,0 

the members of the syndicate, the result of whicli was that the monopoly 
for that one year sold for Rs. 70,000. During the next year business 
in India-rubber was at a standstill owing to local disturbances caused 
by !h" - Ka.'hiu i volt." In 1884 two Yunnanese firms agreed to pay 
Rs. 45,000 for a three years' lease of the monopoly ; and when their 
term expired, the lease for one year from September last was put up to 
auction and realised a lac of rupees. 

The forest officer attached to the Moga 
reported on the general distribution of fchi 
Kachin methods of tapping ' 
upon these subjects. The Chinese say that the India-rubber 
occurs throw ;; etching several hundred 

rth of Mogaung and extending to the east far across the 
Chinese border. A fractional part only of this immense area has been 
worked. The largest and most regui eema to have 

been hitherto procured in forests distant from four to six da 
north of Kamein. An equally large supply should soon, it 
obtained from the Endaw and Laotsun districts. On the recent 
expedition we met a few raft loads coming down the Endaw River, but 
there has, as yet, been no arrangement between the (..'him ■-=(■ and the 
local tsawbwas under which the forests can be systematically worked. 

The Kaehia uous of interference with 

their trees, and very careful in their methods of tapping them. What I 
myself observed on the march fully bore out the latter part of this 
statement. The few trees seen were strong and vigorous, and though 
covered witli innumerable small incisions even up to tin- i 
branches, they had obviously not been drained to the extent of one-half 
iral mistake, 
soon discovered and rectified, of over-bleeding the trees ; it was in this 
way ascertained that a large tree if bled to death would yield 500 viss of 
rubber in the course of a single season. 

Mogaung is the lieadqu bber trade. Of the total 

I whom are in the regular employ of the Chinese lessees, and 

one-fifth is \>v. agents of the lessees. 

Under the pi nog a man 

named Li, makes liberal advances to xp.i^s 

(lin-iiiLr tiit c< iivi ii ir season, which lasts from September till June. 
These adva; y to any one who applies 

for th« in, no sh nrity is asked or given, and it v< i 

brought tin' rubber into Mogaung sell it to Li. All payments are now 
made in rupees. The price - \ :n< d v h< n 1 was at Mogaung averaged 
Rs. 115 for a 100 viss, last year it varied from Rs. 120 to Rs. UO. 
Formerly the Kaehins u<v<\ to be much cheated in the process of 
-" ' . " ; '■ .-•' : ; : ■ : '- — ., ■■ ' :■■:■.' ■ [■ ; - 

rgely of stones and dirt. 
This system proving inconvenient to both parties 

now credited with tbe 
full weight or nearly the full weight of his rubber, which on its arrival 

before it is scaled. Th 

Li. make the refund ] ';' tlie current price, until 

the amount of the debt is cleared off. A small quantity of rubber, as I 
have said, is collected by Chinese a l l'p till quite 

here were only 10 or 12 of these agents. They tra\el from 
district to di-: .in-. The price paid i.-> 

nominally the same as at Mogaung, but as the Kachins possess no 
standard weights they are usually cheated to the extent of about 
70 per cent. This profit en the difference of weiglu more I ban [.ays a!I 
es of the agents. In November of last year a new and 
hitherto unv. pened. Lin, one of the monopolists, 

Taehiai and protect the Sima route into China), to hire some 400 
;■•> v.-oi-!< the t'ore.-ts in the neighbourhood of 
the Amber i 
local Kachii 
compromise was arrived at on the following basis. Two bun : 

collect rubber under the superintendence of the Kachins to whom they 
were to pay 10 per cent, of the quantity collected. The place of the 
200 dismissed coolies was to " 
who were to be paid for wha 
districts. Under this systei 
was oxpeefi i 

obtained from the new forest 
In most cases India-rubber 
'he tsawbwas of such places usually 

So long as these charges 
) complaint is made. 
proportion :* 
a remonstrance, math always TOCO ' iiinese t 

tsawbwa or i . ..';.. Po«w, 

the e.v-.Myook of Mogaung, was of great service to the Chine.-e in 

- : ■'■■■•■ 

level. Whate\ei innj he tl j >U-tux i sid > In<lia-ruhber coming 

the loss in equal shar, s. The Kaehin, however, is amply compensated 
by being housed and fed at the expense of the Chinese dmi 
in Mogaung. 

The circumstances o£ tbi past] -arable to the 


t 'n .lie, I, iio«o'L I .«t th.- i t llq.« 1. , , 

the season, and a number of Kaehin- ami Shan- u.i tally employed at 

hipped, 90OK . lal collection 

at lis. 6 8.0 per 10( 

Cxpenses of estate 
Bhamo, Mogaung, z 

1'..;,! - 

3 « 

tat is to say, over 17 per 

cent, on the capital invested, assumi lay occurs at 

the commencemi nt ■ ( th« - a — n. which i- ! y no means the case. But 

■/. : ;.;■•' '.■.'■■■; ■ . : ■ .■■■■■:: . '-"■; 

1,000 visa collected they 

. . ■ proffl of nearly a lac and a half of rupe 

From the &» ms clear that tfc 

derived from estfl is far too small. 

s plan by which it may be improved during the next 
may be keener com- 

: at its present 
The difficulty is that as matters now stand the Yunnanese 
are the only traders who can conduct l.u-'.m * - i \ and profitably 
with theKa -'■• exception 

of Loenpin, tb ', even of another Chinese province, 

an imt h.\!!'-a-dozen Canton. r 1 Lienes. . aii :< M. :,t M _ 

these are a I! rho require a 

. th« n tia y c in tin ms l\es ei , 
confess that not many even of their own traders possess the tact and 

't ;■'.■,-■'.•'■■..;'■■. : ■"•: : '': . " '''.-. ■ . .' : -.: ■ 

Dy w 

sible, of course, that 
petition when the monopoly is next put up to ; 
as likely that a " ring " will be formed to keep the pr 

ught down, or by 
ers, to make these 

venue heretofore < 

t illicit he f< 

lopoly when ; 
taxing the L 

[All Rights Reserved.] 



No. 22.] 

LIX.— COLONIAL FRUIT— (continued). 
Sierra Leone. 

to thi S t n ' in of State for the Colonies, dated 16th April 1888 :— 

" With respect to the information required as to the fruits |>rndiiml 
in i ; i - S, til, . t. I rcfi .-' ■ ! i' o ,;■-<■ i i h Lilim . - of the Local 
Botanic Sock t\ , md beg to transmit a copy of i p. 
prepared by ' proval of the Society. I 

venture to remark that the report and returns are or' ,i 
character, and trust that the resources of the Settlement thereby may 
become more widely known." 

Notes on the fruits of Sierra I me, prep ired by Mr. Samuel Lewis, 
Hon. Secretary of the Local Botanical Society : — 

Freetown, April 15, 1887. 
With reference to your letter of the 18th of December last, No. 1,079, 

in which you transmitted to the Local !' ■ u i > ■ . through me a 
copy of questions asked by Mr. D. Morris, Assistant Director of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, relative to th 

es which are produced m the JL'imneh country cc 
induced to flow abroad through the Settlement. But the 


T h:t ve the honour to state that the matter has been duly referred to 
the Society, which, with the object of securing a complete an-! 

- : mIh.i.viI hy Mr. Moni-'s questions, bad them 
the local pivss, and invited answers from any person who 
could give information. 

The chief fruits exported in a green state from Sierra Leone are 
pine-apples, bananas, plantain-, pears, mangoes, limes, and oranges, of 
which ;.:,.. -apples constitute the bulk of the exports to Great Britain 
and Franco. The quantity of the pines shipped to both countries may 
be approxim na-e export price, which is lOd. 

per dozen. At this rate, assuming that the 239/. appearing in the 
annexed returns for 1883 is not understate:], it represents 08,792 pines 
as exported in that year alone. This quantity can be annually main- 
tained and considerably increased if the trade w< 
the large quantities which are produced 
be induced to flow abroad through th 

sustained by the fruits arri\ ing at their destination in bad condition 1: 
checked the continuity of the supply and growth of exports. 

Almost the whole of the banana-. -, limes, 

and oranges grown in Sierra Leone, go to the Gambia, Goree and 
ported to those places. 

It will be seen from the table annexed that the pi i. < i; ■ 1 miccd 

nearly all the fruits oi Sierra Leone are in season from January to April, 
.re obtainable throughout the year, 
s no export of preserved fruits, and the cocoa-nut is the only 
;': ■: .■•■■..:.;. 

it takes the name of coprah, it is not used as fruit. "But the waste of 
• ■ v 

separation of the kernel for coprah, and perhaps the reduction in the 

| rah during the past four or five years have stimulated the 

growth since last year of an export of cocoa-nuts in husk, chiefly to 

.pes and matting, and the kernel in its fresh state used as 

Besides th rats, it is not 

mango that its abundance and cheap- 
ness hore. >ierra Leone has tor its increased 
is which point to the necessity for studying how 
. ; ,,ed to account a- an article of export, either 
green, to be used in the manufacture of spirits, which it is said may be 
;.- fruit, or in i dried or 
When in a fre.-h state, and before it i- : 
is employed locally as, and is found to be a good - 

Like pirn- a 'table fruits above referred to may be 

to their m rtment in the 

adapted for receivii 

The export trad 

gain a new impetus 


is used in 

tiiL caahew is in great demand in Germanj, 

confectionery, and is sold there at 9s. a cwt., though it is only 

thrown into the dust heap here. Velvet tamarind 

is being somewhat extensively used in pharmacy in France. i 

ledge of the demand for these fruits in Europe is all that is necessary 

to infuse act;. , ; r export hence. 

The chief fruits imported into the Settlement are green appie^ ['mm 
appl.-, apricots, Machismo.-, cherries, peaches, pears, plums, and 
strawberries from Germany , from France. 

'Hi. dried fruits imported are almonds, currants, figs, prunes, and 
raisins from France. 


Local Names. 


,» ionU e. 

Local Pr 



Throughout the year, b 
from January to June 

t abundantly 


1. per doz. 

Throughout the year - 

Cashew - 

January to April. 
Throughout the year - 



December to .March. 

September to December 

September to December 

Locust " - : 

Throughout the year, eh 

efly in August 


to Brf. per 


Mango - 

February toJune?"' 
Throughout the year, 

but chiefly 


per doz. 

Orange - - 

but chiefly 

PeaT ' - I 

Throughout the year. 
March to June 


to 0~r 

Tamarind.'black or 

Throughout the year - 


t0 Sd - P er 



Inadesp . . - : rue Secretary 

of State by Colonel White, it is stated that :— " Fruit, with the 
'* exception of cocoa-nuts, cannot iu my opinion a( preaenl 

'olony, owing to its distance from all 

" resources of the Colony is i 

•' them. There is vei y 

" in, such matters in the Colony, where officer 

" for the most part, strenuously employed, 

>; on.-rvating and sickly." 

ge of, or i 

ii;!i\ ahJ 

i prepared 

; ...'-.' 

Ihe main harvest months are August and December. The culture 

could be greatly enlarged in a few ^ « ;.,,!. Hie 
average market price is 3d. per dozen. 

U 61218. 200.— 1/90. Wt. * 9 

Pine-apple. — Fanti name Abrobay, Accra name Brt* 
Grown in abundance all over the country. The culture could be greatly 
enlarg I. The main harvest months are August and December, but 
they are largely produced all the year round. The pine is not only 
eaten as a fruit, but it makes excellent jam. The average market price 
is Id. each. 

Lime.— Fanti name Ankama, Accra name Abonua. Grow 
abundance. The culture could be vastly increased. The m 
months are August and December. The average market value is about 
from Is. to Is. 60?. per bushel. 

Guara.— Grows YfM in moist sil 
some miles inland, and bears abundantly, but it does not seem to be 
indigenous as it has no native name. The harv. -t m- ,> a.v July 
and August and November and December. Local market value about 
9d. per bushel. It makes excellent jam. 

Ground Nut.— Fanti name Inkatsi, Accra name, Inkatia. This is 
, : ' 

for the European market 20 or 30 years ago for the extraction of its 
oil, and for other purposes. The harvest months are October and 
November. It could be grown to any extent in the plains near the 
coast. Market value, about 3d. per lb. 

Custard Apple, Sour Sop, and Sweet 
■ ■' 
Alunrn Tnngone. . 

Pa-paw.— Fanti name, Brofiri, Accra name, Appapa. This 11 
cultivated extensively through d genei Jlj as 1 

fruit, but in an unripe state it is used on the tables of Europeai 
residents as a vegetable. It bears fruit all the year round, Averagi 
market value, about Id. each. 

Pumpkin.— Fanti name, Effiri, Accra name, Sacraibuntci/. Grow 
abundantly in all parts of the country. It is of good flavour, can b 

vegetable, and would, undei *- 

pment to Eurc 

Plantain. — Fanti, Boradzi, Accra, Amada and tUuianu.- 
Kwadii, Accra, Aquadoo. These are largely cultivated, and 
:ial value here as fruits. 

The following is an extract from a despatch from Mr. F. Evans, 
C.M.G., Acting Administrator of Lagos, to the Secretary of State, 
dated 27th May, 1887 :— 

u I have the honour to transmit to you the only information I have 


as till- is, I would a-k v<>u t.» I experienced 

in its collection is the sole cause of the delay which has occurred in 
replying to the circular despatch. 

♦'There is not sufficient fruit of any kind grown in or near Lagos to 
enable exportation, for trade purposes, to take place, and what is 
grown i- nio-ih oi an - paid to its 

possibly be e • pti served f or < , 

length of the voyage between here and Europe precludes the 
of the shipment of fresh fruit." 

fruitg of Lagos are : — Banana and 

Plant . Pn pplt ,]NI;n «. < - 1 ■ . ( » )'ij-> m ! L nb . 

. Sour Sop, Custard Apple, Avocado Pear, Tamarind, 
< . i .. ' Ha. I': i aw. Water Melon. 

With the exception of the Mango and Cashew, the above fruits are 
the year. They are not suitable for exportation 
in a fr< sh state, and there are no wholesale prices for quotation. 

Fruits grown in the Colony are exported either in a fresh or 
preserved state. 

Fruits grown in the Colony are capable of being produced in much 

she natives do not understand the cultivation or 

of preserving, and consequently there is no inducement 

among the local traders to open up or extend a trade in fresh or 

preserved fruits. 

The information respecting the fruits 
en prepar 

A.L.S., Curator of the Durban Botanical Gardens; by Dr. P. C. 
Sutherland, an.! hy M i\ .!. '!'. Iviw ard-, a mu-<rvma:i and Member of 
the Commit t ks Society. 

Mi Med yW .d\ Ileport deals chiefly with the fruits grown in the 
coast districts of the Colony : — 

Botanic Gardens, Durban, July. 7th, 1887. 

I beg to enclose, according to your request, a list of the chief 
t'i s p in the < isf di ricts d ih< Col ny. with the months in 

which they are obtainable. I have so very little acquaintance with 
the uplands or the fruits that are grown there that I can deal with the 
coast d^i r iets only. 

As to the r export, T am quite unable to give 

reliable informal ion, and can only say that at present, at any rate, the 
iiK-ed is not hy any means large, hut may be very materially 
rv be found to be remunerative. 

At preseiii ni, as, and pine-apples are exported in 

afresh state, chiefly to Cape Colony, Free State, ami Transvaal, and in 
smaller quantities' to Europe; but as this is purely a com mere ial 
matter, I do not feel myself in a position to give information of any 
value upon it. 

The whole of the fruits enumerated in the annexed list are capable 
of being produced in very much larger quantities than at present, if 
can only be assured of a remunerative market for their 

All that (in my opinion) is necessary to develop a fruit trade from 

the Colony is certainty of a market ; facilities for transport, such as 

the steamers, Ac. ; knowledge of the best mode 

of packing, and care on the part of tl i«B to prevent 

the trial shipment sent home by the ™ 
and Indian Exhibition. 

The careful culture of fruit has not as yet received much 
in the Colony, but if the industry were found to be fairly remunerative, 
I have no doubt whatever that the size and quality of the fruit grown 

So far as ] 

;*li state 

rtcd, I I 

rt-are, the only fruits imported into the Colony in a 
rapes from the Cape Colony ; as to the quantity 
o means of obtaining information. 
i of preserved fruits is a matter about which I know 

im The 

the growth of fruit in the Colony, we have imported plants 
of the best kinds of mango and shaddock from Endia, 

■- ; . ■ 
of the best kinds of guavas from India, and we shall at all times be 

willi u t..i [>:■■ •run -,; ..- (ir ],1 , ts <■( any kii d of fruit which it may U- 
rabk to introduce into the Colony. 


e CniEF Fruits Grown on the Coast Lands 
of Natal. 

P„P„,. rN „o. 

| .**»»_ | W ,„,» S ,.,0, | *„„„, 

• \carissagran ( i;jlora 

J. Medley Wood. 

Dr. Sutherland's Report i 

the 14 th August 1886 from the Eoyal Gardens, K.-w. together with a 
series of questions tone; t-<-f tliis colony, I have 

;: on I have been able to collect. 
The chief fruits grown in the colony, in order of their importance, 

1. Pine-apple (Ananas sativa). 

2. Banana (Musa sapicntum). 

3. Plantain (Musa sapicntum). 

4. Orange (Citrus aunmfiu,,,), in great variety. 

5. Naatje (Citrus nobilis). 

8. Shadd . '"'"""" ' 

11. Apple (Pt/rus oialus), in -rent v; 

ll'. Ouinee {Ci/rfouia vulgaris). 

\:.. Apri.-;..t (/V//,/>/.s armeniaca). 

14. Fiu (/7«w Cartca). 

15. Pear (Pyrus communis). 

16. Grenadifla (Passijlora cdulis). 

17. I.oipiat {Eriolmfrt/a jtiponica). 
1*. Grape ( J'/V/.v rinifcra). Gape var 

t grown up to 2,500 feet in 

a January to August — in exceptional 
cases, the whole year. Supply equal to any demand. Prices If/, to, 'if/. 
each, according to season and quality. 

Battanai I on the coast, and up to el 

1,500 feet are .-. dlable gen. ral ;. throughout the whole year. If there 
were a demand the supply would be unlimited. Prices vary from one to 
two shillings a boi and quality. 

Oramjcs, Urn, .. Ac. are a\ailable from April to August. Grown all 
over the Colony the supply would meet any reasonable demand. The 
prices vary according to seasons, being lowest between May and August, 

hiring the scarcity. 
for want of a market. Manual; 

unlimited quantity. This industry is extending rapidly, 
be sensibly realised. 

Peaches are universally grown all over the Colony, certain varieties 
being adapted for the warmer coast di-t i ts. u 1 oilier- ot ; ! , hai icr 
and better-flavoured varieties m.-r ; and more 

elevated districts. They are available from December to February. 
;- far in excess of the demand, and can be pushed to any 
extent if there were a market. Fully three-fourths of the crop is 
it ure of the 
fruit. Much is preserved for local use. A price, under the circum- 
stances, can hardly be given. When the fruit is offered for sale it is 
merely to cover cost of gathering and carriage to market. 


Apples, like peaches, are grown all over the Colony, the hardier 
varieties being in the upper districts. The supply is far in excessof the 
demand, there being no market for the produce of every farm and 
garden. The fruit is in season from December to January, and prices 
are such as cover cost of gathering and carriage to market, 1*. 6d. to 3s. 
a hundred, according to size and quality. 

Quinces, like apples, thrive best in the upper districts of the Colony. 
'i , 

cultivation capable < i" it' there were a market. 

Tin' rVirt i- i. ;";,■!! pre- rwd hut . rldom sold, there being no demand. 

Apricots come into season in November. Any demand could be met 
by large supplies. The price, 2s. and 3s. per 100 for first supplies, soon 
'■■ • 

Figs are n season for two or three 

months. Production may be extended indefinitely. Prices just suffi- 
cient to cover cost of gathering and carriage to market. 

Pears an and can be produced to any extent. 

Prices when sold merely nominal. 

GrciHtdillas are in season from November to May. Its growth is 
capable of indefinite extension. Prices \ary according to season, Is. 6d. 
a bushel being a common quotation, and insufficient to cover cost of 
i carriage. 

Loquats an in season in Mn\ , c pabl< of extension indefinitely; 
prices nominal, merely sufficient to cover cost of carriage. 

,'/ ■ . . ....,.,.-'.,-. - :;■.;■■. 

months. The price varies from Qd. to Is. per lb., according to variety, 

quality, and season, the I ape varieties being the most expensive. The 
tineas and freedom from disease, is 

capable el' A valuable preserve i- 

from tiii- ■_>■! ' w'-.u-h threatens to take the place of blackcurrant 

J %uw6err !f -Thi a valuable fruit is coming into general cultivation, 

and may be extended <»n any scale. It is in season from December to 
April. Price* vary according to season, (»/. a ]>int being the minimum. 

Cape gnr.stb, ,■ r:/.— This valuable esculent is not cultiva! 
permitted to occupy fences and fallow lands in native use. It might be 
taken into cultiv alien, and by tie- means could be extended. The 
natives enjoy tin 1 entii-, ■ - : n their own way and 

at their convenience, selling it to Europeans in town or country. 
The price is generally about 4s. Qd. a bushel. According to - ; 
to coast or upper districts, the fruit is in season from February to 
May. This fruit is made into a jam, which is hardly ever known to 

Amatungulu.—T\m at isin season 

ay to May. As a rule the plant has not been cub 
'^ admits of ready ex ten. 

" r increased. Thenath lie plants in their 

, and dispose of it to Europeans ; the price, therefore, varies 
from a mere nomin; ! -ne, o> ■',-, ii ii g they can get, 

7\ii>iuri>id.—Th\* has been (Vied, but on a limited scale. The fruit 

Wil.l -l'e. 

but tie re is no demand for them. 

Avocado, pear can also be grown in 

r the fruit. 

In 188b' the dried and preserved i 
value of 422/., but the 


exported, chiefly Bananas, we 
kinds, viz., the preserved fruit! 
the Cape Colony. 

All the above-mentioned fruits are capable of being produced in much 
larger quantities. The absence of a market has deterred the farming 
community from pursuing this industry beyond their own 

,, -it-. Che steps, a, neo Bsarj to develop 

a fruit trade a judiciously 

< i- by preserving it in tins. Messrs. Jameson and Co., Durban ; 

Hulett, Nonoti ; Ladds, Mooi River ; and Blaker, Estcourt, have made 

Local men complain linn the tariffs of neighbouring states militate 
seriously against the use therein of Natal preserved or green fruits, im- 
port duty being so high as to prove prohibitive. This, no doubt, is the 
ease (as the question would be viewed le) omitting 

ration of the question whether the industries of these states 
do not stand in need of some such protection as is secured by a high 
import duty. The trade with the mother country is seriously menaced 
by the long oivan voyage, and the risks of damage to green fruit, 
however well rxation. In the case of 

preservi d fin to cope with the same 

' : .' ' - 

Dried fruits, Km, 80,000 

lbs.; value 1,2.52/. Fi I Madras, 195,867 lbs. j 

value 612/. I States, 

850 11)-.; value 11/. Currant, and raisins from the United Kingdom, 
183,828 lbs.; value 2,541/. From Cape Colony, 34,54s Iks. ; value 
346/. Preserved fruit from United Kit - loui, unsp rifi. 1. '3.87* lb-. ; 
value 653/. Calcutta, 180 lbs.; value not specified. Cap- Cnlony, 
38 11.-. ; value S/. Fresh fruit :— Cape Colony, quantity 
valu.' ISO/. Miiuritir, . ..due 10/. The total of 

imported fruit, preserved, dried, and fresh, is nearly 6,000/. per annum, 
while the exports are not quite half that sum. 

insect life, fruit is liahh tosulfoi - h. ooiib eiued . • wl his 

giving proper ire. Violent 

t as they are very local it 

mile apart, one may escape entirely, while the other may have been 
entirely denuded cf its fruit. 

Regarding the institution of a fruit trade with the mother com, try, or 
with the neighbouring states, it appears to m •' 

be to remove the necessi erred state 

or dried. A- 1 1 i'. . end <>K-en , - ps ] \ been t d« tow nds 
this end. When imports cease, no doubt there will be a surplus of 
preserved and dri d t'l v! I i i; v it ' p : ! . t - ■ ty 1 

the markets at home, or in other colonies or state- whore there may be 
a demand for the same. Much ex] s esw are 

necessary in the conduct of the expott of fresh I' uit V < liti. - ol ship. 
ment are, it is true, so great now as io le--< n the time th ■ I ruit requires 
to he at sea considerably below the period t mire? fifty years ago for 

r the Azores, It bIm 
not be forgot! ing vi ssel 

is made through 1 1 1 l- tropics in a strainer of great heat. Preserved i 
dried fruits Buffi ' as would be totr 

destructive to fresh fruit. Much no doubt may be done by care 
piickin- -and the maintenance of the lowest temperatui 

L\ ('. 

The following II port ha-> k . n prepared by Mr. J. T. Edwards 
relative to the cu ' m of fruit in Natal : — 

Pietermaritzburg, 20th January, 1888. 
In accordance with the request of his Excellency the Governor, 
I have the honour of t 
respecting the cultivation of fruit in this Colony: — 

111 li it l i i . n N 1 1 divided info tli li-tricts, 

viz.. tV.i-tland. Midland, and Upland; these districts being defined by 
the varying altitude. 

The Coast district embraces a belt < -a an average 

inland. In this district nearly all the known 
Those at present most exten- 
sively cultivated are the pine-apple, ban; 
Fresh fruit of the two 
ports, also in smaller quantities to t s and to the 

Orange Free State. There are two varieties of the pine-apple grown, 
viz., the Jamaica (spiny-leaved) and the smooth-leaved Cayenne. Both 
varieties do >e. weighing 

in many instances from 4 lb. to 6 lb. each. The wholesale price of the 
V»d kind is from 3d. to 6d. per dozen, and of the smooth-leaved 
from 3d. to l.v. each. AH quantities of these fruits, 

both in a frea - the growth 

at present is greatly in excess of the demand. All the varieties of the 
orange do well, and during late years the plantations have been greatly 
increased. The yield of fruit is enormous, some trees bearing no less 
than 4,000 oranges. The variety most esteemed for its fine Ba 

Inesfl is the naatje, or mandarin orange. The 

range is from 6d. to Is. 6d. per 100, and of the 

|v. to 2,-. per LOO. The' Cast oranges are in season from 

September. Of the other fruits which thrive in 

may be enumerated the lime, shaddock, lemon, pap 

:' .-■-■■■ 

two indigenous fruits which, when preserved either as jam or bottled 
fresh, are much valued. 

The Midi u I »* about 2,000 to 3,000 feet above 

sea level, and the principal fruits grown are the apricot, peach, pear, 
n berry. The apricot and 
peach are grown extensively throughout the district, and the yield of 
The local markets are much too small for the 
consumption of this fruit, and many tons are annually allowed to waste 
or ,,, < 1(1 to }>iir-. l'h. leading varieties of the apricot grown in the 
Colony are the Large Early, Moorpark, and Turkey. The varieties ripen 
in the order named ; the 1 D December, 

and the Turkey early in January. The wholesale price for apricots 
this season has been from 3d. to 6d. per 100. Tl 


White, and Walker's Large Yellow. The white varieties of the peach 
ripen in December, the red varieties in January, and the Yellow ones 
carlv in iM'tini.-n-v. Nectarines I I; :'. well, but are not grown so 
extensively as the peach. The best varieties are Stamwick, Elruge, 
Xewington Early, and Pitmaston Orange. The wholesale price for 
peaches is from 3d. to Is. per 100, according to quality, and of 
. 2s. to 3s. per 100. Pears have not been planted very 
extensively until within the last six [or seven years. They do well 
throughout i' - coming into profitable 

- to LO v : ra ol I, or La ab< nl half the tin* 
their maturation in Great Britain. The following 
the best yet grown in the Colony, viz., I 

Beurre Diel, Louise Bon de Jersey, Bon Chretian, Beurre de Aumanlis, &c. 
P< ii t . in s« ison in. in J in i is i i 1 \i i s \ 1 up, ts ,,| 

this fruii • • I order, and 

it is to be hoped that an increased and remunerative trade may be done 
with tiir home market. The wholesale price of pears is from 1*. 
5s. per 100. Apples are grown largi but the finest 

fruit comes from the Uplands. Considerable disappointment has been 
experienced in the Midlands on account of the susceptibility of some 
varieties to the attack of the American blight , >', !,iz,,,n »,-<i '/■■ /,/, ,-,.;, 
this pest having caused much damage to many orchards. Much 

is now taken in the sel< - King varieties, also in the 

use of healthier stocks for the propagation of young trees, than was 

the practice formerly. i ved varieties : 

• '■■■■ . . 

York-hire Greening, and Royal Pearmain. Apples are in season from 

danu r nt ii March. Vh> wholesale price is from 6d. to Is. 6d. per 

100. Vines do fairly well, but the choice varieties require protection 

from the : a-on. An American vaii. 

here as the Catawba, thrives most i es enormous 

crops of fruit without the aid of the slighest shelter. A very 

wine i- !> . which can 

be increased to any extent. The market value of this grape is from 

Id. to 2d. per lb. The Colony is in-i. 

' plant, Figs do well : 
bourhood <il ; cation were given to the 

! h> made to our exports. The orange 
and oaatie do well, and as the time i ; bat later than 

the coast, the supply from this colony might extend from May until 
November. Strawberries grow with md produce 

their fruit from September until March. The 

grown in this district are almonds, loquats, marahella plum, guavas, 
mulberries, quince, lemons, limes, pomegranate, medlar, wain-; 
chestnut, raspberries, &c. 

The Upland district is from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above the sea level. 
Here all the hardy European and other fruits thrive. ; 
gooseberry, currant, cherry, greengage, and other plums, damson, &c. 

It will be seen from tke foregoing remarks, and from the list appended 
hereto, that the fruit-, lie colony are very great, 

and that the production of tropical, semi-tropical, and hardy fruits could 
be developed 1 t-, however, 

are already too small for the supply, and it is of the Htmo I 
that markets outside the colony should be secured for the .-.' 

roil . The trade in preserved fruits, with the rapidly increasing 
English population in the j riously retarded by the 

40 per cent, duties imposed by our Dutch neighbours. 

To enable us to open up a successful trade with the mother country 
every effort should be made to induce the steamship companies to 
provide refrigerators in their ships, and to fit up suitable compartments 
for the storage of fruit during the lengthy voyage to England ; but 
" '3 to urge a reduction of the high 
3 quite prohibitive in their effect. 

t fresh fruit of the 

mot affect the development of an export trade in 
preserved and dried fruits. Considerable attention has been devoted 
to lbs trade during the past few ye) rolta prepared 

by Messrs. Blaki.-r &: C;mtln rley, of Estcourt, are equal, if not superior, 
to the best a apply to the 

fruits manu- 
factured by Messrs. Jameson & Co., Durban, Mr. Ladds, Mooi Kiver, 
and Mr. Procter of Maritzburg. 

In regard to the imports of fruit into the colony, these are mostly 
preserved fruits, j- ins, t U-., an 1 come almost exclusively from Great 
Britain, exe< ; h are imported from America. It is, 

however, satisfactory to note that the consumption of imported jams 
in the colony is rapidly decreasing, on account of the superior quality 
ofthecoloni rieas of both 

articles are in most cases about equal. The recent increase in the duty 
imposed on i '-..use a slight 

on tin and other articles used in the preserving 
ht also to be remembered that by the encouragement 
of this industry a market is created for our sugar. 

List of the Chief Fruits gro^ 

N in the Colony of Natal. 

Popular Name. | When in Season. 

Wholesale Price. | QuanUty. 

Apricot - 

December and January 

3d. to 6d. per 100 - 

Very plentiful. 

AvocadaPear - 




Apple, 40 varieties - 

January to March 

6d.tol*.6d.perl00 - 

Very plentiful. 

Almond - 

March - 



Amatungulu - 

January to May 

Id. to 1ML per lb. - 



December to February 



Brazilian Cherry 





October to July - 

1*. per 100 - 


Citron - 

May to January 

3*. 6d. per 100 


ctr3s 6Va "' ' 

dZL' .' " 


CrtrtApple ' " 


Cape Gooseberry - 

May to August - - 

id. to Id. per lb. 


John T. Edwards. 

Pietermaritzburg, 20th January, 

The inquiry into the fruits of Malta was entrusted by the Govern- 
ment to a special board. For this board the following exhaustive 
M been prepared by Profe | [>.. Director 

of the Botanic Gardens :— 

The Maltese islands have been from time immemorial celebrated for 

i . The spikes of corn on ancient Maltese coins denote the 

fecundity of ^ :>r-.>.lii<-.' of which has often been 

praised by Roman writers. Rich and very productive plantations 

which covered this country were destroyed by the Saracens who took 

of these islands (A.I). 870-1090). It was in the 15th 

our countrymen began to repair the great damage thus 

caused by these enemies of Christendom and civilization. Unluckily, 

afterwards the cultivation of cotton and wheat, and in modern times of potatoes, which to our husbandmen seemed more proli' 

the cause of their putting aside the planting of trees. The extensive 

plantations were no more cared for, the trees were felled for timber to 

hich is greatly to 

be regretted, for, owing to its excellent < 

different kind grow in Malta wonderfully and produce 
fruit, which being of an e\qui.-ite sort, would well rep < , 
II h "farirt the wealthy 

proprietors of lands should do their utmost to have these islands once- 
more covered with productive plantations, giving preference to the 

The long felt need of water supply in rural districts iias lately, 
..been a subject of careful research. The water supply of 

these islands is derived from rainfall, part of u ■'■ 
by plants, part is re-evaporated, part runs into the --. 
numerous ravines, and part sink- into the .-oil and occupies natural 
rc-ervoirs, or runs between the stiata that form the geological structure 
of the Maltese group. Hy digging deep wells a considerable amount 
of water has already been obtained. By the laws latelv enacted our 
ground tillers W1 H n0 more depend simply on the rainfall, as a 
pretty equally distributed to all parts 
<fth i-land. Inapha lik Malta, subject to droughts from | 1 A , t\ 
want of rain, tanks are indispensable to the agriculturist ; it would 

be proportionate to the extension of 
With the view of encouraging agriculture, prizes for 

:',:.-•-:■ ■.-...'■■..•. ; • -. , : ..•■..... 

wa\ of obtaining young tree, is afforded them, the expense <■; 
The art of manuring is very little understood by our farmer, who 

chiefly u-os rotten auim - after having exhaled 

knows nothii g ., remarks, 

vorks flu o 1 i i like the o ( rflow of the Wile or the 

" Indus." The large quantity of nightsoil, which is now lost in the 
sea, would become a mo.-t valuable manure to our gardeners were they 
taught iiow to employ it properly. Owing to the unchanging habit'- 
of our country-people, the Maih.-e . greatly from 

his ancestors. Very little, if any, novelty has 1 
the old farming ei.-ionis of Malta. Owing to 
nre and of proper agricull 

work of our farmers is laborious, 
unsuccessful. As a modern writer re: 
" Gozo is a battle and victory of li 

" comprised within the insular area are partly 1 
"many respects a geographical riddle. Cultivation has asserted its 
" sway over 54,716 acres, the remainder being sterile rocks." It is to 
be hoped that a large portion of the waste open spaces some day or 
other will be brought under cultivation, that the primitive implements 
r-till in use will be superseded by proper maehinerv 
suitable for our soil, and that, as books for our farmers ; - - ... 
lectures on i i them in each casal, i 

. rvation and 
lead them to the discovery of better modes. It would be tht n j.os-dble 
ult . !•■ : . in\ exotic tn - . tid In i! - ' aring 
excellent fruit both for the home market and for exportation ; and to 
improve at the same time the products of those species which are now 
more or less successfully grown. 

Wild Fruits. 

Under this term we ii for, or common bramble 

railed yhnlliek by the Maltese, plentiful both in Malta and Gozo. The 
small acid drupes are grateful to most palates. Our ancestors used to 
make of them jams, tarts, and a syrup which, being sub-acid and 
cooling, was recommended to allay the heat and thirst of patients 
suffering from fever. The fig tree Ficus Carica (tin salvagg), is also a 
native of these islands. The wild variety produces small :■; 
fruits. A s many varieties of this tree have been introduced to Malta 
from abroad, we think proper to include them among the cultivated 
species. Of the olive, the wild variety of which is also a native of these 
islands, we shall speak hereafter, and also of the pear, a variety of 
which grows wild in several gullies of Malta. Also indigenous is the 
Azarole hawthorn, Cratucfpts Az<tm!i/<, called aim, :,//■, ,- by the 
Maltese, tht fruit, of which, yellow 01 red, has an agnoahh taste and is 
by some much esteemed for making tarts. The fruit of the common 
! wthorn, < . i, >..,,, ,,:<,„>•,,■■!, is very small, and only eaten l\ 
birds. It is known under the name of ;,//,',/ ,-„,, . The 
Mespilus ffenmniicit, which used to abound in several ravines, especially 
in the neighbourhood of the Boschetto, belongs now only 
of Gozo, where it grows seemingly wild among bushes. It is (died 
pomm el lip. The fruit of the wild variety is middle-sized and 
worthless. The medlar is cultivated in some gardens, where it produces 
incipient decay. Pihticti (< nnniluiit and ( vrntouHi *i liquet belong to 
the Flora of these islands, so d es ()/ea atropaa. 

We think that Cvrntr.ala should be more , 
the sake of the abundant . Carohs it produces, called ha'rruh. which are 
eaten by the poorer classes, especially in times of dearth, and form a 
nourishing: (• d tor all sorts of cattle. A very con.:, 1 , rabh inn > tity is 
cons ned yea rl by horses, it s. tl iujm . i ' ri Sn-ilv 

and Cyprus, the quantity of pods produced in Malt I, ■_■ - |]j< ,.■ 
for this purpose. The Malta Carobs are sold from 2s. 6d. to .l.v. per 
cwt. The Carol) tree does not require any particular culture; it is 
slow in growing and lives many ages, especiallv it' care be taken to 
screen it from the cold northern winds which visit us dm i ■; \. ..,,.■. 
by planting the ;■ m >ides of the ravines. 

Cultivated species. 

Our soil suits admirably the palatable Peruvian Cherimoyn, Anona 
. ;■ 
grown in some gardens, and the Sweet Sop, Anona squamosa, called 
here jmmacam ■/■' tod only as a curiosity. 

Oranges and lemons: If any one were to visit a Maltese garden in 
January where orange and lemon trees are carefully cultivated he would 
come to the conclusion that the Hosperides' garden could not have 
been more beautiful. Oranges and lemons are grown with wonderful 
success in the central pari- ..' Malta. The highest qualities grow in 
casala Lit on ' ;hbourhood. 

We arrange the species of the Citrus tribe grown here into three 

chiefly specify those cultivated for the home market 
ion thus :— (a) Bitter Oranges {laring hares), Sweet 
tiring, laring com ; (b) Mali- 

Oranges {mandolina) ; (c) Lemons : Citrons {xcomb), Sweet 

L'\j)ort:iMoii tlius: — (a) I '.it (or ( Granges (laring hares), Sweet 
(htmi laring, laring commit, laring \ 
i {mandolina); (c) Lemons: C 

Oranges, Cit laring kares of the Maltese), are 

Oranges (lumi I . luring ta Malta) ; (b) Man- 

~ nges {mandolina); {c) Lemons: Citrons (xcomb), Sweet 
i helu) and Common Lemons {lumi hares). Sevi 1 

chiefly cultivated for their flowers, from which orange-flower 

«, and for the rind of their fruit, from which 
marmalade is made. T ;id and bitter, and is 

used by some in lieu of lemons. Bitter oranges are sold at Id. to 2d. 
per dozen. Several varieties are gwwi which are the 

following : (a) Fruit very large with a smooth r 

orange colour, with wrinkled rind, pulp sweetish and slightly bitter. 
Sweet Onmges, CUn ionmni), are very exten- 

sively cultivated and fruit very freely. Malta oranges, being long 

keeper-, and hnving a verv delicate taste, are exported in c<- 

deem proper to mention the following: (1) The flat-fruited orange, 

laring char/. i and is much esteemed. Its fruit 

is large, and the pulp rich in sweet juice. Sometimes the rind is 

pulp not very rich, whilst the seeds are often numerous ; 

hoxna: Fruit round, rind 

very thick, juice not abundant nor highly flavoured ; (3) China orange, 

Uowish, seeds 

few or want; in December 

. . when the other kinds are still very sour. It is not a good 

keeper, and is chiefly cultivated f< 

orange imported from Barbary is i 

ies, all of good 

. maturity the 

i pulp is partially or wholly of a deep red colour, 

T '; finds a ready market at home, realising from 4rf. to 8d. the dozen; 


(6) The egg-shaped or oblong orange, laring tauuali, forms a very 

thickish, pulp containing an agreeable juice, seeds few. It is the most 
perfect of our oranges, a 

extensively grown for export, and sold from Ad. to 1,. .V. n, r dozen ; 

(7) Ihe fruit of the common orange of Malta typically is round, 

<I, smooth, of a golden colour, with a thin rind 

Thotn-i* vigorous, lo 
with lichens ; the leai 

A pleasant yellow juice. 

, and seldom found 

T' v ' I'- 4}h) > aml " Tenore (Cataloao delle 

coUmmtmel R. orto botanico di Napoli, p. 81) are 
rhicb we prefer the name 
' ;. • Dd is extensively grown, and indeed vei 


juice very sweet; (o) fruit large, depressed, rind only hero 
adhering to the pulp, from which it is easily separable ; its ta 

We as the other. An excel] | fi m th „ 

pool ; ; it is sold from 2d. to M. per dozen. The first variety beine a 

•^ '■■' ' '-'/ -: -;^ ./' .;... 
-■■■•■■;.:■•-:■; '-;,,.,. ,"..-.;.: : 

tolona juice. It is made into confectl 

dozen; (2) Fruit small, oblong, middle-sized, : 
esteemed for the agreeable perfuir 
to 5c?. the dozen. 
The Citrus A 
Malta under the name of lumi ) 

oblong terminated by a nipple-like protuberance, rind thin7adherin- to 
the pulp, which is very add. Of tl bed by EW 

has a queer taste ; it diff , ■ and f 

tllTZ' Ped ° r T the name of 

ZrL °A fP ata f° ra - Common lemons are sold from 2d. to 4A 
per dozen, and m summer from 8d. to 2s. 
The fruit of the lime seldom comes to mati 

> that of common lemons. 

hining, the pulp green, with a 
exhales a pleasant perfume, is 

preferred by 

from Id. to 3d. the d 

3 Bergamot (Citrus Aurantium, var. Bergamia) is 

t .a a pity 
largely gi 

grown in Malta ; of the 


middle-sized globose fruits, the rind of which is fall of the fragrant oil 
jp ■, ' - This i '11 tree, 5 feet high, produced in 1887 
no less than 16 dozen fruits. 

The shaddock (Citrus decumana) is very rare in our gardens, where 
it is merely cultivated a? a curiosity. It does not grow high, and pro- 
lits, which are made into confections. 
The Maltese name is xadocc. 

Sweet linn cler the popular names of 

linr In lit ; il I'tmi tul < at u,ni Of «'iis .p, r . s {f,f, > M< '" ft, . c. 

Li/tit fff) two very distinct forms are here known: (a) Mi 

depressed shiuing'fniit, with a large broad nipple-shaped, depressed pro- 

: . 

and very seldom used for the table; 

fron, rind thin with a small ped protuber- 

ance. The pulp of this form is more agreeable than that of the other. 
Specimens are cultivated in gardens, and in courtyards of country houses. 
Price, Id. to 3d. the dozen. 

The amount of lemons exported in 1887 was 14,670 dozen, the 
greater part of which went toBarbary; and not fewer than 110,070 
dozen oranges were also exported, the greater part of which went to the 
agdom, to which country have also been exported six bags of 
bitter orange peel, weighing tip wards of 6 cwt. A large number of 
young orange trees are annually exported to different countries, as India, 

Of the jujube tree, Zi:>/p> < ' i • . ill* 1 zi zli, two distinct 
varieties arc ind or oblong, 

a common olive, and of a queer taste. It is eaten chiefly by 

It is to be i wiw/era, 

called in Malta dielya, which grows luxuriantly here, is grcally 
neglected. [f a ded to in Gozo, where it forms an 

important and profitable branch of rural economy. In marly ficl Is and 
in the fissures of the limestone strata it grows without demanding any 
particular car,. .Maltese grapes are superior to those produced in Gozo. 
We must ad a. e not so exquisite as those imported 

from Sicily and Pantellaria. No less than 27 varieties are here culti- 
vated. The white and black cornichon, having a finger-shaped berry, 
: - .-■■'■ ■• 

the white muscadine, the white sweet water grape, and other varieties, 
known under the names of Catalan, batuni di gallu, zakk el maghagia, 
and ananassa, are in much repute. 

The walls of fields should be covered by vines, and prizes awarded to 
promote this object. A tolerable sort of white and red wine is made 
in Gozo by people who do not understand the general principles oi 
wine-making. Our ancestors were cleverer ; they made good wine, 
not 1. ss than 47,500 gallons (5,000 barrili) yearly. It would h-dc<ir- 
i good portion of the 35,200 acres of uncultivated land in 
Malta should be turned into vineyards with the view of superseding 
the wretched drinks imported into this islai 

wines of which country are either exported to continental II; d 
France or consumed by t 

; reach us from the Greek islands. We firmly believe that 
under an able Italian or French director we could compete with 
Syracuse successfully both in the production of grapes and in the 
making of wines. Grapes from August to November are sold in the 


markets from \d. to 2d. per lb. Some varieties are good keepers, so 

much » >, that in some gardens grapes envelo; ■ 

are keptupi \ ,. to U. Brf. per lb. 

The family of the Rosacea furnishes our markets from April to June 
with strawberries (frauli), Fragraria vesca. I 
only grown as a curiosity. Strawberries arc sold from \<i. r. ft 1,7. 

The loquat or Japan m tponica, nespola or nespli 

■ ' ■ 
months of May and June, ami sold from hi. to 2,1. per lb. 
not being a long keeper is exported to a very limited extent; in 1887 
onh 2n barrels <.f it were exported, and those to Egypt. 

Several varieties of the pear (Pyrus n aaimnns) are grown, such as 
November ' nud another in Ja 

"•««■ '" is old in oar markets 

under the n. ....... (,-) Sli,A;tt sold in August; 

ripe in August and September; (<?) Angelique. rath, ■;■ uy- ,„ m 

■ ■ - 
if not gathered mellow the fruit, \\V \ : ~ ]■,•',. \ : -..\ .. ..,: M,,),.' 
flavoured, is a good keeper. They all thrive well, are remunerative, 
and sell from Ad. to 1*. per lb. They are seldom 1 

better sort from Marseilles. 

Tin 1; j le 1 P;/:u- main ), tofiieh, i- ] ;i rg -lv grown in < lozo. spaiingly 
in Malta. Apples are not exported but sold for local consumption. The 
: (a) toffieh abiat or pwincd/ta Sr„!t,i, fruit 
small, yellowish, of fair flavour; (b) toffieh ta r/imi 

aked with red, of a 1 '■ , toffieh ta 

(Allodia oi 1 modirab -le. _ -h nth lug d. o 1. 1 pT. lies, 

seldom eaten raw; (d) toffieh ta regina, toffieh r, mm, . ' )jb k ta 

haudex, the Gozo apple, is a small very hardy tree producing large 
"'*" "ellowish green splashed with red. flesh greenish white, fine 
1 and aromatic. Season, September to November, 

price, Id. to 2\d. per lb. 

The peach and nectarine commence to ripen their fruit in July ; the 

(a) yellow, firm, flesh, hair/, //', 

red, hair/, ;„ Malta. " p.Vhe do Maite." " F.elle "de Paris." or Malta 
peach. The Nectarine, called aariprisr, has two varirt^s : {a) fruit, 
middle sized, green-yellow, always red on the sunny side, or 

•Led, realis fi 1 'J to \,1 p t r lb I ' ma it; 
il consumption, and con 
is not exported. The most valuable sorts are the Malta 
white nectarine. Large plantation of tl, -c tiv.-v-.. Id 1 .■ a ry valuable, 
as their fruit keeps well if properly gathered, and bears carriage. 
The con,: 'ulgaris, called bere 

Malta. I.u! ill Gozo it is <rrown \v 

the manufa, ... confections. The fruit, which is 

never eaten raw, is sold from 2d. to 3d. the lb. 

It is to be hoped that the bitter and sweet almond, which grow most 
luxuriantly and fruit freely in Malta, will be propagated all over the 


The bitter almond {Amygdalus communis)™ caSkdlewam 

: belli, and that 

I 11 is called /<■«•: millivsi ^ h .pi mtity produced is 

tit for local consumption, even for making sweet tarts, no 

Formerly the almond 

q June. 
The Apri 

3 care ; it blossoms i 

anncniurn) is called berquq 

t,i Meju, May 
■ ■ • flavoured, 

apricot : fruit early, small, round, flesh pale yell< 

i ■ . ^ ■■ ■ ■ ■: . 

, i , , ,i May apricot 

.,. kernel is bitter. Apricots are sold from Id. 

ndely grown. 

It lives very long, and is an abundant bearer, called ta santa 
AS Sirkuk isuet, abrico, ber hah frauds, and bcrhnkta VAlgier are 

whitish bloom; _ illj eid. It is 1 

\ . . ' ; : ;''■• 

lltll . .. . •; . „■ ., n, etarines, and plums, which are budded 

UP Sums (Pru.ii ■ dnm^tini). call d <;!,-, .■hahu; succeed remarkably 

•,1 r „ , ,/, futl, that is monk's plum, 

• " ... ■ ^ ;. . ....,■:; 

at the end of August. It is pear-shaped, the flesh adhering to the 
stone: (b) _ : ^"^ft 

September, °ld to ^l*?. per lb. ; the pruna dei frati from 2d. to 4A 

^As'far as we can learn of the true service tree (Pyrus Sorbus), 
known here as zorba, only a couple are cultivated, which produce pear- 

curi L : ;,, | seen grows vigorously, and is very 

productive ; the fruit is large, deep purple, firm, and sweet, May to 
U The common Guava, Psidium Guava, grows freely in some gardens, 
and ripens .. - ' '' !l pl'-asact_ taste. _ 


B for the nwi ket. They prefer moist soil, and 

arly fields. No less than 12 varieties are here 

the one from the other by the colour and size of 

the frait a , He of these varieties has b 

„,„/,,,,,,,• .1 ,. fruit of which is red and round, slightly depressed, with 

th a very BW» ' 

Is, i> .-dl.'d amen el baghal, 

a di Malta"; {b) another 

lie seeds of which are a little 


ritmhiieit ta s'//,,/,i Rosa, or ta bla ghadma, or rum>i>ic,> ta Santa 
Caterina, has small very tender seeds, and very sweet pulp ; it is much 
esteemed as a dessert fruit ; // 'liar is the acid", an 1 n//.-i/n/f >. fa ynidu 
llie wild vniT'ty, P 'he market from October 

to January from ^d. to Id. per lb. Eighty cases of pomegranates were 
of last year. 

The Maltese water m< **, (phaira dollieh) is, as 

a rule, of medium quality. The pulp is either white, yellow, or red, 
sometimes granular, and very sugary. Its quality depends much upon 
the soil, localil of the summer. Tt is a !>: 

andsells from \d. to Id. per lb. 

Next to oranges the melon, ('iiciimis ,r, In, is the richest of the fruits 
produced in Malta. The following are the varieties exposed for sale 
in markets: (a.) bettieh ta UAhrax, v, tted m 1 n of M ,'.' :. « M< Ion 
muscat de Malte," fruit roundish or oblong, thickly grey, netted, pulp 
thick, pale orange or salmon coloured, high flavoured, scent : ; 
rather coarse to some palates, very abundant in summer, bed keeper, 
from ^d. to Id. per lb.; (b.) bettieh tal curuna or ta xitua. round, 
Oval or sub-compressed, rind green or yellow, often streaked 
with either green or yellow, thin netted at the extremity, flesh green, 
often salmon coloured at the inner part, in which case it is generally 
sweat-scented, long keeper, price as above; {<•.) Ixtfi, h '■ <// ijna, 
"Melon de Malte a chaire blanche," fruit oblong, rind smooth. ,iv.-n or 
yellow, flesh white or green, and very sugary. It is held in _ .-him. 
often weighs 10 lbs., and even more, the ordinary weight 1> ; \g from 

nor largely exported. During last year only 248 cases of melons were 
exported to England and Egypt. Every second year the seeds of this 
variety arc imported from abroad, for melons easily degenerate. The 
cantaloupe of 1'...'- and li at of Valparaiso have been introduced into the 
Botanic Garden successfully, but they began to degenerate after the 
second year by losing their grooves. 

The Opuntia Ficus-Indica, or pri ta VJndya 

of the Maltese) i. extensively cultivated 'for its large olible f, :;it, which 
is white, bay tar frauds : "yellow, baytar isfar, or purple, baytar ta 
detnm. There is a seedless variety baytar ta bla zvrrajha which is 
very rare. The yellow fr ban the others. Prickly 

pears are very abundant in summer, and are sold at a very low price, 
\d. per lb., and even less. Only Pantelleria can surpass Malta tor the 
quality of prickly pears. There is a winter crop, which is scanty and 
not so saccharine as the summer produce, sold from Id. to 2d. 
per lb. The plant is of a very easy culture : a branch of three or 
more joints (improperly called leaves) separated from the tree and 
allowed to lie several weeks to dry, and then put into any soil, even 
of the worst description, soon strikes root. It h productive after three 
years, and lives from 20 to 30 years, and even more if proper care is 
bestowed upon it. Trees manured every four years produce delicious 
•sot so full of seeds as when no care is taken in their cultiva- 
tion. Prickly pears are plentiful from July to November. 
pear plant is so well adapted to our climate that if should be more 
extensively grown, for both the " leaves " an 1 the rind are [riven to 

The Euro: M tlteee, m d /.eituu in 

Arabic), is a i Id in several 

-laud. Th" fni t of the wild plant, 0. ()/> as.'t ; \< small 


and valueless. The «. ■ /, was in olden times 

extensively grown here; the names of Casals, Zebbug, and Zeitun, 


Eoman dominion, and subsequently in the 15th century, so much oil 
... ',.- 

' . 

held in groat esteem by epicures. If ; his useful 

d t , \ 1. « h - . -paiiiu!;, n , nl, should be 
Though a slow grower il thrives 
wonderfully in low and high localities, even in the most ung 
and in the crevices of calcareous rocks. The sides of the ravines should 
all be cover . We have reason to 

. ' a k iiuit 
is preferable to other varieties. 

The fig tree, Ficu* i se baitar ta 


the fruit of all »me to perfec- 

tion. Of first quality are those known under the name of , 
farchizzan, which are pear-shaped or obovate, dark purple, covered 
with a whhish bloom. ' • h considered h\ Kisso 

a- >i„ -y.iA to this country. The fruit of this is of a f 

: . .'. 
three inches long (in Gozo). Some cf the greei " 
indeed very sweet, covered when 
The variety called tin i/ludi (October) is co 
zondadari figs I . as it is supposed, 

Master Zondadari from Siena, are round, 
internally red, and of a good flavour. 
August ; they are sold in large quantities 
women in the town streets at \d. or less per pound, the 

Id. per lb. Then' is an early variety called 

purple or green; the quality depends much upon the nature of the soil 
e tree is cultivated. The fruit coming In. in the district of 
Zabhai at ose coming from the latter, are most 

esteemed, whilst that from the district oi Ci'tta Vccchia is less thought 
of. St. John's fig-tree produces a second crop of an interior sort in 
August and September. With the exception of the St. John's figs, all 
■ "'-- country people f " 

by the country people for their . 

vdlage shops. 

The white mulberry, Morus alba (cewsi, chewsi, or chawsli), was 
wid when its h tves won vat 

? now entirely abandoned. We have two distinct 
Uonalis of Risso, with a purplish, sweet fruit; and 
i a white, very saccharine fruit. The fruit of both 
only by children and the poorer classes. It is a 
splendid food for fowls. This tree might with advantage be occasionally 

mea which, as yet, has I 
the only tree planted along the sides of our public roads.* 


The black has ;. large dark 

purple acid r:' in summer and soon decays; 

is made into a preserve, which is very pleasant and cooling. 

The walnut, Juglans regia (geus in Maltese), thrives here won 
fully, as is evident from the few trees cultivated in some gardens. 

: degree of | ; . it is desirable 

that this tree should be cultivated at least for local consumption. 

The stone-pine, Pinvs Pinea . ly in some 

abundant cones containing the edible seeds 
known as Pignons doux. 

nevertheless dates seldom, if ever, come to perfect maturity. Protected 
from winds and placed i: a tered, plantains (Masa 

sapientum) gro '■ k ably well. 

The banana is especiall; it produces 

intheBotmi' Lave not borne fruit. 

Of the Aroidem the T»> ■ '/.'" ./'•/.. • <. also known as Monstera 
introduced to the Botanic Gardens about three years ago. 

The fruit in a perfect 
" ae and the delicat 

pine-apple. Though a slow grower the plant requires I 
As far as 

perfume and the delicate taste, and was by many considered rope 

plant r« 
cultivation, and is easily propagated by cuttings, 
uited in Italy, - 1 - 

_ , where it was introduced some 10 years 
: by Professor Pasquala. 'It is abundantly cultivated in M "xieo. 
where it if : id price. Being a bad 

m of fruits imported into 

Before concluding, we may perhaps be allowed to submit another 
proposal. !; thai we will not dwell on its merits, 

which v.v consider are alone sufficient to commend themselves to those 
on whom its adoption may depend. It would be of great advantage to 
institute an experimental -anleti. where productive trees and shrubs 
could be teeti and their economic value 

accurately determined. 

The Botanic Garden, having so small an area and teeming w 
is insufficient for this purpose, nor is the locality adapted for Bach 
experiments. The insti 

be a most valuable source of information and instruction. This, we 
1 1 to be taken at once. It has been done in all 
civilized countries where new methods of horticulture and new 
plantations have been introduced. 

Gavino Gulia, M.D., 
Director of the Botanic Garden, Malta. 

Fruits imported into Malta during the Year 1886. 


Countrie.whenceimported. | Quantity. 


:r M \ . 

Italy, Barbary 

United Kingdom, Turkey, Greece 

Italy, Turkey, Greece, Egypt - 

Italy, Turkey, Barbary 

United Kingdom .... 



Br; : 






25,059 1 6 

The follow! 
by the Govern 
Forest Officer 

The chief fruits grown 


interesting Report on i 


When in Season. 

Local Price. 

OKvS S " - - 

BitSo." - - 
Mandarin do. 
Lemons - 

Do. Sweet - 
Citrons - 

Figs - - - 
Pomegranates - 


Walnuts - 
Hazel nuts 
Cherries - 
Apples - 

Water melons - 
Prickly pears - 

July to November - 

October to December - 
December to May 

December to February - 
September to May - 
December to March 

August to October 
August to January 
June and July - 
August to October - 

September to October - 


July and August 

October to December 
August to November - 

August to November - 
July to September 

i to 2 piastres per oke. 

■s per oke. 
2s. to 3s. per 100. 

■r.s per 100. 

Sales so rare that there is no fixed 

i to 1| piastres per oke. 

i to 2 piastres per oke. 

3 to 5 piastres per oke, or 13/. to 

- per oke. 
Barely^soHrnrsak^rice can be 

referred to in 

The oke equals 2 • 7 3 

The Aleppo cantar, 
180 okes. 

Nine of the piastres mentioned equal one shilling. 

The only fruits of which there is any export to speak of a 
oranges, lemons, pomegrar.;:' Sunn of rai 

Grapes are produced in most parts of the Island. The grapes f 
the hill du ' 

great impetu: 

1 districts make the 

vine. The removal of the tithe < 

grapes in 1H84, and tlie spread of l'livll •. ra in Kurope have given 
' impetus to vine planting for the purpose of making wine. Fresh 
rapes are exported in small quantities t 

3 planting for tl 

" uantities to Alexandria and Port Said, 
of the hill villages, and are principally 
exported to France. In the year 1885-86 the < 
value, 4,947/., and in 1886-87, 599,880 okes, value 7,01 1/. Raisins of a 
superior quality ftoa Smyrna. 

Caroubs (Ceratonia s' ; orted to England, France, 

and Italy, although in the year 1885-86 the largest export was to 
Spain. In 1885-86 the export was 96,233 cantars, value 74,562/., and 
in 1886-87 the export was 124,463 cantars, value 102,723/. 
Olivvs -row in mo-f parts <-f flu- Island; and u:i the v. - 

vm of the commonest trees ; it bears 


•well being tr ried out with care. The 

(transplant large numbers of wild olive trees i 
to tL , '.!., . I.ul in man\ c •- - considerable per-centage of the 
trees die, because the work is not carried out with proper care and 
attention. The black olives are as a rule of good quality. 

A sample of Cyprus oil sent to the Colonial a 

J on by Professor Leopold Field, F.E.S.E., F.C.S., in the 
teems: — "Cyprus also exhibited some excellent though 
" unrefined olive oil, and doubtless will prove in time to coup 
" able competitor of the Italians in a line now almost monopolized by 
" them." If Cyprus oil commanded a high price in the European 
tended, affording a very 
profitable occupation to the agriculturist. 

Oraurji ' \V'v_ -i.f th< plains, but the 

cultivation of them is much neglected; they are chiefly grown at 
F: uii _•'-!■,. X* kusia, and Lci'k; . Tin r. is ; 

h might perhaps be extended to 
re was any dim mean- of communication, although 
the ordinary orange of the country is not of the best quality. 

are grown in small quantities and are of good 
quality. They graft well on to the bitter orange stock. 

Lemons are much grown, but there is a large local consumption, the 
lemon being commonly used instead of vinegar. The quality of the 
fruit is good. Green lemons come into the market about September, 
and last on until May. In 1885-86, 2,263,331 oranges and lemoos 
•were exported, value 508/. In 1886-87, 3,343,638 oranges and lemons 
were exported, value 1,079/. 

Citrous. — Few are grown, and are mostly used for making preserves 
for local consumption. 

Figs are extensively grown in most parts of the Island, but not more 
than sufficient for local c 
very fine quality. Dry figs are imported ft 

trad" is carried on with Port Said and Alexand: 

ncipally grown at Famagusta. A small export 

are produced in large quantities ; the trees are not usually 
are much improved by grafting. Dried apricots and apricol 
pastes are imported in considerable quantities from Beyrout. 

Peaches are only grown in small quantities ; the trees are sometimes 
grafted, which very much improves the flavour of the fruit. 

Plums are generally of an inferior quality and are chiefly used for 
preserving. Plums are also imported in small q 

Almonds give about the best return of any fruit crop in Cyprus. 
Great impetus has been given to the planting of these trees of late 
years. The tree requires little or no attention, although if it can be 
watered so much the better. In the plains it produces large crops 
other year. The grower acquires a great advantage by being 

i good market, and by there being at presen 

ie fruit. The quality as a rule is not of " 

r part being a small hard-shelled almond, but lately s 

3 fruit. The quality as a rule is not of the best, 
greater part being a small hard-shelled almond, but lately seed has b 
introduced from Chios of a soft-shelled kind. 

1 districts the crops generally suffer from late frosts. The 
unios aimonds are much esteemed in the East and many people, who 
possess some special knowledge in the matter, believe that almonds 
might be very largely grown in Cyprus with great profit. Almonds 
are imported in small quantities from Kiiindria and Mersina. 


JVahiuts grow well in the hill districts where there is running water 
and the climate is not too hot. They are exceedingly fine trees and the 
■ ly good. 

Hazel nuts are grown largely in the district known as Pitzillia ; they 
are of very fii ig crop, bat in Cjpn 

much care to do well. The ground should be broken up round the 

Cherries grow plentifully in the Marathassa valley at .-, lu ight of 
more than 4,000 feet above the sea-level, but the fruit is not of good 

Apples are only grown in any quantity in the village of Prodromo, 
4,500 feet abi and only fit 

for cooking. 

Pears are only grown in any quantity ; 
above sea-level. The quality is not gooc 

nbers and are of good quality, 
le towns in private gardens, bi 
arket. Tin 

any great extent ; they seldom come ii 
bananas are of fine quality and very large. 

Melons are grown largely in most gardens ; he quality is fairly good 
but might probably be improved by the introduction of new seed. 

Water M> ., use size. 

Prickly Pears grow abundantly in the low country ; they furnish 
useful fences. The fruit is good. The supply is equal to the local 
demand. There is no export. 

Dates are only grown in a few places, and are generally of 
quality. The dates consumed in the island are mostly imported. 

are all consumed locally, ai ^uificant. 

Strawberries will -!■•>.» it properly attended to ; quite an \ 
number is grown in the island. 

s. They are pickled in a roi _ 

oper atten- 
tion an export fra ■!«■ might W established. 

All the fruits of Cyprus ■ r< capable of being product d in much larger 
: quality of 

:.■■-■<• ', . ;■ ..■ 

until the subject of fruit-growing is much better understood than it 
generally is at present. The Cypriots make most excellent jam and 
preserved fruits, but little or none of these come into the mai 
holds, 08 a rule, making only for themselves. I think it would be well 
worth while for someone, who understands the business, to consider 
whether a manufactory of marmalade and jam, especially apricot jam, 
could not be worked here with profit. 

If a fruit trade is to be developed, which I believe to be quite possible, 
it would be necessary to provide better means of communication within 
the island, and better, quicker, and, above all, more regular communica- 
tion with foreign countries. 

A. F. G. Law, Principal Forest Officer. 


The following report on the fruits of Ceylon has been prepared by 
Dr. Henry Trimen, F.R.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 

A list of the fruits grown in Ceylon would include nearly the whole 
of those found in the tropics, for though the really native fV 

;■.'■■:■ . • i 

Va,),h,ij>,! being the chief— there has been introduced at various times 

ittable to the climate. And, owing to 

able differences in the climatic conditions of various parts of 

Ceylon, we are able here to cultivate a greater variety than would be 

expected in so small an area. Thus, in the humid' districts of the 

Sooth-west, most Malayan fruits come to perfection, the Durian, 

sum), Bread fruit, Nam 

Nam (Cynometra cauliflora), Java Almond (Canarium commune), 

.-• . ■ . 

-.. . . ■ ■ 

In the low con amnion fruits of tropical countries are 

to be found: the Mango, Papaw, Cuava, Pomegranate, Pine-apple, 
Tamarind, Cashew nut, Avocado Pear, Puuielo, Sour Sop (Anona 
mil icuta), Bull ek's II art (.-/■/;< -'h-ns Medico, 

var. acida), Lovi-lovi | I Terminalia 

',11 urn Cainito), Bilimbi {Averrhoa 
/■■band many others. In 
many places, it'all, a few 

fruits of sal >- : . li, the loquat, 

in the hot regions of the North and E 
of various kinds are largely grown, and in a few places on the coast 
even gra$ * fcifieia] winter- 

ing. I must also mention the ubiquitous orange, which, though not a 

grown throughout Ceylon under several varieties, of which the true 
! " Mandarin " is the best. The rind of all our oranges 

retidii- ,. lark green colour w!i n fully ripe and fit for eating. In the 
hills, i ;,•(' lly thosi of the drier districts in Uva, some fruits of still 
more temperate character do well, i -[>■ '.<\'.y pi-icln-, tigs, and less 

improve fruit generally. In the village gardens the sorts chiefly seen 
I - and pine-apples, but they are grown 
carelessly and without method. It must, however, be rem or 

the jack" i< in verv ovneni! cultivation, and however distasteful to 

.rgely consumed than any other fruit by the po< 
of the people are not suited to any careful f 

3 people 
cultivation; pilfering from <>.-. universal, and it i 

only by constant \s. - h tl .. . lit can be kept on the tree till ript 
In the neighbourhood of the ports of Colombo and Guile, however, ther 
has taken place a consi.'e rably ii • i as< d production of such fruit as ca; 
be sold to the dubashes and bum-boat men who supply the ships. I 
appear! that tins trade has become one of considerable magnitude, bu 

usually very inferior, and the prices paid to the native growers ex 
tremely low. The trade needs encouragement and regulation, and it 


details are well worthy the careful attention of the agents of the great 
mail steam companies at Colombo. 

With the exception of this supply lo the -hips there is practically no 
export of tiv>h fruit from Ceylon. 

The Colony is indeed an importer of fruit instead of an exporter, but 

By for the European residents. I do not know 

if it be true of the eastern tropics generally, but iu Ceylon there 1, 

among English people do • lew people 

ones. Hence there i, a huge import of the exeelient tinned and bottled 
fruits of Am. ' :■ < <iuanti:y cannot be ascertained, 

as nearly the whole is entered at the Customs under oilman-. -lures 
generally. Fresh apples and pears are also imported from Australia to 
a slight extent; in lie } l^H-7., h d, of lis. 692/25. 

... ... 

and for my part I much doubt if, after satisfying the eurioMty wlneh 

most people feel on the subject, there would be 

at home for most kinds. Pine-appl nanas of West 

on of the export of fresh fruit, however, is not on, which 

Ceylon. We are too distant from 

home to en" : - s a commercial specu- 

hition: Au-uaiia with it- tin and\:.ri I e innate can grow all the fruits 

it needs, and v. hav< . oth< i narket within reach. 

As regards preserved fruit our exports are trifling. I he smad 

: piv>. nts from residents to friends 

'• i ,. ' • 

been, in 1882, Rs. 280; in 1883, Rs. 102 ; in 1884, Rs. 239 ; in 1885, 

Rs. 296 ; in 1886, Rs. 105. . 

There is no information as to kind of fruit preserved, lm. m ml 

they were samples of the jams and 
.(,- . ^ ■. . : . : \..-.r. . . . . i ... • ■ ■ 

cmblua) These are palatal)!. • enough n ai generally liked, but can 
-.- . " 

latter the import into Ceylon must be very large, but as in the ca>e oi 
at, all are entered simply as oilman-stores, and the quantity 
cannot be ascertained. 

i . ■• ■■ 

foot in preserved plantains and pine-apples. These can be i 
very cheaply grown in any quantity and of Bfl 
simply sliced and dried in the sun like dates, are v 
and would, I believe, be likely to sell at home ii ch< i, . 
preserved pine-apples has sprung up at Singapore and might well be 
also attempted here in Ceylon. 

Straits Settlements. 

The following are the principal fruits grown 

1 the Straits Settle- 


- Musa sapient ion. 


- Durio zibethinas. 


- Garcinia Mangostana. 



- Nephelium lappaceum. 

- Artocarpus polyphema. 



„ integrifolia. 


- Pierardia dulcis. 


• Citrus Aura >,t turn. 

„ decumana. 

„ Medica var. acid 

Chiku - 

- Achras Sapota. 


- Anona muricata. 


- Nephelium run labile. 


- Eugenia Jambos. 



- Mnngifcra indica. 


- Anona squamosa. 

Bullock's Heart 


- Carica Papaya. 

- Cucumis Melo. 


Citrullus vulgaris. 


- Passiflora quadrumjnlai 

r> ;./,.'■„, 

Fhirourtia biennis. 


Bachang - - - Mangiferafcetida. 

Caramhola - - „ Carambola. 

The four fruits in Class A. are certainly the most important grown in 
the colony. The fruits in Class C, and many others, are eaten only by 
the natives. It is diflic;, . id er of importance ; the 

arrangement here must be considered as approximate only. 

There are two fruit seasons, July and August, and December and 
January ; the July season being as a rule much the most : 
but the quantity of fruit at each of the seasons depends very much on 
the w. in. -s ..r dryness oE the weather, which varies considerably from 
year to year. In 1887 (an unusually wet year) there was no fruit in 
the July se;i -fiiJO a year being worth 

nothing. In the December season of the same year the supply was much 

nearly.,, the year round, though more ., lil'nl in the ■ 
seasons. In Sarawak (Borneo) the fruit seasons are at the same times, 
tuber season is the more important, It is difficult to say 
sport and what the local prices are. 


ir even destroyed. Some 
months ago pine-apples were very plentiful : M. Bastiani, who does a 
large business in preserved fruits, offered to buy a large quantity brought 
from neighbouring islands at | cent each ; they had never 
been sold for less than one cent apiece, and, sooner than go below this 
price ilit ( liineso importers threw them all into the sea. Durians, 
oarh or late in the season, are worth from 25 to 50 cents each ; when 
y sellforfive or six. The following prices may !„■<.•, nrddercd 

■■■:_'.' , ■:..■■', 

bundle of 30 to 40, 7 to 10 cents; pine-apples, per hundred. $lf to $2 ; 
durians, each, 10 to 15 cents; mangosteens, per hundred, 10 to 15 

Fruits exported in a fresh state : — (1) mangostcon-. (2 
(3) durians. i rami. at us. n I perhaps sonn others i - a!! quantities 
No record is kept. There is a large trade in fiv-h frail he i -wen 
the State.- of the Malay Peninsula. 
quantities also go to Sumatra, China, Ceylon, India. The 
value of fresh fruit exported, according to Government returns, is over 
$30,000 yearly, but this includes the local trade. 

Fruits exported in a preserved state : — Pine-apples and m 
the former in considerable quantities to Europe, China, India, &c. The 
annual value of the preserved fruit ox; » Messrs. 

Bastiani. tin- chief preservers of fruit here, give me the following 
particulars of the quantities they exported during 1887 : — 

Pine-appl.'s, .340,000 tins. Ahout 200,000 to England; some to 
tea, Australia ; a few to South America and 

Chiefly to 
Europeans homeward-bound. 

The supply of fruit is now sufficient for local wants. All the important 
fruits <w.iiU he produced in much larger quantities if there were a 
market for them. With a railway to India or China, or -hips with ice- 
houses, fruit-growing would become an important industry. 

Fresh fruits imported: — 

1. Plantains in large quantities, chiefly from the islands of the Dutch 

, mangosteen, pumelo, Chinese date, &c. are picked before 
ripe, and ripen on their way from place of production to place of 

consumption. The on 'noned this way is 

2. Oranges in larg ina, from October to February. 

The local orange, obtainable all the year round, are very inferior 
to those imported from China. 

3. Fumeloes and mangoes in considerable quantities from Siam, Java, 

&c. These are among the best fruits obtainable in the Colony. 
Those grown locally are very inferior. 

4. Chinese date {Diospyros hahi in considerable quantities from 

China, from October to January. 

5. Apples, pears, grapes, peaches, in small quantities and of inferior 

The total value 

i came from China. 
Preserved fruits imported : — 
1. Dried dates in large quantities from the Persian Gulf. 

2. Litchee ; a small quantity of litchees (Nephelium Litchi) from 

3. Apples, peaches, plums, &c. from Europe. There is a considerable 

demand for these among the Europeans and wealthier natives. 
The fruits of this Colony are inferior as compared with tropical fruits 
generally; this is due chiefly to the poorness of the soil. But there arc 
two fruits which would grow to perfection — the mangosteen and the 
dunun- -Mid able from other parts of the world. 

If there were possibilities of export in- to Europe, the 

mangosteen certainly, and possibly t ! . 

They would be available in consideral ; rv, February, 

March, when other fruits are scarce, and the trade in fivsh fruit between 
this Colony and Europe would be of commercial importance. It must 
be remembered too that money spent now on fruit-growing is not well 
invested. If there were a ready sale for fresh fruit, capital would at 
once be devoted to fruit-growing, and it is probable that many of the 
fruits now grown would be much improved in quality. 

St. Helena. 

The following information has been rece 
1 of St. Helena in s 
administering the Government :- 

St. Helena, January 23, 1888. 
Ige the receipt of yo 
- *- the portion of M 

The chief fruits of the island in order of importance are: Guava, 

tant, loquat, pear, fig. 
«0 island fruits are grown in sufficient quantities for export, and 
0) equalled the local demand. This 
" i; ;: ' : ' T ; ■ : ^ ■■■ : . •■ ■ ■ • ... ., :!, 

; be fruit with maggots. 
The island imports some grapes and oranges from the Cape; but 
the rates of the mail steamers are so extortionate 

that the amount is very small. 

The cultivation of grapes has entirely ceased, and none are now 
grown on the island, blight having destroyed all the trees. 

W. Gret Wilson. 


[All Eights Reserved.] 




(Ficus Vbffclii, Mh \.) 
The investigation of plants likely to yield the caoutchouc of c 
is being carried out in West Tropical Africa by numerous ,un<_- 
spondents of Kew. Possibly in no other part of the world 
such a wide field for inv L :md in recent years a 

considerable trade in in I r igh tin exertions of 

officials and traders who hai e subject. 

A useful summary of in Wesl \r ra rubbers 

is given by Captain I of West Africa, pp. 78- 

95. At present thi , plants on the west coast 

•• g to sp ci< - of La u ■ Ipht i. I 

•'■■■.:■•■:■■■ , , : 

into numerous branches v 

trees. The rubber of th 3 as Acer* 

rubber, is the produce of Land<!, iv. This is 

,; ofi portions of the bark in strip 
3 to 10 inches. The cuts are made sufficiently deep to reach 

newly-cut surface. The rubber of the Landolphia coagulates on 
exposure to the air and requires no preparation other than rolling it 




u . • . I • , -, 

" of the operator, and being peeled off forms a nucleus of I 
" This nucleus is applied to one after another of the fresh cuts, and 
" •< ! 4 • i 1 ■< : > , - . ;' 

"The coag ce so rapidly c 

' exposure to the air that not onh is ever) ;. article cleanly removed 
' from the cuttings, but also a large quantity of semi-coagulated milk 
is drawn out from beneath the uncut Lark, ; nd during the process a 

airs " [Ke 

Another method of collecting West African rul.her h' described as 

foliows: 'J h- black- u [. . ," i 1 -and smear it 
on their arm--, -h . ild« i -, nd !• ,->'- u ' ! i t'. > I r, \ , ring of rubber 

is formed. This i- peeled mat] squares, 
■which are then - id to be boiled in wat ' 

rubber appears in more or less agglutinated masses of small cubes, 

"-;><:-(- ■ , ■ " . ; 

name of Thimble rubber [»&., p. 39]. 

The quantity of rubber exported annually from West Africa from 
British and ..- d. out 30,000 cwt. The value in 1885 

was 265,017/. 

It appears that in some districts, sue!! a- the Gaboon, owing to the 

I v increasing. 

ted to rubber plants in the colonies 

of Gold Coast and Lagos, and owing in a great measure to the interest 

~ '- the subject by Captain Moloney, the exports from these T 

in the i 

risen from nothing in the year 1882 
1885 of 69,91 1/. 
There are doubtless other plants in West Africa from which 

<>■■. o; ■■ ' i ;■ ■. ■ ' ' . : ; - . '.!-.■. . .; . , ,,■ ■ :. 

' i 

: Africa. There arc al-n <cvend -pecie- of kden-. -: 

- to be investigated. 
We are glad example of the 

'■"■••i i i. ■ I .. -. t . i i \. C. M -1 u.y, < M.(i., 

M- ..'.■•:' ' ■ . . ■ 

'■'•■■■■'■■:.'■'•■ ; ■ •;.- - ■ , r - • ;■ ■ : ..;' ■■„.,,. ^ ,:,! 

' '• ■>' - ■■'.-• .\ 

trees. Mr. Millson previous to taking up his duties at Lagos had 
-• \ I • • h. had '-,..,, , i , rued with the 
k» of what is known in commerce as X 

ttiea. A contribution on 
•n will be found in the Kete 
for the month of December 1887, p. 14. 

undertaken by Mr. Millson in West Africa are 

In nearly all the nati 
of Lagos, and, I believt 
found large spreading i 

: of this species of the age of ] 
rom the ground, to be 6 feet 4 it 


height to thebranche- 12 n « t, while 

than 50 or 60 feet, and it* i ter of an acre. A tree of 

: - - • - ; • . ■ 

. ■ - - 
being very tin , was in everj respi 
' l large drops, and flowed for a considerable distance down the trunk. 


id February from four to five gallon- amid have been ob- 
tained with but little trouble. The trees, however, should only be 
tapped on alternate years, so as to leave time for a fresh growth of hark 
to replace that which is removed. It is difficult to form an accurate 
ould be yielded by a 
gallon of milk, but I have reason to h. lie c from previous' experiments 

■■. ' • •;'.... '. . \r:,i ■ •'. , ■ . -; ,..'.,.. 

of milk, that each gallon should give about three pounds of india- 
rubber. The value of the rubber pr< rgely upon the 
care with which it is prepared, and I have reason to believe that the 
this species, at least, of the "Abba" tree, can be made to give 
an excellent sample. 

- , •: (' • v ' - , , - , ■ •■ , : , - 

tions of the " Abba " tree would be a highly profitable investment. It 
is planted by the simple method of cutting off a branch and pu 

■ i : ■ ■ ' : ■ '... ■..■:. ■ ■ , , . ; : ■ : 

it is raised, the natives used it largely for fence posts. From the 
trees already in full growth in the bush and towns a considers!) 
trade could be readily established, and careful planting would develop 
this trade to almost an unlimited extent. 

The rubber gatherer has no need of expensive implements or heavy 
baggage when he goes into the bush to collect and prepare the milk. 

W ith tin m> tn -. a -I) up < i.s la — , a i \\ \ t d- of -i. >n otft n .loth, md 
'<> -''>■' 6 (a unedlike a jelly bag to a round hoop, 

lie ha-* all that he absolutely requires for his work. 
# On reaching the tree to be tapped, deep incisions are made on one 
■ind branches. The milk, as it flows from the in- 
directed into the collector's vessel h\ a small piece of tin 
as to serve as a spout. 

'■'< '■■-. : : '.■ .:.■ '- ■' ■-■■ . : '■ 

> d tu, p_1i to. -U .. tut'. ■ ' 'an 
kerosine-oil tins, which have been well scalded so as to remove all 
traces of grease. The mi 
moved or shaken, for 36 hours. The milk will then have risen to the 

■ : ..■,.■■:, ;:.',(,•,, :: 

hole near the bottom of the tin, which ha3 been 
a plug of wood. As soon as white particles are seen to 
. tl pluu -hould , - insi rt< I, ; ml 
i into the prepared tin, with the i 

is half full, 

t for 12 hours. A o;' -uu\ v ■^•,, t - 

i the bag I 

, and on touching the top of the bag it will be found to offer 

-*iit »'iv .,l.,iit -JO f i r t l..|.- -lu i-I.l now be cut and 
1, or ii palmdcaf " bamboos" are obtainable, six or i-i^Iit ot them 
I i« gLtln'i '1 Ik- polo tb.s nl taint d -hould lone 
Hi!nl> ii.v .1 ! \ rli ustiiig it into a hole dug under a strong tree 
d a block of wood having been cut large enough to fit loosely 
s tin, so as to rest on the squai bich lies on the 

■. o the moutl 

about a foot ; the tin and I 

lock should be thrust under the pole at the 

distance of perhaps a yard 

from the cud which passes under the tree 

root. A large bag should r 

iow be filled with sand, and hung on to the 

pole. It is evidt : t that th< 
m-eater will be the nressurr 

■ farther tins bag is moved up the pole, the 

greater wilt be the pressure on the block of wood which a 

fulcrum of the hvcr. and consequently upon the bag of rubber milk 

upon which it rests. Croat pressure can be brought to bear by this 

Ii A ed, ii will be foi ndatrri- 

-' i ' ' ■ ' , ' ~ i placed in their wooden case, and. to 

!■-'■ '-*■■ ■'■■>■ '• " ' ' : ■ ■■ ■-.■-.■■ I •■■ 

'■■\ -■],.'. : I ■■■■ ■'.'■■.■■ : : :.:;::.- 

;■■;■•■••! - - • ■ , . • . 

. ' - ■ 
The bag of - hould be hung 

■ ■■■■■ -i ''' . ' ■ • ■ ■ ._;.•■•.. £!-:,■::■■ !■-,■"■■ 

''■■ } ' i ■-. : : •• - .' ■-: - •:■ ■ ' ■ ■■ ■■■. -.',.;•!:■ ■■ .; . • },.-.. 

^ On remo 

vingthe wught- 

g the bag out o 

f the tin, which 

; by pressing th 

e sides and lit' ;,. 

he mouth of the 

bag may be 

untied and the 

i: the ban inside 

out. tt wi 

11 not be found to adhere to the cloth in the i 

:re be any traces 

its-el['. it "will 

appear a. : 

e to the air will 

)1os«1..mi propa 

red should not be unnecessarily exposed to 

ued in any way by exposure 

to rain. They 

sample which I 

Exhibit No. 1. 

At ties season of the year 

it isdillionlt to 

■ li.o ;-!i quanti: 

tin spool nens 1 am able t 

o show are in i 

purposes, it 

A further report will the 

n be submitted 

Nos. 2 and 3an 

: wa- applied, tli \ sln-u a cellular structure! 

and arc alsc 

> not free from ii 


K-.hi its 

jN'os. 4 and .1 nv 

arc of fair 

quality. This 

method. 1 ,.: 

-■11 1 appl ^1 

'■;"/ ;; a ,u Ulf 

I .".'; 1 ; ! ';; '^"- ,, " ti " h " t>;irti1 ' 

I try experi- 

■"• ; '■<■: : ■: .. ' *■ ■■. - ■ . ^ . ■ 

described in notes already submitted * "' 

(a«c <_■•<, cut Gazette, Colony cf Lagos, February 1 

I.'.'.; ■■ \ . i ■■.- ' : e ■:■■ ;..:■'■■ ' \ . -' - ■'■ ! ^ '— ■". ?• •• . •■!'•-!: 

will, h')-,vc\cr, 1m for expeit.- in Kn-hee! to point out 1 1 1 - - ^>;,d ami had 

These Lotes ^on of certain 

ibed to the preparation of 

j nice of the " Abba " tree. There is now on hand 

a serif* of e\p nments on the " [bo" \iuo juice, which may be further 
reported on when complete, but at present no results have been arrived 

. : •.-'"■!: •■«■..-. 

It is import i to i . her that the results here noted have been 

i! .it- i.ulv. a nl n-t ■ in t to be I'nii- 

sidetvd as in am wa\ -final. They serve to "prove the possibility of 

expensive system ol preparation to Africa© 

lere. [t will 

always he a sincere pleasure to im to >\i v what little 1 viio'.v about the 

: ■ ... - 

lion's to wir-h'to apply them to tie ; 

' , ■■:.■:.. -■: .■■■■■■■ ■■■■ . ■■:•■■;■•■■ o '■■■; '■■■■; - ■- •■'■ ■^■■> 
j, ; ,., , .•...■..,' be answered as fully as i . 
knowledge of the matter may permit. 

As it was the desire of the Government of Lagos to obtain an 
ve opinion upon the specimens of rubber prepared by 

v -■.. . ' • - " " s ■ ■ • " 

i.)liu,'ii)L r lv assisted this establis 
of rubbers 

: of "Abba 

tn'ihe 1 V.a "u.'i'i ■'■ ■■:■. Uutta Percha and Telegraph Works Company, 
Limited, at Silvertown. 

The iv. port received on the specimens is as follows: — 

RErORT on Five Samples of LvMA-urimEit received from 

S. W. Silver, Esq., 6th July 1888. 

The samples are numbered in accordance with the report of 

cms dark in colour, almost black, with a bluish 

due to a little origin* 

"SfJ . centre, blackened about | Inch it, 

depth', reddish ,< u ' i,L .... , ,. . . m . 

v _ . ; 

n^d'Srvint 1 ^! 1 ! 

*op. Oilier mean-- lobe devised, When dry 

o. 1 was very clammy, No. 3 was firmer than No. 1, but not nearly 

They were all very short, with very little elasticity, this might have 
een expected from appearance of the original samples. They were 
ept in the diyir.g room no longer than would he required if working 
a a practical scale. 

Mixed with a suitable proportion of sulphur and vulcanised, they 
jred soft and short, but were BOi _ments it may be 

lade firmer and slightly tougher. It can evidently not be used by 
self in any form. All the samples were troublesome to work in the 
lixing machines. It would not be right to assume that this behaviour 
. in any way a hanier to its usefulness. 

When we take into account the great improvements which have 
een introduced in preparing certain African an.] Asiatic varieties of 
ubber, manufacturers must feel that the praiseworthy efforts of 
Br. Alvan Mill-on to increase our sources of supply are in the right 
irection. Whether the recovery of the rubber from the " Abba " tree 
have been prepared is such as to ensure the 

best product 

y contain a large quantity of caout* 
:d with other principles contained i 
bieh completely modify ' 

moony its cnaracter. it is t 
leration which would lead one to ask how far the treatmen 

Ci.-tillfd iftisficn can be applied to another p 
h, though containing caoutch tie. ha- \ viy marked < 

i not aware of ; .r with an acid r 

e juice of the Para rubber tree, Herea brasiliensU, r»d 

;• wht-n drawn, and exhales a Strong smell of ammoni 

me, a large quantity c 

caoutchouc,)] ,ni the roasting of the nuts mav help 

to explain the Para rubber, but as the negrohead 

\aiietj, , ,,'- t in. 1 trum tin same- - tnve, at >! - 

't i- -trough a.-i.i, v.-e must consider the generation of acid as due to 
The samples obtained 
er the product could be 

our. I thought it would be" important to ascertain whether the soft 
clammy condition of the samples was due to oxidation, or to the 
presence of resinous matter. A while pulverulent r. -n - - 
IV.;.. -i i j V J.. t _ J I 4s | u cuit. < i it- w ijit The 

caoutchouc, by de-trn. : I eaoutchucene and the 

i •■■- : 

j u i - - I ■ bined with 

■hen cured. On 1 oiling th< re- n u h ,,-; 
•>••;. t e n nia wa- gi\. i ■ '" In tin j re-< nt ca-e, 

i due to the resinous matt 

If will not account !'.<> it. lie i ,1.1 

;••:.'•■ : ■■■ \r ■■• ,.,:■-■. ■.■'■: ■ : - -;> .■ . .•■■_: '■■ '; p •■ ' •"- 

ment in toughness and strength. 

In a locality bo (xvoui pr id M Of 

plants, ii would In- intcro-t inu r to know, whether any of the plants 
yi.-Min^ ,!••> uiptions of rubber could b3 acoliuv.tN.-d >w>-< --.fully 
the product. Common alum is sometimes found 
in the Para rubber, being used as a medium for coagulating, perhaps it 
may be useful in the present case. 

I was informed by a friend who spent some time in Africa, that a 
very large quantity Jf crude a vile acid was -hipped to different parts 
>, and was evidently used in preparing 


In smoking india-rubber, any plant may be used which y 

id, but any plant , r similar products 

The preservative action of the crude acid is enhanced 
and tarry matter present. Para rubber is flavoured with the 

While forming a favourable opinion of this gum, we cannoi nx a 
value upon it, as everything will depend upon how far the experimental 
working can be verified in working on a larger quantity. As a supply 
of this is at present available, we would Miggest that a larger quantity 

___j difficult to . _ 
„ _ therefore the more important 
ould be sent. 
India Rubber, Gutta Percha, and 

Telegraph Works Co. (Limited), 

The results of the inquiry aiid the suggestion* offered by this esta- 
blishment are contained in the following letter addressed to the 
Colonial Office for communication to the Government of Lagos : 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 
gi H> September 11, 1888. 

I AM desired by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the 16th June last forwarding papers and s\ 
,-verament of Lagos, relative to some experiments wl 
been made by Mr, A. Millson on the preparation of rubber from the 

From the botanical specimens forwarded by Ml 
Oliver has an; *AWte" me 

is probably Firus 1^/,/n, Miq.. a Wt>t African rubber tree rirst 
■■'v Vogel at Grand Bassa. This deb 

■■....■. ■ .■■...-,.■ ,■ .- 

,;! shoots, as well as, portions of the 

l'h,. varioim - is received were forwarded, 

x VY s;i\,-r. IN-' . F J. s . ! , t 1 ..- Is. l ; .i Kubher, Gutta Percha, and 
Telegraph Company (Limited) at Silvertown. The sani; 

we have received from Mr. Silver a full report, a copy of wh» 

t\n< establishment. In the Kew Report for rlu- yr-:u- 1>7S p. 39, a notice 
appears of I. ■.:',/,.■/,( Urostigma) 

Vogelii. This rubber, a sample of which is in the Kew Museums (from 
Mr. Thomas ( hri-ty) is m.i.l. up into balls about the size of a huge 
orange. It was valued (in lsjsj at 1,. t; /. p ( . M - puund, but it is added 
that " if sent home cleaner it would command a higher price." 

It will be noticed that j in the report furnished by the India Rubber, 
Gutta Percha, and Tel* _ uv it is stated that the 

specimens received from Mr. Millson show an alkaline reaction and that 
on this and other grounds, such as the piv^nee of re -in and its soft 
claim n .• ■ , . -i ■• , •• i ,;,,-,, ; t !\ < , ,. i t v- i ~'i in any form " 

Mr. MUlson'a experiments ar i s 

It is probable, however, that tin treatment suitable to the juice of this 
plant cannot b< t.ppl .1 , a thei phmi th • i , l which, although 
containing caoutchouc, has very marked chemical differences. 

The result of the inquiry 

I •/.: -,■■■■•■■.■■.. .-,..,.'■ 

to such treatment. It is said that the rubber 
ic acid, and, 
if this is the case, possibly in this direction may be found a solution of 
the problems involved. 

It is desirable in any future experiments carried on with india-rubber 
on the West C nples be forwarded to this country for 

the purpose ol -,.,1 that about 

100 pounds is necessary to test rubber in a thoroughly practical 

In order to afford every information to the Government of Lagos in 
its praiseworthy efforts to develop the rubber industry of the Colony 
there is forwarded herewith a par-, pf "Abba" 

rubber in different stages of manufacture, together with specimens of 
bbera now in large demand in this 

ii th e\pr> ni i- are continued, as it is hoped they will be, and if 

v carried out, 

' ' '■■ ■ .) 

Dt method of preparing the juice of the Abba tree so as to 

produce commercial rubber. 

'*' • >. r- • '- ■' ' pr sent time of greater importance than 

.. ' • ' ; ■:■ —■:_-■.! i -• •■•■.■ : . 

tion of Abba trees in West Africa indicates a wide and use! ■... 

■lson to RorAL Gaedens, Kew. 

Badagry, West Africa, August 16, 1888. 
Itimo reached me yesterday. I regret that 
it by me were— owing to the difficulty of 

levea brastliensis and Accra rubber by Landolphia 

obtaining pure milk — both small and of 
have since been made. I was sorry also i 
of correcting the notes for the press, as I notice several misprints in 

You were correct in your belief that the name " Abba " is ap] died to 
all arboreous fig-trees I: Of these their is a 

■ variety. I will at a later date send specimens prepared as 
you so kindly direct me. 

■ •■•■•■ 
a branch house in Badagry, have made a fair beginning in the rubber 

So far as I can at present see West African rubber will never be 

reliable so long as the natives have the preparation in their own hands. 

The milk be I > i < asilj b ti sted, by 

sample (m' 

vessel, rnless mc 

the milk, I fear that the trade will be of a very ephemeral 

wh ile coast, The present palm oil 
and kernel trade may be said to depend upon the coutinuance of slavery, 
and is indeed in many ways an injury to the people. 

» • , ■'■:'■ ' 

improve the general prosperity. Tb : 

: :ont of these branches of 

Ai*VA»r MiLLaoN, 


{Coffea liberica, Bull.) 

About 15 years ago the introduction of a new species of coffee, now 

known as Coffin libcrivn, to - ,; > which had 

hitherto bee; L was looked upon with considerable 

interest. At that time the coffee plantations in Ceylon and India 

of a fnng id j -t known :is the Ceylon coffee-leaf disease (Jlinnhua 
vastittri.i ... once prosperous coffee plan: 

i '■..'.■■..■.■. •" :. 

soil, and the pressure of other, and for the time, more rami 
cultures. It was claimed 

-! Arab an ; thai I attacks of 

insect and fungoid pests ; and that it was suitable for <■ 


1". ■■. ■ •:■:•:!■■..•:.. i. ; ■ ■' : ■ '• ;..■■■ 

AJceHus. [1 . I' .. | ■ - 

of the Liunean Society. [Second Series, Hot. I., p. 171, t. XXIV.] 

I' ■ , ■:- . . . . . . ■ : 

vol. III., p. 181. 

Liberian or Monrovia coffee is a native of Upper and Lower Guinea, 
and was cultivated on the West Coast of Africa in several 
before it attracted any notice in Europe. It was first introduced as a 

cultivated pi mi- .• ■■.- !:..•. • < iarderis, Kew, in 1872. It was largely 

._ - 
out UntUh possessions 'in the tropics. 

Funicular- rc-pocting the distribution of Liberian coffee plants from 
Kew, and the en l\ hi-ton ■■;' r- eulture in different parts of the 
world, are given in the Kew Eeports every year from 1872 to 1882. 

It is well known that the successful cultivation of Arabian coffee is 
restricted to hilly or mountainous districts, and that only in such 
districts will the produce attain its highest value. The Liberian coffee, 
on the other haul, .. 'n- a n- in. .-• th. < nnnurat \ . !y low hills of 
WesA Tropical Africa, is suited to hotter condilions than the Arabian 
coffee, and it can be sue® lire unsuited 

to the latter. 1 merit of the new coffee. 

As a commi tte proved so 

as was at one time supposed, and the cultivation, though 

widely distributed, has not become general in any part of the world. 

There are, doubtless, good reasons for this. It has been found, for 

■* &e "chen ea o£ Liberian coffee do not become soft 

and pulpy whe bard and fibrous. Hence it has been 

'■' ■'■:<■ ■■' ;;• ■ ..;;:■■ ■ . 

to the Liberian coffee. 

Again the "paivt.ia.'iif" -kin i th. l-.r.ii- toiiirh and v.o,,dv, and the 

' BB of waste entailed in "el.-. 

il i. is h -s. Probably, also, in the en 
of Liberian c .ff . the In-.otns -,;,.., a for plant itim.s | u m-, in in m\ 
cases, been subject to prolonged droughts, whereas the species e 

through the year. 

Should the present high price of coffee bo maintained it is not mv 
cultivation of Liberian coffee will prove -ui!i.;> i.l'v 
warrant further attention being paid to it. 
We understand t it • lava th are fermented 

■t- ■ they > d. It is claimed that this process enableB the. 

coffee to be ch n.-d much m read , d 
produced is bright* Iter quality. 

This, if verified, is a fact of some importance to the growers of 
Liberian coffee. 

We have been led to make the foregoing remarks and review the 
present position of Liberian coffee owing to a very fine sample i 

coffee which lately 


i from Malacca, and upon which is based 

the following corro 



Mr. E. Derry, Fo 



Malacca, to Roxa 

,l Gardens, Kew. 

• V" f •;'. ' 

"Ajax" ('Ocean 

pan;. i a -mail cas« 

samples of Malac 

ca-grown Liberian 

eoHee. due sample has the 

the other left on. 

So far, no Malacca 

coffee has been 

shipped to Em one. 1 should bo 

rn the vn 

samples sent, and whet 

her Malacca coffee 

would be likely to meet with t 

i mark. 

et at home. 

R. Derry. 

Messrs. Lewis and Peat to Royal Gardens, Ken-. 

5, Mincing Laue, E.C., 
September 15, 1888. 
We are favoured with yours of the 12th instant with sampks 
of eotfee which we find as follows : — No. 1, very good, bold, dean 
Liberian, well prepared and the host we have seen, value about los. 
per ewt. ; No. 2, in parchmeut, very hard and apparently overdried, 
colour and qualify of bean very interior to Xo. I. probably owing to 
being overdi i •.. 60* per 

cwt. dins coffee could be cleaned in London by the process described 

for ordinary coffees such as East Indian or West Indian would clean 
-!,. h bard coffee as No. 2 sample. We shall be able to give you moro 
a later, as Ave have just received a consignment of similar 
s from Johore, and it will have to be ei 
sold and we shall have much pleasure in giving you the result, 

Lewis anp Peat. 

Messrs, : 

- Referring to ours of ; ' h men t coffee, 

Malacca, we beg to say the London ch bes not proved 

nearly so sati B sen< to ds by yoq and 


very rough. We attribute the failure to the fact that the coffee was 
not properly dried. I that rhe pai nn nt ■ this c. i-e coffee gets 
\ery hard and difficult to clean when let't long before cleaning. We 
suits ... b* attained on the other side, as 
shown by your sample from the Tan Hun Guar, c- 

*v< uld b foih to s, i the ( utiee h -me b, re in par* In < i t. 
i. nt consisted of 110 bags in the pa 
122 cwts The out-turn aft, r cleaning gave :— 

The large per-ce; berian coffee bears 

o the clean beans, a fact which we have already noted, is fully borne 

The information < 

:;■:,:.■■■ ••■■.:■.■■, . • 

I J help to 

coffee most 

of methods, if any, which have succ problem. 

See Kevo Bulletin, No. 17 [May 1883J, p. 132. 


{Camellia Sasanqna, Thunb.) 

! ' . - - 

the year 1887, attention is drawn to the use of as 

/ for poisoning fish. This substance is sai 1 u> b 
cake of the seeds of O Eter the oil is 

extracted. Its action on fish, due to the presence of a glucoside, 
giving most of the reactions of sapo -a known and 

d lei !■■ '. an _-; ••- 3), Vol. xiv., 

;■-■■'' ; ' ' ' •■.■' : "■■'.' ■ 

A complete set of the seeds or' Cum Ilia Saxaitq/m are in the 

Kew Museum from China and Japan, and a sample of the oil from 

Japan. A specimen oi oil-cake, and a decoction of the same, as used 

also in the Sfuseum from Hong 

In connexi .the following notes have been prc- 

pai. 1 ' M < : . - I . . i .1. s.. >. , ; • ,ri-udent of the Botanical 

a ad >..'■ ■■ ■ ■..'■■'■ : . : i j L ■■■■_ '. : ; . ' 

ght be turned to a useful purpose in 
h pot plants are grown, and also in 
. ra.ii. •..:'■.<,' them from grass lawns. 

Cam* Ilia Sasanqna), I have 
irtusB you with some information. 

While on a botanical tour in th • i\ , from whicli I 

hllW * 1 1- 1 let inn J. 1 !' >d ::!. e|.> <>i~ .1. t_, (t lU-.'V ' ll_T 

,,■ .:.:.■: .■■•.... . ' .■■■■■■;,■■. ;.:,■:. 

ceiviag information on both the culti- 
vation of the plant and the preparation of tea oil from an ink!' 

court,- .a- old ( "hint -.• gentleman. 

Caau/lia Sann.u/mi. Id b.. i, exa-ndv, ly grown in South China 

■:-;- '.'■.. i ■ )■. ■■.::■...'.■ ' . :.:,-,-•.-. . ■.- ; . 

< h- a /■ ■ j, if/ - tl . il ha- been e\pi\.'-e]. 

e. 1 ' - ! ire collected in October or 

, dried and taken to a mi!: audied in a 

aaortar or trough by a pestle drive through it in water power. 

The seeds after being crushed are st< - i- <>! .-,. -e d 

in a pow id 1 prc-s, bids qavssc- tin- oil The i f - . aftci the 

. . about 3 ozs. and 3| lbs. respectively. 

- u fH i Saaanq >>> eaters into the 

composition oi t lie-e cakes. 

Ch- ' tsai pi, a/ is . a 1 as soap for 

. ati .,,,',-■*.- - are grown. 

In tlie-c < trd. n-f w. also n-e it b . ; s from grass 

law i . ■ - , . ■ - . - .ad boiled. The decoction 

I oured on the grass when the worms come to the 

. the ground. As a rule the small worms die, but the larger 

effects of the Ch'c 

Ford's sp oimcn-; ot' j he former, collectei 
in the Index I 


{Spigelia anthehnia, L.) 

W< rocontlj n>< -ived from St. Vincent, West Indies, specimens of a 
plant which \va- teprcscnted "to hi- poisonous to cattle, sheep, and 
*• <j:»:\U, and to prove fatal in two or tluvo hours.'' This plant was 

natural order Loganiacece, commonly dist 

that the plant somewhat resembles Paris quadrifoli 

"'■'-'■ •'_;;. ■■;v- 

piod raceme. The fruit when ripe is purple 
Tbfa -;>• i . t. 37, f. 3 ; in Tussac'a 

T' >' 1 f <''</ i IV t ^, .. i I in !>-.,•./ /,/,,, ''<>!, <', , 
Antilles, I., t. 61. There i- also a figure. : ;.- i r . ne, in the Botanical 

di-ci- -. -i;pp ,- ■ i |.):i,n. Ii .;.! ih \ ■ - uee of worms. 
' ; It na-i tii-t l.iouirht into noti ' !'■ Pat . I*. . ■ . in the Natural 
" History of Jamaica .... There can be no doubt t! ; 

t aiMlMl ,',,.11 th - 1 . I ( ,, 

" much ni»pl. • ' | L'Ki ;., l^.. It Is 

. bJIj of Slpifft lia antht h a s b 

" pink root (S. i,>'/rit,i/i<iir:.-'>. "!,■: , .;, t .,, ;,;;<;_ 

d. - ■ - >!>'<;•! • ■■ ''/■/,, ' a- • p i 
-.vd fatal." 
There can be no don'.' aes such drastic pro- 

l upon it. We have no evidence 



iIim u-- ng a ii Job'-, tears [Coir Lach- 

, L.), it was mo!iT; tin for June 188H, p. 141, 

he fruit possessed littU- or no nutritive value in the wild state, 
is use was restricted to a few aboriginal tribes in Eastern Bengal 

• lr:-!:-d • < ■ >l ,,. ,. - i • - '- ■ : . :■ . ■ ■■'.,'■'■,-.■-;.•. 

M certain. 
We hav now oi taiued, on the suggestion of Sir Joseph Hooker, 
->>■'■■.■ :■■■:.!.-■ :■■.•■ ' , - ...,-,- : : 

cultivated O-m. in tl K i IiilN a so tl eu i i fo,i of Sikkim 
. ... but to Coix gigantea, Eoxb. This 
latter is a recogni- tinel from C. Lachryma. 

Coir gigantea, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. III., p. 570. According ; 
the culm- ot this sped, -S atv pen.m'ml. They are erect, branching to 
" ■■ ■ 

as a man's thumb at the base. The leaves are from 2 to 4 feet long 
,- at the Ikisi : the upper side and 

Bpflu I are numerous, pedicelled, and terminal, The male flowers above 
the female as in the genus, but numerous and threefold; the two 

lateral • v. - s ( -.; . ;in .I tie !> idle one pedicelled; they are closely 
i ■■.; '•■:■ '< -it, <! round the whole of the spike. The ir, 

round the circumference . . . smooth, glossy .... and [in 
ata exceedingly hard, 

-pecies from C. Lachryma. Other points of dis- 

'..!■■■ < • ■ • ■ ; ■:.'-:.;'.'".■ 

abs. nc< i i -] ath< - to the pedicels; and in the p, d 

(i.e. the fruit is per-;-' uacter of C. gigantea as 

i [.<:< hnuit't is, however, to be found in the male 
flowers. These ar« ■. lateral being 

---:•. ... t, Idle one is pedicelled. In C. Lachryma the male 

flowers are few in number arranged loosely in ti 
in pairs,— one sessile and the other pedicelled. The male flowers in 
C. gigantea are numerous, and closely inbricated in a spike nearly 
twice as long as in ('. Lachryma. 

. ..:...■■• ...... ■ . , <;. . ■.-.,■ ■ -. 

1 in Bengal." There are sp< cini.-ns 
l Syong in 

cultivated ,-, real :" fr-.m Sikl ini. nts and also 

1 uhivated i M < i < na! md Malabar 

(Moek-aiel Law > ; and !i< m < .ai uvtir I'h'i, , 1 Mtuie, 1885). 

I h:- -p»<-:. - i- net nnutio:,, i a- n,!t, vat. d either by Roxburgh or 
s on economic botany the use of the. grain of 
( /.»■ i- , v ? .:-i\. •['.• :e--< rial. ,1 v, ith ('. Lachryma. This is doubtless an 
Lachryma is 

vol. ii., pp. 289 i 

'• vated in the Khasia Hills ; the shell of the cultivated sort is soft and 

" be broken by the teeth ; each plant hranches two ..r three times from 
*• the base, an ,-, is ea ch square jrard of 

" soil; the },! • . ■• ,- 30 or 10 fold." 

The specimens collected by Sir Joseph Hooker when in Khasia, 

li i K « ir ii !l l i - u that the < tivated Co/r of 

Dr. Smith, .,,,,, ] „ , , / , \ 

speaks of the grain of G»\> fa "«i, -eription whirl. exaetK Miii- this 

species) : ''as larger an I ■ ■.,,.■-, ,■ than pearl barley, but is equally good 

■s s u. ! As it is sold for orf. per Chinese pound it makes 

" an excellent ,-. China." Furflwr; in 

ih large esculent seeds, known a- Katcpo„hpouh, which are 

"■ ' .. .:-. ... .: ,-. 

cultivated very extensively by the Red Karens. 

In order to supplement I Fooii Grains 

-I IV.i .-..-,!•( huieh. I Mi. S., has been good enough t<> 

sample of th -, „ \ n tlie Kevv Museum 

furnished by Professor Church : — 

Coix ffiffantea, Roxb. 

In the sample submitted to analysis it was found that each fruit 
, ■ 
i\ -ran-. From four parts by w,-_ ,;„.,.,, parts f 

uned,— three times the quantity yielded by Coix 

Water - 

tion (in 11 

30 parts;. 



Starch, &c. 


Fibre - 

Ash - 

- 1-8 

The quantity of albuminoids in these husked seeds is remarkable ; 
t approaches the per-centage found in some kinds of pulse. The 
mtrient value is high : and the proportion of oil or fat is Iarirer than 
hat present in the •_ ... s, , ; ,, - „. cilt :l jh,th< 

esults of the present analysis closely with 'those 

btained in the analysis of CV n I. . ■ ■ a i i i •. Gisa'ixs or Imu \ 
►. 60). 


plants of C. Lachryma, with which they have hitherto been confused 
yield only 25 per cent, of clean grain. In both species the 

kable for the quantity < 
; soft-shelled cultivated form of C. gigantea m 
more prominently brought into notice, it might prove a much moi 
valuable cereal than many now in use in various parts of the tropics. 


(Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Benth.) 

With Plate. 

I Kew Bulletin for March 1888, p. 75, will be found a summary 

respecting African indigo plants, with especial regard to 

what is known as Yoruba indigo. For more than 30 years, since 

trst brought back specimens from the Niger expedition, 

ling Yoruba indigo has been keenly 
Plants were raised from seed sent to Kew by Captain 
Moloney, C.M.G., and one of these plants sent to Ceylon had recently 
flowered and fruited in the Botanic Gardens at Peradeniya. From 
specimens obligingly communicated to us by Dr. Trimen, F.R.S., we are 
-v of the Bentham Trustees, to give a da 
i description by Professor Oliver taken from the 
I te Icones Plantarum, 
[A,i>ci,nc<trpu;, cwmescens, Bentham in Journ. Linn. Soc, IV. 
(Suppl.) 96: a shrub of tw 

feet long, the 

U , • . ■ l . , .. ' ., pointed, the base roun I. lli.- 

lower ones shorter, coriaceous, upper side smooth, lower side minutely 
pubescent. Flowers in copious often fascicled panicles, sometimes a 
foot long, the branches -hurt, spreading, densely flowered l.ut not 

•:.:.. : . ::..•' . . ■ . ; ■'..■■■ '■■■:■■■-, 

one line long. Corolla three 

times as long as the < aiyx,' violet. Pod 4 to 8 and sometimes 10 inches 
long, l—l\ inJ.e- w'd", ;.. iiuu.'d at lx> h 

strongly reticu! ted.— Iiak i in Oil ei i <>n Trop. Africa, ii. 243; 
Plant. 351. 

The habitat is given as West Tropical Africa : Niger (Nu pe), Barter; 
Lagos, Rev. J. B. Wood; Fernando Po, Mann ; Gold C.a-r. Cipt. 
Ml ,, t ■ - tl < i t v -an si. rra Leone. 

Professor Oliver states: "This species is the indigo of the 
u Yoruba country, a region north of Abbeokuta, and goes by the name 
" of 'Yoruba Indigo.' Mr. Bentham was the first to identify our 
" phi i v.'.h s hniieirher and Thonning's Robinia, the specific name 
" of which he of course took up under its present genus. I cannot be 
u quite certain however of this identity, S. and T. describing the pods 

" and they omit all reference to the conspicuous reticulation of the 

Bart-'r s ruamj- ript note on the specimens sent by him to this country 
in 1859 is as follows:— 

" Indigo of the Yoruba country. Leguminous shrub of twin 
and large growth. Flowers in loose panicles, «t first pink changing to 

;arpus cyaneseens,Ben1h. 

acres of tin- ire ah .,U Abbenkut In cultivation tin- plant is kept 

about 7 or 8 feet high; long shoots are cut clo<e, .in 1 it becomes short 

.1 iind bushy, like fVistariu sim -its!* ul -i m rly tr. ited. 

The leave- are gathered young (as seen in the specimen), merely 

; i : . ■ ■ ■: . ■ ; .:■■■•■■■.■■■■ ■■■.;■.■,-!!!.■-!. 

of double fists, and dried for the markets. In dyeing, one ball to a 
gallon of water is used ; the cloth allowed to remain four days. The 
dye is fixed with potash ; a fine deep blue is produced, very per- 

,;<:-h have been the means of affording u- .. 

Selected specimens of Yoruba indigo were brought to this 
Captain Moloney in 1883, and a portion of these were s 
Dr. Hugo Mullet-, I-'. U.S.. who is well iieipiumted with i!i< 
value of indigo samples. Yoruba indigo was worth from 4s, 
per lb., as comp - worth from 7*. 

per lb. It contained, however, a good deal of earthy matter ; 

more. [Thiselton Dyer in Jo,m,. L\,t». .See., sol. xx. p. 404.] 

It is needless to point out that the ordinary indigo of commerce is 
obtained from two or three species of Indigofera (/. AniL, i. 

.\ -. . '.- - ■: i ■ ....--•. '■■■.!■■ . i ' ■•:;.- 

l>luu,ls and Central America. Of the total imports (in 1887) of 
76,700 cwts. of the value of 1,673,067/., more than 68,000 cwts. came 
from India. 

indigo are : huh t, t,, .\ ih , II I ii..\,n \\ , ! /', hj<f>««m ti >< - 
toriwn, Lour., dig©; Slrobi- 

'.'.'L- fl . ■!■!■ ' .. N. _ ! 1J. . ■ i . i Maigyee dye of 

Assam and S ti,<ctori<t, R. 15r., used in India; 

T>-p!ir:sia tinctoria, Pers., used in Mysore; and Marsdenia tinctoria, 
R. Br., in Burma and Sumatra. 


(Cephaetis tomentosa, W.) 
It is well known that the demand for the officinal Ipecacuanha* is 

- • . ■■ :. . _-. -. i 1 ^. ■■■■ :■:•]■ -.:-. ^ . ■•'. . . ; .- --, 

Uv becoming scarcer. Inquiry is therefore natural!;, 
to plants that may v imi ti pi ip«-rti in the hope that they 

in 'u-o. A a ease in point, we lind that the bark of >> 

. i ..■...■■>. .:'.-. 

ti,- i 1, • 1 < . u-. t . ;.t i - • , somewhat 

" the close resemblance of its properties to those of ipecacuanha will 

" qualify it to replace to some extent that drug wind: 

i has now become 

A short time ago we received from Mr. J. H. Hart 

, F.L.S., Superin- 

leaves of ('<pha<l,s, \V. lie found thes 

he due to the - II dating in 'the tn 

>-ical action might 

re Ipecacuanha 

The plant is a tall shrub, with the younger parts 

of the stem and 

leaves covered with a shaggy tomentum. The leaves 

I are elliptical, or 

elliptical oblong. i 1 - ides are prominent, 

>vds are terminal 

with two purple- 

. . . ■ 
■ - ; ■ • ■ '■•■■■.■ . . . ■ • ■ 

i"'< .!- i .'ihi. ! ur ( t \,r\ . i ti , r ,,, i .., , . i u iK\ .it 
•' tropical A m-ricii, wh re it extends from ' 

" to equator; ; ; ,i ,., lVru on the west side of the 

« Islands." 

forwarded by .Mi. ihr hav i . i tl I n i 

It was found that traces of an alkaloid were present resembling 

emetine, but th • . uantity was so i ;nt could nol; 

:•• a< ii M.urrc of IpeciH-uaidiii. Tin- summarv 
- ■ - p. ■ i. as it appeared in the PharmaceutkalJournal, 
[3], vol. xix., p. 187, is as follows :— 

of Cepha<lc> t, ,„, „h /.said to h used i 1, d for the same 

purposes as the root of ( . ■ . , . j , totally unlike 

v - '■'"■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . ■ 


Aim if m \inis, -ilium iH|,,n, tl'i inn of p\v llo\ ( >,i liy -,, 

mi c i>i' ]>:!:;■ ium, and the .h-truchon of black rot and 
mildew by what is known as the " Eouillie Bordelaise."* The methods 
of grafting arc li.-scriU'd a- having been p'-rhcted and successfully 

On the 17th in-i.nn .Mr. "\ u Me communicated to his col if >■_ 

to the pre— the snb-tance ,,f the information he Iris voct.'iv. i ■■ 

i the llerault the vintage 
. >00 hectol. last, year, and 8,000,000 this year. T\v Hani 
yields this season 6,000,000, the Gironde, 2,-500,000 hectol. 

Nothing is said in these reports of the quality of the wine. The 

noted are not to the ripeness of the grape or the 


In 1884 Mr. Dmhie. Superintendent of the Government Botanical 

igi t t<> Iv it. in ! and present* d to the K« v 
h . 
" grown from a sniali . • 1 - 1 ,w 

Saharanpnr by a Zamindar of the Mtu 

Millwall Docks. July 19, 1884. 
We have much pleasure in receiving your letter of 11th instant 

i harlry. I havi show i them to most of the 

I;..:';' • - : -■ ' . I'l-',;:. 

The barley was looked at with much interest and man . 

but the colour comes off and so would not do (it i 

ales, but it would do well for stout. For feeding ,, „;■;,,-. 1 ; r v ,, 

• - ' j ■'■ '• ■■• - -'■ • " ■ ■■■■ •" ■■■■■■■■ i \ . . . . . , 

grow a huskl. ss l a i ■, .,; tin « i -1 1 1 nry colon; . 
1 am much obliged to you tor sendin- tlms. samples, which are so 
ft ya be pleased to give you any informa- 

rley produced 15 maunds grain s 
yield of grain was thus heavier t 

" The chocolate-coloured barley produced 1 
- straw per acre. The ' ' * 
yield of straw. The objectic 
fatal to its value, and will prevent its 
curiosity ; we possess a white-grained ^ 

-■•"'< I' : „■' ■■■'■■: ■ ■' r ; ■ ;■!.-■ •■■..... : 

- 1 irl< \* ipp< ii tn i (] i, , 1 i ! ] in I ;i- 

1 ig except colom* was favourably commended, as in the case of 

■:'::■ .!•■ '^ -< :■:.:..,'. : : .. ■■ '■*'■;■ '■"■ ■■'■ 

] :■ O'— ..'eii •:■'.■■ '.-:•■. •: ..■■■■.•■.. ■_ ■;■ i • 

h market." 
This sain; 1 , and w - -ubmittcd to Mr-.-i-;. 

MacDougall brothers. Thc\ stated that tlu- white im-kl ss bnrle\ wa- 
st, and would, 
ble value. The sample was, however, 
very much weevilled and it hardly possible to pick out a sound 
grain. Me>sr.-. Mar!'. . that if it was possible 

to -end tin's barley in a sound conditio I a ready sale 

tons cereals, a 

<-..i: !ll ;!!■/.'!■ :■■•. ..I ..:.. i ■_..,-■. . 

cultural and Horticultural Society of India on January 29, 1Sm<5. 
'■,•■• : ,. 
: ■■ t;.. !•■■ : :■.,■■■■■.; ' ....... --',■■;....:;.■■!■ 

able success was secured in the Punjab, IK- further -tated that the 
seed was obtained from Poo in Thibet. Three varieties of huskless 
b rie\ uri : • ; ■ \ t. iin'i'hilut, nun. ly, the white, the dull green, 
and the dark brown (ehccolate-coloured). 

There is n. 
present year, win i the specimens in the K'eu Museum attracted the 
-f Mr. Horace T. Brown, of Iini ton-on-Tn nt, who lia- eom- 

allowed to be published :— 

47, High Street, Burton-on-Trent, June 22, 188 

amples of "skinless" barley which your Assistant Curator 

augh to give me have turned out of considerable interest. 

was capable of 


Owing to this natural staining process, the differ 
envelopes of the caryopsis is far more evident 

e of this barley, 

? mrsocarp, but as *t tin k< ns at tts ■ b -,• dnri: - growth the pericarp 
ruptured, and the tearing sometimes extends balf way along the grain, 
lis would militate (enndu-dbh ij.un t .t- win .>- a malting grain 

.-:•■ !:.,■■: ..,■'■: ■■'>■■: < ". •■;.: "i- 'I!' "b - 

of the grain. 

The sample . ihr. v hieh, by-the-bye, 

- well, i.- nlmo.-t uvr iVoin this <h b-et. owin- (<> ib 

stand-, m tin- , utirular. ;. t run.-. ate bet w« onlii in barley and 

!. • 
«..,.-■:■".' : :. . • " ■■ ■.■■;-• 

In wheat this is evidently a peculi:;i 
for I have fon mi marking out 

pericarp to separate ii 

Jim.' which the plumuia ougnt to tukc ne must, 1 ininK, conciuae 
from (hi.- that in primHin ir/naf the pericarp was -trong enough, 
either by itself, or by the ;ii<l of th ; .-n have been 

- ■• _; . ....... i ;•;',., .......: 

an. There are several nian'i bis which have 

been lost by the selection of thin-skinned varieties. 

I am not aware of any varieties of wheat where tin 
letaiued in tlic pericarp, but ih. iv may po-?ibly be -uch, ; 

■ i this cast tJ would be related more closely to the 
parent stock than our ordinary varieties. 

If you could get for me any fresh samples of naked Indian barley I 
'eon*, it a favour. One would like to know somethi 
the nature of the colouring matter of black barley. 

Captain Pcgson in his Manual <;/" Aaric/dt/rr, fi.r India, 1883, 

_ :..■■•■■..■■ ..•:- • .: : , " 

barley into India. D»thie and Fuller, !'<!•( <■ I Garde, , 
Crops of X.l'r. Province and O'idh (Sab. Tab, 2) identify it with 
Hordcum- rjyin,)odisticho«. The k"ow Herbarium contains a specimen 
colic, n .1 at K\un-hin t ir, Tibet, alt. 1 1,000 ft,, by Licut-.Gen. Straehcy, 
t .ST., of a I -rowed barley with the name Hurdtum < rlcste, Viborg. 


The subject of the nub neria nivedj 

Ilk.) is one which lias been closely followed tit Km l'« n u » year-. 
tance of the subject in Itniia iiii.l the ( ohmie- ha.- let! to 

Specimens of Ramie stems, grown at K . a- tar ■,- 

: , ■.-...■..■;. /.'■"' • ■"■■ 

b.r .Itine 1---. in. 11.".- 1 r'.». >■• _. nation on the 


Recently the French Government undertook a >eries of trial- of 
methods for preparing i.'.-nnie libre, and in behalf of the India 
Office, Mr. 1). Morris. P.L.S.. the As-i-tanfDirecmi . wa- ;,; 

with the permission of the It. I ed below : — 

Kew, October 24, 1888. 
In the IT / of the 13th of April last there 

ii order approving an International Competition 


of Methods (mechanical and chemical) for preparing the fibre of the 

Ramie p!;i:it. 'L'li.' order was eased on the fact "that <• 
it't* " -f i- tak. n i i th ■• , i . . !i of the Ramu phu t in \ 
■ -lien g.: ir> rally, and that it -,vas a matter 

Jamie fibre so as to bring 
it within the n ach of com aer I enteip " ■ . 

The competition was, in the first instance, fixed for the loth August, 

but H \v;h at M \v:inl- p -.'pom ,i i > , aeamnt of 

■" seaaoi ',i., hhadbeeni rw eedfnr t lie growth of 

Importance of the Ramus Question. 

day. It has been keenly followed in ne 
but the chief efforts hitherto made have I 
West Indian Colonies, to the United ! 
France and her Colonies. 

The Government of India, nearly 20 ] 

ft . 

y the conviction that the only obstacle to the development 

'■•■■ :.-:■•<'■.,..: ■ , ; -. . : ; . i .-■..',.',. ;••■;■;. 

this / t win i ]s( 5, vh u l)i Roxl started | M m -to, t 
-•••ml v - , :-. >. -...-,.,., u . ,; , e( ., .,] t;i p by Colonel 
Jenkins. The offer of 5,000/. in I860 induced many compel iter- m 

■■■•■■■■.-■:■ ; !-. ' . '• -........■■ . .. , .;..... ; ; : '. 

was not awarded. Other unsuccessful attempts were -- 
made, and even ,( 00/. was withdrawn. 

Since thi [g of pounds have been spent upon 

fibre. Many processes have been brought forward from time to time, 
for each of them that they had fully realized the 
** at promising as some of these processes 
ve been lar use, and 

only one or two have at all come into prominence. 

Naturally the earlier attempts to prepare Ramie fibre had followed 

: ' - • ■ •■ ■■■ - - ■ : ■ 

ds Ramie these methods were useless. 
1(1 ' ' '■- the Ramie plant is embedded in a gummy 

red the greatest obstacle to th< pi 

bright threads suitable for the spinner. 

Arrangements foe Paris Trials. 

toek place in one of the annexe- ■ ; on f iggg 

on the Quai d'Orsay (Place de V Alma). It was attended by represen- 


Itwasevidei v. i Watched with considerable 

u rangements had been 

made beforehand by the Fivneh Mini-try oi Agriculture. Steam 

' ' i In (1 h > ii j' , , i i i -i, , ^ h , } U1 ,1 of Paris ready 

f> -t tin- ( In mil i! pro. '--. -. ., , lantiu . t 1! unii i ', n~ \\ ; . ^ ,.'.,],K 
ready to be converted into filasse. 

The commission of jurors included M. Tkserand, Councillor of State 

: ■■ • : - 

the IYoi'esseur de Culture of the ,lnrrth> ite* 
." problems 
the trials were conducted in a systematic and exhaustive manner. 

Prizes had been offered by the French Government in the folio 
five categories :— (a.) For a* machine to decorticate Ramie in a < 
state, driven In si a i power. 1st priz 1.0 (! fr.. 2nd prize 70C 
(6.) For a mar i ;! a ,l ry state, driven bv : 

power, 1st 

prize 1,000 fr., 2nd 


Colonies, ] 

1st prize 500 fr., 2nd 


to commercial filasse 


facturors, ] 

1st prize 1,000 fr., 2nd 

i prise 

, 700 fr. 

The enti 

19 machine 

the jurors. 

The Pelan: 

er Maciii 

Taking j 

in the order ii 

i which t 

)od, the first was 
40/. This was 

I produce only 55 kik>3. per day of 10 how 
to about 120 due of these 

ribbons at 7/. per ton would be 7s. Qd. 

The inventor claimed for the Delandtsheer machine that it could 

\s. - it; ' utt 1 t » v '■ hi '" tin |..i r cliai ictei ot tii -' 

ii could produce, as worked at 
Paris, ribbons in commercial quantity at a remunerative cost. 

The Barbiek Machine. 

pour la Ramie et toutes les plantes textiles : Constructeur Paul 
i; m •.!':- , - • -n. , in construction to the I>< 
machine already described. The cost was the same, viz., 40/. It was 
also fitted with a reverse action. The fcd-plare was li.-n 

about 8 to 10 stems at a time. The fibre was 
10 oewbi • - tli dry stems 

per hour of ribbons. With green stems it pro- 
ducMl or,]_\ 7-5 kilos 'in 17 minutes. There was a large amount of 
waste, and owing to the fibre being | 
between the revolving beaters, the ends were often badly tangled. 

It was claimed by the inventor thai |d neat 2,500 

r day of 10 ho lias, (presumably 

of dry) 


is worth 50 francs 

per 100 kilos. ° 

A machine 
Chasles, Paris 

trials. I-ortl 


Systeme Lassalle (constructed by H. 
ul. bat if was unable to compete in the 
report it may be passed without further 

Machine of Am: 

eeican Fibre Company. 


No. 18, 

wayl'Ven- York" 
irely different plan 

ed by the American Companv, ol' 
under the charge of Mr. X..I.1- . This 

about 4 ft. 6 in. long and supported on standards about 5 ft high. 
Al.nvo tb inai- was a wooden structure designed to receive the 

■■:■-!;:!>-■■ ,■■• :■:.■-.■ -:■='. ...,..: 

■ii the whole length of the machine. 

I!v means of a movable bottom in the feeding frame, the stem- were 

■ ■ 

• ^ •.:■,;.■'..::.. i . ■ 

: : se] irated from the fibrous cuticle. The 

ii'-nt to 21 kilos, of wet ribbons per hour (or allow hc_r ..v.- 

third of the weight for dry ribbons) equal to about 15 pounds 

ibbons per hour. It must, however, be borne in 

<- the ribbons produced by this machine were simph the crude 
fibrous bark without any cleaning. The actual value of these ribbons 
would be very small : hut it tlu machine had 1,,-eii capable of turning 
out hall'. a ton, or even a quarter of a ton of such ribbon- in a (lav. if 
would have possessed Mime value. The machine. a- shown at Paris it 

The Botes Chemical Process. 

The only chemical pi oeo-s for < meni ^ Uamit i >bon,- uto fila-e 

^ - . ' ; :, ■-:: , .'...•■ 

es was shown by M. Royer. This was described 
I iei &} -f< ime, E. Rover, 

-Paris 1 < t i * in nt ii .in-tin 1 co qil t d ' 1. . 1! it i 

" Systeme cm a„ de matiere 

" brute." The details of the process were not made known. The 

ribbon- ■ , 1 ii 1 h..i t,,lh ,n -in M j, „',, >]». U( , ( ., , lilt . ., ail( | 
ecessive After- 

wui Is tii \ u, i. pi ," i i r , -ream idlest. 

' .::.■■..,.:., 

The filasse p , i, ut ; n others 

it was mixed with portion- of bark and discoloured. 1 he -v-nan 
appeared to he hhorious and costly. The jury was unable to arrive 
at a satisfactoi \ < .iibioi.i- lormht i ii-oi th- ] m, » - dunit^ 
the -ession of 111.' trial- between the >jr,th and the doth September, but. 
mo, ii of !l,o-, p.,- >t w t- not fa\oiuabh to th, i-ioc s-. 

The first day wa 
to green Ramie 

)f the machines, 

rect or confirm 

As regard ,.,1 f rora t i ie 

Foreign Office dated the 12ih in-t. en io-iim .a <le-patch from the 

consideration. But accord in 

g to the information 

,■. "u". 

Kmbi-yby th,- French Mini- 

prizes w,re given, the jury li 
viz.:— GOO francs to Mr. I 


►elandtsheer, 2, Place 


Paris: 400 francs each to 

the Compagnie Amei 
and to Mr. Armand, 

18, Broadway, New York, 

was exhibited by Mr. Barbier 

, 46, Boulevard Richar. 

i f r, P: 


" No report on the subject of 

the competition will be 

n the 

/»'//"'"' ■•''; /'-'■.< • '■ !('i,;. before the issue of the November nu 

These are, briefly stated, the results of the Paris trials on Ramie. 

of the estimates of the inventors, there can he no matter of doubt. It is 

. i , -|. -, ,;, » , • ti i - II ! inaugurated next year in 
tion of 1889 ; and if the value oftfce 
pri/c- i- met as. .1 there will doubtless appear a larger and better repre- 
sentation of machines and proee<se>. 

i chine (constr 

fibre, was a member o 
he has contributed 
grcssive of October < 

is treated as a question which more nearly concerns Algiers and the 
Fr< neli tropical Colonies. 

As regards India and our own < that Ramie 

machines should work upon the green stems, and not upon the dry. 

.-;.,. .;.. ■, •: ■ i ■• • .■ ■. 

ter cutting would be an imp 

■ I f. \\ u i, - v.. ill. I < nt; i -• i u '. ! i! .. i 

The p< r-cenl »g< i I 

about 10 per o-nt It th -t.-iu- niu t 1 >• f'.r-t dri •• before they are 
treated, it would be necessary to handle, to cart 

_ .'., ;,, li.<» i„n. ..] -t. m- for • it-:y 10to!.^..t li 

'■ ■ -' ' ..-_••'" ■ • '• ' • 

e open air. 

Besides, it is evident that the sooner < 
will be the prospects of the next. During the dry seasc 
grow very slowly, and it has been noticed that such stem 
internodes, are very woody, and offer relatively greater 1 
the process of decortication. 

Other Processes and Machines. 

refer to one or two for the information of 

may T.ot other- 

Durbhuugah, Bengal, forwarded a series of 

"'■"'"': : , " ,;i 

':', '' ■ •' 

different states of ]uep;t ration to Kew and 

them. It appeared that he had invented 

men in the field, capable of operating upon 

per hour. Tin- machin- simply -eparared 


wood. The bark v.i- then op-ruled upon by other 

eventually it was deprived of gum and mucil 

fibre was reported by Messrs. Ide and Chri 

■icturers. This 

isti.- a- "Ion. 

" Ramie fibre worth about 28/. per ton." Tl 

"..: .M:-.'Mai-M,.-< 

methods have not been made public; but 

id that a well- 

known firm of merchants in Calcutta has ac 

ractically teste.".. 

on a large scale. 

In the columns of die Timet there recei 

a machine invented by Mr. John Orr Wal 

" for cleaning ramie, flax, hemp, &c." T 

'he apparatus 

high bv 4 ft. wide, and 5 ft. long. It cons 

3(5 inches wide, on which the -terns are f 

pair* of fluU'd 

rollers, which deliver the stems downwj 

T - I 

to and -fro motion 

and the^ pins 

interlace as the two sides approach. Tin 

tihroi> to i 

)n, and at each 

■; ; ; r ;;;j;;' !i .{ 

withdrawn from it. By degrees thi- li 

free from fibre. 

t if r; •■ special 

treatment of Ramie. In spite of this, however, it has cl 

I fail !\ - the invec 

ro. da m-t: 

he -tem. either 

green or dry and produce clean fibre at th 

two persons to feed and tend it. 

Small ipsantiti - ot Ramie stems grow i 

i at Kew h:» 

fully passed through the machine. It is 

■ th- iv.mor. 

machine to a 

whir!, <|. mi\- to 1... n, niioii. 1. hi ill, ti -( | 

lar-*' t!.v ,.r |..„t [0 .^rms ,...,„ h- r-.l iu t!..- iv.ll. r- at once. When 

l '"" "'•'" - : ' n ' ! ' !i i- - i-i'^'il by the rollers, the operatm- need 
i them any longer. They pas-; < i iinint i pt. 11} 
■ ei then can !»• followed* immediat >lv fVe-h 

lot without the return action, which is an essential part of the treat- 
: .c l( . is hore 

■i *'C" ' ■-■'. ' V '. ■■■;■. : ; ; 

purely mechanical processes which have hitherto come under my notice. 
Personally,! am unable f express an opinion upon the Wallace 

' >■'""; ' I'o >ia that i, is m , n prom sing tlia a n i hue 

will speak for themselves. Until that is done it is ol.v. 
desirable to .1-. i , ;■ ;\ n ,[.,- v. tt w «i i - t n « 1, -..Inch possesses 
to, may be 
rendered of service iu ;- marketable fibre. 

General Conclusions. 
An eminent firm of brokers recently informed me : " There is no 

- «l"uhf 'I.*' U '■■ -. . iting^ .t i ),'■! -c :, 

: quickly. We cannot sav th.u at.-. : . 


* is either imperfectly freed from gummy 

" down in the matter of cost or owing 

' 30/. per ton is likely to su< 
; in the estimation of English 

is likely to sucr. this article firmly 

'Hi - ■ ■ ' -: -- un briefly and clearly the conclusion at 

' r" ■ \ , 

said to have yet emerged from the experimental stage. 

Official Copy. 

[All Rights Reserved.} 



No. 24.] 




(Copaifera Gorskiana, Beuth.) 

The terra 

eopal is comnu ivia!ly applied to vario 

yielded by < 

:.n,! -nb-lropical trees. 
arai-foMil «tnte on land 

i where 

majority of 

■■ ■ 


roni fcra 

" s in a state 

j numerous commercial distinctions be 


varieties of 

i unnecessary here to do more than draw attem 

one of then 

lost valuable of any now used in commer 

08, is obtained from 

;'.- ... .■ 

nu //«>;<< m unmnnni). Heyne. Sierra Lei 

ine copal is derived 

eopal, reeen 

t and fosssil ; pebbly copal from Accra, 

on the 

I... id l 'vast. 

Leone and other fossil African copal - 

! • 

in ina-es in f-a\itu-s, ami ai tl:r- ba<.- of old trees. The well-known 
[ is yielded by Dammara 
vated from the sites of old 

I ;! x::: nish 

dammar is the produce of Cauarhtm strict hid, Hoxb. 

Africa, which ha- . r< a*' il ; l' ■■: d ..1 of interest. 

iade by Mr. 

•ieiv- y.lonni. Linn. Soc, vol. xx. pp. 

Mr Hi (t m \ ]' H. U.i'. -.y'- ( .-mil for Mozambique. I 

" I have the honour to report, that from Mr. James Heathcote, of 
■ i . me for the recovery of the 

:>■ •,! 

turn out to ho ,,- rich export to the 

trad,' of that place. Ho had iu>! returned from an expedition to the 
interior, and writ.- : 'Th nuvM u !.. : , 1 . ; . ., 1 tl.iM jr„,„. oi wl oh I 

-!■■■.. - ■ •■', : ^ ' .• .' 

Inthlaku The tree c 

beautiful odour- it' pounded and 1 

ti> ordinary Ka-t \frieari . o>, tlu produce of 7V 

i] ms me, possess an ruin' Ij 

That th s ] r < ops '• i- : irti 1 1 

an imi-1 with wlii.-h M<->r- Robert Ingham Clark and 

wn varnish-makers of Weal Ham Abbey, very 

;-ik-<1 it- upon -nun- i,!' ill. specimens which we sent to 
them for exa be resemblance to Accra 

'■ others) a consid raU. on tttif\ < es»ential oil and lur> 


" about 80/. to 100/. a ton .... Certain descriptions of animi 

'• niark.-t ..■> high a< 100/. a ton." 

Withaftiit!- despatch dated I-'. »ruaiN I i tli. 18<k Consul O'Scill 
.-•ill >amples oi the leaves and hark ot sh. tre, yielding; ! 

•ik. in tit i i ni lt on Ci i .„ u \ :. tn Iv. i^i of the Kew 

authority c 

before that it v .i purposes. 

blance of Inhambane to Accra copal. The latter has long been suspected 

boned to be deri . Benth, Students 

of tropical At'i ican nrrence ef the same 

genera, and even -e sts. Landolphia 

Subsequent to the date of the above communication, further speci- 
iena of leaves and Erom Mr Heathcote on the 

th February 1886. The latter I good seeds, and 

•om these several h '.. Mr. Ih athcote states :— 

Many tons of copal have now been exported from Inhambane. For 
some choice pieces 10j. per cwt. The 


culture in Bengal has ! I larke, f.U.S., 

well known as an ac.-omplUied Iii-li^n 1 ». -r.-i i» i-t. Mr. C. B. Clark.- was 

sorts of rice 

mediate t<>~ the a 

hov< til 

re.-. The I 

Juwa is tin? must 

have taken as 


type variety. 

The Rowa Cb 

Rovva can 


be grown when 

• there 

is .some eh 

ty in the soil to 


«->t IWil ;- 

". .; 

.ken"!"''! o'rhl't Un 



is untouched from 

la'ry (Vlim on.- < 

;- ;. ■ ■ 

lies ofi) till 


(when the n 

a liiiwii crop every year — 

••-i I,.:-' !' 

I hriieve it i- ,i 

f.i'-o'.Mitc t.. 

i alto-.'ther abr 

: - 

:he rainy season 


i"* 11 ! !?,i .iV - ' wiV"Tt 

i. mi'.I 

a 3 vii -. 1 : 

.e ra 

:n« in Un^.,1 U-< 

,,;. 1, U , 

i l.-,th and 30th 

*«-• kugwrt nd vator com- 

H ; l-ju'iit • .. ■ .'i. .. ,. t < i<h ' 

base, allot woodj it is, in . 

'lo not contain 10 perch''-, and very n 

.any m.l » 

rood h area and 

round and round and acro>> and iia.-k a^ain in 

way. After the " plough " comes the " 

frame: but the ••plough" often goe? 

inowoc again. I5v ihe combined opera 

field to a depth of 1 to 6 inches is rec 

reds, especially the 

'n^u'inuV'^Vv 1 w;";. 1 ",;,? !!;;;:;,;';^ 

. ;' ^ ' 

out a toot high from 

.f the undisturbed soil. Th- seed-bed 

- u-uaih 

e Rov.a rice requires 

•Jon- to It till j he da> it 

is harveste, 

1; where the land is 

id flat of Bengal, the 

v,!!er requires a little v .' 

J Jut no weeding is 

'■.•quired; the Kowa has a line sta-'t of 

; there should be no 

reeping gra-se< left ; a -real in lit tn 


... .■.,.-; ... 

We effect on the crop. 

The IJowa erop depends very little 

on the ea 

rly setting in of the 

the autumn. The Jienuahv ,-xpeets raiu'at least once a week durin 
October, and enoe . , r olx . i[uUv the eu ; 

hold' (.iV'vuJd • •' Mllliea^tly'Xr 

November (as I have known it do iwariv half the s r -i-nV I hav 
witnessed) the crop is a bumper. Jf the' rain stops by" 10th-13tl 
October, so that tin Ib,\v ; , fields thou dry up .here may be a three 
quarter erop. If the rain stops before ihe'end of September, as it. di( 

fails. Also, if th' ... jo thai the rio 

be noted that the « 

tine and he works easily) does not do a dav'< work on his l{, nva ; ;t , . 
in the year, exoepl time. Those wh< 

propose to teach • , ,.,,,, . i, h„ r ,' lt ,. M \teui e 

rice farming must ponder this fact well. 

mioiily tlie villages stand. As you yi 
le river to the nex( vow 

ground, and <• being put in 

Is than Rowa, 

origin of our cultivated rices, and being so nearly 

: pestiferous \ 


>e seen proceeding 

witli the aid of a targe cloth, harvest tib <. Oori tl 

v.-;:-'*- -,»; .■:;-.::•■'..■'--■■:■■■/■'■■ - 

ll ; a (S. nd Central Bengal, but 

;y to Rowa and is ahva;.- nin.-h 


, i-]-. l.n! l.yi-^rrnmcnt officers, that there exists no 

such nee ;h I have described as Rowa. 

Renovation ov Soil in Rick Fields. 

In tli' Row.-Mkhk. a- I d.-ciibe tliem. the rice #ets only rain-water, 

,i } ric- can l)e -mwn in I5en-d every v.-ar in the sun, 

h « ium til, rb rs am IK ,:■ i ish tin- . ?1 

'} ; ! 'I'M''- <>' rich silt. My critics see that the rice round Calcutta four, 

sail Lmon; and »!cv 

' ■i-uiv !,,- ever wit!, out the aid of the silt. I 

Vlyi h'lnu. v 2, p. 202, where 

: .-■• : • ', ..,....■.,:■.. 

: yet that these fields have for 

■' ■- ■'■ ; ; :■■ -' \ - ■■■■■_ ■ 

recuperation of the soil take, hlaee between Januarv and June. 

• from Rajmahl and 

■■':;• "i teiracd < !,•,■ : it is ch-ai thnt these ik-lds cannot be 


;V ; ^ ■ ; ^ . ■ ' 

ngh, Comilhi, and 

- . : ' '•■ ■ ■ ■ - ' : < ! 

were not so the bheels would soon all fill up, and the "bani,- 

, , I . .. , ■. -:. • 

feoantry. In I ct, in s* imp i th d i - 

,- , , When i In land is well 

-ilr, < . t .- m rh ontlu^ ' -. - | to grow any 

lie,, but a little Owsk .Mi is \>v>. n in ide 

i, „,;•.. t,.n;„-ioii- hv :i lew rrni.s* of indigo or some other leguminous 

oop T Ium i". 'I<.i! ; t a tut m - '. in .i i f i« r til n ■ : 

Botanic Garden, was of opinion thai in these ri< 

power of the soil is sulhYi- si rain of Bengal, to go 

how to grow rice better. A favoui 

.:_:': . : ' '. ■'■■ -■■ ■ ' 

[V.-li soil. I pas> U tin' i 


keeping grtT'totet 


,y <r,, t 

is I should rather pu 

> be so thoroughly 

mtlay to get 

gl.t. Now 

in TmlLi • 


',!'.- ut th.' Bengalee 

ssea, which h 


.,, ■_, ;..-,- 

:, f.di 

-;, .. 


, I may add that if i 

■ J ; : 

lii:;-. : 

h just before dibbing. 

, I do! 

ibt whether 1 

;he ric 

i would get. 


I farm. 

Dr. Watt 

fdl- 111..' ! 

.....i.'.. >■>• these L^Ikis 

i European airm-ni- 

' ...:,,,, ■ • : 

.• ; l sat Miino t success j, - • English plough in 

and- to "vici: ut .niiu " U-tJal 1 lancv it would be 

diffienh to in.; .< to clean his land 

■2 si) 

thoroughly before ploughing, or to undertake anv ,-xtra labour to ensure 

a bett.-rcrop in a bad season ; he would sav that if the rain - 

hist on the average time that would l»< rhe will <>| Providence. More- 

which might be done to assist the crop when the rain stops too early. 
Manuring Rice Fields. 
A second favourite proposal is that the Bengalee cultivator should be 
taught to manure his rice. Ii has been urged on tin I 


-ill 1 l.e tiiiniV - that bv. 

The Bengali e.- t ... „ i, - | lt 1, !U anu . in.I In appl - 

-ed for fuel. It might be possibh I 


do not think it would be remunerative i . purchasi extraneous manures. 

t_ manure may he mnsidor.-d a~ similar to that of deep 

loo strong _ ihenc, crops when a full one, often suffers K-for. harvest 
when the country is drying up 

Experiments with Carolina Rice. 
A third Government plan has been to introduce expe 

! has a large grainj it 
produce per acre would be larger, far°less that 

ul for 20 years past has been sending 
Bengal. A bag of seed rice is sent to each collector; the 

" " ; - ' ■ •;■..;.-■ ■ ; ■:;;.■ .:■: 

-' ' '-■ " ' ' ' • « v g„t. in by the Bengal Secre- 

whole unfavourable. In 1870 the Bengal 

'-■■ - = > ' ■■ - •■■■<■ 

Mr. Jehu Scott, grev ,..1 outside by 

• - ... : . ■,. .. . 

■ ■ ■ • 
-< ■: N. , va~ a u ^ Uav } crop. - 
pureha>. it, and it was iiualh bought ley a European 
"■J '"t I London. 1 1 hree years 

■■■ ' " ■ ■• : ■ > ,-.'.:': I : ,,„■ .-.•. ,. , ... -,. ., 


aged enough fi 

■r the 

Government imi 

rations of it to 

recipients largelj 


nprovements b 

( »1K" 1UOM ill! 

.mid Ik- dibbl 

iTlv M> |.n, s ii,l« 

•. This is in 

. -..■n.-.-jil 

le mi.l.ll.- of J 

tin- plant- IV 

i : ( ._ 

■- hi> lieM 

■ lihbh- ii. () 

. i,r 

, i; ; . u ,: •. 


to dn to-<Ln 


--il>ly bo 

put ofl' till t 

. ,v ■'.'■.".;'■: 

b.,S..h .In 



. The 

,• in intro- 

all the deep pi _ that will ever be ' T i 

Bengal. If tin r;iin ImMs on ih rough October it nowise in 
r..r\\'..j.: He. ; while if the rain stops between 1,! ne<l nth Oetobei th. ltd i . . jr - vrrtli.-loss an ewcllent . roj Mar 

bnsmesa than the ch ilized B agal ee I ca in. I he) ; - tspe< ting that the 
nrjnhi:,! riee crops I have s< « h (in the Xa-a liills in the extreme 

ng; but I have never spent a whole 

\ <hfTi< mt\ - ■ 'i. ouiit. i« ■ • - ' d >b n_ i 


responds to •■! & tion, and to mai 

Hire.' 1 have often 

ij one tenth of the En j 

nd capital had been 

i; but as overseers^ 

usually preferred to 

IVngnlees. 'I'Iip Ikngjii.v rul!i\atMr citecm.< rice ; 

and, if he tries to grow any other, be it sugar cane 

last crop on which 

-\ve should attempt to give the Bengalee instruction. 

C. B. Clakke. 


(Cudrania triloba, Hance.) 

belongs to the 

' . ■ 

frivH.phlril,,. fan in R, v. if. 
r> "• 1' i- nbo figured and d-cribed in XwhoN n, lh,t. 

from the I<< 


(Forsteroniu floribunda, G. Don.) 

The principal papers on lb * ... r Central 

■ |, Kew Bulletin, Dec. 1^>7 p l.'»- 
Ma^an eh-.!] i iViucran, rulaVr |^A/nv W( / ,/;wr,7/s „ Aiarcli 
lvvW - P- rember 1888, 

p. 253. 

To these may now be added a further note on a new rubber plant, 

native of Jamaica, which has already been referred to in tin- Kew 

v";ir {[>]). 70. 71.) as Forstcronia 

.•••'•■■■■: ■ ' - /. : . . ; . . ■"• '' 

W~ nlanl is known locally as tin milk wvthe. >v milk vine. It 

the Report for the year 1884, pp. 



/ - ); 

CudraTiia triloba, Han ce. 

consult Mr I)iivrt..r.,t Tin IJ..t.i:'.i,-:.l Dopiu'tM./nt!" 
, °' lh ' SU P1 lined to fall far 

■■- " ' '^ ' ' ' ' ■■= • ■ ,• • ; , , . 

' : " - ■:- ^ ■ - ■ ■ ',. ■ ;. -I ■ :.. ., 

plant are enclosed. 

Edward Wingneld, Esq., ***> ^ ^~ 

Colonial Office. 



Royal Gardens, Kew. 
SiUertmvn, London. V... iTtli October 1888. 
Thr sample re,-fi\.-,l with letter t'r«.m Kew, dated 12th September 
l^ss, ,.,,11-M ■<! „{'., lute-c nt jui.e paiti.dlv ..... 
a.-i.l mteiion. K.-rttmateU il hi^ .•..nt;.hi.-d , 
about 10 ounces capacity. ' 

o.ilx 1^ ti.ut.u nu tli sun i. u s i,s 1 mi ., , to free It from 

' i; • N-. uid t - !•■! s,,!,.., llu ., lt h |, } j t Vu. If 

The non-coagulated portion was mixed with about twice its volume 
of water with about an ounce (floii 

\.-. After a few days* ex] 

• i..l squeezed. This n w b. l 

The r« sidu.l 1 M u I \> is , ,i .,!••!!,■,] t.. (,. 1 

' :> ' ; - ;: ' • ■ ■. . ■ ' -.. .! 

• the juice i . , i p ) . jj| : v g£ 

i dcIM 

I finest Para rubber 

■■ tf.i! uh^lui'Th. 

bO lost ill - : - ■■■i'lH 111.' spot. The 1 ii. 

rocess likely to be used in its recovery. 
There is no doui-t i-ui that I'he examination of the natural juice of a 
pin I ..11. in most cases, enabh one to point oui what 
sh, ,1,1 taken to cMin ih. best result -t II th, , u , must not Ik 1o,| 

■' :.:--. 

1 The juice of tl 
as generally mcl 

uc. or about 22 on 

•es of tins p'rodue 
and dried article. 


ilinarv crude caoutchouc 
.vored, the weight being 
)f Para rubber. Mixed 

i .larkcr in clom 

ered when washed and 
nple marked A. This 


flheHVfiesa-. nknmvn.* Bent 

of Hon n Koo,i, )». 420. <iai, •.- that - We have no authf 

to :! i i: w.i l.-i - ,. it. ! out in a 

* Oriqhi of CHim tt.,1 P!, ■■<• , issi),p. 755. 

f Hooker's B I tf 8 Vol. T. p. 9,3. tab. 26. 

been found at I'.ai hn-io?, 
raised at the Botanical 
ofessor Harrison and Mr. 

:: :■— ' ■ •■ ■ ■ - ; .. . • , .:■ . .. 

i'ii<es, Mr. P.orell and myself cuii-i. i.-iv.! that' ' 

rhich we bave here. These cknes - 

. rh, a^u-.nt land to report to v, 

■'■"■' '' : -'" ! ' ' ■ ■ : , ... ; - J • ...-■.,. 

- .. :■_. . .■ ..... .... ..;„ : 

■ , "". : ■• ■'. . : ■ ■ ■ .. ... ;;,. 

sun quickly shnwll. u th. m up; it «. „ ;.,.,■..>„„ to , : . 

(Eoehmcria nivea, Hk.) 

iiiim: ilic development of tlio Ramie industry 

'1 :ilon.' id preparing the tilnv a- detailed in a 

vial success. We 

V ;. ■ -,. :,...,.: ... '■'.'■':■_ ' : ■ ■■',. ; 

Have vou had am 

' ■ • - : . 

manufaetun r- <>t I'mop, ( t - d • ; t] utu, ,..i rt! | wh,,h 
iters in various parts of the world rtgaid ih - <:.:■:■ : ;.-.'.. ., :; .i ( ; ; .. 

* Kew Bulletin, November 1888, p, 273. 

tinctly discouraging. 
exists for this int 
:he manufacturing 

for this intere-iin. '- - pre-vm attn 

; or extraction of the ' filasse,' 

r classification of 

•!<• Ramie plain, and of producing stem- with the fibre in 
;!„!„-! po~-il»]i- condition. This is purely the work of the planter. 
we have the the process or proccs-.cs necessary to separate tin 1 
!,!.;, ii ."m th. stem- in the Form of i bbon- and hla-e. It is n.-eessaiy 
for many reason- thai • her by the planter on the 

spat, or by a central factory close al h i the purely 

}\ the -jiihii r- n i utilized in the same manner i.- coiton, ti.ix, and 
u. fabrics. 

1 ' • . ■.:■-:•:■•.::;.-■■■. =.!.■■: ■ :.•';■. : ; 

tion of the Ramie plant presents no insuperable difficulty. Also that it 
a citable, tiou o! -< I U made, an 1 the 1- c il i; p..^< s.-es the neces- 

. n to greater or less extent in most of 
our tropical po-sc-.-inn-. A- regards the second stage— in which is 
i in of the Ramie stems — the problem, as shown at 
p. 273, is by no means completely solved. 

On this really hangs the whole subject The third stage is dis- 

iind l.cin- ihu- uncertain the iibre i- m-oes-aniy produced in -mail and 
ti, s th il t< i only 1 >i tea by means 

:• . ■— • .;:i:; ! -; : ;;:-.. ■ 


.Ha,p. ? ; 

XXX. i Saccharine - - - 

XXXI. Seeds of Herbaceous Plants at Kew 
XXXIJ. Forsteronia Rubber at Dei 

nilla (Vanilla planifolia, Andr.) 
b!;!- V | yxblus asper, Lom.) - 



XLIX. RmSTr^heea (Boehmerla nicea, ] 

i angusHjolium 
s sEgilops, L.) 

>ago, p.' 190; Trinidad, ' p*' 191; 
Ueh Guiana, p. 192, 

Date. i Article. 

Subject. ! Page. 

September 1 LVII. 

; lvjii. 

October LIX. 

NoTember i LX. 
j LXI. 

1 LXII. 


1 LXV. 



December j LXX. 




; LXXV. 

: • • ■ . • , 

Sb, p. 31«; Bermuda 

St. Helena, p'V>2. " 

Lagos rubber (Ficus Vogelii, Miq.) - 253 
Liberiau Coffee at the Straits Settlements \ 261 

Tea oil and cake' {Camellia Sasanqua, I 264 

Demerara Pink root (Spigelia anthelmia, j 265 

Food grains of India (continued) (Coix 266 

Trinidad Ipecacuanha (Cephaelis j 269 

Treatment of Vines in France - - 270 

Huskl.*. Rnrlrv - - - - 271 
■■" »ira,). Trials of 273 

In^bane^opaKCo^/cro^wJbwiitf, [ 281 

Silkworm Thorn" \cudrania triloba, 291 

HamvWith plate. 

G. l Don.) r 
(Saccharum officinurum, L.)