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Date. j Article. 

Subject. Pa,,-. 




















CLV 111. 




Th' Weather Plant (Abrus precatorius, 

: ■- 
totelia Maqui, llerit.). 
mTunia - 
\ ictoria ■■- 

Production of the World 

Indian Yellow - 

mils, L.). 
Barilla (Halogeton sativus, Moq.) 

'" -■" ■ '■' ' 

Lao-os liubber (Ficus Vogelii, Miq.") 
.,-./...•.., «»j,.T. W. Douglas). 

Compressed or Tablet Tea 
Cotton in West Africa - 
West Afncan Annatto (Bixa Orellana, 

hogany (Khaya senegaknM, 

The hi ma ('a ■ L " 

Food for Silkworms (Boehmerta 

i.., P< „,- ,b, Uoval (ianlens 

„.. . » 2 




. ' 


Climate of Zanzibar ° 


An edible Fun-us of New Zealand {Hit 

)u ■•'<> polijtrlcha, Montague). 


ibre or Istle 





:'. .....,,-. \ 





Liberian Coffee {Coffea liber ica, Bull) 


(oh. Nut (C«/« acuminata, R.Br.) 


Cultural Industries at the Gambia 


Production of Prunes in the South 


t Perfumery Plants in tt 



ise in Fiji - 

f Hardy Herbaceous Plants, 

■ - 




NoTsTO JANUARY. [1890. 


Abrus precatorius, Linn. 
Darin- the year 1888 numerous notice. ..pi-an-d ■ » Lumlo. ■ » '■ 
■,.«-'■..■■... ■■ ■ <■ "- v ' " ; ' ."' 

predicted the changes of weather. 

the « St. James's Gazette" for August 30th, will sent a. I 

« The 'Weather Plant.' 

« extensive experiments, that the sfo -.... 

< two thousand trials made during the last three 

i . Th, plant itself .,.,■„,,. [tia 

- -■■ .■-:-•■-■■■ '■' , ' . - 

lower and hardU 



days beforehand. The indications consist in a change in the posit 
of the leaves and in the rise and fall of the twigs and branchlets." 
In the " Times " for November 5th following, 

u by Professor Nowack 1 

l quoted verbatin 

has been i 

" Foreign Office to request Professor Nowack to fun 

" formation about his famous weather plant. The Committee of the 

Jubilee Lxl , ., ( .|o«cd I ms promised Professor 

' Nowack a certificate, to the effect that the weathor forecasts made by 

-- correct in 96 cases out of 100. I have been requested 

owing to the great number of 

d he has made arrangements with 

Common, to exhibit the plant in 

'''"f 1 ""' amI u > ;i! - xv ' ! ' a" inquiries about it. Further, Hen- Nowack 

wishes it to be known that his plants are now trivim- indications of 

shocks of earthquake, which may be expected to occur during the 

h next week within 100 German miles south of Vienna. On several 

•' otT.^ions the-. ,»n dietions a< to earthquakes have been useful in 

enabling mine owners to take pre, , loss of i;fc 

" m colliery explosions." fe 

It is not known whether any report upon the subject from the British 
Consul-General at Vienna reached the Foreign Office At anv rate no 
copy has beer iishment, though the Foreign Office 

usually transmits to it any information bearing upon botanical subjects. 
,£\i meetlDg ° f i he Eo ^ al Botauic Societ y °f London on 
^^V- 3., exhibited « plants oTtl e 

i Weather Plant,' Ahrmprt: • 
He stated that "tin- behaviour of th. srv, 

lt ' * • »«"«=« «""»« auu me same time a 

" conditions under which thev w,r<, -rowing." P 

It may be noti.-ul that Mr. Sowerby identified the weather plant 
uul, .lOnis pncatorun. In point of fact no such name as \brus 
inrujmn.s is known to botanists. 

Mr. Sowerby'a remarks were communicated to the « Times » ;i nd 
produced the following reply :— ' 

To the Editor op the « Times." 

As the London correspondent of Professor Nowack, of Vienna, 
I beg leave to say a few words in rrnh to the statement in .1 

"limes" of yesterday, with reference to the recent, 'uv ,'m ,1,! 

Boyd Botanic .Society, and , nm,,ing th, w,ather plant 


forms the gist and 

g^Sg tow Stf&wafe 

-<^ B... y iv..r, s ,ZZ^ ,..!;, ,..'=: Tt,: 

;r;. ! 

corresponding with a magnetic compass with its north 
towards north, in an apparatus of his own special, but, 
very simple, construction, and is therein <_M-own and cull i\ at 
cial and simple manner described by him; it will then, 
, cease to be susceptible to the influences of its immediate 
(3) that its sensiriveness to atmospheric and electric influences < 
and under such conditions alone, be thoroughly controlled. 
then be turned to practical account i'or forecasting tlie loeal 
with truly marvellous precision, 48 hours beforehand, ami 
earthquakes, or subterraneous disturbances, both at a diatt 
locally, with respectively three to eight days' previous notice. 

Any number of weather plants placed under such condit: 
behave alike. Such is l'role>M>r Xowaek'- experience, which 

matter of the deepest scientific study. In Austria the merits of the 
plant have been fully recognised by a great many who had 
approached the matter with the utt ridicule The 

Archduke Reiner is a firm believer in the plant's men:-, ami has ,]iown 
Mr. Nowack much encouragement in his work, and whole townships, 
ral unions, farmers, &c. have furnished testimonials to like 
effect. The observatory of the Austrian Tourists' Club, on the Sonn- 
wendstein, at an altitude of 1,511 metres, in the Styrian Alps, well 
known to many English I • the vanoua branch s of 

the club with weather forecasts during the season, has now for alreadv 
over a year, discarded both aneroid and ordinary barometers for thai 
purpose, and depends for its forecast upon the weather plant alone 
The earthquake at Stolac, in Bosnia, on the 10th inst., which u;i- s<> 
clearly and accurately forecast by the weather plant as o:u 1 v a-- the 
2nd i'nst. at noon, and was thus mentioned in the "Times" oi the 

sceptical that forecasts of great importance can be reliably ascertained 
■ plant. 

by the aid of the weather pla 

Little further was heard ol 
when Mr. Nowack called at 
letter of introduction on the pai 

Major- General Ellis 

Royal Gardens, Ke 

Marlborough Hots*, Pall Mall. S.V\ . 
Dear Sir, * 3th JuI y 1H89 ' 

The Prince of Wales desires me herewith to give a letter ol 
introduction to vou. to Mr. J. Nouack, an A 
is anxious to make known his theory of the weather plant in 

Kn S ,am,> ,• . , Wn 

His Royal Highness, when m Austria, had !u> ati 
to it by the late Crown Prince Rudolph who was much interests in 

Anything you can do to advise Mr. Nowaek will bo appreciated by 
H.R.H. the Trince of Wales, Mr. Nowack being an entire stranger in 

Ensland ' Yours, &c. 

(Signed) Arthur Ellis. 
W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., 
C.M.G., F.R.S., 
Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 

Mr. Nowack stated that he was anxious to place in the Royal Gardens 
som,. of his plants in the apparatus devU-d by him tor weather pre- 
diction. His object was, no doubt, to make his invention known and so 
ultimately to promote the sale of the apparatus which he considered 
,--, id ial for obtaining predictions from the weather plant. Any trial or 
exhibition, however, which is directed to a commercial object is, for 
obvious reasons, not permitted in the Royal Gardens. Mr. Nowaek «>. 
however, perfectly willing to allow some of his plants to be deposited in 
the Jodrell Laboratory, and to demonstrate from day to day, over a 
sufficient period to allow of a fair tr which he be- 

lieved their movements afforded. It seemed desirable thai, tins should 
be done. Experience has shown that boot natural 

phenomena have some substratum of truth at the bottom ot them. 
H.I.H.the late Crown Prince Rudolph was no inconsiderable naturalist, 
and he must have thought that there was some prima jacie case in 
favour of the weather plant, And the idea was not actually novel, as a 
plant of soul-- <!ed ™ S ° ut P 

America as affording indications of changes in weather.* Nor is it 
intrinsically improbable that there -I ^ relation be- 

tween plant movements and weather. The former, as will be seen, are 
lan'elv due to external temperature and amount of 

sunlight. But these are actually part of weather, and the only real 

difficulty consiM. d in i.-uvin- by wh.n p..~ihl.- pii^ieal agencies a 

plant could anticipate beforehand the conditions to which it was to be 
subsequently subjected, and which it would, no doubt, at the time 

* Writine at the end of la in some detail 

M, .1 ,.p-„ „V.'.l Uts <* /' Hi, / '■/"- -.-'."./. I 1 i /\M. r l.%ltl...,M« l.'-O.t 


•• leaves are awake, at night they sleep (as is the ease in many pin 
" leaves) ; the primary and secondary petioles are then strongly drawn together, 
• adhering to one anotie plant appears bare ot leaves, 

■ and. as it were, dried up. They predict fair and stormy weather: for it a' 
• • gret tied an are completely 

« close op hall t,g to be overcast 

'• and stormy, they begin to close an h halt an hour are 

" corapleteh id overcast and tempestuous, 

- tb» 1. ives begin to uniebl aftei Minris, and m - qsanded in \\ hours. But 
'■ should the plant be - . • noon the leaves 

'« completeK i or after sundown. These phenomena were 

' ■ 

Tt would not have been easy lor am 
n,-m,l Garden^ to devote the time which 
the" daily observation which ihc experiment required. 

ery kindly under! 

furnished the very full and able report upon the whole investigation 
which is now published, 
■ill he convenient to Quote from the spceihYntion <>f the patent tak.-n out 

« Date of application, 31 December 1887. 
<« Specification accepted, 12 October 1888. 

« A.D. 1887, 31st December, No. 18,026. 

« Complete Specification. 

« A Weather Indicator. 

« We, Joseph F. Nowack, manufacturing chemist, and F.rn.t IjnhU-i . 

■■.■■:•■-■:■■■ ■ 

is hour, afterwards, and is therefore a reliable means of pwrtirtinp 

^SffJSwo- for the successful cultivation of the weather pbnt 

"m A temperature of at least 18° Reaumur. 

M J;*£2 .ith exclusion of ^vmd. 

" 3. Pvot. • ' ;ir "***• „ . . , hv th0 

■. - 

SIM %£ : *' a * em,OT " 

' ■ - ■ . ' . , ■ . ■ - 

, ... .. ♦..m.H.nuure oi at i»a - 

plant answers the purpose of i 
3 described and illustrated." 

W. T. T. X>. 

The plant Abrus precatnrius, Linn.. !- a well-known tropical \ 
Originally a native of India, it is now widely 
regions, includ --Vest Indies, &c, 

plain, wiili the habit of a shrubby climber. In tnu case <ji 

used by Mr. Nowack, the young rapidly-growing shoot* we 
he fore requiring any support. Thus the production oflatoral ■ 

as --crab's-eyes," and 
corative purposes. In India they 
are called rati, and are largely used by goldsmiths as weights each 
weighing about 1,' grains. It is stated that the famous Kohinoor 
diamond was first weighed by the rati, a word which is indeed 
supposed to have given origin to the jeweller's carat (Kerat, Arab.). 

The powdered seeds aiv harmless when eaten, but rapidly produce 
fatal effects when introduced beneath the skin even in small quantity. 
They are used criminally in India in " Sui" poisoning, the object being 
to obtain the skins of the poisoned domestic animals. The poisonous 
action is due to the action of a proteid, Abrin. 

The leaves of the plant are two to three inches long, with 10 to 15 
pairs of shortly stalked leaflets. The texture of the latter is very delicate 
and membranous ; the surfaces glabrous. 

At the point of insertion of each leaf on the stem is a slightly swollen 
joint Gvfin/cijtu.s,;im\ each leaflet is provided with a similar small secondary 
pulvinu- at iis point of insertion on the main rachis. The rachis as 
well as the leaflets perform considerable movements both vertically and 
laterally on their pulvini. It is with these movements that the bulk of 
this report is concerned, as on them Mr. Nowack bases his various 
weather prophecies and barometric charts. 

The leaves are arranged on the stem alternately with for the moat 
part a divergence of \, but since in its development a leaf generally 
bends round through an angle varying from a few degrees to as much 
as 90°, it is found on an adult shoot that the leaves point in various 
directions. They spread themselves so as to obtain the most favourable 
illumination. This point is of some importance and will be referred 

secondary increase in the thickness of the stem is peculiar and abnormal, 
as in many plants of climbing habit. The leaves, however, and the motile 
organs, the pulvini, do not differ in any character or manner from the 
same organs in other leguminous plants with motile leaves. 

Some years ago seeds of this plant were communicated to Mr. Nowack 
with the statement that " they belonged to a wonderful flowering plant." 
Ho raised young plants from" them and was much impressed with the 
movements of the leaflets and of the leaves. That the movements in 
question did not depend on the immediate external condition*, Mr. 
Nowack soon satisfied himself. His observations suggested to him tho 
existence of some connexion between the movements and the state of 

.,i :i future period. The views whieh Ids I'm ili.-r ob-ei va- 
in 1888, entitb 1 ~ -I F. Xowack's W< erpflanze. dei Ki;;eii>ehaftei 
" Cultur und Pflege, mit Anleitun-. wie dttrch di 
" Witterungs- und Temperatur-Veriinderung fiir den IForizont, die 
•• Umt/vbi'tiif und /.■ 'i und genau 4S Stunden 

« vorher bestimmt werden kann." 

Mr. Nowack claims to be able to foretell, 4S hours ahead, the nature 
of the weather and its various changes as well as the strength an. I 
direction of the wind, and rise or fall in temperature. Further, thai 
intimation of the advent of earthquakes and of "Schlagwetter." (ie., 
escape of firedamp in coal mines) is given by the plants many days io 

According to Mr. No« ^""' /''■''' , '"'"'" 1 fal1 

into two physio u i< il groups; I : »' h '* h ]l " 

speaks of as B-plants, and (2) plants indicating coming changes in 
temperature, T-plants. 

1 will now shortly describe the chief movements performed by these 
plants and the significance attached to them by Mr. Nowack. 

Tn the first place it is claimed lhat it plants of Abrus be allowed to 
otow undisturbed, the leaves as they develop will place tie 

tea lie in the chief planes of the a 
\\ , / c, that all the leaves on a plant will point either N ., S-, 1-- or \ . 
if during its development a plant be r 
tend to move back to the four card 

|-,; c h -id. of a plant any -hen leaf in a phase of movement 
ion from which the indicated weather change will 

' ;U Yh7 leav'fT.n' any healthy plant fall into three categoric, 


h told the weather f~ *■ 
,,.',, th . mediate category, 

, and indicate for 

I finally only for the I 


red, then, that the leaves of different ages I 
ra m the went h 

. Nowack for different purposes, J 

pointed in various directions, but n 

T. Movements of the Leaflets. 

At night the leaflets hang vertically downwards, so that their under- 
surfaces are approximated. This is the sleep position. During the day 
the leaflets are more or less raised, making various angles with the 
vertical. Commonly during the day they approximate to the horizontal, 
or they may move upward this, >« that then- 

upper surfaces are separated by an angle of only 45° or 30°, as, for 
instance, in direct sunlight. Those positions of the leaflets below the 
horizontal Mr. Nowack speaks of as <• m gatin " .- those above, as 
" positive^ The>e " positive " and - negate " positions he regards as 
fundamental, and as indicating 48 hours ahead fine or wet weather 
respectively. The horizontal position is for rhamj* : iind if the leaflets 
gradually move upwards from this position into a •• positive " position, 
a forecast of the weather 18 hours ahead is make fur - clearing up," 
"fair weather," or even " line and cloudless," according to the intensity 
of the positive movement (as judged l.y the height to which the leaflets 
move). In a precisely similar man ne i t> indicate- 

an " overcast sky," " probable rain," or " heavy rain," the position for 
the last being almost coincident with the sleep position. 

All these movements may be performed with the axes of the leaflets 
at ri-ht angles to the main leaf-rachis (indicating calm weather), or the 
leaflets may be inclined forwards making angles of less than 90° with the 
distal part of the rachis. These angles are regarded as indicating the 
intensity of the wind ; the smaller the angle, the stronger the wind. A 
•« fresh to strong " wind is indicated by an angle of about 45°. These 
are combined with positive or negative or horizontal positions of the 
leaflets (pointing to " fine weather with wind " or " wet weather with 
wind," &c). 

The direction of the wind is obtained by noting in which direction 
the leaves affected by this particular phase of movement point; the 
changes in direction hy noting the sequence in which this forward 
inclination of the leaflets appears on them. 

Electrical disturbances are indicated in two ways :— (1.) By an 
irregular arrangement of the leaflets, some directed forwards, others 
backwards; some positive, others negative This irregularity he con- 
siders to foretell "presence of electricity in the atmosphere," but not 
necessarily thunder and lightning. (2.) By a peculiar curving of the 
leaflets, each leaflet being convex nhove, concave below. This move- 
ment may be called " rolling " of the leaflets. This " rolling " is shown 
by leaflets for the most part in the negative position, and it thus often 
happens that whilst the secondary petioles of the leaflets may be 
inclined to one another at an angle of, say, 90°, their apices, being 
curved down so as to !"• *".v the leaf-rachis. will 

almost touch or even overlap. This "rolling" foretells thunder and 
lightning for the locality or sum*.' distance away, according to the relative 
age of the leaves on which it occurs. 

Since his arrival in E I .at fog or mist 

is prophesied by irregular positions of the leaflets indistinguishable from 
that indicating "electricity in the atmosphere." The more strongly 
marked the irregularity the denser will be the mist. It is on account of 
this similari t j At Mr. Nowack, in forecasting weather, 

has found himself unable to distinguish between "electricity" and 
"fog." This is the e- d.ious forecasts as that for 

October 3ist. 

A further movement, somewhat resembling the "rolling 
• ,i 11 h, in it 
tin" manner, part of each Midac- Le'.ng -lighth convex, 
concave. ThiTis the "snow" or « hail" position. 

aflets used by Mr. 

Plants used for making forecasts are grown under sp< audit fetk I -. 

„],-, .bade* admitting of being lusted (nun below, ; 

: . ;■, .,,,■:,- • -■: '- < ' ' ''-. 

(UH , nn ,i, ihMou is u. a, k,« *"; ;;;v ,, ; v ; m ;!;;: 

observation were placed in a Btoti 

;2;, S,.^Xo e n n Jd n o,;,r , ; , i;:; , :.. ! 

i„/nr«, the foliage. In cloudy weither the screens nere nlwny 

I insert now, without further **£*£"&£ 5»hS£ 
day to day. Side by side with « 

of the weather as taken down by me or my assistant, Mr. U -, 
day to day. 

Forecast for Oct. 

Drawn up Oct. I 

(Originally given for 10th 

to 12 th; but finally 

standing as Actual Weather Oct. 10th. 

Fine morning, with few cumulus clouds. 

1 . [;> Shower. ' 
3 ljiiiniiiMlmiitdlismnt). 

5 Sato, 


Forecast for Oct. Uth. 

Drawn up Oct. 9th. 

ii m above { then al 


Actual Weather Oct. 11th. 

13,30 Bain. 
1—1.30 Shower. 
5,3 Bain, 

: .-.() loir, uihl .'(.ntinurm-: 

12.30 Clearing. 
3,0 Overcast to fine. 
Fine after 3.30. 

5 Overcast. 

Forecast for Oct. 12th. 

Prawn up Oct. Uth. . 

Actual Weather Oct. 12th. 

j rain in England all day. 

Forecast for Oct. 15th. 

Drawn up Oct. 14th. Actual \\ 

.15 Fine, with clouds later. 10—2 Fair; 

5 Fair to fine. 2—2.45 Heav: 

Fog or thunder in neighbour. 3—5 

i thunder in neighbourhood. 

Forecast for Oct. 16th. 

Drawn up Oct. 13th. Actual 

) Very fine ; moderate wind. 1.30 Heavili 

Overcast. 2 Stead; 


Drawn up Oct. 15th. 
Mist to fog j clearing. 

Kaii' to oveniast : rain loeulh 

r nlouds. 

12 Cliiuigi'ahle: overcast to 

fair; little rain locally. J'lrf':!'' ^ ' ' nT 

Forecast for Od 
Drawn up Oct. 

Generally overcast; 1< 

cloudy towards 1. 
Fair ; misty to foggy. 

England. ' 

cloudless; wind fresh* 

my and foggy; heavy 

10 Clearing. 

Drawn up Oct. 22nd. 
(Originally given for 24th.) 

2 Fog increasing. 

Actual Weather Oct. 2.1rd. 

11. HO Kather brighter. 

1—4 Overcast ; no fog or rain 
After 4 lighter ; no fog. 

Forecast for Oct. 24th. 

Drawn up Oct. 20th. 

(Originally given for 22nd.) 

4.'. Change to fine, 
nn Cloudy at times. 

Actual Weather Oct. 24th. 

9—11 Dull ; bright above. 
11—12 Fair; no rain or mist. 

-light mist after 5. 

Forkcast for Oct. 2oth. 
Drawn up Oct. 23rd. 

Fair to fine; heavy clc 

Forecast for Oct. 26th.; 
Drawn up Oct. 24th. 

(.30 Overcast. 9— 10 Overcas 

).30 Fair to fine. 10.301 Overcas 

.30 Wind light. 13.30 J 
1 .30 Overcast. 

J. 3<> Thun.hTV : dull, lu-rliaps ran. 3 1 "y™> 

wind moderate. 5 ./Wind in 

3 — 4 Foggy ; heavy clouds ; ram t 
4 . 30 Clearing to fair ; some mist. 

Forecast for Oct. ! 
Drawn up Oct. 26 

Forecast for Oct. 2 

Drawn up Oct. 251 

(Originally given foi 

""3 Kain ceased ; wind lurht. 

in r lruring u 
).30 Fair to fin. 
1.15 Chanccab] 

given for 30th.) 
Baht; mist. 
:> Ch-arinp; more wind. 


I — .) Cloudless s 

Above stand the forecasts and Aetna] weather, side by side, between 
)ctober 7th and the beginning of November. One or two dare alone 
re wanting, on which, for some reason, either no forecast was forth- 
r no record of actual weather taken. The reader can judge 


i after the 

JLhe frequent changes were due to several causes. - 
the barometric charts had to be re-arranged to procure even a colourable 
i - > l! !'i" brtwwn th. ii<-tnsil and prophesied charts, and this noee^i- 
tated a re-arrangement of the corresponding weather forecasts (which 
however, were made independently of the charts). Somel 
manner, the prophesied and actual weather were at variant, and a 
change would be necessary in the forecasts. The weather i 
given for the day finally fixed, but where a change had been made after 
the event the fact of such change is given in brackets. 

In describing Mr. Nowack's method of forecasting weather I said 
that, normally, the plant is supposed to foretell two days ahead. This 
is the method described in his pamphli shod used by 

him in the published samples of his forecasts. As a matter of fact, a 
large per-ccntage of the weatler Wrea-t- which he now niak. - are n.'t 


drawn out two days, but some other number of days ahead. It will be 
seen that of the forecasts just quoted only 10 (under one bait' ) are two 
days ahead, and the others, one, three, four, &c, days ahead. 
To take a succinct case :— 

On October 19th the plants foretold weather for the 21st 
„ 20th „ „ „ 24th 

21st „ „ „ 22nd 

22nd „ „ „ 23rd 

23rd „ „ „ 25th 

On October 19th one of the numerous u changes" took place, ami for 
three clay- the plant ceased to foretell two davs ahead. On the 19th 
(he foreca-t was for th.- 21st. whilst on the 20th it jumped to the 21th. 
and on the 21st back to the 22nd. 

Very few of the "changes" in October were anticipated by Mr. 
Nowack — indeed, only one. They were needful in order to make the 
prophesied and actual weathers and the prophesied and actual barometric 
charts fit to a certain extent. I cannot say that the series of weather 
hove given, arranged, as they are, in the order most favourable 
to Mr. Now. i Ivance on methods already in use. 

From the moment I had these plants under observation J wa3 much 
impressed with the extraordinary sensitiveness of their leaflet- to 
alterations in the intensity of the light, and the view which I fir-» 
Formed as to the nature of their up and down movements was, in the 
main, that they wore called forth by fluctuations in the intensity of tin 
light. All through I have failed to notice anything to shake this 

On a fine bright morning the leaflets stand in such a pot 
their upper surfaces make an angle of 90° or less with one a 
if the day continues fine this position is more or less maintained till 
well on in the afternoon. A cloud obscuring the sun's face for a brief 
period is sufficient to depress the leaflets from their high position to the 
horizontal. On Mr. Nowack's method, should the depression reach, for 
iustance, some distance below the horizontal a forecast would be made 
of clouding up, or even a shower, to occur <1 8 hours afterwards. 

After studying the movements of the leaflets continuously for Bonw 
days, it was possible to say with some certainty before visiting the 
plants what would, on the whole, be the position of the leaflets. ' tf 
course individual plants differed to some extent, some being less. oth< r- 
more sensitive to variations in the intensity of the light. The so-called 
T-planta (regarded as foretelling changes in temperature) Bi 

M sufficing to bring them int.> a itroog 

Is the case with the ordinary B-pIants. Similarly 

i! j* the T-plants which first intimate a decline in the liirht-lnl. uMtv ..- 

day by day which go to sleep first in the afternoons. The i 
the leaflets on different sides of the same plant are dependent on the 
.in one side; 
[eaflets which are better illuminated show positive ; 
.rree those on the shady side will be horizontal,'.! -\eti m 
negative positions. In showing that these movements u . 

f am not demonstrating any new properly oi plant- In- 

■■■.:.;■.;., i, ,:,-.. : - ■ ■■ - - ■■-■■ 

/'si tnl'icaeia. In both the plants a change from a weaker to a more 
intense light calls forth the strongly elevated (or «• positive " position) of 
the leaflets, whilst one from a more intense to a weaker light, a move- 
ment of the leaflets downwards (into the «* negative" position). These 
plants differ from many Leguminosns in that they posses* distinct light 
and dark positions. As tire intensity of the light is augmented, the 

, of which Averrhoa />< 1 as an instance, 

the' leaflets hang vertically downwards in darkness. With increasing 
light they gradually move up to a horizontal position. When, however, 
the intensity of the light is increased beyond a certain limit, the leaflets, 
instead of continuing their upwards movement, begin to fall again and 
hang vertically downwards as in direct sunlight. Here then the extreme 
light and dark cat. There are other types of move- 

ment in allied plants into which I need not enter here. 

Between the more sensitive so-called T-plants and the ordinary 
B -plants, all intermediate degrees of sensitiveness occur. In any batch 
of seedlings a large number of slight ph\ siologirjd varieties seem to 
occur, some exhibiting greater -en-itiveiiess to light than others. It is 

plants. Mr.Noi 

pass over later on into one class or the other. Whether this is so or not, 
1 am not in a position at present to say. 

Not infrequently I noticed on certain plants groups of leaves, either on 
a particular shoot or at the base of the main axis, the leaflets of which 
exhibited very sluggish movements, and indeed never assumed a positive 
position, except in direct sunlight. I am inclined to regard these leaves 
as indicating an improper treatment of the plants bearing them, since in 
several cases in which the treatment was altered, they behaved similarly 
to, and were indistinguishable from, the other leaves of the plant. 

Seeing then that the movements of the leaflets are for the most part 
controlled by variations in light intensity one can see how the weather 
plant may, under special circumstances, serve as a true weather prophet. 
If the weather is continuously fine or continuously wet the plant will 
in the former case continuously prophesy fine, and in the latter, wet 
weather. This is because fine weather is bright weather, and light of 
a strong intensity promotes the "positive" position, whilst wet weather 
is dull weather, and a weaker light promotes the " negative " position. 
.So long as the weather day after day is constant, a correct forecast will 
" ■ 10 days ahead. The difficulty is 

I will now consider the positions which Mr. Nowack regards as pre- 
lnonirary of electrical disturbance, snow and hail, mist and fog. 

" Electricity in the atmosphere " is indicated by irregular positions of 
the leaflets, some being positive, others negative or horizontal. The 
electricity need not, however, manifest itself in the form of a thunder- 
storm. The a • or fog; mist 
if only slightly shown, fog when more marked. A thunderstorm is 
indicated by a bending of the leaflets so that the upper surfaces are 
convex, the lower concave. I have noticed a tendency for this phe- 
nomenon to recur on the same leaves, and I regard it as a pathological 
e for it. 

The irregular '■ iog-jio-iti. mi" ar... s\nig light-. 

iii certain ways. If a plant be darkened for some hours and fata 
exposed to the light and darkened again, &c, this irregular position of 
the leaflets will l.e called lortli ; the sum- thing will happen if the plant 
be inverted for a few hours. Unhealthy plants are more apt to show it 
than well-grown ones. 

On any leaf probably all the leaflets are not sensitive in alwoluteh 
the same degree, and Maiden fluctuations in the conditions producing 
movements will make this want of equality apparent in the irn-gulni 
position of the leaflets. 

Snow and hail positions are characterised by a slightly irregular 
transverse or saddle-shaped bending of the lamina? of the leaflets. 
When this position was first shown on a leaf (end of August ) Mr. X<>- 
wack regarded it as indicative of eleetiieiM Since, however. h< ha- 
modified his view, and regards it as the precursor of snow or hail. My 
observations are briefly stated. When the peculiar curvature in question 
appears on a leaf, it remain- permanently, at any rate in all cases 
der my notice. Tor example : the leaflets on a few leave* aho* 
these curves to a marked degree during the last week in An go* pad 
d'hevien.:: ,' ; > !i " 1,:,vr - 

were removed from the plant. The same occurred in other cases, j 
have found that this phenomenon !a 

-poltin- or bleaching at the margin of each leaflet affected near th- 
apex. Whether this spotting is due to the puncture or bite of some 
insect, I cannot certainly say. How, v< n ■. n 
connexion Ithi curvature Thetew 

a sweet taste, not unlike « liquorice-root," they may not improbably Iks 
punctured by insects. 

1L— Movement of the Rachis {Midrib). 
Previous to his sojourn in England Mr. Nowack would BCOntO haw 
(1 ,,,, t , ,1 r.ule attention to the movements of the racln- 

■ extreme pc*tion B which 1 eg 

fcter. Recently, however, he has ob* 
ruul attaches to then, very great 
,„„,t be stitedatthe outset that these rachis-movements are entirety 
independent of the movements of the leaflets. At the time ™* 
pamphlet was issued (1888) Mr. Nowack attached special 
only to certain extreme and well-marked rachis positions, in addition 
the leaflet movements. These were : — 

M ^ Cases in which the rachis is bent sharply down from t 
( us, making an angle of 45° or less with the *~- Such 
u-thquake posil 
d by the extend i "" 
rlhquake !'oi- t 

almost parallel to *e stem. indioted for modi 

taken after 

dinary weatnei tu*!^.- -»- 
inn of Pending is reached, and ^ 

r -oiuC da}-. M,- \,,wae.k aright, ti 

ward movement. At that time, d I 

ttf S^K^t M^ C£ vC, aoa Jg« a 

fre*L hypothesis to be detailed below. ^ 

U 60894. 

The direction 61 the earthquake is indicated by the quarter of the 
-*■ -Wch the affected leaf points. 

r position resembles the above position except that 

— „ „, not bent sharply from the pulvinus, but at first is 

directed upwards :, >hort distance, and the distal two-thirds curved 
sharply downwards. The forecast is drawn from it in much the same 
manner as for earthquakes. It is a significant fact that leaves after 
assuming the " Schlagwetter " and earthquake position, do not 
straighten out again, but always die. This will be referred to 
later on. 

In addition to the strongly marked positions just described a little 

■nun pul inus. Sometimes the rachis ,- more or less 1 <omal ; at 

other times it 13 inclined upwards or downwards to a c-reater or less 
extent. In a single day I have known a leaf to move thmu-h as lar-r 
an angle as 20 -25 During his stay at Kew, Mr. Nowack elaborated 
an ingenious method for predicting from these movements of the rachis 
the position and course of regions of barometric depression and of anti- 
cyclones. From day to day he sk.-td.ed oiil and plaeed in my hands 
s >"°P tl,: «-hfi'-'^ "I biiromclric high and low pressure for, mmerally 
■ day. in advance. These charts cover the same a, v., a's 
the daily charts -ssued by the Meteorological Office in their <hii- 
weather reports. Mr. Nowack claim- thai from the .-hart- forecasts 
1 weather can be made out at least a day or two ahead 

Altogether Mr. Nowack has drawn up in this way between .',() ; 

60 barometric charts, which he was anxious should stand the test of rom- 

parison Wltl^ th< actual charts f„r the eon ., line time, as draw, ,„ 

at the Meteorological Office. On these charts I will not paslany 
n^a y "n^e?to% he "^ * ^ ***<**<* Office^ 

J^JttiJSFFitt are so ak k n solel7 f T thc 

upwardly inclined-,,!,. iX,^ t ^Zn, ^*£^XZ 

one high pressure. The degree ol 

: : '^- ' '-" - ■ . ,, ■ • ■ .',' /■ . 

■"iy 'Thirds, if i, IU akcs an an 

/on<aU considerable (.predion i- .-,„■!,'," 

direction ,n which the leaf points ?L \ • 

rachis makes only an ande of is , ' '* the , 1 ? af " 

-th the horizontal, a much less 

ofSi^!i h ^™' ^ **« *■ " -hi, 
horizontal the £ 

As . w ' th til( -; Wli,fl ^ Pr- -.we -lies, so here also, 
W* unheal-- ,- j 

However, whil. dicate onlv local 

r fhussim to a di>tanee of 

leaves of differen 
itehcalc I>tim»i( trie pressure t 

g readings from a plant consists in noting the in- 
ter m the anticydonie or cyclonic positions), the 
ic relative age. ,,|' :t „,.,,. l( man i,<, r u f i onV( . s< 'piie 
arked I, 2, 3 ur> to fi lu.ri, r,v i^™. „..,■>„„ j- 

from the horizontal. 

1 low being the 

strongest points, form the central points of high or low area-; 6 high 
or low would tl<>\ late but little from the horizontal and indicate the 
boundary of high ami low pressure awn*. A blank chart is then taken 
iiml circles drawn with thu point of ob.-ervation as centre. The inmost, 
circle includes all points indicated by the older leave-, the second with 
radiu- of perhaps 200 miles those by leaves of intermediate age-, ami an 
.mter circle tin--. In the \ oiinge-t leave-. Th«"' \ alms given by eat h leal 
are then inserted on the map at their proper di-tance- fiom the eciitral 

The approximately identical points 

> equal points of barometric pre! 

of the figures so obtained indicate the different areas of high ami low 

pressure. In practice Mr. Nowack uses blue for all poi 

and red for points of lower pressure, and these are joined by " isobars " 

in the same colours, so that the regions of high and low pressure are at 

once apparent on examining his charts. Mr. Nowack does not claim to 

t. il the uh.nhil,, hut m.h ill. j.-mmelMimnetii. prepare at the points 

marked. However, this does not affect the correctness oi t) 

charts in any way, assuming the relative barometric heights to be 

indicated correctly. He distinguishes between deeper or shallow areas, 

the former having a centre marked 1 or 2, the latter say 3 or 4. 

As a matter of fact it often occurs that points of high or low pressure 
fall on the chart near together. Suppose, for instance, points ot low 
pressure are marked on a region over which the ] 

of depression, indicating thus an off-shoot of that depression | 
into the anticyclonic area. But if the distribution of points of pressure 
does not admit of this, the isolated low pressure points must be neg- 
lected (as frequentlv Mr. Nowack did in his earlier char, 
stand for some isolated areas of low pressure on a general big 
area. In any case some ingenuity is required in drawing the 
so as to avoid great confusion ; and in general Mr. Nowack '- 
charts are characterised by the complex (branched) figures of his 
different areas, and by the relatively large number of his primary and 
subsidiary centres. As I have said above, reference must be made to 
Mr. Scott's report as to how far they represent the real state of affairs. 

I said that on the average the charts were drawn three days before the 
event, i.e., a chart drawn from observations at noon on Tuesday should 
indicate the actual distribution of pressure at noon on the following 

As a matter of fact, though Mr. Nowack professed himself often 
satisfied as to the agreement of bis i] X Z° Z 

charts, it often also occurred that they bore no sort of resemblance , to 
the real chart of the day for which they were drawn up. wnen mis 
happened it was necessary to change the order of the charts, ana to 
but two, four, or five days ahead, and the charts would be 
re-arranged so as to fit in most accordantly with the real oaromei 
charts. . 

In speaking of the weather, I explained that local west! 
foretold with regularity, as described in his pamphle , two da^ead 
but at intervals°of one, or three or four days ahead, as 
previous experience. Tim, u-uaf, ..,■ M.,,!a> h. \^*f*£ m 
w-. atie, for Wednesday and baron..- ? ma ch the 

ever, the chart made from the plan- 
actual Thursday's chart, that chart is regarded as being that tor r y, 

and if it shows a certain agreement with the actual chart of Friday, 
this change is made. Tins implies also a shifting of the local weather- 
forecast in the same sense, and the weather forecast made on Tuesday 
for Thursday would also be changed in favour of Friday. In this 
manner, in order to harmonise the charts, the weather forecasts have 
had to be altered, and also on some occasions, in order that the 
prophesied may harmonise with the actual weather, a further iv-arra...-- 
raent has been necessary involving a second change in the charts. " 
o„^ e8e * r , e - arr * n ^ ents were found necessary oftener than Mr. Nowack 
anticipated, and m the month of October there were altogether five sets of 
changes, each including on the average three days. He was "uided in 
the determination of the dates of these changes chiefly by the fact that 

™IJI»T'7£ *? matter of fact during the month of October nU„t 
thPvwli' °l the Ch t H * W T given for da >' s othfir than those to which 
they were finally ascribed. It was only „,;, , the , ,-, „,, i.e., after receipt 

cLntwirzrf r ther ^ ^ ^ c «» ** *% * 

change was made. In having assigned to them the ,lat,s thev b. -, ir . 
Mr -Nowack s charts are ptmm* rcabletohia. 

wbiohfti 7 if tlG H, " r ' W!l< "— >'lv ..nven ,< well „, ,l,u „, 
which it was finally relegated. How , . „ arrangt d 

«i tins rented order, gi ve the actual pre 
m question may be gathered by reference t 

hands % J ' N ° Wack When they paSSed int0 * Ir - Scott ' s 

o„llJ ieW ° f t J 8 Very great im Po r tance attached by Mr. Nowack to the 
manfnW ^^T^ 3 ° f the rachis ' J have had the leaves °n 
reSS nf r det ob *™ ti <>» ^r a week or more at a time. Exact 

8 of S g a m tm r + posit r Avere taken evev y tWO 0r three hours from 

nlant i^SJ™ •? ,1 evenin S- Ev ery day each healthy leaf on a 


front glasses of the case, so that tw 
stood in a straight line; the mar 
pulvinus in each case 


the pulvinus of the leaf^n atl '" "'"'i " ltt " : '- Vs ~" i,, ^ , " t '- 1 ,h:lt 

Whe^ *— 1 * *• imaginary line 

the y r,chir Rg SUCh lbe f e ™7*w hours the vertical movements of 

So : •; ;: c ^ve a Ssrt d ' and > usin * ^ ° f **^ 

„f n— .„„ i 9U ® T> b the movements over a considerable inf«rv a l 
glass sheet without fear 
I plotted ( 

horizontal sheet 
of glass fixed above the plant. 

In this manner the movements of a very great number of leaves have 
been followed. The result of examination of a great number of such 
reading* is i<> -how that normally the raehis begins to mow upward 
between 10 a.m. and noon: thai this upward movement is continued 
for about twelve hours, i.e., till between in p.m. and midnight, and that 
then the raehis moves slowly down, reaching its low, >\ reading between 

ditions of illumination and temp. . f from (hn to 

day, the curve of one day agrees wi;i 01 full.. win- 

days, the leaf being approximately at the same inclination at the same 
time on successive days. A single leaf oscillating about the horizontal 
in a single day will at one time (morning) be in a position indicating 
(according to Mr. Nowack) relatively high barometric pressure, and 
later on in the same day in a position indicating rclatiwly low barometric 

Though all the leaves show such a diurnal movement of the raehift, 
all have by no means an average horizontal position ; some permanently 
point upwards, others downwards. Those pointing upward- will be 
m ![■<•! tin vertical at night n 1 neaivi the hotizontal in the moping; 
those pointing dowmvards, on the other hand, will be nearer tin 
when at their maximum height (i.e., at night), nearer the vertical m the 
morning. All the leaves on any plant move in the same direction mid 
reach their greatest heights or depressions at the same time. The 
mean position of a leaf seems to be ' will receive 

the mo.-t adequate illumination. This is -trikingly shown when a plain 
is submitted to onesided illumination, as in an ordinary room. I he 
leaves of a plant on the side towards the light will for 
bend downwards into extreme "high-pressure" positions, i 
the upper surfaces of its leaves a 
general direction of diffuse light. Alter rem 

that i: th. l.i d «■. ipl.-n-l i i 1 through 1 -0 , the position 

is not markedly altered. In the case of a teal bending 

horizontal to a mean downw aid inclination of <>0 . in response say to a 

onesided illumination, the change of position is gradu 

bv successive sinking dav by (lav, and failure to rise t" 

elevation. Hence a .Tea at tir- oscillating about a horizont a 

after a time, steo by step, be found oscillating about a steeply inclined 


Other leaves, again, to accommodate themselves to light requirements 
will become elevated in a similar manner. 

When the illumination is not of a constant d 
dav is succeeded In a line and cloudless day, and that again by a gloomy 
om\ the extent of thos L ° a fl ? n< j 

. ■: •: .'• . ■ • ' - • ■ ' - "■ 

gloomy morning. IV mon m n< light: - 

and the difference between the lowest du p-ttmn an d highest mgftt- 

reading is much greater in dear than in dull weather 

This was especially v 'f aveB „, n 

number of plants under observation at the end of Oct 
mornings of October L>7.2s ; ar.,l L'!h were duil 

n I-.,..,.,, I • : ., ■ * ■■■ '■ ■", " ■' ^ 

mam dull in the morning though brightening up l^'. on -_ ,* 

3 covering the same period show 1 

27th. .?* 

29th (dull days) the leaves on i 

leaves being as much as \ in. lower than at the 
previous day. Likewise on the 31st (also a bright morning) the lowest 
readings were (as on the 30th) considerably below the average. 
November Is! was a dull morning clearing Inter. The downward 
movement did not extend beyond the normal, and by the time the dav 
cleared up the downward movement of the leaves had been arrested. 

The extreme downward movement on a bright morning is not the 
result of a longer continued descent, but rather of the more rapid 
movement stimulated by the stronger light, since on fine and dull 
nan-mug* alike the low-- imately at the 

same hour. In other words, on a bright morning the movement down- 
wards is not continued to a later hour but is more rapid, and continuing 
over the same time necessarily lower. 

At night the extreme highest point is reached before midnight. 
Slight variations were no. ire*! in the height attained on successive 
nights by individual leaves. I consider temperature to be at any rate 
one important factor affecting the movement. 

some of the plants were placed were such that whilst on 

the temperature would be as high as 27° to 30° C, on otL 

fall to 19- to 20° C. My experience is that, other things bein» equal, 

a leaf will move upwards more rapidly on a warm than on a cold night, 

and that consequently a higher point will b. auai.,,1. As regards 

effect of varying humidity of the air, it would appear that in a drier 

atmosphere the movements aiv greater than i 

5oftll, '' ! series of days 

in entire darkness is entirely consistent with the phenomena above 
tl F0r the - *2 *°? ° r T ; total darkness 

- remain folded in the sleep -position, and the fluctuations 
of the rachis are small and irregular. Soon the plant begins to recover 
from the effects of this sudden change of conditions, and each dav for 
everal hours between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. the leaflets are raised Z 
above the horizontal position. The action on the plant of continued 
alternation of day and night during its development woe 
have become impressed upon its organisation, so that it still resnonds 
spontaneously, though the external conditions have ceaLd to Xate 
ims is ot course no new fact, but one well known to plant physiologists' 
The recovery of the plant from the first shock, and the renewal of the 

by"otre S rnS moveLl? °f £ ^ fa ^^ * acco -P^ied 
menti of the rachis. Each day the rachis rise* 

.:,'," V" "I" '■'•"'•' l-i-.l.d downwards, making an 

angle of Uo ,v,,l, ,.,„-;.,,,.. >£*£* ™ 

"">' ''■"'■'" "< l'l«»l in dark„o,« slum-.,. 

Again, plants grown and illuminated only by light rays of low 
refrangibility behave much like those in total darkm—, > , 
are obtained by growing a P hint so that all light which reaches it ha- 
piisscd previously ihrmigh a solution of potassium bichromate Tin- 
blue end of the spectrum is for the most part absorbed, and since tin -c 
are the rajs that affect the movements of growirii: and mature plant- 
organs, tin t I as Tax is this kind flight is conccn 1 is m darkness. 
On the other hand red and i/tllmr rav- pass unhindered to the plant. 
and its leaves can continue the manufacture of starch without inter- 
ference, so that the duration of an experiment may be prolonged tritfetotaf 
so complete an overthrow of the normal conditions as obtains when 
the plant is grown in total darkness. Under these condition- the leave- 
moved upwards in the course of observation- extending over -ix week-. 
and remained till the close of the experiments pointing steeply Bpwsrik 
in the highest position which it was mechanically possible to attain. 
On removing the coloured solution from around the plant a striking 
thing happened. In the course of two hours all the leaves movd 
down through an angle of 40° to 60°. The action of pure diffuse light 
in this case was the greater from the fact probably that the plant had 
been so long protected from the blue and violet rays. 

Finally it must not be supposed that the upward and downward 
movements of a leaf rachis occur in the same vertical plane. As a 
matter of fact the leaf points sometimes to right sometimes to left of 
the positions in which it is at its extreme elevation or depre-siot 
? apex of a leaf axis traces an ellipse in performing 

much as 20° or 25° of 

I have dealt in some little detail with these rachis movements, since 
it is to these that Mr. Nowack attaches so much important . 
them as he does as indicating barometric changes several days in 
advance. I have tried to show that the leaves of Abrus exhibit up and 
down movements not dissimilar in nature to those shown by certain 
"i her Leguminous plants: that the most marked of these movements is 
:i diurnal 'movement, a sinking in the morning, a rising in t! 
and that the regularity of these movements is directly affected by 
variations in illumination and in temperature. I contend that the ex- 
planation of these movements, as also of those of the leaflets, is to be 
found rather in the action upon the plant of the immediate surrounding 
influences as light, temperature, and relative humidity combined with 
individual peculiarities, rather than in far-fetched hypotheses such as 
those held by Mr. Nowack. 

The earthquake and schlagwetter positions of rachis are shown on 
various plants not infrequently. Six or eight leaves on I si 

other of the positions at once. Mr. Nowack no 

longer regaids them as foretelling necessarily either i 
mine explosion, but sudden changes of barometric pressure at the spots 
ndicated. In the ease of the earthquake position, he regards the prophesy 

fulfilled it after the lapse of a certain number of days after the bending 
reaches a maximum a sudden change from low to high barometric 
pressure takes place. Similarly as regards schlagwetter, except that 
the change is from high to low pressure. 

In other words, these positions indicate the sudden development of 
well-marked high or low pressure centres respectively in the directions 

indicated by the leaves and at a distance from the point of observation 

Mr. Nowack usually fixes a period of four or five days some little 
time ahead of the date on which the curving reached a maximum. This 
period he speaks of as a " critical period." He is guided in his deter- 
mination of it partly by data as to great disasters of this kind which he 

has collected lor some years: partly by a consultation of astronomical 
tables. Mr. Nowack believes in the existence of definite "critical 
periods," during which catastrophes are p 

foreign to the scope of this 
3 of the r 

report were I to follow him into the details of the matter. All t 

be done is to compare a list of earthquakes and schlagwcttors Eoretold 
with the iiarom.'tTM- variations which actually occurred at the spots 
indicated over the " critical periods " in question. This is done in 
Mr. Scott's report. There will also be found a list of authenti- 
ented fartlnji... I he actual day as well as on those 

preceding and following the date of their occurrence. A perusal of 
these barographs will show how much colour Mr. Nowack has for his 
view that earthquakes are necessarily accompanied by suddenlv 
developed anticyclones. Barographs are likewise given for the days 
on which earthquakes were foretold in October and November. 
According to the accepted definition of Mr. Nowack's "earthquake^ " 
the prophecy will be sufficiently fulfilled if there is a sudden barometric 
rise at the times and places in question. 

Similarly barographs are given covering the times of the prophesied 
schlagwetters. ' The accepted definition of schlagwotter (for the 
purposes of this report) is a sudden barometric 
the barographs will show how far Mr. Nowack's anticipat 
been justified. I am unable to give a list of authentic firedamp explo- 
sions lor comparison with barometric fluctuations, not from am wish to 
burke this part of the matter, but because statistics are difficult to 
procure. Further details will be found in Mr. Scott's report. 

My own view is_that these extreme curvatures of the rachis indicate 

death of the leaf. In no case does the „ :!ll 
rSn DS a aP E, a ra " Ce - The ^^ differenc(! ^ween an earthquake 
no on thP 1 ? h ' a ^ etter P os ? ion is > that in the case of the former 
snecir^rv t alrea ^ Panted m 0re or lesg downwards before the 
special curvature commenced, whdst i„ the i ilttfT i( p „ intcd more or legs 

strZ d :nC;:^r sc ^ tme does not obliterate this in the 

In conclusion, I contend that all the movements exhibited by the 

■-■•'• ■'■ -■•■r V •-...■■,: .,,,,,., ............. 

suggested by Mr. Nowack. 

The ordinary movements of the leaflets, of risin* and fahW are 
called forth m the main by change* i n the , 

ntTt S 10Sphei J th i ey ar ? more • - r£ ■- 

Son the move'-' '' ' "" *** 1:lvourable for transpira- 

The position for enow and haiJ is connected intimately, in theca** 

that have eome iimW ,,,,■ ,.k .■ 

tor tog and mist ami for electricity in the air is 

t, the rhythn 
3 leaflets being temporarily overthrown. 

The position indicating thunder and lightning J t 
logical from it- tendencv to recur on the same 1. aves 

Daily movements of the rachis constitute a peri,. -lie 
as in many other plants with pinnate leaves. The r 
oscillations is considerably influenced by both light and 

In conclusion, 1 have to express my thanks to my as: 
Weiss, for his very efficient aid all thromrh the ol 
detailed. With his co-operation, Mr. Nowack's wea 
been continuously under observation for about two 

raised in the report his opinion coincides with mine, 

Dr. Oliver's report needs no comment. It only remained, therefoi 

to obtain an opinion as to whether there was an v agreement betwe 
the charts issued by the Meteorological Office, showing each day t 
actual distribution of barometric procure, and tile charts prepared ! 
Mr. Nowack, which professed to i>iw in advance the same data 
obtained from observations of this " Weather Plant." This the sect 
tary of the Meteorological Ollice, Mr. K. 11. Scott, F.R.S., very kind 
undertook to give. He has n of Mr. Nowacli 

charts, furnished the following report : — 

Meteorological Office to Royal Gardexs, Kew. 
Meteorological (Miiee, 
63, Victoria Sire, t, London, S.W., 
My dear Dyer, December 5, 1889. 

communications received liimnirli 1 >r. « >liv. v. 1 enclose our report < 
the maps and predh ti m si bffiitfc 1 to me. I forward also drafts of oi 
two plates, and I return all Mr. Xowack's maps. T should like to ha 

(« Bobr H. Scott. 

Of the weather maps, which are drawn by 
three or four davs before the date to which thoy : 
three for October 7th aid 20th and November 1( 

published mapr- foi the il n dates mentioned. 

Tnere is no ; 
be seen from the illustration. Plate J. 

Earthquakes. We arc informed that Hr. Nowacl 

locally over the region all'cctcd by the shock. 

In Symons' Mot. .rnlo-ical Magazine for l^>4.p: 
a list of all earthquake shook- experienced in t!u^ 
a copy of which is appended. 1 have compared all 

between 1869 and 18S0 with th pnblisl I Og 

Weather R. |».rt, :.'. ! I aw nU> i-x:ii:iin- d :he Kew barogram for April 
g2nd, L884, whan the well known serious shock occurred in Essex. 
Th<> results are shown in Plate 11., ami they afford no confirmation of 
I-Ir. Nowack's statement. No hiiroi 

am of the shocks. No anticyclone N tract allc in the neighbourhood of 
the region shaken on any of these occasions, except on September 23rd, 
1875, when a 1 at centre) prevailed 

over the north-east of En.u ich was described as '• a 

Blighl local tremor," was felt in north-west England. 

In this connexion I enclose an extract from a letter I received many 
years ago from the late Mr. Robert Mallet, F.E.S., whose authority on 
seismological matters will be universally recognised. 

Schlagwetter. It does not appear clear whether Hr. Nowack 
describes by this term an explosion, or merely the appearance of fire- 
No materials are available for testing the predictions for the last few 
months. The reports of H.M. Colliery Inspectors for 1889 will 
appeal next year, and the\ will contain dates of filial explosions, but 

rily those of 

the appearance 
>n junction ' 

iuu&, una eenainiy no data as 
ith Mr. W. Galloway. lm\ .id is ied tin, e paper-, in the 

R.nal Society - - Proceedings Vol. XX., p. 292, and in the (Quarterly 
'Journal Me;. :. [., p. 216; Vol. 11., p. 19.3. From 

these it appears that while there is a decided tendency for firedamp to 
escape ironi the coal into the workings when the barometer falls,' vet 
that this action will not explain all the occurrences of foul air, or of 
explosion. I would i f.-r \ on to tin-, p.., .-r N m to the reports of the 
Preussibche stl _ tt.-i Tommi-i. - ',- d in Iierlln in 1887. 

In conclusion, 1 have received from Dr. Oliver a list of dates on which 
I. "Schlagwetter"^ or "sudden depressions," and II. •• Karti ptakc 


of these yields the f 

ng results. Tl 

I.— Schlagwetter. 


1 Actual position 
District predicted. r , forest 

p Cyclonic Centre 
on Map. 


6. November 12-18 (pro- 

bably 14th). 

7. October 30 

8. November 12-18 (pro- 

bably 14th, 17th, or 18th). 

9. November 12-18 (pro- 

bably 14th, 17th, or 18th). 

OfF Hebrides - 
Near Cork . 

X. ar X. wcastie- 

Xe°ar Hanover - 
Over I.uxem- 

Near Paris 

Over Central 

Off Cornwall - 

Off Hebrides - 
Off Hebrides - 

Near Berlin - 
Over British 

In Northern Nor- 

Off Hebrides - 

In Northern Nor- 

In Northern Nor- 



J<368 Oel. 

_^^ & \ 

=_-— - — — 


- * 



~~Wl MarvhT~ 




4873 April 


1 1T~ 




^ ]T"~^ 



4878 Jarv 


28 .-- 



4883 Jxtr& 





4884 April. 

1 " 1 


23 ___ 


-Earthquake Warnings. 




1. October 29 

Near Vienna - 

Southern Russia 


Near Bordeaux 


NearCorunna - 

4. November 12-18 (pro- 

Off Seilly Isles - 

Over Central 

ing north- 

5. November 12-18 (pro- 

OffUshant - 

Over Central 

bably 14th, 17th, and 


ing north- 

6. October 27 to November 1 

7. November 12-18 - 

South-west Eng- 

Central Europe, 


8. October 2» (Oct. 27 to 


Southern llu^ia. 

Nov. 1). 

Southern \lw-fia 

». October 20 

North-west Ire- 



It will be seen that of the « Schlagwetter " two of the cyclones w 
predicted correctly, and two nearly so, while there were five to 
failures. In not a single instance did these appear suddenly. Of t 
anticyclones there was one correctly predicted and eight failures. 

Robert H. Scon 
Meteorological Office, 
December 5th, 1889. 

! Devonshire (Sidm 


Offices, 7 Westminster Chambers, 

Victoria Street, London, S.W., 
. . , July 15th, 1870. 

:*ri'. 1U ito right in- saying that there is no establish;,!*!*- 
etween any of the phenomena of meteorology, i. ( any-thin. •• in 
ing the atmosphere and earthquakes m less of a cyclical 
j.aen, it is not only possible maybe,, <,.. 

g and unusual periods of rain or of drought or TOfcwSc 
i may affect the tendency to eruption, and so indirectly that to 

(Signed) Robert Mallktt. 

[All Rights Reserved] 




No. 38.] FEBRUARY. [1890. 


In the Bulletin for June 1888 the papers were reproduced in which 
the process was described by which either quinine >eparately oi the 
total alkaloids were extracted from cinchona bark at the Sikkim 

The Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal has recently communicated to 

lishment a copy of the "Annual report on the Government 

" Cinchona Plantation and Factory in I5< ngal for the year 1888-89." 

The follov -id.! i- extracted from it, for the 

• which tic 
documents primed for the Government of Bengal are little likely to 
reach. It is obvious thai il < ■ i 1 1 v ■ 1 1 . i > : ; alkaloids can he cheaply and 
effectively extracted from the bark at the place whore it is . 
will be a great economy in the expense of transmitting the bark to 

"The new oil process for manv.jaitmi.uj < i nh\Lu\-~'l\\\i process 
has been in use lot the manufacture of sulphate of quinine timing the 
year, and no less than 2,19 1 p< ml.- < 'that Inigl iv< i>t.-n prepared 1 
it. Arrangements have also been w !i during the 

eurronl year to the manufacture of cinchona febrifuge. Up to the 
year under review the new process can scarcely be said to have been 




used on a manufacturing scale. But the production of 2,191 pounds is 
sufficiently large t > i ititl< it i<> he fairly eoi sidered as a manufacturing 
experiment. This enlarged experience of the working of the process 
only increases our confidence in it. It works without a single hitch ; 
the bark is entirely exhausted of tie whoh oi its nil iloid ; and tlio 
quinine produced is professionally reported to be as pure in quality and 
as satisfactory in appearance as quinine of the best European brands. 
A brief account of cold oil process was submitted by me to Government 
in March 1888. together with n. short history of its invention. The 
history then submitted was, however, by an unfortunate inadvertence, 
inaccurate in some respects ; ami sufficient credit was not allowed for 
his share in ii \lr, I '. 1 1 , Wood, who for- 

mally years was (^jinolo.irist on the plantation. Mr. Wood has now 
prepared a short history of the invention, and a full account of the 
method of working the process. And this important ami interesting 
paper I now enclose as appendix A. of this report. I again take an 
opportunity of bearing my testimony, not only to the excellence and 
simplicity of this admirable process, hut also to the generous way in 

which Mr \V 1, without any pecuniary reward, initiated and invented 

itinhisprivai ,| K> <; l)Vrni _ 

ment Factory. Without Mr. Wood the process would not have been 
fnventvd, wl p Wl)u i,i nm ],. 1U . ! H . t . H SU( . ( , ( . >s f„i| v 

applied to manufacture." 

" The chief cause of the extraordinarilv low price which has for 

some time nil- t()1 . ({U - m \ ue 

:il " 1 Ml " °fa ' tion of bark 

or a long time was the staple pro- 

-an some years ago to fail because of a disease 

I ,U! ^ ,t !, ' ;i " -»: I'"' tin tailing staple. And some idea of the 
'.; vhl " to which tin- was done may he gathered from the following 
' i -"',' < - l! ruber 1880 (using round 
n pounds of cinchona bark were ex- 
ported from Ce } Ion to 1 1„„. i )ulllljr „„ ,,., , ss ;_, , „„ it ,, 

ZVll I" ^ •"" *0«l 

w«W exported. In 1887-88 the quantity fell 

hrther fdl 1! " ° 1 ?*** li is expected to show a 

1 , ir V ni . ' liS, ' :is " :i '" ! ' . the Cevlon 

o/b^no u '" mak " Wi » <"'• *<* toahel; ^d 

-ket, to be sold for what it would fetch THe result hal 

oSlurtinn " ll ;«>"•- past at prices ,,„ 1 .;, 1 ,,abl v below the COSt of 

" ! ; '■ "' ! -■ ■ ■ . ■ , ; , 

■■•■>v ■■-:■■ ■■ ■ ' ■' ■.!:."'.:.;: 

of Great Britain and B ' [?™? 

cheap remedy for * 

t much long.-i 


not go on planting cinchona trees to sell their product at a Ion, As 
a matter of fact, pluming lias already ceased; aad exportation are 

to diminish. Aud, in the course of a year or tv. 
of cinchona products must rise. The invention of the new oil pro.', -s 
of Messrs. Wood and Gammie, and iL • by Gorem- 

meDt, will no doubt contribute mater n permanently 

below the rates which have been hitherto considered as normal pri*-.-. 
invention makes it possible for any intelligent planter to 
make quinine on his own estate. From the general depression of the 
cinchona industry, the < bweniment estate could not hope to escape; 

quinine has been materia! i- put more within rea'h 

of the masses), the result is 1 think, gratifying." 


"Memorandum on the fusel oil process of niant/farti/rina (/limine hi/ 
C. H. WOOD, Esq., F.C.S., F.l.C.,' ^c, $<:, late 'Government 
Qui/toloc/ist In tlu (locernmeiit of Bengal. 
" At the time I received the appointment of Quinologist under the 
Government of Bengal (1873), I was instructed by the Secretary of 
State to give my chief attention to the production on a large scale of a 
cheap ami efficient febrifuge from the cinchona bark grown in Briu'-h 
Nikkim ; and I was special ly directed to consider the suitability of the 
method which had been proposed by Dr. De Vrij for this purpose. It 
was in accordance with these in?tn ;<acture of the 

preparation now known as 'cinchona febrifuge' was est . 
Mungpoo. This preparation is made exclusively from the bark of C. 
smrihtbra, which at that period was the principal product of the 
plantations. The process selected lor its manufacture was not well 
adapted for extracting the alkaloids from the more valuable bark of 
('. Calisai/a. Sin oral varieties of this species, however, were then 
under extensive cultivation, and a considerable supply of bark from 
this source was likely to follow. The manufacture of ei 
fuge from the produce of C. succirubra being well i - 
liecame important to make arrangements for working up the Calisaya 
bark by some other method. 

would be to prepare from it pure sulphate of quinine ; but this could 
not be economically done with such crude appliances as sufficed for the 
mat iitactiiiv of fehriiuge. \ - 

requisite maehim rv and apparatus was considered to be »- 
representations t ," this effect were made to Government b ; . 
an.l mvstdf. Accordingly, in 1879, the Government of Bengal had agreed 
to sanction the formation of a small factory for the manufac t 
quinine from the calisaya bark. Experiments which had been in pro- 
gress for some- time had enabled me to select a process for the purpose 
which prbi "™J" u \ u '\ 

ceive an extended trial in the new factory. The principal details of 
the method of working had been settled, and rough sketches of the 
apparatus made. The solvent I proposed employing m extracting the 
m the bark was the 'fusel oil' of commerce. I his sub- 
stance is a b V e-produel obtained in the manui-,- 
be then purchased in London at about 9d. per gallon. I pn 
a-pbred the nan,- , l 'oil.' because it floats on water, bm 
cheiuieal component i- am„li, alcohol. There was no likelihood of 


any difficulty in the importation of fusel oil from Europe for use in the 
p,;,.,.-: i,n< -lioul.l any unforeseen obstacle arise whereby fusel oil 
could uot he got, ordinary spirit was to be used in the extraction, and 
( , . . 

1 had abundant evidence thai the whol. oi tin 'alkaloids could be 
ad\antageouslv obtained from the bark by the process T had selected; 
but its economical employment on the large scale depended on the use 
of suitable apparatus whereby the solvent could be recovered from each 
operation with very little loss. It was for this reason that I con- 
sidered a properly tarnished factory to be essential to success ; and, as 
I have stated, the Government was prepared to sanction the expenditure 
necessary for this purpose. 

"At this time then the arrangements were matured for starting a 
factory and putting the fusel oil process in operation. But at the same 
period there were ri i-ons of person ! 1 hieh made me anxious to 
return to Engls r aignation. 

It seemed to me a suitable time for taking this step, because any 
successor to m ttendence and 

control of the manufacture would naturally prefer that the factory and 
its appliances should be arranged under his own direction. Some 
informal correspondence on these points passed between the Lieutenant- 
Governor and myself, in • n at first very kindly 
asked me to reconsider the course I wished to take ; but ultimately my 
resignation was accepted. It was suggested that the Secretary of State 
would possibly select a young chemist for the appointment, who wotdd 
be willing to take up and carry out the plans already made for starting 
Ere. In that case I undertook to work with him on the 
subject for a time in London, and render him what assistance I could 
in acquiring information that might be useful to him in putting the 
process into operation. 

"J returned to England in the autumn of 1879, and a few months 

later I had an opportunity for malum; stinted with 

the employment of mineral oils in the extraction nt quinine. The use 

of those agents Lad been already tried in India. : i r. Uroimhton 

experimented with them, h„l did not obtain any economical success 

(see his Report, dated l-t December lSTtfb Some experiments with 

such oils had been also made by myself, but with no very sati.-diiHorv 

results Nevertheless, in some of" tl„ t , , ictories o'l 

Europe, a process of extraction with mineral oil wa hobo' employed 

Indeed, the oil process had 1 p,,|. hi , ,- ,; a all othei ! r„ m d tb-,. 

: ii kinds of oils, namely, tin* |iaralline ,>]]< obtained in the 

• "brown coal.' or scl.i"-! ,|,i s p m ,.,.«, 

ictB of American petroleum to .. extraction 

of quinine. I procured some oil from Yonm/ ho-m, . Works and 

made some trials with it, in the extraction of ealba\a bark from the 

' :,i!; -. : '- u ' [ obtained i . I had done 

before. Nev< m of thia 

l-'^V lenity. 

iusel oil still presented to my mie US( > in tl ,. l( 

country. b„. I began to M-e the w:„ lo al'nrtb, - n"..!;.;,,^,,,, j,, ,be 
"tethod ol employing it. [„ t ] lt . ,,, n , ,_ | p.,. .,,,, ,.,;.,, jn ,, ]( i JM ,-,_, 

oil alone was used as the soheiit. It now , „, T . I to me that h\ 

improvement would result. In (H 

,nd I therefore let the matter drop. 

"Later on, however, I heard that Mr. Ganimie, wh 
he mauufacture of febrifuge, was also attempting tli 
>ure quinine sulphate from the calisaya bark : and 
tegan between Mr. Gammie und myself on this subje< 
hue Dr. King came on a visit to Kurone, and in the 

efforts Mr. Gammie ^ 

tav in Holla nd 

Waffine oil process as us( 

ired some valuable information rogardinj; 
id in the Continental oil factories, an«l he 

ulted me regarding it. 
lot feel that 1 could then 
uodification of the fusel oi 

I was impressed wit h certain ditliculties. 
1 its employment by Mr. Gammie, and 1 
assist him" much in that direction. It 
nimble moment to make a further trial of 
1 process to which I have already referred, 
-el oil diluted with some liquid hydrocarbon 
Accordingly, I resumed my experiments 

diluting l.vdrocri 

i that there would t 
dia. In another oi 
diluted with ordir 

readily obtainable there, this method offered the greatest facilities ua 

" When Mr liammie visited England in the summer of ISM. he, ;•-■ 
to! i\ i I nit, -s< 1 thoexpei in uta rking of this pr<>< 
and formed a." I'aumrnhle -pinion of it- adaptability for lue on tla 

( )n Ins return to Mungpoo, he began a trial 

in extracting calisaya Lark, and -he satnfactorv result, 

ed him to go on. With great perseverance h< 

ddeto employ the process on a con- 
Tin valuable results, therefore, which have been thus far attained in tin 

practical application of the process, are entirely clue to his skill and 

"A description of the process as it was being conducted at the com- 
mencement of this year was drawn up by Mr. Gammh ,: \ I was publish, d 
with the Government Resolution of the 26th March 1888. Since then, 
1 believe, he has effected a further improvement in the mechanical 
arrangements, and is now in a position to work from 3,000 to o.OOO ibs. 
of bark per week. A considerable quantiij of quinine sulphate lias 
been produced and issued. Samples of this have been analysed, and the 
results show that both in purity and appearance it is equal to the best 
European quinine. There appears to be no doubt <h t the extraction 
is complete, the amounts of quinine obben.d c.i i .-OMiiding well with 
the known composition of the bark. 

" As yet only calisaya bark has been worked by this process. This 
bark contains a large amount of quinine associated with very little 
cinchonidine; consequently the final operations for obtaining pure 
quinine sulphate are v,ry simple, lint the plantations will also furnish 
much bark, especially fror>. n a considerable amount 

of quinine associated with a' lar-e amount of einehonidine. Such bark 
1 * t be utilised in the prej 


separating the extracted alkaloid; 

are provided. Surd rubra bark 'can be as readilv extracted by this 
method as any other; and it seems that from the acid solution of the 
total alkaloids so obtained, "cinchona febrifuge " can be prepared equal 
in every respect to that hitherto prepared by the acid process, and with 
the advantage of a greatly increased yield. 

" Comparing this process of extraction with others that have been tried 

• chief advantages it presents appear to be— (1) that the 

• completely extracted from the bark in a much greater state 
or purity, so that the final operations for obtaining pure and finished 
products are much simplified ; (2) that the whole process of extraction 
can be performed at common temperature-: <:;, that th« apparatus and 
appliances required are all of a simple character, and therefore well 
suited lor use on the plantations. 

" No very exact estimate can yet be formed of the cost of manufactur- 
ing quinine and other alkaloids by this process. It is only now slowly 
passing from the experimental stage, whiei, i- ne.v^nlvan expensive 
one h urther improvements conducing to greater economy ai 
But even as it is, I gather from Dr. King, under whose drill 
mtenaence all eflorts at local manufacture have been so ably Fostered, 
that quinine can be produced on the plantations at a cost not exceed- 
ed icme^ 8611 ' Unprecedentedl y low mark <* price of the valuable 


{Aristotelia Maqui.) 
the^ourlTALtntTnl I^T *"* 0r shrub COmm ™ il1 Chili along 

■•^ :.>.v:.. ■ ' ■ 

""'■"; ; ! ""ii- wm.-i, h used in Chili for 
->}} ^'itivatc.l ,„ ., rd) . tls in the south of England, 
vigorously with the protection of a wall. Whether 

jit the profusion 
are now known. 

In Chili the ('mils ol the Maqui are eaten either lic.-li or preserved in 
different ways. Mixed with grapes, a wine is also made from lluin. 
The shrub varies with either dark purple or greenish white henies : 
the latter are preferred in Chili. 

A curious industry has sprung up of late years in (lie eolleetien and 
export to Europe of 'the berries for the purpose of colouring wine. Tor 
the particulars contained in the following letler Kew is indebted to the 
Consul-general for Chili. The Ma.pii flowers freely at Kew, bul rareb 
fruits. Its cultivation for the sake of the berries would, then for.-, ],, 
preearious in England, but would probably present no difficulty in 
Southern Europe. 

The first notice of the Europe ta 

apparently that given by J. Poisson in the Revue Horticole for 188G, 
p. 467. He suspeeted that they were intended lor tin >■ 
wine, a purpose for which be - 

employed in France. He explains thai ih. object of ii.blmjr the hemes 
ine in Chili was for the sake of the colour. >o 
doubt it occurred to some ingenious person to extend their use in a 
dried state for the same purpose to the Old World. 

Senor Juan de la C. Cerda, Consul-General for Chili, to Royal 
Gardens, Kew. 
Consulado General de Chili, 3, Cork Street, 
T) K , R SlB London, W., December 17, 1H89. 

In reply to your kind letter of the 14.1. irMn.i. 1 
inform you that I do not know where you cool 

will let you kuow. Probably I may get some fruit, and if 1 do 1 will 
l>e verv pleaded to hand it to you. „ omo aa the- 

The com.n > same as the 

plant, and it is cropped from the wild shrub in the forests, it i, noi 
taL attention of farmers will be very soon drawn to the 
J^TSSPS* i» * consideration of the gr ; 
ment in the exportation of its fruit to Europe in the last three 
years for colouring wines. h * 2 ,234, in 

1: ^ - :- ■'■ 

in l^.,nd:il.-,.7.l in L^.. I !'■-" ' 
1888 and 1889, but it is to be supposed that the increase nu . - 
in the same proportion . f , stnns i(( , 

fastening in farming purposes are usual, and nu<l« 
preparation, simply by hand. { 

[ tlliuk ,. ..,..,..[ !„ a good benefit for Chili 
where this shrub grows in the ,. 

;.: : v,= .:.. ^ - -:. -^ : ; . 

any scutching machine, in order to ascertain 
textile purposes. 


While the r, in i i met 1 i\ liminish , ilu 

production of wine in that country, tin diminution 1ms not probably 
affected the great export trade of Bordeaux. The whole Mediterranean 
basin has been drawn upon either for raisin- or wine to make up l In 
deficiency. How this is effected ii would U somewhat outside Iho 
scope of these pages to discuss. But the previous note is not without 
hoc in the matter. The result has been to stimulate the 
cultivation of the vine in other countries. And of this the following 
correspondence affords an illustration. 

Foreign Office to Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 
8m, Foreign Office, November 22, 1889. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to 
transmit to you, to be laid before Mr. Thiselton Dyer, the accompanying 
despatch respecting vine culture in Tunis. 

I am, &c. 

James Ferguson. 

My Lord, Tunis, November 18, 1889. 

The Tunis Official Journal of the 14th instant publishes a report 
by the Inspector of Agriculture on the wine produce of the Regency 
during the pasl y;,\, showing that 
15,000 hectolitre in 1- i u i 889 . 

1 He plantation of vine has been extended since 1888 by To!) hectares, 
Is to 5,200 hectares. 

iho grape harvest was satMac!ory, both as regards muuititv and 
quality, and ,he most .successful wines wore extracted from the" latest 
crops in September. 

ran ,* * have, &C. 

I he Marquess of Salisbury, (Signed) R, Drummond Hay. 


c Jl ,"' ; u "!' : " ;i " l;,1 - :,|i '■ f ' September 1S89 on the Phylloxera in 


V' 1 ' 1 "" 1 '"'• circumsten© to fri , to recur else- 

V ".' r i , I,J ; " • '> s lM t '"»0 < "I replant! , land with vines 

Melbourne, October 21 1889 
■ hurried words this titne to say that I read the able 
••■-■■- ' I'MloMraj^inloph-din South Africa with 
in your admirable Bulletin (September 1889). But 

I would like to mention at once that the Phyllo 
Victoria found at Geeloug that even after five or six 

impossible to eradicate 

clime at all events, the insect will continue' to wande 
fragment of the remaining roots. Thus then it woul 
in view if, as recommended in the South African rei 
was effected on former Phylloxera ground already 

W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., (Signed)™' "feri). vex M p n.i.ut. 
C.M.G., F.R.S., &c. 


The well-known botanist, Baron Eggers, formerly Commandant in 
the Danish Colony. of St :i ruo devoted himseli t ,, 

the botanical exploration of the West Indian islands. He has made 
:.' and the Bahamas, the ilora of 
which is still most imperfectly investigated. The following letter gives 
some interesting rk in Cuba. 

The Bulletin for December 1887 contained an account (with a 
'■-!>i ) oi ill tn < produi ng Sabii n v. >o 1 ( Li silouta s > 
believed to be peculiar to Cuba, but now known lo be id. n 
Horse-flesh Mahogany of the Bahamas. 

Baron H. Eggers to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Frederiksborg, Denmark, 
Dear Sir, July 8, 1889. 

Having now returned from my voyage to Eastern Cuba, I am 
at present em. ion] amaag 

others the most complete set for the Kew Herbarium according to your 

2,500 feet, some few i 
I with a dense 

ten years' -7>, so that the loimtry 

in all those places has relapsed again into a wilderness. -There are a 
number of small streams but no large rivers and no lakes or swamps. 

Of interesting plants that I have collected, I may name a great 
number of ferns, among which there are many I had not w 
neither in San Domingo nor the other islands. 

Among the trees you will esp. illv 1 interested to heai d>out tl 
Sabicu or Horse-ile.-h. This tree in Cuba is evidently the same as that 
found last year in the Bahamas by me ; it grows in Cuba to a great 
height, and' is not uncommon in the higher districts. Jt (lower.- in 
April; flowers, white, very abundant, but lasting only a few days, when 
the whole tree is devoid" of flowers again. The young leaves when 
sprouting forth in March are almost red. in which' the tire? arc ea-dh 
reeoonUd in the forest. The wood is utilised for timber and a!--- 
exported. The name of the tree in Eastern Cuba is not Sabicu hut 

its name in tin w« -tern part oft! is! ml, iron, wht .. i 

has been first exported. The curious fact is, that many plants have 

; are Cedrela odorata, which, however, you 

;nim from Jamaica" also. Tin Copaif, n h,,»><» ifnh'rt, on the other 
| 1;U11 | I believe, h only Culian. This is a large and valuable timber- 
tree of the lowlands"; if is called Cagiieyran, and is much used for 
Puildii"' purpose 'I'he pine seems to be the same as the one m San 
Domingo. 1 did not obtain any flowers of the Cuban species. A 

woods, and not *> much isolated as in San Domingo. 

The sour orange is most common in all woods, apparently indigenous, 
as it is found in what in Cuba is called the monte firme or virgin 

Phajus t/ranrlifvlius I found also not uncommon along little rivulets 

Of Cycads a Zamia was found of which I send you the leaves, as no 
flowers were found. The root of this species was often eaten by the 

insurgents during the war, but only after wu-hing it carefully, as it is 
said the flower obtained from it otherwise is poisonous. It is called 

Very few palms Wf ., v f oum \ in "flower. The most common is of 
course the Oreodora vtijin : then there is a gregarious palm, called the 
Palmajusta; a Bactris, very spiny;the Corrojo (Acrocomia), the Yarey, 
a large fan-palm, several Thrinax, &c. 

Some very interesting hast was obtained from three different trees. 
The finest of a lace-hark tree, called Guana ( Laycfttt lintcuria) ; the 
(iuacocoa (from Daphnopsis (hiacacoa) very white and strong ; and 
finally the Majugera (from Paritium datum), the common Cuba bast 
\ery "much used lor ropes. This tree grows to an immense size. I have 
seen trunk.-- ! - ,-e. I send you samples of all three 

kinds for the Kew Museum. Among ferns then- were a number of 
ari.oreou> ■ tdmcrtvm, three feet long, hanging 

from trees. A Brunfelria with large blue flowers seems to be a new 

I am, &c. 

(Signed) H. Eggers. 
W. T. Thiselten Dyer, C.M.G., F.R.S. 


An extrem _ report on the '"Progress of the 

Sugar Trade," by Hubert Giffen, Esq., LL.D., Assistant Secretary, 
Commercial Department. Board of Trial.-, was presented to Parliament 
in May of last year, and issued to the public in the month of June 
following. For an early copy of it this establishment was indebted to 
the Board of Trade. The whole document deserves the most careful 
study. But it \~ unlikely in its complete form to circulate to any large 
extent in the Colonies. It seems desirable, therefore, to extract some 
passages which contain information in a very condensed form on the 
production, consumption, and, to some extent, distribution of sugar. 

There is some risk, no doubt, that by detaching passages from a 
document of this kind iuced to that 

which would be derived from the whole. The passages now repro- 
duced deal, however, with statistical matters of fact, which are not 
affected whatever view is taken of their significance. 

Taking the period 1 853-87, I 
than doubled ; and British and ft 
the same proportion. In 1HS7 B 
of the whole production of cane 
sugar production of the world, 
industry is brought out in the mc 
of the period it formed only on 
at the end it amounted to nearly 

Taking the West Indies and B 
since 1883-5 the production of c; 
But if the production of the We 

off, during the period is77_ss, in the impntati. 
the United Kingdom from British possessions 
Indies," of nearly 2\ million cwts., the greater ] 
Foreign raw cane sugar over the same period 8D 
On the other hand, the West Indies have 
particularly in the United States. The impor 
during the same period has more than doubled, 
notice that during the last five years, while 
sugar showed little increase, that " of refined 
" been over three million cwts., or as much 
a refined from beet countries five years MO." 

The production of can- sugar in British p..« : 
ion does not find an outlet in the 
u Kingdom, as it formerly did, its place l.ein 
" sugar.'' 

The fig .;■■ (Mii-miij 

" the 22 million cwts. annually consumed in the last tw- 
in the June Bulletin for 1887 the position of the sugar 
the West Indies was briefly touched upon. There ifl reeeo 
that to some extent sugar has slightly gone out of eoltrmtii 

this has happened the particular loss is irreparable. The i 
keeping the land clean and in tillage, and the machinery i 
order, is so paramount, that there can he no doubt I MgM | 
strain his pecuniary resources to the uttermo-t before thr 
estate out of cultivation, because once a sugar planter uj 
to suspend operations, even for a short period, the capital 
lost beyond hope of recovery. The usual sequence of ev< 
an estate is abandoned in the West Indies, is that the wrl. 
scattered and leave the neighbourhood, the 
buildings ruinous, the working oxen an- .«*■ :, 
incidental to a forced sale, and the machinery, in spit* ol 
caution to keep it in order, becomes rusty and useless. IB 
be no matter of surprise to learn that ii 
operations on an abandoned sugar estate in tin tropics, c.\ 
cost almost equal to that of startin-j 

If, therefore, the figui 
a gloomy view of the present position ol U 
British Colonics the } h - .-. 1; 
obvious that the capital which d 
of manufacturing processes and i 
stances, practically diverted to the mere maintenance o t ic < 

And this in the 1 

I It. i! i 

Total Production o 

F Dl.'FEE 

ent Kinds 

of Sugar, 






" Brit i-h cane sugar 




Iie c«™. S „ e » r - - 




To,, - 




" Out of a total increase of production amounting to o\ million tons, 
no less than 2i million tons, or about 60 per cent., is an increase of 
beet sugar, which has iu fact changed it. position :i» a (actor in the 
production altogether, having now "reached the point of being nearly 
equal to cane sugar, whereas at the beginning oJ 

only about one-eighth of the total production. Both British cane 
sugar and foreign cane sugar have more than doubled in the same 
period, and the increase in the two together amounts to 1} million tons, 
or 40 per cent, of the total increase of 3| million tons; and this 
increase also is obviously a very large one. It hardly compares, how- 
<"•'", with tie . which is, to a large extent, a new 

I', v.-thi-r. Of course this table is subject to the observa- 
tion that the figures in the last two or three years are specially 
increased by the inclusion of one or two countries' formerly omitted"; 
but a correction on this account can . Ci necessary 

m a comparison extending over so long a period. 

" This is the aspect of the progress v.!. n tin h. -inning and end of 
the whole period, 1853-87, are compared. In the interval of five 
years, between 1880-82 and 1886-87, the figures are :— 

" Increase of Production of Different Kinds of Sugar, 

—> 1^| — 

F^'riz" - • .zi ™z 

:::; ± \ >» 

Beetroots - - ZZ ^Z 

Total ■ - • 3,564,000 5,187,000 

MM. MM. », 

" Thus the increase in the most recent period, keeping strictly to t 
basis before 1884, amounts to 1,373,000 tons, of which tin, -^nr 
may be credited to cane sugar, and four-sevenths It. beet sugar, i 
progress of beet sugar is thus in amount as great as ever, though i 
per-centage increase is not quite so great as in the early part "of i 
period since 1853. The most remarkable part of the increase of b< 
was, no doubt, prior to 1882. 

" It will be noticed also that after about 1870 the proportion of Briti 
cane sugar in the total pro ducthn; was maintained steadily at ah< 
12 per cent, until about two years ago, so that the great errowth in t 
proportion of beet in the total production 

rose from 34 to 49 per cent. \ but in ft 
latest two or three year.- the proportion of British eane sugar in t: 

> 39 per cent., while beet 

total has been barely r 

foreign eane sugar has recovered a little, and beet has fall 
little. The proportion of British cane sugar was also much 
the earlier periods than it has since been, ranging then betwe 
20 per cent. 

" Still, at i but an InCW 

growth of British cane sugar, though it has net kept pa,.. 
growth of beet sugar, and it! the last year or two with the ; 
foreign cane sugar." 

" The average annual exports of the Wes 
British Guiana) which have always been i 
question of production, have been as follows 

specially interest 


- 5,205,000 <r 

- 5,548,000 

- 0,062,000 

- 5,920,000 


" Since 1883-85 the West Indies have thus held their own, 
difference between 303,000 tons in 1883-85 and 296,000 ton 
1886-87 being nominal on! more than bald 

own in these most recent years, although thee is .-till an increase i 
1880-82. . , . 

" It will be seen, moreover, from the summary in the Appei di .. 
the production in the West Indies, exclusive' < f British Guiana, ha; 
maintained itself so well on the average of years as the preductto 
British Cuiana. The production in both cases m 1>S_, t- about 
largest on record; but the average of the West Indies, cxc-lu 
British Guiana, for the two years 1886-87, is brought down hj 
extremely low export figure in 1886." 


Displacement of Cane bt Beet Sugar. 
«' The great increase of the production of cane sugar, a^ n. ' i 
an increase for consumption in extra-conti" Q » f ° 
the 1'nited States and the United Kingdoi 
the beet prodn 

has also overflowed 


countries, pi Kingdom. This has been done, how- 

ever, without diminishing the consumption of cane sugar in those 
countries taken altogether, although the United Kingdom in recent 
years has come more and more to rely largely on beet sugar, and the 
supply from certain cam- -ugar disin t-, particularly the West Indies, 
has of late ra] liat^icta in turn having found a 

market elsewhere, particularly in the United States, for their increased 
production. This disposal of the overflow of beet sugar, and partial 
displacement of cane sugar in its • rtance in the 

market of tin ('nit i Kingdom, n point? ol spi d interest . . . 
which may be further illustrated." 

gh it increased largely in the five years ending 
niontioiied the gain has been largely at the expense of cane smmr. both 
m amount and proportion, and in' the whole 10 years since ISTs'ilieiv 
" :i loss of ( ' iUie 1,l,tn '" amount and proportion, and a -air, of beet 

1 ' ' 1" '- <*™* <■""' ^'ga. f,nm British possessiens alone haye 

:•' <he 10 years from nearly o' million owts ,„ about 

3i million cwts., or a diminution of 2\ million ewts.. the greater part 

» tin. last five y< nrs. At the same time the imports of raw cane su-ar 
from foreign countries, which merged , : ..;,r]v 1 million ,.«-b in the 
tirM live years, show a falling off of about U million owts. in the 
subsequent five years, making a small net balance „f decrease in the 
10 years. Sugar from beet countries, on the other hand, has more than 
doubled in amount in the 10 ye :n >, the increase being from 6,350,000 

, l ' ,vt ;- lil ' 1 . ; /', 11 ,l ' li "' 1 u '*' t]w ' : " 1^77-Ts, to I.;.;.-,", .«,.. in 

1 :*';7 S ^- ' '" ": ^ a " jt;,! '<" 'l^Tence, N,n,,,v,, in ,«.,. :I|1I1111 ,;.„,„„ lit 
of this increase in th i. Between 1878 and 

\. the inC " • : ; beet count! u - was of raw smear 

imports oj refined i tl • dim .-hirer. Sine, |ss;> ,}„ i, u . n . iiM 7 „,■ 

sugar, and 

Change of Market von Bums 

" The prominent fact is 

proportion of the imports of cane sugar 
Writing in 1884 . . . . I pointed out 
the imports from British possessions was mail 
figures of 185.3 and suhsequently, yet the ■pro 1 

from other countries, especially heet eountrie 

Diminished Cost. 

■L lli«> S.(K)0,(H)() .-wis. consumed SO to ;j.; i.-sirs 
duty, were as costlv to ihe consumers of the I nit 
! 22,000,000 cwts. unuiially consumed in the hist two 

BOTANICAL. [All Rights JReterved.l 






rettlT Yel }™>. or Fur ™> is thus described in the ordinary books of 

reference:-- It is a colouring matter highly esteemed by artists. It 

(( U exported from the East Indies in masses of three or four ounces 

u hi weight, which are of a dark brown colour externally, but of a 

bright orange yellow in the interior. Nothing certain « l™ n ™ 

regarding its origin, but it is generally believed to be 

seaiment of the camel or buffalo, after the animal has fe' 1 - 

peculiar, and r 

; ^uiexn or tne camel or buttalo, after the animal has fed on decayed 

ana yellow mango leaves. Its odour is neo.nlmr mnA , 
' of castoreum." 

the snh ', • SffiJKh P ' M * ap P lied t0 Kew for ^formation « 
tne subject on behalf of Professor Graebe, the well-known , 
contemplated a thorough chemical examination of the substance. 

*rom the following correspondence it will be seen that its origin m 
completely cleared up. S 

ETRE A ] " 

LM asd CHARLES BLACK, «, Nobth Bridge, Ed^bi 
HODGES, FIGGIS, & Co., 104, Gbaptoh Stbiet, Dpi 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 

SiRj Koyal Gardens, Kew, January 31, 1883. 

I am desired by Sir Joseph Hooker to inlorm you that inquiries 
have arisen with regard to the exact origin of the important pigment 
known as Purree or Indian Yellow. This, according to the 
is " believed to be a urinary sediment of the camel or buffalo after the 
« animal has been fed on decayed and yellow mango leaves." Chemi- 
cally it is known to consist of the magnesian salts of an acid termed 
purreic or euxanthic acid. But as it contains no nitrogen, the traditional 
account of its source appears improbable. 

It seems likely, therefore, that it is a substance of vegetable origin, 
and in this case inquiry through the proper channels ought to elicit 
some authentic information about it. I may mention that various 
papers which have been transmitted to this establishment in reference 
to Indian dyes do not appear to contain any reference to it. 

Sir Joseph Hooker would, therefore, feel obliged if you would draw 
the attention of the Government of India to the matter. 
I am, Ac. 
(Signed) W. T. Thiselton Dyer. 

Sir Louis Mallet, C.B. 

India Office to Koyal Gardens, Kew. 

Sir, India Office, S.W., March 19, 1883. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to 
acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 31st ultimo, relative to 
Purree or Indian Yellow. In reply I am to request you to inform Sir 
Joseph Hooker that a copy of your letter has been sent to the Govern- 
ment of India for such ; etion as ;! ey m;iy find Hut can toko in tracing 
this important pigment to its origin. Sir George Birdwood ha- stated 
that in the Bombay bazaars Purree is said to come from China, and Sir 

W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., C.M.< 

[Signed) John K. Cross. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Sir, India Office, November 17, 1883. 

In continuation of my letter of the 19th March last, 1 am directed 
by ill- Secretary of State for India in Council to transmit to you, for 
Sir Joseph Hooker's information, the accompanying copy of a report on 
the production of Puree or Indian Yellow, received from the Government 
of India. 

The samples of Puree mentioned in the report have, it is understood, 
been sent to Sir Joseph Hooker direct. 

I am, &c. 

A. Godley. 


Government of India. 
Revenue and Agricultural Department. 

Note on Piuri or "Indian Yellow." 
an J™i W« 7e ll r ^ " Sed ^L^ 7 iD painti "S walls of hous ^, doors, 

it iiriTed f^zT:z:^ v djeing eloth °*** to its bM sme,i: 

fi*) £f mineral origin, imported from London. 
(2.) Of animal origin, manufactured at Monghyr, a to^n in Bengal. 
Sir Joseph Hooker has asked for information about the latter 
By inquiries in Calcutta I found that Piuri is marie at Mon<rhvr fWs 
the urine of cows fed with mango leaves To substantiate th< trnt , 
this statement I went to Monghyr, and there found that a sect « : -v. |„< 
(milkmen), residing at a place called Mirzapur, in the suburbs ,f ti, ■ 
town, are the only people who manufacture the s-.ilwtancc. Thcv f.-.-d 
the cows sol* . . nd water, winch increases the ! il,- 

pigment and impair t«. fh. urine a I-riirht \.-:;..w ,•„!„-. r. It is said 
that cows thus fed die within two years, but 'the Piuri manufacturers 
assured me that this statement is wron<_' : and. bid . d. 1 mvself saw 
cows six or seven years old from which Piori has I •■ a i 
the last four years. The cows, however, looked very nnhealthy, and 
the manufacturers of Piuri told me that to keep up the strength of the 
animal they now and then allow her grass and other fodder besides the 
mango leaf, but a mixed food reduces the proportion of the colouri^ 
principle in the urine. Owing to the injurious effect which the treat- 
ment necessary for the manufacture of Piuri lias on the cows, the 
occupation of making Piuri is confined to a very small number of people, 
who for this reason are looked down upon by their fellow caste-men. I 
am told that in no other part of the country is the manufacture of 
Piuri carried on. The cows treated with mango leaves arc made to 
pass urine three or four times a day by having the urinary oriran 
slightly rubbed with the hand, and they are so habituated to this 
process that they have become incapable of passing water of their own 
accord. The urine is collected during the whole day in small earthen 
pots, and in the evening put over the fire in an earthen vessel. The 
heat causes the yellow principh t< pi • pit !•. eparaiing it from the 
watery portion. It is then strained with a small piece "of cloth; the 
sediment is made into a ball, and dried first on charcoal lire and then 
in the sun, when it is ready for the market. The merchants (chiefly 
Marwaries), who advance money to the milkmen for the purpose, 
purchase the stuff at Re. 1 (Is. 8d.) per lb., and export it to Calcutta 
on the one side and Patna on the other. The price of the imported 
(mineral) Piuri is only Ad. per lb. The animal Piuri is of an exceed- 
ed is therefore considered very superior to the 
mineral Piuri. The high price of the animal Piuri is probably owing 
to the deterioration of the live stock consequent on the manufacture «>t' 
the article and the cost of procuring mango leaves, which are sold at 
U 61813. 875.— 2/90. Wt. 1. A 2 

the rate of Rs. 2 for the produce of a middle-sized tree, say 30 feet 
high. An average cow passes about 3 quarts of urine a day, which 
yields about 2 ozs. of Piuri. The animal supply is said to be about 
100tol50cwts.; but this seems to be an over-estimate, considering 
the small number of cows employed for the purpose. 

I myself saw mango leaves lying before the cows, the collection ot 
urine, and the manufacture of Piuri. So the real source of this kind ot 

> Calcutta f 
(2.) Monghyr Piuri \ 
(3.) Monghyr Piuri purchased from the manu 
(4.) A bottle of urine from which the Piuri is 
(5.) An earthen pot in which the urine is coll 
(6.) A quantity of mango leaves. 

The 27th August 1883. 

In the Geneva " Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles " for 
December 1889, Professor Grabe has given the results of his investiga- 
tions. So much of the article as deals with Indian Yellow itself is 
translated below. 

" The yellow colouring matter which bears the name of Indian 
Yellow, or Piuri (Purree), has attracted, ever since it first became known 
in Europe, the interest of chemists and physiologists. The views as to 
its origin have been very various. Some have supposed it to be a 
deposit from the urine of the camel, elephant, or buffalo, or an 
intestinal concretion ; by others it has been regarded as of vegetable 

Professor Graebe then describes the result of the inquiries set on foot 
by Dr. Hugo Muller. He continues :— 

" Piuri occurs in rounded masses, weighing 80 to 120 grammes, of 
which the interior has a fine yellow colour, while the exterior is brown 
or greenish. ^The odour is very characteristic, and recalls that of 
"""le analysis of the inner portion gives the following com- 

Magnesium - 


Silica and aluminae - 

Water and volatile substances 

" In order to prepare the different qualities of Indian Tellow which 
are employed in water-colour painting, the unrefined product is sub- 
mitted to a series of washings. The best brands of Indian Yellow are 
those richest in euxanthinic acid and magnesia, and which contain but 
little lime. In the commonest and cheapest quality, besides the acid 
already mentioned, euxanthone, one of the products of its decomposition, 

i large quantity. This substance must be derived i 
wn or green portions which have undergone change. Lefram 
, of Paris, prepare seven different qualities of Indian Yellow, a 

• the brands A to G. The brand A is the best, and costs 300 francs 
the kilogramme j C costs 200 ; D, 160 ; and G 50 to 60 francs. 

I following analysis illustrates what has 

been said above : 


A . 





Euxanthinic acid - 























rt£ Th f- , euxanthmic acid al ways occurs in combination as a salt, and 

the quality A approaches in composition magnesium euxanthinate, 

C i9 H le O n , Mg + 5 H 2 0. 

" This formula corresponds to the following composition :— 

Euxanthinic acid - - . - 78*16 

Magnesium - . . ,.?» 

Water . . . . ; £* 

" Purified Indian Yellow therefore contains a little less organic and 
more inorganic matter than the pure salt organic ana 

1844 T1 h e v fi S S f UtmC T^ heS ° n Indian Yellow were published in 
1844 by Stenhouse and Erdmann. Since that date it has been re- 

Cfor m S l tU r ed W Th r? ""# haS bGen t0 eStabIish for euxanthinic acm 
he bX - 1 Sf > 2V The n free add has a P ale ? ellow coIou ^ bnt 
the suits are all tinged «leep yellow, and it is the magnesium salt which 
is most remarkable for its fine colour 

euxanH^nT^ 111 ^ * U T thini . C add With weak acid8 or with ^*er 
W u IT ^ bre f ks UP int0 two suM;m ' - "' ^hk-h o„e is colour- 
SL"? * e , otIlor coloured. The firsi l, ; ,s principally a physiological 
interest ; it has received the name of .• ' ms on* of* 

SSSF?S5 , ^5^' , 5S2SS 
.&&& = «&■&& + iaa 

«w£ anTas"™ ^ "? co " sidered . as » derivative of the group of 
aSricaeid T f ?*' !°" ' P roduct > nt <=™e<liate between glycose and 
accnanc acid. It has not at present been obtained artificialfy. 
»hdu f oloured Product arising from the deem,,,,,,- ,: ,„ . ' 
doo I K°T t °, t - 1,e ar T atic Series ' Wh ™ euxanthone L B ... 
i£taX3!&S5£. in°.t uciu°e " Sf " CC 7 df " 8 «1* 

S*3*ffi 3g 

„ of course, that in the process of its preparation, the natives 


do not add a salt of magnesia. This certainly does not seem likely, and 

chemical properties of euxanthone. He discusses its chemical con- 
sSon Vindicates the method hy which he has succeeded in 
artificially preparing it. 


(Agave vivipara, L.) 
The high prices lately obtafned for white rope fibres have stimulated 
their production in nearly every part of the world. The chief supplies 
of these fibres have hitherto been obtained from the Philhpines under 
the name of Manila hemp (yielded by Musa textilis), Bulletin, 1887, 
April, p. 1, and from Yucatan under the name of Sisal hemp (yielded 
by one or more varieties of Agava rigida), Bulletin, 1887, March, p. 3. 
Quite recently a fibre of a somewhat similar character made its 
appearance in this country under the name of "Bombay Aloe fibre. 
This was very imperfectly prepared, and the price obtained for it was 
exceptionally low. In fact, had it not been for the relatively large 
demand for white rope fibres during the last two years this Bombay 
Aloe fibre would be unsaleable at a price that would nardly cover the 
cost of freight. 

A specimen of Bombay Aloe fibre was presented to the Museums of 
Economic Botany at Kew by Messrs. Ide and Christie in 1888, and this 
led to an inquiry respecting the plant yielding it. Application was 
made to the In -oecimens of the growing plants and 

lor information respecting (he methods a lopled tor preparing the fibre. 
By the action of the Secretary ot Mat f..r India ii Council, the plants 
and full pan iculurs respecting the preparation of the fibre have now 
been received at Kew. It appears that Bombay Aloe fibre is prepared 
from the leaves of Agave vivipara, L. in a crude manner by natives, and 
so far no attempt has been made to establish regular plantations. 

Agave vivip ir ■. L. \\ i_h; I.- ,i *•>, \.2\)'1\; A. < ,-,/a/a, Roxburgh's 
Flora of India, vol. ii. p. 167), the " Bastard Aloe " of India, is a native 
of tropical America, but now found m i various parts 

of the Old World. It is said to be commoner in Upper than in Lower 
India, and espeeiallyin the North- West Proviitees. It is almost unknown 
in Bengal (Watt, Diet. vol. i. p. 143). Although resembling A. ame- 
ricana somewhat in habit, it is more closely allied to A. lurida. The 
dull green leaves are from 4 to 5 feet long, rather narrow and concave, 
thin but firm in texture, ending in a brown spine about half an inch 
long. The teeth are sub-distant, brown and hooked, \ to 1 inch long. 
The flowers borne upon a tall branched flowering stem, about 20 feet or 
more in height, are greenish yellow. The specific name of the plant is 
derived from the fact that the flowers are often changed into bulbillae ; 
these grow into plants with leaves from 6 to 9 inches long before they 
fall and take root. " Royle states that on a rich soil the plant is viva- 
" parous, while on a poor stony soil and under a dry climate, seeds 
" alone are produced." 

The utilisation of Agave vivipara as a fibre plant on a large scale is 
apparently of a very recent date. Dr. Watt, in a notice of the species, 
does not refer to it as the origin of Bombay Aloe fibre, and apparently 
he was unacquainted with the fact. The only reference to the fibre is 

« fn In A EV Th l°f rf/i G^feer 8 ay s it is chiefly grown as a hedge 
(plant to keep back cattle, but in the jails good fibre is prepared 
from its leaves." Z>„/. //, ,„. /> //,,,„ ,, , n , 1887) 
As already mentioned the Bombay Aloe fibre received i' tl \hi 
200 n S, 1SS<> badI 7 PfP ar ^ that it is praetieaily unsaleable. About 
200 tons were received in 1889, and we are informed by Mes9rs. Ide 
and Chnstie that the stocks of former shipment* have now accumulated 
to the extent of 1,000 tons. The prices quoted are, good 12/, 
common 5/. per ton. As the result of investigations detailed in the 
following correspondence it appears that the fibre of Agave vitnpan 
though perhaps not so good in all respecN ,„ ,| 1Jlt ,1 -rive'd fmm vnnVtie^ 
of Agave ngida, is of considerable merit. If prop ly cleaned ; i would 
command relatively high prices. A specimen of fibre from Agave 
vivipara, cleaned in this country by the Death machine, has been valued 
at 25/. to 30/. per ton. The difference between 12/. and 30/. per ton, 
due entirely to the mode of cleaning this fibre, is a fact that needs no 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 
SiR, February 21, 1889. 

T am desired by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to inform you that a speci- 
men of white fibre, known in commerce as " Bombay Aloe fibre," has 
been lately presented to the Kew Museums of Economic Botany. 

2. From the character of the fibre i bis is obtained 
from Agave americana or an all. 

hand. The price of this fibre is from 15s. to 18*. per <■.. . 
hemp obtained from Agave rigida is s Hi - ;1 ; .V2<. to 'As. per cwt. 

3. It is very desirable to trace the source of this Bombay Aloe fibre. 
For this purpose it is necessary to obtain specimens of the plant 
yielding it. 

4. Mr. Thiselton Dyer is of opinion that as the Bombay fibre in- 
dustry i- .ippii. nth mi (-.,,>! — ii* € 1 'thi ,i i •' i , i . u \alue might be 
greatly increased by the introduction of plants yielding the true Sisal 
hemp, and by improvements in the preparation. The subject is of con- 
siderable importance at the present time, as white fibres are in great 
demand and sell at high prices. 

5. I am therefore to suggest that the Government of India should be 
moved to procure and forward k> Kew specimens of leaves or small 
plants from which the present Bombay Aloe fibre is obtained, and full 
information as to the preparation and shipping of the fibre. On receipt 
of these Mr. Thiselton Dyer will be happy to furnish a report en the 
subject, which may assist the Government of India in developing what 
may prove an important native industry. 

J. A. Godley, Esq., C.I 

Rotal Gardens, 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W., 
Sir, March 2.). 1*89 

I am directed by the Secretary of . State for India in Council to 
acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt of your interesting letter of the 
21at ultimo, on the subject of the true source of the "Bombay Aio e 


fibre " of commerce, and to inform you in reply that a copy of the same 
2 been forwarded to the Government of Bombay for their information 

^Thetpedmens and information for which you ask will at once be 
transmitted to you on receipt from Bombay. 

I am, &c. 
The Director, (Signed) J. A. Godley. 

Boyal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W., 
g IB> January 21, 1890. 

In continuation of my letter of the 23rd March last, I am 
directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to forward here- 
with a copy of a letter dated 13th December 1389, with its enclosure, 
from the Government of Bombay on the subject of the " Bombay Aloe 
fibre "of commerce. 

The box of specimens referred to has been forwarded separately to 
your address by carrier. 

(Signed) C. E. Bernard, 

The Director, Revenue and Statistics Department. 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Accompaniment to the Bombay Government Despatch to Her 
Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, No. 52, dated 13th 
December 1889. 
Report by the Officiating Director, Land Records and Agriculture, 
No. 2262, dated 23rd November 1889 :— 

Undersigned has the honour to forward by rail a box containing six 
young shoots (useful for planting) and a full grown plant of Agave 
vivipara, the common species of Agave grown in the Bombay Presi- 

2. The Aloe fibre shipped under the name of " hemp " [or Aloe 
fibre] from Bombay comes chiefly from the Bombay Karnatak and the 
Central Provinces. It is not possible to ascertain from the trade returns 
detailsof the export trade in the Aloe fibre. 

" "oe fibre is prem 

grows wild, but nowhere in s 
dance. Nor is it anywhere cultivated specially for extracting : 
It is chiefly used as a hedge plant in making live fences. As a hedge 
plant it is preferred to Cactus [Opuntia] and Milk-bush [Euphorbia] ; 
and though it requires a greater breadth than other hedge plants, it is 
reported to be not injurious to plants in the vicinity. It grows well 
near watercourses, and this habit of the plant is put to profitable 
account by using it for live fences along boundaries of survey numbers 
which are subject to a rush of water. In such places it is planted close 
with a view to allow water only to pass through the fence and retain 
silt. When planted sufficiently close it serves as a dam and prevents 
entrance of rain-water of neighbouring fields. In the Bombay Karnatak 
ge plant a' 
3 feet apart a 


4. It is a plant of slow growth, and takes about two years before the 
leat can be cut for fibre. Its slow growth is one of the drawbacks 
which prevent the plant from being cultivated for fibre. TbekwTM 
are cut from the stem and split lengthwise into thin shreds about hair 

ride, and bound in sheaves. In some places befoi 
bundled the shreds are dried in the sun for about four days. The 
sheaves are then kept soaking in a running brook, under a weight, for a 
week or ten days and sometimes more, or buried in sand near the 
current of water in stream and river beds wherein water percolates. 
When sufficiently decomposed, the leaves are taken out and washed 
clean of the pulp by beating them in running wat 
or against a stone. After washing, what remains is fibre, 
the fibre is sometimes separated by drying the leaves and beating them 
with wooden mallets. 

5. Much of the fibre is made into ropes, which are chiefly used in 
agricultural operations. The manufacture is in the hands of Mangs 
and other depressed castes, who make ropea of hemp, coir, &c. Khnbis 
or cultivators seldom take to rope making. In the Karnatak, Advichin- 
chers, a wandering tribe, have of late taken to rope making. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Sir, February 14, 1890. 

With reference to my letter of the 21st February 1889, and 
subsequent correspondence on the subject of Bombay Aloe fibre, I am 
desired by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to inform you that the specimens of 
plants from India, advised in your letter of the 21st ultimo, have been 
duly received at Kew. 

2. These specimens confirm the fact that the Bombay Aloe fibre of 
commerce is prepared from the leaves of Agave vivipara, L., an 
American species of Agave now widely distributed throughout sub- 
tropical and .tropical parts of the Old World and some parts of India. 
From the interesting report of the Officiating Director of Land Records 
and Agriculture (Bombay), we gather that the fibre is extracted by 
certain depressed castes of natives by very crude and 
methods, and that so far no attempt has been made to cultivate the 
plants. They are chiefly used as hedge plants, and are " nowhere at 

3. It is evident, however, that the plants exist in Bombay in sufficient 
quantity to supply several hundred tons of fibre received in r. 
After a consideration of the facts noted below, it might be found advisable 
to cultivate this species of Agave on waste lands in Boml 
for the sake of its fibre ; or the Sisal hemp plant, Agave r 
Sisalana might be introduced on a large scale. This latter yieWa the 
most valuable fibre of any derived from species of Agave, ar 

I it would thrive equally well in India. The important fibre 
ind.i^rvuf Vu.'ara,,, .rented entirely within tl. 

of the annual value of about three-quarters of a million sterling. India 
has, therefore, good grounds for devoting attention 
so far has established itself on a moderate scale in spite of adverse 

> those in use for the preparation of 
few of the broken leaves 
et in length, taken from the larger plant received 

ned by r 
) in Yuc 


at Kew were forwarded to the Death's Fibr Machine Company 147, 
Leadenuall Street, E.C. A sample of the fibre obtained by pacing I !..• 
leaves through the Death machine is forwarded herewith (marked A) ; 
while, for purposes of comparison, a sample of the ordinary Bombay 
Aloe fibre, us it comes into the London market direct from India, is also 
■ arkedB). 
5. The great difference in quality and value between these tw< 
are well given in a report prepared by M« -: -. L<1 ' and Christie, a copy 
of v, h'tcli i- h- rewith attached. The value of the machine-cleaned fibre 
ranges, according to length, from 25/. to 30/. per ton. The ordinary 
Bombay Aloe fibre, cleaned by hand, is worth only from 5/. to 12/. per 
ton. These figures fully bear out the opinion offered in my letter of the 
21st February 1SS7, that the Bombay Aloe fibre industry was capable of 
being greatly improved. At the present time there are in stock in this 
country 1,000 tons' of Bombay Aloe fibre, which, prepared roughly by 
band, will only realise (if sold) about 8,000/., a price that will probably 
hardlv pay expenses. If this fibre had been cleaned by machinery, and 
presented in the condition of the sample marked A, it would realise 
about 27,000/,, or more than three times its present value. It appears 
possible, therefore, without any extension of the present Agave plants 
in Bombay, to increase to a very appreciable extent the returns on the 
shipment of Aloe fibre from that Presidency. 

6. Mr. Thiselton Dyer has little doubt that the facts herein stated 
will prove of considerable interest to the Government of India, and they 
deserve to be widely known amongst those concerned in the Bombay 
Aloe fibre industry. 

I am, &c. 
J. A, Godley, Esq., C.B. (Signed) D. Morris. 


Messrs. Ide and Christie to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Dear Sir, 72, Mark Lane, E.C, February 6, 1890. 

We have your favour of the 4th instant with samples of fibre 
extracted by I) -ith"- proems from the leaves of . t ; /are vivipara. This 
is an excellent fibre, of fair strength, fine colour (which, however, may 
change somewhat under continued exposure to the air), and were it 
three times as long would be worth 30/. per ton to-day in London ; if 
twice as long 27/. ; and, as it is, it may be valued at 25/. 

The ordinary " Bombay Aloe " of commerce presents a very different 
appearance to your specimen, as, perhaps, samples in your Museum may 
show. Its value to-day is, good 12/., common 51. per ton. 
Yours, &c. 
D. Morris, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. (Signed) Ide and Christie. 


(Cinchona officinalis, L.) 

The note on the commercial value of cinchona bark in the Bulletin 

for October 1889 was the subject of the following remarks in the 

journal of the Pharmaceutical Society for November 2, 1SS9, p. 343: — 

"In a note in the Kcir llnUcttn (October, p. 217), relating to 

mliivated Jamaica cinchona bark, some correspondence on the subject 


) fact that fine o 

silvery loxa bark of the H.O. brand is about twelve L » . 

as Jamaica bark, not on account of its larger per-centage of alkaloid 
but because it is used to give a peculiar bouquet to the tonic wine of 
Cinchona that is sold largely in France. It would be interesting to 
know how far the aroma is due to the lichens on the bark, and how 
much may be due to the flavour of the bark itself, which in some 
varieties, as m C. micrantha, is strongly marked." 

The suggestion that the aroma is due to the lichens is ingenious and 
not impossible. The following further correspondence would, however, 
appear to show that nothing more than custom is at the bottom of the 
preference of native Loxa bark for that of even better intrinsic quality 
grown elsewhere. H J 

David Howard, Esq., F.C.S. to Rotal Gardeks, Kew. 

__ _ Stratford, near London, E., 

My Dear Sir, November 21, 1889. 

I have been endeavouring to get accurate information about the 
properties for which American Loxa bark is valued at so disproportionate 
a rate, but can get no further than the information of experts that it 
must be exactly what the foreign druggists are used to. As far as I 
can tell chemically the Jamaica bark is superior to the Loxa, the 
alkaloidal content being higher, the South American Loxa giving 1-95 
of sulphate of quinine and no cinchonidine, equalling 1*46 per cent, of 
quinine alkaloid. 

There is a very slight difference in the smell and in the taste of the 
infusion, the Loxa bark having a less refined taste. 

At the same time I have no doubt the experts are right as to the 
mercantile question ; as an example how little real value governs price, 
the thick red bark, evidently from very old trees, which comes in very 
small quantity from South America, sells at 8*. to 9s. per pound, though 
what quinine it ever contained has entirely changed into rouge cfn- 
chonique, and the sole virtue of the bark is its fine red colour. 

The present value of the Jamaica samples to quinine manufacturers 
would be from 5c?. to 6<tf. per pound. 

(Signed) Davib Howard. 
D. Morris, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

Messrs. Howard 

50, Southwark Street, London, S.E., 
Novembers, 1889. 
Dear Sirs, Cinchona officinalis, Jamaica. 

I am of opinion that this bark would not be substituted in 
Pharmacy for Loxa bark, notwiths! i in- ilkal ->idal tests :n _r if !> ■ 
identical, unless the bark itself was very sightly an 1 elos dy tvslanbi > 1 
Loxa in appearance. 

Yours, &c. 
(Signed) Chas. Umnkf. 
Messrs. Howard and Son. 

[Enclosure No. 2.] 
Messrs. Jenkin & Phillips to Messrs. Howard & Sons. 

21, Mincing Lane, London, E.C., 
Gentlemen, November 20, 1889. 

We nave examined the two samples of Jamaica Cinchona offici- 
nalis and we are of an opinion that it would in nowise be bought and 
used' for the same purposes as South American Loxa bark, the chiei 
market for which is Paris, and where, if it is fine, they will pay a long 

Pr The appearance, flavour, and aroma of your samples are quite distinct 
from South American Loxa. 

If your friends sent their bark over in long, even, unbroken quills, 
it would fetch at the moment 6d. to Id. per pound. 
We are, &c. 

Messrs. Howard & Sons. (Signed) Jenkin & Phillips. 


{Halogeton sativus, Moq.) 
Carbonate of soda is one of the most indispensable of substances in 
the manufacturing arts. It is essential, for example, in glass and soap- 
making. Since the end of the last century it has been manufactured 
directly on a continually increasing scale from common salt (sodium 
chloride). Before this, most of the carbonate of soda in use was 
obtained by burning marine plants, which in their turn obtained it 

The two kinds of impure sodium carbonate, which were formerly met 
with in commerce, were known as kelp and barilla. The former was 
obtained by burning sea-weeds ; the latter by burning various kinds of 
land-jdants which grew in silt-marshes, and the representatives of which 
ratty were collectively known as salt-worts. 

" ' that in nits soda is 

only found in very trifling amounts. Its function is therefore altogether 
different to that of potash, which is an indispensable ingredient of pearl 
food. Ne\eith s pl;uit> which i^rimlicali; noistriied with sea- 

water, accuni » quantities of soda salts in tfa 

But their pros rition of the plants is concerned, must 

be deemed to be wholly accidental. 

The principal seat of the Barilla industry was Spain and the Balearic 
Islands ; but the Canary Islands, Italy, and France are said also to have 
contributed a part of the production. It appears now to be almost 
obsolete, but to still linger in the neighbourhood of Alicante. The 
Egyptian Government seem disposed to attempt it experimentally in 
some part of the Nile delta, and has recently asked for a supply of seed. 

Sir, Cairo, 7th January 1890. 

I have the honour to inform you that at the request of Sir 
Evelyn Bari fa Agent and Consul-General in 

Egypt, Mr. Gibson, British Commissioner of the Egyptian State 
Domains, supplied for Kew Gardens about 50 lbs. of cotton seed. 

L ,^ r \ Gl , bson ' mstead of charging you anything for this seed, will feel 
obliged if you will send him a small quantity, viz., 2 lbs. or 3 lbs , of 
the seed of Salsola sativa (Halogeton sativus) (Barilla) in exchange. 
I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. Wilfred Carey, 
' Inspector of the States Domains. 

W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., 
C.M.G., F.R.S. 

The whole question was, however, carefully gone into five years ago, 
when, as will be seen from the following correspondence, exhaustive 
information was obtained on the actual state of the exisr 
industry, and a supply of seed of the Barilla plant was sent to the 
Egyptian Government. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Foreign Office. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Sir, _ 25th January 1884. 

I am desired by Sir Joseph Hooker to inform you that inquiries 
have been made of this establishment on behalf of the Director-General 
of the Revenue in Egypt, on the subject of the mode of cultivating 
plants which produce Barilla. It is thought that this industry might 
be attempted in the Egyptian delta with success. 

Like the kelp industry of the British Isles the preparation of Barilla 
has, apparently, to a large extent become obsolete owing to the develop- 
ment of the manufacture of soda salts by purely chemical processes from 
common salt in Great Britain and elsewhere. It is probable, however, 
that the manufacture of Barilla still to some extent exists in Spain. 
Very little is known as to the details of the industry, which is said to be 
more particularly carried on in the neighbourhood of Alicante. It is 
possible that in Egypt and other countries, with exceptional local con- 
ditions the manufacture of Barilla might still be carried on with profit. 
Sir Joseph Hooker would therefore wish to submit to the Secretary of 
State that it might be useful if Her Majesty's Vice-Consul at Alicante 
would prepare a report upon the present state of the Barill 
At the same time I am to ask that authentic samples of Spanish Barilla 
(a few pounds would suffice) may be obtained for the Museum of the 
Royal Gardens, as well as of the plants used in its manufacture in the 
dried state before they are reduced to ash. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. T. Thiselton Dyer. 

T. Villiers Lister, Esq. 

Foreign Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Sir, Foreign Office, 26th February 1884. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to 
transmit to you, to be laid before Sir Joseph Hooker, with reference to 
your letter of the 25th ultimo, a despatch from Her Majesty's Consul 
at Barcelona, enclosing a report by the Urirish Vice-Consul at Alicante 
on the production of Barilla, and reporting that he has instructed 
Mr. Camming to send home a sample of this plant. 

(Signed) ' T. V. Lister. 
W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., C.M.G. 


[Enclosure No. 1.] 

British Consulate, Catalonia, to Foreign Office. 
My Lord, Barcelona, 21st February 1884. 

Having immediately requested Mr. Vice-Consul Cumming, of 
Alicante, to comply with the instructions conveyed to me in Despatch 
No. 1, Commercial, of the 31st January last from the Foreign Office, 
on the subject of Barilla and its industry, he has sent me the enclosed 
report, which I forward in original, having further directed him to 
transmit to London, addressed to Sir Joseph Hooker, Director of the 
Eoyal Gardens, Kew, the small box he has prepared with samples of 
plant, seed, and ashes. 

The Eight Hon. (Signed) John Trat, 

Earl Granville, K.G., &c, &c. Consul. 

[Enclosure No. 2.] 
Report on the Barilla Industry. 

Since the development of the manufacture of soda salts by purely 
chemical processes, the Barilla industry in this province has become 
very reduced, although not completely obsolete, the plant being still 
cultivated to a certain extent. It is very difficult to ascertain the 
quantity of Barilla manufactured, but I am informed that from 200 to 
250 tons may be considered an average yearly production. Value 
varies greatly according to abundance and demand, and may be roughly 
quoted from $2 to $2| per quintal or 50 kilos. 

As to the cultivation of the plant, the seed is sown in January and 
February in the same manner as other ordinary seeds and requires no 
special care. The seed becomes worthless if not sown the season 
following its collection. I in August. It is pulled 

up by the root, spread for two or three days, and then collected in small 
conical shaped cocks or piles of two or three quintals each, so that in 
case of rain the water may not penetrate so much into the interior and 
rot the plant. It is left thi " 
then required to be burnt i 

The manufacture of Barilla is carried out as follows : — A hole is dug 
out in the form of a large round earthenware pot, about i| feet in 
diameter at the mouth, about 4 feet at bottom, and depth about 3 5 feet, 
the inner part of which is well beaten and then covered with a Blight 
smooth coating of mud. A small quantity of wood is then burnt to 
ashes in this hole to dry and heat it, when it is cleaned out and a 
couple of iron rods or bars are placed across the mouth, over which bars 
a quantity of the plant is placed and fired, more being added con- 
tinually as it is Consumed, for about 12 hours. Then the bars are 
removed by means of a large, bent, two prodded, wooden fork, the 
lioilini: substance in the hole is thoroughly stirred, till it becomes even 
and smooth on surface like moltonlead; then the bars are replaced, and 
the same operation repeated until the hole is filled, when the entire mass 
is filially -tirred ;h described. The mouth of the hole is then closed \i]>, 
and the Barilla is left about a week to cool thoroughly, during which 
time it hardens and erncks into pieces. The hole iia; then merely to be 
dug around and the Barilla taken out. 

(Signed) Jasper W. Cumming, 


Alicante, 18th February 1884. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 
Royal Gardens, Kew, 
bIE ' T J . , , 14th March 1884. 

I am desired by Sir Joseph Hooker to transmit to you the 
enclosed copies of correspondence with the Foreign Office, on the sub- 
ject of the manufacture of Barilla. A similar industry exists in several 
parts of In.i r IK .f known as Kharsuji is said to be 

made and used for the manufacture of soap and glass. Sir Joseph 
Hooker thinks it possible that the systematic preparation of Barilla 
might be usefully prosecuted on the saline soils of many parts of 

r M ' „ (Signed) W. T. Thibelton Dykr. 

J. A. Godley, Esq., C.B. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Foreign Office. 
Royal Gardens, Kew, 
SiR, 31st March 1884. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
February 26, enclosing a despatch from Her Majesty's Consul at 
Barcelona, transmitting a report from the British Vice-Consul at 
Alicante, on the production of Barilla. Sir Joseph Hooker has read 
this with much interest, and has further to express his thanks for the 
very satisfactory specimens which have also recently come to hand from 
Mr. Jaspar W. Gumming. A copy of his very excellent report has 
• f Revenue 

been furnished for the information of the Director- General of I 
in Egypt with a portion of the seed. Other portions will be trans- 
mitted to Jamaica, N.W. India, and the Cape, in all of which places, 
local circumstances might be favourable to the Barilla indusl 
a footing. 

(Signed) ' W. T. Thiselton Drat. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, S.W., 
Sib, 4th April 1884. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to 
acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 14th ultimo, with enclosure, 
on the subject of the manufacture of Barilla in Spain, and to inform you, 
in reply, that a copy of the same has been forwarded to the Government 
of India for such action thereon as they may think desirable. 

(Signed) , J. A. Godley. 
The Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, S.W., 
Sir, 13th August 1885. 

With reference to my letter of 4th April 1884, 1 am directed by 
the Secretary of State for India in Council to forward to you, the 
r copy of a report by Mr. George Watt, M.B., on special 

duty with the Indian Revenue and Agricultural Department, on the 
present state of the Barilla industry in India. 

The report has been prepared by Mr. Watt from the answers to a 
led on your letter of 14th March 1884, which was 
addressed by the Government of India to all the Indian Provincial 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) J. A. Godley. 
Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.I., 

This is carbonate of soda 
salt-worts .... The 
manufacture of Barilla first assumed commercial importance in Spain, 
and was an article of considerable value until Le Blanc discovered his 
method of preparing soda from common salt. Since then it has con- 
sovery the demand for 
: to be directed to India as a country to which 
the trade might possibly be extended. Roxburgh, at the beginning of 
the century, recommended the cultivation of one or two plants on the 
coast of Madras, but there is no evidence of this having been acted 

Mr. Baden Powell (in his Panjdb Products, Vol. 1., 86) has given a 
most instructive account of Barilla manufacture as practised in the 
Panjab. The process by which this substance is prepared is carried on 
during the month of October and the three following months. The 
plant after being cut down is allowed to dry. The next step is to dig a 
pit of a hemispherical shape, about 6 feet in circumference, and 3 feet 
deep. One or more vessels with . holes perforated are inverted and 
placed in the bottom of the pit, ihe holes being kept closed when the 
operation begins. The dry plants are gradually burned, and during the 
process a liquid substance is found to run down into the inverted vessels. 
After this has taken place, the residue is stirred up by means of a flat 
piece of wood and kept covered over for three or four days t 

Care must be taken not to allow water to get to the niol 

otherwise the whole mass would blow up. In the inverted vessels will 
be found a pure form of hhdr-sajji, and in the bottom of the pit an 
impure form containing a mixture of ashes. The process differs only 
tlyfrom that followed in Spain. In the latter country the 
plants are burned on iron bars placed across the mouth of the pit, and 
vessels to separate the substance into pure and impure Baiilla are not 
placed in the bottom. 

I Q Shahpur and Multan, however, the manu- 
facture of sajji is considerable. The Deputy Commissioner of Shahpur 
,t the outturn is from 8,000 to 10,000 maunds a year, and the 

the molten liquid, 

reports that the outturn is from 8,000 to 10,000 maunds a year, and the 
revenue derived by Government by the lease of the sajji producing 
lands amount* at present to over Es. 9,500 per annum. The price, too, 
from various causes has risen from Rs. 1-2 to about Rs. 1-10 per 
maund since 1865. 

...... The Deputy Commissioner of Multan says that in 

hi- district the plants are cut in the months of January and February, 
and not in October and November as stated in Baden Powell's Panjdb 
Products. He adds, " I can find no evidence that the introduction of 
" soda salts manufactured by purely chemical processes has injuriously 

Barilla 1? i ° " BariUa ' He adds tha ^ the land on which 
« K }\lnl dlD ?.? lan, l g [° W Was leased for 18 ^-84, and ™K 
« Rs. 7,907, which is higher than that realised in any of 
years except 1875-76, 1877-78, 1878-79, and 1879-80" * *" 10 

* J ♦ I ^ ° Rep(M ' ' interests 

account of sajn manufacture. Th 

reference to Colonel Davis' report: "Theaccmr, 

given by Colonel Davis in 1865 seems to contain all the informS 
required, and this industry is now in about precisely tbo "^S 

« h^s not X//> T n ma - DU aCt f ed by PUre1 ^ Chemical P"**** 
has not affected it at all injuriously. On the contrary, the price of 
Wh« lately risen to Rs. 1-8 and Rs. 1-12 per maurfd, bnUhfa t 
said to be chiefly due to the fact that owing to recent droughts the 
growth of the plants has been less flourishing than formerly. The 
7™. rca! ** monopoly of mamrfact 

alkali amount still to upwards of Rs. 8,000. The incom 

st yt-ai s :l lit over Rs [\r,00 I 
W^™ j* is said to be about 10,00 

but the plai lv es teemed as a fodder fi 

' jnd the farmers of sajji do not allow camel owners to take 
" for fodder gratis." v 

The following extracts from the Settlement Reports of Jhang and 
Montgomery might also be here given. « Caroxylon Griffithii is the 
khar. There is a considerable disagreement as to what plant or 
" plants sajji is made from. In the Jhang district sajji is made from 
« khar only. I have made repeated inquiries and have always reo (red 
the same answer, that MjyV is made from khdr, but that sometimes 
• , • • • -the bulk of the s«/)Y is increased by burning iana 
" with the Mar. I have been constantly in camp at the time the hh-r 
at lana, and such 
3 excellent grazing 


All in 

There tS 'also a plant called PAwaJ /am (Suceda 
a impure carbonate of soda, is made 
" from the first two. No »ojyY is made from the others. The best 
" sajji, called Ao7,z *//// is'made from Khamjan Mar: an inferioi 
" quality, known as Bhutni sajji, from t?dra /ana. All four plants 
" can be seen in the Montgomery civil station." 

The Commissioner of Sind reports that there are no soda salts 
ly chemical processes in Sind, but that there is a 
, manufactured from a plant called " lani," which 
grows wild all over the province, and springs up spontaneously after a 
copious fall of rain. The khdr or salt obtained from this plant is 
commonly used in Sind for dyeing, washing, and soap-making purposes, 
and in the manufacture of common glass. The Commissioner gives the 
following account of the process adopted in manufacturing this salt from 
the "lani" pi be observed, is very similar to thai 

pursued in Spain: "The lani plant is cut and gathered together in 
" heaps. A circular pil varying from one and a half to two or three 
" feet in depth and diamet. r, according to the convenience of the 
u individual manufacturer and the quantity to be manufactured, is then 
" dug in a clean level piece of ground. A fire is kindled near the pit, 


a and the freshly-cut plant thrown on it. The action of the fire causes 
" the juice of the plant to exude and run into the pit. Fresh quantities 
" of the plant are thrown on the fire from time to time, until the pit is 
" almost filled with the liquid exudation. The mass is then stirred with 
" a pole for from two to three hours, after which the pit is covered over, 
" and on the third day, when the liquid has cooled down and solidified, 
" it is dug out and broken into pieces for use/' 

Mr. Erskine adds that the manufacture flourishes most near Kutchee 
in Khelat, about 5,500 maunds of kkdr being annually imported in 
Jacobabad ; that the quantity manufactured in Shikarpur, and in Thar 
and Parkar, is roughly estimated at 5,500 maunds and 3,000 maunds 
respectively every year ; that the demand for the article has not been 
affected by the manufacture of soda salts by chemical processes, and that 
its price varies between E. 1 and annas 8 a maund. The Political 
Eesident at Aden reports that Salsola (Suceda nudiflora), vulgarly 
called "Aden Balsam," grows freely in the plain in the neighbourhood 
of Aden, and that before the purchase of Shekh Othman, large quantities 
of the bush were wastefully burnt to produce salt, but that the shrub is 
now preserved within British limits. He observes that the bush seems 
topo-M'ss great vitality and fecundity; that it is termed by the Arabs 
"asl," and the Barilla made therefrom is named " hotmi " ; that the 
Indians style \j^ T . that the 

method of manufacture is primitive, and resembles that described in 
the correspondence accompanying the letter from the Government of 
India, except that iron rods are not placed over the holes wherein the 
plant is consumed, and that advantage will be taken of the Spanish 
method in working the industry, which it is proposed to do short iv umlrr 
Government supervision. Major Hunter adds, " Soda salts manufactured 
«J by purely chemical processes are only imported into Aden to the 

extent of ten or twelve hundredweights per annum, and do not 
< affect the local manuhictu- in llM \ ua\. In A.len i'. . 
" duced in circular cakes, having a diameter of about eight- 
« and a maximum thickness of eight inches. The value may be 

roughly quoted at from five to eight annas per twenty-eight pounds. 
Cipated that a certain amount of profit will be gained by the 
■ ty to whom the bushes belong, either by the manufacture 

ot Barilla under supervision, or by the sale of the right to produce it." 

The following are Indian plants reported to yield barilla — 
i- i nthn !•. Coromandel Coast. 

2. Caroxylonfcetidum, Moq, Sind and Panjab. 

3. Laroxylon Griffith*}, Moq. Eegarded as one of the best 

plants in the Panjab. 
J' *** - Sunderbuns and Coromandel. 

o. balsota brachiata, Pall., Afghanistan 
6 - Sals(j/ ' rid Panjab 

ft" fZ d f frH i iC ° m ^ ?0V& b Sind and Pan J ab and Malabar Coast. 

8. Suceda tndjca, Moq., Sunderbuns and Coromandel. 

9. Suceda nudiflora, Moq., Aden, Pondicherry 



N °- 40.] APEIL. [1890. 

( Rumcx hymenosepalum, Torr.) 

by .'i mere accident that a cine wa ■ found t.. its ; !« nrihViiiion. fader 
the inline of Canai^re root, an account <>f ii was indeed to be met with in 
ll»'' vahiahl [J peits of iln- [Vparn em ol" Auricultur. of the Tinted 
States (Jovenuncut idi LS7S and Is7!> \ nearlv complete set of these 
is contained in the library of the Royal Gardens. But they are 

-com to have had a nan h'vion. The 

-1-; < ;;o: ■■■■■.:■■■ ' ■..-.■■■■' ■■''■_ 

" have received attention, wen roci , d In the Dep 


ather Trades' Circular, dated August 8, 1885 
page 621. 

Njsw Tanning Agents. 

5 the common oak hark, ami 


l^Z-nahnl. ih " rC1>U,e,1 ta " n 

m- rested till recently. It was 

of a tanning mat 

i history is briefly as follows:— It is said to have been used i 
ing by the Mexicans for over two centuries. Our first informal ioi 

uly 9, 1868, when a package of these r 

3 an Antonio, Texas, to the Agricul- 

luml Department at W; I. " letter statin- that 

Mr. F. Kalteyer, chemist in San Antonio, had found them to contain 
32 per cent, of tannin. This sample was mistoid or overlooked until 
1S7S, when it was reported on by the chemist.* It was then found to 
vield 2;W") per cent, of tannin. A fresh simple \va- also procured, and 
the tannin est! i root with almost identical residts, 

aiier making due allowance for difference in moisture. The other 

constituents reported at that time need not clai ur attention at 

pies nt further than to notice a considerable amount of starch, 18 '00 

Previous to this publication by the Government, Mr. Eudoiph 
Voelcker, of Galveston, Texas, publishedf an analysis of roots gathered 
in July' 1874. He found 23'IG per cent, tannin, and proved the 
presence of crysophanic acid and aporetin. He was not aware of the 
botanical orb_ .pposed it to belong to the natural 


In 1879, Mr. William Saunders^ in his report on Canaigre state-' it 
was the Rinne.r h>///u »<>si pnhnn of Torrey, and furnished a lithographic 
plate of the plant in bloom. 

At the New Orleans Exposition, 1885-86, in one corner of the section 
devoted to products from New Mexico were some of these roots, above 
which wa> the ins ■ . •■ • i _ material." 

As will be shown later, this exhibit, insignificant as it appeared, 
of at least one person. 

In 1886,§ a sample of a root sent to me from San Antonio, Texas, 
Under the name of " Ind I and the results pnh- 

I ih d under tin tit! • of" Yerl t d aSon it was 

acopaia. This impres- 
sion, however, was corrected by Professor J. M. Maisch in the same 

oirrct; tliat tli^ -Ivs.i/Tb \' , sa.'tl (\ ^e root. That 
11-.J6, nt.. but it wa. found 

i'-:-' i-.'d i •■■ •■- ■-.-.;■ . • . ; -. . . ., ; ..,. ,' 

■ Mr. E. C. Denig ; much tune 

»exifeo # toi« ;- of hides. 

■ . i-.,.. 
s in diameter. Kxternallv it is of 
>iour, becoming, by age, almost black ; internal] v 
it is ti-jrr. a bright to a brownish-yellow according to awe and amount of 

exp^-in- to atmosphere, YVh „ '. , , ,, f (Outers 

rambling sweet potatoes. They are found near the surface or some- 

♦ JtaAl . p. 119. 

J rapidly dried and, at a 

!l "' on toj) of the g 

'to small pieces If allowed to get very < 
' method of cutting. Fr 
Kiijuiy furnished me hy I 

; i ; , l l ' , ;: i , ; ,,,, "i" '^^''''''-^Howerthan, 

per cent, tannin. ' E " Sturcke * haa fouml » ^l of 28-57 

I he ground rout i> at present used in ;1 number <>f (,„„„,.;„. . i . 

!;" m lt ; vii1 pi-ui,,i,h , .'! : .r, : ,V' ; , 

• . - ■' \ •;. • ..... 

■■ •• . . .. ■ . .. . ; • 

■ . : ' '•'■• ' . ' 

tofth. United S i » 

lta P rdeT ent "*"* ° f ^ *"' *"" **» W ^ P™^ <>' ^ng 
The presence of so much starch in a tanning material is nerhair 


oxi met ,,1'i 
or catchin. 

ether, which do j 

iot resemble either gallic aeid 


crystalline compound and the pure 
'i the present time. 

tannin are under investigation 



made to the Un 

ited States National Museum 


is of the Royal G 



L Gardens, Ke 

w, tc United Si 

axes National Museum. 

Royal Gardens, 

Kew, September 11, 1889. 


'3 TnmUe. iu'tl.e I'hannu- 

Journal for S« 

'» Jl)»™/ o/* 7 

Pharmacy for An 

gust 1889. E 

of the Koyal Ga 

!,. ,.,„, 

J venture to ask 
for this esfeiblishi 

that you will Id 

Dr. 1*„ 

(Signed) I). Morris. 

tonal Museum, 


i, U.S.A. 

feporter, Oct. 27, 1887, J), i 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

United State- National Mu*?mn, Washington, 
Dear Sir, November-:. 

Yotjr letter of September 11 was duly received. Having i 
specimens of ( ■ai.iULMv in the collection, I wrote to Dr. F. II. < Joodwi 
of Tucson. Arizona, and from him we have just received a few spec 

,n er you any ^_^ ^ 

W, T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., (Signed) G. Brown Goode. 


A portion of the mal ired by Dr. Brown Goo< 

v i- mp. in tt, .I to Mr. W. \. K\ans, >' !io 1 is ot i iain oi i asi<»i - kind 
agisted the R< yal I rani* ns vvitli vjluaMe information. 

Mr. W. N. Evans, F.( 

fifi. Stack pole 



, March 18, 1890. 

of the 12th cat 

nnd, with sample 

am glad to be at 

uialysis of the sari 

ie roots will be a 


' ! nd< 

3ition to our list 

tempt i 

ng to t« 

o grind or pulvei 

s growing in Tes 

:as, that it wil 

1 flourish in suita 

y be g* 

a tm. 

it bless 

ipal materials, s 

■ valon 

ia and gambier, 1 

>t to be tried in tl 

ie tann 

rery, be 

t there appears to 

3 cnn se, '> that * 



t its full value fr 

I rem 

ain, eve. 


W. 1J. Evans 

he lloyal Gardens, 

Remarks :— Original moistu 
Br cent. Had to bedried to <> 
mdition yet shows 12-07 pe^ 


The Pistachio not is the fruit of a small tree, with 3 to 5 broad-ovan 
ealiots, native «)f .\vri;i. .\!i.M>|).)t:inn.-. as:. I i'. '-in v.liicli is f-ult ivai ••« 

tay, the male and female (lowers are borne on 

>erhaps, imperfectly appreciated in the East, and the trees which beai 
nale flowers are regarded, probably, merely as barren. At any rate 
he terms male and female, when applied to fertile tree.-, simph indicat. 
fight varieties. As in the caa . [\ is found advan- 

ageous to graft the seedling trees. The advantages are twofold ; the) 
some earlier into In a i ng. i d thus time is opined, and, econdlv, wiiai 
xprnienec has shown to ho ihe k-t varieties :■:,■ p. rp. tu-.l.-cL 

The following co i ■ "pt which has been 

nade to introduce th. I'istaehio nut into Cvprus. The information a- 

at Ah ppoapp. 

3 been previously 

Official Report on the subject, which 1 be' 
Cvprus libie ib.ok for l,sStf-N9. 

Sineo then I have been readinir as far 
and have also communicated with llm liritisii Consul at Alt 
of my ijuestions and h\< replies are enclosed for your 

D. Morris, Esq. (Signed) Alfred K. Bovn 

Q. 1. How is the Pistachio tree produced, from seeds or cuttings 

Q 3. Is it better t 

Q. 4. How many years after the seed is sown does it produce fruit ? 

A. 4. The tree begins to produce fruit two years after being grafted. 

Q. 5. Is the tree ever grafted ? 

A. 5. The tree is invariably grafted. 

Q. 6. Are the trees male and female ? 

A. 6. The distinction between male ami female is not understood 
at Aleppo. Those tie ■ ■ I i good quality, viz.. short 

but thick soi Is. ure -apposed to b i ■ '. , while those iriviiiLS a poor 
crop of long t] held to be male. Grafting is done, 

however, from the most fertile and best fruit-producing tree, i.e., the 
female. Few so-called males thus exist. 

Q. 7. What is the yield of fruit the first year they come into fruit? 

A. 7. The firs t year after beginning to bear the crop is very small, 
only after seven years of age does the tree give a good crop. 

Q. S. What is the comparative vhdd of fruit eaeli year afterwards? 

A. 8. The . 

different u-mlN in m/i nd<io> 1\ u\ to '(> ok< are p»ilnns n 
average. Some trees give as much ;is MO y^nlf-: very rare, and others 
again only four or five rottles; reasons unknown. The Pistachio, like 
ihe olive, has alternate years of good and bad crops. (1 oke=2' 8 lbs. : 
i rottle=2 okes.) 

Q. 9. How many year.-; do they remain in bearing ? 

A. 9. Ordinary good trees hear along time, 60 to 80 years. Excessive 
frost somtimes dries them up. When uprooted as 

shoots never appear. 

Q. 10. To what size docs the tree grow ? 

A. 10. The tree attains the height of 12 to 15 feet. 

Q. 11. In what kind of land does it thrive best ? 

A. 11. It thrives Lest in a whitei h chalky clay soil which retains 
moisture ; in this and Lie olive. 

Q. 12. Will it thrive on rocky soil ? 

A. 12. It thrives abo <j;: i vA . tola, oil, \ ith about 25 to 30 incite* 
of soil. The roots seeking moisture amongst the rocks. 

Q. 13. Does it grow better by the sea or inland ? 

A. 13. Attempts to grow by the sea have never been tried. It is 
only found inland, the climate of which is dry. 
, J Q. 14. What is the rainfall at Aleppo ? 

A - 1-1- 'I - - aknown. It is probably between 

11 and 15 inches, or, y. iv , h;df th fall on the cast line,' which is 

.March : between May and end of October no rain falls/ ' 

Note— If a nursery of young trees could be raised at Cvprus, "rafts 

from Aleppo • ■■ ./, ',, j, ( . ;,,!,, f 

3 feet and the thickness (' a m . m \, ,;„„, r _ ;,,._ 

In the process of grafting honey is often used. 

(Signed) Thos. S. Jago, 
Aleppo, June 25, 1889. 

J'arlatoiv <■• Flora Italian;:," vol. o\ p. ,*)7.j) «ivos the following 
? the method ■■<<<,■■] fa ;■ ," 

"In Italy the principal seat of the cultivation of the Pisttf 
■ ccelleace. 

obtain a crop a proe< ■;,,„ I 1;1S jy om 

Ties been practised ii Sicily. The fertilising du*t (pull , ,,» 

id scattered over the female flowers as sunn n< thru- cin-i • 

exactly similar to that practiced in the 
i the case of the date ; but at the presem 

io trees fertilise themselves without artil 
e Sicilians emplov cither the male or 1 
i- Cyprus turpentine tree {Pistavia Tvr 


of documents sent to Kew from the India Office, with the sn,^ 
that the subject might be noticed in the K< u- Bulletin. The prcd 
of snfjar is a . - economic ns well as its hoi 

side. Into the former Kew is in no way competent to enter. 1 
however, hardly he doubted that if natural condition- alone op 

point of fact so closely proportioned to available solar energy 
extra-tropical countries, on equal terms otherwise, would not 1: 
chance. Under exi.-tii ir eircum-tam es it is interesting to observe 

the concluding letter i.i tli rro-p !. r that European su; 

now invading India, which can hardly be regarded as otherwise t 
purelv artificial result. 

A discussion of the pa; e some practical 

ledge of Indian agricultural condit 

* '^1 

eludes with the India Office No. 2;»s of '27th February lS9l>, addressed 

[/•: • . . ; . ■• . . - ■ • ; ... ■ . ■ ., .:..■■!.) 


instance, that in die "West Indite and .Mauritius they have -10 to 57 

This is tr ta of it) ; and the Government of 

India start by a-.-n in- thai the the sugar- 

cane industry in India 1ms to contend n-ainst is the limited oiipply of 

(/>.. .-xeludinc Behar) the rainfall i 
from 1st April to 31st October, ai 

cane irrigated in my life, except (rai 

every hoy, every ghari 
them wholly destroye 

' cro l> !>,><'. ' n rain is short i l.\ 

India, troublesome in Ch<. i a >, ,,, „. i |>< taut n Lieugal 

Many opportunities have occurred for irvju.r Ji 
cost. The Kuro|>e;m irai-. h-t-i ■[■-, Mr. Ao\v\~ Sn 

Government. shouM set !li:':ii !,, v, 


sale of rum and Hqu 
eiently profitable to 1 
there appears to be m 

'■ mtmod to small farms or holding 

each cultivator who is able to «ivnv iho crop at all can on 

. less than h: 

an acre, of sugar-cane. The plots of sugar-cane arc thereto 

jated tract. 

\ central factory has ace , -applies of cai 

'" - l " vil 'I li'imtk^ ovei v-su'-viiiir distances, in man ea-,s tl 

eing great, 

of canes over a long distance, even in a cliina 

like that of the Mauritius, is 'detrimental to the juice f. 

Mr. it i, much more so in Indi 

wl, !' n ' ,h " 7' 1 "* '''])en at the season when the atnu.sphe 

, ,s ^st.ands, , , t]„ m xi , ,,,f lljnrv 

'ecaneaaf internals is m 

■ ie-rc in order to prevei 
I have to I 
grown m close contact. 

A further i 

produce coarse sugar for the. 

or exports. There is, therefore, no suffic 
' capital to embark on the more difficult an 

highly r.-iined 

rate which the conditions of o 

' •• ' - -lam*™ method compared with 

i ^" s hove noted we are unable to 

mouei lactone* \\e are inclined to attach mud confidence to the 

'.- "-\ . '\ ^ - - ■ - ■ ; ■■. ; ;:..,; 

the nnrtnhlo cn««„. n , , ■ 

;::■:,■■.:, ■; . :; : ■ ■■ 

continue to do so. 'l"<stion and may nsolully be desired to 

,.J!^ZlT- h ':, Wi " in!? '" °' lvo,, » ,<! ,he establishment of turricultural 

,:■:■::■■■,:.■,, : ^ ' - ■ ■ '■ : - : 
^ v . ■■; - ; .,■;, .::, v.; 

ugar factories and 

' in- average production oi India is gi 
and the produce (with the exception 

it is no doubt tJie competitu 
fiuritius which is leading to the el 

comes more perfect. 'The disappearance of refining in 

i ,.,_ i!. th<«i 

and progress which no country is better adapted than 

bengal to sin 

That modern a le in India is sh 

own by Mess 

sugar from that distant island, wliieh could be as 

certainly more cheaply, at home. India is generally i 


and (in some di.~tri.-t.-i it- plmtifnl water and 'i-cnl suppl 

y, it should 

The manufacture of mod i-m (or. as it is called, vac, 

machinery and chemical and l 

Extracted from ti hat third in a si 

.iU-my.U l;; <ley-,3o]> sup.r m:!! 

--;!;,,. Or they can r 

""■•' '" ; ■ ' : ■■. ;: "--,"' : '- ■"■ '.^ " : \:^F. 

/-• [l production ol - ... u ! ,. M , tins with which Me.^r, 
'he purpose of showing how backward the 
. is, as I gather IVoim the informal ion f 

■ :;■■■■ v • :: .-..■■; ■ -. ■' 

(I.) Sugar plantations^' considerable m/o managed by Europeans 
and persons of European descent, and cultivated by paid labour 
by negroes in Barbados, negroes and coolies in Trinidad, and 

(2.) ThJemp 

the applicati 

scienci eofsug 

(3.) An abundant rainfall of MP inches per annum well s] 
throughout the year (though there is a 
season) affording adequate u Mature during the mont; 

frequent -i 

3 object of producing su u 

ring the rest' of th 

><i canals and i 
, whereas i„ Barbados ami, 1 I 
not required, and is never prac 

the cane or in the manufacture of suo 
the young cane. The : 

ge expenditure of 
: the whole produce. 
i young plant instead of firmly establishing i 

In this country the manure annlied ftrWk™. n i ■ JL r 

., : .; ■;.■■■■■■■:■■■.■ ■ ., 

cane cut up 
v.-.-.-t.-iul method and ei 
I'fiji.'ij)- as much as 10 f 
young plant i 

downward, in „„,.„„, Iro^^Ulh^ Z^^i' ^Z^ 
-■..--. it consequently becomes weak and : 

■ ' ' ■ .-,:-..,.,, 

one cane with another, or by means of sim 

P'ltdown .ill th. vo.uu. plain ha> pro v id ■ 

it is found impracticable to attempt sagar-cane 
uncommon to fu Icons I.tmI.Ic vn. ml , i h, 

' ■ ' - ' -: ,. ■•■ ■.. -: ; 

■- nt (he matuiv cane horizontally on the ; 
i m more vigorous can- and in large cluster?, but the 
>ack compared with the native method. Jf the 

■■■■ ■■■■:-■ ■■;■ -. .■ » .' . -^ ... . . . . 

'•tber one-third was left for a crop. Thee d7«tru»-li\e in-TN not mib 

■diould 1„. placed where if is wanted and weathered during the rain- 
'••tore it is used. The insect doe-; no! then attack it with the suite 

•oin-sc, deprives the manure of much of its fertilising power, but it i- 
" ,(nr ilM' : : 'i dry than That the 

iave half of his field lying in empty spaces. It is well known that the 
unountof saccharine in the cane is dependent entirely on the stage of 
ts growth. Hence the West 1 1 . . ■" . ... his cane 

"'Ids and cuts ihem ai the right moment. The delay of a week would 

Crystalline mass v. 

at syri 


heads perforated so as to permit the molasses to percolate through 
sugar. When the iu< i iss< - h is 1 u di li i< I off in the stauchious, 
sugar is said to be "cured" and is in the form of the fine la 
grained crystallite . 2 ir, or grocery sugar of w 

generally ol wood, consisting ,,i two oi llir. • tollers of about I J feel 

high and lo inches in diameter and worked by a lever, moved' by ;l 

bullock or a pair of bullocks. The eane is cut up into small strips by 

in, consume a good deal of can- 

juice in the process of " gur " boiling. Only a small per-eentage of the 

juice is extracted from the cane by thc-i- small and inferior' mill- so 

deficient m crushing power. The preyed liquor is placed in large 

-t as it comes 

i: is made to cleanse or clarify it. The whole 

~ ^- proper coueistoncy, and 'is thrown into a 

e earth 

and dough 


d for 
. Tic 


• I, 1 Ion b, 

article is mo, 

ter yea 
M ■ ! ' 

. U». T 


1 loller 

iiii a- 

the rolle 

en succeeded 
heca mill of 

" . ' ; ' ; ' ;; '" • ■ 

1 have to lie supported in any 
3 the old-fashioned wooden mill or not, and 

subsl since that the 

if \b, Indian cultivator 

\>t i-ii k a - h I »u s i. '.<: tin u ■< slum of tin i 


11. There is much scope for rti 

i ions in this <■< intn i }>!;u v,-hen th< soil is <roo<l, labour cheap, and 

IL. Pur the formation of a plantation after the model of those in 
1 , ' "' ,r ''- ' ' '" U '-' l"<lies the action of the Government 

will at any rai :„. uece ssary. 

The small cultivators of India have neither the means nor the 

■■ n- such a task, h would never occur to ;i 

owner m tins country to ma 

•■■:■■ scale by new and improved ,n nenditure of a 

classes th ,1,4 

■ us entirely beyond their sphere of action. The onlv 

me^V^iT? Pe ? ap8 . h&ve the re( l" iHite enterprise md 

vZ jLtZ wt SU ai1 md , USt ^ ° n a liXr ° e SCalt *™ L ^0- 

' ii"<-os.ary hind and ,-apital, 
mt they have already profil 

same expenditure i 

uld be impossible for a WV<t rndian plant r 
I the necessary capital and was prepared i 

he could < 

venture, to provide hin 

™':^1^£ ' in « this co "" try; b V hey «;*q^,™«i'u3 

i"i'i' 1 ilvh> l ll,K e ,^ S80 '' y ', t , her0, ' ' X '' for «»ver..„,«,t to take the 

"on of 500 or 600 acres Tl,; ,.,: i * u 7v j 

rent-free or on easy terms m n « llL ,)c> ,,,Im ' <1 

ditlona for a tem^vSrT ami h ^ 'f ^"^ "" ,,er < " n;,! " '• ,,u - 

given a subvention to 

and him m pr0viding the necessary ^.^ fo? ^ ^J^ * 

to L^™ he 1 : Kft r; antera iu the n******™*^ 

:'~ v . v .^: - ; ■ ■ ^ v _ 

V"-':; r:. r : : . ..;;■• ■ : - ■ . ; : "/'; v"y:.':: 

:' ■'"' ' '• -^ ■ "'■ ' '.* .:.' ^ ■;■"■■'; 

>"' .<■- improvement followed ' " '^ ' ,m, f. 

" -' ^ • . . .. ...■' ' / '■■•■;■■:.:- 

u. With a 
large tanks. , n canals and 

encounter es would be 

were once shou "tatinn. If the scheme 

:■ .' ;,' 
wnuM i,;. ,h, s,curn, r< " ' """'"'? ,,,Hit '» lf M«» 1 

i wduhg , manure. Much of the 

-1 .,:■:,.. •■ ,. . \. ' ' ' ' ' - : . : ..„,,. 

..' . : \, ■ : ' . .....:■ 

^ ' ■• .■ . , . ■■' ■■ --:...■.-,,,. 

■^■Hlahl, ,n Ind.aastheyare 

**S^ ->uld not be conhncd to improve 

mode! farms i ' 'in testa dishing 

having a prac .■« n England and 

Countries u ■:;■ tral methods only of 

■ i..t. . that we have somewhat overlooked 

the fact that the conditions of agricn 
In. Ha resemble those of the West It 
America much more closely than they « 

the interval, used 

1 the West Indies in large open i 
it potato of India and that of the 
s generally an elongated tuber 

on banks, and not on level ground. There are ether striking differ, !„■„ 
in the system- rher crops in the West and in the 

i -i 1 tli« - 11 ostahlishmei oi j ltulh n tin W< 1> , 
sis country could not, I think, fail to improve the 
id to u strm • tl • \u ople i tl 
they have no idea at present. Some of th.- ! 
West Indies and the Mauritius miyjn :i!s ],.- : - 

. their countrymen would i f riM 

to the manager in staffing the work. 
16. I might Are above remarks ai follows:— The 

India i> not possible, under exist iie.' 
-• >«, and in 
i i«-w of die fact that it is nowhere a staple, but merely a subsidiary crop, 
I have further endeavoured to show — 

(1.) That cultivation on a huge scale is essential, if the mpiMtft 
supervision in growing the cane, and the necessary machinery 
for manufae be provided. 

of irrigable ii d country with 

cheap labour is first secured. 
(3.) That private effort and enterprise are probably unequal to the 
task of securing the conditions necessary for successfully 

(4.) That it will therefore be expedient, in the first instance a? al! 

(7.) That it would ho absuiuirlv --seuthil for the success of : 

llu- Man: ! In' Ii-m n.« !h 

(S„) That the establishment of such a model plantation would' 

only prove the super : |{an over the Tnd 

the advantages of other modes 
ivating many tropical <-n.p.> which, though of great vab 


India Office, Whit. hall. S.W. 

27th hYbruary IS'.K). 
he li'th infant, I am (Krocte,! 

nrknowledge, with thank-, vour felt-, 

experimental c< ntrai su^ai f a < roth 

question so fully i, 
Secretary of State. " 

•have been rece 


led to Kew by M rintendem oi Station. Tim Milos wore found to affect sp.- 
" . 11 as on two i 

"ii uav, p. . , ,u It, |, . , ivf,-iv,-(l 

v i i liv. In < v ,!■„,,.' T,y 31 A 1). Mi i icl, i' LS 

Pten found in great numbers. It; may bo disre<:anlo< 


■ ■ u : 

. •• mV 

destroyers. T 

lie r,^ 

. • x/V/r, vary 

•rival 1 

may be found i 

3. The Dam 

I found in all i 

' :!l;v -;. 



the leaves. The larger species is certainly identical with the acarns 
wb,chDr - &» thegrowinc 

'" ! ^" u " 1lJ 't '■' , »^ I>i- "lite belonged to, 
the nature of the creature quite 

-tie . mses ofDis ases air.-eJi.m 
^;' Sl V k " . L877). 1 believethu . 

to be the principal destroyer. There are prcscnl in the ernes (in 
££2£ ^w of AnffwUkl*. 1 

i these are probably as a rule followers of decay 

Ail the specimens of cane sent were in a tolerably advanced state of 

; and consequently of decay. I; vvou | ( , . Wrll ,,., h 

Mr. Eovells while to examine specimens in winch the disease ,;h 

'"' |1" neii.hbn.inn" eunes ( l u Yh sti]1 

■i'' IH-ssible. vyl.ich creature cm- 

yv^ y ,i,^. 

destructive ol 

&oted Sr Ll „ e : r;„; Mi'r sood os t ,hat ™ n ; » 

Exthvct from the "Rep. 
Koyal Gardens. Kew. 

ttigar-mnc Disease. 

: the specimens of diseased ea 

1. It appear not improbable that the dis< 
has been noticed in the Mala van Archb.da 
Royal Horticultural Society, Xew Series 

[Journal Royal Horticultural Society, Ncm 
2. Itis recognised by the appearance (in 

> the sheath and upon the stem i 

, paid, of'lar: 

rfessor Liversedge of the Univf 

lers that the marks on the leave 
are caused by a fungus of th 

c family J-:,'- 


the work of a coccus, a view in which Mr. MeLuchlan concurred. On 

a further examination of some of the specimens, Mr. McL: 

in a letter (S,-p! i, 1 H rift'. IS77uhai he ha. 1 found '• myriads of what 

of the i 

sugar-cane being grown from joints, the acarus wouhi easily 
mnnicated from one crop to another. I >r. .Bancroft tind> that 
the joints in milk of lime destroys the warns, and probably a 
of two to four ounces of fluid carbolic acid to a gallon of wate 
be still more effective. 

8. The black spored fungus eventually produced by the red > 
the leaves is regarded by Mr. Berkeley as a new species, t" « 

play- anv part in the disease, but simply takes possession of the 
moribund tissues. 

•e<i>oiulfji(v lir.sti.kon pbuv 
:n nnrl tin- t'olun-ai QMi, , 

ed by Mr. McLachla 

[All BigkU JicsmM 



No - 41.] MAY. [1890. 


•d to Mr. S. \V. Silver. F.L.S.. loi 

p of Kew Gardens. 

District Commissioner, Badagry, to Colonial Sborki 

Sir, Badagry, November 20, 

I HAVE the honour to inform you that ow'me. to the rain- 

and the sap of the trees drying up, I have onh been able to ol>f;i : 

of rubber instead of the 100 lbs. prope-ed in' las Kxeelleneys ? 

The cost has 1 1/ UK. S,/„ or :i fraction 1- <s than I .v. ]>. 

is ready packed for shipment to England, and as no mon 
ril the sap forms again in April, J would surest 
forwarded at om . » that nun arrival K -land I can b< h 
to give them- all it prove successful, 

also attend at Silvertown "' 
shown tlie best way of si 

[ I : ' 

ral a. 

u<x o: 
•id tr 
re th 





let Conn, 

v^terl , .i villi th- mill: mm, a 1,1 1; l,u il only a lldl 

tin moulds, { ,c,r ( ,:-,;,,l,,:,! ;i. 

; ' :; ' : ;- 

Heavy wei^ 

it will be found ready for shipn 

, and then t 


over and water poured through 


;,;.;;[ il 

need only be 1 

dry m»- up, li'lle or no milk cai 
my price to Ad. a bottle ; what 

■d, altho 

;>oi -ood.and 1 

miJ f ht 0n be CO done° n bu^the' ^vre 


.lle-ct 111 

c milk, n large 
iuid <lo not '« 

,-.':" ,:'.,. : 

3. In reply, I am to * 

the tv«pu>t of Sir Alin 


. 'i 

in the AV,r /,'*//,//,/ for 


trees of West Africa Won? 


v 1 '" 


to Kew ior d 

dertaken by Mir. ffiggfcson, tliii gentleman 

superior in man}' respects to former samples. 

4. A.s on the former occasion the Abba rubber received from La-os 
was forwarded through Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S., to (be India Rubber. 
Gutta L'ereha. and Telegraph Works Co.. Limited, Silvertown, and a 
copy of the report received I his reporl 
is on the who'e favourable. The rubber was free from impurities, and 
had rot suffered any deterioration in transit, two points of i 
importance in regard to African rubbers as usually received in this 
country. In the nex! \ - i ted as not 

■ in any form, and troublesome to work in the 
In fact the Abba rubber, as prepared by Mr. Higginson, is now capable 
of being '* used alone for many purposes." 

5. As stated by Mr. Millson, the Abba trees of West Africa are 
widely distril • in market 
places, streets, and compounds. They can be propagated by "the 
"■ - : • . 
'• and on ac< i I grows, the 
•• natives use it largely for fence posts.' 1 Further. Mr. Millson states 
" from the trees already in full growth in the bush and towns, a con- 
" siderable export trade could be readily established, and systematic 
" ph'intinj: of Abb tree- would develop this trade to almost an uu- 
" limited extent." 

6. The conclusions to be drawn from m< h.:< ; n .■> '. n coi.iained h 
the last two pa i , sir Alfred Moloney has evidently 

tduBtry to West Africa. 

Mr. HL'gin-on, while on leave in this country, has devoted attention to 

tii' eh mieal c anj osiiion n! rui.b. i i a -s f Mr. 

Silver, ha- .. .imetit of the -ampler-. 

Silvertown works. On bis return to Lagos, 

to continue with a fuller and wider 

knowledge of the subjeet. the iuve.-ti-alions into the preparations of 

't Si, Alfred Moloney will place him in a 

positKMi to ■;■■ t ] ie iutcrCSt 

of the Colony. 

7. Samples of prepared Abba rubber, manufactured at the Silvertown 

need in the report are forwarded 
direct by parcel post to the address of the Go\ ernor at Lagos. 

The Hon. R. H. Meade, C.B., (Signed) ' D. Morris. 

Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S., to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

3, York Gate, Regent's Park, N.W., 
l)i u; Mt;. Morris, 21 March 1890. 

SO Mi. 

•!;« !< -d Silvertown, HOth iti-t.. upon tin last litrle eonsigmnent of Lagos 
rubber placed in my hands by you for examination, accompanied by 
results in the si, ,,„.. stages. 

fcinghim at Silver! tion, viz., to make 

...i L-.gos sought : .ftoi- in the London market. 

Morris, L-]so„ F.L.S 

and Telegraph Works Co., Limited, 
i which this rubber was received ponsi<tod principally of 

riiese blocks had adhe! 

red. but were eas 

ily separated. They 


d no 

Is of 

U'ricaii rubber. The i 

larison with rubber that may be classed 

with this. 

Ft of the collecto 

r should be taken in 

. order 


he "Lago9 rubber "m; 

iy become kuowi 

i for its superior quality. 

The favourable opini< 

>n we expressed 

on the samples sent 

to Kei 

v by 

dr. Alvan Millson arc 

fully sustained bj 

In the report upon tl 

,vas stated that (Key 

v Bull 


7- s-9. ) •' -Mixed 

■ sulphur, and'vulcan 

ized, they cured 

soft and short, bu 

l Were 


■•''nean evidently i 

mt be used by 

itself in any form. 



samples wore troublesome to work in 

the mixing machines. 

Special attention has 

been paid to tin 

jse points on this occasion, 


in the first 


,-e find that this consig: 

•rred 1 

ii m 

lie second paragraph. 

The drying after wa 
nxing machines is sati: 


admits of its being use< 

1 almic 

tany purposes. 

This consignment los 

t 10 per cent, in 

washing and drying, 

" k ■':';. 


alcohol, so as to 

take out resins, &c 

ic latter treatment, wh 

,ilst adding cons 

iderably to the expt 

>ose, is 


ecessary, as no very mi 

irked improvemei 

tit takes place. 


(Crossotosoma cegyptmcum, J. W. Douglas.) 
. mealy bug, very destructive to cultivated plants, has recently made 
appearance at A I m f the female ir.s.cts 

■ributed In Admiral li!:>m!:rid i„ K . }.\ J. \\ . I) u U la . F K.S., 

• ' ■ ^ •■ • .' :."::.'■'■'.'.'; .',..'.' 

Admiral Blomfield to Royal GabdenS, Kb 

ViniiHin Meah 

US will lie most grateful. 

I am, &c. 
r Oliver, F.B.S. ^^ W ' * T 

Dkau Mi 

Mr. Douglas will to abto to determine the species. I ito 

lad to receive specimens. 

e* arc spravhi" ' i California. A i 

inula is that published in the October No. of " Insect Li 

P Hllot^<nn-autii).^<\ after 20 different 

. (!,,. b,>M result^ w;i^ found to be composed 
i (70 per cent, strength), 6 lbs.; fish oil, 3 

n- added 

/'hen filled up With coh 

■ , t> i- ft,, Movindrian Mostly Hug «':i- 

AfaUde8cnption,withfi«ait . 

■ .■■•; ■: . :^ - 

Deep orange, becoming black after death; broad 
r 3 slightly 

ded in front, Antenwe 
(fig. 1) black, short, stout, of 11 
wide joint.-, with many projecting 
pale hairs; the first three cylin- 
drical, 1st broadest, 3rd longest; 
4th to 10th short, in length sub- 
equal, the sides curved out from 
the wide base to the rounded 
wider apex, the anterior margin 

..::'■■■ ■-..)•' 


ih-Ii longer than the ;]nl. 

many long hairs, two of them 
specially very long. Eyes ( fig. 2, 
profile and front) black, shining, 
not facetted, projecting from a 
wide, oval base in the form of a 
short, sub-conical, truncate tube, 
'Inch one side is irregular 
being constricted near the base; 
viewed in front the tube is trans- 
lucent. Thoracic i 
pying nearly half 


ih. 1-n 

but all distinctly marked. 
In the first stage of "adnltness 
the whole smooth surface has a 
pellicle of white waxen matter 
■loscly adherent, but easily de- 


ventually, as the 

int.', h.jx-nng, wax;.,!, >no\v-\vliite. 

sheltered within a curved leaf a si 
upturned or horizontal appendage' 

f the thoracic segment 
ogether, the others wi< 
regard it as typical 

Rostrum small, conical, black, -da rather <Z 

long hairs j fern liv long // I 

hair on the inner side ; tibice two and a half ' ; b 
times longer than the tarsi ; claw short ; no A \> 

Length of body 

Vo t n,ffhrv tt {l\ i r.Q). A few found under ^ — 

woof ,|,, inost mature ovisac. Yelb.vish, 7} ^<JJZ 

vaL Antennae of six joints, the last long, /?/ ^— 

the form of tl ,f 4 ^k J^ \ 

arc (juilr a "= tin.- irenu 

On November 2nd, 1889, I received scv< 
r, markabi* Coceid from Mr. I). Morris, k.L. 
tl.- Uoyai ' J.u-di-n-. K-w. l.a\ :"'._' b. - n ^iifln 
Alexandria, E»vpl. where ' ; tlu-\ 
trees." They were for tl;e iuo>t pari alive, ami 


The subject of Mauritiu 

s hemp has been discussed already in the 

Kcw Bulletin (March 181= 

7 p. S) Sinee , t n< < o, .,du ibh 

fibres ni'.l.l.-f.TM-i. r'l'it 


nl'ni" In.- 

•en M a!ldi(.s'!.d < to" Kmv re-p (-iV^ the'w 

fibres. The plants in most 

FurrrovK Savsevieria, Kara 

■V', Ih-omrUn, v.iu\ ,ih. i m< n n^l dnnou* 

elJtlu. particular kind onibroin'demaml. 

he prouuciion of Si*al lmuip, yielded by 

of the-e machines could be'si 

own fbi fibre [*« Rett ". " 1 ,. March 

1887, pp.'3-S; 1 March 1&£\ 

.'r^-il^lnM^'li'n'nia/ne, Jerdy 

In the case of Mauritius he 

known as grattes or scrapers 

, which have been generally in use in that 

u ! il (rial with . t! < r ua..d«m. wl < 

^Ann E xs,KHW-, 

lc-i::s Kcw, fjth November 1889. 

bres have >limu!af d inquiry in 

o iWf.r 


industry has arisen in Mauritius 

'"'' ''" "' 

i<l it is regularly 

quoted in L >nd< : prie - current. 

;,■:...- ,;: : .f ;[,,. , . 

Use at Mauritius for Exts 

.j. li' by steam, what is the region •■red horse-power necessary to drm 

6. No. of men required to feed and romovo fibre (not including 

drying the fibre)? 

7. Average out-turn of Avet fibre for each machine per hour r 

8. Average out-turn of dry fibre for each machine per day of - 

9. Average cost in labour, fuel, Sec. in cleaning a ton of dry fibre? 

20 February !•!)<> 
the honour to Ira^nwf to your Lnrdsliip a mm- ..{' 
feting Suneyo.-d.'ieial. Mr. rm -r-. I.. I-- -.xar 

,WemP °"' e< '"irnlfc' 

(Signed) C C L*«^ 


Acting Si-rvkyor-Gkneral, No. A/66, 17th February 
dnved rflnor i '•'"^ l l):l(1 t0 P ro '" ;;!V 

ineer tu the /^ - / /<b 

2nd. A !>!;• 

[Enclosure No. 2.] 

ml FmuUri.'- (!.' Maun^." 

sc in Mauritius for the last j 
by water power. 

elianrcs. viz.. collect i 


1 foot wide. 

i-cl blades parall 


;; ; ;-:: ;,1 vh 

teel is preferred 

lire lirmh 

o wit 

li -reat rapidu 

v doso to 

and a-iiin 

woo I u li i 1\ xed to two" wooden I o ( i h 

ul i l the s mi tin! 1 Qg ' 

ilic v? ' . ~ -, - II < .i 'i ■ ! l,st11 ' ' '"' 

with the utmost earo betbre the machine is_ started. N lien --nn 

adjusted it is import 

Two men usually work »i each nuudune. They sta, 
side of the feed ;i;il V l V V , 1S ', 

work that one of the men should be 1< 

?S^ tte feedtoble 

o 1 itis L g,m.ralh"i 

en the two machines 'should have a 

! framework of the in:. I hi ■ h - .-.uely attach* d to sul 


according to the age of 1 Me- and the ehara i fifties of the seas* 

The riper the l.uv- ihc Iai-u- th- vield of fibre; a wet season pi 
ducing lea\es cha gud with mo u ill >o iffect the result. ' 

produce a ton ci : ., :ncn1 !vq „i re g from 80,000 

I"/""' i""P" tl ' ach?' The'higl.'.T'priee 

**»*«*■ 'I i\^40to5Qcei 

the bale of 150 kilo.. !i tq ; ot - 10 lo jo n , 

(Signed) A. Yj 

The produce ha- been '2 ill, IV, ! kilos, of wet l'il 
401 bales of dry fibre, 1st quality. 

Moan day's work = 10,175 kilos. 

Proportion of dry fibre to wet fibre = 26 '61 %. 

A true copy of note supplied by Manager. 

(Signed) A. V.wdekmklusch, 
17 February 1890. ' Acting Surveyor-General 

( Linum pemnne, L.) 

; emollient nil 
■ /■ diii'.vbtuL of 'lb. . idum-v Hii\ i> the laettliai 

'\ l l !" 1( nn lthx p . » th prop ties of the ordinal-) 
"uld 'eiM.alh eveitekMn inhi^i ninn^l dax growers. The 

W'^to l«; ,, to time during the last 

[ : s ' b ' ,t H»« rosult.s so fa, !ll( ;„, I do not hold out rhe/hop< of a 
ml flax taking the place of the present annual species. There 
- true, a 1,n,„n, L.. , v hich is a native of the British 
. It is also found in Middle and Southern Knmne. in Wesm.-n 

d:u*., l,e, 

, ' i1 ' ' " ' ! -i ! * !nt ,s,,( ,„,,'„[ 

■■!..'.;.■ ■..■...'. 

tion of the subject. 

Royal Gardens, Kkw, to Foreign Office. 

,SllJ ' _ Royal Gard,,,-, Kow. 16 November 1880. 

I n\YE the hoii(,iu fo inform inn that .Mr 'Iduseltou Dver has 

Ql no copy of thia exitta 

at Kew. _ '< Vom pere:m' me und dc'ssen audi bey 

" uns mil N , tenzig, etc*" 

D. Gottlieb Schrader, Halle, 1754. 

3. If this perennial flax is still cultivate-*! in Siberia and yields some 
of the flax exported from the Russian ICuipire. the tact would possess 
considerable interest to flax growers in the North of Ireland. At 
present th< al Gardens possess no specimens of 


4. Mr. This >ress the hope thai the 

Secretary of State will approve of the kind ofliees of J lev Majesty's 

different kinds of flax cultivated in Siberia, if a ; erennial flax is 
known there answering to the description given by Dr. Carpenter, it 
would be desirable to obtain for the Kew Museums specimens of the 
Btemsin vaxi* m and of the flax yarn as usually 

exported, [l to obtain two or three pounds of 

seed of this perennial flax, in order that it may he experimentally 
cultivated in this country ; m Tin- connexion t; nfo; ation as to its 
cultural treatment would be serviceable. 

.: in usual course. 

I am, &c. 
(S%ned) D. Morris. 
Sir Villiers Lister, K.C.M.G. 


purpose, is the Siberian perennial flax. This 

ing coarser fibres ; these arc found to be very strong, fait lmt - i wait. 

or fine at th< ■■ Bax. Theyserv i 

ever, for the man it; tare of coars- labia- and then - i 

the Bame root, a su©o« 

sion of stalks will be developed for many ye 
further attention, than to be kept free from i 

Sir Ror.KHT B. D. Morier, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., &c, to the Marquis o 

Salisbury, K.G., &c. 
My Lord, St. Petersburg, 2 

Ix 'reply to your Lordship's l>. -patch, No. <o of this scries an 

E. P. G. Law, giving the result of his rnqmrtc 
respecting Siberian flax. 

(Signed) 1 ' 'it. B. D. Morier. 
The Marquis of Salisbury. K.G., 

[Enclosure No. 1.] 

Mr. E. F. G. Law to Sir Eobekt B. D. Morier, 

G.C.B., G.C.M.G., &c. 

Sir, Constantinople, 1 March 1890. 

In accordance wit!, your instruction,-. I have made inquiries 
respecting the Siheriai lax referred to t\ Manjuis of Salisbury's 

s !, Cumin !«■;■ 1, .d' November 21, 1889. 
Tins flax is at present quite unknown in the St. Petersburg market, 
in which it, would be most likely to be found. A loo 
merchant has kindl\ undertaken to'endeavour to procure samples for- 
me, but these had not been received when I left St. Petersburg. 

Meanwhile, through the kindness of the Vice-Director of the Depart- 
th, subject, emanating from the Director of the Tech 1 Institute. 
and from Professor Batalin of the St. Petersburg University. 
I append translations of the commui intlemefa, 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) E. F. G. Law, 
His Excellency Commercial Attache. 

Sir Robert B. D. Morier, G.C.B., G.C.M.G, 

[Enclosure No. 2.] 
The Director of the Technological Institute writes:— 
"Siberian ilav . Li,nn,i />, ,r„, ■ \< e, rtainly different from the flax 
.-rally used in Europe. Th ■ .: : :>; n : .-,. ;.. ,'.„ ni- f , j,,.,,.,,. 
- cur and not pulled up by the roots, and therefore ii is 

or the American flax with white flowers. The Siberian Max -iv. - a 
short i„w as the stems are short. The stems do not grow erect, but 
are bent, and even lie on the ground. The industrial use of this flax is 
ver bren grown with Wir intention 
time when I inter, -id myself in this subject I learnt that the' Siberian 
Hax w:t~ sold in St. Peter-burg warehouses, and was distinguished l»v 
its proper name, aiei iy its v,hitene.> and softness, and b\ its freedom 
in in 'Ko : tra- ( Scutch ?), and it is more ex I )ensive. The traders 
collect it m the Governments of Viatka and Vologda, on the banks of 

Prof esse 

able from ordinary flax 

: Mack, and quite flat, so that it is quite useless for' 
The pod has little of the soft part which is found 
<y or 40 years ago experiments were made in 
Germany to grow perennial flax for the tow. In the works of 

ot :— « The plant grows more evenly and longer 

tciiueu. ±u oourn uussia. it I :un not mi-taken, in the Govern- 
t of Kieff, someone made the experiment of sowing Austrian 
inial flax (Union austriiiviiiii), which i- very similar to'the Li mini 
om this such coarse tow was obtained thai its iurtlv r 
abandoned. Of this latter experiment an account was 
' Zemlerlelcheskoy Gazette " (Agricultural Gazette) in 

' the year 

A little further information has been obtained respecting perennial fl:.\ 
Lintry. In " Our Farm Crops " (Edinburgh, l's.ijj >, 1'rofessor 
Wilson states '• Si no • <\ 'riments recently mad. w t! Liu it in /nnnur 
'" tend to show that its perennial i sustaining 

" itself on soils of the poorest description entitle it to more consideration 
" than it has hitherto received at our hands. Its hardy nature and 
" its branching and vigorous habit of growth when a little care and 
'• at tent ion is bestowed upon it, would lead us to believe that on the poor 
" thin soil of chalk formations for instance, it might be euitnated with 
" advantage, and would, probably, on such soils give a far larger return 
'• than could be obtained from any of the plants we at present enltivute. 
*' The branching habit of the plant would be favourable to the prodoe- 
'•' tion of seed but unfavourable it is true, to tlm pi .In tion of fibre." 

The experiments mentioned by Professor Wilso 
were undertaken by Professor Buckman and described by him in the 
Af/i'icif/fnmf Gazette, 1860, p. 270. Professor Buckman called par- 
ention to the probability of Lininn perenm m 
;ight be used for paper making. The results o: his botanical 
fs and conclusions were first communieat 1 to tli l»i tidi 
Association for the Advancement of Science in I ^ ~ 7 . In l s i ;( » be states 
" I have made a new plot of this plain from -e.-,' < • h< ' 
" one, and the whole plant maintains its character, it 
" improved condition, so that we may at present be -aid to possess in r 
" a form of linseed which grows to as much a- .30 inches in lieipht. and 
" I should say capable of producing a far greater quant 
" readiness in which its stems branch and this on very poor soil, not t : 
' ; a single year but for years, as my plot sown in ISol - - 
'• growth, and yielded a good crop in ISolHir- tit'tli ;■• 
" annualh -ceded tor that time. However, as r 

(Coffta Merita, Bull.) 

•offee shipped to this 
i coffee in parchment 

country. This was nol wl, lly successful, owing partly to tho fact that 

till itl'rO \V:iS ] _ I 1 i i i 1 I IK 1] i 1\ .1 U! I 

mouldy condition. . ;i ! ;•'• >o owing to the peculiar character of the 
"parchment * skin, wii; 1, in this species, becomes very hard and 
difficult to remove if left long before cleaning. 

It will prol,:'h:\ I ■ !n -\ ad'.anragoous for planters to both 
pulp and- mil!" or clean Liberian coffee on the spot. In Java we 
Learn that evcrai Li rian coffee estates there continue to yield satis- 
factory results. The ... are fermented before, to soften tho fibrous character of tho Jitter integument. This 
is also said to iinj;w>\ • il rkel va\u ■ of she produce. 

In regard to the vield of Liberian coffee estates in the Malay 
Peninsula, we are incicbted to Messrs. Hill and Radii orue, of Singa- 
pore, lor the following memorandum : — 

Planters will be interested in the following Statement of the produce 
of Liberian Coffee E-t tos in the Native States, which shows an 
average for } n-.. (Ttf e [States ,f ,s ■ (,, iq ,. v .t-. per acre, while 

In 1834, 28 i 
In 1885, 28 

In ISS7, (i.1 acres of coffee in full |, Cill 

^312 „ 3701 
1 311 „ 369 

- 542 „ 6431 

6, 19 acres under 4 years old - 

7, 55 acres of coffee in full bearing 
8,55 ., „ w e 

- l2 - 5 up to July 31 

6G „ 69| 

[All Rights lies 






In January of the present year two Bampl< 
tea were presented to the Museum by Colonel Alexander Moncrletf. (Mb, 
accompanied by the following letter addressed to Sir Joseph Hooker. 
15, Vicarage dale, Kensington, W., 
My dear Sib Joseph, 24 January 1890. 

I had almost forgotten to send you the 
tea" which I spoke of at the Athena-urn, but as soon as 1 saw it just 
now I recollected mv promise, and here it is. 

My ( hinese correspondent. \I - (i i .liner. 
Hankow, informs me that tlii- tablet tea is in 
Siberia. It is manufactured at Hankow, "the laigei 
<• common tea dint, which ad!..-:-.- 
« cloth for a moment, by hand ,.,.-mv. I 
- required is placed in the bag, an 
" the wood mould, and is pressed to the requin 
« or a hea\ v mallet wielded bv one of the labourers. The cost ot the 


" common tea dust is 31 Chinese o/.s. silver (say, 15*.) per pecul = 
«• 133 lbs. avoirdupois. The cost of the manufacture, export, duty, 
•' naekino-. &c. amounts to a further Us. a pecul. The bulk uhc 
" packed is only one-sixth of the bulk of an equal weight of ordinary 
' ; tea as ordinarily packed. . 

"The small tablet is made of the finest tea dust, the selection oi 
" which is made with great care. The original cost of this tea here is 
" about 84s. a pecul. It is manufactured into tablets by steam • 
" in a steel mould. The proper amount of dust is poured into the 
" mould dry w 'He pressure brought to bear upon 

" it. is two tons per tablet. Considerable e re is required in the manu- 
« facture and packing of this tablet tea, and the cost is comparatively 

^Besides this tablet tea used in Russian Siberia, there is a pressed 
" tea called brick lea used in Chinese Mongolia and Tibet. 'Ihis is- 
" made of the whole of the leaf with stalks, and is about the size and 

" It is made. I know, by Chinese in a very simple way." 

This is all the information I got with the specimens. 
I am, &c. 
(Signed) A. Moxcrieff. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.I., F.R.S., &c. 

The manufacture of compressed tea at Hankow, referred to in the 
above letter, seems to be an industry of considerable importance, and is 
in an article from \\u' PlanU-rs Gazcttr, reprinted in the 
Tea Cyclop*,) 'la ~urd from the nl!io< of the Lalhm Tea Gazette, 
Calcutta, and published bv"W. 11. Whittingham *V Co., 91, ' 
Street, London, in 1882. It is there stated that " the Commissioner of 
" Customs at Hankow reports that the importance of the brick tea 
" trade is rap the demand becoming greater than 

" the supply. The employment of steam machinery for pressing the 
bricks lias proved in every way a great success, the steam-pressed 
u brick being much better finished than that produced by hand, and 
" more compact and firm, withstanding the difficulties of transit 
« better, and ultimately arriving at its domination in Sineria little, if 
" any, the worse for the journey. With the old method, the bricks, 
** from inset! -vere liable to chip and crumble at 

" the edge< ; ;!11 ,1, as groat stress is laid on the perfect appearance of 
" the brick by the Siberians, it can be easily understood that a hard, 
" sharply defined brick would at once obtain the preference. W ith 
" both methods of manufacturing brick tea, there is a drawback, and a 
" serious one — the damping of the dust by steam, which robs it of all 
" its fragrance. To remedy this defect, a firm has imported a hydraulic 
" press, which turns out - e*, weighing a quarter of 


It was considered ver\ | nary brick tea and the 

compressed tea would run side by side in friendly competition, the 
brick keeping its own position for use amongst the poorer, and the com- 
pressed tea becoming popular amongst the better classes. At the time 
the article was written from which the preceding extract is made, there 
were six manufactories in Hankow, in three of which boilers were used 
either for steaming the tea, or both for that purpose and furnishing 
power for pressing. The dust from which brick tea is made comes 
principal!} from Ningehow in Kiangsi and Tsung yang and Yang- 
lout'ung in Ifupeli, and varies botb cording as it 

belongs to the first, second, or third crop. 

then placed in a winnowing machine bavin- ihr-o different sized sieves, 
with troughs corresponding, and passed into baskets. The residue, 
r ->o coarse to pass any of the sieves, is taken out and trodden 
until it is reduced to the proper consistency, when it is placed in iron 
pans over a charcoal fire until it is sufficiently brittle, when it is again 
taken to be winnowed, and this operation is repeated until it has all 
.1' fineness. Three sizes are pro- 
duced, the coarser ones being employed to constitute the In irk, while 
the finest dust is only used as a facing. The dust having been properly 
sifted the next step is to prepare it for pressing, and this is done by 
exposing it to the action of steam for three minutes, and it is this 
steaming that robs brick tea of its scent and flavour, and for which a 
remedy is eagerly sought. 

" The oh! I often betted 

by charcoal and having spaces ah c . \vl ich are fitted with rattan covers. 
When the dust is to be steamed it is spread out on a sheet of cotton 
cloth placed over the boiler and covered np ; but with the unproved 
European apparatus the dust is simply put into iron boxes and the steam 
there pass, d through them. After having been sufficiently steamed to 
make it adhesive, the dust is put into a strong wooden mould, on the 
movable cover of which the trade mark of the 'hong' or firm is en- 
graved (so as to leave the corresponding impression on the brick) and 
firmly wedged down. It is then pressed and placed on one side for two 
or three hours to cool. Each brick should weigh one catty 1 1 j lb. j, 
and all those that do not come up to the proper standard of weight H 
arc- defective in any way are rejected and re-made. For this purpose 
they are taken to a rotatory mill, constructed of two hes 
stones moved by a horizontal wooden bar and working in a channel 
where the condemned bricks are thrown, and crushed as the wheel* pa- 
over them. Having again become dust, the operation ahead 
is in all its details repeated. The hand press turns out fi»> 
dav wiili 2r, per rout, rail-ire b ricks, while the stream press produces 80 
baskets a day. with only five per cent, of bad work, and ti- 
the employment of the improved machinery amounts to one tael a basket, 
or, according to the above stated out-turn, eighty taels a d 
20/. sterling. The bricks found tc be correct in weight and free from 
defects are stored in the drying room for a week, when th< 
ily in paper, and packed in bamboo I 
'ricks each. Green brick tea is made in the same manner, 
but of leaf, not dust, and the bricks i 

Kew Museum 
a imported in quantities into London from Shangh- 
for re-ex;, cost of which was 6& 

and duty. It seems from information kindly furnished jn 
Tuke Mennell, F.L.S., of St. Dun-? ! " wer htr f: 

E.C., who presented the above-named specimen to the W 
of tea is not now an article of commerce on I 

i arkct. rl ,h it is still an article of regular consumption in kussia, 

but is now chiefly, if not entirely, sent overland. 

Consul Aile ."n porti. - m. th< trade of Hankow for tl 
says, "The:. I a teenu M lucre* ' 

bounds.' The bricks are *■"» T .rSr* 

Tfc« 'nr^t to* ftMi«M. wi& s he most striKin p 

A 2 

nple of hard compressed 1 

buildings in the European settlement, 

The brick tea of Tibet is an entirely different quality of tea from the 
above described. The full grown leaves m used, : nd ar< > < mp 1 tiveh 
loosely pressed together into blocks about 10 inches by 10 inches, and 
4 inches thick. 

e British Consul at ( .'!, 
ooden churn, in which the boiling 
infusion is ;.,.. r ; ;; little sail is added, and some 

20 strokes applied with a dasher pierced with five holes. A lump of 
butter is then thrown in, and the compound is again churned with from 
100 to 150 strokes administered with much precision. The tea is then 
ready for drinking. 

The use of compressed tea in this country has been attempted at 
different times, but never js. A few years ago two 

companies were formed for working it, and at the present time there is 
a company in London *lri< ie, a sample 

of which is in the Kew Museums. It is claimed for this tea that it 
has many advantages over loose tea, the chief of which is that the 
leaves being suhmitled to heavy hydraulic pressure all the cells are 
broken, and the constituents of the leal mot e ea-iiy extracted In the 
boiling water, thus effecting a considerable saving in the quantity 
required for use. Its great advantages over loose tea, however, would 
seem to be its more portable' eharaeier. am | ; M t | K , ( . ase (; f p,,,^ Sl . a 
voyages, or for use in expeditions, the reduction of its bulk to one- 

The compression of tea into blocks further, it is said, constitutes a 
real and important improvement in the treatment of tea. These blocks 
weigh i quartet oi i p< tnd each, and in snbdivid. 1 int< ounces, half 
ounces, and quarter ounces; this insures exactitude' in measuring, and 
saves the trouble, waste, and uncertainty of mea 

It nl-,, ensures uniformity in the strength of the infusion. By com- 
atic properties of the leaf are retained 
tor a much longer pei . , m damp and 



A manuscript catalogue of Malayan names of timber trees drawn up 
by the well known Indian botanist, the late 1 1 . 

ptwervedat Kew. In part, at any seems to have been pub- 

■'•■at year: — 

' and forest conservancy of that station, which 
:! to th v/ „,, ,, ,.;, , ,„, ( , : tt<, dr< ! 

but in its present iorm it is useless cither fur scientific or commercial 
purposes; but when the author ha. hot micallv idenr.fied each timber. 

4ng Sanah, which Dr. Oxley < 
he latter's report upon the botan 
voods have been frequently mad< 

Mr. Blnndell, the late Governor of this Settlement, «*ot a silver medal 
for one, but no one has taken the trouble before i„ „,»ke , 

Forded 1 Di M daga beii) 
the vernacular names of the timbers, whicl 

hardness, and uses." n 

Dr. Maingay unhappily met with his death in 1869. He «u then 
'lent of the Rangoon Central Prison, and on November b". h. 
U;,,s >il "' ■' isoners. Hi- botai u 

were acquired for Kew. They ind the woody 

plants of the Eastern Indian peninsula, a large proportion of which 
were new to science. These were accompanied with a series of careful 

note books containing descriptions dra imens, with 

,T1L - whole material has been worked op at Ktt* 
r Joseph Hooker of the Flora of British India, 
able value. As the woody plants of India as 

Timber Trees of Straits Settlements. 

(Dillcnia aurea, Sm.). A large tree. Wood grey 

2. Mum Pesand or Pesang (Poh/ahhia Jrnhinsii, Benth, 
A tree. Wood yellowish white e .. 

Grain coarse. It is soft and does not split in drying. Used 
supports for verandahs, &c. 

Weight, •>()<) cubic inches = 4 lbs. 13f ozs. 

Cubic foot = 41 lbs. 15| ozs. 

dull white colour, soft, jri-ain coar-e, di 

LI -8 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 1 
Cubic foot = 37 lbs. 11 ozs. 
Hooker in Flora of British India, 

4. Mata PASSE.n (Trigcniastnan ht/poiei 
small tree. Wood of a very pale lemon colo 
l drying. Used for making table 
loj cubic inches = ~> lbs. \\h oz> 
• foot = 45 lbs. Uh ozs. 

wphullum rufum, A. 

7. Summam Phat {Cratoa Korth.). A glabrc 
shrub. Wood of a pale brown or reddish colour, grain fine, hard, d< 

218-9 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 7| ozs. 
Cubic foot =61 lbs. 15 ozs. 

8. GtRONgong (Cratoxylon arbcresccns, B 
red, grain coarse, soft, does not split in dryin; 

Weight, 191*88 cubic inches = 3 lbs. 8f < 
Cubic foot = 32 lbs. 15 ozs. 

9. Manggis outan (Gumma ,»,//,„.vr,w, Hook, f.). \Y^o,\ reddish 
white with darker lines and blotches, grain medium, fairly hard, splits 
in drying. Used for ordinary work. 

Weight, 218-7 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 8 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 43 lbs. 7 ozs. 

Kurt -ays of this wood : " Wood brown, heavy ; gives an inferior 
kind of gamboge." 

10. Kandkys (Garcinia nigro-lineata, Planch. MSS.). A tree. 
Wood pale dull red, grain fine, very hard, with a slight natural polish, 
splits rwry much in drying. Used for house supports. 

Weight, 216-9 cubic inches = 8 lbs. ozs. 
Cubic foot = 63 lbs. 1 If ozs. 

11. Moo.NTANGOO or MrXTAXGOO HOONGA, BlSTAKGOK (Cllln/>/,,/l/itm 

vuiiutn, Hook. f.). A tree. Wood brownish-white, slreakeil and 
variously marked with brown, grain very coarse, soft, does not split 
in drying. Used for masts of boats. 

Weight, 223-9 cubic inches = 4 lbs. £ oz 

Cubic foot = 31 lbs. 3| ozs. 

12. Panaga boonga (Mesua ferrea, L.). A middling-sized glabrous 
tree. Wood light red externally, becoming dark red towards the 
centre, grain medium, hard, splits slightly in drying. Used for 

Weigl \ 213| cubic inches = 8 lbs. 14 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 71 lbs. 13 ozs. 

According to Gamble this Wood >< vetj durable and answers equally 
well with Pynkado (Afzclia hijtn/a, . 
of cutting the hard wood, its weight, t 
serim forests to Calcutta prevent its being much "used, 
is scarcely covered l,y the price (R s . 5) per broad-gauge sleeper. It 
used for building, for bridges, gunstocks, and tool handles. Its m< 
general use, however, is prevented by its great hardness, weight, a 
the difficulty of working it. The seeds yield an oil. 


13. Patotoo (Adinandra dnmosa, Jack). A small tree Wood 

Weight, 176-1 cubic incl^ = 4 lbs. I ,,z. 
Cubic foot = 39 lbs. 9 oz. 

14. Tateyyoo, Taytyoof, or (query) Tayyoof (Eurya acuminata, 
DC. ?). A small tree. Wood pale red. gram Hue, hard,' si.'e 

in drying. Used for beams in house building. 
Weight, 225-75 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 8| ozs. 
Cubic foot = 57 lbs. 10 ozs. 

15. Sama jawa (Gordonia excelsa, 131.). Maingay appears to have 

it -o samples of the wood of this specie- I 
as the following descriptions appear under the native name of "Sama 

1. Wood very pale red, grain fine, hard, does not split in drying. 
Used for boat building and for beams. 

Weight, 213-5 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 4£ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 59 lbs. 5£ ozs. 

2. Wood d I, splits in drying. Used 
for making ladders (? steps). 

Weight, 222-26 cubic inches = 8 lbs. 6| ozs. 
Cubic foot = 65 lbs. 7£ oz?. 

16. Ruriang (Archyta-a Vahlii, Choisy). A shrub or small tree. 
Wood very pa!.' whitisl i 1. becoming darker towards the centre, 
grain fine, bar ring. Uses unknown. 

Weight, ISt -4 cubic inches = 8 lbs. 12 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 81 lbs. 15 ozs. 


17. Seriah Bhatoo or Bahtoo (Shorea acuminata, Dyer). Wood 

dull red or, in some el' the externa! portions, reddish-vH ' 

and -taiiici with red, grain coarse, medium hard, does not split in 

drying. Uses unknown. 

Weight, 215-1 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 9 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 44 lbs. 10 ozs. 

18. CHANGAL fkvrak (Shorea leprosula, Miq.). Wood whitiah- 
red, with slightly da. L r streak-, -rain coarse, hard, splits v-ry little m 
drying. Used for beams of boats. 

Weight, 210 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 11| ozs. 
Cubic foot = 55 lbs. \ oz. 

19. Makantik Kerrap (Shorea parvifolia, Dyer). Wood dull red, 
-rain coarse, -oft. splits in .hying. Used for planking. 

Weight, 216-97 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 10 ozs. 
Cubic foot =. 36 lbs. 13 ozs. 

Cubic foot = < 
In India this 

seil for Iiousc-bn 

! Gurjun-oil tree. The wood i 
Uurma ; and the wood-c 

i painting houses and ships. Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers, 

22. Kuaxg booloo (DlptirrH-arpn, , 
pale red, grain medium, hard, does not 

Weight. 232-9 cubic inches = 8 lbs. 6 c 

Cubic foot = 62 lbs. 2 ozs. 

23. Mux Dukiak (Boschia Griffithii, Mast.). A small tree. Wood 
pale brown** *bite ])]otcl ^ c 

Weight^'.. Used for general work. 

Cubic foot = 5Ubs. C lToJs! ~ lbS ' * ' ° ZS ' 

— (ByTTEENA). Same specie 
, soft, sp 

Ubs. 4| e o n zs° re,gltJ 

relth^* t^T' 1 ','' fS*VW M^t.). A lofty tree. Wood 

.nially, grain coarse, soft, 

'■ Uses unknown ' ^ 

, u '/ Ji; :-- 11 - s ' ; ; h! "^" 1 ^= 5 lbs. lOozs. 

Cubic foot = 41 lbs. 11 ozs. 

^m drying Largely,,- 7 » 

» eujit. l(>s-,5 cubic inches = 6 lbs 14 o?s 
Cubic foot = 52 lbs. 7| ozs. ' 4 

iu drying Usld^mak^Ss 11 ^^ *** ^ ^ ^ 

w,; - ; ' ! ' 1 ribs "i 07 , 

Cubic foot = 50 lbs. 9* ozs. 4 

« SnToulf Sr y T : ~" AS the labeI was lost of tlie abo ™ Pta.* I 
am m doubt whether I am correct in calling it Champaka m. outan " 

Wo^d Sa'tSS {BUet¥eria Und ™ ta > Mast -)- A shrubby plant, 
rtoes not split n dry ng Used for!!, 
height, 21 nba n - 


drying. Uses it 

Weight, 229- 

Weight, 231-1 cubic inches = 
Cubic foot = 31 lbs. 4§ c 

Chindabbt (jaxtan). Wood dull olive, grain coar 
splits deeply in drying. Used for the manufacio 

Cubic foot = 55 lbs. 11£ ozs. 

Note.— Maingay describes this as a mere variety of the preceding. 

32. MuDANG Asam (Elcrocarpm stipnlaris, Bl.) A tree Wood 

reddish white, grain medium, soft, splits slightly in drying. Used for 

Weight. 217 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 6 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 35 lbs. 5 ozs. 

shrub. Wood white, w 
Uses unknown. 

Weight, 222-26 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 4 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 33 lbs. 

34. Jin ja JONG or Gin ja Goxo (Tronanthes reticulata, .la 
Wood dirty whit, m th I)i . ,-ni>ii st, . 2l in coarse, medium h 

_. Uses unknown. 
Weight, 2 M cubic inches = 5 lbs. 14* ozs. 
Cubic foot = 42 lbs. 10J ozs. 

35. Jinjagoxg (jantax ). Same species as the last. Wood brow 
ohve. grain med Uses unknown. 

Weight. 23S-5 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 15| OZS. 
Cubic foot = 48 lbs. 4 oz. 

buff white, graii 

Weight, 222- 
Cubic foot sb 


39. Tixgee liURONG {Evmlia /A ■'>■> ,■■/!: :•■„<!, Benth.). A small tree. 
Wood reddish white, jibund.uitU U-.r.-ii.-d with elongated patches of 
dull red or brown, grain coarse, soft, does not split in drying. Uses 

Weight, 234-8 cubic inches = 3 lbs. 14 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 28 lbs. 8 ozs. 

40. Mikiang {Irving ia malayana, Oliv. MS.). Glabrous tree. 
Wood pale yellowish buff, grain fine, hard, does not split in drying. 
Used for kris handles. 

Weight, 218-69 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 6| ozs. 
Cubic foot = 58 lbs. 10i ozs. 


41. Chinta mola (jantan) (Gompkia sumatrana, Jack). A small 
tree. Wood dull red, grain medium, hard, splits slightly in drying. 
Used for the manufacture of boats, pumps, and blocks. 

Weight, 209-92 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 8| ozs. 
Cubic foot = 53 lbs. 14^ ozs. 

Weight, 247-7 cubic inches = 7 1 
Cubic foot = 54 lbs. 8 oz. 

'lock, tor boat-rigging, &c. 
NViiiht. 230- > cubic inches = 6 lbs 
Cubic foot = 51 lbs. 1| ozs. 

in drying. 

Cubic foot = 30 lbs. 15 ozs. 

47. Ki;xn fata, a. W. Be 

dirty v. hit.', grain medium, fairly hard, does not 
for gun-stocks. 

Weight 169*75 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 24 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 42 lbs. 4£ ozs. 

48. Kkjai (Trtffofioa ... r.). A. tree. Wood 

yellowish- white, grain a | j „,,, .,,|it ;„ dryiiJi 

Uses unknown. This tree affords an expensive dammar, which ' J . "^ 
off an odour when burned. 

Weight, 227-3 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 9k ozs. 

Cubic foot as 52 lbs. 2 ozs. 


49. Suntool Outan (Sandorkum mdicum, Cav.). A lofty tret. 
Colour olive white, grain medium, very soft, does not split 

Uses in Malaya unknown. 

Weight, 171^ cubic inches = 3 lbs. \ oz. 

Cubic foot = 30 lbs. 6 ozs. 

NoTE.^The wood of this species is known as Thitto in Burma, ted 
is there used for carts and boat building. — Gamble. 

yellowish-white, bee 

hard, does not split in drying. Affords s 

Weight, 80 cubic inches = 2 lbs. 8 ozs 

Cubic foot = 54 lbs. 

Same as the last. Wood dirty- white, wit 
ice, grain fine, soft, splits slightly in drying. 

Weight, 220-5 cubic inches = 
Cubic foot = 33 lbs. 12J ozs. 

52. Munseeka (Ilex cymosa, BI.). A small tree. Wood dirty ffkifa , 
grain medium, soft, splits slightly in drying. Uses unknown. 

Weight, 175| cubic inches = 4 lbs. £ oz. 
Cubic foot = 39 lbs. 7£ ozs. 

53. Pasak Lenga (Ilex macrophylla, Wall. ?). A tree about 
15 feet high. Wood dull dark red, grain fine, very hard, does not split 
in drying. Used for boat trenails. 

Weight, 216-9 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 13 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 62 lbs. 2 ozs. 

54. Klut Lyoo (En 
shrub. Wood reddish-i 

is apparently of good quality. Uses unknown, 
eight, 229 cub' * 


Cubic toot = 04 IDs. 

55. Stigee (Cupania [Guioa pubescens, Radlk.]). Wood faint 
whitish-red, grain coarse, very soft, splits slightly in drying. I sea 

Cubic foot = 25 lbs. 5 ozs. 

56. Rambutan Passeh (Nephelium costatum, Hiern.). Wood dull 
whit,-, mix.-d with r.-ddUi.whit.', grain fine, medium hard, of good and 
useful quality. Used for beams. 

Cubic foot = 62 lbs. 8 ozs. 

or brownish v [, does not split in drying. 

Much pi ■]■■ Furniture. 

Weight, 210 -!>7 cubic inches =: 7 lhs. 15j ozs. 

Cubic foot = 63 lbs. 5| ozs. 

58. Rambutan Pachut (Nephelium I 

[an 1' vcnr t ( A ■ 
lofty tree. Wood pale whitisl 

Weight, 158 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 15£ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 65 lbs. 4 ozs. 
59. Ji.\Mii!TA\ jaxtax. A cultivated form of t 
Wm 1 i'i i'li-'i. i , : darkci towards the cer 

btly in drying. Used for beams. 
Weight, 250 cubic inches = 9 lbs. 
Cubfc foot = 62 lbs. 3 ozs. 

60. RoOMlXYAir (liwca mavrophylhu Griff.). A tree. Wood 

white, becoming brown towards the centre, grain medium, 
fairly hard, does not split in drying. I's, .1 tor kris scabbards. 

Weight. 2M1 ■ 1 (mbic inches = 7 lbs. \2\ ozs. 

Cubic foot = 58 lbs. 4f ozs. 

NOTE.-In the Flora of lirithh IWHa. Hooker, Vol. II., p. 21, this 
tree is described as the " Roomaniya Baitool " of the Malays. 

61. K at aav a ouddxi; : ,„f a> Turcz.). A small 
free. Wood pale brownish white, grain coara . 

diving. Uses unknown. 

Weight, 158-4 cubic inches = 3 lbs. 5 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 36 lbs. 2 ozs. 

, grain medium, fail 

Weight, 22." \ m ii, ii ch<-< = 6 \] )S 41 ozs 
Cubic foot = 47 lbs. 15£ ozs. 
The following note, referring to this wood, appears in Gamble's 

*' salt water." 

63. Rapat bookit (Mdanorhyla rwf/iisti folia, Hook. f.). A tree 
b °ld- £ m ° n ' gram medium ' hard > s P iits in dl 7 in g- Used in house 

Weight. 216-!* cubic inches = 7 lbs. II- 1 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 62 lbs. 5f ozs. 

'*'• (| " N( ' U i;vn ,!1 ' Kn (Mrifinor/ij/lr/ Mamqai/l. Hook. f.). A 
■■njin... ne-di.uu hard, splits in drying. Used 
Weight, 251 " S<> .-i'.i- i.,.-|,. . = fi H, s . Ml ozs . 
Cubic foot = 47 lbs. 7 ozs. 

65. Babatay bookit {Rourea pulchella, Planch.)- Wood pal.- ..liw> 
brown, grain mi :,, drying 

Weight, 219-45 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 15$ cW 

Cubic foot = 54 lbs. 15f ozs. 

Maingay says: "This species affords no timber whatever." 

66. Kayu Klut Sama. Same species as the last. Wood red, grain 
fine, hard, splits slightly in drying. Used for pestles , 

Weight, 227'5 cubic inches = 8 lbs. 3 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 62 lbs. 3 ozs. 

Maingay says: "This genus affords no timber such 

67. Rassak (Millettia atropurpurea, Benth.). An erect tree. Wood 
ery pale lemon, grain fine, hard, splits slightly in drying. VaJ 

Weight, 221 -1 

cubic iuehes 

= 6 lbs. 91 oz 

Cubic foot = 5 

1 lb-. 1 : \ OZS. 

68. Pkangee 

{Milltttio , 

n ////(•/. Bake 

r?). A 

Vood watery brown, grain medium, fairly hard, splits 

by the Malays 

or house beams. 

Weight, 220-5 

, ■ . 

Cubic foot = 4 

8 lbs. 7 ozs. 

woody climber. 

69. Ang sanah (7" lid.). A tall tree. Woo< 
yellowish in good spe< v gj'ound. or in old tr> • 
elegantly veined and marked with darker stn 

hard. Verj \ \ variable in weight; 

Weight, cubic foot = 50 lbs. 9 oz*. to (JO lbs. 3 ozs. 

Note.— P. i„,ficux furnishes the "Andaman Redwood" and aho th 
iL Pa.louk " of Burma. Gamble says of this wood : "It seasons well 
" works well, and takes a very fine polish." 

70. Kayu Kapah {Derris ameena, Benth.). A climber. Woo. 
Fain: rtddi>h white, grain tine, hard, splits in dryimr. Used fot bed 
steads and furniture, but probably inferior from its tendency to crack. 

Weight, 227| cubic inches = 7 lbs. 6 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 56 lbs. 

In a supplemental note on this specimen Maingay says : •' I do no 

71. Kkaxjee Skalat (Dial turn phttt/sepahim, Baker). A tree 

Wood exfermdh white, heartw 1 red. ii-.ii. grain coars . 

id is "probably brittle. Used for boat mast- and in boa: 

Weight, 225 -3 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 9f ozs. 

Cubic foot = 58 lbs. 3| ozs. 

:Note— According to M:iiuga\ the team Kranjee i« 

72. Koompass (#<» 

splits in drying. Used for shipbuilding. 
Weight, 222-2 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 15 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 53 lbs. 15 ozs. 

73. Mirbow i \f:>i;<( pal, mhtniica, Baker). — A. tall unarmed erect 
tree. Wood pale red with dark red streaks, grain coarse, hard, does 
not split in drying. Commonly called Malacca teak. Affords beams or 
excellent quality. 

W, ight, 22 : '■ ul . Inches = 6 lbs. 7J ozs. 

Cubic foot = 50 lbs. 1 oz. 

Note.— A specimen of this plant, collected by Griffith and contained 
in the Kew Herbarium, bears the following note: "The best Malacca 
timber tree, Mirbow of the Malays." 

74. Saputtay(4/2^«? coriacea, Baker). A tree. Wood brownish- 
white with dulti Mne, grain coarse, medium hard, does not split in 
drying. Uses unknown. 

Weight, 251 ■ 1 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 144 ozs 
Cubic foot = 40 lbs. 12 ozs. 

75. Sipfatay (jantan) (Sindora velutina, Baker). A tree. Wood 
pale lemon, grain coarse, hard, splits deeply in drying. Used for beams 
for houses. ° 

Weight, 2151 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 4f ozs. 
Cubic foot = 50 lbs. 8| ozs. 

76. Saga (Adenanthera tricolor, Moon). A tree. Wood dirty 
white, becoming brownish towards the centre, irrain im-dim,,. !,,,,!, 
does not split m drying. Uses unknown. 

Weight, 245-9 cubic inches = 8 lbs 1 oz 
Cubic foot a 56 lbs. 10 oz. 

77. Jareng (Pithecolobium lobatum, Benth.). A tall tree. Wood 

: ute, grain very coarse, soft, splits in drying. Used for 

Cubic loot = 44 lbs. lOf ozs. 

w 78 j E ^ IA ?? 1 ?? TA ( Pari narium Griffithianum, Benth.). A tree. 
Wood red \vi: L i,lv hard, splits vcrv 

ichoa = 5 lbs. 12Aozs. 
Cubic foot = 49 lbs. 8 ozs. 

Used for beams. " " ' """" , ^"^ *™ J *"*""> '" diying - 

Weight, 164-16 cubic inches = 6 lbs 9A ozs 

Cubic foot = 69 lbs. 6£ ozs. ' 

80. Fafoo Loot (Pygeum Maingayi, Hook. f). Wood pale olive or 
olive white v n(i „ amboge co i our ed stains, grain 

coarse, medium hard, splits in dryiner. Used for beams. 

Weight, 2J6-9 cubic inches = 5 lbs 15-1 ozs 

Cubic foot = 47 lbs. 6f ozs. 

Note.— Maingay says of the native name of this plant: "This, I 

think, ought to be probably spelled Fafoo laut instead of loot." 



: {Gynotrorlus a liHans. Miq.). A small tret •. Wood 
pale bi'ownisi, irse, medium 

hard, do -s i:ot split in drying. Used for blades of oars. 

Weight, 22(H cubic inches = 5 lbs. 5± ozs. 

Cubic foot = 41 lbs. 11^ ozs. 


82. G-alam {Melaleuca Leucadend n»i , Linn. var. minor). An ever- 
green tree. Wood dull reddish .»r brownish, mottled or veined, ^rain 
coarse, medium hard, splits slighth in drying. Used for piles. Hark 
used largely in caulking. This tree forms the first growth in marshy 
places after the forest has been cleared. 

Weight, 234-8 cubic inches = 6 lbs. of ozs. 

Cubic foot = 46 lbs. 12| ozs. 

Note. — Cajuput oil is obtained from the leaves of this tree, and is 
largely exported from the Malay Archipelago; it is used as a Mimulant 
and rubefacient. 

83. MOOMPOTAN (Rhodamttia triurrria, Bl., var. spectabitis). A 
small tree or shrub. Wood olive wl pain liu-r. 
medium hard, splits deeply in drying. Used for common work. 

Weight, 220-5 cubic inches — 5 lbs. 11 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 44 lbs. 9 ozs. 

84 Mimpoyax (butteena). Same as the last. Wood da 
red, grain fine, very hard, does not split in drying. Used for fences 
round buildings. 

Weight, 220^ cubic inches = 8 lbs. 2 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 63 lbs. 10 ozs. 

85. Galam PADANG JANTAN (Dcr,-/sprr„nr,n panindatum. Kurz >. 
Colour dull dirty white, grain fine, hard, splits deeply m drying and 
warps. Used for general work. 

Weight, 211-8 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 1* ozs. 
Cubic foot = 49 lbs. 13£ ozs. 

86. Galam papang. Same as the last, Wood reddish w b 

pale dull red, «ri ' n tin. . h ml. splits d. - ph in drying. Use- not stated. 
Weight, 218-24 cubic inches = 6 lbs. ll£ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 53 lbs. 1 oz. 

87. Gulam ti KOOS (Eiujmiii gramih, Wight, var.). 
Wcod dirty dull red, grain coan 

hard, does i 

L cubic inches = o lbs. 1 1 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 43 lbs. 4 ozs. 

88. Kayu Kltjt Nassee (Eugenia rubens, Roxb.). A larg< 
Wood dull red, darker towards the centre, grain medium or tine, 
splita in drying. Used as beams in large houses. Apparently a 
valuable timber. 

Weight, 217 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 11 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 61 lbs. U ozs. 

89. Samak Atam. Same as the last Wood pale watery I 
occasionally mottled with oblong paler blotches, grain meanm , 
splits widely in drying. Used for beams 

90. Babatay Paya (// ight.). A large shrub or 
moderate-steed free, \\ . grain n 'ne, 
medium hard, does not split h 

Weight, 1991 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 
Cubic foot = 60 lbs. 9| ozs. 

91. Kayu Klut Boey {Eugenia lineala, Bl.). A shrub or small 
tree. Wood very pale brownish ivi u mail int>, medium hard, splits 
in drying. Used for hammers for crushing paddy. 

Weight, 224 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 6f ozs. 
Cubic foot = 49 lbs. 4| ozs. 

92. Kaytj Klut Bookay. Same as the last. Wood dirty white, with 
occasional bn ■ ;. gplita in drying. 

Weight, 162-26 cubic inches = 5 lbs. <i§ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 5Q lbs. 6h ozs. 

Nora— Beg . uame, Maingay says :" Perhaps 

J the spelling ought to have been Bookit instead of Bookay." 

93. Kayu Klut Mearah. Same as the last. Wood dull red, grain 
fine, very hard, splits slightly in drying. A very valuable wood "used 

Weight, 216-9 cubic inches = 8 lbs. 2£ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 64 lbs. 13$ ozs. 

94. Ky Klut Pya {Eugenia venulosa, Wall.). Wood dull dirty red, 

Iff. Uses unknown. 
Weight, 166-9 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 14i ozs 
Cubic foot = 61 lbs. 2 ozs. 
™ 95 ", , K ^ YU KLVT Jambu ^yer {Eugenia microcalyx, 'Duthie). 

, grain medium, hard, splits in drying. Used i 


Weight, 230-8 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 11 i ozs 
Cubic foot = 50 lbs. 4| ozs. 

Note— Kyu Klut Pya" is another name for this species. 
96. Kayu paloong {Eugenia nitida, Duthie). Wood faint vel' 
unknown 3111 medium ' feirly hard ' S P lits considerably in drying. 
Weight, 233 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 9^ ozs 
Cubic foot = 41 lbs. oi ozs. * 

97. Seeall Munaiiyvun (Kibessia simplex, Korth.). A large shrub. 
TVood brownish white, grain medium, fairly hard, scarcely 'splits in 
drying. Used for beams ? ' * l 

Weight, 22.VJ cubic inches = 5 lbs 71 ozs 
Cubic foot = 41 lbs. 1 If ozs. 

98. Kepeks Kolele, Nep EES Kolete or Nepees Kulit {Meme- 
eylon omabde Bedd. vt whi J in 
fine, hard cracks slightly in drying. Used for buggy shafts and pestles 
for pounding rice. oaJ e 

Weight, 240-2 cubic inches = 8 lbs 13 ozs 
Cubic foot = 63 lbs. 6 oz. 

99. Man-g-as. Same as the last. Wood dull red with a natural 

')™y """I, «!.,. not split in drying. A .vunrkahlv 
} ""?:>.-'^'-.w : -"l. r.,l for general purpose!. 

Wpltrht 99 i o,ih in mnl M — n iu. , , i r r 

100. Aloos Sukat (AraJidlimi pinnntifidmn, Miq.). Wood fail 
dull red, grain fine, hard, splits deeply in drying. Used for the uprig] 
supports of I. j .-cription. 

Weight, 240-00 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 94 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 54 lbs. IQ\ ozs. 


101. Kananga out, 
yellowish v, I 
Used for general work. 

Weight, 225f cubic inches = 5 lbs. 134, ozs. 

Cubic foot = 44 lbs. 9| ozs. 

The following Note by Maingay refers to the t 
u buds of this species rather closely resemble thos 
** hence the Malay name which, however, ma 
" widely different trees." 


Wood bright 
d, does not split in drying 
irknblo and valuable timber. 
Weight, 220-4 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 2\ ozs. 
" Cubic foot = 56 lbs. 11 ozs. 

Note. — Maingay says : " The trees are almost invariably hollow in the 
" centre, but are not touched by white ants. Most valuable for railway 
" sleepers, and in considerable abundance in the Peninsula. Its colour 
" is in all probability due to gamboge." 

103. Kayu Gading (Urophijllum glabrum, Wall.). Wood very 
pale whitish red or reddish white, grain medium, very hard, splits very 
slightly in drying. Used for the manufacture of kris handles, and 
probably valuable for carving or wood engraving. 

Weight, 227-5 cubic inches = 8 lbs. 10 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 65 lbs. 8 oz. 

104. Kacha feykayng outan {Gardenia tubifera, Wall). Sub- 
arboreous, young parts resinous. Wood white, grain fine, medium hard, 
splits in drying. «* The buttresses of this immeuse tree used for cart- 

105. Mudang Kasap (Randia anisophylla, Jack). A small fcrc 
Wood pale white, grain medium, soft, does not split in drying. U* 

Weight, 213 cubic inches ss 5 lbs. 10| ozs. 
Cubic foot = 45 lbs. 14 ozs. 

Note.—" No reliance evidently to be placed on the local 
quoted." — Maingay. 
U 62937. 

107. Tintoolan jantax , DC). This species is 
imilar to the last mentioned. Wood whitish yellow, grain uied-iiin, 

rying. Uses unknown. 
» = 6 lbs. 9£ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 50 lbs. 2 ozs. 

108. Chaexg way (butteena) {Canthutm rlif/ymitm, Roxb.). A 
stout evergreen shrub. Wood dull white, grain tine, hard, does not 
split in drying. Used for boat building. 

Weight, 218-7 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 15 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 54 lbs. 12 ozs. 

109. Munkoopoo out an {Mn,'huhi fij/rforia,~Ro±b.?). Wood dull 

sively in drying. Uses unknown. 
Weight, 200 c * • • 

110. Chaexcu.a (.iaxtan) [Mi ,,pt. m M„;ngayi,*Kook. L). Atree. 
Wood dull or reddish white, grain fine, hard, splits very slightly in 
drying. Uses unknown. 

"Weiiilu. 2l;j cubic inches = 8 lbs. 

Cubic foot = 64 lbs. 14 ozs. 

111. Ano ungumbet (Myrsine ramentacea, A. DC, var. ovata). 
An erect tree, 30 feet high. Wood faint reddish, grain medium, 
hard, splits deeply in drying. Used in shipbuilding for trenails. 

112. Kayu Malookoot {Chrysophyllum Roxbiirghu, G.Don) 
Tree 40 to 60 feet high. Wood do urn., soft, does 

■ boards " 
S25f cubic inches = 5 lbs. 10A ozs 

113. Tua-t 

y.-ilowish win 

. (Sidero.vylnn, malncccme, Clarke). A tree. Wood 
, grain medium, soft, splits slightly in drying. Uses 

114 Bilian Wh vx. ; i.:k, I >u , , p ,is obovata, Clarke). A tree. Wood 
W f U v reddl ?' ^ am medi «ni, very hard, splits slightly in drvin-. 
Affords beams of excellent quality. The beams remain undecayed for 
a long period . ;0t ^.j eateQ b whj ;m 

■ ,,«l,^„ _ a « . ,. J J 

Weight, 225-8 cubic inches 
Cubic foot = 64 lbs. 2| ozs. 

115. Ngyato (Payena lucida, A. DC. var. 
e. Wood dull brownish red. <n-ain very , 
it in drying. Used for planks. 
Weight, 168-38 cubic inches = 2 lbs. 14£ o 

116. Tanjong (Mimusops Elengi, L). A lafrra evergreen ti > 

Wood dull'. 1, eoinmu Uru-I u„ |. • 

fairly hard, does not split in .In in- I •.-,, -,,,, M ahd " 

Weight. 231-1 cubic inehes = r> lbs. 10 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 42 lbs. Of ozs. 

Note.— The wood of this species is used in India for house build- 

cails, and cabinet work. Gamble. 


™ n K T . ARING PLAND0 (Diospyros hirsnfa. Lin. f. var. /,/,.,>/«. Wall.}. 
Wood faint reddish white, grain coarse, soft, splits in drvin»-. I"- •< 

Weight, 218-7 cubic inches = 3 lbs. 144 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 30 lbs. 13^ ozs. 

118. Kayu akang {Diospyros clavigera, Clarke). Wood Dale brown, 
heartwood black, grain very fine, extremely hard. One of the Ebcmi,- 

Weight, cubic foot = 80 lbs. 15 


119. KoOMrNYAN (Styrax Benzoin, Dryand.). A small tree. Wood 

dull red and white irregularly mixed, grain very coarse, soft, does not 

able gum. 

Weight, 229-3 cubic inches = 3 lbs. 12 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 28 lbs. 4 ozs. 

Note. — The number of the Herl erring to the 

above is 1642 in Maingay's manuscript ; this seems, however, to be a 
mistake, and should be 2642, which is the number attached to Maingay's 
. Benzoin in Herb. Kew. This species affords the < ium 


120. PrjLF.T l'r.i;rvv. I'ri.Ki pkpayti, or Polai {Vallari* 

Hook. f). A large tree. Wood yellowish white, grain coarse, soft, 
does not split in drying. 

Note.— E. Balfour in his book on "Timber Trees," 3rd edition, 
1870, p. 211, under the name of Polai, says :-" A tree of Singapore. 
" The wood is used to make floats for fishing nets. It is a v. 
' ; .ibl\ light, white wood, and might probably be imported U 
"' ndvantagi as n svil>stitut< lore,. . . -. (Note. 

" —Is this the Plye of Borneo ? Is it the Sonneratia acida ?) " 


121. Kapeyang (Callicarpa arborea, Boxb.). A tree, often 10 feel 
high, with a thick trunk and round head. Wood 

and blotched with reddish brown, becoming darker or of ft doH red 
towards the centre, grain medium, fairly hard, does not split in drying. 
Uses not stated. 

Weight, 266 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 2\ ozs. 

Cubic foot = 46 lbs. 6 ozs. 

Note. — In India this wood is used only for charcoal. Gamble. 


122. Btia Booass (Premna divaricata, Wall.). A climber. Wood 
yellowish white, grain medium or coarse, fairly hard, splits in drying. 
Used for general work. The natives eat the leaves. 

Woitdit. 163 -8 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 11 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 49 lbs. 7£ ozs. 

123. Leban bdnga (Vitex pubescens, Vahl). A tree 30 to 50 feet 
high. Wood ain medium, hard, does not split in 
drying. Used for boat building. 

W-iiiht, 195-6 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 13 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 51 lbfl. 4 ozs. 

124. Leban taxdo. Same as the last. Wood very pale olive brown, 
grain fine, hard, does not split in drying. 

Weight, 180-68 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 11 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 54 lbs. 6 ozs. 

125. Takitl banon (Myristica Farquhariana, Wall.). A tall tree. 
No particulars given concerning the wood. 


126. Mudang KmiEAT (Glochidion superbum, Baill.). A tree 30 
to 40 feet high. Wood olive yellow becoming reddish towards the 

' grain coarse, fairly hard, does not split in drying. Used for 

t 6 lbs. 
Cubic foot = 37 lbs. 

127. Tamangow or Tamangow jantan. Same as the last. Wood 
pale reddish, grain medium, fairly hard, splits in drying, and is probably 

>. Uses not stated. 
Weight, 217 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 
Cubic foot = 55 lbs. 11 ozs. 

128. Bra Bras (Aporosa microcalyx, Hassk.). A small tree. Wood 
yellowish white, grain coarse, medium, hard, does not split in drying. 

<-!s for houses, but is not durable. 
Weight, 166 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 2A ozs. 
Cubic foot = 43 lbs. S T % ozs. 

129. Gvam or more properly Ngyam (Aporosa Maingayi, Hook. f.). 
Wood brownie u da the centre, grain medium, hard, 
does not split in drying. A most valuable timber and is not attacked 
by white ants. 

Weight, 1 15-6 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 9 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 68 lbs. 3 ozs. 

130. Jin Jinta (jintang) {Aprosa nervosa, Hook. f.). Wood dull 

_:. Uses not stated. 
Weight, 224 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 9f ozs. 
Cubic foot = 43 lbs. 44 ozs. 


Weight, 167 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 1 oz. 

Cubic foot = 52 lbs. 6 ozs. 

133. Kasomba (Antidesma Ghaesembilla, Gaertn.). A small tree. 
Wood white, grain very coarse, soft, splits in drying. Used for tignl 
rafters for native huts ; they are cheap but of an inferior quality. 

134. Blta Kras {Aim ifld.). An evergreen tree 
40 to 60 feet high. Wood dull white, grain coarse, fairly hard, splits 
&ghtl} in drying. Wood of no general use. 

Weight, 227-5 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 14£ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 44 lbs. lb\ ozs. 

135. Bat.ek adap (Croton argyratus, Bl.). An evergreen tree. 
Wood white, grain coarse, very soft, does not split in drying. IV-l 

Weight, 238'4 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 0\ oz. 
Cubic foot = 29 lbs. 3£ ozs. 

136. Takul (Croton caudatus, Geisel, var. malaccana). A more or 
less seuudcnt shrub. Wood whin- :h hard, splits 
slightly in drying. Uses not stated. 

Weight, 231 cubic inches = 6 lbs. 6f ozs. 
Cubic foot = 49 lbs. 4^ ozs. 

137. Baler \x<;f> : '■ ' ■ Lour.;. A Bmall ever- 
green tree. Wood reddish white, grain coarse, soft, splits slightly in 
drying. Used for common work. 

Weight, 244 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 0£ oz. 
Cubic foot = 35 lbs. 8j- ozs. 

138. MuDANG KxABOO (Endospeniunn nialaccrust; Muell. Arg.l 
A tree. Wood whitish orange, becoming more red towards the centre, 
-ruin verv course, soft, splits slightly in drying. Uses not stated. 

' Wei-ht, 22 I cubic inches = 5 lbs. 12 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 44 lbs. 5 ozs. 

(Tribe II.— Celtideoe.) 

139. Mudaso AMPASTABOO (Gironniera nervosa, Planch.). A tree 
attaining 70 feet. Wood faint yellowish white, gram coarse, very sott, 
splits deeply in drying. Used for common work. 

Weight, 232-97 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 5 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 31 lbs. 15 ozs. 

Naeong (jantan) (Trema amboincnsis, Hi.;. 

ree. Wood yellowish white, grain medium, soft, 
ing. Uses not stated, 
ght, : 

Weight, 225| cubic inches = 
Cubic foot = 30 lbs. 1 If ozs 

Tribe IV.— More*. 

Wood dull red, grain 

not split in drying. Very s 

Weight 193-5 cubic inch 

Cubic foot = 65 lbs. 13 c 

Tribe V. — Artocarpece. 

142. Tamponee or Tampoonee (Artocarpus rigida, BL). A tree 
50 to 80 feet high. Wood orange red, grain coarse, soft, does not split 
in drying. Used for furniture, beams, &c. 

Weiehi, 210 culm- inches = 4 lbs. 131 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 39 lbs. 11} ozs. 

143. TampONG (Artocarpus Gomrziaua, Wail. var. Grh, 

MSS.). A tree. Wood whitish or whitish yellow, grain medium, soft, 
does not split in drying. Uses not stated. 

Weight, 153 cubic inches = 4 lbs. 7 ozs. 

Cubic foot = 50 lbs. If ozs. 

144. Kledang (Artocarpus? htnrca folia, Roxb.). A tree 60 to 80 
feet high. Wood reddish olive brown, grain very coarse, soft, does not 

ring. Very durable under ground. The favourite wood for 
Chinese coffins. 

Weight 167-89 cubic inches = 3 lbs. 14 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 39 lbs. 14 ozs. 

145. Mursawa (Artocarpus, sp.). A very large tree. Wood reddish 
white, grain medium, soft, splits in drvinir. Used for dug-out canoes. 

Weiiiht. -211.1 cubic inches = 7 lbs. 9| ozs. 
Cubic foot = 54 lbs. 7 ozs. 

146. Meyko (Artocarpus, sp.). Wood a remarkable clear gamboge 
colour, grain medium, fairly hard, splits very slightly in drying. Used 

!s of Chinese coffins. 
Weight, 2201 cuo i c inches = 6 lbs. 5i ozs. 
Cubic foot = 49 lbs. 11 ozs. 

tree. Wood 1 

in in drying. Uses not stated. 
Weight, 233 cubic inches = 5 lbs. 7 ozs. 
Cubic foot = 43 lbs. 

According to Gamble the wood of this species is used in Assam for 
building and in Darjeeling for charcoal. 

lis. Kvmpaneng (Quercus pruinosa, BL). Wood whitish or 
yellowish olive with darker streaks, grain medium, fairly hard, splits 
slightly in drying. Uses not stated. 

Weight, 262 c ibic inches = 8 lbs. \2\ ozs. 
Cubic foot = 57 lbs. 14 ozs. 

149. BranGxVn (butteena) (Quercus, sp.). Wood white with faint 
ish streaks, grain very coarse, fairly hard, splits considerably in 
Used for house beams. 


Cubic foot = 36 lbs. 4£ ozs. 

150. Katak tangga (Ctutanopm jaranica, A. DC). A large 
evergreen tree. Wood dull dark red, grain medium, fairly lianl, splits 
slightly in drying. Used for the manufacture of bowls and other 

donit-t;.' utensils. 

Weight. 210- 1 cubic indies = 7 lbs. If ozs. 
Cubic foot = 58 lbs. 7| ozs. 


efer to the paragraphs. 

Adinandra duraosa, Jack, 13. 

Aetan pan dak, 51. 

Afzelia ? coriaeea, Baker, 74. 

Afzelia palembanica, Baker, 73. 

Aleurites moluccana, Willd., 134. 

Aloos Surat, 100. 

An reyjan, 46. 

Ang ungumbey, 111. 

Antidesma Ghaesembilia, Gaertn., 

Aporosa Maingayi, Hook, f., 129. 

— microcalyx, Hassk., 128. 

— nervosa, Hook, f., 130. 
Aralidium pinnatifidum, Miq., 

ArchytaBa Vahlii, Choisy, 16. 
Artocarpus Gomeziana, Wall. 

var. Griffithii,King MSS., 143. 

— ? lancesefolia, Roxb., 144. 

— rigida, Bl., 142. 

— sp., 145, 146. 

— Paya, 90. 

• reticulata, Hook, f ., 132. 
Balek adap, 135. 

— angen, 137. 
Barlow, 62. 

Bilian Whangee, 114. 
Bilimbing outan, 38. 
Bintangor, 11. 

Boschia Griffithii, Mast., 23, 24. 
Bouea macrophylla, Griff., 60. 
Bra Bras, 128. 
Brangan, 147, 149. 
Brombong, 102. 
Bua Booass, 122. 


Callicarpa arborea, Roxb., 121. 
Calophyllum canum, Hook, f., 11, 
Canarium Kadondon, A. W. Benn 

— laxum, A. W. Benn., 46. 

— rufum, A.'W. Benn., 43. 

— secundum, A. W. Benn., 44. 
Cantbium didymum, Roxb., 108. 
Castanopsis javanica, A. DC, 151 
Chaeng way, 108. 
Chaengwoy, 110. 
Changal feyrak, 18. 
Chartacalyx a< 
Chiinpaka me: 
Chindarey, 31 
Chindaryeh, 30. 
Chinta mola, 41 

ah outan, 27. 

Chungal batu bukit, 6i. 
Churta mola, 42. 
Cratoxylon arborescens, Bl., S. 
— polyanthum, Korth, 7. 
Croton argyratus, Blume, 135. 
-. Geisel. 
var. malaccana, 136. 
Connaropsis monophylla, Planch., 

Ctenolophon parvifolius, Oliv., 50, 

Cupania [Guioa pubescens,Radlk.], 

DaphmphyUum laurinum, 
131. . , 

I)..«-i^j,cnnum paniculatum, . 

85, 86. _ 

Derris am*na, Benth. ,0. 

Dialiun. p!a>;- 

Dilk'iiisi iiurea, Sm., 1. 
Diospyros clavigera, Clarke, 118. 

— hirsuta, Lin. 

var. lucida, Wall., 117. 
Dipterocarpus erinitus, Dyer, 22. 

— turbinatus, Gasrtn., 21. 
Doun Durian, 24. 

.brioglossum edule, Bl., 34. 
Eugenia grandis, Wight, 87. 

— lineata, Bl., 91, 92, 93. 

— micro-calyx, Duthie, 95. 

— nitida, Duthie, 96. 

— rubens, Roxb., 88, 89. 
-— venulosa, Wall., 94. 

— zeylanica, Wight, 90. 
Eurya acuminata, DC, 14. 
Evodia Roxburghiana, Benth., 39. 

Fafoo laut, 80. 

*— Loot, 80. 

Flacourtia Rukam, Zoll & Moritz, 

Gardenia tubifera, Wall., 104. 
Gin ja Gong, 34. 
Gironniera nervosa, Planch 
1: - uperbum, Baill'., 

Glochidion i 

Gomphia sumatrana, Jack, 41, 42 

Gordonia excelsa, Bl., 15. 

Grewia panieulata, Roxb., 30. 

Grongong, 8. 

Gulam ti Koos, 87. 

Gyam, 129. 

Gynotroclies axillaris, Miq., 81. 

'X t-vniosa. BL, 52. 
• macrophylla, Wall., 53. 
vingia malayana, Oliv. MS., 40. 
:onanthes ieosandra, Jack, 36, 37. 
■ reticulata, Jack., 34, 35. 

,} in ja jong, .54. 
Jinjagong, 35. 

Milan. 131. 
Jin Jinta, 130. 

Kacha feyrayng < 
Kadondong outai 
Kampaneng, 148. 
Kananga outan, ] 
Kandeys, 10. 
Kapeyang, 121. 
Kasambee, 44. 
Kasumba, 44, 13; 
Katak tan<?<ra. 15< 

>udong, 61. 
ng, 118. 

— Gading, 103. 

— Kadah, 70. 

— Klut Boey,-91. 

Bookay, 92. 

Zambu Ayer, 95. 

Mearah, 93. 

Nassee, 88. • 

Sama, 66. 

— Malookoot, 112. 

— paloong, 96. 

K.,; : ,i. is.' 

Kilx'ssia -implex, Korth., 97. 
Kledang, 144. 
Klut bhatoo, 79. 

Koominyan, 119. 
Koompaw, 72. 

Leban bunga, 123. 
— tando, 124. 
Limah Broh, 6. 

Mallotus cocbinchinensis, Lour. 

Mum Pesand, 2. 
— Pesang, 2. 
Mun Durian, 23. 
Munkoodoo outan, 109. 
Munseera, 52. 
Mmitahwun, 33. 
Mnntangoo boonga, 11. 
Mursawa, 145. 
j Myristica Farquhariana, 

Narong, 140. 
Nepeed, Kolele, 98. 

— Kolete, 98. 

— Kulit, 98. 
Nepbelium costatum, Hiern., 

— lappaceum, Linn., 58, 59. 

— malaiense, Griff., 57. 

— Kerrap, 19. 

Marloa ..benncen, Clarke, 101. 
Matakaley, 81. 
Mata Kuching, 57. 

— passeb, 4. 

Melaleuca Leucadendron, Linn. 

var. minor, 82. 
Melanochyla angustifolia, Hook, f., 


— Maingayi, Hook, f., 64. 
Mi'iiifcvlon atnabile, Bedel, var. 

malaeeiMisis, 98, 99. 
Mt M.j.t.Ta Maingayi, Hook, f., 110. 
N. sua tern,,, L., 12. 
J%ko, 146. 

— crrrulea, Baker, 68. 
Mimpoyan, 84. 
Mimusops Elengi, L., 116. 
Mirbow, 73. 

Mirlang, 40. 

— ank, 36. 
Panaga boonga, 12. 
Panahgab Pya, 78. 


- nitidura, Hook, f., 79. 
Pa-ru-po, 25. 

l'a>ak Lmiga, 53. 

, Bentb., 77. 
Bentb. & 

icha, 50. 

mia divaricata, Wa 
ocarpus indicus, W 

uer.-iH pruinosa, BL, 148. 

- sp. 5 149. 

- spicata, Smith, 147. 

Baton, 59. 

— Pachut, 58. 

— Passeh, 56. 

Ramlia ani<ophy!la, Jack, 105 

Rokam, 3. 

Roouianiya Baitool, 60. 
Roominyah, 60. 
Roucheria Griffithiana, 

Rourea pulchella, Planch., 
Ruriane;, 16. 
RutheeChinta Mola, 12. 


Tamponee, 142. 
Tampong, 143. 
Tampoonee, 142 
Tanjong, 116. 
Tantoolng, 106. 
Taring plando, 1 
Tarnetia simplic 
Tateyyoo, 14. 
Taytyoof, 14. 

Tavvo.t; 14. 

— Rumphii, DC, 107. 

Tingee burong, 39. 

Tintoolan jantan, 107. 

Traling, 26. 

Trema amboiuensis, BL, 140. 

Trigoniastrum hypoleucum, Miq., 

'IV 'j.>r,.„-hlamys Griffithii, Hook 

Shorea acuminata, Dyer, 17. 

— bracteolata, Dyer, 20. 

— leprosula, Miq., 18. 

— parvifolia, Dyer, 19. 

i malaccense, Clarke, 
Simpoh, 1. 

Sindora velutina, Baker, 75. 
Sipfatay, 75. 

Slortia'WaUirhii, King MSS., 141. 
Sterculia Maingayi, Mast., 25. 
Stvrax li.-nzoin, Diyaml. 119. 

Xanthophyllum Griffithii, Hook. 


well known that Cotton is widely distributed in West Africa, 

le or no cultural attention, and the produce is chiefly 

:. Ihe export of Cotton has only lately 

The samples of West African Cotton 

it is evident that much could be done to ex; 
action on the part of the local auth 

duction and distribution of seed of good and suitable varieties , ,r th 
Cotton plant. If once the cultivation could be generally tak. n up U 
,,1|; n: " u " i in districts where the indu^tn i 

1,1( "" " r ' '- h,mih: '' K> the people, there are good grounds for b.-iicvin. 
that African Cotton would eventually become an important articl 
of export. In the following correspondence al 
subject ol Cotton-growing generally in West Africa ; a 
is gum ,»f:,n ntt-inpt which has lately been made to introduce and 
■ the best forms of Egyptian Cotton. This 
J' 1 "" : " > '" maA not be suitable to the ciremnst es < Wot \tiV, 
Ihe value is. hoover, so high that it has i , 

attempt its cultivation in WeM Afi iea, and the results of -vpcri- 

ntroduce West 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 



As regards a supply of seed of Egyptian Cotton for West Africa, a 

in West Africa are fuHv stated. In apply - 

D. Mork: 

i his remarks it would a 

md coast lagoons of West Africa offer suitable conditi 
eiision of the supply of this valuable article of commerce, tl 
ice of which render its cultivation an exceedingl 

Believe me, &c. 
r . „ (Signed) Alvan Millson. 

[orris, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 


Messrs. Samuel Whitlev & Co. to Mr. Alvan Millson. 

~ A „ Hansom Lane Cotton Mill, Halifax, 

xv ' ♦ + „ 7th June 1889 - 

in^tl.,lt V ?r p 6 .!. i 7 ° Ur r. attention to the desirability of extend- 

»i h of that class of Cotton now only produced in Egypt. 

fitl^TtiJZnZ™ 7 advan ^ in length, strength, and finenesVof 

i America, and commands a much higher price ; 

; ' r J~" to the Nile valley, wher/thenffa no 

i« ,t tlf 1 T • "T? inci 'easing demand, and where the crop 

most ruined by a "low Nile," causing a large advance in 

derangement of trade. 

ss pfe^'To p^ t r ffl x^t,^ e ^ d K ripening; 

The writer has carefully noted the conditions in Egypt, and cannot 
see why this crop should not be extended to other partfof Africa 

(Signed) S. Whitley & Co. 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

IK> With rpWn™ * Downing Street, 1st November 1889. 

bv Wl KWrf T. y °- Ur lef ter of the 22nd ^timo, I am directed 

Saw ■.s.iassrs 

African Colonies g * P C ° tt0n Seed for tr ™^°n to the West 
J^^^nVZ^f^ the S6ed »^ be forwarded to 
men't alngTh vLSu CoS | rf ^V^ UDdertake itS a PP° rtion - 
most desirafre. ^ W SUch amounts as 3™ raa 7 think 

t am further to request that you will state the exact amounts sent to 
cSln! !aJ2T *" *" ^ C0St may be P**** d -ided by the 

The Director. 1W1 n^_ „._ (S^"*) ' »•" H. Meade. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office 

• -'m Royal Gardens, Kew, Januan 

With reference to your letter of 1st November on 1 

Colonies, I am desired r 
recently received, at the : 
Cotton seed from the British Commissioner of the Egy; 

2. This seed has been divided into six lots, and apportioned as 
follows: — To Gambia and Lagos, one-fourth each; to Sierra Leone. 
Gold Coast, Windward Island-, and Leeward Islands, one-eight ii each. 

3. The small portion of seed selected for the West Indian Colonies is 
likely to prove of great service in such islands as Carriacou, Antigua, 
and the Virgin Islands. 

4. It would be desirable to furnish the Governors of all the Colonies 
to which seed is sent with a copy of the correspondence enclosed in my 
letter of the 22nd October last, in order that they may have before 
them the special importance attached to this Egyptian Cotton seed. 
The time for sowing the seed and the treatment of tin- crop, in the 
absence of instructions to the contrary, should follow those which obtain 
locally for ordinary Cotton. 

5. The seed for Lagos was taken out by Sir Alfred Moloney M 
Saturday las I In i i lin o tl" - d, c< n i ned in fiv< 
small boxes addressed to the Go\ mors u f tin Gold ('oast - rra Lron.-. 
Gambia, Leeward, and Windward Islands, will he forwarded to the 
Crown Agents for transmission to their destination with the least 
possible delay. 


Cotton seed co 

mentioned above. 

The Hon. R. H. Meade, C.I 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Sir, Downing Street, March 19, 1890. 

I AM directed by Lord Knutsford to transmit to you ■ 
Despatch from the Governor of Sierra Leone, forwarding 
Cotton collected at Mafweh, on the Bum River, and to rtal 
Lordship would be much obliged if you would be good enough to obtain 
the opinion of an expert as to its commercial valui 

Mr. Alldridge to the Governor of Sierra Leone. 

Sir, Sulymah, February 6, 1890. 

In accordance with your Excellency's instructions to ine of the 
loth ultimo, No. 31, I have now the honour to forward to the Hon. 
the Colonial Secretary a sample bag of Cotton. 

This particular sample was obtained at Mafweh by me. 

I find that th | the wild 'or bush Cotton, but that 

it is planted by the natives (usually between Cassada) for the manu- 
facture of country cloths ; it is not, however, cultivated as an article of 
trade in the raw state. 

As I have already had the honour of informing your Excellency, the 

cultivation of this Cotton is so simple, the yield so prolific, and' the 

growth of the crop so rapid, I am of opinion that when once it became 

an article of local marketable value, it would be cultivated to an 

■ut. and ir should, I vmtuvr ro think, soon become a great 

tia Colony provided the price obtainable would be such as 

uld be puri'hu-a'd 

from the growers as it is picked from the shrub, without being ginned, 
which, in the absence of special machinery is a laborious operation, 
although it is not an insuperable difficulty. 

I have, &c. 

tt. T, „ ( Si g ned ) TJA 

His Excellency Travelling Comi 

Koyal Gardens, Kew, to the Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 

8ir > _ , Royal Gardens, Kew, March 21, 1890. 

I am desired by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to inform you that he has 
received from the Secretary of State for the Colonies a specimen of 
Cotton collected at Mafweh on the Bum River, West Coast of Africa. 
Ihis Cotton is grown by the natives for the manufacture of country 

' '*■ appears not t 

2. It would be interesting to learn the value of this cotton, and with 
this view Mr. Thistelton Dyer would be glad if you would be good 
enough to obtain the opinion of the members of your Chamber upon it. 
A sample of the Cotton is forwarded to your address to-day by parcel 

3. At the same time I am desired to ask your opinion upon the 
advisability of endeavouring to introduce the cultivation of what is 
known as Egyptian Cotton into our Colon \,< in WVst Africa, and upon the 
special points in regard to this Cotton dally sought 
for by certain buyers in the English market. . 

™ ™ , The Sf cretai 7> (Signed) 'd. Morris. 

Che Manchester Chamber of Commerce, 

Manchester Chamber op Commerce to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Chamber of Commerce, Manchester 
Sik, May 1, 1890. 

I thank you for the letters of March 21st and April i'4th, 
written by your direction, and for the sample of Cotton <rnnvn n.-ar the 
Bum River, West Africa, you were also good enough to forward to 
this Chamber. It was only yesterday that I was able to complete the 
information requisite to give a full answer to your inquiries. 

This Cotton is of good quality, and is worth to-dav about (\<i. per 
' J.::' 1 !! hales p<r annum are imported 
into that port, and, so acceptable is it to Lancashire spinners who have 
used it. that they would gladly welcome a very much larger supph than 
is now available. There is a good demand for it, and the only com- 
plaints respecting it, of which I can hear, are that the supply is scanty 
and intermittent, and that occasionally it is not so clean and free from 
impurity as it should be. 

With regard to the question of endeavouring to introduce the culti- 
vation of Egyptian Cotton into our Colonies in West Africa, I find that 
the prospect of doing so, with success, depends largely, if not mainly, 
upon the facilities which may be ava .hut. The 

cultivation of Cotton in Egypt appears to be due (apart from 
onsiderations) chiefly to careful irrigation. The ouaiitie- 
which mainly give to Egyptian Cotton its high value as a raw material 
for spinning are, the length, fineness, and strength of the staple. I 
need hardly say that English spinners would be greatly pleased to have 
another source of supply of Egyptian Cotton. 

On behalf of the President of this Chamber I desire to thank you for 
the interest you have shown in this important question of Cotton supply, 
and to say that we shall be very pleased to hear from you as to the 
progress of the efforts which you are making for the extension of Cotton 

(Signed) Elijah Helm, 
W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., C.M.G., F.R.S., Secretary. 

Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 

Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, 5 May 189CC 

I am desired by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the l"i)th .March, with a copy of a Despatch from the 
Governor of Sierra Leone on the subject of a sample of Ootl 
by natives at Mafweh, on the Bum River, West Coast of Africa. 

2. The sample, as received, was forwarded to the Manchester Chamber 
of Commerce, and a copy of a report received from the secretary is 
enclosed for the information of the Secretary of State. 

3. It appeal's that West African Cotton is received at Liverpool to the 
extent of 2,300 bales per annum. A much larger supply would be 
readily taken up. as this sp.-i d kind is very acceptable to ! 
spinners. These facts are of very encouraging character, and should be 
widely known in the Colonies concerned. 


4. It will be within your recollection that the 
growing in West Africa has on several occasions been recommended "by 
this establishment, and m my letter of the 22nd October last it was 
suggestea also to try Egyptian Cotton, as likely to be successful grown 
nod through the Foreign Offife was 
mentioned in my letter of the 22nd January last, 

The Hon. R. H. Meade C.B. (Signed 1 /""' a Mobius. 

[All RiylUs Reserved.} 




ro. 43.] JULY. [1890. 


(Bixa Orellana, L.) 

1 1'.-.; nn.-ilifi.-s of Jan-nea Annat; ■ ; 

the so.mIs h ;i ,l been ^viluHV.l before I ley ivu 

lmd been packed in a damp condition. Tin 

any cas- I .< nbark upon the in I W r\ o 1 a Sartre scale. 

/V«M Ttcopence. 

" flag" and "■ roll " Annatto. The 

wa h >1 from tli • - ,"1- and inn ! > i 

steady demand for good Annatto m 

freight and o'h ■■• civ: •/.- v.u'ini I) ■ lo„ on p iste than on seeds, there is 

a distinct inducement to adopt tin- preparation of paste. While the 

price of seeds varies from l|tf. to ,",.■/. per p m !. (he price of paste 

ranges from Qd. to Is. M p< r pound, n rdin to <[ n lity 


Sir ' Downing Street, 22 January 1890. 

. - iAMdn F or d to transmit to you, for your 

i iheUlli er Administering the 
he has forwarded to the Crown 

Agents, for transmission to your Department, a box containing Annatto 

uld obtain the report asked 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) Edward Wingfield. 


The Officer Administering the Government of Lagos 
to Lord Knutsford. 

T M Government House, Lagos, 

B?th t u- «^ 17 December 1889. 

J*y the steamship « Benin » I have forwarded to the Crown 

1,1 lM "I 1 s '" u t(J th« uhoilii, |j \i , Gardens, Kcw, 

« containing Annatto dye, which has been grown at the Botanic 

uuu o uw uuiain a report irom an expert on 
alue of the shipment which i, covered by this 

The Right Ho. »iSr* 

Lord Knutsford, G.C.M.G., &c 

(Signed) George C. Denton. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
SlR ' T ,...,, R °y al Gardens, Kew, 29th March 1890, 

" ] voar letter oi |],. L'l' ,;;„„ ; , „ n 

■ Admini: 

fecal In- na of Annatto d 
their opinion upon then, for the information oi «k.< 

3. Copies of the replies received ai 
that Lagos Annatto seeds are not s 
Jamaica; they are smaller, less bright lu „ t , 
colour. This may be owing to : 

;etvahw is 
' " '? doubtful vJi. ih, r Wc-fc Airi. . 
a profit. 

„ f Annatto has already been very fully treated in the 

; 1887). It "is a matter for con- 
sideration, if the export of the seeds will not prove remunerative on the 
We,f Coast, whether it would be possible to prepare the flag or roll 
Annatto. There is a regular and steady demand tor AnnaiM in this 
form, and the charges for freight are considerably reduced. The m -thuds 
•'■ : ; : -' - ■'•■ ■ .■.--.:..''■ . ■-.' : ■■'■....■'•; 
Kew Bulletin for July 1887. 

I am, &c. 
The Hon. R. H. Meade, C.B. (Signed) D. Morris 

P.S. — A sample of Jamaica Annatto seeds received from Messrs. 
John O'Kell & Co. is enclosed for the information of the Government of 

[Enclosure No. 1.] 

Messrs. Pullwood and Bland to Royal Gardeks, Kew. 

Steam Annatto Works, 
31, Bevenden Street, Iloxlon, N., 
Dear Sir, 5th March 1SJJ0. 

We are extremely sorry not to have been able to answer your 
letter in dm- course in eon-e<pienee uf our M . 
home. We have received the parcel of Annatto -eed Ip 
inasmuch as they are no1 a goo i - 

not so bright as'it should be,' evidently having been gathered before they 
were quite ripe, wo think that the present market value of such a 
quality would not be worth more than 2d. per lb. We, in 
70 barrels of about the same quality at l%d. per pound. The valu JL» s > 
of coarse,? market The 

highest price obtained in the London market last y< tr 
pound, but when there was a scarcity in pre-, 
realised as much as (W. per pom 1. We thi k 
seeds to London for sale they should send a sam 
the market value, which we shall 

"•""barrels; the. ' l " 1 ^ "?$ 

L„< 4.1..,f ,1 

[Enclosure K 

o. 2.] 

Messrs. John O'Kell & Co., t< 

l Royal Gardens 

46, F.nchuichS 

B SlU, 

20th Marc 

Your sample reached us this mo 

ruing, which we h; 

ic value is 2d. per p 

>se a sample of Jamaica seed which 

will compare the two you will find 

lie article is used for colouring puq 

loses, chiefly eliees( 

[died all demands. 
(Signed) ' Jno. O'Kell & Co. 

[Enclosure No. 3.] 
Messrs. Peter Lauei; a;;i> Sox to Hour, (Tvudens, Kew. 
2, Fowke's Buildings, 

Great Tower Street, E.C., 
Sir, 31st March 1890. 

We apol ■-■ to your favour and sample of 

Annatto seeds under date 18th instant. 

As regards the quality of the seeds you submit us from Lagos, wc 
beg to observe that they possess the general characteristics of Ceylon 
seeds, which, when bright and clean, fetch, according to supply on the 
Mil 1 lie.-- L nidon j; -. • ,\ ±d. to §r/. per 
pound). The sampie you submit, however, is iid'erior in colour (the 
chief requisite), and the seeds appear to us to have been gathered or 
packed when damp, which renders them liable to mouldiness, the first 
singes of which appear in the dullness of colour. 

Judging from the -ample, we see no reason whv the seeds in Lagos 
should not be cultivated to an equal point sis in IVyloii. The art id ■, 

recommend cultivation on a large scale. The question of profit to the 
growers is, of course, determined by ibo actual cost of production id, 
Lagos. The actual value of the quality you submit is not more than 
lftf. to 2d. per pound. 

We are, &c. 
(Signed) Peter Lauer and Son. 


At various been made to Kew for advice in the 

preservation of grain from the attacks of weevils. As the method 
suggested in tl ;.. MV does not seem to be generally 

known, a selection of papers bearing upon the subject is published. 
It is obvioush a matter ol urn ■at importune* in ccuntn'es like India, 
where the grain pn.duetion is liable to iluclimlion from climatic causes 
from year to year. It maybe added that the use of bisulphide of 
carbon has been found a most effective method of preserving specimens 
of seeds, &c. in the Kew Museums free from the depredations of 

Mr. Julius P, Jameson to Royal Gardens, Kew, 

10 Austin Friars, E.C., 
Dear Sir, 21 November 1«79. 

At the suggestion of J. Simpson, Esq., manager for Donald 

Curiae A Co., r take the liberty of addressing yon or. a subject of great 
interest in South Africa,- the preservation of »raim principally maize. 
Tn King William's Town last year it was worth 10,'. per hag, ami I 
shipped some thousands of bags by mail steamer, and sold th m at that. 
It is now worth 10*. ber bag. It will probably next year be worth 5v. 
per bap-. It may be 30*. again in a few years. 1 wish to learn how to 
preserve it from weevil. We do not tear damp or spoiling, but this 
insect is almost certain to swarm in it if kept a year in an ordinary 
way. Could you recommend me a work to read on kiln-drying grain, 
though that would be expensive in our country without coals and very 
little wood. Would I learn much about if if 1 went to Algiers or Tunis 
or even Egypt ? The climate in North A 1. 1 a must be much the same 
as South : soil and product also much alike. They surely have means 
of preserving years of plenty till year* of famine as Joseph did as 
related in the" Bible. I shall probably return to South Africa next 
year, and as 1 have to buy grain hugely from some natives and to sell it 
again to natives and Europeans, I am anxious to try some method of 
keeping it tree from weevil. 1 don 1 do it. 

If you could put me in the way of learning aught on this subject I 
shall be greatly obliged. My partner is a member of Cape Parliament. 

(Signed) Julius P. Jameson. 

Mr. Church, Professor of Chemistry to the Royal Academy, wry 
kindly supplied the following memorandum, a copy of which was 
furnished to Mr. Jameson. 

Memorandum by Prof. A. IT. Church, F.R.S., on the Preservation 

The only effective instrument for drying grain is that invented by 

Mr.W. A. GilaV. of Cillv.-Ti 1'ark, Chingford, Essex. It is called 

"Gibbs' Patent Tea Dryer," and is suitable for drying corn, coffee, 

id fruit. 

nly cheap and perfect application for the prevention of the 

attacks of wee 

th 1 ,: , 

employment of 

hisulphide of 

carbon. The 



kept in dosed 

: iU 

of grain-so 1 

hat Sr/.' is the 

cost of i 

Df wheat. The 

abb* ta-te 


l.d. : 

aid t 1 — quality 

of the grain n 

ired. Wli 

en bags are t 

instead of tho 

nam cylinders 

specially prep: 

.red for u 

■ ;hh 

ide process, the 


edi application 

Jf the bisulph 

ale. lue 

ithercase tin 

i liquid is applied as 

follows. A 1 

just be plunge 

tow receives the charge of b: 

• a sponge 

plunged into 

the sack or 

cylinder 8 

aid 1. ft then 

■. Ida 

\ mouth being 


tightly closed. When necessary the stick may be withdrawn and the 
charge (of 1 oz. bisulphide to 100 lbs. of corn) may be renewed. 

(Signed) A. II. Church. 

■;■-. Kew, 
25 November 1879. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 

Sir, Eoyal Gardens, Kew, 9 May 1887. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 

of May 5, forwarding copies of various papers received from the 
Revenue IV) nrlu ei r of the ( ]ii< I ( . mmis>i. mr of Burma. 

WitlM-cfcrencc to the note by Mr. V. W. < 'abi.niss, Assistant Director 
• jiiirn.ji, on the prevention an<l destruction of black 
I 'nay perhaps be worth mentioning 
jj icu y * M 

Mr. Church, the Profes; 

I enclose a copy. 

A. N. Wollaston, Esq., CLE. ' 

No™ by Mr. F. W. Cabaotss, Assistant Director of Agriculture, 

Burma, on the Prevention and Destruction of Black Weevil 

in Grain-bins and Godowns, dated the 5th November 1886. 

The black weevil is an insect well known to grain dealers, I suppose, 

the world over, and especially well known in tropical climates. In 

11 ' ' * '", f?f\n <* wl„ ,t m «! n i from tin tim, it is n mod 

unllllt '; "I ! the bread 

eate 1 n ' " ' ' ■• ii has be^n bakfed. It is most 

in Burma. ' c s 

Like many other insects the black weevil seems to flourish particularly 


ate the amount of damage caused by this in ect in Burma; but 
irmous A large per-centage of the shrinkage in stored ^raiu 
.perly be attributed to destruction l>v this 'insect. It is not 
''' " ,' ' ] ' ! - l i l! -' » mbers, but when the grain is cleaned 
bee iW borough ly°cleaned will Vt of dust and 

n. Tito 

: ! : '! t.!i 

i and then placing gunny cloth on the top c 


the insect, disturbed by the heat of the sun, crawls out of tl 
the top of the cloth and is then shaken off, nml the "rain 1 
the bin. This method of temporarily getting rid of the ins 
be followed when there is a large amount of grain in store, < 
of the expense of handling the grain. 

I have been trying for several years a number of experin 
the object of finding a cheap and simple method of previ 
ravage'- of this weevil. J think that I have found it in 

: ovnlt-r is h<-r 
the benefit of the grain dealers of Burma. It is best if 
naphthalene powder at the bottom of the bin or bulk of j 
accomplish this take a bamboo, about U inches in diamct. i 
enough to reach from the top to the bottom of the bulk 
Punch the joints out of the bamboo, so as to be able to p 
through from one end of the bamboo to the other. Have the 
to fit the cavity in the bamboo. Pass the bamb< a, with the : 
down tbrough'the bulk of grain inn . tin to] 
the stick, and drop into the top of the bamboo about half a ! 
,,.,„-. a r. T!',- ban.lao can then be drawn r 
naphthalene is safe at the bottom of the bulk ci gram, fi 
are large this should be done once to every 10 ieet s.piare «.i 
lb-peat the application everv 1." or '20 days as the powder ev;i 

The weevil thai can , wo* »«* j 

leave are killed by the odour of the naphthalene. I do not b 
naphthalene thus' u-ed can cause am injmy whan v., :- _ 
seed purpo- s tin g-nu in;i . | ' 'i- appear not to be affe. 
least. For - 
will loaw in a short tin o it' irojh i 

small in proportion to tl 

and the powder is entirely destroyed by cvaporatu 

for food purposes the effect is nil. 

Naphthalene powder can be procured at the 3 
at Rs. 2 8 per ounce, and a few ounce" -<" 
one season for any grain dealer in Burma. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, Whitehall S.W., 
q Tn 2lth May 1887. 

' I am directed by the Secretary of State 1 

,.., ,, lv B Chor, .1 
,„,;,, .,,,,] inivilv to inform you that a copy ot tne pv 

' ft d ' \U. • information. 

I am, &c. 

" mue, St a 


The foilowir 
the insects whi 
loss which the: 

specially i 

S ' Agl 'T889 

An account of the wheat and rice v .in India. 

written by Mr. Cotes, the first assistant to the Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum at Calcutta, has been received from the India Office by 
the Agricultural Department. 

This account forms the first number of "Notes on Economic 
Entomology," issne.l by the Indian Museum Authorities, and is so 
interesting* that it is considered desirable to give extracts from it, 
the wheat weevil causes very great injury to Indian 
as regards quantity and quality^ and is in many respects 
similar to the grain v.cevil. ('itlaiulni f/nniaria, which does so much 
harm to wheat am -\\ granaries. 

Mr. Cotes states, that in the latter part of June, grains may be seen 
in the heaps of wheat that had been harvested in 1 early part oi tli 
hot weather, « ' an ! a UOna lei >' jg 

part ( t the contents eaten awav. This is the work of the wheat weevil, 
Calandra {& a. At the same time the perfect 

weevils are found creeping about the upper layers of the grain* and 
coming to the surface in large numbers when the heaps arc disturbed. 

The soft varieties are most liable to this attack. Delhi, Buxa, and 
Hanskhali wheats being the worst, while hard red wheat is but slightly 

According to estimates furnished by Messrs. Ralli Brothers, the 
well-known Indian wheat shippers, the amount of loss occasioned by 
this weevil is put at an average of 2\ per cent., the maximm . eing 
5 per cent. Taking the whole of wheat exported at 6,000,000/., the 
animal loss due to these insects, in oci.r.rted wheat alone, equals 

Mr. Cotes add> that in reality, however, this sum np:eMiit-; but a 

fraction of the real loss, i into account the damage 

done to wheat consumed in the country, nor my of the In - occasioned 

to rice, which is also attacked by the same weevil, besides the loss 

the difficulty in storing the grain. 

There are two species of weevils. <'urnili< ■■'■'. . h. ioiccinu" m the 
divish n 'Uii, >roj)horo, which, attack stored wli a : ml other grain. One 
\< < "/,' h i < ' - ,1 > ,) tniff,\au\ ' ol i ( '/"/ (Si ohih ) 

oryzfv. The former is found principally- in Kurope. America, and 
Canada. The latter, which requires a high temperature, is chiefly 
confined to India and other countries whose climate is hot. 

These species closely resemble each other, and can only be distin- 
guished by a practised eye. 

The Government of India in 1887 appears to hr 
perimoms to be made as to the efficacy of the method 
Professor Church. The following report appears to 
well adapted to meet the difficulty in India. 

Extract from \ ual H orl i' the I \-perimontal Farm- at Biiah- 
31st March 1889. 

In pursuance of Government Resolution No. G093, dated 9th Sep- 

t( ml < v 1— -7. Hi v.-i ue 1). j>ariin< ut. < xpi riments wen. made to t( st the 
efficacy of CS 2 as a preservative of jzraiu from the attack of weevils, 
find iju.n hie!: a eparate ! p it \, i ilmiittul in August last The 
observations wero continued this year. 

: — 

(a.) That soft varieties of grain, such as soft wheats and jowari, arc 
sooner attacked with weevils than hard varieties, as I. ami 
wheat, bajri, &c. 

(l>.) Thai ( '<•:■■{ tlie attack of weevils 

upon grain. 
<>.) The action of CS 2 lasts in , 

(r.) That CS 2 does no harm to grain as regards its colour, smell, 
cooking properties, &c. 

(/.) That the poisonous property of CS 2 need in no way interfere 
with its introduction into Indian "villages, as, unlike arsenic, 
its strong and repugnant smell will act as a sufficient safe- 

(</.) With the dismantling of the old granary, which was used as u 
storehouse of grain for the last 19 years, weevils have almost 
disappeared from the farm. After a long and diligent search 
I succeeded in observing only a few under the heaps of jowari 
ears in the tin -hii _ var.l so' late as the 20th of last month. 
This prove- beyond "doubt that wheat is most damaged by 


re, fair to conclude th 

at painting th 

e proportions of HI 

hs. of the re-; 

a used hy weev 

is to a considerable ej 


(Sapium big an lul< n m, Muell. Arg.) 

The United Stat 

:es of Colombia have long been recognised as a sub- 

alia-rubbcr. Colombian rubber has been generally 

v f r ,, al the place of export as " Carthagena." It has 

]* : z}?\\ Ji' 

, t henn,luceofaspeei t >sof Casti'h't, and tin, rnuy 
the case. The larger proportion of 

the export found' it 

b war to the United States. . 

Tn the following 

, ,;'; ;iv ,nde- ; ee Ml. H .hort Tin i. 

charge of the Oincl 

; :1; , ;li ,. : ,, .»„,! now settled at bogota, 

' Colombia Virgen." This has the peculiarit}', 
unlike all other known sources of this substance, of growing at high 
elevations, and therefore in a comparatively cool climate. 

From the indicv.tions furnished by Mr. Kobert B. White, and sub- 
sequently by Mr. Thomson, there can be little doubt that the tree is 


the family Eirp/i i'> >■ ir, to which th< n,,, vi Ul ■; the Para and 
( < i i i [1)1 c s bo hi Ion/ ; his widely spa In ^r 

species extends from Mexico and I'.u ;.• n to C lombin, Venezuela, 
Guiana, iml Brazil Hie variations T 1 i n -cuts in habit are 
probably n> e\ti m as are to be met within tin >.. . tnhh kb _•.: m 

A ■.'■'•'- . ' :.:.:.; 

variable. In the West Indies it exists in forms which arc probably 
conspecitie. Hut though recognised as abounding in a milky juice it 
has never been regarded in that region as a source of caoutchouc, at any 
rate in appreciable qualities. 

Tn Britten I I lien have been 

carefully studied bv Mr. G. S. Jenman, F.L.S.. ( ,'ovormnent liotnnist. 
The form which occurs on the Pomeroon River is known in Carib as 
Tnwlpnncj, in Arawaok a.-, CniiuiJuthaUi. flu: examination of the 
caout. •hone-like product of this tree, conducted at the works of the 
India-rubber, Gutta Pevcha, and Telegraph Works Co., Limited, at 
Silv.ri own, through the courtesy of Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S., were, on 
the whole, unsatisfactory as regards its utilisation for any commercial 
purpose. This was duett, the presence of a r.-sinous substance, which 
seriously del . There can, however, 

be no sort of doubt as to the value of the Colombian rubber yielded 
from the same species, and this would make it desirable to give the 
■ : fresh trial. M Sagot, the well known Guianan botanist, 
'ting of the 

India Office to Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W., 
Sir, January 26th, 1 889. 

I as: dii , of Stale for In dia in Council to 

forward, for your information, a copy of a correspondence on the subject 
of a proposal made by Mr. Robert Thomson, of Bogota, in connexion 
with tin intn duction to India of the sp« r'u - cf //< r, a Sapium] which 
:<>\vn as the " Colombia Virgen." 
You will observe that the Government of India are desirous that 
Mr. Thomson's pi opo^nl should G - i M instance, 

and I am to ask^you to be so good as to favour me with any remarks you 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Mr. Eobert Thomson to India Office. 

„ _ Bogota, Republic of Colombia, 

My Lord, j u ] v >);w<], ishm. 

I have the honour to submit the following remarks relative to 
a species of india-rubber tree indigenous to thi- cuutrv, ii having 
occurred to me that the introduction "of the cultivation of 'thi- ;>,,■;,< 
•nits to India. 

This rubber is known in commerce as " ( 'olombia Yirgcn." It has 
been exported chiefly to the United States, and next to the Par.i ruhh, r 
it has realised tho hest prices in tin- markt. lint tin- 1'ar.i tuhb-r 
undergoes elaborate preparation for the market. whereas the Colombia 
Virgcn is simph dried in the sun and by fire ; hence if is capable of 
much improvement. As far as I am aware, this plant ha-« not been 
botanictdly described, but it is Euphorhiaeeous, and is closely allied to 
the genus Hevea, the Para rubber plant. 

I have established in this country during the last five years a planta- 

believe, &q \ sort. Under cultivation 

thi- tree i . _ ",ith great rapidity, and averaging 

about five feet a year. 

Crops are obtainable in from six to eight rears, hut a tree live years 
oh' yields as much as 1 lb. of rubber. It" is a large ('crest tree", the 
trunks attaining six and seven feet in circumference. Four arrotas 
(100 lbs.) of rubber have been extracted from a single tree, but the 
average yield is far less. 

All the well-known South American rubber plants, viz., the Par;i, 
( 'astillons, and Ceara have been introduced into India. But the species 
umler eoo in India. 

The important consideration as regards this species, apart from its 
intrinsic value, is that it grows at great elevations en " 
Andes, viz., at from 6,000 to 8,000 feet above the sea ; hence in a 

ancein thee-- • of rndia»ndOerlon,i i 

appreciate the advantage of growing a product in the t* 

of the mountains as compared with cultivating in the mala: 

of the plains. The conditions of climate requisite for the nil 

of rubber are described by Mr. Gusl iy on Indian 

products, thus" the heat is about !)S in the shade in Upper Assam. 

" ruder these conditions, which are of e\c. — '■ 

" inundations .hiring a portion of the year, caoutchouc trees of all 

" countries thrive best." The Ceara rubber, however, grows in hot 

arid regions. 

Prior to th i of this tree (bol fi 

by the rubber ,■,.:!. < tot-, I exph-d. -me 

«' tions lib i, g i Is growth. It may be me 

fli-tri! ution ha. be n '|H' l ' uliarIv limited : ' 

Cordilleras -onto l.jiK) miles from the sea. The tola. 

iiibbt r exported during the few years the article existed could not have 

amounted to mam hundred tons. # 

It is very difficult to propagate th 
had to resort, during my supervision of the pla 
fnun seed, which, moreover, were always procured with muen 

Efforts are being made in India to cu! 

itivatc the Fir us elastica on a 

laru;i' scale, which, according to Mr. Clen 

lent E. Markham, "may be 

" tapped in 2") years "—a long time to 
must dissuade planters. The Colombian : 

op, a fact which 

s being adapted 

to a salubrious mountain climate, yields 

, early' rrfur, 

i a supply of J 

dants and seeds, 

the germination oi' the latter to be ensured 

Ion the spot, a 

nd to deliver the 

same in Sikkim, the Nilgiris, or Ceylon. 

i : -■ ,..■ i»'v .. 

f plants thus to 

number from 10,000 to 50,000, which I 

would deliver 
I have, &c. 



ied) Robe 

rt Thomson. 

Tho Right ITon. Viscount Cross, 

Secretary of State for India, 


India Office to the Governor 

-General of 


India Office, London, 
Iy Lord, 20th September 1888. 

I forward herewith a copy of a letter, of the 2.Srd of July 1.1-4, 

:om Mr. Eobert Thomson, of Bogota, in the Republic <•: Colombia. 

rawing attention to a new species of Hevea (N. O. Euphorbiacece) as 

usee of rubber, and recommending its experimental < dti- 

2. Sir. Thomson offers to personally deliver " from 10,000 to 50,000" 
stablished seedlings in India for the sum of 1,0C0/. After you have 
onsulted the officers of the Forest and Botanical Departments I shall be 
;lad to have the opinion of your Excellency's Government on this 

His Kxecli: ncv the Right Hon. 

the Govern.-r (bneral c,f India, 
in Council. 

Government of India to India Office. 

Eevenue and Agricultural Department, Calcutta, 
Lo ™> 4th December 1888. 

\\ k have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of vour Lordship's 
?patch No. s() (Revenue), dated the 20th September last, 'orwarding 
in the Kepuidic 
cics of //, rui (\. , .... 

I recommends its , hi India. Mr. Thomson 

o!Icic<i to personally deliver from 10,000 to 50,000 established 

lartmcnts, to be furnish d with (Mir opinion on the proposal in 

justify the expenditure proposed, or, indeed 
would grow at all in India, we do not think 

We would ilkMvib! 

the Director of t 
should be asked to place himself in eommuni 
and ; f Mr. Thiselton Dyer, after due considc 
opinion that the proposed experimental cultiv 
is really worthy of a trial, arrangements m 
Lordship's orders, for the purchase and tram 
a few plants only, or of a small BUpply of 

the Royal Garden-, Kew. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, July 8, 1839. 

I have had before me for some time your letter [B. S, c\; C. 
1784] of January 26, 1889, forwarding a copy of correspondent with 
Mr. Kohert e to t ■ p >po-ed i I «"' li " 

into India of a species of Hevea which produces the rubber known 
as Colombia Virgen. 

2. Having regard to the very large expenditure which 

ment of India has already incurred in the introduction of Nmth 
American rubber trees into India, I confess I am not di-no-.-d to 
support auv outlay upon it. The plan;- yielding 1'ani. I -an;, 
and Nicaragua 'or ( Juatemala) rubber have all been successfully 
introduced into India, it now only remains by piactiea^ 

yield in the not distant future a remunerative revenue 
ment or to the private planter. My own conviction is t! 
tion of these trees- is emphatically a mailer to 
Department. And 1 have deiiberaleiv waited before 
Mr. Thomson's application till the See'ietary of Siai ■ 
. . • . 
eorninmiicated to you in June 4th last, mid ; 

; .{. S. & C. 922 . ol 
tion of samples of rubber from Para-rubber trees [Jkvea brasdanm), 
:.' i M . j .; u 'i enasserim. 

3. It appeared from Mr. Silver'- report thai rubber 
these; trees on which it had concealed .vitl 

American rubber, 'ibis disposes ol Mr. Inomsou's stateuicnt t ia 


I should hesitate to recommend M 
may point cut that the only real 
rubber which he wishes to introduce into India is that ><s cultivation •> 

suitably fur „gh levels. It appears to me more than doubtful whether 
>-!-ap. ( ,lto I 1,^r would 1; ol n ,„,,;., .,,,, ( Vy lon be J* 

iiX rubber e1 ' 7 t0 ^ ""^ profitabIe resuUs tlla » 

5. As far as I am va . ; , ', , , , , ., ( sc j eace f tue 

tree recommended b 7 Mr. Thomson. I propose therefore to write to 
lim,o; '- , ; its identification, and 

als °/- T'- prepared to pay a small 

r jti ' ir} ' 4 S alb 7 theMaOffiee 

forinqum^ lubjects. 

of Tni^Vn f 01 l C l ir . in th ? ™ hesitation shown by the Government ,-. , . , .M, rimmson's proposal without the precise 
osses ^formation on the subject which we do not at present 


J. A. Godley, Esq., C.B., ***> W ' T " TmttL ™ D ™" 

India Office. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Mr. R. Thomson. 
GoSonZ -d to hta with the decision of the 

o?rubber',o;i!isoou«i; SSOmeEe<;d3 " p,U " ,S <**■•»■*** laud 
Mr. E. Thomson, .„. I . fcM »'* fc . 

Bogota, BepobiiorfCdwalk, (8 " } ' M0EItI8 - 

M, B. B. W„ IIE t0 RoYAl 6AEMOB) Ke , v 

My dear Sir, . _ . 

I have been trying to 2e t the ^« nM,0 » Ja » uar 7 12th, 1890. 
region india-rubber tree but it k! 11 , "'7'" "" ,1 S " e(ls of thc col<1 

: ,, :.., : • • ' ' ■-. - ' • : - • i ,-• ■-., 

Siphonia. It is not a Ficus * C ° Ubt ° f ,tS bdn » a s P ecies of 

ru^^Slih^^^ a *"' h » P-dueedmuch India- 
elevations, „ 7,0O0feet 

abuul _ () ; r) (;o Fa ;;; iother tbmg entirely. Its mean temperature is 

mLvw!r V ^'V n '\ : Wl '-" l ' Mi wllit<! rubber of Choco in years -one bv 

J'lcusarcu •..•;, ..,[ ; ,nd ;I|V not so straight Th- 

b i fr.)i Hi. tree." Mo,t 

- <'<> i;ot, ami m.-uiv have to be coagulated I»v Ylkalis 

•■"^" v.ui i>- !-■].' :'.»r wu'ks, and irh'c'. < m:/lv |i: ,i Ilt ,.ii 

with them, when tie . ; , , atin , ri j 

have mended my air pillows, &c. in this way. 

Hut this cold region rubber will not kcv'p, and it evidently contains 
much more caoutchouc (caucln is better) than the other sorts. 

I expect that it will turn out that the tree (lowers in Mav, an 1 has 
.-«;<■ ! i is .In ne or July, and then I will try again to get you sp turn •',- 
e become so searee in the most accessible part < thai it is 
both troublesome and expensive to get samples, but I will do my b-t 
I am, &c. 
Bed) Bobert B. White. 

P.S. — I enclose a leaf . i i peculiar glands 

asc. The have- arc alternate whorled. 

t that this leaf belonged to a form of Sapium 

Mr. R. Thomson to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

162, Belsize Road, London, N.W., 
kiR, 14th May 1890. 

With reference to the conversation I had with Mr. Morris, the 

Assistant Director, on the 26th ultimo, on the subj vt of my correspon- 
dence with the India Office relative to the introduction into India of 
the cultivation of Colombia Virgen rubber, I respectfully beg leave to 
submit the following remarks :— 

As 1 informed Mr. Morris it is to be regretted that your letter on 
this : ubjeet, ad, In ^sed to me in Colombia, never came to hand. I now 
have to (hank you {'«,;■ a copy of the lost letter dated the 16th JulyIS89, 

Having in bat ] possess drawings of the inflo- 

rescence, &c. of this species of rubber, at his su_ 

sameto Professor (diver(ke*>perof u ilication. Pro- 

U-S.-U1- Oliver in a note to me says, " I can hardly doubt that your rubber 
" plant is >S '., , a variable tropical Amen 

" and known rubber producer." Subsequently the Professor showed 

from British Guiana, <fcc. 

My impression, judging from these specimens, is that the Colombia 
^ '-' m is .; n't , distinct species. In the latter there is very slight 

En the size of the leaves, whereas in the Guiana sp 
variation is extremely marked. The leaves, too, in the Colombia 
Virgen are in point of size several times larger than the others. Also 
th glands at 1 1 i , of h. h ivcs n several times larger than those 

In addition to the rubber-yielding species in qi 

: : 

Colombia, all ot which contain large quantities 

however, does not coagulate on exposure to the air, as is the case with 

the rubber-yielding species. Thus, on account of the milky juice not 

coagulating oti exposure I o 
for commercial purposes. 

At the same range of altitude at which the Colombia Virgen grows, 

two ver\ distinct species of the same p:eniis ab u i I. The latter are 

easily di<thi<:uid I \>\ the i \ the size of 
th- fall 11 t'.'li: •; n< well as by the siz- colour, :ind t vturo bf the trunk. 

r Ia tuli .,., ii n's, i id i. i , i th> l.ibbci 

;■■ : ■ ■ -■ : 

10 feet above the level of the sea. 
Descending the slopes of the forest cl d in ntn is from the lower 
elevation- a! which th • .; (j another 

«''-tiuet -p el - m mi- • i le of about 3,500 feet. This -> ci ; 

presents a sti ml it can only 

be distinguish I afti . '. -,,,. v i,.jds 

. juice. Lower down the i u i ,' i till 

mt 3,500 to 2,000 feet above the sea This la'ter 
is found on land denuded ul <«,;,•-;, ami i i re<-rd t-> ir, _ 


* ^ >''-» -J i .» ,- „ 1 . . , il.e other. All 

the species are characterised bv the two -lands at the base ot the 

than that at which tic specie- in 
feet above Jhe sea. This variety e- 
area, and all the trees were felled are! ih< * ' 
celerity. The prices obtained for this c> 
the tvpical article. 
During the | , , ;:] , kl _ i nqniri&B , t thuseums, 

V. ■■ : -"- ; '' "■■ -■ ... '.. 

rubber is on exhibil here. Only . Mix, in Lane J 

the current rate «»i value <,f this r„bb r i /,. p, . 1', That - nth man 
1 hi t If largo consign. 

•"■ extent, their machinery to th- class of article under 

I herewith forward some 3,000 seeds of the Virgen species. These 

'ullyayear ago, but I hav J,,,d,,l in the 

- ■•' ;;;1 ' 1(| : "i -■ iU tear years old. 

K^EL"! e,r B „„thoapo t> bet WMn3 «and4» 

i these _ 

conditions of soil, h unr ; 

successful cultivation of the plant For further inl 

;;" to my letter dated the 23rd July 18S8 

In conclusion, I may mention that in India the best 1 

( '" lt!v:lt,(>11 u ;' ; ' -., between 20° i 

and at ( leval oi s of from 2,500 to o,()(K) fla t abov< th 

in more southern latitudes higher e\ vt lions would have 

itr rn m ■ , ^ (Signed) ' Kobe 

Vy. 1. lhr-ehon !Jyer, I«H, C.M.G., F.R.S., 
Director, Koyal Gardens, Kew 

1 acquai 

temperature requisite for the 

Messrs. Hkcht, Levi ? , and Kaii.x, to Royal Gardens, Kkw. 
21, Mincing Lane, London, E.G., 
Dear Sir, 17th May 1890. 

In answer to your yesterday's letter we beg to say that Colombian 

At the present in mi, i 1 iln val ie is about 2*. llrf. to 3*. 
In accordance with your desire, we are sending you to-day a sm 
sample, which will show you (he tin t- vt : .f" tlii%? rubber. 
We are, && 
(Signed) Hecitt, Levis, & Kahn 
John R. Jackson, Esq., 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W., 
Sir, 14th June 1890. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for India to inform you 
that Mr. Robert Thomson, of 162, 111 lsi :<■ i; ' N.W., lias forwarded 
to this Office a copy of your letter to him of the 24th ultimo on the 
subject of the Colombia Virgen rubber. 

As Mr. Ti. knowing whether the Government of 

Indfo wl.i l : -n 6? this 

tree, I am to ask you to be so good M io lunii-h fchia I l - 

i, which is alluded to in 

rubber into India expressed in your letter to tbta I Office ol 

last, has been in any way modified by the information now in your 

(Signed) J. A. Godlbt. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, June 18, 1890. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
June 14th [R. & S. 772]. 

2. We arc advised by competent brokers that "Colombian scrap 
" rubber ha- . ; >rs, and is ol 
" a very superioi qu litv indeed." Its present vahn is about 2#. 1W 
to 3*. per lb. 

3. IwrototoMr. Thomson in 
of Jnly 8th, 1889. I agreed tc 
adequate for tl ' tree and lor a s 
experimental cultivation. This letter apparently 
Thomson. From Hie indicate n . however, which 


us as to the tree which he affirms produces Colombia Virgen, we believe 

it to Ik .>'<// in a : <> /fan hdosum. 

As the species of this genus are known to yield a milky juice and it 

V ' ^ ' ■' ; 


of July 8th, that the slender results which have accrued from the large 
outlay incurred i,y the Government of Tndi- -'- 
American india-r 

M^^'d ! . pm'vi ph 2 of my letter 
Its which have accrued from the large 
the Government of India in introducing South 
stify any further 
* in paragraph 4 

comp. t ■ with . ih i cultures likelv to yield a quick J 

^ee that the Govcnnaent ,,! I | , n „. (1 i ,,,-f , in -he matter. If 

e piofits of its callival, cm ne likely to prove remunerative in my 


JTSr* 1?» * hioh 1 have obtained in a 

nil doubtless have the effect of 

fce. ' SUbj0Ct ' 


(Agave rigida, var. Sisalana.) 

alrIadVwtrlt"/ n U r laat t , flb ^ bS S^ * tte ****** *« 
P. 57/»d Octobo, S, p ^l) m " ,C KCW Bu " eli " <* M " reh 1889 > 

of^£*f&^?!£5 ° f the ini, " str J fr ™ •>» American point 

Report i.™ MM. Thh 

CoSm* „/-.£ jtwZ, » . y „t" "''I" ,r '" '"'■■' ">Vort* from the 
onsms o) the United States," No. lit, March 1890 :- 

Oonn,. ok T „ E SlSAl l8DDSTKT „ „ Baiumas 

Report by Consul McLain, or Nassau. 

■ . 

ietl n nie h ber^sr;;;' li: v vi, ' !, r ""; ,nst few """"" s - » »■■» 

statoment„,a Minn 1 an, A ,lMi,,l „ 
manvofonrpeopfe/atir. « interest 

it the follow! 

lent of Sisal 
lis is marvel 

i«i, sill "'',"' "" : -" '-'Pitnl, and very little local, 

■'in 1 interested in i , 1, hni bon hf t< n- of housands of acres of 
Government ! ._-,., l ; n el ■urin^ and plant - 

A local stock 'ompany, •!; I d tl y. ..rganiscd 

and managed In X- sau • ;)i;;dists exclusively, ha- also purchased a 

are being planted in every diivc - of smaller 

1 ™n disad\ ; . ii. by its absence. One company, 

of the State of New Jer ey, wi 

RLilm- Agon it In . ,, - man * , has 1 I !\ procured about 1,200 

■'"' " - a Inau'i a. n ' b - bejjun operations. 

Messrs. Mim . X" Co.. ol S Jo! i Newfoundland, hav. obtained a 
grant of 18,000 acres of Crown land at Abaeo, and arc planting the 
same. Another tract of 20,000 acres has been allotted to a London 
company on the sain- island. Mr. Alex Keith, of Edinburgh, 
lias taken 2.000 acr 

^Lde laie^y by 

>r not hss than 

;...n it. Hut 
200,000 acres between 

have not been re; 

Department boh 

ached at all as yet on the 

m hard [aishcd in the 

1 oration. So 
riior, a short fitne ago, 

!.") acre. 


a viewt . 
e colony will 
1 already <V- 
ms on tile, and not yet 


s— between 
s double and 

beneficial effect-: of which are being fell in various quarters. 
has been no special ndvaue< in the price of labour, field hand 
manding from 40 to biO cents per day, and finding themselves. 
month, howeve - ase in tbe number of thos 

employers :m .| employed." 11- Idem .■m-.t'oii has been and : 

skilfully met tin governor, who, Ion, 

remote from each other on the same island, so that each settlement 
should have its share of the benefits of the new industry, by c btaining. at 
fair wages, employment for its local labour. In this wav, ah <\ n sun>!ns 
of labour at one point ami a fearcity at -omo other has been avoided. 
"When the ei .-'. ; L.jcr tie- < mplovcd, as will happen 

before long at I pmi-i r. a new phase of the labour 

question will ari-e : but that lime is yet in the future, and the remedy 
can be applied when the situation demands it. 

Small shipments of fibre continue to he made by nearly every steamer, 
a few old pL I material. It is not likely that ship- 

ments in any quantity win 1 . , 4 — il,l<- ir d.-r two \. ai-. but after Ilia! 
time an enormous increase may begin to be looked for, increasing 
steadily as new fields com ,hc annual exports of the 

colony, which now average about #600,000 will hap well up into the 
nrilhons, as a moment's reflection will show. 

It is a very low estimate to expect half a ton of fibre per acre, and a 
very low est- over $200 

per ton in the , ,,, When even the ont ~- u 

ofland sold and applied for, to wit, 300.0(H), ;,!,,,„•;*,„. which ou-h't 
^Ppenmrlm! fbeorsix }•«"•-. »t will j.n lime- 1.10.000 tons a vear. 
worth $15,000,000, an Increase of mon ,;, ( , : , 

fairytale thai :: .,- r( , !lsoll!l1l!(1 ( p T|M ,.. : 

within the limits of the Baliamas. 

nuL'J? £*T? t} t at a ^ 0Ut 6 '°°° acrc:i of land ,lave alread y becn 

planted in 8m ting for many 

years) and- ^ ^ ^ 

E5 le ' V'" [V{:,r,1( - (l therebv. The prices 

paid for plants have risen from 6 cents per dozen to 36 c< „■ 

. ' : . ■ ■ ■:■:." 

3hl f P ' |r -' *>- ()0 ° "eingnow 

:,:. : -. ; ■ ■ ■ ■■■ ' ■'.■■'.- ■•!: 

is£*i &'•£ 

:-■■■: ''■ - ' : ' : -' : ^ .::^;r.. 

Set, ^ $° 

apiece for pole plants alone. ()„an!itie, of oh! 

Sooner ?I ' ' ™'" ' ~- •» < -> 

developed bi SftffS 


at the hands of the 1 Vpartment. ■«s»*««i 

The unexampl, ! ■,<■,•■- of ,1,,. S i,,l .ndustrv, in so brief a period, 

a fh» colony is entirely attributable to the busings like, svsL, t < 

manner invJnh ,t h Urn to , _ ,| h v - ,he pi m nt Governor Sir 

kn< ^!, Iltc of lh< pi p.i , r. • 
tb« slMi-t ho uah-id ilu.i ii.;, ; 
Bahama . ; i d, s, t(i:i» L 1 u .,[ m » ! ;,,.], l 


■'' I.";- «ull _-t uutitmh ; :.,1 «]„, tlM .i. n ,l , ,, M , ■ 

nm ih eli ds B ] ] I , 

"<<•• .'!"1 M,iHi\n h( u , , ,r;l„ ,, CuNonor. 

in (his colony. It has passed far heroud th . 

- n ' '- -I i « ' - i '< ' ' I hat it will hi conic a -our c ol 
,, " l,ftTI ' • ' l ! < >.' . . .. i.l, H -i ,, - 

first-class Iih- dvo tli! < lony a rn.nrki 1 

- ' • • * ■ . '• ,.:: : ' ' '.„.'' •'. , :".; . 

- - ; < ■! ivtns aim-; impossible- It 
is a plant of unladi!^' iriwth. it will live wiihuut rain to moisten the 

As two-.!, 
Slates; :<s their only :- 
hv a subsidised line of 

justify me in so doing. The* 

c spicinu 

or portion of the butt end of t 

ho l.-i.f. v, 

hieh vns purpose!- 

acter of the Sisal' 


Tnos. J. McLai 

United States Consulate, Nas 

January 20th, 1890. 


" progre 

Th< lollowilgkttd 100, th 1 Oiwd f.O 

>f Africa, have already been 
140, and March 1*H9, p. 69). 
m the Curator, Mr. McNair, 
some of the plants under 

Dear Sir, Botanic Stat 
T have duly received your letter < 


ion, Lagos, 6th May 1890. 
>f the 26th February. With 
the Botanic Station, I would 

•ge scale. The B r akagon(y t now 

y two years old, are trees 12 feet high, and 7 inches in circum- 
ce at 2 feet from the ground. The Divi-divi plants (Ccrsalpinia 

Libc'rian Coffee tn Id, are now U> 

and in spite oftl, -uecoss. I was 

i pleased to hav, ■ ■ ,-, of cotton, especially of 

itian cotton. They are all planted on a small .oale. It wilt be 

time before thcyfr.iit and yield > sample ol cotton. Usually 

•ess made by the other plants. Some of the fruit trees at the 

From the seed of the Beef* 

vood (Casuarina strict,,) sent from Kew 

of ph . ts, and wmc of them have been 

used to form a hed-e. All ar< 

Lagos. At the latter place sor 

through The stem. The Chine' 

•eCin-erisvery flourish in- r, a! Id it would 

become established in thin part 

i of the world with little cultivation. 

The Wardian ease of plant. : 

received from Kew through the Governor 

air order. I am sorry to say the Black 

Popper (Piper nigrum) and t 

ho Soap-bark ( QmWiia Vapnnaria) both 

v engaged in .,,-,. j, ,-j. ; a Wurdiau case of 

plants to be sent to Kew this n 

The Assistant Director, 

James McNair. 

Boyal Gardens Kew. 

[All Right* ReXrmL] 




No. 44.] AUGUST. [1890. 


.■...t.iU.i.1 since 1870 in eoi.^h-.-i.Ue 

quantity. lost ot it is of un lu-p;; u kind : uut vol [>k\ U unhh th,- 

Umvoli ami Moo'i Uivi-i- eoun 


ire the pro* 

o our knowledge, been noted befo 

? ht tO be 

lens, Kew. 
" By the kindness of Mr. W. T. Thiseltou Dyer, F.R.S., Direct. 

Kvw Gardens, to h< i Mr. Holm s ipplic-1 on our behalf, we ' 

mi was evaporated 
loes. On evapora- 

aloes was Aloe africana, and in this ease 

line specimen of Aloe 

)r of Ki v G.u l'n'). a ^,mp.irativvl/Yare ^ 
leaves are much smaller, and not so succulen 

" (I) A crimson co! 

siderable tii 

" (2) A deep blue c 

" (3) A deep purpJi h-u I or dam,o'n r dour with brcmin 
aloes^T 1 !'^ 11 ' " \ 1VMlhs witU lW " ,JL "^ f'-0'« o ,m, 

" liii; plant, we aru inionnod by Mi'. Watson was form 
Soeotra, and [soppo 

African species, and is not) 
, 'l;p' U " P^nt yields Natal aloes, 

; ; ' ; ; ' ■ ' ■ • ' ■■■..: ■■;.:,■,:,.,:,.'. 


er results with . 

Hoc c//ii:c/i 


p. 679), nordi 


;; : :;; : 

" We conclude, therefor. 

3, from our 



"1. "~ 

chemical tests 

that it "is ob 

the other speci 


That Natal aloe. 

>'m ./. lr"v/ ; 

/•■/] bui 


do no: indi 

ikcly to prodn 

i* not obtained from _ (Ax 


. bsit nr hahh 


-//Jvv^ 10 

aloes of co 


; - ;•; •' : '■ -.- .,'■■ 

tained from 


'•' We t: 


ike this opportun 

ity of expres^i n <r our obligations 

to Mr 

. W. 

on Dyer for the ! 

facilities he 

raily aiinrdrd 

ons, to Mr. Wats* 

J the Cape species 


nd to Mr. E. M. 

he h.-i 

Ay giv t 

n us in the coura 



( seem* 

id worth while m 


jr Of 


plan! : 

tetually use in Natal. An in 

as therefore at 


■d to 

'■■ •'• -*!<■< [ley Wood. A.L.S.. 13otanic Gardens. 

> very obligingly promised to look into the matter. 

Curator, Botanic Gardens, Durban, 
Botanic Garde 

Mv l)i\ 

'le.-i.ied h 

the Aloes 

u tiu> j-ubji'i't. I have all 
oiii A. fvro.v, but persons 

W. T. T 

Liselton Dyer, Es-q., F.K.S., 
1 loyal (i:\rtl; 'n.-J, Rev. . 

, C.M.i.i 


lat'4 May l." 

in the following interest- 
i app .tr ■ that the raanu- 

of the whole 

4 Mr 

. Wood is of opinion that 
and Hanbury 

far hi wli it >n i.i ting. 
lij.pc that it may lead to 
n South Africa, 

me Notes on 1 

Vata/ ^l/oc*. 

As the 

Director of '. 

Kew Garden. 

J, and « 

j.'ci, i <■ 

ilso Mr. Hob 

■d a wish for i: 

,:■'.. ' .. 

; Mooi llivcr, ami 
.wfvcr, able to Jii 

pud to A. fcrox iu size, the 
vers red. I regret very much n 

"ilinYntly cooked. Asa 
• Ii'j.ji.icv, i 

SO..SO!,. <,f U, ( 

Undoubtedly i, 
a moderately t 

'lAVftlf A lor,' : 

;hese is coi 

>n all over 

iVSV'-r that t 

! 1 


paratively a 


• tlIil1 v '"° 1,ld 

Durban, May 13, 1 -'.'<>. 


(Khaya senegalensis, A. Juss.) 

•hat is known n« C4ambia mnho'"-an 

y. The-. 

(■ Speeil! 

lined by Professor Oliver, F.K.S 7 ., ; 

bv Kfit 

. Juss. (J7«ra o/ Tropical Africa 

. 33S.) 

This is a large forest tree with i t- 

ib-opposite or alternate leaflets. 

Fhe pani. 

early equalling the leaves with ascei 


A good figure i- eiv I, 1 (;., ' | . Smc;/ «»>!>. 

!1^<>-:'.:-.), t. 32. These' authors furnish the following additional 

[!;ii-nv, nn lit', „al un !anl thai it <>.,.•,- .he chi< I i« a! inv in the forests 
of the country. It does not exist in Sene-al properly so-called. We 
would, on this an unit, h v« willing i-.ropun-d a new .-pceilh- Mane- in 

"The natives make furniture rtYom the timber . and especially «!ir 
boats of moat soli lit) TI e Lark < ., h 1, » i, <le i»h ( f'ekod 
Croat hit1erne,s, and it is s „ 1 ( , , > J l.jifn 1 } i > r > ^ I 

elsewhere on the West Coast. A form "with infiorescenc 

drying pale ifi-eon," v ,s found bv Si. >ke nv. ! (J it on the bunks of tl 
White Nile, and it is supposed b> hive been met with bv Dr. M oiler 
the Moxambioue district. Professor Oliver, however, states that " unl 

(i from the tree' \, hen I w! ;..- ''-• \'hivi-h Fanimah 
" when I was only able to get a very small sample. 

" will he' sMtFi, '■ i 'nos i "'"a:'id to 

Although the ? um proved of no value the observation 

and it is probabl. I still further M 

African maho<mn\ nov, n the Kmdish market comes 
river on the western boundary ot (bold Coast Colony am 
specimens, as vet, of the loaves and fruit have been re< 
locality, but Messrs. Godfrev S. Saunders & Co. have be 

Dear Sin, 

18th March 


Many thanks for your note 

ami the sample of ( 


which has just come in. 

There have been ■< > 

m Assinec (lo 

down on the West Coast of Africa) 

not, 1 fancy, so good as your specii 

men, though yours 

seems a trine 

e This Assinec wood comes forwa 

rd in well squared 

loos, generally 

1 think it would be oude worth 

[No. 2.] 
Godfrey S. Saunders & Co. to Kotal Gardens, Kew. 

5, New London Street, London, E.G., 

'axks for your letlc r of 24th M; el'.! whi- li 1 ould have been 

mint civ I cannot find my notes as to Crab wood (Carapn 
is) to which you refer, hm my inn r< =<i< : is that T thoupht it 

friends to got me n sample. 

^iimhia mj.l.o^nv I think tliere is no donbt at all that it, 
■eccdwo'lm',.. 'Other him'- a. ■ hi-h in price, and on-oos 
n- from ! \rl. to " \,1. •• r '- ' - - r , !' 1 ;.„■!, thick. There 


(Thenbroma Cacao, L.) 

" actually worth more by 24-v bV. per cwt. than the besst Trinidi 
" marks. The differ qi ik> Li greater still 

In view of these facts the planters in Trinidad and elsewhere an- k.-en 
discussing the merits of Ceylon Cacao, and seeking for the cans.- whit 

while the production of Trinidad alone was probably not far short < 
125,000 cwts.* The general opinion appears to be that the superii 

tree from the dirt and mucilage which too often spoils the appearanc 

, some amount of truth und.-rlyin 
of the plants 
70 are broad! 

3 (or foreign) Cacao was given. '] 

w received in this country is derived from Criollo trees ti 
jreat measure account for it- superior quality. A Trin 
ites : " The Criollo Cacao is much better flavoured thai 
md requires but three days' fermentation." This aspect 
j already been dealt with by Dr. Trimen, F.R.S., Dir 
tanical Gardens, Ceylon, in his Annual Report for the Jt 

Is— purple, dairk-red, pink, yellow, ot - 

i, which are flattish in form, and purple or violet 

me very dark after curing. Our eld t'acac on 

■...:.■!!; ■■■■.■■■■ ■ ■ : ■ < ' - ' ■ - * 

jport. Mr Morris oi Jan < t, w o has ! d good opportuni' 

and that is what is known as Caracas Cacao.' This, it is well ki 
now { , ,-,„ • kn n th. W 1. li^.su . mrly to I" font 

Ividently C<-\ i : ngc had oeci 

'In- high piali ' < ' j h * is thus explained, as well 

It only remains to point out thai tin i: ; liun of Ceylon ' 
.itK'rs in one in dopted in Tri 

lid other parts of tropical Anur'n a. in Virion, alter the hear 
ermented the pulp i> can "fully removed bv wn.hine;, and the res 
he production o) a clean, bright lookin u soup]., free from mil 
:i of any kind, in the \\ < -i Indies, after ferment 

nueihigi 1 \ to di t i i i ( )n -on ( of tin best esla 

frinidad the no, .■, rd by rubbing, and som< 

1 curing Cacao in the West Indies are well given in 
s published in the A( f rivnll,,rnt liarord (the Journal c 
gricultural Hoard ol frinid d) for March 1890. Th 
n of Ceylon Cacao in the London Market is discusse 
:ig letter, for which we are indebted to the courtesy ( 
I "■.. of 24, Rood Lane, K.C. :— 

ar position held by Ceylon cacac 

> consumptive demand during ree.-nt 

jolate for which Ceylon is 
i chocolate-coloured break and mild fl 

14, Mincing Lane, E.C 

July 2, 1890. 
some explanation of 

with thiit of ! 

•to CVvlon, in which the out^ 

brained, but ll,o lieht break ai 
■ further information which yo 


{Castanca sativrt, Mill.) 

iho chestnut (Casfanea sai ■ the Sptnwh chee 

nut, to (It i inrush (1 froi !v$ ffippocasfatm 

Condition of tin- v n- 1879.' r ]». .V:- 

" Wo arc indebted to Mr. D. E. Colnaghi. H.B.M.'s Consul j 

cakes made from tU-m). which .- ,v mi important an article of -uh- 
tence in the Apennines. The coll. ctie.n of the specimens for Kew w; 


(Boehmcria nivca, H. K.) 

The Ramie or Rhen plnnt {lh ( luncia virea) is being experim< 

young b nves of tli,-. nmllirn-y and the 0<:w < 
putting out. slio gathered some :;"d nut i!:c w 


Kew, and of Botanical Departments and Establishments 
at Home, and in India, and the Colonies, in Correspon- 
dence with Kew. 

Royal Gardens, Kew :-— 

Dhector •' - - W. T. Thiselton Dyer, C.M.C 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Assistant Director - - D. Morris, M.A., F.L.S. 

Clerks .... John Bliss and F. W. F. French. 

Prim i|. ; :l .\:- : -i:si.t - "-• W. 1 }. I ! cnislcv, F. K .S., A . L.S. 

Mycologist - - - Dr. M. C. Cocke, M.A., A.L.S. 

George Nicholson, A.L.S 

-tropiral William d. lit'a". 

Antigua.— Botanical Station:- 

Curator - - ■-Arthur J. i ill on. 

Bangalore. — Go»wmiw J Bagh .— 

BarbadOS.-Dod s Reformatory, Botanical Station :- 

Superintendent - John B. bovell. 

Bombay.— Horticultural Gardens ;inu Parker— 

Oodeypore - - Superintendent - *T. H. Storey. 
Poona (Ghorpuri) Lecturer on Botan\, \ ,, { , ^. 1 .. J ] n u \y ,„i. 
College of Science. J 
Superintendent - W. Shearer. 

Bombay. — Municipal Garden : — 

Superintendent - G. TT. Car<tcnsen. 

British Glliana— Botanical Gardens :— 

Georgetown - Superintendent and "Grnrire S. Jenman. 1 


Head Gardener - John F. Wahy. 

Berbicc - Keeper - - Richard Hunt. 

Calcutta —Department of Royal Botanic Gardens :— 

Superintendent - Dr. Ceoi-e Kin-, < 

LL.D., F.R.S., 1 

Seebpore - Curator of Herbarium Dr. David Prain, I 


Garden - *Willi»m McTTnrdy. 

Darj'; lino; 


Secretary to Botanic Dr. Franci: 

> Darwin, 

Garden Syndicate. F.E.S., F.l 


Curator - - *Eiohurd Jrv 

Canada :— 

Ottawa - 

- Dominion Botanist - Prof. John 

Director of Govern- Prof. Win. 


ment Experimental F.E.S.C, 


Botanic Prof. Penhallow, B.5 

Cape ColOliy.- 1 I - blic Parks :_ 

Capo Town - Director - - Prof. MacOwan, FJLS, 

Head Gardener - IT. J. Chahviu. 

Grahamstown - Curator - - Edwin Tidinarsh. 
Port Elizabeth (St. George's Park) :— 

Superintendent - John T. Butters. 

King Williamstown Curator - - *T. R, Sim. 

Graaf Reinet - „ - - - J. C. Smith. 

Uitenhage „ - - II. Fairuy. 

Ceylon. — D itanical G ardens :— 

Director - - fl)r. Henry Tnmen, 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Peradeniya - Head Gardener - *Peter I). G. Clarke. 

Clerk and Foreman - J. A. Ferdinands. 

Draughtsman - W. de Alwis. 

Hakgala - - Superintendent - •William Nock, 

Clerk and Foreman - H. M, Alwis. 
Henaratgoda - Conductor - - A. de Zoysa, Muhan- 

Dominica. — Botanical Station : — 

Dublin.— Royal Botanic Gardens, Gift 

Dr. 'siac :-. 

F.H.S.. F.L.S. 
Robert Lindsay, F.R U.S. 

Fiji. — liulanical Station :— 

GlaSgOW.— Royal Botame Institution :— 

Curator 1 ^ . 1UC " UI . #Uoliert Bullej 

Gold Coast. — Botanical Station :— 
Grenada. — Botanical Garden : — 

tdiark-3 M. Mu 

Hong Kong. ipartment : — 

Superintendent - |( harh.-s Ford, F.L.S. 

Assistant Superin- -Alcxau h-r !>. W.-tlam 

Hope Gardens - Superintendent 

- *\Villiam Harris. 

Castleton Garden- „ 

- -William .J. Thompson. 

Cinchona (Hill) „ 

*\Vil!iam Cradvvick. 

Kingston Parade „ 

- John Campbell. 

King's Honse 

- Eugene Campbell. 

Bath - . Overseer - 

- W. Grove* 

LagOS.— Botanical Station :— 


- f Jamco McNair. 

Madras —Botanical Department :— 

Ootacamund - Govcnimenl Botanis 

t fM. A. Lawson, M.A.. 

and Director of the 

» F.L.S. 


- »Andrew Jamieson. 

Madras.— Agri Horticultural Society :_ 


» Edgar Thurston. 


- *J. M. Gleeson. 

Malta.— Botanical Garden :_ 

Director - 

Mauritius.— Department of Forests an 
Pamplemousses - Director 

1 Bohmical Gardens: — 
- *.Iolm Home, F.L.S. 


- ''William Scott, 

Curepipe- - Overseer - 

Natal.— Botanical Gardens :— 

Durban - - Curator 

- John Medley Wood, 


Pietermaritzburg „ 

- (J. Mitchell. 

NOW South Wales— Botanical Gardens — 
Sydney - - Director - . Charles Moore, F.L.S. 

Head ( JardeiKT 

Dunedin - 

- Superintendent 

- Head Gardener 

- Ranger 

- Adam Gibson. 

- W. W. Bower. 

- William Goldic. 

Northern India.— Botanical Depart 

Saharunpur - Director - 

- f J. F. Duthic, B 

ui William Gollan. 


Assistant Director 
charge of Expe 
mental Station. 

- »M. Ridley, 
n Sayyed Maliaiiimud 
i- Ylusain. 

Oxford.— Univei 

si t y Botanic Garden 


- Dr. Sydney H. V 

F.E.S., F.L.S. 

- William Baker. F.L\ 

Brisbane - 

Acclimatization - 
Society's Gardens 

botanical Gardens :— 
Colonial Botanist 
Head Gardener 

I Secretary and Mana 

- F. M. Bailey. F.L.S. 

- Fliilip Mar.Mahoii. 

- J. Cameron. 

rer Win. Soutter. 

- J. S. Edgar. 

St. Kitts-Nevis 

—Botanical Station : 

- -'Charles Plumb. 

St. Lucia— Bota 

deal Station :— 

- fJohn Gray. 

St. Vincent.— Botanical Station : — 

- -Henry Powell. 

South Australia.— Botanical Garden 
Adelaide - Director 
Port Darwin - Curator 

- Maurice Holtze, F.L.fc 

Head Gardener - •Walter For. 

Penang - - Assistant Supcrin- fCharle* Curtis 

Malacca - - » -Robert Deny. 

Trinidad. rardens:— 

Superintendent - fJohn II. Hart, F.L.S. 

Assistant - - * Walter E. Broadway. 

W. R. Guilfoyle, F.L.! 

[All Eights Meserved.] 




ecentltTotht^; 8 ^ 8 *?** ^ f ° T med P art of a beer bar ^ ™re 

r borer and the contents spoiled. The q 
,i, sound - 1 -- 

Calcutta reported 

found to be at 

outer, ts spoiled. The question aro.-e wh.-th 

.:■■■ r . ■.'. ■ . ! ... V \ 

ge, Cooper's SiB fi 

S7 , , ,,L ' Particular insect concerned. 

' e has shown that the in J ul 7 t0 th * wood had occurred before 




-Price Twopence. 

into barrels, although, owing to the very minute 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, 19 July 1890. 

I am desired by Mr. Thiselton Dyer to inform you that he has 
received from the Superintendent of the India Store Department cor- 
respondence on the subject of injuries to staves of beer barrels noticed 
in a recent consignment made to Calcutta. 

2. Some of the Bt*ves were brought to Kew by 
by Mr. W. H. Hooker, and they were submitted for examination to 
Mr. W. T. H. Blandford, F.E.S., Lecturer on Entomology at the In. liar. 
Civil Engineering College, Cooper's Hill. 

3. Mr. Blandford's Report, a copy of which is herewith enclosed, is 
an able and conclusive docm tent 'The cause of the in juries complained 
of is clearly traceable to the attacks of a small hectic known as Tn/po- 
dendron signatum, Fabr., which had bored into the wood, and thus in 

'side and inside of the barrels. This beetle is 

3 attacking newly-felled oak tii 
iraeteristio by the peculiar ser 

of short chambers ; 

its larva? at the extremity of the burrow. One of these burrows w.s 
f< mid by Mr. Blandford in the oak staves received at Kew and a 
drawing of it is given in the Report. 

4. The perforations made by the beetle are exceedingly minute, and 
they can only be detected by a very searching examination. It would 
p an officer charged with the duty of inspecting 
a large number of barrels to detect one, two, or three of these perfora- 
tions in each barrel, and especially when (as shown in the present 
instance) they are covered over by the hoops. The injury to the oak 
staves must, however, have I . en appan . t at the time thev were worked 
by the coopers, as one of the burrows had been carefully plugged 
externally with a small wooden plug. 

A. Godley, Esq., C.B. (Signed) ' D. Morris. 

inning straight through the 

vn upon and examined them 

all from end to end. 

Five burrows are simple vertical channels from * side to side : some 
marked with beer- staining, some not. One was carefully plugged 

vith beer- staining, some n 
xternally with a small wooden plug Another was packed 
F by the chewed debris left by a boring insect. 

a chewed debris left by a boring insect. 
cveral had in them examples of an insect which, however, has had 
DOthing to do with the boring; they are young larvae of earwigs or 
some Buch insect which have crawled into the holes subsequently. 

The remaining two holes (A. B.) on the outside and inside of the 
stave respectively were found on examination not to correspond. 

inside (A.) runs to within a sixteenth of an inch of 

re stops. From it come off a series of blind chambers 

£.1?7S bright angles to it, and on bothies! 

of the parent-hole. The number of chamb 
way some of 
. — „I8. No part w 
with thft rmt e ;,l« «f ^he ^^ j t 

~» away some of them to aJ 
of the others. No oart whatever of this systen 

, Art it was commenced while the c5 wis 3 "" "^ 

mpleted before the cask was used. ' '" P"""" *"" 

The system of boring seems to me to be absolutely diagnostic of a beetle 
T.7ol::j7 POde '" lrm ""•"■'•""• K "- « « " 2 cogent 

beetle, which though very fragmentary are sufficient to conSrm me in 
my opinion that the boring insect is Trypodendron signatum, Fabr 
T.pi.1 lnSeCt 1S ?°} cor l sidered to b « common in England; and' has 
at m.l* « r r C ° 'i M dest , ructive - Jt { ». however, easily overlooked, 
as lime attention is here paid to such insects. 

™£V S 1 kn °, Wn J to , foresters on th e Continent as attacking newly-felled 
oak timber (and other woods) and * ., ijl>n in Lilk7- 

it bores vertically into the timber for about three or four inches, and « 
the extremity of the burrow is constructed a series of short chambers 
by its larvae, as in this case. 

It usually attacks timber which is comparatively fresh, and is not in 
the least likely to attack for the first time timber on shipboard. 

lhat the damage was at least, begun when the cask was constructed 
I conclude from the fact that three h complete hole 

is., open on the outside of the wood where it has been covered bv f ,- 
hoops of the cask. The marks of these hoop- ■ 
have evidently- litt.,Isr, tightly, thai I think ■ ... 
insect should have begun to bore after they were put on. 

With regard to the fact that leakage was not noticed directly the 
beer was put into m,,oun.l ,- ; .-k> , ;i , U ch is the case), I make the 
following 8iigge-ti..ii.>. hy u.-r. , . , .; 1 „,,,;„„ : _ ' 

1. A certain number of holes may have been partly made from the 

b*ch were subsequently completed by the beetle after the cask 
was filled. 

2. The beetle holes after being bored are left filled with a dense mass 
of comminuted wood (vi- „ have heen 
sufficient to keep in the beer for a I ,;„. sure m the 
cask from the beer working, or being kept in a warmer climate, forced 

From the examination of these two pieces of wood I conclude :-- 

1. That the borings are caused by a beetle, Trypodendron s'ujnatnm, 

2. That they were commenced at the time of construction of the 

.3. That tin- ,-ask wan unsound when filled with beer. 
4. That injury received by insects on board ship has nothing whatever 
to do with it. 

The beetles of the genus Trypodendron, Stephens, belong 1 1 
of the Scolytida, or bark beetles, and to the sul 

which the head is concealed under a convex thorax, and is almost 
invisible when looked at from above. 

They are cylindrical in form, and of small size (1 to \\ lines in 
length) . 

The head bears a pair of antennas consisting of a long basal joint 
I culy equal in length to the five r ■ are inserted 

iglea to it ; of these five joints the first four are very short, 
tal joint is large, flattened, and oval or triangular (Fig. 1). 


The eyes are each completely divided into two parts by i 
septum, at the anterior end of which the antenna is inserted. 

The thorax is very convex and nearly hemispherical, covered all over 
with " asperate" punctuation. 

This is very characteristic of many of the Tomicidcs, and has in 

miniature the appearance which would be produced by pecking the 

suilao of a convex block of wood with forward strokes of a small 

■uge, so as to cover it with a number of small barkw.-aiiv- 

p] inters. 

The elytra are cylindrical, covered with rows of punctures ; they have 

aapreMion close to the suture, and no excavations nor teeth 

at then- apex, features occurring in most of the Tomitidce. 

The legs are short, strong, and flattened; the tibias are toothed 
externally, and the tarsi have four simple joints. 

( .net nl examination r- reipiired to distinguish them from other 

indeed from wood-boring beetles of other families ; the 

the antennas and the asperat. thorax covering the head will 

d of the eyes and absence of any 

sutural stria or apical excavation of the elytra the genus. 

When the species are found in situ, their galleries, with the series of 
short larva] chambers above and below (Fig. 2), will at once indicate the 

niformly black ; elytra yellow with black mar* 

a with apex produced at inner angle. On deeidin 
T. domestiaun, Lii 

At least posterior half of thora: 
dark longitudinal stroke :i1ofilt midd 

i. Elytra with deep and s 
point of antenna elongate ti 
In di cidiious trees. 

angle of apex. 

ii. Elytra with very fii 
at apex of antennae. In conifers. T. lineatum, 01i« 

Of the two species living on deciduous trees, T. domesticum a 
tple, &c. 

T. sig/itittim occur- generally in oak, aUo in birch, beech, hazel, 
Either of tin -i two <• si I i eked the wood of these 

The mutilati i -Tits of the one insect found l( 

a matter of doubt as to whether if is T. domesticum or T. signatm 

the strong punctuations o!' ti lytra (almost the only point avj 

for differentiation) indicate the latter. 

They are similar in habit, and the distinction between them is 

economical importance. 

They do not injure the life or' nutrition of a tree, but by con 

their attacks to dead or dying timber they render it unfit for comm 


occur except by carefully clearing a\va\ branches, stumps, am! 
dead wood in which the\ can breed. \c\vh-felled timber shon 
exposed as little as possible to their attacks during their flight 
which is in middle Europe in May and June and again in Angus 
September. Selected trees or branch, - can be left out \'or the beet 
lay their eggs in and may then be destroyed by fire with the enc 


A coating of tar will effectually protect timber liable to their attacks. 

I am informed by Canon Fowler that T. signatum is only recorded in 
Britain from Sherwood Forest, where if occurs commonly. It probably 
has a far mo; »ul is liable to be overlooked. 

(Signed) W. F. H. Blandford. 


I, pp. 165-173, an account is given 
i South Africa. The term Prickly 
Pear is applied to one or more specii s oi' (')puntia, natives of the New 
World which have become increasingly abundant in many warm dry 
regions of the Old World. 

The spread of the Prickly Pear in Cape Colony appears now to have 
assumed large proportions, ni el it is ] the following 

Report, to adopt legislative enactments for keeping it in check. 

Eeport of the Select Committee appointed by the Legislative Council 
on the 9th June 1890, to consider the Sid.jeet of tl e I<: indication of the 
Prickly Pear and tin I'oisot oi - Melkbosch. The Committee consisting 
of Messrs. Botha, Du Plessi-. Bowker, H.rholdt, Meurant, and Wilmot, 
Your Committee find, from evidence which has been adduced before 
them, and which is published with this Report : — 

"i. That in the di-trirt- of Oraaff-Reinet, Somerset East, Cradock, 
J.insonville, Uitenhage, Willowmore, and Aberdeen the plant 
known as Prickly Pear hats increased, and is increasing, to an 
alarming extent. This is rendered more serious by the fact 
that this plant, after having been for many years in a district 
seems to obtain a complete mastery, although in the first 
instance no fear whatever is entertained respecting it. 
" ii. The interest of the neighbouring divisions, and indeed the whole 
country, is involved in this matter, because past experience 
shows that unless taken in time 'the Prickly Pear' must 
spread over all the adjoining areas. It is therefore a pest 
which ought to be extirpated at once, not merely for the sake 
.of those districts in which it is at present so hurtful, but for 

land and is at present destroying portions of the best and most 
fertile land, public and private, which the Colony possesses, 
has to be taken into consideration. 

We have it in evidence that the depreciation of property in 
certain districts has already reached at least fifty per cent., 
while all farms contiguous suffer in proportion. This depre- 
ciation is going on so rapidly that immediate remedial measures 
are necessary. 

It is in evidence that the probable loss of stock per annum, in 
consequence of the spread of the ' Prickly Pear,' is 200,000/. 
It is proved that unbroken thickets of this plant furnish shelter 

■ and perfect safety from pursuit. We 

ay add that it is proved that an obnoxious intoxicating liqt 
largely made from the fruit of the Prickly Pear, which 
very deleterious effect upon the natives. 

! pest of the ' Prickly Pear ' 
we consider it advisable that there should be a special Act 
providing :— 

" (a.) That the following districts be proclaimed under this 
Act, viz., the districts of Graaff-Rei net, Cradock, 
Somerset East, Bedford, Jansenville, Aberdeen, 
Willowmore, Uitenhage, and Oudtshoorn, as well 
as any other districts which maybe found necessary. 
«' (b.) That a Commission under the Act be appointed by 
the Government in each proclaimed district, such 
Commission to consist of not fewer than five persons, 

one of these two to be the Civil Commissioner of 
the district, and three persons to be nominated by 
the Divisional Council. 
" (c.) The Act to provide for the complete extirpation of 
the Prickly Pear. In each proclaimed district the 
Commission appointed to insist under penalties that 
all land be cleaned. In such cases where pro- 
prietors are not able themselves to meet the 
expenses, the Committee shall investigate and 
recommend such pro rata assistance as they shall 
deem just. In those cases where a proprietor 
cannot possibh e ',• ; m his lain!, such land to be 
expropriated, and the fair value decided upon by 
arbitration to be given to him for it. Then this 
land to be either cleaned at the expense of the 
Government, then sold, or sold with a special? 
stipulation that it shall be cleaned immediately by 
the purchaser. 
" We strongly recommend that whatever it may be considered advisable 

to do be done at once. 

" Your Committee have also taken the evidence of the Hon. Mr. Van 

Ithyn upon the subject of the poisonous plant 

which he states is BfH 

we regret that our information is so limited, as to prevent our being 

able to do more than recommend that the all ution of Government be 

called to the subject, with a view to its being investigated by the 

Agricultural Department. 

From the Minutes of the Committee we extract the following, bearing 
upon the best means to be adopted for getting rid of the Prickly 

" Q. How do you destroy the plant ?— A. It is first chopped down, 
we then dig out the stumps, the leaves and stumps are next 
piled in stacks from fifteen feet to five or six hundred yards 
long, and 15 to 20 feet in height and diameter, so that they 

can be easily reached from either side. After remaining m 
these large heaps for about a year, the outside leaves, which 
probably have taken root, arc taken off and thrown on the top 

of the stack, and there dried by the wind. In three or foi 
months the whole is dry enough to burn, and the stacks are a 
on fire. In India they bury the plant after it is chopped dowi 
which is a much better plan, but our Karroo soil is too hard t 
enable us to carry out 1 1 1 i .- i-y>t-,'in effectually. 
• Q, Is there no: htn the plant should be en 
a^ * ♦:_ -v„. :.-ai a^ , x Winte 

i full c 


(Eucaltjptns marginata, Sm.) 

Of late years a good de; 

tionofthet V „f jr , fC nti/jjttts, several of v 

have been recommended for use in this countrv'for outdoor work where 

strength and durability were especially desired. The cost of freight, 

however, of this heavy timber from Australia (where all the spedos'~aro 

native) to England, is one reason why they are not more generally 

■ other reason being their intense hardness, which mak s it 

' re' tools to cul or work them. A 

tresh inten-t seems to have been awakeii.-.l in th. 

■-■■■■ : ■ ■ . ■ :.-•: :■;. h: ■,•■■; 

- by Messrs 

I!..-. .. and Sons, of Stanley Works, Kinir's R.,ad, Chelsea, and a 

report by Mr. A. R | published.* 

. M"'/.^ ' im(»s1 attention was drawn in the 

'oo,I- ; «>iv the Jarrah ( Kirratyptus war- 

tlM " 1 "-^' ! ' b,l,h ^ ' and are now 

exh.b.t.-d in Museum x\o. 3. The former contains 1 IS . 
of timber, and weighs 4 tons 16 cwt. Much nmn at f uion ha,- si„eo 
!;V'- ,1 - lv, ' i '. I ! , V v '-'^'-, to the development of tin: Jarrah than the Karri. 

a nerally to a heighl of l( s to ISO feet. It is found on In '. W, ~t,-i .\,, ■ 

■greater portion of the country from the Moore River to 
*« tracts. IM, fegto £ 

"ovr.9 of Western Austral,,, •• n, 

; C;-/», ml l ; iMat,s:itisth, re fnr,in,xt, 

; ; ^' v-i ■ ; ■■•'H.=.- ,■ • . . ." ,. 

plankmg and frames of ships. It is also much used locally for floor- 

S. Soars. flllfl furntt., nA T . • r .. 

Ransome. London, Clowes 

by II. Tnioimin Wood, 

Western Australia," 
of 1886 it was state 
-Tan. ili have, after £_ j „ 
although not coppered. It has "been Yrie',1 a/tluT '"",''] 
Canal, viz, at Suez, Port Said, and Ismailia, and, af 
down seven year., the trial smnples wco taken up 
report on their condition might be forwarded to Pari 
SI L!. f l h u e 1 _ re8lde,,t eil S ineer Pronomuvd th, timber 

Vestry of St. Mary, Islington, to 
, Gardens, Kew. 

IW* « TD Vesfcr y Hall > U PPer Street, Islington, 

Dear Sir, March x 18g9 ; o - 

d™ ^highways committee of tl,i s v,,try have had their attention 
,, ;, n " T " '• ^I'P<-'<-s oi Austi than \ .,od known a- -.J, 

-■• ,as beMg highly suitable for the purpose of 
As the nature and qualities oi this wood are not generally known in 
.and as it has not jet received a thoro 


' ' ' ! ' ' ' ; ' '■• ■" .- •. • . 

pointed out the book upon the gum trees of Australia. 
I was perplexed as to what I should do to obtain an oj 
nis to be a comparatively 

to know Nunethino- :i bout j f froin Kew, altliou-li I ua- 
nieatis certain lh;ii any of the gentlemen there would g!\e 

the following letter 

Sm, 26th September 1889. 

In reply to yours of the 24th instant, addressed to the Strand 
District Board, I beg to inform you that the importers of the " Jarrah " 
wood are Messrs. John Walsh & Co.. S et, E.C. I 

am sending you a sample block for exhibition in the Museum as 

I may mention that this wood has already been laid in London, viz., 
by the Chelsea Vestry in the King's Road, and recently by the Lambeth 
Vestry in the Westminster Bridge Road. 

(Signed) Henry Jacques, 
t t> t , Per J. R. S., 



In the Kerr Bulletin for September 1889, p. 227, an account is given 

ot ihe viii, industry in the Gironde, with the results of the treatment of 

imed that the 

gainst Mildew is the so-called "Bouillie Borde- 

laise, a mixture of sulphate of copper, slaked lime, and water. 

further, that "the abundance of the 1888 vintage was in a great 
" measure due to the widespread use of this remedy in the vineyard of 
" the Gironde." 

Under these circumstances it is not surprising to find that the use of 
Jordelaise " is fast extending to other countries. 

:orrespondence on the subject has been communicated 

The follow 
3 this establishment by the Foreign "office? 1 

Foreign Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Sir > . Foreign Office, 4 August 

I am directed by the Marquis cf Sal.sbury to transmit b 
for your information copies of despatches respecting the use of £ 
of copper in dressing vines in France, Italy, and Spain. 

The Assistant Director, 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 


Mr. Egerton to Foreign Office. 
My Lord, Paris, 22 June 1890. 

I have the honour to transmit herewith to your Lordship a 
report by Sir J. Crowe on the use of sulphate of copper for dressing 

< h he has drawn up for the information of Sir Sun 
in compliance with the instructions contained in your Lordship's 

The Marquis o 

[Enclosure in No. 1.] 
My Lord, Paris, 21 June 1890. 

Sir Hussey Vivian ask- - ktistks relative If 

the use of sulphale of copper for dressing vinos in Franco, and <lr:t'-v- 
attention to the fact that the consumption is becoming large and 
important, as it is found to be, he believes, the only efficient cure for 
the phylloxera and other diseases which so seriously affect vines. 

The statistics which I have to give show that there is an increasing 
demand for sulphate of copper for the dressing of vines in Franc-, bii( 
that there must be some exaggeration in figures which Sir Ilussex 
Vivian quotes. 

According to the returns of the Custom House the quantities of 
sulphate of copper entered for home consumption in France since 1887 
have been as follows : — 

1887 kilos 7,736-746 

1888 „ 8,818-922 

1889 „ 13,524-001 

During the first five months of the present year the quant it 
has been as much as kilos 11,214-610 or double the amount imported 
during the same period of last year. 

But sulphate of copper is not used for the purpose of killing phylloxera. 
The prime remedy for that i< suliutvf of' e-n-bon ; sulphate of copper is 
good for dressing vines threatened with or suffering from mildew or any 
other cryptoganic disease. 

It is mixed as a powder with common lime and blown with 

Iai hoxillif. ' bordelaise ; and it was found to have been a good remedy 
last year not only where mildew broke out but where an outbreak was 
expected. But the expense of pulverization is very great in rainy or 
windy seasons, as the bouillie must be renewed whenever the dust has 
been carried off the vines. 

liy the imports or suipnaie 
of copper have become so large during the first half of the present year. 
Price has risen with the increased demand, and yet there is no mildew 
at present visible in French vineyards. 

I am told that the phenomena which are observable at this moment 
are only to be explained by a large speculative busine.-> in sulphate >>i 
coppor,"whi< h is an article that does not lose quality from keeping and 
which may suddenly be required in largo quantities. 

(Signed) ' J. A. Crowe. 
The Kt. Hon. the Earl of Lytton, G.C.B., &c. 

The Marquess of Duffebin asd Ava to Foreign Office. 

Mr Lord, Rome, 15 June 1890. 

I have not failed to apply for the information respecting the use 
of sulphate of copper in Italy for the prevention and cure of certain 
diseases connected with vines, as ins I I lip's desp u h 

of the 9th fail to forward such information as 

booh as it shall have reached me. 

In the meantime I have the honour to transmit to your Lordship 
copy and translation of a public notification issued by the Viticultural 
Society of Italy, pointing out the value of sulphate of copper 
combined with pu sulphur, hoth in , lui ! i ■''•, oi tm\<tin<r 

various diseases affecting vines and recommending its general use. 
Further, I enclose, tor the information of SirHussey Vivian, an abstract 
of the amount of sulphate of copper imported into Italy during the year 
1889 as compared with 1888 and the first few months of the present 
tding the price per quintal, and the import duty to which it is 

[Enclosure in No. 2.] 
Notification- :-s„.,] by the Viticultural Society of Italy respecting the 
use of Sulphate of Copper in the Treatment of certain Diseases of 

The Peronospora shows itself on the lower side of the vine leaf by 

'Id. Correspomlinir to these .peck- stains appear 
"" ; lli ' '/Tl hT " 1 < 1 '' t»f the leaf, which at 'first are yellow at 
is. Hie .lis is. ■ progresses, becom, , i brown. 

Thes . e * r \ ances. In the eontran 

case it is a different disease. 

The Peronospora also appears on the voung bunches of grapes, and 
-liable to the naked eye by the formation of a minute u hile 

The safest and most efficacious remedy to combat it is sulphate of 

:' ■■-■.<--:. i ■...-.. ; : . ., . , . 

a liquid or a powdered form. 

The best remedy in the powdered form is pure sulphur with sulphate 
of coTeT example ' 95 kilos - °*>re sulphur to 5 kilos, of sulphate 
The mixture of pure sulphur and sulphate of copper is on sale. It 
<irv t by mixing together su 

v of copper in warm 

.rh a sieve. 

.I! ■'■"'"■ is -ecou.l method is preferable. 

., ","' mix,i| I- of copper should be applied to 

all the giv.m parts of the v.-| union b, |,,ws It must be 

. however, that the powf tual that 


The liquid solution is the mc 
remedy against the Peronospora 
which are severely attacked. 

i prepared in the folio 
Putin awoodei 

to the proportion 
i barrel 100 litres of 
mix wan it one kilo, of slack lime j mix it well and let it settle. Add 
to the water, which has thus been made milky in colour one kilo , 
sulphate of copper which has been dissolved in four or > 

ifilirv to put lime in tho water, and to 
give the emulsion a whitey colour, in order that the workmen mm at 
once perceiv vine it has been Hed 

I he liquid solution can be efficaciously given with a pumping machine 
furnished with pnhvri/ers (? roses) which make a great economy of 
liquid. In case of urgency in the absence of an apparatus anything will 
do, even a whitewashing brush. VV J 8 

The mixed system has been very much recommended, that is, alter- 
nating the liquid and dry treatments. 

Thus in the beginning of May tl hate of copper 

Peronospora, and in the middle of May should t 

with liquid In the first days of June there sh- 

tion or sulphur and sulphate of copper, and in the middle of June 

another treatment with liquid. 

At this season anyone who has neglected the above should no longer 

= •' : ■ [>•■ :; •■-' : ' -..:•.. 

another liquid dressing. 

Another liquid application can be given, when required, towards the 
end of August, 

In order to be quite sure of contending successfully with the Peronos- 

hat each application should be preventative, that is 

b i made before the disease attacks the vine. 

The treatment should !„• repeated il r; ii -• 

It has now i, ( .i, proved that sprinkling with sulphati 
preserves the , jj t j c insects ■ 

dilfoivnt •• rots ": — A , lt ],..,„, ,,. „ 

from Rhynchites and Tortrix. 

of enpper 


: No. 2.] 

years 1888 and 1889. 

- 1 


Va,„, 3«i 

A ventre Prior. 



■ SSS. 

,8 8 , 



Sulphate of copper, ! 14,815 





The importation 
rhe import duty is f 

utals of the value of fcs. 2,076,000. 


No. 3. 

The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava to Foreign Office. 

My Lord, Rome, 25ih July 1890. 

With reference to my despatch of the 15th ultimo, I have th 
honour to transmit to your Lordship herewith translation of a not 
-which I have received from the Ita!i. 

the importation of Sulphate of Copper into this country. The amoun 
imported is, as your Lordship will perceive, rapidly increasing. 
I have, &c. 
_ „ „ (Signed) Dufferin and Ava. 

The Marquess of Salisbury, K.G., 

[Enclosure in No. 3.] 
From the Italian Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 
to the Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. 
,-, , , . Rome, 23rd July 1890. 

The Customs denomination No. 43 d. includes, besides Sulphate of 
Copper, Sulphate of Zinc and Double Sulphate of Copper and of Iron 
As the former of these has, from a commercial point of view a neater 
importance than the latter two, ami , „ „ industrial application has 
the demand of sulphate of zinc and of double 
sulphate of copper and of iron, we may consider accordin 

""***> d ™ ' -Si "^eCus^T/Tariff 

consists almost exclusively of sulphate of copper. 

tiJrf"J? w eD 7 WiU ^ l - he ret " rnS ° f the "POrtarion and importa- 
thefn! r P ^ ° f "?PP er dum g *e years 1887, 1888, 1889, and during 
the our months of the current year ( ! table [See 

Enclosure to No. 2, p. 193.] ^ om \~ aee 

As I have alread } remarked, the importation and exportation of the 

returns snow tbat the increase continues TKp™ ;« , M(!ft n *« u,,v 

r 1 v s r i i e orc y ' mporte!i iu *•» *•» i8 ^> ^.hZr^ 

preceding year. *"* °""' e lllan doub,e na <=™pared with the 


The Ho: 

^raC^r *?"» <'-P-h etihe^SoZeae 

|..,.but ,t dees not appear that thi, mode of trea.meot if 

PhX«ra ta, S a, Phate « ,0 W1>» «* b-n adopted a, a core for 

taken to encourage its use by v__„ 
have not shown much alacrity iu availing themselves of the facilities 

placed at their disposal. Thus I am told by the Director-General of 
A —iculture here that were this substance to be generally used in iho 
i districts of Catalonia, Valencia, Aragon, and Old Castille its 

sumption in mount to some 2,000 tons (2,000,000 

kilograms), yet when the authorities offered to supply growers in the first- 
named province ;ir specially favourable rates, the applications made in 
response to the proposals were for an amount which only reached about 
45 tons. It v have caused 

cultivators to obtain such supplies as they needed 

but it is difficult to arrive at any sound conclusion by referring to 
Custom House returns, as at Barcelona all such imports from England 
are entered under the one head of " Chemical Products." 

From the south-eastern districts I have as yet failed to ascertain any 

• but as regards Aragon, Navarre, Old Castille, and for a small 

quantity Biscay also, Bilbao would probably be the port of entry, and 

the amount of Sulphate of Copper imported there last year from the 

United Kingdom was about 500 tons. 

In the neighbourhood of Lenares there is no disease, neither is there 
any demand at all for the preventive in question in the Val de Penas 
and Villacanas districts, whilst at Cadiz the importation only consisted of 
some 23 tons last year, u ted, there being no disease 

to speak of in the vineyards of Jerez, where the insignificant consump- 
tion has been of an experimental nature. Indeed, I hear from there that 
though the regular retail price of Sulphate of Copper is 30/. per ton it 
has been offered at from 241. to 25/. without being taken up by the 

As I had the honour to inform your Lordship in my despatch of the 
2nd instant, Sulphate of Copper is now admitted into Spain free of duty. 

(Signed) William A. C. Barrington. 
The Marquess of Salisbury, K.G., 

Our possess 


i the West Coast of Africa, consisting of the Gambia, 
one, Gold Coast, and Lagos, occupy, for the most part, narrow 
strips of country parallel to the sea coast, and extend to no great distance 
inland, except along the banks of a few of the principal rivers. The 
circumstances of these possessions and their relations tu the natives in 
possession of the highlands in th rto prevented 

attention being devoted to any agricultural pursuits of a 
Both the European and native communities have so fa 
energies to the development of trade in such commodities as are brought 
to them from the interior. These commodities, with the exception of 
some gold and ivory, are mainly the natural products of the 
as have required little at the hand of man except the trouble of collecting 
and cum eying them to the coast. There are, it is true, a few native 
carried on in a crude manner, such as ground 
nut, cotton, and the raising of corn, yams, and vegetables. The value 
and extent of these would appear at present to be very small 


palm kernels, which have hitherto formed the staple exports of West 
Africa, a change is gradually taking place in tin 

of the natives, and a desire, wisely fostered by the intelligent policy 
pursued by the local Governments, is expressed in favour of giving more 
attention to the -ysinnaiic . iliivation of the soil. Botanic; 
have recently been established at Lagos and the Gold Coa>; 
propagation u»I vperimenta cult ot" i mi .1 plants, and, as 
in the Kew Bulletin, considerable interest has been taken at 

for valuation and report. The 
present Governors of our West African possessions are keen I 
tmg attention to the development of a< 
i,l,1,1<l ,; in recent years have these possessions 

country than at present. For this awakened 
interest we ; i Moloney K.C.M.G., Governor of 

I..--: • i tt.Bra:,.!rordGriintli,K.< M.( ;.. <io\ «,■„,,,,, | ihe Gold Coast; 
Sir James Shaw Hay, K.C.M.G., Governor of Sierra Leone; and Mr. 
T Gilbert Carter, C.M.G., Administrator of the Gambia. These 
officers, it is needless to say, have fully realised the importance of 
_ agricultural enterprises, and taken a leadinj part, in the 

Si- Alti-,,1 Moloney puMi-hed in lss," n -Sketch of the Forestry of 
West Afnc , QCe t() ils PrincteaJ I 

liable information has bed 
:: . gams, robbers, co 
ices, and many others. 
"V !m ! ' ; *, i* may be mentioned that a small 

- ^ ,.,,..,„ /.. .■ . . 

uor Moloney has a scheme und< i , o >sid, ration for sendin- 

L'U^tob, trained ,: .Jamaica in the culture 

ntedfor West Africa. 

Il '" , l uenf ni'liiiry is made at K« w in regard to plants likely to 

.. prepar. I. in th 

\T M lm '" 1 . lor tll( ' '^^^ ..„. w ..o 

Memorandum on the Exp ERIMENTAL Cultivation of Economic 

Plants in West Africa. 
Experimental plantations in West Africa, where systematic cultivatio 

Z ttTurvc to t^^t^ firSt a Iar 8 e number of econo ^ P^ts, 
he best prospect of being 
Kew from t ' rc P° rts whicQ have already reached 

* ' ™ the Gambia ' show that roai 

ji there. These centres will in time be i 

select^ few; of the most promising plants, and distri 

different portions of their respective Colonies. 

TCpw from tV>;c -^i™ j iUClc f" U3 wmcu nave already rea( 
Tnl a SS n ln S °?' a, ' d specially from the botanical station 
couM b™ > ' ™«nv useful P l 

..own there. These centres wi" :- ♦.•.-!. ■••' 
select a lew of the most promising pla, 
extended culture in different portions , 
*^^^«*&* P^-ts requiring a damp, 

promising plants, and distribute 
•ent portions of their respective 
jical plants requiring a damp, huum. . 
ear round and entire freedom from droughts are cvid, nth- 
many parts of West Africa. The prolonged drought 

experienced dm i of the year, often accompani 

very dry winds, would be fatal to the remuneUl 
plants. lL ot 

It is evident, however, that if it were possible to plant lar^e 
a few select p] 

■■■-'■■ - ■ ■■'■ .^ . . , , . " 

would be a fair prospect of the r 

1 - ' ■'•■- ■ ■'< ■■■ •■■■• ' - . . •' ■ 

to the soil and* i, a ,1 Wot V 1 th , - , ,, 

as the results of the cultivation in th 
are more fully known. 

If any of the Colonies possess stretches of sandy coast land it mi"ht 
be taken up for the planting of Cocoa-nut palms. The 

could be grown upon a large scale mosl success 

i.s true it rakes a long time to come into bearing. ' On th 
the fruit is always in demand, eitlnr fre-h, n e; 

-vs such as "copra," to suit the markets of the world. 
Recently an industry has arisen ;„ <; ., !U;inv »,, ,, : -,. f „, r ,, ., . 

the Coo i i ut. the proc s< - » far" is enfi eH 
in the hands of a private firm (Messrs. Miiller and Sons, of ."" 
Baden i. but if the industry is extended, ir will undoubtedly i 
demand for fresh nuts in European markets. Cocoa-n 

prepared from th. hn-k « the < nut, is an article extensi 

i ma in Europe. Coir prepared experi 

at Lagos under the direction of Sii Vlf ! Moloney was late! 

, and proved of j_ 
requirements of the London market for" Cocoa-nut coir are given in the 
Kew Bulletin for June 1889, pp. 129-132. 

Egyptian cotton is just now attracting attention. When the staple is 
long it fetches a high price. It might Ihj tried in West Africa on a 
large scale, and with this view it would be desirable to obtain seed 
direct from Egypt. Full information respecting West A 
and its value in the English market is given in the Kur Hi'llrtiii for 
June last, p. 135. 

Coffee of both sorts, Arabian and kiln-Han, should be cultivated on a 
largo scale in every West African Colony. The Liberian coffee grows 
freoly at almost sea level while th. Vrubiun coffee will flourish on any 
of the hills in the interior. Now coffee production in the k.i-r Indies 
is so greatly reduced on account of - likely to be 

a large demand for this important food product at reman 
Where am ing coffee it might be 

this subject is iriven in the h'nr Ih'lhthi for M 
and November 1888, pp. 261-263. 

" hat are adapted to West Africa. 

Lagos, a 

t'alue of the fibre has shown it to be of high quality. 
in industry in bowstring hemp ir would be necessary tc 
200 or 300 acres before steps should be taken 
Machinery to clean the fibre. The Death Fibre Machine 
147, Leadcnhall Street, E.C. might be in a position to sup] 

ess of growing bowstring hemp in Cuba and also as to the 

• I'm [Sparing the fibre. 

The Sisal Hemp plant, Agave rigida, var. Sisalana, 
be introduced to West Africa. Small plants, in quan 
obtainable from Florida. The Sisal Hemp would 

any other plants. If 500 plants were 
introduced at first, these after two or three years would yield sufllcient 
suckers to establish several acres. The Ramie or China grass plant 
may be regarded as unsuited to West African enterprise at present, and 
it would be useless to devote attention to it unless there is fi 
wpply of labour to work large plantations and suitable machinery is 
obtainable to decorticate the fibre at a low cost. 

Of the jute class of fibre plants there are two very valuable fibre 
ph.nt> already abundant in West Africa. These are the " Bolobolo " 
{//""'■hr.,1,,. . „ ti, e K,: ir ihillrfhi for January 

IsKK ai.d the Toja (Urena lobata). The fibres of these pi, ut- an 
rorth 18/. to 20/. per ton. and the price is always likely to be 
insnntaii .-d at Mich a figure i.s would remunerative. 

] possible to get the natives to clean these fibres by hahd and 
sell the produce in small lots locally. 

Amongst j ;„ tropical countries and already 

W in some parts of West Africa are thi 
{Btxa Orcllana), Cassava (Manihot Aipi), Arrowroot (Marmita 
-';■""'""-■ nd Pimento or Allspice 

{Pimenta officinalis). These do not appear to yield remunerative 
y are, however, well worthy of attention, and 
I the natives can be induced to grow any of them. Annatto 
seeds are now sold at prices that cannot pay expenses. It might, how- 
ever, be a matter for consideration whether the colouring matter could 
be manufactured into what is known as Annatto roll, cake,., paste. 

' be easily prepared as indicated in the Kew II 
July 1888. For paste or cake there is a more steady and 
demand than for seeds. Indigo, as is well known, requires 

, and if taken up i 

be on a large scale. The Yoruba Indiffo yielded bv Lonchon, n ,u* 
member 188&, 
ah f i ™ *i a gUre ° f , the * ,lant ' Yoruba Imli S° wnt t0 Kew b J Sir 
™.?ki t^l WaS Valued in 1883 at 4 *- to 4s - M- I** 1>"»"'I- ' ^ is 
n*tV ccessfnlinWesI Africa than the 

ami .us only ,„,,.-,,-, t0 ,-H , n ; nctt( tju . , :|lthv lualt er and portions of 
W "! Yoruba Indigo to produce samples north 
nearly as much as the best Bengal Indigo 

snilTtnV rT f re Valuab,e W but probably not everywhere 
• -here it « damper and moister, and it would be well on 
to keep them under observation and increase ,1 
are action. 

inilfv th 1 *? d0UbtM Wh6ther the Cacao or Chocolate will eventually 
opes at present entertained respecting it. Although the 

* P '" the other hand, in sheltered valle/s 

om prolonged droughts Cacao should 
do very well Next to Coffee, fibres, Egyptian cotton, and spices, I 

would regard ( .,,,,„ or Cboeoia,,. - ,„d reliable 

industry for West Africa if onlyTe right Tj^^J^^t 

it. Tea may be tried and also Tobacco, bat unless an expert u engtgtd 

there is^ no hope of esta1>li<h,n^ a 

industry to supply European markets with 

It may be very well worth while to try and establish the Ceara 
Rubber (.1/ , W est Africa. It has 

"• poor inland under vvr'v 
arid conditions. It requires little attention and yields rubber at an early 
period. It very much resembles the Cassava plant i 
ments, aud as the natives already cultivate the 1 
likely to take very readily to the rubber plant, 
rubber could be obtained in quantities from Ceylon. 

The cultivation of fruits in West Africa might be greatly extended, 
it only for local demands. Pine apples, bananas, guavas, oranges, linn.-. 
■ - 
pnp;i \v, water melons, are already found u ro\vin- at or mar 

Little or no attention is, howvver, devoted to their 
systematic culture, and hence the yield and quality are below what they 
ought to be. It may he found ultimately practicable to export some ol 
in a fresh or preserved state to this country. An account of 
West African fruits and the production of each at Sierra Leone, Gold 
Coast, aud Lagos is given in the Kew Bulletin for October 1888, pp. 

In reports which have reached Kew from West Africa considerable 
id upon the difficulty of keeping plants alive during the dry 
evident that a continuous supply of fresh m 

Water should be abundantly provided by means of small irrigation 
channels all over plantations in dry districts, with holes or wells here 
and there to facilitate watering any plants that require it. The 
saving in labour under such circumstances would be very < 
Shelter trees should be planted, wlieie they do not already exist, to 
protect the pi Efl and to shade such plants as require it 

from the direct rays of the sun. 

There are several species of figs in West Africa thai are ndmirabh 
Live fences made of such plan - 
and the Madra- thorn { It,,,,/ ,h,/ci.~, would protect the plantations and 
afford some relief from dry winds. The logwood is a 
promise for West Africa. Seeds of logwood could easil 
from the West Indies, while seeds of the Madras thorn 
from Ceylon or India. 

The question of soil should receive the most careful 
rich loamy soil of good depth, with good natural 
easy reach of water, is most essential for cultivated 
be considerable time spent over the selection of sites for 
every point should be carefully considered before the 


In a valuable paper by the Kev. Richard Baron, F.L.S , on the Flora 

of Madagascar (Jnurn. Linn. Soc, v..]. xw., pp. 240-294), it is stated 
that the "vegetable production- of M; iag; -ear have been very extensively 
" explored, and that tin- the island are 

" known to science.'" The flora of the low lauds of the southern part 
of the islaml is still, however, the least known. Our knowledge of the 
tlora of Madagasem is due to the labours of numerous botanist* from 
Flacourt, Dupetit Thouars, and Commerson to Greve, Bojer, Grandi- 
dier, anil Ellis. Within the last few years this knowledge has been 
greatly increased through the very smve^ful labours of Mr. Baron 
him-elf. and his collections, received' a* Ivew, have been determined and 
described by Mr. ,1. G. Baker, F.ll.S, It is estimated that whereas 
until recently less than 2,000 species of plants were known from Mada- 

Mr. Uiiron has been good enough to supplement his paper on the 
Flora of Ma i„. K,ir Ihildliii some brief Out 

tance. One of the earliest notices 
of Madagascar economic plants is contained in Uoehon's Voyage to 
.h r >i In , . > r „„,{ thf L,U /,,//, , ( i:, _'•-], ti.iiislation, 1703, pp. 280- 
297). In this work plants from the now trans- 

" planted in the Royal Botanical Garden at the Isle de France" 
(Mauritius), are given under their native names. The Ravonsara 
{Ravanscva _ iu , m or Tangena (Tanghinia veue- 

noticed. _ The latter tree is quaintly and not unappropriated)- d. -ci ib.-l 
as " Krpiisetum arborescens." 

Dr. G. "W. Parker, a medical missionary sent out to Madagascar, bas 

>"<''■"'!} !' : Medic;,, with special reference to 

oua made at Ken, was 

■il Journal, 1881 vol. xi., pp. 853- 

1 '" '' ' numerons^scatten 1 notes respecting the economic plants 

r to be found in oiher works, but the above appear to 

;'" Vi '•'' I "'• to describe them. It may not be 

• : 'here are still some very valuable 

P«nt wl .,- Pkssava. This is 

nt not a species of Baphia as is generally supposed. 

Mr. Baron's notes will serve a u> !■ 
it they do in , her „ to f(il!(nv his , xamj>1( ;1Ili! 

mts growing beyond the special district- covered by bis 

fn order to give a general \,\,. n „f the character of the Mada-a-cr 
Ht'i ' '»M th. i,_ . adopted . M, ! 

doulitn -- 

On the ea>t rn side of the island (, 
highest range of mountains which Corn 

forest which extend- probably MOO mi! 

not entirely, without a break, and ,.i eh. il wh 

[ by primeva 


be true, continues round the island, forming a complete or almost pn,n 

™ ™f i sout T heil J ''" '■« n. I.ut l..m- i „• th *, : re continuous is 

™ 1^^ ^sits 

Sln ™ a ^_ p]aC f S A ron L t ¥ mountains of the interio, 

a perh..^ _ 

:■ nnr nrk.-mn- th, innumerable 

nd at 30 m ' b n " ,he ( ' asr, ' ni si(le of th e 

/ " ' '.""■'' -. ' '• ' ; - ^ ^ ■- : v ,....- 

• >-■ reckoning the innumerable 
s - If .ye include these, 

'»'■'•.. ;;/ ( r;! i i:;i ,, ! ( , \' r r; iii -"«■«»■ ■». w-i«- ^ 

v. ..i.m..".!^.!!, ii one may be allowec 
J, there will not unlikely be an area of 30, 

may be allowed 

reckon the 

said to be so 2^ mdeS ' ab ° Ut °«th part 
^^n^J7Z,u my ^ I"' th ° flora ° f M^agascar may be 

. i : ■ ... 

...■., ,;;.... : - : ■■::■:■: 

:- / -; ■:— - ■■ ■, ■:/:.,- _ 

-• ".. tlu uHl, th, hi-jhhmd. 
western lowlands, ^nTSrW ^"^ dt '™' ut into the 
trn,,i, oF t / ! • •■".« «.» II"' M.urh by the 

miles east of Ih„sy, (hen,, to 1 V \l 

east of : Ankav.,„d.„. „„•„. ,.,„,,,. ■•« miles to the 

on to Isomboana, follow. itongodrahoj*, 

li«'fjiii(ln'8inn. tl.en .,;, ,, ' province of 

coming sooth, it skirta i m lat ;. 11 ;, 

Ambiniviny, it thfu ; , h-tehrs tin- mounttuu of 

reaches the I » ,"' south until it again 

the great Antsihanaka province) V * lulU ' w * T 

tropic at Capricorn. L JSiii lf meetS the 

Lonky (or Loquez), and^he so ,h D « ^JSt 

River Andn I with the mouth of tlie 

the west of th< te. All the territory to 

others near t In <>> the island of No.ilv an,l all 

east the easl " region, and that to the 

defined wit] I oscanbe 

south of the i! ' ' extreme north and 

1 ^ ■ .-,„:,,.! 

The limits, ho Bomewhat uncertain, 

accepted as sul - t!lil > defined, may be 

through about »l, irt ,, ,V I.;;;.,.,. 1 ',,' ''- rcgi,' > - ng. 
regions being c! 

ly be considerable variation in the character of the vegeta- 
nd southerly direction, but the variatioi 
•! bs it is in an easterly a 

1 in a northerly and southerly direction, but the variation is gradual 
' lord**' ' 


" In the eastern region the two most abundantly represented orders 
are Fi/im and Composite ; but the former are more than double the 
latter in the number of species, forming respectively 13*1 and 6 per 
cent, of the flora of this region. It will be noticed that Filices do not 
appear in the second or third column at all, the reason being that I 
have not sufficient data for determining their relative positions. 
Possibly they might occupj the third or fourth place. In the western 
region the Leguminosce stand at the head of the list, and these are 
followed by Euphorbiacece ; but the difference between the two is very 
great, the proportion being about 5 to 2. The table shows that 18 -8 
per cent* of the flora of the western region consists of Legumim ■■< 
The Composite appear to be poorly represented, forming only 3 '2 per 
cent, of the flora. In the,central region, on the other hand, the Com- 
posite are at the head of the list, with a per-centage of 13. Rubiacea;, 
again, which one might expect to he largely represented in the western 
region, only form 3*2 per cent, of the flora. The eastern, central, and 
western regions, therefore, might, if we take the most largely repre- 
sented orders into account, be fairly called the Fern region, the Com- 
posite region, and the Leg ctively." 

11 That the flora of the central region should differ widely from the flora 

of the eastern and western regions is accounted for by the great elevation 

above the sea of the central part of the island. But how are we to 

explain the existence of so great a difference between the floras of the 

■--. as they do, the same latitudinal 

S for of the 2,206 plants found in the eastern 

and western regions only 128 (not reckoning the 100 occurring in all 

-ions) are common to both. I believe the explanation to be 

of the island, which runs from 


not improbably from Palaeozoic times, and has therefore alwa 

««f the eastern and western regions Ifee 
"■".even if they were IWmerl' - ., 

if they were originally different, they have been kept, by the existence 
of the mountain barrier, distinct to the present day." 




1. Symphonia clusioides, Baker, and other species of Sympkoma 
The wood of these trees is used for various purposes, as is also the 
gamboge-like resin which they yield. (Forests of E. Reg.) Dbitinina, 
Mamy, and Haramy. 

An allied tree (S. globulifera, L.) native of Jamaica and British 
Guiana, yields from its roots a quantity of resin, used in medicine and 
for fixing arrowheads to spears. It is known in Jamaica as Hog Gum 
and in British Guiana as Karamani Resin. 

2. Garcinkt ?nellifera, B 
These are near allies of the t 
(6?. Mangostana, L.) of the Malay Arehip 
and Ceylon Gamboge trees. (G. Haul a. 

large evergreen tree of India, Burma, Andaman Islands, &c. The wood 
is hard and durable, and the seeds yield a thick dark green oil. 

5. C. parviflorum, Boj. A tree affording a useful wood. (Upper 
Forests of E. Reg.) Vintanina. 

G. Leptolcpna paucijiora, Baker. A hard-wooded tree used ii 
building. (Forests of £. Reg.) Anjaiiaujana. 

7. Xerochlamys pilosa, Baker. Used in the manufacture i 
(Central Madagascar.) Hatiikana. 


9. Abutilon angulatum, Mast. A shrub, probably introduced, from 
the fibre of the bark of which the Betsiles manufacture a kind of cloth. 
(Cent, and E. Reg.) Hafopotsy. 

10. Pavonia Bojeri, Baker. A shrub yielding a kind of fibre. (Cent. 
Reg. chiefly.) Tsontsotia. 

11. Hibiscus tihaceiis,^. (E. and N.W. Coasts.) Vara and Baro 

12. Adansonia madaqascariensis, Bail!. The Madagascar Baobab. 
Its i.,.k {1 fi () rd> a fibre :.nd its frn t is nlibh-. , W. Coast > /><"<'"■ "■ 
Z,/(S«U ) Tuc, ,,,],.,-.[,<.;,.-,,, ^ :„-, knovn. \h.. the fiaobab or 
Monkey-bread tree of W. Africa {Adansonia digitata, L.), the pulp 


of the fruit of which is edible and the bark fibrous, and the Australian 
Gouty Stem tree (A. Gregorii, F. Muell.), the palj 
is also eaten by the aborigines. 

13. Eriodendrtm tmfraetmnm^-D.G. The silk cotton surrounding 

the seed* is used for stulii, Id to be dangerous to the 

eyes. (W. II.-.j .1/, } Thi , p]aM has ., 

ution in the tropics oF the Old and New Worlds, and the 

A c A otton ' ! m J er the name of Kapok, is exported from Java to Europe 

14 Dombeva, spp. Small trees whose bark supplies a useful fibre 
dby the people. (Cent, and E. Regs., especially forests.) 
"".'""■"• [ his was, no doubt, the fibre about which a '■ 
I ''-" " ! : V : '' "i" Iulence took P^ce with the Foreign Ofii< 

by the Leeds a, i Dundee Chambers of Com- 
to be, while destitute of textile value, well lined 
m fact, closely resembled the bark of Brou*~ 
wnctm papynfera.] 


„,,!;•: ?\ € . U '') 1 fl ( >n>hUa, Baker. A shrub from which the Sihanaka 

• It wT are 45 s l )ecies of Grewia kn own in the 

- irr :,::Z^ W '** *» ^ «^ r^ * -ful fibre. 

™i 1 \i C 'Tk*° , T olko T s > L - One of the plants which yield 1 the 
valuable fibre obtained from India known as Jute. ( E. and \ . 

JSJtSllStZ n " Jrt0ideS > B ^ r - A shrub with *>lack wood, 
r nL~ r"* a " all > of 'he well known coca plant of Peru. 


I9.0chna,sp. A hard-wooded tree. Rang a or Rangy. 

dendron JycioUles, Baker. A shrub used by the Sakalaya 
in reddening their finger nans. (W.Reg.) Moina ($ak\ 


edible fruits. Vi 

Tr ^ 7 \f nesiis Polj/phi/lla,Lfim. Used as a dog poison. (E. Bee.) 
Voasefaka or Vasefaka (Betsira). 

([•:. and C, 
Hemp of I 


28. Crotalaria striata, D.C. Used as a black dye for Rofia cloth. 
R »«d Cent. Regs.) Beravimpotsy. This is a close ally to the Sunn 

India, which is furnished by C.juncea, L. 

29. Indigo/era pedimculata, Bojer. Affords a kind of dye, Aika- 

" ccmim< pee is filrtfwhed bj ftu%»- 
/era And, L , and i. / ably other species, which 

rted to a very large extent in India, Central America, W. 
Indies, &c. 

30. Herminiera Elaphroxylon, G. and P. A shrub with wood, 
almost as light as cork. It is the Ambash or Pith tree of the Nile, 
where the native-: use it t<> a--i>t (hem in s«^'""» :-■ • •— * +1,0™™,. 
Colonel Grant says:--" It grows so rapid! 
almost choked up the channel of the Bohr e 
in Antsih.) Odifmiga. 

31. Dalbergia Baroni, Baker. A large 
used for furniture, &c. (Forests of E, Reg. | 

32. D. trit ■), probably, also one or two other 
species of Daflxraia. Shrubs or fr< cs possessing useful wood used in 

ing. The one known as .V a ,wribf/ii, 1ms a ven durable 
reddish wood ; the wood hter in colour. 

(W. Reg.) Manhry (Sak.). 

33. Neobaronia viyllanthoidet. Baker, and JY. xiphodada, Baker. 
The wood, which is , ; f or spa d e handles, fcc. 

" *~ Meg. ; the latter occurs in 

34. Tamarindus indiea, L. The Tamarind, the pulp of the pods of 

'1 in sug r, is impi ! ■ . and lh. 

T. Indian Islands. (W. Reg.) Madilo or Ktly. 

35. Trachylobimn verrucosus, J, The Gum Copal tree of Mada- 

rtoAnime. (E. Coast.) Tandro- 


37. Albizzu 
dyeing. (Wic 


38. Weinmannia, spp. Various species of Weinmannia afford 
rood commonly used in house building. (Chiefly forests of E. Reg.) 

39 W Rutevbergii, Engl. A shrub (or tree ?) with very durable 
rood. (Upper forests of E. Reg.) Hhzomena. 


(Cent. Reg.?) Mainti- 

Jh l Fe i h ™ sess /Wora, Baker. A shrub (or tree?) whose bark is 
said to taste like cinnamon. • (E. Antsih.) Hazomamy (Antsih). 


( w 43 ceS:td u i zt:r^: A climbing shrub yiewing a fibre - 

44. Dionychict Bojeri, Naud. A shrub or small tree affordii 
black dye used for silk. (Cent. R eg . chiefly.) Bongo. 

drut C Tc:ntRt^l4L WOOd ' "°*^ * "**« 

uselmSr-T"' Baker ' And P roba % other alli <** shrubs, 
u,ed in making musical instruments. (E. Reg.) Tsienimpdsa. 

(Ft^T^^^^'PP' Em P^ ^ *™ **** 


48. Cephahtntkus ,,,„//„ //,,, ,, nk A ^ . h 

rubs (or trees?) closely allied to 
D , [An examination made for Kew by 
the late J. E. Howard, F.R.S., failed to detect any trace of 
the bark.] 

50. Danais Gerrardi, Baker. A climbing plant from the root of 
which the Sihanaka obtain a kind of dye and from whose bark the? 
obtain a kind of fibre. (Forests of E. Reg.) Haizantoloho (Antsih). 

51. Uroph, The bark is said to be used in the 
manufacture of rum. (Forests of E. Reg.) Fair ay. 

52. Gardenia succosa, Baker. A shrub from which exudes a kind 
of gum. (W. Reg.) Amokombe (Sak.). 

53. Guettarda s 
>d. (E 

The Zebra wood of English commerce is said to be the produ* 

i Zebra wood. (E. and W. Coasts.) Tambaribarha (Sak.). 

- -x-ii ' 

aid its botanical source is unknown. 

. Lam. ; a large tree of British G-uiaua, is also said to 
furnish Zebra wood. 

54. Plectronia buxifolia, Baker. Wood used in house building and 
for walking sticks. Fantsihahitm (Ank.). 

55. Lecontea bojeriana, A. Rich, and L. farinosa, Baker. Climbing 
plants which yield a black dye. (Woody places of Cent, and E. Reg.) 
Laingo or Laingomaimbo. 

56. Vemonia Merana, Baker. A tree whose wood is used in house 
building. (Cent. Reg.) Merana (Bets.). 

57. Psiadia dodoncefolia, Steetz. The natives use the leaves of 
this plant f. ■; iftread in the 
island.) Dlngadlngana. m 

58. Labramia { ! )< lust n«\ liojeri, A. DC. A tree from which the 
F>('t-iiiiisir:ik;t obtains a kind of dye. It is possibly the Xato ;vhose 


59. 3fimn$ops? costata, Hartog. A small tree with e 

It also yields a fibre. (River sides near E. Coast.) Todlnga or Voajaba 

. Climbing plants which yield the native india- 

libber have been described as Vahea mada- 
l . gummifcra, Lam. 

62. A! ij, via lucida, Baker. A shrub whose bark and leaves are em- 
ployed in the manufacture of native rum. ( W. R< _ 


63. Cerbera {Tanghinia vcnenifera, Poir.). Affords the fruit 
formerly employed in the "Tangena" ordeal. (E. Coast.) Tangena. 

fj!. ('ri/jifosttijid ma/hiyascuricnsis, Bojer. A shrub, the bark of 
... . : - 

for fishing lines. (W. Reg.) Lombiro (Sak.). 

65. Xu.ria sphcerocephala, Baker, and 
The wood of these trees is employed in hoi 
Reg.) Lambinana. 

, Lam. The 1 
appear to be use 

its flowers in dying the ." and its leaves were 
formerly used as a substitute for soap. (Widely spread in the island.) 

68. Antkoa .Maker. A large-leaved shrub, some 

part of whir 1 lever . (I n and about 
upper forests of E. Reg.) Landhny. 

A herb with 

71. Colea Telfairiai, Bojer. A small tree with hard am 
wood. (Opeu country in Cent. Reg.) Hltsikit&ika. 

72. Phyllarthron bojerianum^C. A shrub or small trc 
wood is variously employed. (Cent, and E. Regs.) Zahana. 

73. Bhtnata The gee(ls are uged for gcenti 

lothes. (Cent. Reg.) Voanhlakely. The roots o 
i China under the name of Tong-pang-chong, and in India under that 


74. Moschosma polystachyum, Benth. The Musk Basil. (E. Coast) 
Karanjamboay (Betsim). 


76. Phytolacca abyssinica, Hoffm. This shrub ] 
properties, but has to be used with care, as it is 
(Woody places of Cent. Reg. chiefly.) Vahivdraka. 

i. A tree whose strong!; 
e of rum. The leaves are said to be 
itic fruit is known as Clove nutmeg. 
(Forests of E. Beg.) Harbzomanr/ulij. 

S3. Eupl Baker. A very small herb used as a 

rat poison. It possesses violent purgative properties. (Cent. Reg. in 
Vakin Ankaratra and at Antongodrahoja.) Soamalondona. 

84. Uapaca clusiacea, Baker. A shrub used largely in feeding silk- 
worms. It produces an edible fruit. (Abundant ill W. Tmer. and 
occurring at a few other places.) Tapla. 

83. U. clusioin'cs. Baker. A large tree with edible fruit. (Forests 
E. Antsih.) Voampaha (Antsih). 


The fruits of J. Bmiim, S|>ren ; _r., 

87. Macaranga ferruginea, Baker. A tree whose " stems contain 
an abundant supply of resin, the nature of which requires inn 
(W. Imer.) Molanga. Almost all the species of Macaranga in the 
island yield useful wood. 


Baker. A hard-wooded spiny tree. 

88. Chcetacme madagascaricsts, H^.-r 
(Forests of E. Reg.) Hidina and Fa,ad)j 

90. Podocarpus madagascariensis, Baker. 

93. Amomum Daniellii, Hook. f. The Malagasy Cardamom, 
and W. Regs.) Longoza. The pulp of the fruit is eaten by the i 
races of Guinea for its agreeable acid flavour and refrigerant qualit 

94. Tarca pinnatifida, Forst. Yi« 
ative. Tavolo. This forma an important article of food in the Soutf 

P. Vari 

p ibletub* 

' Oviala. 

95. Dioscorea, spp. Various species of Dioscorea found wild in the 
large edible tubers. (Forests, chiefly in E. and Cent. Regs.) 


J. Thn b 

(Cent. Reg.) 

97. Raphia Ruffia, Mart. The midrib of the leaf of this palm 
which sometimes reaches 35 to 40 feet in length, is used ch ll £ 
poles for ladies palanquins, ladders, Ac. The fibre from the youn- un 
opened leaves is employed as string, an,] is largely exported to Eurl 
under the name , of - Rapl | in os oC, which 7 

made from the fibre. From the stem the natiVes obtain a - 
called < Harafa" and the shells of the fruits are employed «^„K 

99. Pandanus, spp. Hats are made from the leaf fibres of i 
the species, the leaves of one of them found on the east coast ar 
when dried as covers for packages, and effectually secures the 

100. Typhnodorum lindleyanum Schott. The fruit, after long boil- 
vtha. S ° metlmeS eate " ^ the natlves " ( E - ™* W. Reg. chiefly.) 

houses. (Widely spread in marshes.) 

™« ?' °' ™ e ™ iens{s > Boeckl - A sed ge nearly allied to the Egyptian 
papyrus. I he flowering stems when strung together are i 
for native doors, &c. Mats are made from s°tripsof the L"' 
spread in marshy places.) Zozoro, Zorozoro, and Bilo C * 

103 Heleocharis plantayinea, R. Br., and H. Baroni, Baker Used 
m making mats, baskets, and hats. (Marshes in Cent. Reg) ffarlfo. 

104. Scirpm paludicola, Kunth., var. decipiens, Nees. Employed in 
makmg mats, baskets, Ac. (Cent. Reg. chiefly.) mzondTno * 

105. Lepironia miicronata. Rich Used in the manufacture of hats, 
also employed by the Betsimisaraka women in making s 

which are exported to Mauritius. (E. Coast.) Phnja (Betsim). This 
species is found also m China, where it is largely used I 

106 Stipa madagascariensis, Baker. Employed in making native 

>askets, &c (Cent. Reg.) ft,), / I |„ nI:uU ,. , 

VJtZ^J±tr: a J lSSim «> L > ° f **» ^ N. Africa, «Wi 7 

109. Roccella fusiformis, Auh. A lichen which yields the dyeing 
laterial named orchil , and probably other places in 

t. Augustine's Bay, S.W. Madagascar.) 


(The numbers refer to the paragraphs.) 

Abir powder, 92. 

Abutilon angulatum, Mast., 9. 

Adaik-onia dijxitata, L., 12. 

— Gregorii, F. Muell., 12. 

— madaga.scariensis, Baill., 12. 
Aikamanga, 29. 

Albizzia fastigiata, Oliv., 37. 
Alyxia lucida, Baker, 62. 
Ambash, 30. 

Amokombe, 52. 

Amomum Daniellii, Hk. f., 93. 

itohy, 62. 
Anjananjana, 6. 
Anthocleista amplexicaulis, Baker, 

— rhizophoroides, Baker, 69. 
Antidesma Bunius, Spreng., 86 

— madagascariensis, Lam., 86. 
Avoha, 82. 

— parviflorum, Boj., 5. 
Casearia lucida, Tub, 45. 

\m spathelliferus, Baker, 

Cephalostachynm Chapelieri, 

Munro, 108. 
Cerbera (Tanghinia) venenifera, 

Baker, 88. 

Cnestis polyphylla, Lam., 27. 
Co'c.i Tellairiac, Bojer, 71. 
Combretum coccineum, Lam., 43. 
Connanis guianensis, Lam., 53. 
Corchorus olitorius, L., 16. 
< Ynialaria jnncea, L., 28. 
— striata,' DC, 28. 

Bojer, 64. 
Cuphocarpus inermis, Baker, 46. 

, R.Br., 91. 
nsi.s, Boeckl, 102. 
is, Poir, 101. 

Dais irlawe^eens, Dene, 82. 
Dalbergia Baroni. Baker, 31. 

— tricli-x-ai-pa, Baker, 32. 
Danais Gerrardi, Baker, 50. 

. sp., 40. 

— vitieo'ulos, Baker, 41. 
Dilobeia Thouarsii, R. and S. 

- nil, 57. 
Dintinina, 1. 

Dionychia Bojeri, Naud., 44. 
DioHc r .-a. spp., 95. 
Diospyros, sp., 60. 
spp., 14. 
Drimia Cowanii, Ridley, 96. 

— spp., an. 

Erythroxylon Coca. Lam., 18. 

— myrtoides. Bojer., 18. 
Esparto, 106. 

Hafopdtsy, 9. 
Hafotra, 14. 
Haizantoloho, 50. 
Hamba, 13. 
Harafa, 97. 
Harahara. 33. 
Haramy, 1. 
Haravola, 106. 
Harefo, 103. 
Hatsikana, 7. 
Havolm, 82. 

mgidy, 79. 
Hazomalefaka, 45. 

nty, 18. 
Hazomamy, 42. 
Hazomena, 39. 
ll-uondrano, 21, 104. 

.'• ■"-.!' uvv. \>2. 

— peregrinnm, N. E. Brown, 92. 

— spivatum, Ham., 92. 

ria Baroni, Baker, 103. 

Herana, 101. 

Hmmniera Elapliroxylou, G. ; 
P., 30. 

Faho, 91. 
Eanidy, 88. 
Fano, 36. 

itra, 54. 
Fatray, 51. 

Ficus soroceoides, Baker, 89. 
Fomby, 97. 
Foraha, 4. 

Indigo, 29. 

Indigofera Anil, L., 29. 
— pclunculata, Bojer, 29. 

■ mellifera, Baker, 2. 
- morella, Desr., 2. 
. pauciflora, Baker, 2. 
ardenia succosa, Baker, 52. 
rcwia maeropliylla, Baker, 15. 
uoftarda spceiosa, L., 53. 

Karanjamboay, 74. 
Karamani, 1. 
Kily, 34 



Labramia (Delastrea) Bajeri, A. 

Oclma, sp., 19. 

DC, 58. 

Ocotea tricophlebia, Baker, 80. 

Odifonga, 30. 

•.bo, 55. 

Otaheite apple, 24. 

Laldna, 38. 

Ovinala, 95. 

Lambmana, 65. 

Oviala, 95. 

Landemy, 68. 

-pp., 61. 

Lecontea bojeriana, A. Rich, 55. 

— fiirinosa, Paker, 55. 


Lepironia mueronata, Rich, 105. 

Leptolania pauciflora, Baker, 6. 

Panax, spp., 47. 

— turbinsita, Baker, 8. 

Panda nus, spp., 99. 

Pavonia Bojeri, Baker, 10. 

Lompingo, 60. 

Penja, 105. 

Longoza, 93. 

I'hviiiu-tiiron ix.j.-rianum, DC, 72. 

Phytolacca abyssinica, Hofftn., 

Piper borbonense, C DC, 77. 

P. pachyphylliun, Uaker, 77. 

Macaranga ferruginea, Baker, 87. 

Piptadi nia chrysoritaehya, Pciith, 

Plectronia bux 


r i I- 


a or P;',„ 


, Mart., 97. 




kiTiana. Paill., H. 



a, Baker, 23. 
^riiiis, Ach., 109. 

Rourea platy&epala, Baker, 26. 

' '■ - ; - . ";■ l .-.. 

Sakoana, 24 and 25 
Salacia deniata, B ■-.] 
Salay, 43. 

Saiidi'tdiaka, 97. 

Sclerocarya cafl'm, Soud., 2 
Seva, 67. 

lona, 83. 

)i to, 48. 
Sobiby, 48. 
Spondias ilulcis, Forst., 24. 

, Bojer, 61. 

VAhy, 6 


Varonirv, NO. 


T:n..rri.:. «>: 

«gp., 78. 

Tavolo, 94. 

Tetra.l, Tu'a fniticulosa, Benth., 75. 
Todinga, 5ft, 

Tontrol. boalavo, 90, 
Tong-panu-ohono-, 73 



'IVimprriferv, 77 
Tsindr6dr6tra, 107 
Tsitsiliina, 41. 
Tsontsonn, 10. 
Typhnodormn liudleyanu 

^oihea scssiliflora, Baker, 42. 

■ -pp., 38. 
- Rutenbergii, Eugl., 39. 

1 i'« chlaniys pilosa, Baker, 

Uapaca clusiacea, Baker 
— clusioides, Baker, 85 
Uropbyllum I 

Zebra wood, 53 
Zorozoro, 102. 
Zozoro, 102. 


The British protectorate over Zanzibar havir 
the following meteorological table : 

persons who may have im^iness : . •; ♦■.:.- with the island. It brings c 
in a striking way i ] tte and small anni 

range. It was communicated to Kew by Sir John Kirk, G.C.M.( 
the late Political Agent and Consul -General. 


iug extreme Temperature for each Month of the Ye 
1878. Readings taken in the shaded but open corridors of t 
Residency, unaffected by sun and sky radiation. 

[All Rights 




No - 4 6.] OCTOBER. [1890. 


(Hirneola polytricha, Montagne.) 

W T G k^^ an 6( ? ible funSUS ' a P roduct of the N ew Zealand 
torests, has become an important article of commerce between that 
Colony and China. The fungus belongs to the same genus as the 
W^ 8 ? '' ' fe), a tough but gelatinous 

Zeafan/°f merly m re P ut T D * S ^ in g redi ent in gargles. The New 
Zealand fungus now under not., M ig well 

Penzanfe & W i S° len9 °' % * SL ofVe 

Penzance Natural History and An I , _ 85 ._ 

Hirneola polytricha was first made known to science by Montague 

Indt afi ng T t0 "ST «? n ft aDd ^ bein * an inhabitant & the E»t 
K«w? and Java ' though, like our two other species, it was first pub- 
"shed as belonging to the closely allied genus E lidia, there being but a 




And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 
E An, SPOTTISWOODE, East Hiedbo Steket, PutBT Stheet, E.G., , 

ADA Ho^l C c HARi ' ..^EmLnRon , or 

HODGES, FIGGIS. & Co., 10+, Gbaptos Street, Dublin 

very small natural difference between these two genera. This species 
is thus briefly described by Berkeley (translated and abridged from 
Montague) : ' Sub-hemispherical, cup-shaped, expanded, lobed, densely 
' villous externally with grey hairs, disk purplish-brown.' 

11 It is of various sizes and, I might almost add, of shapes ; some 
wet filling a large teacup or small 
basin ; a large dry specimen weighing only 2-jt drams. It is found 
growing on the trunks of many trees, both on living and on rotten ones 
(especially ou the latter while standing), particularly on Corynoedrpm 
l,t cit/atr, and on Mdieytus ramiflorus, both of these trees being endemic 
as lo genus as well as to species ; the former tree is mostly confined to 
iln— iu->li. ;« , viiore it often forms dense and continuous thickets. In 
such situations it is generally cf small size, but when standing apart it 
is of much larger dimensions, and not unfrequently in suitable spots it 
■n posing appearance from its large green and glossy persistent 
laurel -like leaves. The latter tree is scattered plentifully throughout 
the country, and the foliage of both being evergreen, are eagerly 
browsed on by cattle. 

" The only market for this fungus is China. From official information 
m Hong Kong, we find that it is largely used by the Chinese 
in soups with farinaceous seeds, and also as a medicine, beiu / l/Jilv 
esfe&ned. The Chinese have long been in the habit of uei 
species of this same genus that is indigenous in North China, and also 
g another species from other isles in the Pacific ; so that the 
use of this kind of fungus as an article of food is not new with them. 
Who can say in this article of food Western pride may not again have 
to learn something more from this an< ed, and much- 

injured people ? 

" At first, and for some time, our New Zealand fungus was only exported 

I he demand, however, rapidly increasing, and the 

article plentiful and obtained at little cost, save the easy and untaught 

labour of gathering and drying it, its export rapidly increased. The 

'.if collected damp, was an easy matter — merely spreading 

it in the air and sun till dry, which soon takes place, when it is roughly 

u ks, and if kept dry keeps good and sound for a very long 

time. Ihe price paid to th, ,olu,-t<,is In,- it wr.- on-innllv small, only 

11 a o?5 • ; at this figure ifc remain e d for some time - Tt is now nomi - 
some places, which sum, however, is often paid in barter * 
It is said to be sold in the China shops at about \0d. or more retail. 
1 am not aware of the actual price obtained by the exporter, but 
we find that its declared value at the Customs has ranged from 
33/. to nearly 53/. per ton, which no doubt is much under the real 

" During the last 12 years no less than 1,858 tons of this fungus have 
been exported, valued at 79,752/., as is more particularly shown in the 

at in !h. -t ring of 1883 a large 

■ it. who had tor 

, sold the lot lo an Auckland ; 

o, upwards of 425/., in bard cast 


"I should observe that the official entries show that those export* are 
confined to the northern island, and cnly from two ports there— viz.. 
Auckland and Wellington— except some small lots amounting to 7 tons, 
in Poverty Bay and Napier in the last two years, 1S.<2 and 
1883.^ The fungus, however, may have been extensively collected in 
the districts containing those two larger ports." 

In order to test the value of the New Zealand Fungus as an article 
of food a supply of it was recently obtained for Kew by Mr. Thomas 
Kirk, Chief Conservator of State Forests, Wellington, New Zealand. 
^ A portion of this supply was submitted for analysis to Professor 
Church, F.R.S., who has been good enough to furnish the following 
interesting note :— 

Hirneola polytricha, 
A sample of this fungus, in the air-dried condition as received, was 
prepared for analysis by careful brushing and the removal of a few 
)f obviously foreign substances. It gave the following per- 

Water - 

Albuminoids (calculated frc 

CniM, hydrates, digestible - 
Carbohydrates, indigestible 

l total nitrogen) 


Fit UMh. 


A few remarks as to these figures will prove useful in appreciating 
the food value of this fungus. First of all the nitrogen present does not 
all exist in the form of albuminoids. The coagulable albuminoids, as 
estimated by the phenol method, 

T *i. T i ^ Llie P neno1 metnoa, amount to o - 4 per cent. ; tne remamuer 

-•gen occurring chiefly as amides, is not nutritive. If this 

result be accepted, the proportion of albuminoids to digestible carbohy- 

" ,mes 1:13-7 inste. I 

ywwi, ue accepted, tne proportion of albumino 
drates plus the starch— equivalent of the fat, u CW . 
of 1 : 10-9, as shown by the per-centages recorded 
this fungus is singularly poor : ~ - 1 
stances, and differs remarkably 
IT 64228. 875.— 10/90. 

eu nuuvc. Anyhow 

u yji muscle-forming sul 

this particular from the numerou 

edible fungi of which analyse 

analyses we find at least twice or thrice as much albuminoid matters, 

The substance or group of substances which I have called " digestible 
carbohydrates ** contains neither starch, nor inulin, nor cellulose. Its 
chief constituent is a gum-like body apparently allied to bassorin and 
well worthy of further examination. It swells up greatly in water and 
is soluble in dilute warm solutions of caustic alkalies. Its solutions 
gelatinize on cooling. I have observed what seems to be the same 
compound in other species of fungi, and it is probable that it has been 
described under several different names. The fungus now being dis- 
cussed contains so large a proportion of this body that it presents a very 
convenient material for its isolation and the study of its composition and 

The ash of this fungus is rich in potash and phosphoric acid. Of the 
former constituent the ash contains no less than 42 '02 per cent. ; of the 
latter 20 02. These proportions are exceeded in the ash of other 
species : moreover, the amount of ash in one hundred parts of this 
Btmeola is much lower than that recorded for other fung" 



The source of Mexican Fibre or Istle was discussed in the Kew 
Bulletin for December 1887, p. 5. This is a short and somewhat rigid 
fibre, used in the manufacture of cheap nail and scrubbing brushes. 
The fibre is prepared from one or more species of Agave, but, as stated 
i the Bulletin, it is probable that the plant known as Lechuguilla 
( It/an hrtcracantha, Zuc< , A_a < L < Imjruilla, Torrey) yields the 

iei of Mexican Fibre or Istle used in the United States and 

We are indebted to Mr. W. S. Booth, Belle Vue House, Gloucester, 
wing further account of this fibre, prepared from his own 
observations while travelling in Mexico, a few months ago :— 

Mexican Fibre or Istle. 

Thi- fibre is classed in England not according to the plant from 

extracted, but in reference solely to the district from which 

it is supposed to come. Thus Jaumave is understood to send long, 

fibre, and gives its name to what is considered to be the best 

quahtj . Tula, a shorter and coarser fibre; and, lastly, Matamoras, 

a short and soft fibre, somewhat " woolly " and "off colour" (i.e., 

brownish). Each of these three qualities varies considerably within its 

I Mi lately little has been definitely known about the plants from 

fibre is extracted. According to the Kew authorities the 

ided by Agave heteracantha, and closely allied species. 

The fibre known in England as Jaumave is doubtless extracted from 

the Lechugmlla (Agave heierncantha). That known as Tula maybe 

2 nil la or the Palma loca (Agave striata), the 

inferior qualities coming from the latter plant. That known as Mata- 

moras fibre may be either from the Palma loca or from various forms of 

the Espadillo, or again from varieties of Yucca, known to the natives as 

palma bareta or palma real. These palms and espadillos are often 

nd decorticated indiscriminately and mixed as they < 

The various plants from which istle is extracted are found at present 
chiefly on the plains and rugged mountain slopes of the Stattfl of 
Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and San Luis Potosi. The eestrft] 
towns for the trade in the several States are : Coahuila, Saltillo ; Nuevo, 
Leon, Monterey; Tamaulipas, Jaumave, Tula, Tampico, and 
Matamoras ; for San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi. 

The trade is carried on in these States owing to the exporting con- 
veniences, Jbut the plants exist all over the Republic. San Luis Potori 
does by far the largest business in fibre, exporting by sea from Tampico, 
ottri the different points on the railroad en route to the United 
States. The heights at which these plants grow, lie appi 
within the tie.rras templadas and the lower regions of the terras frirt* . 
the former comprising "all the higher terraces and the central plateaux 
" themselves between about 3,000 and 8,000 feet, with a mean tempera- 
" ture of from 62° to 70 

" extremes as 50° and 86°;" the latter "all the highlands from about 
" 8,000 feet and upwards." 

The soil of the mountain slopes and wide plains where the pi nta we 

found, is of the barest description, hardly covering in many cases on 

lets the rocks beneath. G » a detritus of 

,nd the traveller's smarting eyes will soon force 

t the fine dust of many of the broad pan-shaped 

Zamandogue, and pal mas; forming a sparse vegetation about I 
e the gre 
nderneath. Almost the only use to which this kir 

t long wiry grass so poor as to leave the grey dusty s 

that only i 
possible. The grazing of goats, sheep, cattle, and 1 

• glean a meagre subsistence from tin 1 Nopal 
(Cactus), scrub, and grass. On the rugged barren mountain sides nud 
slopes of naked stones and boulders, the same plants are found only in a 
more stunted and dwarfed condition and yielding a shorter ;. 
fibre. Nearly all the accessible country is owned by Hacieni 
of whom live in the towns, leaving their estates in the hai; N of an 
agent. With the exception of a few native Indian tribes who live 
in the more inaccessible parts of the mountains, the rural population 
is composed of christian 

These build round the ha- mud. sticks and \ aim- 

leaf thatch ho\(ds fenced in with cactus and maquey hedg. 
walls, and are quiet and docile, but lacking utterly any spark 
gent ambition. The hands who are not regularly employed oi 

ienda wander out over the valleys and mountains with mules 
and donkeys to gather the raw leaves of fibre plants. '1 
quantity is gathered naturally at the end of the year when i'.. in ; : 
is taken in. The central mass of heart leaves (cogolho) in 
alone gathered, leaving the outside leaves (j ■> 
cent, to waste, as the flesh of these outer leaves is found to ' 
to work. All :' leaves springs up from I 

bud whirh was previously protected, (hi- process prevei - 
■•■< ■■■; :"• "• .'.- . - 

years of this treatment, Having got his load of cogolhos the 
his way back to the hacienda, where he sets about extracting the fibre, 

for which when finished and dried he gets from 25 to 50 cents.* per 
arroba (25 pounds) either in money, or as is almost universal, in en-Jit 
I ranch store. The price he receives depends largely on the 
:e from which the cogolhos have been brought. Under the rude 
r,f n.1™ i*of thatch or in the shade of the Mesquit trees the 
i preparing the fibre. With a bundle of raw Lechu- . 
his left the man sits with his legs stretched out on 
**— peg about 8 inches high and 3 inches in 
the ground with a slant to the left. Fixed 
wood about 3 inches square, about an inch 
it half an inch above this 
;ivb the point of the tallador, 
handle which the man takes in 

Tearing a cogolho to pieces, taking a leaf and dextrously stripping 
) thorny margin from its sides, he places a corn-cob in the hollow of 

action of both hands the point of the tallador is placed in the peg hole 

and pressed on the leaf half way from its point. The leaf is then pulled 

through, once for one side, once for another and a third time to give a 

ij>e. Then with a rapid motion the pulp is tapped from the 

tallador md the end of the prepared fibre is twisted round the cob 

(which the operator holds as if it were a spade handle), and the process 

Ifor the other end (the base) of the leaf. When the pile of 

fibre has grown enough to warrant movement it is earH'idlv spread out 

"dry. One cause of discolouration is a weak arm, which 

"f the pulp to remain on the fibre and give it a green tinge 

«w«5 ; another is leaving it too long in 

■'■»■ v rhici gives it a brownish tinge. 

When a Lechuguilla has been once pulled it is called lechuguilla 
copona and all succeeding growths of heart leaves will have withered 
burnt looking ends owing to the delicate points of the young sprouting 
leaves being scorched by the sun. This accounts fo/ the rusty ends 
seen on istle fibre in this country. After each pulling, too, the fibre of 
succeeding leaves naturally become more stunted and coarse. 
ori^?T end, \ do3 generally bale the fibre in rough istle sacking in 
20O lb. bales, and when sufficient quantity is on hand it is sent to the 
nearest central town or railroad dep6t by trains of ox teams which carry 
apout two tons apiece, or on mule trains which take a bale per pannier. 
Ihese trains often travel 170 miles from point to point, and are fre- 
quently on the road from 15 to 20 days, allowing for breakages. Tula 


and Jaumave are about this distance from Tampico, San Luis Potosi, or 
Vanegas. The roads are rough tracks along the bottoms of valleys and 
over mountain passes. In the valleys a team can be seen at a great 
distance by the cloud of white dust rising lazily around it. This dust 
is so fine and light that it hides the mules from the occupants of a 
buggy running before the wind. The mountain tracks are of the 
roughest description. They are full of boulders and deep hollows torn 
out by the mountain torrents, and broken waggons are as common a 
ling over a dead mule. 

and shorter than that of those gathered in the valleys. The greater 
average length of the Jaumave istle is possibly accounted -for by the 
lower altitude and greater fertility of the district. The quantity of fibre 
obtained I Void the Lechuguilla* and Palmas is about 5 per cent, of the 
green leaves handled. Little, if any, fibre is lost in the manual process. 
The maquey leaves {Agave americana), owing to their huge size, go 
IJ -'y from 2 to 3 per 
, saddle pads, and 
3 palma loca, palma bareta, and palma 
real go through exactly the same process as the Lechuguill.i. with the 
exception that, having much harder flesh, they have to be boiled before 
the fibre can be drawn. This boiling or steaming, which goes on until 
the leaves are completely soft, turns the fibre a brownish colour, and at 
the same time makes it very soft by dissolving the stiffening gum in the 
Hesh, Many men have invented machines which were to have revo- 
lutionised this hand process, but all, up till now, have failed— not in 
the quality of the fibre produced, for the results have been good in this 
respect-but in the cost of working. In the treeless deserts of Mexico 
mere is no fuel and no water. Machines have hitherto required both ; 
water, especially, for washing the fibre— an operation that is not required 
m tne hand process. Also with the best machine there is more effort 
and system required, to say nothing of the services of an intelligent 
mechanic. A fortune is no doubt awaiting the man who can brino- % 
machine to bear successfully on the millions of acres of closely growing 
agaves and yuccas of Mexico, whose fibres, besides their use in brush- 
t^eatef ' "p* aml T k \ ng ' are available als ° for paper when properly 
S rr?T r , 1S N alre ^ y made from the ma( l ue y nbre in WOTl - '""^ 
baltillo (Coahuda). The stems of the palmasf too, are a spongy mass 
of hbre ready for crushing and pulping. ' * oV 

State' wf ° f -* th - e fibr * ex P orted from M <^co now goes to the United 
SST f * 1S u . scd , for brush-making and for twine for reapers and 
aporecable S ° '" •^ ''"""V A, "" ica ™ 11 ' therefore, have an 
quantities nl ^ J? V T^ ^^ and German 7 tak e la 'ge 
York S„m b , rush - ma ^f > b »t our imports come largely through New 
The onlv fi f\™ trade StatlS V CS are difficult t0 obtair. 

but as l y r?£l S I Pi are d r r ; liabl e. There are no ftz] 
the bordeif Tb C ° S - S ***? m ( c M , exican > for ever X «**»«* cr ^ing 
sidle ZZt Th ! S . 1S made U P of fees ^ Customs Authorities on both 

agent undertaking to see it 
Republic but™™ 8 i * ia « OI * Per Cent ' on a11 transactions in the 
" called RenS tL -^ *"!? - ^^ them ^^s out of this tax, which 
S* ?., Kenta Interior, and is navablft W th* v,„™, i i 

Lechuguilla (Tula), 28/. to 28/. 10s. ; 
1 Matamoras), about 22/. per ton. 

.* • „ . sn P r ter and coarser Lechu&rrin* n\,i«\ oo/ *, 
[ Lechugudlas and Palma ] 

Before closing I may perhaps say that the Agave and Yucca fibre 
industry is at present in its infancy. If intelli gently followed it might 
become a very prosperous enterprise in many of our tropical possessions 
where cheap labour and poor soils prevail. It might become still more 
prosperous by the use of economical machinery a nd intelligently managed 


In the 

Kew Bulletin for 

! h and Octobe 

r 1889 the 

interesting a 

of the developmen 

t Of 1 

\ he fibre industry in the 

Bahamas wil 

what can be done 

by h 

itelligent and 


luuik M 

r. D. Morris, F.L.S 

., for 

•acing the correct 

botanical names of 

here discussed. 


led) W. S. 



(Liparis Monacha) 

A terrible pest to pine forests has made its appearance in Bavaria. 

i >svn as the "Nonnen," and is caused by the caterpillar of 

a moth {Liparis Monacha). It appears that these caterpillars have 

regularly attacked the forests on the Continent for the last 200 years or 

more. They Lave made their appearance after long intervals.*! m tl,,- 

<ausedbythem has been calamitous. In Bavari 

■ to the revenue for woods and forests next year 
will amount to about 40,000/. In some of the forests attacked by the 
| Nonnen " the excreta from the caterpillars has been noticed to lie six 
inches deep. The injuries committed by the caterpillars are often 
followed by those of bark beetles. 
The followii 

3IK ' Foreign Office, 21st August 1890. 

1 am directed by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs t 
fransmit to you, to be laid before the Director of the Koyal Gardens a 

:■•!. and rmrlosiuvs respecting the so-calle 
' Nonnen " pest in Bavaria. 


Mr. Drummond to Foreign 
My Lord, 

A vert serious pest c 
or "Nuns" has lately been causing 
1 ; u ' 1 '." ! ''~ * '" * rf;lm 'I'slncf. ( ,| i; a .„.;,,. This <<<rum^ ealamity to 

. (then the Gvtethment, 

»<*""[> r ' ^atement made b } fh< l' VV i Havarh 

Association, took measures to prevent it spreading. On the other hand, 

duty to do. In any case I ainistratioc 

has been defi thing [a being 

donetoexti; llmiwimK daily, ii is now reckoned 

that nature alone, '• winter frosts," ran rid the forests of the pest. 

It is calculated that the loss to the revenue from woods i 
for the next financial year will amount to 800,000 marks (40,000/.), and 
it is even feared that the amount may be larger, as where forests are 
injured by any special cause the " Bark beetle " follows and attacks the 
diseased wood, this will probably result next year. 

The enclosed translations of extracts taken from the u Mtinchener 
Neueste Nachrichten " show the extent of the present calamity, give 
a chronicle of the destruction caused by the "Nonne" and other insects 
since the year 1449. 

Cuckoos, swallows, and other birds, as well as wasps and otl. 
have assisted in getting rid of the " Nuns." Torches and bonfires have 
also been used with success. The electric light with a 8p 
structcd exhauster has been used with some effect, the result hem- -.. 
far satisfactory that the majority of " Nuns " destroyed by this means 
were female, 

I have the honour to enclose herewith copies of a pamphlet issued by 
the Bavarian Forest Administration, giving a full description of the 
/.//>,/,:- V<>H<H-I>it, its habits, and tl hot means foi its destruction. 

I may mention that Munich has been invaded by the " Nonne " in 
immense nun • ue places the people were obliged to 

retreat from them. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) Victor Drummond. 

The Marquess cf Salisbury, K.G., 

[Enclosure No. 1.] 
Note from the Bavarian Forest Administration (Finance Department) 
on the " Nonne.'* 
The Forest Department of the Ministry of Finance state that the 
" Nonne " plague is now extended over nearly all Bavaria south of the 
Danube in scattered tracts. The infested , 
about 10,000 hectares. The fertility of the insect is so g 
numbers so enormous, that the Fates I no measures 

of destruction are of any avail. "We stand powerless before the 
immensity of the pest." The insect attacks chiefly the pine and fir 
with which Bavarian forests abound, but in default of these it does not 
despise the beech, oak, aud other forest trees, and is even known to feed 
on shrubs and garden plants. It never attacks corn or 
•" -t touch, viz., the horn 

Forest bonfires of worthless 
wood form an easv means within reach of a 
insects are attracted by the fire and arc mil < 
onlv a comparatively small number are killed. Children 
also sent out to destroy the insects. From September to A | 
the eggs can be found" in the bark and destroyed, and ii I 
young caterpillars can be more easily killed, all tie- how, ■ 
partial measures. The only efficient general measure seems to oc 

cutting down of whole forests when much infested, in which case the 
remedy is almost worse than the disease. One other method is used 
by the State, but not within reach of Communes, therefore not described 
in the official pamphlet. A large electric light is placed in the forest by 
niirlit and attracts thousands and hundreds of thousands of " nonnen " 
to the mouth of a large funnel through which a rapid exhaust current 
of air is forced, sucking in the insects by thousands into a hole under 
the earth where they are buried. Even this is only a partial measure, 
for in a forest containing perhaps a hundred millions of " nonnen " it 
is not much to destroy 200,000 or 300,000. 

The Forest Department consequently fear an even greater extension 
gue next year, and an even worse danger is threatened, viz., 
that of the " bark beetle," which, burrowing under the bark, is much 
more injurious to the wood and more difficult to kill. It is always 
found that where the forests are injured by any special cause the "bark 
beetle " follows and attacks the injured or diseased wood in vast numbers, 
and this is greatly feared will be the case in 1891. Great numbers of 
trees are being felled, but to avoid flooding the market with timber and 
causing a ruinous fall in prices, contracts and agreements have been 
entered into with neighbouring forest owners and the large timber 
dealer* by which only certain quantities will be sold at a time, and 
prices will be maintained. The yearly " cut " in the other Bavarian 
forests has also been much reduced. 

[Enclosure No. 2.] 
Translation of an Article in the " Munchener Neueste Nachrichten " 
of August 10th, 1890| P the Destruction of 

Forests through the < Nonne ' and other Wood Insects." 
Just as men and beasts are from time to time carried off in multitudes 
by epidemics, which epidemics it has not yet been found possible entirely 
and finally to suppress by art and science and by doctors and vot, bin- 
aries, m like manner the trees of the forest are now and then attacked 
and destroyed by forest insects. Fortunately these vanish as a rule 
as quickly as they come, by the operation of na-ural , ;, T.Hr,. This 
w the only consolation we have in view of the desolate condition to 
which many of the pine forests of Germany, and in particular of Bavaria, 
have been reduced by the horrible de . » « Nonne." 

isetore now in earlier centuries our woods have been attacked by 
similar calamities and yet the German forests grow green ai 

yield, year by year, higher rents. This may servo to calm too 
I?"?.™ 1 ". 8 , *? c ? rre <* the views of those who are so ready with 

style of forest husbandry m vogue, nor with the aims of modern wood- 
S..J t 1S kn ° Wn that destruction by insect plagues occurred 

hundreds of years ago, and therefore at a time v,hen the trees grew of 
themselves m primaeval fashion and there was no question of forest 
raining nor o any particular forest husbandry. Besides this, the fact 
is not n dispute that the destructions caused by insects are much less 
nsfi iq iorests of mingled broad leaved and needle-leaved trees : but 

money-loving world unfortunately insis i on quick-growing pine 

I of safe slow-growing woods. 

1. In 1449 and 1450 j 
the Niirnberg forests, for which i 

2. In 1479, the May beetles, which had caused great i 
round Lausanne, were cited before the spiritual court, and an advocate 
from Freyburg granted them, and after mature consideration they were 
outlawed. (M. Stealer's Schweizer Chronik, p. 278.) 

3. In 1502 so many caterpillars swarmed in Brandenburg that they 
not only destroyed the gardens but also ate the trees so bare that they 
stood up in the woods like broomsticks. (Angeli, Annates March. 
Brand. 1116-1596.) 

4. In 1506 the Kurmark suffered a similar misfortune. (Manns/elder 

5. In 1719 the caterpillars ate up the tops of the fir trees near 
Freyburg in Saxony to such an extent that they withered up. At the 
same time all sorts of insects crept into the same places (probably bark 
beetles). (Von Karlowitz, . I lenbaummeh.) 

6. In 1725, in the Anspach district, 1,000 acres of forest died away 
through the pine insect. (Kob. Ursuche der Waldtrocknitz.) 

7. In 1726, near Niirnberg, 600 " morgens " of young wood were 
eaten up by caterpillars. (Niirnberg. Chronik.) 

8. In 1729, in Thuringia, there were so many moths and 

that they almost flew into the mouths of the passers-by. (Nurnberg. 

9. In 1734, in the Anspach and Nurnberg districts the pine insects 
caused great injury in the forests. (Meyer's Zeitschrift fur des Forst 

2, 2,985 

10. In 1737 the caterpillars made such a dreadful invasion into the 
* * »ian Forest, that in a small part of the Duchy of Meiningen in 

1,985 cords of dead wood still lay on the forest ; but by good 

at this time glass furnaces were introduced, which absorbed the 

wood killed by the « nonnen " pest. (K. v. Sprengeisen, Topograph. 

11. In 1776 the caterpillars devoured great districts in the Ukraine, 
where they had been quite unknown for 40 years. (Hennert.) 

12. In 1783 and 1784, in the Fichtelgebirge (Bayreuth d 

At the same time the 
Vorpommersche Forest. 

In 1783-86 the bark I 
and other Gern 
of the century. 

13. In 1783-88 and 1790-93 the great pine caterpillar caused great 
damage in the district of Soran, often a single branch bore a whole 
" schock " of caterpillars. . , , 

In the Gorlitz Heath also the caterpillar plague was very considerable, 
and more than 18,000 cords of wood were consumed for fuel. 

14. In 1791-96, in the forests of Kurmark, although for five years no 
trace of the caterpillar had been found, 650,000 " morgens of pme 
forest were devoured by the great pine caterpillar and the seventh part 
totally destroyed. (Hennert.) The bark beetle also took part in wis 
destruction. The pest also spread to Mecklenburg, Saxony, ana 

22 9 

15. In 1795-96 several thousand " morgens" of fir woods were 
destroyed in Prussian Lithuania and West Prussia. (Hennert.) 

16. In 1796, near Amberg, in the Oberpfalz, the pine woods were so 
attacked b\ tli" pine spider, that some 100,000 cords of wood were 
killed. (V. Linker.) 

17. In 1794-97 the " nonnen " ca in Vogtland, 
v i z . . — i n the pine and fir forests of Lobenstein, Schleiz, Ebersdorf, and 
Saalburg, and ws reckoned at 
2,000,000 cords of wood, and the plague also threatened the neighbour- 
ing forests of Altenburg, Electoral Saxony, Saalfeld, and Scliwarzburg, 

Bechstein, in his Forest Insectology (1818), describes the great 
destruction caused by the "nonnen" caterpillar in 1794-97 in Vogt- 
land, Lithuania, and West Russia, and gives figures which correspond 
exactly with our present situation. Seventy-two years ago he wrote as 
follows :— 

"It is horrible to travel in those districts where these cain-pillar- 
swarm. Many thousands crawl up and down the trees. One cannot 
take a step without treading on a number of them. There is a perpetual 
rain of their excreta, which often lies six inches deep, and being dissolved 
by the rain, collects in puddles, which diffuse a pestilential stench. One 
can form no idea of the magnitude and terrible nature of the destruction. 
Fortunately Nature herself stopped the pest thro; . 

which attacked the caterpillars in the beginning of June 1797. This 
deadly sickness was attributed to a kind of mildew. The caterpillars 
collected together in great thick clumps, four to six inches across, the 
excreta became pale, the intestines dirty, and so they died, leaving behind 
them a disgusting stench." - 

As to the measures of prevention and suppression of that day, they 
hardly differed from those in use now. Bechstein, in 1818, recommended, 
1st. protection and encouragement of insectivorous birds; 2nd. pro- 
tection of useful insects which attack and pursue the " nonnen " ; 3rd. 
scraping the eggs off the trees with brooms and scrapers with long and 
short steins ; ■lth. pickit.,- .-dlars, and cocoons (in 

1796 the Pi ristration at Hof caused 1,838,000 

female butterflies to be caught, and paid 6 kreuzers for every thousand) ; 
5th. the lighting of a number of small bonfires on dark nights (for it is 
well known that butterflies are attracted by the moonlight), and they paid 
in llnyr. uth in 1700 fbi -,- ,,|' tin- and bringing 

wood 5 groselien; Ctb. : - stacked by broad paths 

and ditch* - : 7 1 . < tt rig < tf in March ■ ml \pril of the brai flies near!) 
to the vertical, g down of whole standing 

trees, and burning of the branches and bark ; '9th. removal of moss and 
litter from the forests and burning, if eggs or caterpillars are found 

18. In connexion with the injury caused by the "nonnen" in this 
century, we may briefly mention here the extensive " nonnen " plague 
of 1>. 19-10 in ("pper Seal:, a (Wurtemberg), which ravaged many 
hundreds of "morgens" of pine forest. The same thing was repeated 
in 1855, and at the present moment is appearing almost in the same 
spots in a very serious manner. But the most considerable " nonnen " 
pest of all took place in Russia, and spread from IS 15-1 Sf is in a most 
devastating manner over Poland, Lithuania, and Ka-> Prussia. The 
invasion in East Prussia began suddenly in 1853, in the night of 
July 29-30, and covered a superficies of about 60 German square miles 
in the administration of Gumbinuen, after it had already crossed over 

The extent of the ravages in Russia at that time was 0,400 German 
geographical square miles, in East Prussia 600 ditto, total 7,000. At 
the very least 55,000,000 Prussian cords of wood, or 184,000,000 cubic 
metres of wood, became the prey of " nonnen" and bark beetles. 

These few examples may suffice to show that the " nonnen " have 
made their appearance in former centuries in large numbers, and have 
generally disappeared with equal suddenness. The present catastrophe 
Ise come to an end, after causing heavy losses, though it may 
possibly return many years later. But we possess no radical remedy 
against the " nonnen," and it seems doubtful if we shall ever find one. 
At all events it is the duty of the forest managers, forest owners, the 
Government, and the whole population to come to close quarters in 
every possible way wit J tor, even although Nature 

herself up till now has proved herself the best helper, and may continue 
so in future. When, however, the present evil will be conquered that 
God alone can certainly tell. Let us hope for the best. 


{Hibiscus esculentus, L.) 

parched and used as a substitute for coffee. The plant is an l.erb, with a stou! hairy stem from 2 to 5 feet in height. The 
leaves are large, three- to five-lobed, coarsely toothed, with petioles abont 
( ; . inches in length, more or less bristly. The flowers are yellow, with a 
brown or crimson centre. The fruit is pyramidal-oblong, 6 to 10 
inches long, and about £ to 1 inch in diameter, with five prominent ribs 
and smooth. The spherical seeds are grey or greenish, obovate, and 
covered with fine hairs. 

The Okro (Hibiscus esculentus, L.), Abelmoschus esculentus, W. & 

, is probably a 

s of India, but it is now naturalised or cultivated 

opical countries. Vilmorin disl I 'W in culti- 

d green okro, and the round-fruited okro. In the 
latter the fruits are short and comparatively thick, being about 2 inches 
long and nearly 2 inches in diameter, and blunt at the ends rather than 
pointed. There is said to be a sub-variety of the long-fruited green 
okro with pendulous pods. 

The okro has long been known in India and elsewhere to yield a 
long silky fibre, the breaking strain of which, act 

79 pounds dry. and 5)5 pounds wet. Specimens of Indian ochro fibre 
in the Kew Museums resemble hemp in colour and texture It :- 
evidently well adapted for making ropes, twine, and sacking, while the 
residual portions could be utilised for paper-making. 

Recently the preparation and use of ochro fibre has been revived in 
both the Southern United States, where the plant is largely grown 
during the summer months, and also in Cuba. In the Report of Mr. 
Consul Ramsden on the Trade, Commerce, and Agriculture of the 
Province of St. Iago de Cuba for the year 1889 [F. O. Annual Series, 
No. 779], the following information is furnished respecting the fibre of 
the okro plant, known in Cuba as the quimbombo : — 

" The fruit of the quimbombo (//, well known 

in the English West Indies under the name of ' okni,' ami is used ;t- :i 
vegetable, but although Pichardo, in his ' Diccionario de Voces Cubanas,' 
mentions the plant a<? being ' applicable to rope making,' I am unaware 
that it has been used as a fibre, and, therefore, refer to it here. Last 
year Messrs. Bosch and Company, of this city, made an experiment 
with some, and sent 400 pounds of the dried fibre to London, where 
titty say it was much liked, and found to be worth 40/. per ton. Three 
crops are obtained in the year, and its preparation by maceration gave 
:v:y Hi tie trouble. The stem produces a fibre of fine quality, and about 
4 feet in length, and apparently strong. Further trials will probably be 
made here. I send a sample of it with this report." 

The sample of fibre above mentioned has been forwarded to Kew by 
the Foreign Office, and is now in the Museum of Economic Botany. 

With regard to the commercial value of this Cuban fibre, Messrs. Ide 
■: ::-, of 72, Mark Lane, E.C., to whom it was referred, report as 

"Hibiscus esculentus. The sample shows the fibre to be only 
moderately stronger than Jute, imperfectly cleaned, and very yellow in 
colour. We value it at 18/. to 20/. per ton to-day in London. It is 
possible that the colour coi" ' 
preparation and that in that 
5/. per ton. 

" We cannot imagine it possible that fibre of this type could have been 
iound worth 40/. per ton last year in London as stated to the Consul 
and mentioned in his Report" 


(Cocos nucifera, L.) 
A valuable edible fat prepared from the kernel of the 
a e y come into commerce on the Continent under the name of cocoa- 
nut butter It appears that the method of preparing this 
butter is the invention of Dr. Schlinck. The buttef is a white, in- 
odourless and almost tasteless fat, which solidifies at about 65° Fab. ; 
above that temperature it becomes a pure white oil. Its low melting- 
point is against its general use as a butter in warm countries, but in 
other respects it may be wel* " 
If this cocoa-nut butter ( __ 
ordinary "copra" or dried kernel **? the'; 

tropical countries there would be an almost unlimited supply of the 
raw material available from various parts of the world. 

Royal Gakdens, Kew, to Foreign Office. 

Koyal Gardens, Kew, 
Sir, 9 Juue 1890. 

I have the honour to inform you that I learn from the 
commercial journals that a new and important industry has sprung up 
in Germany. It is stated that " about two years ago a German chemist, 
" Dr. Schlinck, discovered that excellent butter could be made from 
" cocoa-nut milk .... The cocoa-nuts required are imported from 
India, chiefly Bombay, in large and iucreasing numbers, u; 

Idressed to this establishment on 
the subject. Tli" published statements are not, however, altogether 
intelligible to me. I venture to hope, therefore, that the Secretary of 
State may be disposed to instruct H.M.'s Commercial Attache for 
Europe to make inquiries into the matter for the purpose of acquiring 
all available information as to the nature of the manufacture, the place 
where it is carried on, the amount of the out-turn, and the market- in 
which it is disposed of. 

3. I should propose on the receipt of this information, with tie- 
approval of the Secretary of State, to publish it in the Kew Bulletin 
for general information. 

I am, Ac. 

W. T. Thiselton Diee. 

Foreign Office to Koyal Gardens, Kew. 

(Signed) James Fergcsson. 

Your Excellency, Berlin, 9 July 1890. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of yon 
of the 14th ultimo, and beg to lay before you the information I have 
obtained on the subject of cocoa-nut milk butter. 

The process of producing an edible fat from the ''marrow" of the 
cocoa-nut (cocoa-nut butter) is about five years old, and has been 
developed by Dr. Schlinck at Ludwigshafen on the Rhine, having been 

earned out as a manufacture since the beginning of 1888 by Messrs. 

and Sons at Mannheim, Baden. 

This process has been patented in most civilised countries. 

As to the actual manufacture of the article I regret to state that I 

could not get any details, as it is patented. Messrs. P. Muller & Sons 

are at present the only manufacturers on the European Continent, but I 

wmg manufactories are about to be established: 

k lie des mates de palme ; Amsterdam, Neder- 

»-*- Pluntenboter Matschapy. The proprietors of both of these 

under th< 

The article has at present an unlimited sale. Messrs. P. Midler & 
Sons trade principally with Germany and Switzerland. Statistics with 
reference to the returns are kept by Messrs. Muller for their private 
use, but they are sa,d to be steadily on the increase, and have doubled 
since the commencement of the business. Occasiol 

«H?J" U a iT! ter the 8U PP 1 y ( 50 cwts - P er <% are manufactured 

at present) bu , nable them 

to me: ease this production. 

Tn.tSfS? t0 * conc L ession g^nted by the Prussian Minister of the 

hnsWr, Q !q C( ? c f oa : nut ' bu «er manufactured by Messi-s. Muller & Sons 

to the Eoyal Institutions to be used for culinary 

TCi*^'^ thi8 — - ™«7 influence the mark^ 

is f^^xi^^th^ bUttGr ^ hiS household for some time, and 
tionoTS e e s S ub ! ect rinted "^^ Which ™ 7 ® Ve m0re detailed J '" f ° rma - 
I have, &c. 
(Signed) H. von Bleichrodeb 
H. E. Sir E. B. Malet, G.C.B., &c (Bl " it!Sh Vice - Consul >- 

[Enclosure I.] 

Cocoa-B CTTE h a edible fat. By D, Tn. Zerner, Junior, 

feecond Physician of the above department. 

P ^Tabu^? ^.^ 61 " the name ° f c °PP pr ^ or copra. 

^y?^tt^^^^r-| t ich tt hould , be m 

to be worth th» tr^uJ gleat interest - Such an attempt appears 

■.<~,rr, u ,,;,. ♦!,„ «..;:: P nson ers, and the poorer i 

rice of butter, £ 

the poorer populatioi 

troubled with imperfect digestion. These conditions have not been met 
by the preparations of cocoa-nut butter recommended up to the present 

time. They were all easily melted, and on account of the great quantity 

of free fatty acid which they contained were unfavourable t i 

At present, however, P. Miiller & Son, of Mannheim, have for a year 

pa-t produced a cocoa-nut butter which is free fr in tatt\ acids this 
liit is a!,o obtained from the copra, which is taken out of M 

to the method of Dr. Schlinck, of Ludwigshafen ( 
Rhine. Supposing the accounts to be correct, we have a food possessing 
great economic and dietetic importance, and therefore worth a careful 
trial from the points of view before mentioned. 

The cocoa-nut butter, which, on account of its low melting-point, is 
exported in tins, furnishes a pure white transparent mass of the con- 
sistence of lard without granular texture, which at a temperature of 
79° F. melts to a clear fluid and solidifies again at 67° F. It has a 
slight agreeable smell, melts on the tongue, leaving a mild but in no 
heaped acrid taste behind it. In ether it dissolves completely. If the 
ether is evaporated over water and distilled water is added to the 
residue, the solution gives a neutral reaction. I have often repeated 
this test with cocoa-nut butter, which had remained open for days 
(II days), also with pharmac utie preparations 8 to 14 days old, in the 
Q of which cocoa-nut butter had been used, the cocoa-nut 
batter is therefore free from fatty acids, and even if left open for the 
space of 8 to 14 days, does not turn rancid, with the exception of the 
top layer which comes in contact with the air. 

With regard to its chemical composition, cocoa-nut butter differs 
from most other fats, and particularly butter, lard and margarin. In 
its fatty constituents and the amount of volatile fatty acid-, it stands 
next to butter among solid fats. The determination undertaken by 
Fresenius of the per-centages in the composition of the fat gave the 



y similar result was obtainel by Rupp in Karlsruhe — 
Water - - - - 0-0008 


re compare the compositic 
» parts of milk butter- 

Water I - - - 14-22 


Cocoa-nut butter differs from all other vegetable and animal fats by 
ttion degree (258 '5 according to Kud. Benedikt in Vienna) 

>n noonnnt of this high saponification degree all adult. 

Artificial digestion tests were made according to the directions of 
Dr. katz, which are the safest and the least objectionable. An artificial 
digestion fluid (0-2 pepsin in 100 parts of 2°/ solution of hydro- 
chloric acid) witn giver, quantities of an albumen solution of known 
concentration and of the fluid cocoa-nut butter were subjected to a 
temperature of 102° F. A control mixture showed the stn ! 
d.gertion fluid used. After four hours the nitrogen was determined 
and the< l' l;: of the experi- 

ments made the result of the control solution was a vield of 0-0912 

Tins small difference will possibly admit of the conclusion that the 
cocoa-nut butter exercises no injurious influence whatever over 

The next point was to ascertain how the cocoa-nut butter stands with 
regard to micro-organisms. It is well known that in this respect milk 

i he most part, are not pathogenic, that maybe introduced 

• and the microbes already present in the milk 

<l affords an excellent nutrient fluid for a lame 

number of micro-organisms u u iui a migt 

o/LStuT mavb^fV, 11 "I? gi™*** other ways and means 
■ ™ay be excluded, this ,„,y -till ,,k, place tnrongh the 

hfln ^ butt.r. tIm p.^ihili„ ,r a transfer to the 

-umer of the Tubercle bacillus, as well as of other mi cro- 
- jUnch have got into the milk from animals su fieri ng from 

fof „™i a l ! e ^ es » lt 1 13 „ m tlj e case of cocoa-nut butter, a resretebh 

."■'"» *• **. Cocoa-nut butter has been proved by 

nations to be both free from germs and also to be a very 

orC^ZfT f 7 mi " -g- i — E -n when Ag,,r-A*u 

nut buTter ^t^t™^** ^ WM mixed with the co ^- 

ddlto 2; bXS??* ^£*— » «£35L il 

fn 24 1 ou r rprov n/tW Pt &t * "f™ tera P erat « r *> the milk coagulates 
4ulat ^ doe7not g tak ! ™ the butter " This co " 

^tJ&Titortt*' if ' instead of milk butter ' cocoa ' nut 

drfjn m tbTt ba tL ha ,L already been said the conclusion may safely be 
nit of view ^^ n'T butter ' frora a chemical and bacteriological 

BJ , meets all the requirements of a food substance, 
eocoam tXtL 1DVestl f tions were directed to ascertaining whether 
'Z In if/ 80 8UUabie ,0 heal % ™* «ck people alike. 
Through a period of four weeks w P dwti4h»f5 fn^ ♦„ 1 1 « ™*,w<, ;„ 
the form of p 
tion of which 

™? r Lf;T nt u i h '" S *? ^' ng almost free from water, one quarter less 
*even to eight tablespoonfuls to about every pound t ,f !„„[.,• nJf 

vemence what, v,r. n,, , ,. tl . W!l . (1 , i( , u ,, u ., !!v ,,.^ 
-Nat,. The statement of a colle, 

^oHri?o3Kr is th i ,reBpeci! after --"^wa? s : 

troub led wilh is> M^^l^Ic^^U^^ 

with cocoa-nut butter, almost without any inconvenience 7 ? P 
Ihe experiments with patients proved cocoa-nut butter to be in mH* 
t that causes no disorders in cases of impaired 1 
ormof CofosirT ' ^ i^ ^^ «*^^ "eve^ 
pffEi «V?T P ' 0t ° ne co ?P lained of auy discomfort, or of any ill 
effect after the consumption of pastrv propan 

SLT^sS notio<! * f on ehe -<^" *£ 

b,Z?. ar Jvl attll f ^J™™.^ » kt has been found in cocoa-nut 
to ani™l o™ I 8 ?L h7g,eniC 1 1 "f ( l uirement s, and which » ; 
FnrTeT" -^l!*^*!^ as l .? an ? of th ^ other -*-S 

. u C1 ..g easily 
P« ... ■,,.,,, A T well adapted for the use of patient, suffering ftom impaired 

[Enclosure 2.] 
KvVaT'o 16 ' ^W " Mannh eimer Cocosnuss-Butter-Fabrik " issued 
butter -! ' COntai " S the followin g an alyses of cocoa- 

Professor Guignet, Deputy for M. Chevreul at the Museum, Paris. 

Analysis of a sample of vegetable butter (cocoa-nut). 
A white fat without taste or smell. It melts towards 80° F. into a 

■ unsparent liquid which solidifies again a little above 68° F. 
It dissolves entirely in carbon bisulphide without appreciable residue. 

in #£ 1 Sa T lfied , • f ° rmS * 'r pid SO,ution with w ^r which proves 
its treedom from admixture with mineral oil 
100 parts contain,— 

Ordinary neutral fatty bodies - . - 97-50 

Butyrine, the neutral fatty body which exists in 

butter - - . . . j. 49 

These proportions are those of pure cocoa-nut butter. 
Paris, July 22, 1888. 

(Signed) Guigxet, 
Charge du Cours de M. Chevreul i 

irain, chemist, Vice-President of the Association of Chemis 
Paris, July 13, 1888. 
Water - - - - '16 

Fatty matters - - - - 99*71 

The following additional information respecting cocoa-nut 
given in a Report by the United States Consul (Mr. Monaghan) < 
heim [U.S. Consular Reports, No. 108, September 1889, p. 13£ 

German chemists discovered in the cocoanut a fatly 
butter. This discovery was made by a Dr. Schlink, practical chem 
Ludwigshafen, just over the Rhine from Mannheim. Shortly af'te 
discovery was made, a firm was established in this city under the 
of " P. Miiller und Sohne," which sunk a large amount of capital 
enterprise having for its object the production of the new artk 
which they have given the name of cocoanut butter. The r< 
achieved have more than justified their expectations. The firm i 
able to answer its constant demands. Although in existence onl 
year, it employs 25 workmen, who get from 25 

pound, or 25 to 30 cents per kilogram. 

The nuts are obtained from almost all lands lying in the tropics, 
especially from the South Sea and Coral Islands, Arabia, the coast, 
countries of Africa, and South America. Natives in countries where 
the nuts grow have for a long time used the milk of these m 
of food oils. 

It contains 60 to 70 per cent, of fat, and 23 to 25 per cent, of or- 
ganic substance, of which 9 to 10 per cent, is of albumen. Liebig and 
Fresenius had already discovered the value of the cocoanut oil, or fat, 
but did not succeed in its production as a substitute for butter. The 
new butter is of a clear, whitish colour, melts at from 26° to 28° Celsius, 

It hardens at 66° F. It is better adapted, however, for the kitchen 
than for the dining-room, that is, for cooking purposes than for the 
uses to which butter is put on our tables. It is neither disagreeable 
to the taste nor smell. In a country where real butter runs all the 
way from 25 to 35 cents per pound, and cocoanut butter costs but 15 
cents, a great future must open up before the latter. At present it is 
chiefly used in hospitals and other State institutions, but is also 
rapidly finding its way into houses or homes where people are too poor 
to buy butter. The working classes are rapidly taking to 
of the oleomargarines, against which s 
papers during the last two or three years. 

milk taken from cows diseased with tuberculosis. 

that fully 10 per cent, of the milk-giving cows are so troubled. '""'I 'hi ■ 

absence of acids and other matter renders its diction much cash t. 

hence the preference already shown for the new article 

and such institutions. There are those who do not hesita! 

this new substitute as healthier iind infinitely preferable to the too 

often bad butter brought on the market*, and not to be named in the 

saiu.- breath with the oleomargarines made too often from the diseased 

fat of horse and sheep flesh. 

When it. is remembered that Germany has already some fifty factories 
making oleomargarines and other artificial butters, and that some 
180,000 centners are produced annually, it will be readily >^n that 
•.• hard work to hold its own in a hundred uwp 
against its n. w rivals, and especially so since the oleomargarines and 
liters of all kinds are placed under severe, careful, and 
watchful State inspectors. It is hoped, however, that no losses, but 
gains rather, will arise ; for, besides the profits resulting from the 
new substitutes, more meat and milk, as such, will come on the mar- 
kets, and consequently into use. 

Now, if these facts are once known, milk, as an article of diet, will 
be in demand, and the quantities no longer needed to D 
will find their way into the families where formerly pure butter was 
unknown, but where its substitute, cocoanut butter', has taken fast 

The principal purpose of this report is to call attention to this new 

■ a view to intercepting its introduction from abroad as an 

article of import. If it is what chemists and hospital supervisors sa\ 

it is, its manufacture in the United States, where such vast quantities 

of butter are consumed, should be undertaken. 

(Signed) J. C. Monaghax, 

United States Consulate, Consul. 

Mannheim, August 6, 1839. 

I he preparation of butter from the fresh cocoa - 
the Proceedings of the Agricultural and Horticultural Soei.-tv of India. 
for June, 1890 :— 

In answer to an inquiry the following reply was sent on th 
making butter from cocoanuts : — " My experiments were on a very small 
" scale. The cocoanuts were scraped out with a Kami in the usual 
" way, a small quantity of water added and rubbed iu a mortar. The 
" milk-like fluid whs then strained through cloth and churned in a 
" bottle. The churn used was a disc of wood of o 

" as the bottle, cut with a wavy edge and with holes through it. this gas 
" forced up and down by means of an upright handle, the churning 

was over very quickly and the fat globules on being for 
|| skimmed off and washed in salt and water. The kernel which had 

been strained off was put into a small cheese press, and the fluid 
|| squeezed out added to the • butter-milk ' and again churned, a further 

small quantity of butter being obtained. The cake of scr 

retained its flavour and would be fit for various purposes. 
■■ " The butter was almost tasteless while fresh, 
^ day (in the cold weather) had a strong taste of cocoanut. It had the 

appearance and consistency of butter but was very white." The 

writer continued by stating that the authorities at Kew had been asked 
by the Society if they could afford information as to the manner in which 
cocoanut butter is deodorised in Germany, but they had stated that the 
subject had not come before them, and suggested that the information 
might be obtained through the Government of India ; the subject being 
able interest to India. 

" I took four nuts of average size, neither very big nor very small, 
and had the kernel reduced to a coarse pulp wil 

called Kami. The nuts were not fully ripe ,• the kernel was fully 
formed, but was yet a little soft. After the kernel had been made into 
pulp, the latter was squeezed in a thick piece of cloth to express the 
' milk.' A little water had to be added to the pulp to make the milk 

pressed, as I had no proper appliances to do the work. The ' milk ' was 
measured and found to be 3 paos or roughly 24 ozs., of which quantity 
1 pao may be taken as water added to the pulp in the act of expressing 

" Immediately after the milk had been expressed, it was churned in a 
soda-water bottle. I intended to use the English churn which I have 
recently procured from England, but the quantity of milk was too small 
to be put into a churn. I should mention here, that in the experiment 
nut milk which I made in the last cold weather, I had no 
need to add any ice or cold water, but in the present experiment which 
\ April, the weather was hot, 

ing that the butter refused t 

d water to the 'milk' in the soda-water bottle, and the butter 

grains immediately appeared. The whole operation did not take more 

than 15 minutes, and could be (inislic I in half the time if cold water 

was added in the beginning. All that I had now to do was to wash the 

ter it into a lump. The butter weighed 

tie oyer 11 chittaks or 3 ozs., that is, \2\ per cent, on the r 
considered encouraging ; but my surprise and disappointr 
great when on opening the vessel in which 1 had put the bu 
floating on the top of the w 

In the cold weather the W . ukTrnght 


±ne following interesting account,.! ... inthispart 

of the world has been prepared by Mr. Alvan Millson, Assistant Colonial- 

S, crotan of Lagos, and lately a Sped . ■' interior. 

Hie observations mad.; by Mr. Millson with regard to the operation of 

notice. It may be mentioned that the 
received in this country have been submit 
F.Z.S., Prosector to the Zoological Sociel,, „„ 
belong to a probably new species of the genus Siphonogaster. The 
type of this genus has been quite lately described from the N 
Any further results that may be obtained with regard to the worms 
or the chemical composition of the soil will be dealt with later It 
may, however, be mentioned that the action of the worms on the soil 
is probably of a purely mechanical nature. They, in fact, work the 
so. and expose it to the light and air, and thus render it capable, with 
v r preparation, for the production of recurring crops of 
yams, corn, cotton, and tobacco. ° P 

Alfred Moloney to Colonial Office. 

Government House, Lagos, 

2. I also forward, addressed to the Under Secretary of State to the 
care of the Crown Agents, a box containing six specimens c. 
referred to by Mr. Millson. 

3 Mr. Millson suggests that the specimens of soil should be 
analysed by an expert in England, and that the earthworms should be 
examined by a competent authority with a view to determining their 

4. I venture to support Mr. Millson's suggestions, and would ask 
your Lordship to be good enough to allow the aualysis and examination 

5. Should your Lordship approve of such investigations, I would 
further ask, in the interests of science and as a contribution to our 
knowledge of the resources of the interior, that Mr. Millson's paper and 
the reports of the experts upon the specimens may be printed. 

6. By way of comparative interest I also send forward .-penmen- 
of earthworm- (i at Joffin> on 
the west side of the kingdom of Pokrah, a distance of some 195 miles 

of Mr. Millson's observations, where, from 

ity and utility of this West African silent fertiliser. 
7. It will be interesting to know whether the creatures are the same 
species ; their castings seem to point to a richer soil in Pokrah than at 

r-/^z They ° rubaname for earthworm is Ekolo, and for its castings 

I'iinkolu ; m fishing the tenner is used as in other parts of the 
world for bait, while the latter is commonly used as plaster for the 

JEgypten." VidensL MM , 

of forest which skirts the lagoons to the 
_ 50 miles inland, a vast tract of open country 
neu, extending as far as the valley of the Niger and the Haussa 
States beyond. Much of this is so completely deforested by long years 
, as to bear no spontaneous vegetation but grass; some or 
it, in the moister lowlands, still retains strips of the original forest, which 
ended at one time from the densely wooded hnd or the 
Ashantis to the Niger delta; and much of it, especially along the 
water-partings of the numerous shallow river valleys which dram the 
surface of Yoruba land, is a naturally park-like or almost moorland 
country with a gravel subsoil, more pcanty herbage, and scattered trees. 
The trees which cover these less fertile tracts may be said to average 
from 35 to CO to the acre. They are of stunted growth and are sur- 
rounded by a shorter and more wiry grass than that which overruns 
the lowlands and the richer soil. They consist chiefly of oak-like Shea 
Butter trees (Ihityraxpcrmum Parkin, some thorny bushes and a tew 
trees of the Palmyra or Black Run palm < Borassus flabcil 
which but little use appears to be made hv the natives \\ l.eiv wai - 
and slave raids have forced the people to abandon the cultivation of the 
is seen to be fast returning to its original con- 
to assert themselves among the urn 
us— such as the Bamboo palm {liaphht nu>J) >„,, the « Mi- 
Palmyra palm (Borassus jtabelli- 
. brake of reedy gnis<, 
i„uu .fees, of which three sorts are seen, 
ii tree, and young plants of the gigantic Baobab ( 

- up towards the lijibt. Wherever the richer 
lands are deserted for long periods by the farmer a tendency is shown 
to revert to the forest of shallow-rooting trees which shuts off these 
inland f„rms from the coast. It is evident, therefore, that tn.-ra- 
lands of this part of the interior are the result of deforesting, with the 
exception of those which follow the gravel beds which run parallel 
to the coast. The first of these gravel "ridges," as they would he 
called in Britwl bout five miles from the lagoon side 

at Ito Ike, and is surrounded by the scrubby forest called in Honduras 
"broken ridge," which eventually passes into and is encircled by the 
true forest of the Ijebu country. In the fertile lands of the I 

—never more than than five feet deep— full of sand and pebbles, based 
upon ironstone or conglomerate, or upon the softer igneous rocks, and 
apparently unfavourable for the growth of lofty forest trees. Even the 
woodland belt which skirts the con-; described by 

forest of West Africa," cannot for a 
• in grandeur with the forests of tropical 
_ The only trees of unusual bulk are the cotton trees and an 
occasional " Iroko " tree. In other places the crests of the Oil palm 
(El<sis guineensis), notoriously a palm of short stature, are level with 
the roof of the forest. I should estimate the average height of the trees 
in the Ijebu forest at not more than from 80 feet to KM) feet, whih- " 
the rich soil of the Oslum River valley where it enters the LjesM 
country the average may be from 100 feet to 120 feet. The cotton tr<'e~, 
of course, tower high above the rest, but even these are not equal in 

size to those of the richer American soil. There is a marked absence 
of the dense masses of huge lianas which form so important a feature in 
other tropical forests, few of the trees are thorny, and one can safely 
plunge the hand into any part of the dense undergrowth on nithfir rida 
of the road. "When I say that it would be possible to fell any one of 
the trees which compose this forest without dragging any of the rest 
along with it, except those in the line of its fall, it will be understood 
how different in its manner of growth is this so-called "impenetrable 
forest " from the really dense vegetation which exists in other parts of the 
world. It may be that, elsewhere on the West Coast, are to be found 
more lofty growths or denser and more tangled woods. They did not 

The only difference between the grass lands lying beyond Ibadan 
towards the Niger, and the forests fringing the lagoons and covering 
I Ijesha country, appears to be that for many generations the 
industrious farmers of Yoruba have, with axe and fire, destroy, . the 
growing trees and robbed the soil of its original cover i 
nothing out a lank growth of tall and tangled grass to take its place. 

Though apparently so unfavourable to the growth of deep-rooting 
plants, the soil shows a truly surprising surface fertility when subjected 
to oultfr at ion. A glance at the map will show how crowded is the 
population of tor. Not a single square mile of good 

soil throughout the land of Yoruba but shows traces of re< 
tion. Cut off completely from the markets of the coast by a jealous 
and unscrupulous tribe of idle natives who inhabit the fore- 
the Hast ward Lagos lagoons, this densely peopled land is entirely 
dependent upon its soil for food and clothing. Well is it repaid for the 
it expends. From samples of the soil which I forward, 
Nos. 1. 2. and 3, it will be seen to be composed of a sandy loam derived 
from the ign< itone and quartz conglomerates which 

form the bed rock. Where the harder dykes give place to the more 
friable micaceous rocks the soil increases in fertility, and even when 
farms are made on the surface of the less fertile conglomerates, in soil 
not more than a foot in depth, the results are truly astonishing. It may 
be that analysis will show the samples of soil which I have gathered to 

5 would seem to be the case. The tact remains the same, that not 
only are the crops which are gathered in Yoruba, and, presumably, 
throughout this portion of the interior, of unusual excellence, but the 
surface b©H shows a marvellous recuperative power, even when compared 
with thai of more favoured lands in other portions of the tropics. 

The following statement of the rotation of crops customary in Yoruba 
will serve to show the unusual rapidity with which this shallow and 

unpromising soil recovers its fert 

ility. It has to be remembered that, 

during the intervals of its culti 

vation, short as they are, no heavy 

growth of bush is made as in the deeper and richer soil of troj 

America, and of the West Indies. 

A rank growth of reedy grass, from 

6 feet to 12 feet high, replaces the crowded crops ; heavy rains 

down through its feeble protectio 

n upon the sandy soil, and 

rushes oft in all directions into t 

he numerous sandy brooks aud rocky 

streams which hurry towards the 1 

agoons with their hurden of sand and 

Hotation of Crops. 
First Year.— In the month of November the farmer scrapes a 
of holes with his hoe, and plants his yams, covering them by g 


ihe soil into heaps at intervals of about 18 inches. Jn March and April 
he plants, between the yam hills, Indian corn. In three months' time 
the corn ripens and is cropped. Early in October maize and beans are 
again planted between the yams and are cropped with them in December 
or January, or are left to stand in the field during the dry season. 

During the second year a precisely similar course is followed with 
almost equally good results, while in the third year of cultivation the 
land is expected to yield two crops of maize and beans, no manure of 
any kind being used, nor any tool more powerful than the hoe. 

For two or three years, and for no longer, the land is left to lie fallow. 
During this interval in its cultivation it bears a heavy crop of rank 
grass and scanty bushes. After this short rest it is expected to be in a 
condition to warrant a fresh attack, and in the months of November and 
December of the third year and in the first month of the fourth year of 
its idleness the vegetation which has sprung up is cut down, dried, and 
burnt on the land, and the process of planting described above begins 
once more. As each farmer owns but a small portion of land, the pro- 
aps, of his father and grandfather before him, upon which he 
U wh.iiy dependent for his livelihood, he would be left entirely without 
food were its fertility to become exhausted. Apparently this is never 
the case. For generations in succession the same crops are planted and 
an equal return is given by the soil. 

Guinea-corn. — A guinea-corn field is planted and cropped in the first 
year of cultivation. The plants are then bent down about a foot and a half 
from the ground and allowed to shoot again from the roots. During the 
second year a crop not leas than that given during the first year is 
gathered. The stalks are then cut down and burnt, and a crop of 
yams, or corn and beans, or cotton is raised in the third year of cultiva- 
tion. After this the land is allowed to lie fallow for the usual period 
fluid year's crop is unusuallv heavy, in which case a fourth 
year's crop of corn and beans is raised. " 

Cotton.— In cultivating cotton the Yoruba, after cleaning the land 

thoroughly, plants corn (maize) at the usual distances. When the maize. 

thick enough to serve as a shade plant, cotton seed 

fc When the maize ripens it is gathered, and the 

•nt down so as to allow the cotton plants free scope for 

growth, while protecting their roots from the direct rays of the sun. 

ine cotton is ready for gathering in January or February, but no 

second crop of maize is planted among it. 

In the second year yams are planted between the cotton, and in the 
following year the land is cleaned, and the cotton is left to seed a third 

I'd bed is made on rotten grass 

mvii xains. A moist plao 

pose. From 17 to 30 days after sowing, the seedlings are 

pricked out in newly cleaned land. Two crops a year are gathered for 

the first two years, after which the plants are removed and corn and 

tented in the third year. With the tobacco nothing is grown, 

and some little care is taken to nino.b off the side-shoots and heads in 

taken to pinch off the side-shoots and heads i 
a strong growth of leaves. 
Indigo (Elu).— Indigo* is planted in any soil, and is a permaner 
rop. Jt is planted from slips at irregular intervals, and from tim 

quite densely crowded. 7 a field be3 <>mes 

u st of P ri3 'sffis tl„ p Lis rj^r 1 ^- From tbe " 

H ^riU iL-i t mp Where food is «n=Mered .0 be scarce and eapensL 

Phaser! ' C " nn0t be JUS " y WDted a ' to ™'™S ^« "Pen the 

On first realising these facts it is natural that one should loot imnad 

heavier crops, aLCf W qual ^^WlTatTs Sea^o ! 

FrLh ff Z S ? and Pe ? aps f0r ^tunes been subjected, 
mort toJoT t e . SSOnS ° f Drummond '» "Tropical Africa." with to 
i^ East IS g Pter °? thG ferti,isill S e ^ct of the work ,. 
manner IT 3 ' T nat , UraUy Seeks t0 exp,ain this difficult - ! 

its fertility in t 

m t he valtwoie process or bringing the subsoil to the surface' 

aoubtlese of great use, but their slow and feeble 

tt?^ ,UBt l t0 ^^ SUCh StartUn ? results - Were , 

iranos.ihl !" mg 6 ^ Part ° f the rain > : season onI 7> if * 

iraposs ble to account for these facts, and one would be obi g 

to SSl? T ' Snd t0 faU back u P° n the labour of ten, 

cea2l P p„'i k m ^ st T^ whiIe und er our feet nun, 

ceaseless labour of the real fertilisers of the land. 

and m * 7 SeaSOTI the m J ster 7 is at once solved, and in the simplesl 

amonH? unex P? cted manner. The whole surface of the ground 

^vorn^casts^TV 8 ^ t0 * C ° Vered h ? serried ranks of c y liad ™ 1 
Cfl sts- These worm casts vary in height from a quarter of an 

nbers. It is, in many 
>und without touching 
land, closely packed, 

- ; '.':•■■'.'••.' ■ ■■ - ^ -.■■:■ '-■■■-v : ' i - : - 

L^n li. * ■.- k«,.V tWm rlown into a fine powder, rich in 

break them down into a fine powder, rich i 
different in form from those familial 

. and [leading itself easily to the hoe of the farmer. 


-»,» down the soil is found to be drilled in all directions by 
." multitude of worm drills while from lynches to 2 feet 
depth the worms are found in great 
: is m. possible to estimate their : ' 

moist subsoil, 
cubic foot in the soil, 
aries"acco"rding"tothe season and the locality. Of 
the worms themselves I forward specimens preserved in spirits, which 
diould - rve to identify their species. 

irefully removed the worm casts of one season from two 
•separate square feet of land at a considerable distance from one 
smother. :md chosen at random, 1 find the result to weigh not less than 
104 pounds in a thoroughly dry state. This gives a mean of over 
5 pounds per square foot. Accepting this as the amount of earth 
brought to the -urfnoc evrs %. ar by these worms, we get somewhat 
salts. I may say, speaking from the result of numerous 
.xi.'ini: i us, that ."J pounds is a very moderate yearly estimate of the 
-v labourers on each square foot of soil. Even 
at this moderate estimate, however, of the annual result of their work 
we huv, a total of not less than <i2,233 tons of subsoil brought to the 
surface on each square mile of cultivable land in theYoruba country 
every rear. This work goes on unceasingly, year after year, and to 

. 1 of its people. Where the worms do not work the Yoruba 

Estimating 1 square jard of dry earth by 2 feet deep as weighing 
half a ton, we have an annual movement of earth per square yard t.. 
the depth of 2 feet, amounting to not less than 45 lbs. From this it 
appears that every particle of earth in each ton of soil to the depth of 
2 feel is brought to the surface once in 27 years. 

Of the effect of this constant moving of the soil upon the health ot 
the country it is not possible for anybody but an expert to speak, but 
it seems more than probable that the comparative freedom of this part 
nfuVi Africa from dangerous malarial fevers is due, in p« 
to the work of earth-wo: I constantly bringing to 

the surface the soil in which the malarial germs live and breed. It is, 
perhaps, a temptation to attribute to them too ma 

' unlikely that the beneficial effect of their labour in this direction 

(Signed) Alvan Millson. 

[All Rights Reserved.] 




No- 47.] NOVEMBEK. [1890. 


About 1872 Sir Joseph Hooker had his attention directed to a large 
berned coffee which occurred wild in Liberia but had been introduced 
if ion at the Gold Coast and Sierra Leone. 
From the latter colony Sir John Pope Hennessv, then Governor of 
the West Africa Settlements, sent nine plants" to Kew in l>7i>. 
Lnfortunately the; arrived ■.:! dead; but through the aid, about the 
same time, of Mr. C S. Salmon, then acting Administrator of the 
ik t ° aSt ' 48 ° Seeds were obtained from th e Rev. T. B. Freeman, 
who had a small plantation of the coffee on the Secoom River near 

The plants raised from these seeds at Kew were the first grown in 
this country. In the following year Mr. Bull, the well-k 

of Chelsea, imported living plants. In 1874 

n::;-~i cx- 

obtaiued at Kew direct from Liberia, through 



i BLACK,'e 

li< MX.1-X FIGGIS,; 


Price Twopence. 

the kind agency of Mr. James Irvine, of the firm of James Irvine & 
Co., of Liverpool. The plai \< wm ii- ed from Kew to tropical 

,1 only in experimental 
quantities. The Kew Reports from 1872 to 1882 contain continuous 
jress. Meanwhile the firms of W. 
Bull, of Kind's 'I ..d. Ch U i. ai I d urn - Irvine & Co., of Liverpool. 
had raise,! she plan! from seed on a commercial scale, and had dis- 
tributed it to the various coffee-growing countries of the world. 

Mr. W. P. Hiern, in a paper on the African species of the genus 
Coffea in tl Second Series, 

Botany, vol. i., pp. 109-170);, remarks I hat "All the species most 
" valuable for cconomi are confined to Africa 

" or are of vn Coffea arabica is in- 

digenous in & - 'yanza and in 

Angola. It i nd often occurs there spontoneoush , 

though wIsh' ilt ivation i 

doubtful. Liberian coffee has been found wild at Sierra Leone, in 
Li! , | \ )fr h. It ; . ti,, . .'o ',( ii 'd, as far as we know. 
to the West Coast. The name Co ft' <• < .u^A^ito l he s vies 

by Mr. Bull , • lor 1 874-. It was convenient; 

r. Hi ni \\ hi-; papa\ v . > ; ' p i ashed a detailed 
description and figure of the plant in preference to an unpublished 
manuscript name in the Ilirlvmmn ..!' A'>1!ih. 

"' "s ordinary or so-rad -d Arabian coffee plant is only 

. d of the S'.-a >: d • distances from it.' 

i rippled in India an< 

Ceylon. TI. • K. \ Report for 1 70 . k\ ( »". -•) th 1, "As th 

• i um;. lN ii, , -,[■< <;•,■,■:<) and the Borer ( 

■•areely to be expected, that th 

<■' ! 

' ; fungus, or either of them." 

The cultivatio) of Libcrian code- did not, how,-ver, at first ivdi* 

tl, ■ e-.M. Ul y ,;,. formed of it. It was said to exhibit no (--peek 

- '. The bean was thought to be coarse i 

berries w •■ ,! 1C planters. This i 

i ■- 
Bulletin for 1888, p. 262:- 

The il cherries" of Liberian coffee do not become soft an. 1 pulp, 
bard and fibrous. Hence it has been foun 
paring Ai ; in coffea ii 
tfie " pa dim st " -kin hi th' latter is toua'h and woodv, and th 


while the actual market value is less. 

At the pivsenl moment the tide .,1" opinion in the planting w.uld Ik 
set somes ,„kr. 

Mi.lit- S i' t- isr A r li,iil,t> . l^ 

! as much as 75*. a CW 
It is believed thai the ai roar of the new beans hi 

not been found objectionable in the United States, to which a ™ rt i 
deal of the present produce of Liberiaa coffee proliblv in " ,' l\'J 
The practice in America is to keep raw coffee for even 
SSSlE lS belie T ^ to improve in c, 

53ES -coffee would be- more 

i?S 1,1(1 theoretical considera- 

i ....,;,■■: ......... . ; ,; : ; 

-1/arf/™ J/at/of May 10. P 0m tbe 

orfsentlf t 7 ^ *? * ??* J a - C ° Uple ° f Liberian P lanfs froi » » number 

grew broad and high till now they are about 2G feet and hn'v. 
no intention of stopping. In the evil report soon niV 

isease. Then I planted out S 

-.1 ; 
■u-s old and in a more sheltered position than their p.r ,.t, 
now r,m „„Ti . ,o ? i? 10 b 7 10 0ver A ™Uc:i tluy have 

p to 16 or 18 feet, all exactly of one type, and 
exceedingly well ; the crop on them : 



they wTd' ' ' bambo ° land : Aether 

tney will do well at higher elevacons remains to b^ *,- n but a< 

veaw trTlT' , ( i nm "'"^ • '' '' il!1<l ' ' •'•' '" U " re( t!l "' ! T ,[i,] Ilot ' do ei ? ht 
ol difference between Liberian and Arabica 1 find as advantages :- 

1. That it does not get/ungus, or only in suc h a way that the 

health of the tree is in no way affected. 

2. That it is a tree, not a bush, running up to 30 feet in height 

before 15 years old, and in consequence is not in 

3. That judging by the trees in evidence, and the way they go on 

growing, u u\ l,v th ■ f : et that they do not come into ! 
tour or five years old, this variety may be fa 

That i, is 

heavier bearing tree when once fairh- started; 
dence now yielding 10 to 20 cwts. per acre. c:i!hi- 
lating on the clean coffee yielded, and admitting ti, it o„Iv som • 
/UJ trees to the acre can be grown instead of at least double 
that number of the o 

That being a deep-rooted plant, 
while a very slight shower is i 

blossom ; which, iv. 

oreover, has the farther advantage of 
thin the clay of its oponii g,_so that it 

and falling off wi 

Uy possible that it c 


ion is comparatively 
t do beyond pulling off the suckei 

years to prevent the tree from running up into too many stems, 

1 (and extensions of it) year 

, therefore, no old wood to cut out. The 

3 carried on the same wood ( 

shade of a thick, tall tree like this, where then p:vtty well coyer 
the ground, would effectually prevent weeds from becoming 
troublesome, and as the roots are deep down, the deb 
effects of i id grow, would be very Utile felt. 

7. The berries (of the size of a walnut i remain fir.ul\ fixed on the 
tree for many zceeks after I i < ' \n<^; even- 

tually they fall off, ftod I. In the 

case of a scarcity of labour this might be an advantage. 

Agains* these good points we may set the following : — 

1. That this species gives very little return till at least the fifth 

year, while in low-lying districts some return is got from Arabica 
in the second year. 

2. That the value' in the London market, from a sample lately sent 

home, is about 10 per cent lower than that of ordinary coffee. 

3. That in districts under the south-west monsoon, whose flowering 

season is in March and April, the crop iustoad of I 

li pen in October and finidiin- in January or February takes a 

whole 14 months to ripen. Th ■ flouvi r s ^>u is the same 

as the otl berries will tarn i 

lowing April much of it will not bo ready to gath r 

Thus, the t, carries two crop t the same til . II mi:- t 

together m tiie suae branches. Sometimes at the end ol the 

spring we may see at the same time the crop of the previous 

season as large as plums, and partially turning red, the crop of 

the current season the size of peas, ami a further 

the cow I blossoms as large as 

the large' dark, g!o<r-y h- w •, e.i\e the tree a most rich and hand- 

There are now one or two p .ini t,on m:i >' 

be of interest. 

Picking.— There is no difficuli y about this ; a 

the cooly to get up among the branches, and he then strips off all that 
is ripe, or nearly so (taking ,- ;l re not to rip off the small berries), 
dropping it all on the ground, and e dieeting atterwa ds into baskets. 

It takes four bushels of these huge cherries to make one of parchment 
(instead oi two as with Arabica), hut even so, the fruit being so large, a 
cooly can pick quite twice as much as of the other, and the cost per 
ton of clean would be much the same. 

Curing.— I have seen advertisements of special pulpers made in 
Ceylon for Liberian coffee, and have no doubt that thoy u _ s effect i\ 
as they are represented. Anyone growing a quantity of this coffee 
would have to employ machinery. 

I have tried experiments on Ismail scale with my cherry, and found 
that it was no use to pass the stuff through an ordinary disc pulper (set 

of course very wide), because the hu3k never (at this elevation) ovt- 

and comes out with the parchment in front .■ ami I found f 
eliop wiis ei v «!e enough to allcm tli, hu k to pass, the h n wci 
with it. Moreover the work was so hard that four coolie wer • 
a pulping two bushels ! Then I found that thi 
-in-kj.l t •. r of getting at the parchment was to put it up in heaps in tlx 
pulping house to rot. . .,--,, i, ut the colour of th. 

< 1< an code, ,:o treated was quite as good as so 

that it completely protects it from in 

kind of coffee will carry nothing I Q , V) i o:n . m 

matter how the curing may be done. If allowed to dry in 
heavy peeler 1 lit nerl 11 - break it up. 1 ur it Hems to m. ,, h * -I at d 
tough as the very best r< ch doubt whether a coffee- 

curing firm would undertake it on the usual terms. A-< 
liti. s of this variety. I can safely say that no 
not previously been told would know that he was not drinking the 
pucka article, the same quantity of powder goes further: 
notice any inferiority of quality. Unsuspecting guests have often said 
" May I have another cup f thi e ■ ' . , ; ( X: . ? 
look somewhat surprised when told what it was. If you try to sell it in 
the bazaar whole and clean (looking something like date stones in 
. s decline to buy it. " This one kind bad imitation coffee ■ 
Dp and mix a little dirt with it they 
will take it readily, and never find out the difference. 
Planting. — O 

made ready by May, and then to put one or more seeds in each pit as 
■ nly ii th< - i i h- west monsoon as possible, so that the sec 

But if not grown to any great size they can be lifted with a little 
special care from nurseries in the ordinary way. Considering the fact 
coffee does not come into bearing till two or three years 
after the other, it may probably be a wise plan for one going in for its 
cultivation to pit his clearing 4 by 4 and to plant Arabica, alterward- 
putting in the giant kind down every other row, making them tlm- 
8 by 8. The Li!.-, i ian is much too re i.e..-! to take any notice of its 
little friend, while by the time it has come into bearing you may safely 
assume that the Arabica has given what it can in maiden crops, and 
unless heavily manured has already made arrangements for returning to 
a better world where there is no fungus. 

The follow ;acts from correspondence and lettei - 

received at Kew since 1882 will serve to bring the history of the 
cultivation of Liberian coffee down to a more recent date : — 
Extract from a Report dated 7th April 1SS3 on Agrh 

periments in the M _■ the year 1882-83 by 

Captain J. Butler, the Deputy Commissioner. 

Liberian coffee has exceeded my most sanguine expectation- oFIts 

could be desired. Over 1,000 of th, ' the end of 

hist year only 2 feet high are now 5 to 6 feet high, having made ;> ;,. 
4 feet growth in one \ear; the stems are strong, firm, and healthy. 
throwing out 1 o ml,.- and h ives : the la;t« r are of enormous size, being 


18 inches long and 8 inches broad. In fact, the Liberian coffee is to 
Arabian v,V:t the A-^amteaisto China; the former grows to the size 
Of a small tree, !v a shrub. 

A number of the Liberian coffee trees came out into blossom in 
.1 „ 1!U v. and i! i - >d many have set into fruit ; it takes a twelvemonth 
to rii>«'ii. and .-o we shall expect our first berries to be ready for 
bout next December ; but the first crop is always a light 
one, and as only some of the plants threw out blossom we cannot ex- 
1,001 air. : « r iotuin tlii- \ ear ; lm ■'•• • ■-•"■ i oi the plant to produce 
one would think, give it an immense 
advantag< does not come on until its fourth or 

fifth year. 

The Liberian coffee plants you sent to the Agri - Horticultural 

Society mnif years ago have ih ■ From the 

plant* in the G; rden, about 10,000 seedlings have been raised, and have 


■ - ■ 

have begun planting it out (on large areas of suitable ground i in the 

suburbs of Rangoon. 

Extract from a Letter from Dr. II. A. Alfokd, F.L.S., 
Dominica, dated 24th September 1884. 
Owing to the hurricane of September last year I lost nearly the 
is were thrown down. However, 
they wen soon raised and tied to stub • finnlv planted in the ground, 
B few months. The trees appear to 
be very hardy, and the wood of the stem and roots is exceedingly hard 
and t.,u»Ii. This is fortunate for tin' eullivation of the plant in thir- 
ties j for, if the wood were soft or brittle, most 
of the trees would hav I -., n. rndeed, in a few 

1 cos the larger trees were broken in this i n , ti heir Jarg. 
sposed to the full blast of the wind, 
way near to the ground. 
In no case was one uprooted. The I" 

.;s it were, a separate tearing asunder. The 
trees are now loaded agi at this time a small 

secondary flowering is taking place. For the convenience of picking 
the 1 ,. s I have had the trees topp. d at oi feet from the ground. 

than my Den, ! ing the fact that it is 

' was devastated by a 

Extract from Letter from Mr. E. H. Edwards, Seychelles dated 

1st July 1885. 
Liberian coffee does fairly well at sea level, but at a higher P Wat,'nn 

i^n 100 or 150 feetit is futile to plant it; abov, 
• - :in icked with a species of black bug, and tl. 
n growth. I do not (Link this industry will ever be promot 

• ..f -..liable land being so small. lr :>l", 

Extract from Letter from Mr. G. S.Jbnman, F.L.S., S 

Botanic Gardens, British Guiana, dated January 1SS0. 
Liberian coffee does better than anvthin? else We. nnrl n™,ln„ oa 

! for propagating purposes, 

rowth of the rai ... ,p, better 

Lmerally humid. 

would, as the free and healthy 

the Government Plant* 
, Deputy Conservator 

>m JJepo] 
W. Pa 

I here arc now in 1 

■ •' 
s brained :— 332 lbs of coffee i i t! be 1 2 > > pvis of coffee in 
n;y : ofthe3r.2lb-.. 112 lln W ,. 1V , „ vn . 
>'■> Ids. were made over to lbo i 

sent to the exhibition at Edinl \ 3 i n my 


The whole of the coffee in berry was made over to Mr. Watson, tin- 

planter, in exchange for some tea seedlings \ | 1( , ( .,,e; t tr , ,,. ],...,-,. not 

jlowered as well this year as [he;, , r ees are 

■•• no .dims a: Ir.ii" or otii.-r iise.i-e. lucre are 

;il "° -.101 of which will come 

next year. Altogether 678 seedlings were distributed from those 

dings winch had already In m plant* I out; the r mainder of the 


-I have received several . and am, I 

. eV. :,ImnM. th Viu n . > ■' , ; nn laic 

The best coffee to grow in this country is, I believe, wil 

Vrabi in. Inch ^\ nice < I .ted on a large 

tl likewise be profitably grown. An unfavourable report on 

wua scut out 

'"m the Colonial Exhibition. No one should, however, I advise, be 

discouraged by this report. In despito of it, all circumstances con- 

:!!!; , 


sidered, Liberian coffee is, I believe, the best to cultivate here. It is 
bust adapted to our low sea level altitude, which is a very important 
cmisidi is more robust, and a hcavi i cropper than lb Arabian, 
and it possesses the great morit tin-it. the bo i h.: - hang after they are 
utly on the branches, awaiting the cultivators' conveniens 
to pick thei u berries drop as soon as they are 

ripe ; and the price obtained for the Liberian coffee is as much as is 
obtained foi av rage Arabian coffee. The great advantage of the fruit 
if can i»e picked may be judged from the fact that the 
condition in Arabian coffee had a good deal to do with the 
istry lapsing here fifty years ago. The supply of labour after 
emancipation was precarious, and coffee cultivators could not obtain it 
when their crop was ripe at a price that would leave any margin of 
profit. Hence the fruit fell to the ground and rotted, and the enter- 
prise bad to be abandoned. Labour, to be sure, is more abundant now, 
but the eleirent of security possessed by the Liberian coffee under the 
contingency of bad weather or ,c irec lab. m is :i chief feature in favour 
of that species. As regards its quality: in Ceylon I understand r.e 
distinction is made between it and the Arabian in sending it to market, 
and it is not kept separate. To combine it with Arabian in equal part- 
is probably the best way of using it, but many people regard it as 
excellent used alone. 

In Java and the Malay States the cultivation of Liberian coffee 
appears to be far in advance of what is being done in 
India, and the produce is a regular export. As stated in the Kt w 
Bulletin for 1888, p. 261, the plan of fermenting the berries before 
they are pulped has been for some time adopted in Java. 

This notice may conclude with the following extract from the General 
Eeport on planting by Mr. John F. M. Cock, Superintendent Govern- 
I in the Perak Government Gazette 
for September 19th last. It will be seen that B 

mending the planting of Liberian coffee still gives the palm to the 
Arabian : — 

As matters -tand a I present anyone proposing to open land mu«5t 

make sure of the terms on which he will be allowed to employ labour. 

He must next visit India and «ro what prospects he has^ of getting 

is, commence in the low country. iS 

h.-r than more than you expect 

tent to work, fell about five acres sufficient for nurseries and 

thoroughly, burning everything except the very 

a, :;',; t tr,c ' : \ Plant rapid-growing trees in the neighbourhood of 

around, and use quicklime freely all over wher- 

Leave a good belt at least two chains wide 

round this five-acre block of standing timber. Estimate for a small 

-hment from the very first. They are a wholesome thing 

place, coolies like them, the bullocks save your coolies in 

r children and ailing coolies. When 

'•'■"'It in band and nurseries making a good show, the 

planter must , [a ngents ftre do] . ^ 

commence felling with caution. Leave selected trees f,., 
<;>1W. Three y,ar. later I,, 
!•*<• • Uy th. tone he has reaped Uv<, < em- 
t , ro!l ' , ! < flu fib ri n trees will ! well -nm , ai 

demanding the removal of the Arabian coffee. When a ha e to worl 

from has been well established let him open clearing on the hills for a 
permanent Arabian coffee estate. If at the end oi u , y< ,, . ■ , nan w : t f. 
a good command of capital has 500 acres of coffi «. n "rhr W count™ 
and 2.30 ; .,r. , Arabian coffee free of weeds, well drained, with good 
laid from top clearing to permanent store on the 
Liberian f state, the work is well done. 

The advantage Arabian coffee possesses over the Liberian variety is 
too well know: [atory evidence. So far as [ know' 

Arabian coffo h(1 Sn _ ] nu .\^ 

country, therefore it may be well to ■ j™ ori „ inal in 

Z t^»h v a i? COffC> n h f be ? aDd 1S bdn - suc cessfu!ly grown in 
;V ; li, QUei climate than this country, the temperature 1). in-- 
as high as the temperature of the low couutry here. I see the cultiva 
tion ot Arabian coffee rec< 7 lv V 

' "" • lhv ' l ,utTl ' > '--^U time for Dlantina 
Lioenan amongst the Arabian coffee: I am inclined to th i ,l?l l?l 


( CW« acuminata, E. Br ) 
Island, and other iff tf555 EAr""" 1 * ^ W °« ^ 

liii l?s 

margins, in "» h "y smuons and rcl ,. it tin 

-nf fentale^oX temapToS SS™" ^ "°»^ "^ 
■n terminal and axillary e^se P anicL 1?",? ""' *■ ^ 
S™ 1 ""^''"^* shorter thanS" cal« W t ""^ 5?" "" 

coriaceous or woodv ,^1,^. ♦ i ? le » oblon ?> obtuse or rostra- 

ft ve^ they are thick, horny, flat on theTnner ~ ' '"' ' " "™ '° 

rofessor Oliver adds « tl • * /» 
"teemed by the tin* t, £ ' '' cola nut so much 

■■—■.: . " ■ :. . -. • , .. 

^ eaten after them. It varies very much 

" in the size and form of the leaves and flowers, the appearance of the 
u pods, the eolour of the seeds, and even the presence of from 2-5 

n i it( unl di tine ( otyle Ions. Whether iations dep< ' 

' ; upon culthalim o. r.ot, it 1- n >t v *■ d < ide , whether or no, 

'• traced. I ■■ - .aides even in seeds taken from 

•■ the same pod. Bart r =ays that tlie nuts with four cotyledons are not 
" so much prized as those markets." 

Amongst the negroes of West Africa cola nuts occupy a high 
i >nomy of their daily life. 

'• of territory comprehended between Senegambia to the north and 
" Angola south of the Equator, cola nuts "have from time immemorial 
'* been held in inestimable value, and tin Ir ^ rt i - lug h 

'-■ ■ - 
"luxury. Within tii ■ <vor, their use has been 

■• even still more extensively diffused, and to such a degree as to excite 
■ a large commercial intercourse to -oiihg up ! . tvwen the coa-iai 
' di triers, and the iv- , ,,)( out m."* In the 

i no doubt the cola pas < ; into the hands o! 

enl need prices to tl I (') Hi is led Mi < !■ 

hi it ih. ;eh 1R-. lo si,.-, . 

Report, 1881, p. 15). From 188<T! 

as in every 

part of the Empire where its cultivation is likely to meet with 

or after meals ;| but it was soon evident that thev 
lies and that they had been selected as iJ In 
; , th<,se who have to endure an 
occasional or prolonged dt 

difficult to procure, d h 

of olives in European coentftk 

rer is eaten after them. 
I., he p„~, - d b, eoia n.H- of 

I , • in. In fact cola mils 
bouth Amenca.i . 

Mote tliau two centuries ago Dapper announced that the seeds of 
the kola -as experience te acheth, eaten in the evening hindn :h 

vi. + 450 n th6 0d * DUl ° £ tr ° Picd WeSt Africa ' h ? Dr - Danie11 - Pharm - Journ - t 2 l 
t In tropical ]tli j f water b ofteu thick auil 

.:..;:......:....... ; . ' , ; 

— - : :•;■ .-...■ /. : - 

potatorum the A< Qae of \ he best known e les . 

, £ Kew Eeport, 1880, p. 15. 

f ep - f J? h y 3*. Daniell in I860, and it led him 

•rkiuc Ihnewu,,,,, art,, ufromcoTa 

■ .s discovery was confirmed by Dr. A 

■ ■ ' >■ ::;-:: 

" of theme present in dried cola 1 
" irom -5 to 2-0, and tQa from • 5 to 3 5 parts in 100 
'; ... . The presence of theine in cola nuts po'ints to their 
analogy with coffee, tea. and two 

osed in i,,- t ] ir ee- 

" now be added cola nuts. 

" gent principle tannin which occurs in coffee to 

" beverages their plea-am n 

A further and more detailed examination of koh nuts 

• : : ' ■:.;■ , 

'■-'';: '' ■ ■ ■■■• ' ■■■- ' ' " . . ..1- 

peutmal aspecte rof the subject. [1 

products of African soil there i 

■-.■•■■; ! :.,.!.; . ' 

tion throughout tropical and equatorial Arti, 
coffee, mate ami cacao." The true cola, , „ 5 

' . ; !' r " , ' : : , : ! ;' • I Guttifene 

aid to commence to yield crop 

about its fourth or fifth year, 

E*ion ~7 ~ 

fV- .in .!.•(.,,;,., ,. x eiience, states that"t_ w 
"" s "' : -- ai vears 

' '■ ■ '• ■ : ' .1 '•. 

" ■'!,'. -till in peri 1 , .a ;,.. ',;,, .,,„! 1 ,,,.; . ,,- onIarl The 

* should be planted aboui 20 
theacre^ The trees grow about 40 feet Ip I. !. . T W near f 
ton produce from 500 to 800 pods each crop. ! ; 

M a moderate c; nd jf we say 5Q g ^ ds tQ a ( 

.' V^ ' " '" ' ■■ ' ' 

100 quarts per tree per year. A quart of dry nut* will weish » 
« onl? l i lb '- 125 lbs - a tr *e. A tree in full bearing, and underc 

cultivation, would probably produce 150 li.-. , i mils a joar." 

'harm. .Tourn. [2], vi. Y57." " " S ° UrCC ° f The1 ' De bj J ° hn AUfield * 

t On the other hand Heckel and SchlaedenhanflVn r n „ n n t»nmr, in mI* mm to 

Messrs. II. ckol and Schlagdenhauffen s 

the episperm. In ordei te among the i 

nee essan ' ' > , tin m i 1 a fit state and in good condition. 

therefore, carefully picked over, all damaged 

being remoM I tin sound - >■<! an tin ,.! ecu ] 

th • ! il ' 1 m Sterculit a to, Car. 

or S. heter ■ seeds are heaped up, and then 

covered over with more 'bal' leaves, which, by their thickness, 
resistance, and dimensions, contribute not .1 little to tin : r -■ rvation of 
the seeds I y keeping them from contact villi dry air. ■ '' ckod in this 
manner tin -■■-• il- can he transported considerable distances remaining 
free from mould for about a month, during which time it is not neces- 
sary to submit then to any treatment in order to preserve them fresh 
beyond keeping the ' bal ' ieaves moist. But if it be desired to keep 
them beyond that time the operations of picking and re-packing have 
to Vic repeated about every 30 days; the seeds being wa - : ■•<: in fresh 
water and fresh ' bal ' leaves placed in the baskets. The baskets usually 
contain about 3 cvvts. of seeds. It is in this condition the ' kola ' is sent 
into Gambia and Goree, where the principal dealings in the seeds are 

" In Gambia they are sold in the fresh state to merchants travelling 
10 dry them in the sun and reduce 
them to a fine powder, which is used, mixed with milk and honey, by 
the tribes of the interior to make a very agreeable, stimulating, and 
everage. It most frequently arrives at Sokota and Kouka 
in the Soudan and Timbuctoo, where large sales of the seeds are made 
in the fresh condition; from the Soudan markets it is carried by cara- 
vans to Tripoli, and from Timbuctoo into Morocco. As might be 
expected the value of the kola increases as it makes its way into the 
interior of Africa, and some of the tribes furthest removed from the sea 
pay for the dry powder with an equal weight of gold dust." 

The chemical composition of cola nuts has also been very fully 
worked out by Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen. They give the results as 
follows: caffeine 2-348 per cent., theobromine 023 per cent., tannin 
1-618 per cent. These results differ in some respects from those already 
quote! a< obtained by Attfield, and especially in the recognition of the 
presence of theobromine and tannin. The proportion of caffeine is 
higher than that observed in any coffee or, except in rare instances, in 

The dietetic value of cola nuts is no doubt primarily due to the 
caffeine contained in them. The presence of theobromine indicates 
", to which they are also connected by botanical 
affinities, as both Cola and Theobroma belong to the same natural order, 
Stercuhacea. The small quantity of tannin (which approximates to 
caffeo-tannic acid in its composition) contained in cola nuts as com- 
parcd with t.: a 1 i coffee, may be an advantage from a dietetic point 
of view, as also the absence of the large proportion of fat which 
it is necessary to remove from cacao beans during the process of 

These circumstances have naturally suggested the use of cola nuts as 
a beverage substance, : ,,],. ,!„,.;„,,• the last few 

years to prepare from them products ml the dry 

powdered cocoa of commerce. The use of cola nuts as a beverage 
substance was apparently well known in the West Indh.s !W some time 

before the §ubj . in this counti 

Report of the Director of Public. Gardens and Plan:.-. 
the year ending 30th September 1882, the following in 

Cola nut.—" This tree, which has lately attr 

Byssi, an 1 seeds can be obtained, in quantity, if 
mercinl purposes. Dr. Neish, of Port Royal, to wh 
for a note on this product, remarks, ' what enhances 
nuts at the present time is the fact that citrate of ca 
now much employed for the relief of sea-sickness, 
nervous complaints, — can be readily obtained from 
reason that the nuts contain more Caffeine than ( 
in the kola nut the caffeine is in the free or uncoml 


principle of cacao, these nuts, in addition, contain three times the 

chocolate; and. morn, Vi-r, the;, also 

m to stimulant and nutritive pro- 

hoeol 1 From them 

will more readi] -tomachs.' 

" The suggestion made by Dr. Neish that a chocolate might he 
prepare') from the kola-nut seems a very appropriate ••■,<■, for both the 
" i belong to the same natural order (Stcrculiacece), 

low, wa m situations, and in view of the probable demand for kola 
attention might very well be given to their cultivation." 

The cola nut is very plentifully distributed throughout Jan 
having probably, like the Akee (Blighia Sapida) and other 
African plants, been introduced by slave ships. (See Kew R 
1882, p. 19.) 

In the Annual Report of the Director of Public Gardens and P 
lions. Jamaica, for the year ending 30th September 1883, the folk 
further nc to was given : — 

sting plant is largely di^irihu 

cola nuts may beconn a recognised artieh of eonum , . The tree i- 
hardy and easily established, and there would he no 

used as a stomachic and tonic. They arc said to have effected ver;. 
e- in dvspepsia and afli. 1 disorders and are used for 
thispurpox in ihe same manner as cacao or chocolate. 'J 1 - 
by grinding the dry cured nut into a powder and naixu g 

. and milk. Some people use the cola 
breaklii.-t in this manner, and consider it superior to everything else of 
the kind." 

"Seed nuts are to be obtained in the months of June to 
■ mil if intended for shipment should be planted in soil, 
nuts for export they only icqiiire to be taken out <>: 
subjected to careful* drying until quite firm and hard, 
however, requires to be thoroughly don-, owing to the thickness of the 

tineas on the voyage.' 

Tin trade in cola nut- h - been hit!) rto < < ' ! " *''' 

West Coast i : 


in the fresh state, amongst tribes living outside the actual area of 
production. For instance, in the year 1879, according to a report 

t'ur;: ; -h' I by A ■• '■ ■ Administrator Berkeley {Report of the Royal 
Gardens. Kew, 1880, p. 14), there were imported into the Gambia from 
Sierra Leone 743,000 pounds of cola nuts, and the trade was rapidly 

Of late years a deman country for cola nuts 

for purposes of experiment and for converting into a preparation 
similar to chocolate and cocoa. How far this demand is likely to be 
permanent it is impossible to say. According to a correspondent in the 
city " there has been a great rise in the price of cola nuts during this 
" year, I believe from about Ad. per pound to 2s. and 2s. Gd. per 
" pound." Further, he adds, "the rise in the price of coin nuts is 
<: owing to the action of a merchant here, who has bought up all he 
" can to make into cola chocolate." 

The home of the cola plant is West Africa, but large quantities of 

the nuts could a? y time be shipped from J; - ; and On iadu and 

.1 the oi ; . difficulty hitherto has 

been the low ] in this country. No doubt the 

; ! 

parts of the w i that prices 

y fall. From the trade reports given in the Chemist and 

.: present phase of the market in cola nuts is shown as 

follows :— 

" Oct. 4th, 1890. Kola nuts still continue to rise in value, and from 
2s. 2d. to 2s. 3d. per pound has been paid this week for fair dried 

"October 18th, 1890. Kola nuts have much advanced this week, 

and in Liverpool, we believe, up to 2s. 9c?. per pound is now asked for 

good dry seeds, although we understand that an arrival of about 50 

. At to-day's auction one barrel very good 

with strong competition 

at the extraordinary price of 2s. 5d. per pound." 

In a speech by Sir Alfred Moloney, K.C.M.G., the Governor of 
Lagos, on the occasion of the opening of steam communication with 
Brazil, August l.Va I t. occur:— 

_'• In view of the rapid passage that will now be the case, compared 
■■ - 
-. lhat there is a largo and growing 
- there 65." 

existence of the trade : — 

Foreign Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Sib, Foreign Office, October 3, 1890. 

. : 
Bahia containing a report on the use and properties of the kola 

The Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. (Signed) T. V. Lister. 


Mr Lord, Bahia, September 6th, 1890. 

I have the honour to bring under vo ir Lordship's n< tice, in the 
event that it may prove useful to Her May -y. > Wui Office, the great 

of enduran< , vv ] , id s am \ trtnsportin 

to long distances n this tro;>i, 1 dim to, , „ ., _. ,l i n t , \ V 

carry the bean - abotit their pei 

.. superior men to the ] 

■t. th< Mr can, th n h ( m-, in 

mice, it takes ei<rht Brazilian i ■ -roes to carry a 1 

• ■ ■ 
in;.- a hill, s! ^hol- time 

but never with m j n their mot 

■-Ml- O' \ - 'x I- ]. '(I h\ \ , J - I .111 . tl 

ive less hand-, earn twice as ranch, and while f ; - 
1 '.ili in portei ives i'roi i lifin 1 to mo ith. sp • 
■ ii tore -ion tlial if tends to st: 
:s .nil daily in kola heans, which 

<■'' /^n after _ m 2d. to Ik/., a 

io freshness. A hit of the nut is kept in the mouth and mi 

•-'i-:i '"any until it is swallowed. I h: 

■ daneiro, hi< Iv\ei lienor siuriresteU mv reporting 
lap for tho information of Her Majesty's War Office 
ansmit, in charge of Captain Spooner, of th. . 

! Company's steamship " Clyde," a d< /en kola nuts, from a j 
ly imported by a negro trader from Lagos. 

(Signed) Geo. Alex. Steve 

■ Marquis of Salisbury, K.C.. Consul. 

cola, the seeds of 
Africa for similar 
?e latter, as already 


" iti the absence of flowers, to allow of the ce 
** genus, though it would seem most probable 
•• of Gnrchiin or of Xanthochymits. I have 
» the leaves with those of any West Afri 
" though they are very like those of G. fioril 
proposed the name of Garcinia Kola for the 
founded on specimens of branches, leaves, anc 
from various places in tropical Africa. Ilecke 
no flowers, so his botanical description does 
was already known from the invest 
Heckel states that " upon chewing [the male 
ngly bitter, astringent, and yet 

in Guttifer in 

mda." In 1885 Heckel 

ree yielding bitter cola, 

fruits received by him 

appears to have received 

beyond what 

Dr. Masters in 1875. 

which is quite different from that of the true cola, and approache; 

j flavou 
that is esteemed by 
owe their properties 


cola nuts for caffeine gave negati 

of green coffee; 

5 flavour 
. probably the seeds 
lin, which is 
fresh male or bitter 

[All Right, Burned.] 




The Administrator of the Gambia to Royal Gardens, Kew, 

Dear Sir, 

I am sorry to say that my experiments have not been a success 
durum the past rainy season owing to an abnormal rainfall of 60 inches 
up to the present da*! ■ as against 32 inches for the whole of last year. 
that is to ,ay fur ;]}. months. As a rule showers begin about the middle 
of -Tunc, but the heavy rains do not occur until a mouth later, during 
August and September there is more or less continuous rain but this 
is the end of it, and, beyond a few showers, there is seldom any more of 

On the 29th July 4 -04 inches fell in two hours, and you can realise 
what this means, on a flat surface varied by occasional depressions in no 
particular direction ; the soil is fortunately sandy and absorbent, but 
natural^ strikes at 4 inches in two hours," and my grounds of course 
became a series of lakes. I had a quantity of Castor oil plants down, 
but i hey all died. The Ceara rubbers have survived, but they threatened 
ed for them. However, if they will 
aking and the long drought (which I know that they will 
i!o) the tree V on tons. I have introduced them 

to Combo, where they are doing well, and 1 hope also to the Ceded 
Mile, but I have had no accounts from these yet. 

I planted two lots of Egyptian cotton, one in an enclosure under my 
own supervision and the other outside in the natural soil ; the latter 
were in charge of the labourers who knew something of the culture of 
cotton on native principles. My own plants in the early stages developed 
splendidly, but when they commenced to flower, for some reason the 
leaves commenced to wither at the edges as if they had been burnt ; the 
vounger sho and the pods when they 

riddled by beetles. I doubt if I shall get a single matured 
sample of cotton to send you. 

The plants in charge of the men came up very weedy, and when they 

got to about 4 inches in height died off, but the soil is miserably 

poor, and I hardly expected any other result. I am sure nothing can 

th the greater portion of the Government House Grounds 

without chaining and manuring. 

Sir A. Moloney, amongst other things, sent me some seeds of Cassia 

flonda. These have done very well, and the soil, such as it is, seems to 

Two species of Bauhinia which I tried came nn verv 

is common in Combo, but I anTnot sure whicVi 

i understand that a London firm is prepared to expend capital in an 
emu-avour to develop the Gambia woods, and also to experiment in aim- 
ed for a large tract of land in the Ceded Mile, 
are numbers of very fine " mahogany " and rosewood trees, 
- fit for cultivation. It will have every en- 
'' ' u>mt tioin iik-. I am (juiU' sui tobacco would i.e. a |>a\ i i : u crop 

1 ;- !1 > <»•' * i 1 » v i, v \, nil | (! --o i it cult ii( II rublei 

tended. Besides the Ceara tree, 
iiv parts, and I saw several vines 
"■ i s.t».i." 1 i.l. rd caffa as hopeless in 
the lower river; the soil i> not sufficiently rich, except, perhaps, in a 
few plac-. ami eight months drought would, I fancy, try the most long 
suffering plant. Rice might, of course, be grown to any extent, but the 

dy stage. There is, however, a specie;, which. 

natives cannot be encouraged to grow it for export. Indian rice comes 
to us too cheaply. It can be bought here at about 15*. a cwt. 

There i- ;i sentimental objection to taxing food stuffs. In a case of 
however, a tax on imported rice would compel an indolent 
race to work, either to grow the article or earn more money wherewith 
to pay for the rice which is imported for it.. 

We have had a most unhealthy season. I lost one European officer 

'/!' ! '' ' ! ll ^ !1 ^'- '-"I'llie, fortunate!-,, I- i -Colonial sur-eon 
k or some unexplained reason I have m usual 

Relieve me, &c. 
(Signed) G. T. Carter. 

By the West African agreement between Great Britain and Prance 
of August 10, 1887, a frontier line between tfa 

possessions was established. In accordance with its provisions a 
SS^k r m - - IPP inl ! to mice upon the 

spot the line of demarcation between the English and Frenci 

-The partition of Tropical Africa 
at any rate, a rough survey of its botanical resources. It u-as I .sirable 
opportunity presented by the Ga abia JVlimifari n Com- 
w««oi for the purpose. The Coh 

willing to allow a medical officer to be selected who wool 
was possible in the w.u ■..',,. ■ ■,' . ',.,„„, Ti 

of Edinburgh : i, m 

onNo W b an i 5 iVerP ° 01 Wlth th8 «**"*» ™ the S.S. Congo 


eo 3 he i P re P arati £ n of dri ed prunes is a very considerable industry in 
several parts of Europe. 

« J[?i l he V ? U . e - T ° f the Loire in France ' es Pecia«y about Bourgueil, a 
small town lying between Tours and Angers, the Prunier d< 

"'''•"- '" ^'.Juliaua. !>.('.) n hu-.-lv cultivated This 

principle sources of supply of 


( According to Fliickiger and Hanburv (Phnrmaeographia, p. 2-32). 
-ine prune m , rs fresh -fat- is an ov, [dr. • f a d< 
opt .!, pressed at the insertion ol 

; "■ ■ ■ „.: ^,^.,. . . ' , .' • 

is very ripe ; it ,Ines net adhere to rhe stone. 

w jAort (A to A of an inch long, 

•■ the upper end 

« The fruit is dried partly by solar and partly by fire heat,— that 

■ r h vp , ,| . , n ;. , T i , , t , ov , , l | toth 

Huis prepared, it is ab.uit l\ inches long, black and 

water!" ^covers its original size by digestion in warm 

U MM1 - 875.-W/90. Wt.; A2 


The production of a somewhat inferior kind of prune is also an 
important industry in Germany. The following account is from Han- 
bury and Fliickiger (pp. 252, 253). 

"When French prune- are scarce, a \ ■vy Mmilai fruit, known in 
Germ mi v as Zwetschcn or Quetschen, is imported as a substitute. It is 
the produce of a tree which most botanists regard as a form of Prunus 
(lowrstiva, L., termed by De Oandolle var. PnitieaitUana. K. Koch, 
JJi ><!;■< i, </}(>, part i. ( 1809), 94, however, is decidedly of opinion that it 
is a distinct species, and as such he has revived for it Borkhausen's name 
of Prunus ceconomica. The tree is widely cultivated in Germany for 
the s:,ke of its fruit, which is dried as an article of food, but is not 
Mr gland. 

" The dried fruit differs slightly from the ordinary prune in being 
lather larger and more elongated, and having n thicker skin ; also in the 
Btone being • end, with the ventral 

sut-ue much more strongly curved than the dorsal. The i'ruits seem 
rather prone to become covered with a saccharine efflorescence." 

There is a thiid centre of the prune industry in south-eastern 
Europe. This is of increasing importance. 

J h, following account of it is taken from the General Review of the 

Mate of the Trade in Servia during iheyear 1S86, by Mr. Vansittart, 

Cliiii.tre d' Affaires at the time at ■ d Diplomatic 

o. 176). 

" The sum total of the value of the export of grain, fruit, and prunes in 

koned at 535,476/.; of this sum rather more than half repre- 

sphi> the value of prunes exported. In lss-1 some ■ Oj 56,155 kilos,, of 

74,441/. ; and in 1885 ab , >f a value of 

2ol,0(W., were despatched from Servia. 

" It is reckoned that one-third is exported direct to Germany, via 
direct to America, vid Fiume, and one-third to 
r ' , ■ : eras European 

11! :. ;, ' , ; i .- : ' i ( »n ol prunes to North America, 

rin inline, should be particularly noticed. Fiume is more advan- 
pui] . , ; from the 1) inning cf 
th> ■ a- "i no less than 400 complete \. -_o m d<>ads v :< exported per 

" The prune harvest for 1886 yielded in Bosnia more than a third of 
11 ' harvest oi the previous year, and c n be reckoned at about 170,000 
< ncrs; whereas , rvia yie! . 1 , _ <! a crag< harvest of about 

£*» Of this Bam total more than three-fourths 
exported. The quality of the new c«— '— — ^ « "— 

i ol a durable nature" 
propoitions in the i 

'"' - ! i- to that country that the great bulk is exported. 

more an article of luxury, and the 

•^If'S," as sold in the EuulMi mrbt. are the 

■though, perhaps, the S ally {-mailer 

■ ,M :i ' ■ .«i}iiiui-:, .-I. ,-p.v rate than that at present 
tion. The real reason is, probably, 

' !: •''' ^ I '' ; ; - ntied among tiie riol • v classes in 

J? ' li -'i" ! '^ : - : what mav be termed the general 

1 •■"•'■--'l» " : '-' ir".c:i - prim , i „;, t ':i.;:,,,- render them more 
attractive to the -y. :,:. , [)riceS} se p l)etter> 

I am told that the export of prunes in general might he benefitted 
by exporters using for this purpose specially made barrels to contain 
100 kilos., or 220 lb. casks." 

The kind of prunes more particularly distinguished as "French 
plums" are a special industry of Southern France. Th, 
preparation and the extreme care bestowed upon it seem to be little 
known. These were very carefully studied on the spot by Mr. >,T. W. 
Colchester- Wemyss, of Westbury Court, Westbury-on-Scvern T7i s 

■ imbii.-lu d in tin-- Kcw Bulletin* Though there se,-ms 

to be little prospect of success in the preparation of prunes 

plums m this country, there seems no reason why it should n,t be 

m colonies the climate of whirl, is not dissimilar to that of 

Southern France. Fruit-growing would be doubtless stimulated in 

Fruit-curing in the South of France. 

About 60 miles above Bordeaux there falls into the Garonne a fii 

iuree of C «ome i ISo*" 7° ""^ ^ mOU . nlain ! ° f Cevenne S Wlows 

3 it enters the (.. : ; tni ';, ] ( ' n()ffn 

n specially prepared. iX < <• French plums." For over 
ustry has been fixed in this locality, and still with the 
: a valley in Servia there is no other place where the 

junction with the G«u» 
<! the two rivers together confer the name on 
he Department known as Lot and Garonne. 1 
the lower reaches of the Lot, and in I 
to the spot where '' 

100 years the industry 

sole exception of a valley in Servia there is no other place ,._._ 
same trees are cultivated. The tree is called « Prunicr r/Y;,7e"; 
™ii 1 1 1S at \ ? ld French word meaning to graft, and it is simply so 
:v plum in this 
other than the « Prunes d'ente" grown in the m 
up the Garonne, round the old town of Agen 

grown, and its fruit tiv, u,i similarly to (he* . 
but the produce is very inferior an. 

Delieve that nowhere, except in the Servian val ev. is the true"- i'ruw 

^ ••""1 Ihou-h matn ex',,:-, irmmts have been 

/ ■ ' '■ ■ '' ^ "' : ' • • 

-Fnmeh plums.-' It is rather 
- f ™ its area of cultivation does not extend very 
■'!'."■"•< ,,, .Kdi-ht i„ a ,-ieh alluvial soil 
m • *•! "' rilliKl - !i:il!i ' i a sutficiency of clay to 

;;;••;■ - > > . - m« „, T i„ ,,,,. 

built r.1 maj S c ' a { l ,,aint little old-fashioned town 

Wwi ^ P hil1 Sid0 overlooking the Lot, almost in 
looking than French, its houses shaded from the fierce sool 

\ Bordeaux (Reports from the Consuis of 

George W. Roosere 

l abstract in the Journal of the Society of Arts 

with wide outspreading eaves and flower-clad balconies. Here, during a 
recent stay, I was most hospitably entertained by M. Gajac, one of the 
most leading merchants connected with the plum trade, with whom I 
had accidentally become acquainted. 

In this and the neighbouring Communes the Metayer system i3 in 

full operation, and it appears to work well and harmoniously. The 

owner of the land engages the Metayer, and supplier nil the implements 

and stuck required for the holding; he also keeps the buildings in repair, 

including the house used by the Metayer. The latter finds the whole of 

the labour except such extra labour as is needed during harv< st rime. 

The Metayer during the year has entire control of the farm, and bttys 

aired, to the consent of the owner. He renders 

account of all produce from the holding consumed by himself and 

family, and at the end of the year the balance of profit is divided equally 

between the owner and the Metayer. During the last few years the 

Metayers have fared badly, for the Phylloxera has devastated the vine- 

yards, and sad it is to see acres aml'aeres of land excellent for the 

growth of grapes, hut fit for little else, now deprived of those crops 

which formerly so well repaid the cost of cultivation. The holdings 

vary in extent from 10 acres to sometimes 50 and 60, and on every holding 

in the lowlands are to be seen rows of the " Prumer tTente" The 

rows are separated from each other by long strips of cultivated land 

where the mild fawn-coloured oxen lazily drag the most old-fashioned 

ve implements over the easily broken soil. The plums are 

shed being very much the 

as the plum 

skin is extremely tough, without being very thick or hard ; 

n,e th-sh wry firm containing a large amount of saccharine ; the specific 

gravity much less than that of eevei I, plums with 

which I made comparison. 

The i 

situated, with a : i lom< The fruit 'also 

slowly and is not ripe till all other fruits in the district, apricots, green- 
ches, have ripened. The plums are picked when just ripe, 
before the flesh has begun to soften, they are placed on " dab* " or 
trays, one layer of plums on each « claie." The " claies" are made 
either of strips of wood or of wicker work, and are either triangular or 
round. They are a little deeper than the thickness of a plum, so that 

inside the " e'tuves" and the operation^in^eiK^sr 

in which are placed the "fours " and also the " Jtuve," if the 
Metayer possesses one. The "fours" are simply like very large 
ordinary bread ovens, they are usually built in pairs, each one about 
10 feet long and 4 feet wide ; they are heated by burning wood inside 
them ; the ashes are cleared out and the " claies " placed inside. 

The "e'tuves" are cloeets of variable dimensions with different 
appliances for holding the "claies," they have a small furnace with 
pipes underneath the floor for heating. There seems to be a preference 
for the "fours," though the " f/urfs " are simpler and more convenient 
in every way. 

When the fresh fruit 
100° F. When the plan 

empty " claie" upside 


down close over a full one, and then turning them both over. After 
cooling the ■ claies " are again put into the "four," this time at a 
temperature of about 135°; again withdrawn, turned, cooled and put 
in at a temperature of about 170°; and this operation is continued 
until the plums have been dried. Some dry more rapidly than others, 
and they are picked out as they are ready. The more slowly the 
operation is performed and the oftener the plums are put into the 
"four " the better will be the result. 

When they are ready the plums are sorted out into various grades, 
j: — to the number (30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 5 5 or more up to about 
j put into sacks 

130) that it ■ 

and carried to the markets. Here the merchants ( 

j :'< - i t tying :-. ■■< r ling to the number of plums required to we:<di a 
pound; 30 to the pound would be worth about 120 francs the 100 
pounds ; 40 to the pound about 100 francs, and so on down to the very 
lowest grades, which are not worth more than 15 francs. The mer- 

\ -.'v the fruit to large, cool, airy warehouses, where it is 
thrown into bins, and women at long tables are employed sortino- over 
igain mm h mo c irefully than before. The v 

- ol to Bordeaux, where the finer 

• packed carefully in bottles or boxes, t\v in fen >r are simply 
exported in bulk. 

,< J*°" nd A S en and jn the other districts another tree is cultivated, the 
' , '•'■'■''■"; r rommun." This is a round violet plum grown on its own 
stock. The fruit is prepared in a similar manner to the -Prune 
' n is very inferior and is only fit for stewing. Enormous 
quantities are consumed by the peasants in the north and east of 
± ranee. 

1 think the deductions I have drawn from the observations and 
inquiries I have made may be briefly stated as follows :— 

J. lhat we have no ph. ted in the Severn district 

that at all resembles the " Prune d'ente." 

2 That though I think we have plenty of suitable soil I think it 
most probable that we should never successfully cultivate the " Prune 
aente on account of the lateness of our spring and the comparatively 
small amount of really hot sun that we usually enjoy. * 

v. inat some of our plums can be made to yield lower grades of 
^"f and "pruneaux," but with such produce ,,-,.' . 
could hardly be maintained. The loss of weight in the process of 
<hymg even with the best "prunes d'ente" amounts to two-thuds of the 
-ht ; with our plums it would probably be about three- 
quditeis. In other words a pot of our plums would probably yield 
about 25 pounds of dried fruit. F 

; y were established, 1 should propose to adopt a class of 
«l " 2 \ Ch J have in use for burnin S terra cotta at my brickworks. 1 
should have a set of four of these kilns, each kept' coxa 
regular temperature, but the beat in each one varying from that" in the 

ere ^ili a set, in a suitable chamber and with the reqti 
arrangements, would probably cost about 200/.; not so much if nlaccil 
dLT e A 1Stln S biding; and the daily output would amount to the pro- 
W t-i trom J° P° ts of fresh fruit, all of which would pass through all 
four kil M . There could not be more than about six weeks of work, 
duringthat? ° UtpUt W ° Uld ' therefore ' *** about 250 pots of dried fruit 

wou^'L^f** that durin « the g reater P art of the year the factory 
u De ldl e unless development ' 

ich I have obtained a con- 
n, and which appears to offer very great 
ake this report too lengthy were 
3 scheme ; and I will only mention 
it is the niatmi'; ,,^ that : — 

That plum brandy appears to possess distinctive and valuable 

iy. That such a me srably extend the period 

during whieh t lie factory would be at work. 

v. That the worst, soiled, and damaged fruit might be usefully 

Again, the manufacture of jam would enlarge the field of operations 
and extend the period of work; and not only of jam, but of fruit 
prepared in various ways. 

I propose to fry experiineata in drying all the varieties of plums 
-;'"''• ' ' • t, and we can then form an idea of 

of the product, and cai , , quantity 

available of sin h varietie, a. .how fail !y good results. 

In using the word jam above I meant to include in the phrase the 
d under the French term « confi- 
'""'\\ :UI [ -in suggested "fours" I 

should say fe] pk> pxcept that it wouW certainly be 

this amount, hut it n.-^t 1... tl. 1Vt . (i ,;,,„. lilll( . y .,, ]mirll . j s]l;iU 
ripe, with my kiln at the 
brickworks, and I can then form a reliable opinion. 

Au<* 1888 (Signed) M. W. Colcheser-Wemyss. 

l ]\ r '' ' 7 '\' li \-"'" ^r the publication of his paper in the Kew 
! " , ' .--W.-nn>s was good enough to s. 

hejave the following results of some experiments with 

"■": to make the best attempt I could with 
My it was a most unfavourable 

. Knu-land m-vi-r ripened 
-1 ab,oi,ce ,,f warm Hinshine reduced to very 

that the experiment was made under avowedly unfavour- 

rJ,!™!*/ r ' % ' ' V ' Vl " iu '" l '" ;i M» < i'' 1 ^» for burning 

< " ■■<•!' ™" " <-tnv< , only much better. It is fired with a special gas 

produced on the spot, the flume circulates in a hollow wall round the 

5 ^ be cut ofl at any moment, and the 

temperature regulated at will. f ,■ terra-cotta, 

for drying plums; but it afforded 


"' fi'i'it-drying purposes. I tried several 

others the Early Prolific, Blaisdon Red, 

>>'^ Al"-:.-i. and lilitek Diamond, but every plum I tried 
ent in all the tb of the j>, 

toughness of skin, solidity of flc-h, and a' m-laneo of saccharine. 

and even those which yielded a mod- 
result had to be treated with extraordinary care to avoid the bursting 
i and consequent escape of juice. 
They had to be put many times into the kiln, and the finishing 
temper ture ha 1 to 1 • arrived at very gradually, and even then I un- 
poilt, from a too high temp -rature/s -s oral •■«•/,//, "-laN , f 
pluno which I wis preparing in an ordinary bread even at W -r-tburv. 
The plum season was a short one this vem-, and unless ; 
green, so many rotted before they wore r.adly ii r ,, o-, in- ;,, the- ,b,mp 
•' '/ ' 'b *•> t! si v, h the time and means at, m -j . ! „ ,. ,, p 
:il! "' ,(> ! 1Vi: fkose giving the i e-"f 

results were the Blaisdon Red, the Black Diamond, and the Victoria. 

■ i-run 

require nearly 

varieties to make 1 lb. of " Pruneaux." 'in other words, 

' !lu ; oi }lu ' raw fruit to Ik Id. per pound, it vuudd !;:! ■ tour peiuiv- 

l . ndof«Pnmeanx M ; [] 

nave lo sell at 5d. per lb. to ma!;o the manufa; ture profitable. 

A l-'iel«.ry could not be starred solely for the manuiacture of «• Prn- 
aay time would only be so small a portion of the 
whole year, that it could hardlv be rend, "rod 

j 1 r *" *™ t ^ ^n 1 lb a but 1 tth (i iv. Mm-, s , <.,;.! nol v. '1 be 

• ■ .} givat distance. It ha- lo j.,. n „,.. ,-.... , ,] Xvt ,„„.,, 

not be at all bruised, and the skin must not be the least broken. A 

:e the erection and maintenance of ovens and 

the earliei stag - of manufe o ra 

" !i .- ht l^ i-'i'i'inl ( ,iir iii wi,-h lot !'■.!, ,„1 th process le 

' j 1 ted at the factory. Such a pi n wo 1 ilso ho • 

; '■ "'"■■-' •' '■"■'"■■ ing the annual period of life a( the faetorv. It 

~ o e the raw li ;i; in <•,,,-! diamb r , at the 

.• it at loisure, but I doubt this. A faetorv in fact to be 

succesMiiJ must embrace other operations besides drying plums. 


Inquiries being from time to time addressed to Kew on the subject 
m, the follow- 
ing to such a project in South Australia is 
published for convenience of reference 

8, Victoria Chambers, Westminster, 
> forward to you the enclosed copy of a Despatch 

(Signed) Samuel Deering, 

Assistant Agent-General. 
W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., C.M.G., F.R.S., 
Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

1 of South Austria to Sir Arthur Blyth, 
K.C.M.G., C.B. 

South Australia, Office of the Treasurer, 
Sir, Adelaide, July 2, 1888. 

I have the honour to inform you that at a meeting of the 
members of the Agricultural Bureau the possi', 

that a market cannot be obtained in tlr's Colony for the produce from 
tliem, il was desired that you should be asked to solicit inquiries as to 
whether a market could be found in England, and it was further 
desired to endeavour to establish vegetable and flower seed farms here, 
with a view to encourage the export of seeds, and to further that 
object they request that quotations of the prices of the import market, 
together with the duty (if any), may be likewise furnished. 

I have, therefore, at the instance of the Honourable the Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands, to request that you will be good enough to 
obtain and furnish any information you can on the -object, as desired 
by the Agricultural Bureau. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) L. H. SllOLL. 

Sir Arthur Blyth, K.C.M.G., C.B., . Under Treasurer, 

Agent-General for South Australia, ' pro Treasurer. 

In order to obtain the information desired by the Agent-General for 
South Australia application was made to the well-known authority in 
the perfumery i„ ! M rv, M, . : I, , ,. - p. I\, ~ . who over a Jong period 
of years has always most kindly assisted Kew with information which 
it would have been difficult to have procured from any other source. 
Extract of letter from Mr. Charles II. Fiesse to Royal Gardens, 
Kew, dated 2, New Bond Street, London, October 10, 1888. 

The question as to the probability of establishing a trade in per- 
ttta between this country and the Australian Colonies is one 
which could better be discussed viva voce than by letter, as there is a 
good deal to say about it. 

There is always a market here for the " Mtitieres premieres" used in 
perfumery, and I will refer only to those of vegetable origin. These 
are scented woods, attars or essential oils, and the so-called pomades, 
which consist of a solid fat, saturated with the odours of certain 
flowers. Ihe essential oils, being the most easily procured, sine they 
are obtained by distilli: g with water, the odoriferous protion of the 
plant, and tin- I diould sav was the most likely mode of a successful 
> n "•-.»<» tl. n.ele. -,-,„ lu „ 1(1 , sMm , ,..;.„ ,i ,„| „s,.«l in per- 
fumery, this offers the additional advantage that a great ninny Mich oils 
not used m perfumery, but usod vei ■ rid in confec- 

tionery are to be obtained in precisely the same way ; for example, Mint, 

Peppermint, Juniper, Chamomile, Pennyroyal, Thyme, and the like 

lhe odour, . ;,, npr f,, m p ' nf J „ J . ,B * 

; .^ : ; ; v ,; . :■:■..-:,.,; 


English-grown iavender vritLteZl^Z'zny ^ A Vn^h t 
far and away the better, as the price indicates, 50,. to 8,. peril, : & 

tl^T U ; m , ( ! <7r ' 9M ''''' c«l»t<>t»»»,\\Ki\ grown in the ^,uh oi 
Spain is far better than either French, Algerian, or Turkish 

In regard to the manufacture of p :„ ( ,_ (Tlti .., 

JST* ' , iatS ^ ]en ^ and t^iouL process) 

and the producers of the finished pomades. * 

^ Is ' U, ' ,!,] "'•' th;U Hwould be unwise to attempt to produce these 

who 111 W °? e K "L tbe ^f eSS V and aSsi8ted b ? skiUed ^rkmen 
Who would have to be brought from the south of France, which is, so 
tar, the only seat of this industry. 

nJnrtn™ ''"I °? PUbli f t d ?*£ P ubIica(ion devoted t0 the quotations you 
at a good deal of information is scattered throueh the mop, 
of the Public Ledger, published daily at 6, St. Dunstan's pfssao-f GrS 
Tower Street, E.C. Some information is also to be found i 
of Perfumery" (upon a new edition of which I am now 
: ■ r you price lists of v. r 
sale dealers in these kinds of materials, if you so desire. I m- * th->t 
no record has been kept of the Australian journey of my br» 
no report has been published of the perfumen 
devoted considerable attention. 

. „ T , „ (Signed) Charles H. Piesse. 

J. K. Jackson, Esq., Kew. 

Agent- Gkneral for South Australia to Royal GasDeot, Kew. 

8, Victoria Chambers, Westminster, 
SlR ' 6th November 1888. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your le'ier oi 
the .3rd instant, in continuation of your letter of the 8th A ; 


a market here f«„- scent and m< dirimd i :i 
flower seeds, the products of the Colony. 

I thank you, in the name of the Government that I represent, for 
your valuable i suggestions. 

The latter I shall act upon without delay, and I earnestly hope that 
some good results will accrue from them. 

I have, &c. 
1TT _ (Signed) Arthur Blyth. 

W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., C.M.G., &c, 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Reference may also be made to reports on the same subject in the 
' Reports from the Consuls of the United States" for September 1886 
and April 1889. 


inanas in the colony of Fiji for the purpose of 
exporting the fruit has during late years made more rapid strides. 
Unfortunately a disease has appeared amongst the banana plantations. 
The following correspondence relates to the subject : — 

Colonial Office to '. 

, Gaedens, Kew. 

, copy of 

Sib, Downing Street, 10th Novemb 

I am directed by Lord Knutsford to transmit "to you 
the Eeport on the Fiji Blue Book for 1889, and I am to call your 
attention to the remarks at page 28 as to the disease which has appeared 
among the banana plantations. 

Lord Knutsford would be glad if you could furnish the Governor with 
any information likely to be of use in combating this disease. 
I am, &c. 
The Director, (Signed) John BraMSTON. 

Extract from the Report on the Fiji Blue Book for the Year 1889. 

This year shows the highest export of green fruit, but this trade has 
not during the past year advanced in volume at the same rate as in 
previous years. The quantity of bananas exported is now considerably 
o\ r half a million bu 1 ;"i u mm «1 rl « i) the trade may 

be said to have been gathering strength, the cultivation of the banana 
being now reduced to a science. A disease has appeared among banana 
plantations during the past six or seven years, and would make rapid 
strides but for the persistent watchfulness of the growers. No reliable 
cure for the banara disease has yet been found, but inquiry and 
experiment are still going on. 

Table showing the Quantities of Bananas exported from Fiji during 
the Years 1886-1889. 



No. of bunches - 





Kotal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 

Sib » _ , , Royal Gardens, Kew, November 13, 1890. 

i have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of vour lett^v nf 
November 10, asking for information likely to aid the Government of 
*iji in combating the banana disease, which is stated to exist in the 

2. From the information given me by a planter, who recently called 
here, as to the export of the fruit, I d6 not think the disease can at 
present have obtained very serious dimensions. 

3. I have no exact information as to the precise nature of the di-e-e-e 
been found troublesome in Queensland. 

4 The Queensland disease has been investigated by Joseph Bancroft, 
MJD., an able scientific man residing in Brisbane. He kin 
k. w a copy of alecture, published apparently in 1879, "On the Diseases 
V f , A f ima i S Snd Plants that interfere wi th Colonial Progress." He 
attributes the disease to a nematoid worm, a minute parasite which 
roots. It is no doubt stated correctly to be allied to the 
well known paste eel, Angvillala. It might be worth while for the 
Governor of Fiji to obtain a copy of thii lecture. 

5. Dr. Bancroft calls the disease the Flask-worm disease, and he 
-!..w- il..,t "ploughing up and summer fallow ought to kill the parasite." 
Many plants, such as the carnation, suffer severely from a similar 
, and we find that no remedy is so efficacious as changing 

Peat Bi 

d that Messrs. 
► Levu, have acci 
— , CiClt lllilL ujseaseu Danana plants mignt be restored to health by 
cutting down, stirring the ground, and pouring one to four buckets of 

7. In the issue of 
Ferdinand van Mueller, adopting the view 

by a nematoid worm, recommends, failing 

cides, ploughing tin la. !. I, >• in- it i 1W, and alternating *onie nthei 
crop. The ground should subsequently be replanted from an unaffected 
locality. This appears judicious advice, and I am not aware that 
present knowledge of the subject there is anything else b 

I am, &c. 

. T. Thiselton Dtek. 


The Turks and Caicos Islands lie between 21° and 22° N. lat. an 
71° and 72° 37' W. long. Their area is 169 square miles. The mos 
important island. Gnu ! Turk, i* 2\ miles long and 2 miles broad. I 
contains 2,500 inhabitants, being half the total population. 

These islands were originally settled from Bermuda in the 18tl 

vhich group they geographically belong. In 1848 they 

were made independent of the Bahamas, and were placed under the 
Governor of Jamaica, an arrangement which still continues. 

S.i'r -:; tking is the only industry of any importance, the quantity 
rlicred exceeding l£ million bushels. Sponges are found in 
some quantities on the Caicos bank, but are chiefly collected by Bahamas 
schooners and carried to Nassau. There is one sponge-curing establish- 
ment on the Caicos Islands. The cultivation of the Manila fibre (or 
Pita plant) is being extensively introduced, with every prospect of 

The < 


totally unfit for agricultural purposes, 
d and household necessarir- rue im- 
most wholly with the United 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, 21 February 1890. 

of your letter of the 17th inst., forwarding a copy of a despatch from the 
Governor of Jamaica together with a letter from the Commissioner of 
Turks and Caicos Islands re plants. 

2. The specimens of leaves mentio: son have duly 
arrived at Kew and they have been carefully examined. The leaves 
marked A. and called "Pita" taken in conjunction with the specimen 
of fibre enclosed belong to the true Pita or Henequen of Yucatan 
(Agave rigidax&r. sisa la. ■, tlw plants vi.-l.ling the 
valuable fibre which has much attention at the 
Biin : ' ■ - ' '■•■ leaves mar! , ! I ). arc derived from the same species, but 
the leaves in tli ■ ; cutnstarice 
which often occurs in this and other species of Agave. The original 
v 1,1 | mts ol Agave rigidu w, re plentifully supplied with teeth. The 
present unarmed varieties have hern selected for cultivation as being 
mor. readily handled The three small livi,, u planN included with the 
leaves V. and D. were apparently true " Pita" plants. . 

3. The plant known locally as "Manila," marked B., but supposed 

Jackson, as expressed in his letter of the 22nd July, "to be 
<; the Sacqui or Henequen of Yucatan, of lighter colour and having 
" thorns on the edge of the leaf and grow ' : I'n eU wihl," is Furcreea 
cubensis. This is well distributed nearly everywhere in the West 
Indies, and is known in Jamaica, 'l'...b:i<}««, and" elsewhere as "Silk 
Grass." It is closely allied to the pi ins hemp. It 

yields a good fibre, but it cannot be regarded as so valuable a plant as 
the "Pita." V ,- n , ( ^;p nbt unable 

in largo .nmntities, it would not he ntion entirely 

to the "Silk Grass." 

4. It will be noticed that e 
Turks Islands has proved very 


rendered valuable service by drawing attention to the existence 
true "Pita" in these islands, and there is no reason why a v< 
Pprtanl Bbre industry should not be established here The iden 
the Turks Islands "Pita" with that of the Bahamas is s fa< 

T° ul(1 iiloiu ' -" .... n to improve th< ■•-, !'l 

the people in these Settlements. 

Sir R. G. W. Herbert, K.C.B. (Signed)*™' & D. Mo. 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

SlR ' T , .. _ . r s Downing Street, February 25, 1890. 

1 am directed by Lord Knutsford to acknowledge thi 
your letter of the 21st instant, ■ 

Plant, -ent home by the Commissioner of Turks Island,.. ,. 
)'<>» >!<,,, of it has been transmitted to th 
tor communication to the Commissioner. 

Robert G. W. Herbert. 

(Signed) Robert G. 

The Commissioner, Turks Islands, to the Colonial Secretary, 

(Turks Islands, No. 76.) 
SlK > Grand Turk, August 19, 1890. 

H - VVI? fur of inspe* -i,,,, r.„; ,. (he whole 

of the L'aicos Islands, hiring uhich I was able to visit nil inlands 

hjr. ;■ taken up for fibre cultivation, I have the honour to submit t , ids 

the Governor a short report on the pre<e it n - ..f this 

industry. r * l 

2. Leaving Grand Turk in a small schooner on the evening of the 
"th i t, „ l()m j uy , 1 1 'i M I! m . i)i, Ai ( -nl, w< 
;'" '•"•' •••' '} '■" the following day at the west point of Etist Caicos, 
better known as "Breezy Point." The island i- .:,...:-... U . f 
25,000 acres, and is held on a lease, without tvnf, off)!* wars o* 1 which 
:1,, " ,,; lOvrarsnuh have expired. The ordinal lcs*eo\lied hi March 
'■ ,Nt - I his heirs have sub-let tin p ] m of Mr. J. P. ? i iv, who 
ri-prrse, is n syndicate who are merely waiting for the 

( oinj.anies Act to register as a limited iiabilifv company. 

3. At present, about two-thirds of the island is h id as a cattle 
ranch, there being about 1,000 head on the island, and there is a 


considerable quantity of cave earth (guano), about 200 tons of which 
red, and was awaiting shipment at the time of my visit. 
The island contains from 15 to 20,000 acres suitable for the Pita (or 
Sisal) cultivation, and some 200 acres have already been cleared. The 
In I. bo far as I was able to judge from the written des • 
which I have a considerable number, is fully equal to the best hind in 
Abaco, where such large sisal plantations are being established in the 
Bahamas, and it is far superior for this purpose to any land which I 
have seen in any other part of the Caicos. It i 

earth, freely interspersed with limestone rock, rich in phosphates, the 
kick is amply attested by the luxuriant growth 
v.i'li which i! is covered. The anchorage is safe and good for vessels 
up to 300 tons, and could easily be made available for larger craft by 
the removal of a few isolated coral patches. 

4. The only obstacle to the assured and early success of the company, 
ling sufficient plants of 
the right variety {Agave rigida var. sisalana), but it is one which I 
hope may be shortly overcome. At present, the company has the 
promise of sufficient plants to stock about 200 acres, but they are ready 
to clear 2,000 acres a year if plants can be had. The labour for this, ns reported in my letter 
No. 67 of the 22nd July 1889, there is no Govern incut land available 
for the people, and they have hitherto been forced to hire land at 

5. We were joined at Breezy Point by Mr. Leslie, the l 
the Caicos District, and, leaving there on the 7th instant, we proceeded 
to Lorimers, on Grand Caicos, to the fibre plantation leased by Mr. 
Hance. This property comprises about 1,000 acres, of which nearly 

one third has been planted out for some years in Pita. Unfortunately, 
no system was pursued in setting out the land, and the plants are in 
irregular lots among thick bush, and, in the six months he has held 
the la id, Mr. Hance has made no effort to eh a; or arrange his planta- 
tion, but has confined himself to gathering the mature leaves. He 
assures me, however, that he intends at onco to clear and plant out 
nd has also promised to dispose of his surplus suckers to the 
lessees of Breezy Point. 

6. Mr. Hance has erected a stone store and dwelling combined, and 
has put up a 10 horse-power vertical engine, capa U of working o oi 
6 « Raspadores." At present he is only working one "Kennedy" 
machine, and th. r< ult i- nol sat i.- i to , tin uh 1 have little doubt 
that this is greatly owing to th labour at his 
command. During my visit, which extended - wr two days, he was 

fibre," but even these it was considered necrssirv to divide, before 
p Like ihrongh the wheel. d <h< is i loss ot n t h than 

30 per cent, of fibre, the land on v ; put to dry 

by covered to a depth of several inches with tangled fibre. 
"•■. Ida ice n sur. - me that, in spite of this loss, he < "' lain- ;vi average 
amount of fibre of upwards of 1 per cent, of the weight of the haves, 
which is all that is done by the Death and Eilwood wheels in Yucatan 
and the Bahamas. If this be so, then either the waste from the best 
present in use mro! b it, ot else the 

peculiar soil of these islands must produce a leaf richer in fibre than 
has yet been grown. I ;- the case, 

to some extent at all events, as, at the next place visited, I found 
numbers of plants of the Manila or '-Silk (Jrass" with -trong, hard. 

7. The labour for Mr. Hance's lands is, like that for Breezy Point, 
drawn from Grand Caicos, including the villages of Lorimers, Bombarra 
and Fergusons, but his plantation is so small that this will cause no 
difficulty. In fact, it will require both these farms to find work for 
tnese people, ; ,.... i„ , a , w . rv pjg t y e one 

8. I had intended visiting the extensive though thinly populated 
settlement of Bottle Creek on North Caicos, where I am told thereare 
numbers of Pita plants on private lands not vet worked, but the state 
of the weather made it dangerous to risk the "passages of the reef so 
leaving Mr. Hance to return to Grand Turk in the schooner which had 
brought us, I took my own open boat and, starting at 9 a.m. on the 

ding across the Caicos Bank, reached 
Kew Settlement on North Caicos at 11 p.m. the same day, a very h^t 
day s work under an Aug shallow water, 

i 9 \f V KeW ^ are no Pit11 P lan ' ! « that there 

than in any other part of I 
■ .i id is required for, and should be, the market garden of the other 
Settlement, This year has been one of such intense drought that the 
had faded, but the root crops are so plentiful that we found 
>g the people. It is this land that I surveyed last 
year and placed the people in possession of 25 acre lots, and I was able 
to lay out BOM ri^t, M weli as to sur g f 

the roads to « tie " the previous surveys. 

10. I found at Kew about a couple of hundred Pita plants growing in 
so I had a suitable spot cleared, and the 
set out at regular intervals to form a 
i here that I observed the large specimens 
«dinpa r. These plants were 

introduced here in Jamaica in 1883-84 by Mr. Plummer, the Instructor 
in Agriculture, sent up I,y Mr. Morris at Mr. Llewelvn's request. Thev 
' mv r '" ;l ' . as far better results are 

ol'tana-d from the Pita, it is unlikely that we shall be able to put them 
to much practical use. 

t }}' 0u £ schooner having returned from Grand Turk, Mr. Leslie and 
1 left on Thursday morning for West Caicos, the waste lands on which 
have been recently lease in accordance with the permission contained in 
your letter, No. 4269/6302, of the 28th ultimo. My visit was only for 
the purpose of forming an opinion as to the best means of surveying 
these lands at the least expense to the lessees, as I am most anxious to 
afford every] : to the new industry. Otherwise I 

ork, as repeated absences from Grand Turk 
an; - [ er y in < ork is centred 

on the Commissioner, as i; is since the abolition of the office of Crown 
Purveyor (Colonial Engineer), just before my arrival in 1885. Besides, 
the work of surveying over such ver\ rough countrv. through thick 
l,M • '" "" ^ ,, }>'- -it this season, but there is no officer whom I can 
send, and to obtain the services of a surveyor from abroad m 

are which the lessees of the land are not prepared to meet. 
As the work is necessary for the success of the new industry, I have 
promised to do it, and propose to return there early next month. 

12. That this island of West Caicos is suitable for the fibre cultiva- 
tion is proved by the fact that in cutting the bush from the small 
portion of land which the company has been able to clear, twee they 
were allowed to go to work a fortnight ago, several Pita plants in good 


condition, and growing strongly, were found, which were before hidden 
in the bush, which is so thick as to be I fojKMJ 

that the manager of the company had his house hall l» .ml hiid 

some 30 acres of land in an advanced state of preparation, and he hopes 
to begin early in October to set out the plants, of which they have 
,!,,,!, upwards of 200,000. The labour for this property is drawn 
tl , 1> i C i< 33 (Blue Hills), the poor st S ttl ni th s 

inlands. • M <»ne in which it 1 is liitl rro 1, e i nece-arv - h ti bote 
provisions to the aged ami i ilirm almost annually, a necessity which 
abundance of labour will entirely remove. 

13. Having laid out the directions of the lines to be cleared for the 
.survey, I !< it West Caicos in the night for Grand Turk, a beat dead to 
windward of SO miles, much of it through very heavy seas. It took 
between three and four days to do, very weary and uncomfortable work 
in a small schooner, reeking of stale fruit and m 

obtainable here, md ii d •< d the only sai ■ ■ ne in heavy weather. 

14. In conclusion, I mav -ay that the result of my visit has been a 
conviction that the future of the fibre industry in the Caicos Islands is 
assured, if do useless obstacles or unnecessary restrictions be allowed 
to hara-- the companies now commencing operations. The land is in 
every a iy suitable, and tin m i> >„< i.i.'nt of I'm , pos-os- 
energ] , abilit j . "^ share- 
holders are not speculators, but men whose fortunes are involved in the 
und ii kin}.' Far 1 v. d he success to individuals, however, is tue 
impr. m nent to the conditi- n f lli > itb 

the home of want and distress. V, i: llia< <' on - 

seni 1 l.bour, always to be had for m an women, 'and ehi] ! a. for the 
nature of the industry r livelihood 

at least will be within reach of all who cart; to work, and ii is not too 
much to hope that the near future may see a prosperous and contented 
community replace the half starved, and not much more than half 
civili/.cd ••". reckers" whose nam. have been ' a by-word and a fear" 
to many an unfortunate ship- ...-tor, who-i \es- 1 hi- bo-n swept by 

[All Rigid* Reserved.} 





APPENDIX I.— 1890. 


The following 'id a list of such Hardy Herbaceous Annual and 
Perennial Plants as well as of .sucli Trees ami Shrub* as have matured 
seeds under cultivation in the Royal Gardens, lvew, <lunn<j; the year 
1889. These seeds are available ibr exchange with Colonial. Indian. 
and Foreign Botanic Gardens, as well as with regnlai eorre-pondeuts 
of Kew. The seeds are for the most part only available in moderate 
quantity, and are not sold to the general public. 




keena argentea, Ruiz et Favon, 

Adesmia muricata. DC, Chili, 



micropliylla, Hk. fii., N. Zea- 

Adlumia cirrhosa, Eaf., Unit. 

mvriop'hvllu, Ldl., Chili. 


ovaiiiolin, Ruiz et Pavon, 


Peru (AncisLrum rcpens, 


- var. fol. varieg. 

pinnnlifidsi, R, & P.. Chili, 
sanguisorbai, Valil, New Zeal. 

JEgopogon pusillns, Beauv., 

Acanthus longifolius, Host, S. Eur. 

JEthionema gracilc, DC, Greece. 

Achillea Apvrntum, L., Eur. 

alpina, L., Alps. 

h,.tciV'cari''"iii]'(J , .iv, Syria. 

Millefolium, L., Eur. 

saxatile, R.Br., S." Eur. 

Ptarmica, L., Eur. 

setacea, W. & K., Eur. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria, L., Eur., 


. :' . :v 

(T. mm-i-atmu, Link.) 


junceum, Ik 
(T. junce 

,l 'V )U ." 


— var. arist 


, Gray. Calif. 
if. coronaria, 

sa, Nutt, N. 


nigra, With 

— var. folii 

niton, (L.) 

lia, Bess., 

j Ajuga alpina, L. 

, Schreb., Ei 

Alcbemilla alpina, L. 
argentea, Don., ] 
juncta, Bub.) 

_ Hungary 

AMrea Krcguicvucensif 
S. E. Eur. 
multiflora, Keichb., 

aranllms chloroslacliys, Will J., 
Iiypocliondriacus, L., Amer., 

— var. tenuilbliiim, R <j\. 
macrantbum, Baker., Himal. 
neapolitanum, Cyril., Italy, 

odorum, L., Siberia. 
oleraceum, L., Eur. 

(A. coimdanatum, Bor.) 
poly pky limn, Kar. et Kir., 


us, (Don.) 

tkystea aerulea, L., Sibev. 
Ammi glaucifolium, L., S. Eur. 

jnpelodesmus tenax, Link., Eu 
Ana^allis arvensis, L., Eur., etc. 

lum, L., Eu; 

— var. Dcsglesei, (Dor. 

\m, L.. S. Ei 

Alopecui s igi(_<=t L., 


formis, Ret*., Siber 

Anemone ape 

inina, L., Eur. 

docapotala, L., N. Amer. 

Poir., N. Amer. 

— var.Hi 



aniea, L., N. Amer. 


, L., Eur., etc. 

Bucbaa., Himal. 


, L., Eur. 


i, L., N. Amer. 

Angelica gin 

ndium, Hook, f., 

New Zeal. 

\ncila liasial; 

Cav., N. Amer. 


Gray, Mexico. 


i"!'i,, k.'uV" 

" N. 

i Liliago, L. 

. algm\.Mise, 
. lW>L>ti, H< 
am, L., Eur. 



a, Crete, etc. 
, Lecoq. & 

Anthyllis tetraphylla, L., S. Eur. 

Antirrhinum Orontium, L., Eur. 

rupestre, Boiss. et Reut., 

Apium graveolens, L., Eur., etc. 

Aquilegia Bertolonii, Schott., Ital. 

chiysantha, Gray, N. Amcr. 

rosea. DC, Calabr. 
saxatilis, All., Eur. 
Soyeri, B. et R., Pyrenees. 
Stelleri, DC, China, etc. 

(A. ijaponica, Gray.) 
stricta, Huds., Eur. 
sudetica, Tausch., Centr. Eur. 

Arctium mains Schk., Eur. 
— yar. Kotschyi, Hort. 
minus, Schk., Eur. (Lapp;: 
minor, DC.) 
Arenaria balearica, L., Balearic 
graminifolia, Schrad., S. Eur. 

■ -' 
hu-icit'.ilia, L., Eur. 

,r-t.. Canca- 

. Icucantha. Bois: 
va. Koch., Kur. 
\, Tmcz., Sibcr. 

orientale, Bbrst., Lauea 

Arundo conspicua Forst., 

Zeal. (Calamagrosti 

Asparagus officinalis, L., Eur. 

procumbens, L., Eur. 
Asperula azurea, Jaub. & Spach., 

AsphouYlu.s allms, Willd., Eur. 

— var. asstivus, ( Brot.) 
ramosus, L., S. Eur. 

Aster acris, L., Eur. (Calatella 
acris Nees.) 

— var. punctatus, (DC.) 
Bigelovii, Gray, New Mexico. 

(A. Townshendii, Hk. HI.) 
corymbosus, Ait, N. Amer. 
Herveyi, Gray, N. Amer. 

lonii'ir.ilius, Lam.. X. An 

as, L., N. An 

Xuvi-!;,i u i,, L. X. Ame 


Muhl., N. 

ps< iidn-nmellus, Hk. ill.. 

Himal., 13,000 ft. 
puniceus, L., N. Amer. 
— var. lueidulus, Gray. 

(A. p. vimineus,T:etGr. 
pyreuaeus, Desf., Pyrenees. 

Shortii, Hook., N. Amer. 
spectabilis. Ait., X. Amor. 
Thomsoui, Clarke, Himal. 
trieephnlus, C. B. Clarke, 

— var. minor. (fialatella 
rigida, Cass.) 

umbcllatus, Mill., N. Amer. 
Asterolinum stellatum, Link. Eur. 
Astilbe decandra, Don., X. ( 'an >I i na . 

rivularis, Don., E. Ind. 

Astragalus adum us, Will.l., Can ;.- 
n-gyptiacus, Spr., Egypt. 
boeticus, L., Spain, Italy, &c. 
chinensip, L., China, 
chlorostachys, Ldl., Himal. 
Cicer, L., Eur. 
faleatus. Lam.. Siberia, 
glycypbyllus, L., Eur. 
M.'lcarus; L., Siber., Taur. 
thianshanicus, Regl., Turkes. 
A-tranfin l.iebcr.-teinii, F. et M., 

helleborit'olia. Salisb. Caueas. 

(A. maxima, Pall.) 
major, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. carinthiaca, (Hoppe.) 

— var. rubra, Hort. 
laciniata, L. Eur., etc. 
sibirica, L., Siberia, (Obione 

sibirica, Fisch.) 
tatarica, L., Eur. (A. 
oblongifolin, W. et K.) 
Atropa Belladonna, L., Eur. 
Anbrietia deltoidea, DC, S.Eur. 

— var. grasca, (Griseb.) 

Avellinia Mich. -in. Larl., Eur. 
A vena alba, Vahl., S. France, X. 
canadensis, Xees., Teiicrim-. 

strigosa, Schreb., Eur. 
Bahia lanata, DC, N. Amer. 

(Eriopliyllum ca'spitosum, 

Baptisia australis, R. Br., N. Amer. 
Barbarea intermedia, Bor., Eur. 

vulgaris, 11. Br., Eur. 

— var. variegata. 

Beckmannia erueseformis, Host* 

c ° n ^ m , , | Braya alpina, Sternb, Alps. 
Tnim T V ! Briza gracilis, Hort. 

' ' maxima, L., Eur. 

Bidens humilis, H. B. K, Chili. 

Broinus arvi.-nsis, U -^ur 

leuoantha, Willd., N. Amor., 


procera, Don., Mexico. 

breviaristatus, Tburb, N. 

P>i=crrula Pclocinus, L.,S.Eur.,etc. 

ciliatus, L., N. Amer. 

PUcuMl filiate, DC, S.Eur. 

(B. canadensis, Michx., 

B. purgans L.) 

erigcrifolia] DO, Spain. 

erectus, Huds., Eur., etc. 

Blitum (sec ChenopodiumY 

inermis, L., Eur., etc. 
madriwnsis, L., Eur. 

maximus, Desf., Eur. 

— mu: (;ik« nii. (Tail.) 

insignis, Schra<l., >F< .nt( ■ YUeo, 

Bocconia cordate, W., China. 

— var. glabrescens, Coss. 

«--.»—,*.*. a 

patnlus, Mcrt, Eur. 
propendens, .lord, Eur. 

Boltonia latisqnama, Gray, N. 

steriHs, L, Eur. 


Taena, Steud., Chili. 

Bnicliycnmc ,live-ifolia, F. ct M.. 

tectorum, L, Eur, Asia. 


Bryonia dioica, L, Eur. 

Bracliyi"i'ii'i;«i distechyum, R. et 

Bulbine annua, Wilhl, Capo. 


Bunias ori ■ utall-, L. Orient. 

mm salkifolinm, DC 

' "imlcMri.-a, Rh-h'i his. Balear. 

p.m.lourum Candollei, Wall, 
longifolium, L, Temp, Eur 

0,1 l (£.'<-h inonsis, L.T' ° C ' 

- var. c,rn,m, (Thunb.) 

rotundifolium', L.', Eur. 

— var. Shantung Cabbage. 

Butomus umbellatus, L, Eur. 

elaia, Ball,N. Afr. ' 
Eruca. L, S. Eur. 

Calais (sec Microscris). 

Calamagrosti E '_. i< s Roth. E> 

Enicastrnm, Vill, S. Eur 

lanccolata, Liotb, Eur. 

lapponica, Trin, Eur. 

Calandrinia gluien, Schrad., Chil 
Menziesii, Hook., Oregon, 
pilosiuscma, DC, Chili, 
sericea, Hook, et Arn., Chili 

( 'orvini, Desv., S. Eur. 
Calliopsis (see Coreopsis). 

Callirhoo Hi; iu ibnhi, Cray, Amor. 
Callistephus chinensis, Nees., 

Caltha palustris, L, Eur., etc. 

radicans, Forster, Eur., etc. 
Camassia esculenta, Ldl., N. 

alliarkefolia, "Willi!., 

bononiensis, L., Eur., etc. 
carpathica, L. fil., Carpath. 

— var. alba. 

— var. turbinata, (Schott.) 
collina, Bbrst., Caucas. 
Erinus, L., Eur. 

hictiflt.ra. 151 v-t., Caucas. 

laiitblia, L.. I 

3, L., Eur. 
Reuieriana, B. ct B., Orient. 
, L., Eur. 

sibirica, L., Eur., Asia. 
Traclulium, L., Eur. 
vesula. All , Pedem. 

Carex — cont. 

arenaria, L., Eur. 
baldonsis, L., Eur. 
binervis, Sin., Eur. 

depauperata. Good., Eur. 
distans, L., Eur. 
divulsa, Good., Eur. 
flava, L., Eur., etc. 
— var. Oederi, (Ehrh.) 
glauca, Murr., Eur. 

Heleonastes, Ehrh., Eur. 
hordeiformis, Whlbrg., Eur. 

Cauc. (C. hordeistichos, 

lagop M.H i ' -. Scbk.. 2s.An i r. 
Linkii, Willd., llediter. 
multiflora, Mhlbrg., N. Amer. 
ovalis, Good.. Eur. 
paniculatn, L., Eur. 
pendula, Huds., Eur. (C. 

maxima, Scop.) 
punctata, Gaud., Eur. 

riparia, Curtis, Eur. 

sylvatiea, Huds., Eur. 

vulgaris, Fries, N. Amer., etc. 

vulpina, L., Eur. 
Carpoccras sibiricum, Boiss., Siber. 
Carrichtera Yella. DC, Eur. 
Cartbamus lanatus, L., S. Eur. 

rS^aiunu KoeiCltaly. 
Ueia indivisa, Eng., Amer. 
>vo<:\ aouatica, Bcauv., Eur. 

alocephala, Willd., 1 
L., Eur. 

macrocephala, M. et P., 

montana, L^Eur. 

— var. ilore albo. 
nigra, L., Eur. 
ob.-cura, .Ford., Eur. 
pulehra, (F. et M.), Caucas. 
rigidiiolia. Bess, Caucas. 
Soabiosa, L., Eur, 

. Olh 

, (DC.) 

, L., Medit. 
itrnnthus macrosiphon, Boiss., 

rul.t-r. DC, Eur. 

Ceratocephalus (see Ranunculus). 
Ceratochloa unioloides, DC, S. 

Eur. (Bromus unioloides, 

Cerinthe major, L., S. Eur. 
Chamostoma foetida, Benin., Cape. 
Choerophyllum aromaticum, Jacq., 

Charieis heterophylln, Cass, Cape. 

Cheinrothus Cheiri, L., Eur. 
Chelidonium majus, L., Eur. 
— var. fl. pi. 

( iieimpoiliuni album, L., Eur. 
Bonus-Henricus, L., Ear. 
capitatnm, S. Wats., Eur 

opulifolium, Sriirad.',' Km-. 

elegans, H.B.K., Mexico. 

Chorispora tenella, DC, Cauc, etc 

Chrysanthemum achilleasfolium, 

Bbrst., Cauc. (Pyrethrur 

achilleasfolium Bbrst.) 

Balsamita, L., Orient. 

Schousb., N 

issfolinm, Vis., Dal 

a. (Pyretbrum cine 
Solium, Trev.) 

— var. fl. pi. 

eorymbosum, L., Eur. (Pyn 

thrum Clusii, Fiscli.) 
latifolium, Willd., Eur. (L. 

latifolium, DC) 
maximum, DC, Pyrenees, 
macrophyllum, W. et K., Eu 

(Pyretbrum macrophyllun 

Tchihatcbetfii (Kegel), Siber. 

ub'ginosum, Pers., Hungary., Desf,. Spain. 

Cichorium Intybus, L., Eur. 
Cimicifuga racemosa, Nutt., N. 

Cinna mexicana, Beauv., Mexico. 
Circaea lutetiana, L., Eur., etc. 
Cirsium (see Cnicus). 
Cistus platysepalus, Sweet. 

villosus, L., Mediter. 

— var. albicans. 

Clarkia pulc-hella, Pursb, N. An 

rhomboidea, Dgl., N. Am 
(C. gauroides, Hort.) 
Claytonia perfoliata, Don., 1 
sibirica, L., N. Amer. 

Clematis alpina, L., 

intrgrifolia, L., S. Eur. 
montana, Ham., Himalayas, 
ochroleuca, Ait., N. Amer. 
orientalis, L., Temp. Asia. 

— var. graveolens, Lindl. 
recta, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. hispanica, Hort. 

Clintonia (see Downingia). 

( 'ulcus altissimus, Willd., N. Amer. 

conspicuus, L., Mexico. 

fimbriatus, Bieb., Taurus. 

heterophyllus, Willd., Eur. 
(Cirsium heterophyllum, 

Kotschyi, Schultz. 

(Cirsium lanceolatum,Scop.) 
lanceolatus, Wilid., Eur. 
monspessulanus, L., S. Eur. 


Ten ore, Italy, 

syriacus, Willd., Mcdit. 
Cochlearia anglica, L., Eur. 
danica, L., Eur. 
glastifolia, L., S. Eur. 
officinalis, L., Eur. 

— var. alpina, Wats. 
Colchicnm byzantinum, Ker 

speciosum, Stev., Caucas. 
Collinsia bicolor, Benth., Calif. 

— var. multicolor, 
grandiflora, Dougl., N. Amei 
parviflora, Dougl., N. Amer. 

Collomia coccinea, Lehm., Chili. 

linearis, Nutt., Calif. 
Conioselinum Fischeri, Winim e 

Grab. Siber. 
Conringia perfoliata, Link, Eur. 

imajalis, L., Eur., Ai.i.T. 

< 'nn volvulus tricolor, L., Medit. 

— var. albus, Hort. 

— var. striatals, Hort. 
undulatus, Cav., Medit. 

Coreopsis Atkinsoniana, Dougl., 

auriculata, L., N. Amer., 
cardaminefolia, Torr. et 

Gray., Texas. 
Douglasii. B. et II., Calif. 

(Leptosyne Douglasii, DC.) 
tinrtoria, .Mitt., X. Amer. 

trichosperma, Michx,, Amer. 

aa sativum, L., Eur., etc. 

hyssopifolium, L., 

S. Eur. 
Coronilla vaginalis, Lam., S. Eur. 
Cortusa Matthioli, L., Eur. 

— var. grandiflora. 
Corydalis capnoides, Pers., S. Eur. 

glauca, Pursh., Unit. State-. 

Cotula coronopifolia, L., Eur. 
Cousinia Hystrix, Meyer, Caucas. 
Crepis aculeate, DC, Eur. 

alpina, L., Eur. 

biennis, L., Eur. 

Candollei, Spr., Eur. 

pulchra, L., Eur. 

rubra, L., S. Eur. 

tectorum, L. 111., Eur., Siberia. 
Crinum capense, Herb., Cape. 

— var. riparium, Herb. 
Crocus aerius, Herb. Armenia. 

aureus, Sm., S. Eur. 

a st uric us, Herb., Spain. 

Balansae, Gay.. As. .Minor. 

bannaticus, Heuffei, Transyl- 

biflorus, Mill., Tuscany, etc. 

— var. Weldeni, (iay. 
chrysanthus, Herb., As. Minor. 
Clusii, Gay, Portugal. 

Crocus — cont. 

corsicus, Maw, Corsica. 
dalmhticus Yi-.. Dalmatia. 
etruscns, Pari., Tuscany. 
Korolkowii. Regel. et Maw., 

longiflorus, Rafin., S. Italy. 
medius, Balbis, Riviera. 
pulchellus, Herb., Turkey, 
reticulatus, Bbrst., Caucas, 

Datura fastuosa, L., S. Amer. 

ieiox. L.,Ind., China. 
lawis, L. fil, Africa. 
Stramonium, L., Eur. 
Tatula, L., Eur., etc. 
— var. gigantea. 
icus Carota, L., Eur., etc. 
bispidus, Desf., Eur., N. A 
Delphinium Ajacis, Reichb., 

— var. albiflorus, (Jay. 
versicolor, Ker, Marit. Alps. 
zona t us, Gay, Cilicia. 


aegyptiaca, L., Egypt. 

graca, Boiss, S. Eur. 
Cryptostemma calendulaceum, 
R.Br., Cape. 

— var. hypochondriacun 

(C. silenoides, Nees.) 
viscosissima, Jacq., Amer. 
Zimapani, Roczl, Mexico. 
(C. silenoides. var. Zimapani, 
Cuscuta numogyna, Yahl., Eur., 
etc. (C.lupuliibrmis, Svroek.) 
Cyananthus lobatns, Wall., Him 
Cynodon Dactylon, L., Cosmop. 

micranthum, Desf., China, 

officinale, L., Eur. 

pictum, Ait., S. Eur. 
Cynosurus eristatus, L., Eur. 
Cysticapnos africanus, Gasrtn, 

I 'yzaekia Liliastrum, Andrz., S. 

caucasicum, L., Caucas. 
cheilanthum, Fisch., Siberia. 
— var. bifidum. 

erassifolium," Schrad., Cauc. 
datum, L, Eur., etc. 

var. intermedium. 

formosum, Boiss. et H., 

grandiflorum, L., China, etc. 
(D. chinense, Fisch.) 

nudicaulc, Torr. et Gr., 

, vivipara. 
a, Triu, 

flexuosa, Trin, Eur. (Aira 
flexuosa, L.) 
Desmodium canadense, DC, N. 

Dianthus arenarius, L., , Eur. 
atrorubens, All, Eur. 
Balbisii, Ser, Eur. 
barbatus, L, Eur. 

calocephalus, Boiss, Greece. 
campestris, Bbrst, Taur. 
cruentus, Criseb, S. Eur. 

L., Eur. 
dentosus, Fisch, Siberia. 
fragn », Bbrst, Caucas. 

L, Eur. 

. collinus, (W. & K.) 

Digitalis nmhiir 


Dracocephalum MoLlavicu. L 
Siber., etc. 

parviflorum, Nutt., N". Amer, 
peregrin u m, L., Siberia. 

Drvas octopetala, L., Eur., Amer, 
— var. Drummondii, Wats. 

Brvmaria cordatn, Willd., S. Amei 


t , Hort. 

Digitaria ciliaris, Pers., Cosmopol. 
Dioscorea japonica, Thunb., Japan. 
Diplotaxis erueoides, DC, Mediter. 
Dipsacus asper, Wall., Himal. 

sylvestris, L., Eur. ' ' 
Dodecatheon Meadia, L., N. Amer. 

sibiiicus, L. Siber. 
virginieus, L., N. Amer. 
Epilobium angustifoliiim, L., Eur. 

legans, Ton*., Calif. 
Draba nizoidcs, L., Eur. 

aurea, Vahl, Greenland. 
borealis. DC, Isl. of St. Caul. 

Ei-anthiri hyeinalis, Sali<b., En 

nsis, Wulf., Carniol. 
. corymbosa, Wat! 
orymbosa, R.Br.) 

macrantlms, Nutt., N. Amer. 
mucronatus, DC, Mexico, 
philadelphicus, L., 1ST. Aaner. 
speciosus, DC, N. Amer. 

(Stenactis spoeiosa, Ldl.) 
strigosus, Muhl., N. Amer. 
Erinus alpinus, L., Eur. 

Eriosynaphe tortuosa, Fisch. et 

Mey., Siber. 
Eritrichium strictum, Dene., Himal. 
Erodiuni cicutarium, L'Herit., Eur. 

macradeniurn, L'Herit., Alps. 

moschatum, L'Her., Eur. 
Ervum Lens, L., Eur., etc. 
Eryngium Bourgati,Gouan, Pyren., 

ngidum, Lam., S. Eur. 
Serra, Chmss., Brasil. 
^•simum asperum, DC., N. Amer, 
aureum, Bieb., S. Russia. 
Maish:illianum,Andrz., Siber. 
Rt'ivnv.-kianum, Fisch. t-uMev., 

Caucas. 3 

rupestre, DC, Asia Minor. 



n, Pers., Eur. 

diffusa, Woods, Azores. 

grandiflora, Biv., Eur. 

pulchella, Fries, Eur. 

Eschscholtzia californica, Cham., 


— caespitosa, Brewer. 

— var. grandiflorum. 

;, h's, L., N 

Amer. (E. Fraseri, Hort.) 

cannabinum, L., Eur., Cauc. 

purpureum, L., N. Amer. 

Euphorbia heterophylla, L., Ind., 

liKMlicairinea, Hois-., Spain. 
Myrsinite*, L., Eur. 
pa'histris, L., Eur. 
segetalis, L., S. Eur. 
thamnoides, Boiss., Syria. 
— var. Hicrosolymitana, 
Boiss., Syria, 
'agopynun tataricum, Gaertn 

••>phv, Vahl., 

. Eur. 

Ferula communis, L., Eur. 

Ferulago, L., S. Eur., N. Afr. 
Narthex, Boiss., Asia. 
tingitana, L., N. Afr. 
1-Ystuoa :]rundinacc:i, Schreb., Eur. 

(F. decolorant, Mori.) 
ciliata, Danth., S. Eur. 

(Vulpia ciliata, Link.) 
duriuscula, L., Eur., Amer. 
elatior, L., Eur., etc. 
— var. pratensis, (Huds.) 
elegans, Boiss., Spain. 
Halleri, All., S. Eur. 
heterophylla, Haenkc, Eur. 
Myurus, L., Eur. (Vulpia 

Myurus, Gmel.) 

rigida, Kunth, Eur. (Scle- 
rochloa rigida, Panzer.) 

seiuro'ides, Roth, Eur. (Vulpia 
bromoides, Link, F. 
bromoides, L.) 
scoparia, Kern., Pyren. 

00 vulgare, Gaertn., Eur. 
Forskohlea tenacissima, L., Egypt. 

M <-!,, 

L.. Ei; 

pontica, Wald., Bithynia. 
tenella, Bbrst., Caucas. 
Fumaria densiflora, DC, Eur. 
— var. (micrantha, Lag.) 
major, Bad.. Eur. < I'. nn dia, 

officinalis, L., Eur. 
parvillora, Lam., Eur. 
Vaillantii, Loisel., Eur. 

Funkia land folia, Spr., Japan. 

— var. alluj-nmrginata, Hurt. 
ovata, Spr., Japan. 
Sieboldiana, Lodd., Japan, 
subconlata, Spr., Japan. 
(F. gra'ndhiora.) 

Galatella (see Aster). 
Galax aphylla, L., N. Amer. 
Galega orientalis, Lam., Orient. 

Galcopsis ochroleuca, L; 

pyrenaica, Bartl., Pyren, 

versicolor, Curt.. Eur. 


a brachystephana, Kegel., 

it!' ra, C'av., Amer. 

?o, L., Eur. 
mse, L., Eur. 
'. leiocarpum. 
um, Reg., Greece. 

lliana asclepiadea, L., S. Eur. 

lutea, L., Eur. 
septomfida. Fall., Caucus. 

(<!. geliila, Hort.) 
fibetica, King, Himal. 

(G. macropl.vll;,. Hort.) 
verna, L., Eur. 
■anium albiflorura, Ledeb., Siber 
arnionuin. Hois-., Orient. 

Endressi, Gay, Pyrenees. 

gracile, Schrad., Siberia. 

lucidum, L., Eur. 

molle, L., Eur. 

rotundifolium, L., Eur. 

sanguineum, L , Eur. 

striatum, L., Italy. 

sylvaticum, L., Eur. 
Geuni atlanticum, Desf., N. Afr. 

hispidum, Fr., Spain. 

macrophyllum, Willd., Siber. 

montanum, L., Alps, Eur. 

pyrenaicum, Ram., Pyrenees. 

rivale, L., Eur. 

tyrolense, Host, Tyrol. 

urbanum, L., Eur., etc. 
Gilia achilleaafolia, Bth., Calif. 

androsacea, Steud., Calif. 
( Leptosiphon androsaceus 

capitata, Dougl., Calif. 

incisa, Benth., Calif. 

inconspicua, Dougl., Calif. 

laciniata, R. et P., Chili, Peru. 

micrantha, Steud., Calif. 
(L. luteus, Benth.) 

squarrosa, Hook, et, Arn., 

tricolor, Benth., Calif. 

culatum, Curt., 
irum, Hort. 

(G. norvegica, Smf.) 
Gnaphalium indicum, L., Ind 
Godetia (see Oenothera). 
Gypsophila pan' 

Hablitzia tarn 

. Kgypt. 

tenuifolia, Scbrad., Capo. 
Hedypnois (sec Kliagadiolus). 
Hedysarura boreale, Xutt.,N.Am( 

denticulatum, Kegel. 

microcalyx, Baker, Himal. 

Hoopesii, Gray, N. Amer. 
Heliantheimmi Rgyptiacom, MM., 

— vav. rhodantbum, (Dunal.) 

— var. tomentosum, (Dunal.) 
Heliantbus animus, L., N. Amer. 

argopbyllus, Torr, et Gray., 

decapetalus, L., N. Amer. 

— var. ? mrdtiflorus, Gray, 
gigantens, L., N. Amer. 
mollis, Lam., X. Amer. 



L. ill., 

mles, Sim,, Cape. 
(II. pilosa, Lam.) 
crithmil'olia, Willd., Cape. 
vis, 1 \ is., N. Amer. 

Helipterum corymbiferum, Scbl., 

N. Zeal. 
Manglesii, Btli., Austral. 
(Bhodantbe Manglesii, Ldl.) 
Milleri, Hort., Australia. 
roseum, i>mtii.. Australia. 

(Acroclinium roseum, Hk.) 

Helleborus colchicus, Eegel, 
fotidmsL., Eur., etc. 

nentali-. Lam., Greece. 
ias bullata, L., N. Amer. 

,cleum Panaces, L., S. Eur. 

puboscens, JJbrst., Cauc, etc. 
— var. truinmiferuin, (Willd.) 

. Hot i. 

Ileuebera americana, L., N. Amer 

Drummondi, Hort, 

bispi-Ja. Pursli, N. Amer. 
(II. Bicbardsonii, B. Br.) 

pubescens, Pursh, N. Amer. 

ribifolia, J. et L., N. Amer. 
Hibiscus Trionum, L., Cosmopol. 

(H. africanum, Hort.) 
Hieracium amplexicaule, L., Eur. 

. Kur. 

... Eur. 
l'ilnsdia, L., Eur., Tauseb., Eur. 
prenaathoides, Till., Kur. 
— var. ripbseum, Uechtr. 
.-axatile, Jae<| , S. Eur. 
stoloniflorum, YV. et K., S. E 
villosum, L., Eur. 
vulgatuin. Fries, Eur. 

Uolcus lanatus, L., Eur. 

Homogyne alpina, Cass., Eur. 
Hordeuni jubatum, L., N. Amer. 

pratense,' Huds., Eur. 
Horminium pyrenaicum, L.,Pyreu 
Hoteia {see Astilbe). 
Hamulus japonicus S. et Z 

Inula bifrons, L., Eur. 

Bubonium, Jacq., Eur., etc. 
ensifolia, L., Eur., etc. 

grandiflora,AVill(l.,( , a ica>.,« : . 
glandulosa, Willd., Caucas. 
graveolens, Desf., Eur. 
Helenium, L., Eur. 
Lirta, L., Eur. 
Hookeri, Clarke, Himal. 

Vaillantii, Till., Eur. 
lonopsidium acaule, Rclib., Eur. 
Iris Fieberi, Seidl., Eur. 

graminea, L., Eur. 

Hyacintbus amell 
dubius, Guss., 


Guldnishedti: un, Lepceb., 

longipetala, Herb., Calif. 

Hymenopbysa pubescens, Meyei 

Hyoscyaums niirer, L., Eur. 

— var. nlbus, Hort. 

oriental^, Bbrst., Cauc. 
Hypecoum procumbens, L., S. Eu 
Hypericum elatum, Ait., N". Ame 


var. atropurpurea. 


Kui\. Siberia. 

i, (Willd.) 


ria, L, ( 

•cut. Eur., etc. 

var. deserlornm. (Ker.) 


var. noti 

a. (Bbrsl.) 

Garrexiaua, All.. Pyrenees. 
Lagascana. DC, Spain, 
poctinafa, Boiss., Spain, 
saxatilis, L., Eur. 
sempervirens, L., Eur. 
umbellata, L., S. Eur. 

>atiens parviflora, DC, Siberia, 

Roylei, Walp., Himal. 

I satis tiuctoria, L., Eur., etc. 

Isopyrum fumarioides, L., S. Em 

Iva xantbiifolia, Nutt., N. Amer. 
(Cyclachama xanthiii >lia, 

Jasione niontana, L., Eur. 
perennis, L., Eur. 

Juueus balticus, Willd., Eur. 

Cbamissonis, Benth., S. Ame 
comprcssus, Jacq., Eur. 

, L., Ei 

KJirh., Eur. 

Juncus — cont. 

platycaulis, H. B.K.S., Amer. 
Mininus. Mcench., Eur. 
tenuis Willd., Eur. 
trifidus, L., Eur. 
Knautia (see Scabiosa). 
Kniphofia aloides, Moench., Cape. 
— var. grandis. 

var. longiscapa. 

kybrida, Hort. 
Macowani, Baker, Cape. 
Koeleria cristata, Pers., Eur. 
Kcelpinia (see Rhagadiolus). 
Lactuca angustana, All., S. Eur. 
lactucaria, Jacq., Eur. 
Plumieri, Gren. et Godr., S. 

sativa, L., Eur., Cult. 
Scariola, L., Eur. 
undulata, Ledeb., Siberia. 
Lagurus ovatus, L., Eur. 
Lallemantia peltata, Fisch. et Mey., 

Royleana, Btli., Turkest., etc. 

Lasthenia glaberrima, DC, Amer. 
Lathraea Squamaria, L., Eur. 
Lathyrus angulatus, L., S. Eur. 
Aphaca, L., Eur. 
artirul.tus, L., S. Eur. 
aureus, Benth. et Hook., Taur. 

(Orobus aureus, Stew) 
Chmenum, I,. S. Eur. 

(O. Jordani, Tenore.) 
nliformis, Lam., S. Eur. 
lathy roides, B. et H., Siber. 

(O. lathyroides, L.) 
macron-bizus, Wimm., Eur. 
nicer, Wimm., Eur. 

(0. niger, L.) 
Ochrus, L., Eur. 
pratensis, L., Eur. 
piriformis, L., Siberia, etc. 
volundiiblius Willd., Caucus. 


L„ Eui 

platvphyilus, (1 
tenu'ifolius, [)i>C, Eur., 
fingiramis, L., N. Afr. 
— var. atrop 

s, B. etH.,Pyr 

(0. van, 

varius, B. et H., S. Eur. 


arius, Sims.) 

, Muhl., N. Amer. 

— var. flaccidus (Kit.) 

Lavatera thuringiaca, L., Eu 

trimestris. I,.. Medit. 

heterotricha, Gray, Calif. 
(Callichroa platyglossa, 
Fisch. et Mey.) 
Leontopodium alpinum, Cass., Eur. 
Leonurus Cardiaca, L., Eur. 

sibiricus, L., Siber. China. 
Lepidium cordatum, Willd., Siber. 
incisum, Roth, Eur. 
Menziesii, DC, N. Amer. 

virginicum,'L., N. Amer. 
Leptosiphon (see Gilia). 
Leptosyne (see Coreopsis). 


Leucoium aestivum, L., Eur., etc. 
Levisticum officinale, Koch., Eur. 
Liatris spicata, Willd., N. Amer. 
Libanotis montana, Crantz, Eur. 

sibirica, Koch., Eur., etc. 
Ligularia (see Senecio). 
Ligusticum datum, Spr., Caucas. 

Seguieri, Koch., S. Eur. 
Limnanthes Douglasii, R. Br. 

bipartite, Willd., N. Afr. 
— var. versicolor, Hort., Ke"\ 
, D., Italy. 
, Desf., Eur., N. Afr. 
purpurea, L., Eur., etc. 

is 11., Eur. 
saxatilis, DC, S.Eur. 
spar tea, Hofim., S. Eur. 
Hid., S. Eur. 
tristis, Mill., S. Eur. 

Lotus — cont. 

ornithopodioiuVs, L., Eur. 
' "'. et K., Eur., etc. 

....,_., S.Eur. 

Lupinus angustifolius, L., S. El 

arboreus, Sims, Is. Amer. 

Linum alpinum, L., Eur. (L. 
Leonii, Scbultz.) 
;iuLnisti folium, L., Eur. 
eatharticum, L., Eur. 
corymbiferura, Desf., Atlas. 
flavum, L., Eur. 

(L. campauulatum, Hort.) 

grandifiorum, Desf., Algiers, 
perenne, L., Eur., etc. 
— Lewisii, (Mhlbrg.) 

. . 
Loasa liispida, L., Peru. 
prostrate, Gill., Cbili. 
volcanica, Andr., 2s ew Greu. 
(L. Wallisii, Hort.) 
Lobelia decumbena, Rich., 
Erinus, L. Cape, 
inflata, L., N. Amer. 

luteus, L., France, etc. 
micranthus, Dougl., N. Amer. 
nootkatensis, Don, N. Amer. 
polyphyllus, Ldl., N. Auier. 

Luzula angustifolia, Poir., Caroliua. 

campestris, DC, Eur. 

nivea, Desv., Alps. etc. 
Lychnis alba, Mill., Eur. 

(L. vespertina, Sibth.) 

alpina, L., Eur. 

rhalcrdonica, L., E. Eur., etc. 

IiOnas iiiodora G;ertn., Sicil 
(Athanasia annua, L.) 

Lopezia coronate, Andr., Me 
(L. minute, Hort.) 

Lophanthus anisatus, Bth., 

. Bcnth., Chit 

Lotus aristatus, DC 

,'Eur. (Tetra- | Lyi 

Ephemerum, L., Fr 
punctata, L., Eur. 

vulgari", L., Eur. 

Ey thrum Saiiearia, L, Eur. 
— var. roseuni. 


lie <mt 

1 luriionianniaua, Pers., Eur. 

- var. tomentosuiu, (Mill.) 

lappacea, Dear., S. Eur. 

virgatum, L., Eur. 

lupulina, L, Eur. 

Madia sutiva. Molina., Oregon, | 

mmvx, Willd., Eur. 
muricata, All, Eur. 

orbicularis, Willd., S. Eur. 

— var! congesta, T. et Gr. 

— var. racemosa, Gray. (M. 

rugosa, Desr., Eur. 
rigidula, Lam., S. Eur. 
(M. Gerardi, Kit.) 

lir, S. Eur., 

T.;r.'bVlluni, J Willd, S.Eur. 

N. Afr. 

tribuloides, Lam., S. France. 

Chia, DC, Greece. 

— var. Iruncatula, Caert. 

littorea, R.Br, S. Eur. 

raaritima, R.Br., S. Eur., fete. 


lira ail issima, L, S.Eur, Cauc 

Malopc trifida, Cav., N. Afr. 

ciliata, L., Eur, etc. 

-var. alba 

- var. Cupani, (Cuss.) 

Malva Alcea, L., Eur. 

— var. Magnolii, (G. et G.) 

— var. Morenii, (Poll.) 

cretica, Cav., S. Eur. 

[ctz, Eur. 

Duriaai, Spach., Eur. 

Melilotus alba, Dear., Eur. 

moschata, L., Eur. 

officinalis, Dost, Mir. 

parviflora. L., Eur. 

parviflora. Lam, Eur. 

rotundifolia, L., Eur. 

(M. indica, All.) 

sylvestris, L., Eur, etc. 


jlir-sa officinalis, L, Eur, etc. 

(M. glomerata, Hurt.) 


-vlvestri.-, L, Eur. 

Malvastrum limense (L.) Chili. 

— var. candicans, Reichl 

m peregrinum, L., Eur. 


— var. remotum, Hort. 

— var. umbrosa, Opiz. 

vulgare, L. Eur. 

viridis, L, Eur. 

Matricaria callosa, Sch, Eur. 

— var. erispa, Hook. 

caucasica, Benth., Caucas. 


. ■rtensia sibirica, Don, Siber. 


Chamomilla, L, Eur. 
— var. Courrantiana, DC. 
glabra, Nym., S. Eur. 
(M. arvensis, Nym.) 
inodora, L, Eur. 
Meconopsis cambrica, Vig, Eur. 
vVallidiiana, Hook, Himal. 
Medicago apiculata, W, Eur. 
(Berteroana, Mor.) 

(M. intexla. WilLl >. 

'. illd , Eur. 
. DC, Spain. 
Echinus, DC, S. Eur. 

Lewisii, Pursh, N. Amer. 
luteus, L, N. Amer. 
ringens, L, N. Amer. 

Miral>ili> mult flora, Cray, Amer. 

(M. carol iniana, Hort.) 
Molnua cierulca, Moencb, Eur. 

in; ■ u ut.-tnuiii, 1>< • 

a Elaterium, L., S. Eur. 

Nicotiana— cont. 

i idy ma, L., N. Airier. 
Moricandia arvensis, DC, Eur., 

alata, Link., Brazil, 
chinensis, Fisch., China, 
paniculata, L., S. Amer. 

plumbaginifolia, Viv., N. 

Morina Coulteriana, Royle, N.W. 

repanda, Willd., N. Amer. 

longifolia, Wall., Nepal. 

rustica, L., S. Eur., etc. 

Muhlenbergia diffusa, Schreb., N. 

— var. Lebanon. 


pendula, Trin., Ins. Sitcha. 

— var. (Texana Hort.) 

Willdenovii, Trin., N. Amer. 

— var. < ; Bhilsa." 

Mulgedium (see Lactuca). 

Tabacum, L., S. Amer. 
— var. attenuata, Hort. 

Heldreichii, Boi 

ra^musS, Mil 

. Eur. 

Szovitsianum, Kegel, Siber. 
Myosotis arvensis, Hoffm, Eur. 
palustris, With., Eur. 
svlvaticn, Hoffm., Eur. 
— var. compacta-aurea, Hort. 
rata, Scop., Eur. 

. Ear. 


— var. " Tuckahoe." 

— var. "Virginian."' 

— var. " Yellow Pryor." 
Nigella damaseena, L., S. Eur. 

integrifolia, Eegel, Afghi 
sativB,L., S. Ear. 

i, Horfc. 

Nienndra pin 

(Enothera— cont. 

tenella, Cav. 3 Chili, Amer. 
(G. tcnella, Wats.) 

— var. dasycarpa. 
Omphalodes linifolia, Mcench, 

Ononis spinosa, L., Eur., etc. 
Onopordon Acanthium, L., Eur. 

virens, DC, S. Eur., etc. 
Opuntia Bafinesquii, Eng., N. 

Orchis folios, Sol., Madeira. 

lati folia, L., Eur. 

maculata, L., Eur. 
Origanum vulgare, L., Eur. 

— var. album. 
Ormenis (see Antliemis). 

ilum exscapum, Ten., 
S. Eur. 

fimbriatum, Willd., Orient. 

latifolium, L., Egypt, etc. 

orthophyllum, Ten., S. Eur. 

tenuifolium, Guss., Sicily. 

umbellatum, L., Eur., N. Afr. 

unifolium, Ker, S. Eur. 
Ornithopus perpusillus, L., Eur. 
Orobanche minor, Sin., Eur. 

ramosa, L., Eur. 

rubra, Sm.. Eur. 
Orobus (see Lathyrus). 
Oxyria digyna, Hill., Eur. 

elatior, E. Br., Nepal. 
Oxytropis campestris, DC, Eur. 

ochroleuca, Bunge, Siber. 
Pasonia albiflora, Pall., China. 

— var. Candida, Anders. 

— var. odorata, Hort. 

— var. rubra, Hort, 

— var. uniflora, Anders., 

arietina, Anders., Orient. 

— var. Anderson i. 

— var. byzantina, Hort. 
decora, Anders., Orient. 

— var. Pallasii, Hort. 
officinalis, Eetz., Eur. 

— var. anemonceflora, Hort. 


Pall., Taur., 

-:.]; -., Bussia. 
maximum, Jacq, S. Amer. 

Papaver apulum, Ten., Italy, etc. 
Argemone, L., Eur. 
caucasicum, Bbrst,, Caucas. 
(Labium, L., Eur. 
— var. Lecoqii (Lamotte), 

pilosum, Sibth., Greece. 

— Heldreichii, (Boiss.) 
Bhoeas, L., Eur. 

— var. Hookeri, (Baker). 

rupifragum, Boiss., Spain. 

— var. atlanticum, Ball, G. 

somniferum, L., China, etc. 

— var. " Dauebrog." 

— var. fl. pi. 
-var.setigerum, (DO.) 
umbrosum, Hort. 

Parietaria lusitanica, L., Eur. 

officinalis, L., Eur. 
Parnassia nubieola, Hook, fil., 

Paronychia herniarioides, Nutt., 

N. Amer. 
Pastinaca (see Peucedanum). 
Pentstemon barbalus, Nutt., N. 

— var. Torreyi, Gray. 

_ var. roseus, Hort. 
confertus, Dough, N. Amer. 
diffusus, Dough, N. Amer. 
glaber, Pursh., N. Amer. 
l;:-vi"-:itn-. Sotand., N. Amer. 

— var. Digitalis, Gray. (P. 
Digitalis, Nutt.) 

ovatus, Dougl., N. Amer. 
pubescens, Soland,, N. Amer. 

Perezia multii 

Petroselinum sa 

Peucedauum C 


ii.. Eur. 

Phlox Drummondii, Hook., Calif, 
paniculata, L., N. Amer. 


Phularis nr;n liu icc.-i, L.. 

Phaseolus comprcssus, DC. 
ollipticus, Schur! 

Picris echioides, L., Eur. (Hel- 
minlhia eeliiodides, Graertn.) 

I Pimpinella magna, L., Eur. 
| PltotegO arenaria, L,, Eur. 

uliflorum, A.DC, 

Willmotianus, Ma 

S. Eur. 
pulcliruiu, Aitcli. et Hemsl., 

.- - 

° <l l^'vi \Z\.'1X, (Ilaenke). 
compress, L., Km*. 

trivialis,' L., Eur. 

Podolepis graeili-J irah., Au-tralia. 

Podophyllum Emodi, Wall.,Himal. 
Polemonium caruletrar, L., Eur., 

collina, Wibel, Central Eur. 

Kotschyana, Fenzl., Kur- 

Kurdicn, Boise., Orient. 

laciniosa, W. & K., Hungary. 

monteneorinn, Pane, Alps. 
(Buec na,Clem.?) 

multifida.. L., Eur., etc. 

ncpalcn-ds Hook., Nepal. 
(P. fbrmosa, Don.) 

nevadensis, Boiss.. Spain. 

ontopoda. Dougl., 1ST. Amer. 

giganteum, Dietr., N. Amer. 

(P. latifolium, Desf.) 
japonicuni, Morr. et Dene., 

muldflorum, All., IT* T. Zone. 
— var. 11. pi. 

punctatum, Royle, Himalayas, 
verticillatuni, All., Eur. 

a, (Lehm.) 
, (Leab.) 

, Led., Eur., 
icum, (Sclirenk.) 

is, Sm... Eur. 
, L., China, etc. 

Wall., Ilimul. 
asii, (DC.) 

muralis, L„ Eur. 
.ricula, L., Eur. 

."ii,'l[';m(v. 1 , China, 
>nsis,Hook., iiimal 
lata, lorsk., Arabia 

vulgaris, L., Kur. 
Pteroneuron gnBCum, DC, 

Greece, etc. 
Pulmonarin saeelianua, Mill., Eur. 
Pyrethrum. (See Chrysanthe- 

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus, DC, 

Florida, Texas. 
Ramondia pyrenaica, Rich., 

Ranunculus aeonitifolius, L., Eur. 
acris, L., Eur. 

— var. Correanus. 

— var. Steveni, Bess, 
arvensis, L., Eur. 
brutius, Tenore, Italy, 
chaerophyllus, L M Eur., etc. 
Chius, DC, Greece, &c. 
Cymbalaria, Pursb, N. Amer. 
Flammula, L., Eur. 
Lingua, L., Eur. 
mnritimus, Ph., Chili, 
parviflorus, L., Eur. 
Reuterianus, Boiss., S. Eur. 
trachycarpus, F. et M., Orient. 

Rapistrum Linnaeanum, All., Eur. 
Reseda abyssinica, Fres., Abyss. 

alba, L., S. Eur. 

glauca L., Spain. 

lutea L., Eur. 

Phyteuma, L., Eur. 

ins arachnoideus, Hort. 

creticus, All., S. Eur. (Hedy- 
pnois cretica, Willd.) 

Hedypnois, Alt., Mediter. 
(H. polymorpha, DC) 

stellatus, Gaertn., S. Eur. 
Rheum Emodi, Wall., Himal. 

leucorrhizum, Pall , Siber. 

macropterum, Mart. 

officinale, Bail!., Thibet. 

palmatum, L., Ind., etc. 

— var. tan»huticum. 

Rhaponticum. L., Siber. 

songaricum, Schrenk, 

spiciforme, Royle, India. 
Tranzenbachii, Hort. 
undulatum, L., Siberia, et 

Rhynchopsidium sessilinVrniii, 

DC, Cape. 
Rodigia commutata, Spr., Crete. 
Romulea Bulbocodium, Seb., S. 

Iit"..;-riica, Cray, Calii". 
laciniata, L., N. Amer. 
occidentalis, Nutt., N. Am<;r. 

pinnata, Vent, N. Amer. 
speciosa, Wend., N. Amer. 

ivssinicus, Jacq., Abyss, 
alpinus, L., Eur. 
Browniann-, C;inipd., Au-fi-il. 
maximus, Schreb., Eur. 
nepalensis. Spr.. Ihmal. 
obtusifolius, L., Eur. 

— var. sylvestris, (Wallr.) 
Patientia, L., S. Eur. 
salieifolius, Weinm., N. Amer. 
sanguineus, L., Eur. 

— var. viridis (Sibth.) 
vesicarius, L., N. Afr. 

Ruta graveolens, L., Eur. 

— var. variegata. 
Salsola Kali, L„ Eur. 
Salvia JEthiopis, L., S. Eur. 

glutinosa, L., Eur. 
hispanica, L., S. Eur. 
interrupta, Schousb., Marocco. 
nilotica, Vahl, Egypt. 

, L., Eur. 

officinalis, L., S. Eur. 

— var. alba, Hort. 
Regeliana, Trautv., Siberia. 
svlvestris, L., S. Eur. 

— var. alba, Hort. 
tiliiefolia, Vahl, Mexico. 
Verbenaca. L., Eur. 
vertici lata, L. Eur. 
viscosa, Jacq., S. Eur. 

Sanicula marylandica, L., N. Amer. 
Sanguisobar. (See Poterium.) 
Saponaria orientalis, L. ; Orient. 

persica, Boiss., Persia. 
Satureja hortensis, L., Taur., 

montana, L., S. Eur. 
Saussurea hypoleuca, Spr., Himal. 

Saxifraga al 

an, Kerner, Eu 



nb., Eur. 


, L. 

Eur., etc. 



Eur., Alps. 



LThillii, Iu-rn. 




— var 


inata, Schott. 

_ var 


a, (Lap.) 

— vai 


llaris, Schleich. 

, fuir., etc. 
_ vav. decipieus (Ehrli.) 
_ var. hirta, (Don.) 

exarata, Till., Eur., Alps. 
_ var. nervosa, (Lap.) 
Hostii, Tausch, Alps. 

— var. JIaenabiana, Hort, 

K- .■,:...'•■'■' ..." Kegel, Siberia, 
lactea, Tmez.. Temp. A An. 
latepctiolat;i, - 

. Marit. Alps. 

— var. cochlear;,, (Kehb.) 

■ .. L'yreiiee,-. 
Msilvi. Schott, Eur. 
Mawenna, Bal 


pemi.-vlvamea, L., X. Amer. 
Prcstii, Slernb., Eur. 
Uoclicliai.a, St. rub., Bosnia. 
— var. coriophvlla, (iiriseb.) 
sponberaica, Grael., S. Eur. 
Stracbeyi, Hk., f. et Tli., 

teueliii, Wulf., Alps. 

caucasica, Bbrst., Cauc. 
— var. amoena, (Jacq.) 
Columbaria, L., Eur. 
gramini folia, L., Eur. 
Gramunlia, L., S.^Eur. 
palaestina, L., Syria, etc. 
(Asterocephalus pahestinus 
Portae, Huter., Eur. 
stellata, L., Spam, Portugal. 
Snccisa, L., Eur. 
vestina, Eaccb., Tyrol. 

rasa, !->ut.. Driest. 
brachycarpa, Guss., Sicily. 

peibiiiculari!', Ivunzc, 
S. Afr. 

pianatus, R. et P., 

Schoenus nigricans, L., Eur. 
Scilla amceua, L., S. Bur., etc. 

camp in i. Ai . "p. i, etc. 

(S. biMianiea, Mill.) 
— var. afba, Hort. 
italica, L., Italy, etc 
lingulata, DesL, X. Afr. 

verna,' Huds., W. Eur. 
Scirpus atrovirens, Mubl., N. 

CarSlletv.., Eur. (Blysmus 

compressus, Panz.) 
sylvaticus, L., Eur. 
Scbismus marginatum Beauv., S. 

Sclerantbus annuns, L., Eur. 

pereuuis, L., Eur. 
Scleropus amar:mt<>ides, Sebra.l.. 

St. Thomas. 
Scrophulana Ehrbartii, Stev., 
nodosa, L., Eur. 

Scorodonia, L., Eur. 

Sent. Ilnri.-i o ion talis, L., Asia 
peregrina, L., Tauria. 

Secale Cereale, L., As. Minor, 
creticum, L., Crete. 

Securigera Coronilla, DC, S. Eur. 
Sedum Aizoon, L., Siberia, 
crassipes, Wall., Sikkim, 

15,000 feet, 
cyaneum, Kud., Siber. 
Ewei-sii, Ledeb., Siber. 
heterodontum, Hk. f., Himal. 
hvbridum, L., Siberia, 
kamtsohaticum, Fiscb., 

Maximowiczii, Kegel, Japan. 
Middendorfianum, Max., 

rupestre, lluds., Eur. 
Khodiola, DO., Siber. 

(Rhodiola sibirica, Sweet.) 
spurium, Bbrst., Caucas. 
Selinum Candollei, DC, Nepal. 
Sempervivum alpinum, G. et S., 

arachnoideum, L., Alps. 

(Laggeri, Hort.) 
arvernense, Lecoq et Lamotte, 

atlanticum, Ball et Hook., 

barbatulum, Schott, Eur. 
bicolor, Hort., Eur. 
Boissieri, Hort., Eur. 

Fauconnctii. Rout.. Alps, 
fimbriatum. L. et S., Eur. 
flagellitormc, Fiscb., Siber. 
Funckii, Braun, Austria, 
glaueum, Tenore, Italy. 
(S. violaceum, Hort.) 
grandidorum, Haw. 
Hausmannii, Hort., Eur. 
Lamottei, Boreau, France. 
Mctk-uiamun, Lehra., Switz 
montannm, L., Alps. 

Xeideri, Hort. 
parvulum, J. et F., Eur. 
Pomelii, Lamotte, Alps, 
ruthenicum, Koch., S. Eur. 
Schnittspahnii, Lag., Eur. 
speciosum, Lamotte, Eur. 
tectorum, L., Eur. 
Verlotii, Lamotte, France. 
(S. Delassi*, Hort.) 
Senecioni'temi i rl'oIius.Pers.S.E 

:.. S. Eur. 

. !;<■!;!■., En: 

Ka 'injii i'i. DC, d ipan. 

- Bbrst., Cai 
qi l 

Bgl., Asi 

Abyssin ; 



Serratula coronata, L., Siberia. 

Si'taria gluue.- 

Sberardia arvensis, L., Eur. 
Sibbaldia. (Sec Fotentilla.) 
Sideritis scordioid 9, b, Ear. 

Silaus tenuifolius, DC, Eur. 
Silene alpestris, L., Alps, Eur. 

Armeria, L., Eur. 

— var compacts (Hornem •. 

Chouleti.C -.. !■:•"•. 

I. Jacq., Capo, 

Silene — cont. 

colorata, Poir., Mediter. 
conoidea, L., Levant, etc. 

cretica, L., S. Eur. 
Cucubalus, Wibel., Eur. 
diurniflora, Knnze, Cape, 
echinata, Otth., Italy. 
Fortunei, Yis., China. 
fusca, Link, Portugal. 
gallica, L., Eur. 

glauca, Zea., Eur. 
italiea, Pers., Eur. 
juvenalis, Del., Egypt. 
linieola, Ginel., Germany, 
longicilia, Otth, Portugal. 
muscipula, L., Mediter. 
nutans, L., Eur. 
obtusifolia, Willd., Italy, 
pendula, L., Sicily, etc. 
Persoonii, Tod. non Schott. 
pseudo-atocion, Desf., N. Afr. 
quadrifula, L., Eur. 
rubella, L., Eur., N. Afr. 
Schafta, Gmel., Siber., etc. 

Vallesia, L., S. Eur. 
vesiculifera, Gav, S. Eur. 
vespertina, Pvetz., S. Eur. 
Zawadskii, Herbich., Austria. 
Silphium aura 


icum, Hort. 

. Midix..X.An 
I,, N. Araer. 

— var. conjunctum, ( Willd.) 

scaberrimum, Ell., N. Amer. 
nlybum eburneum, Coss, et, Dur., 

Marianum, Goertner, Eur. 
Sisymbrium Alliaria, Scop., Eur. 

As-oanuni, R. et P., Aragon. 

austriacum, Jacq., S. E 

reticulatum, Hort. 
striatum, Sm., Chili. 
Sium lancifolium, Bbrst.,Cauc, etc. 
latifolium, L., Eur. 

Sinilaciiia ^tollata, Desf., N. Amer. 

racemosa, Desf., N. Amer. 
(Tovaria racemosa, Neck.) 
Smyrnium Giusatrum, L., Eur. 
Solanura Dulcamara, L., Eur. 

guineense, Lam., Trop Afr., 

, L., S. Amer. 
tuberosum, L., Chili. 
— var. black tuber?. 
villo-mn, Lain., Eur. 


Shortii, T. & G., N. 

Sparganium ramosum, Curtis., Eu 
Specularia coa, A.DC, Eur. 

falcata, A.DC, Mediter. 

— var. castellana, Lange. 

pentagonia, A.DC, Orient. 

perfoliata, DC, N. Amer. 

Speculum, A.DC, Eur. 
Sporgula arvensis, L., Eur. 
Sphenogyne. (See Ursiuia.) 
Spilanthes Aemella, L., India. 


H. B. EL 

-.iriefinsiiiium, L., Eur. 
tenuissimum, Kar. and Kir , 
• Altai. 

.!;■., L., Eur. 
lobata, Jacq., N. Amer. 
palmata, Thunb., Japan. 

Ulmaria, L., Eur., etc. 

Stachys arvensis, L., Eur. 

grandiflora, Bth., Caucas., etc. 

(Betonica grandiflora, L.) 
Betonica, Benth., Eur. (B. 
officinalis, L.) 

— var. alba, Hort. 
elliptic*, H.B.K., S. Amer. 
sylvatica, L., Eur. 


Limonium, L., Eur. 

— var. alba, Hort. 

— var. Gmelini, (Willd.) 

— var. puberula. 

— var. Smitbii, Hort. 
lychnidifolia, Gh\, S. Eur. 
leptostachya, Boiss., Orient. 

Suworowii, Regel, Turkestan, 
tomentella, Boiss., Eur., etc. 
(S. sareptana, Beck.) 
Stellaria graminea, L., Eur. 
Stoviii luxiflora, DC, Mexico. 
Ma. L, S. Eur., etc. 
barbato, Desf., N. Afr. 
Calamngrostis, Whlbrg., S. 
Eur. (Lasiagrostis Cala- 
mngrostis, Link.) 
fertilis, Desf., S. Eur. 
pennata, L., Eur., Siber. 
Succowia balearica, DC, Balearic 

— var. Zeyheri, (Schimp). 

caueasicum, Bbrst., Caucas. 

officinale, L., Eur. 
Tagetes pusilla, H.B., Quito. 
Tamus communis, L., Eur. 
Telephium Imperati, L., S. Eur. 
Tellima grandiflora, R.Br., J 

Tetragonia expansa, Murr., 

Teucrinm aureum, Schreb., Eur. 
, Chamzedrys, L., Eur. 

Thalictrum angustifolium, Jacq., 
S. Eur. 

— var. (T. nigricans, DC), 

aquilegifolium, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. purpureum. 
flavum, L., Eur. 

— var. sphaerocarpum, Lej. 
glaucum, Desf , S. Eur. 
javanicum, Blume, Java, 
minus, L., Eur. 

— var. affine, (Jord.). 

— var. collinum, (Wallr.). 

— var. elatum, Regel. 

— var. flexuosuin, (Bernh.). 

— var. pubescens, Schleicli. 

— var. squarrosum, (Stepb.) 
trigynum, Fiscb., Dahur. 

Thermopsis montana, Nutt., N. 

(fabacea, DC) 

prascox, Wulf., Austria. 
Thrincia tuberosa, DC, S. Eur. 
Tigridia Pavonia, Pers., Mexico. 

Pringlei, Wats., Mexico. 

speciosa, Poit. 
Tolmiea Idea 


i. IVrt.. 

Tolpis < „ 

Tovaria. (See Smilacina.) 

Trachelium coeruleum, L., N. Afr., 

Tragopogon (Geropogon glabrum, 

L.), S. Eur. 
Trifolium agrarium, L., Eur. 
hybridum, L., Eur. 
leucanthum, Bbrst., Tauria, 

multi&triatum, Koch, Eur. 
pannonicum, L., Eur., etc. 
Perreymondi, Gren., France. 

Trifolium— eont. 

striatum, L., Eur. 

squarrosa, L., S. Eur. 

(Panormitanam, Pr.) 

Thalii, VilL, Eur. 
Triglochin maritimum, L., Eur. 
Trigonclla coerulea, Lam., Eur., 

corniculata, L., S. Eur. 
cretica, Boiss., Crete. 
foenuin-grsecum, L., S. Eur. 
hamosa, L., Orient. 
monspeliaca, L., Eur. 
ovalis, Boiss., Spain, 
polycerata, L., Eur. 
(T. orthoceras, Kar. & Kir., 
Trinia Kitaibelii, Bbrst., Russia, 

Tripteris chciranthifolia, Schultz., 

Trisetum flavescens, Beauv., Eur. 
Triticum durum, Desf,, S. Eur., 
N. Afr. 

Tritonia crocosmaeflora, Garden 
Pottsii, Bentb., Cape. 
Trollius asiaticus, L., Siber. 
europasus, L., Eur. 
— var. Denayanus. Hort. 
Tropseolum aduncum, Sm., Peru, 
etc. (T. peregi'inum, Jacq. 

majus, L., Peru, 
minus, L., Peru. 

T'.ilipa :,.. -tr;ili<. Link, S. Eur. 

[a, L., Eur. 
Tyrimnus lencograpbus, Cass., S. 

1 »..-!. 

i. L., Eur. 
elevata Banks, Madeira. 

— var. grandidentata. 
pilulifera, L..Enr. 

Vahlodea atropurpurea, Fr., Eur. 
Valeriana alliariasfolia, Vabl, 

montana, L., Eur. 
officinalis, L., Eur. 

— var. exaltata, (Mikan.) 

— var. sambucifolia, (Mikan.) 
Phu, L., S. Eur. 

— var. aureo-variegata. 
pyrenaica, L., Eur. 

Valerianella Auricula, DC, Eur. 
carinata, Loisl., S. Eur. 
clorodonta, Coss. & Dur., Al- 

cvmbaecarpa, C. A. Mey., 

Wrench., Eur. 


iinia pulcbra, N. E. Brown, 
Cape. (Spbenogyne spe- 
ciosa, Know, et West.) 
— var. sulpburea, Hort.,Kew. 
anthemoides, Poir., Cape. 
(Sphenogyno anthemoides, 
B. BrO 

i, L„ Eu 

Verbascum gnapbalodes, Bbrst., 
Taur., etc. 
olympicum, Boiss., Bithynia. 
pblomoides, L., Eur., etc. 
phoeniceum, L., Eur. Siber. 

— var. ferrugineum, (Mill.) 
Thapsus, L., Eur. 

var. turkestanicum, Kegel. 

Verbena Aubletia, L., Amer. 

hispida, 11. P., S. Amer. 

teucrioides, Gill. et. Hook., 
Veronica anagallis, L., Eur. 

anomala, Armstr., N. Zeal. 

austriaca, L., C. et S. Eur. 

— var. pinnatifida, Pohl. 
arvensis, L., Eur. 
azurea, Link., Eur. 
Beccabunga, L., Eur. 
bellidiuide*, L., Eur. 
corymbosa, Hort., Loud. 
exaltata, Maud., Siberia. 
.r ( .„{|; IU nides, Vahl, Taur., etc 
incana, L., S. Eur., etc. 

. Sib, 

longilblfa, L., C. et S. Eur. 

ni.-iritlM i, L.,Eur. 

— var. vaviegata. 
repens, DC-, Eur. 

, L., Eur. 

— var. humifusa, (Dicks.) 
spicata, L., Eur., etc. 
spuria, L., Eur. 

— > var. Kalnitzii. 
Teucrium, L., Eur. 

— var. latifolia, (L.) 

Yesicaria corymbosa, Hort. 

V; ( ;,. ;uii])lii. . \ ;■ . !)< ':K.. . 
boetica, Fisch., Siberia. 
calcarata, Desf., Algiers. 
disperma, DC, France. 
Ervilia, Willd., S. Eur. 
Faba, L., cultivated. 
Ludoviciana, Nutt., N". Auier. 
narbonensis, L., S. Eur. 
onobryehioides, L., Eur. 
Orobus, DC, Eur. 

, Jacq., Eur. 

— var. Morisiana, (Jord.) 
sepittm, L., Eur. 
sitchensis, Bong., N. Amer. 

etc. (V. gigantca, Hook.) 
svlvatica, L., Eur. 
villosa, Eoth., S. Eur. 
L., Eur. 

— var. alba. 

eiteullata, Ait., N. Amer. 
flatior, Fries., Eur. 
Jooi, Janka, Transylv. 

Viola— cont. 

palustris, L., Eur. 
Patrinii, DC, India, etc. 

(V. primulilblia, Linn. 
ex parte. V. chinensis, 
pinnata, L., Alps, Eur., etc. 
pumila, Willd., S. Eur. 
pyrer.aica, Bam., Pyrenees. 
iana, Bor., Eur. 
. A '■ 
nutabunda, A.DC, S. Eur. 
saxicola, A.DC, N. Zeal. 

. _ ■. " !■ s Willd., Y.v. . 

icb, Eur. 
Whitlavia. (See Phacelia.) 
Wulfenia Amherstiana, Btli., 
carintbiaca, Jacq., Carinth. 
ithium indicuro, Wall., Ind., 
etc. (X. orientale, L.) 
. L., Eur. 

Zacintba verrucosa, Grert., Eur 
Zinnia elegans, Jacq., Mexico. 

multiflora, L., Mexico. 

pauciflora, L., Peru. 
Ziziphora capitata, L., Taur., e 
Zollikoferia Elquinensis, V 


Zvgadeims elegant Piirsli, X. 
Amer. (Z. comnratatus, 
Sclmlt. fib, Z. canadensis, 
Hort., Z. chloranthus, 
Richards, Anticlea glaaca, 
Nuttallii; Gray, N. Amer. 


— var. hebecarpum, Hort. 

— var. k'iocarpum. 
Ginnata, Mux., Amurland. 
macroohyllum, Pursh., "N. W. 

neapolitanum, Ten., Eur. 
obtusiituui, Kit., Eur. 
penn-vlvanieum, L., N. Amer. 

— var. llavo-raargmatum, 

— var. fol. variegatum, Hort. 

— var. lutescens, Hort. 

— var. purpurea, Hort. 
Alnus firma, S. & Z., Japan. 

incana, Will., X. Hemisphere, 
-var.glauca, (Ait.) 

— var. laciniata, Hort. 
orientalis, Dene., Orient. 

Amorpha fruticosa, L., N". Amer.- 
Betula alba, L., N. Hemishp. 

corylifolia, S. & Z., Japan. 

lenta, L., N. Amer. 

lutea, Michx. f., N. Amer. 

papyracea, Ait., N. Amer. 

ulmifolia, S. & Z., Japan. 
Berber* aristata, DC, Himal. 

— var. Belstanensis, Hort. 
buxifolia, Lamk., Chili. 
canadensis, Mill., N. Amer. 
coriacea, Brandis., Himal. 
Darwinii, Hook, f., Chili, 
sinensis, Desf., China, 
stenophylla, Hort. 
Thunbergii, DC, Japan. 
vulgaris, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. caroliniana, Hort. 

— var. emarginata, Hort. 

— var. purpurea, Hort." 

— var. spathulata, (Schrad.j 

— var. violacea, Hort. 
Wallichiana, DC, Himal. 

Biota orientalis, End., Orient. 
Buxus sempervirens, L., Eur. Asi 

— var. latifolia, Hort. 

— var. prostrata, Hort. 
Caragana arborescens, Lamb., 

" DC, Siberia, 
ndula, Hort. 

i;. ; 

■ >A -.Li-. 


Carpinus Betulus, L., Eur., etc. 
Cassinia fulvida, Hook. f. N. Zeal. 
(Diplopappus chrysophyllus, 

Cedrus Deodara, Loud., Himal. 
Celtis occidentalis, L., N. Amer. 
Cerasus Laurocerasus, Loisel., 

Chamaecyparis (Cupressus). 
Lawsoniana, Pari., Calif. 

— var. albo-spica, Hort. 

— var argentea, Hort. 

— var. californica, Hort. 

— var. fragrans argentea, 

— var. gracilis pendula, Hort. 

— var. intertexta-, Hort. 

— var. ochroleuea, Hort. 
obtusa, S. & Z., Japan. 

(Retinospora obtusa.) 
Cistus laurifolius, L., Spain. 
Cladrastis amurensis, Benth. & 

Hook., Amur. 
Clematis Viticella, L., Eur. 

— var, rubra, Hort. 
Colutea arborescens, L., Eur. 

— var. omenta, (Ait) 

— var. haleppica, (Lamk.) 
Cornus sanguinea, L., Eur. 

— stolonifera, Michx., N. 

Cotoneaster acuminata, Lindl., 

affinis, Lindl., Himal. 
bacillaris, Wall., Himal. 

— var. floribunda, Hort. 
buxifolia, Wall., Himal. 
frigida, Wall., Himal. 
horizontalis, Dene- 
microphylla, Wall., Himal. 
nummularia, F. & M., Asia, 

rotundifolia, Wall., Himal. 
Simonsii, Baker., Himal. 
tomentosa, Lindl., Eur. 

(G. Lavallei, Herincq.) 
coccinea, L., N. Amer. 

— var. glandulosa, Hort. 

— var. indentata, Hort. 

— var. macracantha, (Lodd.) 
cordata, Mill., N. Amer. 
Crus-Galli, L., N. Amer 

— var. prunifolia, (Pers 
Downingii, Hort. 

ni-r.-i. W. , 

ori.-ntiilN. Pall, Orient. 
oxyaoantha, L., Eur. 

— var. fusca, Hort. 

— var. monogyna, (Jacq.) 

Euonymus euvopaeus, L., Eur. 

— var. coccineus, Hort. 

Forsythia suspensa, Valil., Japan, 

Gaultheria Sballon, Pursli., N. 

Genista aetnensis, DC., Sicily, 
hispanica, L., Spain, 
radiata, Scop., S. Eur. 

- C var!dati'or, U (Kit.) 
virgata, DC, Madeira. 

Hamamelis virginica, L., N. Amer. 

Hedera Helix, L., Eur., etc. 

Hypericum Androsaemum, L., 

Ilex Aquifolium, L., Eur. 

— var. ciliata, Hort. 

— var. platyphylla, Hort. 
Laburnum Adami, Lav. 

(Laburnum x Cytisus purpu- 

. On, 

Cytisus albus, L, S. W. Eur. 

— var. incainatus, Hort. 
capitatus, Jacq., S. Eur. 
biflorus, L., Herit, Eur. 
hirsutus, L., S. Eur. 
purgans, Wilik., S. W. Eur. 
pupureus, Seop., Eur. 
scoparius, L., Eur. 

Deutzia crenata, S. & Z., Japan. 

— var. Sieboklii, Hort. 
scabra, Thunb., Japan. 

Elaeagnus argentea, Pursb., N. 
W. Amer. 
japonicus, Hort. 
longipes, A. Gray., Japan. 
umbellata, Thunb., Japan. 

Ligustrum vulgare, L., Eur. etc. 

Lonicera discolor. Lindl., Himal. 

Morrowii, Gray., Japan. 

— var. kamtschatica, Hort. 
Xylosteum, L., Eur. 

Mahonia Aquifolium, N"utt. 

— var. Murrayana, Hort. 
fascicularis, DC., N. Amer. 
japonica, DC, Japan. 

Menispermum canadense, L., N. 

Neiilia opulifolia, Benth. et Hook., 

— var. lutea, Hort. 

— var. nana, Hort. 
Olearia Haastii, Hook, fil., N. 

Pernettya mucronata, Gaud., 

Piptanthus nepalensis, V. JJon., 

Potentffla fruticosa, L., Eur. 

— var. floribunda, Hort. 
Ptelea trifolia, L., F. Amer. 

— var. glauca, Hort. 
Pyrus Aria, L. 

— var. graeca, Boiss. 
arbutifolia, L., N. Amer. 

— var. grandiflnni, Hurt. 

— var. serotina, Lindl. 
Aucuparia, Gaertn., Eur. 

— var. pentlala, Hort. 
latifolia, Syme. 
Maulei, Masters, Japan, 
spectabilis, Desf., China, etc. 

Rhamnus alnifolius, L., N. Amer. 
carolinianus, Walt., N. Amer. 
ini'ectorius, L., S. Eur. 

llhn- radieans, L., N. Amer. 

typhina, L., N. Amer. 
Eibes alpinum, L., Eur. 

— var. opuliluliimi, Hort. 

— var. pumilum/Hort. 

— var. praecox, Hort. 

Bakeri, Desegl., England. 
is, Hort. 

!i. et Sell., Calif, 
canina, L., Eur., etc. 
— var. andegavensis, Baker. 
Carolina, L., N. Amer. 

■-'a I !■-.■>. I... Eur.', var.*' 
hibcrnioa, Sin., Britain. 

lucida, Ehrb., N. Amer. 

microcarpa, Hort. 
micropbylla, Boxb., China. 
mondial a Mill., India, etc. 

(R. Briinoni, Lindl.) 
nitida, Willd., N". Amer. 
nutkana, Presl., N. Amer. 
pissocarpa, A. Gray, N.Amer. 
polyantha, S. et Z., Japan, 
rubiginosa, L., Europe, etc. 

— var. major, Hort. 
rugosa, S. et Z., Japan. 

serieea Lindl., Himal. 
spinosissima, L., Eur. 

— var. pusilla, Hort. 

— var. rubra, Hort. 

— var. dimorpba. 

Wilsoni, Bor., Britain. 
Rubus Balfourianus, Blox., Eur. 

cordifolius, W. ot X., Eur. 

laciniatus, Willd., Hort. 

leucodermis, Dougl., N. Amer. 

leucostachys, Sin., Eur. 

Lindleyanus, Lees, Eur. 

mucronatus, Blox., Eur. 

nudis, W. et N., Eur. 

occidentalis, L. et 1ST., Amer. 

rhamnifoliup, W. et N., Eur. 

strigosus, Michx., N. Amer. 

thyrsoideus, Wimm., Eur. 
Sambucus nigra, L., Eur. 

— var. laciniata, Hort. 

— var.' rotundii'.'dia, Hort. 

— var. Swindonensis, Hort. 

— var. virescens, Hort. 
Skimmia Fortunei, Mast. (S.ja- 

ponica, Hort.) 
Spartium junceum, L., S. Eur. 
Spin a L-:meso-ns, Don., Himal. 

callosa, Tliunb., Japan. 

can.Uuiulin. Pall., Eur. 

Douglasii, Hook., N.W. Amer. 

flagellifonnis, Hort. 

hypericifolia, L., Eur. 

Lindleyana, Wall., Himal. 

splendens, Hort. 
Sianbyk-a pinnata, L., Eur. 


Syringa Emodi, Wall., Himal. 



Taxus baccata, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. adpressa - fasihi;it;i. 

— var. Dovastonii, Hort. 

— var. fructu-luteo, Hort. 

— var. Washingtoni, Hort. 
Thuja Dicksoni, Hort. 

gigantea, Kutt., N.W. Amer. 
occidental^, L., N. Amer. 

Thuja — cont. 

plicata, Don., K". Amer. 

Standishii, Carr., Japan. 
Ulex europaeus, L., Eur. 

Wehvitschianus, Planch., 

S.W. Eur. 
Vaccinium maderense, Link., 

Viburnum Lantana, L., Eur. 
Opulus, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. cdule, Hort. 

— var. fructu-luteo, Hort. 

— var. roseum, Hort. 

[All Hights Reserved.] 




APPENDIX II.— 1890. 


The number of garden plants annually described in botanical and 

•■ ign, is now so consider- 
able that it lias been th ~h a complete list of them 
in the Kew Bullrtiii each year (*•«■ April numbers for 1888 and 1889). 

1889. These lists are indispensable to the maintenance of a correct 
nomenclature, especially in the smaller botanical establishments in 
correspondence with Kew, which are, as a rule, only scantily pr<>\i. led 
with horticultural periodicals Such a list will aUo ali'ord information 
respecting new plant- under eultivatioii at iln> establishment, many of 
which will i.e distributed from it in (he regular course of exchange with 


't p [irk list includes - not ° nly ^-^^^^° A ^?!^* £ 

.;- have boon in gardens for several years Dut € 
"not described or their names had not been authenticated 

« t +; mo ,i,irinff 1889 but the most noteworthy of muse wmwi m 
iyt'20 after" bdng lost from cultivation. Other plan 
■ " shave been in gardens for several years, but either 

re in nt addition to species and botanical varieties all hybrids, whether 
introduced or of garden Qfj ''"^Y* m 

are included. Mere garden varieties of such plants as Coleus, Lodiaeum, 
or Narcissus are omitted for obvious reasons. 

Reference is given only to the place where the plant is first described, 
or figured, or where additional information is published. 

Besides the natural order and country, a brief notice of the habit and 
most striking points of each plant is given, but it is not considered 
3ssary to attempt botanical descriptions. 

n every case the plant is cited under its published name, although 
e of the names are doubtfully correct. Where, however, a correction 

w Uua e collection the plant was first noticed 
or deeiaribeS is given where known. 

An asterisk is prefixed to all those plants of which examples are in 
cultivation at Kew, 

The publications from which this list is compiled, with the abbre- 
tht-ni, are as follows : — B. M.—l^i am. -al 
Magazine. 11 T. ().— \ I "-<"i":i diOrtirultura. 

Bull Cat.— Bull, Catalogue of New, Beautiful, and Rare Plants 
Dommann Cat.— Dammann & Co., Catalogue of P.ulbs, Root?, and 
Plants. Gard.— The Garden. G. C— Gardeners' Chronicle. G. and 
^.-Garden and Forest. Gfl.— Gartenflora. H. G.— Hamburger 
Garten- und Blumenzeitung. III. 11 , cole. Jard. 

— Le Jardin. ./. of #.— Journal of Horticulture. L.— Lindema. 
Nat. Arb. Zosch. — Neuheiten-Offerte des National- Arboretums zu 
Zoschen. 0.— L'Orchidophile. R.— Reichenbachia. Rgl Descr.—- 
I.Yivl. I >escriptiones et emendationes Plantarum in horto imperiah 
|w>. /,'. //. — Revue Ilom.ole. 
R. H. B — Revue de 1' Horticulture Beige. Veitch C«*.— W.ieh As 
Sons' Catalogue of Plants. Veitch Man. Cffpr., m»d Ma$dcv.—\i-\U*\ 

W. G. — Wiener Illustrierte Garten-Zeitung. II d'nums (at.— 
Williams' New and General Plant Catalogue. W. 0. A.— Warner and 
Williams' Orchid Album. 

The abbreviations used in the descriptions of the plants are : — l)ia,n. 
—Diameter. FL— Flower. Fr.— Fruit. ft.— Foot or Feet. G.— 
Greenhouse. H.~ Hardy. H. H.- Half -hardy. /«— Inches. Inft. 
— Inflorescence. L. — Le 
Per.— Perennial. Pet.— 

Acer dasycarpum, var. pnlvemlen- 

tum, Hort. («. H. 2?. 1889, 268.) 

Negundo foliis margina 
:eis, Hort, {R. II. />'• i« 

Acer Negundo, var. Guichardi, Hort. 1 densely on tlu: mar 

form with tin :: '- l ., 1 — l! ' 

thfeGolden I ',' " " IHKL - ^ T 

008. Baked by 1 t ■ ■ ■; 

name it bears. AlbUCa tricliophylla, I'-ali.-r. ■*.. r 

*Aciphylla Lyallii, Hook. f. (IF. g. small %<*< ^ ',' ' ,i ',' " i ,! ' ,, ) 

1889, p. 123.) UmbelUfew. H. per. | Baker. 11 

*Allamanda violacea, C 

Acineta WrigMii, Fraser. (Gard. i 1889,' 

ium ammophilum, Heuflf. (liql. 

hsrr.. p. 5.) II. hull,, in the way of ,1. 

Adiantum tetraphyllum, ] 
obtusum, k 

- S.F.-m.wit 

Adiantum Paradisese, Baker, (<7. c. 

■■ man, Kgl. (St. Pet 

Frond, r, in. broad and Inn-, pinna? ' 

v no»d: uitn.n. - ,.;,!. ivnato at Allium luerosolymse, Kgl. 

^chmea purpurea, Williams. ( if//- ivdestine. 

A distinct lo kansuense, Rgl. ( 

-ffisculus cMnensis, Bun ff0 . ( \v. a. jl>™'^ r ^-^ ( ^ T- ^;;' 

no: and a Allium orientale, Boiss. 

pamcle of rather small rl. ( i 

Re$. 1845, t. 28. ' Allium Przewalskianum, 

Agave Maximowicziana, li.-vi. «;/i. like [.,' and - an umbel of r 

bulbs crowded (Makoy.) 

> (Dam- Atithurium burfordiense, Hort. 

, (G. C. 1880, v. 6. p. 700.) A- garden 


!iEr"'< ,i.'!mvd ti'iw.-rl 1 ' l ) !ZZ' iV/iv. Antturium^^tmiajMim^ \iarti"e ■ 

Gardon variety. I Anthuriutn cymbifbrme, *^ ^JJ 

(//,/. V/,//. t. 7"'Jl.) ^ r ;' d ? > ; Q ■ :el large white 

tuberous aroiilwith a soutarj leat salmon-junk 


I'fwh'te • 
Africa." (Kew.) 
Ampelovitis Davidi, Carr - 

\ I,r! ' . t'l ' 

i Chiii 

Anthurium scberzerianum, vans, 
atrosanguineum, nign 

' .;:,i:r: ,■■■•• • ■ _ ■■ 

Angracum germinyanuin, Hook. f. j ' ane ; les " 
/? i/ ~ - ii ! .I..-. A Anubiaa heterophylla^i-'i- ■ ^••^ ; 

tbrood, Bowers Bmal!, not showy. Congo. 

i..i!,,! h.h.-lhnu, and ii spur nearly 6 in. (Bull.) 

long, stove. .Madagascar. (Kew.) i A ilegia creruleochrysantba. JHJ- 

Lngraecum kimballianum, Hort.: t;. ihsj), p. 202.) Kan,llK '" :KV,K- 

SC A. polystachys, P. Th. j Garden Hybrid. 

*Ang S um 5 polys^chy^i'.Th. ! U ; . A 

with white tl ( Vilmorin-Andrieux N. 

| *Arissema Wrayi, Hemsl. (G. C. 1889. 

v. 5, p. 136.) Aroideffi. A well marked 

•:. ,■■•..-..-'.- 

\ Arum detruncatum, Damm. (#«>«- 

W 7 . G. 1889, p. 401, f. 04; and [ H. 

iWittmackii 1889, P . r,ou.) Aroukw. H.n. pei., 

Koss.lljr. Cfr/I. 1889, p. 121. t t*98 I 
An.idra^ S. A -lies ,<f tardea l,%- 

ate, bilobed 1., and t 

Arum sanctum, Damra. (Dammann 

p. 655 ; it ?? an i889 5 'p' lo^f W^G. 

1889, p. 401, f. 65.) H. H. per., with 


1., and large, long -falke.1 spathi < of 

spadix. "Palestine. 

Arundinella anomala, Steud. (Qfl. 

1889, p. 167.) Gnmiine.r. II. irni- 
of very dwarf, Stable for lawns 

year. Japan. (Berger & Co.) 

Sm. (G. C. 

Lsplenium sc 

1889, v. 5, p. 

* Aster Herveyi, Gray. ((?. and F. 


long. Rhode Island, X. America. 

*Aster lindleyanus, Torr. & < irav. , a. 

and F. 1889, p. 448, fig. I . 

A showy species, stems 1-2 ft. high, 

lower 1. ovate, obscurely cordate, peli- 

Begonia octopetala, var. Lemoinei, 

, patula, Kl. (Hal. Drsrr.. p. 

(St. Petersburg Bot. Gard.) 
Bifrenaria Harrisonise, Rchb. var. 

Billbergia vexillaria,'. </?. //. 

Azalea dianthiflora, Carr. (/?. H. 

Japan. (VV r eisent 

in diaiu. Brazil. (A, <le la lb van>aye.) 

Ballota suaveolens, L. (W. G. 1889, 

strongly scented. West Indies. 

Begonia coccinea, Vaiier. ( /.'. a. i s>», 

j *Brodiaea Palmer i. - ^ ■ 

fl. umbellate, I in. long, hi 
It produces 


; BulbophyUum fallax, Ro 

♦Bulbophyllum suavissimum, Reife. 

(lower- 1 pper l'» 

*Cabomba aquatica, - 

plant, with dimorphic 

*Calanthe biloba, IAkB. ( ^ n ° e \4" 

Calanthe darblayana, 

Luis Obispo. I 
Camassia Engelmannii, 


variety. (Berth), Versa ilk- . ) 

Carludovica elegans, wr 


japonica, Bi.' (Gfl. 


< pu 

ferife. H. A 









;>>. II. 

,i. ^ 

the young 1. B 

Ml. C. 


Japan. (Ingegnoli 


Casuarina sumatrana, Jungh 


//. 1889 



i il, - 


"Catasetum darwinianum, J 

*Catasetum fimbriatum, Ldh ^ 

Catasetum galeritum, ™r. pachy- 

gloSSUm, llchb. i (G. C. 1889, y. 5, 
p. 73.) Distinguished Irom me type 

- ii 

"Cattleva dowiana, Batem. w. chry- 

SOtOxa, Sander. {R. vol. 2, p. 71, 

t 80.) Orchidesc. A handsome torm, 

,,.il„w >ep. and pi't., iin.l 

each side the disk, ti is 

I otamtk. (J. Connell, 
Tooting Common.) 

Cattleya Eldorado, var. virginalis, 


of c: /;, 

«„,,!!, „ith , ':■ ' hioni.l Citrus Daidai. 

.„,•» xr»„, 1 x.-.._:. Clavi.ia cauliflora, B g 

Cattleya Mossi®, Hook. v „. bousie- Clavija cauliflora, Kgi. O^.J^ 

v 4, p. 85, pi. 185.) ^ eo „A„ 

landsome form, with the fl. marbled farr J tn 

tia Douglasii, Hook. (ir. a. 

ith large, blue, bell-shaped fl. X. 

Cattleya Nilsoni, Sander. (Gji. 1889, I ^S^p.^iO^No' S^msi'%& 

St. Pctorsburti Hotauic lianh-n. Mon- 

Ka degcrns. Brazil. (Sander 
Cavendishia spectabilis, Bull. (J3u» 

CW. 1889, p. 7.) Vacciniaceaj. G. A 

♦Clematis vertic . 

1889, p. 80.) S. 

C. riicheri, with bluish-purple fl. 

*Clerodendron paniculatum, 

mgledeteau, por< 

use heads of bright 

Ceanotnus prostratus, Bendi. off. t 70 ,,., 

/ ■■ ' : ' : . ' ■ 

Oregon. (Forest Acad., Miiuden.) 

Cephalanthus occidentals, L. rar. &<>™, ^^»r V \e **?•*»£• ^J- 

angUStifoliTlS, Audre. (*.//. 1889, ;V n, ™ a - (Kew and Edinburgh JJot. 

p. 281, f. 71.) Bubiacea-. H. shr. A Gard.) 

ST «d la.t d ^ if ' rata 

^Hort™ S C^ ti ^ IT SSj^J?^ J ^^ Argente h,Sh,W1 

'Cocos eriospatha, Mart. (B. T. O. 

somewhat coriaeeous l.-avt- like those 1889, p. 211.) S. T ; 

Cereus Pringlei Wats. (G. and F. \ South BrazlL 

1889.' -.,,. :,,:,t. ii_. :tj; //.fir. 1889, Cocos petraea, Mart. (/>•/■" -. '• 

EighTo? J 8o i S : -'"s- Am]es of 

tinged with purple. Mexico. BOM* 

nS( ^;.., ' { <;/l. 1889, 

nth being more or 

proli- Croton alabamensis, 1 

(Hillebrand & Bredem 

Cordia Gregii, Twt 

Wats. (G7 and F. 
fig. 106.) Boraginete 

Cornns florida flore rabti 

small whitish flowers. Alabama. 
Crysophila nana, Bi. (2?. T. O 1889, 

p. 337.) Palme. S. Palm of dwarf 

Cncnrbita mexicana, Hort. ( 

1889, p. 460.) (.'ucurbitacetc. 

traiU-r of vigorous grout li, no 

: von. Mexico. (Dai 

Cornns sangninea foliis 

fir - 

•Crinum Schimperi, Vatke. (< 

Cymbidinm eburneo 

Hort. (G.C.l? on - 
dese. Agardei 

;„ P . ■ 

♦Cymbidinm madidnm, Lindl 
Cymbidinm Mastersii, Grifl 

Crocns Kardnchornm, Kotschy. j Cypripedinm Aphrodite, 

bsnad,' those of the ] 
spathe monophyllous 

Moensii, Ve 

Cypripedinm Ashbnrtonise, Rcht 

var. majns, Veitch. (IY/M, M„> 
Cjp. p. 79.) A gardrt: i 

Crocns Monra 

1889, xxxv. p. 4 73.) Iridesr 
oblate 1 in. bra 

proper ! 7 h, , in. broad. 

Cypripedinm Ashburt 

p. 23.) Garden hybrid between < '. 
barbatum var. super-hum and < '. insiijuv. 

Cypripedinm Beatrice, N. E. Br. (G. 

( . |>v.i. v. 6, p. 266.) A hybrid 
j Stenttfu and C. ZoHt/i. 

| Cypripedinm bnchanianum, Hort. 

Cypripedium Cassiope, Roife. (G 

1889, v. 5, p. 200.) Raised by Mes 
Seeger and Tropp, Dulwich, from 

Cypripedium claptoniense, ReMa 


Cypripedium De Witt Smith, Rolfe. 

lnbri.l raised by Low & Co., Clapton, 

Cypripedium Figaro, O'l 

■:,;■, :■ :-. !.:'■■ . ■ . ■ ■ . - ; 

• notched at the apex. (Julos II vo- 

Cypripedium insigne,var.halleanum, 

Cypripedium Niobe, Hon. (G\ < isw, 

from f .y;i/rm»i«in anilV'. v ». r/.i» M i». 

i-.n Orestes, \\.-m-h. 

v/w< ■ vai >■• 

Cypripedium robustius, lichb. f. 

."., j, i'.U ) K.i.m.1 in 

Cypripedium T. B. Haywood, Boife. 

./. C is^.t, v. :.. p. 128.) liaised by 
.Me^rs. Witch from ('. supcrimu^ ami 

i d venusto-spicerianum, 

l.'v'Mr.' I). 0.' Drewstt, 

Dayallia foeniculacea, iio,,k. v n ,/ 

^v!oi!our'"tu : .'nan''^1;piV'TuW 

Cypripedium harrisianum, B«W». f. 

■ • •■ 

var.polychroi)i\in. 1 ml "• (/ ' ', 

♦Delphinium trolliifolium, Gray. 

Cypripedium insigne, Wall. var. 


■ : 


loutish p.-<lice!>; ti. !< . 

Cypripedium longifolium, Behb. f. 
var. gracile, Veitch. (FertrA itfan. 

s" P aK )a nr.^n. ?I (ThompS aS ^ 

*Dendrobium bracteosum, Rehb. f 

Cypripedium Minerva, i!»itv '-■ ' 

■.•'.' ; . : : : .: ;v ... ..-■.■ 


Dendrobium chrysolabrum, Holfe. 
*Dendrobium Fairfaxii, Koif-. <v. < . 

i l)"' 1 ) , ' ,.'■".. i/ch"lly in the 

Dendrobium lineale, Bo 
Dendrobium transparens, var. alba, 

Stove. (Sander & Co.) 
Dendrobium waidiano-n 

I . 

and D. pnl,,ph,,lla, more robust than 

Dentaria pinnato - digitatn , !■'■ : ; .i 

Deutzia gracilis 

vm with golden 

ni, Kgi. (%/. 

Difflossophvllum serrular 
*Diplarrhena Moraea, I 

*Disa tripetaloides, 

Dodecatheon Lemoinei. 

*Drosera cistiflora, \.\mi. ( a. ( '. i?h'.», 
*Echinocactus bolansis, B 

■'■ ' ,■■ ' ■ ,-, : ■■■» [ 

red. Mexico. 

*Elaeagnus Simoni, yar. tri 
Encephalartos regalis, B 

• -ti.ut < } liia!vic inmk, 

Enkianthus ^ campaini Ut1 

Dicksonia Billardieri, : 

*Eomecon ch.iona.ntha, Mane, j /; 1/ . 

Eulopbia bella, N. E. Br, re. r. 

is^.v. *, v .->lu.) Orchid,-*. G. A 
pretty species, equal in size to K. s'r.p- 
topvtala. Seape about 2 ft. I.i-l.. hear . 

•■,. , ' . . : 

preen, and brown. ' Zambezi, i.l. 


Eulophia callichroma, Kchb. r ( (,.( '. 

Epidendrum radiatum, Ldi., var. 
fuscatum, «<-hh. f. (G. C. 1889, v. 5, 
p. 43.) A variety with the ll. wholly 

Eupatorinm japonicuni, Thi,g. < /.'. 

*Epiphyllum makoyannm, Hort. 

■ ■■■•- 

i ;: :,'i;j^ 

;;v^/; ! v v : ;■; ,;; 

Euphorbia heterophylla, i- (Jr. r,\ 

. , . . ... 

.'a'TM th!\r 1 h.V '" 'N.'.ifl/'tJr.'-'.'! 


Fraxinus Eegelii, Dippel. (.Va/. .-irft. 


*Eucalyptus staigerijina, I". M'ldl. 

Fritillaria hericaulis, 

Eucharis Lehmanni,! 

iu diam., coi *Galanthus Foster i, 

Pop j m (St I'et >! i. t Gard l,sS9. \ 1 * - <^ ' 

Eugenia Garberi, Sargent. (G. and F. 

1889, v. 2, p. 28, fig. 87.) Myrtaceic. 

I:---. ;;.■ .;. ■.■:■■ ' ' '. '•' 

*Galanthus u 

Genista oweniana, Hort. (G g- 

A hybrid rui-.-d In Mr. R. Owen, 

Geonoma Herbstii, Hort. (Card. 
tin- leaf segments. Stove. (Laing & 

u tuft 

*Gerbera Jamesoni, Boln 

'Gladiolus Adlami, 

Gladiolus Leichtlini, Baker. (G. c. 

Gladiolus punctatus, Thm 

mam, I'.if. IN>*9, |, 4 ) (I 

bulb, prod u 

2-3 large fl. of a greenish-yt 


; In M. ] 

83.) H. A 

jiimi!!' with numerous obloi 
fi. are in short ra< 

Gymnogramma elegantissima. {Bull 

Cat. 1889, p. 8 and p. I -. 

H. G. 1889, 513 I .'OS \n . , irant 



US victorialis, Sprcnger. ( 
^89, p. 309.) Garden hyb 
en G. comvmnis and G. Colvilh 
ium Comesii, Sprenger. ( 

Hibiscus rosa-siuensis, vai 

medius Bull. {Bull. Cat. 1 

■■?>.) Malvue.a 

,. .,., //_.... 

Hydrangea aspera, Don ? ( 

Imautophyllum blandfordiseflo- j * Iris D anfordia, Boiss. (G. C. j 
rum, var. striatum, Bull. (Bull Cat. i vi> p 1>: 

Impatiens Rodigasi, L. 

(ft/, j obscurely bearded, standard 
iaceffi. fine threads. Civilian Tai 

mceo- Baker, fri* li'-n,. ,'„<:!., .1! 

long pedicels, having a 

*Iris G-atesii, lost 

Iris alata, Poir. vars. alba, crnerea, . new iris of the Ometemeta* 
cupreata, lilacina, mapna, nigres- the war of /. susiana, but r 

CenS, and speciosa, all of Hort. ! and with larger fl. Fl.varial 

B f 8 k 8 e 9,' p. ( ?55 C ) ^L&^Ola 

*Iris bakeriana, 

*Iris stylosa, De*f. m 

Iris Bornmulleri, ' 

*Kniphofia aloides, Moench. var. glau- 

*Kniphofia natalensis, Bak. r. ((;«,-<(. 

•2-:\ ft. high, head- • 
G-8 in. long, fl. orang 
darker red vein-, the 
(in- vellou -liirhtU- ringed ivd. Natal. 
* Kniphofia Northiae, } ta : 

ones reddish, stvle s'.iuhtlv 
3. S.Africa. (Kew.) 

■ ell. (G.C.1889, 

a that flowers about Christmas time 

. anceps, var. amabilis, Bchb. f 

Laelia autumnalis, rar. 

Laelia digbyana-Mossise, wiMi 

1 O. 4., vol. f 

and Catf%/a lominiL "^ 

Laelio-Cattleya Aurora, Rolfe. ((?. C. 

Laelio-Cattleya Cassiope, Hoife. 

d,-n Mi i i -u lV \U-i. \. C t li 

Laelio-Cattleya elegans, var. Cook. 

SOni, Kolfe. (G. G 1889, 

Lsalio-Cattleya Stella, Rolfe. (G. C. 
322.) <r. The result of 

crossing L.<ris/,a with /,. rlvijmis, var. 

flowered by Messrs. Veitch. 

*Laportea moroides, Wedd. (/>v. 

„ottl.' with an.-ivet rol.tM, maU- 


Lasiosiphon anthylloiu 

Latace Volkmanni, Ph 

ia dellensis, Hot 

ins, var. alba, 

Lilium Bolanden, n a 


Lilium elos; 

Lilium Martagon, > 

,.-.:-k vellou tl. The 
. Wallacei is a dwarf form, usually 
!-flowered, spotted with brown, and 

album, Hort. 

).) 11. A white 

Lilium Martagon, L. var. atrosan- 

. 40, t. 2.) II. bulk 


: Co.) 


Lilium pardalinum, var. pumilum, 



*Lilium Wallichianum, 

Himalayas. (Low & C< 

Liparis ful 

Lobelia Kerneri. (Qfl. 

witli vioh t-purplr tl. Costa Kka. (Max 

Louicera bella, Zabei. (G/?. 1889, p. 

(Forest .\ca«l,, n.) 

Lonicera floribunda, Boiss .\ fJuh-e. 

Lonicera gibbiflora, Dippel. (iVai 

Arb. Zosch. 1889-1890, p. 8.) H. tin 

*Lonicera gigantea, Hort. {R, n 

.aantha, Trantv. 

Lonicera minutiflora, Zab< 

and L. Morrowi. 

Lonicera notha, I 

525) and var-*. 1 

gilva, grandiflo 

Lonicera propinqua, Zai.ei ;'..'/. 

tween /-. <-/;»//. 7irt and /,. L<J,l,<,urii. 

♦Lonicera quinquelociii;. . 

lava. (Forest Acad 


Lonicera salicifolia, G. Dieek. 


(F'orest Acad., Miin 

Lonicera segreziens 

^V! 11 


The'abovc name is g 

the false name of L. 

Lonicera segreziensis, Lavaik'e. 


L. dlversVolia of 

garden-. (1 


Lonicera splendens, 

Lonicera translucens, 

of a darker yellow colour 
(Forest A -ad., Mundcn.) 

Lourya campanulata, Bain. (/.'. // 

1889, p. 128, f. .!-'.) Liliaceu'. S. per.. 

Lycoris Terracianii, Damm. (Dam- 

H. bulb, stated to be a variety" of A. 
r«id/H/a. with very h.rjre crimson rl„ 
which are ed-ed with white when 

Manihot carthaginensis, Mull. (W. 

(. p 4-,+ . 1 i horbiaceie H. II ,,i 

Mamniillaria Grusoni, 

Masdevallia coccinea, 

. i, Veiteh. i, 1 

Masdevallia courtauldiana, Kehb. f. 

and J/. Shuttleworthii (caudata). 
Masdevallia ellisiana, KoiiV. ( (r. < . 

1889, v. 6, p. 134; l-ritch,M,i„. .Ua,- 

Masdevallia maculata, Kb \ar. thiva, 

an uniform tawny yellow. 

Massonia amygdalina, luk.r. ( .;. r. 
Maxillaria crocea, Ldl. var. Lietzei, 

Miltonia Blexii, God. i^-b. 

Masdevallia caudata - Estradae, 

l from M. amabilis 


M. amabilis as the pollen 

I M. veitchia 
pollen parent. The form splende 

Masdevallia Chimaera, Kchb. i. var. 

,, ', ^w, V 

Miltonia schroederiana, O'l 

Miltonia vexillaria, var. Leopoldii, 

rch'al'theVase of the lip. 
Iian .. Schroeder.) 

Miltonia vexillaria, var. purpurea 

.iaBletii* PP ' ' 

*ltucuna sempervir< 

1889, 266.) Legumir. 
to England in 1816, bi 

im, >ai. crista- 

Mulgediumgiganteum ? Hort. {W.G. Nennc an.usUfoha^ W.^ 

1889, p. 225.) Composite II. per. of ,i ,'. l, d i'^ V / a r« 

imposing appearance, 6-8 ft. high, with ( /,* c . 1 ', , , tt , '!." \ 

panicles of blue-violet fl. 

*Musa japonica, Hort. (R. H. 1889, 

91.) Scitaminese. H. H. per. 

Nouelia insignis, Franch. (#. H. 


B i.uii.ui Nymphaea albo-pygma 

merit i [.reading line:.. 6-8 in ' ^' 

light blue,' oblong, slight 
(G. Maw.) Stg " rOUD 
Muscari tenuiflorum, Hort. Bel 

stalks, nearly cylindrical, an.! of a deep 

1889, p. 

i n.sjtito.\u, about 2 in. high. 

Nymphata maiiiacta, cinema 
v ( w tella. (-*■* 1889, p- -is, with P i. 

This is A. ta&«r«sa, xnr.Jian.a »s, t )liv 

ymphsea mexicana, Zncc. (W. o 

1889, p. 413.) H. H. Water-hly, wit! 
shining yellow fl. <T. Smith.) 

hrmphaa sphaerccarpa, ***• rosea 

Hort. {GJi. 1889, p. 389.) Seems I 
(Wildpark, near Potsdam.) 
*? ' • ?' '' PS? Ocymum COmOSUm, Dammann. ( W 

uncifolio-mut ! 

& Co. 
Odontoglossum Alexandra; ,..< ■ Wil- 

(C. Wolley Dod.) 

Bogota. (A. Wilson, Sheffield.) 

s a Odontoglossum bleichroderiajium, 

J. and L. Linden, (Z., v. 4, p. 69, 

oni- acute vvl 

feet in the middle. ( L'llorticultur, fn- 

*Narthex Foil, 

p. 411.) UmbelliferiB. 1 
synonym oi Dorema Amnionic 

*Neillia Torreyi, Wats. (C 

1889, v. 2, p. 4, %. 84.) 
Similar to X. opulifolia, but ir 
[•act in habit, and only two or i 
in height. Kocky Mountains. 

Odontoglossum Bleui, 

Nepenthes Burkeii, Mast. <G. C. ' ' , ' ' .... K _, n7 

1889, v. 6, p. 493, fig. 69.) S. A QdontOg 

Odontoglossum Cervantes; 

p. 59, pt. 17-2. A hamNome airiety. 
with rosy-lilac ft. (Van. Imschoot.) 

Odontoglossum crispu.n 

.. . 

1889, p. 60, with pi.) A form with 
handsome rosy-tinted ii. (A. IVeters, 

Odontoglossum gmsonianum. {L., 

v. I. p. >••!.) Stated to he a var. of <>. 

atoglossum Halhi, LJndl 

(n i, Linden. (Z., v. 4, p. 8; 
form with richly coloured fl 
:ulture internat.) 

Odontoglossum Pescatorei, var.thom- 
sonianum, Hort. (G. C. 1889, v. 6, 

form which appeared iu the collection of 

L with rosy. Mexico. 

pavonium, Rchb. f 
lightful perfun 

{6ft. 1889, p. 65.) 

j similar to var. superbum, hut 
with a differ! n \ -i p d lip, - >• >••■ '1 
with purple at the base. (P. Van 

Odontoglossum warocqueanum, J. 

v, th whit fl -1 nil _1\ -potted (ill tin 
centre of the sep. and pet. with purple- 
brown, u.d h- hi th ' i,! -' e, '" tl '' 
! spot of the same colour. (G. Waroc- 

Odontoglossum wendlandianum, 

|; e.° (,; f.'.lS89,v.6,p. 7; G.aml 
! F. 1889, v. 2, p. 40D.) U. Supposed 
i to be a natural hvbrid between O.vns- 

I rrnrn and O. cirrhasum. It has the 

I 1 l i ;- ) ^ 1 ;; Olearia insignis, H «<k. t (£o*. Afo?., 


(K. Mundy, Derby.) 

peetersianum. (X., 

description. (Peelers, 

flossum Pescatorei, Linden 

im, Hort. (/..,v. l,p.8:j.) 
large-flowered form. (J. 

Oncidium Forbesii, Hook 

mum, Linden. (/,., v. I, p. 4.1, pi. 

large, rose-like, fragrant, yellow fl. 

*0puntia polyacantha, Mill, c u. m., 

t. 7(»4fi.) rii,. pioper name of the 

*Ornithogalum apertiflorum, Baker. 

(G. C. 1889, v. 6, p. 88 

G. Allied to O.narboinimsr. [.caves 

Orchidese. Alii, d to /'. / » i n i- 

*Phaius Mannii, Hort. (</. a irsd, 

v. 5, p. 714.) Orchids. A large 

Phaius philippinensis, N. i- ih. (G. 


Pachyrhizus thunbeve i . 

Hrothers, Milan.) 

*Papaver laevigatum, B» 


blotch at base of eaeh petal. Levant, 

Caucasus, &c. (Haage and Schmidt.) 

*Passiflora "Eynsford Gem." (G. C. 

1889, v. 5, p. 491. fig. Si i Pa-Mtlor- 

rhilippiues. (Witch & Sons.) 

*Phcenix Roebelenii, O'i'.rien. (,;. r\ 

*Pholidota ventricosa, Rchh. f. (-;. r. 

lS.Vi, v. .'., p. aha.) ( » 

(/.'. 7/. 1H.S9, p. ,3'.i;l, f. !"■!.) Coni- 

*Passiflora Pfordtii, 

*Paulowilhelinia speciosa, Hod 

(G. C. 1889, v. 6, p. 749, fig. 10 

Acanthuee;e. G. A herbaceous sin 
allied to Ihicllia, differing only 


licles of hire flowers. 
l pnniceus, A. Gray. 

Pilogyyne punctata, n 

This is the same ;;< Zel . 

Pinus silvestris columr. 


ving forma, ■» 

Pinus Strobus excelsa zebrina, I 

, /,. // ;— k p. .i'.vi. f. i»i.) a . 

Plantago lanceolata, var. marginata, 

*Podophylluin pleianthum, Hance. 

v I ->W, • U: l> II 
1889, p. 516; W. G. 1889, p. 489.) 

the base of which are produced rlie large 
hunch ■- of dropping, rich purple flowers, 
followed hv fruit resembling the May 
Apple, P. peftatnm, glaucous e.recn, 
purple when ripe ; 1. peltate, orbicular, 

•obably hardy perennial. 

*Polemonium pauciflorum, S. Ws 

Madre. Chihuahua. Mexico. (Ken.) 

*Polygonum sphaerostachyum, Wall. 


gonacea?. The finest of all the dwarf 
Polygonums, very desirable for rock- 

■ • .■ ■ ■:-..:. . ..-■ 
in. long, linear or linear-oblong, acute, 
crisped, glabrous, and g 

(Ken and Edinburgh Rot. Gard.) 

•Primula denticulate, var.variegata, 

*Primulapetiolaris. W:.;;. >. u- n.-ina, 

Primula PoisSOni, Franchet. (G. C. 

1S80, vi., p. 361; /{. II. 188'.), p. 191 ; 
W. G. 1889, p. 406.) G. or H. H. 
A tine garden "-pedes, nearly allied to 
I', prolifcni. Wall. Glabrous, 4-6 in. 

curved. Himalayas. (Kew.) 

Primulina Tabacum, Hance. 

;,(,, fig. 52 ; R.H 
p. 516 ; W. G. 1889, p. 445.) 
raceae. H. per. A pretty Alpit 
the habit and flowers of a Prim: 

': ; ■'• . • -:■ .:'■ ■ ." •■ 

cordate, margins lobed ; fl. ii 

corymbs, violet-purple: pedunc 

; ;: r-h:iiry. Xativ 

(i. Ad«arf, prett\ [lowered species, with 

;..,',■ V.w. --I.'. -•;.:.■'. si; J ■; - - '< 

Pyrus MaluBanrea, Hort. V^**-*^ 

♦Remiiia pedunculata, Karst. ( G<mi. 


♦Restrepia pandurata,Kchb. 

With stilV, 

Rhazya orientalis, n»iss. «'• G. 

pretty plant, resembling a I >i,r-a, but 

Rhipsalis pulvinigera, Lindb. {Gfl. 


-uceulent, similar to /,' 

Rhododendron "Her Majesty.' 

Rhododendron indico-javanicnm, 

Sarracenia decora, n<>rt. ((;. t: is- .. 

Horr. (G. <\ 1889, v. 6, pp. :.o7. 

602.) G. shr. A hybrid raised rn 

Messrs Veiteh from Azalea indiea and 

one of the Javanese Rhododendrons. 

Robinia Psendacacia, var. angusti- 

folia, Hort. (rt. #. 1889, p. 420.) 
Leguminosse. H. tree. Garden variety. 

Sarracenia wrigleyana, Veiteh. 

Rosa canina, L. var., Hetscholdi, Zbi. 

Jig. : <V/7. 18K1>, p. J '.I.'), t. ::>.) (iardei, 

(Gfl. 1889, p. 240.) Rosacea. Seed- 

linir varien \ .tit pccul arly cut I. (K. 
Hetschold, Racknitz-Dresden.) 

*Satyrinm. membranaceum, s •■».■< n/ 

r, , SS9, v. ;,.]. 1.(7.) Orchidca 
H. H. terrestrial orchid. A 

*Rosa Engelmanni, Wats. (G. and F. 

iH8ii art;, fig. 121.) A 

• like that of /,'. afpiua, to 

tingu sh< '1 from all otht r- In it- to ,rh. il 

Rosa gallica, L. var. conditorum, 

Dieck 6 (Nat.Arb.Zosch. 1889-1890, 

fringed petals. Cape. (J. O'Hrien.) 

*Saxifragalatepetiolata,wiik , u M . 

p. 16.) Rosacea-. II. shr. A variety 

Rosa humilis, Marsh, var. triloba, 


Sargent. ((,. and F. 1889, p. 76, fig. 
93.) A curious form of this North 
American species iti which the petals 

. ,., v. .... •:-.■■..'■ 

Saccia elegans, Naud. (R. H. 1889, 

lacea:. S. An ornament 

Scbomburgkia lipidissima, ( !; ^ ' 

similar' to >'.""' ' Hhiciuis. Flower-scape 



Cochabamba. (Thuret, Antibes.) 

Saccolabium gigantenm, m. Reg- 

. at th.-ir apex. Ua-vm; 

Salix hoyeriana, Dieck. {Nat. Arb. 

. ,. ■ • -,i ■ ■ : ■ , 

Selenipedinni caudatum. 


*Salix Nicholsoni, Dieck. and var. 
purpurascens, Dieck. (Aat. Arb. 

(Jules Hye.) 



*Sansevieria subspicata. 

Simaruba Tiilae. ' M ' 

. ■ '■■■ " •' ' ■■■ " 


flowers. S.Africa. (Kcw.) 

- ii, ' '■ 

. . : - - 

r/ettti, Wendl. Florida. 


Somalia xantboleuca, w. alba, H 


>bed, tomentose beneath ; fl. 

5 . 

■ ■ ■ , 

*Solanum pensile, >ondtn. ( /:<>!. .w<i ;/ .. 


racemes of bright blue flow 
spicuous yellow stamens. Brazil. 

Sorbus Aucuparia,var. atropurp urea, 

fl., and very large fr. of 

♦Spiraea kamtschatika, Pall. (G. a 

Siil: .-J 

house. S. Africa. (Kew.) 
Susum anthelminticum, 

f. 23.) Flag 


*Stapelia desmetiana, N. E. r>r. (c;.r. 

IMS'.). V. f>, p. GS4.) A-.lj.i;,.!,];^.;... 

A five-growing, large-flowered 

Stapelia erectiflora, N. E. Br. (G. C. 
Streptocarpus Bvuanti, Carr. and 

ring half- whorls 

rxii il il Si ii itt ■ i .i..r.l. 
8, Paris.) 

coronillsefolia, var. alba, 

Svnthyris pinnatifida, Watson. (W. 


Mountains. (Backhouse & Son.) 

Tachiadenus radiatus. ( W. G. 1889, 

j,. 11:3.) (Jentiaiiacea;. Tlii- scorns to 
be an error for T. CarinatuS. 

*Tecoma Smithii, Bull. {Bull Cat. 

Tetramicra minuta, Bolfe. (G. C. 

har'ely 2 in. high. (Veitch & Sons.) 
*Tigridia buccifcra, s. w at s. ((.. ,t»,/ 

II. If. A very beautiful -prcies. Stems 

ardly longer. Jalisco Mountaii 

Lsia Geissei, Philips'. (G 

p. 369, t. 1302, f. 2; A'. //. 18t» 

R.puhmnthos. (Bin ant.) 

paryiflova, E. .u-y. Tillandsia kirchoffiana, Wiitin. 

: . - ■ ,■•:.:•.. 

- - - 

(B.T.O. 1889, p. 337.) I'almtr. IT. II. 
l':i liu ..i nui.i'.'.-tic appearance, allied to 

the leaflets shortly-bifid, with a white 
tomentum above and glabrescent beneath, 
and the branches of the spadix stouter. 

*Tulipa Batalini, Rgi. (Rgl. Descr., 

wool. L. linear-lanceolate. Fl. pale 
yellow. Filaments glabroi 
(St. Petersburg Bot. Gard.) 
*Tulipa Dammamii, K-i. (h'<jl.Dcs, 

p. 4; IV. G. I" " 

1889, p. 314, 1 

it. the wav of 
bulb-scales* vil 

purple' fl., 


'. ,/„,/ /'.. v. -J. :, 4'r.i.) 

many flowered, each flow 



lipa Leichtlini, Kegel. {Gard. 

1889, xxxv., p. 354.) H. A handsome 
species nearly allied to T. stellata; 
1. erect or recurved linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate ; scape 1 ft. high ; fl. large, 

rich purple-ivd, broadly margined with 
' yellowish- 


an inch long. (Forest Acad., Muuden 

Viburnum Vetteri, Zabel. ( Gfl. 188 

P . 462.) II. shr. A hybrid betwee 

Vriesea Albert!, Andre. (R. // 1889, 

. ■ ■ : i 

„,;„■<■„>„ and V m rrauana. (Truf- 
fenestralis. (G- Kittel, Glatz.) 


hybrid, | 

Utricularia rhyterophylb 

{W. G. 1889, p. 74.) Lentib 
S. A dwarf compart plant, 
fl. marked « 
This is r.'.lontfi/Jhi.Gnnln. 

Uniola Palmeri, Vasey. < 

,',' ';;; 


Vriesea versaliensis, Xhd 

._: . .* ;.■■'■ • 

*Watsonia iridifolia, w. O'Brieni, 

350; Ii. H. 1889, p. 541 

♦Xylobium leontoglossuin, } "■■ •" <_■ < - 

■ pu:igei 

•Xylobinm corrugatum.Koite. jg.c. \ *mii^ • 
♦Yucca elata, v*f™ ■ (^ ■<»"' ' ''■ ^ 

Zygopetaltim Gibeziae, N. E. Hr. (/.., 

v B 4"p. 79, pi. 181.) Orchide*. Very 

ditV.-reiit iii colour. Stove-. Kritish 
Guiana. (Sander & Co.) 

[All Rights Reserved.] 





As many correspondents and botanical establishments in India and 
the Colonies appear to have preserved copies of the Reports on the 
Progress and Condition of the Reyal Gardens, Kew, fro* - 

| notes eoatained in them economic 

.|. M .„ felt .1,-m.b!,- to prq.a.v an index to such 

| miifbereiidered easy of reference. 

At present notes too detailed for the Annna Report on gnomic 

, ,, Is a..,! plants t. whi. I th ,tt m m of the staff of the Royal 

//, tin . This Bulletin, of which three volumes 



are already published, and the fourth is in course of publication, may be 
1,,1-cd upon .-is furnishing in a detailed and timely form t! 
information formerly included in the Annual Reports, but which a 
necessary economy of space precluded being treat 

is possible in the pages of the Bulletin. It may be added that the llulh l'u\ 
is published monthly by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, and it may 
U obtained from Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode directly, or through 
any bookseller. 

76; 17. 

— rubber, 1877; 32. 1878 ; 39. 

1879; 18. 1880; 18,38. 
Afs or Afsie tree, 1882 ; 26. 
Agave americana, 1879 ; 3o. 
Ak, 1877 ; 37. 
Akee, 1882; 19. 
Akvavv, 1878; 36. 
Aleurites cordata, 1880 ; 11. 

— vtrnicia, 1880; 11. 

Alfa, 1876; 24. J 877; 37. 1882; 

Algaroba bean, 1877; 20. 
Algarrobo of Chile, 1876 ; j 
Allspice in Australia, 186.5; 
Aloe IVrrvi, 1SS0; 21, ."4. 

Alov.ia citriodora, 1877; 39. 

1880; 47. 

— ? costulata, 1881; 42. 

— plumosa, 1877 ; 32. 1878 


— scholaris, 187H; 39. 1881 

Alyxiasp., 1880; 47. 
Amarantus spinosup, 1881 ; 34. 

Anisoplia austriaca, ] 

at Taganrog, 1878 ; 45. 


1879; 37. 
Argan tree in Australia, 1S82 : 

Fiji, 1882; 17. 

Hong Kong, 1882 ; 17. 

India, 1879 ; 12. 

S. Africa, 1882; 17.. 

Tasmania, 1879 ; 12. 

Washington, 1882 ; 17. 

W.Indies, 1882; 17. 

Albania sideroxylon, 1879; 12. 

1882 ; 17. 
Arracacha esculenta, 1879 ; 31. 

— in India, 1882 ; 17. 

— in W.Indies, 1882; 17. 
Arrow poisons in Pacifi 

1877; 42. 

of New Hebrides, 1878 ; 27. 

Arrowroot in W. Indies, 1877 ; 

Ascension, Vegetables in, 18< 

4. 1878; 27. 
— , Insect pests in, 1878; 28, t 
Assam rubber, 1880 ; 38. 
Atriplex nummularia in Im 

1882; 21. 
Azima barlerioides, 1882; 42. 

Baboolgnm, 1881 ; 33. 
Balatn, 1877; 31. 1878; 39, 
1881 ; 46. 

— in W.Indies, 1873; 6. 
Balam gutta, 1881 ; 48. 

<>opaiba,1876;8. 1877; 

— Peru in Ceylon, 1876 ; 8. 
Balsamea erythrcea, L880 ; 51. 

rpum brevifolium in 
Australia, 1876 ; 17. 

Cape of Good Hope, 1876 ; 


India, 1876; 17. 

Natal, 1876; 17. 

West Indies, 1876; 17. 

Balsamodendron Ehrenl 
1878; 41. 

— Kataf, 1878; 41. 1880; 51. 

— Myrrha, 1878; 40. 

— Opobalsamum, 1878 ; 40. 

— Playfai " ' 

1878; 41. 1880; 



material, 1876; 24. 

— in Burma, 1878 ; 43. 

— India, 1878 ; 43. 1879 ; 32. 

— W. Indies, 1878 ; 43. 
— , S. African, 1878 ; 47. 
Bamboos, Chinese, 1878 ; 48. 
Bambusa vulgaris, 1878; 42. 

1879; 33. 
Bamia Cotton, 1877; 26. 

— in West Indies, 1878 ; 29. 

— Kifvpt, 1878; 30. 

— Fiji Wands, 1878 ; 29. 

— in India, 1878 ; 44. 

— , Madagascar, 1378; 40. 
Bassia Motleyana, 1881 ; 42, 43. 

— elliptica, 1881 ; 44. 
Bauhinia Vahlii, 1879 ; 34. 1880 

1877; 43. 
Blighia sapida, 1882; 19. 
Bois de Citron du Mexiquo, 1879; 

— d'Inde in W. Indies, 1877 ; 

Bombax malabaricuin. Is71); .' « 1 . 
Bontona tree, 1878 ; 40. 
Bornean Gutta, 1881 ; 42. 
Borneo rubber, 1879 ; IS. 1880 \ 

38, 43. 
Boswellia Bhau-Dajiana, 1878 

— Carteri, 1878; 37. 

— Frereana, 1878; 37. 
Boxwood, 1S77; 27. 

— in China, 1878; 42. 

rosimum Galactodendron in 

tralia, 1881; 12. 
- — in Ceylon, 1881 ; 12. 

Fiji, 1881 ; 12. 

India, 1881; H. 

Java, 1881 ; 12. 

Straits Settlements, 1 

J; ' ' ; 

Burmese Bui 

-Cardamoms, 1*76^17. 

» ul derasp., 1879; 37. 
Butea frondosa, 1 879 : ; 3 ! . ^ 
Butyrospermum Parkii, 1878 ; 

Caapim de Angola m t 
1880; 16. 

hi West, iml'u-. 

II. rial. p., 1880; 43, 44. 

Cabacillo, 1880; 14. 

Castilloa elastica in Ceylon, 1876 j 

Cacao in Ceylon, 1877 ; 15. 

9. 1877; 16. 

India, 1875 ; 8. 1877 ; 

15. 1881; 13. 

— Fiji- 1882; 17. 

-. S." 'vein-lies, 1881 ; 17. 1882 ; 

Java, 1876; 9. 

W. Africa, 1876; 9. 

— D s". of Columbia, 1882; 36. 

1877; 16. r 

— We.t Indies, 1882; 37. 

_ disease in U.S. of Columbia, 


— Rubber, 1880 ; 38. 

Cafe marroni 1881 ; 34. 

CaldWnian Cactus, 1877; 36. 

in Burma, 1880 ; 17. 

Ceylon, 1880; 17. 1881 ; 

13. 1882; 22, 40. 

Calisavu of Santa Fe, 1878; 10. 

1882; 19. 

Straits Settlements, 1879; 

— in India, 1879; 12. 1880; 13, 



West Indies, 1880; 17. 

Calonictyon sp., 1882; 22. 

1882 ; 22. 

Ca!<.tropis gi#uitea, 1877; 37. 

— sp. in Ceylon, 1878; 14. 

1880 ; 52. 1881 ; 32, 45. 

India, 1878 ; 14. 

Calumla root for Ceylon, 1865; 

Straits Settlements, 1878; 

from Mauritius, 1865; 4. 

Castor oil in West Indies, 1876 ; 

Canarium sp., 1880; 50. 


Candelillo, IS77; 29. 1879; 30. 

Cavauillesia platanifolia, 1877; 

1880; 35. 


Caoutchouc, 1 880 ; 38. 

Ceara Rubber, 1877; 15, 16. 

— in India, 1875 ; 7. 

1879; 18. 

Asaaio, 1875 ; 7. 

in Australia, 1878; 15. 

1880; 17. 

Caracruara, 1877 ; 37. 

British Guiana, 1880; 

Cardamoms in India, 1877: 27. 


Strait- Settlements, 1878; 

Burma, 1878 ; 15. 1879 ; 

19. 1880; 17. 

Careya arborea, 1879; 34. 

Ceylon, 1878 ; 15. 1880; 

17. 1881 ; 13. 1882; 

78; 18. 

Carpinus B.-tulns, 1876; 18. 

a bark in Ceylon, 1882 ; 

22, 40. 

-Fiji, 1878; 15. 

- India, 1878 ; 15. 

19. 1880; 17. 

13,14. 1882; 

Natal, 1880; 18, 

Straits Settl.-un nts 

15. 1879 ; 19. 

17. 1881; 14. 

Caryota Oehlandra, 
Cassia oecidentalis. 

1881; 34. 
Castilloa elastica, 18^ 

15. 1882; 22,4 

1877 ; 39. 
i ; 8. 1877 ; 

Ceara Scrap Rubber, 1876; 

1880; 38. 
Cedar, Fragrant, 1878 ; 30. 
Cedrela odorata in Fiji. 1882 ; 

Mauritius, 1882; 26. 

Cemiostoraa coffeellum, 1876 ; 
Ceratonia Siliqua, 1878; 18. 


esculenta, 1877 

1S77 : 

Chestnut flour. 1870 ; 32. 
Chian turpentine, 1882 ; 2 
Chicle gum, 1876; 18. 

31. 1881; 45. 
Chilian palm tree, 1881 ; 33. 

pus flavescens, 1880 ; 47. 
1881 ; 48. 

— viridis, 1880; 45. 

urea bark, 1880; 31. 
Coffin woods, 1878; 30. 

— Hemp palm, 1880; 31. 

— Vanish tree. 1880; 11. 

iu Ceylon; 1880; 11. 

Washington, 1880 ; 1 1 . 

West Indies, 1 880 ; 1 1 . 

Zanzibar, 1880 ; 11. 

Chocolate in Ceylon, 1873; 7. 




- Alkaloid. 

-barks in India, 1879; 12. 
-CC •- ., 1-73: 5. 1877; 1 

1880; 32. 1881; 11,26. 

- Cali>ava in Australia, 1865; 
-India, 1879; 15. 188 


■Condaminea in India, 1880; 13. 

— errthrantha, 1882; 38. 

— febrifuge in India, 1877; 28 

1*78; 31. 1881 ; 27. 

— Hybrid in Ceylon, 1881 ; 25. 

— Ceylon, 1862; 2. 

1803; 2. 

1864; 3. 1867 

5. 1872; 7. 

1878 ; 9. 

— India, 1862 ; 2. 

1863; 2. 

1864; 3. 1865 

5. 1870; 5. 

187?; 7. 

1873; 7. 1874 

10, 24. 1879 ; 


— Mauritius, 1865 ; 

3. 18G7 

5. 1879; 14. 

— St. Helena, 1874 

5. 1876 

West Indies, 1862; 

1871 ; 7. 1873 ; 5. 

- lancifolia, 1882 ; 

- Ledgeriana, 188 

- — in Ceylon, 18 

— magnifolia, 1882 ; 38. 

— micrantha, 1882; 38. 
in Assam, 1879; 13. 

— officinalis, 1873 ; 7. 1877 ; 15. 

1881 ; 25. 1882 ; 38. 

in Assam, 1879; 13. 

Ceylon, 1879; 14. 

— pubescens, 1882; 38. 

— purpurea, 1882 ; 2f\ 

— robusta, 1882 ; 38. 

— succirubra, 1863; 2. 1877; 

15, 28. 1878 ; 31. 1881 ; 
25. 1882 ; 38. 

in Assam, 1879 ; 13. 

India, 1879; 16. 188 L 


Mauritius, 1882 ; 18. 

Straits Settlements C-7'J 

Trop. Africa, 1879 ; 14. 

Cinchona succirubra inWest Indies, 

Cigars, ' We bt Indian, 1871; 7. 

1872 ; 7. 
Cinnabar, 1878 ; 35. 
Cinnamon in Australia, 1865 ; 4. 

Seychelles, 1882; 34. 

Cistus albidus, 1877 ; 39. 
Cloves in Seychelles, 1882; 34. 
Coca in Australia, 1880; J 3. 

West Indies, 1880; 13. 

Zanzibar; 1880; 13. 

Cocalaw, 1881 ; 33. 
Cochlosperrnum Gossypium, 1880; 


West Indies, 1880; 

— beetle in Zanzibar, 1878 j 32. 

— disease of Demerara, 1876 ; 18. 
Coffea arabica, 1878 ; 16. 

in Australia, 1878; 16. 

— liberica, 1876 ; 10. 1878 ; 15. 

1881; 16. 1882; 24. 

— borers, 1876; 22. 1877; 29. 

— bug, 1876 ; 22. 

— canker, 1876 ; 22. 

— disease, 1874; 5. 1875; 5,7 

1876; 10, 18. 1877 ; 28 
1878; 32. 1879; 22, 30 
1880 ; 34, 35. 1881 ; 29, 31 
1882; 38. 

— in Australia, 1865; 4. 1881 

— . M ild. 1881 ; 34. 

Cola acuminata, 188.0; 14. 

— nut for Australia, 1880 ; 15. 

U.S. America, 1880; 15 

Toronto, 1881 ; 11. 

West Africa, 1880; 14. 

Indies, 1880; 15. 

1881; 11. 1882; 19. 

Zanzibar, 1880; 15. 

Columbian barks, 1879; 12. 


Copaiba blanca, 1876; 8. 
Copaifera multijuga, 1876; 

1877; 14. 
Copal tree of East Africa, 18 

36. 1882; 20. 
Copevniria cerifera, 1880; 30. 


S77; 31. 

• in Ceylon, 1880; 15. 1881 

-—India, 1880; 15. 1881 

West Indies, 1881 ; 51. 
Coprosma Baueriana, 1877 ; 39. 
Coquito palm, 1881 ; 33. 
Coral tree, 1881 ; 28. 
Cork Oak in India, 1867; 5. 
1875; 8. 1878; 11. 

S. Australia, 1863; 2. 

1864; 3. 
Cornus florida, 1877 ; 27. 1882 ; 

35, 36. 
Coscinium fenestratum, 1881 ; 44. 
Cotton in Australia, 1865 ; 4. 

1877; 31. 1881; 11, 

Cupra Quina, 1882 ; 18. 

Cuprea bark in Ceylon, 1882 ; 18. 

Fiji, 1882 ; 18. 

India, 1882 ; 18. 

Mauritius, 1882; 18. 

Seychelles, 1882; 18. 

West Indies, 1882 ; 18. 

•unebris, 1878; 31. 

— sechellensis, 1879; 36. 

Cycnium adoense, 1882 ; 42. 

Cyperus corymbosus, 1 880 ; 

tiformis, 1879 ; 
-tegetum, 1880; 52. 
ytisus proliferu^, 187£ 

Dactylis caespitosa, 1877; 21. 
Dai-phong-tu, 1877; 33. 
Dasylirion sp., 1877 ; 37. 
Demerara Botanic Garden, 1878 ; 

Dendrocalamus sp., 1878; 42. 

— Brandisii, 1878; 43. 
Derris elliptica, 1877 ; 43. 
Dichopsis elliptica, 1881 ; 44. 

— Gutta, 1881 ; 38. 

in Straits Settlements, 1881 ; 

— Helferi, 1881; 45. 

— Krantziana, 1881 ; 45. 

— macrophylla, 1881 ; 43. 

— obovata, 1881 ; 42. 

— polyantha, 1881; 45. 
Diospvros u xaiin. 18Si» : 3-5. 30. 

— vii-ainiaiia, 1877 ; 27. 
Didthin, 1878; 40. 
Dracaena sp., 1880 ; 54. 

— Ombet, 1878 ; 35. 

— schizantba, 1878 ; 35. 
Dragon's Blood, 1880; 54. 

of Africa, 1878 ; 35. 

Socotra, 1878 ; 35. 

Dschugara in Kussia, 1881 ; 35. 
Dubosia Hopwoodi, 1877 ; 42. 

— myoporoides, 1877 ; 42. 
Dyera costulata, 1881 ; 42. 

— laxiflora, 1881 ; 42. 

Eagle wood, 1878; 

E. African Copal tre 

Erythrina (shade tree), 1881 ; 

28. 1882; 37. 
— Corallodendron in W. Indies, 



in West Indies, 1881 ; 28. 

Fiji, 1881; 11. 

Erythroxylon Coca, 1877 ; 42. 

1880, 13, 15. 
Esparto, 1876; 24. 1877; 37. 
1878; 44. 1879; 33. 1880; 
52. 1882 ; 40. 
—, Portuguese, 1879; 35. 
Etam eatta, 1881 ; 48. 

Cyprus, 1878; 34. 
1879; 16. 
— West Indies 1879; 16. 
"" ,1881 ; 12. 
uleyana in West Tropi.-.d 
Africa, 1881 ; 12. 
levi in Straits Settlements. 
1879; 16. 

_ ca,opM 

1878; 36. 
triodora in India, 1882; 20. 
West Indies, 1«S2 ; 21 
t Zanzibar, 1879; 16. 

■ ■ 
Elephant Cane of Cochin Chin. 

1876; 25. 
— Sugar Cane in West Indies, 

West ! 

.latifoliii '. 

- melanophloia in India. 

___ — India, 1876; 23. 1879: 

16. 1881; 12. 
- saligna in India.. 1877 ; 30. 

in Straits Settle- 
ments, 1879; 16. 
Euchhena luxurians, 187>; !■■ 

Agallocha, 1877 ; 42. 

Guango, 1878; 18. 

Guava in Ascension, 1865 ; 4. 


Guinea grass, 1880 ; 16. 

in West Indies, 1879 ; 16. 

Fedegozo seeds, 1877; 40. 

Gutta burong, 1880 ; 47. 

Fibres, Indian, 1879; 34. 

— Cras, 1881 ; 42. 

Ficus bengalensis, 1879 ; 34. 

1880; 45,46,47. 

— Jelutong, 1880; 47. 1881 ; 

in As>am, 1875; 7. 1878; 

39, 42. 


— lechak, 1880; 43. 1881; 43, 

in India, 1875; 7. 

Straits Settlements, 

— Maresah, 1881; 43. 

1881 ; 40. 

— Merah, 1881 ; 43. 

— infectoria, 1879 ; 34. 

— Percha, 1876 ; 23 ; 1881 ; 38. 

— (Urostiama Voirelii). 1878; 

in Cochin China, 1881 ; 45. 


Indian Peninsula, 1881 ; 

— sp., 1880; 38. 

Fijian Rubber, 1877; 31. 1880; 

Malay Peninsula, 1881 ; 

Ha spadicea for paper- 

South America, 1881 

making, 1876 ; 25. 


Flemingia congesta, 1881 ; 50. 

Straits Settlements, 1877, 

— rhodocarpa, 1881 ; 50. 

30. 1881 ; 38. 

Food products, 1879; 31. 1881 ; 

Tropical Africa, 1881 



Fodder plants, 1878; 11. 1879; 

Guita Pulei, 1881 ; 42. 

16. 1880; 15. 1881; 13. 

— Puteh, 1881; 43. 

1882 ; 21. 

— Rambong, 1880; 47. 

— Shea, 1878 ; 38. 1881 j 46. 

use from Aden, 1878; 


— Singgarip, 1880 ; 44, 46. 

— Soosoo, 1880; 46. 

— Sundek, 1881 ; 40. 


— Susu, 1880; 43, 45. 1881 

Gadum fruit, 1882; 26. 

-- Tab'an, 1881 ; 38, 40, 48. 

Gambier in Ceylon, 1880 ; 37. 

Merah, 1881 ; 38. 

Gatah Sundek in Ceylon, 1881 ; 

Puteh, 1881 ; 38. 

GuzeratRape, 1877; 34. 

Gnrcinia indica in India, 1881; 

in West Indies, 1881 ; 13. 

Ginger in Australia, 1865 ; 4. 


Globularia Alypum, 1877 ; 39. 
Glycine Soja, 1882 ; 42. 
Gniato Durian, 1881 ; 43. 

— Elong, 1881; 43. 

— Maresah, 1881 ; 43. 
Gossypium barbadense, 1877 ; 26. 
Grevillea robusta in West Indies, 

1879 ; 16. 
Grewia tiliajiblia, 1879 ; 34. 

— sp., 1878 ; 42. 
Guanco, 1882 ; 37. 

Haatie tree, 1880; 37. 
HabazHadi, 1878; 41. 
Hadi, 1878-41. 
Hancornia speciosa, 1880 ; 47. 

in Australia, 1882 ; 24. 

Ceylon, 1882; 24. 

India, 1882 ; 24. 

Java, 1882; 24. 

Straits Settlements, 1882; 

West Indies, 1882 ; 24. 

Heliconia Bihai for paper making, 

1876 ; 25. 
Helicteres Jsora, 1879; 34. 
Hemileia vastatrix, 1876; 19. 

• Australia, 1877; 15. 

• Burma, 1877; 15. 

- Ceylon, 1878; 15, 16. 
1873 ; 14. 

• Fiji, 1878; 15. 
-India, 1877; 15. 1878; 

Straits Settlements, 1877; 

15. 1878; 14. 

West Indies, 1877; 16. 

. Zanzibar, 1878 ; 15. 

-— 1873; 6. 1874; 6. 1875; 

7. 1876; 8. 1877; 15. 

1879; 18. 1880; 18, 

48. 1882; 24, 40. 

rubber in Ceylon, 1881 J 15. 

1882 ; 40. 

. British Guiana, 1878, 


India, 1881 ; 15. 

. _ _ Straits Settlements, 

1879; 18. 
- guyanensis, 1876 ; 9. 1877 ; 

Hyphame crinita, 1878 ; - 

— natalensis, 1878 ; 49. 

— Fetersiana, 1878; 49. 

Imperata cylindrica, 1878 ; 45. 
India Rubber, 1870; 8. 1877; 

15, 31. 1878 ; 14, 38. 

1879; 18. 1880; 17, 38. 

1881; 13. 1882; 22,40. 

in Cocbin China, 1881 ; 17 

Malacca, 1881; 48. 

Straits Settlements. 1-M : 


Fijian, 1878 ; 39. 

Indigo, 1880 ; 49. 

— in Australia, 1865; 4. 
Insecticides, 1877 ; 42. 
Ipecacuanha, 1874; 6. 

— in Burma, 1877 ; 17. 

Ceylon, 1864 ; 2. 1865 ; 4. 

1867 ; 5. 1873 ; 7. 

1877; 17. 
India, 1864 ; 2. 1867 ; 5. 

1871 ; 7. 1873 ; 7 

1876; 9. 1877; 17. 

Straits Settlements, 1877 ; 

17. 1882; 24. 

West Indies, 1865; 4. 

1867; 5. 1873; 6. 
Isikuraugala bush, 1882; 42. 
Isonandra acuminata, 1881 ; 44. 
_ Moth-yana, 1881; 43. 


— pauciflora, 1878; 39 

— Spruceana, 1880; 37. 

in Australia, 1882 ; 24. 

Ceylon, 1882; 24. 

India, 1882 ; 24. 

Hirabol, 1878; 40. 

n of Cochin China, 
1877; 31. 

^7s ; 41. 1880: 51. 
Hornbeam, 1876 ; 18. 
Huangzang, 1878; 42. 
Hydnocarpus, sp., 1877 ; 33. 

Jalap in India, 1881; 49. 

West Indies, 1881 ; 50. 

1882; 41. 
j Japanese varnish tree, 1880 ; 11 
I Java rubber, 1880; 46. 
.Jii'a'u spectabilis, 1881 ; 33. 
America, 1881 ; 31. 

Kamala, 1881 ; 50. 

Kappor Gutta, 1881 ; 48. 

Latakia Tobacco, 1867"; 5. 1876; 

B78; 37. 


Kashgar Melons, 1876 ; 24. 
Kayu-garu, 1878; 36. 
Kayu-jelutong, 1882 ; 42. 
Kergnelen's land cabbage, 1875 ; 

. i n West Indies, 1873; 6. 

Laver bread, 1881; 34. 

Leaf-bellows, Sikkim, 1880; 54. 

Leaf-rot, 1876 ; 20. 
Lecanium Caffese, 1876 ; 22. 

Kokum Oil of India, 1881 ; 13. 

Lepidosperma gladiatum for paper- 

Koleroga, 1876 ; 20. 1880 ; 35. 

making, 1876; 25. 

Kotian, 1881 ; 43. 

Leuconotis eugenifolius, 1880 ; 

L'herbe puante, 1881 ; 34. 

Liberian Coffee, 1876; 10, 23. 


in Australia, 1875; 7. 

1876; 10. 1877; 17,18. 

Lacquer tree of Japan, 1 882 ; 42. 

1879; 22. 1881; 17. 

Landolphia spp., 1877 ; 32. 

1882; 25. 

1879; 18. 1880; 38. 

Burma, 1876; 10. 1879; 

1882; 24. 


— florida, 1880 ; 39, 40. 

Cape of Good Hope, 

in Australia, 1882; 24. 

1876 ; 10. 

Ceylon, 1881; 15. 

Ceylon, 1872 ; 7. 1873 ; 

1882 ; 24. 

5. 1874; 5. 1877; 

Rio de Janeiro, 1882; 

18. 1878; 16. 


Fiji, 1882 ; 24, 25. 

West Indies, 1882; 24. 

India, 1875; 7. 1*76: 

— Kirkii, 1880 ; 39, 42. 

10. 1877; 17, 18. 

in Australia, 1880; 19. 

1878 ; 16. 1881 ; 16. 

1881; 15. 1882; 24. 

Java, 1875 ; 7. 1876 ; 

Canada, 1881 ; 15. 


Ceylon, 1880; 19. 1881 ; 

Mauritius, 1875; 7. 

15. 1882 ; 24. 

1877; 17. 

Fiji, 1880; 19. 1881; 

Montserrat, 1875 ; 7. 

15. 1882; 24. 

Natal, 1875; 7. 1880; 

Natal, 1880; 19. 

19, 29. 

Rio de Janeiro, 1880 ; 

ISew Granada, 1*7:,: 7. 

19. 1882; 24. 

Rio de Janeiro, 1875 ; 7. 

Straits Settlements, 1881 ; 


1876; 10. 
Seychelles, 1877 ; 17. 

U. S. America, 1881 ; 

1879: 22. 1881; 17. 


1882 ; 34. 

West Indies, 1880; 19. 

1882 ; 24. 
■ Mannii, 18S0 ; 38. 

Ceylon, 1881 ; 15. 

Fiji, 1881 ; 15. 

Straits Settlements, 1881 ; 


U. S. America, 1881 ; 

West Indies, 1881 ; 15. 

South Africa, 1882 ; 25. 

Straits Settlem* 

17,18. 1878; 16,46.. 

1879; 22. 

U.S. America, 1877 ; 17. 

West Indies, 1873 ; 5. 

1875; 7. 1876; 10. 

1877; 17, 19. 1878; 

15. 1879; 20. 1880; 

19. 1881 ; 16. 1882 ; 


. 1877; 17. 

1879; 22. 
Liberian Rubber, 1878 ; 39. 

Lukrabo seeds, 1877; 33. 
Lygeum spartura, 1876 ; 24. 1877 ; 

Lysiloma Sabica, 1880; 54. 

iba, 1877; 31. 


Massoia aromatica, 1880; , 

Massoybark, 1880; 49. 

Mast end wood, 1878 ; 30. 

itu-bonsu, l^SO; 43. 

Mabo seeds, 1877 ; 35. 

,. tenacissima, 1876 ; 24. 
1877; 37. 1879; 33. 
Madre de Cacao, 1881; 11, 28. 

1882; 26. 
Mahogany in Australia, 1879; 23. 
1882 ; 25. 

Burma, 1879 ; 23. 1880; 


Ceylon, 1879 ; 22. 1880; 


India, 1876; 11. 1877; 33. 

1878; 17. 1879; 22. 
1881; 17. 1882; 25. 

Mauritius, 1873 ; 5. 1878 ; 


Straits Settlements, 1879 ; 


West Indies, 1880 ; 20. 

Mau-ti, 1878; 37. 

Malayan Rubber, 1878 ; 39. 1879 ; 

18. 1880; 46. 
Mallan or Gutta Percha, 1881; 

bland Arrow Poison, 

Meninia turgida, 1877 

>hilippinensis, 1881; 50. 
ra rubber, 1880; 47. 
1882; 24. 
Mango in Australia, 1865; 4. 

West Indies, 1871; 7. 

1873; 5. 1877; 43. 

i Vu-t Indies, 1871 ; 
7. 1873; 6. 1877; 19. 

1877; 16. 1879; 19. 1880; 
17,38. 1881; 15. 1882; 23, 

Australia, 1877 

79; 24. 

Cape of Good Hope, 
1877 ; 20. 
- — Ceylon, 1877 ; 20. 

1878 ; 17. 1879 ; 

( ,yl,.i 

Mauritius 1877; : 

Natal, 1877 ; 20. 

Tasmania, 1877 ; : 

West Indies, 1877 

Mctlii -red, 1881 ; 33. 
Mi<4 dePalma, ISM ; 33. 
Mimusops data, 1877; 31. 

— globosa, 1873; 6. 187 

1881 ; 46. 

— Manilkara, 1881; 45. 
Mohr Ad, 


— Dadbed, 1878; 37. 

— Lalod, I • 

_ Ma< lao, 1878; 37. 
Mola Plum, 1877 ; 35. 
M, 1 .,, ... rulea, 1878; 45. 1879; 

M..n.-ia, 1876; 18. 
Moustcra doliciosa in Australia, 

1876; 11. 
M6r, 1878; 40. 
Mozambique rubber, 1879; 18. 

1880; 38. 
I Mpafutree, 1880; 50. 

-SO; 43. 

Mubafo tree, 1880 ; 50. 

-77; 37. 1880; 52. 
— cotton, 1881; 32. 

in India, 1881 ; 32. 

Mulberry, 1877; 20. 
Miibnv.l, 1878; 40. 

Mvnorhi, 1380; 38. 

MvriM i .rinameusis, 1881 ; 51. 
[00 Pereirse, 1876; 8. 

Myrrh." 1878; 40. 1880; 50. 

Olive in Cape of Good Hope, 1865 ; 

ns in West Indies, 1878 ; 29. 
Opium poppy disease in India, 

1872; 7. 
Opuntia sp., 1877 ; 37. 
Orange fly of Queensland, 1878 ; 

- pnrnsite, 1881 ; 37. 
Oranges, Mediterranean trade 
1881; 37. 

• West Indian, 1881 ; 37. 
Oryctes insularis, 1878 ; 32. 

Oxytropis Lamberti, 1877; 42. 

Na namakaru, 1878 ; 27. 
Namkatikut, 1878 ; 27. 
Nan-mu, 1877; 33. 1878; 30. 

1879 ; 37. 
Narcissus sp., 1880; 53. 
Natal hemp, 1877 ; 34, 

378; 27. 
Necci cakes, 1879 ; 32. 
Negro coffee, 1877; 39. 

in West Indies, 1881 ; 34. 

Nepal cardamoms, 1880; 51. 

Land, Trees and shrubs 
for, 1876; 11. 

» puteh, 1881 ; 43. 
ma persica, 1877 ; 40. 
■ repanda, 1877 ; 40. 

Pai-cha, 1878; 41. 1879; i 

1880; 51. 
Pak-heung wood, 1878 ; 30. 
Palghaut matting, 1880 ; 52. 
Palm honey, 1881 ; 33. 
Palode Vaca, 1881; 11. 

i barbinode, 1880 ; 16. 
— Crus-galli, 1880; 16. 

1879; 16. 

■V : 


— Tabacum, 1 

Niko nuts, 1881 ; 51. 

— seeds, 1877 ; 35. 
Ningpohats, 1879; 36. 
Nipt frutic.-ins, 1880; 44. 

— salt, 1880 ; 44. 
Xocha fruit, 1877; 35. 
Noxa fruit, 1877 ; 35. 
Nutmegs in West Indies, 1871 ; 

Ofhrosin • lliptica, 1880; 48. 
Oil se.'ds, 1881; 50. 
— stuffs, 1877 ; 34. 
Olibanum from Aden, 1878 ; 36. 

— spectabile, 1880 ; 16. 

24. 1877; 35. 1878; 42. 1879; 
32. 1880; 52. 
Para copaiba, 1876; 8. 

— rubber, 1879; 18. 1880; 38. 

in Australia, 1876 ; 9. 

— Burma, 1876 ; 9. 1879 ; 

India, 1873 ; 6. 1874; 

1881; 15. 

Java, 1876 ; 9. 

Straits Settlements, 18 

9. 1880; 18. 

West Africa, 1876 ; £ 

in West Indies, 1876 ; 

1879; 20. 

in Zanzibar, 1879 ; 20. 

Parameria glnndulifera, 1881 ; 

Parinarium fruits, 1877 ; 

1881 ; 51. 

• Mobola, 1877 ; 35. 

Passalus tridens, 1876; 20. 
Pata de Gallinazo, 1882 ; 38. 
Payena Leerii, 1881 ; 40. 
— "Mamgayi, 1881; 42. 
Pentzia virgata, 1873 ; 5. 

in Australia, 1882; 22. 

India, 1882 ; 22. 

Pepper in "West Indies, 1873 ; 6. 
Pernambuco Rubber, 1880 ; 47. 
Persea Nan-mu, 1879 ; 38. 
IVrsian Tobacco in West Indies, 

1867 ; 5. 
Petabo laut, 1880 ; 43. 

Phrcte pallida, 'l 877 ; 34. 1 879 ; 

; ■ • 
making, 1876; 25. 
Phylloxera. 1882 ; 42. 

Pinienta acris in West Indies, 
1877; 43. 

— officinalis, 1879; 31. 

— vulgaris, 1870; 31. 
Pimento in West Indies, 1.S79; 31. 
Pinus Khasyana, 1880; 48. 

— lonsrifblia, 1880; 48. 

— Sabiniann, 1880; 48. 
Pistacia atlantica in Australia, 

1882; 26. 

India, 1882; 26. 

South Africa, 1882 ; 26. 

U.S. America, 1882 ; 26. 

— cabulica, 1882 ; 26. 

— Terebinthus, 1882; 26. 
Pithecolobiuni Saman, 1878 ; 46. 

in Burma, 1879 ; 24. 

Australia, 1878; 18. 

Ceylon, 1878 ; 18. 1879 ; 

Poison bulb of South Africa, 

1880; 53. 
Poisonous grass in Kashmir, 1876 ; 

Po-muy tree, 1880; 37. 

Potato disease, 1880 ; 54. 
Prangos pabularia, 1878 ; 12. 
Prem'na taitensis, 1880 ; 56. 
Prickly Comfrey, 1878 ; 12. 

- in Australia, 1878; 12. 
1879; 17. 

in Ceylon, 1878; 13. 

. India, 1878; 12. 1879; 

Straits Settlements, 1878 ; 

• Pear, 1877 ; 37. 
Pringlea, 1875; 8. 
Prosopis glamlulosa, 1877 ; -?;>. 
1879; 24. 1880; 20. 
1882; 21. 

in India, 1881; 13. 

— juliflora, 1877 ; 20. 1878 ; 17. 

1879; 24. 
in Australia, 1880; 20. 

in Australia, 1880 ; 20. 

Pulo-percha, 1876 ; 23. 
Pulosm-i, 1876; 23. 
Puneer-bund, 1881 ; 36. 
Puneeria coagulans, 1881 ; 36. 
Puteh Sundek, 1881 ; 40. 

Tasmania, 1879; 25. 

— sp. 1881; 28. 

Pituri, 1877; 42. 

Planlain stems for paper-making 

Podura sp., 

78; 31. 

tree, 1878 ; IP. 
-of Peru, 1»78; 46. 
iaHookeri, 1878; 49. 
r Strops, 1879; 35. 

Bennet in India. \Vi.'«- table * 

tutes for, 1881 ; 36. ^ 
Rhamnus Frangula, 1876 ; 1 

lujs communis, 1877; 

35, 36. 
— maximum, 1882; 35,36. 
[Jims Thunbergii, 1877; 20. 

Rice Corn in Australia, 1881 ; 35. 

North America, 1881 ; 35. 

South Africa, 1881 ; 35. 

Rottlera tinctoria, 1881 ; 50. 
Rye straw, 1879; 35. 

Saccharum spontaneum, 

St. Helena, Insect pests of, 1878 

St. [^nanus's beans, 1877; 33. 
Salt bush, 1882; 21. 
Saiua.k-ra indica, 1877; 43. 
Sapota Mulleri, 1881; 46. 
Sassafras Goesianum, 1880 ; 50. 
Secale cereale, 1 879 ; 35. 
Screw Bean, 1875; 8. 187^ 

1878; 17. 

-Natal, 1878; 17. 

Jamaka, 1871 ; 7. 
arat, 1880; 43. 
, 1880 ; 43. 

lies, 1877; 20. 


■■", If 65 ; 1. 

ID argenteum 

— inerme, 1879 ; 38. 

.-a, 1877; 31 
i< irWa, ls>i) 

— Sprucesina, 1880; 37. 



Sorghum cernuum, 1881 ; 35. 
Soy beans, 1882 ; 42. 

Spinach, Creole, 188 1 ; 33. 
Spodiopogon it!i»iuti{ li„.s 1S79: 


Sterculia colorata, 18 

— urens, 1879; 34. 

— villosa, 1879; 34. 
Stipa capillata, 1879 

— sibirica, 1876 j 2£ 

•-S0; 44. 
Susu-toko, 1876; 23. 
Symphytum asperrimum, 1878; 

12. 1879; 17. 
— peregrinum, 1878 ; 12. 1879 ; 

Sz-ui-luk wood, 1878; 30. 

Tabernnemontana pacitica, 1877 

32. 1878 ; 39. 
Tagasaste in Australia, 1879; 18 

1880; 16. 1882; 22. 
— in India, 1879 ; 18. 1881 

Tamarind in Australia, 1S65 ; 
Tamia-caspi-tree, 1878 ; 47. 
Taqua nuts, 1878 ; 50. 

I Coffee substitutes, 

72; 7. ] 
es, 1877; 

Teak in West Indies, 1872; 7. 

1873; 5. 
Tecoma pentaphylla, 1880; 52. 
T.'osinir, 1873; 13. 
— in Australia, 1S7S; 13. 1879; 
17. 1880; 16. 

Cairo, 1878; 13. 

Cyprus, 1878; 13. 

India, 1878 ; 13. 1879 ; 

17. 1880; 17. 
Straits Settlements, 1878; 

13. 1879; 17. 
South and Tropical Africa, 

1878; 13. 

U. S. America, 1878 ; 13. 

West Indies, 1878; 13. 

1880; 16. 
Terra japoniea, 1880 ; 37. 
Textiles, 1879; 36. 
The Arabe, 1877; 39. 
_ de Montagne, 1879 ; 32. 
Theobroma Cacao, 1872; 7. 1881 ; 

27. 1882; 32. 
Thuong-son, 1877; 42. 
Tobacco in Australia, 1865 ; 4. 

Fiji, 1877; 40. 

— -, Latakia, 1867; 5. 1873; 6. 

1876; 26. 
— , Persian, in West Indies, 1867 ; 

— and cigars in Natal, 1871 ; 7. 

— in Straits Settlements, 1875; 

7. 1876; 26. 
Tonga, 1880 ; 55. 

Toothache remedies in Natal, 

1882; 42. 
Trachylobium Hornemannianum, 
1880 ; 29, 37. 

— in South Africa, 1882 ; 20. 
Trigonella sp., 1881 ; 33. 
Tripsaeum, 1S7S; 13. 

Tubah roots, 1877; 43. 

Tii chung, 1881; 47. 
Turpentines, Indian. 1S.-0; l>. 

Typha latifolia, 1878 ; 45. 

1880; 37. 
Urcola elastica, 1880 ; 45. 
— esculenta, 1880; 45. 
Uniola virgata for paper-making, 

1876 ; 25. 
Urostigma Vogelii, 1878 ; 39. 
Usar grass, 1882 ; 21. 

Vaccinium An 

Vanilla in Seychelles, 1881 ; 
1882 ; 34. 

West Indies, 1873; 6. 

Vaughinia, 1880; 42. 
Vegetables in Ascension, 1 

4. 1878; 27. 
Vegetable Ivory substitutes, 1 


Wagatea spicata in West Indu 

1878; 19. 
Wai-muk wood, 1878 ; 30. 
Waras, 1881; 50. 
West Indian Cedar, 1882 ; 26. 

Forests, 1877 ; 43. 

Wild Cocoa, 1880; 14. 
Willughbeia sp., 1879 ; 18. 18* 

_ Murbidgei, 1880; 43, 46, < 
1881 ; 48. 

— coriacea, 1881; 48. 

— edulis, 1880; 45. 

— firraa, 1881 ; 48. 

— flavcsccns, 1881 ; 48. 

i martabanica, 1880 ; 

44, 45, 46. 

— Petersiana, 1880; 43. 

— sinensis, 1880; 43. 


— Treacheri, 1880 ; 44. 


Yan-sha wood, 1878 ; 30. 

Wood-pulp, 1880; 52. 

Yegaar, 1878; 37. 

Yercnm, 1877 ; 37. 

Yucca brevifolia, 1878 ; 44. 


— Draconis, 1878 ; 45. 

Xylotrechus quadrupes, 1876 ; 22.