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Full text of "Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Gardens at Kew."

ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



15 U LLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



I 8 5. 




I'.IJV oKTh'K, 



CONTENTS 



Date. 


Article. 


1 


N** 




Page. 


s — ' 


CCCCLXXVI. 
CCCCLXXVII. 


Mise.el 


IT«ST, 


,,^ ; 




October 


CCCCLXXVI 1 1 


S 7fri 


=§|3Er 


(Kickxia 


241 




(CCCLXXIX. 

rvcrLxxxi'. 


Diit.u'ii. 




Im 




CCCCLXXX1I. 








1 


December 


( cccxcur. 


] B 


2S™ 




318 


Appendix I. - 






r.r,i'n,!:i'in!;;f ai ' 


us plaats 


' 


„ III. - 




N«g 









ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETI N 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

,] JANUARY. [1895, 

CCCCXXXII.— FORESTRY IN NATAL. 






timber, and aho to have esiahlishcl run 
mting up wasle lamls in i lie nt.ighl>ourho< 
ter a very brief period of activity if has 
orprisc. Tlio officer in clifn-jrc has rclin 



Natal is sc taining !>."■" 

532,000 inhabitants, of whom 38,000 only an- Kii 
latter are English who came by sea and Ibuml- 



1883. They are mostly \ 
the Colony. 

Much greater progress could have been made in Natal, in trade, 
agriculture, and manufactures if il had been connected by roads and 
railways with the Transvaal and Orange States. The Cape railway, 
650 miles long, from Cape Town to Kimberley, with express trains 
doing the distance is, ;>>i, hours, has long !,..,.„ constructed, and in 1893 
this railway was extended to the Transvaal gold mines at .Johannesberg. 

In 1880 a railway was constructed from i)nrban to Maritzburg. bui 
only recent!) I . and ii now reaches the 

important for the future prosperity of Natal. About one aodahalf 

years ago a railway was mi idc irom Ladysmith in Natal to Ilarrismith 
in the Orange State. Natal is at present short, of funds, and this may 

partly explain why, having made a e-ood start in forest, conservancy, the 
Colonial Government has not had the resolution to persevere in it. 

The Cape Colony has had tor some time a good forest administration 

I. ( on rvato! i |, \,_ Mi M I llutch «. i 

now Chief f ■ n. lie was trained at 

Nancy for the Indian forest service, and left it for service at the Cape 
in 1883. Mr. Fourcadc, of the Cape forest service, was employed in 
Natal for nine month- in 1 ss<), and has written, a \ cry valuable paper 
on the Natal forests, but he declined to ijuit the Cape service permau- 
ently for that of Natal, and was succeeded in 1891 as chief forest officer 
there by Mr. Schopflin, a Baden forest officer. 

The work he undertook of organising a forest department in Natal 

to cover the e\p, mli'tuiv for a number of yea-. Irrespectively of the 
continual clearance of forests for th;; extension of agrienh nre, forest 
tires, unregulated grazing, and wasteful timb. i felling have so exhausted 

are widely scattered over the country, and only a small per-ccntage of 
them is still State proper) v. 

From the coast to altitudes of about 975 feet, with an average annual 
temperature of 67 c -7l°. the forest consists of numerous species belong 
ing to the tropical flora! The woods are not more than 30-60 feet high, 
but something might be made of them, as several species yield valuable 
timber. Unfortunately nearly all the coast forests are now private 
property. 

In a central zone ranging in altitude between 980 and 3450 feet, 
with an average annual temperature of 59°-67° F., extensive tracts 
are covered with so-called mimosa scrub, formed of several species of 
Acacia; these woods are very thinly stocked, and contain a tall grass 

been done for the last .'JO years in lirili-di India, thev could be worked 
proiitab'y with short rotations — 24 years, according" to Mr. Fourcade: 
it is, however, probable that most of this area will be cleared for 
agriculture. 

The present area of the coast and acacia forests is estimated ft* 
196..000 acres of State forest, and 1,645,000 acres in private hands. 

In the higher zone, from 3450 feet up to 9600 feet, with a temperate 



and 27,000 acre's a 
tauts of the coun 



their wood "reseiubh rf that oi Hit European spruce. Atpre.se 
•Teat cosl of transport prevent- the profitable working of yellow 



in Ihe M'iir : -' ! -!'2, the -al. ; '-■ ■■ -< Depart- 

ment yielded 725/., while the expenditure was 1.942/., partly for 
■ for the snrvev of the forests. Owin» to the 
small area o! id the remote position of the State 

started near the towns and railways. Past experience with the blue 

• 
in Natal. At \i u 1 u near O.numi.m , i tl. Nd u iu Ili'l- m 
India, this tree attains i la «>i , of 107 feet in ID years, and yields 
*(S96 <-ubie feet per acre. Tlii- enormous production ol 1 
per acre annuallv was nttameil in latitude i! N. a' an altitude ei 
7426 feel above s'ea-level. . . 



gum-tree plantations nni:'u\ to supply the balance 






vident that Nut al cannot, possibK prosper without n forest 
Department, and the Colony will have cause to regret having abandoned 
the attempt to form one, after such an excellent beginning has been 
made. The Government wished to retain Mr. Sehdpllin's services up 
to March 31, 1894, but would not undertake to employ him after that 
date. Underfill- eircuinst;m« .1 was obliged to rt ign hi-, appoint- 
ment last September, in order to return to the Baden forest service. 

The following note was prepared l'or publication in a Kew Keport 
some years ago. The state of things described is not likely to have 
improved, or to have made some measure of forest conservation less 
necessary : — 

The forests are distinguished, as of two kinds, light umber and heavy 
timber. The former consists of " thorn " or Mimosa, and yields wood 
principally used for fuel, and to some extent for waggon-making, &c. 
It occupies " a belt of land about 30 miles in width, extending along, 
but about eight miles distant from the coast line." The heavy 
timber is mostly found on the mountain slopes, in the interior of the 

According to the Colonial Timber Returns in 1878 the area of forest 
land was largely diminishing. There was formerly a considerable export 
of sawn timber to the Orange River Free State and the Transvaal. This 
had almost entirely ceased, and a lame amount of timber for building 
purposes was imported into the Colony. 

A Commission was appointed by the Natal Government 



generally nno the conditions ot the forests and woodlands of the Colony. 
This reported in 1880. 

The gene' i- printed by the Commission points 

to a progressive destruction of the forest. Thus. « Mr. James Ralfe 
says: — *I consider that one-third of the wood lias been destroyed 
since I first (25 years ago) knew this part of the Colony.' " (p. 1 1.) 

"For many years after the settlement of the Colony the portion of 
forest lands belonging to the city of I'i.-h-i m.n ; 

for buildings, waggons, &c. About 20 years ago ti -upph lwin.il 1 
down to only firewood, which the citizens had the right to remove, upon 
payment of 1*. Qd. per waggon-load of probably two tons weight. 

"Thpre being no attempt at e n- .. n, ,.f -us kind, a very few 
years sufficed for the entire destruction of the Ibrcsi growth"; and 
although nearly 20 years have pa.-sed away since under severe pro- 
>.'.'■ ■;;.,: ■•■_ . ■ ' •■'.•■ ■;■'.' ■ ■■:■■■::■■ . ■ 

been protected, scarcely un\ -,.m - ire •>■■ s i,f ot ti ■ -] oi taneous return 
of the noble tree* which tin intell n t ih u n cipaiit; had not 

seen tit to proteel ."* (p. 13.) 

"The evidence laid before the Commission respecting the condition of 
same rec 

European owners and 
ilieir native -ervants and tenants appear to have almost entirely dis- 
regarded all precautionary measures for the preservation of the timber and 
its economical application in the supply of Colonial necessities. Nor 
has it occurred to any of the numerous owners of forest lands to plant 
out either indigenous trees, or trees of any kind, on the patches of land 
that have in course of many years been denuded. The owners of forest 
lands, desirous of in every way possible encouraging their native 
servants to reside ma u imposition of restric- 



lions thai would be antagonistir 10 their eu-loms a- regard- freed and 
domestic work. They enjoyed the rim of the forest, for planting 
purposes, more espe, i.-illy as the ei'0])S in tin- forest clearings were more 
or less sate from the trespass, during the night, of the landlord's 



ie natives everywhere are a 
•ests. In the construction 
1000 saplings are required 
ir cuttle, the proportion is 


.. In th 


of their ordii 


antagonists of 

of "their kraals 
it required for 


'native^'" 


creep slowly, it may he, but 


! withal i 


.no* 


effectually, into 



he forests, destroying tre. > that ma\ each contain timber 
»f 501., and be the growth of over two hundred years. Thi 

s effected simply by the nati\'e women removing the bark i 



i deterioration of \ 

conflicting. The general heliel is that there has been ac 
rainfall. River- have become dr-\ for lengthened periods, which how- 
imply r 



recommended that 
the Government 



CCCCXXXIIL— NEW ORCHIDS. 

1 Cryptpphoranthus minutus, Rolfc ; 



connatis i 
• hastato i 

Folia 5 lin. longa, 2\ lin. lata. Pedunculi 3 lin. longi. Bractea> 

1 lin. longje. Scpala \1\ tin. longa; fenestra' 1 lin. longae. Petala 
1 lin. longa. Labellnm 1| lin. longum. Columna 1£ lin. longa. 

A minute species, which flowered with Mr. J. O'Brien in November 
1891. It is far smaller than any other yet known in the genus, being 
little over half an inch hie;h. and the (lowers very large for the size of 
the plant. Their colour is deep maroon-purple. It seems most allied to 
r. pn„ctatus y Rodr. (Gen. et Sp. Orch. Nov., II., p. 80), of which 
the dimensions are not given, but the colour of the flowers is very 
different. 

112. Cryptophoranthus oblongifolius, Rolfe : caulibus teretibus 
foliis hreviorihus vaginis iufiindihnlifortni-tubulo>is striatic apice 
obliqnis acntis, foliis e-lliptico-ohlonu'is -ubohtusis vjridihus. peduueulis 
hrevihus orectis. biaeteis tubuh-is apice ohliquis acutis lloril.us pcndulis. 
ovario 9-nngnlato an^ulis -nhah.li-. sepalo postico ianceclato-oblongo 
acuto leviter carinato lateralilms alat-'-earinatis. petalis quadrato- 
ohlongis npiee retusis apieulatis v. suhtrideniatis trtnerviis, labello 



Hab. — Andes of South America. 

Ca/flcs H-2 poll, longi. Folia 1 :;-•".> poll, longa, ;}-l 
Pahoiculi f poll, loii^i. Jirarlvo ."> lin. longa-. Scpala 



:: 



■nga, 3i 



. lougum. Columna \\ lin. longa. 

A wild specimen ol' tin- species was presented to Kew in August 
1889, by Mr. J. Charlesworth, of Heatou, Bradford, who had collected 
it in some part of the Andes of South America, not precisely indicated. 
In November 1804, a specimen was senl I'mm < i 1 i>ne\iu, by Mr." 
W. Moore, A.L.S., lor ' 
same species, though the 1 
nerves of the petal?) 

the lip rather less developed, hi other : 
the dried specimen. Il is allied to the W'e>l Indian C. alropiirpxn i' 
Rolfe, but the flowers are structurally different, and veined wit 
maroon -purple on a dull yellow ground. 

113. Microstylis macrochila, Ro/fe 

lanceolatis aeutis reflex is, sepalo p 
lateralibus falcato-oblongis obtnsis ad a 
obtusis, labello orbiculnri basi profunde eoi 
columna brevissima " 
Hab.— Malaya. 



(i lin. lon^i Litbclhini (> 1 in. Ionium. Columna ':, lin. longa. 

This handsome \fi<n s/t/lis, tlie l;n-ge-f-ll<nvered species vet known, 
flowered in the collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence in May is94. The 
leaves are almost identical with those of M. Scotfii, Hook. fil. (Bot. 
Mag., t. 7268), for Which it was purchased, and no difference was 
detected until it flowered. The flowers, however, are many times 
larger than in that species, and very different in colour. The sepals 
and petals are light yellowish ereen, the Literal sepals being a little 
suffused with dull purple at the tip, and the large lip deep red-purple. 
The leaves are light vellowish l.r.nvn wWli an irre-ular marginal lwind 
of lighter colour. It presumably grows with M. Scottii, of which a 




Jeh.ue. It (S ren.arknl.ly di^ti 

114. Dendrpbium inflatum, 



ovato-oblongo obtuso, 



I'seudobnlbi ">-<> poll lou^i. /;,/„/ it Hi). longa, 24 lin. lata. 7rY/ 
6 lin. longi. BractecB 2 lin. longae. Pedicelli 9-JO lin. longi. ^a 
posticum 5 lin. Ionium. *J ', lin. lalum ; latcrali.i 10 lin. longa, 4 liu. 
Petala 5 lin. longa, 1^ lin. lata. Labellum 10 fin. longum, 8 
latum. Columna 2 lin. louga. Mentum 7 lin. longum. 

A distinct and pretty little species which was introduced by Me< 
Linden, L' Horticulture Internationale, Brussels, and flowered in t 
establishment in June 1894. Tt belongs to the section Pedilonum, 

altogether, with acute leave- and large differently coloured flow 
I), inflation has relatively large white flower-, with a yellow line d< 
the centre of the column-foot, a yellow blotch near the apex of the 
and a faint rose-purple stain on the unguis. 

115. Bulbophylluni disciflorum, Rolfe; pseudobulbis late ovoi 



connatis, petalisbasi <epaloruu 
oblongo obtuso planiusculo i 
laleralilms parvis erectis apice 
ik-nfiou- obsoletis niento -ubhei 



7'av udnbulbi § poll, longi. Folia 4-5 poll, longa, 12-13 lin. lata. 
Sepala 1 poll, longa, 6-7 lin. lata. Petala 4 lin. longa, | lin. lata. 

Label In id [) liu. longum, 4 lin. latum. Columna 4 lin. longa. Mentum 

A remarkable species introduced by Mcsm-.-. Linden. L'llorticultuie 
Internationale, Brussels, and flowered in their establishment in October 
last, ll is peculiar in having the base of the sepals united into a flat 
disc, to which the petals are adnate at the base. Thus the petals appear 
to arise from a broad disc, above which they stand quite parallel to each 
ofhti and ibout two lines distant from the column on either side. 
The name is given in allusion to this character. The sepals are 
densely covered with small red-brown dots on a light greenish yellow 
ground; the petal- seinipeltucid white with u red-brown mid-nerve, and 
some similar marginal dots, and the lip almost wholly covered with 
minute purple-brown warts which nearly obliterate the paler ground 
colour ; column light yellow with a green apiculate anther. 

116. Cirrhopetalum whiteanum, Rolfe; rhizomatc repenti valuta, 
pseudolralbia oblongis tetragonis n. 

- tectis apice nutantibus 
multifloris lloribus capitato-congestis, bractci- linean lanceolatis acutis 
" sepalo postico ovato acuto eiliato latendibin long.' caudato- 
glabris, petalis oblongis subobtu-is eiliati- t nnerviis, labello 



attenuatis 

recurvo oblongo acuto, columna Drevissima aentious orovious. 

Hab.— Moluccas (?) 

Pseudobulbi 4-6 lin. longi. Folia \-\{ poll, longa, 5-7 lin. lata. 
Seapi :) poll. alti. Bractece 4-6 lin. longae. Pedicelli \\ lin. longi. 
S< jialioii p.^>icuai ."! lin. longum, latcralia \\ poll, longa. Petala 1 lin. 
longa. Labellum 1 lin. longum. 

A small species allied to Cirrhop, /alum raf/iuatum, Lindl., but with 
pseudobuibs and leaves scarcely half as large as in that species, and the 



p-oudo'milbs much close together on the rhizome. It was received 
from Mr. J. O'Brien, with the information that it was found " growing 
" on roots of Vandu .stanr/can:i, .-aid to have come from the Moluccas." 
There seems to he ;i little doubt about tic habitat. Vanda stangeana, 
Echb. f., was described from a garden plant said to have been imported 
i about it beyond the original 



cription. The flowers of C. whiteanum are light 



yellow lip. 

117. Megacttnium imschootianum, Iiolfe ,• pseudobulbis acute 

trignnis ohlongis monophyllis, foliis lineari-oblongis obtusis, seapis 
foliis longioribus, rachi compressa lineari ohhmga civuulata inaequilater- 
ali, bractois lanceolatis acutis reflexis, sepalo postico lanceolato-oMongo 
apice acuminatissimorecurvo.lateralibus late ovati- apice acuminatis-imis 
reflexi-, petalis faleatodanceolatis breviter acuminatis, labello recurvo 
carnoso lineari obiongo obtu-o intra medium margine serrulate, columna 
brovi latissime alato dentibus brevibus et latis. 
Hab. — Not known. l>ut probably tropical Africa. 

Pseudobnlbi If poll, longi, 8 poll. lati. Folia G poll, longa, 1\ poll, 
lata. Scapi. 10 poll, longi; rachis 6 lin. lata. Bradcx- 3 lin- longa 1 . 
Pcdirdl'i \\ poll, longi. Scpa'aui postieum 5 lin. longum, 1 lin. 
latum ; lafcralia 4 lin. longa, 2\ lin. lata. Petala \\ tin. longa. 

This was received from M A. Van Tmschoot, of Mont-St.-Amand, 
Gatid, in July last. It is allied to MvijacVui'mm *,,,,//>/, n/m, Lindl., in 
which the flowers are much more crowded, and situated in the centre of 

the rachis, while in the present one they are in a line much nearer to the 
lower margin ; he-ides being different in structure. The rachis is light 
green, with numerous minute black dels near the margin. The Mowers 
are light yellowish green, with the reflexed tip- and margins of the 
, the petals 

stinctly spotted 

118. Maxillaria sangninea, Rolfe .■ cauleseens, rbizomate valido 

vaginis imbricatis tectis, pseudobulbis ellipsoideo-oblongis subcom- 
pressis, Foliis elongalo-liii. aribus angustis subacutis, Moribus breviter 
pedunculitis, bracteis ovatis apiculati--. scpalis ohlongis subobtusis, 
petalis lineari-oblongis subobtusis, labelln subintegro oblongo obtuso callo 
ido, columna clavata. 

Hab.— Chiriqui, Central America. 

Psaidobulbi \-\ poll, longi. Folia 10-15 poll, longa, 2 lin. lata. 
Pcftihiwli '1-1 poll, longi. Bractcfp 3 lin. longa-. Sepatd 6-8 lin. 
longa, 2-L'£ lin. lata. Lahdhnn fi-7 lin. longum. .". lin. latum. Cohnmm 

A distinct and verv pretty species belonging to the group Caiilcsccuks. 
and allied to M. tciiti folia', 'Lindl. It was <ent from the neighbourhood 
of the Chiriqui Lagoon, to Mr. J. O'Brien, with whom it flowered in 
April 1890. Plants were dis-ribuled to Kew, Glasnevin, and one or two 
private collections, where they have since flowered. The sepals are dull 
reddish brown with veliow "t ins. the petals pale yellow spotted and 
marbled with red-brown, and the lip carmine or purple-crimson, with a 



oblongis subacutis ei - .-■-, ■. isu-.-: i . . lohis lateralihus 

parvis subercetis rotundato-oblongis nviiiilati- intermedio renilbnui- 
ovato apiculato crenulato isthmo quadrato-oblongo nitido, callo oblongo 
depresso obscure tricarinato verrucoso, column a brevi aptera. 

Hab. — Columbia ; Millican. 

Pseudobulbi 4 poll, longi, 2 poll. lati. Folia 10-12 poll, longa. 1 A- 
1| po'l. lata. Scapi 1^-2 ped. longi. Bract < a 3-4 lin. longa'. 
Pedicelli 8-9 lin. longi. Sepala 7-8 lin. longa, 2\ lin. lata. Petala 
7-8 lin. longa, 3 lin. lata. /.fibrillin, |1 lin. longum. 3 lin. latum : 
isthmus If lin. latus. Columna H lin. longa. 

A very distinct species, belonging to the section lhj»u»rpffra 
obsoleta, recalling <>. anthocrcn , Ke'ub. !'.. bnt with smaller and more 
numerous flowers, and further differing from every other species of the 
group in the shape of the lip. It was collected by Mr. Albert Miliicar. 
and sent home with Odontoglossums in 1891. A plant flowered in the 
collection of Welbore S. Ellis. Fwp. Ha/elbonrne. Dorking, in October 
last. The flowers are deep reddish brown, the -epals being nnirgined 
with yellow on their upper parts, an<l the small lobes of the lip also 
yellow, while the larger isthmnti - \n. The crest 

consists of three dwarf flesln parallel keel's, which arc slightly verrncose. 

120. Sarcanthns auriculatus, Rolfe; foliis lineari-oblongis iaaequa- 
liter bilobis, racemis gracilibus armatis multitloris, bractcis minutis 
triangulo-ovatis acutis, sepalis ellipticis obtusis patenfibus, petalis 
ineurvis com • I j ilobo tobis 

lateralibus auriculatis valde concavis minute crenulatis angulis intenu's 
in dentem erectam productis intermedio recurvo triangubni-oblougo 
obtuso, disco lawi, calcare oblongo obtuso, columna brevissima. 

Hah.— Not known. 



Fof 


in 21-6 A poll, longa, 6-10 lit 


i. lata. R( 


armi 1-1 


Bractecc 1 lin. 




PciuvW 3 






l*\to 


tngu" 


/Wr//tr 


it us; <«hm- 


■2 inr'Lng, 


lata. La 


longa. 












This was senl 


; to Kew 


by Mr. J. C 


)'Brien in J 


une 1890. : 


other 




It has 


j the general 


habit of i 


v Parish! 


but it 






in the structu 


re ofthefl.i\ 




appeal 




>d species hav 




ivniarkabi 




bcV : Y\l 










purple 


line on e»i 


LCh of th 


e sepals and 




?ome purph 



CCCCXXXIV.— AGRICULTURE IN BRITISH 
HONDURAS. 



Ihdiitia, 1S94, p. 97), the following e 
Report for 1893 {Colonial Reports, 



1 capitalists. Already, owing tc 

;en made for the purchase or lease of Crown lands, and better 

s are afforded for the disposal of agricultural produce :— 



The principal products of the Colony, in at 
logwood, are sugar, rum, Indian corn, bananas, i 
and, according to the returns supplied, the (|iiantily produced during 
1893, and in the case of bananas, eocoanuts, and plantain.-, ihe tjnauf Its 
exported for the same period, are as follow.-: sugar. 1, l;)(»,[rjn Ih.-. ; 
rum, 57.178 galls.; Indian corn or mai/e, 1 7,».»'»7 bushels; bananas. 
189,420 bunches; eocoanuts, 1,177,315 ; plantains, 506,100 fruits. The 
returns for sugar, rum, and Indian corn cannot, however, be considered 
as strictly accurate, and probably are very much below the actual 
quantity produced. 

has been given, as no reliable figures could be obtained as to the quantity 
In endeavouring, 

3 of bananas and the number < 
plantains annually produced in the Colony, a reasonable allowance must 
be made for home consumption by a population of nearly 33,000 Souls 
There is a very considerable decrease in the quantity of bananas, cocoa- 
nuts, and plantains exported in 1893 as compared with the four previous 
years, but this decrease is almost entirely attributable to the disastrous 
effects of the gale of the 6th of July, which wrecked or very seriously 
damaged nearly all the plantations in the southern districts of Stann 
Creek and Toledo. Considering the geographical position of British 
Honduras, the fertility of its soil, and the general .salubrity of its climate, 



grown. In endeavouring, therefore, to arrive at an approximate 



the efforts of bis Excellency Sir Alfred Moloney, K.C.M.G., in 1892, of 
a Botanic Station at Belize attached to the grounds of Government 
House, an attempt has been made to create a nursery for the cultivation 
of plants of economic value of all kinds. But the condition of the soil in 
Belize and the proximity of the station to the sea have proved the present 
site to be not altogether suited for its purpose, and it is hoped to shortly 
transfer the Botanic Station to the Stann Creek district, where a site of 
some 75 acres, admirably adapted for its purpose, has been generously 
placed at the disposal of the Government by the board of directors of 
the British Honduras Syndicate. Even at Belize the Botanic Station 
has proved of value, for, from the experiments made there, and from 
experience gained of the resources and capabilities of the Colony, it 
seems clear that the following products, in addition to those which have 
already proved successful, can be grown with advantage and with profit to 
9 : cacao, castor-oil plant, coffee {liberica for the lowlands, 
arahiru for the highlands*, rubber I ('astili<>a rhrJu-a). Cola acuminata, 
n, grape-fruit, ground nut, 



pine-apple, pimento, sapodilla, shaddock, tobacco, and vanilla, in 
additit D to the above, the following kitchen-garden product?, as they are 
generally termed, can be readily cultivated : artichoke (Jerusalem), 



asparagus, beans of various kinds, cabbage, carrot, caulitiower, celery, 
corn, cucumber, edible gourds, Indian kale, lettuce, melon, nr " ■"" 
parsley, potato (Irish and sweet), peas, spinach, and tomatos. 



•■ stapie- tor (lie Colony's ! ra !•-, ii is to he hoped th 
the oil repeated exhortation of his Excellency the Governor that tl 
future of British II. mi ira- must dep ml on it- agricultural developmei 

is eminently fitted by its climate and fertility to be, the garden 
Central America. 



CCCCXXXV.— GOLD COAST BOTANIC STATION. 

The progress made in establishing a Botanic Station at Aburi on the 
Gold Coast has been noticed in the Ken- liulh-tiu. The site is in the 

hills, at an elevation ot about 1 100 !e< i. <- rl ok in- the sea-board, near 

i i 'ouo mie plants Aburi is a valuable sanatorium for European invalids. 
The locality has been greatly improved of late years, and it promises to 
become the centre of aeti\ ity tor many cultural industries started by the 
Botanic Station. The progressive development of the station is 
described in the Kew Bulletin, 1891, p. 169 ; 1892, pp. 14 and 297; 
1893, pp. 160 and 3<i.->. During the winter of 1893-94 Mr. William 
Crowiher. the curator (appointed in 1890), was deputed to visit the 
Wist Indies " to observe the system pursued there in the en 
" economic plants, and to bring hack such useful -ceils and plants as 
" might with advantage be introduced to the Gold Coast." Mr. 
Cro wither very successful!-- carried out the object of his mission and 
published a detailed report (Kcir Hull, tit,, 1894, p. 227). Since then 
the work of the Aburi Station has made excellent progress. The 
inception, as well as the actual work, so far accomplished in botanical 
'se at the Gold Coast is entirelv due to the Governor, his 
cy Sir William Brandford Griffith, K.C.M.G. He has given 



tee. Tn this an account is given of a recent visit made to the 
by Mr. A. M. Ashmore, an officer of the Ceylon Civil Service, 
."ting-Colonial Secretary at the Gold Coast :— 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew*. 

Downing Street, i 1th December 1894. 
AM directed by the Mar. pit-- of Ripon to transmit to you, for 
■usal and for any observations you nia\ ha\e to offer, a despatch 

lam,&c. 



20th Novembei 
having the Botanical fc 
experience, towards the 



I requested Mr. Ashmore, the Acting-Colonial Secretary, who lias seen a 
good dead of the cultivation of coffee in Ceylon, to undertake this duty, 
and I have now the honour to forwari information, 

a copy of his interesting report upon the Aburi plantation, and would 
siiU'gevt that .Mr. Thi<e!ton-Dyei\ CM. <".., should be allowed to peruse 
Mr. Ashniore's paper, as i think it would interest him to see what the 
Conner states with regard to an underinking in whicli the Director of 
the Royal Gardens at Kew has always taken a strong and kindly 
interest, and the advancement of which he has done so much to promote. 

3. The coffee pulper recommended bv Mr Ashmore has been sent for. 
I have, 8cc. 
(Signed) W. Brandford Griffith, 
The Most Honourable Governor. 

The Marquess of Ripon, K.G., 



the hill, between 4 
and 5 p.m. 

The road up to Teimang from aires remaking 

throughout. From Teimang up the pass to Aburi it is well traced, and 
on the whole in good order. The portion through the village of Aburi 
is in very bad order and in great want of repair. 

The village of Aburi is' larger than I had expected. It is full of 
goats and sheep, and is like a coast, not like a bush, village, in that it is 
constructed without any attempt at arrangement, although there are 

Mr. Kemp's house, which I passed and visited on my way up, is 
admirably situated on a fairly level open space, looking from the brow 
of the hill over the great plain towards Pram Pram. It seems to be 
well constructed and simply arranged. Walls built of stone, good stone- 
built iio-downs outside. Two very large rooms, I presume a school- 
room downstairs and a dormitr.rv upstairs. Found very pleasant 
quarters at Government House, Aburi. 

' 2!>th instant.— Tn the morning went round the grounds with Mr. 
Crowther. They are very well kept and clean. Besides English 
vegetables and the flower garden there are — 
i. a consi, ! in coffee ; 

ii. a small area of Arabian coffee ; 

iii. a litttle cacao of about a year old under plantain trees for shade j 

iv. a considerable area, some acres, of quite young cacao under the 



3 d fruit trees, a little india-rubl 



and promising culth 



from a year to nearly throe years old. It all looks well, and the older 
trees are bearing crop. It is planted 12 x 12. 

The Arabian collie is [darned 8 x 8. and has been allowed to grow 
up to 6 feet high. I think this is a mistake. All cultivated Arabian 
coffee previously seen by me has been topped at about the height of a 
man's waist, and I believe that it is understood to be the best heigh i. 
It looks healthy, and is bearing crop, not much of which is, however* 

The crop which is gathered is successfully cleaned by the most 
primitive method 1 have ever seen. It is scraped wit n a round stone 
in the hollow of a larger stone by hand, and then washed and dried in 
the sun. It is obvious that it would be impossible to deal with any 
considerable amount in this way, 1 iu' I here is not much Arabian coffer, 
and so it is made to answer. When, however, the Liberian coffee 
comes to be plucked, the crop is due in about three months, it will be 
necessary to adopt some kind of machinery, and as there is no water 

spoke to Mr. Crowther about a hand pulper. He showed me a book'of 
advertisements of coffee machinery, and proposed to buy a hand coffee 
pulper for Liberian coffee at the cost of 47/. In conversation we 
subsequonth agreed thai a -ma':' r one. eosiing, 1 think, 27/., would be 
large enough. When brought out it ought to be housed ; it will 
require, of course, only a small building, ami this should be placed on 
the side of the great tank furthest from the house, in order that the 



forwarded at once, a 




vole 


of Council. 






While on the su 






(•(dice so-called (it 












probably because the 






the Liberian variety. 


it 










having been 40 years 


ago. 


Tl 


for seed. Mr. Crowi 


















from Jamaica. 






Again I thought, 


as 1 












Kvc 


,7 'i 


is, of course, but little of 1 




The plantain clumps planted 


perhaps too dense, sh 


ade. 


bui 


is a very exhausting i 


rrop 




Avhich requires rich s 


■Oil, 1 


t ;- 



herefore glad to see that Mr. Crowthe: 
nother shade tree, the one usually used 
[) replace his plantains. 

The other cultivations in progress are not yet of consic 
Mice. The rubber looks promising, and the great difficu] 
nth rubber, that of extracting the rubber in sufficient qua 
or the trouble iv i ! tree, is not yet a 

olution. Mr. Crowther has a good show of oranges, i 



Two or three matters I think might have attention ; in the first place, 
the first opportunity should be taken of an officer who can survey being 
in Aburi to get a plan of the garden in detail. It is highly iniportaiit 
to know the produce per acre of the different coffees, and it will be 
important when it has progressed a little more to know the same of the 

In the second place, something more might be done for the flower 
garden. Roses are very easily got out by parcel post, and the only 
rose tree here is very flourishing. A selection of begonias and other 

Many kinds of cacti would flower in Aburi profusely. Anything thai 









CCCCXXXVI.— DECADES KEWENSES. 

Plantarum No varum in Herbario Horti Regit Conskrvataklm. 

DECAS XII. 

111. Ceanpthus leucodermis, E, L. Greene [Rbamaaeees] 5 

fruticosus vol arboro-eens, minis rectis erassinseulis rigidis r.-». inuli>< j m- 
divaricatis brevibus spinescentibus floriferis glabris albo-glauois, foliis 
paueis parvis brovissirne petiolatis coriaceis ovalibus ohtii>iu«eu!i.- 
serratis vol serrato-dentatis supra glabratis subtus praeoipue in nervis 
puI.oM-outibris, tbyrsis sul* ssllibug numerosis elongatis angustis sub- 
ex hndraeejV. lion'l.ii- o.oruleis. 

Folia 4-8 lin. longa, medio 3-5 lin. lata. Thyrsi 1^-2^, poll, longi, 
diametro \ poll, nudi vix interrupt!. 

There are specimens from Douglas and Coulter referred to C. 

i]icari<-atm,\v\nv\\ arc perhaps variotios of the species here proposed : 
but these are more leafy, the loaves thrice as large, more elongated in 

hy their glabrous and white-glaucous branches and branchlete, and by 



rigidly divaricate gnm 

;■""■; 



.., at piv»,.u: 
e.ent white-barked g,,,,,,', 
'. h ,„■ ^"Ziis'Lpe&rTto be 



■ ... '■' 

//, -,,//.. gl: 



'i ; foliola 2-M poll. I< 
Ct&hd* 1A-2 poll. 



iliili.s (•ii!N > iiun glabrescentibus, ■ 
10, venis ultimis minute reticu 
. eoiynibis mult ifloris termina 



Folia absque petiolo 3-4 ] 
Pedicelli circiter pollieares. ( 
lin. longa. Fructus 5-6 lin. lonj: 

114. Ophiocaulon Rowlandi, 



palnialo-lobaiis, eymis mult itloris ail einnorum reductorur 
n-oductis, c.-dyeis iuim !»ie\i canipanui .i to lobis oblongis maculi 
; atro-bnunieis deooralis. petali- ealyei a-quilongis, anlberi 
us magni>, lilanientis bre\ issimis. 



r„iiu 



Othonna disticha, A r . E. Jlrou-n [Composita>Senecionidea*] ; 
us vol ramis siniplb-ibus ani<-e raeeiiHJsn- vel c< >ry mboso-floriferis 
< angusle bialatis dense foliatis, I'oliis distichis erect is vel 
ctis "inibricatis ellipticis vel elliptico-oblongis obtusissimis 
bus basi in alas ciineatim deeurrentibus glabris subcarnosis ?, 
Willis t'ei'c usque ad invohirniin t'oliii'eris monocephalis, capitulo 
leo 20-30-floro floribus centralibus sterilibus, involucri tubuloso- 
nulati bracteis quit. que uuiseriatis basi liberis sed inarginibus 
■xtis oblongis acutis vel obtusi3 apiculatis versus apicem leviter 
•is alternis bit. m ■ .rolla 5-dentata 



near Haiberton, 4500 feet 
under* ( Wood, 3915). 



nculi \-\% poll. 
^-| poll, longap, 
K)ll. longa, | poll. 



Mr. Galpin to be creamy-white. The affinity of 0. disticha is with 
the species of a shrubby habit, more especially with O. coriifolia, 
Sond., and those plants which have been generically separated from 
Othonna under the names of Lopholcena and Othonnopsis. A care- 
ful examination leads us to the conclusion that Othonnopsis should be 
reduced to Othonna. 

116. ] 
crass a fusiformi, foliis rac 
glabris dense csespitosis, bra 
involucro oblongo bracteis interioribus 8 linearibus dorso glabris c 



Habitat. — Interior of Western Lagos, Dr. Rowland. Namuli M akua 
country. East Tropical Africa, J. T. Last. 

Caulis 2-3-polUcaris. Involucrum semipollicare. Achania 2 lin. 
longa. Pappus 4 lin. longus. 

This curious, dwarf, densely- tufted species belongs to the section 
Brachyrhampns, and is allied to L. gorccensis, Schultz-Bip. 

117. Episcia (Centrosolenia) densa, Wright [Gesueraceie-Cyrtan- 
dreas] ; herba robusta, caule brevi purpureo minute pubesceDti, foliis 
oblunpis :n - 1 (i ei 1 1 . :it i- basi rotundatis vel subacntis supra lev iter pilosis 
subtus glabris purpureis, marginibus serrulatis, petiolis laminis dimidio 
brevioribus purpur. .m- supra plain- subtus convexis. floribus pluribus in 
axillis t'oliormn congestis, calyce segmentis 5 postico libero reliquis 
conjunctis extus purpureis intus viridibus, corolla cylindrica basi con- 
tracta et in calcarem brevem pmducta . \iu> dilute lutea intus purpureo 
suffusa, staminibus 4 prope basin corollae iusertis, antherarum apicibus 
coha-rcntilnis, disco glanduhl postiea magna ea-feris oninino delicientibus. 
ovario supeio subgloboso apice piloso, stylo filiformi, stigmnte Capitate. 

Habitat. — British Guiana: River Masouria, Jenman, 2414. 

Petiolus 4 poll, longus, lamina 8 poll, longa, 4 poll. lata. Calux 
10 lin. longus. Corolla \\ poll, longa. 

Allied to Episcia erythropus, Hook, fil., Bot. Mag. t. 6219, but 
differing in the corolla having shorter lobes and a longer spur. This 
plant has been in cultivation at Kew. 

-Marantea?] ; ncaulis, 
oblongis cuspidatis ^lahris utrinque pallide 
viridibus concoloribus basi rotundatis, pedunculo brevi radicali, floril.us 
geminis niveis in spicam oblongani agg imbri.-atis 

glabris orbieularibus chartaceis pallide brunneis apice cuspidatis 
squarrosis, corolla? tubo elongate cernuo lobis lineari-oblongis, stami- 
nodiis obovatis corollae lobis aequilongis. 

Habitat. — British Guiana: Esscquibo, Appnn, 2">2. Flowered at 
Kew Oct. 1894; received from the Demerara Botanic Garden in 1890. 

Foliorum lamina 8-10 poll, longa, 4-4$ poll, lata ; petiolus lamina? 
equilongus. Srapiis 2- 4-pollicaris. Spiai 1 $-2-pollicaris, bracteis 
9-12-lin. longis. Corolla: tubus 12-15 lin. longus; lobi 4-5 lin. longi. 

Allied to C. mmula, Kdmicke {Ft. Bras. iii. pars. 3, t. 21), and the 
well-known C. zebrina, Lindl., but the flower is white and the leaves not 
at all variegated, so that it is not a striking species from a horticultural 



119. Calathea G-ardneri, Baker [Scitaminea;J ; aeaulis, scapo radicali 
elongate graeili glahro, 1'oliis lmige pctiolatis oblongis aculis chartaceis 
glabris basi cuneatis, fioribus in spicam densam oblongam aggregatis, 
bracteis glabris chartaceis arete imbricatis ini'erioribus orbicularibus 
obtusis fertil > i- supei ioribus sterilibus oblongis acutis, flore "caeruleo," 
corollae tubo bracteae fertili asquilongo, staminodiis exterioribus parvis 
obovatis corollas lobis aequilongis. 

Habitat — Brazil : province of Ceara, in woods near Grata, Gardner, 
2031. 

Scapns 8-12-pollicaris. Lamina 6-10 poll, longa, medio 1\-Z poll, 
lata. Spica 1^-2 poll, longa, bracteis floriferis 8-9 lin., superioribus 
vacuis 12-14 lin. longis. Staminodia exteriora 3-4 lin. longa. 

This belongs to the small section Comosa?, in which the spike is 
crowned by a coma of sterile bracts, which are different from the 
fertile ones in shape and texture. It is very near to the plant figured 
as C. capitata by Peterssen in " Flora Brasiliensis," vol. iii. part 3, 
page 120, tab. 33, but I do not think this is identical with the Peruvian 
C. capitata, Lindl. 

120. Aglaonema angustifolia, X. E. Brmcn [Aroideas] ; caule 
erecto oitkiise - basi abrupte 

dilatatis la; 1. longis aetimiiiati.- basi cuneato- 

rotundati- costa utrinque prominenti nervis 

Utrinque 4-0i ::ous iiumacuiatis, pedunculo quam 

petiolus breviore terminali pallide virenti, spatha parva ellipsoidcu. 
apiculata, antiee aperta albida, spa dice breviter stipitato e spatha 
brevissime exserto eylindrieo nbtuso. ovariis subseriatis luteolis, stigmate 

Habitat.— Straits Settlements : Pangkore, Curtis, Srortechini. 

Caulis 3-31 lin. crassns. Foliorum petioli 1^-2 poll, longi, laminae 
5-9£ poll, longa', i-l poll. lata'. Pednuvvltis ],-2\ poll, longus. 
Spatha l-U poll, longa. 5-7 lin. diani. Spadix (stipes 2-3 lin. loneus 
iuclusus), 10 lin. 1| poll, lougus. 



The upper part of the stem is of a suvery grey, v 
shining as if polished when alive. The above descriptu 
a living plant sent to Kew by Mr. C. Curtis, Assistant 
Garden and Forest Department, Penang. 



CCCCXXXVIL— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Visitors during the year 1894. — The number of persons who 
he Royal Gardens during the j 
falling off as compared with 1895 



the R..vnl < liird«-ns during the year 1894 was 1,377,588. This shows i 
' -13 of, in round r ' 



ributed to the marked difference in the summer of the 
two years. The total does not, however, differ appreciably from that 
for 1891, and does not depart very widely from 1,416,887, the average 
for the preceding ten-year period. 

The actual annual attendance of visitors at Kew now oscillates about 
a figure which probably nearly approaches a million and a half. And 
at this it is perhaps likely to remain for some time with the existing 
means of access from London. 



The detailed numbers for 1 89-t ar 


given below : — 




**,*. 


Numbers. 


Month. 


Numbers. 


March 
May 


18,184 
146,417 


Brought forward - 
July 

September 
October 
November 
i December 

Total - 


21U92 


Carried forward - 


785,009 


IwT 



Curtis's Botanical Magazine. — This illustrated work, which has 
reached the 107 ™*ce and lts one hundred and twentieth 

volume, is, and long has been, a permanent record of a selection of the 
most ornamental and useful plants flowering at Kew during the year. 
Fifty out of 60 of the figures published in last year's volume were 
drawn from at Kew. 



Hooker's "Icones Plantanim." — The second 
volume of the current series of this publication 
number of new tropical African Apm-i/nnna ; 
Pilocarpus micropltyllus ; Stenomcris 



new " Jalwandi," 



genus; Euphorbia Abbot tii, a di 
r dian Ocean; Rhipuhoca 

■•J [ilaiil-. 



Arenga Engleri, Becc. —This pa] 



rihed In Signor Keccari in 
collected by Mr. 



Formosa (Nos. 626 and 627) where it has 

C. Ford, F.L.S. (No. 26) and Dr. A. Henry (Nos. 

According to Dr. A. Henrv it grows in sha<ly spots and reaches a height 

of about 5 feet. The fronds bear numerous pinnae, the longest of 

which are about 16 in. long and 1 in. broad, and much constricted at the 

base and irregularly toothed at the apex. The axis of the frond is 

semiterete neat n- at the apex, and more or less 



have a most delightful perfuu 
distance around it, the whole < 
it in the month of June. 



obtuse angle 
reticulations ; 
he centre of the dorsal side. Mr. C. 
plant into the Hong Kong Botanic 
;eds to Kew, states that the flowers 
which fills the air for a very great 
try about Keelung being scented with 



20 



Botany of the Piloomayo Expedition. —After considerable delay, an 
account has appeared {Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh, xx. 1894, pp. 44-78) of the plants collected by 
Mr. J. Graham Kerr, mituralist to the unfortunate Argentine Expedi- 
tion of 1890-91, to the Rio Pilcomayo, in the Grand Chaco of South 
America. The collection was presented to Kew (Kew Bulletin, 1891, 
p. 276), and Mr. Graham Kerr has supplemented the enumeration and 
descriptions supplied to him by notes on the localities, uses, native 
names, and other particulars. Taken altogether it is a valuable 
contribution to our knowledge of an interesting flora. 



Scientific Reports of Mr. Conway's Karakoram Expedition.— These, 
together with maps on a large scale showing the route, have been issued 
in a separate volume. The botany consists of a systematic list of the 
plants, with the localities and altitudes at which they were collected. 
As already reported (Kew Bulletin, 1893, p. 145) the collection of dried 
plants was presented by Mr. Conway to Kew. Only two were pre- 
viously undescribed; but I first as giving a good idea 
of the flora of a glacial region, and secondly for the careful manner in 
which the plants have been localised. 



Koorders' Malayan Plants.— Mr. S. H. Koorders, 
Th. Valeton, has lately published an important contribution to our 
knowledge of the trees of Java, based on extpnsive investigations and 
collections made on the spot. The main part of the work is in the 
Dutch language, but it also contains Latin descriptions of all the species. 
It is issued under the Latin title of Additamenta ad Cognitiont>m 
Florcr Javanica-. Pars 1. Arbores. A good many new species are 
described, and through the kindness of Dr. M. Treub, Director of the 
Buitenzorg Botanic Garden, Kew has received a set of Koorders' 
plants, including authentically named specimens of many of these 



Fiji. — A collection of plants from Fiji has been received from Mr. D. 
Yeoward, Curator of the Botanical Station there. Besides native plants, 
the collection includes many specimens of introduced plants. A species 
of Vavtea has proved to be new, and a description of it has been drawn 
up for the Bulletin. It forms a large tree, with leaves nearly a foot 
long and clusters of numerous white flowers. One plant, called by the 
natives Lmu Lutu ni Vicau, is an apparently undescribed species of 
Macaranga, remarkable for its very obliquely peltate lanceolate leaves 
nearly 2 feet long. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW, 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFOEMATIOE 



FEBRUARY. [1895. 



CCCCXXXVIIL- 



lowlands the plant chiefly cultivated is Cqffea liberica ; but a small- 
berried form of ( 'off, a arahici is also grown. The beans of this are 
very small, but the produce when well cleaned has been valued as high 
as 94*. per cwt. For the hills of the interior the best plant is 

umtoubte ily rlie robust < . arabica grown in the Blue Mountains of 
Jamaica. This has large heavy beans, often fetching from the best 
estates 140s. per cwt. There is no danger of introducing disea-e with 
this coffee. 

Several private coffee plantations have been -;ar)c! at tin- Gold Coast 
(AY //■ Ihilft-fh,, 1N!)2. p. 300). Those at Aburi at the Botanic Station 
have also been noticed (AYm- IhilhH,,. I N95, p. 11). The following 
correspondence communicated to Kew by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies affords information of a coffee and cacao plantation of a 
moderately large size in course of heintr established near Cape Coast 
Castle :— 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Colonial Office, Downing Street, 
Sik, February 2, 1895. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to 
transmit to von, foi \«'\\ mtor natioi . th ,ven p \ ii<\tiaet from 
a despatch from the ( b>Vern ,r of the Gold ( '«,.-! < \>l ,m : with an account 
of Messrs. Miller Brothers and Company's mrhV plantation at Ivubv 
Kul, near Cape Coast. 

T am, &c. 
The Director, (Signed) R. IT. Meade. 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

(Enclosure.) 
Extract from De- Id Coast, 

No. 14 of the 8th January 1895. 
nteresting account is given by Mr. Holmes of Messrs. Miller 
1 Company's coffee plantation at Kuby Kul, which is about 
ipe Coast. About 150 acres have been cleared 
-2 95. Wt. 45. A 



and planted with coffee and cacao, an us obtained in 

1893. The actual cost of the plantation has been 2,4007., and with this 
modest expenditure the plantation will undoubtedly prove a very profit- 
able undertaking. I enclose an extract of the portion of Mr. Holmes's 
report which refers to the plantation, in case your Lordship should wish 
to send it to the Director of the Eoyal Gardens at Kew. 

(Extract.) 
District Commissioner's Office, 

Cape Coast, October 13, 1894. 

I have visited Messrs. Miller Brother and Company's plantation at 
' ' i of their 
3 consists of a commodious house 
i and about 450 acres. It is situated about 10 miles 
inland. The Cape Coast Sefwhi main road (which is now being con- 
structed by the Government) skirts the west side .-111,1 the old Amin 
road to Denkera the other. The highest elevation is about 150 feet 
above the sea level. I first visited the plantation in 1892, when there 
were only about 20 acres planted with cacao and Liberian coffee ; the 
other part was covered with thick bush and forest. The plantation is 
only four year? oM, the first planting from the nursery being in June 
1890. The estate has been increased year by year in areas of about 
50 acres at a time, and the rearing 1 g out, &c. has 

proceeded as under : — 



ajr,.,.t. : 
; <heds 



Year. 


S£2S 


No. of Coffee 
Plants reared. 


Number 


Yield of 1 Yield of 


1892 - 

1893 - 

1894 - 


•3 


,s 


Planted out. — 

„ Crop in progress of 
J picking and curing. 



The coffee trees are planted out 13 feet square apart, but I think it 
has been found from experience that 10 feet would be ample. There 
are about 30 acres now cleared which remain to be planted. The 
valleys have been utilized for the cacao and the elevated portions for 
coffee. At present there are roughly 150 acres fully planted with trees 
which are of the following respective ages, viz. : — 



. 4 y, 



has been planted this year. 



ree> was picked in 1*93. This year 
i bearing. The cacao shows signs of 
eedling, and the coffee two years from 
Before the whole of the 1 50 




The cost ot clearing torest, pi 
four years is on an average of i 
to say, an estate of 150 acres in the fourth yei 
2,400J. capital spent on cultivation. This includes tl 
ment and all expenses of labour, but not cost of plants or first cost of 
the land ; after the fourth year it is reckoned that the cost will fall to 3/., 
and in the seventh year to 21. This is accounted for by the growth of 
the trees giving sufficient shade to cover the whole of the ground, thus 
causing less weeding. It is now calculated that one man can keep 
3 acres clean, and the cost of that labour is about. 91. per head per 
annum. The weeds are well kept down throughout the estate, and the 
surface of the ground kept regularly tilled by Krooboy and native 

or fungoid disease, &c. do not appear to cause any trouble, and 



of September the trees were a perfect picture of health and 
• ' 11 bloom. Mr. Batty everywhere 
i worth doing is worth do 



yigtrar, the voung trees being in full bloom. Mr. Batty € 




placed on the drying ground first, as they are picked from the trees and 
allowed to remain there for a period of six weeks, and when dry they 
are pounded in mortars by hand till the husks and parchment come off. 



CCCCXXXIX.— DECADES KEWENSES. 

m Novabum in Herbaeio Horti Regh Conservj 



DECAS XIII. 

This decode consists of descriptions of new plants collected by Mr. 
Maurice S. Evans, of Natal, during a trip made in July 1894 to the 
Drakensberg, for the purpose of exploring some caves formerly occupied 
by the Bushmen. The part of the Drakensberg Range where they were 
collected lies between Cathkin Peak and Giants Castle, at an elevation 
of 6,000 to 9,000 feet above the sea, among the sources of the Bush- 
man's River. This region is about the highest part of the Drakensberg, 
and has scarcely been visited by a collector before, hence it was only to 
be expected that the collection should contain several novelties. 
Pr:ictie;iiiy very little of the Drakensberg has been explored botanicallv 
A 2 



and none of it thoroughly, but from the collections made by various 
botanists whilst crossing the Range at various points, it i- evident thai ii 
contains a very rich and varied Rora, and tlmse plants lmre described. 
are mostly very distinct in character from any others yet known to 
science in the different genera to which they belong. Perhaps the most 
interesting among them is the Gymnopottzia, wliieli adds a second 
species to (lie genus and brings rhttt genus within the \atal Flora. The 
Nestlera and Athnxla are also remarkably distinct and interesting 
plants. Tlie Gerbera is one of the smaller species of the genus, and its 
flowers have very much the appearance of the common Daisy. The 
Sebaa is remarkable for its creeping st» ins ami p.'ivnnial habit, and is 
well worthy of introduction into cultivation. It is to be hoped that 
Mr. Evans will, on future occasions, bring to light many more of the 
in terestitig plants that are doubtless hidden away in the nooks of the 
Drakensberg. 

121. Hermannia malvsefolia, N. E. Broim [Sterculiacew] ; rami's 

flongatis d^eiiml'.eutihus vol procumbent ibns piii- -tellatis aspcratis, 
folds petiolatis orbicularihus basi cordatis erenafi- stellato-tomentosis" 
viridibus, stipulis ovati> aculis. floribus solitariis told- oppnsitis, pedicellis 



marginibus eiliatis. ovario 


-niiato-tomentoso, stylo elongato glabro. 


Habitat.— Nat al : on f!i 
ft. alt., growing among dr 


e Drakensberg Bushman's River, <i,000-7,000 
7 grass, July, Evans, 55. 


lamina- :i-ll lin. diam." '/' 
Calyris tubus 1* lin. Ion 


s-1 lin. crassi. Eitlinritm pel ioii 2 -7 lin. long i, 
'<>,/>.<■</// 'i-\\\ lin. longi. Ilrarti-a I lin. longa/. 
gas, lobi I 1 , lin. longi. Petala 4 lin. longa, 


This is quite unlike i 
resemble those of Malvc 
all lobed. 


my other species in the genus; the leaves 
t rot tnuli folia, L., but are smaller, and not at 



122. Helichrysum album, iV. E. Brown [Composite] ; folds radi- 

ealibus dense rosubtis obovatis y] rotumiato-obovatb obtusis eaulinis 
erectis elliptieo-oblongis obtusis subatuplexieaulibu-, eoucavis floccoso- 

lanatis, pedan< Jioso floccoso- 

lanato, capituh- magno . olatis aeutis 

niveis basi rubrn-purpuivis nitidis braeteis radiantil.us quam discus 

subtriplo longi- ■ ] lato-jowolato ob-cure dontieulato. 



Folia radicalia %-l^ pa 7 lin. longa,. 

-3 lin. lata. Pnhntnili 2-4 poll. longi. Capital" \-l{ poll. diam. 
f»v>. lu.-ri hrncteas 4-6 lin. longa?, 1-1 £ lin. latse. Corolla 1$ lin. longa. 






DC, i 

former it difieis by Us more slender, -cape-like peduncles, obovate 

obtuse leaves, which are more densely rosulate, and the glabrous achenes. 

From the latter by its much broader obovate leaves and very different 

indumentum. 

123. Helichrysum confertum, JV. E. Brown -, suffrutieulosa caulibus 
; imomssim tis, foliis dense 

confertis parvis elliptico- vel oblongo-spathulatis obtusis breviter et late 
petiolatis canaliculars dense albo-lanatis, capitulis plerumque 3-5 (raro 
1-2) ad apices ramorum se-sibbus eir.-a ::0-i!oris, involucri campanulati 
glabri bracteis adpressis exterioribus gradatim minoribus elliptico- 
oblongis obtusis pallide brunneis interioribus oblongis obtusis albis 
opacis .piam di-eus duplo longioribus subradiantibus, receptaculo parvo 
limhriilafo-dentienlato, corolla? 5-dentata? dentibus extus papillato- 
barbatis, pappi setis apice 1 1 1 * • riia papillaris. 

Habitat.— Natal : on the Drakensberg, near Bushman's Kiver, 6,000- 



Folia emu petiolo 2\- \\ [in longa. 2-3 lin. lata. Capitnla 4-5 lin. 
diam. Involucri braetea^ exteriores 1-2 I'm limga-, ; I lin. latse, interiores 
3-4 lin. longa?, \-\\ lin. lata?. Corolla \\ lin. longa. 

Avery distinct specie-, unlike any oilier in the <renus, the nearest 
approach to it being //. J 'annr/ii, I look.'til.. an alpine \'ew Zealand species. 
■ bit, wiih woody stems 
\-\ in. thick, having short, densely crowded branehlets at their ends, 
densely clothed with white woolly leaves. Mr. Evans states that it 
•jtov,-s " i n shrul(f)y clumps." 

124. Nestlera virgata, N. E. Brown [Compositse] ; caulibus ereetis 

t'oliis alterm- l'a-ci ■ulatis linearihus subcaualiculatis aeuti- 

. : 
brevibus lateralibus versus apicem caulium raeemosis multitloris. 

•:■».,! :■■; . > ' ...',- ■■..'■,-.■.. •■-■:'.-■.■•■■ 

glabris exten. tceo foveolato, 

Horilnis radii IS-22 imiseriatis. iuvohim. iongioribtis 

- 
glandtilosis, _ia.ndulosis luteis, antheris 

basi k>nge e.a i . • ipula i dentatam plus 

akmne mm - ; glabris. 

Habitat.—Natel: on the Drakensberg, 6000-7000 ft. alt., July, 



('units 7-lb poll. alti. Folia 2-5 lin. longa, 
Cupitula 7-8 iii! (hum. Inrolucn bractea- interior 
\-% liu. lata;. Curat I a radii 1.^-5 lin. longa?, 1 lin. 1 
longa. Pappus \ lin. lougus. 



125. Athrixia pinifolia, Z\ r . E. Brown [Composite] ; 

teretibus erectis interne basibus foliorum 
vestitis?, foliis coofertis sessilibus adscendentibus subrigidis 
acutis dorso convexis marginibus scabrido- ciliatis glabris, pedunculo 
monocephalo prope apicern ramorum solitario quam folia plerumque 
longiore dense scabro-pubescente, capitulo circa 100-floro, involucri 
campanulati bracteis multisenatis sublaxis lanceolatis vel subspathulato- 
lanceolatis acutis apice plus minusvo, recur\is scariosis brunneis basi 
viridibus glabris exterioribus gradatim minoribus, receptaculo piano 
nudo, floribus radii lineari-oblongis apice minute tridentatis involucrum 
excedentibus albis subtns purpureo-vittatis, floribus disci tubulosis 
superne amplial - oniseriatil 

asperis, ovariis pubescentibus. 

Habitat.— Natal : on the Drakensberg, in the bed of the Bushman's 
River, among boulders, July, Evans, 59. 

Frutex 2-3 ped. altus. Folia 1-1^ poll, longa, |-1 lin. lata. 
Pedunculi 9-18 lin. longi. Capitula 9 lin diam Involucri braotea- 
interiores I lin. longa?, i lin. lata\ Corolla radii 4 lin. longa?, disci 
2 lin. longae. 

i species of Relhania 



126. Printzia laxa, N. E. Brown [Composita- 1 ; rami- gracililms 
apice albo-tomentosis, foliis altc-mi- petiolatis ollipticis vel elliptico- 
ovatis acutis mucronulato- 

dentatis supra viridihu-. . ;- subtus albido-tomen- 

tosis, capitulis niagnis solitariis terniinalibus radiatis multifloris, involucri 
campanulati biacteis 5-6-scriatis cxterioribus gradatim minoribus 
lanceolatis acutis apice piihescenrilius ciliatis fiHei-que, floribus radii 
lincari-ligulatis apice tndentati- roscis vel msn purpureis, floribus 
disci tui,ii!o-is o-.kiifatis, lnteis. ovariis pubescentibus. 

Habitat.— -Natal : on the Drake-' -.or-. Bushman's River, 6,000-7,000 
feet alt., July, Evans, 53. 

Foliorum pctioli 2-1 lin. longi, lamina? 1-3 poll, longa?, 9 lin.-l^ poll. 
lata* Capitula 12-M lin. diam. Livolxman 5 lin. longum. Corolla 
radii 7 lin. longa? disci 3£ lin. longa?. 

In habit and foliage this somewhat resembles P. Huttoni, but the 



pilifera, X. E. Brown [Composite] ; fruticosa, 
lubtetragonis erect a tulis brevibus cum foliis 

albopilosis demnm glabris, foliis oppositis basi vaginato-connatis ad 
medium vel infra bilobis, lobis integris vel furcatis subteretibus sub- 



involucri hemispha 
triseriatis adpressis lanceolatis acutis vel -ubacuminatis fusco-marginatis 
ciliatis. receptaculo convexo nudo, floribus involucrum excedentibus 
exterioribus tantum fertililms, corolla- tubo cylindrico apice abnipte 
ampliato quinquefido extus glanduloso-papilloso luteo, acha?niis teretibus 
10-costulatig puberulis. 

Habitat.— hiatal : on the Drakensberg, near Bushman's River, 6,000- 
7,000 ft. alt., July, Evans, 51. 



-net floriferi 9 lin.-l poll 
lobi I lin. lati. T " 
Involucri bracteae 



Pedicelli 1-3 lin. longi. Capitula 2|-3^ lin. diam. 
igae. Corolla \\ lin. longa. A ch tenia r. lin. 



This differs from '/ bifnrctta. Benth., by its much s 
mosely decussate flowering branehlets, the lobes of the 
quently forked, the long white silky hairs which laxly i 
shoots and leaves, the mueh shorter pedicels, more acu 
involucre, and the corolla has n longer and more sler 
much more abruptly dilated in the upper part than it is 



128. Gerbera parva, JV. E. Brown [Composite]; foliis pan is 
radioalibus longipetiolatis late ovatis ohtnsis apieulatis hasi ccrdatis 
marginil)iis <li ntatb -upra glabi b viridihus subtus albotomentosis, scapis 
quam folia duplo longioribus gracilibus monocephalis nudis vel apice 
bracteolatis et versus apicem tomentosis, bracteis parvis lanceolato- 
suhulatis glabrb, eapitulis parvis radiatb. involucri iiraeteis (ineari- 
lanceolatis acaminatis B \ abria rirMK- 
bus vel atropur|)nrcf) suffiisis. lloribus radii lS.-22unw'riatis involuerum 
snbduplo excedentibus, labio antico ligulato apice trident ato albo 
subtus plus minu^ve ; • - dm bis minutis denti- 
formibus composito, floribus disci subbilahiatis |obis<piimpie sul>a< pmliVMi^. 
pappi setis scabridis albidis. ovario glanduloso. 

Habitat.— Natoi : on the Drakensberg, near Bushman's River, in a 
damp place, 6,000-7,000 ft. alt., July, Evans, 57. 

Folio rum , iainina I -S lin. longa-. '.]-(> lin lata-. 

Src/pi .'U-d. 1 , poll, longi. Braeteo 1-2 lin. longa'. iapitnht S lin. 
diam. 'involucri braete.e interiores 4 lin. longa'. Corolla- radii 4 lin. 
longa'. disci 2^ lin. longa-. 

A well marked species, with (lower heads eloselv resembling those of 
Belli* perennis in size and appearance. Mr. Kvans onlv found it in 
one place. 

129. Sebjea Evansii, X. E. Brown [Gentianese] ; caulihus temribira 

repentibus radieantibus ramosis ea-spitoso-intertextis glabris, foliis 
parvis petiolatis ovaib ..btusis vel subapiculatis 

basi cuneatis subcaniosis glabris, lloribus lenninahniis solitariis vei 
birds peilicchatis vel sulwessilibus. ealyei- prof'umle niimpiilidi lobis 

excedenti 5-loba lutea lobis tubo august. > longioribus spatlnilato 

brevioribus, stylo elongato supra basin bituberculato, stigmate integro. 

Habitat.— Natal : on the Drakensberg, Bushman's River, in damp 
places on flat rocU t boon 7,000 it alt., .Jnlv, Evans. W: lngeli Mom, 
tain in moist places, 6000 ft. alt, . July. Tyson, 137*; without locality. 
Cooper, 2761. 

Foliorum petioli ^-U lin. longi, lamina' 1-2 lin. longae, 1-2^ lin. 
lata?. Pedicelli \ -3" lb:" longi. Cah/t 1 ; to 2\ lin. ,<m<;us. Corolla 
tubus 2-3 lin. longus, lobi 2-4^ lin. longi, 1^-2 lin. lati. Staminvm 
filamenta £-§ lin. longa, antheroe 1-1 J lin. longae. Stylus 2 ',-3 lin. 



Very distinct from all the other species of the genus by its creeping 

>trm-=, which are apparently perennial ; thej" root al the nodes and 
I)ecome interwoven into dcn.-e masse.-, bearing hundreds of flowers 
together, according to a note on Mr. Evans's label. 

130. Nemesiaalbiflora,2V r . E. i?/w/< [Seiophularin -a- : herbacea erecta 

visooso-pilosa. foliis ovatis subobtusi atis in petiolum 

-olitariis, pedicellis teuuihu-, ^ep:«lis linearibn- vel h'neai i- oblongis acutis, 
eorolhr- labiis a-qualibus superiore profunde 4-fido segmentis oblongis 
obtnsis, inferiore integro obovato obtusissiino palato bicalloso glanduloso- 
pubescenti calcare linear] labiis breviore, capsnla compres.sa oblonga 
apice triangulari-emarginata, seminibus 'ate alatis oblongis utrinque 
emarginatis minute tuberculatis. 

Habitat. — Natal : on the Draken-hers;. Bushman's River, growing in 
old caves, 6,000-7,000 it, alt., July, Evans, 58; without locality, 
Gerrard, 1,230. 

Planta 4-18 poll, alta, Foliorum petioli 2-6 lin. longi, lamina? h-2\ 
poll, longa-, 4 lin.-H poll. lata?. Pedicelli 6-8 lin. longi". Sepala 1^-2 
lin. longa, £-* lin. lata. ( "<»-<>ll« i Uia .1-4 lin. !on«r;i. ealeai 2 lin. longum. 
Capmla 3-44 lin. longa, 2.1-3 lin. lata. Semina 1 lin. longa, | lin. 

Allied to N. pubescent, Benth., but the flowers are larger, white with 
a few violet veins (not yellow as in 2V. pubescens), and the capsufe largei 
and much more deeply emarginate. I'ossihh a plant collected by Cooper 
(no. 623) in the district of Albany, Cape" Colony, should be referred 
here, but it is more g!a! roiis, and the palate of the corolla appears to be 
yellow. I describe from Mr. Evans's specimens. 



THE BOMBAY 



The annual report of the Department of Land Records and Agri- 
culture, Bombay Pi >sideiiey, for 1892-93, ■ontuins an account of the 
Bhadgaon Experimental Farm, which lias lately been sold by Govern- 



Oz,anne, the Director of the department, afford- >ii iking evidence of the 
valuable instruction which may he obtained by the Government from 
such an institution, and of the direet benefit- which it confers ou local 
agriculture. To ascertain the limits within which that agriculture is 
-msceptible of improvement i- even more important than to prosecute 
experiments the ultimate success of which may be beyond the area of 

Amongst or (1 at the farm is the value of the 

use of bisulphide of carbon for weevil attack in stored grain. This 
subject was first brought into notice by Kew in 1879, and the corre- 
spondence on the subject is reproduced in the Kew Bulletin, 1890, 
p. 144. 



This farm 


has just been sold for j 




factory sum 


It measured 


1,156 acres. 


Of that area 812 acres 




■ 


nsferred from 


(lovernmenl 








en principalis 






.in.lci 


was purchased from time 




private occupant-, often 


at a : 


high price, f< 




not only was 


the laud already cleared 


for ( 


at there were 


several wells 




e. If 




that the sale 


price was equivalent !.. '2o times llie a--.-ssm.Mit on the tor 






m the latter. Such a. price it i 








ue of land, but of the improvem 




it during it? 




a Government farm. Liv 




dead stock 


fetched more 


than the la- 


1 valuation made, and the 


stae. 


ling crops, which under a 



the cost of harvest, and the risk of untimely rain and tlie like. As to 
buildings, the total expenditure on new erection, renovation, and repair- 
during the last 10 years came to Us. 12.S00. The farm building-, 
together with the bungalow, which originally (1883) cost Rs. 5,000, 
sold for over Rs. 11,000, a fair price. The whole farm was purchased 
by a capitalist, who intends to work it a- a farm, though he may sub-let 
portions from time to time. 

The reason why the farm was sold is, broadh speaking, its isolated 
inaccessible situation, but among other reasons were tlm r'aihm of the 
Jrimda Canal, the unheal thiness of the locality, and the great dearth of 

The sale proceeds are in part available for the acquisition of land for 
another farm in a more f<M the erection of farm 

buildings, and for slocking. In all probability the new farm will be 
ldc*ted in the neighbourhood of Surat. 

As to the working of the farm in the year under report, I need only 
say that the kharif -ea-on was unfavourable: hut the late crops were, 
partly on this account, good enough to show a profit, on the whole, of 
Ks. 6 per acre of cropped land, or nearly as large a profit as that shown 

The experiment- made were chiefly those which have been carried on 
for n series of years. They may best be described in the following 
general remarks, which. I 'think", show what use the farm has served 
during the last decade. 

respects shown that that system is improvable, ami ha- given facts of 
lirruMiltural value hi. ■ could not have been otherwise obtained. We 
have demon-! rat, 'J th, hen. -tit of selection of seed, a point to which local 



taught which wdl not he wholh forgotten. 

We have proved that it is useles- to innovate in implements, though 

bullock hoes, and. within limitations, for the utilisation of English 

of India, and successfully grown <oine new varieties of staple crops, v.<j. 
■'■■:. ' ' ■ 

where, new kinds of jowari, several varieties of wheat from various 
places, among which the Muzaffarnagar soft white has done very well, 
and potatoes, the future of which is hopeful. 



We have thoroughly studied the merits and demerits of local and other 
cottons. It has been proved that American long-stapled varieties, though 
not successful if sown at once as received from America, will succeed 
well if first acclimatised in Dharwar, and that such cottons are very 
useful on light land. We have demonstrated the unwisdom of attempting 
to oust the local Varadi variety, but have helped the cultivators by 
placing at their disposal indigenous seed of this variety, improved by 
selection on the farm, which they have freely purchased. We have 
kept alive the Jari and Bani kinds of the Berars. We have proved that 
the Government interference which was once recommended to restrict 



Our continued trial of different wheats have shown that soft white 
wheat, with irrigation, not only succeeds well, but yields better than 
local hard varieties, and that though at first some deficiency of crop 
must be suffered, the soft kinds will hold their own, without risk of loss 
of consistency and colour. The trials tly satisfactory 

to warrant a distribution of soft white seed among cultivators in the 
Tapti valley. If soft white seed finds a better market than hard, it is 
certain that it will be grown, and this may also be affirmed with regard 

We have saved the cultivator much by testing various exotics, often 
highly recommended, on the farm before allowing the rayat to run the 
risk of experiments doomed to failure. This was notably the case in 
respect to pedigree wheats from England and Australia. 

Our stock-rearing has been the least successful venture, and has cost 
us more than any other class of trials ; but we have shown that the 
Mysore breed, though very useful and lasting to a considerable age, 
cannot be stall-reared with profit. The strain has its merits, and 
will leave its sta nip in the neighbourhood. We find that it is difficult 
local breeds of sheep and goats. The Dumba of Sind 

In the difficult question of crop diseases and insect attack we have 
proved the value ot several -peeilies. in particular the suipliate of copper 
and carbolic acid pickles for -unit, and hi-sulphhle of carbon for weevil 

W r e have den -ouragements 

given towards the growth of road-side trees in the midst of* cultivation 
as a means of enlarging the area of tree-growth, and shown the direction 
in which such encouragement is safe. 

We have learnt much regarding the effect of manures on black soil. 
The deduction drawn is a confirmation of a widespread belief as to the 
inexhaustible character of deep black lands, and that on such land 
manure to a rabi crop does not pay either when the season is favourable 
or when it is unfavourable, the factors of rainfall or irrigation proving 
the more potent. We h the immense value, in 

India, of systematic green manuring, particularly with papilionaceous 
leguminous crops. 

Lastly, the farm has largely increased our knowledge as to the 
adaptability of foreign systems and special practices, such as ensilage 
and haymaking, and has gj ained native agricultural 

experts who will be utilised in the future under more favourable 



CCCCXLI.— STORING HOME-GROWN FRUIT. 

A cheap and effective means for st> - and pear- 

would -reatly increase the value and usefulm ss~ of these fruits. The 
elaborate and costly fruit-rooms attached to large country houses are 
beyond the reach of persons of moderate means or of small marker 
growers. A simple and practical means of storing I'm it would enable it 
to be brought to market over longer periods, and to some extent obviate 
the annual and \va>toi'i.l . - the grower by reducing 

the price without giving much benefit to the consumer. 

In the Journal of tin Hoi/al Horticultural Society (vol. xviii., 
pp. 145-148), a description by Mr. George Bunyard of a fruit room 
devised by him i- published with an illustration. It is 30 feet long by 
12 feet wide, is capable of holding 300 kinds of fruits, and costs 
about 30/. 

Mr. Bunyard has been good enough to communicate some further 
particulars of this fruit room to Kew. In view of its simple con- 
struction and general usefulness, it is desirable that it- merits should be 
more widely known. Tl - therefore reproduced. 

The illustration has been lent by the Council of the Royal Horticultural 




covered outfei 

above the ground line. If ovei 

be put in at the half distance, 

Main Posts.— Make these 6 
hole in the foot to receive the 



the framework firm. The main ground plate should be 4^ by 3, and the 
top plate of the same size ; support and steady these in the usual way 
with quartering 4| by 3, and when fixed, choose a dry day to pitch, tar, 
or cold creosote the lower plates and all the woodwork 2 feet from the 
ground to protect from damp. The quartering should show an even 

Outside Covering. — The cheapest material will be f-in. matchboard, 
and it may as well be fixed on the rafters as well. Pitchboard 4h by 1 ; 
rafters 3 by 2. 

Bonds from one side to the other should be 41 by 3 ; if stout they 
are useful to hold planks, on which baskets can be placed overhead in 
the roof. To receive ::- Ik .1 inches 

wide from the ground to roof, in which the thatch is placed upright, 
and it is kept in position by Literal splints of wood 3 by 1, shown in 
engraving. 

The thatch may be IS inche3 thick on the roof and 6 inches at the 
sides, and where it can be procured, carex or reed is strongest and most 
lasting, but it may be of wheat-straw or heather. The eaves should 
project a good way to protect from damp. 

Doors. — An inside and outside door should be provided. They must 
draughts. 

Windows. — In order to allow of an inspection of the fruit, windows 
of 21 oz. glass are inserted, and this saves the use of a candle at Storing 
time, but outside shutters are provided to keep the place as dark as 
possible. A fruit room is perhaps better without wir ' 



pening under the apex of the roof at e 
1 opening being left to ' 
stopped by hay or r 



inches, a small opening being left between the dairy 
ped by hay or moss in severe weather. The 
i sine, tine enough to keep out 



wasps and flies. 

Thieves and Ruts. — In order to protect the contents, a half-inch stout 
wire netting should be ' -de so that an 

entrv would be difficult. This is advisable also to keep out rats. 

Inside Shelves ,,n which to la\ the fruit are n adily fixed at the sides; 
first place uprights 2 in.-lu-s by U inche- from the ground to the roof, 
and then attach bearers 2 by | on this to the quartering. We find 
1 foot between the shelves a very convenient distance. This places the 
lowest shelf 6 inches from the ground, making six in all up to the eaves. 
The shelves are made of j i seed not quite meet each 

other so as to allow a slight circulation of air. Upon these we place 
lengths of clean wheat straw, so that the fruit shall not quite touch the 
shelves. In the centre of the fruit room we have a narrow table with a 
raised edge, made of three lengths wide of matchboard, set on trestles ; 
this is useful for special sorts. 

Names. — Get a slip of zinc 4 inches long, turn up one end I inch, at 
an angle of 45, and then slit this angle three times and bend it so that 
it will hold ;: neat card ; the other end can be slipped under the straw. 

'The fruit must never be wet when stored, and should be handled very 
carefully and laid singly on the shelves, but in the case of small apples 
(russets, Ac.) they will keep well three or four thick. I'arefulK over- 
look from time to time and remove rotten or spotted fruit, and keep the 
floor always damp. 

> keep late pears to March, and. 




33 
CCCCXLIL— NEW ORCHIDS : DECADE ! 

121. Pleurothallis parva, Rolfe ; coespitosa, caulibus secundariis 
gracilibus teretibus, folds crassissimis c 

culatis basi cn ibua cir< -a 4-floris, bracteis triangu 

lari-ovatis acutis basi tubulosis, sepalo 
lateralibus fere ad apicein connatis 
petalis obov - - unineiriii 

lateralibus pavvis falcato-oblongis acutis 
apice crenulato, columna clavata. 

Hab. — Brazil. 

Caules f-1 poll, longi. Folia 8-11 Jin. longa, 1|-1| lin. lata. 
Racemi H lin. lon<ri. liraetea \ lin longe. /\ dieeff'i •] lin. longi. 
Sepala 2\ lin. longa. Petala 1 lin. longa. LabcUum 1 lin. longum. 
lin. longa. 

A small species whicb was found by Messrs. F. Sander & Co. in a 
clump of Cattleya karrisopiana, Bateau,, having flowered in their 
of the present year. If belongs r) Lindley's 
section Brad B hh. f., while 

in size and general habit it is comparable to P. sonderana, Rchb. f. 
The flowers are wholly deep yellow. No description can be found 
which agrees with it. and <n small a plan I might easily be overlooked, 
especially in this large genus, even in a region so comparatively well 



122. Dendrobium room a elougatia 

iut «lio pauli. iner i-sit '• '-N conaceis, 

■'- 
acutis, sepalis lim-ari-oblongis snhobtusis obscure umlulatis apice 

■ 
tortilibus obsctrre tmdi ; I mtoblongis 

obtusis intermodio obi.. - n subearnoso 

iiuimpiecai-inah). carinis ant ice in lamella- :; olevatas undulatas evolutis, 

Hab.— New Guinea. 

Pseudobulbi 2-2\ ped. alti. Folia o-t> poll, longa, H poll. lata. 
Bractea 2-2* lin. longa-. Pedicelli S-10 lin. h.ngi. Sepala S-9 lin. 
longa. Petala 10 lin. longa. Label} km 9 lin. longum, 1 lin. latum. 
Mention 1 lin. longum. Columna 2 lin. longa. 

This species was introduced In Messrs. F. Sander & Co., and 
flowered in their establishment in January last. It is allied to 
I) mirhelirnvn)}. (Jaudich , which, however, has longer acute ,-epals 
and petals, and much larger bracts. Descriptions of two or three 
.■;■■• 

the present plant, which u copse e new. The 

flowers are yellowish ereon. with . e> on the base 

of the sepals, a broader purple band on the lower half of the petals, and 
numerous radiating purple line- on the lip. 
reticulated on the front lobe. It is a robust growing plant. 

123. Dendrobium velutinum, ll»l\> .- p-eud mdhis aggregatis fusi- 
formi-elongatis demum sutentis brevilras 

lanceolato- v. elliptico-oblongis apice obliquis subobtusis, racemis 



axillaribthi tis, ovariis tri- 

([netiis, sepal acntis carinatis, mento brevi obtuso, 

netalis cllii)tico-ol'luii,i:is aeuti-. l.ii- I i < > nnqnienlato irilobo sabpandurato 
velutino minute denticulato lobis lateralilui- .suborbienlanbus in termed io 
latissime ovato, columna clavata. 

Hab. — Burniah, Slian States. 

Pseudobulbi 2-5 poll, longi. Folia 2^-2 § poll, long a, 6-10 lin. lata. 
Racemi \ \ poll, lon^i, I'cdirtlli \\ \\ pol 1 . loiiLii. Sepnla 1 poll. 
longa, 3 lin. lata. Petala 10 lin. longa, \\ lin. lata. Labellmn 10 lin. 
longnm, 7 lin. latum. Mentum 1 lin. longum. Columna 3 lin. longa. 

A very di>tinct species, which was introduced by Messrs. Charles- 
worth & Co., Heaton, Bradford, early in 1 894. It is evidently allied to 
1). tritjono/jKs, Rchb. f. Gard. Citron., 1887, ii., p. 682, but differs in 
the absence of n arkiugs on the lip, as well as in various structural 
details. The flowers of 1). rvlntimuu arc uniformly deep yellow, and 
the lip velutinous. They somewhat resemble those of I), carinifewm, 
Bchb. f., except in wanting the long spur-like mentum which 
characterises the section Formosa. On the other hand, the strongiv 
three-lobed lip and general aspect of the flower are very different from 
any of the yellow flowered species oi - ... so that the 

exact affinity of these two species, as Reichenbach indicated for the 
original one, is still doubtful. 

124. Cirrhopetalum gracillimum, Rolfe • rhizomate repenti, pseudo- 
Imlbis tctra^Mio-ovoiileis nionopl'- : >lus oblongis 

obtusis basi attenuatis, scapis elongatis gracilibus 6-9 floris, floribus 
umbellatis, braetri- lin. '-. se}>alo postico ovato- 

oblongo longe caudato cilial prope basin connatis 

caudatis, petalis triangulari - lanceolatis caudatis ciliatis 
2urvo carnoso lateraliter compresso, columna brevissima 
dentibus brevibus obtusis. 

Hab.— Burmah ? 

Pseudobulbi 8-9 lin. longi. Folia 2\ poll, longa, 6-7 lin. lata. 
Scapi 6-7 poll, longi. Bractete \-\ lin. longae. Pedicelli 2-2 £ lin. 
longi. Sepalum posticum 3 lin. longum ; lateralia circiter sesquipolli- 
caria. Petala 2\ lin. longa. Labellum £ lin. longum. Columna \ lin. 

A very distant species originally sent by T. R. Jam's, Esq., Laurel 
Grove, Chelmsford, and afterwards by Mr. J. O'Brien, and Messrs. F. 
Horsman & Co. It belongs to the group with a ciliate dorsal sepal, but 
has no near ali ies. The flowers are reddish purple, 

thus resembling C. Cumingii, Lindl., in colour, while in shape they are 
best compared with C. vaginalum, Lindl., both of which are very 
different in other respects. There is a doubt about the habitat ; one 
record being " India," the other "Burmah ? " 

125. Cirrhopetalum mysorense, Rolfe ; rhizomate valido, pseudo- 
bulbis tetragono-ovoideis monophyllis distantibus, foliis lineari-oblongis 
obtusis basi attenuatis, scapis gracilibus 4-5-floris, floribus umbellatis, 
bracteis ovato- pedieellis gracilibus, sepalo postico 

ovato- Ian ceolato subobtuso, lateralibus falcato-linearibus subobtusis, 
petalis elliptico-oblongis obtusis trinerviis, labello oblongo i 
canaliculate carnoso laevi, columna I 

Hab. — S. India, hills of Mysore. 



nui-i 

t.elW, 



Pseudobulbi |-1 poll, longi. Folia 3± poll, longa, 7-8 !in. lata. 
Srapi 3 I poll, longi. Iirnric<, U '1 lin l«>ng;i Pedieelli .'i'-Miii. 
longi. Sepalum po-tienm I o lin. longum. 1, lin. longum ; lateralia 
6-7 lin. longa. Petala 2\ lin. longa, H lin. lata. Label I nm 1 .', lin. 
longum. Columna 1 lin. longa. 

This species wa< introduced 1a Mr James O'Brion, with whom it 
first flowered in September 1891, an-l ction of Sir 

Trevor Lawrence, Bart. It is allied to the Himalayan C. mitcuhMltm, 
Lindl., though different in numerous particulars, both of structure and 
colour. The flower* ar. nearly white, with the exception of the lip, 
which is purple. 



Rolfe ; rhizomate valido nodis paullo 

, pseudobulbis oblongis v. anguste ovato-oblongis monophyllis, 

s Kneari-oblongie . seapis brevibus 6-7 floris, 

bus subracemosis, bracteis lanceolatis acutis, sepalo postico ovato- 

mbacutis, petalis ovatis subacutis margine erosis, labello 
recurvo lineari-oblongo subobtuso, col ; ibus brevibus 

Hab. — South India, Nilghiri hills. 

Pseudobulbi lf-2 poll, longi, 1-2^ poll, distantes. Folia 5% poll, 
longa, 8 lin. lata. Srapi 3| poll, longi. Bractece 2-2\ lin. longae. 
Pedicel I i 4- li lin. longi. Sepalum posticum 4 lin. longum ; lateralia 
12-14 lin. longa. Petala 1^ lin. longa. Labellum l£ lin. longum. 
Cohan, ui 1 lin. longa. 

A species first received from Mr. J. O'Brien in August 1892. It is 
allied to C. Macrtei, Lindl., having the umbels slightly racemose, as in 
that species, though the flowers are more nearly like those of C. 
comiitum, Lindl. The habit is peculiar. The rhizomes are stout and 
woody, and the pseudobulbs some distance apart ; the intervals showing 
several somewhat thickened nodes, in allusion to which the name is 
given. The flowers are densely speckled with reddish brown on a 
somewhat lighter ground. 

127. Cirrhopetaltim setiferum, Iiolt\ .- Aatmm valido, pseudo- 
bulbis oblongis v. ovoideo-oblongis i ■ ■ ;i^e oblongis 
obtusis basi attenuatis, seapis gracilibus 4-6 floris, floribus umbellatis, 
bracteis linea: 'blougo con- 

. •. :■ :, 

oblongis apice subito contractus setiferis eciliatis, labello recurvo ?ub- 
spathulatis apice obliquis acutis. 

Hab. — Himalaya. 

Pseudobulbi 1 poll, longi. 1-2 poll, distantes. Folia 9-10 poll. longa, 
1£ poll. lata. Scapi 9-10 poll, longi. Bractece 2^-3 lin. longa*. 
Pedieelli 6-7 lin. longi. Sepalum posticum 5-6 lin. longum ; lateralia 

This species was sent by Mr. James O'Brien in August 1891, and 
a year later by Sir Trevor Lawrence. The former received it in a case 
of plants which contained Pholidota repens, Roli'e, and certain other 
novelties, together with one or two old species which indicate the 



habitat as Somewhere m or near Sikkiut, a point winch lias previously 
been doubtful. It has the habit of C. comutvm^ LiudL, but con- 
siderably enlarged, and with the addition of long slender setae on the 
tips of the petals and dorsal sepal, and very remarkable column-teeth. 



128. Ccelogyne lamellata, Rolfe ; scapo erectfl 2-3-floro, braeteis 

'■•''■ 
acutis carinatis concavis, pctalis lineai'ibus am -, labello trilobo 
!obi< laterahbu- -i'iiiii>l)lon^i> apie. p-mm > nnedio ovato 

subacuto, disco 9-lamellato lamellis corrugato-undulatis, columna 
clavata aptera. 

HAB.-New Hebrides. 

Bractea; If poll, longae. Pedicelli 1 poll, longi. Sepala 

A distinct Ccelogyne, sent by Messrs. F. Sander & Co. in August last 
with the information that it was received from a gentleman whose name 
and address 1 1 h mislaid. It is the second species 

known from the New Hebrides, the earlier one beinir C. jf' /)<>>, </{r!i, 
F. Muell. and Kranzl. in (Ester. LJnf. Zcifsr/rr.. \-liv., p. 209, which 
: < obviously allied to the present one, though the sepab • re not described 
as keeled, the keels of the lip only five, the sepals and petals as having 
some dusky spots, and the lip yellowish flesh colour. The present 
species has the sepals, petals, and column uniformly pah- whitish- 



hand also bear a number of tubercle-like swellings. 

129. Maxillaria mooreana, Rolfe ; pseudobulbis oblongis mono- 

phyllis, ioliis lanceolato-oblongis acutis, pedunculis brevibn- vaginis 
laxis acutis - -pathaceis oblongo-laneeolai is acutis, 

sepalo postico elliptico-oblongo acuto subearinato subconcavo, lateral ibus 
triangulo-ovatis subobtusis, mento conico obtuso, petalis elliptico- 
lanceolatis acutis, labello integro elliptico-oblongo obtuso disco dense 
farinaceo, eallo late oblongo obtuso, columna clavata. 
Hab. — Guatemala. 

-10 poll, longa, 11-20 lin. lata, 
joll. longa\ Sfpa/tfHi posticum 
il lm. longutn, • .V tin. latum: lateralia 6\ lin. lata. Petala 9 lin. 
longa, 4 lin. lata. La helium 6 lin. longum, 3 lin. latum. Mentum 6 lin. 

A pretty species belonging to the same group as M. t/rt/nr/tflon/, and 
I/. Ih'hsrhii,. Rchb., i'., which has larger (lowers, with 
hfterenth coloured pHals ami a lip tuih twice as bro d. It was intro- 
duced hv Messrs. V. Sander & Co., and flowered in their establishment 
in April 1891, when it was named, though the description has not 
been previously published. It has since been recei\< 3 :. n (ilasnevin 
The flowers are cream-coloured, with seven maroon-purple stripes on 
each petal, wpf at the apex, and a densely farinaceous lip, narrowly 
colour. 



130. Angraecum Smithii, Ro4.fi us fasciculatis 

gracilibus subteretibus subflexuos'is , brevissimu. 

racemis gracilibus brevibu- ^-12-rloris, braetois laiiceolato-oblongis 
Mentis parvis, s,-palis petaHsque lineari-lanceolatis acutis suhereefis, 
labello lmearblauceolato acuto subereeto, calcare recur vo-patenti conico, 
columna breviesima, pollinarii stipite siniplice. 

Hab. — Mt. Kilimanjaro. 

Radices 4-(i lin. longa?. Racemi 1 poll, longi. Rmctecr \ lin. lon^a? 
Pedicclli \ lin. longi. Scpola ct /Wr/A/ 1 lin. longa. Labcllvm I lin. 
longum ; calcar vix 1 lin. longum. 

A minute leafless species sent to Kew by Consul C. S. Smith, of the 
Commission. It flowered early in 1894, and 
again daring the present year. It was found _rrowin<x on the same 
branch with Aiu/rocnoi bibdnnn. -.v. Kirhii. It is like a miniature 
edition of A. fpii/onitfiiim, Rehb,, {'.. '■■■■ <• liiffei - in having roots only 
- flys ill r Sowen 
As the latter been referred to Mi/stocidium ir 

.":..- i 

stipes to the ]• hat genus. It 

lias also bet i transferred to <i ^ , ,,<>, vb h, however, has only the 
leafless habit I Ma mi upon, and ''-.s 1 that is fallacious, for leaves 
are sometimes developed, though they <iie away early It has seven 
published synonyms (.1/ i/stacidumt f/lobulositm and .1/. radicomni, 
Durand & Schinz, are not only synonymous but originally based 
on the same number), and a- at lea-r half' r.f them have arisen through 

; . ■ . ■ ■ - 

the present spei fysiacidixM. 



CCCCXLIIL— IBOGA ROOT. 



(Ta?jrrn,nitkeIboffa,Bai 
With plate. 



The roots of the plant known as Iboga in the Gaboon and Bocca on 

late the nervous system. Up to qi . information 

, contained n the i'atah . < <u s Produits dcx Colonics 
■ . l>t'»7, p. ION. Specimens were 
exhibited with the h.ll'.winjj note by M Criffon du Bellay :" Gabon, 
Titbeni.rmontana (Sp. ? ). Iboga des gabonnais. Les raeines 
toniques, a haute dose, sunt tin excitant da systeme nervcux." A 
note based on this is also to be found in Moloney's Forestry of H < st 



The plant according to Baillon. who ;ir-t identified it, is knowi 
Cape Lopez as Iboga, but it ha- .th ; : ■ i! names. It is the Al 
of the Pahounis and Obouete of the Gaboon. 

Recently n figure and <1< - • d in Hooter's Ic 



Apoii/narfd. Tabcraantlir Ihot/a Ikull ( iu Hull Sor. Loot. Paris, 
i. 7S2); was collected by Manu in the Gaboon (No. 943), and by 
Welwitscb in Angola (No. 5950). Professor Oliver who drew up the 
description in the I rones adds « iii-t discriminated by Dr. Baillon, but 
its position left doubtful though its points of contact with Tabemee- 
montana and other groups of Apocynacea; were clearly indicated by 
him. Were it not for the eomplete cnsulidation of the carpels one 

would hardly hesitate to merge it in Taberncemontana itself 

1 1 is described as having a large bitter root, eaten by the Gaboon people. 
' lis la disent enivrante, aphrodisiaque, et avec elle ils pretendent qu'on 
n r eprov< a il.' Dr """* '" 

x. 170, says the Obouete of the Gabo< 
des plus remarquables.' " 

This is substantially all thai :'s known of the plant at present. 
Further material is kindly being -ought for by Dr. Hugo Muller. 
When this arrives it may be possible to investigate the medicinal 
properties of the plant more fully. 



CCCCXLIV.--SIAM PLANTS. 

Mr. F. H. Smiles, a gentleman attached to the Koyal Survey 
Department of Siam, has presented a small collection of dried plants 
made by himself in the mountains of the interior of the northern 
part of that country. The specimens are not all that could be desired, 
this being Mr. Smiles's first essay in collecting and drying plants, 
undertaken without any previous instruction ; hut they include several 
interesting novelties sufficiently represented for description. Remark- 
able among other things is a new genus of Scitamineas of quite an 
aberrant type. There is also a very distinct new species of Argostemma 
( Riitnacete), differing from those previously known in its small dimen- 
sions, exceeding slenderness, and one-flowered stems. Mr. Smiles left 
England again for Siam in the middle of December with the intention, 
if circumstances permitted, of making further botanical collections. 
Judging from what is known of the countries to the north, there must be 
a very rich flora in Upper Siam. 

The new genu- <>|' Srifamiio a which is now de.-eribed is remarkable 
in several particulars, hut more e-p.cially in haviu<_r unisexual flowers, 
and in the absence of a labellum and of'-taminodia of any kind what- 
soever. The ?p o Blender stems, shi to nine inches 
high, naked below, as if pulled away from a tuberous rootstock, and 
hearing two or three grass-like leaves and a terminal nodding inflo- 
rescence, with coloured bracts and bracteoles. The (lowers are minute 
and eylindiioal, and almost hidden by the t'uld.:d di-f iehous bracteoles, 
each of which bears one flower in its axil. There are about three or 
four dense globular -pikelet- about half-an-inch iu diameter in each 




Tabernanthe lboga. Baill 



inflorescence, borne on slender stalk-, -(.ringing from I lie axils of rela- 
tively large bracts. From the note aecompa living the specimens, ii 
would appear that the bracts and bnieteoles are of a < lark purple rod, 
and the very small flowers yellow; but Mr. Smiles, not being a 
botanist, does not correctly discriminate between flowers and bracts. 
A figure of this interesting plant will short h be published in Hooker* 
Icones Plantarum. 

Achilus, Hemsl. ; SeitaniMiearum-Zingiborcarum genus novum]. — 
Florcs minuti, in axillis bracteolarum -olitarii. unisexuales, ut videtur. 
vere monoici. Flores £ : Calyx cylindrieo-tubulosus. obscure triloba- 
tus. Corolla calycem dimidio Mtpeians, alte trilobata, lobis ovato- 
oblongis obtusis. Staminodia nulla Sfatnoi unieuni ; filamenriini 
filiforme; anthera' exsert;e loeuli paralleli. contigui, eonuectivo non 
produeto inappendic-uhito. Flores 2 : Calyx tubulo-ais, eylindrieus, 

etiam obscure trilobata. Staminodia nulla. Stylodia 2, filifoimia. 

filiformis. Fructus ignotus. Hcrba i ana, annua, gracilis, caulibus 
simplicibus. Folia graminoidea. Injlorescentia terminalis, nutans, e 
spicis paucis donsis disc -ulatis si<tens et bracteis 

amplis coloratis ornata. Florcs bracteolis distiehis arete complicatis 
etiam coloratis fere oeeulti, interiores ? , supremus vel superiores J . 

Achilus siamensis, Ilemsl. : pnberula caulibus 2~?> foliatU foliis 
distiehis longe vaginantibus, vaginis apertis ciliolatis apice transversim 
breviter lign ■■•oluta aeutissima atque vagina 

multinervia, supra \ix hispidula. bracteis -essilibus ovali-oblongis crebre 
longitudinaliter v< nosis, vein's prope inarginem connexis, bracteolis, 
rotumlatis latiutibus quam longis, pedunoulis puberulis, floribus papillosis, 

Habitat. — Siam : open places on Mount Putsuin, near Nam Kawng, 
at about 2.00D feet. /■'. If. Smiles. 



Caules 6-9 poll. alti. Folia absque vagina 


1 1-2 poll. Ion- 


ra. htfio- 


rcscentia, \\-l poll, longa. ^ Hrm-tea; 6-9 




lira, (coin 




Florcs, 3-1 Hi- 


i. longi. 


CCCCXLV.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 




News has been received of the death, on January 11th, of 


Mr. John 


Gray, Curator of the Botanic Station at Cast™ 




Mr (Jrav 


was nbout H> vears of a-e, and before going oi 


nt to the tropb 


^s had had 


wide experiemv in Krglish hardening. lie eo 






swamp at Citric- into a beautiti ! .- 


started the cul 




nmuen.us plants in the island. Latterly his h 


ealth had stiff. 




recurring at (ticks of fever. The following note 


■ is taken from 




of St. Lurid fur January 17th. lS9o :— 






"It is our painful duty to report the death of Mr. J< 


)hn Gray, 


Curator of the Botanical Station at Castries. 


Mr. Gray ca 




Lucia in 1886, on the recommendation of Mi 






Director of Kew Gardens, who has always take 






this. and. indeed, in all West Indian colonies. 


Mr. Gray had 


[ been for 



many years head gardeDer to Earl Urownlow. He went thence, at the 
instance of Colonel Talbot, to his e>tate. Worthy Park, Jamaica, to con- 
duct some • >os to promote. 
There Mr. Gray acquired good experience in the cultivation of tropical 
industrial products. He will be specially remembered in connexion with 
the exhibit of perfumes extra. !>< . .-dian flowers— 
a marked feature of the Jamaica Court at the Col.-Ind. Exhibition, 
1886. Mr. Gray did good work [1 oat, and taste- 
fully planting what was a half-filled swamp when it first came into his 
hands, but which in throe j ears time lie transformed into a beautiful 
garden, which, though small, is an ornament to the town, and B, much 
appreciated resort and breathing pla< i tl townspeople. He intro- 
duced many varieties of plant- md th,wer-. i 1 the collection of roses at 
the station was at one t'ran in the West Indies. In the 
matter of economic plants he raised sands of cacao, 
coffee, nutmegs, a few cola and sisal. On the whole, from one cause or 
another, the economic section of the st ation was not so apparent a success 
latterly as the purely horticultural." 



Magazine for January.— All the subjects figured in this 
number were i d .-it Kew. Talonma Hodgsoni, 

one of the hue ftlayan region, 

flowered in the temperate ||..n-< after twenty year-' cultivation. Acicl- 
anthera rrqinnnctialis is an iridaeeous plant inhabiting the Sugarloaf 
Mountain, Sierra Leone, conns of which were sent to Kew by Captain 
Donovan in 1893. Lonicera Albert i is a pretty honeysuckle of the 
Xijlosteum section discovered in Wo.-lern Turkestan by Albert von 
Regel. Acacia xpad/cit/era is one of the few species of the genus 

Brazilian orchid ot' the ; r i ; m • / 'a t i>hi< . mil oduecd 1>\ Me-srs. Sander of 



Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs grown in Arboretum. Part I — 
Polypetalae. Tlie purpose and scope of this publication is explained in 
the following extract from the Preface : — 

The present is the first of a series of Hand-lists of the collections of 
living plants cultivated in the Royal Garden.- which it is intended to 

It is hoped that they will be found useful in indicating to visitors 
interested in particular group- ot plan!-, th. -peeie- which Kew already 
possesses. In the hand- of corre.-pondent- they will serve to show in 
what directions the collections mnv he added to. ft is further hoped 
that they may be found of some value in e-tahlishing an approximate 

too frequent lyerron.'ou-.' 

This is particularly the ease with woody plants (shrubs and trees) 
grown in the open air. The preparation of the present list has 
accordingly been taken in hand . it represents the work of many years, 
and has only ! lD Ie labour. 

A rough e. irieties of plants cultivated 

at Kew gives lately, 20,000. Of these 

3,000 are hardy shrubs or trees. 



The first catalogu. oi tin plant- < lit at. 1 .1 Iveu was that of Sir 
John Hill, published in 1768 (second edition 1769). This was entitled 
Hurt a, K, u-eiisi.?, and was an octavo volume of 45S page-. Id has Keen 
reckoned to contain 3,389 species, of which 488 were hardy trees and 

In 1789 the elder Aiton published a more critical Bonus Kewenm*, 
in which 5,535 species are enumerated. 

The younger Aiton published 1810 to 1813 a second edition in five 
volumes, "and in 1814 a catalogue or epitome, as it is called, of 
the species contained in the five volumes, for the use of practical 
gardeners; it contains . . 314 additional species, the total number 
being 11,013." 

list of plants in cultivation at Kew 



Catalogues of the Ferns were issued in 1845, 1 85G. and 1868; 
of the Hardy Herbaceous plants . I s5d <»l Succulent plants in 1856 ; 
of Ai-oidca- in 1878; of Bromeliacece in 1879 ; of Aloineir, Yucioidra , 
and Agaves in 1880; of Economic plants in 1881 ; of Palms in 1882: 
of Primulas in 1886; and of Orchids flowered at Kew, in 1891. Since 
1885 lists of seeds available for distribution with other botanical 
establishments have been issued annually. 

An Arboretum has been for more than a century a feature of the 
Kew establishment. Perhaps it <l;ile- its formal commencement fron 
1762, when " all the Duke of Argyll s trees and shrubs were removed 
to the Princess of Wales's garden at K.-w. which now excels all other-, 
under the direction of Lord Bute." 

The old Arboretum in part still exists near the main gate on Kew 
Green. Many trees have perished am! have been removed from age : 

1 1 i<I llti ;, for isf) I, |);l ^, 310.) 

The Botanical Garden, which was opened to the public in 1841, with 
Sir William Hooker as Director, compiled only about 11 acres; it 
included however, the old Arboretum. In IS4 1, by permission of the 
Queen, about 47 acres, ater in front 

of the Palm House, was added for the formation of a Pinetum. This 
was too near the smoke of suburban London, and it has lost its distinctive 
character. But many of the trees planted at this time are now of 
considerable magnitude. 

The " Pleasure Ground- and Gardens at lv.-.v " were in the occupation 
of the King of Hanover for sporting purpose- at the time the Botanic 
Garden was given to the nation T! wood- w . filled with rough 
scrub for cover. In 1845 they were placed in the charge of Sir W. 
Hooker, with the '• intention thai they -houhl be formed into a national 
arboretum." A plan for the purpose was prepared in 1846 by 
W. A. Nesfield. The main features were carried out at the time, and 
the general principle has been worked upon ever since. In 1850 the 
was formed. In 1870 the new Pinetum was commenced. 

, Sir Joseph llookes ( I s 7;-lvv>). -pared no pains 
to amass the most complete collection which could be formed of hardy 

ieiits at home and abroad, partly by purchase, 
partly by gift and exchange. They had m-ee— arily for I lie mo-t part to 
be planted under Ihe nam 1, and these, 

from confusion or accident, were often erroneous. 






rarely bo identities with atn accuracy till they flower oi 
fruit. The process of accurate identiiicat ion in an extensive arboretum 
re, a very slow one. 

A further difficulty arises in ■ pal the fact that, 

though the specimens were all can It history and 

a corresponding register kept, these labels are apt from time to be mis- 
placed or lost. To remedy this a separate Herbarium was formed, in 
which a specimen was preserved of every species or variety planted 
out, with the name under which, and the source from which it was 
received. By reference to this Herbarium i: was possible in a large 
number of eases to correct the nomenclature. 

By this means it ha.- aw up the list of which 

the present is a first instalment. It must still be regarded as in some 
sense provisional and open to correction. But it has been possible to 
reduce an immense number of "trade" and -'garden" names, and to 
bring the nomenclature to something like a standard. 

It is only necessary to add that in the present /Land- List 994 species, 
with 640 varieties, have been enumerated and their names as far as 
possible verified. The number of synonyms given is 2,127. 



Flora of Mount Kinibalu.— In the Kete Btdletin ftfr October, 1892, 
p. 249, it was announced that Drs. H. A. and G. D. Haviland had 
presented Kew with a valuable collection of dried plants, collected by 
themselves on Mount Kinibalu, North Borneo. As a matter of fact, 
however, it should be exj the two cousins travelled 

together, it was Dr. G. D. Haviland alone who did the botanizing. 
This fine collection has been worked out by Dr. O. Stapf, Assistant for 
India at the Herbarium, together with all previously collected plants 
from the same region, published and unpublished, notably those collected 
upwards of 40 years ago by Sir Hugh Lew. and by Mr. V. \V. Ibirbidge 
in 1877. The re-ults appear as the second part of the fourth volume 
(Second Series, Botany) of the Transactions of the Liu, wan Society. 
This is one of the most important and interesting contributions to 
geographical botany published during the past year, e.-pecially in relation 
to the migrations of plants. The total number of flowering plants 
enumerated is 300, which Dr. Stapf estimates may be one-fourth or one- 
fifth of the whole phanerogamic flora of the mountain, and nearly 60 
per cent, of these, so far as at present known, are endemic. The rela- 
tionship with the Australasian flora are especially interesting. 



Renewal of Heating Apparatus in Palm House -lie K,,c Ihpnrt 

for 1877 contain..! an account of the remodelled a |> paratus for heating 
the Palm House which was ]>ui in during thai year. I'p till the winter 
of 1893-4 this worked in a completely -at i-faetoi } way. The temperature 

thia cause, as well as to a probable deterioration in the large iron 
castings used, due possibly both to alternations of temperature and to 

occasional vibration- from" the movement of the water, may he attributed 
theserious "bursts" which took place on two several occasions at a very 
critical time. By the skill and unremitting energy of the engineering 
staff of the Royal Gardens, the fractured mains were patched up, and 

the collection suffered no rum cold. 



It had, however, become evident that the Leafing apparatus had 
reached a -tate which was extremely precarious. Her Majesty's Office 
of Works therefore included, in the estimates for 1894-5, a sum of 

satisfactorily accomplished for the north wing. The ceiling of the 
furnace room was raised 2£ ft., and all the pipe.- which had hitherto 



estimated at 212,600 ft., <>'' « ] ;°"t 4.^ miles. Notwithstanding, it has 

lit impi rl'ectlv. owing to the curved surface of the house. To counteract 
this, and av, ..--ing the hollers in severe weather, 

an additional 1 in. pipe was carried round the entire north half of the 
house and attached to a new auxiliary boiler. 

In 1877 a hot-water pipe was carried round the gallery, " the heat 
from which replaces the loss by cooling in the dome, and consequently 
checks the drip ami I tioh had long proved so 

injurious to the plants." This had pro\ed so satisfactory in working 
that it was determined last year to extend the principle, and a 2\ in. 
pipe was, in addition L> the lower auxiliary pipe, carried round the 

The general result of these improvements has been to render it 
possible to attain, during the present winter, a steady and sufficient 
temperature in a way impracticable before. The whole of the works 

of the Works. Mr. J. Allen. 



Green-glass in Plant -houses- 



Mr. Robert Hunt, 



>t with copper, i'rol N.Mrnnii 
good as to examine the light 
transmitted by it. He reports : — 

"Cuts off red and blue ends of spectrum pretty equally. 

"Red-yellow reduced quite nine-tenths in intensity. 

"Blue reduced quite nine-tetiths in intensity. 

" Transmits a fair proportion of orange, but most of light transmitted 
is yellow green." 

It is probable that this is more severe than anything that was 
intended originally. P.ut ii is difficult, over a long period, without 
special precautions, to adhere to ;; standard Mr. Robert Hunt (p. 383) 
stated that " the only difference which " his selected glass "produces 

red ray, and slightly diminishes tin 
the green." 

It is well known that the effect of light of different degrees of 
ivfrangil»ilit\ upon vegetation is by no means uniform, but has important 
peculiarities characteristic of particular part- of the spectrum. This 
is too technical a matter to enter upon here. But it is sufficient to say 
that the green glass in recent use at Kew, according to the modern 
accepted data of vegetable physiology, intercepted about half the 
effective influence of ordinary sunlight on the processes of plant life. 

The general eff.-.'t upon vegetation as a whole is clearly exemplified 
by the recent, experience of Zaeharewicz (Annates Ayrononiir/iies. 
Dec. 25, 1894, pp. 585-5N9). He cultivated si rawberries under glass 
of different colour- with the following results (p. ,580) :— 

Orange gave the maximum of vegetal ion, but at the expense of the 

Red, blue, and green were all injurious to the vegetative development of 
the plant.-, which became etiolated. 

These results are. on the whole, in accordance with theory; it is 
not, however, obvious why violet -hould he less injurious than green. 

Of late years at Kew the object aimed at in the use of green glass has 
been attained in great measure by the increasing haziness of the sky, 
due to the smoke produced by the rapid extension of London to the 
south-west. The extreme obscurity of the winter of 1885-6 showed that 
no available sunlight could possibly be spared. It became obvious that 
for the future the plant-houses must be so constructed as to exclude as 
little of the available sunlight :\* possible. The use of green glas3 was 
therefore abandoned in 1886 in all the houses except the fern-houses 
and the Palm-house. 

In 1889 the experiment was made of substituting white glass for 
green in the east wing of No. II. (tropical fern-house). This was the 
result of the observation of the succes-ful cultivation by Sir Trevor 
Lawrence, Bart., P.R.H.S., of ferns with full exposure to the light at 
Burford, near Dorking. The improvement in the growth of the plants 
was remarkable. In 1892 a portion of the west wing was also reglased 
in the same manner, aud the new temperate fern-bouse (No. III.) was 
wholly glazed with white glass. The result with the Gleichenias and 
other half-hardy ferns was everything that could be desired. As the 
result of these "progressive experiments, it has now been determined to 
abandon the future lIS e of g;e-. n glass altogether at Kew. 



There are no doubt plants which require shade and will not t< 
direct exposure to the sun. In the tropic? Cacao can only be 
vated with the aid of some shade tree. Filmy ferns at Kew : 
once killed by direct sunlight. But shading and altering the eoi 
tionoftheligh ' 

The use of g 
It is almost impus* 
manganese. But th. j . . . . - ■ I fh ol lar. years l any rate has been 
employed at Kew, is almost certainh coloured with iron protoxide. 

, ..in 1 he form of manganese C 
This is at once reduced to the sesquioxide : but under the in tin 
light the iron pri-t.. .-hie in fh. gb— -i adualk-t. al^oxyg.-n li 
manganese sesquioxido, 



colourless. The manganese oxide then hegins to absorb oxygen iron, 
the air, and again reachc- the -tate ->i —rpiinxido. which gives tin- 
glass a pinkish tint Every -1 , t th. t nnsit ■ n from green through 

white to pink may be observed in the glass of the Palm-house. 

to that which Mr. Robert Hunt originally pro«erib< d. Prof. Lockyer 
Hnds that a peeimeii examined by him " euN off, \ .-r\ - 
end, and generally throughout the spectrum " 1 n a specimen in which the 
decolourisation had been completely effected, he found "no appreciable 
effect on any portion of spectrum to the eye." It had, in fact, become 
practically identical with ordinary white glass. 



Yunnan Plants. — An old Chinese correspondent of Kew, Mr. W. II an 
cock F L S to whom it is indebted for several small collections of dried 
Chinese pdan - *°* l J° 

species of flowering plants ftnd [20 ferae Tl 

and often copious. These plants we Jihourhood of 

Mongtze, or " Mengtsz," as Mr. Hancock writes it. This place is 

.ere not collected at great elevations, 4,000 to 6,500 feet, 
they were all of a temperate or sub-tropical ,ype. Like other parts ot 

• -. ,.s 

;-, '..,'.....-;■:■..- ; .-: 1 r.r,,-: •■■ - ■ - ■■- ' ^" 

ones There are probablv a 1. a<t Id n « i. rns, a large number con- 

, nerally. Among flowe. 
....•■..'• ./- . • ' ^^-" '■' : ^ 

smcuous S ,wer8 v ith broad overla PP ,n ^ P 6 *^ 8 

of great" substance, and thel an- iron 1' neb to 1 ; inch in diameter 

racemes o£ "rich red" lowers. A Rhododnuh In ,, ,n I u * 
solitary or gemina,, while ilnwer* i- pr-bahly ..•■«. .'".d ^,,-al 
decant Cvrtandrece are different from an: 

be figured in an eaily part < 



, of I lookers I cones Plantnnnn. 



Perim Plants.-Mr. J. B. Farmer F.L.S., Assistant i 

Botany, Roval Colic ^ uf N -nee. South k, ns.ngton, had an 
of landin- on this idand on his return from Ceylon a few ye 



he collected specimens of all the plants he found, a set of which he has 
lately given to Kew. The island is treeless, in fact, destitute of woody 
vegetation be \ id Cassia obovata. Indeed, vege- 

tation of any kind is exceedingly sparse, and the only plant seen°in 
quantity was Cleome brachycarpa. Altogether only eleven species of 
flowering plants were collected, all of them known from the neighbouring 
mainland on one or both coasts. 



Plants from Lake Tanganyika.— Mr. Alexander Carson has presented 
a further collection of about 100 species of plants from this interesting 
country. It is estimated that 30 of the species are new to science, and 
descriptions of them will appear in an early number of the Kew Bulletin. 
The novelties belong chiefly to the orders Leguminosee and Composite, 
but there are several other more remarkable plants among them, notably 
a crass ( Tristachya) with a singularly bearded inflorescence, an erect 
species of Gloriosa, several Aselepiads, and a fine species of Tachia- 
dcnus, a genus of the Gentianete, previously only known to inhabit 
Madagascar. 



Books recently presented to the Library.— Professor C. S. Sargent 
has presented a copy of his Forest Flora of Japan ; Mrs. Gray has 
presented the Letters of . tsa dray .• Mr. W. Martin Conway, who gave 
the collection of dried plants made on his Karakoram expeditions, has 
now sent a copy of the Scientific. Reports connected therewith ; the 
Board of Agriculture has presented a set of the Rothamsted Memoirs 
by Lawes and Gilbert ; from the Trustees of the British Museum a copy 
of Lister's Monograph of the Mycctozoo lias been received ; Dr. Gregorio 
Chil has presented De Viera's Dieeioiiario de llistoria Natural <Ie las 
Idas ('anurias ; from the author, E. Raoul, came two copies of Culture 
du Cafeier; from the authors, E. L. Rand and J. H. Redfield, the Flora 
of Mount Desert island, Maine .- from the author, T. R. Sim, Sketch 



Through the Bentham Trustees Kew has also been able to complete 
the sets of the publications of various foreign botanical societies. Among 
the more in portant are the Verhandlu.igen dee K. K. zoologisch- 
botamschen Gesellschaft in If'ien, from 1871 to 1894; the Actes de la 
Societe Linn, ■ m 1873 onward , the Abhandhmyen 

des naturivissensehaftliehen I'ereines zu Bremen, complete from the 
beginning: the Arbeit/ „ des I iota nischen Museums zu Hamburg, from 
the commencement ; and the publications of the principal societies of 
Australia and New Zealand. 



Typhoon in Hong Kong.— Extract from letter from Superindendent, 
Botanical Department, Hong Kong, to Royal Gardens, Kew, dated 
Hong Kong, October 1G, 1894. 

" On the 6th of this month Hong Kong was visited by a typhoon 
which was the worst experienced for exactly 20 years. Our 
gardens were terribly wrecked in 1874, and now they are again 
reduced to a scene of desolation. All our large trees have been either 
totally destroyed or reduced to little more than stumps or bare poles." 






;uv:u 



e streets and roads have been terriblv 
and streets were blocked with fallen 



fallen 
es and broken limbs." 
• Between September 10th and October 6th we had to prepare for 
3 typhoons which approached the Colony, but as the centres passed 
oe distance south we had only strong gales for four of them." 



Meadow Plume-Thistle (C»in« />,>ati„si». WilM.) — The pla.u 
known as the Meadow Plume-Thistle. Onicm pratentis, Willd. 
(Carduus pratensis, Huds.) is a perennial, rather local in character, but 
found rather t't-<-< i u. 'iitly in the ^southern counties of England. It is 
widely spread on the continent. The stems are downy and mostly 
single-flowered. The leaves are green above, cottony beneath, bol 
not very white. The flowers are dark purple with the pappus dirty 
white. 

s parts of the country, and i< 
letter shows it has spread to 
Somersetshire as to render good 
pastures almost worthless. There is no use to which the plant could 
be applied, and it is evident that nothing can be done except to get rid 
of it by persistent weeding before the plants flower each year. 

Mr. W. Lang to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Curry Rivel, Somersetshire, 
Sir, July 5th, 1891. 

By this post I send you a plant the name of which I should be 
glad to know. Within the last few years it has spread and overrun 
a large tract of land in West Sedgmoor which formerly produced 
good pasture, but which is now in consequence worthless or nearly so 
wing purposes. There is, I suppose, no commercial value 
in the plant or any extract which might be got from it. The local 
name is pronounced something like " Tabbie-howe," but although I 



iv, fa 



The Director, 




Roy: 


d Gardens, 




Yam Beans.— Info 


rmation 




, Spivn-.t « 




(Will. ph. 




•ount oft 


( Vm-hiji- 




. i . ■ 
lh.th th- 


the former " afford a 






: to Dr Trii 


nen. " th. 


the "short 


-podded Ya.i 


, ben.t a : 



fh-itish Guiana, h 
1891-92, p. 70 :— " 

Pachyrhizas tuberosus and P. 
two species are little cultivated, ai 

use.!, however, when very young, sliced and cooked I 
are used. The_ tubers of P. tuberosus grow as large as a medium or 
large sized turnip, are as poor in quality, and without the good flavour. 
The other produces larger tubers if allowed to go on from year to year, 
the plants being perennials. One species is dwarf, growing about a foot 
high, while the other is several feet high, requiring a hedge or trellis to 
grow upon. They are of American origin but now widely dispersed in 
all equatorial and warm countries. 



Messrs. Harrisn) 



— 


; ._ 


Seed. 


Water - 


82-25 


18-50 


Fats - 






Resin .... 






♦Albuminoids 


1-29 


2 6-95 




















Digestible fibre - 






Woody fibre - 


•66 




Mmeral matters- - - - 


1-84 


3-91 




: 100-00 


100-00 


ContaU^nitrcsen - - - 


-m 


r» 



i, much resembling in compos 



i tbe celebrated Soy-bean ( 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



[1895. 



In the Kit. y 1892, pp. 10-14, the change made 

in the character and function of the ISoianic Garden at Cape Town was 
noticed. This institution was no longer to be a Botanic Garden, but 
simply a town garden supported b\ municipal rates. Tiie change at 
Cape Town has now been followed at Kin- William's Town, in the 
Eastern Province of the Colony. This garden was under the charge of 
Mr. Thomas I v Sim, a eapabl. lmrtionhnrist, who wa< 
at Kew. During his residence in Smith Africa Mr. Sim published a 
very useful work on " The Ferns of South Africa, containing descriptions 
and' (1,1!)) (inures of the ferns and tern allies, with !--li lies and cultural 
iiote^"' [London : Wesley & Son, 1892.] More recently he has 
printed a " Checl 0U8 plants of Kaffraria." 

Consequent upon the change in the control of the garden at King 
William's Town, Mr. Sim has 
under the Forest Department. 

The history of the Botanic Gardens in South Africa shows that they 
differed in many ways from such institutions as they exist in other 
countries. The Cape gardens were only partially supported by Govern- 
ment, and they had to look to receipts from the sale of seeds and plants 
to meet their current expenditure. The position is described in the 
innu:i! Report of the Cape Town Botanic Garden for 1883, p. 1 : — 
'"The garden is kep: going mainly by the mercantile profits of the seed 
store. Its income, and consequent power to repair, rebuild, and 
improve, decrease as business stagnates. There is no elasticity in the 
revenue except in that which comes of our commercial earnings. The 
"ough 



accordant 


•.■'with the povev 


IV O! 


the Col. 


mv in' 


'ls.p* 


The subscription 


list has never kept pace w: 


uhtln 


> great increase 


of the 


population of Cape 
e that the gardens 




Conducted on tl 










Should h, 


■ regarded as inti 








v'll 


e enterprise, while 














feed. A properly 




Botanic Garden, 


dev. 




-i, lit ill 




k and carrying on 
existed in Cape 


experimei 


ntal cultivation, 


app 






Colony. 














U 


86021. 1375.—: 


i 05. 


Wt. 45. 






A 



Mr. John ITorne, F.L>., when Director of the Foiv 
Gardens of Mauritius, visited the Cape in 1883. His 
the Botanic Gardens were as follows : — 

"When in Africa I travelled from Algoa Bay overland to Cape Town 
by post cart and train. I visited all the Botanic Gardens at the Cape, 
namely, Port Elizabeth, Graham's Town, and Cape Town. They, in 
many respects, are most disappointing, being Botanic Gardens merely in 
name. The directors and curators are not to blame for this, but the 
gardens have to justify their existence and support themselves by the 
sale of plants. They an- pimply nursery establishments, and the stock 
on hand generally speaking is such as one finds in the nurseries at home, 
stove or tropical plants excepted. They seem to supply a want, the 
Graham's Town one especially, in supplying the colonists with flowers, 
shrubs, and useful fruiting and flowering trees. Should, however, a 
stranger like myself, wish to see African plants he need not look in 
these gardens for them. There are not many of them in any of these 
gardens. He mu6t go to the 'Bush' and the 'Veldt' to find them. 
This surprised me very much indeed. For many of these are 
far prettier than a great deal of the flowering exotic"' stuff' which is 
introduced, grown and propagated with so much pains and trouble. And 
many of them are far more interesting from their grotesque appearance 
and as botani' expression) than are to be 

found in any other country, the Cacti of Mexico perhaps excepted." 

The Cape Gardens have hitherto had little to do with the introduction 
and distribution of economic plants or the dissemination of information 
jecta for the use of the general community. 
What has been attempted in this direction was owing entirely to the 
personal efforts of the curators. The following extract from Professor 
MacOwan's Jh-ptn-t foi i ^s.'j, pp. ;5-4, shows how much more might have 
been accomplished if the funds at his command had allowed :— 

" The garden has been able to supply many demands made upon it by 
similar institutions at home and abroad and numerous private collectors, 
for things scarcely in the usual run of trade supply, partly gratis and 
partly bv sale. Thus duplicate palms and other fine conservatory plants 
have been furnished to the Port Elizabeth Park Committee, vine-cuttings 
on a Urge scale for experimental viticulture in the Transkei, seeds of 
Cinchona ledgpriana to most of the Cape Botanic Gardens, Olives, 
Reana, and Sorghum to many private planters. Several enterprising 
cultivators are now, at our suggestion, trying to multiply the thornless 
Opuniia an I Angra Pequena, and else- 

where. I think these excellent food plants have not received the 
attention they deserve. Of course they are special food plants, suited 
to special localities, and do not come into competition with the ordinary 
vetdt-bosjes and grass wherever the climatic conditions permit the usual 
pasturage. But I am sure that should the spek-boom be incapable of 
acclimatisation on the sun-smitten randi* <>f N.-unaqualand, the Opuvtia 
may be grown in vast thickets at the junction of rock and sand veldt, 
and its use would save much of the present expenditure in importing 
compressed hay for trek-cattle. Such culture throughout all karroid 
districts of the Colony subject to frequent failure of seasonable rains is 
far more important than the introduction of any more of the fancy 
staples which are from time to time proposed, praised,and forgotten, and 
which have given point to the proverbial sneer that "the Cape is a 
country of a 



Unfortunately the garden has to sell in order to live. We have therefore 
to demand money for exactly those things which are raised for free 
distribution in every Colony except ours. But in every Colony except 
ours the Botanic Gardens are entirely maintained l>\ the State, enjoy 
the serene independence which enables them to give out of their abund- 
ance, and know nothing of the perpetual li ;lit against insolvency which 
we share with the small shop-keeper. 

" The demand L'oi information on poin - ■ f culture and introduction of 
new experimental plants is incessant. A few of these inquiries have 

official reports, but the mass of them come in the ordinary correspondence 
of the garden, and absorb a great amount of time without any return. 
Inquirers are often inconsiderate. Sometime* several letters involving 
research are required, our advice is taken, and is carried out at a rival 
seed store. "We have nol the right of franl iug such correspondence, 
and almost invariably have to pay the postage for our pains. It is a 
pity that the bulk of the inquiries shows a tendency to try tropical and 
sub-tropical cultures for which the climatic conditions of the Cape are 
prohibitive, and the available labour too high priced. Cacao, arrowroot, 
ginger, opium, Cinciiona, tea, Furcrau fibre, J'ltnrot'ntm and rice; upon 
these and the like speculation has been rife. I wish there were the 
same curiosity about ascertaining the special fitness of this or that 
variety of wheat, barley, or maize for this or that soil, or about 
originating improved strains of potato from seedlings — anything, in 
fact, which will result in produce rather than in samples. Occasionally 
important matters have turned up in course of correspondence. For 
example, the occurrence of the destructive ( nscutu Trifnlii. i>ak, or 
1 Dodder,' among colonial crops of Lucerne has been signalised. This 
mischief is, no doubt, a result of the importation of cheap unsifted seed. 
Whether the measures earnestly pressed up ui the cultivators will be 
carried out to the extirpation of the pest remains to be seen. In view 
of the great value of Lucerne to the ostrich-farming industry, and the 
swift destruction of the crop by the par-site, should it become naturalised. 
I am of opinion that a stringent Act for the extirpation of Ctlttuta is 
more needed than that against the Xunthium spinas,, m. In cas? of the 
latter, legislation perhaps sharing the proverbial blindness of justice, 
singled out for destruction the l-irge grained burr-weed, but failed to 
denounce the smaller yet more mischievous Echinospermum, or 'carrot 
seed ' of the farmers, the archimedian screw-twist of prickles borne by 
the Mtdicago for the confusion of wool-combers, and the brittle 
Asparagus of the Karoo, whose twigs tangle the mohair of our Angoras. 
It might be well to issue by authoritative proclamation a statement of 
the destructive effect of Cusatta upon Lucerne and other leguminous 
crops, followed by details of the mode of stamping out the parasite, and 
' * >rnets to be on the watch 
Europe in imported seed, it 



At the 



52 

mental cultivation could be carried on or where special seeds and plants 
could be obtained for starting new industries. This condition of affairs 
is scarcely credible to a large and wealths community like that at the 
Cape. The town gardens now established in the more important 
centres of population in Cape Colony are likely to be useful as breathing 
spaces, and ns ornamental a ijimets to public buildings. As purely 
pleasure gardens, supported by the municipality out of the local rates, 
they will also have their own special value. It was entirely a misnomer to 
call them Botanic gardens, and it is as well that the name was changed 
and their proper character officially recognised. 



neighbourhood of Cape Town devoted to the scientific study and 
experimental eultivntii ■ ! todischarge its studies 

as a national institution on the lines of Kew, would alone be worthy of 
the futuie of South Africa. 

The flora of this part of the world is one of extreme interest. It 
deserves to be carefully and exhaustively studied, and numerous plants, 
now in danger of becoming extinct, should be preserved in some central 
spot for the observation of students. Of the economic influences of 
such a central institution it is needless to enlarge. There are hundreds 
of problems connected with the cultivation of industrial plants in South 
Africa awaiting solution, and these could only be dealt with at an 
institution specially devoted to scientific research, where careful trials 
could be conducted extending over many years. As affording the most 
recent information on the subject, the following letter received from 
Mr. Thomas R. Sim, on resigning charge of the King William's Town 
Garden, is reproduced : — 



Town, to Royal 



Botanic Garden, King William's Town, 
Dbar Sir, June 30, 1894. 

I have to thank you for seeds received some time ago, but since 
I last wrote you. Since then we have been slowly but gradually pro- 
t the arrangements — of which I have spoken to you ever 
since I came out — for passing the garden into the care of the "Borough 
Corporation, and now t';:. !ished. The garden will 

then become like those <A' Port Klizabeth and Cape Town, a town garden 
pure and simple, without any pretence of having a botanical or experi- 
mental connexion. In past years, though they had the botanical name, 
1 cannot say that they had very much conm xion with botany, except in 
so far as I myself eliose to curry out studies during extra hours, and .'is 
the experiment up here, as it was being 

taken up by the Agricultural D-parMnenf, I think there is little reason 
to regret that one more of the Botanic Gardens is, as such, passing 
out of existence, and taking the name and character which would have 
better suited it for the greater part of its existence. 

Indeed, what we are in want of most is one really good botanical and 
experimental garden for the Colony, equipped so that it shall not have 
to earn any part of its own maintenance, and then allow each town to 
have its own town garden, public park, or whatever the local circum- 



stances most demand. Meantime we have none such, and any endea- 
vours made by me to develop the experimental side of this esl 
have constantly '>een held in check by the stern necessity for first 
earning our bread and butter, and even in that our efforts have been 
have lost 900/. 
(hiring the past nine years or so during which it Ins existed. 



Ilantations at Fort 
after September 1. 



is the inn.-i extensive one in i 

it. 10 K) acres, and it is proposed to extend tli 
present size in the near future. Attached t 



: ' ... 

made one of much public utility. The plantation is situated about 40 
miles from here, further inland, and at an altitude of 2000 to 1 )00 feet, 
so I expect it to be much more healthy for my family than King 
William's Town has been. 

I enclose a packet of Microsteph • plant, which 

may be of use along the south coast of England in bedding work. 






CCCCXLVII— -DECADES KEWENSES. 

Plantarum Novarum in Herbakio Horti Regii Conser 
DECAS XIV. 

The following Decade is devoted to new species of ferns cor 

page -15). 

131. Davallia (Leucostegia) pxdeherrima, 1htk>u- j Fiiices j : 



stipitibus contiguis elongatis graciilimi.- 
ohlongo-de.hoideis parvis deeoinposit' 
pinnis lanceolatis basi inferiori cu 
reducfis. segmentis ultimis linearihus unineivii-. di— itis civeto-patentibus, 
■ ad vel infra anicem sc^ne'iitonun ultimorum costalibus, 
iadueio trail tuanaceo persistente. 

Habitat.— Yunnan ; crevices of rocks near Mongtse, alt. 6000 feet, 



tipites 1-4 ; 
, lata, segmei 



longi. Lamina 2-4 poll, longa, deorsum 1^-2 
ultimis £ lin. latifc 
A very pretty little species, with the habit of a Darea, nearly allied 
> Davallia CI ->s also been found in Yunnan. 



132. Cheilanthes (Eucheilanthes) Hancocki, Baker [Filices] ■ paleis 
lias;ilibus linc'iribus firmis castaneis, stipitibus elongatis fragilibua castaneis 
supra basin nudis, frondibus deltoideis glabris membranaceis decomposes 
utrinquo viridibus, racbibus castaneis nudis, pinnis infimis reliquis multo 
majoribus dimidio inferiori valde producto, segmentis ultimis oblongis 
obtusis erecto-patentibus, sons contiguis, indusio membranaceo glabro 
orbiculari vel oblongo. 

Habitat. — Yunnan, in shady glens near Mongtse, Hancock, 63. 
Stipites 4-10 poll, longi. Lamina 5-6 poll, longa et lata. 
Intermediate between the common Tropical Asiatic C. tenuifolia, 
Swartz, and the Japanese C. Brandtii, Franch. et Savat. 

133. Cheilanthes (Aleuritopteris), albofusca, Baker [Filices] ; paleis, 
basalibus lanceolatis firmis castaneis, stipitibus elongatis gracillimis nudis 
castaneis, froudibus firmis parvis delta lacie viridibus 

pinnis infimis reliquis 
luctis, segmentis ultimis c 

indusio lato brunneo continuo glabro persis- 

Habitat. —Yunnan ; crevices of rocks near Mongtse, alt. 5700 feet, 
Hancock, 126. 

Stipites 1-3 poll, longi. Lamina 2-3 poll. 



134. Polypodiuxn (Phegopteris) dissitifolium, Hukn- [Filices]; 
paleis 1 Msalibus magnis lanceolatis membranaceis ferrugineis, stipitibus 
nudis elongatis stramincis, iVondibus oblongo-lanceolatis bipinnatitidis 
glabris modice firmis utrinque viridibus, pinnis lanceolatis caudatis 
profunde pinnatifidis inferioribus haud reductis brevissime petiolatis, 
pinuulis oblongis dentatis, venis pinnatis venulis 5-6 jugis simplicibus 
erecto-patentibus, soris marginalibus confertis parvis globosis super- 
ficialibus. 

Habitat. — Yunnan, in a deep ravine near Mongtse, Hancock, 45. 

pedales et u] 

inferioribus t 
Near the Tropical African P. obtusilobum, Desv. 

135. Polypodnun (Phegopteris) apicidens, Baker [FilicesJ ; paleis basa- 
libus lanceolatis membranaceis femur : 

nudis stramineis, froudibus oblongo-lanceolatis bipinnatifidis modice firmis 
utrinque viridibus glabris pinnis lanceolatis caudatis profunde pinnati- 
fidis inferioribus haud reductis brevissime petiolatis, venis pinnatis 
venulis 6-H jugis simplicibus, soris parvis globosis superficialbus intra- 



llnuitai. — Yunnan, in deep shady glens near Mongtse, I/a»o>rk, ^ 
Stipites pedales. Lamina 8-12 poll, longa, 3-6 poll, lata, pinn 
aferioribug 5-6 lin. latis. 
Nearly allied to P. obtusilobum and the last species. 



136. Polypodium (Phegopteris) sphseropteroides, Baker [Filices] ; 
stipitibus elongatis stramineis paleis deflexis ovatis brunneis membra- 
naceis vestitis, frondibus magnis deltoid eis decomposes viridibus .-ub- 
membranaceis junior, hu- utrinque pubescentibus adultis calvatis, 
l.tchilu- stramineis, pinnis pinnulisque oblongo- lanceolatis, segmentis 
ultimis oblique oblongis obtusis erecto-patentibus, venis in s»><.niK>ntii 
ultimis furcatis vel subpinnatis, soris parvis globosis superficialibtfi IB 
segmentis ultimis saapissime solitariis. 



A large finely-cut plant, allied to P. ornatum, Wall. 

137. Polypodium (Phymatodes) macrosphaerum, Bah*r [Filices] ; 
rhizomate late repenti calvato, stipitibus brevibus nudis, frondibus 
lanceolatis simplicibus subcoriaceis facie viridibus nudis dorso pallide 
viridibua paleis paucis sparcis peltatis brunneis membranaceis decoratis, 
venis primariis gracilibus flexuosis intra marginern dissolutis, venulis 
intermediiB copiose anastomosantibus, soris magnis globosis marginalibus 
superficialibus supra medium lamin» praesertim productis. 

Habitat. — Yunnan, ou limestone rocks, near Mongtse, alt. 6200 feet, 
Hancock, 49. 

sesquipedalis, medio 
Near P. longifolium, Mett. and P. angustatum, Sw. 



138. Polypodium (Phymatodes) subimmersum, Baker ; [Elioe*] ; 
rhizomate breviter repenti, frondibus subsessilibus contiguis linearibus 
integris glabris viridibus subcoriaceis e medio ad basin et apicem sensim 

oblongis vel globosis marginalibus vel leviter intermarginalibus remotis 
inter costam et marginem uniaeriatis. 

t Black Mountains, oa trunks of trees, 



Lamina pedalis vel sesquipedalis, medio 5-6 lin. lata. 

Nearly allied to the Australian and Polynesian P. Brownii, Wiclut. 

139. Polypodium (Phymatodes) griseo-nigrum, Baker ; [Filices]; 
rhizomate repenti, paleis dense imbricatis lanceolatis firmulis sordide 

brunneis, stipitibus erectis elongatis nudis castaneis, frondibus coriaceis 
glabris oblongis parvis simpliciter pinnatis, rachi castaneo ad basin 
angustissime alato, pinnis lanceolatis eubintegris l>asi dilatatis decur- 

rentibiis ferrilibus su1>oUiism sterilihns oluusis, venis priniariis ni^ris 
erecto-patentibus parallelis ad marginem rectis perspicuis, veuulis 

Habitat. — Yunnan, on grassy mountain slopes, alt. 6300 feet, Hancock, 



Lamina 4-6 poll, longa, 2-3 poll, lata, 
Near P. ebenipes, Hook. 



viridibus <lors<> glaueeseentdms, venis 

bus intra marginem dissolutis,. venulis 

is magnis giobosis superficiali- 

solitariis. 

Habitat.— Yunnan, on sandstone fim<>n<;M. grass near Mongtse, 
Hancock, 44. 

Stipites 4-5 poll, longi. Lamina 6-8 poll, longa, 5-7 lin. lata. 

Very near the New Caledonian and Australian P. lanceola, Mett. 



CCCCXLVIIL— BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 

A scheme for carrying out the botanical survey ot India was pub- 
lished on February 26, 1891, by the Government of India. It is under 
the control of Dr. George Kin-. F.R.S., (U.K.. Superintendent of the 
Royal Botanical Gardens, ( 'uleutta, who is Director. 



Duthie, F.L.S., Director of the Botanical Department of Northern 

Kashmir, Baltistan. and Gilgit visited by Mr. Duthie- in \W.)'2 and |SJ)3. 

No. 1 contains the notes of a journey from Haveri to Kumta, in 
Bombay, by Mr. (J. Marshall Woodrow, Lecturer on Botany at the 
College of Science at Poona ; and of a tour in Travancore by Mr. M. A. 
Lawson, F.L.S., Government Botanist, Madras. During 1893 the route 
taken by Mr. Dufhie was froni Kawal Pindi to Gulmarg and the Liddar 
valley, thence over the watershed by the Yamharu pass into the Sind 
valley, and over Toji La to Dras. From Dras the route was along the 
tited road to Gurais via Tilail, thence over the Dorikun pass 
to the Deosai plains and back by the same route. The following extracts 
are taken from Mr. Duthie's report : — 

Beyond the valley above Chatpani, Mr. Duthie states :— 

" We had now reached an elevation of about 13,000 feet, and as the 
ground looked very promising for botany, T decided to halt here for the 
night, bo as to have the whole of the next day for studying the vegetation 
of the pass. I collected a great number of plants and' seeds that evening 
at the head of the vallev. 

"The next day (August 30th) was beautifully fine, with a cloudless 
sky. The top of the pass was soon reached by a steep but easy path over 
turf. The elevation of this pass is close under 14,000 feet. I can find 
no name given for it in any maps, but it is known by the Dras people 



57 

as the Kargeh pass. The view looking down the valley towards Tilail, 
is very fine, with Nanga Parbat in the distance. On the pass itself 
there was very little snow, and the turf was studded with brilliantly- 
coloured alpine flowers." (pp. 31 and 32.) 

" At the lower and western end of the Gurais valley, where the river 
begins to turn southwards in the direction of Kanzalwan, is a remark- 
able forest composed chiefly of tho white poplar {Popidus alba) ; and 
about a quarter of a mile lower down the valley, and on the same side of 
the river (the left bank), there is a similar piece of forest. The trees 
are growing close together, and when viewed from the steep hill above, 
their tops present a level mass of compact foliage, a few individual tree* 
projecting here and there. The chief interest attached to this forest is the 
large size'of the tn es, their average height being over 100 feet. Mr. W. 
Mitchell, who happened to be at Gurais at the time, kindly assisted me 
in making some measurements. The largest specimen we could find 
was 127^ feet hi.irh :>nd l(i feet in frirrh at 7 feet from the ground. In 
the '■ Forest Flora of North-west and Central India,' Sir D. Brandis 
gives the maximum size of Popufas aiba in India as 10 feet in height 
and 8 feet in girth. 

" The undergrowth of this forest is composed chiefly of a tall hand- 
some Senecio (S. chenopodifolius) and a low-growing kind of bramble. 
A few isolated specimens of pine, spruce, and silver fir are met with ; 
also Papains ciliatu, two species of willow, Cratcegns Oxyacmttha, 
I i barman fa 'tens, and Hippophae rhamnoides ; this latter forms large 
thickets a littie higher up the valley." (p. 34.) 

lake of Shersan, very deep, and said tu contain fish. The weather was 
abnormally warm for the elevation, and the vegetation was dried up. 

" I returned to Chilam the next morning, and on the following day 
( 17th) crossed the Dorikun pass in a storm of wind and sleet, and 
reached Miniinarg the s>.me evening. I halted here for a day to dry 
the tents, and this gave me an opportunity of exploring some fores't 
ground on the further side of the stream. The most interesting 



variety of Rubu 


s »iruii, 


. with 


red fruit tasting exa< 


Jtly like that of 


the raspberry, a 




lack-cut 




r branches bent 


down with the 


weight 


..f the 


fruit. Another kind 


of bramble {R. 


saxatilis), with 


seat-let fruit, i 


s also abundant hen 


!. The natives 


call it 'pope: 




number of interesting mosse 


s were collected 


here." (p. 36.) 










Among the no 




>me of the economic plants met 


with in Kashmir 






and Gilgit Mr. Dnth 


ie mentions the 


following :— 






"Fendajaest 




Vatke 


; vern. Apatkanphi 


ir (Sind valley), 



yellow flowers, abundant in most of the valleys in Kashmir. This plant 
was at one time supposed to be a source of ' asafcetida.' It resembles 
F. Xart/ir.r, Boiss., hut has much larger fruit. The plant is said to be 
eaten by sheep and goats. 



" Ferula Narthex, Boiss. (Narthex Asafoetida, Falc.) — Abundant 
in the Astor valley below Doian. 
noticing this plant, only the d: 
There is a specimen in the Saharanpur herbarium collected by Dr. Giles 



lley below Doian. I remember when on my way to Gilgit 
bleached stems being then visible. 



in 1886, and probably from the same locality. I agree with Dr. Aitchison 
in considering this to be the plant which Dr. Falconer supposed to be 
the true source of the drug. The root is full of a resin which has 
a powerful scent of asafcetida. The plant is figured in the Botanical 
Magazine, t., 5168, and in Bentley and Trimen's Medicinal Plants, 
t. 126." (p. 40.) 

'• Stjpa sibirua, Lamk. — This, which is known as the poisonous 
grass of Kashmir, is very abundant in some of the valleys, especially 
on the outskirts of the forests at an elevation of 8000 to 9000 feet. 
It occurs also in other parts of the Himalaya ; and on the Black moun- 
tain in Hazara it was the cause of much sickness amongst the baggage 
ponies during the expedition of 1888. The direct cause of its injurious 
effects on animals has not yet been conclusively shown. Some attri- 
bute it to a narcotic principle inherent in the plant, whilst others affirm 
that it acts mechanically as an irritant, and is not in any way chemically 
poisonous. Dr. Aitchison, who has given much attention to the 
subject, and has witnessed many cases of ponies having been poisoned 
by eating this grass, believes that the symptoms are produced by some 
kind of narcotic poison. A common remedy in Kashmir for this com- 
plaint, Dr. Aitchison tells me, is to hold the animal's head in the smoke 
of a fire, in order to produce a discharge from the nostrils, after which 
the dangerous symptoms disappear, and the animal recovers conscious- 
ness. In addition to this treatment, vinegar and sour apples are some- 
times given. The cattle of the country do not of their own accord eat 
this grass during the spring and summer, but in the autumn, Dr. 
Aitchison says, they do eat it. If this be so, it tells somewhat against 
the idea of the plant possessing only mechanically irritant properties, 
for during the autumn months the rough awns of the spikelets are fully 
developed." (p. 43.) 



CCCCXLIX.— TEA CULTIVATION IN THE 
CAUCASUS. 

Experiments with tea plants in the Russian province of Transcaucasia 
have been carried on for some time. In the Russian Nouvelles quoted 
by the Board of Trade Journal (1891, p. 174), it was stated that "the 
tea plant flourished on the western littoral of Transcaucasia, notably at 
Soukhourn. The tea shrubs planted in those districts reach normal 
dimensions and arrive at full maturity, producing excellent seeds. The 
climate of Western Caucasia compares favourably with that of the south- 
east of China. This analogy consists not only in the equality of the 
mean annual temperature of the two regions, but also in the quantity of 
rain which falls there and in the period (spring) when the rains are 
most abundant, a condition essential to the growth of the tea plant." It 
is added that a so-called Caucasian tea had been exhibited at the Nijni- 
N'ovgorod fair. " This was nothing else but Vaccinium Arctostaphylos, 
a kind of tea from Koporie, which only served to discredit the future 
plantations in Caucasia." 

Latterly the tea plantations in the Caucasus have been extended, and 
. .f lb*; tea produced is said to be good." 

The Department of Crown Estates has appointed a Commission 
which will include the Inspector of the Imperial Domains in the 



50 

Caucasus, to proceed to India, Southern China, and Ceylon, with the 
object of thoroughly examining the methods of tea culture and curing 
in those countries. The Commercial Agent for the Appanage Depart- 
ment of the Russian Imperial Court has recently visited Kew to study 
the subject. 

Some remarkable statistics as to the tea production of the world are 
given in a paper read by Mr. A. G. Stanton at the Society of Arts 
(./mint., vol. 43, pp. 189-201). In 1883 the total consumption of tea in 
the United Kingdom was 170,780,000 lbs., or 482 lbs. per head of 
population. In 1894 these figures had risen to 214,341,044 lbs., or 
553 lbs. per head. 

The remarkable feature in the statistics is the way in which India and 
Ceylon have displaced China as a source of supply. Taking Mr. 
Stanton's per-centages, the proportions of the total supply stand as 



In 12 years Ceylon has pushed to the position at first occupied by India, 
and this almost entirely at the expense of China. 

Mr. Stanton states :— " The annual consumption of tea in the civilised 
world, exclusive of the United Kingdom, is about 250,000,000 lbs. Of 
this quantity only about 30,000,000 lbs. are Indian and Ceylon." Tt is 
evident, then, that if Russian tea ran be -uceessfulh placed upon the 
market, it will have, in the first instance at any rate, to compel, with 
China tea. The new competitor is not likely seriously to affect British 

As the experiment to grow tea in the Russian Kmpire possesses an 
interest in connexion with the large tea industries of India and Ceylon 
the following particulars are reproduced from the report for the year 
1894 on the agricultural condition of the Batoum Consular district, 
lately forwarded to the Earl of Kimberley by Mr. Consul Stevens. 
T "81]:— 



[Foreign Office, Annual Series, 1894, No. 1481 

, Chakva, near Batoui 
lerchants, of Moscow, 
• the supervision of the Chinese tea plante 



te tea plantations at Chakva, near Batoum, belonging to Messrs. 
nd S. Popoff, tea merchants, of Moscow, have been < 



*ho were brought < 

the Caucasus, are also employed in working on the plantation of this 

In a letter to the "Caueas an A-i ic ill aal News," Mr. A. Solovtzofi, 
who for several years past has been cultivating tea on his estates at no 
great distance from the lands belonging to Messrs. Popoff, gives a some- 
Avhat interesting account of his experiences in the raising of this plant 
since the year 1884. He states that at that time his chief concern was 
the question of procuring tea plants for planting, he feared to order seed 
lest old seed should be sent, besides this the seed of tea contains a 
volatile oil in considerable quantity which, during a long voyage, would 



be likely to evaporate, aud thus the seed would have been rendered 
sterile. Even the -cod raided ai Chakwi r. < [uires the greatest care and 
attention, as excessive dryness deprives it of the oil, aud too much damp 

Kventualiy, however, n lining a few plants which 

seedling. The condition of both left much to be desired, as they had 
received but little care and water during their transit, aud were to a great 
extent damaged by the Customs authorities, who used quicklime for the 
purpose of disinleetinv; them against the importation ol Phylloxera. 
They were, subsequently, transported to ( T.akvn. and wish as little delay 
as possible planted on his properly. At Ib'st the;, grew badly, and all 
the shrubs dried up, but some of (he seedlings took, and from these lie 

The land chosen for the plantation was a red clayey soil, dressed with 
a thin coat, of manure composed of thoroughly rolled leaves and branches, 
&e. that had fallen from the trees. After clearing away the manure the 
land was dug up for a depth of about 21 inches aud the top soil was 



The seeds ripen in t 


he course of a ye; 


ir, and are gathered in the month 


of October, at which t 


ime the plant ahs< 




j seeds, after being 


collected, are strewed < 


^ithdrysandam 


I are kept in e 




In March they are damped with a solnt 


ion of i. urn. hoi 




in order to force their 


growth. The seeds are left 


damped with this 






i put back in 


to the earthenware 




ixed with damp 


earth In th 


is earth the seeds 




they are then transplanted int( 


) the nursery beds, 


the soil of which is tl 






ion, but which has 


SS»mH'3 ;! 


s.-edVX'l.iwn"-!! 


'a .iSf of 


'T'lm^^'onrfS 


ance above ground it i 


s necessary to cot 


,er them over 


with mais in order 


to protect them from 








should be removed in 








young seedlings have 


to be watered o 


nee a day, and 


under this system 



appear he has found means whereby t 

may be minimised. The methods which he adopts to attain this end 

are the annual removal of the nursery beds to fresh ground, and the 

burying in the nursery beds, in a line with the burrows of the crickets, 
of grains of Indian corn boiled in a solution of arsenic, or, what is still 
better, a solution of corrosive sublimate. 

The propagation <•;' the tea plan! by means ol cuttings should be 
avoided, as a large pr.p.. it ion of the cuttings do not take, but the chief 
objection is that those that do only produce very weak plants. 

Solovtzoff intends transplanting only the stronger ones into the planta- 
tion. The seedlings remain in the beds a whole year, and are then 
planted out 4 feet apart from each other. 

The only attention which the plantation requires is that it should be 
freed from weeds twice a year. For the first year the young plants 
should be protected from the'rays of the sun by 'the branches of trees. 
It has not yet been found necessary to artificially water the plants i u the 



to the present, pruning, with a view to increasing the 
t been resorted to, as the chief object has been to 



obtain as large .'! .piant'ily of seed as possible for the multiplication of flu- 
plants. No manure has been used hitherto, but when planting out. t" 
seedlings this year it was intended to manure the soil with timber asl 



and refuse from c 

During the dry season, Ma\ and June, when the heat is very great, the 
grown up plants stand the climate very well, but, as mentioned before, 
the young plants have to be protected from the sun. The winter of 
1892-93 was exceptionally rigorous, the frosts being as severe as six 
degrees Reaumur, but neither the grown up plants nor the seedlings 
suffered in any war, although the latter were for several days covered 
with snow up to the very leaves. This result is particularly gratifying 
whon the fact that tin' 1 very young seedlings arc planted in a quite open 
and low-lying plain fully exposed to the wind, is taken into con- 
sideration ; when subsequently transferred to the plantation they do very 
well. 

about five acres, and as planting has bean 
» seed has become available, it contains plants of all sizes, 
ranging from five years' growth to one and a half years' growth. The 
number of plants was 5150, and about 8000 seedlings were to be 
planted out during the present year, there is a sufficient quantity of 
seed in stock to raise 40,000 more seedlings, and the quality of the tea 
is said to be good. 

It is also reported that about 43,000 acres of Government land in the 
neighbourhood of Chakva have recently been purchased by the Depart- 
t of Crown Estates for the purpose of turning them into tea plan- 
has ordered 
Domains in 

China, and Ceylon, with the object of thoroughly studying the methods 



With regard to the are of Vaccimum Arctostaphylos as a tea substitute 
in the Caucasus referred to in the preceding article, the following note 
contributed by the Director to the / . d, for March 

21, 1885, is reproduced, to complete the history of the subject: — 

Mr. Holmes's note in the PhnrmaccKtirnl Journal (January 17, 
pp. 573-4) pretty well exhausts the history of this curious product. 
But it will be convenient to record in the same pages the few other facts 
that have come under our. notice at Kew. 

Jn 1877, Mr. George. Maw, F.L.S., brought from Asia Minor a small 
sample of tea obtained at Broussa in Anatolia. Mr. Maw informed us 
that it was sold for about 8d. per pound, and he ascertained that it was 
made from / " . 'J (see " Kew Report," 1877, p. 45). 

Mi. Holmes mentions on the authority of Mr. Allen, that in Lazistan 
and Trebizond it was first made in 1877; but in that year, at any rate 
in Anatolia, its use seems to have been sufficiently common to attract 
Mr. Maw's attention. 



the report by Consul Biliotti, 
i on the Circassian colony in 
Mr. Biliotti states that the Circassian families "consume 
large quantities of sugar and have introduced the use of tea ; but there 
being a sort of native tea produced at Amassia and Tokat, the yearly 
importation of this article from Great Britain does not exceed 1500 
pounds." We thought it was worth while drawing the attention of the 
Foreign Office to the matter, with a view of ascertaining the nature of 
this tea substitute. Mr. Biliotti took a good deal of trouble, and obtained 
and forwarded to Kew specimens of tea and of the plant producing it 
from Amassia and Tokat, in the province of Roum, and also from Rizeh 
in Trebizond. Writing from Trebizond, he says: — "As it grows 
profusely here wild on high mountains (not below an altitude of 500 
feet, so tar as T have been able to ascertain), it would be of invaluable 
advantage for the population to know whether the plant belongs to the 
genus tea, and whether cultivation would improve the quality of the tea 
now produced, which lacks in flavour. This may also be due to the 
fa] means for drying the leaves." 
The tea sent has exactly the appearance and aroma of coarse black 
tea ; so much so, that the Customs authorities insisted on charging duty 

The specimens sent were identified by Professor Oliver as Vaccinium 
Arctostaphylos, without hesitation. He remarks that the plant is 
figured by Tournefort in his " Voyage in the Levant " ; but though that 
traveller mentions the taste of the leaves, he says nothing about its being 
used as tea. This confirms what Mr. Holmes says as to its use for 

submitted them to Messrs. George White & Co., the well-known firm 
of tea brokers. They remark that common China tea, selling at 5\d. to 
6d. per pound, shows better value in every respect, and the admixture 
of the " Trebizond tea " could hardly reduce the cost, while it would 
certainly not improve its flavour. 

Though the aroma of the " Trebizond tea " was so agreeable, the taste 
of ii decoction was harsh and mawkish, with no appreciable resemblance 
to that of true tea. I sent a sample to Dr. Schorlemmer, of Owens 
College, Manchester, who has paid some attention to the chemistry of 
tea-substitutes. Ledum palustre, belonging to the next natural family, 
Lrii.tcet, yields Labrador tea, and it seems odd that two nearly related 
plants should be pitched upon in such distant parts of the world for the 
Bame purpose, if there were no physiological basis for their selection. 
But I have not heard whether Dr. Schorlemmer has detected any 
principle in Trebizond tea which would account for its extensive use. 

Since the above was in type we have been favoured by the Board of 
Trade with a copy of a memorandum (dated January 15, 1885), by M. 
Numa Doulcet, H.M. Vice-Consul, at Samsoon. 

I append a translation which, I think, finally exhausts the subject :— 



first its consumption was limited to the country and particularly 
to those disti a colonies had been founded. 

It is manufactured by Circassian planters in the neighbourhood 
of Amassia, Tokat, and Horek, all in the province of Roum, at 
a short distance from the forest which clothes the mountain 



chain called Beldagh, and on which the plant which furnishes 
the tea in question grows in great abundance. 
[ have not been able to ascertain the process of manufacture 
which takes place within the houses of the Circassian colonist* 
who undertake this industry, and who appear to be pretty 



re are several crops of tea ; that which yields the best quality 
kes place in May. About 5000 ocques (the ocqqe=2| Lbs.) 
$ actually manufactured annually, but this quantity could be 
nsiderably augmented if there were occasion for it. 
5. When fit to yield a crop the plant has reached a shrubby state, 
i is sold on the spot at about five piastres per ocque. The 
>n might amount to about one 
ice per ocque to six piastres in 

The consumption is almost limited to the requirements of the 
Vilayets of Sivaz (Roum) and Angora (Anatolia). It is to 
the town bearing the last-mentioned named that the greater 
part of the crop is sent. In 1R81 a consignment was sent to 
France, but the transaction was not a profitable one. Some 
further consignments to Constantinople also do not appear to 



CCCCLI.— DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, IV. 

(Continued from p. 129, 1894.) 

The plants described below form part of a collection made by Mr. A. 
Carson, B.Sc, of the London Missionary Society, and presented by 
him to Kew. They are from a place called Fwambo, situated about 50 
miles south of Lake Tanganyika, and evidently the greater part of them 
from a considerable elevation, as they are temperate and sub-tropical 
types. Mr. Carson's labels afford no information on this point however, 
but as the level of the lake is given as 2670 feet above the sea, and the 
plateau at 4000 to 5000 feet, with higher peaks, it is probable that these 
plants were from elevations of 5000 to 7000 feet, 

The following extract from Mr. H. H. Johnston's account of the 
country (Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, xii. f 1890, 
p. 737) is interesting : — 

" The ordinary route to Tanganyika, which I had now picked up in 
the Mambwe country, lends you up through the most beautiful gorge of 
Fwambo to and through the mountain ranges which look down on the 
south end of Tanganyika. The gorge of Fwambo is an exquisite bit of 
scenery. A beautiful stream dashes down in many cataracts and rapids 
through a deep but not very narrow gorge between precipitous mountain 
sides, and this gorge is filled with magnificent forest of a truly West 
African character, ;m idea! trnpi.-a.] forest with its immense umbrageous 
trees, its graceful oil-palms, its parasitic orchids, and trailing swinging 



Foliola 4-5 lin. longa. Pedunculus 4-5 poll, longus. Sepala 1^-2 
lin. longa. 

Near 0. corymbosa, DC. and 0. purpurata, Jaeq. 

141. Oxalis oligotricha, Baker [Geraniaceae] ; annua, acaulis, foliis 

r;t licali!)!!-; «!f>n<.M-<.-;uliiti- i«>n^.- p;:,.j iolis membra- 

oblongis vel ovato-oblongis obtusis utrinque parce 



pedunculo elongato, floribus paucis umbellatis, bracteis parvis lanceolatis 
pilosis, pedicellis brevibus, sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis pilosis, petalis 
hlaeinis calyce triplo longioribus, genitalibus t 



Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (1890 collection). 
Foliola 12-21 lin. longa, 9-12 lin. lata. Pedunculus 4-6 poll, longus. 
Sepala 2 lin. longa. 

Near O. corymbosa, DC. 



, Baker [Geraniaceae] ; perennis, caulibas 

simplidbus ereetis jxlubri- supenie pubeseeiilibus, foliis sessilibus lanceo- 
latis argute serratis basi rotundatis inferioribus oppositis superioribus 
alternis, floribus solirarii^ ax ilbirll.ns longe pedum ulatis. sepalis lateralibus 
parvis ovatis, labello albido ruiiraid ore ol>liquo calcare brevi gracili, 
pt't.-ilis albidis obovaio-quadrati ■, ovario glabro ad apieem et basin sensim 
attsnuato. 

of 1893 



143. Impatiens gomphophylla, Baker [Geraniaceae] ; perennis, 

eaulibus ereetis glabris superne parce pilosis, foliis alternis broviter 
petiolatis o!i!. ntatis hasi mnieatis facie viridibus 

glabris dorso pallide viridibus ad venos primarias pilosis, floribus 
axillarilms geminis longe peduneulatis, sepalis ialerahbus parvis ovatis 
rubellis, labello infundiimhiri eaieare spiralilrr reeurvato, petalis parvis 
oi >ieulari!>us, ovario glabro < medio ad basin ei npirein angustato. 

Habitat. — Fvnmbo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (10 of 1893 
collection, 7 of 1894 collection). 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa, medio 9-12 lin. lata. Fedunculi 12-18 lin. 
longi. Labcllum 12-15 lin. longura. 

Near the West African /. bicolor., Hook. ill. in Bot. Mag. tab. 5366. 

144. Crotalaria laxiflora, Baker [Leguminosae] ; annua, ramosissima, 
glabra, stipuBs minutis, foliis breviter petiolatis trifoliolaf h. foholis 
oblanceolatis obtusis vel cuspidatis utrinque viridibus, racemis laxis 
paucifloris terminalibns, bracteis linearibus minutis, pedicellis brevibus 



1 patulis, calyce tubo obconico dentibus lanceolatis t 
longioribus, petalis luteis, vexillo obovato calyce duplo longiore, legun 
sessili subgloboso monospermo glabro. 
Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (28 of l{ 



Caulis subpedalis erecta. Foliola 4-8 Iin. longa. Calyx 2 lin. 
longus. Corolla 4 lin. longa. Fructus 2 lin. longus. 

Belongs to the group Spheerocarpce, near C. filicaulis, Welw. 

145. Indigofera polysphaera, Baker [Leguminosse] ; fruticosa, ramo- 

ile erecto angulato adpresse piloso, stipulis linearibus minutis, 
foliis simplicibus subsessililms lanceolatis acutis ri^-idulis utrinquo 
viridibus obsc - in capitulis densis globosis copiose 

paniculatis dispositis, pedicellis brevibus dense pilosis, bracteis lanceolatis, 
calyce dense piloso tubo brevissimo dentibus linearibus elongatis, 
legumine oblongo-cylindrico dense piloso 2-3-spermo calyce sesqui- 
longiori. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (70 of 1894 
collection). 

Folia 2-3 poll longa, 3-4 lin. lata. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Fructus 
3 lin. longus. 

Near I. procera, Schum. & Thonn. ; and /. djurensis, Schweinf. 

146. Desmodium (Nicolsonia) tanganyikense, Baker jTLeguminosie] 

t'alratis, foliis sessilibus trit'uliolatis -us obscure 

pubescentibus dorso dense pubeseentibus, foliolo terminali oblongo obtuso 
integro basi rotundato, rncemis laxis in panicula magna efoliata 

requilongis, vexillo obovato rubello calyce triplo longiori, legumine 
lini'ari pubrscenie broviirr |>edicellato articulis circiter 3 longioribus 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (27 of 1894 col- 

Foliola 3-4 poll longa. Panicula pedalis, racemis inferioribus 5-6 
poll, longia. Calyx l\ lin. longus. 
Near D. senaarense, Schweinf. 

147. Mucuiia erecta, Baker [Legnminosae] ; erecta, fruticosa, ramulis 

ii^nosis :mgulosis dense biwiter j • <iuis. I'oliis 

■ . •:.■].!•'- -■■■■■■. '■- • " ■ • "•''!'=' 

dense adpresse pilosis, rloribus 2-1-nis axillarmus, pedicellis brevibus 

dense pilosis, bracteis nuimtis. calyce dense bnn o-piloso tubo cam- 

panulato dentibus tubo longioribus supremo ovato inferioribus ovato- 
lanceolatis, petalis nigrescentibus, vexillo calyce 2-3-plo longioii. cariqi 
acuta recurvata calyce 3-4-plo longiore, ovario cylindrico piloso 
multiovulato. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (66 of 1894 



f previously known with erect 



148. Dolichos lupinoides, Baker [Leguminosae] ; perennis, caule 
erecto simplice vel furcato dense persistenter albo-sericeo, foliis propriis 
hysteranthiis ignotis, rudimentariis bracteiformibus ovatis, floribus 
in racemo elongato denso dispositis, bracteis linearibus pilosis, 
pedicellis brevibus pilosis, calyce piloso tubo campanulato dentibus 
superioribus parvis, iniVrion lancoolato tubo longiori, petalis pulchre 
purpureis calyce duplo longioribus, ovario cylindrico multiovulato dense 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (133 of 1893 
collection). 
s p 
Petala 6-7 

This curious species has the dense raceme of a Lupin. It flowers in 
November, i 



ract-like simple sessile clasping pilose leaves below the inflorescenc 

149. Dolichos pteropus, Baker [Leguminosa;] ; percnni-. 
rectis pubescentibus, stipulis lanceolatis rigidul" 
5 rigiduli* obovatis obtusis vel cmarginatis 



? lanceolatis rigidulis eaducis, foms simpn 



racemo laxo efoliato dispositis, bracteis linearibus parvis, calyce piloso 
tubo campanulato dentibus aeutis tubo sequiloiwi-. petalis pulelnv 
purpureis calyce 2-3-plo. longioribus, ovario cylindrico multiovulato 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (94 and 117 of 
1893 collection). 

Caulis pedalis. Folia 12-15 lin. longa, ala petioli 4 lin. lata. Calyx 
3 lin. longus. Pet ala 7-8 lin. longa. 

Remarkable for the very curious foliaceous wing of the petiole. 

150. Dolichos xiphophyllus, Baker [Leguminosae] ; perennis, caulibus 
erectis pilosis, stipulis lanceolatis magnis rigidulis persistentilms, foliis 
paucis linearibus simplicibus ascendentibus subcoriaceis utrinque viridi- 
bus pilosis ad basin sensim angustatis, floribus axillaribus longe 
pfdiccllatis, calyce piloso tubo obconico dentibus infequilongis deltoideis 
tubo brevioribus, petalis pulchre purpureis calyce triplo longioribus, 
ovario cylindrico piloso multiovulato. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (46 and 71 of 
1893 collection). 

Caulis pedalis vel sesqui pedalis. Folia 6-8 poll, longa, medio 2-3 
lin. lata. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Petala 6 lin. longa. Fructus ignotus. 
nplicifolius, Hook. fil. in Bot, Mag. tab. 



151. Pentas involucrata, Baker [Rubiaceae] ; perennis, caulo elongato 

parce ramoso hispululo, stipulis profunda luciniatis, foliis oppo*itis 

rigidulis paucijugis lanceolatis ad basin sensim angustatis utrinque 

-. i •wm> densis multifloris terininalibus globosis basibus 

dilatatis foliorum superiorum involucratis, dentibus calycinis magnis 



67 

subulatis, corolla! tubo cylindrico calyce duplo longiori, limbi lobis 
parvis lanceolatis, staminibus ex tubo exsertis. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (40 of 1894 
collection). 

Caulis sesquipedalis vel bipedalis. Folia caulina 4-6 poll, longa. 
Denies calycini 3 lin. longi. Corolla tubus 6-7 lin. longus ; limbi 



152. Pentas speciosa, Baker [Rubiacero] ; annua, cairii 

.:■_■■•■.,;.--■ ' , : 

membranaceis utrinque pilosis facie viridibus dorso pallid 

intmiodiis folio raulto longioribus, cymis t 

rubello lobis magnis obovatis cuspidate, antheris 
in tubo inclusis. 

Habitat.— Lake Tanganyika ; pool 20 miles south of Niomkoto, A. 
Carson (1888 collection). 

Caulis 2-3 pedalis. Folia l£-2 poll, longa. Denies calycini 4 lin. 
longi. Corolla- tubus 15 lin. longus; limbus expansua 15 lin. diam. 

Very distinct, with a much larger flower than in P. carnea, Benth. 
in Bot. Mag. tab. 4086, or in any other species already known. 



] 53. Pentas confertifolia, Baker 
> puhescente. 



?, foliis in • 

asn'n.lentibus inrr.pialibus lin.-aril.us vel lan,-.-.,lati< utrinque viridibus 

pub^erntibus •ymi< < >i :■■.-••- . >- ' »i - ' • - bbus, bracteis 

Lis, ovario piloso globoso, dentibus 

.. t .., r ,,U;i- tul)'» i'long.-ito cylin.lrico pubescente, 

limbi lobis bra tteris ex tubo exsertis - 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (23 of 1894 
collection). 

Caulis sesquipedalis vel bipedalis. Folia ma.j..™ 2-2£ poll, longa, 
2-3 lin. lata. Corolla tubus 2 poll, longus, lobi 3 lin. longi. 
Near P. verticillata, Sebum. 

154. Oldenlandia macrodonta, B 

,:,:,•'■ ...:..;•■:..■.'■ ■■■■:■■ -^ ■ . 

• :■ - ■' - - --- -^ '.". . - ' ■■■■' - : " 



Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (107 of 1894 

Caulis pedalis et ultra. Folia n 2-1 lin. lata. 

Denies calycini demum 2 lin. longi. Corolla tubus 4 lin longus. 



Nearly allied to 0. abyssinica, Hiern. 



loo. Fadogia triphylla, Baker [Rubiuceae] ; perennis, caule erecto 
simplici glabro, stipulis deltoideis integris, foliis ternatis ascendentibus 
oblongis obtu?is vel cuspidatis basi cuneatis subcoriaceis utrinque 
viridibus glabris, floribus in cymis paucifloris axillaribus pedunculatis 
dispositis, pedieellis brevibaa erectis, calyce glabro campanulato obscure 
dentato, corollas tubo calyce paulo longiori fauce pilosa, lobis ovatis tubo 
requilongis, anthcris ex tubo exsertis. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (43 of 1894 
collection). 

Caulis pedalis. Folia \\-2\ poll, longa, 12-15 lin. lata. Calyx 
2 lin. longus. Corolla: tubus 3 lin. longus. 

Nearly allied to F. glaberrima, Scbweinf. of Djur-land and F. 
', Welw. of Angola. 

1 56. Galium stenophyllum, Baker [Rubiacese] ; perenne, caulibus 
erectis gracilibu< profunda sulcatis plus minusve pilosis, foliis 6-8-nis 
angusto linciiribus margine recurvatis, floribus terminalibus copiose 
paniculatis, pcdiccllis biwibus rectis, floribus parvis albidis rubro 
tiuctis, pctalis ovati< acutis. coccis globosis glabris nigris nitidis. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (1889 collection, 
40, 41 and 80 of 1893 collection). Nyassa land, J. Buchanan (770, 
1358, 1364 of 1891 collection). 

Caulis pedalis vel bipedalis. Folia 9-12 lin. longa. Corolla 
expansa 1^ lin. diam. Cocci 1 lin. diam. 

Belongs to the section Leiogalia, near the European G. lucidum, All. 
The numbers cited vary greatly in indumentum and length of 



jirtiolalis oblongis \ i-l lim an -oblongis obtusis basi rotundatis rigidulis 
utrinque viridibu.- pubescent ibus, eapitulis pauritloris ad apicem ramu- 
lorum paucis oongestis. involucro oblongo bractcis nndtiseriatis rigidis 
pallidis adpn terioribus oblongis vel lineari-oblongis 

obtusis exterioribus parvis ovatis, pappi setis rigidis albidis ciliatis, 
acheniis pubescentibus. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (74 of 1894 
collection). 

Folia 12-18 lin. longa. Involucrum 4£ lin. longum, 2 lin. diam. 
Pappus 2^-3 lin. longus. 

Closely resembles in habit the Brazilian V. nitidula, Less. 

158. Bojeria vestita, Baker [Composite] ; herbacea, perennis, caule 
foliato dense pi loso, foliis subcoriaceis erenatis tacit- viridibus scabris 
dorso pallide viridibus pilosis inferioribus petiolatis oblongis obtusis basi 
cuneatis, interincniis sessilibu.s oblongo-spathulatis nmplcxieaubbus 
superioribus parvis obi,, . magnis coryinbosis, in- 

volucro campanulato bracteis pauciseriatis lanceolatis adpressis sub- 
ibliaceis dense pilosis, achenio cylindrico glabro, pappo albido rigidulo 
achenio 2-3-plo longiore. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (30 of 1894 



Folia infer iora 8-9 poll, longa, 4-5 poll. lata, 
n. diam. Pappus 2\ lin. longus. 



from the Cape. 

159. Emilia integrifolia, Baker [Compositse] ; perennis, glabra, 

■■ auliiii- nitfriii- rtTiioti-- linearibus 
integris sessili da pliuitau 

laxe corymbosis, pedunculis mniis ereetis, involucre obion^o. braeieis 
circiter 8 aaqualibus linearibus viridibu3 albo marginatis, florilm- pulehre 
purpureis involuero paulo longioribus, receptaculo piano, acheniis glabris 
brunneis arete costatis, pappo albo molli achenio duplo longiori. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (102 of 1894 
collection). ! of Lake Nyassa, Joseph Thomson. 

Caidis pedalis vel sesquipedalis. Folia caulina majora 2-3 poll, 
longa, 1^-2 lin. lata. Involncrum 2 lin. longura. Achenia % lin. 

Near E. graminea, DC. and E. ascendens, DC., both natives of 
Madagascar. 

160. Sctazoglossum connatum, X. E. Brown [Asclepiadeae] ; caule 
solitario erecto simplici pubescente, foliii 



petiolatis linearibus acutis marginibus revolutis utrinque pubescentibus, 
umbellis G-10 <c>-ilil.>us ln.ralibus 6-9-floris, bracteis subulatis 
cum pedicellis gracilibus calycibusque patule pubescentibus. Bepalifl 
patentibus lanceolatis acuminatis, corolla fere ad basin 5-loba lobis 
:to-incurvatis apicibusque connatis 
icplii ito-revolutis itriiiiju pubescentibus, corona? lobis 
; aequilongis transverse oblongis vel subqua. I 

" - 3 angulis exterioribus m dentes breves productis 
s bicarinatis et infra apicem cum 
dente parvo instruct i-^ glabr;-, antberis raembranis inflexis suborbiculari- 
bus terminntis, stylo apice late truneato leviter o-gil.boso minutissinie 
papillose 

Habitat. — Pwambo, south of Lake Tanganyika, Carson 17. 
Caulis 2 ped. altus, f-1 lin. crassus. Fulionim pttioli i-l lin. longi, 
lamina 2-2 A poll, long*, £-1 lin. lata-, liraetcu i-U lin. long*. Pedi- 
cel U 1.1-2 lin. lon-i. ' Stpala 1]-U lin. longa. Corolla lobi 3 lin. 
longi, basi 1 lin. lati. Coront, lobi \ lin. longi et lati. 

In habit this resembles S. intemiptum, Sehleeht. and S. nnf/nstissi- 
HuiiH, Sebum., but is at otic- distinguished" from those and all other 
known species by the tips of the corolla lobes being connate, as in some 
species of I \ rop't ;/ia and llrochystelma. The flowers appear to be of a 



161. Xysmalobium helium, .V E. II r, 
robusto unifanam pubcrulo, foliis petiolai 
et basi cunealis apice obiusissiiiii.- el 
utrinque glabris, umbellis plurimis hit* 



acutis glabris, corolla magna campanul 
lobis late oblongis obtusis intus intense 
maculatis extus pallidis utrinque glabris, 



70 

introrsim crasso-apiculatis dorso valde convexis ventro pi 
marginibusque ad apices alato-dentatis, antheris membrania inflexis late 
ovatis obtusis vel subacutis terminatis, stylo apice late truncato pentagono 
centro depresso. 

Habitat.— East Tropical Africa: Blantyre, Buchanan 43; Nyassaland, 
Bmhanan 603; Manganja Hills, Kirk; Fwambo, . S. of Lake Tan- 
ganyika, ('arson 62. 

Caulis ultra pedum altus, 1 ',-". lin. crassus. Folio nun pctioii 3-4 lin. 
longi, lamina) 2-3 t} poll, longse, f~l| poll. lata;. Feduncdli 0-10 lin. 
longi. Bractea 2A-4 lin. longa. Pedicelli f-li poll, longi. Sepala 
3|-4^ lin. longa. '1 lin. lata. 0„y>//„ lobi 10-13 lin. longi, 5.1-7 lin. 
lati. Corona; lobi l|-2 lin. longi. Slamimun volnmna 3 lin. longa. 

This is similar to AT. spathulatum, Schum. in general appearance, but 
the flowers are larger, the coronal lobes reach to the top of the column or 
slightly overtop it and are different in form. 

162. Asclepias amabilis, N. E. Brown [Asclepiadese] ; cattle gmcili 

vel subsessilibus linearibus aeutis niaiginibus revoluiis seaberuli?, 
umbellis 2-3 pedunculatis 5-6 floris, peduneulis podioelliMpie unifariaiu 
puberulis, braclvis -itbulali-, sopali-. hun-colai i> vel ovaio-lanceoiatis 
aeutis puberulis ciliolatis, corolla rotata fere ad basin 5-loba lobis 
late ovatis aeutis oxt us mi nut > H sparse pubevuli pallidi purpureis intn.s 
glabris albidis, eoroiuo lobi-, paulo sii|im stfuninum eolmnna 1 basin 
exortis et column, e apieem n ti i - 1 .1 is truncatis 



Habitat.— Y\a<\ in.pi.-j.l Africa, Fwambo, S. of Lake Tanganyika. 

Caulis 1—1 A ped. alius, ,-1 lin. crassus. Folia 1.1-3 poll, longa, 
l-l \ lin. lata. Fidiiiintli \-2\ poll, longi. Bracteai 2-3 lin. longae. 

Pedicelli 8-12 lin lon-i Supala 2-2| lin. longa. Corolla 9-10 lin. 

diam., lobis 4-4.1 lin. longis, 1\ lin. latis. Corona; lobi 14; lin. longi. 
Staminum columna, l^ lin. longa. 

163. Tachiadenus continentalis, Baker [Gentianeaa] ; herbaceus, 
perennis, gla b< ir-ibus vel fureatis, folds 
opp..^itix -,-silil, u - parvis ascendentibus lanceolatis vel oblongodan- 

iiis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis dorso cnrinaiis, 
be tubo cylindrico calyce 2-3-plo longiori, limbi lobis ovatis 
valde imbrieatis, g.mifalibus in tubo inclusis, staminibus supra medium 
tubi insertis. 

Habitat.— Fw&mbo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (33 of 1894 
collection). 

Caulis pedalis et ultra. Folia 6-9 lin. lata. Calyx 6-9 lin. longus. 
Corolla: limbus expansus 2 poll. diam. 

Adds this fine genus, ! . confined to Madagascar, 

to the Continental flora. Nearly alii' d to T. gracilis, Griseb. 

164. Ipomcea (Orthipomoea) tanganyikensis, Baker [Convolvulaceae] ; 



j'aucis longi: 



capitulo longe pedunculato aggregatis, bracteis paryis 






I pilis hispidis densissime vestitis, corolla rubra infundibulari 
calyce duplo longiori. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (73 of 1894 
collection). Also collected 20 years ago by Captain Lpvett Cameron. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa, 6-12 lin. lata. Calyx 3 lin. longus. 

Nearly allied to the West African /. amcena, Cboisy. 



-, calvce glabro rigidulo bractea bnv. 

go bractea multo longiori, limbi lobis patulis 
oblongis basi cuneatis, genitalibus in tubo inclusis. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (100 of 1894 
collection). Lower plateau north of Lake Nyassa, Joseph Thomson). 

Caulis pedalis vel sesquipedalis. Folia 2-3 lin. longa. Jlan-nws 
9-18 lin. longus, bracteis \\ lin. longis et latis. Corolla; tubus 5-6 lin. 
longus, limbus 3-4 lin. diam. 

Very distinct by its slender rigid nearly naked stems and quadri- 



166. Clerodendron (Euclerodendron) tanganyikense, Bd 

:-. ■ 

et in paniculam terminalem aggregatis, ramuhs p. 

centibus, bracteis lanceolatis minutis, calyce pube^centc tubo oblongo 
dentibus parvis ovatis, corollas tubo - ^mbo parvo 

lobis orbicuiaribus, staminibus limbo duplo longionbus. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (52 of 1894 
collection). 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa, medio 2-': ■></ terminalis 

2 poll. diam. Calyx 2 lin. longa. Corolla limbus 3 hn. diam. 

Takes nmk amongst the small flowered species near the Kilimanjaro 
C. Johnstoni Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. 2, Bot. II., 346. 

167 Pycnostachys verticillatus, Baker [Labiate] ; herbaceus, 

'■-■■■■■<■■■ 
rillatis linearibus vel lanceolatis dentaris ai 

breviter exserto, labiis parvis, superiori oblongo, inferior! value concavo, 



Habitat.— -Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (38 of 
collection). 

2-3-pedalis. Folia 6-9 lin. longa, 1-4 



'ycnostachys pai 

ramosis dense 



parvifolius, Baker [Labiate] ; herbaceus, perennis, 



foliis sessilibus oppo 
:eolati 



pseudo-verticillatis parvis integris linearibus 
pubescentibus facie sordide viridibus dorso pallidioribus, racemis 
densissimis oblongis vel subglobosis, bracteis parvis linearibus, calyce 
piloso tubo brevissimo dentibus rigidis lineari-subulatis, corolla; tubo 
decurvato e calyce longe exserto, labio superiori parvo angusto, inferiori 
majori valde concavo, staminibus inclusis. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (26, 34, 92, 103, 
of 1894 collection). 

Caules sesquipedalcs vel bipedales. Folia majora G-9 lin. longu. 
Calycis dentes demum 1 \ lin. longi. Corolla 6-9 lin. longa. 

A very distinct species, with leaves like those of the common 
Lavender, and much more capitate racemes than any of those previously 



169. Orthosiphon Cameroni, Baker [Labiatas] ; perennis, caulibus 
•rectis gracllibus dense pilosis, foliis paucis sessilibus lanceolatis 
obscure dcntatis utrinque viridibus pilosis, racemis laxissimis, 
simplicibus, verticillMtria paucifloris, bracteis minutis deciduis, 
pedicellifl brevibus, calyce piloso tubo campanulato, dente superior! 
suborbiculari tubo breviori infimis parvis setaceis, corollae tubo calyce 
duplo longiori labio inferiori obovato superiori multo majori, staminibus 

Habitat.— Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (81 of 1893), and collected 
also 20 years ago in his journey across the continent by Captain 
Lovett Cameron. 

Caulis sesquipedalis. Folia 2-3 poll, longa, 3 lin. lata. Calyx 
floriferus 3 lin. longus. Corolla 7—8 lin. longa. 

Remarkable in the genus for its much-exserted stamens. 

170. Plectranthus betonicsefolius, Baker [LabiataeJ ; herbaceus, 
perennis, caule tenuiter albo-incano, foliis paucis longe petiolatis 
ovatis distincte crenatis facie viridibus tenuiter incanis dorso albo- 
incanis, pedunculo nudo elongato, racemis densis simplicibus cylindricis 
axi dense piloso, bracteis ovatis cuspidatis, calyce parvo dense persis- 
tenter purpureo-lanoso dentibus suboequalibus deltoideis, corollae 
rrabeacentis tubo calyce multo longiori dimidio superiori late infundi- 
bulari, labio superiori" parvo, inferiore magno valde concavo, staminibus 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (64 and 79 of 1894 



Corolla 6-7 lin. longa. 

171. Plectranthus modestus, Baker [LabiataeJ; annua, caulibus 
gracilibus erectis ramosis pubescentibus, foliis paucis sessilibus 
lanceolatis distincte crenatis utrinque viridibus glabris, racemis laxis 
simplicibus, verticillastris 2-3-floris, bracteis minutis, pedicellis calyce 
longioribus, calyce pubescente tubo canipanulato dente supremo orbicu- 



lari reliquis angustis acutis, corolla? tubo calyce duplo longion, hxbio 
superiori parvo, inferiori magno concavo, staminibus inclusis. 
Habitat. — Tanganyika plateau, A. Carson (1889 collection). 



ngested 



172. Plectranthus subacaulis, Baker [Labiatae] ; perennis, foliis 
ra.liealibus plnribus scssilibiiH oblongN obtusis ad basin sensira angustatis 
utrinque vindibus glabris nigro-punctatis, caulibus brevibus simplicibus 
vel furcatis - in spin's 

simplicibus subdensis dis] ms persistentibus foliaceis, 

calyce campanulato ore truncate, corolla pubescente tubo calyce 
multo longiori dimidio inferiori cylir riori dilatato, 

labio inferiori parvo oblongo concavo superiori parvo recurvato, 
staminibus inclusis. 

Habitat. — Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (33 and 65 of 
1893 collection). 

Caulis 5-6 poll, longus. Folia radicalia 3-4 poll, longa, 9-12 lin. 
lata. Calyx \ lin. longa. Corolla 4 lin. longa. 

Very abnormal by its spicate inflorescence, truncate calyx, and corolla 
tube longer than the calyx; also by its sub-acaulescent habit. Perhaps 



j Baker [Irideae] ; caule elongate monocephalo, 
tolio umco bn-al: prodimto lincari i:iabro ri^idulo venis eonspicuis, 
f'.Iiis supiM'ioribus brueteiformibus -patha* \alvis 

magnis oblongis acutis. inferiori exteriori mult.) lomjiori, pc<licdli> 



oxtM-ioriburi ivllcxis. intorioribus paulo brevioribus erectis, stigmatis 
appendicibus magnis oblongis. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, A. Carson (37 of 1894 
collection). 

Cormus ignotus. Caulis sesquipedalis. Folium product urn bipedal,', 

3 lin. latum! Spntlur vulva interioris 4-4£ poll, longa, 9-12 lin. lata., 

m 2 poll, longum, iegraentis omnibus supra medium 6-7 

Nearly allied to the Cape M. spathacea, Ker. 

174. Gladiolus oligophlebius, Baker [Irideae] ; caule gracili 
elongate, "Tbliis productis circiter 5 linearibus elongatis glabris 
graminoideis vcni> piiui-is remotis, spicis laxis simplicibus paucifloris, 
spatb.i' \al\a cxtoriori oblongo- laneeolata firma viridula, perianthio 
magno pallide rubello, go-lanceolatis 

acutis suba3quil bo distincte brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Abercorn, Lake Tanganyika, Carson (25 of 1893 

Cormus ignotus. Caulis ^qtupcdalis. Folia pedalia et ultra, 4-5 
lin lata. Spath<r 1 S-2 1 lin. !onira\ Pvrianthii tubus 9-1L 1 lin. l.aigus ; 
lobi 2-2* poll, longi. 

IS) ear G. angustus, Linn., and G. Grajitii, Baker. 



74 

175. Gladiolus caudatus, Baker [Irideje] ; caule gracili elongato, 
foliis produetis 4-5 elongatis linearibus glabris graminoideis, spicis 
Iaxis siniplicilin- paucifloris. ^pattue valva exteriori oblongo-lanceolata 
Anna viridula, perianthio pallido rubro tubo brevi infundibulari, lobis 
oblongis insigniter caudatis superioribus multo majoribus, staminibus 
limbo distincte brevioribus. 

Habitat Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, Carson (19 of 1893 collection). 

Cormus ignotns. Caulis pedalis vel sesquipedalis. Lamina folii 
6-12 poll, longa, 2-3 lin. lata. Spathce 12-18 lin. longa?. Perianthii 
tubus 6-8 lin. longus ; lobi superiores 2 poll, longi. 

Allied to G. august ust, Linn., and G. cuspidatus, Jacq. 

176. Gladiolus gracillimus, Baker [Irideje]; cormo parvo globoso 
" ' crassis parallelis vestito, caule stricto 

longe vaginantibus superioribus lamina 
libera brevi lineari-subulata praeditis, spicis simplicibus laxis secundis 
paucifloris, spathse valva exteriori oblonga albo-viridi obtusa vel 
ciispidata. ; id, tubo brevi infundibulari, lobis 

oblongis acutis tubo duplo longioribus inferioribus superioribus longiori- 
bus, staminibus limbo distincte brevioribus. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, Carson (118 of 1893 collec- 

Cormus semipollicaris. Caulis pedalis vel sesquipedalis. Lamina 
producta folii superioris 2-3 poll, longa. Spices 2-3 poll, longa). 
Spathce 4-6 lin. longae. Perianthium pollicare. 

A very slender small-flowered species, allied to the Cape G. gracilis, 

177. Gladiolus tritonioides, Baker [Irideae] ; caule elongato, foliis 3-4 
remotis inferioribus caulem vaginantibus superioribus lamina linear i hrevi 

producta, spicis laxis paucifloris simplicibus vel furcatis, spathae 
ovato-lanceolata albo-brunnea interiori pallida obtusa 
membranacea, perianthio saturate purpureo, tubo brevi infundibulari, lobis 
ovatis acutis subconformibus tubo duplo longioribus, staminibus limbo 
distincte brevioribus. 

Habitat.— Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, Carson (37 of 1893 collection). 

Cormus ignotus. Caulis 1^-2 pedalis. Lamina producta folii 
superioris 3-4 poll, longa. Spica 3-4 poll, longa. Spathce 8-12 lin. 
longae. Perianthii tubus 6 lin. longus; lobi pollicares. 

Connects Gladiolus and Tritonia. Of the species of the former genus 
it looks most like G. brevifolius, Jacq. 

178. Gloriosa Carsoni, Baker [Liliaceous caulibus erectis crebre 

foliatis, foliis amplexicau'iil 



rigida ] 



corymbosis, pedunculis nudis elongatis 
snlendide rubro secmentis arete refiexis 



m^uiculatis apice a 
margine luteis, staminibus patulis perianthio duplo brevioribus, stylo 
erecto vel arcuato apice stigmatoso breviter trifurcato. 



A very distinct novelty, with flowers like those of the 
G. virescens, Lindl., but style not deflexed at the base, 
erect, and leaves not cirrhose at the tip. It would ma 
garden plant. 

179. Tristachya decora, Stapf [G-ramineae] ; panicula ovata vel 
oblonga, interdum secunda, ramis gracilibu-. ad un-dhim Tel ultra erectis 
deinde abrupte patulis vel deflexis ad et supra curvaturam scti- albi* 
atris ortis dense barbatis, spicularuin capitulis 
sub anthesi ovatis, gluma I. lanceol -.1 secundum 

nervos setis vel setarum fasciculis e tuberculis atris ortis albis patulis \A 
deflexis ornata, gluma II. ovato-lanceolata longe acuminata glabra, 
gluma III. praecedenti simili setis utrinque 2 vel 3 brevibus exceptis 
glabra, ejus palea anguste oblonga applanafca, gluma IV. oblongo-ovata 
basi utrinque fasciculo pilorum et ad medium serie obliqua fasciculorum 
ornata, ejus palea lanceolata acuta carinis cristatis inferne conniventibus 
canaliculum includentibus. 

Habitat.— Fwauibo, Tanganyika, A. Carson, 36. 

Panicula 4-6 poll, longa, 2-3 poll. lata, fa pi hi la (aristis exceptis) 

9 lin. longa, 3-1 lin. lata. Gluma I. 9 lin. longa, setae 3-4 lin. long*; 
gluma I. et II. 6-7 lin., IV. 4 lin. longa ; arista ad genu 4 lin., tota 

10 lin. longa. 

This species is nearest allied to T. leucotlirix, Trin., a species known 
from Natal and the eastern part of the Cape Colony. It differs from it 
mainly in the smaller and broader heads of spikeiets, the very long and 
stiff bristles of glume 1, the glabrous or almost glabrous glumes 2 and 
3, the peculiar arrangement of the hair- ot ^hnne 1. and the shorter 
awns. Glume 1 is rather firm anil light brown, whilst the tubercles 
from which the white bristles spring are of a pure black. The second 
and third glumes are yellowish brown, with green and prominent nerves. 
The fourth glume is much paler, and the nervation hs< marked. There 
are no leaves with the specimens except one sheath. It is glabrous, and 
bears at the mouth a dense line of short white liairs which represent the 

CCCCLII.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Her Majesty the Queen has been graciously pleased to allow the 
fences excluding the public from the Palace Meadow to be removed. 
This piece of ground is about A\ acres in extent and when thrown 
open it will allow visitors a direct, instead of a circuitous, access to the 
finest part of the Arboretum. 

The Royal Gardens are 251 acres in extent. It is not generally 
understood that they were originally the private property of the Crown, 
and not acquired out of public funds. The building used for the 
Herbarium and Library was sold to the nation by George IV. Access 
to the remainder has been step by step conceded to the public by the 
liberality and munificence of Her Majesty the Queen. 

The successive stages 1 rated : — 

The Bota Sir William Hooker was appointed 

Director in 1841, comprised about 11 acres. 

To this was almost in between 3 and 4 acres 

about No. I. house, and the orangery (now No. III. Museum). 

Soon after (1844), by permission of the Queen, 47 acres, including 
the piece of water in front of the Palm House, were added from the 
Pleasure Grounds for the formation of a Pinetum. 



76 

In 1846 the Royal Kitchen Gardens (14 acres) were abolished ; a 
third of their area (about 5 acres), called Methold's Q-arden (it having 
originally belonged to Methold House, the Director's present official 
residence), was at once added to the Botanic Garden ; another third 
abutting on the Richmond Road is now represented by the Herbaceous 
ground and the Propagating yard for the purpose of which many of the 
then existing fruit h- ■>.... ; , re "still in use. 

In 1851, the intervening third, the Kitchen (rarden mid Paddock, in 
the occupation of the King of Ilmiover, reverted to the Crown, and was 
added by the Queen to the Botanic Garden. The Pleasure Grounds 
and Gardens at Kew were in the occupation of the King of Hanover 
for sporting purposes at the time the Botanic Garden was given to the 
nation. The woods were filled with rough scrub for cover. 

9th July 1845 they were placed in the charge of Sir William Hooker 
by the "Woods and Forests. The intention was that they should be 
formed into a National Arboretum. A plan for the purpose was prepared 
(1846) by W. A. Nesfield; the main features were carried out at the 
time, and the general principle has been worked upon ever since. 

30th March 1864 the Aboretum was finally thrown open to the public 
every day of the year except Christmas Day. 

The following letter records the terms on which Her Majesty the 
Queen has been pleased to grant the further concession of access to the 
Palace Meadow. 



Board of Green Cloth to Her Majesty's Offh 



Sir, 

In accordance with the representations made to the Lord Steward 
on various occasions by the First Commissioner of Works, that access 
to the Meadow in front of Kew Palace would greatly improve the 
arrangements for admitting the public to Kew Gardens, I have recently 
taken Her Majesty's pleasure on this point, and am honoured by the 
Queen's commands to intimate to you Her Majesty's consent to cede to 
your Department, for the use of the public, the greater part of the 
Meadow in question under the conditions which have been discussed 
and practically agreed to between the two Departments viz., that tin- 
Office of Works will erect proper fencing to limit the admission of the 
public, that the arrangement shall in no way prejudice the rights of the 
Crown to deal in any manner it may deem fit with the land thus ceded 
or any part of it, but shall be considered one strictly at the pleasure of 
the Crown and terminable by it at any time ; also that the Department 
of Works will undertake to keep in suitable condition all the grounds 
attached to Kew Palace, and will further cause to he kept in order and 
properly thinned the trees, shrubberies, and paths in the grounds attached 
to the Queen's Cottage in Kew Gardens. 

I further concur in the proposal as shown bv plan as to the fencing 
in Kew Meadow, prepared by your Department, with reference to the 
foregoing arrangement, as forwarded in the letter from your Department 



s 4th i 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) Breai 



Notizblatt des Koniglichen botanischen Gartens und Museums zu 
B'liin. — limin lia.- i ».- 1 i < 1 Kew the compliment ol < -t n 1 .1 j -It i r !•_•• an <>i _ ;i n 
on the same lines and for the same purposes as the Kew Bullet in • that 
is to say, for recording noteworthy events in the t.-tablishrntnts which 
would otherw- << novelties in 

small collections that are constantly arriving, and for developing a more 



he first number contains a list of the most 
noteworthy plants recently introduced into the Berlin garden ; experi- 
ments in raising and cultivating plants, and consignments to the 
colonies; not' gnoses of new 

plants, and miscellaneous notes. The prompt publication of information 
of this kind can only result in benefit to similar establishments in other 
countries and the advancement of botanical science and enterprise in 
the world. 



Botanical Magazine. — The number tor February contains ngu 

several plants of unu-ua! interest. Mnsa TJillii, a native of Qu 
Mr. F. M. Bailey, Col 
plant raised from them 



ionsly imperfectly known. Mr. F. M. Bailey, Colonial 
Kew in 1 — 



flowered in the Palm House in December ] 
Quite recently, but too late for the Magazine, fruit has been produced. 
It is bright red, globose in shape, about an inch and a half in diameter, 
and alt peilier ; ik an ordinary banana. Apharema spicata is a 
monotypic herbaceous member of the Samydaceae, and a native of 
Brazil. It was first collected by Mr. J. Weir, 1861-2, and recently 
re-discovered by Dr. Fritz Mueller. It was raised from seed sent from 
the Copenhagen Boianiu Garden. Riehardia Pentlandii, ft native of 
Ijjisnti.l.-n.l. \. i. mark able for the large size of its cordate leaves and 
the deep yellow of its spathes. It was drawn from a plant, one of 
several ijrown from tubers brought to ICew b\ Mr E. E. Galpin in 
1892. Aloe brachystachys, sent to Kew by Sir John Kirk from 
Zanzibar in lSH-t, is a new arboivseent species allied to A. abystinica, 
which flowered for the first time in January 1894. The remaining 
plant figured is Cephalaiitlms natulmsis, a species having a wide 
range in South-eastern Africa, and interesting as being the only 
Afric 

Asia and North 
showy shrub, and \ 
Horn. 



oi flu- Mui-n.' 



Mr. Scott- Elliot's Ruwenzori Expedition.— Nature for November 5, 

1S«II. 1 -:i\, i, , iv-eut.l tiom m \m. rir.i;i .-liu.li. ]. olthe 

the Emin Relief Expedition, as described by Major Jephson. This was 

uant Stairs from *' ~ x -'~ 
altitude on the slopes of Ruwenzori or the Mo 
In 1893 Mr. Seott-EUiot, an accomplished I 
African U-.v , t! ; . - ibmitted to the Government Grant ( 
Royal Society a scheme for an extended plan of botanical exploration in 
Central Africa. On the advice of the Board for Botany, Mr. Scott- 
Elliot undertook the investigation of Ruwenzori, and through the kind 
aid of Sir John Kirk, such official facilities as were possible were 
obtained on his behalf. 



78 

A letter dated Ruwenzori, May 21, 1894, was published in Nature 
for October 4 of that year. It raised a high expectation that Mr. Scott- 
Elliot would succeed in thoroughly investigating the flora of this 
interesting region. 

Mr. Scott-Elliot is now on his way home, and the following letter is 
the latest intelligence which has been received from this intrepid 

Some account of Ruwenzori on which Mr. Scott-Elliot had spent four 
months is given by himself in Nature for January 17, 1895, in a letter 
dated August 2 of the preceding year. 

Mandala, Shire Highlands, 
Dear Sir, 6 December 1894. 

I think I should report to you as to my movements since leaving 
Ruwenzori. I was obliged to start south owing to my supply of cloth 
running short and the impossibility of feeding my men. 

I thought it would be too foolhardy to attempt to cross Ruanda, of 
which 1 had very bad reports from everyone, so determined to pursue 
my original plan of trying to sec if the Ivurera river was navigable. T 
therefore crossed Mpon.ro and followed this river from the point where 
it turns eastward until 1 th iu r hi thn l\ ni of Tanganika. 

I then went across Urundi towards the lake which I reached after great 
difficulty with the natives (my caravan consisted of 40 men of whom 
one was killed by the Warundi). I then came down Tanganika by 
Arab dhows to Abercorn, crossed the Stevenson Road and came down to 
Matope on the upper shore by steamer and boat. 1 was obliged to give 
up my original idea of visiting the Livingstone Mountains on account 
of blindness, the result of Tanganika fever and a slight attack of 
dysentery. It is only during the last few days that my eyes have 

about 2,300 numbers of herbarium sp cimens. i also have a fair 
number of insects, a few bird skins, small mammals, amphibia, and (ish 
in spirit (of which 1 could only earn, a very -mndl amount), geological 
specimens and photographs. I have also made a map of my route from 
Ruwenzori to Tanganika which is chiefly over as new ground as 
Ruwenzori itself. 

I propose to stay here a fortnight and then return home as my health 
is not completely recovered and my expenses are becoming very heavy 

1 hope my collections will reach home in good condition ; I am trying 
to keep them with me but have thought it best to send them toChiroma 
at present as the rains are coming on and I wish to hotanise onMilanje. 

The President, (Signed) ' G. F. Scott-Elliot. 

Government Grant Committee, 
Royal Society. 

Malayan Plants.— Dr. CI. King has sent another parcel of plants 

Flo\-a of the Mahnj /'< >ti,>si>la. The - are chiefly Melhwvte, which a 
very numerous in the peninsula 
belonging to the neighbouring 
3fi0 sheets of specimens. 



Flora of Florida.— The first instalment of Mr. G. V. Nash'- Florida 
herbarium, comprising some 700 species, has been purchased. The 
specimens are excellent, and were collected in the vicinity of Eustis in 
Lake County. 

Castleton Gardens, Jamaica. — The Bulletin of the Botanical Depart- 

ment, Jamaica, tor October— December, IS!) I. contain- very interesting 
notes on the plants cultivated in the Botanic Gardens at Castleton. This 
serves both as a guide to the gardens and affords useful information on 



tne plants themselves. A plan i- addt ■!. showing where the plants may 

be found. These gardens were established about 30 years ago in a 

picturesque valley in the mountains between Kingston and 

Bay. They are 19 miles fro "" 

" the drive there and back : 

The scenery along the banks of the Wag-water river is probably the 

most characteristic and beautiful of any in the island. The elevation is 

rainfall is about 110 inches. 

The chief feature of the garden is undoubtedly its fine collection of 
palms. These thrive exceedingly well in the moist part of the locality. 
There are the Sugar-palm (Arenga saccharin ra), Tucum-palm (Astro- 
rarijum culgare), Cohune-palm {Attalea Cohtine), Jamaica Ippi-appi 
(C'irliidorira (jracilis). Wax-palm (Copcrnicia <rri/<ra), yKta-palm 
(Mauritia flexuoset), Ivory-palm {Pln/tdeplias wicrocarpa), Jupati- 
palm (fiaphia tcedigera). Of flowering plants Amlu rstin nnb'dis has 
long been est '.. -a lorn is large festoons 

across the garden paths, while other- such as Bignonia magnified, 
species of Bauhinia, Colvillea racemosa, Dillenia indica, Mesita ferrea, 
Michelia Champaca, Napoleona in. ainpanulata, 

Victoria renin are very luxuriant and attractive. The Mango-teen 
{Gu rein in Mangos/runt) fruit. -d for the first time in .Jamaica at 
Castleton in lS8b\ With Kcononiic plants t ho Castleton Gardens are 
well supplied. They serve as an excellent centre for the propagation 
and distribution of such plants on the north side of the island, and large 
quantities are also sent to the Hope Gardens and to Kingston. 

The three best known rubber tree-, viz.. Pant-lubber (Hevea 
bt'(iiilicnsis), Central American rubber (CastiUon r/a,/ica), and Ceara 
rubber {Manihot Glaziovii) have been established for more than 12 
years, and have borne crops of ieeds. A very successful plot of 
Liberian coffee has been a prominent feature since 1880, and large 
quantities of seed are annually distributed in the island. Mr. Fawcett 
that the export of coffee from Jamaica ought soon to be 
doubled. 



West African Mahogany.— An article en West African mahogany 
i h'/an/a scwgalensis) was published in the Kerr Bulletin. 1S!X», p. lbs. 
A further article (Kew Bulletin, 1894, p. 8) showed that the timber of 
several other trees supplied the African mahogany now in commerce. 
Mr. James Irvine, of Liverpool, was good enough to furnish note-* 
irivinjr the following native- names for dill'ereiit kind- ot mahogany 
I xpoited from West Africa: " Papao," " Bako," " Dubm," " Kwabaha.*' 
••Chire-ahkft.ma,"and"Odum." Odum or Iroko (AVw Bulk tin, lMtl,) 
is Chlorophora excelsa, Benth. Of the botanical identity of the other 
timbers we have no authentic information. 



The African mahogany trade was started as lately as 1886. Already 
it has assumed such proportions (12,(00 tons annually) that it has 
seriously affected the important mahogany industries of British 
Honduras and other countries. African timber is even finding :*' 
into the New World. The folio ' 
in Garden and Forest for Janua 

" The Southern Lumberman s 
f Africa have got as far as 
is much cheaper than the mahogany from Central America and Cuba. 
From these mahogany forests in Africa it is said that twelve million feet 
of lumber have already been cut and exported, and they promise to 
yield an immense revenue to the British and French colonists who have 
seized upon the territory. The wood has a tinge of pink in contrast 
with the somewhat reddish colour of the American variety, and some of 
the squared logs which have been imported are two by three and a half 
feet in size. We may add that some of this African mahogany is the 
wood of Khaya senegalensis, a tree which belongs to the same family 
as the true mahogany, and i« Hr-ely related to it. It is not fo desirable 
a cabinet-wood as the Mexican or Cuban niabo^nny, but is more like 
the Central American wood. Occasionally there are logs richly 
figured, and these have been manufactured here into very attractive 
veneering." 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

Nos. 100, 101.] APRIL and MAT. 



CCCCLIII.— SUGAR-CANE DISEASE IN BARBADOS. 

The rind-disease in sugar-cane ( T . Massee) was 

described in the Kew Bulletin, 1893, p. 149. The root-disease 
was discussed in Ketc Bulletin. 1S93, 
p. 347. Subsequent investigation has shown that these are different 
forms of one and the same disease. The treatment of the fungoid ami 
insect pests ai in the West Indies was published in 

k'tir Bulletin, is!) I. p. I()7. Since tli.n time the subject of cane 
diseases has occupied a good deal of attention, but it can hardly be said 
that anything lias actually Ixvn done to meet the danger which serinusly 
threatens the sugar industry in the West Indies. The latest in- 
formation to h Commission ai.pointed 
by the Governor of Barbados (Sir James Shaw Hay, K.C.M.G.) to 
inquire into and report upon the best means of destroying the Borer or 
any other pest affecting the sugar-cane. The Borer here mentioned is 
the grub of a moth (Chilo saccharalis), figured in k'nr Bulletin, 1892, 
p. 153; and fully described with remedial measures in Ken Bulletin, 
189 1, pp. 172-lTo. 

From this Report the following extracts are taken :— 

The Rind Fungus. 
In riding round the margin of a 
fungus are first noticed by dark 
joints towards the middle or base of the cane. These marks are 
m sun-burn because of their diffused character, 
■ ■ - -ab- 

stains, but that the tissues beneath are affected. This " Red patch" on 
the canes is 5r el from October onwards gradually 

becomes more and more abundant up to the time of the ripening of the 
canes. It is by no means found only in poor looking canes, but is often 
present in fine looking plants. This red patch having made its appear- 
in appearance, and is evidently rotten. Little black specks make their 
appearance, breaking from the inside to the surface of the cane, being 
first seen in the sleeping roots near the joints, and then at the parts of 
the cane between the joints, finally the cane shrivels and dries up. 
U 86845. 1375.— 6/95. Wt. 308. A 



1 deterioratu 



The result of this disease is that canes which if they had rema 
healthy would have given a large yield of rich juice, are found t 
absolutely valueless, and so far from themselves yielding sugar, theii 
presence amongst crushed canes actually leads to a marked (" 
of the juice and of the sugar manufactured therefrom, as well as to a 
diminution in the quantity of the sugar obtained. 

This disease Ij- ev ery canefield in the island, and 

the total crop of 1894 is clearly found to be very seriously diminished 
by it. And your Commission have formed, after the most careful 
consideration, the very .Iisijuici i i : «_f opinion that if it be left unchecked 
the cultivation of the sugar-cane will be rendered unprofitable, and 
therefore extinct in this island. "With the present outlook as regards 
prices and production, it is evident that if -ugareane cultivation is to 
remain the staple of the island, largo crops must be maintained at a 
minimum cultivation cost, and thi< c; nuot possibly be accomplished in 
the presence of a 

Rind Fungus and Moth Borer. 



From the 


appearance i 


t would seer 


ti that the i 


rind 


disease in 


at all 


events a larg 


;e number of 






the 




w of the 


Moth 


Borer. It ^ 


rould seem that in Barbado: 


S up tc 




1), . 






year the fun; 






Hveuu 








»y~the. 


Moth Borer, 


which must 


therefore be 


looked 


up.. 


n as 


a very m 





From January onwards, however, an increasing number of canes will 
be found attacl without any signs of Borer what- 

ever. From a careful examination of such cants it would appear that 
the attack had started from the middle or base of the cane as the fungus 
is most mature there, first sending out the black specks (which are 
spores or seeds) in those portions. These cases of canes attacked by 
fungus alone are very serious, hecaiiM' they increase with the ripening 
of the cane, and in March and onwards become so numerous that they 
constitute, we think, a large majority of the diseased canes. These 
canes are frequently found red from end to end and rotten or dry and 
shrivelled up from end to end without any sign of Borer whatever. It 
would appear from Mr. Massee's very comprehensive and able paper 
that the fungus in such instances must have effected an entrance at the 
ragged bases of the old leaves which have been torn or broken off. The 
above facts show the fungus to be a pest which can by itself and with- 
out any previous insect injury attack the cane ; consequently a pest 
to be dealt with in addition to any measures which might be adopted to 
3 the Moth Borer. 

Root Fungus. 



of "root fin,;/ i>s " so called ; specimens of which have also been 
examined and reported upon by Mr. Massee, who determined it to be a 
fundus known as ('<>!!> totrir/unn fahatum, a species recently described 
by Dr. Went as injurimr the cane's at Java. 

The characteristics of this disease, as far as we have examined it, are 

(1.) It was at first confined for the most part to the higher red soils 
of St. John, having only appeared in small patches in a very few 
other places but has since spread in spots all over the island. 



(2.) The effect of this disease is that the canes appear to receive a 
check in their growth about June and July after planting; the 
plant dwindles down, fresh basal shoots are formed to supply the 
place of the dying ones, but notwithstanding this it is ultimately 
found that growth has been arrested and no cane formed ; and if 
the plant be dug up the roots are nearly all dead ; and those that 
are still living are dotted over by little red spots. The dead roots 
are also often covered by mildew. 

(3.) Such ( no sugar, and the crop of a thoroughly 

diseased field is practically nothing. 

(4.) There seems to be some resemblance between this disease and the 
Sereh of Java. In the latter disease we have the same retardation 
of growth, and shortness of joints, a great number of dead roots, an 
attempt to throw out new shoots from the stool to replace those 
above that are dead. In Sereh, as in the St. John's disease, there 
is a gradual dying away of the plant after the commencement of the 

The one characteristic (histological) of Sereh is the presence of a 
gelatinous substance, slime or gum, in the fibro-vascular bundles of the 
cane, giving the parts attacked a red colour. 

It has been finally decided at Kew that CoUetotrichum fulmrum, 
Went, is simply one phase in the life history of TrirhosphoriaSacrhari, 
Mass., and that the phenomena above described are the effects of that 
particular phase of the disease. 

Selected Cane Plants. 

It is difficult to form a decided opinion with regard to the part 
played by carelessly selected cane plants in propagating rind fungus. 
The attack appears so late in the life of the cane that it is difficult to 
suppose that careless selection has been the direct cause of the presence 
of fungus spores. It is almost equally difficult to speak with regard to 
the propagation of Moth Borer. This insect, as well as the fungus, 
appears to be more prevalent in the low than in the high lands and it 
may be that the better shelter from winds in the former districts enables 
it to settle more effectively and prevents dispersion. On the other hand, 
in recent years it often happens on < ger or smaller 

number of cane plants fail to germinate or die off almost immediately 
after germination. 

At all events, in some cases this is due to diseased plants, and it seems 
exceedingly probable that the high number of supplies on some estates 
has been partly due to that cause. The disease is sometimes due to the 
Moth Borer and sometimes due to fungus. In this connexion an 
interesting experiment is recorded by a planter of tin- island, who 
planted 2900 healthy Keni Keni plants from a healthy field, and 2850 
Keni Keni plants selected carefully by labourers from a diseased field, 
trying to get only healthy plants from this field. The result was 2850 
germinated in the first case, and only 50 germinated in the second case. 
One estate in the island took 80,000 plants to supply 77,000 holes. 
These instances, in our opinion, show one of the effects of planting 
diseased canes, another >-li< ei being, according to Kew experiments, to 
produce the root form of the disease. 

The careful selection of plants has been urged not only in Barbados, 
but in every cane-growing country where disease has led to careful 
investigation, and the practice of indiscriminate selection of plants has 



been universally condemned. There can be no doubt that while we 
have not sufficient evidence to warrant us in ascribing the October rind 
fungus to this source, it must yet be a very prolific 



propagating the Moth Borer. 



Analogy teaches us that direct propagation from seed is the one most 
likely to maintain a vigorous species, and that although by propagation 
from cuttings we may gradually modify a plant to develop richness in 
some one respect and to maintain some one quality, yet a gradual decrease 
of general vitality may result, and a want of adaptation to surrounding 
circumstances. The production of plants from seeds possesses advan- 
tages of mail! to surrounding conditions, 
and of lending itself to the p'roduction of new qualities. 

General experience in other countries shows, on the one hand, that a 
change of varieties is an effectual way of combating plant diseases. 
Thus Mauri tins is reported to find a constant change of great value, 
Queensland is said to have greatly mitigated the ravages of the rust by 
this method, and lastly, there is an ever-increasing store of evidence of 
the most reliable kind to show that there are several varieties of cane in 
Barbados (including some seedling canes) which possess a striking 
though not complete immunity to fungoid attack. 

The following biological consideration leads to the same view, that 
where one variety i<{ plant is cultivated to the practical exclusion of all 
others, that all the parasites of that plant enjoy the very best conditions 
for their continuous propagation and increase. Or to reduce this 
generality to our special case, that continuing to plant the Bourbon cane 
is to provide a continuous supply of material for the rind fungus to 
grow and increase upon. Change the variety, and the parasite exists 
with much greater difficulty or has to change its habits. 

The fact that both the rind fungus and the root fungus are so much 
less liable to attack certain varieties of the cane other than Bourbon 

Your Commission after very careful inquiry not only found that 
certain varieties of canes strongly withstand both root and rind 
fungus, but the record also shows that at all events in some places 
these varieties are very profitable to cultivate, and your Commission 
most strenuously advocates that the cultivation of these varieties should 
be extended in every direction, cultivating in each district the variety 
which proves most fitted for it. During the last few years the diseases 
which attack the Bourbon sugar-cane have steadily increased in amount, 
and the history of like cases points to the belief that this increase will 
go on and not abate until some very serious measures are adopted ; and 
amongst them we consider the cultivation of new varieties as one of the 
ng. With the present prospect as regards price of sugar 
industry can only exist by the strictest economy in cultivation 
and manufacture ; and with any serious amount of disease, cultivation 
must cease to be profitable. Undoubtedly if the progress of the present 
disease in Barbados cannot be checked, the island is doomed to ruin. 
And all considerations point to the conclusion that the whole island 






must be ready to abandon if necessary the cultivation of the Bourbon 
variety. Your Commission recommends that every estate should he 

to supply, if occasion demands, a sufficiency of plants to plant the whole 

Sebious Character of the Attacks of the Moth Borer. 

Moth Borers of one kind or other have been recognised as destroyers 
in every sugar-producing country; in India, Mauritius, Java, and other 
Ka-t Indian islands; in Queensland. Louisiana, and all over the West 
Indies. The Mauriihis disease, which was investigated in 1848 by a 
Government Commissi. m. was of this nature, and your Commission have 
come to the conclusion that Biatrrea Saccharalis is by far the most 
serious insect pesi in this island, and in the months of October to 
December by its injuries to the sugar-cane enables the spores to effect 
an entrance and attack eanes in a manner which at that time of the 
year would not otherwise occur. Various observers who have written 
upon the subject have held the view that this insect was the parasite 
most to be feared. 

Of all insect enemies of the sugar-cane the Moth Borer is certainly 
the most serious one in Barbados. It attacks all varieties of caues and 
hence is not only constantly exposing them to the attack of fungi or 
bacteria, but would in many cases carry the very spores into its burrows, 
besides which, the injury suffered by any cane by the actual attack at 
least leads to in pov. risla .1 i i eo, if not to actual death of the plant. 
A glance at any of the literature of the cane diseases will convince any 
one of the importance which every cane-growing country has attached 
to checking the spread of this pest. And a very interesting i 
upon the subject was made by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, late of Jamaica. 
The remark of the Kev. L. Guilding has not to the present day been 
disproved that the Moth Borer is the most destructive and common 
insect enemy of the sugar-cane. As Mr. Cockerell remarks, " no one 
can doubt that in these days of severe competition, when sugar is by 
no means as profitable as formerly, a comparatively small gain or loss, 
much less than that enumerated by Mr. Van Patten, may make all the 
difference between success and failure." The same frwfcCt-specialwta 
also say that the application of insecticides as manures to the sod is 
not applicable to the present case "as the life history of Diatrcea 
Sacchardlis is well known and there is no reason to suppose that at any 



Remedies and Recommendations. 
1. That a strong central committee of planters and 
represent the interest of the 



2. That from 
together with s 

for that parish ; the duties of this sub-committee being to keep the 
parish under a thorough inspection and to see that all measures are 
continually and thoroughly carried out. 

3. That all plants before planting be soaked in Queensland solution* 
or other solution which the Islaud Professor of Chemistry, with the 
approval of the central committee, certifies to be equally efficacious. 



4. That wherever deemed possible by the sub-committee the practice 
of spreading trash around young canes be given up ; and that wherever 
it be resorted to only trash from a field which has been inspected by the 
ub-committee and declared healthy, or as healthy as possible, be 



employed. 



all fields diseased with rind fungus and 
" root fungus " should be burnt on the field, or crushed and burned as 
herein-before mentioned. In fields diseased with root fungus the 
stumps should be dug up, the mould shaken off, and be allowed to dry 
and be burned or buried. 

6. That rotten canes on all fields be regularly burned during the 
crop. Juicy ones could be first crushed and the megass burned, the 

g boiled. 

7. That the trash used as litter be taken from fields which are healthy 
or as healthy as can be got. 

8. That each estate put such an area under the so-called hardy 
varieties of cane plants as will suffice to re-plant the whole of the estate 
in those varieties if necessary. 

That when root fungus has made its appearance, rattooning for 

nth a view to 
cutting out canes infected with Borer or fungus, wh: " 
bagged upon the spot and taken away, crushed and b 

11. "R otat ion of crops should be especially resoned to in the case of 
root fungus. 

George C. Pile, 
President of the Commission. 



The following documents carry on the history of the subject : — 



Specimens of diseased sugar-cane were sent to Kew in 1878 from 
Porto Rico for investigation. These were submitted to the Rev. M. J. 
Berkeley, who gave the MS. name of Darluca melaspora to the fungus 
present on the canes. The fungus was afterwards very briefly described 
under Berkeley's name by Cooke in Nuovo Giornalt />•//., vol. x., p. 26 
(1878), who incorrectly gave the locality as Australia instead of Porto 
Rico. Saccardo has added to the confusion by changing the name to 
( - hii>thyn>i„> un ', J ,.,-■ ,,,:■■ 1 in quoting Cooke's diagnosis incorrectly 



diseases (Bull Sac. Mmol.de Fraud-, tun 
fallen into the error of considering the 
Trichosphreria Sacchari, M&ss., to be synonymous will; 
melaspormn (Berk.) Sacc. Examination of "Berkeley's i.p,- speeim. 
shows that the fungus is a Diplopia. 

Governor or Barbados to Colonial Office. 

Government House, Barbados, 
My Lord MarquUss, 19th February 1895. 

With reference to your Lordship's Despatch, No. 131, of tt 
loth December last, respecting the action of the House of Assembly wil 



regard to the Bill dealing with the sugar-cane diseases, I have the 
honour to state that having brought to its notice your Lordship's 
correspondence with the Governor of Trinidad, it was resolved not to 
proceed further with the proposal to obtain the services of an expert, 
and the joint committee of both branches of the Legislature to which 
my draft Bill had been referred, after due deliberation, with slight 
-adopted it. 1 anticipate that it will be considered by the 
House of Assembly at its nexl meeting, and enclose a copy for your 
Lordship's information. 

2. I also transmit a copy of a report, rendered by Mr. Bovell at my 
request, on the fungus disease amongst the canes, which I regret to say- 
appears to bt ■ Legislator^', 
I have once again invited serious attention thereto. 

3. As being germane to the subject, I likewise attach a copy of the 
report of a commission nominated by me in January 1893 "to inquire 
into and report on tie ing the Borer and other 
;■■'■'■ 

has this day been laid on the table of the House. It is, I think, 
interesting to note that the conclusions arrived at are very similar \. 
the recommendations of the Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, 
which are in the main embodied in the draft Bill dealing with the 





I have, &c 


The Most Hon. 


(Signed) ' J. ! 


Marquess of Ripon, K.G., 





[Enclosure.] 

Report on the Sugar-Cane Fungi- ( Trirhaxpharia. Sacchari, 
Mass.) at present existing in the Island. 

Although I knew of the existence of what is known as the root 
fungus, one of the forms of the polymorphic Trichnsphu ria Sacrhari, 
Mass., and bad obtained permission to plant a hardy variety of the 
sugar-cane in a badly affected field on Henley estate, in the parish of 
Saint John, so 'i- to 'ascertain whether the hardier varieties would b, 
less likeh to suffer from the root fungus than the Bourbon cane, it was 
not until December 1891 that my attention was drawn to the rind 
fungus, another form of the same Trieh»<ph„ ria, by Mr. Hutsou, the 
manager of Sunbury estate, who asked me to tell him what was the 
matter with certain holes of can. - in a field, some of which were- dying, 
and From that tim« onward* tin two fen sot tin ngus hjiv. spread 
cow, February 1895, there is hardly an estate winch is 
not more or less affected. 

2. In many instances so badly has the disease attacked the canes that 
instead of an acregi\imj From two to tin.* i • •/. 

I acres to give one hogshead. 

3. Since my return to the colony I have not as yet, owing to press of 
other work, been able to visit the whole island, but in the parishes that 
1 have been, viz., St. Philip, St. John, St. George, and portions of 

"' ' iel, and St. Andrew, J am decided h 
is together, there is more of the 
j last year. Owing to the dry 
r part of last year the stems of the 



canes have been in a great measure protected by the leaf-sheaths up to 
a later period than is usually the case, consequently so many canes 
have not yet been killed by the rind fungus as there were at this time 
last year, but it is now greatly on the increase. On the other hand, 
there is very much more root disease apparent ; this is, in my opinion, 
due in a great measure to the spores of the rind fungus being worked 
into the soil in the process of cultivating it, and to, in many instances,, 
plants containing the fungus being used for replanting the estates. On 
some of the estates where I knew the tops of canes affected with rind 
fungus ivere used as plants last December year, the fields are now, as 
was to be expected, badly diseased. On the other hand, it is with 
much pleasure that I note on those estates where hardy varieties were 
planted, and, in some instances, the recommendations of the authorities 
at Kew carried out on fields badly affected last year and the year before, 
there is a marked improvement, and if all the planters were to do what 
has been found so successful on the estates to which I refer, I have not 
the slightest doubt but that in a few years the disease will have nearly, 
if not entirely, disappeared, but so long as there are planters who take 
plants from diseased canes, as some have done up to quite recently, 
so long will the disease continue to give trouble, and occasion 
considerable loss. 

(Signed) John B. Bovell, 

Superintendent. 



CCCCLIV.-RAFIA FROM WEST AFRICA. 

In the Kew Bulletin for 1891, pp. 1-5, an account is given of West 
African bass fibre, prepared from the base of the leaves of the Bamboo 
palm {Raphia vinifera). Since that time African bass has become a 
recognised article of commerce. The price at first was about 42/. per 
ton ; it rose to 56/. per ton, but latterly, in competition with similar 
fibre from the Palmyra palm, the Kitool, and the original bass produced 
in Brazil, known as Para and Bahia piassaba, it has been quoted at 20/. 
to 30/. per ton. Even at the latter price it supports a considerable 
industry in West Africa. 

It appears probable that the Bamboo palm may be made available 
also for other uses. A strong, useful material known as Raphia or 
Rafia is shipped to this country from Madagascar. According to the 
Rev. Richard Baron, F.L.S. {Kew Bulletin, 1890, p. 211), it is obtained 
u from the young unopened leaves of the Raphia palm." Raphia 
fin (ft a, Mart.' Hist. Sat. Paint, iii., p. 217 (11. pe.tuneulata, Beauv.) is 
confined to Madagascar. It is widely spread in the island, chiefly in 
valleys, up to an elevation of 4000 feet. It is also found abundantly 
along the coast The pinnate leaves are 20 to 30 feet in length, with 
numerous narrow leaflets, varying from 2£ to 5 feet long. Rafia is 
prepared by peeling off the cuticle (with some of the underlying fibro- 
vascular bundles) on one or both sides of the leaf. It is used locally for 
delicate plaited and woven fabrics, cloths, and hats, as well as for mats 
for covering floors and wrapping up goods. More recently it has been 



woven into superior matting, tastefully coloured, and used instead of 
tapestry for covering walls in London houses. The loose strips of Rafia 
are in demand in this country and elsewhere in place of Russian or Cuban 
bast as tie-bands by gardeners and nurserymen. For the latter purpose 
the strips are usually loosely plaited in hanks 1£ to 3 pounds in weight, 
made up into bales weighing 1^ to 5£ cwt. Each strip is a straw- 
coloured flat band about 4 feet long, and about £ to f inch wide, but 
capable of sub-division into fine threads. 

Owing to the French expedition to Madagascar, Rafia has already 
shown an advance in price. It was sold recently at aos. per cwt. 
Apart from this, however, there is apparently a steady demand and a 
good price for Rafia fibre. 

Baphia Buffta is closely allied to the Bamboo palm of tropical 
Africa. If the supply of Rafia from Madagascar were greatly rechteed 
or cut off, it is very probable that within a short time it would be 
possible to obtain an almost identical article from West Africa. One 
of the first notices of a Rafia from this part of Africa is contained in the 
Report by Mr. C. F. Cross. F.I.C., on the Miscellaneous Fibres shown at 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition 1886. Mr. Cross mentioned that this 
was so elosely similar to Rafia " as to be applicable to precisely the same 
uses." The following particulars were given : — 

" Grass (epidermal strips of Baphia rinifera). Exhibited by Mr. A. 
Sathorpe in the Sierra Leone Section, with specimens of straw plait 
illustrating its more usual application by the natives. This specimen 
also proved itself on analysis to be worth the attention of paper makers. 
The following determinations were made : — 

Moisture - - - - 98 per cent. 



Ultimate fibres. Length - - 1-5 to 25 mm. 

"It is needless to say that the raw material is particularly clean ; in 
length of fibre, but more especially in yield of cellulose, it is superior to 
K^parto : it only remains, therefore, to determine the cost of production, 
and if within 'the limit, to introduce this raw material into European 

with Rafia, which still commands a high price amongst gardeners and 
nurserymen, showed that it was so closely similar as to be applicable to 
precisely the same uses, and such an application would, of course, take 
precedence of that above indicated. This fibrous material is well worthy 
of further attention. 

* I have received from Messrs. Joynson satisfactory reports upon th« 
papers made from the Rafia strips exhibited in the West African Section. 
They were treated by the (basic) sulphite process, and bleached to a 
good colour. The paper was reported to be of exceptional strength." 
| Colonial and Indian Exhibition Reports, pp. 379, 385.] 

Small shipments of West African Rafia have already been made to 
this c.untrv. It was, however, badly prepared, and the results were not 
satisfactory. The strips were too short, and they reached their destina- 
tion curled up so as to resemble very fine twine. It is necessary the 
Strips should be very strong, of good length, and dried perfectly flat. 
Some of the best Madagascar Rafia is about 3£ to 4 ft. long. Very 
exceptionally it is 5 ft. long. This shows that the long leaflets in the 



middle of the frond are chiefly used and the shorter on. 

West African Rafia, to repl ribre, must be as long as 

possible, with a width of about ^ to § in., but none less than £ in. 

If the Bamboo palm {Raphia rnuh-ra) does not afford the best 
material for Rafia strips, it is possible some other species may do so. 
The West African Raphias so far known are as follows :— 

Raphia vinifera, Beauv. — Bamboo palm. Abundant in West Africa, 
extending also to central tropical Africa, where it was found by 
Schweinfurth. Its distribution in Lagos is thus described by Sir Alfred 
Moloney {Kew Bulletin, 1891, p. 3) :— 

"The 'Bamboo' palm (Raphia vinifera), is perhaps the commonest 
tree in the swamps and low lauds whirl, Hue the waterways of the 
colony. Dense thickets of these palms, traversed only by the palm- 
wine gatherer or the bamboo cutter, push their way into the lagoons, 
and extend over the flood grounds, and even to a distance of from 15 
to 20 miles up the river-valleys into the interior. The area occupied by 
these Raphia forests it would be impossible to calculate, but it 
may be accepted, without doubt, that they extend throughout the 
length of the colony, and to a distance of at least 15 miles from the 
aea coast. Over this area, of about 5000 square miles, they form a 
considerable proportion of the vegetation, next only in numbers to the 
Oil palm (Elvis guineensis) and the Mangrove (Rhizophora mitcro- 
nata). The fact that one can steam for miles, as I have frequently 
done, through uninterrupted Raphia groves, impresses one with the 
extent of the acreage which must be overrun by this graceful palm." 

Raphia Hookeri, Mann and Wendl.— The Ukot of Old Calabar, 
where it is cultivated as a wine palm. The natives also manufacture 
cloth from the epidermis of the leaflets. On the Sherboro, in Sierra 
Leone, they make hammocks from it, as well as all sorts of basket work, 
mats, &c. This is one of the largest of the Raphias, the whole plant 
often attaining a height of 70 feet. The fronds are 40 feet long, with 
leaflets 4 to 5 feet long. If in other respects suitable, this should yield 
Rafia fibre as long as the best from Madagascar. 

Raphia Gfrrfnrri, M. and W. — Apparently confined to the Spanish 
Island of Fernando Po, in the Gulf of Guinea. It grows from the 
shore up to 500 feet above the level of the sea. 



Ilaphhi '•-</////■,,/. M. and W.— The only Jocality gi 

French Colony 
This palm is 40 to 50 feet high, with fronds 33 feet long. 



species is the island of Corisco, off the French Colony of 




apparently a closely allied plant. 

Ivjiitlorm.il strips, somewhat similar to Rafia, are available from 
many species of palms, notably the Cocoa-nut palm and the Palmyra 
palm. Specimens of these are in the Kew Museum. A variety of the 
known is. various districts under the native names of 
Merintsh*, h to, ha well known to be abundant 

in West Tropical Africa. The epidermal strips from the segments of its 



91 



fan-shaped leaves could, no doubt, be produced quite as long as those of 
the Madagascar Rafia. 

While suggesting these other sources, it would be well, however, to 
confine attention at first to the Rafia palms, and especially in view of 
the fact that they form, as in the colony of Lagos, the prevailing 
of country. 
1 with regard to Rafia fibre is given below by 
It will be noticed thai particular attention is 
drawn to the fact that previous shipments of West African Rafia have 
failed because the strips were too short, and not presented in the flat 
broad condition characteristic of the Madagascar fibre. Too much 
reliance should not be placed on the exceptionally high price of Rafia at 
the present time. It would be safer to count only on the more normal 
price of the fibre, and this during the last few years has been about 30/. 



Messrs. Ide and Christie to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

72, Mark Lane, London, E.C., 
Dear Sib, 4th March 1895, 

Yours of the 2nd instant, with sample of West African Rafia, 
to hand. This we have seen once or twice before, and sold with diffi - 
culty, being very inferior to the Madagascar. The former is very short 
and hairy, not long and broad like the latter, and would appear to be 
peeled from much smaller leaves. 

We return your specimen along with a piece of the usual Madagascar, 
Whilst the latter is available the trade would only look at the West 
African at about half the price. 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) Ide and Chkistie. 



The following account of the production of Rafia fibre has been 
published in the United States' Consular Reports for April 1894. 
It was prepared by Mr. Edw. Telfair W T etter, the United State.. Consul 
at Tamatave : — 

Rafia Palm Fibre. 

This fibre is the product of the Rafia palm (Raphia Ruffia), one of 
the most useful of the palm family. The tree is a native of Madaga>ear, 
growing profusely along its entire coast line near fresh water rivers, 
lagoons, and marshes, and the very best .piality aetuatly in the water. 
It is practically indigenous in the valleys all over the island. The 
natives cut the new leaves from the tree after they have obtained a 
height of some seven feet, and have just commenced to spread or open. 



loaves always sprout out simultaneously from each 
from the same sheatfc. In appearance and gracefulness, a f 
Rafia palm leaf is midway between the leaf of the c 
the plume of the ostrich. 

After removal from the tree the lea' 
or feathers being cut away from the 1 
rib and their tips cut oft' o; not. according to the whim 
each worker. The inhabitants of the fishing villages ar 
producers of Rafia fibre, because they are the main consume] 
products, making their finer fish nets from the small centre 



92 

that runs down the middle of each leaf spear. The entire native popu- 
lation use the leaf stalk or large centre rib in all their building and 
portage operations. 

The first process of manufacture, in turning these leaf spears into the 
Rafia of commerce, consists in the removal, with a very small sharp 
knife, of the centre ribs of the spears. These ribs divide each spear in 
half. Each of these halves of leaf flesh are then stripped of their under 
covering, which, in the closed condition of the spear is, for the moment, 
the outside. This removal is readily accomplished by making a small 
cut across the leafy flesh above mentioned, about one inch from the 
base. The fibre, which exists in the shape of a vegetable film or 
covering on the under side of the leaf spear, is pressed up and loosened 
with the knife, and, being caught between the thumb and said point, ra 
ripped off at one pull. The same thing is done with the other half of the 
spear flesh by merely reversing the same in the other hand and repeating 
the operation. Practice makes the process a simple, perfect, and rapid 
one, and a woman can readily strip, per day, what will yield some five 
pounds of Rafia. It must be understood that the men cut the Rafia 
leaves and carry them to their homes ; the women do the rest. They, 
however, rarely strip more than what would yield two pounds of Rafia, 
because the curing of the fibre is partly accomplished the afternoon of 
the same day that it is stripped from the spear flesh. 

The strips of whitish fibre thus secured, ranging from 2 to 4 feet and 
over in length, are spread out upon mats in the sun to dry in loose 
bunches. When partly dry, they are knotted into one pound bunches 
and spread, usually upon the roof edges of small sheds or outhouses, to 
finish curing, and are most carefully guarded against rain or dew. In 
three days of good sun drying the Rafia is ready for market 

" lity of the natives and traders, 



much the larger portion is marketed after only one day's curing. The 
greener the fibre the heavier the weight ; hence the temptation. . . . 
There is no particular time for preparing, cutting, or curing Rafia. 



The crop is a constant one, harvested to suit the wants or appetites of 
the natives, being received in the seaport towns at all times and seasons, 
weather permitting its transport, and shipped as shortly after receipt as 
possible. ... It may be roughly stated that fully 50 per cent, of 
the young Rafia palm trees are annually destroyed in this way, and but 
with which 
speedy and total ex- 
tinction* Within four years, local Malagasy laws have been promul- 
gated forbidding this terrible destruction. Yet it still exists, but in a 
surreptitious manner ; or whenever they crave rum, cloth, or vazaha 
finery, for which Rafia fibre alone can be bartered. 

.... Rafia is one of the most staple of Madagascar products, 
finding an even more ready market than rubber or caoutchouc. The 
price in Tamatave, or we might say free on board, as the cost of 
putting on board in quantity is a very nominal one, ranging from 5 to 9 
cents for A I Rafia, while red Rafia usually brings about 2 cents per 
pound less than the A 1 white. . . . Practically, every one doing 

goods, on commission, or as agents. 



CCCCLV.— DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, V. 
Auctore J. G. Baker. 



180. Jasminum Smithii, Baker, ramulis gracilibus glabris, foliis 
oppositis simplicibus ovatis vel oblongis obtusis subcoriaceis breviter 
petiolatis, floribus 1-3 terminalibus breviter pedicellatis, calycis tubo 
campanulato giabro, dentibus 6 subulatis tubo paulo longioribus, 
corolla? tubo cylindrico, lobis 10 lanceolatis tubo duplo brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Mount Kilimanjaro, Lieut. C. S. Smith. 

Folia 12-18 lin. longa. Calycis tubus 2 lin. longus. Corollce tubus 
12-13 lin. lougus. 



campanulato dentibus lanceolatis tubo aequilongis, corolla? i 
cylindrico, lobis 8-10 lanceolatis tubo duplo brevioribus. 

Habitat.— Angola, province of Huilla, alt. 3800-5500 feet, Welwitsch, 

Folia 9-12 lin. longa. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla tubus 9 lin. 

182. Jasminum obtusifolium, Baker; ran 
simplicibus oppositis oblongis obtusis brovissinn 
pubescentibus, cymis paucifloris terminalibus \ 
tubo campanulato .ieniibus Iaiiecolatis tubo a'. ( uilongis, corolla? tubo 
cylindrico, lobis 7-N lanceolatis tubo duplo brevioribus. 

Hahitnt. — Hanks of the Xiger al Yomba and Kawgaw, Barter. 
Folia 12-18 lin. longa. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla tubus 12-15 
lin. longus. 

183. Jasminum brevipes, Baker; sarmentosuni, ramulis gracilibus 
glabris, foliisoppositis simplicibus oblongis acutis vcl obtusis subcoriaceis 
glabris breviter petiolatis, cymis paucifloris terminalibus, pedicellis 
brevissimis, calvcis tub.. - tubo paulo 
brevioribus, corolhe alba> tube cylindrico, lobis 6 lanceolatis tubo duplo 
brevioribus. 

Habitat.— Angola, province of Golungo Alto, alt. 1000-2400 feet, 

ngus. Corolla tubus polli- 

184. Jasminum brachyscyphum, Baker ; ramulis glabris, foliis sim- 

pl i , • i b ii . , > P I tis glabris breviter petiolatis, cymis 

paucitlons tenmnahbus. peuuvllis bre\ ibus glabris, calycis tubo cam- 
panulato dentibus subulatis tubo duplo brevioribus, corolla? tubo 
cylindrico, lobis 5-6 oblongo-lanceolatis tubo brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Shire Highlands, Zambesi-land, Buchanan. 

Folia 1-2 poll, longa. Calyx 3 lin. longus. Corolla tubus 9 lin. 
longus ; lobi 6 lin. longi. 



185. Jasminum Kirkii, Baker ; ramulis gracilibus dense pubescen- 
tibus, foliis oppositis simplicibus oblongis brevissime petiolatis dorso 
subtiliter pubescentibus, cymis terminalibus 1-2-floris, pedicellis brevis- 
simis, calycis tubo campanulato dentibus lanceolatis tubo aequilongis, 
corollas tubo cylindrico, lobis 6-7 lanceolatis tubo brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Zambesi-land at Shamba and between Lupata and Tette, 
Sir John Kirk. 



. stenodon, Baker ; ramulis gracilibus glabris, foliis 
oppositissimplicil.il- <»vati> nl)hi>i> jrl.-ibn- l>i.'\n.i |.. tiolatis basi late 
rotundatis, cymis terminalibus 3-4-floris, floribas distincte pedicellatie, 
calycis tubo campanulato dentibus subulatis tubo sequilongis, coi'ollae 
albae tubo cylindrico, lobis 9-10 lanceolatis tubo paulo brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Angola, Monteiro. 

Folia \\-2 poll, longa. Calyx 3 lin. longus. Corolla; tubus polli- 



pubescentibus, : 



s brevissime petiolatis, cymis paucifloris termina- 
pedicellis productis, calycis dense pubescentis 
meis, corollae tubo elonsralo exacili. lobis fU7 



dentibus tubo aequilongis, coroll 
linearibus tubo brevioribus. 

Habitat.— Angola, province of Pungo Andongo, alt. 2400-3800 feet, 
Welwitsch, 928. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla; tubus polli- 
caris et ultra ; lobi 9 lin. longi. 



Welwitschii, Baker ; 1 
pubescentibus, foliis oppositis simplicibus ovatis vel oblongis dorso 
pubescentibus Buperioribus acutie .ribus obtusis 

subcordatis brevissime petiolatis, cymis paucifloris terminalibus, 
pedicellis brevibus, calycis tubo campanulato dentibus lanceolatis tubo 
multo brevioribus, corollfe albaa tubo cylindrico, lobis 5-6 tubo distincte 
brevioribus. 

Habitat.— Angola, province of Pungo Andongo, alt. 2400-3800 feet, 
TFeltcitsch, 927. 

Folia 1-2 poll, longa. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla; tubus 8-9 lin. 



189. Jasminum longpipes, Baker; late sarmentosum, ramulis 
gracillimH pub.-c, -nfil^ ppositis vel inferioribus 

alternia oblongis acutis firmulis dorso leviter pubescentibus, petiolo brevi 
piloso, cymis paucifloris terminalibus vel axillaribus, pedicellis gracilli- 
mis elongatis, calycis tubo subcylindrico, dentibus linearibus tubo 
brevioribus, corollae tubo cylindrico lobis 9-10 lanceolatis tubo distincte 
brevioribus. 



Folia 1^-3 poll, longa. Calyx 4 lin. longus. Corolla- tubus 9 lin. 
longus : lobi 6 lin. longi. 

190. Jasminum angolense, Welw. herb.; Baker; erectum, fruti- 
cosum, ramulis glabris, foliis oppositis simplicibus firmis parvis 
orbieularibus vel ovatis obtusis breviter petiolatis, cyniis termiualibus 
4-8-floris, pedicellis brevibus, calycis tubo campanulato deutibus 
subulatis tubo loiigi.nibii.. corolla; extus purpureas intus albida: tubo 
cylindrico, lobis 9-10 lanceolatis tubo asquilongis. 

Habitat.— Angola, province of Loanda, Welwitsch, 924. 

Folia 9-12 lin. longa. Calyx 3-4 lin. longus. Corolla tubus 
pollicaris. 



simplicibus"ovatis acutis membranaeeis glabris breviter petiolatis, cymis 
paucifloris terminalibus pedicellis brevibus. calycis tubo campanulato 
dentibus subu is, corolla? tubo cylindrico, lobis 8-9 

lanceolatis tubo requilongis. 

Habitat. — Banks of the Kovuma river and on the Zambesi at Senna 
and Tette, Sir John Kirk. 

Folia 12-18 lin. longa. Calyx 3 lin. longus. Corolla; tubus 9 lin. 



192. Jasminum Walleri, Baker; ramulis gracilibus subtiliter 
pubescentibus. i-licibus oblongis acutis membranaeeis 

brevissime petiolatis dorso pubescent thu.-, cyiins paticilloris terminalibus 
rt a\illaribu>, pedicellis brevibus, calycis tubo campanulato. dentibus 
subulatis tubo duplo longioribus, corollas tubo cylindrico, lobis 7-8 



■/.— Maiiiranju hil 
Magomcro Missic 



Rev. II. Waller. On the Zambesi i 

Station, Sir John Kirk. 



ternifoliuin, Baker ; i amulis leviter pubescentibus, 
oblongis vel o\atis acutis glabris subcoriaceis 
petiolatis, evmis densifloris compositis terminalibus, pedicellis 
bescentibus, calycis paivi dentibus ovatis tubo 



Habitat.— Bongo land, Dr. Schweinfurth. 

Folia \\-2 poll, longa, petiolo 4-6 lin. longo. Calyx 1$ lin. longus. 
Corolla ignota. 

194. Schrebera Buchanani. Baker ; arbor er 

folii- oppo-itis simplicibus oblongis obtusis subcoriaceis 
facie glabris dorso praesertim ad contain pub 

Habitat.— Shire Highlands, Buchanan. Natire name Mahan- 



195. Mostuea Walleri, Baker ,• fruticosa, ramulis dense pubescentibus, 
foliis oblongis obtusis vel subacutis brevissime petiolatis basi cuneatis 
dorso ad venas hispidis, stipulis ovatis acutis parvis, cyinis 2-3-floris 
plerisque terminalibus, pedicellis hispidis, calycis hispidi dentibus 
lanceolatis tubo longioribus, corollse albse tubo late infundibulari, lobis 
ovatis tubo sequilongis. 

Habitat.— Zambesi-land, on the top of Moramballa, alt. 3000 feet, 
Rev. H. Waller. 

Folia 9-12 lin. longa. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla 4 lin. longa. 
Fructus ignotus. 

196. Mostuea fuchsiaefolia, Baker ; fruticosa, ramulis pubescentibus, 
foliis oblongis obtusis membranaceis brevissime petiolatis basi cuneatis 
dorso tenuiter pubescentibus, stipulis deltoideis, cymis axillaribus 
paucifloris, bracteis minutis, pedicellis calyce longioribus, calycis tubo 
brevissimo, dentibus acutis tubo longioribus, corollse albse lobis ovatis 
tubo duplo brevioribus, capsulae lobis orbicularibus divaricatis. 

Habitat.— Angola, Welwitsch, 4759. Ambriz and Quiballa, 
Monteiro. 

Folia 1-2 poll, longa. Calyx 1 lin. longus. Corolla 6 lin. longa. 

197. Mostuea orientalis, Baker; fruticosa, ramulis brunneis, foliis 
ovato-oblongis vel oblongis obtusis minute mucronatis membranaceis 
glabris brevissime petiolatis, stipulis ovatis obtusis, cymis multis 
axillaribus paucifloris, bracteis minutis, calycis tubo brevissimo dentibus 
ovatis acutis tubo longioribus, corolla) tubo late infundibulari, dentibus 
ovatis tubo sequilongis. 

Habitat.— Mombasa, East Africa, Rev T. Wakefield. 
Folia l-2£ poll, longa. Calyx 1 lin. longus. Corolla 4 lin. longa. 
Capsula ignota. 



glabris supra basin triplinerviis, cymis multifloris compositis axillari- 
bus, pedicellis brevibus, calycis minuti lobis latis obtusis, flore ante 
anthesin globoso, stylo brevissimo, fructu parvo globoso monospermo. 

Habitat. — Gold Coast, Sir R. Burton and Capt. Cameron. 

Folia 1-1 £ poll. lata. Fructus 4 lin. diara. 

199. Strychnos subscandens, Baker; sarmentosa, cirrhosa, ramulis 
glabris, foliis oblongis acutis glabris brevissime petiolatis basi rotun- 
datis obscure triplinerviis. cymis axillaribus brevissime pedunculatis, 
calycis minuti lobis latis obtusis, fructu parvo globoso monospermo. 

Habitat. — Angola, province of Loanda, Welwitsch, 6018. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Fructus 4 lin. diam. 

, ramulis glabris, 



medium triplinerviis, cymis axillaribus brevissime pedunculatis, calycis 
minuti lobis suborbicularibus, fructu magno pomiformi glauco. 

Habitat.— Attah on the Quorra, Vogel. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. 

201. Strychnos lucens, Baker ; iffi ramulis glabris, 

cirrhis furcatls, f'oliis oblongis ad api'vm obtusum attenuatis I 
petiolatis obs,- - utrinque nitidis glabris, < 

axillaribus paucifloris breviter pedunculatis, calycis minuti lobis 
obtusis, fructu parvo globoso monospermo. 

Habitat.— Angola, Welwitsch, 6015. 

Folia 1^-2 poll. Corolla ignota. 



villus glabris, calycis tubo 
brevi lobis ovatis obtn-is valde imbricatis, corolla? tubo fauce piloso 
lobis ovatis tubo bnnioribus, stylo elongato, fructu ignoto. 
Habitat. — Naps, Eppah and Lagos Island, Barter, 
Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla tubus 4 lin. 

203. Strychnos loandensis, Baker; sarmentosa, cirrhosa, rainulis 
glabris, f'oliis oblongis acutis glabris brevissime petiolatus ob>eurc 
triplinerviis cymis p:n bus. p.dicellis brevibus, 
calycis lobis ovatis obtusis, corolla? tubo brevissimo, lobis ovati* obtusis. 
fructu ignoto. 

Habitat. — Angola, province of Loanda, Wehcitsch, 6016. 
Folia 10-12 lin. longa. Calyx 1 fin. longus. 

204. Strychnos Moloneyi, Baker ; erecta, ecirrhosa, ramulis elabris. 
foliis oblongis unit is rigidc eoriaeeis glabris brevit< 
triplinerviis, cym 
lobis brevibus ovatis ohtu>is. fructu parvo globoso monospermo. 

Habitat. — Onitsha, Barter. Accra, Sir A. Moloney. Sierra I 
Scott Elliot, 5431. 
Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Fructus 4-6 lin. diam. 




206. Strychnos microcarpa, Baker; fruticosa, erecfa, etirrhosd, 

-.;;:■.• triplin.-rviis, cymis paucitloris axillaribus breviter 
pcduneulatis, calycis tubo bivri lobis latis ovatis obtusis, fructu pirvo 
globoso monospermo. 

U 86845. B 



Habitat. — Angola, province of Loanda, Welwitsch> 4765. 

Folia \\-2 poll, longa. Corolla ignota. Fructus 4-6 lin. diam. 

207. Strychnos chrysocarpa, Baker ,• fruticosa, erecta, ecirrhosa, 
ramulis glabris, foliis oblongis acutis rigide coriaceis glabris brevissime 
petiolatis e basi triplinerviis, cymis axillaribus ct t <_ i uii ii.tl i":iu- 
brevissime pedunculatis, calycis tubo brevissimo, lobis latis obtusis, 
fructu magno aurantiaco polyspermo. 

Habitat. — Gold Coast, Sir R. Burton and Captain Cameron. 
Sierra Leone, Dr. Halcro Johnston. 

Folia 2-3 poll longa. Fructus 1^-2 poll. diam. 

208. Strychnos Wakefieldi, Baker; fruticosa, erecta, ecirrhosa, 
ramulis glabris, foliis obovatis obtusis rigide coriaceis glabris basi 
cuneatis supru latis, cymis paucifloris 
lateralibus, pedunculis pedicellisque bnm>simis. calyei- tubo brevissimo 
lobis suborbicul. iictu ignoto. 

Habitat.— Mombasa, Rev. T. Wakefield. 

Folia 1-1 £ poll, longa. Calyx f lin. longus. Corolla ignota. 

209. Strychnos triclisioides, Baker ; erecta, ecirrhosa, ramulis 
pallidis pubescentibus. :i>>latis obovato-oblongis 
obtusis rigide coriaceis e basi triplinerviis dorso pubescentibus, cymis 
axillaribus paucifloris i ■ ;■,.••• eampaimlato lobis 

• tobis ovatis, stylo elongato, fructu 
globoso polyspermo magnitudine mediocri. 

Niger confluence 
t Lukugi " 
Folia 2-3 poll. 

210. . 
is, foliis c 

nerviis, cymis -essilibus vel subses: 

tubo brevissimo lobis suborbicularibus, fructu globoso magao polyspermo 

polpo fluiu asnpresaid. 

Habitat.— A'A\\z\ie\xiv, Sir R. Burton, Sir John Kirk. Shire Valley 
and at Shupanga and Kongone, Sir J. Kirk. Native names Intheme 
and Intemo. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Calyx | lin. longus. Fructus 2|-3 poll. 



211. Strychnos cocculoides, Baker; arbor parva erecta © 
ramulis pubescentibus, foliis suborbicularibus vel oblongis 

brevissime petiolatis dor-^> pilosis, cymis lateralibus, ca' " : " " 
lobis ovatis acutis, fructu parvo globoso. 

Habitat.— Angola, province of Hnilla, Welwitsch, 4779. 
name Maboce clolce. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Fructus 3 lin. diam. 

;irrbo=a, ramulis 



5-nerviis dorso pttbeseenl tribus paucifloris sessilibus 

pedicellis brevissimis, calycis lobis orbicularibus, corolla) tubo cylindrico, 
lobis oblongis tubo duplo brevioribus, fructu magno globoso polyspermo 
pulpa edula. 

Habitat,— Madi, Col. J. A. Grant. Djur-land, Schweinfurth, 1719. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Calyx \\ lin. longus. Corolla 4 lin. longa. 
Fructus 3-4 poll. diam. 

213. Anthodeista parviflora, Baker ; arborea, ranmliscrassislignoMs 
spinosis, foliis obovato-oblongis bnv - itotfs^ cjvaU 
multifloris valde compositis, calycis lobis exterioribus orbiculanbus, 
corolla caiyce 3-4-plo longiore lobis circiter 12. 

Habitat.— Banks of the Bagroo river, Mann. 

Folia superior;! j mmI.-i! ; n . 4— ."> poll, lata. Cytna; pedales. Calyx 3 lin. 
longus. Anther a> 2 lin. longae. 

214. Anthocleista Kalbreyeri, Baker ,• arborea, inermis, foliis obovato- 
oblongis brevi- brevioribus, 
calycis lobis orbicularibus, corollas tubo caiyce vix longiore lobis 16 
oblongis tubo longioribus, filamentorum tubo brevissimo antheris, 

Habitat.— Banks of the Bagroo river, Kalbreyer. 
Folia ramorura 
Corolla lobi semipi 



pefiolatis, cymis compositis foliis 
bnn-ioribii.s, calved M>i> ..\-teri.jribns orbi. ulanbu-, rorolbr tubo caiyce 
multo longiore, "lobi< riiviter 12 linear! oblongis tubo breviorilms. fila- 
mentorura tubo brevissimo antheris oblongis. 

Habitat.— Shire Highlands, Buchanan. 

Folia superioni (5-9 poll, longa. 3-4 poll, lata, int'eriora sesquipe- 
dalia. Calyx 3 lin. longus. Corollce tubus 15 lin. longus, lobi 9 lin. 



216. Anthocleista laxinora, Baker ; fruticosa, sarmentosa, ramulis 
teretibus inermibus, foliis oblongis acutis bre^issime petiolatis basi 
cunoatia, cymis brevibus ramis inferioribus foliis reductis bracteatis, 
calycis lobis exl tu globoso. 

Habitat— Banks of the Kingui river, 1°N. lat. Mann. 

Folia 5-6 poll, longa, 2 poll. lata. Calyx 9 lin. longus. Corolla 
ignota. Fructus 9 lin. diam. 



e northern territory of South Australia, as is well known, is within 
ropics, and the climate is <--,). n.::!y tropical. It extends from 
) 23° S. lat., and the more inland parts include portions of the 



100 



extremely arid deserts of Central Australia. The latitude corresponds 
with that of Madagascar and the southern parts of Brazil, but the 
seasons are greatly influenced by the neighbourhood of the interior 
deserts. The rainfall, as may be expected, is very variable. During 
the year 1893 the rainfall at Port Darwin, representing the coast 
region, was 62 '5 inches, at Burrundie 49*4 inches, while at Powell's 
Creek, in the interior at about. 22° S. lat., it was only 12 6 inches. 
In the interior the chief industries are pastoral and mining, but along 
the coast agricultural industries are being steadily pursued. The 
following report by the Curator of the Botanic Garden and Experi- 
mental Nursery at Port Darwin has recently been published. It affords 
evidence, as pointed out by the president, that " the soil and climate of 
the Northern Territory are well suited for the cultivation of valuable 
tropical and sub-tropical products " : — 

" Sir, " Palmerston, March 1st, 1894. 

"I have the honour to respectfully hand you my report on the 
progress of the more important experimental plots in the Botanical 
Garden and Experimental Nursery during the past year. 

"Rice. — Last season the different, varieties made excellent growth, 
but were event' y destroyed by horse* breaking into 

the garden at night. Now, however." that ;< small 'sum has been allowed 
foranewfenc . i am glad to think, no longer occur. 

The same block has again been planted this season, and looks extremely 



" Cocoa-nuts continue to progress, and the ohlerlhev gel the brighter 
the outlook. Several trees in the avenue are now either fruiting or 
showing a flower spike, and the fruit that has alrendv matured on the 
trees first planted in the garden has been exceptionally large and heavy. 
The young trees planted out in the reclaimed mangrove swamp la«t 
year suffered severely from the attacks of the hermit crabs, and had to 
be protected by small sheets of tin round their base. They are now 
gradually recovering. 

"African Oil-palms. — These continue the satisfactory progress 
previously reported. Over 300 seeds were obtained from the two 
older trees during the year, and several hundred more are again 
available. 

" Betel-nut palms have made very good growth, and I expect them 
shortly to fruit, 

" Ginger. — Splendid tubers were produced last season, and I have 
increased the area of the block under cultivation. The plants now are 
]',\-t showing above the ground. Two varieties ; ,jv cultivated. 
Starch-prod hi 



tory has been th< 


! growth of both 1 






' 












The plants are no 










block and has alwr 






it yielding 


the starch 


produced in Queen 








ite as high 


a price as that obts 


lined from the real 








that endeavours art 








tion by that of 


arrowroot. Tacca 


jii,i„<ititida — the plan 


it yielding 



101 



South Son Island arrowroot — is indigenous to the territory, and o ecu re 
-pontaneously in t lie garden. Plants of it were distributed by the 
Royal I hardens, Kew, during the year to different Crown colonies as a 
plant desirable for introduction. 

" Oil plants. — Sesamum, two varieties, as usual made satisfactory 
growth last tag as well. Peanuts. — An increased 

area lias been planted this season, and I have never noticed finer 
growth. Two varieties are cultivated. Among other oil plants 
represented in the garden may be mentioned jatropha, behn, castor, 
chufa, croton. 

''■Fibre plants. — Sisal hemp. — Our plants have made satisfactory 
growth and already produce suckers. Owing to the representations 
of intending planters the Government undertook during the past 
year to import a quantity of plants for sale, and these arrived on the 
18th of January this year. Six thousand plants had been ordered from 
Florida, but owing, I consider, to having been packed while in a too 
sappv eondition, only ,5,300 were alive on arrival, and these in a very 
weak condition, the white heart leaf and root stock alone remaining. 
The plants were at once put out in nurseries, and, I am glad to say, 
made a remarkable recovery, very few indeed being lost. Five thousand 
plants were sold, but, on account of their weak state on arrival, were 
allowed to remain in the nurseries until the next wet season. The 
duration of the plant from observations made in Yucatan is supposed to 
be 14 years, that is, from planting until the flower spike is produced, 
when the plant dies ; but recent developments in the Bahamas seem to 
show that there, at least, tbe plant flowers in seven years and dies, and 
this is considerably modifying the brilliant estimates made. Pita, or 
pineapple fibre. — In an official bulletin issued by the Royal Gardens, 
Kew, it is recorded that a sample of pineapple fibre from the Straits 
Settlements was recently submitted to a manufacturer, and valued by him 
at 30/. a ton. with the statement that lie alone was prepared to take, say, a 
thousand tons a year. Sunn hemp, a plant largely cultivated in India, 

indigenous to the' Territory, and has been noticed by the late curator of 
the garden occurring with rice on the Daly River. Another Indian 
fibre, the jute, represented in our collection, is also indigenous to the 
Territory. The value of the raw fibre of this plant annually imported 
into England is stated to be over 4,000,000/. sterling. Ramie fibre.— 
A fresh block has been planted with roots of this plant, and mag- 
nificent growth has been made. Bowstring hemps.— Three species 
are represented in the garden, hut only two {Sanserieria zeylanica and 
X. ci/lii, dried) grow large enough for fibre purposes. The plants have 
been proved well adapted to the climate, .and last year a successful 
experiment was made in propagating them from leaf cuttings, one leaf 
giving perhaps half a do/en plant-, so that a stock can be soon worked 
up when required. The fibre produced is stated to be excellent, and 
worth -JO/, to 30/. a ton. Among other kinds growing may be mentioned 
tli. following, proved thoroughly suited to the place, viz., Manila hemp, 
of which a small block has been planted out ; 50,000 tons of this fibre 
are annually exported from the Philippine Islands ; Deccan hemp, 
Abroma, Mauritius hemp. 

fit rone I la grass (yielding essential oil). — The plants put out to cover 
a huge vacant block of ground on the slope on the hill look a picture 
" out having received any attention whatever, and so 
the growth that not a weed is to be seen below the lines. 



" Cinnamon. — Young and old continue to make the same satisfactory 

" Vanilla. — Our plants were cut up for propagation and the resulting 
young plants put out in a shade-house, where they are making good 
progress. Two kinds are in our collection. 

" Xntmegs. — This plant was re-introduced, and I am sorry to say, 
again lost. I have, however, made arrangements to obtain some more 
for further trial, as I cannot but think that it should do well in certain 
situations, and the fact that an indigenous species thrives about 
Palmerston also encourages me to persevere. I propose planting a 
quantity of seed of the native species, and to try and graft the introduced 
plant on the stocks thus obtained. 

" Sorghums and Millets. — Five varieties of the former and three of 
the latter are represented in small blocks and have done very well, the 
broom corn, used in the manufacture of American brooms, being 
especially good. 

" India-rubbers. — Three kinds have been groAvn for some time and a 
fourth, Ficus elastica, was introduced during the year. Cryptostegia 
grandiflora and Manihot Glaziovii (Ceara rubber) freely produced 
seed in the garden. Of the latter kind a quantity of plants were raised 
and will be planted out in vacant ground. 

" Grams are, as usual, represented in small plots, and have again 

" Dhal looks ma-jniticent, and cannot be too highly recommended 
for cultivation as n "-table pulse. 

"The condition of th« garden has been well maintained during the 

" Nicholas Holtze, Curator. 
His Honour Mr. Justice Dashwood, 



CCCCLVIL— DECADES KEWENSES. 

Plant arum Novakum in Hebbario Horti Kegii Co: 
DECADES XV.— XIX. 

141. Vavaea megaphylla, Wright [Meliace©]; arbor procera, folii* 
obovato-lanceolatis pctiolatis glabris penninerviis nerviis secundariis 
snbtus prominentibus, floribus paniculam prope apices ramorum forman- 
tibus, bract> f<T o-7-lobato, petalis 

5-7obIongis contortis enrinatis ulbis utriiiquc hirsutis, staminibus 12-16, 
filamentis latis connatis antice prope apices villosis, antheris liberis 
oblongis, ovario globoso apice hirsuto triloculari, stylo brevi, stigmate 
trilobato, ovulis in loculo quoque 2 collateralibus. 

Habitat.— Fyi ; Tamavua, D. Yeotcard, 37. 

is, lamina 12 poll, longa, 6 poll. lata. 



i or, 



142. Cymbosepalum, Baker [Legmx 
ovum.] Val .bis 5 imequahbus oblon. 

laximo ante anthesin cymbaeformi demum explanato. Fetaht 5, 
blanceolata, obtus.'.. jequalia. Stamina 10, ; •: 

lentia liberis . - - OwdWwM 

neare, breviter stipitatum, ovulis 2-3; stylus gracilis, curvatus, apice 
, rtigmate terminali. Fructus ignotus. 



C. Baroni, Baker ; arbor partibus omnibus gk 

■ ;.<■!. .... ■ ■ - : : - - ■ '- ■ -- ' ^ - 

,, , ■ •:,.! -. : ...■.-. . • ■ •■■ ' -.--■>■-• 

, uluis, calycis segraentis deciduis. 
Habitat.— North Madagascar, Rev. R. Baron, 6422. 
Folia 11-2 poll, longa; foliola 5-6 lin. longa. Racemus 2-3 poll, 
longus ; pedicelli 2 lin. longi. Ca/ycw segmentum infimum 1^ hn. 
longum. JPetala 2 lin. longa. 

Allied to Cynometra, of which there are several species in M 
but differing from it by its peculiar calyx, ovules 2-3 and typically 
racemose inflorescence. 

143. Weinmannia stenostachya, Baker [Saxifragese] ; glabra ^Kifl 
imparipinnalii, foliolis 5-7 oblongo-lanceolatis acutis coi 

;is, floribus parvis in spicas densas 
a«*«regatis, ca mo dentibus ovatis obtu 

iiongioribus, staminibus breviter exsertis, ovario 
ovoideo pubescent©, stylis brevibus. 

Habitat.— Northern Madagascar, Rev. R. Baron, 6406. 
Folia 6-8 poll, longa ; foliola 3-4 poU. longa, medio 12-15 lin. lata. 
Spic<B 3-4 poll, longse. Calyx $ lin. longus. 

Nearly allied to IV. lucens and fraxinifolia, Baker. There are many 
species of this genus in Madagascar, some of which yield valuable 



triptera, Stapf [Combretaceae] ; arbor mediocns 
instructo foliis alternis vel suboppositis ellipticis vel oblongis basi 

... .. . .^ ^- -:;-; , , .- 

i: ,.-::-; ■ ■ • ■ - ■ '-- ■ -' ' • ' " - - - 

fclobo, lobis subacutis, mtus rattow* 
fructu oblongo 3-alato alis sequalibus. 

Habitat. — Island of Langkaui, C. Curtis, 1684. 

petiolus 4-6 lir.. longus. 



Folia 1^-2 £ poll, longa, 1-1 f 
it'crf? |-1 poll, longa:. Flore* | 






Tin's species is nearest allied to the Philippine Terminalia 
polyantha, Presl, from which it differs mainly in the very 
elender branchlets, the narrower and more acute leaves and rather 
smaller flowers. The number of the calyx lobes and stamens is the 
same in both species, viz., 4 and 8 respectively. The fruit wings 



number generally 4, rarely 3 in T. polyantha, whilst T. triptera almost 
always has 3 wings ; only once a fourth wing was found, 



smaller than the 3 others. It is the dorsal pair of wings which 

Bsponding with this reducl" 
receptacle has only 3 vascular bundles or nerves, one in fron 



eplaced by a single wing. Corresponding with this reduction, the 



on each side, to the right and to the left, these three nerves running 
right to the tips of the corresponding sepals, whilst the fourth and 
dorsal sepal receives its nerve as a branch from one of the lateral 
bundles. This ramification takes place at the base of the. cup-shaped 
calyx. The suppression of the dorsal vascular bundle of the receptacle 
and the corresponding replacement of the 2 dorsal wings by one, whilst 
the calyx retains its tetramerous structure, is very remarkable, and it 
would be interesting to know whether the tvimerous structure of the 
receptacle is indeed the normal one, as it appears to be from the material 



3tidia clusioides, Baker [Myi 

(voliito-ol.loncris obtusis vel 



,-!; folii? 



perspicua undulata pneduis lloribus sr 

oblanceolato-o't,; distincte costatis, staminibus stylo 

duplo brevioribus. 

Habitat.— jtforth Madagascar, Rev. R. Baron, 6250. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa, medio \\-2 poll, lata, e medio ad basin sensim 
attenuate. Calycis lobi 8-9 lin. longi. Stylus 5-6 lin. longus, apice 
4-cuspidatus. Discus floriferus 2 lin. diam. 

Of this very anomalous and curious genus of Mvi t.ict ;v three species 
are already known — two in Madagascar and a third in Mauritius and 
Bourbon. The leaves of the present plant resemble in shape those of 
P. mnuritiana, but the veining is quite different ; the divisions of the 
flower-wrapper are smaller and less eoriaeeou>. and tin- stamens are much 



raaceae] ; 
glandu- 

to, foliis ovato-laneeolatis acutis quinqueiierviis, nervis 
? basi plus minusve coalitis rugulosis supra a-qualiter subtus 
venisque tantum setulosis, e\mis longiuscule pedunculatis 
bracteis lineari-oblongis parvis apicem versus minute 
et setulosis, pedicellis brevibus vel bnmssimis, calycis tubo 
ngo indumento eo caulis consimili vestito, lobis -uldinearilms 



reviter producto curvato ultra insertionem bilobo, ovario praster 
Hulas apicales glaberrimo, capsular valvis minutis. 

Habitat. — Brazil. Cultivated at Kew from seeds believed to have 
een sent by Dr. Glaziou. 

Planta culta ad 6 ped. alta. Folia l-l£ poll. lin. longa, 9-10 lin. 
fa; petiolus 4-6 lin. longus. Calycis tubus 2\ lin. longus. Petala 
lin. longa. Capsula vix \\ lin. longa. 

T. meioclon is nearest allied to T. versicolor, Cogn., and to T. 
'.splat* nsis, Cogn. ; but it differs from them mainly in the stem, the 
mg peduncled cymes, the long calyx lobes, and the long beak of the 



LOS 



147. Memecylon strychnoides, BaK i orea, glabra, 

mgia obtusis 

vol euspidatis basi rotundatis coriaceis e basi triplinerviis cymis densis 
multifloris in paniculas pedunculatas axillares dispositis, pedicellis 
brevibus, bracteis ovatis parvis, calyce campanulato subtruncato, petalis 
late ovatis deciduis, staminibus petalis suba-quilongis, stylo elongato. 

Habitat. — Ikoyi, Lagos, west tropical Africa, Milieu. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa, medio 2-3 poll. lata. Calyx 1 lin. diam. 
Petala 1\ lin. longa. 

A small tree, with umbels of very small bluish flowers. Leaves very 
'ts nearest ally is M. Barteri, 



i Strychnos. Fruit 



148. Argostemma concinntun, Hemsl. [Rubiacese-HedyotideftJ ; 
herba caule simpliri pusilla, erecta, gracillima, annua, tetraphylbi, 
uniflora, foliis sessilibus membranaceis tenuissimis insequalilms lineari- 
lanceolatis v viatis integris propcipue secus eostam 

parce hispidulis, pedunculo uniflon . hrpviore 

vel interdum paullo longiore, calycis dentibus minutis deltoideis viz 
acutis, corolla? fere rotatas lobis anguste lineari-lanceolatis vix acutis 
apiculatis patentissimis, fdamentis brevissimis, anthcris in columnam 
<mam corolla breviorem conniventibus, connectivis in appendicem 

vix superante. 



Flanta l\-2 poll. alta. Folia 4-14 lin. longa. Flores 
rciter 1 poll, diametro. 

This delicate little plant must be a charming object in a livin 



[t is nearest A. pnmilum, Hen 
of tropical Africa and eastern J 



utrinque dense pilosis, floribus in corymbis tenninalibus multifloris 
dispositis pedicellis dense puliescentibus. braeteis linearibus pilosis, 
, dv< is lobis n ,g i ml ris pilosis corn t o nga c> indrico 

deiise pilos,,, lol>is oblonandnneeolatis acuminatis tubo 2-3-plo brevi- 
(baa iB tobo inclnsis, fructu magno subgloboso piloso. 

Habitat.— tforth Madagascar, Rev. R. Baron, 6179. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa, supra medium I .\-2 poll. lata. Calycis lobi 
demum pollicares. Carolhr tubus 21-24 lin. longus Frnetus magni- 



150. Eupatorium (Heterolepis) clibadioides, Baker [Tomposita^ ; 
fruticosum, p subsessilibtis ovatis acutis serratis 

utrinque viridibus. eapitulis paucis multifloris corymbosis, involucro 



campanulato, bracteis pauciseriatis adpressis glabris dorso conspicue 
5-nervatis exterioribus parvis ovatis centralibus oblongis interioribus 
lineari-oblongis pallidis, acheniis glabris 4-angulatis, pappi setis fir- 
mulis ciliatis subaequlongis, corolla rubro-purpurea, stylis longe 



Habitat.— South Brazil, near Bio Janeiro, Glaziou, 18,339. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Involucrum 3-4 lin. diam. Pappus 2 lin. 
longus. 

Nearly allied to E. VitalbfP, D.C., and E. itacolumiense, Schultz 
Bip. 

151. Mikania Carteri, Baker [Composite] ; late sarmentosa, cau- 
libus gracilibus glabris, foliis distincte petiolatis cordato-ovatis mem- 
branaceis viridibus profunde irregulariter palmatim dissectis, capitnlis 
paucis parvis corymbosis, involucro oblongo, bracteis viridibus glabris 
lineari-oblongis, achenio glabro castaneo, pappo rubro tincto achenio 
breviore. 

Rowland (Sir G. 

Folia majora 12-15 I'm. longa et lata. Involucrum 2 lin. longum. 
Achenium 1 lin. longum. 

The only tropical African species already known is the cosmopolitan 
M. scandens, Willd. 

152. Aspilia Glaziovi, Baker [Composite] ; perennis, herbacea, 
caule simpliei monocephalo decumbente dense piloso, foliis sessilibus 
oblongis dentatis basi rotundatis utrinque viridibus bispidis, involucro 
uunpanulato, bracteis oblongis obtusis rcquilongis folinceis bispidis, 
receptaculi paleis linearibus rigidis integrie complicatis disci tloribus 
■ qmhwigfrs Hgulis luteis involucro duplo brevioribus, achenio glabro 
compresso. 

Habitat.— South Brazil, near Rio Janeiro, Glaziou, 18,318. 

Caulis pedalis. Folia caulina 12-18 lin. longa. Involucrum 6 lie. 
longum, bracteis exterioribus 2 lin. latis. 

Belongs to the section Herbacece, near A. tetosa, Griseb.: Baker in 
Fl. Bras., vol. vi., part 2, p. 195, tab. 63, fig. 2. 

153. Senecio arctiifolius, Baker [Composite] ; herbaceus, caule erecto 
elato, foliis petiolatis cordato-ovati3 magnis membrauueeis p-pnndis facie 
demum subcalvatis dorso araneosis, eaj uogamis in 
paniculam amplam ramis corymbosis dispositis. involucro glabro 
viridulo, brn< ':- aequalihus exterioribus 
paucis parvis, floribus omnibus discoideis involucro sequilong.-. pappo 
aibo flexili. 

Habitat.— South Brazil, near Rio Janeiro, Glaziou, 18,3 10. 

Can lis, 5-6 pedalis. Folia inferiora caulina pedalia. Involucrum 
3-3£ lin. longum. 

Nearly allied to S. arandis, Gardn. : Baker in Fl. Bras., vol. vi., part 
2, p. 304, tab. 83. 



asubtuselevata,v 
.reralibus numerosis subtus sat conspicnis marginem veraui 
reticulato-conjunctis, gemmis floriferis 1-3 in axillis foliorum superiorui* 
1-2-floris, squamis per anthesin laxis eito deciduis i 



superioribus oblongo-lanceolatis acutis ciliolatis apice tantum 
pilOSUllS, sopalis parvis inaequalibus deltoideis oblongisTe, corolla infundi- 
bulari-campanulata glabra, tubo brevissimo, lobislatis pborato-rotundfttifl, 



staminibus 10 corolla brevioribns filamentis infra mediu 

ovario 5-6-loculare tomentello, stylo glabro stamina superante, stigmate 

magno capita to. 



This very fine species has white flowers with a pale yellow blotch 
towards the base of each lobe of the corolla. It belongs to a small group 
having the flowers springing from the axils of the uppermost leaves, 
instead of a strictly terminal inflorescence. 

155. Lysimachia grandifolia, Hemsl. [Primulacea?] ; herba parcissime 
minuteque strigillosa, ramis vel caulibus f 
amplis longissime petiolatis ; 

cuneatis leviter undulatis dense ciliolatis, floribus flavis rnediocribus 
u.nboiiatis, umbellis \k-\ •• v (J-S-flnris ex axillis 

foliorum superiornm ortis, pedicellis gracilibus bracteis lanceolatis 

. 
MMtawimi . corolla alte 

lobata sed, ut videtur, vix rotata, lobis latis aj a 

dinaliter tenuiterque venosis margine minute glanduloso, filamentis 
.'ulnatisy antheris magnis 
basi cordatis, ovario glabro, stylo filiformi stamina pauHo superante, 
capsula ignota. 

Habitats- Northern Siam : Pu Sam Sum, F. It. Smiles. 

Planta bipedalis (Smiles). Folia cum petiolo 0-9 poll, longa et usque 
ad 3| poll, lata ; petiolus \\- c ±\ poll, longus. Pedunculi circiter 2 poll, 
longi. BracU<r 4 -■"> i. 9 1$ Hn. I.mgi. Calycis 

segment a 4 lin. longa. Corolla circiter 6 lin. longa vel si rotata circiter 
10 lin. diametro. 

This is a very distinct species, differing from all others in its thick 
stems, large alternate leaves, and umbellate or subumbellate flowers. In 
habit it is more like a Sola num. thnn one's idea of Lysimachia, although 
recent discoveries in China have revealed the existence of a large 
number, presenting great variety in habit. 

15G. Mimusops dispar, N. E. Brown [Sapotacea;] ; ramis cinereis 
glabra, falm »t«BM juvenilibus fulvo- 

tomentosis a.!- \ ; ri<liim- Mceis suhtiliter retieu- 

latis, floribus 12-16 ad apices ramorum umbellatim dispositis, 



10,- 



pedicellis calycibusque extus prim 
adprcs-c i-[n.-i-<Mi-|.uhi-.-,PtMit.i[juri, sepalis I 
bus acutis intcrionhus. ohtusis utrinque 
petalis 18-24 triseriatis 3uba3qualibus lineari-1 
lutcis. staininibus 6-8 quam petala brevioribus, antheris lanceolatis 
acutis flexuosis quam filamenta glabra subulata multo longioribus sub- 
tilibus, staminodiis lanceolatis acuminatis canaliculars glabris 
globoso dense hirsuto, stylo elongato 



Habitat.— Natal, near Mooi River in " Thorns," at 3000-4000 ft. 
November, Wood, 4472, 5425 ; Gerrard, 1482. 

Foliorum petioli 2-4 lin. longi, laminse 9 lin.-2 poll, longa?, 3-9 
lin. latae. Pedicelli 6-8 lin. longi. Sepala 3 lin. longa, 11 lin. lata. 
Petala 2^-3 lin. longa, \-\ lin. lata. Staminum Jihrmenta \-\ lin. 
longse, antherse 1^-2 lin. longa?. 

A small-leaved species differing from M. obovata, Sond., by its more 
numerous and more umbellate flowers, which are mIso smaller and have 
shorter and less pointed buds. Mr. Wood states that "the fruit is 
yellow and well flavoured, much liked by the natives, and would, I 
think, be improved by cultivation." It is called by the natives 
" Amrrpu/nbida,'' a name that is abo iipplied to Other species of 



157. Mimusops marginata, N. E Brown [Sapotaceae] 
brunneis vel sordide cinereis plus minusve corrugatia glnbr 
petiolatis elliptico-lanceolatis vel cuneato-oblanceolatis brev 

obtuse cusphlatis vel obtusis basi acutis juvenilibus fu" 
adulii- utrui'|ii' ^blais viridihus, floribus 0-16 ad ap 
umbellatim dispositis, pedicellis icrniirinco-tomentosb 
biseriatis lanceolatis acuminatis exterioribus ferrugi 
marginibus cinereis interioribus utrinque cinereo-tomentosis, 
18-24 triseriatis subaequalibus lineari-oblongis vel lanceolatis 



glabris lutcis. staininibus 0-S quam petala 
lanceolatis, apiculato-acutis quam filamcuta lancenluto-subulata tomen- 
tosa multo longioribus, staminodiis lancohtis ;icnminatis canaliculatis 
extus lanato-tomentosis intus glabris marginibus lanato-tomentosis, 
ovario globoso-ovoideo dense hirsuto, stylo elongato glabro, fructu 



Habitat. — Natal: Inanda, Wood, 1661; near Umlaas, under 
1000 ft. alt., Wood, 5340; without locality, Gerrard, 1186. Cape 
Colony : King William's Town District ; Komgha, Flanagan, 27. 

Foliorum petioli 2£-8 lin. longi, lamina? 2-5 poll . longa?, 9 lin.- 
2\ poll, latae. Pedicelli \-\\ poll, longi. Sepala 4-5 lin. longa, 
1^-2 lin. lata. Petala 4 lin. longa, 1-1 \ lin. lata. Staintntwi 



nga. Fritctus 2 poll, long 
This is the largest-leaved of all the South Airieaii species, and some- 
what approaches the Abyssinian M. Schimperi, Hochst., in foliage, but 
the flowers and fruit are very much larger. I he haves are not very 
coriaceous, but more of the substance of stout cartridge paper, and dry 
more or less of a greenish colour. According to a note from Mr. 
McKen, appended to an unlocalised specimen, the fruit is "of a 



brownish colour like the Rose Apple." Like ^f. dispar (above 
described) it is also called " Amapumbulo " by the natives. 

I08. Mimusops oleifolia, N. E. Brown [Sapotacea?] ; ramis cinereis 
ins petiolatis anguste laneeolati* ut i-mi|ut* aniMistatis apice 
obtusis basi acutis coriaceis glabris, floribus axillaribus solitariis, 
pedicellis quam petiolus Mil .triple lonuioribus glabris vol priinum 
minute adpresse puberulis, sepalis 8 biseriatis exterioribus laneeo- 
latis acutis extus dense adpresse brunneo-pubescentibus intus minute 
jmhci nl i- interioribus lineari-lanceolatis acutis oxtus puberulis intus 
glabri- ciliolatis, petali* 21 rri>t! i;i r i~ 16 exterioribus lineari-lanceolatis 
acutis 8 interioribus mul olntia aeuminatie (siccia 

concavis inarginibus subundulatis) glabri*. staniinibus 8 cum petalis 
exterioribus aequilongis antheris lineari-oblongis sublonge apiculatis 
quam filamenta subulata pubescentia triplo longioribus. staminodiis 
anguste lanceolato-attenuatis acutis dorso marginibusque basi adpresse 
hirsutis, ovario ovoideo in stylo attenuato adpresse pubesceute. 

Habitat.— Nafel, Gerrard, 1642. 

Foliorini) petioli 2-.". lin. longi. lamina' 1-2 poll, l<.nga>, 2^-4 lin. 
lata?. Pedicelli 8-10 lin. longi. Sepala Z\ lin. longa, exteriora 
\\ lin. lata, iuteriora § lin. lata. Petala exteriora 2\-2| lin. longa, 
\ lin. lata, interiora 3-3£ Jin. longa, 1 lin. lata. St aminum filamenta 
J lin. longa, antheraa 2 lin. longa?. Staminodia 1^-2 lin ; ionga. 

Very distinct in foliage from any other African species ; the leaves in 
form and size resembling those of Olea europcea, L. 

\ 159. Jasminum primnliimm, Henul. [Oleaceaa] ; ./. nudifhro valde 

affinisel hupis speciei T - ■ . pore florente 

saepius jam bene evolutis foliolis <>! apiculatis 

margine scaberulo, corollas tubo brevi lob is latis elliptic, -mtundatis sese 
obtegentibus. 

Habitat.— Western China : hedges and copses at Mongtse, Yunnan, 
Hancock, 6. 

Foliola 1-2 poll, longa, lateralia quam terminate minora. Flores 
1^-1 \ poll, diametro. 

Whether this be entitled to rank as specifically different from 
./. „»diflnr»m or not. is a question that can hardly be answered without 
further knowledge of the two forms. It is possible that ./. nudiflorum 
may have deteriorated in our climate ; but there are no wild specimens 
in the Kew Herbarium to give evidence on this point. Generally 
speakin-, cultivation increase* the size of the tlowers : yet the (lowers of 
the wild specimen* of our ./. priintthinmi are nearly .louble the size of 

those of the cultivate! •/. mnlijhnnn. Mr. Ham k *tates that the 

flowers appear before the leave*, but in all of hi* specimens except one 
branch the leaves are fully .level. .pel with the (lowers. A figure of this 
plant will shortly appear in Hooker's Iconcs Plantarum. 



foliolo terminal' < oaniculas laxa- « 

dense pubescentibus, calycis dentibus lanceolalis t 
brevioribus, corolla' alba' tubo elon^ito cylindrico, lobi; 
iriplo brevioribus. 



Habitat. — North Madagascar, Rev. R. Baron 6271. 
Foliolum terminale 2 poll, longum et latum, petiolulo semipollic 
Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corollee tubus pollicaris et ultra. 



G90. 
161. Jasmimim octocuspe, Bake, 

:')■■■- - 

pubenriaeeis glabris, \cn\- [>ri ir.a i-iis we et v-patent ibus. floribus paucis 
axillaribus, oalyeis tubo campanulato glabro, dentibus H subulatis tnbo 
luugioril i=, corolla tubo cylindrico subpollicari loins S linoari-oblongi3 
tubo brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Between Tamatave and Antanarivo, Madagascar, Rev. R. 



Of this group of Jasmines with simple leaves there are between 20 
and 30 species in tropical Africa. The present species is remarkable 
for its subulate calyx-teeth and is nearly allied to J. Meyeri-johannii, 
Ene;l. of Mount Kilimanjaro, and I /osurn, Knobl. 

in Engl. Jahrb. XVII., p. 536. 

162. Cryptolepis obtusa, A r . E. Brown [Asclepiadea?] ; caule volubili 
glabro, foliis petiolatis oblongis obtusis retusis vol emarginatis mucronatis 
glabris, cymis axillaribus vel ad apices raiuoruni anguste paniculatis 
pedunculatis laxe 6-10-floris, floribus pedieellatis glabris, sepalis ovatis 
subacute, corolloc tubo brevi campanul; t<> i .'•> lii cari-lanceolatis triplo 
longioribui in alabastio contort!-, corona- ! obi.- lanceolntis acuminatis ad 
medium oorollsB tubi insertis. 

ITab'imt. \rica: lower valley of River Shire, 

3 Idler ; Lnabo River, Kirk 38 ; Shupanga, Kirk ; between Tette and 
the coast, Kirk ; Mozambique, Forbes ; Delagoa Bay, Speke. 

Foliorum petioli 2-5 lin. longi, laminae f-3 poll, longa?, 4^-16£ lin. 
lata?. Pedunculi U lin.-l poll, longi. Pedicelli 1-2 lin. longi. 
Sepala f lin. longa." Corolla tubus 1 lin. longus, lobi 3 lin. longi. 
Corona lobi | lin. longi. 

163. Raphionacme longifolia, N. E. Brown [Asclepiadea?] - omnino 
pubescens, caule simplice erecto, foliis petiolatis linearibus lineari- 
lanoeolatis vol lineari-oblongis subobtusis vel obtuse apiculatis, cymis 
axiliaiibu- ml vissime pedunculatis, bracteis laneeo- 
latis acutis, floribus pedicellatis, sepalis ovatis acuti?, corolla; tubo 
campanulato quam lobi laneeolati acuti virides subtriplo brcviore, 
corona- lob is ad orem mn»ll;r inserti- tripartttis segmentis omnibus 
subulatis vel lateralibus deltoideo-lanceolatis segmento intermedio quam 

Habitat.— Zambesi region : Moramballa, 2000 ft., Kirk ; Manganja 
Hills, Kirk. 

C'i'ilis 4-10 poll, altus. Foliorum petioli 2-4 lin. longi, laminae 
11-74 (sa-pius 3-6) poll, longa, 2-6 lin. lata?. Pedunculi 1-2 lin, 
longi. Bractete \-l lin. longa?. Pedicelli 1-3 lin. longi. Sepala % lin. 



164. Raphionacme scandens, N. E. Brown [Asclepiadeae] ; caule 
longe scandente minute pubescente, foliis petiolatis oblongis oblanceolatig 
vi 1 obovatis acutis vel breviter cuspidatis basi longe cuneatis obtusis 

. 
plunoaifl ., fua densiflori* 

pubt s(H'iifi'hu>. hracteis lam i-oiaiis acutis, seualis ovatis acutis pubescen- 
ribus, corolla* tubo breviter campanulato lobis patentibus oblongis obtusis 
extus pubescentibus intus glabris, coronae lobis trifidis glabris segmentis 
omnibus *ubulaiis nitermedio apic tortuoso quam laterales quadruplo 
longiore, follieulis lanceolatis acuminatis minute puberulis. 

Habitat.— Natal, Gerrard, 1312. 



grandiflora, A r . E. Brown [Asclepiadeae] ; caule 
obovatis vel elongato-obovatis obtusis supremis 




Habitat.— Tropic il V irion, Niom 

Shire Highlands, near Blantyre, Last. 

Caulis 10-12 poll, altus. Folia l±-4£ poll, longa, \-l poll. lata. 
PeduncuK ^-1£ poll, longi. Bracteat 3-5 lin. longae. Pedicel I* 
4-7 lin. longi. Sepala 3-4 lin. longa. Corolla \\ poll, diam., tubo 
3 lin. longo, lobis 7-8 lin. longis, 3-4 lin. latis. Corona- lobi .5 lin. lon^i. 

106. Chlorocodon ecornuta, N. E. Brown [Asclepiadeae] ; caule 
scandente giabro, foliis petiolatis ellipticis breviter et abrupte cus- 
pidatis basi obtuse rotundat i- vel - iiilis retlexi* 
grosse dentatis, evini- rifl glabri", 
bracteis obi. : ibus, sepalis 
ellipticis vel rotundati< obtu.si^iinis glabri>, corolla subrotata glabra 
lobis oblongis obtusis, corona? lobis transversis subbilobis vel late 

Habitat.— South-east tropical Africa : Ribe, Wakefield. 

Foliorum petioli jp-1 poll, longi, lamina* 3^-6 poll, longa \ 2\~\ p^ll. 
lata?. Pedunculi 1-2 poll, longi. Cymcc rami 8 lin.-l \ poll, lon^;, 
Pedicelli £ poll, longi. Corolla 9-10 lin. diam. Corona lobi f-1 lin. 
longi, \\-\\ lin. lati. 



Similar to C. JVhitei, Hook, f., but the coronal lobes arc entirely 
estitute of the dors.il process characteristic of that species . 
lore glabrous, the cymes or panicles apparently with fewer flowers, and 
ae flowers dry a darker colour than those of C. Whitei. 



167. Tylophora oculata, JV. E. Brown [Asclepiadeae] ; caule volubili 
gracili glabi o. atis aeuminatis 

basi cordatis glabris, inflorescentia? ramis quam folia brevioribus cymis 



glabris, floribus pedicellatis pallide 
purpureo-oculatis, sepal is late ovati< acutis ciliolatis, corolla 
rotata vel campanulato-rotata lobis oblique oblongis apice breviter 
lacerato fimbriatis glabris, corona? lobis radiatis subquadratis obtusis 
crassis glabris atropurpureis, apice styli prominente pyramidato-convexo 
albido-viridi. 

Habitat.— Sierra Leone. 

Foliorum petioli 4—7 lin. longi, laminae 2-3£ poll, longa?, 1-1^ poll. lata?. 
InJiorexcentifB rami 1^-3 poll. 1 « > n lc i . PnVnelli 4-7 lin. longi. Sepala 
\ lin. longa. Corolla 6 lin. diam., lobi 2 lin. longi et lati. Coronce 
lobi \ lin. longi et lati. 



Cynanchu: 
sglabrum,! 



quinque-plicata 15-crenulata 
staminea duplo-longiore, fo 
Irevibus, seminibus ovatis cone 



Foliorum petioli \-l\ poll, longi, 
poll. lata?. Cymce cum pedunculo \-2\ poll, longo 3-G poll, lemgte, 
poll. lata?. Pedicelli 4-6 lin. longi. Sepala f-1 lin. longa. \ lin. 1 
Corollce lobi 2^-3 lin. longi, l£ lin. lati. Corona 2-2} lin. hi 
FnUiruti 4-U poll, longi. l-~ lin! era-si. Scmioa Z\ lin. longa, li 



This species is now in cultivation at Kew. having been raised from 
seeds that were sent in 1890 from Ajreqoipa, in Southern Peru, by 
H. Guillaume, Esq., Consul General for Peru'. It is remarkable that it 
has remained undescribed for so long, as it appears to have been in 
cultivation about 10 wars ago; there being a garden specimen of it 
preserved in the Kew Herbarium, dated 1855. But probably it soon 
died out of - u-ould certainh have attracted the 

attention of some botanist, as it is one of the most distinct species in 
the genus, and the large, elegant cynics being ire-h produced, render 
it a rather ornamental plant from a horticultural point of view. 



;a, Baker [Loganiaceae] ; raniulis sursum 
petiolatis oblongis cuspidatis errnatis ba-i 
cuueatis facie viridibus obscure pubescentibus dorso pallidis aduitis 
pubesceotibi ribus breviter 

pedimeulatis -implicibus '-el furcatis. ealycis tubo campanulafo dense 
tomentoso dentibus parvis ovatis, > akoe triplo 

• "- - 
Habitat.— North Madagascar, Rev. R. Baron, 6480. 
Folia 6-8 poll, longa medio 3-3£ poll. lata. Spica 2-4^ poll, longas. 
Calyx 1 lin. longus. Corolla 3 lin. longa. Fructus ignotus. 

Nearly allied to i?. axillaris Willd., on which Iiadlkofer in Bremen 
Abhandl., viii. Ml. found.- his -onus Adenoplnsia. 

170. Cordia Irvingii, lUihcr [ l>oragine;v ! : arboiva. ravnulis dense 
|>ub< - •eiiiibus. foliisniagui.- l.mgt p< tiolatis oWati- < rtusis intern i- ba-i 

- ■ ■ ; 
cymas seorpioideas deusas longe pedunculatas panieulatas dispo-itis. 

i«, corolla tubo brevi, lobis oblongis, staminibus inclusis. 
Habitat.— Interior of Western Lagos, near Abbeokuta, Dr. Irviuij. 
Dr. Rowland. 

Folia inferiora 9-10 poll, longa, 6-7 poll. lata. Calyx 3-4 lin. 
longus. Fructtu ignotus. 

1894, 



Near 
p. 27. 


C. Milled 


and C. ■ 


/„ pulifolio. Ba 


ker in Kew 


liulktin, IS: 


171. Ipomcea repandula, 

graeili late volubiii piloso, f< 
cordato-OAatis repandulis, u 
foliorum pluribus congloine 


Baker [Con, 


cdvulacea-]; 




Habitat.— Interior of We: 


stern Lagos, D 


r. Rowland. 




Folic 


i 3-5 poll. 


longa et 1 


lata. Sepalat 


1 lin. longa. 


Corolla 6] 



Belongs to the large section Strophipomtea, near /. enorarpa, K. 
Br. 

172. Lepistemon leiocalyx, Stapf [t'onvolvulaia-a-] ; eaule volubiii 

oliis eordato o\ itis a< m i :"- it. id m basin versus 

..bseiiiv ttilobis utrinque tub o-velutinis petiolo, ut peduneuh. fulvo- 

, , congest s. ..'pahs i -tundato- 

ovatis obtusis glabenimis, corolla flava tubo urceolato b.mbo brevi 

bris, squsmifi basaliboa papillosis, ovario disco alto cine to 

2-loeulari. loculis 2-ovulatis. 

Habitat.— Frequent in the secondary forest near Keni, South 
Travancore, T. F. Bourdillon, 88. 

Folia ad 2 poll, longa, lA-2£ poll, lata; petiolus l-l£ poll, longus. 
Fedunculus l-2k poll, longus. Fcdict Hi ad 3 lin. lougi. Calyx 2 lin. 



The discovery of a representative of this genus in the South of the 
Deccan Peninsula is very interesting, as it is a link between the African 
and the Indo-Malayan area of the genus. There is only one species 
known from Africa, ranging almost over the whole tropical portion of 
the continent, whilst Lepistemon Wallirhii, Chois. U distributed from 
the Khasia Hills and Assam to Borneo and the Philippines ; L. astero- 
stigma, K. Schum, is limited to New Guinea, and L. Fitzalani, F. 
"" i. L. urceolafto, V. Mm 11., and probably also L. Lucae, 
> North Queensland. The species do not differ much, but 
~s leiocalyx approaches closer to the Indo-Malayan than 
> the African species. 



Muell., [Syn. L. 
F. Muell.] to Nort 
it seems that L. h 



173. Brandisia racemosa, Hemsl. [Scrophularinese] ; fruticosa, 
sarmentosa ? ramulis floriferis gracilibus pubescentibus, internodiis 
quam folia brevioribus, foliis oppositis vel suboppositis petiolatis rigide 
papyraceis vel subcoriaceis ovatis oblongis vel rarius lanceolatis acutis 
crenato-serrulatis, serrulis apiculatis, basi rotundatis rarius subcordatis 
vel subcuneatis glabrescentibus, costa atque venis primariis paucis 
crassis subtus elevatis, floribus in racemos terminales elongatos dispositis, 
pedicellis in axillis bractearum oppositarum sicpius geminis brevissimis, 
bracteis foliis similibus sursum gradatim minoribus vel fere obsolctis, 
calycis campanulati lobis subaequalibus brevibus deltoideis obtusis, tubo 

insigniter insequaliter bilabiata curvato-ventricosa, labio postico galeato- 
complicato breviter bilobato lobis rotundatis, labio antico brevissime 
tridentato dentibus lateralibus labio postico adhaerentibus denti inter- 
medio intermediis saltern dimidio breviore, staminibus 4 inclusis antheris 
barbatis per paria conniventibus, filamentis filifbrmibus glabris, ovario 
apice hirsutulo, stylo filiformi inter lobos labii superioris brevissime 
exserto, capsula (matura non visa) ovoidea calyce inclusa seminibus 
numerosissimis. 

Habitat. — Western China : in shady copses, Mongtse, Yunnan, 
Hancock, 143. 

Folia cum petiolo l-2£ poll, longa ; petiolus 1^-3 lin. longus. 
Racemi circiter semipedales ; pedicelli 1-3 lin. longi. Flores l-\\ poll, 
longi. Corollm tubus brevissimus ; labium posticum dentem inter- 



Mr. Hancock describes this 

great profusion, this shrub n 

having racemose flowers, and in the very great inequality of the lips 
of the corolla, the upper lip being 6-7 lines longer than the middle lobe 
of the lower lip. 

171. Didissandra longipes, Hems/. [Gesnerame-Cyrtandreze] ; fere 
undii|uc iiiai>ia, eaule, iir vidctui, luvvi-Miiii m-acili paucifoliato, foliis 
opponttifi Ion { pa obovatis vel 

ovalibus obtusis undulatis subtus pallidis, venis primariis lateralibus 
utrimjue sa'pius 4 subtus sat conspicuis, pedunculis gracilibus elongatis 
terminalibus vel pseudoterminalibus apice 4-6 

bus, bracteis minutis, floribus gpee* itifl fere liberis 

lanceolatis acute acuminatis, corolla tenuissima declinata, tubo cur- 
vato lato ventricoso, limbo 5-lobo 



multo longiore, lobis omnibus rotundatis, staminibus 4 inch 
eurvis filamentis filirbrmibus glabris, antheris per paria col 
bus, ovario puberulo. <\\\o tililbrmi breviter exserto, capsala 
recta puberula, seminibus minuti* I'm- lineuribus inappendiculatis. 

Habitat. — Western China : in crevices of shady rocks, in 
limestone glen, Mongste, Yunnan, Hancock, 50. 
Folii lamina 2-4 poll, longa; petiolu: 
" ' ?i. Pedicelli f-l| poll ' 
. longa. Cap 

Mr. Hancock does not describe the colours of the flowers of this 
evidently very elegant plant. All one can say from the dried specimens 
is that tiicvaic j >.*i It- and spotted. 

' 175. Petrocosmea grandiflora, Hemsl. [(b-Mi. i.,, a t vn m.!n t ' ; 
acaulis, ca-spitosa. foliis num. rosis appressis longe vel longissime petiolatis 
mollibus papyracei- uiuliqia- Inn^c >erieeo-pdosis oUonnis lanceolatis 
ovatisve rarius iViv or'ni. liaiihu- vix acutis basi cuneatis vel interdum 
mtundatis, pet ioio gracili, pcdiuiculis gracilibus unifloris perraro bifloris 
medio bibraeteaf is, bracteis parvN linoaribu>, calycis segmentis fere 
liberis ina-<piilongis anguste 1, <-.-ola i< ami - pilosis corolla extus par- 
cisiinio hirsulula obliqua imei|ualiter bilaMata, labio postico multo 



to sejunctis, ov; 


ario hirsuto, stylo hirsut* 


.. grac 


ili bis curvato id est 


rsum prorsum c 


urvato, capsula ignota. 






Habitat.— Wvt 


item China: crevices of 1 




ne precipices at 6400 



I ; fruticosa, glabra, 

tegris basi rotundatis 

mltifloras dispositis, 

~. ,-ahcc eainpanulato viridi lobis parvis obtusis, corolla? 

ubo cyliudrico, lol»i- obtu>is tunc ;cquilongis. 

//abifat.— lniw'un- of Western Lagos. Dr. Rowland. 



177. Clerodendron caeruleum. X. E. firmon j Verbcnueeas] ; fruti- 

oosum. ramiTIi- tetragoiiis j nn b.ril mis bilariam puberulis, -enioribus 

irlubris einereis, plus minusve verrucoso-tubereulatis, loliis oppositis 

1 suboblongis acutis basi euneato- 



= sparsissime pubescentibus i 



utrinque 3-5 subtus prominentibus, pednnculis axillaribus quam folia 
brevioribus gracilibus unifariam puberulis apice 1-vel 3 - floris 
bracteatis, bracteis subulatis glabris, pedicellis brevibus patentibus 
vel subdeflexis glabris, calyce campanulato ad medium quinquitfdo 
glabro dentibus deltoideo-attenuatis acn ' 
compresso calyce duplo longiore, limbo i 
inferiore cuneato-obovato sul-ininrato l<>bi> interinediis brevioribu 
<>llipticis obtusis superioribus majoribus oblique ellipticis ohtusi 
Btaminibu8 styloque longe exsertis incurvis, fructu quadrilobo glabro. 



Foliorum petioli 1-6 lin. longi, laminae 4 lin.-2£ poll, longae, 2 lin.- 

1 poll. lata?. Peduncuh \-\\ poll, longi. Bracteee 1-1^ lin. long*. 

Pedicel li 1-2 lin. longi. Corolla tubus 3| lin. longus, limbus 7-8 lin. 
diam. Stamina 8 lin. longa. 



178. Clerodendron polycephalum, Baiter [Verbenacea] ; fruticosum, 
ereclum, ramulis validis den>o ferrugiueo-pilosis, t'oliis ternatis vel 
oppofiitie dial otegris utrin- 

que viridibus pubescentibus, floribus in cymas multitknas conglomerata> 
[•eduuculatas terminales dispositis, pedunrulis petliccllisque pubesconti- 
\ us, ealyce piloso tube, ohronii-o d.-ntibus ..vatis tub., a-quilongis, corolla- 
tubo cylindrico calyce 2-3-plo longiore, lobis parvis nbovatis. sfamiinbi^ 

Habitat.— Interior of western Lagos, Dr. lion-land. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa, 2-2^ poll. lata. Calyx l\ lin. longus. Corolla- 
tubus 3-4 lin. longus, limbus expansus H lin. diam. 

Ranks amongst the small-flowered species of the subgenus Euclero- 
dendron near C./ormictiruni, (iiirke in Kugl. Jahrb. XVIII. 179. 

179. Nepenthes Smilesii, Hemsl. [Nepenthaceae] ; parva, acaulescens? 
vel saltern ramulis floriferis interdum valde abbreviatis fere undique 
plus minusve puberulis, ioliis confertis angustis utrinque attenuatis, 
ascidiis mediocribus recurvo-erectis fere cylindrieis, costis anticis angiihtc 
alatis timbriato-eiliatis vel fere obsoletia, calcare obsolete, peristomio 
eylindraceo transversim crebre costato, operculo fere orbiculari infra 
multiglanduloso, floribus (Jferrnginro-pu I .esc-ntiVius ^impliciter racemosis. 



law Saw, Nam Kawng, /■'. //. Smiles. 

Lamina folii 4-6 poll, longa. Cirrhus 1-2 poll, longus. Ascidia 
-3 poll, longa. Operculum 0-15 lin. latum. Scopus 10-12 poll. 

Mr. Smiles describes this as having a green pitcher with a red cover 



subtenninullbus petiolatis oblnngi- apice obtusis hasi ncutis 11-nerviis, 
racemis interfbliaceis pauciflovis, perianthii segmentis exterioribus 
acutis interioribus quam exterior*- latiorihiis dilute ruhentibus niargini- 
bus undulatis, staminibus 6 filamentis brevibus antheris lanceolatis 
prope apices dehiscentibus, ovario infer** t riIo<- ui;tri ovulis 1! in quoipie 
loculo collateralibus, stylo filiformi. 


Habitat.— Chin* : 
6065a. 


l'at 


ung, A. 


Henry, 6065; 


Kuei, 


A. Henry, 


Petiolus 2 poll. 
Perianthium 9 lin. d; 




%& 


ina 2-3 poll. 
p 3 lin. longa 1 . 


longa, 
Stylus 


G lin. lata. 
4 lin. longus. 


Allied to 0. draco 
leaves and tbe larger 




'es, Hook, f., but differiiij 
less numerous flowers. 


r in the i 


shape of the 



181. Stemona erecta, IVrifiht Koxhurghiacea' ; herha ereeta. glabra, 
caule angulato, folds vertieillatis olliptieis cuspidatis v.-l hreviter et subito 
acumiiiatis basi n petiolum brevem contractis trinerviis vel cum nervis 
arete marginalibus 5-uerviis. nei vis rnmsversis pluribus approximates, 
lloribus in axillis eataphyllorum prope basin caulis. pednneulis ihii ihus 
l>asi decurvis prope apicem reeurvis floribus bine erectis, 
perianthii segmentis anguste lanceolatis acuti* "J exterioribus 7-uerviis 
idterioribus 9-nerviis, staminibus perianthii segmentis paullo brevioribus 

:'i . ! ; . , .. - ■- ' . ' 

planam authera loDgiorem producto, ovario uniloculari, ovulis 3-6 erectis. 
Habitat— -China : Nanking, C. Schmidt, 1541, Herb. Faber. 
Folia 2-2£ poll, longa, 1 poll. lata. Perianthii segmenta 6-7 lin. 

The nearest ally of this species is Stemona sessilifolia. Mi<p, figured 
in the Somoku Znsetsii, Vol. Ii.. I. 55, which also has the leaves 
arranged in whorls of fours, but di tiers in having the flowers on much 
longer pedieels and solitary from the axils <..f fulls developed leaves. 



right [Liliaceae-Smilaeoa- j : iYu 

cutis glabris 7--nerviis. stimuli- ad petiolum adnatis apice cirrhife 
edunculo quam petiolus multo brevior*, pedicellis circa 8, floril 
jnotis, perianthio persistente normali, bacca globosa. 

Habitat.— China : Hupeh, A. Henry, 6554. 

Folia 5 poll, longa, 3 poll, lata ; petiolus 1 poll, longus. Pcdin 

lin. longi. Bacca 4 lin. diam. 

Keadily distinguished from the other Chinese species by the nuiner 
lack, fragile prickles, which clothe the stem, as in some forms 
imila.r calif arnica, A. Gr. (Watson, Bot. Calif, ii., p. 186). 




antheris albis, rudimento ovarii 
>osa nigra parva 1-sperma. 
5, A. Henry, 1521, 3089,3089a, 



glaucous, somewhat 



184. Smilax (Eusmilax) flaccida, Wright [Liliacea?-Smilaee;e] ; suff 
osa, ramosa, inermis, foliis lanceolatis acuminatis rectis vel levii 



curvatis glabris ner\ i- i i-tieulatis eonspieuis. 

petiolis vix pag iorescentia umbellAta, $ floribus 

circa duodecim, segracntis perianthii liirulatis staminibus 6 filamentis 
filiforinibus quam perianthium paulo brevioribus, rudimento ovarii nullo. 
inflorescentia $ floribus circa <".. i. - A segment is 

saepe plus minusve per paria adlnerentibus, ovario triloculm, ovulis 
geminatis, stigmatibu> 3 sul.sossilibus, fructu ignoto. 

Habitat— China : Hupeh, Ichang, A. Henri/, 3630, 3630a, 3630b. 

Folia 3 poll, longa, 1-1 poll, lata; /xiiolns 3-6 lin. longus. Pedun- 
culns $ 1 poll, longus ; $ 6 lin. longus ; pedicelli <$ et $ 3 lin. longi. 
Perianthium 3 lin. longum. 

The leaves of this plant somewhat resemble those of S. parrifolia, 
Wall., but the stem has not the same zigzag habit. 

185. Smilax (Eusmilax) megalantha, Wright !'Liliaceai-Smilaceas]; 



primarus .>. |»*-tii >!«■» lwpie a<l medium vagmato. vagina apice eirrhi- 
fera, corymbo subumbellato ad axillam folii rami lateralis producto, 
bracteolis subulatis, flore J 1 perianthio 6-partito, segmentis lanceolatis 
acuminatis exterioribus quam interiores latioribus, staminibus 6, 
filamentis liliioriiiiluiv (|uam perianthii tegmenta brevioribus, flore $ 
non viso, fructu globoso saepius 1-spermo. 

Habitat.— China : Szechuen, Pratt, 811 ; Mt. Omei, Faber, 241. 

poll, longus. 

This species somewhat resembles Smilax stenopetala, A. G-r., but 
differs in the inflorescence, which, instead of arising directly from the 
axil of a mature leaf, consists of a contracted raceme borne in the axil of 
a very young leaf, rarely an inch long, situated on an axillary branch 
about 4 inches long, at the base of which a large bud-seal*- persists 



phodele.-e] ; herba 

late triangular!,]- 

pedicellis brevibus, perianthio campanula^ segmentis 

oblanceolatis marcescentibus, staminibus quam 



S6. Paradisia minor 


, Wright [Li 


ornate brevissimo, f< 




latis glabris, scapo ei 

.Lrana^iu Twnli^lli* 1 


•ecto racemoso, 



Folia $ poll, long*, 4 lin. lata. Scapus l£ ped. longus. Pedicelli 
3 lin. longi. Perianth />'//> 1 poll, longum. Filamenta 4 lin. longa; 

anlhrra 5 lin. long.s. *////«* 9 lin. longus. 

187. Allium (Rhiziridmm) Henryi, Wright [LiliaceaB-AUieae] ; 
herbaceum glabrura, rhizomate perpendiculari fibris reticulata dense 
vestito, foliis linearibus acuminatis quam scapus paulo iongioribus, 
scapo tenui glabro vel leviter pub. "'nte, spatha 
scariosa ventricosa apice acuminata quam pedicelli dimidio breviore, 
segmentis perianthii ovatis acutis cseruleo-purpunis, Blamentis basi 
l.iwiicr conuiiti^ ipiam periantbiuin vix Iongioribus iis slammum 
interiorum dentibus lateralibus brevibus instructis, ovario trilobo, stylo 
quam perianthium sesquilongiore. 

Habitat.— China: Hupeh, Hsingshan, A. Henry, 6924. 

Rhizoma 5 poll, longum. Scapus 8 poll, longus. Pedicelli 6-8 lin. 
longi. Perianthii segments 3 lin. longa, i\ lin lata. 

This is allied to Allium przewalskianum /3 planifolium, Rgl., from 
which it differs in having longer leaves and pedicels, a shorter broader 
spathe, and fewer flowers. 

188. Aloe Buchanan!, Baker [Liliaceae] ; acaulis, foliis productia 
8-10 lineari - ' profuiiilf cannlicuhii> 
dorso rotundatis sfepissime prope basin minute albo-maculatis, aculeis 
marginalibus paueis niinutissimis, scapo simplici elongato bracteia 
pluribus vacuis parvis ovatis adpressis praedito, racemo denso paucifloro, 

I tngissimis ascendentibus, bracteis parvis ov:i? 
imbricatis, peri nut hi" <'\ hndriro pallidc rubcllo sursum \ iridulo. tubo 
brevissimo, lobis linearibus, genitalibus perianthio aequilongis. 

ffabitat.— Tropical Africa : Shire highlands, Buchanan. Described 
from a plant that flowered at Kew, December 1894. 

Folia pedalia vel sesquipedalia basi 6-7 lin. diam. Scdpvs sesqui- 
pedalis. Pedicelli \\-2 poll, longi. Bractea 5-6 lin. long*. Penan- 



189 Dipcadi occidentale, Baker [Liliaceai] j bulbo magno subgloboso 

tunicis extenbribus meml 8 hueanbus firmis planis, 

acemo la.*., paacinoro 

-■ 
- 
oxhTi.»rihu* rouq.lu-iiti.- I'aK-.-ni- ii.fcr;..ribu- j.aulo Iongioribus. 

Habitat.— Tropical Africa: near W'allis, Scarries, on hard dry 
hcritr. Scoff Elliot. 4840 (Sierra Leone Boundary Commission). 

Allied to the Abyssinian D. tacazzeanum and unifolium. 

190. Alocasia sequiloba, X. E. Brown [AroidorH ; ..mnino glabra, 

■ : ' ■- 

. tcrminalo oblongo apice breviter cuspidato aeuto margine 



nervis utrinque • 

costarum posticarum nervis 3-0 exterioribus 2-3 interioribus omnibus 
ittrimpie parum prominentibus, pedunculo tereti pallide viridi, spathae 

t.ubo anguste cllipMiideo-ohlonpi antice [>l:ino dorse convexo viridi nitido 
411am lamina ublonga acuta reflexa marginibus re volutis duplo breviore 
omnino viridi extu* nitida, spadice quam spatha multo breviore parte 

terliii <piam appendice teivti Mibobiusa Levi ochraeea sublongiore, ov;iriis 

sablaxis 6- 7- aatibna pan is 

:>-lobis p;t||idis>iiiir tlav.>-viridil>us, nriranis nmitri- tloribusque masculis 

Habitat. — German New Guinea. 

Vnliorum petioli 1 -1 ped. lonin, lamina pet iolo a-.piilonga,]obo terminali 
7-12-i poll, loiiyo. 3-fi (toll. lain, loins l>a-alibii- tij, -11-^ poll. loiigis, 
l|-2^ poll, latis. /'((IhhciiIns <) poll, vel ultra loniju-. Spat/to tubus 



1 i ii. 



and those which ha\c piuuatilid leaves, like J. sunderiana, Bull, ai 
^4. Portei, Engl. It has been introduced into cultivation by F. Sand 
& Co., to whom Kew is indebted for a dried and a living leal' ai 
inflorescence, from which the above description was made. The inil 
resernce was from a small plant, and if doubtless attains larg?r dimen-ioi 



CCCCLVIII.- MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

The death of the celebrated horticulturist, Mr. J. W. Thomson, at 
the ripe age of 90, is recorded in the East Sussex News for Friday 
April 5, IMI.). lie was educated at Shrewsbury Grammar School, the 
late Charles Darwin being a fellow pupil, and he was employed in the 
Royal Gardens under Mr. Aiton in 1819. He afterwards became head 
gardener at Syon House, the residence of the Duke of Northumberland. 
In 1835, after five years' service at Syon House, he went into business 
as a nurseryman. Last year he paid a visit to Kew, and shortly after- 
wards wrote the following letter. The Kew Guild is an Association of 
Kew Gardeners, Past and Present, formed in 1893. It publishes 
annually a journal for circulation among its members, and the number 
for 1894 contains a portrait of Mr. Thomson, with a very interesting 
paper by him, entitled " Reminiscences of an Old Kewite." 

Hortulan Lodge, Hayward's Heath, 
Sib, November 1, 1894. 

When visiting Kew Royal Botanic Garden-. Seotember 11th, I 
omitted to inform you that by my will I had arranged and invested a 
sufficient sum in the New South Wales Stock, now pay in- 3.\ per cent., 

Kew Guild, which is to be paid every year on my birthday, the 2.3th 



...is n donation in perpetuity, and for all time, as a gif 
from J. W. Thomson, in 9 1st year ; the Stork will stand in the name o 
• .^ 
I also intend, so long as the Almighty in bis great good 
me to occupy a locus standi in boundless space, also to pcrambulat 
irrni finiui. i > contribute mv annual donation of five guineas to th 
Guild. 

(Signed) ' J.' W. Thomson. 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq., 

CMC. C.I.E., F.R.S., Ph.D., F.L.S. 



News was received with great regrei a! Kew in .March last of the 
death of Mr. William Crowther, who for the last four years has been 
the able and efficient curator of the Botanic Station at Aburi, on the 
Gold Coast. Mr. Crowther was appointed in 1839 (Ken- Bulletin, 
1 SOI. pp. 100-173*. He full v justified the selection for the post, and, 
as shown in these pages (Kni- KxUttuu 1802, pp. 14 and 297 ; 1893, 
pp. 160-62), the station at Aburi. r-> acres of land, 

had been admirably plane.' able economic 

trees and shrubs brought together from all parts of the world. In 
addition, there were large nurseries for supplying seedling plants of 
coffee, cacao, and spices to the nativ< adugtries. In 

the work ot tl dicioue and 

sympathetic guidanee ol Sir William Brandford < Jrilfith, K.C.M.G., to 
whom indeed it owes both its inception and success. 

In 1893 Mr. Crowther visited the West Indies to observe the 
cultivation of coffee, cacao, and other tropical economic plants. On his 



cultivated in WcM Afii . |». 227). 

Mr. Crowther's removal is, a great blow to botanical enterprise in thi> 
part of the world. The station at Aburi is at an -devation of 1500 ft., 
and attached to it is a sanatorium lor Kuropean officers. The locality 
is, therefore, regarded as comparatively healthy. From a despatch 
addressed to the Colonial Office by Sir W. Brandford Grifhrh. it 
appears that Mr. Crowther died from abscess of the liver. His 
Excellency, who was at Aburi at the time, adds, « I saw him frequently 
during his illness. ||.. gradually s :1 nk and died on the 16th March. 
His remains wen- interred in the cemetery at Accra, his funeral being 
largely attended hv several public officers and others who regretted 
his untimely death. By this sad event the Government has lost one 



Botanical Magazine.- 1 ted in the 

umber oi March - U~< lift »in ra udu Lampra wdeaniea ), a memhei 

fthe Cmnnclinacetr. referred to it! th • fh-IIrli,, for 1S94, p. 135, on 
ie occasion of its flowering at Kew. It has a curious history, which 
. not fully given in the notes in question. Dr. J. IF. Schultes. junior. 
rst described it, in 1829, from specimens purporting to have been 



122 



collected by Karwinski in the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico, and two other 
Mexican localities are recorded ; yet it appears that no recent collector 
has met with it in Mexico, and there are no Mexican specimens at Kew. 
Hartweg collected it in the Vol can fie Agua, Guatemala, in 1837, and 
the late Mr. Bentham shortly afterwards described and published it 
under the second name cited above. From that date until 1893 it 
would seem that this singular plant had not been re-discovered, and 
then it was found in the same locality where Hartweg collected it. 
Evidently it is an exceedingly rare plant. Heptapleurum venulosum, 
var. cri/throstachi/s Andiacea- i is a small tree with a bright red inflores- 
cence, which flowered in the Temper.ire House. The plant was pre- 
sented to Kew by M. de Falbe, formerly Danish Minister to the Court 
of St. James. Disa sagittalis, a relatively inconspicuous South 
African orchid, was presented to the Royal Gardens by H. J. Elwes, 
Esq. Veronica loganioides, one of the numerous New Zealand species, 
flowered in the Rock Garden at Kew in 1W»3 ; and Schinns dependens 
(Duvaua dependens), a native of Chili, is a hardy shrub of no great 
ornamental character, though a conspicuous object when covered with a 
profusion of its small yellow flowers. It was raised at Kew from seed 
obtained from the Botanic Garden of Santiago. 

The April number consists entirely of plants that have flowered at 
Kew. Macaranga porteana (Euphorbiacese) is a native of the 
Philippine Islands, where it was discovered by Mr. Marius Porte, and 
after whom it is named. A young plant was sent from the Jardin des 
Plantes, Paris, in 1892, and it has long been a very striking object in the 
Victoria House. Snintpaulia ionantha is a charming little cyrtandreous 
plant from the mountains of eastern tropical Africa. It so strongly 
resembles the Chinese Petrocosmea that it has been somewhat pre- 
maturely reduced to this genus. The Kew plants were raised from seed 
obtained from a continental nurseryman. Ixianthes retzioides (Scro- 
pliulatin.:)) is an exceedingly rare, indeed, almost extinct, South A IVican 
shrub, having large yellow flowers. Plants were raised at Kew from 
seed sent in 1891 by Prof MacOwan, Government Botanist at Cape- 
town. Pipt<> ill aroid, discovered in Johore, and 
sent to Kew by Mr. H. MT. Ridley, Director of the Garden and Forest 
Department of the Straits Settlements. Magnolia parviflora, a native 
of Japan, was figured from a plant, obtained from Yokohama, which 
flowered in the Arboretum last June. 



Hooker's Icones Plantarom. — The third part of the fourth volume, 
(fourth series) appeared in April, and contains, among other things, 
figures of the principal rare plants of Mr. Bent's Hadramaut expedition, 
described in the Kew Bulletin, L894, pp. 328-343. A second figure of 

the very singular Chinese tree. Enconunia id amide*. Oliv., represents 
both male and female flowers, which were previously unknown. 
Professor D. Oliver now refers it to the neighbourhood of Troclmd, ndron. 
Another very anomalous plant figured is Circa aster ag rest is, Maxim. 
It was at first suggested that its affinity lay in the direction of the 
Chloranthacese, but Professor Oliver i- new inclined to regard it as a 
degraded type of the Ranunculacea-, though in habit it is exceedingly 
different. Achilus, the proposed new genus of Scitamineas {Kew 
Bulletin, 189.",, p. ;)»), is figured; and Dr. H. Baillon has since sent 

>; - 'PP-.r- atl) a t -p. cies from Cambodia, which 

seem to indicate that the flowers figured are imperfect or abnormal. It 



is expected, however, that Mr. Smiles will send fuller 
the structure will again be investigated. The remainder 
the Icones is chiefly devoted to African plants. 



Organization of the Fossil Plants of the Coal-Measures. — Professor 
W. ('. Williamson, and Dr. D. H. Scott, the honorary keeper of tho 

./odrell Laboratory, are the authors of an elaborately illustrated artiele 
on the minute structure of (he Calamids, Calaiaostac/u/* and 
Sjtln nnpln/lhrni, lately published in the Philosophical Transactions 
of the Ro\al Society of London. The leading idea was to elucidate 

living plants. The paper opens with a detailed comparison of the 
primary structure of the -tern of ( 'o/amitcs with that of the stem of 
Equisetvm, followed by an account of the secondary growth and branch- 
ing. Homosporous and heterosporous species of Calamostachys are 
described; wid if » suggcsicd that we have here a genus in which the 
" heterospory can be traced. In the 
? of Sphenophyllum it is stated that the struc- 
t with great accuracy, that its position 



is a cryptogamous type n 
represented in the existing flora. The illu-J 
good, especially those reproduced from Mr. George Brebner's beautif 



Himalayan Euhi. — In the Knc Ih'lhti,,. is«.)4, p 15X5, a note was 
publi-hed respecting a I .^dai Kcw, that had 

proved of special interest in Queen-land. This was itxhiis cllipticx*. 
Smith (R. flavus, Ham.). The fruit is of "a pale yellow colour when 
ripe, and possesses the full raspberry flavour with a delightful sub- 
aciditj which renders it most palatable." The plant has ttow also 
been introduced to Jamaica, where no doubt it will flourish at the Hill 
Garden in the Blue Mountain-. The distribution of these temperate 



hi floras, Ham., a strong ramblii 



further recorded that Rubiis finrniosm, Roxb., 

•• llimalavan Blackberry." has Keen a success in Jamaica and plant* 
have been distributed. Sir Jo-eph Hooker [Flora <>/ Pnrish l.nlia, 
ii., p. 340). regard- this species a- an extreme form or ./.'. lasincorpns, 
Smith, r.-a lib distinguished by the copious glandular bristles and hair-, 
the usually densely torn, ntose branches, corymbs, petioles, Sic, and the 
prickly calyx and large petals ; the leaflet- too are usualh broader, very 
coriaceous, glabrous above or with sometime;- copious ahno-t woolly 

palmately lobed leaves nearly i 



hang from the gallery. 



in the second edition of Hortus Kcwcnsi< says that i 

St Helena. Sir Joseph Hooker foun 

in 18*0. According to Mr. Baker {Flora of Mauritius; p. 96) 

introduced to that island from the Malay Archipelago in 1780. 

Martinique 



miniea. Dr. Nichnlls, F.L.S. {Keir linlhri,,. 



. 207). includes it under the fruit* .if Dominica. It is known 
there as Fraise or Ked-herry. lie adds ''this fruit, which evidently 
escaped from cultivation many years ago, is now wild and occurs 
abundantly alonu: tin- roadsides in .scvera.1 districts of the island. By 
careful cultivation it might be so improved as to make a. very line fruit ; 
but in its wild condition it is too full of seeds to entitle it, to take high 
vank. It is eaten with cream like strawberries and is also made into 

/tubus rn.strfoliu:< is often cultivated in gardens where its evergreen 
foliage, the delicate white of the petals and above all the red fruit, 
copiously produced, render it very attractive. There is a variety 



four, the Regius Keef 
: additions in the Kew i 



Newfoundland Plants.— Through Dr. B. L. Robinson, Curator of the 
Gray Herbarium, Harvard, K. w has received a M -t oi about 260 species 
of dried plants, including a number not recorded from the island in anv 
of the existing lists, the most complete of which is embodied in 
Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian Plants. One of the most striking 
features in the relatively poor flora of Newfoundland is formed by the 
numerous Vacciniace* and Ericaceae, especially the prostrate, shrubby, 
berry-bearing kinds, which clothe the swamps and open woods. Maeoun 
enumerates upwards of twenty species belonging to the two natural 
orders in question. 



North Mexican Plants. — Kew has acquired by purchase s 
f dried [.lants. numbering about .3.30 species, collected by Dr. C. 
mmholtz. They are from the Sierra Madre region in the north-west, 
diere Seemann collected forty- five years ago. T" 
umber of novelties including a Pinus and a Brat 



Orange-Growing in Florida and Jamaica. — The recent very cold 
weather in the Southern Cnited States appears to have had a very 
destructive effect upon the orange trees, pine apples, and other sub- 
tropical plants cultivated in Florida. This is a matter of more than 

State, and much mone\ and labour have been expended in establishing 
large and 1 nge groves. The Garden and Forest 

(February 13, 1895, p. 70) states: "The second period of freezing 
weather in Florida was even more disastrous to the orange groves 
than the lirst, when, as we h; 
practically destroyed. The oh 
had begun to put forth leaf-bi 
wave has evidently destroyed these and apparently ruined the next 
crop." In a later number ( February 27, p. 90,) the same authority 
remarks : " But for the disastrous periods of zero weather which 
desolated the orange groves of Florida, the New York market would 
now have been well supplied with fruit from that State. Probably 
the number of oranges destroyed in Florida would amount to as many 
as the entire California crop, which is arriving under the most 
favourable conditions tor profit to the growers." Dr. Mead quoted 
in the Gardeners' Maijazine (.March 9, 1*9.3), furnMies further 
particulars : '• All early vegetables, as well as the whole crop of oranges. 



have been shipped between February 20 and March 10 are destroyed. 
Fine apples have been nearly all destroyed This serious t' r ost 
coming after the previous destruction of the orange crop means 

absolute rum to the Florida growers as now there will lie uo crop next 
vear, if indeed, Florida i- not permanently disabled in the matter of 
citron culture." 

on the I'oth Febrnaty last, by Mr. 11. Nehrling, of the Public Museum, 

almost all tin plants were killed by the great freezes on hecember Lis 
and February 7. The temperature fell as low as 16° F. above zero. 
Thousands and thousands of orange trees were killed, and most of 



my tropical plants such as Pleromu, Mci/ona, llibisms, Arauairia, 
Bignonia, Oestrum, lochroma, Melalem-a, Mftrosideros, Taber- 
namontana, <fec, &c, were hurt beyond recovery. Even such 
plants as Daphne adnata, (I, thru arbtara. Hydrangea /wrlcu.sis, 
Myrfus communis, Nerium Oleander, Illicium rdigiosnm, M alalia 
fuscata, Gardenia fiorida, &c, &c, were killed to the ground. The 
species of Phcenix lost all their leaves, while most of the Cocos and 
Sabals were only slightly injured. Avmcomia Tofai lost many of 
its leaves and even Chama>rops kumilis suffered a little. 



of orange ; 
possessed 1 
fruit growi 



rtaken Florida in the r 



" I have received from j lions for information as 

:> the prospects of orange-growing, from persons whose groves have been 
alise the precarious nature of 

: of the j).i iodical cold naves 



e prepared f 



> th<- inquirers. From the t 



evidonl that with a soil and climate especially suited to the growth of 
the citron tribe this Island could with systematic cultivation produce 
enormous crops of oranges, lemons, grape-fruit and shaddock equal in 
quality to that of any fruit in the American or European market, T 
shall welcome the introduction of a regular cultivation that ought to be 
as valuable and as stable as the eutivation of -ugar or bananas." 

It is probable that the influx of a few capable men from Florida, with 
good experience in growing and packing oranges might be of signal 
service to Jamaica. 

Kew for many years. In a recent letter addressed to the Colonial Office the 
following remarks were made : — " It has always been a matter of 
extreme surprise that the export of oranges from Jamaica has made so 
little progress of late years. It is stated, on trustworthy authority, 
that those already grown are superior to those produced in Florida, 
and a good market might be found for them in the United States and 
the United Kingdom. To stimulate this industry, amongst other 
steps, a small intermediate garden should be started on the orange 
zone at 2-3,000 ft. elevation. Here the best obtainable kinds might 
be grown, their cultural treatment demonstrated, and instruction 
given in the proper modes of handling and packing." It might be 
added that the Bolanie < lardcns in Jamaica have for a long period 
endeavoured to encourage an orange industry in the island. From the 
returns iurni-hrd in the Annual Reports it appears that orange plants 
at the rate of 10,000 to 50,000 a year have been distributed at nominal 
rates. Also lemons, citron lemons, and the best Mandarin and Tangerine 
1 it should 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

Nos. 1C2, 103.] JUNE and JULY. [1895. 

CCCCLIX.— MAPLE SUGAR. 

(Acer saccharinum, Wangh.) 



ir and syrup : 



obtained in the United States 



Canada from the stem of the Si v 

early spring and the juice, collected in vessels, is boiled as quickly 

prevent fermentation. The industry is carried on over » u 
tract of country and the produce is used locally. Little, if 
any of it comes into external commerce. Hitherto ii has been diiiieat; 
to obtain reliable information as to the extent or valu< 
w.w industrv in the L'nitod States. From the following extract it will 
„ :,,-„.;,..,; that ahout LO million pounds of maple -n-ar an produced 
annually, and that the value of the sugar and syrap- together reaches 
about one million dollars. , 

The Sugar Maple (./re,- sm-vhoru- free, ott.-u 

100 feet higl '"nu'T-" 

- •■ , - • ■ 

\ ,:" , . . .. ,^ - 

-tern North America, it extend southward tro.n Lanad-. 

.. : / ■ \ V ■■■■■-■ '^ :- ■' ' ■ ^ ■■ ■ 

alon| the valleys of the St. Lawrence to Mmnesota, Nebraska, Kan,,,, 
lexas. ...,*.«« r,,, x . , 

rhi ^ f , „ , , , l ,,! • . i i _ i I !-•>■' 1<- I ml. t is more 

' forms of the wood, known as ~ curled :■.■ 






maple," are highly priz 
' • of the x 



« Much of the splendour of rh.- \mcrican f rests in early autui 
ue to the abundance of the su-ai n.apl . which is unsurpasa 
rilliancv of colour by any upland tree" 

irv properties ot the sap of the maple 
nown to tin- lia!ian< het'ore the earliest settlement of Europeans. 

Maple sugar is identical chemically with that yielded by the s 
"^Ithas the appearance of raw cane-sugar, except that it »i 



refining the j> 
* considerable per-centa; 
balance that feels like sand in the mouth, anc 



darker in colour, and it loses in refining the pe< 

It often contains a considerable per-centage ot makte 



128 

increase in quantity in proportion to the length of time the tree has been 
tapped." 

Professor Sargent (Silva of Xorth Ann rica, ii. 98), from whom the 
above extracts have been taken, quotes as follows : — 

" Sugar making begins with the upward flow of the crude sap, or 
between the end of P'ebruary and the beginning of April, as the season 
is early or late, and continues during three or four weeks. Trees 20 or 
30 years old are considered the most productive and yield the purest 
sugar, although sap can be drawn from the tree year after year without 
seriously injuring it, Trees exist in northern New York which are 
known to have yielded sugar every year for a century, and which, while 
much swollen about the base from repeated wounds, are still vigorous 
and fruitful. A tree of the average size will give in an ordinary season 
20 or 30 gallons of sap, usually containing from 2 to 3 per cent, 
of sugar, or from 2f to 3£ ounces per gallon. Individual trees, 
however, vary much in productiveness ; and those standing by 
them>el\es on high ground, with a large development of roots and 
branches, generally yield more sap than trees crowded together in the 
forest. The highest per-centage of sugar recorded is 10*20 for a tree 
in Vermont, in a small flow late in the season, 5*01 per cent, being the 
average of this tree during the season." (Wiley, Bull. 51, Chem. Div. 
Dept. Agric, 1885.) 

The following article taken from the Louisiana Planter, February 
2, 1895, gives the present production of maple sugar in the United 
States :— 

" During the existence of the bounty law it was thought that data 
would be secured covering the entire production of maple sugar in the 
United States, but the great number of small producers who made no 
application for the bounty, owing to the small amounts involved, has 
rendered the data very incomplete, although the total production of this 
article is far greater than most persons imagine. From the last report of 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, we learn that the maple sugar 
produced during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1892, by licensed 
maple sugar producers who submitted reports, amounted to a little short 
of four millions of pounds. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1893, the production reported aggregated over 7,500,000 pounds, and 
for the year ending June 30, 1890, the data secured indicates about 
the same production. From this it would seem that the total production 
of maple sugars in the United States exceeds 10,000,000 pounds, and as 
this article is sold as candy rather than sugar, and as an immense 
amount of maple molasses or syrup is sold without being manufactured 
into sugar, it is evident that the total production of sugar and syrup 
from maple sap reaches about #1,000,000 annually. 

"New Hampshire leads in maple sugar production with a yield of 
about 5,000,003 pounds. New York follows with the production 

a little less than half a million, other States reporting - mailer quantities. 
Over 8,600,000 trees were topped to produce 7,500,000 pounds of 

peeawsott." ' ° ^ ted 

in the introduction of the sugar maple into Kashmir, :i;e lied to Kew for 
assistance in obtaining a supply ot seed. Alter some difficulty a 
sufficient, quantity was obtained through the kind offices of Messrs. 
Thomas Meehan & Son, of Germantown, Philadelphia, and despatched 
to India. They remark in the letter of advice: — "You are no doubt 



of the double samara of the sugar map] 
r hollow. It is rave to find both good." 



CCCCLX.— ANBURY, CLUB-ROOT, OR FINGER AND 
TOE. 

(With plate.) 
This unfortunately well-known plant malady has been made the 
subject of the most careful scientific investigation. Of this a good 
account is given by Mr. Carruthers in the Journal of the Jioyal 
Ayrioltnro'/ Sacitty, 3rd ser., vol. iv., pp. 334-339 (1893). The 
i borrowed from it : — 
" This disease, eau>< d 1 »y I'lasmoJiophora Brassictz, Woronin. sIkavs 
itself by the tops of tin- a'ttaeked turnips becoming yellow and soft and 
drooping in the heat of the sun. When the bulb is taken out of the 
" I which issue from it, and through which the plant 
the soil, are found to be covered with 
In the progress of the disease the bulb 
itself becomes rotten, and in the advanced stages a most offensive putrid 
odour is given off.'' 

The appearance of the diseased roots is well illustrated in the 
accompanying illustration, which is borrowed from von Tnbeuf's 
Pjlanzenkmnkketten. 

For a description of the organism discovered 
the cause of the disease, reference may be made to Mr. Carruther's 

P *The late Dr. Augustus Voeleker made an elaborate inquiry into the 
...arable to i These weiv published in the Journal of 
th, llof/al Aar'ouUnral Suricfy for )*M (vol. xx.. pp. 10l-ll>.->). lie 
" eonclud-d'that thoeaiis, i»l Miilnny i- .i'i-il\ r.-l'.-rr. -I u most instances 
to the ."bsenee or instill':, sandy soils." 

« It has since been observed .... the application of lime, 
chalk, or marl, has prevented the reappearance of the disease in fields 
where it had previously been present." 

" It has recently been asserted th* in manures 

saturated with sulphuric acid favon h- di,. m 

(Carruthers, I.e., p. 335). In the Journal of the Boy a '. 

■ er, vol. v.. pp. S0S-SL1), Proie.ssor William 
. . . ■ .■:-:■ re :■ ■ \\ ■■'■'-■ ■ ..■■-. 

free from the disease can be easily infected with it. Two of his 

•• 1. That Fui-vr and Toe (locally known in the north as 'grub') 
is an extreme!? infectious disease, and nun be ea.ib induced hy 
inoeulating a soil perfectly free from the disease -and 

ased Bold. 

" 2. That such diseased soil ma\ In- ea-d\ disinfected by bine, whieh 
points to the pathological phenomena being due to an organism, 

"" : 

■■■ -■ "■ 
/'/„>„i< J,..i '/.-/■./. wh.cli is the eau-e of the diseasv. have now been 
cttrried a >(ep further, :ts the result of invest ie;atioii> made during tin- 
last !bur years in theJodrell Laboratory of the Royal Gardens by 
>h-. i, \\ ss,-o, K.I..S., a in inli i ot rh. scientific staff. 



The folio 



1 from Mr. M ;»--,. •'> paper printed 



The disease attacks turnips, rape, 
and, in fact, most cultivated plants belonging to the order Cntciferrr. 
Several common weeds are also attacked, namely, charlock (Brassica 
Sinapistnuii, lioiss.), garlic-mustard {Sisymbrium Alliaria, Scop.), 
treacle-mustard {Erysimum ("nciranthoides, Linn.), and shepherd's 
purse {Caps>:, :)C.)- The last-named is reported 

from the Unii io< been observed to be 



udpoint, and although he did not succeed 

, distinctly states that microscopic i 

of a factor previously unknown it 

Furthermore, Berkeley pointed out 

3 for the disease, and supposed this to be 




of experiments conducted during 



'- 



1. Healthy seedling cabbages planted in 

no. Inc. -J a crop of diseased e;d 

Check plants from tin- same batch of seed, < 



A. Experiments conducted in a Sterilised Solution of Stable Manure. 

2. The contents of two flasks wore infected by adding crushed 

tubercles of a diseased cabbage root. Two per cent, of a saturated 
solution of potassium hydrate was added to the contents of one flask, 
and two per cent, of comnn rciai -ulphuric acid to the other. A young 
Cabbage plant free from disease was then placed in each flash. At 
the end of two months the plant in the flash containing potassium 
hydrate was growing vigorously and perfectly free t. 
whereas the plant growing in the solution containing -ulphuric acid 
was badly diseased, much more so than check plants growing in 
infected soil free from acid, for the same period of time. Similar 
experiments made during successive year- always \ i< hied the same 

3. Two young cabbage plants showing decided symptoms of disease 
were placed in flasks containing the -nine proportions of potassium 
hydrate and sulphuric acid ivspectiveb ;•.- in Kxperhuent 2. At the 
end of two months the plant growing in the solution containing 
potassium hydrate appeared lo he perfectly healthy, the indications of 



having become effaced by subsequent growth. The 

the solution eomaiiiiiii: sulphuric acid was badly disea* 
Similar results were obtained in Experiments 2 at 



! 

the sterilised solution. The liquid i 
a any way. 



B. Experiments conducted with Stert 
5. Two pots of soil, sterilised by steam, wf 
ished roots of diseased cabbages. The soil 



perfectly healthy, wfc 

manure was badly dis 

6. Two pots conh 



belonging to the order Crucifei 



■, having at 
each pot, a 


aid at 


ainiug acid 


bene 


te and acid 


lone 



Hence the necessity for preventing the growth of such weeds in fields 
and hedge banks. 

2. That the germs of disease toe present in soil that has produced a 
diseased crop, and retain their vitality for at least two years. 

3. That the development of Plasm odiophora is favoured by the 
presence of acids, and checked by the presence of alkalies, agreeing in 
this respect with the fungi rather than with bacteria. 

4. For the purpose of sterilising infected soil, experiments prove 
that either a dressing of lime or a manure containing potash salts is 
effective, the last being most valuable, as it not only destroys the gern 
in the soil but also arrests the disease " 
same time supplies one of the ingredie 
growth of turnips. 



CCCCLXL— FLORA OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

The novelties of several small collections, from the above-named 
islands, presented to Kew within the last few years, have already been 
published in the Annals of Botany, v. (1891), pp. 501-508, pi. 27 ; 
vi. (1892), pp. 203-210, pi. 11-14; journal of tin Linn, an Society, 
xxx. (1894), pp. 163-165 and 211-217, pi. 9-11; Hooker's James 
Plantarnm, 4th series, iii. (1894), pi. 2207, 2247, and 2248 ; and Kew 
Bulletin, 1894, pp. 211-215. 

In March of the present year a further small parcel was received from 
the Kev. R. B. Comins, including also a few species from Torres Islands 
and Banks Islands, situated between the Solomon group and the New 
Hebrides. 

Unfortunately Mr. Comins's opportunities for collecting and preserving 
plants are very slight ; yet in this small collection of about 30 species 
a dozen remain unidentified with previously described species. The 
material of some is, however, insufficient for description. Omitting the 
very common plants of no special interest, the following is a 
of the last consignment : — 






s are wanting, ana tne antners nave Dee] 
i uncertain whether it belongs to this ge 
: foliage and calyx it appears to be an unde 



Habitat.— Florida, Solomon Islands, Comins, 291. 

Mr. Comins notes that the natives declare that this tree, which occurs 
I the forests and attains a height of 100 feet, never ripens seeds, and 
m only be propagated by cuttings. 



Oxymitra (§ Goniothalamus) macrantha, Hemsl.; arbor usque ad 
30 pedralta, apice tantum ramosa {Comins), ramulis primum parce 
ferrugineo-puberulis, internodiis brevibus, foliis mediocribus petiolatis 
vix coriaceis ovato-oblongis apice obtusis vel rotundatis giabrescentibus, 
venis primariis lateralibus utrinque circiter 12 curvatis prope marginem 
inter ae con y.u ■ /„*) i. rev i tor 



pedunculitis pendulis ex adumbratione C 
glabris, calyce obscure trilobato lobis obtusis, petalis 3 exterioribusvalde 
elongatis angnstis caudatis vix acutis. |v-T:iii> ■< iiiteri..ribn.s brwibus 
supra medium connatis breviter unguiculatis corollam fenestratam for- 
mantibus, connective) ultra loculos antfa I - filiformibus 

stipitatis pyriformibus vel ovoides apiculatis glabris minute verrucosis, 
seminibus 6-6 in quoque carpello orbicularibus compressis tomentosis. — 
Hook, Ic. PI. tt, 2399, 2400. 

Habitat.— Florida; Solomon Islands, Comins, 293. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa. Calyx circiter 1 poll, diametro. Petala 
exterior* usque ad 7 poll, longa, interiora circiter 7 lin. longa. Torus 
maturus 1-1^ poll, diametro. Carpella 2 poll, longa. Semina 9-10 hn. 
diametro. 

Baillon and other writers who combine Oxymitra, <> 
and the Fijian Richella, have been followed here, as there is no character 
of importance to separate them. The present is a somewhat 
species, the carpels being 5-6 ovulate and, son, 

ovules mature into seeds. Ooniot/in/amn.s nntrn»<I< s. king '..Ami, 
Calc. Bot. Card. iv. t. 143), is also exceptional in having 4-seeded 

Mr. Comins describes this as a riverside tree, attaining a height of 
30 feet, and having a naked trunk on which the long pendent brick-red 
flowers are borne down to within 2 feet of the ground, and at intervals 
of about a foot. ^^ 

Samadera indica, Gaertn. — The distribution of this tree i.- remark- 
able. It inhabit! South Concan, Malabar, Ceylon, Borneo, and the 
Philippines. 

Habitat. — San Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Comins, 261. 



Dysoxylum sp. ?— Specimen mancum. This may be a new specie3 r 
but as there > v. is, and a small portion of a large 

pinnate loaf, the point is doubtful. 

Habitat.— Szn Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Comins, 303. 

Olacineje. 
Lasianthera papuana, Becc— Flowering specimen of this singular 
plant. It is figured by Beccari, Malesia, l. t. 3. 

Habitat.— San Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Comins, 41. 

I megacarpus, Hemsl. ; arbor magna (Comins) 
rpetiolatis subcoriaceis leyiter obliquis ovato-ot 



;uu» <dabris, venis primariis lateralibus utrinque 8-10 
intibus, costa crassa, floribus purpureis (Comins) parvis 
" i subcarnosis, pedicellis brevibus 
lobis rotundatis, petalis 4-5 
ius leviter carinatis, filamentis 



» ultra loculos antherarum pro- 
ducto inappendiculato, lcculis discretis, nvaiio 1-loculari, ovulis 2 
collateralibus pendtilis, fructu drupoideo magno ovoideo unispermo, 
endoearpio crasso dense suberoso, semine anguste ovoideo compresso, 



Habitat. — Solomon Islands : San Cristoval, Comins, 89. 

Folia 8-12 poll, longa et 4-5 poll. lata. Panicula 4-5 poll, longa 
(imperfecta?). Pedicelli 2-3 lin. longi. Flores cirqiter 3 lin. diametro. 
Fruetus absque epicarpio carnoso 3 poll, longus, endocarpio 3-6 lin. 
crasso. Semen 2-2\ poll, longum. 

The genera of the Icacinea?, especially those to which the plan 
described i 



nearly allied, haw been sudifV. rmih limited by different 
ists tbat it is difficult to decide to which to refer a plant combining 
of the characteristics of Stemvtuirtis and Gomphandra, as defined 

giy 



>-. i Ma, 



florescence and s 

his .species of Gomphandra. 

question of the genus must tl 



, ( ristoval. Solomon islands, ('nun', 



1. 1 ,i 



Hemsl.; frufex alte scandens {Comins), un- 
dique~glaber, ramulis floriferis graciliusculis teretibus, i'oliis alternis 
graciliter petiolatis. foliolis 3-5 paribus oppositis omnibus petioluiatis 
(terminali longiore) tenuibus papyracei- obnvato-laurvolatis vel oblongis 
vix acutis obtusis vel utrinque rotundatis, venis primaries lateralibus 
utrinque circiter 6, venis ultimis minute reticulantis, floribus albis 
(Comins), fasciculato-racemosis racemis gracillimis axillaribus siinpli- 
cibus vel pauciramosis, pedicellis filiformibus, b 
calyce pubescente brevissime 5-lobato, lobis 4 posterioribus latis 
dads, anteriore angusliore carinato acuto, petalis subaequilongis i 
unguiculatis liberis glabris vexillo orbiculari emarginato vel 1 
bilobato inappendiculato, alis obloDgis apice rotundatis, carina < 
fere recta, staminibus glabris 9 alte connatis vexillar" 
ovario hirsuto sessili 3-ovulato, stylo sursum glabro 
subtequante, legumine ignoto. 

Habitat. — San Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Comins, 300. 

Folia superiors 7-8 poll, longa ; foliola inaequalia 2^-6 poll, longa ; 
petioluli circiter 2 lineas longi. Racemi 5-15 poll, longi. Pedicelli 
2-4 lin. longi. Flores 5-6 lin. longi. Legumen ignotum. 

Mr. Comins describes tin's as "a climber on other trees, cutting into 
their bark until it almost buries its stem in theirs." In the absence 
of the pod its position is uncertain, but being one of the most elegant 
plants in the collection it has been described as far as the material goes. 



Hansemannia oblonga, Hemsl. in Kew Bulletin, 1892, p. 125.- 
'urther specimens showing thai 

Habitat. — San Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Coming 304. 



Gyrocarpus americanus, Jacq. — This is one of the few littoral tn .■- 
ommon to America and Polynesia; and it ranges all round the tropics, 
•■ynesia, eastward to Tahiti, but it is not recorded from the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Habitat. — Torre* Islands, Comins, 310. 



Hemsl. ; frutex in arborum truncos epiphy- 
s (Comins), undique glaber, ramis floriferis crassis et ad nodos 
semper ?) petiolatis subcoriaceis oblongo- 
lanceolatis levitor ol.h',pii< ohrusis basi stibeuucatis .'f-5-nerviis venis 

- . - .-..■- 

.,,:-;,- ■...._ 

squamis mini! uto truncato 

dentibus punctiformibus, petalis oblongo-spathulatis ol>tu>is. staininilms 
8 consimilibus fere sequalibus, filaim ii il lis, antheris 

fere rectis vel leviter curvatis anguste clavatis apicc uninorosis per 
anthesin horizontalibus connectivo antice inappendiculato postice infra 
loculorum medium umbonato basi in calcar crassiu.«eulum producto 
antice affixo, ovario 4-loculare multiovulato, stylo glabro 
longe superante, bacca alba carnosa compressa Jateribus 

Ysabal, R. B. Comins, 290. 

Pedicelli 



of this species differ materially from the typical stamen 

nd also from the deviations therefrom that have come 

e is thickened 

below the middle of the anther-cells and produced below their base in a 
rather thick, pointed spur, curved backwards and upwards, with the 

from somewhat imperfect material, it is true, appears to be oi 



shape, being laterally compressed with concave sides. Medi 

, Blume (Rnmphia, i. p. 1.5. t. 3), agrees in having th« 

uced belo i, bu1 th.-iv HW i 






BUBIACEiE. 

Tiinonius Forsteri, DC— This curious tree is confined to Polynesia, 

! 

l>land ; Romanzoff, in the Marshall Group ; Vavau, Lifuka, and Savage 
Islands, in the Navigator's or Friendly Group; Palmerston, in the 
Hervey or Cook Gr. .p , Tahiti and Borabora, in the Society Group; 



foliage, and the specimens from Palmerston Island have thick t 
fleshy branches, due probably to the presence of guano. Two 
different looking Fijian trees are referred to the same genus. 

Habitat.— Torres Islands, Comins, 311. 



Ebenace^e. 

Diospyros acris, HemsL; arbor ad 40 ped. alta (Comins), pneter 
pedicellos et flores pubescentes glabra, ramulis floriferis gracilibus 
lasvibus viridibus, internodiis quam folia brevioribus, foliis alternis 
petiolatis coriaceis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis vel interdum rotundatis 
basi subcuneatis supra su iilioribus venis primariis 

inconspicuis, floribus eburneis {Comins) mediocribus polygamis vel 
' 1 semper) £ vel hermaphroditis ternis, pedunculis 



deflexis marginit 

corolla crassa coriacea sericeo-pubescente anguste urceolata, lobis 
tubo brevioribus demum recurvis obtusissimis, staminibus circiter 
16 plus minus fasciculatis insequalibus glabris, ovario hirsuto 8-loculari, 
loculis uniovulatis, fructu depresso-globoso, seminibus brunneis oblique 
oblongis compressis plano-convexis albumine aequabili densissime corneo. 

Habitat— Torres Islands, Comins, 312. 

Folia 2-5 poll, longa ; petiolus 2-3 lin. longus. Prdtoicidi 2-1 lin. 
longi, pedicellis brevioribus. Calyx fructifer circiter 1 poll, diametro. 
Corolla 5-6 lin. longa. Fructus circiter 1.5 lin. diametro. Semina 

Mr. Comins states that this tree has an acrid juice which blisters the 
body when applied to it. 



Apocyxace^e. 
HemsL; arb< 



foliis longe 
petiolatis ' ' 

primariis lateralibus utrinque 6-8 arcuatis excurrentibus, eymis 
parvis paucifloris axillaribus vel pseudo-terminalibus, floribus albis 
mediocribus breviter pedicellatis, calyce parvo breviter 5-dentato, 
dentfbas deltoideis vix acutis, corolla? hypocraterimorphae lobis valde 
oWjquis rinistrorsam obtegentibus dextrorsum tortis undulato-crispatis, 
folliculis rubro-aurantiacis (Comins) elongatis cylindrico-clavatis 
supra medium seminiferis bis dextrorsum tortis, seminibus oblongis 
compressis rugosis.— Hook. Ic. PI. t. 2397. 

Habitat— Solomon Islands : San Cristoval, R. B. Comins, 83. 

Arbor 20-pedalis. Folia ramorum floriferorum cum petiolo 5-7 
poll, longa et usque ad 2 poll, lata, petiolo l-l£ poll, longa. 
Cyma 2-3 poll, longae, pedicellis circiter 3 lin. longia. Flores 
10-12 lin. longi et lata. FolUculi 6-8 poll, longi, et supra medium 
siccitate 6 lin. diametro. Semina circiter semipollicaria. 

Much elongated, twisted follicles are characteristic of this species ; 
and from what Mr. Comins says about them, this is their normal form. 



ASCLEPIADE^E. 

Tylophora sp. — Fruit is wanting to complete this* apparently 
iindescribed species. 

Habitat.— Torres Islands, Comins, 309. 

Dischidia Milnei, Hemsl.— Specimen in fruit. Folliculi angusti, 

Habitat. — San Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Comins, 165. 
Gesnerace.«. 
Hemsl.; frutex usque ad 6 ped. altus, foliis 
{Comins) sed potius alte 

is acul 

-tricrillosis subtus pailidis secus venas praecipue pubescentibus, floribus 
mediocribus umbellatim cymosis, cymis graciliter pedunculitis, podunmlis 
pedicellisque filiformibus ferrugineo-pubescentibus, bracteis 
lisque parvis vel minutis cito deciduis, sepalis fere '" L - 
oblongo-lanceolatis apiculatis corolla? tubum fere aequantibus, corolla 

fere aequaliter 5-lobato lobis brevibus rotundatis, genitalibus inclu.-is, 
filamentis filiformibus glabris anthei is approximatis, ovario glabro, bacca 
earnosa succosa fere fusiformi. 

Habitat.— Santa Maria, Banks Islands, Comins, 288. 

Frutex 6-pedalis. Folia (2 tantum 
4 poll. lata. Cymce circiter 2 poll, diametro. Peduncidi <«.. 
1^_2 poll, longi. PtdiiflH 2-.°. linens longi. Corolla 6-7 
limbo circiter 4 lin. diametro. Bacca circiter 6 lin. longa. 

Mr. Comins describes the calyx as white, he corolla yellow. 

Hedycarya solomonensis, Hemsl.; frutex usque ad 12 ped. altu 
(Comins)^ undique glaber, cortice pallido, foliis breviter petiolati 
tenuibus papyraceis vel fere membranaceis oblongn-lanceolatis acuti 
basi subcuneati- Mibtu- pidlidis vcni* primariis lat.ralilms utrin-jii 

floribus'noi, *>• '"irpelli-. nigri- ( Comins l.mp 

stipitatis globosis ovoideis, stipitibu? crassi 

{Comins), receptaculo irregulari pedunculato 
Habitat.— Sfm Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Comins, 25' 
Fmte.v 12-pedalis. Folia 6-8 poll, longa et 2\-o\ pol 
' " longo. Pefhmcnliis unions imperfectus visus cin 
~ lin. diametro. 



Stipitcs .'5-5 lin. long;. Carjnlla fi s 

Mr. Comins des 
with black berries 



this as a very conspicuous 



Daphniphyllum ? conglutinostun, Hemsl.; arbor magna {Co 
undique" glabra, ramulis crassiusculis, foliis longe petiolatis subcoi 
ovato-lanceolatis vel late ellipticis subito caudato-acuminatis acuti; 



rotundatis vel interdum subcuneatis paucicrenatis vel obscure lobulatis, 
venis primaries lateralilms utrinque 7-10 subtus sat conspicuis, floribus 
$ . . . floribus $ raceniosis, fac _ idii paucifloris 

quam folia brevioribus, pedirelli^ bivvibus l>asi braetea minuta squami- 
formi subtentis, calyce bivalvi sepalis crassis subcarnosis, margine 
scarioso, latis rotundatis appvessis, staminibus nuinerosis filamentis 
brevissimis autheris magnis exscrtis, di uj>a abortu imisperraa obovatc- 
ot)16nga basi • pice stylopodio 

lato crasso coronata, endocarpio tenui, mesocarpio crasso dense spongios*-. 
succo viscoso impleto, epicarpio tenui coriaceo, semine maturo non 

Habitat. — San Cristoval, Solomon Islands, Comins, 75. 

Folia maxima cum petiolo 9 poll, longa, petiolo 2 poll longo ; folia 
minora 3-4 poll, longa. Ran mi U-3£ poll, longi. Pedicel I i 1-2 lin. 
longi. Flares <$ 2-3 lineas diametro. Drupa 1 poll, longa et 6 lin. 

Mr. Comins' s note on this five follows: — 

" Large tree in bush j leaves alternate ; flowers small, yellow. Fruit 
size of an almond, the skin covering a soft white substance like India 
rubber, within which is one seed." 

He also states that the sap is the strongest cement known to the 
natives, and is used by them for mending shell armlets, &e. Further, 
that it is really equal, if not superior, to diamond and other prepared 
cements, and is u-ed when they tail to hold. 

With regard to the genus there is some doubt, but it has been 
described, so far as the material will j 
value, ami ln-eaiife Mr. Coiiiins !i;i- taken the trouble 
specimens aa he could on 



Smilax utilis, Wr'njht : t'nitieosa. eaule seandonfe tereti vel leviter 
■ triatfT, \u\\\< ohlongis apiee a<-uininatis bnsi neutis tiinerviis nitidis 
mbcoriaceis, floribus pluribus umbellatis. maseulis pcrianthii segmentis 
igulatis reflexis niarginilms liv-dinis, staminibus 6 antheris brevibus 
illiis. ttinineis non visis, bacca globosa trisperma, seminibus plano- 
:onvexis levibus. 

Habitat. — San Cristoval and Malaita, Solomon Islands. Comins, 
17 and 297. 



Folia 2i-3| poll, longa, l\ poll, latn ; petiolvs 6lin. longus. -Pedun- 
nlvs I poll, longus ; pedicelli 5 lin. longi. 
>nga. Bacca 4 lin. diam. 



Perianthti segmenta 2 lin. 



Bulbophyllum Cominsii, Rolfe ; rhizomate repente valido, pseudobulbis 
ovatis monophyllis, foliis oblongis obtusis basi attenuatis eoriaeeis, 
scapis unifloris, bracteis elliptico-lanceolatis subacutis basi tubulosis, 
sepalo postico ovato-oblongo obtuso subundulato lateralibus connatis 
postico similibus, petalis minutis triaugulato-ovatis acutis, labello parvo 



lpresso angusto basi sublato margine ciliato, columna 
tibus brevibus acutis. 

Habitat.— Florida, Solomon Islands, Coming, 289. 

Pseudobulbi 8-9 lin. longi. Folia 4^-5 poll, longa, 1-1£ poll, 
lata. Seapi 4-5 poll, lonsri. llmvtctr 8-9 lm longa-. SVyW . 
2| poll, longuiii. U> lin. latum, lateralia 2\ poll, longa, 15 lin. lata. 
Petala 1 lin. longa. Labellum 3 lin, longum. Columna 2 lin. longa. 

A remarkable species allied to />'■ fZorum, Blume, 

and B. longisepolum, Kolf'e, though with the lateral sepals united into 
a single organ, like the dorsal sepal in shape but rather smaller. It has 
the habit and general appearance of the former, but, in addition to the 



f. — Previously collected 



I the island of Aneitum, New Hebrides. 
Habitat.— Makita, Solomon Islands, Comins, 296. 
1 An epiphyte on trees on the sea-beach." 



CCCCLXIL— SIAM GAMBOGE. 

(Garcinia Hanburyi, Hook, f.) 

The tree yielding Siam Gaml 
eloselv related to G . Morella, E 

The <ormer is a moderately large tree. The flowers are dioecious, the 
petals in both male and female flowers ai fleshy and yellow. The fruit 
is the size of a crab-apple, yelhnvish-grecn when ripe. The tree is found 
on island^ on the east coast of tin- (iulf of Siam, us well as on the main- 
land of Canil ''i.-i. It is from these localities that 
practically the whole of the Gamboge of commerce is obtained. Gamboge 
is a gum resin yielded by the bark of the two species above mentioned. 
It is a powerful cathartic medicine, but it- principal use i- as n pigment 
in water-colour painting. It is also used to give colour to lacquer 
varnish for brass work. Ac. The mo-i 

is contained in a report on the trade of Siam for the year 1893, published 
bv i lie foreign Office (Annual Reports, 1895), No. 1520. Mr. de Bunsen, 
Tier Map-sty's Charge a" Affaire* at Bangkok, was good enough to 
communicate to Kew specimens of the leaves of the Gamboge trees 
collected on the -pot bv Mr. P.eekett. and, alth ugl the material is 
not quite complete, there is little doubt they belong to Garcinia 
Hanburyi, Hook. f. The extract from the report is as follows : — 

" Gamboge is, next to gum-benjamin, perliap-, the most interesting 
of Siamese products. Whilst gum-benjamin is peculiar to a small belt 
of land in the north, gamboge is a resinous product indigenous only in 
the islands and the sea coa»t of the Gulf of Siam, lying between the 
loth and 12th degree- of north latitude.* I recently had the opportunity 
of paying a visit to this part of Siam, and it may be of interest to 



' 



describe the character of the tree and the mode of extracting the resin. 
The tree is known locally as ' Ton Rong.' It is found only in the 
islands of Koh Chang, Koh Kong, and Koh Rong, and the mainland of 
the Indo-Chinese Peninsula opposite these islands. The trees grow to 
the height of some 50 feet, and are straight-stemmed with no lower 
branches, owing probably to the dense shade of the forest in which they 
grow. None of those I saw had a diameter of more than 12 inches. 
Ten years' growth is said to be required before the tree is ready for 
tapping. This is carried on by the Cambodian and Siamese islanders in 
the rainy months from June to October, when the sap is vigorous, by 
cutting a spiral line round the trunk from a height of some 10 feet 
downwards to the ground. Down these grooves the resin wells out of 
the bark and trickles in a viscous stream into hollow bamboos placed at 
the base of the tree, and from the?e it is decanted into smaller bamboos, 
where it is left for about one month to solidify. To remove the gamboge 
the bamboo is placed over a red-hot fire, and the bamboo husk cracking 
off, there is left the article known as ' pipe ' gamboge. The trees can be 
tapped two or three times during one season, and at the end of the 
season their trunks present a curious network of intersecting spirals. 
Care must be taken to prevent the rain-water mixing with the resin in 
the grooves, as any mixture of water causes honey-combing and black 
discolouration, and a consequent depreciation of from 20 to 30 ticals 
(2/.) per picul in value. The most valuable gamboge is that which is 
the least honey-combed or discoloured, and is all the more diflicult to 
obtain, considering the period of heavy rains during which the resin is 
extracted. The bamboos contain on an average rather less than 1 lb. of 
gamboge, or about 170 bamboos to the picul. The price asked by the 
pickers themselves is at the rate of £ ticals (Us.) for tin- bamboos" lull 
and the local price is at the rate of 2 ticals (3*.) for three, or 65 ticals 
(4/. 18.?.) per hundred, or about 8/. 7*. per picul. The whole output is 
sold to local Chinese traders and taken by sailing boat to Bangkok." 



CCCCLXIII.— IPOH POISON. 

(Supplementary Note.) 
The Ken- Bulletin for 1891 (pp. 259-268) contains 
marising the information which had been obtained us to 
of the Malay Peninsula. 



In a communication from Mr. L. Wray jun , Curator, Perak 
Government Museum, it was stated that while the Sakais living in the 

prepared I'm n ihrec hill planK called i/mft ah> >\ prval. and hnnpontj. 

Ipoh After was stated (I.e. p. 367) to be " closely allied to Strychnos 
Sfttmgayi, and probably only a different state of it." The copious 
material which I have now hefore me of Stri/ilnms Mnint/ui/i as well as 
of the Ipoh After plant, renders it evident that the latter is not S. 
Mamgayi, although probably a close congener. It differs from 8. 
Mmmgayi in the almost papery leaves which are very like those of 



Si iculhehiana, Benth., and in the glabrous ovary. It is probably a 
new species ; but I cannot describe it in the absence of flowers. 

Prual was determined to belong to the natural order Rubiacece ; 
but as the materi d then at hand consisted only of a young barren 
branch it was impossible to go beyond the vague suggestion that ir 
might be a species of T'rophylhnu or Laxianthtis, certain species of 
which exhibit a great similarity of habit. The correctness of the 
determination of Prual as a Eubiacea was called in question by Mr. 
Holmes and Professor Radlkofer {Pharmae, ntieul journal. lS'H, 
p. 620) ; yet a repeated exi Hied me in my 

opinion as to the systematic affinity of the plant ( Phannacciitiea! 
Jot/null, 1^0 I, p.o'(JO). From the material now at liaml it appears that 
theplantis Coptosapeltaftaresa as. Worth., a Rubiacea of the Cinchona 
group. The »vins Cnptasapelta comprises at present two described 
species, C. flavescens, Korth., and C. Gritfit/n'i, Hook, hi., to which, 
however, several more might be added from the material preserved at 

audi* 

Sumatra to Java and Borneo; C. Griffithii is 1 

part of the Malay Peninsula, and other species still undescribed were 

collected in Penan-,-, dava, Sarawak, Luzon, and Jfew Guinea. Coptosa- 

pe/ta is, beside Hymcwalictyon , it- nearo-t ally, the only representative 

of the subtribe Eucinchonea in Malaya; the remainder being mostly 

natives of tropical America and extra-tropical South America. 

A small quantity of the root bark of Prual. from Perak, was examined 
by Dr. Ralph Stockman with respect to its physiological action on 

l he Phannavcntical Journal. 1S94. p. ;561. If this root bark was 
actually derived from the same plant from which the herbarium speci- 
mens communicated by Mr. L. Wrny as Prual were cut, then Coptusa- 
pelta must be counted in future among the poisonous plants. Up to the 
present, however, Coptosa pelta was not known to possess poisonous or 
otherwise prominent chemical properties. lint it may be mentioned 
that Hymenodicti/on c reel sum. Wall., an allied plant, and a native of 
India, yields an alkaloid " Hvmenodictyonine," the chemical properties 
of which*' display a close analog with tin..-.- of nicotine'- (Watt, Diet. 
Earn. /'rod. India, iv., 319), and the inner bark of this plant has been 
long employed by the Hindoo- :l - a febrifuge and antiperiodic. 

In the Kew Bulletin (ISf)l. p. L'bT) reference was made to other in- 






CCCCLXIV.— DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, VI. 



217. Aphloia myrtiflora, Galpin [Bixinea?] ; arbuscula 20-pedalis, 



serrulata, glabra, 2-2£ poll, 
longia ; flores axillares, solitarii, sepala "persistentia, petaloidea, alba", alte 
5-fida, lobis convexis • ricatis ovatis acutis vel 

obtusis 4^-5 lin expansis; pedicelli 6-8 lin. longi, 2-3 minutas squami- 
formes bracteas et unam majorem sub petaloideam proxime calycem 
ferentesj ovarium album, oblongo-fusinum ; bacca obovoidea, alba, circa 
3 lin. longa, 2 lin. lata, 2-sperma, semina reniformia. 

Habitat. — Transvaal: in woods on the summit of Upper Moodies 
Mountain, Barberton. Alt. 4600 ft. October, 1890, Galpin, No. 1082. 

218. Polygala producta, N.E. Brown [Polygalacea?] ; herbacea basi 
lignosa, caulibus subangulosis minutissime puberulis erectis, foliis 
alternis brevissime petiolatis adscendentibus linearibus obtusis vel acutis 
glabris, racemis terminalibus solitariis elongatis laxe multifloris, bracteis 
innoeo];ito-subulati< cadueis, pedicellis brevibus recurvis glabris, sepalis 
exterioribus subaequalibus 2 inferioribus connatis cyiubiformibus, alis 

' :■•'''"•" 

integria late spathulalo-obovatis obtusissim is purpureis. carina purpurea 
integra infra apieem eristata, eapsulis oblongis emarginatis glabris, 

Habitat. — Tran-vaa! : 1>arbcrt< Jilaiul ('reck, 

3000 feet, March, Galpin, 844 ; Pretoria. Rchmann. 1565; Mc Lea in 
Herb. Bolus, 3142: Magalisberg, Burke, 374; Apies River, Xclso,,, 

March, Tyson. 2711. and" IFrrl. Xorm. -Instr. .//>.. SS3. Xatal \ 
Gerrard, 16,1781; [nanda Krantzkloof, Wood, 1171 ; Weenen County, 
Southerlaial. 

Caules 7-24 poll. alti. Folia 6-15 lin. longa, 1-2 lin. lata. Bacemi 
3-12 poll, longi. Bractea; 1-U lin. lon^c I'edicilli. 1^ lin. longi. 
Sepala exteriora 1-1 A lin. longa. " J la; 2-3 lin. longa?, 1^-lf lin. lata. 
Petala 24,-4 lin. longa. Carina 2-3A_ lin. longa. 

219. Dombeya pulchra, N. E. Brown [Sterculiacea?] ; frutex ramis 

stipulis t'alcato-ovatis acini- vel acuminotis, foliis long'' petiolatis rotun- 
datis apice tr ra velntinis \ iridibus subtns dense 

velutine-tomentosis albis, cymis longe pedunculati- axillaribus solitariis 
10-15 floris, pedicellis apice bibracteatis, bracteis ovatis acutis deciiluis 

magna fetalis oblique rii .is basi purpureis glabris, 

staminofliis lincari-> patbulatis <pjam stamina duplo longioribus albis 
baei purpureis. 

Habitat.— Transvaal : Rimers Creek, Barberton, 3000-3500 feet 
February, Galpin, S01. 

Frutc.r 5-8 ped. alius. Foliorum petioli 4-6£ poll, longi, lamina? 
t-7* longa- et lata-. Stipule 1-12 Sin. longa . U~H Hn. lata?. Pedun- 
culi 4-6 poll, longi. Pedicelli 7-15 lin. longi. Bractea 3|-7 lin. 
longa?, 2£-4 lin. lata?. Sepala 6 lin. longa, 1| lin. lata. Corolla 
1^-1 1 poll. diam. Petala 8-9 lin. longa, 7-8 lin. lata. Staminodia 
6-7 lin. longa, apice £-1 lin. lata. 



143 

220. Hermannia montana, N. E. Brown [Sterculiaceae] ; humilis 
suffruticosa T)asi ramosa, ramis erectis simplicibus dense stellato- 
tomentosis fulvidis, fclii< breviter petiolatis adscendentibus lineari- 
oblongis vel inferioribus oblingis utrinque acutis integris vel leviter 
crenulatis in siccis complicatis dense etellato-tomentosis snbvelatinis 
subtus fulvidis, stipulis erectis lanceolatis acutis stellato-tomentosis, 
rvmi- l.reviier peduncuiati- *'.d.ir.nbcllatiiii ;:-5-tI.»ri< i.nit-t.-iiti-. braetei* 
Hberis vel interdum plus minusve connatis lanceolatis acutis atque pedi- 
cellis brevibus ealvcibusque glanduloso-tomentosis, calve infra milium 
5 loba lobis lanceolate acutis erectis intus lax. t. 

obovatis unguibus pubescentibus can quam petala 

multo brevioribus, filamentis linearibus pubescentibus supra medium 
truncato-cuspidatis vix vel non dilatatis, ovario tomentoso. 

Habitat.— Transvaal : upper slopes of the Saddleback Range near 
Barberton, 4000-5000 feet, February, Galpin, 831. 

JPlanta 5-7 poll. alta. Foliorum petioli 1-3 poll, longi, lamina 
li_2l poll, longa?, 2-7 lin. Iata3. StipnlteS-5 lin. longae, £-1 hn. lata*. 
P, ib'i tl r»r, 2 lin. inn-;. Hrarfeu o- 1 lin. long*, 1-1$ lin. lata?. Calyx 
?. lin. lon-us. lobi I lin. lati. Petala Z\-i lin. longa, \\->Z lin. lata. 



l£-2 liu. longa. Antherte l£-2 lin. longae. 
221. Hermannia grandifolia, .V. E. limn-,, Stcrculiac.ea-" ; <.auldm< 
elongatis ramosis flexuosis 

elongato-cordato-ovatis amtis vel obtusis supra sparse xtcllato-scabrnilis 
subtus molliter st<41ato-t<.mento>is, stipuli- maguis patenTil>us vol 
reflexis latissimc ovatis vel subrntundati< .-matis iciin- - d.-.f.. 
pubescentibus, floribus an<_nist.c panieuia'is. prdiinculi> b,il.<n>. 

bracteis connatis hindis cum pedic. - r. d>u-. 

glanduloso-tomentosis, calve ad medium r, 
p,.tali> oblanceohito-obovati.- ol.rti- - 
;, iri ,i;,„l }l ti-. -raminibus quam petala mult.. 

Hnearil)u« stellato-pube?centibn< supra nifdmm abruptc truncato- 
cuspidatis vix vel non dilatatis, ovario tomentoso. 

2000 feet. April. Galpin, 940. 

Rami flariferi 6-10 poll, longi. Foliorum vrmli.wnon petioli 8-9 

■:,. : •. ........ :'■■■■ ^ 

ltn^aTetlar ; ""- ri - "''"'"" /' * !"! '"'-'^ 

- 



222. Geranium pnlchrum, A. t. hroir,, , ucrainac* 
perenne, caulibu- en,-ti~ -.p.,u< laxe ,amoM> patentt r „.._ 

MHDtibas subtus dense 



Habitat.— Xatal : on the Drakensberg, in swamps, 6000—7000 feet, 

Caules 2-2,1 | )e d. ; dti. Fnliorinn iufcriorum pvtioli 3J-- 8| poll, 
longi, superiorum 6-18 lin. longi, laminae 1^-3 poll, diam." Stipuhr 
3-S lin. long;*'. Pedunculi 1-3 poll, longi. Bractece 3-5 lin. longae. 
Sepal a o-G lin. longa, 1^-2 lin. lata. Petala 7-10 lin. longa, 7-9 



223 Pelargonium dispar, N. E. Brown [Geraniacese] ; canlibus 
oreetis simpliSibui 
vel pHosie ]>ilis patentibus, foliis oppositis \, 

sublobatis obtusis loin's brevissimis obtuse 

jscentib 
acuinmatis integris 

pedunculo quam petiolus longiore gracili ! -,'! 
l>ilo>o, brands lanceolatis acuminatis marginibi 
gracili piloso, sepalis lanceolatis 

ciliatis, c.-ib-ari elongate, petalis subnequalibus quam sepala dup 
long;oribus august*- ,-!• ."- albis vel palliile ro-e 




Habitat.- Natal : 1>: ■ >-7lK>0 n>t, 

among s, rass . January. Fntas. i>71 : >k>|>es of Mount Erskine, 5000- 
6000 feet, January, Evans 403. 

Catties S-18 poll. alti. Foliorum petio/i 2 lin.-2 poll, longi, lamina- 
|-2 poll, longa, 3_n 1)0 U. l iltK . Stipula 2-4 lin. Ion*''. 1-2 lin. lata-. 
I'ohnicV, 7-16 lin. long!. />'/7/r/^ 2-2 i lin. longa-. /VrW// 5-0 lin. 

224. Vitis succulenta, da/pi/, |_Ani|>elidea?j ; caules crasso-carnosi 
ramosi, quadrangularcs. glnka, virid-.-s, 9 lin. cra«.-i, margincs cartilagini 
rubri tineti ; cault-s juniores 4-sulcati angulis undulatis sinuatis, in 
geniculis folio unico cirrho opposito ; internodia 3£-8 poll, longa ; 
stipuke bina\ late ovata-, circa 2| lin. longa-; petioli 4^ lin. longi ; folia 
basi late cuneata vel subtruncata, trinervia. triloba, lobis dentalis acutis 
mucronatis, 9^-12 lin. longa, 14-16^ lin. lata; panicula ramosa, 5-8^ 
poll, longa ; pedicelli sub umbellati suuimis iucrassatis pedunculis, 
3f-4i lin. longi ; calyx campanulatus, truncatus; pelala 4, rosea, calyce 
tvipli. longiora, 1^ lin. longa; bacca ovoidca, mucronata, purpurea, 
A\ lin. longa, li'-\ li"n. cras<a. unil >eularis, unisperma. 

Habitat.— Transvaal : Kaap River valley near Barberton, alt. 1900- 
2100 feet, Galjrin, 1177. 

Stems 10-15 ft. long climbing amongst rocks 
belter. 
November. Fruits February. 

225. Crassula curta, X. E. Brown [Crassulaeeae] ; nana, perennis, 
basi breviter stolonifera, caule erecto simplici usque ad apicem foliati 

pilis albis retror-iis teoto. folii- :\-idiea!ibi;s rosulatis oblan* -eolat is caulinis 
breviterconnato-vagiuati- lanceolatis acutis vel subacuiis adscendentibus 
rinque piiis albi- pubo-eentibus nuirginibus longe ciliatis, 
lalibus pan is dense lnidtitloiK braetefs lineari-oblongis vel 
ciliatis, pedio 11 - breri us glabris, sepalis erectda lanceolatis 



145 



itctuiiinatis glabris apiee interdum scabria nun ciiiatis p.-ialN sub- 
a-quilongis, petalis oblongis obtusis dorso ad api—m 
ipiP„|j,tN '..,- '. • • -m , o. »ni 'i- gnmopetalis din's xt.-nninilnj- qn n 
pctala ».revioril>n> am . - ?V ! '^" h sub.pm.lrau- 

apice leviter dilatatis tnincatis albis, carpellis oblique oblongis albidis, 
stylo brevi erecto. 

Habitat.— N&i&l : Tabamhlope Mountain, 6000-7000 feet, February, 
Evans, 408; without locality, (ierrard, 1790? 

Var. rubra, A". E. Brown ; differt tantum floribus rubris. 

Habitat.— -Natal: Amawahqua Mountain at G00O-7000 feet, April, 
J*W, 4592. 

i7er&« 1^-2| poll, aha Jfeffo 3-5 lin. longa, l£-2 lin. Lra. Cj/nur 
!l I 1 J lin '-_■• ;- '.m. I' /»"/" //' i--' 

lin.longi. tty*//.-/ lj-l ! lin loi.ga, I lin. lata. /Vr/A/ U lin. Ion -a 
| lin. lata. 



■j_'i;. Crassula umbratieola, A. /. 


'. Brown 


[Cm 


Mdtee»]'; pusill 


-' r 






M,npli,-i, folii< 6- 


pWuinqtU' ad apicem caulis subi-or, 
iorniibus rotundari- vol < iliptiro-ovatis 






petiolntis subivn 








basi cunoafis, poduueulo tmninali 




•':,"„! 


is, i); talis lanceolal 


,vn^< al 




jlandulis hypogyr 






dentatus, | lin. longus 
longo. stylus corolla? 1 



vallevand French Bobs' Hill, alt. 1800-: 
Zululand: [mlulindi. <m the side of a sto 
JFootf, 3954«. 
228. Anthospermum humile, X. E. I 



i-lanceolatis 
-Natal : Ulundi, 5000-6000 feet, on damp rocks, January, 



229. Valeriana capensis, Thunb. var. lanceolata, N. E. Brown 
[Valerianeae] ; eolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis obtuse 

aeutis ha.-i aeutis roiundutis wl siiU'ordatis iniegris \ el plus minusve 
deiitatis, caalinis pimuitise etis lobis iateraliluss purvi-j lobo terminali 
eloi <rat(. ianceolato. 

Habitat.— Natal : top of Tabamhlope, G000-7000 feet, Jaimarv./wv/H.v, 
308. Kaffraria: Baziya Mountains 4000 feet, November, Baur, 546. 
Nyassaland: Mount Milanji, Whyte. 

Foliorum ratlirafium pctioli '.') lin. 4 poll, longi. laininre 1^-4^ poll. 



2:;o. Felicia linearis, X. E. Brou-a [Compo>ita-] ; amulis, foliis 
radicalisms numerosis confertis ereetis linearibus obtusis suceulentis 
glabris, seapis 1-2 inferne glabris superno pubesccntiluis foliis paucis 
parvis linearibus alterms in.-tni r-. lifloro radiato, 

inrolacrl fa • - inierioribas 

multo longioribus lineari-obloagis subacutis omnibus ciliatis dorso glabris 

purpureo-tinctis. floribus radii linearidingulnlis aeutis albis [.abide 
roseis vel luteis, di-ei lutein pappi -ctis uni-eiiatis minute scabcrulis, 
nelweniis iinuiaiuri- compressi- -par-e [inbescentibus. 

Habitat.— Natal : top of Mount Erskine, 6000-7000 feet, January, 
Era,,*. 372 ; summit of Mount Amawabqua, 6000-7000 feet, April, 
Wood, \(Y,\\ ■ Faku's Territory, Sutherland. 

Folia 6 lin. 2 poll, longa, ^-1 lin. lata, Scapi 1-7 poll, longi. 
% lin. latae. Corolla radii 3-3 i lin. long;c. disci \\-\ | lin. longae. 

231. Helichrysum fulvum, N. E. Brown [Composite] ; caule elato 

superne panioulato-rainoso pliis-mieiHve breviter setoso-glauduloso pur- 
pureo, foliis s.'s-ilibn- ainplc\icaulil>u~ -ubscabris idandulo-i- inferioril-u- 
oblanrrolatis aeutis deorsum longe attenuate marginibus anguste albo- 
lauatis -uperioribus ovatis vel ovato-oblongis aeuti- marginibus seabris, 
capituli ad apicem rainorum Mibconi'erti> cirea 2()()_;;0(i fl,ri>. involucri 
braetei> pluriseriat is brunneo-liitei> subnitidi's ovatis aeutis interioribus 
(plain discus subduplo longioribus radiantibus extcrioribus gradatim 
ininoi-iinis glabris, rveeptaculo leviter foveolato, corolla bre\ iter ."> dentata 
bruniK") lutea, pappi setis minute seabris apice leviter incrassatis, 

Habitat. — Natal: Drakensbetg, by streams in Tiger Cave Valley, 
Evans, 352 ; edge of brook near Van Reenans 
' , Wood, 4533. 

inferiora 4-5 poll, longa £-1 poll, lata, 



147 

232. Senecio Evansi, N. E. Brown [Compositae] ; arbusculn. caule 
erecto apice ramoso, ratnis adsccndentibus paniculatim ranmlosis 
pubescentibns. fob is :dterni> lamvolatis pinnatiseeti- petiolatis. petiole 
late amplexicauli-decurrente, lobis lateralibus anguste oblongis 
arutis put* anguste lanceolate acuto mtegro \.l 

basi plus minusve dentate vel lobulal ■•■'" marginibus 

scabris, foliis rainulormn lino;, ■ >"i- :i*n ti^ 

:uili> l»xr 2-1 rtpliulis int'erioribns •■xillnnb.is 
solitariis vel fWiculafis grm-ilibn- : Lrevmnbus 

involucri bra. ! » tion ' s brevioribu> ..blongis vol 

rtidribns 

glabra, pappi 

Habitat.— Natal : on the Drakensberg, 6000-7000 feet, January, 
Evans, 366. 

Caules 10-12 ped. alti, l£ poll, crassi. Rami H-2 ped. longi, 

raniuli 1-10 poll, longi. Folia /<> ' ' ." l H«- 

loniT.-i } 12 1 i lata, lobi latcralt- 1 i-U I i. loii«n. 1 2 lin laTi. lobn 
terminal! 6-21 lin. longo, 1-4 lin. late; folia Integra 9-21 lin. longa, 
li_2 |i„ u l\;h <W; ax itv* 1 2.\ poll 1 >ngi / J < r//, , // (i n 

Capitxla 4 lin. diam. Involucri brarteo 
exteriores"±-£ lin. lata, interiores l-l£ lin. lata?. Corolla 2 hn. 

233. Euryops pedunculatus, A. /-• !>>■<» n . i i'. , .'~" t ' 1 - ■ ,v 

tesV glabl^ ap^ ■ Sf^lSnatis, 

10-12 ovatis 

■ • - 
angustatis, ovarii* b.', vil-r all-Unal is. pappi -'tis brevibus deeiduis. 

Habitat — Xatal : Olivers Hoek Pass, 4500 feet, January, Wood 3601; 

top of Alatiknlu Hill, 6000-7000 feet, January, Evans, 39/. Orange 

■ „,per, 2522. Transvaal: Houtbosh, 

"/,/,., q no a altus Rami 8-12 poll, longi. Folia 1J-3 poll. 

,- - ' -. -■ 

latae. Corolla radii 5 lin. longa?, 1 lin. lata?, d^ci U - mi. ion„a . 
23 4.La f tucMSc.r^ 

u achamio cylindrico baud rostrate, pappoalbo 
copioso achaenio duplo longiore. 

Habitat.— Interior of Western Lagos, Dr. Rowland. 

Caulis 6-9 poll, longus. Involucrum 8-9 lin. longum. Achmda 
3 lin. longa. Pappus 6 lin. longus. 



235. Lactuca (Brachyramphus) holophylla, Baker [Composite] ; 
erecta, perennis. foliiV int'erioribus fasciculatis lanceolatis integris 
sessilious ainplexicaulibus superioribus rediu-tis bas: sagittal is, caulibus 
teretibus graeilil.u^ riongatis tenniier pubescent'ibus, capitulis pauci- 
Btms in panic ro cylindried-, 
bracteis biseriatis exterioi - > laueeolaiis a-qualibus 
viridibns glabn's, acliauiiis brevibus castaneis in rostrum sensim 
angustatis, pappo albo molli. 

Habitat. — Interior of Central Lagos, Dr. Rowland. 

Cui'lis bipeilali<. Folia inferiora 3-4 poll, longa, 3-4 lin. lata* 
Inroho-nnn 6 lin. longuni. Acincninm 3 lin. longum, cum rostro 1^ 
lin. longo. Pappus 3 lin. longus. 

236. Wahlenbergia pinifolia, N.E. Broicn [Campannlace.-n] ; peren- 
nis basi ramosa, eaidibu> ereetis simplieibus, foliis den-issime confertis 
patcntibus «enntrreto-snbuhuis -aipra canaliculatis ealloso-acutis glabris, 
floribns axillaril.us ereetis pedicellate ad apicem eaulis dense confertis, 
pedicellis 2-3-bracteatis pubeseentibus, bracteis loliis eonlbrinibus 
ciliatis calycis lobis ~> -uiudat is ciliatis quam tubus subheiiiispiiaiieus 
subtriplo longioribus, corolla eampanulato-,niun.:ii>iddormi breviter 
5-loba glabra caaadea. filamonti- i.asi diiatati-. ovario triloculari. 

Habitat.— Natal: \\\ eneii Count \ at ua tcrfall No. 7, on damp rocks, 
5000-6000 feet, February, Evans, 348. 

C anion 2^-6 poll. alti. Folia 4-9 lin. longa, £ lin. lata. Pedicelli 
1-2 lin. longi. Cahjcis lobi 2\ lin. longi. Corolla 4J-5 lin. longa, 

237. Erica Barbertona, Galpin [Erieaceie] ■ caules mnnerosi e 

paium A lin. longis, diva 1^ lin. longa; mt,-i i...di.i U-2 lin. longa; 
iloivs terminales. ninbellan. erect i, umbclli> .'UC-tlon^ : pedicelli ralycibus 
paullo breviores, viscoso-pnbescentes ; bractose 2 (vd 3 ?) foliacea?, 

obovatai vei ova (a-, aciita\ eilialiv, -iibremot;e ; sepala in.'equalia, lanceo- 

lougior, cireji \-i\ lin. longa. tubulo-,.-;, eliartaeea, rosea, extus dense 
viscoso-pubescens, ore aperto, limbo parvissimo ultra roseo, lobis 
reflexis late obtusis ; genitalia inclusa, antbera basifixa, oblongo- 
laneeolata, glabra. hiaiNtulata. aristis nudis subulatis ; filameuia H II— 
" ngior, puberulus, filiformis, stigmate 



peltate; 


; ' T - 


elan 
,n gl. 


:;";; 


duplo longior, pu 
r», dense hirsutum. 


Habii 


a;k Mo 


,'',•,; 


pi.,,. 


Barberton, grown 
t. 4500-5100 feet, 


238. Mimusops denaiflora, Baker [Sap 
graei!ibu> glabris, foltu breviter petiolatis ot 



: -is basi run 
magms subooriaccis ntniupie viridibus glabris, cymis multifloris 
silibus confertis, pedicellis flore longioribus pubesrentibus, ea 
segmentis (> ovatis fequilongis exterioribus subcariaceis ferrugi 

- interioribus tenuioribus incanis, corollas t 
lobis oblongis ealyee a>quilnngis, staminibus calyce aequilongis, 
pubescente, stylo elongato glabro calyce longiore. 



Hdh'ilaf — Interior of U'c.stcni f.;_-.s on Mount Ado. Dr. Rotrhhtd. 
Calyx et corolla 2 lin. longa. 



pachyclada, Baker [Sapotaceas] 

llorilms(|iie ad apicem rainornm erassorum aggreg; 
petiolatis anguste ihloiui - . bi i>is basi cuneatis rigid. 
utrinque viridibus Calais juuioribus pubescentibus 
crebris subpatulis paralielis. floribus S-ineris, pedicel 
flore 2-3-plo longioribus, calyck x-gniontis extoriorib 

calyee paulo lonnioi ibu-, statiunilais cahee a-qudongis 



Habitat. — Savannahs of the i 



MO. Mimusops capitata, 



glabris venis primariis prominentibus civctn-pati'ntihus ad niarinnrm 
pandlrlK tloribus (i- uteris pluribus eontenis eapitatK p.-diei-llis dense 
flore longioribus, cahei- <.gia.-utis ovatis a-t|iiil..ngi< 






.—Interior of Western La- 
-7 poll, longa, 2^-3 poll 



usis, ovario dense piloso, stylo glabro elongate 

ihihif. Interior of Western Lagos, Dr. Rowland. 

•olla 4i-5 lin- longa. Fructus ignotus. 
2. Schizoglossum elingue, N.E. Brown A-rlepi; 
mis erectis pa: - 10-2" op] 

internodia dnplo longioribus oblongis sulwutis 



Habitat.—^ 



Caules 3-6 poll. alti. 
poll, longas, 2|-8 lin. latoe. Pertmivnli 3-0 lin. longi. ~ Bractea lJ-4 
lin. long*. Pedicelli 2-'d\ lin longi. &>oafa 2-3J lin. longa, §-§ lin. 
lata. Corolla loin :,\-\ lb,, longi. 15,-l| lin lati. Corona; lobi 2-2£ 
lin. longi, basi 1 lin. lati, apice i lin. lati. 



vel rotundato-cordatis obtusis. cvmi- iiinbellilbrinibus 3-9-f 
oulatis, bi.irtt-- [.ai'vis subulatis, pedicellis elm 

lanceolatis acutis, corolla profunda 5-loba subeampanulatn lobis lint m- 
oblongis obtufei~ « \tn- p i < pilosis ii I is 3 is | ibescentibas brunneis 
basi flavescentibus vel albidis, corona? lobis quam columna staminum 
longioribus oroctis lineari-spathulatis minute hirtis apice c 



! multo breviore. 



(aiili.s 1-2 pod. longi. Polio mm />< tioli f> lin. longi, laminae 10-16 
lin. longse, 8-16 lin. lata-. Pednnculi 9 lin. -2 poll, longi. Pedicelli 
8-20 lin. longi. Sepala 1| lin. longa. Corolla- tubus 1 lin. longus, 

loM 1^-2 lin. loniii. \ lin. lati. Corona loin \\-\\ lin. longi, dente 
. I. iri.LT"''- Siiimiiium r, ,!■,„,,,,, : - lin. longa. 

244. Anthocleista insignis, Onlpin [Loganiacese] ; arbor erecta, 

glali« 'i i imn, 7 iia decussata, coriacea, convexa, supra 

nitula, subtus pallidiora. oblon<ra. r.bovala . ,obtusa, basi anguste cuneata, 
magnitudine variabilissiina in planus juvenilibus maxima tnnta quanta 
4£ pcd. longa, 15 poll, lata, costa subtus multum prominente, venis 
penninervik subtus leviter elevatis, petiolis brevibus vagina connexis, 
stipulis nullis ; cyma3 30-80-flora;, quadrangulares, striata?, florentes circa 
13 poll, longa, tVuctantes circa 2() poll, longa 1 , bracteis bracteolisque 
concavis obtusis sub-cartilagincis ; s.-pnia valde imbricata, oblongo- 
arbicnlata, .rolla flaviscente-albida, 

calycc ijnadruplo longior, tubo 14-16| lin. longo supra ovarium leviter 
itricto, limbo 1^-lf poll, expanso, lobis 10-13 anguste oblongis 
uisculis autberis duplo longioribus reflexis ; stigma exsertum, 
oblonga leviter 2 Gdum ; ovarium 2-loculare, " 
viridis, fusiformis, If poll, longa, 13 lin, 



245. Strychnos alnifolia, Baiter [Loganiace; 
hosa,foliis breviter petiolatis olxnato-oblongis o 



rhosa,foliis breviter pel i( 

tii'inis vUi iii- s a>in t |iiincr\ ii>. cymis copio-a.- 

cnn.posiiis laxis nxillaribus sessilibus. oalveis tubo brevissimo lobis 
«>rbi« lanbus pubescentibus valde imb ai -. corolla tubo brevi lobis 
oblongis tubo duplo longioribus, genitalibus potalis brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Interior of Western Lagos, Dr. Rowland. 

.Fb/ia 2-2£ poll, longa, ,12-15 lin. lata. Calyx 1 lin. longus. Corolla 



246. Diascia cordata, X. E. Bm 
superne laxe ramoso quadrangular! glabro, foliis petiolatis ovatis obtusis 

ha-i cunlaii*. \,-l -ubcordatis lnarginibus serrnto-diMiratis dcnlibus parvis 
utrinque glabris viridibus. floribus in racemos laxos terminals 3-1 o- 
floris dispositis. raremis sparse glanduloso-pubeseentibus. braeteis altering 
sessilibus vel subsessilibus ovatis acutis dentatis glabris quam pedirelli 
2-5-plo brevioribus, ; - \l- «>t apioe ineurvis, 

— 2 inferioribus paulo longioribus, cm'.dla rosea 
minute glnnduloso-eiliatn explanata rotundata subbilabiata Iotll'o bical- 
carafa. labio supcrioro l-lobo disco hifossulato loin's rolundatis 2 
supoi-ioiilms minoribus, labio inferiore lateovato obtusissimo, staminibus 
omnibus antheriferis filamentis brevibus parce glandularis, ovario 
glabro, stylo brevi, capsula ovoidea vel ellipsoidea, seminibus reticulato- 



Caules 1-2 ped. alti. Folio, -inn petinli 1-.'; lin. longi, lamina.' 

n. longa?, 4-11 lin. lata 2 . Racemi 1^-9 poll, longi. Bractea- 

Ionga3, 1-2| lin. lata. Pedicel I i 6-11 lin. longi. Sepala 

~ did 8 lin. diam. Calcaria 3 lin. lc 



petiolatis ovatis vel rotundato-ovatis obtui 
-uliruiundatis leviter dentatis vel subintegris supra viridibus sparse 
glanduloso - pubescentibus vel inferioribus glabris subtus violaceo- 
purpureis nervis sparse glanduloso-pubeseeutibus, Horibus in racemum 
compaetuin hractcatuiii i.-rmin a l<-m di-p< >-iris plus rainusve glanduloso- 
pubescentibus, bracteis ovatis acutis inferioribus dentatis. pedieelli- 
braeteis a-quiloniri-; vel longioribus, sepali> 3 suprrioribus elliptico 
lanceolatis sul.aeutis l.asi eoutraetis. 2 interioriiuis majoribus elliptieo- 

breviter biealearata. labio superiore maximo 4-lobo lobis rotundatis dis 
ad medium valde intruso vel carinato et prope i 
inferiore brevissimo latissime rotundato, filamenti 
erectis 2 posticis antheriferis reclinatis, ovario glabro, stylo i 
Habitat.— Natal : Drakensberg, Tiger Cave Valley, among 

Caules 6-12 poll. alti. Folia 9-16 lin. longa, 5-12 lin. lata. Br 
3-4 lin. longa'. 2-2A lin. lata?. Pedicelli -4-6 lin. longi. Sepala 
longa, £-1 lin. lata." Corolla labium superius 6 lin. long urn, 5- 
latum, labium inferius 1 lin. longum, 3 lin. latum. Calcaria J 

248. Lyperiagrandiflora, GW/«'»[Scrophularineae]; fruticuluser 
undique viscoso-pubeseens, po>t siceitationem scabro-puhesoens. 2- 
altus; rami adscendente, foliosi ; folia subfasciculnta, petiolata. varii 
nunc lanceolata nunc oblonga vel ovata, acuta vel obtusa, serrata, 1 
cuneata. subtus protninenti-nervosa, 
racemi terminal, fructiferi 4-7 poll. 
5-8 lin. longis ; calycis fructiferi segn 
longa; corolla' tubus pube^ccn^ 1 1- 



4£-7 lin. longis,capsula angusle ovata, acuta, valval is euspidatis, ealycem 

Habitat. — Transvaal : abundant amongst scrub on the hillsides and 
in the valleys around Karberton, flowering throughout the year, but 
chiefly in June and July, alt. 2200-3500 feet, Galpin, 394; 
MacOwan and Bolus Herb. Norm. 1329, near Lydenberg, Attn erst&nt . 
margin of woods on the Drakensberg, near Maeamac" Gold Fields. 
McLea, Herb. Bolus, 3024; without locality, Mrs. Saunders, 193, 
Herb. Wood, 3897. 

249. Vitex thyrsiflora, Baiter [Verbenacese] ; arborea, ramulis 
glabris, foliis longe petic! .mnaeeis t';ieie viridilms 

glabris dorso pallide viridibus obscure pubescentibus, foliolis obovato- 
oblongis integris euspidatis, cymis in paniculam amplam terminalem 
disposiris, bracteis linearibus parvis, pedicellis brevibus pubescentibus, 
calycis tubo campanulato dentibus deltoidei- parvi>, eorolhe tubo calyce 
duplo longiore lobis oblongis parvis, staminibus lobis brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Interior of Western Lagos, Dr. Harrison (collected in the 
year 1863), Dr. Rowland. 



Foliola 6-8 poll, longa, medio 3-3 \ poll 
ollicari. Calyx \\-\\ lin. longus. Corolla c 



jiatse] ; perennis. eaulilms 



pubescentibus, eapitulis parvis globosis in paniculam amplam ramis 

(-oryniliosis dispositis. hraet. is prinmriis ovatis parvis pallidis pubescenti- 
bus, bracteis floralibus dense pilosis orbicularibus, calyce dense piloso, 
corolla? tubo cylindne.. strrtdtti iilatato, labiis parvis oblongis, stamini- 



251. Eucomis humilis, Baker [Liliaceae] ; foliis oblongis firmulis 
obtu>is dorso purpureo ut. idrico, racemo 

densissimo oblongo foliis reductis oblongis purpureo-marginatis 
coronato, pedicellis brevissimis, bracteis magnis laneeolatis, perianthio 
campanulato basi et ad marginem segmentarum purpureo, staminibus 
perianthio distincte brevioribus filamentis purpureis, stylo ovario 
aequilongo. 

Habitat.— Natal : top of Tabamhlope Mountain, alt. 6000-7000 feet, 
M. S. Evans, 398 ! 

Folia semipedalia, 2|-3 poll. lata. Berianthium 6 lin. longum. 



Evansii, Ua/or ■ Lilian-:, ■ : radi.v apice fibrosa, 
foliis productis anguste linearibus erect j- subeoriaeeis paucinervatis 
marginibua ii < i longiore, racemo denso 

"bl-iiL . j„.,lir,llis hi \;i,m- mtt-i : ..ril.u- t ■ riiiii-., bi.utiiNovatisscariosis 
albidis pi-du-fllH a-'.pnlonirjs iloribus spl.-ndide riibns -iceitate atropur- 
pureis, perianthio cylindrico lobis brevissimis obtusis, genitalibuu 

Habitat.— Natal : on the Drakensberg, alt. 6000-7000 feet, M. S. 



folia sesquipedalian 1 tin. lata. 8eapu» U-2 P edsIi s. Racemus 2-3 
P<>11 lonirii- / J < rifhithinin li I in. longam. 

Xear A", gracilis, Harv., and A. pauciflora, Baker (Bot. Mag. 

253. Aloe concinna, JSaAe/* [Liliacea?] ; breviter caulescens, fbliis 

all.io inaculatis haul lineatis aculeis marginalibus magnis crebris del- 
toiuVi>. M'iipo simplici foliis panlo longiore deorsum compresso, racemo 
subdenso, pedici-ilis bivvil.ii> nsivmlenlibus apico articulalis, l.ractcis 
paivi- lancoolaiis, pcriaiithio evlimlrico tubo brevissimo lobis elon»atis, 

bKewin 1884. 



s lanceolatis, scapo simplici bracteis \ 



255. Ornithogalum (Caruelia) diphyll 
parvo globo 

■..•i-pis-irnt- bin 

-laiiiinil.ii- [H'rianti.Mi ■ .nforinihu-. 

ovario globoso, stylo brevissimo. 

Habitat.— }satoi : summit of Tabamklope Mountain, alt. 6000-7000 
feet, M. S. Evans, 374. 

Bulbils 3 lin. diam. Folia H-2 poll, longa, 1 lin.lata. Periauthiiwi 
3 lin. longum. 

256. Albuca (Falconera) humilis, Baker [Liliaceaj] ; bulbo ovoideo 
turn. -is cxferioribus membranaceis, foliis 3 anguste liucanbus crocfis 

.mo brevi, floribus 2-3 corvmho— podirelli- . recto-patentibus, 
brnrti ; parvis lanceolatis vol ovato-acuminatis, perianthio campnnulato 
Hjfe medio rubro-brunneia, staminibus omnibus 
mithrriferis, stylo tri.pietro ovario ajquilongo. 



CCCCLXV.— SIAM BENZOIN. 

Benzoin is also known in English commerce as Gum Benjamin. It 
la a gum-resin obtained by incision in the bark of trees in Sumatra and 
Siam. Benzoin is used as a stimulant and expectorant in chronic 
bronchitis. It is also one of the principal ingredients in Friar's Balsam, 
and is largely used for incense. 

Sumatra benzoin i- yiVidrd by Sfi/ro.r lUnzoin, Dry., a well-known 
tree. Plants of this species are under cultivation at Kew, and many 
have lately been distributed to botanical establishments in the tropics 
of the New World. Of the tree yielding Siam benzoin we know very 
little. As long ago as 1865, Sir R. H. Schomburgk, when British 
Consul at Bangkok, was asked to investigate the subject, but although 
able to give, at second hand, a very interesting account of the mode of 
collecting the resin, he was unable to obtain botanical specimens of the 
tree yielding it. Of late years renewed efforts have been made to solve 
the problem. 

Captain Hicks, of Bangkok, was successful in obtaining a few small 
plants of "gum benjamin from the Northern Laos States" in 1882. 
The survivors of these were presented to the Botanic Gardens at 
Singapore by Mr. Jamie. A fuller account of Captain Hicks' efforts is 
given by Mr. E. M. Holmes, F.L.S., in the Pharmaceutical Journal, 
XIV. [3], p. 355. The locality from which the plants were obtained 
was given as " Suang Rabang." This, we now know, is a misprint for 
Lining l'rabang, a district in the extreme north-east of the Shan States 
of Siam, bordering on Tran Ninh, in the French territory of Anam. 
In the hope that the Siam benzoin tree might possibly extend to the 
Shim States of Burma, an application was addressed by Kew to the 
India Office in 1889, and as a result a careful inquiry was made by 
the Government of India in Tennaserim, Upper Burma, and the 
adjoining Shan States. In 1890 it was reported that « the efforts made 
to trace the existence of the plant in those localities have been 
unsuccessful." 

Apparently, the first authentic information respecting the district in 
which the tree is to be found is contained in a recent, Report by Mr. 
Beckett, forwarded to the Foreign Office by Mr. de Bunsen on the 
Trade of Siam for 1893 (Foreign Office, Annual Series, 1895, No. 1520). 
The following extract shows that Siam benzoin is obtained from an 
extremely circumscribed locality on the east bank of the River Mekong, 
in territory now occupied by the French. It is feared that the trade in 
this article will be ultimately diverted to Tonquin, which is nearer to the 
source of supply than Bangkok : — 

«' Gum-benjamin.— Of gum-benjamin, 319 piculs, or nearly 20 tons, 
figure in the export list, valued at 21,005 dollars, or 2713/. This valu- 
able resin is also a product of the east bank of the Mekong, and is 
interesting as being confined to a narrow zone of forest-clad hill 
country to the east of Luang Prabang, lying between 19th and 21st 
" ' tude and longitude east 102 to 105. Some three- 
i Bangkok by way of Nan, and the remainder by 
way of Nongkhai'and Korat. The French occupation of Luang Prabang 
does not seem as yet to have caused any perceptible effect on the 
Bangkok export of gum-benjamin beyond 



■DangKOK export ot gum-oenjamin oeyona ennancing iwui putm, uuu 
with the completion of new roads, already initiated by the French with 
a view to speedier communication between Lua " 
Bangkok exporters, who are chiefly British. 



speedier communication between Luang Prabang and Tonquin, 
• : have well-f ' 



tirely from Bangkok to 
» the London market 



3 manipulated 
i locally f * 

"Prices during IS93 were l»ad, tii— i class gum-benjamin fetching 125 
ticals per picul (or about 165/. per ton), and the second class, 45 ticals 
per picul (about 40/. per ton). The good quality known to buyers as 
1 bold blocky almondy' was scarce." 



CCCCLXVI.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

Mr. Charles Henry Humphries, in the employ of the Royal 
Gardens, has been appointed by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies Curator of the Botanic Station at Aburi, on the Gold Coast, 
in succession to the late Mr. William Crowther. Mr. Humphries 
entered the Royal Garden- in January lsj)2. having previously spent 
nearly nine years with Me— r- Kelw.-n .V Son, at Langport. Somerset. 
lie had three years' experience in the tropical department at Ken. ami 
attained to the rank of sub-foreman. He holds certificates for lectures 
in Elementary Physics and Chemistry, Organography and Systematic 
Botany, and Economic Botany. 



Mr. Hugh M< Mil) an, in the employ of the Royal Gardens, has been 
appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, on the recomenda- 
tion of Kew, Head Gardener of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Peradeuiya, 
Ceylon. Mr. McMillan entered the Royal Gardens on the 21-t Augii-r 
1893. He had previously served at Cyfartha Castle and Cardiff Castle 
Gardens in South Wales. He has diligently attended the course of 
lectures at Kew. and h- ■ •:>■•'«. including Krhi>h 



Mr. John Chi sn all Moore, in the employ of the Royal Gardens, has 
been appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, on the recom- 
mendation of Kew, Curator of the Botanic Station at St. Lucia, in the 
Windward Islands, West Indies. Mr. Moore entered the Royal Gardens 
in December 1893. He was previously employed at BroadlamK Hants., 
the - as of the Right Honourable Evelyn Ashley. He holds certificates 
I ", an', uiianee at lectures at Kew in Economic Botany, Organography, 
and Systematic Botany, and Geographical Botany. 



Large Cacti— The Royal Gardens are h d.-htcd to Pre 
W.Toumev, of the Cimersity ot \ 
from that region. Amongst them are two specimen- of < > r, 

', n; ,v |,e seen in the Palm House, its height being 1." feet, : 

about 9 cwt. This was purchased from a Calif orn D 
1890. It flowered in the year following, and a figure of it > 
in the Botanical Mmjtizim; t. Tl'1'1. Otl„ 
the recent arrivals are two of Echinomctm H ,*hz, ,i, 
high and weighing 4 cwt. Judging by the slow rate 
smaller exa: -• which "ave been at K 

these two large plants must be of very great age, probably 



years. This species is remarkable for its bulky stems. The specimen* 
are 2 feet in diameter, and armed with stout hooked spines, resembling 
strong jack hooks. There are also two large specimens of Opuntia 
tlfborescens, remarkable for its long spines, each enclosed in a loose pale 
yellow sheath ; two equally large of O.fnlgitla. peculiar in the down- 
ward or "weeping" growth of its branches; two of O. arbuscula 
and three small plants of the new Cereus Pringlei, an ally of C. 



qigantens. These plants are at present grouped in the centre of the 
" i (No. 5). 



Succulent Ho 



Botanical Magazine. — The plants figured in the May number are : 

Kniphofia Xort/uu; I 'urn, //'//// cri/t 'h /■■>,;/ r />/> ,n . Argi/'lia canescvHs, 

Veronica Hectnri, and < ">/}>rif>etlin>i) Clitirh^icortfiii. With the excep- 
tion of the Veronica, they were all drawn from plants that flowered at 
Kew. The Kniphofia was brought from Grahamstown. Cape Colony, 
to Kew in 1883 by Miss Marianne North, after whom it was named. 

With slight protection ; t bears our winters, nix! ln>t year flowered freely 
in the open air at Kew in June. It is a vigorous caulescent species, 
resembling an Aloe, and there is a painting of it in the North Gallery, 
n. 367. Vacciviinii < i\,/lhrociir/jii/ii is a pretty North American hardy 
species, the berries being nearly black when ripe. Argylia canescens 
(Bignoniacere) is a member of an exclusively Andean genus. It has a 
thick caudex from which slender annual thnv.-niiu: >tems are produce! . 
The Kew plant was presented by T. King, Ks ( p, ,,f Garnet; I Iiil.'t iLsgou 

Veronica Hatnri is a XVw Zealand >peeics of the group, having small 
closeh imbricated iea\es like a cvpivss. It was drawn from a specimen 
communicated by Dr. Balfour. Regius Keep* r of the Kdinl-urgh Botanic 



cultivated at Kew. Ci'tnum Sr/iiiitpt-ri \- a hand-ouu 
received at Kew botli from the Berlin Botanic (i; 
Loichtlin ol Baden-Baden. Trichccladus grandifl 
exclusively South African genus of the Ilamnme'li, 
from seeds communicated in 1890 by Mr. E. E. OV 
Cape Colony, and flowered in the Temperate House 
1894. tUbes bracteosum is a striking species dh 
Douglas in \H'2G. at the mouth of the Columbia liivi 



Case of Heath '. 



Knjphofs Botanica in Originali, seu Herbarium Vivum, 1 75*- 1 76 1. — 
TheTiame Kniphof, as commemorated in the genus Knip/io/ia, is not 
unfamiliar, but conifi.-n atively lew persons will know anything of ihe 
history of the man who was the author of the work of which the above 
is the abbreviated title. An uncut copy of this rare and curious 
botanical book has lately been added to the Kew library. Tt is interest 
ing historically, both on account of its being a record of plants cultivated 
at that date in Germany, and chiefly, in all probability, at Erfurt, as 
it was there the author' resided, and also on account of its being one 
of the earliest, if not actually the first, work of considerable extent, in 
which the process of nature-printing was employed to illustrate plants. 
It would appear that D. Brukmann, a contemporary of Kniphof, was 
really the inventor, if it maybe so termed, of rhi- method 
plan;-, as there is a published letter by him on the subject addressed to 
Kniphof, dated 1733 ; but this is not in the Kew library. The title 
is: Semhvhreiben an J. IT. Kniphof. oV, Art ,lh KrUuter nach dem 
Leln </> (tlizarfriickt n uiid also cfnii pi luii'us, Ihrharia ptrta z» mavhrn, 
vorstclhiul. The full title of the work in question is : Botanica in 

(plain Exotiearum peeuliari <ptada:n operosa<pie enchiiv-i atramento 
impivssorio obductarum Nominibusque suis ad Met.hodutn 1 iiu-irium 
nostri aevi Botanicorum Linnaei el m elegantis- 

sima ectypa exhibentur. Opera et Studio Joannis Godofredi Trampe. 

There are two foolscap folio volume containing 1202 figures, one 
on each leaf, besides a number introduced on the title pages of the 
12 parts in which it was issued, for the purposes of embellishment, 
making a total of 12.50 species represented. Figure 515 is missing. 
The Kew copy is probal>l\ unique in being coloured, the colouring 
being most likely the work of a private person, for there is no mention 
of coloured copies by any of the bibliographers. The colouring is 
generally well and effectively done, though in some instances it is to 
some extent neutralised by the too intense blackness of the print. This 
copy first belonged to J. G. Menu. M.D.. Professor Pul.iicus Primarins 
at Cologne, who seems to have acquired it in 1764, the date of the 
publication of the last part. Subsequently it must have passed into 

English names of many of the plants. 

The arrangement is alphabetical, with the Linnean names of the 

first edition ^ the .S>-.vV.v Plantumm, and references to the pages u f 
that work, as well as the Sy.tona ■ ■> * Genenon 

Plantarinn. The " specific phrases " of tin Specie Plantamm are 
also reproduced. 



Indian Plants. — The Rev. R. Huter. of Sterzing, Austrian Tyrol, 
has present, i - 'ants, made h\ Ilierommus Rastler, 

a missionary, near licthia. North Mehar, and on the Nepal frontier. It 
consists of about lot ' specks, including a few new ones. 



Natal Plants.— Mr. J. Medley Wood, A.L.S., Curator of the Natal 
Botanic Garden, has presented a further small parcel of dried plants of 
great interest. 



Plants of the Milanji Hills.— Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., Comm 
and Gonsul-General in British Central Africa, has transmitted i 
collection of dried plants, made by Mr. J. McClounie, together with 



(Botany, 2nd series, vol. iv., pt. 1, pp. 1-6S, tt. 1-10), but they 
a number of which Kew did not previously possess any Herbarium 
specimens, notably the cypress, Widdr'nn/funiu Whijtei. There are 
also three or four apparently undescrihed species, of which the material 
t for description. 



Flora of British Somali-land.— Miss Edith Cole and Mrs. Lort 
Phillips and party made a journey in this country last winter and early 
spi ing, and collected and dried about 300 species of flowering plants 
and a few ferns, which they have generously presented to Kew. The 
1 was from Berbera to the Golis range of h'" 



to a height of 5000 feet. In view of the comparatively recent partial 
botanical investigation of the island of Socotra, and Mr. Bent's collec- 
tions from Southern Arabia, together with the fact that little is known 
of the flora of Somali-land, some highly interesting results are expected 
from the working-out of these ladies' collections. The Acanthaceaj, 
especially, are very strongly represented ; there is a new fern ; and the 
three orchids include an apparently new species of Epipacfis, a genus 
not previously known to inhabit tropical Africa, though we believe 
Mr. Scott KlHot a Ni. collected a species in the Ruwenzori mountains. 
Miss Cole also collected and presented to Kew plants of a species of 
Eulophia. a Drachma, various bulbs, and 20 packets of seeds. 



Anthocleista insignis. — Mr. E. E. Galphi, of Queenstown, South 
Africa, whose description of this tree is given at p. 150, sends the 
following note respecting it : — 

This handsome tree is abundant in the Horo forest and yields a very 
useful timber. The wood is white, soft, easily worked, and, I believe, 
harden- with age. Being very even grained it is not liable to split, and 
was used for making the bodies of the ore trucks required for the 
* ' ' purpose it proved itself to be admirably adapted. 
)t up to a height of .30 feet or more without a 
; their summit a cluster of magnificent leaves 
which are considerably larger than those borne by the mature trees, a 



ng rree 
r.d.l.,,,, 



palm-like appearance. JN ot having an oppor- 
tunity of visiting the locality during the flowering season, I am indebted 
to Mr. William Ley.-on, the courteous manager ot the Horo Concession, 
for a fine series ot flowering and fruiting specimens, which were only to be 
got at by felling the trees bearing them. [A plant is growing at Kew]. 



collection of dried plants, made by himself, and generously presented I 



represented in liorl»;irin b\ IaintV- specimens. He also eschewed dis- 
appear f«. be nmlescrilied. !l ;u;in it*<-st !\ il'lnsl nil. ■< tin- westward 

Society and Royal Society. 

The Flora of the Solomon Islands.— Sim v the prece.lin;; paper 
(p. 1.S2) on Mr. (J<nnin>'s plants was put into tvpe. Keu has received, 
Ihmiigli Uear-Admiral Wharton. C.H., Ilydn^raphcr i.. Mm> Ailinimlt \ . 



to a length of about 10 feet. 






covering of small tendril-like roots, closely adhering together, :nn 

tiglllh l.;irkr<l ill 111 the tree, following it> C'.illnlir. gi\ ill-' Tin- H]ijM';i!-;inc< 

ol a >udden ihickenim.: ol ihebark. A sj u-cimt-ii i- enclosed ot ilu-< 



rootlets. There we 


iv' no aeria 


1 roots in 


flower between Oc 












M The flower hea< 












the trnnk. It cone 




mgli main 








30 flower-branchlei 






brancli itself. The 


y grow tw< 


. in op|»o 






l>|.o>ite di; 


" The lowest, 1 


largest flo 


wer bi an«- 


v|m inging from it, 






and bearing 162 blossoms. 




" When first cut 






a harvest-bug, wbic 


h, liowrv.-l 





reuie length from base of stem to tip < ^ 

Girth of stem at lowest flower branch 
Distance between two flower branehlets 
Length of first flower branchlet 
Length of la-t flower branchlet ■ 
Length of head branchlet 



leaf downward, continuing faitlim -till down the mid-rib. 

" The leaves grow in clumps at the end of the boughs, their hase.- 
following one another in the form of u screw-thread. There were 
29 leaves in one average-si /.ed bum-h that was counted. 

" The following averages wm-e made from the measurements of three 
fully matured leaves :— 

Whole length of leaf about - - - - 7 10 



hitherto been published. Unfortunately, the i 
flowers are still unknown. There is no doubt, however, in spite of 
little discrepancies in the descriptions, and the fact that Mr. Guppy met 
with the tree only at the summit of Fauro Island (at an elevation of 
1600 to 1900 feet), that one and the same species inhabits the two very 
different si tuations indicated. On consulting Guppy's work ( The Sofmim'n 
[.shnalx, p. 288) in relation to this question, it was found that he men- 
tions a species of lit r/onia being common on the slopes of the hill> of 
Fauro Island, though there was no specimen in the collection he presented 

The box of orchids mentioned ahove was a disappointment, most of 
the plants heing dead, owing to excessive dryness. A DendrobittM, 
Cwlogyne, and Grammatophyllum may be saved. 



Date Cultivation in South Australia.— On the motion of the Hon. 
R. A. Tarlton, a report was presented to tin- Legislative Council of 
South Australia recommending the cultivation of the Date Palm in the 
Far North districts in 1884. Since that time the Woods and Forests 
Department has given special attention to the subject. The principal 
operations were carried on near Hergott spring-. In dune 1891, there 
were lo plants four years old, 2Xo one year old, and ">;} just planted 

3 feet to 4 feet high. Suckers were -ub-eipienth obtained fiom Ivurraehee 

li,pZi»\ the" Woods and Forests [i it* is stated : 

"The results attending the cultivation of the date palm at Heigott 
Spring- bave been \< v\ : 1 ■ ■ •' 

on a palm olanied barelv ^i x war- ago.*' A 






The bunches produced weight" 
from a freshly cut male spadi 

Suckers of the celebrated " I J 



consignment v Slew South 

Wales. In Queensland • g made to establish date 

cultivation. The late Dr. Bancroft exhibited samples of dates grown 
in Queensland at a meeting of the Acclimatisation Society in 
May 1893. 



From this article the following extracts are taken : — 
" In Dr. Trimen's Annual Report on the Botanical Gardens for 1893, 
mention was made of the occurrence in the Peradeniya Gardens of a 
serious insect-pest which was most destructive to the ornamental shrubs 
there. As this pest has been increa has already 

spread beyond the limits of the Gardens, it is important that general 
attention should be drawn to it. 

*' Within the Peradeniya Gardens efforts are being made to keep it in 
check, but it has appeared on Lantana in the neighbourhood, and there 
is no knowing where it will stop. l%] .3 et shown no 

taste tor either of our two most important products, tea iind cacao. 
Coffee, however, does not share tin- immunity, for trees of Liberian 
coffee have been observed to be infested with 'the ins. et, and we have 
no reason to suppose that the Arabian species will be less liable to 



" Dr. Trimen is of opinion that th 


is is 


m-Ht.h 


' a garden pest, 


and does 


not expect that it will spread to esta 




It is 






prediction will prove correct, bin ii \ 








■ the fact 


that, if unchecked, the pest mig 






enormously ai 




possibly develop a taste for other 






was the case 






irst practically 


confined 


to acacia and orange trees, finally be 




•alum, 


(p. 437). 



"The insect is known to entomologists by the name of Orthezia 
insignis, Douglas, being first described by Mr. J. W. Douglas from 
specimens found in Kew Gardens, where it is now siid to be doing au 
enormous amount of dam 5. It has more recently 

been figured and described by Mr. Buckton under the name of Orthezia 
,««;■<■„' {l^lia, M,i,,.„n, Soft,, Vol. III., No. 3, p. 103). The 
specimens submitted to Mr. Buckton were unfortunately damaged in 
transit ; his figures are consequently not very satisfactory. Comparison 
with specimens from Kew proves the two insects to be specifically 

" Originating as it does in the Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, there is 
little doubt but that we owe the introduction of this pest to plants 
received from Kew. Its native country has not been determined" 
(p. 437). 

Mr. Green's .statement as to "the enormous amount of damage in the 
plant-houses" caused by the insect is very much exaggerated, and I am 
unable to ascertain the authority on which it is made. Mr. Buckton, in 
Indian Museum S'otes (I.e. p." 101 } says :-—" The Kew insect appears 
to be spreading over the hot-houses of England, and seems to be very 

-'-:' ■ , :•■■■■;.. ■■■ \ - - ■ \ . . •■■-::-: ,,;<■:■' '-n:. ■ ■ 



• 






Edward T. Browne, I*\!<- nt me several 

examples of this species, which ho li., ,| i J aniens at 

Kew, request!: t i'V.^v. .- !; ,d Id- .nhl, d the fol[-.,wiiig 

particulars : —< First I'otuxl on Strobi!a,)thc<. a Chinese plant, which has 
been in the Economic House tlnve years ; it mav now lie seen in the 
adjoining house on other foreign plants.' " 

The Assistant Curator has furnished the following report on the 
subject :- 

"The Chinese Str„hila„th, ■• referred to is N. flmrhlif^his, X<-e*(Hot. 
Uau. t. CD 1 7), which u-asivceiv.-d from Hon- Kong in 'May 1886. This 



nt- In the 
.armful m! 



, which is 



from taint of any sort c 



',;;;:; ' 



Niger Coast Protectorate. — Tn a Report on the Administration of 

the Niger Coast Protectorate, presented to 1 he Foreign Office, for the 
years l s«) 1-04, pp. 5 and 6, Sir Claude Mac Donald, K.C.M.G., gives 
the following interesting account of the efforts made to establish a 
Botanic Station and develop the resources of the extensive territory 
under his charge : — 

" It will be seen on perusing my brief remarks on the subject of the 
trade of the district, that the principal, and, !>y comparison, the only 
article of export is derived from the fruit of the palm tree Elrcis 
ginneensis. I have frequently pointed this out to the native trader, and 

other articles which, from a commercial point of view, are more valuable 
even than palm oil. The native trad.,- is. however, difficult to move and 



enough for him. There ai 


e, howe\ 


er, some' not 


able exceptions 


to'"this 






chiefs arc v 






tages of trading in articles 


other tli 


an palm oil. 


To The end tha 














natural products, a botanic 


station 




rted at Old ( 1 alal 


)ar. I 




Horace 








showing what work has bee 










on the botany of the count 










River, and a similar report 


of thc'l 




Cross River. 


By my 


instructions. Mr Hilln-lon 










which has been translated i 


nto Kilk, 


the native 1." 


mgiiage of Old C 


alabar! 


and distributed prat is to tin 










gi\ ing useful rules and hint 










To further encourage this i 




IV, e e'ii't.- (,f 


v oung coffee pla; 




made to chiefs who will < 


■lear the 


ground tor' 






the plant does not bear in 








made 


yearly for each plant alive 
When the plant begins to 






end of the third 




bear tlu 




es, and the plan 




becomes the property of tb 
export of coffee from the 1 




a.ew^in'lh 


e'irsM^lr'lJth 


The 


Administration 270S lbs. ; 










of cacao in the first year 










51,299 lbs. When, there* 










taught by the botanic garden, I ; 




large increase 




export of this ss well as other and n 


ew products. 






Curator's Report that the 






sited by several 




chiefs, who have shown 


an intelligent interest in the same 


. Mr. 


Billington is a most enthusi; 




pa.nsuk.ng 


nffloU., 





Cultural Industries at the Gold Coast— The following extract is taken 
from the Report on the Gold Coast for the year 1893, lately published 
by the Colonial Office. [Annual Series, 1895, No. 136] :— 

" The only important advune.- which has Keen made in (lie cultivation 

additional eoll'ee plantations of small size have been started by the 
natives in the country of Akwapini, and the larger plantations in the 
neighbourhood of Cape Coast, mere especially that owned by the 
Glasgow firm of Messrs Miller Brothers and Company, are beginnm"; 
to produce the coffee berry in paying quantities. It will be seen on 
leferring to the table of exports, that the export of coffee has increased 
from 12,899 lbs. in 1892 to 21,437 lbs. in 1893. 






xport, and 



kola-nuts as an article of export, and there is every reason to suppose 
that attention is now being given to this valuable commercial product, 
which is to be found in large quantities in the hinterland of the Gold 

« The trade in rubber was very good, as the following comparison 
with the trade in 1892 shows :— 



the Government at 
fostered into a trade, 
way of preparing tht 




n, and at the botanical s 



Industries in Florida.— In the Kew Bulletin, 1895, pp. 125, 126, a 
note was given respecting the serious effects on the orange groves of 
Florida of the extremely cold weather experienced there on the 28th 
December 1894 and the 7th February 1895. The extent and value of 
the tropical and sub-tropical cultivation in Florida, including that of 
orange growing, Avcre very considerable. The following tables are 
taken from a Foreign Office Report (Annual Series, 1895, No. 1542) 
on the Agriculture of the Southern States by Mr. Consul C. L. 
St. John :— 



Articles. 


j Acres. 


Quantity. 


Classifier 






| 
















Egg plant 




5,168 


Barrels 
































112.82:5 


Cucumbers 


798 










123 








Beets - 








8..VW 




2,897 




Car loads 


i 136,569 


Tomatoes 










Irish potatoes 


710 


4o,020 


Bushels 


62,149 



f of the Fruit Crop of Florida for the Year 1891. 




The Consul adds: — "In giving the foregoing rabies showing the 
various products of the State of Florida it will' be understood that I 
have very much in view thai this information will be of value to our 
people in the British possessions where the climates are like the climate 
of Florida. It will be seen by the tables how many things are grown 
in Florid* thai really can be grown in our tropical and semi-tropical 
places. In fact, many of the products referred to are now cultivated :,i 
the British West India Islands, but not by any means to such extent 
and on such business principles as carried out in Florida, and which 
mode of cultivation can alone lead to such money results as are obtained 
in Florida in .-uch agricultural pursuits." 

In a further Foreign Office Report (Annual Series, 1S95, No. 1551) 
the following further particular- are given respecting the disaster thai 
has overtaken the orange industry in Florida : — 

"On December 2S, 1X9 i, the outlook in Florida was verv bright. 
The orange groves had fruit. -d more gonerouslv than usual. Already 
the growers had marketed about 3,000,000 boxes of oranges at re- 
munerative prices. There were still on the trees 2,500,000 boxes of 
oranges. But when the morning o 1 ' December '2 { J dawned all this 
had been swept away ; for the mercury had fallen to freezing point, 
and the oranges were found frozen hard. In a few hours fruit worth 
several millions of dollars had been turned to ice. 

"Developments during January, however, seem to confirm the 
assertion of orange -growers that the December frost had not materially 
injured the old trees. The weather that followed the CI t s 
blizzard was exceptionally favourable, and soon it was reported that 
trees were'shedding the leaves that had been blighted, and were putting 
forth new growth. 

"On February 7 everything seemed to point to a good crop ; but this 

cheerful prospect was destined to be succeeded In a condition of hopeless 
despair, for the moreiirv, as was mentioned elsewhere in thi- report, fell 



cold wave — weeks of the most favourable weather — and no signs of life 
have been shown by the great majority of the groves. To judge by their 
appearance, the trees are only fit for firewood." 



Persian ZaliL— In the AW IhillcHit, 1 8*9, p. Ill, a descriptu 

Persian dye-plant Zalil. The plant was first described in the : 
fictions of tin Linvaiv Society, see. 2, vol. iii.. p. 30, in the re 
the Botany of the Afghan Delimitation Commission from the col 
made by Brigade-Surgeon Aitchinson, CLE., F.R.S. It is a ] 
considerable economic value. The ilouers are collected lar^ w 
exportation for dyeing silk. The following note on Zalil is taken from 
the./„ W ,W './■/>/' >•'"'"/// "/ i'ln-'xicul l.uhtttr,,, vol. xiv, 31s. May 
isj).-,, where it appears as a contribution from the riothwoiker\ 
Research Laboratory in the Dyeing Department ol the Yorkshire 
College, Leeds, by Professors J. J. Hummel and A. G. Perkm :— 
Delphinium Zalil. — This is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to 
lacea, which bears a spike of yellow flowers 2 feet in 



height. It is abundant in certain parts of Afghanistan, e.g., on the 
downs df the IJadghis, ami in (lie neinitv of (lulran, and in Khorasan. 

The dyes tuff, known as Asb<i?r/, consists of the dried flowers and 
flowering -t. ms. win.-!) ;uv largely exported from Kabul and Khorasan, 
via the Punjab, into all parts of India. It is used in the native 
calico printing, hut chiefly in silk-dyeing, along with l)aiis,n, ctimiahi/ut 
roots, and with alum mordant, for the production of a I.: _ 
yellow colour known a- (/mulli/iki. Its price is 271 rupees per cwt. 

The chemistry of this dyestuff has still to be studied, and this we 
hope to do as soon as further supplies, already asked for, come to hand. 
The dyeing properties of Delphinium, both on wool and cotton, are 
very similar indeed to those of Sophora, from which it differs only by 
having less dyeing power. Compared with the ordinary dye wood it is, 
therefore, most similar to <picivitroii hark, and compared with this 
dyestuff on wool with tin mordant, it appears that 1*75 grins, quer- 
citron bark are equal in dyeing power to 5 gi ms. delphinium, but the 
latter gives a much purer yellow, i.e., less orange. It would, there- 
fore seem to have ai out half the colouring power of Sophora-buds. 

Although quite a good dyestuff for native use, the comparatively low 
colouring power of Delphinium Zulil Mowers will prevent it from 
finding any employment in Europe. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



[1895. 



CCCCLXVII.— VANILLAS OF COMMERCE. 

An article on the cultivation anil cm ini:' <.t Vanilla appeared, with a 
late, in the Keir Bulletin, 1888, pp. 76-80. Other articles havt 
ppeared in the Built tin in ls<>2, p. 212; 1893, p. 327, and 1894, 
ip. 200-208. Tbe i ul descriptive account of the 

pccies yielding aromatic fruits, more or less used in commerce, hashed 
irepared by Mr. R. A. Rolfe, A.L.S., Assistant in the Kew Herbarium 



I " i' i 1 1 i • 1 r ' « I as .•! vanilla plant. The fruit ha-, however, very 
little perfume. 

Mr. Rolfe has monographed the known species of the genus, 50 in 
number, and the result will be communicated to the Linnean Society. 
The descriptions of the species either known or likely to be of economic 
value have been extracted for the present paper. They bear the 



From 


historical ace 


ounts we learn tha 


Aztecs of Mexico a- an 




■i.l in the ma 










Morren 


states that it v 




d,t to Kurop 


year 15 


10 at the same 


time as indigo, coc 


















K.votia. 
fruits 1 








rom Moi-an, an 


■th-an 


to()ueen 1- 


describ< 








of theii 


• native country 


or use. 


If, deserib, 



izabeth, in 1602, which he 
i them as G to 8 inches long 



sxiean Vanilla (V. phmifviia) 
given by Hernandez in his Xo\ 
I (p. 38), "under the name of An 



which show.- Loth the characteristic pwtii and fruits of the plant, the 
flowers not being represented. The origi i of this figure was one of 
a series of 1200 executed at great < ost in Mexico, by order of the King 
of Spain, during the previous century. Hernandez only mentions its 
use as a drug and gives its native name as '- Tlilxochitl." 

Piso in his Mantissa Aromntint, published in 1658, appears to have 
first put the name Vaynilla on record, and also its use as an ingredient 
in the manufacture of chocolate (pp. 200, 201). He describes it as the 
fragrant siliqua or pod of the Araco aromutico of Hernandez, and that 
it was called Vaynilla by the Spaniards, who added it to chocolate, not 
only on account of its fragrance but because of its medicinal virtues. 
The name is the diminutive of the Spanish n/i„a, a pod or capsule. 

In 1675 Redi figured the pod and seeds, the latter as seen under the 
microscope (E.vperimenta, p. 179). He called it Vainiglias. 

Dampicr next furnished some important information about the plant. 
Speaking of the coast of the Bay of Campcachy. South Mexico, under 
date 1676, he remarks : — " Here are great plentyof Vinellos," {Voyages, 
II., pt. 2., p. 123). And at Boca-toro, in Costa Bica, which he visited in 
1681, he observed :—" There grow on this coast Vinelloes in great 
quantity, with which Chocolate is perfumed" (I., p. 38). At a place 
eaiLed < 'aibooca in the former locality, Dampier remarks: — " We found a 
small Indian village, and in it a gnat quantity of Vinello's drying in 
the sun. The Vinello is a little Cod full of small black seeds ; it is 4 
or 5 inches long, about the bigness of the ■••en of a Tobacco leaf, and 
when dried mu 1 i < niblii g t : so that our Privateers at first have 
often thrown them away when they took any, wondering why the 
Spaniards should lay up Tobacco stems. This Cod grows on a small 
Vine, which climbs about and supports itself by the neighbouring 
trees: it first bears a yellow Flower, from whence the Cod afterwards 

Indians (whose manufacture it is, and who sell it cheap to the 
Spaniards) gather it, and lay it in the sun, which make- it soft; then it 
changes to a Chestnut colour. Then they frequently press it between 
their fingers, which makes it flat. If "the Indians do anything to 
them 1 .side, I know not, but I have seen the Spaniards sleek them 
with Ovl" (L, p. 234). He further remarks thai the Vines grow 
plentifully at Boca-toro, where he had gathere 1 and tried to cure them 
but without success, and that he had never met with a Spaniard who 
could tell him, which led him to think that the Indians had some 
secret. "Could we have learnt the art of it, several of us would have 
gone to Bocca-toro yearly, at the dry season and cured them, and 
freighted our vessel. We there might h»V€ had Turtle enough for 
food and store of Vinello's .... They are commonly sold for 
3 pence a Cod among the Spaniards in the West Indies, and are sold 
by the Druggist, fur they are much iir-cu among C'liocoiau/ Lo perlume 



e!,g ! 

Vine 



toro"(I.,p. 235). 

it- all clearly icier ;., tne true Mexic 
1796 both/Plukenl and Sioane int 



20, fig. 4). 


l'he latter. 






wods of Jamaica about 


ais Natural 


History of 



Jamaica, publi>hcd in 1707, lie further observes: — "It is said by 

several that they grow in this island about A « pi:i-:i1t:i. and that before 
the felling of timber and clrarinir ground, the\ wore common in the 
shady bottoms of the inland parts of this island." (L, p. 180). so 
that it was evidently included on hearsay evidence, and probably the 
i ligcii - I i.iodi>ra (V. < a >»u a, (iris b) was mistaken for V. 

In 1703, Plumier briefly defined the genus Vanilla and three species 
from the West Indies (AW. PI. Amcr. Gen., p. 2.5), namely :— " V. flore 
viridi et albo, fructu nigrescente ; V. flore albo, fructu breviori, 
corallino " ; and " V. flore violaceo, fructu breviori, rubro." The first is 
figured at t. 28 (also later in his Plmthirtun tmcriranarum, II., p. 183, 
t. 188), and is certainly V. inadora. Of the second, a capital ligure 
exists in Ids MSS. drawings, proving it to be V. plurautha . The third 
is a complete mystery, for while the other two are both figured and 
described in detail in his MSS. works, this is only mentioned in the 
following note: — "Reperitur alia species huic prorsus simili- enjus 
tamen florss rubedine violacea splendent, fructu tandem breviores et 
rubri." This third species evidently does not belong to the genus. 
This was the first record of the flowers, but curiously enough no 
mention is i r or it- u--- — merely the brief note 

that Vanilla is the name by which the plants are "known to the 

In 170.5 Merian figured the fruiting branch of a Surinam species, 
calling it the greatest sort of Banille {Mctanii.cpJi. Insect. Surinam., 
t. 25). This is evidently V. Pompona, but in the text it is confounded 
with other species, as in previous record.-;. A second sort, however, is 
said to grow in Surinam, which may have been V. inodora. 

very early in the seventeenth ecu i my. The second volume ct' .Miller's 

:•:■'■'"■• ■■•■..• 

at Oampeaehy, and sent between papers by way of sample, and as 
the stems appeared fresh, though gathered at least tour months he 
planted them in small pots and plunged them in a hotbed of tanner's 
bark, where they soon put out leaves and roots. It is probable that 
they were soon afterwards lost. 

Shortly afterwards Catesby gave a good coloured thrum of V.ino- 
dora, including (lowers and fruit, but in his remarks completely 
confounded it with the true economic plant. 

Thus three distinct species had become confused together, and these 
are all included by Linnams. in hi- Spirits Plantarum, in 17o3, under 



In 1799 Swartz re-established lMumior's genus Vanilla, enumerating 



species, V. aromatica and V claviculata (^ 
ml, VI., p. 6( 



Upsal, VI., p. 66). The former was based on Epidendrum Vanilla, 

L., and on Plunder's ligure. which latter represents / '. inodora. whose 
fruits are not aromatic, so that the name was evidently taken from the 
vanilla of commerce. / ". claricnlata is a leafless West Indian species. 

In 1807, Salisbury figured and described a species of Vanilla under 
the name of Myobroma fra <y ra >ts \ I'ln-adi-",-. l.ondim ,i*is, t. 82), which 
he stated to be the " Vanilla flon afho fna-fo brcrita-r coratlino" of 
Plumier, figured in that author's unpublished drawings, and to be certainly 
different from the vanilla of commerce (then supposed to be produced 
by V. aromatica). The species was said to be in severai collections, but 
only to have flowered in that of the flight Hon. Charles Greville. 

The following year Andrews figured and described this name plant, 
from the Right Hon. C. Greville's collection at Paddington, under the 
name of Vanilla planifulin {llotanitts h'rposifor//, VI II., t. 538). He 
cites the same synonym of Plumier as did Salisbury, yet most un- 
accountably states that the latter had confounded it with V. aromatica, 
Swartz. the fact bt ir.g just the re\erse, as has been shown above. The 
plant is said to have been introduced by the Marquis of Blandford. 

Both authors, however, erred in identifying the plant with Plumicr's. 
which is the short podded V. phceantka, Rchb. f. Although neither 
Salisbury nor Andrews mention the Fruit, the flowers leave no doubt as 
to what was the plant they intended, and thus its Mexican origin is clear. 
"Whether it came from there direct or was then cultivated in the West 
Indies is doubtful, but the interesting point is that these are the first 
representations of the flowers of the Vanilla of commerce, though the 
fact was not known until afterwards. 

In 1811 Humboldt published an account of the Vanilla (Voyage de 
Humboldt el Bonpland, pt. 3. vol. II., p. 137), in which he remarked 
that he had observed pods of vanilla, of extraordinary size and very 
aromatic, in various parts of Venezuela, in the province of Jaen on the 
Upper Amazon in Peru, and in various parts of Guiana, but these 
probably belonged to V. Pompona and in some pari to some allied and 
imperfectly known species. As regard- the vanilla of commerce he 
gave some preci-e information, stating that the whole of it was obtained 
from the districts of Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, in Mexico. Here the 
plant abounded between the 19th and 2oth parallels of latitude, and the 
fruits were collected | )V the natives, but the harvest was attended with 
some difficulty on account of the large area to be traversed, and they had 
already begun to propagate the plant, so as to have a larger quantity in 
a limited -pace. The wild vanilla or " Baynilla cimarona" gave a 
very dry fruit, and in small quantity, and was never planted. The 
natives of Misantla collected in the forests oi Quilate the fruits of a 

itery 



I'ebruarv and March. an< 


1 the cutting commenced in March and April. 


led until Jun< 


■. This may have been the Vanilla Pompotttt, 


which he aft. rwards mei 








apparently produced hy_ 


Va /alia plant folia, the other by /'. Pompona. 


>ed Vanilla riridi/lora ( Bijdr'., p. 122) from a 


plant which flowered in t 


he Botanic Garden at Buitenzorg, which had 


be. tl introduced from Ai 


nerica, and Prof. Charles Monvi, succeeded >'» 




source whence Salhburv's and also Andrews's 


plant was derive! (Ann. 


Xat. Hist., ser. 1. III., p. 4). It appear.-, that 



173 

M. Parmentier of Enghien obtained plants from the collection of the 
Right Hon. C. Greville in 1812, which were confided to the care of 
Dr. Somine, the Director of the Botanic Garden at Antwerp. There it 
grew rapidly, " and slips were sent to all the towns of Belgium and 
France, but the y very rarely flowered; one* or twice in Flanders at 
■"' " XIV., and at Liege; but fruit 





lame la Vicomtesse Vi 




ned." In 1819 Dr. Sc 


Dutch , 


colonies of Java, one o 



fori 

voyage, succeeded in saving, and gave to the Botani 
Garden a' Buitenzorg. being without doulil the one which Blume 
afterwards described. I', however, failed to fruit there. 

In 1829 J ) . - ii he met with 

in his travels in Mexico in 1820, under the names of V. sat int. V. si/! vest vis, 
V. Pompona, and V. inodora (Limited, IX '., pp. ")7.".-")71). V. sativa 
he stated to be the " Baynilla mansa " of the Mexicans, and to have 
esulcate fruit. It grew spontaneously in the districts of Papantla, 
Misanthi, Nautla, and Colipa, and was d> . sometimes cultivated. 
V. sy I vest, -is was called '' Baynilla eimarona," and had bisulcate fruit. 
It grew a: Papantla, N'autfa, and Colipa. V. Pompona was called 
"Baynilla Pompona,*' care fruit. It grew at 

■ 'oiipa. I', inodora was called "Baynilla dc j)uerco," 
and had bisiiie:ite inodorous fruit. It was found at Misantla. He had 
not seen flowers of any of them. V. sativa and sy/visfris he thought 
had proha 1 itherto been confounded under th> name of ('. [dani/olia, 
but as thei; i was of importance he had given 

separate names, "although," he remarks, "the transitions have not 
escaped us." I', sativa was everywhere esteemed as the best, and was 
alone the subject of cultivation. Only at Papantla was V. sy/ccsfris 
gathered beside it. A kind called "• Baynilla mestiza " was nothing but 
a kind intermediate between the two, even in form as well as .piality. 
V. Pompona was abundant in ethereal oil, and had an excellent scent, 
but did not admit of bein_ i degree to admit of its 

being sent to Europe, always keeping doughy, for which reason it was 
not an article of trade. V. in >dora was per,.' tU us. t —. U n account of 
the entire want of ethereal oil. A kind known as "Vanilla de mono" 
he had never seen. The vanilla villages were Papantla, Misantla, 
Colipa and Xautla, the ;:y, but being 

a] of V. sylvestrii and 
mixed V. sativa with it ; also that they gathered them before they were 
perfect 1\ ripe. Plie vanilla harvest commenced in December and 
continued on into Mar-h, being almost the exclusive employment of the 
Indians, u ho went out daily into the woods where the plants grew wild, 
or where they bad plantations, faking their daily gatherings to the 
purchasers, who separated them according to then different kinds and 

Between 1830 and 1838 Bauer and Lmdlejr-s Tlltutratums of Orchi- 
daceous Plants appeared, and we rind plates 10 and 11 of the Genera 
devoted to the structure of flowers and fruit «.t / 'a, nil a planifolia, Andr., 
" drawn bv Mr. Bauer in 1807." This i- the first evidence of the pro- 
duction oi fruit in Ku rope, and as the drawing was made in the same 
year as Salisbury's figure appeared, it is practically certain that it was 
made from the very same plant. How the flower became fertilised is 
not mentioned, perhaps accidentally or by some insect. Morren suggests 
that the fruit was drawn from a -p. . the colour, 

the uniformly plump texture, and the fact that it is attached to the rachis, 
all show the* eo'.itrnry : quite apart from the fact that the vanilla of 



was then thought to be produced by another species, V. 
j which even Morren states that he sought for in vain in the 
gardens of London and its environs, and at Kew, and wrongly supposes 
it to be the pi . in 1739. Morren is also wrong in 

stating that the "Vanilla planifolia (?) " of Lindley's Herbarium is " the 
very same plant drawn in flower by Mr. Francis' Bauer," for it came 
from a Botanic Garden near Moscow, as the ticket " ex horto Goren- 
kensi " proves. 

To Professor Charles Morren, of Liege, belongs the credit of first 
producing fruits in quantity, and of proving that V. planifolia was, the 
source of the true vanilla of commerce. By a particular method of 
treatment adopted he succeeded in obtaining 54 flowers on one plant, 
and these lie |. r;i!:-. -i , ■■(! tin.' same number of 

pods. The following year a crop of about 1(H) pods was obtained from 
another plant by the same method. His paper, " On the production of 
Vanilla in Europe," was read hel< >u at New- 

castle, in 1838, and published in the following year {Ann. Nat. I list., 
ser. 1, III., pp. 1-9). He also succe. tnt lack to 

the one which originally flowered in the collection of the Bight Hon. C. 
Greville, and also its introduction to Java, a.- has been already pointed out. 
Thus Morren d:y of artificial fertilisation, and he 

attributed its not hearing fruit in flu- F.a-t Indies to the absence of the 
species of insect which doubtless exi- bare fertilised 

the flowers. He also suggested that toed in inter- 

tropical colonies, and also in European hothouses, by artificial Fertilisa- 
tion. Deltiel states that artificial fertilisation was first practised by 
Neumann, in 1830, in the Jardin des Plantes, but Morren makes no 
mention of it. In 1845 Blanco described a specie- of Vanilla from the 
Philippines, uliieli lie had received from his friend Azaela under the 
name of V. nwjaijasi* ( VI. Vilip., ed. 2, p. 503), but it has since been 
referred to V. planifolia, and thus, if the determination is correct, it 
may have been at some time introduced from Mexico by the Spaniards. 
Blanco describes the pod as not aromatic, but it may not have been 
mature when he received it. 

In 1872 M. Deltiel published an account of the cultivation of vanilla 
in Reunion, and showed that, although several different species had been 
introduced, the only one cultivated on account of its fruit was V. 
planifolia, •■ a of commerce. In 1819 the Great 



A year later, a species was introduced from the Philippines by M. 
Perrotet, with a more slender and more aromatic fruit, but is said to 
have soon afterwards perished. Two years later M. Marchant obtained 
plants from Pari-, and to this third introduction the present industry in 
Reunion owes its origin. Judging by the history of the vanilla grown 
on the Continent about this period it is pretty certain that the plants 
thus introduced from France were originally derived from the one in the 
collection of the Bight Hon. C. Greville, whose history has already been 
given. The Philippine plant alluded to may have been the one 
described by Blanco, which has since been referred to V. planifolia. 
Deltiel records that the plants introduced into Reunion proved sterile 
until a slave named Edward Albius, about 1841 or 1842, discovered a 
simple and rapid method of fertilising the flowers artificially, which has 
been practised ever since. He also states that in Mexico and Guiana 
iertdisHii,,!! is effected by small bees, belonging to several species of 
the genus Melipone, which visit the flowers for the honey they afford. 



Mr. Morris states thru tlm Vanilla p/anifolia is a native of 'British 
Honduras, and fine masses of it are found in the forest, hanging down 
from the trees, which, when the fruit is ripe, diffuses a fragrance per- 
ceptible at a considerable distance. The insect which fertile - :',-, 
flowers is also present. ; - v- proved by the number of bunches on the 
wild plants, wh . i are allowed to rot on the vines and 

■!•'■■•■■■• ■ h- cured, a considerable 

trade might be made in them. (British Honduras, p. 81 .) 

25. Vanilla planifolia, Audi:, Bat. Rep.,Ylll. (1808), t. 538.— A 
tall climber, with very long somewhat flexuose succulent green stems, 
and slendi i i! aerial roots opposite to tj e leaves. 

Leaves subsessile. oblong, acute or shortly acuminnS . -ue. 
green, 4-9 in. long, l.\-lVl in. broad. Kaeemes axillary, 2-.'i in. long, 

shaped, a little shorter ti. - old of the same colour, 

united to the sides of i\: column to near its apex, ami then convolute 
round it, ..pc.\ lluve-l.-b. ... mid iobe longer and refuse, margin revolute 
and denticulate, nerves eai mate, and those in front denselv orenulate- 
ulose, buff yellow ; disc with a tuft i 



middle. Col 


lumn elavate', U-U in. Ion", hain 


elongate-line 


ar, obscurely Trigonous, 6^9 in. I 


It. Br. in A 


it. Hart. Keir. ed. 2, V., p. 220 ; 




er 111. Orck., Gen., t. 10, 11 ; Bin 


t. 68. I'm. 2; 


Lindl. Gen. $ Sp. Orch., p. 435 ; 


.Hist., ser. 1 


, III., p. 1 ; De Vricse in Belg. I. 


Benrl.s- Tr 


i,n. Medic. 77., IV., t, 272 (excl. 


Pharmacol* 


•., p. .595; Gard. Chron.. 1867, p. 



Masearenc Islands, Java, the West Indies, and other parts 

Epidendrum Vanilla, L Sp. PI., ed. 1., p. 952 (partim). 
Vanilla mexicana. Will. Gard. Diet., ed. 8 (1761), n. 1 (partim 
Vanilla aromatica. Sir. in Xor. Act. Upsal, VI. (1790) 
Schrad. Journ., II., p. 208 (partim) ; Lindl. Gen. $ Sp. Ot 

dendrum, Mirb. Hist. PL, ed. 2, IX., p. 249 (partir 
Myobroma fragrans, Sali,b. farad. Land., t. 82. 

Vanilla <aViv-... s\ '■!,',, ■//"/„ l'il''„f(t. IV.', p. 573; VI., p. 59; . 

'va.nMla^svlvostris!" Zhiede in Limuea, VI., p. 573; VI., \ 
Li, all. Gci'.Sf Sp. Orr/,., p. 437. 

Vanilla majaijon~i~. Bht,,c» 11. Filip., ed. 2, p. 593. 

This species produces the true Mexican vanilla of commerce, 
has been known ever since the discovery of America bv the Spai 
and which was described by Oii-ius as long ago as 1603 under the 
of Lnlnis oblomjus aromniicns. It- earh iii-tory is much confused, 
a long period three or four species were confounded together, am 
when the present one was described it was not known as the sou 



the vanilla of commerce, which was then and for long afterwards 
thought to be V. aromatica, Sw. (i.e., V. inodora, Schiede). It 

wa~ introduced lo cultivation about the vear 1 739, but was probably soon 
afterwards lost The Manpii> ofliiaudford re-introduced it about the 
beginning .■!" rhe ore.. ., r reutury. and It flowered in the collection of the 

Right II harles Oeviil. i; V Idingto . ! si 17. whence it can be 

directly traced to various Continental gardens, to Java, where Blume 
re-described it under the name of V. viridiflora, and to Reunion, thus 
originating the present indu-try in that island. Mi/obroma fraffra ,\.s, 
Sails!)., was drawn from the same individual a- the original Vanilla 
planifolia, Andr. V. .saliva and V. .sylvestris of Schiede are chiefly 
known from f j as, bul are evidently forms of the 

same specie-, differing only a little in the length of the fruit, the former 
being a cultivated race, and the latter the wild original. V. majaijeusis, 
Blanco, is also known only from description, and as the fruit is said to be 
not aromatic, a doubt remains as to its identity. Succeeding authors, 
however, have considered it synonymous with the present one, and if 
Blanco's fruits were unripe this view may be correct, in which case it 
iseeiiis probable that the -p >•' - w> introduced to the Philippines from 
Mexico by the Spaniards. Naves (Blanco /'/. Fi/ip, ■■>}. 3, Nov. App., 
p. 248) enumerates it as growing in the provinces of Sun Mateo, where 
he had seen flowers and 



26. Vanilla phasantha, Rchb.f. in Flora, XLVIII. (1865), p. 274.— 
General habit of the preceding. Bracts fewer and larger, broadly 
elliptical-oblong, subobtuse, 3-7 lin. long, 2-4 lin. broad. Flowers 
larger, pedicels green ; sepals and petals 2 : [-2f in. long, greenish-yellow. 
Lip greenish-yellow, whitish in the thruaf, apex obscurely three-lobed 
and nearly truncate, nerves not carinate in front, disc with a pair of 
hairy lines extending from the central tuft of hairs towards the base. 
Capsule linear-oblong, obscurely compressed, 3 in. long, J in. broad. 

Vanilla planifolia, Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Lid., p. 638 in part, non 

Vanilla planifolia, 0. macrantha, Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub., p. 267. 

Habitat.— West Indies, Cuba, Wriffht, n.3351 (in part) ! St. Vincent, 
Guild btt/ ! in virgin forest between Mt. St. Andrews and the Grand 
Bonhomme at 2000 feet alt., Smith ! Trinidad, Hart !. 

This is an indigenous West Indian species, which has been confused 
with Fan ilia planifolia, Andr., though it is easily distinguished by 
its much larger flowers, lip without verrucose disc, and its much 
shorter fruit. Mr. Hart states that it is indigenous in Trinidad, and 
that the fruit lias little perfume, and Messrs. Smith remark that in 
St. Vincent they only observed it in a limited space but in virgin 
forest. It is cultivated in ihe Botanic Gardens of Jamaica and 
Trinidad, but there is no evidence of its fruits being of any com- 
mercial -.alue. Wright's Cuban specimen at Kew, and also at the 
British Museum, is confounded with the leafless V. barbellata, 
Rchb. f., a fruiting specimen of each being attached to the same 
sheet, with a single ticket. 

- 27. VaniUa Pompona, Schiede in Lbuura, IV. (1829), p. 573 

General habit of V. plan _,-,■ 6-11 in. long, l£-4£ 

ni. broad. Bracts larger, Wong, 5-7 lin. long, 3-4 

lin. broad. Flowers larger aud rather more fleshy; pedicels yellow- 



green ; sepals and petals 3-3^ in. long, greenish-yellow. Lip bright 
yellow, nerves somewhat thickened, central tuft consisting <>f descending 
imbricating scales rather than hairs. Capsule linear-oblong, strongly 
trigonous, G--7 in. long, l-l£ in. broad. — Lindl. Gen. and Sj>. Or,/,'. 



Vanilla gran 

Vanilla guianensis, Splitg. in Ann. Sc. Nat., 
27JMp i n-tim): De l'rie,c in Tninb. LI., III., pp. 78,81, t. (i ( parlim ) 

loan, in M ' " 

Vanilla 1 
p. 121, fig. 24 ; id. in Bull, Soc. Bot. de Fr., 111., p. \ 
in Jonn). Soc. Imp d'Hort,, V., p. 97, t. 1 1 ; Fl. des Serres, XXI., t. 
2218. 

Vanilla surinamensis, Rchb.f. in Nederl. Krnidk. Arch., IV. (1859), 
p. 321 (partim). 

Habitat.— SM. Mexico, Papantla and Colipa, Schiede .' Valley of 
Cordova, Bonrgeau, n. 2332! Nicaragua, Segovia, CErsted! Panama, 
Seemann, n. 1159! Columbia, Lower mountains of Santa Manila. 
Pitrdie! Toliraa, bei La Plata, 800-1500 m. alt. : Lehman,), n 22f33 ! 
Venezuela, at La Guavra ; Trinidad; Bradford, n. 5285! Hart ! 
Britir ~ 

othTl -.I. 

This species is much more widely diffused than Vanilla planifolia, 

usually sold under the name of West Indian Vanillons. Ir is t lie'- (I rosso 
Vanille" of Aublet, the " Baynilla de acguales " of Humboldt, and the 
>• ii;ivnill;i Tompona" of Schiede. The pods are much thicker and more 
fleshy than those of / '. planifolia, and more difficult to dry. They 
also fetch a much lower price in the market, but the fresh fruits are 
largely used in the same way as those of V. planifolia. 

28. Vanilla Gardneri, Rolfe ; caulibus crwHausculia, folns Bubaes- 
silibus oblomris obtusis crassmsculis, raceinis crassmsculis brevibns, 
bracteis ovatis obtusis rigidis patentibus. -.pali- prtalisque lineari- 
laneeolatis snbobtusis, labello oblongo subintegro obtuso submembranaceo 
nervo vix inerassato, disco subpubescente cristato, columna clavata, 
capsula ignota. 

Vanilla planifolia. Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Journ. of Bot.,l., p. 542, 
non Andr. ; Travels in Brazil, ed. 2, p. 225. 

Habitat.— Brazil, in dry rocky bushy places, common, as on the Morn 

Flamengo, near Rio, Gardner, l 



of Paniagua, prov. Piauhy, Gardner, n. 2733 ' Natividade, prov. 
Goya/. Gardner, n. 3149! IVruambueo, at Iguarassa ; Ridley, Lea 
and liamtiqe! Burchell n. 894 from near Rio, and n. 9829 from San 



dos.'' da Laranjeira, Pani, may represent barren branches of the same. 
The lattn- is marked a- '• Dahunilha. Fructus teres, 4-5 poll." 

Folio 3-5 poll, longa, l£-l£ poll. lata. Race mi U-d poll, longi. 
Bractca d-5 lin. longa?. Pedicelli \-\\ poll, longi. Srpala et, petafa 
2f poll, longa. Label I urn 2\ poll, longum. Coin, una \\ poll, longa. 

A species allied to Vanilla Pompona, Schiede, but with leaves 
about halt the size, longer racemes with smaller not refiVxed bracts, 
and rather smaller ne re ui< inhranaccou> lie vers. Gardner confounded 
it with V. planifolia, Andr., and remarked, " This is the plant which 



m 



yields the Vai Brazil," (/look. Loud. 

Journ. of Bot., I., p. 54'2) though imt'orl mutely his specimens are 
without fruit. There are ;>„<!> in the K.-u jIimiw labelled '• lira/.iliaix 
or Bahia Van i e- l.uig hv lull) 1 inch broad, fleshy, 

and distineil) fri-pir-trou^, ami rims approaching those of V. Pompona, 
but with a rank odour. These are probaMy nrodueed i)v the present 
species. "South American Vanilla" (Kevo Bulletin, 1392, p. 214) 
may also have the same origin. Then - are ueserihed us I mm O.V to 7.1 
inches long, quite broad and flattened, \ inch or more wide, reddish- 
brown, and the odour rank, somewhat re-embling fermented molasses 
or rum. As much as 9000 lbs. of the beans are said to have been 
produced in 1891, and it is suggested that it is most likely used as an 
adulterant of the Mexican cut beans. Flowering and fruit specimens 
of the common to settle these doubtful points. 

33. Vanilla appendiculata, Bolfe ; caulibus crassiusculis, foliis 
breviter petiolatis oblongis v. elliptieo-oblongis hiwiter et abrupte 

• !-•'-■ '■'■■:- 

obtusis, sepalis petalisque lanceolato-linearihus aeutis labello oblongo 
subtiilobo, loins hiteralihus obtusis, inte-medio anguste oblongo recurvo 
iirrvis appiM: ' is ornatis, disco medio appeudieibu-; 

'- dontatis ornate, cannula angusta elongata. 

Habitat.— British Guiana, Corentyne Kiver, JE. F. im Thurn.! 

Folia 3^-4| poll, longa, l-\\ poll, lata, Racemi 1-H poll, longi. 
JBractece 3-6 lin. longa'. Scpala et pctalo 2\ poll, longa. Labellum 
2 poll, longum. Columna l\ poll, longa. Capsulce A\ poll, longa?. 

Kemarkabh- lor its narrow sepals and petals, and long narrow lip which 

have opened, yet they retain a distinct aromatic perfume, though whether 



37. Vanilla odorata Presl Bel. Haenk. (1830), p. 101. Leaves 
shortly petiolate, linear-lanceolate, acute, 5-7 in. long., 6-8 lin. broad. 
Raceme short. Capsule • •, attenuate at apex and 

base, 6-7 in. long, aromatic— Klotzsch in Bot. Zeit., IV., p. 563. 

Habitat. — Ecuador : Guayaquil, Haenke. 

Only known from description, Presl remarks that although the 
fruits had been collected 36 years they still retained their aromatic 



CCCCLXVIII.— DISEASE OF PEPPER PLANTS IN 
MYSORE. 

{Piper nigrum, L.) 
The black pepper of commerce is the small pea-like fruit of a climbing 
plant, native of the East Indies, and cultivated in Southern India, the 
Malay peninsula, and the Eastern Archipelago. The skin or rind of 
the fruit is first red, and then dries of a black colour. White pepper is 
the ripe fruit deprived of its rind by maceration. There is no other 
difference between them. About 30 million pounds of pepper are 



imported into the United Kingdom every year. An appeal has just 
been made to Kew by a pepper planter in Southern India respecting a 
disease which has broken out in Mysore. The disease, singularly 
enough, is closely allied to that causing serious damage to vines and 
orchard tree3 in Europe — Dematophora necatrir. It is hoped that the 
simpl and . ! , m '.- hen suggested for the treatment of the 

disease will enable the pepper planters in Mysore to combat an enemy 
that threatens to seriously injure their industry :— 

Mr. J. S. MlDDLETON TO ROYAL GARDENS, Kl IW. 

24, Augusta Road, Ramsgate, 
Dear Sir, 27th July 1S9.5. 

I am very much interested ii ■ . p. i - < m Mysore, 

Southern India. but unfortunately a blh/hf attacks the vines, very often 
as they are coming into bearing. It is not the pepper a'one that is 
; i ;i ■ ii the saplings i n trees, which 

spiin- up verv rapidly, suffer also. All over the plantation, at various 
points, this disease attack- these young saplings in palebes of from 5 to 
10 or 15 yards square, and I may say kills them off outright. This 
has led me to think it must be of a fungoid nature, though I cannot 
pretend to any scientific knowledge on the subject. 

As regards the pepper vine-, most are attacked at the mot-, though 
some are°attacked a few feet from the ground, and very soon auc-wards 

bourhood. I have tried eoal tar mixed with water, and paraulu oiUilso 
, v...uu\ all ton.) purpose, bul 1 have found great benefit from 
the application of lire-, lighted in large numbers throughout the.,tF'Cted 
parts, though a great number of the young vines get scorched and die 
afterwards. . 

I have taken tl libert of s. ling • , -p . n ■- -ed plants, 

and will I)'- u'lad lo come to vou personally to give ad the information I 
can if you will kindh undertake to investigate the subject. 
Believe me, &c. 
(Signed) J. S. Middleton. 



Diseased Pepper Plants from Mysore. 

The disease is caused by an undescribed fungus closely allied to the 
necatrix, which causes such damage in 
lauope by destroying the roots of the trees. 

.,,, -u,,u- thai the pepper fungus can rej 
, : 11( ,thuds. (1.) The most general form, and the only 
L When the di-ea-e >pnads from a centre, i< by .mcehum. or .pawn, 
|S to the soil, spreading from plant to plant, and destroying 

h Wn'such centres of disease are noted they should be at once 
JntPdbvdi-in. a n: rn.w trench about: 10 mele- deep round the 

-"' . • 7° .1... „,.„,.«„♦ Ir.fr *!,.> . 



j );l ,ck thus preventing the outward spread of t 

the trench. 

ire for plants when the roots are attacked, it would 
rt to remove and burn all plants within the infected area, other- 
the diseased plants will form a centre of infection by another 



. there 



(2.) If the stem of a plant that has been diseased at the root for some 
time is examined, very minute black lumps just visible to the naked eye 
will be seen scattered over the surface, and, in addition, small black, 
velvety patches are also very frequently present ; these arc two 
distinct fruiting conditions belonging to the fungus, each of which 
produces myriads of conidia or very minute reproductive bodies which 
are dispersed by wind and inoculate other plants. By this method 
plants become diseased above ground, the roots remaining healthy. 

Nothing short of prompt destruction by burning of all plants -bow- 
ing such black lumps or velvety patches can prevent the spread of the 
disease by diffusion of the conidia. 

As conidia are dispersed mostly by very low, earth currents of air, 
screens of branches might with advantage be erected between the 
plantation and the infected forest region. 

The benefit derived from the fires to which allusion is made is ex- 
plained by the fact that each fire forms a vortex through which a certain 
volume of spore-laden air passes, and is purified. 

When the root form of the disease has shown itself, it is useless to 
plant again on the same spot before the soil has been thoroughly 
sterilized ; lime, if available will effect this ; wood ashes is also good for 
the purpose. 

Finally, great care should betaken in the selection of perfectly health} 
(that is. disease-free) portions of the plant for purposes of propagation. 
No portion of any plant showing the disease at any part should be used, 
for although portions of such plants may present no external indica- 
tions of disease, yet, in all probability, the tissues of every portion 
contain mycelium which at a later stage will grow out and show the 
disease. In many parallel eases, where root disease is the trouble, the 
disease is in reality fostered by th»- i cuttings. 

G.M. 



CCCCLXIX.— DECADES KEWENSES. 

Plantarum Novarum in Herbario Horti Regii Conservatarum. 
DECADES XX. & XXI. 

With a few exceptions, the plants of the two following decades are 
from the collection marie by Mr. J. Theodore Bent on his second 
journey in Arabia Felix. Some particulars of the collection will be 
found at p. 158. 



sessilibus firmulis margine recurvatis utrimjm- yiridibus obscure 

pubescentibus, stipulis deltoideis albidis integris persistentibus, floribus 

axillariims solitariis brcvitcr prdicollat i-. scpalis ovatis viridibus albo- 

s, {>etalis albis calyce 4-6 plo longioribus. 

Habitat.- South-east Arabia: Dhofar Mountains at 2000 ft., J. T. 



Folia 2-3 lin. longa. Sepala \ lin. longa. Petala 2£-3 lin. longa. 

192. Polygala dhofarica, Baker [Polygalaceaj] ; herbacea, perennis, 
glabra, cauHbus brevibus ramosis, folds lineari-oblongis obtusis sub- 

'■•-■■ 
calvatis, floribus in rawnds nmli tloi s i.-rnunnlibii , disposes a\i 
pubescente, pedicellis brevibus, bracteis oblongis minutw decidoia 
sepalis exterioribus parvis oblongis interioribus magnis 



Dhofar Mountains at 300 ft., J T. 

sriora cam fructu 2^ lin. longa, 
M. 

193. Fagonia nummularifolia, Baker [Zygophylleae] ; fruticosa, 

. ■;mlilitis lignosis viscoso-pubescentibus. folds pctiolatis 
oi-bindaribus ms-sis cvriacvis plan's urrin.nio siridihus \ iscoso-pubes- 
centibus, floribus paucis solitariis axillavibus brevissime podindlatis, 
sepalis oblongis \ iiidibus viscoso-pubescentibus obscure cu sjiiilat is, 
petalis obovatis rubellis calyce duplo longioribus, fructu late ovoideo 
• ' carinatis. 

t Merbat, foot of Dhofar 

Folia inferior* 6 lin. longa et lata. Sepala \\ lin. longa. Pelala 
3 lin. longa. Fructus 2 lin. diam. 

194. Cassia (Senna) oocarpa, Baker [Leguminosae] ; fruticosa, 

ramrdis leiix pube-cmif il.ns. -tipulis vatis p n- foliis p, ti.d itis 
2ri>fn-vii'idil>iis pubrscfiitibus, loliolis f>-7-jugi.s oblongis obtusis eraargi- 

di-pusiti-, bractvis orb; .»;;u-i'is \-iri<lihu<. polalir; 

(■I'l.i.'uliM'ibus vol obovatis ptirvis luteis vrni- bninneis, legumiu.' bivviter 
pedicellato oblongo subrecto piano pubescente. 

Habitat. — South-east Arabia : coast at Merbat, foot of Dhofar 
mountains, J. T. Bent, 69. 

Folia 4-5 poll, longa ; foliola 12-15 lin. longa. Petala, 3 lin. Jonga. 
Fritrfn.s 12-1S lin. l.mgus, S-9 lin latus. 

Near C. holosericea, Fresen., from which it differs by its shorter 
nearly -u.tight pod. 



pedalis 

vobnsio eximie lenticellato atque petiolis mile 

minusvo intent purpura rolorato. 

diiiitatii i mult ! .liol-itis, ioliolis 10-15 distim : 



riw^pUmmia 

osis, umbellis 



ultimis nunc radiatis imiir -pjusi^. pedicellis dist metis, floribus flavo 
viridibus, calycis limbo brevis-imo tore truncato. petalis subcarnosis 
lanceolatis apice breviter incurvis intus carinalis, antla-ris distinct. 
f|>ia(lril<.-i;l aii •■<-..,,, ■■<: -r.oto.— A ralia Regime, 

Hort. Lind., Andre in 111. Hort. xxvi. p. 25, t. 337. 

Habitat. — New Caledonia: discovered and introduced into Europe 
by Mr. Pancher for Mr. J. Linden. 

Catilis prope apicem circiter 1 poll, diametro. Folia 1-1^ ped. 
diametro; petioli circiter pedales, medio 3- 1 lin. diametro, basi 1 poll. 
diametro. Foliola 6-12 poll, longa, maxima js-K) lin. lata; petiolnli 
4—12 lin. longi. Inflnr, snntiu rami primal ii umbellas eompo- ita- 
gcrentc- (j-S poll. longi. UmbelUe composite 5-7 poll, diameiro. 
Pedicelli 3-4 lin. longi. 

196. Pluchea mollis, Baker [Composite] ; fruticosa, ramulis dense 
albo-pilosis, foliis parvis sessilibus obovato-oblongis obtusis integris 
vel obscure crenatis peiininorvii- ud liter pubes- 
centibus, i:;; ■ '■ ymbis densis terminalibus dispositis, 
pedunculis brevissimis dense molliter pubescentibus, involucre eampanu- 
lato bracteis pauciseriatis adpressis pubescentibus exterioribus ovatis 
intimis linearibus, corolli- ■ ' . . ; | is g] abris 
cylindricis, pappo setoso albido flexili corolla ajquilongo. 

ffabitaX—- South-east Arabia : Hafa, Dhofa*, J. T. Bent, 9. 
Folia G-12 lin. longa, 4-6 lin. lata. Tnvolucrum 2 lin. longum. 
Pappus 2 lin. longus. 

197. Pluchea laxa, Baker [Composite] ; fruticosa, ramulis obscure 
pubescentibus, foliis sessilibus obo\alo-cuneati.- obscure viridibus utrinque 
viridibus obs.ure pubeseeutibiM mlerioribus parce eonspieue deutatis 

■ integri>, capilulis multifloi " 



lanceolatis, con nrcis, achaeniis minutis glabri.-, pappo 

albido setoso flexili corolla sequilongo. 

Habitat,— South-east Arabia: coast at Merbat, foot of the Dhofar 
mountains, J. T. Bent, 7. 

Folia ramorum 12-18 lin. longa. Involncrum 3 lin. longum. Pappus 



Ian- i 


_ 


spinoso-serratis 


utrinque albo- 


araneo-is 


jspinis stra- 






magnis nudtiflor 






■ - ' ■' 








ferioribus adpr 




iso-jiinnatis 


araneosis, intimis i 








- purpureis. 


pappi 


setis elongati 


s phimosis flore ; 


squilongis. 






Habitat.— Soutl 


l-east Arabia : 


Dhofar moun 


tains, at 


2600 feet, 


J T. 


Bent, 192. 










Folia 12-18 lir 


i. longa. Capitula 9-12 lin. 


diam. Corolla 6 lin. 


longa. 












190 


. Centaurea (Calcitrapa) dhofarica, Baker (Composite 


) ; suffruti- 


cota, 


ramuliT pubescentibus, folii 


s oblongis obtusis ba 


si crenatis 



utrinquo viridibu- pnhoseentibtts i lobis oblongis 

canipanulati braeteis r :>v;iti< adpressis spina 

I J II- li | i ! I 1 J i l_i 1 U 1 S! Ill 11 j -| 1 1,1 - ' -_' Jill \ 1 ipp I I ' I , 

flnril.us lutois, aehamiis nitidis paliide stramineis. pappi -eti- pennultis 
brunneis acha?nio requdongts. 

Habitat.— South-east Arabia : Hafa, Dhofar, J. T. Bent, 35. 

Spina 1 involucrales 9 lin. longse. 

200. Rhododendron formosannm, Hemsl. [Ericaceae]; ramulis flo- 
riferis cito glabreseentibns era— is oinereis. folii- .-..nferfis distinote 
ppfiolatis pn'mtim lanato-tomentosis cito glabrescentibus crassis ooriaeois 
suberectis anguste oblanceolatis elongatis obtusissimis deorsum longe 
attenuatis margine incrassato supra -mlmitidis minute reticulatis costa 
aiiLHi-tissima impressa subtus cinereis costa elevata, petiolo subterete 
angustissime . -ioribus cori- 

aceis brevibus rotundatis ciliolatis superioribus laxis elongatis tenuibus 

mollibus ferrum -,, U ! ei nl. nf i-.. tlonl.ns .„ I -), - t i. , mosis racemis 

ternn'na 1 - vH ps. idotei i i bus 7-10 floris, pedicellis longis, calyce 
ferrugineo-puberulo brevissimo obscure late lobato, corolla intus ex- 
tusque glabra breviter lateque lobata, lobo postico eruarginato, staminibus 
1<) inclusis, filanicntis infra medium ineras-atis hirsutis, ovario furfuraceo 
5-loculari, stylo glabro crasso stamina superante, capsula ignota. 

Habitat. — Formosa: South Cape, A. Henri/, 1976. 

Folic 



201. Glossonema edule, N. E. /»' to ramosa 

mcano-pubescens rami^ alternis t'uivaiis. folds petiolatis rotundatis 
rotnndato-nvatis vol elliptiois obm-ds apieulatis basi obtusissimi^ vol late 
cuneatis marginibus leviter crenulato-eri-matis. umbeili- ad nodos late- 
ralibns sessiliims 7_>.f|ork bractei- linenri-subulatis aeutis rubos<vntibus, 
pedicel lis suberassis parce pubescet ■• : <-lanceolatis 

aeutis puhescentibus, corolla eampanulata infra medium 5doba lobis 
ovato-oblongis obtusis leviter concavis dorso yalde carinatis cari- 
nas validis obtusis par.' • pubocentibus eeteris glabris, corona a 
medio corollse tubi enata tubulosa us. pie ad medium 5-loba lobis ovatis 
aminum infra medium corollse tubi 

apice crasso elavato multo brevioribu-. foliieuli-j junioribus cllipsoideis 
obtusis eehinatis albo-tomentosis. 

Habitat.— South-east Arabia : at the foot of Dhofar mountains, J. T. 
Bent. 175. 



•fan/a «i J 


10 lin. latie. Bravta, 1-1 I'm" longre. Pedicelli 
mssi. Sepala 1^-U Jin. Ionga, \ lin. lata. Corolla 


Hied to ( 

B have 


r. variant, Benth., but the flower.- are smaller, the c 



a note on Mr. Bent's label, the flowers are green, and the plant is 
" eaten as salad." Probably the plant is a perennial with a tuberous 
rootstock. 

202. Trichodesma africanum, Baker [Boraginere] ; perenne, humile, 

eaulibus setis aseendmitibus dense hispidis, foliis parvis oblongis obtusis 
sessilibus ntrinque adpresse hispidis. lluiibu- lonijc pedieellatis, sepalis 
floriferis cordato-ovntis euspidatis fuliaeeis hispidis lobis basalibus rotun- 
datis, corolla? limbo patulo lobis latis deltoideis haud enspidatis. an- 
theris dense albo-pubescentibus apicibus sterilibus productis leviter 

Habitat.— South-east Arabia : Dhofar mountains, J. T. Bent. 
Folia 6-9 lin. longa. Sepala florifera 6 lin. longa. Corolla limbus 
expansus 6 lin. diam. 

Near T. indie twi, R. Br. 



i ealyce 6-8-plo longiore, stylo c 

Habitat.— South-east Arabia: Deri >at, Dhofar mountains, J. T. Bent, 
229. 

Folia ini'eriora 6-7 poll, lata, petioli i-5 pollieaivs. Sepala semi- 
pollicaria. Corolla 3^ poll, longa. 

A very showy plan:, allie I to /. I.iit'.llet/i, Choisy. 

201. Hyoscyamus flaccidus, Writ/lit ■ Solanaeea-] ; lieiliaceus, humilis, 
caulo brevi, folds longc petiolatis rut undatis irtvgnlariter angulatO- 
dentdtis basi cordntis marginibus petiolisque villosis, rncemo paucifloro 
terminali. pednncido pedieelli-ipi.' villous, calyee eampanulato <xtus 
villoso lobis •" !'i il.li. [niter 5-lobata, 

standnibus .3 prope basin corolla? tubi affixis, antheris dorsitixis, ovario 
globoso bilocnlari, ovulis pluribus. stylo exsorlo, stigmate bilobo, capsula 

Habitat.— South-east Arabia: Dhofar mountains, Wadi Gergio, 
1500 ft. J. T. Bent. 

Folia 2 poll, diam.; petiolits \\-2\ poll, longus. liaccmw 3-6 poll, 
longus. Calyx 4 lin. longus. Corolla' tubus 5 lin. longus, lobus 
maximus 2 lin. longus. 



This approaches //. Icptneali.e. Stapf. ined 



205. Orthosiphon comosum, llakvr j Lai. lata ; ^iilniticosum, ramis 
iii-iin idbiMiieanis, tuliis.nbses-ilihn- oblongs obtusisinvaularirer cre- 
ate ba.-i attenuatis utrinque viridibus obscure pubcsceiitibus nigro-punc- 
itis, rac.'inissiniplicibus teraiinalibus Ia\i-,verti,,'illa-tri- bitluris, braereis 
tis angustis coloratis persistentibus, pedicelii- brevissimis 
' " libulari pubescente deute supremo orbi- 



drsutis, calyeis tubo infundibulari pubesee 



Folia \-l\ poll, longa. Calyx 2 
longa. Stamina 15-18 lin. longa. 

Near 0. staminens, Benth.; Bot. Mag. tab. 5833. 

206. Teucrium (Polium) nummularifolium, Baker [Labiata*] ; 
percnne, ramosissimum, ramis dense persistenter albo-incanis, foliis 

■ is vel brevissirae petiolatis suborbcularibus v.-! int'oriiu ibus 
oblongis conspicue crenatis supra leviter subtn^ drii>r p< rsistenter albo- 
■ ' - : 

ad axillas foliorum superiorum solitarii-. oalycis tubo infundibulari dense 
piloso dentibus par vis lanecohti-. coroiLr tubo calyci sequilongo labio 
superiore parvo orbiculari infer iore majore trilobato, staminibus labio 
inl'eriori subajquilongis. 

Habitat. — South-east Arabia: Wady Gerzid, Dbofar mountains. 
J. T. Bent, 169. 

Folia 3-4 lin. longa et lata. Calyx 2 lin. longus. 

207. Peperomia malaccensis, Ridley [Piperacese] ; succulenta, 
diffusa, prosts libus obscure angulatis, foliis alternis 

tiolatis, petiolis obscure angulatis, laminis 



atroviridibus vel olivaceis. subtus argentatis, glabris (b 
pubeseentibus exceptis), nervis 5 e sinu curvis, spicis singulis termina- 
libus pedunculatis viridibus glabris, floribus in rachi immersis dissitis, 
bracteis cuneatis apicibus oblongo-rotundatis, staminibus clavatis, ovario 
globoso baud rostrato, stigmate penicillato purpureo. 

Habitat. — Malacca : on rocks in dense jungle woods, collected by 
R. Derry. 

Folia \\ poll, longa, 1 poll, lata, petioli \ poll, longi. Spicce l\ poll 

A curious and distinct species, remarkable for its ovate cordate leaves, 
which vary from dark green to coppery brown. It does not seem closely 
MBted to auv of the Indian or Malayan species, but resembles somewhat 
in habit P'. pachyphylln, Miq., of the Sandwich Islands- 

208. Euphorbia (Rhizanthium) oblongicaulis, Baker [Euphorbiaceae] ; 
radice fusiformi, caule tuberoso oblongo inernu cifHtru-ibus tob..>rum 
dt'lapsoruin notato. foliis llorit>us<i:i<- ■>■ rosulatis, 

foliis petiolatis lamvolatis w\ <»l.l..nu r <'-laii<-(>ol:ui- intcgris undulatis 
utrinquc leviter albo-pubesccntibus, pedunculis brevibus nudis .-trictis 
erertis simplieibus vel furcatis, involucro pan.. 

glandulis marginalibus orbicularibus integris viridulis, — taminibus 
involucro pauio longioribus, coeds dorso rotundatis leviter pilosis, 

Habitat.— South-east Arabia: Kigout, Dhofar coast, J. T. Bent, 61, 
and gathered also by Lunt, on the Hadramaut expedition and brought 
alive to the Royal Gardens, where it flowered June 1894. 

Caulis tuberosus 15-18 lin. longus, 6-9 lin. diam. Folia 1-2 poll, 
one*. Involncrum 1 lin. diam. 



209. Croton (Eucroton) confertus, Baker [Euphorbiacesd] ; fruticosus, 
foliis flonbusque ad apices ramorum confertis foliis oblongis obtusis 
integris petiolatis facie pallide viridibu- tenuiior albolepidotis dorso 
dense persistenter albo-tomentosis, floribus monoicis in racemis densis 
aggregatis, mas - 5 ovatis basi coalitis dorso dense 
pilosis, petalis parvis obkucvulatis . •!»< n~is, receptaculo dense piloso, 
stanmiilms eiivifer 20 apetalis, fructu magno 
globoso dense persistenter stellato-piloso. 

Habitat.— South-east Arabia : Derbat, Dhofar, J, T. Bent, 231. 
Caulis 9-10-pedalis. Folia 12-15 lin. longa. Stamina 4 lin. longa. 
Fructus 7-8 lin. iliam. 

210. Arthrostylidiirm Prestoei, Munro [Gramineae-BainbuseEe] ; 
foliis brevibus angustis acutis subtus basin versus pubescentibus vaginis 
plerumque ofio is 1-2 instructis, racemo simplice 
rachi cito articulatim secedente, spiculis 7-8 approximatis imbricatis 
Bftbetessilibus compressis interne glabris superne dorso et margine 
scabro-hirsutis. Munro manuscript in Herb. Kew. 

Habiti 
Herbariu 

Folia 4-4| poll, longa, et 6-7 lin. lata. Bacemi circiter 1^ poll, longi. 

This is very close to A. Tr>nii described in my memoir. It is, 
however, to be distinguished by having very few, not very numerous 
flowering branches, at the nodes; by having much longer and broader 
leaves, compressed not cylindrical spikelets prettily dotted with green ; 
by having the lower pal < ) of the fertile flowers 

scabrously hirsute on the upper ball". m f glabrns as in A. Trinii, and 
by having the two larger squamulse usually obtuse, not acuminated. 
The ligule is also more conspicuous. Munro manuscript in Herb. Kew. 



CCCCLXX.— BOTANICAL ENTERPRISE IN BRITISH 
CENTRAL AFRICA. 

British Central Africa consists of a territory with a total area, north 
and south of the Zambesi, exceeding 500,000 square miles. The head- 
quarters of the Government is at Zomba, west of Lake Shirwa. The 
territory i- und< i the; admh W\:\\;< .•!.■._< <>1 Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., 
Her Majesty's Commissioner and Consul General. The following 
extracts arc taken from a report, lately presented to the Commissioner by 
Mr. Alexander Whyte, head of the Scientific Department, and 
publish. 1 b\ lie' !'.i'" : _i Olliee ( Mi--. U.i::. .: i- Series, 1S95. Xo. 37 !l). 
Mr. Whyte _■ unl of the steps takBo to establish a 

Botanic < bird, n al Zomba, and o(' flm ini^l promising plants grown there 

1 have, been ■ . . r ■ < > draw up a 

report on what has already been done at Zomba in the foundation of a 
Botanical Garden, and what I propose to do in future towards en- 

• 
state that it is also at the request of the authorities of the Royal 



Botanical Gardens, Kew, that 

-would respectfully request may b 

On my arrival at Zomba in 

t which t 
which I had brought out with me. The clearing of"< 
of the land, and the erection of thatched sheds was soon accomplished by 
natives (Yaos) from the neighbouring village?, and I was glad to find 
that really good honest work could be got from these people with ju<t 
treatment and proper supervision. When they first mustered with their 

little circular shurt -ha ndli'd h ■ ■ made hoes I felt disposed to look with 

despair on the prospect of ever getting effective work done. I soon 
found, however, that they turned up the soil well, and when proper 
European implements were placed in their hands they proved- to be as 
good native field labourers as any I had previously met with in other 

Of the seeds sown in the nurseries all the European vegetal*!.- did 
well, with one or two exceptions, and a pl-ntiful supply was kept up, 
which I have no doubt was greatly eonducivc to the health of the 
Europeans at the station. Hampers of vegetables were also occasionally 
sent to other station- ol the administration. 

The tree seeds also germinated well, and included species of < '« press xs, 
Ei>cul !n >tns, Acacia, Cassia, Ficus, Grevillea, Citrus, Thuja. Cedrus, 
Caricif ( 1'apaw), &c. 

The English potato tubers which I bad brought with me were 



■ell. By cc 
(1 from this s 



:s ot the potato 1 had with me 
ntly selecting and replanting 



to any Englis 

.v Mr. MrCloi 
Thi- ! look,, 



quality hereafter as the oil-prim: ol tlie Kn.ulisli tubers would have been. 
During the short stay of Mr. Johnston's expedition at Zanzibar in 
June 1891, Captain Sclaier and I visited Sir John Kirk's old m.rdem a 
short way out of town, which is now a station of the Universities' 
Mission. Through the kind courtesy of the lady missionaries I procured 

garden. -itch as Siberian eofi'er. ('nsnarnui. Cassias, (iuavas, Anonas. 
Passitl i - ma eo, orange, m u I ceou plants, pineapple shoots, £c„ 
and nearly all o) them are now doing well at Zomba.. I 

Kirk, i he 



crops, but the d proved a fait 

well, but grew in tufts like grass, and refused to thro 
Later on, however, I received, through Captain Selati 
seed from the missionaries at Tanganyika. This lot, 
seed (the original having h n imported many years 



l,vs 



did well, and yielded at the rate of nine bushels per acre, without 
manure. I was able, from the grain thus secured, to distribute seed to 
several of the stations best suited for the growth of wheat, and s" 



- of the native chiefs who are raising it, on tne understanding 
j of its Sikh 




-ill purchase the proc 
soldiers. Some of the European planters are also cultivating it, Messrs. 
Buchanan, at Blantyre, and Mr. Brown, at Mlanje, having had good 
success. It is to be hoped that 1 1 1 i - industry will annually increase until 
sufficient wheat is locally raised for the consumption of the European 
population. At the present time the missionaries on Tanganyika grow 
sufficient wheat for their own wants. 

Tree Planting. 

As soon as I found the tree seedlings in the nurseries were sufficiently 
advanced to be planted out, I commenced forming avenues of them along 
the main roads of the plantation. On either side of the straight avenue 
leading from the steps of the terrace garden to the bottom of the grounds 
I planted out rows of Ci'prc.ssus macroairpa, ('. hncsonlana, C. semper- 
virens, and JVldtfri„ ; itoiua JVht/tei, alternating with each other. Along 
the south and east avenue, bananas, Cupressm 
semper cirens were put in alternaMy. The original 
planted up with Acavitt flccnrrens, Acacia Melanoxyloi 
different varieties tuta. The 

the grounds, was lined with Thuja orientalis i 
may here mention that all the trees in these avenues have done r 
ably well, and at the date of my leaving, last April, they formed quite a 
pleasing feature in r I ±- grounds, and had grown to an average height of 
5 feet in two and a half years from seed. This refers to the conifers 
only, some of tin eucalypti having shot up to a height of 45 feet in the 

same period An arboretum of interesting trees was also 

planted up at the east end of the terrace garden, and this we propose 
to extend down the sloping ground ro the banks of the Mlungusi. 

One plot of ground was devoted to the cultivation of handsome native 
plants, and another to that of economic ones, both indigenous and 
introduced. 



Grass Lawns. 
The grass lawns form another very effective and pleasing feature in 
the grounds. These I formed of the roots of a small creeping dub 
ems,* some patches of which I found on Mr. Buchanan's plantation. 
It takes possession of the ground in a wonderfully short time, and 
stands out the dry season well. It forms an excellent and nutritious 
pasture grass, which is very much required where the common grasses 
of the country are so strong and rank. I shall do my best to establish 
this pasture on a large scale all ever the grounds of the Residency „and 
tin -. .1- <>i i i-ii . !._:',i'h >aved for distribution. 



many of the- »ome did well, among others the 

tree tomato. 

Mr. Wood, of the Durban I5ntanir.il ( .ardens, when I called on him 
on my way home, was kind enough to put us up a large packet of -< ed>. 
These, however, I could not send on to British Central Africa, owing to 
the newcoffee-leai lisoas, regulations, but they have been most useful 
in enabling me to make exchanges of seeds in England. 



Native Cedar. 
The timber of the new Widdringtonia cedar (Widdringtoniu IMuftei) 
from Mmint Mlai jehas been proved to be of excellent quality, equal to 
the finest yellow pine, and easily worked. It has been largely used at 
the Residency, Zomba, and the greater part of the timber-work of the 
new roof of that building is composed of it. It is also commanding a 
ready sale at Blantyre and on the coffee estates. I need aearcel) saj 
that I shall do all I can to encourage the planting of it in the Shire 

- I feel convinced it will piay a r\ oj •. taut part in the 
future timber supply of the country. I shall sec that seed is regularly 

Li the' Cm eminent forests on Mount Mlanje and nurseries 
of them kept up. Hants of Mlddrhii/tonia in the conifer avenues, at 
Zomba, are now 7 feet high in three years from seed, and show every 
prospect of doing well at that elevation, 3,000 feet. 



Prospects of Botank 

As regards what I propose doing in 

agricultural eno'rpri-e in Nyasahuid, I 

I do not think a -etter emiltl be found than the one now opened up and 
b< ug exp i \ \\ - em Zomba, which I have already 

described. My reasons for arri\ ing at this conclusion are: — 

1. The soil is good, it is well sheltered, and has a good exposure. 

2. The rainfall averages that of other districts on the plateau, and it 

is artificially well watered by means of an excellent system of 
irrigation.' 

3. Both tr< ttb facility and 
grow rapidly. 

i half days of the Lower 

; of all, it is a compara- 
tively healthy station for an European Superintendent to 

In connexion with it. as an auxiliary garden, the fine sheltered fertile 
•• Palm Stream Valley," eight miles distant from Zomba, on the Blantyre 
road, might be opened up. A perennial stream flows through this 
valley, along the hanks of which fine specimens of the noble Kaphia 
palm" flourish luxuriantly. Hie land is good, and the little vale is 
exceptionally well sheltered by the surrounding wooded hills. I con- 
sider the lower river district should be studiously avoided, owimr to the 

abundance of locu-ls and other insect pe9ts. 



Economic Plants. 

uce of which would most probably become 
i briefly what 



. and, for the most part, pi- ('. arahicn. 

This will no douhi ]„■ r! . so long as leaf disease 

can be kept out of the country. C. liber i en is :d-o established in the 
Shire Highlands; over 100 plants were raised from the seed I brought 
from Zanzibar, and these are now in full bearing. The Messrs. 
Buchanan also had s<_'\erai trees or it previous !o (his. It is mmv suited 
for the lower- i an is besides 

■ '. arabi a, and has also introduced 
nnt v. . . o •• O • , coffee." Shire Highlands 
coffee sold in Mincing Lane the other day at from 41. 16*. to 5/.,* and 
it has now become a speciality in the London market, where it is in 
great demand. The natives, in some instances, have been induced to 
cultivate coffee on their own account, and I have no doubt they will do 
so more and more as they become more and more intelligent and 
enterprising. 

Tobacco has been extensively cultivated by the Messrs. Buchanan 
for some years, hoth ai Blantyre and Zomba. They have now a large 
local sale for their cut tobaccos ami cigars, winch are excellent. They 
have also obtain* 1 rcmum \-ttive price- for their leaf in the London 
market, much of which is available for "wrappers." Mr. Robert 
Buchanan, oi this most enterprising firm, which has already done 
so much to develop the resources of Xwisuland, is now at home, 
and is busily engaged in the study of tobacco manufacture, and 
selectmg coffee, sug; . ml tlo-r mael neiy The experienci thus 
gained. 1 feel Mire will be of benefit, not only to the Messrs. Buchanan, 
but also to the country at large. There is unlimited scope for the 
cultivation of this promising product. In Ceylon and many other 



' evlon and 
British possessions tin- industry has made no headway, owing to the 
expense o!' labour and the scarcity of suitable land. Here the 



perhaps the cheapest in the world, and the other al: 

natives have grown tobacco for their own use for many years. 

Cane sia/ar has been manufactured for years by Mr. Buchanan at 
Zomba he- iocal consumption. The climate and soil of the Upper Shire- 
are, however, more suited for the cultivation of sugar. The Messrs. 
Buchanan have therefore decided to extend their operations on the 
river, near Fort Liwonde, where they have procured a suitable grant of 
land for the purpose. Sugar being so low in price, and likely to con- 
tinue so, I fear an export trade in it could not be made to pay in British 
Central Africa, even were the railway completed. The sugar-cane 
being a thoroughU tropica! plant matures sooner on the hot steamy 



m 



I see no reason why it should not beeoine a profitable 

shall do all I can to introduce seeds and plants of the very best teas 

procurable. 

Theobroma Cacao.— I have great faith in this valuable product doing 
well in the Shire Highlands, and in most of the plateau of Nyasaland 
.... more especially along the banks of our rivers and in many 
of the sheltered vallevs on tlie slopes of our mountain ranges. Suitable 
shade trees should be planted with it, such as Erythrina, pimento, and 
nutmegs. 

India-rubber or caoutchouc is another most important article of 
commerce the production of which should be encouraged. For this we 
are most favourably situated both as to climate and soil, as also the 
variety of caoutchouc-yielding trees and creepers which i 
to the country. It is an in< ally recommends 

the natives, who are naturally fond of woodcraft, and do not pla< 
value on time when working for themselves. 



CCCCLXXL— NEW ORCHIDS.— DECADE 14. 

Pleurothallis rotnndifolia, Rolfe ; nana, foliis brt 

is, scapis gracillimis circa 6-floris, bracteis basi lu 1 
ulaii-ovaiis acutis parvis, sepalo postico oblongo acuto concavo, 

ibus fere omnino connatis oWon^is hivvis*d:ne bidentatis, petalis 
dato-oblongis subobtusis, labello subiecurvo integro oblongo 

». columna elavata inaririnibus alatis apice acuta. 



Pctala 



Folia 3-4 I'm. longa, 2^-31 1 
If poll, longi. Bractea? \ lin. 1„_ _ 
posticum 2 lin. longum, lateralis 2\ lin. longa, 
Label lum [ \ lin. longum. Columna \ lin. longa. 

An interesting little species sent to Kew in 1880 by the Assistant 
Director, Dr. Morris, at that time Director of the Public Garden- and 
Plantation-. /Jamaica. It belongs to the group Apodce Ca-spitu.vr, and 
is allied to /'. it.ii.striata. Kolte, differing in having leaves only half as 
long and nearly orbicular. The flowers are straw-coloured, with three 
light red-purple nerves on the dorsal sepal, and the mid-nerve of the 
nd basal three-fourths of the lip also purple-red in colour, 
arest to P. delicatula, Lindl. 

> ; pseudobulbis tetragono-ovoideis 
ico-oblongis v. lnnceolatis subacutis, 
circa 6-8-floris, bracteis lineari- 
hexapteris srpalis ohlongis acutis 
nearibus acini.-, labello trilobo lobis 



102 



Pseudobulbi 1^-1 f poll, longi, f-1 poll. lati. Folia 4-5 poll, longa, 
1£-U poll. lata. Scapi 4-8 poll, longi. Bractece 7-9 lin. longa3. 
Pedicel fi 8-9 lin. longi. Sepala 11 lin. longa, 4 lin. lata. Petala 10 
lin. longa. Labellum 9 lin longum. Columna 7 lin. longa. 

Introduced by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., with whom it flowered in 
June of the present year. Allied to the New Hebridean Ccelogyne 
lanullata, Eolfe (Kew Bulletin, 1895, p. 36), but it has differently 
coloured flowers of about half the size. The sepals and petals are very 
light, almost whitish green, and the lip paler, with an orange-brown 
area on the basal half of the front lobe and apex of the side ones. The 
basal part of the lip is also lightly splashed with orange brown, and 
the column light green. Scapes produced from the young growths 
before the leaves are fully developed. 

133. Eulophia deflexa, Rolfe ; foliis lanceolato-lincaribus acutis, 
scapis elongati- -implied)!!-, biaefois o\alodaneeo]at j- acutis. sepalis 
patentibus lanceolato-oblongis acutis earinafis. |„ -talis subdeflexis 
ovatis apiculatis v. subobtusis, labello trilobo lobis lateralibus oblongis 
obtusis intermedio orbieulari-ovato obtuso, disco trilamellato barbato, 
■calcare oblongo, colurana clavata. 

Hab.— Natal, Allison. 

Folia 6-16 poll, longa, 5-7 lin. lata. Scapi 2 ped. alti. 
Bractece 6-9 lin. longa-. Pedicelli 10-12 lin. longi. Sepala 10 
lin. longa, 3-3£ lin. lata. Petala 10 lin. longa, 6 lin. lata. 
Labellum 9 lin. longuin, 5 lin. latum. Calcar 2 lin. longum. 
Columna 3 lin. longa. 

An ally of E. barbata. Spivng.. l'roui which it differs in its more 
robust habit and lax raceme of larger and differently coloured flowers. 
It was sent to Kew by Captain Allison in 1891, and flowered in June 
of the present year. The sepals are a peculiar shade of light purple- 
brown, and the petals and lip beautifully veined with lilac-purple on a 
much lighter ground. The lamella 1 and fringes of the lip are yellowish- 
white. The petals incline forward over the lip ; hence the name. 

134. Polystachya zambesiaca, Rolfe; pseudobulbis ellipticis v. 
■clliptico-oblongi^ s U l>comp)e--i> .li-triphyllis, foliis oblongis v. lanceolato- 
oblongis subobtusis basi conduplicatis subtus glaucescentibus carinatis, 
scapis tcrminalibus pubescentibus 4-8-fl.oris, bracteis latissime rhom- 
boideo-ovatis acuminatis pubescentibus submembranaceis, sepalis triangu- 
lari-ovatis acutis lateralibus carinatis, pclalis linea t 

postice canaliculatis incurvis, labello recurvo trilobo lobis lateralibus 
.erectis rotundatis intermedio ovato obtuso canal iculato, callo late oblongo 
pubescente, colu 



Hab. — Tropical Africa: Upper Zambesi, Buchanan. 

Pseudobulbi 5-9 lin. longi, 4 lin. lati. Folia \\-3\ poll, longa, 
3-7 lin. lata. Scapi 2-3 poll, longi. * Bractece 2-3 lin. longa?. 
Peaicvlli i lin. longi. Sepala 4 -j lin. longa. Petala 3 lin. longa. 
Labellum 3 lin. longum. Columna 1 lin. longa. Mention 2 lin. 
longum. 

A small plant with the general habit of Polystachya hum »<<«na, 
Kranzl.. from the same region, which is perhaps its nearest ally. It 
flowered v\ ith Mr. James OTJrien in May 1894, and at Kew a year 
later. The flowers are gre. ni.-h-\ellow, with a deep brown spot on the 




obtusissimis, se 

lateralibus hi -is basi subconduplicatis, 

petalis erectis elliptico-ovatis obtusis subapicul: 

lubello trilobo, ob - lati rnlilms ■ i ct - i fund it >-< U i _' - <1< i tn h 1 iti-, 

intermedio obovato-oblongo apiculato npice recurvo, callo carnoso 

transverse apice denficulato infra medium labelli sito, columna 

elavata apice a nto obtuso. 

Hab.— Peru. 

Pseudobulbi 1\ poll, longi, 1 poll. lati. Folia 8 poll, longa, 
1^ poll. lata. Bractece 6 lin. longae. Pedicelli 10 lin. longi. 
Sepalum posticum 10 lin. longum, 6 lin. latum; lateralia 11 lin. 
longa, 4 lin. lata. Petala 10 lin. longa, 7 lin. lata. Labellum 
9 lin. longum. Columna 9 liu. longa. Mentum 3 lin. longum. 

Introduced l-.y Mc--r-. F. Sander A: Co. and dowered in tln-ir estab- 
lisbment in March last. The sepals and petals are brown with green 
tips and a few irregular narrow green lines below ; the column and lip 
whirr with innumerable minute purple dot- at the ha.-o. and an irregular 
purple stain at the base of the front lobe. It is tin- ('mirth known 
species of the genus, the others being B. Colleyi, Lindl., B. armillata, 
Rchb. f., and B. Beaumontii, Rchb. f. The two latter arc wrongly 
referred to Zygopetalum in the Genera Plantarum, but agree in 
structure with the original B. Colleyi and with the present species. 

136. MariUaria parva, Rolfe •, nana, pseudohullus < a-spitosis ellip- 
tico-oblongis subeompn — .in-oolongi.-* 

acutis carinatis. sea pis 1>iv\ issimi- vaginis laxis imhricatis, bracteis 
ovatis Rcutifl - apice subre- 

eurvis, petalis erectis oblongis acutis apice recurvis, iabello late obl.mgo 
subtrilobo lobis lateralibus erectis pubcrulis intonuedio Iatissime 
oblongo obi i I ido, columns 



Pseudobulbi 4-6 lin. longi, 3-4 lin. lati. Folia 1-14- poll, longa, 
2.1-4 lin. lata. Scapi 4 lin. longi. Bractece 4 lin. longa?. Sepala 

."Min. longa. 21- lin. lata. Pttala 4 lin. longa, 2 liu. lata. Labellum 

A dwarf specie-; allied to Ma.rillnria pmn'rfa. Hook., which flowered 
in the collection of C. Ingram. K~i. V\-- ,d House, G dalmiug. in 
Mav IS90, having been discovered in a clump of Snphronitis f/nnu/i- 
Jlora, Lindl. It was presented to Kew. and h»< since flowered annually. 

p-, iidoinilhs, longer leaves, and yellow instead of purple flowers, with a 
light reddish-brown anther case. 

137. Luisia Cantharis, Rolfe; caulo elongato, fold-- teretibns 

-. ■ ■ ■ ■--'..:- 
paucitloris bracteis transverse oblongis truncatis, scpalo postico lineari- 
oblongo obtuso concavo lateralibus oblongis acutis suheondupliratis 



acute c-irinati- earnods. p.-tnli^ lincarihu^ oblong [>lani>, labello trilohr- 
lobis lateralibus erectis rotundatis parvis intermedio elliptico bivvissimc 
bidenteto, disco o carinato, colunina brevissima. 

Hab.— Slian States, Burma. 

Folia 4-0 poll, longa, 2 lin. lata. Bractea? 1 lin. longa?. Pedicelli 
6 lin. longi. Sipuhnn posticum S lin. longum ; lateralia 7 lin. longa. 
Petala 9 lin. lonaa. Labcltiun lin. longum, 2\ lin. latum. Colnmna 
If fo. longa. 






ported by Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., who flowered it in June of the 
present vear. The lip is clasped on either side by the almost rondupli- 
cate lateral -epals. and resembles a beetle of the genus CantharU, with 
corrugated dull purple elytra. The dorsal sepal'is a lit tie tinged with 
light purple near the margin, the rest, together with the petals, being 
whitish ; the lateral sepals are light green, with a broad dull purple 
margin, and the lip is of the latter colour, with some white at. the 
extreme ba-e. Mini a ^ iva at the apex. The tip 



138. Angrsecum stylosum, Rolfe ; iubacaulis, folds obi 

lato-oblongis breviter acuminatis v. aj ieulatis reflexi-. labello ' 
ohiongo apiculato rctlexo apice concavo, calcare elongat 



1 1 a n. — Madagascar. 

Folia ;U-.-> h poll, longa. l$-'2\ poll. lata. liartmi \-\-2 ped. longi. 
Bractea: S—[ fin. longa-. Fcdiei'lli ;-l poll, longi. Scpala 10-11 lin. 
longa. Petala H-9 lin. longa. Labellum 8-9 lin. longum. Calcar 
4-5 poll, longum. Colnmna 3 lin. longa. 

A striking species introduced by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., with 
whom it lirst flowered in duly L893. It has the general habit of the 
African A. apicidatnm, Hook., with flowers nearly twice as large, 
while its unusually large column is characteristic. The flowers are 
smaller than in A. Fllisii, Rchb. f., the segments narrower and more 
reflexed, and the colour white with the spnr tinted with light brownish 



139. Notylia brevis, Rolfe ; pseudobulbis subobsoletis. foliis oblong 
»tu-is l>;isiTonduplicatis, r'aeemis brevibus multiiloris, bracteis linear 
nceolatis acutis, sepalis liberis lanceolato-oblongis subacutis concavi 



Folia 4-4.1 po H. longa, 16 hn. lata, itaccmi 1 
1-1 \ lin buna . P< diced t 1 lin. longi. Scpala 
Labelbim 1 [ lin. longum, | lin. latum. Column 

Introduced bv Mr. F. C. Lehmann, and flower 

Sir Trevor Lav r.-i- ■ P.nrt.. in .March last. It is 



Lindl., though it markedly differs from this and every other small 
flowered species in its very short racemes. The sepals are nearly 
white, the petal- stained with yellow on the disc, and the lip white. 
The precise locality is not known. 

140. Pelexia saccata, Rolfe ; foliia itis suhacuti- 

variegatis, -■ tie multifloris, 

bracteia lanceolatia acuminatis, ovario pubescente, sepalo poatioo 
lanceolato-oblongo subobtuso concavo, lateralbais lunceohito-linearihu^ 
ftcutis, petal co in galeam 

• - 
reflexo basi ii ; so ovario fere omnirto adnato extenso, 

columna clavata. 

Hab. — Guatemala. 

Folia 5-6 poll, longa, 2-2| poll, lata; petiolus 3-4 poll, longus. 
Scapi f-l£ poll, longi; racemi 5-7 poll, longi. Bractecp, 8-12 lin. 
longa?. Ovarium 5-6 lin. longum. Stpa/a et p(ta!>t 5 lin. longa. 
Ijibcilitm \ lin, long im. ( a/air '■) lin. le-nguta ( oiumna .'Uin. longa. 

Imported by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., and flowered in their establish- 
ment in May last. Near P. macidata, Kolfe (Kew Bulletin. 180.% 
p. 7), but is readily distinguished by its shorter fli 
sae-sl^ped -p . Die 1 sa light green marbled with snia' 
olive -green blotches, and a darker irregular band along the midrib r 
which is light reddish purple underneath. The sepals are green, and 



CCCCLXXIL— SIAM BENZOIN (continued). 

A brief account was recently given in the Keic Bulletin (1895V 
pp. 154-155) of the source of Siam Benzoin. This was obtained from 

a report furnished to the Foreign Office by Mr. Walter R. D. Beckett, 
Vice-Consul at Bangkok. 

As the result of independent inquirv made at the instance of Kew by 
the India ( Mil -e. the U>\ ' : -n ha- be.-n received 

This was obtained through the Siamese Minister of the Interior at 
Bangkok. 1 1 all' .ids, therefore, an account of Siam Benzoin from the 
purelv native point of view. All the accounts agree in ascribing the 
region of the Benzoin trees to the left bank of the Mekong river, in 
what is now Fiv ■ich territory. This is a tract of upland eountr\ east 





India Office, 


Whitehall. 

)th dulv IM 


London, S.W. 


tan .-f > at 
>y of a leth 


e for India to forward 


pondenee, 1 


am directed by 

■ your lntonna- 
• tree producing 



l!l.i 



for ]>;il,lu-;iii<»:: in the ICrtr liu'lvti,, 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) A. N. Wollastox. 



The Director, 

Royal Gardens, Kew. Revenue and 



No. 606.— 2 F.— 7, dated Rangoon, the 30th May 1895. 

From— The Revenue Secretary to the Chief Commissioner of Burma. 

To— The Secretary to the Government of India, Revenue and 

Agricultural Department. 
With reference to the correspondence concerning the steps taken 



with the view of identifying the plant or tree which produces the 
resin known as " Siam Benzoin," I am directed to submit, for the 
information of the Government of India, a copy of a memorandum 
regarding the tree that produces this resin, and on the Gum Benjamin 
industry in Siam. prepare,! in Bangkok under the orders of th • Siamese 
Minister of the Interior, and forwarded to the Chief Commissioner by- 
Mr. J. G. Scott in April 1894 

Mr. Scott stated that the area in which the Gum Benjamin trees 
were found was said to be all on the left bank of the Mekong, and, 
therefore, in what is now French territory 

Mr. Scott further remarked " the great Siam Benzoin tract is Una 
Pan Htang, Ha Htang fclok, the upland country east and north-east 
of Luang Prabang." 



ng the Tree that produ< 
Benjamin Industry in J: 
The Gum Benjamin tree is large and tall, and has a heart similar to 
\ " phayon " ' 
■ form of i 



that of the " teng rang " (a specie- of S/mrcu) and 'J phayom " (a kind 
of mahogany). In its general cha 
resembles the "takieu" tree (a forest tree of hard wood used for 
making dug out boats). The Gum Benjamin tree is propagated from 
the original fruit. This when fuller, and lying upon the ground, takes 
root and sprouts after the fashion of the " phayom " and " gang " trees. 
As regards the trunk of the Gum Benjamin tree, there is no one who 
uses it. Gum Benjamin trees are generally found on elevated ground, 
and do not like the plains country. They grow in isolated patches like 
the forests of •' tenir-raiiii" and teak. A forest pateh of Gum Benjamin 
usually contains from 50 to GO trees and upwards, and the tree is found 
generally in large numbers along the high hills in the extensive forest. 
region of Slua Phan, Tangslok. and the borders.,! Muang I'hcug. in the 
province of Luang Prabang. It is rarely met with in other countne< 
except those outside the provinces immediately contiguous to Siam. 



found in Siam also. The season for working 
from the eighth or ninth, months (July and An 
twelfth months (September and November), 



197 

Thenceforwnvd is the period during which the Gum Benjamin is 
bought and sold. The Gum Benjamin is worked after the following 
methods. So many trees are notched so as to form a girdle 
round the stem. An interval of three mouths is allowed to elapse 
between the period of notching and that of picking the Gum 
Benjamin dammar, which wells out of the trunk and collects 
in the notches. By means of a sharpened stick or the point of a knife 
this is nicked out, bark and all. and gathered at once in baskets. It is 
then sorted and divided into different class,.-, .,■•,-,,! ling to choice. 
Picking cannot commence before the interval of three months has 
elapsed, as the dammar that has trickled out into the notches would not 
have had time to harden. It would still be soft and sticky, and if 
picked at the time would become dirt rk coming off 

with it; nor would it be ot such vahn cither, as, b, in- sticky, it would 
cling to other things, and the full benefit would not be derived, such as 
would be the case if it were properly dry. For this reason, the Gum 
B njai tin n ust bo left for three months af'tei the notching, in order that 
all the gum possible may well out, and it may become dry and hard. 
Among the people above mentioned the picking and sale of Gum 
g a livelihood, 
for the gum has a value, and is reckoned as a marketable 
And even if the people have no other occupation but se 
Benjamin, that by itself i- sufficient as a means of livelihood. The 
period during which the Gum Benjamin is sold is not necessarily 
confined to the eighth or ninth months. The reason for selecting that 
season is because the people of those parts have many other filings to 
do; for instance, they have to plough the fields and reap their rice 
harvest. In the eighth and ninth months their work on the 
paddy fields is finished, and they can therefore turn their attention to 
to Gum Benjamin. For this reason there is a special season. Their 
paddy fields are their first care, and then the Gum lb 
Those who have no business with ploughing paddy fields and planting 
rice can, if they wish, work continuously at Gum Benjamin at all 
seasons, and during every month of the year. The Gum Benjamin 
trade requires no very great outlay of capital. All the implements 
required are one large axe, a rice basket, and an open woven basket. 
If a person wishes to work alone without servants to assist him, he can 
do so ; for in the first stages there is nothing much that requires to be 
lifted or carried. The only labour necessary would be when the Gum 
Benjamin is being picked and placed in baskets, and has to be carried 
to the temporary or permanent home of picker. The profits gained 
on any one particular occasion or another can hardly be gauged 
accurately. Those who work out much sell at a large profit, those who 
work out little sell at smaller profit. One catty (133| lbs.) and upwards 
would be considered a large output. Picked Gum Benjamin is sorted 
into three classes. The best class, and that which fetches a high price, 
is called '-slua," and is that which is sold in large lumps, and is not 
dirtied by the presence of bark. The second class is that left over 
from the first class, and is in somewhat smaller lumps than the latter, 
and has some, but not much, bark attached to it. This is inferior in 
quality 10 Class ]., and is half the value. That is to sav, if Class I. is 
II. would sell at 37 1 ticals. The third class is 
that left over from Class II. This class has bark attached to it, is soiled 
with dust and dirt, and is in fine small pieces. It is called " mun," 
and is half the value of Class IT. The price of Gum Benjamin as sold 
in the jungle districts where the gum is worked is as follows ;— Class I. 



One Chinese catty (66§ lbs.), 100 or about To tieaK Class II. Half the 
price of Class I. Class III. Half the price of Class II. The price in 
Bangkok is:— Class I. One Chinese catty, 260 tieals. as it has always 
been. 

referred to 
nore than 
another. Any one who wishes to work G-um 
go into the jungle, search for and notch as many trees as he pleases, 
like people, for example, who go into the jungle to cut posts for their 
houses. Nor is there any lax or other emolument accruing to the 
country from either the trunk or the gum of the Gum Benjamin tree ; 
nor is the Gum Benjamin trade one in the prosecution of which much 
thieving or fighting arises, whether it is because there are many people 
together at a time, or because, being in the jungle where there are 
fierce tigers, one man cannot steal along alone by himself, but is obliged 
to travel with parties, and so robbery and theft are rendered impossible, 
is uncertain. This gum is sweet-scented, and is much used in mixing 
either with medicines or scents of various kinds. For whichever of 
these purposes it is sold, it always fetches a high price like other 
valuable commodities, and !'. i that reason G , n \)> nja ,i n is an article 
of commerce which merchants have bought and sold from time im- 
memorial to the present day. 



CCCCLXXIII.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

In the Kew Bulletin for February last (p. 38), an account is given 
of a small collection of dried plants made by Mr. F. H. Smiles, a 

them was a remarkable seitamineou- plant, upon whieli a further note 
will be found below. Mr. Smiles returned to Siam in December last 
with the intention of making further botanieal collections. We regret 
to learn from a letter communicated to us by a friend that "while up- 
country, near Korat Siam, he died of dysentery in May last." It was 
confidently anti Med considerably to our 

knowledge of the rich flora of Upper Siam. For nearly a quarter of a 
century we have endeavoured io procure from thence seeds or plants of 
the celebrated five yielding siam Benzoin, but so far without success. 



Botanical Magazine.— All the figures in the July number were drawn 
from plants that flowered at Kew. Scnec/'o Hualtata is a gigantic 

herbaceous plant, native of Chili and the Argentine Republic, ft was 
raised from seeds presented by Mis. Ayscoghe FJoyor of Basingstoke, 
and collected by her daughter, Mrs. Glynne Williams, at \'ipos, about 
19 miles north of the city of Tucuman. Pyrus cratagifolia is an 
elegant shrub or small free, a native of Northern Italy, and so much 
like a thorn in appearance that one would naturally take it for a 
Cratayvs. ArUolnchiu iniylifotitt U singula]' in a genus remarkable 
for the variety in shape and size of the perianth. It is a native of 
Borneo, and was sent to Kew by Mr. II. N. Ridley. Director of 
Ofards is t.d Forests n th Str; sS tlement \c//i itrilu < ■ > [fit/tit. 

from Malacca, is exceedingly interesting bofanieal!y as representing a 
small tribe of the Orehidea:, having free stamens. Tins was also 
collect d and sent to Kew by Mr. II. X. Ridley. The last figure is of 



>-p>' !•:.■-. and one of Dr. 



Hooker's Icones Plantarum.— The part of the 

fourth volume of the fourth series— plates 2."7<S to L" !:i>. In- been 

pul.lishe-1. MiKCiircuhnshi .'fills ( Apocynaeea>), :i native of Madagascar, 

is from the collection of the Rev. K. Baron, who stairs that if is one of 

the important <■ rubber is obtained. M it «,(,) rfopsis 

becct,rhni«.\* » Malayan tree aili = - 1^ to the America- (., 

This is the second genus of this :■.-'.■ this mirk. 

The other is Emuu'no;^. "'* ol (Muni. Several 

interesting grasses are figured, among them Cyathopm, a new genus 

Didi^andra hun/nx ,-, h'/iododnidm,, Uitnvochu, Bran- 

■if m and Codmwpsis nmntlrnliin-n 

are Chinese plants, all of an ornamental character. They were collected 

in Ea-iem Yunnan by Air. AV. Hancock, P.L.S. From the Rev. 

R. B. Comins's last Solomon Islands' collection there are the curious 

rucarpus, rod Oxymxtra 

iiiacra.iiha, which were described in the Bulletin for .lune-July. 

roiiriiuiinn is a miniature one-llowered plant belonging to 

. collected in Northern Siam by Air. Smiles of the Royal 

Survey Department. 



Hand-List of Ferns and Fern Allies— This I 



in the Preface of the fern 

of ferns, whether tropical or temperate, is perhaps, 
of the 



collections at Ke? 

next to that of palms, the most important feature 

under glass in the Royal Gardens. 

ition of most of the books and papers dealing with ferns 

„!,•..; ',.■-. i. ■ ■ ,■ ■..■ ■■' ' '" ' ' - 

man for 50 years (1790-1840) to t -at Kew, 

: i. ; 

ra Fihcum. 

During the 25 years (1840-1865) for which Sir William Hooker was 

V .:■■,'■■■.■, - ' ' ^ ^ ' . ' 

... . ,-. .. ...,,. --a / s ,...-.- :■■ 

.... ■ : ■ .-,.■■•■:. : : ' ' -'' ' ' •, • ■■ ' ■-■ 

■ ■ :. .!.-.-:■. i..-. .■■■■■■■■■■ "■ ■■ ;■ / 

worked out ■ ' ()t **> 

thefirstvoh'e ' ''•' ** :; i ; ,; - 

! ' ' . ."'■.■ 

M: : '. V ..... . . " 

h/.v ' - ' ■ ' ' ' ' i' : " ' 

■' 

3 I a summary of new 
ferns discovered or described since 1874. The type specimens from 



which most of the descriptions and plates contained in this series of 
books have been made are deposited in the Kew Herbarium. 

The living collection in the garden owes its completeness very largely 
to the zeal and a^i.iuitx with whirl, the veteran pteridologist, Mr. John 
Smith, curator of the Koyal Gardens from 1841-63, watched over it for 
more than 40 years. 

In his privately printed Records of Kew (pp. 322, 323) he gives the 
following particulars of its origin and development : — ** In the year 1 822 
I found the collection of ferns at Kew extremely poor, especially as 
regards tropical species, very many of those introduced in previous 
years having been lost and very few new ones added. . . . The 
tender exotic species were more or less of them growing without any 
arrangement in different houses, and unnamed, their number amounting 
to about 40. In 1825 I arranged the tropical species in a group at the 
end of the then lean-to house . . . now included in the tropical 
fern house, the area they occupied being 6 ft. by 12 ft. These formed 
the nucleus of the now great collection. They were successively 
added to by importations of living plants, as also plants raised from 
spores obtained from herbarium specimens." 

" The collection continued yearly to increase, and in 1816 [1845] I 
l list of the collection, which was published in an appendix ' 
then a 



•,T\ 



Catalogue of Cultivated Ferns? in which 600 [504] specie 



The principal books published by Mr. Smith are his Ferns, British, 
and Foreign, issued in 1866, which contains a classified list of all the 
species then known in cultivation, full directions for the cultivation of 
ferns of the different climatic types and by far the most complete 
history of their gradual introduction which has ever appeared in print, 
and his Historia Filicum, issued in 1875, which contains woodcuts of 
220 types and gives a full exposition of his views on fern cl 

In 1868 the last published list was prepared by Mr. J. G. Baker. It 
enumerates 802 species and varieties of ferns and 48 of fern allies. 

The present list comprises 11 1G species and varieties of ferns and 97 
of fern allies ; this is exclusive of British ferns, of which 586 varieties 
are in cultivation. 

The collection falls into three great groups :— (i.) Tropical ; (ii.) 
Temperate ; and (iii.) Hardy Ferns. 

The Tropical Ferns are cultivated in No. II. House. 
The Temperate Ferns are cultivated in No. III. ; the Filmy Ferns 
have a separate House (No. II. a.), constructed for the special treat- 
ment which they require. The fine collection of Temperate Tree Ferns 
is contained in the Temperate House. 

The Hardy Ferns are arranged on and about a small rockery, ~ of 
the Key Plan, and forming the south boundary of Lawn L. 

The structural development of the buildings in which the collection 
is housed has kept pace with its growth. Their history may be given 
briefly. 

The Tropical Fern House (No. II.) is a span -roofed house 129 feet 
long, 34 feet broad, and 15 feet high in the centre. It has a wide 
transept on the south side, 40 feet long, 33 feet wide, and 19 feet high. 
In 1841 the site of this house was occupied by two lean-to houses 
used for miscellaneous collections of stove plants. They are enumer- 
ated in Dr. Lindley's Report to the Treasury (1838) as Nos. 2 and 3; 
the former stood to the west, and was 50 feet Ion? : the length of the 



other was 60 feet. It was in No. 2 that, as stated above, John Smith 
first arranged the nucleus of the collection of Tropical Ferns. 

In 1813, No. 2 was doubled and made into a span house. 

In 1845, No. 3 was entirely taken down, and a new span-roofed house 

centre was filled up with slate shelf staging, and the -ides with stone 
shelves. No. 2 was used as a stove for rare palms and large tropical 
ferns. Xo. 3 was at first occupied by the Woburn collection of orchids 
presented by Her Majesty the Queen ; for this purpose it proved 
eventually unsuited. Tin* orchids were niadually replaced by Aro'nletr 
and ferns. Ultimately ilie latter obtained possession of the whole 
house. According to John Smith (Records, p. 834), " the centre of the 
house was a raised sloping rockery, amongst which the plants were 
growing in a natural slate, forming line bushy specimens." 

A small house for tree ferns was built in 1861 ; this was connected 
wilii the principal house in lN6s. and now forms the transept. 

hi 1879 the Tropical Fern House, which from the decay of the 
limbers had lapse;' into an almost ruinous condition, was further 
se\erely damaged by the hail storm of August 3rd; 1,152 panes of 
glass in it were broken. It was subsequently put into a thorough state 
of repair, bur the collections received considerable damage. 

In 1887 the west end of the house was set back a few feet ; the 
staging was partly rearranged and the broad path through the transept 

The humid conditions necessary for the cultivation of tropical ferns 



V are grown when thev are built of 


ivood. In 1889 


'became necessary to renew the east 


wing of No. II. 








its. The top vei 


sy method <»!' sliding sashes. At tli 


ad of by the oli 






abandoned. Tl 


at Kew in 1846 on the recommei 


idation of the 1 



wa< erected in !Sb2 to lake ihe place of a decayed and obsolete structure 
composed of two small greenhouses united together, Xos. 4 and 5 of 
lb-. Lindlev's icport. The former (the northern wing) was erected in 
I<s03, and in 1840 contained New Holland and Cape plants ; the latter, 
which was "remodelled-' in 1825, was filled with succulents. 

The reconstructed No. III. is a span -roofed house 60 feet long, 23 
feet wide, and 13 feet high. It contains a broad central and two side 

The "(>rth wing of the former No. III. had been latterly devoted 
almost exclusively to filmy ferns after the Kew collection had been 
enriched by the gift of that formed by the late John Cooper Forster, 
which was presented to the Royal Gardens in 1888 by his widow. 

The collection is now contained in the new Filmy Fern House (No. 
II. a.) erected on the north side of No. II. It is 50 feet long by 14 
feet wide, with a central path and two cases running the full length of 
the house. 



The hardy ferns occupy the rockery originally devoted to Alpine 
plants (before the construction of the Hock Garden in 1882), and it 
extend.-, over part of the adjacent ground. A collection was established 
here in 1874, and the rockery irs,]f was reconstructed in 1888. 

The collection as a whole is now probably the richest in existence 
in garden forms of British species. This is due to the munificent 
bequest by W. C. Carbonell, Esq., of the extensive collection formed 
by him at Rhiw Castell, Usk, Monmouthshire. The whole was 
removed to Kew in 1887. It consisted of 4,261 specimens, many 
probably unique, besides some hundreds of seedlings. 

The total number of well-marked species of ferns and the vascular 
CVyptogamia (fern allies) now mounts up to 3,500. Not more than 
one-third of these have been brought into cultivation, and Kew is 
always glad to receive any additions, if possible in the form of well- 
established plants ; if not, in tic shape of dry spores, which can be 
collected and sent very easily by post in small packets. 

The following table, which shows the per-eentage of the total number 
of ferns found in different parts of the world was drawn up by Mr. 
Baker in 1867; but he does not think thai the discoveries of the last 
2d years will have altered any of the figures materially : — 

Arctic Zone - - - 1 per cent. 

Temperate Asia, including Himalayas - 18 „ 



Australia and New Zealand - - 9 

Tropical Africa - - - lo „ 

Tropical Asia - - - 39 

Tropical America - - - - 42 „ 

ddie present hand li-i is divided into three parts: — 
(i.) Ferns proper (pp. 13-133) ; 
■"■■■■ 

(iii.) as an appendix, a li-t of garden forms of British species (pp. 

145-183). 

With regard to (i) ferns proper, the arrangement is alphabetical and 

synonyms have been i ed> those included being 

chiefly such as are in use in gardens and which are here referred to 

therefore, to supplv an index. Those who wish to pursue the study 
of fern-nomenclature further may fall hack on Hooker and Baker's 
Si/unpsi.s Filiatm. upon which the present hand list 



British ferns (hi) 



Although the collection of them at Kew 
a very rich, they stand in a different position to the collection of 
•ecognised and well-determined species. Apart from their intrinsic 
jeautv. which is often striking, they are of considerable scientific 
nterest as showing the range of variation due to crossing and seminal 
eproduction. The amateurs and cultivators who have raised them 
i-ave furnish* d them with Latin names, often cumbrous and fantastic. 
vhich have received no formal definition. They cannot, therefore, be 



fixed or quoted for any scientific purpose; they have in fact. the same 
. . ■ originated as bedding 
pelargoniums bear to Pelargonium zt 
cabbages to Brass ica oleracea. 

Guide to Museum II.— An " Ofiicial Guide to the Museums of 
Economic Botany, No. II." has lately been issued. The building now- 
known as No. II. Museum was the original starting point of the whole 
series of museums at Kew. The first guide to its contents was 
published by Sir William Hooker at his own cost in 1855. The 
foundation of the museum consisted oi tliu director"- private collections. 
some few objects already belonging to the garden, ami some given l.\ 
Mr. John Smith, whose son, Mr. Alexander Smith, received the 
appointment of Curator. In 1857 the collections illustrating the 
Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms were removed from No. II. to their 
pre-ent position in Museum No. I., opposite the Palm House. After 
that the coll nd the Cryptogams or 

flowerless p! . d in Museum No. II. which was 

enlarged in 1881 by the addition of a small west wing. No. IT. is at 
the northern end of the Herbaceous ground, three minutes' walk from 
No. I. The present guide is the first entirely devoted to Monocotyledons 
and Cryptogams. It contains notes on the Orchid, Ginger, Iris, 
Narcissus, and Lily orders and afford.; -p. .-i.-dU valuable information 
respecting the Palm order which furnishes the daily food, habitation 
and utensils of a large proportion ot the human race.' It deals with the 

the tropical bamboos. It discusses also the various uses of the 

' ■ , - "i ■■ 

In order to render the Guide as comprehensive as possible references arc 

given to articles on special subject- that have appear, d from time to 
time in the Kew Bulletin. 



Seeds of Juan Fernandez Plants.— Kew is indebted to Mr, J. S.'din n-. 
f the Santiago P.otanic Garden, for a quantity of seed of the choutu. 
ho only palm (.//<«,//</ (instrnliA inhabiting the i-laud. It is peculiar 
) Juan Fernandez, and is now almost confined to inaccessible situations. 
n addition there are twenty packets of seeds of other kinds of plants 



Cyathea medullaris. — An exceptionally t; 


til specimen of this, the 








I R if the late Prince Consort in lS5«, and 




ze, so that its age now would be somethi 




n< year it showed symptoms of ill-health, am 




id of June. Its stem was then 31 feet 




iameter 8 feet from the ground. When ir 


















iscly malted together to the 






,is fern in the Temperate house still, one t 


if winch was presented to 



Juan Fernandez Sandal-wood. — The verification of the existence of a 
true sandal-wood in Juan Fernandez is recorded in the Bulletin for 
1894, p. 110 ; and the receipt of a specimen (p. 372) from Professor F. 

Phihppi. who (Inscribe.! it from very imp, fleet, material. Thanks to 
Mr. Suhivns. Kow now possesses excellent dried specimens of this 
mo-t interesting plant (Santalum femandezianiun) collected by t tie 
donor him-elf. It is intended to give a ligur ■■ and some further parthmlars 
of it in an early number of Hooker's Icones Plantarv.m. The following 
is an extract from Mr. Sohrens's let tor on this subject:— 

"It may be interesting to you to know that, after many year.-' search, 
only one live tree of the sandalwood has been found; "which was In 

week to endeavour to obtain cuttings of the tree. The height of the 
tree to the first branch is 5'4 m. The nearly horizontal branches pre- 



mv measuring the tot;. 
ercncel-om. nt0-5m. 


I height, which may be ab( 
from th.' ground." 


Lus siamensis.— In the p 


•resent volume of the Bullet i 

amineous plant under the ab< 
the plants tigured in lloohv. 



the tlowcrs examined. Still, abnormalit 



Of the 



might doubt their bavin.; been taken from a plant of the same ger 
Should Mr. Burbiduv succeed in ol>t;iiniii^ <|iiile ripe fruit, the pi 
will be fully illustrated in Hunker* Lnms' Pluutarum. It is belie 



Bristol, has presented 
work, of which the first e 
last i:i 1845. The lii,i s 



Svptci/rinualis), dole, Lindlev, <;,.„rge 
e first edition is still want,.,- at Kew. 



Don. Th. 



Nature-Printing of Plants.— Since the note at p. 157 on Kniphof's 
//trh/rr/iij/i \~irinn was published it has been possible to examine 
another copy of the work in cpiestioii, and also Bnikinann's letter, then- 
referred to, on i uui i ' n_ . h n tl 1 \ t! 1' t i il 
Department of tli :• British Milium. It appears thai Kniphofs work 
was issued with coloured figures ; the/.j/c/. in I'ritzel's deseriptioi; having 



■imi, (loOG) 

/of nature- 



" Now, with regard to the Colonies and to their connexion with science 
and with this Society, I may truly say that the members of this Society, 
particularly those who I believe are so numerous in it, and who give 
their special attention to botany, have done great service in many ways 
to the Colonies; and the importance of botanical science and all it can 
do to secure an I regions has become, I 

am glad to say, much more recognised in public departments in these 
days than it used to be. Sir Hugh Low has spoken in most just terms 
of services which have been rendered to the Colonies, especially hv Ke\v. 
I think my friend Mr. Thisolton Dyer will not contradict me when I 
say that he has more to do with the Colonial ( fcffice than with any other 
public department, and I was very glad to learn from him recently that 
he found the mode in which we transact our business in that depart- 
ment not unworthy of his praise. Great work has been done and is 
being done, mainly through the exertions of Mr. Thiselton Dyer and 
.Mr. Morris and his assistants, to aid the Colonies in the introduction 
of new plan; itivation of those which 

naturally belong to them. In all directions this is the case to 
day. On the West Coast of Africa at the present moment it is 
being done. It is only, you may say, the commencement, but it is a 
commencement which is \ cry satisfactory in its progress and in its 
result^ up to the present time, and which I hope may develope very 
largely in the future. Then, again, we all know that in the West 



prodin 


its have been, t 


through the agency of Kew, introduced in Jamaica, 


Y..u, | 


Pi'esl'nnnulne! 


:d to a matter upon which I do not want to dilate 
it — to our services in that part of the world in 
. I find that much goodwill has always existed 




■ ,'.;-.■ friends' i: 


i Kew ; but we must bear in mind that one of the 


great 




has been undertaken by Kew is to educate the 






the nature of their various natural products, and 


the ad 




Irodueing new products. But when you come to 



Ceylon (hear, bear), and that vast trade which has been so created has 
been due to the exertions of men of science, and of those who base gone 
forth from Kew for the purpose of developing and encouraging that 

and those who have been in those hot climates know then 1 is nothing 
which preserves the health under trying circumstances more tlian that 
inosi Messed thine- ijuiiiiiie. The development of the cinchona plant 
has been marvelkuslv increased of late years. Not very long ago the 
cost of a small quantity of quinine was very considerable in India, and at 
all events, while it might be within the reach of the richer European 
there, if was altogether qui ofth< i ! i lation. Now 

I understa : > u can get at any post- 

office five grains of quinine for less than a farthing. (Applause). 1 know 
my taste for quinine developed -o much in those climates that I have not 
quite given it up since, and by its means I have kept the influenza at 
bay in these bad times. I feel, therefore, very grateful to these who have 

" I had a curious proof the other day of the way in which plants of 
great value may be but little known to those who do no! cultivate 
science, or are not engaged in those industries in which these plants 
are employed. T received a deputation from Leeds. Though most of 

you probably think only of Leeds as an important place for tic produc- 
tion of c!otli, yet there is a great leather trade in Leeds besides, and 
this deputation of leading me, i came to me to do what I could to help 
to increase the p, .ductio,, ot (iambi . The;, told me that th<n e, uld 



of Gambicr. I kite 



of which are very little' known 
anical science especially may he 
ious Colonic?. 

i of the Colonial development of ol 
oing on so rapidly at the present 



u assure gentlem 



of hot water was introduced by the next man. But it is not so 
1 the case now, and I hope there is a better understanding than there 
but if so, it comes from our having been much more careful and 
dealing with the Colonists and even with their prejudices. 
Therefore you should never be hard upon the unfortunate Colonial 
Secretary. All I can say is, that I shall endeavour in that office to 
i the prcper duties of a Fellow of the Linnean Society, and 1 
T shall receive from the Institution at Kev the most valuable 
assistance in that undertaking. (Applause.)" 



charge t 

ow that 



Manila- hemp Plants. — There are numerous varieties of Musa 
trrtills yielding the Manila hemp of commerce. The two better kinds 
are known in the Philippines as lanoot betul and lunoot batang. The 
stems of the latter are said to yield as much as one catty (about 1^ lbs.) 
per stem. Great stress is laid on the fact that Manila plants can only 
be >-ucc:< --sfullv grown : . . :.-, and with a regular 

rainfall. A writer in the British North Borneo Herald, 1 February 
1894, states that " Anything le-s than a well distributed rain-fall of four 
" or five inches per month -will stop their growth . . . even in the 
'• Philippines there ore districts too dry for them." If placed under 
unsuitable conditions the plants are said to revert to a stunted form 
known is hwoot grotce, \ 1 ill • ■ i i tihre or hardly any 

fibre at all. Thecolti mp have been 

fully discussed in the Keir Bulletin, 1887, April, pp. 1-1, and lS'.M. 
pp. 289-291 (with plate). Eecently an interesting article vtith illustra- 
tions showing how the tihre is prepared appeared in the Bulletin of the 
Colonial Museum at Haarlem for March, 1MK1. It is stated that all the 
fibre exported at present is prepared by hand. Machines have often 
been tried, hut owing to the abundant and cheap labour supplied by the 
native^ it has been found more advantageous to continue the hand- 
cleaning methods. The enormous development which has taken place 
of late years in the Manila-hemp industry may be gathered from the 
fact that while the exports were only 120, ()<)() piculs in 1841, they had 
increased in 1893 to 1.2s;!.(;oo pic'uls. Manila-hemp is regarded as 
the most valuable of the white rope fibres which include Sisal and 
Mauritius hemp, Phormium and Sanscvieria. Manila-hemp, in fact, 
governs the market in these commodities. Hitherto Manila-hemp plants 
haTe not thriven on a large scale outside the Philippine Islands. The 
character of the Manila-hemp plants grown at Kew and distributed to 
the West Indies . u „i tropic 1 An < - gave hopes that it might be possible 
to obtain plants with a more robust habit and capable of yielding a 
larger quantity of fibre. An application was made with this view to 
Mr. William Stigand, Her Majesty's Consul at Manila, who was good 
enough to obtain and forward to Ivew a ease containing 47 suckers 
" from a well-known grower." These arrived in November last. They 
yielded a number of strong healthy plants which so far promise to do 
much better under cultivation than the previous plants. Of the new 
sort, it is intended to distribute a few to all the botanical establishments 
in the West Indies and West Africa, where they will receive special 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

No. 105.] SEPTEMBER. 



CCCCLXXIV.— TROPICAL FODDER GRASSES— 
(continued). 

An account of sei was given in the Keio Built 

1894, pp. 373-387. The inform-nion contained in it has been re] 
duced in many colonies, and evidently supplied a long-felt want. 

Mr. John H()vdl,]'.C.S.. s . Id^S^nhTsui 



Andropogon pertusus, Mil Id. 
Old World, b 



quite naturalized in (lie West indies. The liistorv 
M not known. In Duthie's Fodder Grasses of 
Northern India it is thus described : — 

i( A pertusus, Willd. Perennial. Stems creeping at the base, erect 
above, bearded at the node-. This grass, which is met with all over the 
plains <»f Northern India, is universally esteemed as a good fodder gra>s, 
both for grazing and stacking. In Australia also it is highh wdued. 

being regarded as oi (' the he-t grasses to stand long droughts, w hile 

it will bear inn amount of feeding. It is useful also as a winter gra-s 
if the weather is not too severe." 

In Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Vol. I., 
p. 249, Dr. Stewart is quoted as follows :— 

" It is considered excellent fodder for bullocks, Ac, and for horses 
when green." While Mr. Coldstream, of Hissar, adds : — " Good for 
stacking, will remain for 12 or 13 years ; much stacked at the Ili-sar 
farm. Is « - ii'aloes." 

Dr. Voelekc 
speaks of the s 

m Unless where distant forests are concerned, or v 
sufficiently large to permit of grazing. I am in favour 
and removed rather than of its being fed off by stocl 
(near Changa Manga) the people pay 1 rupee for the 
and removing one head-load of grass each day duri 
the Etawah* reserve ' Ihe grass is out by a contrac 



Mr. C. A. Barber, 



Bouteloua jimcifolia, Laq. { />'. lii'ujioxa, 
Indies and Central and South America. 
( Flora of tin llrllhh II'*, t India,, hL 



Mr. tiovcii's account, of it is as follows:— 

'• BoHtehva jn„n folia. Lag.— A pasture grass growing in Barbados, 
; 



CCCCLXXV.-DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, VII. 
(Continued /iw p. 153.) 









237. Farsetia longistyla 
ulihus ffacilibas pilis a! 



!•'. Lii'MiMlillora. Jaub. (t Spnr/i) 
Ters by its similar (lowers :iu<l longer stylo. 

?58. Pqlygala somaiiensis, linker [ l'nlygalaec;^ J ; poronnis, glabra, 



raeeniis paueis multilloris laxi> omnibus 
itis caducis lanceolatis, sepalis exterioribus 
interioribus oblongis obtusis albidis venis 
, petalis albis sepalis interioribus zequilongis, 
fructu suborbiculari-compresso. 

Habitat, — Somali-land: ( Jobs range at l)ara-as, .l//.v,v Edith Cole. 
Folia int'eriora 9-12 lin. longa. Scpaia exteriora l£ lin. longa, 
interiora 3£ lin. longa. 

Nearly allied to P. Fischeri, Giirke. 

259. Arenaria vestita, Baker [Caryophylle.-e] ; perennis, e basi 
nunoeise una, i la dense glanduloso-pubescentibuB, 

foliis reinotis sessiliuus 1 ; i !«-arilnj - aciitis puli< •><•< ni il.u-. ||<>ribiis in eymas 
laxas terminales dispnsitis. pedieellis elongatis, sepalis lanceolatis 
pubescentibus, petalis oblongis acutis rubellis sepalis afiquilongis, 
staminibus petalis brevioribus antheris parvis oblongis, ovario globoso. 

Habitat. — Somali-land: Golis range near Dara-as, all. 5000 ft.. .l//,,v 
Edith Cole, Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Folia 6-9 lin. longa. Sepala et petala 2 lin. longa. 

260. Abutilon molle, Jhihtr j Malvacea-] : tYutieosum, ramulis pilis 
stellatis mollibus dense vestitis, foliis pt.-tiola.tis eonlato-oi-bieularibus 
cuspidal is argute tlentatis utrin«|ue dense mollitcr pilosis, floribus in 
paniculas lax a- tenniiial«.-s .li-p -:li-. p. ilieellis en-do patent ihus. sepalis 
ovatis dense pilosis, petalis oblongis auraiitiaei.- ealyee triplo longinribus, 
carpellis 10 iruetileiis apice minute cuspi.hu is al> axi tleiuuin seta-dent ibu-. 

Habitat.— Somali-land ■ plains below the Golis range, Miss Edith 
Cole, Mrs. Lort Phi /lips. 



261. Hibiscus argutus, Baker Mahae.a--; snilnitn-oMi-. ramulis 
virgatu ligttoe . Foliis breviter petiolatif 

oblongis H-nti- igiit tN la. I is paree pil sis dorso dense 

pilosis venis elevatis, lloribus ad axillas folioium superiorum solitariis 

peduneulatis, bracteis inultis set; is hispidis calyce longioribus, sepalis 

ovatis, petalis oblongis eeeeineis ealyee fi-plo longioribus, staminibus 
petalis paulo bre\ ioribus antlieris globosis lutcis, stylis 5 elongatis palulis, 
stigmate parvo capitato. 

Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis range, Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Folia inl'eriora 12-18 I'm. longa. Cnlyculi bracteie 3-4 lin. longa?. 

Near H. mi,ranlln>s, 1,. ,v II. rrassinrrrins, Hoehst. 



faseieulatis, tlonbns axil - peduneulatis, calyci> 

tubo eampanulato lobis parvis ovatis, petal - iigulatis ealyee 



6-8-plo longio 



Habitat. — Somali-land : Golis range at Dooloob, Miss Edith Cole, 
Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Folia majora 3-4 lin. longa. Calyx \ lin. longus. Petala 3-4 lin. 

2G3. Rhus myriantha, Baker [Anacardiaceae] ; arborea, ramulis 

; 

foliolis oblongis obtusis integris ponninerviis venulis primariis arcuatis 
ad maigiuem parallelis. toliolo contrail majore ad basin attenuato 

■ 
r:mi uii< compositis disp., : - r:*<-t -■ i- ovatis initmtis, 

parvis, i'ructu globoso nitido monospermo. 
Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis range at Woob, Mrs. Lort Phillips. 
Foliolmn terminate 3-3$ poll, i Panicula 

pedalis, f)-10 poll. (limn. Cruet us 2 lin. diam. 



Baker 
dense pubescentibus, foliis longo petiolatis, stipulis setaceis magnis 

•is dm -so molliter albo-pilosis, racemis multifloris superne 
densis. pe.l eiilms, lu.icu-is pan is dense pubes- 

centibus, calycis dense molliter pilosi tubo brevissinio dentibus longis 
lam eolai is, petalis saturate cocruleis glabiis eaiyeo si sipu-longioribus, 
vexillo otbieulari, o\ario evlimii ieo p u I :<•-,•, - 1 1 l * - mult iovnlato. 



//, bf t— S mali-la 
ft., Miss Edith, Cole, , 


nd : rocks above Dara as. (iolis range, at 
Mrs. Lort Phillips. 


Foliolum centrale ' 
longus. Corolla 9 lin. 


2 poll, longum, 3-4 lin. latum. Calya 
longa. Vexillum 6 lin. latum. Fructus i 


Xear L. rarius and 


L. pilosus, Linn. 



265. Crotalaria Phillipsiae, Baker [Leguminosa- 1 ; irutieosa, ramulis 
grai-ilibus p'arce adpresse pilosis, stipulis parvis caducis, fol 

tritbliolatis facie viridibus glabris dors., adpresso pilosis, foliulis sub- 
sessililnis obovatis obtusis basi eunealis, r.ie. mis hixis i,,nv;o peduneulatis 
tennin dibit-; et axiltaribus, p. lied IN 1 e\ bus, bracrds -aim I tis ! in mi-. 
calycis pubescent is tubo campanula!*) dentibus laneeolatis vol deltoideis 
tubo aapiilougis. petalis luteis glabrts ealyee duplo longioribus. vexillo 
obovato venis nigris mult - kiovulato. 

Habitat.— Somali -land : Golis range at Dara-as, Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Foliola 8-10 lin. longa et lata. Calyx 3 lin. longus. Petala 6 lin. 
longa. Fructus ignotus. 



peduncu- 
litis setaceis, calycis 

■ ■■■■'.' ' ■•'■■■-■■.:■ ■.■.::- 



Mm Edith Cole, 



Foliola 12-18 lin. longa, 3 



•mis. P, la, 
J lin. longro 



Stylus 6-7 lin. longus. Fructiis iguotus. 
Near C. intermedia, Kotschy. 



i-land: Golis range, 
.■lie <)-ll? lin. loii^uin, I 



268. Indigofera tritoides, Bt 



Haiti ta i 
Mrs. Lort 


' r hi m'ps. 


nd: Golis range, r 


Corn'!',' 'r 


;^;;' ; ;, 1 .Jr :! 1 


:> 1 »1L hli'lgus/imsi 


longi. 

Xcai th 


•#—■ 


'*— ~ - B 


271. M< 


jmordica dissecta, AW.-- /• j d 




r'foliisl"ev 


i^u'!' pMiolntC <lr 


obovatis, J 


Sli 


I'lrirlf 


BaUtat.— Somali-l 

Mrs. Lort .Phillips. 


""' : G ° iis '""^ 



Nearly allied to M. cissampchido 

! 



'.—Somali-land: Golis range, Mis 
injora 2 poll, longa, medio 8-0 lin 



273. Pentas paucifloi 



216 

-7 I OldeuUndU rotata. /!<;/,<>■ . I : . 1 1 • ; n. -. - . : |,.-r. nni-, enulibiis erectis 

Iridic vir^atis ^lal'iis, f'oliis in u-rticillis moiv (ialii congest^ sessili- 
■us linraribus miini'iviis putulis ri- "ululi- <,dabris, tloribus axillaribus 
ledunculatis solitariis vel geminis, ovario oblonno, calycis lobis 4 lineari- 
tbulatis ovario lon^ioribus, corolla' alba 1 tubo cylindrico elongato lobis 
!>aliili< '•!'.. • . tubo brcvissime protrusis. 

Habitat.— Somali- land : (Jobs ranuv, Miss Edith Cole, Mrs, Lort 

?MUip*. 

Cahjvis lobi 1^-2 lin. longi. 

Combines the habit of a Galium with the floral structure of an 
Oldeulaudia. 

275. Vernonia amplexr rite] ; frnticosa, ramu- 

lis persistenter albu ineanis, folds tomiibus erenulatis facie viridibus 
obscure pubeseentibus dorso dense pubeseentibus jiinioi'ibus albo-ineanis 
sup.'Horibus eblongo-spatliulatis amplexicaulibus inferioribus oblongis 
obtusis, petiolo ad basin angusteala to, capitulis multiflorispurpureis paucis 
letminalibus eorymbosis, pedunculis elongatis nudis albo-ineanis, 
invohicro campannlato braehis lim-an— aibulatis multiseriatis dense 
[pilosis intimis exeeptis xpinrrosis, acliaaiio anuulalo pube-ivnte, j » a j > | > i 

Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis range, Miss Edith Cole, Mrs. Lort 

Folia inferiors 2-3 poll, longa. Involuerum G lin. diam. Pappus 

270. Vernonia gomphophylla, Baker [Composite]; fruticos.'i, ramo- 



Edith Cole. 
in. diam., 1* 



ripiirifr.lia. daub, et Spacl 



Pulicaria Aylmeri, 



.■ viridilms pubescentibus, < 

'fiiiiiuilibns ^olituriis vol p;uicis rorvmbosis, involucro camj 
racteis paucis losis, floribna i 

i-.roi<leis licinmpliiv.ditis, corollae luteae tubo cylindrioo l.ibis 
vsitis, achn'ii'iD piibescviite, pnppi set is i-oroll;i- tubo ii'tpiilon^is. 
Hfthif t ff.~Somu\i-\niul: Golis range, Daimolek peak, alt. 4 



Adds this Meilit 



283. Centaurea (Microlonchus) Ayln 

cnnliiiis stvsililm-, lincnribus inle<j;ris 1> 



Statice xipholepis, B( 



Habitat 


?.— Soinali-laud : Mm Edi 


Folia ci 


impctiolo 4 poll, longn, 3- 


Neaps'. 


maa-orhabflos, Hoiss. and 



285. Jasminum Somalia 



28G. Asclepias Phillipsise, X K Bnnn, f Asolopia.l.,^ ; fmtic< 



'. Asclepias integra, X. K. 



revolnJis glabris juni 
l)0(lunciil:iti« 5-8-flori 
profunde 5-loba, lobi 



289. Edithcolea, N. E. Brm ■■ [A-eh p a umn Mapeliearum genus 
avum]. Cahjx 5-partitus. Corolla tubus parvus ; limbus magnus, 

>tatus, 5-lobus, loM valvati. Corona duplex, column* staminiim 

fixa ; lohi corona- exierioris bn-ves, patentes. 

mcavi wl sacrati : lohi corona- interior^ aiith<-ri- oppositi, ereeti, 

. 
aminea prope basin corolla? affixa; anther* erectae, oblonga?, 
' : pollinia in quoquo loculo solitan'a, em-fa, apiee 

llatis. Folliculos nou \idi. — Nirbn succulenta. ramosa. aphylla, caules 
igulati, angulis spinoso-dentatis. Flores prope apieem ramorum 
tati, pedicillati, magni. 

This genus is allied to Carallnma, hut the very large corolla with a 
lativeh verv small tube, and somewhat different corona, easily 



Habitat.— Somali-land : Henweina Valley, about 3000 ft., Miss 
Edith Cole, Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

poll, 'longis. |" [[ poll. ! 'Ll-. ™CnrLu 'exteriors lobi L< li„. longi, 

Miss Cole state-: that the plant »ro\vs to about a foot in height, and 
that the branches are decumbent at the base and very stout, being an 
inch or more in diameter. The habit of the plant is something like that 
of Htapella yigantem, N. E. Br. 

_".iti. Heliotropium albo-hispidum, Hahw j Boraginea-] ; perenne, 



iloso, lobis minimis orhieuhti ihus patulis antheris glabris aubsessilibu 
Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis ran -e at Hammar, Miss Edith Cole. 



m 

291. Trichodesma stenosepalum, Bm 

ramulis gracilibws albo-ineanis siirsmn 
hkpidis, foliis eaulinis parvis sessilibm 
revolutis setis albis ntrinqne dense his] 
terminalibus ramosis, pedicel] is calyi 
linearibus, calycis tubo brevissimo scpn 
corolla: tubo brevi lobis lanceolate aenn 



Near T. heliocharh, S. Moore 
292. Convolvulus sphseropho: 



sepal i.-: paulo longiore limbo pat 

Habxiat.— Somali-land : foot 
Edith Cole. 

Folia iui'erioTa 9-12 lin. longa 

longa. Corolla: linibus 3 lin. di 

Near C. glomeratus, Choisy. 



ineanis, corolla- lilacina- tubo ob 
lobato, genitalibus in tnbo ir 
staminibus longioribus breviore 

Habitat. — Somali-land : ( loli 
short snberect stems and smaller 

Folia majora l\ poll, longa et 
liinbus expansus 15 lin. diam. ; 

Near C. malvaceus, Oliver an 

291. Ipomoea (Orthipomoea) 



Folia 1 2 - 1 



ongiore limbo ; irolla duplo breviorc. 

Habitat.— Somali-land: Golis range at Dara-as, Miss Edith <'<>/<. 
Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Folia majora ?,- 1 poll, longa. LM-o poll. lata. .SVyw/rt (i-7 lin. longa. 
Jo roll a 2 poll, longa. 

Near /. sagittata, Ker (Bot. Beg. tab. 137). 

ascum (Lychnitis) somaliense, 7><//.<r [ Scroplmlai ini ,r | ; 



/W/rc inferiors! 9-10 poll, longa. 6V//y.r 13 lin. longns. Corullw 



Near r. shatitinnn, Bent! 
a patula, -/>Vi 



/•'„//,/ i_2 poll, longa. Sejiala i\ lin. longa. Corolla 
Belongs to the section Elatiuo'ulcs, near A, macilotta, Do 

r Nt .pluilai Mi. aniin-< icranlieai 






O/ir., frutir.ilos.ini .liv.-irirati 



P. fruticillosa, Iiolfe ; lierUa pcreunis mmossi v. 



• 



; il ll:i,.A/w.s and '/•/„»„.•,. 



'1-2A- 



n.iiari- rugosis utrinque viridibus supra obscure subtus dense pubescenti- 
bus. capitulis ulolx.sis rid axillas folio rum soiitariis lonjje pedunculitis, 
bracteis oblongis foliaceis puhoscentibus ascendcntihus, calyee parvo, 
corolla? tubo eylindrico piloso lobis orbicularibus patulis. 

llahitat. — Somali-land : < b.lis rani;e, neai \Viclal>a, Miss Edith Cole, 
Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Folia 6-9 lin. longa. Capitula 5-6 lin. diam., bracteis 3 lin. longis. 
Pedunruli 1-2 poll, longi. Corolla tubus 2 lin. longus. 

Near L. microphyllafFr&nchet Sert, Somal. 49. 

302. Ocinuim staminosum, Baker \ Labiaf:r j ; sutlriitieosum, raniulis 
pilis albis brevibus patulis vest it is, foliis petiolatis ovato-oblongis sub- 
integris vol obscure crcnulatis utrinque pubesccntibus, raceniis la .vis 
cloiiL r nti>, verticil last ri< pauci lion's. pedicclli-. brc\ i>siinis dcniuni delle.vis, 
bracteis parvis oblongis foliaceis persistentibus, calycc piloso tubo cani- 
paiiulato deute superiore orhiculari decuiTcntc reliquis brcvibus cuspi- 
datis, corolla? tul. o eylindrico calyci a'.piibmgo labio superiore oblongo 
inferiore superiore paulo longioro, -taminibus exsertis tilanienlis glnbris 
basi haud appe; tdi ibus longiore. 

Habitat.— Somali-land : Goli> range, Sheik's pass, alt. 3000-4000 ft., 
Miss Edith Cole. 



Habit of the Abyssinian O. meat ha -folium, Hochst. 



minutis, calycis pubesccnti tubo canipanulato d-nte superi-u-e oibicul; 
decurrcnte lateralibus subnullis inferioribus parvis subulatN. coro 
'■''; ■ tubo brc\ ioribus, stamiiii I mm loi 
exsertis filament is basi baud appcndiculatis. 

Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis range at Guldoo Hammed, l//.v.s- Ed 
Cole, Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Sujfrtttex bipedalis. Folia ceniralia 6-9 lin. longa, :] lin. h 
Call/ 1 demum 3 lin. longus. Corolla 1 lin. 1 »nga. Stamina 9-12 1 
longa, 

304. Coleus vestitus, Baker [Labiate] ; perennis, ramte pilis al 

Utrinque dense puheseeiitibus, raeeini> laxis clon^itis. verlicilla-l 
5-6-floris, pedicellb eab ei iloril'ero a-ipiibmgis, bracteis parvis ov; 
foliaceis, calycis pubescent is tubo cani])anulato deiilibus tub') aMpiibm 
supremo ovato roliquii- lanecolatis, enrolls tubo calyci lloril'cro :<-<\ 
■\o orbieidai i inb !■;<'!■< ma^'iio obh>ngo-na\ icul 
unguiculato, staininilms labio inferior; a'lptilongis. 

Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis range, alt. 3000 feet, Hiss Edith (\ 
Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

Folia 1-1 •} poll longa. Calyx fructifcrus 2|-3 lin. longus. Coro, 
labium inferum .5-0 lin. Ion gum. 

Near C.barbatus, Dentin and C. lanai/inosiis, Hochst. 



utrinque pubescentibus, racen 
3 10-12-floris, pecliccllis calyce 1( 
pubescenlis tubo eampanulato dente suj.runo ovafo : 
decurrentibu- ■ • eeolato-dcltoidc 

longis, corolla? tubo calyci florifero a-quilongo labir 
inferiore magno oblongo-naviculari, Bt&minibus labioinfi 
Habitat. - pre. Mrs. tart I'll 



Near C. lanwjinosHs, Hochst. and ('. barbatus,~Benth. 
306. Orthosiphon calaminthoides, Baiter [Labiata] ; 



Irico calyce duplo longiori labiis 
at<>, staminibus labio inferiore 



307. Orthosiphon molle, Baher \ [Labiata >j ; 
ubescentibuF, foliis brevitcr pctiolatis ovatis c 
ituiidatis ntriitque dense pubescentibus, raci 



30s. Ballota fruticosa, 



Leucas (Ortholeucas) Jamesii, 



Habitat.— Sornali-land : Golis range, Miss Edith Cole, Mrs. Lort 
Phillips. Collected previously by James and Thrupp. 

Folia int'eriora 2-2! poll, longa, medio G 1 in. lata. Calyx 2 lin. 

310. Leucas (Loxostoma) paucijuga, Btf& r [Labiate]; perennis, 



arvis ddtoi ■!■ ..cidyi-i a ju ilon- , labio superior.: 

n ulalo lulio a^u'dongo extus dens pilo,-<> inl'eriore par\a>, laininibu 

Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis range, Mrs. Lort Phillips. 
Folia U-12 lin.longa. Calyx A liu. luiigus. (,'o/-o//rr labium yupcntm 
-4 lin. longum. 
Near L.microphylla, Vatke. 
311. Leucas (Loxostoma) thymoides, thther [Labiafa-j; perennis, 



Habitat.— Soma 



This also iii nearly allied to /.. murophylla 
312. Leucas (Loxostoma) Coleae, />a£cr [I 









<is li 


. 


r^vf,?: 


,,,! } ci- tu 




'-, ; .;- 


is 1> l!;. , i, , ;,i 














li-land: Gol 




It 


aminibu; 


L.-s f ,' ;', 


nth Coi 


h Vwwam! 


"m loffclT 


g« propria. 


$ Hi 


i. long.. 


Paronychia 


{Anoplouy< 


:hia) somaliensis, 


Baker 


is, dense <■ 


i spilosa, ii 


His wmffli 


us li 





alius ilore ■■_ , -mentis 



Folia 2-3 Lin. longa. Peri 

Near P. capitata, Lam. 
314. Jatropha palmatifida 



. Habenaria (Bouatea) Ph., 



Haemanthus (Gyaxis) somaliensis, Bake, 



-4 lin. lot 
ens, L. of 


the 


b. Ftlam 


Baker 


c 


Aniaryllidr 


10-12 en 




sii'/loTpo" 



et niiiitr :n i i | i - _ I . j it.. \ -(■..-.., n\,!i in ..I. Ion 

nign. \ >< • m., | . i' tli I. i i j - i , , ! i - ilhis dorso glandulos 
stjiininil.us 6 perianthio dnplo luevioribus. 

Habitat tinge, in rocky watercourses nc 

Woob, Miss Edith Coir, Mrs. Lart Phillips. 

Folia pedalia, inferne 4 lin. lata. Perianthii lobi 8-9 lin. longi. 

318. Chlorophytum tenuifolium, Baker [Liliace®]; follls basalib 

5-6 linearibrTs elongatis metubranaeeis glabris inferdum erispatis, sen 
elongato undo simplice, raeeiuo Itixu cylindrico, pedicellis brevib 

eolatis }>:irv|-. ovario globoso stylo eJon^al 
fructu globoso emarginato. 

Habitat.— Somali-land : Golis rang., at Widaba, Miss Edith Co, 

Folia pedalia vel ^,pnpedali;i, 1-6 lin. lata. Racemns dmui 



Ornithogaluin (Beryllis) sordidnm, 



f'triaiithia/a .'> lin. longum. 
Near O. Eckloni, Scblecht. 

[LiliaccaJ ; canle elongato 
LO scssilibus linearibns a-ciimi- 
-ensim hrcvioril.ns, llotibus in 
pednncnlis brevibus ercctis, 



ilis. Folia majora 6-8 poll. 

i Australian, /. indica, Kunlh. 



321. Cyanotis somaliensis, C. B. CI a. 

villosa, foliis" oblongis si pice brevitcr tr 
teririinalibus ac pluribus axillarilm? di.-ta 



Habitat.— Somali- 


land : 


Mrs. Ia 


w* Phillips, Miss 


i-aUi, 


1 Cofc. 


Caules centrales steriles 
axilhiribus -VdOdistantihm 
apice parum acuminata. < 


, Folia 


ti, laterales 6-12 


'p.ii, 




Very near the South Aft 


lean C. i 
p— they 


wcli flora Kunth, 1 
resemble those of < 


'!' t r/ t / i 




322. KylHnga mi( 


jrostyla, C. B. Clarke [Cypera 
mice lateraliter compressa glums 
land: Mrs. Lort Phillips. 


f\K III 

i fere 




Glabra. Cnlmi 

Braetem 3, patulae, 

lateraliter compressa, 
breviter oblonga\ ? 


' ''fill 
im:i -1 

3-gb 


Spiat cent 
lin. long* ot lata. Spic 
una. drei.lua. viridis. Sfa: 


,»W/ • 


j I'm. lom 
!-l, ami..' 


Resembles exceedi 


nglv ! 


imatl examples of K.tricep 


.9, Rot 


tb. 


323. Cyperus soi 


lalnm 


ii!' ' ' ... * 


HXie 


; cianlu'sirid 



)ositis, stylo 3- 
Miss Edith Cole. 



lulcli-, exserta', eonspicme. Sty//« nm 
Near C. leucocephalus, Retz. 
324. Mariscus somaliensis, C. />■ <'l 

12-Ki-tleris ciistam-is glumis valide n 
"ZX^-slma'li-iand: Mrs. Lort PI 



Pellsa lomaricir aenw OTspitosa, paleis 



CCCCLXXVL— SHU-LANG ROOT. 



Report for Paklio 






1892 Reports give 
At (Won, the 






CCCCLXXVII.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

The news has reached Kew of (he death at the General II 
Madras, on the 1 7th Angus!, of Jlr A\i>i:k\v .1 amiks...v. Cm 



[V, -part men t in'Vis!',.' Mr /m.' a'.' I.avv>on, JLa", ih!'' 
veord "my' uUigXns ' I.V 'the" C'urator, ' T Jainu, 



of the 




Manic (hml 




■d'Supei-inl. 






;>s of India, 




Ward . 


lied in Jan 


nary last i'm 



general regard ; his untimely ■ 



PL. -roll,.,!!;, Sru r l,„, fro,,, tropin America, hut from what part i- 
umvrtain. The L-.th.-i-, one r,f thy most ele-ant of the -onus, was 

li ■ li i: ^ ... : , 

It is :i native of Mexico, whence it was introduced hv ?dr. William Ihiil. 



Herbaceous List : — A hand-Hat of herbaceous plants cult 
lie Iioxiil Gardens, Kew, was issued in Juno last. The 

ceoiint" of the origin and development of the collection is o;ivi 

lie first place, to show what species are aolualh <;rown at IvY 
lie next to reduce, if pi>-- iUe. the noineiiclaturc in use in g 



.valls have heen foi 



I'.v liim w.-is printr-l, whirl, uim.i. -rat. .", [«M n.-mi.-s of -peries. These, 

Iciliiciion <.{' at least lti()!) names must !»e made" to arrive at ihc actual 
number of herbaceous plant.- cullivat. d at (!:.• time at Kew. 



The collection 



l.'llllly 'liO gift of ' h'Ol'gO Maw, Fsi 



's office on Kew Green. 

iceous flowering plants now in 011H.i1 



British Fungus-Flora, — The Fowth volume of Mr G Rfassee's tic 

Fungus-Flora has appeared. In tins volume the throe fan.ili 
(hnnnnascuccr, 1 1 ,,., vriacca, ami / hsm.u/rr/r, arc reviewed, a, 
illustrated l>v upwards of 300 figures. Altogether 113 genera ai 
7()L' sperms aiv described and classified, as follows: ( ; ,,,„ ,,uusnn; 
3 genera and 10 -pi oh- . / f, n i< na< , „ , 13 irenera and :',:> ^peei, 



Pay of Employes.— < 



L^N.i 


12 
14 

irt 



South Wing of Temperate House — Tim mvct inn of this was sanctioned 
by the Treasury last year ( AV/r lin'l</i,i, p. ,",!>S). The .-are required 



Wire Fence.— Th 
Majesty the Queen 



Injury by Lightning.- 



Intemational Geographical Congress.- 



of Dr. Thomas Thomson. — Sir 



r. J. ]). Hooker, and thev botanised together 
and on their return to England in 1850, he 

• and distributing the botanical collections, an, I 
ne of the Flora Indira. He afterwards was 
Calcutta Botanic Garden, an appointment he 
lrning to tfngkmd in I son in !*.-.< I health, from 
, though he lingered on until 1878. 



Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon.— The third volume, or third part, 

= it is designated, of this admirable work has just appeared. It con - 
i'uis Hie orders ValcriamicctrU^ lltthnurphomvece. With it are issued 

i-iliVal species. Dr. Trimen, who is now on leave in this country, Fs to 

■ congratulated on the rapid progress of his undertaking. \\>v further 



.port on the 
oik in the Hotaiiie.d Gardens ar ( leorgetown for the year 
ited that ••plantains being the staple food of the Creole 

e enltivation is a firm!; -irv." those 

being railed " farmers '" as distinct from '• planters " who 
snger rane. Plantains are said to '-delight in the stiff 
-red day lands of the colony, not objecting to the. slightly 

spring tides .... Such lands yield heavily but 

-v of the Colour." From the report in the Blue Book for 
died in the Colonial Reports No. Did. IJritish Guiana, 



.\o recently been tlic sub; 
Laboratory of tin- Pharmaceutical S. 
F.U.S., ami Mr. Ilenrv (ianiett. 
Mr. J. H. Hart, F.L.S., Superintend 



abundantly in woods 


in the central 






f Trim 






hydr 


m.lmhi 


in these respects res< m 

-ttin .'ind root, possess this property 
act nunc powerfully than the stem . 


of 


All parts 












The following res 


nits are taken 






pa pei 


investigators to the 
pp. 94-100. A small 


IZ'nuC'i'iZ 


, •;<, 


„ost 


eelour 


oil was obtained by 


distillation fn 






leave-. 






in the Tropics: — 



I Tropics : 



subject was investigated by nic years ago, when in charge of the 
venmienl Central Museum, Madras, ai:«! the practical outcome of the 
i-rimi-ntr n ■(•.-. rded in ihe Museum Annual Kcports for 1881 (p. G) 
I for 1883 (p. 4). Indeed, it may be afiirmed thai the application of 
ol ction "i I ks from tropical insects was 



W. T. Thiselbm ] 



tanth.— In 



Zinc in dried Apples. 



1 States, it is 
in the form of slices 
any from the United I 



containing zinc and to liriuj,' about the judicial punidinicn! 
vendors of such merchandise." It is shown that the zinc gets 



frying process and is due to the use of zinc plates 
les cfaen 



; evaporators, the acid ot tne app 



• give the dried 

advantage." 






far as their importation into Germany is 



White Willow.— The Huntingdon or While W 
:>call.,| Iron, the silkv whit. -m ■*« of the umWsid. 
iT.ritain and rxte.nU to Europe, North Africa, 



and cricket hats. The charcoal N excellent for the manufacture of 

Snup'hmd"-: I'l"™" ! vplaTuedV^o 

ornamental tree in woods. It is extensively planted as apollard tn, , 

fe state- " I have 
ir kind of Willow 
I have repeatedly 



r.il in<|uirii .-. luit find that the demand for whi 

iht'ic is con-id. TaluV dilliculty in prururini: any. 



of our friends toll « 



EOYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



U L L E T I N 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



CCCCLXXVIIL— NEW RUBBER INDUSTRY IN 
LAGOS. 

(Kichria africana, Benth.). 



ibba" tree (/VfMrn^/i, Mir,.). 
HuUetin, 1890, pp. 89-93. This 
lot be used by itself,'* ant! atteu- 
LW BOHtces of supply. In West 



selves on neighbouring trees. Fnmi these, and similar plants, a v.-ry 
important rubber industn wa> started at the (JoM Coast by Sir Alfred 



be rich in rubber-producing plants, and it is confidently hoped that 



port of the product." 

Following this came the announcement that a new rubber-yielding 
plant had been discovered in the colony of Lagos, and that it was a large 
tree abundantly distributed in the interior forests. 

In the report on the Botanic Station at Lagos for the quarter ending 
31st December 1894 the Curator states : The rubber industry of the 
colonv is rapidly extending. Large quantities are collected around 
JubiOde. There is no doubt that the rubber supply of West Africa 
is not confined to species of Landolphla and Fiem. A large tree, 
probably belonging to the Apoc>/,i<ue<r. to m<l ;i!<ui <lautly in the interior 
lands, also yields rubber. Mr. Leigh, one of the assistants at the station, 
was away above a week collecting specimens of this rubber. When 
ready thev will be submitted to the authorities at Kew for a report. 
The native name of the tree is " Ire." Mr. Millen adds, ** It may prove 
ible to the colony." 

In April 1895, Captain Denton, C.M.G., the Acting- Governor, com- 
municated some specimens to Kew v marks: — 

"I send you b\ parcel post some specimens of the tree — native name 
Irai — from which the rubber which is sent from this part of the world 
is obtained. During the last six mouth- it has become- a valuable article 
of export, and there appears to be every chance of the quantity produced 
increasing. I obtained these specimens from the district between 
I llaso, where I saw the process of procuring the juice from 
the tree in course of progress. The Irai tree, at the base, is between 
3 and 4 feet in circumference, and is some 30 to 40 feet high. The 
natives score the bark to a depth of five-eighths of an inch, and the 
men, who have had experience of the work in other places, contend that 
the tree can be tapped again with good results in aboui I s months' time. 
If this is so, we have started what is likely to prove a valuable industry." 

So far it had not been possible to identify this new rubber-yielding 
tree. The specimen- hitherto received at Kew were imperfect, and in 
some cases even consisted of portions of totally different plants. The 
next contribution received was from Mr. Jonathan C. Oluoi, F.U.U.S., 
who forwarded excellent specimens of - of the rubber, 

accompanying them with the following interesting letter : — 

Mamu Forest Station, Ibadan District, 
Dear Sib, Lagos, May 3, 1895. 

Fob identification, improvement on. and advice about the rubber 
tree discovered in this forest not quite a year ago by the energy of 
Governor Carter, I now send you the following parcels. 

I have seen many foreign" rubber trees and vines in the Botanic 
Station at Lagos such as the Kosa rubber, Para rubber and the Ficus 
elastira, but not ibis particular tree that lam going to describe. It 
was first discovered in Accra about the year 1883 and from its resoiirrcs 
many European- and i.atives have made their fortunes. The native 
name of this rubber tree is [re, Ireh, or Ereh. 

The Ire tree is one of tlw- mo-, beautiful trees in the forest. From 
the ground it grows evenlv in bulk and smoothly t" the height of (iJ 
to 70 feet. The uverage "thickness of the tree is 12 to 14 inches in 
diameter. In the rainy season, when the trees are full of milk, a tree 
well tapped is capable of producing from 10 to 15 lbs.of rubber, which 
i- worth about Is. per lb. h>Te it properly prepared, and 2s. Id. to 
2s. Ad. in English markets if made into biscuit. 

The present method by which the milk is extracted is shown on the 
piece of stick enclosed, and this is said to be the most perfect way 



Known to the natives. 1 have heard ot an lnstniuien: in winch , ;,. 
can easily extract the milk ; can you give any help or direct me to 
where I can get a sample? There arc many ways in which the milk 
is prepared : first by cutting a coffin-like hole "in the trunk of a tree and 
throwing in milk .laily until it is full, then flic mi!!, is well covered, airtight 
if possible, and within a mouth it is ijnito -olid. Of course in the rainy 
season it may take two months before it is solid. This is known as the 
silk rubber. 

The one gathered and cooked in water and whose appearance shows 
white after cooking (although the atmospheric influence causes it to <jet 
black after some days of exposure) is known as the first M uality ruhber. 
The rubber cooked as gathered and thickened hy heat directly in the 
pot obtains varied prices. Can one improve on these methods ? I know 
of one method. In if it is difficult to follow, for one cannot get the fresh 
milk. The custom is to purchase already cooked milk. The preparation 
I speak of is to allow the milk to remain in cold water (about double 
the proportion of the milk) for twenty-four hours, then the milk floats. 
Thi- is then gathered and put in a bag, which can be hung up for 
perfect draining or the bag put in a box with so many holes for the 
water to escape. This fetches a good, and, I dare say, the best value ; 
but unless one can command his own forest the fresh milk is hard to 
get. The sample of rubber sent is of the general preparation cooked 
as brought from the tree. If desirable I shall send you a two feet long 
log of the rubber tree. For an\ name .appropriate for the tree and any 
improvement on the preparation of the rubber, also for collecting the 



The Director, (Signed) J. C. Oi.ubl 

Royal Hardens, Kew. 



The Rubber Plant. 

The specimens sent by Mr. Olubi led to the identification of the new 
rubber plant as Kickxia africana, Benth. Of this plant we had very 
little previous information. 

In May 1888, a sample of seeds marked " India-rubber seeds " from 
Winnebah, Gold Coast, West Africa, was forwarded to Kew In- Messrs. 
.J. Bowdcn A. Co., Liverpool. The seeds were stated to be worth 72s. 
per lb. There was, however, no further reference made to the plant 
vieldiiiii them a- a source of india-rubber. The seeds were determined 
as those of Kickxia africana, Benth., a tree of the order . [p<„ -,,,., i, w/. 
known to occur in West Africa, from Sierra Leone to the deita of the 
Xiger. and in the island of Fernando Po. As the seeds were then in 






of view, and they pointed out the characters in which they differed 
from the .seeds of Strophanthus. 

From Mr. Olubi's letter quoted above it would appear that the tree 
was known in Accra as early as 1883 as a rubber tree, and this evidently 
account- for tin- sample of seeds sent by Messrs. Bowden & Co., to 
Kew, in 1888, being called India-rubber seeds. 

The vernacular name of the tree is spelt Ire, Ire, Irai, Ireh, and 
Ereh. k similar name " Ere " occurs in Moloney's List of Timbers in 
Forestry of JVest Africa, p. 207, No. 6. It is there applied to a tree 
2~)-:\'A feet high and 4 feet in diameter, but no further particulars are 



plete description from the fuller material now available. 

Kirhrui africana, Benth. in Hook. Ic. plant, t. 1276 (1877-79). A 

large glabrous tree. ,~A)-60 feet high with terete branehleis which turn 
black in drying. Leaves 4-9 in. long, 1^-3 in. broad, oblong, short ly 
acuminate at botb en !-. curiae, ,,u-. with S-Io nerve.- on each side and 
inconspicuous vein-, petiole 2-6 lin. I'm.;, flowers in -hortly peduncled, 
braeteate, often many flowered and much contracted cyniis, originally 
terminal but afterwards apparently axillary, being overtopped by a 
hraneh from the axil of one of the uppermost leaves ; peduncle short, to 
3 lin. lone; bract- .-mall, ovate, acute : pedicels to 2 lin. long. Calyx 

base. Corolla salver-shaped, yi How. tube lle.-hy, constricted at or just 



around the stigma, to which fhe\ aillierebya izlutinous secretion from the 
base of the anther cells, sagittate, acuminate, tipped with a few minute 
hairs, basal tail- solid, destitute of pollen. Disc fleshy, of o free or more 
or less comafe lobes closely surrounding the ovary to f. of its height. 
Ovary of 2 free minutely hairy carpels ; style filiform ; stigma 
capitate, -lightly grooved, constricted inio a broad, conic d apex; ovules 
pendulou-. numerous in each cell. Follicle- about 4-6 in. long, spread- 
ing, thick. -pindio--haped, wirli two sharp longitudinal ridges, woody. 
Seeds 6-7 lin. long, spindle-sliaped, compressed, brown, with a long 
basal awn (pointing towards the base of the follicle), and a fine point 
on the other end ; awn naked at the ba^o, otherwise- covered with 
long revei-. ed silky hair.- ; albumen forming a thin or rather thick coat 
around the embryo ; cotyledons contortuplicate and much longer than 

The hit iciferous vessels are foi 
within a /one of hardened ti.-si 

The habitat of Kickxia africana was stated in the hones to be 
" West Tropical Africa, Bagroo Eivcr, and Fernando Po, Mann 
No. 817, Bonny, Kalbreyer." It is evident: that it has a very wide 
distribution, extending from Sierra Leone to the Gold Coast and beyond 
the months Of the Niger to the Bight of Biafra. How far it may 
extend inland it is impossible to say. 



from Captain Denton, C.M.G., two 
ber tree, each about 10 inches to a 
tout in diameter, scored with the marks of the rubber gatherers. These 
will be placed in the Kew museums. They were sent as the " female " 
rubber tree, a name we learn that is locally applied to the Kickxia 
aj'rifiinii. lienth. It is thus distinguished from flnlurrln-.ttt afrirmnr, 
quite a different plant, which is fancifully called the "male" rubber 
tree. The latter is a Kubiacemis plant not known to yield any rubber. 
As showing the remarkable development which has taken place in the 
"ustry at Lagos during the last six months, 



(luve, 



Keuxvith the f 



; particular- : 



Return of Rubbe 



Mouth. 


Weight. | 


Fehru;ir\ - 

March ----- 

April - - 


39J63 


JrH 


Total - - - 


588,633 


25,765 IS 6 



, Collector of Customs. 



The fb'lowieg information respecting 
trees and preparing the rubber is taken fr< 
Station at Lagos for the quarter ended 31i 



the Ire 
i Botanic 



pour the milk, after straining it, from day to day until it is quite full. 
It is then covered with palm leaves and left for 12 to 14 days and some- 
times much longer, depending on the season, until mo?t of the watery 
portions have either evaporated or sunk into the wood. After being 
kneaded and pressed together the rubber thus obtained has a dark 
brownish colour, with tin- inner [tortious of a slightly lighter colour. 
Such rubber is known locally as " silk rubber." 

The local price is from 10e?. to 1.?. 2d. per pound. 

The heat process is the one generally adopted by the natives of Lagos. 
This is much simpler in working, as it disposes of' all the milk collected 
at the close of each day. After being strained the milk is placed in 
a vessel and boiled. The rubber begins to coagulate almost directly 
the heat is aoplied, and after the boiling is over is removed in a some- 
what sticky condition, owing to being burnt, and of a blackish colour. 
The local price of this rubber is from 9d. to 1*. per pound. It is 
pointed out that the heat process, though simpler, impairs the 
quality of the rubber, and is calculated to injure the industry. It is 
probable that if the heat process were somewhat modified the result* 
would not be so injurious. An experiment was tried at the Botanic 
Station to coagulate the milk by heat, but not applied directly to it. 
The result was much more satisfactory. The rubber came off of a milky 
white colour, and after being pressed it was clean ami firm without 
being sticky. A sample of thi- received at ivew was reported upon by 
Messrs. Hecht, Lewis, and Kahn. It is the sample referred to below as 
No. 2. 



Messrs. Hecht, Levis, and Kahn to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

21, Mincing Lane, London, E.C., 
Dear Sir, September 13, 1895. 

We have your yesterday's lines, and also two samples of Lagos 

We have had, both in Liverpool and in Hamburg, for the last six 
month-, large imports ,>t rubber from Lagos, and this description seems 
to have been favourably received by consumers. 

Your sample No. 2 is of very fine quality, and would be worth, if 
sent in the same clean and dry condition, from 2s. lid. to 2s. \>l. per 11). 
Your sample No. 3 is also good, but less close in texture and much 
damper, which seriously detracts from its value. Still, the rubber is 
cleaner than the average arrivals from Lagos, and to-day's value would 
be about 1*. 5d. to 1*. 6d. per lb. 

From what we hear the production of rubber in Lagos is likely to 
increase largely, and we only hope that the producers will keep the 
rubber as clean and free from impurities as possible. 

Always at your service, 

We remain, Ac. 

John R. Jackson, Esq., (Signed) Hecht, Levis, & Kahn. 



and illustrates t 
Africa. Itsh. 
developed by 
Government. 



plantations, and thus make the industry 

always been seen that owing to the climbing habit of the i_ r 

Lf/iif/,,/p/,itt which have hitherto yielded African rubber, it was not 
practicable to cultivate them in regular plantations as they required the 
support of other plants, and when once tapped many years would 
have to elapse before they would be fit to yield another crop. With the 
Kickxia these practical (iillirulnV.s disappear. 

The important position now occupied by the rubber industry in 
British Possessions in West Africa may be gathered from the following 
table compiled from the Supplement to the India fhildn r Journal «',!' 
August 12, 1895 :— 



Year. '■ Weight. 


Value. 


A p™?,r e 


1890 - - - 33,876 

1891 - - - i 48,164 

1892 - - - | 41,967 

1893 - - - 54,357 


297,453 


175 


Total - - 225,830 


I..10.0" 


169 



3. Segme 



section of seed 



CCCCLXXIX.— DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, VIII. 
(Continued from p. 3SO.) 



326. Tacazzia conferta, X. E. 
vel oblongo-laTic.nl.itis 
formibus subscssilihu- 



. E. Bi-own. 

roirn ; caul.' pubrrulo, foliis oblongis 
utrinque glabris, paniculis corymbi- 
r pedunculatis, floribus ad apices 

ivatis ol.tiisi- \cl sr.Ita< .' 

niafiiinaris. rovnv.\' lubi< lilil'.-nmbn- 



Efat, Both, 407. 



327. Tacazzia nigritana, N. E. Brown; eaule glabro. foliis oblongis 
versus apieem cuspidato-acutum levitei angusiau.- supra glabris subtus 
pubesc.-nlibiis. paniculispedunculatisgl.-ibris. sepalis late ovatis subaeuti? 
glabris, corolla glabra, coronas lobis filiformibus erectis. 

Habitat.— Niger territory : Abob, Barter, 486. 

Fnlionnn /»fin/i ; lin. longi, lamina 2i-3 poll, longs, 10-13 lin. late. 
Panieuhe 2 poll, longa-. Pednnenli 6-9 lin. longi. P«Wrt 2-31 
lin. longi. Sepala .1 lin. longa. Corolla I obi 2-2.\ lin. longi. 



ereotis torulosis, follieulis pubescentibus. 

Habitat. — Zambesi region : Lupata and near Tete, Kirk. Natal, 
Gerrard, 1796. 

Foliorum petioli 4-18 lin. longi, lamina? 1^-4 poll, longae, \-2\ poll. 
lata. /V >m«/«? 2-4 poll, longa?. Pedmoidi 1-; noil, longi. Pedieelli 
U-3 lin. longi. AVpafa 1 lin. longa. Corolla lobi 2\ lin. longi. 
Follicidcr lf-2J poll, longae B$-4J lin. crassa>. 

329. Raphionacme angolensis, N. E. Broun ; caule pubescente erecto, 
foliis petiola'i Llongis obtusis utriixpie pubescen- 
tibus, cymis terminalibus multitloris. pedicellis at<|ue scpali> luneeolatis 
acuminatis pubescentibus, corolla? lobis oblongis vel oblongo-laneeolatis 
bad biearinatis exlus puboscc-ntibus intus glabris, corona- lohis subnlatis. 

ffa bit 'at. —Angola: Pungo Andongo, Wehcitsch, 4201, 4202. 

Foliorum jwtioli 2-7 lin. longi, lamina? 1-2} poll, longa?, £-l£ poll, 
lata-. Pedieelli 2-6 \\u. longi. Sepala \\-2 lin. longa. Coroller 
tubus 2 lin. i'>ngus. lobi 4 lin. long!. Corona lobi 2\ lin. longi. 

This is the plant described by the late Dr. Baillon as Zaczateu 
anr/olensis, in Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris, 1889, II., p. 806. 

330. Secanione retusa, X. E. Brown ; glabra, foliis oblongis vel 

latis. senalis elliptic^ obtusis, corolla- lotato-eampanulata? lobis oblongis 
obtusis, corona? lobis minutis deltoideo-subnlatis, -tylo apice late 
obconico truncato-bilobo ultra antheras exserto. 
Habitat. — Zanzibar, Kirk. 

Foliorum petioli 1-1 ! , lin. longi, lamina' 1-2 poll, longa-, 7-1* > lin. 
lata 1 . Pedieellt \\-l lin. longi. Corolla 2 hn. iliani. 

331. Secamone Kirkii, N. E. Brown .- glabra, toliis rllipiico-oblnngi- 



oblongis obtu 
-nlwruncato-bilo 



Habitat.— Mombasa, Wain Held. 

Foliorum pcfioli %-\ lin. longi, lam 
Paftaiciili 1 lin. longi. Pedicelli 3 1 
Corolla 2 lin. longa. 



5-sulcata. Anther 

pendula. Stylus ult 
lanceolati, acuminat: 
vt'l volubilis. Fol 
nodos laterales. Flores par 

A genus of one species, that has hitherto been placed under 
. \st< piia,:i:s, 1 nit it differs iViMi) that genus in the presence of a corona, 
which, although minute, is quilo evident when searched for, and in 
the different struct lin ■ of the ->t;i initial-column, the anther-wing:- Icing 



>ht„i„n 


: staminum prope basin corolla? enata, 






rxA sill 


.cata3. Pollinia in quoque loculo solitaria, 




•as longe prodturtus, apioe biildu*;. Fal/iculi 




Semina comosa. Fniticnlns procumhens 


oppos 


ita. Cyma; umbelliformes pauciflora? ad 



whilst in Astcphanus they are turned 
foliis potiolatis oblongis ovatis ovato- 



Habitat. — Abyssinia, Schimper, 2219. 
Plant a 6-10 poll. alta. Foliorum petioli 



. longi 



335. Schizostephanus somaliensis, 
foliis longe petiolatis cordatis obtusis e 

foliis brevioribus floribus solitarii- vel biuis subdistantibus, i 
lato-oblongis subacutis, corolbe lobis oblongis subobtusis prope apicem 
saccatis marginibus revolutis, corona quinquelobata lobis cuneatis trifidis 

Habitat.— Somaliland : Boobi, James $ Thrupp. 

Folinmm petioli l±-2 poll, longi, lamina? l$-3 poll. longSB, lf-2| 
poll. late. Racemi 2-3 poll, longi. Pedicelli \-l\ lin. longi. Sepala 
\-\\ lin. longa. Corolla; lobi If lin. longi, 1 lin. lati. Corona lobi l\ 
lin. longi. 

336. Platykeleba, N. E. Brown [Cynanchearum genus novum]. — 

C"lt/ 1 ."i-p:iriitus. Corolla late rolato-eampanulata, breviter 5-loba. 
Corona duplex, exterior basi corolla? semiadnata, breviter cupularis, 
subintegra rrennlata vel aub-5-lobata, interioris lobi 5, antberis ban 



Columna starninum e basi corolla? exorta ; anthera? breves, lata?, 
membrana inhYxa appendieulata-. Palliaia in qnoque 1«.. 
pendula. Stigma breviter rostrata, biloba. —Fritter apbyllus. Umbelltr 
pauciflorae, ad nodos sessiles. Flores majusculi. 



P. insignia, N. E. Brown ; glabra, 
lonribns, unibclli^ I -■'>- tloris, sepalis ova 
corolla purpureo-venosa. 

Habitat. — Central Madagascar, Baron, 073. 

Ha mi sicci 1 lin. crassi. Pedicelli 2-3 lin. longi. 
longa. Corolla circa 8 lin. diam., lobi 2 lin. longi, 3 
exterior 1^ lin. diam., coronas interioris lobi \ 



337. Xysmalobium Carsoni, N. E. Brown; caule simp 

- pain-is lateralibus terminalibusque 

- glabris, corolla? lobis 

elliptico-obb ma starninum 

paulo longioribii. plain's (ddonizis apiee obtusN siibdenticulatis incurvatis 

marginihus incurvatis. 

Habitat. — Tanganyika Plateau: Fife station, Carson. 
Caules 1-2 ped. alti. Folia 3-6 poll, longa, 1-1£ lin. lata. Pedun- 
rnli el pedicel li 4-6 lin. long;. Scpa/o 'J Sin. longa. Corolla* lobi 5-6 
lin. longi, 3-4 lin. lati. Corona lobi 2£ lin. longi, 1 lin. lati. 

338. Xysmalobium decipiens, N. E. Brown ; caulibus simplicibus 

•■',:'i: :•..■.-.■■ .'■-.■■ - / . ..:■ . . :-■.■(•■,:..- 

bus t« nninalibusqn pedunculatis multifloris, corolla? lobis arete reflexis 



251 



oblongis acutis glabri>, corona- lobis minutis ovatis obtu>issimis columnar 

alternantibus connexis. 

Habitat.— Angola : Huilla, near Lopollo, Welwitsch, 4175. 

Caules \-\\ ped. alti. Folia 3^-6 poll, longa, ±-1 lin. lata. Pedun- 
culi 5-7 lin. longi. Pedicelli 3-4 lin. longi. Sepala \ lin. longa. 

Cnmll, < /,-7>/ 1} lin. longi, ■£ lin.lati. Corona lobi^ lin. longi. ('olun.na 
staminum \\ lin. longa. 

This species was confused with X Holubii, S. Elliot, and in the 
original tloi'-iption the characters of the corona of X. lloluhii, are 
unfortunately taken from this plant instead of from that collected by 
Holub, for which the name was intended. I retain the name A". Holubii, 



, quite free from each other, and without an\ b 



::- 



339. Xysmalobium reticulatum, N. E. Brown ; caule erecto sub- 
flexuoso hifanam pubescente, foliis breviter petiolatis anguste oblongis 
obtusis vel acutis apiculatis basi rotundatis vel emarginatis venis 
conspicuis reticularis, sepahs n-tl.-v.s lan.-r-olati- acuminatis glabris, 
corolla- lobis reflexis ovatis acutis glabris, corona? lobis quam columua 
staminum brevioribus obovatis plano-convexis intus carinatis. 

Habi fa '. — Shivc Highlands, Buchanan. 

Foliorum petioli .', -1 lin. lonei, lamina? 2-2| longa?, 3-7 lin. lata?, 
longi. Corolla- lobi 2\ lin. 

, N.E. Brown ; eaulibu- bit'ariam 
e acutis glabris, umhellis 
lateralibus -essilibus 0-8-rloris, pedicellis 'pubescent ibns. sepalis ovatis 
acutis ghbris, corollae-lobia oblongis subobtusis, corona? lobis oblongis 

Habitat— Sierra Leone: near Falaba, Elliot, 5184. 

Caules 1-1 i pel. alti. Foliorum petioli 2-4 lin longi, lamina- 3-3^ 
poll, longa'. ) -7 lin. lata-. Pedicelli 4-7 lin. longi. Sepala 2 lin. longa. 
Corolla lobi 3£ lin. longi, 1^ lin lati. Corona lobi If lin. longi. 



i rotundatis vel subcordafis, 
lateralibn- i icrminalibn- pedunculatis 5-6 floris, corolla? campauulata? 
lobis ovato-ohlongis subacutis extus pubescentibus, corona- lobis e basi 
staminum c ilumna? exortis et duplo longioribus erectis cuueato-oblongis 
dorso le\it>- carinatis apice irregulariter 3-dentatis. 

Hahitu-. — Xyassaland : Shir.- Highlands, Buchanan, 451. 

Caules 2-1 ped alti. Foliorum petioli 2-4 lin. longi, lamina? 2-3£ 
p.,11. longa' '-l£ poll. lata'. J'eduucuti 1 J-1J poll, longi. Pedicelli 
9-10 lin. longi. Cnrol/a Inhi 8-9 lin. longi, 3}-l lin. lati. Corona: 

342. Xysmalobium rhomboideum, X. E. 11, own ,- caulibua validis 

tomento-i-. oTTis ovato-oblongis subobtiiMs ap <-ulati> basi cordatis vel 
rotundatis parce pubesceutibus umhtdlN lateralibus s.ssilibus (i-S-tloris, 



pedicellis suhtomentosis, sepalis nngu>te lanceolatis aeuth breviter 
hirtis, corolla) campauulata) lobis ovatis subacutis extus pubescentibus, 
corona? lobis e basi staminum columna? a?quilonga? exortis, erectis 
rhomboideis subacutis intus carinatis. 

Habitat.— Angola : Huilla, Welwitsch, 4193. 

Foliomm petioli U-lM lm. loniri, lamina? 1 ±-3 poll, longa?, 9-13 lin. 
lata?. Pedicelli 5-6 lin. "longi. Sepala 3.1-1 lin. longa. Corollce lobi 
3 lin. longi, 2 lin. lati. Cww^ lobi 1£ lin. longi. 

343. Xysmalobium fraternum, N. E. Broini ; foliis oblongis vel 
obovato-oblohgis .)bm<is apiculatis, basi angustatis glabris, umbellis 
lateralibus 7-8 floris, pedicellis pubescentibns, sepalis lanceolatis 
acuininatis glabris pa roe cilia*.!-;, corolla' lobis ovatis acutis reflexis, 
corona? lobis rhomboideo-ovatis subacutis intus carinatis. 

Habitat. — Nyassaland : Shire Highlands, near lUantvre, Last. 

Foliorum petioli \\-2 lin. longi, lamina? H-2£ poll, longa?, 9-18 lin. 
lata?. Pedicelli 5-G lin. longi. Sepala 2-J-3 lin. longa. Corolla; lobi 
3 lin. longi 1£ lin. lati. Corona; lobi U lin. longi. 

344. Schizoglossum firmum, N. E. Brown', caulibns validb tame*- 
tosis, foliis elongato-ovato-oblongis subobtusis apiculatis l>asi cordatis 
potiolatis toinentosis, umbellis lateralibus peduneulaiis lo-20-floris, 
pedicellis sepalisque lanceolatis acuininatis lomcntosis, corolla? lobis 
ovatis subobtusis minute bi!i -lis e\tus pubescent ibus corona) lobis quam 
columna staminum dnpln lon-i. .ribus . rectisbiisi late oblongis in subulam 
elongatam abrupte contractis intus carinis duobus contiguis. 

Habitat.— Angola : Huilla. near Lopollo, jrelirifsrh, 4191. 

Folium in jxtioli l-2.\ lin. longi. lamina- 2|-3 poll. longa?, 6-12 lin. 
lata'. Fedunculi 9 liu.-l. 1 , poll. longi. Svpala L'i-3 lin. longa. 
Corolla lobi 2\ lin. longi, if lin. lati. Com,,*, lobi 3 lin. longi. 

345. Schizoglossum quadridens, A 

patente pubescentibus, foliis breviter 

lanceolatis acutis vel subacutis vel infei 

vel subrotundatis vel truncatis pubescentibus uiarginibus n 

umbellis paucis lateralibus et terminalibus ad apicem cauli 

corymbosis pedunculatis. pedunculis pedicellis atque sepalis 

latfs acutis patente pubescentibus. corolla? lobis oblongis obtusi 

parce pubescentibus intus pubescentibus albis, corona) lobis 

bidentatis intus prope apicei i dentibus duobus falcatis subporn 
levitcr bicarinatis extus basi obtuse carinatis. 

Habitat.— Sonth Africa: the Plateau, Kast Grhpudand, lin 



Poll • Jonga -,14-7 1 

This much reset 
very different coro 

316. Schizoglos! 

simplicibus vel ?p; 



-12 floris, p.-dicellis 
sepalisque ovato-lauceolatis acuminatis pubescentibus, corol!a3 lobis 
oblongis subacutis pubescentibus margiuibus plus minusve lvtlexK 
corona) lobis subquadratis obtusissimis intus uuicornutis et biearinatis 
cornibus supra antlieras incurvatis. 

Habitat. — Kilimanjaro Kegion : Maungu, 2000 feet, Johnston. 

Canles l|-2 ped. nlti. Folia 1-2 poll, longa, £-§ lin. lata. 

Pedicelli 1 A— 12 lin. longi. Corolla lobi l-\\ lin. longi. Corona; 
lobi cornua inclusa \ lin. longi. 

347. Schizoglossum shirense, N. E. Brown ; caulibus simplicibus 
vel raro ramosis bifariam pubescentibus, foliis linearibus pubcrulis 
demum glnbris mai^inibus revoiutis, umbellis plurimis lateralibus 
sessilibus .'! - - Mentis pube-ecniilms, 

corolla' l<»bi> oblongo-lnneoolatis acini.- e\tus glabris iin us pubescentibus 
fusco-purpuivjs, corona' lobis subquadmtis tridentatis dente intermedio 
longi-sinio -nbulato orecto recurvato intus cornu longo instructis et 
lf\ iter biearinatis. 

llahihit. -vapanga, Kirk; Shire Valle\ . Kirk, 

Waller. 

Caules 2-3 ped. alti. Folia li-3 poll, longa, 1-2 lin. lata. Pedicelli 



318. Schizoglossum multifoinun, X. E. lirown ; caulibus sir 

■ibiis crn^siiiK'iilis dense pubescentibus multiibliatis, folus verticil 
ubsessililms vel brpvissime petiolatis cuneato-oblongia vel ellip 
•btusis basi acutis vel leviter rotundatis glabris margimlms rov<>. 
eaberulis, umbellis plurimis lateraiilnis -essilibus, pedioellis puben 
epalis lanceolutis acutis Ore ^'labia's, coioll.-e i,- 1 is ovatis subacutis glal 



latitat.— Xycain 
Joules 1^-21 ped. i 

. Pedicelli 2 lin. 



349. Asclepias Schweinfurthii, X. E. Brown ; caule 
eente, ibliis cor3 itia plus minusve o 

glabris subtus leviter scaberulis. umbellis lateralibui 
pedicellis sepalisque hmceolato-attenuatis acutis pubesc 
lobis elliptico-ovatis acutis exlns puberulis, corona 1 lobis 
dentibus eomplieatis lal.eribus intlcxis dolabrii'ormibus 
productis obtusis intus leviter piblu>sis (an semper ':). 

Habitat.— Jur: Ghattas, Seine, iufnrth, I960. 



i -2 lin. loii.i. .'. 1-21, poll 

-2f poll, longi. Pedicelli 8-12 lin. longi. Sepala 
la lobi 6 lin. longi, 3-31 lin. lati. Coroncc lobi 



350. Asclepias conspicua, N. E. Brown ; caulibus ramosis sub- 

liispidis, loins rloiu_'ato-ovatis acutis basi cordatis scabris, umbellis 
paucis 3-4-lloris peduueuiatis. p.-dunculis p-diccllis sepalisquelanceolatis 
'< liispidulis, corolla- lobis cll;piico-,,i longis -ubacutis ciliolatis 



extus puberulis, coronae lobig oblongis complicatis intus bicarinatis 
lateribus inflexis iufra medium dentatis. 

Habitat. — Fwambo, south of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 12. 

FbUorum petioti, L-3 liu. longi, laminae l£-2| poll, longae, \-\ poll, 
latae. Pedunculi 2\-A poll, longi. Sepala 3-4 lin. longa. Corolla lobi 
6-7 lin. longi, 4-4| lin. lati. Corona; lobi 4 Hn. lougi. 

351. Asclepias Mva, N. E. Brown .• caul.' simplice ferrugineo-pubes- 
cente, foliis oblongis subacutis basi subcordatis vel emarginatis utrinque 
terni,L r iiieo-|)iil.(>-r('iili!n!~ .l.iiium glabratis. uinbellis paucis 6-8-floris 
pfduiici.latis, sepalis lineari-lancfolatis ami is rcllcxis ferrugineo- 
puberulis, corollae lobis ovatis subacutis ivllexis extus ferrugineo- 
puberulis, corona) lobis subquadrat is oblique rostratis rostro complicato- 
bipartito supra antheras inflexo. 

Habitat.— Uganda, Wilson, 112. 

Folionun }>< tioli 1 2 lin. longi, lamina) 1^-3 poll, longae, -|-1 poll latae. 
Pedmivifli 1 .V-2 poll, longi. Pedicelli 6-9 lin. longi. Sepala 3 lin. 
longa. Corolla lobi 5 lin. longi, 3 lin. lati. Corona lobi 2 lin. longi. 

elatis pubescentibus, 



revolutis fere 

pedicellis -rpali-quc lanceolai 

reflexis ellipticis obtusis extus glabris 

coronae lobis <piaiu column staminum subduplo longic 

marginibus apicalibus ad mcdiimi incisis cum dentibus late falcatis ex 

angulis interioribus reflexis intus nudis basi utrinque gibbosis. 

Habitat.— Aby^imn, Schimper, 27. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa, l-2\ lin. lata. Pedunculi f-1 \ poll, longi 
P t din Hi |-1 poll, longi. Sepala 3-3£ liu. longa. Corolla lobi 6 lin. 
longi, 3^-4 lin. lati. Corona lobi 3 lin. longi. 

353. Asclepias propinqua, N. E. Brown ; caule humili pubescente, 

bus marginibus revolutis subto- 
mentosis, umbellis terminalibus pedunculate 3-4 - floris, pedicellis 
sepalisque lanceolatis acutis pubescentibus corolla' lobis ovato-oblongis 
subobtusis, eoronse lobis quam columna staminum multo longioribus 
complicatis apice obtuse rotundatis lateribus inflexis in dentes lalcatos 
productis sursum directis intus dente oblongo obtuso instructis. 

Habitat. — Kiliman j aro, Smith . 

Folia |-1| poll, longa, |-1 lin. lata. Pedunculi 1-1 \ poll, longi. 
PcdiirU, 7\ 12 I i. long S,pala 2 .J -3 lin. longa. Corolla lobi 5 
lin. longi, 3 lin. lati. Corona lobi 3-3^ lin. longi. 



centibus, umbelli- lati raiil.u.- tcrminalibusquc pedunculitis, pcdicelli> 
sepalisque lanceolatis acuminatis pubescentibus, corolla' lobis oblongis 
obtusis plus minusve replicatis, coronae lobis quam columna staminum 
longioribus complicatis apice oblongo-ovatis obtusis lateribus inflexis in 
dentes falcatos acutos vel lineari-oblongos truncatos productis prope 
basin utrinque gibbosis intus cornu subulato vel oblongo instructis. 

Habitat.— Xyas^alaml ; Buchanan, 441, 553 ; Blantyre, Last ; 
Magomera Mission Station, 3000 feet, Waller. 



34-7 poll, longa 

' V-i J poll. loUg 

3} lin. lad. C 



Coliormn jHtinli ! (i lin. lon£ 
latae. Peduneuli $-lf poll, longi. Pedicelli 
4-4^ lin. longa. Corolla; lobi 9 lin. longi 
4 lin. longi. 

355. Asclepias flavida, X. E. Broton ; fruticosa, ramosa, ramis patenti- 
bus albo-toiiientosis, f'oliis linearibus acutis marginibus ivvolut is ulabris 
s, umbellis ad nodos lateralibus peduncu- 



latis 4-6-floris, pedunculis pedicellis atquo sepaii 

acumiuatis nlbo-tonienbwi-, corolla profundi' 5 -loba reflcxa loins olliptico- 

ovatis acutis glabris in uno margine ciliatis, coronas lobis supra 

plioatis subquadratis singulis interioribus dentibus falcatis abrupte reflexis 
instruct is intus eeornutis, i'olliculis inuuaturis ellipsoideis breviter 
cuspidato-rostratis parce setosis subglabris. 

Habitat.— Somaliland : Darsa, Surry, Golis Range, Miss Cole, Mrs. 
Lort Phillips. 

Frutex 3-4 J- pcd. nit us. Folia 1^-3 poll, longa, 1-3 lin. lata. 
Peduneuli 7-11 lin. longi. Pedicelli J '7-11 lin. longi. Scpala li-2 
lin. longa. Corolla lobi 1 lin. longi. 2\ lin. lati. Corona; lobi 2 lin. 
longi, 1| lin. lati. Columna staminum 2i lin. longa. 

356. Asclepias tenuifolia, X. E. Broton ; caubbus tenuibus ramosis 

pubescent ibus. t'oliis tilii'orinibus pube-et >ni ihu s. umbellis lateralibus et 
tcrniiualibus pedunculatis o-.Vtloris, pedunculis pedicellis sepalisque 
lanceolatis acuminatis pubesecutibus, corolla' lobis elliptieis snbobtusis 
extus pubescentibu.-, corona' lobi- complicati- fere semiorbiculatis a pice 
truncatis lateribus ad apicem in dentes porrectos productis. 

Habitat.— Matabeleland, Baines. 

Folia \-2\ poll, longa. Peduneuli 1-6 lin. longi. Pedicelli 4-5 
lin. longi. Sepala 1-1 \ lin. longa. Corolla lobi 2-2} lin. longi, 1£ 
lin. lati. Corona' lobi 1 lin. longi. 

357. — Asclepias pygmaa, X. E. Brown; nana, caulibus pubes- 
centibus, foliis" linearibus acutis scaberulK umbellis paucis subcorym- 
bosis pcdunculatis l-6-u\>ns, pedunculis pedicelli s».p;ilisque lanceolatis 
acutis pubescent ibus, corolla- lobis oblongis subobiusis extus pubes- 
centibus, corona' lobis stellato-radiantibus complicatis lateribus ad 
basin in dontes erectos late deltoideos productis. 

Habitat. — Tbe lower plateau north of Lake Nyassa, Thomson. 

Plan/a 3-4 poll. alta. Folia 1-2 poll, longa. \ lin.lara. Peduneuli 
6-9 Un. longi. Prdice/fi -1-6 lin longi. S</,a!,i 2 lin. lon-a. Corolla 
lobi 2 £-3 lin. longi, 1£ lin. lati. Corona lobi 2 lin. longi. 

358. Margaretta distincta, X. E. Brown; eivcta pubescent foliis 
brcvitcr petiolatis oblongis \cl lanceolato-oblongi.- -aibobtu-qs ba-i 

-epalis lanccolalo-acuuili.atis, coi..ll.. eampamilutap lobis o\ato ob|«mgi< 
subobtusis non revolutis, corona^ lobis qiiam columna staminum duplo 
longioribus erectis basi anguste complicatis tridentatis supcrne in 
laminas cuneato-oblongas vol spathulato-oblongas expansis apiee 
denticulatis. 

Habitat. — Mountains east of Lake Nyassa, Johnson. 



Folia 2-4 poll, vel ultra ] 
longi. Pedicelli 6-8 lin. L 
lobi 5 lin. longi, 2\-Z lin. lati. " Core 

359. Margaretta orbicularis, A". K. Ilrou-n ,• eaulibus simplicihus 
pubescent ibus/l'oliis brevissimo petiolatis linearibus vol linearidanoeo- 
latis acutis vel acuminatis utrinquc pubescent ibus, umbellis paucis 
subcorymbosis pedunculate, pedunculis pedieellis atque sepalis 
laneeolato-acuuiinafi- .-uhtoiiientosis, corolla' lobis oblongis obtusis 
apice revolut.is, corona; lobis basi complicato-bideutatis abrupte in 
laminas orbiculatas expansis. 

Habitat.- — Nvassaland: Moravi eountrv. \vv-t of Lake Wassa, Kirk. 
Elephant Marsh, north Nyassa, Scott. 

Caules 1-2 ped. alti. Folia 2-4f poll, longa, 2-7 lin. lata. Pedun- 
culi i-3^ poll, loniri. Pedicelli 2-4 lin. longi. Sepala 2-2\ lin. 
longa. Corolla loin 31-4 lin. longi, lL-lf lin. lati. Corona lobi 
4-4^ lin. longi, 3-4 lin. lati. 

360. 

si j alls < ' - m t -. _1 l>i ". ' 'ioli i lol i- 1 ; ol» ong - 

corona tubulosa 10-dentu.ta intus lobis 5 brevibus complicates instruct;! 

Habitat. — Shire Yalley above the Cataracts, Sbamo, and near 
Mazzaro, Kirk. Shupanga Forest and Ohiloane, Scott. 

Foliorutn petiali |~li poll, longi, lamina; 1-2 poll, longa?, 7^-16 lin. 
lata'. l'i <!>/,!■ ,"li 1-ls lin. I < > 1 1 -_i i . I'edicelli .,-■,' lin. longi. Sepala 
3 lin. longa. Corolla- lobi 2-3 lin. longi, f lin. lati. Corona tubus 
1-li lin. longus, denies 1 lin. longi. 

361. Cynanchum fraternum, X. H. Brown ,- volubile, fbliis oblongo- 

formibus pedunoulatis, pedunculis : '-. sepalis late 

oval is subaoutis parce pubescent ibus, corolla' lobi- oblongis obtusis 
glabris, corona tubulosa 10-dentata intus nuda dentibus lineari-filiformibus 
alternis multo brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Abyssinia : Tigre, Schimper ; near Djeladjeranne, 
Schi taper, 1802. 

Foliorum pet ioli 2-6 lin. longi, lamina' ;• -2 poll, longa?, 4-12 lin. 
lata\ Peduncidi 1-4 lin. longi, Pedicelli U-4 lin. longi. Sepala 
\ lin. longa. Corolla; lobi 1 lin. longi. Corona- tubus |-| lin. longus, 
dentes longiures 1-1; lin. longi, denies acviores \-% lin. longi. 

362. Cynanchum clavidens, X. F. Bnnm .• rnmis lignosis graeilibus, 
foliia bastatfe acutis vel obtusis ilibus 5-6-florie, 

pedicelli- puhevidis sepalis ovatis vel lanceolatis acutis puberulis. corolla' 
lobis lanceolatis obtusis liiargiinnn- resolutis, corona tubulosa 10-dentata 

Habitat.— Somaliland : Boobi, James $ Thrupp. 

Futionoti pet ioli 6-8 lin. longi, laminae 0-12 lin. longa*, basi 3^-4 lin. 
late. Pedicelli 2^-4 lin. longi. & ga. Corolla 

lobi 2 lin. longi, £ lin. lati. Corona tubus § lin. longus, denies long: -iv- 



363. Cynanchum hastifolium, JV. E. Emir,, .• vnhil.il.>, foliis hasiatis 
acutis glabris^ [ue Bubulatia 
puberulis, corolla? lobis linearibus acutis marginibus revolutis, con ma 
tubulosa 10-dentata intus carinarum paribus 5 instruct* dentibus 

hoideiset filiformibus alternantil.us cmr. dentieulis minutis 
inter] ectis. 

Habitat. — Abyssinia: near Djeladjeranue, Sr/titnper, 1690. 

FoliOTUin pcliuli .'»-ii lin. longi, lamina- 1-16 liu. Ionga\ hasi .'5-7 Mm. 
lata?. Pedicel Hi 2-3 hn. longi. Sepala 1 lin. longa. Corolla lobi 
2|-3 lin. longi, £-§ lin. lati. Corona tubus 1£ lin. longus, dentes f lin. 

364. Cynanchum vagum, iV 7 . E. Brown ; volubile, foliis elongato- 
ovato-oblongis~acutis vel acuminatis basi cordatis glabris vol parce 
pubescentibus, cymis umbelliformibus multifloris peduneulatis, peduneu'is 
pedicellis atque sepalis ova! is acinic |mbesoeiitibus, corolhe lobis ovatis 
Bubacutiua glabris, corona cupulari 5-loba lobis bidentatis dentibus 

» distantibus. 



Habitat.— Congo, near Stanley Pool, Hens, 1 

Folionnn jxfioli 3-S 
latae. Pedunculi 1-2 lin. 1< 
longa. Corolla lobi ^-f lin. longi. Corona \ lin. longa. 

365. Cynanchum brevidens, N. E. Drown ; volubile, foliis elongato- 
obl.mgis acuminatis basi cordatis glabris vel parce pubescentibus, raeemis 
brevibus uml - pedicellia atque Bepalia 
ovatis acutis pubescentibus, corolla? lobis ovato-oblongifl rabobtusis 
glabris, corona eiipnlari brcviter o-dentata intus 10-carinata. 

Habitat. — Congo, Burton. 

Folionon pctioli'.l-W lin. loniri. lamina- 1-1' poll, l-.nga-, 1-9 lin. lata-. 
*" "-3 lin. longi. Pedicelli 1-4 lin. longi. Sepala \-\ lin. 
* '' . longi. Corona circa ^ lin. longa. 
N. E. Brown; corona \ lin. longa infra medium 
quinque lobata cum dentibus 5 minuti- nh.-i-nnntibu.s. loins in subulam 
brevem acuminatis vel abruptissime contractis. 
Habitat. — Zambesi : Expedition Island, Kirk. 

366. Tylophora oblonga, N. E. Brown ; volubilis glabra, foliis petio- 

latis oblongi.- vel elli |H ie. .-ob. .vat is hivvit.-r eiispidato-aeiimiuatis ba.-i 
late eunealis vel cuneai - mas ',)- \ mnbeliiibnn.-- 

3 gerenii 

■ oliO\ atn 

iformibn 

Habitat.— .Fernando Po, Mann, 277. 

Foliorum ]>cfi«ti 6-!) lin. longi, lamina- 2 j-.'i poll, longa-, I— If poll, 
lata?. Inflorescentia 2-3 poll, longa. Pedicelli 3-4 lin. longi. Sepala 
§-§ lin. longa. Corolla 3|-4 lin. diam., lobis 1£ lin. longis, i liu. 
latis. 

367. Tylophora stenoloba, N. E. Brown ; caule volubili pnbescente, 
latis oblongis vel elliptico-oblongis 
obtusis vel < M>rif9> umbellis ad nodos 

plurifloris, pedicelli s capillaribus' glabris. scpalis lanceolatis ; 
glabris, corollas lobis e basi ovata linearibus apice leviter dilatatis glabris, 
u 88977. B 



■ Cyrxiuclwd , I 



corona? lobis tuberculiformibus basi truneatis superne anguslatifl.— 
Astephanus stenolobus, K. Schum. in Engler Pflanzenw. Ost.-Afr. Th. 
C. p. 321. 

Habitat.— [Jsambara : Doda, Hoist, 2977a. 

Foliorum petioli \\-2 lin. longi, lamina? 9-15 lia. longa?, 4-8 lin. 
lata?. Pedicelli 7-8 lin. longi. Sepala \ lin. longa. Corolltc lobi 2\ 
lin. longi. 

This plant has been placed by Dr. Schumann in the genus Astcpha, 
among the f 
a Tylophoi 

368. Tylophora conspicua, N. E. Brown ; caule volubili 
foliis peticlatis oblongis vel obovato-oblongis breviter i 
cuspidatis basi cordatis, glabris venis pubescentibus, pedunculis p-ibes- 
centibus cymas 2 uml dliformes gerentibus, sepalis ovato-lanoeolatis 
acutis pubescentibus, corollas rotata? glabrae lobis oblique orbieulari- 
oblongis obtusis, corona) lobis tuberculiformibus ovoideis. 

Habitat.— Angola : Golungo Alto, Welwitsch, 4214, 4215. 

Foliorum petioli 9 lin. — 2f poll, longi, lamina? 2±-7 poll longa?, 
1^-3^ poll, latae. Pedunculi 9-12 lin. longi. Pedicelli 3-4 lin. longi. 
Sepala 2 lin. longa. Corolla 7-8 lin. diain., lobis 2\ lin. longis el latas. 
Coronce tuberculi, 1 lin. longi. 

369. Tylophora cameroonica, N. E. Brown ; caule volubili glabro, 

cordatis glabris, cymis laxis ramulis cymulas umbelliformes plurimas 
gerentibus primum ferrugineo-puberulis demum glabratis, sepalis lanceo- 
latis acutis glabris, corolla? rotata? lobis ovatis subobtusis, corona? lobis 
tuberculiformibus. 

Habitat.— Cameroons : Rio del Rey, Johnston. 

Foliorum petioli 9-15 lin longi, lamina? 3-5| poll, longa?, 2-3 poll, 
lata?. Cyma; 4-5 poll. diam. Pedicelli \\-2 lin longi. Sepala 
£-- lin. longa. Corolla 2\ lin. diam., lobis 1 lin. longis, § lin. latis. 
Corona; lobi ± lin. longi. 

370. Marsdenia angolensis, N. E. Brown ; volubilis, foliis cordato- 
ovatis acuminatis supra pubescentibus subtus subtomentosis, cymis 
laxis ramulis apice umbelliferis pubescentibus umbellis lC-14-floris, 
sepalis obovato-oblongis v< 1 elliptico-oblougis obtusis, corolla? campanu- 
lata? lobis elliptico-o'l lon-is obtusis extus pubescentibus intus glabris, 
corona? lobis liueari-oblongis basi dilatatis bicariuato-alatis. 

Habitat.— Angola, Welwitsch, 4245, 4250. 

Foliorum petiuli 1-1 : poll, iun^i. lamina- 2-3 ] »< >il. Ionian, 1 [-2 ])oll. 
lata?. Pedicelli 4-5 lin. longi. ' Sepala ;j-l lin. longa, .J-jj lin. lata, 
Corolla; tubus 1^—2 lin. longus, lobi §-1 lin. longi. Corona lobi H lin. 

371. Marsdenia profasa, N. E. Brown; volubilis, foliis ellipticc- 

cordatis cuspidatis vol acuminatis glabris, paniculis o 3-5 ramulis com- 
poses umbfllas plurimas n-iks gerentibus sepalis iate ellipticis obtusis 
minutissime eiliatis, eorolhe rotato-eampanulata) lobis ovatis acutis 



Foliorum petioli 1-2 poll, longi, !:.■ , 2-3^ poll, 

lata?. Paniculce 5-8 poll, longa?. Pedicelli \\-\\ lin. longi. Sepala 
£ lin. longa. Corolla \\ lin. diam. Coronce lobi \ lin. longi. 

372. Anisopus, A 7 ". Z?. flrotoa ,■ [Marsdeniearum genus novum]. 

Cn/f/i 5-partitus. Corolla tulm.- l.rovi>; liinbus ,">-lol>\is, lobis patoutibus 
valvatis. Corona duplex; extt-rioris lobi 5 sub sinubus eoroll.r albxi ; 
interioris lobi 5 columnar staminuni iiihxi iiutheris oppositi. Columna 
staminuni v basi corolla' exorta ; anthera? erecta?, membranaceo- 
appendiculata?. Pollinia in quoque loculo solitaria, erecta. Sti/lns 
ultra antheras bre\ iter exscrtus, apiee bitidus. — Fn/fn volubilis, glaber. 
Folia opposita. Embella axillares, opposita?, altera pedunculala altera 



Anisopus Mannii, X. E. Broken ; foliis herbaceis pctiolatis 
ellipticis vi'l flliptii'o-oblongis abrupte acuminatis basi rotuudatis, 
umbellis gloUsis ninltiflori- -olitariN \e] peduncubs 2-4 t'asciculatis 
bracleatis, bracteis i'oliosis, sepalis ellipiieo-ovatis obtusis, corollae lobis 
ovatis subacutis oxla- glabris intus pul>«'M.vntil'Us, corona' exterioris 
lobis semiorbiculatis pubescentibus, corona? interioris lobis carnosis 
liueari-oblongi> coluinna' sfaininuni aviuilonu;!- ba-i adnalis apic liberis 
incurvis acutis obtusis vol minute inlidi- dorso canaliculatis. 

Habitat.— Corisco Bay, Mann, 1862. 

Foliorum petioli \-\ poll, longi, Lamina 2^-3 poll, longa?, l£-lf poll, 
lata?. Pedunculi \-2 poll, longi. Pedicelli 3£-4 lin. longi. Sepala 
% lin. longa. Corolla; tubus 1-1$ lin. longus, lobi 1^ lin. longi. 

lin. longi. 



373. Pergularia africana, - 


N. E. Brown; volubilis, glabra, foliis 


ovato-oblongis vel late orotic 


» breviter, cuspidatis apice obtusis basi 


rotundatis cordatis vel cunet 


itis glabris vel supra parce puberulis, 




is vel subsessilibus nuiltifloris, pe<licellis 


sepal isque lanceolatis vel ovatis 


acutis glabris, corolla- bvpocrateiifbrniis 




[lose lobis linearibus obtusis intus breviter 


villosis, corona? lobis elliptico-h 


mceolatis orbiculari-obovatis vel obovato- 


oblongis obtusis vel subacutis ii 


.ltus ligula lineari vel lanceolato-attenuata 



Habitat.— Lagos, Roivland. Niger Territory : Nupe and Hay, 
Barter, 3332; Old Calabar, Thomson. Sierra Leone, Elliot, 45S<), 
5498, 5553. Natal, Me Ken, 2, Wood, 3395. 

Folorium petioli 4 lin.— 3 poll, longi, lamina? 2-4 poll, longa?, 1-3 
poll. lata?. Pedunculi 0-5 lin. longi. Ptdicclli 2-3 lin. longi. Sepala 
\\-l lin. longa. Corolla tubas 3-4 lin. longus, lobi 3|-6 lin. longi, 

374. Fockea Schinzii, .V. E. Brown ,■ volubilis, foliis hysteranthiis, 

cymis axillaribtis niultitloris compact^ tonautosis, scpalis ovati- acutis, 
corolla? lobis anguste oblongis obtusi.s mariduibus ivvulutis extus glabris 
intus puberulis, corona tubulosa, ina'qunbtcr lO-detituta intus paribus 
5 dentiuni instructa dentibus cuiusque paris superpositis. 

Habitat.— Angola, Welwitsch, 4194. Amboland ; Ombandja, 
Schinz. 

Pedicelli 2-5 lin. longi. Sepala 1-1| lin. longa. Corolhe iuhu-. 
1 lin. longus, lobi 3^-4 lin. longi. Corona 2 lin. longa. 



375. Fockea undulata, X. E. Brown; cmle basi ramoso minis bievi- 
bus puborulis, foliis sessilibus linearibUs apice revoluto-uneinaus acutis 
mar-inibus undulato-iv volutis sn j»r;j minute j>ul »t-rulis subtus glabris, 
flonbus paucis axillaribus fasciculatis p lnvl i j, prdiecllis sopalisque 
biicrolatn-deltoideis acutis puberulis, corolla caiupaiiuhila' lobis lineari- 
oblongis obtusis extus puberulis, corona? tubulosa? 10-lobata? lobis trifidis 
alternis ininoribus inlenlum subintegris dentibus riliformibus lateralibus 
multo minoribus, tubo intus 1,5 carinato carinis inforniediis validis in 
dentes 5 Sliformes quam tubo sublongic 



Habitat.— Transvaal ; Ehenoster Kop, Burke. 

Rami li-3 poll, longi. Folia \-\\ poll, longa, £-1 lin. lata. JPedi- 

celli 1 lin. longi. St pah, -\-\ lin. longa. Corolla tubus 1 lin. longus, 
loiii 2-2 | lin. longi. \ lin. lati. Corona- tubus H-1H lin. longus, dentes 
longiores 1^ lin. longi. 

Dulis" 3-4^floris, 
. glabris, corollas tubo basi leviter inflato 
utrinque glabro lobis lineari-lanceolatis apice connati.s glabris, corona? 
exterioris lobis subrectangularibus bifidis, corona? interioris lobis 
lineal ibus acutis truncatis vcl bifidis conniventibus. 

Habitat.— Nyassaland, Shire Highlands, Buchanan, 205, 455. 

ipetioli 1-21 ,„,!!. i un „i, lamina-. 21-5* poll, longa?, l|-4 
a- rami \-7 poll, longi. Pedicelli f-1' " 
I. 1 , lin. longa. Corolla 7-8 £ lin. longa. Coronce e 
lobi * lin. longi. 

377. Ceropegia constricta, X. E. Brown ; caule volubili glabro, foliis 

setuloso-dentieul.it;- glabris, poduneulis 2-3 tloris, -i-palis lanceolato- 

strirtu apice iiit'undibularil'oniii extus glabro intus in fauee hirlo, lobis 

Habitat.— Tanganyika, Carson, 35. 

Foliorum jyctioli, ,3-4 lin. loud lamina' <)-15 lin. longa?, 5-10 lin. 
lata*. Pfdunculi 9-15 lin. longi." Pedicelli 3-5 lin. longi. %>afa 
2 lin. longa. Corollce tubus \\ poll, longus, lobi 4-6 lin. longi. Corona: 

378. Ceropegia subtruncata, N. E. Brown ; caule volubili unifariam 
pubescente, foliis petio'aiis ovatis vol oblongo-obovatis subcuspidato- 
aouminatis subtus piloses ciliatis, Horibus volitariis pcdicellatis, sepalis 



Schimper, G28. 
1 lin. longi, lamina? If— 3^ poll, longa?, 1-1| poll. 
i. longi. Corolla tubas- !) lin longus, lobi 5 lin. 
oris lobi J lin. longi, interioris lobi l£ lin. 



2<il 



370. Ceropegia nigra, X. /.'. Broicn .• caul*' volul.ili puiie^'cut*.'. I'olii.s 

vol late rotumlati> p.il .■■-<•. -m ibu.-. cyinis huI >>ossihi m.- plurifloris, scpalis 
e eentibns, corolla tal spice iufuiidi- 

bulitoriui cxtus pubo-cent!' iutus -hil>ro. lobis liboris patmtilm- ileltoiileo- 



Ceropegia teixtaculata, 



deltoidea in ppicem capillaroiu 

luir^rforminus. interioris lobi; 

Hubifdi. - -A iisol:! : Loaml 



Habit 

Foliar 

Pedicell 



Habifat.—kngohu JVelicitsvh, 4272. 

folionnn petioli 4>-i> lin. lon-i. lamina. U,-2 poll, long*, 7^-17 lin. 

ita\ Perfiiinuli 2 ~> liu ! ■ _i Pxl ill ' < inngi >,/•//,/ 1J 



peltatb. jH-iIunculis l-2-tlori^. floribu- subdi<tar.tibu<, sepalis lanceo- 
s aiteouatis, corolla? tubo recto basi inflato extus papillato-ruguloso 
is glabro, lobis connive:itibus apice connatis replicaiis intu> carinati* 



Habitat.— Angola, Welwitsch, 4276. 

Foliorum petioli 2-3 lin. longi, lamina? 1-2| poll. lon<_ 
lata'. I'cduneuli 3-5 lin. longi. " 
1[ lin. longa. Corolla tubus- 4>-5 I 
exterioris deu/cs \ lin. longi, interi 

E. Brown; volubilis, glabra, foliis 
late einptico-ovatis breviter cuspidato-acutis vel 
cordatis, pedunculis 1 2-l!oris -cp.il - lin i : l"i- vel 
subulatis acini-, corolla' tubo cunnlo basi inflato apice infumlibulif'nnui, 
lobis inflexis et in tubum brevem angustum connatis doiudo in capituium 
pentagonum dilatatis, corona? interions lobis erectis !im-an -pathulaiis 



384. Ceropegia distu 
vato-oblongis vel late 



Habitat.— Zanzibar, Kirk, 28. 

Foliorum petioli 5-8 lin. longi, lamina? 2-3 poll, longa?, 1-2 poll lata?. 
Pedunculi l-ll poll, longi. Pedicelli 4-8 lin. longi. Sepala 5-6 
6 lin. longi. 



lin. longa. Corolla- tubus circa 1 poll, longus, lobi 


circa ofi 


Corona interioris loin \\ lin. longi. 




385. Ceropegia scandens, N. E. Brown ,- volut 


.ilia glabr 


petiolatis ovatis ol)longo-ovatis vel elliptico-ovatis 




rotundatis vol oinar^inat i<. peduneulis 4-7-floris, sepa 




revolutis, corolla? tubo curvato basi leviter inflato, 




connatis oblongo-ovatis replicatis ciliatis intus 




exterioris lobis bifidis ciliatis, interions lobis 


erectis li 



Habitat.— Angola, tl'cliritsr/i, 4273. 

Foliorum petioli 6-9 lin. longi, lamina' 2-3£ poll, longae, 1£-1£ poll, 
fata?. Pedunculi 1 poll, longi. Pedicelli 5 lin. longi. Sepala 2^-3 
lin. longa. Corolla tubus circa 6 lin. longus, lobi circa 5 lin. longi. 
Corona exterioris lobi 1 lin. longi, interioris lobi f lin. longi. 

386. Ceropegia racemosa, N. E. Brown ; caule volubili glabro, foliis 

pt-tiolatis lanooolatis v, i obloiigo-laneeolatis :wntis vol nl.tu-is apieuktis 
basi rotundatis marginibus soaborulis, racemis 2-4-floris, floribus 
distantibus, sepal :s ovato-lanooolatis acutis glabris, corolla? tubo recto 
cylindrJco basi obtiqiio apico late iniundibularilbrmi oxln> glabro intus 
villoso, lobis ori'o;n-oi.iiiii\<-ntibii-. apicc connati- h'nean! us ba-i dilatatis 
replicatis plicis ciliatis, coron.t exerioie 10 dentata ciliata, corona? 
interioris lobis linoaribns eneto-eonniventibus apice revolutis. 

Habitat.— Jur : Gbattas, Scluceiufurth, 2105. 

Foliorum petioli l|-3 lin. longi, lamina? 14,-2 poll, longa?, 4-9 lin. 
lata-. Pedunculi 11-4 poll. Ioitgi. Pedicelli 21-3 lin. longi. Sepala 
11 lin. longa. Carol he tubus circa 9 lin. longus, lobi 7 lin. longi. 
Corona exterioris dentes £ lin. longi, interioris lobi 1 lin. longi. 

387. Ceropegia medoensis, N. E. Brown ; caule erecto molliter 
pubescent'-;' foliis brevis-imc petiolatis ovatis vel oblongis obtusis vel 
subacute ln-cvitor pilosis, floril.u- 1-2 terudnalibus, sepalis lanceolato- 
subulatis pubescent i bus, corolla? tubo recto basi inflato apice anguste 



infundibuliformi extus pure- pul m-cci:!.-. lobis elliptieo-spathulatis intus 
carinaiis apice in conum brcvem latum vel umbrnculum connatis 
glabris, corona exteriore campanulata 10-dentata, coronas interior's lobis 

Habitat.— Medo country, between Lagenda Pvivor and Lbo, Last. 

Folionnn jtctioli -\ 1 lin. lon^i, laminse 1-1^ poll, longa-, ,'3- 10 lin. 
lata?. Pedicelli 2-1 I'm. longi. Sepala 3 lin. longa. Corolla tubus 
\\ poll, longus, lobi 1 poll, longi, 5-6 lin. lati. ^Corona c.ctcrioris 
(/elites ) | lin. longi. interioris lobi 1 lin. longi. 

388. Brachystelma Buchanaui, X. E.Brown; caule crecto puberulo, 
loliis brevissiiiie~petiolatis ellipiieo-obovatis ohtusis.-iniN l>a^i ouneatis 
pubescentibus, umljellis o 7-floris in cvmam tenninalcm dispositis, 
sepal is hnceolatis acuminati- pubescentibus, corolla? patelliforinis lobis 
rriangularil.us aemis glabris. corona cxteriorc cupulari 10-dentata, 
J. ntilins <[( ltoidvo--uliulat ; s t-etiorsim pubescentibus patentibus, coronae 
interioiis lobis lineari-oblongis super autheras incumbentibus. 

Habitat.— Nyassalaud : Shin- Highlands, Buchanan, 116. 

Folia a§-4| poll, longa. 2-2\ poll. lata. Fedicelli, 1 poll, longi. 
Sepala lf-3 lin. longa. Com 1 !,, >.) lin.diani. Corona? exteriores denies 
^ lin. longi, interioris lobi | lin. longi. 

389 Brachystelma magicum, iV. /?. Broim ,• folds oblancclaio- 

lanceofato-attenuatis. corolla- i-otata- lobi- biwibus deltoidei- glabris, 
corona exteriore 10-dentala deiitibus >ubulatis civet is. corona- interioris 
lobis liuearibus super antheras incumbentibus. 

Habitat. — " Collected a long day's journey this side of ITjiji " by 
the Belgian Consul at Zanzibar in 1884. 

Folium 3h poll. Ionium. 1.5.^ lin. latum. Pedicel! its 1 poll, longus. 
1 lin. longi, interioris lobi £-§ lin. longi. 



300. EcMdnopsis nubica, X. E. Broim ; A. aroj'ornti simibs, 
i-palis lanceT.latis aeutis minute papillatis, corolla eampannlato-io!;,ta 
)l»is ovatis aeutis extus minute papillatis. corona exierioie nulla, coronas 
iterioris lobis deltoideo-ovatis. 

Habitat.— ^abis : between Suakin and Berber, Schweinfurt/t, 228. 

Sepala \-\ lin. longa. Corolla 2 lin. diam., lobis ^-3 lin. longis. 
droiia iiiti rioris lobi \ lin. longi. 

391. Caralluma Sprengeri, X. E. Broum ; caulibus quadrangulatis 
rosse dentatis glabris, cymis sessilibus 5-6 floris, pedieellts brevibus 
l ;l l,ris, sepalis lanceolate acuminatis, corolla rotata lobis ovatis 



143; Sehu 
III., pp. 74 and 104. 



Habitat. — Abyssinia: A.dow, Petit ; M;i>-ow,ili ': Schweinfurth. 
Caules2±-a poll, longi, \-\ poll, crassi. Pedicelli ]£ lin. longi. 
2 lin. longa. Corolla 10-11 lin. diam., lobis 4-5 lin. longis, 



bus, peUioellis ^Uibris, sopalis laneeclato- 

0-dontata breviter hirta dentibus subulatis, 
learibas qnam antheras longioribus irlabris 



393. Caralluma somalica, JV. E. Broini ,- canlibus probabiliter acate 

l-an^-nlatis <_. de;itatis, uinboilis tcnuin:ililin> 

dobois umltiflons, pedicollis glabris. s^palis laiu-eolato-aitemiatis 
>:uvi~iiiu! pubescentibus, corollae tubo breviter campamdato lobis 
mteiitibus deltoidc-o-ovatis aoutis iatus inicroscopice velutinis non 



Caralluma valida, 



SM^iiMiM 


i si'i>;dis ovato-lanceolatis 


amb^TegTonorlhe Transit al. **"*** ^ 


Dr. Holub either in the 


£a«fe* 4 poll, vet ultra longi, 7-10 lin. c 
ogl Sepala 3£ lin, longa. Corolla lobi J 


rassi. Pedicelli 4-5 lin. 
*-9 lin. longi 2\ lin. lati. 
lobi li lin. longi. 


395. Trichocaulon. officinale, AT. E. Brown 


; «,,ulilHi.s iis Tj>iliferi 



KV . tl.-ibai-iiim by .Mr. K. M. Holmes of the Phni:, 
lety, I have made the above diagnosis. 



.'ijm. Hoodia parviflora, X. E. Ih-own .• caulibns iis II. (iordoni 

corona? interior^ !<>1 »i< linearibus obtusis quam antherae brevioribns 
corona; cxteriori dorso adnatis. 

Habitat.— Angola, Welwit.ich, 4265. 

Pedicelli 1-2 lin. longi. Sepala <L\ lin.longa. Corolla circa \\ poll. 



397. Duvalia dentata, A T . E. Brown ; caulibus 6-ang 
angulis longe dentaf is d.-ntibu- swbulato-attenuatis. cy 

Habitat.— Beclmanaland : 30 miles N.W. of Koobie, 



corolla late cam- 



Caules 2-3| poll, longi, probabiliter 5-b' lin. crassi. Pedicelli 

longi. Sepala ! lin. longi. Carol/a circa 7 lin. diam., lebis .' 
longis. Corona' e.rterioris /obi }, lin. longi. r. lin. lati, interioris 
§ lin. longi. 



'l$ lin. longi. 



CCCCLXXX.— CITRUS FRUITS IN SICILY. 

The orange industry in Florida was of the annual value of nearly a 
million sterling. As already described in the Kew Bulb-tin . 1895. 
pp. 125 and 166, this important industry. lar<rel\ supported by British 
capital ami energy, has practically ceased to exist. This oircumsianee 
has given rise to a possible revival of orange-growing in Jamaica and 
the Bahamas, which formerly supplied a good deal of the oranges 
consumed in the United States. 

The chief seat of the orange industry in the Mediterranean is at 
Palermo in Sicily. In reply i<> many inquiries addressed to him on the 
subject, Mr. H. Lewis Dupuis, Her Majesty's Consul at Palermo, has 
prepared what may be regarded as i an exhaustive account of the orange 
and lemon industVv. This is published in a Foreign Office Report 
(Annual Series, 1895, No. 1544). From this report the following 



So-called fro 






Commerce in Oranges and Lemons {Green Fruit.) 

when yet green, in order to 
emons grow abundantly in the 
Catania, and Syracuse ; Messina is 
especially noted for lemons. The best oranges are those grown in the 
province of Catania, especially at Aderno and Biancavilla, but very 
many excellent and mixed qualities are found in the province of Palmero. 
They are distinguished as ordinary, blood, and sweet or vanilla, and 
mandarins. Lemons present no variety although they have designations 
known to the trade. Shipments mostly g< ' ' 
3 years the numbers of boxes exported i 

follows :- 



States. In the 1 



— | Zz. ■— ■ ™^>p'»»- o£, **""»-- 


2=S -- : 


Boxes. Boxes. 
326,020 1 168,759 
100,423 235,186 


Boxes. Boxes. Boxes. 

48,689 | 21,796 10,532 
117,353 252,722 | 576,752 


1893-94. 


— ! S. Bo*** Philadelphia. j:;;;; s . ****** 


Boxes. Boxes. 1 Boxes. Boxes. Boxes. 
Oranges - - 245,317 110,029 j 46 255 10.062 12,318 
Lemons - - 798,016 ' 149,601 92,309 135,900 19,818 



t the value of 74,800/. 






Boxes and cases are spoken of as 16, 25, 30, 36, 42, 49, &c, according 
to the number of oranges or lemons in each layer. The fruit fli.it goes 
to the Li nited Kingdom is in cases, and that lor the 1'nited States in 
boxes and half-boxes. They are carefully stowed in tiers, one above the 
other, in the vessel's hold, in such a way as to prevent injury to the fruit. 
Half-boxes only contain two layers of fruit. Boxes four and si. m -times 
five. All, whether oranges or lemons, are wrapped in tissue paper, with 



the elii 


nute and soil of 


Florid 


* 


V lives hr. 




vely introduced 


. It follows that if the States ■ 






upplies there w 


ill be 1 


ittle or no demand for in 




with their system of r 








fruit w 










ITnfo.t 


unately, the o 


l-Mll-r 


crop in Florida was <l 




except i 






\perieneed in December 




















n 1895. 




The 


growth of this 


trade has only been developed v 


nthin the I 












this"!.. 


'(•reasinii" ilt'inln 


id i.nd 


V,:i 1 ,r!i , i"?oSofcS 


,;;;;;; ! ;;;;, r; ;; 


z\ : \ 


)f my report of 


&: 


n^Vl'rV^l''''^' 1 :,': 


•Si? 











Till 1 follow fiin.T •!,,■ r U ;> ivatioll of o 

The fruit is one of the chief articles of trail. 1 in Sicily. hi soin 
the Island they are a source o' wealth To the proprietor and a!' 
to thousands of men. women and children in cultivni in.ii the tr 
gathering and packing the fruit for exportation. Besides ther 
in the production of essences whether of orange, lemon, ma: 

scale. Vice-Consul Elford, who furnishes me with all p: 



Other in rows and equidistant. Stony or sand 
suited, for the best -roves are near the beds < 
line from Messina to Acircale for instance, an 
and in the neighbourhood of Palermo. They 



Ripe stable mixed with wo 
fetches the highest price. 
April produce the best frui 



and will keep for months i 
i ca^cs unti March, th n 



if. This .'birth £oe> to the Staie> and Russia. All small 



equivalent to 1000 L 






lit for exportation, and three-eighth- <$o Tor making essence 
juice. It is packed in small case? for the States. Southern 









The April yield from the September blossom 






t of March, yet some good Fruit may be picked out for 
nearly all is used for local purposes. 

The .May yield, which is also the result of the September !do>som, 
known as " verdelii," is much sought after, and is shipped to the States 
in small cases; the fruit is of excellent keeping quality, and easily 
stands the voyage. No care is necessary in gathering or sorting the 
fruit, as it is all good, worth 25 per cent, more than winter-grown 
fruit. 

The so-called " bastardi " are gathered in June and July, and are 
the result of October and November blossoming. They are packed 
in Similar eases, and are sent to London, Liverpool, Trieste, and the 
States. 

In August and September the lemon crop is smaller, and inferior to 
those of the previous months. It realises less on this account, and also 
because the lemon crcp in South Spain begins. 



Production of 
The following is a fair propor 
nnually! 1 - 11011 



\prii-September - 



. 



> it depends on whether the trees 



Large. j Small. 



Lemon Plantatio: 

The management of a lemon plantation 
Trees should be trained high to admit free 
place regularly once a year. Dead wood, 
branches removed. In cases of a heavy crop, the branches are to be 
supported. Trees to be watered in summer with a little liquid manure 
in the water once a week, and the ground kept free from all under- 
growth. Market gardening is oecasionally practised between the trees, 
because the vegetables grown pjiy expenses 1'nr manure and cultivation ; 
but it is not to be recommended, as the fruit suffers in consequence. 

The tree should always be grafted on the bitter orange ; if grown 
from the pip it is subject to a disease called the gum, which often 
destroys it. Grafting takes place after three years, and is practised in 
the same way as on the rose tree. 

Vice-Consul Pignatorre also furnishes me with additional particulars 
on the subject. The tree requires [in Sicily] an equal temperature 
Lands bordering on the coastline are tie newt favourable, provided the 
situation be a sheltered one, as the trees are very susceptible to great 
variation of temperature ; yet they cannot be reared on a coast exposed 
to the strong south-west winds, nor in localities subject to frost. 

The ground round lemon trees requires to be hoed three times a 
year — in December, after the heavy autumnal rains, in April, and lastly 
in May, in order that they may be easily watered in summer. To water 
a plantation 01 2 1 acres twice a week, the quantity ot water required is 
10,500 hectolitres to continue from May to September. 

The clearing a . of dri.-d twig- and -ucker- pivcede> I he pruning, 

often enable the trees to resist the efl'eet of a \ iolent sciroeco. 



■ The pickling of lemons for exporta 
They are first cut in two and immersed 
eight days; they are then placed ^ in cask 
Salt water is then introduced to till up sp 
ready for exportation. 

Orange Flower 
With all this there is another industr 
to be regretted i 



whether of orange o: 
as the fruit appears, 
practised in other on 



CCCCLXXXI.-MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Weather and Attendance of Visitors in September.— Kew, in 
ommon with other parts of the country, experienced exceptionally fine 
-arm weather during the latter part of the month of September. The 
iwns and borders were in excellent order, and visitors came in large 



numbers. Tie :i - un Sunday the 22nd September 

when it readied 21,427. The week-day attendance was also larire, and 
ranged from 2619 to 3750 per day. The days were singularly' bright 
and sunny. The effect on the plants is likely to be most beneficial, as 
the growth made during the rainy days of August was ripened before 
the arrival of frost. The highest" shade temperature, recorded d .ring 
the month was 84° Fahr. on the 24th. This was the highest of anv at 
Kew during recent years. It was remarkable as following a minimum 
temperature on th. :iim1 51 Fain < 1 p,. « niuht Tin 
gives a range of temperature during the 21 hours of .'>:] degrees. The 
hot weather lasted exactly a week, the maximum temperature never 
falling below 76° from the 23rd to the 30th. 



Botanical Magazine —The following plants are figured in the Sep- 
tember number: llvlumlhvs d bills, llmm •■ Inpiienns, pains, Clei/era 
Fortunei, Atraphu.ris M't'srhkctmci, and Hirhardia Rchmanni. With 
the exception of the Cleyera all the [dates were prepared from plants 
that flowered at Kew. The Helianthw is :l native of the South-eastern 
States of North America, and is one of the less ornamental species. 
Rnmt.v liynwnosepalus is the - Canaigre,'' a plant yielding a tanning 
material, fullv described in the Kcv Bullet!,,. 1892. pp. '().'{-69, and 
1894, pp. 167-8. It was raised from seed sent by Dr. F. H. Goodwin, 
of Tucson, Arizona. Cln/rra IWhmvi i< the Eurya lutifolia raritqata 
of gardens, which has been in cultivation in this country upwards of 
30 years, but as it very rarely -lowers, its true genus ha ; only recently 
been determined. Atraphcvi. is a dwaif shrub, native of Central Asia. 
and belonging to the Pnlygonacetr. It has small pink and white tlowers 
in terminal erect racemes. Hi char din lieh,na;»ii, from Natal, has 



■ us plant 


the Herb 


ert River or 






Eastern 


Archipelago 
■ equals that 




Ming thai 


i of the red 



Queensland Cherry.— The fruit of i 
{Antidcsaia, dallac/u/annm, Baill.) is know 
Queen-land Cherry. The plant yielding i 
closely allied to A. Glucsembilla, Gmrtn" o 
and Ceylon. According to Bailey " the fro 
of large cherries, is of a sharp acid flavour i 

currant which it also equals in colour when made into jelly. As the 
European fruit is placed among medicinal plants on account of its 
juice being grateful to the parched palates of persons suffering from 
fever, this is worthy of a similar place/' Kew is indebted to Mr. J. II. 
, F.L.S.. Superintend. -nt of the Technological Museum, Svdney, 
' 1 specimens of this interesting Australian 
ins of Economic Botany. 

Dried Plants from British North Borneo.— Governor Creagh, C.M.G., 

dried plant' n^lctvTm! 'V^u i ItnMmmU,':'! 

This he has presented ,«, Kew on the condition of the plant- b,ing 

worked out as soon as possible. It is expected that the collection 
msiderable number of novelties. 



Fruit of Sararanga. — Mature fruit of this singular Pandanad 

een received from Admiral Wharton, C.B.. Hydrogrnphcr to 
Ltlmiralty. It was collected by the officers of H.M.S. " Pengui 



be useful, hut t ii.-y increase the bulk of the book lo Mich an .xicit a 

guide, however, which renders it in'- publication 

of a similar character. This is a series of admirabh executed view 
in different parts of the garden. The palm- arc particularly attractiy 
in those views, which include th< tamous avenue ot Ch-iodo.va re//ic 
It would appear too that the Director is exceedingly well housed. 



Liberian Coffee.— A good deal in 4 - ' ] i s-.owi in the 

cultivation ot this eofl'e. in tropical countries. 1 h- construction ot 
suitable machines for • ! -mes has given greater 

confidence to plainer-. Liberian coffee both in 

■" 
/„ ,, ,/.< {,, /, fn In, I W, , , t \) h -. iHfH , 2( 1-1:02 
(e'videntlv from the same pen as the information given m the hnr 
/,V/A//,, Js<>0. pp. :?47-24fM, will be read with interest:— 



From February to May 



temperature run- np to M5 in the shade. Liberian coffee does not mind 
sun but requires a certain amount of moisture with good drainage, and 
does not like heavy wind. Rainfall here is from 110 to 130 inches a 
year, very little falls from November to end of March. The country is 
rather steep and hilly. But the estates near the ghauts get sometimes 
200 inches. Those inland as little as 60. On all these places there is 
good Liberian to be seen. The sample of coffee of this giant kind is 
good; something like a date stone in appearance, has lately been valued 
at 85s. to 90*. in London, or say lO.v. per ewt. less than Arabian. I am 
supplying seedlings to planters in large quantities ; these, if put into 
nurseries 6" x 6" apart, shaded and watered till following June, should 
be plants 12" high, and ready to go out into the open in pits 20"x20". 
The plant does not grow very much the lir.-t year; after two years it 
comes on quickly. We find topping the tree or pruning in any way 
seems to put them back. Any other questions J -hall be glad to 

Liberian coffee affords a striking example of the intense conservatism 
of persons engaged in commerce. It was lirst ej-own al Kew in 1S72, 
nearly a quarter of a century ago. Sir Joseph Hooker spared no pains 
in bringing it under the notice of planters, and by 1876 it had been 
raised in large quantity and distributed from Kew to every tropical 
colony. As stated in the Report for that year (p. 10), "it excited the 
expectations of coffee planters in all parts of the world to the highest 
degree." This enthusiasm was however materially damped when the 
produce was found to be received with little fftTOUr to the home market. 
If was not till it was known to be saleable at a remunerative price in 
the United States that interest in its cultivation again revived. This 

coming the difficulty of pulping the berries. 

Full information rcspeciing the cultivation and curing of Liberian 
coffee has appeared in the Kew Bulletin as follows :—- 

Historical and Descriptive Account, 1890, pp. 245-253. 

Liberian Coffee at the Straits Settlement, with value of parchment 
coffee cleaned and sold in London, 1888, pp. 261-263. 

Yield of Liberian Coffee in Selangor and Ujong, 1890, pp. 107-108, 
and 1892, pp. 277-282. 

Liberian Coffee in Java, 1893, p. 25. 

Husking in London not advisable, ibid., 132. 

Liberian Coffee at Sierra Leone, ibid., p. 167. 

Pulping Liberian Coffee, ibid., pp. 204-206. 

Immunity from Attacks of Coffee-leaf Miner, 1894, p. 132. 

Cultivation at the Gold Coast, 1895, pp. 12-13, and pp. 21-23. 

The cultivation of Liberian coffee was strenuously advocated in 
Ceylon by the late Mr. A. M. Ferguson,C.M.G., who published at Colombo 
an excellent " History of the Introduction and Progress of the Cultiva- 
tion up to 1878." It however made little progress owing to its 
unsuitaliiliu for the ••topping treatment . " which the Ceylon planters 
had been in the habit of applying to Arabian coffee, and latterly owing 
to the superior attractions of tea. From Mr. Winterbotham's experience, 
stated above, it would appear that in Southern India, at least, topping and 
pruning are not adopted with Liberian coffee. 




luTnea balsamifera, D.C. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



No. 107.] NOVEMBER. [1895. 



CCCCLXXXIL— Al CAMPHOR. 

(Blumea balsamifera, D.C.) 
(With Plate.) 

An evergreen shrubby composite, sometimes growing into a small 
tree, is very abundant in Eastern India, where it is often "a most 
common and troublesome weed." It i- found also in South China and 
the islands of Hainan and Formosa. The whole plant is woolly, with 
the flowers on the stout branches of a large spreading or pyramidical 
panicle. Tha pappus is red. The leaves smell strongly of camphor. 
The species is descrihe.l in Hooker's Flora of Friti's/i India, iii., 
p. 270, and figured in Hooker's fcones Plantarum, t. 19-57. In the 
latter the following note is quoted from Dr. Henry : " From this is pro. 
duced in Kwanu:tung and Hainan tin- peculiar camphor known to the 
Chinese { 
name giv 

in Hainan ot ihe crude camphor is ah ml lo.Ot K) \\x. annually. This is 
refined in Canton, from which there is an annual export of about 10,000 
11-. oi' ii(/ai-jf'i< a. II anbury (Science Notes, p. 394) gives an account of 
the camphor, and mentions that the plant in question is -well known to 
emit when bruised a strong odour of camphor, and that in Burmah a 
crude campho: is extracted from it. For the physical and chemical 
properties of this peculiar camphor, sec Flaunainxtical Journal, 
ser. 3, vol. i\\, pp. 710-712." 

In the following letter Dr. Henry describes the details of the process 
employed l.\ the Chinese in extracting the camphor from this plant in 



the 1,1,::.! of Hainan. 




Dr. A. Henry 


, F.L.: 


Dear Mr. Dteh, 




Some time ago Mr. Riil 


the d< tails of the proee- 








Iried to obtain, the e.-unpl 




but had onlv succeeded i 




Mr. Unwin of the Chin 


Bae i'u 



. Throw-!, 
Hoihow, I 



and I send it to you for insertion in the Kew Bulletin. Mr. Gilman is 
a member of the American Presbyterian Mission, stationed in Kiung- 
chow, the capital of Hainan, and he makes journeys from time to time 
in the interior of the island, which i* inhMbitcd bv the Loi, a non- 
Chinese race. 

" During a recent missionary journey I travelled the entire length of 
the Loi country, and collected two specimens of the leaves of the plant 
from which the camphor is distilled, and in several places I saw the 
natives manufacturing the article, and I had a chance to inquire 
carefully into the process. 

" The plant is in flower in July and August. During the fall and 
winter months the Chinese of the island, or the aboriginal Lois in 
Chinese employ, collect the young leaves of the plant which there grows 
to a height of 8 or 10 feet. They say they only take the last three 
joints of the branch, as in the specimens which I have collected. 
These leaves are allowed to remain on the branch, and are wilted for a 
couple of days. They are then placed in the retort, which is a cask 
about two feet high, open at both ends, and of a diameter suitable to 
place it over a large Chinese frying pan (say, the diameter is 20 inches). 
The frying pan is filled with water, and' over the water is placed a 
coarse sieve of woven bamboo to separate the leaves from the water. 
The cask is cemented with clay to the edge of the pan, and after 
receiving its charge of 30 lbs. or 40 lbs. of the leaves, a large brass 
basin is placed on the upper open end of the eask, and is filled with 
cold water which is frequently changed. Fire is placed under the 
frying pan, and the process of distil. for about four 

hours. At the end of that time the brass pan is lifted off, and its 
lower surface is found to be coated w;: 1 substance 

about a sixteenth of an inch thick. This lathe ,,„ia-hr> l , (local dialect 
for oi-fen) or crude camphor, which Mr. Unwin, the Commissioner, 
tells me is sent to Canton and re-manufactured into m-picn or refined 
camphor." 

I enclose Mr. Oilman's specimen, which is not Blumea bahamifora, 
but, as well as I can make out from a cursory examination, is probably 
a species of Buddleia. There are no flowers, only leaves, and the 
latter have no camphoraceous odour when bruised. I am inclined to 
think that Mr. Gilman has been deceived as to the plant, and that the 
Chinese substituted the leaves of another plant for the one actually 
employed, I am inclined to think that Bhtmea baUamifera is the true 
source. The leaves of Bhtmea have a certain rude similarity to those 
sent by Mr. Gilman. 

The authority for Blumea as the source of this peculiar camphor 
rests on Hanbury, Science Papers, p. 394. In Hooker's Iconcs 
Pluiitarum, tab. 1957, this plant is figured, and some particulars as 
regards the trade in the commodity, &c. are given there from me. 
Yours, &c. 
(Signed) Augustine Henry. 

For the following further information Kew is indebted to Mr. M. F. 
A. Frascr, ELM. Consul, Pakhoi, who communicated it, together with a 
series of specimens for the Museum, in a letter dated 5th December 

A. — Translation from the Pen-ts'ao Kang muh, or great Materia 

Medica, by Li Shi-chen, date about 1600 A.D. 

Thousand-year ngai {Blumea balsamifera), grows originally at 

Wu-tang (? in Hupeh Province, Iat. 32° 40', long. lll c 08'), and in 



Tai Ho Hills (? in Anhui Province, lat. 33° 10', long. 115° 43'), has a 
sora.nvh.ir Vendor stalk somewhat over a chih (about 14 inches) long. 
The root is like that of the p'eng-hao ( Cln-i/sanllio-nni) cornmirium* ?). 
its leaves are rather more tlian a ts'v,> (\\ inch) long, and are without 
points (i.e.. simple or entire). The faces of the leaves are dark (or 
green), the bacffs white. In autumn the flowers open, yellow, like the 
wiM ehry<anthemum,j and small. The seeds (or fruits) are like dark 
pearls and look like little lumps of cinnabar (?). During the dog-days 
of summer the leaves are gathered and dried. The leaves are rat like 
those of tin- ,n/ai (Artemisia ruff/ana), but have the same odour. 
When triturated they crumble to dust at once, and do not make a soft 
mas.- holding together like the leaves of the ngai when similarly treated 
The Taoist> use them to make up prescriptions. Doctors administer 
them boiled in \ iter i n f« m lie co plaint u d foi c< hi- n men (?). 

B. — Notes obtained from various source- on thesuhieci >■: Xgai Camphor. 

The ai, called Ta fuh (great happiness) ai, is a plant which grows 
pretty well over the Kwangsi, Yunnan, and Kweichow Province-. i n ,t 
the choicest quality is produced at a place called Ta Ivang Fow, about 
32 miles (100 li) from Yunnan Fu, the capital city of Yunnan. 

Processes of preparation : — 

1. A large pan or cauldron is filled with water, and a tin or can 
without a lid set upright in it. This tin has a small a pert sire beneath, 
into which is fitted a metal tube. The plant is put into the tin, and a 
second iron pan put over the tin like a cap. This pan has an aperture 
through which issues the tube leading from the can. The water is 
made^to boil, and the steam, having no other means of egress but the 
tube, passes through the can and out of the coveting iron pan, stemming 
the plant on its way. and condensing as '' ai dew." 

2. In the second place the "tfi'dew" is put into a tin or can which 
has no orifice in it. and. with that variation, treated as before. The 
product is railed ti fen (or " ai flour " or " powder "). 

3. The u ai powder "is treated according to the first of the three 
processes, and the essence thus distilled is the fragrant ai i/», or 
<« ai oil." 

C. — The following account was given by a Chinese dealer from 
Kwangsi. uho cam.- toPakhoi in September ls«)3, to Chen-Sien-Sheng, 
Her Majesty Consulate's Chinese writer. 

Small ' iif/ai is otherwise called " oth month ngai" and "duck's foot 
ngai" the Pen-ts'ao calls it ngai, also "white ngai" (Artt mis/a 
vulgaris). 

Great ngai. vulgar name " great-luek ■f;ai"; in the Fen-ts\m it is 
called " lOOo-vear in/at" (Bluutea balsa mifera). 

(Signed) M. F, A. E*RAfKB 



Plate. 



2. Female floret 3. Disk floret. 
Lnthers. 6. Stigma. Enlarged. 



rendered by Giles. See Brettschneider, Botanic 
e Brettschneider, p. 77. Apparently Pyrethrum in 



CCCCLXXXIIL— BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 



At the recent meeting of the British Association at Ipswich, the 
Director of (ho Royal Gardens, in the course of his piv-idenfial address 
on September 12th, at the opening of the new Botanical Section K, 
made the following remarks on the subject of botanical r 



There is one subject upon which, from ten official position elsewhere, 
I desire to take the opportunity of saying a few words. It is that of 
nomenclature. It is not on its technical side, I am afraid, of sufficient 
general interest to justify my devoting to it the -pace which its importance 
would otherwise deserve. But I hope to be able to enlist your support 
for the broad common-sense principles on which our practice should 

As J suppose, everyone knows we owe our present method of 
nomenclature in natural hi-;or_\ to Linna u-. if- devised the binominal, 
or, as it is often absurd!;, salted, the binomial system. That we must 
have a technical system of nomenclature I suppose no one here will 
dispute. It is not, however, always admitted l>y popular writers who 
have not appreciated the difficulty of the matt. ;. and who think all names 
should be in the vernacular. There is the obvioii- difficulty that the vast 
majority of plants do not possess any names at all, and the attempts to 
marufactuie them in a popular shape have met with but little success. 
Then, from lack of di-crimin iting power on the part of those who use 
them, vernacular names are often ambiguous ; thus Bullrush is applied 
equally to Typha and to Scirpm, ^ 
x 



vesications into it- affinity. 
structure, or properties.* " Nomina si ne-cis pent et eognitio rerum." 

In order to get clear ideas on the matter let us look at the logical 
principles on which such names are based. It is fortunate for us that 
these are stated bv Mill, who, besides being an authority on logic, was 
also an accomplished botanist. He tells us : t ,4 A naturalist, for pur- 
poses connected with hi- [.articular science, see- reason to distribute the 
animal or vegetable creation into certain groups rather than into any 
others, and he requires a name to bind, as it were, each of his groups 
together." He further explains that such nanus, whether of species, 
genera, or orders, are what logicians call connotative : they denote the 
members of each group, ar.d nnniote the distinctive characters by which 
it is detined. A species, then, connotes the common characters of the 
individuals belonging to it; a genus, those of (he species; an order, 
those of the genera. 



ire the logical 



pecies. the other an individual. 
This being the case, and technical name being a necessity, they con- 
iito general use in connection with horticulture, commerce, 
mdieine, and the arts. It seems obvious that, if science is to keep in 
; :eh with human att'air-, \g not merely 



*es become necessary, but should never 
1 solid reason. In some cases they are 

From time to time the revision of a large group has to be undertaken 
from a uniform and comparative point of view. It then often occurs that 
new genera are seen to have been too hastily founded on insufficient 
grounds, and must therefore be merged in others. This may involve 
the creation of a large number of new names, the old ones becoming 
henceforth a burden to literatura as synonyms. It is usual in such 
cases to retain the specific portion of the original name, if possible. If 
it is, however, al reads pi eoeeupied in t lie genu.- to which the transference 
is made, anew one must be devised. Many modern systematise have, 
however, set up the doctrine that a specific epithet mice given is indelible. 
and whatever the taxonomic wanderings of the organism to which it was 
once assigned, it must always accompany ir. This, however, would not 
have met with much sympathy from Linnaeus, who attached no import- 
ance to the speciiic epithet at all : '"Nomen specificum sine generico est 
qua-i pistillum sine eampana." ; Linnauis always had a solid reason for 
everything he did or said, and it is worth while considering in this case 

Before his time the practice of associating plants in genera had made 
some progress in the hands of Tournefort and others, but specific names 
were still cumbrous and practicalh unusable. Genera were often 
distinguished l,\ ;l single word ; and if was the great reform accomplished 
by Linna-us to adopt the binon inal principle for species. Buttmie is 
this difference. Generic names an- unique, and must not be applied to 
more than one distinct group. Specific names might have been con- 
stituted cm the same basis ; the specific name in that ease would hen 

been sufficient to indicate it. °AVe should have lost, it is true, the useful 
information which we get from our present practice in learning the 
genus to which the species belongs; but theoretically a nomenclature 
could have been established on the one-name principle. The thing, 

like vulgaris may belong to hundreds of different species belonging to as 
many different gen ia, and taken alone is meaningless. A Linnean 
name, then, though it consists of two parts, must be treated as a whole. 
" Nomen omne plantar urn consiabit nomine eonerico et specifico."t A 
fragment can have no vitality of its own. Consequently, it superseded, 
it may be rep dependent.}; 

It constantly happens that the same species is named and described 
by more than one writer, or different views are taken of specific dif- 
ferences by various writers ; the -p • "lumped " 
by another. In such cases, where there is a choice of names, it is cus- 
, however, with the late 



and meaningless when taken by itself. 



:, i; 



rather than another." And in point of fact Linnivus and 
systematise attached little importance to priority. The r: 
Ration of the principle involves the assumption that all persons \ 
ibe or attempt to describe plant 

But this is so far from being the case that it 
jsible even to guess what could possibly have b 
i 1872 Sir Joseph Hookerf wrote: "The number 
scribed by authors who cannot determine their affin 
annually, and I regard the naturalist who [nits a described plant into its 
proper position in regard to its allies as rendering a greater service to 
science than it- describe]- when lc either puts it into a wrong place or 
thn.ws it into any oi tho>o chaotic heap--, miscalled genera, with which 
systematic works still abound." Tin- ha- ;dwa\ - s, , med to me not 
merely sound sense, but a scientific way of treating the matter. What 
of stability and the 
> with progress in perfecting our 
3 system. Nomenclature is a means, not an end. There are 
perhaps 150,000 species of flowering plants in 
want to do is to push on the task of getting them 
in ,in intelligible manner, and their affinities 
possible. We shall then have material for dealing with 
problems which the vegetation of our globe will present when treated 
as a whole. To me the botanists who priority are 

like boys who, when sent on an errand, spend their time in playing by 
the roadside. By such men even Linnams is not to be allowed to decide 
his own names. To one of the most splendid ornaments of our gardens 
he gave the name of Mtu/noUu <;,■«, ,<lijlnra : this is now to be known as 
MutfhaHa fefida. The reformer himself is constrained to admit, " The 

what is gained by making it, except to render systematic botany 
ridiculous. The genus Aspidium, known to every fern-cultivator, was 
founded by Swartz. It now contains souk two species, of which the vast 
majority were of course unknown to him at the time; yet the names of 
all these are to be changed because Adanson founded a genus, Dryopteris, 
which seems to be the same thing as Aspidium. What, it may be 
asked, is gained by the change ? To science it is certainly nothing. 
On the other hand, we lumber our books with a mass of synonyms, and 
perplex everyone who takes an interest in ferns. It appears that 
the name of the well-known Australian genus Banhsia really belongs 
to Pimclca . -ore to be renamed, and Bmiksia is to 

• Sirmin In /•,/. after Sir Ferdinand von Mueller; a pro- 
posal which. ! n.e.'d hardly say, did not emanate from an Englishman. 

I will not multiply instances. But the worst of if is that tho-e who 
have carefulh studied tin subject know that, from various causes which 
I cannot afford the time to discuss, when one.- it i- attempted to disturb 
accepted nomenclature it is almost impossible to reach finality. Many 
genera only exist by virtue of their redefinition in modern times ; in the 
form in whicl d they have hardly any 



It can hardly be doubted that one cause of the want of attent 
BjBtematii rive labour of the biblio- 

ork with which it has been overlaid. What an enormous 
bulk nomenclature has already attained may be judged from the Index 
Kewcnsis, which was prepared at Kew, and which we owe to the 
munificence of Mr. Darwin. In his own studies he constantly cam. on 
the track of names which he was unable to run down to their source. 
This the Index enables to be done. It is based, in fact, on a manuscript 
index which we compiled for our own use at Kew. But it Is a mistake 
to si^pose that it is anything more than the name signifies, or that it 
expresses any opinion as to the validity of the names themselves. That 
those who use the book must judge of for themselves. We have 
indexed existing names, but we have not added to the burden by 
making any new ones for species already described. 

What synonymy has now come to may be judged by an example 
supplied me by my friend Mr. C. B. Clarke. For a single specie! df 
Fiinh :■>.-/ uH- lie tin. i - i:;."> published names under six genera. [f we <ro 



Although I have 



(brought tl 
, or indeed any c 
While I hope I shall carry j 

•!■■[ that the technical 

lv be appreciated by experienced specialists. All that can 

general agreement amongst the staffs of the principal 

' eve systematic botany is worked at ; 

they "like. 



CCCCLXXXIV.— NEW ORCHIDS.— DECADE 15. 

141. Dendrobium curviflorum, Rolfe; caule crecto brevi. foliis 

bracteis ov;. i : >, aepfclo poatieo i 

obtuso lateral i bus s-imilibus ba<i in mentum curvum obtusum longe 

disco lsevi, cofon tugo incurvo. 

Hab.— li 1 probably Sikkim. 

Caul is- 6 poll, louv-'us Folia H-l | poll. long:i. o lin. lata. Bnti-teu 
\-\\ lin. longs* PetliceW 7-S Tin. longi. Sepalnm posMcnm -H lin. 
longum, lateralia 1 poll, longa. Petala 5 lin. longa. label!)'//, 1 pull. 
longum. Columna 1 lin. longa. Mention 9 lin. longum. 

\ ••■■'■■■■ ■■''.- 



blolch in front. 



" 



1 12. Cirrhopetalum compactum, Rolfe; ca?spi 

- 

ttis, sepalo postico oblo 



■ 



'• ' ■ - _ . 

ovatis acutis glabris, labello sagittato-oblongo obtuso, columna brevissima 
dentibus brevibus. 

Hab.— Tenasserim : Panga, Curtis. 

Pseudobulbi 3-4 lin. longi. Folia \-\\ poll, longa, 4-5^ I'm. lata. 
Scapus 2\ poll, longus. Bractece \\ lin. long®. Pedicelli l| lin. longi. 
Sepal um posticum 2 lin. Ion gum ; lateralia b\-G lin. longa. Petala 
\\ lin. longa. Labellum 1 lin. longum. 

A small species sent to Kew by Mr. C. Curtis, of the Forest Depart- 
ment, Penang, which flowered in September last. It is allied to C. 
p a r vultm , Hook, f., and C. acutiftorum, Hook. f. Flowers uniformly 
pale straw-coloured. 

143. Trias vitrina, Rolfe ; rhizomate repente, pseudobulbis approx- 
imatis ovoideis monophyll - a oblongo-lanceolatis sub- 

acuminatis carnosis, floribus solitariis v. fasciculatis breviter pedicellatis, 
sepalo postico ovato acuto erecto apice recurvo lateralibus ovatis acutis 
supra medium reflexis, petalis subspathulato-oblongis acutis erect is, 
labello trilobo lobis lateralibus parvis falcato-subulati-. .-n-ctis intermedin 
, disco convexo supra basin bicarinato, 

Hab. — Tenasserim; Panga, Curtis. 

Pseudobulbi 6-10 lin. longi. Folia 2\-Z\ poll, longa, 5-8 lin. lata. 
Pedicelli 6 lin. longi. " tn. longum, 5 lin. latum; 

lateralia 8 lin. longa, 4 lin. lata. Petala 2\ lin. longa. Labellum 
6 lin. longum, 2\ lin. latum. Columna 2 lin. longa. 

Sent to Kew with the preceding Ctrrkopetalum. Sepals a very pale 
shining green, and the apex of the petals and base of the lip marked 

larger than in the previously known species. 



scapis pendulis inultifloris basi vapnatK bractcis obovato-oblongis >ub- 
acutis convolutis, sepalo postico lanceolato-oblongo acuto carinato 
concavo suberecto, lateralibus connatis lanceolato-oblongis acutis carinaus 
conduplicato-concavis erecti-, p.-talis lanccolatis acutis reflexis, labello 
trilobo !.a.-i saccate lubi- LitemliUi- amplis rotundali* columnam invol- 
ventibus intermedio late orbiculari-ovato acuto recurvo, disco basi 
obtuse tricar inato apice tevi, columna brevi clavata dilatato-alata apice 
subtruncata crenulata. 

Hab. — Western New Guinea, Burke. 

Pseudobulbi 3^-4 poll, longi. Folia 5-7 poll, longa, circa 1^ poll. 
lata. Scapi^-2 ped. longi. Bractece G-8 lin. longa?. Pedicelli 6=3 
lin. longi. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Petala 5 lin. longa. Labellum 6-7 
lin. longum. Columna 3 lin. longa. 

A very distinct species, which flowered in the establishment of Messrs. 
James Veiteh & Sons in August last. Flowers pure white, borne in long 
pendulous racemes. The short column, the absence of markings on the 
lip, and the very short rather obscure basal keels are quite different 
from any previously known species. 

145. Polystachya Kirkii, Rolfe ,■ pseudobulbis cospitosis _ lineari- 
scapis gracilibus interdum parce ramosis paucifloris basi ancipitibus, 



iin.cn-i- be I eolato-ovato 

acuto lateralibus late triangularibus earinatis apice subfalcatis aniti-. 
petalis lanceolatis .-initio labello trilobo intus pubescente lobis lateralihus 
parvis semioblongis obtusissimis erectis interinedio ovato acuto. callo 
lineari-oblongo valde carnoso pubescente, columna lata. 

Hab. — East Tropical Africa : Mombasa district, Sir John Kirk. 

Psduhtbiillti \\-2 poll, longi. Folia 3-5 poll, longa, 7-10 lin. lata. 
Scapi 2-3 poll, longi. Bractece \-\\ lin. longae. Pedicel I i 2-2 h lin. 
longi. Sepalum posticum 3£ lin longum, 1£ lin. latum ; lat< lalia'l lin. 
longa, 4 lin. lata. Petala 3^ lin. longa, 1 lin. lata. Labelbun \\\ lin. 
longum, 2i lin. latum. Columna 1 lin. longa. 

A very distinct -'p<-cios. allied to /\ lairn ,/<<//, ,a, Kranzl. It first 
flowered in the Kew collection in June 1894. Flowers white with a 
faint suffusion of pale green ; front lobe of the lip margined with Huh- 
purple. Readily distinguished from its allies by the shape of the 



146. Lueddemannia triloba, Kolfe; pseudobulbis ovoid.-o-ol.lon-is, 
loins lanceolntis ncutis, scapis pendulis brevilms multirloris nigro- 
puberulis, bracteis oblongis obtusis concavis, pedicellis nigro-puh.-rulis, 
sepalo postieo elliptico-oblongo ohtuso com-avo lateralihus paullo 
latioribu-, petalis ohlongo-lanceolatis -uhohtusis, labello trilobo ha-d 
cuneato concavo lobis btusis intermedio trian- 
gnlari acuto, di-c<> medio uuidentato basi unideiitato. columna elavaTa 

Hob.— Andes of S. America. 

Pseudobulbi circa 2£ poll, longi. Folia circa 1 ped. longa. Scapi 
6-7 poll, longi. Bra'ctea- .!-5 lin. longa'. Pedicelh 6-7 lin. longi. 
Sepala !. ! -10 lin. lonua, posticum 5 lin. latum, lateralia 6 lin. lata. 
Petala it-iO lin. longa, -1 lin. lata. Labellum 10 lin. longum, 9 lin. 
latum. Columna i) lin. longa. 

This flowered in the collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart, in 
July last. Distinguished from the t wo species previously known by the 
short rounded side lobes of the lip, with more saccate base, and the 
much shorter scapes. Sepals light yellow lightly suffused with madder 
brown, petals deep yellow ; lip orange-yellow, with a few madder brown 

147. Catasetum uncatttm, Rolfe ; pseudobulbis fusiformi-oblongi.s 

■ -. • 
<-£ scapis erectis v. aivuarls niultilions, bractci- lane, olato-oblongis acutis, 

snbmembranaceis. labello galeato apice inflcxo subacuto lobis lateralibus 

parallelis, florum ? scapis erectis paucifloris, bracteis ut in ^, sepal is 
petaliscpie patentibus v. reflexis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis j 

labello galeato ore integro, columna brevissimaecirrhosa. 
Hab.— Brazil: i 



Pseudobulbi 3-8 poll, longi. Folia 10-14 poll, longa, \\-2\ poll. 
lata. Scapi 1-2 poll, longi. Bractea- 4-7 lin. longse. Pedicelh 1-1 i 
poll, longi. Sepala et petala fl. <y 10-15 lin. longa. Lain I hm, 5-7 
lin. longum. Columna 4-6 lin. longa. Sepala et petala fl. $ 7-8 lin. 
longa. Labellum 7-8 lin. longum. Columna 3 lin. longa. 



This was sent home with Cattleya labiata, Lindl., and has flowered 
several different collection-. Messrs. F. Sander & Co. had both 
x, s, which were presented to Kew. Allied to C. albovireus, Rodr.. 
it the sepals and petals of the male flowers are twice as lon^ a- the lip, 



148, Catasetum apertum, Rolfe ; pseudobulbis fusiformi-oblongis, 
foliis lanceolatis acuminatis, scapis suberectis pauoiiloris, bract<i- 
lanceolatis oblongis subae -oblongis aeuti.- eoncavis 

subpatentibus incurvis, petalis late elli btusis concavis 

incurvis, labello supero galeato apice trilobo lobia Iateralibus amplis 
rotundatis recurvis subintegris intermedio late triangulari obtuso sacco 
subhemisphaerico, columna clavata rostrata antennis in plains diversia 
divergentibus. 

Hab.— Not known. 

Pseudobulbi 4-5 poll, longi. Folia 4-7 poll, longa, 1^-2 poll. lata. 
Scapi circa 6 poll, longi. Bractete 6 lin. long®. Pedkelli 1 poll. 
~\\ poll, longa, 7 lin. lata. 
1 poll, longum, If poll. 
Columna 1 poll, longa; antennae 8 lin. longse. 

A striking species belui _ atm&etum. It flowered 

in the collection of Sir Charles Strickland, Bart., in September, 1894. 
Allied to the Ecuadorean C. macroglosittm, Bchb. f . -till only known 
from the description, but it has no large semicircular transverse keel in 
front of the lip, as in that. Sepals and petals a very light apple green, 
with a few minute light brown spots; lip yellowish green, densely 
spotted and marbled with warm shining brown, and becoming wholly 
suffused with red brown inside the sac. Female flowers arc unknown. 

149. Scelochilus carinatus, Rolfe ,- caspitosus foliis lauceolato- 
lineariboa a< ilia circa 7-floris, bracteis 

lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis, sepalo postico suberecto oblongo-lanceolato 



Hab. — Andes of S. America, Lehmann. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Scapi 2 poll, longi. Bractea 3-4 lin. long®. 
Pedkelli 6-7 lin. longi. Sepala 8 lin. longa, saccus \\ lin. longus. 
Petala 5 lin. longa. Labellum 5 lin. longum. Columna 4 lin. longa. 

This flowered in the collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., in 

September last. Sepals light vellow ; petal- maroon purple above with 

■: lined with white and purple below: hp and column 

white, with a maroon-purple blotch at the base of the reflexed limb of 



use, Rolfe; caule erecto distichophyllo, 
foliis lance oL < analiculatis. 

scapis horizontalibus v. deflexis paniculatis, bracteis oblongo-ianceolatis 
acutis, floribus secundis parvis numerosis, sepalis oblongis obtusis, petals 



285 
, labello obovato-oblongo obtuso crasso-carnoso, calcare 



oblongo, 

Hae.— Hainan, Rev. B. C. Hemy. 

Canles \ ped. alti v. ultra. Folia H-2{ poll, longa, 2^-4 lin. lata. 
Sat pi JJ-(j poll, lougi. Bntctea- f lin, longa\ Pedicclli 1-1 \ lin. 
longi. Sepala 1 lin. longa. Petala % lin. longa. Labellum \^ lin. 
longum ; calcar vix 1 lin. longum. 

Allied to the Himalayan Saccolubi>>m ;/> nmxthnu. Lindl., but the 
leaves arc nearly Hat, not subterete, and more than t-viee as broa 1. 
Flowers white, with the exception of the petals and dorsal sepal, which 
i the Hoi 
• Garden io Kew, ■ 



CCCCLXXXV.— BEGONIA DISEASE. 



Cultivators of tropical herbaceous plants, such as Gloxinias, 
Av/iiniencs, P< ,</,<>. Ii,,pafic„s, Vincas, and especially Begonias, have 
recently become familiar with a *■ 



, crippling- and practically destroying whole collections in a few 
weeks. It attacks chiefly the young leaves and flower-buds, causing the 
latter to withei and. fall off, and the leaves to curl and become aborted. 
When the disease is bad, the youngest leaves are arrested in growth 
when very small, and the whole plant soon presents a hopelessly 
crippled appearance. The mature leaves are discoloured with patent's 
of a black or brown colour, as if suffering from a rust-fungus of some 
kind. 

The general impression with regard to then 

,„oid. Attention was called to it recently in the Garde-ucrs' 
Chronicle for September 7 last in a paper on " Tuberous Begonias," 
by Mr. W. W. Sheath (pp. 2(>7. 2l}>;, who stated that "Pot-plant* (of 

leaves, which sonic growers say is a fungus, but 1 have found it more 
prevalent when in too much heat in spring; al<o by Midden changes of 
temperature or draughts ; by imperfect drainage — in fact, by anything 
that would cause a check in the growth." On p. .IOo there is a note 
signed " A V. K.," wherein this disea- _.- numbers of 

iked •;..'' Another correspondent, 
however. ' : H. W. t'.." who says (p. 337) that he is an extensive grower 



A similar discussion has been going o: 
the Garden. The Assistant Curator of 
acquainted with this disease for some ye; 
due to some kind of rust-fungus, but nov 
a very small insect or mite, so small as to 
It runs very quickly, and therefore often 
disturbed. This no doubt accounts for 
the insect when specimens of the disc 
them. 

By lightly fumigating once a week with tobacco the plant- -abject to 
the attacks' of this pe, r , we have now no difficulty in keeping our 
Begonias clean ; indeed, tobacco fumigation appears to be a perfect 
preventive, and almost a certain cure, if the plants have not been 






hopelessly crippled before it is applied. This year a batch of Acan- 
thaceous plants, such as Justicias, Aphelandras, &c, had been suffering 
from this particular disease for some weeks before it was noticed. The 
gardener in charge of the plants thought a fungus was the cause of the 
curling and discoloration of the foliage. By frequently dipping the 
affected plants in a weak solution of tobacco, the plants were, in most 
cases, saved, and have since quite recovered. 

ultivator knows how easily irregularity of temperature or 
i will bring on an attack of red-spider or thrips 
under glass, and this mite, which is smaller than 
• of the two pests named, and at least as quick-spreading and 
injurious in its effects on the health of the plant, can get a start from the 
same cause, viz., bad ventilation or some other fault in the atmosphere 
in the house containing the plants. 

Certain forms of black blotching and leaf-curling which often dis- 
figure Masdevallias of the Chimaera section and some others besides, 
are the work of an almost invisible insect, probably a relation of the 
mischievous little red-spider. It must be sought for very carefully, 
and when discovered it requires some care and perseverance to get rid 

Specimens of the diseased plants were submitted to a well-known 
authority who obligingly furnished the following report : — 

Mr. A. D. Michael, F.L.S., to Rotal Gardens, Kew. 

Cadogan Mansions, Sloane Square, 
Dear Sir, November 5, 1895. 

There is not any doubt what the mite on your leaves is, nor any 
doubt that it is the cause of the damage. It is a Tarsonymu*, fee 
species is probably unrecorded ; I think it most resembles Kircluta-i, 
but is intermediate between that and biu'i. I could make certain if it he 
either of these species if you wish it, but probably the minute differences 
would not interest you. The creatures of this genus escaped observa- 
tion altogether until a few years since, in consequence of their minute 
size and mode of life ; they are still very imperfectly known. They are 

,vm, „//,////- huii practically di ., 

1 Garde] 

few years since, and in the Kew Bulletin for April 1890, p. 85, you 
will find a report of my own upon sugar-cane from Barbados which was 
seriously injured from the same cause (species different). 

inot give any vei 
of the pest. These Acari 
between the two surfaces of the leaf and thus get protected. They i 
most difficult to eradicate ; probably the best methods will be to spray 
the plants from below so as to reach the under surfaces of the leaves, 
frequently, at short intervals, with such solutions of soap and -ulphur. 
or benzol, or carbolic acid as the respective plants will bear. Plants 
which will stand it might be plunged in solution of fluid carbolic acid, 
3 or 4 oz. to the gallon of water. Badly infected plants and all debris 
which is infected should be destroyed at once by fire or boiling water. 
Spraying healthy plants with solution of carbolic acid, even if very 
weak, would probably render them distasteful to the Acarus, if the 
plants will stand it without injary. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) Albert D. Michael. 



was given in the Kew Bulletin. 1*9.3 (pp. 8s-!>2 >, of 
the material kinmn as llatia, from species of palm- in 
; Africa. This fibre has hitherto been exclusively obtained from 
" is used for tie bands by gardeners, as well as for 
making mats and decorative articles. 

A sample of West African Rafia, obtained from the leaflets of luijihiit 
riiiiftni, locally known as the Bamboo palm, was brought to Kew by 
Mr. Henry Millen, Curator of the Botanic Station at Lagos, in August 
last. The following reports were obtained on this sample : — 

Messrs. Ide and Christie to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

72, Mark Lane, London, E.C., 
Dear Sir, September 4, 1895. 

Yole favour of yesterday and samples to hand. The latter 
show just as we formerly experienced, bad colour (i.e., brown in lieu 
of creamy white), very short (one sample was longer), all stringy, not 
flat-open. The trade, nnl,-s- in famine, won!. I not entertain it; appear- 
ance goes a long way nowadays, although for some tyin< 
West Coast product should do as well as the Madagascar! 



ng way nowaday.-. ping purposes, this 

it prodm " 
If asked for a value, we would hazard 20/. per t 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) Ide and Christie. 
1). Morris, Esq., C.M.G., D.Sc, 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Messrs. J. A. Noble & Co. to Royal Gardens, Kkw. 

136, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C., 
Dear Sir, September 6, 1895. 

We are favoured with vour letter of the 3rd instant, with 
sample of Lagos Rafia. We are desirous of showing thi< to the 
consumers as well as to the dealers. With the latter there will be 
difficulty in getting them to put it forward in the place of the 
Madagascar Ratia, as it is not so sighth and the smaller buyers will 
prefer the broader and lighter colour. Our own opinion is that with 
more care in the preparation it will come into use with those who do 
not look to colour so much as strength. We see no reason why it may 
not be broader, as it has simply been allowed to curl up in the 
preparation, and is consequently harsh, with a tendency to cut in the 
usiDg. It is certainly the strongest we have seen from the West Coast . 
what we have seen before has been soft and good colour, but verv 
tender and unsaleable. 

We will write you ngain after we have given the consumers an 
opportunity of testing it and have received their opinion upon it. In 
• 



doubt he will be able to improve considerably on this sai 
ere is very little doing at the present time, and* prices ha\e 1" 
48/. per ton to 32/. nominal. We consider this should - 



about 20/. per ton on the basis of 32/. for the Madagascar. 
Yours truly, 
(Signed) J. A. Noble , 
D. Morris, Esq., C.M.G , D.Sc, 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 



Jy L] ly U yh 



As already mentioned small shipments of West African Rai 
been made, from time to time, for many years, but 
arisen in it owing to its unfavourable character as compared with 
Madagascar Raiia. Tlie natives all along the coast manufacture cloths, 
mats, baskets and hammocks from liana, and samples are in the Kew 
Museums iiuiii the Gambia, Siena Leone, ( »old Coast, and Old 
Calabar. 

Rafia from West Africa were brought to 
Mr. Walter Haydon, Curator of the Botanic 
Station at the Gambia. The plant yielding these has not yet been 
determined It is evidently a -j -. ferent in the 

fruit from any Raphia so far represented at Kew. Mr. Haydoirs 
specimens of Eafia were soft in texture and of good colour, but rather 
short. They were, however, superior to any specimens previously 
received from West Africa. The following Report shows also, that 
they were valued commercially at a higher price than any former 
specimens : — 

Messrs. Ide and Christie to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

72, Mark Lane, London, E.C., 
Dear Sir, November 14, 1895. 

Regarding the sample and letter dated 13th from the Royal 
Gardens duly to hand, we beg to say that for colour and texture, this is 
the best Rafia we have seen from the West Coast of Africa, and in these 
respects equal to the Madagascar product. The uncut ends, shortness 
and fine points all are against the sale and would interfere both with 
sale and value. 

As it is we put it about 20/. to 25/. per ton. A small shipment of the 
usual West Coast we sold a few days ago at 25/. 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) Ide and Christie. 
D. Morris, Esq., C.M.G., D.Sc, 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 



CCCCLXXXVIL— DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, IX. 

The small collection, of which the following are the new species, was 
made by Mr. Alexander Carson in 1894, opposite the south end of 
Lake Tanganyika. The novelties of I is in the same 

region are described in « Diagnoses Africans;," IV. (Kew Bulletin, 
1895, pp. 63-75). Lake Mwero is about a hundred miles long, and is 
situated about a hundred miles west of the south end of Tanganyika. 
It is 2,900 feet above sea-level, and the Kalongwizi river runs into it 
from the east. A good map of the district will be found in the 
Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society (vol. xiv., 1892), 
illustrating a paper by' Mr. Alfred Sharpe. It belongs to the South 
Central region, as defined in Oliver's Flora of Tropical Africa, the 
botany of which is still almost entirely unknown. The whole collection 
contains between 40 and 50 species. 



3 multifloros termi- 



nales dispoi: - Montibus calyce longioribu-. sapalis 

oblongia persistentibus post anthesin reflexis, stamioibus circiter 15 
calyce paulo . staminiboa 

aequilongo, ovario ovoideo stigmate sessili peltato. 

Habitat, — MwetO plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 37'of 
1894 collection. 

Folia \\-2 poll, longa, medio 12-14 lin. lata. Sepala 2 lin. longa. 
Fructus ignotus. 

Near B. senegalensis, Lam. 

402. Ochna floribunda, Baler [Ochnacea>] ; rYutvosa. ranmli> liizno- 
- - . 

e medio ad basin sensim attenuatis post anthesin maturis, 

>f>silibus !!•: 'Tt'is uu-\i- i'oiig<-'>fi< ovatis niem- 

bvanacei<, p.-diceilis calyce longioribus st-palis oi.loiigis ol.nisis rnbro- 
bmnncis ^rlaliris post ohovato-euncatis caheor 

paulo longioribus, iilamentis brevib' aribus, stylo 

Habitat.— Near Lake Mwero, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 
8 of 1894 collection. 
Sepala \ 
Near 0. 

403. Dolichos platypus, Baker [Leguminosae] ; herbaceu*, p< t« -nnis 
caule stricto erecto, stipulis linear] fcibus, potiolo 
late alato alia lis maero- 
natis persistentilms, i'oliis simplit-ihus oblongo-laneeoiatis acutis rigi- 
■ lu.i- glabris, doribus paucis laxe racemosis, pcdicellis o recto -paten ti bus 
pubeacentibtis calyce longioribus, calycis tubo brevi campanulato den- 
tibus tubo longioribus an] - anceolatia, 
petalis glabris rubellis calyce duplo longioribus, ovario cylindrico multi- 

Habitat. — Mwero plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 11 



Folia 3-4 poll, longa, 10-12 lin. lata. Calyx 3 lin. longus. VexiUum 
6-8 lin. longum. 

A very curious species, nearly allied to D. pteropus, Baker, in Krv 
Bull, 1895, p. 66. 



oblongo-lanceolatis acutis integris utrinque pilosis, floribus in pani- 
culam amplam dispositis ramis erecto-patentibus apice dense cymosia, 
• " 
'.. luteee tubo calyce triplo longiore dimidio 

-'.;'!•■ - ' 

cuneatis, genitalibus in tubo inclusis, staminibus biseriatis prope medium 
tubi insertis. 

Habitat. — Mwero plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson. 3 of 



Near K. glandulosa, Hochst. 



floribus pentamf 

piloso i!--!itil)u- p:u\ is lanceolatis, petalis parvis viridibus, staminibu- 

longe exsertis, fructu oblongo obtuso ad basin attenualo angulis late 

f/a hi fat. —Mwero plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, ,'57, in 
part, of 1894 collection. 

Folia 2 poll, longa. Cali/cis tubus 8 lin. longus. Stamina quam 
calyx 5-6 lin. longiora. Fructus 18 lin. longus. 

400. Pentas modesta, Baker [Rubiaceae] ; annua, herbacea, caule 
erecto ramoso, ramulis pubescent ibus, stipulis conspicue ci 
linearibus acut is glabra iniegris .-* s~il i 5 >u- ad basin attenuatis, cymis 
terminalibus laxis paucidoris, pedieellis brevissimis, ovario demum 
glabro, dentibus calycinis linearibus subasqualibus persistentibus 
fructui requilongis, corollse tubo cylindrico dentibus calycinis paulo 
breviore, fructu subgloboso. 

Habitat. — Kalongwizi river, Mwero, west of Lake Tanganyika, 
Carson, 33 of 1894 collection. 

Folia centralia 2 poll, longa, 3-4 lin. lata. Denies calycini demum 
2\ lin. longi. Corolla limbus expansus 4 lin. diam. 

407. Vernonia subaphylla, Baker [Composite] ; perennis, caule 
erecto parce ramoso pubescente ad colliun radieis dens.e lanoso, foliis 
paueis parvis linearibus sessilibus integris subcoriacei> pilosis facie 
canaliculars, cupitulis ad apices ramorum solitariis uiultifloris, invo- 
luoro (.'ampanulato, bracteis obtusis imbricate ndpressis pilosis exterio- 
ribus sensim bivvioribus interioribus marline membranaceis rubellis, 
floribus rubro-purpureis, acheniis augulatis pubescentibus, pappo albido 
setoso corollas tubo breviore. 

Habitat.— Kalongwizi river, Mwero, wc-t of Lake Tanganyika, 
Carton, 10 of 1894 collection. 

Caulis pedalis. Folia 0-12 lin. longa. [nvolncrinii lin. longum. 



408. Senecio (Kleinia) mweroens. eanterbrevi 
cylindrico carnoso inermi. folii- minuti- lin<-uribu> ntegris acutis car- 
nosis, pnlunculis nudis erectis strictis elongatis, capitulis homogamis 
multilloris, iinoluero obloniro braeteis circiter 12 lanceolatis glabids 
tequalibos, pappo molli albo corolla? tubo aequilongo, limbi lobis 
lutcis lanceolatis. 

Habitat. — Kalongwizi river, Mwero, west of Lake Tanganyika. 
Carson, 15 of 1894 collection. 

Pedunculi 4-6 poll, longi. Involucrum 10 lin. longum, 6 lin. diam. 
Pappus 10-11 lin. longtw. 

Near S. Anteuphorbinm, Scb. Eip. ; Bot. Mag. tab. 6099. 

409. Dicoma qtiinquenervia, Baker [Compositap-MutisiacereJ ; per- 
ennis, caule simpliee stricto erecto elongato tenuiter albo-incano, foliis 
cauliius distantil.us linearibus vel laneeo].-tti> integri- -ubcoriaccis basi 
caulem vaginantibus facie viridibus dorso albo-incanis, e basi supra 
medium conspicue quinquinerviis, capituli- pauci> niagnis aggregatis, 



201 



invohicro cal baa acuminatis 

subcoriaceis albidis nitidis exterioribus sensim brevioribus, pappo molli 
albo multiseriali dense plumoso corollse tubo sequilongo. 

1 [ttbit at. — II ills iic;]r the Chama River, Mwero, west of Lake 
a, Carson, 4 of 1894 collection. 

Caulis 1^-2 pedalis. Folia centralia semipedalia, 12-18 lin. lata. 
Involucrum 15-16 lin. longum. Pappus 6 lin. longus. 

Near D. sessiliflora, Harv. 

410. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea mweroensis, Baker [Convolvulaceaj] ; 

■■■-■■- 
tibus integris cordato-ovatis a cut is facie viri.libus obscure pilosis dorso 
vinoso-purpureis magis pilosis, cymis 2-3-floris breviter pedunculatis, 
pclic.'llis eloniratis. hraet.-is parvis lanceolatis, sepalis ovato-lanceolatis 
Beqn«libtl8 pilosis, corolla; alba? infundibularis limbo patulo vix lobato 
eztQfl fftSClis 5 pubeseentibus percurso, staminibus brevibus prope basin 

Habitat.— Mwero plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 23 
ol' 1894 collection. 

-Folia 15-18 lin. longa. Calyx 3-4 lin. longus. Corolla 15 lin. 
longa, limbo expanso 15-18 lin. diam. 

Near 7". obscura, Ker. 

411. Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) pharbitiformis, Baker [Convoku- 

laceae] ; caule volubili irra.ali adpresse pubeseente, loliis breviter petio- 
ma paroe pttosis dorso piJw 
inollil.us adprcssis pallid*- brunneis dense persistenter vestitis cymU 
5-6-floris breviter pedunculatis, pedicellis brevibus, bracteis magnis 
ovato-lanceolatis pilosis, sepalis ovato-lanceolatis acutis eequalibtu i:n- 
brieatis pilosis, corolla- saturate rubro-purpureae limbo vix lobato, 
staminibus brevibus prope basin tubi insertis. 

Habitat.— Mwero, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 41 of 1894 

-J 
Near /. Lindleyi, Choisy. 



la's Sill)] 

fain disposing pedunculis podicellisipie 
dense piloso dentibus ovatis supremo 



inferiore sequilongis. 

Habitat.— -Mwero plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, 
of 1894 collection. 



2 'J 2 



413. Coleus leucophyllus, Baker [Labiatae] ; perennis, caule 
stricto erecto elongato persistenter albo-incano, foliis breviter 
petiolatis oblongis subacutis crenatis basi cuneatis facie tenuiter 
dorso dense persistenter albo-incanis, racemis eompositis in pani- 
culam amplam densam dispositis, cymis multifloris distincte 
pedunculatis. pedicellis brevibus pubescentibus, bracteis parvis 
caducis, ealycis pubescentis tubo campanulato dentibus omnibus ovatis 
aeutis supn-mo majore, corollae tubo supra medium decurvato ampliato, 
labio superiore parvo civcto trilobato. inferiore magno profunde 



Habitat. — Xear Mwero, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 26 
of 1894 collection. 

Cairfis tripedalis. Folia inferiora 3-4 poll, longa, medio 18-21 
lin. lata. Panicula subpedalis. Calyx floriferus. 3 lin. longus. 
Corolla 12-15 lin. longa. 

414. Plectranthus (Isodon) primulinus, Baker [Labiatae] ; perennis, 
ramis sublignosis elongatis, foliis hysteranthiis ignotis, racemis 
brevibus densissimis in panieulam oblongam vel globosam congestis, 
pedicellis brevissimis, calycis dense pilosi tubo campanulato dentibus 
linearibus sequalibus tubo longioribus, corolla 1 pallide lutea? extug 
pilo<.t' tubo curvato ealyce paulo longiore, labio superiore parvo erecto, 
labio inferiore majore orbiculari saccato, staminibus labio inferiori 

Habitat. — Mwero plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 36 
of 1894 collection. 

Panicula; U-2 poll, longtt. Calyx demum 2 lin. longus. Corolla 

Near P. denstts, X. E. Brown, in Kew Bulletin, 1894, p. 12. 

415. Scutellaria paucifolia, Bahcr [Labiate] j perennia, csespitosa, 
caulibus brevibus dense albido-pubescentibus, foliis paucijugis 

sessilibus vel brc\ iter petiolatis ovatis obtusis infegris vel obscure 
crenulatis viridibus \ el purpurea tinetis utrim[ue pubescentiluis, 
racemis ram] ' ; l,us paucifloris vel mnltifloria, folUa 

floralibus parvis ovatis persistentilms, pedicellis a-cemlentibus pilosis, 
cafycfs vald< ate supremo 

magno orbiculari reli - -. corollaa tubo pubes- 

cente ealyce triplo longiore lobis b: da inclusis. 

Habitat.— -Mwero plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 12 
of 1894 collection. Lower plateau of Lake Xyassa, Thomson. 

Camlet 3-5 poll, longi. Folia inferiora 3-4 lin. longa Calyx 
floriferus 2 lin. longus. Corolla 7-8 lin. bnga. 

416. Loranthus (Dendrophthoe) mweroensis, Bahcr [Loranthace®] ; 

ramulis validls icretibus, <r]abris. foliis distincte petiolatis oblongis 
subobtusis basi rotuudatis eoriaceis ufrinque viridil.us glabris venis 
primarii- gracilibus ax-endoiuibtis, cymis lateralibus multifloris breviter 
pedunculatis, pedicellis brevissim'is, bracteis late ovatis calyci 
sequilongis, ■ ore truncato, corolIa3 

tubo elongato cylindrico limbo ante anthesin globoso lobis late 



plateau, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 27 



417. Gladiolus (Eugladiolus) erectiflorus, Baker [Irideay] ; caule 
gracili glabro elongato, foliis cauliui- 2-.'> linearihus glabris elc.ngaiis 
rigide subcoriaceis, spica laxa simplieo multiriora. spatha- valvis 
lanceolatis parvis scariosis, riorihus creel is albis veiiis rubro- 
purpureis pulchrc decoratis. perianthii lubo anguste ii 
segmentis obi ;u>j> tr.bo a'tpiilengis interioi il u- 

■-angustioribus, staminibus segmentis superioribus paulo brevioribus. 

Habitat. — Liendwe, west of Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 1 of 1894 
collection. 

Cormus ignotus. Folia pedalia vel sesquipedalia, 3-4 lin. lata. 
Vah-a exterior 12-15 lin. longa. Perianthium 2-2] poll, longum. 

Near G. Grant ii, Baker. 



CCCCLXXXVIII.— SUMACH. 

{Rhus Coriaria, L.) 

southern Kuropeau species. Thb .in yellow lye, 

e calico pri iitinur. X< »! f h American sumach is yit-bb-I l-.y 
lih>'s qliihru. The fruit, leaves, and bark of tins tree are used for 
their astringent properties in tanning leather. The sumach of the 
Mediterranean region, and the one more widely u-ed, consists of the 
powdered leaves only of Wot* < "oriaria, a liardv -diruh growing <>n 
roekv >lope> in Sieilv and el-ewhorc. An interesting aceount of the 
culthationof snn.aeb in tin vieinitv of Colli, near Palermo, is trans- 
lated by Colonel 11. Tide. 1Mb. in the Transactions of tin Botanical 
Sucufy if K(li,ihitr//h (Vol. IX., pp. 341-355), from an article by 
I'rofe^or lnzenga. 

The branches of the Mimach are em with a pn;nii g book or knife f 
a peculiar shape, called a « ronco," while th - leave> after drying in the 
fields, are tbre,l,ed with a flail called a •• bovillo.'; These implements 

Foreign Office, in 1S*5. ( Pharm. .foiirn.. XV. 3 . p. S52.) 

Suniaeb from Melbourne plants w.i- shown a! tiie !^\'ni>iti..n of i ><>.>. 
In a report by the I'.S. Consul at 1'alermo, dated November 12, 

: .'.' . • .■ ' . - .^. , . ■/'■ ■ . -' •' 

localitv for the cultivation of the plant i- roekv -a! on the slope. M 
bills such as those about Paieimo, which aiv'eo, «.,< d with it. The 

August. When the sumach i- cut, it i> spread on the liehl to dry, the 

leaves are ! bag-, and coin •■'■ ed to 

the mills. 

►iected in the mill is that of 



to separate from it dirt, stones, snail shells, &c. This is accomplished 
by a strong current of air induced by hydraulic pressure. The second 
process is that of grinding, which is similar in many respects to the old 
way of grinding grain. The third proofs consists in placing the result 
of the second in a large sieve, the holes in which are graduated to suit 
the taste of the country to which it is intended to export the sumach ; 
that for the United States being more finely ground than any other 
country, the United States preferring fine sumach, and other countries 
a coarser article." 

A recent account of the trade in sumach, which constitutes one of 
the most iroportanl industries in Palermo, is contained in a Foreign 
Office Report (Annual Series, 1895, No. 1544) by Vice-Consul De 



nach, which is known in Sicily as " sommacco 
forte." or " mascolino," is a hanh shrub winch grows upon available 
• >es of the 



patches of ground on the hillsides ; 

does not require a good soil, but, on the contrary, is generally found 

flourishing in the most stony and apparently poor ground. The plant 



months of July, August, and September. 

This species of sumach is locally known as " strong " (owing to the 
greater per-centage of tannin which it yields) in contradistinction to 
the similar plant known as "sommacco femminello," called also Catania 
sumach, although in point of fact it is not limited to the province of 
Catania, but, on the contrary, is very common throughout the whole of 
the province of Palermo. 

The leaves of the latter (femminello) are smaller and of much less 
strength than those of the former plant, and are, therefore, of con- 
siderably less value. They are consequently largely used in the 
adulteration of the ground sumach. 

Two other plant- which closely resemble each other, and are named 
respectively "bruca" and "stinco," are largely used in the sumach 
trade to adulterate the genuine article. They rise to the height of 
small trees, and have no leaf, properly speaking. In lieu of the leaf 
they have prickly little shoot*, which thickly cover the lesser branches, 
and Which, ire ground up and mixed with the 

product of the true sumach plant. These very inferior articles always 
contain a large proportion of earth, owing to the impossibility of making 
them undergo a process of ventilation. 

Pure sumach, on the other hand, is capable of being ventilated, and 
is, in fact, invariably submitted to that operation, and thus freed from 
much of the impurity in the shape of the native soil, which fin. is its way 
into the mills together with the leaf, having been taken up during 
harvesting. 

Of late years there has been a continued falling-off in the quantity of 



What lorm.-rU wen! forward under the name >>\' -uniaoh was really the 
product of the real plant, with a very small addition of undefined 
vegetable product ; what is now sold as sumach is a mysterious vegetable 
compound with an infinitesimal quantity of sumach added thereto. 



Whether the adulter* 
increasing competition all round, 
the prices offered, or whether :" " 
hands the sumach trade has now fallen, is a question which will admit 
of a great deal of argument. 

In 1804 the amount ■'.' -umaeh. ground and in leaf, exported from 
Palermo to the United Kingdom amounted to 3,409,053 kilos., in round 
numbers, say, 3,100 tons, and the approximate value of same amounted 
to 693,810 lire, or in sterling, at exchange 26*50 lire, to 26,181/., 
whilst the total export of sumach to all countries during same period 
was 25,502,397 kilos., or about 25,000 tons, of which France alone took 
some 10,000 tons, mostly in leaf, and America 5,500 tons, Germany 
coming next with 3,265 tons, or very nearly as much as was taken by 
Great Britain. The approximate value of all the sumach exported from 
Palermo to all countries during 1894 was 5,112,479 lire, or in sterling 
192,923/ 1 Is. Srf. at 26 -.'0 i ire exchange. 

After the sumach leaf has been subjected to the first process of 
trituration, there remains a certain amount of coarse -tuft : this ,, ground 
l product is added to what has been already obtained, 
certain residuum of unground leaves, stalks, &c., and 
this residuum is technically known in Sicilian as " peduzzo." The name 
given to the small -talks branching from the main root of the sumach 
plant, and to wr" " 

These also receive a degree of grinding, i 
aforesaid "peduzzo" before the latter has been re-ground, 1 
it has been sifted, and the 
in its turn as additional a 

The price of sumach is generally at its lowest during and immediately 
after harvesting, when, • r\ naturally, the peasant proprietors are anxious 
to realise, not being able to defer handling their money and wait for a 
rise, which is very nearly certain to take place later in the season. It 
is at this period that the speculator steps in and buys up all that his means 
will allow, to be stored and locked up till the anticipated rise takes place. 

Very frequently the price reached is not sufficiently tempting to 
induce the holder to part with his stock, in which case the stock will 



iE;:: 



remain on hand till next season, and come on the market together with 
the new crop. The buying and selling of sumach and its kindred 
plants is wholly conducted on the basis of the obsolete weights and 
moneys of Sicily, so many tar! for the cantar of sumach. A tari is 
worth 42£c, or, say, 4|rf., and 30 tari go to the " onza," or 12" 75 lire^ 
equal to our half sovereign. The cantar weighs exactly 79*342 kilo-.. 
being equal to 100 rotoli of 800 grammes each, within a traction, that is 
to say, about 21bs. English. 

Although all the transactions in sumach are calculated on the basis 
of these ancient weights and coins, yet no such moneys are actually in 
circulation, consequently every calculation has to be reduced again to 
the decimal system, the currency here, as elsewhere in the kingdom of 
Italy, being lire and centesimi. 

The value of sumach, of course, varies conaiderably according to the 
demand and the season. 

Last year's price- ruled about 41 to 12 tari per cantar. or. sav. about 

21-96 to 22-50 lire per quintal (100 kilos.) delivered free at the mill* 

These figures, of course, refer to the genuine strong (mascolino) 

.: the fiest districts. Femniinollo would be worth about 



■29u 



Absolutely pure sumach should contain from 30 to 32 per cent, of ' 

amiin. determined by the oxalic acid method, or 20 to 22 per cent, tannin- 
s gallo-tannic acid. Pure femminello, on the other hand, would only 
ontain from 22 to 26 per cent, of tannin (oxalic acid), and 16 to 18 
er cent, tannin, as gallo-tannic acid. However, perfect purity in 
umach is only a chemical expression ; it never appears on the market. 
L satisfactory quality, and one of greater strength than is generjally 
old, would be two-thirds of genuine strong sumach and one-third 
•mimncllo, and this should give an average of about 29 per cent, 
mnin (oxalic acid) and 20 per cent, of tannin as gallo-tannic acid 
when properly ground and mixed). The following figures show the 
alue of sumach exported to the United States from Palermo for the 
ear 1894 :— 



Date. 


Va,„, 


iU \Srch e 3?st lg_ " 
September 30th - 


89,614 78 
51,853 12 

109^473 7S 



The last paragraph of the above report has been -lightly modified in 
expression. It is still, however, at first sight not quite intelligible. 

Professor Church, F.R.S., has obligingly furnished the following 
explanation: — "I find that the amouni of pota--ium per inanimate 
required to oxidise 41 "6 grams, of gallo-tannic acid is capable of 
oxidizing 63 grams of oxalic acid. I think that the lower figures in the 
report were calculated from the oxalic acid figures by reducing them by 
one-third. The method adopted may be stated thus: 100 parts by 
weight of sumach are capable of reducing the same amount of perraan- 

c.tru-sponds to Jo parts of gallo-tannic acid." 



CCCCLXXXIX.— LIBERIAN COFFEE. 

published in the Kfir IhiUiti,,, 1*9"), p. 273. This also contained a 
list of articles that have appeared on the subject in the Bulletin during 
the last live years. Where suitable facilities do not exist at the place of 
production for cleaning Liberian eolf.e the following information in 
regard to cleaning it in London will be useful to planters. Messrs. 
Major and Field, who have favoured Kcw with a letter on the subject, 
have had considerable experience in dealing with shipments of Liberian. 
coffee to this country : — 

Messrs. Major and Field to Roval Gardens, Ivew. 
Red Lion and Three Cranes Wharf, 



pper Thames Street, 
,E.C 



*>*u* Sis, London, E.C., November 14, 1895, 

As our letter to you of the 3rd pointed out, the reference in our 
letter of March 1892, published in the Ktv IhtlU ti„ [ IS93, pp. 130-132), 



was only to ■■:< coffee in the cherry, and not to 

shipments of Liberian coffee in parchment at all. 

We have carefully read the interesting article « n Liberian coffee on 
pp. 261-263 of the Keiv Bulletin of 1888, which contains Messrs. Lewis 
and Peat's letter, and we think it is quite compatible with the belief 
that " it is probable that, under many condition-, being able to ship 
the coffee in parchment is a facility of considerable importance to 
growers." 

Messrs. Lewis and I'eal say in their letter of October 1888, « We 
certainly think if such results ran be obtained on the other side, as 
shown by your sample from the Tan Hun Guan estate, at Durian 
I'ungal (Malacca), it would be folly to send the coffee home herein 
parchment." This remark is t.u t lie assumption that it is possible to 
send the produ e oi e-tates forward in the same condition as the sample. 
It has to be borne in mind, however, that a mere sample weighing only 
a few pounds can be prepared with an amount of attention and care 
which it may often be commercially impracticable to bestow on an entire 
crop, and we have in mind the difficulty that cultivators so often 
experience in preparing their crop (afi< r they have perhaps grown it in 
the best possible way) to suit the fancy of the buyers. 

A< regards the remark that - the parchment of this coffee gets very 
hard and difficult !«> (dean when left long before cleaning," there is no 
doubt thai !.'■ ••' more difficult to deal with than 

parchment of the Arabian type, but as the coffee has to be thoroughly 
dry whether it is cleaned here or abroad, we do not think the parchment 

coffee is more difficult to work than it otherwise would have been 
The remark would, however, undoubtedly apply to Liberian coffee 
dried in the cherry, as : me- exceedingly hard. 

very much indeed'like the shell of a nut, and it was knowledge of this 
fact, and that coffee forwarded in cherry nafuralh shows a far higher 
per cent ago of loss for shell than coffee sent forward merely in the 
parchment, that led us to speak so strone.lv in our letter of March 
ls'.)lM/wvr l!nlleti,<. ISl),",. pp. l;n)-i:i2) against ,-hipments of Liberian 
coffee in cherry. As regards the parcel of Johore Liberian, referred to 
by Messrs. Lewis and Peat as not having turned out satisfactorily, the 
faci that it bad not been properly dried and was consequently musty, 
would be sufficient to account for the bad result, a- if grower- failed 
to pulp, wash, and dry their produce properly, it is impossible for any 
amount of care, either on this or the other side, to afterwards remedy 
the defect. 

During the last year or so small lots of Liberian parchment coffee 
from the west coast of Africa have been sent to us for husking, all of 
which have been treated without difficulty, and in September last we 
received a parcel of Borneo Liberian from Messrs. Shaml, Hainan. <v 
Co., of 24, Rood Lane, B.C., the secretaries in London of the Borneo 
Coffee Company. Limited. These gentlemen have furnished us with 
information as to prices obtained, &c., so that we are able to give fairly 
full particulars concerning this parcel. 

We understand it is the first shipment from the Taritipan estate of 
the company in British North Borneo, and consisted of B. C. and 
Co., Limited, 4M b :l g- parchment coffee, and three bags cleaned coffee, 
which arrived per " Telamon " SS. at Singapore, ex " Banjermassin" 
SS. at Kudat, Borneo. Messrs. Shand. Ualdane & To., at the time 
they handed us the Borneo Liberian with LnatrootJWM to warehouse 
and clean the coffee, informed us that they anticipated a rather 



rough out-turn, as it had been collecting for some time, and the 
pulpers not having arrived out there, the means of pulping were 
not adequate. On landing the parcel, we found that there were two 
distinct qualities of parchment, 17 bags being clean and bright 
parchment, and 20 bags very rough and dingy, and though we have 
not full information on the subject, we think there can be little 
doubt that the latter was some of the first to be gathered, and that the 
treatment was not thoroughly understood at the time. The two parcels 
were husked separately, and the 26 bags were found to be much the 
same style of coffee as the three bags that had been cleaned abroad. 
The out-turn after husking, sizing, &c, with the prices realised in 



bond, were as follows : — 








Net Out-turn. 


PHceperO, 






Cwts. Qrs. Lbs. 


1. d. 










Bold 








Medium 




2 25 




















Bold 








Medium 








Bold and small peas, wit 


'i small peas ex 














Ex 17 bags 




19 I 


50 


Ex 26 bags 
3 bags cleaned abroad - 




3 1 ,; 



The loss in weight on the 43 bags after husking was 32 • 6 per cent. 
For purposes of comparison, it will, perhaps, hardly be fair to take 
account of the 17 bags, as they were so much better in quality than 
either of the other lots ; but, as a rough comparison, the 26 bags may 
be contrasted with the three bags cleaned abroad. The average price of 
the 15 cwt. of the former works out at 72*. lid. pe> cwt: against 70*. 
per cwt. realised by the latter, and although we do not pretend that the 
result of one parcel can be considered conclusive evidence either one way or 
the other, yet we think it fairly justifies the conclusion that under many 
conditions being able to ship in parchment may be of considerable 
importance to producers. That the best pile in the parcel fetched 89*. 
per cwt proves that Liberian parchment coffee can be thoroughly well 
treated over here. The price we charge for cleaning Liberian parchment 
coffee is 3s 9d. per cwt., as against 2s. tid. per cwt. for Arabica parchment, 
the operation being very much more difficult, and the charge includes 
all the London warehouse charges that -would be incurred if the coffee 
were sent over after having been cleaned abroad. 

Whether it is worth while shipping Liberian coffee in parchment is a 
question that at least at present we think each individual grower r 
decide for himself, In-in^ guided by local 






editions and 

of labour would be 



supply is not plentiful, 

work on the estate. The Europeans in charge would be able to lo< 
after the general work of the place, instead of having to superintend il 
cleaning operations, with the working of which m.mv of them may 1 



only very imperfectly acquainted. The capital outlay on machinery is 
reduced, and risks of breaking down avoided. This latter consideration 
must he most important when the coffee is being cultivated, as it so 
frequently is, in countries where no engineering shops exist, necessitating 
c\wi trivial repairs Win- executed in K upland. The crop can also 
probably be shipped a good deal earlier than if it has to be husked on 
the estate. A disadvantage is that of freight having to be paid on 
an increased weight. Of course it is absolutely essential that as much 
care should be taken in the pulping, washing, and drying of coffee 
intended for shipment in parchment as*f it was going to be treated on 
the spot, otherwise successful results cannot be expected. In this 
connection we think the paragraph on page 262 of the Bulletin for 
1888, mentioning that n Java tl ■ I. '<■■< nan < oih • ' > n • - are fermented 
before they a bles the coffee to be more 

readily cleaned, and produces coffee brighter in colour and of better 
quality, is well worth impressing on growers again, so that they may 
take steps to verify the correctness of this statement, as this possibly 
a. Mounts for some of the coffee received being a nice bright yellow colour 
and comparatively free from silver skin, while some is extensively 
coated with the latter and is dingy and dull in appearance. 

In conclusion, we may say we are sure Messrs. Shand, Haldane, & 
Co. would answer any in! ce to make with reference 

to the Borneo coffee, and we shall be glad to give you any further 
information in our power on the subject. 

We are, &c. 

The Director, (Signed) Major and Field. 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 



CCCCXC— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

nted the Royal Society ,i 



Botanical Magazine.— The October number opens with 
Gustavi, a native of Cauca, Colombia. It was first sent to Kew from 
Herrenhausen by Dr. Wendland in 1887, but this plant has not flowered ; 
j it was received from Messrs. Sander & Co., of St. Albans, 
and this plant flowered last year. It is a striking species with huge 
cordate leaves and long, narrow, deep purph 

. a native of Peru, is a handsome orchid, which flowered at 
K.'-w in -January of the present year. Poly gala Galpini, a South 
African species, witli flowers recalling those of Indigo/era decora. It 
was rai-ed from seeds sent tc Kew by Mr. Galpin in 1>M>. 7V>/w 
rio/ana. a Persian spe.-i.-s. which, in spite of its name, lias not viol.-t 
Havers tlmii-h they iir. of a iinirli rich, t, brightei hnt than they arc 
,.,„,.., , tco n: th.-'tii_'iuv It was flowered at Kew from bulbs pre- 
„., ted ! v M. Ma I-eiei.t! V„ r.t I ia ell ll:i. 



Index Kewensis. — In the Bulletin for 1 > 93, p. 342, the publication 
of the first part of this important compilation was announced, and some 

particular- gi\en of it- history, scope, and probable date of completion. 
Happily nothing has occurred to impede the progress of the work, 
and the last part is in the hands of botanists, within the period 
originally estimated tor passing it through the press. Sir Joseph 
Hooker and Mr. Daydon .Jackson, the principal labourers, are to be 
heartih congratulated on the accomplishment of this great and arduous 
fKewhave played so important a 
dex covers the period from the 
ishment of binominal nomenclature by Linnaeus in 1753 down to 
the end of 1885. This leaves ten years, and ten very active years, of 
botanical work still unindcxed; hut it is satisfactory to know that a 
-upplemrnl covering this decade is in a forward state of preparation. 
M. Th. Durand, of the Royal I lerbarium, Brussels, began this supplement 
some years ago, and even offered the first five years of it to the editors 
of the Index Kf ire,,*;* for incorporation in that work, but the offer was 
declined because acceptance would have delayed publication and inter- 
fered with the original plan. Step'- were taken, however, to encourage 
and assist M. Durand, and arrangements are in progress for publishing 
the supplement uniformly with the Inrfer itself. Mr. Daydon Jackson 
is now actively assisting M. Durand, and it is hoped that they will be 
able to publish during the course of next year. 



ticaliy impossible to avoid it as long as wood ;- employed, a- that 
material sooner or later inevitably decays under the humid condition- 
to which it is nece-sarih exposed. To obviate this diiliculty iron has 
for .-onie years been fivelv used in the construction of greenhouses at 
Kew. Ordinary T iron is u-ed for the rafters The sashes which can 

This method of construction has proved perfectly successful, and the 
Conservator}-, No. IV., as well as the Temperate Fern House, No. III., 
are good examples of the method. 

The merits of the system have not escaped the attention of the 
horn, uhurisr.s of other "countries. The Royal Board of Works and 
Buildings. M mich, and the Board of ( Vmmiissioners of the Zoological 
Gardens, Rotterdam, have severally applied for detailed working 
drawings of the mode of construction employed in the Kew houses. 
Ar.d tlie.se have been furnished accordingly bv the First Commissioner 
of Her Majesty's Works and Public Buildings. 



Rosa wichuraiana, — This very distinct and ornamental rose, which has 
1 ' !v been the subject of much praise in the gardening journals, has 
recently been figured in the liofu.ncal Minn/zinc (plate, 7121), under 
the name of K. lyucur, with which species' it wa- formerly associated, 
when only known from dried specimens The reduction has been the 
cause of some questions being addressed to Kew, and it may, therefore, 
be useful to give the history of the name irichnraiana. It was 
originally given by the eminent rhodologist, Fr. Crepin, to a specimen 



301 

in the Berlin Herbarium, but abandoned by himself in favour of the 

uarao T.Hcia. fir-t puMMi-1 in the Bulletin dc In Soci/te Royale de 
Botanique de Belgique (x., 1871, p. 324), on the assumption thai if 

\vn> the saino species. Consequently it ha- since beeti cited by many 
writers as a synonym, without furtlnu investigation, though "(Tcpi-i 
restored it (Bull. S»r. Hoi/. Jint., Bchj.. x., p. ISO) to specific rank in 
1886. Botanically there is not much to separate If. inuh',jln,;i, R. 

Lt'c'nr, an«l / . \ \v habit of the latter i< cxtivmely 

Anotlier point has arisen in connect . w - 1 tin figure in the 

Botanical Magazine. In a footnote, it stated that Rosa Lucia (hut 

!' tricliiiraiana). "must hue been introduced into 

there is a good specimen of it in the 

Kew Herbarium, received from Canon Ellacombe in 1880." The 

-pcei'men in question i- neither R Ivh. n,.r If. viclnmnana. but 



West Indian Frog at Kew rhe Mowing 
Nature, for October 31 (p. 613) :— 

A short time ago' Mr. \Y. Watson, the Arrant Curator of Kew 

the hot-houses, specimen- of a small frog, which, hiding away during 



The (Vo- i, rh/hdvs nmrliiu 
ited over and common in ma 
>rto Rico, St. Vincent, Don. 

Vila,!). Mr. Watsun lvcolk 


, I had the plea* 

nv'West' Indian 
inica, Barbados, I 


;iv of r 


eceiving three 
species, distri- 


■uVf^u- m-'li! o I'eaV^ai'o. T 


akmg'mto consul 


''•'i 1 !.',' 




ems most probable that several 
anoneoccasionacci.lental.lv in 
However that may be. it i< ei 


•ident that the fro; 


r, have 


"•™ 



Hy lodes mart'hiia mis, and probably the mawrit;, of its congeners, 
docs not spawn in water, but deposits from 15 to 30 ova on leaves in 
damp pla.ee-. After a fortnight the voting bogs are hatched in a perfect 
form, having passed through the metamorphosis within the egg, thus 



This instance of the acclimatisation in Kew Gardens of the • Coqui ' 
(as the frog is called in Porto Kico) is unique in Batrachian life at 
present. I trust that the little guest may long flourish where it has 
found such a congenial home, and where it usefully aids in the destruc- 
tion of plant-eating insects and wood-lice, of which I found great 
numbers iu the stomach of a specimen. If at a later period a nest with 
Mr, Thiselton-Dyer would delight the heart of 
fresh ova of this 



::::,;;- 



ts, to whom the opportunity of 
be most welcome. 



5 microscope, spherical I 
bodies increase in size and change their 
shape when in contact with water, thus resembling to some extent the 
parasite Plasmodiophora, but are in reality masses of disorganised cell 
contents produced by a sudden chill, caused by the presence of minute 
drops of water on the surface of the leaf a 1 ~ *~ 



below the normal. " Spot " can be produced at will by placing 
dnute particles of ice, or some drops of water on the leaf of an orchid 
xposed to a temperature of 10-15 degrees F. lower than i 



The disease of vine leaves known as Brunissure or browning, which 
las been described as due to the presence of a parasite, Plasmodiophora 
ntis, is also shown to be the result of a sudden fall of temperature 
vhen the leaves are wet with rain or mist. 

The following summary, while indicating the cause, suggests the 
neans for the prevention of H spot " in cultivated orchids. (1) too high 
i temperature ; (2) too much water, and not sufficient air in contact 
vith the roots ; (3) watering or spraying with a falling instead of a 
ising temperature. 



Arabian objects for Museum.— Through the liberality of Mr. J. 
Theodore Bent the Museum of the Royal Gardens has lately become 
possessed of the following interesting objects from Hadramaut and 

1. A coffee pot as used at Oman, made of tin and brass and orna- 
mented with a rough kind of chasing. 2. A pipe cut out of a solid 
j. .-ce of stone, and used in Hadramaut for smoking tobacco; it is about 
• r > inches long and bears evidence of having been in considerable use as 
' is quite blackened by burning tobacco. 3. A hat, such as is worn by 
Bedouin women, nmd'j •>( p;ilm leaves, apparently those of the Date palm 
( Phaniv flnctylife.ru.) 4. Two Incense Burners, one from Hadramaut 
the other from Oman. Each measures about 4 inches high and 2 inches 
square at the top. That from Hadramaut has a projecting handle on 
one side by which to carry it. It is made of coarse red earthenware 
with impressed ornamentation and has apparently been in considerable 
use, while that from Oman is quite new, with paintc " 
covered with a glaze and without handle. 



The interest attaching to these burners li 
probably used for burning G-um Olibanum c 
product of Southern Arabia. 



Pictures of the Lake- nthern end of the Royal 

Gardens is an entirely artificial creation. It was commenced about 10 
years ago by the late Sir "William Hooker, the then Director, who had 
nothing more than an old gravel pit to work upon. It was further 
developed by Sir Joseph Hooker, and no pains have since been spared 
to improve its scenic beauty. The Pinetum skirts it on its east side, 
and the collections of alders and willows fringe it on the north and 

These, apart from their botanical interest, have been, as far as po^ible, 
arranged to produce a pictorial effect. This has attracted the attention 
of M. and Mine, de l'Aubiniere who, for the last two years, have been 
employed in painting a series of studies and pictures from different 
points of view. As an inspection of a selection of these would be of 
interest to many visitors to the Royal Gardens, the private room in the 
North Gallery has been utilised for the purpose. 



Select Extratropical Plants readily eligible for Industrial Culture 
or Naturalisation. — A ninth edition of this useful work by Sir 
Ferdinand von Mueller, Government Botanist at Melbourne, has 
recently issued from the office of the Government Printer at Melbourne. 
This fact alone is a sufficient guarantee of the value of the book in the 
eyes of the public. As ti .tropical plants are dealt 

with . and the book may best be described as a repository of information 
on economic plants of all kinds, gleaned from a variety of sources. 
i are of verj unequal length, and some are 
merely suggestive. As Sir l-Vrdinaud himself states, he has had t 



largely 



3 authorities from which he has drawn, and whose r 



he usually gives in brackets. The e 
of the plants ; the conditions under u 



of the plants ; the conditions under which they grow, naturally, or are 
cultivated; their products or uses; their native names, and other par- 

.• rest 01 utility. Li-ts are also _; 
for certain climates and situations. The plan of the book is alphabetical, 
r names. 



The Cape Go its home in the upper po 

of the offices ofi to ent, Grave Street, and is u 

the charge of Profe»or MacOwan, the Government Botanist. 
collection was originally the private election made by Carl Zeyh. 
himself, from the ui-t .[uaniit; of -p< : " ■ n- of Cape exsieeata, v 
he, at first in cd . and afterwards alone, colli 

and prepared for sale to Euroj ..-an mu-eum- .luring a period of i 
30 years. Zeyhcr finally visited Kurope with a large quanti 
scientific material, which he was anxious to place and realise. To 
funds for the voyage, he pledged his herbarium to Dr. Ludwig P 



H)i 



-who was an enthusiastic 1 " > I ; i j 1 1 - 1 and hi- tr:< nd. On Zcyhcr's arrival 
in Hamburg the whole of the saleable specimen* were stored in a ware- 
house uninsured, and by the irony of Fate were burned to ashes with 
the building they contained. Zeyher was helped back to the Cape by 
an advance from Dr. W. Sonder, and returned almost penniless. He 
was never able to repay either of the advances, and by a mutual under- 
standing Pappe -ati.-iied l>r. Bonder's claim, and increased by that 
amount the hypothecation on the herbarium. Ultimately Zeyher made 
over the collection to Dr. Pappe, who continued to study and use it 
daily, by the holder".- h,<arl_\ penni**ion.ju*t as if it had been still his own. 
Dr. Pappe died in 1852^ leaving hi- family in somewhat, straitened 
eircmnetauce- and possessors -<i lie 1 library and 

herbaria accumulated during a long life. Unaware of the mode of 
exploiting either one or the other the heritors offered the library for 
sale at an ordinary auction, and the volumes were, with much grudging, 
bought by the Public Library Management at a shilling apiece. No 
buyer presented him-eli r<»r the herbarium. At last Mr. Kawson W. 
Cawson. the Colonial Seerelarv. induced the (Jovernment to give the 
family 400/. for it. Its value 'then, before it had deteriorated by bad 
housing and years of neglect, might have been about 1,200/. It was 
stored away, now in one place and now in another, much as oathay is 
stored, and suffered from the inevitable in-ect- which prey on dried 
plants and also from rain dripping through the roof of its presume I 
shelter. Then it was at Dr. J. C. Brown's suggestion, housed in a 
room over the Grey Librarv, and was at leas! drv. Dr. Harvey was 
apprised of the Government acquisition, and in 18G4 offered to use it in 
the preparation of nis Fhra Cap& ui*, and select and mount from it a 

Subsequently the collect ion was returned to the Cape, and this study set 
was lodged in seven cabinet* ot the -Kew pattern, meter direction of 
Mr. Brown. 

As nothing was being done tor the collection, not even sublimating 
the typical study-set to prevent insect raids, 1'rof* ssor MacOwan, who 
was then living in Graham'* Town, addressed Sir Philip Wodehouse on 
the subject in 1867, pointing out that nothing had been done for its 
preservation. The collection was no longer in charge of Dr. Brown, 
whose office of Colonial Botanist had been abolished, and it appeared to 
be nobody'* b for it. a- Mr. Trim* q 

African Museum refused to 'take it in charge. Professor MacOwan 
offered to house it at his own expense under control of the Albany 
Museum, and to supply the needful cabinets at his own charges. The 
reply was that it wa- not desirable to transfer the collection to the 
Eastern Province*. East and West differences were then very pro- 
nounced. The collection was therefore piared in charge of Mr. James 
MeGibbon. the gardener, but when Sir Henry Barkly succeeded Sir 
Philip Wodehouse, Mr. MacOwan, knowing him to he a well-informed 
amateur botanist, renewed hi- application. Sir Henry Barkly, without 
giving any notice to the custodian, asked to see the collection, and when 
di.-plaved' it was found that in-ect iudustrv had destroyed scores of 
Harvey's valuable types. He took care, however, that "the custodian 
should immediately "treat the whole study-set in the proper manner with 
sublimate, so as to stop a; , generally kept things 

up to the mark by occasional inspections. 

In February bd, Mr. Mi c< hvan wa- •.; ■ , im 1 curator, in addition 
to the duty of director of the Botanic Gardens. Nine new cabinets wen 



at once added ami idled. :md the-e were incr< 

The new cm ; plants, mm- 

'bering some 5000 sheets. Until the removal of the collection to the 

new Agricultural Olliees in Crave Street, the herbarium housing arrangi - 
ments were very inadequate and inconvenient. There is nor imich' to 

charge and his scientific enthusiasm, eould doubtless point out some 
It is nul very accessible, indeed at the top of the building, 
and there is always a dread of the recurrence o!' the cata- 
overtook Zeyher'- colleetion in Hamburg. Some day. perhaps, ii may 
be removed to a new and truly public museum, into which student-; will 
be encouraged and tempted to enter by the very aspect of the building 
itself. 



vhich us 
i Camplwra,a tree of Japan 
ttnu V.H1IUI, "i«a ivu m> oi.m.mu- uc.i]^ cn.iuic.--eil toKewas to its extended 
cultivation in the Colonies. It grows freely in Southern Europe an I is 
suitable for planting in any warm temperate climate. 

The following note is extracted from the British Xorth Borneo 
Herald, for September 16 :— 

"Nearly 20 years ago Formosa camphor was quoted at $20 per picul, 
but from various causes, chiefly owing to the invention of smokeless 
gunpowder, in the manufacture of which it is largely used, the price has 
now risen to S79. In this connection it is a curious fact to note that 
ine of carbon during combustion 

ce proves to be erroneous, as will 
which Kew is indebted to Sir 
Frederick Abel. 



Imperial Institute, Imperial Institute h'o ;i ,l. 
Beat: Mr. Thiselton-Dteh, November Kx 1896. 

powder for art ill- tv and small arnia : but its employment was 
" idedwith 



soon demonstrated 

and its application for this purpose can thcretore not 
other than experimental, and of no great import;. ne< 
as affecting the market value of camphor. 

This substance has, however, been used extensiv 
past, and no doubt in continually increasing quanti 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq., (Signed] 

C.M.G., CLE., F.R.S., 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 



Shade Tree for Coffee.— A tree that is highly esteemed as a shade for 
coffee in the Republic of Colombia is described in the following extract 
from an interesting letter addressed to Kew by Mr. R. B. White, dated 
Palmira, August 6th, 1895. The tree has been identified as 
Pithecolobium polycephalum, Benth., Hooker's London Journal of 
Botany, lii. (1844), p. 219. It extends to tropical Brazil, and was 
collected near Rio Janeiro by Miers. Mr. White writes : — 

" I enclose some seeds of a tree which is being used most successfully 
here as a shade for coffee. It has flowers in small white balls just the 
size of those of the Sensitive plant, pods long, flat, compressed, with 15 
to 20 seeds. Pods do not open, being held together by strong marginal 
veins ; they simply break up when rotten. No one here knows the 
name of this tree. I have referred it to Mr. Lehmann, and he does not 
know it. It is a native only of Antioquia, and grows in a mean tem- 
perature of 75° Fahr. It is fond of stony poor soil. A tree 18 months old 
will cover 141 square yards of ground (12 x 12). It goes to sleep at 
night, allowing the dew and cool air to reach the coffee. When young the 
wood is soft, bHt on ageing it gradually gets a red heart, and becomes 
hard and durable. The seed I send has been bathed in sulphate of 
copper solution, and I believe it to be good, so you can try a few 
seeds in Kew by way of curiosity and send the rest to one of our tropical 
establishments to be reported on. When full-grown this tree may be 
50 feet high with a spread of at least 50 feet on all sides. Nothing can 
be better as a shade tree. It is a poor liver and does not exhaust the 
soil. It spreads out horizontally ; it gives a good shade, not too dense, 
and during the night allows the dew to refresh the plants beneath. The 
leaflets do not litter the plantation and are too small to harbour fungi 
and moulds. It is easily trimmed and brought to shape. The 
umbrella ants will attack it but they can only get hold of one little 
sub-pinna at a time. They cannot get a good bite and cut out a real 
imposing umbrella and so they do not care to draw much on this 
tree when once they have balanced up working expenses and output. 
This - 



Crop of Cider Apples. — A correspondent in Gloucestershire writes : — 
Cider apples are so abundant here that they fetch only 1*. a sack. 
Eight sacks make 100 gallons of cider, therefore Is. will produce about 
12 gallons of cider, or Id. a gallon. Double this for making, Casks, 
profit, &c, and you arrive at \d. per quart. There is a lot of drinking 
in store for those who require it Abotf lid. will make a man drunk 
if three quarts of acrid liquor will do the job. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



ULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



No. 108.] 



CCCCXCI.—CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES. 

In the Kew Bulletin for July 181)4 (pp 219-223) an article wa-> 
reprinted iVom the $(n,,<lanl on the importation of vegetables. This 
newspaper is ordinariK will informed on agricultural subjects, and llu- 
article ap ( ., ami to give a tail- summary of facts which certainly deserved 
careful study. Kew is not occupied with vegetable growing, and the 
article was reprinted only with the object of drawing attention to the 
subject as an economic problem. 

Two of the lead i Mir horticultural journals commented upon it. The 
Gardeners' Magazine for July 21st, 1894, wrote as follows :— 

Market Supplies of Vegetables. 

In the current issue of the Kew Bulletin is given a reprint of an 
article from one of the dailies on the market supplies of vegetables, 

and as it now appears with Hie official sanction of a great Government 

department, "as a useful and, doubtless, correct summary of the facts," 

vegetables 

excellent 

)n the costers' stalls both in London and the 

*reeinent with the writer when he tell us that 
I cauliflowers have fallen considerably during 
deed we are upon some other points. But 
jxception must be taken. We are informed, 



very best in the 



upon the stupendous foreign importations." If this be so, it would 
1m- interesting t ■•> know what becomes of the large quantities produced 
in Bedfordshire and some other of the counties. As we have frequently 
stated, we do not grow this >-cul>-nt so laru'eh as we should do, but 
this is a very different matter from depending " wholly " upon foreign 
supplies. With reference to cabbages, the writer states, " that the poor 
would be badly oil" indeed for tins healthy vegetable if they relied 
only on the English growth," and ••that 'the cabbages sold at the 
Borough .Market, at Spitalfields, and along the wharves are in almost 
all eases imported from Holland." To confute these statements is 
wholly unnecessary. Nor, indeed, is it possible to seriously discuss 
-ii. -h assertions as '• the best vegetables of all grades are of foreign 
importation," the "English production is but a small item in the 
market," and " the greengrocers' stock is ten times as heavy as it was 
20 years ago. yet for almost everything that in in it, the dealer he 
purchases from, looks to the Continent for his supply," in view of 
the fact that last year we devoted 1,652,860 acres to the cultivation of 
fruits and veg< {« •rtion was sent to market. 

But we must confess to some surprise that they should have been 
considered deserving of "permanent preservation." 

The Gardeners' Chronicle for August 11th, 1894, contained the 
following paragraph : — 

"In this article one side of the question is t rented, but the writer has 
not availed himself of the very striking facts which were published on 

< 'it , ! ,'., M s!/ 1 , l i- l ' 1 ", , 1 . l ' 1 '" 1 | l M i il, I '.rki-ts nil tin \n, ms'oi distill m! ion." ' 
The general tendency of the professional journals, ii will be seen, is to 



.:--o. mV,'. i 



(.MOV- 


Raw: 




Bushels. 




Fro'i 


Holland 




■ ijssieio 


M$& 




Belgium - 






32^898 




France 




697,620 
















Tark\ 




^S$oi 


"mw 




!l:;:i'l;:." 


r.imra!-'"' : 


M li 


i'-nl 


vl 


.. ICalta 




5L239 


7,193 




1 from Britisl 


!, po-Mon, - 


8,426 


486 


Tela 


54,665 


7,879 














Total 




5,288,512 


765,040 













i E;- : : : i 


l *ffi* 8 *'*2 


Total from totetgn eoantrie, - 


1,540,482 477,465 


'::" olEnnsiMH,;^ " - " 


W S^S 'USS 




"~Ss Sh" 



. Value of the Vegetables imported into the United Kin 
during the Year 1894:— 

£ 
Onions ----- 765,040 
Potatoes - 1,030,091 

Baw vegetables, unenumerated - - 1,090,370 



Pears (raw) --.--...- 411,316 

The most important source of supply was France 191,200 

Plums (raw) ----- 302,105 

The most important source of supply was Prance 170,826 

Comment upon these figures may for the moment lie deterred. But the 
,vhole viil,'.,. ci ha- recmith engaged the attention of the Board of 
Airrieultuiv ul - „<d tor March |K<)o(pp. 287-291) 

i ver\ important article which is reproduced. 



Mauket Gardening. 

In 1875 there were 38,957 acres of market gardens in Great Britain, 
whilst in 1894 there were no fewer than 88,210 acres, exclusive of 
vegetable crops on farms. The farmers have of late years competed 
keenly with market gardeners in the cultivation of greens and cabbages, 

Farmers, especially those near railways in direct communication with 
good markets, also grow, to a considerable extent, peas for podding, 
broad in. an-. - They have 

not yet cultivated, at least in any important degree, those vegetables 
which reqtilt . ■(:-, such as onions, carrots, parsnips, 

cucumber*, French i.enn-. radishes, ,vc. ; with respect to these, how- 
ever, the market gardeners are more or less -ewrely interfered with by 
foreign supplies, wiiieh l.tou larger sear by year. 

Foreign compel it ion has made itself fell in roped of early vegetables 
and salads, which are imported some weeks before those grown in 
England are readv for market. Farlv tin nip-, earrots. peas, and 
French beans from Fiance, the Canary Islands, Madeira, and Algeria. 

and when then- own expensive crop, are ready, the fancy prices have 
passed into Inreiguers' pock s. ,,,,1 is marker-"/arden< s sa> , " the edge 
of the appetite tor this early produce has been taken oil." The same 
applies to sahwb. notably to lettuces, which are imported in large 
quantities from France and the Canary Islands as early as January, 
months before Fniri - ; > market -gardener* can send them into market. 
This importati- Jttne, when the demand for young 

crisp lettuces has been satisfied. A few years ago cucumbers yielded 
considerate profits to home-growers, but now they are imported so 



early and so largeh from Holland, and arc usually >o plentiful and 

cheap, that many market-gardeners in (J real Britain have ceased to 

grow them. Radishes, another \ery proiitahle crop in past years, are 

sent in quantities from February to Api il from Paris. St. Main, and the 

Channel Islands, completely forestalling Fnglish produce. Very large 

• are made from Holland of beetroot and red cabbage for 

.11. until recently, were profitably cultivated in Fnglaml. 

But it is in the case of onions that there has latterly been the most 

extraordinary increase in importation. Onions were regarded as an 

almost, safe-paying crop if the weather were favourable, but in the last 

3 prices have been so forced down by foreign < 



481,427/., from Germany. Holland (which -en! 1.1S1..1C; bushels^ 
Belgium, France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Egypt. In 1894 no less 
than 5,288,512 bushels of onions, of the value of 765.010/., came from 

It is noteworthy that the imports of onions from Holland have 
considerably decreased since 1885, but those from (J. nnany, France, and 
Spain have much increased. The receipts of onions from Egypt have 
more than quadrupled in the past decade. 

Potatoes, again, were formerly important sources of profit to British 
market-gardeners. Early and quick-growing varieties were put in and 
dug early to supply the demand for ne*v potatoes, and other crops were 
got in and taken off during the autumn. Imputations of very -arh 
potatoes from Algeria, France, Lisbon, Malta, Teneriffe, and Holland 
interfere much with English growers of potatoes, and threaten to 
interfere with potato-growers in the Channel Islands, whose potatoes 
are not ready in any quantity until the first week in May. The arrivals of 
new potatoes commence about Christmas time, and continue in increasing 
quantities until the Channel Islands season begins. The average impor- 
tation of potatoes for the first six months of the la-t three years from 
France. Lishou, Canurv Mauds. .Malta, the Channel Islands/and other 
countries was 1,764,258 cwts., of an average value of 710,586/. 

The importation of potatoes from the Channel Islands begins ia May 

from this -oiirce ibi the four month Ma\, dune. July. August— of the 



average value of 062,458/. 

The volume of imported potatoes has, however, decreased considerable 
during the past quarter of a century, and the character of the trade has 
changed in a great and significant degree. For the three years ending 
1875, the averag- annual importation of potatoes was 5,oU'Uof> cwts 
For the three years ending lSS.1, the annual average importation was 
3,297,867 cwt. Since 1880, some of the large importing countries which 
formerly sent potatoes in the late summer and autumn have greatly 
diminished their supplies, as they could not compete with the English 



Resid 




w potatoes ai 
getables, sue 


.:];,,:_ 


."cauliflo 


wers, spinach 


■e sent 


from D( 


■umark, Cm 



ions imported, large quantities of raw, 
peas, French beans, lettuce, and other 

mol i idisln s, t mi »-. u d uci ml.x i s 
_ Holland, France, Portugal, Madeira. 
Spain. Canary Isles, Italy, Austrian Territories, Roumania, United 
States, and other countries. Hie average annual value of those imported 
vegetables during the past three years was 1,027,411/. In l*So the 
value of these raw vegetables was K>7.2s7/.. while in 1875 it was only 
1.32,12 I/, divided mainly between Holland. Prance, and Germany. 

This importation of raw vegetal !e- is spread fairly evenly over each 
month in the year, though it is somewhat larger in June, July, and 
August. It in! l!;e price.; o! primeurs in the early 

.,:. ,.., o ... : . 

farmers who. U s ; , market-gardener remarked lafelv. 'are driven into ii, 



and il'ter-i _ t _ ' s, .-ne heeo ting m< i i id more di- 

inclined to work on the land. In the production of such crops as 
onions, carrots, celery, and lettuee, a great deal of labour is absolutely 

... ' ■■ ■ 



[-porluniti.'s of ^oiling inloi mntiou 
nrket \v;inK Bill where technical 

mrkets, and it will pay to grow vege- 



ibles, farmers will n<> doubt :;> !;:•■; themselves to eireumst; 
ecessary by the exigencies of the times. 
There appears to be some opening for the further 
wnatoes under glass, II would seem to be generally adu: 



' Eim.pe. the explanation of I 



to facilitate the distribution to the consumer ol vegetable produce, 
ii. points to another and less obvious cause, whieh at first sight seems 
paradoxical— tlie increasing prosperity of the country and the rise in the 
"standard of comfort," To put the point in an extreme form: a nation 
might say that it would rather buy an article <>f consumption from out- 
side than produce it itself: and it is by no mean.- impos-ihle that tin- 
approaches the secret of the whole matter. If the price of labour allows of 
enbba-. < h« iiur grown more cheaply in Holland than in England, they 

The Board of Agriculture pointed out. in its Journal for December 
1894 (b. 150) another cause:— 

v. The fewness of distributing centres. 
"So long as the practice continues of consigning the chief part of 
the fruit grown in this country to the few existing markets there 
must be occasional glut." Yet, however abundant the harvest of fruit, 
the price to the local consumer rarely falls. What is mainly wanted 
then is greater facilities of distribution as between the producer and the 



The follow -t ration is taken from the Daily 

Telegraph for July 17, 1894 :— 

"A correspondent says: A salesman in Coven t Garden had consigned 
to him last Saturday 2,500 bags of peas, representing 30,000 pecks. A 

large quantify of these were sold as low as 1*. per bag, or 1<7. per peek. 
The cost of gathering is about \s., carriage Or/., commission and other 
charges 6d., total 2*. each. bag. The coster would gain a heap of 
money by the glut, the public an advantage, the salesman his commis- 
sion, and lastly the producer, whose share has wholly disappeared, may 
lind himself called upon to make good any loss incurred by the 

With regard to potatoes it is interesting to observe that the importa- 
tion is gradually declining. According to the Ai/rienltnral l\rl n nis far 
(./< of Hi ih | p. \\.\i\.). 



1873 - - - - - 375,300 

1883 - - - - 257,500 

1893 ..... 141,C7^ 

For the last year the gross production in the United Kingdom was 

6,541,000 tons (p. xxvi.}. One potato therefore in something under fifty 

would be foreign. But as the bulk of the import- of potatoes are from 

France and the Channel Islands, it is obvious it is pretty nearly 

accounted for by the earlier crop which (hose eountries produce-. 

The case of onions is, however, the most enigmatical. The Gardeners 
Magazine a<ks, " What becomes of the large crop- grown in Bedford 
shire?" and the Hoard of Agriculture replies, *' in some instances, it 



In the number of February 1. is93 (page 130) it states that " much 

to colour in the fruit." It recommends "making a better selection 
of varieties of apples as well as improved methods of culture and of 
packing " and further that in schools " children should be taught that 
it is a patriotic thing to consume a home grown apple." 



The same number gives (page 
contrast between home and foreigr 


137) a striking statement J 


is to the 


i freights. 




"As an illustration of the ex 


ir-he charges which agriculture in 




nay be mentioned that it c 




to bring nirricultiir.-il sfeds from CI 


hicago to London, a distance 




4,000 miles (of which 1,000 are by rail 




does from stations within 150 mi 


les of London. In Europe 




difference though less is still ex. 


ressive, the carriage from tl 


ie N'orth 



Fiance I ban from Yorkshir 



CCCCXCIL— DECADES KEWENSES. 

Plantarum Novarum in Herbario Horti Recti Conservatarum. 
DECAS XXII. 

The plants of this decade are from a collection made by Dr. Leo 
Hirsch, in the summer of I S9.".. in the coinitry of I [adramaut, in Southern 
Arabia. They were placed at our disposal for publication by Dr. 
Schweinfurth, with the special idea of their being compared with the 
Bent, Esq., and 
tin fa 
Dr. Hir 



by J. Theodore 
i the J?. 



Mr. Lutit, which are reported upon in <he llvllclin for 1SJM, pp. Wis - 

:;i:;. and ISOo, p. 158 and pp. '"" 

ascended the mountains,.! .he interior to a height of over 6001 

be'foundin Pel n, 1894, p. 30. * The coll 

contained about 150 species, of which only three were among 
novelties discovered by Messrs. Bent and Lunt. 

211. Dombeya arahica, Baker [Stercultftceae] ; fruticosa, n 

dense stcllaTo-pubescen1il>us. foliis breviter p-liolatis cordato-orbic 

facie tenu iter dors:) den>e -telhuo-puhe-centibus venis elevatis, 

pubescentibus, petalis obovatis coc<'ineis calycc paulo longia 
petaloideis coccineis, stylo obsoleto. 

flahitat. — Hadramaut, Southern Arabia, Hirsch, 170. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa et lata. Calyx 3 lin. longus. Petala 



iaxe racemosis, pedicellis erecto-patentibus, calv 
, petalis oblongis calyce 3-4-plo longioribus, star 



nihil.- petaiis aipiilougis lilamenti- i n \ is glob.. sis. 

fructu coriaceo oblongo profunda bitido I*. hi- apice rotundatis. seminibus 
globosis granulatis. 

Habitat. — Kischin, Hadramaut, Southern Arabia, Hirsch, 77. Native 
name bdalit. 

Folia 4-9 lin. Ionga. Petala 1 lin. Ionga, Fructus 3 lin. longus. 

The two original species came from 'Texas and California, Dr. 
Balfour found "i third in Socotru ; and we Jiave a fourth from the 
Transvaal, as yet undeserii.ed. collected by Dr. Atherstone. The 
Arabian plant most resembles T. texana, Torrey. 

213. Rhamnus leucodermis, Hither ■> Rhamnaeea^] ; frutieosa, glabra, 
ramulis alb i - tcretibus spiius pungeiitibti- patnlis cylindricis recti's 
basi dilatatis ad nodos pra-ditis, fbliis faseiculalis ol>o\ a! i-ol>]oiigis 
obfusis breviter petiolatis rigide coriaceis utrinque viridibus, floribus 
solitariis pcdunculatis, c-dyeis eampai ulati lobis ovatis, petalis angustis 
viridibus ealyce paulo longioribus, ovario globoso, stylo ovario ;rqui 

Habitat*— -Hwkwnant, Southern Arabia, [finch, 84. 



Rhus flexicaulis, Baker 



2L"». Tephrosia (Reineria) 

iierbacoa. perehnis, caulihus gr; 
-nbulatis persistentibns, foliis 

weviter petiolulato lateralibus 

>edicellis ealyce brevioribus, eal 



. Conyza stenodonta, 
ramulis lignosis brur 



margme levitrr i-enivvah*, rapmui> 
.aiiionlatip, peduneulis bivvilai- 
iracteis multiseriatis rigidis pallidis adprcsM^, 
xterioribus sensim brevioribus, arkvniis cylindricis, p; 
iorollae tubo aaquilongo. 
Habitat.— Hadramaut. Southern Arabia, Hindu 55. 



217. Cony za cylindrica, linker j CoinpositavA.Mrro 

pam.-is laxc corymbosis Ion»v prdmiciilatis, involucri 

cxicrinribiis sensim bivyionbu-, ;icli-i-iiii< pubescentibus, 
albo floxili corolla? tubo sequilongo. 

Habitat.— V^< S.-binv.M.. Hadramaut, Southern Avabi 
Native name, Tabefet. 

Folia Hi Poll, longa, 1 lin. diam. h,rol„cr»m S 
I'appn* l.V lin. longus. 

218. G-rantia senecionoides, /i«£r>- [Composite) 

Jiorbacea. perennis, eaulibus pili< im-lbbus bivvibus 
vestitis, foliis altcrnis p.'tiulatis lyrato-obk.ngi< bipii 






Hirschia, liakt,- jVnmp..sit; 
i< /..ro/acrLi duplex, hi., 



rtinhltisbipil.llilliHdN S4\» 

II. anthemidifolia, Bak 



This now genu* comes nearest to Graufia, {'torn which it differs by 
its homogamous discoid flowers, biseriate involucre with pinnatilid 
foliaceous outer bracts, and the absence of a paleaceous outer row to the 
pappus. In general habit it most resembles the Algerine Grantia 
{Perralderia) coronopi folia, Benth. et Hook. fil. 

220. Caralluma arabica, X. E. Brown [Asclepiadeaj] ; C. tuberculoid 

similis, tloriii . - ■ i- omninoglabris. sep;dis 

ovatis acutis. corolla* fubo bvovi caiiipniiulato loliis ovatis ileitis levihus 
atro-purpurcis, corona- e\terioris lobis profunde bifidis segmentis lineari- 
filit'ormibus ol»tusi< ereefis aph-e areuatis .piani columna staminum multo 
longioribus, corona interioris lobis liuearibus obtusis dorso gibbosis super 
antheras incumbentibus et eis subsequantibus. 

Habitat.— Southern Arabia : Wadi Raida, near Saihut, Hirsch, 28. 

Pedicelli 1^-2 lin. longi. Sepala $-§ lin. loaga. Corolla; 
tubus 1| lin. longus, lobi 2 lin. longi, \\ lin. lati. Corona exterioris 
lobi | lin. longi, segmentis \ lin. longis ; interioris lobi \-± lin. 



CCCCXCIIL— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Mr. Frederick Ekos Willey, in the employ of the Royal Gardens, 
as been appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies Curator 
f the newly founded Botanic Station at Sierra Leone. Mr. Willey 
ntered the Royal Gardens in June 1892. He was lent from Kew to 
«•! as Curator of the Botanic Station at Abnri, Gold ('oast, during the 
bsence, in 1809-4, of the late Mr. Crowther, who was sent by his 
J-overnineiit to inspect the principal Botanic Gardens in the West 
ndies. Mr. Willey managed the station to the satisfaction of the 
Government of the Gold Coast and is therefore prepared by previous 
xperience in West Africa for the duties of his new post. 



'. J. M. Henry has retired from the post oi 
:.uoda State Gardens after 10 years service. H 
in 18G7, and after 12 years service in Madn 
nted to Baroda in November 1870. 



Botanical Magazine. — The number for November is essentially an 
orchid number, the only other plant figured being the showy verbena- 
eeous Amason'm (rata, a native of eastern tropical South America, for 
living plants of which Kew is indebted to Messrs. Sander A Co. The 
orchids are: Ani/rtmim Kotschyi, from a very fine raceme from the 
garden of Sir Trevor Lawrence; Spatli<><fl»fti* kimholl'mna, a pretty 
'Jorncan species, also one of Messrs. Sander's introductions; Catnsctum 
Lonosii, native of the He do .Marajo, at the mouth of the Amazons, sent 
to Kew by Mr. E. Rand in 1H94 ; and Selenipedium sftn,nifi/ninm, a 
native of Brazil, imported b\ Messrs. Sander, and flowered in 1805. 
With the exception of the Catasetum, these are all handsome ornamental 



Hooker's Icones Plantarunx- 

( plates 2401 242..) opens with 

handsome, though almost worthies-, Diptrrnrarpus lioiirdilloni, "an 
enormous tree 150 feet high, with a straight trunk ."> feet in diameter," 
inhabiting North Travancore. Rami ski brasilieusis is a somewhat 
anomalous member of the Nyctaginea, clothed with stellate scales like 
an l-Ha-in/DKs, and inn . ■ i ! . inches in iliameier. 

enclosing the ripe Inul l.t/^'niiiirlua i/niiKiilaliii, a native of China, is 
remarkable for its ample foliage and umbellate Mowers ; and Pefmcosntra 
grandiflora, from the same country, is :i beautiful species with cobalt 



large as those of the previously 
is the :" ' * 



species. Daniella thu » tree ot Sierra .Leone. 

Camoroa pisitnirpn is a new genus of the Aurantiacete, having unifolio- 
late leaves and minute; flowers. Mi'lashnnairu are represented by a 
number of curious novelties from Romeo, including a new genus, 
/letli-rclla, allied lo Mcilmil la Aim muihitii i- a diminutive, species 
discovered by M. S. Kvans in Natal. Finally there are ligures of two 
elegant species of the Mexican umbelliferous genus Xeogoezia, described 
in the Bulletin, 1SJ>4, p. '•'>■',[. rnfortunatoly -everal misprint- and 
other errors were overlooked in this number. Thus in the letterpress 
to plate 241."), p. .'], the name MkIkhIIios and its derivation should be 
cancelled, tlederellu qiiintuplinervis, Stapf, plate 2416, is not a new 
species, but the same as /)i,,,„ !,„ fa qui ' uhipli,,, rrls,Vo^n. Pomatostoma 
tertolifervm, plate 2420, is also not new, as may be seen from the 



.ii of Kew Seeds.— Tic , of a list of 

.■els ripened at Kew and available for exchange ha- resulted in a coti- 
!.lera!>le increase in the number of packet- of seeds distributed. They 
re applied for from both public and private gardens in all pans of the 
i for the most part of select plants. Last year 



(1894) nearly 6000 packets were supplie 



printed list. In addition to ti 
I the Colonies were distributed f 






of seeds distributed annually from Kew prev 
2000 per annum. 



Removal of large Screw Pines.— The disappearance from the north 
rt-inir of the Palm house of the two large specimens of Screw Pines 

( Randanns) which bad for so mam years been conspicuous objects in 
it requires a brief record. The age of both was probably not. les- than 
70-SO vears. They were, therefore, in exi-tenee at Kew before it 
became a national Establishment Tl, Mam.- u Inch tb.-y have always 

of Paudanads is attended with extreme ddhculty. 

Pantlanus refic.vns.~- This was , -triking plant oi great size which 

ids of enormous stiff sword-shaped 
leaves. According to John Smiths Records of Kew (p. 126) it was 

introduced to Kew by Wall'tch in 1M\ /'. refie.rus is an obscure 



liately opposite ■ 

lilii-i- appnrentlv 
■ger plant. In 



The loss from disease of a large and important specimen in a Botani< 
Harden where it is constantly under observation is a comparatively ran 
event. In the rase of Pandanads several eases however are recorded 

of P. odoratissiiHits with a stem 10 feet high perished in this way ii 
the Breslau Botanic Garden. It \va> mad'! the snbject of an elaboral. 
investigation by Dr. J. Sehroeter in I 'elm's " licit mr/i zm liiohx/ic dr. 
Pflanzen" (i., pp. 87-107). He gave the disease the ven appropriate 



Dr. Moore gives of the progressive destruction of 
accords exactly with our experience at Kcw. 

Material from tin Kew plant was sent for exarainj 
Marshall Ward, F.R.S. He reported « There is no < 
to the main point. [ have got into the heart of the 



oubtex 



noticeable that in all the recorded eases (lie plants have attained eon- 

I'd/idamis ndorutissiiHi'x. — There is no record of the original intro- 
duction of the striking plaut which, under this name, occupied a 
conspicuous position at the extreme end of the north wing. But it 
was probably of about the same age as the P. rejlexvu. Unfortunately 



ds. No ordinary horticultural building can the 
t question of time. Before its removal the | 



height, with a diameter of 40 

and first fruited in ] 
; a foot long almost ever; 
1 was t in -I i bearing five 



plement to the Gardeners' 1 Chronicle for August 5, 

r it was lowered into a brick pit prepared for the 
umI nn additional space in height of o feet. The base o 
striking mass of aerial roots has been carefully pre-ei 



Citrus inodora. — Thi 



juicy, and equal in flavour to the Wis i Indian 1 
pcarnnce the tree resembles the orange, having 
foliage. I have chosen the specific name on aecoi 
gathered being wanting in fragra 
so noted for scented flowers." 1 
the Society a large number of seeds were got ; these had all been sown 
under favourable conditions, while the scions have been _ . 
Citrus roots. Mr. Bailey is of op i in i! at thi- Citn - plant will be an 
r->ck on which to work an v of the other sorts; it being a 



Kabul. The seeds from 
Colonial Botanic Gardens, 
country, including Her Majesty's Roya 



>ur, I think, sweet, and very refreshing. I shall certainly -row 
melon again, and use it to cross with other varieties." The 
t was 10 in. long and 7 in. in diameter; the skin yellowish-green 
netted, the wall of flesh 2 in. thick, and rich in flavour as well as 
Bt and juicy. Dr. Ait.chison pointed out in a note published in 
Kew Bulletin that the Sarda Melon does not develop its full 



leery a segyptiaca i 



Museum, 302. 



Agricultural fat 



Ballota frutieosa, l\ah*>v, 

I].'iih1mm) palm, 88. 
Barl.ad<-, Sugar-cane dis 



Books :— 

I'ntzel's leonum Botanicanmi 

Index, supplement to, 124. 

• Selecj; Extralropiral Plants, 

303. 
Bosra t'arsoni, 1 laker, 288. 
Botanical Magazine, 19, 40, 77, 
121,156,198,232,272,299.318. 



.- krntmj>l'vll<>i<U'S, linker, 
Carson, A., Luke Tan- 


& 


-lan^'llal'rJ 




lill! 


I 


3S 


3& "h 


Illii;;' 


,,, 


rfi.'^M^'T: 


, Soioaii-laml dried 


_ 1'rinXJ al K.-w, IoC^ 




Cob^V'-U 


hopiiylin?, Baker, 


- <lis1mrta','.Y. ' !•:'.' 11 roir„. 


if 


~ ] ^ltu!! 


liJker'Sn^' 


~f;S2!: v v.¥££ 


°2B2. 


l\mibri-Umi 


awwoeiwe, i*/*,,-, 










-- subtVum-ata, ' ^. lT" 


i!;, 1 ;,, 


oJw«r ,P ^ 


•us, tfajfcr, 221. 
. M„ Karakoram 


— "fontaculatu, A. /;. />W 


/. 2til. 


Expedition 


20 ' 


— voiubiiis, x. /•:. />•/■»«•», 

Ceylon, Handbook of the h 


z« 


o (I >. , "!;''i;;; : 


BaAer, 316. 


^SSHf"'*' 




— cmta. A". J 






'. /:. 


_ 145' Var ' r 


bra, A. A. Br<ft», 


Cider apples, crop of, 306. 
( holster agrestis, 122. 
CinlH.petaium compactam, 


Baker y 

Bolfe, 




StiU Adbr, 213. 


-"ura'cillimum, Rolfe, 34. 
- nivsorons,. A>o//e, 31. 
___ n ,:,|n..nn Rolf,, 35. 

Ciuus fruits in Sicily, 2b(>. 




Croton cvi.fVi 
Cnptnllpi-. 
Cryptophorai 


2SS-, 


_ p.,lvct>plia.limi, linker. 1 
lau^anyiken.-e, /''"•/- /■• 




— oblonglfd 


us, Rolfe. 5, 



C'ycloclu'ilon, 
— somaliensc 
Cvmbo>«>[»:ilu 



Diagnoses 

211,247 

Dinscia cor 



Ferula alhacea, 201. 


Gray, John, death of, 39. 


— jaschkeana, 57. 

— Narthex, 57. 




Greenhouse construction, Kmv 


Fiji dried plants, 20. 
Finger-and-toe, 129. 


svstem of, 300. 


Guide to Museum No. II., 203. 


Flora of (Vvlon. handbook oi. 236. 








Somali-land, 158,211. 


Gyinnor.on1y.iii j.ilifora, .V. /.'. 


— — the Solomon Island,, 132, 


'Brown, 26. 


Florida, cultural industries in, 


H. 


— , destructive frost in, 125. 


llaben.iria Pliillinsii. Ifo/fe, 227. 


— , dried , .lards, 79. 


lhenianlhus somaliensis. linker. 


F;.ke"sHnn^! , ^ in '/' 25 ^u',. 


Hfl^Lk, W., Yunnan dried 



etffay in Natal, 1. ; Herbaceous Plant 

sii plants of the ( ,.al Measures, Trees and Shrub* 

23. ; Hay-grass, 210. 

g, West Indian, at Kew, 301. Hedyearya solomoitensis. 



L-rmanma -randifolia. A. 
Brown, 143. 
- ,nalva-f.,lia, A. E. lirmn,. 



Hortus Flumincnsis, 27 






Jasmiuuro octoouape, fftfer, 1 




Nu.'rnia arabica, .V. 1 






— primuliimm' Ih tmsl.\ 10!). 














Humphries, ('. II., 155. 
Huter, Uev. R., In< 


101. 


dried 


= w' ; f; ■;";;; i;:fe*- 




irvn, l .n„ l li«-rv„!iii.f. 1 1! 
lly^eyamus flaccidus 
184. 

I. 




Wy/,/, 


K. 




' Jh '"//,//'.' 


4 56 




Recall !he Colonies. 205. 




- tril.ii.b's /A/,:./-. 21 : 


I. 


r, 05 


E i , f: , '7/r , "' , " , '. r i 




International Gen-rap! 


lical 


Con- 


- -' '»ivni -dass iii'pbin/boii^-s 




'■,','Bwv,' 


,V//,v ;■ 


\m. 


— .' guide to Museum Xo. II., i 
— , — — Herbaceous l'l? 


S 


~ iii^T^i'nnmV'VI'/v' 


222. 




grown at, 40. 
— , injury by liglitniiijr. 235. 


abi 


™;!'!Mn,'i!;l;'S'; ; ! n 






Congress, 235. 


,cal 








— Lake, pic tares of, 303. 




Ire rubber tree, 242. 






— , lar»e Screw Pines, removal 

319. 
— , list of seeds available for 

— , i'Mlmv Meadow. 75. 

— , Palm House, renewal of Ik 


«- 


^^S 






= ; K;S^^ c 




,!:r; ; p; 






-J^rilou-o, extern, 


u» 








—"victors in IS9I, 18. 




- mieropbyllum. /////'M 


■. aa, 




— , — — September, 271. 






<*< r, 




—] West ' Indian frog at, 3oV. 




— obtusifolium, lUilm', 


93. 




— , wire fence, removal of, 235, 





King, Dr. GL M.-i 



Mostuea fuchsiaefolia, Baker, 96. ( )j>uni ia arborescens n 

— orientalis, I'xtkcr, 96. j — arbusciila at Kew, 

— Walleri, /taker, 96. I — fulgida at kV\\\ K> 
Moth-borer, 82. ( >iauge-gro\ving in ] 



t Kinibaln. flora 
Mucuna erecta, Vxihvr, 
Mosa Hillii, 77. 
— textilis, 208. 



Oranges in Sicily. '_'(.( I. 






Appendix H. 
— oivhi.ls, -,, 33, 191, 1 
Niger CoaM Protect ora 



IVpprr plant... .lis.-iisr of. 17*. 

IVr^m'xalil, i«7.' 

IVtrocosmca graiuliflora. /A W.. 

IM.illipsi.M. /!„//,. pvn. nov, 22.S. 
-frutioulosa,/?o/>,223. 

I ^'" J} " ^ I>C ' " ,0 "' ' 0taU ' °' 

i'la-mu'hopliora HrassicM> (tnth 
I'laiyk.'loha. .V. A'. /;«>»■//, gen. 


ft 
Q« «*pid Cherry, 2Y2. 

ft. 

Rafia from West Africa, SS, L's7. 
— . preparation of, 91. 
Kaphia (ra-rtneri, 00. 

— Hookeri, 90. 

i;i....io.|.-ri.lroii |-..rr..'. <:.»iim " 
ffemtl., L83. 

— Hancockii. llvmsl., 107. 
Rhus Curiaria, 2J»3. 

— nYxicauIis. /*//*<>/•. ;H(5. 

Ki.hanli':, It.hnirmn'i.l'ri'. 
Kiornu.xia profusa, V. /•/. Ilroim, 

UubUr. t-xporV tron, (JoM Coast, 
-"'iilip.'in'.r'lij.'"" 



Islands, flora of. 



«» &>(fe, | Sou th Africa, Botanic Garde 



Saintpauln ionantl 






Rolfc, 2 



•ebera Buch 

t-Kiiiot. (■; 



— Kirkii, X. /;. /;;v,«m, 248. 


ruW.'.M 


* ' ' i ' "l ' '"i -at /< =/ J "rianfs* 303 


— triclisioidus. Il,tl«-r, 


S..|.-.-i.. aiviiir.diu-. ihiker\ 106. 










— tjnnnis'ii, Ilaiter, 111! 

— Hualtata, 198. 


— zizvphoidrs, AW,,,-. 
Siyrax ikazoin, 154. 


— Iongipes, Baker, 217. 


'(", ntr: 


Shu-lang root, 230. 





Smilax flaccida, Wright, 118. X 

— megalantha, P>yfe, 118. 

— microphylla, Wright, 117. Tabernamontanaanguinea,//*? 

— srol.inicr.idis. Wright. 117. 130. 

— utilis, Wright, 138. Tabernanthe Iboga (w/M />A 



— growing, pmsp.el s of, in British 


-||;|^v^'- 


tMphylos,fii. 
Temperate House, .south wing of, 

Tcii.-rium nmmnularifoliiim, ' - 


222. 
216. 


Thanmosma Ilirsehii, Sr/nrf., ,51.',. 
Tlioiuson, Dr. Thomas, portrait of, 

236. 
— , J. W., death cf, 120. 

Tilioiiclmm tneiodon, Stopf, 104. 


--"•on.plioplivlla; /inker, 2U). 
— ooeephala. Baker, 68. 


Trias vilrina, liolfe\'2H± 
TrichocMiiloii ol'licinale, N. E. 


— tnyr>iilora. Bal-tr. U>2. 


Triehnelallus gramlillorus, 1 .',(>. 




T!!mir-!l } |u^'rur ; So^()!h' 


W. 

Wahhnlvriiia pi ni folia, .V. K. 


— oeulata, X. /:. tf/w«, 112. 

Typhoon in IL.ng Kong, 16. 

V. 


West African Mahogany, 79. 

Whit. Willow, 239. 
Wi.hlriinitoni:) Wl.vtoi, 189. 

Wiliry, v. K.,:ns.' 


Vaecinimn Aretostaphylos as a tea 

substitute, 61. 
— crythrocarpum, 156. 





laicianm. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

APPENDIX I.-1895. 



have ripened :ii K.'\v .luriiiiMlu. year 1*1)1. These seeds are not sold 
to the general public, hut are available for exchange with Colonial, 
Indian, and Foreign Botanic Gardens, as well as with regular corre- 
spondents of Kew. No application, except from remote colonial posses- 
sions, can be entertained after the end of March. 



HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 



Acmia cylindrostachva, R. & P., 
Chili. 


Aconitum Fischeri, Reichb., 
Kamtsch. 


nmcrostenion, Hk. £11., N'. 


heterophyllum, Wall., India. 


Zealand. 


Lycoctonum, L., Eur., etc. 


microphylla, Hk. fil., N. Zea- | 


— var. orientale, Hort. 




Napellus, L., Eur., Temp. 


myriophylla, Ldl., Chili. 




ovalifolia, Ruiz & Pavon, 




Peru. 


Acroglochin chenopodioides, 




Schrad., W. Hinud. 


sericea, Jacq., Mexico. 






H. nmpl.ere. 




Aelinolepis eorouaria, Cray, Calif. 


aeL-vpHaoh L* Eur., etc. 




deeolorans. Sehrad., Eur. 




Iilipen.lnli.ia, Lam., Caucasus 


Adenophora liliifolia. Be*»., 


Millefolium, L., Eur. 


Ades.nia inuricata, DC 1 ., Chili. 


rapnetris, H.' P. EL, Tyrol. 


Adh.mia eirrhosa, Raf., Unit. 




States. 










Creece. 


Mexieo. 



•n.'iiiii Huxlmumii, DC, 
Thrace. 

, Boiss., Armenia. 
, R.Br., S. Eur. 



Agrimonia leucantha, Ku 

odorata, Mill., Eur. 
Agropyrum dasyanthum, J. 

glaucuui, R.S., Eur. 
pungens, R.S., Eur. 

— var. pycnanthura, Godi 
loner urn, Vasey, N". Anaer, 

Auto-m- alba, L., Eur. 

— var. gigantea, Rth. 

— var. stolonifera, (L.) 
nebulosa, Bss. R.. Eur. 
nigra, With., Eur. 
vulgaris, With., Eur. 

Alchemilla alpina, L., Eur. 

argentea, Don, Eur. 

vulgaris, L., Eur. 
Aletris farinosa, L., N. Amer. 
Alisma Plantago, L., Eur. 
Allium Ampeloprasum., L., Eu 

angulosum, L., Siberia. 

atropurpureum, W. & 
Hungary. 

Babingtoni, Dor., Eur. 

bauorianum, Baker, Orion 

carinatum, L., Eur. 

Cydui, 8. & K., Sicily. 



A!. .,,,,■,, 



'ialis,L.,Eur., Siber., etc 
cisifolia, R. & P., Peru 
) agrestis, L., Eur. 



nigricans, Hornem., Eur. 
pratensis, L., Eur. 
— var. fol. variegatis. 

Alstnemcria aurantiaca, Don, ( bill. 

haemantha, R. & P., Chili. 
Althaea 



fici folia, Cav., Dalm., etc. 
i . 

lavaieraetfora, DC, Syria. 
pallida, W. & K., Eur. 
rosea, Cav., Eur., Orient, 
sulphurea, Boiss. & Hausskn.. 

: 

gemonense, L., Eur. 



inthus chlorostachys, 

India, 
ypochondriacus, L., 






\W»\ 



kansuenso, Kg I., Cl 
karataviense, Rsrl., Turkestan. 
Moly, L., Eur. 

[.. Eur. 



— var. spi'ciosus, ( Don ). 

retroflexus, L.. Anni.. etc 

. L., N. Amer. 



a, Ear. el 
Siberia. 

[.ulflitiluni, Don, Eur. 
roseum, L., Eur. 



usis, L., Eur., etc. 
rnea, (Schrank). 
jrulea, (Schreb.) 



Ancliusa italiea, Retz, Eur. 


Ap.ni interrupta, Beauv., Eur., &c. 


officinalis, L., Eur. 


Apium graveolens, L., Eur. 


Androsace filiformis, Retz, Eur. 


Aquilegia Bertolonii, Schott, Ital. 


lactiflora, Fisch., Siberia. 


chrysantha, Gray, N. Amer. 


nana, Horn., Eur. 


flavescens. S. Wats., Californ. 


Audryala sinuata, L., Eur. 


vulgaris, L., Eur. 


Anemone albana, Stev., Orient. 


Arabis albida, Stev., Caucas. 


baldensis, L, Eur. 


alpina. L., Kur.. N. Afr. 




blepbarophylla, H. & A.. \ . 


decapetala, L., N. Amer. 




multifida, Poir., N. Amer. 




pratensis, Mill., Eur. 


hybrids, Re'ut., Eur. 


Pulsatilla, L., Eur., etc. 


lilacina, Schrad., N. Amer. 


rivularis, Buchan., Himal. 




sylvestris, L., Eur. 


DC, Eur. 


Anetlmm graveolens, L., Eur. 
Sowa, Roxb, Ind. 


pctnca, Crantz, Eur. 


pumila, Jaeq., S, Eur. 


Angelica dahurica, Benth. & 


Soyeri, B. & R., Pyrenees. 
ftMlcri. DC., var. japonica. 

Scb., Japan. 
strieta, Huds., Eur. 


Hook., Japan. 


Anoda bastata, Cav., Mexico. 


Wrigbtii, Gray, Mexico. 


Turezaninowii, Led.. Siberia. 


Antennaria dioica, ton, Eur.. 


Arcbangelica officinalis, Hoffra, 


— var. tomentosa. 


Arctium majus, Scbk., Eur. 


Anthemis setnensis, Scbouw., Mt. 


— var. Kotscbyi, Hort. 


Uourgoei, 1>. A R., Spain. 
Kitaibellii, Spr., Hungary. 


gotbica. Fr.. Kur. 

grain ini folia, Schrad., S. Eur. 




— var. tnultiflora. 


— var! discoidalis. 




peregrin* Willd., S. Kur. 
Triuuifetti, Hec, Eur. 


gypsopbiloides. Sobrelt.. 

Orient. 
birta, Wormsk, Eur. 


Antbeiicum Hookeri, Colenso, N. 


laricifolia, L., Eur. 




pinifolia, Bbrst., Cftneas. 


Liliago, L., S. Eur., N. Afr. 


purpuraseens, Bam, Pyren. 


— var. algeriense, B. & B , 

ramosum/l.., Kur. 




AiitlioMiiitliiiin oiloratuiu, L, Kur. 


Arineria latifolia, L, Kur. 


Puelii, Le<<><|. A: bamotte.Kur. 


maritima Willd.. Kur. 


AiHliii-.-ii,- (Vnlolium. Honiu., 


pIinSdmaTwilld, Kur 


sylvestris, I robin.. Bar. 


^I'S-'wiud^Fur 


t^SHSSS^' 


^-^vitsch^iaf, Spain. 


^^Wl Ll 


Airheruitlirrun/avenaceun^Keauv.. 


■"^r^u 1W Kur U ' U ' 


Artemisia annua, L.. S. K. Eur. 



Asparagus officinalis, L., Eur. 

.■'/urea, Jaub. & Spach, 
Syria, 
galioides, Bbrst., Eur. 



Asprella hystrix, Willd., N. Amer. 

Aster acuminatus, Michx., N. 

alpinus, L., Eur. 
Amellus, L., Eur. 
corymbosus, Ait., N. Amer. 
Curtisii, Gray, N. Amer. 
diplostephioides, Wall., Himal. 
punieeus, L., N. Amer. 
— var. lucidulus, Gray, 
pyrenams, DC, Pyren. 
Radula, Ait., N. Amer. 
scabra, Thunb., China, 
tricephalus, C. B. Clarke, 



— var. Leichtlinii, Hort, 

— var. Richardi, Hort. 
erubescent. Griseb., Greece, 
gracilis, Sprun., Eur. 

Avena brevis, Rth., Eur. 

distichophylla, Vill., Eur. 
pratensis, L., Eur. Siber. 
pubescens, Huds., Eur. 

strigosa, Schreb., Eur. 
Baeria gracilis, Gray, W. Calif. 

platycarpha, Gray, Calif. 
Bahia lanata, DC, N. Amer. 
Baptisia australis, R. Br., If. Amer. 
Barbarea intermedia, Bor., Eur. 

praecox, Br., Eur. 

vulgaris, R. Br., Eur. 

— var. variegata. 
Beckmannia erucaeformis, Host, 



ragalu- n'»\ptiacus,Spr., Egypt, 
alpinus, L., N. Amer. 
booticus, L., Spain, Italy, etc. 



da<yglo|.t.i.-, Kisch., Sibfr. 

: - . N . AlllCC. 

is, L., Eur. 

srorjiiuides, Fourr., Spain. 



..i.-llu .-iliata, DC, S. Eur, 
didvmu. L., S.Eur. 
- Var. apula, L.,Eur. 



Bocconia cordate, W, 



hortensis, L., N. Asii 
— var. rubra, Hort. 



IVvkinia major. Cray, N. Amer. 
Brachyactisrobusta,Beutii . Iliinai. 

liiaehyeoiue ibel hliiolia. Brutll., 

i. 



Brassioa balearica, P., Eur. 

, Eur., etc. 
• Cabbage. 



juncea,Hk. f. & Th., N. Ind. 

■ ■h, Eur. 
oleracea, L., Eur. 



Briza geniculate, Thunb., Cape, 
maxima, L., Eur. 



uraiidiHor.i, Sir,., Br. Ci>liunl)i;i 
pedimculai'is. Wat-.. Calif, 
uniflora, Btli.. Buenos Avivs. 



sterilis, L., Eur. 
Ta.'tia. Steud., Chili. 
tectoruni, L.. Kur., Ana. 



Campanula alii* 



E 

Bupleuri 



( 'innpjihiilii— . cotit. 

sibirica, L., Eur., Asia. 

spicata, L., Eur. 

subpyrenaica, Timb., Eur. 

thyrsoides, L., Eur. 

Trachelium, L., Eur. 
Ciiimabis sativa, L. 
Cardamine graeca, L., Greeo 

impatiens, L., Eur. 



niixroscpii^ Willd.. Eur. 

— var. voehineusis, Brli. 
nigra, L., Eur. 
pnldira, F. & M., Caucas. 
Smhios;., L., Eur. 

- var. olivieriana, (DC) 
soiudiifoli:.. L.. Medit. 



(V,,l 



Scl.i 



[Jiixlwuimii, Whlnb., Eur. 
di-paupi-rata, Good., Eur. 
,li\ulsi.. Good., Eur. 



Iiurdfitbnnis, Whlub., E 

lagopodioides, Schk., jST.Am 
leporina, L., Eur. 
paniculaja, L., Eur. 
pendula, Huds., Eur. 
sylvatica, Huds., Eur. 
vulpina, L., Eur. 

11, Boiss., Sit 
Carrichtera Vella, DC, Eur. 
; L., S. Eur. 



L Ku 



rigidulum, Koch, Italy. 
Catananche co3rulea, L., Eur. 

lutea, L., Italy, etc. 
Cathcartia villoma, Hk. f., Himal. 

('.•iuc;ili< daucoidea, L., Eur. 






Orient, 
frigidum, Bbret . ( 

perfoliatuin, L.. Sj 
Ceratochloa uninloidcs 
Eur. 



Charieis heteropbylb, Cass., Cap<\ 
Chelidonium majus, L., Eur. 



^helone Lyoni, Pursli, : 
nemorosa. l)ou<rl., 
obliqua, L., N. Am. 



axillaris, Will,!. 
Crocodylium, L 
Cyan us, L., Eu 
cynaroides (Les 
dWlbata, Willd. 



■ :< in lb. IV .. 




Cimicifuga fcetida, L., Eur. 

— var. intermedia. 

racemosa, Nutt., N. Anier 
Cladiura Mariseus, Br., Eur. 
Clarkia elegans, Lindl., Calif. 



" .'■ ' : . ■ , 



Claytonia perfoliata, Don, N, 

sibirica, L., N. Amer. 
Clematis integrifolia, L., S. Eur. 

ochroleuca, Ait., N. Amer. 

recta, L., Eur., etc. 
Clcomr speciosa, H. B.. Carthi 

violacea, L., Eur. 
Clyneola cyclodontea, Dclil, Eur 



serrulatus, Bbrst,, Eur. Cauc 
syriacus, Willd., Medit. 
Cochlearia danica, L., Norway, 
glastifolia, L., S. Eur. 

Codonopsus ovata, Benth., Himal. 

CoMwi-um speciosum, Stew, Cau- 

ColHnsia bai-tsia-tblia, Benth.. Calif, 
bicolor, Benth., Calif. 
— var. multicolor, 
parviflora, Dougl., N. Amer. 

. • 
gilioides, Benth.. Calif. 
"" " , Dougl.. Calif. 
; Nutt., Calif. 
Hasskarlii, Clarke. 




:hrXucu S &n Willd!; Eui 
eraceus, L., Eur 



nobili*. Pers., Siber 



Corynephorns canescens, Beau v., 

Eur. 
Cosmos bipinnatus, Cav., Mexico. 
Cotula coronopifolia, L., Eur. 
Crambe pinnatifida, R. & S., 

Turkest. 
Crepis Candollei, Spr., Eur. 

grandiflora, Tausch, Eur. 

hyoseridifolia, Tauscli, Eur. 

pulchra, L., Eur. 

rubra, L., S. Eur. 

setosa, Hall, f, Eur. 

tectorum, L. fil., Eur.. Siberia. 
Crocus bannaticus, HeufFel, Tran- 

biflorus, Mill., Tuscany, 
etruscus, Pari., Tuscany. 
Imperati, Ten., Italy, 
iridiflorus, Heuffl., Transyl. 
medius, Balbis, Riviera, 
nudiflorus, Sm., Eur. 
pulchellus, Herb., Greece, 
sativus, L., Cult. 
— var. cartwrightianus, Herb. 
Sieberi, Gray, Greece, etc. 
speciosus, Bbrst, ( , .-iucas., etc. 
snaveolens, Bert., Italy. 



Dahlia coccinea, Cav.. Mexico. 

scapigera, L. & O., Mexico. 

variabilis, Desf., Mexico. 
Datura laevis, L. fil., Africa. 

Stramonium, L., Eur. 

Tatula, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. gigantea. 
Daucus Carota, L., Eur., etc. 
Delphinium Ajacis, Reichb., i 

Eur. 
brunoniaiium, Royle, Himal. 
cardiopetalum, DC., Eur. 
caucasicum, L., Caucas. 
Consolida, L., Eur. 
crassifolium, Schrad., Cauc. 

— var. turkestanieuni. 
diftyocarpum, DC, Siberia, 
elatum, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. alpinum, W. K. 






AIL 



versicolor, Ker, Eur. 

zonatus, Gay, Cilicia. 
Crucianella asgyptiaca, L., Egypt. 
Cryptostemn 



Cucubalus bacciferus, L., Eur. 
Cuminum Cyminum, L. Egypt, 
Cuphea lanceolata, Ait., Mexio 

pinetorum, Benth., Mexico. 

viscosissima, Jacq., Amer. 

Zimap&nt, Roezl, Mexico. 
Cuscuta Epilinum, Weihe, Eur. 
Cynodon Dactylon, Pers., Eur. 
Cynoglossum officinale, L., Eur. 

pictum, Ait., Eur. 
Cynosurus cristatus, L., Eur. 

echinatus, L., S. Eur. 
Czackia Liliastrum, Andrz., i 



Lrim^um, Hort. 
granditlorum, L., China, etc. 
maackianum, Regel, Asi 

orientale, Gay, Eur., Orient. 
Sraphisagria, L., Eur. 
triste, Fisch., Siberia, 
trolliirblium, Grav, Amer. 
vestitum, Wall., Himal. 
•eLirnpsia ca'spitosa, Ueauv 



De>nia/.eria sieula, Dmrt., ] 
Dianthus arenarius, L., Eu: 

atrornbens, All., Eur. 

callizonus, Sch. & 

Caryophyllus. L.. Eur 



.Mussinii. Ilornm., Caucas. 
pelviformiis Heuffl., Transyl. 
petrama, W. & K., E. Eur. 
plumarius, L., Eur. 



squarossus, Bbrst,, Russia, 
tener, Balb., Eur. 
tymphresteus, H. S., Greece. 
Dictamnus albus, L., W. Eur., Jap. 



Digitalis ferruginea, L., Eur. 

graudiflora, Lam.. Eur. 

lutea, L , Eur. 

media, Roth, (ambigua 



.-a annua, Less.. 
Dioscorea pyrenaica. Rub. A; 1 



Diplotaxi- t.Minitblist. I><\. 
Dipsacus asper, Wall., Hit 



sylvestris, L., Eur. 
)odecatheon Meadia, L., N. Amer. 

►orycuiuua herbaceura, Vill., Eur. 
)raba aizoides, L., Eur. 

arabiaans, Miehx., X. Amer. 

borealis, DC, Isl. of St. Paul. 

oarintbiaea, Hpe., Eur. 

frigida, Saut., Alps, Eur. 



Kur 



Elymus canadensis, L., 



Epilobium alpestre, Jacq. 
alsinefolium. Vill.. K 
angustifolium. i... E\ 

Billardieri. Seri ig 
Fleiseheri, Hocbst 
birsutum, L., Eur. 
Lamyi, Schultz, S. Eur. 
linnseoides, Hook, ril . N. Zeal. 
montanum, L., Eur. 
nummulariaefolium, A. Cunn., 
N. Zeal. 

— var. pedunculare, Cunn. 
parvillorum, Retz, Eur. 
roseum, Retz, Eur. 
rosmavinifolium, Hamke, Eur. 

tetragonum, L., Eur. 

trigonum, Schrk., Eur. 
Eragrostis nutans, Nees., Ind. Or. 

poaeoides, Beauv., Eur., etc. 
Eranthis hyemalis, Salisb., Eur. 
Kn-inuiiis altai.-us. Stev., Altai. 

Kaufmauni, Beget, 



rii, Boiss., Co: 

stellata, Jacq., Transyl. 
I )raci>cfplialum arLTUiiciis.-, Kiseli.. 
Siber. 

Moldavica, L., Siber., etc. 

nutans, L., Siberia. 

parviflorum, Nutt., N. Amer. 

peregrinum, L., Siberia. 
Dryas octopetala, L., Eur., Amer. 
Echinops globifer, Janka, Transyl. 

sphaerocephalus, L., Eur. 
Eoniuni plantagineum, L., Eur. 



Ervum Lens, L., ] 
Eryng i g^gant 





— var 


. grandinorum. 


E 


upatorium ageratokUs, I,. 
.■annal.inum, L., Eur. 


El 


ip lOl^ 1.1 

Myrti 
Peplis 


Bonmiiilleri, Hai 




, L., Eur. 
ma, DC, Eur. 
olymitana, Boiss., S 
nites, L., Eur. 

L., Eur. 
hylla, L., Eur. 



Festucn ampla, Hack., Eur. 
capillifolia, Duf., Spain, 
delicatula, Lag., Eur. 
duriuscula, L., Eur., Amer. 

— sub-var. crassifolia. 
elatior, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. pratensis, (Hilda.) 



Iieterophylla, Lam., Eur. 
Lachenalii, Spenn., Eur. 
Myurus, L., Eur. 
Pauciciana, Hack., Orient, 
rigida, Kunth, Eur. 
sciuroides, Roth, Eur. 
seoparia, Kern., Pyren. 
tillaria armena, Boiss., Asia 

delplrinensis, Gren., Eur. 

— var. Moggridgei, (Boiss. & 

Bent.). 
Mol.-agris, L., Eur. 



nkia lancifolia, Spr., Japan. 
— var. allio-marginata, Hort. 
ovaia. Spr., Japan. 






sieboldiana, Lodd. 
Galega officinalis, L., Eur. 

orien talis, Lam., Orient. 
Galeopsis pyrenaica, Bartl.. I'vivn. 

'■'■■- ■ 
S. Amer. 
parviflora, Cav., Amer. 



i.-d ■ 



n boreale, L., Eur. 
racile, Ledeb., Cauc 
tollugo, L., Eur. 



go, L., Eur. 

'. candelabra, Heldr. 



ii,i t:"-ck, 


Glaucimp— eppt. 

flavuni, Grant/., var. l'nlvmii, 
Sm. 


tibltir!,!' Kin^ HuiiT^ 


remota, Fr., Eur. 


( J.. mi. in in albanum, M. B., Tanria. j 


<iiia|.li. ilium iiulicum, L., India. 


erioetemoi, Fisch., C*ac*8. 


Uraturia officinalis, L., Eur. 



palustre, L., Eur. 
ptisillum, L., Eur. 



panieulata, L.. Sil>eii;i 
repens, L., Eur. 
Rokejeka, Del., Bgypi 

Ilablitzia tamnoidos. H 



GorbcraAnan.lria,Schult.z.,Chii 



Ila^tinpa alba. 1 
Hebenstreitia 
Cape. 



triflorum, Pursh, X. Aiiu 

tyrolensc, Kern.. Tyrol 

urban um, L., Eur., etc. 

Cilia acbilleicfolia, Btb., Calii 



rapitata. Dou^l., Calif, 
inrousp'u ua, Umiil., Calif, 
laciuiata. K.\ P., Chili, lVm 



orientals, Lam., Greece. 

Helminthia echioides, G., Eur. 
Helonias bullata, L., N. Amer. 

— var. latifolia. 
Hemeroeallis fiava, L., S. Eur. 

tulva, L., S. Eur., etc. 

— v:ir. Kwanso, Regel. 
Heracleum Panaces, L., S. Eur. 

puhcscens. Blirst., var. gu 
miferum, Willd., Eur. 

villosum, Fisch., Russia. 
Hesperis matronalis, L., Eu 
Siber. 




in, Lge., Eur. 
Janka-, (.'ccliti-., K.. Km. 
lanatum, W. & K , Bur. 
InniiitV.liuin, Schleich., En 
raaculatum, Sm., Eur. 
nigrescens, W., Eur. 



pratense, Tausch, Eur. 
saxatile, Jacq., S. Eur. 
stoloniflorum, W. & K., S. Eu 

\ illosinn, L., Eur. 
virgatum, Pursh, N. Amer. 



, Fr., Eur 



Holcus 1 

Hnrdeun 



virginicum, L., N. Amer. 
Hymenophysa pubescens, Meyer, 

Hyoscyamus aureus, L., Crete, 
niger, L., Eur, 

— var. albus, Hort. 
orientalis, Bbrst., Cauc. 

Hypecoum grandiflorum, Benth., 
Medit. Caucas. 
procumbens, L., S. Eur. 
Hypericum atomarium, Boiss., 

elodioides, Chois., Nepal, 
perfoliatum, L., Eur. 
perforatum, L., Eur. 
Richeri, Vill., Eur. 

— var. Burseri, Sp., Transs. 
tetrapterum, Fr., Eur. 

Hypochaeris arachnoidea, Poir., N. 



Hyssopus ( 



dliata, All.,'Alp.Marit. 
jarrexiana, All., Pyreiu 



;£"'■ 



Impatiens amphorata, Edg., Himal. 

bicornuta, Wall., NVpal. 

parvifiora, DC, Siberia, etc. 

Roylei, Walp., Himal. 

scabrida, Wall., Nepal. 
Inula ensifolia, L., Eur. 

glandulosa, Willd., Caucas. 



vulgare, L.. Sicily. 
Horminum pyrenaicum. 
Hyacinthus amethyst 



L., Eur., Siberia. 



Isopyrum fumarioides, L., Eur. As. 
Iva xanthifolia, Nutt., Missouri. 
.] uncus acutus. L., Eur. 

balticus, Willd., Eur. 

Chainissonis, Benth., (Mtili. 

compressus, Jacq., Eur. 

effusus, L., Eur. 

glaucus, Ehrh., Eur. 



plalv.-iuilis, H.B.K.,S. . 



tenuis, Wild., Eur. 
Kochia scoparia, Schrad., Eur. 



Lathyrus — cont. 

tuberosus, L., Eur. 

venosus, Muhl., N. Amer. 
Lavatera Olbia, L., Eur. 

thuringiaca, L., Eur., etc. 

trimestris, L., Medit. 

Layia Calliglossa, Gray, Calif, 
elegans, T. & G., Calif, 
glandulosa, Hk. & A 



tataricus, L., Asia. 



Lie tu>a canadensis, L., N. Amer. 
hirsuta, L., N. Amer. 
ludoviciana, liiddel, N. 


incisum, Roth, 
Menziesii, DC. 
sativum, L., E 
virginicum, L., 


muralis, Fres., Eur. 
Plumieri, Gren. & Godr., S. 


Leptocbloa faded 


Eur. 
undulata, Ledeb., Siberia. 
Lallciiiantia canescens, F. & M., 


Lepturus cylindricu 
Leuzea conifera, D( 



, Ffech. & Mey.,Caucas. 



Apl.at-a, L., Eur. 

ai ti.-ulatus, !,.. \V. Eur. 

;i .nv.i-.H. t.lh. X Mn,,k.. 



reticulata, Desf., N. 



Linaria— cwtf. 

saxatilis, Hffgg., Eur. 
spartea, Hoffrn., S. Eur. 
triphylla, Willd., S Kur. 
tristis, Mill., S. Eur. 






Mil..,. 



jctabilis, Lehi 



urn alpiiuiin, L., Eur. 
au-ixtifolium, L.,Eur. 
rlavum, L., Eur. 

ur.'iiulitioi-iim, Desf., N. Afr. 

nervosum, W. &K., Eur. 
perenne L., Eur., etc. 
— Lewisii, (Mhlbrg.) 
usitatissimum, L., Eur. 



Lithospci 






Tupa, L., Chi' 
Lolium perenne, L.,Eur. 

_ var. italicum, (Braun). 
Lonas inodora, Gtertn., Sicily. 
Lopezia coronata, Andr., Mexi 
Lophanfhus ragoaas, F. ft I 



pubescens, Benth., N. Amor, 
pulchellus, Sweet, Mexico, 
reeurvatus, Meyer, Chili, 
subcarnosus, Hook., Texas, 
tricolor, Hort. 
varius, L., Eur. 
Luzula augustifolia, Poir.. ( 'ami in; 
campestris, DC., Eur. 
nivea, Desv., Eur. 

Lychnis alba, Mill., Eur. 
alpina, L., Eur. 
ehaleedonica, L., E. Eur., etc 

diurna, Sibth., Eur. 
Flos-cuculi, L., Eur. 



M.-j 



.]),■>- 



!.am., Eur. 
La-a-c;.-, Nyin., Eur. 

oculata, Ldl., Levant. 



var. elegans. 

i i 



Lot 



us con.i.-ulatus, L., Eur. 
— var. Delorti, Tirab. 
major, Scop., Eur. 
ornithopodioides, L., Eur. 
-ili<iu<>-us, L., Eur. 
tenuis. W. & K., Eur., et( 
THragouolofeus, L., Eur. 



Viscaria, L., Eur. 

Lysimachia aeroadcnia, Maxin 

i.aty-tarhya, Bunge, Japan. 
olethroides, Dub.. .Japan. 
ciliata, L.,ST. Amer. 
davurica, Willd., Bavuria. 
longifolia, Pursh, N. Amer. 
[>unctata, L., Eur. 
quadrifolia, L., N. Amer. 



If**-*** 


Mesembryantliemuin .•onlii'oHuin 


ox viol mi, Boiss., Orient 
parviflora, L., Eur. 


L., Cape. 

tri.-olor, Willd., Cape. 




— var. album. 


— var. alba. ' 


Micros-iis acuminata, Green, 


Malvastrum liraense (L.), Chili. 


Calif, 
leucocarpus, Greene, Calif. 


Miiudi-a-oni ^ernalis } Bert., Orient. 


Mnrrubium astracanicum. Jacq., 


Lindleyi, Gray. Calif. 


Caucas. 


Miniulii- eardinali>, Doug!., N. 


pannonicum, Rchb., Eur. 




peregrinum, L.,Eur. 


cupreus, Veiteh, Chili. 




glabratus, H. B., Mexico. 


Matricaria caucasica, Benth., Cau- 


luteus, L., N. Amer. 
moschatus, Dough, N". Amer. 


inodora, L., Eur. 


Mirabilis Jalapa, L., W. Ind. 


— var. discoidea (DC). 


longiflora, L., Mexico. 


Matthiola bicornis, DC, Eur. 


Modiola multilida, Mooneh. \ 
Amer. 


Merohopsis eambrica, Vig., Eur. 


Molinia caerulea, Moench, Eur. 


nepaleusis, DC, Nepal. 


— var. variegata. 


wallichiana, Hook., Himal. 




Moniordica Elaterium, L., Eur. 


Mi'dicau'o api. 'iii.U:.. \Y., Eur. 
Echinus, DC, S. Eur. 


Mouolepis chenopodioides, Moq., 


lappacea, Desr., S. Eur. 




— var. deuticulata, W., Eur. 


Morina longifolia, Wall., Nepal. 


littoralis, Rhod., Eur. 
lupulina, L., Eur. 


Mosehariapinuatitida.lv A 1'.. Chili 


marina, L., Eur. 


Muehlenber<j;ia irlomerata. Trin. 




N. Amer. 


murex, Willd., Eur. 




muricata, All., Eur. 


syhatiea/T. *"<;.. \ A.uer 


orbicularis, Willd., S. Kur. 




radiatn, L., Orient, 
tuberculata, W., Eur. 


Muscari Argaeh Hort.' 


armeniacnm, Baker, Mcdit. 


turbinate, W., P^ur. 


AJffgri*.' ■'' ^^ 


Melica altjamma, L., Eur. 


-.andii'oiium, Baker. 


ciliata, L., Eur., etc. 


Geldreiclui, Boiss., Greece. 


— var. peDicillaris, (Boiss.) 




glauca, F. Sz., var. nebro- 




densis, Pari., Eur. 




nutans, L., Eur. 


,zovitManuin. Kegel. Siher. 


Meldotus alba, Desr., Eur. 


Myosotisarvcnsis, IloHin., Kur. 


uuiciualis, Desr., Eur. 






.ollina, llollm Kur 


Melissa olhYinalis, L., Eur. 


Mvol'uTm^imus, L., Eur, etc 


Melittis Melis.-ophyll.nu. L.. Kur. 


Myrrhis odorata. Sop., Kur. 


Calif. 


Nardurus tenellus, Kchb., Spain. 


Mereurialis annua, L., Eur. 


ffarini strict^ L.. Km. 



, Lehm., Cape, 
pubescens, Benth., Cape, 
versicolor, Mey., Cape. 
Nemophila aurita, Lindl., Calif. 






. Calif. 



. ilo,t 



• Knoth.-ra — cont. 

tenella, Cav., Chili, 
tetraptera, Cav., Mexico, 
triloba, Nutt., N. Araer. 

( )in|.lialodt'> linifolia, Moench, 



Nicandra physaloides, 

Peru. 
Nieotiana Langsdorffii, 
Brazil, 
paniculata, L., S. Ar 
rustica, L., S. Eur., 



Nothoscordum fragrc 



— var. alba. 
repens, L., Eur. 
Oiiopordon Acanthium, L., Eur. 
sibthorpianum, Boiss.. S. K ur. 
; Opopanax Chironium, Koch, 



Mad, 



latifolia, L., Eu 
maculata, L., E 

Origanum vulgare, I 



.folia. Bbrst, Eur. 
ra umcena, Lehm., 



Solium, L., Egypt, etc. 
bonensc, L., Eur. 
Lophyllum, Ten., Italy 
ufolium, Smb., Eur. 



erysim* ddes, Web., 
na, Anders.. ( )rient. 



Pallenis spinosa, C 



Papaver Argemone, L., Eur. 



nudicaule, L., Alps. 

orientale, L., Orient. 

— var. bracteatum, (] 

— var. majus. 
pavoninum, C. A 






, Sibth., Greece. 
', (Baker) 



llai'twc^ii, Ik'iUh . Moxicn. 
ln-vig.-itiis, Sol., \;ir. Digitalu 
Gray, N. Amer. 



Ivich.iidsonii, Dougl., Colui 

bia. 

Perezia multiflora, Less., Peru, el 

Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm.,Ei 

Petunia nyctaginiflora, Juss., J 

Plata. 
Peucedanum coriaceum,Rcli 
Ostruthium, K., Eur. 






. I M . 



, Ledeb., Siber. 



iea oroboides, DC, Eur. 

icelia campanularia, Gray,( 'alii. 

divaricata, Gray, Calif. 

Fiinvi, Ton-., Calif. 

tanacetifolia, Bth., Calif. 

viscida, Torr., Calif. 

Whit la via, Gray, Calif. 

— var. alba, Hort. 



tiflorus, Lam. 
nus, Ten. 

, Lour., Cocliinchii 



confertua, Donpi.. x v 

• u-1.. N. Ami- 

irL-dttT, 1'ursb, N. Amer. 



Michelii, All., Eur. 

nigrum, Schmidt, Germ. 

orbicularc, L., Eur. 

spicatuin, !>., Eur. 
Phytolacca ;icinosa, Roxb., Indi 
Picridium tingitanum, Dsf., Eu 
Picris hieracioides, L., Eur. 
Piinpinella Anisuin, L., Eur. 

magna, L., Eur. 



Pi sum elatiu.s, 




Polemonium casruleum, L., Eur., 

— var. album, Hort. 

liavum, Greene, Amer. 

liimalayanum, Baker, Himal. 

pauciflorum, Wats., Mexico. 

reptans, L., N. Amer. 
Pollinia Gryllus, Spr., Eur. 
l'nlyjicuMtuni verticillatum, All., 



capitatum, Don, Himalaya, 
molle, Don, Himal. 
orientale, L., Eur. Orient. 
viviparum, L., Eur. 

Weyricliii. F. Schm . Sudial. 
Id. 
Polypogon monspeliensis, D.si'., 

Potentilla alchemilloides, Lap., 
Pyrenees, 
argentea, L., Eur. 
— var. calnbra, Ten. 



glaD 

heptaphylla, Mill., Eur. 

kotsehyana, Fenzl., Kur- 

kurdica, Boiss., Orient, 
leschenaultiana, Ser., Ind., Or. 
malacophylla, Bunge, Orient. 
iiiniitonegiiim, Pane, Mon- 



sudetica, Haenke, Eu 
violacea, Bell, Eur. 



Podophyllum Emodi, Wall., Himal. 




Potentilla— co 
rupestris, 



Sibhaldu., I Taller fil., Himal. 
Thurbt-ri, Gray, N. Amer. 
Visiunii. Pane:, Eur. 
wrangeliana, Fisch., Siberia. 



Raphanos sativum L., K. 
Rapistrum linn;i':inuni. A 
Reseda alba, L., S. Eur. 

glauca, L., Pyren. 

lutea, L., Eur. 

Luteola, L., Eur. 

Phyteuma, L., Eur. 
Rhagadiolus stellatus, (i 



, L., Eur. 

inula clu«iana. Tscli., Eur. 
(ieniicsilata. Sin.. Himal 
tlorilmnda. Wall., Himal 
involucrata, Wall., Himal. 
japonica, Gray, Japan, 
obconica, Hance, China, 
officinalis, L., Eur. 
Poissoni, Franch., China, 
rosea, Royle, Himal. 
vcrticillata, Forsk., Arabia. 

L.,Eur.Cau( 



Rheum rollinianuiii, Baillon. 
Emodi, Wall., Himal. 
macropterum, Mart, 
nobile, Hook, f., Sikkim. 
officinale, Bail!.. Thibet 
palmatum, L., In d., etc. 

Rhaponticum, L., Siber. 
rugosum, Desf., hid. Or. 
Tranzenbachii, Hort, Berlit 
undulatum, L., Siberia, etc. 
webbianum, Royle., India. 
Ricinus communis, L., Eur.,Amt 

Richardsonia scabra, D„ Brazil. 



, I)ougI.,N. 



ealit'ornica, Gray, Calif. 



Pyr 



Salvia aethiopis, L., Eur. 


Saxifragra— cont. 


argentea, L., Medit. 


csespitosa, var. se<loide>, i^L.) 


Beckeri, Trautv., Caucas. 


cartilaginea, Willd., Caucas. 




[•oeliiearis, Rchb., Eur. 


coccinea, L., Mexico. 


Cotyledon, L., Eur., Alps. 


glutinosa, L., Eur. 


— var. pyramidalis, (Lap.). 


grandiflora, Ettl., Taur. 


crustata, Vent., Alps, 
diversifolia, Wall., Nepal. 


Horminum, L., S. Eur. 


- var. bractei.s violaceis. 


granulata, L., Eur. 
Hostii, Tausch, Alps. 


hians, Royle, Ind. 


interrupt*, Schousb., Marocco. 


— var. macnabiana, Hort. 


napifolia, Jacq., S. Eur. 


hypnoides, L., Eur. 


nutans, L., Transyl. 


kolenatiana, Kegel, Siberia. 




laclea, Turcz., Temp. Asia. 


prateusis, L., Eur. 


lingulata, Bell., Marit. Alps. 






— var. Baumgarteni. (Jrsb., 


longifolia, Lap., Pyrenees. 


Transs. 


muscoides, Wulf., Eur. 




- var. py^naBa, (Haw.). 
Prostii, Sternb., Eur. 


Sclarea, L., S. Eur. 


sylvestris, L., var. alba., Eur. 


rocheliana, Sternb., Bosnia. 


tiliasfolia, Vahl, Mexico. 


— var. eoriophvlla, (Grisek). 


Verbenaea, L., Eur. 


rotundifolia, L., Eur. 


— var. disermas, Sibth. & Sm. 


— var. hirsuta. 


verticiilata, L., Eur. 


sponbemica, Gm., var. birta, 


virgata, Ait., Eur. 




viscosa, Jacq., Eur. 


tenella, Wulf., Mps. 




tricuspidate, Rottb., Eur. 




umbrosa, L., Eur. 


Mexico. 


val.lensis, DC., Alps. 


Saponaria calabrica, Guss, Eur. 


Scabiosa atropurpun-a, L., Eur. 


SntaSTvOrMnt 


^■a.'uiliiiblia, K.Eur. 




ESI, ku? Kur " 


Saxifraga altissima, Kerner, Eur. 


lucid;.. Villi Eur. 1 
micrantha, Dsl'., Maced 


aphylla, Sternb., Eur. 
— var. leptophylla. 


palaestina, L., Syria. etc 
Port*, Huter, Eur. 


Aizoon, L., Eur. 

— var. Churchillii, Kern. 


prolifera, L., Eur. 
pterocephala, L., Greece 1 . 


- van incnxrtaU 


stellata, L.. Eur. 


- I Mnlvi tn ' 


v^tinn, Wcch., Tyrol. 






— var. peetinata, Schott. 


braebyearpa, (hiss., Sicily .^ 


— var. pygimea. 




- var. recta, (Lap. ) 




— var rosularis, Scbleich. 


Mta-qfa** B« v., 8. 


^ ie (D^f hrh,) ' 


Soliizinitlms |,iimi:imis, 1!. .>. .. 



Schi/np.Miilmii Walkeri, Sin 



. Ait.. Spain. 
— var. alba, Hort. 

chinrnvis. Benth., China, 
lingulata, Poir., Eur. 
rionscript.ii. HoiVm . Knr 
wrnn, 1 1 nils., W. Eur. 
rpus setaceus, L., Eur. 



Senecio :idoiiidit'i>liu>. L< 
aegyptius, L., Egypi 
Clusii, Sel.ult/.. Ku 
Doria, L., Eur. 



japonious, Sell., Japan. 
miicroplivlliis. I>l>r<t.. (..'aiir; 
thyrsoideus, DC, Siberia. 



Scorpiurus vermiculata. L., Ku 
Seorzonera laciniata, L., Eur. 

Serophulnria aquatica. L , Kur 
Fdirbartii, Stev., Kurope. 



ratula corouata, L., Siberia. 
— var. macropliylla. 
G-melinii, Ledeb., Caueas. 
quinipiet'olia, Bbrst., Caucas. 



Setaria glauea, Beau v., Ki 
itaiica, Beauv., Eur. 
Link, 



eiliata, Pourr., Cret 
elandeslina. Jac.p, ( 
eolorata, Poir., Me. 



i hi lieu, Pers., Eur. 
juvenalis, Del., Egypt, 
linicola, Ginel., G nnaiiy. 
longicilia, Otth., Portugal, 
maritima, With., Eur. 
nocturna, L., Eur. 
nutans, L., Eur. 
obtusifolia, Willd., Italy, 
paradoxa, L., S. Eur. 
pendula, L., Sicily, etc. 
pseudo-atocion, Desf., N. A 
quadrifida, L., Eur. 
rubella, L., Eur., N. Afr. 
Sartori. Boiss., Greece. 
Saxifraga, L., Eur. 
Schafta, GmeI.;Cauca>. 
sedoides, Jacq., Europe, 
stylosa, Bunge, Siber. 



Sorghum vulgare, \\ & S., Orient. 

- mplex, Huds., Ear. 

Speculariafalcata, A.DC, Mediter. 
— var. castellana, Lange. 
pentagonia, A.DC, Orient, 
perfoliate, DC, N. Amer. 
Speculum, A.DC, Eur. 

Spergula arvensis, L., Eur. 

Spilanthes oleracea, L., lad, Or. 



vesiculifera, Gay, S. Eur. 

vespertina, Retz, S. Eur. 
Zawadskii, Herbich, Austri 
Silphium perfoliatum, L., N. An* 
scaberrimum. Ell., N. Amei 
trifoliatum, L., N. Amer. 



Sisymbrium Ailiana, Scop., Eur. 
assoanum, Lose, Eur. 
austriacum, Jacq., S. Eur. 
erysimoides, Dsf., Eur. 
hispanicum, Jacq., Eur. 
myriophyllum, H. B. K., 

Quito. 
officinale, Scop., S. Eur. 
prlyceratium, L., Eur. 
Sophia. L . Eur. 



Aruncus, L., N. Amer. 
deeiiiubeiis. Koch, Em. 
digitata, Willd., Siberia, 
palmata, Thunb., Japan. 



i alpina, L., Eur. 

rensis, L., Eur.' ' 
tonica, Benth., E 



Statice bellidifolia, G< 
densiflora, Guss., 
Gmelinii, Willd., 



latifolium, L., Eur. 
Srayrnium Olusatrum, L.. Eur. 
Soja hispida, Moench, Ind. Or, 



sibirica, Lam., Siber. 




icriiim Anluini, L., Eur. 
Hotivs L., Eur. 
c;m;nlciist' L., N. Amer. 
-, L., Eur. 

hyrcanicum, L., Caucas. 
iu. L., Orient, 
Scorodonia, L., Eur. 
_ var. variegatum. 
alictrum angustifolium, i 
S. Eur. 

Eur! 

;i<|tiil.^itolium, L.. Eur.. 

— var. purpureum. 
navum, L., Eur. 

glaucum, Desl., s Eur. 
minus, L., Eur. 

— var. affine, (Jord.) 



Tragopogon majus, Jacq., Eur. 

orientale, L., Eur., etc. 

pratense, L., Eur, 
Tritlax trilobata, Hemsl, Mexico 
Trifolium bifidum, Gray, vi 
decipiens, Calif. 

glomeratum, L., Eur. 

Uybriduni, L., Eur. 

incarnatum, L.,Eur. 

Lagrangei, Boiss. Orieni. 

leiuanthum, Bbrst.,Titurus. 

minus Sm., Eur. 

multi*t.riatnni, Koch, Eur. 

pannonicum, L., Eur., etc. 

Perivymondi, Gren., Kiaur 

repens, L., Eur. 



ilwns, L., Eu 



« V i 



— var. pubescent 

— var. purpuraseens. 
trigynum, Fiseli.. Siber. 

tilifoliuni, Gray, 



•V" 



Itenuiu-graruni. L., 
ovalis, Bois*., Spain. 
polyceraU, L , Eur. 



Trillium grandiflorum, Salisb. 

Amer. 
Trinia Hoffmanni, Bbrst,, Eur 



Eur. 
coronata, DC, Eur. 
• leiitnta. Poll., Eur. 
echinata, DC, Eur. 
eriocarpa, Desv., Eur. 
ulitorin, Poll., Eur. 
vesicaria, Mch., Eur. 

lidimii fiijjax. Iliii v.. ( 'ape. 



:onia crocosmaefloi 
Hybrid. 
Pottsii, Benth., Ca 



Tropaeolum aduncum, Sra., Peru, 
majus, L., Peru. 
minus, L., Peru. 



phlomoides, L., Eur. 
phoeniceum, L., Eur. 
pyramidatum, Bbrst., 



ilmp-H 



Verbena Aubletia, L., 



Tunica illyrica, Boiss., Eur. 
Saxif'raga, Scop., Eur. 
Urospermuiu Halt'i-hainpii. I>-4'.. 
Eur. 
picroides, Desf., S. Eur. 
Ursinia pulchra, N. E. Brown, 
Cap.'- 
— var. sulphurea, Hort. Kew. 



l.'rt.ic. 



memhranacea, Poir., 
pilulifera, L., Eur. 
— var. balcarica, L. 



Pbu, L., S. Eur 



Hidwillii, Hook, f., X. Zeal, 
exaltata, Maud., Siber. 
jrenlianoides, Vahl., Taur. 

incisa,Ait., Siber. 
ioiiUMl'olia, L., Eur. 

— var. alba. 

— var. Hostii. 

— var. Kubsessilis. 
Lyallii, Hk. i\. N. Zeal. 

repens, (Mar., Corsica, 
saxatilis, L., Eur. 
serpyllifolia, L., Eur. 
spicata, L., Eur. 
taurica, Willd., Taur. 



Teucrium, L., Eur. 



Vosicaiia rr»>ti«-a. Poir., Crete, 
edentula, Poir., Eur. 
grandiflora, Hook., Texas. 

Vina ainphu-arpa. I )ortk., France, 
atropurpurea, Desf., Eur. 
calcarata, Desf., Algiers. 



disperrna, DC. Europe 
Krvilia. Willd., S. Eur. 
Faba, L., cultivated. 
— var. equina. (Pers.). 
fulgens, Hort 
macrocarpa, Bert., Eur. 



pyrenaica, Pourr., Pyten. 
saliva. L., Eur., etc. 

(Jord.). 



Viola — cont. 

elatior, Fr., Eur. 
Jooi, Janka, Transylv. 
lactea, Sm., Eur. 
odorata, L., Eur. 
palustris, L., Eur. 
rothomagensis, Deaf*. Eur. 



syrtica, Sund., Eur. 
tricolor, L., Eur. 
\\ ahlciiliriiria capensis, A. DC, 
Cape. 
gracilis, A.DC, Austral, 
graminifolia, A.DC, Dalni. 
undulata, A.DC, Cape. 

Wulf'enia earinthiaca. -lacij.. Car- 
Xanthiinu indicuni. Wall., hnl., 

strumarium, L., Eur. 
Xanthocephal u m 



i gymnc 
Hk. f., 1 



unijuga, A. Braun, Siberia, 
varia, Host, Eur. 
villosa, Roth, S. Eur. 

Vincetoxicum fuscatum, Kch. i 
Eur. 
nigrum, M.iehx., Eur. 
officinale. Mch., Eur. 



wis, J acq., Mexico, 
multitfora, L., Mexico, 
pauciflora, L., N. Amer. 
tenuiflora, Jacq., Mexico. 
Ziziphora capitata, L., Taur., etc. 
tenuior, L., S. Eur. 

Zollikoferia elquinensis, Phil., 

Chili. 
Zygadenus elegaus, Pursh, N. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 



hyrcanum, P. & M., Cau- 

insigne, Boiss. & Buhse, 

N. Persia, 
inacrophyllum, Pursh, W.N. 

monspessulanum, L., Europe, 
opulifolium, Vill., var. obtu- 

satum, Europe, 
platanoides, L., Europe. 

— var. integrilobum. 

— var. Schwedleri. 
Pseudo-Platanus, L., Eur., 



Betula alba, L., N. Hemisph. 



— var. Youngu, Hort. 
lutea, Micbx. f., N. Amer. 
Maximowiczii, Kegel, Japan 
, Ait., N. Amer. 



Bruckenthalia ~i'Muli]'uli;i. Iieielil> . 

Buddleia japonica, Hemsl., Japan. 
Biota orientalis, End., Orient. 
Caragana arborescens, Lam., 



n, Hort. 

Ailantus glandulosus. D.-.<J.. Japmi. 
Alnus cordifolia, Ten., Italy. 

firma, S. & Z., Japan. 

glutinosa, Gaertn., Eur. 

— var. rubronervia, Hort. 

— var. sorbifolia, Hort. 
ineana,Willd., N. Hemisphere. 

— var. laciniata, Hort. 
orientalis, Dene., Orient, 
serrulate, Willd., N. Am. 

— var. latifolia, Hort. 
Amelanchier canadensis, Torr. & 

Gr., N. Amer. 
Amorpha fruticosa, L., N. Amer. 



A/ji1c;i rhoinhiea, Kegel. Jap; 
B.-rb.-ris arista ta, DC, Hima 



— var. grandiflora. 
pygmfea, DC, Siberia. 
Redowskii, DC, Siberia. 

Carpinus Betulus, L., Eur., etc. 

orientalis, Mill., S. Europe. 



Ueltis occidentalis, L., N. Amer. 



Clematis en-eta. L.. Europe, etc. 
Flammula, L., S. Eur. 
ligusticifolia, Nutt., N. Amer. 

(Uethra canesceus, Reinw., 






sericea, I 



Cotoneaster bacillaris, Wal 
Himal. 

— var. floribunda, Ilort. 

— var. obtusa, Hort. 
I.uxilblia. Wall., Llin.al. 
frigida, Wall., Himal. 
horizontalis, Dene., Himal. 
iulesrerrima, Med., Europe. 



us albus, L., S.W. Eii 
>iflorus, L'Herit., Eur 



litoli.-,, > 



V r alJ., Himal. 
Simonsii, Baker., Himal. 
tomentosa, Lindl., Eur. 
uniflora, Bunge, Siberia, etc. 
Crataegus Carrierei, Vauvel. (C. 
Lavallei, Herincq.) 
chlorosarea, Maxim., Mand- 

shuria. 
coccinea, L., N. Amer. 

— var. acerifolia, Hort. 

— var. glandulosa, Hort, 
_ var. fndentata, Hort. 
cordata, Mill., N. Amer. 
Crus-Galli, L., N. Amer. 

— var. arbutifolia, Hort. 
^- var. ovalifolia, Lindl. 

— var. pruinosa, Hort. 

— var. splendens, Lodd. 
Douglasii, Lindl.. West. V. 

heterophylla, Flugge, Ori.-nt. 
melanocarpa, Bieb., Caucasus, 
mollis, Scln-ehs I r.iit.-d States. 
monogyna, Jacq., Europe, 
orientalis, Pall., Orient. 
Oxyacantha, L., Eur. 

— var. fusca, Hort. 
parvifolia, Ait., N. Amer. 
punctata, Jacq., N. Amer. 

— var. brevispina, Hort. 

— var. striata, Hort. 
Pyraeantha, Pers., var. La 



nigricans, L., Eur. 



X precox, Hort. 
pnrpureus, Scop., E 
scoparius, L., Eur. 



— var. pendula, Hort. 
<essilifolius, L., Eur. 

Dabcecia polifolia, D. Don, W. Eu 
Daphne Mezereum, L.. Eurooe. 

— var. flore albo. 
Daphnipln Hum macropodiun 

Miq., Japan. 
Deutzia crenata, S. & Z., Japan. 

— var. Sieboldii, Hort. 
scabra, Thunb., Japan. 

Elnvtia elliptic*, DC, Texas, etc 



rasouropeaa, L.. 




var. coccineus, H 




ifolius, Scop.. Eur 




ia mspcBSa, Yalil, 


St 


js mandscburioa 




Mandscburia. 





tinotk^rensis Lamb., 1 

Amer. 
Thyoides, L., N. Amer. 



Hamame-lis vi 
Hedera Helia 



moides, L., Eur., 
Thunb., China, 



Hypericum Andros;einu 
Eur. 
calycinum, L., Orie 



Jlex Aquifolium, L., Eur. 

— var. platyphylla, Hort. 
h«ivi«rjita, Gray, E. United 

States, 
verticil lata, Gray, N. Amer. 



Kaln 



Laburnum Alschingeri, Vis., 
Eur. 
vulgare, Griseb., tfur. 

— var. Carlieri. llort. 

— var. involutum, Hort. 



Davisiae, Ton-., 



Xvl"-t. 



— var. murray.m.i. Hurt. 

fascicularis, IX!., N. Amer. 

Mespilus Smithii, DC, Caucasus. 

Myriea cerifera, L., Unit.-d States. 

Neilliaamurensis (Benth. A Hook., 
Amurland. 
opulifolia, Benth. A Hook., 



Olearia Haastii, Hook. 

Zeal. 
( )xv.icmlnim arboreum, 

Paulownia impcriali-, > 

Pernettyi 



ri'ili. 



Picea Glehnii, F. Schmidt, Japai 

Pieris mariana, Bnth., A Hook. 
N. Amer. 

Pinus parviflora, S. & /.. Japan 

i Piptanthus nepalensis, Sweet, 
Himalaya. 



Hemisphere. 

Brigantiac'a, '' Chaix,' S.E. 

humilis Uiinge, China, 
lusitanica, L. f., Portugal, 
maritima, Wangenh., N. 

Maximowiczii, Rupr., Mand- 



Ptelea trifoliata, L., N. Amer. 

Pyrus americaua, DC, N. Am< 
Aria, Ehrh., Europe, etc. 

— var. august ilblia. 

— var. erotica, 1 lent . 

— var. graeca, Boiss. 

— var. lutcscens, Hon. 



An.-i!|):iri;i. I .;i-rtn.. Km. 
baccata, L., Asia. 

— var. microcarpa. 



decaisneana, Nichols., Origin 



floribnuda, Sieli 
intermedia, Ehi 
jap-mica, Thunb., Japan 
li.tilbliM.'Syme,Eur. 
Maulei, Masters, Japan. 
— var. superba, Hort. 
nigra. Sargent, N. Amer. 

Khrh., Eur. 
piunifolia. Willd. Siberii 
Ringo, Max., Japan, rtr 



spuria, DC, Hybrid origin. 



IMiau.nii- Alal.-i-r.u-. 1, . S. Europe 



nope. I nitida, 



bib.-iiiira, Sin., Britain. 
Iii.-i.l.-i. Ehrh., IS. Amer. 
microphylla, Roxh., China. 
mos<-hata, Mill., India, etc 
flora. Thunb.. Japan. 
Willd., N. Amer. 
a, Presl, N. Amer. 
omissa. Desegl., Eur. 



pomifera, Herrm., Europe. 
rubiginosa, L., Europe, etc. 
— var. major, Hort. 
rubrifblia, Vill., Eur. 
rugosa, S. & Z., Japan. 

sericea, Lindl., Himal. 
spinosissima, L., Eur. 

Wilsoni, Bor., Britain 



carolinianus,Walt.,S.U.States. 




catharticus, L., Euro[>e, etc. 


Rubus balfourianus, Blox., En 


davuricus, Pall., Asia. 




Frangula, L., Europe. 




— var. angustif'olius. 


calvatus, Blox., Europe. 


infectorius, L., S. Europe. 


Colemani, Blox., Em-op.-. 






Rhododendron dauricum, L., 




Siberia. 


eehinatus, Lindl., Britain 


Rhodotypus kerrioides, S. & Z., 


laeiuiatus. Willd., Hort. 




leucostachyy, Sin., Europ 




lindleyauus, Leo. Britaii 


k '" u lal''ra| U L., N. Aiuer.' ' 


macropliyllus, W.A: N.,Eu 
niu.Toua'tus. Dorr.. Brita 


radieans, L., N. Amer. 


ocoidentalis, L. & X, An 






Japan. 


Britain'. 


Ribes alpinum, L., Eur. 





— var.and.-gavensis. I'.aker 
fulgens, Christ, Switzerland 



M Ch'inf ' jft " 
L., S. Eur. 



Sph a -a carpinifolia, Pall., Eur. 


T*x\\s—cont. 


Douglasii, Hook., N.W. Amer. 


— var. Washingtoni, Hort. 


japonica, L. fil., Japan. 


cuspidata, S. & Z., Japan. 


— var, Bumalda. 




— var. glabra, Hort. 


Ulex europseus, L., Eur. 


— var. glabrata, Nichols. 


Vaccinium raaderense, Link., 






lindleyana, Wall., Himal. 


stamineum, L., N. Amer. 


paniculata, L. 




salicifolia, L., N. Amer. 


Viburnum deutatum, L., N. 


— var. lancifolia. 






dilatatum, Thunb., Japan. 


sorbilolia, L., N. Asia. 


Lantana, L., Eur. 


splendens, Hort. 


molle, Michx., N. Amer. 


tomentosa, L., N. Amer. 


Opulus, L., Eur., etc. 


Staphylua pinnata, L., Europe. 


Vitis heterophylla, Thunb., Japan. 


Sympliori<:ai-pusra<.-fino<us,Michx. 


— var, humulifolia. 
Labrusca, L., N. Amer. 


Syringa pekinensis, Rupr., China. 


riparia, Michx., N. Amer. 


Taxne baccate, L., Eur., etc. 


Yucca Whipplei, Torr., California. 


— var. adpressa. 


Zelkowa Keaki, Sieb,, Japan. 


— var. Dovastonii, Hort, 




— var. fastigiata. 


Zenobia speciosa, D. Don, I'. S. 


— var. fructu-luteo, Hort. 




— var. sinensis. 


-var.pulverul,,,,,. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



APPENDIX II.-1895. 



NEW GARDEN PLANTS OF THE YEAR 1894. 

The number of garden plants annually described in botanical and 
horticultural publications both Knglidi and foreign, is now so consider- 
able that it has been thought desirable to publish a complete list of them 
in the Kew Bulletin each year. The following list comprises all the 
new introductions recorded during 1894. These lists are indispensable 
to the maintenance of a correct nomenclature, especially in the smaller 
botanical establishments in correspondence with Kew, which are, as a 
rule, only scantily prov iii. eriodicals. Such a list 

will al-o ail'ord information respecting new plants under cultivation at 
this establishment, many of which will be distributed from it in the 
regular course of exchange with other botanic gardens. 

The present list includes not only plants brought into cultivation for 
the lirst time during 1894, but the most noteworthy of those which have 
been re-inlroiluced alter being lost from cultivation. Other plants 
included in the list may have been in gardens for several years, but cither 
were not described or their name- had not been authenticated until 



In addition to species and botanical varieties, all hybrids, whether 
introduced or of garden origin, but described for the tirst time in 1894, 
are included. It has not been thought desirable, however, to give 
authorities after the names of garden hybrids in such genera as Cypri- 
prd/i/j/t, Sn: Mere garden varieties of such plants as Colons, Codia-um 

In every case the plant is cited under its published name, although 
some of the names are doubtfully correct. Where, however, a correction 
has appeared desirable this is made. 

The name of the person in whose collection the plant was first noticed 
or described is given where known. 

An asterisk is prefixed to all those plants of which examples are in 
cultivation at Kew. 

The publications from which this list is compiled, with the abbre- 
viation used to indicate them, are as follows : — B. M. — Botanical 
Magazine. B. T. O.— Bulletino della R. Societa Toscana di Orticultura. 
B,ai Cat. — Bull, Catalogue of New. Beautiful, and Bare Plants. 
Gard.— The Garden. G. C. — Gardeners' Chronicle. G. and F.— 
U 89179. 1375.-11,3.-). Wt. 308. A 



Gard.-uaud For.M, Ojl— Garteiifk. 



M. — Gardeners' Maga: 



lin. J. of H.- 
lidees. K. B.- 



Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Royal Gardens, Kew. 
denia. M. G. Z.— Moller's Deutsche Giirtner-Zeitung. 0. R.— 
Orchid Review. R. — Reichenbacliia, R. //. — Revue Horticole. 
R. H. B.— Revue de l'Horticulture Beige. Spaeth Cat.—L. Spaeth, 
General Nursery Catalogue. Veitch Cat.— Yeitch & Sons, Catalogue 
of Plants. ?r. G.— Wiener Illustrirte Garten-Zeitung. Williams Cat. 
— Williams. New and General Plant Catalogue. W. A.— Warner & 
Williams, Orchid Album. 

The abbreviations in the descriptions of the plants are : — ft. — 
Foot or Feet. G.— Greenhouse.— H. Hardy. //. //.—Half-hardy. 
in. — Inches. S.— Stove. 



Acacia haileyana, P. von Mueii. 

(G. C. 1894, xv., 37, fig. 4.) Le- 
guminosae. G. A shrub with .-l.-^aiit 
bipinnate leaves and small globose beads 
of yellow flowers in loose unbranched 
racemes. Australia. (Cambridge Bo- 



Sapindaceae. H. This spe- 



well marked species, the i 



ters on the ends of the stems— 
ong, orange scarlet, the seg- 
rgined with deep red. Burma. 



•Agku 



-■•!. 



white. Malaya. (J. Veitch and Sons.) 

Allium Akaka, Gmelin. (B. T. O. 
1894, 226.) Liliacea?. H. A dwarf- 
growing species, with rose-coloured 

' : ' 

* <*., N«piw.) ' Cge * 
*Alocasia Curtisii, N. E. Br. (K. B. 

specie- allied to A. decipiens. Leaf- 
stalk about 2 ft. long ; blade 18 in. 
long, 12 in. broad, with long basal lobes, 
light and dark green above, purple 

Penang. (Kew.) 

*Alocasia sanderiana, Hort. (Bull. 

Cat. lMit, 8, fig.) 8. A large leaved 
species, the l.la.les deeply lobed on 
both sides, glossy dark green, with the 
midrib and principal nerve- margined 
■■a iili •. bite ; leaf stalk mottled. Malaya. 
(W. Ball.) 



long, pale yell 



s allied to A. brevifolic 



v.-llow 



, Hort. (R.H. 



i Prince Leos Radzi- 



Aloe striata, Haw. var. oligospeila 

Baker. (G. ('. 1894, xv.. f.Hs,) S 
Differs from the type by its mon 






(L'Horticulture In 

♦AmorphophalhlS Elliotii, Hook, f. podolirioil EttsB , Baker. ( G. «»rf F. 

(#. 3/. t. 7349) Aroidoo? . b. A ,^94,4-4.) Aaulryllidea;. G. An 



1-hooded spathe wit 



Africa. (Kew.) 

*Arenaria Huteri, Kerner. {J. of H. 



, 


* Artemisia tridentata,Nutt. (>>„//, 


Naples.)" 


Cat. 1894-5.) Compositffi. H. A 




Angraeum fournierianum, Knuizim. 


tent leaver. Western North America. 


(Spaeth, Berlin.) 


fig. 7.) Orchidea-. S. Anewspeeits 


Arum Magdalenae, Sprenger. (B. T. 








low spathe, marbled and spotted with 


Madagascar. ( I'. Sander & Co.) 


purple. Palestine. (Dammann & Co., 


Aneruloa madouxiana, L Lind. (A. 


Naples.) 


t 434; J. O. v., 124.) Orchideaj. 
G. A garden hybrid supposed to be 


Arum modicense, Sprenger. (B. r. o. 

italicum. Sicily. (Dammann & Co., 




(7/ Horticulture Internationale.) 


Naples.) 


Anthemis macedonica, B»is*.$ o ri ,i,. 

M, tAv., 519.) Compo- 


*Arundinaria Hindsii, Munro. (G. C. 


site. H. A ruck plant 0-8 in. high, 

uiih whit. dai-\-liko tl..u, 1 -. having a 


hardy bamboo with stems 6 ft. high ; 


dark yellow centre. Macedonia. (R. 


£iil^1;;;f"^w?^^ 


Antholyza Schweinfurthii, Baker. 

(G. C. 1894, xv., S8S.) Iridea-. 


*Arundinaria Hindsii, Munro, var. 


G. A new species allied to A. n'.t/s- 
Flowers bright red and yellow, «n 


' " ' ■ 


simple loose spikes. Abyssinia. (Dam- 
mann & Co., Naples.) 




*Arundinaria khasyana, Munro. 
(G. C. 1894, iv., 301.) H. The 


Anthurium crombezianum, (/?• H. 

■ 



f the parents. (Madame Crombez, described 



♦Aspidistra typica, Bain. (IF. a 

lS'.M, u.;f,.) Lili:..-e.i-. S. A new spe- 
cies, supposed to have been introduced 
fron Tonkin, with general habit and 
aspect of A. elatior but differing fron 
that in its trimerous s\inii; 
des Plantes, Paris.) 
Asplenium Drueryi, Hurt. {Curd. 

1894,xlv.,472.) Filices. H. A variety 



Baccharis salicina, Torr. & G 

H. A bush" 6 ft. high, with nar 
willow-like, gray-green leaves. Was 



.-.pie. ,n 
'. A,///-. 



mgustifolia, MitJ 



H. A dwarf hardy bamboo, with slendei 
plish when young; leaves 4> in. by l-in. 



Freeman-Mitford.) 

Bambusa Castillonis, Hort. 



Bambusa Nagashima, Hort. 

bamboo; stem about 2 ft. high, round, 






♦Bambusa pumila, Hort. ( <:. i '. i «'.u. 
*Bambusa pygmaea, Miquei. (G. G. 

ls'.M, xv., 3i»s.) A hardy bamboo 



■ igh, 



Bambusa senanensis, Fran 

d to Annul inarii 



. by J i 



leaves variegated, 7 in. by 1^ in., 
serrated on both margins. '" Kiminci- 
chiku." Japan. (Kew.) [Frobably 
uPhyllostachys.] 

♦Bambusa chrysantha, Hort. (G. G. 

1894, xv., 368.) A hardy species, 

wiili slender stems 3 it. or more high, 
leaves 7 in. by lj in., green, -trip, d 
with yellow, shghtlv glaucous hen. ath. 
Japan. ( K. w.) "[This j, ,,rohal,!y 

*Bambusa disticha, Mitfurd. (G,m-,/. 

Ib94, vTi., :,47j 11. This name has 

ri'iiui, If. rt. (not of Roxburgh). Stents 

arranged branches and leaves, the 
latter 2 in. by £ in. rigid, evergreen. 

'Bambusa Henonis, Hort. (G. C. 



B. Freeman-Mitford.) 

*Bambusa sterilis, Hort. Japan. (G. 

G. IMM. xv., st;8.) This appears to 
be a form of 1?. RffiW, Koxb. Japan. 
(Kew.) 

Begonia platanifolia, 
decors '" 

~. C. is* 

litre.- . 



*Begonia Rajah, Ridley. (GG. 189 



Japan. (Kew.) 
i Laydekeri, Hort. 



i mottled with dull yellow. 



BeUevallia Aacheri, Hort. (B.T. 



*Betula Maximo wiczii, Uege: 



'////<'- 3ulbopliylluin leysianum, H.iri.i.i-,.. 

Ii. Dvani, with large solitary flowers 

tn n \ ou sca P es 6 in - lon ^ ; dorsal sepal 

( HA •' 

"■• A J connate, pink and purple. (Borneo.) 

argent, Bulbophyllum perpusillum, RVinz- 



*Bifrenaria Charlesworthii 
(K. B. J804, 184.) Orchici 

Pseudobu I bs' 4 -angled V, ii 



*Brachystelma caffrum, 



Brodiaea Howellii, 1 



Jfzl ' *Bulbophyllum pteriphilum, Rolfe. 

;;";;.' (K. B 1MJ4, M\.f 8. A new 

'■ n 'j 1 ''^/ species with elongated rhizomes sue, 11 

)H " ; 01 !^' oblong pseudobulbs, and lin**:ir oblong 

tha'few leaves; scape 4 in. long. b.-:wii.g 

r) I!razi1 - Bower*. Penang. (Kew.) 

Peters. "Calathea polytricha, Baker. (G. c. 

^ . rt em« A new s P ecies allied to V. Jlavescena, 

^l'.,,,,, ..,'* but with hairy leaves and bracts. 

*• eW-) of the tuft of leares. Trinidad. (Kew.) 

\s, ie- Calochortus Plummerae, Hort. Wal- 

• Wit '' !l ' : '" \' : '' 'Ii 4 ' A^'handsonf. 

I ' '! !;"■' -|.c.-ies, with fb.wers of n delicate 

fyeorolli sIi;ii -' of Ii!ac - California. (Wallace 

ilacina *Calochortus Weedii, Wood. (G. c. 



fig. 27.) H. 






Idleia pulchella. n i 



(Wallace & Co.) . 

Camaridium lawrencianum, 

(A'. B. 1894, 185.) Orehidei 
A new species allied to C.purpu 



*Car agitata <v 



Bulbophyllum Johannis, 



species with 4-angled smooth I Catasetum revolutum, Cogn. (J. \ 



: in. high and f i 

urple. Flowers 1 in. in diai 
five-lobed tube, coloured j 



Catasetum chloranthum, Cogn. 

(J. O. 1894, 251.) (hvhidea?. S. 
This species has the general aspect of 

same size as that species nr slightly 
larger. The sepals are pair green with 



Brazil. (L'Horticultu 



i sepals and petals are suffused 
ana spotted with purple ; the oblong 
lip nearly acute at the tip, margins 

entire, strongly incurved. Colombia. 
(L'Horticulture Internationale.) 

*Catasetum Lemosii, Roife. (K. B. 

1894, 393.) S. A new ip.-eies allied 
to C. albovinus. Pseudol 
6 in. long; leaves 8 in. by 2} in. : scape 
1 ft. long, erect, many flowered: (lowers 

light green and \ ellow. Iira/il. ' (Kev. .) 

Catasetum macrocarpum, var. Lin- 



Catasetum pallidum, Cogn. (J. o. 



atasetum pallidum, 

1894, 252.) S. This 

principally in itg shorter sepals and 
petals and more fleshy lip. Habitat not 
recorded. (L'Horticulture Intcrna- 



. (K.B. 
ed to C. albovirens. Psendobulbs 

> 10 in. long; scape 8 in. long, hear- 
n. across, the sepals and petals 
k yellow.' Brazil. (I/HortV It. n 



*Catasetum Randii, Rolfe. (K. n. 

allied to C. yarncttianwn, which 'it re- 
lip, which has a short, broad I. rush-like 
appendage. Brazil. (Kew.j 



•he sepals and petals are a 
s'ii-htly greenish pale yellow, the lip 

pouch than in I '. oplmdms. Habitat 
not recorded. (L'Horticulture fnter- 



m, Kolfe. (L. t. 406.) S. 

tlov.crs tlian the type. Brazil. (L'Horti- 



*Catasetum splendeus, Cogn. ( o. /.'. 

,nd (\'w,in;>Mrjn,w. The 



ternationale.) 
*Cattleya Aclandia, tfndL 

maxima. (L. t. 421.) Orchides 
A variety with larger flowers 
deeper colours than the type. (L'f 
culture Internationale.) 
Cattleya arthuriana, J. O'Brien. 



;,„, 



luteola. (C. Dorman.) 

Cattleya Atlanta. (0. n. 1894, 

; 275.) G. A garden hybrid between 
i C. Leopoldii and C. ' Warscewiczii. 

I Cattleya Tricolor, Lindl., var. caerulea. 

; (G. C. 1894, xvi., 378.) G. A 

variety with greenish sepals and petals 

\ Cattleya Browniae. (G. C. 1894, 



p. R. 

: :■ .;-... 

Cattleya citrina aurantiaca, Gower. 

(0./?. 1894, 19-1.) Gh D 

type in its larger and richer coloured 

flowers and more elongated lip. (C. E. 

Cattleya Cupidon, Hort. (Z. t. 440.) 

of ( '. Mi ntlr/i.' although suggested to be 
intermediate between it and < '. Srhro, 



Cattleya Eldorado, Linden, 
deni. (X. t. 409.) G. < 

coloured lip. (L'Horticultu 
Cattleya Eldorado, Lindk 



sepals and petals, the hp 



Cattleya Fabia. {G. C. 1894, xvi. ; 

< 



Gigas franconvillensis, 
crimsou and yellow lip. (Due de Massa, 



Cattleya hardyana, Roife, var. Lu- 

Ciana. (£• t. 449.) G. A variety 
with large flowers which might properly 



Cattleya kienastiana. 



Cattleya labiata, Ldi., var. foleyana, 

white sepals aud petals and blotch, s of 

Cattleya labiata, Lindi.,var. Peetersii. 

((). /,'. |v..|, 7.s.) (i A 

variegated with a lighter -hade. ( V A. 
IVeters, Brussels.) 

Cattleya Mantinii. (O. B. 1894, 

:;,;:.:• <;,,,;!. 1894, xlvi., 458.) S. A 



high, trunk 1 ft. in diameter with Id 
or 11 ribs, armed with straight a>h- 
coloured spines. Flowers 2-3 in. long, 
purple and white. (It has been sug- 
ire^ted that this is ('. w,i, rowmus of 
Salm-Dyck.) Sonora. 

Chamaepeuce afra, DC. (Gfl. 1894, 

17.! CompoMWe. H. II. A handsome 
tl.i-tle-like plant with a rosette of dark 

flower-stem abort *j ■• 

heads. Armenia. (Max Leichtlin, 

Chcenomeles japonica, Lindl., var. 

424, fig. 155,156.)' Rosacea.' H. A 

late flowering form <.frhctvpic.il /V"> 
japonic,!. (M. F. Morel. Lvon-Vais<e, 






rich colours, the lip being espe 

gaudy. (L'Horticultnre Internatioi 

Cattleya Mossias, Hook, var. wai 
keana, L- Lmd. (L. t. 433.) c 

flowers. (C. van Wambeke, Belgii 

Cattleya venosa, Rolfe. (O. B. 

132.) G. Supposed to be a m 



Cattleya Wendlandii. (O. 



.scccuzii. (J. Veiteh & Sons. 



A tall-growing per 
palmately-lobed lea 

Abyssinia. (Dammann & Co., Naples.) 

Ccelogyne Mossiae ; Rolfe. (K. B. 

fig. 49.) Orchideae. S. A new 
Bd to C. nervosa. Pieudo- 

bulbs \\ in. long ovat. 

hearing nho.it <i\ tloweri each 1} in. 
shaped mark or, the lip.' Xilghiri Mts. 

♦Ccelogyne swaniana, Rolfe. (K. B. 

1894, 182; G. C 1894, xv., 539; 



*Crassula hybrida albiflora, 






are broad, wavy at the margins, t 



*Cereus Pecten-aboriginum, Watson. 

(G. &■ F. 1894, 334, fag. 54.) CriMim 



grandiflorum, Hort. (i?. H. 

147.) H. H. A garden 



Cucumis Vilmorini, Hort. (B. T. O. 

annual plant with cur leaves. The 
fruits are abundantly produced, are 






hate." Zanzibar. iW. Hull.) 

macrocarpa, Hartw. var. 

[Gard. 1894, xlv., 33.) 



•fisr 

Coniferse. H. A well-mai 

entirely suffused with pale golden yellow. 
(Dicksons & Co., Chester.) 
Cyanastrum cordifolinm, Oliver. 

S. A monotypic genus wit! 

stalks 9 in. long, and purple stellate 



(l/llorti.-ulture Internationale 
Cyathea pygmaea, L. Linden. 



Cymbidinm armainvilliense. (./. 

O l.s'.it, '.I.) Orchidia-. S. A garden 
hybrid between C. eburneum and C. 



•°^ a 



356.) Campanulac( 



Scnf dimb 


Tubers suoeulmt. edible; 
South Africa. (Kew.) 


hybrid bet^ 


i allanianum. (O. if- 

United States Nurseries.) 


Cypripedium Anton Joly. (& G, 

hybrid between C. rernuium and ( '. 


Cypripedinm Arnoldiae. (G. C. 1894, 

xvi., 378.) S. A garden hybrid 



Cypripedinm beechense. 



garden hybrid 

(V. S;. ruler & Co.) 

Cypripedinm callosnm, Kchb. f., var. 
Sanderge. (<?. C. 1894,^ xv. 

coloured variety with the dorsal sepal 
green at the base. ( F. Sander & Co.) 

Cypripedinm calloso-Argns. (O- - ^ 

name. (H. Graves, New Jersey.) 
Cypripedinm Dallemagnei. (£.'«■ 

('. spiccrtuiium and < '. lowiannm. 

Cypripedinm denisiannm, L. Lind. 

437.) S. A garden hybi id between T. 



:;;;::"! 



Cypripedinm Echo, CO 



Cypripedinm Enrydice. (/?. i/. 1894, 

' '■■■ > >. A garden hybrid be- 
tween C. leeanum superbum and C. 



Cypripedinm excellens. (#• R. 1894, 

-■.; , , s. A -anion hybrid between 
C. rothschMianum and ('. harrisitnnim. 

Cypripedinm gibeziannm. (L. t. 

;-.',; s. A garde,, hybrid between 
('. villusum and C. vcnustum. (Mad. 
E. Gibez, Sens.) 
Cypripedinm gloriosnm. (O. Ii. 

1894. 365 ) t>. A •■ ■■ 

b,U C msignti'huntiniimdC. lo- 

nrawli: (T. Statter.) 

Cvoripedinm Godefroyae lencochi- 
lnm. (O. A'- 1894, 145; (■■ r. 

a„d a pure white lip. {.O. O. Wrig- 

Cypripedinm Gravesiae. (G. C. 1894, 

xv. 298, fi"-. 34.) s - A garden 
,!;• !',)'„,. ' (ll! Graves, New jersey.) 
Cypripedinm harrisian v. 



Mme. Octave Opoix 




(Jules Hye, (ilii-nt.) 

Cypripedium Io-spicereanum. (O. 

J fi. 1894, 143.) S. A garden hybrid 



Cypripedium Iris. («f- o. 1894, 8.) 
Cypripedium J. G-. Fowler. (O. R. 

J 1894, 361, fig. 18.) S. A pardon 
hybrid between C. Godejroyic ami ' . 
barbatum. (H. Low & Co.) 

Cypripedium Janet Ross. (O. R. 

1894, 311.) S A 
mm. (H. J. Bom, Florence.) 
Cypripedium J. H. Veitch. (G- C. 

\W, xvi., 258, 287, fig..4'> ; > S. 

Cypripedium Jupiter. (J£ //. 1894, 

/•„,„", „/mtoi and '('. hirsutissimxm. 

Cypripedium Laurse. (#. B. 1894 

Doux.) 

Cypripedium leysenianum. («• "• £• 

1894, 169, t. ; O. C 189-1, xv., 
817.) S. A garden hjl 
(Jules live, Ghent.) 

Cypripedium Madame Jules ^ Hye. 



Cypripedium Pandora. (<v. c is9». 
| Cypripedium Pelias. (/>. />■ im<4, 
Cypripedium poyntzianum. (G. G 

J Young.) 

Cypripedium robinianum. ( P. *. 
1894, 79.) B. A g 

(J/ Horticulture Internationale.) 

I Cypripedium triumphans. (<?• C 

! and" <7. e .S«///V/-/ ' h'/'ZiZ. ' ( ''/. "i i } '■! 

Cypripedium William Lloyd. ( O. C. 

A 

Cypripedium Winifred JHollington. 



roripedium W. R. _Lee. (G. 



Cyrtanthus O'Brieni, Baker. (G. C. 

1894, xv., 716.) Amaryllide,,. s. 
A new species intermediate between 
( '. angiistifoh'us and C. Muvmcuni. 
Leaves linear, contemporary with the 
flower-, which are bright scarlet, 
long, about eight i 
(J. O'Brien.) 

*Cyrtopera flexuosa, Roife. (K. B. 

\>*\. 36:3.) Orchideie. S. A new 

bearing four linear elongate flaccid 
leaves nearly 1 ft. long ; scape erect, 

yellow blotch on the lip. East Trop. 

Delphinium armeniacum, stapf. > cji. 

1894, 48.) Ranunculacea. H. A 
perennial species with a/un-bluc flowers. 
General habit of plant is similar to that 
of I). Ajacis, but more robust. 
Armenia. (Haage & 

F.rfurt.) 

Delphinium Emilise, Gn 

1894, xvi., 434.) H 

blue species, 1| 

7 of California.) 

Delphinium Nuttalli, 

1894, xlvi., 511.) 



S. Africa, j the sepals 



*Dendrobium glomeratum, Roife. 

species alhed to D. cum 

larger in flower; pseudobulhs '2 ft. 
long; flowers in short dense axilla! \ 
es with large imbricating bracts, 
' * petals bright rose colour 



Wit 



A new species with 






I J), vuriegatu.ni. Cali- 



axillary, many flowered ; 
wide, sepals and petals pi 
lines of purple dots, 



Fontenay.) 

*Dendrobium Hildebrandii, Roife. 
(K. B. 1894, 182.) S. A new 
species allied to D. tortile ; pseudobulbs 

■ 
epals and petal 
e dull yellow, t 

among cultivated plants. Burma. (H. 
Low & Co.) 

Dendrobium lutwycheanum. ( O. E. 

between D. war'dinnnm and D. splen- 



Dendrobium Alcippe. (G. C. 

xv., 475.) Orchidefe. 8. 
garden hybrid between D. lituifi 



Dendrobium mettkean a 

(G. C. 1894, xvi., 30.;.) S. 

- • 



(K. B. 1894, 



purple instead of green at the 

three. Borneo. (F. Sander 

Dendrobium 



Dendrobium Cybele. (<?. 



Dendrobium Doris. (O. R. 



Dendro bium Euryalus. ( p. R. 1 894, 
D~ ' Ain'sworthii and D. nobile. (J. 



•ange. Moluccas. 



Dendrobium Virginia. (G. 
xv., 343.) S. A garden 
between D. nu.nilifoniw i 
Bensonice. (J. Veitch & Sons. 



( L'Hortiriiliuiv 



Disa Diores. 

between D. Ve 
(J. Veitch k i 



langleyensis. (G. 



"FTgL %Z 



Deutzia discolor, Hemsl., var. pur- 
purascens. (#. H. 1894, 244 ; 



Deutzia Lemoinei. (Jard. 1894, 85.) 

II. A hybrid between D. </ni< /<- and 
D. parviftora. (Lemoine, Nancy.) 

*Dianella tasmanica, Hook, f., var. 
variegata. {Bull. Cut. i8<>4, .'u 

Liliace;v. G. An elegant plant with 
ensiform leaves a foot or more long, 
green, striped with yellow. Flowers 

Tasmania. (W. Bull.) 

Dichorisandra acaulis, Cogn. (///. 



.it iV.r 



petioles 2 ft. long ; leaflets li ft. long 

Piazza fibw. (Kew.) "' 
Diervilla praecox, Hort. (Lrmoin, 

in habit but (lowering tl.nr or font 
Japan, (Lemoine, Nancy.) 



C. 18*4, x 



*Disa nervosa, LindL (G. r. is-.m, 

-oiiio specits with strap-shaps-d leaves 
and civet fall shapes •_' ft high bearing 

with spreading segments and n -fraight 
<pur an inch Jong. Natal. (Kew.) 



■ 



Hra/il. (h>w>. 



glauCUS, Sebum. 
with handsome large 



\ shrub closely related to Rhododendron 
jeorgia. (P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, 



Colombia. (W. S. 1 

Epidendrum Wallisio-ciliare. ( G. c. 

|v,l. wi.. :■"." > s. A 

Epilaelia hardyana. {G. C. 1894, 

O. /?. 1894, 



Eria cinna"barina, Rolfe. (K. B. 1894, 



Sanderae = Bertolonia. 



*Erycina eclr. 

V.'iS'.t.) <)rchidea\ S. An 



dozen yellow flow 



Greene. 



*Fraxmus bungeana, D.C, (G. and 

" Ornus " group, a hji t i \-« of Northern 
China. (Arnold Arboretum.) 

*Fraxinus rhyncophylla, Hance. (G. 

nu.l P. lsj.i. vi., .is4, fig. 70.) H. 



° n » Fuchsia pendula. (B. H. 1894, m, 



Fuchsia triphylla hybrida. (M. G. 

Z is<>4, l::. fi;.!.) (.;. \ 
between F. fripla/lln find /•". corumbi- 
jlora. (Arends & Pfeifer, Ronsdorf, 



light, a yellow flowers wit 
blotch at the base of 

Eucomisrobusta. Hal:, r. 



V/I.j. ! > 



differs hj it- narrow, long, niMtonn. 

6 in. to 8 in. long, flowers campanula!.', 
green, tinged with brown. Natal. 
(Dammann & Co., Naples.) 

*Eupatorium serrulatum, DC. (/?. 

//. 1891, :;oi. t.) ( 'ompositac. G. A 
shrul. wilh shortly stalk.. 1, bright green 
leaves and heads of rosy-lilac flowers. 
Uruguay. (Andre, Lacroix, Touraitie, 

Eurotia lanata, Moq. {Spaeth Cat. 



Asia Minor. (Whittall, 



astrochilus Curtisii, Baker. (B. 

o G. longi)lora,'Wa\l. Rootstock 'fleshy, 



(Spaeth, Berlin.) 

Fagus rotundifolij 



*Gazania bracteata, n. R. Mr. (<v. c. 



Fagus sylvatica, 
purea Rohani, 



t decora, Lind. & Rod. (///. 



growing plant, 
owcrs" "'New" /,', 



Gymnogram;, 



*Gymnostachyum decmm 



wking glass," but differing in the 
ehiscence of the capsule. Flowers 

luc California. (Kew.) 



*Habenaria camea, 



Gladiolus massiliensis. '""/'■ ?^"; ^[j r Vrom n\.-"t%V. ;„ htvii.-'uhitr 



lcuil, Ma: 
Gloriosa abyssinica, i 



•Haemanthus candidus, 



maun & Co., Naples.) " IVnnsvaal. (W. Bull.) [This is if. 

^^Mr^f 11 ^ ■ ^auna. thus Qarkei^^ C. 

whiVish" ' ""tlowiTS. Colorado, ' &c. raised by Col. Trevor Clarke. (Kew.) 

(Spaeth, Berlin.) Halimodendron argentenm, var. flore 

*Gmelinahystrix ? Schnlt. (got. Mag. gS;, '^"''a VI S^,! 

\YrhenacVu-. 5. A climbing shrul. J " m ,1 "' '-.j ' j 1 ' p.. r £"^ "'^ ,,nri>K ' 

with the li.-i! "" ^'' ' 

elliptic oblong ;1 , Baker. (G. C. 



GrammatophyllTim Guilelmi II., 



♦Hedychiuin wilkeanum. (G. c. 



Borneo, cc. (. Helianthus lenticularis. (G/?. 1894, 

Graya polygaloideS, Hook. & Am. 104, fig. 25.) Composure H. Asun- 

(Spa< >>: '■ i ? 39 I .- - I ihenopodiacee. I flower said to attain a height of 12 ft. 



*Hemitelia Lindeni, L. Lin 



■shaped leaves and 



vated in the open : 



? Brazil. (L Horticulture 



M, 622, fig. 111.) 



*Houlletia Landsl 









sepals oblong, orange, with red spots. 

■ and notched ; lip narrow, 

with purple. Costa Kica. (Kew.) 

*Hydnophytumlongiflorum, . i. <■">; ,<j. 

■ is. \l r 7 .4-; . liKbi-K-ii.' s. n„. 



*Iris Helenae, Barley. (<;. M. isi.4. 

220 ; J", o/ //., 227, fig. 38.) H. A 
large flowered, dark purple Iris with 
a dwarf habit, close to /. iberica. Holy 

Iris Ibparad. (GW. 1894, xivi., 

157.) II. A garden hybrid between /. 
ihrrln, and /. parmlora. (C. G. Van 



Iris stylosa, Desf. (Garrf. : 



vigorous pla 

height b.,,r 

Salisb.] 


nt with scape 3] ft 
ug >n umbel of from 
Cochin China. (Dele 
[This is H. littore 


•Hypericum 
color. (•/« 


rd. 1894, 186, fig! 'J 

H. This has lea 

h white and rosy-carm 



( Leon Chenault, Orleans.) 
♦Hypocyrta pulchra, N. K. Br. ( <7. 



inch long, hairy and coloured (.rang. - 



Kalanchoe Cassiopeia, Hon. (<;//. 

1894,93.) Cras»ulacca\ (>. A dwari 
succulent, with Kehevcria-like blue-green, 
tooth, d leaves. Abvssinia. ( Dauimann 
& Co., Naples.) 
Kalanchoe glaucescens, Britten, u'. 

G. 1894, 457, Hg 70.) G. A >perie* 

or upwards with a terete glabrous stem 
and irregularly crenate ohtu». leave-. 



jaelia anceps, Ldl., var. a 

(G. C. 1%94, xv., 84, 
G. Flowers snow-whi 
veinmgs 



variety with flowers' of a' clear'' rosy- 
crimson tint. (F. Sander & Co.) 

Laelio-Cattleya amplissima, (J. O. 

I 894. 25:1.) <)rchiden>. G. A hybrid, 
(L'Hortlculture InternatEnaleO ^^ 

Laelio-Cattleya broomfieldiensis. 

(G. G 1894, xvi., 194, 223, fig. 33.) 
G. A garden hybrid between Lalia 

inirea, var. chrysotoxa. (M. Wells.) 

Laelio-Cattleya Cauwenberghei. (L. 



Laelio-Cattleya Clonia. (G. C. 

xvi., 511.) G. A garden 1 
between l.telia elegans Turner, 



Laelio-Cattleya corbeillensis. {B. H. 

1894, 527.) G. A garden hybrid 
between C. Loddu/esu m.l ( dm/ami 



Laelio-Cattleya Decia. (G. C. 1894, 

"Lalia Perr 



fig. 89.) G. A garden 
i Lalia Perrinii and 
na aurea. (J. Veitch 



Laelio-Cattleya Doris. (O. *. 1894, 

79, 111.) G. A garden hybrid be- 
tween I. (rim harpoplu/lla and < 'utt/ei/n 

Laelio-Cattleya Frederick Boyle. 

G. A garden hybrid between L. 
anceps and C. Triana. (F. Sander 

Laelio-Cattleya Hon. Mrs. Astor. 

((,. <\ 1S94, xv., 230, fig. 21 : W. 
t. 89.) G. A garden hybrid between 

/ ,./,„ ,„„/,/;„, ami (•attl.-ya lab.,,1,, 

Laelio-Cattleya Lindeni. ( '■ ' ! '", ' 

flowers. (I/Horticulture Internation- 

Laelio-Cattleya Parysatis. {O B 

1894, 310.) G. A garden hybrid 



Laelio-Cattleya pittiana. (G. C. 

■ 
PnnaV and Xalin ^/W/s. j !• .'sju-dei 

Laelio-Cattleya sayana. (J. O. 1894, 



In the collection of Mr. R. II. Meagre- 
however it produced flower- flushed 
with rose. (L'Horticulture Internation- 

Lselio-Cattleya Timora. (G. C. 1894, 

i ■•: G. M. 1894, 405, fig.) G. 

Laelio-Cattleya Wellsiae. (G. C. 1 894, 

xvi., 378.) G. A gu 

Laslio-CattleyaZephyra. i.g. < isn-i. 

between ZW^ xamtkina 
Mendeli. (J. Veitch & Sons.) 

Lanium Berkeley i, Kolfe. (K. B. 1894, 

dots. Brazil. (.Major Gen. K S. 
Berkeley.) 
•Lathyrus laetiflorus, Greene. (G. 

C. 1894, xv., 398.) i. 

H.H. A plant growing 6 to 8 ft. high, 

flowers. (University of California.) 



sity of California. 

*Lecanopteris ca: 

1894, 398.) Fili 



Billim . (A' I'-- 

rhizome which 

. ilarly and i- covered with 
etions. Leave.- pinnat* 



7367.) Rubiaceac. 



rith. oblong leathery 
i. long. Flowers in 



I, a ha 



Leucocoryne purpurea/ '.Cay. {(„i,d. 

is:' I, xlvi.. 111.) i.iliacea:. II. A 

bulb with grassy leaves, and scapes 

mir- .nil i- ( 1 



IrOWUi, var. le 
ISaker. ((r. ('. 189-1, 

flowers being untinged 



■'fc™;; 



Lobelia Dortmannii, Hort. (WT. G. 
1894, 459, fig. 72.) Campanulacea.'. G. 
Apparently a form of L. Erinus. 
(Daminann & Co., Naples.) 

Lobelia Gerardi. (J?. H. B. 1894, 

, " ■ 

(Chabanne, Lyons.) 
*Lonicera Korolkowii, Step*. (G. 

bush hoiu-vMu-Uu allied to L.Xijln.<!r,i m . 
red. (Arnold Arboretum.) 
*Lowia maxillarioides, Ridley. (B. 

1 tin . <il id li iv. - 'i in long mil loos, 
lb. rev large purp'v Sepals and the odd 



- Penin~ula. ( Kew.: 



Lunaria biennis, 1 
gata. (Jurd. is* 

ferx-. H. Aforn 
margined with ye 



Ly caste schonbrunnensis. (G. C. 

1894, xvi., 118, fig. 18.) 

G- A garden hybrid between L.yiwn- 

tea and L. Skinner i. i Kmperoi of 



Magnolia biflora, Hort. (R. H. 1894, 

form of M. yrandiflora, (Treyve, 
Trevoux, France.) 

*Mallotus japonicus, Muell. (7?. H. 

1894, 103, lig. 32.) En] 

G. A bush or small tree with alternate. 

spicuous paniculate flowers. Has proved 



Mammillaria barbata, EngeL 



♦SsSS-o. 



' H. A new 

red flowers. Mountains of 
(Spaeth, Berlin.) 

spaethiana, sduim 

( Spurt h Cut. 1894-5.) II. Similar 
in armature and flowers to M. J'ur- 
puxi, but depressed globose in form. 
Mountains of Colorado. (Spaeth, 



(L'Hoiti- 
Maranta massangeana, E. Morr. 

' " 1894, xv., (,(',:>,.) S. 



(G. C. 
UD V s iC e h cies P have XeoV 






flowers. Mt. Tmnaipais, California. 
(University of California.) 
Lupinus Micheneri, Greene. (G. C. 

1894, xvi., 434.) II. Herbaeeous 
pen-nnial ol spreading prostrate habit, 
with dull purplish or brownish-gr.vii 



Masdevallia Asmodia. 



Masdevallia Doris. 



Masdevallia Jessie Winn. (O. B. 
Masdevallia Ma r v Ames. (<■■<<> • J 

( \\\ Koliinson! Jlass.) 

Lindeni», C>£n. (•/• (>■ 
Maxillaria mira"bilis, Cogn. (£. t. 



Megaclininm nummularia, Krauz- '. 

Tffegaclinium pusillnm, K<>1^'- ( A - ^ 

■ Megaclini am triste, Bd fe 



:•: 



» ' ' f is * poeticns 

MeliaAzedarach, !•• -u. umbvacnh a ■ ■■}■■■<■■■> :iitM 1 ....i.:it.- in .k.M.i,-. 



sanguinea. . Odontoglossum crispum, 
.e-macu.l- 



tinea. ( Odontogi 
fepen- grande 



*Nerine appt- 



Odontoglossum crispum, Ldi., var. 
| lowianum. (G. <". 1894, w, 5:ui.) 

; ].k.in-ed»-od concave petnl- with ham! 
of brown. (II. Low & Co.) 

Odontoglossum crispum, Ldi., var. 
ocellatum. (£• t. 429.) G. A 



Nerine Stricklandii. 

iW::, Tx en, 1 :'.!,.'-;,, 


ii'i ' 


n 'hjbrid 


*Neuwiedia G 

i< dwartVr than X . Limlleiji, 
tu.h.w. I„.i„ ff , i h iil»...r a f..<.t 


S.' This 


*Neuwiedia Lindleyi, 




. (U.Jf. 


ii'u- lad.;'. 


■Vun-uli-oand 



Odontoglossum deltoglossum Ste- 
Vensil. (O. //. 1894? 115.) G. A 



Nidularium Innocenti, 






♦Nymphsea parkeriana, 



Odontoglossum Coradi: 



Odontoglossum Imperatrice de 



Odontoglossum nebulosum, 



Odontoglossum cordatum auri 



Odontoglossum Pescatorei, 

,. Lind. , /.. t. 



(L'Horticultui 

Oncidium cnstatum, Holfe. (K. B. 

1892, 210; L. t. 451.) G. First 
flowered in 1892. It is allied to O. 



long ; panicle branched arching, t 

coloured bright yellow with a f 
spots on the crest of the lip. 
( 1/ Horticulture Internationale.) 

Oncidium lucasianum, Holfe. 

B. 1894, 185; G. C. 189^ 
475, 497, fig. 61, 



umbel. TroRical Africa. (Damm&un 
& Co., Naples.) 
Pennisetum riippelianum, Hort. 

vard in height. Abyssinia. (Damniann 
ft Co., Naples.) 

Pentstemon Gordqni, var. gplei 



(W. G. 1894, 4«<», li-. 75.) 



H. 



Phaius Martina. <(■ 



Phaius Oweni®. 



1894, it., 
H and P. 






Oncidium refractum, Rchb. f. (O. H. 

1*94, 2-29.) G- Described iu 1854 
but only now introduced into cultha- 

flowers are greenish-yellow with brown 
bars, the sepals and petals wavy and 
pointed, the column and lip ivhY\cd. 
Colombia. (A. Van Imschoot, Ghent.) 

Oncidium wheatleyanum, Hort. ( G. 

C. 1894, xvi., 605.) G. Probably a 
variety of O. Gardneri, with purple- 
own sepals and petals, 



Pancratium trianthum, Hei 



i.Vv.ii Horticultural Society for the best 
hybrid orchid of 1894. (F. Sander & 
Co.) 

Phalaenopsis Vesta. (G. C. 1894, 

u.. 3 13.) Oicludr.c. S. A garden 
/"'. A rli rod it,.: (.1. Veitcb & Sons.) 

Phyllagathis hirsute, Cogn. 



edged with brown, and the crest large 
and purple. (F. Wheatley.) 


species of the genus, but differing from 
them in the very short broadly rounded 


Ornithidium fragrans, Rolfe. (K.B. 

1894, 157.) Orehidea. G. A new 
species, allied to O. detuum. but has 
shorter leaves and fewer 
flowers; the latter are whitish suffused 

with purple and are tra-rant. Habitat 
not recorded. (F. Sander & Co.) 

♦Ornithidium nanum, Rolfe. (K. 


rounded petals, and in the ovary being 
ncarlv quite adherent to the calyx. 
Borneo. (L'Horticulture Interaa- 

'PhyllOStachys nigra, Monro, var 

punctata. (C*. C. low 



Closely res< 



Prancheti, Mast. 



green. (Treyve-Marie, 1 
*Plectranthus cyl 



-' - 

leaves and lilac-purple spotted flowers. 



flowers. Abyssinia. (Dammann & 
Co.) 

*Plectranthus marrubioid.es, ilochst. 

curious plant, with dense clusters 



long spikes ; 
(l"ammann e & 



*Plectranthus Schweinfurthi, Spr. 



Pleurothallis Kranzlmi, Sander. 

(G. C. 1894, xvi., 103.) G. "A 
singular little species, with pretty 



Pleurothallis pernambucensis, Roife. 

(A. B, 1894, 361.) G. A new 
-pock's allied to P. testafolia, leaves 
oblong 1 in. long, fleshy ; raceme £ in. 
long, bearing six small green aud 
purple flowers. Brazil. (W. L. Lewis 

Podochilus longicalcaratus, Rolfe. 

(A. B. 1894, 186.) Orchideffi. S. 
A new species allied to / 
stem 2 ft. long ; leavei 1 in. long, -J in. I 
wid«, raceme 1 in. long j flowers small, j 



Pogonia speciosa, 

1894, 325.) Or. 



oblong glaucous leaves and two or three 
large purple apical flowers, not unlike 
those of a Bletia. Brazil. (F.Hardy.) 

Polycycnis Lehmanni, Rolfe. ' (A. B. 

1894, 365.) Orchideac. S. A new 
species with oblong sulcate pseudobulbs 
1 in. long, each bearing a lanceolate 
leaf 7 in. long ; scape pendulous 9 in. 
long, many flowered; flowers 1 \ in. 
ncro-f light brown spotted with purple: 
disc covered with long white hairs. 
Colombia. (Sir T. Lawrence.) 



(inn 



Polvpodium sc 

C. 1894, xv., G 
472.) Filices. 

n.u-.l.n hvbrid between l J . aureum and 
P. vulgare elegantissimum. The fronds 
are 2 ft. long, and the pinna; are wavy 
and crested. (J. Veitch & Sons.) 
Polystachya villosa, Rolfe. (A. B. 

1894, 393.) Orchidese. S. A new 
species with linear-lanceolate leaves 10 
in. long, and an erect scape 3 in. long 
bearing small hairy white flowers with 
purple spots. E. Trop. Africa. (J. 
O'Brien.) 
Prunus orthosepala, Koehne. (G. 

and F. 1894, vii., 184, fig. 34.) 

shrub 4 or 5 ft. high and as much 
through. Flowers white, with exserted 
orange-coloured stamens ; fruit globose, 



4, vii., 134, fig. 25.) H. A 

orange-red skin without bloom, and 
j ellow fltsh, which, although 

* ;ood quality. Kansas, &c. (Arnold 



'.ui .'■ 



indigenous pear- 

upire, has occa- 
lized." (Arnold 

\ofl' IS™! 



the Pyramid*! or " Cypress " 



. long, many llowered, 



*Rhododendron Fordii, Hemsi 

B. 1894, 5; G. and F. 1894, 

R.Fnr'lunci, with dark green o 
leathery leaves 3 in, long and 



*Rhododendronjasminifloram,Hook. 



? outside, pale hhiish ii 



*Salvia macrostachya, Kun 

and F. 1894, 111 ; fi. M. i 
ceous shrub with quadranguli 
terminal spikes, 6 in. long, 



Sarcobatus vermiculatus, To 

(Spaeth Cat. 1S94-5.) Chenopodiaee 
II. A white barked thorny bush wi 

America. (Spaeth, Berlin.) 

Sarcochilus crassifolius.Holfe. (K. , 



Willisii. (G- M. 



♦Saxifraga apiculata, Engl. (G. 

Sax frii».!.<. II. This is the plant that 

purpurea', Hurt. It is ti - 



churia and Japan, (J. Veitch & Sons 

*Ricinus zanzibarensis, Hort. (Gj 



bright green with whitish 
ist Tn.].i.-al Africa. (Haage 



*Rubus japonicus _ tricolor, 

liosacecc. II. A slemler-grmvinp 



kimballiE 

-embli-s a tall. 






Rnbus melanolasius, J*^ < 

belonging to the Raspberry 

North-west America. (Spaeth, ] 

Saccolabium longicalcaratum 



Selenipedium Helena. 

Orchidea;. 
hybrid between N. U, 

Selenipedium Stella. 



Senecio kleinioides, Oliver. G. c. 

1894, xvi., 34.) Compositae. G. 
Allied to S. anteuphorbiimi, but with 
smaller flower heads and flat obovate- 
cuneate leaves. Abyssinia. (Dammann 



S. Uitifnlius.) H. A small much 
branched shrub with leathery oblong 
leaves 2 in. long, green above, glaucous 
beneath; flowers in erect terminal 
panicles, yellow. New Zealand. (W. 
E. Gumbleton.) 

Serrastylis modesta, Rolfe. (Jr. B. 

1894, p. 158; G. C. 1894, xvi., 7i!fi, 
fig. 91.) Orchidese. S. A new genus 
allied to Brassia, with the habit of 



clothed with numerous 



' globose canary-yellow fruits. 
Africa. (Dammann & Co., 



Naples.) 

*Solarmm 



■ . : ' ; : . 
3; Gjf. 



N. E. Br. (K. 



t since then lost until re-introduced 
r ear or two ago. Paraguay. (Dam- 

Solanum texanum, Dun., var. ovi- 

gerum, Hort. (Vilmorin Cat. 1894, 
13, fig.; Jard. 1894, 29, fig. 11.) 
G. A half-shrubby \> 



\hdr~ ,'■.. 



*Sesl>aiiia exasperata, H. B. K. (B. 

M. t. 7384.) Leguminosce. G. A 
shrub 8-10 feet high with slender 



; Sophrocattleya eximea. (G. 

j garden hybrid between Sophr, 



\ of large pea-shapec 



Trap. . 



3icana atropurpurea, Andre. (R. //. 

This differs from 8. odorijt m 

having purple-violet fruits. Paraguay. 



with large rosy lilac flo' 
(F. Sander 

*Sobralia s 



purple and orange. 

idl. (B. M. t. 
by Dr. Lindley 

i, Batem. The 



Guiana. (Kew.) 
*Sobralia Veitchii. 






bybn.l 

crantha. (J. Veiich & Sons.) 
*Solarmm mors elephantum, Hort. 

G. A bush about a yard big 



Sophrocattleya Laeta. (G. c. 1894, 

xvi., 447 ; O. B. 1894, 333, as 
iophro-Lajia.) G. A 






*Spathoglottis gracilis, Rolfo. 

M. t. 7366.) Orchidea?. S. 



m having a broader 
ttly formed lip. Th€ 
wide, bright yellow, 



*Stanhopea nigripes, Rolfe. (jr. B. 

1894, :<64.) Orchideae. S. Anew 
species, allied to 5. Wardii, which it 
ivsemhles in all characters except the 
lip ; sepals and petals yellow, with 
many small purple blotches and a pair 
id' black eve-like spots on the hypochil, 

not known. (Kew.) 

Stapelia albicans, Sprenger. (W. G. 

\n nlh\n» i\?Tm\',f S.a 



Stauropsis philippinensis. i = v. 

(O. R. 1894, 308.) Orchideae. S. 



thespathe. Himalaya. 1 (to") °" R ** 

'Thunia brymeriana, Roife. (K. B. 

1894, 156; R. t WO I 

A new species, alii., I r<> T. mmshalliaiui .■ 

inal drooping 




Caledonia. (Kew.) 

Streptocarpus lichtensteinensis. 

aceae. S. A garden hybrid, 

(Lauchc, Moravia.) 

*Strophanthus petersian ; 
var. grandiflorus. (B.M.i. rsw.) 

green shrub with ovale undulate 
leaves 3-5 in. long and terminal 
clusters of erect bell-shaped red and 
yellow flowers, the corolla lobes droop- 
ing and lengthened into twisted tails 
8 in. long. Delagoa Bay. (Kew.) 

Syringa vulgaris, h. var. chamae- 

thyrSUS, Andre. [R. II. 1S9». 3 7... 



ins grandiflorus, Oliver. 



sters of white 

illied to the Witch Hazels. 



- 



topus zeylanicus, Gartn. (J 

vi-w. S. A < 



*Tamarix hispid 



i nepalensis, W«m. (/j 



• a greenish-yellow 



India and Ceylon. (Kew.) 

Trichosma suavis, Lindi., var. meu- 
lenaereana, Cogn. (./. O. L8»4, 

330.) Orchideie. G. This differs 

id in being 
purple instead 
I Menlenaere, 



he type in the 

>fllO« hl-ic 



ihent) 
rigonidium 
O.R. 1894,27 



I.iiidley 






ellow and purple; lip 



(H. M. 

*Trochodendron aralioides, 

725, fig. 91.) Magn<.liace;e. 
evergreen shrub with the ! 



Tulipa chrvsantha, Boiss. (B. 






margined with golden yellow. IVrs ; u 
(Dammann & Co., Naples.) 
Tulipa polychronia, Stapf. (B. T. O. 

1894, 230.) H. A d 



Tulipa Sprengeri, Baker. (G. c. 

1894, xv., 716.) H. A species 
resembling T //< , :/ ,n vilhout th. 



rulipa sul 
{BZT. O. 



*Tulipa violacea, Boise. 



Tylophoropsis yemensis, N. E. 



Ulmus compestris, 



Vanda Charlesworthii, Rolfe. (O. 

R. 1894, 323.) Orchideae. 8. A 
supposed natural hybrid between V. 
caervlea and V. Benson i. Flower.- 2.\ 
in. across, texture as in V. caerulea 
but veined and marbled with rosy 
purple ; lip as in V. Bensoni. Burma. 

Vanda kirnballiana, Rchb. f. var. 
Lacknerae, Kmnziin. (Gfl. 1894, 

561.) S. A form differing from the 



Vanda roeblingiana, Rolfe. (K. B. 

allied to V.limbata. Bten 

■■■■■■■ 
peduncle bearing t'n.m two to six flout r- 
2 in. across, brown and green, the lip 
white with purple and veil 

■• .■■ 

* lobes. Malaya. (H. Low & 



shaped 1 
Co.) 



Vanda tricolor, Ldi. var. Lewisii. 

(G. C. 1894, xv., 494.) S. A 
variety with light coloured flowers 
neatly spotted with red-brown. (W. L. 
Lewis & Co.) 
Vigna strobilophora, Rob. (G. and 

F. IS' 4. vii., 1 .>:'», fig. 30.) Legu- 

W'i-tai In-like purple and white flowers. 
Mexico. 
Vriesia Aurora. (/?■ H- B. 1894, 

28.) Bromeliacea:. S. A garden 

Vriesia Aurora var. major. ( />'• if- 

hybrid between V. Warmingi and V. 
psittacina. 
Vriesia Closoni. (B. H. B. 1894, 

28.) S. A garden hybrid between 
1" /!,!>;!!, fiandV.morrentana. (Moens, 
Lede, Belgium.) 
Vriesia crousseana. (*• H. B. 1894, 

28.) S. A garden hvh 
V. umclhystina and V. Warmingi. 

Vriesia gracilis (Jl. H. B ^J*^ 

V. Warmingi and V. amcthyslim,. 

Vriesia Rex. (B. H. B. 1894, 21 7, 

t.) S. A garden hybrid between V. 

Vriesia Wioti. {B. H. B. 1894, 28) 

S. A garden hybrid between \ . 



ingtonia Whytei, Rendle 
7. 1894, xv., 746.) Conifer* 
Tlu> Milan ji Cypress which 



growing to a height 
Juniper-like leaves 
than a chestnut. (K 
*Weldenia Candida, Schult. 



■ 

It has 



M. t. 7405.) Com- 



Zygopetalum ii. 



Zygopetalum Pe 



striped with purple, the sep; 
petals being greenish with 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INEOMATION. 



APPENDIX III.— 1895. 



LIST of the STAFFS of the ROYAL GARDENS, Kew, and 
of Botanical Departments and Establishments at Home, 
and in India and the Colonies, in Correspondence with 
Kew. 



* Trained at Kew. 



■ Recommended by Kew. 



Assistant-Director 
Assistant (Office) 



CLE., F.R.S., Ph.D., M. 

F.L.S. 
Daniel Morris, C.M.G., D.j 

M.A., F.L.S. 
*John Aikman. 
•William Nicholls Winn. 



Keeper of Herbarium and Library JohnGilbertBaker,F.R.S.,F.L.S. 
Principal Assistant (Phanerogams) *William Botting Hemsley,F.R.S., 

n „ (Cryptogams)- George Massee, F.L.S. 

Assistant (Herbarium) - - Nicholas Edward Brown, A.L.S. 

„ „ . - *Robert Allen Rolfe, A.L.S. 

. - Charles Henry Wright. 

„ - - *Sidney Alfred Skan. 

" for India - - Otto Stapf, Ph.D. 




John Reader Jackson, A.Li 
John Masters Hillier. 
George Badderly. 



Curator of the Gardens 
Assistant Curator 
Foremen : — 

Arboretum - - - *William J. Bean 

Herbaceous Department - * Walter Irving. 

Greenhouse and Ornamental Frank Garrett. 

Department. 
Temperate House (Sub-tropical *Thomas Jones. 
Department) . 



Cambridge. — University Botanic Garden : — 

Professor - Henry Marshall Ward, 

M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., 
F.L.S. 



Trinity College Botanic Gardens :— 

Professor - - E. Perceval Wright, M.D., 

F.L.S., Sec. R.I.A. 
Curator - - *F. W. Burbidge, M.A., 

F.L.S. 

Edinburgh.— Royal Botanic Garden :— 

Regius Keeper - Isaac Bayley Balfour, 
8 M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Curator - - Robert Lindsay. 



Curator - - "Daniel Dewar. 

Oxford.— University Botanic Garden :— 

Professor - - Sydney H. Vines, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Curator - - •William Baker. 



Antigua. (See Leeward Islands.) 



British Guiana. — Botanic Gardens : — 
Georgetown - Superintendent and "] 

Government Bo- >*GeorgeS. Jenraan, F.L.S. 

Head Gardener - f John F. Waby. 
Second „ - *Bobert Ward. 

Promenade Garden : — 
Head Gardener - William Jackson. 
Berbice - - Keeper - - Richard Hunt. 



Ottawa - - Dominion Botanist - Prof. John Macoun, 

M.A., F.R.S.C., F.L.S. 
Assistant „ - Jas. M. Macoun. 
Director of Govern- W f Wm gaund 

Farms P J FRSC > FLS - 

Botanist and Ento- James Fletcher, F.L.S. 
mologist. 
Montreal - Director, University Prof. D. P. Penhallow, 



Botanic Garden. B.Sc. 

Cape Colony.— 

Government Botanist ■ Prof. MacOwan, F.L.S. 

M.B., 
F.KS., F.L.S. 
Peradeniya - Head Gardener - *Hugh McMillan. 

Clerk - . J. Ferdinandus. 

Draughtsman - W. de Alwis. 

Hakgala - Superintendent - *William Nock. 

Clerk and Foreman M. G. Perera. 
Henaratgoda - Conductor - - S. de Silva, Arachchi. 

Anuradhapura - „ - - D. F. de Silva. 

Badulla - - „ - - D, A. Guneratne. 



Dominica. (See Leeward Islands.) 



Falkland Islands.— Government House Garden :— 


Head Gardener 


*Albert Linney. 


Fiji.— Botanic Station :— 




Curator 


*Daniel Yeoward. 


Gambia.— Botanic Station :— 




Curator 


♦Walter Haydon. 


Gold Coast.— Botanic Station :— 




Curator 


♦Charles Henn ITimipli 


Grenada.— Botanic Garden:— 




Curator 


♦Walter E. Broadway. 


Song Kong. — Botanic and Afforestation Department : — 


Superintendent 


ior.1, F.L.S. 




*W. J. Tutcher. 


teudent. 




Jamaica. — Department of Public Gard( 


ins and Plantations : — 


Director 


fWilli.-im Fawcett, B. 






Hope Gardens - Superintendent 


• * William Cradwick. 


Castleton Garden „ 


■ *William J. Thompson. 


Cinchona (Hill 


• *William Harris. 


Garden). 




Kingston Parade „ 


John Campbell. 


Garden. 




King's Honse „ 


Eugene Campbell. 


Garden. 




Bath - - Overseer - 


W. Groves. 


LagOS.— Botanic Station :— 




Curator 


• *Henry Millen. 




■ *F. G. R, Leigh. 


ri 


■ *T. B. Dawodu. 



Leeward Islands.— Botanic stations :— 

Antigua - - Curator - - *Arthur G. Tillson. 

Dominica „ - *Joseph Jones. 

Montserrat - Head Gardener - Henry Maloney. 

St. Kitts-Nevis „ „ - Joseph Wade. 

Malta.— Argotti Botanic Garden :— 

Director - - Dr. Francesco Debono. 

Mauritius.— Department of Forests and Botanic Gardens : — 
Pamplemousses - Director - - * William Scott. 

Assistant Director of J. Vankeirsbilck. 

Overseer - - J. Powell. 

Assistant Director of P. Randabel. 
Forests. 
Cnrepipe - - Overseer - - F. Bijoux. 

Rednit - - - W. A. Kennedy. 

Montserrat. (See Leeward Islands.) 
Natal.— Botanic Gardens :— 
Dnrhan - - Curator - - John Medley Wood, 

A.L.S. 
Head Gardener - * James Wylie. 
Pietennaritzburg Curator - - G. Mitchell. 



New South Wales.— Bo 

sy - Direc 

department of Agriculti 

Consulting Botanist J. H. Maiden, F.L.S, 

New Zealand :— 

Wellington. — Colonial Botanic Garden : — 



Head Gardener 


K.C.M.G., F.R.S 
. G. Gibb. 


Dunedin - - Superintendent 
Napier „ 
Invercargill - Head Gardener 
Auckland - - Ranger 
Christchurch - Head Gardener 


- J. McBean. 
■ W. Barton. 

Thomas Waugh. 

. William Goldie. 

- *Ambrose Taylor. 


Niger Coast Protectorate— Botanic Garden : — 

Old Calabar - Curator - - Horace W. L. Billingto 


Queensland.— Botanic Department : — 
Brisbane - - Colonial Botanist 
Botanic Gardens: — 

Overseer - 
Acclimatisation Society's Gardens : — 


■ F. M. Bailey, F.L.S. 

♦Philip MacMahon. 

■ J. Tobin. 



Secretary and Manager Wm. Soutter. 
Assistant „ A. Humphrey. 

Rockhampton - Superintendent - J. S. Edgar. 
St. Kitts-NeviS. (See Leeward Islands.) 
St. Lucia.— Botanic Station :— 

Curator - - *John Chi snail Moore. 

St. Vincent.— Botanic Station :— 

Curator - - *Henry Powell. 

Sierra Leone.— Botanic Station :— 

Curator - - *Frederick Enos Willey. 

South Australia.— Botanic Gardens :— 
Adelaide - - Director - * - Maurice Hoi tze, F.L.S. 

Port Darwin - Curator - - Nicholas Holtze. 

Jtraits Sei 

Singapore - Director 

U'.-L.W. 
Assistant Superin- *Wnlter Fox. 
tendent. 
Penang - - Assistant Superin- J ^^ ^^ F L § 

Perak (Kuala Kangsar). — Government Plantations : — 

Superintendent - Oliver Marks. 
Tasmania. — Botanic Gardens : — 

Hobart Town - Superintendent - F. Abbott. 

Trinidad. — Royal Botanic Gardens: — 

Superintendent - fJohn H. Hart, F.L.S. 
Assistant „ - *William Lunt. 

Victoria- 
Melbourne - Government Botanist Sir F. A o 

K.C.M.G.,F.R.S.,F.L.S. 
Botanic Gardens :— 

Curator - - W. R. Guilfoyle, F.L.S. 



62 



INDIA. 

Botanical Survey.— Director, George King, M.D., LL.D., C.I.E., 

Bengal, Assam, Burma; the Andamnns and Nicobars; North-East 
Frontier Expeditions : — 

Superintendent of the") George King, M.D., 
Royal Botanic Gar- } LL.D., C.I E.,F.R.S., 
dens, Calcutta -J F.L.S. 

Bombay, including Sind : — 

Madras : the State of Hyderabad and the State of Myso 
Government Botanist') 
and Dir 

chona Plantations 
North-Western Provinces and Oudh; the Punjab; the Central 
Provinces; Central India; Rajputana; North-West Frontier 
Expeditions .— 

Director of the Bo-"] 
tanic Department I fJ. F. Duthie, B.A., 
Northern India, f F.L.S. 

Saharanpur, N.W.P.J 
Bengal. — Department of Royal Botanic Gardens : — 

Calcutta - Superintendent - George King, M.D., 

(Seebpore) LL.D., CLE., F.R.S., 

M.B., F.L.S. 
Curator of Herbarium David Prain, M.B., 



is -J 



Lawson, M.A., 






F.R.S.E. 
*G. T. Lane. 
*H. J. Davies. 



-J F.L.S. 



♦Joseph Parkes. 
G. A. Gammie. 
*Amos Hartless. 

♦William A. Kennedy. 

Herbert Thorn. 



Lecturer on Botany 

nic Garden :— 
Superintendent 

ipal Garden : — 
Superintendent 

;ipal Garden : — 
Sujirrintendent 



*G. Marshall Woodrow. 

A. R. Lester. 

C. D. Mahaluxmivala. 
♦William Strachan. 



Central Provinces- 



fM. A. I 

F.L.S. 



Madras. — Botanic Department : — 
Ootacumund - Government Botanis 
and Director of Go- J 
vernment Gardens, 
Parks, and Cin- I 
. chona Plantations -. 
Curator of Gardens *Robert L. Proudlock. 
and Parks. 
Madras. — Agri-Horticultural Society : — 

Hon. Secretary - Col. H. W. H. Cox. 

Superintendent - *J. M. Gleeson. 



Native States- 



Travancore(Trivandrum) , 



*J. Cameron, F.L.S. 

*G. H. Krumbiegel. 
*J. M. Henry. 
fC. Maries, F.L.S. 
*Joseph Beck. 
♦Frederick James 
gleby. 
T. H. Storey. 



North-West Provinces.— 

Agra (Taj Garden) Superintendent - F. J. Bullen. 



Kumaon (Ramghur) 



*J. Phillips. 

G. H. T. Mayer. 
*F. W. Seers. 
♦Matthew Eidley. 

William Gollan.