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189 6. 

Mo. Bot. Garden, 




RE and SPOTTISW M r.^FLKET Stkkbt, E. 

JOHNMENZii^ BDnraraoH, and 

90, West Nile Steeet, Glasgow ; or 
I'.ODGES, FIGGIS, & Co., Limit ed, 104, Geaptox Steeet, Dcbliit 

Price Three Shillings. 


Root Diseases caused by Fungi ( 

Great Frost of 1895 

Decades Kewenses : XXni.-XXV. 
in Antigua 
Notes - 


tinued). (Kickxia'a/rirona.) 
CotlVc Planting in Lagos 
liotank-ul Enterprise in East Africa 
Myrrh and Bdellium 

f Coniferae grown ii 

D in the Turks and 

Sacred Tree of Kura-Bum - 

Sheep-bushes and Salt-bushes 




j Cultivation of 
| German Color 
i the Pacific. 

■uses: XXV1II.-XXX 
Sugar-cane in Queensland 



atenophylla), with plate. 
Exploration of the Karonga Mountains - 
New Orchids : 17-20 - 

Flora of Tibet - 

Cedar-tree of Mom, t Ml.mj.- (U't,ldnn ;/ 
tonia Whytei). 

Rosellinia radiciperda , Massee . 






Amongst the numerous root diseases of various plants caused by 
parasitic fungi, none are better known, or extending over a greater area 
than the Pourridie of the French, which occurs in France, Italy, 
Switzerland, Austria, South-West Germany, and has recently been 
recorded from three widely separated localities in Britain. The 
fungus causing this .Us-usc is called Dt-mittnjihora ncratriv, Hartig, 
which frequently devastates vineyards and orchards; its attacks, how- 
ever, are unfortunately not confined to vines and fruit trees ; potatoes, 
beans, beet, &c, are also destroyed, and Hartiir states that the mycelium 
soon kills young maples, oaks, beeches, pines, and spruces. 

The mycelium first attacks and kills the youngest rootlets, and then 
enters into the larger branches of the root, in which ii rapidly spreads 
and forms an irregular network of slender strands; finally bursting 
through the cortex and enveloping the roots in a snow-white, fluffy 
mycelium, here and there, running into slender cord-like strands, 
which traverse the soil, and by this mean- spreads from one tree to 
another. At. a later stage of dev inute, black 

compact masses of mycelium or sclerotia are formed in the cortex of the 
roots, and from each of these spring several slender spines, each of which 
bears an abundant crop 1 4 ne bodies at its tip. In 

addition to the white mycelium, a very characteristic pale brown or 
<dive mycelium is also present on the surface of the roots, formed of 
septate or jointed thread- of \ariabh- thickness, having pear-shaped 
swellings at intervals ; these swollen portions finally become free by the 
disappearance of the intermediate portions of the mycelium, and form 
bodies capable of germinating and giving origin to a new crop of myce- 
lium. Under certain conditions some of the sclerotia, instead of pro- 
ducing the spine-like bodies bearing conidia. become converted into 
hollow spheres or pyenidia, containing in their interior numerous minute 
reproductive bodies or stylospores which germinate at once i 
* . Final' - 

Up to 
only been met with in France, and its structHre is -wh that the fungus 

plants. Finally, the highest, or ascigerous form of fruit i: 
and only develops on old trunks that have been dead and decayet 
i long time. Up to the present the last-mentioned form of fruit ha: 

> the Tiiht rurei 

Dematophnu .,,<<.■/,;, > almfM entirely confined to heavy clay soils, 
where the water drains away with difficulty, whereas Dematophora 
:;/•„.:< ,;it,i. Viala. .,11 allied, but much rarer fungus, with a similar 
destructive habit, hitherto observed only in Frana . 
plants growing in loose sandy soil, where the subsoil is wet. 

During the spring of the present year, a sample of soil was received 
by the Royal Horticultural Society from Mr. Hooper, Cambridge, 
Waikato, New Zealand, containing roots of applt 

itneation stating that the roots of fruit trees which 
penetrated the places where the i' 

he fungus penetrating the tare ling it. This 

material was forwarded to Kew for investigation. St. r 
alone was present, which appeared to agree in every detail with' that of 
Dematophora necatrix, and the fungi referred to 

that species in a brief report published in the Journal of the Royal 
Horticultural Society (xix., part I., 28). The following ac< 

gus, as observed by Mr. 
R. Allan Wight, of Aukland, New Zealand* :— 

"This fungus, in the mycelial stage, attacks a great variety of 
tree roots, amongst the most conspicuous of which are the apple, pear, 
peach, and all other common orchard trees. i 
very subject to its attacks, as well as a great many Abies, and several of 
the native trees and plants. It also attacks the cabbage, the potato, 
1, fern, and in fact is almost omnivorous, which is a marked 
The only plants I have ever known to resist it are the 
resinous pines and roses; the former suffer at first, and the leaves turn 
yellow, but they ultimately recover, and I never knew one to 
succumb, whereas the contrary is the ease with all other plants 

"In hedges of whitethorn, where roses have been planted at intervals, 

In an orchard ii will appear in patches, killing the fern and sorrel, and 

stem just under the ground, which speedily rots, presenting the app. us- 
ance of having been cooked, and has an offensive smell ; it then proceeds 

■'■ - '■'■-■■ "■'- "■■■ '. ; .' '■■■■ -<- :;-■■- 

bare ; and by and by it falls over and lies on the ground. Its 
movements are uncertain ; sometimes a tree here and there dies ; some- 
r often acres are swept off. M 
T years. This fung' 

ind \ e !7 < 

found in clay or other damp soils, but always in very fri 

and that " tar water " is a certain cure. The last - 
an error, an d Iso. For a great many year- I have 

endeavoured in vain to procure the frail of ' 

means that suggested themselves to me, without any success. I have 
seen large quantities of the L. gemmatvm growing in orchards where 
there ia no root fungus, and I have seen a very great many orchards, and 
watched several closely where hundreds of trees are attacked, and could 
never find the mycelium coi vperdon" 

"The pes: primeval forests 'and on 

fern lands adjoining where no cultivation has ever been resorted to. 

Whole crops of potatoes are destroyed on such lands, and on dry lands 

lent. My own opinion 

is that i; is a fungus native to, and probably peculiar to, New Zealand 

(in the North Island only). All my experiments with sulphur and 
lime have failed. Kerosine oil used in winter has alone been of any use, 
and that has been used pure in winter without killing the trees. The 
fungi of New Zealand are legion, and very destructive, but this is the 
worst, and pt < i to Hi \ soils. Where I am now 

writing 500 trees have been killed within the last two years, and all 
remedies tried have failed. The apple scab, the shot-hole fungus, the 
oidium of the vine are terrible pests in New Zealand, and 
have more to fear from fungus growths than insect pests." 

As previously stated, the material received from W.v Zealand 
was, in the first instance, referred to D> matoplmm i/ccatri > Further 
development of the fungus, and the receipt of additional fruiting 
specimens from the same country, showed that this was a mistake, 
neither does the fungus belong to any known species. It will, 
therefore, be described as new, under the name liost ll'm'-a nidic/p* r<ta. 
•On arrival, the diseased roots and infected soil were permeated 
throughout with delicate white strands of mycelium. The roots 
were laid on the surface of a thin layer of sterilized leaf-mould kept 
•moist and protected by a bell-jar. Two boxes, each about one foot 
square and six inches deep, were filled to within an inch of the top 
with sterilized leaf-mould. A thin layer of the infected soil 

ri the surface of the soil in each 
of the root of an " Orange Pippin " apple t 

1 in the other. Fi 

l floating 
spores of fun aoedat the foot of a wall 

. i 
At the end of a month, the roots under the bell-jar, were densely 

ilia snow-white fluffy mycelium, giving off nurrn i 
white strands which spread into the leaf-mould. By degree- the 
mycelium on the roots gradunlly changed to a pale brown colour, ami 
under the microscope the strands of mycelium showed | • 

intervals — hitherto considered as characteristic of Demato- 
h — represented on (he plate, lig. 7. Viala state.- that in 
i gradually become globose and free, if 

sprinkled on the surface of the soil in each box ; in addition, a port 
inge Pippin " apple tree was thrust into the e 
ech seedlings planted in the other. Finally t 

kept very wet, and form reprodu 
>res — capable of germinating and producing new 
t successful in producing this iv- rdt with the mycelium oft 

Zealand fm .■_ ably, from analogy, this G 

be due to a la g , numerous 

: rotia burst through the cortex of the roots, which 

parallel hyphae, which bear conidia at their much-l>ranched tips, as 

represented in figs. 8, 9, 10. Scattered at interval- among-t the 

« d to be a second form of 

fruit, known as pyc tte spore-like bodies— 

'• 1. 1:?). The -i_\l,,sj on - oi nuiiuiti d 

owing probal' d condition, a more durable tnairix 

■ this Uwea- 

. _ : \ • ■ ■ / 

W. Colen>o, M A., F.K.S., ua- receiv.d at K w, an 
number was a species of Rosellinia, marked " at the base of a fallen 
and decayed apple tree." Careful c 

the presence of scleroti those of the 

fungus und r ascigerous 

appears that 
from the sclerotia, which previously bear the 
: in of reproduction. 
Regarding the boxes previously mentioned if i- onl\ necessary to state 
that the mycelium -pread through the leaf-mould, and also .; 
apple tree root and the seedling beeches. 

At the close of the experiment-, all lie- material, with The exception of 
microscopic preparations, was carefully destroyed by burning. 

Preventive Measures. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the New Zealand fungus proves to t 
distinct from the European r,.ot fungus, vet the g< neral habit, mode < 
attack, and structure of the two are so similar, that the same methods c 

2a<e will apply to both. 
Owing to the habit of the fungus in ading in the 

- "' the root of its victim, cure is practically outside the 
question when a plant is once permeated w it li mveelium ; and keeping 
in view tl si < !es - iduction for facilitating the rapid spread 
of the disease, no efforts should be spared in the way of prevei 
i he presence of the fungus is once detected. 
Undoubtedly the most frequent and rapid mode of spreading is by 
means of the mycelium travelling in the soil, and a good method of 
isolating diseased patches is to cut a narrow trench, from nine inches to 
a foot deep round such, care being taken to throw the excai 
into the diseased portion, and not outside it. This method, which was 
first suggested by Hartig, for the purpose of preventing the spread of 
the German forests, cannot be too strongly com- 
mended, especially where the diseased patches are small in area. The 
.mount of success d'-j .ugliness, combined with 

_ tit method of carrying out the work. Half attempts in- 
variably result in a loss of capital without benefit. It may be enough 
to suggest that the disease may be spread by the spores of the fungus, or 
■il being carried by the shoes of labourers, by dirty tools 
wheels of carts, animals, &c. from di» sed and fallen 

trees, and especially stumps and roots, should be at once desi 
burning. The soil surrounding d is. burned after 

the stumps have been removod, so as to destroy the smaller diseased 

A second preventive method, which has proved of sendee in France 
•*- trunk « far below the * face of the soil as can be 

!■ the tree, and to densely coat the expose,! trunk 

tig soil with powdered sulphur. 'This d.ould be repeated 


'• :S "'i h ^ • U -■ ' the \. •>. /, uund fungus tirst .tracks the trunk 

— ~t below the surface of the soil, thi ove beneficial 

if perseverei 

i>read of the fungus. 

Finally, in those cases where the fungus 

large areas, it is probable that such will Za deserted a- un profit! I !e, the 

, allowed to lie and rot, and the fungus to -pnad in the soil. 

Phis is disastrous, being in fact a nursery for the development and 

ffusion of the enemy. It is not the object of this note to suggest 
hose business it is to prevent such shortsightedness, but to impress 
nphatically that such a condition of things should not be tolerated. 

Description of the Figures, all of which illustrate Rosellinia 


Fig. 1, Aseigorous condition ot tin fung -. >h<> >_ fit perrthecia 

Fig. 2, perithecia enlarged. 

Fig. 3, section of same, showing the wall to consist of two separate 
layers, enlarged. 

Fig. 4, ascus containing spores, and paraphyses, x 400. 

Fig. 5, tip of ascus after treatment with a solution of iodine, showing 
the arrangement for effecting the opening or dehiscence of the ascus for 
the escape of the spores, x 400. 

Fig. 6, spores from an ascus, one of which is germinating, x 650. 

Fig. 7, brown mycelium with swellings at intervals, X 500. 

Fig. 8, a black sclerotium bursting through the cortex of a root, from 
which springs several slender branches bearing conidia, x 50. 

Fig. 9, a single thread composing the branches, branched Mini be;inn<; 
conidia at the tip, x 400. 

Fig. 10, free conidia, x 400. 

Fig. ] 1, a pycnidium springing from the olive mycelium, enlarged. 

Fig. 12, stylospores or reproductive bodies produced in the interior of 
the pycnidia, x 400. 


The effects of a severe frost on ;i garden cannot 1m estimated im- 

-■:■■. ■■[ . ^;' . i. I.''.'-.'.- : 

the roots It - , i It fbi not to bo ] , uting it 

or removing plants which seem to have been more or less killed. On 
the other hand, some which at first sign subsequently 

succumb. Nor is it easy to predict beforehand how any enven -peeic< 
will stand the ordeal. In a large collection a severe winter afford- 
many subsequent surprises. Plants which ought to be tender prove 
unexpectedly ought to be hardy turn out very 

much the reverse. But the results of no one winter can be taken as 
absolute; they an- largely dependent on the amount of heat which the 
plants have experienced in the preceding >ummer Where the wood 
has been well ripened thev m ill stand an amount of cold which undei 
other circumstances would be fatal. 

At the end of the summer succeeding -i ' ' - p >wble to 

h b ha- occurred. Thi- \r\- now been done at 
Kew, and the following notes give the results, 

a list showing the effects of the frost would have 

been greater than any useful result which could have h en derived from 
it. A brief review has only therefore been attempted in general terms. 



temperature tali 

rose above it till February 2'J. 

During this period a series of extremely low minimum temperatures 
on the grass was recorded. On January 23, 15°; January 29, 10°; 
February 7, 1°; February 8, 2°; February 9, 3°; February 12, 5°. 

An extreme minimum seems usually to occur every winter between 
('hririmas and the early part of February. The peculiarity of 1895 
was it- repeated occurrence during a period of nearly a month. 

Hel'uiv |. lacing Mich remarkal.K- i! it seemed 

deniable to check the performance of the instruments used by com- 
parison will, tli.' observations taken at the Kew Observatory (Rich- 
mond), which is situated in the Old Deer Park and to the south-west of 
the Royal Gardens. „ 1^ 

Mr. Chree, the superintendent, was so good as to take out tte- 

bserved at the Kew Observatory from 1888, and in 

the following table these are compared with the temperatures recorded 

for the same dates at the Royal Gardens. It will be seen that the two 

series are fairly accordant, especially for the later years. 

Lowkst Re 


: Thermometer on i 






February 2 
December 23 - 
December 27 - 

° Fahr. 


(Feb. 17, 6 -5> 
(Feb. 7, 1) 

From the gardening point of view the effect of the prolonged low 
ire would operate in two ways. Trees and woody plants 
generally would be liable to be killed by the freezing of their stems and 
branches. But these and herbaceous plants generally would have also- 
to encounter the effects of the prolonged freezing of the ground sur- 
rounding their roots. The subsoil of Kew is for the most part a : 
scarcely col; as little moisture. It was, however, 

frozen throughout to a depth, in one case under a gravel path, of 
? the frost penetrated much less, probably only 

ertainly have been frozen, the loss was less than might have been expected. 
lie destruction of Alpine plants by cold at first sight seems para- 
oxical. But it must be remembered that in the Alps they are 
overed by a deep and warm investment of snow, which they rarely 
^ceive in England. 
Besides the fate of the collections in the open air, the supply of water 
) those under glass, of which there are 2\ acres, was an even. 

greater matte: 

their own waterworks, which 

The use of 1 1 ag purposes is, r. 

law. The drinking fountains, official residences 

to tlie Crown, including H 

For some days no drinking water was obtainable in the wi 
It is entirely due to the indefatigable exertions made by Mr Justin 
\ }' - - ' 

lev service of the Eoyal Gardens. The mains, of 

Richmond Park. By the continuous u>e oi steam powei the water in 
thr-L was kept in motion, and in no single case did it freeze. By the 
cisterns of the residences were kept 
filled, the consumers being warned that the water must be boiled before 
being used for drinking purposes. 

Bulbs, &c— The spring of 1895 will long be remembered as a par- 
fal one to many kinds of bulbs. All the aarciss 

i v. re killed, and even some of the trumpet daffodils 
suffered a good deal; miuhnm, for instance, was quite killed, and 
■ . better in ■■: lar;jy bulb-growine < -' 
Jibourhood. When taking up the ripened narcissus bulbs it 
was noticed that their qualiu was below the average; thi- 
les-. due to tin fuel that tlie roots first developed were all 
new oik- had to be formed where the bulbs were not actually destroyed. 
Hyacinths suffered badly, the white and red varieties more than the 
blue ones. Those in mi; > I) m the pre\ ions Sep- 

tember, were quite destroyed, whilst older bul 

-.:\ weeks or two months later survived. 1 Iithcrto winter 
covering for hyacinth beds had not been found to be of advantage at 
Kew ; but in i ' • The wiki 

type, Hyacinthns orientalis, was nearly all killed in the border. 

Irids. — Many of the Oncocyclus group were killed, the rhizomes 
proving to be quite rotten when ex 

former about To per cent were killed. ( )f the i 

were s weak that they were not worth the trouble of lifting for 

replanting Iris retiad'ata stood without any shelter and flowered 

freely ; some of the bulbs dug up after they had ripened off were dried 

up, whilst others were perfectly sound. Many a 

killed outright ; others were badly injured. Crocus sativus, for example, 

managed to exist on the food stored up in the conns thomsehes ; all the 

Gl„,h..h„ Cuirill,, and its ^ ariet.s ,///,,/. planted in the open ground in 

Herbaceous Plants.— Lack of space renders it impossible to give a 
detailed statement of the hoses incurred, but 

well be menti »ned M plants '■'•' 

t $*&,* Isl coupled unpro- 

- ..el Bowered. rhe pa ; sg e 

. was killed in the rockery, whilst on the open 

lawns in I although much injured, survived and 

flowered. The same i Irundo con- 

■>' the winter as well as many from countries in more souther: 
with a warmer climate than Britain. Our native thyme, Thymus 
s, . pylhnn, wa- much cut and <lhi not break again from the bare branches 
until' late in the Mason. Dryus orfnpctala behaved in a - 
The Cape of Good Hope /' rhlu yu !!<:,!■ /<■ w: - k Ik .1 outright, wl i!-t 
B purpurea, under ■ _di the ordeal 

un-oathed. Tlio collection of primulas in pots in a cold frame withstood 

w. re very few deaths, and these were perhaps not due to cold. On the 
othei hand, a considerable number oi' Alpine and <lwn ' 
plants grown in pots in cold frames lor exhibition when in flower in 
the Alpine House, succumbed. Kniphofias, even where well sheltered 
wirn dry leaves, suffered a good deal in some spots ; in others they were 
untouched. Fluggea japonica, large breadths of young pla 
grown on for forming a turf in shady places where grass does not 
thrive, was el not been transplanted 

were but slightly injured. Many of the cacti grown in a cold frame in 
the herbaceous ground were killed ; amongst these may be mentioned 

Jn\fh t ,u, <',/<'», or rhif ems, &C. 

Conifers. — Pirn's insignia uhich usually Millers every winter at 
Kew, was scarcely affected by the frost of February. P. tuberculata 

and J', ittvrivata were somewhat injured, but will soon recover. Finns 

' ' ■ 
[\vo plants out oi three, ol Podocarpiis rliil'm :, which have stood out at 
Kew lor the last 1\\ -iTv year-, were quit killed; th. third has grown 

again from the buried part of the stem. The cypresses which hf 

('. jNurrocarpa have been badly injured. The Golden Ketinospo; 
have lost many small branches, whilst the ones witli green, silvery, 

Shrubs, &C— A- a rule, e\en shrubs generally regarded as perfec 
hardy, which had been transplanted the previous autumn, were mu 
whilst the same species which had not b< 
spe • 

'adly injured. 

Examples are Azuini rhomhtr,,. I),iph„iphylhn,i. variegated El<E- 

few cases exactly the 

. liirJxris !><ii wiui and I'xiri'haris 

. loch were kill* d back to hard wood and did 

not break 'eely. Double gorse and 

Cli.r ,>anns were both killed to the ground ; even in rather sheltered 
spots the com as much at Kew as it did on the 

commons in the neighbourhood of London. Tj 

wa- ipiite killed. Amongst other Li giiiiuan-o which may be mentioned 

were quite kil , arg< <>t< mu died, bul 

older ones were unaffected. The v juncea was 

'.,.■■ ■■. ; .•■■■. - - ■ . .-•...;.... 

•Old plants of the Cornish Heath, E. vagant, and of E. cinerea were 
ta was damaged, but has since 
Azalea mdiea, raised from seed 
collected by Professor C. S. Sargent in Japan, -tor. 1 oul Id the nursery, 
some protected, others not at all ; and not one has been killed. The old 
single white hairy-leaved Azalea indica shows now no traces of the trials 
through which it has passed, and A. amcena has shaken off the effects 
of the frost. Judging from tin- l.-huviour of the two last-mentioned 
plants at Kew the former seem.- the hardier. Dubauia pnlifoliu .- of all 
tli.- stock at Kew onl\ two plants were quite uninjured ; the old plants 
were killed to the ground and a few young ones killed outright: but 
on the whole young plants ha the old ones. 

New Zealand shrub- have suffered much. In fact Phujutut l,u- 
Lyatti is | ■■scaped, p, betiili- 

/(Hs. in the open, was quite killed, ami /'. pi'lchclhx. against a wall, 
Lhe -round. HoBl of ' -were badly 

h ir!. /{itbus ux.strali* wa> killed against a wall. Large beds of 
filcariti Hiuistii were cut down to ground, but are now breaking 
freely; young killed, 0, TraverH and O. macro- 

tlontu wen- killed in the open ; Tie latter even against a wall. 

(7ioixi/a ternuta in the open has stood well, as also against a wall, 
called hardy in the neighbourhood of London. Of Ceaiiothits, ('. 
exneutus is the only one at Kew wj;' : lied. The 

following speci. - \ . i . completely killed, . . uuiei wall < pupil- 
losiis, ('. ri(/idus, ( . nitrl,i<i,ni*, and ('. <h-,ttutus. The garden hvl.rids 
such as Gloire do Versailles, \c., had tli.-ir points killed in the' open! 
but they broke freely and 1 ivt t'ow n-.l ibundanth Some of the 
younger stock were also slightly cut baek although ihey were protected 
by dry leaves and spruce branches. A covering of dry leaves kept firom 
being blown away by spruce or cedar brandies is the most effective 
winter protect sr shrubs. 

The only hardy Escallonia is /■;. jdiilippiuiai, which uo never attempt 

to shelter ;it all*. All the other specie-, in spite of protection, were 

. som. few were killed . nit right, others h av < since freeh 

:. the ground level. Other Sou .h Am-ricais plants whie'h 

have suffered are the Azaras ; the only one which lias escaped in the 

open (where it was cut to the ground) is A. micropkylta. 

Of all the species of Cist us only one can be depended upon near 
London, viz., C. luurifolius, which p: 

Con/hpsis himuluyuuu \- alive againsl a wail, but has perished in 
the open; the other species of Cm-ylopsi* have not i>e.- n injured in any 
way. One Chinese member ol' tie uecitmhei] 

in 'the open, Luropctahim r/iixensis ; this makes a prom 

Of California!, shrubs all the young plants of the following have been 

killed in the open i— Carpentaria calif ,r„in h />,/«. ..... calif 

and (iurijpi el/iptica. 

Of the holly family there is not much to he stated. None of the forms 

Chinese I.cornut a was 

badly cut (it is now, however, rapidh r. .. m;,_; ; the Himalayan 

/. Dahoon was quite killed. I rrcnafa, Like so many Japanese plants, 
has again proved its hardiness. 

In previous l8j Arbutus and the Bay, 

{Ijon-iis iwhilii) have been killed wholesale. This year they escaped, 
notwithstanding exposure probably to a greater degree of cold, com- 
paratively uninjured, nor did the evergreen oaks, of which Kew 
possesses many exceptionally fine specimens, suffer any appreciable 
permanent injury. 

Bamboos.— In the Gardeners' Chronicle (June 22, p. 762), Mr. Bean, 
the foreman of the Arboretum, has gi . 

the outdoor collection of bamboos during the winter." The following 
extract MunmarL: - the facts :— " On New Year's Day the Bamboo 
state as it bad done in the 
previous August .... of three dozen or so kinds, .... not 
one has been killed outright. About half-a-dozen have scarcely been 
affected at all ; perhaps twice as many more have suffered only a very 
temporary check. Of the remainder, some have been killed to the 
ground, whilsi ul the old stems so severely injured 

rheir former 
luxuriant leafage, although new leaves are pushing ; most of them, 
however, are sending up strong new growths from the base, and with 
all, except one or two, the visible effects of the frost will have 
disappeared in a few months." 

Our experience shows that in gardens with climatic conditions 
v^eofKew the following species may be expected to pass 
through ev< with no more injury than a very 

temporary disfigurement of the foliage, and in some instances not even 
that. These are, consequently, the kinds which should be selected for 
planting in districts now to the cultivation of bamboos, and where it 
would be desirable to ascertain the suitability of the climate before 
planting extensively : — 

Arundinaria nitida, Mitford (A. khasiana, Hort). 
Phyllostachys Henonis. 

„ „ var. Boryana. 

„ „ var. punctata. 

„ viridi-glaucescens. 


Bambusa palmata. 


Mev.-rai ju-ti- !• - li r. ■ .■; ■■ivd i (I, K> •>• Ihrlhtn, iv-pcctiug forms- 
of tea other i European commerce. In 

the livlkthi For 1889, pp. 11* ami 139, an account was given 

ed in the province of Tun-i lest of China. 

Some of the best of this is made into bead for the 

Court of Peking. Other qualities are made into cakes well known all 
over the west of China. An account of compressed or tablet 

given in the Kn Bulletin, 1890, p. 109. This is manufactured at 
Hankow in two qualities: the inferior from common tea-dust which 
adheres after heing steamed in a pudding-cloth and pressed by hand ; 

Th.-Lr.ri> iu..tuii;.<Mur.'d into taUH by steam machinery in a steel 

jaed tea called brick lea, 

m i. This is made of the whole leaf 

and the stalks, and is about the size and shape of an ordinary brick. 

Another and a very novel method of scribed in the 

219. This is the Lao tea of Upper Siam, in the 

neighbourhood of Chiengmai. The leaves are not used for making an 

:.:■ prepared wholly for the purpose of chewing. The 

_ " ■•- this tvn is called, is almost universal 

among the Laos and to men engaged in hard work, such as poling or 

3 said to be almost indispensable. There is yet another tea 

. • 1.. p. • tea, which is an article of local commerce in 

Burmah. Pony caravans carry it for sale to Mandalay and other 

neighbouring markets, and the Flotilla Company's steamers on the 

Irawady can . - deck cargo. 

1860, p. 505, there is a reference to a tea-tree 

from which the Burmese made a tea called "let-pet-ben." On the 

authority of Dr. McClelland this tree was El erode ad ran orhatatt. 

There are references to the tea under the name of "pickled tea "in 

Watt'- " Dietionaw of the Economic Products of India," Vol. II., 

pp. 74-76, v.- 1 other articles 

of food ; and [in Vol. VI., pt. 3, p. 449, where it is stated that the 

European planters at Chittagong have endeavoured to prepan 

for the Burma market with some degree of success. It is added : " a great 

future may be in store for this new industry." Samples of Leppett tea 

ained for the Kew Museums, through the Secretary of State,. 

from the Government of India, in October 1894, and again in September 

1895. There is no doubt the plant -nary Assam 

tea-plant {Camellia theifera). The identification of it as El 

was from the first improbable, as the latter species is limited 
to M mi it ins and Madagascar, and is unknown in Burma or, indeed, in 
rrnv part of our Indian possessions. 

The following official correspondence gives a very complete account of 
the Leppett tea industry : — 

India Office to Eotal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W., 
Sik, 30th October 1894. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for India to forward 
herewith a copy of a letter from the Government of India, together with 
a note by Mr. W. A. Graham on " Leppett " tea the product of the 
|. :..:.! A./.',.,.',,,. ■. ■ . rientale.* 

The specimens of " Leppett " tea referred to in ihe above letter have 
been forwarded to your address by carrier. 

(Signed) ' C. E. Bernard, 

Revenue and Statistics Departn 
iens, Kew. 
i Kew letter dated 25th November 1894: the plant is Can 

" Leppett " Tea. 

No. 49, 5 A., 10, dated Rangoon, the 4th July 1894, from C. G. 
Bayne, Esq., I.C.S., Revenue Secretary to the Chief Commissioner of 
Burma, to the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture. 

In continuation of this office letter No. 120, 5 A. 10, dated the 7th May 
1894,1am dn a remission to Her Majesty's Secretary 

of State for India, seven packets containing samples of the " Leppett '" 
tea of Burma. Four packets contain " wet Leppett " and three packe 

' and three packets 

dso submitted. A 

copy of a note by Mr. W. A. Graham containing information regarding 

" dry Leppett." Two specimens of 
' ":. W. A. ~ 

s enclosed. 

Information regarding the " Leppett " Tea of Burma, by 
Mr. W. A. Graham. 

1. By far the greater quantity of the tea consumed by the Burmese, 
called " Leppett," is grown in the Yaung Baing State of the Northern 
Shan State* to the cultivation of the 
tea tree, and the inhabitants one and all, including the Sawbv 

trade in the commodity. 

2. The gardens are situated on the hill-sides, which, in this neigh- 
bourhood, are very steep. The trees continue to yield crops of leaves 
suitable for the market until they reach maturity and a height of some 
60 feet, but tit® besl an e young shrubs, of which 

insist. Two crops of tea are secured each year, 
v and one in July, only the young and tender leaves beino- 
taken. The leaves, while still green, are boiled in large narrow-necked 
pots made for the purpose. When thoroughly boiled the contents of 
the pots are turned into large pits dug in the ground. These pits are 
-rpiare and about (i ir ; iV ;,}, fl| j n 

-. ■ 
Mirth. The pit being full of boiled tea a id the jr. c - from the pots, a 
top made of plantain leaves i> placed over if and mm*;! i- piled above 'it, 
big stones ta placed on the top. 

3. The tea i- thu- preserved and compressed for some month-, when 
the trading season coming on, the pits are opened and the tea is sold to 
tie ti * s, who i n with \ I ir cara ns of bail. ,-< ' 1 carry it away 

dalay market. For transport, the tea is packed in long 

baskets, of which each bullock carries two. The baskets have no lid, 

but are cove; am boo, so arranged as to serve the 

pnrpos( of a lid i 1 ng air-tight, tnd at r h same time to admit the 

vedge, tin pie, ~:,ii «.< which u events fermentation from 

- ,. ' ■■■ ■ '■- ■ : '!,-■ :■;,:: ;. -,, 

that although the tea dries in the baskets and shrinks, a constant 
kept up. 

4. The price of the tea at the gardens ranges from Rs. 15 to Rs. 25 
per luOviss. 3 When sold to the brokers in Mandalav it t'et.-in- from 
Rs. 00 [i. IN 100, or even to Rs. 140 per 100 viss. A, the tea loses 

-' : -- 

■ avi into the nearest 
stream, by which simple pmces- r ,ver its lost 

diiiiipne-s. and weighs as much a- it did when purchased. In Upper 
Burma and the Shan States a good deal of this tea is consumed as a 


drink, for wh id i purpo>o it is -old in a dry state. It is prepared iy 
boiling it in an earthen kettle, and is drunk with salt. The greater 
bulk, however, is sold by the Manila!. its in Lower 

Burma, where it is largely consumed' in the solid. The leaves are 
soaked in oil, a little garlic, dried fish, £c. addrd, and the concoction 
thus formed eaten, being considered a great dainty. Besides being 
regarded as a dainty, however, the " Leppett " is a traditional food 
among Burmans. At the important juncture- .it a man'- life, such a- 
[rf [ipett" plays 
int part, and no ceremony is complete without the consump- 
tion of that article. 1 line basket from the time 
it is bought at the gardens until it i> «>ld b\ the mereliaut to the actual 
consumer. Large numbers of baskets are to be seen at every wharf 
along the Irawady banks and in the bazaars throughout the country. 

Rotal Gardens, Kew, to India Office. 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Sir, November 26th, 1894. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
October 30, with enclosures, relating to Leppett tea. The specimens 
referred to were subsequently received. 

2. The information given by Mr. W. A. Graham is extremly 

3. The identification of the plant producing the product with 
Elceodendron orientate appears to have been due to Dr. Mel . "iai.d. 
It is on the face of it improbable as this species is limited to Mauritius 
and Madagascar and is unknown in Burma or indeed any part of our 
British possessions. 

4. There can be little doubt from a close examination of thi 

that Leppett tea is the produce of Cam. Ilia thcifrra. the wild tea of 

ct the plant is abundant in Upper 
The identification is historically 
tnal the Burmese wen 
ue of the indigenous plant before its discovery in Assam by 
It further indicates the existence of a new area suitable 
or the tea industry. 

(Signed) ' W. T. Thiselton-Dvkr. 
Sir Arthur Godley. K.C.B.. 
India Office, Whitehall, S.W. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W. 
5ir, 20th September ] 

In continuation of pre\i<>u- eMiTe-prmdence, I am dire 
he Secretary of State for India to forward herewith a copy of 
eceived from t" ™ 
heifera), together with tour spec 
i valuable report by Mr. C. W. 


(Signed) Horace Waepole. 

following i- a list of the villages of tin Cno. G» .twin >k.<h 
tea-seeds, the inhabitants of all being Mian- — Kaungkan, 
Kawya, Maungkan, Tason, Onbet, Maiuwe, Tamanthe, 

Tradition says that these " kins " (clearings) were 

years ago, the seed having been brought from Palaung 
Shan States). No one hs 
originally \ 
letpet " the so-called pickled 1 

(Northern Shan States). No one has ever heard of wild tea in 
jungle; the gardens were originally planted for the sake of the leaves, 

there arose a demand for the seed, at first 
occupation steady, and this has now 
become the main source of income to the owners, though the pickled 
tea is still collected and made as of old. 

Method of Planting, a.-.- The first thing to be done in planting a 
• 1 of soil ; what is known as " myeni," 

the look of this earth is very chara< ; red or buff- 

iable loam, which occurs in patches, and wherever these 
patches of red earth are found on the banks of the Chindwin there 
• been buiit and tea planted. The jungle being cleared of 
-'■"wtli, three or four seeds are dibbled into 
boles, the holes being either two or four cubits apart. The object of 
■■no seed is to guard against blanks; however, 
all the seeds that germinate are allowed to grow. After the plants come 
i i u! In tending tl gardens reo-ivi s j i ,r i g of grass, 

small plants, weeds, and brushwood ; the ground is never hoed nor the 
ned, except when the ravages of a parasite known as 
" chibaung " have become so extensive as to kill the portions above 
ground ; the dead tops are then hacked down with the ordinary 
Burmese dama, the plant at once throwing up stool shoots or root- 
suckers which in three years take the place of the old cut . 

plants become large enough to give a crop of leaves in three 
v. ars if th. kin is k< pt free of jungle, but nottillfire years if the garden 
is " dirty." Seed is borne when the plants are eight years old, but 
they do not come into full bearing till Id years of age, the normal 
existence of a tree being to to dO years, if not attacked by the parasite 
mentioned ibove. Soitu trees last longei than ti -. ' ,- .M trees do not 
bear such good crops of -ted- oi 1< m - mi. id - i_ i e>, being 
i are generally cut down, theii | La i - b< ing taken 
by vigorous shoots throw stools M largo as 3 

feet in girth being seen. A light shade is beneficial to the plants and 
lessens the labour of keeping the gar; de kills out 

the rank grasses, such as thekke, &c, which spring up if there is no 
shade. Heavy rains are not good for the seed-crop, as the seed drops off 

nipped off just below the second leaf. Each owno 
dirows it in 

without ripening ; however, if the seed-crop is poor, the li 
usually good, and vice versa. 

Ownership. — Each house owns from one to three kins, the various 
properties being bounded by rough cactus hedges. 

Crops. — As already stated, there are two kinds of crops— the Leaf- 
crop and the seed-crop. 

(a.) The Leaf -crop. — The trees flush three times a year in — (1) 
Tagu to Em p- August); 

and (3) Tawthalin to Thadingyut (September-October). Of these 
three flushes the first gives the best leaf, and bri] 

The method of pluckincr is to pluck the whole shoot except one leaf, 
■ * Thus, if r 

second leaf. 

lauldron* full of boiling \ 
left in this water till the leaves turn a yellow colour; the water is then 
'caves rolled by hand on mats; it is then ready to 
be sold to traders, who take it away either packed in bamboo crate- or in 
the internode of the myetsangye bamboos (Demlrocalamus Ham- 
iltonii). If one wanted to keep this tea, it must either be kept buried in 
the ground or the crates and bamboos must be kept in water. Kawya 
village, which has the largest extent of " kins," makes on the average 
20,000 visa of letpet annually. The price at the village for the produce 
of the first flush is usuallv Rs. Hi per 100 vis*, for th, .th i and ater 
flushes Ks. 12-8 per 100 viss. 

(b.) Seed-crop. —The seed-crop ripens in October and November ; it 

come up for it. The trader shoots the seed into the bottom of his h at, 
the bottom being roughly lined with mats, and then takes it down to 
Tonne; where he sells it to the native agents of "tea-seed 

Value. — The price of the tea-seed on the garden varies from Es. 3 to 
K-. 10 per basket, but to understand the method of buying one must 
bear in mind that the trader, always a Burman, comes up in January or 
February to bargain fertile seed-crop of the following November. If 
possible, the trader makes a contract that the owner will sell hiui all the 
produce of the garden for a fixed sum per basket. Thus, in January 
1894, the Maungkan villagers contracted to sell all their seed at IK " a 

cannot pay him back in tea-seed, they must pay him Rs. 100 per cent, 
on his money. If the trader cannot get a contract for the whole crop, 
he always manages to make advances for a certain proportion of the 
crop on the same condition. Thus, th - ear • I _'i r< of Kawya 

have had advances on the condition that they pay back nexl 
(in seed), each basket to be counted as Rs. 3. Any left after the 

ve paid back, their advances usually brings double the 
contract price. The n ts and takes the seed to 

Kettha or Tonhe, the rate of boat-hire being from 2 annas to 4 annas 
per basket, according to distance at Kettha. He will sell to agents of 

tor for an average of Rs. 17 per maung (a maun- 
10 pyis, or 20 pyis). This is practically the end of the 


d a quarter, 


weight of one basket being 14 viss, and get Eg. 5 to Ks. 6 for the 

Conclusion. — It will be seen that, as in most trades, the middlemen 
are the best off and absorb most of the profit. The Burman trader 
makes, even if he does not go in for the advance system, over cent, 
per cent., and of course his profits are doubled if he does. The 
Thaungdut Sawbwa has, I am told, petitioned f In.- < mvornment to be 
allowed to lew tinn-it .lues mi t ho ten-seed passim: thr< 
though on what be bases his claim to the right 1 fail to see. No 
Thaungdut coolies or men in ;m\ wav :uv interested in the trade, the 
development griia and Burmans. The 

Sawbwa's clerk, Maung Kyauk Lon, alleges that the Sawbwa used 
to collect six annas per basket in Burmese times ; this statement is 
false, according to every other person T have questioned. The only 
transit tax the Sawbwa has ever levied was one on boats ami rafts 

- _ 
He had never anything whatever to do with the tea seed trade. 

i. the Bombay -Burma Trading Cor 
as to the few 1 to Assam 

Messrs. the Bombay -Burma Trading Company are experimenting 
b feasibility of sending seed to Assam via Calcutt 
if they succeed that will settle all 

and Manipur. 1 see no reason why the Bombay-Burma 
tag, the effects of damp 
or of heat, is to the seed reaching Manipur, by 

the present method, which seems to be as unscientific as pit- 
yet the tea-seed has, as is well known, a first-class reputation in Assam 
for germinating properties. The t.-: ",, however, 

November; the best 


system being the custom, or else only the leavings and ( 
has been lying about can be got, which naturally would r 
2 germinating power a * * 

From what I saw of the gardens they were wonderfully healthy 
considering the little cai 
the parasite referred to, t 

idering the little care taken witn them, as witli the except* 
and fi 

lethods would be a 
gn it -iir.r- 3 f ■ -. r] i >.. n question could be successful \\ dealt 
writhj thai once settled, all a planter who proposed planting in the 
Chindwin would have to do would be to prospect for red earth, and 
from my own experience of the forests I am sure I have come across 
several tracts of similar earth to that on which the tea is grown. I 
enclose a specimen of the tea parasite.* 


itis oblongis obtu 

puree Btellato-pnbescei 

sepalis late ovatis obtusis parce - 

; - ghfotia viridihira demum luteo- 
i -nnneis, stigmatibus truncatis primum 

poll, lataj. Sepala 

2±-3 lin. longa, 2\ li. 


4 Petala 5 lin. longa, 

31-4 lin lata. 

Described from a 

living plant raised at 


from seeds sent l<y Mi - 

Morloiro, in 1886. 

222. Begonia Somervillei, Hemsl. [Beg 

ae] ; caulescent, gracilis 

iiiiiKjij' glabra, n 

wi\\i tlexuosis, intern 

i.'il ■< pan! ■ 

excedentibus, foliis 

. ut vidutur, membranacei 

tenuissiniis obliqm 

scureque denticnlatis, 

cymosa axillari et 


re, ramulis p> 

gracillimis, floribus 

masculinis minimis, 

s :?1 ,.i;i 

- <l;;obus 

elavatis, connectivo non producto. 

Habitat.— Solomon Islands, chiefly New Georgia 
II. M.S. •< Pe»,, „h,;> 1894-5. 

Folia eum ;■ 


longa. Cpwl r , ,,.,..",„ ,. Pedunculi 2-3 poll, longi. 
celli 2-3 lin. longi. Sepala \\-2 lin. diametro, stamina inclusa 

Commemorative of Boyle T. Somerville, Lieutenant, R.N., on 

223. Begonia Weigallii, Hemsl. [Begoniaceai] ,; caulescens 

oriljus, foliis, nl viiletnr. membranacei-: vel ^ saltern in sieeis ten 
oblique. ovat> - l>a-i seiinc<>nl:tt is lobo j 

ramulis crassiusculis, pedicellis brevi—iini- era— Hiseuhs. riorum 1 
norum sepalis 2 

ew Georgia. Office 

*us ; pedicelli 
Weigall, Lieu 

The fi- 

uit described above was wi 

th the flowering specimens of B. 

■', «', b'U aft"--! 

i female flowers of B. Wei gall ii, I 

ll ave no doubt it be 

longs here. 

224. Ci 


coffeoides, Hen 

isl. [Rubiacese] ; ramis floriferia 

ereis internodiis brevibus, folus 


breviter petiolatis snh.-orisu- 

eis anguste oblongis vel oblanceo- 

atis vel subcuneatis prater costam 


glabrescentibus pallide viridibus. 

venis primariis late. 

»3pissime 4 longe arcnatis, pedun- 

:is lobis anguste delroHeis ii<-iiris 

rassaa extus sericese tubo, ut videtur, 

brevissimo sed bene evoluto nou viso, 

lobis ovato-oblongis obtusiusculis, 

•baflca ovo 

idea prima 

m strigillosa dem. 

im nuda. 

Habitat. — Britisl 

i Central Africa : 

north side of the Ruo, Sir H. H. 


Folia 3 

-5 poll, lo 

nga, 1-1$ poll. Is 

ita, petiolis 2-3 lin. longis. Ala- 

bustra vii 

: ses.piiliu 

, longa. Baccce 3-4 lin. longje. 

225. Geophila picta, Rolfe [Ruhi 

subelongato - lanceolato- 

■ ■" ■ , ' • ■ -. ■ : ' 

noaribus, stylo subexserto apice bidentato, stigmatibus diver- 

Habitat — British Guiana : Demerara, Im Thum. 

Planta circa 3-4 poll. alta. Folia 1-2| poll, longa, f-lf po"- lata; 

jietioli i| liu. iongi. l\<hi,uuli \ poll, longi. Oipitula ;; poll. lata. 
V,ai--t<« I lin. longae. Ocariu/n }, lin. longuni. Cali/ris loin \ lin. 
longi. Corolla tubus 4 lin. longus, lobi \ lin. longi. 

An inteiv- -it of Messrs. 

upper surface, with a pink mid-rib and numerous pink appressed hairs all 

over, puberulous, and suffused with dull glan 

The corolla is white. It is readily distinguished by the relal 



■re obsolete : midhpie _ 

onge petiolatis 


"pe glabi 

.lanceolato-oblongis vel oblanceolatis s'ubito cuspidulato. 

nibus ssepe 
■ asi bibracteatis, bracteis l<ie\ ii,;.s Litis mucronati.-, e;ihvi> 
m hit'N. antheria raba entari parvo 

Specimen* n. i the garden of H. B. M. 0<ra*ai*te 

at Ningpo, Plat/fair. 

Arbor 12-pedalis, fide Playfair. Folia emu petio o sque ad 5 poll. 

longa sed stepi ^-12 lin. longi. P< diet Hi ,'Wi iin. 

longi, bracteis maximis vix lin. latis. Cali/.v ±-\ lin. diametro. Corolla 


Kespecting this tree, Mr. G. M. H. Playfair, H.M. Consul at Xin-po. 

writes :—" Mr. W. M. Cooper, formerly Consul here, informed me a 

-iii(v thai lie believed a certain Ofra in the garden of the 

C<>ii-mnte to ho el' an undesci -ihed -peeie^. The tree was. 1 presume, 

irdhy him from the neighbouring hills, I ik- many others m 

the compound. 

227. Nepeta suavis, Stapf [Labiatae] ; perennis basi indurata 
obtusis obtuse crenatis utrinque tomentellis -npra mgosi.-. 
-pica- infenre interna] 

vel oblongis rill itibntr, ealy.v vi] 

mrvato ore oblique truncato edentulo vel dentibus ob 
mis latisque intt-rdum nno alterove abrupte in muo 

mgiore pubescent. iobo Lobo Labii mi' 

lio pupureo-punctato medio hirsuto emarginato crei 

Herba 1-2 ped. alta. Folia niajora 7-12 lin. l.aiiia. ■"-> 
petioli ad 4 lin. longi. Inflorescentia ad 6 poll, longa. Calyx 3 lin. 
longns. Corolla 5 lin. longa. 

A plant raised in the Royal Gardens from seeds communicated by 
Mr. J. F. Duthie in 1878, agrees with Griffith's dried - r 
Ait* h -i • 's quoted above ; but it is taller and much le- hairy, and has 
leaves at least twice as large. The two lower calyx-teeth ' 
always produced into short mucros, whilst the middle tooth of the 
upper lip is generally very small and triangular, or Bometi 

228. Salvia schiedeana, Stapf [Labiate]; caulo tomentello-pnh,.*- 
cente, foliis longiuscule petioiatis e basi rotundata vel brevitcr <-1in<-;,ta 

den-is in spicani -uhintorruptam dispo-iti-, bracteis viridibus quam 
subinflato superne a latere compresso clauso 3-dentato den 

Bl intu- d Eta pitoso 

erecto bilobo marginibu- reenrvis. labio inlero iriiob.. porivetu 1., s 

latis intermedio emargii!.! > breviore. 
Habitat,— Mexico, Deppe Sf Schiede. 

11. longa, ! 
5 poll. Ion; 

Specimens of this plant were raised in the Royal Gardens from seeds 
eceived from Vallombrosa under the name of Hedeoma nepalensis, and 
lie description is actually drawn up from them. No indication was 
iven as to Ihe native country of the plant ; but I have identified it 
nth a coloured drawing in the collection of a plant *' raised in 1829 from 
iouth American seeds collected by Messrs. Deppeand Schiede." Salvia 
■liiedeana i- nearest allii-«i to >'. tilitcfolia, Yahl. 

229. Polygonum (Bistorta) constans, Cummins [Polygonacefe] ; 

' -iiiun-i- inferioribus petiolatis superioribus sessilibus ara- 
plexicaulibus <piam inl' Horibus in 1-3 racemos 

<ii<l>osiris. I'Mceinorum | >■ -<i ilis brevibus, ovario ovato, stylis 3 
gracilibus basi connatis stigmatihus capitatis. 

Habitat.— Sikkim, C. B. Clarke, and Beroom at 12,000 ft. Thibet, 
Dr. King's collector. 

Herba G— 12 poll. alia. Stipuhc \-\ poll, longa?. Folia 2-2^ poll. 
Ionga, ■}-•,■ poll, hfa ; petioli \-\ poll, longi. Racemi \-\\ poll, longi. 
Perianth ii segnieiila ,1 poii. lon^a. Fructus ignotus. 

Near P. amplexicaule, Don., from which it differs in its thinner 
stem, narrower and more delicate leaves each with usually a contracted 
basal sinus and pointed basal lobes, also in its more slender and very 
shortly peduncled racemes. 

230. Arundinaria nitida, Mitford, in Gard. Chron., xviii., 1S95. 
p. 186, fig. 33 (nomen solum) ; ramis gracilibus paucifoliatis pallidis vei 
fuscescentibns. laminis painlis lineari-lanceolatis basi breviter snbitoqne 
in pi'tiolnni brevem atter.iiati- glabris subtus glaucis in margine asperis 
ibus apprcxi- 
tructis, ligula 

brevissima ciliolata. pann-ula parva ramis i nf< rioribus ramulosis caeteris 

simplicibus onmibii- <_'labri- levibu<qne in axillis glandulas foventibu-. 

'-tloris | 

multo longioribus i 

biearmata inter earinas -a-pe <-t extra eas semper 2-1-nervi in caring 

apicem versus aspera, 

W. J. Bean in Gard. Chron.. xv, 1894, p. 301, non Munro. 

nte.r ramosissimii.- teste ./. Henry in loco natali 1-2 ped. altus ; 
, vero mnlto alfior Folia 2-.') poll, longa. 3-o lin lata. Panicula 
poll, longa; raninli mtinii ad 2 poll, longi : pedicelli longitudine 
varii ad (5 lin. longi. Spicules ad 9 lin. longa? ; rhacliiUa- articuli 
uedii ad 3 lin. longi. (rlmtne florentes 5 lin. longae, 
rarest allied to Aruuduiaria siuica. ilnneefj. lonqiramea, Munro), 
ive of Hong Kong, but differing in the abundant ramification, the 
er, few-leaved, the much smaller and somewhat dinS-n-ntly 
d leaves and the small panicle. The description was drawn up from 

simo pedunculatis, sepalis oblongis acutis * ■ \ 1 1 1 - d.'ii-e 
linorutn lilamentis sepalis ajquilongis pm- clongati- 
antberas tegentibus ve-titis, stvlo pi lis rignli-, albis liirtuto. 

Habitat.— China : Yunnan, Mongtse, rock v places at 6000 ft., W. 
Hancock, 18. 

Foliohtm terminale 2\ poll, lougum, 2 poll, latum; lateralia 2 poll, 
longa, \\ poll. lata. Sepala et stamina 6 I'm. longa. 

This differs from C. grata. Wall, in tin- leaves not being lobed and 

m folia breviores 
solitariis vol geminis, braeteis "ovatis pubescei 
iibus persistentibus, -■ }-ali- enriaci- ol«tu<i- pu'vscentibus exterioribi 
breviuribus ovatis interioribus longioribus oblongis, petalis august 
calyce duplo longioribus, carina painliirii'orini dorso pubescent 
staniinibus petalis distincte brevioribus, ovario cylindrico pubescent 
stylo elongato incurvato glabro. 

Habitat. — East coast of British North Borneo, Governor Creagh. 

J'ulin subpedalia. media 1 poll. lata. S, paid extenora 2 lm. long 
interiora 3 lin. longa. Fructus ignotus. 

233. Impatiens Hancockii, Wright , (-ieraniac.e;n"j ; herbacea, succ 

lenta, caule erecto, iblii- lain lati- glabri- l>idrniati> breviter peduncula 

subtus dilute viridibu>, raivmN a. I ;i villas t'oliorum superiorum peduncu 
elongatis paueiJloris, pcdicelli^ teniiibus, bractei- parvis ovatis caduc 
sepalo postico magno saccato caleare elongato ciirvato tenui, latcialib 
parvis. petalo antico cordalo, laturalibus ina pi a I iter bilobis violace 
caps ula elongat;. angusta. 

Canlis \-\\ ped. alius, l-oha .5 poll l<>i:i:a. 1 poll, lata; petiol 

•adueis. pe<licellis 
o 3-4-plo lonsiore lohi- ovat 

Ifahitu ■! North Borneo, Governor (Wau/i 

Gathered also by Burbidge in 1877-8. 

Folia 3-5 poll. Tonga, medio 1^-2J poll. lata. Pedieelli inferiors 
1 1-2 poll. longi ( ■./•/, i.s tiilm^ i; lin" longus. Petala 9-12 lin. longa. 
Fructns ignotus. 

A very showy species, nearly allied to Phanera kocheana, Korthals. 

235. Bauhinia (Phanera) brachyscypha, Baker [Leguminosas- 
(\<-;<I|>ini. -:< ■', . -„r;nento~a, copio-i- eirrliitVra, ranmlis gracili!iu> 

. f'oiiis ilistiiK-;.- prtiolatis late ■< 
in corymbos multifloros terminales dispositis pcdieell'is inferioribus 

■ - ' ■ . ■ 

biwi cylindrico. lobis oblongis tubo longioribu-, petaiis obovati> 
< sepalis 2-3-plo longioribus dorX> pilo-is, ovario cylindrico 
pubescent e. 

Habitat. — British North Borneo : near Tinkuvo, Governor Creat/h. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa et lata. /' poll, longi. 

f'olyris luiii 3 lin. longi. Pttala 7-S lin. longa. Fntctns ignotus. 

Near B. glabrifolia, Baker. 

236. Bauhinia (Phanera) stenostachya, Baker [Leguminosae- 

- is profunde- 

bifidis subcoriao i- i icie L'lal.i - dors, pi . -errini a 1 nei \ 

elongates dispositis, pedicellis brevibus ascendentibiis atqae rachi .;. use 

oblongo-lanceolatis tubo longioribus, petalis oblanceolato-oblotu 

paulolongiorii i^-r-istcntcipic vclutino, 

sty lo l>revi valido, originate magno peltate. 

Habitat.— East coast of British North Borneo, Governor Creagh. 

Folia 1-1.5 poll, longa et lata, prtioli 2-3 poll, longi. Calyeis tubus 
5-6 lin. longus. Sepala 7-8 lin. longa. Fruetxs ignotus. 

Near B, Vahlii, W. & A. 

237. Bauhinia (Phanera) macropoda, Baker [Legiuuino^-- 

dabris, f'oiiis longe 

curdato-ovatis c basi 11-ncrviis profunde biiidis .- ib- 
i ivnil.o- icnniiiales paucifloros longe peduneulatns- di<po-it,is, 

.- dorso pilosis, m bi to cylindrico 


Habitat.— North IWnm : [\, r , Mybnrgh. Gurrr,wr Cna,,h. 

Near B. glabrifolia, Baker. 

right [Legumiuo^e-Citsalpin 


po-itis. ealycis o-partiti tubo l»re\ i cupulari persistente lobo antico- 
cucullato lobis omnibus dcciduis, petalis (postico obcordato flavo excepto) 
obcuneatis rubro-purpureis calyce duplo longioribus, lilam* 'litis 
petalis sesquilongioribus, antheris parvis dorsifixis, ovulis 5-7, stylo 
staminibus aequilongo, legumine rhomboideo lato compresso, semiuibus 

Arbor 15-20 ped. alta. Foliola 6-9 lin longa, 4 -6 lin. lata. Pedicelli 
5-9 lin. longi. Petala 6 lin. louga. Filamenta 9 lin. longa. Leyumen 
2 in. longura, 10 lin. latum. 

239. Homalium (Blackwellia) lnyrianthum, Baher [Samydace©] ; 

laiuuh- glabris, foliis ml ■ .gis obtusis 

iutegris basi cuneatis utrinque viridibus glabris. floribus in paniculas 
terminates et axillaris ramulis i ultis elongatis graedlimi- pubescentibus 
dispositis. pedircllis ; lalis hracteis lineari- 

suhulaTis. eahris tubo pub. -cento segmentia linearibus tubo aequilongis, 
petalis linearibus segmentis calycinis asquilongis, stylis 3 subulatis ovaric 

Habitat. — British North Borneo : Lilam, Governor Creayh. 
Folia 4-5 poll, longa, 2 poll, lata, Cahjcis tubus 1 lin. longu; 

Belongs to tb 
near the Mauritu 

240. Arthrophyllum borneense, Baker [Araliaeea-] ; arboreum, 

glabrum, foliis in t'tuioi il»u- piniiatis lolmlis 5 magni- oldongis integris 
obtusi.- basi ina?qualibus rotundatis superioribus tsiinpl i«-il»u>. floribus 
ternatim umbellatis, uinbellis ultimis 3-10-iloii-. pedioellis lYtictu 
longioribus basi artieulatis fniciu udoluwo pericarpio immibrnnaceo, 
dentibus calycinis brevissimis obtusis. stylo obeonico sulcato. 

Habitat.— British North Borneo : G-aya Island, Governor Creayh. 

Arbor 16 pedalis. Foliola 6-7 poll, longa, 3-4 poll lata. PtdiceUi 
3-4 lin. longi. Fructus 2\ lin. diam. 

241. Viburnum ceaaothoides, Wright [Caprifoliaceae] ; truticosum, 
rami- teretibus pubescc mi mdmi- o'!,; mmatis versus 
apieem ilentatis costa excepta glabris p.-eudo-tlabellaiim e>>-tatis, evinis 

uM-vis hirsuti.-, lloribm parvis, ealyee 
minute 5-dentato, corolla campanulata alhalobisorotundars. -raminoruin 
tilanientis prope corolla? basin affixis, antheris exsertis. ovario uniloculari, 

Habitat.— China: Yunnan, Mongtse, mountain ridges, 5500-6000 ft. 
Jf '. Hancock, 47. 

Readily distinguished by the form of the leaves. 

s facie scabris dorso dense persistenteque ferrugii 

umbellisden.-i- -. receptaculo globoso, 

pedicellis elongatis pubescent ibus ovario tequilongis, ovario cylindricn 
ferrugineo-pubescente 10-costato e medio ad apicem et basin attenuato, 

caljcis tubo supra ovarium brevi infundibulari segmentis ovatis intui 

Habitat.— East coast of British North Borneo, Governor Creagh. 

Folia subpedalia, medio 4-5 poll. lata. Umbellce 5 poll. diam. 
pedicelli 12-15 lin. longi. Cahjcis tubus 3 lin. longus ; segmenta 2 lin 
longa. Corolla ignota. 

Near U. sclerophylla, Roxb. 

sum, Wright [Vacciniaceae] ; frutex humilis, 
cauli teivti rugo-o -etN linmm-U , «: is marginibus 

i e.'iirvat is crenatis supra glabris subtus sparse brunneis pilosis, raeemis 
inultitloris propo eaulis apicem eonfertis, Lracteis ruhris late laneeolatis 
acutis ciliiitis, « ;ilv«-i- -. -mentis 5 triangularibus cilia*-, corolla urceolata 
extus subglabra intus tomentosa segmentis 5 brevibus subulatis, 
s 10 liberis, artfheris dorso biaristatis, ovario 5-locularis, stylo 
5 zequilongo 5-alato. 
Habitat.— China : Yunnan,, on a mountain ridge at 6300 ft. 
W. Hancock, 160. 

Folia 9 lin. longa, 6-7 lin. lata. Racemi \\-2 poll, longi. Corolla 
2-3 lin. longa. 

Differs from V. retusum, Hook. f. in its acute leaves with crenate 
margins and from V. griffithianum, Wight, in its denser racemes and 

244. Primula barbicalyx, Wright [Primulacese] ; humilis, foliis 

membranaceis ovatis dentato-sinua'tis uliatis pilots, petiolo lamina' 
a3quilongo dense piloso, pedunculo brevi, fioribus 2-5 umbellatim 
dispositis, pedicellis elongatis, oaUce rampanulato extus (prsesertim basi) 
pilis hvunrieo-purpureis vestito "lobis ~> triangulari'mi-, corolla dilute 
lilacina longe tubulosa segmentis 5 bilobatis. 

Habitat.— China: Yunnan, Mongtse, limestone crags at 8700 ft. 
W. Hancock, 109. 

Folia \-\\ poll, longa, |-1 poll, lata ; pc/mfi 1 poll, longi. Pedunculi 
1 poll, longi vel breviores ; pedicelli 6-9 lin. longi. Calyx 2 lin. longus. 
Corolla; tubus 5 lin. longus ; limbus 6-8 lin. diam. 

Resembling P. Listen. . a having a smaller calyx 

covered with long brownish-purple hairs and a larger corolla. 

245. Buddleia acutifolia, Wright [Loganiacea?] ; fruticosa, minis 
teretibus primnni tomentosi-, 1'olii- late hmceolatis basi apiceque acutis 
marginibus scrratis supra pubescentibus svdxus tomentosis, infioivs- 
centia terniinali muitillora patiiculata. ealyo cupula; is extus tomentosi 
lobis 4 rotundatis, corolla lilacina extus tomentosa tubo elongato recto 
lobis 4 patulis rotundatis, staminibus 4 paullo intra corolla; i'aucein 

Habitat.— China : Yunnan, Mongtse, W. Hancock, 143. 

Folia 6 poll, longa, 2-24 poll. lata. Calyx 1 lin. longus. Corolla 

This is near B. variabilis, Hemsl. but has the leaves tapering more 
towards the base and the lateral branches of the panicle longer. The 
flowers are lavender-coloured and frngrant. 

246. Fagraea spicata, Baker [Loganiaceae] ; fruticosa, glabra, 
ramulis terefibus. foil i- Bubsessilibus oblongis obtusis coriaceis basi 
breviter cordatis, floribus in spicas densas terminalos breviter peduncu- 
latas dispositis, annulo stipulari brevi truncato, rachi incrassata, calycis 
tubo campanulato iobis 01 - ; - rubo brevioribus, corolla? 
tubo iufundibulari lobis parvis ovatis, genitalibus in tubo inclusis. 

Habitat. — East coast of British North Borneo, Governor Creagh. 
Folia subpedalia, 3|-4 poll. lata. Calyx 2\ lin. longus. Corolla 
15-16 lin. longa. Fructus ignotus. 

Near F. crassipes, Benth. and F. morindafolia, Blume. 

247. _ 
teretibus, stipu 

teiitilms, foliis distinete p.tiolatis eoriaceis oblongis acutis basi cuneatis, 
floribus magnis -olitarii- t.Tiniiialibiis. brad oi- magnis oblongis aeutis 
calyce adpressis, calycis tubo oblongo lobis ovatis, corolla? tubo elongato 
anguste iufundibulari limbi lo!>is ovatis paint;-, gonitalibus ex tubo 
exsertis, fructu oblongo-cylindrico calyce persistente asquilongo. 

Habitat.— British North Borneo : Kinatabangan, Governor Creagh. 

Folia 3-1 poll, longa, medio 1 $-2 poll. lata. Calyx 2 poll, longus. 
Corolla: tubus 5 poll, longus, apice 12-15 lin. diam. ; limbi lobi 1| poll. 

248. Ehretia corylifolia, Wright [Boraginese]; arborea, foliis obloDgo- 
ovatis acutis liasi rotundatis vol subeordatis dentatis utraque molliter 
tomentosis breviter petiolatis. cymis tt-niiinalil>iis niultirloris, calyce 
profunde o-partito cxtus tomontoso segmentis subulatis, curolla alba 
infundibuliformis segmentis 5 oblongis, staminibus exsertis antberis 
dorsifixia, stylo corolla? tubus aequilongo bifido. 

Habitat.— China : Yunnan, Mongtse, in glens and copses, 5300 ft. ; 
W. Hancock, 153. 

Folia 3 poll, longa, 2 poll. lata. Cymte 2 poll. diam. Calyx 1 lin. 
longus. Corolla 3-4 lin. longa, 5 lin. diam. StyH rami 1 lin. longu 

F. macrophylla, Wall, approaches this, but has scabrid leaves and a 

249. Didymocarpxis crenata, Baker [Gesneraceae] ; perennis, 
acaulis. foliis basalibus dense rosulatis lanceolatis acutis conspicue 
bullatis etcrenatis basi rotundatis facie pane pilosis dorso proesertim ad 
costam niagis pilosis, petiolo breii pili- squamo.-ds deiisis vestito. scapo 
gracili paucifloro obscure piloso glanduloso foliis paulolongiere. iloriUi- 
laxe racemosis, -laiiduio-n-pube-e.-ntc. podiccllis brevibus aseen- 
dentibus, bracteis linearibus persistentibus. ealycis glandulosi tubo 
subnullo segmentis ovatis acutis, corolla- pailidc rubelhe tubo infundi 
bulari lobis parvi- rotund tbo iaclusis. 

Habitat. — British North Borneo : Sandakan, Governor Creagh. 
Folia 4-5 poll, longa, medio 9-10 lin. lata. Calyx 1£ lin. longus. 
Corolla 9-12 lin. longa. Fructus ignotus. 
Near D. bullatus, C. B. Clarke in DC. Monogr. Phanerog. V. 92. 

250. Vitex holophylla, Baker [Verbenacea?] j arborea, ramulis glabiis, foliis distinete peti-.latis criacei- -miplicibus oblongis 
acnmlsatia gUbria, cymis 

paucifloris congestis dissitis in spicas multas pauiculatas dispositis,. 
pedicellis brevissimis velutiuis intcrdum ah<trtivi>, bracteis lanceolatis 
minutis, calyce florifero tubo campanulato dentibus deltoides rainutis 
fruetifero valde accrescente ore truncato, corolla? tubo infundibulari 
extus velutino, fructu magno globoso duro glabro. 

Habitat. — British North Borneo : Sandakan, Governor Creagh. 
Gathered previously by Sir Hugh Low. 

Folia semipedalia et ultra, 3-4 poll. lata. Calyx floriferus 1 lin. 
longus. Corolla 3 lin. longa. Fructus 8-9 lin. diam. 

Very near V. simplicifplia, C. B. Clarke, which is also a North 
Bornean plant. 


The following corresponden 
interesting experiment. There appears every r 

in time make an important addition to the fruit resources of our west 
Indian Colonies. 

Coloniaa Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Sib, Downing Street, 18th December 189/5. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for the Colonie3 to 
transmit to you the accompanying copy of a despatch from the Governor 
of the Leeward Islands, forwarding a report from the curator of the 
Botanic Station on date cultivation at Copse Cross Station, and to 
request that he may be favoured with your observations thereon. 

(Signed) ' R. H. Meade. 

Governor of the Leeward Islands to Colonial Office. 
Government House, Antigua, 
Sir, 19th November 1895. 

I have the honour to transmit, for the information of the 
Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, copy of an interesting report 
which I have received from the curator of the Botanic Station on the 
progress of the date cultivation at Copse Cross Station, near English 

2. Mr. Tillson concludes his report i»v asking for the adviee of the 
ty oi extending this cultivation. 

(Signed) Geo. Melville, 
The Right Honourable Administrator. 

Joseph Chamberlain, P.C., 


Botanic Station, Victoria Park, 

November 12th, 1805. 
the honour to submit to you. for his Excellency the 
information, the accompanying report upon the date 
cultivation at the Copse Cross Station. 

After carefully considering the chances of success, in December 1890 

I wrote the Director of the Uoyal Gardens. Kew. suiting my views on 

the subject, and asked to be supplied with seed of the date of commerce. 

In March 1891 I received from Kew a en -e of selc-tcd dates, including 

the famous Tafi'.at variety. 

From the seed received I raised about 5000 plants, which were offered 
for sale in the Antigua Standard. 

Date growing being a new and untried industry and long in producing 
a return the plants were not taken up. 

Plants were put out at the various Nation-, others sent to the Botanic 
Stations of Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis, and Mout-nat. and some in 
exchange to Grenada Botanic Station. 

ft affords me much pleasure to report that at Copse C ross there are 
1 of which fruited during August of 

mis very favourable to date culture. 

early fruiting at C 

>pse < 

'ross arc an 


•x of what 

may be expected 

The yield o 

bearing is from 

100 to 200 pounds 


ich as 4i>0 

pounds have been 

got from a single 1 

'■The tree 

irally prod 

uces eight to 10 

bunches of fruit, am 


es) of land under 

this cultivation is ab 

te>." "Th. 

England it, Tafilat, 


: Egvptia 

n, 28*. to 45*.; 

Bussore, 13*. to 21* 

. Th 

great age 

and produce fruit 

till 200 years old." 

I have the honour 

nent of tin 

s progress of the 

date plots at Copse Cross i 

nay be submitted 

to the Director of the IJ.ival 

Gardens, Kew, and 

the advice of Kew 

the advisability, 


to go upon, 

endeavouring to extend date cultivation 

Kew, to Colon 

December 18th c>;j,14H !>5), transmitting a <■»[>} 

of the Botanic Station on the progress of dat 

2. As far as I know thi< is tic first install, -e ,.; 
the Wot Indies A.8 the trees are said not to ■ 
till about 10 vears. it is a culture which w.mM pi 
up unless the Government set the example. It 


is, I think, well worth encouraging on a moderate scale, as the fruit 
would probably meet with a ready sale in the United States market. 

3. The success which Mr. Tillson has met with in obtaining fruit 
from seedlings only 4£ years old is interesting, as under the most 
tav. .111:1 1 il« . in less than five years. 

Mr. Tillson says nothing as to the quality of the fruit produced. The 
best kin. Is of date palms are not raised from seeds but are grown from 

4. The Kew Bulletin for the present year (pp. 161, 162) contains an 
account of the results of the exp. rimental cultivation of the date ] 
in Australia. According to the * Annual Progress Report upon 
Forest Administration in South Australia for the year 1894-95 " 
(pp. 6, 7), a seedling date palm about eight years old yielded 50 lbs. of 
fruit of fair quality from eight bunches. 

(Signed) ' W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. 



Visitors during 1895. — The number of persons who visited the 

RoMil Garden- -luring the year 1895 was 1,407,369. That for 1894 
was 1,377,588. The average for 1885-94 was 1,416,887. 

The total number on Sundays was 536,181 and on week-days 

The maximum number of visitors on :my one day was 13,583 on 
June 3, and the smallest 104 on November 28. 

nthh 1 




- 139,995 
. 162,784 

- 297,994 
• 164,672 

- 288,420 

- 190,318 

■ 23,402 

- 17,909 


Botanical Magazine for December.— The plants figured are : Strepto- 
carpus iremUnudii, Aloe Lmttii. limUllfin Cnlrilei, Bartholina 
pectinata, and Musa rxhni : all, except the Hiuhlltia, from plants 
cultivated at Kew. The $treptoairpn*. a South African plant, will be 
remembered as one of those tha' flowered so freely on the ed#e of the 
central area of the cactus house. The Aloe is one of Mr. Lunt's 

outh Arabia. Bartholin,, pect/'/tata is a curious and 
elegant South African ground orchid, first introduced into cultivation at 
Kew by Masson upwards of a century ago, and recently by Mr. Harry 
Bolus, F.L.S.. of Cape Town, to whom Sir Joseph Hooker has dedicated 
the 1 2 1 st volume of the '.lumber com- 

pletes. Musa rubra was grown from suckers sent from Calcutta to Kew 
by Dr. King in 1889. It is a slender species, having rosy bracts and 
pale yellow Howor^. The iniinNuiiie UtnUIIeia Colrilei flowered in the 
rich and interesting garden «-f William Gumbleton, Esq., at Belgrove, 

Index Kewensis. — The completion of this important work, which i- 
le to any systematic botanist, was announced in the Kew 
Bulletin for November 'last (p. 300). 

It is important to point out, in order to remedy a misconception which 
appears to exist amcngst many persons who hav< 

to represent the views of Kew in the matter. It is nothing more than 
what it professes to be, an index of published plant name-, with 
references to the works in which they were first promulgated and the 
countries of which the plants themselves are natives. Where it has 
been pointed out by competent authority that the names cited are 
" synonyms " the fact is indicated. As to the remainder no attempt 
whatever has been made to ascertain their validity. To have done this 
would have been to have undertaken a task which could not have been 
completed in any reasonable time, even with the aid of a large staff of 
skilled botanists. 

The expense of preparing the work ha- been entirely defrayed by the 
members of the family of the late Charles Darwin. "That of printing 
and publication has been borne by the Oxford Clarendon Press, which 
has no other means of recouping itself except by the sale of the work. 
For this reason Kew has not had at its disposal any copies which it 
could present to other institutions. The price to non-subscribers ha- 
now been raised to 10 guineas. 

Palm House Terrace. — The condition of the raised flat expanse 
immediately surrounding the givai Tain. Hou-e has long been felt to be 
iiii-ati-lar!. ling. It had been covered 

with rough gravel which wa- unplea-aut to walk upon and hot and arid 
to the eye in summer. A defined and kept gravel walk has now been 
made connecting the different .-teps and entrances, and the rest of the 
space has be. l iting to record 

has been mostly brought from Whitton Park). The surface of this is 
unbroken except by a few bold beds of evergreen shrubs or of herbaceous 

j sent to Kew by Brigade-Surgeon 

(retired) J. E. T. Aitchison, C.I.E., F.R.S., who states there they 
are largely used as a dye-stuff in Kashmir. They were submitted to 
J. J. Hummel, Esq., Professor of Dyeing in the Yorkshire College, 
Leeds, who has very kindly furnished the following report. The use of 
the plant whether for dyeing or tanning is not indicated in Watts' 
Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. 

Professor Hummel to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

. The Yorkshire College, Leeds, 
Dear Sir, December 20th, 1895. 

Enclosed I now send you samples of calico printed with 
aluminium and iron mordants and dyed with roots of Geranium 
From Kashmir. The dark greys given by the iron 
mordants, and the pale soiled yellowi-i uni mordants, 

show that these roots coal laccompaniod 

by any mordant- dyeing colouring matter. The reddish stain on the 
unprinted, i.e., unmordanted, parts of the calico indicates that there is 
also present some red colouring matter for which cotton has a natural 
attraction, but which must be regarded as of no commercial importance : 
indeed regarding the roots as a useful tannin matter the presence of this 
red colouring matter is somewhat objectionable. 

In compari- ::us, patterns dyed with 

which are also enclosed, it would appear that the G. wm 
roots are about equal to the latter as regards amount of tannin matter 
present, and I have no doubt they could be usefully employed by the 
dyer for certain purposes either in the form of powder or as 'an extract, 
in the same manner as other tannin matters are employed. 

I enclose Mr. Proctor's lvprnt which -iv- an analysis of the root, and 
some remarks as to its suitability for tanning leather, a sample of which 
tanned by the product accompanies his report. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) J. J. Hummel. 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq., G.M.G., C.I.E., 
Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Leather Industries Laboratory, 

The Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
Dear Prop. Hummel, December 14th, 1895. 

The following are the results of our analysis of the root of 
Kao-ashud (Geranium waliichianum) which was sent by Dr. J. E. T. 
Aitchison to the Museums of Economic Botany at Kew. The sample 
of root contains -13-5 per cent, of matter soluble in water and, deter- 
mined by the gravimetric hide powder method, gives — 

Tanning matter absorbed by hide - - 25*7 per cent. 
Soluble non-tanning matter - - 17' 8 „ 

Vegetable fibre and insoluble - - 4.3-0 „ 

The colour of the < 
leather tanned with ii 
from the appearance of the liquor, and there certainly seems no reason 

,v!iv it th- ■ --it should not 

form a valuable addition to our tanning materials. The leather pro- 
duced is somewhat darker but not very dissimilar to that obtained by 
the use of Canaigre root (Rumcx hymenosepalinn}. 
Apologising for long delay in reporting to you, 
I am, &c. 
(Signed) Henry R. Procter. 

Recent Presentations to the Herbarium. — Sir Ferdinand \<m 
.Mueller has presented from time to time specimens of new genera and 
species de-eril eel 1 y him-, it. together with advance proofs or reprints of 
the descriptions. Dr. G. Haviland, who is working at Kew on hi- 
Bornean collections, has given a collection of 200 additional species. 
Mr. E. A. Eliiott has presented a collection of dried plant- ma( ],. j, v j,; v 
brother, Mr. C. F. Elliott, an officer of the Indian Forest Department, 
in Baluchistan ami the Punjab. Sir Henry H. Johnston has presented 
a collection of about 150 species made hy Mr. A. Whyte. F.L.S.. on 
Mount Cheradzulu, a part of Sir John Kirk's early collecting grounds. 
It contained several novelties, though no new generic type? ^He has 
since sent a few additional specimens, including a curious new orchid of 
the genius HolothrLr, and a new Cremaspora, hearing a strong 
resemblance to coffee. These wil] shortly be published in 
Sir Henry Johnston has also intimated his intention of having 
specimens collected, as far as possible, of the trees of the district 
Nothing could be more desired in this direction, because traveller- arc 
commonly unable to cope with the difficulties attending the operation. 
Mr. J. Burtt Davy, formerly a member of the staff, and now at the 
Berkeley University, California, sent about 170 specimens tA I 
plants, chiefly new and critical species. From Mr. J. F. Waby, head 
gardener in the Georgetown Botanic Garden, British Guiana, Kew has 
received a collection of Barbados plants. From Mr. J. F. Duthie, 
Director of the Botanic Department, Northern India, there is another 
consignment of grasses, nearly 200 in number, in aid of the concluding 
volume of Sir Joseph Hooker's Flora of British India. A small 
collection of Canadian plants has been received from Mr. J. M. Macoun 
Assistant Botanist to the Dominion. Finally, there is a 
gift of nearly 1,500 species of Central American plants, from Mr. J. 
Donnell-Smith, of Baltimore. This is particularly valuable, as Kew is 
by no means rich in the plants of this region. 

Coloured figures of Fungi. — Kew has latelj purchased two folio 
volumes of unpublished coloured drawings of fungi of 
There is no clue to the name of the artist, but from the fact of most 
of the few remarks there are on the being in the 

Italian language, there i- ! :■, The date 

is less uncertain and the work was doubtless spread over a number of years. 
The following note accompanies a figure of a specimen 
squamosm eighteen inches in diameter. Fungo nato tie i Praii th 
S. Pactoro il Lnglio, 16H0. And a figure of Clathrus cancellatus bears 
the inscription " Ad ripas Tiberis prope Flaminia, meuse 96ris 1699. 
Many of the figures are named in the handwriting of the late Rev.* 

M. J. Berkeley, and a few in that of the late C. E. Broome. Nothing 
more is known at Kew of its history. Altogether there are nearly 
1,250 figures, most of them beautifully and accurately executed. In 
vigour of style they resemble Schaeffer's Icones Fungorum, though 
there is no evidence that they served as originals. Indeed that work 
was not published till 1762-1774. 

Robert, Basse, and de Chastillon's Recueil de Plantes — Kew has 
acquired by purchase a very fine copy of this magnificent collection of 
engravings of plants. Some copies were issued without a title-page, but 
Pritzel {Thesaurus Lit, rutin;. Botanic*; e<l. 1. n. 8362) says "In 
exemplari bibliothecae Sherardianaa Oxonii asservatas tifculi adsunt : 
Estampes pour serrir a /' Histoir, ,1, s Plantes. Partie i. et ii. Paris, de 
de l'imprimerie royale, 1701. He also gives the following title : Recueil 
de Plantes dessiu>', ? et oran'cs par Ordre du Boi Louis XIV., Paris, 
1701. The size he gives as 16 by 12 inches, but that is the size of the 
plates employed for the engravings. The Kew copy is 25^ by 19 inches. 
Pritzel aads : " Bruuet de hac collectione monet : Recueil parfaitement 
execute et dont on recherche encore un peu les anciennes epreuves. 
L'ouvragepai at ion; mais Monsieur Buisson a fait 

imprimer, vers 1780, un frontispice avec des eclaircissements sur ce 
recueil et une table des 319 planches; le tout formant 20 foil" 
The engravings are not only artistically but botanically good, and, what 
was rare at that date, the figures are supplemented by enlarged analyses 
of the flowers, and sometimes of the seed and young seedlings. The 
designations are the phrases, or abbreviations of them, employed by the 
writers of the period, such as Bauhin and Thunberg, who are cited in 
each case, and the arrangement is alphabetical, based on the first word. 

Ipecacuanha in Southern India.— The Kew Bullet hi for 1888 
contained (pp. 123-128) an account of the various attempts which have 
been made to establish the cultivation of the plant producing this 
valuable drug in the East Indies. The annual report of Mr. M. A. 
Lawson, Government Botanist and Director of Government Cinchona 
Plantations to the Madras Government records the result recently 
obtained in Southern India : — 

" The following interesting report has been sent by Mr. J. R. Malcolm 

plants were not getting on 
owing to the heavy drip from the forest trees, I took them all up and 
cut off the roots, obtaining 20 lb. dried only. I replanted what was 
left, under light artificial shade, and thej seem to like it, as all are 
throwing shoots. The small parcel of root was sent home, and it will 
interest you to know that it was highly reported on. Messrs. Figgis and 
Co. say ' The little lot we sold for you (Messrs. Parry and Co.) was 
very fine picked root, nice colour, flavour, &c.' It really was not picked 
at all. I gathered everything I could find in the ground. It sold for 
5*. 4d. per lb., the best mattogrosso fetching os. 6<l. per lb." 




No. 110.] FEBRUARY. [1896, 


The disc.nrry of satisfactory methods, tor •storing fruit either at home 
r in the colonic- i.- obviously a matter of givat importance. At home 
; would counteract the effect of a - irlut," ami .1 lv a lu-tier price to 

fruit from the southern hemisphere 

by William Saunders, E<<\., F.L.S., Director, Dominion Experimental 
Farms Ottawa (pp. 103-105):— 

It is well known that cold -iorag. and refrigeratoi ca s have played 
,ni important par! for •nine years in the economy of i 
great Californian fruit product. It is also well known that large dealers 
in great fruit mark-!.-, like Chicago ;ind New York, have used in com- 
mon with produce and commission men cold storage warehouses, in 
which to hold perishable fruit during periods of low prices owing to- 
over-stocked markets. Our information on these lines has, however,. 

With the object of ascertaining some facts based upon person*? 

exjH rience, preliminary experiments were instituted on this line during 
the present season. 

Arrangements were made with the Montreal Cold Storage Company 
for storing packages of the different fruit- as rhe\ matured. In this 
connection I beg to ackno as assistance 

rendered by the managers of this company, Messrs. T. J. Chisholm and 
D. G. McGillis, in aiding me in carrying out the experiments. Although 
sufficient time has not elapsed since the initiation of the experiments to 
permit the collection of information of value regarding the later fruits, 
yet its degree of usefulness in marketing tl e earlier and men peri-bible 
fruits has been, if not actually defined, quite clearly indicated. The 
unusual amount of heat and drought in the districts from which the 
fruit was procured undoubtedly injured the keeping ipialities oi the 
fruit under trial. Last year Wealthy apples grown at'Ottawa kept in a 
cold cellar until May. This year iyed and the 

remainder are very soft, under the s 

Mountain Rose and Early Crawford peaches, wrapped in tissue paper. 
packed in 20-pound baskets and stored in an atmosphere of 34 degrees 
Fahr. on September 5th, remained in good condition till October 1st; 
soon after this they began to show signs of discoloration. The same 
varieties under the same conditions, without wrappers, on October 1st 
showed 5 to 6 per cent, decayed. On October 10th 30 per cent. 
i M ml nn R. \ pped. had d< yed I M m mi Rose, un- 
v, rapped, fully 7~> per cent, were rotten. At this date Farly Crawford* 
were in a relatively better condition, as follows : — Wrapped, 10 per 
cent, decayed; unwrapped I", per cent, The decayed fruit did not fall 
away as is usually the -,-e, but instead lost flavour and colour, while 
retaining its form. The discoloration began first near the stone and 
worked outwards. Up to October I si paired, but 

"t deteriorated rapidly, I may <av the fruit was well ripened 
" " will not keep more than a few 

wrapped and unwrapped as in the ca-e of the peaches. They were 
stored on September fit h in a temperature of 34 'degree.- Fahr.,' which 
was maintained uniformly throughout. 

The results gained on the whole do not differ materially from those 
with pcache-, ami ii Jieate that stone fruits as a class cannot be profit- 
ably stored h tin.the casa of 
fruit originally well rip red, protabl u t -o long alter this period 
there is a rapid deterioration both in flavour and firmness. 

Bartlett. — Fully ripe, wrapped, packed in baskets, stored on 
September 1st, begun to decay November 15th. The same unwrapped 
were badly decayed ou that date. 

Bartlett. — Fully ripe, wrapped and packed in case- holding fro. a .V) 

to 75 pears each, were in good condition on December 1st. Flavour 

On Decembei 10th 25 to 30 per cent, were rotten; on 

December 15th fully 50 per cent, had decayed. Flavour somewhat 

Flemish Beauty. — Fully matured, wrapped and packed in baskets, 
decayed earlier than Bartlett, beginning to show signs of rotting on 
October loth The same variety unwrapped began to decav on 
October 6th. 

Flemish IUii>it>i. — Fnlh matured, wrapped and packed in kegs, were- 
in good condition up to November 1st ; they decayed rapidly after this 
and few remained by December 10th. 

The unwrap fcirelj "jrasted" by December 6th. 

Benrre Clainjcau. — Wrapped in basket-, were in good condition 
when last examined, December 31st. The same unwrapped were also 
in good condition on the same day. 

Beurre d'Anjou.— Wrapped and packed in kegs and boxes, were 
also in good condition on December 10th ; and the same may be said of 

It will be seen that matured Bartlett and Flemish Beauty cannot be 
safely kept in storage after November loth or at latest December 1st. 

letopky.— Wrappc 
flavour unimpaired u; 
discolour and lose flav 
were decayed and utifi 
of the wrapped fruit, 1 

P to November loth, when they commenced 
our. On December 10th the greater proporti 

t for use. There was a little dim- vin'e in favo 

Duckes*.— Pfceked 1 

:he same way, began to decay on December 101 


The deductions which may be drawn from the results of this pre- 
liminary trial in the preservation of fruits by cold storage may be 
summarized as follows : — 

1. Fruit for storage should be picked when fully grown, but before it 

has thoroughly matured. 

2. Early pears, peaches, and the larger varieties of plums should be 

wrapped separately in tissue paper. 

3. Tight wooden boxes are the most satisfactory packages for storing 

and handling. When baskets are used they should be provided 

■">. The marketing season for earh pears and apples may be exte 

from 30 to On days, and under favourable circumstances f 

longer period. 
6. The outcome of experiments with fall and early winter varieti 

apples and pears, including samples of grapes, yet remains t 




Through Mr. H. N. Kidley, director of the Gardens and Forest 
Department of the Straits Settlements, Kew has received a small collec- 
tion of dried plants, made and presented by Mr. A. II. Everett, a 
gentleman en gag a birds and insects, whom 

the former had induced to collect plants. The plants in question are 
from the previously unexplored Lompo-Battang, or Bonthain Peak, in 
South Celebes. This peak rises to a height of about 10,200 feet, and 
the plants were obtained from elevations of 7,000 to 10,000 feet. Mr. 
Everett's specimens are mostly good so far as they go, but he ascended 
the peak in October when few of the plants were either in flower or in 
fruit; consequentiy a number which are evidently new cannot be 
described. Among these are two species of Vaccinium, a Ltptosper- 
mum, a f-'rcycinitia, and four species of Elufostemit. Several prove to 
lie identical with species inhabiting .Mount Kinabalu, North Borneo, as 
fin, mi K-nlns Lu ,,■,',, }><>>, ,,/ilhi Iviinmotii, l.i iinipniimi sxaveolens and 
(Jhi mis ffuriliiiuln. Interesting among gra>ses is a variety of the 
Japanese Fettoca parvigluma, to < rial, it may be 

found doirable to give specific rank. There is also a Danthonia 
closely allied to the Australian D. peaicillata ; and there are 30 species 
of vascular cryptogams, but no new species. Lycopodium clavatnm 

the novelties described i 
the most striking and one of the most Interesting in relation to the 
geographical distribution of the genus, which, with the exception of one 
species in North Borneo, was not previously known out of Australasia. 

2.51. Clematis Everettii, Hemsl. [Ronunculaceje] ; per petiolos 

seandons. prletor floros glabra, eaulibus tenuiusculis striatis, internodiis 
quam folia nunc brevioribus nunc longioribns, foliis simplicibus longe 
petiolatis subcoriaoeis (adulli- mm vi.-is 1 ) oordatis integerrimis obtuse 
gradatim aeumiuatis s U bipnnrpH'ner\ii- nitidis, floribus parvis vel 
minuti- ('bene evolutis imii visis') axillaribus solitariis vel 2-3 aggre- 
gatis brevissime pedunculatis, sepalis 6 crassis dense ferrugineo- 

Habitat. — South Celebes : Bonthain Pe.ik at 10,000 ft., A. H. 
Everett, 5. 

Folic, cum petiolis 5-7 poll, longa, 2^,-31 poll. lata. Peduncu/i (vix 
evoluti ?) eireitCT semipollieares. A/abas/ri 3-1 lin. diametro. 

The simple, shining, 5-ncrved lea\ es, and very small flowers of six 
sepals sufficiently characterise this species, which is near C.smilacifoHa, 

252. Begonia (§ Haagea) bonthainensis, Hemsl. [Begoniacea?] ; 
caulescens, omnino glabra vel cito glabrescens, ramosa, ramuli- vix 

tenuissimis oblitjiic uvatis ^finii.-< »r« l:tt is nudtilubulatis simul denticulatis 

vel duplieato-dentatis aeiiminatis a basi 7-9-ner\iis. pedunculi-; axilla 
ri bus quam folia multo brevioribus sa-pins birloris interdum plurifloris, 
floribus maseulinis medioeribu- distinctc prdicollatis, sepalis 

ovalibus vel suborbicuiaribiis, staminibus numerosis filamentis lib<-ris 
iilii..rmibus ina-quilongis. antheris clavati- connectivo inappendiculato, 
floribus femiueis non visis, capsula suba'qualiter anguste trialata apice 

Habitat. — South Celebes : 
A. H. Everett, 34. 


thain Peak at 

7000 to 10,000 ft., 

Folia absque petiolo 3-6 
Iii/iorcscfiitia 3-4 poll, longa. 

poll, longa, petiolis 2-4 poll, longis. 
Sepala circiter 9 lin. longa et 6-7 lin. 
6 lin. longa?. 

253. Trachymene celebica, Hems/. [Umbellifera-l : robusta. caudiee 

terniinante, eaulibus floriferis erectis e basi coma? foliorum ortis 
sa-pius trichotomis ;• ■ -ids paten tibus atrorubris 
(saltern in sieeis) vestitis, foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis crassis 
li.rliaceis inollibus utrinque dense appr.-sscque hir-utis vel fere strigosj- 
eircumscriptione votundatis basi eordatis sa'pissime alte (i-lobatis lub> 
plus nnnusve Iobulatis simul eivbre denticulate caulinis paucis ad 

iuvolueri braeteis lineari-subulatis ciliato-timbriatis radius aMpiautibus. 
calycis dentibu- miuutissimis, petalis eonspieuis oblongis apieulati?, 

compressis oblique oblongis vel suborbicuiaribiis marginatis, viltis 
[is elongatis, gynophoro indiviso. 

Habitat.— South Celebes : Bonthain Peak at 10,000 ft., A. H, 
Everett, 74. 

Caules foriferi 12-15 poll. alti. Folia l\-Z\ poll, diametro, 
radicalium petiolis 3-6 poll, longis. Radii 4-6 lin. longi. Carpella 
2±-3 lin. longa. 

pubescens, eaulibus elongatis gracil 
petiolatis membranaceis lanceolatis vix aeutis sarins nndulatis supr; 
cito glabrescentibus subtus pallidioribus ut in margine pilis paucis 
longiuseulis obsitis, pedunculis pseudoterminalibus brevissimis 1-3-floris, 
capsulis truncate brae* subtends. 

Hafiifat.— South Celebes : Bonthain Peak, at 7000 to 10,000 ft,, 
A, H. Everett, 31. 

Caules usque ad 10 poll, longi. Folia 5-10 lin. longa. Capsulce 
2-3 lin. latae. 

This is similar to Beccari's 603 from Western Sumatra, but that is a 
glabrous plant. 

255. Senecio Everettii, Hemsl. [Compo-ihv] ; iYnticulus vel herba 
nana, erecTa, lignescens, ferrugineo-pubescens, ramulis gra^iliuseulis, 
internodiis brevissimis, t'oliis crassiusculis chartacei> sessilibus ovato- 
oblongis infra medium buI culatis grosse 
crenatis venis obseuris, rapituli^ homogamis diseoideis paucis par vis 
paucifloris corymbosis breviter pedunculatis, corymbis tei 
involucri ecalyculati bracteis uniseriatis ferrugineo-pubescontibus 
linearibus vix acutis quam flores paullo brevioribus, corollas alte lobatae 

penicillatis, achaeniis (maturis non vi- ;;.- glabris. 

I/abitat.-South Celebes: Bonthain Peak at 10,000 ft., A. H. 
Everett, 87. 

Folia 1^-2 poll, longa, 5-10 lin. lata. Bracteae circiter 3 lin. longa;. 

256. Scaevola similis, //>„,-/. [Goodeniaceae] ; S. oppositifolUe arete 
affinis et persim - s«-d t'olii- stineh enii< itis loribus tetrameris 
filamentis glabris; piaster foliorum axillas barbatas et inflorescentiam 
glabra vel cito glabrescens, ramulis gracillimis viridibus, foliis oppositis 
graciliter brevitorque petiolatis tenuissimis lanceolatis longe acuminatis 
basi rotundatis remote calloso denti< so llaribus brevis- 
simis faepe trifluiis tli-ribu- p.-irvis per anthesin sessilibus tetrameris 
(an semper 'r), ealycis dentibus minutis crassis ovato-oblongis obtusis 
glabris, eorolhe extus den-e pulx.srci.ti- U>1 •:- . <|iialibus intus infra 
medium hirsutis, filamentis glabris, ovario pubescente, stylo crasso 
glabro, stigmate barbato. 

Habitat.— South Celebes: Bonthain Peak, at 7000 to 10,000 ft., 
A.H. Everett, 58 in part 

Fdia cum petiolo 2-3 poll, longa. Florcs 3^-4 lin. longi. 

This belongs to a small group of ciosely allied species— S. oppositi- 
folia, Eoxb., S. ttmboi masts, Mirp, and .V. nov<>f/Hiueen.sis, Sebum., 
inhabiting Ternate, Amboina and New Guinea respectively. 


acutis erect is dentibu- par\i? deltoideis altcrna 

staminibus. iticlusi- iihuiK-utis deorsum leviter dilti 

stipitata, seminibus oblongis vel ovoideis insigniter i 

Habitat.— South Celebes: Bonthain Peak, at 


lis subtus glaucis, spicis term libus laxis paucifio is. 
floribus alternU siibsessilibus, bracteis lanceolatis lierbaceis, ealvcis 
profunde o— part it i lobis linearibus subobtusis pubesceutibus pilis 

divarieatis, corolla) tubo brcvi fauce ampliato lobis rotundatis a pice 
bilobutis. staminilms I, capsulis pubesceutibus tctra-perniis, geiuiiiibus 

Habitat.— SoxAh. Celebes : Bonthain Peak, at 70OO ft., A. H. Everett, 

Folia 1-4 poll, longa, \-\\ poll, lata : petioli 1-5 lin. Iongi. Bractete 

Much res. >. <hv<trit iitus, T. And., to whi. !i 

is apparently most allied. 

259. Loranthus (Dendrophthoe) celebicus, Hemsl. [Loranthacese] 

glaber, raniui ,:- crebre lenticellatis. iuternediis quai 

folia tuultu luvvioribiis, t'olii> omnibus oppositis tenuiler coriaee 
distincte pdiulatis lam-colatis in i - aeuiis yen 

.iiiiaei-i- ii . -. uhitis tends ,-t *-- 1 J : : » n 

tno.-is, me, -, durum fasciculi^ trii r.-n 

teolatis, brad, •(,!!- l)rr\ibus Intis rotundatis margine scariosis erosr 
ealycc trtuicato mnrgine -varioso, corolla anguste cylindrica recta. 
Habitat.— -South C.-l.-hes : Bonthain Peak, 7000-10,000 ft., A. h 

5 Icones Plantarun 

260. Podocarpus celebica, Hemsl. [Conii 
I'. j\ ■rritf/i/nif similis, a priore differt foliis 

bes : Bontha 
, 1J-2 lin. lati 


261. Cyathea dulitensis, Baker. [Filices] ; caudice brevi. stipitibus 
dense csespitosis elongatis brunneis superne nudis prope basin paleis 
magnis patulis lineari-subulatis raembranaceis brunneis pnnditis, 
fnmdibus obl.m^o lanceolatis bipinnati< oralis riiridc coriaceis utrinque 
viridibus glabra . , rachi i mneo subnud<>, pimiis l.mceolatis ad 
basin pinnatU inrei \<>\ ibus breviter pciiolaiis inlimis reductis deflexis, 
pinnulis lineari-oblongis subintegris margine revolutis infimis liberis 
ad costani adnatis, venulis obscuris immersis erecto-patentibus furcatis, 
soris unisoriatis inter costam et marginem medialibus, indusio cam- 
panulato glabro pr-r-istente fragili irregulariter rupto. 

Habitat.— Mount Dulit, Sarawak, Borneo, Dr. Hose, 308 ; collected 
by Mr. Cbarles Hose. 

Caude.v pedalis. Stipites semipedal* s. Lamina p Malis, 5-6 poll. 
Ii« tii , [liiini.- 1 poll., pinnulis 2 lin. latis. 

262. Lindsaya (Eulindsaya) Natunae, Baker. [Filices]; caudice 
breviter repent - elongatis nudis pallidc brunneis 

•.,.■-;,:-.■.;.. - 

viridibus glabris nudi^, rachi umln pallid.- brunneo, pinnis 3-4-jugis 
lanceolatis subsossilibus, pinnulis multijugis crebris sessilibus dimidiatis 
margine mferiore recto integro margine superiore lobato, venis sim- 
plieibus l,i \ :- furcatis, soris oblongis ad apices 

loborum impositis, indusio glabro porsistente. 

Habitat— X Mm > island, midway between Nortb Borneo and the 
Malay peninsula, Dr. Hose, 315 ; collected by Mr. Ernest Hcse. 

Lamina pedalis. Pimm 4-5 poll, longa?, 8-9 lin. lata?, pinnulis 
centralibus 4 lin. longis, 2 lin. latis. 

Near L. guianensis, Dryand. 

263. Asplenium (Euasplenium) Gregoriae, Baker [Filices] 
erecto, paleis "ljasalibus densis ascendentibus lancec' ' 
sordide brunneis, stipitibus nudis elongatis fmndibu- -iiuplicibus lanceo^ 
latis acuniinatis intc^ris -ubeoriaccis utrinque viridibus glabris, venis 
laxis erecto-patentibu> shnpiicibu< \.-l furcatis, soris brevibus erecto- 
patentibus ad marginem baud attingentibus, indusio angusto glabro viridi 

1 1 nb: tut. — Madagascar, near Inantasana, Mrs. Frank Gregory; 
collected in 1855. 

Stipites 2-3 poll, longi. Lamina 3-4 poll, longa, infra medium 

Near A. Gautieri, Hook. 

264. Asplenium (Euasplenium) microxiphion, Baker [Filices] ; 
caudice erecto, paleis basalibus densis lanceolatis membranaeeis sordide 
brunneis, stipitibus gracilibus ea-piio.-is brevibus nudis. frondibus sim- 
plicibus lanceolatis integris acuminatis subcoria vis utrinque viridibus 
glabris ad basin atteuuatis, venis erecto-patentibus Iaxe dispositis siin- 
j)Jicibus vel furcatis, soris linearibus ad marginem hand attingentibus, 
indusio membrauaceo glabro persistente. 

Habitat— Natuna island, Dr. Hose, 322 ; collected by Mr. Ernest 

longi. Lamina 6-8 poll longa, 

265. Asplenium (Euasplenium) Natunae, Baker [Fluees] ; 

ereeto ligno- : >- * recti- laneeolatis memb 

sordide brunneis, stipitibus elongatis brunra-is ad apicem minute p; 
frondibus simp!! olatis rigide coriaceis basi an 

facie glabris dorso minute paleaceis, ven 
marginem productis, soris linearibus 
ijidusio glabro persistente. 

Habitat.— Natuna island, Dr. Hose, 321 j collected by Mr. Ernest 

Stipites 4-6 poll. long;. I.itmiuu p;:-dalis \i:1 se-<[iiipe<lali>. medio 
12-21 lin. lata. Son 5-6 lin. longi. 

Near A. serration, Linn. 

266. Nephrodium (Eunephrodium) oosorum, Baker [Filices] ; >tipi- 
tibusnudis eloiipi'. i-v-n-.'i- pube-e. go-lauceolatis 

centralibus ;< , nulatis leviter falcatis, 

venulis simpli< • soris oblongis 

inter costam et marginem medialibus, indusio membranaceo persistente 

Habitat.— British North Borneo, near Gaya, Br. Hose, 334. 

Can da-em non villi. Stipites pedales. Lamina \{—2 pedalis, 0-7 

Near X. invirum, Carruth., from which it differs in its oblong sori. 

267. Nephrodium (Sagenia) Everettii, Baker [Filices] ; stipitibus 

giaeilibus elongatis nudis ea-taneis, frondibus deltoideis mern- 
branaceis glabris utrimpie vii idibn- a I alan nngu>tam pinnatitidis, 
pinnis bijugis laneeolatis vcl oblongodaneeolatU aemninatis integri.- 
basi confluent i'uus iniimi- iiia\iiiiis. venis priinariis ad iiiaruiiu-tu 

liberis inclusis itna-toinosuutibus,, -oris aparsis eopiosis parvis glabris 
superficialibus, indusio membranaceo glabro persistente. 

Habitat. — Natuna island, Dr. Hose, 332 ; collected by Mr. A. H. 

Caudicem non vidi. Stipites 7-8 poll, longi. Lamina 9-10 poll, 
longa et lata, segments priniani-. <!■ orsum 1-2 poll, latis. 

Near X. tematum, Baker. 

268. Polypodium (Eupolypodium) Newtoni, Baker [FilicesJ ; 
i ttudice erecto, pal : ~ 

■ : vi-simi- malis trondibus linearilms glabris elastieis 
viridibus simpliciter pinnatis. rachi nign-eente, pinnis alternis 
multijugis I re prodnetia 

iniVriorihus -ensim niinoribus, wn.i e, ntrali j>inuanim nigrescent*- 
simpliri ad apicem band pioductn, .oris globus Miperli.-ialihi,< ad 
basin pinnarum solitariis. 

Habitat.— Clarence peak, Fernando Pc, alt. 8000-9000 ft., on the 
stems of Erica arborea, Xeicton. 

Lamina \\-2 poll, longa, medio lf-2 lin. lata. 

Near the Jamaican P. exigmnn, Griseb. 


: ; received from Herr Kn 


<( basi sterilis. 3—1 poll. 1 
in. lata. Sori 1 lin. diam. 

269. Polypodium (Phymatodes) cyclobasis, Baker [Filices] ; 
■frondibus sossllil>a- ba-ibu> ^terilibus orhieularious valde imbricatis 
rigide coriaceis venis perspicuis in areolia copiosis hexagonis 

copiosis anastomo>antibus supra bavin liiiean'o ; - intcgris oblusis 
ad basin sensim angu-tati-. -t-i-i- gb.bus;, -::p.;rieialibu» inter 
costam et marginem irrcgulariti-r 1-2-seriatis. 

Habitat.— North-east New Guinea: 1894, Rev. (' E. Kennedy, 
ived from Sir F. von Mueller. Stilling ra ige, a-c-'iiding to 1500 ft., 

mga et lata; apex bitiu> pedalis, 

270. Acrostichmn (Elaphoglossum) clarenceanum, Baker Filiees! : 
caudice brevTter repent e. paHs basalibus densi^imis linearibus 
brunneis mem leis liaeanbaa 

pallide brunneis membranaeeis squarrosi- . litis, frondibus lineari-oblonuis intern- <■ .,,-' angustatis 

utrinque paleis copiosis ovato-lanceolatis vel lanceolatis acuminata 
membranaeeis brunneis adpressis prrcditis, venis ereetc-patentibus 
obscuris iinmervis siuiplicibus vel fureatis, \. ■ 

Heibitat.— Clarence peak, Fernando Po, alt. 6000-7000 ft., on 

Sfipifes 1t,-2 poll, longi. Lamina sterilis 3—1 poll, longa, medio 
<)-10 lin. lata. 

Near A. spathuleitum, Bory. 


This picturesque and int. Testing island lias . .. ;|l .-u a good deal of 
attention of late years. In spite of its fertile soil and health \ < Innate 
its resources are still quite undeveloped. At the present moment its 
condition is such as to cause grave concern both at home and in the 
Presidency itself. A reference to the information published from time 
to time in the Keic Bulletin was given in the volume for 1894 (pp. 405- 

A general review of the agricultural n -sources of Dominica with an 
account of the establishment of a Botanic Station in the island will be 
found in a Bcport prepared by the Assistant Director of Kew, after his 
visit to the island in 1890 (Kew Bulletin, 1891, pp. 115-119). 

Very valuable information of later date is contained in the Beport of 
the Boyal Commission appointed to hold an inquiry in the island in. 
1893. This was prepared by the late Sir Robert Gr. C. Hamilton, K.C.B. 
An extract from this Report with an appreciative account of the work 
done at the Botanic Station in promoting local industries is published 
in the Kew Bulletin, 1894 (pp. 405-410). 

The following despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
published in the Dominican of Decembei 12, 1895, shows that efforts 

o grapple with the -iiuatiou ami place the finances 
aore satisfactory footing : — 

Administrator's Office. Dominic:. 
December b\ 1895. 
■ Despatch from tie- Right Honourable the Secretary 
jellency the Governor-in-Chief is published for genei 

to furnish :, w.-rkivg balance, and thai there is urgent need tor certain 
public works, viz.. the repair oi" the Infirmary, the re-building of the 
Roseau Jetty, the repair of the Court lions.', the construction of bridges, 
and completion of existing roads, be t is estimated 

o tlie natural . - ■into nece^sit; 

s or railways for its development: and 1 haw had before me tin 
• Robert Hamilton's Report and the subsequent correspondence, 
satisfied that at the present time the final.. 


:icy does not admit of its tradei 

•taking fresh liah 


- in llie shape 

of a fur 

r hand without better commui 

ling up of the 

tricts at present undeveloped on account of th 



ion will continue to leave the island, and that 


ital will flow 

out of it 

instead of into it with the r< 

?sult of diminisl 

general .'.cadence. 

4. I 

have, therefore, further com 

ddered the quo 


of affording 

Imp. ra 

while I concur ir 

iistance founded . 

the hen rial Treasury of the proceeds 

i of the sales of 


Is in 1765 to 

affords some justification for exceptional treatment. 

5. Any such asM-tance. in whatever form, will nee 
the consent of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury 
ment, and until that consent is obtained it is impossible f 
myself in any way ; but I may say that my desire 
Presidency in developing i 
/place it or a sound linanci; 

6. Before, however, I can 1 e in a position to ask such assistance I must 
know that the Legislature of Dominica, as I have no doubt will be the 
case, are prepared to d<« -] ': ■-.■ objects, 
and more particularly that the Legislature are willing to vote the 
additional taxation which is required to make the revenue balance the 
expenditure. ; the town of Roseau to 
a Town Board to be met l.v municipal taxation as recommended by 
Sir H. Hamilton. 

7. As some time must, in any ease, .lapse before any decision can be 
arrived at as to the measures ;,. be adopted, it will be m .-. -sary to make 
temporary prevision for the 15,000/. which is immediately required. 

In framing the estimates for 1895 the Administrator should provide 
for a sufficient revenue to cover the ordinary expenditure, but the 

question of providing for the repayment of the floating debt and for 
the cost of the works which are mentioned in paragraph 1 of this 
Despatch may be left in abeyance for the present and the introduction 

by my Despatch 1 

In order to save time I am sending j 
th' Administrator of Dominica. 


151. Restrepia sanguinea, Rolfe ; canle secundario brevi, vaginis 

lauceolatis acutis conduplicatis carina! i- iinmaculatis, foliis ellipticis 
subobtusis apice minutissime tridenticulatis, pedmiculis graeilibus, 
bracteis basi tubulosis apice triangulari-ovatis acutis, sepalo postico basi 

. : 
v. ultra connatis foblfi - bad! Huearidanceolatis 

abrupte valde attenuati- ; i subpandurato-oblongo 

truncato verruculoso lobi> latcralibus tal a to- * \ ■ -. colunina clavata 

Hab. — Colombia. 

Folia If poll, longa, 8 lin. lata. Vaij'nia 10 lin. longa-. Pcdtinadi 
\\-\\ poll, longi. Bractea 3 lin. longa?. Sepala 9 lin. longa. Petala 
7| lin. longa. Labellum 5 lin. longum, \\ lin. latum. Columna 3 lin. 

Introduced by Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., of Bradford, with 
whom it flowered in November last. It much resembles R. pundunita, 
Rchb. f., in general character, but apart from structure it differs from 
that and every other species in having whoSh crimson flower-, with the 
exception of a small v. -How blotch at the base of the comma and the 
extreme base of the lateral sepals. 

152. Dendrobium quadrilobiim, Rolfe; sarmentosa, caulibus ramosis, 
pseudobulbi* f'usifonni-oblongis brevibus monophyllis, foliis oblongis 
v. elliptico-oblongis obtusis sessilibus, floribus terminalibus solitaries, 
bracteis ovati- acutis concavis, sepalo postico ovato-oblongo subobtuso 

lateralibus apice triangulo-u\ati- ohtusN basi cum pede columna- in 
mentiun luii-um e\ten>i-, petali- ovato-..b!..ugi- obtu-k labello trilobo 
lobis laieralibu- erect i> angu-ti- apice rotuudatis dentieu!ati> intermedio 
profunde obcordato-biloho laciniis rotumlati-, disco hiearinato, columna 

HAB. — Uncertain, but probably N'ew Guinea or one of the adjacent 

poll, longi. Folia l-l£ 
■. Fedii tlli 6 lin. longi. 

; lateraiia 1 poll, loii^a, 
da. Labellum 11 lin. 
longum, 6 lin. latum. Columna 1 lin. longa. Mentum 9 lin. longum. 

A very distinct species of the section Cadet ia, received in 1895 
along with other Dendrobes, from F. A. Newdigate, Esq., M.P., Nun- 
eaton, who obtained them from Australia. It flowered at Kew in 

y small, and the flowers large for 
1 green. 

153. Bulbophyllum longiscapum, Rolfe ,■ vhizomate repente valido, 
pseudobnlbis ovoideis inonophyllis. foiiis lineari-objongis subacute 

. i . . ,- bit \1t.1 petiolatis, -capis td.-nj- ifi- i_m i. hhu- \\>u e ilonl'i"-. 

bnacteis distiehis imbrieatis eonduplica > .-arii ti- • - uiaribus acutis, 

j, - pa So posiico triangu- 

• -imilibu- l.a.-i latis. petalis parvis 

late ovato-oblongis denticulatis apk-e setiferis. labcllo elongato basi 

■ ■- pivti.- obloiuri- ^ubnbtiws brevibus carnosis, colnmna 
oblonga deutibu- x'titbrmibus. 
Hab.— Fiji. 

Pseadobulbi \-\ poll, longi. Folia 4-5 poll, longa, 9-14 lin. lata. 
SaqnW pel. longi. Brae tea 4-5 lin. longiv. Pedirelli 4 lin. longi. 
Sepala 10 lin. longa. Petala 1 lin. longa. Labellum 8 lin. longnm. 
Columna 3 lin. longa. 

Sent to Kew by Mr. Yeoward, Curator, Botanical Station, Fiji, in 
'"'ray. It flowered in 
long scape and short 
raceme, and a long attenuate! lip. Tin flow or* aiv !j u ht gf-en, exu pt 
the foot of the rolumn and the lip, which are red-purple, the latter 
passing to deep yellow at the tip. The mid-nerve of the petals is abo 

154. Bulbophyllum macrochilum, Itolj) : pseudobnlbis ovatis -par vis 

ibaruti> b.-.M Md.aii.-miatis. x-apis 
tdongatis graeilibu- apice llonfen-. bract. - 

,. n us. petalis lite ovatis -ubaetitis civiiukitis, labello 
., acuminato latere undulato lobis lateralibus 

Hah.— Borneo, G. D. Haiiland. 

Pseudobulbi 4-5 lin. longi. Folia 5\ poll, longa, II lin. lata. 
Seajii HI poll, longi. Jirortfa 3- t lin. longa-. Pedfeelh 4 lin. longi. 
•st-puhi 10-11 lin. longa. Petala 1 lin. longa. Labdhim 9 lin. longum. 
Cotu, una 2 lin. longa. 

Closely allied to the preceding, but readily distinguished by the 
absence of a bristle at the apex of the petal-, the short teeth of the 
column, and the different Colour. D 11 r i,<> ■ < ■- 'he latter as — 
"Perianth will i pink longitudinal veins; lip pink; column yellow." 

155. Bulbophyllum attenuatum, liolfe ; sea pis . ga s _ s bu> 

Hab.— Borneo. 

Scapi 9 poll, longi. B 
Sepala l-\\ poll, long: 
longum. Colu m ua 1 lin. 


Habit of the preceding species, but differing in havincr caudate 
sepals and lip: the latter without siilr-loht'?. Introduced by Messrs. 
Linden, with whom it flowered in October, 1892. The sepals are 
veined with maroon-purple on a lighter ground, and the rest of the 
flower strongly suffused with tly? same colour. 

1-56. Lanium subulatuni, Rolfe; pseudobulbis ovoideo-oblongis v. 

oblongis dipln iati.s >ubaeutis oarnosis subteretibus 

canaliculatis arcuati<, panicwli- pauci-ianiosis brexibus pubeseentihus, 
bracteis lanceolati> aeutis, sepalis late laneeolatis subacutis subconeavis 
extus pubescentibus, petalis linearibus subacutis, labello elliptico-ovato- 
breviter acuminato concavo nervo medio crassiusculo, column a elavata. 
Hau. — Brazil, prov. Minas Geraes. 

J'st ■udobulbi 6-9 lin. longi. Folia \\-l% poll, longa, 1-1^ lin. lata. 
' 1^ poll, longa?. Bractete \ lin. longa?. Pedicelli 1^ lin. longi- 
; petala l£ lin. longa. Labellum 1 lin. longum. Columna 

A curious lit by Messrs. V. Sander & Co. It is 

the fourth known species of the genus, and differs from the rest in its 
subulate leaves and much smaller flowers. The colour of the latter is 
pale green, with a little suffusion of pink in the sepals. 

157. Epidendrum atrorubens, Rolf« : t'olii- lineari-ohlongi* obtusis, 
seapis panicularis laxifloris, bracteis ovatisobtusis parvi>, sepali- -ul>spathu- 
latis sobobttis - - iliobtusis, labello libero trilobo lobis 
lateralibus oblongis obtusis interna : ato undulato 

Haij.— Mexico. 

Folia circa S poll, longa, \\ poll. lata. Bractea; 1 lin. longa?. Pedi- 
celli 9-10 lin. longi. Sepala 9 lin. longa. Petala 8 lin. longa. Labellum 
6 lin. longum. Columna Z\ lin. longa. 

This belongs to the section Enajclium, and is allied to E. sdl'u/erum, 
Batem. and E. plicatum, Lindl.. but ha* smaller (lowers of much 
deeper colour. It flowered first with Messrs. Linden, in October 1892. 
The sepals and petals are \ uy dark n 1-purple, and the lip a rather 
lighter shad-', in which respect it approaches E. Hanburyi, Lindl. 

158. Spiranthes metallica, Rolfe ,• foliis rosulatis subsessilibus 
elliptieo-ob! >v_ interdum pallido-niaculatis, seapis 
elatis robustis pubescentibus vaginis subdistauribus tectis, bracteis 

formantil'iis libcris portico oblongndanceolato < 

Haij. — Brazil, Gardner, n. 6*2, and Bri 
JaiimiH, n. 5914. 

Folia 4-6 poll, bncra, \l-?> poll. lata. Scapi 
%-\\ poll. long*. Ovaria\\-\\ poll, longa. i 
longa. Labelli unguis \~\\ poll, longus, li 

..... ■--.,■.: 

about half the - z", and the leaves are of a peculiar olive-brown or 
metallic shade, frequently bearing a number of paler spots, ft lirsi 
[lowered with Messrs. Veitch in 1882. The flowers are light green with. 
a whitish lip. 

159. Macodes sanderiaaa, Rolfe j foliis ovato.oblongis v. elliptico- 

o'M i am in; iris in-igni?< \ vari. irati-, s< ap > 

labello ba?i ve •>■ ohtiw>, siccn ba-i biglanduloso 

apice utrinqiK ci:l to.- um i brevi. — Aiccrh hi his <,iwler')<i >/.<?. 

Kranzl. in Gard. Chrom, iSOo, xviii., p. 481. 

Hab.— Sunda Islands, Forget. 

Folia 2|-4 poll, longa, l.\-2 poll. lata. Scopus 1 ped. altus ; 
racemus 3 poll. I ongua. UraeteeeZ t-5 lin. kmgi. 

< . . 
2 lin. longa. 

Introduced In Me.~-i'.-. F. .Sander & Co., with whom it ilowered in 
December last. It is al . Uolb- \ H« ,,,,/riu <j,- ; i>/- 

roni urn, Miq . but. among other character.*, the venatio - ot the leaf is 
very different. The leaves arc dark olive-green reticulated wit!: 
greenish-yellow veins, and the flowers pale green lightly suffused will 

160. Holojhrix Johnstoni, Rolfe ; scape piio-o, bracteis ovati- acuti> 

; ■ "- '■'•■ ' : - 

■-. ' : ■ 

c Zomba, 

Sctipi .5 jioll. alt;. ; raceini 1-1-,- poll, longi. Urartu, 2-2\ lin. longav 
I'ldictUi 2 tin. longi Si pain 2\ lin. longa. I'etatti o "lin. longa. 
LaheUnni \\ Hi . loi num. ('ulrar \ lin. longuni. ('<>!><, n»e ± lin. longa. 

This resembles the South African iT". condensate/, Sond., hut differs 


Uolarrhena africana, A. DC. and £T. febriftga, Klotz 

mined tc 

, be Kick tin i 


■•- , ' ; ': 

" Kpomi." Harnberger 

The bark is 

//. antidi/wntcrica. A -imilar use of the bark of IT. africana is 
referred to by Planckon and E. Collin in Les Drogues Simples, p. 704. 

Mr. G. F. Scott Elliot on specimens of Holarrhena africana 
collected by him at Sierra Leone, simply adds : " The people at Layah 
use the feathers for pillows." In Oliver's Flor. Trap. Africa, "iii., 
44, it is stated that " Rondeletia floribunda, G. Don (Gaul Diet, iii., 
pp. 5 and (5, No. 17) is llalnrrhena africana, IK," which l>elongs to 
the Apocynaceae. In the Bulletin, p. 245, it was inadvertently referred 
to the Rubiaceae. It is apparently confined to West Africa, and all the 
specimens at Kew are from that region. It ranges from Sierra Leone 
to the lower Niger, and was sent from Lagos by Captain (now Sir 
Alfred) Moloney in L883. We are still without authentic information 
as to its value, if any, as a rubber plant. 

A common plant in East Africa, especially in the Zambesi region, 
called "Quina" by the Portuguese, and figured in Livingstone's 
" Missionary Travels," 1857, p. 648, under the native name of 
"Kumbanzo," is Holarrhena fchrifaga. This was collected at Tette 
by Sir John Kirk in 1859 ; in the Manganja f fills by Mr. C. J. Meller in 
Ls61, and it extends westward beyond Lake Nyanza, and northward to 
Usambara. Speke and Grant call it "Jasmine" on account of the 
sweet odour of the flowers. Later specimens in the Kew Herbarium 
are from Usugara in what is now German East Africa. 

Livingstone refers to the use of the bark in cases of fever. The 
"name and properties of this bark," ho says, " made me imagine that it 
was a cinchonaceous tree." His further account is as follows: "The 
thick soft bark of the root is the part used by the natives, the 
Portuguese use that of the tree itself. I immediately began to use a 
decoction of the bark of the root, and my men found it so efficacious 
that they collected small quantities of it for themselves and kept it in 
little bags for future use. Some of them -aid that they knew it in their 
own country, but I never happened to observe it. The decoction is 
given after the first paroxysm of the complaint is over. The Portuguese 
believe it to have the same effects as quinine, and it may prove a 
substitute for that invaluable medicine." 

This estimation of the value of Holarrhena feb,tfnaa in East Africa, 
as of //. africana in West Africa, recalls the u-e of the allied //. anti- 
dysenterica in India. The bark of the stem and root and the seeds of 
the latter "are amongst the most important medicines of the Hindu 

M.ih-ii:, Medica." (Watt's Dirt, llcun. I'm,!, halm, iv., 255). 


properties of 

the plant. 



d to specimens 



Manganja 1 lill 


; following inform 

: - ' M 

' Flowers 

Trailing ami e 


height, with 

rough ,-orr 

dentiful lid 

affording the ii 


Another speci 

men of the 

S: V 


int, also collected by 


which are represented in the Miuo parcel." The piaut i> de-crib, d as 
"a tree 10-25 feet high, yields a milky juice; flowers white." 

It may be added that Dr. Stapf regards Holarrhena glabra, Kl., and 
H. tettensis, KL, both from East Africa, as forms of H.febrifuga. 


The following -olution of an interesting 

primary importance was puivly !i-< 

by the Treasury. 

investigation led t< 

which do not appear to have 

published since. 

The " standard authorities " at the time were not prepared 
"the presence in tobacco of more than a trace of saccharine 
On the other hand experiments made at Somerset House " with 
grown at Kew " showed "a considerable amount of sugar to be ] 

Professor Church was so good as to examine the literatur 

jsults, as far as the fiscal question was concerned, were i 
From a scientific point of view they were not 

mercial sample of " Bright Virginia " tobn<rn 

sun-dried leaves 

of yiintiantf" Titlnnvm L'rown at Kew contained 

6-2 per cent., am 

Railway Station a 

ts much as i) per cent., " the largest quantity found in 

the leaves of plan 

ire of this sugar, Dr. Hugo Miiller was led " to the 

conclusion that n 

saccharine mattei 

r of tobacco is composed of at least three different 

sugar-like substai 

aces which, so far as my present knowledge goes, 

Treasury, S/W ., August 7th, i ss 
Dear Sik Joseph Hooker, 

A somewhat difficult question of botanical chemistry has ar 
in practical form, in connexion with the tobacco duties, upon w 
Mr. Courtney would be very glad of your advice. 

Cnder the present law and practice, the duty on all tobacco << 
than cigars) is As. -if/., except in the east- of " sweetened " tobacco, w 
is charged Is. 10 J. ; but cigarettes made of the " sweetened " artich 
not allowed to be imported at all, for reasons with which you need 

importation of "sweetened" cigarettes that the present difficulty 

Mo. Bot. Garden, 

Previous law and practice have always assumed thai there is no 
appreciable amount of native sugar in tobacco, and consequently when 
any was found on analysis it has been assumed to be added. Certain im- 
porters have recently asserted that in some sweetened cigarettes of theirs, 
detained by the Customs, the saccharine matter is not added but native, 
and have brought forward a report by Professor Atttield, Chemist to 
the Pharmaceutic:!! Society, in favour of the possibility of this being 
true. Dr. Bell, the Government Analyst at Somerset House, also 
reported that the sugar in this ca<e '" was natural to the tobacco and had 
npt been added thereto." Moreover, Dr. Bell had made experiments 
with tobacco grown at Kew (in which there could be no suspicion that 
anything had been artificially added), and found a considerable amount 
of sugar to be present. 

On the other hand, we are informed that the standard authorities do 
not admit the presence in tobacco of more than a trace of saccharine 
matter (Dr. Stevenson's name is mentioned on this side) • so that 
although there seems to be a preponderance of authority in favour of its 
being (at least occasionally) so present, the question is not free from 

Assuming, however, that the possibility of its presence be admitted, 
the question arises whether sugar naturally present can practically be 
distinguished by analysis from that which is added. This is of import- 
ance because of the question of allowing cigarettes to be imported i 
moreover, the higher rate on " sweetened " (manufactured) tobacco is 
imposed as an equivalent to the restrictions placed on the home manu- 
facturer, and it would not be logically defensible to make the same 
extra charge if the article were proved to be in its natural condition- 
Here, again, we have a conflict of opinion, Dr. Bell saying that the 
aided and the natural sugar could bo distinct i.-h< !. - i i ! < tin ^cutlet tan 
who advises the Board of Customs on such questions says they could not 

(Signed) S. E. Spring-Ki 
Professor Church, F.E.S., to Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 

a moelle de la ti//e." Dr. J. Koenig 
(ittel (Berlin, 1879-80) contains a good de 
tbout tobacco (see pp. 493 to 502 of y 

Dr. Hugo Muller, F.R.S., to Treasury. 

13, Park Square East, N.W., 
Sir, 17th December ] 

In compliance with the request contained in your letter 
17th August, I have carried out a .-erics of experiments with th 
to answering your questions : — 

(1.) As to whether natural saccharine matter is contained 

so-called sun-dried or yellow tobaccos ; 
(2.) Whether such sugar can be distinguished with sufficie 
tainty for Revenue purposes from that which may he added. 
I may state that my answers are both in the affirmative. 
I regret the unavoidable delay in rendering this report, but 
that unless I could devote sufficient time to the carrying out 
experimental work necessary, my opinion could have but tittle m 
I have, &c, 
(Signed) Hugo MO 
Leonard H. Courtney, Esq., M.P., 
Treasury Chambers, S.W. 

as much as possible, good representative specimens of the particular 
kinds of tobacco in question, and for this purpose I selected myself at 
wholesale houses the various samples I required from the hogsheads or 
original package* in which the raw tobacco is imported. 

As it appeared to me of special importance to obtain also f'urt' c • 
c\ idenee a> to the presence of sugar or a saccharine matter in the grow'ng 
tobacco plants, I applied to the authorities of Kew, and I have great 

for a supply of leaves was complied with in that quarter, I must, 
however, not omit to mention that at the time when I \va* requested to 

undertake the present investigation, the season was already too far 
advanced for me to secure a sufficient quantity of fresh material tor an 
exhaustive examination of this subject. 

The samples of commercial tobaccos were all of pale clour and most 

The following is a list of the sorts I examined :— Algerian, 
Kentucky, G<etk, Turkish. Syrian, Chinese, Virginia leaf. Bright 

vi -iC 

e chemical te-t- usu.alh employed for the detection of sugar, or 
saccharine substances. oMal.lished the fact that nearly all of them 
contained more or less, and after some preliminary trials I adopted the 
reduction or Folding's prueess for the ipiantitati\e determinations. 1 
give in the following list the p matter thu^ 

,tftm Adrian . none. 

Virginia leaf - 5 '4 per cent. 

another sample - - 7 2 

„ another sample - - 9 • 8 „ 

Bright Virginia - - - 10'G „ 

„ another sample - - 12 5 „ 

„ another sample - 15 "2 „ 

It will thus be seen that whilst the oriental tobaccos contain only a 
small (jiinntity, the percentage in some of the Virginian is surprisingly 
high. The presence of so large an amount of saccharine matter was so 
unexpected that I thought it desirable to repeat the experiment in this 
case with three different lots from the same tobacco ; but this only 
served to confirm the former results, the numbers obtained varying only 
with one half per cent. 

To all appearance the quality of the kind of tobaccos under examina- 
tion coincides with the percentage of saccharine matter, for those 
which had been pointed out as the better sorts contained the larger 

It seems that the best class of the bright yellow Virginian is 
characterised by a uniform bright yellowish colour, and by its well 
developed, unusually large leaves, which are more or less entire, and 
exhibit a certain toughness and gumminess much appreciated by the 
manufacturers. It becomes therefore quite possible, after a little 
practice, to select with comparative ease the kinds of tobaccos which 
contain a high percentage of saccharine matter. 

The oriental tobaccos which I examined were not of a high class, and 
as I was unable to obtain samples of the better kinds, I am not in 
a position to state whether these tobaccos ever contain as much saccharine 
matter as the Virginian. 

The Algerian and Kentucky leaf, which were found to be free from 
saccharine matter, cannot be strictly classed with so-called sun dried 
tobaccos, for although of a light colour they were of a distinctly different 


The leaves of growing tobacco plants which I received from Kew were 
collected at the end of August and the beginning of September, and as I 
was then absent from town they were carefully dried in the sun. The 
samples were but smalt, consisting of a few leaves of each sort. Their 
colour was a faded green and not like that of tobacco. 

There were in all ten sorts or varieties of the two principal species 
Xicotiana Tabavi'ht and Xicotiana rustica, the former being the one 
chiefly cultivated in America, whilst the latter seems to furnish most of 
the oriental tobaccos. 

It may be sufficient for the present purpose to state that in all these 
specimens the presence of saccharine matter was indicated, but very 
different amounts, as will be seen from the following list: — 

Xicotiana texana, var. rustica - - 1*5 per cent. 

Sbiraz tobacco - - - - - 4*6 ,, 

A 7 . Tabacum, var. virginiana 

Man land tobacco 

Nicotiana Tabacum 

Bhilsa tobacco 

A'. Tabacum, var. attenuate* 

N. gigantea - 

N. macrophylla purpurea 


I Lad also an opportunity of e\a 
var. i in mediately after being tal 

Gardens, and at Ewell railway station Of the former, i 
taken from plants which had rot riov/en 1, air! it nearly 2 
per cent., whilst in a second sample from a plant which had flowered 
a mere trace was detected. The sample from Ewell, however, which 
was collected iu the middle of October, contained a little over 9 per cent., 
the largest nu-.- s of plant- lto'.vm in this country. 

and it is a noteworthy fact that these leaves contained alsa more starch 
than any of the other specimens. 

It is to be understood that all these percentages are referred to air- 
dry leaves containing from 12 to 13 per cent, of moisture, whilst th • 
commercial tobaccos mentioned above contained from 13 to 15 per cent 

'-'■■• to detail here. I am incline! to l>elie\e that «. 

? with the dc 

tivity of growth, and also with the condition- of el 

fresh leaves are of som< 

lent of the tobacco 

plant, thev :u 

•e in 

no way concl 

usive as to the 


v which may under more favoui 

■s be produced 

by this' 

plant, it is mor 

e than probal 

jle that the varieti 

es which, even 

when grown in this count 

ry, produced a 

nt., may, when 



longer surprising 
l informed that i 

> per cent, fou 

ml ii 

,« Bright f 

irgini." seems 

■ears that tobaccos with a 


percentage of saccharine mattt 

e made theii 

appearance in 

nsequence of the fashion 
Im coining more general, the great demand for the yellow sun-dried 

tiie Turkish type, ami should it he i .-after he proved that some kind- of 
yellow tol>a< o- from certain lucalitie- n\ riahly contain . on-id. ruhi; 
more of it than others, we may safely conclude that this development of 
saccharine matter i> a mere accidental effect of the improvement of the 

From a pamphlet on tobacco puhli-he.l at Richmond, Virginia, by 
Robert L. Ragland, we l< are required 

in the cult ; . <-co. The author g;\ e- 

tun - trader which first 

. proce-s ami then the fixing of the colour, /.r. drying of 
the leaves, is carried out. Without entering into the technical d"taiU 
of this manufacture, it will he sufficient to state that the conditions 
ol. served are precisely tlu.-e which would preclude as much as j)ractieabie 
every possibility o! fermentation or the destruction ot saccharine matter 

For the present, we are igno mt of tl cl mica! changes involved in 
the yellowing proce-s, hut it seem- not unlikely that it resemble- the 
v-- of fruit-, and we ma\ thereto!,- -nrmise that an 
additional quantity of saccharine matter is theieiy produced. This 
hypothesis receive- -erne support from the ol>-erved fact that the 
vigor. >iislv growing leaves oi' certain plant- will show ;; little while alter 


as a natural constituent, I had no means of proving- thai so large an 
amount as 15 per cent, (the quantity I found in the best bright Virginia 
leaf) was produced by the plant itself. I may, however, mention some 
facts which I think very clearly show that it is by no means an easy 
matter to effect an addition of sugar to tobacco without its presence 
being betrayed. 

According to direct experiments made with some of the yellow 
tobaccos under examination and with one of the specimens of leaves 
from Kew, it seems that the amount of matter they contain which is 
soluble in cold water, varies only within a few per cents. 

•o • t-.^tr- • • f 56-1 soluble in water. 

Bright Virginia l ,.,.,. iuSlll!ll) i in water 

. . , e J 57 • 7 soluble in water. 
Virginia leal 1 4g . Q inso]nble in water 

Nicntiana Tobctaun, var. j oS-0 soluble in water. 
of ft nt'cita, from Kew. \ 42 '5 insoluble in water. 

It will be readily seen from this that the addition of even a few per 
cents, of sugar to tobaccos of this class would unset the average propor- 
tion of soluble and insoluble matter, uid-.-s a proportionate amount of 
soluble matter had been previously remove I. 

I made also an experiment to introdi. o sugar into one of the inferior 
kinds of Virginia leaf by means ol sleeping the leaves into a sugar 
solution of in .irying them carefully afterwards. 

I found that by this process not only wa- the colour ver\ considerably 
deteriorated, but the sugar seemed to have penetrated but little, for its 
presence on the surface was readily perceptible by the stickiness and 
sweet taste. 

Having now given my answer to the first question, by having shown 
that saccharine matter forms a natural constituent of the tobacco plant, 
and that there is every reason to believe that the saccharine matter 
found in the particular kinds of commercial tobaccos under consideration 
is also natural and not added, I will now enter upon the discussion of 
the second question, as to whether such natural sugar can be dis- 
tinguished with sufficient certainty for revenue purposes from that 
which may be added. 

The many substances which are comprised in the general term 
"saccharine matter" or sugar, are characterised by certain chemical and 
physical properties which they have in common, and by which as a class 
they can be recognised. We are also acquainted with certain specific 
reactions by which the principal members of this class of bodies, viz., 
cane sugar (saech;u'o*ej. fruit -ue;ar i invert -ugar i. and starch sugar 
(trlucose or de\tro-e) can be detected when mixed with other soluble 
substances, without actually separating or isolating them. In conjunc- 
tion with these chemical reactions, it is the optical test, i.e. the specific 
action of the different sugars on polarised light, which affords the 
means we depend on when we search for them or wish to determine 
their quantity. 

It is thus that the well-known ■• rVhling's copper test" and the 
" fermentation te>t " have both revealed the presence of a substance or 
substances contained in certain tobaccos, which must be considered to 
belong to this class of chemical substances. On the other hand, 
however, the polariseope faded tu indicate the presence of saccharine 
matter. Only a very faint left-handed rotation could be noticed winch 
was out of all proportion to the amount of saccharine matter indicate I 
by the two chemical tests. 

fresh leaves was sufficient for the 

ex p.- rid 

This want of op 

tical activity h 

- very re 

■ . 

matter of tobacco i 

lifTers in this 

must conclude thf 

. d.. 1km 

. However, b 

we had to dispose 

ty that t 

by the interference 


Besides this, it \ 

reality fruit sugar, 

or "invcrt-su.- 

■"■■ i]1 y 

•hid, the 

noticed in commerce. and, therefore, the iie.l; mhdit not tiii.i-i ;iii 
for detecting in manu- 
factured tobacco anv surreptitious addition of sugar. 

• * by a eh 

in its pure state, and h>r this p:irp<>-e I have prepared, 
ure of much time and labour, a sufficient quantity of 


authoriu that inactive invert-sugai 
' " refore, 
Conclusive evidence could only be obtained by a chemical 

with the expenditure 
this substance in as p 
these kinds of bodies 

an amorphous gum-1 
strongest alcohol, and 
possessing but a vei 

formed a liquid compound with Mm-, and exhi 
to the left. 

These results lead me to the conclusion 

posed of at least three different sugar-like s 

As the practical result of tl n\ t g t 1 
it as my opinion that the presence of natural 
preclude the possibility of detecting by ready 
which might be added to manufactured tobacc 

1 )ecember 17th. 1SS3. 


Botanical Magazine for January.— All the sul 
' " >m plants grown r* Tr 

drawir.e- picparcl trom plants grown at . 
long known from the fine representation of 
of Himalayan Plants, flowered in the T( 

20 years in the establishment. Unfortunately the gorgeous flowers fall 
almost as soon as they expand. The showy Acidunthera rcquimwtiulU 
(Iridece), was raised from conns sent from Sierra Leone, in 1893, by 
Captain Donovan. Lou ice ra Albert i is one of Dr. Albert Kegel's 
numerous discoveries in Turkestan, and was raised at Kew from a 
young plant presented by his late father Dr. de Kegel, Director of the 
imperial Gardens at St. Petersburg. It is one of the prettiest species 
of the section Xi/lnsti >nn, having lilac-purple flowers; but it appears 
to require a continental climate to attain full development. Acacia 
spadicigera is one of those species having enormous -pine-like, hollow 
stipules, commonly tenanted by fierce ants, which serve to protect it 
from a variety of foes in its native country, Mexico and Central 
America. The Kew plant was obtained from M. Linden of Ghent, in 
1882. Cgrtopadhim riresceus is a Brazilian species, imported by 
Messrs. Sander, from whom the Kew plant was procured in 1893. 

Hooker's Icones Plantaram.— The second part of the current volume, 
lates 242G to 2450, contains figures of several plants of unu-ual 
iterest. Foremost among these is the Juan Fernandez sandalwood, So*- 

no.' m 

of grasses from India. Several of the novelties 

Lunt (the Kew collector who accompanied Mr. Bent's expedition to 

Hndramaut), and previously described in the Bulletin, are figured, 
including the new genus Bentia ( Aranthacce). lilt pharispvriinnii 
hirtvm (Composita-). the singular Ipniinni ,ri „i</rra and the outlying 
inaipighiaceous Acridocarpus oricnta I i- VhiUips'xt frutindosa is a new 
genus of Aoain ouring Somaliland. Ci/elt><h<ih>,i 

xovwliime (Kew Bulletin, 1895, p. 222 1 is an anomalous genus from 
the same country referred to the ScrophularineiB, though further in- 
vestigation leads to the conclusion that it would be better placed in the 

Hand-list of Orchids.— This hand- list .y 
following account is given in the Preface 
the orchid collections at Kew : — 

" The collection of Orchids cultivated at 

rkabl, - 

trueturaf arrangements and the 

dried state at all. While the 

9 of all the most beautiful and 

■'. '"Most 

ch in others which at first sight 


no small degree of charm and 

"In 1880, Dr. Pfitzer, Professor of Botany in the University of 

Held lb i!i. < ,■ to Kew 1 study it th< Jodrell Laboratory tl ■ K. w 
collection of orchid- for his well-known researches on their morphology, 
and he luis continued to draw on it since for further aid. 

"Dried herbarium specimens of orchids are not easily procurable. 
Species frequently flower at Kew of which no other material exists 
available for study. By this means the Herbarium of the Royal 
Gardens has been continuously enriched. And in this respect it is also 
under great obligations to Glasnevin, the Eight Honourable Joseph 
Chamberlain, Sir Trevo r - 

" The task of exhibiting a coll 
easy one. The dimensions of I 

cultivation and th nditiuu.- which it requires arc such as to preclude 

the admission of visiters. This is, however, of the less consequence, as 
when out of flower their general aspect for the most part is not, except 
perhaps to the expert, either instructive or interesting. The two public 
orchid houses at Kew, Xos. 13 (warm) and 14 (cool), contain for the 
most part only the plant- which happen to be in flower at any particular 
period. These houses are not suited to the permanent cultivation of the 
bulk of the collevti ms winch at other tines is carried on in the orchid 
pits (No. 15), to which the public is not admitted. 

"The cultivation of orchids is one of the most remarkable develop- 
ments of modern horticulture. Kew lias neither the means nor the 
accommodation to compete with the magnificent displays of certain 
species to be seen in the gardens of many private growers. The 
President of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1885 complained, in 
his opening address to the Orchid Conference held in that year, that 
' there is no sufficiently representative collection of orchids there (at 
Kew) at present.' It is hoped that the present Hand-list, which 
enumen.tes 200 genera and 1800 species (including about 50 garden 
hybrids), will remove that reproach a> far, at any rate, as its representa- 

at thi> result Kew is under great obligations to the liberality of Sir 
Trevor Lawrence, the Keeper of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. 

'the latter Messrs. V Sander '& Co.. of St. Alba..-. The 'bulk 'of the 
collection has, however, been built up by direct importation and 

Orchids have been continuously cultivated at Kew from i heir earliest 
introduction into thi- countrv. Th. m-attended 

the collection practically reflect the history of the progress which has 
been made in the art of* growing orchids under artificial conditions. 

The first exotic orchid which was introduced into lv.iglish gardens 
was Blctiu ft ■irrumlt/, which was obtained from Pro\ idenee Island, 
Bahamas, bv IVter Collinson. in LTol.and (lowered in ; 
year in the garden of Mr. Wager. About the year 177 s Plain* 
"tjvti mil fvt ins was imported from China by Dr. Fothergill, and a full- 
sized coloured figure of it is given in the fh*t edition of the Hnrtus 
Keirciisis under the nana' of I/niiuilinnn Tanhrrilhr. A peculiar 

e" resident draughts!.!;,,. ;, , , 

"discovered and figured the - nucleus of 

the cell," an all-important body, the first description of which was 

• Hubert Brown in l.s.'W. 

In the first edition of Alton's Hortus Kciccnsis 15 non-British species 

cultivated at Kew. Sir J. E. Smith wrote: "We 

have scarcely seen an\ one species oi' this genu- , Kj.i.l.-ntlrum], except 

Kew, nor wa< it nil ( )'■•■. hi r 1 7>2 I\ J mur.hts <>t ^wartz, exhibited 
its rich and elegant bloom in the same rim col'met'on. At present 
several species are to be seen flowering in the spring and autumn." 

In the second edition of the Hortus Keicensis (1813) 115 species are 
enumerated, of which 84 are exotics belonging to oi) genera, "the 
greater number," John Smith states, in his Records of Kew (p. 228), 
" being epiphytal and natives of the VYV-t Indies a few of the East 
Indies, Cape of Good Hope, and New South Wales." 

According to the same writer Dr. Roxburgh sen! a number of species 
from India in the early part of ihe pn-ent century. These, writes John 

back wall in what was then called the propagation house ; the Aerides 
growing and flowering freely, its roots clinging to the hack wall, as 
•colab'uun guttatum. There were also plants of Dcndmhi '»,■<> 
which had recently been 

Hut it wa--, 


and D. ci 




brought h 

ome from Calcutta 

by Mr. Pie 

that Engli 

ish gardei 

- the 

bium, and the first 


These « 

'back wa 

ills " are 

•el Join 


: hut tile 

y were nc 

•I will 

:ioiit ll 

t their merits. 

At this period, with the exceptions above mentioned. 
Kew "• were potted in common -oil. and the pots plunge J to the rii 
a tan bed." It is not surprising that their cultivation wn- attended i 
little success. 

A little ... rel step was taken in the dim-tun 

modern treatment. Sir Jo-eph Hank- devised and carried out at ; 
worth a method which was "one of the mo^ -i< ve-Ml m..di 
treating epiphytal orchids then known." Mr. H. J. Veitch, F.I 
;n his excellent historical nee. unit of "Orchid Culture, pa-t and |>i .■-. 
{Jour,,, li. Hart. Xoc, 1SS0, xi., pp. 11,3-126;, remarks : — " Tliis 

According to J. hn Smith ( /{ccord:,; pp. 22!>. 23!)) :— 

>. Between the 

Veal's h>23 and 1^25 a considerable number of species 

liom Trinidad, forwarded b } Mr. David Loekliart, the 

■ ,, aniwng>t which were the lir-t plants 

insifjiiis, (inridii'ui Pupilin, 1 jk hhtirtiii < It (/(his; Catania, 

■a tridentatum, 

Io„op.sli pdllidijlura, and other-, all of which were 

epiphytal, and 

many of th< - »f brand 

the tree-, which being aecompnni 


as to how they should be treated, led to the successful 

cultivation of 

epiphytal orchids." 

the culture of 

middle part of the present centurv dominated the horti 

cultural world. 

In 1830 he read a paper bet'..,v the Ib.yal IWtiVultu 

ral Society, in 

which, generalising from insufficient .lata, he conehuh 

>d « that "high 

was Joseph Cooper, 

•• plan's perched under th 

e ba 

rbar.HK treafmei 

1? the 

•ive.l in the 

hot-houses of 1 

>st as fast as tin 

elt, that Lindlev. 

published in 

the Garde 

Chronicle town 

i of ]-.'!). 

Zeman Ce a l lsf 

a deplorable fail 

which Mr. 


hie folly'" 

(, /. c, } 
The first gr< 

ns of hot -water 


nail scale by M 

Baron, at 

Aberaman, in 



,- the same "d 

entleman at 

been a Mr. Atkinson" (Veitch, /. v., pp. 122, 123). 

The same writer sums up in the following words th 
modern practice :—" Larger and more airy structui 

compartments for different climates (for large collecti 
houses); a lower avrage temperature, the admission « 

It must, however, be admitted that a e..u>hl. Table number of spec 
still refuse to submit to hori - CattUua eitrii 

many species of Oncidium, and the beautiful Cingalese Dendrobii 


,peeies. I 

entire and valuabl 
Abbey, which on 
Her Majesty i 

f all N ' J,o 

htius, the species of 

, wil 

1 sometimes flourish 

"> f ° r n ° 

•verable reason, they 

vhich new t 


; the east wing of the 

< erected ot 

■ site of an ofd stove 

Mr Willi.-,. 

n J I, 

llection of orchideous 

, ; i , ; ( ; i : ,;;;.;;;, 


ented bv Her Most 
him in 1844 as « the 


s formed at Woburn 
ant Duke of Bedford, 

1 to send to the Royal 

Mr wi :. m 

I loo 

ker's account of the 

.1 'cooler Uoso (No -2 now "lie i, 'j ^ J'!.| 'vo.'ll ". '■!■',! 

near Maud 

time. The orchideous house is assuredly one of the most interesting 
among the novel features of the establishment." 

In 1847 Sir William Hooker further recorded :— " The orchideous 
house ... has proved admirable for its structure, mode of heating, 
and the general arrangement; the plants, which have been increased 
j the noble bequest of the Rev. J. Clowes, of Broughton Hall, 
nchester, who willed his -pleinlid <■< .lld-ti* >n of (Jrrhidece to the 
Royal Botanic Garden." It is somewhat remarkable that this is the 
only bequest which tin- orchid collection at Ivcw has ever received. 

Many of the on-hids, however, did not thrive in the house provided 
for them, which proved too large for the smaller -pedes. These were 
therefore removed to the present orchid pits (now No. XVI.) about 
1851. From about 1855-1862 part of the collection was maintained in 
some old fruit-houses in the present herbaceous ..round, which had been 
remodelled and heated by hoi water. In 1st;;! the whole of the orchids 
had been removed to these house- and they remained in them till the 
erection, in 1869, of those in which they are now exhibited to the public. 
The old houses were pulled down. 

The orchid pits (XVI a & b) are amongst the oldest structures in the 
establishment. They are the "double propagating pits" of Dr. 
Lindley's Report (1840). The north end is formed by the only 
remaining portion of the wall of Mcthold's garden (it having originally 
belonged to Methold House, the Director's present official residence), 
which was added to the Botanic Garden in 1840. These pits were 
heated with hot water in 1842 and rebuilt on more modern principles 
in 1884. The small Masdevalha house (XVI c) to the north was 
reconstructed in 1893. 

According to John Smith {Records, p. 235), " in 1843 the number of 
species cultivated at Kew amounted to 755 and in 1850 to 830." Bv 
the same authority it is stated in 18G4 to have been 638. In 1868, 
according to the liotuiticol Mtn/aziitt I t. oV>!)2), •' Kev only possessed 
about four hum 1 red epiphytic orchids"; in this enumeration there is 
probabh some error, a> in l s 72 the number of specie- and varieties in 


belonging to 

v increased. 

The Ken- Bullcti,, for \H\)\ (pp. .32-75) contains alist of the orchids, 
'6G in number, which flowered in 1890. 

One striking e\ idem-e of the masten which horticulture ha- gradually 
equired over this difficult branch of cultivation is t lie successful pro- 
duction and rearing from seeds of hybrids. 

This commenced with the work of hominy in the nurseries of Messrs. 
f. Vcitch and Sous at Kxeter in 1 s.~).S, and it has been continued ever 
ince with increasing interest and success. It lias not beer, without its 
cientific value in indicating that many genera, reputed to be distinct, 
,re more closely related than had been . suppose.!. The ^v^-w rang' of 

For the convenience of cultivators a reference has 
as possible, to a published figure under each species. 
those in the Botanical Magazine have been cited, 
preference has b easily accessible 

however, be noted that a species is, in many 
different name (synonym) to that cited in the Har 

A few names current in gardens have been included which have i 
as yet received a final botanical revision ; these are indicated by 
abbreviation " Hort;' appended to them. 

Water Supply.— During the past year an important addition to the 
pumping machinery has been made by the erection of a triple expansion 
high duty engine as an auxiliary to the compound beam engine which 
was supplied h\ Messrs. Jame> Simpson & Co. in the year 1864. The 
new engine represents the very latest development of the . 
type which lias been adopted by the majority of the water companies at 
home and abroad. It has two high-pressure, two intermediate, and two 
low-pressure cylinders, arranged in line, and driving the pumps direct by 
- of the piston rods, the dimensions of the cylinders being 
8 ins., 11 ins., and 19 ins. respectively. All cylinders are steam 

The special features ,>f this class of engine are the very small amount 
of fuel expended per indicated horse-power, and the smoothness and 
efficiency in working. The discharge from the pumps being practically 
continuous there are no shocks upon the mains and they are conse- 
quently free from the fluctuations of pressure which attend the working 
of engines of the old type. The new engine has been designed and 
manufactured by Messrs. James Simpson & Co., of Gro3venor Koad, 
Pimlico, and the general finish of the work is of the highest class. 

The British Honduras Pine. — There has long been an impression in 
the colony of British Honduras that there are two species of pine on the 
•' Pita- Ridges," distinguished, a- Dr. 1). Morris, the As-dsfant Dire, toe, 
states (The Colony of British Honduras, p. 57) as white and yellow 
pine, "and supposed to be characterised in the one case by rather 
smooth and compact bark, and in the other by rather thick, 
spongy, and rough bark." He, however, was unable on the spot to 
find any botanical characters to separate what were pointed out to 

Kew were identified as Pitms cubensis, Griseb. The present Governor, 
Sir Alfred Moloney, has "sent further material which confirms the 
original identification, (irisebaeh {Catalogus Plantarum Cubensium, 
p. iMTt distinguishes two varieties, which may prove specifically di-tu. t 
as Wright, the collector, seems to have thought. The one has/b//7.v 
tcrnis, raro geminis ; the other foliis geminis, raro terms, associated 
u it!- differences in the cones. The latter is named var. ? terthrocxrpa, 
Wright. The Honduras Pin- is the same as the former, and therefore 
the original P. cubensis, Griseb. It is true that the leaves sometimes 
vary in number, a- indicated above, in both varieties, and on the same 
branch : but there is no* suHicient material at Kew to settle the question 
and define the species. The two other known WY-t Indian species, P. 

iefore the limits of the specie.-, can b. d< ined. There is one point 
" >n which does i 

and Central American forms requin 

the shape of the leaves in i 
appear to be very generally known. It is this : when there are two in a 
sheath they are concavo-convex ; when there are three in a sheath they 
are biconravo-eonvox, th«- inner face being concave or biconcave. So far 
as the Kew material goes, all the leaves of the Honduras specimens appear 

Sir Alfred Moloney also -cut specimens of the Hondurasoak (Quereus 
virc?/s) which, like the pine, descends to the sea coast, and is associated 
with palms and other trees of tropical types. 

Beetle larvae attacking Orchids.— Sir Trevoi Lawi •* .. , the President 
of the l^yal Horticultural Society, submitted to Kew pseudobulb.- of 
Dendrobium In,p* •■"trir attacked by larvae. Mr. W. F. H. Blandford, 
Lecturer on Entomology at the Forestry branch of the Indian Civil 
Engineering College, has kindly furnished the following report upon 

These are beetle larva?, and pretty certainly those of a Longicorn- 
beetle. They show, however, some slight divergences from the ordinary 
tvpe of Longicorn-larva, correlated, I believe, with their habitat, in a 
soft >tem instead of hard woody tissues. 

It is quite impossible to identify such larva? except when their mode 
of life is such a> to exclude any doubts. But it happens that the larva? 
of the only two known species of the genus Diaxenes, Waterh., live in 

The Brsl species, Diaxenes Taylori, Waterh. (Ann. # Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser. 3, vol. xiii., p. 128) was described from an example found in 
the Royal Nm- n. CheNeu, where it v. as gnawing the stem of a 
Phalirnopsis fr<>m Manila. Three examples in the British Museum 
are ticketed " Moulmein." 

The second species, Diet >,,,<, <!<_,, i/r<>hii. (iahan (Ann. <$• Mag. Nat. 
Hist.,sQV. 6, vol. xiii., p. 020) is known by four specimens taken alive 
on imported orchid-. The species of orchid were Dendrobium afropar- 
pureiun and D. nobile, the last imported from Moulmein. 

Whether the larvas before me belong to either species of Diaxenes, 
or even to the genus must necessarily remain unknown, unless the 
beetle be bred from them. But I should conjecture that, from the 
habitat .<! the ho-t-plants, it will prove to be distinct. 

Should Sir Trevor Lawrence be so unlucky as to breed out the beetles 

fuli\ looked over and the affected siem s de-ti«.ved. 11 am plants are 

but whether this inea 

::; s ,i; 

i practicable or 
ive care of the 

Waltkk F. 



have described 
iv Guinea , havii 

a small borin; 

ig probably been 
rymen. It is, 1 


die (Xyleborus 
ver, not present 


I may add that I i 
morigerus) which h; 
Dendrobia from Net 
with the orchids by a 

Solamim r note is extracted from a 

Report on a Bnta„iatl four in the Lakhim]>itr district of Assam, by 
G. A. Gammie, Assistant, Government ( iuehou; Piar.iations, Mungpoo 
{Records of the Botanical Snrrt-f/ »f India, i. pp. 70-71) :— 

''The military outpost of Sadiya, situated close to the right bank 
of the river, is surrounded by far reaching sttet< he- of grass savannahs 
interpersed by coppices of small trees. A large annual bazaar was 
formerly held here to the mutual advantage of" traders from the wild 
tribes in the mountains and merchants from the low countries, bat I 
believe they were discontinued a year or two ago on account of the 
virulent epidemics which broke out among these large gatherings of 

In favourable situation- in Sadiya the tree- are of noble growth 
compared with thi-e that term the copses. 

In addition to the grass lands at this isolated settlement a remarkable 
feature is the sterile aspect of some very large tracts covered by a 
clu-c -crub compos.-d of SoIani'Di torvum an-! Flt-miia/ia c<<ii<jcxta, but 
principally the former. 

Regarding thi- plant Captain W. \l. Lowther founded a note of 
alarm in the Ju« ,;,ul ,,//!,< At/ri- Unriicult nrai Snri, t,, of India, Volume 
xi. (1861), page 290. The article is entitled '-On the mischi"vou« 
increase oi a gigantic -■ - North-East Frontiei 

o! lieugal, nmn . -pi ciailv in tin 1', a Di.-uit ■{> of Assam." 

He states that the plan! wa- identimd a- ^.da,,,;,, u.rvmn. Su,n/, 
and that it promised to be one of the mo-; -tubboi'i; aiel formidable 
antagonist .1 ever have to contend. 

some ten or twelve years before in I'pper A— am where its rapid 

are too nauseous to be palatable to human being-, but they are devoured 

testimony to t] l« caused by "joom" cultivation, I 

custom still followed by the mountain and sub-mountain tribe-, but thb 
system is now greatly checked and will soon be traditional in the settled 
districts. Many areas of valuable land abandoned by indolent cultivators 
are overrun by this Solatium, with other equally'harmful shrubs and 
by many species of strong coarse grasses, long before a more valuable 
strong enough to compete with them on equal 




tfos. 111-112.] MARCH and APRIL. [1896. 


The island of Taiwan — known n> Kiuoixans as Fonno-a 

has been written, nor is it even now possible 'to do 
interesting halt* of the island, the mountainous porti 
botanized over, except in a meagre way, by native coll 
in the southern part, and by one or two Europeans ii 
have made short excursions from Tamsui. The chie 
"Wilford and Oldham, seemed to have touched the cc 
points. Swinhoe, who did so much for the fauna, code 
Tamsui has been visited bv Mr. Kord. of Ilonir Komr, 
collected most of the forns'in that neighbourhood, but p 
to flowering plants. The Eev. W. Campbell some ; 
collection to' th A, winch was, b 

orfoui yea, 

sa-o Mr. Phi 



During 1 
Ti.Uw. i".rl 
400 Takow 

893 and 189 
i on Apes Hil 


Takow, th. 

■ otl 

t "ape 

in- mountains, 

\vher<>, HII 

ier i 

lie guidance of 

M. S< 

huuiser, one 

,.! t! 

icli^ht keepers'. 

the mivmi:- 

Both th 

ese 1 

was only able to 

spend a day or 

>. I 


height of 

3000 feet, so tl 

as yet virg 

il, and richly tempting 

Duplicates to 

over 2000 

-ent In- 

me to Kew, comp 

rising, perhaps, 

i all. Of publi 

on the flora 

of J 

•• Index Flora- 

incomplete, as the 

to Mr. 

Plnyfuir\ col 


part* publ 

1. Mr. Hanco 

the Customs 


de Report ou 

Tamsui t\„ 

1, has drawn att 

to the more ■ 

of th.- ih.ra 

ad, while his 

int of the agri- 


: of Culmlhnu, 

by which 

[ da 

re ,„y he m,;„, 

1 "ten 

>," a species 

of Cotocatia. One 

by explorations of Central China and Japan. 

2. Flora of I'm mltivatvd Plai ,,.—'Y\\\*\> pra-ticallv the same as 
that «,f the Indian plain, and in it 1 include the littoral flora, which 

3. Plants occnrrin.j only in Formosa and tin Philippines.— These 

The wood of this tree— the " sung-ssu" of 1 

frames of junks, rudders, cross-bars of anch 

<>. Introduced Plants, nan: naturalized., 

Batata v)._ This is the sp, 
is°of opinion that"the latter. 

[erican origin are : — 

Guava (Fsidium Guayava), everywhere wild in South Formosa, 
called "Na-pot" by Chinese, ehilii [Capsicum annuum), tomato 
{Lycnpcr.sicitm vsruhntum). The wild form bears small red fruit, not 
iarger'than a marble, and it is to be met with far away from European 
settlements. The tomato is not cultivated by Formosans. 

Jafraplia ('una*, an euphorbiacooti* tree, of small stature, bearing 
capsules containing three s.-eils. wide!, vicld an oil on pressure. This 
tree is littoral in habit, and, while known as » T'ung Vn-shu," a name 
more propork given to the wood-oil tree_(. Ilcttrifrs cunhttu b dors not 


I'acla/rhizx-s unipilahiz, a l;r_e climbing papilionaceous shrub, with 
handsome purple flowers in autumn. The root is shaped like a turnip, 
and is much cultivated in Kwangtung. where it is known as "fan ko " 
(i.e., foreign "ko").* It is only slightly cultivated in Formosa, but in 
the wild established state it is common enough. 

Pithecolobium dulce, the chin kuei, or golden beetle tree, occurs at 

Hyptis suaveolens, 

a herb wit 

h blue flowers, 

in the hills, is highly 

Hyptis capUata, 

another h 

erb, liking m 

flowers in a head, is r 

it has not been met w 

■itli on the 


najonty ot llie 

in the swamps, belongs to Verbenacece, and has yellow flowers and 
curious fleshy fruit. 

.Kvetrcari// Agallncha, k:iown as the "hsiang shu " (fragrant tvno*. 
It occurs on the shores of the lagoon. In old trees the wood of the 
trunk near the ground often becomes transformed in part, chaiuxins in 
colour from whit.- to reddish black. These hits of probablv diseased 
wood burn readily, with, a slight odour, and are used locally as a substi- 

to be the product of a different tree. Aq//ila>ia Aaillocha or A 

Pongamia glabra, a leguminous tree on Takow spit. 

Terminal',! Catappa, a tree with large oval leaves occurring in the 
same locality. 

Toiinicforha sarmentosa, a common climber, with white cymose 

lit ex iri folia, common creeper with small blue flowers. 

n ver seen it hut in it- uuit'oliolate variety. 
(Uinavalia ohtvsifolia, a large cliuihing papilionaceous sh 

t. prostrate 
owers, occurring on wav 

Bischofia javanirii. with trifoliolato leaves, known as the " ka-tang " 
{in the local dialect). The wood is good, and used for making 

Melia Azedarach, the pride of India, " k'u-lien." 

Neither the common loquat nor the rare Hong Kong species occurs 
in Formosa, but a very largo, ami perhaps new, species of Eriohotrt/a 
occurs near Takow and at the South Cape. The fru t is aller than 
the mainland loipiat, and has little flavour. 

An ash {Fraxwiu Sp.) occurs rarely about Apes Hill, but it is 

;!;;mIT';.J^;v„t™' : 

) was found by Mr. Playfair on 

Vi/i/t produces a viscid fruil 

, eaten by the natives with soy 

etablc tallow tree. Sapitun 

scbifemm. — The fruit is not 

irge tree. The fruits are no 
>y are in many places on the i 

HHilahariciim, the silk cott 

cliffs as a shrub, is occasionally 
t so much used here in lieu of 

on or " moc-main " tree, known 
tree with red tulip-like flowers 
-cotton. It is not collected in 


Amongst smaller trees worthy of notice are the following :■ 
Laportea pterostigma, a tree of the nettle family, with 1; 

2 I ioleiiilv. 
Ehntia' fonnnsmui. the '-houk'o" or. "thick bark" has 

which, however, splits on drying. E. macrophyllu and E. 

Pittosponnn sp. nor. the " kiehjiu," is very common, an 
Ma Hot 

Hibiscus tiliacrvs grows to he a fair-sized tree. Its bright sulphur- 
yellow flowers change as the day advances to a dark maroon colour. 
If. mvtabilis, smaller, has white flowers changing to pink towards 

Nvrraya erotica, the " shih-!ing," is a small tree with fragrant 

Leca saii)i>>:ri ,ni. a heautii'ul shrub or small tree, with large much- 
divided compound leaves and a mass of red inflorescence, the individual 
flowers as they open being pale yellow. This tree belongs to the vine 
family, from wl edh in habit 

Cm salpiniri, which is wrongly stvled '• acaei 

a " by some Europeans 

.n China, is represented ly throe species: — 

('. pn/c/x rriina, an erect shrub with gaudy I 

ed flowers, much culti- 

vated. I have seen no wild specimens. 

C. S'xga. a large thorny climbing shrub. 

with masses of bright 

yellow flowe; | ,ad pods. 

C. Bonducella, also a large thorny climbc 

r, with inconspicuous 

(iin-er {Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) are 
cultivated, the latter being a large export from Anping. ('anna iudira 
is a common cultivated flower. Two species of wild Zingiber occur 

specimens of a species <>i Tra bun 
Around Takow there are two j 

: -;.-' ; 

only unci die. Two species of reed are common. Ischanwn (oujhs- 
tifolium occurs on the sea face of Apes Hill, and is a grass peculiar in 
the fluffy nature of the base, out of which the culms spring. It is the 
" Bhabur grass" of [ndia, where it is used as a good material for 
making paper. 

The sugar-cane. S<icc]um>m Ojjjr'mannn, is much cultivated, and at 
least three varieties occur, only one of which I have been able to obtain 
in flower. The cereals include rice, of which five varieties of the 
common kind are noticed in the Paris Exhibition catalogue. In 
addition, glutinous rice occurs, and two peculiar kinds, red rice and 

and for mi 
the plant o. 

the governor or the palace, may take three years in' making. The 
plant is reported to occur only in cultivation, and to he confined to the 

that it, is /.own from .-..•. 'd. and lasts for several vears, being cut down 
thrice a year. The fields are said to be kept' irrigated' with fresh 
water like rice fields. J am unaware that any foreigner has observed 
the mode of cultivation of the plant or the manufacture of the mats ; 
the plant is unknown. There is here room for an interesting investi- 
gation, and i lens of the plant in flower, with seed 
tor sowing and details of cultivation ami manufacture, be sent to Kew 
bv the first traveller in the locality. The 

Itivated as far south as the 

South Cape. Barley < 

H'.curs in 

'the island. Maize, conum 


'•»/'/<"•< )• 

ids of millet (Setaria) are : 

(C'oi.r Lacri/Dut-Jobi), which is alwa 

ys erroneou 

sly styled 

re. It may 

be noted 

>n sacciuiratKM, which is cu 

the Yaiurfy 

;u Valley, 

bv the Chinese for maki 

irgely for that purpose in 

The Unite 

1 States, wl 

lere it is 

alt grass, 

ickish water, and the stems' 

'/jjurrs, but 

nad.. The 

m Tamsni. and varv in pri, 
; each. They are used by 



y. The namintr »f <■'//>< m > « , tc ' 
longs, is difficult, and can only be 

chinensis to sinem 

even if, as is the ca 

Economic Botany. 
Some of the plants useful to man or cultivated in Formosa have been 

incidentally mentioned in I he piveeding -keieli ; but I shall now confine 
myself in tbe remaining part of this paper to plants of economic 

The edible Legmninostp. are the same as on the mainland. The 

garden pea ( P,s»m sftt,v,n„\ the Soja bean (Su/tt h;.;/„la). Luhlah 
vulgaris, and several species of ./>/,„ ,-, ■„/„.,. Tlie two following mem- 

Scsfmni't acf/i/ptiara. known as " slian eli'ing " (i.e., wild indigo. 

Citrcas, Aleurites corthtta, Hit 

Ichsuiir and Hankow. I did not see the plant wild in Hiipeh or 

the districts of |)roduetion. 

A peculiai' kind of eamplior, ri' gn at value in the eye- of trie Ohi?:ose, 

plant about 2 or 3 feet in In iirlit. hel inking to Composite. This may 
be distinguished as •< Ai " camphor, from the Chinese name of the 

'. ' ,' i . v..", 
Mission at ini thod 

plant is worthy of attention from a e mine rcial point of view. 

See Kew Bulletin, 1895, i 

; is made into the kind of grass-cloth distinguished i 

3. Jute {Corchorus 


the fibre 

of which 

is known to 

Europeans in China as " hemp ski 

'Ma" is g€ 

meric for 

"bark," referring to th 

of the planl 

. whirl. N 

stripped off in 

long ribbons. Owing t 

(O the differei 

on of the 

plant in China 

and" in India the prodi 

icts look rei 

The so 

-eniled " hemp 

e out of ti 

making rope ; 

4 dollars a pi 

Corchorus nliforiiis, 

an allied sp. 

•cio>. which 

: is readih 

■ distinguished 

Mr. Hosic mention- a fourth kind of "savage cloth, 
anana fibre, but there i- no certain information to hand 
" Dye yam," the large and dark red tuber of Dioscorea 

Mi« -m' 'tubers 'an^ll ill;. '.'.■. fh I .'■ fishermen for'dyei 

milarly. The tubers are cut up into small pieces and 

quid. The planl ng, and waafii 

[r. Ford, who afterwards, on his trip up the AVest llh 
lat the tubers so much used in the Kwang Tung Pre 
roiliu-t of this plant. It occurs also wild in Kwang-hs 

-way of Lungchow. The French call flu- tubers fau.r Gambler, but 
they are generally known in customs returns as "dye root." or "dye 
yam," "shu-lang" being the Chinese name. In addition to their use 
for dyeing nets, the Cantonese employ f Hem for giving a peculiar gloss 
to certain cotton goods. Specimens have been sent to Kew and to the 
i-tl Museum, .-!'!<! if found to be of value in Europe as a 
dyeing or tanning material, doubtless large quantities could be exported 
•mi,! South Formosa, where the present price is about 2 dollars a picul 
{Kew Bulletin, lS9o, p. TAO.) 

over rocks; yields n peculiar jelly when treated with uater. 'and is a 
nongst the Chinese in summer. It 

Very curious fans are made in Taiwanfoo out of the leaf of the 
" Areca " paJ Formosa. 

Jn the preceding notes I have not touched on many well-known local 
products, as ground nuts (Arar/ii* , m seed, boll) 

of which are considerable sources of oil. ' 

Formosa is rich in fin; pies and " lung-ans " are 

:om a commercial point of view. Oranges, pumeloes. caraiu 
bolas, pears, rose-apples, guavas, papaws, cocoanuts, sweet sops, bananas. 
&c., are also produced in quantity. 

Tamsui exports certain kinds of seaweed (identified at Kew as 

Podocarpm Xa<j<ia. furnishing an excellei 
from Tamsui by Mr. Morse. The Chinese call 
allied species occurs at the South Cape. Mr. Morse 
Ctmninghamia sinensis, the " sha " tree of the mainland, 

traveller. Thuja orientalis also occurs. 

h-.nU a Sali, 

Lauracea are numerous in species in the mountains; there are 
several species of Machilas with excellent wood. One of the local, 
"lam-a" wood ("nan mu" of Mandarin speech) is much used for 
making furniture, &c. The " siao lam " is another species. Camphor 
wood, of course, is common and excellent. Ebenacece are abundant. 
Diospyro? Kaki, " the persimmon," is cultivated for its fruit. Another 
species occurs as a small tree on Apes Hill, while at the South Cape a 
third species, with large hniry fruit, is common ; but the source of 
the ebony (" o-ma-ts'a "), which is highly valuable, and common in 
the southern mountains, is not yet satisfactorily made out. 

Maples we scarce, perhaps three or four species in all. Styrax, 
Sijmplaco*, /^'t/iiiiti, and Calophyllum, and numerous other genera 
with excellent wood are well represented in the mountains. 


(Kickxia africana, Benth.) 

The rubber industry at Lagos of which an account was given in the 
A'( w Bulletin, 1895, pp. 241-247 (with a plate), affords one of the most 
remarkable instances of the rapid dc\ elopment of an industry that has 
taken place in recent years in any British Colony. It owes its" existence 
to a wild plant which was only discovered in Lagos within the last two 
or three years. It was found to he new as a source of rubber, although 
there is now reason to believe it had yielded some of that formerly 
exported from the Gold Coast. At the present time Kickvia rubber from 
Lagos has established itself as a commercial article in great demand. 
The exports in January 1895 were 21,131 lbs. of the value of 1214/. 
This was practically the beginning of the industry. In December 1895 
the exports had increased to 9 IS.OOO lbs. of the value of 51, INS/. Us. Id. 
From a recent return, communicated to Kew by the Government of 
La^os. the total exports during the year 1S«I"> amounted to o.Oii! ),.">() 1 lbs. 
(2263 tons) of the value of 269,892/. 13*. lOd. This considerable 
industry has therefore been called into existence within 12 months. 
The rubber is purely a forest product, and the collection and preparation 
of it have been effected by means of native labour. The success of the 
industry is another indication of the undeveloped resources of our West 
African Colonies. It is only a few years ago that a somewhat similar 
though more gradual, rubber industry was called into existence at the 
Gold Coast. The origin of this is -ivon in the following extract from 

by letters to the local press. The first pra 
by Mr. P. C. Grant, of Cape Coast, whose 
by others, and the undertaking proving r< 
rubber began in every part of the colony. 
annually ranges from 30,000/. to 40,000/. i 
During the year 1893 the Gold Coast ( 
of 3,395,990 lbs., and of the value of 218,1 

Colonial Secretary's Oflice. Lagos, 
Dear Thiselton-Dyer, January 13, 1896. 

I enclose a return showing the export of rubber during 1895. 
Tremendous, is it not ? It seems to be the general opinion that there 
will be a considerable falling off this year, but I question if anyone can 
speak With any degree of certainty on this point. 

We have had a gocd year on* the whole; revenue, 112,000/., the 

Believe tee, Ac, 
(Signed) George C. Denton. 

E. A. Lovell, Collector of Customs. 


planting is being energetically extended in West Afi 
•t of the world is the home of more than one species yiel. 
ial coffee Chief amon-st these is the Liberii.ii coffee w 

Coast and at Lagos. In tin- Inner colony tin- induct rv has originated in 
the efforts made in that direction at the botanical station established hv 
the Government at Ebute Motta.— (Keio Bulletin, 1888, p. 149). The 
distribution of Liberian coffee and other plants from this station have 
been as high as 13,960 per quarter, or at the rate of 45,000 per annum. 
In 1892 (although a nominal price only was charged for the plants and 
in some cases main distributed five oi charge to native chiefs) the total 
receipts amounted to more than 91/. What was apparently the first 
attempt at a regular coffee plantation in Lagos is described in the Kew 
Bulletin, 1893, p. 182. 

station at an elevation of only 20 feet above the sea, was valued in 
London at 94s. per cwt. It has been shown, however, that the more 
permanent sort to grow in the lowlands is the Liberian coffee, and 
samples of this were recently valued at nearly the same price. The 
curator, Mr. Millen, remarks in his Report for the quarter finding the 
31st December 1894:— "There is no doubt that coffee has a great 
future before it on the West Coast. If properly cultivated and prepared 
it should be able to compete with any coffee-growing country." 

In the Appendix to the Report on the botanic station for the quarter 
ended 30th September 1895 the following further partieulais are 

Lagos .— 

It will probably be interesting to record the advancement made in 
Coffee plantations in this colony, which have originated th.ouirh the 
establishment of this botanical station. 

When returning from Abeokuta his Excellency the Acting- Gov ruor 
gave me permission to visit two plantations situated near the Ado River. 

The first one I visited was at Soto, and is owned by the I him rotates 
and Plantations Company, Limited ; it was commenced in 1S92. and is 
under the management of Mr. Punch, a European, who took me r >und 
and kindly gave me quarters for the night. 

includes 50,000 phmts ..| ' Coffhi lib, rim. These plants are in different 
stages of growth. 12(H) plants are three years old, and are pro.lm ing a 
fine crop of large bold berries : ,'jOOO trees are two years old. ami a e in 
a very healthy and nourishing condition. These also are producing 
berries, and are doing remarkably well when taking into consul . ation 
that a crop is not expected much before three years ; !)()()() plant- were 
planted out last year, and 36,000 during the present year. 

About 1000 of Coffea arabica are planted out, and these have nro- 
duced good crops of berries of good size. 

Cacao is also being grown ; 4500 plants have been piloted Q . :nd 

; properly. The ground is kept tree from y>*. 

supplying \>- ' tlic plantations. Mr. 

to raise in all about 50,000 plants. 

The plantations are worked at the present time by aboul 

tiling that c 

from the healthy 
mid be desired, and 

appearance of the 
. well suited to the 



her plants. 

work is very creditable lo Mr. Punch, who takes j 
He was pleased to see me to obtain information on 


sited the plantations: 

;, the property of A. 

(\ C'a 

r distant from 

the town of Ajilete. I visited this plantation in the early part, of 18!)."}. 
and reported on it. At that time preparations were being made for 
planting out during the rains. I could see a marked improvement since 
my first visit, and considerable work had been done. 

Mr. Campbell offered me every facility, and was pleased to see me 

tion, most of these? beinu. planted with Liberian Coffc", nuinbi :i ;:;_ 
iJ-.lKMi plants Thev arc represented in three stages of growth:— 
1 :;.0( hi -Aeivplanfdout in 1 S!)3. and are in a most flourishing condition ; 
the berries are veil matured, and of good size. In 1894, 22,00<) wen 

•_'.-,,lHH) plants of Coftva lihericu are in beds large 

planifolia).— These were obtained from the 
grown in a shady and cool place on the plantation 
i enormous growth, and have been doing so srefl 

ntieipares planting out an acre with this valuable 

Cacao.— Abou 

f> my previous visir, ai 
creditable indeed. 'J It 

both plantations. Tl 

rid of. Me; 


As pointed out in the Kew Bulletin for 1893, p. 363, numerous 
notices have appeared in these pages recording the attempts made by 

means of the Botanic Station -y-tcn to develop the material progress of 
the West African colonies. 

So far, however, it has not been formally applied to the British 
possessions on the East Coast. The transmission of tropical plants 
suitable for cultivation in those territories is not unattended ivit h dillieulfy, 
and a convenient station on the cast, where they could he propagated, 
and from which they could he drawn, would undoubtedly be of great 
utility to intending planters both in British East and in British Central 

As regards the latter territory, Mr. Alexander Whyte, acting under 
the in st met ions of Sir Ileum .John-ton. K.C.B., 11. M. Commissioner and 
Consul -General, commenced a -mall botanical garden in 1891 at Zomba, 
the head-tjiiarters <•[' the administration. An account of the enterprise 
is given in the Kew Bulletin for 1895 (pp. 186-191). The site 
is, however, some 400 miles from the coast, and plants transmitted 
from England can only reach it by the Zambezi. There is every 
reason, however, to believe that the Shire Highlands will become the 

ago as 1878. It has been cultivated with great success by the Messrs. 
Buchanan, and bO estate- -have iieen opened up.*' .Shir-' Highland 
cotlbe commands a high price on the London market. 

The first attempt to establish a depot on the East Coast was due to 
private initiative. 

As stated in the Kew Bulletin, 1892, p. 87, "during the time 

Zanzibar, he maintained at his own expense an experimental garden in 

"been introduced years ago by Sir John Kirk. The seeds from tlies 
pods, T regret very much to say, failed to germinate." 

A fuller account of the present condition of the garden is containec 
in the following notes of a recent visit, taken from the Zanzibar (7 -. th 
of the 28th August 1391 :— 

"Mr. Crabbe, the Ceylon planter who was passing through hero last 
week on his way to Nyassaland, paid a special visit to Mbweni for the 
3 coffee plantations started by Sir 

John Kirk at the close of his time here. 



Crabbe was well pleased with 

the condition of mar 

iv of the 

d as the crop was ripe and fallin 

g, he opened 

hich were duly transmitted to the 

Ho made sev< 


in the plantation, but who was 


away from home 

" The 

tea which is now in full blossom 

and affords a 

pretty s 

izht well 

drive to visit, Mr. Crabbe cons 

d* for the 

leaf hare 

Uy worth growing, and he did no 

t recommend i 


cacao he considered planted in 

too windy a 

site, but 


e sliamba pointed out many spots 

on which he 

be plant. 

?d to better advantage." 

In the 

i Zanzibar Gazette of the 11th September 

1805, th 


tive review of Sir John Kirk's 

work in Ea 

st Afric 

a. His 

to botany nnd horticulture are re] 

'erred to as fol 

lows :— 

"Beside3 tbese main features of his rule, minor affairs of the island 
ere his constant soliciting. Agriculture, horticulture, experimental 
anting, the rearing of botanical specimens, all cnga^i d ids .".Mention. 

" The -peoimeiis of imported plains .-till to be seen in h : s oh! slnnnba 

the ph,. 

island to Sir John Kirk; and had he remained here, with all the 
oppo rnnii es the place affords, Zanzibar might now he a rlnral and 

In a private letter, dated October 16, 1895, Sir John Kirk wrote :— 

"Mv garden at Mbweni is coming at last to be appreciated, and after 
eighteen years mv coiTee plantation, which supplied m ■ with coffee when 
there, is now likely to be the source of an industry to relieve thedepen- 

came from lsew ; they are Liberian and do splendidly." 

Almost every economic production of East Africa has at one time or 

another received attention from Sir John Kirk. He virtually created 

value of over 1>( »;>.()()()/. The piants yielding the rubber discovered 
by him are enumerated in the Kcw Report for 1SS0 (pp. 39 
to 42). 

Again, plants of the East African copal, TracJit/lobium horncmann- 

rgan.ia [Knr Ih'lktin, 1 SOL', p. •» ; Kew is also indebted tb him for 

seeds and perticul* 
living stoniana am: 
(1894, p. 225). 
A kind of dye 

Society, ix., p. 229) as the produce of a new species of Ctidrania. The 
edible fruit " has somewhat the flavour of an insipid custard-apple. 
The tree rani;, s at leaM from the Zanzibar coast to British Central 
Africa, where it is apparently abundant. Bentlmm and Hooker {Genera 
JPlantarum, iii., p. 362) refer it to Plccospermum ; but now that the 
fruit is known to consist of free drupelets, it is better, perhaps, to give it 
generic rank. 

Sir John Kirk's services to horticulture at home cover the whole 
period of his resilience in Africa. The following list of plants 
introduced by him to European gardens, chiefly through Kew, is an 
interesting record of what is possible to be done by an enthusiastic and 
devoted traveller : — 

Aloe brack ystachys, Baker, n. s.p. Bot. Mag. t. !T."-09. 

„ conchma, Baker, n. sp. 

„ Kirkii, Baker, n. sp. ; Bot. Mag. t. 7386. 

„ penduliflora, Baker, n. sp. 
Chlorophy turn Kirkii, Baker, n. sp. ; Gard. Chron. 1882, (i.) 103- 
Clerodendron ceplutlunthinn, Oliver, n. sp. ; Ic. PI. t. 1557. 
Crinum Hildebrandtii, Votke. ; Bot. Mag. t. 6709. 

„ Kirkii, Baker, n. sp. ; Bot. Mag. t. 6512. 
Driiniojisis Kirhn. Raker, n. sp. ; Bot. Mag. t. 6276. 
Encephalartos Hildebrandtii, A. Br. 
Hibiscus schizopetalusy Hook, f , n. sp. ; Bot. Mag. t. 6524. 
Impatiens Sultani, Hook, f ., n. sp. ; Bot. Mag. t. 6613. 
Katnpferia (Cienbowiya), Kirkii, n. sp. ; Bot. Mag. t. 5994. 
Keramantkus Kirkii, Hook, f., n. gen. ; Bot. Mag. t. 6271. 
Landolphiaflorida, Bentb.; Bot. Mag. t. 6963. 
„ Kirkii, Dyer, n. sp. 

„ petersiana, Dyer, n. sp. 

„ Watsoni, Dyer, n. sp. 

Musa living itoniana, Kirk, n. sp. ; Journ. Linn. Soc. ix. 1.28. 

„ proboscidea, Oliver, n. sp. ; 1c. PI. t. 1777. 
Neobenthamia gracilis, Bolfe, n, gen. ; Bot. Mag. t. 7221. 
Ochna Kirkii, Oliver, n. sp. 
Sawsevieria Kirkii, Baker, n. sp, ; Bot. Mag. t, 7357. 

Every effort has been made by Kew to assist the establishment of 
planting industry, in British Central Africa by the despatch of plants- 
suitable for cultivation there. But owing to the length of time occupied 
by the transit, the operation is beset with considerable difficulty. 

British Central Africa, via Chinde, 
My dear Sir, 20th September I-!),"). 

was full 20 days long t than it should have been, and I have written 
pointing «>nt thai while healthy passengers can rake care of ami spc<ak 

shout out for themselves more care and attention. 

In spite of the long transit, they are in marvellously good condition. 
Only four are ahsolutely dead and non-existent, a hole only remaining 
to testify visually to their former existence. These are ail Musi-. 
Then Cinnamonnnn ( amphora and C. zeijlanieum seem quite dead; 
while Diptenjr njarata. Eixjoiia malac-ensis, Piper loai/am, and 
Tamarind, have only vague .signs of life. Eurjeaia Jamba*. Passijiora 
ma lif or mis, Piper Cubeba . and /'. m</ram will come round I hope and 
trust, while all the other 20 are in good condition. This seems a 
marvellous result after So days, a period seldom exceeded, ! should 
think, in these days of rapid transit. Twenty good, four fair, four 
doubtful, and six dead : excellent ! 

All the Musas being dead remind me that I have been on the look- 
out since reading your Bulletin on bananas, for seed of our indigenous 
Musa here But it is difficult to get, and seems to seed very seldom. 
When I get seed I shall send you some. 

As to the material of the panes, which is much better than the old 
glass, the varnish or oil had melted and a good many leaves had stuck 
to it and been quite spoilt. It hud run down the branches and stems 
of three or four, and apparently killed them so far. The moment 1 got 
off the first side, or front, I put sheets of paper over each pane to pre- 
vent this. Perhaps for hot journeys paper or some such impervious 
covering would be of advantage. 

1 gave the plants perhaps 10 minutes dilmsed lighHn a verandah, 


To-morrow I shall have them put into boxes and can tull\ turned twice 
or thrice a day, first in the room, next in the verandah, and lastly in a 
shady place in the open air. Those that are moribund I shall give a 

Hoping many may eventually prove of much use in the country, and 

., CLE., 

Xephi'liiim Lit:hi 
PuvMtWu edi.lis - 
Pilocarpus pinnatifo 
Pimenta officinalis 

During the course of last year a prolonged correspondence took place 
between Kew, the Foreign Office, and Sir 'Henry Johnston, wit!, a view 

of ascertaining it' some depot could he established on the east coast 
from which plants could he supplied to Nyasahmd and which would 
fce of more easy access than Zomha. The idea, how. ver. proved im- 
practicable, and Zomha will therefore for the future be treat, d as the 
central station to which plant, will lie sent, where they can lie propagated 
and from which they can he distributed. 

The whole position is thoroughly discussed in the following letter 
from Sir John Kirk :— 

Sir John Kirk to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

November 30, is 95. 

establishment of stations for the 
distribution of useful plants in East Africa. It is obviously a needless 
expense and waste of meana for Kew and other horticultural establish- 
ments it! Ku^lai.d to send out separate consignments to each separate 
district as hitherto has heeu done. The work of receiving plants for 
distribution in East Africa should in my opinion be limited to two 
central stations, where once received they would be propagated or 
forwarded at once in part by a skilled gardener who would evamine 

The districts to 'be considered are (1) the British Protectorate of 

Nyasaland and die lirilish territory south of the Zambesi to be 

ed by the South Africa Company. 

Clearly the best route by which 
region is rid the Cape, as a rule, ar 
the best centre, being in regular communication by 1 
and possessing a sub-iropieui climate where pla 
the Nyasa highland- could ivadiU be propagated for d 

There is one obstacle that presents itself in the w 
namely, the rules that are -found to be necessary i 
coffee leaf disease out of the N'vasa coffee plantations 

If, therefore, Nyasa will not allow plants that ha< 
at Natal or other points on the coast to be introduced 
must make its own provision for the direct f 
abandon all participation in such a scheme as you suggest. As Nyasa 

)refer to incur the additional cost of direct consignment, 

there is no necessity to consider the use of Natal as a 

coast station is to be established to supply that part of 

, I feel satisfied that Natal is the proper place from its 

ition and the facilitv of access and distribution coupled 

and moist climate it possesses. 

(2.) Between Nyasa and Zanzibar we have no interest, and as at 

Zanzibar and on the opposite mainland at Mombasa the climate is 

tropical, a separ.ate .station is there needed. Natal would not serve as 

a centre, partly from the distance, tie' want of rapid communication and 

for many of the plants that might thrive near the equator. 

The best point f 
regions would be a 

•s of ph 

Kits for this 

■ ythol' 

likely i 


.vay of. 

his proposal, 

The further advantage of such a ]>o>it ;. \ :- t! .! !r would be at the 
base of a railway line, the con>l ruction of which i- only a question of a 
short time if we intend to hold our protectorate in Uganda. 

ttighl be siid for making the slat ion on the island of 
Zanzibar, where I had my experimental garden, but, the climate and soil 
of tlip i-lamt do not suit many plants that might well he introduced. I 
would, therefore. pref< i Defer to Mombasa and the 

railway base of the future as may be. 

You are free to make any use you please of the above. 

Tours sincerely, 
(Signed) John Kirk. 

Extract from the Gazkttk for Zanzibar and 
November 27, 1895. 
The Rev. Pere Morel only last week, on behalf of t 
Holy Ghost, took away with him a large quantit 

■ i i,v.\i:~ ti 

f John Kirk, 
his has brought coffee planting to our doors. We hope from time to 

■ to publish intelligence helpful in these matters. 

1 a private letter, dated December 15, 1895, Sir John Kirk writes 
>gard to his Zanzibar garden, which he transferred to Miss Thackeray 
ic Universities Mission :— •• It is a great satisfaction to know that 


Myrrh and frankincense have been precious commodities from the 
earliest times. Few drugs have had more careful study bestowed on their 
origin. Yet even to this day it is by no means free from uncertainty. 

The preparation of a new edition of the Official Guide (No. 1) to the 
Musi um.s of Economic Botany in the TCoyal Gardens has necessitated a 


her myrrh-like substances are found in Eastern trade 
substitutes, and are often intermixed with it. The 
partly African, partly Arabian, and partly Indian. 
s in each case is a task fraught with extreme 

this drug Fliickiger end Hanbury (Pharmacoyr., 2nd ed., 
give the following description: "Myrrh consists of irregular 
: sh masses, varying in size • • • of an opaque reddish brown 
lusty dull surface. When broken, they exhibit a rough or waxy 
re, having a moist or unctuous appearance, especially when pressed, 
rich brown hue. The fractured translucent surface often displays 

mark at the base of the linger nails. Myrrh Ins a peculiar and agree- 
able iirrj an.' ■, with an aromatic, latter and acrid taste." 

Somali myrrh is collected -on the range of hills which on the 
African shoYe runs parallel to the Somali coast " ( P/Hrh and llanh., 
I.e., p. 140). The identity of the plant pro hieing it has been carefully- 
studied by Dr. Trimen. 

He makes the following statement (Pharmaci nlical Journal. 3rd 
ser., ix., p. 893) : Hildebrandt "collected in March 1*73 in the Ahl 
Mountains, which run parallel with, the North Somali coast " a plant which 
"was pointed out to him by the natives, who call it Didin." He" found 
•myrrh exuded on the stem "of the tree, of which the specimen gathered 
was a branch: it exudes spontaneously, without any external injury, 
and is called Molmal by the Somali, but Mar by the Arabs ; (he former 
•collect it in great quantity, find it i> brought to Aden and other Arabian 
ports, whence it, is carried to India and Europe." 

This plant Hildebrandt referred without doubt to Balsa modendron 
Myrrha. Xees (Sitz. Gcs. Naturf. />., Nov. 1878, p. 196). 

l)r. Trimen further says : "A large branch sent over in a living state 
to Kew by Mr. Wykeham Ferry appear- to be identical with Hilde- 

47 K. Ion-. Mr. IVrrv gives the Somali nam- :1 , Ihdthio for the plant. 
and Mulnnd for the product:' (Ac.) An account of this specimen is 
given in the Kew Report for 1878 (p. 40). 

Dr. Trimen had not merely the advantage of discussing the subject, 
with Hildebrandt himself, but he examined and figured (/W%and 
Trimen, Medicinal Plants, t. 50) the Somali plant collected by the 
latter. He further had the opportui, I th the speci- 

mens collected by Ehrenberg on the Arabian const pf the Red Sea 
(opposite Massowa) on which Balsamodendron Myrrha was founded. 

So far, then, nothing would seem more secure 
of the source of Somali myrrh. Fliickiger and Hanbury (I.e. 141) 
•conclude: " Balsamodendron Myrrha, Nees . . . must therelore 1m 
pointed out as the source of true myrrh of the European commerce." 

Unfortunately the recent researches of the Berlin botanists have 
thrown serious doubt on this. It seems (dear that the plant collected 
by Hildebrandt and figured by Trimen is not II. Myrrha. On the other 
hand, it is not, as the Berlin botanists have supposed, B. Play/ai,-,;. i 
plant which produces Gum Hotai, a substance entirely different to 
myrrh. It is apparently closely allied to Balsamodendron (Commi- 
phora) Schimperi, which must therefore provisionally be accepted as 
the source of African Myrrh. 

Arabian Mvunii. 

There appear to be at least two, and probably more, kinds of 
Arabian myrrh. 

i. According to Fliickiger and Hanbury (Ac. p. 113), "Myrrh trees 
abound on the hills . . . in the territory of the Fadhli tribe , . 
lying to the eastward of Aden ; myrrh is collected from them by Somalia 
who Cross from the opposite coast for the purpose, and pay a tribute for 

n> (ho Arabs. Cut a sample of it received . . . from 
Vaughan in 18c2 . . . proved it to be somewhat different from 

Somali myrrh and Fadhli myrrh give a violet tint when bromine is 

Hanbury {Pharmaceutical Journal, xii. p. 227) thus describes the 
specimen obtained by Vaughan "produced 40 miles to the eastward of 
Aden": — " In irregular pieces, varvingin size . . . not coated with 
dust like pieces of Turkey myrrh, but having a somewhat shining 
exterior. Each larger piece appears to be formed by the cohesion of a 
number of small, rounded, somewhat transparent, externally shining, 
tears or drops. The fracture much resembles that of common myrrh, 
but wants the semicircular whitish markings. In odour and taste it 
closely agrees with true myrrh. Portions of a semi-transparent, brown, 
papyraceous hark are occasionally attached to pieces of it." 

ii. What maybe called Hadramaut myrrh appears to be distinct from 
the above. Dymock {Phfirmarmtiral 'journal, 3rd ser. vi. 061) says : 
— " From Makulla and Aden another kind of myrrh is received, the 
Arabian myrrh of the Pharmacographia. The trade name of this drug 
in Bombay is mectiga ; it is mostly sold in India as true myrrh, for which 
it might easily he mistaken . . . I am assured by the dealer* that 
no true myrrh is ever received from Arabia.'" And the same statement is 
quoted from Maloohiiso!] by Royle {Materia Mulica. 2nd ed. p. 384) : — 
" There is no myrrh produced in Arabia." 

Parker {Pharmaceutical Journal, 3rd. ser., x. p. 81), however, says : 
— "The ' meetiga' of the Bombay market, called Arabian myrrh by 
Dymock, differs entirely from . . . Hanbury's Arabian myrrh." 
But Fluckiger and Hanbury only recognise under the name Nos, i. 

" iii. Riiokiger and Hanbury {I.e. p. 146) describe what is apparently 
a third kind of Arabian myrrh. " This is the myrrh * Hodaidia Jebr/i,' 
from north and north-western Yemen." It gives no colour with 

The source of these kinds of myrrh is still involved in more or less 
uncertainty- Balsamodendron Myrrha was originally described from 
Khrenberg's Arabian specimens. It is doubtful if it affords anv part of 
the Arabian myrrh of commerce. This conclusion is confirmed bv 
Defiers, Voyage au Yemen (p. 120). 

" Le myrrhe, — el-Mour des Arabes, — est, apres lecafe, un des princi- 
paux articles de commerce du Yemen. Mais elle y est importee en 
grande partie du Harrar et des pays Somalis qui sont les veritable* 
centres de production de cette resine aromatique. Bien que l'arbre a 
myrrhe (pvobablement le B. Myrrha) soit commun dans toute la region 
montagneuso moyenne et inferieure du Yemen, il est trop dissemine 
dans les local ites one j'ai visitees pour etre l'objet d'une exploitation 

Balsamodendron Opobahamum, Kth. (B. ehronbergianum, Ihrg.) 
appears to be widciy distributed throughout the Arabian littoral. It 
has been repeatedly collected in the neighbourhood of Aden. Defiers. 
refers to this species, though with hesitation, the plant from which 
myrrh is collected in Northern Yemen. He remarks that it had neither 
flower nor fruit and seemed to belong to a form intermediate between 
B. Myrrha and //. Opohalsamum. He gives the following account of 
q of myrrh from it {I.e. p. 121). 

" La myrrhe en larmes, concrete a la surface des fragments d'ocorce 
pris sur 'les Bahamodmdron do* environs de Hodjeilah m'a paru 
abondaute et comparable aux varietes les plus estimees. Deja, sur les 

contreforts da gebel Hofasch, au N. ilu wadi Surdud, on commenc 
pratiquer l'extraction de la myrrh* 1 . Mais cVs! principak-inuit , dan: 

5 de mes recln 

'• M,r est toujours cite dans le seDS < 
que que la myrrhe est un corps solid*-, pa 
mais a l'emploi de la medecin* 1 , plutot d'u 

Tous les pateages de I'ancien testame 

\;nAx I u^iVWi-i^r.V_..adl.i.' 

-A Vvyanl de la nomenclature be 

lai." Maign 

er Arzueigewa 

11 taut c 

de Nees 

)l<nn V rhh,« 



au Tehama, la 


MmtIh- n 


i. LeII.Myi 

produit au 

cune resine. 

■a) M>/rrha, (N.-t-s) SchwK. 
a Myrrbam proebens, sol mm 

MM. Fngler. Schumann, Ciareke, \c . ont adopte kins leur edition 
t'c.\ plication donnee par moi. La myrrhe des Somal u'cst pas encore 
sutlisammen! constate, personne n'a vu la recueillir, sauf Hildebrandt 
qui a manque d'identifier l'espece botaniquement. Chez les Somal 
plusieurs espoces de Commiphora sont en jeu. 

L'ide.itite de Cm,imiph< • ■' • -siri'ica avec la myrrlie du commerce 
d'Arabie a ete constate pa r M. A. Deflers en 1893 dans le pays des 
Fadhli (est d'Aden) ou il a vu collectionner la myrrhe et d'oii il a 
rapporte des echantillons botaniques. D'apres Deflers aussi la region 
a I'oiiest d'Aden, au centre de Tangle sud-ouest qui forme la peninsule 
■d'Arabie, en contient beaueoup. Cette espece de myrrhe est aussi 
beaucoup expioite dans ie district de Suda dans le Yemen turc (90 
kilometres a nord-ouest de Sana). Ce dernier donne la myrrhe du 
; exporte par Hadeidah comme la meilleure. 

n'est pas recueillie en Abyssinie du moins pas pour le 

En Arabie on 

appelle la myrrhe aujourd'hin " Khaddash" pour 

irr " ou u morr " serait plutot l'expression arabe 

anciens etait un medicament solide ; une seule variete, 

■qu'on appelait " s, 

takte" pouvait servir comme ingredient aromatique a 

Ha composition de: 

s mixtures odorantes. 

liberate judgment of so accomplished a botanist as Dr. 
th is entitled to great weight. It will be observed that he 
10 opinion as to the origin of Somali myrrh, although he sets 
aside the conclusions which have hitherto been drawn by Fliickigcr, 
Hanbury. Trinem and others from If ildebrandfs observations The 
conclusions at which Schweiiifurth arrives are apparently : (i.) that 
Falulli and Yemen Myrrh are identical; (ii.) that both are produced 
by llalsam ;h which 1 >»-!lcrs appears to have 

recent! v identified the plant which he formerly doubtfully referred 
to B. Opobalsamum. 

difficulty. In the first place both Somali and Fadhli myrrh give the 
same colour reaction with bromine, while Yemen myrrh gives none. 
Yet Hanbury {Pharm. Jotirn. xii., p. 227) thought Fadhli myrrh "the 
produce of some other tree than that producing common myrrh," i.e., that 
the plants producing Somali and Fahdli myrrh were different, as is 
probably the case. On the other hand, the Kew Herbarium contains 
a specimen from the neighbourhood of Aden collected by Captain Hunter 
and labelled bv him "true mvrrh," which agrees with B. Myrrha. In 
the Keic Report for 1*7* (p. 40, the following account is given of a 
specimen sent to Kew by Mr. Wvkeham IVrry " as the true myrrh tree 
of Arabia." " It came .from the hills in the Fadhli district, some 60 
miles from Aden. It was believed to be the same species as the Somali 
plant. This may be so, but it is wanting in the excessive spininess of 
B. Myrrha, and a small flowering branch previously received from Mr. 
Wykeham Perry appeared to agree with II Upohalsamnm, Kth., found in 
Abyssinia bv Schweiiifurth, and winch i~ believed to be identical with 
li. ehre.ibenjianum, Berg." Trimcn ( Puntlcy and Trimen, Medicinal 
Plants, sub tab. 60) on the other hand regards the specimen as belonging 
to "apparently the same species" as Ii. Myrrha. Ir seems probable that 
"VVykeham 1V: as the intermediate form of Deflers 

referred to above, and I am now disposed to identity it with Commiphora 
simplicijnlia, Schw. 

The Kew Herbarium contains a suite of specimens of this 
collected in Arabia Felix by Schweinfunh himself. Two of t 
the vernacular name " Chaddascli " or " Chaddesch." I pres' 
tins is the plunMdentiiied as II. uhysshnnnn by Deflers. Th( 

may conveniently be maintained as. a <li.-tin.-t .species. Scln 
remarks that myrrh is not collected from B. abyssinicum in / 

sort is the' label of a specimen eM!i,.,i,'l hy Spek/arid't Vim" 
bears the remark " Frankincense shrub, fencing by gardens." 
A specimen of a plant stated to \ ield myrrh collected b\ 

As to Hadranmvt ,„,/,■,•//, we have the evidence of the specimens 
•collected in 1893-4 by Mr. Theodore Bent, who was asked to give 
[.articular attention to the subject. ll can hardlv he doubted that thev 
are referable to B. Opobalsamum (Kcw Bulletin, 1894, p. 330). 

African Bdellium. 

This drug, which is associated with myrrh, but, as far as East Africa 

is concerned, seems little known in European commerce, is exported to 
Bombay from lierbera, a sinail seaport in Eastern Africa, via Aden. It 
appears to have been generally idenlili.-d with the drug to which 
■Guibourt origiuallv gave the name, and which was derived from West 

Boyle {Mat. Med., 2nd ed., 387) *>A\s:—llulsa»wdi-Hdron afri- 

having been found in the Mat country of the Adel. It yields African 
bdellium, or that imported into France from Guinea and Senegal, 
according to M. Perottet. M. Adanson, likewise, in his travels in 
the Senegal, mentions it by the name of Niotout, as producing 

Guibourt (Hist. Xat. des drogues simples, 4e ed. iii., 472) says 
that "ilen vient aussi d'Arabie <pii parait etre de meme nature." 
With regard to Balsa modendron africnmtm, the plant producing it, he 
adds " il est probable qu'il traverse l'Afrique de part en part, et rien 
n'einpeche de penser qu'il ne croisse egalement en Arabic" 

Dymock (Pkarmacogr. Lid. i., p. 310) says: — "to a certain extent 
resembles myrrh, but is of a darker colour, less oily, and has a peculiar 
odour destitute of the aroma of myrrh ; " and further " common 
bdellium is strongly bitter and has hardU any aroma." 

The most detailed description is, however, given by Parker (Pha 

., p. 82):—" African lUhUunn is met with in larsre 

tears like Qpt : he gram 

surface is traversed by deep cracks. It is very hard ; the conchoidal 
fracture appears slightly opaque, of a dull bluish stony hue, with a 
characteristic resinou* margin; it is reddish and translucent in thin 
layers, almost odourless, and its taste feebly bitter." 

Dymock (I. r p. 310) includes both this and Habak-hadee, a drug 
to be described further on, under t lie general name of " Bysa-bol." 
'Ibis is. however, used by all other writers in a more restricted 


# later writers. 
' Mr. Johnston, also 
247), in treating -of the tree that yields this useful drug, myrrh, 1 s:iys 
'there are in the country of Adel two varieties, one alow, thorny, 
ragged looking tree, with bright green leaves, trifoliate, and an 
undulating edge, is that which has been described by Ehrenberg. 
This produces the finest kind of myrrh in our shops.' This may be 
either /,'. Mi/rrha or one of the forms of./?. Opobalsamum. 'The other 
is a more leafy tree, if I may use the expression, and its appearance 

contains escape. The outer bark is thin, transparent, and easily 
detached; the inner, thick, woody. When wounded, a yellow turbid 
fluid (the gum-myrrh) immediately makes its appearance. Naturally, 
the gum exudes from cracks in the bark of the trunk near the rout, and 
Hows freely upon the -tunc- immedia*el\ underneath. Artificially it i- 

li This plant, judging from the specimens deposited by Mr. Johnston 
in the British Museum, correspond,- exact h with one, also in the same 
collection, obtained by .Mr. Salt in Abyssinia, Balsamodendron I\na of 
Mr. Brown's MSS., and of which Mr. Salt says, he obtained from it 
a gum much resembling the myrrh." 

I am indebted to Mr. George Murrav, the keeper of the Motanieal 
Department of the British Museum, for tracings both of Mr. Salt's 
drawing and of Mr. Johnston's specimen. Roth appear to me referable 
to />'. (ihijssinii inn. which Oliver refers as a variety to B. africanum. 
Koyle states (I.e., p. 387, footnote) :— " Mr. Johnston immediately 

The' leaflets are like those of />'. Kua, Mr." It appears there!"..™ that 
of the two plants met with by Mr. Johnston, the first is the source 
of " true myrrh," the second of African bdellium. 

Opaque Bdellium. 
Parker (PharmaceuticalJournal, 3rd*, ser. x.,p. 82) gives the following 
' may be at once recognised by its opaque, 

mil difficult to fracture (difference from 

u-idity, occurs frequently 

Like Aii iean bdellium, it funis its wa\ to India from Berbera. 

According to Dymoek {Pharmaceutical Journal, 3rd ser., vi., p. 661) 
this is found in the hales of African myrrh when sorted at Bombay. 
It "is called meena harrna, and is used for the extraction of Guinea 
worm ; it is of a yellowish-white colour, resembling ammoniacum, with 

P«rker however | I.e., p. 82), remarks that u Dymock's specimen . . .. 
of Opaque lUltlliuiu, is a viry brittle opaque gum, which agrees 
chemically with the gum hotai of Yaughan. Dymock's identification 
would seem therefore to be incorrect. Perhaps Parker's 

not clearly understood by Rentier and Trimen who .' Mi did, ml Pian/x, 
sub tab. (50), referring to Hotai, observe ' ; for which Opaque Bdellium is 
another name." 

Parker (Pharman utiail Journal, 3rd ser. xi., p. 41), further points 
out ihat tincture of Opaque Bdellium gives an int< 'tis.-- gr< ■< nisi: bla< k 
colour with ferric . 

Of the source of Opaque Bdellium nothing appears to be known. 
Parker (I.e. p. 82) attributes it to Balsam* dnidron Plai/fairii, supposed 
to lie the source of (him Ihtui, hut there appears to l>e no ground 
for this except Reiuley ai d Trime; ' of the two 

Ilanbury states (Pliarmart nfical Jon raid, xii.. p. 227) that this is 
" usually regarded as a species of n ality. It was 

« d . . . . It is quite distinct from Indian and African 

F:uel,i,er and Ilnnbu 
•' liissa J 161 differs from myrrh in lis stronger almost acrid 
odour which when once familiar is easily recognisable; fine.specim 
of the former have the outward character of myrrh, and perhaps 
often passed off for it." But they state that, unlike myrrh, it gives 
violet colour with bromine. 

They identify it with Hahaijhadi or lUbbakhade of the Somalis. 

It is exported from the whole Somali coast. (Fliiek. and Ha 
Pharmacographia. 2nd ed., p. 1 15.) According to Captain Hur 
(quoted by the same authors, I.e.. pp. 140, 141) it is not found "in 
coast range of the Somali country, but only at a considerable dista: 

Dvmoek ( Phunnun ntieal Journal, 3rd sev. vi. p. MI) further sf.ys 

hat the adhi rent 1 ark i- thick. " no! : ' adheres to 

Parker (Phurnuinvtivid Journal. 3rd ser. x., p. 82) identifies 
Dymock's perfum, d Udt Ilium with Bissa bol proper. He states that 
'bales of Bissa bol are shipped from Berbcra to Bombay ; probably a 
ai-irc proportion of it goes to China." 

He describes it r,s rcscmi ,■- " mvrrii much i i « . ther of 

,:..,.i bed. In external a] pear; tu-e it is very 

In the Kew Reports for 1878 (p. 41) and 1SS0 (pi>. 50, 51) refer- 
ence is made to specimens of the plants \ieldiug Bc-ahol brought to this 
country by Mr. Wykeham Perry. They produced foliage at Kew and 
were identified as Hemprichia" erythrcea, Ehr. Hemprichia is now- 
known to be identical with Balsamodcndron, and the specie.- producing 
Bissa bul may therefore be regarded as B. erythraum. Parker (7. e.} 
gives it as B. Kafal. This is apparently founded upon the remark 
of Bentley and Trimen (Medicinal, Plants, suh tab. (it)) that Jlcmpriehia 
en/thr<ca is probably to he referred to . \m i/ri.s Kafal id' Forskal. In 
this Enoler (/> Cand. Monogr. iv. p. 21) agrees. 

Trimen (I.e.) also suggests the further identity of Bulsjmodendron 
Kataf; hut in this Engler (I.e., p. 19) does not concur. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes made the following statement (Pharm. Journ., 
3rd Ser., XXV., 1891-95, p. 501) :— 

"With regard to the perfume culled opopanax, I find that the oil of 
opopanax of |)erfii!iier v is obtained Irom a gum-resin which has a totally 
different origin, being* derived from Commiphora Kataf, Engl. It is 
the " Bissabol" of Pharmaeogmphia (2nd Kil., p. 145), and the per- 
fumed bdellium of Dyiuuck.Mat. Med. Indn,pp. 158-9. In appearance 
it roeinbles opopanax and myrrh also, hut it has a -lightly pleas-, nt and. 
quite distinctive odour." 

It is pointed out in the Kew Report for 1878 (p. 41) that : — " Fors- 
kal relates that the gum of lialsamad<.ndro,i Kataf is used by Arab- 
women for was — for which 
that next to be mentioned r J,m,i //otai] is employed in Somali-land." 

According to Vaughan (Pharm. Journ. xii., p. 227) this "is the 
name of a gum produced by a small thorny tree which grows in the 
Somali country about Bunder Murnyeh. The tree or shrub is in ap- 
pearance not unlike that which produces the myrrh, and attains the 

Kliickiger and Ifanbuty ( Plairmamyr. 2nd. ed\, p. 146) quote Miles 
for the statement that " hodthai is only used in the Somali country, by 
men to whiten their shields ( hy means of an emulsion made with the 
drug), by women to cleanse their hair." They further suggest thai 
'• probablv hodthai and habayhadi is one and the same thing." In the 
Km- Hopnrt U>i 1HS0. p. 51,'it is pointed out that "the gums them- 
selves are certainly distinct, and the plants yielding 

The origin of Hota 

i seemed cle 

lifted by i 

the specimens sent 

which Si, 


as Balsamodendron 

I'layfn i, 

To the: 

the Kow 

Herbarium n note by 

Hanbury :- 

-"It eon 

feet high growing in g 

jreat abundance all »!• 

)iig the S 

omah co; 

ist on the 

sandy plain lying betv 

Hotai is also applied 

ance and of which Captain Playfn 

nearly inodorous but 

forms a frothing emuls 

ion. Thegt 

im is collected by th 

it as soap, and accord 

iug to Mr, 



for clei 

msii.g the 

sometimes darker towards the centre Nearly in..dorous, 

agitated with water in a phial speedily affords an emulsion, which 
remain.- frothy and ndlkv for many days." 

Engler (Be Cnul. Sloan,/,: iv.. p! II). has idm,tilicd /,'. Phn/fairii 
with /,'. Myrrha, but lids identification ,,, : be sustained. 

Dayfair's specimens bear the lahel -Somali country. The plant 
yielding the gum ' Hotai.' " This Kngler «piotes as "Somali, in 
eampis Il«-t.-ii." a translation which might, perhaps, mislead. It is, 

parallel to the Somali coast, while L'la\ -fair's plant grew mi the sandy 
plain between the mountains and the sea. 

Engler (Xatiirt. P/lanz, nfam. iii. 4, p. 2o(i) quotes the statement of 
Hildebrandt which has been cited above a- to tin- plant lrotn which tin- 
latter collected myrrh in Somali-land. Jhtt he adds the ipialitieati.m 
not given by Trimen that it was a plant '• mm-h resembling /»'. M>/rrlm. 
.which has been described as a distinct species, />'. Phn/fairii. This is. 
however, an error : as shown above, it is different from both. 

African myrrh when sorted at Bombay is found to contain a variety 
f other substances more or less similar in character. About these- 
ittle or nothing is known. They are discussed by Parker ( Pharm. 
burn., did ser. x., p. 82, and xi., pp. 41-43). 

Two kinds are described by Dymock (Pkarmacogr. hid. i. pp. 31 ( 

i. The produce of Balsamodendron Mnhul somewhat resembles the 
African ding in general appearance, the pieces often having portions of 
papery hark attached to them, but the colour is lighter, often greenish; 
the odour and taste are somewhat different, and a certain proportion of 
it is in distinct vermiform pieces as thick as the little finger. Its 
value is one-third less than that of African bdellium. 

ii. The produce of B. Roxburghii occurs in irregular lumps covered 
more or less with dirt and hair, to which portions of paperv bark as 
well as the thick inner hark sometimes adhere; it i- of a greenish- 


by the 
with i 
India (see Hooker, Kcw Journ. Bot., 


Mr. Egbert Derry, formerly in the employ of the Royal Gardens, 
and late Assistant Superintend-nt <>i the Hardens and Forest Depart- 
ment, Malacca, a post recently abolished, has been appointed Super- 
1 Gardens, Perak. 

Mr. Alfred P vrsoxs, Superintendent of the Annandale (iardens, 
Simla, Punjab, has resigned his appointment on the reduction of the 
salary. The post has ceased to be filled by an officer possessed of 

Mr. Charles Wakely has been appointed Staff Instructor in 

Horticulture under the Technical Instruction Committee of the Essex 
County Council. He was for five years in the employ of the Royal 
Gardens, during two and a half years of which he was sub-foreman in 
•the tropical propagating department. 

Mr. William Binder, late foreman in the Temperate House 
Department of the Royal Gardens, died at Ive\v on January 12 last 
after a prolonged illness. His service extended from 1871 to 1887, 
when he was retired on account of old agre. The Superannuation Act 
of 1887 abolished pensions for men in Mr. Binder's position, and on 

The Botanical Magazine for February. 

• i: 
was from the island of Hainan. But the plant figured is not the true 
'. N.E. Br. but S.javanica, .lungh.. t!i<iuixli '•' 

Relief House.— One of the great difficulties i 
of plants under glass is the necessity from tim 

repainting the lump's in which they ure grown. Fortius purpose the 
houses have to be emptied and the plants removed. Thej inevital.Iy 
suffer severely from being crowded and stowed away in places quite 
unsuitable to their cultivation. 

To remedy this difficulty, H.M. Office of Works built last year in 
one of the private cult urai departments of the establishment. ('-.Melon 
Yard ') a " relief house." This structure is 56 ft. long, 23 ft. wide, 
in. in height at the ridge. It is constructed of iron, and in 
light as possible, copper glazing by Messrs. 
le lights. Any collection can now be trans- 
Tea at snort notice to the "relief house'' where it will be, though 
t accessible to the public, safe from injury till its original quarters 
• again available for occupation. 

Palm House Heating. — During the past year the renewal of the 

rata* in the Palm House has been completed. In the Ketc 

Bulletin (pp. 42, 43 1 * for February 1895 an account was given of the 

work done on the north wing in 1894 at a cost of 1,000/. During the 

past summer the south wing has been dealt with in the same way. 

It is now becoming generally understood that the heating of large 
structures for horticultural purposes requires a different treatment to 
that which is suitable in other cases. It is necessary to have a large 
amount of piping heated to a comparatively low temperature rather than 
a small amount at a much higher. At first sight this looks wasteful, bat 
in practice it does not prove to be so. The i 

of fuel, though there are more pipes to h< 

pipes necessitates the furnaces being " driven," with s 

of fuel. The atmosphere in the house is heated 1 

movement of the" hot air in contact with the pipes, which in turn is 

replaced by cooler ("convection"). The hotter the pipes, the more 

violent are the currents and draughts set up. The heated air absorbs the 

glass. In cold weather i 
necessary for the welfare of the plants. These, especially when tropical, 
suffer almost more from excessive dryness than from a low temperature 
As the heated air ascends from the pipes below it cools, and a down 
draught is set up. The use of a high level auxiliary pipe to a large 
extent remedies this. Piping is now carried round the whole of the 
Palm -House at the level of the lantern. 

Douglas Spruce Spar. — The great flagstaff in the Arboretum at Kew 
is one of the most conspicuous landmarks of the neighbourhood, ft is 
the second of two spars which were presented to the Koyai Gardens 
with great public spirit by Edward Stamp, Esq., of the firm of Messrs. 
Anderson, Anderson, and Co. The first was from liritish Columbia, 
and was 118 feet in length. It was broken in course of erection in 
1859. The existing spar came from Vancouver's Island, and is 159 feet 
in length. It was erected in 1861, and is believed to be the tallest 
spar in the old world. The age of the tree from which it was cut 
was about 250 years, and its total height 180 feet. The base had 
gradually become decayed, and on examination it was pronounced by the 
Admiralty to be unsafe. Messrs. Ande; 

however, of 0] rved, and on their recom- 

mendation the work was placed by H.M. Office of Works in the hands of 
Messrs. Robi actors to H.M. Indian Government, 

of Bridge Koad Works, Poplar. They successfully lowered it, removed 
tlu .-decayed and spliced on a new one of pitch-pine. The splice 
is held together by five iron bands. The spar was then re -erected on 
February 4 last. 

Pelican.— During the month of January the fine Dalmatian pelican 
(PelicanH.s rnspv.s), which had for many years been a popular pet in 
the Roval Gardens, met with some unexplained accident, and broke both 
its wings. The injury was, unfortunately, not discovered till it ,vas past 
remedy, and the bird had to be killed to put it out of suffering. It was 
given to the Royal Gardens in 1888 by Lord Gilford, who had obtained 
it from the Lower Danube. 

The Zoological Society has, with nival kindness (through the 
secretary. P. Sclatvi. K<, { ', VM<.]. supplied its place with a female 
white pelicm (Pelicanus onocrotalus), which it is hoped will mate with 

Blackthorn fishhooks.— Amongst recent additions to the Museums is 

one illustrating a sin 

Lrular application of the blackthorn (Pnoui.s 

spinosd). It seems th 

at the spines or thorn- of this well-known plant 

-ed oil the east coast of Ks.-ex as (ishhooks. We 

are indebted to Mr. R. 

T. Pritchett, a resident of Kew, for a portion of 

a fishing line that has 

appan-nth seen considerable service on the Kssex 

these thorns with a small portion of the twig 

attached are fixed by . 

i peculiar knot to the short lines. l n the volume 

ining one of the Badminton Library series, these 

dated, and are thus referred to: — " In the Thames 

of Kssex, thorn hooks are still used. The form 

■ivances. wliicli we should expect to find among 

in English waters, will be understood from the 

illustration. Each tho 

ni has about an inch of lugworm twisted round it, 

and the lines so baitc 

d are laid about 50 yards from the shore at low 
the actual specimen Mr. Pritchett has been good 

tide.'' In addition to 

i coast of Merioneth. 

thaceous plant confined to 
litherto had any econc " 

simply laden with the buds, 'flu-re whs in the air a -weet. resinous, 
pleasant odour from the buds. My hands were covered with u hat they 
exuded and — this is the point — though I washed my hands three times 
the pleasant scent remained. 

Can the buds be put to any use? I am here but for ten days, but 
from what I have seen should think there must be an almost inex- 
haustible supply. 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) F. C. Constable. 

Karachi, Sind. 

Messrs. Piesse & Lubin to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

2, New Bond Street, London, 
Dear Mb. Jackson, February j, 1896. 

Your note and the sample of Strobilanthes duly to hand this 

If your con ■ some of the cone- and leaves dis- 

tilled with water so as to collect the otto w T e could form a better opinion 
as to its applicability to the wants of the perfumery trade. Speaking 
generally, we think it would be likely to be used in the soap trade. 
Some ottos, as you know, are considerably altered by the distillation, 
for example neroli, from orange blossom, and the neroli is perhaps more 
appreciated than the orange blossom, if we may judge from the ever- 
lasting demand for"eau de cologne" in which it is prominent. The 
experiment is worth tmng. and perhaps your correspondent would pick 
up some hints from the " Art of Perfumery." 

Believe me, &c, 
(Signed) Charles II. Piesse. 

Mr. Littledale's Tibetan Plants.— Mr. Littledak- gave a striking 
account of his recent remarkable journey in Tibet at the meeting of 
the Royal Geographical Society on February 24. 

The Director made the following remark- on the plants collected :— 

save his parcel of dried plants from the disasters which betel the rest 
of his collections. Its examination, which is not yet wholly completed. 
proved extremely interesting. It contained between 60 and 70 species, of 
which probably ten are new to science. They were nearly all found in 
a [GooringJ valley (about 16,000 feet) on the south side of the high 
range of mountain- which lie between the I'engri Nor and Lhasa. 
The precise position was hit. 30 12. X. and long. !»()" 25', K. 

"One of the most striking features of the collection is the large 
preponderance of Kuropean genera ; one night in fact -ay of 15riti.«h. 
because the large majority are represented in Hritain. Out of betwen 
40 and 50 genera there are only half a dozen of which this is not the 
case. Five species, Aconitmn X<ip< litis, Pctcntilln ffticosa, Myrio- 
phyllum verticill'tti'iii Tarn varum pahistrc and FohjtjoHion vivipannn 
" iU: 3 country. The first is probably an introduced 
t is anaqnati. , I ich is usually 

■ -tic mountain forms with us. And 

in Potentilla fruticosa we have the mo.-t -inking Ink between the 
two floras, as, though a rare plant, it is undoubtedly native in the North 
of England and the West of Ireland. 

"The flora of Western Tibet has long been tolerably well known. 
Eastern Tibet on the other hand was stated by Sir Joseph Hooker in 
1855 to b3 l quite unknown botanically.' Since this time our know- 
ledge of the northern belt is the result of the journies of Prjevalsky and 
Potamn, of Captain Bower, and of Mr. Rockhill. The publication of 
the collections of the two former travellers was interrupted by the 
lamented death of M aximowicz. Those of the two latter were worked 
out at Kew, and the results are published in the Journ. Linn. Soc. 
(vol. xxx., pp. 131-140). Of the flora of the country between the 
neighbourhood of the Tengri Nor and Sikkim our knowledge is still 
extremely limited, and is much enlarged by Mr. Littledale's work. Sir 
Joseph Hooker in two days' journey only succeeded in collecting some 
15 to 20 species. In 1882 the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 
obtained some plants through a native collector. L T gyen Gyatsho, who 
accompanied Sarat Chandra Das in his journey to Lhasa; the collector 
did not, however, get further east than Gyatse Jong. In 1B90, Prince 
Henri d'Orleans, like Mr. Littledale, attempted to reach Lhasa from 
the north, but apparently collected no plants in this part of his 

" The conditions under which the Tibetan flora exists are perhaps 
unique. Long ago General Straehey expressed his conviction that 
flowering plants existed up to 19,000 ft. (J.R.G.S. xxi., p. 77). But 
18,000 ft. appears to have been the highest observed level till the 
receipt of the collections of Surgeon-Captain Thorold who accompanied 
( 'apt.-, in Mower. Tlie condition* under whieh vegetation can exist in 
such circumstances are of course extreme. It is hardly necessary to say 
that there are no trees and no shrubs nor any plants above a foot high. 
Very few indeed are above 3 inches out of the ground. General 
Strachey estimated that in the part of Western Tibet which he visited 
1 not one twentieth part of the surface was covered with vegetation ' 
(Journ. Linn. Soc. xxx., p. 101). A very large proportion of the plants 
are herbaceous perennials with long tap-roots, a rosette of leaves lying on 
the ground, from the centre of which springs the dwarf inflorescence. 

"The flora as a whole belongs to the Arctic-alpine division of the 
great northern region. But as usual this contains a purely endemic 
element, and also one related to the neighbouring area to the south, from 
which it has been perhaps recruited. Of the characteristically Tibetan 
plants obtained by Mr Littledale some had been previously obtained by 
Prjevalsky, Thorold, and Rockhill. Of the species not exclusively 
Tibetan, some extend to the Himalayas and the mountains of Western 

" Of the typical Arctic-alpine flora two species may be singled out as 
representative. Lychnis apt tain extends i,, spit/bergeu, and there is a 
very interesting form of the well-known edelweiss, Leontopodium 
, which was also collected by Mr. Rockhill. The total absence 

tingle fern collected, I'oh/podinn, 
previously only i known from Eastern Asia (China, Ja 
Among the new species is a striking grass. Of two fu 




Nos. 113-114.1 MAY and JUNE. 

e neighbourhood of Belize, 
British Honduras, by the Governor, Sir Alfred Moloney, K.C.M.G., 
1892 {Kew Bulletin, 1S95, p. 10). The first curator was Mr. Jan: 

in AVest Africa. 

Sir Alfred Moloney has recently i-sm-d a - fhief Outline of tlm 
Botanical Efforts of the Government of British Honduras." This gives 
an interesting account of the work of the station and of the part it is 
intended to play in aiding the economic development of t ho colony. 
Hitherto I'.i'itisli Honduras has he the rutting 

of mahoii-aii. and logwood. I'lu- former has, howc\ vr. -rvw 
of late rears owinjr to the competition of so-called " mahogany "' from 
West Ar'nea. It is evident thatothei industries are neeessary for the 
welfare <»f the colony, and the Governor has ri-hm drawn puhhV 

that end. If we trace tne eoui>< '"'> colonies as 

Jamaica and Ceylon it is evi<!< .ttliai tie cultural industries must at the 

,.■■.-, : .' ,, - ■■:■• • ■■'■-■-■ ' -.:■:■■:.!■• 

and the opportunities oil'ered lor iisposiun ot the produce. British 
Honduras is verv favourahlv situated as regards soil and climate, and it 
has excellent i immiMiiu uik.ii with tic Nmtlniu N.i.e <>1 Ameiiea., s rn -uppnn from the general 
community, and there is little d.mbt thai a~ soon as tin- r ; ch lands in the 

other tropical staples. The following extracts arc taken from the 
Governor's statement : — 

In 1882 the question of establishing in Belize or in some other part 
of the Colony a Botanic Station was put forward by Sir Joseph Hooker, 
K.C.S.I., C.B., then director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, for the 
consideration of the Colonial Office. 

u 93623. 1375,-10/96. Wt. 123. A 

Although in 1881 the recommendation reached the stage of adoption 
by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, the scheme only took shape 
in September 1892. * 

The necessity for such an institution had been long recognised in the 
Colony in furtherance of the development of its cultural industries. Tn 
recognition of this want, and in deference to the popular feeling, I took 
advantage of the opening of the Legislative Council", on the 29th March 
1892, to invito [&] support of that body 

in the direction desired. 

It has become part of the general Colonial policy to encourage the 
production of varied staple articles of export of a more or less permanent 
character. In such a direction, more especially in agriculture, much has 
been done by the active interest mid assi-tauee of the authorities of the 
Royal Gardens atKew to develop new industries, and to distribute plants 
of eon.mercial importance. In furtherance of such views, there have been 
established in all oi.ii' Wi>si Indian Possessions, Motanie Stations. Surely 
the time has corre for a similar institution in a Colony which has such 
exceptional advantages, whether we look to climate, soil, or a market. 
It has been with some justice advanced that iiriti-h Honduras can be 
made the Tropical Garden of North America. 

The products of our cultural industries still really in .heir infancy, 
are chiefly represented by bananas, plantains, cocoanuts, coir, coffee, 
henequen, Indian corn, limes, mangoes, oranges sour and sweet, 
pineapples, avocado pears, rubber, to which there should be added, in 

time, arnatto, cacao, ground-r.ut, indigo, jute, ramie, spices, mauila. 
and doubtless other marketable commodities. 

There resulted the unanimous acceptance and passing bv the Legis- 
lature of an Ordinance No. 1 of 1892,\o provide for the establishment 
of a Botanic Station. 

This Ordinance empowered the Govornor-in-Couneii to make from 
time to time Rules:— 

(1.) Tor the management, government, and control of the station, 
and of the officers appointed in connexion therewith. 

(2.) For tie- ■ 

(3.) Generally for encouraging and promoting the use and efficiency 
of the Botanic Station »s a means of education in all matters 
appertaining to agriculture and horticulture. 

Provision of l.'JCO dollars, made up of l>0() dollats for a gardener 
and 1000 doll;. ■ of the ground* of Government 

House, had been previously made in the annual Estimates under 
' Governor and Councils.' 

In 1892 that provision was supplemented by 1000 dollars, and the 
aggregate credited to the Surveyor-General's Department under the 
new heading ' Botanic Centre.' 

The following is the Report of the Committee appointed to recom- 
mend a suitable site for the establishment of the Central Botanic 
Station : — 

" Belize, 29th December 
appointed to decide on the most suitable 
the honour to report : — 

on to the one at Hope Creek. 

would beg further to sii^kj t 
lniid, in the vicinity of Hope Creek, 

The services of :i qualified and experi 
person of Mr. J. McNair were secured frc 
rate of 100/. per annum, rising to 130/. by 
with a house. He arrived on the 9th 
assumed the duties of his office as sui 

c plants of marl stable value, where I 

id to the purpose was an acre of lat 
ublic from the grounds of Govern 

i more suitable site, in one of the rich and protected river valleys, 
vhere it enuli! be developed into a general botanic department with a 
)ranch as an experimental farm, or in some other form on the chief 

Steps were accordingly taken to acquire and reserve suitable sites to 
neet such possible extension. 
In such directions the following free grants have been generously 

(a.) By the British Honduras Syndicate, 75 acres of very line land, 
well watered and fairly well provided with shade trees, on Hope 
Creek, North Stann Creek River, about north of Melinda. which is 
approached from the sea at Stann Creek by a Irani lino of some six 
miles in length, the free use of which is to be allowed to the 

approachable from the sea bv the North Stann ("reek River. 

(6.) By E. A. H. Schofield", Esq., It) acres situated on the San 
Andres Road, Corosal, and about half a mile from that town ; it is 
approached from the sea. and has adjacent two rivers, the Hondo 
and New River, by which plants can be distributed throughout the 
Corosal and Orange Walk districts. 

(c.) By Messrs. Price, Brothers, 2o acres at their estate of Kendal, 

and fresh. 


(d.) By Messrs. Arnold Brothers, 25 acres have also been reserved 
on the Temash Eiver, in the Toledo District, where the land is of 
the richest in the colony. 

The existing station would remain, and continue to serve as a 
Qg centre for the Belize and Cayo districts. 

Creek section has been recommended by an able and 
experienced committee, appointed for the purpose, as the most suitable 
and convenient site for the general central station of the colony. 
Sections (a), (b), and (c) have been surveyed, and the two first 
convened to the Government. 

It was a'so considered that the existing station would serve not only 
as a nursery for the raising and dial >th indigenous 

and exotic, of economic marketable value, but also might he utilised an I 
resorted to as a practical school for the agricultural education of youths 
whom planters wish to have trained to serve as gardeners in plantation 
nurseries, at their own expense as i { ntenance. So 

far the hope of the Government in this direction has not been realized. 
Nor have apprentice- been induced to .•ome forward, although applica- 
tions for them, with the offer of 7.50 dollars (sols) per month have been 
made in the (rov-eminent Gazette. 

It would be m the interest of the colony to send to Hope Garden, 
" Creole youths to be trained as gardeners, so 

advisable, agricultural shows and 
exhibitions of agricultural produce, live stock, machinery, imple- 
ments, harness, rolling and other dead stock, Sec. ; 

(c.) To encourage ploughing, forkim:, and other labour competitions ; 

(d.) To promote (as the society ma\ deem advisable, and as its funds 

papers, researches and inquiry, reports and application to the 

collection and publication of statistic-, the dissemination of informa- 

The necessary legislation (Ordinance \.>. 'J 1 of 1S<)1) has also been 
added to the Statute Book agaiu-t the introduction into the Colony of 
diseases in plants. 


under the Surveyor General, whose officers, scattered as they are over 
the Colony, would be in a position to further the interests of the Station 
by contributing from time to time useful plauts and seeds. 

In the promotion of the distribution in the Colony of Coffcu arabiai 
and Coffm lib< ricd.-A\n\ other seedlings, the co-operation of the religious 
denominations and commissioners has been invited, and plants free of 
cost have been placed at their disposal. 

The Eoyal Gardens, Kew, and the Botanical Department, -Jamaica 
have been constant and generous in their supply of plants and seeds. 

From the report for the quarter ended 31st December I Kill, it appears 
that I. S( | plants are in their permanent place-, whilst 9,422 in beds and 

597 Cocoanut, 23, 
; may, 1 think, accej 

which from a c 
avocado pear, 1: 
for the lowland 

one-half the area had to be 
It began to be productive i: 

hundreds, depopula 


Tin rind disease, due to a fungus, Trichospliaria .sacrhari, which is 
doing so much damage to tl SVesI Indies^ is discussed 

in the Kew Bulletin for 1895 (pp. 8 1-88), where references are given 
to preceding articles. 

The following notice taken from the Demerara Argosy of Novem- 
ber 16 records the existence of the disease in British Guiana, and its 
probable effect on the crop. It is satisfactory to observe thai the 
svstematie 1> . - i- :nl\ «u-:n <-.l as recommended 

in the Kew Bulletin for 1893 (p. 152). But the further precaution is 
necessarv of taking scrupulous care only to use perfectly healthy canes 
for propagation, Kew Bulletin, 1893 (p. 348). 

" Although a few showers have fallen throughout the colony, consider- 
ably heavier in some place- than in others, the drought cannot yet be 
said to have - iwaited. To add to the 

distress which ha- he.;, _ like a thick cloud over our sugar industry for 
several years, the rind-iungus has appeared among the cnncs and is 
causing a loss of juice that i- variously estimated at from 10 to 20 per 
cent. A leading planter informs u- that the jualitv of tlie juice is not 
affected by the fungus, as is the case when canes attacked by the borer 
are crushed along with good canes; but the quantity i's seriously 
affected, the portion of the cane which the fungus has attacked having 
nothing left in it but fibre. At the Royal Agricultural Society's 
meeting on Thursday the question was discussed, and Mr. Howell 
Jones expressed the opinion that l>y leaving none of the diseased canes 
in the field, and burning all the megass from the caue mill, the fungus 
would be prevented from spreading and soon be eradicated. Athough 
the disease is said not to affect the quality of the juice, the crushing 
throughout the colony general! \ is giving results in saccharine richness 
somewhat under those of the enrre-ponding period of 1894. But pro- 
hahly the juiee will intensify as the -eason advances; and let us hope 
that the. market will follow suit. At present dark sugar is fetching 
82.20 in the street for American refiners, a price which is better than 
the worst, hut far too low to be regarded with satisfaction." 

The following letter from the Government analyst gives a valuable 
account ol the extent of the di-easo and the measures taken for its 



% has sho 

wn to me \ 

our letter to hi 

morning the 

letter 1 am 

k\hat 'y.;n 

in po- 

taeis relative 

Since the 

in the West 

Indian Islan 

t iT 




any of the 


Mr. Mas-ee' 

s paper 

gu- therein 

de>erihed a- 

. one constantly present in 

the tissues of 

1 and dying 

canes in this 

colony ; 

, no matter how theii 

r death i 


From that 

time the leading attorneys and managers have kept the close 

the canes under their charge in order to detect any outbreal 
This first appeared, as far as 1 am aware, among some set 
which had been kept over their ripeniii"- period for a >p< 
< January, 1894). In May and June of that year canes wen 

has been abandoned since 1S67. 1m en in the last-mem ione, I pi 
found cane. affected with the rind disease. After my return I le 

K«.s L .,|uiho and Demorura specimen- with the " root ' fun 

ascribed to the t'uiiuus. One manager in St. Vincent informed me that 
whilst the fungus was injurious to the owners it was a godsend to the 
managers, as through it they could explain all things which were 

But with regard to this Colony, where the manager- of sugar estates 
are men of an entirely different type to those in the WVsi radian 
Islands, I can assure you thai there has been no tendency to » pooh peon 
the disease, and that every effort possible is being, and has been, made 
fcr its eradication. We have, perhaps, devoted ourselves more to the 
study of the conditions which have allowed it to spread so rapidly and 

lieal changes produced by it than to purely theoretical points 
>n with it, and have refrained from allowing ourselves to fall 
into the state o1 
Indian Islands. 

I quite agree with your views regarding seedling canes. As far as 
my observations have gone no variety of cm no is immune from the attacks 
of this fungus, provided that the health ot the cane is weakened in any 
way. and that it suffers from insect attack or other mechanical injury 10 

(Signed) J. B. Hakrison. 
N.B. — No canes have been introduced into this Colony from 
Barbados or elsewhere since May or June, 1890. It is not likely, 
therefore, that the disease lias Keen recently introduced into the 

The preface of this publication, which is on sale in the Royal Gardens, 
is reproduced : — 

The present Hand-list might properly have formed part of that of the 
"Trees and Shrubs grown in the Arboretum," but so man;, persons 
possess collections of Conifers who are not interested in other ligneous 
plants that there was an obvious convenience in treating them .sepa- 
rately. There was the further advantage that this enable;! the species 
which are grown under glass to be included. The natural order, or 
rather group, Coniferce, is so well defined that it is desirable to 
enumerate in one \\U all the species actually in cultivation at Kew. 

These comprise 227 species, with .'! 10 \ arieties. belonging to ;>7 genera. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, the late director of the Royal Gardens, had con- 
templated the preparation of a Catalogue of the Kew Pinetum. In 
view of it he had drawn up a brief review of the literature of the 
subject, which he has now. alter revi.-ion, kindly permitted to be used : — 

In the following list the species are referred to the genera under 
which they have been placed by the latest authorities, who have revised 
the order Coniferrr. That such an authoritative list should be pnb- 

aml its publication in this country i- tendered all the more needful from 
the fact that the British cultivators alone persi.-t in referring the Silver 
Firs to Picea, and the Spruces to Abies, a practice long abandoned on 
the Continent, ami which has not been adopted in America. And if, as 
I hope, the current nomenclature will in future be adopted in regard to 
the Latin names of these genera. I would further urge a reform in 
respect of their English equivalents, in so far as to confine the use of 
the words Pine to the species of I'iuhs, of Spruce to those of Picea, and 

the universal practice throughout Xorth America, which is the head- 
quarters of all three genera, where a Pine is never called a Fir, nor a Fir 
called a Spruce, nor a Spruce a Pine. 

The following historic sketch of the various essays of botanists to 
limit the genera and species of Abietinea, shows how divergent have 

been their views. I have endeavoured to make it more instructive, In- 
giving (where there are materials tor doing so) under earl! attempt th'o 
number of speeies known to its author, tlius further showing the pro- 
gressive discovery of species during the last hundred and ei<ihtv V or 

Tournefort, in 1 717, indicated the three genera. Abies, Pinus, and 
Larix (including f'erfnis) ; and his Cedrus is Juniperus. 

Linnaeus, in 17*>:>, included these all under Pinus, of which he 
enumerated 10 species. 

iere he has Pinu 

■s, C'rints. Lari.i 

■. and A 

1/tirs. with 1 

[n 1789 A L. i 

,;, Pinnhrn, 

uera, Pinus and 

[n the same ye; 

ar the first edit : 

ion of i 

Yiton's Ifnrx 


In 1803 was published the iir,t e.lition of* Lambert's Genus Pinus, 

In 18f3 the second edition r.f the II<>rlu< Kvin mis appeared, in 

which, as before, all the Abietinetc (increased to I'}') are included under 

In J s 2(5 Louis Claude Richard'* Mimoircmrles Coniferes was edited 
by his son. This classical work is the earliest Mint dealt seientifieailv 
with the order fn,,ifi;<tr. and in it the Tribe Abivl'nieec was lirsl (-tale 

all are> 
In 1838 1 

appeared/ The Tribe Abiefi 

'the character" 

is and planters had its origin. 
■mora, where the genus Abies i 
given to it are those of Link's J 

mdering, which probably originated in tl 
being a composite work of Don and Lo 


there remains but one A 'iag Don's nomenclature, 

-which is, that Linnams called the Silver Fir Pinus Picea and the Spruce 
P. Abies, assuming he was t'ollowing the practice of the ancients, 
in which he is known to have been mistaken. 

Owing to the great merit and utility of Loudon's Arboretum, his 
nomenclature has hitherto been universally adopted in the United 
Kingdom. It contains descriptions of about To species of Abietiucie. 

In 1841 Link (in Linncea, vol. xv, p. 4N1; reviewed the whole Tribe 
of" Ab'atinne. retaining, as before, Pinus, Picea, Abiis, Larix, and 
Cedrus, and enumerating 52 species. 

In 1841-16, Antoine's Die Coniferen appeared, in which all the 
Abietiucie are referred to Finns, with sect isms of Finns proper, Larix, 
Cedms, Firea, Don, Abies, Don, and Tsuga ; he describes 90 species. 

In 1842 Spaeh, in his llisfoire Xafurelh des IVgctaux, adopted 
Finns, Abies (including under it as section- Pieeu, Link, Tsuga, and 
Pseudotsuga), Cedrus, and Larix. 

Endlicher, in the same yen, in his Genera Plantaruin reverted to 
Linnaeus' practice of including all under Finns, but mule four sections 
— Pinus proper, Picea, Link, Abies, Link, and Larix, including 

In the same author's Synopsis Con if ramut. published two years 
later, he maintains the genus Pinus entire, as before, but subdivides it 
into 11 sections, with 109 species. 

In 1850 Lindley and Guidon published (in tie Journal of the Horti- 
cultural Society, vol. v.) " An enumeration of Couifne cultivated in 
Great Britain," where two genera only are adopted, Fin us and Abies, 
and the latter is subdivided into Firs (including Spruce-), Larches, and 
Cedars, with 110 specie 


r in is;;.;; \:\ published his Genera P 

hi Vascnlarum, 

wherein 1 

ie includes all Abiefiuetc under Finns, 

proper, 1 

'icea, Link, Abies, Link, and Larix. in, 

; -hiding 

In 1855 Carriers Trait,- general des Couifi 

■ared ; he keeps 

up Pi** 

j, Abies, Link, Picea, Link, Larix 

, Calm 

i*, and Tsuga, 

eludes Pseudotsuga. This work en 

!3 133 species, 

In l ; s:>: 

s appealed tin first edition of Gordon's 


J 'inns, Abies. Don 


Ficea. Don, Lurix, Culms, and Pscudnlaru . 

He ( 

mumerates 131 

species, oi 

;' which many are imperfectly known. 


r>;„ rnniforsn. 

In 1865 Heukel and Hochs 

with the following arrangement, Finns, Abas ('including Ficea, Link, 
Abies, Link, Tsuga, and Pseudotsuga), Cedrus, Larix, and the new 
genus Pseudolarix, Gord. They describe 130 species, which should 

he reduced much as Carriere's should be. 

In 1S',7 the second edition of Carvu-v's Trait/ was published, in 

which all the genera of the first edition are retained together with 
J>seud,.tsu„a and AV/r/n ria, and 15:* species are described, excluding 

volume of De CamloHe's 1'rodromus. The genus Finns is divided 
into two sub-genera. Finns proper for the Pines, and Sapinus .- winch 
latter includes- a . sections" only Picea, Link, Abies, Link, Cedrus, 
Larix, Pseudolarix, Tsuga, mid Pseudotsuga. The species described 

In 1875 the second edition of Gordon's Pinetum was publi-hed, in 
which the same genera are retained as in the 1858 edition, with 150 

La civ, and Cedrus, to which ; 

probably Keteleeria. both at that time verv i nip -rt'cctly known. 

In 1886 Dr. M. T. blasters publish,-',! (Jnnmal ef (he Lin 
Society, xxii. pp. 169-212, tt. 2-10, with 32 woodcut figures i 
text) some "Contributions to the History of certain Conifers.*' 
was followed in 1890 by a " Review of some point* in the compar 
Morphology, Anatomv, and Life History of the Couifene " (./ 
Linn. Soc, xxvii., pp. 226-332, with 29 woodcut figures in the t 
and in 1895 bv " Xotes on the Genera of and Coni, 

(Jaunt. Linn. Sac., xxx., pp. 1-12). 

In 1889, two vear, after lus ,1,-alh. 

the Omifene appeared in Hn-ler and Piantl's l)„ Xufvrliclnn 
Pfin.tzv,, fa milieu. He classifies the^ genera under two primary divi- 
sions : Pinvidecc and Ta.voidva . The former lie aejain divides into 

latter into Podocar t nn and Ta t ; u . The L'-nera are limiled.'with feu- 
exceptions, as they are by IJenthain and Hooker; but he retains 
Chamcccyparis, Thuiopsis and Pseudulari v. and -inks Pm ndotsmja in 
Tstufa and Prnmnapitijs iu Podocarpus. 

In 1891 L. Bei-ner puhlished a' Ifandlmch dri Xadtlho/zknud,. 
This was preceded bv a ILundbueh <hr Conifvrvu- Hem nnntit/ (1**7). 


•e, though he a 

crept- familiar 

obscure one 

son the rule of j 

In 1892 t 

he Royal Hortic 

and the pap 

rs read thereat 

of the Soei. 

■ty. This is one 

of the mostii 

at variety of val 

Conifer,,-; \ 

•ral introductio 

n Great Britaii 

i and Ireland 

The arrangement of the genera in the folio «ving list differs in a few 
particulars from that adopted in Bentham and Hooker's Cfenera JPlam* 
tarum. The principal difference consists in the maintenance of the 
Tiiiri'Cft' as a distinct order as originally proposed by "Richard and 
followed by Endlicher, Lindley. and many other botanists. This 
arrangement permits of a more natural arrangement of the several 
taxaceous genera under two the Salisburineee comprising ( ".n,h<jc 
('ijihiilnin.rns, and Torreya, and the Taxiiica including the two sub- 
tribes TaxecE and Podocarpete. Prumnopilys, Philippi (with which 
Stuchyairpus, Van Tiegheni, is synonymous) is placed by Bentham and 
Hooker under Podocarpiis, but. the combination of morphological and 
histological characters points to the desirability of maintaining it as a 
separate genus. 

Among the Conifertp. or Pinacete proper a few changes have been 
made from the grouping of Benthatn and Hooker in accordance with 
the fuller knowlege ot certain points of structure that is now available. 
Tvtrurlhiis is proposed as a distinct genus, represented by the North 
African ('(tllitris t/mtdrivalvis, on the ground of its structure and 
geographical distribution. lViddrinyt<>ni<t is separated from Callitris 

The sub divisions of Cupressus and of Thuya have been bandied 
about between the two genera. The genus Cupressus, as here under- 
stood, includes the Cypresses proper and the so-called flat Cypresses 
i ( 7/uj/ia -ry/taris), winch Bentham and Hooker place under Thuya, and 
which others prefer to consider as a separate genus. lit fi>n.spor<i, it is 
now well known, has no claim to a separate evneric position. The North- 
western American Tlwiop.sis, [.laced under Thuya by Bentham and 
Hooker, is more like a > 'uprrssns, whilst the Japanese plant, known 
under the same ovneri- name, is a true Thui/a. i'rol.ably the fusion of 


The collections of Conifer a at Kew have occupied three diilerent 
positions at successive times. According to John Smith's privately 
printed Records of Kew (p. 258), the original Arboretum consisted of 

(Unity, h ,'roducod in i; 

according to Smith (p. 267 'd against a wf 

fruit tree ; upon the wall being taken down, and the branches t 

it is now (1880) a fine tree. When against the wall one of its side 
branches early produced male flowers." It again did so in 1895, and 
probablv in previous years. 

d-ilnts ])eo<htra was, according to Smith (p. 287), introduced " by 
the Hon. Leslie Melville, in the vear lS.'ll, who, on visiting the ( iavnens. 
gave me a few seeds which he had loose in his pocket, one of which 
vegetated, ami alter several veins nursing was planted in the old 
Arboretum. ... In 1864 it bad attained a height of \\2 feet.' 
The tree became diseased and was taken down in 1888. Near its former 
position is one, now nearly as large, raised from seed ripened in England 
by Sir T. D. Acland, Bart. 

In 1843, by permission of the l v >ueen. about 4o acres were mlded to 
the oneinn! "Botanie Garden for the formation of a Pinctnm. I his 
included the -round formerly bounded by a wire fence on winch the 
l' ;i lu, House mm -lands, and to the north, west, and south of it. femith 

[Him rt/s ]> 201)savs: " T he area was planted with conifers .... 

without iinv'.sprriui arrangenn nt." Many of these still remain, and have 
attained a considerable sf/.e ; one of the most conspicuous is the fine 
specimen of Funis mo„ticola. now .16 feet high. 

Kew owes its existing Pinetum to Sir Joseph Hooker, who has always 
taken a peculiar interest in Ibis ancient and striking group oi plant-. 
A visit to S\ria in I860 enabled him to study the Cedar of Lebanon in 


ety, placed in groups. The number of 
specimens is about 1200, all I believe correctly named, with the excep- 
tion of some doubtful ones. Almost every species that can be grown 
in the open air in thi- • ed. Very few have been 

bought, the majority being plants procured by exchange and corre- 
spondence with different parts of the world, and through the liberality of 
various eminent nurserymen. 

Whenever possible, the specimens in the old Pinetum have been 
transplanted to this, in most eases witli apparent success, hut of this 
there is no assurance till the spring is over. The specimen Pines in the 
Botanic Garden have not been removed. 

the original plan has met wit: 
looking at the great variety c 
under almost uniform conditi 

A barren and arid soil has been 
tal to others. Pines have on the 
i languished. In 

which they are exposed at Kew, inevitably to die. It may be 
interesting to mention a few of the species which flourish on the 

Ginkgo bit ee) has already been referred to. This 

remarkable tree, a last representative of one of the most ancient types of 

only found in the precincts of temples where it has been almost certainly 
planted. Being deciduous it tolerates the neighbourhood of towns, and 
it is remarkable that it has not been more frequently planted in our 


To.eodii/jn flisfirlii'iii ( T'Jeridiiou-; Cypress) bids fair to form a con- 
spicuous feature on the islands in the Lake. 

Cedrus atlantica (Atlas Cedar) grows with gnat rapidity at Kew. 
The Deodar (Cedrus Deodara), on the other hand, has greatly dis- 
appointed the expectations formed of it. The most shapely and graceful 
specimen which Kew possessed, 45 feet in height, stood on the west 
side of the Pagoda Vista, between the Palm House and King William's 
Temple. It was unfortunately dost roved by lightning on August 10th, 
1395. {Kew Bulletin, 1895, p. 235.)" 

Larix europa>a (Larch; grows well at Kew. Scattered through the 
woods are many fine specimens, the wood of which is of excellent 

Pinus Coitlteri \< represented by a wrv tine specimen near 
House (No. V.). 

Pinus Laricio (Corsican Pine) has already been referred t 
Pinus excelsa (Bhotan Pine) 

! have been already 

Perhaps one of the most notable was the first specimen of the Chili 
Pine (Arauairia nuhrwata), the history of which is given in the Keic 
Bulletin for ls93 (pp. 2 1. 2.i). It died, and was removed in the autumn 
of the preceding year. 

Several of the tender Conifers grown in the Temperate House are 
fine specimens of some age. 

Aquthis australi* (Kauri Vino) was introduced to Kew in 1838 by 
" Sir William Symonds, then Surveyor-General of the Navy" (.Smith, 

quently removed into the Temperate House, the conditions of which 

Araucf/rhf BidaiUii (Bunva Punva) was brought to this country in 
184(5 by Mr. T. Bidwill, who "was superintendent pro tern, of the 
Sydney Botanic Gardens" (Smith, liecorth, p. 67). 

' Aram-aria Cionunghnmii ( Moreton Bay Pine) was discovered l»y 
Allan Cunningham in Queensland (probably about 1826), who for- 
ward* 1 plants to Kew, oi which tin existing specimen is the survivor. 
Some years ago it was inucli disfigured b\ a gust ot wind which earned 
- [ d out 2". ieet . i tin top The stump wsi* trimmed, and a new leader 
wu* speed ib prn.Iue< I, ■ red the symmetry. 

Araxcana cralso ( W>rfolk Hand Pine), a nati\ . oi N 

luced to Kew from New 
Smith Wales in 1793. by Governor Phillips (first Governor of New 
South Wales). Tin necessity for pro\ h ng le< laie aecommodation 
for this and other striking plants led to the erection of the Temperate 
House, to which they were transferred in 1863. The habit of the 
specimen at Kew, which is now more than a century old, is a good deal 
altered (and perhaps improved) by the pruning necessary to keep it 
: position. 


investigation by him: — 

The accompanying analyses and notes may be of interest in con- 
nexion with thoarlieies on Tropical i' 'V" 1 h«U,<n> 
(1894, pp. 373-387, and 1805, pp. 209-211), as supplying data con- 
cerning the food value of some of I ifa*H?3 
a"!!iys-. bnt^. wing to press'nre of other work, this will probably be only 

Andropogon pertusus, Willd. Sour gra^. This aromatic grass has been 
already described .A'.//- ll»lh tin I-!'.), | '210). It is doubtless one of 
the most valuable West Indian fodder grasses. It gives a large yield , t 
hay in proportion to the weight of the fresh grass. 


anual grass, common along roadsides. 
»t appear to eat it when in flower. 

Lam. Cent, per cent, grass. A creeping grass, 
reported to be highly valued as a fodder. It yields a rich hay, but as 
the 1'resh grass contains a large amount of water, the yield is small. 

Panicum coloimm, L. Bice grass. This annual grass springs up 

rapidly after rain, and yields a vei last, owing to 

roportionof walerin the fresh grass, the yield of small. 

Andropogon caricosus, L. Hay grass of Antigua. This is described 
by Mr. Barber in his "Notes on Antigua Grasses" in the Supplement 
to the Leeward hlamU (iazette, October 1th. 1*91 (liiilletin XXXII.. 
p. 166) :— 

its favour has largely 
sighbourhood of Clare 

Hall. It has completely tal«'N po ion of the Gambles pasture 

between Skerretts and the town of St. John's. 

Specimen- sent to Jamaica and Kew were differently named; but, 
assuming the Kew determination to be correct, it appears to be 
Aiidropixjoii caricosus. 

I do not at present know of it in any other West Indian island, and 
some surprise was expressed at Kew I igua, because 

it is an East Indian species. It would be an interesting puzzle to 
determine how it found its way into our island. 

It is known locally as l haygt te right time, 

should prove to be a very valuable fodder plant. The young blades 
clothe the ground will, u beautiful coat of green, and it might be cut 
and stacked at the height of one or two feet according to locality. But 
the exact moment to cut it for hay is after the pollen has fallen, and 
before the seed ha- swollen. When the seed swelis it draws for its 
nutrition from the stores in the stalk- of leaves, mid very little then is 
added fo the plant from the ground. The seed is lightly detached, and 
then the irrass is lit for little bul bedding. One has n great advantage 
in deciding the time for cuttine-, in the fact thai this grass monopolises 
the land to the exclusion of other species. It is difficult in mixed fields 
to choose the right moment for cutting, becuusc the different species 
ripen at different times. Here no such difficulty is met with. 

A marked feature in t ity according to soil, and 

it- r< ady response to cultivation. While it ma\ be I'lvipii ntly met with 
on the roadside one to two inches in height, in good rich land it will 
form a dense mass four feet high. 

There should be no difficulty in cutting it by means of a mowing 
machine, and if done at the right time, probably at least two crops may 
be obtained in the season. 

A great improvement is noticed if the hnid i- lightly scratched by a 
cultivator alter cutting I have in mind a pice of land on the Clare 
Hall pasture which was cleared and lightly hoed, preparatory to the 
erection of buildings, I believe. The patch was, however, allowed to 
revert to pasture. When shown to me six months afterwards, it had 
been converted into a uniform piece of hay grass, with numbers of 
vetches or " winers " scattered amongst the grass. 

The grass is not regarded as one of the first class Indian fodders, 
probably because of the widespread use of such others as the Bahamas 

This grass appears to be an introduced species ; it is spreading 
steadily, an,! where found i< highly valued. Some attempts are being 

eSen byirtock* auTduring the terrible dr^gnt' of ' l's't) I the 'lV'avy 
growth of this grass, which ha;l dried in situ, on the pastures, formed 

tli. Skerretts in this Island; it. was freely eaten in this condition, and 

when weighed immediately after cutting. 

100 parts of fresh grass yielded the following weights of hay : — 


of Hay.° 


sr<2rs«.r -■ '■ 



It i- important to remember the very wide dill 
:\\ when fodder is purchased in a green state 
roportion of water in " Sour grass," . Ln/ropoi/n 
)me measure for the este 

Com position of Hay. 











^cmm* * (Hay 



5 :;;: 

« •" 




] 'Z 


o/J^mA G? 


Calculated f 

o»« above. 

- _, 

Ash - S' 

l S" 4^ 














Pa tur m (Ce P nt 0St pe a ; M 









A Sr" (Ha'y 





1 ::: 




Fr\ncis Watts. 

Government Laboratory, 
Antigua, West Indies, 
7th January 18J 


Cotton has long been cultivated in Central Africa. On the Zambesi 
and elscwheiv it is now semi. wild. 

The following correspondence relates 
to Kew by Her Majesty's Coi 

of this 


Zomba, British Central Africa, 
October 19, 1895. 
a small canvas bag a specimen of th 

indifferent manner since some 15 years ago, whe: " 
any cloth from their own cotton, preferring 
manufactured goods. 

This cotton is sent to me by a planter in the vicinity who states that 
he believes it to be of very good quality. Conld you have it reported on, 
and let me know whether it really is a cotton which would fetch a high 
price ? Opinions are divided as to whether it is or it is not worth out- 
while to cultivate cotton. It grows half wild about the country, but it 
is said that the transport to the coast, which would cost about an average 
of 61. a ton, would leave little or no profit to the planter. 
Believe me, &c. 
(Signed) H. H. Johnston, 
Her Majesty's Commissioner and Consul- General. 


Gardens, Kew. 
Chamber of 

Dear Sir, 

I have obtained an expert opinion upon the sample of Central 
African cotton referred to in your letter of the 6th instant, and have 
pleasure in reporting thereupon. 

The fibre is of a woolly character, but it is cleau and bright, though 
a good deal discoloured by what appear to be insect stains. The length 
of the^ staple is 1| inch to l^ s inch, varying considerably in strength, 
but it is mostly very tender. It could probably be sold here at about 
±\d. per lb. at the present time. 

Faithfully yours, 
(Signed) Elijah Helm, 
John TC. Jackson, Esq., Secretary. 

Kew Museum, Kew. 


sv to be identical witn tnose grown m 
the Bahamas {Agave sisalana). A further account of the industry 
was given in the Kew Bulletin, 1892, pp. 31 and 32. In the following 
extract from a letter :i.l<lr.-.-_-.. I to the Commissioner, Turks Islands, the 
Assistant-Commissioner reports that the plants are in excellent health, 
and the only difficulty is the want of sufficient machines to char the 

stated that machines have been introduced, and the export of fibre is 
likely to be greatly increased : — 

Extract from a letter from the Assistant-Commissioner, Cockburn 
Harbour, to Commissioner, Turks Islands, dated 31st December, 1895. 
" Of the Sisal industry I cannot say much. At West Caicos, it would 
seem, if output be the criterion, much i- not being done; what is, 
would appear to be directed to weeding, clearing and systematic culti- 
vation, iather than to shipment of the clean baled products. A limited 
number of the Blue Hills or Providence Cays people here get 

"In my recent visit to the scene of the wreck of the steamship 
'Dorian' I travelled day after day for a week through these great 
"ast Caicos Fihre Companv, a 
of some 1,200 acres in all. The 
clearly enough mark the different yearly 
plant space. 

"lave ever seen in the Bahamas. I 
the machinery is not equal to a third of the 
e very many leaves fit for cutting that lie 

i of the market governs the business, but 
certainly there are scores of acres that require cutting. 

" The labour afforded at Jacksonville in this hard year helped very 
considerably to alleviate the prevailing distress of the out-islanders." 
In the Colonial Office Eeports, No. J 74, of 1896, it is stated that :— 
" The export of sisal or Bahama hemp from the Turks and Caicos 
Islands is gradually on the increase, the value declared for 1895 being 
620/. With the additional and improved machinery recently put up by 
each of the two companies engaged in this business, the output will 
probably be much larger." 


from the Director was published 

The eighth number of tin- llulltth, ,h, Museum iV/Iistoirv Xatn- 
relle for 1895, which has just reached me, contains a paper by 
M. Edouard Blanc, entitled " L'Arbre a prieres de Goumboum." This 
reminds me of a brief article which I contributed to Nature in 1883 
(vol. xxvii. pp. 223, 224). 

M. Blanc begins his account by the remark : " Je veux parler du 
fameux arbrequi croit dans un monastere buddhiste, au nord du Thibet, 
et qui produit ties 1. -tires, des mots, des prieres et autres formules 
religieuses, le plus Bouvenl traeces sur son ecorce et sur ses feuilles." 
Of the actual fact he adds, " des voyageurs europeens, M. Potanine et 
M. Grenard entiv autre-, out apporte le temoignage de leur observation 

It is evident, then, that the tree still exists much as Hue and Gabet 
described it. And M. Blanc brought back with him to Europe a branch 
and a portion of the trunk. He says : "Le phenomene est veritable: 
il existe reellenient, et j'ai vu des camchae.- fhibelains lees nettement 
traces sur les branches de l'arbre en question." 

M. Blanc discusses the cause. He dismisses the probability of their 
being either natural markings or the work of insects accidentally 
resembling alphabetic diameters. He has no doubt that they are 
produced artificially, probably with the aid of heat. 

In 1891 Mr. William Woodville Rockhill's book, "The Land of the 
Lamas," appeared ; in it (pp. 67. 68) he gives the following account of 
the tree :— 

"Although I did not see the convent treasure-house and the 'white 
sandal-wood tree' until later, I will describe; them here. In a small 
yard enclosed within high walls stand three trees about twenty-five to 
thirty feet high, a low wall keeping the soil about their roots. These 
are the famous trees of Kuin-Bum, or rather tree, for to the central 
one only is great reverence shown, as on its leaves appear outline images 
of Tseng k'apa. The trees are probably, as conjectured by Kreitner,* 
lilacs ( Vhihiih Ijtlnis nirnniiriu.s) : the present ones are a secondgrowth, 
the old stumps being -till visible. There were unfortunately no leaves 
on the tree when I saw it; and on the kith, which in many places was 
curled up like birch or cln.rry bark. I could distinguish no impress of 

there are now seen only images of Tsong-k'apa (or the Buddha ?). It 
would be interesting to learn the cause of this change."* 

I was anxious to see what could be ascertained from the leaves 
brought back by Mr. Rockhill. An application to my friend Prof. 
Sargent, at Harvard, procured me the following interesting letter : — 

1914 X Street, December 23, 1893. 
My Dear Sargent, 

As regards the famous Kum-Bum tree, I was not permitted, in 
any of my visits to it, to touch the tree, but I got a lot of leaves fallen 
from it, some of which I gave to the British Museum (Department of 
Ethnology), where Franks or Read would, I doubt not, be pleased to 
show them to Dyer. 

From what the people at Kum-Bum told me, especially in view 
of their reference to i Ik 1 big bunches of violet flowers, I thought the 
tree might prove to be a lilac. 

The bark turns up on the trunk like that of a birch. Kivitner is 
responsible for the identification of this " white sandal-wood " with the 
Philadelphus corona, ins. 

The roots from' which the trees I saw were growing look very old, 
how old I cannot say, being ignorant in all such matter-, the live Mem- 
are certainly not over 15 to •_><> feet in height, and I to 6 inches diameter 
at the root, and some of them look very healthy. It may be that vdicn 

violet arc imariably called red by lliem. 

Hue mentions the curling up of the bark. 

On the whole, I am inclined to think that here as throughout his 
book, Hue's reminiscences of facts and hearsay have misled him. He 
certainly could not sec the image on the leaves or bark, for even the 
Kum-Bum lamas, to whom I mentioned my inability to detect anything 
on the leaves they had given me, assured me that faith was necessary — 
" as one's faith is so is the clearness of the image on the leaf." 

I hope the leave- will assist in throwing some light on the question. 

(Signed) W. "W. Rockhill. 

; Mohammed is the envoy of ( 
mbitants used ir Hatutah, Defremery's Transl 

Sir Augustus Franks kin.lh sent me some of the leaves, 
with the following memorandum : — 

"Leaves from the tsandan karpo ('white sandal-wood tree') of 
Kumbum, said to have sprung up on the spot where Toougfcape'a mother 
threw his hair when, having shaved his head, she consecrated him to 

" Used when ground as medicine — al<<> earriod in charm boxes. 

•* Collected by W. W. Rockhill at Kumbum in 1891." 

They were carefully examined by Mr. W. B. Hemsley, F.R.S., 
Principal Assistant in the Kew Herbarium, who has long been engaged 
on a critical study of the Chinese Flora. He arrived at the conclusion 
that they belonged to Si/maja rillesa. a Chinese species. He published 
his determination in Journ. Linn. Soc, (vol. xxx., p. 133), and I am 
disposed to regard it as correct. It confirms the statement of Kreitncr 
(Xaturc, xxvii. p. 171). 

Rockhill's identification with Philadelphia* is a mistake easy of 
explanation. He has confu-od tin- popular and the scientific use of 
the name Syringa. I.ilae i- botanically Syrinf/a ; Syringa i.3 botanically 

is not consistent with itself at different times. This confirms the opinion 
of M. Hlanc that it is an e'aborate fraud. 

W. T. Thiseltox-Dyer. 

Hlanc; says (I.e. p. 323) :— " L'arbre 

parait appartenir a la famille des Phy 
analogue."— W. T. T. D. 


The Botanical Magazine for March. — The drawings of all the subjects 
figured were made from plants that flowered at Kew. Iticurvillca 
Thlaraip is a handsome now species from Western China, discovered by 
the Abbe Delavay. Kew is indebted to Mr. Max Leiditlin of Baden 
Baden for a plant of it. Comanthflsphact - ja pouica is a singular labiate 
from Eastern Asia. It was raised at Kew from seed presented by 

sarirent, Dire, 

Dipodium palndusiim :- a pretty orehid. at home in the marshes of the 
Malay Peninsula. Kew received a plant from Mr. F. W. Moore, the 
Curator of the Glasnevin Botanic Garden. Massonia jasminiflora, a 
native of the Orange Free State, and a species of little ornamental value, 
was sent to Kew by the Rev. F. O. Miles, of Almonbury, Bristol. 
rtrictduria jniithinn isa wry fine Mrazilian species, imported by Mesr-rs. 
Sander and Co. Like some other species it grows epiphytically, in tb 

Botanical Magazine for April.— The 

rant flowers. I Ii/jxici/rta ptdchra was obtained from 
Bitch and Sons, who had imported it from New Granada 
t brilliant-coloured species of the genus. Olyra concixaa 

an elegant grass, native of Costa Rica, was received at Kew in 1891, in 
a box of filmy ferns, sent by Mr. C. Winkler from San Jose. Plate 
7470 represents a male plain, and one female flower of CataserKu, 
Raiidii, which was described in the finllcfin. lSiH, p. o:H. A living 
male plant was communicated to Kew by E. S. Kami, Esq. of Para, 
from which, when it flowered in March is;)."), the present drawing was 
flower was received from the same gentleman, 

preserved in alcohol /'/,-,,/. rin tunbhjim, a native of Java, is : 

shrubby plant allied to Daphne. It was sent to Kew by Dr. Treub, 

Director of the Bnitenzorg Botanical Gardens, to whom we owe many 

interesting additions to the Koyal Gardens. 

kia magnified, a remarkably 
drawing was made from an 
exceedingly vigorous specimen communicated by F. Ducaue Godman, 
Esq.. F.H.S. It is a native of Central Asia, where it grows at an 
elevation of 7000 feet. Pittospornm criovarpmn. a native of the 
Himalaya, i- a handsome species, which may prove hardy in the south- 
western parts of the British Islands. The specimen figured was received 
from Marchese Hanburv, F.L.S. The drawings of Coch/ioda iwvzlia,>a. 
Coffea stenoph/.l/u. and Musdvvnllia vor„«;,lai a, \jir. htfiata were 
prepared from plants cultivated at Kew. Corhlioda mxzlunui. nat've 

is one of the two indigenous West African sp, vies which are becoming 
important commercially ( AY/r linllttin, lsu;;, p. 167), It was raised 
from seeds sent from Kew in Mav IMH. bv >ir W. II. (Juavlc doiic-s. 
late Chief Justice of the West ' African * Settlements, and Acting 
Governor of Sierra Leone. The Masdauullut, a native of New 

under the superintendence of Mr. V. W. Moore. 

Hooker's Icones Plantarum.— Tim third part of the current volume. 

Among the Borne.n: plants, < " reiujhitllu. an ornamental new genus ol 
Melastoniaeea\ and Jhip/iia bi>r,i< irisis, are specially noteworthy. The 
latter is an outlying member of a remarkable genus f the Leguminosa-. 
otherwise only known from Tropical Africa and Madagascar. Platj/- 
kelcba, a new genus of Asclepiadese, from Madagascar, is a small leaflets 
shrub belonging to the tribe Cynanchese. The Chinese flora is repre- 
sented by Lithospcrmum hancochianum and Pilocarpus haiaanat.s* , 
both very handsome, and Pterytjivlla. a new genus of Serophularine:v, 
allied to Euphrasia. Plates 24G7 to 2472 are devoted to novelties 
from Mr. Littledale's Tibetan collection, made at an elevation of about 
16,500 feet. They include a new species of the rare and curious genus 
Onosohn ( Serophularineae), and Littlt'duUa.iiu elegant new grass, allied 
to Gli/tri-ia. This is of a beautiful purple colour, at least when dry. 
Ischnochloa and Duthura are two new genera of grasses from North 
West India. Pentadesma butyracca, the " butter tree " of West Troj lical 
Africa, is for the first time adequately liguivd. And llomulopttahun Y 
a new genus of orchids, of the tril>e Epidendrea 1 , from the Blue 
Mountains of Jamaica, characterised by having all the parts of the 
perianth alike in size and shape. 

Flora Capensis.— The continuation of this work, of which three 
volumes were published by Harvey and Sander, has been resumed. It 
was brought to a standstill by the death of both authors, and the last 
volume was published in I860. Part I. (pp. 1-192) has now been 
issued under the authority of the Governments of the Cape of Good 
Hope and Natal, and the editorship of the Director. 

The following statement is an extract from the prefatory note :— 

The three published volume- of the Flora Capensis onh included 
the southern portion of Smith Africa outside the tropics. In the 
continuation it is intended to describe, as far as possible, all known 
flowering plants occurring in the area lying between the tropic of 
Capricorn and the ocean To the north it will be supplemented, there 
fore, by the Flora of Tropical Africa. 

The volume, of which the present part is an instalment, will be of 

it will include the whole of the plants known familiarly as " Cape 
Bulbs." The cultivation of these was popular on their introduction by 
Masson at the end of the last, and by Bowie at the beginning of the 

present part includes the whole of the I r idea; which from a cultural 
point of view are peculiarly attractive. The volume has long been in 
preparation, but it- publication ha- been from time to time delayed by 
the desire to include in it the novelties which have been continually 
received as new territories to the north have been explored. It has been 
entirely elaborated by Mr. John Gilbert Maker. F U.S., the keeper of 
the Herbarium and Library of the Royal Gardens, who has long been 
the accepted authority on the Petaloid Monocotyledons. 

The whole area occupied by the flora has been broken wp into 
" >ns, the physical characters of which will probably be found 
ably well marked. These have been adopted in great po,rt from 

regions, the physical characters of which will probably 
tolerably well marked. TheBB have been adopted in gr< 

nportant paper, " Sketch of the Flora of South Africa," b\ Harry 
Jioins, Fsip, K.L.S., printed in the Cape of Good Hope "Official 
Handbook," at the Colonial and Indian Inhibition, lSSti (pp. 1>S(>— 

They may be briefly defined as follows:— 
i. Coast Region.— Includes the narrow belt lying between the 

south-western and southern coasts from the Oliphants to the Kei 

rivers and the Zwarte Bergen range, 
ii. Central Region. — Can only be roughly defined as lying between 

the coast and the Kalahari regions, 
iii. Western Region. — Extends from the tropic to the Oliphants 

river, and includes Great and Little N'amaqualand. 
iv. Kalahari Region. — Includes the Kalahari, lbchuamdand, < Iriqua- 

land West. Transvaal. Orange Free Stale, and Uasiitoland. 
v. Eastern Region. — Includes the belt lying between the eastern 

coast from the Kei river to the tropic and the Drakens 15erg 

range. It therefore comprises Natal, Zululand, Griqualand 

East, &c. 
The plants of the older collectors, which are often destitute of precise 
localities, have been simply referred to under the general head of South 

Botanical Department, Jamaica. — J he 1 a t o 
took occasion to give emphatic testimony to th 
by the Department of Public Gardens and Plantations : 

Extract from a Paper by His Excellency General Sir H. W. 2sokm an, 
G.C.B., G.C.M.U., £c, iv:id before the Australasian Association 
for the Advancement of Science, al Brisbane, Queensland, 
January, 1895. 

A West India Island [Jamaica]. 

the island, with large gardens ami plantations at ditlrrent elevations. 
where much experim 1 1 1 ;il cultivation is carried on. It is, no doubt, 
greatly owing to the exertions of this department that the fruit trade 

great fall in t lie price. 
It is interesting to not< 

the world. The sugar-cane, coffee, the logwood, the mancro, t 
meg, the bamboo, and many others have all been imported, as well as 
the guiiiea-irrass, which enables large quantites of good cattle and hordes 
to be raised and nourished. (Report, p. 481). 

Trinidad Vanilla. — A sample of Vanilla grown and cured at the 
Botanic Gardens, Trinidad, was lately received from Mr. J. H. Hart, 
F.L.S., the Superintendent. The pods were produced by plants originally 
-applied from K'ew. of what is known as the - Sion House variety," of 
}'<niill" pltniifoHd. Amir. In the present instance the- .pi; lity is not so 
,\ if right sort is established in the 
island it might be worth while to carry on further experiments with the 
view of improving the quality of the produce : — 

Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges & Co. to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
12 and 16, Coleman Street, 
London, E.C., 
Dear Sir, February 12, 1806. 

I am in receipt of your favour of the 8th instant enclosing 
samples of Vanilla beans grown in Trinidad. 

These beans are somewhat mixed in character, and do not appear to be 
very well cured ; they are, however, fairly meaty, but their flavour is 
coarse. They would be worth nominally from 10s. to lis. per lb. 

(Signed) H. Arnold. 


particulars are taken from the Annual Report for 1894 presented to 
Parliament in May, 1896:— 

It affords me much gratification to again report most favourably upon 
this branch of our industries. Its expansion has been most rapid, as 
the following comparative s' 

The above gives the amount exported, but in addition to this a very 
large quantity is annually used for home consumption. 

In this connexion I would observe that the amount of timber which 
has been destroyed by forest fires in this Colony is exceedingly large, and 
can only be appreciated by those who have travelled much in t In- 
interior. Forest fires are no doubt due occasionally to lightning, but 
most of them are traceable to the carelessness of himu-is and travellers. 
In the partial; § originate by the settlers burning 

brush and logheaps in clearing the land. The question has arisen as 
to whether anything can be done to prevent this destruction of the 
timber of the country. There is a law upon the Statute Book which 
deals with the subjeH, hut no adequate means have heretofore been 
provided ior enforcing it. It is considered that the appointment of 
conservators or forest guardians whose duties, in addition to preventing 
the destruction of the timber by fire and otherwise, might be directed to 
promoting the growth of existing timber, cheeking the stumpage upon 
granted areas and preventing encroachments upon ungranted Crown 
lands, will undoubtedly repay the cost that will be entailed. These 
officers will have the power to arre-t or lay information against persons 
suspected or known to have wilfully, or by their negligence, set fire to 
the woods. A> matters now stand, many guilty persons are allowed to 
escape through the reluctance or fear which disinterested or private 
individuals may have in regard to informing against them. 

He says:- , 

"The form seems to have originated in Indian gardens, and is 
supposed to have \ery recently been introduced to European culture. 
This is, however, not" quite exact, for the poppy now known ars the 
Shirley Poppy, which seems to be undoubtedly P. Rhceas, var. lati- 
folia,has been in continuous cultivation in Scotland for over half a 
century." It is P. Hookeri, Kak., figured in the Hot. Mag. t. 6729. 

Typical P. Rhceas is stated by Dr. Prain to be "an extremely rare 
plant in India." 

which all hut one of 
; confined to Tropic:! I an. I South Africa. We are indebted 
to a "correspondent in British Central Africa for the following inte- 
resting Recount of the mode of dispersion of the seeds. This may be 
added to the instances, the general mechanism of which is ducussed 
by Mr. Francis Darwin in the Trans. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) vol. i. (1880), 
pp. 149-107. 

through the bush is almost sure to have some experience of. One < 
of the seed of this grass is very sharp, so that it can penetrate any 
clothes, and there are hairs or bristles on it arranged so that wherever 
it enters these hairs prevent it from returning the same way. Upon 
every movement this seed penetrates until it reaches the flesh, the 
reran" being a constant itch until it is removed. This grass grows 
fully 6 feet high, and is a common grass for thatching. My attention 
■ ustle 

t and found almost all the a 
twisting and turnii 
» the gr< 

:it(:icli.'(I rwi.-tiii^ mih! fui-nintr in ;dl 'liivctions, and latterly droppin 
continued. The cause of thi 

had affected the awns. * Since then I have taken more interest in this 
movement. If the awns are laid in shallow water they commence to 
move, or a change of temperature lias the same effect. I have seen 
the awns fall on a box of soil, quite a lot of them, all over the surface, 
some time after they would find their way to the side of the box and 
penetrate between the side of the box and the soil, the end with the 
seed in the ground and the awn standing perpendicular. Had there 
been a hole or indent in the soil some would penetrate there. Supposing 
a perfectly level hard piece of ground with no grass on it ; place a 
stone in the centre and let these awns fall all over the ground. The 
awns coming across this stone in their movements will penetrate 
between the stone and the soil, the seed end in the intersection. The 
awn has two joints dividing it into three parts. 

Suppose it to be lying flat, its first movement is lifting the seed end 
clear of the ground or surface. When there are a lot together they 
form a ball or bunch and roll along. Upon reaching their destination 
they stand straight up with the seed in the ground. When there are a 
large quantity they form quite a mat. At the joints there is a screw- 
like formation, which either coils or uncoils in its movements. 

Ehodomyrtus tomentosa. — Mr. Proudlock, curator of the Government 
( JardensTn the Nilgiris, has recently drawn attention to this plant, which' 
is known to Europeans at Ootacamund as the " Hill Gooseberry." The 
fruit is about the size of a cherry, dark purple, with a sweet and 
aromatic pulp. It is eaten raw or made into jam. The latter is known 
as " Thaouty," Mini is highly esteemed. The jelly is also excellent. A 
specimen received for the museum at Kew had some resemblance to 
apple jelly, but was not quite so sharp. The plant is very common on 
the higher mountains in Southern India, and extends to Ceylon and the 
Malay Peninsula. It is cultivated in two forms in the Temperate House 

at Kew, ami forms an attractive plant, It has also been grown to a limited 
extent in greenhouses in this country for the sake of its large pink 
flowers, which are i to | inches across. 

In the Xilgiris R/m.fainyrtus toiiiaitos:/ is a shrub 4 to 5 feet high. 
The 3'oung branches and leaves are clothed with a thick tomentuni. 
The lower leaves are generally in threes, while the upper ones and those 
of the branches are opposite; they are 1 to 2\ inches long, with three, 
or rarely five, prominent nerve-, dark brown and sinning above, hoary 
beneath. The flowers are arranged one to three together on stalks about 
one-half the length of the leaves. The wood, usually of small size, is 
white with a pink heart, " the grain close and cutting like cheese" ; it 
is useful for small turnery. In sub-tropical countries the plant might 
be usefully introduced both as an ornament and to supply fruit. The 
latter could no doubl be greatly improved by cultivation. It would be 
more desirable in every way than the (Juava and similar nvjrtaceous 

Sechium edule — This cucurbitaceous plant, commonly k 

West Indies a> the CliOeho. Cliri:-.tophi»e or Vegetable Pea] 
described in the Ken- li.-dtcti,,. I v-,7. for August, p. 6. 1 

The following extract taken from the Annual Report on the 
Government (hardens and Parks in Mi/sorc for the year l,s94-95, 
p. 12, shows that the L'lmeh.i lias now been taken up by the natives of 
India, by whom it is regarded as one of the most wholesome of 
foods :— 

" One practical outcome of the Nundydroog nursery is that the 
cultivation of • Choeho ' ( Seeliinm cdule) has been taken up in several 
villages at the foot of the hill. The labourers who are occasionally 
employed from these villages will, in all probability, utilise other garden 
products in the same practical manner. Choeho is now quite establish* d 
as a popular i dlages. The 

fruit has also been widely distributed to other towns in the province. 
It is largely used in the Central Jail, where the fruit is carefully grown, 
and considered to be one of the most wholesome foods for prisoners. It 
is not generally known, however, that the large fleshy root of the plaut, 
' sometimes weighing nearly 20 lbs./ can be cooked and eaten like a 

The choeho is also being grown in this country under glass to supply 
Covent Garden Market. It lends itself very readily to the same condi- 
tions as those adopted for tomatos, grapes, and cucumbers, but hardly 
requires so much heat as the latter. The large flat single seeds, if 
carefully cooked, are regarded as a great delicacy. 

but one, page 85, 




Nos. 115-116.] JULY and AUGUST. [1896. 


In the warmer ami drier parts oi (lie world lands devoted to pus 

The following information 

has been 

demands of correspondents. A 

8 long age 

bring the subject under the no 

tice of the 

1882, pp. 21, 22.) 

In Museum Xo. II!. of tin l,\.v;,i < ;.>u-< b -n< . :i largo ease contains a 

vegetation of the Karroo region of South Africa. 

The most in ,i is l'nitzi i rirtjafff. 

the great order of Compotitee, and a near ally of our 

common Tansy (Tanacetuw vnh/i r< > a d Worm \ 1 {Artemisia). 

Professor MaeOwan writing'to Mr. J. F. Duthie. Superintendent of 
the Government Botanical Guidons, ^haranpur, in 1884, gave the 
following account of the Cape sheep-bush : — 

" Pcntziavirgata, Less., the ' Goed-Karroo Bosje' covers largo areas 
of the Karroo Veldt in the centre of Cape Colony. It is a dwarf ( utl ,d 
composite, with discoid heads rising a few inches above the cushion- 
like mass of twigs and foliage. The general colour i> ; 
green. The side branches come out, arcuately bend over, touch the 
ground, and in the wet season root at the tips. It is just this peeu- 
liurit} which renders the plant -o \:duahle. for :■- our farmers overstock 
the farms with sheep, and do not oven keep the stock otf certain parts 
for recovery in their turn, the veldt i< cut up into innumerable sheep 
tracks, eatdi <»f which Inclines- a -wit! r.inniog waterway in the rainy 


• tliis proems vnd< in the renovations of the veldt 

o f ehannels on lo Hie level. 

P the deep, fertile, lacustrine loam of our Karroo, 
fzia. But it is not a planl for l.anvn -an,!." 
.■urn nl Ihitttitical (lanli.ts it! Saharanpur and 
/,>;•//<.</ (Itmlr-is. Koh; for the year 1873, p. 5, 

ton, of Van Wyks Vley, lias kin 

;tralia. For ('aoe fanners it w, 
for planting which Mr. Alstoi 

I 1 ..."!..,, nV..p,i/ no' .mm;; 1 

• hopin-tmrnt (.( A-ric.ill , 
Onlv :. low «-i il... A.Klr:, 

'.',. -:,!..! 

oui wools take such a high place in the ma 
Of all the Australian salt-hushes, Afri] 
perhaps, the one which lias attract. .1 most attention. 

Turner (p. 57) gives the following account of it : " 
Lindl., is a shrub which attains a height of from 6 t 
covered all over with a scaly tomentum. The leaves 
are mostly orbicular, rather thick and slightly sinus 
plant is dioecious, thai is the two sexes of the flow 

Darling rives, and the arid western plains in \« 

iroughout the 
uch a valuable 

id culture, and i 

' A. nummular u 


At on 

time "it 

oderately plentiful, 


rious effect on the 

IV i, 


(1 CIO! 

Cattle, sheep and 
it down so closely, 

over, much 1. 

n. Its d 

t-enduring qualities 
arid central plains 

he hoi 

winds on our 

th little 

check upon its growth. 


is well 


f ext 

Biwive conservation 



!n!h V ' 

■ry t'e 


1 over, the \ 



tions. It will also 

nit d<>w 

n in the 

common way. Hence no 

Siilph. oxide 

India where the rain- con 
< the plants had l:n<l sulliei 
of rain is likely lo injure til 

Aligarh. In Appe 

the ' 'l)'e; 

these plants terminated verv sparingly, hut this season nearly every 
-red came up. with the re-uh of a stock of :y>nO young plants. These 

have all !><vn bespoken by the Director of the Botanical Depn 

for 1888, p. 11.) 

<• Tlu. large stoek of young plants made mention of in 1 
report was taken over by the Director of the Botanical Depn 

Aligarh and Cawnpore districts. Another largo batch is nov 

! av/';':;; Z /^.' p M Ta) ,n 

The last official note on the Salt-busli a( Saharnnpnr is co 
eii.lh.g :)lst March 1 sOn (pp. II -l:>) :— 

Karoo, Professor MacOwan, 

Australian salt-bushes, for t 

Our own preference for the Grange! is mused by tlu- larger quantity 
of food produced in a given time, its rapahilif \ for seeding profusely fo'i 

small niimhe'- of fci tile so 

Lpparently A. Halt „',„. i ' el ,oiee ' of" <M (1 

>os, ,j OW acclimatised, bu on this p .,t I >h dd like more informal! 

lirive upon these ' -■ decided prefer.' 

eing given to them, although the miTounding ground was covered M 
I her species of salt hushes. 

In September 1831), 1 left for Parijs, in the Orange Free Slate, 
3ok some of the seed with 
own, Kimherlev, ISoshoi, 

taken a fair quantity for trial there and I li< •]>(* -non to hear the 

Edward G. Alston. 
24th March 1893. 


Xiiitiltf, 1 of \rf(fs. — The number of seeds to a pound when dry is 
about 25,800 gross and 'JO.OtM nol (matured). 

during the spring, snmmei and autumn months ; Is nol erref particular 

as to class of soil, buf prefers and grows most luxuriantly on moist 
brackish patches. 

Mode ofsowiiHj. (ft) In I he veftl.—'Yo sow the seed broadcast in the 
v<-ld is very wasteful and unsatisfactory ; the use of a spade or light hoe 
the spot after 

for them to eat. 

stem of the 

is likely to 

South Africa itself, as will havo horn -non. i> not destitute of native 
salt hushes. One of those. Alnplcx llulimfs. h.. reache. tlio Souih of 
Europe, a. of is cultivated in the Kew Arhoivtuin. It is not unfro- 

In the Eeport of the Capo Town Botanic Gardens for 188G, 

Prof't'S>or MacOwan writes: — 

ay be briefly dew ril 
Atriplex halimoid 

Mueller snvs:— " Ver\ much lik.-.l l»v sin op, and consul 
best of saline herbage of the salt 1mi>1i country. Mr. Fa 
this herb to be wonderful for its productiveness and lis d 

its. Bulletin No. 10,"), 

16 feet in diameter in :i single season. The crop, calculated 
basis of weighing the cut from a small area, should reach '2 

Colony for April .'iOtli : — " It i- worthy of note 

forage plant for alkali " 

hocvata. a near relative o 

spread favand wide up eounlry \ 

Mr. Edward Alston. It "" 

that the salt-hush was actually petitioned 

Australian species of Kochia afford excellent pasture fodder. 

Professor YV. A. Dixon found 65 per cent, of di^v-ii! le -ubstanoo 
in K.piimmklatar 

Kochia villoma, Lindley. An und< i ct, spreading, 

or decumbent, found in most of the dcpresseil and saline regions of 
Australia particularly inland, also on sand lands. According to 
Mueller " renowned amongst occupiers of pasture runs as the * cotton 
bush'; so called on account of the downy covering on the branches 
and leaves. This rather dwarf shrub resists the extremes of drought 
and heal of even the trying Central Australian climate. The roots 

Of lthfi(,n<lin parabolic. It. Br., Turner writes (p. 48):— "This 


iv no olli.ial teeords of the quantity of osiers imported into 

nportation ot baskets. The number of baskets required for 

l-oMnnk.-istotl.o Wr^U-ury. I, brought to light 


., ilii 

•n-t.'d bv 
r of a lette 

so good .■ is 

inuu.l. M; 
All costs 


: : ;; ;:H; 

The As-l; 


Royal Gaki>f\>, Kkw, to Im-iv Ofkkt., 

Royal Gave Ions, Kr 

)f!ic«T, Xilgiri*. (Ma.-aiuim.l, Ma.lra*. 
2. Compliance with this request has 
t wiiluws appears to he a decaying in< 
iderable difficulty has been experience 

upply cuttings <>l the particular kinds desired. These air known by 
i.ivlv technical names, which have not heen identified hotanically. 

.'•!. It ha- new, however. I.eeii accomplished, and a hox containing 1.3 
inds <>r osiers has been this day despatched lo the India Office. It 
lould be forwarded to India with the greatest despatch, and instructions 

Mottled Spaniards 


Old Ilia 

February 7, 18 ( ..>4. 

: a fair amount of very good 1 

Oclol>or 1.3th la.M-. tli- fallowing account of :i pros: 

Bulletin for January last (p. 18) as I'remaspara ei>(f'eoides. The 
genus comprises but ;i few species all confine I 10 Africa and adjoining 

The ( 01 count is subjoined :— 

On Ins recent journey to the Mlanje district, Her Majesty's Com- 
ink-ioiiri- made an interesting discovery. In the valley of the little 
Xvun-wi stream, which Hows direct into the Ruo about 10 miles west 
of the confluence of the Likuhula and (he lino, and close to the place 
where the Nyungwi i- crossed by the main road t > Fori Anderson, the 
Commissioner found growing a species of wild coll'ee apparently 
i.h-l.tical witli that which ia me! with in the interior of Moeamhique, on 
the Zambesi, 

Elected a large number of 

the berries, some of which were ripe, and these will be planted in the 
gardens at Zomba. Specimens were also collected of the leaves, llowers 
and fruit for tran-mi-^ion n \\.-w I'm identification. 

It. has generally been stated by die Commissioner himself amongst 
others, that there i- no wild .-oiler imligenon- to Nynsalaiid, and certainly 
up to the present discovery it was believed that no specimens of the 
wild coffee had been found b\ anyone. The Commissioner searched 
diligently In ;:' - that he crossed in the 

Mlanje district for other specimens of the wild coffee, but was not able 

It is just possible that these trees found on the Nyungwi stream close 
to the Portuguese border might have had their origin in seeds of the 
wild Zambezi coffee accidentally conveyed there. At the same time, 
seeing that coll'ee is indigenous to tropical Africa, and is found in almost 
all the warm parte of the continenl which are qo! absolute deserts, it ifl 
very extraordinary that a fertile region like Nyasaland should almost 
alone possess no form of indigenous coffee. The Commissioner there- 
fore desires us to publish this discovery for the information of planters 
and others who. b\ ea- neeeed in disco\ering :i 

wild indigenous coffee in the British Protectorate. Meantime he has 
no objection to the berries of the wild coffee growing on the Nyungwi 
stream (which is on Crown land) being gathered by any persons who 
may like to try the experiment of planting this wild coffee. 


The British Central African Gazette for Decei 
nder the title of Zarali's country, the following int. 
ecently opened district in South Nyasalaud : — 

with the shore of Lake Malombe ; then a great hog's-back oulminai 
in Mangoche Mountain and !l 1( . Castellated Hills, and to the east of 

Lisaniba,"Unan-u, Lipelelr). Further to the east are manv isoli 
mountains in Portuguese territory dot. in- th, Lujenda plain. _ 

country proper, t hat is to miv, on Mount Mangoche, which is a I 
range about 14 miles in length, including the Castellated Hills, and f 
miles broad: not of course, quite isolated, hut connected with ot 

ellated Hills a steep pass descends to the 

ile valley through whi.-h a road leads over 

Seme of these 

M It ought to he health',, except for the big 
if i.- certainly swept by all the winds of heaven though <d 
the gorges there are plenty of sheltered places protecte( 
unwelcome breezes. For a Kuropean settlement we shoul 
the western flanks of Mangooh.- Mountain mi-lit be prel 

scale, resembles "The Galley of the Rocks" at Lynton o 

Devon coast. The path keeps prelly much on a level 
walking. Above towers the forest-crested ridge of Ma 

tin-* extraordinary jumble of boulders, some standing on 
prone, which we have already sought to describe. 


Mr. Iliiyman left L.v 

t.-tr «»r tin. 

f Kew, by 

lor „»■ i| M . 

Mi;. William Ukknkl Kulncii, a member of the gardening -tall' :K 
the Royal Gardens, has been apjxnnted assistant ai the Municipal 
Gardens at Q.ieenstrwn, South Africa. Mr. Fivn.-h had been a sub- 
foreman in the orchid-houses and the Palm-house for the last three years. 
He entered Kew in Ani;ii-I, l^'.tl, and had pnv icn-lv served in the 
garden of the late Sir George Macleay, at Bletchingley. He left for 
South Africa in dune last. 

Director of the Ro 

favourable in every respect. For many years it was under the c 
of Dr. Thwaites, a man of real merit, hut who thought ;i 
garden in n tropical country should be in some manne" " -"''"" 
of the virgin forest. This system, more original u,,,,. , 
excludes any methodical ■maugemei.i ol plants and necessarily ._... 
the number of specimens. Dr. H. Trimen, the successor of Dr. Thwaites, 
as soon ;.s lie arrived in Ceylon, realised the disadvantages of tin' plan of 
his predecessor. To distribute over an area of (50 hectare--, without any 

fatally embarrass the scientific use of the ri'h collections that had been 
as far us it was possible to do so. With hranch establishments upon the 

Dr. Trimen lias not merely carried out a most ellicicnt and thorough 
■ .•organisation of his department, hul he has signalised his term of office 

Council a special allowance in addit ion to his pension for the last si: 
he is now engaged." 

colony in industrial enterprise. A reference to Sir Henry Johnston's 
report on this subject, reprinted in the Keio Bulletin, 1895, p. 190, will 

report on this subject, reprinted in the Krw Bulletin, 1S9.5, p. 19f 

he found time to do many things. [,, \S9'2 he transmitted a 

is of this 

Hull, -th,, and" in Hooker's I* 

he sent dried plants to Kew through Mr. V. Kid-to,., of Stirling. 
Altogether these formed a large collection, including numerous novelties, 
in»Dy of which have been published in former volumes of the Bulletin, it. IS!):., pp. C3-7.-, and 2SS-l2<);j. 
The following particulars of his career ' 

qualifying himself foi 

unplishod.' ! (is time was now devoted to touching the natives t 
ions industries, -which his education qualified him to do, work 
i (in which the country abounds) bring foremost. lie also took : 
ve part in educational work, 
n JSS8 the Arabs of Cjiji menaced the lives of the missionaries . 

1 of Lake Tangam ika, soni> 
nianagement much impr 

■ many vears Ids healtli was fairly go. 
of hamaturic fever proved nearly f 

Botanical Magazine for June.— Ih 

a.,i folio, llaUnutnn Klwesii, Phnj 
ct;c„la(,<„>,imi\ Eitisdu dnisa; all, exc 
,own at Kew. The . \,,arc has been cm 

Botanical Magazine for July. — All 

Koval I{.,t :t iiit 

'elebes It U most neariy allied to T. sanic'i 

a native of Mount 

KinabJu, North Borneo. * Two tuberous-rooi 

m of Phdrwmtkm 

■ l.-.ryllid.'; 

Tiramine^) ; and Batcsanthus (Asclepiad. 


Flora of British India.— A note in the 

Kew 1h 

lUctin for ISO! 

p. 225) records the fact that the elaboration 

of the « 

lifficult order of 

oseph Hooker in prenariiur the Fhru of Ilritish India. This, i 

lent. The publication of a lii-f pari of Volume VII., which conta 
ic whole of the Ptniicarca . wii! be hailed therefore by all botani 
ith as much satisfaction as admiral ion. 
The following extract from Sii do<, ph [looker's brief introduction 

retards, the ■itii.l.'Mt •», the Unl.-r. Oi MiMiv recenl workt 

the llnmbi's,,,- "(Trails Linn. Sor., vol. xxvi., 1 M>> 

Distribution of Alpine Plants.— The 

in its Transactions the olahoiate t-il.l.-s 
Plants on the south si.le of the Alps 

other mountains of Europe. As the southern side of 
as the riehest ami most varied ilora, and was at that time 

from published works, Ir.mi pnHieatid private herbaria, 
my own repeated visit >— this part of my work involving, 
iration of 50 local floras. Though T regard the work 

Bui they wefre only 

adapted In large domains, as they sought to bring tlio sn rroundinpr j ):ir j v 

impression anil its monotonv >, ( .n became wearisome. 

"The beginning of the 'eighteenth century saw a violent reaction 

again,! the formal style. T1.K Mas la,-, lv due to the inlluencc of 1'oee 

'I'his was shut up and the two properties thrown together in 1802. 

" Frederick. Prince of Wale., the father of (ieor-e ill., obtained 
17.:.) a 1,,.,- lease of Kcw House. Sir William Chambers, who erect 

preserve by the late King of Hanover. 

"By slow ilegreo the groinx! acccsdMr 1o the public 

Sir Willi;,, , Honk, , !',,u,x! l.ims. Il'in ••linr-To of n ^pariou- 

; which is most t 
h Kent and Br 
erected for the 

,l)scrvednnaluo.gathorin{r !5l ,..lsf,,.n, :, h.i-, plant nc 
Hex, five miles west of this, which I foun.l to he //yoi 
riii- plant was three or lour yards in circumference 

Chamaedorea Pringle: 

■ Juglans jamaicensis.— In the Few Bullet !,) for ls<H (p. 138 and 
p 871), arc two paragraphs on the Jamaica Walnut, which is still 
imperfectly known at Kew. Some drift fruits, referred to in the 
Boldn;/ of the Chal/eiu/ee Expedition (i. pt, 3, p. 303), which were 
overlooked at the time, have recently come to light again. They 
formed part fruits from Pali-adoe- 

Plantation, Jamaica, made by Dr. I). Morris. The endocarp of these 
fruits i> exactly like that represented in Descourtilz (Flore Pittoresque 
ef Medienle des Antilles, x\\. \. lo3). in being exceedingly thick and 
in having a pointed apex. Whether it had floated down one of the 

variously spelled - iapang," " Japan 

Th.ere is n representation of it in the North Gallery (No. 530); and in 
the catalogue it is referred to as being probably a member of the 

'(ft, x. p. (MO, t, 32), the results ■ 
uishes three specie- of Kootxpussi, 

at Kew points to the spectl 

•jree in describing tl,e '/',/,„//,,/ a- 




tfo. 117-118.] SEPTEMBER and OCTOBER. [1896. 


{Camellia theifera, Griff.) 

"Black or Calcutta tea fm- I Vrsian consumption, continues to arrive 
in sternly quantities, 2,000,000 pounds re] »r.-.-iil imr last year's supply. 

White tea from China, or more particularly from Tongkitig, is con.-i ",1 

only in Yc/.l, and. iherefore, the supply is limited." 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Johr/lJ. Preece. Her .Majesty's Consul 
at Ispahan, Kevv received a smail quantity of the " White tea " above- 
mentioned for the Museum of Kcono;nic Botanv. The tea proved to 
/«• \cry similar to that described in the AW Bull* tin under the 
of P'u-erh tea (AW Bulletin, 1889, pp. 118 and 139). The finest of 
tins tea is said to he reserved for the Court of Peking. The sample 
from Ye/,.1 was cdinp-.s.-d of the undeveloped leaf buds so thickly coated 
with fine hairs as to give them a silvery appearance. 

Owing to the shaking in transit .oui'e ,.f the hair- had been rubbed off 
and had formed small yellow pellets about |-ineh diameter. Although 

the leaves have been derived from the Assam tea plant {('amvllia 
Iheifera, Griff.) found wild in some parts of Assam and Burma bur 
now largely cultivated in Burma, Tongking, &c. The same species has 
been shown to yield Lao tea (AW- liulltti,,, ls92, i» 21!)), and Leppett 
tea (AW< Bulletin, p. 1896, p. 10). ' ' v 

The liquor from the Persian white tea was of a pale straw colour with 
'h", I, is not unkn o Wn but now little 

it have been kindly communicated to K !| Brmof tea 

brokers in the city. 

Messrs. Gow, Wilson, and Stanton to Royal Gardens, Kewv 

13, Eood Lane, London, E.C., 
Sir, 13t.h August, 1896. 

We duly received your kind letter of last Tuesday's date, together 
■with the sample of tea you had received from Persia. This class of tea 
has been very scarce during the last few years upon the London market, 
the price which the English trade were prepared to pay being very 
unsatisfactory compared with that whicli could b«- obtained in Persia. 
In London this class of tea is called Flowery Pekoe Congou, and the 
last lot that we remember having seen, which was some two or three years- 
ago, we ourselves sold to a client in Constantinople, the tea evidently 
being destined for the Persian market. 

The name by which you say it is known in Persia, " White Tea," very 
truly describes the article, but the particular sample which you sent ia 
not so white or silky as some we have previously seen. 

For home consumption this tea is not worth much more than 1*. per 
pound, but for export purposes, especially to the market that you named,, 
good specimens command as much as 3s. to 5*. per pound. 
We are, &c. 
(Signed) Glow, Wilson, and Stanton. 

Dr. Morris, C.M.G., 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 


Plantarum Novartjm in Herbario Horti Regii Conservatarum. 


271. Grewiabatangensis, U'riyht L 'I'ili.-n-i-.i- j : a.boiva, ramis teretibus 

secundariis 6-7, cy.u'n axillaribus paucifloris, svpalis ligulatis subtus et 
supra ad marginem pubescentibus, petalis quam sepala multo brevioribus 
orbicularis liirsuti.- ba.ii iiitu- b.vcolatis, (ilumcnti> -cpali- a-quilongis 
tenuibus, autl rtylo staminibus 

a}quilongo hirsuto, ovulis pluribus. 

Habitat.— W. Tropical Africa: Batanga, G. L. Bates, 328. 

Arbor 15-pedalis. Folia 5-6 poll, longa, 2| poll. lata. Sepala 
6 lin. longa, 1 lin. lata. Petala 1 lin. diam. 

fioridanus, Hem si. [Tiliaceae] ; praetor flores fere 

omnino glabcr, 

tenuiter coriaceis ovatis o!)tusis basi cuneatis remote ercuulatis vonis 
primaiii-, lateralibus iiiniiquc ">-7. iacnii> ^racilil.n- la.vis puberulis 
, ,| :i -ujier: ■ -• -cpalis lanccolatis vis acutis 

.' \iu- pub m. - in i - _ i <- ■ M nati-. \> ial - . Montis api< i' sa \>c circiter 

• ' : - ' ■ - : 

tilamentis puberulis, ai :i .oi.. ^labro 

stylo filiformi stamina -up. rant.-, .. - - nitidis. 

JlabitaL- -Solomon Island-; Florida Island, U. B. Guppy, 231. 

Arbor usque ad 30 pel aha did. '.luppy). Folia absque petiolis 
4-5 poll, longa, petiolis l|-2 poll, longis. Race mi 7-8 poll, longi. 

]\(lic(lli 4~G lin. longi. Drupa sicca 1-5 I'm. diametro. 

273. Elaeocarpus fauroensis, Hemsl. [Tiliaeere] ; foliis breviicr 

petiolatis tennircr cur::;. :'- \.d obovafo-lanceolatis 

obtusis vel rotundatis b:isi ■ •wnratis nvnulatis utrin.pie glabris venis 

primariis lateralibns mimerosis. raeemis brevihus, Horihus 

d.npis cn-ruleis (tide Guppy), olohosis cpicarpio tcnui endocarpio duris- 

Habitat.— Solomon Islands : Fauro Island, II. B. Guppy, 241. 

Arbor 70-pedalis (fide Guppy). Folia cum petiolo brevi 7-8 poll. 
longa, 2-2 J; poll. lata. Pedictlli circiter pollicares. Drupa sicca 

274. Elaeocarpus rarotongensis, Hand. [Tiliacea?] ; prater flores 

glaber, ram ; -. int. inodiis quam folia multoties 

hrevioribus, foliis longe gracilit.rque petiolatis tenuisculis o.riaeeis 

rito-oblongis obtuse aenmii ttis remote calloso-crenulatis undnlatis 
renis primariis •• 7-9 supra medium furcatis in 

erenis exenrrontibus, petiolis -ra.-illimis basi levit.-r inerassatis apiee 
-eniculatis. raeemis nm : 'i superiorum 

ms Micliocrilius pedicellatis, podicellis puberulis, sepalis 
antrusto lauccolati- vix acutis extus puhescentibus intus glabris 
rarinatis. pctalis oblongis scepe quinquefidis extus 
intus pilis 'longis retrorsis dense vestitis earinatis basi 
di-.?o cupulari marginc puberulo, filamentis brevibus filiformibus 
puberulis, antheris apiculatis, stylo siannna paulo snpert.nte. drupis 
parvis ovoideis. 

Habitat. — Cook Islands : Rarotonga, Rev. W. Wyatt Gill. 

Folia absque petiolis 3-6 poll, longa, petiolis 1-2 poll, longis. 
Raccmi 2 -4 poll, longi. Pedicelli fructiteri 4-0 lin. longi. Sepala 
oX petala circiter 2 lin. longa. Drupa: 4-0 lin. longa-. 

275. Impatiens Bate:. *»]; berbacta, debilis, 

<-aulc succulehto proeumbonte, Foliis a'teruis p.-t ! a t i ■< . . - 
membranaceis crenulatis inter crei.ulationes minute donticulatis 
utraque hirsutis, pedunculo lonirissimo drhili. lloribus purpureis 
ra.vmosis, bracteis parvis ovatis. scpalis lateralibus ovatis uninerviis, 
s-paio antico ore obliquo basi in calear p;radatim .airvatum producto, 
pctalo postieo orbieulari, petalis ■ i.'ulatis lubis 

laieralibus rotnndati^ quam smti.-os deltoideos majoribus. 

Habitat — West Tropical Africa: Cameroons. Efulen, <i. L. Hates. 


r Impatiens palpebrata, Hook. 
d petals and also in the shape c 
s sepal is slightly ami gradually c 

supra viridibus subtus s 

sirnis approximate, paniculis mulrirh.ris ad ramorum apices t 
vel subterminalibus, bracfois p.-ir\ i - 'ui^is aeutis 

marginihus me mbranaceis post anthesin accrescentibus, petalis ovatis 
• - ■ . 

miosis poris 2 terminalibus dehiscentibus, ovario alte 5-lobato 5-loculari, 

Habitat.— \Y. Tropical Africa : Batanga, G. L. Bates, 317. 
Frute.r 2-3 pedalis. Folia 6-7 poll, longa, U-2 poll. lata. Flore* 
6-8 lin. diam. Drupce 2 lin. diam. 

277. Trichilia alata, N. E. Brmcn [Meliaceae] ; foliis alternis petiolatis 

trifoliatis vel pinnatim 3-7 t'oliolatis, foliolis oppositis s-ssilibus ellip- 
lico-oblongis cuneato-obovatis oblongo-lan. -eolai is oblongs vel lanceolatis 
obtusis vel retusis ba-i ciimatis inar<:inibus leviter ivvolutis coriaeeis 

itpac-is coata utrinque i prominente et acuta venis i ii-picnis, radii 

.•data, uoiibus parvis in cymas parvas corynibosas 10-30-floras ter- 
minates vel "subterminales glabra dispositis, pedicelHs brevibus 
subcrassis, calyce breviter 4-dentato vel late 4-crenato glabro, petalis 
4 valde imbricatjs ellipticis vel elliptico-obovatis obtusis' extus glabris 
intus minute puberulo-venosi- albis. ■staininum tubo quam petala duplo 
breviore extus glabro intus villoso apiee ina-oiialiter K-dentato dentibus 
(minibus ad apicem antherilerts. antheris 8 oblotigis obt j.-i> dabi'is, disco 
brevissimo staminum tubo basi adnato 4-crenatn, ovario compresso- 
ovoideo in stylum crassum attenuato glabro 2-loculari loculis 2-ovulatis, 
tructu (itnmaturo ?) compresso -globoso 2-spermo, serainibus plano- 
cunvexis tenuiter albuminosi?, cotyledonibus subplanis crassis, radicula 

Habitat.— Katal : Umhloti, Wood, 1022 ; Groeubenr, Wood, 1043, 
and near Pinetown 1100 ft., Wood, 3403, 5439. Transvaal: near 
]'.8rberton, on the eastern slopes of the Saddlehn-k Kan-e. 1500 ft., 
Galpin, 1226, and at Upper Moodies, 4400 ft., Galpin, 1083. 

Frutex vel arbor usque ad 25 ped. alta. Folia lf-5 poll, longa, \\-Z 
poll, lata; fbliorum petioli \-\\ poll, longi, foliola 1-2 poll, longa, ."■' 

lin. lata. Cymte 
\-l lin. longi. 

3-4 lin. diam. 

6-10 1 



. lon-us 

Hculi 4-14 lin, 
. Petala 14 
antherai | lin 

, longi. Pedicelli 
lin. longa, 1 lin. 
. longa;. Fntetus 

From the presence of 
the embryo, this plant 

would fall undei 
C. De Candolle's 

• the t 

ribe M. 

xserted radicle of 

S. Chailletia chartacea, Wrii/ht , Chaiilniur,,,. 

■ ■ ■ . 
i ptibcsci-utilms al> ovario liberis, petalis spathul 
i petalis sequilongis antheris parvis albis, ovario ■_ 

ulari, ovulis solitariis p.-iululis, stylo elongato filiformi apice 

tbitat.— West Tropical Africa : Batanga, G. L. Bates, 337. 
ntex 1-5 ped. altus. Folia 2-3 poll, longa, 1-1£ poll, lata; petioli 
longi. Florcs 2 Iin. diam. 

ten [Crassulacca-] ■ caulc erecto 
iis aloiformibus eoufertis rosulatis 
valde recurvatis rectis vel leviter 1:il<>at is sossililnis e liasi ad apicem 
gradatim attenuatis acuminatis glabris subflaocidis minute cartilagineo- 
eiliatis utrinque \ iri<Jil»us nun plaueis. pc.luneulo elongato, corymbo 
amplo ramulis parce papillate -eab.Tnlis, braeteis se— iliims attenuato- 
acuminatis ciliatis glabris, floribus parvis uumerosissimis dense confertis 
pedicel Int i- pallid.' ltiteis, calve. • u-q ie ad niedium ."> lobo lo'jis ovatis 
neutis glabris, petalis quam calyx subtriplo longioribu* oblanecnlato- 
oblongis obtusis apice dorso minute tub. n -ul -it i — glabris, staminibus 
quinque petalis a quilongis, s-niauii- liypogynis cuneato-obcordatis quam 
c-arpella sjbtriplo brevioribus. 

//aWta*.— Transvaal : Houtbosch, Jiehmann, G375; hillsides, in 
damp places MM Barberton, 2000-4000 ft., Galpin. 

Caulis plant* juvenilis 1-11 poll, crassus. Folia 10-18 poll, longa, 
basi U-2^ poll. lata. Pedtmculns 3-4 ped. altus. Corymbus 18 poll. 
diam. Prdinl/i \\~\\ Iin. longi. (a/,,,, I lin. longus, lobis \ lin. 
longis. Petala \\ lin. longa, £ lin. lata. #?««««> * lin. long*. 

280. Luffa Batesii, Writ/lit [Vncurbitacea- -. seand.ns, suffruticosa, 
foliis eordatis integris vcl sparse angulato-dcntatis glabris nervis dense 
reticulars praesertirn ad inferam paginam elcvatis, petiolis -longatis 
eglandulosis, cirrhis lateralii us 2- fl..ribu- masculis racemosis 
braeteis subulate pcdiecUis plus luinusveadnalis, calyce infundibuliformi 
inferne inflato dentibus parvis ac:tti> cgbmdidosi*, petalis liberis 
obovatis luteis nervis primarii- seiumlariisque fuseis, staininibu; 5 
calycis ori ii r : s brcvibus eompressis, aniheris 

bilocularis contortis, floribus femineis non visis. 

Habitat.— West Tropical Africa: Cameroons River, G. Mann, 719; 
Efulen, G. L. Bates,218; Batanga, G. L. Bates, 338 ; Angola, 70 miles 
from Anibriz on the road to Bembe, Monteiro 

Cavlis 20 ped. longus (ex Mann). Folia 3 poll, longa, 4 poll, 
lata, petioli 2 poll, longi. Ilacemus 8 poll, longus. Calyx 8 lin. 
longus, apice 3 lin. diam. Corolla 3 poll. diam. 

281. Alepidea setifera, X. E. Brown [Umbellifenc] ; caule erectc 
pice ccrvnoboso- vel paniculato-ramoso folioso, foliis radicalibm 

petiolatis liiu-ari-obiojigis vel elliptici- aeutis 
longe, setoso-dentatis utrinque glabris, fjliis 
scs.-ilibus . us iuibrieati 

ovato-lanceolatis raarginibus longe seloso-der. 


minute glandul..-i- .1,11. - 1 .-1 j fb n- H-lt> 1 ra< t. it is >ra< tois >n 
connatis lanceolatis acutis mucronatis glabris, floribus sessilibus, calycis 
- - 
Habitat.— Transvaal : Hoghe Veldt, Pages Hotel, Behmann, 6849 ; 

Herba 12-18 poll. alta. Folia radicalia cum petiolo 1-2 poll, longa, 
3-7 lin. lata, caulina 5-9 lin. longa, 2-5 lin. lata. Inflow sccn'tia 
ramuli 0-15 lin. longi. Iurolurri bractetr 2-3^ lin longa?, ^-1 lin. lata?. 

282. Chrysophyllum batangense, Wright [Sapotacea?] ; arbor parva, 
foliis anguste oblanceolr coriacels subtus glauee- 
scentibus nervisque conspicuis, floribus paucis in axillis foliorum 
vetusiiomm fasciculatim congestis, sepalis liberis oblongo-ovatis 
pubescentibii-. pauk) longiore lobis ovatis 
imbricatis, sta adnatis et lobis ejusdem oppositis, 
ovario 5-lobato, 5-locular alia solitariis. 

Habitat.— West Tropical Africa : Batanga, G. L. Bates, 325. 
Folia 6 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata { petioli 3-6 lin. longi. Flores 3 lin. 

283. Strychnos Gerrardi, X. E. Brown [Loganiacea?] ; inermis 
ecirrhosa, ramis teretibus eorttce griseo, foliis petiolatis lanceolatis 
ellipticis vel elongato-obovatis apice obtusis obtuse acuminatis vel 
obtusissime rotundatis basi ennes taceis glabris 
3-nerviis lateralibus 2-3 lin. supra lamina? basin abeuntibus nervis 
venisque utrinque prom i 1 illarium subfasciculatarum 
ramulis 3-5-tloris, srpalis orbicnlatis oblu-issimis eiiiulatis, corolla-, 
tubo cylindrieo oxtus glabro intus ad fancom nili< albidis densissiine 
intertextis barbato lobis 4 ovatis subacutis glabris patentibus. 

Habitat.— Natal: Berea, Wood, 5624; in Gardens, Wood, 1777; 
without locality, Gerrard, 1421. 

Foliorum pet lull 1-3 [in I<»ngi, laminae 1^-4 poll, longa?, \-\\ poll, 
lata?. Cymarum rami vel pedunculi 1-2 lin. longi. Pedicelli \-\\ lin. 
-~4.ongi. Sepala f-H lin loaga et lata. Corolhr tubus 1| lin" longus, 
lobi 1-1 i lin. longi. * 

284. Xysmalobium obscurum, N. E. Brown [Asclepiadea?] ; caule 
simpltce pal latu acutts basi cuneatis 
utrinque glabris venis 1 ibufi anguste 

revolutis, umbellis luteralibns -libus 4-6 lion's |x:di<;elris pube- 

scontibus. H'paiis laiict-olati> nouminatis glabris, corolIa> lobis ovatis 
acutis reflexis glabris, corona? lobis erect is i-rasso-carnosis subobovoideo- 
oblongis obtusis ecarinatis. 

Habitat. — Nyasaland, Bnch an an. 

Planta circa 1 pod. alia. Folia 2-2] poll. longa, 5-7 lin. lata, 
Pedicelli 2-4 lin. longi. S<p„l,i 1 > lin longa. Corolla; lobi 2 lin. 
longi, 1 lin. lati. Corona, lobi \ lin. longi. 

corolla quam 
stamimbus msequalibus. 

Habitat.— West Tropical Afri 

Folia 3 poll, longa, 2-2| poll. 
3-4 poll, longus; pedicelli 4 lin. longi. Sepala 4 lin. longa, 3 lin. lata. 
Corolla l|-2 poll, ionga. 

Resembling Ipomvea nvila, Baker, from which it differs in its hirsute 
.■stem and broadly ovate s,.p;i!s which terminate in a short inucro. 

283. Lyperia punicea, N. E. Urown [Sciophuhmticca*] ; caulibus 
plurimi- e rhizomate lignoso perenni annuis basi sa^pe deeumbentibus 
folio-is dense glauduloso-pilo.-i-, ! ; tms oppositis 

Miperiorilnis :i Itrrnis mail- apice obtuse rotundutis basi sul.f tuncnii- 
civnato-dentatis utrinque glauduloso-pubescentibus, noribus axillaril-ns 
pedicellatis in racomum terminalem di-pnsiti-. ealyce I'ere ad basin 5- 
lobato lobis oblongo-spathulatis apice concavis vel plus minusve compli- 
■catis et recurvis subobtusis ti inpiegl n ' .l.-o-pilosis, corolla purpureo- 

labio superiore minore bil lis abio inferiore trilobato 

Habitat— Natal: slopes of the I)rak.-n-.b«.|-. r . Evans. 392; Weenen 
County, South Downs, ai oODO feet, Wood, 4422 ; Marit /.burg County, 
at 3800 feet, Hood, 3572 ; Faku's Territory, Sutherland. East 
Griqunlanl : Vaal Hank. // 'ond, 1214 ; llayqurth; near Kokstad, at 5000 
feet, Tyson, 1615; sides of the mountains at fiuHi feet. Tyson, 1363. 

Caules 4-12 poll, longi. Eofiorum pct'mli 1-4 lin. hmgi. lamina 1 
3-9 lin. longa-, 3-7 lin. lata;. Pcdici'lli .'H-9 lin. longi. Calycis (obi 
2$ lin. longi. ; lin lati. CoroUcr tubus 2i lin. longus, lirabus circa 6 
lin. diaui. lobis 2-2| lin. longis, 2$-2| lin. latis. 

A well-marked species allied to Ch . Marloth and 

Engler, which 1 to be a Lyperia {L. corymbosa, 

N.E. Br), having affinity with L. canari, usis, \\\ >!,!,. The flowers are 
-lated by Mr. Fvans to be "deep scarlet," by 1 Mr. Wood "red" and 
"dull crimson/' and by Mr. Tyson as ''intense rosei." 

287. Diclis tenella, If nasi. [Serophulariacene] ; molliter hirsuta, 

- : 

grosse serrato-dentatis basi rotundntis vel snl>euneati>. p.-.;;: 

laribus solitai - < «, llarihns tnlia supei ntihus llnribus parvis. ealycis 

-. juh-i lis i equal i bus ovato-oblongis. < 11a ' . superiors n^jnalit or 

biiobato lobis r..tutn!atis. labie ml'erioiv [ongioro ina-qualiter trilobato 
lobis latemliluis obli.jiii- iniei ■medio angustiore recto, calcari elongato 

Habitat. — British Central Africa : Mount Chiradzulu, A. IVhyte. 

Rami G-12 poll, longi. Colionoii htm'nuc (j-12 lin. !ata\ petiolis 
3-12 lin. longis sed sa-pe eirciter <i lin. longis. PcduncuJi 1-2 poll, 
longi. Calycis tegmenta \-$ lin. longa. Corolla cum calcari .">- 1 1 

lin. longa, parte eal< arata '/ . \ 1 n. l< i _-i. . nib f r 2 lin. diametro". 

Capsula eirciter 1£ lin. lata. 

288. Dianthcra celebica, Itolfe. [Acanthacese] ; 
foliis petiolatis ovatis «ll ; ulatis i 
viridibus subtus subpallidis pauce puberulis, cymis terminalibus laxe 
paniculatis parvis paucifloris puberulis, bracteis subulato-linearibus, 
floribus brevissime pedicellatis, calyce profunde 5-partim h.bis linearibus 
-uli.'i.-inis mil uiipliato lobis 
rotundato-oblongis, staminibus 2 iaclusis, antherae loeulis disjimctis 
distantibus muticis, capsulis clavatis glabris tetraspermis. 

Habitat.— South Celebes: Bonthain Peak, at 7000 ft., A. H. 
Everett, 29. 

Folia 2-2 poll, longa, 5-12 lin. lata; petioli 2-6 lin. longi. Panicula? 
2-3 poll, longa*. Braclece \ lin. longae. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla 
5 lin. longa. Capsidce 5 lin. longae. 

Nearly allied to the Himalayan D. collina, C. B. Clarke, which it 
much resembles in general character, except that the corolla is only 
half as long as in that, and proportionately broader. 

289. Salvia yunnanensis, Wright [Labiatas] ; herbaeea, rhizomate 
repente tuberis fusiformibus gerente, us longissime- 
tenuiterque pel ,hbus -ubtus purpuras-, 
inflorescentia siniplice vcrticillis l-fi-doris. cah«v glamluloso bilabial©- 
labio postico obscure bifido labio antico dentibus 3 acutis, corolla extui* 
pubescente bilabiata labio superiore falcato labio inferiore patente trilo 
bato lobo terminal! integio rotundato quam laterales duplo majore, 
Etaminibus stylisque generis. 

Habitat.— China :Yu\ ai a slopes at 5000-650© 

ft., W. Hancock, 61. 

Herba 1 ped. alta. Folia 1^-3 poll, lonsa, \~\ poll, lata; petiolux 
4 poll, longus. Calyx 4-5 lin. longus. Corolla 1 poll, longa. 

Allied to S. hums, Rovle, which however lias sanitate leaves. The 
haves of this spot if s resemble those of .V. scapifurmis, Hanee, but t he- 
cobalt-blue flowers are very different. 

290. Scutellaria amcena, Wright [Labiat.-c] : heibaeea sparse pilosa> 
caule erecto obtuse quadrangular]", foliis oblongis glabris vel sparse 
pilosis integris breviter petiolatis, floribus erectis per paria in raeemos 
secundos dispositis, pedicel lis biv\ii,u-, br.i.-tcis ^nperioribus quam 
calyx paullo longioribus, calycis pilosi lobis rotundatis, corolla magna 
caenilea extus pubescente per tubi curvationem erecta, nuculis nou 

Habitat. — China : Yunnan, Mongtse, open grassy glens at 5500 ft. 
W. Hancock 2 ; Szeuhuen, near Tachienlu, A. E. Pratt, 580 and 703. 

Planta 1 ped. alt. Folia \-\{ poll, longa, G lin. lata. Calyx 1-2 
lin. longus. Corolla 1 poll, longa. 

Flowers like those of 8. macrantha, Fiseh., from which this differs, 
in having oblong, not linear-lanceolae leaves. 

291. Freycinetia marantifolia, Hem$l [Pandanaceaj] ; species in- 

signis, nana, electa, loliis brevnsime vaginantibus subcoriaceis obovato- 
oblongis abruj ;- deorsum h * her attenuatis circiter 

40-nerviis aculeis minutis paucissimis in marginibus secus costam et 

pracecrtim in cur-pi.k in-trm-t *. ha, u:, ii Hou-.i-mia. d.-lai -is, spadicibus. 

> L'lal.i 
6 multispermis, setninibus fusifonnibus c 

Habitat.— Solomon Islands : Fauro Island, H. B. Gtippy, 324. 

Planta tripedali* 'tide Cuppy). Folia 5-7 poll, longa, supra 
medium 2 2£ poll, lata, cuspide 3-4 lin. longo. Spadicium peduncuH 
9-12 lin. longi, pars baccas mantras ^cren- rireiter pollicaris. 

292. Freycinetia humilis, Hemsl. [Pandanaceae] ; nana, foliis 

]aneeo\uti< rigMis corijiceis creberrimc rervosis basi leviter dilatatis ut 
videtur vix vaginantibus basi et apicetn versus it subtus secus costam 
aculeis paucis minutis instructis vix acutis, bracteis non visi? r 
spadicibus femineis binis ? longe pedunculitis cylindricis pedun cub's- 
erassis glabris, floribus femineis inter se fere libeiis, sti^inati^vis 
confluentibus, staminodiis filil'onnibus ovario axpuantibus. 

Habitat.— Solomon Islands: Fauro Island at 1600 ft., //. B. Gappy r 

<H*l. [ Panda n 
ens (fide Haviland) glabra, foliis confertis bre 

aculeis majoribus ai matis basi late va<zi::antiiMi>, 
lis aculeis rectis crebris vix rigidis niargiuantib 
terminalibus tcrnis subsessilibus oblongo-evlin. 
laneeolatis rubris apicem versus aculeolaiis es 
foliiforniem desinentibus 

mglomeraie rocks at 2000 ft. G. D, 

Internodia foliis oiuuiuo \ .-.u:J um : t i *>nr^ Folia circiter pedalia, parte- 
vaginante bipollicnii. 4-5 lin. lata, aculeis maxiinis limam vix exceden- 
tibus. Bractccc 3-7 poll. long;v, infra medium 8-12 lin. lata?. Spadieec 
circiter sesquipollicares. 

angustatis in niarginibus apicem versus et infra mediui 
costam aculeis brevibus instructis creberrime striato- 
utrinque 23-25, bracteis latissimis coloratis exterior; 

aggr.-gutis oblocgis dNtim-te pclunciilatis, pedunculis crassis furfuraeeisv 
H .ribin femineis coniertissimis inter sc liberis vel basi tantuin eoalitis. — 
Freycinetia Ivzonensis, var. heterophylla, Naves in Blanco Fl. film. 
ed. 3. Nov. App. p. 286, t. 437, non Miq. 

Habitat. -Philippine Islands : without locality. Cuming, 1898. 

Folia 12-15 poll, longa, 2-2| poll, lata, aculeis |-1 lin. longis. 
Bractece \\-2 poll lata-. Prdmiruli 1 1,-2 j ol!. longi. Spadinan part 
florifera circiter \\ poli. long*. 

The figure cited above does not agree exacth with ('inning's plant, 
the leaves being armed throughout their whole length ; but it most 
probably represents this species, which certainly is not even closely 
allied to F. luzonensis. 

295. Freycinetia Vidalii, Hcmsl. [ Pandanaceaj] ; species F. angusti- 
JolicE et F. pycnophylla- similis. eaulibus seamlenti'tms dense folintis, 

foliis bivviter vaginantibus, vaginis auriculatis, tenuibus simul 
coriaceis lentisqne th.-\ ti. ><is aii^iislis {'ito linearihus sursum valde 
attenuatis subtus pallidioribus per totam longitudinem in marginibus 

lanceolatis coloratis (aurantiace ?) exterioribus longe caudatis spadices 
femineos superantibus, caudicibus phis minusve foliaceis aculeolatis, 
spadicibus femineis ternis pedunculitis, pedunculis crassis sursum 
leviter spongiosis, parte florifera parva ovoidea vel oblonga, floribus 
femineia inter se liberis supra medium si 
exceptis cruslaeeis ebumei<. staminodiis brevibus filiformibus. 

tfabittit, — I'hillipiiK- Islands: liayombong, Nueva Vircaya, Luzon, 

Folia sesquiped 
2-2\ poll, longae; 
Spadicis pars floril 

296. Freycinetia formosana, Hemtl. [Pandanacea?] ; robustissima, 
glabra. /**. urborctr ailini-, i'oliis cont'ertis-imis .- 1 i i .■ . - 1 - : • . i ilm- subdistichis 
lineaii-laneeolatis clontratis e basi lata snrsinn "radatim attenuatis vix 
acutis basin et apieem versus aculeolatis et aculeolis paucissimis dorso 
secus costam sparsis, l>racteis foliaceis basi latissimis coloratis ex- 
terioribus foliis fere tequantibus, spadicibus femineis maximis 3-5 
fasciculatim aggrcgatis valide pedunculatis, floribus femineis inter se 
fere liberis, staminodiis obsol.-tis, stigmatihus :)-',) sarins circiter 6. 

Habitat. — Formosa : without locality, Oldham, 630 ; Kelung, 

Folia 2-3 ped. longa, basi 1-1 £ poll, lata sursum valde attenuata. 
Bractece basi usque ad 2\ poll, lata! Spud/n.s fcminei cum pedunculis 
brevibus 4-6 poll, longi, sicci 7-9 lin. diametro. 

This is very similar to F. arborea, Gaud, in general appearance, but 
the leaves are not aculeate throughout their whole length, and the 
female spadices are always more than one or two. 

297. Freycinetia Beccarii, ffemsl. [Pandanaceae] ; species F. mar- 
ontifolitr siniilis sed evidentcr scandens eaulibus clongatis, foliis ut 
videtur in apicibns innovat'onum confertis amplexicaulibus nee vagin- 
ar.tibus teniiitcr coriaceis obovato-oblongis vel oblanceolatis abrupte 
;Mispidat(i-aciimiuatis de<.rsum angustatis basin et apieem versus in 
innririnibus aouleolatis dorso supra uiediuni ad ■•(..-tarn paiiei-aculeolatis 
multinerx iis (iitrinqm- eitettt r L'.'l iV), biacteis parvis foliaceis, spa- 
dicibus femineis tends pan i- \alide peduneiilatis ovoiileis vel oblongis, 
floribus femineis parvis staminodiis minutis, stigmatibus 2-3. 

Habitat.— Borneo : Sarawak, Beccari, 3598. 

Folia 3-9 poll, longa, 1-3 poll, lata, BractecB semipollicares. Pedun- 
culi pollicares. Spadicium femineorum pars florifera circiter 6 lin. 


298. Freyc: .". t l'andamu-ea- i j foliis brevibus 
tenuiter coriaceis laxe vaginantibus linearibus acutis basin et apicem 
versus minute aculeolatis multinerviis deorsum gradatim rainoribus 
infimis innovation!! m braeteiformibus, iuiloreseontia di.-tinctc pedunculata, 
bracteis brevibus latis vix acutis erassis coloratis ornatis, spadicibus 
masculinis ternis minimis breviter pedunculatis parte florifera cylmdnca. 
sfaminibus numerosis filamentis fere liboris. 

Habitat. — British North Borneo, Goceruor Creagh. 

Folia superiora cireiter 6 poll. longa. inferiora ;kI vaginam reducta 
PcdnncuH enmmuni 1-1', ]-<.[[. h.ngi. Spmlicium pedunculi cireiter 
semipollicares, par.- llorit'cra '! 1 lin. longa. 

299. Freycinetia caudata, llemsl. [Pandanac< m "| ; scandens, epi- 

phytica (title Home) caulihus graciliu-euli.- internodiis distinctly, 
foliis parvis tenuiter eoriae. is lineari-lanceolatis abrupte caudato- 
acuminatis basin versus subito angustatis complicatis semiamplexicau- 
libus nee vaginantibus apicem versus praesertim in acumine aculeis 
minutis instruct is cum costa cireiter 31-nerviis, bracteis coloratis 
herbaceis lanceolatis aculeolato-cuspidulatis spadices superantibus, 
spadicibus femineis tends par\i- distincte pedunculatis eylindrieis. 

the islands, J. Home, 

300. Freycinetia sumatrana, Hem*/. \ Pamknaeea-j ; robu-ta. foliis 
conferti.s-imi- eoriacei- rigidi-Minis liiiearibu- longis basi vix dilatatis 
sursum valde attenuatis sed vix acutis remote aculeolato-deiiticulati- 
siccis revolutis creberrime nerve-i- costa \alida, bracteis i'oliaccis basi 
coloratis e basi lata longissime caudatis, spadicibus rnediocribus 
quaternis distincte pedunculatis oblongis, staminodiis minimis vel 

Sumatra : Mount Singalan, Heccari, 211. 
ed. longa, basi cireiter 1 poll. lata. Bractca- 9-12 poll. 
-2 poll. lata 1 . Pedunculi cireiter pollicare-. Xptidici>n» 
i florifera 9-12 lin. longa. 


The Annual Report of tin (Qutensland) lh port mat of Agriculture 
for the gear 1891-5, describes the progress (pp. 5-7) of the sugar 
industry "which may fairly be rated as among the first in Queensland." 
Much of the impetus that has been given to the. growth and manufacture 
of suirar during the pa-t three \ ears is attributed to the success of the 
central mills a! Mackay. "The establishment of these mills has led 
to an entire change in the industry, and especially have they been the 
cause of large estates being sub-divided and sold, or let on lease in small 
areas, the existing mills upon these estates being converted into a central 

mill." At the present time there are 1387 sugar plantations, with a 
total area of 69,031 acres. In 1893 the yield of sugar was 76,146 tons, 
in 1894 it was 91,711 tons. "Not only did 1891 see the greatest 
number of acres crushed for cane, but it also gave the highest average 
return per acre, which latter can be set down to favourable seasons and 
improved machinery." The Under-Secretary for Agriculture adds, 
"The great influence that the establishment of the central sugar-miM 
system has exerted over the industry, leads me to point out the further 
necessary assistance that could be given by the establishment of a State 
nursery wholly devoted to experiments in the growth and cultivation of 
sugar-cane. . . . Experiments in the direction indicated have been 
effected in the existing D runga." For 

cultivation in these nurseries new sugar-canes have been obtained from 
New Guinea. A new variety of coii- ias also shown 

Botanic Station at Barbados in 1889. 
eensland through the Agent-General in 
rlS90. The new variety has been naaa-d" Ktvv.' 
From the par: sis given below, it would appear to be 

rich in sugar, and likely to be of great service. It is described as " a 
splendid cane not so long as many oth< 

and producing a large number of canes to a stool. The crop coming 
on is in fine condition, and a good many tons will be ready for distri- 

The following extract (p. 20) gives the analytical results as regard* 
the Kew cane: — 

"Through the kindness of the Colonial Sugar Company, some of the 
varieties growing at Mackay were tested hy Mr. G. E. Holroyde, the 
chemist at the refinery, New Farm, the samples of juice -ubmitied to him 
being from the * Batoe,' a New Guinea cane, and from the ■ Kewensis,' 
a seedling received from Kew. It is intended that all the varieties 
of cane growing at the nurseries shall be tested during the coming 
season, so that only those of value to the sugar-growers shall be re- 
tained. Experiments also, as far as land and means will permit, will be 
nner with the different fertilisers available in 
the effect upon _ w-prodncing 

As each nursery is now provided with water, 
5 faithfully carried out. The following are the 
•rrived at by Mr. Holroyde :— - 
sis of juice from seedling cane grow. i at Mackay. Name of 

Total solid matter - - 22 '75 per cent. 

Total cane sugar - - - I9 60 „ 

Total fruit sugar - - 1 • 93 „ 

Total density . . - - 12 60 „ 

-sis of juice from New Guinea cane, first ratoon. Age, about 
is; variety, Batoe : — 

Total solid matter - - 20 • 80 per cent. 

Total i ane snear - - - 16' 85 „ 

i has no doubt taken plac 

The Kew Bulletin for 1894 (pp. 84-86) contains an account of the 
success obtained from seedling fugar-eanes in British Guiana and 
Mauritius. Since this was piiltlish. d a fuller "Report on the Agri- 
cultural work in the Botanical Gardens, for the years 1891-92 
{Demerara, 1894)," has been issued. This contains, pp. 11-26, an 
elaborate report of the further progress of the experiments in British 
Guiana. Four of the seedlings raised in 1889 are stated by the writer 
to I*, "the richest canes in sucrose we have examined 'during our 
extended experience in this colony and the West Indies." Further, 
"six of the seedling canea rained in 1889 . . . gave results in 
excess of those yielded by the Bourbon in a year in which those canes 
had given results considerably above the average, and what is of great 
importance ... is that . . . these results were due not to 
excessively high yields of canes per acre, but to the high saccharine 
richness of the canes." 

The general conclusion arrived at that " the saccharine richness of a 
seedling cane is equally as problematical as the conjecture beforehand 
as to its colour or size" is in accordance with general experience. 

The following correspondence has taken place with the Queensland 
Government with respect to die Kew seedling : — 

Agent General fob Queensland to Botal Gardens, Kew. 
Queensland Government Office, 
Westminster Chambers, 1, Victoria Street, 
Sir, London, S.W., 10th August 1896. 

I have the honour to enclose a copy of a letter which 1 have 
received from the Under Secretary of the Department of Agriculture, 
lk-i>l>;uie, concerning some seedling sugar canes supplied by you in 
October 1 890, and I shall feel obliged il you can furnish me with the 
inf-rmation desired. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) Chas. S. Dioken, 
The Director, Acting Agent General. 

Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 

Department of Agriculture, Brisbane, 
IB, 17th June 1896. 

In December 1890 this Department received a Wardian case of 
.f.lling sugar canes from the Royal Gardens at Kew, as advised in your 
.(October 1890. These seedlings, as you were informed, 
ere planted in. the State Nursery at Mackay, which at that time had 
nly just been started. They have resulted in a cane that is so well 
lought of in the Mackay district and elsewhere, as licing •' first in sugar, 
great stoolcr, and rattooner, with fine broad healthy folhge, and 
a\ing all the characteristics of a tirst-da-s cane, tl at all who have 
■ ■en it here this season are captivated by its appearance." (Report of 

Hrcctor of the Royal Gardens has received liuourable reports from 
ther places, and any further information concerning the cane whence 
lie seedlings were derived that may be available. No name accompanied 

the canes, and no information other than that the seedlings were raised 
from seed received from Barbados, accompanied your letter above 
referred to, so that pen'!! thrive common name, the 

cane is now known here generally by the name of Kewensis ; I shall be 
glad, however, to entertain any correction in the nomenclature. 

Great care has been taken in propagating the cane with the result 
that the department has been enabled to place sittings, &c, with 
reliable persons in various parts, so that the variety is in a fair way to 
be spread over the sugar-growing districts, and each year increasing 
the available supply. The analysis [printed above] taken by the 
Colonial Sugar Refinery Company, at their laboratory, New Farm, 
Brisbane, from the juice of first ratoons about 10 months old, may be 
interesting, but in reading it you must remember that the canes had 
first of all to spend a few days in travelling from the Mackay nursery 
to the laboratory. 

(Signed) Peter McLean, 
The Agent General for Queensland, Under Secretary. 

Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Queensland Government Office. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Sib, August 12th, 1896. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
August 10th, transmitting correspondence on the subject of seedling 
sugar-canes sent to Queensland in October 1S90. 

2. I have read the report with great interest and satisfaction. The 
results so far in other sugar-growing colonies of the attempt to obtain 
improved varieties of sugar-cane from seed have scarcely been so 
promising. In a case of this kind success is always a matter of pure 

chance. It is a piece of great g i fortune that a* cane of merit has 

been supplied to Queensland by this means. 

3. The history of this important seedling cannot be carried very far. 
It was raised at Kew from seed obtained from the Botanic Station at 
Barbados. The origin of th - is not certainly known. It was probably 
the Bourbon or Otaheite. But as the. seedling can only be regarded a< 
a seminal sport, the parentage of the seed is really immatcr-'al. 

4. The cane may be conveniently spoken of as the " Kew seedling " 
or, if preferred, as Kewensis. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. 
C. Shortt Dicken, Esq., C.M.G., 

Queensland Government Office, 

"Westminster Chambers, 

1, Victoria Street, S.W. 

The Assam rubber plant {Ficus elastica, Itoxb.) is :i lame evergreen 
tree found in damp forests from the base of the Sikkim Himalaya 
eastward to Assam and Arracan. Kurz remark-- that it i- frequent in 
Upper Burma where whole forests exist in the valley of Hookhoom. 
The Government of India has of late years attempted to establish 
icgular plantations of rubber trees in A— am and Madras. A memo- 
randura, by Mr. Gustav Mann, Conservator of Forests, Assam, describing 
the growth of trees from seeds, was given in the Kew Bulletin, 1891, 
pp. 100-2. In the Kew Bulletin, 1892. p. 68, it was stated that the 
imports into this country of Assam and Rangoon rubber in 1891 
amounted to 350 tons. 

The Government of India issued directions in May 1884 that for 
five years from that date the Assam plantations should be increased by 
200 acres a year. Part of this extension it was recommended should 
be situated ou higher ground than hitherto planted. At the same time, 
it was added, endeavours should be made to induce private persons to 
plant india-rubber trees on their estates, seedlings being offered by the 
Forest Department at cost price. It was also suggested that the ex- 
perimental planting of Ficus elastica, as an epiphyte might with 
undertaken hy the Foiv-t Department. In a state of 
nature this plant generally reproduces itself in this way, and although 
the growth of the seedlings thus raised is slow at first, the trees are 
said to grow to much larger dimensions ultimately. This method of 
reproduction is moreover inexpensive, as the seedlings do not require 
any attention after they have once been deposited in the upper forks of 
trees. The Government of India also desired that in order to test 
the financial results of the cultivation of this rubber 50 mature trees 
should be experimentally tapped annually. In the reports of* subsequent 
years the results of these experiments are fully given. The amount of 
rubber obtained showed a .singular irregularity year by year. It varied 
so greatly that while the yield in one year was as much as 26 pounds 
per tree, it would fall in another- year to a little over two pounds. The 
value in money depended, of course, on the market, but at an average 
price of 1*. 6d. per pound the extreme yield per tree varied from 39s. 


fluctuations in the yield of one i 

md the same tree in 


ire, therefore, very considerable 

; inexplicable, " since the officer? 

1 under whose person: 

;hese experiments were made have 

• not been able to fin< 

i for, or causes of, these very mate: 


11 k. 

that /■"/', 

unshod rapidity and h 

tions remote from the hills, but it 

i such localities it fad 

caoutchouc. Hence, Mr. Mann concludes that no greater 

e made than to start plantation; 


This is true also of many part; 


has be< 

;n introduced. In spite of the 

abundance of the tr 

ion in the tropics of both the 

Old and Xew Worl 

e proved valuable for the produ< 

mountainous part- of Assam. 

ig to doubt as to the financial 

results of the cultiv 

Ficus ( 


ment ol 

: India has latterly been suspended. In fact, no extents 

been made since the year 1893-94. The total 
already established is estimated at about 2000 t 

many parts are not fully stocked, 
reat difficulty has been experienced in preserving the 
t tapping by the natives even in the reserves. " It is n 

ny sort, and then it is invariably too old to yield 
ruDDer in quantity." The present position of the rubber industry in 
Assam is very fully discussed in a " Note on an Inspection of Certain 
Forests in Assam," by Mr. H. C. Hill, Officiating Inspector-General of 
Forests, dated the 31st March 1896. From this note the following 

The continued destruction of nature 
impossibility of preserving them. — The 
reserves, sparsely scattered over miles of almost impenetrable evergreen 
forest with an undergrowth of cane, is easily explained. The roughly 
collected impure rubber sells at a rupee a seer, and to obtain a number 
of seers which are interchangeable for 12 times their weight of rice at 
the nearest Koya's shop, a man has only to make his way to a tree, 
make cuts in the roots, and returning three days later collect his spoil. 
No system of inspection paths or staff of patrols would render pro- 
tection effective over a block of forest of 200 square miles, such as the 
Halipara and Charduar reserves, south and west of the Bhoroli river, 
with perhaps 10 or 20 trees to the square mile in the richest parts, even 
if men could be got to stay in the forests in the rainy season. Under 
existing arrangements the tapper works in the rains when all guards 
are withdrawn. The northern boundary abuts the Akha and Duffla 
hills and is uninhabited and trackless except for wild elephant paths, 
therefore the rubber once collected is easily carried across the line to be 
reimported as foreign produce. Formerly, when the right to collect 
rubber within Government forests other than reserves and to import 
from foreign territory was leased, gangs of Nepalese employed to collect 
rubber beyond the Inner Line defied the forest staff, and, assembling in 
numbers within the reserves, tapped everything before them. This 
"began the destruction. Now. with fewer tree< to work on, and licensed 
purchasers who pay the royalty of Rs. 12 on foreign rabbet*) illicit 
tapping goes on and the rubber is passed off to licensed purchasers as 
foreign rubber. The result is the continued destruction of" the trees in 
reserves as well as in unclassed forests. And, if this is the state of 
things within the Inner Line, it may be safely concluded that the trees 
are being generally killed off across the Line, unless the reported 
religious regard for the tree in the Abor lull- is affording it protection 
in that country. . . . 

Plantations are the only means of assuring a continuous rubber 
supply. — The quantity of rubb-i exported from A-;im annually at p ( sent 
amounts, in round numbers, to 3. ")()<) maunds, worth in Calcuft i \\\ lakhs 
of rupees (35,000/.). The Government royalty at Rs. 12 a maund 
amounts to Rs. 42,000 (4200/.) a year, and it will, I think, be admitted 
that, with a view to miking thi- -uppiy continuous it behoves Govern- 
ment to invest a fair proportion of these receipts, if they can be 
profitably invoked, with this object in view. The only prospect of 
success, financial or other, seems to be in the direction of anilieia! 
plantations, where the trees can be concentrated on a limited area, the 
effective protection and exploitation of which will be possible. 

Financial prospects of f hi plantations — Can these plantations be 
expected to become a profitable investment ? Hitherto the Government 

of India, acting on the advice of the Inspector-General of Foies 
had consulted the loc:d officers (.Messrs. MeKee and Campbell), 
in 1894, that the further extension of the plantation was not at 

and further because, even if it were remiinera'.ive, many yeai 
elapse before any profit- conld be obtain. -d. My observations 

acre, and adding lis. 10 for maintenance the cost would be lis. 30. 

In my opinion thi- cost-rate will suffice ami should not be exceeded, and 
where open lands are planted, as in 1892-93, the cost may be estimated 
at Rs. 30. Mr. Horn- i, able to -how that, exclusive of RS. 34,000 

Mr. McKee. Instead 


This was valued locally at Es. 97 a niaun.l. and allowing for some 
furthei (Irving and a fair rati- b r < o !.■< t i. m . ihe net value may be taken 
at Es. 80 (a little over Is. per pound). 

The rubber was sent to Dr. Watt with a view to his obti 
independent valuation in Calcutta. The result of this valuation is 
Es. 105 to Es. 108, Es. 100 to Es. 105, Es. 110 to Es. 115, Es. 110 
to 112 respectively, per bazaar 'maund landed in Calcutta (equivalent to 
an average price of 1*. Qd. per lb.). 

One man taps three trees in a day or collects the rubber from two 
trees, so that 15 men would tap and collect the rubber from an acre 
containing 1*ut-,>>. Allow in-' a margin, the collection should be done 
fcr Es. 10 a maund. The yield varies with the spread of the crowns 
and the more or less cpi-nness of the situation. The smallest yield was 
obtained from an enclosed tree in 1 1 partmenl : the 

largest from a tree open on two sides situated on the bank of the 
Mansiri river. Previous tappings had been confined to the least 
vigorous and most suppressed trees in the lines, and hence the rubber 
obtained -a- .■ no ; ti.-ation of rh. \ icld of the plantation, the dominant 
vigorous trees of which alone yield rubber freely. 

1 think the yield obtained from these few trees justifies the assumption 
that 20 seers ( 11 lbs.) could even now be obtained from an acre, and 
that it is reasonable to suppose a maund will be readily obtained at or 
before the age of 50 years, and that Es. 16 per acre per annum can be 
counted upon. 

Erfenxi'hi (if pbnttatu r u-<>rk.—I£ these views are accepted, there 
would seem to be a good case for extending the plantation by 2 50 am- 
a year, at a cost of Es. 10,000, for the next 12 years at least. By this 
time it will cover an area of 5000 acres, the prospective yield of which 
would be, even according to Mr. McKee's estimate, 1000 maunds of 
rubber per annum, adding a net income of at least Es. 80,000 to the 
forest revenues of the province. 

Cost to Government etnd the possibility <;/ i.n-mt.sinrj the duty.— -As 
already shown, Government is only required to forego 25 per cent, of 
the revenue it is now deriving from the extermination of the natural 
rubber trees. 

Considering that men are ready to pay up to Es. 38 a maund for 
rubber collected from the forests in the TYzpur distriei, with a guaranteed 
yield of 168 maunds from one of the two inahnls (eastern) into which 
the district has bocn divided, it may bo desirable to raise the royalty 
from Es. 12 to Es. 20 a maund. This would still have an ample 
■ofit, since the cost of collection and carriage varies from 
Es. 16-8 in the Garo Hills to Es. 30 paid by r " " 

Some particulars respecting the dei in German 

Tropical Africa were given in the Kew Bulletin, 1894, (pp. 410-412). 
[ ;■"■■.' 

Series, No. 102) on the " German Colonies in Africa and the South 
Pacific," by Mr. Martin Le M. Gosselin, (' II., II. M. Charge d' Affaires 
at Berlin. 

.-,'-'■ ..-■'!' I 

lea deali 
(1.) Togoland lying east of the British Colony of the Gold Coast ; 
<2.) The Cameroons in the Bay of Biafra opposite the Spanish Island 

of Fernando Po ; 
(3.) German S.>uth-\Vest Africa between the Portuguese Colony of 

Angola and Cape Colony ; 
(4.) German Ka-t Vi'rica '-xhi.,-:,, thward to 

W anga, iii-ai-l\ oppos Dg inland to 

Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza ; 
<5.) German New Guinea or Kai 
marck Archipelago ; 
shall Islan " 
t Islands i 
The folding table will s 

I these Colonie 





(Imports and 

Togolau.l - - - - 
Cameroons - - - 
German South-West Africa 
German East Africa 
German New Guinea 
Marshall Islands - 

90 ! 256,751 

''"4u'?'"' j 

2,319 ! 1,471,692 


Of these colonies Togoland is the only one that so far pays it way. 

In the work of maintaining the govei colonies there 

is estimated to be a deficit for the year 1896-7 of 473,502/., to be met 
by Imperial grants in aid. 

'The German colonies have not as yet attracted many settlers from 
the Fatherland. The opinion is expressed in the report that they are 
still in a L'reat measure in tit. p< sition of undevelop d elates of unknown 
value; a great deal has already been done with the most praiseworthy 
perseverance to open up the countries entrusted to German rule and 
civilisation, hut, exeept in parts of South-west Africa, it appears certain 
that none of t ! ionis->tion by Iv.nvpeans. 

Manual work can be siiper\i>cd and directed but not undertaken by the 
white settler. They may and probably will become irivat trade centres 
for the development of German transmarine trade, but will not serve 
: ,s agricultural colonics in which the surplus population of Germany can 
be absorbed. 

I.— Togoland 


22 officials. 25 traders, a 

are given of the plants cultivated in the colony :— 

" Amongst the trees and shrubs acquired some vear.s since 
botanical garden at Lagos, the Annatto plant. liira (),\:!I:t,ui 
a red dye, and various sorts of Etfvali/ptns. h ive thriven vorv \ 
cocoa-nut plantations at Lome, Bagida, and Porto Segun 

and it is anticipated 

.. - 

oi ».(). to seedlings. Some 300 kilos, of coffee were exported as a sample 
crop, and realised at Bremen 1*. Id. the kilo. This year the same firm 
hope to export 2 tons. 

- At Klein-Popo 30,000 coffee trees have been planted, about one- 
fifth of which bore fruit this year, and a small consignment (til) kilos ■ 
lives have been attacked bv disease, 
which does not, however, affect the Liberian trees, even when in the 

" Many European vegetables arc doing fairlv well in the Government 
gardens jit Scbb,. < , i t . ( , , , r .. , ,.,-, , , I r .. i i A\ s, cV< ). and 
• lens of til.- so-called Otaheite potato (Dioscorea .satin?) 
have been obtained from the Gold ('.'oast botanical garden-." 

The following table shows the trade returns of the principal articles 

Q " a " ,i -- 

d' ' . . . .' ; Ki,r : 

2,766,132 2,321,093 
41,183 1 23,349 

■ ; - 

n increase of over i kilns., while the anion t of palm oil ha- 
■: creased. 
"The total value of goods exported (July, 1S94, to June, 1805) 

The principal article- cultivated for I'u<m1, and the forest products 
exported, are no! \ tracts : — 

"Many European vc-.-tablos (cabbage, carrots, salad, beans, and 
1 : i the our-kirt- of Kamerun, and Europ -an- 

" The trade in the chief products of the Cameroon*, oil, palm nuts, 
"indinrubber, and ivory, is still suffering from the fall in prices quoted 
• on the European markets for such goods. A gradual change is being 
effected in the inland trade ; formerly the export goods passed from 
tribe to tribe, and eventually only reached the h uropean firms through 
the native middlemen on the coast; now the firms despatch caravans 
every month from eight to 10 days' march int< the interior, and exchange 
European imports for ivory and indiarubber. 

" The botanical gardens at Victoria continue to render valuable 
-service; the Arabian coffee tree thrives rttj well, while the Liberian 

-"Coffee tree suffers — especially in the rainy -eason — from a mouldy 

'is the Liberian tree that thrives, :>nd the Arabian that has been attacked 
by disease.) Clove trees < Cun/n/i/i >/lhi, <iro»i<ilivns) do well, and are 
already SO centimetre^ high. Ten I'ara gum trees ( Ifevett brasilieiisi* ), 
which yield the he-t imliarnbb.-r, have 1 » - « - n planted, and are tin iving 
admirably, (linger does web. the tir>t crop, ~)\ centners, having been 
sent to Hamburg, and realised good prices. Large plantation- ot 
Jamaican and Canton ginger will consequently be made this year. The 
nutmeg ( M i/ristic 
■ of the dry climate. 

Coffee a 

"The garden furthei 
European planter- and 


« The Bibundi plantation, worked by 
(labourers, has a'readv 44,500 cocoa tree 
*vas 78 centners ; in 1894-95, 200 cent™ 
contrary, fell off from 110 centners in th 
latter year. The Havannah tobacco pla 
yield so heavy a crop as the Surinam plai 

•" Similar progress is 

reported from the 

"The value of goods exported during 1 
«i compared with 238,707/. in thepreviot 
-of 34,651/. 

T „. : M ,„o, 

Palm Nuts. Jj™^ 

,™, | „„„, 


MMH». \ - 


MIWM misl 



120 06" 

Increase, decrease 

- 238,057 |- 122,79! |- 105,733 | + 10,333 |- 27,650 

+ ,,10, 

" The fall is attributed partly to the bad prices obtained in European 
markets for W est African produce, arid partly to six months of excep- 
tionally dry weather. As illustrating the first, cause, il is recorded that, 
on January 8, 189o. a ton of Cameroons oil realised in Liverpool only 
20/., as compared with 23/.. on the same day in 1894; similarly palm 
nuts realised at the same dates and market 9/. 11*. 3c7. and 11/. 10s. 

" So keen is the competition hetween these\eral export firms, that in 
spite of the fall in prices, they do not dare to reduce the purchase prices 
paid to the natives. Until the firms pull better together, the report 
sees no chance in reducing the purchase prices to which the natives are 

III.— German South-West Africa. 

The area of this Colony is 835,100 square kiloms. or nearly twice the- 
size <>f the Cameroons. There are 780 Germans, of whom about 500 
are in uniform. The British subjects are nearly as numerous as the 
German, with a sprinkling of Trek and Transvaal Boers. 



Hides - 


The " Narrah " kernels «bove mentioned are the s 
plant (Acanthosicyos horrida, Welw.), a cucurbit, j 
fruit, covering large tracts in Angola and Dammarala 

ceds of the Naras 
ielding an edible 

The area is uearly a million square kiloms., or 383,873 square English 
miles. This is undoubtedly the most valuable of any of the German 
Colonies, but it is still in a very undeveloped state. The races to be 
governed are Negroes, Arabs, and East Indiana. In some localities 


cess of all the other coloured 
urnished in the Report :— 
" The effects of the visitation ot locusts in 1893-94 were still visible 
in the year under review. Many formerly fruitful districts -were 
completely devastated; the locusts" especially attacking rice, Indian 

with plants which the locusts do not touch, such as manioc, sweet 
pOtatOS, and various sorts of heans. In the non-devastated regions, 
ia^t year's harvest has been good. 

'« Cattle rearing has not materially improved ; whether the rinderpest 
is partly the cause of this is not certain; but undoubtedly the locusts 
and the" famine have retarded progress. Good fodder could only be 
obtained from the islands of Mafia and Kilwa-Kis-iwani. and from the 
Kilimanjaro highlands. 

" Plantations. — The reports of the cocoa-nut, india-rubber, vanilla, 

" 'J he cocoa plantation* of the German East Africa Company at Moa 
and Yassini, embrace some 18 square kiloms. ; 80,000 to 85,000 cocoa- 
nut palms have been planted, besides a quantity of seedlings, and the 
Director calculates that by July 1896, 500,000 trees will have been 
planted out. The same Company's coffee plantations, Derema and 
Nuncio, at TIamlei. in the Csambara Hills, yielded last harvest a crop 
of about 50,000 kiloms., and it is said of excellent quality. At Derema 
in June 1895, there were between 150,000 and 160,000 Arabian coffee 
trees, and some thousands of Liberian trees. At Nguelo some 350,000 
trees. From 600 to 700 labourers are employed, amongst them 200 
Chinese and Malays. The llaiihia ntstafri.v appeared in 1893-94, 
but fortunately has not hitherto done much damage. Dr. Heinsen, the 
botanist, specially scut to East Africa to -tamp out this disease, has 
tried several means of doing so (the report does not specify them), nor 
is it yet known whether the experiments hare succeeded. 

" 200 acres of land have- been planted with tobacco at Lewe, and 
3500 with coffee; but it is not intended to plant more tobacco, as the 
quality does not come up to the mark. Jbrom 100 to 120 Chinese and 
Javanese are employed at Lewe, beside- 100 (and in the busy season 
400) Bondei men. The health of the Asiatic coolies is said to be 

"The cotton plantations at Kikogwe, thoiiiih tin i\ ing well, do not 
pay, both on account of Indian competition, and of the heavy fall in the 
prices realised in Europe. A pound of cotton, equal to the best Texas 
cotton, only fetched in Hamburg 20 pf. (2jdL), while formerly from 43 
to 47 pf. were constantly realised. 

"In the Bagamoyo district, the prosperous vanilla plantations of the 
Fathers of the Holy Ghost, started many years ago, deserve a passing 


nearly all European vegetables do well. Wheat lias been successfully 
cultivated at Tabora : 600 kilonis. inland. Sample sacks of Tabora 
wheat, quite recently forwarded to I!er!in, are said to have made 
excellent flour, quality and colour good, and very nutritious. The 
station- are : : I hopiral fruits, and with such trees 

as are likely to thrive (cedar, Pinvs, acacia, and eucalyptus). The 
assistance rendered in this respect by the Director of the Indian Forests 
Department, by the botanical gardens at Natal, llockhampton (Queens- 
land). and Calcutta, is gratefully noticed in the report, and the thanks 
of the Covernmei.l are ovpressiv convex ed to these and other foreign 
and German benefactors. 

" 2. A portion of the special grant of 2500/. voted in June, 1895, by 
tin- Reichstag tor the relief of the famine, as well as the funds collected 
at Zanzibar for the same end, was expended by the Administration in 
providing the natives with grain and seeds (maize, rice, beans, and 
ground-nut-), partly gratuitously, partly u-der the condition of returning 
double the grant after the lir.-t good harvest. 

"3. An experimental plantation, NO a-res in extent, of Liberian 
coffee ami tobacco, has been started at Mohorra. south of the Rufidji Delta. 
"4. Silk culture has been started at l)ar-es-Salaam, and it is hoped 
*to obtain Indian experts to direct the experiment. ' L T n fortunately the 
efforts of the Consulate at Bombay to find sin h people have been as yet 
fruitless, but it is hoped they may" soon be engaged.' 

"5. An experimental garden has also been started at Dar-es-Salaam, 
and an interesting table is annexed to the Ihist African report, showing 
the countries of origin and dates of arrival, planting, and sprouting of 
ogether with a further list of 
t. These tabular statements 
would doubtless be of great service to any horticultural or arboricultural 
undertaking on tie Kast Coast. 

"6. A station has been founded in the Upper Usambara Hills, to 
test whether the Highlands could be utilised for Cerman colonisation. 

"7. A forestry ordinance was issued by Major von Wissman in 
October 1805, for protecting the woods "in the Usambara district. 
According (>■ this regulation, tie- woods for 150 metres wide on the hill 
ridges can only lie touched by special permission of the Government. 
Hill-sides above an angle of from io to 50 degrees may not, under any 
circumstances, be disafforested. In the valleys, woods are to be left 30 
metres wide, every 600 metres, at right angles with the lay of the valley ; 
along the brooks the woods are to be left for a space of 50 metres wide 
(either on both or on one side). Intentional contraventions of the above 
are punishable with fines up to 6000 rs., or 3 months imprisonment; 
unintentional contraventions with lines up to 1000 rs. 

"8. By an Ordinance, dated July, 1894, the then Governor, Herr 
von Scheie, forbad the preparation of ' temho ' (or palm wine) in East 
Africa, in order to prevent as far as possible the damage done to the 
Cultivation of palms hy the preparation of this drink. Contraventions 
wt-vi^ punishable by tines up to 50rs , or 1 month's imprisonment. 

"This Ordinance, being found to be unworkable was abrogated in 
October lM«j.->, but the district officials are instructed to do all in their 
power to discourage the preparation of ' tembo ' ; and it is suggested 

persons who sh 

'• The commi 

able,' when the 

k should only be allowed to dul 

y authorised 

or the Colony in 1894-95 was 'i 

;ue, and consequent famine, and t 

he fall in the 

ipee are taken into consideration. 


Value in 10C0 Dollars. 

um, ! im. ] m 

Sir'™—- 1 - 


,„, | Im . ! is,, 

Tobacco - 
Grass for plaiting 

1 s 1 

" The only exception ii copra, the ( 

ily ex port e< 

1 in 18£ 

1 Ik- in- 

30,0C0 tlul?."lesi than in 1893. 

" The great volume of the 

East co 

inds its 

Zanzibar. According to the 

the value of the 

goods imported into the island 

n 1894 from 

to no less than 3,980,390 is. 

goods exported thence 

to the 

German coast to 3,739,3^9 rs.' 

[The following extract from 


he Foreign 

Office, g 

ves the 

staples in German East Atiict 

(No 120. Africi.) 
My Lori», 

Thk German East Africa 

" 'IT..* Ilandei Hills, .'off,.,., planta' 

harvest (1895-96) realised BOOM 1 
sold on the average for 1TO marks 
the purchasers). A great increase 
as a number of newly-planted trees 
From 500,000 to 600,000 coffee 
counting some hundred thousands < 

recently issued tin 

luty being paid by 
the next harvest, 
i for the first time. 
■ planted, without 

that the Government will facilitate the importation of coolie 
labour from East Apia. 

Some former Wanyamwezi and Wasukuma porters have recently done 
well in the plantation?, and an agent has heen dispatched to the interior 
to enlist lahourers for the company and other agriculturists in the 
Usambara district. 

The cocoa cultivation at Derema has not been a success, the plantations 
being too high up on the hills. The cocoa plantations at Muoa, where 
some 3600 hectarshave been planted close to the sea, are thriving well. 

At Kikogwe the outlook is less satisfactory; the market price 

cotton, being now so low it has been found accessary to supplement the 
other crops, notably, Libcrinn coffee, C" " 

, Chiroko 
, Mtama millet, ami it is anticipated tliat little by little the 
cotton should i ■ cicna, and Sisal hemp Mr. Cowley, 

who started the Ilandei Hills plantations, lias Keen appointed manage* 

The Marquess of Salisbury, K.G.] M. Le M. Gossf 

This includes German New Geinea and the Io-marck Archipelago. 
with an estimated area of 250,000 square kilometres or about one half 
the size of the Cameroons. 

" The great event in the history of the colony this year is the Bill 
laid this session empowerim.: the Imperial < iovemment to take over the 
administration of Kaiser Wilhelmsland. 

" The following notes are taken from the Memorandum submitted to 
the Reichstag last month (May, 189G) in support of this measure. 

"In the three West African Colonies sovereign rights have been 
exercised ever since the annexation by the Emperor in the name 
of the Empire. 

"In East Africa, the German Kast Africa Company acquired 
sovereign rights hv the Imperial Letter of Protection of tYhniary 27, 
1885; but these were given up in 1890, and the sovereignty of the 
Protectorate was vested direetlv in the Empire. 

"In New Guinea, the sovereignty was accorded to the New Guinea 
Company by the Imperial Letters of Protection of May, 1885, and 
December, 1<SS(> ; the Company was acknowledged as a Corporation, 
and acquired juridical rights in May, lssc. and, except from November, 
I8H9, to September, 1S92, has since carried on the government of the 
scattered colony. 

"During the 1889-92 interval a special arrangement was tried, 
under which the Government found the officials, whilst the company paid 
the salaries ; but the plan did not work well, and, in September, 1892, 
the company again undertook the administration. 

"The company have found great difficulty in recruiting their staff, 
and finding people able to act as officials, and, at the same time, possess- 
ing that practical knowledge required for trading or plantation purposes. 
This was specially the case when, through death or illness, an appoint- 
ment had to be suddenly filled up. Vacancies /ere thus left 
unprovided for months, to the manifei concerned. 

in birds. Beasts of prey and poisonous iv| 
natives roar j -ilt- and d---. out no other dorn 
till the arrival of the Germans. 

" Cotton Crops. — The cotton crops on tin 
gocd, and of excellent quality. Tn the He 
bah- (ab ut 2.",.n(K> ll.s.) were readv for exp< 
theRalum plantation, 120 bales (41,000 lbs. ) 
mean- ingathered when the report \v;is writtei 

This remote group of islands is s 
Pacific. It is of very slight comn 
given of a visit to Nauru by the Imperial Administrator furnish-'- some 
facts of interest. 

The chief occupation of the natives is the collection ai 

id prepara- 

of copra, the staple ex port of the archipelago. They ar 

( excellent 

ermen and swimmers. The women make preserves, mats 

ii articles. Many of the men have become very servicea 

nders. The boldness of the crews of the native schooners 

lie open seas without any nautical instruments, by the 1 

;t primitive and, to Europeans, unintelligible of nam 

is astonishing. On land, and as domestic servai 
satisfactory, though even here an improveiucn 
application and perseverance is, after all, a ne< 

" The old patriarchal systeu 

) still pivv 

ails amon : 

gst the natives. On 

the other hand, by contact w 

ith the w 

have lost many of 

their primitive originalities, most of al 

1 in .lain 

it, where the old-r 

m to be seen. The 

old war-drums of sharks-^kins, 

beaten by 

the native women, 

i'e'KaS- 1 

for by collectors of 

ortl.ern Ealiks, and 

up more < 

habits and customs, 

fact that 

been maintained, in 

spite of this feeling, througho 

uhole ,, 

iries of regulations, 

amongst which, in the foremos 

t' place, si 

muld be r 

eckoned the prohibi- 

rits. Alio 

greatly to preserving the pea. 

» is the .1 fori, 

idding the selling of 

allowing long credit. 

" F'mdncts. — The indigenous products of the islands were limited to 
cocoa and other nuts, pandanus, bread-fruit, taro, arrowroot, bananas, 

replaced by imported rice and preserves. Last year's yield of copra was 
ver\ rich ; t lie natives have planted young tires, in accordance with 
regulation of September, 1894, which should bear a full crop in some 

"The plantation at I.iku h, ti, ■■ joint property of an American, a Ger- 
man, and a Portuguese, yielded 210,000 lbs. copra in 1894-95, and 23 
fresh hectares were planted. 

"Attached to the phr.tation is .-. • i which turns 

out excellent sailing-boats used by the Mar.-hall, ( 'aroline, and Gilbert 
natives. The material has all to be imported by the Jaluit Company ' as 
tbe cocoa-nut wood breaks like glass.' 

" The Jaluit Company's plantations at Providence and Killi are also 

" The total copra vield amounted during the year 1894-95, to 
i,7.'i«».259 English lbs. as compared with 4,767,109 English Ihs. in the 
previous year. Air 

to only 31,509 lbs. 

" There are three experimental gardens at Jaluit, where several 
European vegetable- (such as salad, tomato?, cucumbers, radishes, t Ve.) 
do well, but good soil is so scarce, having to be imported as ballast, that 
extensive cultivation is out of the question. 

"Pigs are th d for food purposes on the islands, 

cattle or sheep ; cattle and sheep are occasion- 
ally imported, but have to be killed at once for want of green food. 
There is no wild game." 

" Xaurn.— The Imperial Admini-tia; -,•: (/ Kaiserlicher Laudeshaupt- 
mann '), Dr. Inner, made a voyage to l^aura (formerly known as 
Pleasant Island) in August, ] 89 1, and his report furnishes some 
interesting information on the inhabitants of this isolated spot. 

" There is no harbour, and ships cannot even anchor off the shore, 
the coral reefs being unusually steep. 

"Nauru, lying almost on the equator fully five degrees south of Ebon 
Isle, the southernmost of the Ralick Marshall Isles, is reported to be, 
without doubt, the most beautiful and, in rainv vear.-, the most fruitful 

" From January, 1892, to shortly 

before the Governor's arrival, no 

rain to speak of bad fallen, and the 

copra harvest of 1893 was conse- 

fluently lost. Some of the cocoa-nut 

trees produce the ahno-: 

number of from 1200 to 1500 cocoa 

-nuts. The distress in consequence 

of the drought was so great that the 

copra tax had to be suspended, and 

the trading licenses reduced by half. 

"The i-I?t, only some 10 marine miles in circumference, rises in 

terraces of coral formation from the 

sea, the highest ground being some 

" As a guide to ships a flag-taff ha 

s been erected on the highest point. 

• the centre is a fish-pond with 

brackish water, surrounded by a pal 

m grove of magnificent trees from 

HO to 100 feet high. 

'•The picturesque village lies eh m 

1 to the shore, half being built on 

losure with tame sea-swallows and 

other large marine birds. The featl 

lers were formerly exported to the 

Marshall Isles to adorn the hair and 

ears of the natives, and dress their 

• - ! .;s trade has now ceased 

, the birds being still kej t to amuse 

the children. 


Mr. Marmaduke AtEXAXDER Lawsox, M.A., F.L.S., G 

,-nt, <li.-«l at Mn.ln.s on K.-hru irv 1-lth last. Fr.un 1SCS to 1S>2 I: 

: of Dr. King, who lias 

Mr. John Christopher has b. en appointed on the recom- 
mendation of Kew to succeed to the po>t vacated hv Dr. Trimen as 
Director of the Botanical Department, Ceylon, Mr. Willis is M.A. 
of ironviile. and Cain- i i hold for three years from 

1890, the Frank Stuart Studentship for botanical research. At the time of 
. the posts of Senior A-<isimt to the Regius 
Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow, and of Lecturer in 
Botany ;it Queen Margaret's College" in that University. Mr. Willis 
left England for Ceylon on the 21st August last. 

Mr. George Herbert Cave, a 
Kew, has been appointed by the Secretary of State for India in Council, 
a gardener on probation on the staff of the Royal Botanic Gardens at 

d as sub-foreman in the Propagating Pits. 

i the 18th September last. 

East Indies, is interesting ag a fibre-yielding plant. It was presented 
to Kew by Messrs. .Jan ie> Veitch and Sons. (' <j rhnttini* ITutUmi 1ms 
been recently introduced from Cape Colony. The Kew plants were 
raised from seeds received from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden in 
1892. Sarcochilus hainanensis, an orchidaceous plant from the Island 
of Hainan, was sent to Kew in 1894 by Mr. Ford, the Superintendent 
of the Botanical Gardens, Hong Kong. Adonis amurensis is a native of 
Manchuria and Japan. It is chiefly noteworthy for its handsome 
foliage. Solarium cernuum, a native of South Brazil, is about eight 
feet high, mH tite flowers. 

■Morplm iii'ii-ri>iihi/llii. I >> ml re hi inn T.riniis. Hnnfiniiu Culpini, lilnxln- 
dendron Stnirnovi, and Celmisia Munroi, all being cultivated at Kew. 
The Choncmorpha is a vigorous climber, native of India and the Malay 
Islands. It was raised from seeds received from the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Calcutta, in 1884. The stem, when cut, yields a milky fluid, 
which Mr. Gamble considers "a good sort of Caoutchouc." The 
Deitdrohi am is a curious species from the Malay Peninsula, whence 
it was first introduced into this country sixty years ago. The Kew 
plants were obtained from Mr. C. Curtis, F.L.S., Assistant Super- 
intendent of the Garden and Forest Department, Penang. Uauhinur 
Galpini. flowered for the first time at Kew in 1895. It is a native of 
the Transvaal, where it was first discovered by Mr. W. Kelson, at 
Dorn Spruit Spelunken, in 1830. The Rhododendron is a handsome 
species from Trans-Caucasia, and was obtained from seeds received at 
Kew from Dr. Regel in 1866. Cchnisia Minimi, native of New 
Zealand, WW introduced by Messrs. J. Veitch and Sons. It is one of 
the finest species of the genus. 

Flora Capensis. -The publication of the first part of Vol. VI. has 
already been noticed (p. 124). Part II. has since been issued with the 
following prefatory note by the Director : — 

The second part of the 

Baker, F.B.S., the keeper of the Herbarium and Library of the Royal 
Gardens, Kew. It contains the continuation of the AmaryUuh <i and 
part of the Liliacece, to the completion of which the whole of the third 
and concluding part will be devoted. 

Most of the genera described include species of great horticultural 
interest. This is especially the case with Crirwm, Nerine, Cyrlantlmx, 
and lid mii,itlnis, which !>• long to the former family, and with Asjxirai/i's, 
Kniphejiu, (lasftritt. Aloe, and Ifaivorthid, which belong to the 

Tavo points suggest some remark. A considerable number of species 
appear never to have been collected but once. Many are still only 
known from descriptions and figures published in the last century, and 
are unrepresented in herbaria. It is difficult, however, to believe that 
any are really extinct. The fact is more probably accounted for by the 
extremely local limitation of species in South Africa, which is hardly 
paralleled in this respect by any other flora in the world. 

In the case of succulent genera such as Aloe and Haworthin,h?v- 
barium specimens are lamentably deficient, But Mr. Baker has had 
the advantage ol having had under observation for years the collection 
of succulent plants at Kew, which in extent is undoubtedly unique. 
Many of these have been, in all probability, under cultivation at Kew 
since their introduction in the last century. The advantage of con- 
sulting living specimen-; is of peculiar advantage in describing the 
Petaloid Monocotyledons. But in the case of the succulent genera, it 
may be safely said that, without it, the task would not be possible at all. 
Unfortunately when the majority of these plants were introduced, little 
importance was attached to their exact localisation ; and this, therefore, 
for the present, must remain for the mo-t part undetermined. 

I have again to express my obligation to Mr. N. E. Brown, and to 
Mr. C. H. Wright, assistants in the Herbarium, for their valuable 
assistance in the work of passing the sheets through the press. And I 
must remedy an omission in expressing my thanks to the well-known 
South African botanist, Mr. EI. Nobis, F.L.S., for great assistance in 
revising the very intricate topograph v. 

W. T. T. D. 

Kew, Angust 1396. 

Hand-List of Trees and Shrnbs. Part ii. — An account of the purpose 
and scope of this publication was given in the notice of Part I. in the 
Kew Bulletin for 1895 (pp. 40-42). The present part (Gamopetala? to 
Monocotyledons) completes the catalogue of the ligneous plants (excluding 
■conifers, which form a separate hand-list), grown in the open air in the 
arboretum of the Royal Gardens. In the nomenclature of hardy bamboos 
Kew has to acknowledge the kind assistance of A. B. Freeman Mitt'ord. 
Esq., C,B., of Batsford Park, Moreton-in-Marsh, who has made them a 
special study. Anyone interested in the cultivation of tli.'-e beautiful 
shrubs cannot do better than procure Mr. Freeman-M it ford's admirable 
volume, •'• The Bamboo Garden." 

Donation to the Herbarium.— -Through the kind offices of Dr. A. F. 

Bataliu, the Diiveto; „|" ,),,. |,. i; , rial I^taiue Garden of St. Petersburg' 
Kew, has received from that establishment a valuable consignment "of 
-"— - parts of the world. AltogetheAhere i 

New Forage plant. — The plant described 
might prove useful in Australia, South Afric 

lands it grows ofte 

n 8 

to 10 


high. '. 

Hie haulm: 

?, though rather 

tie and 

[ work 

c of all ki.n 

Is. Beggar weed 

Ltensively used as 

a renewer of worn ] 

s. It; 

nuch agricultural 

r countries 




F. L.utso: 

Royal Gardens, 
on and Lime tr< 


—In the ^ 



Mfl as 



united Report of 

viir. L 




re °f 

,.)t. I- 

and for tli 
years the 

eyear 1891-95, 
(Citrus Medica, 
lime tree (Citrus 

tropical and 


opie-d eoii.nt 

follows :— 

"The cutt 

p of large 

large amount ( 

■ingt.hal was 


be hi 

To meet the 

difficulty, hedge ] 

■(■sorted to, f„i 
adapted as tin 

apart, a hedge 






(Coffea stenophylla, G. Don.) 
With Plate. 

The Highland Coffee of Siena Leone {Cqffca stenophylla) is an 
interesting plant, as being, according to the Botanical 3fagazme, t. 
7475, '< one of the two indigenous West African 

of commercial value may prove a formidable rival of the Arabian coffee." 
It was discovered bv AfV.elios upwards of a century ago; but was not 
published until 1834, when G. Don described it from specimens collected 
bv himself at Sierra Leone. Sir Joseph Hooker remarks :— " It was 
regarded by Bentham, perhaps rightly, in the ' Niger Flora,' as a variety 
of C. arabica." 

The plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree up to 20 feet high ; 
the vounirost leal -shoot < are pink. Leaves four to six inches long by 
one to one and a half broad, bright given and glossy above, paler 
beneath ; nerves, six to ten pairs, with s i!s, which are 

white, and perforated on the upper surface. Flowers large, white, one 
to one and a half inches across the corolla, lobes. Berry half-an-inch in 
diameter, gl« • '■ r;l1 furrow. 

It owes its name, " The Highland Coffee of Sierra Leone," to Dr. 

Mr. G. F. Scott-Elliot, F.L.S., the botanist to the Anglo-French 
Boundary Commission, in 1892, also collected specimens, which are now 
in the Kew Herbarium. Sir Joseph Hooker remarks that these are 
of a very slender shape, with lanceolate leaves only two to two and 
a half inches long by one-third to two-thirds of an inch broad, very 
differ- nt from those represented in the accompanying plate, "and these 
together favour the opinion entertained by Bentham. that both are 
forms of C. arabica, Linn." 

Mr. Scott-Elliot's account (Keic Bulletin, 1893, p. 167) is as 

the Liberian. It grows very freely, and yields quite as much as the- 
Liberian, but is somewhat longer in coming into bearing. Both the 
natives and French traders at Freetown say thai it lias a superior 
flavour, and prefer il to the Liberian. In fact, latterly a en-tain amount 
has been exported to a French dealer, who is said to sell it at 4 (Vs. 
50 cents, a lb. as ' best mocha.' Considering that it is worth at 
Freetown Qd. a lb., this should be a fairly profitable trade, and a trial 
shipment should be made by the English merchants to find out exactly 
what the market value in Liverpool would be. The plant appears to 
thrive best in the higher hills about Sierra Leone, on gneissose or 
granitic soil, and can be grown at from 500 to 2000 feet." 

The plant, from which the accompanying plate was produced for the 
Butmiuttl Mih-;<!ii,n . was raised at Kew from seed seat in May 1894 
by Sir William If. < laayle Jones, fate Child' Justice of the West African 
Settlements and Deputy Governor of Sierra Leone. 

The circumstances under which the seed was collected is given in the 
following despatch communicated to Kew by the Colonial Office : — 

Deputy Governor, Sierra Leone, to Colonial Office. 

Government House, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 
My Lord Marquess, April 10th, 1891. 

In reply to your Lordship's Despatch, No. 15, dated the 23rd 
January last, transmitting a copy of a letter from the Director of the 
Royal Gardens, Kew. asking tiiai a few pounds of fresh and authentic 
seed of Coffca stenophylla may be ol d to him for 

distribution to tin 1 botanic stations in the West Indio, which request 
your Lordship desired should be complied with it possible, I have 
the honour to report that on the arrival of Mr. Crowther, the curator 
of the Gold Coast, in tin Colon}-, I inquired what was being done in the 
matter, and on learning that it was said to bo too late to obtain seed, 
and as authentic seed was required, and we have no expert in the 
Colony, I asked Mr. Crowther to be so good as to endeavour to obtain 
some seed, and if it was not possible to do this now, to be good enough to 
ear-mark some of the coffee plants oi the authentic kind, so as to enable 
us to supply authentic sec .1 when obtainable. 

I am glad to say that Mr. Crowther was able to obtain some of the 
seed required (nine pound-), which he certifies as true >i-v>\, having seen 
it growing before it was gathered, and also gave instructions for its 
being packed. 

The coffee is being addressed to the Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 
and will, if possible, be despatched b\ s.s. •• Sherbro." which takes this 

I have, &c. 
The Most Honot 

Plants raised from the seed, above mentioned, flowered at Kew as 
early as September 1895, in one of the tropical houses. Supplies of 
seed and plants of this coffee have now been distributed to the Botanic 
Institutions in India and the colonies from whence, if the plant resists 
the coffee disease and proves to be as excellent n coffee as the French 
merchants declare it to be, good results may be expected. 

The results of the introduction to the West Indies are so far of a promis- 
ing character. The plants have not, however, thriven so well as could be 
wished at Dominica and Ceylon. In the Report of the Botanic Station 

KM 1 ^ 2 



at Dominica for ls93 il is stated : — " A few plants of Cqfi'co '■ 
were planted at the station, and twenty plants distributed in couples 
to various planters who expressed a desire to try them. Some are 
reported as thriving well ; others are not so satisfactory. The plants 
put out at the station are by no means a success as yet, one only being 
in a really healthy state." 

From Trinidad the prospects are more encouraging. In Mr. Hart's 
Ainma! Report for 1895 we find: — "From seed of this new coffee, sent 
from Kew, a number of plants have been raised. Some of the larger 
plants have been planted in permanent positions, and are now over 
three feet in height, ami it is expected will flower in a few weeks for 
the first time." 

At the Castlelon Gardens, Jamaica, Mr. Fawcett is able to report: — 
" Fifteen plants of Cqffea stenophylla raised from seeds from Row, have 
been planted in different places about the garden and are doimj; well." 

From the Report of the Director of the Rovnl Botanic Gardens, 
Ceylon, for the year 1895, we learn— 

" A small plantation of 36 plants of Sierra Leone or ' upland coffee ' 
( ('"jfi'JJ Ktciwphylla) received from Kew in 1894 was made in April, 
and plants I i I as a shade- 

tree for Cacao) planted among them for shade. The growth of the 
coffee plants has been very irregular, varying from a few inches 
to 3 feet, and cannot be said to be very promising. They have the 
appearance of plants nut of their element, and look as if the climate 
here did not suit them. On the other hand, the Lonchorarpiis is 
certainly at home, having grown very rapidh with a branching habit, 
and it promises to be a very useful shade-tree at low elevations. Some 
of the shoots have grown 8 feet in nine months." 

The Director of the Botanic Gardens and Forest Department, Straits 
Settlements, refers to the African coffee in his Rejjori for the rear 1S95, 
as follows .— 

" Among these [economic plants] is a small lot of the new coffee 
(Coffea stenophylla), a plant spoken very highly of. It is growing 
steadily and well, and at present does not appear to be affected at all by 
disease. Plants have been distributed to coffee planters in different 
parts of the Peninsula for experiment and observation." 

f seed ; 9, embryo. All I 


the territory of the British (Vntral At'ri.a Protectorate has lately been 
undertaken" bv Mr. Alexander Whyto. the chief of the scientific Mat! 
under Sir If. H. Johnston. An account of the botanical work pre- 
viously done by Mr. Whyte in Nya-a'and was given in the A.V//- liullttin, 
1895 (pp. 186-101). The following preliminary report of the results 
obtained on the Karonga range is contained in a letter from Mr. Whyte, 

I have just returned from my sojourn of eighteen days on the 
highest range of the Deep Bay-Karonga mountains, and am pleased 
•with the collections mad-. Wo all suffered from the cold, and had 
some bad cases of sickness; but, on the whole, the boys worked well, 
and I have got together a larger collection than ever I have made on 

The flora of this range proved most interesting, resembling that 
of Mlanj3, yet differing from it, in many respects. I failed to find any 
trace of a conifer, but, on the other hand, the range is richer in heath's 
than Mlanje is. I fancy the three principal peaks of the range, to the 
tops of which I went, rise to an altitude of from 7000 to 8C00 feet 
above sea level ; and I thoroughly explored this portion of the range 
from end to end, and I could see close at hand the mountain I explored 
at the Mount Waller part of the range. I cannot quote figures exactly 
till I go thoroughly through my collections ; but, of plants, I have over 
6000 dried specimens ; of skins of kinds, 330 ; of mammals. 200 ; of 
reptiles, fcc, in spirits, 120; of Crustacea;, &c, 250; land shells, 5000; 
insects, 3000, and a collection of geological specimens. 

I was much troubled with fever sores breaking out on me while on 
these high piateaux — if plateaux they can be called; but, luckily, I was 
able to keep my feet pretty free of them, so was able to get "through 
the walking necessary to explore the place well. I do not think this 
range of mountains will turn out so healthy as Zomba or Mlanje. 
There is a want of the soft balmy bracing breezes prevailing at Mlanje 
The ordinary wind is a cutting south-easter from the lake, and which 
we found chilly and anything but bracing. Of course there are 
sheltered valleys which are pleasant enough, except when the wind is 

I should have stayed a few days longer, but some suspicious natives 
made their appearance on the plateau, and, in one night, built a long 
boma, not two miles from my camp, No. 2. Hitherto I had not seen a 
trace of man on the mountain-, bat »W smoke away down in the valley 
to the west. About two days from the plateau these unwelcome 
visitors, whom, I have no doubt, were a party of the Mlozi following, 
kept on our track when we left, and we had a bit of a scare the first 
night after leaving, the grass having been set fire to above our 
camping ground. I was very pleased to get away without a collision 
with these men. Had they had the pluck to attack us, our carriers 
would have bolted to a man, and my fine collections been lost, to say 
nothing of my own fate. The next day we made a forced inarch and got 
down on to the plains, reaching Karonga on the third day without 
further trouble. 

Dr. Cross and I propose starting for a tour to-morrow round to 
the Tanganyika plateau, and returning through the Wankonde 
country. I do not anticipate great results in collections on this 
trip, but I shall, no doubt, get something certainly. The steamer is 
due for me on the 12th August, so I shall do the trip as qnickly as 


161. Liparis pauciflora, Bolfe ; pseudobulbis ovoideis parvis, foliis 
l.iui* membranacei- bre\ iter peliolatis lam ellipticis obtusis, scapis 

linearibus obtusis lutcialibus ialcatis. petalis subfiht'ormibus, labello 
obovato truncate tcallux , >• '1 mm i ai - parvis quadratis. 

H,\ it. — Szccbuen : S. Wushan, A. Henry, 5(575, 567oa. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa, J .{-2 J poll. lata. Sea pi 7-10 poll, longi. 
BractccE |-l lin. lon< r a'. Sepala et petala 3-4 lin. longa. Labellum 

162. Liparis Henryi, /<//7"< : cauhbus bre\ibus. foliis membranacei* 
brcvitcr peliolatis ovato-oblonjiis hreviter neuminatis, seapis circa 
Lo-floris, bractois nvatis acutis rccurvis, sepalis lineari obbmgis -;■ -. 
lateralibus subfalcatis, peiali> e! • ;-i>. laV> Uo 


Hab. — Formosa: South Cape, A. Henry, 2074. 

Folia 3 poll ugi. Bractece 

1 lin. longa-. Pet'iieeUi 0-7 lin. longi. Stpala 5-6 lin. longa, 1-1 j 
lin. lata. Petala 5 lin. longu. jAibellmn 1 lin. longum. 3 lin. latum. 
Columna 2 lin. longa. 

Allied to X. acuminata, Hook. f. from the Khasia HlUs. Flowers 
■ •oiisi.h r ddy smaller than in /„. maerantha, Rolfe. purple, with the 
front and margin of the lip much paler. 

163. Dendrobium (§ Onychium) hainanense, #o//e 

gracilibui flexuosis, foliis teretibus subobtusis giacilibusrt 
axillaribus solii 

lateralibus triangularis^ iti- acutis liasi ail pedem decurrt 
curvatnm formantibus, petala oblanceolato-linearia acuta. 
culato limbo obovato-oblongo obtuso unduiato, disco hevii 

; pseudobulbi 
isculo, column 

Hab. — Hainan : Lingtnen, A 
Pseudobulbi 1-11 pe a. longi. 

Petal<i'2\ lin. longa. Label I tin 

Henry ; Ford, 272. 
Folia 2-2 J poll, longa. Flores 8-1 

Allied to the Philippine D. ai 
shorter, the leaves stouter and 

■iculare, Liudl., but 
more curved, and 

, *J 


narrower. The flowers are white w .l on the disc 

V 164. Cirrhopetalum Fordii, Bolfe; rhizomate repente valido, pseu- 

■ . • ■ ■ 
attcim.uis. s<-apis sulx i, <-tis G-N-tbu-is. bra' <• - obloi : o lam eolati- acutis, 
scpalo postico ovato-oblongo obtuso integro lateralibus lineari-obbuigis 

basi cordato apicc lineari sul.obtu.-io, columna brevi alata apice bideutata 
dentibus gracilibus acutig. 

Hab.— Kwangtung, Ford, 359. 

Pseudobulbi distantcs inter se 1-3| poll., 1 poll, longi. Folia 2.1-4.1 
poll, longa, f«l| poll, lata; petioli 6-10 lin. longi. Scapi 4-4£ poll. 

L' 2 lin. longum. 

This species much resembles C. get 
sepal and petals are not strongly cilial 

1G5. Eria caespitosa, llolfe ; caBspitosa, pseudobulbis 

nosis, floribus axillaribus brevitn- prduneulatis, sepalo postico elliptico- 
oblongo obtuso InteralibiH siniilihus l.asi in iuenlum l.ivvciii saccatuiu 
ex tenses |..,-t ' ;!,, t illol >^> lobis latrralibu-, 

seinirllipticis obtu-i^ intermedin late cordato-ovato obtuso carnoso, disco 
bicarinato carinis basi villosis, columna brevissima. 

Hab. — Hainan. Living plant received from the 11 on"*ong botanic 

Phvnta ewea 2-2.1 poll. alra. Folia V\-2\ poll, longa, 2-3 lin. lata. 

Pedimnili 5-6 lin. "longi. Scpahnn posticiim 2 lin. Fongum, 

latum. Petala 1% lin. longa, ;< lin. lata. Lahellum 2> lin. longum, 

1| lin. latum. Mentum 1 lin. longum. 

An anomalous little specie 
peculiar in its tufted habit an 
petal* white with some maroc 
lip yellow, angles of side lobes purple. It flowered at Kew in August 

idobulbis oblongis 2-3-phyllis 
acenus arci:atis muliitlnris raehi li-migineo-villosa, bracteis ovato- 
bong.s subacutis, pedicellis ferruginoo- villous srpalis Lmcroiaio- 

Jneo-villosis, pctalis sepalis ,.aul!< 
revissi inte S ro <-'ordato-ovato subacute subrecurvo, columna 

Hab. — Formosa: South Cape, A. Henry, 1978. 

Pseudobulbi Ml poll, longi. Folia 2|-4| poll, longa; 4- 

167. Nephelaphyllum chinens* 

5, Rolfe ; rhizoraate repente 


pseudobulbis "cvlindraceis, 


breviter acuminatis, scapis i 

fi-S-Horis, bracteL-. ovato-Ian 

acuminata, sepalis petalisq 

obtusissimo obscure erenula 

rotundato-obtusis, disco laevi 

. on Ira 

re oblongo obtuso, columna cla 


Hab. — Kwangtung : in n 


id TiiiL-ushan, West River, Canton. 

Hance, 17,733. 

Pseudobulbi 1-1 J poll. 1 


Folia .').\-.;-V poll, longa, 1J-J 

11 poll. 

lata ; petioli 4-5 lin. longi. 

long;... Fcdicslli 3-5 lin. 


. Sepala et petala 6 lin. 


Labcllun 5 lin. longum. 


r 3 lin. longum. Columna 

3 lin. 

■ribed from a specimen in the British Museum. 
Nephelaphyllum cristatum, Rolfe 

^cyueiapiiyuum cristatum, h'oife ; caule repente radicante 
memEranaceis laxis teetis, foliis alternis petiolatis cordato- 

labello oblongo obscure trilobo 

Hab. — Hongkong, Ford, 48, 254. 

Folia 1-2 poll, longa, 7-13 lin. lata ; petioli 0-J) iin. lon.ui. Scapi 
5-10 poll, longi. Bractece. 2-5 lin. longae. Sepala et petaht lin. 
longa. Labellum 7 lin. longum. Colttmna 3 lin. longa. 

Allied to A', cordi folium. Lindl., Imt tl.o crest much more developed. 
Sepals and petals green streaked with dull purple near the base; lip 
white passing into purple a^d then green near the base. A plant 
flowered at Kew in May 189G. 

1G9. Tainia hongkongensis, llolfe ■. tuboi-ibus nvoidoo-glohosis, foliis 

laxifloris, bract ti- lineari-lance Litis aeumiuatis. .-. palis [incari-lanceolatis 

liiiis, labello integr 
apienlato ba>i hrevio i- saecato-ealcarato, di^co la viter tricarinato, colu 
clavata alata. — . -Inia tint,Hstifoliu, Eenth. Fl. Honglc, p. 356 ( 

Hab.- Hongkong, JVilford, 384 ; Wright, 522 ; Hanee ; Ford. 

Tubera £-1 poll, longa. Folia 6-8 poll, longa, %-\\ poll. 1 
petioli 3-7 poll, longi. Scapi 

Pcdicdli 5-7 lin. longi. Sepala et peta 
Labellum (5 lin. longum, 3-4 lin. latum. Coiumta 4 
Kasily distinguished from the 

late rhomboideo 

Hab.— Yunnan, Delavay. 

Pseudobulbi G-\0\\n.\ong\. Pethmeuli 3-3| polL longi. Bra< 
1-1 £ poll, longae Sepala et petal a U-l? poll, longa, 3-4 lin. 
Labellum \\ poll, longum, 1 poll, latum". Colmnna l| poll, longa. 

Allied to C. bulbnmdioides, 1-Yam-h., but the flowers larger ^ 
broader sepals and petals, and the laineibe of the lip distinctly tootht 

171. Ccelogyne (§ Pleione) Henryi, Jlolfc .• pseudobulbis ovoi 

imellis undulatis 

apice ( 


1. lh i 

.?•//. ss2»j. 

: Sootl 

o ti ilamellato 
' ; Szechueii, 

Pseudobulbi 7-0 Hn. longi. folia 4-7$ poll, longa, l-l$ poll. iai 
Pcdunculi 3-6 poll, longi. Bractece \-\\ poll, longse. Sepala 
ila 1^ poll, longa. Lt ' " 
umna \\ poll, longa. 
,arger than the other Chii 

petala \\ poll, longa. Labellum \\ poll, longum, 1^ poll. 
Columna l\ poll, long: 

172. Ccelogyne (§ Pleione) pogonioides, Rolfe ; pseudobulbis parvis 

■ ■•..■ J ..■ . • - 

tusis, pedunculis basi va^inis unMiibr.-uim'eis tnmratis oi-tectis imifloi i>. 
bracteis is siibobtusis, sepalis petalisque lanceolatis 
.. .• - ; . - ■ - 

ralibus rotundatis mrd io emar- inato timhriato, disco trilameliato 
laiiH-llis elevalis iiTejmlariter erenatis, columna eiacili. — Pogonia, 
(\ l-liipoijunid) sp,, Haucr in .Imiin. Hot.. 1 S S,% p. 247. 

Hab.— Anwhei: wet rocks near YVuhu, at 3000 feet alt., Bullock 
(Hb. Hmu-e, 22(>.>N ; IIupc-li : L'atung, on liijrh mountains, A. Henry,. 
1473, 3785. 

Pseudobulbi 6 lin. longi. Folia 1-2| poll, longa. Pedunculi 1-2 
poll, longi. BractecB 1— | poll. longa\ Sepala et petala 1^—1 ^ poll., 
longa, 3 lin. lata. Labellum 1-1^ poll, longum. Columna 1—1^- polL 

Allied to C. bvlbocodioidet, F ranch., but the petals are as broad as 
the sepals and the keels of the lip distinctly erenate. Mr. Uullock records 
the flowers as bright scarlet and Mr. Henry as pink, and the latter 
states that the bulbs are used in medicine, yielding ■ drug as 

, Rolfe; rhizomate repente valido, basi 
onophyllis (an semper?), folds linenri- 
lanceolatis ohtusis hasi in petiolnm lnvwm attenuates, scapis ad apiceni 
pseudobulbi imniaturi productis hasi vajiiui-; un! is obtcctis, raeemis 
arcuatis circa 12-18-floris, floribus distichis parvis, bracteis ovato-oblongis 
involutis deciduis, pedicellis grariliLu-, s.-palis clliptico-oblongis sub- 
ol, tusis valde concavis lateral ibu.« cai inatis, pctalis ovato-oblmigis sub- 
acute, labello cymbiformi obtuso v. fere truncate, disci venis vix 
incrassatis, columna brevi clinandrio alato. 

Hab.— Kwangtung : North River, Canton, Ford, 139. 

Pseudobulbi \ poll, longi. Folia 2 poll, long*, 3 lin. lata. Scapi 
\\-2 poll. Ion <_'i. linu-txi llj-.". hn. longie. Pedicclli 1-14, lin. longi. 
Sepala et petala 1^-1^ Hn. longa. Labellum 1^-1^ lin. longum. 

171. Calanthe arcuata, Rolfe; foliis elon^.ttodanceolatis breviter 
acuminatis ba*i attenuatis, scapis .Litis, raeemis laxitloris, bracteis 

trilobo lobis lateralibus late oblon^is ntu'-e . is inter medio ovato- 
trulliformi crenulato-undulato, disco taviter triearinato, calcare arcuato 
subclavato, columna crassa. 

-Hupeh :, ./. Henry, <h< 1 4. 

Folia 8-12 poll, longa, 1-1£ poll. lata. Scapi 1 \ ped. longi. Bractet 
-1 poll, longa?, 1-1^ lin. latae. Ptdicelli 8-12 lin. longi. Sepal 
-10 lin. longa, 2-2* lin. lata. Petala 8 lin. longa, \ lin. lata. Labeli 

limbus 6 lin. longus ; lobi laterales 1 \ lin. longi ; intermedins -1 lin 
latus. Calcar 2 lin. longum. Columns 2 lin. longa. 

Allied to the Himalayan C. breviconm. Lindl ., but tlu> spur more 
slender antl the lip different in struct up'. The flowers, according to. 
Mr. Henry, are yellow and purple. 

i75. Calanthe ensifolia, liolfe .■ mis angustis 

etectia, Beapu elatis, . . •■ ia lioeari- 

htnceolati> i Satis > ! ii."!iiiw-. petalis 

vatis obtusis subdi\ < \ _■. ntilms, crista plui it-iln rculata, columua brev 
t crassissima, capsulis elliptico-oblongis brevissime pedicellatis. 

Hab.— Hupeh : Chiensbih, A. Henrxj, 6005 ; Szechuen : Mt. Omei 
t 4500 ft. alt., Faber, 945. 

Folia ^-1^ ped. longa, -1-6 lin. lata. Scapi 2-3-^ pod. long: 
iacemi 5-6 pell, longi. Eraetecr 5-12 lin. longa'. Fcdicelli 2-3 In 
)ngi. Sepala ul petala 5-5 i lin. longa. Lain than 3-3^ lin. longun 

lin. latum. Columna 1$ lin. longa. 

leaves. Flow< 

to .Mr. Henry. It much resembles 

C. Davidi, I 

but the lip is quite different. 

176. Calanthe Hancockii. liolfe; foliis Iongqn i ■' ,'i« ellipticn- 
lanceolatis breviter et ; : il.tu.-i-- l.-vitci undulnti-. 
seapis elatis, raeeinis arciiatis rnullilloris, bracteis ovatodauccolntis 

i i. nat - sepal is ddongo-lanceolatis acutis, petal s pa o iviinni . i-. 
lalh'llo tril .iiu lobis lat i-rali Imi- obo\ at<> oblougis obtusis intermedin 
obovato-oblongo aeuto v. apb'ulato. disco tricarinato carinis undulato- 
crenul t 1 ire parvo conico, columna erassa. 

Haij.— Yunnan: under shady blocks of rocks at 6600ft. alt, at 
Mengtse, Hancock, 78. 

Allied to C. striata, R, Br., but the lip much smaller. Mr. Hancock 

177. Calanthe Henryi, Fo/fc ; foliis cllipticc-v. obovatodanceolatis 
niultifloris, bracteis lanceolatis acuminatis, sopalis lanceolatis acutis. 

. ■. - - ■ .-■■..-. ,.■■■■... ..■■-..■■ ..-•;:', ... : ; .i: .:, .,■_,., , 

M.ariiUis oblique obovnto-oblongis obtusis 
intermedio oblongo apice dd.itat.. trim. i;.., di.-. g icilitei tiicarinato, 
calcare gracili recto, columna erassa. 

Hab.— Hupeh: Changyang, A. Henry, 5253 A, 5253 D, 5958 A. 

Folia 6-10 poll. longa, 2-2J poll. lata. Scapi IJ-2 ped. altf. 
flractcfi 2—1 lin. lo;.ga\ Pedicilh 7 -TO lin. lon^i. >'o 
7-9 lin. longa, 2-3 lin. L-ua. Labtllnm 5-6 lin. longum. Calcar 6 lin 

Allied to Ihe Himalayan C plantaginea, Lindl., but the raceme 
more lax, and the spur shorter. Flowers, according to Mr. Henry, 

178. Calanthe lamellosa, Rolfe ; foliis elliptico-v. obovato-lanceolatis 
lax iflor is, bracteis lanceolatis acumn ■< is acuminatis, 


petals M-pali< paullo mir.orihus. labello eolumna' jidnato limbo trilobo 
lobis lateralibus rotundato-oblongis obtiisis intermedio suborl.iculari 
obtuso, disco trilamellato lamellis valde elevatis, calcare conico brevissimo, 
columna crassa. 

Hab. — Hupeh : Chiensliih, A. Henry, o9o8. 

Folia 9-12 poll, longa, 2-3 poll. lata. Scapi H ped. alti. Bractete 
3-5 lin. longa?. Pedicelli 9-14 lin. longi. Sepala et petala 9-10 lin. 
longa, 2\ lin. lata. Labellum 6 lin. longum. Columna 2\ lin. 

Allied to the Himalayan C. brevicornu, Lindl., but readily dis- 
tinguished by its narrower, more elevated membranaceous lamella'. 
Flowers, according to Mr. Henry, white with a little red and 


peialis sepalis conformibus, labollo 
trimi'ati- apice ohseiire crenulalis i 
ulato. disco trilamellaio supra mediur 

trilobo lobis 
iter fimbriate, 

Hab.— J 

ffupeh ; Lu 

491. 35S9. 

kan gorge, 

Ya„ glS e-Ha„ g , 

Faber, 56, 

, 946 ; Ichang, 

longum. Calcar 3-4 lin. longum. Columna 4 lin. longa. 

Allied to the Indian E. campettrit, Wall, hut the flowers larger and 
less numerous, and the spur longer. 

180. Cymhidium Faheri, Rolfe; foliia elongate- linearibas ncutis 

lanceolatis aeufis, < ■ '■- . ,u"s p-mllo ininoribus. 

labello "trilobo lobis 
ntermedio elliptico- 
dutino, disco infra 

Hab.— Chekiang ; Tientai Mt., at 2000 ft, 
Szechuen ; S. Wushan, A. Henry, 5515. 

alt., Faber, 94 : 

•2\ pcd. longa, 3-6 lin. lata. Scapi 1-2| ped. alti. Bract 
mga?. Pedicelli \-\\ poll, longi. Sepala et petala \\- 
, 3*-4 lin. lata. Labellum 1 poll, longum. Columna 8 

181. Cyrtopera formosaiia, Bolfe ; i 
. . . , scapis robustis, ra.-emis multirlo 

insertis, petalis sepalis similibus minorih 
alilnis rotunda.{(»-o!.lonLris ol tusis intorrned 

isco obtuse triearinato earinis aspcruli> 
Hab.— Formosa ; South Cape, A. Hen 

Scapi \-\\ ped. alti. Bractea? 7-9 lin. longoe. Pedicel li ?> lin. 
longi. Sepala 7 lin. longa. Petala 5 lin. longa. Label lit m 6 lin. 
longum. Columna 3 I'm. longa. 

Allied to the Indian C. bicarinata, Lindl. 

182. Luisia Hancockii, Rolfe ; foliis teretibus rigidis subacutis, 
racemis brevissirnis L» .J-iloris, bracieis late triangulari-ovatis sub- 
obtusis corn-avis, sepalis .-lJij>l i<-o ohlongis obtusis subconcavis, petalis 
olliptiro ohlongis ohtu-ds planis, Iabi-llo subcordato-oblongo obtuso v. 
emarginato, disco leviter .">-7-earinato, columna l)revissiina. 

Hab. — Chekiang : western hills of Ningpo, Hancock, 22. 

Planta 3-6 poll. alta. Folia 2-2\ poll, longa. Bractem 1 lin. 
longa?. Pedicelli 4 lin. longi. Sepala 2\ lin. longa. Petala 2^ lin. 
longa. Labe/lnm 2^-3 lin. longnm. 

Habit of L. teres, Blume, but (lowers smaller, and lip wrv dilfeivntlv 

tbYiti u'Zl* ] -t river •'ve!-vr^re Ving °" aW * X ' tree ( Stimn ff'' a 

" • 183. Sarcochilus hainanensis, Rolfe; caule seandente, foliis 
lineari-oblongis ina-qualitcr 'hidentatis, racemis axillaribus vaginis 
foliorum perforatis compressis niultiilork lloril>us sa-pisMnie si'ngil- 
latim evolutis, bracteis di>tichis eonduplieatis acute earinatis subineun, i- 
subaeutis. -,-; raudalo-aenniinatis, petalis <epalis 

paullo hrevioribiis, labello trilolio loins lat-raubu^ semiohlongis npiee 

columna brevissima. 

Hab. — Hainan. Living plant received from the Hongkong botanic 

Folia 3^-4 poll, longa, \-\ poll. lata. Racemi 2-3 poll, longi. 
lirartar 2A-3 lin. longa-. Pedicelli <i lin. longi. Sepala el petala 
H'H P o11 - lo nga. Labellum G lin. longum. 

Allied to S. Arachnites, Kchb. L, but the front lobe of the lip 
distinctly triangular and the >idc lobes more erect. Flowers li^ht veliow. 
front lobe of lip white with a few buff markings in the throat "and on 

. Vanda hainanensis, Rolje ; foliis lineari ohlongis obtusis 
ite hidentatis, pedunculis robustis, racemis de'nsiiieris, bracieis 
Dvatis subobtusis, sepalis elliptico-oblongis obtusis lateralibua 
latioribus, petalis sepali.- .-uuatis, labello 

rato-oblongo apice breyiter trilobo lobo intermedio oblongo 

ibtus infra apicem profm ■ 


Hab. — Hainan, B. C. Henry, 

jalcare conico subcompresso 

Folia 4-7 poll. longa, 6-8 lin. lata. Racemi 4-o poll, lon^i. 
Bractecr 2 lin. longa-. Pedicelli !)-i() lin. longi. Sepala 8 lin. longa, 
4£-5 lin. lata. Petala 7 lin. longa, 3.1 lin.' lata. Lahelhm, 6 Mnl 
longum, 4 lin. latum. Ceil car k 2h lin. longum. 

The third species „f the section Junta, a group hitherto only known 
from the Philippines and Banna, Flowers white and purple ; fragrant. 

185. Thelasis hongkongensis, Rolje ,• pseudcbulbis ovoideo-globosis, 
foliis linean-oblongis obtn-i>, -i*ajii- gracibbus ba>i \a ; dms clangs 

atis subobtusis obtcctis, spicis densifloris, 
vis ovatis acutis, sepalis cariuatis postu 
lateralibus lineari-oblongis obtusis, petalis 

nvato-lamvolato apb-< hicjM.i.iato.— Tin lasts pyymcea, Hance in 
Journ. Linn. Soc., xiii., p. 127 (non Lindl.). 

Hab. —Hongkong, Hance, 1287; Ford, 18. 

Pseudobtdbi 4-6 lin. longi. Folia 1-2 poll, longa. Scapi 3-5 lin. 
longi. Bracteai 1 lin. longa?. Sepala et petala 1-1 \ lin. longa. 
Labellum 1 lin. longum. 

Allied to the Philippine T. triptera, Rchb. f., but the bracts much 
narrower and the flowers smaller. 

altis, vaginis ovatis snb- 
, paniculis ampli- laxi- iutiltitloi is frrmyineo-tomentosis, 
bracteis ovato oblongis acutis, sepalis petalisque oblongo 1 
subobtusis, label •■_■ o obtuse < 

inflexis, venis elevatis papilloMi-crenuIatis. 

Hab.— Szechuen : Mt, Omei, at 7000 ft. alt., Faber. 

Vagina f-1 poll. longa>. Bractete \\-2 lin. longas. Pedicelli 
\\ poll, longi. Sepala et petala 1 lin. longa. Labellum 11 lin. 
longum. Columna 5 lin. longa. 

Allied to the Himalayan G. lindleyana, Rchb. f., but with much 
narrower segments. 

• 187. Listera grandiflora, liolfe ; eaulibua grscilibos, foliis late 
cordatis v. ovato cordatis subacute v. apirulatis, raremis pubescontibus 
paucifloris, bracteis ovatis acutis, sepalii ovato -oblongis subobtusis 
concavis, petalis linearibus, labello magno laic obcordato nervo medio 

Hab.— Hupeh: Fang, A. Henry, G87G ; Szeehuen: Mt. Omei, in 
dark damp place at K0O0-900O ft. alt., Faber, 918. 

Planta 9-10 poll. alta. Folia \\ poll, longa, \\-\\ poll. lata. 
Racemi 2\-?> poll, longi. Ilractci 2-2\ lin. longa-. Sepala 3 lin. 
Jonga. Pelala g£ lin. longa. Labellum 6 liu. longum, U hn. latum. 
Columna o lin. longa. 

The largest-flowered species in the genus. 

- 188. Spiranthes exigna, Bol/e ; parva aphvlla glabra, scapis 
erectis vaginis iaxta ml ;o-lanceolatis 

■•• : . 
subobtusis sepalis angustioribus, labello basi erecto deinde subito 
patente intcgro ba-tato-Ghl-.n^o -ubacuto basi bituberculato, columna 
brevi incrassam, rostello subulato recurvo. 
Hab. — Hupeh, A. Henry, 6585. 

poll. alta. Scapi 2 poll, longi. 

20 1 

pubescent ibu- vnginis ]>:ni<-i~ obteelis, spieis eloi, irat is mult i lion's, bractvi- 
lanceolatis acuminatis pubr-scntibus. -,-;, ilo p..stieo <-reeto elliptico- 
oblongo subobtuso lateralibus patent. bus -nbobUqnis elliptico-ohlongis 
subobtusis, petalis sepalo postico subsimilibus, labello subtrilobo lobis 
lateralibus erectis parvis intermedio reflexo late ovato subapienlatn, 

Folia \\-i poll, longa, ^-lf poll, lata, petioli £-1 poll, longi. Scapi 
3-1 1 poll, longi. Bractecv 3-5 lin. longa-. Sepala et ^eto/a 2 lin. 
longa. Labellum 2 lin. longum. Calcnr \\ lin. longum. 
The genus has not hitherto been recorded from China. 

190. Cheirostylis yunnanensis, Rolfe ; foliis breviter petiolatis ovatis 
Bubacutis pi fcibas raginis 2-4 

- : 

concavis, sepalorum tubo oblongo 1 'is subobtusis, 

kpice breviter et obtuse 2-3-dentotis, 
labello unguieulato flabellato profunde bilobo lobis irregulariter 5-7- 
dontatis, columna brevi rostelli lobis falcato-linearibus. 

Hab. — Yunnan : shady rocky places at Mengtse, Hancock, 25. " Very 

Folia i-1 poll, longa, 4-7 lin. lata; petioli 3-4 lin. longi. Scapi 

imigus.lobi l'l lin. longi. Rt-Uila 3 A -4 lin. longi, apice 2 lin. lata. 
f.abd !i unguis l' lin. longus ; limbus 4-4 \ lin. lat.t-. Columna \\ lin. 
longa; brachia 1 lin. longa; rostelli lobi \ lin. longi. 

Allied to the Indian C.flabellata, Wight, but the flowers are much 
larger, and the petals much longer than the sepals. 

, '191. G-oodyera Henryi, Rolfe; caulibus repentibus elongatis, foliis 
■■i'is v. ap:e>i!ati- -i-T-n.-rvi- p-tielatis l-asi in vai_'inam tubi; 
losam amph- ' - bivvibu.s multifloris, brarteis 

lanet »1 ids <, ovato-la < < >' i* - n utis, s > ilis > o o' ! mgis < if"-!- . 
cavis trinervis, petalis oblongo-laix • rviis, labello 

anthera lanceolata, rostello in bbos elongatos diviso. 
Hab.— Hupeh : Ichang, A. Henri/, 6878. 

Caules \-\ ped. longi. Folia \-\\ poll, longa, 0-10 lin. lata; 
petioli o-6~lin. longi. Spine 1 - 1 \ poll. longw. Bractem 4-5 lin. longa?. 
Sepala \h lin. longa. Retain 4 lin. longa. Labellum 3| lin. longum. 
Allied to the Indian G. foliosa, Lindl. 

192. Habenaria Faberi, Rolfe; parvula, monophylla, tubere globoso, 
folio sessili la 'is ovafo- 

lanceolatis Bubacutis, ! obtnsis, labello 4-lobo, 

lobis oblongi- alear clavato, columna brevissima. 

Hab.— Szechuen : Mt. Omei on rocks at 9000 ft. alt., Faber, 319. 

Herba circa 2-3 poll. alta. Folium 13 lin. longum, 18 lin. latum. 
Bractea; \-\\ lin. Longa, Sepala et petala 1 lin. longa. Labellum 

Allied to H. Pinguicula, Benth., but the flowers only about a quarter 
as large. 

, Fordii, Bolfi . berectis oblongo- 

.;tiiL-uuiaiih :iruii.\ scapis elatis, raeemis multifloris, hr-;tc(< ! is ovato- 
lanceolatis, acutis, sepalo postico cutn petalis in >ra learn connivente 
latpralibus ; : Ms. petalis lanceolato- 

linearibus acutis, labello angusto trifido lobis linpari-filifonr.ibus, fa lea re 
cloiiuruo apicp <r.i--iiisp ulo, columna brcvi, prpcpssubu- stigiualicis 
porrectis, canalibus anthers; elongatis. 

Hai?.— Kwangtung, Ford, 360. 

Folia 9-10 poll, longa, l$-2j poll. lata. Seapi 2 ped. alti. Racemi 
3-5 poll, longi. Bractcrr ''i~\\ poll. lo:i<ja\ Sepalnm posticum 6 lin. 

mgum ; latcralia G\ lin. longa, 3£ lin. lata 
Labellum 1 poll, longum. Calcar 2\-Z{ poll. 

: Indian //. enmniefinifo/ia. Wall., but (lip flowers much 
larger and the leaves not cauline. "Flowers wbite." 

194. Hahenaria Hancockii, Jioffc ; foliis caulinis oblongo-lanccoiatis 
acutis. seapis squamis lanceolate;' longe acuminatis ves'titis, raeemis 
brevibus v. s- i ,| ; ii!s at-mniiialis, sppalo 

postieo flliptico-ovato obtuso lateralibus falcato-semiovatis subobtusis 
subcurinatis patentibus v. rellexis, pelalis subtalcato-oblongis obtusis 
. ibcarinatis. iabi'Ilo profuodf i ripartito lobis linearibus subacute laiera- 
libus subpatcntibus, calc-are tiliformi apice clavato, columna 

staminocliis oblongis latis, rostello triangulari i; ulentieulato. 

Hab.— Yunnan : Damp grassy slopes at Mengtse, at 5500-6000 ft. 
alt., Hancock, 85. 

Planta \-\\ ped. alta. Folia 11-3 poll, longa, 3-6 lin. lata. Racemi 
l 2~ 2 P o11 - longi. BractccB 6-9 lin. longa;. Scpalum posticum -2^-3, 
lin. longum ; I J iiu.'lufa. P, iuh> '2\ -3 Hn. longia, 

I lm. lata. Labelli lobi laterales 4 lin. lonai ; interim-dins 5.1-6 lin. 
longus. Calcar 7-9 lin. longum. Columna 2 lin. longa. 

Allied to the Indian //. acuifera, Wall., but with much longer side 
lobes to the lip, and a more elavate spur. " Flowers flesh-colour." 

•• caulinis oblongis v. clliptico- 
laxifloris, bracteis lanceolatis 
acutis v. acuminati-, repair, postico crecto ovafp subobtusr) concavo laterali- 
bus patentibus oblongis obtusis, petalis oblique ovaro-hmceolatis acutis 
cum sepalum posticum conniventibn ihello integro 

carnoso oblongo-lineari bbtojo, c i curvato. 

Hap.. — Shingking : Chan-peishan. James; Kiangsi : Kiukiang, 
Shearer; Unpen : Patun-, A. Henry, 4716, 6148; Kuei, A. Henry, 
7663; Szechuen : Wushan. A. Henry, 7153 ; Mt. Omei, Feiber, 941. 

Planta \-\\ ped. alta. Folia \\-4\ poll, longa, $-l£ poll. lata. 
Jlaeemi -1-9 poll, longi. Pcdicelli 1-5 lin. longi. Sepalum posticum 
i*£ lin. longum ; lateralia 3 lin. longa. Petala 2 lin. longa. Labellum 
3-4 lin. longum. Calcar 5-8 lin. longum. Columna \\ lin. longa. 

Allied to //. Keiskei, Miq., but taller, and with laxer racemes of 

196. Habenaria htimidicola, fiolfe ; foliis radiealibus term's lanceo- 
lato-oblongis"~ subacutis, raeemis bri .icteis ovato- 

lanceolatis acuminatis, sepalis ovato-oblongis obtusis, lateralibus deflexis, 
petalis lineari-oblongis obtusis, labello tripartito lobis lineari-filifor- ealoare lilifonni, eolumna bivvl. antln r.-i lnwi caimlil.ii>- 
et processubus -figmnticis brevibus. 

Hab.— Chekiang : Ningpo Mts., in damp places in the shade of 
rocks, Fabcr, 200. 

Planta 6-7 poll. alta. Folia l\-2 poll, longa, 5-7 lin. lata. Racemi 
2 |ioil. lon-i. Hrucfnr 2-.'i li:i. I. »m <r;i-. SipnLi <■! /j /«/« H 'in. longa. 

Allied to //. reniformis, Hook f., but the leaves longer, and the 

ilowers smaller and more slender. 

197. Habenaria omeiensis, , Roffc ; fbliis caul'mis oblongo-lanceolatis 
t. oblongis breviter acum'matis, raeemis laxis l.raeteis lanceolatis 

Hab.— Szechuen : Mt. Omei, at 8000 ft. alt., Faber, 951. 

Planta If ped. alta. jFo/m 2-6 poll, longa, i-2| poll. lata. Racemi 

4 lin. longi. firuefcce h-l\ poll, longa?. Scpala :\-\ lin. h>n<j;a. 
Prtalu 2A-3 lin. lon-a. Libel! um 7 lin. longnm. Calrar 1-1] lin. 
longum. Columna 2 lin. longa. 

Allied to the Tndian //. la! Hubris, Hook. i\. and /7. strnantha, 
Hook, f., but having a more lax raceme of larger flowers. 

-'' 198. Diplqmeris chinensis, Roljc : tubeve ovoideo-globoso, caule glal.ris unitloris, hraelra oblongo-lanrrolata suhaeuta concava, 

ban inflato-coni, l»ta. D 

Hab.— Chekiang: Tientai Mt., on damp rocks at 1000 ft. alt., 
Fa«an 05. 

longa. Sepah 

alia 2 lin. lata, retala 

199. Hemipilia Henryi, ffrM. / r.r. /?,/;•. et Fmach. in Journ. 
<le Bat. 1891, y;. 152 (nomai taut am) ; tnbere oblongo, caule 
abbreviato monophyllo, folio sessili eoniato-ovaio apieulato, seapis 
glabris, raeemis multifloris, bracteis o'llmigo-lam-colatis aenminatis, 
sepalis ovato-oblongis ohtusis lateralibns subohliquis. petals oblongis 
snhobtusis, lab. Ho obovato subquadrilobo lobis rotuudatis v. obtusis- 

Hab.— Hupeh: Ichang, A. Henry, 1534; Nanto, A. Henry, 6347 ; 
Hsingshan, A. Henry, 6347 A. ; Fang, A. Henry, 6347 B. 

Tuber f-1 poll, longuro. Folium 11-4 poll, longum, 1-2| poll, 
latum. Seapus 1-1 ped. altus. Erode* 3-5 lin. longte. Pedicelli 
6-9 lin. longi. -Stepa/a 3£-4 lin. longa, 2 lin lata. Petala 2^-3 lin. 

Jonga, 1 lin. lata. Label lum 6-7 lin. longura, 5-6 lin. latum. Calcar 
6-9 lin. longum. Cohunna 1 lin. longa. 

Differs from H '. flabellata , Bur. et Franch., in its much larger flowers, 
independently of structural characters. 

200. Cypripedium ehracteatum, Rolfe ; herba diphylla, caule nano, 

unifloris, flore ebracteato, sepalo postico elliptico - ovato subacum- 
inato, lateralibus omnino connatis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, petal's 
lanceolatis acuminatis, labello elliptico-oblongo obtuso saccato, 
staminodio ovato-oblongo, capsula oblonga glabra. 
Hab.— Hupeh, A. Henry, 140 la. 

Folia 4-41 po li. lonjra, :\\-i poll. lata. Scopus 6-8 p. '. 
lepala 1 poll, longa; posticum f poll, latum; lateralia 5 lin. lata. 
3 lin. lata. Labellum f poll, longum. Stami- 

Capiula 1£ poll, longa, 5 lin. lata. 
A remarkable ebracteate species, differing from C. micranthum, 
Franch., in its much larger flowers, and from C. margaritaceum, 
Franch., and ('. Furqrsii, F ranch., in its xiccate lip. The only specimen 
seen is at the British Museum, having been distributed with C. 
Japonicum, Thunb. 


Kapok is the Dutch name for the seed hairs of the white silk-cotton 
tree of the East Indies (Eriudcndnui (infrartuosinn). The kapok of 
Java is regarded as the best. It is, however, too short in the staple, 
too smooth, and too soft to be spun into yarn. Its chief use is for 
stuffing pillows, mattresses, and sofas, where its lightness, immunity from 
moth, softness, and elasticity, render it superior to all but the best 
qualities of feathers, wool, and hair. 

Eriodendron anfractuosum is a lofty forest tree with a large straight 
trunk covered with prickles when young. The branches are horizontal 
and arranged in whorls. The rather large flowers are white, and are 
followed by a dry, green capsule, in shape like a short cucumber, filled 
with black sei hairs The seeds are sometimes 

eaten and yield a bland, fattyoil. The r.-iouJ cake makes an excellent 
food for cattle. The tree occurs in the forest throughout the hotter 
parts of India and Ceylon and extends to Sumatra, Java, and tho 
Philippine Islands. It is also distributed to South America, the West 
Indies and tropical Africa. The habit of the tree is a very striking 
one. This is well shown in the representations of it in the North 
Gallery, Nos. 129, 176, and 632. It is majestic in size, and generally 
towers above all other trees in the dry forests where it flourishes. It 
sends out larce l.uttres>-lik<> expansions from tho base, while its branches 
afford a favourite resting place for numerous epiphytes. In fact the 
upper parts of an old silk-cotton tree form a very interest 
The branches and forks are thickly covered with the large tufted growth 
of several species of Tillandsia, numerous ferns, aroids, orchids, and the 
seedlings of Ficus and other trees whose seeds have been carried thither 
by birds. Next to the Cocoa-nut palm the silk-cotton tree affords one of 
the most characteristic features of tropical vegetation. It is regarded 


with supcr.-tition by the negroes Loth in Afi ic:i ami the WY-t Indies. 
aiiJ the) ■ lac«d to cut it down or handle it. 

In India the tree yields an almost opaque gum of a dark-red colour. 
which is said to he astringent, and to he employed medicinally in bowel 
complaints. The wood is soft and used in tanning leather. An inferior 
reddish til. re is. sometimes prepared from the bark, which is used locally 
for making ropes and paper. It possesses, however, 
value ; and the barking of the tree 
done to it as a source of floss. The young roots are also )<- 
in Bombay. They are dried in the shade, powdered and mixed with the 
juice of the fresh bark and sugar. 

In Java the growing silk-cotton trees are commonly used as telegrapL 
posts as the branches ..tow so conveniently at right angles to the trunk 
that they do not interfere with the wires. 

The kapok or floss from Eriodendron anfractuosum is, according t( 
[.resent demand, a fibre of considerable merit The modern trade in it w a- 
created b\ the Dutch merchants, who drew their chit t supply from .lava 
Jt is s ;l id that its elasticity and harshness prevent its becoming inat'oi 
as in some other flosses. The extending use of kapok seems to point t< 
it as a fibre likely to increase in demand year by year. It is important 
as pointed out by Dr. Watt, to guard against an error " made by man; 
writers of viewing kapok as a generic trade name for all the silk 
cotton — including that of the simal — the floss of Bombav mahthor'ntnn 
When the demand for kapok first started, Indian exporters placed it 

of dust as well as seed. This wa s at. once condemned and fetched : 

cleaned fibre had been sent to Kurope." 

In the Annual Report of the Director of the Botanical Department, 
Jamaica, for the year 1SS1, p. IS, the following particulars were given 
respecting kapok or silk-cotton : — 

The silk cotton tree is a ver\ familiar object in the Jamaica land- 
scape, especially on the north side, where it attains an enormous size. 
The wood was formerly (and sometimes is now) utilised for the purpose 
of making canoes; but for all practical purposes the tree is accounted 
of little value in the West Indies. 

The chief supply of kapok for the Dutch mark, t is obtained from the 
Kast Indies, and'. hiring the rears 1877-82 the following quantities 
were imported, viz.: 1877. 1UW3 bale,; 1878, 10,519 bales; 1879, 
12,050 bales; 1880, 6479 bales; 1881, 9991 bales, and 1882,28,032 
bales. The average price prid in English money was Id. per lb. 

A great difficulty found in the importation of silk-cotton was due to 
its great bulk and the heavy cost of transport. This difficulty has now 
been overcome by a silk-cotton press constructed by Stork and Co. 
at Henglo. 

It now only remains for some enterprising firm to initiate the 
collection of silk-cotton in Jamaica and ship it in well packed bales 
for the European market. If each cotton tree yielded at the rate of 
about 100 lbs. weight of clean floss there might be exported from 
Jamaica every year about 3000 bales of silk-cotton of the value of 

In Ceylon, according to the Tropical dgruxUteriH (1884, p. 153), 

kapok was collected throughout the villages in the interior, principally 

u 94127. B 


iii the Ma tun i ami "I'.-iti a,*i Ll:i districts and in the (Vnlnd Province. The 
season commences in May, and only one crop can be obtained in the 
year. The trees do not attain maturity until the fifth year. It is not 
uncommon to gather 1000 to 1500 pods from one tree. In preparing 
the article for export the chief difficulty was experienced in freeing it 
from the seeds. The improved Patent Saw Cotton Gin imported in 
1881 was vci-y satisfactory. The industry in Ceylon was started in 
consequence of letters written !Vom the Melbourne Exhibition bv the 
late Mr. A. M. Ferguson, C.M.G. 

Kapok had already attracted considerable attention in Australia. 
Messrs. Buchanan, of Melbourne, in their Monthly livt/istvr dated 
21st June 188(5, give the following amount of it : — " it is now 15 years 
since the first shipment ( ,f .lava kapok came to this market .... 
but so firmly did if, establish itself .... that when supplies 
were not regularly forthcoming a substitute was sought for. In proof 
of the lasting qualities of kapok, a non-commissioned officer engaged 
• in the Mahratta war of 1843 has a pillow-case in constant use ever 
since which still retains its da -ticity and f'uliu-s, and who assures us 
he has found nothing so cool or healthful to sleep on in warm climates. 
It is difficult to obtain reliable statistics concerning the trade . . . 
We find it entered at the local Customs under all manner of names, 
such as 'vegetable fibre,' 'vegetable wool,' ' silk cotton,' ' tree cotton,' 
* raw cotton,' and * Simoul cotton.' There were imported into 
Melbourne during the vear issr, a t,,ial of ss 4.-, i Kl ]^ ,,f the value of 
26,850/. A bale of Java karok weighs about SO lbs., a bale of 
Ceylon about 200 lbs., and a bale of India about 400 lbs." 

Serious complaint is made in Australia and elsewhere of the quality 
of the kapok shipped from India. " Even at the low price of India 
kapok it is found better to pay 8|r7. and higher per lb. for davan than 
3d. for Indian. The Indian is frequently received in such a filthy 
condition as to bo almost unsaleable." It. is stated that hydraulic or 
steam-press packing of kapok tends to destroy that peculiar elasticity 
to which it owes its value, "for without its springy nature it is 
unsuitable as a stuffing material." Moreover, by bard packing, when 
the seeds are left attached to the fibre, a dark coloured oil is expressed 
which is suffused over the kapok, " hence a noticeable difference in 
colour between the Indian and the beautifully white Java products." 

" At Java the trade has assumed a uniform practice. ISo unclean 
stuff is -Lipped, but the different grades of .-leaning denote standards of 
quality; the fir t. 'extra cleaned,' beiug cleaned by machinery, and 
the first picking of the crop: the second, denoted as 'best cleaned 
picked,' being till hand-picked ami free from seeds, except an odd one 
here and there ; the third is simply designated ' cleaned.' It contains 
a few seeds, together with the ' slabs,' or little knotty, curly lumps, 
which tire cast aside from the higher grade.. The quality of any one 
class is found most uniform throughout the bah-. Packing is all done 
in straw mats, and never tightly pressed; the first quality, 'extra 
cleaned,' weighing about Co lbs. ; the second and third from 75 lbs. to 
90 lbs. Bales over 00 lbs. to 95 lbs., on account of having to be 
dumped by machinery, destroying the elasticity of the fibre, are 
reckoned not to be worth within \d. to Id. per lb. in value of bales of 
lesser weight. 

" In fact, it is a peculiar feature of the Java trade that weight of 
bales form an essential condition of price — the lighter the highest, Hid 

The following paragraph appeared ; ;; the llritis/i Xcrth Borneo 
llvrnhl for August 1, 1S9G:— 

"Kapok, the down which envelops the seeds of ilie silk-cotton tree, 
is, says the Proilm-r It'orhl, receiving nmch attention. The cultiva- 
tion of the trees is even said 'o he ousting coffee in the province of 
Burmoh ; they grow to a height of 80 feet to 100 feet, the wood is soft 
and worthless; the fibre, kapok, is extensively used for stuffing 
mattresses, pillows, cushions, scats of railway carriages, &c. The lack 
of proper machinery IV cleaning the fibre sto< d in the way of its 
development, but that obstacle has been removed, and the stuff as it 
comes to market is in excellent condition for the purposes Ave have 

Kapok has not been received in this country on a very large scale. 
It is not, however, quite unknown here. The following particulars 
have been received from a wtdl-known firm in the City : — 

Messrs. Ide & Christie to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
72, Mark Lane, London, E.C., 
Sir, September 28, IS 00. 

In reply to your letter of the 2-lth instant. Kapok i- coming 
here regularly to the extent of 100 bales a month from India and 
Ceylon. To-day's value is 2\d. to id. per lb. The trade is not large, 
but may grow. 

, (Signed) Ide & Christie. 


Until quite recently the Herbarium contained n,> plant:- from Centra 
Tibet, except a small set of such portions of Pr/ewaNki and I'otanin' 
i- had been worked out bv the late Mr. Maximowiez. Ii 
1592, Surgeon-Captain W. G. Thorold presented the plants he collect.-. 
on hi> journey across Tibet with Captain Bower; and in 1893 Mr. W 
Woodvilie Rockhill presented, through Professor C. S. Sargent. : 
similar collection made by himself on his last journey in Tibet 
Messrs. Thorold and Bower" traversed the countrv from west to east 
between the 30th and .,1th parallels of latitude; and Mr. Rockhill' 
extreme western point n> about. 90 K. long., a lii tie to the north o 

Tengri Nor. 

Some ace,, 

unl of 

the--' c „ll, 


11 be found in the 

Bull* fin for 

formed the 

subject of i 

Mr. \ 


, publh 

-bed in The 


140. Mr. Rockhill 

Jour mi/ //in 


». oSO-.'fS," 

i. Full 



ting early in 

the present year, 


across Tibet from north 

itl.. Mr ai 

id Mrs. S 

re \l. Little- 

dale presented Kew with :i 

ell thee had 

the fate of being left by t 

lside, a fate 

which befell 

the bulk ol 

• their 


s. This col- 

lection was 

made in the 

• (lorir 

ig Valley, 

in 30° 12' 

X. lat. 

, and 90° 25' 

E. long., at an elevation of about 16,500 ft, It coutains sixty-eight 
species, including one fern and two funguses, belonging to forty-seven 
genera and twenty-five natural orders ; proportions similar to those of 
typical insular floras. Ten of the species have been described as new, 
and, as may be gathered from the enumeration, most of the others 
belong to the region, or extend only to the Himalayas and the lofty 
mountains of Western China. A few, such as Aconitum Napellm, 
Lychnis apetala, Potentilla fni/irosa, MpriophpUnm verticillatmu. 
Lf>onti>i»nli,nn alpiuntn, Taraxacum palus'tn\ Polygonum viviparum 
and Cat'(\v ustulata, have a wiJe range. A few others exteud to 
Siberia. Coming to the genera, there is complete evidence that the 
flora belongs to the cold temperate, and arctic type, which is essentially 
the same all round the hemisphere. Thirty-four of the genera are 
British, and most of the others have a wide range. The regional and 
local genera are :*: Dilophia, Pleurospermum. < 'rcmmifhoilium 
(better treated as a section of Senecio), Oreosolen, Rheum and Littlc- 
dalea; the last a very pretty and distinct new genus of grasses. 
Oreosolen is a singular genus of the Scniphulariru a\ of which one 
species, a native of the northern Sikkim Himalaya, was previously only 
imperfectly known. 

Some further remarks on this collection, by the Director, are repro- 
duced in the current volume of the Bulletin, pp. 99-100. 

Anemone imbricata, Maxim. FL Tangut. p. 8. t. 22. 

A diminuti . Tibet, and previously collected by/ 

Przewalsky and Rockhill only. 

Rot/le, Illim,: IL.t. lli.n-il. p. 5^, Hook. 
, p. 27 ; Bot. Mag. t. 5461. 
species is common in the Ladak and Karakoraoi 

Delphinium Pylzowi, Ma.vini. in Hull. Acad. P.'tnsh. vxlii. (1877). 
p. 307; Kegel's Gartenfl. 1876, p. 289, t. 879. 

Amdo, in western Kansuh, Przewalsky, and Eastern Tibet, Rockhill.. 

Aconitum Napellus, L. var. ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 28. 

This vei . I all round the northern hemisphere. 

We have not exactly matched Mr. Littledale's specimen, which is 
remarkable in having a very leafy inflorescence. 


Meconopsis horridula, Hook. f. $ Thorns. Fl. Ind. 1, p. 252? 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1, p. 118. 

Sikkim Himalaya and collected in Tibet, both by Thorold and 

Meconopsis integrifolia, Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 
xxxviii. (1886), p. 389; Cathcartia integrifolia, Maxim. Mel. Biol. ix. 
p. 713. 

This exceedingly showy plant was previously known from western 

Described from a upecimen collected in Tibet by Surgeon-Capta 
Thorold. It is very closely allied to, if not identical with, C. mucr 
hifrra. M^ixim. Fl. Tangut. i., p. 51. t. 24, fig. 19-21. 

Corydalis moorcroftiana, Wall. Cat. n. 1432, Hook. f. Fl. Br 
Jed. I,p. 125. 

Afghanistan, North -west India, and West Tibet. 

Capsella Thomson!, Hook.f. in Journ. Linn. Soc. v., p. 172 (1861) ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1, p. 159. 

Karakoram, Ladak, and Tibet, at 17,500 ft., collected by Eockhill. 

Dilophia salsa, T. Thorns, in Hooh. Keic Journ. Bot. v., p. 20 (1853) ; 
Hock. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 161. 

Ladak, Tian-Scban m< , Ivansuh. 

Lychnis apetala, Linn Sp. PI. p. 437 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. i., 
p. 222. 

Alpine Himalaya, mountains of North Europe, Asia, and America, 
and aictic regions ; Wit not ivacbiug the European Alps. 

Stellaria dectunhens, Edgeiv. in Tram. Linn. Sec. xx, p. 35 (1846); 
Hook f. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 234, and var. pulvinata, Edgew. et 

Alpine Himalaya, ascending to 18,000 ft. in Sikkim. 

Arenaria musciformis, Wall. Cat. n. 6401 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit, 
nd. i., p. 237. 
Alpine Himalaya, Karakoram, and Tibet at 15,000 to 18,000 ft. 

pusilla, glabra, 

nosis cupulatim 
pseudoterminalibus pedicellatis, 

inum, Steph.; Willd. Sp. PL i 
I'rodr. 1, p. 642 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1, p. 429. 

Central and Southern Russia in Europe, Afghai 
Central Asia, and Siberia. 

Thermopsis lanceolata, />'. Br. in Ait. Jlort. Ken-, ed. 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. i.. p. 510 ; ileinsl. in Jouru. Linn. Soc. xx 
Central Asia and Siberia to North China. 

Astragalus (species indeterminata). This has not been matched 
at Kew, but so many species have been described that are not 
represented in the Herbarium, that it is left undescribed. 

Oxytropis cashmerica, Camb. in J,nn>,:,n. !'„»., Hot. p. 38, t. 4 
Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind. ii., p. 139. 
Western Tibet aud Kashmir. 

Potentilla fruticosa, Linn. Sp. L>L, p. 495 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 
p. 347. 

From the Pyrenees and Great Britain eastward, through Central A 
and the mountains of northern India to China and Japan. 

Potentilla fruticosa, Linn, v 
p. 348. Potentilla Lindenberg 
p. 339; Revis, Potent, t. 2. 

This very marked form or variety is only known from great elevi 

I Tibet. 

Potentilla bifurca, Linn. Sp. PL, p. 497; Hook. f. Fl. Bri 
p. 353. 

Caucasus and Tauni>. in high alpine regions, eastwar 
Himalaya-; and Central Asia to Mongolia. 

Saxifraga tangutica, Enyl. in Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. xx\x. t 
>. 114 (1883). 

A very distinct species of which Kew previously possessed specimens 
ollected by Przewalski in the mountains on either side of the Tctuiig 
iver, a little to the north of Koko Nor. 

Sedum tibeticum, Hook. f. A- riwms. in Jouru. Linn. Sue. ii., p. 96.; 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. ii., p. 418. 

North-west Himalaya and western Tibet. 

Sedum (§ Rhodiola) rotundatum, Hemsl. ; glabrum rhizomate 

crassiVimu clurain mnliieauli, caulibus suncarnnsis erect is simplicibus, 
internodiis (piain folia 1 .[>-\ i< »iil ms, foliis sessilibus carnosis oblongo- 
rotundatis vel interdum vere orbicularibus integris vel interdum 
obscurissnne lobulatis, r\uiis parvis pnucilloris, lluiinus (masculinis 
tantum visis) minis parvis sepalis earnosi* brevibns ovato-oblongis 
obtusissimis, peialis lineal ii-u> nl.tusis, lihunentis filiformis, earpellis 
fatuis validis.— Llook. Ic. PL t. 21G9. 

Rhizomu 1 poll. crasMim. (Andes circiter 6 poll. alti. Folia \-l poll. 

Sedum Przewalskii, Maxim, in Bull. Acad. St. Petersh. x\n 
p. 156. 

Previously only known from the same regiot) as Sasrifh 

Sedum quadrifidum, Pall.? 

The species of this affinity are ' difficult to identify' from dri 
specimens, and a satisfactory determination would involve the exnmiii 
tion of a large number of specimens. 

verticillatum, Linn. Sp. PL, p. 992 ; Hook. 


in the northern hemisphere, including America. 

Hookeri, C. B. Clarke, var. Thomsoni, 

Probably new, but the specimens bear only very young inhVn -scorn ■. s. 

Lonicera hispida, Pall. ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii., p. 
bracteata. Uoyle lilnstr. t. 53. 

Himalayas, from Kashmir to Sikkim. ('•■• itral Asia ami ^ 

Aster tricephalus, C. B. Clarke, Camp. Ind. p. 43 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. iii., p. 250. 

Previously only known from Sikkim, Himalaya at 13-15,000 ft. 

Aster Bowerii, Hems/, in Jonrn. I. inn Snr. xxx., p. 113. 

Described from small specimens collected by Br. Thorold. Mr. 
Littledale's specimen is much more vigorous, and bears ripeaehones, from 
which a figure has been prepared for Hookers lcones Plautarum, 
t. 2495. 

Leontopodium alpinnm, Cass., varietates; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 1ml. iii., 
p. 279. 

Besides the ordinary form, which is abundant in the Himalayas and 

extends to China and Mandshuria, then- i- an elegant dwarf variety with 

-pa tli ii late leave-. In the Himalayas this plant exhibits a great range of 

: :' . • 

Artemisia Stracheyi, Hook. f. a- Thorns, e.i 
'ud. p. KM ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii.. p. 32S. 
Western Tibet, 15,000 to 17,000 ft. 

part of Tibet. a 

Anaphalis xylorhiza, Sch. Bip. ex Hook.f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii., p 281 
Sikkim Himalaya, in the Tibetan region, and ICumaon. It was also 
collected by Thorold at an elevation of 15,500 ft. 

tibeticum, Hook. f. % Thorns, ex C. B. Clarke, Comp. 
Ind. p. 154 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii., p. 319. 

Western Tibet, Parang and Lanak passes. AUo collected by Thorold 
in Central Tibet. 

Senecio (§ Cremanthodium) goringensis, Ilemsl.- perennis, 

nanus albo puberulus, eaubbus l-2-ioliati- 1 2-ccphalK foliis eras- 
siusculis sulicoriacels lon-e petiolatis ovali-oblongis incon- 
spieue ealloso-dentieulatis apice obtusis vel rotundatis basi in petiolum 
attenuatis costa ciussiuBcula venis iinni.-rsis uhsoleiis. eapitulis radiatis 

.medium commtis vix aeutis, ib.ribus radii circiter 20 luteis angustis 
bracteas fere dimidio excedentibu.?, floribus disci numerous ai-ha-niis 
glabris oblongis nt videtur compressis sed maturis pappo albo sericeo 
corollas tubuiosas paullo excedente. 

Planta 4-9 poll. alta. Folia absque petiolis 1^-2 poll, longa, et i-1 
poll, lata; petiolis 2-3 poll, longis. Capitida circiter H poll, lata 
Flores radii cum achamiis circiter 9 lin. longi. 

Senecio (§ Cremanthodium) Fletcheri, Him si. ,• perennis, nanus 
trapituITs except i.i -laber, caulibus 1-2-loliatis l-2-cephalis. f.diis era-sN 
oblongo-laiiccojatis obtiisiu.-culis basi inter se 
costa deorsum incrassata atropurpurea venis 
radiatis eernuis, involucri bracteis herbaceis 
lbl ' : ohlougu-lar.ccolatis vix aciitis sefuloso- 
birsutis nigivsccnhbiis, floribus radii 12-15 luteis oblongo lancrolatis 
bracteas dimidio excedentibus, floribus disci mini, rods ut videtur apice 
'■M:re>c.-i,til.iis \,-\ a.-lia nih f-Iabris oblongis ut videtur 

corollas tubuiosas pauilo excendentc. 

Planta circiter 6 poll. alta. Folia radicalia 3-4 poll, longa et 
8-10 lin. lata, caulina minora. Capitn/a U-2 poll, diametro. Flores 
rudn cum a.-ha-nio poliieares. Flor.-s disci eireir.-r semipollicares. 

Named after Mr. W. Fletcher, who accompanied Mr. and JNIrs. 
Littledale and took part in the work of the expedition. 

Saussurea Thoroldi, Ifemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxx , p 115 t 5 


Przewalski, and in hzeelmen by .Mar 

ubulata, C. B. Cfai 
ii. p. 367. 

Yarkand. at 15,000 to 18,000 ft., and 

Previously collected by Dr. Thorold, 
been received at Kew, from St. Peter 

Sanssnrea subulata, C. It. Clarke, Comp. Ind. n. 226: Hook 
Fl. Brit fed. iii. p. 367. . * 

:inale, var. parvula, Hooh. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii,' 
hout the Himalayas at 10,000 to 18,000; and all over Europe 

Wall, ex Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Caret/, i 
p. 18 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii., p. 483. 

Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. 

Primula purpurea, Royle, Illustr. p. 311, t. 77, f. 2; Hook. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. iii., p. 490, sub P. Stuart ii. 

Upper Sikkim to the north-west Himalaya and contiguous countrie 

Echinospermum sp. 

Specimen too young and meagre for satisfactory deteri 

Himalaya Mountains, Western China, Turkestan, Tibet. 
Pedicularis Przewalskii, Maxim, in Bull. Acad. St. Petersb 
xiv., p. 55 ( 1 878) ; Mel. Biol, x., p. 84, et xii., p. 787, t. 1, f. 2 ; Prain in 

Tibet, Szechuen, and Western Kansuh. 

Oreosolen ungniculatus, Hemtl. ; species habitu foliisque O. 
najqualiter bilabiate Bat diversa; 

otundfitis vel fere nrbiculnribiis interne snbito eonstriefis subpetiolatis 

r<i<se eivnate-dentafis a basi ,>-7-nervis, nervis veni^pie cra<si« laxe 


. cmlycii segments! brevibua fen 

ubaent'-. enroll. e tube graeillim,. vere ej, lirnlrieo 'abio ,-uj • •■ sequaliter trilobato lobis august =-, 

Nepeta decolorans, Hemsl. ; fere 

veins erassis conspieuis brevissime petinlatis vel se*silibu«i 
. t'ere orbicularibun grosse crenatis basi nunc snbeun. -.\U< mme 
lis infeTioribu, minonbus dixtnntibus supmnribus Moral ihu< 
~ ,, "" l ''" I "" i ; ' t.rcvis«imi* 

s setilonnibus. ealyeo intu< extu-p.e - 
1C r,ore d.midio longiore brevissime tridentato, inferiore bifido 

dentibus omnibus acutis, corollas labio 

longioribus labium eequanl 
glabris oblongis.— Hook. Ic. PL t 2470. 

Phlomis rotata, Benth. ex Hook.f. FL Brit. Ind. iv., p. 694. 

The inner ranges of Sikkim Himalaya at 13,600 ft, collected by 
Sir Joseph Hooker, and recently by Bungboo, one of Dr. King's native 
collectors. A singular plant almost exactly like Orcosolen unt/iiicidutiis 
in habit and foliage. 


Polygonum sphaerostachyum, Meissn. Monog. p. 53 : Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind., v., p. 32 ; Hot Mag. t. 6847. 

Western Tibet an.,1 < Hlgit n. Sikkim at 11,000 to 15,000 ft 

Polygonum vivipamm, Linn. Sp. PL p. 360 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind., v., p. 31. 

"Widely spread in alpine and arctic regions in Europe, Asia, and 

Polygonum (§ Aconogon) tibeticum, Hemsl. ; perenne, nanum. 
undique glabruin, caulibus erects graci'" 
internodiis quani foli;t brevioribu>. stij 

vel obliquis cito ad basin fissis, foliia tis crassis vix 

coriaceis obo\ (in sicci> ) recurvis wins immersis 

ineonspicuis, eymis parvis densis terminalibus brevissime pedunculate 


longis hypogynis, disco inter stamina et ovarium carnoso 8-lobato lobis 
latibus magnis capitfttis, 
nuce ignota.— Hook. Ic. PL t. 2471. 

Caules 8-12 poll. alti. Folia cum petiolo \—l\ poll, longa. Cym<e 
(2 tantum visa?) 6-9 lin. diametro. Flores circiter 2§ lin. diametro. 

Rheum spiciforme, Royle Illustr., p. 318, t. 78; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind., v., p. 55. 

Afghanistan, North-west Himalaya, and adjoining countries. 

Mr. Littledale's specimen consists of a young plant having quite 
small leaves, and no inflorescence ; but there is a simil u specimen in the 
Herbarium, from North Tibet, collected by Przewalski, and referred to 
this species by Maximowicz. 

Urtica hyperborea, Jacq. ex Wedd. in Arch. Mus. Par. ix., p. 68 
(1856) ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. v., p. 548. 

Eastern and southern Tibet, at 12,000 to 17,500 ft. 

Salix Lapponum, Linn. Sp. PL, p. 
p. 617. 

Widely spread in cold, temperate, and , 
and America. 

Scirpus Caricis, Retz. Ft. Scand. Prod., p. 11; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Europe, West and Central Asia, and the mountains of Nortb 

Kobresia sp. 

Mr. C. B. Clarke, who kindh examined this and tin- oilier C\ peraeea- 
lin tht Kew Herbarium,, 
but the material is hardly sufficient for description. 

Carex ustulata, Wahl. in Vet. Akad. Nya. Handl. StocM., p. 156 
(ISO.}); Hook. f. Fl. Brit. I nd. vi., p. 734. 

Widely spread in the cold regions of the northern hemisphere, and 
ranging between 12,000 and 17,000 ft. in the mountains of North 

Littledalea, Hemsl. . ^ ilonr, luxe paniculate, 

graciliteF p< glabra, jnxta 

flores et supra lMuuuis inferi res ariieulata ; tiores grandes, herma- 
phroditi vel supremo imperfecto. Glum a- 2 inferior, s vaeua\ inrr-.piales. 
quam florontcs multo inii. ; -• vel truneata-. sinml 

vel erosse, mutiea?, trincrvata . nervis hand excuirentibus 

rotundata-, "-npi-a medium lnalimv, niutiea-. ecarinata-, demum erosiv, 
hasi insigniter eallosa-, 7-nervat;v, nervis omnibus vix oxcurrentibus ; 
palea multo minor, bifida, bicarinaia. Stamina;}. Lodicnhc 2, tenues, 
angustse, oblong a^, intogne. Styii brevissnni, m^iipu'.iu. ;..t, oiumosis. 
Caryopsis immauiru hii -nta. — Gramen uf videtnr perenne, pulchrum, 

s:epissime ^ apillarihus. Spicula? sa; - 

: lt( ra inii ore ; . d cello breviore. 

It. tibetica, Hemsl. ; culmis simplh ilms graciliusculis glabris 
lavibds sa'pissime (an semper?) bifoliatis (nodo unico tantum p. Tspicuo) 
internodio superiore longi-sime exserto, vagims laxis glabris vel 
inferioriluis puberulis superioribus a port is, laminis hrevilma linearibus- 
-.-,:.■ ■'■/:'■ 

utrinque instrucfis, ligula t'oiii cnulini in!', ioris maixna integra vel 
.! -.'■■.:■. ' ■ ■ - ■ ■" • -. ■ 

Mepitia floribus -1, floribus puberulis purpureis. — Hook. Ic. PI. t. 2472. 

Culmi 1.^-2 ped. alti. Lamina foliorum caulinorum 2-3 poll, longa, 
radicalism longior sed culmis multo brevior. Lujula bene evoluta 
2 lin. longa. ^ Panic nla 4-5 poll, longa, ramulis \-2 poll, longis. 
Si,,, 'id, i maxim. e pollicares. (ilin/Ki ,;rh riur eireiter 3-liu. longa, 
' . 41 lin. longa. Glm " 

Palea circiter 

4 lin. longa. 


the Himalayas at cc 

Steud. Syn 
msiderable all 

Polypodium hastatum, Thunb. ■. If •><>/<, Sp.. Fit. v., p. 74. 

Japan, Fore » throughout China. It was also 
•liected by Fere ~ 
Littledale's locality i 

collected by Fere David in Moupine, Eastern Tibet 


Iientinus curtipes, Massee ; pileo infundibuliformi coriaceo-leato 
pallide luteo ecu rato e centro radiatim squarauloso- 

maculato margine integro involuto, stipite solido duro curto pallido hie 
indetomento pruinoso flavido ohteete. iamellb decurrentibus angustis 
distantibus albo luteis acie minutissime crenulato, sporis lrevibus 
hyalinis subspha&roideis 1-2-guttulatis 5-6,u diam. 

Piletis \\ poll. diam. Stipes 4-5 lin. longus et 2-3 lin. crassus. 

Allied to L. Thwaitesii, B. & Br., Ceylon, but differing in the scaly 
pileus, broader gills, and subglobose .spores. 

Agaricus (Naucoria) pediades, Fries Epicr., p. 11)7. 

Europe, Central Asia, North America, tropical and South Africa, 
Ceylon, South Australia, and New Zealand. 


(Widdringtonia Whytei, Rendle.) 

A note on the recently discovered native cedar tree of British Central 

Lfriea was published in the Kew Bulletin (1895, p. 189). The 

imber is .'..-scribed as " equal to the finest pine and easily worked." It 

;,. S n,l intoning tree is likely to 

■I ulso planted in the 

Z n Ofliee, March 25, 1896. 
kate for Foreign Affairs to 
tor, the accompanying copy 
cedar forests at Mlanje in 

Commissioner Johnston to the Marquess of Salisbury. 
(So 151 Central Africa.) The Residency, Zomba, 

Mv I onn 3Ist December, ]S95. 

The following extract from a Report by Mr. John McCtomrie, 
the Forester in the service of the British Central Ainea Administration 
in charge of the Mlanje cedar forests, may be of interest to your 

' Mr. MeClounie writes : — 
] have now been all over the Ruo Plateau, and the Lncheoya, the 

Likubula G<-r, I'lateaux The district round the 

source of the Tuchila is by far the best and most timbered part ot the 
mountain. A few straggling trees are seen near the sources of the Ruo, 
and only one of any size, while the Luchenya is dotted with cedar along 

its slopes. The Likubula is well wooded, but the forests are almost 
inaccessible. On the plateau round the source of the Tucliila the ground 
is covered with compact cedar forests, and may be estimated at 700 to- 
800 acres ; on that around the Likubula about 200 acres, and a further 
100 acres round about the Luehenya. Giving (he number of trees to 
the acre as 150, the total number of full-grown existing cedar trees 
would stand at about 150,000, with an average of 40 cubic feet of 
timber each. At the present value of 3s. per cubic foot the total value 
of these trees would be 900,000/.; but it this timber was sold as it 
ought to be at 6s. a eubic foot the wealth would be doubled. As I have 
gone all over the woods and noticed quantity and quality, these figures, 
may be taken as near the mark. It is abundantly in evidence that the 
whole of the plateau was atone time covered with cedar, as in recent 
ii roots wriv in-r with where there was no trace of them 
on the surface. Without doubt, fire has heou the destructive agent, and 
it can easily be imagined a< the under-growth gets tall and thick that at 
the dry season a gust of wind would Ian a flame into an immense con- 
flagration, and this cedar wood being exceedingly full of ignitible resins, 
a large tract of forest would soon disappear. Consequently, there 
ensues a decrease in rainfall, and then come further fires to complete the 
destruction; w - been so nearly total that thic 

tree is now only to be met with on the upper plateau of Mlanje in damp 
places, and along the streams. It is no exaggeration to say that five or 
six years more delay in the assumption of control over the remaining 
patches of cedar forest would have meant the entire extinction of this 
unique conifer which there is abundant evidence to show once inhabited 
all the high mountains and plateaux in the southern part of British 
Central Africa. 

Up to the present I have cut up nothing hut dead wood, which, in 
most case?, is in good seasonable condition. The supply of timber 
yearly might be considerable, and not materially affect the forests for 
many years, especially as there are large numbers of young trees 
growing up in all the woods which must now be protected from fire. 

I have this season sown a large quantity of cedar-seed which >houh$ 
be ready in a year to transplant, the ground to be planted must be 
thoroughly hoed and cleaned to remove grass, &c, and prevent fires. 

Possibly this extract from Mr. McClounie's Report may be of interest 
to the authorities at Kew. I do not forward the whole of the Report 
a- it deals with other matters, and will be eventually merged in the annual 
Report from this office. 


Mb. Thomas James Harris, a member of the gardening staff at 
Kew has been appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
Superintendent of the King's House Gardens and Grounds, Jamaica. He 
left for the West Indies on October 7th last. 

in that island, has been appointed Curator of the Botanic Station 
at Belize, British Honduras. Be was to leave Jamaica for Belize at 
the beginning of October. 

Mr. James E. Hartley, a foreman at the Hope Botanical Gardens, 

Jamaica, has h -. n appointed Overseer of the Botanic Station at Sierra 
Leone. He will be engaged, under the Curator, Mr. Willey, in the 
experimental cultivation of coffee and cacao and in training native boys 
in horticultural work. Mr. Hail ley spent a short time at Kew on his 
way to West Africa. 

"STews of tl * on October 9th of the eminenl 

Australian hotani-t, Sri: FinmxAXD von M ikli.i:;:. reached London 
on October 10th. In this place some record should be given of his con- 
to the establishment during a period 
51 1 years. 

F. Mueller was born ;it Fosforl '. ami began 

his botanical career In devoting several years to the investigation of 
the Flora of Schleswig-Holstein. In consequence of symptoms of 
phthisis, lie < >-. : ,:' ted to \ustrali.i in IS 17, and at once commenced the 
study of the native flora ; a study he must have continued almost to the 
day of his death, for Kew received some seeds from him the very day of 
the announcement. But it may, perhaps, be regarded as a significant 
fact that no written coi ' ■• though it 

was addressed in his own hand. A la 
further news from him, but no reference to indisposition. 

In the official correspondence of the period of Sir William Hooker's 

■: of Kew, the first communication from Mueller is dated 

F, hruurv. hi '.. m ! ivas written in pencil at his first -imp, on his first 

journey "to the Australian Alps. ft announces his appointment, by the 

a post he held until his death. At this early date he spoke of a project 
he had conceived oi writing a Flora of the whole of Australia, estimating 
the number of species at 10,000. He also proposed an interchange of 
ideas, an exchange of plants and seels, and requested assistance in the 
revision and publication of hi< manuscripts relating to the flora of the 
continent. Tl nus begun has been continued with 

unflagffimr vigour wiih K w. and. ■ ' advantage. 

Durin-the same year (isr>3) two of his papers, svnioh 
had previouslv been read before the Linnean Society, were p-.ibh-died m 
Hooker's Keic Journal of Botany. These were succeeded by an 
eitpour of papers, published in numerous European and 

,..;.-■ - 

,.,.,,.. ,f tl- li lhti„ F.-n tin su b vn.M,. o 
his euro./ and onward he most libera''; -upp ed Kew with sets oi 

... nndb. others, at h 
expense. His two first consignments, ,, . . . 
2000 species. The most extended join my he mad. wa~ 
the Gregory Expedition, across > 

Hi f'lnnhi .■■'..' Knr Journal <■<) Jin/ani/, vols, v 

most interesting contributions to our knowledge 

tionofAiw rvation. In one of the; 

tions he says : " You receive always the whole of the speci 

partly at his 

ies, exceeded 


rare kind .... the plants being so much more useful at Kew 
than in Australia." He also expressed a strong desire to be able to 
return to Europe and work out his extensive collections at Kew. as he 
if. tlial it was impossible to do it satisfactorily in Australia. 
This desire was never realised, and when, in ISM, the Australian 
Colonies, mainly through his exertions, agreed to grant funds for the 
publication of a general Flora of the country, he generously acceded to 
the view held by many botanists, that for so important ai ; 
the labour should be secured of the most experienced and skilful of 
British descriptive Ih.tanists. Mr. (J. IJeutham, with the admirable 
result known to all. He not only relinquished a work he had set his 
heart upon, but cordially assisted Mr. Bentham and transmitted the 
whole of his vasl herbarium to Kew for the purpose. In the meantime 
he had published in hi.- Frai/nx afa and elsewhere a large number of 
the novelties in his collections. Seldom a mail arrived without bringing 

1S.37 Mueller i-L appointed Dim-tor of'tiie Meil. l .un'ie I >,otamc Garden, 
a post which he held until 1873, when he was superseded in consequence 
of not meeting popular demands as to the decoration of the garden. 
This was a source of great grief to him; yet there is no doubt there 
was some justification for the step, because in spite of his immense 

than he could cany into effect, as is exemplified by the fact that nobody 

Australia ami Kew. 
are under great obli< 
trees, especially Eua 

alth, of Dr. Tri 

his last letter to Kew, dated August .'lib h. 
lying on his back, after ten davs" bed, having quite t 
~ "1 he wrote ch " ' 
of the Flora of Ceyloi 
do hope 1 shall be al)le to fini-di it, but there is nine 
i. and struggled 
but on the loth ult. a telegram was received by his 

Henrv I'rimeu was born in London in 1813, e 
College, and graduated M.B. in the University of Lc 
devoted himself entirely to botany, and was Lectur< 
Mary's Hospital Me. ileal School from 1867 to 18 
years he was an ardent student of British botany ; t 

una arrhiza in England. In 1869 he was appointed 
Senior Assistant in the Botanical Department of the British Museum, a 
post he held until the end of 1879, when he accepted the Directorship of 
the Ceylon Botanic Gardens. Between 1875 and 1880 he was associated 
with Professor R. Bentley in the publication of their well-known 
Medicinal Plants ; and he was editor of the Journal of Botany, founded 
by Dr. B. Seemann, from 1872 to 1879, a task he performed "with great 

tact an. I judgment, besides being a consid.-nthi 'ifri'.iitor to its pages. 

.1 finished character, the 

\ work no 
from which Dr. Trimen suffered during the 1 
his life, but there is no longer any reason for retiej 
deafness, and total paralysis of the legs, both of gradui 

liana were drawn from 
Alora.sia, native of the Philippine 
Islands, has, like other species of the genu3, large, ornamental foliage. 
It was imported I>y M'^-rs Sander, of St. Albans, and a pi 
presented by them to Kew. L'Uhyrus undulatus (better known in g 
as L. Sibthorpii), from the shores of the Dardanelles, is closeb 

tnorpii), irom tne snores 
tifolius and L. lalifolius. The Fri 
nd bulbs were presented to Kew by Mr. 
wntiana was raised from seeds re< 
! Forest Department, Punjab. 

bis ■ : 

Botanical Survey of India. — An interesting Report of the progress of 
the survey has been issued by Dr. King, C.I.K., F U.S., the Director. 
The most important portion relates to the survey of Northern India. 
The following is Dr. King's summary of the results : — 

The report for the year was submitted by Mr. J. F. Duthie. He did 
not himself undertake any exploratory tour during the year; but useful 
collecting work was d<me in Waziristan by means of native collectors. 
Part of Mr. Duthie's time was occupied" in examining and naming 
various collections sent from Chitral by officers belonging to the field 
force, one of which in particular, sent by General Gatacre, C.B., con- 
tained plants of special interest; and part was occupied in useful 
herbarium work at Saharunpur ; in visiting the Usar Reserves and the 
public gardens, in Northern India ; and in conducting examinations at 
the Forest School. It was not found possible by Government to permit 
Mr. Dut'h t. . np.» \ , • Pans D ' it .on Commission, acd the 

work of botanical collection was accordingly delegated to Surgeon. 


Captain Alcock, I.M.S., who accompanied the expedition as Surgeon 
Naturalist. Dr. Alcock brought back a most interesting collection, 
which is now being worked up by Mr. Duthie. The result will be 
published, I understand, in a volume on the Natural History of the 
Pamir Boundary Commission, which it is intended to issue. 

Castilloa elastica in Trinidad. — Mr. ,1 . 1 1 . H:i > t. F. L.S., Superintendent 
of the Botanic Gardens at Trinidad, writes : — " We have raised and sold 
some 10,000 Castilloa this year, and we have a plantation in Tobago, 
and one here ready for bleeding." 

Minor Industries in Bermuda. — In the Report for 1895, on the 
Colony of Bermuda [Colonial Reports, Annual, 1896, No. 166], the 
iv given respecting its cultural industries : — 

The principal exports to the United States were onions, valued at 
44,424/., a decrease compared with the preceding year of 990/., and 
compared with 1893 a decrease of 15,446/., lily bulbs, valued at 28,370/.; 
an increase compared with the preceding year of 11,248/., and potato?, 
26,495/., an increase of 7,778/. 

The decrease in value of the onions exported during 1895 was due to 
a fall in price in the New York market, the crop having been much 
larger than that of the preceding year. In the case of potatos the 
increase may be accounted for \>y the larger crop raised, and in the case 
of lily bulbs the increase wf s due partly to better prices and partly to 

Director of Agriculture, Zanzibar. — In the Kew Bulletin for the 

uu prise on the east coast of Africa. As will be seen from 
le following communication an important step has now been taken by 
lie Government of Zanzibar in the appointment of a Director of 

Director of Agriculture, Zanzibar, to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
H. H. The Sultan of Zanzibar's 

Government Offices, Zanzibar, 
Dear Sik, October 1, 1896. 

The Government of Zanzibar have decided to appoint a Director 
of Agriculture, and have selected me for the post. 

Their object in creating the po-t is to improve, who;. 

are of the country is now carried on, 
and to endeavour by experiment to discover some new product that may 
to a certain extent take ihe place of cloves. The (> nentnmnt desire that 
the work so admirably begun by Sir John Kirk when he was Consul 

Mr. Robert Nunez Lyne, obtained a diploma and first class honours in 
the Canterbury Agricultural College, University of New Zealand ; he 
has held the posts of Lecturer on Agriculture and Botany, Wellingore 
Hall Agricultural College (near Lincoln), and Lecturer on Agriculture 
under the Lincolnshire County Council. He is a member of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England. 

Chinese Liquorice. — In reference to the article in the Kew Bulletin 
(1894, pp. 141-146) Dr. Bretschneider draws attention to the par- 
ticulars respecting the Chinese drug published by him in his Botanicon 
Si„irum (Partiii., p. 15) :— 

Liquorice, places of produet ion :—C! lib. Shantung, Shensi, Kansu. 
Newchwang exported in 1885 to other Chines 
exported 4576 piculs, Chefoo exported 8690 

irly Europ. Res. Fl. Chit 

Przeval,k\ I M^./nli,,, T,t„<t»t, tc, Hnql. edition 1. 101 , states that 
the root of <• «• plants of the 

Ordos, is dug up there by the Mongols, hired by the Chinese, who 
despatch the drug down the Huang-ho to supply the Chinese markets, 
plant is recorded by Father David (Franchet, Planter 

It grows i 

Dates grow to great p r . notably 

at Pahraj and Fanoch. The output could be easily doubled by plan ting 
fresh palm groves. 


Date palms begin to yield at three years, and reach their prime at 
30. A good crop for a single tree would be from 80 to 100 lbs. They 
tre fertilised by hand, one male tree supplying pollen for perhaps 40 
female plants. The dates used for export are those that grow at the 

summit of tlic tree From the action of the sun they become hard and 
dry, thus being easily packed. The lower branches remain soft, and 
are kept for local consumption. 

Tulip-tree Wood for Cigar boxes. — The following note appears in 
Garden and Forest, for January 29th, 1896 (p. 50) :— 

" Formerly Cuban and domestic cigar boxes were all made from the 
wood of the Spanish Cedar, a species of West Indian Cedrela, but now 
the demand for boxes to hold cheap domestic cigars is so great in this 
country that other woods, stained to resemble Spanish Cedar, are 
largely used for the purpose. The wood of the Tulip Poplar. Lrrio- 
dendron tulipifera, is considered the best of the North American woods 
for this purpose, although chestnut, butternut, elm, basswood, and 
cottonwood have been tried. Cigar boxes are also now very largely 
made in the United States with veneers of Spanish Cedar cut in 
thicknesses of from eighty to one hundred and twenty sheets to one inch, 
and mounted on cheap American woods like cottonwood or basswood." 

adequate material was received for a description (see K,ir Ihilbtin, 
1«.»k p. 22). Accompanying this Mr. White forwarded the following 
particulars : — 

"A Casalpinin yielding a very line lira/il wood, said by Prof. OlUer 
to be undescribed. The dye from this wood was ascertained by the 
late Daniel Hanbury to be superior to that yielded by the best 

n a^ked to forward specimens of 1 
momie Botany at Kew, and on the a 
i purposes will then be tested. 

New Method of treating the Vanilla Pod.— A communication, dated 
22nd May last, has been received at the Foreign Office from Mr. 
Courtenay Bennett, Her Majesty's Consul at Reunion, inclosing extracts 
from the Independant Creole of Reunion, containing a paper read by 
M. Dolabartz, Manager in Reunion of the Credit Foncier Colonial, at a 
recent meeting of the Reunion Syndicat Agricole upon a new process 
of treating the vanilla pod : — 

According to M. Dolabartz the operation consists of drying the 
vanilla in an hermetically closed vessel by means of chloride of calcium 
in the proportion of about one kilog. for every kilog. of dried vanilla 
obtained. The chloride of calcium is not lost, as it can be easily re- 
generated by heating it in an iron or copper receptacle; one lot of 
chloride of calcium is thus sufficient for several processes if kept, after 

According to information received, 2-981 kilogs. of raw vanilla will 
produce about a kilog. of prepared vanilla. 

It can be easily understood that vanilla dried in an air-tight ves.-el 
must lose rniu-h less vanilline than when dried by the ordinary process, 
by which it is exposed in «i- -■ n air for several weeks. {Board of 




No. 120.] DECEMBER. [1896. 


the information they may contain on any particular subject. 

The opportunity may be taken to puss in reu'ew briefly the more 
important subjects which have been treated. This will have the more 
interest as the period covered has been or.e of more than usual activity 
in the development of our tropical possessions. 

Kew, from its first establishment as a national institution in 1841, 
has always been applied to by men of business desirous of engaging in 
new industries. Response to individual enquiries gradually came to be 
regarded as insufficient, and a demand arose for the prtrmpt publication 
for general used any information likely to be of service to t ho*. . _, . 
in colonial pursuits. With this object the lir*l number of the Hull, tin 

purpose. When public attention is engaged by any pa, ticnlar subject, 
enquiries about it are numerous. To say all there is to be said about if, 
once for all, in the pages of the Bulletin effects a great saving in 
labour. To quote the prel'aton notice to the first number: — 

" It is hoped that while these not. s will .-erve. the purpose of an 

Kew in distant parts of the Empire, they may also be of service to 
members of the general public interested in planting or agricultural 
business in India and the colonies." 

On March IS. 1SS7, the Kn-t t'oinmissiiaier of Her Majesty's Works 
ami Public liuildims (Mr. Plunket) informed the House of Cemmon* : — 
'• In response to the demands for the publication mere speedily than m 

Publication was originally intended to be " cceasional." It has not 
been found practically possible to keep up an ab-olutely n gular 
monthly issue. This, however, has been approached as nearly as 

TIic establishment and development of the institutions known as 
Botanic Stations belongs almost entirely to the period under review 
These stations were first suggested in 1885 to meet the special require- 
ments of the smaller island* in the West Indies (, 1887, June 1-12; 
where "a great wan! was felt for r< the culture of 

new economic plants and plain practical hints as to the best means 
to be employed for rendering them of the greatest value" (p. 7). 
This information was intended to be supplied by a regular system of 
bulletins s;. | iutenance of stations with nurseries 

attached for si; na!s. 'The oflieers in chaigo of' the 

stations were men selected mostly from K>w, with a sound knowledge of 
gardening and capable of showing experimentally the conditions under 
which tropical economic plants might be--t be utilized as objects" of 

The scheme met with the approval of the late Earl of Derby, and has 
1 ' successive Secretaries of State. 

> working have devolved largely on ivew. which has 
been continuously drawn upon for men. plants, advice, and 

The first Botanic Stations were Parted at < irenada and Marlmdos, in 
1886. These were soon foil,, wed by ,imilar stations at St. Lucia ( ISS'.J), 
"Dominicii and other islands in the L-vward ( Jrnup (ls80), St. Vincent 
1 1890). and afterwards at British Honduras (1894). There are now 

The (irenada station was established on a spot just outside the town 

300/., Willi a furtl'iPi- sum of l.fn ()/. towards establishing and'Taying out 
the garden and providing a house for the curator. The objects ot this 
garden were stated as follows : "To introduce and distribute plants of 
great economic value, to supply practical hints respecting new and 

improve existing 

industries" (K.B., 1887, June 12). 

at St. Vincent, established on the site of the old botanic garden that 

existed from 17G5 to 1823, was given with a drawing of the curator's 

house (A./?., 1892, 92). Several references are made to the excellent 

work done at the Botanic Garden at Dominica, which promises to be 

one of the most attractive and useful in the West Indies (KB., 1893, 


Following the example of the West Indies, there have been estab- 
lished five Botanic Stations on the West Coast of Africa. The earliest 
was started at Lagos by Sir Alfred Mobmev in 1888 ; the next at Aburi 
on the Gold Coast, in which Sir W. Brandford Griffith took a deep 
personal interest, in 1890. Since then stations have been established 
both at the Gambia (1894), in the Niger Coast Protectorate (1891), and 
at Sierra Leone (1895). A further station has been established in Fiji 
by the efforts of Sir John Thurston H8S9). The results attained by 

these Botanic Stations have been so promising that a strong wish ] 

One of the most interesting devel il enterprise in 

recent years has been the increasing trade in fruit. Jamaica led the way, 
largely owing to the encouragement of the late Sir Anthony Sfuagfave, 
by supplying the United States with bananas and oranges that hitherto 
had had no local commercial value. I he Jamaica fruit trade is now of the 
annual value of more the i a consider- 

able number of vessels wholh engaged in it. The trade in"i'i it between 
the Southern Colonies of the Old Woi •< I and tin- 

mother country, is another instance of commercial activity in a new 
T ' ' ! notyet ten years old, but the value of the fruit annually 

.1 , i , . 

iuggestion of Kew, and led to the excellent display of 
fruit made at the Colon ia 

unities of the Australian Colonies and the Cape to 
ship fresh fru _ inter months that eoiisidornl 1. 

effort was made to establish what is now regarded as an important trade. 

In the Bulletin for the years 1887 and 1888 will be found a summary 
of information not accessible in any other form in regard to the capabili- 
ties of various parts of the Empire for the production of fruit. This was 
brought together through the aid of reports obtained by the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, and is still the most authoritative source of 
information on the subject. The efforts now being made to ship various 
tropical fruits from the West Indies direct to this e< ui ny - an«.thei 
diiTcfioi in which groat results may ultimately be attained. The 
p..pu!a t or the cnnsrn/i] ion i 1 i i is increasing It has been 

shown that many such fruits can be brought to the home country in a 
fresh condition and find a ready market. 

Information is also given respecting certain kinds that have been 
introduced with tho aid of Kew from the West to the East Indies 
{K.B., 1887, August, 1). Among these the Tree Tomato, the Chocho, 
and the Cherimoyer have proved useful additions to the food supply 
of hii! Btt si ' •: varieties 

of bananas and mangoes, the Dorian and the Mangosteen have been 
trantfi nred from the East to the West Indies. 

Decades Kewenses. 
Under the title of " Decades Kewenses " descriptions of plants new to 
science have reached the thirtieth decade. These are based on 
specimens contributed from every region on the earth's surface from the 
extreme heights of Tibet to the shores of the remotest islet in the 
Pacific Ocean. Further, owing to the increased impulse to exploration 
and commercial enterprise in Tropical Africa, it was thought desirable 
to publish at once, but in a separate series, brief diagnoses of new 
species. This has been done in the "Diagnoses Africanse" (1894 to 


appear under numerous headings as the Flora of the Solomon Islands 
(K.B., 1894,211; 1895, 132, 159); ofAldabra Islands (K.B., 1894, 
146) ; of Formosa (K.B., 1896, 65) ; of St. Vincent and adjacent 
islets (K.B., 1893, 231) ; of the Gambia Delimitation Commission (K.B., 
1891, 268; 1892, 45) ; of the Sikkim-Tibct frontier (1893, 297) ; of 
Tibet (A'./>\, 1S94, 136); of the Hadramaut Ivxn .-.liiion ( A'./,'., Is9 I, 32>: 
1895,315) ; Siam plants (K.B., 1895, 38). Amongst investigations of 
the economic products of various regions arc articles on the Agricultural 
Industries of the Gambia (K.B., 18S9, 212) ; Economic plants of 
Madagascar (K.B., 1890, 200); Agricultural resources of Zanzibar 
(K.B., 1892, 87) ; Economic plants of Sierra Leone ( K.IL, 1*93. 1(57) ; 
and Plant industries of Lagos (KB., 1893, 180). 

The cultivation of orchids is one of the most prominent features of 
English horticulture. Every part of the world is ransacked for them 
by collectors. Of no family of plants have more species been got 
together in a living state, and in no country are a greater number 
maintained under cultural conditions iliau in England. During his 
lifetime, the late Dr. Keichenbach, Professor of Botany at Hamburg, 
was the acknowledged authority for their nomenclature. On hia death 
iu 1S*9 vigorous public pressure was brought to bear on Kew to take up 
his work. This was done, though not without difficulty, in addition to 
its other duties, and in 1891 the publication of technical descriptions of 
new species was commenced. Twenty decades of" new orchids " have 
been published in the Bulletin. 

Of horticultural interest a list enumerating 766 species ami varieties 
of orchids that flowered at Kew during the year 1890 has been 
published (K.B., 1891, 52), affording useful information as to the 

in May; the lowest was So in danuarv. Some species, as for instance 
Cypripediiim louqlfniunt), Musfhraliia p:>lcinaris t and Odontoglossinn 

The cultivation of tropical and sub-tropical plants on the Eiviera 
was described (K.B., 18*9, 287), with notes on the principal palms, 
cycads, bamboos, agaves, and other succulent plants. To this was added 
a list of some of the most interesting other species established on ihe 
Riviera, revising in many cases the names under which they had hitherto 
been recognised. A further contribution was made to this subject 
by a paper written by Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., on the agaves and 
arborescent liliaeia- on the Riviera ( A" .11., IS92, I). As fiw botanists 
have attended much to these plants it has been very difficult for 
cultivators to obtain names for their collections. A correct determination 
cf cultivated Riviera plants is also of value to Kew, as it assists in the 
interchange or purchase of new and desirable specimens required for 

important paper on horticulture and arboriculture ii: 

i the Unittc 

, prepared by the curator. Mr. <i. Nicholson, A.L.S.. 

, whilst on a 

is a judge in horticulture at the Columbian Expositio 

n at Chieag* 

, 1894, 37), has rendered it possible to obtain a m< 

>rc complete 

las brought before horticulturists 
i that had not hitherto received 
they deserved. Nearer home, a paper on Horticulture in 
Cornwall (K.B., 1893. ,':55), affords a fairly representative picture of 

of the climate, types of the vegetation of New Zealand' and the Himalaya 
do better even t'l n u: . Ji- tK v Fiie " i iltivii on of vegetables 
for market v " ami the possibilities of market gardening in Oroat\lhitain 
{K.B., 1895, 307) discusses an important economic problem. 

Among other horticultural subjects dealt with are the storing of 
home-grown fruit {K.B., 1895, 31, \vi* : ii! room), 

and a detailed account of the prime industry in France and C 

Plant Diseases. 
The diseases of cultivated plants is a subject on which the aid of 

Secretary of State iW the Colonies. The investigation of fungoid 
di'-ea-'es often demands considerable time and attention on the part 
of members of the Kew staff, while those caused by insects render it 
necessary to secure the assistance of specially qualified experts to whose 

i s\ this establishment is greatly indebted. The several diseases 

that hale affected the Migar-oano hi "the West Indies. Queensland, and 
Mauritius have heen deserihed in a s. lies of important article- extending 
over several years (1890-96) whilst diseases such as those affecting 

Honduras, coffee in East Africa, onions in Bermuda, wheat in 
Cyprus, pepper in Mysore, potatos in India, vanilla in the Seychelles, 

have al-o been ear; fully dealt with. Of considerable practical value are 
articles on the preservation of grain from weevils (A'./>\, lspo.l ■ i ), and 
on the well-known plant ntahu'v called u anhurv " and ••linger and toe." 
which attacks turnips (A.//.. 1895, 1129). It' is shown that free add 
present in the soil is favourable to the disease, while a free alkali is 

The large and increasiu 
, desirable to place wit hi 

identified, from specimens communicated by the Foreign Office, as 
the root of a species of /'.. ' :ted dv» i the highland-- 

of Mexico. The plants yielding the tihre called i-tie. used, not for rope 
making, but as a substitute for animal bristles in the manufaetuie of 
cheap nail and scrubbing brushes, were found to belong to a group 


of Agaves wilb short leaves, of which Agave heteracantha, Zacc, is the 
type. The first information respecting African hass, a fibre obtained 
from Jtaphia vinifcra, was published in the Kern Bulletin (K.B., 
1891, p. 1). This is now a regular article of export from our African 
Colonies; and the same thing 1 ;; > 1., said of {lie bass fibre obtained from 
the Palmyra palm in Ceylon (K.B., 1892, 146), and of Madagascar 
Piassava yielded by a new species of Dirtgosprrma i K. />., 1891, 35S). 
A continuous account of the 1mm , . j . industry in Yucatan, arid of the similar 
industry lately started in the Bahamas, is given over the whole period. 
The origin of the white-rope fibres which appeared in commerce as 
Bombay aloe fibre, and as Manila aloe fibre, have been traced to Agave 
vivipara, a New World species now naturalised and fairly abundant 
in many parts of the East Indies (K.B., 1893, 78). 

The recent attempts to extract and to utilise the valuable fibres 
contained in the China grass ( Hot hint ria nivea), and Eamie or Rhea (B. 
((■ii.aris.sima), have been placed on record in a series of articles which have 
been of considerable service to manufacturers in this country rnd also 
to our planting Colonies. The habitsand requirements of the plants and 
the conditions necessary for their successful cultivation have been 

Rubber Plants. 
The investigation of rubber-yielding plants has resulted in 
attention not only to new sources of supply, but in increai 
quantity available for commercial purposes. The remarkabh 
industry started in the Colony of Lagos in 1889 is described (K.l 
p. 241), and a figure is given of the plant, which hitherto had ; 

$ of commercial rubber. The Lagos rubber industry iu 
8 developed into an export value of nearly 40O,0OOA A somewhat 
: industry had been started on the Gold < oast by the efforts of Sir 
Alfred Moloney, with exports in 1 893 of the value of 2 IH, 1 62/. Practically 
all the more important sources of commercial rubber an- reviewed, while 
particulars respecting new rubber plants such as I'or.sferohia gracilis in 
British Guiana, F.jhrihi>i,<l,: iu Jamaica, and Sapium glaiidiilosiim in 
the United States of Columbia are also given. It may be added that 
information is desired by this establishment respecting the plants 
yielding the Esmeralda rubber of Guiana (K.B., 1892, 70) and that 
"exported from Matto-grosso in Brazil. There is a doubt as to the dis- 
tinction, if :my, existing between caoutchoucs yielded respectively by 
the Uie and Tuno trees of Central America. One of these M usually 
referred to Castilloa elastica, but botanical specimens are necessary 
of each tree to definitely decide the point. 

Special Articles. 
These include the results of investigations made at Kew into plants 
yield in «_«• Paraguay tea, or mate, so largely consumed as a beverage in 
South America (A'./;.. 1*72, 132): vanilla-yielding plants cultivated 
in tropical countries ( A'.//., 189."), Kill) : the phmts vi. Iding Sisal hemp, 
(K.B., 1892, 21) ; the timber of the Straits Settlements (A'.7A, 1890, 
112); the species and varieties of Musa cultivated lor food or ornament 
(A.//., 1894, 229); tropical fodder grasses (K.B, 1894, 373; 1896, 
115) ; Chinese white wax (K.B., 1893, 84) ; the arrowroot industry of 
St. Vincent (KB., 1893, 191); tuberous Labiatae (K.H., 1894, 10); 
Canary rosewoods (K.B., 1893, 133) ; American ginseng {K.B., 1893, 


71); palm weevil in British Honduras (K.B., 1893,27); and sheep 
bushes and salt bushes (K.B., 1896, 129). In addition several articles 
have appeared describing the various forms in which tea is met with in 
amerce. P u-erh tea is made into balls as big as 
a man's head, or into cakes; compressed or tablet tea is manufactured 
from tea dust by steam i :er form known as brick 

tea is used in Chinese Mongolia and Tibet. Lao tea is not used for 
making nn infusion, hit prepared wholly for chewing purposes. A 
pickled lea, called Lepps-!! tea, is eaten as a preserve wiili other articles. 
The white tea of Persia has been shown to consist of the undeveloped leaf- 
buds of China tea thickly coated with fine hairs giving them a silvery 
appearance. A singular beverage known as Faham tea is prepared in 
cum fragrant) ( K.B., 
1892, 181). This is described as agreeable and used as a digestive; it 
is even recommended in diseases of ike respiratory organs. The leaves 
themselves mixed with ordinary tea impart to them an extremely 

The discovery 'of seedling sugar-canes at Barbados (K.B., 1889, 242) 
has rendered it practicable to raise new serviceable varieties, and probably 
to improve tl datKewhas 

; - • . ■ . 

under the name of "Kewensis" (A'./A. HP6. li,7). The "pnoihility of 
preparing a palatable butter from the oil of the cocoa-nut (K.J J., 1S90, 
2.30). is an instance of the advance made in the chemistry of familiar 
vegetable products. Canaigre (K.B., IsOO, (5.3) will probably prove a 
most valuable tanning agent, while the preparation of cutch from Hie 
bark of mangrove trees (K.B., 1892, 227) may bring into profitable use 
stretches of v n regarded ns 

perfectly useless. Amours I new economic plant;; should be mentioned 
Cojlhi 'stenophylla, the highland coffee of Sierra Leone (K.B., 1896, 
\>[<) which in certain localities may prove a formidable rival of the 
Arabian coffee. 

The publication of a note on Jarrah timber (K.B., 1890, 188) has led 
to the extended use of this and similar Australian hard woods for the 
purpose of ps ys of London streets instead of the 

cheaper but less durable white pine. The collections of Australian 
timbers in Mu-.-um 1 I I. were of special service in this direction. 

A paper on Natural Sugar in Tobacco ( K.B., 1896, 49-55) recorded 
some scientific facts of great novelty and interest, and solved an important 
fiscal problem. 

Many little-known drugs have been investigated. The seeds of 
Sophora 8€t R&fl of Mexico, 

where they are taken as an intoxicant. Haifa seed is said to produce 
exhilaration followed by sleep lasting two or three dav3 (K.B., 1892, 

Derris clliptm!, iv,w ■ K ew, yields 

the Malayan lish poison known as '• Aker Tuba " (K.B., 1892,216). 
From the account given of Natal Aloes and of the plants supposed to 
yield this product (K.B., 1890, 163) it appears that it differs in some 
important respects from the more commonly known Cape Aloes. The 
discovery of the plant, also in the Kew collection, yielding the true Star 
Anise of commerce is noticed (K.B., 1888, 173). The manufacture of 
quinine in India and the wide di.-trihutioii at a nominal price of this 
valuable medicinal agent amongst the natives (K.B., 1890, 29) is one 


of t!i" most i 1 i i - s iriiuit services winch Fv.iropan rule ha- rendered t</ 
the Indian Empire. Paraguay daborandi ( /'i/ocrrr/ins) is discussed 
(K.B., 1891, 179) from materials sent to this country by H.M.'s- 
charge d'affaires at Buenos Ay res in 1SS1. The oriirin of invrrh and 
frankincense is discussed in considerable detail (K.B.^1896, 86), while 
the first authenii • informath n resj oeting the district win nee Siam Benzoin 
or Gum Beniamin of commerce is obtained is the subject of another 
article (K.B., 1895, 154V Next to Gum Benjamin Siam Gamboge is 
the most interesting of Siamese products {K.B., 1895, 139). The 
peculiar Ai Camphor prepared in China from a shrubby composite, a 
species of Jilitnwa, is (|. - ;.>I1 supplie,! 

by Dr. Augustine Henry (KB., 1895, 275). The plants yielding the 
leaves known as coca, and the drug cocaine, with their characteristics, 
are discussed (K.B., 1889, 1), with a suggestion that a plant long 
cultivated at Ke\v I I'.njtlnt.' /?c;t ('ore, var. nt-vo if.-uvttvnsr) might h- 
suited for cultivation at a lower elevation than the type. The little- 
known Iboga root of the Gaboon and Bocca of the Congo, possessing 
tonic properties, is traced to Tclcnuinthe four/,,, Paid. (K.B.. 1895,37; - 
the tree yielding the Ipoh poison of the Malav peniiHula is idcntilicd 
wkh iluu ybddmg the {'j^ poison of Java (A./>\, 1891, 2 1), but the 

e Food Grains of India by Professor 
to 1893), supplements the information 
book on the same subject. The material 
pplied from the Museums of the Boyal 

recorded appointments on the Ke\v staff as well a* t 
recommendation of Kew by the respective Secre 
Colonial and Indian Potanioal (hardens. The not 
record of contributions made to the gardens, herbai 

tion, notices of Kew publications, and facts of interest 
dailv work of the establishment. Later there were 

The Appendices remain to be noticed. Of these throe have been 
cgidarly issued at the end of each volume since 1891. Previously the 
nformation contained in them had appeared as one of the monthly 
lumbers of the Bulletin. (1) Lists of seeds of hardy herbaceous 
.nd of trees and shruhs elii-re I in exchang. by Kew to Colonial, Indian, 
nd Foreign Botanical Gardens ; (2) Lists of new garden plants annually 
lescribed in botanical and horticultural publications. These are 

iud; ;pt nsabl • 1 > the maintenance of a correct nomenclatun in the sin diet 
i'« .tunica! establishment? in correspondence with Bow. ami a fib id informa- 
tion respecting new plants distributed from this establishment in regular 
rdens; (5) Lists of the staffs 

India and the Co HCM with Kew. 

Appendix III., 1890, will he found a complete index to the Reports 

Progress and Condition of the Royal Gardens, Kew, from 1862 
12. This index is useful as a means of easy reference to the 

ons notices respecting economic and other plants. 

In SJ vaiied a rang. 1 of subject-- so 
considerable, doubtless exists. A 
research have shown to he probably < 

The case of poisoning from Turn-ole (( /,v.:< jtlmrti tinctoriu) 
described in AT../A, 1889, 279-280, was in all probability not due to that 

A". />'., 1S91, '), w;:s attributed to Alpinia Galanga, ultimately appeared 
to be, as pointed out in A/A. 1*92, 16, (he ordinary commercial plant. 
Zingiber officinale Some mistake had been made apparently in tie- 
plants transmitted to Key.- - i ;il product. 

The Injure of a Mt/sn given in KB., 1894, 247, as Mu.m Fehi may 
be identical v,ith species. I'.ut all that is certain about it is that 
it represents 31. Secmanni of Baron von Mueller. 


Botanical Magazine for November.— The following plants, all 
cultivated at Kew. are figured: Ci/cnorhcs Ifaagii, Rhododendron. 
, ,-pg 'l m ]', tl !'„ i a: ii f-ns, li • u phi <>/ lla nd 

r, t\i 'ii The O/ i.r/'o is tho In th sp< ( s to v/hie! 
n p ].,t,. of the '• Ih.ti.nieal Magazine " has been rr]veu. It is a native of 
Brazil, and was communicated to Kew by E. S. Rand. Esq., of Para. 
The Jt/.-ndndendr: ,<, native of Japan, is ;i very small-flowered specie-. 
closely allied to It. iudirttm xsw. amtennn. The plant fioni which 
the drnwiii"- was made was purchased in IMK5. The Calilorm. u 
f >t nt>t, ,.->.' ( n,,r<f 6 was raised from seeds sent to Kew in 1895 by 
Professor Coodale. director of the Botanic Garden of Harvard 
Iniversitv. The flatcorthia, B new species from Cape Colony, 
flowered for the first time at Kew in April of this vear. It was 
received fn m Mr. C. Howlett, of Citenhage. The Aatniholimmi has 
been growing in the Book Gaiden for several years. It is n native 
of Asia Minor. The onl; other species cultivated in England, A. 
qhnnaci inn, is in -Mo >re and Ayie>" "Magazine of Botany," 
Vol. II., p. lbl. a fact overlooked in the " Botanical Magazine." 

Completion of the Flora of British India.— With the exception of 
a general index, now almost ready Lor the pi-ess, this great work has been 
brought to a conclusion by the issue of the 22nd part, containing the 
remainder cf the grasses. Sir Joseph Hooker will receive the con- 
gratulations of all botanists on the completion of a task to which he has 
devoted the greater part of the last quarter of a century, to say nothing 
of previous years of travel and preliminary labour. It would not be too 
much to say that it has occupied the best part of 50 years of his life, as 
he left England for India in 1847. The entire work will consist of 
seven octavo volumes, averaging 775 pages each, including the general 
index of about 42,000 names. The grasses alone number 850 species, 
belonging to 150 genera, and, as has been mentioned before, the 
flynonymy is perhaps more copious and involved than that of any other 
family. Owing to the wide distribution of most of the genera, and many 
of the species of grasses, the volume treating of them has a general as 
well as a special value. 

Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta.— The second part 
of the fifth and the entire seventh volume have just been issued 
simultaneously. The former consists of descriptions and figures of " a 
century of new and rare Indian plants" by P. Briihl, of the Bengal 
Educational Service, and Dr. G-. King, superintendent of the Calcutta 
garden. Mr. Briihl is favourably known to botanists by his De 
/if/ntmri'lari . ;md his part in the present work 

consists wholly of Banuncnlacea ; not new species, it is true, but a 
rery careful elaboration of the critical forms of old species. Coptis 
ntpr/orarjm is the onlv one described as new. Twenty-seven plates are 
devoted to this part. Dr. King's con- ' ing novelties 

described in his Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula, and 
belonging to the orders Vwlacea, Bixinea>, Guttifera*, Dipteroearpea, 
and Artocarpere, &c. 

The seventh volume of the Annals is a fully illustrated monograph 
of the Btmbusea of British India, by J. S. Gamble, Conservator of 
Forests. Mr. Gamble has been working at Indian bamboos for some 
years, and his monograph is an immense advance on previous knowledge 
of this important group. The account of the Bambiuetn in Hooker's 
Flora of British India was " drawn up almost verbatim " from it. 
One hundred and fifteen species are described (increased to 1 17 in the 
Flora of British India), belonging to 15 genera, including one new one. 
Only a few species of bamboos flower annually, and in most species the 
flowering seasons come only at long intervals. Mr. Gamble gives all 
the information it was possible to procure on this and other points, but 
add- that there is much yet to be learnt. 

Errata in the Present Volume. 

Page 28, line 23 from top, for 13,588 read 83,588. 

line 6 from bottom. By an oversight the contents of the 
Botanical Magazine for December refer to the issue of that 
month for 1895 and not to 1896. 
Page 31, line 17 from top, for Cheradzulu read Chiradzulu. 
line 20 from top, for genius read genus, 
line 2 from bottom, for mcuse read mense. 
Page 32, line 7 from top, for Basse read Bosse. 
Page 159, line 16 from top, for tenuisculia read tenuiusculis. 
Page 161, line 35 from top, for hilocularis read bilocularibus. 
Page 163, line 19 from top, for abio read labio. 
Page 161, line 18 from top, for tuberis fusiformibus read tubera 

Page 165, line 19 from the top, for scansdens read scandens. 
Page 167, line 10 from top, for communi read communes. 
Page 213, line 11 from bottom, for abium read labium and for 

inferiorem read inferius. 
Pago 216, line 6 from top, for crenulato read crenulatis. 


Abbott, Dr. W. L., Aldabra 
Islands dried plants, 1894, 146. 

Abraham's Oak, 1893, 226. 

Abrus precatorius, 1890, 1. 

Abutilon Avicennae, 1891, 250; 
1896, 74. 

— hemp in China, 1S91, 250. 
, 1896, 74. 

— molle, Baker, 1895,212. 

~ Ranadei, JFoodroiv # Slapf, 

1894, 99. 
Acacia acuminata, 1887, Sept., 7. 

— Angico, 1888, 129. 

— Catechu, 1887, Sept., 20; 1891, 
31 ; 1894, 323. 

— decurrens, 18^7, Sept., 6. 

— melanoxylon, 1889, 115. 

— pycnantha, 1893, 370. 

— saligna, 1893,370. 

— spadicigera, 1895, 40. 
Acacias in Natal, 1895, 2. 
A.-aiithorhiza aculeata, 1892, 310. 
Aoanthosicyos horrida, 1894, 166. 
Acer saccharinum, 1895, 127. 
Achilus, Hcmsl., gen. nov., 1895, 

— 'siamensis, Ilemsl., 1895, 39, 

Achvi-i^pcruium urens, Baker, 
1893, 14. 

■ : ' • 

HiireMreanuin. //"/'</•, 1 s 9,<>, 4-- 
Actinidi:ip<>Iv^mr>, 1S96, 220. 
Aden barilla, 1891,96. 

Adenium micranthum, Stapf, 
1894, 334. 

Ad«,ui^ amur,i;si>, 1896,186. 

iEchmea (Hohenbergia) micro- 
thvrsa, Baker, 1892, 198. 

— (i'latv.'i ; dim>-a) Nichollsii, Ba- 
ker, 1892, 128. 

atychilum, Rolfe, 1893, 

ArTon tree, 1894, 359. 

Africa, Brit. Central, botanical 
enterprise in, 1895, 186. 

_ , coffee-leaf disease, pre- 
ventive measures, 1893, 361. 

— , East, botanical enterprise in. 
1896, 80. . 

— , German East, 1894, 411 ; 1896, 

— , , coffee-leaf disease in. 

-, ferns of, 1893, 69. 
-, Phylloxera, 1889, i 
-, . — regulations, 188 
-, prickly pear, 188 

410, 1*96, 
-,West, Am 

1*92. 303. 

. Botanic Stations, l^Sf- 

, I !9 


69; 1890, 



10. 1 

09; 1892, 14, 297 


160, 363 ; IS 

inchona liark 




otton, 1890, 

135 j 


l: .^ 

ultural indui 


1 12; 

1890, 195, 



109; 1895, 165. 

, fruits, 1888, 221. 

, indi-o plants, 1888,74,268. 

t mahogany, 1890, 168; 

1894, 8 ; 1895, 79. 

, Rafia, 1895, 88, 287. 

, rubbers, 1888, 253 ; 1889, 

63; 1890,89; 1802,68,70. 

African Holarrhenas, 1896, 47. 

Agricultural industries at the 

— Lakes Company, list of econo- 

Gambia, 1889, 142; 1S;»0, 261; 

mic plants from Kew, 1 sir?, 84. 

1892, 109. 

— natives, training of, 1892, 75; 

in the Bahamas, 1891, 175. 

1893, 365. 

— resources of Zanzibar, 1892, 87. 

— oil palm, 1891, 190 ; 1892, 62, 

Agriculture in British Honduras, 

(with figs.) 200 ; 1893, 168. 

1894:, 97; 1895,9. 

Jamaica, 1894, 159. 

-in Labuan, 1889, 259. 

Zanzibar, Director of, 1896, 

South Australia, 1895, 



— , tropical, text-book of, 1893, 

Afzelia cuanzensis, 1892, 60. 

— pulembuniea, 1887, Sept., 15. 
Agaricus august us, 189-1, 399. 
Agathosma virgata, 1887, Sept., 9. 
Agave amcricana, fibre from, 1887, 

Mar., 3; 1892,37. 

— ( Kuai.;;!vc) deeipiens, linker, 
1892, 183, 184; 1893, 207. 

— heteracantha, 1887, Dec, 5; 
1890, 220. 

— laxifolia, 1896, 149. 

— Morrisii, 1891, 133. 

— ri-ida, and vars., 1887, Mar., 
3; 1892, 21, 35. 

, var. elongata, 1892, 23, 34, 

273; 1893, 212,316. 
, var. sisalana, 1»87, Mar.. 

3; 1892, 21 ; 1893,206, 315. 
in Bahamas. 18S9, 57, 

254; 1890, 158; 1891, 175; 

1892, 27, 141, 189 ; 1894, 189, 

1892, 33. 

Fiji, 1892, 37. 

Florida, 1S92, 25. 

Jamaica, 1892, 32. 

Trinidad. 1S92, 34. 

Turks and Caicos 

Islands, 1890, 273; 1892, 31, 
217; 1893,227; 1896, 119. 

1892, 34. 
Yucatan, 1892, 22, 

— "vivipara, 1890, 50; 1892, 36, 

283; 1893, 78. 
Agaves and arborescent Liiiacia- 

on the Riviera, 1892, I. 
--on the Riviera, 1889, 300. 
— , poling in, 1893, 315. 
Agiaonema angustifolia, A'. E. 

Brown, 1895, 18. 
Agra, Taj gardens. 1892, 293. 
Agricultural education in Jamaica. 

1892, 286. 
Ai ,-.-.niphor, 1895,275; 1896,73. 

, w. 

, 1891. 

1>96, i 

Akee, 1892, 1 

AkerTuba, 1892,216. 

Alafia caudata, Strip/, 1894, 123. 

— cuneata, Stapf, 1894, 122. 

— sarmentosa, Stapf, 1894. 123. 
Albuca (Falconera) kumilis, 

Baker, 1895, 153. 
Aldabra Islands, 1893, 152. 

., flora of, 1894, 146. 

Alder, white, 1887, Sept., 1 1. 
Alepidca sdit'era, X. E. llroini, 

1896, 161. 

Aleuroik's cvois, is<)3, 44,58. 

ii.alv-tMig at, 1890, 

94; 1891,48. 
Allium (Rhiziridium) Henryi, 

Wright, 1895, 119. 
Allouya tubers, 1892, 214. 
Alocasia aiquiloba, X. /'. Brown, 

1895, 119. 

— Curtisi, X r . E. Brown, 1891, 347. 

— macrorhiza, 1896, 71. 

— re versa, 1896, 220. 

Aloe abyssinica, var. laxiflora, 1893, 

— africana, 1890, 164. 

— anrantiaea. 1892. 2 i 7. 

— (Fualne) Boylei, /laker, 1892, 

— Buchanani, linker, 1895, 119. 

— eoneinna, linker, 1895, loii. 

— ferox, 1890, 164, 166. 

— Bombay, 1890.50; 1892, 
36, 283. 

■ Luntii, Baker, 


Aloe (Eualoe) minima, Baker, 
1895, 153. 

— Perryi, 1890, 165. 

— purpurascens, 1890, 164. 

— succotrina, 1890, 164. 
Aloes, Natal, 1890, 163. 

— on the Kiviera, 1 892, 9. 
Alpine plants, Australian, 1893, 


, distribution of, 1896, 151. 

Alpinia Galanga, 1891,5; 1892, 16. 

— officinarum, 1891,6. 
Amelanchier alnifolia, 1 887, Nov., 

American Ginseng( with fig.), 1893, 

— Palm Weevil (with plate), 1893, 

Amomum (Achasma) Ririleyi, 

Baker, 1892, 128. 
AmorpbophallusPrninii, 1895, 141. 

— sp. in Formosa, 1896, 71. • 
Anabcena Flos-aqua?, 1894, 399. 

— Hassalli, 1894, 399. 
Ananas sativus, 1887, April, 8. 
Anbury (with fig.), 1895, 129. 
Andaman marble wood, 1887,Sept., 

Andre, E., South American Brome- 

liaceee, 1892, 49. 
Andropogon caricosus, 1896, 116. 

— pertusus, 1895, 209; 1896, 115. 
Anonnck-ktus Curtisii, Stapf, 

1892, 196.! 
Angio, 1888, 129. 
Angola, coffee cultivation in, 1894, 

Angrrecum bistortum, fiolfe, 1893, 


— fragrans, 1892, 181. 

— SmithiK h\,l t V. 1895, 37. 

— stylosum, Rolfe, 1895, 194. 
Anguilla, report of Mr. Morris's 

visit, 1891, 129. 
Anibaperutilis, /?<?»«/., 1894, 7,197. 
Anise, star, 1888, 173. 
Ani«npus, X. E. Brown, gen. nov., 

1895, 259. 

— Mannii, N. E. Brown, 1895, 

Anisotoma pedunculata, N. E. 

Brown, 1895, 110. 
Annals of the Royal Botanic 

Garden, Calcutta, 1894, 195; 

Annatto, 1887, July, 1 ; Sept., 1 ; 

Annatto at Lagos, 1890, 162. 
Anonacese, dried specimens of, from 

Dr. King, 1892, 248. 
Anona Cherimolia, 1887, Aug., 15. 
— senegalensis, 1893, 371. 
Ant, parasol, 1893 (with plate), 

50, 124. 
Anthi.-tiria a \A a -. 1894, 377. 


Anthocleista insignia 
1895, 150, 158. 

— Kalbreyeri, Baker, 1895, 99. 

— laxiflora, Baker, 1895, 99. 

— parviflora, Baker, 1895, 99. 

— zambesiaca, Baker, 1895, 99. 
Anthomyia ceparum, 1887, Oct., 

Anthospermum bundle, N. E. 
Brown, 1895, 145. 

Ai>t!iraeno>o in vines, 1893, 228. 
Anthurium Gustavi, 1895, 299. 
Antiarin, 1891,25. 
Antiavis innoxia, 1891, 26. 

— toxicaria, 1891, 25, 259. 
Antidesma dallachyanum, 1895, 

Antigua Botanic Station, 1MU. 

— , date cultivation in, 1896, 26. 
— , economic resources of, 1887, 

— , report of Mr. Morris's visit, 

1891, 111. 
Aphloia myrtifiora, Galpin, 1895, 

Apples, dried, zinc in, 1895, 239. 
—, cider, 1895, 306. 
Apricots from India, 1887, Sept., 

Arabia, South, dried plants, 1895, 

158, 180, 315. 
Arabian objects for Kew Museum, 

1895, 302. 

quinquefolia (with fig.), 



— wood, 1893,225. 

Arl.ori'ium, Hand-list of trees and 

shrubs grown in, 1895, 40. 
Arboriculture in the United States, 

1894, 37. 
Ardisia megaphylla, Ilemsl., 1894, 

Hemsl., 1896, 

— vestita, Baker, 1895,212. 
Arenga Engleri, 1895, 19. 

in Formosa, 1896, 71. 

Argel leaves, 1891, 177. 
Argostenn-ia concinnum, Hemsl. 

1895, 105. 
Argyle, Duke of, 1891, 292. 
Arg'vreia ? Grantii, Baker, 1894,67, 

— ? Hanningtoni, Baker, 1894,67, 

— Plaxiflora, Baker, 189-1,67. 

— ? mnerocalvx, Baker, 1894,67. 

A>e!opia* integra. X. E. Brown, 
1895, 219. 

— Phillipsiie, .V. E. Broicn. 1S!»;», 

— propinqua, X. E. Broicn, ' 

— pygmaea, X. E. Brown, 1895, 

— Schweinfurthii, X. E. Brown, 
1895, 253. 

— spcctabilis, X. E. Brown, 1895 

— tenuifolia, X. E. Brown, 1895, 

Ash, Cape, 1887, Sept., 11. 
Ashmore, A.M., report on Gold 
Coast Botanic Station, 1*95, 12. 
A:-ia Minor, bulbs from, 1893, 

. - 

Arracacia esculenta, 1887, Aug., 

10; Sept., 16. 
Arrowroot, 1893, 191, 331, 360. 

Queensland, 1893, 331. 

St. Vincent. 1K<>3. 191, 360. 

South Australia, 1895, 100. 

— . South Sea, 1892, 51. 
— , Tacca, 1892, 51. 
Artabotrys odoratissima, 1887, 
Sept., 16. 

' ■ Afra, 1887, Sept., 9. 



1896, 23. 
Arthrosolen spha 

Baker, 1894,341. 
Artlmwtvlidium Pnstoei. Mioiro, 
1895, 186. 

• offee beans, 1891, 201. 
Artocarpus Blumei, 1894, 109. 
— elastic:,, 1894,109. 

ida, Mitford, 1896, 

Asclepias albida, X. E. Brown, 

— amabilis, JV. E. Brown, 1895, 

a, X.E. Brown, 1895, 

• flavida, A T . E. Brown, 1895, 
. fulva, A r . E. Brown, 1895, 254 

, Phylloxera, 1889, 66. 

ani, Baker, 1893, 211. 

Aspusia Barclavi, it»lf,; 1892. 
) 210. 

I Aspidiotus aurantii, 1890, 95; 
(with plate) 1891, 221. 

Aspidistra typicn, 1896, 150. 

Aspilin Gla/ Baker, 1895, 

Asplenium (Euasplenium) Gre- 
gorys, Baker, 1896, 40. 

— (Euasplenium) Natunan, Baker, 
1896, 41. 

Baker, 1896, 40. 
Assam rubber, 1892, 68, 70. 
—, — cultivation in, 1*96, 171. 
trees, cultivation of, 1891, 

100; 1896, 171. 
fo r West Africa, 1891, 

— triticoides, 
Asystasia Colea?, Bolfe, 1895, 25 
Atherosperma moschata, 182 


Athrixia pinifolia, A T . E. Brou 

Atriplex halimoides, 1896, 134. 
— • Halimus, 1896, 134. 

— leptocarpa, 1896, 137. 

— semibaccata, 1896, 138. 

— vesicaria, 1896, 139. 
Attalea funifera, 1889, 237. 

Attar of roses, 1893, 22. 

Baker, J. G., notes on Agaves and 

Austin grass, 1894,385. 

arborescent Liliaccte on the 

Riviera, 1892, 1. 

— visit to the Kiviera, 1891, 270. 

Balanophora hookeriana, Hemsl., 

1894, 102. 

-, introduction of Brazil - nut, 

Ball, J., distribution of Alpine 

1887, Dec, 11. 

plants, 1896, 151. 

— , South, date cultivation in,1895, 

Ballota fruticosa, Baker, 1895, 

— , — , fruits, 1888, 6. 

Balsam, gouty -stemmed, 1892, 


— , — , timbers from, 1887, Sept., 

Bamboo from the Shire Highlands, 

1S93, 341. 
— , Gambia, 1892, 45. 

Australian Alpine plants, 1893, 

— garden at Kew, 1892, 151. 

— dried plants, 1896, 31. 

— herbarium, Gamble's, 1S94, 

— fungi from Sir F. von Mueller, 

1891, 2-16. 

- palm {see Raphia rhrifcm). 

, handbook of, 1892, 217. 

— products in Museum, 1887, 

— timbers in K« ,v Museums, l^iij, 

Sept., 14; 1892, 187. 


Bamboos, effects of frost on, at 

Averrhoa carambola, 1887, Sept., 

Kew, 1896, 10. 


— in Formosa, 1896, 71. 

Sierra Leone, 1893,169. 

— on the Riviera, 1889, 297. 

Bambusa aurea, 1889, 298. 

— gigantea, 1889, 298. 

— gracilis, 1889,298. 


— Ma/.elii, 1889, 298. 

— Metake, 1889,298. 

— mitis, 1889, 298. 

B.icillu- vaseularum, 1891, 2. 

— nigra, 1889, 299. 

Ba'iilaria monostachya, 1889,293. 

— quadrangularis, 1889, 299. 

Bahama grass, 1894, 377. 

— Quilloi, 1889, 299. 

Bah, m:^ agriculture, 1891, 175. 

— scriptoria, 1889,299. 

— fibre industry, 1889, 57, 254; 

— Simoni, 1889, 299. 

1890, 158; 1891, 176; 1892, 

— sulphurca, 1889,29). 

27, 141, 189; 1894, 189,412. 

— Tulda, 1887, Dec. 8. 

— fruit cultivation in, 1892, 218. 

— verticillata, 1889, 299 

— fruits, 1888, 180. 

— violeseen?, 1889, 300. 

— Pita (see Sisal hemp). 

Jahia piassava, 1889, 237. 

— vulirarTs. 1889, 300. 

Bailey, F. M., 1893, 366. 

— AVrayi, Strip/, 1893, 14. 

1891, 275; 1892, 311. 

-or sweet plantain, 1894,253. 

, re-appointment as Co- j 

lonial Botanist, 1894, 108. 

- and plantain? contrasted, 1894, 

iaillon, Dr. II.. Madagascar dried 

— , cultivated varieties, 1891, 

t..i>s v a' angolen>is,' Stop/ 1894, 


at Ke-.v, 1891, 210, 280. 

-Wl.yantha, Stap/, 1891, 

Sion Hou-e, 1891, 281. 

- dichotomy, Stapf, 1891, 125. 

—' — in England, 1891, 279. 

-hixitlorn, Staj.f, ls<)i, 124. 

— diseases. 1891,281. 

-lenuiloba, Stapf, 1894, 124. i 

•„, Fiji, 1890, 272 ; 1892,48. 

Bananas, dye and tan from, 1894, 

Bananas, wine from, 1891, 291. 


Bandina boxwood. 1NS7, Sept., S. 

— , economic uses, 1894, 284. 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 1891, 305. 

— , fibre of, 1887, April, 5 ; 1894, 

Harl.; acei in eandida. 1893, 21. 


— squamata, 1893, 21. 

— , fleshy-fruited, 1894, 231. 

Barbados Botanic Station, 1887, 

— , giant, 1894, 251. 

June, 9; 1891, 153. 

— , red-bracteated, 1894, 257. 

— dried plants, 1896, 31. 

— , swollen-stemmed, 1894, 240. 

— , economic resources of, 1887, 

— , true, 1894, 257. 

June, 5. 

— in Australasia, 1894, 272. 

— fruits, 1888, 184. 

British Guiana. IS*) 1. 255, 

268, 278, 282, 300, 307, 311. 

— , report of Mr. Morris's visit. 

Honduras, 1894, 27G. 

1891, 152, 158. 

New Guinea, 1894, 273. 

— , seedling sugar-canes, 1888, 

Canary Islands, 1894, 295. 

294; 1889,242; 1891, 11. 

Central America, 1894, 285. 

Ceylon, 1894, 2G2, 273. 

Barber, C. A., 1891, 215. 

Manila. 1890,56. 

Guatemala, 1894, 298. 

— , Aden, 1891, 96. 

Hark .loth of I'-anda. 1892,58. 

India, 1894, 2G0, 288. 

Indian Archipelago, 1894, 

Barley, huskless, 1888, 271. 


Baron, Bev. B , Madi s 

Jamaica, 1894, 270, 275, 

plants, 1892, 49. 

297, 302, 310, 312. 

Barrel staves, insect injury to 

Java, 1894, 264, 265. 

(with fig.), 1890, 181. 

--Mauritius and Madagascar, 

Rirtlinl-in poetiuat i, 1896,29. 

1894, 266. 

Bartlett, H. E., 1891, 87. 

New Caledonia, 1894,250, 

, death of, 1891,93. 


Bass fibre, Palmyra, 1392, 148. 

Nicaragua, 1894, 278. 

, West African, 1891, 1; 

. Peru, 1894, 268. 

1892, 299. 

Philippine Islands, 1894, 

Ha-ia latifolia, ls>7, Sept., 20. 

Daralin. Dr. A. F., donation to 

Polynesia, 1894, 265, 273. 

Herbarium, 1896, 187. 

Queensland, 1894, 281. 

St. Helena, 1894.275. 

Central Asia and Hayti, 1*92, 

Singapore, 1894, 265. 

South-East Africa, 1894, 

peruviana, Rolfe, 


1895, 193. 

Surinam, 1894, 306, 310, 

Bauer, Francis, 1891, 302. 


Bauhinia (Phanera) braelivsevpha. 

Tahiti, 1894, 246, 286. 

Baker, 1896, 22. 

Trinidad, 1894, 27c 276, 

— (Phanera) Creaghi, Baiter, 

283, 302, 304, 313. 

1896, 21. 

Tropical Africa, 1891, 265, 

27 1, 286, 287, 304. 

— Galpini, 1896,186. 

— (Phanera) maeropoda, Baker, 

United States, 1891, 311. 

1896, 22. 

Venezuela, 1894, 269, 278. 

West Indies, 1894, 270, 275, 


— Vahlii, 1887, Sept. 19. 

— , meal from, 1894, 310. 

Havana, Xonnen pest in, 1890, 

— , ornamental, 1894, 231. 

22 i; 1892, 143. 

— , preserved, 1894, 299. 

IMeliium, 1896,86. 

— , summary of information re- 

Bean, W. J., 1892, 186. 

lating to, 1894, 229. 
— , trade in, 1894, 295. 

Beaucarneas on the Riviera, 1889, 


Bechuanaland forests, 1892, 312. 
Beeberine, 1887, Sept., 15. 
Beech, Cape, 1887, Sept., 11. 

B.^'iua ( $llaa<u-a) bonthah 

Hemsl, 1896. 37. 
_ disease. 1895, 285. 
— Somervillei, Hemsl., 1890 

Betel nu 

t fibre, 188; 

7, Sept., 




1894. 367. 

Bhadgaon farm. [Bombay 


, L8:i5, S:). 

ia Charlesv 




- tyriai 


Hi.iuu I.i 

me. IS94. 1 


iiillian i 




W., death oi 

'. L896, 

Bissa bol 

1, 1896, 93. 

Bitter Vetcb, 1894, 


. ISH4. 4=»2. 

Bixa Orellatta, It 

587, July 1 ; 


1 : 189:>, H 

U ; 1892*, 215, 

— — at 

Lagos, 1890, 162. 

Black B 

1S92. 2.'52. 

Sept., 1 

— walni 

ir. 1SJ)4, i 1 

r> . 

— pumila, Baker, 1891, 25. 

— zambeslaea, Baker, 1894, 25. 
Ben, oil of, 1887, Jan., 7 ; 189: 

Ben ken wood, L887, Sept., 11. 


Bent, J; T., expedition to South 

Blue-grass, 189 

Arabia, 1895, 158, 180. 

, Hadramaut expedition, 

1893,366; 1891, 194, 328. 

— balsamifera 


Beiithain Tru>r, hooks presented 

to Kew by, 1892, 150; 1894, 

.' 297; 1889, 

; 251. 

Bentin", Rolfe, gen. nov., 1894, 


— fruticulosa, Rolfe, 1894, 338. 

I in China, 

Benzoin, Sit.i.i. ls-»5, 154, 195. 

Bermuda fruits, 1888, 216. 

188 9,268,28 

— Hiios,' lsy^/sosj. 

Bojeria vestita, 

—.minor industries in, 1894,353; 

Bok Bncho, 18€ 

—!^'u\nn iiiscase, 1887, Oct., 1. 

!5. (l ' ,n ' 

Uerlin. i I. rha: i;i:n. dried plants 

from, 1«92, 72. 

— Notizblatt des Kgl. bot. 

Gartens und Museums, 1895, 77. 

Berry man, C, 1806, 147. 

1892, 36, 283 

ik-rtholietia excelsa, 1887, Dec, 

in, 1895, 28. 

302; 1892, 7. 

, 401. 

Blepharis edulis, var. congesta, 
Rolfe, 1894, 338. 

Hliiihia sapida, 1892, 109. 
Blueberry, Canadian, 1887, Nov., 

Hemsl., 1894, 
h plate), 1895, 

food for silkworms. LK9f), 

Books, donations of, 

to Kew, 1892, 

Books— conL 

150; 1893, 22; 

1894, 137; 

! Hand-list of Orchids. 1896, off. 

1895, 46, 156. 

Trees and Shrubs, 

— . preservation of, i 

n the tropics, 

1894, 217; 1895, 

Hooker's Icones Plamaruir-, 

Books :- 

1892,52,285; 1891.133.372; 

■o our know- 

1895, 19, 122, 199; 1890. 50, 

ledge of seedlinj 
Annals of the I 

123, 150. 

Index Flora Sinensis, 1889, 

Garden, Caleutl 

225 ; 1894, 225. 

Hotanical literal ur 


---Kewensis, 1892, 49; 1893, 

Empire, 1889, 1 


342; 1894, 74, 400 ; 1895, 

— Magazine, 189 

5, 19,40, 77, 

300; 1896,29. 

121, 156, 198, 
318; 1896, 28 

232. 272. 299, 

Johnson's Gardener'sDictionaiy, 
1894, 163. 

123, 149, 150, : 

' Karakoram Expedition, scien- 

Botany of the P 

pedition, 1895, 

Kew Bulletin, out of print. 

British Fungus-flora, 1893, 26, 

372; 1895, 23 1 

: — — , selected papers from, 

Distribution of ] 

plants on the 

1893, 227. 

south side of tl 

te Alps, 1896, 

Kniphof's Botanica in Original?, 

Exotic 'plants frr 

m the Roval 

XoHzblattdesKgl. hot. Gartens, 

Gardens, Kew, 

Feins of South A\ 

F ''of HrSfludi 

T K ^i 1 ' <^-' 

d'HistoircXatrnvlle. do I\;ris 


Poetry 'of Kew Gardens, 1896, 

to, 1894, 2(H). 

Frit/el's Iconum Bot.-micanim 


: 18<)o. 200. 

Index, supplement to, ls95. 

~maU>rills^lor! : ii 

'9i.vr r ^ ul! ' 

Robert, Hosseand.ieChastillon's 

Islands. 1894,3 


Select Extra! r'opical " Plant's 

Synopsis of the Musese, 1893, 

Text-book of Tropieal .V^ricui- 

Guide t'o Museum 

So. TL, 1895, 

ture, 1893, 69. 
Trees and Shrubs of the Bombay 

'—No. Ill, 

-^L of 

CYvlon. 1S92. 

n "^7'Vs''o i ;'n' . r i-, ;; lv, '» Sp r^ 

Hand-list of Co 



1895, 199. 

,1 Fen; Allies, 

136; 1896, 31. ' 

1895, 232. 

***■ Phnte> 

Borneo camphor wood, 18^7. Sept., 

; 1894, 

I, 288. 


Staffs of, 1880, 122; 1MK>. 1 7.1; 
1891, Appendix III. ; 1S92, 
App. ndix 1!!.: IS93, Appendix 
III. ; 1894, Appendix TTr 
1895, Appendix III. ; 
Appendix III. 

— Department, Jamaica, 185 
156 ; 1894, 159; 1896, 125. 

, — , Agricultural cducatu 

July 12; 1891, 146.' 

. Mi- 

Honduras. 1*06, HH 

East Africa, 1896, 80. 

the Niger I 

1891,84; 1895, 164. 

e of the British i-kupire. 

— Station, Antigua, 1891, 111; 

guide to, 1889, 153. 


— Magazine, 1895, 19, 40, 77, 

, Barbados, 1891, 152. 

121, 156, 198, 232. 272. 299, 

, British Honduras, 1895, 10 ; 

c'18; 1896, 28, 55, 96. 122, 123, 

1896, 101. 

149, 150, 186, 220. 233. 

.Dominica, 1891, 115; 1893, 

— mission to the West Indies, 

lis, 359; 1894,409,420. 

report of, 1891, 109. 

, Gold Coast, 1891, 169; 

— nomenclature, 1895,278; 1896, 

1892, 14, 297; 1893, 1(50; 

1895, 11, 1(55. 

— Survey of India, 1895, 56 ; 1S96, 

, Lagos, 1888, 149; 18&, 

69; 1890, 162; 1891,46. 

— tables, Earl of Bute's, 1892, 


at, 1892, 314. 

I Botany of Formosa, 1896, 65. 

, Montserrat, 1891, 119; 

Gambia Delimitation Com- 

1894, 420. 

! mission, 1891,268; 1892, 45. 

,01d Calabar, 1895, 164. 

Hadramaut expedition, 1*91. 

, St. Kitts-Xevis, 1891, 12*5 ; 



Karakoram expedition, 1895, 

, St.Locie, 1891, 134. 


, St. Vincent, 1891, 140; 

Mihmje, 1892, 121. 

1892,92; 1894, 80, 366. 

■ Pilcomayo expedition, 1S95, 

— Stations in tlie Leeward I -laiek 


in the West Indie-. IH>7, 

Bothrioelice laxa, X. E. Eroini, 

1894, 388. 
— lon-ipes, X. E. Brown, 1894, 

Bouillie Bordelaise, 1888, 271. 
, for mildew on vines, 1**9, 

229, 230 ; 1890, 190. 
, for potato disease, 1S'.I2, 

Bowstring hemp (with fiVs.), Ins;. 

British ( luiana, bananas in. 


May, 1 ; 18D2, 129 ; is.;*;;, 

255. 268, 278, 282, 30( 

. 807, 


311 ; 1895,236. 

in South Australia, 1895, 

j , Forsteronia rubber, 1 S 

, fruits, 1888, 192. 

S3, 69. 

, museum specimens 


1837, Sept., 15. 

Boxwood, Bandinn, 1887, Sept,, 8. 

- , sugar-cane disease in 

— , Cape, 18S7, Feb., 1. 


Brachionidium Sherringii, Rolfc, 

— Honduras, agriculture in. 

,' 189 4, 

Brachyslegia appendiculata, 1--92, 


, agricultural resoim 

•es Of, 

— longif.,1 in, 1892,59. 

1892. 254; 1893,326. 

— iamarindoid'es, var., 1892, 59. 

,' Botanic Station. 1*91 

J, 101. 

Brachystolma Buchanani, .V. E. 

. 1896, 

Brown, 1895, 263. 


— magicum, N. E. Brown, ISO', 

, coffee cult i vat ion, 

! 253; 1893,322. 


Brandi-ia laeemosa, Ilvmsl., IS!).",, 



,' palm weevil in, 1893, 

Brassica carapestris, var. glauca, 

pine, 1896,61. 

1894, 9G. 

, Sisal hemp (Ilenoqu 

— griquensis, A". /:'. Brown, 1894. 

— India, flora of, 1894,225 : 


Brazil-nut, introduction to East 

— —,'—, supplementary n 

..,. to . 

Indies and Australia. lssT. 

Dec, 11. 

, 1894, 

wood, new, 1896, 223. 

Brazilian dried phmts. IS91, 276 ; 

— North Borneo. 1892. 2i; 

1892, 15L 311; 1893, 146. 


— gum-arabic, 1888, 128. 

Breweria (Seddera) l>accharoide>, 

, Gambier, 1892 

Baker, 1894,68. 

1893, 139. 

— buddleoides, Baker, 1894, 69. 

, museum specimens, 

— (Prevosteal eampanulata. 

Sept., 11. 

Baker, 1894,68. 


— (Prevostea) Heudelotii, Baker, 

"— , Timbaran tree, 


— microcephala, Baker, 1891, 

Britton, Dr. N. L., South Am 

dried plants, 1891, 215. 


— sessiliflora, Baker, 1894, 68. 

Broadwav, W. E., 1894, 192 

Brisbane Botanic Gardens, 1893, 

Hromelia'eeje, South American, 

, wild coffee in, 1896 

- Empire, guide to the boti 
literature of, 1889, 153. 

- Funmis-tlora, 1893, 26, 

iviera, 1892, 
I plant, 1892, 

Brunnisure vine disease, 1893, 

Buaze fibre, 1889, 222. 
Bubon Galbanum, 1887, Sept., 9. 
Buchanan, J., < Lai ii of, 1S96, 1 ! v 
— ' , dried plants from N\ a-niund, 

1892, 249. 

, journey in Nyasaland, 1891, 

Huh, r. 


1895, 71. 
Buckwheat, common, 1893, 3. 
— , Kangra, 1891, 244 ; 1893 
Hu.ldleia acutifolia, Wright. 1 


— Colvillei, 1S96, 28. 

— cuspidata, Baker, 1895, 11 

— pulchella, X. E. Brown, 1 

— , photographs of, 1894, 

IJ.iII..>])bvHiim attenuatum, Rolfe, 

Rolfe, 189.5, 138. 
nn, Rolfe, 1892, 131; 
m, Rolfe, 1891,19 

— disciflorum. Rolfe, 1695, 7. 

— lomriscnpuru, Rolfe, 1S96. 15. 

— macrochilum, Rolfe, 1896, 45 

— nigripetalum, Rolfe, 1891, 19 

— pteriphilum, Rolfe, 1891, 391 

— racemosum, Rolfe, 1893, 61. 

— sanderianum, Rolfe, 1893, 4. 

— spathaceum, i^//*, 1893, 170. 

— viride, Rolfe, 1893, 170. 

— vitiensc, Rolfe, 1893, 5. 
Bulbous violet in the Himalaya 

1894, 368. 
Bulbs elects of frost 

iV« v., 

Cabbage, Shantung, 1888, 137; 

1893, 344. 
Cacao, Ceylon, 1890, 170. 

— cultivation at Gold Coast, 1*92, 
301, 303; 1895, 13, 22. 

Lagos, 1896, 78. 

in Grenada, 1893, 136. 

— drying, Messervy method of, 
1891, 147. 

— in British Central Africa, 1*95, 

Cacti, large, at K,w, 1S95, 155. 
Ca3salpinia biroior, Wright, ]*9<>, 

22, 223. 
— coriaria at Lagos, 1890, 162. 
Caicos Islands (.w Turk's Islands). 
Cajanus indicus in Formosa, 1*9(5, 




. Rolf,. 1*96, 197. 
kii, Rolfe, 1*9(5, 197. 

— Ilenrvi, Rolfe, 1896, 197. 

— lamellosji, Rolfe, 1896, 197. 
Calathea AlUiya, 1892, 244. 

— cyclophora, Raker, 1*95. 17. 

— Gardneri, Baker, 1895, 18. 
Calatheas, 1894, 193. 

Calcutta, Royal Botanic Garden, 

annals of, 1894,195. 
Cal«\-i (Eu.-dea) lloribunda, Baker, 

1893, 157. 
Caley, George, 1891,303. 
California, botany of the Death 

Bullock, T. 

— Upper, India rubber. ls>>, 217. 

189 1, 370; 1896, 31. 

Bute, Earl of, 1891, 290. 

— fruit industries, 1893, 218. 

_ , botanical tables, 1892, 

— prune (with plate). 1 


— vine disease, 1893, 227. 

Butea frondosa, 1887, Sept., 20. 

Butter-nut, 1-'.' 1,277 ; 1892,75. 

food in N.W. India, 1*S9. 217. 

BdXUtMacowani, 1887, Feb., 1. 

— polygonoides, 1889, 218. 

Calophyllum Calaba, 1892, ) 
— inophyllum, 1887, Sept., 
Calospora Vanilla) (with 

Cameroons, 1894, 411; 1896, 176. 

— dried plants, 1894, 160. 

— , Victoria Botanic Garden, 1896, 

Camorn.-ia maxima, flowering in 

England, 1894, 402, 
Campbell, E., 1890,217. 
Camphor, 1895, 305. 
— , Ai, 1895, 275 ; 1896, 73. 
— wood, Borneo, 1887, Sept., 15. 
Campnandra coinosa, 1889, 71. 

Cape, prickly pear, 1888, 1 
1890, 186. 

— timbers, 1887, Sept., 10. 

— Town Botanic Garden, 18! 
10; 1895,49. 

Capel, Lord, 1891, 288. 
Capim de Angola, 1894, 385. 

Colonia, 1894, 382. 

Caragana bark, 1894, 164. 

— decor ticans, 1894, 164. 
Caraguat;i fibre, 1892, 191. 
Caralluma arabica, X. E. Broic 



. /•:. /;,■ 

. 335. 

— hirtiflora, A. /.'. />',■..»■/!. 18<>5, 

— Lnntii, X. E. Brown, 1894. 

— .«..:nalica, X. E. liroim, 1895, 

— Sprciijri-n, A". E. lirmn,, 1895, 

— valida, X. E. Broini. 1895. 

Carambola, 1887, Sept., 16. 
Carapa guyanensis, 1890, 170. 
Cardamoms, 1887, Sept., 13. 

— from Ceylon, 1887, Sept., 13. 

Candclillo eoiKv < 
Candle-nut oil, \i 
Cane-sugar in 

Carol* hcans, 1887, Sept., 18. 
Carposium atkinsoni.-miim. Hen,'., 
1893, 157. 

(.'ai-podiim* BaMeri. Stapf, l><>}, 

■ Flora, fontinu 
124, 186. 
fruit growing e 

— , new Liliacere f r 
— , Phylloxera, 18i 
— , — regulations, 

Caryocar nuciferum, 1891, 277; 

( 'an- .-.piivlliis aromaticus {see 
Ettf/oiia niryophiflhita ). 

Trinidad. 1896. 22: 

I'astleton Garden?, Jamaica, 

156; 1892, 73; 1891, 

1895, 79. 
Casuarina equisetifolia, 18< 

Lagos, 1HD6. 7S. 

S. Australia, 1S95. 10: 

edar, Milan,)*', 1892, 123 ; 18J 
189; 1896,216. 
-, pencil, 1889, 115. 

oleb'es dried' plants' 1896, 36. 
Idery, wild, 1887. Sept.. 9. 
'olmisia Munroi, 1*96, 1*6. 

■rural Africa. coffee-leaf disease 
in, preventive measures, 1893, 

American dried plants, 1896,. 

— Pita, 1887, Mar., 3. 
— rubber, 1887, Dec, 13 ; 
1892,67, 69. 
in Brit. Honduras, 1892, 

•rn India, 1896, 32. 
tosa, 1888, 269. 

Siliqun, 18S7, Sept., IS. 
[igantens at Kew, 1895„ 

' iulJL.'x'.'./?. liruic,,. 


icta, A'. /:. Brown, 1895, 

in, X. E. Broim, 1895, 

mi^X.E. Broicn,lS95, 

X. E. Brown, 1895, 

osa, X. E. Brown, 1S95, 

~ tentaeulata. A*. E. Bromu IS'.).;, 

— volubili?, A T . E. Brown, 1895, 

Ceylon, bananas in, 1894, 262» 

— cacao. 1S90, 170. 

Ceylon coca leaves 1894, 152 

Chocho, 1887, Aug. 6; 1S96, 

varieties'of Musa, 

1894, 262. 

Chondrorhyncha bicolor, fioffe r 

— . handbook of the Flora of, 

1892, 250; 1*91, 34, 227; 

186. ■' 

1895, 236. 

Chrvsobalanus Icaco, I8s7, Sep:.. 

— , museum specimens from, 1887, 


Sept., 13. 

Chrysonhyllum batan^en -c, 
7/V/V>/, 1896, 162. 

— . Orthezia insio-„is in. 1895,162. 

-, Para rubber in, 1*93, 159. 

— Cainito, 1*87. Sept., 16. 

("nrnzophorn tinctoria, 1889, 

:i«-.,/r,v // /,MM)li. 


Cider apples, crop of, 1895, 306." 

- y" 

Cinchona Cali>aya in India, 18^3, 

— from Ceylon, 1887, Sept., 13. 

— in India; i^s. i:;;i ; l-9>, 29: 

1894, 327. 

Ha her. 1895, 51. 

Jamaica, 1889, 244; 1-90. 

Choiio.ivlis viinnanonsis, i?o//e, 


1896, 201. 

— officinalis, 1890, 54. 

C'liL-ri in oyer, 1887, Aug., 15. 

— , West African, 1894, 119. 

Cherry. Our, ■inland. 181)5, 27'2. 

Cinnamomum Camphora, 189*5, 

— zcylanicum, 1887, Sept., 13. 

Cinnamon from Ceylon, 1887, 

('!,y bread, ISSH, 71.^ 

Cirr!i,>petalum brienianum, Rolfe, 

J^'lvj'LlI^'; 1892, 

— compact urn. Kolfc. IS95, 281. 

(yvdh ptoteO I .v.), 207 ; IS')!. 

— Fordii. Rolfe, 1896, 193. 

— my<orense. '/{<•/ fi; 1S95, 34. 

— whiteanum. Rolfe, 1895, 7. 

1889,' 268, 284; 1891, 277 ; 

1896, 73. 

1894, 103, 199. 

in Formosa, 1896, 73. 

Chines dried plants. 1891, 276; 

Citronol la grass, 1895,101. 

1802,280; 1893, 369. 

Citrus fruits in Sicily, 1895,266. 

"issiSi. 1891, 5; 18 * )2 ' 16; 

— Med;ca''isi)c'l77.' 

, var. acida (with plate). 

Z iKlrn', iuf 189? 222. 

, ' , as a hedge plant. 

Chhrophnra execlsn, 1891, 42 ; 

plant, 1896, IsS. 
Clarke nu-in.-i ial medal, pre-nfed 

Chlonx'odon ecornnta, X. £. 

Clcmat's'i: .'■ '■"." ' IhmsL, 1896, 

JJ/wmi, 1895. 111. 


<■] l.vtmn tenuifolium,.Ri*«-, 

— Prattii, Hemsl., 1892,82. 

— rubifolia, Wright, 1896, 21. 

Clerodendron aucubifol i I 

1894, 102. 
— cseruleum, N. E. Brown, 1895, 

— polycephalum, Baker, 1895, 

— (Euclerodcndron) tanganyi- 
kense, Baker, 1895, 71. 

Climate of Milanje, 1892, 124. 

the Gambia, 1892, 110. 

Zanzibar, 1890, 216; 1892, 

Clitandra Barteri, Stopf, 1894, 

— Mannii, Sfupf, 1894, 20. 

— Schweinfurtliii, Shtjtf. 1894, 

Clove as a dye plant, 1894, 417. 

— cultivation in 1796, 1893, 80. 
~- industry of Zanzibar, 1892, 88 ; 

1893, 17. 
Club-root (with fig.), 1895, 129. 


aim disease in Lagos' 
1893, 181. 
S. Australia, 1895, 

1895, 123. 
Cobbett, Willie 
Coca, 1889, 1 ; 

— at Lagos, 1 5 

— cultivation i 

1892, 72. 
»0. 1(52. 

, 1894, 152 

, preparation of, 1889, 

Coccus Pela, 1893, 84, 102. 
Cochin China vine, 1888, 13 
Cochineal industry. 18SS, 17 

1894, 4. 
Cochliodu noezli 

Zanzibar, 1892, 88. 

| weev il, 1893, 27. 

I Coco de mer at Kew, 1892, 105 ; 
J 1894, 400. 

Ccelogyne borneensis, Rolf, 1S93, 

a. Rolfe, 1895, 191. 

— (§ Pleione) Delavayi, Rolfe, 
1896, 195. 

— flexuosa, Rolfe, 1892, 209. 

— (§ Pleione) Henryi, Rolfe, 
1896, 195. 

— lamellata, Rolfe, 1895, 36. 

— Mossiaa, Rolfe, 1894, 156. 

— (§ Pleione) pogonioides, Rolf . 

Rolfe, 1894, 183. 

— tenuis, Rolfe, 1893, 171. 

— V'Ucbii, Rolfe, 1895, 282. 
Coffea sp., Sierra Leone, 1894, 79. 

,. Is03. 167: 1896. 
123, (with plate) 189. 
Coffee-beans, artificial, 1891, 201. 

1895, 12,21, 165. 
in Angola, 1894, 161. 

- — British Hnndui-iis. 1892, 

X^y \V,,ri,l. 


— in British Central A ' 

Honduras, 1893, 328. 

— Monfst'iTiil 

- Niger Coa 
1895, 164. 

-t Protectorate, 

— Sierra Leone, 1893, 167. 

— Travancore, 1894, 403. 
leaf disease, 1893,67, 321. 
in Central Africa, pre- 
ventive measures, 1893, 361. 

German East Africa, 

Coffee-leaf, miner, 1894, 130. 
— , Liberian, 1890, 245; 1893, 25 

1895, 273. 
— ,— , at Gold Coast, 1892, 300 

303 ; 1895, 12, 21, 165. 
— , — , — Lagos, 1896, 77. 
_, — , — Sierra Leone. |Si>3. 167 
— , — , cleaning in Loe 

— , — , husking, 1893, 132. 
— , — , husks, 1887, Sept., 17. 


-, — , — Jamaica, 1895, 79. 
-, — , — the Malay Native States, 

1890, 107 ; 1892, 277. 
-, — , Straits Settlements. 

1888, 261. 
-, — , pulping, 1893, 204. 

, Maragogipe, 1894, 163. 

. |n*9. 2S1. 


— planting in La^os, INSI6, 

Peru, I N')3. 351. 

— , shade tree for, 1S95. 306 

maica, 1889, 127. 
1S93, 328. 

Coleus leucopbvllus, Baker, 

, Baker, 1895, 224. 


1892, 68. 
Colonial and Indian lv\lii!>itiuii. 

1886, articles contributed to 

Kew Museums from, 1887, 

Sept,, 4. 
— fruit, 1887, Nov., 1 ; 1888, 1, 

177, 197, 221. 
Colonics and Kew, 1895,205. 
— .cultivation of perfumery plants, 

1890, 269. 
Colorado grass, 1894, 385. 

-■i.liuee japonica, 1896, 

l( r„ 

-ees of Colombia, 1894, 

Rev. R. B., Solomon 

■ hied plants, 1892, 105. 

1888, 144, 
Cola acuminala, 1890, 253. 
— nut, 1890, 253. 

cultivation at Lagos, 1896, ' 

at the Gold Coast, 18! 

Cooke, Dr., retirement of, 1893, 

Copaitera Gorskiana, 1S88, 281. 
(Zonal. Inhambane. 1888,281. 
Copra, 1887, Sept., 7. 
Coprosma p!iinii:i. 1893, 112. 
Coptis Teeta in China, 1889, 226. 
Coptosapelta flavescens, 1895, 141. 
Corallorhiza odontorhiza, J 892, 

Con/horns cap-ularis, lNs-7. Sept., 

- chrvsocarpa. Baker, 1S94, 27. 

- Heudelotii, Baker, 1894, 27. 
. [rvingii, Baker, 1395, 113. 

- Kiiki'i, Baker, 1894,28. 

— platythyrsa. Baku; 1N91, 27. 

— populifolia, Baker, 1891, 27. 

— somaliensis, Baker, 1891, 28. 
Cordylines on the Uivicra. 1892, 9. 
Cork products in Kew Museum, 

1892, 215. 
Cornwall, horticulture in, 189:5, 

Cotton in British Central Africa. 

189G, 118. 

India, 1894, 318. 

the Gambia, 1894, 191. 

West Africa, 1890, 135; 

1891, 49. 

Yoruha-land, 1890, 242. 

Zanzibar, 1892, 90. 

— seed in Sierra Leone, lsfl.'i, 

Coville, Prof. F. V., Death Valley 
dried plants, 1894, 370. 

reports of, 1894, 194. 
Crab-grass, 1894, 386. 

— wood, 1890, 170. 
Cranberries, 1887, Sept., 5 ; Nov., 

Crassula ahmles, X. K. Brmr.i, 
1896, 161. 

— Coleaa, Baker, 1895, 214. 

— curta, X. E. Brown. 1895, Ml. 
, var. rubra, X. E. Broicn, 

1895, 145. 

— umbraticola, N. E. Broirn, 
1895, 145. 

Creagh, C. V., Bornoan dried 

plants, 1895, 272. 
Crein;is|»ora coffeoides, Hemsl., 

1896, 18, 144. 
Crossotosoma asgyptiacum {see 

Crotalaria aurantiaca,7?tf/.cr. 1895. 

-juncea, 1887. Sept., 19. 
■ — ia.viliora, Baker, 1895, 64. 

— lcucoclada. Baker, 1895, 214. 

— Phillipshe, Baker, 1895, 213. 

Baker,\s95, 186. 
Crowtber, W., death of, 1895, 121. 
— , — , visit to the West Indie?, 

E. Broicn, 


1895, 5. 
— oblongifolius, Rolfe, 1895, 
Cryptostcgia in 

Guha, botanical exploration 

Cubebsj 1887, Dec, 1. 


. (witli plate) 1 

1889, 142; 1890, 261 ; 1£ 

Gold Coast, Ifi 


in Dominica, 1891, 405. 

, c, : 

:st Afric 

dried plants, 1893, 369. 
— , C. II., 1892, 150. 
Cushion scale insect, 1889, 191. 

in St. Helena, 1892. 50. 

Cutch, 1887, Sept., 20 ; 1894, 

— , pale, 1891, 31. 

C. B. Clarke, 
Baker, 1896, 

Cyclocheilon, OH r., gen. nov. 1895, 

Cvrtopera fi.-xiiosn, liolfe, 1894, 



— somalieuse, 0///\, 1895,223. 

— formosana, Rolfe, 1896, 198. 

Cynibidimn Faberi, liolfe, 1^96, 

— papillosa, Rolfe, 1893, 336. 

Cuisus problems, 1891,239. 

Cvmbosepalum. linker, gen. nov., 

, var. palmensis, 1893, 115. 

1895, 103. 

— scoparius, 1892, 53. 

— Baroni, j?a*e»-, 1895, 103. 

brevidens, iV. /?. 

Brotc», 1895, 257. 

Brown, 1895, 257. 


— claviduiis, A. A', 7i/w«, 1895, 

— coniple.v.r.n, X. 11. liroicn, ]>'.>'>. 

■ - 


Dagga, wild. I8S7, Sept., 9. 

— formosum, .V. E. Broun, 1895, 

— fraternum, iV. J?. Brown, 1895, 


Dammar from New Caledonia, 

-- liassif .limn, X E. Iiroicn,lS95, 

1891, 76. 


Dammara lam.-.-olafn, 1891, 76. 

— vaguin, .V. /;. 7^w/>, 1895, 


'linns!.] 1K95, 137. 

Cvnodon Daefvlnn, 1894, 377. 

Dasvlirion mudranuulatuai, 1889, 

Cym.-ln^mn ' Julmstoni, Baker, 


Lyallii, Baker, 1894, 

tundus, 1892, 50. 

isis, ('. 13. Clarke, 1895, 

ill--, X. E.Iiroirn, 1891. 

in Mvsore, 1889, 26. 

Cypress, Milan -e. I <Yl t 123; 1895, 
189; 1896, 216. 

t-ln-aeteatum, /.'<<//). 

— Henry i, liolfe, 1892, 211. 

. Rotfe,' 1892, 211. 

Cyprus fruits, 1888, 245. 

— . mux am specimen.- :; 

Dasylirions on the Riviera, 
Date-palm, 1896 


n Antigua, 1896, 
Australia, 1895, 


Davalba ( Leurnstc^ia) puli 
rinia. linker, 1895, 53. 

Davy, J. B., 1892,245." 

— , — ., Californian dried pi 
1896, 31. 

Dawodu, T. B., 1893, 365. 

Dear, C, 1893, 111. 

Death Valley dried pli 


, 1892, H 

Cyrtanthus (Gastronema) Galpi 

Baker, 1892, 83. 
— Huttoni, 1896, 186. 

Decades Kowei 

195 ; 1893, ) 

4,99,344,353, 387; 1S95, 15, 

23, 53, 102,180,315; 1S9 J, 16, 

36, 158. 
Deccan hemp, 1887, Sept., 19 ; 

1891, 204. 

n Zalil (with plate), 

■ necatrix, 1896, 1. 
Demerara pink root, 1888, 265. 
Dendrobium curviflorum, liolfe, 
1895, 281. 

1894, 155. 

- (§ Onychium) 
liolfe, 1896, 193. 

- hamatura, Rolfe, 1894, 183. 

- Ilildebrandii, liolfe, 1891. 182 

- inflatum, Rolfe, 18.95, 6. 
-Leonis, 1896, 186. 

- platycaulon, Rolf . 1*92, 139. 

- quadrilobum, AW/l , 1S96, 14. 
-robustum, Rolfe, 18.) o, 33. 

- sandcrianum, /*o//e, 1894, 155 
-sulelausum, #,,//} . 1S94, 361. 

urn. Rolfe, 18!)5, 33. 



Derris elliptica, 1892, 216. 

Derry, E., 1896, 96. 

Desert plants in Egypt, disappear- 
ance of, 1892, 287. 

1 >.'siii..diuiii i Xieni-.-iii 
kense, Baker, 1895, 65. 

— tortuosum, 1896, 188. 

Dewar, D., 1893, 65. 

Diagnoses Africana;, 1894, 17. 67, 

Di-ciiidia ratlle-iiua, 1892, 284; 

1893, 113. 
Diseases of plants : — 

Anbury, club-root, or lin^ei '-an 1- 
toe (witb %), 1895, 129. 

Arrowroot disease, 1893, 202. 
r.aeilins vaseularum, 1894, 2. 
Banana diseases. 1890, 272: 

1892, 48; 1894, 281. 
Begonia disease, 1895, 285. 

Calo-jpnrn V 
Candelillo, 1893, 67 

[isease, 1893, 
(witb plate), 

. /.' 
Diarrli.eii plan;. 1*9 !.' 1! 
Dia-eia em-data, X. L 
189/5, 151. 

Cocoa-nut palm i 
162 ; 1893, 41. 

Codee-Daf disease 

Diiitrai saccharaiis (see & 

Diaxenes dendrobii, 1896, 02. 

— Taylori, 1893, 62. 
Dichopsis elliptica, 1892, 296, 

— Gutta, 1891, 230, 231. 

— obovata, 1892. 215. 

Diclis tenella, Hemsl, 1896, 1(: 
Dicoina quinquenervia, Ra, 

1S95, 290. 
Dictyosperma fibrosum, Writ 

1894, 359. 
Didissandra longipes, Hemsl. 

1895, 114. 
Didymo?arpus crenata, Baker 


miner, 1891, 130. 

Colletotriohtim falcatum, 1893, 
345; 1894, 169; 1895,82. 


Peronospora sclilcideniana ( \< 

plates), 1887, Oct., 1. 
Phvlloxera, 1801,44. 
— in Asia Minor, 1889, 66. 

Dolichandmne slenocarpa, Bal, 

1894, 31. 
Doliehos lupinoides, Baker, 18! 

South Africa, 1889, 230, 

— platypus, Baker, 1895, 289. 


— pteropus, Baker, 1895, 66. 

Uruguay, 1893, 372. 

— xiphophvllus, linker, 1«95, (>6. 

Dombeya arabica, Baker, 1895, 

Plasmodiophora Brassiere (with 



!(i, 3. 
ampelinuro, 1893, 

i of orchid?, 1895, 

diseases, 1890, 85 ; 
>, 345; 1894, 1, 81, 
; 1895, 81; 1896, 

— pulchra, X. E. Brown, 1895, 

Dominica, 1896, 42. 

— Botanic Station, 1893, 148, 
359; 1894,409, 420. 

-, fruits of, 1888, 197. 
-, Lime industry in, 1891, 115. 
-, list of introduced economi 
plants, 1887, July, 10. 

1895, 81 

Vanilla disc 
Vine diseas 

a?, 1893, 68. 

■ase, 1892, 111. 

se in Greece, 1892, 



Dissotis crypt 

fusco-picta, 1893, 

P"t 'r '11 I 

mo4 "sc 


\ /:. Frown, gen. 

— Icptophyll: 

— Xilssoni. . 

», Hemtl., 1893, 156. 
V. E. Brown, 1892, 


American dried plants. 1KJ)6, 

, , (fuatemalau dried 

Bonn's Hortus Canra'. ■ 


I), > 

and Malayan 

its, 1894, 136. 
sea Bay, 1893. 

Akor Tuba, 1892, 21G. 
Aloes, Natal, 1890, 163. 
Anise, star, 1888, 173. 
Antiarin, 1891, 25, 259. 
Argel leaves, 1891, 177. 

Benzoin/siam, 1895, 154, 195 
Bissa l.ol, 1896, 93. 
Camphor, 1895, 305. 
— , Ai, 1895, 275; 1896, 73. 
Cape drugs in Kew Museun 

1S87. Sept., 9. 
Cardamoms, 1887, Sept., 13. 
— , Korarima, 1894, 400. 
Cinchona, 1888, 139; 1881 

244; 1890,29,54; 1894,11! 

Drugsand medicines— con. 

Turnsole, 1889, 279. 

Y-dzi of Tonquin, 1S93, 

Yoruha-land native 
1891, 208. 
Dry rot, 1894, 33. 
Drv.Vh.tlanops aromat 

Sept., 15. 
Duke cf Argyle, 1891, 

Dutch grass, 1894, 383. 

Dm hie J. F., Indian dried plants, 

1896, 31. 
— , , Kashmir dried plants, 



Contra verva, 1887, Dec, 10. 
Demerara Pink-root, 1888, 265. 
Diarrhoea plant, 1891, 193. 
Eucalyptus oils, 1887, Sept., 5. 
Gambia native medicines, 1891, 

268; 1893, 371. 
Gamboge, Siam, 1895, 139. 
Ginseng, 1892, 107 ; 1893,71. 
Gum Benjamin, 1895, 151, 195. 
Holarrhena africana, 1896, 47. 
— f'ebrifiiga, 1896, 47. 
Hotai, 1896, 94. 
Hymeuodictyon < 


Dyes and colouring i 
Annatto, 1887, J 
1890, 141 ; 


1887, Sept., 

i 23 : 


, Trinidad, 1888, 269. 
Ipoh poison, 1891, 25, 259; 

1895, 140. 
.laborandi, Paraguay, 1891, 179. 
Lathy rus sativus, 1894, 349. 
Liquorice, 1893, 223 ; 1894, 141. 
— , Chinese, 1896, 222. 
Madagascar native medicines, 

1890, 203. 
Mvirh. 1H96, 86. 
Opium, Benares, 1887, Sept., 19. 
Piper ovatum, 1S95, 237. 
<.,>ua->ia, 1894, 102. 
Quinine, 1888, 139; 1890, 29. 
Senna, Aden, 1892, 151. 
Sophora secundifiora, 1892, 216. 

Clove, 1891, 

Dye-vam, 1895, 230; 1896,74. 

Dyes of India, 1894, 321. 

Madagascar, 1890, 205, 

207, 208, 212. 

Yoruba-land, 1891, 219. 

Zanzibar, 1892, 90. 

Gamboge, Siam, 1895, 139. 
Geranium wallichianum, 1896, 

— , West African, 1888,74, 268. 
— , Yorubadand, 1888, 74, 268. 
Maqui berries, 1890, 34. 
Pmr.v, 1890, 45. 
Safflower, 1887, Sept., 20. 
Sumach, Venetian, 1895, 293. 
Zalil, Persian, 1889, 111; 1895, 


East Africa, botanical enterprise 

in, 1896, 80. 
, German, 1894, 411 ; 189S, 

East Africa, Gorman. coffee-h ai' Elliott. E. A.. Indian dried plants, 

disease in, 1894, 412. 1896, 31. 

— , list of plants intrudueed Emilia ii : -r f. >lia. /faAer, 1895, 
■ '" ? John "• ' 

from, by Sir John Kirk, 

Employes at Kcw, pay of, 1894, 

— Indies, coffee enterprise in, 

133; 1895, 231. 

1893, 123, 

Engler, Dr. A.. Brazilian dried 

, fibre-yielding Airavcs, 1892, 

plants. 1893, J46. 


—, ,Xew Guinea dried plants 

, introduction of the Brazil 

1892, 72. 

nut. 1887, Dec, 11. 

, West Indian food- 

plants, 1887, Au<;, 1; 1889, 17. 

Enlada M-ande:,^, 1893, 114. 

, Sisal hemp in, 1892, 37. 

Enys, Cornwall, 1893, 357. 

El>( ! v. M idaii'asi ai . 1888, 135. 

Kpicampcmaciuura. 1 887. 1 )ec. 9. 

Echidnopsis nubiea, A". A'. /;>w//. 

Kpidendrum atrorubens. Bulfe, 

1895, 263. 

1896, 46. 

Lim WislizenJ at Kew, 

— bituberculatum, Bo/fe. 1892. 


-us of New Zealand. 

— Ellisii. Bo/ ft: 1894,184. 

1890, 217. 

— Ilartii, Rol/e, 1894, 157. 

E!ith.-.»!ea, .V. E. Brown. g>n. 

nov., 1895, 220. 

— grandis, i\ T . .E. Brown, 1895, 

— (§ Barkeria) Falmeri, Bo/fe, 

Education, agricultural, in Ja- 

— Vhnu. Bo/fe, ISO 1, 392. 

— pumilum, Bo/ft: 1893, 171. 

— , technical, in horticulture, 1892, 

— tricolor, Bo/fe, 1893, 63. 


Egypt, disappearance of desert 

EpNc-ia de.isa. //,,«*■/., 1895, 17 

VA^^k^Haker, 1894, 

Erag'ro>tis a'bvssinica, 1887, Jan. 

— angolensis, Baker, 1891, 29. 

Eranthemu'in' reticulatum, 1896 

— eivaricata, li,,h : , r. 1894, 28. 

— whartonianum, Hemsl.. 1S9 J 

— macrophylla, Baker, 1894, 29. 

Ekelieriria eapensis. 1887, Sept.. 

Eria albillora. Rolfe, 1893, 170. 


— erespitosa Bulfe. 1896. 194. 

El;ei><mi, sis. I S9 1 . 1J)0; 1892. 

62, (with plate), 200: 1895. 161. 
in Labuan, 1889, 259. 

-cristata. flnlf. 1892. 139. 

Bolfe, 1896, 19 1. 

Erica', (inlpi,,, 1805 

— floridanus, HemsL, 1896, 158. 


201; 1896,204. 

L 'J')2- 1S9<!' l''s 2 *>;^ U : IM>,) 

— "(luiu'lrangulatum, 1892, 137. 

Eland- Bont.jes. 1887. Sept., 13. 

Elephant beetle (with plate). 1*93, 

Erythroxyluu amdatu.n. 1889. 11 

Elophantorrhiza Burchellii, 1887, 

"*72. " Wlt 1 1S89 ' * ; 1892 

Sept., 13. 

'- at Lagos, 1890, 162. 

Elettaria Cardamomum, 1887, 

Sept., 13. 


Erythroxylon Coca, earliest noi 

of, 1889,221. 

in Ceylon, 1894, 152. 

var. novo-granatense (w 

fig.), 1889, 1; 1894, 153. 

— laurifolium, 1589, 11. 

— macrophyllum, 1889, 11. 

— monogynura, 1889, 11. 

— montanum, 1889, 11. 

Essence of lemon, 1895, 269. 

limes, 1&92, 108. 

Esmeralda rubber of CI >- 

67, 70. 

in Natal, 1895, 3. 
Eucalyptus amygdalina, 1887, 

Sept., 5. 

— coccifera, 1389, 61. 
at Kew, 1892,3(9 

— diversicolor, 1887. Sept., 6. 

— Globulus, 1887, Sept., 6; 1889, 
61; 1895,3. 

at Kew, 1892, 309. 

— gomphocephala. iSS7, Sep:.. ii. 
— , hardy species of, 1889, 61 ; 

1892, 309. 

— longicornis, 1887, Sept., 6. 

— longifolia, 1895, ?. 

— loxophleba, 18b 7, Sept., 6. 
irginata, 1887, Sept. 6, ; 1890, 

-:•!, 341. 

- (Rhizanthium) oblongicaulis, 
Bah r. 1895, 185. 

- Sipolisii, N. E. Brown, 1893, 

, 18!)5, 147. 

Evans, M. S., l.)mken>l>erg dried 

plants, 1895, 23. 
Everett, A. II. . South Celebes 

dried plants, 1896, 36. 
Exe;eenria A^ulloclwt, 1896,69. 
Exotic plants lYoni the Uoval 

(hardens, Kew, 1893, 147. 
E.\]m rmuntal eultivation at Port 

Darwin, 1895. 99. 

l>'-.ri893 J 338.' 

Fagopyrum tataricum, 1893, 1. 

— obliqua, 1889, 114. 

— oils, 1887, Sept., 5. 

, — himalaica, 1893, 1. 

-r redunca, is87. Sept., 6. 

Fagrsea macroscypha, Baker, 

— rostrata, 1887, Sept., 6 ; 1895, 

1896, 25. 


— spicata, Baker, 1896, 25. 

Euehlama luxurians, 1894, 380. 

Fagus Cunninghamii, 1889, 114, 



Eucomis huiniil-. Baker. 1^95, 

Faham tea, 1892, 181. 

False Sisal of Florida, 1892, 1 
Farmer, J. B., Perim dried pit 
1895, 45. 

— cornutus, Hemsl., 1893, 209. 

1895. 146. 

— inviiaiithus, Hemsl., 1893, 210. 

— venosus, Hemsl., 1893,210. 

Ferns and For 

Eupatorium (Heterolepis)_ eiil»a- 

of, 1895, 199 

dioides, Baker, 1895, 105. 

-— lasve, 1892, 179. 


— tinctorium, 1892, 179. 

— of South Aft 

Fi i us, tei |> rah . Ii use for, at 

' Fibres -co,,/. 

Kew, 1892, 285. 

Ferula alliacea, 1895, 204. 

Pine-apple (i .re. ISST. Vpril, S : 

— jaeschkeana, 1895, 57- 

1893, 208, 368. 

— Narthex, 1895, 57. 

Plantain and banana fibre, 1887, 

Fever in cocoa nut palms in lb itish 

Balia West Af'rkur, 18«)o, <s. 

Honduras, 1893, 41. 

Fibres :— 

Bahamas Pit;, (sn S,\,;! Jump). 

Rajmahalhemp, 1894,321. 

Betel-nut fibre, 1887, Sept., 14. 

Pamie or Rhea'. 18SS. 14), 273, 

Bombay Aloe fibre, 1890, 50 ; 

297; ISSit, 26s. li-4 ; 1H91, 

1892, 36, 283. 

277; 1892,301. 

Bowstring hemp. 1887, May, 1 ; 

Siberian perennial flax, 1890, 

Broom root, 1887, Dec., 9. 

Sisal hemp, 1887, March, 3; 

1889, 5 7, 254; 18- M. 158. 

27:1; 1S91, 176; 1*92, 21, 

141, 189, 217. 272; IS93, 

March, 3. 

206, 212. 227, 315 ; 1894, 

China Grass, 1888, 145 ; 1889, 

268, 284; 1896,73. 

Spanish Broom, 1892, 53. 

Chinese fibres, 1891, 2*7. 

1889, 129. 

Cotton, 180O, 135; 1891, 49: 

1892, 90; L894, 191, 318; 

1896, 118. 

Deccan hemp, 1887, Sept., 19 ; 

Zanzibar fibre-, 1892, 87. 

1891, 204. 

Fibre - extracting machines and 

Falsi^ Sisal of Florida, 1892, 

processes :— 

Formosa., fibres, 1896, 73. 

' s'rutte* l'vf'T^ni 

[Jene.pien (Sisal) hemp,' 1892, 

Mexican fibre or Istle .— ^ 

Honckenva fibre, 1889,15. 

hdlador (with %), 1890, 

Indian fibres, 1894.321. 

Istle fibre, 1887, Dec, 5 ; 1890. 

American Fibre Co. ma- 


Kanaff, 1887, Sept., 19; 1891. 

Harbier i,,a him-. P ^, 

Ke'atto, 1887, March, 10; 1891, 

Do" LlmdiVhecV' 'machine, 

Madagascar fibres, 1890,203. 

D { .l^V>ti'm." ls^I.'275.' 

Manila Aloe fibre, 1892, 36; 

Favmr machiu, . 1*38, 117, 

— l^mp,' 1887, April, 1; 1894, ; 

Fleurv -^Pjric.'au process, 

289; 1895,208. 

Manrifiu- hemp. lhST, Mareli, 

Ft emery machine. 1892, 

8; 1889,61. 


Mexican fibre. 1887, Dec, 5; 

Gnen machine. 1892,305 

— whisk, 1887, Dec, 9. 

Rauffnmn machine, 1892, 

Michotfe machine, 1889, 

Okro fibre, 1890, 229. 

Palmyra lias- fibre, 1892, 1 18. 

Kew Orleans machine 

trials, 1892, 304. 

— , Madagascar, 1894, 358. 

chemical process, 

Sisal hemp : — 

Albre Smith machine, 1892, 

38; 1893,216. 
Barraclough machine, 1892, 

Death & Ellwood machine, 

1892,275; 1893, 215. 
Edison process, 1891, 177. 
Kennedy machine, 1890, 

Maden machine, 1893,216. 
Prieto machine, 1892, 274; 

1893, 329. 
Raspador, 1892, (with fig.) 

37, 274; 1803, 330. 

ne, 1894, 189, 

Fish hooks, blackthorn, 1896, 98. 
— poison, Malayan, 1892, 216. 
Flagstaff at Kew, 1890, 97. 
Flahault, Prof. C, Xostoehinen- 

from, 1891, 246. 

i disease of bananas, 

1890, 273. 
Flax, Siberian perennial, 1890, 


Fungus, 1893, 20, 

124, 186. 

- of Aldabra Islands, 1894, 146. 

■ Brilish India, 1894, 225: 

1896, 150, 234. 
, supplementary note 

225: lx»l. 


Weicher machine, 1892, 
275; 1893, 141. 
i'icus (Urostigma) aldabrensis, 
Baker. 1894, 151. 

1896', 78. "' 

the Barr 

m Grounds, North 

Canada, 1895 



Peninsula, mate- 

1896, 171. 

rials for, 189 


Burma, 1888,217. 

ion Islands, 1894, 

*, 253; 1890, 89. 

32 ' 15 °* t? • 

-— Tropin! Afri 

Filing iVrns. 

frost in, 1895, 125, 

cf, 1892, 183. 
895, 79. 

owing iD, 1895, 125. 
p in, 1892, 25. 
mica, 1893, 342. 
insect (with plate), 
1892, 50. 

ides, Baker, 1895, 
annual, 1894, 375. 

Fool uriiiu- of India. 1MS7, Do.-., 
7 ; 1888, 266 ; 1889, 2<<3 : 
1892,232; 1893, 1. 

lant, new, 1896, 188. 

221 : 1892, 143. 

Foiino-a, botany of, 1896, 65. 
— , economic plants of, 1896, 73. 
— , Flora of, 1894, 227. 
Forsteronia floribunda, 1888, 70, 

— gracilis, 1888, 69. 

Fos.-il plants oft ho l !oal Measures, 

— , production of prunes in. Ism 1 . 

270 ; 1889, 227 ; 1890, 196. 
— , wine production in, 1 S90, 171. 
Fraiiehet, A., papers on tile Flora 

of China and Japan, 1892, 150. 
French, W. B., 1896, 147. 

: V •carii. II, ,,< J ., IS'.ni. 

Fruitcuringin theSouil. 
1891, 265. 

— growing at the Cape, 1893, 8. 

— industries in C'ali 
218; 1895, 125,166. 

— room, Buuyard's (with fig.), 
1895, 31. 

— trade of Fiji, 1893, 227. 

- Sicily, 

-, Bermuda, 

. 2W. 

. 21f». 

, British ( 
-, Canadian, 1887, Nov!, 4. 
-, Cape Colony, 1888, 15. 
-, Ceylon, 1888, 248. 
-, Colonial, 1887, Nov., 1 1888, 

1, 177, 197. 
-. Cvprus, 1888,215. 
-. Dominica, L888, 197. 


— , Cold ('oa>t. 

. -23 

—, Mysore, 1889,21. 
— , Natal, 1888, 225. 
— , New Zealand, 188 
— , St. Helena, 1888, 

— Creaghi 

. lion. 

/.. 1896, 167. 

— formosa 

a. 11 v, 

.«■/.. 1S96. 166. 

lit HI si 

, 1896, 165. 


ms/., 1896, 164 


— rigidilol 

a, Hemsl,, 1896, 165. 

\*,Hemsl., 1896, 167. 

— Vidalii. 

1896, 166. 

Friendh 1 

dan. Is, 

Flora of, 1894 


Fritiliaria i 


896, 220. 

Frog, N'e* 


at Few, 1S95 

Frost of 1895, eft 

icta of, at Kew 

1896, 5. 

Fi nit, ''old 

1S96, 33 

>n in 

the Bahamas 

i Australian, 1888, 6. 
s Settlements, 1888, 3 

serving, 1889, 257. 
— , root diseases caused bv, 1896, 1. 
Fungus, edible, of New Zealand, 

Fungus flora, British, 189 

372; 1895,234. 
Furcran cubensis, 1SS7, I 

10; 1890,274. 
— giganlea, 1887, Marc 

spicatn?, 1887, Sept., 7. 

, 190. 


Gadong, 1891, 264. 

Geranium pulcl 

Oeertnera morindoides, Baker, 

1892, 83. 

— vallicliiamn 

— vaginata, 1839, 281. 

(ialan'nal, 1891, 6. 

Galola Faheri, />',,.'/< , 1896, 200. 

1895, 27. 

Galium stenopbyUuin, Baiter, 

German Oo'oi 

1895, OS. 

flHlpiii. E. !•:.. South African dried 

r* ; — 


137 ; 1891, 277; 1892, 51, 72, 
105, 186, 283, 284, 285, 309, 
310; 1893, 21, 111, 112, 115, 
147, 186; 1894, 75, 135, 193, 
371, 398; 1895, 19, 155, 203, 

Garrett, G. H., Sierra Leone dried 

plants, 1891,245. 
Gentiana laterillora, IfuusJ., 1896, 


Geographical Congress, Inter- 
national, 1895,235. 
Geophila picta, Ruffe, 1896, 18. 
George IV., 1 "" 

and the Pacific, 

1894, 345. 

'_ C0 {T 0C leaf-disease in, 

transvaaliea, N. E. Brown, 


1891, 346. 

— South-Wcs?, Africa, 1896, 17S. 

unbia, agricultural industries at, 

Ginger, Chinese, 1891, 5; 1892, 

1889, 142; 1890, 261; 1892, 


— cultiTatioik at Port Darwin, 

, climate of the, 1892, 109. 

1895, 99. 

cotton cultivation at the, 1894, 

— , Fiji, 1892, 77. 


— , Jamaica, 1892,79. 

DelimitationCommission, botany 

— , Siam, 1891,6. 

of, 1*91, 268; 1892,45. 

Ginseng, 1S92, 107; 1893,71. 

mahouanv, 1890, 168. 

native medicines, 1893, 371. 

1 ssi). 227. 

pngns or native cloths, 1894, 

Gladiolus caudatus Jiahtr, 1S9.>, 

( Kii.ixladioluii) ercctiflorus, 

Kew Museum. 1891, 276 
Gamboge, Siam, 1895, 139. 

'sikki n. 1893! 297. 
Garbellin- of spice, 1893*66. 
Garcinia Buchauani, Baker, 18 

35 I. 
— Hanburvi, 1895, 139. 

Globba siamensis. 1 sf >.".. 

Greece, Phylloxera in, erroneous 


•report of, 1889, 236. 

urn musarum, 1894, 

— vine disease in, 1893, 185. 

! Greene, Professor E. L., Cali- 

Glorio'sa Carsoni, Baiter, 1895, 74. 

fornian dried plants, 1893,66; 

Glossonema alline, X. E. Jiroirn, 

1894, 370. 

1895, 249. 

( M-een-glass in plain houses. 1895. 

— edule, iY. E. Hroicn, 1895, 


— grass, 1894, 385. 

Glyevnhizaechinata, 1896, 222. 

Greenheart, 1887, Sept., 15 ; 1893, 

— glabra, 1893, 323; 1894, 141 ; 

1896, 222. 

Greenhouse construction, Kew 

f var. alandulifera, 1896, 


— uralensis, 1896, 222. 

1893, 225. 

Gold Coast Botanic Station 1891, 

Grenada, arrowroot in, 1893, 333. 

169 ; 1892, 1 4, 297 ; 1893, 160, 

— Botanic Garden, 1887. dune. 8 ; 

365; 1895, 11. 

| July, 12 ; 1891, 149. 

, rubber plants at, 1893, 

— cacao-growing in, 1893, 136. 


botanical officer, -visit to the 

June, 3. 

West Indies, 1894, 227. 

— exhibits at Jamaica Exhibition. 

, cacao cultivation, 1895, 13. 

1891, 167. 

curing 1895.23. 

— , fruits of, 18S8, 188. 

1 coffee cultivation, 1895, 12, 

— , museum specimens from, 1887, 

21, 165. 

Sept., 16. 

curing, 1895,23. 

— , orchids of, 1892, 188. 

, cultural industries, 1895, 

; — , photographs of, in Kew 


Museum, 1892, 187; 1893, 

— — , export, of rubber, 1895, 



— , report of Mr. Morris's visit. 

, fruits of, 1888,223. 

1891, 145. 

Gomphia discolor, Writ/lit, 1890. 

— . Sis ;1 l hemp in, 1892, 34. 


Grewia aldabrensis, Bah r. ls-94. 

Good, Peter, 1891,301. 


Good vera Henry i, Holfe, 1896, 

— batangensis. Wright, 1896, 



— pubescens, 1892, 181. 

Guatemala, bananas in, 1894, 298. 

Graham Kerr, Rio Pilcomayo dried 

— , coffee production in, 1892, 251 ; 

plants, 1891, 276. 

1893, 322. 

Grain, preservation of, from wee- 

— , dried plants from, 1891, 245. 

vils. 1890, 144. 

Guide to Museum 11., 1895, 203. 

Granger, W., retirement of, 1893, 

III., 1894, 74. 

Grant ia senecionoides, Baker, 

(ImnJmnl nins;— 3S2 ' 

1895, 317. 

Australian catechu, 1887, Sept., 

Grass lawns in British Central 

Bengal kino. 188;. Sept., 20. 

Africa, 1895, 188. 

Brazilian G U m Arabic, 1888, 

Eucalyptus rostra t a resin, 1887, 

— of British India, 1896, 150. 

Gum-tragacanth, 1894, 36; 

Gray. .J., death of, 1 895, 39. 

Gray, Samuel Frederick, hio^ra- 

Iiotai -urn. 1896, 94. 

phical notice of, 1891, 7t5. ' i 

Inhambane copal, 1888, 281. 

Gums and resins— cont. 

Hanbury medallion, 1893, 187. 

Hancock, W., Yunnan dried planK 

Madagascar gmr.s and resins, 

1890, 203. 

1895, 45, 53. 

New Caledonian dammar, 1891, 

llama inia speciosa, 1892, 67. 


Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon,. 

Shorea robusta re.-in, 1S92, 312. 

1892,250; 1S94.34,227; 1*95. 

Siam benzoin, 1895, 154, 195. 


— gamboge, 1895, 139. 

Hand-list of Conifers, 1896, 108. . 

Xanrliorrli<«'ii australis resin, 

— — — ferns and fern allies, 

1887, Sept., 6. 

1895, 199. 

Yorubadand gums, 1891, 219. 

herbaceous plants, 1895,. 

Gumming of the sugar-cane in 


Xew South Wales, 189-1, 1. 

orchids, 1896, 56. 

Gut, Chinese Mlkwnrm. 1892. 222. 

trees and shrubs, 1895 r 

Gutta Dercha from Dichopsis obo- 

40; Pare 11., 1896, 187. 

vata; 1892, 215. 

HauMMiiannia oMonga, Hemsl. r 

, Indian, 1892, 296. 

1892, 125. 

, new process for recovering 

loss of, 1891,231. 

Harris, T. J., 1896, 217. 
Harrow, R. L., 1893, iS5. 

tree, rediscovery of, in Singa- 

Hartley, J. E., 1896,218. 

pore, 1891, 230. 

Haverheld, John, 1891, 289. 

Guzerat rape, 1894, 96. 

Havilaud. Dr. (i.. Bornean dried 

! ■ 

plants 1891, 276; 1894, 136;- 

' J inker, 1892, 86. 

1896, 31. 

Gymnopentzia pilifera, N. E. 

Brown, 1895, 26. 

1892, 249. 

Eabenaria cinnebarina^V/e, 1893, 

- Elwesii, 1896, 119. 

- Faberi, Rolfe, 1893, 173. 

- Fordii, Ro, 1896, 202. 

- Hancockii, Rolfe, 1896, 202. 

- Henry i, Rolfe, 1896, 202. 

- hmnidieola, 'Rolfe. 1896. 202. 
_ omeiensi-, Rolfe. 1*96, 203. 

- (Bonatea) Phillipsii, Rolfe, 
1895, 227. 

radramant expedition, 1893, 366 ; 
1894, 194, 328. 




Hechtia argentea, 1896, 96. 

-olomouerisis. Items!., 
1895, 137. 
H.-liimthus drbilis. 1895, 272. 
Helichrysum album, X. E. Brown, 

. t: lie, 


cflexum, X. E. Brown, 

... 1887, Sept 



,anthus (Gyaxis) 

Baher, 1895, 

Hamiaria dawsoniana, 18:)<'>, 150. 
Halogeton sativu?, 1890, 56. 
Hamilton, Sir 11. G. C, Report c 

Dominica, 1894, 406. 
Hanbury, T., books presented I 

Kew Library, 1893, 22. 

— phyllosepalu 

jmerocallis graminea, 
used as food, 1889, 1 It 

, 1894, 336. 
Baker, 1894, 

3aker, 1894, 

ls93, . 

rix, 1893, 321 ; 

ian East Africa, 

1894, 112. 
Ih-nnpilia I It-iiryi. luhb.f., 189G, 

II- in cm, ii hemp (sec Sisal hemp). 
Henry, Ur. A., Botany of Formosa, 

1896, 65. 

llil.ix'iix «-ciili-m-i-. 1S90, 229. 
Highland coffee of Sierra Leone 
(with plate), 1896, 189. 

— . Sir John, 1891, 291. 
Hillier, J. M., 1892. 309. 
Himalayan Rubi, 1895, 123. 

Himalayas, bulbous violet in, Is9t, 

1894, 227. 


— , J. M., 1895, 318. 

Hippeastrum procerum 

Hepatica- Amazonica et Andime, 

1893, 186. 

1892, 285. 

I lirneola polvtricha, 1890 

Ilirseh. Dr.'L., Iladram; 

ervthmstachvs, 1895, 122. 
Herbaceous plants at Kewr, 1892, 

plants, 1895, 315. 

Hirschia, Baker, pen. n< 



, effects of frost on, at Kew, 

— antheniidil'olia. Ha In 



, hand-list of, 1895, 232. 

Historical account of Kew 

, list of seeds available for 


Holalafia, Stapf, -en. n«, 

1890, Appendix I.; 1891, 


Appendix I. ; 1892, Appendix 

— multiflora. Stapf, 189- 

I.; 1893, Appendix I.; 189-1, 

liolland, J. 11.. 189-5. It; 

Appendix I. ; 1895, Appendix 

UolarH.ena afrieana, 18! 

135, 136, 166, 194, 195, 227, 
370 ; 1895, 20, 38, 45, 46, 78, 
79, 125, 157, 158, 159, 204, 
272, 273; 1896, 31, 36, 187, 

Holy wood, 1893,368. 
Honialium (Hlaekwellia) myrii 

thum, Baker, 1896, 23. 
Home, SirEverard, 1891,319. 

Honekenva lioifolia. 1S89, 15. 
Hon- Kong, plague, of eaterpill 

lleT.n.phnimna longipes, linker, 

llev/a onedliensis. 1892,67. 

in Ceylon, 1893, 159. 

Jamaica, 1895, 79. 

Hibiscus argutns. Baker, 1895, 

Hooper, .James, 1893, 174. 

Hope Garden, .Jamaica, 1891, 157 ; 

1894, 160. 
Home, J., retirement of, 1892, 

Sep!., 19; Hortieultur. 

Horticulture in Belgium. Is!).!. 162 

Cornwall, 1893, 355. 

— , instruction in, 1892, 41. 
Hortus Cantabrigiensis, Donn's, 
1895, 205. 

— Flnminensis, 1895, 273. 
Hose, Dr., Bornean dried fern-. 

1893, 224. 
Hotai, 1890, 94. 
Hoya affinis, Itemsl., J 892, 126. 

— inconspicua, Hemsl., 1894, 213. 
Huanuco Coca, 1894, 152. 
Huernia arabica, X. E. Broini, 

1895, 265. 

— similis, X. E. Brown, 1895, 

Humphreys, T., 1893, 20. 

C. 11.. 1895, 155. 
Huon pine, 1889, 115. 
Huskies* barley, 1888,271. 
Huter, Kev. R., Indian dried plants, 
1895, 157. 

; - i . 

■■;\<>n ckcl'Isi 

— Hancockii, Wright, 1896, 21. 

— mirabilis, 1892,' 187. 
Incarvillea Delavayi, 1896, 122. 
Index Flora Sinensis, 1S89, 225 

1894, 225. 

— Kewensis, 1892, 49 ; 1 893, 3-12 ; 
1894, 74, 400 ; 1895. 300 : 
1896, 29. 

— to Kew Bulletin, 1887-91, 
1891, Appendix IV. 

Reports, 1862-82, 1890, 

Appendix II F. 
India, bananas in. 1*91, 260, 288. 
— , liutaiiicai -ur\ev of. 1S95. 5t> ; 

1896, 220. 



ism;. I 

-— , , Supp 

>, 1894, 200. 
Calligonum flowers as 

-, lb<d -rail:: 
1S.SS. 201 ! : 
232; 1*93, 

i, 1892, 132; 1893, 
i (with plate), 1888, 

India, vegetable resources of, 1891, 

In*ecl posts — cont. 

Fluted scale insect, 1889, 191 ; 

— , wheat production of, 1894, 167, : 

1892, 50. 

Graptodera chalybea, 1888, 15. 

— , wild products of, 1894, 315. 

Heteronychus atratus, 1892, 88. 

— , wormwood as a fodder Dlant 

Icerya (Orossotosoma) asgyptiaca 

in, 1893, 126. 

(with figg.), 1890, 94 ; 1891, 

Indian Archipelago, banana- in. 

1894, 263. 

— Purchasi, 1S89 (with plate), 

— buckwheat, 1893, 3, 

191; 1892, 50. 

— dried plants, 1891, 24.") ; 1893, 

Insect injury to barrel staves 

224; 1894, 370; 1895, 157; 

(with figs.), 1890, 181 ; 1894, 



— guttapercha, 1892,296. 

Liparis Monacha, 1890, 224 , 

— plant-, drawings of, 1894, 135. 

1892, 143. 

— sugar, 1890,71. 

Locusts in the Cmcasus, 1894, 

— yellow, 1890, 45. 

In.li_rn factory, model of. in 

Megasoma acta-on, 1893, 44. 52. 

Museum No. 3, 1887, Sept.; 18. 

— elephas (with plate). \s[Ki, 

— in India, 1894,322. 

44, 53. 

— , Paraguay, 1892, 179. 

Metanastria punctata. IS9M95". 

— plants, "West African, 1888, 

Mites on sugar-pane, 1N90, ;{,-,. 

Moth borer. 1892 (with plate). 

— , Yoruba, 1888,74, 268. 

153, 267; 18 '4. 172; 1895, 

— , --, cultivation of, 1890, 242. 

Indi-rofera desumdioides, Baker, 

Nonnenpest, 1890, 224; 1892, 



— disperma, 1894, 371. 

Ochsenhcimcriahisontella, 1889, 

Inhambane Copa>, 1888, 281. 

Insect pests :— 

Aleurodes cocois, 1893, 14, 5S. 

— tcnpcratella, 1889, 133. 


Onion fly, 1887, Oct., 18. 

Orange scale in Cyprus, 1891, 

(with plat,) 1891,221. 

Beetle larva- attacking orchids 
Beetles destructive to rice crops 

Orti.ez.ia iusignis, 1895, 162, 

1 —"rhinoceros, 189;;, 4l'. 

Palm weevil (with plate). ISM. 

Borers in .lan-nii timber, 1893, 


338; 1894,78. 

Parasol ant, 1893, 50,124. 

Calandra granaria, 1890, 148; 

Phylloxera vastatrix, 1889, 06, 

227,230; 1890, .'Hi; 1891,4 4. 

Caterpillars, pk^ne of, in Hong 

1893,4 1,58. 

c'uZ^^coff^m, 1891, 


Chauociieina basalis, 1SS8, 13. 

— palmarum (with plate), 1893, 
27, 54. 
! Shot borer, 1892, 108 (with 

I's'^^wVli'pl'uV). 1 r,:i, 267 ; 

plate), 153, 267 ; 1891, 138, 

Coffee leaf miner, 1894, 130. 

Diaxcues dcmlrobii, 1896, 62. 

Sphenophorus sacchavi, 1892 

— Taylori, 1896, 62. 

1 < witn plate), 153, 267. 

Sugar-cane borers, 1892, 88, 

108, 153, 267 ; 1895, 82. 
Tarsonynuis so. on Begonia-. 

1895, 285. 

sugar-cane, 1S90, 85. 

Trypodendron signatum, 1890, 

Weevil borer, 1892 (with plate), 

153, 267. 

from, 1890, 144. 
Wheat pest in Cyprus, 1889, 

Xyleborus dispar, 1892, 163. 
— morigerus, 1896, 63. 

plate) 153,\>07;'lS94! 13S. 
International Gcographiea 
gress, 1895, 235. 

— Phvlloxera Congress, 1 889,2 
Ionidfum durum, Baker, 1895,1 
Ipecacuanha, 1888, 123. 

— in Southern India, 1896, 32. 
— , Trinidad, 1388, 269. 
Iphi;*enia riomaliensis,2?«Aer, 18 


ub 1 t hi/c 


pomoea (Strophiporaoea) 
lensis, Baker, 1891, 70. 

inconspicua, Baker, 1894,71. 

- Lesteri, Baker, 1892, 83. 

-( Strophipomoea) megalochlamys. 

- repandula, Baker, 189o, 113. 

- (StrophiporiKca) sliirambensis. 
Baker, 1894, 72. 

- (Calonyction) shirensis, Buker r 
1894, 74. 

- (Strophipomoea) shupangensis r 
Baker, 1894, 73. 

- (kuiponuca) sindiea, Stapf, 

Ipoh aker. I Si)l, 266; is'.), 

«, Baker, 1894, 
Baker, 1894, 

— (Stmpliipomica) diplocalyx, 
Baker, 1894, 71. 

— - (Orthipomoca) discolor, Baker, 

— (Strophipoiii.i.-a) Hanningtoni, 
Baker, 1894, 70. 

heterosepala, Baker, 1895, 

h r« t ill n jht, 1896, 

— - HoJubiL Baker, 1894, 72. 


i, Baker, 1894, 

) tangain ikon-is. 

- (Ortli 

-(Strophipomoea) vagans, Baker, 

1894, 70. 
Vogelii, Baker, 1894, 71. 

- — Wakefieldii, Baker, 1394, 

-Woodii, X. E. Brown, 189 L 

lridt'M', handbook of, I S92, 1 
Irids, effect of frost on, at 

1896, 7. 
Iroko wood, 1891, 43. 
Irving, W., 1893, 65. 


Istle fibre. 

Ixianllie- ii 

, Paraguay, 1891, 179. 
ge, 1894, 117. 

— . bananas in, 1894, 270, 275, 

297, 302, 310, 312, 352. 
— Botanical Department, 1891, 

15G; 1892, 73; 1894, 159; 

1896, 125. 
.— , Castleton Gardens, 1892, 73 ; 

1895, 79. 
— , coffee in, 1893, 322. 

asminum microphvllum, Baker, 

- nummularifoliiim, Hither, 1895, 

Bit her, 1895, 94. 

— obtusifolium, Baher, 1895, S 

— octocuspe, Baker, 1895, 110 

— olea'carpum, Baher, 1895, 9 

- Smithii, Baher, 1S95, 93. 

- somaliense. Baher, 1895, 218. 

- stenodon, Baker, 1895,94. 
tornifolimn. linker, 1S95. 95. 

-Walteri, Baker. 1895. 95. 

Java, bananas in, 1894,2(54,265. 
— , sugar-cane disease in, 1894, 84. 
Jeffrey, J. F., IH'M, 133. 
Jesup timber collection, 1894, 45. 
Jin/.<., Prof. M., Japanese dried 

Job's tears, 1888, 144. 
Jodrell Laboratory, 1893, 158. 

, appointment of Honorary 

Keeper, 1892, 245. 

Johnson's Gardener's Dictionary. 

— . training oi Atnean nat 

1892, 75. 
— walnut, 1894, 138, 371; 1 

Jamieson, A , death of, 1895. 

osa, Baher, 1895, 
, Baher, 1895, 214. 

Kanaff, 1887, Sept., 19 ; 1891, 204. 

Kew Herbarium (see 


Kangaroo grass, 1894, 377. 

' — , historical accoui 

it of, to 1841, 

Kangra buckwheat, 1891, 244 ; 

1891, 279. 

; — , injury by lightn 

ing at, 1895, 

390, 201 ; 1896, 204. 

Karakoru.n Expedition, dried 

— , International 


Congress, visit of, 

1895, 235. 

, scientific reports of, 1895, 

— , Jodrell Laborato 

ry, 1893, 188. 

Karon ga Mountains, explc: 

of, 1890, 19G. 
Karri timber, 1887, Sept., 6. 
Kashmir, report of botanical 

K'er. William. 1891. 304. 
Keratto fibre, 1887, March, 10; 

1891, 133. 
Kew and the Colonies, 1895. 2o,5. 

— , large cacti at, 1895, 155. 
— , — screw pines, removal 
1895, 319. 

— Leguminosso collection, 18 

— Library (see Library). 

— , list of orchids flowered at, 
1890, 1891, 52. 

— Museum (see Museum). 

■ Bulletin, selected papers f'rorr 

, number of 
1 ; 1893, 67 ; 1894 
8,271; 1896,28. 
old sites at, 1894, 

— , I'alm House 

— , Douglas Spruce spar at, 

— , filmy ferns, house for, 

ng apparatus, 1895, 



, -1 _ terrace, 1896 

, 20. 

1 *!)•_'. 


pay of employes at, 

1895, 234. 

pelicans at, 1896, 9 

pictorial aspect of, 


Podocarpus spp. at, 

, H»!;. 

Relief house at, 18S 

Reports, 1862-82, 


x to, 

-, hand-list of Conifene grown 
at, 1896, 108. 

1890, Appendix III. 
— , revision of Ordn 

-, ferns and fern allies 

grown »t. 189,5, 199. 

Society, of, Imi; 

grown at, 1895, 232. 

— 8eeds,\listrihution of 

-, — orchids grown at, 

1896, 56. 

— system of greenhouse 

Kew, Temperate House, 1894, 

Korarima Cardamom, 1894,400. 

398; 1895,235. 

Krumbiegel, G. H., 1893, 66. 

Kum-Bum, Sacred tree of, 1896, 

— , West Indian frog at, 1895, 


Kyllinga microstyla, C. B. Clarke, 


Khaya Benegalensfc, 1890, 168 ; 

1891, 8; IS95, 79. 

Kiaerskou, H., Greenland and Ice- 

land dried plants. 1893, 225. 


, Mexican dried plants, 1893, 


Labiata', tuberous. 1894, 10. 

Kickxiaafricana ( with plaie). 1S95, 

Labiate with stinging hair<. 1ML\ 

2-41 ; 1890, 76. 

no dried plants, 1893, 

Labuan, African oil-palm in, 1?»9, 

146. it. tlora of, 1892, 249; 

Laetuca ( lhaclrTainphus) holo- 

1893, 187; 1895,42. 

phylla, Baker, 1895, 148. 

Kino. IVngal, lbs?, Sept.. 20. 

— nana, Baker, 1895, 17. 

King, Dr. G., dried specimens of 

— (Scariola) stenocephala, 

Palms and Anonacea?, 1892, 248. 

Iiakvr. 1895, 147. 

— , — — , Indian dried plant.-, 

I..v_n.. Ut.h.bnlo tibre from, 1S89, 

1894, 370. 


—, , Malayan dried plants, 

— IVtanie Station, 1SSS, 118; 

1891, 246; 1893, 145; 1895, 

1889, 69; 185)0, 162; 1S91, 

King's House Gardens, Jamaica, 
Kin-ton Parade Garden^ Jamaica, 

- - -, list of cultivated plants 

-rcal-aiM^th' lS96,7t«. 

Kin J William's' Town' Botanic 

— \ <Z'oa'nut''coir 'ivl'm,^ 1»9, 

Garden, 1895, 52. 

Kirk, Sir John, < xperimen'al 

garden at Zanzibar, 1896,80. 

by, 1896, 82. 

— , T., Macquarie Island dried 

plants, 1894, 401. 

— . new rubber industry. 1895, 

Kissena Xi-rseries. 1S94, 61. 

Kniphofia Evansii, Baker. 1 S95, 


— longistyla, Baker, 1893, 158. 

~ Northia>, 1895. 156. 

— eombensis, Baker, 1S93, 158. 

Kniphofs Botanica in Original!. 

— rubber. 'l»s, £.13; 1890, SO; 

seu Herbarium vivum, 1895, 


Kochia eriantha, 1896, 139. 

Lake. Kew" 1891. 134. 

— villosa, 1896. 140. 

Kodo millet, 1894,386. 

Kola (see Cola). 

Koleroga, 1893, 67. 

Koompassia excelsa, 1896, 156. 
— malaccensis, 1896, 156. 

Lambert. A. B.. 1891, 326. 

Lampon<;, 1891, 267. 

Koorders, S. H., Malayan dried 

Landolp'hin tlorida, 1892, 68; 

plants, 1895, 20. 

181)3, 183. 

Laudolphia Kirkii, 1892, 68. 

Leueas (Loxo-roma) thvnioidcs. 

— Mannii, 1892, 68. 

Baker, 1895, 226. 

— owariensis. 1889, 65; 1892, 

L'Heritier, 1891, 296. 

68 ; 1893, 183. 

Libeiian coffee, 1890, 245 ; 1893, 

— - petersiana. 1N92. I>8. 

25 ; 1895, 273. 

Lanium Berkeley!, Rolfe, 1894, 

at Gold Coast, 1892, 300, 

303; 1895, 12, 21, 165. 

— subulatum, Rolfe, 1896, 46. 

Lagos, 1896, 78. 

Lantana eoneinna. Baiter, 1895, 

~~ 1888~: 2 6i 6 i8™o S , ^ tt,ements ' 

Lat^ca, 1892,219. 

-, 'cleaning in London, 1895, 


1891, 391. 

r.Ji<iantlnTa papnana. 1892, 105. 

visable. 1^93. 132. 

Lathvnsnm-. 1894, 351. 

husks, 1887, Sept., 17. 

Lathyrus fodder, 1894, 349. 

— tuberosum, tubers of, 1894, 164. 

-'-- — North Borneo, 1893, 

l/AuMni'-ie. M and Mine., Poetry 

— Jamaica, 1895,79. 

of Ketv Gardens 18:6, 152. 

Sierra Leone, 1893, 167. 

Lavandula inacra, Baker, 1891, 


,' yield ot\ in Malay Peninsula, 

Lawsun^I.A.. death of, !><:<*, 185. 

L'eeuolle, 1S92. 10*. 

248; 1893. 22, 1 17, 3(59; 1894. 

78, 137, 167; 1895, 10, 156. 

157, 205 ; 1896, 31, 32. 

collection at Kew, 

Lightning, injury by, at. Kew, 1895, 

1891, 134. 

Leigh, F. (J., 1893,365. 

Union and I i uv' trees ' as" hedge 

Riviera, 1892, 1. 

—,'—,'- Tropical Africa, 189:'.. 

— pickling, 1895, 271. 

Lilies Bermuda, 1892, 309, 353. 

Lentinus curtipes, Massee, 1896, 

Lilium bulbiferum flowers and 


bulbs used as food, 1889, 116. 

Lconotis laxifolia, MeOicaa, 1893, 

— eordifolium bull>s used as food. 

1889, 118. 

Lily flowers and bulbs used as 

Leo,„,Mmia Pia-d>a. 1SS9. 237. 


Lime, Bijou, 1891, 1 16. 

Lepanthos gracili,, /,V/r. 1892, 

— trees us hedge plants. 1896, 

Lepioti Friesn 1894 399 

— , West Indian. 1894, 113. 

Lepistemon leiocalyx," Stapf, 1895, 

r" ! | ifl VA h\ U \>\ ! '' : t rt '-'M^is 

Leppett tea, 1896, 10. 

Liii'. Vr.. 'lh-p.'.rt on 'lioyal 

Leucas(Loxostoma) Colea-, linker. 

Lindsaya ( Kulindsaya) Natunre, 

— (Ortholeueasj Jamesii, 7?rt/cr, 

Linna-i.s-sJsystema Naturae, 1894, 

— (Loxostoma ; panrijiiL.T, linker. 

1895, 226. 

Linney, A., 1894, 192. 

Linum percnmv 1899. 101. 
Liparis Henrvi, Rolfe, 1896, 193. 

— Monacha, 1890, 224; 1892, 

— pauciflora, Rolfe, 1896, 193. 
Liquorice, 1894, 141. 

— , Chinese, 1896, 222. 

— in the Caucasus, 1893, 223. 
Liriodendron tulipiiera. 1*96,223. 

Kew to African Lakes Com- 
pany and Livingstonia Mission, 
1896, 84. 

introduced economic plants 

in Dominica, 1887, July, 10. 

orchids flowered at Kew 

in 1890, 1891, 52. 

Lister, J. J., Tonga Islands dried 
plant-, 1892, 151. 

Listera grandiflora, Rolfe, 1896, 

Littledale, St. George R., Tibetan 
dried plants 189(5, 99, 207. 

Littledalea, Hemsl., gen. nov. 1896, 


tharis, Rolfe, 189; 
cockii. Rolfe, 189 

394, 194, 

— , — , Hadramaut dried plants, 

Lupinus sonialiensi-s linker, 1*95, 

1896, 84. 
Lobostemon cryptocephalum, 

— in the Cauca-n-. in. fhods for 

exterminating, 1894, 215. 
Lodoicea sechellarum at Kew, 

1892, 105 ; 1894, 400. 
Lomaria egenolfioides, Baker, 

1894, 7. 
Lonchocarpus cyanescena, 1888, 

74, (with plate) 208. 
Lonicera Albert!, 1895, 40. 
J.. .rani has (Dendrophthoe) celehi- 

cus, Hemsl., 1896, 39. 
mweroensis, linker, 1895, 

I.ort I'hillips Mr-.. - 

,1,-ied plants. 1895, 158,211. 
Lourya campanii'a 1. 1, 1*9). l->0. 
Loxa bark, commercial value of, 

1890, 54. 
Lubbock, Sir J., contribution t « 

our knowledge of seedlings, 

Lueddcmannia triloba, Rolfe. 1895, 

tfteana, L895, 122. 

Macmillan, H., 1895, 155. 
Macules snnderiana, Rolfe, 1896, 

Ma.-oun, J. M.. Canadian dried 

plants 1*96, 31. 
MaeOwan, 1'roi'.. South African 

dried plant-, 1*93, 116; 1*91, 

Mac M uario Lland. Flora of, 1*91, 

Maero-porinin parasiticr.m, 18*7, 

Madagascar, Achyrosperinum 
from, 1892, 150. 

— banana- in, 1891, 266. 
—'dried plants, 1892, 49, 104. 

- i Loin. 1*8*, 135. 


nv. West African, 1890, 



1891, 8; 1895, 79. 




Sept., 20. 

x ,,n-tfrom TSritisU Gui.-uiii. 


: Mascarenha*ia utilis, 1895, 199. 

— , prod 

uction of, in Natal, 1887, 

I Pallia on.mul.ilii, vav. in- 



flat;). 1896, 123. 


-- pit, at Kew, 1894, 75. 


-■-pusiila, Rolfe. 1893, 335. 


viticulture in, 1894, 34. 

Massee, G., 1893, 2(5, 114. 

Malay fi: 

sh poison, 1892, 216. 

Masson. Francis. 1891,295. 

— Penim ,!::, Ii ,h poison of, 1891, 

M:" i ja^niiiillora. 1896, 122. 

25, 259. 


materials for a Flora of, 

of, 1887, Feb., 6. 


— , bananas in, 1894, 266. 

— fruits, 1888, 20. 


i », 1891, 246 ; 

Cmepipe, 1892,238. 


2iSj 1893, 145, 369; 

— grass, 1894, 384. 

— hemp, 1887, Mar., 8 ; 1889, 61. 

- il rawing of, 1894, 135. 

plants, poling of, 1893, 321. 

v.iis of. 1S88, 234. 

— , hurricane in, 1892, 189, 312. 

oval orange, 1894, 117. 

: — industries, 1887, Fab., 4. 

.-ira rubber, 1892,67,69. 

— . museum specimens from, 1887, 

c 'U in Jamaica, 1895. 79. 

| Sept., 14. 

e bark and extract, 1892, 

— plants, drawings of. 1891, 136. 


(ilaziovii, 1892, 67. 

1 —tea, 1891,234. 

)96, 78. 

— vanilla. 1892, 211. 

- the Gambia, 1889, 146, 

M.axillarin U'lumaeen, Rolfe, 1892, 

148, 1 

I 210. 

Jamaica, 1895, 79. 

j — mooreana, Rolfe, 1895, 36. 


introduction to Grenada, 


loe fibre, 1892, 36 ; 1893, 

1895, 158. 

— hemp, 1887, Apr., 1; 1894, 

■ ■ 


1895, 208. 

at Alexandria, lsOO, 

i British North Borneo, 


.. : ' ". 

ants, 1895, 208. 


Miip!" : J 

near, 1895, 127. 

; — Mortonii, If cms I., 1894. 211. 


m\.s for colouring wine, 

MeoliauV Nursery, Philadelphia, 

ipe coffee, 1891, 163. 

Mcen. Margaret, "Exotic plants 


:la distinct;!, .V. £'. firoirn, 

:•.:,„;; -liniuui Clarkei, Rolfe, 1891, 


Tlari's, .V. ,£. 2frw«, 1895, 

— i'msehootianum, Rolfe, 1895, 8. 

M - 

somalionsis.C. i?. Clarke, 

— I«-,-„rh::-hN. Hot ft; 1891, 198. 

— mhmtui ,Bolfe, 

— pnaillom, h : . . : - 

— triste, Rolfe, 1894,362. 

, icplKis (with plate), 


h 1885, 258. 

1893, 44. 

Melanconium Pandani 1895 320. ' 

Mirabou wood, 1887, Sept., 

;; : ',. •■■ ..■ "'/■ '.'7' ■-'■■■'■ 

Missouri Botanic Garden, 



Mitchell grass, 1894, 377. 
Mivabe, Dr. K.. Japanese 

— . Sarila, IS91. 75; 1805,321. 

plants, 1893, 146. 

Moir, J., Shire Highlands 

1895, 105. 

plants, 1893, 112. 

Menzies. Arcliibald, 1H91, 299. 

Moisture, excess of, effe< 

Mcruliiis U\i-y\ mans ] 891, 33. 

plant?, 1893, 189. 

Momordiea dissect;!, Baker. 

1887, Sept., 9. 

— cdule, 1887, Sept., 9. 

Monteerrat, 1887, June, 4. 

— Botanic Station, 1891, 

M.-11-oxvl..n UiMnplni. 1891, 414. 

1894, 420. 

— Sa-u. 1894, 414. 

— , coffee in, 1894, 137. 

1893, 140,224; 1895, 125. 

— , report of Mr. Morris's 


Milanje, botany of 
— cedar, 1892, 1 

— , climate of, 189 
— , dried plants fn 
Mildew on vines, 
* 1889,229; 189< 
Millen,H., 1896, i 

— Banksii, 1894, 246. 

— Basioo, 1891,218. 

— Buchanani, 1894, 241. 

— Cavendishii, 1894, 244, 255, 
(fig.) 296. 

— cliffbrtiana, 1891.257. 

— coccinea, 1894, 258. 

— corniculata, 1894, 246. 

— discolor, 1894, 248. 

— dubia, 1894, 256. 

— Ensete, 1887, Apr., 6 ; 1894, 
(plate) 237, 240, 287, 293. 

— Fehi, 189 I, 246, (fig.) 2 17, 2S9 : 
1896, 233. 

— Fit/.alani, 1894,247. 

— flava, 1894, 249. 

— glauca, 1894, 245. 

— llillii. 18<)l. 246; 1895, 77. 

— Hookeri, 1894, 256. 

— , key to the sub-genera and 
species of, 1894, 238. 

— lasiocarpa, 1894, (with fig.) 243. 

— livingstoniana, 1894, 225, 241. 

— maculate, 1894, 257. 

— malaceensis, ISO t, 249. 

— Mannii, 1894, 258. 

— Martini, 1891, 249. 

— nana, 1894, 244. 

— ncpalensis, 1894, 243. 

— proboscidea, 1894, 225, 241. 

— pruinosa, 1894, 256. 

— rosacea, 1894, 257. 

— rosea, 1894, 258. 

— rubra, 1894, 258; 1896, 29. 

— sanguinea, 1894, 258, (plate) 

plate), 1887, 

- sikkimensis, 1894, 257. 

-, species and principal varieties 
of, 1894,229. 

- sp., Hong Kong, 1894, 219. 

- sumatrana, 1894, 257. 

- superba, 1894, (with fig.) 242, 

-*Thomsoni, 1894, 256. 

' var.amboinensis, 1894J248. 

- violascens, 1894, 257. 

la coffee, 1889, 281. 

— pilosa, Baker, 1895, 105. 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Paris, Nouvelle Archives du, 
1894, 137. 

— No. II., Guide to, 1895, 203. 

— No. III., Guide to, 1894, 74. 
Museums, K.'W. additions to, 1887, 

Sept., 4, Dec, 4; 1888, 84; 
1SS9.223; 189;), 34; 1S01, 109, 
131, 178, 276, 277; 1892, 57, 
58, 73, 108, 151, 187, 215, 216. 
222, 22:>, 247, 311; 1893, 22, 
145, 187, 225, 226; 1891, 76, 
110, 135, 164, 226, 400; 1895, 
236, 272, 302 ; 1896, 98. 

Mu-dironiLi spawn, artificial pro- 
duction of, 1894, 168. 

Myosotis sequinoclialis, Baker, 
1894, 29. 

Myrrh mid Bdellium, 1896, 86. 

Mvi'-ine crvptopl.lebia, Baker, 
1894, 149. 

Mysore, disease of pepper plants 

-, fruits of, 1889,21. 

Nardoo, 1892, 216. 

Natal aloes, 1890, 163. 

— dried plants, 1893, 146; 1895, 

23, 158. 
— , forestry in, 1895, 1. 
— , fruits of, 1888, 225. 
— , maize production in, 1887, 

Sept., 12. 
— , museum specimens from, 1887, 

Sept., 13. 

Nelson, David, 1891, 296. 
Nemesia albifbra, iV. E. Brown, 

1895, 28. 
Neogoezia, Hemsl., gen. nov., 

1894, 354. 

— gracilipes, Hemsl, 1894, 355. 

— minor, Hemsl., 1894, 355. 

— planipetala. firms! . 1S9L355. 
Nepenthes Smic,ii, ll,,ns>., 1 >!>.">. 

Nc|»ot:i decolorans, Hemsl., 1896, 

Nephelaphvllum ehinenso, fio/fc, 
1896, 194. 

— i-ristatura, liolfe, 1896, 191. 

, (Sageiiia) Everettii, 
.BoAer, 1896, 41. 

— (Eunephrodium) oosorum, 
Baker, 1896, 41. 

Ncstlera virgata, N. E. Brown, 

1895, 25. 
New Caledonia, bananas in, 1894, 

250, 287. 
s dammar from, 1891, 76. 

— Cape Liliace®, 1892, 217. 

— forage plant, 1896, 188. 

— <*anien plants. 1NSS,H9; 1889, 
73; 1890, Appendix II.; 1891, 
Appendix II. ; 1892, Appendix 
II.; 189.'], Appendix II.; 189}. 
Appendix II. ; 1895, Appendix 
II. ; 1896, Appendix II. 

— Granada, dried plants from, 

1892, 71. 

— Guinea dried plants, 1892, 72 ; 

1893, 146. 

, coffee seed and Jamaica 

bananas for, 1892, 151. 

— orchids, 1891, 197; 1^92. i:J7, 
208; 1893, 4, 61, 169, 331 ; 

1894, 154, 182,361, 391; 1895, 
5, 33, 191, 281 ; 1896,41. 

— plants introduced by Sir John 
Kirk from Kast Africa. 1890.82. 

New Zealand dried plants, 1893, 

, edible fungus of, 1890, 217. 


fruits, 1888, 13. 

Institute, 1894, 397. 

-■ ■ ~ "• 
— , timber in, 1896, 125. 

(iriffithii, 1895, 198, 
.'■• in, 1894,278. 

— rubber, 1892,69. 

Gk, awarded Veitch 
Memorial Medal, 1894, 108. 
— t — , notes on horticulture in 

United States, 

1894. 37. 
Nicotiana breviloba. Jeffn ;/. 1891, 

_._ ricMioja. .retire;/. 1894, 101. 

— Tabacum, 1891, 77. 

ias1 Protectorate Botanic 

, botanical enterprise in. 


1894, 414. 

— Gallerv. 1891, 165. 
—Mexican dried plants, 1895, 

t Kew, 1892. 50. 
Notvlia brevis, Ifolfv, 1895, 191. 
Noiuviles Archives du Museur 

, Que 

Nowack, J. F., 

, 1890, 1. 
h Australia, 1895, 
1 plants, 1892,219. 

Eartlett, H, 1891, 93. 

Binder, W., 1896, 96. 

Buchanan, J., 1896, 148. 

Carson, A., 1896, 148. 

Caratensen, G., 1892, 251. 

Crowther, W., 1895, 121. 

Gray, J., 1895, 39. 

Jamiesou, A., 1895, 231. 

Lawson, M. A., 1896, 185. 

Mueller, Sir F. von, 189C, 2 Is. 

Perry, W. W., 1894, 397. 

Smiles, F. H., 1895, 198. 

Spruce, K,, 1894, 32. 

Thomson, J. W., 1895, 120. 

Trimen, Dr. H., 1896, 219. 

Truelove, W., 1894, 74. 

Ward, J. R., 1895, 231. 

Woodruff, G., 1891, 95. 
Ochna floribunda, Baker, 1895, 


Ocimum basilicum, 1893,371. 

— stamiiiosiuii, linker, 1895, 224. 

— verticillifolimn. Holier, 1895, 

Ocotea bullata, 1887, Sept., 10; 

1895, 3. 
Odontoglossum auriculatum, Rolfe, 

1892, 140. 

— guttatum, Rolfe, 1892, 140. 

Oil plants in S. Australia, 1895, 

■—seeds from West Africa , 1892, 


of Zanzibar, 1892, 89. 

Oils, table, from beech and lind.-u, 

1894, 218. 

Okro fibn 

, 229. 

bisontella, 1889, 

■ ■ ; 

Oliver, Prof. D., award of Royal 
medal, 1893, 188. 

— , , portrait of, 1894, 78. 

Olyra concinna, 1896, 123. 

Omar Kl.avvam'.s rose, 1894,193. 
brevilabrum, Rolfe, 
1894, 158. 

— cristatum, Rolfe, 1892,210. 

— lucasianum, Itolf'e, ls94, 185. 

— luteum, Rolfe, 1893, 172. 

— panduratum, Rolfe, 1895, 9. 

— sanderianun. Rulfr, 1893, 337. 
< )ncinoti>, -SV //;/, 189 !. 

Oct., 1. 
Ophiocaulou Rovvlai.c 
1895, 16. 

on clavatu; 
1895, 116. 
— japonicus, 1893, :\V. 

da, 1887, 


//* ;».v/., 
Hemsl., 1894, 212. 

— of] 

— palm, 1891, 190; 
figs.) 200. 

fibre, 1892, 62. 

— arbuscula at Kew, 1895, 15 

— rur-iiirllifera, 1888,170. 

— Dillenii, 1888, 169. 

— fulgida at Kew, 1895, 156. 

— missouriensis, 1888, 171. 
! —Tuna, 1888, 169. 

— vulgaris, 1888, 169. 
Opuntias as fodder plants, 1£ 

ng in California, 

1895, — I 

266. | 46; 1 

— , Jaffa, 1894, 117. 
— , Maltese oval, 1894, 117. 

— scale in Cyprus, 1891, 221. 
Orchids attacked by beetle larva}, 

1896, 62. 

— flowered at Kew in 1890, 1891, 

— , hand-list of, 1896, 56. 

--, new, 1891, 197 ; 1892, 137, 

208; 1893, 4, 61, 169, 334; 

1894, 154, 182,361.391 ; 1805, 

Oreosolen unguiculatu3, Hemsl., 
1896, 213. 

mi fragrans, Rolfe, 1894, 

— nanmn, Rolfe, 1894, 395. 
Oriiithoilfilum' (Caruelia) diphyl- 

lum, linker, 1895, 153. 

— (Cathissa) natalense, Baiter, 

— I 1 5 < ■ l \l!is) sordidum, Baker, 
1895, 228. 

OrthcziM iusiguis, 1895, 162. 
Orth(.-ip!i<Hi ralamiuthoides, Ba- 
ker, 1895 ? 225. 

— Cameroni, Baker, 1895, 72. 

— comosum, Baker, 1895, 184. 

— molle, Baker, 1895,225. 
Oryctos i'nsularis, 1892, 88. 

Osmanthus Cooperi, Hemsl., 1896, 

OsmitopMs asteriscoides, 1887, 

Sept., 9. 
Ostrowskia magnifica, 1896, 123. 
Othonua di-ticha, .V. /•;. Drown, 

Pachypodium Saunder<ii, J 

Broivn, 1892, 126. 
Pachvrliizusaii^'!i!it:i- (w'ih j 
1889, 121; 1895,47: 18!1 
— tuberosum, 1889, 17, 

plate) 62; 1895,47. 

P.i.uns, Gambia, 1894, 191. 

Palace Meadow, Kew, l89~>, 

Paliurus hirsutus, Hemsl. , 

1 388. 

j — orientalis, Hemsl. , 1891, 

| Palai House, re-arran-.-uif 

plants in, 1892, 105. 

Palmer, Dr. £., h 

plants, 1891, 275. 

mens from Dr. King, 
t Kew, 1892, 311. 

1 18. 

— palm. 1892. 186. 
Palo Santo, 1893, 368. 
Pandanads. disease of. 1895, 320. 
Paudanus Joskei, 1894, 195. 

— odoratissimus, 189."), 320. 

— reflexus, 1895, 319. 

— Thmstoni. H'riff/if. 1>9I. 348. 
Panicuna bulbo.sum, 1894, 383. 

— tricophylla, Baker, 1895, 63. 
Oxvanthus Moutchw, X. E. 
Broien, 1892, 125. 

Sept., 5. 
Oxyraitra (§ Goniothalamus) ma- 
crantha, Hemsl., 1895, 132. 

Para grass, 1894, 384. 

— piassava, 18S!). 237, 23 

— rubber, 1892, 67, 69. 
, yield of, in Ceylo: 

Paraguay indigo, 1892, 179. 

— Jaborandi, 1891, 179. 

— tea, 1892, 132. 

Parasol ant, 1893 (with plate), 50, 

Paris Hebarium, dried plants from, 

1892, 151. 

— trials of Ramie-decorticating 
machines, 1888, 273. 

Paronychia (Anoplonychia) 

. 220. 


, 90. 

n, 1894, 385. 

raspalum conjugat 

— distichum, 1894 

— sanguinale, 1894, 386. 

— scrobiculatum, 1894, 386. 
Passiflora (§Granadilla) retipetala, 

31. T. Masters, 1893, 12. 

— (§ Astrophea) securiclata, M. T 
Masters, 1893, 12. 

Pasteur, M . , funeral of, 1 s i ) 5 , 2 '. ) < > . 
Patchouli, 1888, 71, 133; 1889, 

Pavetta disarticulata, Gaipin, 

1895, 145. 

— trichantha, Baker, 1894, Ms. 
Pay of employes at Kew, 1894, 

133; 1895,234. 
Payena Leerii, 1891, 237. 
Peanuts inS. Australia, 1*95, 101. 
- 'hicci la. Pram, Ln93, 

dill dispar, N. E. Brown, 
1895, 144. 
Pelexia maculata, Rolfe, 1893, 7. 
i. Rolfe, 1891,200. 

— saccata, Rolfe, 1895, 195. 
Pelicans at Kew, 1896, 98. 

i calycinum, N, E, 

Brown, 1H94, 390. 
Pelh-.i loniarioides, Baker, 1*95, 


a Koleroga, 1893, 67. 
Pencil cedar, 1889, 115. 
Pentas confertifolia, Baker, 1895, 

— glabrescens, Baker, 1895, 215. 

Pentas modesta, Baker, 1*95. 2'.» >. 

— pauciflora, Baker, 1895, 215. 

— speciosa, Baker, 1895, 67. 
Pentzia virgata, 1896, 129. 
Peperomia malaccensis, /7 7Vy, 

1895, 185. 
Pepper cultivation, 1893, 370; 
1894, 79. 

— in Siam, 1893, 230. 

1895, 178. 
Perak, planting in, 1891, 220. 

Perfumery plants, cultivation of, in 

the Colonies, 1890, 2G9. 
Pergularia africana, N. E. Brown, 

1895, 259. 
Perim dried plants, 1895, 45. 
Pernambuco rubber, 1892, 67, 69. 
Peronospora schleideniana (with 

plates), 1887, Oct., 1. 
Perpignans, 1893, 145. 
Perry, Fleet-Paymaster, 1894, 397. 
Persia, poisoning from Turnsole 

in, 1889, 279. 
— , white tea of, 1896, 157. 
Persian dried plants, 1891, 275, 

1893, 145. 

— tobacco or tombak, 1891, 77. 

— Zalil, 1889, 111; 1895, 167. 
Peru, bananas in, 1894, 268. 

olonisation, 1893, Sol. 

— walnut, 1893, 353; 1894, HO. 
PotidiicU'lln, N. E. Brown, gen. 

nov., 1894, 100. 

— Woodii, N. E. Brown, 1894, 

Pet ric, 1).. New Zealand dried 

plants, 1893, 140. 
Petrocosmea grandiflora, Hemsl, 

1895, 115. 

Bhmensis, 1896, 149. 

— roscus, Rolfe, 1893,6. 
Ph:d.>ria Hinl.igmi, 1*96, 122. 
Philip], ne Islands, bananas in 

1894, 263, 289. 
Phillipsia, Rolfe, gen. nov., 1895, 

— fruticulosa, Rolfe, 1895, 223 ; 
1*96, 56. 

Phoenix humilis in Formosa, 1896, 

Phul.'doia cantonensis, Rolfe, 1896, 

. i - ' . 

Pholidota Lugardi, Rolfc, 1893, 6. 

— repens, Rolfe, 1891, 199. 
Phylloxera, 1891, 44. 

— , American vines as stocks in 
infected areas, 1889, 227. 

— in Asia Minor, 1889, 66. 
Greece, erroneous report of, 

1889, 236. 

South Africa, 1889, 230, 255. 

Uruguay, 1893, 372. 

Victoria, 1890, 36. 

— , International Congress at 

Bordeaux, 1881, 1889, 227. 

— ivsruktions at the Cape, 1889, 

1891, 197. 

— Lindleyi, Rolfe, 1893. 61. 
Physurus'chinensis, Rolfe, 1896, 


Piassava, Bahia, 1889, 237. 
— . Madagascar, 1894, 358. 
_. Para, 1S.S9, 237, 239. 
Pir-rama exedsa, 1894, 402. 
Pike Warl.urton. North Canadian 

d.ied plants, 1892,49. 
Pilcomayo dried plants, 1891, 276 ; 

1892, 104. 

— expedition, botany of, 1895, 

Pilocarpus Jaborandi, 1896, 150. 

— microphyllus, Stapf 1894, 4. 

— pennatifolius, 1891, 179. 
Pimento grass, 1894, 387. 
Pineapple fibre, 1887, Apr., 8. 

from Malacca, 1893, 368. 

in China, 1891, 251, 257. 

Formosa, 1896, 73. 

the United States, 1893, 


— at Lagos, 1896, 78. 

— in Sierra Leone, 1893, 169. 
Pinetum at Ketv, 1896, 113. 
Pink-root, Demerara, 1888, 265. 
Pinus hahamensis, 1896, 61. 

— cubonsis, 1896, 61. 

, var. ? Jerthrocarpa, 1896, 61. 

— orcid.'utalis, 1896, 61. 

— Pinea, monstrous cone of, 1894, | 

Pistachio ruliivatmn in Cyprus, 

1890, 69. 
Pita. Uahanias. ( S<< Sis,/! lump.) 
— , Central American, 1887, Mar., 

Pithecolobium polycephalum, 1895, 

Pitf.)s]>orum criocarpum, 1896, 


— re>iniferum, Hemsl., 1894,314. 
Plantain and banana fibre, 1887, 

Apr., 5 ; 1594, 289. 

1895, 10, 236. 

— meal, 1894, 304. 
Planting in Perak, 1891,220. 
Plasmodiophora Brassicai (with 

fig. \ 1895, 129. 

— caiil'omiea, 1893,228. 

— Insiirnis, .V. E. Uroini, iy.t.3, 

PIcvrrantliiH hetonica:>io]ius./ J ,\//W, 

— densus, A'. E.Jiroirn, 1MH. 111. 

— t'seulentus, A'. /•.'. Brown, 1S91, 

— floribundii-;, X. E. Brown, 1891, 

, var. longipes, X. E. Brotcn, . 

1894, 13. 

— incanus, 1894, 13. 

— madagascariensis, 1892, 313 ; 
1894, 13. 

Pip-r Cubeba (with plate), 1S87. 

Dec, 1. 
— methysticum, 1887, Sept., 8. 
nigrum, disease of, in Mysore, 

1895, 178. 

in Trinidad, 1894, 79. 

_ ovatum, 1895, 237. 

Pleiocarpa bicarpellata, Stapf, 

Pleurothallis infiata, Rolfe, 1891, 

— maculata, Rolfe, 1893, 334. 
-- parva, Rolfe, 1895, 33. 

— pergracilis, Rolfe, 1S93. :;:;i. 
-— pernamlnuvnsis, llo/fe. 1^9] 



1895, 191. 

— Scapha, 1895, 232. 

— stenosepala, Rolfe, 1892, 208. 

— subulata, Rolfe, 1892, 137. 

— unistriata, Rolfe, 1893, 334. 
Pluchea laxa, Baker, 1895, 182. 

— mollis, Baker, 1895, 182. 
PluiiK-i - . • • nlow, 1895, 47. 
Podocarpus celebica, Hems/., I sue, 

a) New- 


1895, 3. 

— latifolius, 1887, Sept., 10. 

— pectinate, 1892, 105. 

— spp. at Kew, 1892, 106. 
— . Thunbergii, 1895, 3. 
Podochilus longicalcaratus, Rolfe, 

1894, 186. 
Pogostemon Patchouli, var. suavis, 

1888,71, 133; 1889, 135. 

Schefferi, Stapf, 1892, 

Polycardia centralis, Be 


■■ . 

Poly gala dhofarica, Baker, 1895, 

— producta, N. E. Brown, 1895, 

— somaliensis, Baker, 1895, 211. 
Polygonum (Bistort a) constans, 

Cummins, 1896, 20. 

— (§ Aconogon) tibeiicum, HemsL, 

n, 1894, 265, 


Polypodium (Phegopteris) apici- 

dens, Baker, 1895, 54. 

— (Pleuridium^ arenarium, Baker, 

1895, 56. 

— (Phymatodes) cyclobasis, Baker, 

1896, 42. 

— (Pbegopteris) di« 
Baker, 1895, 54. 

— (Phymatodr-j dulitcnsr-, /inker, 

— (Gociopteris) firmulum, Baker, 

— (Phymati desj lp : - ■ > nigrum. 
Baker, 1895, 55. 

— (Phymatodes) macrosphaerum, 
Baker, 1895, 55. 

— (Grammatis) Maxwellii, Baker, 
1893, 211. 

Polypodium (Eupolvpodk 
torn, Baker, 1896,41. 


Baker, 1895, 55. 

KuoL'Kiani. livlft-. 
1893, 335. 

— bulbophylloides, Rolfe, 1891, 

— imbricata, Rolfe, 1893, 172. 

— Kirkii, Rolfe, 1895, 282. 

— villosa, Rolfe, 1894, 393. 

— zambesiaca, Rolfe, 1895, 192. 
Poona, potato disease in, 1892, 

Populus alba in Kashmir, 1895, 

Port Darwin, . \nrntm*nt;d culti- 
195, 9! 

Pratt, A. E., Chinese dried plants, 

1891, 276; 1892,286. 
Preservation of grain from weevils, 

1890, 144. 
i (hints, Sob weinfurth's method 

for, 1889, 19. 

tr, alchohol from, 1888, 


as fodder, 1888, 167. 

in India, 1888, 170. 

Mexico, 1892, 144. 

South Africa, 1888, 165. 

, Report of the 

Select Committee on the eradi- 
cation of, 1890, 186. 
, silo experiments with, 

Prieto fibre-extracting machine, 

1893, 329. 
Primula barbica'.yv, ■ ■ 

Pritzel's Iconum 

Index, supplement 
Prochynanthes bulliana. IH«>5,232. 

.::<;<; : 1895, 141. 
Prune industry of Calif* 

259; 1893, 175, 219. 


Psendomacodes, Rolfe, gen. nov., 

1892, 127. 

— Ominsii. Rolfe, 1892, 128. 

Psychotria discolor, Rolfe, 1893, 


Pteroxylon utile, 1895, 3. 

Rafia from West Africa, 1895, 

P'u-erh tea. 1SS9 ? 118, 139. 

Pnlieai-ia Avlmeri. /hiker, 1895, 

— , preparation of, 1895, 91. 

Railway gardening in the United 

— leucophylla, Baker, 1894, 333. 

States, 1894, 45". 

Pulu, 1887, Sept., 5. 

Rajmahal hemp, 1894, 321. 

Puiti.'i!-. museum specimens from, 

Ramie or Rhea, 1888, 145, 273, 

1892, 73. 

297 ; 1889, 2G8, 284 ; 1M» 1,277; 

Purree, 1890, -15. 

1892, 251,304. 

Puya edulia, 1889, 20. 

Pv("'!io-t:irliv- pnrvifolius, Baker, 


1895, 72. 

— machine tiials, 1*91,277; 1892, 


Pyrola secunda', 1895, 57. 

— , machines and processes for 

Pyrus cratsegifolia, 1894, 193; 

1895, 198. 

— ($ Mains) Pratlii, Hems!., 1895, 

-, bananas in, U 
- cherry, 1895, 
-, coffee cultii 

. 281. 


— Colonial Botanist, abolition of 
post, 1893, 366. 

— dried plants, 1891, 275 ; 1892, 

— , new seedling sugar-cane in, 

1896, 167. 
Qnerens .lollop.-, 18*8, KJ3. 

— alnil'ulia. analysis of acorn-cups, 
1888, 165. 

_ Ccrris in South Africa, h',11, 



Brown, 1895,218. 
— grandiilorn. X. E. Brown, 
1895, 111. 

i. X. E. Brown, 1895, 

— scandens, N. E. 

Raspberry jam wooc 

1894, 20. 

— Mannii, Stop/, 189 1. 2 

oicn, 1895, 
887, Sept., 

1890, 86. 

1888, 139; 1889, 29, 

Recueii de Plant 

and dc Chastif 

Red Myrtle, 188! 

Redwood of St. Helena, 1 
Relief house at Kew, 1890, 9ti. 
Renanthera iin>cliooti:in.i. /.'••//;, 

1891, 200. 
Restrepia dentata, Rolfe, 1892, 

— cctndorensis, R»lf t >, 1892, 138. 

Ii.-,tivj.ia sanguinea, Rulfe, 1896, 

— Shuttleworthii, Rolfe, 1892, 


■arabolica, 1896, 140. 
Rhamnus leucodermis, Baker, 

1895, 316. 
Rlii<ro/.mn zambesiacum. Baker, 

1894, 32. 
Rhina barbirostris (with plate) w 

1893, 44. 

■ nigra (with plate), 1893, 

— formosanum, fh-msl., 1>D5, 

— Hancockii, Hemsl., 1895, 107. 

— Smirnovi, 1896, 186. 
Rhododendrons in Cornwall, 1893, 



127. " 
Rhus Coriaria, 1895, 292. 

— cotinoides, 1893, 340. 

— flexicaulis, Baker, 1895, 316. 

— myriantha. Baker, 1895, 213. 

— succedanea, 1894, 15. 
Rhynchosia coraosa, Baker, 1894, 

Rhyncophorus cruentatus, 1893, 

1895, 156. 
se, 1892, 232. 
>a, beetles de- 

Rockhill, \V. W., Tibetan dried 

plants, 1893, 369. 
Rood snot, 1893, 348. 
Root diseases caused by fungi, 

1896, 1. 

— fungus, sugar-cane, 1893, 345 ; 
1894, 169 ; 1895, 82. 

Rosa Lucia3, 1895, 156. 

— wichuraiana, 1895, 300. 

Rose growing trad pressing in 

Saxony, 1893,229. 
under glass in the United 

States, 1894, 66. 
— , Omar Khayyam's 1894, 193. 
Rosellinia radiciperda (with plate), 

Roses, attar or otto of, 1893, 22. 
Rosewoods, Canary, 1893, 133, 
Rowland, Dr., Lagos dried plants, 

1893, 369. 
— , — , Tropical African dried 

plants, 1893, 146. 
' """ er Compan 

l Arboricultural Society. 

visit to Kew, 1893, 340. 

— Society of New South Wales, 
1892, 60. 

Ro/.ites '^ongylophora, 1893, 126. 

Kul.h.-r. African, 1892, 68, 70. 

— , Assam, 1892, 68, 70. 

— , — , for West Africa, 1891, 97. 

— , Borneo, 1892, 68, 70. 

— . Cnrthagena, 1892, 68, 70. 

— , Ceara, 1892, 67, 69. 

— , Central American, 1892, 67, 

— , Colombian, 1890, 149 ; 1892, 

— cultivation in Assam, 1896, 171. 

— , Esmeralda, 1892, 70. 

— export from Gold Coast, 1895, 

Lagos in 1895, 1896, 77. . 

— in Sierra Leone, 1893, 168. 

Hi.-eivuxia profusa, X. E. Bnm-n, 

1895, 260. 
Riviera, Agaves and arborescent 

Liliacefe on the, 1892, 1. 

Recneil de Plantes, 1896. 32. 


— , Maiiiraheirn, 1892,67, 69. 
— . Nicani-ruan, 1892,69. 
— , Para, 1892,67,69. 
_, -, in Ceylon, 1893, 159. 
— , Pernambuco, 1892, 67, 69. 
— production, prospects of, 

British Central Africa, 161 


— tree, Tre, 1895, 241. 

— trees in Jamaica, 1895, 79. 
South Australia, U 

Rubbers, West African, 1889, I 
Rubi, Himalayan, 1895, 123. 
Rubus biflorus, 1695, 123. 

— ellipticus, 1894, 196; 1895, 1 

- lasiostylus, 1894, 


— moluccanus, 1895, 123. 

— niveus, 1895, 57. 

— racemosus, 1895, 123. 

— rosaefolius, 1895, 124. 

, var. coronarius, 1895, 12 1. 

Rumex hymenosepalum. IsjiO, 03 . 

1894, 167; 1895, 272. 
Russian thistle in the United 

States, 1894, 139. 
Ruta (§Haplophyllum) Gilesii, 

Hemsl., 1894, 4. 
Ruvvenzori Expedition, G, F. 

Scott-Elliot's, 1895, 77. 

Si. Helena, Nothoscorduai borboni- 

cum in, 1892, 50. 

, redwood of, 1893, 66. 

St. Kitts-Nevis, 1887, June, 4. 
Botanic Station, 1891 r 

126; 1894,420. 

fruits, 1888, 215. 

eport of Mr. " " 


( ru ieg for, 1891, 163. 

, economic resources of, 1887, 

exhibits at Jamaica Exhibi- 
tion, 1891, 167. 

, fruits of, 1888, 185. 

, report of Mr. Morris's visit, 

1891, 134. 

, Sisal hemp in, 1892, 35. 

- Mary's grass, 18SH. .383. 
— Vincent "arrowroot. 1S'.»:I. Mil. 

llnlf, . 

Sabicu wood, 1887, Dec, 
Saccharine, 1888, 23. 

1895, 284. 
— longicalcaratum, Rolfe, 1894, 

Rolfe, 1893, 64; 
1895, 232. 
Sacqui {see Agave rigida, var. 

of Kum-Bum, 1896, 



house, 1892. 93. 

exhibits at Jamaica Exhibi- 
tion, 1891, 166. 

, flora of, 1893,231. 

, fruits of, 1888, 187. 

, report of Mr. Morris's visit, 

1891, 141. 

, Sisal hemp in, 1892, 35. 

S;iii:tp;iulia ionantha, 1893, 165 
1895, 122. 

Salix alba, 1895, 239. 

Salsola cyclophylla, Baker, 1894, 

- leucophylla, Baker, 
dt bushes, 1896, I •".«'■ 
ilvia schiedeana. Stnj, 

1 2i>. 

5 Helena, bananas in, 1894, 275. 

. — . fruits of, 1888, 252. 

. — , Icerya Purchasi in, 1892, 


, Mauritius hemp from, 1887, 

cylindricn, 1887, May, 

Sa nsovieria Ehrhenbergii, 


►ssum shirense, N. E. 


Broicn, 1895, 253. 

— fibre from Somali-land, 


■ ■ 


Brown, 1895, 250. 

— guineensis, 1887, May, 5. 

Schrebera Bud m -u ■ ';■:/.-,: L895, 

in the United States. 



— Kirkii, 1887, May, 8; 


1894, 26. 

Schweinfurth's method for pre- 

— lonuiriora, 1887, May, 7. 

serving plants, 1889, 19. 

— r„xburghiana, 1896, 186. 

Sclerocarya sp., 1893, 371. 

— , sections of leaves of, 


Scotch grass, 1894, 384. 

May, 3., Dr. 1). IT, 1892,245. 

— sulcata, l.sS7,Mnv, 10. 

— , W, 1893, 340. 

— thyvs'.rlora, 1887, May, 8 

Scott -Elliot, G. F., Euwenzori 

— zeylanica (with plate), 

' 1887, 

Expedition, 1895, 77. 

May, 1,8. 

— — , , Sierra Leone dried 

SrI,'a-uEvan,ii,A'. /' !',,; ,•',., 1S<1\ 


■^ <.,,.: . * "- .: :- . 

I acilis, X. E. Brown. 

ST'a'.tlm. aniuulitus 1i„!fe, 

1895, 218. 

— Kirkii, X. K. Brown, 189.5. 

era^sifolius, Eolfe, 

— retusa, X. E. Brown, 1895, 

— hnil'anen-i,:, lioife, 1896, 199. 

( 248. 

Seeliium edule, !S87, Aug., 6; 


1 1896, 128. 

Si'diim (§ Khodiola) rolundsstuin. 

>^.'."- cloth, 'l891,' 251; 1890, 

Hemsl., 1896, 210. 

Seedling sugar-cane, new, in 


Queensland, 1896, 167. 

in, 1893, 229. 

— Miisir-i-nios at ll.-srird.w. 1^. 

; . ffemsl, 1896, 38. 

. Seeds of herbaceous plants avail- 

Tlolfc 1803, 335. 

able for excha.u*. 1SS* 25 ; 

\]»peiuli\- I. ; 
: I. ; 1895, 
96, Appendix 

is'.)!. Appendix !.. 2*. 
: ::;>; Ih'A'I. A] 

1*95, Appendix J.. 2( 
Appendix r 

ichy 8 )Ku 

- Everettii, HemsL, 1896, 38. 

fit ,„*!.. is 90. 12 i 12. 
goringensis, Hems!., 1896, 

- (Kleinia) Gunnisii, Rafter, 

i — — dried plants, 1891, 
1892, 72. 

167. eC0D< 

| fruits, 1888, 221. 

— — , highland coffee of, 

- llualtata. 1895, 198. 

- (Kleinia) Ion S ipes, .Safer, 1895, 

mweroensis, Baher, 1895, 


- sngittifolius, 1893, 111. 

Sikkim-Tibet frontier, bol 
exploration of, 1893, 297. 
| Silk-cotton tree, white, 1896 
— grass, 1887. March. lo. 
Silkworm gut, 1892. 222. 

Silkworms. Ramie as ' fooil 

— modesta, Eolfe, h 

304 158. 

Sim. T. li.. 1895. 52. 

Sesbania a^gyptiaca 

Siujrapore, bainnas in. 1891. 2(15. 

— 'rediscovery of Gutia Pereha 

Seychelles, clove as a 

dye plant in, 

Siriwil'rr'.,!]] in' Cyprus. 1889, 133. 

— vanilla, 1*892,214, 

Sisal, false. 1S92. 1*3; 1893,207. 

— , — disease in, 189 

2, 111. 

i — hemp, 1887. March. 3 ; 1889. 57. 

Shade tree for coffee. 

1895, 306. 

254; 1890, 158, 273 ; 1891. 

— trees for cacao, 18 

95, 14. 

j 175; 1892. 21,272; 1*93.200. 

-3- f01 ' tl "° pic * 1 1>f 

Lstures, 1894, 

! 227, 315. 

| in Bahamas. 1 890. 1 5> ; 1 >9 1 . 

Shantung cabbage, 

1888, 137; 

j 177; 1892, 27, 111, 189; 1*94. 

I 189, 412. 

Sheep-bushes, 1896, 


| _ British Honduras. 1*92. 


j 33. 

orchids from 

Fiji, 1892, 37. 

Grenada, 1892, 181 

Florida, 1892, 25. 

Shire Highlands, 

bamboo and 

Grenada, 1892. 34. 

i West Africa, 1892, ! 

Yucatan, 1892, 22, 272 ; 

1893, 212. 

— — , market value of, 1889, 61 ; 
1892, 39. 

plants, life of, 1893, 319. 

, yield of, 1893, 207. 

Skan, S. A., 1894, 348. 

Smilax (Eusmilax) flaccida, 

Wright, 1895, 118. 
megalantha, Wright, bilo, 


— microphylla, Wright, 1895, 

— utilis, Wright, 1895, 138. 
Smiles, F. H., death of, 1805, i.» 
, Siam dried plants, 1S'.)5, 

Smith, C. S., Kilimanjaro dried 

plants, 1893, 146. 
— , Christopher, 1891, 300. 
Smithia (Kotschya) Carsoni, 

Baker, 1893, 156. 
Smyrna dried plants, 1893, 369. 
Sneeze-wood, 1895, 3. 
Sobralia pumila. /fn/fc, 1*93, 337. 
Solanum albifolium, Wright, 1894, 


— albotomentosum, Wright, 1SH4, 

-inconstans, Wright, 1894, 127. 

- Mannii, Wright, 1894, 129. 
, var. compactum, Wright, 

1894, 129. 

- melastomoides, Wright, 1894, 

- Monteiroi, Wright, 1894, 127. 
-muricatum, 1893,21. 

- muticum, X. E. Broicn, 1894, 6. 

- pauperum, Wright, 1MH, 127. 

- phvtolaccoides, Wright, 1894, 

- Rohrii. Wright, 1894, 128. 

• Thruppii, Wright, 1894, 129. 

- torvum in Assam, 189G, 63. 

- trepidans, Wright, 1894, 128. 

- vagans, Wright, 1894, 128. 

- WelwitsdiiiJFWpfc, 1894, 126. 

Solanum Welwitschii, var. < 

gum, JF/vyA*, 1894, 127. 
,_strictum, Wright, 1894 

Solenostemma Argel, 1891, 177. 
Solomon Islands dried pi; 

1892, 105. 
, flora of, 1894, 211; 1895, 

132, 159. 
Somali-land, flora of, 1895, 158 

, Sansevieria fibre from, 1892, 

Sophora secundiflora, 1892, 216. 
Sophorine, 1892, 217. 
Sorghum vulgare, 1892, 252. 
Sorghums in South Australia, 

1895, 102. 
Sour-figs, 1887, Sept. 9. 
— grass, 1894, 385; 1895, 209; 

South Africa, 

1895, 49. 
, dried plants from, 1893, 146, 

369 ; 1894, 166. 

, ferns of, 1893, 69. 

, Phylloxera in, 1889, 230. 

, — regulations, 1889, 255. 

, prickly pear in, 1S8S, 1(55; 

1890, 186. 
, Turkey- oak in, 1894, 111. 

— American Bromeliacefe, 1892, 

dried plants, 1891, 245. 

vanilla, 1892, 214. 

— Arabian dried plants, 1S92, 151 ; 
1895, 158. 

— Australia, date cultivation in, 
1895, 161. 

, experimental cultivation in, 

1895, 99. 

— East Africa, bananas in, 1894, 

— Nyasaland, 1896, 144. 

— Sea arrowroot, 1892, 51. 
Spartium junceum, 1892,53. 

ttifl kimballiana, 1895, 
Sphacelous amp. Imum, 1*93. U2>. 
SplK.iauthushirtus, 1893, 371. 
Sphenophorns sacchari (with 

plate), 1892, 153, 267. 
Sphenophyllum, 1895, 123. 

belling of, 1893, 66. 
thelmia, 1888,265. 
Spiraea bracteata, 1895, 232. 

Spiranthes exigua, Rolfe, 189G, 

— metallica, Rolfe, 1896, 1(5. 

— olivacea, Rolfe, 1892, 141. 
Spot disease of orchids. is«».-,. mrj. 
Spruce, R., death of, 1894, 32. 

— , — , Hepaticae A in:ix< >n icn- et 

Andineoe, 1892, 285. 
Stachys obtusifolia, McOwaa, 

1893, 13. 

— tubulosa, McOtran, 1893, 13. 
Stall'.-, of botanical departments at 

home and in the Colonies and 
India, list of, 1889. 122; L890, 
175; 1891, Appendix III.; 
1892, Appendb 

Appendix III. ; 1894, Appendis 
III.; 1895, Appendix III. 
1896, Appendix III. 

Stahl, Dr.. N:l«riris ,li I.-.l plants 

1891, 245. 
Stanhopea Lowii, Rolfe, 1893, 

— Randii, Rolfe, 1894, 363. 
Stapclia 1,'igantea, 1892, 284. 

— vaga, X. /-'. Brown, IS95. 26',. 
Stapelias at Kew, 1893, 186. 
Stapf. Dr. 0.,lVr*ian dried plant?, 

1891,275; 1893, 145. 
Staphvlea holocarpa, llemsl., IM>5. 

Statiee xipholopis, linker. 1895. 

Straits Settlements, museum speci- 
mens from, 1887, Sept., 14. 
, pine apple fibre from. 189 \. 

Streptoealvx orthopoda, Baker, 

1892, 198. 
Stivpto.-arpus Wendlandii, 189b', 

Stringy bark, 1889, 114. 

— gum, 1889, 114. 
Strobilanthes callosus, 1896, 98. 

— Everettii, Rolfe, 1896, 39. 

— (§Endopogon) reticulatus, 

Strobopetalum, .V. E. Brown, gen. 
nov., 1894, 335. 

— Benti, ^V. E. Brown, 1894, 336 

— carnosum, A r . E. Brown, 1894. 

loanden>is linker. IM>5. 97. 

- lucens, Baker, 1895, 97. 

- microcarpa. Baker, 1895, 97 

Stephen, J. II., 1891,275; 1895, 

Sterculia Murex, Hems!.. 1893, 

— villosa, 1887, Sept., 19. 

* "ana, 1895, 299. 
, 1896, 96. 
Steveiwmia -randi folia, 1*92.2 16. 
Stinkwood or Laurel wood, 1887, 

Sept., 10; 1895, 3. 
Stipa Bifcirica, 1895, 58. 


- subscandens, linker. 1S95, 9(5. 
-triclisioides. Baker, 1895,98. 

- Vogolii, linker. 1895, 96. 

- Wakeiieldii. linker, 1895, 98. 

- xerophila, Baker, 1895, 98. 

- zizyphoides, Baker, 1895, 96. 

■ugar-cjine borers ' in ' the West 
, cano -sugar in the, 1891.35. 

in Barbados, Ret 

Guiana, 18%, 106. 

Java, 1891, 81. 

Mauritius, 1894, 81. 

St, Vincent, Keport 

of the Committee on, 1894, 170. 
- canes, diseased, treatment of, 

in West Indies, 1894, 1G9. 
, gumming of, in New Somh 

Wales, 1894, 1. 
, improvement of, by chemical 

selection of seed canes, 1894, 

Syji.disin (1. !ag-oon^s,.V. 11. , 

1892, 196. 

Syringn villus;!, 1S9'J, 122. 
Syringodea Flanagani, Baker,] 

— in British Central Africa, 


- Formosa, 1896, 72. 

Tabernacle citron, 1894, 181. 


Zanzibar, 1892, 88. 

Stapf, 1891. 2:;. 

— anguinea, Ilemsl., [895, 13 

— , mites on, at Barbados, 1890, 

— brachyantha, Stapf, 1894, ! 

— , new seedling, in Queens- 

— dipladeniiflora, Stapf, h 

!_ variety in Central Africa, 

— durissima, Stapf, 1894, 24. 

— , production of seed in, 1891, 

— elegans, Stapf, 1894, 24. 

— , in India, 1892, 

— pachysiphon, Stapf 1894, ' 

— , red rust of, 1890, 86. 

— stenosiphon, Stop/, 1894, 2: 

Tabernnnthc Iboua '(with pi;- 

1*91. 169; 1895, 82. 


— .seedling, Kewensis, 1896, 

Table oils from beech and liml 

iferta, X. E. Brown, 

unn hemp, 1887, Sept., 19. 
in South Australia, 1895, 

urinaro, bananas in, 1894, 306, 

310, 313. 
jmplocos lanceolata, 1892, 137. 

— , — cultivation in, 1894, 206. 
Taikamats, 1896, 72. 

Taj Gardens, Agra, 1892, 293. 
Talauma Hodgsoni, 1895, 40. 
Tall oat-grass, IS94, 377- 

Canaigre, 1890, 1.3 ■ 1801, HJ7. 
Cutch, Catechu or Kath. 1**7, 

Sept., 20; 1894,323. 
— , pale, 1891, 31. 
Garabier, 1889, 247 ; 1891, 106; 

1892, 76; 1893, 139. 
Mangrove bark and extract, 

1892, 227. 
Sumach, 1895, 293. 
Valonia, 1888, 163. 
Wattle bark, 1893, 370. 
Tapangtree, 1896, 156. 

Begonias, 1895, 

sugar-cane, 1890, 85 

Tasnmnian fruits. 1888, 11 
— woods, 1889, 112. 
Tea, 1888, 86. 
— , compressed or tablet 



, 320. 

I Thelasis hongkongensis, Rolfe, 

1896, 199. 
! Theobroma Cacao, 1890, 170; 

1895, 236. 
— , J. W., death of, 1895, 120. 
Thrinax Morrisii, 1891, 131. 
Thuja tri-antea. 188", Sept., 5. 
Thunia brymeriana, Rolfe, 1894, 

Tibet, Flora of, 1894, 136; 1890, 

Tibetan dried plants, 1893,369; 

1896, 99, 207. 
Tibouchina (Pseud. >■ 

meiodon, Stapf, 1895, 104. 
Timbaran tree of N. E. Borneo, 

1894, 108. 
Timlicr Museum, guide to, 1894, 

, 403. 

— industry of the Upper Cliind- 

win, 1896, 14. 
— , Jamaica, 1888, 86. 
— , Lao, 1892, 219. 
— , Leppett, 1896, 10. 
— , Madagascar, 1888, 87. 
— , Mauritius. 1892, 234. 

— . Paraguay, 1892. 132. 

— production in India, 1894, 320. 
— , p'u-erh, 1889, 118, 139. 

— substitute, Vaccinium Arctosta- 
phylos, 1895, 61. 

Tecoma shirensis, Baiter, 1894, 


— (Keineria) g€ 
1895, 316. 

Terminalia triptera, Stapf, 1895, 

folium, Baker, 1895, 185. 
'Thamnosma , Hirschii, Schtcf, 

Andaman marble wood, 1887, 

Sept., 18. 
— red wood, 1887, Sept., 18. 
Araucaria wood, 1893, 225. 
Australian timbers in Kew 

Museum, 1892, 247. 
Bandina boxwood, 1887, Sept., 

— wood, 1889, 

Borneo eamph< 

Sept., 15. 

S, P r. 


British North Borneo timbers, 

1887, Sept., 14. 
Canary rosewoods, 1893, 133. 
Cape boxwood, 1887, Feb., 1. 

- timbers, ] 

, Sept., 
94, 197. 

Formosa, timber, in, 1890, 75. 
Greenheart, 1887, Sept., 15; 

1893, 117. 
Huon pine, 1889, 115. 
Jamaica cogwood, 1889, 127. 
— walnut, 1894, 138, 371. 
Jarrah, 1887, Sept., 6; 1890, 

188 ; 1893, 338. 
Karri, 1887, Sept., 0. 
Lagos timbers, 1893, 183. 
Laurel wood, 1887, Sept.. 10. 
Light wood, 1889, 115. 


Tombak, 1891, 77. 

Madagascar ebony, 1888, 


i Ton Khoi, 1888, 82. 

— timbers, 1890," 203. 

Tonga !>lamls dried plants, 1S92. 

Mahogany, 1892, 72. 

— . horse-flesh. 1887. Dec 


, flora of, 1894, 370. 

— , West African, 1890, 


Tonquin, Y-dzi of, 1893, 76. 

1891,8; 1895,79. 

Trachycarpus exo Isns, 1894, 16. 

Milanje cedar, LS92, 123; 

Mirabou, 1887, Sept., 15. 


Tiach\ mene celebica, Hemsl., 

Tra-acaith, 18!) 1, 36; 1895, 238. 

Mora, 1887, Sept., 15. 

Transvaal dried plants 1892, 101 

M-Tivll, 1SS7, Sept.. (5. 

Newfoundland, timber in. 

1891, 403. 


Treeulta acuminata, 1891. 360. 

Outeniqua yellow- wood, 


— affona, xV. E. Brown, 1891, 

Sept., 10. 

Padouk, 1887, Sept., IS. 

— africana, 1894, 359. 

Pencil cedar, 1889, 115. 

— madagascarica, N. E. Brown, 

Peruvian walnut, 1893, 

353 ; 

1894, 360. 

1894, 140. 

— oboToidea, X. E. Brown, 1891, 

Kaspberry jam wood, 



Sept., 7. 

Tree planting in British Central 

Eed myrtle, 1889, 114. 

Africa, 1895, 188. 

Sandalwood, 1887, Sept., 1 

— tomato (with fig.), 1887, Aug., 2. 

— , Juan Fernandez, 1894 


Trees and Shrubs, hand4ist of, 


part i., 1895, 40; part ii., 1896, 

Sassafras, 1889, 11G. 

Sneeze-wood, 1S95, 3. 

, list of seeds available 

Stink-wood, 1887, Sept. 


for exchange, 1890, Appendix 
1., 30; 1891, Appendix I., _»9 ; 

1895, 3. 

Straits Settlements timbers, 

1892, Appendix 1.. 23; 1893, 

1890, 112. 

Appendix I .21 ; 1*94. Appendix 
I., 22; 1895. Appendix 1., 26; 

St finery bark, 1889, 114. 

— gum, 1889, 111. 

1896, Appendix I., 26. 

Tasmanian timber?, 1889, 

of the Bombay Presidency, 

Tuart, 1887, Sept., 6. 

1894, 401. 

Tulip-tres wood, 189(5, 22: 

Tria< vitrina, Rolfe, 1895, 282. 

Umzumbit, 1887, Sept., 11 

Triealysiii euneifolia. Baker, 1891, 

Wandoo, 1887, Sept., 6. 

White myrtle, 1889, 115. 

Tiiehilia alata, X. E. Brown, 

— willow, 1895, 239. 

1896, 160. 

Yellow wood, 1887, Sept 


officinale, A r . E. 

1895, 3. 

York gum, 1887, Sept., 6. 

Yoruba - land timbers, 1891, 
Tinnea arabica, Baker, 1891, 339. 
Tobacco cultivation in British 

Central Africa, 1895, 190. 

Yoruba-land, 1890, 242. 

— , natural sugar in, 1896, 49. 

— , Persian, 1891, 77. 

Tobago, economic resources of, 

1887, June 5. 
— , fruits of, 1888, 190. 

machine, 1894, 189. 
Togoland, 1894, 410; 1896, 175. 

Brown, 1895, 264. 
Trichocentrum albiflorura, Rolfe, 

1893, 336. 
— Hartii, Rolfe, 1894, 395. 
Triehocladus grandiflorus, 1895, 

Trichocliue (Ingenhousia) cordi- 

folia, Baker, 1892, 197. 

Baker, 1892, 

Trichodesma africanum, Baker, 
1895, 184. 

— grandifolium, Baker, 1894, 29. 

— Medusa, Baker, 1894, 29. 

— pauciflcrvm, Baka; 1894, 29 

T ■icliniL'Sm.-i >!('!iosi'|iiiluili. Btt In ■/■. 

Tuart wood, 1887, Sept., 6. 

1895, 221. 

Tuberous Labiate, 1894, 10. 

- . rfnifam, 1892, 300. 

Tulip-tree wood for cigar boxes, 

— vestitum, i?a*e>-, 1894, 7. 

1896, 223. 

Trichopteryx elegan.*, 1890, 127- 

Tulipa violacea, 1895. 299. 

.■r?a sacchari, 1893, 150; 

Tunis, vine culture in, 1890, 36. 

1894, 81, 154, 169; 1895,81; 

Turkey-oak in South Africa. 1*91. 

1896, 106. 


in Java, 1895, 84. 

Turks and Caicos Islands, Sisal 

Mauritius, 1894, 81. 

hemp in. 1890, 273; 1892, 31, 

Trigynsea antillnna, Rolfe, 1893, 

217; 1893,227; 1896, 119. 

Turnip .-ced, pure, production of. 

Trimen, Dr. H., death of, 1896, 

1894, 223. 


Turnsole, poisoning from, 1889, 

, retirement of, 1896, 


Turrsea lycioides, Baker, 1S95, 

Trinidad, bananas in, 1894, 270, 


276, 283, 302, 304, 313. 

Turtle-seeds of the Solomon Islands, 

— , Castilloa elastica in, 1896, 221. 

1892, 105. 

— coffee, 1888, 129. 

Tutcher, W. J., 1891, 245. 

— , economic resources of, 1887, 

Tylophora eauieroonica, X. E. 

Brown. 1895, 258. 

— , fruits of, 1888, 191. 

— conspicua, X. /.'. Broun. 1S95, 

— , museum specimens from, 1887, 

— objonga, A". E. Brown, 1895, 

Sept., 16. 

— , pepper cultivation in, 1894, 79. 

— ociiata, X. E. Brown, 1895, 

— , Sisal hemp in, 1892, 34. 

— Vanilla, 1896, 125. 

— stenoloba, X. E. Brown, 1895, 

Tripogon _ Jacquemontii, Stop/, 


TvnL.wm in linn.- K, „,,-•_ IS'.l.r 

265, 271. 286,287,304. 
, dried plants from, 1891, 

275; 1893, 146; 1894, 166. 

, flora of, 1894, 17. 

, German Colonies in, 1894, 

410 ; 1896, 174. 

— Agricu 

. text book of, 1893, 

— and sub- tropical plants, cool 
cultivation of, 1889, 287. 

— fodder grasses, 1894, 373; 
1895, 209; 1896, 115. 

Truelove, W., death of, 1894, 74. 
_ _ retirement of, 1892, 185. 
Truxillo coca, 1894, 152. 
Ti -vpodnidron domesticum, 1890, 

Udal fibre, 1887, Sept., 19. 
Uganda, bark cloth of, 1892, 58. 
Umzumbit, 1887, Sept., 11. 
Uncaria Gambier, 1889, 247; 

1892, 76. 
, introduction to West Indies, 

1891,106, 109; 1893,359. 

- grandifolia. Baker, 1896, 23. 



, horticulture and arboricul- 

> in, 1894, 37. 

. Baswan thistle in, 1894, 

Urera fibre, 1888, 84. 
— teaax (with plate), 1888, 84. 
Ursinia saxatili.-, X. K. IJroirn, 

iculture in, 1893, 

U.smibara dried plants, 1894, 

is, xV. E. Brown, 


Vanilla, Tahiti, 1892, 214. 

— , Trinidad, 1896, 125. 

Vanillas of commerce, 1892, 212 : 

1895, 169. 
Vanillons, 1892,214. 
Vjivji-a mc-aphvUa. U'rli/ht. 1K!>5, 

Vegetables, cultivation of, 1894, 

219; 1895,307. 
— , importation of, 1894, 219; 

, 1895, 

— erythroearpuni, 1895, 156. 

— hirsutum, 1894, 192. 

— setosum, Wright, 1896, 24 
Valeriana capensis, — - ' 

X. E. Brown, 1895, 146. 
Valonia in Cyprus, 1888, 163. 
Vanda hainanensis, Rolfe, 1896, 

'-Vu ;„,«•„„„. Rolfe, 1894, 365. 
Vanilla. 18KS, 76; 1892, 212; 
1894. 206. 208; 1895, 169. 

— appendicular. Rolfe, 1895, 

2, 213. 

— cultivation at Fiji, 1894, 208. 

Lagos, 1896, 79. 

in Tahiti, 1894, 206. 

- flower, fertilization of (w; 
plate), 1888, 77. 

- Gardneri, Rolfe, 1895, 177. 
-in British Honduras, 181 

Baker, 1895, 228. 

— elcgana, 1893,21. 

— retinervis, 1893, 21. 
Vellozie:r, 1893, 20. 
Venezuela, banana- in, 1894, 269, 

Verbascum Luntii, Baker, 1894, 

— (Lychnitis) somaliense, Baker, 
1895, 222. 

Vernonia amplexicaulis. Baker, 

1895, 216. 

— cryptocephala, Baker, 1895, 

— gomphophylla, Baker, 1895, 

— oocephala, Baker, 1895, 68. 

— subapbylla. linker, IS!).",. 290. 
Veronica EJectori, 1895, 156. 

— loganioides, 1895, 122. 
Viburnum ceanothoides, Wright. 

1896, 23. 

Victoria, fruits of, 1888, 2. 
— , oils and resins from, 1887, 
Sept., 5. 
~' ylloxera in, 1890,36. 


, Cochin 

China, 1888, 134. 

— pods in Kew Museum, 1891, 

, new method of treating, 

1896, 224. 

— Pompona, 1895, 176. 

— . Seycbellesand Mauritius 1>'.»2, 

— , South American, 1892, 214 

European vars., 1889, 227; 
1891, 45. 
-, anthracnose in, 1893, 228. 

*, 1890, 

France, 1888, 
Viola bulbosa, 1894, 370. 

i warded Witch memorial 

Visitors to Kew, number of, 18! 

51 ; 1893, 07, 1891, 32; 18! 

18, 271; 1896, 28. 
Vitex (Ohrysomallum) hir> 

tissima, Baker, 1892, 198. 

— holophylla, Baker, 189G, 25. 

— syringsefolia, Baker, 1895, 1 

— thyrsiflora, Baker, 1895, 152 
Viticulture in Malaga, 1894, 34 

Uruguay, 1893, 371. 

Vitis aestivalis, 1891, 45. 
vars., 1889, 228. 

— (Cissus) apodophylla, Baker, ! 
1894, 330. 

— fEucissus) glossopetala, Baker, 
1894, 344. 

— labrusca, 1891,45. 

Wattle Lark, 1893, 370. 
Wax, Chinese white, 1893, 84. 
Weather plant, 1890, 1. 


Weinmannia stenostachya, Baker, 

1895, 103. 
Weldenia Candida, 1894, 135; 

1895, 121. 
Wellesley, Mass., 1894, 46. 
West Africa, Assam rubber Cor, 

112; 1890. 195, 261 ; 1>!>2. 

, experimental cultivatioi 

economic plants, 1890, 196. 

- primuloides, Baker. 1804, 

Botanic Stations, 1893, 363. 

cinchona bark, 1894. 1 1!». 

indigo plants, 1888, 74. 


mahogany, 1894, 8; 1895, 

- rafia, 1895, 88, 287. 

Waby, J. F., Barbados dried 

plants, 1896,31. 

rubbers, 1889, 63. 

Wahlenbergia pinifolia, X. E. 

— Australia, fruits of, 1888, 10. 

Brown, 1895/ 148. 

— Indies, bananas in, 1891,270, 

Wakely, C, 1896, 96. 

275, 285. 

Walnut. Jainai.'.M. 1891, 138,371; 

, botanical enterprise in, 

1896, 156. 

1891, 103. 

— , Peruvian, 1894, 140. 

, Sugar-cane borers in. 1892, 

1893, 222. 

— Indian Botanic Stations, 1887, 

Wandoo timber, 1887, Sept., 6. 

June, 1; July, 9; 1894, 419. 

Ward, J. R., 1893, 366. 

dried plants, 1892, 188. 

p death of, 1895, 231. 

frog at Kew, 1895, 301. 

Waidian rases, duroline for, 1893, 

lime (with plate), 1894. 1 l.'l. 

U'nt M ./.miAJi 1GOJ. 5«n 

\V. -!• <>mbe, Miss, plants and 

Water-couch, 1894, 380. 

— grass, 1894, 384. 

— supply at Kew, 1896, 61. 

Wharton, Capt. W. G. L., Solon* 
Islands dried plants, 1894, 21 

Wheat cultivation, 1894, 1G7. 

in British Central Afric 

1895, 187- 

— pest in Cyprus, 


. is'.)::. 

— production of India, Ii 
White myrtle, 1889, 115. 

— tea of Pei sin, I*9G. K 

— willow, 1895. 239. 
Whittall, E., bulbs fr. 

Minor, 1893, 147. 
— , — , Smyrna dried plai 

Whyte, A., botany of Milanje, 

1892, 121. 

— , — , exploration of the Karonga 

Mountains, 1896, 191. 
Widdringtonia Whytei, L895, L68, 

189; 189G, 21G. 
Wiles, James, 1891, 300. 
Willey, F. E., 1893, G6 ; 1895, 

William IV., 1891, 319. 
Willis, J. C, 189G, 186. 
Willow, while, 1895, 239. 
Wilson, Nathaniel, 1891, 321. 
Wine industry in the Caucasus, 

1893, 223. 

— , Maqui berries for colouring, 

1890, 34. 
— production in France, 1890, 

Wittsteinia vaccineacea, 1 893, 112. 
Wood, J. M., XatuI dried plants, 

1893, 116; 1895, 158. 
Woodruff, G., 1891, 86. 
— , — , death of, 1891,95. 
Wormwood, 1887, Sept., 9. 
— as;, fodder plant in India, WA, 


Wrightia parvi 


Xyleborus perforans, 1892, IC 
(with plate) 153, 172, 26 

1894, 138 

Xysmalobium bellum, X.E. Broic 

1895, 69. 

— Carson i, N. E Broicn, 

Yam bean, 1889, 17, (v 
62 ; 1895, 47. 

short-podded (w 

i plate) 
. plate), 

1889, 121 ; 1895, 47. 
Yaxci. (See Sisal hemp.) 
Y-dzi of Tonquin, 1893, 76. 
Yellow-wood, 1887, Sept., 10; 

1895, 3. 
Yeoward, P., Fiji dried plants, 

1895, 20. 
York gum timber, 1887, Sept., 6. 
Yoruba indigo, 1888, 74, (with 

plate) 268 ; 1890, 242. 

— land, indigenous plants of, 
1891, 206. 

. soil and cultivation in, 1890, 


, timber of, 1891,41. 

Yucatan, sisal hemp in. ls92, 22, 

272; 1893,212. 
Yueea lilif.-ra at K.-w. 1891,277. 

— Hanburii, 1892, 217. 
Yuccas on the Riviera, 1892, 7. 
Yunnan dried plant-, 1892. 151 : 

1895, 45, 53. 

Zaoato, ISO I. 382. 

Zalil, Persian (wi 

111; 1895,167. 

1892, 87. 
— , botanical enterprise in, 1896, 

— , ciimate of, 1890, 216 ; 1892, 91. 
— , clove industry of, 1893, 17. 

" , 1896 : 

Zanzibar, fruits of, 1892, 89. 

— , Sir John Kirk's garden at, 

1896, 80. 
Zimmer, C. W., 1893,340. 
/inc. in .hied apples, 1895, 239. 
Zingiber officinale, 1891, 5 ; 1892, 

Zizyphus Chloroxylon (with plate), 

1889, 127. 
— sp., 1894, 193. 
Zoniba Botanic Garden, 1895, 186. 
Zygodia urceolata, Stapf, 1894, 


African oil palm, 1892 - 
American Ginseng, 1893 

palm weevil, 1893 

Anbury, club-root, or finger-and-b 
Antenna of Trypodendron, 1890 
Alalia quinquefolia, 1893 
Aspidiotusauranlii, 1891 - 
Bearded weevil, 1893 - grass, 1888 
Blumea balsamifera, 1895 
Bowstring, hemp plants, 1887, Ma 
Californian prune, 1892 
Calospora Vanillae, 1892 
Chilo sai-charalis, 1892 
Citrus Medica, var. acida. 1891 - 
Cotton stcnopliylla, 1896 - 
Coix Lachryma, var. stenocarpa, : 
Cudrania triloba, 1888 
Cyphomandra betacea, 1887, Augi 
Delphinium Zalil, 1889 - 
Elephant beetle, 1895 - 
Ela'is guineensis, 1892 - 
Erythroxylon Coca, 1889 

tiicin.i: "Ji'l 
• facing 60 

Highland coffee of Sierra Leone, 1896 

Icerya jegyptiaca, 1890 

~Purchihl889 fa <» n g 


Iselm-imim angustifoliur 
Jamaica cogwood, 1889 
Job's tears, 1888 
Kiekxia africana, 1895 

Megasoma elephas, 1893 - 
Moth borer, 1892 - 
Musa Cavendisbii, 1894 - 

Etisete, 1895 - 

Fehi ( = M. Seemanni), 1894 


CEcodoma n 

Oil palm fibre, preparation of, 1892 - 
Onioa disease, 1887, October 
Orange scale, 1891 

Pachyrhizus angulatus, 1889 

tuberosus, 1889 - 

Palm oil, preparation of, 1892 

Parasol ant, 1893 - 

Peronospora schleideniana, 1887, October 

Piper Cubeba, 1887, December - 

Plan of Curator's house, Botanic Station, St. Vin 

Plantain, 1887, April, 4; 1894 - 

Plasmodiophora Brassicae, 1895 - 

Raspador fibre machine, 1892 

Rhina barbirostris, 1893 - 

nigra, 1893 - 

Rhyncophorus palmarum, 1893 
Rosellinia radiciperda, 1896 - 
Sabicti, 1887, December - 
Sansevieria zeylanica, 1887, May 
Saneevierias, sections of leaves, 1887, May 
Section of oak stem showing burrows of Tr 

- facing 60 

- 65, QQ 

- 21, 22 

•ypodendron, 1890 

Sisal hemp 

Star a " 

i borers, 1892 - 
Tabernanthe Iboga, 1895 
Tree tomato, 1887, August 
Urera tenax, 1888 - 
Vanilla flower, fertilization of, 1888 

Weather rhaits, 1890 
Weevil-borer, 1892 
West Indian lime, 1894 - 
Xyleborus perforans, 1892 - 
Yam bean, 1889 - 

, short-podded, 1889 

Yornba indigo, 1888 

Zalil, 1889 

Zizyphus Chloroxylon, 1889 




APPENDIX I.-1896. 


The following is a list of seeds of Hardy Herbaceous Annual and 
1 '<m< nil i.i I Plants ami • i I lank Trees and Shrubs which, for the nio-l part, 
have ripened at Kew during the year 18!)."). These seeds are nut sold 
to (lie general public hut arc available for exchange with Colonial, 
Indian, and Foreign Botanic ( iardens, as well as with regular corre- 
spondents of Kew. No application, except from remote colonial posses- 
sions, can be ent< ml of March. 


Acaena cylindrostachvn, link <S- 

maerostemon, Hook. f. N. 

microphylla, Hook. f. N. 

myriophylla, Lindl. Chili, 
ovalifolia, Ruiz & Pa v. Peru, 

rbae, rWA/.NewZea- 

hicq. Mexico. 

Ptarmica, L 



tomentosa, L. Eur. 
Tounieforti, DC. Or 

Actinolepis coro 

Adenophora liliifolia. Bess. 

Allium— ami. 

Europe, &c. 

Cydni, ,%Ao« c> Kotschy. 

Adesini.-i muiicitn, DC. Chili, &c. 

Asia Minor. 

Adlumia cirrhosa, Rtt/in. N. 

Fetisowi, Reg el. Turkestan. 


fistulosum, L. Siberia. 

Adonis aestivalis, L. Europe, 

flavum, L. Europe. 


giganteum, Reg el. Central 

iEgopogon geminiilorus, Ifnmh. <S- 

globosum, Redoutv. Origin 

MtWummv.i cappadocicura, 

— U var!'SiIidum. 

pulehellum, Boiss. Armenia. 

hymenorrhizuni, Ledeb. 

saxatile, R.Br. S. Europe. 

— var. Venuifolium, Rcgcl. 

A^rituoiii.-i Eupatoria, L. N. 

kansuense, Rcgcl . China. 

leucantha, Kunze. Origin 


Moly, L. Europe. 

odorata, Mill. Europe. 

A-romron Aucheri, Boiss., 


narcissiilorum, Vill. Europe. 

dasyanthum, l.cdcb. Kussia. , 

nigrum, L. Europe. 

glaucum, Roc in. <\ Si- hid t. 

odorum, L. Siberia. 

ostrowskianum, Regel. Turk- 

pungens, Rocm. <S- Scladt. 


polypi lyllum, Kar. 8? Kir. 

— var. pyciianthiim, Godr. 

tenerum, Vasey. ET. America. 

Agvo S tis,ilb»^.A.-K,.i-o|«.. 

roseum, L. Mediterranean 

Schoenoprasum, L. N. 

nigra, VnV//. Europe/' ' 


— var. sibiricum, (Z.). 

senescens, /.. Europe, Si 1 x-ria. 

subvillosum, Salzm. S. W. 


Alclicinilla alpina, A. N. hemi- 
conjuncta, Bab. K. W. 

Suworowi, Regel. Central 

urceolatum, Regel. Turkes- 


fissa, Schnm. Alps, Pyrenees, 

ursinum, L. Europe, N. 


vulgaris, L. Europe. 

Victorialis, L. Europe, Si- 

Alisma Plantago, A. Europe, Ac. 

beria, &c. 

Allium Ampeloprasum, L. 
Europe, Orient, 

Alonsoa incisii . / . . 


atropurpurenm, TJ'aldst. t y 
A/7. Hungary. 

Alopecurus agrestis,Z. Europe. 

arundinaceus, Fair. Europe, 

Babingtoni, Borrer. Britain. 


m, Boicr. Orient 

genieulatus, L. N. henii- 

r:.rdiostcnion, A/.vr/,. A J/, /A 

pratensis," A. N. hemisphere. 

carinatum, A. Europe. 

— var. fol. variegatis. 

Alstroemeria amantiaea, 


Anagallis a,v,„is, A. H„,,, 

hae^laiba, Buij \ 


— "var. earn.*, (.SV/m,,,*). 


\iK'Wa''imli''| i "/A/' ' M.^l'ii'na- 


var. narboiK'iiHs, /'<> 

ticil'olia, ( 'dr. 1 >:ilin:il ia 


Heldreichii, Jioiss. 


"ori!'nt! C( '" (l> ' 


';;;;' ;!; ;•■• / ,;';■ * ,:, y:' 



Ai-.dmih'i' int.^rilolin, A M1-.I1- albana, Sto >■'. N. Asia, 

sulpburea, />W. cV AA 


l)iU.l<msis. A. Bnropa, 

coronaria, A. Meditcnaiman 



deoajkila, A. N. America. 

creticwn, L. Crete. 

Enum^/ ^In!?"' 

L'uls'atnia A Europe. 


rivulu.'is" , /;»r//.//U: llima- 

minimum,' //7//r/. 1 

uro h- 

BjWwtria, A. Kun.i-r. 



Angelica Jtatarica, .1/,/,™,. K. 

podolioam, Bern. 1 


Anoda batata, O//-. Mexico, 
Wrijrbtii, (inn/. Al.-xioo. 



' ' Ac * 

Amaranthus caudatus, A. ' 


Anthcmis'nrtriciisis, SV/„>„„.." Ml. 

of Old Worbi. 




hypochondriacns, L 


mmSm+L. Europe, Ac 

retroflexns, Z. N. Am. 


peregrlna, Z« Mc'ditmai.ra,. 

tme^sten^-rufo// A Si 

tim-toria.' A. Kjiroj^. 



Antbericum I.ilia-o, A. S. Europe, 

Amsinckin 1 1 it rrm, •.:;.. 

</,. ,s 

ruMHotn ^Birope. ' ' 



An.boxantlmm ,do,„tum. A. Ku- 

/ "% 


A .,,:;|H|:/iX: 

Anthyllis lefraphylla, L. Mediter- 


Vulneraria, L. Europe, &c. 

Europe, N. Asia. 

Antirrhinum Asarinn, L. Italy. 


gran'.liflora, £. Europe. 


gypsopliiloides, A. Asia 

liirta, Wormsk. N. Europe. 

pinifolia, /?*£>&. Caucasus. 

i llwSmr^^* W ' Medlter ' 

purpurascens, Ra moral. I'y 

Apera interrupta, Beatw. Europe, 

Argemone mexicana, />. Mexico. 

platyceras, Link A O/te. 

Apiiiin ^raveolens, L. Europe, &c. 

Armerif^Hfolh Willi Portu- 

Aquilegia chrysantha, Gray. New 



flavesccns,.S'. \\'ah<. ( 'alifornia. 

— var. alba. 

vulgaris, Z. Europe. 
Arabis albida, Stew. Mediterranean 

plantaginea, //7/A/. Europe. 

pungens, Hqff'mrjtj. $ Link. 
Portugal, &c. 

Arnica amplexicaulis, X«ft. N . W. 

alpestris, Schhich. Europe. 

montana, A. Europe, N. Asia. 

u iiViXcT'a f 


blepimn.jlhylht^Sr^ ,/,;,, 

Artemisia annua, A. E. Europe, 

ce^nnens^l'^r'. S. France. 

Arum iHiin.m 1 ' Mill Europe 

Holl)oel!ii, Bornem. N. Amo- 

muralis, Bert. x*r. rose*, DC. 

Asparagus oflicinalis, /.. Europe, 


Asperella" hystrix, Willd. N. 

petiaea, /.r/w. N. temperate 


pumila, Jbcg. Alps, &C. 

Aspei'ula azurca, Janb. $ Spach. 

Soyeri, #ew#. £ //»«*. Py- 

galioides, i?/e&. Europe, &c. 

Stelleri, DC. ▼ar. japonica. 


tinctoria, Z. Europe. 

Asphodeline lilnirnica, linvhh. 
S. E. Europe. 

Turezaninowii, AcAV,. Si- 

AspWIelus albus, IVilhl. S. 

fistuSr* /.. Mediterranean 



Aster acuminatum, Mich.v. N. 

Arctium majus, Her,,/,. Europe. 

alpinus, L. Europe, N". Asia. 

Amellus, JS. Europe, &c. 

corymbosus, .//'/. X. Ameiica. 

Arenaria faseiculata, Go***. 


diplostcpliioidcs, Benth. 8? 

gothica, Fries-. Europe, 

Hook.f. Himalaya. 

Aster— cont. 

Baptisia australis, R. Br. N. 

puniceus, L. N. America. 


Barbarea intermedia, Bor. Europe. 

pyrenaeus, Z>(7. Pyrenees. 

Radula, . lit. X. America. 

praecox, R.Br. Europe. 
vulgaris, R. Br. Europe, 

rauaeetifoliu?, '/A B. S>- K. 


trieophalus," ' r. ' I). Clarke, j 

Bockmannia erucaeformis, Host. 

«n"enatus! l J////.N. America. 

— var. unitlorus, Scrib. N. 

Astragalus alpinus, A. N". and ! 

Arctic regions ' 

Beta trigyna, llahht. cV A7/. E. 

booties, A. Mediterranean 

Europe, Asia Minor. 

chinf.'sis, A. China. 

vulgaris, A. Europe, Africa, 

chlorostachys, Limll. Hima- 

Cicer, X. S. Europe. 

grandiflora, 11 alb. Mexico. 

glyeypliyllus,' A. Europe. Ac. 

humilis, II. B. K. S. 

I^mbo^ n( 'uo^Z\ N. ! 

^Tn.lies^e " >IUL ^ l ' St 



Astrantia Biebcrsteinii, /•'/«•//. X , 

Boceonia eordata, WilUl. China & 

Athainantacretensis, A.S.Europe. 

mlcrocarpa, Afen«. N 

Atriplex^ Babingtonii, WW*. 


hortensis, A. N. Asia. 

Boltonia asteroides, L'lhrit. N 


; Borago officinalis, A. Europe, Asia 

Anbrietia deltoidea, DC. 8. 

Boykinia major, Gray. California. 

— var? cri i eca ( t ? rweo ) . 

Brachvaetisrobusta, Hi nth. Hima 

— var.' gYandi flora. 

' lay*. 

— var. Eeiehtlinii, llort. 

Biachycome iberidifolia, B«lM. 

ernbweens! Chriseb. Greece. 


gracilis, Spmu. (ireece. 

' Europe. Ac. 

'^''""JiteMsK^'i'linml^ Siberia 

Brassica balearica, P. Baleavic 

!:;; 1 ;;;;' ( ;; s ;^;;^; 1 !:;; M ' ,,!n '^''- 

ean.p'estris, /.. Old World. 

Baeria gracilis, Gjw/. W. Call- 


plalycarpha, Gray. California, 

Europe, &c. 
raria, Beanv. Europe, &c. 

Clinopodium, Benth. N. tem- 
perate regions, 
grandiflora, Moench. Europe. fongesta, Sin. N. W. 

grandiflora, Sm. N. W. 
Bromus adoi'msis, Abys- 

ertctiis, I fuds. Europe, <5 
inennis, Lcyss. Europe, 
Kalmii, c,7ay. N. Am 

losiuscula, DC. Chili. 

Calendula officinalis, /.. 

sullVull.-osa, fa/*/. W. Me. 

Caltha palusfris, L. 

Frnseri, To,, 

Campanula — cont. 


lactiflora, Bieb. Caucasus. 

Wiihhith. X. 

latifolia, L. Europe, Ac. 

— var. macrantbn, (Fiscb.). 

vulpinn, L. 1 

— var. versicolor, {Sihtli. ,\ 


, DC. S. Europe. 

latiloba, DC. Olympus. 

Carthamus lanatu 

, L. Europe, &e, 

Medium, L. S. Europe. 

Europe, Jfec. 

persieifolia, ./., Europe, &c. 

Carom Bolbob 

tftanam, Koch. 

— var. alba. 


2JS*; % 


ipmifuloi.les, L. Eur< 

Boiu. * # 

Asia Minor, &c. 
rboml.oi-.lalis, A. Europe, 
rotundifolia, L. N. temper; 


>pe, &C. 

tenth. $ Ho 


In. A"!i 



A. W. M, 



rancan regi 

in vilio.-a, /A-./,./! Mima 

„rtlu,.-..pbi l lii.s WaUr.YAX 

000, PW, Europe, ; 

X. N. temperate 
L 7, Temperate I Cei 

pendula, ffntl.1. Europe, ,v.e. 
svlvatica, Hnds. Europe, &c 


Cerastium chloruofolium, Pisvh. 
Mey. Asia Minor, 
perforatum, L. Mediterrane; 

purpmaseens, Adams. As 

Cerinthe alpina, Kit. Europe, &< 
aspera, Both. Europe, 
major, L. Europe. 

Chaerophyllum aromaticum, - 

Chclone I.voni, Pursh. \\ Amcrira. 

nemorosa, Dougl. X. America. 

obliqua, L. N. America. 
Chenopodium album, /.. Temperate 

ambrosoides, L. Temperate 
and tropical regions. 

aromaticum, Hort. Origin 

Eonus-Henricus, L. Europe. 

Botrjs, L, Europe, &c. 

capitatum, Aschers. Europe, 

8m. Europe. 
, fVilld. Mexico, 
i, Schrad. Europe, 

virgni in 

i i.ori-q.orn tcnella, DC. Cai 

cavneum, Stent! . Caucasus. 
caucasicum, Pcr.s. Caucasus, 
cinerariactbluim, Vis. Dal- 

coronarium, L. Mediterranean 

i.eiicaniliemum, L. Europe, 

. JRamont 
macrophyllum, JValtht. s Kit. 

multicaule, Dcsf. N". Africa. 
Parthenium, Bernh. Europe. 
praealtum, Vent.Cn\\Q\\*\\*, Ike. 
segetum, L. Europe, &c. 
setabense, Dufour. Spain & 
er arietinum, L. Europe, &c. 
horium Endivia, L. Orient. 

Intybus, /.. Europe, 
licifuga foetida, L. Europe, &c. 

pulcbella, Pnrsh. Oregon, &c. 
— var. alba. 
< a\ fui .,i pi I'foliata, Donn. N. 

Clematis integrifolia, L. S. Europe, 

ochroleuca, Ait. N. ? 

recta, L. S. Europe. 

Cleome integrifolia. '/'< ,-r. 

Willd, N. Ame- 

Bieb. Caucasus. 

Cnicus — cont. 

intermedins, Heller. Europe, 
lanceolatus, Willd. Europe, 
ligularis, Hort. Kew. Orient. 
monspe3Siilanus, L. S. Europe, 
ochroleucus, Spreng. Europe, 
oleraceus, L. Europe, 
serrulatus, Bicb. Europe, Cau- 

stellatus, Roth. Europe, 
syriacus, Both. Mediterranean 
Cochlearia danica, L. N. & Arctic 

Torr, $ Gray. 

grandiflora, Kutt. S. United 

lauceolata, L. N. America. 

— var. villosa. Mir/,.,. S. 
United States. 

tinctoria, Nutt. N. America. 

— var. atrosanguinea. 
Coriandnnn sativum, L. Europe, 



Codonopsis ovata, Beuth.W. Him 

Colchicum speciosum, Stcv. Cai 

Collinsia bartsiaefolia, Bcnth. Ca 

bicolor, Benth. California, 


sparsiflora, 7 

,11. N 

N. W. 

Collomia coccinea, 




■rnia. &i 

( "ommeliuacoelest 

<JI 'ill 

01f\ii «> 

Coreopsis ahvssinica, Sr/i. Hip. 
atkinsoniana, Doug/. N. Vv. 

ria, /.. Europe, &c. 

ii MaUhioli, L. Europe 

rica, Pers. Siberia. 

H.wa, Hall.f. Europe, i 
eetorum, L. Europe. Ae 

spociosus. Hi eh. Asia Minor. 
, Herb. Dal- 

dictyocarpum, DC. Siberia, 
elatuni, L. Europe, &c. 

— var. alpinum, ( Waldst. S>- 

— var. iutermedmm. 

ella aegyptiaca, L. Egypt. 
lus bacciferus, /,.E u ropc,&c . 
im Cyminum, L. Mediter- 

iUnth. Mexico. 

Zimapani, Morr. Mexico. 
CuscutaEpilinum, Wiethe. Europe, 

rientale, J. Gay. Europe, 

peciosiiiii, llich. Caucasus. 

vostituui, It >>.'/. Ilmi;ilay:i 
Demazeria siculn, Dion. Europe 
Deselnmipsia caespitosa, lice 

Dactylis gh 


Dahlia coc 

scapigera, Knoir/cs S,- I'Vc 

rote. .Mexico. 
variabilis, Dcsf. Mexico. 
Dnlea l.-uropus, Wilhl. Mexico, 

( ' osrao - 

Tntnl.i, A, Europe, &c 
Daueus Cnrotn, L. Europe, 
Delphinium Ajacis, 

atrorubens, All. S. Europe. 
eaosius, S/». Europe, 
callizonus, Schott Sr Kotschy. 

Carvophylhi.s, L. Europe, Ac. 
eiliatus, (hm. Italy, &c. 
deltcides, L. Europe, &c. 
Prflgnms, llich. Caucasus. 

!-, Box 

Dianthus— cmtf. 

toner, Halt,. Piedmont, 

Dictamntu albas, L. Europe, ko. 

rnyscbiana/i. Europe. Ac " 
Drimia roboata, Baker. S. Africa. 
Dryas octopetala, /",. Europe, Ac. 

Dijptel^ambigaa, Murr. Barope, 

Mediterranean region. 

forru S inon, A. Eur,., v. 

Ercr.Muor.upu> scalar, li»iz .y 

media., AW/,. S. Europe. 

Echinops globifer, Janha. E. 

— vnr. alb*, //„,•/. 

i ^ ,Wr?»co".l.-ilii- / Fur«.«. 

Dimorphotheca minua, /./«. Cape, 

hybrida, 7>><". Qape ol' Good 
" Hope, 

Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dtf Europe. 

Koliiuni plantagiu.'um, /.. Europo, 
Eleusino coracana, Gatrtn, S. 

oligostachya, Link. Brazil. 

Dips™ us asper, 7/ "////. Himalaya. 

Bljmafl canadonoio, / 

i)i,p,a,l!?irll!'.'ii" 1 v'< < Il.c'aii- 

K„,ox 1 ,i,,s ! , > r„,^,E„ r o 1 ,, 

Dodecatfaeon Meadia, /.. X. 

_™r!maerooaipum, On,,,. 

Epilobi.nn alsinifbliuin, lilt. 

"^Europe, Asia Minor.' ' 

angusttfolium, L. N. hemi- 

Draba aizoides, L. Europe. 

srabiaans, Mick*, N. 


hirsutam, L. Bnropa. 

— var. Thomasii. (Koch). 

lmnaeoides, //«.*/•. /: N. V.-a- 
lan.l. fto. 

D ^:::l^,,., , 

N. '/,.', l,ml.' 

I l-MI„ 

Asia Minor, &c. 
murus altaicus, Stev. Siberia, 

kaiifiuanniana, lici/i I. Turkcs- 

-jx'ctaliilis, liii !>. Asi:t Minor, 


v, r. 

droebachensis, 0. Muell. 

glabella, Xi,tt. N. America. 


hymenodes, /..V/r/, 
maoradonium, Z'ffw 
moschatum, L'/hrii. 

aureum, 2?»e6. Caucasus. 

boryanum, Boiss. Greece, &c. 

bieracifolium, L. Europe. 

marshallianum, Ambz. Si- 
beria, &c. 

perowskianum, Fisch.fy Maj- 

tbraea Centaurium, Per*. 

virprata, Wr/Ato. <$• ifrV. E. 

Ka^npv i mi) i-»<-uIi.'ntniii, Moctich. 

Festuca ainpla, Hark. Spain. 

Grcntiatiii ctmf 

capillifolia, Dufour. Spain. 

line;!. /.. Europe, &c 

dclicatulsi, Liu/. Spain and 


tibetica, Kiny. Himalaya, 8te. 

(Jer.-miuni :ill.; />/'< A. Cauea-ms. 

armenum, /><nss. Orient. 

boliemieuin, L. Europe. 

<^>n t! ' va! ' / '///^ ' K i , r« -i u' . ,Sc . ■ . 

Endressi, Gay. Pyrenees. 

Halleri'/j//. S. Europe. 


Myuros, A.'Europ.' i«-. 

lueidum,'i. Europe, Ac. 

Poa, AT//w//*. S. Europe. 

ilra'trnX'. /.. Enron! •', &e. 

sduroides, 7?o'///. Europe. ' 
sooparia, Kern. Pyrenees. 

Foeniculumvulgare,.!////. Europe. | 

Bylvaticum, /.. Europe, Sic. 

China, Ac. 

Fritillaria nnneiin, BoU*. Asia 


Gerbera Bollidiastrum, limit,. 

Aleieagris; L. Enn'pe, Ac. 

China, Ac. 

p^ntil'a/ 1 //'^/. Asia Minor. 

{ " " 'V. I J ! i ' 1 n m T / V /^' ^S p: .'i 1 . 1 !? ' 

inelinatum, SchUirh. Swit/.er 

~ZsX:r^- /,w ' ( ' 

-ggg^ w««. J. w. 

Galeg'i ollidnalis, /.. Europe, &c. 

m "I !, / En , 

Galinsoga braehystephana, /?^c/. 

rivale, A. X. temperate regions, 

parviflora, fV/r. S. America. 

triSorem^P«r*A \ America 

Galium boreale, L. N. temperate 

tyrolense, AVn/.''lVol. 

urbanum, 7.. Europe, Ac. 

Mollugo, Y,. Europe, &C 

reeurvum, /?«/. Greece, &c. 

Gilia achilleaefolia, />'<?>*///. Cali- 

tricorne, &o*«. Europe, A.c. 

an.lro.acen, .NY,/»/. California. 


,T P ita"a"wN\W.Ameri<-a 

'"'iorirt" 11 ' 7) "" !/L (:,Ii 

laciniata, fifcfe £ Pan. Chill 

Gaura parviflora, M»/.?/. N. 

villoT W. N. Anuri.a. 

squarrosa,'//^.^ ,//•,/ Cali 

Gentian* asclepiadea, /.. Europe. 

trieow'V/r,,//, . 

c7uciatV, l y''!'Europe, &c. 

— var.'alba. 

- var. n.'brum, ffor, 

debilis, Nutt. Texas, &c. 
Helichrysum bracteatum, A 

Old World. 
luteo-album, L. Cosmopolitan. 
inalis, L. Europe. 

Grindclia glutinosa, Dunal. Cali- 
squarrosa. Dunal. N. W. 

K J). Do,. 

Halenia elliptica, D. Don. Hima- 
laya region. 

Hastingia alba, S. Wats. California. 

Hebenstreitia comosa, Hochst. 
Cape of Good Hope, 
dentata, L. C; 

f Go. 
[ope, &c. 
ifolin, Schrad. Capo 

Manglcsii, i'.Mitvi, 

IMilleii, //or/. An, 

roseum, />>„//,. Ai 

colchicus, J 

Heloui.-.s bulla!*., /.. X.America. 

Hemerocallis flava, L. S. Europe. 

fulva, L. S. Europe, &c. 

— var. Kwanso, Kegel. 
Heracleum gummiferum, Willd. 

lanatum, Mich*, N". America. 

Panaces, L. S. Europe. 

Sphondyliurn, L. Europe. 



I. Europe 
ndi, Hort. 

urn alpinuin, /.. Kuropr. 
raiitiiu'iitn. I.. Europe. 
ukac, (\r/)/n'f--. K. Kuropc 
latum, Waldst. $ Kit 


Minor, &c. 

'l.xlioiiles, C/iois//. Ilimalay 

effusus, L. Europe, &c. 
glaucus, Sibth. Europe, &c. 
lamprocarpus, Ehrh. Europ ■■■, 

maritimus, Lam. Temperate 

squarrosus, L. Europe. 
tenuis, JVillcl Europe, Ac. 
Kocliia scoparia, Schrad. Europe, 

Ivof'lriiacristatiuMr.v.N. temperate 

phlcoides,Pm. Mediterranean 

Lactuca canadensis, /.. X. America. 
ldrsuta, Muhl. N. America, 
ludoviciana, Riddel. N. Yv\ 

Lamaivkin aurea, Moduli. Medi- 

Lapsana communis, L. Europe. 
Lasthenia glabrata, Lindl. Cali- 

I.ntliyi u> angnlattis, L. Europe. 
Aphaca, L. Europe, Ac. 
arti.-ulatu.s L. W. .M.-dil.r- 

ormis, Gay. S. Europe. 
sutus, /.. Europe, Ac. 
folius, L. Europe. 

\ jir. en-iiolius ( lladaro). 
•r«»! rliizns, il'iimn. Kuropo. 

Lathyrus — cont. 

tingitanus, L. W. Mediter- 

tuberosus, L. Europe, &c. 

L. Med 

— var. alba. 
Layia Calliglossa, A. Gray. Cali- 

elegans, Torr. fy Gray. C'ali 

glandulosa, Ilooh. fy Am. 
Leontodon Ehrenbergii./"A»7. Kcv. 
Leontopodium alpinum. Cass. 

Europe, &c. 
Lepachys columnar]"-. T<>,r.^< ,/</>,. 
N. W. America, 
var. pulcherrima, Torr. $• 
Lepidium Draba, L. Europe, &c. 
incisum, Roth. Siberia, &c. 
Menziesii, DC. N. America, 
nebrodensi", Guss. S. Kurope. 
sativum, L. Orient, 
virginicum, L. N. America. 
Leptosyne Douglasii, DC. Cali- 

maritima, A. Gray. Cali- 

Lepturus cylindricus, Trin. Europe, 

Leuzea coniiVra, DC Mediter- 

eri, Koch. S. Europe, 
iticaria, Boiss. A ^ el 

Liuaria— <w//. 

, Lotus comiculatus, A. Temperate 

dalmatica, Mill. Dalmatia. 

— var. Delorti, (Timb.). 

major, Scop. Europe. 

italica, Trcvir. Europe. 

maroceana. Hunk. /'. Man»r,.. 

minor, Jhsf. Europe, &c. 

siliquosus, A Mediterranean 

peloponnesiaia. Bo/.s, .,v //,/,/,-. 

tenuis, //Wv/..vA77.Kur..p.-. 

praetermissa, Zfe/as/re.France. 


purpurea, A. Europe. 

Tetragouolobus, A. Mediter- 

reticulata, 7Ms/. N. Africa, &c. 

1 Lunaria annua, A. Europe. 

saxalilis, Htfmgg. $ Link. 

rediviva, A. Europe. 

spate*, Boftnffg. $ Link. 

Lupinus afiinis, A ; ,ar<lh. Cali- 

W. Mediterranean region. 

tricrnUhopiora, /J7/A/. l\>r- 

triphylla, ,1////. Mediterranean 
tristis, .1////. Spain. 

(Wntini, C///.V.V. Sicily. 
Crukshanksii, /AW,". Peru, 

Lindelophia speetabilis, Lthm. 

elegans, If. /!. $ K. Mexico. 


mublhluT'sv \rw Grenada 

Linum alpinum, /.. Europe Ac. 

polyphyll'us i.imll. California 

angustifolium, Umh. Kurope, 

pubescens, AW/,. X<w 

-randi/lorum, Ihsf. Algeria. 

pu l(mell us. N/r,,/. Mexico. 

nervosum, JFo/<fe#. £ A77. 

subearno^Is, E Texas. 


perenne, L. N. temperate 

varius, A. S. Europe. 

usitatissimum. /.. Knropr, Ac. 

Lithospmuum latifolium. Mich.r. ' 

campestris, A>C Europe, Ac. 

X. America. 

nivea, DC. Europe. 

Loasa hispida, A. Tern. 

Cueli-rosea, AW//. Lesant. 

vulc'aniea, Andri. New 

— var. elegans. flar*. 


ST/"' FiiroJ^lic 1 ' ' 

Lobelia Erinus, /.. S. Africa, 
tenuior, R. Br. Australia. 

triquetra, A. S. Africa. 


l ^^t^y^^ r ° vv ' 


ViscarhK , /./Ku.vpe!" , ' Iia ' 

Lopezia coronata. Andr. Mexico. 

Lvsiniachia eiliata, /. \ Ameriei 

Lophaiitliusrugosu!.. A/.vcM JAy. 

'"' davur'ica, /,',/,/,. Sil,', 


decurreus, For it, Chimu &C 



icago apiculata, mild. 

q!I!ulril'un : u'/./N°AmeHcM. 

vulgaris, L. Europe, &c. 

Lythrum Graeireri, Tenure. Tem- 

virgatum, Z. Europe, &c. 


Echinus, DC. Mediterranean 

liuoralis', /.viw/e^Mediterra- 
lupulina, L. N. temperate 

Madia elegaus, D. Don. N. W. 

Mi .rev, // ///,/. 

II. Br, S. Europe, 
el Jfc, Sr. Mediter- 

•ld. Me.literra- 

w r. A 1-. 

nioschata, £. Europe, 
oxvloba, Jfoitr. Orient, 

sylvestris, A. Europe, &C. 

— var. alba. 
Malvastrum limense, £atf. Chili. 
Mandragora ollicinarum, £. Medi- 

Melissa officinalis, A. Medite: 

Mercurialis annua, L. Europe, I 
Mesembryanthemum cordifoliu 

cupreus, Jio/ci. Chili, 
glabratus, //./»'.$• A'. Me: 
luteus, Z. N. America. 
Mirabilis .lalapa, L. Tro] 

eh i, //uoA. llinialuva 

Monolrpistrilida, Schratl. Siberia, | 


parviilora, Dw?/. N. W. 

\ .on.'iUH 1:1 anensis, . . Europe, 

Nepela coiieolor. /Iniss, A- /Ae/</>\ 

Morina persica, A. Himalaya, Sic. 

Moscharia pinna.itiua, /i„h * 

^;i:;' ,( /'%^^;J';; M X' ' 

Mueldenhergia glomerata, Trin. ! 


sylv tt ii, rt ;7W.\vV/ W y. X. 


amlra physaluides, (hurln. 

Willdenovii, ZW». X. 


:otiana alata, E»n* $ Otfn. S. 



Muscari Argaei, AW. ( iivcee ? 

Langsdorffii, Sch Brazil. 

ru 1'ti. -a,'' A.' Mexico. 1 '" "'' 

Spain, ^c. "^ " '. . ' 

Tabr.cum, A. S. America. 


rella damascene A. Mediier- 

Heldreichii, Boiu. Greece. 

mosehatuin, //7//,<A Asia 

sativa, A*. Mediterranean re- 


ncglectum, /;,*«. Mediterra- 


lana atriplicifolia, />. Don. 

racemosum, J////. Europe, &c. 



' ' M.dilcinmcan 'region.' 

Myosotis arvensis, Lam. Europe, 

| Nothoscorlum fra<j;rans, Knnth. 

Mexico, etc. 

"rein's S '' h " ftr " Xor,heni 


collina, Hoffm. Europe. 

globulosa, A. S. Europe, &i\ 

sylvatica, Boffm. Northern 

^Em'ope. L'. ( ' ( "" <h "' S " 

Ar-.o-urn ■ minimus, A. Europe, &c. 

peu.ed.unfblia, Pollich. 

•i;i. V'.'/;. Kiirope, vV<\ 

pimpilu'llJides, A. Europe, &c. 

Nardus strietn, L. Europe, Ac, 


Nc-nr<i:i lioribiimla. 1 a hn, Cape oj 


Good Hope. 


tiotheraamoena, Uhm. Cali- 

^Good Hope. }h!l ' Cnl>C ^ 

berteViana. X/WiV I'liili." 

Nenmpiiiia aurita, l.'uull. Cali- 


ii.signis. AW//A California. 

'•pilobilolia. )/.'/). S K. New 

maculata, />V##//A California. 
HttUtMU,JfecM ^ Cali- 

-var\mm^i, A )/^r' 

fornia, Ac. 

glau.a, J//r/£. N. America. 

(an XsX t m 

' *^Zj£^tL*a* 

— var. Pallasii, IJort. 

Rpeciosa, Xutt. N. America. 

peregrina, Mill. Orient. 

tenella, Cav. Chili. 

Palaua dissecta, Benth. Peru, &e. 

triloba, Xutt. N. America. 

Pallenis spinosa, Cass. Mediter- 

Omphalodes linifolia, Moench. S. 

Paiiicum capillarc, L. W. hemi- 

Onoliryclii-* saliva. Lam. Kurope, 


Crus-galli, L. S. Europe, t Vc. 

Ononis arveusis, /.. Europe. 

Natrix, L. Mediterranean 

proliierum, /.r//v/. \ . America. 


rotundifolia, /,. Europe. 


— l^'afh*^" 10 ^' 

iScuS ^/^"(''iiie^u. 

C>nojiur.I,,ii Aciiiitiiiiini. /,. Europe. 

dubium, A.' Europe. 

sibthorpianum, Boiss. Asia 

Minor, &o. 

^STm .v //-»/., 

Opopanax Chironium, Koch. 

laeviga'tum, iitcA. Greece, 

Mediterranean region. 

Asia Minor. 

Orchis foliosa, Sohmd. Madeira. 

liudirlm'le' r / A ''A^il nil( ';u i | d 

inearnata, /.. Europe, &e. 

Alpine' regions'! 

orientalefT Asia Minor. 

— v*r. superb*. 

Origanum vulgare, L. Europe, Ac. 

pavonimiim.l/r//. Afghanistan, 

pilosum, Si hili. .v Sm. Greece. 

Ornithogalum arcuatum, Stev. 

— var.'llookeri, {Baker). 

narbonenso, L. Mediterranean 

rupifragum, 1 Boiss. $ Rent. 


Spain, Morocco. 

Onn,h^ 1 s 1 K,-p 1 ,ii.„s,/..Enrope, 


Orobanehe minor, S»U. Europe. 

Parnassia nubicola, Wall. Hima- 


Oxyria clatior, B. Br. Nepal. 

palustris, L. N. hemisphere. 

Oxytropis ochroleuca, Bungc. 
Siberia, &c. 

Pennisetum ceuchroides, Rich. 
Tropical and subtropical 

Paeonia anetina, Anders. Orient, i 

orientale, Rich. Orient. 

— var. Andersoni. 

villosum, R, Br. Abyssinia. 

entstemon bnrbatus, Roth. W. 

(•;nnii;mu!:itu>. // ilhl. M''\ic>>. 

Dtmgl Hocky 
(Mtffl. W. North 

Pioris hii.racini.les. 

Ffamtago— cont. 

Polygonum-, co*f. 

Wcyrichii, /'. Sc/nnult. Sach 

patagonica, Jacq. N. & S. 

alin Island. 


Polypogon monspoliensis, /)rv/'. 

Platycodon grandifloruinj A. DC. 

China "and Japan. 
— var. Mariesii, IJort. 

] ?2~*7 h ; w ' 

Platyslemon ealifornicus, Bcnth. 

Texas, &c. 

Pleurospermum pulclirnm, Aitch. 

"■"ST* X. temperate 

S llcmsl. Afghanistan. 

Poa alpina, J.. N. & Arctic re-ions. 

— v'iir. calabra (Tenore). 

caesia, Sin. N. temperate 

argyrophyila, ^///.Himalaya 


Chaixii, VUl . Europe, Ac. 


compressa, L. N. temperate 

Detommasii, Tenore. S. 

pratensis, L. X. iemperate 

dichtliana, Kern. Europe. 

trivialis, A. N. temperate 

glandulosa, Liudl. California, 

violaT-ea, S )>V//. S. Europe. 

heptaphylla. Mill. Europe. 

Podolcpis acuminata. /.'. lir. 

J lini) ' /;• S ' Europe Ac 


°d^tan" a ' 

Podophyllum Emodi, Wall If ima- 

kurdiea, ' lh,iss. Kurdl-tan. 

monkmegrina, Pantoe. Mon- 

Polemonium caeruleum, A. N. 

multilida,/.. Hurope, &r. 

nepalon-H, llu,,h. Himalaya. 

— var. album, //,,/■/. 

himalayauum, /,Wr. Hima- 

petmsylvanica, L. N. Ame- 

pauciilorum, .S*. JH/As. Mexico. 

rcptans, L. N. America. 

Origii. uncertain. ^ 

Polrgonatum verticiUatum, All. 

. Kumpe, &c. 


PoUg< ) n,,ma,pinun,.f//.S.Ku,ope ) 

mpSriTS! Europe, Ac. 

B £$£*i v pegiona 

sen^igentea, //,r, X. 

capha\.l//>Wi-/A/ W ."ilima- 

. lava. 

Sibhaldia, Hall. f. Europe, 

orieniah% /.. Tropics of Old 

Thurberi f. Gray. N. 



antilla— cont. Kc-ola alha, /,. Europe, &e. 

Vi,ianii. /W. Soma, glanca, A, Pyrenees. 

wrui"' liana /•/'*/■// k v .I/r//. ! Intra, /.. hun>jH', S.< 

P,oralra marmstachya, A>f. Cali- 
nliysodi's, //-/•■ N. W. 


al,unu"; A. Km-o,*;. 

Ruta gravcolens, A. S. Europe. 

Saxifragra— ro»r. 

' ''""^"vanpilil'rX'"^^/).' 
Salvia Aethiopis, A. S.Europe, &c. 

Aizoon, Z. Europe. 

— var. Churchillii, Kern. 

— var. Gaudinii, (Bruegg.). 

argentea, L. Mediterranean 

— var. in'rraeta." 

— var. Malyi. 

olulinosi."/.. Europe, &c. 

— var. pectinata, (Schott). 

grandiilora, Etling. Asia 

liians, Ttoyle. Himalaya. 

— var.' rosukris, SchkicL 

llormimun, /,. Mediterranean 

caespitosa, A. N. & arctic 

~ v ;"; ! ,i r'.l ( l' sr '- s, 1 '. s ', .-^ 


cartilaginea, W'tllu. Caucasus 


T?ls "!r iirope ' 

uapil'olia',' !//,vy. Ana Minor, 

— w.p^midahX?/ '7" 7/>V) • 

nutans, /.. S. E. Europe. 

;™;;;' ;■ £;,;.; . ■'' lMI[ '" ,r; '' 

officinalis, A. Mulit.nvnean 

Hoetii, Tauick, Europe. 

prateiisis, A. Europe, &c. 

— var. (Kern.). 

- var. Baumgarteni, {Meuff) 

kJcn:.ti: , ,uM./.Vo/..\-i ! ; Minor. 

sehiedeana, Stapf. Mexico. 

!,(•,.„, VW.:. Siberia. 

Nclaren, A. Mediterranean 

tiliaefolia' /«///. Mexico. 

Verbenaca, A. Europe, <fcc. 

— var. disermas, (,S7AM. * 

longifdia; A^ry,-. Pyrenees, 
nmscoi.les, lln/f. Europe, So.»maea(/W). 

virlata^J^.^in^pi'! 10 ^' 

peltata, 7'wr. .y <7/v///. Cali- 

viseosa, .Arc?- Europe. 

rocheliana, Stn-uh. E. Europe. 


roiundifolia, £. Europe. 

Saponaria ealal.rica, Chut. Italy, 

^loides 1 ' i A U Europe 

OCymoidea, L. Europe. 

sl,0, .' he ] ,i ;; a ; ^ ^ i^r 7 '"' 

Vacc!uix A.' Europe. &,■. 

tendJa, V«(f. CarnWa! ' 


unibrosa 11 '/ \V Europe 

Srtoreja hortenris, /.. Mediter- 

valdens'is, />f. EiVdmont, ive.,noena../,e V .A>iaMiuor. 

Saxifra^aphyHa, Sternb. Europe. 


a, L. Greece 

"l.<r,»at. \\<u 

Soorzoner.'i hispanira. /.. S. Europe. 

Sciopluilaria alata, Gilib. Europe, 
nodosa, L. N. tenipeiate 
svlvatica, ' Boiss. $ Ifeldr. 



Fuchsii, C. C. Gmel. Europe. 

iaponicus, .SV7/. Hip. Japan. 

mucrophvl! us. .///^.Caucasus. 

suaveolens. EH, N. America. 

thyrsoideus, DC. S. Africa. 

vernal is, WaUht. oy Kit. 

longicilia, Otth. Spain, &e. 

viscosus, L. Europe, &c. 

maritima, With. Europe. 

nutans, L. Europe, &c. 

Scrrntulji eoronata, /.. Siberia. 

obtusifolia, mild. W. Modi 

quinqnefolia, Bieb. Caucasus, 

paradoxa, A. S? Europe. 

Sescli L'uiiiiuiferum. Sin. Crimea, 

pseudo-atoeion, M'.v/ 1 . N. 

to'rtuosum, /.. S. Europe. Sir. 

(piailiifida, /.. Europe. 

sublropical regions. 

Saxityau-a. /.. Europe. 

macroc /msn^. 

verticillala, £eaw. Cosmopo- 

e :: c s:°": , , 

Silene alprstris, ./arr/. Alps 

echinata, Otth. 
ntnl.riata, Sims 
Fortune!, |b.( 

Sisyrinchium nn-usti folium, Mill. 

Stat ice belli 

difolia GhuanTS* 

bermudiana, A. Bermuda. 

Simn .•nrtiiin, llmh. Europe, etc. 


i.-ma, Girarti. Spain. 

latifolium, A. Europe, fte. 

Smilacina laccmosa, Dcsf. X. 


owii,, Regel. Central 

stellata, Dcsf. X. America. 


a, £. Caucasus, Ac. 

Smyroium Olusatrum, A. Europe, 


Solatium guineense, Com. Trop. 

Stevia Ei.]) 

r< .stratum, Dun. Mexico. 

oval a. 

Lag. Mexico 

villosnin, //7///A Europe. 

Stipa A rist 

ella, A. Mediterranean 

Solidago canadensis, /.. X. 

Sui.dius ollraceus, A. Europe. 


: opc" ,, " tl 

pnlustfis, /.. Kiti-opi>, Ac 


fa, A. Europe, Ac. 

Swcrlia cm 

rk'V n!" 'ten'pei'aie 

s,>!,r - :,i j;;;;:; )0> ^; i,lex ' "'"'*■ 

svmi £5 

E J sz5*- 

Speculari:. i'alcata. A. DC. Medi- 

>n j£: 


— var. castellana, A^»r/c 





i officinale, A. Europe. 

essiliflora, /.<//*/,. S. 



Ta-etes lll( 

:ida, C*w, Mexico. 


, A. Mexico. 

Spergula arvcttsis, A. Europe. 


, III',. Sf K. Ecuador. 

Spiraea A mucus, L. X. temperate 

Taunts com 

munis, A. Europe. Ac. 

pnTnnt-i riniiib- .Japan. 


[mperati, A. Mediter. 

rimaria. A. Kumpe, Ac. 

l '" ,< 

an region, &c. 

Stachys alpina, A. Em ope. 


in.litl,>ra, AVAV. X.W 

a^-ensi "' A me x:'' temp,,,., 


crystal! ina. Vfferit 

Be^^^*. Europe, ftc. 

Teucriun, lr 


" Minor, Ac. 

^mi;-m!! V Vr,n,l!!y 




minus, L. Europe, &c. 

— var. affine (Jord.). 

— var. concinnum {Will, I.). 

— var. elatum (Jacg.). 

W,df. Austria, 
•icus, Lodd. Azores. 
Heuff. Transsyl- 

onia, Kcr-Crawl. Trillium uT.-milMlormi, S</lsi>. X. 
, Svheidir. Tropi- Trinin I rott'maimi, liieb. E.Europe. 
Kitaibelii, Bieb. E. Europe, 

Tintru.'in-a si.-ula. Ilmth. s llonh 
f. Sicily, Ac. 

Tofieldia calyculata, ^«««^ 

Europe, &C. 
Tonlylium eordatum, PmV. Crete, 

lifolin, &7im. 

' ■ 

Sm<&. S. A f lien. 

Verbena Aubletia, L. N. i 


bonariensis, A. S. Am 

— var. na'peiiifolius. ' 

caroliniana, Aficfcr. S. 

I nited 

Tropaeokn, aduncum, Sm. Peru, ! 

officinalis, /.. Europ.% 


ma jus, L. Peru. 

lH !° stT .f ''rv/^''// ;i /' 


minus, A. Peru. 

Troximon glaucum, X M ft. N.W. 

Vernonia altissima Y/tf/ 


grandiflorum, .1. <7ra//. N.W. 


laciniatum,' J. Gray. N. 

Veronica agrestis, A. Euro 

apliylla, A. Eur,,,,,-, A 

Tunica illyrioa. AW.v.v. S.Eorope,&C. 

Bi.hviiiii. n.,.h.f. \\; 

Urospermum Dalechampii, Desf. '■ 

gentiancmies, 7 7///A 

S. E. 

Europe, &c. 

picroides, Desf. S. Europe. 

incana. A. S. Russia. 

Urtica dioioa, L. Europe. 

incisa. . lit. Siberia. 

1 lnuri\'| U i ,:l 7 M "Km^', S ' KlUopc " 

— 'va^niba!' En, " Op0 ' 



Valeriana affiariaefolia, /V/A7. 

— var. mollis. 


v-Tr " siib'^^ili- !'/ 

— var. intermedia. 

Lyallii, /A;«/-y: N". /, 
officinalis, A. Europe. 


°i n f ^fl^iimTniikau ) 

Ac. ' ' 

FhH w ^^ a,( ^ , * ;,n) ' 

s-ivMliiKx,;^' 'i'Pp 

ValerianJlla carinata, Com*/. 

si')icate t, A ha Europ.'!'lv 

coronati/W S. Europe. 

— var. latilblia. ( L.i. 

' * c< 

dentate, Poll. Europe, &c. 

virgin ica, A. N. Ame 

echinata, Z>f. Europe, &c. 
erioearpa, Desv. Europe, &c. 

— var. japonica, (55f« 


olitoria, roll. Europe, &c. 

Vesicaria grandiflora, 


vesicaria, Moench. 5. Europe, 



Vicia amphicarpa, Do 

rth. S. 

Veratruni album". /.. Europe, &c. 

Europe, &c. 

nigrum, A. Europe, &c. 

/: s. 

Vorbascinn Blatlaria, /.. Europe. 

bithynioa, A. Mediti 



caS^/V^^ M, 


nigrum, £. Europe, &c. 


pblutnoides, /.. Europe, &c. 

disperma, A><". S. W. 


!Er'r\Zp,r n,a ' 


, n 

T£;;:;-: i v N E;;;:!p'' E,,r,,i,e - 

i g ^merk-a/ / " / " 

N. W. 

lensis, L. Mediterra- 
lica, Pourr. Pyrenees. 


in, > 

■,1,11,. , 


Zalu/ian.«kva <• 


s, m 



lia oleoma, 

A/r V 

Mr vie 

/.. \ 





phora cnpitr 

ta, / 

. B. Ei 

.cnbergia cupensis, .l./K'. 
S. Africa. 

irmcilis, . I. /;f . Au-tralia. 


Acor eampestre, L. Europe. 
— vjir. hebecarpum, DC. 
ciivinatum, Pursh. N.W. 

rids, Pursh. N. An 
aii, Hook. Chili, 
a, Royle. Himalaya 

eiruliita, If'ilfd. N. Amcr. 
iridis, DC. Northern hemi- 

.!;•«. California. 
Caragana arhoreseens, Lan 
' Siberia, &c. 
frutescens, 7JC. South Russi 


(i ray. N.Anicr/ 

Car .n^is'lk't^his A^Euroi^., \c 

Celastrus articulatus, Tlunib. 


lte egus-<Km#. 


Crus-Galli/x. N. Amer. 

seandens, X. N. Airier. 

— var. arbutifolia, llort. 

— var. ovalifolia, X*W/. 

Celtis occidentals, X. N. Amer. 

— var. prunifolia, ZW. # 

Cistus lauritblius, /.. S.W. Europe. 

— v.-,r] splendens, Lodd. 

Cladrastis amurensis, Bcnth. Amur- 

Douglasii, Lindl. West, N. 



Clematis Flaramula, X. S. Eur., &c. 

hcterophylla, Flucyy. Orient. 

fusca, 7Wz. China & Japan. 

melanocarpa, Bieb. Caucasus. 

mollis, Schccle. United States. 

Pitcheri, 7W. *V fVrr///. var. 

nigra, Waldst. S>- Kit. E. 

Vitalba, X. Europe, &c. 

orientals, >«//. Orient. 

Oxyacantha, F. Eur. 

— var. fusca, Flort. 

Colutea ai •horescens. A. Kur., etc. 

penta:.'yna, Kit. E. Europe. 

cruenta, ,/,X Orient. 

pinnatifida, lhmgc. var. 
major, N. E. Br. China, 

Coriariajaponica,J.«;my.Ja P an. 

punctata, Jacq. N. Amer. 

Cornus alba, X. N. Asia. 

Pyracantha, Pfw. var. La- 

landii, [Tort. 
riv.daris, Nutt. West. N. 

Amomum/jX/X X." Amer] 

macrophylla, //«//. N. India 

to Japan. 
Mas, X. Europe, etc.. 
sanguinea, X. Europe. 

tomentosa, A. N. Amer. 

Cotoneaster nffinis, Until. Ilimal. 


pressns Bcnthami.AW/.Mexico. 

bacillaris, I rail. Ilimal. 

— var. floribunda, llort. 


— var. obtusa, Hart. 

lusitaniea, Mill. 

buxifolia, Wall. Himal. 

nootkatensis, Lamb. N. W, 

frigida, Wall. Ilimal. 


borizontalis, Deene. Ilimal. 

Cytisus albus. L. S.W. Eur. 

laxiflora, Jacq. Siberia. 

lucida, Schhcht. Origin un- 

biflorus, XXA/vV. Kur. 

microphyllu, Wall. Himal. 

Nummularin, Fisch. ,\- Mvy. 
Europe. Asia. 


Siinonsii,' 'aV/Zyt. nimaT ' 

seopnrius, A.Eur. 

thymifolia, Baker. Ilimal. 

— var". pendulus, //orr. 

— var. aceri folia. If art. 

supinus, X. Eur. 

— var' fmlenutr'/frW' 

I) ; 

boecia polifolia, X>. Don. W. 

— var! inaeracantha, Dudley. 



cordata, Ait. N. Amer. 

— var. flore albo. 

Elaeagnus longipes, A. Gray. 

umbellata, Thunb. Japan. 
Erica stricta, Bonn. S. Eur. 
Euonymus ouropaeus, L. Eur. 

latifolius, Scop. Eur. 
Forsythia suspensa, Vahl. Japan, 

Fraxinus berlandieriana, D.C. N. 

longicuspis, Sieb. $ Zucc. 

Ornus, L. Europe. 
Gaultheria Shallon, Pursh. N. 

Genista aethnensis, DC. Sicily. 
pilosa, L. Europe, 
radiata, Scop. S. Eur. 
sagittalis, L. Eur. 
tinctoria, L. var. elatior. 

virgata, DC. Madeira. 
Ilalesin tetraptera, L. N. Amer. 
Hamamelis virginica, L. N. Amer. 
Hedera Helix, L. Eur., &c. 
Hippophae rhamnoides, L. Ear. &c. 
Hypericum Ascyron, L. N. Asia, 


mm, L. Eur. 
L. Orient. 

Ilex Aquifolium, L. Eur. 

— var. platyphylla, Hort. 
verticil lata, A. Gray. 

Laburnum alpinum, J. S. Presl. 

vulgare, J. S. Presl. Eur. 

— var. quercifolium, Hort. 
Leycesteria formosa, Wall. Himal, 

Lonicera glauca, Hill. N. Amer. 
Morrowii, A. Gray. Japan, 
orientalis, Lam. Asia Minor, 
parvifolia, Edgw. Himalaya, 
segrezien^is, Hort. Garden 

tatarica, L. Siberia. 

Xylosteum, L. Eur. 
Lyonia ligustrina, DC. N. Amer. 
Magnolia soulangeaua, Hort. 
Garden origin. 

tripetala, L. United States. 
M. nisp. nnum car.adense, L. N. 

Moras nigra, L. Temperate Asia. 
Myrica cerifera, L. United States. 
Neillia opulifolia, Bcnth. $ Hook. 

Olearia Haastii, Hook. f. N. 

r;iulowiii;i 5m;>rn:.Iis, Sieb. $ 

Zucc. Japan. 
Pernettya miirron;tt:i, Gaud'irh. 

Chili, Ac. 
Philadelphus hirsutus, Xutt. 


Prunus acida, Borkh. var. seniper- 

Avium, L. Europe, Ac. 
Brigantiaca, Chaix. S.E. 

Capollin, Zucc. Mexico, Ac. 

cerasil'era. Ehrli. Caucasus ? 
divaricata, Lcdeb. Caucasus. 

Ptelea trifol 


- var. graeca, Bous. 

- var. Hostii. 

, /.. N. Araer. 
Aucuparia, Criteria. Eur. 
'.. Asia. 

decaism-ana, Nichols. Origin 

Iloribunda, Nichols. Japan, 
lanata, D. Don. Himalaya, 
lobata, Nichols. Caucasus. 
Maulei, Mast. Japan, 
pinnatifida, Khrh. Eur. 
Bingo, Maxim. Japan, 
rotundifolia,' Bechst. Europe. 
Sorbus, Gaertn. var. pyri- 

formis, Lodd. Europe, 
spuria, DC. Hybrid origin. 
Toringo, Sich. Japan, 
torminalis, DC. Europe, 
amnus carolinianus, Walt, S.U. 
cnthartieus, /.. Europe, &c. 
davuri.-us, Pall. Asia. 
Frangula, L. Europe. 

Rosa — cont. 

canina, L. Eur. &c. 

— var. andegavensis, Baker. 

— var. arvatica, Baiter. 

— var. Bakeri. {Dcsegl.) 

— var. coriifolia, Baker. 
var. dumetorum (Thuill.). 
Carolina, L. N. Amer. 
cinnamomea, L. Eur. Ac. 

— var. sibirica. 

Englemannii, S. Wats. W.N". 

Sieb. Sf 

Bhus Cotinus, L. Europe, 
radicans, L. N. America, 
succedanea, L. China and 

Ilibes alpinum, L. Europe. 

aureum, Pursh. N.W. Amer. 
sanguineuro, Pursh. N\W. 

— var. at rosanguineum, Hort. 

— var. glutinosum, A. Gray. 
liosa agrestis, Savi. Europe. 

— var. inodora (Fries). 
alpina, L. Eur. var. inermis. 

Porter. N. 

a, Schrenk. Asia. 
lit. N". America. 
a, Cham. # Schlecht. 




ferruginea, Fill. Europe, 
fulgens, Christ. Switzerland, 
hibernica, Sm. Britain, 
iucida, Khrh. N. Amer. 
— var. grandiflora. 
inacrojihylla X rugosa. 
micrantha, Sm., var. Briggs: 

microphylla, Po,e/>. China, 
moschata. Mil/. India, Sec. 
multiflora, Thvnb. Japan, 
nitida, Jt'il/d.N. Amer. 
nutkana. I' N". Amer. 

pisocarpa, A. Gray. West. K 


oni, Hort. 
' — var. capreolata, Hort. 
rubiginosa, L. Europe, &c. 
— var. major, Hort. 
rugosa, S. Sr Z. Japan. 

tomento^a, Sm. Europe, 
wirliuraiaiia, Crcjn'tt. Jap: 
WiU..ui. linrnr. Britain. 

Ilnch.- 1 la in. 

>us biflorus, 

caesius, L. Europe, 
calvatus, Blox. Europe. 
Colemani, Blox. Europe, 
deliciosus, James. Bocky 


Kubus — cont. 

Koehleri, W. $ N. Europe, 
laciniatus, Willd. 
leucostacbys, 8m. Europe, 
lindleyanus, Lees. Britain, 
maci-ophyllus, W. $ N. 

mucronatus, Blox. Bii+ain. 
nutkanus, Moc. W.N. 

occidentalis, L. N. Amer. 
pubescens, Auct. Angl. 

rhamnifolius, W.§ -V. Europe, 
sorbifolius, Maxim. China, 
suberectus, Anders. Europe, 
nlmifolius, Schott. Europe, 
villicaulis, W. S,- N. Europe. 
Sambucus glauca, Nutt. West N. 

nigra, L. Eur. &c. 

— var. swindonensis, Hoi 
racemosa, L. North h( 

nobleana, Hook. California. 

paniculata, L. N. Amer. 
salicifolia, L. N. Amer. 
— var. lancifolia. 

sorbifolia, L. N. Asia. 
Staphylea pinnata, L. Europe. 
Symphoricarpus racemosus, Michx. 

■ var. Doyastonii, Hort. 

■ var. fastigiata. 

■ var. fructu-luteo, Hort. 

Thuja gigantea, Xutt 

occidentalis, L. N. 
orientals, L. C 

Ulex europaeus, L. Eur 
Vacciniuni | 

Spartium junceum, L. S. Eur. 
Spiraea betuli folia, Pall. N. Amer. 

canescens, D.Don. Himal. 
carpinifolia, Pall. Eur. 
Douglasii, Hook. N.W. Amer. 
japonica, L.f. Japan. 

— var. Bumalda. 

— var. glabra, Hort. 

— var. glabrata, Nichols. 

— var. ruberrima, Hort. 
lindleyana, Wall. Himal. 
Margaritae, Zabel. Garden 

— var. montanum. 
Lantana, L. Europe, 
niollc, Michx. N. Am* 
Opulus, L. Eur. &c. 

Yucca Whipplei, Torr. California. 
Zelkowa acuminata, Planch. 

Zenobia speciosa, D. Don. U. S. 






The numbei of ga lei ,1 nt innn 1U lescribed in bot nical . 

!<<„• Ilr!i,h„ ,,„■!, year. 

nly scantily provided 

been re-intr 

oduced after being 

lost fn 

sm cultivation. Otl 

n in gar. 

lens for several rears, 

not been authentic: 


varieties* all hybrids 

r of garden origin, v 

nical names, and des( 

has not been thought 

Lmes of garden hybrids in such 

roi ()l s. <\><i) 

a am or Xarrissiix ai 

v omitti 

sd for obvious reasons. 

In every c 

ase the plant is cite 

■d under 

its published name. 


some of the names 

has appeared 

desirable, this is ml 


The name 

or described 

is given where know 

t is prefixed to all 




.i ii «™piM.w i ,,,^ 


.m'iI.'M? ' 

B. T. O.—B 

ulletino della R. Soci 


ana di Orticultura. . 

^•v// ('»/! 

LTllustration Horticole. Jard.—Le Jardin. J. of i?.— Journal of 
Horticulture. J. O.— Journal des Orchidees. K. li.— Bulletin of Mis- 
cellaneous Information, Royal Gardens, Kew. L. — Lindenia. O. R. — 

, Catalogue c 

The abbreviations in the descriptions of the plants are: — ft. — 
Foot or Feet. G.— Greenhouse. H.— Hardy. //. H.— Half-hardy. 

-Inches. S. —Stove. 

shrub, with large bi-pinnate 
and large horn-like- --pities in 
The flowers are in axillary 

long, j *Alocasia argyrea, Sander, ow. 

Acalypha hamiltoniana. 

Cat. 1895.);.-. Leaves 

(F. Sander & Co.) 

bright green, teeth prominently rounded, 
yellow. A greenhouse or stove plant 

*Aloe brachyttachjs, I a ( />'• •'/■ 

summer mouth*. (Bruant. l'oitier-.) 

allied to A. uhuxsnuril ; Stria lu.,n. 

Acanthophcenix grandis. (ill. H. 

1895, 185.) Palme*. S. "A handsome 
hro"^!'""- i ', ' 1 11 ' • ul' 

green, margins ~j.iiH.u-; pedimele 2 ft.. 
bearing a cluster of |>ink and yellow 


Islands.] Also called Calamus ,/,„,/,/,, 

*Aloe Buchanani, Hakei. (A'. B. 1S95, 

A. Cooperi, from which it dill'.-rs by its 

Acer Negundo pendula. (Jard. 1895, 

the back. Tropical Africa. (Kew.) 

128.) hapindaceyc. H. A weeping 


Amaryllis Belladonna, r,., vars. (B. 

/'. (>. 1S9.-,, 1(1, t.) \rnaryllidea-. II. II. 

Adiantum lineatum. (.III. H. 1*95, 

[ !L[^J^u^vy,v^X,/-'^^ 

T1-/^ dvl uZ\i^ 

carminea, magnifica, stenopetala. 

International*, BnfwbO 

•Ainasonia erecta, I- ' /-'■ y - x •" u ; v ' 

Agave Nickelsi. (/> //. l *'-';>, :,:'.>.) 

E^.-iluiir'-l.u" 1 ' 'lark 

Ai;!aoi!i ;;... 

*Amorphophallus galbr; 

.-. ... 


Peru. (F. Sander & Co.) 

*Ancectocl]ilus sanderianus, Kri 

.les.'-ribi'-.l as .1/,/ — /- Mnulrrimia, 

*Anthocleista insignia, Gaipiii. (A 1 . n 

* Anthurium andreanum album. 

mm, with a large s 

Anthurium scherzerianum com 

rta. (G. C. 189.>, vvii., 407 

Anthurium wambekeair 

Aponogeton Lagrangei. (B. H. 1 

Araucaria imbricate plat i 

the type. (G. Paul ft Son.) 

Areca Micholitzii. (Sand. Cat. 

ylragranl. Formosa, (llon^ 

Aristolochia dammeriana, M« 

ArundinaPhilippii, iMib. f. (<;.«,«</ 

"Asarum maximum, i 

alks, fleshy, three lobed, 

Bollea schroederin 

Astilbe Lemoinei. - />'■ //. 

*Atraphaxis Muschketowi, 

nbunda. *B(mgainviIlea glabra 

.iwiirc ~p;, i.fiii.Lr -in-ill. with in-own Boussingaultiu cordata. (-E- T. O. 

inch broad whit n i 1 irl. 1 ,], |i / / ,les Peni (Dam- 

BatemanXpern^ana,Koife p (^. B^jgjfrtm £****, t Ojfy 

bulbs four-angled, 2 in. long ; leaves nearly related to li r,TirNl!!hini ''n.'li 

Begonia faureana i 

5 - ; *Bulbophyllum disciflorum, Rolf'e. 

|S ! (AT. fe/l895, 7.) S. Pseudo-bulbs 

Bulbophyllum grandinoruiu, ^ -. 

•Bentinckia nicobarica, Becc. (Somt ^ 

Berberis diaphana, 

Caladium lilliputianum. (/«. HI 

Betula pumila lentn 

Calamus gr 
Calanthe laucheana. 

Calanthe masuco-tricarinata. 

*Calathea_cyclophora, Bake 

*Calceolaria alba 
larinese. H.' 11. 

Calochortus luteus concolor, 

* Calochortus Lyoni. 

Catasetum impenale, 

Cata:etuni macrocarpum < 

CalocllOrlllSVOiiUSt US pi_CtUS. ><;.ir<l. national, Brussels.) 

Mii'aiiVrii.r.v, -r> than tii.- iv|..>. i''!«.w,i^ Catasetum maculatum luteo- 

California. ( Wallace & Son.) C which ii 

■ : "' ,r <<•'■ Catasetu 

Catasetum apertum, 

Catasetum splendens, 

Catasetum collare, < 

Catasetum ferox, 

Catasetum splendens worthington- 

Catasetum stupf.ndum, <"'%'»■ ( /.. t 
Catasetum uncatum, iMfy. <K. n 

Cattleya Alicia?, L. Lind. (/. 

Catasetum fimbriatum Cogni; 

Cattleya armainvillierensis. ( If. H. 

Cattleya bowringiana Ashworthii. 

(O. R. 18JI5, i'-' ( ; - Flower- uf a 
nearly uniform light rose-purple. (E. 

Cattleya floribunda, L. Lin.i. ((,. and 

Cattleya Fowled. < <■'■ < • ' s '-'''- * ^ ' 

i Internationale, Brussels.) 

Cattleya Mossise amcena. (£• *., 

t. 47U.) G. This is : . i 

coloured variety. (L'Horticulture In- 

Cattleya percivaliana magniflca. 

(<;. < ' IS!.:,, wii.. .-,-.7.) G. A very 
type. (F. Hardy.) 

Cattleya schilleriana anlcotensis. 

Cattleya gaskelliana delicata. (O.R. i "' lc 
i'^'S Cattl 

Meters, Bru 
Cattleya Gigas amplissima, 

Cattleya hardyana Lindeni. 

Cattleya Trianse arkleana. (O. R. 
Cattleya Trianse Ashtcmi. {<■'■ /'• 

;ieya man: 


frill.-d interior U,W. c I.'I I«>rri.-.Tit ure Now Jersey, U.S.A.) 

Internalionale, Brussels.) , c a ttleya Trianae COUvtanl(ii;in,t. 

•" violet-crimson 

live -Leyseo, Ghent.) < Cattleya Trianae roeblingiana. (G. 

Cattleya lawrenceana concolor. , diff.Ts i„ eoiom- from the type. (C. G. 

nana virginalis. (G. C. 

;| S^-^-^ 

Cattleya Warscewiczii variegata. 

colour. (Baron Schri 
Cattleya lawrenceana Vinckei. ( G. 

C. 1895, xvii. '" 

Cattleya maxima gigantea. (G. a 
Cattleya Mendelii grandis. <■<■■ /'. 

marking-Ton tie lip'. (II. Low M'o.l 

: udelii Sanderae. ('<'• <'■ 

Centaurea Margarita. 

*Cephalanthus natalensis, 

Cattleya Mossiae, Hook. 

figured, viz., Impt'rutnr, , .■ ,■'// 

Ceropegia debilis, 3 

1 in. long, pale purplish 
7j a O'Brien!)° US 

♦Chrysanthemum nipponicum 

Franchet. (W. G. 1895, 11, t. l. 
Compositae. H. H. A dwarf eo>npac 
shrubby ox-eye daisy. Japan. (Dam 
mann & Co., Naples.) 

albicans, N.E.Br. ifi.C 

*Ccelogyne carinata, 

bulbs four-angled, 2 in. 

♦Cirrhopetalum compact! 




Coelogyne lamellata, Knife. (A. E. 

I.V.V :!,;.) S. A new >|,«i.- alhed to 
('. U'Dmmlii;; -cape erect, thr-c- 

aml petals obloiej lanceolate, keeled. 

New Hebrides. (F. Sander & Co:.) 

Ccelogyne Micholitzii, Sander, (a. 

mi, I /■'. 1S95. I 14. i A pr 

^ m white flowers. (F. 

Jcelogyne Veitchii, Roife. (A'. B. 

Cirrhopetalum mysorense, Rolfe. 
(AT. B. 18-.).-,. :u.) s. Allu.l to r. 

m. long; flowers 1 m. 1 


B. 1895, 35.) I 
Rhizomes stou 
bulbs distant, o< 

long, monophvllons 

a a purple lip. Mys 

Allied to C. Mm 

speckled with brown. Xilgiiiri Hill-. 

Cirrhopetalum rothsclm 

♦Coreopsis abyssinica, 

•Coreopsis grandifl or a, B 

Iran setiferum, 

Cirrhopetalum whiteanum, Roi 


Coreopsis japonica. (IF. <v. is 9:., i:_;s. 

of canarx -yellow _ flowers. Japan. 

Cory a tithes maculatav," 

(O. A 1 . 1895, 240.) Orchidea. S. 
Flowers light greenish-yeilow. (F. 

Crinum Kircape. ((■■ and F i8o:,, 
*Crinum Moorei variegatum. (.Bull 

Cat. 1895, 6.) Leaves striped with 
yellow. (W. Bull.) 

Cryptophoranthus minutus, Bolfe. 

(A', Ii. 1895, 5.) Orchide*. G. A. 

Cryptophoranthus oblongifolius, 

2 in. long. Leaves 3 id. ; peduncle 
short; flowers small, nun, I.- ami vellmv. 

*Cycas Wendlandii, Sand 

Cat. 1895, 32.) Cycaderc. S. "A 
handsome species from Madagascar, 
somewhat resembling the Dioons in 
habit, but differing in the leaflets which 

"Cynanchum formosum, N. E. Br. 

(K. B. 1895, 112.) Asclepiadc;e. S. 
A climber with ovate leaves 1-4 in. 
loDg awd large axillary cymes of small 
greenish flowers. Peru. (Kew.) 

Cyperus ferox. (B. T. O. 1895, 253.) 

with very large mriorc-eem-es. S. 
Brazil. (Dammann & Co., Naples.) 

Cyperus reflexus, Vahi. (B. T. O. 

Cypripedium calloso-niveum. y< > i: 

anum. (G 

C. spicen 

Cypripedium Charlesworthi 

Cypripeclium conco-callosum. (O. R. 

189:/, 15.) S. A garden hybrid be- 
tween C. concolor and (\ vatlosum. 
(Ii. H. Measures.) 

Cypripedium Corndeanii. (G. c. 

,627; <>. H. 1895,215.) A 
garden hybrid supposed to be between 
C. hnrrencaumn ami C. Sedeni. (T. 

Cypripedium Curtisii pallidum. 
CO. R. 1895, 288.) A pale-coloured 
variety. (E. Fynaert, Ghent.) 

Cypripedium daviesianum. (<?. C. 

isn r , ii s-_> 

between C. Bo.ralli atratum and C. 

Cypripedium donatianum. (B. T. o. 
Cypripedium fordianum. (G. C. 

Cypripedium fowlerianum. (.''■ < ■ 

Cypripedium Ashtoni. (G. C. 1895, 

in hi d' between < , 

& Co.) 
Cypripedium bellatulum album. 

flowers and green leaves. (Sir Frederick 
;; bolerlaerianum. <<■ ['■ 

: M. F1..1 

Cypripedium Burtonii. (G. c. \s<>->. 
(F. M. Burton.) 

I Cypripedium Goweri ^ magnificum. 

hybrid i.etu e'en (J.'l -wrenceanum and 
S Cypripedium hurrellianum. (O. R. 

18'.).-,. 15.) S. A garden hybrid l.e- 

j Cypripedium insigne citrinum. (G 

'..nln-vi-nnw" "VeUi.-'i.t^. (Tnifl' 

I Cypripedium kimballianum. j <>'.r. 

hybrid between C. rothtchildianum and 

Cypripedium lebaudyanum. < /.'• /'. Cypi Lpsdium^ s [p x ^ x f: hr ^ B ^ l et ^ 

l)enveL-n" < 'c. ) hn-;.,nhu,,*-l\'ul"c 'V.'I- r ! V,',/,',-,-, ^///Hf ami "< ' ."■//Lw/il \w. 

miitUaunm. (II.' Lebiuuly, B.uijrival, Bull.) 

Cypripedium Smithii. (<?. C*. IMS* 

Cypripclium leeanum virgiualc. ^>|- '■">■;.) s a gaiden Jiybn.j 

sepal is i.lnicwt 'entirely [>me white. r/7,W ( /;r. (C. G. Kod.liop, Nvw Jersey, 

Cypripedium leopoldianum f». < f m, -n-.u-» 'hS-i 

a//^, V»'«/'/V,.- 'T(. 1. "liV,',"(;l.en..) re«u,.,o„ .' (W. L. Lewis & Co.) 

Cypripedium littleanum. (G. C. Cypripedium uihleinianum. (s«ml. 

Llttle-) Cypripedium VanneraB. (G. C. 18», 

Cypripedium loochristianum. (<v. <: fZrdvn'hXlii between' c.* 2 nigrum 

hetu'een < '. ll„„'h,r,.- ami </. /,d/r,.w,«- ^/'^^"'J 1 ^ f; "' ''*«'• ( De R 

. ,. , . ,«»,.«« Cypripedium vigerianum. (It. H. 
ypripedium Louisa?. (p 7 ; , I *: ! ; ;"', s 

Cypripedium wallaertianum. (O. 

C. isd.-,. wiii., i;;,.v) 8. A garden 


Cypripedium Masonii. (<?. 

(H. Low & Co.) Cypripedmm warnhamiense. (O. C 

Cypripedium Millmani. ((i.e. ih < -';">. hvV.'ri.i ul',-,j-'!ii ini,,;,,',,,,-, amir' 


lolnngton.) Cypripedium whitelyanum. (<?. C7. 

«». ((?• f- lVetw-eon ,ll r'.' 5< /Vi ) r<rVi : .1 /"?/"'«' 'aml'T' 

(\v. L. Lewis & Co.) Cypripedium wolteriauum, Kra.i/Hu. 

Cypripedium pendulum. (C;. r. ^{J x ^V-'."'/^'*'-;/. winch h 'rise! n hie< 

Cypripedium picturatum. ^ ; -, ' • ^I'^V 

sxpcrhicns. (Sir Trevor Lawrence.) Cypripedium youngianum. ( /?• //. 

;>>; platycolor. ^■'- ' ■ I *'■••>; Lehn', i^.ijriuil"' France.) 

bet ween (J. Stonei platptcentum and C. Cyprijeiium Yvoimae. (HI. H. 

Cypripedium refulgens. (G. C. 1895, 

wii. -> ! u, ■•:■•'>*•> >■ A L-.M-.i,-! hyi.M.i Cyrtopodnmi flavescens, < -j-mi. (A. \., 

Cypripedium rOSSianlim. (O. /.'. numerous yellow flowers. Venezuela. 

*Cyrtopodium virescens, Rchb. f. 

(b. M. t. t.vm\.) ^ ... 

yellow blotched with red. 

*Davallia tenuifolia Burkei. 

Davallia truffautiana. - ///• If. 1*95. 

tine'lv-cu't fronds." Peru. (L'llorti- 

Dendrobium Astrsea. (O.J?. 1895, 

Dendrobium curvifiorum, Rolfe. (K. 

Li. 2*1.) S. A 

the section Aporum. Stems 6 in. long ; 

leaves lanceolate 1| in. long; flowers 


with yellow. Himalaya. (J. O'Brien.) 

Dendrobium Donnesiae. (G. a 1895, 

xvii., 402.) A -ufpoM-.l 

between />>. /o,-»,o*«, w and I >. in/und,- 

bulum. (J. Bradshaw.) 

Dendrobium Edithae. (G. C 1895, 


Dendrobium euosmum virginale. 

(G. C. 189.-), xvii., 337.) A garden 
hybrid between /J. .ndocharis and I>. 

Dendrobium gemma. (O. i?. 1895, 

73.) S- A garden hybrid betwee 1 
D. aurevm and D. superhitm J/utt„ni. 
(C. Winn.) 
Dendrobium glomeriflorum.Kriinziin. 

(G. C. 1895, xviii., 206.) A new 
species with stiudi and liisigmfieaii* 


recorded. (F. Sander & Co.) 
Dendrobium illustre. (O. /?. 1895, 

..,:../ '•// :-■■ xx..5fil,f.99.) A 
garden hybrid between />. r/wv/W,,,,,,,, 

Dendrobium inflatum, Rolfe. (K. B. 

ratiou Peiikmi^ \ 

•lender, 6 in. long; leaves 1 in. long; 

rareiucs »hnrt, few flowered; flowers 
1 in. long, white with a \ellow], 
on the lip. Java. (L'Horticulture 

J D. nobile 

I (5. C. Cookson.) 

' Dendrobium nobile candidulum. 

national*', Hrussels.) 

Dendrobium c 

xvii., 1 68.) A garden hybrid I 

Dendrobium Phalaenopsis holo- 
leuca. (G. r. i .*<...,. wiii.. iyj, 39.;. 

A variety with pure 

flowers. (J. 

T. Holmes.) 

^Dendrobium robustum, Rolfe. (A". 


(G. C. 189J 
(H. how & C 

sanguineum, Rolfe. 

: A new 


speciosissimum, R 


formosian. Pseudo-bulbs ;i-t> ft. high • 

deep orange-red blotch on the lip. 
Borneo. (H. Low & Co.) 
Dendrobium velutinum, Rolfe. (A'. 

B. 1895, 34.) S. Pseudo-bulbs ;, in 

long ; raceme 1 in. long ; flowers like 

those of D. carinifirum, deep yellow : 

us. Burma. (Charlesworth 


Dendrobium versicolor, Cogn. (./. O. 

• - 


Disa sagittalis, s« .. ir .V, . .tw ■ 

and an erect scape 8 in. hi_ : 
raceme of about a dozen * 

flowers, -• in. long. South At'iiea. 
(H.J, Klwes.) 

*Echinocactus aureus. (G. C. 18<j5, j •Graptophyllum picturatum. />'"•' 

*Episcia densa, Wright. <A, /;. isn:,, ^ ".ji -^ l [ r | >,M i ,1 '5' 1 , ) - V| >' h^'m.Ai./t 

with purple. British Guiana. (Kew.) *Hemerocallis aurantiaca major, 

Eulophia congoeiibis^ < >- // ^ , [' k ; ,-!' ' ^"'iw 'nun '"' nii- 

*Eulophia deflexa, 

Suphorbia Fonrnieri, (iW. #- 
190.) Euphorbia* 

pretty HibisCUS 

(Sallier-Joanni, Paris.) 

Fedia Cornucopia caiid roseus. Spren 

Felicia abyssmic; 

ippeastrum equestre__ splendens, 

■ '■ ■ " . ' : 

Hippeastrum Wolteri, wii 

*Gentiana Kurro brevidens. 

Huernia macrocarpa, Sch^vinf. < <;ji. 

Humulus japonicus lutescens. {B. 

Iris Cosniae. (Oard. 

dar.l-' clear vdlow - 

marking, the tails of the same shade 

pencilled with purple. (T. S. Ware.) 

*Iris Delavayi, Mkheii. (7?. H. 1895, 

white. Ki.nn.-u.. (MM.rli, (Jmeva.) 

Iris Parkor. {(<'■ <'■ xvii. r.ia.) H. A 
* retzioides, Benth. ( //. M. 

Kalmia cuneata, Mic 

coloured form. (H. Low 

purpurata albanensis. (<?• 

Laelio Cattleya andreana. (#• H. 

is'..:., 4*'! : c\ r. is;,:,, xviii., a<i:i.) 

// ,./„ Im.'l"/ 'V/f/ rh V >iii " ( '.1. l'.' 

- a darwiniana. 

*Kniphofla Woodii. 

new Lselio-Cattleya Fortu 

Leva gpttoiana 


_■ ,. ,. . ir i i-. loot i Lselio-Cattleya hardyana. (G. G 

Laelia anceps luieata. </*.<-. im»->. ,_,,,::; s, S-) ,;. \ -arden hvhrid 

Lselio - Cattleya Harrisii. (G. C. 

Lselia flammea. (/<•'• ' ■ '.*'•'•'. XV11 - is-..:,, xvii., :4>.i <;. a ganh-n hvhnd 

Laelio Cattleya jacobiana. (A ff- 

■- '"T. 1895, 189.'). 359.) (.. A garden hvbnd 

Laelio-Cattleya ^ Sallieri. (#• H". Luisia 

linmsi unci Clltlrn'i L'xhlm^n. (Ch. ill. 1 

Maron, Marseilles.) I in. 

Laelio-Cattleya sayana, L. End. (£. , n. 1 

l^i (T ' A <l C " Lycast 

Laelio-Cattleya schulziana. (L. x\., ,i u , h 

Rolfe. (A'. 5.1895, 


Mahonia moseriana. 

Laelio - Cattleya varjenevskyana. Marica northiana splendens, Cogi 

Lamourouxi I 

Masdevallia eclyptrata, Kri 

Masdevallia falcata. 

Masdevallia forgetiana, Kriinzi 

.eptosyne j 

(Haage & Schmidt, Erfurt.) 
Licuala kirsteniana, Hort. {III. H. 

Lilitim Beerensi. {(fant. is-.*:., xiviii., 

triloba, Rolfe. (A 

\v'.' s." i>- ■■. 

>ng. Leaves lanceolate 1 ft. I 
Dendulous, 6 in. Innir ; tl-i 
us, yellow, with a ie-.v ma. 
blotches on the lip. S 

Masdevallia Heathii. (<■'■ C. iso:., 

V _ i yl.ri.l bet* ,.„ 

.1/. vntchianu and .1/. / ? nr« ,»;>,t/«. 

Masdevallia Lawrencei, Kranzlin. (G. 

ot'M.' rniUulaht, Ke'hb'f! 

Masdevallia Leda. (0. /?. 1895, 203.) 

t ovarens: 

1 purple. Guatemala. (F. 

llaria ^r^l^ ,^ < k. /;. 

i sanguinea, Rolfe. (K. 

sumimsis. (K. II. .illcn, Guernsey.) 

Nidularium Chantrieri. (#• #• 

1SD5, 4;,l>. t.) Hmim.liace;r. S. A 

j : " Nidularium paxianum, Me/. (G/. 

fcegaclinium imschootianum, Kolfe. j ilou-.-rs white. Brazil. (Dr. s<- 
(K.B. 1895,8.) Oivliir;.. s. All.ed Bonn.) 

W!',,,', i , ' h,: " M ,' ,J'm i Notylia breyis, Rolfe. (KB. 

N T y):i; !' 

*^ C ^J S ^ft 'Si. :£ Odontoglossum andersonianumMar- 

;;■,;!,., .I',,,!, ..' S n„ la.-,-, Shalli. lO. AM ><>:>. I, ;7 Orel I, 

Odontoglossum andersonianum pul- 

MimulllS Clevelandi. Bran<l<>«r f . ( .. ( ',. '< t \wth small n-l spots. (I)e B. Craw- 

a't 'base! witl Odontoglossum aspersum violaceum. 

*Musa kewensis. (O. 

n ( ! a Odontr.' 

'TinVti'- Odontoglossum crispum luteo- 

NamSSUS CyclamineUS-Horsfieldi. culture Internationale, Brussels ) 

if' \ ' ] ^ui'n\\ "■ "ft » A '"',- Odontoglossum Halli-xanthum. {L. 

Nepenthes formosa. 

j veAN. Odontcglossum harvengtense. (L. 

Odontoglossum wilckeanum Dob- Phalaenopsis Lindeni, Loher. (G. c. 
belaerae. (O. n. i89. r >, ig. - ) <;. is<).», xviii., .-if.) Orchids, a new 

<>. ( i«iwi«i, with v.-i.i. h it ii;is hiih.'-rto Phalaenopsis ludde -viola 

rdneri flavescens. 
Oncidium panduratum, Bolfe. 

Philodendron deviuis y.inui.i. ■/ ■ 

Philodendron Martineti. (/£ 

Phaius Cooksonise. 

Phyllocactus Hildmanni. 

'iptospatha Ridleyi, N r - K- Bi • ( I 



PhaillS Roeh. '• Honors. .lamsiica. (Kew.) 

lurh' 1 .scuV)-i»iVii- ;«i in. i'-nu. i.';n,- *Polygala Galpini. Hook. f. (li. 1 

iliicalyx, Franchet. 

(Jardin <lu Hamma, 

Sarcanthus auriculatns, Boife. 
(A'. B. 1895, '■'.<. 

at tlu' l>a>.< of tht> !i|.. The tio\wr- a;v 

South America. (Sir Trevor Lawrence.) 

Scelochilus variegatus, Cog 

Saxifraga atlantica, Boiss. & Beat. 

Sobralia Lindeni. (<?. < 

ml F. 1895, 

H. A compact dwarf-growing plant 

tha; flowers in in. in 

sepals and petal white. 

slender stems hearing large white 
sceiitetl flowers. \tlas Mountains. 

(Daminann & Co., Naples.) 

Saxifraga globulifera, Desf. ( \V. (•'. 



foliage turns purplish-red and forms a 
good contra.^ with the white flowers. 

:•.- .■ ... 

Atlas Mountains. (Dammann & Co., 

St'ems 71. 

Scelochilus carinatus, lioife. (A\ B. 

Uv.i:., -S4.) t)ivi:,iw. G. Leaves 

dulous, short, hearing about seven 

with imrple. Delagoa Ba 

\ (Kew.) 

e ia fischeriana 

: 1{ S; vvn!; 

, ' V J, ;;; 'Strcptpcarpus Dyeri. (G. W F. 
long Colombia. (^Horticulture In- , £ ,•'. , ... .' - - ' -- ;, ^ . A jr ; , j. 

UB multiflora. 

>'. //,,„ with larger, brighter 

Selenipedium dalleanum, Kd. 

HodgSOlli, Hook. 1. ( B. 

(M. P. Finet, Argent 

*Senecio Hualtata, 

*Tibouchina meiodon, 

with \ellow foliage. (Back 

Holfe. (K. B. 1895, 

♦Veronica Hector i, 

Vriesia andreana. {III. H. 1885, 

Tropseolum Leichtlini. (/•'■ U. iso/i, 

hybrid h.'tuftMi '/'. r 

f. edule. (Max Leichtlin, Baden.) 

Tnlipa Greigi pulchella. (B. T. O. | hybrid between' i 

__,..« . , , . Vriesia elmireani 

Tuhpa kauri ma. 217.) s. a gard 

*Tylophora oculata, N. E. Br. <A'. a T 

Siena Vn. 






LIST of the STAFFS of the EOYAL GARDENS, Kew, and 
of Botanical Departments and Establishments at Home, 
and in India and the Colonies, in Correspondence with 

Royal Gardens, Kew :— 

Director - - - VV. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 

C.I.E., F.R.S., LL.D., Ph.D., 
M.A., F.L.S. 

Assistant-Director - Daniel Morris, C.M.G., D.Sc, 

M.A., F.L.S. 
Assistant (Office) - *John Aikman. 

„ „ - * William Nicholls Winn. 

(«>orjrc Massee, F.L.S. 
Nicholas Kdward Brown, A 
*Kobcrt AlU-n Kolfe, A.L.S. 
Clmrks Henry Wright. 

Dukinfield Henry Scott, F.R.S., 
M.A.,Ph.D., F.L.S. 

Keeper of Museums - - John Reader Jackson, A.L.S. 

Assistant (Museum) - - John Masters Hillier. 

Preparer - - - George Badderly. 

Curator of the Gardens - - George Nicholson 

Assistant Curator - - William Watson. 

Foremen : — 

Arboretum - - - *William J. Bean. 

Herbaceous Department - * Walter Irving. 

Greenhouse and Ornamental Frank Garrett. 

Temperate House (Sub-tropical *William ] 
Department) . 

Cambridge.— Unh 

Professor - Jticnry xuarsnan 

♦Richard Irwin Lynch, 

Trinity College Botanic Gardens : — 

Professor - - E. Perceval Wright, M.D., 

F.L.S., Sec. R.I.A. 
Curator - ■ *F. W. Burbidge, M.A., 


(ilaaffOW. — Botanic Gardens : — •' . 

wiasgu w University Professor F. O. Bower, D.Sc, F.R.S., 


Oxford.— University Botanic Garden :— 

Professor - - Sydney H. Vines, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Curator - - *William Baker. 

Antigua. (See Leeward Islands.) 
Barbados.— Dodd's Reformatory, Botanic fc 

British Guiana.— Botanic Garden 
Georgetown - Superintendent ai 

Cape Colony .- 

Head Gardener - fJolm P. Waby. 
Second „ - *Robert Ward, 

•romenade Garden : — 
Head Gardener - William Jackson. 
Keener - - Richard Hunt. 

a Campbell. 

Dominion Botanist - Prof. John Macoun, 
M.A., F.R.S.C, F.L.S. 
Assistant „ - Jas. M. Macoun. 
Director of Govern- 1 p fof Wm Saander8 

meat Experimental > F]ISC) F.L.S. 
Botanist and Ento- James Fletcher, F.L.S. 

Director, University Prof. D. P. Peuhallow, 
Botanic Garden. B.Sc. 

Government Botanist - Prof. MacOwan, F.L.S. 

Q e yl on# _Department of Royal Botanic Gardens :— 

Peradeniya - Curator - - •Hugh McJ 

Clerk - - J- Perdina! 

Draughtsman - W. de AIw 

Hakgala - Superintendent - •William N 

Henaratgoda - Conductor - - S. de Silva 

Anuradbapura -„-■■- J) - F *> s 

Badulla- - D. A. Gun 

Dominica. (See Leeward Islands.) 

•Daniel Yeoward. 
•Walter Haydon. 

Grenada.— Botanic Garden : — 

Curator - - *Walter E. Broadway. 

Hong Kong. — Botanic and All'orestation Department: — 

Superintendent - t Charles Ford, FX.S. 

Assistant Superin- *W. J. Tutcher. 
Jamaica. — Department of Public Gardens and Plantations: — 



Hope Gardens 



* William Cradwick. 

Castleton Garden 


*William J. Thompson. 

Cinchona (Hill 

♦William Harris. 


Kingston Parade 

John Campbell. 

King's Honse 

•Thomas J. Harris. 



- Oversee 

W. Groves. 

LagOS— Botanic Station :_ 

•Henry Millen. 

A-»si taut 

*F. G. R. Leigh. 
*T. B. Dawodu. 

Leeward Islands.— Bote 1 

ic Stations 


Antigua - 


•Arthur G. Tillson. 


•Joseph Jones. 


Head Gardener 

Henry Maloney. 

St. Kitts-Nevis - 


Joseph Wade. 


Botanic Garden :— 


Dr. Francesco Debono. 

Mauritius. — Department of Forests and Botanic Gardens : — 



"William Scott, F.L.S. 

Director of 

J. Vankeirsbilck. 



Director ol 

P. Randabel. 

Curepipe - 

F. Bijoux. 

Reduit - 

W. A. Kennedy. 

Montserrat. (See Leeward Islands.) 
Natal.— Botanic Gardens :— 

Durban - - Curator - - John Medley Wood, 

Head Gardener - Mames Wylie. 
Propagator - *William Thorpe. 

Pietermaritzbnrg Curator - - G. Mitchell. 

New South Wales.— Botanic Gardens: 

Sydney - - Director - 

New Zealand :— 

Wellington. — Colonial Botanic Garden :— 

J. II. Maiden, F.L.S. 

Auckland - 

Head Gardener 

Head Gardener 

J. McBean. 
W. Barton. 

Thomas Waugh. 
William Goldie. 
•Ambrose Taylor. 

Niger Coast Protectorate.— Botanic Garden : — 

Old Calabar - Curator - - Horace W. L. Billingto 

Assistant Curator - *John H. Holland. 
Queensland. — Botanic Department:— 

Brisbane - - Colonial Botanist - F. M. Bailey, F.L.S. 

Botanic Gardens : — 

Curator - - *Philip MacMahon. 

Overseer - - J. Tobin. 

i Society's Gardens : — 

Secretary and Manager Wm. Soutter. 
Assistant „ A. Humphrey. 

■ Superintendent - J. S. Edgar. 

(See Leeward Islands.) 
j Station : — 
Curator - - *John Chisnall Moore. 

St. Kitts-Nevis. 

St. Lucia— Botani 

St. Vincent.— Botanic Station 

Sierra Leone.— Botanic stui, 
South Australia.— Botanic < 

Adelaide - - Director 

Port Darwin - Curator 

Straits Settlements.— Gard 
Singapore - Director 

*Henry Powell. 

•Frederick Enos Willcv 

- Nicholas Holtze. 

I Forest Department : — 

- fH. N. Ridley, 


Assistant Superin- *Walter Fox. 

• A SS Superil ':)tChar 1 e 9 Cu«i 8 ,F.L.S. 
Kangsar). — Government Gardens and Plantations : — 
Superintendent - Oliver Marks. 
(Taiping) „ - *Robert Derry. 

Botanic Gardens : — 
Hobart Town - Superintendent - F. Abbott. 

Trinidad. — Royal Botanic Gardens : — 

Superintendent - fJohn H. Hart, F.L.S. 
Assistant „ - *William Lunt. 


Melbourne - Government Botanist 

Botanic Gardens : — 

Curator - W. R. Guilfoyle, F.L.S. 

Botanical Survey .—Director, George King, M.D., LL.D., C.l 

Bombay, including Sind : — 

Lecturer on Botany, 1 

College of Science, >*G. Marshall Woodrc 
Poona - -J 
Madras : the State of Hyderabad and the State of Mysore :— 
Government Botanist 1 
and Director of Cin- > 

North-Western Provinces and Oudh; the Punjab; the Central 
Provinces ; Central India ; Rajputana ; North-West Frontier 
Expeditions :— 

Director of the Bo-"] 
tanic Department If J. F. Duthie, B.A., 
Northern India, f F.L.S. 

Saharanpur, N. W.P.J 

Bengal. — Department of Royal Botanic Gardens : — 

Calcutta - Superintendent - George King, M.D., 

(Seebpore) LL.D., CLE., F.R.S., 

Curator of Herbarium David Prain, M.B., 
F.L.S., F.R.S.E. 
„ Garden - *G. T. Lane. 

Assistant „ - *H. J. Davies. 

Probationer - - *George H. Care. 
Mungpoo - Superintendent, Go-"] George King, M.D., 

Cinchona > LL.D., C.I.E.,F.R.S., 
s - -J F.L.S. 

♦Joseph Parkes. 
G. A. Gammie. 
*Amos Hartless. 

•William A. Kennedy. 

Herbert Thorn. 

■ *G. Marshall Woodrow. 
A. R. Lester. 
C. D. Mahaluxmivala. 
♦William Strachan. 

Bombay. — Municipal Garden :- 


Karachi. — Municipal Garden : 

Central Provinces.- 


and Director of Go- I 
vernment Gardens, > 
Parks, and Cin- 1 
chona Plantations - ) 

Curator of Gai 
and Parks. 
Madras.— Agri-Horticultural Society : 

Hon. Secretary 

♦Robert L. Proudlock. 

Native States.- 


*J. Cameron, F.L.S. 

*G. H. Krumbiegel. 
fC. Maries, F.L.S. 
* Joseph Beck. 
♦Frederick James 
. T. H. Storey. 

North-West Provinces.— 

Agra (Taj Garden) Superintendent 


Kumaon (Ramghur) 


G. H. T. Mayer. 

*F. W. Seers. 
♦Matthew Ridley. 
William Gollan.