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<ew. ROYAL, GARDENS, KEW. / g <=j 7 




And to be 1 " ■ through any B 
JOHN MB ■ ;i;STl1 " 

Feb. and Mar. 








Kino from Myristica d 

Miscellaneous Notes 

Mvcologic Flora of th 
Kew (with two plat, 
Spindle Tree (Mwnym 
Miscellaneous Notes 

Insects destructive to Cultivated Plants 









Eucalyptus Timber for Street Paving .. 

-njj-ar Cane 

Grama Grass (J!,>ut< hm, 

Flora Capensis 

Leone (with 







Improvement of the Sugar-beet and 






Butter and Tallow Tree of Sierra Leone 

Coffee Cultivation at the Cold Coast . . . 




En berprfoe in West Africa ... 



Miscellaneous Notes 




West . Tn -li a Royal Commission 



Miscellaneous Notes 




on Yunnan 





Shiniain Cyprus {Pl.tarhi Lmf U<>» ■*)... 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Appendix I. - 


List of seeds of hardy herbaceous plants 
and of trees and shrubs 


„ II. - 


New garden plants of the year 1896 ... 


„ III. - 


Botanical Departments at home and 





No. 121.] JANUARY. [1897. 


The Royal Gardens, Kesv, have been from their first devotion to 
public use the most important seat of botanical research in the United 
Kingdom. Sh new Director oi" tin.- reorganised 

establishment, brought with him from the (7ni\ersii\ oi Glasgow not 
merely his herharium :in«l library, for the reception of which West 
Park was rented for him by the Government, but an indefatigable assiduity 
in the pursuit of science and a world-wide correspondence with every 

impulse which it received from him 

(•ceding years, and its activity seem- little likeh to diminish under the 

demands made upon it from every part of the Empire. 

In 1852 the Hookerian Herbarium was removed to the present 
building. In 1854 George Bentham, Km,., F.R.S.. added to it his own 
herbarium and library. In 1858 the East India Company transferred 
to Kew the enormous collections made h\ their officers, which had 
accumulated at the India Hoise. In 1807, after the death of Sir 
William Hooker, the Government purchased hi- library and herbarium, 
which thus became public property. The accommodation soon became 
inadequate, and in 1877 the large hall to the north was completed, the 
herbarium transferred to it, and the front of the original building titled 
u)i for the library. 

■i of floras on an uniform 
ml the Colonies. The 

liensis," commenced h\ Mr. licntham in 
and the " Flora of British India," comu 

Succeeded in completing since his retiren 

the vegetation of which has Ik en describe 

ker in 1HG2, ami ii, was completed in 1883. 
k'm'j;. in soino sense supplementary to this, is 
This gives down to 1885 all published nanus 
a reference to 1 1 1 e work in which each first 
by E. Daydon Jackson, Esq., Secretary of the 
s engaged upon its preparation for ten years, 
d by the familv of the late Charles Darwin, 

bv the Oxford Clarendon Press, the first part 

last in 1895. 

ks of this kind, the enormous material available 
•onstant stream of smaller publications either 
staff or by other botanists working there. Of 
> contain a chronological catalogue which has 

pains l,y Air. Daydon Jackson. It represents 
probably is not surpassed by that of 


; of the second 

decade of the Ivew Be 

on for publis 

lung this record of 



' W. J. Hooker, vol. lxvii. (n. s. xiv), < 

■Planiaruni, by W.J. Hooker, vol. 

•tlerpress. By W. J. Hooker. 
Tussac Grass. By the same, Geogr. Soc. Journ., xii., pp. 265-267, 
On a new Laurx, ^snl.-gen. Orcorlaphne ?) from Southern Afric 

M. simplex-] from China. By 

n,] DeBnil ' sros, foitn ObSei 

vations on tin- MT.niti.- .»r«wh Ucnu*. By J. Smith, Journ. Rot., iv. 
38-70. 117-108. 

Contributions toward a Flora oi' South America. Fnumei :>tfors i 
Fian!- colLeeteibv Mr. Schombnr, i"y G.Bcutham. 

Filiccs determined and described by J. Smith, Lond. Journ. Bot., i 

By J.! 

Botanical Maixa -ii «, edited liy W. J. Hooker, vol. lxviii., t. 3916-^J.Hio ; 

1 of Botany, &c, y< 

i Journal <>■' Bofiin 


. By W. J. Hooker. 


•intedfrom Lond. J< 

on, IV 

omthe letters ofi)r. J 


res with brief Descri 

By J. Sii 

Botanical Magazine, vol. Ixix., t. 3988-4-047 ; lxx., 4048-4059. 
lcones Plantarum, vol. vi. 
London Journal of Botany, vol. ii. 

Some Account of a new Elceodendron from New Zealand. By J. D. 
Hooker, Lond. Journ. Bot., iii., 228-230. 

Note on the Cider Tree (Eucalyptus Gunnii). By the same, I.e., 

Hepaticae Antarctica? ; being Characters and brief Descriptions of 
the Hepaticae discovered in the southern circumpolar regions during 
the voyage of H.M. discovery ships " Erebus " and " Terror." By 
the same, I.e., hi., 366-400; 454-481 (continued as Hepatiese Novse 
Zelandiae, &c). 

Hepatic» Novae Zelandiae et Tasmania* ; being Characters and brief 
Descriptions of the Hepaticae discovered in the Islands of New Zealand 
and Van Diemen's Land, during the vojage of H.M. discovery 
ships "Erebus" and "Terror," together with those collected by R. C. 
Gunn and W. Colenso. By the same, I.e., 556-582. 

Lichenes Antarctici ; being Characters and brief Descriptions of the 
new Lichens discovered in the southern circumpolar regions, Van 
Diemen's Land, and New Zealand, during the voyage of H.M. 
ships, "Erebus" and "Terror." By the same, I.e., 634- 

Musci Antarctici ; being Characters with brief descriptions of the new 
species of Mosses discovered during the voyage of H.M. discovery 
ships, " Erebus " and " Terror," in the southern circumpolar regions, 

TM_ ( -r!i-i v. i:ii si ■■-. . !"!»- md New Zealand. B y J. D. Hooker and 

W. Wilson, I.e., 533-556. 

tonyifoiia. By the same, i.e., 226-228. 
Not y Ha [N. multipara]. By the sam« Magazine, vol. lxx., I. 1060-1131. 
Icones Plantarum, vol. vii. 
London Journal of Botany, vol. iii. 


The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. discovery ships, 
"Erebus" and "Terror," in the years 1839-43, under the command of 
Captain James Clark Boss. 

I. Flora antarctica. By J. D. Hooker. 

This appeared I Qg dated 1845. 

On the Huon Pine, and on Microcachrys, a new Genus of Conifer© 
from Tasmania ; together with Bemarks upon the Geographical Dis- 
tribution of that Order in the Southern Hemisphere. By the same, 
Lond. Journ. Bot., iv., 137-157. 

On Fitchia, a new Genus of Arborescent Composite (Trib. Cicho- 
racea?) from Elizabeth Island, in the South Pacific. By the same, I.e. 

Algae Novae Zelandios, being a Catalogue of nil the species of Algae 
yet recorded as inhabiting the shores of New Zealand, with Characters 
and brief Descriptions of the new Species discovered during the Y r oyage 
of H.M. discovery ships " Erebus " and " Terror," and of others 
communicated to Sir W. Hooker by Dr. Sinclair, the Bev. W. Colenso 
and M. Baoul. By J. D. Hooker and W. H. Harvey, I.e., 521-551. 

Alga; Antarctica-, being Characters and Descriptions of the hitherto 
unpublished Specie- of Alga\ discovered in Lord Auckland's Group, 
Campbell's Island. Kerguelen's Land, Falkland Islands, Cape Horn, 
and other southern eireumpohr reruns, during the voyage of H.M. 
discovery ships •• Erebus " and « Terror." By the same, I.e., 249-276 ; 

Hepaticae Antarctica;, Supplementum, or Specific Characters with 
brief descriptions, of some additional Species of the Hepatiea? of the 
Antarctic Regions, New Zealand. r with a few 

from the Atlantic Islands and New Holland. By J. D. Hooker and 
T. Taylor, I.e., 79-97. 

Animadversiones in Piperaceas Herbarii Hookeriani, auctore F. A. 
W. Miquel, I.e., 410-470. 

nouveaux de la famille des Euphor- 
, 471-171. 

Diosmees [Iuibc- 
ma). By J. Smith, 

c, 166-169. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. 
London Journal Botany. 

i tin-! Holanv Ga 

Description of a new Genus of Composita- ( .<, />■/•< U 'una), and a New 
Species of Plantago | P. Gfunnu], from the mountains of Tasmania. 
By the same, I.e., 444-447. 

An Enumeration of the Plants of the Galapagos Archipelago : with 
descriptions of the new Species. By the same, Proc. Linn. Soe.. i., 
(Hi(i) 276-279. 

A century of Orchidaceous Plants selected from Curtis's B< .tunica I 
Magazine, with coloured timire- and directions chiefly executed by Mr. 
Fitch. By W. J. Hooker. 

Species Filicum ; being Descriptions of the known Ferns, particularly 
of such as exist in the Author's Herbarium. By the same. 

Contains upwards of 300 uncolouml plat.:-, a.- \V. r'itcii, illustrating at i. ■;-.-, 

Description d'ui 
do< <>b.-i nations si 
Stachi/nrus. Par J. E. Planchon, Lond. Journ. Bot., 

Sur le gee 

ire Gudn !f 

a ei t 

.e.„naIo ; ,m 

as, avec 

dee observatic 

>ns sur les 

[,iiu'es,des < 
iiy the sanu 

i, I.e., 584- 



s genre 

s et especes tie i 

ee groupe. 

l.ol.l,. 1 ^"-' 

of the first Set 

nes of Plants of , 
been announced 
. By the same, 

Java, collected 
for sale by Mr 

by Mr. T. 

•. He ward, 
urn. Bot., 

An Enum 
in Decembei 

Genera and 

eration of 
• 1845; w 


Ferns cultivate* 
ith Characters a 
By J. Smith, 

1 in the Boyal Garden 

nd Observations on sc 
Tomp. Bot, Mag., v 

s atKew, 

.me of the 

ora- T:< -mania- Spicilcgiuni ; or Con 
Diemcii's Land. By J. D. Hooker. 
2G5-28G ; 401[bis]-479 [bis]. 

Description of a New Species of 
.ndes of Columbia. By the same, 

Ly ;p»,,M ,_/-. mmcoides], 

from the 

On the Diatomaceous Vegetatioi 
ime, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1847, ii., 8 

i of the Antarctic Ocean. 

By the 

An Enumeration of the Plants o 

f the Oulapajtos Arohipela" 
7. By the same, Trans. Li. 

o ; with 

Algre Tasmanicse: being a Ci 

italogue of the Species < 

>f Algae 


Description of Victoria ret/ia, or Great Water-lily of South America. 
By W. J. Hooker. 

This was a separate issue, ,m largo pap.-r, oi the ii.nm- ^al Irtterpf- 
originally published in th 175-4278. Seedlings 

reared. (W. B. H.) 

Catalogue of Mr. Geyer's Collection of Plants gathered in the Upper 

Missouri; the Oregon Territory, and the intervening portion oi the 
Bocky Mountains. By W. J. H[ooker], Lond. Journ. Bot. vi (1847), 

Botany of the Niger Expedition [in contim 
■ W. J. Hooker and J. D. Hooker. Lond. 

liy W. J. nooicer ana j. j 
(With list of Madeira pla, 

Sur le »enre Gcdoua, etc., par J. E. Planchon, 

/,/. DC. ( i-:, 

nivs Jimn-lu 

Stir la Famille des Linees. By 
Ihe London Journal of Botany, 

On the Ve 

Carboniferous Period, as compared with 

that of the present dav. By J. D. Hooker, Geol. 

430; Edinb. New Phil Journ., xlv., 3G2-369; xivi., 73-78. 

On some peculiarities on the Structure of Stiqmaria. By the same, 


ne Lepidostrobi. By 

[Descriptions of about 45 new Australian plants scattered through 
Mitchell's Journal of nn Expedition into Tropical Australia. I Bv 
W. J. Hooker. 

Sur la Famille des Linees : par J. E. Planchon (continued), Lond. 
Journ. Bot., vii., 165-186, 473-501, 507-528. 
Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxiv. 
Icones Plantarum, vol. viii. 
Guide to the Gardens, eds. III. and IV. 
Report [Civil Services, Estimates, 1847]. 
London Journal of Botany, vol. vii. 


The Rhododendrons of Sikkim Himalaya. By J. D. Hooker. 

On the probable extent of the Flora of the Coal Formation in Britain. 
By the same, Am. Journ. So.. Ser. II., viii., 131-133. 

(Extracted Iron) Wjrot. Carboniferous Period. 1818-40.) 

Notes, chiefly botanical, made during an Excursion from Darjiling to 
Tonglo. By the same, Journ. As. Soo. Beng.. xvii'u 419-446.' 

Niger Flora ; or an enumeration of the Plants of western tropical 
Africa. Collected by Theodore Vogel, botanist to the Voyage of the 
Expedition sent by II. B. M. to the River Niger in 1841, under the 
command of Captain II. I), i rotter, including Spicilegia Gorgonea by 
Ph. B. Webb, and Mora Nio.itiana bv .1. IX Hooker and G. Benfham. 
with a sketch of the Life of Dr. Vogel. By W. J. Hooker. 

Botany. By W. J. Hooker. (Forms Section XII., pp. 400-422, of 
A Manual of Scientific Enquiry, ed. by J. F. W. Herschel.) 

oi Puj i fibre of Ne, - () , li | sy, , u liu 

rillnsn : tibre of" Stcrculia (/ulttihf, Boxh. ; ,\fw(i h.rtilis, Fibre 
of the Manilla Hemp. [ByW. J. Hooker], Kew Journ., i. 25-28. 

Jute, repr. in Pharm. Journ., ix. (1850), 545, I.e., 121-123. 

Piacaba; fibre and fruit of the Co uiila Nut. Attnha t'unifcrii. 
Mart. By the same. 

Repr. On Piacaba and Coquilia Nuts, Pharm. Journ., ix. (1850), 

dm {Phytelephos macro- 

Repr. in Pharra. Journ., ix. (1850), 369-375. 
Putch-Pat, or Patchouli (Pogostcmon Patchouli). By 

I.e. 328-330. 

Abstract in Pharni 
Description of a ne 

by Dr. MacFadyen. 

w Melt 

i;p,r th. 

., ix. (1850). 282. ' 
istomaceous Plant, 
3 same,] I.e., 379. 

discovered in Jam 

Botanical Magazine, vol. 1: 


Guide to the Gardens, ed. 


Return of the Number of Visitors . . . 

. (Pari. Papers). 

Journal of Botany 

and Kew Garden Miscellany, vol. i. 


[Specimens commu 

to the Museum at 

Kew by R. Spruce. 

W. J. Hooker], Kew Journ., ii. 70-76. 

Jute ; Corchortt* capsularis, L. By the same, I.e., 91-92. 

African Oak (or Teak) [Old/ieldia africana], [By the same], I.e., 

Eboe Nut of the Mosquito shore. [By the same], I.e., 249-250. 

Chinese " Rice paper" or "Bok-Shung." [By the same], I.e., 27-29, 

Abstract in Pharm. Journ, ix., 545-546. 

Description and Figure of the Cedron of the Magdahma river 
(Simaha Cedron, Planch.). By the same, I.e., 377-382. (See an 
additional note io the next rolume, p. 59-60.) 

Repr. in Pharm. Journ., x., 344-348 ; 472. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxvi. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. VIII. 

Return of the Number of Visitors . . . [Pari. Papers, 1849]. 

Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, vol. ii. 


Great Exhibition of 1851. Report ;— Jury, Class III., pp. 123-162. 
Report on Substances used as Food. By J. D. Hooker. 

Victoria regia ; or, Illustrations of the Royal Water Lily, in a series 
By \V. Fitch ; 'with descriptions by W. J. Hooker. 

l: W. 
If.. P . 

(In the Admiralty Man 

Catalogue of Mr. Geyer's Collection ol Plants gathered in the Upper 
Missouri, tli.' Oregon Territory, and the intervening portion of the 
Rocky Mountains [continued]. By the same, I.e., 287-300. 

Figures and De.-eriptio 
Hhre is extensively used in making 
Repr. Pharm. Journ., xi., 276-278. 
Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxvii. 
Guide to the Gardens, ed. X. 
Report . . . for . . . 1850. 
Return of Number of Visitors [Pari. Papers, 1850]. 
Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, vol. 

On the Climate and Vegetation of the temperate and cold regions of 
Kasl Nepal and the Sikkim Himahiva Mountains. By the same, Journ. 
Hort. Soc, vii., 69-131. 


nted as Amomum Grumnn-yarailisi ; 
m, or Mellegetta Pepper, in Pharm. Journ. 

, ( xif, U l. 

of pa 



Description du llarclaiia lou qi folia, Wall., de 
lieacees. By W. J. Hooker. Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 

la familledes 
III., xvii, 30 


On 1 

the Chinese Rice Paper. By the same 

i, Kew 


Notice of a new species of /)epariu, discovered 
few Caledonia. [By the same], I.e., 54-56. 

,,vCh„ r 

les MO 

W i 

:e of a new species of Dammara, detected by 

Mr. ( 



Gardens Museum. Tallow-tree, and In: 

sect Wt 

ix of ( 



r Insect-wax. j By the same], I.e., 150-1.: 



C'oleb. T.v the same. I.e., 2i;0-20r, • 2S.">.' 
. Pharm. Journ., xii., 300-302. 





r of Daphne Laurel (Spurge Laurel). 

[By the 


], he. 


Gi/nerium saccharoides. [By the same], I.e., 313-314. 
Coscmiscium [i.e., Coscinium] fenestra,' nm, (False Calumha-i 

The Botany of the Voyage oi H. M.S. " Herald 
mand of Captain Henry Kellett, during the years 

Part 1. The publication was completed in 1857. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxviii. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. ix. 

' and Kew Garden Mi see 



On a new Genus ; M ' Specie- of Ta-mani; m 

plants. By the same, Ke\\ Journ.. v. 29(5-300. 

Botanical Expedition to Oregon. [By the same], I.e., 315-317; 

On the Distribution ami organic contents of the " Ludlow Bone Bed " 
in the districts of Woolhope and May Hill. With a note on the seed- 
like bodies found on it. By J. D. Hooker, and H. E. Strickland, Geo!. 
vSoc. Journ., ix., 8-12. 

The Bice-Paper Plant, [By W. J. Hooker], Kew Journ., v., 79-84. 

Rhododendrons of Sikkiin-Himalaya. [By the same], I.e., 1 52-15 \. 

Botanical objects communicated to the Kew Museum from the 
Amazon River in ISM, by Richard Spruce, Esq. [By the same], 
I.e., 169-177 ; 238-247. 

Catalogue of Mr. I rover's Collection . . . (continued). By 

of Economic Botany 


i for Sir John Franklin. 
I! prime,] in -Manna! 

Botanical Magazine, vol. Ixxix. 
Report . . for . . 1852. 
Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Mis- 

and 6. pp. 161-240. 

Himalayan Journals ; or, Notes 
and Nepal Himalayas, the Klia:- 

>. By the siiinc. -1 vc 

the same, Geol. Soc. 
of Volkmannia {V. Morrisii), By the same, I.e., 

On the Functions and Structure of the Rostellum of List era ovata 
By the same, Phil. Trans., cxliv., 259-264. 

Transl. Les fonctions et la structure du Hoodlum dans le Listera 
ovata, Ann. Sc. Nat. Per IV., iii., 85-90. 

On the Structure and Affinities of Trigonocarpon (a Fossil Fruit of 
the Coal- Measures). By the same, Proc. Roy. Soc, rii.. 2H-31 ■ Ann. 
& Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. II., xiv., 209-212. 

On Maddenia and Diphrrchr, new Genera of Himalayan Plants. Bv 
J. D. Hooker and T. Thomson, Kew Journ., vi., 380-384. 

A Century of Ferns ; being figures with brief Descriptions of one 
Hundred new or rare, or imperfectly known Species of Ferns, from 
yarious parts of the World. A selection from ihe Author's " Icones 
Planrarum." By W. J. Hooker. 

A separate issue <rf the tenth volume of Hooker's Icones Plantarura. The 

Kew Garden Museum &c. (continued). By the same, Kew Journ., vi., 

Jumping, or Moving Seeds. [By the same], I.e., 301-306. 
Pine-leaf ¥ I the Bahamas. [By the same] 1c 


> (Argania Sideroxylon) By the 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxx. 

lYones I'lantarum, vol. x. 

Report .... 1853. 

Journal of Botany and Kew Garden MisceUi 

Flornhi Hongkongensis, an .■numeration of the Plants collected in 
the Island of Hongkong. By Major J. G. Champion, ... the deter- 
minations revised, and the new species described by G. B. — Mono- 
cotyledons, I.e., 33-39. 

The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of II. > 
"Terror.".:. By J. D. Hooker, [I. FloraNoi 
7 & 8 (and last), pp. 211-312. III. Flora Tasman 

;.: z v 


hu>" and 
is. Parts 

11 lusti 

"ations of Himalaya!) plants, chiefly selec 
f the late J. F. Cathcart, Flsq., cf the" Bengu 

ted h 

1 Civil 


•vice. By 

On Hi 

the Hue 

ene beds of Luwishni 

*. [ £tE^nmefo! 



On 80 
Bovey 'I 

Yacey Coal. By the si 

^"i^nT' 1 

,, Bn 


from the 

On Clwrtodes, a subgenus 
(New Caledonia). By the san 

of Flagellaria, froir 
m, Kew Jonrn., vii., 

t the 


of Pines 

On th 

By J. D, Hooker am 

Limestone nodules ei 

1 in 

Beams of 


1 E. W. Binney, Phil. 


xiv.: i49- 


Indira: being a lyrte 
c. By J. D. Hooker i 

nd T. Thomson, vol. i 

i pki 

its 1 

>f Britbh 


>nkyanthu$ himalaicv 

,f Ilimalawui Fricea-. 






o Fibres from Bran! : by T. C. Ajcher; wi 
Kew Jonrn, vii., 84-87. 

th a N 

by W. J. 

Kew Gardens Museum, Ac. (continued). By the same. Kew Jour 
ii., 97-114; 129-138. 

Botanical Objects . . . K«w Museum . . in 1853, Ac. By the sar 
e. } vii., 200-210; 24o-2.)2; 27;i-27s. 

5 (continued). By the same, I.e., 

Botanical Magazine, vol. Ixxxi. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed., XIII. 

Report, . . . 1854. 

Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, vol. vii. 

Museum of Economic Botany : a Guide to the Museum, &c. 

Description of two American Species of Gnetum. By G. Bentham. 

Notes on Loganiacea?. By the same, Journ. Linn. Soc, i., 52-114. 

The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M.S. « Erebus " and 
" Terror." By J. D. Hooker. III., Flora Tasmania?, parts 2 and 3, 

On some Collections of Arctic Plants chiefly made by Dr. Lvall 
I)r. Anderson, lldi Mi.-, ■ -ruin-, :,,.■! Mr. Rue, during the" Expedition^ 
in search of Sir John Franklin, under Sir John R 
Belcher, and Sir Robert M'Clure. By J. D. Hooker, Journ. Linn. Soc, 

On the Botany o! Ra.-ui Hand, on. of the Kermnde,. groun in the 
South Pacific Ocean. By the same, I.e., 125-129. 

Based_oiMi collec^,,, ..fphi.N nnde l.v Mr. Mm <■< iillivray, Naturalist 

plants (continued), by W. J. Hooker, Ke* 

i America. By th< 

gave americana in Devonshire. By the same, I.e., 26-27. 
tlsam-bog (Bolax glebaria* Comm.). By the same, I.e., 74-80. 
ie Mammoth Tree {Sequoia gigantea). [By the same], I.e., 150- 

isete of Bruce. [By the same], I.e., 210-214. 

ie Soap-Plant of California. [By the same], I.e., 317-319. 

. Smith, Curator, for the purpose of exchange with other gardens. 
Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxxii. 
Guide to the Gardens, ed. XIV. 
Report . . for . 1855. 

Journal of Botany ami Kow Ganlen Miscellany, vol. viii. 

and Tropical Australia. By the same, Kew Journ. ix., 47-4<>. 

On Xofuspurfhtm, a new e;cnus ,,f Le-nminos;e, from New Zealand, 
By the same, I.e., 176-177. 

On Loxodiscus, a new genus of Sapiixiaeea 1 Irom New ('••iledonia. 
By the same, I.e., 200-201. 

On a new species of Diapnisia, from the Eastern Himalaya. By 
the same, I.e., 372-373. 

>n. By W. J. Hooker. 

W. J. Hooker], Kew Jou 

On the Palmite of South Africa. By the same, I.e., 173-175. 
■" On Asplenium (§ Schaff n eri a) ni<j ripen, a Mexican, and on Davallia- 
tiodosa, an Indian Fern. By the same, I.e., 268-272. 

Mr. Wil ford's Botanical Mission to the Chinese Seas. By the same, 
I.e., 273-274. 

Flora of the British West Indian Islands ; by Dr. Grisebach [notice 
of the work, and letters from Sir W. J. Hooker and others], I.e., 274- 

, 383-384. (A short history 

British North-American Exploring Expedition [with Instruction: 
the Collector]. By W. J. Hooker and J. D. Hooker. Kew Journ., 
213-219, 311. 

Cultivated Kenis ; or, a ( atalogue of Exotic a 
cultivated in British Gardens, with Characters of t 
Synonyms, etc. By J. Smith. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxxiii. 

Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, 

Handbook of the British Flora: a description of the flowering plants 
and ferns indigenous to, or naturalized in, the British Isles. By Gr. 

Synopsis of Legnotidea-, a tribe of Khizophoraceaj. By the same, 
.Journ. Linn. Soc, iii., 6o-80. 

le Hookerian Herbarium. 

The Botany of the Antarctic voyage of II. M.S. "Erebus" and 
"Terror." . . . By J. D. Hooker. J 1 1., Flora Tasmania, parts 6 & 7. 

PracusoresadFloramlndicam . . . Caprifoliaceie. By J. D. Hooker 
and T. Thomson, Journ. Linn. Soc, ii., 103-180. 

with Descriptions of the new and little known Genera an. i Species, 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxxiv. 
Guide to the Gardens, ed. XVI. 
Report, . . . for . . . 1857. 


Martius, Flora Brasiliensis. Leguminosa?. I. Papilionaceae, x\ 
pars i. (pp. 1-216). Auctore G. Bentham. 

On the genus Henriquezia of Spruce. By the same, Trans. Lin 
Soc, xxii., 295-298. 

Synopsis of the Fructification of the Simple Sphseria* of tl 
Hookerian Herbarium. By F. Cnrrey, Trans. Linn. Soc, xxi 

On the Origin and Development of the Pitchers <>f Xrjxufhrs. with 
an Account of some new Bornean Plants of that Genus. By the same, 
Trans. Linn. Soc., xxii., 415-424. 

On a new Genus 
Zealand, and Two new Speci 

Filices Exotica?; or, Figures and Descriptions of Exotic Ferns; 
chiefly of such as are cultivated in the Royal Gardens of Kew. 100 
coloured plates by YV. Fitch. By W. J. Hooker. 

Enumeration of the Mosses of the East 
Linn. Soc., iii., Suppl. i., 1-158. 
The Indian Species of Utricularia. By D. Oliver, Journ. Linn. 

Observations on the Structure of the Stem in certain Species of the 
Natural Orders Caryophylleae and Plumbagineaj. By the same, Trans. 
Linn. Soc, xxii., 289-294. 

Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae. By G. H. K Thwaites. Part 2, 
pp. 81-160. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxxv. 

u 94256. « 

Report, . . . for . . . 1858. 
Report, .... from 1853 to 185 

Florida Adenosis. A systematic account with descriptions of the 
Flowering Plants hitherto found at Aden. By T. Anderson, Journ. 
Linn. Soc., v., Suppl. i. 

Flora Tasmania?. By J. D. Hooker. (Date on title page ; issued in 

i Begonia frigida at Kew in relation to Mr. Darwin's 
"Theory of Natural Selection." By the same, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist.. Ser. III., v., 350-352. 

Reprinted in Am. Jour! 
-25, 305-326. 

3 of Cordylh 

A second Century of Ferns. By W. J. Hooker. 

An octavo volume ; the drawings by W. Fitch. The first " Century of Ferns " 

On some new secies o! Mu<ci and llepatice in the Herbarium of 
Sir W. J. Hooker, collected in Tropical Africa, &c By W. Mitten, 

Tran*. Linn. See.. xxiiL 51-58. 

On Sycofisis [a n< 

Vans. Linn. Soc, xxii 

aw genus of 
i., 83-89. 




b]. Hy D. 


Enumeratio Piantari 
p. 161-240. 

mi ZryUmia'. 





Part 3, 

Botanical Magazine, 

vol. lxxxvi. 

G-uide to the Gardens, ed. XIX. 

Report . . for 

. . [18o»]. 

ants and ferns 

Outlines of Elementary Botany, as introductory to local Floras. By 
he same. 

(Reprinted from the Introduction to the preceding work.) 

On the Species and Genera of plants, considered with reference to 
heir practical application to Systematic Botany. Bv the same, Nat. 
list. Review, 1861, 133-151. 

Notes on Ternstrcemiaceae. By the same, Journ. Linn. Soc, v., 


Notes on Anonacea?. By the same, I.e., G7-72. 
Botanical Memoranda. By the same, I.e., 72-78. 
On Fissicalyx, a new Genus of Dalbergiea?. By the same. I.e., 78-79. 
Notes on Menispermacea?. By the same, I.e., Suppl. n., 45-52. 
Notes on Tiliacece. By the same, I.e., 52-74. 
Notes on Bixaceae and Samydace*. By the same, I.e., 75-94. 
On .Fisxin/!//,) ami Prior ia, two recently established Genera of 
jeguminosae. By the same, Trans. Linn. Soc., xxiii., 389-391. 

Catalogue of Japan Plants. By A. A. Black. 

The able but prematureh decea-ed curator of th U-.Toauu 
liltl,-, though he left a good record in the Herbarium itself. This list, 

comprising l.eio.i -pocks of flowering plants and i'ci n--. appeared in Hodgson's 
'• Japan.*' since that date the number of known Japanese plants has about 
doubled. (W. B. H.) 

the s 

An Account of the Plants collected by Dr. Walker in Greenland ami 
Arctic America, during the expedition of Sir Francis M'CHntock, U.N., 
in the yacht " Fox." By the same, I.e., 79-89. 

Outlines of the Distribution of Arctic Plants. By the same, Trans. 
Linn. Soc, xxiii. (1861), 251-348. 

On Three Oaks of Palestine. By the same, I.e., 381-387. 

Notice sur les espiVe* de CordyUne de la Nouvelle Zelande <•! de 
l'Australie. Par [le meme]. Traduit . . . par G. Bailed, Belg. 
Hortic., xi., G6-70. 

(For the original, see under 1860.) 

Bv J. D. Hooker and 

The British Ferns; or, coloured Figures and Descriptions, with the 

needful Analyses of the Fructifications and Venation, of the Ferns of 
Great Britain and Ireland, systematically arranged. By W. J. Hooker. 
The drawings by \V. Fitch. 

Commercial products of the Asphodel. By the same, [from The 

D. Oliver, Journ. Linn. Soc., v., Suppl. 
L H. K. Thwaites. Part 4, 
Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxxviii. 

Guide to the Museum. By D. Oliver. 
Eeport . . for . . [I860]. 


Martius, Flora Brasiliensis. Leguminosae. I. Papilionacese, xv., 
pars i. (p. 217-end). Auctore G. Bentham. 

Notes on Caryophylleoe, Portulaceae, and some allied Orders. By the 
same, Journ. Linn. Soc, vi., 55-77. 

Notes on Malvaceae and Sterculiaceae. By the same, I.e., 97-123. 

On Inocarpus. By the same, I.e., 146-150. 

On African Anonacete. By the same, Trans. Linn. Soc., xxiii., 463- 

[Address to the Linnean Society.] By the same, Proc. Linn. Soc, 
1861-62, pp. lxvi.-lxxxiii. 

Genera Plantarum ad Exemplaria imprimis in Herbariis Kewensibus 
servata definita, auctoribus G. Bentham et J. D. Hooker. Vol.i., pars i., 
came out in this year; the last part appearing in 1883. 

Florula Mallica. By M. P. Edgeworth, Journ. Linn. Soc, vi., 179- 

On the Vegetation of Clarence Peak, Fernando Po ; with Descrip- 
tions of the Plants collected by Mr. Gustav Mann on the higher parts 
of that mountain. By J. D. Hooker, Journ. Linn. Soc, vi., 1-23. 

On the Cedars of Lebanon, Taurus, Algeria, and India. By the 
same, Nat. Hist. Review, 1862, p. 11-18. 

Garden Ferns. By W. J. Hooker. The drawings by W. Fitch. 

The Structure of the Stem in Dicotyledons. By the same, I.e., 298- 

On the Distribution of Northern Plants. By the same, Proc. R. 
Inst., iii., 431-433 ; Geologist, v. (1863), 262-263. 

Note on the Structure of the Anther. By the same, Trans. Linn. 
Soc, xxiii., 423-428. 

Note on Hamamelis and Loropctalum ; with a Description of a new 
Amsophpliea from Malacca. By the same, I.e., 457-461. 

"Viti: an Account of a Government Mission to the Vitian and Fijian 
Islands in the years 1860-61. By B. Seemann. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxxviii. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. XXI. 

Guide to the Museums (re-issue). 

Report. . . for . . 1861. (Also reprinted in folio.) 


An Enumeration of the Species of Acanthacese from the Continent of 
Africa and the adjacent islands. By T. Anderson, Journ. Linn. Soc, 
vii., 13-54. 

Flora Australiensis : a Description of the Plants of the Australian 
Territory. Vol. i. By Gh Bentham, assisted by F. Mueller. 

The first volume was issued in this year, and the seventh and last in 1878. 

On the Nardoo Plant of Australia. By F. Currey, Journ. Bot., i., 

Notes on apparently useful Woods hitherto little known. By J. R. 
Jackson. Technologist, iii., 49. 

Notes on the Economic Application of Barks, By the same, I.e., 
362, 433, 530. 

de by D. Lyall [by himself]. 

3 of Musci. By W. Mitten, 

On the 
from the Ki 

Notes on the Lorantliacoa-, with a Synopsis of the Genera. By D. 
Oliver, Journ. Linn. Soc, vii., 90-106. 

The Structure of the Stem in Dicotyledons [Part II.]. By the same, 
Nat. Hist. Review (1863), 251-258. 

The Solatia of Tropical Polynesia. By B. Seemann, Journ. Bot., i., 

Botanical Magazine, vol. lxxxix. 

Guide to the Gardens, by D. Oliver, ed. NXII. 

Guide to the Museum, ed. II. 

Keport . . . for . . . 1862. 


Flora of the Jhelum District of the Punjab. By J. E. T. Aitchison, 
Journ. Linn. Soc, viii., 55-75. 

[Address to the Linnean Society.] By the same, Proc. Linn. So< 
1863-64, pp. ix.-xxiii. 

Flora of the British West Indian Islands. By H. R. A. Grisebach. 
Completed in this year ; title page dated 1864 ; but the work was issued 
seven parts, the first appearing in 1859. 

On the Plants of the Temperate Regions of the Cameroons Mountaii 
and I lands in the Bight of Benin, collected by Mr. Gusfav Man, 

Government Botanist. By J. D. Hooker. Journ. Lin 
On the 

.' :■('/. <ilt (1 


On Jl'i hritschia, a new Gemis of Gnetacere. By the same, Trans. 
Handbook of the New Zealand Flora. Part I. ( Vaseuiares). By the 

Notes on some of the edible fruits of the West Ind 
Jackson, Technologist, iv., p. 264. 
Notes on some African Vegetable Products. By the s 

Contributions to the Cryptogamic Flora of the Atlantic Isla 
lie same, I.e., viii., 1--10. 
The " Bryologia" of the Survey of the 49th Parallel of 

Lessons in Elementary Botany. By D. Oliver. (Reprinted at 

Note on the Structure and Mode of Dehiscencp of the Legumes of 
Pentadethra macrophylla, Benth. By the same. Trans. Linn. Soc, 
xxiv., 415-420. 

Bv G. H. K. Thwaites, 


Handbook of the British Flora . . . with (120.5) illustrations 
from original drawings by W. Fitch. [Ed. II.] by G. Bentham. 

On the Genera Siveetia, Sprengel, and Glycine, Linn., r-imultanemi.-ly 
published under the name of Leptolobium. By the same, Journ. Linn. 
Soc. viii., 259-267. 

Notes on Pueraria, DC, correctly referred bv the author to 
Phaseoleje. By the same, I.e., ix., 121-125. 

Note on the Genera Darwinia, Rudge, and Bartlingia, Ad. Brongn. 
IU the same. I.e.. 176-182. 

Linnean Society.] By the 

Gustav Mann's Botanische Forschungen an der Westkiistevon Africa 
Translation; for the original, see under 1862.] Petermann, Mirth., 
(1865), 22-26. 

Description of soma new and remarkable Spori<-suf Ari^tolotli/a. from 
Western Tropical Africa. By the sum.-. Trail*. Linn. Soc, xxv., 
Pepper. By J. R. Jackson, Pharm. Journ., Ser. II., vii., 288-291. 
the same, Technologist, v., 193; repr. in 
. 652-655. 
es on Lichens collected by Sir John Richardson in Arctic 
ca. By W. A. Leighton, Journ. Linn. Soc, ix., 184-200. 
ervations on the Morphology and Anatomy of the Genus Rrstio, 
, T. Masters, Journ. Linn. Soc. viii.. 211-25.3. 
four new Genera of Plants of \\\>t<rn Tropical At ri.-n. lx>l mizinjr 
Natural Orders Anonacea\ 01arinra\ Losraniaeeic and Tliyme- 
3, and on a new species of Parnpsia. Bv D. Oliver, Journ. Linn, 
riii., 158-162. 

salural « >r 
;,nera <hn 

ders Bixi 

mera of W« 

noir, Tiliacea< 
Mayna. By 

it T 


1 Annliarr:! . 

Flora V: 

siands. \ 

v!th1n : a 

ccount of th< 

i of 

.iltory. 1 


Botanical Magazi 


On Aim ,>//<//.;;>-■/ »- :i I»-ii;-ii plant. By J. G. Baker. Journ. Bot., 
v., 176-178. 

Handbook of the British Flora. By G. Benthain. New ed. [III.] 

Flora Austnilit'usis. By the same. Vol. iii. 

[Address to the Linnean Society.] By the same, Proc. Linn. Soc.,- 
865-66, pp. x.-li. 

Florida of Banda. By M. P. Edgeworth, Journ. Linn. Soc., ix., 

The Treasury of Botany. By J. Lindley and T. Moore. 2 vols. 

A. A. Black, the Curator of the Herbarium from 1853 to 1864, was one of 
the principal contributors to ttiis useful work; AYxander Smith, the first 

W. B. Hemsley prepared -. .1 hv the latter at his death 

in May 1865. (W. B. H.) 
Memorandum on the G-enus Thamnea, Solander, and other Bru- 
noniaceas contained in the South African Herbarium of the late Dr. 
Burchell, F.L.S. By D. Oliver, Journ. Linn. Soc, ix., 331-333. 

By the same, 

Ferns : British and Forci-n. Tlu-ii lli-tmy. ' )i-_ r»<;raphy, Classi- 
fication, and Enumeration. With a treatise on their cultivation, &c. 
By J. Smith. 

Note on the affinity of Ferns. By the same, Journ. Bot. iv., 306- 

[The first under the editorship ,•; 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. XXIIL 
Guide to the Museum, ed. III. 
Report . . . for . . . 1865. 


On the world-distribution of the British Ferns. By J. G. Baker, 

J G. Benthain, Proc. Lit 


Illustrations of the genus Carex. Bv F. Boott. Vol. iv. Tab. 412- 
600. Posthumous, edited by J. D. Hooker. 

Distribution of British Uinbelli ferae. By W. B. Hemsley, Journ. 
Bot., v., 356-365. 

Martins, Flora Brasilicnsi-. — Rosaceae, auct. J. D. Hooker, vol. xiv., 

Handbook of the New Zealand Flora • a systematic description of 
the native plants of New Zealand and the Chatham, Kermadec's, Lord 
Auckland's, Campbell's, and Macquarrie's Islands. Part 2. By the same. 

lnsul i Hoi is. By the same, Gard. Chron. (1867), 6-7 ; 27 ; 50-51 ; 

By W. A. Leighton, 

I )osi-m -i ; .i ion of three New Genera from West Tropical Africa, 
i the Natural Orders Guttiferao, Olacinea?, and Celastr; 
». Oliver, Journ. Linn. Soc, x., 42-44. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. xciii, 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xi. t. 1001-1025. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. XNIV. 

Report . . . for . . . 1866. 

iahul, its Flora ami V. ■_'. t; ,!.!.■ j •■ .1'u-t-. Sec. From 
eivei] fVoin Hie Rev. Heinrich Jaeschke, of the M 
J. E. T. Aitchison, Journ. Linn. Soc., x., 69-101. 

A new Flora of Northumberland and Darha 
Climate ami I'll \>ieal (;Vofrraphy. By J. G. Baker and R. Tate, Nai 
Hist. Trans. North, and Durh., ii. 

Notes on Myrtacea?. By 0. Bentham, Journ. Linn. Soc. x., 103 

[Address to the Linnean Society.] By the same, Proc. Linn. Soc., 
'1867-66, pp. Iviii.-c. 

The Genera of South African Plants. By W. H. Harvey, Ed. II. 
1 Posthumous] edited by ,T. D. Hooker. 

Ohro^TseR) ^ J errestrial 0rchids - C B 7 W - B - Hemsley], Gard. 

of Abyssinia. By the same, Journ. 

. By the same, Journ. Bot., vi., 194- 

_ Synopsis of the South African Restiaceffi. By M. T. Masters, Journ. 

Iron*- plantarum, vol. xi., t. 1026-1050. 
Guide to the Museums, ed. IV. 
Report . , . for . . . 1867. 


of the Punjab and Sindh. By J. E. T. 

Catalogue of the Ferns and their Allies, cultivated in the Royal 
ardens of Kew. Prepared by J. G. Baker, 1868. 

of the genus Narcissus. By the same, Gard. Chron. (1869), 
- "86-687; iv., 1,015; v., 1,136; 


Abstract in Journ. Bot. Tin. (1870), 27-36; 100-117. 
xifl97°-2°4 g 3 raph ° f BdtiSh R ° SeS " By thC 8ame ' Journ ' Linn - SoC " 
Flora Australiensis. By G. Bentham, vol. iv. 

1Q ^ d l ress t0 , the L j° n ean Society.] By the same, Proc. Linn. Soc, 
iWt>S-biJ, pp. lxv.-c. (Geographical Biology).°„ n sX"4ei: ™ ° £ Ait0, ' By J ' "• *"*«. J — 

Notes 011 Stictei in the Kew Museum. By C. Knight, Journ. Linn. 
Soc, ad., 243-246. 

On the Structure of the Flower in the Genus Napoleona. By M. T. 
Masters, Journ. Linn. Soc., x., 492-504. 

Musci Austro-Americani. By W. Mitten, Journ. Linn. Soc, xii. 

First Book of Indian Botany. By D. Oliver. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. xcv. 

Report . . . for . . . 1868. 


. By J. a. Baker, Journ. Bot., viii., 

nd other new or little-known forms of 
.c, 77-80. 

On the World-distribution of the British Caryophyllacea*. By the 
same, I.e., 182-189. 

On a new form of Myosotis from Sussex. [M. collinn, var. 
Mittenii.~] By the same, I.e., 244-245. 

On the British Dactyl, ,id Saxifrages. By the same, I.e., 280-290. 

• G-. Bentham, vol. 

On the Progress of Botany .luring 1869. Annive 
the Linnean SocieK, 24th Mav 1S70." By the same, " 
1869-70, pp. lxxv.-xciv.; Nature, ii., 91-92, 110, 113. 

Nepenthes. By J. D. Hooker, Nature, iii., 
The Student's Flora of the British Islands. 
By J. E. Jackson, Gard. Chr 

Pharm. Journ., Ser. HI., i. 

, 208-209. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. 


Icones Plantarum, vol. x 

i., t. 1051-107 

Guide to the Gardens, cd. XXV. 

Report . . . for . 

. . 1870. 


Monograph of the Genu; 
M4 : 11-4.']; 108-110. 

sXiphion. B 

• J. G. Baker, Journ. Bot., 

On the Botany of the Lizard Peninsula. By the same, I.e., 353-358 . 

A new Synopsis of all the knov^n Lilies. By the same, Gard. Chron., 
(1871), i. p. 104; ii., 201-202; iii., 179-1SO; iv., 708-709; v. 903; 
vi., 1033-1035 ; vii., 1164-1165; viii., 1325; ix., 1422; x., 1650-51. 
(Index on last page.) 

By G. Bentham, Journ. 

Anniversary Address to the Linnean Society. By the same, Proc. 
Linn. Soc, 1870-71, pp. xxxiv.-lxxviii. ; X.tinv, iv., 92-91, 110-114. 
150-152, 170-172, 192-194. 

On Brassica polymorpha, Syme. By the same, I.e., 193-196. 

Fungi parasitic on / By the same,. I.e., 328- 


Structure of Fossil Cryptogams. By the same, Nature, iv., 444-445. 

Exogenous Structure in Coal Plants. By the same, I.e., 504-505. 

On homoplastic Agreements in Plants. By the same, I.e., 507-508. 

On the minute Anatomy of the Stem of 1 
utilis. By the same, Rep. Brit. Assoc, xli. 
Micr. Sc., xii. (1872), 50-55 ; 288-289. 

, Rep. Brit. 
. T. Thiselton-Dyer and H. Trimen, 

Botany. By the late W. J. Hooker (Revised for this editi 
J. D. Hooker). Admiralty Manual of Scientific Enquiry, ed. rV. 

Hooker. [Reprinted from Nature iii., 1870. J 

Notes on some Eastern Varnish Trees. By the same, I.e., ii., I 
The Uses of the genus Cyperus. By the same, I.e., 502-503. 

a. By the same, 
i. Leguminosa? to Ficoidea?. By D. 
Par J. Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc., 

Botanical Magazine, vol. xcvii. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xi., t. 1076-1100. 

Guide to the Museums, ed. V. 

Report . . . for . . . 1870. 


A Study of Wood Hyacinths [Scilla]. By J. G. Baker, Gard. 
Chron. (1872), 1038-1039. 
Reprinted, in Journ. Bot., x. 270-274. 

same (continued), 
On Symea, a new genus of triandrous Liliacese from Chili. By the 

On a new Ceylonese Aerostielmm. By the same, I.e., 146. 

On Dasylirion and Beaucarnea. By the same, I.e., 296-299 ; 323- 

On a new Asplenium from Cape Colony. By the same, I.e., 362- 

Revision of the Genera and Species of Scilleae and Chlorogaleae. By 

of the cultivated' varieties of Lilium thnnb, n/iun/nn. 

Fossil Wood from the Lower Eocene. By the same, 
known as " Australian Caoutchouc." By the sa 

Mayor ;ir,il 1).- Snu-Mirc. By tiu- <u\i\<; N'atur- 
Botanical 'IYnniimlogy. By the same, I.e., vi., 

Kew Garde Herbariiim: By J. D. Hooker, 

Nature, vii., 45-46, 103. 

The Flora of British India. By J. D. Hooker, assisted by various 
Botanists. Part I. 

The Algerian Callitris. By J. R. Jackson, Pharm. Journ., Ser. 
III., ii., 623. 

Notes on the properties of the Geraniea3. By the same, I.e., 744- 

Poisonous properties of Jatropha urens. By the same, I.e., 863- 

The Economic and Medicinal value of the Genus Rhus. By the 
Fame, I.e., 985. 

The Medic 

The Botany of the Speke and Grant Expedition. An Enumeration 
of the Plants collected during the Journey of the late Captain J. H. 
Speke and Captain (now Lieut.-Col.) J. A. Grant, from Zanzibar to 
Eevpt. The Determinations and Descriptions by Professor Oliver 

and others connected with the Herbarium, Royal Gardens, Kew, with 
an Introductory Preface, Alphabetical List of Native Names, and Notes 
by Colonel Grant. Part I. Trans. Linn. Soc, xxix., 1-69. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. xcviii. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xii., t. 1101-1125. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. XXVI. 

Report . . . for . . . 1871 ; reprinted in Journ. Bot., x., 

Return . . . House of Lords . . . relating to changes pro- 
posed to be introduced into the Direction and Management of the 
Gardens at Kew, &c. Return, Commons, pp. 177. 

A Review of the known Species of Croats. By the same, Gard. 
Chron. (1873), I., p. 107 ; II., 179 ; III., 291-292 ; IV., 434-436 ; V.,542- 
543 ; VI., 609 ; VII., G80 ; VIII., 1402-1403 ; IX., 1431-1432 ; X., 1 166- 
1467 ; XI., 1533 ; XII., 1633. 

New Ferns from Lord Howe's Island. By the snme, Journ. Bot., 
xi., 16-17. 

On Rosa apeninna, Woods. By the same, I.e., 35-36. 

Supplementary Contributions to the Flora of North Cornwall. Bv 
the same, I.e., 97-99. 

of Brazilia 

Descriptions of some New Specie.*, Sub-species, and Varied* 
Plants collected in Morocco by J. I). Hooker, G. Maw, and J. 
By J. Ball, Journ. Not., xi., 267-273 ; 296-3<»7 ; 332-335; 364-3' 

of Composite. Ny the same. Journ. Linn. So-., xiii. 3,35-577. 

[Anniversary Address to the Linnean Society.] By the same, Proc. 

jp. i.-v. ; Nature, ix.. 30-32. 
The National Herbaria. Ny W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 

same, Quart. Journ. MiVr. Sc, xiii., 152—156. 

Handbook of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, and fiettei 

species in cultivation . . . based on the Frenc 
Decaisne and Nau.lii . entitled " Manuel de l'amateuj 
By W. B. Hemsley. 

Also issued with a new title page dated 1877. 

On Meliant la's trim 
Sfth rlandi. By the S 

Notes on some Plants from Smith Sound collected by Dr. Besseis. 
By the same, in "A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay," by A. H. 
Markham. p. 2!>6. Imprinted in Manual ... for the use of 
the Arctic expedition of 1875, p. 321. 

A Monograph of Ebenaceae. By W. P. Hiern, Trans. Camb. Phil. 

By J. R. Jackson, 

The Medicinal Plants of New Zealand. By the same, I.e., 662-603. 

Churrus. By the same, I.e., 764. 

Notes on the medicinal plants of the Kutacefe. By the same, I.e., 

Note on Liatris odoratissima. By the same, I.e., iv., 322. 
African Tea Plants. By the same, I.e., 421. 

The Botany of the Spoke and Grant Expedition . . . 
•liver and others. Part II. Trans. Linn. Soc, xxix., 70-103. 
Botanical Magazine, vol. xcix. 
Icones Plantarum, vol. xii., t. 1126-1175. 
Report . . . for . . . 1872 ; partly reprinted in 

On Kardy Sempervivums. By J. Q. Baker, Gard. Chron. N.S., ii. 
(1874), 103-104; reprinted in Journ. Bot., xii., 343-348. 

On New and Little-known Capsular Gamophyllous Liliaceee By the 
same, Journ. Bot., xii , 3-8. 

On the Synonymy of the North American species of Cheilanthes. 
By the same, I.e., 143-144. F 

On New Dracamas from Tropical Africa. By the same, I.e., 164- 
On a New Species of Flugyca from the East Himalayas. By the 

i Descriptions of seven new Specie; 

-Iliums of India, China, and Japan. By the s 

A Revision of the Genera Dryobalanops and Dipterocarpus, 

Note on some Indian Dipterocarpea?. By the same, I.e., 154. 

On the Perigynium and Seta of Career. By the same, Journ. Linn. 
Soc, xiv., 154^156. 

Note on the foregoing communication [i.e. H. N. Moseley, on Fresh- 
water AJgae, obtained at the Boiling Springs at Furnas, St. Michael's, 
Azores, Ac.]. By the same, I.e., 326-327. 

The Tree-aloes of South Africa. By the same, Nature, xi., 89-91. 

Liqnidambar Trees. By W. B. H[emsley], Gard. Chron. N.S., ii., 

Exploration of the Libyan Desert. By the samo, I.e., 646-647, 

The Carnivorous Habits of Plants. [Address to Bot. and Zool. 
Sect.] By the same. Rep. Brit. Assoc. (1874), &c, 102-116; Nature, 
x., 366-372 ; Revue Scient., vii., 481-489. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 2. 

Synopsis Filicum. Ed. II. By W. J. Hooker and J. G. Baker. 

Notes on the Areca Palm. Areca Catechu, L. By J. R. Jackson, 
Pharm. Journ., Ser. III., iv., 689, 

The Treasury of Botany. By J. Lindley and T. Moore, Ne 
revised edition. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer and . 
■'3 supplement of 

Contributions to Orchidology. By H. G. Reichenbach, fil. I. New 
Orchids, discovered by the Rev. C. Parish, at Moulmein. Journ. Bot., 
xii., 196-199. 

Enumeration of the Orchids collected by the Rev. E. C. Parish in the 
neighbourhood of Moulmein, with Descriptions of the new Species. By 
the same, Trans. Linn. Soc, xxx., 133-1.55. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. c. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xii., t., 1176-1200. 

Report . . . for . . . 1873. Extract in Journ. Bot., 


Elementary Lessons in Botanical Geography. By J. Q-. B[aker], 
Card. Cftron.,X.S., iii., I., s-<) ; [I., 76^-78; tfl., 138-130; 1 V., 202- 
204; V., 366-367; [VI.] 431-432; VII., 495-496; VIII., 594-595 ; 
IX., 621 1)22 : X.S., iv., X., 101-102 ; XL, 177-179. Reprinted also 
with slight alterations in independent form. 

On the Botanical origin of Attar of Roses. By the same, Journ. 
Bot., xiii., 8. 

On a new Xiphion from (he Punjaub. By the same, I.e., 108. 

i undescribed New Zealand Fern. 

On the Bott : the Zones of Mature. By the 

game, I.e., 184-189. (Reprinted from the Gard. Chron., N.S., iii., 621- 

Collection of Ferns 
same, I.e., 199-202. 

gathered in Central ( 

'hina by Dr. Shear 

iptions of three new 

' Brazilian Vernon iac« 

<ve. By the same, 1 

On a Collection of Chinese Ferns gathered by Mr. J. F. Quekett, 
By the same, I.e., 291-292. 

nth the habit of 

On the rarer Plants of Central - m the discove 

there of Altheta hirsuta. By the same, I.e., 357-361. 

Eevision of the Genera and Species of Asparagacere. By the sam 
Journ. Linn. Soc, xiv., 508-632. 

Descriptions of some new Species ... of Plants collected 
Morocco, &c. (continued). By J. Ball, Journ. Bot., xiii., 172-17 


Notes on the Gamopetalo 
and Oleaceous Groups. By 

Revision of the Sub-order Mimosese. By the same, Trans. Linn. 
Soc, xxx., 335-664. 

The Narcissus ; its history and culture . . . By P. W. Burbidge. 
To which is added a scientific review of the entire genus. By J. G. 
Baker. [From Gard. Chron. (1869)]. 

On the Classification and Sexual Reproduction of Thallophytes. By 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. (Revised and reprinted from Quart. Journ. Micr. 
Sc, July 1875.) 

All the Lilies. [An abstract with wood-cuts from J. G. Baker.] By 
W. B. Hemsley, Garden, vii., 297-308. 

The Yuccas. By the same, The Garden, viii., 129-134. 

The Magnolias, and their Allies. By the same, I.e., 269-271. 

HalMiours at'Kew. *Bv W. B. H[emsley]. Gard. Chron., N.S., iii.,I., 
141-142; ir. 335; III. Acacias, 814-S 15 : IV. Acacias, I.e., iv. 130- 
131 ; V. 231-232 ; VI. Rare or interesting shrubs and trees, 329-330 ; 
VII., Oaks, 455-456 ; VII. 550-551. 

Fuchsias. By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S.,iii., p. 179-180, iv., 
p. 323. 

Planes. By the same, I.e., 427-428. 

[Effect of heat on plants. By the same], I.e., iv., 204. 

An outline of the Flora of Sussex. By the same, Journ. Bot., xiii., 

Further notes on Ebenaceas, with description of a new species 
[Diospi/rosdivcrsifolia]. By W. P. Hiern, Journ. Bot. xiii., 353-357. 

On the discovery of Phylica arborea, Thouars, a tree of Tristan 
d'Acuuha, in Amsterdam Island, in the S. Indian Ocean, with an 
tion of the Phanerogams and Vascular Cryptogam 
d of St. Paul. By J. D. Hooker, Journ. Linn. Soc, xiv., 474-480. 

Observations on some Indian Species of Garcinia. By the same, 
,c, 484-486. 

On Hydnora amerkana, R. Br. By the same, I.e., 182-188. 

Evidences of Ancient Glaciers in Central France. By the same, 
Nature, xiii., 31-32. 

Instructions in Botany. By the same. In Manual of the Natural 
History of Greenland, for the use of the Arctic expedition of 1875, ed.hy 
Prof. T. R. Jones, p. 62-67. 

The first part of the " Outlines of the Distribution of Arctic Plants." 
By the same. (Reprinted from Trans, Linn. Soc, xxiii. (1861), 251- 
348), I.e., 197-238. 

Address ... to the Royal Society. 30th November 1875. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 3. 

Vanilla. By J. R. Jackson, Pharm. Journ., Ser. III., v., 885-886. 

Zebra Wood. By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S., iii., 750; Pharm. 
Journ., l.c, 1009. 

plants of the Composite. By the i 

Remarks on the Structure, Affinities, and Distribution of tl 
Arigtolochid) with Descriptions of some hitherto unpublished 
By M. T. Masters, Journ. Linn. Soc, xiv., 487-495. 

Monographic Sketch of the Durioneae. By the same, I.e., 4< 

Phanerogamia and Vascular Cryptogamia. By D. Oliver. In 
Manual of the Natural History ... of Greenland ... for the Use 
of the Arctic Expedition of 1875 . . . , ed. by Prof. T. R. Jone8, 
pp. 268-272. 

Note on a Fruit from Comassi, collected by Lieut. De Hoghton, and 
sent to Kew by Major Bulger. By D. Oliver. Journ. Linn. Soc, xiv., 

List of Plants collected in New Guinea by Dr. A. B. Meyer, sent to 
Kew, December 1874. By the same, I.e., xv., 29-30. 

Phanerogamia and Vascular Cryptogamia [of Disco Bay]. By the 
same. Repr. in Manual of the Natural History ... of Greenland, 
from Trans. Bot. Soc, Edinb., ix. (1868). 

Part ill By 

On the Diatomaceous Gatherings made at Kerguelen's Land by 
H. N. Moseley, H.M.S. " Challenger." By E. O'Meara, Journ. Linn. 
Soc, xv., 55-59. 

Historia Filicum ; an Exposition of the Nature, Number, and Organo- 
graphy of Ferns, <fec By J. Smith. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. ci. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. XXVI. Museum, ed. VII. 
Report . . . for . . . 1874. Extracts in Join 

A Synopsis of the known Species of Iris. By the same. Gard. Chron , 
N.S, v, L, 526-527; II., 559; III., 628 -624 ': I V., 692 ; V., 723; VI., 
787-788; vi., VII, p. 36-38 ; VIII., 1-I3-1-4-I : [IX. |. VII,22«: [X. 
VIII, 323-32-4; [ X 1. 1, IX.. 5 17-5 IS ; [ XI I. !. X., 5H3-584 ; [XIII.], 
XI, 614-615; XIV., XII.. (U7-01S; [XV.], XIII, 708-710; 
[XVI.], XIV, 740-741 ; [XVII.], XV, 774-775 ; [XVIII.], XVI, 
806, 807. (Index on last page). 

On a Collection of Ferns made in Samoa, by the Rev. S. J. Whitmcc. 
By the same, Journ. Bot., xiv, 9-13. 

On two new Amaryllidacese from Natal. By the same, I.e., 6G. 

On the genus Syringodea, Hook. fil. By the same, l.c, 66-67. 

ridacea?, from tropical America, 

l.c, 236-239. 

the Cilician Taurus. By the 

New Aristere and Sisyrinchia. By the same, l.c, 267-269. 
New Gladiole*. By the same, l.c, 333-339. 

On a second Collection of Ferns made in Samoa by the Rev. S J. 
Whitmee. By the same, l.c, 342-345. 

On the Polynesian Ferns of the " Challenger " Expedition. By the 
same, Journ. Linn. Soc, xv, 104-112. 

Martius, Flora lii.-i^ii.-u-i-. I., -umi II. Miinoseae (xv, pars n, 
p. 260, to end). Auctore G, Bentham. 

The Fungi of Brazil, including those collected by J. W. H. Trail, 
Esq, M.A, in 1874. By M. J. Berkeley and M. C. Cooke, Journ. 
Linn. Soc, xv, 363-398. 

New Plants of 1875 : figured, described, or exhibited. [By N. E. 
Brown]. In the Gardeners' Year Book and Almanack, 1876, by 
R. Hogg, pp. 127-163. 

ith a Diagnosis of a new Species [II. 
, 248-252. 
Miniature Physical Geography. By the same, Nature, xiii., 310- 

Royal ] 

Lebanon and its Cedars. By W. B. Hemsley, Garden, ix., 56. 

jEthionema grandiflorum [with an Account of the Genus]. By the 
same, I.e., 108-109. 

Calocfiortus venustus [with a Conspectus of the Genus]. By the 
same, I.e., 132-135. 

The various Races of Garden Fuchsias. By the same, I.e., 284-286. 

Ceratozamias. By W. B. H[emsley], I.e., 308-310. 

j same, I.e., 430-434 (Index on last 

The genus Raphiolepis. By the same, I.e., 596-597. 

The Passion-flowers. By the same, I.e., x., 12-20 (Judex at end). 

The Mutisias. By the same, I.e., 134-135. 

A graceful Wall or Rock Shrub : Desmodium pendulijlorum (Les~ 
pecfeza birolor var. Sieboldii). By the same, I.e., 216. 

The Hydrangeas. By the same, I.e., 264-266. 

The Cannas. By the same, I.e., 406-408. 

The Tillandsias or Air-plants. By the same, I.e., 466-467 

The Irises. By the same, I.e., 526-532 (Index at end). 

The way in which Plants Feed. By the same. Gard. Chron., N.S., 
vi., 44. 

A few Corrections for and Additions to the " Outline of the Flora of 
Sussex." By the same, Journ. Bot., xiv., 47-49. 

The Apetaloiis Fuchsias of South America, with Descriptions of four 
new Species. By the same, I.e., 67-70, 

Notes on some Chinese Plants, with Descriptions of a few new 
Species. By the same, I.e., 205-210. 

South Kensington Loan Collection. Instruments and Apparatus 
' yed in Investigations concerning some of the ~~ 
By the same, Journ. Soc. Arts, xxv., 13-17. 

Plantse Abyssinicae . . . auctore W. Vatke. [A review.] By 
the same. Journ. Bot., xiv., 58-62. 

Primer of Botany, By J. D. Hooker. 

Address to the Royal Society (November, 1875). Scientific work of 
the year. By the same, Proc. R. Soc, xxiv., 72-94. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 4. 

Princewood bark, a febrifuge from the Bahamas. By J. R. Jackson, 
Pharm. Journ., Ser. III., vi., 681. 

Another note on Rhubarb. By the same, I.e., 966. 

Notes on the Drugs collected by the Prince of Wales in India. By 
the same, I.e., vii., 129-130. 

Fenugreek. By the same, &c, I.e., 157. 

" Chicle" gum and Monesia bark. By the same, I.e., 409. 

Notes on Mascarene Orchidology. By S. L. Moore. Journ. Bot., 
xiv., 289-292. 

On the Orchids collected at the Island of Bourbon during the Transit 
of Venus Expedition, by Dr. I. B. Balfour. By the same, I.e., 292-294. 

On Coinochlarnys, a West African genus of Aeanthacea?. By the 

The Musci and Hepatic;.- rollec 
Naturalist to H.MS. " Chiillenjr.-r." 
Soc, xv. (1876), 59-73. 

Enumeration of Plants collected by V. i.ovett Cameron, Lieut. R.N., 
in the region about Lake Tanganyika. Bv D. Oliver, Journ. Linn. Soc., 
xv., 90-97. 

Note on a Collection of North-Celebes Plants made by Dr. Riedel, of 
Gorontalo. By the same, I.e., 97-100. 

Descriptions of new species and van. ties ol ['alms collected in the 
valley of the Amazon in North Brazil, in 1874. By J. W. H. Trail, 
Journ. Bot., xiv., 323-333 ; 353-359. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. cii. 

Report . . . for . . . 1875. Extracts in Journ. Bot., xiv., 

The genus Agave. By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S., vii., 171, 
393, 368-369, 527-529, 620-622, 717-718; viii., 40-41, 137, 200- 
202, 264, 397-398,490, 556-558, 620,682-683, 717,748, 780-781, 
807-808 (Index and key on last page). 

New Ferns from the Andes of Quito. By the same, Journ. Bot., xv. r 

Two new Ferns from Japan. By the same, I.e., 366, 
Systems Iridacearuui. By the same, Journ. Linn. Soc, xvi., 61-180,- 
also separate copies with original pagination. (Contains descriptions of 
the genera ; and an enumeration of the species with synonymy.) 

l the interior 

A classified Synonymic List of all known Lilies, with th 
countries, and References to the Works where they are fig 
the same [1873 ?], I.e., 39-48. 

A classified Synonymic List of all the known Crocuses, 
native countries, and references to the "Works where they ar 
By the same [1874?], I.e., 111-119. 

of Botanical Nomenclature. By J. Ball, Journ. 
Journ. Linn. Soc, 

On the Distribution of the Monocotyledonous Orders into Primary 
Groups, more especially in reference to the Australian Flora, with notes 
on some points of Terminology, by Qt. Bentham, Journ. Linn. Soc, 
xv., 490-520. 

New Plants of 1876. By N. E. Brown. In the Gardeners' Year Book 
and Almanack, 1877, by R. Hogg, p. 151-169. 

Revision of the Kerguelen Lichens collected by Dr. Hooker. By 
Rev. J. M. Crombie, Jonrn. Bot., xv., 101-107. 

TNote on Honey dew.] By W. Thiselton-Dyer, Journ. R. Hort. Soc, 
N.S., iv., 6-7. 

On recent progress in the scientific aspects of Horticulture, By the 
same, [1872], I.e., 9-16. 

Report of the Professor of Botany. By the same [1873], I.e., 

The species of Fuchsia. By W. B. Hemsley, Garden, xi., 70-75 
(Index at end). 


Hardy Cacti. By the same, I.e., 274-275. 
Edraianthus and its congeners. By the same, I.e., 314-315. 
Hardy Azaleas. By the same, I.e., 428-429. 
The St. John's Worts. By the same, I.e., xii, 280-281. 
Rigid-leaved Yucca (¥. treculeana). By the same, I.e., 328-329. 
The genus Clematis. By the same, I.e., 400-403. 
School Gardens in Sweden. By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S., vii., 
Rapid rise of Water in Plants. By the same, I.e., viii., 135 -136. 
Influence of Light on Plant-growths. By the same, I.e., 137-139. 
The nomenclature of Spiral-direction in Plants. By W. P. H[iern], 

Notes on the Botany of the Rockv Mountains. By J. D. Hooker, 
Nature, xvi., 539-540; Am. Journ. Sc., Ser. III., xiv., 505-50'.! : Arch. 
Sc. Phys. Nat. lxiii, 240-247. 

Notes on some of the Pharmaceutical Products exhibited in 
: Exhibition of 1876. By the same, Pharm. Journ., 
111., vii, 997-998, 1037-1039. 

Note on the Disarticulation of Branches. By K. I. Lynch, Jo 
Linn. Soc, xvi, 180-183. 

[Averrhoa Bilimbi, Linn.). By the ss 

Alabastra Diversa, auctore S. L. Moore, Journ. Bot, xv, 289-298. 

List of flowering plants from Ellesmere Land and Grinnell Land 
[collect. 'd during the Voyage of the " Alert " ami -' Discoverv " under 
Capt. Sir G. S. Nares, in 1885-76]. By D. Oliver, Narrative. v«.l. ii.. 
pp. 310-312. 

Note on specimens of Hibiscus allied to //. Rosa-sinensis, L, collected 
in E. Tropical Africa, with remark-. Bj the same, Journ. Linn. Soc, 
xv., 478-480. 


Two new Orchids from Samoa, collected by the Rev. S. J. Whitmee. 
By H. G. Reichenhach, ffl., Journ. Bot., xv., 132-133. 

New Palms collected in the Valley of the Amazon in North Brazil, in 
1874. By J. W. H. Trail, Journ. Bot., xv., 1-10 ; 40-49 ; 75-81. 

Some Remarks on the Synonymv of Palms of the Amazon Valley. 
By the same, l.c, 129-132. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. ciii. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xiii., t. 1201-1250. 

Report ... for 1877 ; <f. Journ. Bot., xv., 243-246. 

A Synopsis of the known forms of AquUggkt, 15 \ J G-. Baker, 
Gard. Chron., N.S., x., I., p. 19-20; II., 76; III., Ill; [IV.], 203. 
( Key and Index on last page.) 

Genera of Am.-iryHidaeea- from Cape Colony. By the 

By the same, I.e., 79-85. 

A new Key to the Genera of Amaryllidacere. By the ; 

On the new Amaryllidacese of the Welwitsch and Scln 
petitions. By the same. I.e., 193-197. 

■veinfurth El 

A. Synopsis of the Specie,-; of Diaphoranthema. Bv 

the same, l.c 

List of Balansa's Ferns' of Paraguay, with Descriptions o 
By the same, I.e., 299-302. 

1' new Specie. 

Descriplions of new and little known Liliacea?. Bv 

the same, l.c 

A Synapsis of Colchicaceaj and the 

Report on the Liliaceae, Iridaceaj, Hypoxidaceae 
of Welwit sch's Angolan Herbarium. By the saim 
Ser. II., i., 245-273. 

I Nomenclature. By J. Ball, Journ. 
3y the same (conclusion). Journ. 

By A. W. Bennett, Journ 

Flora Australiensis. By G. Bentham. Vol. vii. (and last). 

Handbook to the British Flora. By the same, ed. IV. 

Notes on Euphorbiaceae. By the same, Journ. Linn. Soc, xvii. 

Variation in Haworthias. By N. E. Brown, Gard. Chron., N.S., ix. 
p. 820-822. 

New Plants of 1877. 
and Almanack. 1S75, >>_> 

On two kinds of Dimorphism in the jRubiaceaj. By C. B. Clarke, 

kinds of Dimorpl 

in. Soc., xvii., 159- 

(.1 Mi.yi.liiimba [North Peru]. 

die CJardener's Assisiant . . . By P. Thompson, new ed. revised 

extended by T. Mo. .iv, &c. Hardy deciduous trees, etc. By W. B. 

nsley, 638-674. Annuals and Biennials. Ac. By the same, 723-731. 

r :' NpiiiiL; and Summer lidding, &e. By the same, 

xxviii. 266-274, 286-296, 320-353. 

Garden Botany. By the same. Garden, xiii., L 03-105 126-129, 
145-148, 16.9-165, 190-193, 211-212. 235-23<S, L'(> I -L'H-3, 2H7-28P, 
316-318, 3:5D ::n!. 121-121. 13K-441, 166-467, 

496-499,524-526,561 »7, 626-627. xiv. 8-10, 

34-36, 68-71, 83-84, 114-116, 138-110, 159-161, 182-185, 205- 

Colossal Fig Trees. By the same, I.e., xiii., 528-529. 
The Stuartias. By the same, I.e., xiv., 38-39. 
Buddleia insignis. By the same, I.e. 349. 
Holboellia (Stai<ntonia) lutifolia. By the same, I.e., 369. 
Varieties of Lapageria rosea. By the same, I.e., 376. 

The Daphnes of China and Japan. By the same, I.e., 442. 
[The Education of Gardeners. By the same.] Gard. Chron., N.S., 
r., 48. 
The Vitality of Vegetable Organisms. [By the same], I.e. 80. 

Recent writings on Palms. By the same, I.e., 407, 431-432. 
The Island of Cyprus. [By the same], I.e., x., 75, 106-107. 

[ Nomenclature. By W. P. Hiern, Joun 

Flora. By J. D. Hooker, 
the Royal Institution. Gard. 
,nron., N S., x., p. 140-142 ; 216-217. Reprinted from the same. 4to. 
The Student's Flora. By the same, ed. II. 

Presidential Address, November 1877. By the same, Proc. R. Soc, 
xvi., 427-446. Reprinted in Nature, xix., 109-113, 132-135. 
The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 5. 
On the poisonous nature of the Cashaw Trees (JProsopis /"//florin. 
\y J. R. Jackson. Gard. Chron., N.S., x., p. 268. 

The uses of some of the Indian species of Bassia. By the same, I.e., 

On the Mechanism for the Fertilization of Meyenia erecta, Benth. 
By R. I. Lynch, Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii. 145-147. 

On the Seed, Structure, and Germination of Pachira aquatica. By 
the same, I.e., 147-148. 

Alabastra Diversa. Pars II. Auctore S. L. Moore, Journ. Bot., 
xvi., 129-138. 

Further note on Coinochlamys. By the same, I.e., 138-140. 

A new Species of Fritillaria [F. grayana, Reichb. f. & Baker]. 
By H. G. Reichenbach, fil., Journ. Bot., xvi., 262-263. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. civ. 

Icones Plantarura, vol. xiii., t. 1251-1275. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. XXVIII. 

Report . . . during . . . 1877 {Commons), fol. App. 
III., pp. 31-33. List of Aroidese cultivated in the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Cf. Journ. Bot., xvi., 248-250 ; 253. 

England. By J. a. Baker, Gard. Chron., N.S., xii., 10, 38-39, 
85, 107, 135-130,166,268-260, 428-420,650. (Key and Index on 
last page.) 

The Species of Fourcroya. By the same, I.e., 623-624, 656. 

Classified List of the known species of Apicra and Haworthia. By 
the same, I.e., 717-718. 

On four new species of Eremurns from Persia. By the same, Journ. 
Bot., xvii., 17-18. 

Report on a collection of Ferns made in the north of Borneo, hy 
Mr. F. W. Burbidge. By the same, I.e., 37-44. 

Report on Burbidge's Ferns of the Sulu Archipelago. By the same, 
I.e., 65-67. 

Aechmca, R. & P. By the same, I.e., 

Four new Ferns from South China. By the same, I.e., 304-305. 
On a variety of Hierdcium ttwnUIA From the Great Orme's Head. 


R. Geogr. Soc., i., 564-588. 
138, 203-204, 231-232. 

cognitae. By A. W. Bennett, 

'. By C B. Clarke, Journ. Linn Soc., xvii., 
t (Abstract). By the same, Journ. Linn. 

Note on the fruiting of \\">st<i no sim-nsis in Europe. By W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, Journ. Linn. Soc, xvii., 329-332. 

A Cocbin-China remedy for Leprosy [Strydmos qmithn'htna 
Pierre. By the same, Nature, xxi., 35.) 

Notes on Sapotaceas, II. By M. M. Hartog, Journ. Bot., xvii., 

(An abstract of a few lines of the above appeared in Rep. Brit. Assoc., 
1879, p. 376.) 

Biologia Cei inns to the Knowledge of 

the Fauna and Flora of Mexico and Central America. Edited by 
F. D. Godman and O. Salvin. Botany by W. B. Hemsley. 

The fir-; | bet 1879. 

Diagnoses Plantarum . . . mexicanarum, &c. II. By the same. 

Fritilluria Karelini. By the same. Garden, xv., 121. 

Rhododendron cinnabarinvm. By the same, I.e., 182-183. 

The Calceolarias. By the same, I.e., 258-261 (Index at end). 

Himalayan Primroses. By the same, I.e., xvi., 12-13. 

Some ornamental species of Hibiscus. By the same, I.e., 48^-487. 

Mexican and ( Vi:t rrtl-Aim-ncm Orchid* (',*-. h Alphabetical List of 
nil tKe spe< • ■ iili :. Bhoi I historic; I 

By the samo, Gard. Chron.. X.S., xi., 202-203. 235-2:>6. 267-268, 
334, 367-368, 433-434, 559, 686, 719-720. xii., 42-43, 75, 107-108, 

A New Natural Order of Plants. [By the same], I.e., xi., 170. 

By the s 

Swellings on Boots of Plants. By the same, I.e., xii., 112-1 1^ 
Kerguelen Land. By the same, I.e., 208. 
Rodriguez. By the same, I.e., 295-296. 

ms and Emendations 
r the same, I.e., 235. 

Journ. Bot., xvii., 274-275. 

On the Discovery of a Variety of the Cedar of Lebanon on the 
mountains of Cyprus, with Letter thereon from Sir Samuel Baker, 
F.K.S. By J. D. Hooker, Journ. Linn. Soc, xvii., 517-519. 

The distribution of the North American Flora. By the same, Proc. 
R. Inst., viii., 568-580. 
Transl. Ann. Sc. Nat., Ser. VI., vi, 318-339 (antedated 1878). 

An account of the Penological, Bt al collections 

made in Kerguelen's Land and Bodriguez during the Transit of Venus 
Expedition ... in the years 1874-50. Phil. Trans., clxviii. [Ed. by 
J. D. Hooker and A. Giinther.] 

Observations on the Botany of Kerguelen's Land. By J. D. Hooker, 
l.c, 5-16. 

Flowering Plants, Ferns, Lycopodiaceee and Characese. By the same, 
I.e., J 7-23. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 6. 

Indian Plants adapted for Commercial Purposes. By J. R. Jackson, 
Journ. Soc. Arts, xxvii., 333-342. 

On Branch Tubers and Tendrils of Vitis gongylodcs. By R. I. 
Lynch, Journ. Linn. Soc, xvii., 306-310. 

On a monandrous Cypripedittm. By S. L. Moore, Journ. Bot., 
xvii., 1-6. 

Mdlera; a new genus of Tropical African Aeanthacese. By the 
sane, I.e., 225-226. 

Mimicry of Seeds and Fruits, and the functions of seminal Appendages. 
By the same, I.e., 271-274. 

Adam Spade, the Garden, r : an exposition of the curiosities of his 
Garden and Calling. By Dr. Abel Doubleway . . . [i.e., J. Smith]. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. cv. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xiii., t. 1276-1300. 

Eeport . . . for . . . 1878. 

Extract in Journ. Bot., xvii., 345-348. 


'he genus Lachenalia. By J. G. Baker, Gard. Qfa 

On two new Bromeliads from Rio Janeiro. By the same, I.e., 49- 

A Synopsis of the Species of Isoetes. By the same, I.e., 65-70, 105- 

On a collection of Ferns made bv Dr. Beccari in Western Sumatra. 
By the same, I.e., 209-217. 

On a collection of Ferns made by Langley Kitching, Esq., in Mada- 
gascar. By the same, I.e., 326-330, 369-373. 

A Synopsis of Aloinese and Yuccoideae. By the same, Journ. Linn. 

C. B. Clarke, Joun 

On Lattakia Tobacco. By the same, Journ. Bot., xviii., 203-204. 

The coffee-leaf disease of Ceylon. By the same, Quart. Journ. Micr. 
Sc.,xx., 119-129. 

A Review of the British Characeae. By H. & J. Groves, Journ. 
Bot. xviii., 97-103, 129-135, 161-167. 

Diagnoses Plantarum .... mexicanarum, etc., Ill . Auctore W. B. 

Scmrio speciosus. By the same, Gi 

trden, xviii., 156. 

Ornamental Brambles. By the sam< 

i, I.e., 358. 

The tall Mertensias. By the same, 

I.e., 514. 

The Genera of Plants. By the san 

le, Gard. Chron., N.S., xiii., 236. 

The Severe Winters of 1682-3 and ] 

1 708-9, and Early English Ther- 

[Botanical Teaching in Elementary Schools.] By the same, I.e., 144. 
[English Gardeners in Germany. By the same], I.e., 724. 

Botanical Bibliography. By W. P. Hiern, Journ. Bot. 
The Flora of British India. By J. D. Hooker. Part 7. 

he same, I.e., 193-199, 225-233, 2l»r»-27f), :i» >7-3 14, 340-342, 

On Spiri/t'hi (trroisis, Linn., and its segregates. By G. 
"ourn. Bot., xviii., 16-19. 

Ctii'Jttiiihiv prtittiisi.s, L., and its segregates. By the s;\ni 

A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Embryo-Sac in Angiospern 
By H. M. Ward, Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii., 519-546. 
Botanical Magazine, vol. cvi. 
Icones Phntarum, vol. xiv.. t. 1301-1325. 

Extracts in Journ. Bot., xix. (1881), 56-5S. 

By J. G. Baker, Gard. 

•'[. , 39-10; IV.. 72; 

588-689; IX., 760; 

In Memory of Hewett Cottrell Watson. By the s 
A new Draccena from Singapore. By the same, 1 
On the Natural History of Madagascar. By the i 

On a Collection of Ferns made by Mr. Curtis in 

m\ Madagascar. By the same, I.e., 366-368. 

Notes on a Collection of Flowering Plants made bv 
i Madagascar in 1879. [Jy the same, Journ. Linn 

Notes on Graminese. By the same, I.e., xix., 14-134. 

s Gardeners' Dictionary, to the end of the 

the same.] In the Gardeners' Year Book 

I C. B. Clarke, Journ. 


Notes on Commelinacese. By the same, I.e., 193-202. 

On the right-hand and left-hand Contortion. By the same, Journ. 
Linn. Soc., xviii., 468-473, 

On Amebia and Macrotomia. By the same, I.e., 524-525. 

The Coffee-disease in South America. By M. C. Cooke, Journ. 
Linn. Soc., xviii., 461-467. 

On Central African Plants collected by Major Serpa Pinto. By 
Prof. Count Ficalho and W. P. Hiern. Trans. Linn. Soc, Ser. II., 
ii., 11-36. (An abstract of the above was issued in Journ. Linn. 
Soc., xix., 13.) 

Butterworts. By W. B. Hemsley, Garden, xx., 212-213. 

The White Beam, the Bowan Tree, and their Allies, with a figure of 
Pyrus Hostii. By the same, I.e., 376-377. 

[Frozen Leaves of Evergreens.] By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S., 
xv., 16-17. 

Calceolaria fxchxitffolia. By the same, I.e., 268-269. 

Juvenile forms of Conifers. By the same, I.e., 333. 

.C., Pleura thai lis, 
-Lepanth.s, 13(5: 

Re»irepia-Brachin„i(lin,u, 172: Mas,!, rail ia, 2:5(5, 305, 33(5-337, 109; 
Arpaplnjllinn-Meiravairmm. 42* ; Mala.iis; 463; Oberonia, 527; 
L /pan's. ,592; I k.ulrobun,,, 624-(»25 : Liparis-IIcralertris, 656; 
Dendrobium, 688-689. 

Opening Address [on Geographical Distribution]. By J. D. Hooker. 
Rep. Brit. Assoc. (1881.) Sect. F. Nature, xxiv., 443-448. 

The Compass Plant. By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S., xv., 74. Repr. 
from Bot. Mag. t. 6534. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 8. 

Note on Hibiscus palustris, Linn, and certain allied Species. By 
B. D. Jackson, Journ. Linn. Soc, xix., 9-12. 

By M. T. Masters, Journ. Linn. Soc, 

The Kew Arboretum. The Maples. By G. Nicholson, Gard. 
Chron., N.S., xv. ; I. p. 10; II. 42; III. 74; IV. 136-137; V. 172- 
173 • VI. 268 ; VII. 299-300 ; VIII. 365 ; IX. 499 ; X. 532 ; XI. 
564-^565 ; XII. 725-726 ; XIII. 786. xvi. XIV. p. 75 ; XV. 136- 
137; XVI. 375-376; [XVII.] 590; [XVIII.] 719; [XIX.] 750; 
XX.' 815. 

Development of heat, in flowers of Phytelephas. By the t 
Journ. Bot., xix., 154. 

Lessons in Elementary Botany. By D. Oliver, new edition. 
Botanical Collectors. By J. Smith, Gard. Chron., N.S., 
(Masson, p. 335. Cunningham, p. 440.) 

with description 
xviii., 368-382. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. cvii. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xiv., t. 1326-1375. 

Guide to the Gardens, ed. XXIX. 

Grevillea, vol. ix., March, June ; x., Sept., 

Contributions to the Flora of Central Madagascar. By the same, 
Journ.Bot., xx. 17-20; 15-51; 07-70; 109-114; 137-110; HS9-173 : 
218-222; 243-245; 266-271. 

t New Granada 

On Gorceixia, a new genus of Vernoniaeea\ By the same, I.e., 225- 

New Ferns from Southern Brazil. By the same, I.e., 309-310. 

On Four new Bromeliads and a new Stegolepis from British I Iniana 
By the same, I.e., 329-331. 

On a Collection of Ferns made by the Rev. R. B Comins in the 

bo • 
, 498-514, 834-842. 

gamarum Soeotreiisiiim. elaboravit [I.] B. Balfour, 
R. Soc. Pre 

ed in " English Botany." By 

Note on two Himalayan Ferns erroneously treated in the " Ferns of 
Northern fndia." By the same, I.e., 289-291. 

Note on the origin of Cassia lignea. By W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 
Journ. Linn. Sec., xx., 19-24. 

Joseph Decaisne. By the same, Nature, xxv., 390-391. 

Influence of " Environment " upon Plants. By the same, I.e., xxvii., 

with a few slight .-ihenitinn-., wa< is>iu.'<l \,y H.r .M ;i j.->ty^ _ Stationery < MKee in 

The genus Manrandya. By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S., xvii., 

List of Garden Oretnda (contihvedy. By the same, I.e., Dendrobium 

{cn„tiu»<<}). xvii.. 20-27, 53-80, 306-307, 171-472. 52*, 641-042. 
735. 77f>. 799. xviii. ll>ilhnplu/l!„m,o2~:u\, 104-10.5. Ihilhn^lnflhnn 
Meqnriitnvnu 305; Trias-C, lia, 127-428; Erin. 468-4(59, 500; 
S r at/ior,/nf/is, .-:>,■>■ .ir / r l ,lhr l ,h;,w:.n,>-ni„,;„.s. 5(55-566; Blvtia, 
681; CA//«>, 716; Nephelaphytlnm-Tainia, 780; Anthnfjonimn- 
Tri> hosnia, 812. 

The Marianne North Gallery of Paintings of "Plants and their 
Homes," Roval Gardens, Kew. By the same, Nature, xxvi., 155- 

On Di/era, a new Genus of Rubber-producing PJants belonging to 
the Natural Order Apocvnace.T, I'rom tin- Malnvan Archipelago. By 
J. D. Hooker, Journ. Linn. Soc, xi.v., 291-293. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 9. 

B. D. Jackson, Journ. Linn. So<\, xiv, 232-233. 

Gum Euphorbium. By J. R. Jackson, Pharm. J 
Kew Arboretum. The Oaks. By G. Nicholson, & 
The genus Francoa. By R. A. Rolfe, Gard. Chron., 1 

New Formosan plants. By the same, Journ. Bot., xx., 358-359. 
A new Cyperus from the East African Islands. By the same, 1 

On some undescribed and imperfectly known Indian species of 
Primula and Androsace. By G. Watt [with an Introductory Note by 
J. D. Hooker], Journ. Linn. Soc, xx., 1-18. 

Report . . . for . . .1881. App. II. List of exotic economic 
and medicinal plants, cultivated under glass in the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Extracts in Journ. Bot., xxi., 27-28, 53-55. 
Grevillea, vol. x., March, June ; xi., Sept., Dec. 

J. G. Baker, Gard. 

The Species of Tvlipa. 
691 ; IV. 788. xx. VI., 71 ; 
X. 266. 

from Central Madagascar. By the s 

A Study of the Survival of the Fittest. By the same, I.e., 271-274. 
On Lehmann's Andine Bomareas. By the same, I.e., 373. 

of the Flora of Fiji. By the 
same, I.e., 35H-373. 

On the Joint and Separate Work of the Authors of Bentham and 
Hooker's " Genera Plantarum." By G. Bentham, Journ. Linn. Soc., 
xx. 304-308. 

The Genera Plantarum. (Joint and separate work), reprinted in 
Gard. Chron., N.S., xix., 746. 

New Plants of 1882. [By N. E. Brown.] In the Gardeners' Year 
Book and Almanack, 1883, by R. Hogg. pp. 81-108. 

The genus Drosera. By the same, Gard. Chn 

The " Genera Plantarum." By the same, I.e., 733-734. 

. By C. B. Clarke, Joun 

Zamia FischerL By W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Gard. Chron., N.J 

Note on the origin of Cassia lignea. By the same [an extract from 
the above]. Repr. in Pharm. Journ., Ser. III., xiii., 583-584. 

The Sacred Tree of Kum-buro. By the same, Nature, xxvii., 223- 

Deductive Biology. By the same, I.e., 554-555 ; 
Vegetable Tallow from Singapore. By the sa 

Trans. Li 

List of Garden Orchids (continued). By W. B. Hemsley, Ga 

608-609; Calavthe, Arttudioo, ( ;:',6 ; Elh mil Ims-Amhlostoma, 6">9- 
660; Seraphytii-OctatlesHiiu, 700; Mama.iia-Harttoegia, 764. xx. 
Epidendrum, 42, 152, 204, 244, 477, 573-574, 606, 634. 

of Dioscor- 

Census of Flowering Plants. [By the same], 371. 
[Steppe Flora. By the same], I.e., 664. 

Botanical Literature. 

igs cast their Fruit 
Fig with male no we 

Social life of Ants and Plants, By the same, I.e., 71-72. 
Fertilisation of Flowers by Snails and Slugs. By the same, 

The Vegetation of Australia. By the same, I.e., 390-391. 
The Seed Vessels of Australian Tiees and Shrubs. By the I 
464-465, II. (Australian Seed Vessels), 688. 

A new hybrid Hedychium. By the same, I.e., 492. 

Two new Bermudan Plants. By the same, Journ. Bot, xxi., 

A new Afghan Plant. By the a 

Bermuda Plants in the Sloane 
ame, I.e., 257-261. 

On the Synonymy of the Orchidaceous Genus, Didymoplexis, Griffith, 
nd the Elongation of the Pedicels of D. pallem after flowering. By 
he same, Journ. Linn. Soc, xx., 308-311. 

The Botany of the "Challenger" Expedition. By the same, 
sTature, xxvii., 462-463. 

The relations of the Pig and the Oaprifig. By the same, I.e., 584- 

The Flora of British India. By J. D. Hooker. Part 10. 

Local Catalogues used in preparing Watson's " Topographical 
Botany" [preserved in the Herbarium Library, Kew]. By B. D. 
Jackson, Journ. Bot,, xxi., 343-346, 363-370. 


Kew Arboretum. The Oaks (cont.). By G. Nicholson, Gard. 
Jhron., N.S., xix., 597. 
New Passiflorese. By M. T. Masters, Journ. Bot., xxi., 33-36. 

i Andiv 

t R. A. Rolfe, Journ. Bot., 

Topographical Botany. By H. C. Watson. Second edition. By J. G. 
Baker and W. W. Newbould. 

Contains a memoir of the author by J. G. Baker. Mr. Watson gave his 
valuable British herbarium and his botanical books to Mr. Baker, by whom 
«uch as were needed were presented to Kew. (W. B. H.) 

Botanical Magazii 

le, vol. cix. 

Icones Plantarum 

, vol. xv., t. 1401-1450. 

Guide to the Mus 

eum, No. 1. 

Grevillea, vol. xi., 

, March, June ; xii., Sept., Oct. 

Martius, Flora Brasiliensis, vi., pars in. Composite, 4. Helian- 
thoideae, Helenioideae, Anthemidea;, Senecionideae, Cynaroideaa, 
Ligulat», Mutisiaceaa. Auctore J. G. Baker. 

New Lachenalias. By the same, I.e., 668. 

,, I., 732; II., 779-780,- 

me,l.c, xxii.; L, 523-524; 
, 680-681 ; "V., 744. 

New plants from the Zambesi country. By the same, 1 
Ferns collected in Madagascar by M. Humblot. By 

On the British Daffodils. By the same, I.e., 193-195. 
Ferns collected in Costa Rica by Mr. P. G. Harrison. 


v J. G. Baker and W. W. Newbould, 
xxii., 334-344. 

i Plautarum novarum . . . Socotrensium, quas elabo- 
B. Balfour, Edinb. R. Soc. Proc. (1884), 76-98. 

Contributions to the Fl< 
Territory. By J. Ball, Joi 

On the structure of the Stem of Rhynchopetalum montanum, Fresen. 
By F. 0. Bower, Journ. Linn. Soc, xx., 440-446. 

Note on the Gemma; of Aulacowvhun puhtstn . Schwaegr. By the 
same, I.e., 465-467. 

New Plants of 1883. [By N. E. Brown.] In the Gardeners' Year 
Book and Almanack, 1884, by R, Hogg, pp. 81-112. 

On the Indian Species of Cyperus ; with Remarks on some others 
that specially illustrate the sub-divisions of the Genus. By C B. Clarke, 
Journ. Linn. Soc, xxi., 1-202. 

The go-called South Plant of Egyptia 

Apospory in Ferns. By the same, I.e., 157. 
Waras. By the same, Pharm. Journ., Ser. III., 

Further note on Waras. By the same, I.e., 969. 

The Collection of Gum Labdanum in Crete. By the same, I.e., 

Introductory Sessional Addres?, . . . School of Phari 
By the same, I.e., xv., 261-265. 

The disputed identity of the Red Bark of the Nilgiris. .By the s 
I.e., 481-482. 

Indian Pulse. [By W. B. Hemsley], Field, lxiv., 461. 
Sisijrinchium Bermudiana. By the same, Journ. Bot., : 

Notes oi 
Hooker, Jo 

The Student's Flora ... Ed. III. By the same. 

Tropical African Mountain Flora. By the same, Nature, xxx., 635. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 11. 

Cocus Wood. By J. R. Jackson, Gard. Chron., N.S., xxi., 178. 

Paper-making materials. By the same, I.e., 700-702. 

Tropical Fruits. [Lecture at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 26 

The Kentucky Coffee Tree. By the same, Garden, xxiv., 29-30. 

The Ailanto, or Tree of Heaven. By the same, I.e.. 63-64. 

The Yellow Wood {Cladrastis tinctoria). By the same, I.e., 96-97. 

The Sweet Gums. By the same, I.e., 166-167. 

The By the same, I.e., 2J 1-212. 

The Hop Hornbeams. By the same, I.e., 231. 

Cladrastis amurensis. By the same, I.e.. 264-265. 

Escallonia tettamana. By the same, I.e., 291. 

The Planer Tree. By the same, I.e., 370. 

The Zelkowas. By the same, I.e., 370-372. 

The Hornbeams. By the same, I.e., 418-420. 

Phillyna rihwrimana. By the same, I.e., 490. 

The Magnolias. By the same, I.e., 508-513. 

The Zenobias. By the same, I.e., 572-573. 

The genus Cercis. By the same, I.e., 347-348 

A new shrub (Sarcococca hookeriana). By the same, I.e., 359. 

The Laburnums. By the same, I.e., 518-510. 

The British Oaks. By the same, Woods and Forests, i., 8-10. 

The Turkey Oaks. By the same, I.e., 52-54. 

New Japanese Evergreen Oak (Quercus acuta, Thunb.). By the 
same, I.e., 85. 

The Zelkowas. By the same, I.e., 176-177. 

The Deciduous Cypress. By the same, I.e., 217-218. 

Quercus dentata, Thunb. By the same, I.e., 235. 

The genus Cori/lopsis. By the same, I.e., 332. 

The London Plane. By the same, I.e., 34G-347. 

The Oak of Lebanon (Quercus Libani). By the same, I.e., 628. 

A new fine-foliaged shrub (JPruntu J'lssurdi). By the same, I.e., 675. 

The Catalpas. By the same, I.e., ii., 51-52. 

Notes on Nymphaeas. By W. Watson, Gard. Chron., N.S., xxi., 87-88. 

Garden Palms. [By the same], I.e., xxii., 426-427, 522-523, 595- 
596, 728-729, 748. 

circa f 

Botanical Magazine, vol. ex. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xv., t. 1451-1475. 

Report . . . for . . . 1882.— App. JI. List of Palms cultivated 
in the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Extracts in Journ. Bot. xxii., 217-219. 
' Note.— Index to Reports, 1862-82, is in Kew Bulletin (1890), p. 3. 

Grevillea, vol. xii., March, June; xiii., Sept., Dec. 


A Flora of the English Lake District. Bj J. G. Baker. 

Notes on the Cultivated Asters (concluded). By the same, Gard. 
Chron., N.S., xxiii; VI., 13 ; VII . 17-4S ; VIII., 142; IX., 208-209; 
X., 306-307; XL, 501-592; XIL, 534-535. 

On the Origin of the Garden Auricula. By the same, I.e., 757-758. 

A Classification of Garden Roses. By the same, I.e., xxiv., 199. 
(Reprinted iD Journ. Bot., xxiii., 281-286.) 

A Synopsis of the Species and Hybrid* of Nerine. By the same, l.c., 
779, 810. 

On Senecio spathvlatus, DC. By the same, Journ. Bot., xxiii., 8-». 

A new Selaginella from New Guinea. By the same. I.e., 122. 
New Ferns from Brazil, collected by Dr. Glaziou. By the same 

A Monograph of the Genus Gethyllis. By the same, I.e., 225-' 

On Apospory in Ferns (with special reference to Mr. Charles T. 
Druery's Observations). By F. 0. Bower, Journ. Linn. Soc, xxi., 

I'hylloglossnm Drum- 

Mescmbryauthemiim edule. By the same, I.e., 266. 
Fertilization of Hoyas and other Asclepiads. By the same, ] .c., 435. 
Three New Anthnriums. By the same, I.e., 650-651. 
New Plants of 1884. [By the same.] In the Gardeners' Year Book 
ack, 1885, by R, Hogg. 77-101. 

r W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. Gard. Chron., 

Report on the Botany of Mr. H. O. Forbes's Expedition to Timor- 
Laut ; with a List of Determinations of the Plants collected, by Prof. 
Oliver. By the same, Journ. Linn. Soc., xxi., 370-374. 

The Life-History of the Lycopodiaceax By the same, Nature, xxxi., 

Gardiner's Researches on the Continuity of Vegetable Protoplasm. 
By the same, I.e., 337-338. 

The Square Bamboo [Bambusa quadrangular is, Fenzi]. By the 
same, I.e., xxxii., 391-392. 

Note on the Cultivation of Sumach in Sicily. By the same, I.e., 

Tea made from Vaccinium Arctostaphylos. By the same, Pharm. 
Journ., Ser. in., xt., 771-772. 

Notes on Cyprian Drugs. I, Cyprian Turpentine ; II. Gum Lab- 
danum. By the same, I.e., xvi., 385-386. 

Botany of the " Challenger " Expedition, vol. i. By W. B. Hemsley. 

Commenced in 1884. It deals with the floras of the Bermudas, St. Paul's Rocks, 

Fernando Noronha, Ascension, St. Helena, South Trinidad, Tristan da Cunha 

Group, The Crozets, Kerguelen, Macdonald Group, Amsterdam and St. Paul 

Islands, Juan Fernandez, Masafuera, San Ambrosio, San Felix, the Soutb- 

Eastern Moluccas and the Admiralty Islands. There is also a special chapter 

on Drift Seeds and Seed- Vessels, and an Introductory Essay on Insular Floras 

generally. (W. B. H.) ; 

The Marianne North Gallery at Kew. By the same, Gard. Chron., 

N.S., xxiv., 296. 

New Species of Primula from the mountains of Yunnan. By the 
ame, I.e., 712, 713. 

The Giant Bromeliads of Chili. By the same, I.e., 747. 

New Chinese Plants. By the same, Journ. Bot., xxiii., 286-287. 

The Forster Herbarium. By the same, Nature, xxxii., 501. 

The Flora of British India. By J. D. Hooker. Part 12. 

Christmas Plants. By J. R. Jackson, Gard. Chron., N.S., xxiv., 

Supplementary Notes on Rostiacea-. By M. T. Masters, Journ. 

The Catalpas. By the same, Garden, xxvi., 164-165. 

The White Birch and its Varieties. By the same, I.e., 291-292. 

The Bock Roses (Helianthemums). By the same, I.e., 420-422. 

New Japanese Oak (Qnercus serrata.) By the same, I.e., 351. 

The Turkey Oaks. By the same, I.e., 476-478. 

The Cistuses. By the same, I.e., 570-572. 

Pnmus triloba. By the same, I.e., 346-347. 

Large fruited Hawthorns. By the lame, I.e., 632-633. 

Yellow Roses. By the same, Gard. Chron., N.S., xxiv., 468. 

List of Plants collected by Mr. Joseph Thomson, on the Mountains 
of Eastern Equatorial Africa, by D. Oliver, with observations on their 
distribution by Sir J. D. Hooker, Journ. Linn. Soc., xxi., 392-406. 

R. A. Rolfe, Journ. 

The Characeae of " English Botany " ed. III. By the same, I.e., 369. 

New Holland 

Solatium Maglia. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. cx>. 
Icones Plantar urn, vol. xv. t. 1476-1500. 
Guide to the Gardens, ed. " XXIX." [XXX.]. 
Grevillea, vol. xiii., March, June ; xiv., Sept., Dec. 


Kew and its woi 
N.S., xxv. 167-168, 

■k [a Lecture]. 

By J. 


On the Narcissi 

of the Linnean 


A Synopsis of th 

ie. I.e.. 53l>-533. 

;iea of 1 

On the relation of 
By the same, Jonrn. 

the British form 
Bot., xxiv. 4-7, 

8 of Rid 

A synopsis of th 
283, 381-382. 

e Rhizocarpea. 

By the 

tin hi to ('■■ ! 

ferns collected by 

J. B. Thurston, Esq., in Fiji. By the same, 

t Tree Fern from 
, I.e., 243. 

Central America [Ilemitelia llartii}. By 

Aechmea [Ae. ch 

iriquensis]. By the same, I.e. 

'ape Liliaceu-. B; 

f the aame, I.e., 335-336. 

On a Collection of Ferns made in North Borneo by the Bishop of 
Singapore and Sarawak [Dr. Hose]. By the same, Journ. Linn. Soc, 
xxii., 222-231. 

By the same, Journ. R. Hort. Soc. 
(See also an address on the genus, by the same, I.e., 209-213.) 

By J. Ball, 

( i>ni] -illations to South African Botany. Orchidea;. Part TI. By 
H. Bolus, with additional notes by N. E. Brown, Journ. Linn. Soc, 
xxii., 65-80. 

Mesembryantliemumficiforme. By N. E. Brown, Gard. Chron., N.S., 
xxv., 373. 

New Plants of 1885. By the same. In the Gardeners' Tear Book 
and Almanack, 1886, by R. Hogg. p. 82-105. 

British Desmids. A supplement to " British Freshwater Alga;." 
By M. C. Cooke. Parts 1-6, pp. 1-96. 

Supplementary List of Perennial Asters. By D. Dewar, Gard. 
Chron., N.S., xxvi., 659, 686. 

(Note— By error on p. 659 ascribed to J. G. Baker.) 

Synonymic List of the Species and Forma of the genus Primula. By 
the same, Journ. R. Hort. Soc, N.S., vii., 274-295. Reprinted as 

Svnonvinir f.i>i »! ;tU known Species of Recognised Forms of the 
Genus Primula. By the same. 

Collection of Hairs after Earthquakes in China. ByW. T. 
Thiselton Dyer. Nature, xxxiv., 56-57. 

Peat-floods in the Falk lands. By the same, I.e., 440. 

The Cereals of Prehistoric Times. By the same, I.e., 515. 

Additional Note on the Gum Labdanum of Cyprus. By the same, 
Pharm. Journ., Ser. III., xvi., 7T9. 

Note on the Oro Plant. By the same, I.e., 879. 

An Enumeration of all the Plants known from China proper, For- 
mosa, Ilaiinm, Corea. the Luchu Archipelago, and the Island of Hong- 
kong, together with th lonymy. By F.B.Forbes 
andV. B. Hemsley, Journ. Linn. Soc, xxiii. (1886), 1-162. 
Often referred to as " Index Florae Sinensis." 

The Gallery of Marianne North's Paintings of Plants and their 
Homes. Fourth edition, much enlarged, containing an introduction and 
descriptions of 220 additional paintings. By W. B. Hemsley. 

This edition describes the gallery as finished by Miss North after tur last 

Vegetation of South Georgia. By the same, Nature, xxs 

Botany of the Afghan Delimitation Commission. By the i 
xxv., 173-174. 

Primroses. By the same, I.e., 561-562. 
D. Hooker. A< 
,. S. Ball, Art. iv. 

(Tsuga brunoniana). By the 

On the Castil fort clusfica oi Cervantes, and some allied Rubber- 
yielding Plants. By the same, Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. II., ii., 209-215. 

The Flora of British India. By the same. Part 13. 

Cocoa-nut Mats and Matting. By J. R. Jackson, Gard. Chron., 
N.S., xxv., 589. 

Vegetable Products at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. By the 
same, I.e., 633. 

Aji-aji, the Pepper of Peppers. By the same, I.e., xxvi., 532. 

Colonial and Indian Exhibition. By the same, I.e., 555. 

On the Structure and Functions of the -ul t< -rranean parts of Lathran 
Sqmtnxirut, L. By G. Massee, Journ. Bot., xxiv., 257-263. 

Contributions to the History of en-tain Specie.- of Conifers. By 
M. T. Masters, Journ. Linn. Soc. xxii., 169-212. 

The Dispersion of Plants by Birds. By D. Morris, Nature, xxxv.. 

Botanical Federation in the West Indies. By the same, I.e., 248- 

The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening [Oak Galls— Seaaid* Plants]. 
By G. Nicholson. 

Fremontia californica. By the same, Garden, xxix., 8. 

Flowers and Insects. By R. A. Rolfe, Gard. Chron., N.S., xxv., 
297-298, 330-331, 371. 

Acorn Galls. By the same, I.e., xxvi., 104. 

A Revision of the Genus Phalmwpsis. By the same, I.e., 168-170, 
212, 276-277. (Index at end.) 

Angolan Selaginea\ By the same, Journ. Bot., xxiv., 174-175. 

Garden Palms (continued). By W. Watson, Gard. Chron., N.S., 
xxv., 12-13, 75, 139-140; xxvi., 491, 652-653. 

Cape Bulbs. By t 


Koot-proliferation in Platy cerium. By the same, I.e., 201. 
Sabal blackburniana at Kew. By the same, I.e., 626. 

Auctore F. N. Williams, 

BntiiKical Ma-a/ui--, vol. cxii, 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xvi., t., 1501-1550; vol. xvii., t., 1601-1675. 

Guide to the Museum. No. 1, ed. II. ; No. 3. Timbers. 

Grevillea, vol. xiv., March, June ; xv., Sept., Dec. 


Handbook of the Fern Allies. By J. G. Baker. 

English descriptions of all the known species of the Equisetaceae, Lycopo- 
rpeae. The greater part of this appeared at 

" I' ' 

Poh/podium [P. microchasmum] from 

Tabasheer. By the same, I.e., 396-397. 
A plant which destroys the taste of Sweetness. By the 
Flora of Christmas Island. By the same, I.e., xxxvi., 78. 

Botany of San Domingo [with a Note from Baron Eggers]. By 
le same, 367-368. 

i C. B. 

British Desmids. A supplement to "British Freshwater Alga?," 
with 66 coloured Plates. By M. C. Cooke {concluded). 

An Enumeration of all the plants known from China. By F. B. 
Forbes and W. B. Hemsley (continued), Journ. Linn. Soc., xxiii., 

New and inter 
xxv., 203-206. 

esting plants fromPerak. 

By the 



. Hot., 

On Ht/drothrLv, a new genus of Pontederiaceas. 
Ann. Bot., i., 89-94. 

By J. D. Hooker, 

The Flora of British India. By the saa 
The Gentians ; Notes and Queries. By 
Soc., xxiv., 101-124. 

le, Part 14. 
T. H. Huxley, 

Joura . 

Linn . 

Remarks on the Nomenclature of the eighth edition of the " London 
- By the same, I.e., 152-156, 179-181, 229-233, 310-314, 

Note on Nomenclature. By the same, I.e., 182-183. 
Tropical Fruits in the Kew Museum. By J. R. Jackson, Gard. 
Chron., Ser. ILL, i., 445-447. 

Serky's Tea. By the same, I.e., ii., 39. 
Siam Ginger. By the same, I.e., 370. 
Patchouly. By the same, I.e., 616-617. 

On Causes influencing the Dir 
Multicellular Plants. By G. Mas! 

Disease of Coloetuia in Jamaica. By the same, with an Introductory 
Note by D. Morris. Journ. Linn. Soc, xxiv., 45-49. 

On the Differentiation of Tissues in Fungi. By the same, Journ. 
R. Micr. Soc. (1887), 205-208, 359. 

N t4256. E 

onograpb of 
!., 701-727. 

the Genus Ly coper don (Tournef.), Fr. 

Dictionary of Gardening [Seaside-Zygopetalum]. By- 

Lessons in Elementary Botany. By D. Oliver. New Ed. 

List of Plants collected in the Islands of Bougainville Straits, SdfcJra 
Group, during 1884, by H. B. Guppy. In " The Solomon M:m I- 
thei • Nittivts," pp. 294-307, [determinations chiefly by the same]. 

The Botany of the Roraima Expedition of 1884 ; being Notes on ■ 
I'iant- observed by Everard F. im Thurn, with a List of the Spec 
collected, and Determinations of those that are new. By the same t 
others. Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. If., ii, 249-300. 

Enumeration of the Plants collected by Mr. H. H. Johnston on 1 
Kilimanjaro Expedition, 1884. By the same, and the Officers of 
Kew Herbarium. Trans. Linn. Soc, Ser. II., ii., 327-355. 

pnhhtllmn. ByK. A. Rolfe, Gard. Chron.. Ser. III., 

c Orchid Hybrids. By the same, Journ. Linn Soc., 

a]. [By W. Watson] Gard. 

Garden Palms (continued) . By the same, I.e., ii., 1 56-1 57, 304-305 . 

Kew Notes. By the same, I.e., 197, 215-216, 366. 

A month at the Cape. By the same, I.e., 271-272, 331-332, 429- 

Grevillea, vol. xv., March, June; xvi., Sept., Dec 
Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Nos. 1-12. 

The late Dr. Boswell. By the same, I.e., 82-84. 

The late John Smith, A.L.S. By the same, I.e., 102-103. 

On two recent collections of Ferns from Western China. Bj 

On a new Acm&fic hmn \A, Thirin from Trinidad. Bv the same, 
I.e., 371. 

Botany of Socotra. By I. B. Balfour, Trans. R. Soc .., Edinb., 

Precedeil by publication of tbe characters of new plants in Tians. Bot. s oe., 
Edinb., noted above. 

Veronica atpressoides and its Allies. By N. E. Brown, Gard. 
Chron., Ser. III., iii., 20-21. 

Root Pressure. By C. B. Clarke, Journ. Bot., xxvi., 201-204. 

On Panicum supervacuutn, bd. nova. By the 
Soc, xxiv., 407-408- 

aame, Journ. Linn. 

Supplemental^ N"«tto on tin* Kerns of Northern Int 
and J. G.Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc, xxiv., 408-418. 

Ka. By C.B.Clarke 

Opening Address, Section D., British Associi 
Thiselton-Dyer, Nature, xxxviii., 173-480. 

ttion. By W. T. 

Plant Life [Extracted from above], Gard. Cbr 
321-323, 351. 

on., Ser. III., iv., 

Ferments and Fermentation [also from foregoinj 
Ser. III., xix., 509-512. 

5], Pharm. Journ., 

Chiswick. By the same, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 

iv., 53G-538. 

Flora of the Bahamas [with Letter from Baron 
same, Nature, xxxvii., 565-566. 

EggersJ. By the 

Flora of the Antarctic IslamN r with Letter from H. B. ( 
io same, Nature, xxxviii., 40. 

Mr. Romanes on the Origin of Species. By the same, 1. 

Report of the Commitiee. consisting of Mr. Thiselton-Dyir (N , h 
tary), Professor Xewion, Professor Flower, Mr. I'arruthers. Mr, 
Selater. appointed for the purpose of reporting n n . . • the Zoology 


Appendix [to above]. Botanical . . . Bibliography of the Lesser Antilles, 
Caribbee Islands, or Windward and Leeward Tslands, West Indies 
(Tobago and Porto Kico inclusive). Botany, by W. B. Henisley ; 
Zoology, by D. Sharp. Bep. Brit. Assoc. ( 1888), 438-464. 

An Enumeration of all the Plants known from China (continued). 
By F. B. Forbes and W. B. Hemsley, Journ. Linn. Soc, xxiii., 329-521. 

Biologia Centrali- American a ; or Contributions to the Knowledge of 
the Fauna and Flora of Mexico and Central America, edited by 
F. D. Godman and 0. Salvin. Botany by W. B. Hemsley. 

The last part was published in October 1888, nine years after the appearance of 

The Relations of Ants and Plants. By the same, Field, lxxii., 624. 
The Botanical Results of the Afghan Expedition. By the same, I.e.. 
The Vegetation of Madagascar. By the same, I.e., 875. 
The Orchidese of the Cape Peninsula. By the same, I.e., 911. 
Dissemination of Plants by Birds. By the same, Nature, xxxviii., 

Flora of the Kermadec Islands. By the same, I.e., 622. 

The new Vegetation of Krakatao. By the same, I.e., 344-345. 

The Royal Horticultural Society. By J. D. Hooker, Gard. Chron., 

The Flora of British India. By the same, Part 1 5. 

Pine Wool Carpets. By J. R. Jackson, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., hi., 

The Procarpium and Fruit in Gracilaria confervoides, Grrev. By 
T. Johnson, Ann, Bot., i., 213-222. 

A Monograph of the Genus Colostoma, Desv. (Mitremyces, Nees). 
By G. Massee, Ann. Bot., i., 25-45. 

On the presence of Sexual Organs in Aecidium. By the same, I.e., 

. K.Mii 

The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening [Supplement]. 

r the same, Garden, 3 

racemosus and its Allies. By R. A. Rolfe, Gard. Chrou., 

On the Scars occurring on the Stem of Damnum robusta, 
By S. G. Shattock. . . . with a supplementary note 
Thiselton-Dyer, Journ. Linn. Soc, xxiv., 441-450. 

Plants flowering at Kew. By W. Watson, Gard. Chron., 

Mosses of Madagascar. By C. H. Wright, Journ. Bot., 
Botanical Magazine, vol. cxiv. 
Icones Plantarum, vol. xviii., t. 1726-1800. 
Grevillea, vol. xvi., March, June ; xvii., Sept., Dec. 
Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. Nos. 13-24. 


The Source of Badsha or Royal Salep. By J. E. T. Aitchisoix, 
Ann. Bot., iii., 149-156. 

Handbook of the Bromeliaeeae. By J. G. Baker. 

Descriptions in English of about 800 species referred to 31 Reflex*, with 

reference to flame-. A con-i.L ruble part of this had previously appeared in 
the «■ Journal of Botany." (\V. B. H.) 

of the species of Kniphofia. By the same, Gard. 
.., Ser. III., vi., 588. 

New Ferns from Western China. By the same, I.e.. 17(5-1 7S. 

On a new species of Polypodinm \_P. Fawcettii], from Jainalc; 
By the same, I.e., 270. 

Further Contributions to the Flora of Madagascar. By the same 
Journ. Linn. Soc, xxv., 294-350. 

Notes on Saxifragei. By the same, Journ. R. Hort. Soc, X.S .. xi 

The Botany of Roses. By the same, I.e., 205-209. 

Catasetum. By N. E. Browii, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., vi., 559- 


On the Plants of Kohima and Muneypore. By C. B. Clarke, Journ. 

By W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Joun 

Recent Botanical Disco veric 
and Fores 

The Chinese Tulip Tree. By the same, I.e., 718. 

Pachytheca, By J. D. Hooker, Ann. Bot., iii., 135-140. 

Chinese White Wax. By J. R. Jackson, Gard. Chron., Ser. 111., 

A Monograph of the British Gastroinycetes. By G. Massee, Ann. 

Part I. By the same, Journ. 

Journ. Mycol., U.S. Dept. 

a. R. Mier. Soe. 

Agave Candelabrum. By D. Morris, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 

A Jamaica Drift Fruit. By the same, Nature, xxxix., 322-323. 

The Barberries. By Q. Nicholson, Garden, xxxv., 264-2G5. 
The Gordonias. By the same, I.e., xxxvi., 409. 

same, Garden and 

The Kew Arboretum (continued). By the same, I.e., V., 207-208. 

Holidas Notes in Southern France and Northern Italy. By the 
same, I.e., 494-495 ; II. 508-510; III. 513-519; IV. 532; V. 555; 
VI. 567-568 ; VII. 578-579 ; VIII. G03-604. 

Gard. Chron., 

Phaleenopsis amabilis. By R. A. Rolfe, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 

List of Garden Orchids. By the same, I.e., Bmtiqhtimia-Cntth-yu, 
491; Cattleya, 555, 619-020, 648-649, 718, 744-746, 801-802; 
vi., 78-79; Brers* in. loo-lot;; C<tttlc//opsi*-Ltpfofes, 323 ; Brassa- 
vola, 354-355. 

C yen aches pentadactylon, Lindl. [Dimorphic Flowers ]. By the same, 

By the 

« Liudenia," v. From t, 207 most of the descriptions. By the same. 

Cactus culture for amateurs ; being descriptions of the various 
Cactuses grown in this country, with full and pract' 
t > ir successful cultivation. By W. Watson. 

Stove plants in flower at Kew. By t 
., 476, 188-489. 

he same, Garden and Forest, 

Plants in flower at Kew. By the sam< 
59, 563. 

j, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., v., 

The Pinks of the Transvaal, By F. 

N. Williams, Journ. Bot., 


Botanical Magazine, vol. cxv. 
Icones Plantarum, vol. xix. (t. 1801-1900). 
Grevillea, vol. xvii., March, June ; xviii., Sept., Dec. 
Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Nos. 25-36. 

i the Fern Conference. By J. G. Baker, 

. Bot., xxviii., 103-110. 
Tonquin Ferns. By the same, I.e., 262-268. 

New Guatemalan Broineliatva\ Bv the ?ame. 

Stapelire Daiklyanse. By N. E. Brown, Hock. Ic. Plant, xx., t. 

On a Collection of Plants from Upper Burma and the Shan States. 
By H. Collett and W. B. Hemsley, Journ. Linn. Soc., xxviii., 1-150. 

Hardy water and bogdoving plants. By D. D[ewar], Gard. Chron., 
Ser. III., viii., 621. 

The genus Xijsmalobinm. By G. P. S. Elliot, Journ. Bet., xxviii., 

An Enumeration of all the Plants known from China, &c. Bv P. B. 
Forbes and "W. B. Hemsley {mntmnvd). .lonrn. Linn Soc/wvi.. 

Plants of the Keeling or Cocos Islands. By W. B. Henislev, Field, 

The Weather Plant. By the same, I.e., 247-248. 

The Flora of the Kurile Islands. By the same, I.e., 708. 

ritish New Guinea. By the same, 

A Survivor of the old Atlantic Insular Flora. By the same, I.e., 472. 

A Tree Solatium. By the same, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., vii., 

John Miller and his Work. By the same, I.e., 255-256. 

Hmnea elegans. By the same, I.e., 330. 

The Genus Asarum. By the same, I.e., p. 420-422. 

[T. subpalmata]. By the 

In Memory of Marianne North. By the same, I.e., 329-334 
Report on the Botanical Collections from Christmas island, Indian 
Ocean, made bv Captain J. P. Maclear, Mr. J. J. I dsie.r. and the officers 
of H.M.S. " Egeria." By rh- -.-.■„. . .lent .. Lim *...-. xx\., 351-362. 

Recent Ad of 1 >u!a (the Lac-cuMves 

the Ivurilcs. the Bahamas, Fernando Noronha). Bv the same, I.e. 
xlii., 322-324. 

The Flora of British India. By J. D. Hooker, Parts 16, 1 7. 
Commercial Botany of the Nineteenth Century. By J. R. Jackson. 

Originally published in Cassell's " Popular Educator." A ln'-torv of the intrr 
auction am W. B. H.) 

. Monograph of th ■ < ■• - us p> d ( />is. Desv. ( = Podu.r<>,i, Fr.). 

. Monograph of the Tdielephorea?. Part. II. By the same, Journ. 

eview of some points in the Comparative Morphology, Anatomy, 
Life-History of the Coniferaj. By M. T. Masters, Journ. Linn. 

£., 15-16 ; XI., 99; XII., Ill ; XIII., 150-15 
tmtguineaf Torr. By F. W. Oliver, Ann. 1 

the Philippines. By the same, I.e.. 
Pfitzer. By the same, Journ. Bot., 

esearches of Darwin and others. By the same, I.e., xxvii 
Descriptions of Orchids in Liudenia, vi. By the same. 

Phoenix Roehelenii. By the same, I.e., 272. 
The Coco-de-Mer. [By the same], I.e., 514. 
Fragrance in Ferns. By the same, I.e., 225-22C 

by Arduino (1759-1769). By the 

The Carnation from a 
ourn. R. Hort. Soc, N.S. 

Bot.-mic.-il Point of Vi 
, xii., 464-470. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. 


Icones Plantarum, vol. : 

ex., t. 1901-1950 ; xxi., 

. 2001- 

(hvvilloa, vol. xviii., March, June; xix., Sept., Dec. 
Bulletin of MiMvli.-menus Intoi'mm i.>i\ Xn\ ;»7-4 s , A j»j>. I 

.\ Siuniiiarv iy,' \Uc w Fern- which have been discovered 
nee 1874. By the same, I.e., 181-222, 301-332, 455-500. 

Also reprinted in separate form. 
Ferns of North- West Madagascar. By the same, Journ. Bot., xxi: 

On the Rnbi of Capel Curig. By the same, I.e., 47- 18. 
A new Stronqijlodou f S. Cra venire'] from Madagascar, Bv t 
itne, l.e, 74-75. 
New Ferns from West Borneo. By the same, I.e., 107-108. 

Further Contiib 
Linn. Soc, xxvii., 

utions to the Flora r 

if Paraguay. 

By J. Ball, 


Epi labium Duricei J. Gav, a new ( 
Journ. Bot,, xxix., 225-228". 


-lisli pla. 

it. By C.B.Clarke, 

Tobacco Disease 

. By M. C. C[ooke], 

, Gar< 

1. Chron. 

, Ser. U.I., i: 


Effect of Past ^ 
Gard. Chron., Ser. 

'inter on Shrubs at . 
III., ix., 458. 


By W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 

The Geology of Round Island. By the i 

The Alpine Flora. By the sa 
Botany of the Emir. Relief Ex 

Novitates Capenses. By G. F. S, Elliot, Journ. Bot., xxxix., 

New Solomon Islands Plants. By W. B. Hemsley, Ann. Bot., v., 

Recent Botanical Discoveries in China and Eastern Burma. Bv ihe 
same, Garden and Forest, iv, I., ,74-75; II., 88 ; III., 08-99; IV.., 
123-124; V., 135; VI.. 219; VII., 267. 

Arisfolochia Gigas. By the same, I.e., x., (1891), 552. 

The Flora of the Revillagigedo Islands. By the same, Nature, xliii., 

Vegetation of Lord Howe Island. By the same, I.e., 665-566. 

Tea and its Substitutes. Bv J. R. Jackson, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 
ix., 10, 137-138, 345. t07, 567-568, 768; x., 72. 

Bass or Piassava. By the same, I.e., ix., 335. 

A Sketch of the Vegetation of Bi Description 

of New Species. By J. W. Lace andW. B. Hemsley, Journ. Linn. 
Soc., xxvii., 288-327. 

Notes on Mycetozoa. By A. Lister, Journ. Bot., xxix., 257-208. 

New Fnngi from Madagascar. By G. Massee, Journ. Bot., xxix., 

same, Journ. 

Keport of a Botanical Mission ... (he West [ndies. ... by D. Morris, 
Nature, xliv., 110-111 [</. Bull. Misc. Information, 1891, nn. 53-54, 
p. 109-162.] 

Evergreen Oaks. By G. Nicholson, Garden, xl„ 95-96. 


Cattleya labiata, Lindl. By the same, I.e., x., 366-368. 

Descriptions of Orchids in Lindenia, vii. By the same. 

Descriptions also in Reichenbachia, i., p. 19 to end. By the same. 

Encephalartos Frederici Guilielmi. By W. Watson, Garden and 
Forest, iv., 208-209. 

Iris robinsoniana. By the same, I.e., 352. 

Protect nana. By the same, I.e., 412. 

Dendrobium Phalcetwpsis. By the same. I.e., 520-522. 

Palms for the Greenhouse. Bv the same, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 
ix., 172. 

Garden Palms. By the same, I.e., 234-235, 298, 671-672. 
The Pinks of Central Europe. By F. N, Williams. 

Primary Characters in the Species of Rheum. By the same, Journ. 
Bot., xxix., 292-295. 

Two new Cryptogams. By C, H. Wright, Journ. Bot., xxix.. 106- 

Botanical Magazine, vol. cxvii. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xx., t., 1952-2000; xxi., t. 2051-2100. 

Grevillea, vol. xix., March, June ; xx., Sept., Dec. 

Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. Nos. 49-60. App. I.-IV. 


Gard. Chron., 
Caralli'Hia campanulata, N. E, 

On Holoschcemis, Link. By the same, 1 

Christmas Roses. By D. Dewar, Garden and Forest, v. 42-43. 

Electro-culture. By W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Gard. Chron., Ser. IE 
xi., 42. 

Management of Trees, a Lecture. By the same, I.e., 817-818. 

Botanical Nomenclature [with Letter by S. Watson]. By the sam 
Nature, xlvii., 53-54 

Researches on the Germination of the Pollen Grain, and the Nutritic 
of the Pollen Tubes. By J, R, Green, Phil. Trans., clxxxv. I 

A Drift -serd {Tpnmca hihcrosn, L.). By the same, I.e., 309-372. 

le], Brit. Med. Journ., 1892, 

By the same, Gard. Chron. f 

The History of Kew Gardens. By the same, I.e., 297-298, 393-394, 

Observations on a Botanical Collection made by Mr. A. E. Pratt in 
Western China, with Descriptions of some new Chinese plant- from 
various collections. By the same, Journ Linn. Soc, xxix., 20^-322. 

Year Book of Science, 1891.— Systematic and Topographical Botany. 
By the same, pp. 402-416. 

The Flora of British India By J. D. Hooker, Part 18. 

Eucalyptus Od, By J. R. Jackson, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., xi., 

The cultivation of Rice in China. By the same, I.e., xii., 273. 

A Monograph of the Myxogastres. By G. Massee. 

List of Conifers and Taxads in cultivation in the open air in Great 
Britain and Ireland. By M. T. Masters, Journ. R. Hort. Soc, N.S., 
xiv., 179-256. 

Lichenes manipurenses, a el. Div. (}. Wntt circa Manipur, ml Iimit.v 
oVientalis India? Orientalis 1881-82 lecti, auctore Dr. J. Mueller [Ar- 
goviensi |, Journ. Linn. Soc. xxix., 217-231. 

Lichenes Epij -'n \ ili Spnie<;mi, a cl. Spruce in regione Eio Negro 
lecti. additio illi^ :i el. Trail in regione superiore A mazonum lectis, 
ex libb. Kewensi recenter missi, quos exponitDr. J. Mueller [Arc >\ iensis">. 
I.e., 322-333. 

The Oleasters. By G. Nicholson, Garden, xli., 352-353. 

The Skimmias. By the same, I.e., xlii., 133. 

The Broom and its allies. By the same, I.e., 188-190. 

The Juneberries. By the same, I.e., 540-541. 

The genus Galeandra. By the same, Gard. Chron., Ser. III.. \ii . 
List of Garden Orchids. By the same, I.e., Eulophia, 582-583. 
Descriptions of Orchids. By the same, in Lindenia, viii. 
On the Sonerileie of Asia. By 0. Stapf, Ann. Bot., vi., 291-323. 

W. Watson, Garden and Forest, II., 7S-79. 
Jncobiiiid magnified. [By the same], I.e., 317-318. 
Eichardias. By the same, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., xii., 123-124. 
Rhododendrons. By the same, I.e., 667-6GS, G96-G98, 741-742, 7( 
62, 789-790. 
Washingtoniafilifera. By the same, I.e., 677. 
Musci Novi. By C. H. Wright, Journ. Bot., xxx., 263-264. 
Botanical Magazine, vol. cxviii. 

Icones Plantarum, yoI. xxii., t., 2101-2125; xxiii., t., 2201-2250. 
(lre\illca, vol. xx., March, June ; xxi., Sept., Dec. 
Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Nos. 61-72; App. I.-III. 


Collectors' Numbers. By C. B. Clarke, Journ. Bot., xxxi., 135-138. 
Poisonous!" ■/talloides.Fr.l. By M. C. 

C[ooke], Gard. Chron, Ser. III., xiv, 361 7 

Perennial Sunflowers. By D. Dewar, T Journ. E. Hort. Soc, N.S., xv., 

Report on Asters, mostly known as Michaelmas Daisies. By the 
same, I.e., 238-246. ' 

Yearbook of Science; 1892. Botany, by W. B. Hemsley. pp. 449- 

The Flora of British India. By J. D. Hooker, Part 19. 

Index Kewensis : plantarum 

mina et synonyma 
uujiuuiii geuerum ei specierum a Linnaeo usque ad annum 1885 com- 
plectens; nomine recepto, auctoiv. : -. subjeetis. 

>nniptilju> beati C. R, Darwin, ductu et consilio J. D. Hooker, 
eonfecit B. D. Jackson. Fasc. 1 & 2 (Tomus i.). 

On Sanlxiri. Massee; a Fungus causing a Disease 
of the Sugar-cane. By G. Massee, Ann. Bot., vii., 515-532. 

On Clerodendion trichotomum. By G. Nicholson, Garden, xliii., 

The Genistas. By the same, I.e., 212-213. 

The Stuartias. By the same, I.e., 172-173. 

The Cornels or Dogwoods. By the same, I.e., 152-154. 

Lilies at Kew. By the same, Garden and Forest, vi., 413-415 
Repr. in Gard. Chron., Ser. III., xiv., 616-618. 

r R. A. Rolfe, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 

Orchids described in Lindenia, ix. By the same. 

Thellistorv of Orchid Hybridization. [By the same], Orch. Rev., 
,3-6, 35-40, 67-71, 99-103, 131-134, 195-197, 227-229, 25&-26S3, 
91-295, 323-328, 356-360. 

Hybrid ( Wontoglosflums. By the same, I.e., 142-144, 170-174, 201- 
06. 275-278, 331-334. 

Evloj,!inH(( EJiHabetha>. By the same, I.e., 207-208. 

Brassia bidens. By the same, I.e., 208. 

Lcrlio-Cattleya x elegans, and L. x schilleriana. By the same, 
c, 235-238. 

nodora and S. f/raveolens. By the same, I.e., 258. 

Sat avium Guthriei. By the same, I.e., 269-270. 

On the Pitchers of /> VfaD). By D. H. Scott 

and E. Sargant, Ann. Bot., vii., 244-269. 

Xi/mphtea giganted. By W. Watson, Garden and Forest, vi., 

Bromelia fastuosa. By the same, I.e., 224-225. 

Notes from Cornwall. By the same, I.e., 444-445. 

The cultivated species of Begonia. By the same, Journ. B. Hort. 
Soc, N.S., xv., 165-184. 

The disintegration of Lychnis. By F. N. Williams, Journ. Bot., 

Botanical Magazine, vol. cxix. 

Iconea Plantarum, vol. xxii., t. 2126-2175 ; xxxi : i., t. 2251-2275. 
Guide to the Museums. No. 3, Timbers. Ed. II. 
Grevillea, vol. xxi., March, June ; xxii.. Sept.. Dec. 
Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Nos. 73-74, App. I.-III. 
Th# Journal of the Kew Guild, an association of Kew Gardeners, 
l»a~t and present. [Vol. i.] 


New Ferns of 1892-3. By J. G. Baker, Ann. Bot., viii., 121-132. 

same, Journ. 

Tube. By J. R. Green, Proc. K. Soc, lv/l2i 
[abstract] ; Phil. Trans., clxxxv. B . 385-109. 
Plants [of Karakoram]. By W. B. Hemsley. 

Karakoram-Himalayas," by W. M. Conway. 
.Japanese Horticultural Literature. By the same, Gard. d 

Garbelling of Spices. By the same, I.e., 365-366. 

Captain William Dampier as a Botanist. By the same, I.e., 429-4J 

Butanv of the Death Valley, California. By the same, I.e., 55 

A southern Fern Paradise. By the same, I.e., xvi., 34-35. 

Robert John Thornton. By the same, I.e., 89-90, 154. 

Mistletos. By the same, I.e., 745-746. 

On two small Collections of Dried Plants from Tibet. By the san 
ith an introductory note by Lieut.-Gen. R. Strachey, Journ. Lir 
oc., xxx., 101-130. 

Insular Floras. By the same, Science Progress, i., I. 27-41 ; 
I. 387-404. 
The Flora of British India. By J. D. Hooker, Part 20. 
Index Kewensis . . . confecit B. D. Jackson. Fasc. iii. 

Whangee Cane. By J. R. Jackson, 

Diseases of the Grape Vine. By Gh Massee, Gard. Chron., Ser7III., 

G. Nicholson, Garden, 

Ltelia X fincleniana. By R. A. Rolfe, Orch. Rev., ii., 9-10. 
Neuwiedia Lindleyi. By the same, I.e., 70-72. 

By the same, I.e., 139-141, 

M. Barbosa Rodrigues's Brasilian Cattlevas. By the same, I.e., 206- 

Restrepia antennifera and its Allies. By the same, I.e., 237-238. 
Nomenclature of Ci/pripedium, By the same, I.e., 269-270. 
Catasctum / s plot dens. By the same, I.e., 355-357. 
Lonicera RorolJtowti. By 0. Stapf, Garden and Forest, vii., 34. 

the genus Silene. By F. N. 
jriffe [S. brevistipes]. By the 

Further Observations on the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the 
Coal Measures. Part I., Calamites, Calamostachys, and Spheno- 
phyllum. By W. C. Williamson and D. H. Scott, Proc. R. Soc., 1\\, 117- 
124 [Abstract] ; Phil. Trans., clxxxv., B., p. 803-959. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. exx. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xxii., t. 217G-2200; xxiii., t. 2270-2J 
xiv., t. 2301-2350. 

Grevillea, vol. xxii., March. June {discontinued). 
Hand-list of Trees and Shrubs grown in the Arboretum. Part I 
Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Nos. 85-90; App. L-III. 
The Journal of the Kew Guild [ii.J. 

J. G. Baker, Journ. 

On the Botanical Work which lias been done in the genus Primula 
nee the last Conference. By the same, Journ. R. Hort. Soc, N.S., 
ix., 41-43. 


itineration of the Dipterocarpjicea-, ha^-d chiefly upon the 

Gazanias. By N. E. Brown, Garden, xlvii., 288-290. 
Address to the Botanical Section [of the British Association]. 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. 

Repr. in Card. Chron., Ser. III., xviii., 291-297, 328-330. 


Descriptions of some New Plants from Kastern Asia, chidh from 
Henry to the 
Ann. Bot., ix., 

Seeds. [By the same] Brit. Med. 

Some of the Epiphytes of Amboina. [By the same] Gard. Chron., 
let. III., xvii., 132-133. 
The Flora of Bourbon. By the same, I.e., 736-737. 
Everyday Botany. By the same, Knowledge, N.S., xviii., 2] 7-218. 
Vitality of Seeds. By the same, Nature, lii., 5. 
Cactacea? in the Galapagos Islands. By the same, I.e., liii., 31. 
The Flora of the Galapagos Islands. By the same, I.e., 623. 

i Progress, ii., III. 379-398 ; 

David Lyall, M.D. By J. D. Hooker, Journ. Bot., xxxiii., 209- 

Index Kewensis . . . confecit B. D. Jackson. Fasc. iv. 
(et ult.). 

A Revision of the Genus Cordyceps. By G. Massee, Ann. Bot., ix., 

Diseases of the Grape Vine. By the same, II., Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 
xvii., 101, 134. 

The " Sleepy disease " of Tomatos. By the same, I.e., 707-708. 

Reprinted as "Tin" 'Sleeping Discus*.' ' of Tomato-," in Journ. R. Hort. 
Soc, N.S., xix., 20-24 
Note on the Disease of Cabbages and allied plants known as " Finger 
and Toe, &c." By the same, Proc. R. Soc., Ivii., 330-332. 

L'interpretation des planches de Bullianl n Umr concordance avec les 
noms actuels, par M. le Dr. Quelet, et en ce qui concerne les Myxomy- 
cetes, par M. Massee. Rev. Mycol. xvii., 93-100, 141-148. 
,1 Fibres, their hist 
dustries connected 
Delivered March 

Thelotremeas et Graphideoe novae quas pnesertim ex hb. Ri 
exponit Dr. J. Mueller [Argoviensis], Journ. Linn. Soc., 

nd Shrubs. Bv G. Nicholson, Journ. R. Hort. Soc, 

le, Gard. Chron.,Ser. III., xvii., 515-516. 


Cyrtopera. Gard Chron., Ser. III., 3 

C, /(>,-; pcdwm x siamcnse. By the same, Orch. Rev., iii., 20-21. 

Mexican hybrid Lrclias. By the same, I.e., 45-48. 

Are Stelis flowers irritable ? By the same, I.e., 56-67. 

Hybrid Selenipediums. [By the same], I.e., 75-80. 

Cattleya aurantiaca. By the same, I.e., 83-84. 

Catasetum x splendent (continued). By the same, I.e., 85-86. 

Cattleya Triana? and its varieties. By the same, I.e., 114-119. 

Notes on the genus Catasetum. By the same, I.e., 138-143. 

Cycnoches egertonianum. By the same, I.e., 233-236. 

Cycnoches Warscewiczii and C. aureum. By the same, I.e., 263-264. 

Cattleya. What constitutes a species ? [By the same], I.e., 266-270. 

Vanillas of Commerce. [By the same], I.e., 308-311. 

Hybrid Odontoglossums. By the same, I.e., 325-329. 

Oncidium spiloptentm. By the same, I.e., 331-332. 

Masdcmllia trinema. By the same, I.e., 335-336. 

Oncidium gravesianum. By the same, Rev. Hort, Beige, xxi., 73. 

Descriptions in Reichenbachia, ii. By the same. 

?rantl, Naturl. Pflanzenfam. Lief. 

Strcptocarpus Dyci-i. By W. Watson. Garden and Forest, viii., 5-6. 

The " Spot" Disease of Orchids. By the same, I.e., 433-434. 

Stapclia yiyautca. [By the same], I.e., 514, 515. 

Pandanus odoratissimns. By the same, Gard. Chron., Ser. III., 
vti., 17. 

Giant Cacti at Kew. By the same, I.e., xviii., 190. 

Begonia Disease. By the same, I.e., 544. 

Further Observations on the Organization of the Fossil Plants of the 
Coal-measures. Part II. The Roots of Catamites. By W. C 
Williamson, and D. H. Scott, Phil. Trans., clxxxvi., B. 683-701. 

By the 

Hand-list of Herbaceous Plants cultivated in the Royal Gardens. 

Botanical Magazine, vol. cxxi. 

Icones Plantarum, vol. xxiv., t, 2351-2400 ; xxv., t. 2401-2425. 

Guide to the Museums. No. 2. 

Hand-list of Trees and Shrubs. Part I. Polypetal*. 

Hand-list of Ferns and Fern Allies cultivated in the Royal Gardens. 

Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. Nos. 97-108. App. I.-III. 

The Journal of the Kew Guild, [hi.] 


Mr, William Thorpe, a member of the gardening staff at Kew, 
has been appointed a propagator at the Botanic Gardens at Durban, in 
the Colony of Natal. He left for South Africa on December 5, 1896. 

Visitors during 1896. — The number of persons who visited the Roval 
Garden* dunn-. tie voar 1890 was 1,396,875. That for 1895 was 
1,4Q7,369. The average for 1886-95 was 1,425,526. The total number 
on Sundays was 536,181, and on weekdavs 855,715. The maximum 
number of visitors on any one day was 86,399 on May 25, and the 
smallest 62 on March 18. 

The detailed monthly returns are given below : — 

January - 




March - 


April . - - - 







2(5 1,5 13 



October .... 






Botanical Magazine for December.— The number for this month 
concludes the 122nd volume of the work, which is dedicated to Mr. 
Gustav Mann, late Assistant Conservator of Forests, Assam. The 
plants figured are : GrammatophyUutn rumphianum, Prunus sub- 

hirttllii, ( <>'■> "'"■' l"i'<""<'i, ('upripedium Exvl, and Iris alhopurpurea. 
The (iranifit :'■■,>'* : /flmn is a robust orchid from the Moluccas and 
Borneo. Two plant-- '•■ • n-ei-i.ed at Kew, one from Mr. C. Ford, 
F.L.S.," Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens, Hongkong, and the 

other from Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans, both flowering in 
June 1895 The pretty Japanese Pnmux was received from Professor 
Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Boston, in 1895, and 
flowered at Kew in April of the present year. The flowers appear 
before the leaves. The Coriaria, also Japanese, flowered in Canon 
Ellacombe's garden at Bitton last June. Its coral red flowers render it 
very conspicuous. Seeds sent to Kew by Professor Sargent produced 
plants one of which flowered simultaneously with that in Canon 
>Jllacombe's garden. Cypripedium Exul, native of Siam, closely 
resembles C. in.signe. The figure was prepared from a plant winch 
was sent to Kew in 1892 by Messrs. Y. Sander & Co. The Iris is a 
new species, imported from Japan. It flowered at Kew in June. 

Journal of Sir Joseph Banks.— In the Historical Account of Kew 
\K. B. t 1891, pp. 305-9) some account is given of Banks's connexion 
with il. and of the encouragenwnt he gave to botanical work. It is 
remarked: " No scientific man of his eminence probably ever did so 

■rsonally, or was t he inspiring cause of so much 


mplished. Banks's energy in th 
ided. But the undoubted fact i 

little or nothing to show for it. 
he remarkable Journal, now publi 
Dtury, of Captain Cook's first vc 
dy, it is true, embodied in Hawkef 
ing to show who was responsible 


years ago Cook's ow 

n Journal was 


ed by 



l. That of Banks is 

3 described by the edi 

tor, given 

" ft cannot 


that it places Banks' 

vlv new 


In ardour, judgmen 

( SS Of ( 

able scientific interest 1 

the very 

k of scientific explorer? 

1, Buttl; 

■>i Med I 

lis Journal, the world may be sai 

,orant of 

3 f figures 



winch Hanks had prepared at ! 

at the B 

ritish Museum. It m 


who inlu 

irked his collections an 

d magnificent libi 

if only as 

.'rial !.. t 


ig could be more appropriate th 

should have fallen into 


S of Si! 


, Hook. 

jr. He 

followed Banks in the investiga 

.• flora , 

south of 

and of New Zealand, a 

of the ph 

mts first collected by hi 

-t. Dr. S 


l Antarctica and his" Fl< 


'" I hl> ; 

■li.Ul Mi 



bout tile 

hook, di 

d as it is from a 

of the i 


f savage life which an 

most part passed away for ever. 

l Myrmecophilous Plants. — In Banks's Journal (p. 304) of 
Captain Cook's first voyagp. lately edited by Sir Joseph Hooker, he 
describes an ep :t large tuberous rhizome permeated In 

innumerable winding passages invariably inhabited by ants. The species 
observed by Bank- was by red ants, even in a young state, 
when the tuber was little larger than a hazel nut. The plant was very 
abundant, and the tuber of the older ones was often <• much larger than 
a large turnip." Hanks id -nrili.-.l if with the Xi-las Formica rum ruber 
of Itumphiiis ( / f, rhu ri am Amboinense,\'\. p. 120. t. 55. f. 2 ^"subsequently 
named Myrmecodia Rumphii by Beccari {Malesia, ii. p. 117), which, 
however, is only known Ambovna. No species of 

this singular group of plants is included in Bentham's Flora Aiisfralii nsi.s 
(1866) ; but in 1867, Dr. Ch. Moore, Director of the Sydney Botanic 
Gardens, sent some living plants, which had been brought from Cape 
York by Captain Xares. to Kew. In a communication relating to these 
plants {Journal of Bot a a;/ vi. (1868), p. 52), Mr. G. Bennett quotes a 
letter from Dr. [now Sir Joseph] Hooker, in which they are mentioned 
as Myrmecodia armata and ITydm adiytom fnrmiraruin. These names 
were taken up by V. Mueller [Fray aunt a I'hytaycnphiee Australis 
vii. p. 15), and the latter is repeated in the first edition of his Census of 
Australian Plants, p. 75 : whilst the former is given as M. echinata, 
which, in the second edition of the Census, is again altered to M. Antoinii. 
Kew was unsuccessful in cultivating the plants in question, and un- 
fortunately the dead plants were not preserved, either as museum or her- 
barium spe< mens, si that « cannot bi r i m in u t, tt t hey ^ ere, though 
the evidence is against the original determinations. This is not sur- 
prising because at that date only about half a dozen of the fifty species 
now known had been described. 

The first successful importation of living plants of Myrmecodia seems 
to have been made by Messrs, J. Veiteh, who presented a plant of 
M. Beccarii, Hook. f. {Botanical Magazine, t. 6883) to Kew in 1886. 
In the same year Mr. H. O. Forbes sent If i/dnophytum Forbes/' i, 
Hook. f. {Botanical Magizine, t. 7218) from New Guinea to Kew, 
where it has been sueees^fulh cultivated. In 1?91 a plant of 
llydnophyfniH longiflorum, A . Gi\, a native of Fiji, was sent to Kew by 
Mr. D. Yeoward, Curator of the Botanical Station there. This flowered in 
l,S<G, and was figured in the Botanical Magazine, t. 7343. In 1893, Pro- 
fessor C. Stewart, F. U.S., presented Kew with some plants of Myrmecodia 
Antoinii, Becc, which flowered last year, and a figure of it will appear 
in the Botanical Magazim for rVbruarv, t. 7517. This was obtained 
from Thursday Island, off Cape York, North Australia. A third 
Australian species is represented in the Museum by a specimen from 
Somerset. North Australia, collected by the Macleay Expedition. It is 
apparently ////dnnpln/f am ■ , : ,,, folium, Becc, a species found in the 
Aru Islands and in German Kew Guinea, two very distant localities. 
According to Sir Joseph Hooker {Botanical Magazine, 1894, sub. t. 
7543), Dr. A. it. Wallace was the first to attempt the introduction of 
these plants, having sent a Myrmecodia to Kew about the year 1860. 
There are also plants in the Museum of the three Australian species named 
above, sent by the late Walter Hill, Director of the Brisbane Botanic 

[W B. H.] 



Rhizopus necans, Mas set 




Nos. 122-123.] FEBRUARY and MARCH. [1897. 


{Rhizopus necans, Mas?.) 
With Plate. 

During the past year a destr 
completely ruined the crop of lil 
to Europe. The first indicatior 
through Messrs. Tozer, Bro3. and Co., of Gracechurch Street, who sent 
a large number of diseased bulbs for examination. These bulhs formed 
part of a consignment received from Japan in November last, consisting 
of 848 cases, containing 73,050 bulbs of Li Hum speciosnm, Tliunl... 
" album " and " rubrum." Out of this number only 2.30 bulbs arrived 
in a saleable condition, the whole of the remainder being more or less 
rotten and worthless. At a later date the same firm received a second 
consignment of 37,590 very large bulbs <»f Lili>',n miration, and out of 
this quantity only 4,000 were saleable. Similarly diseased bulbs, 
received from Japan, were afterwards sent to Kew for examination 
from other sources. Finally, a quantity of bulbs obtained through an 
agent from Japan, for planting ai K. w. contained a large percentage 
suffering from the same type of disease. 

The bulbs received for investigation showed every stage of disease ; 
in the earliest condition, the base of the bulb is alone discoloured and 
somewhat soft ; this <!;- •_■■ ,.f flu- tissues gradually 

spreads from the base, until finally, in the most advanced stage, every 
part of the bulb is of a brownish colour, and sufficiently soft to admit of 
being readily crushed into a pulpy mass between the fingers. 

Microscopic examination revealed the presence of slender, continuous, 
hyaline, branched hyphae traversing the tissues in every direction; the 
cell-walls are never pierced, but gradually dissolved, and it is only at 
the last stage of the disease that the starch grains become irregularly 
corroded, and gradually dissolved. 

is reduced'to a soft pulp, or when a diseased bulb is cut open, the broken 

which within three dav> becomes studded with clusters of 
fruit, resembling to tfie naked eye miniature pins with round black 
headj. The occurrence of this particular form of fundus on every bulb 
examined suggested that it might possibly be in some way associated 
U 95709. 1375.— 9/97. Wt. 123. A 

with the disease, nnd subsequent cultures and inoculations proved this 
surmise to be correct. 

The fungus grows readily as a saprophyte ; the spores germinating and 
tunning the characteristic superficial white floecose mycelium, which 
within a week bears an abundance of fruit, on such varied culture media 
as prune juice, sterilised potato, decoction of bulb scales, &c. In one 
experiment four spores were s.nvn in a 5 percent, solution of cane-sugar 
in water in a Petri dish, and at the end of six days the entire surface 
of toe liquid wa< covered with the fungu- in a fruiting condition. 

When spores were sown in a hanging-drop along with a very thin 
section ol lily bulh-scale. it was observed that the germ-tubes could not 
enter the tissue through the epidermis, but that thev entered ivadilv at 
those points where the cells were not protected by the epidermis. 

A set of experiments were also carried out, using healthv lily bulbs, 
some of which were furnished by Messrs. Tozer, for inoculation. For 
the purpose of destroying stray fungus spores the bulbs were immersed 
for a qua,.-, ol an hour in a 1 per cent, -olution of corrosive sublimate. 
1 he bubs were alterwanb placed in wide-mouthed flasks tilled with 
! I -water containing a 5 per cent, solution of cane-sugar, the 
base of the bulb being immersed in the liquid ; finallv, the entire bulb 
was covered with a sheet of cotton wool, soaked in a 1* per cent, solution 
of corrosive sublimate, the cotton wool being tied round the neck of the 
flask. A hen the roots were about an inch long an attempt at inoculation 
was made as follows :-The numerous cultures of the fungus furnished 
a large supply of spores, which were tested and found to germinate 
readily These spores were collected with a wet camel-hair bru-h and 
-" mount of sterilised water in a flask until i: 
quantity of spores present; this was the 

inoculating materia 
added to the water i 
taken not to injure I 

culating liquid y 

freely between the scales of the two bulbs, which were then covered 
with sterilised cotton wool as before. The water in which two other 
bulbs were growing was inoculated as above, but the roots of the bulbs 
were broken off. 

Finally, 1 per cent, of salicylic acid was added to the water in which 
two more bulbs were growing, a copious supply of the inoculating water 
addtd, the root* ot the bulbs broken off, the bulbs replaced, and, as in 
the other instances, protected with cotton wool. 

At the end of six weeks the two bulbs whose roots were not 
destroyed appeared to be quite healthy : th.-v were- then planted in sod, 
and are still growing and show no" indication of disease. The two 
bulbs with broken roots showed signs of disease fit the end of three 
weeks after inoculation, and at the six weeks period the disease ],;„| 
extended nearly hall-way up the bull, In,,,, the hase, as shown in fig, 1, 
which was drawn Iron, this specimen. After being cut open the same 
kind of fungus showed itself on the surface that ha- been d.-.-.-ribed .... 
occurring on the bulbs received from Japan. The companion bulb was 
also diseased, and in about three months was soft and rotten, and 
covered with the fungus j n a fruiting condition. The two bulbs with 
broken roots that were growing in water containing 1 per cent, 
of salicylic acid remained quite healthy, made fresh roots, and are still 

"Numerous experiments were made with other kinds of bulbs, and it 
was found that the fungus refused to grow on onions, however much 
mutilated. On the other hand, daffodil bulbs are very susceptible to the 

belong to 
already des 

disease; if the roots are broken, or a wound made in the bulb, and 
afterwards powdered with the spores, the disease showed itself within a 
a few days, and was in due course follow. .1 b\ rho eharaeteristic fruit of 
the fungus. It was invariably found that, however much bulbs were 
mutilated, and then inoculated with fungus spores, that submergence 
for a few minutes in a 1 per cent, solution of salicylic acid, or corrosive 
sublimate prevented the disease ; in other words, all fungus spores 
coming in contact with the above-named solutions are destroyed, 
whereas the vitality of the bulbs thus treated is not at all affected. 

Dr. Halstead lias described* a somewhat similar disease, called " soft- 
rot," as attacking the sweet potato in the United States. The fungus 
•causing this disease. h'hiznpus nigricans, Khrli., is closely allied to the 
species under consideration causing the lily bulb disease. 

In addition to the kind of fungus fruit already described, a second 
form, of sexual origin, called a zygospore, is present in the genus 
Rhizopm ; several large, spiny zygospores were found in the matted 
mycelium present on bulbs in the last stage of decay, and presumably 
fungus. Zygospores differ from the minute spores 
ed in requiring a somewhat lengthened period of rest 
before they germinate, by t ! ; : - mean- tiding the fungus over that period 
of the year not suitable for its growth, and germinating when favour- 
able conditions, climatic and otherwise, return. During this period of 
■rest, the zygospores remain in the soil, or attached to the substance on 
which they were produced. The minute spores previously described, 
possess the capacity of germination the moment they are mature, and 
enable the plant to extend its area of distribution ; and 
are produced vei 

understood how rapidly the disease spreads when > 
a given locality. 

The fungus causing the lily bulb disea 
nigricans, is quite distinct from this and < 
.may be characterised as follows : — 

RhIZOPTJS nkcans (n. s P .). 

Hyphis sterilibus continuis conglomerates intricatis tenuibus candidis ; 
hyphis sporangiferis ereetis simplicibus vel interdum furcatis .'{-0-fasci- 
culatis continuis thivo-hrunneis ■l\)-27) y. diam. circa 2 mm. altis basi 
stolones longos emittentibus ; sporangiis globosis circa 250 y. diam. 
brunneo-nigris opacis glabris ; columella subglobosa ; sporis suhglobosis 
minutissime striatis o-(> u diam. pallide olivaceo-brunneis ; zvgosporis 
doliformibus 100- 120 y. diam. hisnidis subnigris. 

Parasitic on bulbs of various species of Li Hum. 

The lily bulb disease is caused by a parasitic fungus called Rhizopm 

The fungus cannot penetrate the unbroken tissues of the bulb, but 

The amount of evidence forthcoming indicates that the bulbs are not 
diseased until after they are removed from the ground. 

The spores of Rhizopm necans are killed by a short immersion iu a 

Neither of these substances have any injurious effect on living bulbs 
provided they do not remain in the liquid for more than fifteen 

The fungus is by no means confined to lily bulbs for its food ; but, as 
experiments have proved, can live on a great variety of dead or decom- 
posing substances ; it may also occur as a parasite on other plants than 
lilies in Japan as it readily attacks and destroys daffodil bulbs. Judging 
from the enormous amount of injury caused, it would appear that 
the fields where the lilies .are grown, must be saturated with the 
fungus, growing indiscriminately on various substances, and attack- 
ing the lily bulbs, along with other things, as a matter of course. If 
practicable, entirely new localities should be selected for the work. Even 
if this were done, great care would have to be exercised, so as not to 
introduce the fungus ; the spores are readily conveyed from one- locality 
to another in the soil on tools, cartwheels shoes, clothing, A.c, in addition 
to being carried by wind or animals. An important point to remember 
is not to allow vegetable rubbish of any kind to accumulate, and all 
diseased bulbs should be burned and not allowed to remain on the 
ground, otherwise the zygospores that form on such old decaying bulbs 
would siart the disease the following season. 

As little injury as possible should be doDe to the roots of the bulbs 
when they are removed from the ground, and the bulbs should be allowed 
to " sweat " before they are packed for exportation. If the fungus is 
known to be present when the bulbs are being prepared for packing, 
they might be placed in a solution of -alievlie acid as advised. 

The sterilised earth in which the bulbs are packed appears very 
suitable for the work, and cannot be in any way considered as a oau-e of 
the disease. 

G. Massee. 

Description of the Figures. 

1. Section of a diseased lily bulb ; the dark portion at the base of the 
bulb is the part attacked by the fungus ; nat. size. 

2. Portion showing the fungus in the fruiting condition, growing on 
the roots of a lily; x 2. 

3. Clusters of fruit-bearing branches of the fungus ; x 8. 
nglc cluster of the sporangial form of fruit ; x 60. 

l of n sporangium ; //. columella; the poifion, &, 
? columella and the outer wall of the sporangium is filled with 

6. Spores, some of which are germinating ; x 300. 

7. Spores showing the delicate markings on the episporc ; X 1,000. 

8. Mature zygospore ; x 300. 

9. Mycelium of the fungus running between cells filled with starch ; 
x 400. 

•eeX 1 ; 


The species of the small natural group of Mangroves form one of the 
most characteri-tic features of the :■, . t' the tropics. 

lihiznphorii. ih«' typical genus, is found in both the old and the new 
world ; the others are confined to the former. 

The Kew Bulletin for 1892 (pp. 227-232) container! a full account 
of an attempt to introduce West Indian Mangrove bark into European 

- ■ : - _ 

ne of the East Indian Mangrove, ('< riops randnlleana, which appeal 
) be attracting some attention. 

Dear Ma. This 

and boiled for two hours in a copper pan, and the liquid 
eventually dried by heat. 

In dyeing, it is used to give a brownish red colour to cloth, but 
especially to get good black and purple. The cloth is first dyed in 
Tengah, dried, and then rod comes out purple or 

black according to the strength used. 

The tree is very common here and n+< d as firewood, and the bark 
most I \ wasted. No ii could ho prepared;!! no great cost. I should be 
glad if you would get an opinion on it either as either a dye or a tan. 

Mangrove extracts have, I believe, been tried before, but have not 
been successful, because there has not been any attempt to discriminate 
between the species, but all kinds of barks have been stewed up 
together and the result tried. Now, I am going to work through all 
the Mangrove tan barks one by one, and try if Ave cannot make some 
use of them. 

■ Note by the Professor < 

" Tengah " bark extract 
in a -irnilar manner to a goc 

When used along with Indigo, as is apparently the practice, the latter 
is probably applied in a " copperas " (ferrous sulphate) vat ; in which 
case the "Tengah " will endm -• with tie in u and produce, as indicated 
above, « grev colour, which in eon juneiioii with the Indigo blue gives 
the black. 

Tengah extract would certainly be of value to dyers. 

(Signed) J. J. Hummel. 

February 8, 1893. 

Messrs. Wallace Brothers lo Royai Garden-, Kew. 

8, Austin Friars, London, E.G., 
Sir, February 11, 1897. 

We are sending you ly parcel post a -ahi|>!<- of Mangrove bark 
from British North lionmo, which we understand is known there as 
Kulit Tengah Mangrove. From this bark a substance is produced 
which is used largely in dyeing, and we shall feel much obliged if you 
will inform us whe'lmr the particular t !,-cri | >t i< -n of Mangrove tree from 
wliich this bark is prod» ih Burma. There are, we 

know, large quantities of Mangrove trees in Burma, but we are not sure 
if they consist of the particular description represented by the sample 
we are sending you. 

We understand that the common aily known in 

Borneo as Bakau, also produces a dye, but of a darker colour than the 

Perhaps you can oblige us with the botanical names of the tengah 
and of the common Mangrove. 

We are, &c. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq., C.M.G., F.R.S 
Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

(Signed) Wallace Brother 
M.G., ] 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Messrs. Wallace Brothers. 
Royal Gardens, Kew, 
ins, February 12, 1897. 

I am in receipt of your letter of yesterday's date. 
Tengah bark is an article known to us only from the Straits Settle- 
lents. Its botanical name is Cerinps c<ui<h>l'lnnifi. It belong- to the 
langrove family, and no doubt occurs both in Borneo and in all the 
dal rivers of British India. It has been studied in the Leeds Dyeing 
chool, and was regarded as " of value to dyers." 

2. 1 should lie disposed to regard the article known as '-Bakau Cutch ' 
s possibly derived from tie -am. plant a.- the " Tengah extract." 

3. The two species of mangrove which are widely dispersed through- 
lit the eastern tropics are Hhizophora mmrootitn and Rhizophora 

I am, <fcc. 
(Signed) W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. 
Messrs. Wallace Brothers, 
8, Austin Friars, London, E.G. 


The following article is reproduced from the Times of Nove 
ber 30th last. It gives an extremely clear account of the state at tl 
date of the problem of sugar cultivation in British Colonies and t 
cause of its decay. Ami it is the more valuable as it dues this Loin 
impaitial BB : view :— 

" The position of the West Indian sugar trade, which has led to t 
appointment of an Imperial Commission to proceed to the West Ind 

and inquire on the spot into the conditions of the sugar industry, with 
a view to ascertaining whether any effective measures can be devised 
for its development and relief, is one which can hardly fail to arouse 
both sympathy and interest, 

" It would be in every sense undesirable, on the eve of su< h an inquiry 
t about to be held, to take conclusions for granted on the many 
"'* which the subject bristles. There is no 
1 the one hand, that the industry is the altogether 
i which are beyond the range of possible 
hat with proper exertion on the part of those 
'rested the evil- complained of .night in spite 
en surmounted. An unbiassed statement of 
; of praise and blame, an unprejudiced recom- 
1 of the proper remedies are what the puhlie will look for from 
the Commission. In the meantime a bare outline of the situation as it 
presents itself, whatever the eau.-es or combination of causes |,y which Mich 
situation may have been produced, will indicate the urgency of according 
full consideration to the question. 

"It has to be borne in mind that the Wesl Indian colonies are 
principally agricultural in their resources. With the exception of 
British Guiana, where the development of the gold industry is now 
confidently expected, they have so far given little indication of mineral 
wealth. Their position "and the nature of their labouring population 
preclude the idea of manufacturing development on any important scale. 
Amongst their agricultural production- sugar has hitherto held the 
principal position. In British (iuiana, which is the largest sugar- 
producer of the group, the sugar industry, notwithstanding the promise 
of other developments in the near future. is -till -pokeii of as practically 
the ,,nly industry of the country. It is the industry which has hitherto 
contributed the principal revenue. It is also, it should be added, the 
industry in whose interests the incidence of taxation of the colony has 
been principally adjusted. It is worth stating, as having a possible 
bearing upon the future solution of present dilfieulties. that, although 

position in the agricultural production of British ( iuiana, there is no 
natural dearth of other tropical products which might in favourable 
circumstances be brought into commercial cultivation. In Jamaica the 
proportion of sugar cultivation to other agricultural production has of 
late years diminished, and the prosperity of the colony stands on a 
wider basis. Bananas and other tropical fruits, cacao, coffee, cocoa nuts, 
cinchona bark. &c, form a considerable item in the trade of Jamaica. 
The development given to the fruit trade ami the fibre industry in the 
Bahama Islands proves the value of products which have hitherto been 
regarded as possessing onl\ minor importance in the possible resources 
of tropical and sub-tropical agriculture. In relation to these as yet 
scarcely developed possibilities, it has been punted out that we have 
'in British Guiana alone an area ot country equal to two (Vyhms quite 
untouched; in British Honduras we have more ihati the area of the 

sugar .and its accompanying products have boon calculated to 
contribute 92 per cent, of the total exports, in Barbados 94 per cent. 
St. Kitls, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, ami other smaller islands are in a 
very similar position. la Jamaica, nut wit listandinir the development of 
other industries, sugar only forms 20 per cent, of the total export.* 
Trinidad, happy in the possession of a pitch lake, counts sugar as its 
staple production. With rare exceptions the West Indian Colonies may 
be correctly stated to regard the prosperity of the sugar industry and the 
prosperity of their local populations as synonymous terms. Depression 
in the sugar trade means for them financial embarrassment in private 
circles, diminution of the public revenue, discontent among the labouring 

" It is a matter of common knowledge that deptession in the West 
Indian sugar trade has now reached a point at which estates are going 
out of cultivation in some of the i« . i very serious 

consequences arc anticipated buth i-> tic public and to the private pros- 
perity of the colonies affected. Remedial measures have become 
urgently necessary in order to aveit crave disaster. The cause of the 
crisis is not to be attributed to a lessened demand for sugar in the 
markets of the world, nor to a diminished power of production. The total 
sugar production of the world for the year 1880 was 3,830,000 tons. 
The total production of the world for the year 1895 was 7,879,000 tons. 
The increase is lar^e for a period of 15 years, and if the West Indian 
Islands had kept a fair proportion of the increased production in their 
hands they ought to have no reason to complain. Unfortunately, tins is 
not the case. The sugar of the woi ; a no sugar and 

beet sugar. The West I ndians are producers of cane sugar alone, and 
when the total of the world's sugar production is divided under the two 
heads of cane and beet it will be found that the increased production 
has been almost wholly in beet sugar. The figures for 1880 are :— 
Cane sugar, 2,200,000 tons ; beet sugar, 1,630,000 tons ; and the figures 
for 1895 are— cane Mi-ar. 2,i»o 1, 1)00 tons : beet sugar, 4,975,000 tons. 
Xearly the whole increase has been made in the production of beet sugar, 
and while these largo quantities have been added to the general supply 
placed upon the markets of the world, the production of cam' sugar in 
the West Indian colonies has remained for many years in quantity 
almost stationary. Had it remained stationary in value the situation 
might still have been endurable, but the natural effect of increased supply 
in bringing down the level of prices has been artificially heightened by 
a system of foreign bounties, on the one hand, and of duties, on the 
other, until in the course of last year prices fell to something not far 
from 50 per cent, of the values realized in the comparatively recent days 
of West Indian prosperity, According to a statement made before a local 
Commission, appointed in 1894 to inquire into the matter, in British 
Guinea a ton of refined cane sugar cost 1 1/. 15v. 10(7. to produce, and 
its average value in the market at that time was 137. 19s. 2d. Under 
those conditions the more sugar the West Indian planter produced the 
greater was the loss he suffered. 

"The conditio. is .it production of beet sugar appear to have been in 
themselves scarcely more profitable. The total production of beet sugar 
for 1894 was estimated in round numbers at 5,000,000 tons, at a cost of 
9/. a ton. The price realized for beet sugar was ( s/. 15s. a ton, repre- 
senting what would under ordinary conditions have toon a total loss to 
the beet-sugar industry of 1,250,0007. But the annual sum paid in 
bounties by the foreign Governments under whose protection the beet- 
sugar industry is fostered, amounted for that year to 4,290,0007. If the 
* The Times stated 60 per cent. But this was an obvious error. 

figures are correct, the beet sugar industry, working at a commercial 
loss, received from the taxpayers of the countries in which it is located 
a sum which represented the very respectable profit of 3,040,000/. The 
bounty being paid at so much a ton, the beet-sugar grower has every 
incitement to continue to produce so long as what may be termed his 
political gain outbalances his commercial loss. 

" Under such conditions of competition with regard to production the 
West Indian planter may be pardoned if he has his moments of 
something approaching to despair. His hope would have been that an 
unrestricted demand might keep pace with the artificially increased 
supply, and that thus prices would in due course recover their balance. 
Here, again, the Continental system is against him. In Great liritain, 
where there are no duties, the consumption per head of the population 
reaches 73 lbs. In France, where there is a duty of 24/. a ton, 
consumption falls to 28 lbs. per head of the population. In Germany is 
is 26 lbs. a head, in Austria it is 17 lbs. Thus, while the production is, 
on the one hand, stimulated by bounties, consumption is, on the other 
hand, restricted by duties. Supply is artificially increased, demand is 
artificially diminished, and the interference with economic law is 

" The situation as it is offers, however, certain elements of hope. In 
the first place, the burden of the bounties on the taxpayers of the 
Continent, becoming every year more weighty, tends by that very fact 
to bring about its own cure. At the present rates of bounty a crop 
such as that of last year involves an annual cost in round numbers of 
almost 5,000,000/. to the bounty-giving Governments. Every further 
fall in price further increa.-es the burden, and a decrease of 1/. per ton 
in the market price would mean, at present rates of production, a 
further charge of 5,000,000/. The most patient taxpayers revolt 
when such charges for the benefit of one industry are piled too 
indiscriminately upon their budget, and there are signs that the bounty 
system of Continental nations cannot last for ever. Again, although in 
presence of the consumption of 73 lbs. per head of sugar by the 
population of Great Britain the restrictions placed upon the con-ump- 
tion of the Continent may present a source of somewhat bitter reflection 
to the sugar grower, there is comfort in the reflection that the powers 
of consumption of ihe world's market- have b\ no mean- reached their 
lindts, and that, if bv any change of policv the duties should at some 
future time be diminished, the demand might readily be doubled. If by 
the removal of bounties production were reduced to its natural level, 
and bv the removal of duties demand were allowed to reach its natural 
limits", there would be room for growers of both cane and beet, and all 
might vet be well with the sugar industry. 

''The pressing question for the West Indian sugar growers is how to 
hold out till this favourable change shall take place. Representations 
of the necessity for action of some kind have poured in upon the 
Imperial Government, in the form chiefly of petitions for relief, from 
the principal sug.-n- colonies, and it i- perhaps not alto-ether unoatural 
that, foremost among the proposals of the suffering planter, is the 
request that his production of sugar also might lie -upported at the cost 
of the taxpavers by a system of .English bounty and the imposition of 
countervailing duties at English ports. He is so urgently in need of 
money that any means by which it may be obtained would be acceptable 

comprehensible, but that any radical improvements in the conditions 
of the industry could be brought about by a further stimulus to supply 
accompanied by a further restriction of demand is a view which wili 
hardly be accepted by the disinterested observer. To grant this form 
of relief would !)«■ to prolong indefinitely a position which can only lead 
to further mischief and extend the area of inevitable industrial disaster. 
Other means than these must be found to enable the West Indian 
industry to live through the present period of depression. 

"It must not be forgotten that at this moment there is a portion of 
the Empire in which the cane sugar ' necessarily 

has done from the late fall in prices, is nevertheless in a condition of 

but expanding and strengthening it- po.-ition. The Queensland sugar 
industry has gone through its dark hours. The old system of large 
plantations has been pronounced a failure. A large proportion of the 
planters engaged in the industry were ruined. The industry has been 
forced to undergo a searching and painful process of re-organisation. 
But, under the new system of small plantations and large central mills, 
it is not only bringing in a fair return for the capital invested in the 
sugar factories, but it has been instrumental in settling a prosperous 
class of small farmers and p pon the soil. 

4 ' In connexion with the possibilities of reorganisation it is sufficient 
for the moment to indicate one point. In evidence given before the 
Commission held in British Guiana it was stated that a ton of 'sugai 
cost almost 11/. to produce, and that one-half of the cost — that is, 71. — 
might be put down to labour. It has also been estimated that a well- 
equipped estate in British Guiana, producing about 3,000 tons of sugar, 
will emplo\ about 1 .oOi) la homvr: s besides mechanics and a management 

of similar capacity, producing about 3,000 tons of sugar, will employ 
about 212 whites, including mechanics, and 420 coloured labourers, 
giving a total of 632 hands. Throughout the plantations it has been 
found that the new system of small proprietors has had for one of its 
effects the general reduction of the labour bill by one-half. Apply this 
rule to the ton of West Indian sugar, of which it was stated that the 
cost in labour of production was 71., and a saving of 3/. 5*. per ton 
would at once be effected. Three prti red in cost of 

production would he more valuable than any bounty which i- at present 
paid by Continental nations, and, if the remedy be applicable, would 
alone suffice to save the West Indian sugar industry. 

"To assume that the conditions arc exactly similar and that any 
exact parallel can be drawn would be unjust until the conditions have 
been more fully inquired into. The argument indicates only possibili- 
ties which may exist, and may, for causes unknown to us, have been 

erlooked. A commission of competent investigators able thoroughly 

their labours 

hope of arriving at some practical solution of the difficulties with wl 
the sugar industry is confronted, and if it should be found possibl 
knowledge o P 
s chances of s 

ip Gardiners' Chronicle of 
ill summary of the prices of 
home-grown timber during the preceding one. The subject is one of 
frequent inquiry. 

During the year 1896 " the prices of home-grown timber and forest 
produce generally, cannot be said to have greatly improved. Certainly, 
the demand for almost every class of timber lias increased appreciably 
during the last three month?, and for certain kinds it may truthfully be 
said that the demand greatly exceeds the supply. This is especially 
true with oak, ash. and larch of good quality "and large size, these 
meeting with a ready sale at fair prrvs. Large clean oak fetches from 
1*. 8c?. to fully 2s. per foot, and several -mail parcels of special quality 
ehanged liaml< of late at price- even in excess of any just named. Ash, 
too, finds a ready market at Is. s</. per foot, and that of extra good 
quality was sold at an auction lately for 2*. per foot. Of course, the 
difference between clean grown plantation trees, and those from the 
field and hedgerow is apparent to everyone interested in the conversion 
of our home-grown woods, an. I the purchaser pays accordingly. Elm is 
still a drug in the market, and plenty, of perhaps not the best quality, 
can be got at the low figure of 6c?. a foot, and a large Latch of roughish 
trees recently was sol,! f,,r \<l. ;l foot . Large and sound sycamore finds 
a ready market at highly remunerative prices, and I recently sold a 
number of first-class trees at 2s. 6c?. per foot, but from 1*. Sc/. to 2s. is 
nearer the mark generally. 

" Then, * maiden ' willow, if tit for hat-making, find-, a quick -ale at 
high prices, and here again the supph falls far short of the demand. 
Beech, such as that produced on the Chiltern Hills, and in certain part- 
of Kent, Surrey, and Hertfordshire, sells readily at fully 1 .v. per foot, 
though 8c/. is the average price in most parts of the country. The 
demand foi this class of timber is very good at present; but rough, 
knotty small stuff can hardly be sold at even firewood price. 

" Both alder and birch fetch In,/ per foot, especially in districts where 
the making of clog-soles is a part of the industry. 

" Larch sells perhaps more readily than any other of our home-grown 
timbers, the quantity of this on hand at the present time being small 
indeed. From Is. to 1*. 3d. may be considered fair for that of good 
quality. Scotch fir, on the other hand, is hard to get rid of even at the 
low figure of 6c?. per foot, and there are lots at present offered below that 

" Oak-bark ting in value, and about 3/. 12.s\ was 

paid for large qu mtiti- - d irir g the past season. When we count 30*. 
per ton for barking and harvesting, and a further few shillings for 
delivery and supervision, the profits attending such a precarious 
commodity as oak-bark, even in an ordinary season, are hardh com- 
mensurate with the risk- involved. Large faggots used to sell readily 
at 225. per 100, but plenty are waiting to be sold at 12s. in the London 
market. Small faggots for fire lighting — " pimps " they are called in 
southern England—can now be bought in the city at 2s. Qd. per 100— 
a contrast to the 4*. 6c?. readily got not so many years ago. The split 
batten ends, now offered for sale by almost every grocer, have quite 
ousted the faggot from the market. 

u Coppice-wood, too, does not fetch one half of what it did twenty 
years ago ; that of sixteen years' growth, and composed mainly of ash 
and hazel, selling at the present time at from 5/. to 6/. per acre. 

" It is confidently to he hoped that the rather brisker trade and better 
prices of home-grown timhcr and orlier forest produce during the past 
three months will f'ullv maintained, if not increased, during the year 
1897.— A. D. Webster." 


In the Kew Bulletin for 1896 (pp. 86-91) an attempt was made to 
settle the botanical origin of myrrh. The publication of this paper has 
led to some fresh investigation- I.v I )r. Seiiv. eini'm t!i and Mr. E. M. 
Holmes, Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society. These 
made some further discussion of the subject necessary. 

1. Baitamodendron '/ Iby Neesfrom Ehrenberg's 

specimens. They were sent from Berlin for Dr. Trimen's examination. 
He remarks (Medicinal Plants, sub. t. 60) " the whole available 
material is quite insufficient to enable a sound opinion to be formed as 
to whether B. Myrrlia is a distinct species." 

Schweinfurth has very kindly sent to Kew an analysis of the 


; plant collected by Schweinfurth in 
the Yemen district may be referred with certainty to this species. 

2. Tlie fragmentary specimen collected by Captain Hunter at Aden, 
and labelled bv him ••true Myrrh," also probablv belongs to it (Kew 
Bulletin, 1896, p. 90). 

3. Mr. Holmes has cultivated in a remarkable manner the apprecia- 
tion of distinctions of Uuste as a mean- of testing the identity of plants. 
Such an acquirement i- simply invaluable in pharmacological invest iga- 
tion. Using this criterion he has di-eu-ed the subject in the Phar- 
maceutical Journal (Dec. 12, 1896, pp. 507, 508). He points out 
that true myrrh has a very bitter taste and a peculiar aroma, hardly 
likely to be absent in the plant itself. This bitter taste he finds ;— (i) 
in Schweinfurth 's specimens of /;. Myrrhi from Yemen ; (ii) in Captain 
Hunter's specimens from Aden ; (iii) in Mr. Wykeham Perry's specimen 
from the Fadhli di-irict which ICimen {/.<•.) identified wifh7>\ Mi/rrha, 
but which was referred in the Kew Bulletin (I.e. p. 90) to B. (Com- 
miphora) simplicifolium, having been previously (" Kew Report," 
1878, p. 40) conjectured to belong to B. Opobalsamum. 

4. The evidence taken together seems to he sufficient to allow us to 
regard all three plants as belonging to the same species, and as affording 
Arabian Myrrh. The objections are :— (i) that Fadhli myrrh is said 
to give a violet colour with bromine, which Yemen myrrh does not ; 
(ii) that B. Myrrlia, according to Schweinfurth. i- completely inodorous, 
and does not produce any resin. Mr. Holmes meets the latter difficulty 
by suggesting that Schweinfurth has been misled as to the plant. There 
may also have been easily some confusion as to its botanical identity. 
Professor Engler has in fact mixed up with Balsamodendron Myrrha, 
B. Playfairiiy which certainly does not produce true myrrh. 

5. As to Somali myrrh, Schweinfurth lias i 
analysis of tlu- id. j t i * ■ , ; 1 -peeimen collected by 1 1 u.ienran.n, ;mu iigu 
by Trimen in Medicinal Plants, t. 60. Engler and Schueinfuri 
identity ir with Bcdsamodendron Playfairii, the source of Gum Ilotai. 
In this they are certainly mistaken. As stated in the Keic Bulletin 
(I.e., 87);— " It U apparently closely sillied lo Balsamodcndmn (Com- 
miphora) Schimperi." Holmes objects that this has a turpentiny but not 
si bitter taste. Schweinfurth, however, regards B. Schimperi (JSTwo 
Bulletin, 1896, p. 89) as one of the sources of Arabian myrrh. In any 
case the origin of Somali myrrh cannot be said to be satisfactorily 
cleared up. As the country is now often visited by travellers it is much 
to be desired that the plant really yielding its myrrh may be conclusively 
determined by the collection and examination of adequate specimens. 

6. In the Keir Bulletin (I.e. p. 91) it was suggested thstt B. simplici- 
folium may be sicccptod ;i< the source of Yemen myrrh, It since 
appears that under the names Commiphora simplicifolia, Schweinfurth 
insidvertently distribu:e<l two species :— //. Schimperi and B. simplici- 

folium ; the hitter is now reduced by him to a vsiriety of B.abyssinicum. 
He remarks in a letter that " the simple leaves are only due to the 
season and to the short branches; the same thing happens with the 
Abyssinian C. aby.ssinica " siocording to Detlers, cited in the Keu- 
Bulletin (I.e. p. !)(>). this species yields myrrh both in the Fadhli and 
Yemen distiicts. Sehweinfurtb, however, adds in the le:ter with which 
he has kindly furnished me :—« Fadhli myrrh is partly yielded by 
('. abyssi.iica sis proved by M. Derlers ; but all Fsidhli myrrh may not 
be yielded by it. We cannot accept this plant ss its only source. I 
did not visit the districts where myrrh is collected in Yemen; this was 
to the north of the region explored by myself. M. Deflers did visit it, 
but he did not collect specimens of the myrrh plant there." 

7. Whether B. abyssinicum is really a source of myrrh is not of very 
groat importance as, thanks to Mr. Holmes, we seem to be on sale 
ground in accepting its old attribution to B. Myrrhci. 


Dr. Henry, tLe well-known Chinese botanist, is now stationed in 

Yunnan, The following extract from a letter recently receive. I from 

him gives some interesting particulars of this botanicsilly rich region : — 

Customs, Mengtse, par Laokay, Tonking. 

Sept. 5, 1896. 

" As regards botany, e.g., this region — on the outskirts of which I 

was stationed at Ichang, and now am here again on another border of il; 

at Mengtse--is, I imagine, the most interesting in the world. It is 

evidently the headquarters of most of the genera which are now spread 

all over Europe and Asia in great part. The geology is quite unkuow n 

and it is a combination of knowledge o 4 ' the ancient history of the region 

geologically, and of the flora, which will exphun much that is obscure 

in the present distribution ot species. 1 have told ymi of the immense, 

universal and peculiar deposit of red clay which coverj Yunnan, 

ruling into the Shan States. This perhaps speaks of "laciation and 

" ' ' ► phenomena that the present richness of the flora 

car 1 


"I intend to go on collecting vigorously, and hope to rival Dolavay 
in Yunnan. His 3000 species will be hard to beat. 

11 The country immediately around Mengtse is not so very rich, as it 
bare of wood and watt r : \> it in a!i directions at two to four days' distance 
there is splendid country. I have just had a native collecting in the 
mountains south of the Red River near the French frontier, and he has 
brought back from the virgin forests of a high mountain about 100 
interesting species, e.g., he lias re-found Tetraceniron (a genus of 
Trochodendriee) perhaps a new species, at any rate a variety, of the 
Hnpeh plant. He has also brought me undoubted wild tea. Hitherto 
the tea plant has been found wild only in Assam, the cases of its 
spontaneity recorded from China being very doubtful. In all my trips 
in Szeehwan and Hupeh I never met it. The present specimens are 
above suspicion, coming from virgin forest, and at an immense distance 
from any tea cultivation, the nearest being F'u-erh 20<> miles, west. Bret- 
schneider in Botanicon Sinicum part II., p. 130, has some remarks on 
the antiquity of tea in China, and it was not till the sixth or seventh 
century that it came into general use. It is probable that it was found 
-wild in these southern provinces, which did not form a part of the 
ancient Chinese empire, and I daresay it will be found wild in the-e 
mountains from Mengtse to Szemao. It is not probable at all that tea 
came from so far away as Assam. 

" My native also brought back some interesting ferns, pretty 
Cyrtaudrea, &c. and seine specimens in fruit of the curious Lysinuiekia. 
the leaves of which have a delicate but strong fragrance. They are 
used for scenting hair-oil by the Chinese. Perhaps some of the seed is 
Tipe enough for me to send to you for cultivation. 

" I have had enquiries from a London firm about soap trees. They 
wish to buy the fruits of these in quantity, as they have brought out 
some patent or other, which demands a large consumption of these fruits. 
I presume the saponin therein is the base of the patent (for washing 
fine fabrics, hair-wash, &c, perhaps). They didn't say what their 

" A large number of soap-trees occur in China, and I would write a 
note for the Bulletin on the Mibjecf, as it is of perhaps considerable 
commercial importance, but one thing is wanting. The species of 
Git dit-u-hia require revision. Four are mentioned in the index Fl . Sin., 
I., p. 208 et seq., but since then there is a new one from Ilupeh and 
another from Yunnan. There were also specimens of mine at Kew from 
S. Formosa which are not yet matched with anv desoiihed species. 

"The chief soap-trees are Sapindus Mukorossi, Gymnocladus 

Hemsley, which has a small p..d only used as a drug. The fruits of 

decimation of th - inhabitants ,,! Mengtse town. It suddenly eea.-ed on 
or about the 8th August, a few cases having appeared in the surroun.iing 
village- just before, and it is now gone completely from this neigh- 
bourhood, though I hear it is now prevalent in a town some 20 miles 
away on the other side of our mountains. 

** My collector also found some Laurinete, the absence of which was 
rather puzzling 6o me. I am sending him off in another direction in 

he botanised over he described as lofty 
and covered with thick forest of immense trees. Bears occur there, a 
sure sign of virgin forest, as far as my experience goes in China. 

" I have little more to add, as I have not been away lately on any 
inter* st ig tr ps, I, however, find much to interest me in the mountains 
around : it is not everywhere you come across plants you have not seen 
before almost I'Yi.'n day. The mvi. h in species. 

" This place is isolated in the extreme, ami ir takes such a time to 

I have nearly finished all my shoes, and there are new pairs I hope 
all along the way, but they do not seem to come. 

"It is rather cas\ travelling about here, as mules are cheap and 
numerous. I have just had a tent made for trips. The savage village- 
in the mountains are too dirty to stay in, even if one always found 

'too dirty' is something awful, as I put up quite comfortably with 
the huts of the Chinese in Httpeh, * -Iv clean. 

" The Chinaman is of course superior to these Shan-. Lolos, Miao-tzu, 
in energy and various other laudable qualities, but the Miao-tzu and 

at least I like their looks and way of talking. 

" Does? no geologist ever dream of investigating these regions ? 
Yunnan is well known for its mineral wealth. It is easy enough now 
getting here from Hongkong by way of Tonking." 


An astringent, red, resinous substance obtained from the sap of 
various trees of tropical countries is known as Kino. The best medicinal 
kind which contain- 7~> per cent, of tannic acid comes from the Indian 
Kino tree Pierocarpus Mar.mpium, lioxb. while Bengal Kino is 
obtained in the form of round tears of an intense ruby colour from 
liiitcdfrondosa. Kino is usually used in medicine for its astringent 
properties in eases of* diarrh.ea, chronic dysentery, &c. 

Among the various >|> • museum of the Royal 

Gardens from the International Forestry Kxhibition held in Edinburgh 
in 1884, was a peculiar dark resinous substance labelled " Kat jadikai " 
or Kino obtained from Myristica malabarica. It formed part of a 
collection of products made by Mr. Rhodes Morgan, District Forest 
Utlieer, Malabar. 

In appearance the substance 
Pfcwcarptis }farsnpiuni. It h 
Fdward Schaer. o\ Stra-hure;, who Ins communicated an interesting 
. l( . C o U „t of it to the Pharmaceutical Journal ( 1th series, Vol. III. 

''<• 1'iu'le -m \\ i bur-, o I!, hn, has 1, \ U>n< mled to me a sample 
of an extract or secretion resembling otlieiai Kiim which with well 
known liheralitv bad been put at hi- di-posai by the director of the 
RoyaH.ard.n-. Ken. The sauquY in _qu->tioii labelled 4 Kat ja k-ii.' 

and known' to be produced by inci-ion- in the bark of Mi/n'stica 

■ar Kit 
of Acacia vCutch) or of Uncaria (Gambier), Ti 

Kino of smaller or larger angular transparent pieces of a deep garnet 
colour in thin fragments. It was not altogether unlike small broken 
dragon's-blood in some respects, and the latter name has been used 
sometimes by natives and merchants for some kinds of kino (from 
Pterocarnus indicus and P. crinaceus). 

"Not having been ju:. |iiaiiit«Ml before thai lime- with kino-like products 
from the genus Myristica, and following the suggestion of Professor 
Warburg, who was then preparing a monograph of the Myristicaceas, I 
at once proceeded to a closer examination of the new substance, availing 
myself or tbe latest observations concerning the natural history of the 
different kinds of kino, especially of the drug derived from Pterocarpm 
Mar-supium (Malabar kino). Not only on its external appearance but 
also in its behaviour to water and other solvents, the * Kat jadikai ' or 
kino from Myristica malabarica agreed almost entirely with Pterocar- 
pm kino, giving a reddish, slightly turbid solution of feebly but 
perceptibly acid reaction to litmus paper. The other physical 
qualities for the ino^t part proved to be the same at those described by 
Ilanbury and Fluckiger (Pharmacoyraphia II. Ed. 1879, p. 195). 
The same may also be stated concerning the more important and 
characteristic chemical reactions when compared with the chemical 
behaviour of official kino." 

Professor Schaer thus summarises the results of his investigations 
into this and some other kinds, the produce of species of Myristica. 

I. Tbe dried juices of the bark of several Asiatic species of Myristica, 
fur in-tance, of M. malabarica, Lam., and M. fragrant, Houtt., as 
regards their appearance and physical qualities, show but little difference 
from the officinal Malabar Kino. 

II. These substances, which maybe termed Myristica Kin os, agree 
in the chemical reactions due to their constituents, in all important 
points, with the Kino of Pterocarpm Marsupium. It can therefore be 
stated that drugs of a very similar character, and partly of close resem- 
blance to official kino, are to be found in the families of Legunrinose 
(liittra, Ptcrocarpus, Millcttia), Saxifragarea- (Cvrutopi talum). 
Myrtacea- (Eucalyptus, Anyophora), and Myristicaceae. 

III. The Myristica Kino differs, as far as can be observed from the 
Pterocarpm Kino, and probably also from Butca and Eucalyptus 
Kino, by containing, in the crude state of the inspirited fresh juice, 
smaller or larger amounts of a distinctly crystalline calcium salt, viz., 
calcium tartrate, suspended in, and depositing from, the liquid juice. 
By this characteristic admixture it can be easily distinguished from the 
official Kino, and probably also from other Kinos of commerce. 

Whether this tiew substance might ever be obtained in combination 
with the production of nutmegs and mace, so as to play the part of a 
commercial drug, will depend upon a still better knowledge of its 
qualities, its formation in the living plant, its epiantitive relations, 
and similar questions. 


(Gossypium barbadense, L.) 

Next to the United States and India, Egypt is one of th • important 

cotton-producing countries of the world. The quantity of Egyptian 

i country is about 2,000,000 c 

quality is usually exceptionally good, and ranks next to the celebrated 

The following sketch of the history of cotton cultivation in Egypt 
lately appeared in Journal of tin Society of Arts (December 25th, 
189G, pp. 98, 99). 

" Some interesting information is given in a recent isjsue of the 
fhillctin da Ministire (/<• VAij riot If it re respecting the different 
descriptions of cotton which have been successively cultivated in Egypt. 
Thefhst cotton cultivated in the dclla of the Nile was call. A . j'umt •/, 
after the name of the person who introduced its cultivation, in the 
reign of Mehemet Ali, in 1820. M. Juniel, who was a Freuclnnan. had 
remarked in the garden of one of his friends living near Cairo, certain 
cotton plants, of which the seed had hi en imported from the .Soudan. 
lie succeeded in cultivating the plant from seeds which he obtained, 
and presented certain of them to Mehemet Ali, who, foreseeing the 

the disposal of Jumel vast extents of territory, and gave him every 
facility in his enterprise. This cotton was also' known by the name of 
Maho, after ft bey in whose gardens Jumel had originally found the 
first seeds. Jinmf or Malm, was for many years the only cotton cul- 
tivated, but for a time it was replaced by a new variety called . ishmmnii. 
This Ashaioinii degenerated alter I'll years of cultivation, and was 
abandoned for Mit AJiji, which at the present time is most largely 
cultivated in Egypt Mit Ajifi is a very strong variety of cotton, 
easy to grow, and does not require any very excessive irrigation. 
The colour is slightly yd!ow and is much appreciated by spinners. 
Another kind of cotton called llahmieh* is grown lo a limited 
extent, and this is a delicate variety requiring a stronger soil. 
It yields a whitish cotton, which is particularly used for certain articles 
of hosiery. It enjoys a gnat reputation in I he United State-, while 
Fiance and Germany consume small quantities of it. The cultivation of 
the varieties called" "white cotton" has verv considerably fallen off. 
Their total annual production hardly exceeds horn 00,000 to 70,000 

to be formed as to their merits, lyip cr its variety, 

preserves its essential qualities, which causes it lo he much sought after 
by European and American manufacturers. As a matter of fact, no 
cotton, with the exception perhaps of Sea Island, the production of 
which is to some extent restricted, and the price too high to admit of 
it- general and universal consumption, has the fineness, the strength., 
and the brilliancy necessai v for the manufacture under good conditions 
of a large number of special articles. Egyptian cottons are used in 
making threads of the numbers GO to lot), while Indian eolton makes 
threads of numbers 5 to 18, and American cotton threads from 20 to 
50. The qualities of Egyptian cotton are such that it finds a ready 
outlet on European markets, no matter what ma\ be the production and 
prices of cotton of other origins." 

The following further information respecting Egyptian cotton is 
taken from the Journal of the lioi/al Aijrienitin-al S,„-i, ft/, vii. 027, 

the Nile Vallev: 

"It is to the cotton crop of the Delta that Egypt owes its pre-ent 

financial prosperity. It covers between a third and a half of the area, 

* An account of Bahmieh or lhmia Cotton is given in the Kew Report for 1877, 

the remainder being uncropped in the summer, but cropped with maize 
in flood-time. During the winter the country is an uninterrupted 
expanse of wheat, barley, and clover. The cotton is sown in March, 
and is on the ground till the end of October, receiving about 14 
Waterings, of which nine are given during the hot weather by lift with 
bullock-wheel or steam-pump. Its produce is at least eight limes that 
of Indian cotton, giving an average of about 500 lb. of lint per acre. 
Clover or wheat follows. 

" The clover is sown amongst the cotton plants before they are cut, 
and gives five cuttings between November and June, requiring eight 
waterings. Maize follows during the flood, and, after the maize, wheat. 
During the next flood maize is again sown, and is followed by clover, 
which, after two cutting-, is ploughed up to make way for cotton. 
Thus, in three years the cultivator gets a crop of cotton, two crops of 
maize, a crop of wheat, and seven cuttings of clover. In some places 
cotton i> grown every other year, the intermediate crops being wheat, 
maize, and clover. On the large estate which formed the ' Domains' of 
Ismail Pasha, and is now managed by a board on behalf of his creditors, 
the maize cropping is generally omitted, and the land is given two 
fallows in flood- time in the course of three years. Maize is almost 
invariably manured. Cotton follows clover and is commonly unma- 
nured. But the Domains administration has found that, by the use of 
manure, at !e; i. d to the produce per acre, and the 

practice of top-dressing is i 
that two-thirds of the D< 

s manure annually.' 


{Carica Papaya, L.) 

The papaw tree is one of the commonest objects in tropical countries. 
The fruit cultivated is pear- or almond-shaped, 7-1.3 in. long, yellow 
when ripe, and often eaten as a delicacy. The milky juice is well known 
to render meat tender, and even the leaves are sometimes used for that 
purpose. This milky juice oontaius a ferment which has a solvent 
action upon albuminoid substances, and. Ike pepsin, curdles milk. It 
is, however, not so active as pepsin. 

Inquiry has been made as to the preparation of papain for commerce 
in our tropical possessions. The demand is, however, extremely small. 
A small factory already exists in the island of Montserrat, as recorded 
in the Kern Bulletin (1891, p. 120), the output of which, with an 

In a recent article in the Agricultural Ledger, 189(5, No. 31 
(Medical and Chemical Series), issued by the Reporter on Economic 
Products to the Government of India, the following particulars are 
given respecting the properties and preparation of papain in India: — 

Report on Dried Juice of Carica Pap 
bv Mr. John C. 
on the Subject, by D. Hoopeu, F.Ci 

possess on til.- i - of tli- plant. A vast amount has 

recently been written on the action of the " vegetable pepsin " contained 
in the juice thai abound- in Hit unripe fruit. 

The digestive action of tbe juice upon meat was probably known 
in the West Indies 11 a very early date, and appears to have been com- 
municated to the inhabitants of this e untry upon the introduction of 
the tree by the Portuguese, as it has long been the custom in India to 
render meat tender by rubbing it with the juice of the fruit or by 
wrapping it in I ho leaves, In the old "History of Barbados'" bv 
Griffith Hughes, the author ■ piannd;. informs us thai " I his juice is of so 
penetrating a naiure that if l ho unripe peeled fruit be boiled with the 
toughest old sailed meat, it quickly makes it soft and tender ; and if 
pigs be fed with the fruit, • - ilh n p . i thin mucous matter 
which coats the inside of the intestine is attaekod, and, if the food be 
unchanged, is completely destroyed." The author of the }fukh:a,t-iJ- 
dwiya 1770) described the tree in his day, and mentions the use of 
nixed with ginger, for making meat tender. 

In 1877, the milky juice of the Carica began to attract attention in 
Europe as a digestive ferment, andHerr Wittmack, of Berlin, in 1878 
made a careful examination of its properties and came to the following 
conclusions respecting it : — 

(I) The mil] tains) a ferment 

which has an extraordinarily energetic action upon nitrogenous 
substances, and like pepsin curdles milk; CD ihi- jui.-e differs from 
pepsin in being active, without the addition of free acid, probably it 
contains a -> fiber it operates at a higher tempera- 

ton (about 60° to 65° C.) and in a shorter time (5 minutes at most); 
(3) the filtered juice differs chemically from pepsin in that i 

of copper and perchloride of iron (Pharm. 
Jov.r'n., Nov. 30th 1878). 

Dr. Geissler, experimenting in the same direction, found that papain 
e>uld dissolve 28 times its weight of coagulated albumen, while pepsin 
dissolved 100 times its own weight. 

In 1879 Dr. Theodor Peckolt, of Brazil, made a very complete 
he fruit, leaves and seeds of Carica Papaya, and he found 
papayotin in nearly every part of the fresh plant, besides other organic 
constituents which he separated and estimated. 

Dr. Sidney Martin of London was the next to investigate the peculiar 
principle of the fruit. He showed in 1886 {Jtmmed oj 
that papain was a proteolytic ferment which acts very similarly to 
trypsin. Experiments performed with meat fibrin and while of eg<_r 
showed that slight digestion takes place when the liquid is faintly acid, 
bn! none at all when decidedly acid. Digestion takes place actively in 
neutral or alkaline solutions, and occurs mo-l readib at a tempera- 
ture between 35° and 40° Fahr. The results of the digestion are 
peptones, leucine, and tyrosine, and an intermediate glohniin-likc 
substance similar to that formed in pancreatic digestion. 

In the author's second paper on the same subject the ferment in 
papaw juice is shown to be associated with an albunmse, and to give 
the following reactions in addition to those previ..u>U described by 
Wurtz : — The solution gives a biuret reaction, and it is pre.i; 
a neutral solution of sodium, magnesium sulphate or so,! 
alone, as globulins are. It is soluble in glycerol, and if precipitated 

from this solution by alcohol, the filtrate has no proteolytic power. 
The kind of albumose is one nearly akin to the protalburaose of Kiihne 
and Chittenden, and is called a-phytalbumose. Papaw juice also contains 
a milk-curdling ferment. The proteids present in papaw juice were 
found to be as follows : — 

(1.) Globulin, resembling scrum globulin in its most important 

(2.) Album 
(3.) /3-phyt 

roalbumose of Kiihne and Chittenden, by not being precipitated by 
dialysis, by copper sulphate, or by mercuric chloride. 

(4.) n-phytalbumose ; soluble in cold or boiling water ; not precipi- 
tated by saturation with neutral salts, except in an acid solution. This 
is the vegetable peptone referred to by Vines (Joirru. I'lti/sinl, iii. ) as 
hernial bumose. It differs from the protalbumose of Kiihne and 
Chittenden by its non-precipitation by sodium chloride or by copper 
sulphate. Both these albumoses give the biuret reaction. 

No peptones occur in the juice, but leucine and tyrosine are present. 
By a series of tfl carried out on each of these pro- 

teids by papain in a neutral liquid, it was found that both the globulin 
and albumen are changed into /3-phytalbumose, and that this becomes a 
peptone-like substance, and forms leucine and tyrosine. The a-phytal- 
bumose becomes a similar peptone-like substance, leucine and tyrosine 
being formed. This peptone-like substance, resembles the deuteroal- 
bumose of Kiihne and Chittenden, except that a solution of it when 
rendered acid by acetic acid in the presence of sodium chloride, does not 
become cloudy on warning. No true peptones are formed. Probably 
digestion in the plant itself is verv slow, as much more liquid was used 
"lan is present in the juice. The albumose forms 
the circulating proteid in the plant. 

Carica which are said to make meat tender when 
they are wrapped round it for some time, were discovered by Dr. Greshoff 
in 1891 to possess an alkaloid named carpaine. Dr. Van Rijn further 
investigated the alkaloid in 1893, but did not attribute to it any diges- 
tive property. The quantity of carpaine separated from the leaves was 
25 percent. 

On the evidence of the medical, physiological, and chemical experi- 
ments made upon C. Papaya the active principle has been separated and 
given the name of papain or papayotin. It is now an article of com- 
merce in Europe for medical purposes ; it has been extensively used in 
France and Germany, and has been given with good results even to 

Notwithstanding all the experiments on the vegetable ferment in 
question, it seems not to have been received with confidence by the 
medical profession in England, and it has not been introduced into the 
Pharmacopoeias as a substitute for pepsin. The statement often made 
thai papain dissolves 200 times its own weight of fibrin has been 
contradicted on more than one occasion, and on the other bandit has 
been shown that papain compares very unfavourably with pepsin when 
tested with egg albumen under similar conditions. 

Regarding this aspect of the case two important papers have recently 
been written. Dr. S. Kideal of St. (koige's Hospital, London (Pharm. 
Journ., August 1894) endeavoured to make out a good case for papain, 
and attributed unfavourable results to the mistake of supposing that 

probably t 

papain should be tested under the same conditions that hold good for 
pepsin. Dr. Rideal noticed that papain differs from pepsin in so far as 
the former acts fairly well in an alkaline solution, while the latter does 
not, and more particularly that the proportion of fluid to albumen must 
be much less in the case of papain than is required with pepsin. Mr. 
D. B. Dott, F.I.C., in the more recent article {Pharm. Jmtrn,, March 7, 
1 896) records some experiments from which he adduced the following 

1. That drift] papain ju 
tion and precipitation hav 
in alkaline or acid solution. 

2. That commercial \ 

special action ( 

During the course of Mr. Dott's investigations the presence of pepsin 
was suspected in one of the samples of commercial papain. 

The next question that seems desirable to settle is the preparation of 
commercial papain. If, as it has been suggested, the papain is liable to 
sophistication with pespin or other subtances, it is impossible to arrive 
at any satisfactory results with regard to its digestive action. Then, 
again, the preparation in this country of the juice for the market has not 
perhaps received a sutlicient amount of attention. It should be known 
that the juice in every case must be collected from unripe fruits. As 
prolonged moisture is deleterious to the ferment, the juice should be 
dried as soon as possible, and, as heat will destroy its activity, it should 
be dried at a low temperature. The best method to prepare papain is to 
collect the juice of the unripe fruit, mix the juice with twice its own 
volume of rectified spirit, let the mixture stand for a few hours, and then 
filter off the insoluble matter, and dry it at the ordinary temperature of 
the atmosphere. After being powdered it should be kept in well- 
stoppered bottles ready for use. 

The following notes on the collection of specimens of papain in 
India by the Reporter on Economic Products and the results of their 
examination in London will be read with interest. They show what 
varied activity the samples may possess if not carefully collected and 
preserved. If a trade in this substance is to be expected either in India 
or in Europe we would impress upon all manufacturers to observe 
carefully the precautions just enumerated. On account of caste diffi- 
culties, it v%. ffgely into use 
in this country, but where a vegetal)!. le every effort 
should be made to increase our knowledge of it and to understand its 

In May 1894, Mr. M. J. Bharwada, Agricultural Assistant, Gondal, 
Kathiawar, forwarded to the reporter on economic products three 
samples of papain obtained from the juice of the fruit of the Papaw 
tr^e. These were (1) the precipitate from the milky juice made by 
adding pure alcohol; (2) the precipitate from the same juice by addition 
of ree ilied spirit ; and (3) the dried and powdered juice. The speci- 
mens were forwarded to Mr. E. M. Holmes, Curator of Museum of the 
Pharmaceutical Society, who was asked to have them tested and re- 
ported upon with reference to their comparative value as substitute for 

them, hut he stated that they arrived in such a had condition that not 
one of the samples was found to have any disturbing action on milk ; 

Subsequently Mr. Bharwada made a second collection of products of 
Carica for examination, consisting of 12 ounces of the dried powder 
obtained from the juice, and a small quantity of papain prepared with 
alcohol. These were forwarded to the Curator of the Phannacentkal 
Society who kindly placed them in the hands of Mr. J. C. Umney, 
F.C.S., for investigation. From Mr. Umney's experiments it would 
seem that a highly active ferment might be manufactured from the 
crude juice by repeated purification by alcohol. The attention of all 
those who are interested in the subject should be drawn to this method 
of preparation. 

The sample was in coarse powder, of a greyish yellow colour, auc 
possessed a fail sant odour. 

Ten grammes dissolved in water and precipitate*] by absolute aleolx 
yielded 4*2 grammes of crude Papain, after drying at ordinar 
temperature over sulphuric acid. 

The digestive power of this purified product was then tested on mois 
egg albumen, at a temperature of 38° — 39° C. in neutral acid an 
alkaline solutions using the following proportions : — 
10 grammes of egg albumen. 

0*1 „ papain. 

30 c.c. Distilled water. 

0* 1 grammes Bicarbonate of Sodium for Alkaline. 
1 c.c. Hydrochloric acid B.P. for acid 

Digested in 30 minutes. 
Neutral - - 12*03 per cent. 

Alkaline - - 13 72 
Acid - - 12-07 

Alkaline - - - 17*483. 

Acid - - - 25-0. 

The greater activity in acid than neutral and alkaline solution is the 
principal point of difference between this brand of Papain and other 
commercial samples of papains and concentrated papaw juice, am Urns 
been the subject of controversy between different experimenters. The 
presence of another ferment, such as pepsin, active in acid solution, 
appears to be indicated. _ 

I have examined several samples of commercial papains, and the re- 
sults have been similar in every respect, and it may be noted thai they 
accord well with those obtained by Dott (P. J., 3rd Series, xxiv., 758, 

°There is no doubt that by repeated precipitation by alcohol a highly 
.„.,•,-,. digestive product might be obtained from this crude concentrated 
papaw juice valuable for use under those circumstances where pepsin is 

unavaUable * JOHN C. UMNEY. 


Mr. GrwrNXK VAiCriiAN, who had for the previous t \v« 
working in the Jodreli Laboratory of the Royal Gardei 
appointed .-in Assistant to the Regius Professor of ii<. 
University of Glasgow. 

;cl during last ye 

in investigation into the relation existing between van 
plant and apogamy in the prothallus. This led 
ng discovery of the occasional oeeiirrence of sporangia i 
latter. The results were communicated to the Royal Soeieh 
published in the Proceeding* for November last (Vol. GO, pp. 2-~>() 

West India Commission. — In consequence of the depressed condition 
of the West India Colonies a Royal Commission has recently been 
appointed, as published in the following announcement : — 

The Queen has been pleased to appoint General Sir Henry Wylie 
Norman, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., CLE. (Chairman): Sir Edward Grey, 
Bart., M.P., and Sir DaGd Harbour, K.C.S.I., to bo Commissioners to 

Colonies, and Mr. Sidney 01i\'i«-r. lb A., to be their Secretary; Daniel 
Morris, Esq., D.Sc., C.M.G., Assistant Director of the Royal" Gardens, 
Kew, will accompany the Commission as Expert Adviser in botanical 
and agricultural questions. 

The terms of the reference to the Commission were as follows :— 
"To inquire into the condition and prospects of the colonies of 
Ijimaicii, British Guiana. Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, 
St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and the Leeward Islands, and of the sugar 
industry in those coh ni -. and of the ljihouring classes there, and especially 
whether the sugar industry is in danger of extinction in such colonies 
or any of them, and what is the amount of capital at present invested 
in it; whether the present depression is due wholly or in part to 
mismanagement, imperfect processes, absentee ownership, or any other 
causes independently of the competition of sugar produced under the 
bounty system, and whether the re;uov;il of such causes would be a 
sullici'ent "remedy tor the said depression. Whether in the event of the 

could be prosecuted with success, and which would find adequate 
employment for the population : and what would be the probable result 
of ;t complete failure of the sugar industry on the condition of the 
labouring classes, both West Indian and; Ka.-i Indian, and on the 
revenue of those Colonies, and whether any deficiency of revenue 
caused by the extinction of the sugar industry could be met by 
economies in the administration without, imperial aid." 

Botanical Magazine for January.— The plants figured are: — A m- 
tolocliia vhj junta, Cy.,,..//- .-./,,. ,urco$/n/i, Berkheya Adlami, Croton 
Eluteria, and Ji'ujmui in hmrii, atoria. The figure of the last-mentioned 
was prepared from a specimen received from t 

and of the others from plants in cultivation at Kew. The Aristolochia, 
native of New Grenada, is allied to A. Duchartrei, but the flowers are 
much larger. The Kew plants were received from Messrs. F. Sander 
& Co., of St. Alban's, in 1892. The Cynoglossum, the largest flowered 
of the Himalayan -pecies. was raised from seeds sent to Kew by Mr. 
J. F. Duthie, in I.S'H. llrrlihvya .Id/ami is a new species from the 
Transvaal. K. W. Adlam, Esq., of Johannesberg, forwarded seeds to 
Kew in ISO.",, and these produced plants which flowered in Juue 1896. 
The Croton is of considerable commercial interest as the source of 
" Cascarilla Bark." The species, native of the Bahamas, was reintro- 
duced into Europe in 1887, when three plants Avere sent to Kew by 
F. B. Taylor, Esq., of the Bahamas. Bignonia buccinatorta, From 
Central Mexico, has large, handsome flowers. It is figured in the 
Botanical Register as B. Cherere. 

Botanical Magazine for February. — Myrmecodia Antoinii, Maxil- 
laria sanderiana, Ligustrum coriaconn, I'arat nri/»m heliocarpum, 
and Hemipilia amethystina are figured. The Myrmecodia, native of 
the islands of Torres Straits, is a sh, i. which ba- 

its stem very much enlarged at the base (see Kew Bulletin, IS<>7, 
p. 86). The flowers are insignificant. The plant figured was presents! 
to Kew by Professor Stewart, F.R.S., and flowered in a stove in 
January 1896. Maxillaria sanderiana is probably the finest species 
of the genus. It is a native of Ecuador, where it grows at an altitude 
of 1.00O t'rci. 'I he .Tapanis. l.i<i»st ,■•'„, was drawn from a plant sent 
to Kew by Mr. Rashleigh, of Menabilly, in 1889. The Paracarytnn is 
a West Himalayan -■•peries, which flowered in the Herbaceous Ground 
in May of last vcar, seeds having been sent to Kew by ,T. F. Duthie, 
Esq.. F.L.S.. Director of the I in ianieal Department of Northern India. 
The Hi mipilia is a new specie- from Burma, and was >:ent to Kew by 
Messrs, W. I*. Lewis & Co., of Southgate. 

Supplement to the Index Kewensis. — It is satisfactory to be able to 
announce that M. Th. Durand and Mr. \\. Daydon Jackson have made 
arrangements for printing their 10 years' supplement to the Index 
h'rireltsix, which will bring the work down to the end of the year 1895. 
It i- hoped it mav be issued during the present year. 

Bambuseaj of British India.— The publication of Mr. Gamble's 
exhaustive monograph of ih. liambo-.s ..I" Mriti«h [miia was announced 
in a previous number ot the Hull, fin. Sir ,I..s<-pli Honker has used it 
sis the basis of bis own revision of the Group in the Flora of British 
India. He has prefaced this with the following interesting note :— 

"The following account of the Indian Bambusets is drawn up, almost 
verbatim, from Mr. Gamble's ' Bamboos of British India,' which forms 
part of vol. vii. of Dr. King's Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens of 
Calcutta, :md of which Dr. King favoured me with a copy in advance, 
h his and Mr. Gamble's permission to reproduce its contents 
in a form suited to the < Flora of British India.' In doing this I have 
been obliged to curtail the descriptions. And in order to preserve the 
arrangement of matter adopted in this work, I have had to substitute 

for the Key- to (lie species employed by Mr Gamble, specific chnracfois 
selected according to iny judgment from bis detailed de.-eriptions; ami 
in a few cases to >ub.-i';; ai t< rms f.r those he ha- 

used. I have added nothing; for it is obvious that a botanist of 
Mr. Gamble's ability mid wide experience of so many of the Indian 
P>amboos in .ving access also to the unrivalled 

collections in the Herbarium of the Calcutta Gardens, should have 
exhausted the subject in so far as materials were available. It must not 
be supposed that this work supersedes his 'Bamboos of Brit id i India. 
which is indispensable to the student of the tribe, by reason of its fulh r 
descriptions, and admirable plates and analyses. My cordial thanks are 
directly due to Dr. King and Mr. Gamble for this generous contribution 
the 'Flora of British India,' and indirectly for the authentically named 
collection of specimens corresponding to Mr. Gamble's d 
which has been presented by the Government of India to the Herbarium 
of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

" Since the above was written, Mr. Freeman Mitford's The Bamboo 
Garden has appeared, a work replete with valuable observations upon 
the habit, mode of growth, and other characters of the hardy specie- of 
Bamboo (including 5 Indian) cultivated bv him. In it is pointed out 
(see Anntdinaria S'imoni, p. 60) for the first time the true character- i f 
the two types of sheath i Hanibiisar, and which 

do not obtain, so far as I know, in any other tribe of grasses. In a 
communication which Mr. M it Ford has been good enough to make to me 
on this subject he has formulated his views as follows, and has kindly 
allowed me to introduce them here. 

"The sheath is an oigan phi} ing so important a part in the life of the 
bamboo that it deserves son* thing mere than a cursory notice. In the 
grasses generally the sheath is regarded by botanists as taking the place 
of the petiole of the leaf. It happens, however, that the leaves of most 
bamboos — indeed of all the hardy bamboos — have a distinct continuation 
of the midrib of the leaf attaching it to the sheath and articulated, which 
light perhaps be correctly termed 

bamboos, as it appears, bear sheaths of two types. Th 

3 re is first of all 

the series of sheaths which, borne one on each node and 

round the culm or branch, as the case may be, protect it 

This form of sheath is divided or split transversely in 

the ligule and the limbus or blade, the latter being what 

: I would term a 

psoudophyll, or false leaf, sessile, lacking both niidi 

rib and petiole, 

varying in size in the different species, but always the fir 

st part to wither 

and disappear. In some bamboo — those of the Phyllo 

this sheath falls away as soon as branching takes pla< 

pej in others, of 

the Arundinaria group, it remains, and having gua 

growth of the parent calm or branch it springs asid( 

■ with the young 

branches or branchlet-. devoting the remainder of i 

protection until the}- can stand alone. 

i aii-e- as to whither there is any t 
; of blade, or whether I 
any Bamboos I can trace such a t 
each successive pseudophyll on 

becomes more and more like a true leaf, something of the nature of an 
arrested midrib being ; ^-lophylls which are found 

near the top of the culm, though it is not until the last branching node 
has been passed thai tin- tru< h-af-bi aring -heaths occur. The principle 
remains inviolate (throughout the hardy species at any rate), and the 
distinction between the two classes of sheaths is absolutely mi 
—A. B. F. M. 

"I would remark in conclusion that Mr. Mi t ford's observations, 
extending to the nervation of the leaves of Bamboos, lead him to the 
conclusion that of those cultivated by him in the open air in the middle 
of England, the truly hardy only have tessellated leaves ; the tender. 
such as Ariindinaria Fah inconspicuous 

transverse nervules, or none." — J. D. H. 

Insular Floras. — Amongst recent additions to the library 1. :."■_ 
upon thi> Mibjei-i the following are worthy of note. The Flore de Vile 
de la Reunion, by Dr. E v. contains an account of 

the Phanerogams, Vascular Cryptogams, and Muscineai of the island. 
The volume is prefaced by a short description of the island and its 
explorers. The cryptogj gi) number 793, while the 

amount to 1,156, ol ■ tyledons. The 

order with most represent ith 172 species, including 

many curious novelties described by Mons. Ch. Frappier, specimens of 
some of which have been presented to the Herbarium bv Dr. Cordemoy. 
Next to the Orchideee in point of numbers come the Graminea; with 94 

L'Arrhipcl de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, by Dr. Aug. Bernard, 
contains a complete account of the islands of this group, including two 
i hapten den I ch is said to 

comprise 2,02b' j i m< rogan - nd 905 cryptogams and to be the richest 
flora amongst those of the Pacific Archipelagos. 

Flora de Juan Fernandez, by Dr. F. Johow, contains in addition to 
an enumeration of the plants, an account of the geographical and 
geological conditions of the archipelago. 

New Guinea Plants.— Sir W. MacGn 
collection of plants made on Mount Sc 
at altitudes varying from 4,000 to 13,000 feet. At the higher altitudes 
two species of Vaccinium and several of Rhododendron were met with. 
Eitih.t im<l(-.-nb«il ^ecies of grasses were collected. At lower 
elevations Poh/ijonntn c/tua-nsr, I., and Cord, /line /cnnhialis, Kunth, 
were found, as' well as Sola, mm ton-tun. Swtz., a specie* winch has 
proved troublesome to agriculturalists in Assam (Vee K, w fhdfrfin, 
W). p. c,;}). A second collection, presented l>\ Messrs. Veitch, was 
made by Mr. Burke between the coast and a height of 4,000 ft, on the 
Owen Stanley range in the south-east peninsula. The plants in this 
collection are of a tropical type and include a curious new species of 

Vanilla cultivation in the Seychelles.— In continuation of informa- 
tion that has already appeared in the Kew Bulletin, 1392, 111 (with 
plate), the following particulars have been communicated to this 
establishment by the Secretary of State for the Colonics :— 

Administrator of Seychelles to Colonial Office. 

Government House, Seychelles, 

Sir, September 25, 1896. 

I have the honour to report thaithe remit of the Vanilla crop 
for this year is most satisfactory. The crop up to the present (it is not 
quite all gathered) is returned at 40,000 lbs., and has realised over half 

The prices have been i ._. I am told, to a re- 

duced exportation of Vanilla from Mexi<<>. Seychelles Vanilla is now 
well and favourably known both in the London and Paris markets. 

(Signed) H. Cock burn Stewart, 
To the Eight Hon. Administrator. 

JosEr/H Chamberlain, M.P., 

Next to cocoanut oil, Vanilla is our most important produce, and in a 
good year the crop gives a return of about Es. 400,000. Unfortunately, 
vanilla is a most capricious plant, and, whereas we may have a good 
crop for two consecutive years, we may have also three, or even four, 

Botanic Station, Old Calabar. — The following is an extract from a 
letter received from Mr. John Henry Holland, whose appointment as 
Assistant Curator of the Botanic Station in the Niger Coast Protectorate 
was announced in the Kew Bulletin, 1896, p. 147. 

"The gardens are well situated, on rising ground, covering 
about 45 acres. This includes a large area planted with coffee, a small 
proportion with cacao, whilst experimental grounds and nursery occupy 
: part. There is, 1 can assure you, plenty to do. 

" The quarters are good, situated con\< ni'iitiv ii tin gardens, on a hill 
about 1G0 feet high. We have not a very extensive view of the 
surrounding eountrv, heing parth .■■ . ' •- d with dense bush. We can, 
however, see Duke Town at the foot of the hill, and catch a glimpse 
of the river, with an occasional sight of a steamer passing by to the 

Spanish Chestnut— The cultivation of the Spanish chestnut 1 
got beyond the experimental stage in Bashahr. Some of tb 
planted 15 years ago are now 30 feet high and four feet ir 

Fresh plants have been put out and oilier- »li-i i-PmiI-imI to villagers 
The present yield of nuts amounts to about 10 maunds. (/'nx/y n 
Report of Forest Administration in the Punjab i'or 1801-5, p. 14). 

Kei-Apple as 
(Alnria Caffra, 

(K\nu ii-aunMh\ ! loi n .,,„ . i .i . ikes excellent hedges. It is 
evergreen and hears fruits lib small } llowish apples. When fresh 
they are acid and u^-od as a pickle; when ripe they make a good jam. 
The JVaihato Tinas of New Zealand, recommends the Koi-apple as 
a hedge plant in the following terras : — 

" One is always hearing complaints nowadays of the paucity of good 
plants suitable for hedge purposes. This harbours the wheat rust or 
the leech, but dies out in patches, while another would be admirable 
were the cows not so fond of it. This being so, the thank- oil the 
community an due to Ah. A. I\ mp.M. ..f Pain.-;!, Cm- his enterprise in 
o ftting the * Kei Apple.' It was Sir George Qrey, 
I believe, who first mentioned the shrub, which grows wild upon the 
Karoo, or sandy plains of South Africa, and it certainly seems ;1 perfect 
hedge plant. It is a sturdy, stocky, short-jointed grower, an evergreen, 
and with thorns which grow to six inches long and over, and a ' perfect 
terror to evil doers,' be they beasts or human beings. As an added 
advantage, the {. ■ ale plans (they are of hoih - es) ruit heavily. 

gage, which are both pleasant eating and make ;m exquisite lain. 
On-hardist- ■ ... hrid> in mind when planting/' 

To this the following note is added in the Agrievltural Journal 
of the Cape of Good Hope : — 

"It will be noticed that a wrong part of the country is stated to be 
the native habitat of this plant, but all the good qualities as a hedge 
plant are perfectly true. In some old book of travels in South Ai'riV-a 
it is stated that on the eastern coast there were ' wild apricots ' ; were 
these Kei sl pples r Few people like to eat the fruit raw, but the jam is 
first rate. A proportion of Kei apple with tomato would make a good 

Dr. J. R. Roth. — In consequence of a misreading of the name of the 
collector of a & . seated to Kew 

by the Honourable East India Company, and the consequent writing of 
this name— Eohr, — on all the labels accompanying the plants, some 
confusion has arisen. Se to !„. named ; c (( , fo$ 

collector bear the spurious name. Dr. J. R. Roth was the real collect. >r. 
He wa.- att m h | by the British Govern 

ment, in 1*41, to Sahela Selassie, the King of Shoa, in Southern 
Abyssinia. Mi W C< i 1 11 i II u ,■' ,tl ,]■ of the almost forgotten 
• II -' "I*' 1 - <•' -1th, /■: was at t]i. head ol fh< mi-ion, and in his 
book he speaks very highly of Dr. Roth, who contributed the appendix 
on the natural history of the country. Dr. Roth had previously 
travelled in Egypt, Arabia, and Syria, with Drs. Schubert and Erdl. 
Subsequently lie became Pr ■■ !'.:>«or of Xatural History at Munich, and 
in 1858 he m ' the East, but soon succumbed to 

fever on the route from Beyruth to Mount Hermon. 


As ere e rubra, La Bill. 


Chitoma rubnceps, C.&M. 

Flamitmla purpurata ,C.&M 

Botrytis corolligeria ,C.&M x 200. 




No. 124.] APRIL. [1897. 


The area of the Royal Gardens is a little more than 250 acres. If 
300 acres, or neai Iwilf i * u n I. I 'aken with tl Old Deer Park 

Richmond, and on the oilier bv tin 1 hiidi road between these two places. 
Of the Royal Gardens themselves soma 100 acres is little disturbed In- 

proposed to work out and catalogue from time to time. Mr. G. 
Nicholson, A. L.S., the present Curator, enumerated the flowering plants 
occurring spontaneously in tlu Jounnil <>f Ilohnit/ for LH75. A striking 
pteuliarity ol this list "is the very small number of naturalised 

In the 

; case of F 


as will be 

sean from 

t'ne follow g e r 



is verv < 


The f< 

blowing e 

■ minor 

ation of 33 

7 genera a 

nd 1340 species ill 

the riehr 

n-ss of rl, 

e Alv 

eolo-ie hi, 

Royal Gardens, wl 


< m point 


ibors, as :d 

so 111 tl».' V 

ariety of rare and i 

ing species, any ot 
This is only peri 


be expert 

As illustrative of the exotic element him v \y mentioned Wutula 
Wyn»irr, Berk, and Broome, first described", Liu May Nut. Hist, 
1879, p. 20G), from specimens found in a stove in the Gardens; this 
spe ( ies h i- r< . 1 1 1 1 \ ! i r- v . hod n > , i_ht m I "t !h i-bam . 

green light. It is figured by Cooke ( Ili» it. Brit. Fn,tf/., pi. 688). 

FliuiiDiniu /jurpan/lif, Cke. ct Mass., a very beautiful fungus, was 
established (Grev.. xviii., 73) from specimens growing on the trunk of a 
tree-fern in one „t tin , n hou -, , h since been r, •< h d from 
Xcw Zealand, its undoubted heme. Aserbt rvbru, La Bill., the most 

V/WV/> /V/. i.H ml _ on' l i ki. "i .p.. i. ., m ,r,. nted U ( 
rnbriceps, Vkv. & Mass. (Gw., xv., o7), found on soil in the Aroid 
House, but all ruber of an exotic genus, no clue as to 

its native habitat it ■- yet 1 e a obtained. 

Coming to micro-copic forms, we find thai, the list contains a still 
greater per-centage of introduced species, i.e , species new to the British 
list, and growing on exotic plants. The genus Phoma heads the list 

•■■■.;'■■' ■ 

at Kew, so far as the British Isles are concerned, and of these above 
thirty were first established from Kew material by Dr. Cooke, who 
paid special attention to this genus. 

Xot a single example, however, of a has proved 

to be destructive to plants, has been introduced to Kurope through 

The indigenous species of fungi belonging to the Agaricineie— pro- 
bably due to a great extent to the absence ofVattle in (he grounds— are 
fewer than would be expected, with the following notable exceptions. 
In the genus FhsshIu fifty-two species have been obser\ed during the 

lender them very conspicuous objects in the Arboretum during late 
summer and early autumn. Another genus containing species of 
sufficient size and brilliancy of colour to attract; popular attention i- 
linhtus, which numbers twenty-six species. 

A fairly good collection of specimens of fungi, along with models and 
; No. 2 Museum. 

A word of thanks is due to the members of the Garden staff, 
interested in Mycology, for the discovery of numerous species, which, 
but for their zeal, would u >\ ha e upp< uvd in * he present list. 

The host-plant, or mafix. on which each fungus occurred, has been 


Amanita, Fries, 
A. virosa, Fries. 

Among grass. Poisonous, 
A. Mappa, Batsch. 

Under beeches, A. 
A. phallo 

A dangerous spe 

been proved that a large 
percentage of the accid.'ii"ts 
caused- by fungus poisoning, 
both in thl- con 





Lepiota — coat. 

ll ha> 


>y tins species. A 
exhibited in No. 2 

A large, showy fungus, the cap 
when expanded often as large 
as a dinner-nlaie, brilliant 

when broken. Care must be 
taken not to confound this 
species with Amanita 
pantherina, which is poison- 

Under trees. P 

flesh remains 

when broken. 

A. spissa, Fries. 

Under beeches. 

Amanitopsis, Karstei 

Lepiota, Fries. 
L. procera, Scop. 
Edible. Popul 
the parasol 

B., Q. 

L. rachodes, Vitt. 

Edible; similar in flavour and 
appearance to L. proa ra. Q. 
Var. puellaris, Fries. A. 
L. excoriata, Schaeft. 

Edible B. 
L. leucothites, Vitt. 

Edible. B. 
L. Badhami, Berk. $ Broome. 

Under Sequoia sempervirens.A.. 

L. emplastra, Che. $ Mass. 

Under Cedrus Libdni. This 

species was founded on 

specimens collected in the 

gardens and is described 

L. clypeolaria, Bull. 
L. cristata, Fries. J 
L. cepsestipes, Sow. 

Berk. Sf Broome. 
On soil in Palm house. Avery 
elegant fungus, a native of 
Ceylon, established by Berke- 
ley and Broome (Journ. Li,r,i 
Soc, Bot. xi., .500) ; figured 
in Cooke's niustr. Brit. 
Fungi, pi. 1179. 
L. carcharia, Pers. 

Under Finns sylrestris. A. 
L. granulosa, Batsch. 

Under Pinns si/lvestrh. A. 
L. martialis, Che. $ Mass. 

On palm stem in Palm house. 
L. ianthina, Che 
On soil in a stcve. 

Armillaria, Fries. 
A. mellea, Vahl. 

On the ground, round roots of I 

destroying trees, especially 
attacking those that have 
been injured near the base of 
the trunk. When the disease 
is once established, the cord- 
like mycelium or spawn 
spreads in the ground until 

Tricholoma, Fries. 
T. portentosum, Fries. 

T. flavo-briumeum, Fries. 

Under trees. Q. 
T. albo-brunneum, Pcrs. 

Under trees. A. 
T. rutilans, Schaeff. 

T. terreum, Fries. 

Under trees. Q. 
T. saponaceum, Fries. 

On the ground. A. and 
T. sulfureum, Bull. 

On the ground. A., P. 
T. ionides, Bull. 

Among grass. A. 
T. carneum, Bull. 

T. album, Schaeff. 

Under beeches. Fir^i observed 

at Kew. Deseribcd ( (in i:, 

xii., 41); figured (Must,: 

Brit. Fung., pi. 640). A. 

T. personatum, Fries. 

Among grass. Edible. One 

species which, in 

"Blue-caps." A.. B. 
T. nudum, Fries. 

Among grass. Edible; p 
ferred by some people 
T. personation, which 

T. melaleucum, Fries. 

On the naked ground. A., 13. 
Var. porphyroleucum, Fries. 

T. brevipes, Bull. 

On the ground. A. 
T. humile, Fries. 

On heaps of dead leaves. A. 
T. sordidum, Fries. 

On heaps of dead leaves. A. 
T. Pes-caprae, Schaeff. 

On the ground under beeches. A. 
T. circumtectum, Cke. $ Mass. 

Under beeches. First found 

in the gardens in 1886, and 

afterwards in abundance in 

Yorkshire (('/„:, lltlbk.. ed. 

ii., 382; ttlustr. Brit Finn/.. 

pi. 1182). A. 
T. tenuiceps, Cke, $ Mass. 

Under trees. (Cite. IIdbk.,ed. 
ii., 398 : lllvtr. Brit. Futuj., 
pi. 116b'.) A. 
T. Russula, Schaeff. 

Among grass. A . 
T. suhpulverulentum, Fries. 

Among grass. A. 
T. cuneifolium, Fifes. 

Under trees. P. 
T. grammopodium, Fries. 

Among short grass. A., Q. 

Jnder trees among lenves. 
Edible ; a large fleshy fungus 
having an excellent flavour, 
fairly abundant, and not easily 

C. clavipes, 
C. odorus, /• 

C. phyllophilus, i'r 
C. pithyophilus, /■'/■ 

Collybia— coiit. 
C. fusipes, Bull. 
Among grass in 
Edible. A. 
C. macnlata, Alb. $ j 
Among grass. A. 
C. distorta, Fries, 

C. confluens, Par* 
C. conigena, Pen, 


C. tuberosa, 
C. nitellina, , 

C. tenacella, / 
C. dryophila, i 

A., Q. 
C. aquosa, Ad 

Collybia, fHe#. 
C. platyphylla, 

Collybia — cant. 
C. prolixa, Fries. 

On the ground near st 
Mycena, Fries. 

M. pelianthina, Fries. 
Anions: le 

A., Q. 
M. lineata, Bull. 

M. luteo-alba, Bull. 

Among short grass. A 
M. rugosa. Fries. 

M. galericulata, Scop. 

On stumps. A.,Q. 

Var. calopus, Fries. 

On stumps. A. 

M. polygramma, Bull. 

On stumps. A., B. 

M. dissiliens, Fries. 

Mycena— cont. 
M. leucogala, Che. 

On a stump. A peculiar little 
fungus of a dark purple 

stem is broken a white milky 
looking fluid exudes in drops. 
(Grer.xl, II; Illustr. Brit. 
Fung., pi. 653.) A. 
M. epipterygia, Scop. 

Among leaves and on bnuiehe- 
lving on the ground. A., Q. 
M. pelliculosa, Fries, 
Among grass. A. 
M. vulgare, Pers. 

On twigs and on leaves on the 
ground. A. 
M. consimile, Cke. 

Among leaves. (Grev. xix., 41 ;. 
Illustr. Brit. Fung., ph 
1186.) Q. 
M. citrinella, Pers. 

Among dead leaves. A. 
M. rorida, Fries. 

M. amnion:;: 

Among grass. A. 
M. metata, Fries. 

M. tenella, Fries. 

Among short grass. A., P. 
M. acicula, Schaeff. 

On leaves and small t w in- 
lying on the ground. B. 
M. sanguinolenta, Alb. $ Schtc. 

M. galopoda, Pers. 

On the ground among leaves. 

M. discopoda, Pers. 

On brandies, &c. A, 
M. corticola, Schum. 

On bark of trees. A. 
J M. hiemale, Osbeck. 

i Omphalia, Fries. 

j 0. hydrogramma, Fries.. 

\ 0. pyxidata, Bull. 

( >u 1 

0. muralis, Sow. 

On dry banks. A. 
0. infumata, Berk $ Broome. 

Among grass and moss. A. 

Omphalia— cont. 
0. umbellifera, L. 
On banks. A. 

Pleurotus— cont. 
P. algidus, Fn 

0. griseo-pallida, Dam, 

0. Campanella, Batsck, 

Among moss and short g] 
0. Fibula, Bull. 

Var. Swartzii, Frit -. 

P. hypnophilus, Pers. 

Pleurotus, Fries. 
P. corticatus, Fries. 

On trunks, A. 
P. ulmarius, Bull. 

P. ostreatus, Jtocg'. 

On fallen trunks. Many ]>.•<<], Ir 


otus ostreatus, the 
;r fungus," so called 
ount of its cap resemb- 
i oyster-shell in shape, 
grows on wood, yet 
universally acknow- 

. columbinus, Bres. 

»n stumps, Q. 

, Fries. 

w trunks by the lake. 

P. tremnlus, Sc/uieff. 
P. acerinus, Fries. 

Hygrophorus, Fries. 
H. eburneus, Bull. 

Among grass under trees. Q. 
H. aureus, Arrh. 

Among grass. A. 
H. hypothejus, Fries. 

Among grass. A. 
H. mesotephrus, Berk. $ Broome. 

Among grass. A. 
H. livido-albus, Berk. $ Broome. 

H. pratensis, Pers. 

Edible. A. 
H. virgineus, Wnlf, 

Among grass. ( t >. 
H. distans, Berk. 

Among grass. Q. 
H. Clarkii, Berk. $ Br\ 

H. irrigatus, Pers. 

Among grass. A. 
H. ceraceus, IVulf. 

Among grass. A. 
H. coccineus, Schaeff. 

Open places among 

Hygrophorus— cont. 
H. miniatus, Fries. 

Among short grass. Q 
H. puniceus, Fries. 

Among grass under trees. A. 
H. obrusseus, Fries. 

Short grass in open places. A. 
H. conicus, Scop. 

Among grass in open places. A. 
H. calyptraeformis, Berk. 

Among grass in open places. A. 
Var. niveus, Cke. 
Among grass. A. 
H. chlorophanus, Fries. 

Grassy places. A., P. 
H. psittacimis, Schaeff. 
Among short grass A. 
Lactarius, Fries, 

L. torminosus, Schaeff. 

Among grass. A very elegant 
fungus of a pale butf colour, 
and covered, especially mar 
the margin, witi 

exudes a quantity of milky- 
looking fluid when broken. 
In some species this fluid is 
white, like milk, in others 

of La 

L. controversus, Pers 
Under trees. A. 

L. pubescens, Schtad. 
Grassy places. A. 

L. blennius, Fries. 

Lactarius— cont. 

L. aurantiacus, Fries. 

Among grass. A. 
L. rufus, Scop. 

Under pines. A. 
L. glyciosmus, Fries. 

Under trees. A., Q. 
L. volemus, Fries. 

On the ground under 
Edible. A., Q. 
L. serifluus, DC. 

Under trees. A., Q. 
L. subdulcis, Bull. 

Among grass under trees. 

Russula, Fries. 
R. nigricaa 

E. albo-nigra, Kromb. 

Among grass. A. 
R. adusta, Fries. 

R. densifolia, Gillet. 

Under beeches. A. 
R. musteliua, Fries. 

Under beeches. A. 
R. olivascens, Fries. 
Under oaks. A. 
R. furcata, Fries. 
Under tiees. A., Q. 
Var. pictipes, Cke. 
Under trees. A. 
Var. ochroviridis, Cke. 

R. rosacea, Fries. 

( Ira-sy places. A. 
R. maculata, Q»4let. 

R. sardonia, Fries. 



R. lactea, Pers. 

R. foetens, Pers. 

Under beeches. A. 

Under trees. A., Q. 

Var. incarnata, Queiet. 

R. subfoetens, W. O. Smith. 

Under beeches. A. 

Under beeches A. 

R. virescens, Schaeff. 

R. fellea, Fries. 

Among grass. A. 

Under trees. Entirely pale 

R. cutefracta, Che. 
Under pines. A. 

straw colour, taste very bit- 
ter. Poisonous. A. 

R. expallens, Gillet. 

R. rubra, Fries. 

Under trees among grass. A. 

Among grass under trees. A., 


Var. sapida, Queiet. 

R. elegans, Bres. 

Among grass under beeches. A . 

Under beeches. A. 

R. emetica, Fries. 

R. Linnaei, Fries. 

Among grass. A very hrautil'u! 

Under beeches. A. 

fungus, cap varying from 
pale ro:e-colour to deep 

R. xerampelina. s,-lmt ii\ 

t. serotina, Qudlet. 

specimen out of scores 

Shady places among grass. 


eaten UOt A been "^ ^ 

1. vesca, Fries. 

' rim^us is edible, and 


Var. Clusii, Fries. 
Among grass. A. 

t aa 

Var. fallax, Schaeff. 

there are so many poisonous 

Among grass. A. 

species in the genus, it re- 
quires knowledge to be cer- 
tain that you are dealing 

R. fingibilis, Britz. 

Among grass under oaks. 

with the right species. 

R. pectinata, Bull. 

1. lilacea, Queiet. 

On the ground under trees. 

Under various trees. A. 

R. ochracea, Fries. 

t. cyanoxantha, Schaeff. 

Under trees. A. 

( i r.i— y places. A. 

R. granulosa, Che. 

t. heterophylla, Fries. 

Under trees. A, Q. 

Among grass under oaks. 


R. aeruginea, Fries. 

1. galochroa, Bull. 

R. citrina, Gillet. 

i. consobrina, Fries. 

Grassy and shady places. 

Among grass under trees. 


R. fragilis, Fries. 

Var. intermedia, Che. 

Among grass. A. 

Under beeches. A. 

Var. niveus, Pers. 

Var. sororia, Fries. 

U, and'lete S "T" * 

Under beeches. A.. 

R. punctata, Gillet. 
Among grass. A. 
Var. leucopus, Cke. 

R. veternosa, Flies. 

Among grass under trees. 
R. integra, L. 

Amon? grass under oaks 
beeches. A. 
R. decolorans, Fries. 
Among grass. A. 
R. Barlae, Quelet. 
Under beeches. A. 
Var. cuprea, Kromb. 
I T nder beeches. A. 
R. nitida, Pers. 

Among short grass under t 

A., q. 

R. alutacea, Fries. 

, Che. 

R. puellaris, Fries, 

Among shod grass. A 
Var. intension ( 'In . 

Tinder beecl 

grass, A. 

II. ochroleuca, Pers. 

Among grass under beeches. A. 
t. chamaeleontina, Fries. 
On naked ground under beeches. 

Cantharellus— cont. 

agreeable smell, r 


of the 

perly prepared. A. 
C. aurantiacus, Fries. 

places. Somewhat resem- 
bling C. cibarins in colour 
and general appearanr-e, 1'ut 
" rer plant. Poisonous. 


A., Q. 
C. carbonarius, Alb 

Burnt ground. Q. 
C. infundibuliformis, Fries. 

Among grass. A. 
C. nmscigenus, Butt. 

On mosses (Hypnum). A. 
C. lobatus, Fries. 
On mosses. A. 
Nyctalis, Fries. 
N. aster ophora, Fries. 

On dead fungi (Russula 
c/ricans). Q. 

Marasmius, Fries. 
M. tirens, Fries. 
Among grass. A. 

ves : the 


place,. A., Q. 

Among short grass. 
R. vitellina, Pers. 
Under trees. A. 
Cantharellus, Fries. 
C. cibarius, Fries. 

Under beeches. A thick, fleshy 
fungus of a uniform 
dull orange 

France and Italy. A., P., Q. 
M. pra3iosmus, Fries. 

Among dead leaves under trees. 

Marasmius— cont. 
M. archyropu-, Fries. 

M. ramealis, Bull. 
M. alliaceus, Jacq. 

On dead twigs. A., P. 
M. Hudsoni, Per*. 

On dead holly leaves. A. 
M. epiphyllus, Fries. 

On dead leaves. A., Q. 

Lentinus, Fries. 
Ii. tigrinus, Fries. 

Volvaria, Fries. 

V. bombycina, Schaeff. 

On living elm trees. A very 

beautiful fungus, sometimes 
growing to a large size. 

A specimen of tlii- t'nngns 

pound- ; diameter of cap when 
expanded, 14 inches ; stem 
S inches long by 2 inches 
thick; gills 1± inches broad. 
A figure along with the 

V. gloiocephala, Fries. 

On the ground. Poisonc 
V. temperata, Berh. .v F,n 

L. lepideus, Fries. 

P. stypticus. Fries. 


On fir rails. Q. 
Hiatula, Fries. 

H. Wynniae, Berk. $ Broome. 

On soil in a stove. Phos- 
phorescent in the dark, emit- 
ting a pale greenish light. 
A native of Ceylon. (Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 1879, p. 
206 ; iint. Fimr/.. 
pi. 688.) 

A., P. 

E. rhodopolhim, Fri< s. 

E. sericeum, B*U. 

En grassy places. 
E. nidorosnm, Frie. 

On the ground 

Clitopilus, Fries. 

1 Pholiota— cont. 

C. prunulus, Scop. 

P. radicosa, Bull. 

Under trees. A. 

On the ground near trunks. Q. 

C. cancrinns, Fries. 

P. Aegerita, Fries. 

On the ground. A. 

On trunks. Q. 

C. cameo albus, Wither. 

P. squarrosa, Mull. 

Among grass. A. 

On stumps. A. 

Leptonia, Fries. 
L. lampropoda, Fries. 

P. spectabilis, Fries. 

Ou trunks. Q. 
P. adiposa, Fries. 

L. anatina, Lasch. 

On trunks. Q. 

Among short grass. A. 

P. mutabilis, Scheie f. 
On logs, A. 

L. serrulata, Pers. 

Among grass. A., P. 

P. marginata, Batsch. 

L. chalybea, Pers. 

On fallen pine leaves. A. 

On stumps. Q. 

Inocybe, Fries. 

L. chloropolia, Fries. 

I. pyriodora, Pers. 

Among short grass. A. 

On the ground under trees. 

A., Q. 

Nolanea, Fries. 

I. incarnata, Bres. 

N. pascua, Pers. 

Among grass under trees. Q. 

Among short grass. A., P. 

I. scaber, MM. 

N. mammosa, Fries. 

On the ground. A. 

Among grass. A. 

I. fasciata, Cke. % Mass. 

Eccilia, Fries. 

A species remarkable in the 

E. Acus, IV. G. Smith. 

genus Inocybe for growing 
in dense tufts, {(in r. wii , 

52 ; III ust r. Brit. Fungi, pi. 

E. rhodocylix, Lasch. 

On the ground. A. 

I. Bongardii, Weinm. 

Claudopus, W. G. Smith. 

Among short grass. A. 

C. variabilis, Pers. 

I. echinata, Roth. 

On twigs. A. 

On soil in the Temperate House. 

C. depluens, Batsch. 

I. asterospora, Quelet. 

On wood. A., Q. 

On the ground under trees. A. 

C. byssisedus, Pers. 

I. perbrevis, Weimn. 

On wood. A., Q. 

Among short grass. A. 

Pholiota erebia, Fries. 

I. scabella, Fries. 

On the ground under cedars. 

On the ground under trees. 


Varying in colour from pure 

P. togularis, BuU. 
On the ground. A. 

white to ;t lie.mtiful pale lilac. 

P. dura, Bolton. 

I. geophylla, Sow. 

On the ground under trees. 
A form with a pule l»lui>h- 

P. praecox, Pers. 

grey pileu< is not uncom- 

Among grass. A ., P. 

mon sometimes white. A., P. 

Hebeloma, Fries. 

H. fastibile, Fries. 


ceratodes, Fries. 

On the ground unde 


Smell strong and unp 



melinoides, Fries'. 

poisonous. A. 

Among short grass. A 

H. fir mum, Fries. 


striaepes, Che. 


sylvestris. A. 

This remarkably fine 

H. claviceps, Fries. 

of Xaucoria was i 

On the ground. A. 

Herbarium iu'l's^l.' 

H. mesophaeum, Fries. 

been ' noted in th 

Under fir trees. A. 

locality every year si 

On the ground near 


lected in York-hire. 

A., Q. 

/■'»n(/i, pi. 178.) 

H. crustuliniforme, Bull. 


pediades, Fries. 

:r> ; 

F. purpurata, Cke. $ Mass. 
~~ On tree-fern stems ; in the Fer 
House. (Grt 
Illustr. Brit. Fhik/i, p 
964.) {See plate.) 
F. gymnopodia, Bull. 
On the ground. A. 

Galera, Fries. 

a. tenera, Schaeff. 

Among grass. A 
G. Hypnorum, Bats, 

Among gra^s eo 

Var. Bryorum, 

On the ground uudi 
F. spumosa, Fries. 

On buried wood. . 
F. carbonaria, Fries. 

On burnt ground. 
F. flavida, Schaeff'. 

On wood. A., Q., 
F. inopoda, Fries. 

T. crobula, . 
Crepidotus, Fr 

species of Hypfo 

F. sapinea, Fries. 

Under pines. A. 

Naucoria, Fries. 

N. hamadrya, Fries. 

Among grass. A. 

European r : 


Hemisphere. (Grer. xv., 
57; Ilttrsti: Brit. Ftnx/i, 
pi. 967.) {See plate.) 
Bolbitius, Fries. 

B. tener, Berk. 
Among grass. A. 

Cortinarius, Juries. 

C. glaucopus, Fries. 

On the ground under trees. Q. 

C. purpurascens, Fries. 

Among grass under trees. Q. 
C. mucifluus, Fries. 
Under trees, A. 
C. ochroleucus, Sc/iaeff. 

Among grass. The most 

genus, whie.h is bur -parsely 
represented in the grounds. 

I Paxillus — cont. 

P. involutus, Batsch. 
On the ground ; cc 
everywhere. Edible. 
P. leptopus, Fries. 
On rotten wood. Q. 
Agaricus, Z. 

Among grass. Ibis is usually 
considered as the most de- 
licious of all edible fungi, 
and is generally spoken of 
as the meadow mushroom. 
Although supposed to be the 
only species sold, it is in 

.. augustus, Fries. 
Naked soil. This beautiful 
species occurred in abun- 

C. cinnamomeiis, Fries. 
Under trees. Q. 

A. arvensis, Schaeff. 

Among grass, it is to be found 

C. torvus, Fries. 

There is some difference of 

sidered superior to the mush- 

opinion in different European 

room. Popularly known as 

countries :is to this species; 

the Horse mushroom. P. 

but specimens from Kew 

A. comptulus, Fries. 

Among grass. A. 


A. sagatus, Fries. 


Under trees. A. 

C. hinnuleus, Fries. 

Stropharia, Fries. 

Under trees. A. 

S. Coronilla, Bull. 

C. leucopus. Bull. 

Among grass. A neat little 

Among grass. A small form of 

fungus, superficially closely 

this spe< i 

resembling ^.ijariai;, touip- 

the gills being iittaeheu l<> 

C. castaneus, Fries. 

the stem. Poisonous. A., P. 

On the ground. A sin 

S. squamosa, Fries. 

men, so far as I am aware, 
has only been collected. A. 

On heaps of leaves and decaying 
vegetable matter in damp 

Paxillus, Fries. 

places. A. 

P. orcelloides, Che. $ Mass. 

S, thrausta, Kalchb. 

On the ground among grass. 

On decaying vegetable matter, 

(Grev.xyl.. 1(5; Ulntr.Brif. 

and on the ground in damp 

Fmgi> pi. 874.) Q. 

places, A., Q. 

Stropharia — cont. 

Psilocybe— cont. 

S. merdaria, Frits. 

::^„ .;, ';." 

On fang. A. 

S. stercoraria, Fries. 
On dung. A, I'. 

P. spadicea, Schavff. 

S. aeruginosa, Curtis. 

ion. Poi- 

P. foenisecii, Pen. 

S. semiglobata, Batsch. 

Psathyra, Fries. 

On dung. Poisouou 

8. A., P. 

P. corrugis, Pers. 

Hypholoma, Fries. 

P. semivesti •., />< /■/,■ 

H. sublateritiurn, Fries 

\ni«ll.r«rr.,^ Iti, 

On stumps. Poisonous. A., Q. 


Var. squamosum, Cke. 

pn.u.s i- covered 

On stumps. A. 

H. epixanthum, Fries. 

On stumps. Q. 
H. fasciculare, Hudson 

Panaeolus, Fru i. 

On and around 


P. egregius, Mass. 

Var. eleodes, /'>/es 

P. fimiputris. Bull. 

On stumps. A. 

On dung. A., P. 

H. velutinum, Pers. 

P. retirugis, Batsch. 

On the ground ne;u 


On dung. A. 

wood. A., (1 

P. campanulatus, /.. 

H. pyrotrichum, llolmr 

On the ground. A. 

P. papilionaceus, 7?^/ 

H. candolleanum, Fries 

ied wood. 

A., P., Q. " 

Anellaria, Karstcu. 

H. appendiculatum, Bit 


A. separata, Karsten. 

On rotten wood. Common. 

On dung. A., P. 

H. catarium, Fries. 

A. fimiputris, Km-.t, , 

On the ground. A. 

On dung. Commo 

H. capnoides, Fries. 

Psathyrella, Fries. 

On the ground near 


P. gracilis, Fries. 


On naked ground ui 

H. hydrophilum, Bull. 

Ac. A. 

On the ground. A. 
Psilocybe, Fries. 

P. hiascens, FWe*. 

P. semilanceata, Pries. 

P. atomata, Fries. 



On the ground un 

Var. coerulescens, 


P. disseminata, Aw 

Among grass. A 

. Differs 

A o & 

from the typical form 

Coprinus, Fries. 

Coprinus —cont. 

C. comatus, Fries. 

\ C. deliquescens, Bull. 

On trunks, heaps of decaying 

leaves, &c. Common. 

gant fungus when well 

C. tardus, Karsten. 

developed, some specimen* 
attaining a height of 14 
inches. One of the best 

On the ground near buried 

and safest of edible fungi. 

C. tuberosus, Quelet. 

A figure of this species is 

On dung. An interesting lilt I. 

exhibited in No. 2 Museum. 

A., Q. 

small black sclerotiuni. The 

C. sterquilinus, Fries. 

1 sclerotia were found hy Mr. 
G. Nicholson, the Curator of 

On dung and rich soil. A., P. 

the Gardens ; the spompliores 

appeared a week after the 

On the ground near decaying 

1 sclerotia wore place:1 in damp 

earth. This is the first British 

record for this species, which 

was established by Ouelet 

( opiums comatus. 

from French specimens (Bull. 

C. soboliferus, Frit*. 

Soc. Bot. France, xxiv.,2M>, 

On the ground. Probably only 
a variety of Cat rami n't'-rii's. 

pi. 3, 1877). B. 
C. Hendersoni, Berk. 

Edible. P. 

On soil in hot beds. 

C. fimetarius, Fries. 

On manure heaps, &c. Com- 

C. Lagopus, Fries. 
On rich soil. A., P. 

C. radiatus, Fries. 

C. niveus, Fries. 

On dung. Common. A very 
minute and delicate fungus 

On dung. Common. 

lasting only for a few hoars ; 

C. raicaceus, Fries. 

C. stercorarius, Fries. 

polts, &J°' Tiro' v'i'mr indent 

On dung, rich soil, &c. Com- 

young isthi.-kh du>tcd with 

C. ephemeras, Fries. 

ure heaps, &c. Corn- 

Boletus, Oil 
B. luteus, 

B. subtomentosus, 

On the ground. The most A 

■- 1 «-«♦ species in the j . 

! B. impolitus. ine-. 
Under trees. A. 

Boletus— cont. 
B. fulvidus, Fries. 
Under trees. A. 
B. castaneus, Bull. 

nut-coloured pileus and stem. 

B. SDadiceus, Schaeft. 

Under trees. A*. 
B. radicans, Pers. 

Under trees. A. 
B. duriusculus, Schulzer. 

On the ground. The flesh 
turns copper-coloured when 
cut or bruised. A. 
B. radicans, Pers. 

Among grass under trees. A. 
B. badius, L. 

Among grass. A., Q. 
B. bovinus, L. 

B. granulatus, L. 

Under trees. Edible. A. 
B. tenuipes, Che. 

Under beeches. A. 
B. regius, Kromb. 

Among grass. A very hc.-iutiful 
fungus with a bun -shaped 
rose-coloured cap or pileus 



pale yellow Mesh instantly 
changes to a deep indigo- 
blue colour when broken. 
Poisonous. A.,Q. 

B. edulis, Bull. 

On the ground. The cap or 
pileus resembles a penny ban 
in shape, size, and col. in 
Edible. Q. 

B. purpureus, Fries. 

Boletns — cont. 

B. rubinus, W. G. Smith. 

Under beeches. A. 
B. viscidus, L. 

Under trees. Q. 
B. laricinus, Berk. 

Among grass. Edible. A.,Q. 
B. caespitosus, Mast, 

Among grass under trees. The 
only British species of Boletus 
that grows in dense cluster.-. 
(Brit. Fungus-Flora, i., 297.) 

Fistnlina, Bull. 
F. Hepatica, Fries. 

On living trunks of old oak 
trees. When well grown 
forming large flaps weighing 
1 !b. to 2 lbs. each. Texture 
fibrous and resembling raw 
beef when cut in sliet s, hence 
the popular name beefsteak 
fungus. Edible. A., B. 
Polyporus, Michel i. 
P. rnfescens, Fries. 

On s 

P. melanopus, Fries. 

On buried wood. A. 
P. picipes, Fries 

On willow truuks. A., Q. 
P. varins, Fries. 

On fallen trunks and stumps. 

Polyporus — cont. 

P. sulphureus, Fries. 
On living trunks of various 
trees. Common. Distin- 
guished by the blight sulphur 
colour of every part, and 
the very disagreeable «nu-ll. 
A destructive parasite to 

P. salignus, Fries. 

On willow trunks, which are 
destroyed by it. A. 
P. dryadeus, Fries. 

Parasitic on oak trunk-, usmilh 
growing near the base. A. 
P. hispidus, Fries. 

On living trunks of various 
trees. A very destructive 
parasite. A., Q. 
P. cuticularis, Fries. 

On beech trunk. A parasitic 

P. mollis, Fries. 

On dead pine wood. Q. 
P. Destructor, Fries. 

On worked wood, which it 

P. betulinus, Fries. 

Parasitic on birch trunks. Q. 
P. fumosus, Fries. 

On stumps. Common. 
P. chioneus, Fries. 

On pine trunks. A. 
P. caesius, Fries. 

On decayed pine trunk. Q. 
P. armeniacus, Berk. 

On stumps and dead wood. Q. 
Fomes, Fries. 
F. lucidus, Fries. 

On decaying trunks. Reddish- 
chestnut colour; the (.ileus 

F. fomentarius, Fries. 

On living trunks of various 
trees, which it eventually 
kills if not removed. The 
substance of this fungus was 
at onetime used for'making 
tinder 5 at the present day it 
is manufactured into a felt- 
like material, which is used 
for making a groat variety of 
articles, as chest preservers, 
purses, si:' 

, &c. A 

F. nigricans, Fries. 

On living birch trunk, 
parasitic species. Q. 
F. salichras, Fries. 

On willow trunks. A. 
F. fraxineus, Fries. 

On old ash trunks. A. 
F. annosus, Fries. 

Base of 

especially to Coi 

F. applanatus, Fries. 

On dead trunks. < 

On willow trunks. A. 
F. ferruginosus, Mass. 
On dead trunks, posts, &c 
Polystictus. Fries. 
P. perennis, Fries. 

On the ground under bi ech< s. 

F. ulmarms, Fries. 
On old elm trunks 

P. ahietinus, Fries. 
On decaying fir tree. 

Poria, Pers. 

P. vaporaria, Fries. 

On fallen branches. Common. 
Usually a saprophyte, but 
sometimes becoming parasitic, 
ami destroying Conifers. 

P. Medulla-panis, Fries. 
On rotten wood. Q. 

(Mi .lend wood. 

T. gibbosa, Fries. 

On stumps. Q, 
T. serpens, Fries. 

On fallen bark. 

On oak stumps. A. 
D. unicolor, Fries, 

On posts. Q. 
Merulius, Hall. 

M. lacrymans, Fries. 

in badly ventilated pines 
Fine specimens of this fungus 

H. Weinmanni, Fries. 

On rotten poplar. Q. 
H. alutaceum, Fries. 

On rotten wood. A. 
H. viride, Fries. 

On rotten wood. A. 
H. niveum, Pers. 

On dead wood. A., Q. 
H. farinaceum, Pers. 

On rotten pine boards. A. 
Caldesiella, Saccardo. 
C. ferruginosa, Saccardo. 
On decaying wood. A. 
Irpex, Fries. 

I. fusco-violaceus, Fries. 

On pine trunks. This fungus 
is said to become parasitic 
on pines. It is doubtful as 
to whether this species is 
more than a form of Poly- 
st ictus abietinus with torn 

Radulum, Fries. 
R. quercinum, Fries. 

On dead oak branches. A. 

Radulum — cont. 
R. orbiculare. Fries. 
On dead bark of v 

Phlebia, Fries. 
P. vaga, Fries. 

Grandinia, Fries. 

On dead wood. A. 
Odontia, Pers. 

0. fimbriata, Pers. 
On fallen branches. 
Kneima, Fries. 


On dead wood. B. 
Cyphella, Fries. 
C. capula, Fries. 

On dead bramble stem. Q. 
C. albo-violacea, Karsten. 

On dead bark. B. 
C. villosa, Karsten. 
On rotten twigs. A, 
Craterellus, Fries. 

C. cornucopioides, Pers. 

On the ground. A quaint 
looking fungus, resembling a 
black funnel with a wavy 
margin. Edible, and with an 
excellent flavour. Q. 
Stereum, Pers. 

On dead branches. Common. 
S. ragosum, Fries, 

On dead branches. Common. 
S. sanguinolentum, Fries. 

On decaying pine plank. The 
hymenium becomes blood-red 
when scratched or !»nii>ed. 


On dead bark, especially of 
Aesculus Hippocastan vrn . A . 
S. hirsutum, Fries. 

On dead trunks, branches, &c. 

destructive parasite on trees. 
Corticium, Pers. 
C. comedens, Fries. 

On branches. Common. Deve- 
loping under the bark, which 


Corticium— cont. 

British Fungi that, are phos- 
phorescent, emitting a pale 
bluish light in the dark. A. 
C. flaveolum, Mass. 

On trunk of a tree-fern in the 
Temperate House. Proba- 
bly an introduced species. 
C. sanguineum, Fries. 

On fallen branches. Q. 
C. polygonium, Fries. 

On decaying bark. Q. 
C. molle, Fries. 

On pine bark. A, 
C. roseolum, Mass. 

On old worked wood. A. 
C. lacunosum, Berk. 4 Broome. 

On dead wood. A. 
C. Sambuci, Fries. 

On bark of Sambucus nigra. Q. 
C. arachnoideum, Berk. 

On dead wood branches, &c. 
C. confhiens, Fries. 

On bark of Fagns sylvativa. A. 
C. lacteum, Fries. 
On wood. A, 
C. Lycii, Cke 

On Lycium. P. 
C. populiimm, Fries. 
On poplar bark. A. 
Hymenochaete, LJv. 
H. rubiginosa, Lev. 

On decorticated wood. A. 
H. leonina, Berk. $ Curt. 
On dead wood. A. 

On oak branches. 
P. gigantea, Mass. 

Inside dead bark. Q. 
'. cinerea, Che. 
On bark and wood. Common. 

Running over branches, leaves, 
and the naked ground. A. 
Soppittiella, Mass. 
S. cristata, Mass. 

On the ground under pines. A. 
T. laciniata, Fers. 

On the ground under pines. A. 

C. arida, Kant en. 

On dead pine wood. 
C. suiphurea, Mcus. 

C. ochracea, Mass. 

Running over va 

lying on the ground. 
Thelephora, Ehrh. 
T. caryophyllea, Pers. 

Clavaria, Vaillant. 
C., L. 

Among grass. A. 
C. fastigiata, L. 

C. kevensis, Man. 
~~ On stump. Smell pleasant, j 
resembling that of aniseed. B. 
C. coralloides, L. 

On the ground under trees. Q. : 

Clavaria— emit. 

C. inaequalis, 77. Dan. 

Among grass. A. 
C. argillacea, Fries. 
Among grass. A. 
C. vermicularis, Scup. 

Among grass. Edible, taste 
resembling that of cheese- 

C. rugosa, Bull. 

Under trees. P., Q. 
C. fusiformis, Sow. 

Typhula, Pert. 

T. erythropus, Fries. 
On dead 

Typhula — cont. 
T. phacorrhiza, Fries. 
On dead herbaceous s 
Pistillaria, Fries. 
P. micans, Fries. 

On dead thistle stems 

Dacryomyces, Nees. 
D. deliquescens, Duby. 

On pine rails, &c. Common. 
D. stillatus, Nees. 

On dead, damp wood. Common. 
D. chrysocomus, Fries. 

On soft decayed pine wood. A. 
D. succineus, Fries. 

On fallen pine leaves. A. 

P. quisquilaris, Fries. 
On dead herbaceous - 


Ditiola, Fries. 
D. radicata, Fries. 

On oak wood. 
C. stricta, Fries. 

On wood. Q. 
C. striata, Fries. 

On trunks. A, 

T. Tubercularia, Berk. 
On fallen oak branches. 

Exidia, Fries. 

E. glandulosa, Fries. 
On dead oak branches, 
liar looking, black, gi 
fungus, popularly k 

Ulocolla, Bref. 

U. saccharina, Bref. 

On dead pine wood. I 
U. foliacea, Bref. 

Auricularia, Bull. Hi 

A. mesenterica, Fries. 

On dead trunks. Common. 
A. lobata, Sommerf. 
On trunk. A. 

Leola, Fries. 

, Auricula-judae, 

i of Samtmciis 


Iserde, La Bill. 
A. rubra, La Bill. 

- On soil in a stove. A very 
beautiful fungus, resembling 
a stalked sea-anemone. The 
stem is pure white and the 

spreading rays bright crim- 
son. As is usual in the mem- 
bers of the present family, 
the very minute spores are 

Aserbe— eonf. 

Lycoperdon— coat. 

lias a sweet taste and a very 

L. gemmatum, Batsch. 

disagreeable smell. Nume- 
rous flies are attracted by the 
smell, and readily eat the 

Among grass under trees. Com- 

mucus, and by this means 

L. pyriforme, Schvff. 

the spores are dispersed. An 

On rotten wood. Common. 

introduced species ; a native 

of Queensland. (See plate.) 

L. coelatum, Bull. 

Phallus, Michel*. 

Among grass. A., P. 

P. impudicus, L. 

L. Bovista, L. 

On the ground. Ee. 

ted by the smell, which is 

Among grass. The largest 
British puff-ball, somciimes 

very offensive and observable 

reaching a diameter of 12 

inches. Edible, having a very 

Mutinus, Fries. 

delicate flavour. A. 

M. caninus, Fries, 

Bovista, Dill. 

On the ground. Smell only 
slight. A., Q. 

B. pltimbea, Berk. 

Among grass. Common. 

Lycoperdon, Toumefort. 

L. echinatum, Pers. 

B. nigrescens, Vitt. 

On the ground. A. 

Among grass. Common. 

L. atropurpureum, Vitt. 

B. pusilla, Mass, 

Under trees. Q. 

Among grass. A. 

L. saccatum, Vahl. 

Among grass under trees. Com- 

B. ovalispora, Che. fy 31ass. 
Among grass. A. 


Scleroderma, Pers. 

Scleroderma — cont. 

S. vulgare, Fries. 

S, Geaster, Fries* 

On the ground under trees. 

On the ground. The species 


of Scleroderma are often 

mistaken for truffles, but 

S. verrucosum, Pers. 

are quite distinct, and are 

On the ground. Common. 

not edible. The Tuberace® 

S. Bovista, Fries. 

or truffle family are absent 

On the ground. A., Q. 

from the grounds. A., Q. 


Cyathus, Haller. 

Crucibulum, Tnl. 

C. striatus, Hoffm. 

C. vulgare, Tul. 

On twigs and wood on the 

ground. Common. This 

On wood and twigs. A. 

species, along with the next, 

are popularly known as the 

Nidularia, Tul. 

" birds'-nest fungus." 

W -msiformis. Tul. 

in.uie out very Thelebolus, Tode. 

£ii?, at first ball- „ , ' , „ , 

split, intr .-ibove T - terrestns, Alb. $ , 

teeth, and eject- 0n hoa P s or dead 1( 

distance a little I 


All the sp 
instances very 
form of a delicate white film on livin 
Podosphaera, Kunze. 
P. Oxyacanthae, De Bart/. 

On living leaves of Ci-ataer/ns. 

P. tridactyla, De Bury. 

On living leaves of various 
species of Primus. Common. 

Sphaerotheca, /Jr. 

flowers, and fruit of cultivated 
roses. A dangerous enemy 
to roses, causing the Ibl invi- 
to drop prematurely. 
S. Castagnei, LSv. 


cucurbitaceous plants. When 
abundantly developed, the 
leaves present the appearance 

U. Aceris, Saccardo. 

On living leaves of 


Microsphaera, Lrr. 
M. Dubyi, LJv. 

On living leaves ( 
M. Berberidis, Lev. 

M. penicillata, h'r. 
On living leaves « 

Erysiphe, Hedwig. 
E. lamprocarpa, Lrr. 


E. Umbelliferarum, 

On leaves of Po 



Link. Perisporium, Fries. 

E. Herhariorum, Li.ih. p vulgar6) C orda. 

On decaying plant?. Common. 

E. lateritium, Jftm*. * 

On damp, decaying plants. 

, Mont. 
On living branches and 
of Salix rimtiialis a 
C. Tiliae. Saccardo. 

On living leaves of Ti/w 

Claviceps, TW. 
C. purpurea, Tul. 

Parasitic in the ovary of Lolium 

Antennaria, Link. 
A. laevigata, Corda 
On bark of lietuh 


Nectria — cont. 
N. Aquifolii, I ',■!*■■ 
On dead holly 1 
N. Lamyi, Desm. 

Nectria, Fries. 

N. cinnaharina, To 

attacking trees and shrubs, 
the branches of which become 
thickly studded with coral- 

Xylaria, Hill 

X. polymorpha, Grev. 

On decaying logs. 
X. digitata, Fries. 

On dead wood. 
X. vaporaria, Berk. 

In soil in frames. 
X. carpophila, Fries. 

On fallen beech mast 
X. Hypoxylon, Fries. 

On dead wood. 
Hypoxylon, Fries. 
H. coccinenm, Bull 

On dead hazel. 
H. fuscum, Pers. 

On dead wood. 

Phyllachora, Fuckel. 
P. Ulmi, Duv. 

On living leaves of Ulmus. 
P. Trifolii, Pers. 

P. graminis, Pers. 

On living leaves of various 

Rhopographus, Nitzke. 
R. filicinus, Fries. 

On living fronds of Pteris 

Rhytisma, Fries. 
R. acerinum, Pers. 

On living leaves of Acer cam- 
pestre and A. Pseudopla- 
tanus. The large black 

- timgn>, which does con- 
arable injury, canning ih" j 
res to fall early in the 

}s its fruit in the spring 
m the young sycamore 
'es are inoculated. The 
■ase can be arrested if the 
lased leaves are collected 
burned soon after they 

caused by 

R. salicinum, Fries. 

On living leaves 
Caprea and S. v 

On living leaves of Geranium 

Diatrype, Fries. 
D. Brassicae, Che. 

On dead cabbage stalks. 
D. verruciformis, Ehr. 

On dead branches of Fagus 

Stigmatea— cont. 
S. JEgopodii, Fries. 

On living leaves oiAegopodium. 

Diatrype— con*. 
D. quercina, Fries. 

On dead branches of Quercus. 

Valsa, Fries, 

V. leucostoma, Pers. 

On branches of Prunu, 
V. stellulata, Fries. 

On branches of Tim 

V. Ailanthi, Succart». 

On branches of UlmuM cam- 

V. Betulae, Tul. 

On bark of Betula alba. 
V. Hippocastani, Che. 

On branches of Aesculus 
V. taleola, Fries. 

On bark of Qucrcus. 
V. oncostoma, Duly. 

On twigs of Robinia Pseudo - 

V. platanoides, Pers. 

"platan^ ° 
V. nivea, /V/V.v. 

On dead branches of Crataegus, 
Melanconis, Tul. 

M. stilbostoma, JWe*. 
On bark of Betula alba. 
Pseudovalsa, De Not. 
P. umbonata, Tul. 

On dead wood. 
P. hapalocystis, Berk. $ Broome. 
On dead twiu- of I 'In taints 
Fenestella, Tul. 
F. Salicis, Rehm. 

< hi branches of Sa/i.r. 

Eutypa, Tul. 
E. Acharii, Tul. 
On dead wood. 

Diaporthe, Xitschhc. 
D. pulla, Nitschhc. 


On stems of Rubus fruticosus , 
D. Phfflyreae, Che. 

On branches of Phillyrea. 
D. circumscripta, Qtt*. 

On dry branches. 
D. Ryckholtii, West. 

On trunk and brandies of 
D. Epilobii, Che. 

On stein of Epilobii 

D. Lirella, M. * N. 

Nitschkia, Otth. 
N. cupularis, Pers. 
On dry branches o 


Cucurbitaria, Gray. Cucurbitaria— cont. 

C. Berberidis, Per*. j C. Laburni, Pers. 

On branches of Herberts vul- . On branches of Laburnum 

garis. vulgare and L, alpinum. 


Byssosphaeria, Che. 

Psilosphaeria, Saccardo. 

B. immmera, Berk. $ Broome. 

P. pulviscula, Currey. 

On dead wood. 

On dead wood. 

B. Aquila, Fries. 

P. spermoides, Fries. 

Lasiosphaeria, Saccardo. 

On dead wood. 

L. sulphurella, Saccardo, 

P. pustula, Currey. 

On fallen branches. 

On dead wood. 

L. ovina, Pers. 
On dead wood. 

Melanomma, Saccardo. 

Venturia, Not. 

V. Alchemillae, Grev. 

M. Pulvis-pyrius, Saccardo 

On rotten wood, stumps, &c. 
The petithecia are very 
minute, and densely crowded, 

Parasitic on living 

eaves of 

often covering a surface of 

Chaetomium, Kunze 

many square inches, and 
resembling grains of gun- 

C. datum, Kunze . 

powder, hence the specific 

On damp straw. 



Sordaria, Saccardo. 

S. fimicola, Roberge. 

On dung. 


Cryptosphaeria, Grev. 

Leptosphaeria, Saccardo. 

C. millepunctata, Grev. 

L. vagabunda, Saccardo. 

On dead branches. 

On branches of Hypericum 
calyciuum k \ /w rriajaponira. 

Physalospora, Sacca rd<>. 

Metasphaeria, Saccardo. 

P. rosicola, />•//. 

M. complanata, Tode. 

On branches ofYultivat 

ed roses. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 

Endophlaea, fries. 

Raphidospora, Saccardo. 

E. salicella, Fries. 

R. rubella, Pers. 

On branches of,V,///.r » 

On various kinds of dead her- 

S. alba, and S. cap 

E. sphingiophora, Ouden 

of the minute parasite is 
indicated by a red stain on 

Heptameria. Sarcanl,,, 
H. arundinacea, Sou 

On culms of Arun 
H. Doliolum, Pers. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 
H. acuta, Mont. 

On dead herbaceous stems 

P. Herbarum, Pers. 

On decaying stems of most her- 
baceous Dicotyledons. 
Laestadia, Saccardo. 
L. veneta, Sacc. 3? Speg. 

On fallen leaves of Plat anus 
L. Rhodorae, Cke. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 
L. Iridis, Cke. 

On dead leaves of Iris P>> udt- 

Sphaerella, Pers. 
S. hedericola, Desm. 
On dead ivy leaves. 

, Pers. 

es of Caslan 

P. Meliloti, Rab. 
On dead stem 
' officinalis. 
P. denotata, Che. 

S. Brassicicola, Ces. 
On dead leaves 

S. isariophora, Dcs\ 

M. smithiana, Cke . 

Among grass. A very large 
showy fungus :i[>j 
the spring. Edible. A. 

On naked soil under a hedge. 
In the spring. A. 
Helvella, Fries. 

Among grass appearing in 

[. elastica, Bull. 
Among grass in spring. A., Q. 

Mitrula, Fries, 
M. phalloides, Chev. 

On masses of floating dead 
leaves in the lake. 
M. cucullata, Fries. 

On decaying pine leaves. A. 
M. olivacea, Saccardo. 
Among short grass. A. 
Leotia, mil. 
L. lubrica, Pers. 

Under trees. Q. 
L. acicularis, Pers. 

On decaying stumps. A. 

Acetabula, Fchl. 
A. vulgaris, Fckl. 

On the ground. A very beautiful 
fungus of a brownish colour, 
resembling a carved font in 

Otidea, Pers. 
0. onotica, Fchl. 

On the ground under trees. A. 
0. aurantia, Mass. 

On the ground. A large, showy 
fungus, cup - shaped and 
usually much waved and 
crisped, of a clear, deep 
orange colour. A., Q. 
Peziza, Dill. 
P. saniosa, Sehrad. 

On the ground. A quantity 
of violet liquid e 
the plant is woui 
P. vesiculosa, Bull. 
On manure heaps, 

'ed. eS A.' 

On dead bark. ( 
P. ochracea, Bond. 

On the ground und 
P. badia, Pers. 

On the ground, 
P. bufonia, Pers. 

Vibrissea, Fries. 
V. Guernisaci, Cmium. 

G-eoglossum, Pers. 
G. glutinosum, Pers. 
Among grass. A. 
G. glabrum, Pers. 

Geopyxis, Pers. 

G. carbonaria, Saccardo. 
On burnt ground. A. 
G. coccinea, Mass. 

On fallen branches. This fungus 

species, and is collected along 
with moss for decorative pur- 
poses. It appears during the 

Humaria, Fries. 

H. Chateri, W. G. Smith. 

On naked ground by the sides 
of paths, &c. On one occasion 
this species was so nliumhmi 
on a path in the Arboretum, 
that it showed as a red streak 
at a considerable distance 

H. rutilans, Saccardo. 

On the ground. A., P. 
H. pilifera, Saccardo. 

On soil in a plant-pot. 
H. carbouigena, Saccardo. 

On burnt ground. A. 
H. omphalodes, Mass 

On burnt ground. A. 
H. melaloma, Mass. 

On burnt ground. P. 

H. macrocystis. Saccardo. 

On burnt ground. P. 
H. granulata, Saccardo. 

On dung. Common. 
Barlaea, Saccardo. 

B. Constellatio, Saccardo. 

On the ground. A. 

B. Crouani, Mass. 

On the ground among moss. 
Curreyella, Mas*, 

C. trachycarpa, Mass. 

Sepultaria, Che. 

S. sumneriana, Mass. 

On the ground under pines. 
Neottiella, Che. 

N. Polytrichi, Mass. 

On the ground among moss. 
N. corallina, Mass. 

On the ground among moss. 

Dasyscypha, Fries. 

D. virginea, Fhl. 

On rotten twigs .and herbace 
stems in damp places. C 

I), nivea, Mass. 

On damp fallen twigs. A., 
D. bicolor, Fckl. 

On dead oak twigs. A. 
D. aspidiicola, Saccardo. 

On dead fronds o" " 

Pi lie 


. ; -. ' 

D. hyalina, Mass. 

Inside fallen bar 


D. leucophaea, Mass. 

On stems of dead herbaceous 
plants. B. 
D. melaxantha, Mass. 

On fallen branches of beech. Q. 
D. corticalis, Mass, 

On dead bark. Q. 
D. dematiicola, Mass. 

iachnea, Fries. 
L. stercorea, Gillct. 

On dung. Common. 
L. crucipila, Phil. 

On damp ground. P. 
L. sctitellata, Gillet. 

On stumps, also 01 

L. hemispherica, Gillct. 
On the ground under r 
L. erinacea, Saccardo. 

On dead bark. ( 
T. aurata, Mass. 

On dead wood, j 
T. sangninea, Fckl. 

On ])ine wood. 1 

Chlorosplenium, Fries. 

C. aerugii 

n branches of ash and oak. 
The wood on which this 
fungus grows is stained a 
deep verdigris-green colour, 

the manufacture of fancy 
articles known as "Tun- 
i»ridge ware." A., Q. 

liscoideum, Mass. 

)n an old trunk of Robinia 
Pseudacacia. The wood on 
which the fungus grows is 

rtinia, Fckl. 

S. Galanthi. /;./,,,. 

See p. 172. B. 
S. Sclerotiorum, Mt 

On cabbage stalk: 
Ciboria, Fckl. 

C. pseudo-tuberosa, 

On fallen, deeavii 

Cyathicula, De Not. 
C. coronata, De Not. 
On various kinds of 

Helotium, Fri 

H. claro-flavum, Berk. 

On damp, decaying branches. 
H. Laburni, Berk. $ Broome. 
On branches of Laburnum 

H. lenticular e, Fries. 

On beech trunks. A. 
H. citrinum, Fries. 

On stumps. A., B. 
H. Virgultorum, Karsten. 

On dead branches. Common. 

[. Herbarum, Fries. 
On dead and damp herbaceous 
stems. Common. 
[. renisporum, Ellis. 

Helotium — cont. 

H. conigenum, Fries. 

On scales of fallen cones. A 
Belonidium, Mont, fy Bur. 
B. pruinosum, Mass. 

On dead wood and bark ; al 
on Diatrype Stigma. $ 

Mollisia, Fries. 

M. atrata, Karsten. 

On dead stems of v;m'nus he 
baceous plants. Common. 

M. cinerea, Karsten. 

On dead wood. Common. 
M. melaleuca, Saccardo. 
On chips. A. 
Pseudopeziza, Fckl. 
P. petiolaris, Mass. 

On dead petioles of Acer 
Pseudnplatamts. P. 
P. Ranunculi, Saccardo. 

On dying leaves of Ranunculus 
ac'ris. A. 

As< on. .1.1 i 

On asses' dung. if. 
A. marginatus, Mass. 

On asses' dung. P. 
A. furfuraceus, Pers. 

On horse dung. A., P. 
A. immersus, Pers. 

On goose dung. A. 
Saccobolus, Bond. 
S. violascens, Boud. 

On rabbit dung. Q. 

Ascophanus, Boud. 
A microsporus, Phit 

On rabbit, dung. ( 

A. equinus, Mass. 

On horse dung. A., Q. 
Ryparobius, Boud. 

R. sexdecimsporus, Saccardo. 

On horse dung. A. 
R. argenteus, Berk. $ Broome. 

On rabbit dung. Q. 

Bulgaria, Fries. 

B. polymorphs, Wetts. 

On beech trunks. Said to be i 
true parasite. A. 

Ombrophila, Fries. 

0. brunnea, Phil. 

On dead h 

Orbilia, Fries. 

Coryne, Tulasne. 

0. inflatula, Karsten. 

C. urnalis, Saccardo. 

On rotten, damp wood. 


On decayed stump. A., B. 

Calloria, Fries. 

C. sarcoides, TV. 

C. fusarioides, Fries. 

On rotten wood. Conidial and 

On dead nettle stems. 


ascigerous stages common. 

Cenangium, Fries. 

Scleroderris, Fries. 

C. furfuraceum, Be Not. 

S. Rubi, Mass. 

On alder branches. Q. 

Patellaria, Wahl. 

P. clavispara, Berk. $ Broome. 
On ash branches. A. 

Stictis, Pers. 
S. radiata, Pers. 

On hard, decorticated wood. 

P. atrata, Fries. 

On rotten floorcloth. A. 
Heterosphaeria, Grev. 
H. Patella, Grev. 

On dead herbaceous stems 

Propolis, Fries, 

Co ccophacidium, Rehm. 
C. Pini, Rehm. 

On bark of Pinvs ,sylir*tris. 

Schizothyrium, Desm. 
S. aquilinum, Rehm. 

On dead fronds of Pteris 

Phacidium, Fries. 

P. multivalve, Kze. $ Schm. 
On dead holly leaves. A. 

Phacidium — con 

Trochila, Fries. 
T. Craterium, Fries. 
On dead ivy leaves. 
Colpoma, Wallr. 

C. quercinuin, Wallr. 
On oak branches. . 
Xylographa, Fries. 
X. parallela, Fries. 

Hysterium, Tode. 
H. pulicare, Pers. 
On fallen oak bat 

Hysterographium, Corda. 
H. Fraxini, De Not. 

On fallen ash branches. A. 

Glonium, Miihl. 

Or. amplum, Dnby. 
On dead bramble stei 
Hypoderma, DC. 

H. Virgultorum, DC. 

Lophodermium, Chev., , 
L. hysterioides, Saccardo. 
On dead hawthorn leaves 

Dichaena, Fries. 
D. quercina, Fries. 

On living oak branches. 



Pilobolus, Tode. 
P. crystallinus, Tode. 

On dung. 
P. Kleinii, Van Tiegh. 

Pilobolus— emit. 
P. roridus, Pers. 

On dung. 
P. Oedipus, Mont. 

Pilaira, Van Tieghem, 
P. anomala, Schrdt. 

Mucor, Micheli. 

On various decaying organi 
M. lateritius, Cke. $ Mass. 

On rotting potatoes. 
M. amethystinus, Berk. 

On decaying bulbs. 
M. pruinosus, Berk. Sr Broome. 

On soil in a plant pot. 
M. hyalinus, Cke. 

On leaves of Biixus semper 

of Magnolia. 
Spinellus, Van Tiegh. 
S. fusiger, Van Tiegh, 
On decaying Agarics. 

Sporodiuia, Link. 

S. Aspergillus, Schrbt. 
On decaying fungi. 
Helicostylum, Corda. 
H. nigricans, Van Tiegh. 
Once occurred 

dead woodlice (Onii 
lected in a heap under bark. 

Rhizopus, Ehr. 
R. nigricans, Ehr. 

On decaying fruit. 
R. necans, Mass. 

Parasitic on bulbs of Li Hum 

Japan. In 1806 and 1H97 
large consignments of bulbs 
from Japan\vere completely 
destroyed by this fungus. 

Syncephalis, Van Tiegh, 
S. fasciculata, Van Tiegh. 

On wet and decaying vegetable 

Cystopus, Lev. 
C. candidus, Lev. 
On Capsella 1 

Cheiranthus . ._ 

Pringlea autisvurbntictt. It 
has been found impossible 
to keep the last named plant 
in cultivation, owing to the 
attacks of this parasite. 
C. Tragopogonis, Schrdt. 

Parasitic on Tragopogon pra- 

Phytophthora, De Barg. 
P. infestans, De Bary. 

Parasitic on leaves and tubers 
of the potato (Solatium 
tuberosum). This fungus is 
the cause of the destructive 
scourge popularly called 
"potato disease," although 
unfortunately it is not the 

the potato is subject. 
Plasmopara, Sehrdt. 
P. pygmaea, Schrdt. 

Parasitic on leaves of various 
Eanunculaceous plants Ane- 
mone, Aami/mti, Jsopyrmn. 
P. nivea, Schrot. 

Parasitic on leaves of species 
of Aegopodium and Omvnn. 
Bremia, Rcgel. 
B. Lactucae, Reg el. 

Parasitic on leaves of Centaurea 
and Hierucium. Thi> fungu* 
is often very destructive to 
Harden lettuce, appearing on 
the leaves as a very delicate 
white film. 

Peronospora, Corda. 
P. Myosotidis, Be Bary. 

On living leaves of Myosoti< 
palustris and St, 

P. Viciae, De Bary. 

On living leaves of various Le- 
guminous plants. 
P. Ficariae, Tul. 

On living leaves of Ranunculus 

P. arborescens, De Bary. 

On living leaves of Papaver 
Argemone, J*, torn 
also on various garden forms 
of poppy. 
P. Violae, De Bary. 

On living leaves of Viola 
eanina and V. sylrestris. 
P. Trifoliorum, De Bary. 

On living leaves of Trifnlium 
minor, T. medium, and on 
Lotus comic ulat u.s. 
P. grisea, De Bary. 
On lr 

of Veronu 

P. Lamii, De Bary. 

On living leaves of Lam mm 

P. effusa, Rabenh. 

On Chcnopodium album. 
P, sordida, Berk. 

On living leaves of cultivated 

Leptomitus, Agasrdh. 

Pythium— cow*. 

L. lacteus, Agardh. 

P. Cystosiphon, Lindst. 

Attached to aquatic plants. 

In living fronds of ) 

Saprolegnia, Nees. 


S. ferox, Nees. 

Dityuchus, Leitg. 

On dead flies in water. 

S. elongata, Mass. 

D. monosporus, Leitg. 
On decaying hyacinth hi 

in water. ( Mass lint. Fungi, 

Diplanes, Leitg. 

Pythium, Prmgsheim. 

D. saprolegnioides, Leitg. 

P. de-baryanum, Hesse. 

On insects in water. 

Parasitic and saprophytic on 

various plants. A destructive 

Achlya, Sees. 

parasite to seedling plants, 
causing what is termed 

A. polyandra, Hildcbr. 

" damping off." 

On insects in water. 


Empusa, Cohn 

EntomopMhora, Fresen ins. 

E. Muscae, Cohn. 

E. Aphidis, Hoffm. 

On dead house flies. 

On aphides. 

Synchitrium, Be Bary Sy IVoronin. 

Rhizidium, A. Bra u m. 

S. Mercurialis, Fckl. 

R. Westii, Mass. 

On living leaves of Mercurialis 

Parasitic on Spirogyra 

On living leaves of Anemone , On the epidermal cells of Lenin 

Protomyces, Unger. P. purpureo-tingens, Mass. 

P Menianthis, De Bary. On leaves of seedling 

x. jawu»ui« iB , v ... < flftworc (Mnsi lint. I 

On living leaves of Funtrnldh, 

< 'miuinnu. 

owers. (Mass. Brit. Fungi, 
164, figs. 72, 73.) 


Uromyces, Link. 

Uromyces — con 

U. Fabae, Che. 

j U. Orobi, Wh 

On Vicia Fabu. 

On Lathyr 

U. Polygoni, flint. 

P. Lapsanae, &&u/z< 

U. Trifolii, 7/7,,/. 

P. variabilis, Grev. 

On Tri folium repent. 

On Taraxacum officinale. 

U. Geranii, Hint. 

On Geranium prateme. 

P.Violae, Hint. 

U. Valerianae, Hint. 

P. albescens, Grev. 

On Valeriana officinalis. 

U. Colchici, Mass. 

P. Menthae, A w. 

. A 

On Oriffmnmm ruhjare. 

' l^vl) ^n^^'ni'tl!'' 'p!i 


P. Vincae, Berk. 

* r 


tailed to reveal the presence 

of the aecidiospore stage. 

licurui : felei: 

ttospores on 

Thlfl is probably the most 

destructive fungus known, 

■. Pisi, //7;,7. 

QtedOi .ores 

doing injury to the extent of 

■■ - : p..nnd- Aw- 


ling every year to the wheat 

IpechV'of ftjj 


P. coronata, Corda. 

. Alliorum, rkc. 
XMMtMpotM oo 4 

Teleutospores on Holcus mollis. 


Aecidiospore stage not ob- 

'. Ficariae, Hint. 

i P. sylvatica, Schrot 

On Ranunculus lu 

Teleutos;;o!,^ .ri! < 'an v rintcta. 

. Scillarum, OTmt, 

Aecidiospore not seen. 

On .SW//a k/*&r. 

P. suaveolens, Hint. 

. Erythronii, DC. 

On Card u us arrensis. 

On /,///„ wi mmM 


P. bullata, Schrot. 

On Silam pratensis. 

. Galii, Win*. 

\ P. argentata, Hint. 

On Impatiens fulva. 

. Calthae, 7,iwA. 

P. Hydrocotyles, Plow. 

P. Gentianae, HI 
P. Silenes, Schrot 

Puccinia— cunt. 

P. Thalictri, Chevat. 

On Thalictrum ftavmn . 
P. Veronicae, Schrot. 

On Veronica montana. 
P. Malvacearom, Mont. 

On Malva moschata a 
Althaea rosea. 
P. Circeae, JPers. 

On Circaea lutetiana. 
P. Buxi, Z>C. 

On Buxus sempervirens. 
Triphragmium, Link. 
T. Ulmariae, Wint. 

On Spiraea Ulmaria. 
Phragmidium, Link. 
P. Tormentillse, i^cA/. 

On Potentilla I 
P. violacenm, Schultz. 

On Rubns frnticosus. 
P. Rubi, Schrot. 

On Rubus fruticosufi. 
P. subcorticatum, Schrot. 

On 7? canina, also on en 
vatert roaes. 

Melampsora, Castagne. 
M. Lini, Win*. 

On £?tt^w ratlun'ticum. 

On Populus balsi 
L betulina, Ztesm. 
On 5e*«/a «^a. 

C. Senecionis, JFm£. 

Uredospores on Senecio vul- 
C. Sonchi, Schrot. 

On Sonchus oleraceus. 
C. Campanula, HTwtf; 

On Campanula Trachclinm 
C. Euphrasiae, JFtn*. 

On Euphrasia officinalis. 
Chrysomyxa, Unger. 
C. Pyrolae, Schrot. 

On Pyrofo. 
Cronartium, Ami; 

C. flaccidum, Alb. $>• Schw. 

On Paeon ia. 

Ustilago, Pers. 

U. longissima, Wint. 

On Glyceria aquatica. 
TJ. hypodytes, Ate*. 

On Triticum repens. 
U. Caricis, Wint. 

On Carex panicea. 
TJ. olivacea, TV. 

On Carex riparia. 
TJ. Scabiosae, JFm/. 

In the anthers of Scabiosa 
U. Vaillantii, Tul. 

In the anthers of Chionodoxa 

De Bary. 
S. Hydropiperis, De Bary. 
In the ovary of Polygonum 
Urocystis, Bab. 
U. Colchici, Ttd. 

On Colchicum autumnale. 
U. Gladioli, W. G. Smith, 

On Gladiolus. 
U. Anemones, .SfeflHif. 

On Ranunculus repens. 
U. Violae, Berk. 4- Broome. 

On Pto/a odor at a and F. 


Entyloma, De Bary. 
E. Ranunculi, Wint. 
On Ranunculus Ficaria. 
Tuburcinia, Fries. 
T. Scabies, Berk. 

On potato tubers. Causing t 
disease known as "scab." 
Doassansia, Cornu. 
D. Sagittariae, Schrdt. 

On Sagittaria sagittifolia. 

Thecaphora, Fing. 
T. hyalina, Fing. 

On Calystegia septum. 
Graphiola, Pokier. 
Or. Phoenicia, Moug. 

On leaves of Phoeni.r dactu- 


The majority of species included 
in the present family occur on leaves 
or herbaceous stems, some as para- 
sites, others as saprophytes. All 
are very minute, and the great 
majority require tbe use of a pocket- 
lens for their detection. 
Phoma, Fries. 

P. Coluteae, Saccardo. 

On branches of Colutea arbo- 

P. Coronillae, West. 

On Coronilla Emcrus and 
Baccharis halim i folia . 
P. Sopharae, Saccardo. 

On Sophora japouica. 
P. Amorphae, Saccardo. 

On Amorpha fruticosa. 
P. Herminierae, Cke. 

On Herminiera Elaphroxylon. 
P. rudis, Saccardo. 

On Laburnum. 
P. Ryckholtii, Saccardo. 

On Symphoricarpus. 
P. Xylostei, Cke. § Mass. 

On Lonicera. 
P. viventis, Cke. 

On living twigs of Lonicera. 
P. Beckhausii, Cke. 

On Viburnum Lantana. 
P. Weigeliae, Speg. 

On Diervilla rosea. 

P. sambucella, Saccardo. 

On Sambucus nigra. 
P. Landegheimia, Saccardo. 

On Philadelphia. 
P. PMladelphi, Cke. 

On Philadelphus 
P. foveolaris, Fries. 

On Euonymus 
P. Celastriniae, Cke. 

P. berberina, Saccardo. 

On Berberis vulgaris. 
P. Prunorom, Cfo. 

On Primus Laurocerasus. 
P. Pruni-lusitanicae, Cfo. 

P. libertiana, Satcc. £ Bourn. 

On Xartx europrcus. 
P. Sorbariae, r*<\ 



On apple twigs. 
P. ambigna. Saccardo 

P. pusilla, Schulzer $ Sacc. 

On Rosa canina. 
P. incarcerate, Saccardo. 

On i 

. Che. 

On Vitis vinifera. 
P. diplodioidea, Saccardo. 

On Aesculus Hippocastanum. 
P. scobina, Che. 

On Fraximus excelsior. 
P. Forsythiae, CAe. 

On Forsythia. 
P. aromatica, C#e. 

On Calycanthus occidentalis. 
P. domestica, Saccardo. 

On Jasminum officinale. 
P. Jasmini, Cfo?. 

On Jasminum officinale. 
P. depressa, ZA>. 

On Syriiiya vulgaris. 
P. Laurella, Saccardo. 

On Zawiw notofiur. 
P. Rhododendri, C£e. 

On Rhododendron. 
P. Corni, ^*«M. 

On tforntw suecica. 
P. Barbari, C&>. 

On Lycium barbarian. 
P. viridarii, Saccardo. 

On Magnolia. 
P. stictica, #<?>•£. t$- Broome. 

On Buxus sempervirens. 
P. cistina, Cfo. 

On Ctffw laurifolius. 
P. robergeana, Saccardo. 

On Staphylea pinnala. 
P. Staphylea*, Ofe. 

( )n Staphylea pinnata. 
P. Ophites, Saccardo. 

On Hibiscus syriacus. 

Phoina— con*. 

P. Tecomae. Saccardo. 

On Tecoma radicans. 
P. Radicantis, £le. 

On Tecoma radicans, 
P. platanoides, CAe. 

On ^ce;- Pseudoplatauns. 
P. Lebiseyi, Saccardo. 

On Negimdo aceroides. 
P. velata, Saccardo. 

On ZV/i'a vulgaris, &c. 
P. Paulowniae, 7%«m. 

On Pauloivnia imperialis. 
P. tamaricella, Saccardo. 

On Tamarix. 
P. Tamarisci. i/on*. 

On Tamarix gallica. 
P. eleagnella, C£e. 

On Eleagnus. 
P. papalocystis, Saccardo, 

On Platanus. 
P. moricola, Saccardo. 

On Morus nigra. 
P. crassipes, C£e. 

On Broussonetia papyrifer 
P. cinerascens, Saccardo. 

On jF/cms Carica. 

On Qui reus coccinea. 
P. salicina, JPetf. 

On Sali.r viminalis. 
P. ligustrina, Saccardo. 

On Ligustrum. 
P. oppilata, /"We*. 

On jScta/a a/for. 
P. Celtidis, C&>. 

On Celtis cccidentalis. 
P. leucostigma, £A». 

On leaves of /7«fcr« and 
P. pustulata, Saccardo. 

On branches of Acer pa hm it inn 

P. Loti, C*e. 

On Diospyras L,»tn 

of Pr, 

On leaves of Platanus. 
P. Aucubae, West. 

On leaves of Aucuba jajmnica. 
P. Mahoniae, Thum. 

On leaves of Berberis Aqni- 
P. vulgaris, Saccardo. 

On leaves of Clematis Vitalba. 
P. Lingam, Tode. 

On stem of Bra 
P. Alcearum, Cke. 

On leaves of Althcca i 
P. Malvacearum, West. 

On Malva masrlrita. 
P. Arctii, Lasch. 

On Arctium lappa. 

t olcracea. 

P Di] 

, ci,,. 

On Dipsactis sylrcstris. 
P. Achilleae, Saccardo. 

On Achillea Millcfoliun 
P. Dahliae, #<>r*. 

On Dahlia. 

, r/,v. 


liferous plants. 
P. Dulcamarae, Saccardo. 

On Solatium Dulcamara. 
P. Tatnlae, Cfo. 

On Datura Stramonium. 
P. Polemonii, CAe. 

On Polemonium meruhin, 

P. Spir33», Z>M»t. 

On Spirtra Ulmaria. 
P. Herbamm, fPfe*. 
On Digitalis. Malra. 
lochia Sip/to, and 

P. Polygonorum, Cfo. 

Ou Polygonum cuspid < 

On Epilobium angustifolium 
and Oenothera biennis. 
P. oleracea, Saccardo. 

On Erysimum Alliaria and 
Sisymbrium austriacum. 
P. sarmenticia, Saccardo. 

On Menispermnm canadense. 
P. Calystegiae, CAe. 

On Calystegia sepium. 
P. durandiana, #«rc £ /?o?<«i. 

On Atone*. 
P. Lysimachiae, CAe. 

On fj/simachia vulgaris. 
P. glandicola, Z>e«f». 

On fallen acorns. 
P. Morphae, Saccardo. 

Papaver somni 
P. Chamaeropsis, C/ 

On palm petioles. 
P. Acori, Che. 

On Acorus Calau 
P. Eusci, Saccardo. 

On stem of frr ntiuun 
P. Typharum, .FcA/. 

On 2>/>Aa angust 
P. pulla, Saccardo. 

On #erf<?ra J7e//> 

a rttotfca. 

On Robinia Pseudacacia and 
Ulmus campestris. 
P. Solidaginis, Cle. 

On Solidago. 
P. Samarorum, Z>«/«. 

On fruit of Fra.rin us twcc/sior. 

Coniothyrium, Corda. 
m, Ck 
of Cassia mary- 

Coniothy rium — cont. 
C. concentricum, Desm. 

On living leaves of Yucca. 
An injurious parasite, form- 
ing large ileatl blotches on the 

E. Muggenbergii, Saccardo. 

On branches of Vitis vinifera. 
Diplodia, Desm. 
D. atrata, Desm. 

On N eg undo aceroides. 
D. Genistarum, Che. 

On Genista aetnensis. 
D. Amorphse, Wallr. 

On Amorpha fmticosa. 
D. cistina, Cite. 

On Cistus laurifolius. 
D. Roumegueri, Saccardo. 

On JPrunus Laurocerasus. 
D. Lonicerae, Fchl. 

On Lonicera caprifolium. 
D. sambucina, Saccardo. 

On Sambncus nigra. 
J). Lantanae, Fchl. 

On Viburnum Lantana. 
D. Paulowniae, Che. 

On Pauloicnia imperialis. 
D. Ligustri, »?«*. 

On Ligustrum vulgare. 
D. laurina, Saccardo. 

On Zawrw.? nofoVw. 
D. Elseagni, Paw. 

On Elceagnus angiistifolius. 
D. Celtidis, Bourn. 

On CUM* occidentalis. 
D. Mori, JPetf. 

On Jfortt* a/6a. 
D. microsporella, Saccardo. 

On Ligustrum ovalifolinm. 
D. inconspicna, CAe. 

On leaves of Bujcus semper- 

D. Magnolia, West. 

On twigs and leaves of Mag- 
nolia grandifiora. 

On Menispermum canadense. 

Diplodina, Saccardo. 
D. Salicis, West. 

On &z&£ babylonica. 
D. deformis, Karsten. 

On Sambncus nigra. 
Hendersonia, iie>-#. 
H. vagans, Fchl. 

On Fraxinus. 
H. Lonicerae, Pr/es. 

On Lonicera. 
H. Tiliae, Z<fo. 

On Tiliaparvifolia. 
H. ambiens, CTe. 

On ylm- dasycarpum. 
Camarasporium, Schultz. 
C. Berheridis, C*e. 

On twigs of Berberis vulgaris. 
C. Limoniae, Che. 

On Cttrtu trifoliata. 
C. cistumm, CAc. 

On Cistus laurifolius. 
C. Querciis, Saccardo. 

On Quercus coccinea. 
C. Mori, Saccardo. 

On Morus alba. 
Cytispora, JWe*. 

On iVbn« «/6« 

C. Schweinitzii, Saccardo. 

On Salix frag His . 
C. Salicis, JZaftA. 

On Salix vitellina. 
C. intermedia, Saccardo. 

On Quercus. 
C. Platani, PcM. 

On Platanm. 
C. flavovirens, Saccardo. 

On ^cer. 
C. ambiens, Saccardo. 

On FraA-iniis and Betula. 
C. Euonymi, C£e. 

On Euonymus americanus 

Cytispora — cont. 
C. Staphylea?, Cke. 

On Staph;/ lea pin unfa n 

C. Jasmini, Che. 

On Jasminum officinale. 
C. Palmarum, Cke. 

On petioles of palm leaves 
Phyllosticta, Pers. 
P. Paviae, Dam. 

Phyllosticta— cow?. 
P. destructive Desm. 

On Malva sylvestris. 
P. Dulcamara, Saceardo. 

On Solatium Dulcamara. 
P. Plantaginis, Saceardo. 

On Plantago major. 
P. Aizoon, Cfo>. 

On Sedtim Aizoon. 
P. Podophylli, Curt. 

On Podophyllum pdtatun 
P. hydrophila, fy<v/. 

On Viburnum Tinns. 

A. Solidaginis, <?£c. 

P. Syringae, TPerf. 

On Solidago elliptica. 

On Syringa vulgaris. 

A. delicatulum, Z>e^m. 

P. Phillyreae, Saceardo. 

On Colutea arborescens. 

On Phillyrea. 

Septoria, /We*. 

P. Rhododendri, JF<^. 

< >n Ilhododendron. 

S. cornicola, Ztow. 
On Corn us. 

*'0^ U tr)Ju7r ,,,<!,, 

S. Ligustri, ZfcSWH. 

P. Garryae, de. £ //>/>•*. 


P. ilicicola, Friet. 

S. Lycopi. P«t. 

On holly leaves. 

On £^m. amp** 

P. Magnoliae, var. Cookei, Sue- 

S. Doronici, P«». 

On Magnoiia grandma. 

On Doronieum HanlaHniiches. 

S. Centaurese, Rran. 

P. Mahoniae, 8aec. £> Speg. 

On Ceniaurea nigra. 

On lirrberis Aquifolium. 

S. Aristolochiae, Saceardo. 

On Amtolochia Clematith. 

On Herberts asiatica. 

P. Paulo wniae, Saceardo. 

Leptostroma, 7-We.v. 

P. sidaecola, t'*e. 

L. fllicinum, £Wet. 

On Pteris aguilina. 

On Napa a dioica. 

Discula, Saceardo. 

P. Brassicae, Currey. 

D. Desmazierii, Berk. <$■ Broome. 

On ffromea. 

On living branches ,,f 77/»« 

P. Epimedii, Saceardo. 

vulgaris and 

On Kpimedium alpinum. 

The most destructive tree 

P. Impatientis, Kirch. 

parasite present in the Gar- 
<1*mis, destroying the bark and 

On Impaticns parvijlora. 

hence killing the branches of 

the European species of Tilia. 
Several trees in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kew have been 
completely killed by this 

Gloeosporium, Mont. 

On Aquilegia. 
G. Berberidis, Che. 

On Herberts asiatica. 
G. nerviseqtnim, Saccardo. 

On living leaves of Platanus 
orientalis and P. aceri folia 
A very destructive parasite, 
causing the leaves to fall 

Cryptosporium, Kunze. 
C. Hippocastani, Che. 

On Aesculus Hippocastanum. 
Libertella, Desm. 
L. Rosae, Desm. 

On bark of Betula alba. 

Melanconium— cont. 

Cheirospora, Fries. 
C. hedericola, Saccardo. 
On Hedera Helix. 

C. cistinum, Che. 

On Cistus laurifolitts. 
C. umbonatum, Nees. 

On Ulmus and Quercus. 
C. notarisiamim, Saccardo. 
On Betula papi/rifera. 
Festalozzia, De Not. 
P. Guepini, Desm. 

Parasitic on living leaves of 
cultivated species of Ca- 
mellia, causing unsightly 
greyish-white blotches to 

Steganosporium, Corda. 
S. cellulosum, Corda. 

On bark of Tilia cordata. 



). fasciculata, Sacc. $ Vogl. 
On Epilobu 

, Link. 
F. grisenm, Link. 
On dead oak leaves. 
Monilia, Pers. 
M. fructigena, Pers. 

A very destructive parasite to 
apples, which under its in- 
fluence become spotted and 
M. pruinosa, Cke. Sf Mass. 

On fading leaves of Caladium . 

Cylindrium, Bon. 
C. Cordae, Saccardo. 

On dead oak leaves. 
C. flavo-virens, Bon. 

On dead leaves of oak and 


On leaves and young twigs of 
Pyrus Mains. An injurious 
fungus, causing the leaves to 
fall prematurely, consequently 
the fruit does not ripen pro- 
0. erumpens, Che. $ Mass. 

On living leaves of Rivea 

Oidium— cout. 

0. Chrysanthemi, Itai 

Naves of Ja 

Botryosporium, Cord a. 
B. pulchrum, Cor da. 

(Overrunning stored Dahlia 

(Edocephalum, JPreuss. 
0. Preusii, Saccardo. 

On dead lt-avc^ of If, mh, ru . 
0. sulphureum, Che. Sf Mass. 
On decaying rope. 

Aspergillus, Micheli. 
A. glaucus, Link. 

On all kinds of damp or decay- 
ing plants. 
A. candidus, Link. 

On decaying plants, fungi, &c. 
Penicillium, Link. 
P. glaucum, Link. 

On decaying plants. 
P. candidum, Link. 
On decaying plants. 
Hyphoderma, Fries. 

Rhinotrichum, Corda. 
R. repens, Preuss. 

On rotten wood. 
R. niveum, Cke. $ Mass. 

On old wood. 
R. Bloxami, Berk. S,- Broome. 

Rhopalomyces, Corda. 
R. elegans, Corda. 

T. viride, Pert. 

On decaying 

Sporotrichum — cont. 
S. sulphureum, Grt 

Sporotrichum, Link. 

Monosporium, Bon. 

M. coprophilum, Cke. $ Masi 
On dung. 
Botrytis, Micheli. 

B. corolligena, Cke. $ Mass. 
On fading corolla of Cal 
laria. (See plate.) 
B. argillacea, Cke. 

On wood. 
B. Croci, Cke. $ Mass. 

On dewl pericarps of Acscnlus 

B. cinerea, Peri. 

On decaying vegetable matter. 
B. vulgaris, Fries. 

On dead and also on living 
plants. The species of Botry- 
tis are not very clearly un- 
derstood ; some are known to 

Botrytis— cont. 

be the conidial forms of 
species of Peziza. At all 
events certain kinds of 
Botrytis are very destructive 
parasites, more especially 
to bulbous Monocol 
lilies, tulips, snowdrops, &c, 
being destroyed in a whole- 
sale manner, and as 
are formed, many of which 
remain in the soil, it is im- 
possible to grow these plants 
in succession, if the disease 
has once gained a footing. 
B. caaa, Kze. $ Schm. 
On decaying plants. 
B, vera, Fries. 

On dead herbaceous plants. 

Ovularia, Saccardo. 
0. lychnicola, Mass. 

On living leaves of Lychnis 

0. Berheridis, Cke. 

On living leaves of Berberis 

0. Pilipendulae, Cke. 

On living leaves of Spiraea 
0. Syringae, Berk. 

On living leaves of Syrituja 
Sepedonium, Link. 

S. chrysospermum, Fries. 

7. Candelabrum, Bon. 

On rotten wood. 
7. compactiusculum, Saccardo. 

On decaying plants. 

V. lateritium, Berk. 

On decaying herbaceous stems. 

Acrostolagmus, Cor da. 
A. cinnabarinus, Corda. 
On decaying plants. 
Trichothecium, Link, 
T. roseum, Link. 

On dead bark, decaying fruit, 
T. candidum, JVallr. 
On dead bark. 
Arthrobotrys, Corda. 
A. rosea, Mass. 
On rotten wood. 

Mycogone, Link. 
M. rosea, Link. 

On decaying agarics. 

M. cervina, Ditm. 
On decaying Peziza. 
Ramularia, Fckl. 
R. lactea, Fckl. 

R. HeUebori, Fckl. 

On Helleborus fcetidus. 

R. variabilis, Fckl. 
On living leaves of Verbascum 

Helicomyces, LAnk. 
H. tubulosus, Riess. 

, Link. 
ls, Saccm 
On Arundo Dona 

C. olivaceuin, Link. 


T. pulveracea, Corda. 

T. Herbarum, Link 

On dead herbaceous stems. 
T. gyrosa, Cke. $ Mass. 

Stachybotrys, Corda. 
S. atra, Corda. 

On damp paper. 
S. lobtdata, Berk. 

On damp paper. 

j Pers. 

On rotten wood. 
T. ovalispora, Berk. 

On rotten wood. 
T. Graminis, Corda. 

On dead grass leaves. 
T. asperula, Saccardo. 

On damp paper. 


Echinobotryum, Corda. 

E. atram, Corda. 

On rotten wood. 


I Stachybotrys — cont. 
S. asperula, Mass. 
On damp packing { 

On dead leaves of Carex 

Trichosporium, Fries. 
T. umbrinum, Saccardo. 

T. fuscum, Saccardo. 
On pine bark. 

On decaying vegetation. 
M. repens, Mass. 

Monotospora — cont. 
M. pumila, .if ass. 

Parasitic on Graph turn 
M. asperospora, Cke. 4 Mass. 
On dead branches of Clematis. 

Hadrotrichum. Fckl. 

On dead Arundo t 

hispidulum, Fries. 

I. vinosum, Mass. 
On damp, gummed p:iper. 

Bolacotricha, Berk. $ Broome. I Myxotrichum, Kunze. 

B. grisea, Berk. $ Broome. M. Chartarum, Kunzt 

On decaying sacking. On damp paper. 

Bispora, Corda. 

Cladosporium, Link. 
C. epiphyllum, Mart. 



C. Herbarum, Link. 

On decaying herbaceous plants, 
fungi, &c. 
C. nodulosum, Corda. 

On rotten wood. 

C. Orchidearum, Cke. 6>- Mass. 
On leaves of many species of 
cultivated orchids. 


Clasterosporium, Schw. \ Clasterospori 

C. fasciculare, Saccardo. I C Fungornm, Saccardo. 

the h\ m. -ninni .' 

On dead wood. 


Helminthosporium, Link. I Helminthosporium— rout. 

H. velutinum, Link. H. macrocarpum, Grev. 

On rotten wood. On dead wood. 

H. exasperatum, Berk. * Broome. H. fasiforme, CW«. 

On fading leaves of Dianthus I 
deltoides and other cary- 
ophyllaceous plants. 

Helminthosporium — cont. 
H. Smithii, Berli. &,- Broome. 

On dead holly. 
H. densum, Sacc. $• Bourn. 

On dead branch cf Morns alba. 
Brachysporium, Saccardo. 
B. stemphylioides, Corda. 

Cercospora, French ins. 
C. Calthae, Che. 

On fading leaves of Caltha 

C. moricola, Che. 

On leaves of Mortis rubra. 

Heterosporium, Klotzsch. 

)n living leave? of species of 
Convallaria. Scilla, and 
Smilax. When ;ibundantly 
developed, this species proves 
to be an injurious parasite, 
destroying the foliage. 

Laricis, Che. ,)■ Mass. 

. epimyces, Che. 


Stemphylium, Wallr. j M 

S. asperosporum, Che. $ Mass. \ 
On damp paper. 
Macrosporium, Fries. 
M. commune, Babh. 

On decaying plants. 
M. Sarcinula, Berk. 

On decaying Pceonia albi flora. 
M. nobile, Vize. 

On decaying leaves ol 

11. Alliorum, Che. $ Mass. 

On fading leaves of Allium. 
M. Convallarise, Fries. 

On fading leaves of Polyao- 
natum midtiflorum. ' 

Pumago, Pers. 
F. vagans, Pers. 

Forming sooty patches on leaves 
of Ulmus campestris. 

viride, Saccardo. 
On decaying birch < 

Stilbum— cont. 

S. erythrocephalum, 

Parasitic on TrichU 
$>. vulgare, Tode. 
On rotten wood. 

I. citrina, Pers. 

On decaying Polyporus. 
Atractitim, Link. 
A flammeum, Berk. 
On willow bark. 
Sporocybe, Fries. 
S. atra, Saccardo. 

On dry leaves of Holct/s mollis. 

Graphium, Corda. 

G. graminum, Cke. fy Mass. 
On dead leaves of Gynei 

Gr. Passerinii, Saccardo. 
On dead stems of Gynei 
Gr. subulatum, Saccardo. 
On bark. 

. Saccardo. 

Arthrobotryum, Cesati. 
A. atrum, Berk. $ Broome. 
< Mi fallen branches. 


Tubercularia, Tode. 
T. vulgaris, Tode. 

On dead branches. 
T. versicolor, Saccardo. 

On dead branches of Buxus 
sempervirens, which were 
probably killed by the fungus. 
T. subpedicellata, Schw. 

On dead branches of Syrinya. 
T. Ligustri, Cke. 

On dying branches of Liyus- 
trnm vvalifolium. 
T. Euonymi, Bourn. 

On branches of Euonymus 

, Fries. 

On dead branches of Aescxdus 
Hippocastanum . 
:. Aesculi, Opiz. 
On branches of Aescxdus Hip- 

'. Sambuci, Corda. 
On branches of Sambucus 

Aegerita, Pers. 

A. Candida, Pers. 

On damp elder bark. 

Volutella, Tode. 
V. ciliata, Fries. 

On decaying Crocus eorms. 
V. Hyacinthornm, Berk. 

On decaying hyacinth bulbs. 
V. setosa, Berk. 

On dead stems of Lilium 

Bactridium, Knnze. 

B. flavnm, Kunze. 
On rotten wood. 

Fnsarium, Link. 

F. pyrochroum, Saccardo. 

On dead branches. 
F. viticola, Thum. 

On branches of Vitis incoii- 

On dead thistle stems. 
'. roseum, Link. 
On decaying vegetable 

Fusarium — cont. 
F. heterosporum, J 

F. bulbigenum, Cke. $• Mass. 

E. vulgare, Corda. 

On decaying lierl 
E. granulatum, Pi 

On Sorghum 

E. neglectum, Desi 
On leaves of P. 

E. Herbarum, Corda. 

leaves of Typha 

On decaying stems of Gynerium 

Myrothecium, Tode. 
M. roridum, Tode. 

On decaying vegetable matter. 
M. inundatum, Tode. 

On decaying Boletus lurid us. 

On bark of Tilia vulgar* 


form, brilliancy 

the species arc minute, and are not uncommon on rotten wood, moss, «C 

by some authorities is considered as related t:> Fungi, whereas others place 
it in the Animal Kingdom. Coloured figures, along with descriptions of all 
the British species, are contained in "A Monograph of the Myxogastivs." 
Twenty-five genera and fifty species have been collected in the grounds, 

Tubulina, Pers. 
T. cylindrica, Post. 

On dead wood. 
T. efifusa, Mass. 

Enteridium, J 

E. olivaceui 

On Btnmj 

S. fusca, Rost 
On rotten wood. 

S. typhina, Mass. 
On rotten wood. 

S. friesiana, Be Bary. 
On dead leaves. 

B. maxima, Rost. 
On fallen trunks, 

Reticularia, Bull. 
R. Lycoperdon, Rost. 
On wood and bark. 


Lamproderma, Host. 
L. violaceum, Rost. 

On living Hypnum 
L. irideum, Mass. 

On dead leaves. 

Lamproderma — cont . 
L. arcyrioides, Rost. 
On rotten wood, 


PerichaBna, Fries. 
P. corticalis, Most. 

Lycogala, Micheli. 
L. epidendrum, Rost. 

Arcyria, Hill. 
A. punicea, Rost. 

On rotten wood. 

A. incarnata, Rost. 

On dead bark. 

Prototrichia, Rost. 
P. cuprea, Mas*. 

A. nutans, Rost. 

On rotten wood. 
A. cinerea, Mast. 

On dead wood. 


Oligonema, Rost. 

0. nitens, Rost. 

On dead bark. 

T. abrupta, Che. 
On dead wood. 

Trichia. Haller. 
T. fragilis, Rost. 

On dead wood. 
T. varia, Rost. 

On dead moss. 

T. scabra, Rost. 

T. fallax, Rost. 
On rotten wood. 


Chondrioderma, Rost. 

C. floriforme, ^o*#. 

On mosses. 

Didymium, Schrad. 
D. farinaceum, Schrad. 
On living moss. 

C. difforme, Rost. 

On dead hawthorn leaves. 

D. squamulosum, Fries. 
On dead leaves. 

Didyniium — cont. 
D. microcarpon, Host. 

On dead leaves. 
D. Clavus, i?o.?^. 

On dead twigs. 
D. Serpula, i^We*. 

On dead oak leave- 

Lepidoderma, Z>e J5a/-y. 
L. tigrinum, Host. 
On rotten wood. 
Spumaria, JPers. 
S. alba, DC. 
On living grass. 
Diachaea, Fries. 
D. leucopoda, TiiW. 

Physarum, Pers. 
P. leucopus, ,/fo.rt. 

On dead wood. 
P. leucophseum, Fries. 

On bark and moss. 
P. cerebrinum, 3Iass. 

On wood and soil in a pot con- 
taining palm seeds from Java. 
Probably an introduced 
species. (Moitot/r. M//.r.. 
p. 306, fig. 275.) 

I Badhamia, Berk. 
j B. macrocarpa, Host. 
On dead bark. 
B. panicea, Post. 

On twigs. 

B. varia, Mats. 

On wood. 

Tilmadoche, Post. 

T. nutans, Post. 

On rotten wood. 

Leocarpus, Post. 

L. fragilis, Post. 
Fuligo, Post. 
F. varians, Post. 

On heap of dead leaves. 

(Euonymns europeeus, L.) 

Inquiries are sometimes directed to Kew as to the manufacture of 

skewers from spindle-wood. The following int-Testm^ partieulars 
respecting this charming British shrub are therefore reprinted froi " 

. James's Gazette for November 7 last. 
The spindle tree (Euonymns europeeus) is 

erit which are overlooked 

ut its broad i j 

utely serrated edges, turn, 

blossoms, which open in May, ai 
in October has all the appears 

fruit, indeed, from its colour and shape, is tin- must distinctive as well as 
most beautiful feature of the tree. Each berry is four-lobed and of a 
lively rose-pink. When quite ripe the lobes open, disclosing four large 
seeds covered with a deep orange-coloured membrane, the seeds and the 
husk then presenting a curious but attractive contrast. The wood of 
the spindle tree is exceedingly tough ; and the husks and stems of the 
berries partake of the same character, so that long after the leaves have 
fallen these remain to enliven the wintry landscape. JBirds will not 
touch them, and with human beings they act as a strong emetic and 

The wood is so compact and tough that it is hard to break and almost 
impossible to splinter. In the days of domestic industries, when every 
notable maid minded her wheel, it was in request for the making of 
spindles ; hence its commonest name — a name by which it is known in 
Germany and Italy. It was also used for Diluting the pointed ends 
of ox-goads; whence is derived another name of gutter tree, or prickwood. 
Chaucer calls the berries gaitre-berries, and in the Xennes Preestes Tale 
recommends then against ague and the humours.* In Ireland it is called 
pegwood, because shoemakers use it for pegs for shoes. In France it is 
also known by the name of priest's cap, from the resemblance of the berry 
in shape to a bireita. Though -oad-- ami swindles are gone out of fashion, 
the wood is still employed in the making of a variety of small wares — 
such as skewers, toothpicks, and fine pins for '-leaning watches; and 
artists are said to prefer the charcoal prepared from the branches to any 
other, partly from its excellent quality and parti - b.eause it is easily 

* from cuttings. 

The spindle 

! tree is < 

easily pro 

either from seed < 

It seems to 

flourishes he.-t 

of England. 


in Wales ; in 

i it is almost unk: 



and the oran<. 

us, the 

effect is les! 

? pic 

presented by t 

ho beid. 

38 of the 

8f sort. 


Retirement of Sir Robert Meade, G.C.B.— The disapp 

keenest interest in colonial enterprise, and has been c 

be passed over without a li'W words of remembrance. I 
Robert. Meade, after a varied official career became As 
Secretary to the Colonial < Mile in 1*71 ; ,nd Under-Seereta 
1892. He retired on February 28th of the present year. 
The assistance which Kew can afford to the Colonies 
difficult to render on ordinary official lines. Plants c? 
transmitted nor treated afterwards by the same mechanical 
ordinal \ Government stores. Economic questions cannc 

* Chaucei's plan' i-, however, generally supposed to be the Doj 


dealt with on official foolscap. Sir Robert Meade never failed to take a 
human view of possibilities, and many things were accomplished 
accordingly which any other method would have made impracticable. 
A strong personal taste for botany and gardening made him keenly 
alive to the difficulties and limitations of any aid which could be given 
effectively to cultural industries in the Colonies. Judicious rigour led 
him to clear away unnecessary difficulties in ji-^-ist inir any reasonable 
project. How much the Colonies owed, in this respect, to his unfailing 
attention to their welfare can never, perhap-, !>e wholly appreciated. 

Death of Sir John Thurston, K.C.M.G.— After 20 years' service in 
various capacities in the Pacific Sir John Thurston became Governor 
of High Commissioner in the Western Pacific in 1887. He 
died in February last while still in office. His career was one of those 
which counts for little in the public eye; yet it was spent in capable 
and unflinching service on behalf of the Empire. So intimate was his 
knowledge and so self-sacrificing his devotion to its affairs in the 
Pacific that his very indispensableness barred his further career in the 
Colonial service. A correspondence with Kew, begun some 20 years 
ago, was ever . i i go'ur. Although sol a 

scientific man himself Sir John was keenly interested in the Pacific 
flora, and Kew owes to him many new species which he successfully 
, The Colony he ruled -o hug was an object to him of 

st parental affection, and his letters to Kew arc a continuous record 

5 efforts to promote its material development. 

packets of seeds distributed from 

(December I to March 31) to other Botanic Institutions 

and abroad : — 

Hardy herbaceous plants 

Ligneous plants 

Various (mostly tropical) 

Botanical Magazine for March. — The present number opens with a 
figure of the magnificent Wistaria chinensis var. multijiif/rr, which has 
racemes exceeding two feet in length. It is a native of Japan, and was 

sent to Kew by Van Houtte. of Ghent, in 1*74. Ifnlothrir orthoceras, 
a South African species, flowered in the Royai Gardens in March of 
last vear. tubers having been received from Mrs. Deglon, of Barberton. 
The "figure of Grevillea Miliaria was prepared from a specimen sent to 
Kew by Thomas Hanbury. Fs,p, of I. a Mortola. It is a native of 
Eastern Australia. Dendrobium sarmentosinii from Burma was received 
from Mr. C. Curtis, F.L.S., Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens and 
Plantations of Penang. The flowers are violet-scented. Didi/mom ,-/>»» 
probably native of Penang, sent to Kew by 

, of Chelsea. 

Flora of British Central Africa. — The handsome and schoWriy 
monograph on British Central Africa, which has been published by Sir 
Ilany John-ton, late II. -r Majesty's Commissioner and Consul-General 
for that region, stands out in marked contrast to the bulk of the ordinary 
ephemeral geographical literature of the day. Apart from the interest 
imparted to it by the robust common sense and lively personality of its 
author, it gives a singularly vivid picture of one of the most important 
of our African possessions. But it must always remain a standard book 
of reference on the subject, if only for the pains with which its author 
has included in it the most accurate information which he could procure 
on every branch of the natural history of the territory under his charge : 
and he had moreover spared no paius to have the collections made on 
which the reports are drawn up. 

Ke\v willingly consented to his request for a list of the plants known 
to occur in British Central Africa from the materials preserved in the 
Herbarium of the Royal Gardens. This was accordingly prepared by 
Mr. I. If. Burkill, M.A., one of the scientific staff. It occupies 
pages 233-284. 

The following introductory note gives some account of the collections 

" The following list, compiled for the most part from the plants and 
manuscript records in the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, Kew, must 
be regarded as provisional. The knowledge of the flora of the British 
territory north of the Zambezi has been so rapidly extended during 
recent 'years, and is yet so imperfectly known, that any account 
approaching completeness is at present impossible. Little has been 
published hitherto, and the facts now collected together will serve to 
brin«- into one view nearly all we know of the Botany of British Central 

" The first collections were made by t 
Expedition in the vears 1S(?1. 1S62. Dr. 

Mr. J.C.Meller, while exploring theeourse of the Shire River and wain 
ing in the Mahanja hills, made considerable collections, which were 
transmitted to Kew, some of them in time for description in the Flora 
of Tropical Africa, Subsequently T)r. Kirk journeyed up the Zambezi 
into the Batoka country, from the highlands of which and from the 
region of the Victoria Falls other plants were sent home. The new 
species gathered by him were described in : , variety oi different publica, 
tions. In the following years Mr. Horace Waller, residing in the Mananja 
hills, continued to transmit plants to Dr. Kirk, who was at that time 
Her Majesty's Consul in Zanzibar. After this comes a gap of some years 
in which nothing was added to our knowledge, until Dr. Emil Holub- 
in 1879, returned from ■ bad made considerable 

collections. Of these, a few of the plants had been gathered about 
Sesheke, almost the most northern point which he reached, and within 
the territory under consideration. At the same time (1*7-) Major 
Serpa Pinto made, in his journey across the continent, a small collection 
on the table-land over the River Ninda, and the plants of this were, in 
1881, described in the Transactions of the Liimcan Society. Again in 
this year 1878, the late Mr. -John Hm-hanan <ent to Kew his first collection 
of Vvoalami plains, and Mr. L- Scott travelled collecting through the 
Shire Highlands to the head of Lake Nyasa. 

« From this date our knowledge has steadily grown. Under the 

influence and with the help of Sir Harry Johnston, the region of the 

Uhi- be, n i • g- ti'-alh explored. Fhe Irequ.-ul mention 


J. Last, A. Whyi<-. and K. < . Cameron show> how much has been done 
in this region. Further north, in 1879, Mr. Joseph Thomson had 
slathered plants on the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, and these reached 
Kew in 1880. Messrs. Carson, Nutt, Scott-Elliot, and Sir Harry 
Johnston haw al-o olleci I on tin ;.!.!!■ an and the first-named on a 
journey along the Kalungwesi River to Lake Mweru. 

u The collection made at Boroma, on the north of the Zambezi, by the 
Eev. L. Menyharth, is only in part known. 

"AsaguiiM ie region has been divided into four 

sections, as follows : — 

1. Shire Highlands. 

2. !Xyasa-Tanganyika plateau ; some of the plants probably collected 

on the German side of the boundary line. 

3. Extreme west, where Major Serpa Pinto alone has collected. 

4. Upper Zambezi. 

"It must bo .'. cted by Buchanan were 

obtained in the Shire Highlands ; all by Carson and Nutt, unless other- 
wise stated, from the region near the south end of Lake Tanganyika ; 
all from Serpa Pinto from the one plateau near the River Xinda"; and 
all from Menyharth from Boroma. It was not thought necessary to 
repeat these localities with the collectors' names." 

Drift Seeds from the Keeling Islands.— Mr. II. X. Ridley, Director 
of the Gardens and Forest Department, Straits Settlements, has presented 
a small collection of drift seeds from the Keeling or Coeos Island*, 
made by Mr. G. C. Ross, the present lessee of the islands. It contains 
little that has not been collected before under the same conditions, mil 
it maybe worth while putting the names on record. They arc: — 
Cf/ri/pa ,>inh'fc< usis. Lam,, three or lour species of Mm-mut, ilnjthrina 
inriica /, Ci/nometracaulifiora,'L., Co csa! pi, dm Honda.-, //../, PL, Iddada 
scandais, Benth., />a rri/n//, >,//'</ . Ti rmundia C/dif/i/t//. h., II, rmtadhi . 
three or four species of Qitercus, Aleurites triloba, Forst., and Cycas 

Algse in the Kew Herbarium. — T' : cataloguing 

of the Alga3 in the Kew Herbarium will greatly facilitate reference to 

this extensive and valuable collection. For the sake of convenience the 

• mted are those of De Toni's S////ng t 

Algarum,*nd in thi- hook the numbering oi all thespeci - consecutively 

An especial value and interest attach to the Kew collection of 
Alga- on account of the large number of original specimens received at 
first hand from the old pioneers of algology, as well as from later and 
recent authorities. Foremost among these stands the type collection of 
Dawson Turner, mostly mounted on irhiss slips and end >sed inenvelopes 
labelled in his own handwriting. To this must be added the numerous 
type specimens of Robert Brown, Stackhouse, Grevilio. Harvey, ami 
others of our own countrymen ; whilst the rich herbaria of the Hookers 
father and son, of Berkeley, and of Mrs. Griffiths furnish abundant 
material from the old.-! <S supplemented by the 

more recent exsiccataj of Rabenhorsr, Hauck, Wittrock, and Xor.lstedt, 
and the contributions of the veteran J. Gt. Agardh. 

8 98272. E 

It is not generally known that on the shelves of the Kew Library are 
to be found a series of volumes of coloured drawings by Miss Turner, 
Miss Hutchins, Carmichael, Dawson Turner, and others. These drawings 
are executed with great skill, and being in most cases accompanied by 
manuscript descriptions, present a mine of unworked material for future 
students of British algology. 

The catalogue which is being prepared gives the Locality and collector's 
name for every specimen in the herbarium, so that a preliminary glance 
■it this li-t will show how far any particular species i- represented, and 
on whose authority. 

Broom Root. — An account of Broom root or Mexican whisk obtained 
from one or more species of grasses belonging to the genus Epicampes 
was given in the Kew Bulletin for December 1887 (p. 9). The roots 
in the condition in which they are exported are known as " Raiz de 
Zacaton." During some years very little has been exported, but latterly 
increased interest has been taken in them as a cheap substitute for the 
well-known Venetian whisk, derived from the roots of Chrysopogon 
Gry litis. The most recent information respecting Broom root is con- 
tained in the following « Report for the year 1895 on the Trade of 
Mexico • (F.O., 1896, Annual Series, No. 1827) :— 

" From the roots of a coarse tufty grass, known as " Zacaton," which 
is found growing wild all over the highlands of Mexico, a fibre is 
extracted called '• Kaiz de Xaraton."' which ha- found a market abroad 
for the manufacture of certain kinds of brushes and whisks. It is 
collected by hand, and is subjected to very little treatment before being 

soaked in water and bleached 
market for this fibre is Hamburg, but the United States and 
ifh take a certain amount. It has never obtained a foothold in 

the English market. The export in 1S95 was valued at 07,.V)!V. 
price, according to the New York quotations, ranged in the year i 
question from 6c to 14c. per lb., according to quality." 

Snowdrop Di; liable to he affected with \ 

caused by a l'un-u- f s,-h ,-,,/, ,,i,i ( ,„hi „tl,i). The following tr 
is recommended for keeping it in check : — 

Spray at intervals of three days with a dilute solution of Bordeaux 
mixture*, or a rose red solution of Condy's fluid. Do not spray when 
the sun is shining. This will arrest the spread of the fungus, but will 
not cure those ked. A white mould, or Botrytis 

stage of the fungus, originates from very minute sclerotia or resting 
stages, formed in the bulbs of the previous season. These sclerotia 
germinate, grow up the flower stalk, and produce their crop of spores in 
the air. These, in turn, germinate on the ground, grow down to the 
bulbs and attack those that are healthy, forming sclerotia which will in 
the following season produce the Botrytis form. The great point is to 
destroy the white mould, and thus prevent healthy bulbs from becoming 

See Kew Bulletin 

A Caiina Disease.— A dangerous disease, by which species of Carina 
are quickly destroyed, was first recorded f-,,,1 Nm I'mlo, in Brazil, in 
1884. Quite recently an account >A' the destruction ot' Carinas, by what 
proves to be the same fungus, Uredo Carina, Winter, has been received 
from Mr. J. II. Hart, Superintendent of the Botanic Garden-, Trinidad. 
"Diseased leaves are at fittl : minute, yellowish spots , 

this appearance is quickly followed by blackening and death. The 
disease does not appear to have reached Europe as yet, and great care 
should be exercised in receiving living plants from the New World, as 
the fungus, which is a close ally of the Hollyhock rust-, f'uccinia 
Malcaceamm, if once introduced, would, in all probability, render 
i time at least, tbe cultivation of Cannas. 

India as Double Rice. In all ca 
due to an increase in the number of ovaries, the other parts of the 
flower being invariably of the normal number. In the gynceceum of 
over 150 flowers examined not one was found with fewer than four 
ovaries, all apparently perfect ; the usual number beiug five. A few 
flowers were found to have six, and one or two had seven ovaries. 
When five, six, or seven ovaries were piv-eut, sometimes only three, but 
usually four or five appeared to be perfect. The ovaries may be one-, 
two-, or three-styled. Usually only two ovaries develop into grain, 
three, and their shape is modified accordingly. 

Sorghum Sugar. — The Sugar Sorghum or Broom Corn (Andropor/on 
Snrt/lnnn, Un-t , var. Sttrcfuiratiis, Koern., is a grass largely cultivated 
in Northern India, China, and Japan, as well as in the United States. 
It is, however, native of none of these countries, and its original home is 
obscure, but is probably Tropical Africa. For many years past a 
strenuous effort has been made in North America to utilise the sugar 
sorghum as a source of sugar in a zone north of that in which the sugar 
cane is grown. The result has not, however, been very successful, as 
the sugar can only be obtained for the most part in an uncryst illi/.ahit 
form. Syrup is, however, a large article of consumption in the United 
States, and this alone affords the industry a chance of success. 

The following extract from The Louisiana Planter for December I, 
1894, gives what is no doubt a correct account of the industry from an 
American point of view. 

" The Sorghum Industry. — Sorghum manufacture consists in making 
syrup and also sugar. It is a common error to measure the sorghum 
industry simply by its yield of suirar. The value of the sorghum syrup 
product of the country is greater than the value of the sorghum sugar. 
In small factories syrup only is produced, and in large factories syrup, 
sugar, and molasses are produced. The sorghum crop is of sufficient 
importance in twenty-four State- to he reported monthly by the govern- 
ment statistician, along with sugar cane, rice, wheat, corn, and other 
leading crops of the country. 

" The season for sorghum manufacture usually begins in August. A t 
that season sugar cane syrup is not found in market. There is, then, a 
general demand tor 'new crop syrup.' At the beginning of the season 

the syrup factories find { 
factories use quantities o 

"The beet sugar factories and the sorghum sugar factories have a 
considerable advantage in the fact that there is usually an active demand 
for sugar in the months of August and September for use in pre 
fruits. Asa rule sugar brings a higher price in these months 
brings in the months in which Louisiana sugar is marketed. And 
sorghum has an advantage over beet manufacture in the fact that it is 
possible to make a fine sorghum syrup during the months when the 
market is bare of syrup, or whenever syrup pays better than sugar. 
Sugar refiners utilisea part of the residue- of sugar ':. lining by converting 
them into syrup, >\\u\ ii is said that there is sometimes more profit in the 
syrup made from the residues than in the refined sugar, for the reason 

that syrup sometimes brings a relatively higher price tnan sugar, it 
seems probable that, for a time, the production of fine, uncrvstallizable 
syrup will form a considerable part of the output of sorghum s agar 
factories, and that only the best cane which alone is profitable for sugar 
manufacture will be worked for sugar, and that unripe canes at the 
beginning of the season, inferior cane during the season, and frosted 
cane at the end of the season, will be worked for fine syrup, as the 
inferior residues of sugar refining are worked for fine syrup. So far the 

S syrup. The result has been a small yield of Bug! 
per ion 01 cane worked for sugar, a large yield of molasses wM< 
includes a considerable amount of sugar which cannot be extract* 

>rghum sugar factories have worked mainly for 
tcidentally for crude syrup. The result has been a sm 


lizable syrup from sorghum, which is superior for many purposes, if not 

for all, to the common mixed syrups. Considering the immense sale of 

mixed syrups, there seems to be room for a 

at a low cost, and which is superior to th 

to be little profit in produein- .;, iulVnor quality "of %yrup, 

wanted only by mixers, as there is little profit in producing article- of 

low grade in any line. 

" At present it is much easier to improve the manufacture of syrup 
than it is to immediately impruv the extraction of sugar from molasses. 
The latter is a problem which long troubled sugar cane and beet sugar 
manufacturers, and it requires time for the sorghum industry to work 
out that problem, as it required time in the sugar cane and the sugar 
beet industries. While an increase in sugar yield is and should be the 
main object of the sorghum sugar factories, yet while accomplishing that 
object is seems necessary to utilise the cane in the best possible way 
with regard to immediate financial results. 





Nos. 325-126.] MAY and JUNE. [1897. 


One of the difficulties inseparable from the work of opening 
plantations in new countries is the injury done to cultivated plants by 
various insects. In a state of nature these feed on the wild plants of 
the country and their attacks pass unnoticed. When, however, the 
indigenous forest is cut down to give place to regular plantations if is 
found that the insects whose food supply has been destroyed attack the 
introduced plants and cause considerable los<. This is inevitable under 
tin 1 cirennistiinces, arid is a part of the penalty which the planter has to 
pay for interfering with the balance of nature. 

In A\ r est Africa the attacks of insects have of late been more than 
usually destructive. Nuinci ou> r.'onoinic pi-mts introduced for experi- 
mental cultivation at the Aburi Botanic Station, on the Gold Coast, 
have been almost entirely destroyed, while the newly established coffee 
plantations in the colony of Lagos have also Buffered. Owing to the 
difficulty of oi ' ■: nervations by 

skilled observers on the spot, it has not been possible hitherto to do 
more than offer suggestions for further inquiry and a trial of methods, 
found useful in dealing with the attacks of allied insects in other 

At the instance of the Government of the Gold Coast, an inquiry has 
been undertaken on behalf of Kew by Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford, 
F.Z.S., F.E.S., with the view of identifying some of the insects, and of 
affording technical assistance in dealing with future attacks. 

The correspondence which has led to th. inquiry and Mr. Blandford's 
reports are detailed below. The information contained in these 
those who are engaged in 

Colonial Office to Royal Garden's, Kkw. 

Sir, August 2!), l-N«»>. 

1 am directed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to 
transmit to you the accompanying copy of a despatch, with enclosures, 
from the Qffi< the Government of the Gold Coast, 

respecting the borers which infest soma of the economic plants in the 
Botanical Station at Aburi. 

U 98273. 1375.— 9/97. Wt. 61. A 

I am to state that the Secretary of State will be obliged if you will 
be good enough to advise him as to the best method of dealing with 

John Bramston. 

Administrator of the Gold Coast to Colonial Office. 

Government House, Accra, 
Sir, July 18, 1896. 

I have the honour to report that in consequence of the state- 
ments made by the Chief Justice, Mr. Brandford Griffith, in a letter 
addressed to Governor $] . of which T enclose an 

extract, His Excellency requested the Chief Medical Officer to visit 
Aburi and make a report upon the condition of the coffee shrubs and 

2. It was not, however, until last month that Dr. Easmon found 
himself in a position to leave Accra. I enclose a copy of his report 
which reached mo on the 26th ultimo, and I am sending separately by 
this mail, addressed to the Crown Agents, a box containing— 

showing the action of the borers upon 

ask that Dr. Easmon's report and the 
3 Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, who 
will no doubt give his valuable advice as to the best method of 
combating and getting rid of the pest. 

4. Mr. Humphries, the curator of the Botanic Station, who, I may 
pay, afforded Dr. Easmon every assistance, is now, as you are aware, in 
England on leave of absence. 

I eaine up here on Saturday, and on Sunday morning 1 looked round 
the Coffee. It is in a deplorable stare. The "Arabian coffee apparently 
likes the soil and climate, but is literally ruined by ( 1 think) a boring grub, 
which enters near the bottom and makes a hole" root wards, thereby doing 
fatal injury to the trees. Practically all the Arabian coffee looks 
wretched. I never saw anything looking better than the Liberian 
coffee. It looks superb. On closer investigation I found about two 
trees out of five attacked by a boring grub, diff.-rent. I think, from the 
grub which attacked the Arabian coffee. This grub has only lately 
begun to attack the Liberian coffee, and you can see trees laden and 

: yellow from the effects of the grub ; 

iue to the boring grub. The natives 
see or will soon see it, and will abstain from planting coffee. Considering 
that this is an agricultural country, and that soil and climate appear to 
suit the Liberian coffee to perfection, something should be done to try 
and defeat the grub. 

1. Borer affecting the Arabian Coffee. 
Specimens preserved :— 

(a.) Portion of cocoon showing its tough and fibrous nature j 

(b.) A full-sized grub or larva ; 

(c.) A pupa ; and 

(d.) A mature insect. 
The larva is two inches long, greenish white in appearance with a 
darker grey streak along tin sides ; the head is large and provided with 
two strong brown nippers; the body consists of 11 segments, the two 
nearest I lie head being only slightly distinguishable. 

Only a portion of the pupa is given ; ii calls for no special remark. 
The developed insect is one inch in length ; narrow body of a 
light brown colour ; the head is black, on the centre of the back is a 
black triangular mark with the apex pointing backwards and on each 
side, about a quarter of an inch from the posterior extremity, are two 
smaller black marks. The antenna} are retracted over the back. This 
insect is very active in its habits. 

2. Borer itjfn ti.Kj the l.iherian Coffee. 

This is morphuh-udcallv practically the same insect as that affecting 
the Arabian eohee ; the matured insect seemed a trill ■ larger than the 
other- and perhaps darker in colour, but 1 think this is -imply a question 
of age or possibly of sex, 

3. The Castilloa elastica Borer. 

Specimens of this in-eel in various stages are supplied in two tubes. 
The grub is much larger than in the preceding ease-, and the matured 

lan the coffee 

bom". The antenna* are an 

l half long and 

he body ; the colour 

a darker grey 

either side of tt 

ddle line in the 

ack, and black spots 

of the body, as 

t the list descr 

i-e in its operations. 

1. Orange and Lemon Trees. 

Two classes of borers affect these plants, c 

ng them at the 
the operations 

)ots, the other 

at the branches. I 

t would a 

['!"••"■ !l: ^ 

and that M ft 

latter oi/ae, 

they are inoperative 

until a ce 

rtain degn 

■e of diminished 

''him root"],! 

i'rers m-rpartieularh 

■ active, a 

nd the la 

i va lias special 

.urpholun-ical ; 

ns. Specimens 

i all theinsect 

s I found on these tr 


J. Fabrj 


Eoyal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office 
Roval Gardens, Kcw, 
Sik, June 29, 1897. 

With reference to your letter of the 29th August last, 
No. 17,220/96, and subsequent correspondence, I have the honour to 
forward herewith a copy of the report prepared by Mr. Walter F. II. 
Blandford, F.Z.S., on the insects injurious to plants at the Botanic 
Station at Aburi, on the Gold Coast. 

2. The preparation of this report has, I regret to st»te, been unduly 
delayed by Mr. Blandford's engagement on the Natal Tsetse fly inquiry. 

fail to be of considerable vain.- on the Hold Const, and as some of 
those destructive insects are widely distributed in West Africa, they 
will be of service in other colonies where coffee, india-rubber, orange, 
and other trees are now being cultivated. 

municate a copy of the report to* the Governors of the other Colonies 
in West Africa in addition to the Governor of the Gold Coast, for 
whom it has been specially prepared. The small parcel sent herewith 
containing some of the insects named and mounted should also be sent 
to the Gold Coast, to be kept there for future reference. 

4. It will be noticed that Mr. Blandford indicates somewhat technical 
lines of inquiry and methods of treatment. In the first instance these 
should be carefully studied and applied by the curators of the botanic 
stations, and the results of their observations might be placed on record 
for the information of persons engaged in cultivating economic plants, 
"' e annual reports of the stations 
I am, &c, 
(Signed) W. T. Tiiiselton-Dyer. 
I.G., C.B., 

The material received from Aburi 
stages, preserved in spirit, and of samples of coffee shrubs, Ac, which 
have been injured by them. Accompanying the material is a short 
report by Dr. J. Farrell Easmon, Chief Medical Officer. 

It may be stated at once that the material and information supplied are 
insufficient to furnish the basis of a detailed report and fully set forth the 
measures to be adopted to relieve the plantations of these pests. In the 
case of, say, European insects of which the habits are tolerably well 
known, a mere identification of an injurious species is often sufficient to 
enable a line of treatment to be suggested. 

In the case, however, of exotic insects it is only rarely that evidence 
other than that actually supplied with the specimens is available, and 
the utmost that can be done is to advise on general grounds, pointing 

which such inquiry, if it lead to a positive result, may 
This is all that can be done in the present case. The insects 

sent from Aburi have beea mostly identified, with some difficulty, Lut 
the identification has not led to the discovery of any literature dealing 
with their habits and economic features. 

Nature of Insects sent. 
The insects received from Aburi are all beetles, in different stages of 
development, They are divisible inio two sets. 

1. Longicorn Beetles.— One species of Longicorn beetle has been 
sent in each case as destructive to coffee, Castilloa elastica, and orange 
and lemon trees respectively. These appear to be the really injurious 
insects of ihe consignment. 

2. Beetles belonging to the tribe Hetcromera. With the exception 
of one species, taken by Dr. Easmon from orange and lemon trees, theve 
is no evidence, direct or indirect, to connect any of these insects with 
the damage sustained. 

It will therefore be convenient to consider the Longicorn beetles 
separately. Three species have been sent. They are : — 

1. BLradus iierrieola, White. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 310 (The 
Coffee Borer). Described <>ri finally tVimi Sierra Leone. This insect 
has been sent as destructive to coffee, both Arabian and Liberian. 
Tnough Dr. Easmon seems doubtful on this point, there is no difference 
in the examples sent from either tree. The species attacks both kinds 
of coffee indifferently. 

Bixadtu is a subgenus of M&m sua of Longi- 

cornia, which contain^ two Kuropean species, M. sartor and M. sutor, 
both destructive to Coniferse. 

2. Inesida leprosa, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 178 (The Castilloa Borer). 
Described from Guinea and Senegal. Tins insect, familiar in collections 
of West African beetles, is the borer of Castilloa elastica. 

3. Eunidia sp. (The Orange Borer.) This species is a small Longicorn 
sent as destructive to orange and lemon trees. But one example of the 
perfect insect has been received, which I cannot identify with any 
species in the Briti-n Museum collection. African species of the genus 
have been described from the Cape (1), Natal (8), " Caff raria " (5), 
Senegal (1), Angola (I), and Damaraland (1). The locality of the 
species sent is not far removed from Senegal ; but it is impossible to 
identify it with the species occurring in that region, except after the 
examination of the type which cannot be seeu. 

The species of Eunidia are obscure and not readily determinable 
from descriptions. 

General Habits of Longicorn Beetles. 

The perfect insects of Longicorn beetles are usually rather sluggish, 

and are to be found by day on leaves, or on the trunks of trees, or logs. 

Sometimes they sit by day in the mouth of the burrows made by the 

larva;. A few, chiefly of the smaller species, fly by day, but the 

. :ii dusk or early in the night. 

The female deposits her eggs, as a rule, in the cracks of bark, having 

an extensible tubular apex to the abdomen for that purpose. She does 

not pierce sound bark, but selects cracks, either natural fissures or 

)id disease, wounds, &c. It is quite exceptional for 

cracks clue to tungoid disease, 
a Longicorn beetle to lay on 
these species in question do so. 

Several exotic species in both hemispheres prepare the wood for recep- 
tion of the eggs by gnawing off a circular ring of bark round a branch, 
The part of the branch beyond the ring dies, and in it the eggs are 
deposited. This form of egg-laying is not shown, from the pieces of 
wood sent, to occur in the present cases, but it is important to know of 
its existence, as it is apt to be very puzzling whenever it is observed for 
the first time. 

It is, I think, undeniable that Longicorn beetles will select perfectly 
healthy trees for oviposition, at least at certain times and in the case of 
certain species ; but they are generally attracted to a treo by at least a 
local injur, m, and, in corn- 

prefer trees of which 
irmal flow 

Causes lead/)"/ to Selection of Trees for Egg-laying. 
In any case of Longicorn injury, attention should be paid to the 
following points as likely to give some clue to the reasons which have 
led to the trees being selected for attack : 

1. Antecedent injury by other insects especially extensive defolia- 
tion, loss of nutrition due to scale, blight, or other sucking insects ,- 
root-injury, by subterranean larva: ot diltV-ivnt kinds such as chafer- 

2. Fungoid disease, especially when attended with loss of foliage. 

3. Drought, climatic or due to the presence of an unsuitable 

4. Unsuitable soil, or soil deteriorated by over-exposure to sun, etc. 

shallow and rhe root- meet with clay or the like. 

6. Gross injuries from storms, wounds involving loss of bark, and 
the like. 

These are some of the causes which lead to -election of particular 
trees. But inasmuch as these insects will habitually select sickly or 
overshadowed tree- in preference to healthy cue-, when they are not so 
numerous as to be restricted in their choice, it must be recollected 
that extensive damage to previously healthy trees is generally indicative 
of the species having been allowed to multiply and become over- 
abundant in the situations which it normally selects for breeding. This 
multiplication is usually due to the non-removal of infested, sickly, 
and dominated trees, stumps, logs, and brushwood of kinds in which 
they will breed. 

Freedom from their attack* can mil,/ />< scored in situations where 

the removal of all dead and dging material. 

Characters of Longicorn larva-. 
The larvae of Longicorn beetles are alike in general appearance and 
difficult to distinguish. They ure soft and flattened, especially in front, 
white or pale, with a much-wrinkled thin skin. The head is short, trans 
verse, black or dark brown, with powerful jaws, and is deeply sunk in the 
first segment of the body. This segment is broader than any of the 
succeeding, and is usually covered above with a somewhat rigid shield 
which protects it in burrowing. The body is flattened cylindrical 
after the enlarged one or two anterior segments, and is not. tapering or 
fusiform. It is not curved ventrally, but is straight when the larva is 

naturally rvi» i-L I. Legs are entirely absent, or present on the three 
anterior segments as six minute rudiments. Their place is supplied l-y 
tubercular enlargements of the sides of the segments, which, though 
soft, serve to give them a grip of the burrow. 

Habits of Longicorn Larva. 
The egg being laid as deeply in the crack of the bark as the parent 
beetle can manage, when the young larva hatches, it bores as a rule 
during the early part of its life in the inner layer of the bark and the 
outer sapwood. In these parts it excavates irregular galleries, which 
often intersect, and may lie in no particular direction with reference to 
the long axis of the trunk. The galleries of Lo-ugicorn fftvbs arc 

the transverse section of the larva at its largest part; this will distin- 
guish them at once from the burrows of many boring insects. They 
are usually packed when fresh with fine wood-meal, the result of the 

The extent to which the galleries are bored superficially in the sap- 
wood and bark varies greatly according to the species of Longicorn. la 
some the larva quits the surface-wood early to burrow in the heart- 
wood, either up or down ; in others all the boring is superficial, and the 
larva only enters the harder wood to make a chamber in which to 

The greater the amount of this superficial boring, the greater the 

hard wood, //. •</, limn to the timber as an article of 

With species that do a large amount of superficial boring, and 
especially when several larvse are present in a trunk, large areas of hark 
may be detached from the sap-wood, the nutrition of the tree is 
destroyed at these points, and the tree may be completely ringed under- 
neath the bark. 

When the larva is full-grown it changes io a pup: 1 , in a recess at the 
end of its burrow, which is packed in front and behind with a plug of 
wood fibre. The burrow is usually continued to the outside, with the 
exception of a thin layer before being plugged, so that the perfect 
beetle can emerge easily. The beetles themselves are not wood- 
It must be added that in most cases, and certainly in temperate 
countries, Longicorn larva?, especially those which do much boring in 
the solid wood, are of slow growth, and may live for a year or more in 
that stage. Under exceptional circumstances larval life may be 
prolonged for many years. 

It is hoped that "the foregoing general account may le of assistance in 
supplementing the knowledge which has been gained of the particular 
species in question. Of these the coffee borer will be more particularly 
discussed, as the specimens of wood sent throw some light on it- habits. 
It is to be regretted that these specimens were not forwarded with a 
little more information. In the case of one coffee shrub, of which the 
main stem and roots have been sent, cut into pieces, it has been found 
possible to put the pieces together and, with some difficulty, to work 
out the various systems of burrows traversing it. These will be briefly 
described, as a guide to further observations. It may be added that the 

burrow is thus differently coloured, the general course of them 
ultimately becomes evident ; but unless this is done, it is impossible to 
delimit each burr<»w without c,,iiiu- ; ..n. am! \«'t -uch id limitation is very 
imporlant for studying the facts of the case. 

The Coffee Borer. 

The stem sent measures about 
The main roots are attached. It c( 
less than four larva?. 

About 2 feet from the collar is a large eroded patch about 8 inches 
long, extending nearly round the stem at its lower part. From this 
patch the bark i- removed, ami the -apwood is exposed and scored with 
shallow grooves due to the larval burrows. 

Burrow 1. — At its upper part is a hole leading into the heart-wood, 
this communicates with a burrow running down the stem for 15 inches, 
and communicating with the outside part of the way down by a hole 
with callused margins, at the bottom it turns upwards and finishes in a 
pupal chamber by a circular flight-hole 

through the bark. This burrow is old, as seen from its discoloured 
walls, emptiness, and the appearance of the flight-hole. It has been 
made and quitted some time before the stem was cut. At the point 
where it enters the heart-wood from the surface there is some callus, 
and it appears to me that the surtaee mischief caused by this particular 
larva had partly healed, and thai mo-t of the erosion in the patch from 
which the burrow starts was caused by the larva which had formed 
burrow 2. 

Burrow 2 begins at the lower part of the eroded patch and runs 
t/ptrm-ds for 5 inches in the heart-wood to finish in a ptq al chamhc r 
without e.iit. This burrow is a season, at least, later in date than 
burrow 1, and its course is largely determined by the presence of the 
latter. Its walls are not discoloured. As there is no exit hole to the 
burrow the terminal chamber must have contained the larva or pupa at 
the time the stern was split open. 

Burrow 3 begins tit a -eeoitd large eroded barkless patch just above 
. the roots, common to it und the next burrow ; it is about 1 foot in 
length, runs deeply down into the rootstook and re-a-c.nds to open at its 
upper extremity by a flight-hole. This is an old burrow, about the same 

Burrow 4 begins at the large patch common to it and 3, and also 
runs down towards the roots; it is short, not above 4 inches in length, 
and turns back to open at a circular flight-hole some 1 inches above the 
ground. The hole is fresh. The remains of the pupal packing are in 
the burrow, which is later in date than 1 or 3, and probably coeval with 2. 

H,. ■> 

■ ■ 

Besides these four burrows, one of the roots has been extensively 
guawed in patches. I am imaMe to t race any communication between 
there patches, which appear to be isolated in places from each other, and 
from any of the four larval burrows. It is a matter for question whether 
they are due to a Longicorn larva at all, or whether they have been 
caused by some underground grub, such as that of a weevil' {liln/nrho- 
phora) or a chafer (Scarabaida ) or by Mrftf/Ionntus d, uticol/is (p. 186;. 
If such antecedent damage were to exist, it might be of the greatest 

inportance in causing the state of her :,r attack, and 

t the same time be easily overlooked. 


1. The shrub sent has been attacked by four distinct examples of 
Longicorn borer. 

2. While the four belong probably to the same species — lii.vadus 
sierricola — it cannot be proved that more than one species has not been 

3. The attack begins under the hark which is destroyed over large 
patches. It is likely that while the attack is going on, these patches 
mag be capable of detection by their altered appearance, exhibition of 
cracks or holes, which emit small quantities of wood-poicder. 

4. The eggs may be laid near the ground, or at some height, 2 l'cet ;it 
least, up the stem. Possibly higher if the trunk is large enough. 

5. Owing to the bark destruction, the points -elected for egg-laying 

6. The larval life 

is of some considerable duration, several months at 

least, nrobably over 

callused over, show 

ring them (in the latter burrow*) to be much older 

than the flight-holes 

ntually enter the hard wood and may burrow up or 

down— if down, the; 

y ultimately turn back and bore upwards. 

pair. The shrub is 

though it may be sc 

. injured as to be past recovery. 

itial that the larva shall bore into the roots. Its 

course is determine. 

1 by the situation at which the eggs are laid, and by 

the presence of pre\ 

dons burrows. 

10. One of the n 

>otr> has been gnawed by an insect which I cannot 

satisfy myself to be 

One of the shrul 

l>s sen?, which I took at first not to be coffee, as it 

ii appearance from the one described on page 182, 

has been apparent 
Jiivadus. In this 

case the borings are at the upper part of the stem, 
; there is much superficial injury and loss of bark 

g in the hard Avood. 

I do not think tli 

lis species can well be Bixadus because the burrows 

look too small. If 

lin'erentiate its wot k, habits, and share of the damage 

from those of BUa 


Suggestions for furtb< r ohsi rrutiu,, ana 

1. It should be placed beyond doubt whether the borer is capable 

of attacking trees hitherto uninjured (to any material extent) l.v other 

species of insects. Probably leaf-eating species, and scale, blight or 

the like would certainly have been detected, and may therefore not be 

Koot-feediug grubs should be looked for; either weevil-grubs or 

Weevil-grubs are white and soft, like Longicorn larva 1 , with a large 
horny head, a wrinkled skin and a horny [date behind the head. The 
head is not snntt in the next segment. t!;e body is curved from end to 
end towards the under-ide, and ; - • v. There are 

no legs. 

( 'hafn'-rjnibs are white or dirty -yellow, also pale and soft ; cylindrical, 
doubled on themselves, very large and baggy behind ; with a well- 
developed head am! antenna-, and six: well-developed legs. 

If any other species of insects are found to be associated with or 
precede the Longicorns in the damage, they must be carefully 
investigated as to their habits, &c. 

/,/,• •/ should form /// 
:w to detecting anythiir, 
the health of the trees or the conditions under which they ar< 

If some plantations in a di.-trict an- immune, whilst others suffer, an 
examination of each set in order to find out any diversity of conditions 
which is associated with the variation in liability to attack should be 
thoroughly made. 

On this point I cannot speak from botanical knowledge, but with that 
limitation I would venture to suggest the following points as being 
worthy of inquiry : 

(a.) The character of the soil ; 

(b.) The depth of the soil, and nature of the subsoil ; 

(c.) The water supply and drainage; 

\d.) The aspect; 

(e.) The CO ■ ■>'. ion with relation to shade-trees. 

[ do not know if the Aburi coffee is grown under shade, but if not, 
the expedient of planting shade-trees should certainly be tried, with a 
view to lessen the attacks. In the severe infestation of coffee in Coorg by 
a similar holing Longicorn (Xijlotrechus quadripes) there was a general 
opinion expressed h\ planters that the growing of the plants without 
shade-trees was detrimental to their health, caused the ground to 
become parched and favoured the beetle attack. Moreover a plantation 
with shade -trees is a "mixed growth"; and it is a general law that 
trees in mixed wood are less liable to insect infestation than in pure 

If on the other hand, the att tcked coffee is already grown under shade, 
an examination of the >hade-rrec employed -hoidd be made to find out 
if it suffers from the same Longicorn borer as that attacking the 
coffee — if so it should be rejected in future in favour of some species of 
tree not so affected, and in plantations where it already exists it should 
be cared for and not allowed to become infested and breed out beetles 
freely, to migrate to the coffee. 

If positive evidence is obtained that the infestation is favoured by 
any of the conditions of cultivation mentioned in this section, steps 
should be taken to modify those conditions in accordance with the 
experience arrived at. 

3, Other indigenous trees should be examined to see if they are 
attacked by the same species of beetle. If this is found to be the case, 
such trees should be excluded from the neighbourhood of the coffee 
plantations. If this is done they should be removed, stumps and all, 
or the stumps earthed up. No stumps, logs, dead trees, or cut branches 
of coffee or any tree which serves as a host should be left about the 
coffee plantations. All attacked plants which experience show to be 
past recovery shotdd be at once cut doicn, removed, and burned. 
Probably careful attention to this matter will greatly lessen the damage- 

4. The following points in the life-history of the borer should be 
accurately made out: — 

The season at which the perfect beetles appear. This will probably 
stand in some relation to the dry and wet seasons. 

The habits of the perfect beetles, their flight time, place of rest 
during the day ; their tendency, if any, to frequent flowers, oozing sap, 

The place at winch they oviposit. This is of importance. Probably 
oviposition is favoured by wounds in the bark. Special attention should 
he paid to the probability of the eggs being laid at priming wounds, and 
the system of pruning adopted should be looked to with this object. 

The length of larval lift and the Length of time a tree will withstand 
injury without sueciimhiug should also be investigated. 

The early siyns of injury should lie carefully made out, in order that 
infestation may be detected as soon as possible (see p. 183). 

General Suggestions. 

The following general suggestions for treatment over and abo\e tlaw 
already given are based mainly on the assumption that information will 
be gained on the above points in par. 4 : — 

Prevention of Egg-laying. 
All pruning and accidental wounds should be tarred. 

treatment has proved 

to the lid 

1, the beetles drop I 


ting them from tl 

bits show 1 

that some kind of I 

(c.) By providing logs of any tree which they will attack, ringed 
trees, coffee shrubs which have been condemned and are dying or have 
been ringed for them to lay their eggs in. These " tree traps" should 
be provided before the flight period and removed before the beetles in 
them have bred out, or they will do more harm than good. 

J'rtsi rvation of attached Shrubs. 
This can only be done, if at all, by attentive examination so as to 
detect the early signs of injury when the larva is still feeding under 
the thin bark. "That these early stages can be detected with practice 
I have little doubt ; whether it can be done with sufficient rapidity to 
make it practicable is more questionable. 

If such a patch is detected, the bark should be cut away and the larva 
tumbled out ; it will soon die if exposed to the air and light. The cut 
part should then be tarred. 

If the patch has been opened after the larva has finished its superficial 
bvutiwing, arid gone deep into the wood, it might possibly be killed 
with a wire, or by wetting the burrow with kerosene, which will pene- 
trate. But these methods are not very practicable, and I regard the 
surface borrowing as the most important. 

With the exception of these methods the larval and pupal stages are 
not open to measures calculated to get rid of them. 

The su<;ge-tions made in the foregoing pages cover all the points by 
which success in the treatment of the borer appears to me likely to be 
obtained. That they are all practicable under local conditions is 
unlikely ; but they are all measures which have proved of service in 
other countr'es and with other host plants. 

Particular attention is drawn to the necessity for investigating the 
antecedent causes which may have favoured the infestation, to the 
desirability of studying the relation of shade-trees to the infestation, to the 
great importance of destroying all woody material, shrubs, <tc, which 
may harbour the larva) and are past recovery, to the importance of 
attending to pruning wounds, and of catching the perfect insects by 
shaking down. 

The Castilloa Borer and the Oraxge Borek. 

There is nothing to be said on these two insects which, mutatis 
mutandis, has not been said above on the coffee borer. 

Dr. Easmon pays " two classes of borer? affect these plants, one 
attacking them at the roots, the other at the branches. It would appear 
that the operations of the latter are dependent upon those of the former, 
and that, as a matter of fact, they arc inoperative until a certain degree 
of diminished vitality of the wood is reached." This is probable, and 
is in agreement with what has been suggested as possible, even if not 
likely, in the case of the coffee shrubs. 

The Longicorn beetle, Eitnidia, is the stem-borer, and its attack is 
therefore to be regarded as secondary. 

Of Heteromerous ("oleoptera (a tribe of beetles distinguished by the 
possession of live joints in the anterior and middle and four in the 
posterior pair of feet) Dr. Easmon has forwarded four species, all from 
decaying orange trees. 

These species are as follow-, the specimens are returned labelled, a 
more suitable arrangement for identification than the forwarding of a 
description ; — 

1. Metallonotus denticollis, Grav Griff. Anim. Kingd. II. 1832, pi. 
80 ; Westw. Trans. Zool. Soc. III. p. 220. Described from Sierra 

2. Strongyliurn, sp. indet. 

3. Selinus planus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. I. p. 90, described from Sierra 

4 Lagria villosa, Fabr. Spec. Ins. I., p. 160. Africa, widely 

Nothing is known to me of the habits of these insects, and, with the 
exception of Mttallouotus <U „1 irotfis, it is likely that their presence on 
decaying trees is of no importance. They probably bear the same 
relation to the injurious wood-boring beetles as saprophytic do to 
parasitic fungi. 

As fkr as can be gathered from the labels 

on the specimen-tubes sent 

the " root-borer " of the orange appears to 1: 

■e the lar\a of MetailotHtUS 

denticollis, accepting Dr. Easmon's identifies 

ttion of the larva with the 

Bile sent. 

This larva is cylindrical-circular in cross s 

, en!i"^e"m!Mit T orSbodv 

yellow, six-legged, the head brown, the elev 

stouter, rough, :md darker, shortly spined ab 

ove on its hind margin, the 

t T(>>irl>ric>ii<ln i haw nmi gnawing larva', but \ 

The habits of tlie insect must he investigated, and speaking on purely 
a priori grounds, I would suggest that particular attention he paid to 
those of the imago itself Root-feeding larva; are always difficult to 
get rid of by direct methods. Rat the imagos of Tenebrionidtp are 
slugglish in many cases, and fly little. It might be possihle to devise 
some method of attracting them, or some species of trap, such as is done 
for other non-flying beetles by means of holes, trenches, or ditches in 
which they will collect ami from which they can he removed and killed. 

Cntil further investigation is made, it is not possible to say moreabout 
this species. One species of Iiostrychns (B. iniquus, Lesne) has been 
sent, in the form of a single example, from decaying orange wood. The 
linstr;/, hi<!u arc often injurious wood borers; b 
Suppose that this species would have attracted att 
importance. Its occurrence is probably accidental. 

In addition to the injects injurious to coffee forwarded from Aburi, a 
small collection of insects has also been received from Mr. Cyril Punch, 
manager of the Soto Coffee Plantations, Colony ol Lagos, West Africa. 
The specimens are accompanied with short explanatory notes. 

Unfort uuately, but very little can lie said about these examples, which in 
most cases are not identifiable. Some particulars, which include the 
information given by Mr. Punch, are furnished in the hope that they 
may lead to further "study of these insects in places where 

to coffee. It affects whole 
, feeding on the developing ovules. The fulh grava 
caterpillar is grey with black marks, very destructive to the leaf-buds. 
Colonies inhabit leaves folded together, and kep' so hv white filaments 
excreted by the caterpillars. The mites hatch both inside the berries 
and between the folded leaves." 

The slide forwarded contain- a dried example of what might be a very 
whatever between it and the 

The Podurid<e undergo no 

t all likely to get rid of the 
Paduridn would be by spraying or fumigation, and it seems quite 
improbable that so much damage is done by this insect as to justify any 

2. Orthoptkra. 

/lrurh//fr;///N,s ,n< „t!>r<i„u<-< i>>; Diurv, is a very large species of cricket. 
Mr. Punch says of it : u This insect is present to some extent all the year 
round, but especially during February and March ; also in August and 
September, but not in such quantities, nor do they cut the young plants 
to the same extent. Once in every five or six years they appear in such 
quantities as to be a west as damaging as the locusts, destroying entire 
farms of succulent or young plants. Their galleries rim down 18 to 24 
inches, and terminate in a cell which will be found filled with the cut 
leaves and small stems. They are especially destructive to anything like 
coffee planted at even distances. Leaving the ground covered with 
weeds does not save the cultivate.! plants which they select. A space of 
three acres planted with rubher plant- ( Ma,>tfi<>f (ihiziovii) over which 
weeds were allowed to grow, had to be replanted three times this year." 

In 1891, specimens of this insect received from the African Associa- 
tion, Limited, were reported on to the Royal Gardens by Mr. Ii. 
McLachlan, F.R.S., as follows :_- 

"The 'cricket' is known by modern systematists as Uracil ijtr-jpic, 
mvhthriotacens, Drury (— (iri/lln.s iiicmbrauaccus, Drury, Erotic 
EittmnoliHiih 1773). and it appears to occur over the whole of tropical 
Africa. In 1801 Adam Afzclius in a pamphlet published at Upsaia in 
Sweden, entitled A-httav (i, nut-uses, but which I have not seen, 
described it as Achvta vastatriv. Judging from the specific name its 
destructive properties had then alrwady Keen recognised. 

H It is not a ' mole-cricket,' but belongs to another section of the 

" As to remedial measures, I think much must depend upon the habits 
of the insect as observed by those in charge locally. Your suggestion 
as to irrigation sound- as if it might prove useful, by driving the insects 
above ground where they could be destroyed. Irrigating also by means 
of dilute paraffin, or the 'bisulphide' so much in vogue as a remedy 
against many injurious inseets, might be tried. 

" If the gravid female insects could be destroyed before they have laid 
their eggs, or if the very young insects could be got at soon after their 
appeavance from the egg, much good of a preventive kind would be 
done. On these points almost everything depends upon the local 

"The insect no doubt does not confine its attention to any particular 
species of tree or plant, therefore constant attention will be necessary, 
or, at any rate, during a certain period in each year." 

It is evident that this j s particularly a case where more local observa- 
tion is needed. It would be desirable to have further information on 
the following points: whether the adults fly; what the habits of the 
voting are ; whetlui the\ migrate on foot from place to place or injure 
the crop only where tii v arc- hatched. If the species is not migratory 
it mi*rht probably be met as Mr. McLachlan suggests, by irrigation, or 

' <ligg» n g trenches into which they can fall and from -*«* 


■ In the case of the moL : out ot the nests with the 

young brood proves most satisfactory. 

Should, however, the species migrate from place to place and travel 
on foot, it can probably be kept off any crop which is uot previously 
infested, by surrounding the cultivated area with a ditch containine; 
water and wide enough not to be jumped over, or, n ia suce, mfa% 
done for the North American Western cricket, by fencing in the area 
with hoards just so high that they cannot be jumped, and furnished on 
the outside with a tin " gutter," i.e., a strip of tin nailed along the top 
so as to project obliquely outwards and downwards. Plants such as 
coffee can be protected by surrounding them when quite young with a 
tin can with the bottom knocked out, unless, like the mole-cricket, the 
insect burrows from below. This method is in use in Florida. 

3. Lepidoptera. 
Caterpillars injurious to coffee : — Two species have been received in 
spirit from Mr. Punch, who writes of the first: " This caterpillar (A) 
is very destructive to Liberian coffee, but it entirely avoids the Arabian 
kind growing alongside. The eggs are attached to the underside of 
leaves. The caterpillars take about seven days growing to their full 
size ; if left undisturbed they will strip the tree of leaves and green 
epidermis. Finally they fold themselves up in a leaf; the pupa 1 
remain as such for about 14 days, and then turn into a grey-brown 
moth about f in. long. I think the moth works at night, as' 1 have 

The eggs of this insect arc oblong ahd arc laid touching side by side 
in a characteristic ribbon-like band. 

The full-grown caterpillar is -.nine two inches long (exclusive of the 
posterior horn). The head is small and notched on the summit, the 
body is cylindrical, rather elongate and tapering behind,'" 
segments behind the head are large and 
prolegs in the middle of the body (s< 
The last segment bear- a very long, slender baekwardly-directed horn, 
^ in. or more iu length, and the posterior prolegs (claspers) on it are 
aborted and rudimentary, so that the larva probably -its with its hinder 
portion raised iu the air. According to Mr. Punch, the caterpillar is 
uniformly green when young, dull, with the swollen portion behind the 
head shining. When older it develops dark-coloured markings, the 
principal of thc-e consist of a marbled patt. rn alonir the back, and a 
strip* 1 on each side of the two hinder segments. The pupa is contained 
in a long thin cigar-shaped silk cocoon formed in a coffee leaf rolled up 

It is not possible to identify this insect, as the moth has not been 
sent. Possibly it is one of the XotodoHtidtte. or else allied to the true 

scattered trees] and eo is not so harmful." 

No details as yet recorded of the rifa*-aist«ry of :!. - 
give any clue towards treatment. Ou general grounds shaking-down, 


or collecting the caterpillars, or spraying with an arsenical compound 
would suggest themselves, but the adoption of any plan must depend on 
local coin lit ions and further study. Mr. Punch also writes : " The two 
beetles sent are enemies of the caterpillars and are, I think, increasing. 
They are furnished with beaks which they drive into the caterpillars 
and suck them dry, the dry skins being noticeable on the leaves. When 
many such skins are common it usually i .-tokens a temporary cessation 
of the pest, which, however, breaks out again. There is no special 
time of the year for it. The pest started in the S.E. corner of the farm 
and spread it in a N.W. direction. Subsequent attacks have shown 
a similar tendency." 

The '" beetles" in question have proved to be examples of two species 
of bugs, Fam. Scutellericla, many of which are well known to possess 
such habits. Unfortunately no effective way of increasing their 
numbers can be suggested. The facts as to the direction in which the 
pest spreads appear important, but their meaning can only be worked 
out on the spot. 

4. Coccid.i. — Scale insects. 

, J.ecaniutn ; the former 
appears to be of little importance but the Lecanium, according to 
Mr. Punch, may be injurious. 

If any treatment against these -rale insects is required and can be 
profitably undertaken, it must take the form of spraying with kerosene 
emulsion or some such compound. 

Mr. Punch has sent : — 

1. Some minute larva? which he says " cause ribbon-like marks on 
the upper surface of leaves, by running a gallery between the epidermis 
and the ground tissue. It apparently does no harm." 

Beyond the fact that this leaf-miner appears to be dipterous, there is 
nothing to be said about it. 

2. A series of small elongate narrow cocoon-like structures placed 
side by side and attached by their extremity to a piece of bark. These 
are shrivelled, hard, brittle, and homogeneous. The incomplete account 
sent with them states that " the pupa? adhere in lines as in the specimen 
to the vascular bundles. Layers are thus formed, closely imbricated, 
and on their development the stem is bursl open longitudinally and the 
plant dies down to the place affected. At present four or rive trees 
only have been affected, but while starting from the tree attacked last 
year, the radius of the circle of trees affected is wider. The fission of 
stems occurs in the months .July and August. Usually the cell con- 
taining the insect opens at its extremity, but I note, that those which 
have opened since leaving Africa have done so longitudinally. The 
insects in the slide have hatched >j n , ,■ !<■.,-, lug Africa." 

I am unable to determine what kind of insect has forme,! these 
cocoons, and Mr. Punch's account gives no clue. On the whole, it 
seems most probable that it is dipterous. 

The insects referred to as having been hatched were present in the 
' ! form, about . 

ot those of a ihrips, l.ut 
lot preserved so as to adi 
they appear to be a hymenopterous pa 

Both the cocoons and the supposed j 
interest, and it is a pity that the scantii 
allow a more thorough examination to be 



The following interesting paper on the possibilities of the fruit 
industry in Cape Colony lias been communicated to Kew by the 
Government Botanist, Professor MacOwan. It affords a striking 
picture of the resources of a country where * all the fruits and crops of 
the warmer temperate zone grow to perfection." This intbimation 
supplementary to that already published i "* 
pp. 15-19), and gives in an expanded form 
already given in the volume for 1893 (pp. 8-11). 

" At. the present moment there are in evei'y direction openings for 
enterprise in various kinds of petite culture, openings -uch a< have 
never existed here within the memory of man. It is not us if one had 
to speculate upon the chances ot perishable produce being got across 
the line and placed upon English markets in saleable condition. But 
for everything that a man can grow to a moderate degree of perfection, 
there is an unfailing market just some forty or fifty hours distant from 
the coast, and the rail to expedite it all the way. It is said to be well 
for a man to have two strings to his bow. The up-country market 
is the Cape growers' first string, the export trade in fruit is the other. 
AH the special appliances required for both lines of the enterprise are 
already provided. The steamship companies supply cold-storage on their 
vessels. A local firm has prepared refrigerating chambers for goods 
awaiting shipment. It would seem, therefore, that the only element 
required is an increase in the number of intelligent and practised growers. 
We want them from England, from the States, from California, in fact 
from anywhere where the skill and experience required has run for years 
into everyday practice. This is the immigration wanted just now at the 
Cape, to catch at the opportunity of the moment, and to turn -killed fruit- 
growing into gold. \"o que-tiou that success awaits the man who knows 
how to deal with fruit-trees, to bieak his ground up properly, to drain, 
to prune, to gather, to pack for market up-country, or for market in 
Covent Garden, and who has the well-founded contempt for the slovenly 
style of letting things grow themselves, and taking as a crop what chance 
sends and insect plagues leave. 

" Then you will say, Are there no growers at the Cape ? Truly very 

call a toy pursi t tl lown V few trees. mainU 

from pips and fruit-stones, planted in holes dug in the hard untrenched 

earth, unpruned and untended, except fbr an occasional .trenching from 

the furrow, am . lo constitute b Cape orchard. So 

long as the owner had fruit foi his own table during the season he was 
satisfied. The idea of growing tine choice fruits of named pedigree sorts 
in order to send them to market, attractively packed, so as to suit the 
dessert tables of well-to-do townsfolk who had no gardens, never entered 
his mind. Do you want fruit of him ? Theu you must buy it as a 
favour, and he would ' spare it to von.' are! you certainly could not 
expect to get it twice, much less regularly through the season. Yet he 
would take the inonev. showing that the commercial instinct was not 
dead. The wonder is that so few ever turned to with a will, and put into 
fruit-culture the labour, energy, and forethought that go to make a 
successful business. Things are a little better now. There are a few 
men, three times as many as there used to I e. who now grow fruit to the 
perfection possible in this perfect climate, and all they send to market is 
eap-rly bought up either tor local consumption among the higher classes 
or for export to England. But they maybe counted on one's fingers, in 
place of being numbered by hundreds, and scattered all over the country. 
Then you will say, With what is the ordinary market supplied ? Truly 
with fruit of the poorest quality — the product of seedlings instead of 
grafted trees— bastard refuse, without a name and without a -ingle quality 
to recommend it. It looks as if it had grown itself, and this it mostly 
has. The ruling condition of the fruit, such as it is, is worsened by utter 
ignorance of proper packing and transit. Much of it is shaken down and 
tumbled into old paraffin cases and jolted to market in a springless 
waggon. Hence it must be picked only three-quarters ripe, so as to 
bear the rough usage without heir,-- turned to unsaleable pulp. One 
would think that the example of the few leading nun aforesaid, and the 
high prices they pull off for their exceptional samples, would be sufficient 
to start a reform, but there are several causes operating in the other 
direction. There are the antiquated conservative ways of the small 
farmer at the Cape, arising out of the comparative isolation in which he 
lives, and which only has been broken in upon this last year or two by 
the establishment of fruit-growers' associations in their very midst, 
through which an effective interchange of ideas has been brought about, 
and information given upon the subject of their special industry. Till 
these excellent associations sprang up, mainly through individual 
activity and personal influence, it was difficult to find a market gardener 
who took in a garden periodical, or cared to learn what was done in 
other countries. Another cause materially checking the desire to im- 
prove the output is the immense demand that exists for cheap coarse 
fruit and windfall rubbish among the coloured populace of Cape Town. 
To them, so that the fruit is dirt cheap, it does not matter how dirty it 
is, nor are they disgusted at seeing the same baskets which brought the 
fruit to town piled up among the stable manure the cart takes back in 
the afternoon. In no other public of fruit consumers is quality so little 
thought of, and hence the producer has been satisfied to grow crops 
from seedling tree- which are only fit for stocks. They sell somehow, 
so why should he trouble himself to produce a better article ? How- 
ever, things are on the mend. It may be a long time before really 
good or even middling fruit reaches the level of the street hawker, hut 
the simple fact that the great market of Johannesburg discriminates 
keenly between good and bad, and pays accordingly, must inevitably 
react on the producer, and even more directly persuasive arc the per- 
petual calls of the fruit agent concerned in export tc Covent Garden. 
He know- good fruit fti sight if anyone does, and his determination to 
have it grown clean, ripened exactly to the export point, gathered 

o more towards t. in'l.iiii: fruit eultuiv 

"It is, therefore, just at this critical stage of matters that the Kngli>h 
fruit grower who now despairs of making profits at home is invited to 
come to the Cape and take his opportunity by the forelock. It is a pity, 
too, that the foreign capital which comes Capewards goes mostly into 
mining stock. It were Avell if some of it wore invested in the healthier 
industry of fruit-culture. Perhaps ere long the one or two companies 
which have already got into working order will form an example to 
other companies and friendly competitors in a trade which is practically 

"We have said that all the material appliances for a growing export 
fruit trade have been initiated here. It is not therefore as if new- 
Cape fruit-growing, would find difficulties in the outlet for then- 
produce. Let it be remembered that the Cape has one signal advantage 
for fruit supply to European market-, which is not conceded to the 
clever and enterprising American grower. Tin .seasons fall vonrrrseli/ 
irith those of England. Consequently the only competitors in our 
special line and special time of exporting will he the Australian-, who. 
however, atv henvilv handicapped bv a one-'liird greater di>ta nee, from 

" This general arrangement must not be taken too absolutely. The 

much as a 

re those of India, by 

the rainfall occurr 

ing conversely. In 

fact, the i 

soontry, the w 

tne eust has it in the 

mer months. There 

is this pe, 

mliaritv also in the ea 

st. that there 

WO maxima, .tamely, 

the Novei 

nber or spring rains, a 

nd the autumn 


s in February. 

these peculiarities a, 

Its in fruit-growing, 
ndv profitable wine, 

The most 

striking is the the 1 

the Western 1 

iers for the proper 

ripening of the fruit 

its dispensatioi 

n of 

summer showers and 

heavy rain in 

i February, viticulture is 

reduced to 

i a blanch of garden 

questionable if anything 

more than table grapes for local 

as the Crystal and 

?>•, can be successfully 

r managed. Of cot 

subject to here and 

climatic conditions. For exanip 

ile, good resuli 

ve been obtained in 

,vhat intermediate climate of the Karoo, 
Reinet and its neighbourhood. The total rainfall throughout the 
Karoo averages low, say 10 to U) inches annually,, as compared with 28 
to ;{() inches in the normal eastern region. But the rule holds good in a 
general wav, and a glance at (iambic's diagrams of rainfall, where the 
curve i- [dotted tor a large number of places, so as to be readily com- 
parable by me eve, will enable one to determine where viticulture on a 
large scale i- climatically favoured, and where it will present special 
difficulties. In the former case the 
and March — the ripening and vint; 
1 inch ; in the latter it runs up to tin 
say 3-5 to 4 inches. The Sumhn '.- 


ap I in!-. -licence than seems io be necessary westaway. The great 
diil'a ilt} sviii assured!} b i! g-nei i prevalence of anthracnose, or 
black-spot, a- it is -otiu-tim. - call* -1 < ^j>/u/n !< mn, De By). 
This plague, though far from being comparable in mischief to the 
Peronospora of the vine. ■ have not yet imported, is 

still an enemy to be reckoned with, and it will be necessary that all 
eastern vineyards be assiduously treated by -.praying with Bordeaux 
mixture as a preventive of the scourge. There is little doubt that 
success will attend the pw dy, just as has 

been proved to be the case in Europe. But the additional churn:."- i\n 
.-killed labour in its use will heavily handicap the eastern producer, 
especially if he should incautiously cultivate the more delicate varieties 
of vine, say, for instance, the Cape western Haanepoot, known 
elsewhere as Muscat of Alexandria, a sort which is particularly liable 
to the attacks of Anthracnose. 

" New comers to a country who have been accustomed to the class of 
grape which is seen upon English dessert tables, will he surprised to find 
that nothing has ever been done at the Cape at all comparable to the 
minute care which grapes receive at home under glass at the hands of 
skilled gardeners, who have made this fruit a special study. As we 
have them, the grapes are fairly good, and up to size on the outside of 
the bunch, but, by carelessness and want of proper thinning, they are 
not half-grown or half-coloured in the middle. The plan has been to 
grow grapes for wine and for the tai I. ami with 

the same low average of attention. That is to say, the table grapes 
have practically grown themselves, instead of each "bunch having been 
the subject of individual inspection and treatment with the thinning 
scissors. Per knows what a dessert 

bunch of grapes should look like, may find it worth while to show what 

and hot water pipes unnecessary. Certain it is there is no lack of 
wealthy folk here who -will buy grapes of English hot-house type at 
their full value, Mutatis mutandis, much the same thing may be said 
of other fruits, peaches and pears particularly. Our growers have had 
no high standard to work up to, and have been too easily satisfied. 
The comments of Covent Garden -ale-men upon picked Cape samples 
have certainly opened their eyes somewhat, and given them to see that 
the fruit which has been taken as first rate, levels down to scarce a 
second place when put besid- first-class produc. skilfully grown at 
home. We have taken things too easily, and left too much to nature, 
finest t' ; ily a product of art, for 

vhich nature provides only the r 

, January giv 

d for some five or six weeks previously. 

, markets, January gives the last of the strawberries and 

lie earlier -nits of grapes, pear-, and .<;>[•:<■- according t 
rlier pouches, plums, ami tigs, (ill up the list. From the conditions ot 
e climate it is rather a cultural mistake to tr\ and hurry things by 
anting what are known in Furope a- early fruit <orts. ( a 
e much more I in the later kinds, a1 

rts of the country as lie upon the first plateau reach: >.- inland al 
und the coast. Further up-country on the narrow second and the 
mense third plateau, which teaches a level of approximately 4000 
5000 feet, the conditions are considerably altered. Bui 
pected from the growth of early sorts at this level i- 

ii by the tardier approach of spring and persistence oi 
dry winter's cold. The results of the most experienced cultivators 

is decidedly against experimenting with early sorts in the hope of 
—•■ching the high prices asked in an early mar 1 " 4 
1 In February the better sorts of apples, pes 
■ ■' se will show ( 


/the I 
irwanl; and a glance at these will show conclusively that they are 

'ieties, and accentuate the caution \ 

against early sorts, at least for mark •■; -uppiy<>n t In- la ige scale. Grapes 
and melons are becoming plentiful, and begin to acquire their proper 
distinctive flavour, unless they have, as is often the case, been spoiled ln- 
injudicious irrigation. ! :iny are now approaching 
the season for picking. As a rule they are left too long upon the tree 
for want of two things, — first, want of practical knowledge of the precise 
degree of growth at which to take them, so that they shall best develope 
the richness and flavour that come by keeping ; and second, want of 
something like a reasonable fruit store, where they can be laid out 
properly, inspected daily, and kepi at even temperature. It is pitiaMe 
to see good kr. in lioxc-, a hn-he! <■; more together, 
in a galvanised iron shed open to the light and the weather, and varying 
in temperature daily from 80° to 90° at noon to 4-H or 50 at night. 
Tin- is another matter in which we want some gardening nnVionarv to 
come over and teach us a gospel of better things. 

"In this month and in March begins the first drying season, — that is 
to say, fruit -drying in the sun, as opposed to fruit-evaporating, the more 
practical, more cleanly, manageable, and time-saving plan. Already 
very fair work of this kind lia- been done, and the Wellington dried 
fruits have quite fetched up to the already hiirh standard of the raisins 

on the other side of the world. How long this anomaly 'is t 
and a Cape rural population is to think i: no shame to have on 1 
American dried apples and peaches, and positively to import 
fruit pulp wherewith to make " Cape jams," rests with t 
race of fruit-growers whom we hope to attract to the countr 
us to put a little life and stimulus into our easy-going, lotus-.- 
Do not for a moment suppose the thing is here pal wreasti 
an exaggerated manner. The whole output of flfst-class 
raisins w"as last year bought up, as a matter of course, by hi 
in Cape Town. The year before the same buyers collared it 
not clear that our production has yet to expand itseU into 
proportions? Another retailer, on examining an exceptio 
sample of dried figs that ran the imported « Elemi ' article 
offered the producer an Elemi price. Picture his disgust 
advised that the total Mock produced thai year amounted 


of 'Prunes d'A< 

4cn ' 

and 'Prunes 


^tting that no bettei 


ie earth. Truly, in 

present conditions 

the i 

•aisins that a whole district produces, \ 

dried fig crop which a man could carry on his shoulder, there must be a 
good many fair fortunes lying about loose at the Cape, and only waiting 
for some one with moderate commercial instincts, industry, and business 
capacity to come over and appropriate them to himself. 

"March, of all the months of the year, shows the barest fruit market, 
at least in the way of fresh kinds putting in an appearance then. The 
supplies are chiefly l.-iti- apples and pears of the keeping sorts, and these, 
when they come to sale, bear plentiful testimony to the rough way in 
which they have been handled and stored. The outside skin is scratched, 
discoloured, and fur from appetising. Hro lonix the dealers will learn 
that fruit ripened in the storehouse must receive attention and handling 
somewhat different from that which is accorded to the year's crop of 
potatos. A few peaches of late kinds come in and generally secure 
good prices. For the most part these are seedlings that have originated 
here many years ago, and, though faith <M>od, belong unfortunately to 
tones. There is an opening for considerable improve- 
of the improved modern late freestones. In all these 
fruits the variety of sorts presented on the market is very limited, and 
the knowledge of named kinds is generally absent. It is'impossiblo. to 
go to any retail dealer and ask for a Bon Chretien or Ribston Pippin 
apple. The seller would simply gaze at you in astonishment as if you 
were speaking a foreign language. All this will have to be changed, 
and no doubt with a continued demand for fruits by name the dealers 
will gradually learn something more about the details of their trade 
than at present they seem to think at all necessary. The month closes 
with the last of the grapes. 

" April, May, and June present few novelties. The guavas of many 
seedling kinds fill up a place which is hardly warranted by the intrinsic 
value of the fruit as at present grown. We have them from the insig- 
nificant bulk of a gooseberry to that of middle-sized apples. But very 
little attention has been given to culture, and still less to improvement of 
sorts. It may be -aid that the grown here. i> often practieallv 
a wildling, and it would be well if nineteen out of twenty of them were 
destroyed, and selected grafted plants put in to take (heir place. Some 
day we shall get rid of the mass of bony seeds which fills up the centre 
of the market guava,and shall aim at making it a mure preventable fruit. 
Walnuts and chestnuts now make their appearance. The former have 
not received fair play. They, too, have been propagated in our careless 
Cape way by seedlings, and it is only within the last twenty months or 
so that the tine imported > >rt~. in which the French growers have had 
such success, have been brought into the eountrv. The remainder of the 
supply of these months is from Natal, whence our market is flooded with 
small pineapples and bananas. The former are remarkable for being 
nearly all outside. Of late, a slight improvement has been observable in 
the quality of these fruits ; and when the matter comes to be inquired 
into, it is found that nearly all the finest fruit, classed roughly in the 
popular idea as Natalian, turns out to be the product of a few recently 
established plantations along our own eastern coast. There can be little 
doubt that this industry will increase year by year to very considerable 
dimensions. The growers have begun the proper way, namely, by dis- 
carding the small, hard-.-kinned, and halt-grown wildling pine, that has 
so long been foisted upon us, and going to Ceylon and the West Indies 
for the very best sorts procurable. From this source, too, will be obtained 
large supplies of the Cape gooseberry (Phijsalis), «hich is perhaps the 
mo-t delieions fruit for canning and preserves that the whole world has 
to show. We have been accustomed to despise it, simply because it 

grows wild without oai e or ctiltuiv. 'I In- jam faetorio- are, however, 
already increasing their output of it, and making it worth while for 
people to undertake it.-? production a- a pttite culture. 

" With the last days of June and the first of July come in the whole 
tribe of citrus fruits, orange, lemon, naartje or tangerine, and pample- 
mousse. From the variations of climate and altitude which have been 
.signalised at the beginning of this follows that these fruits 
hold their place on the market continuously till December, their peculiar 
external character and power of ripen in- up after withering rendering 
them comparatively easy of transport from long distances. The locally 
grown fruit is perhaps at its best in October, — that is to say. it can then 
be picked and marketed perfectly ripe, instead of gathering it green and 
trusting it to slow ripening in the store-room. Perhaps in the case of no 
fruit more than these has the public- mind been so thoroughly awakened 
to the necessity of improvement, and discarding the wretched -eedling 
rubbish, full of pips and cased in the thickest of skins, which has for 

to the necessity of a vigorous crusade 
against rile scale insects, which up till now have had it all their own way, 
and also tie chard trees something like fair play 

and reasonable care, there will be amongst us quite a new era of citrus 
fruit -growing. The great desideratum is that the spirited proprietor 
shall himself grow the oranges, instead of leaving them to grow them- 
selves. At present our largest supply, in Cape Town at least, comes 
from Natal, and it is not particularly good. The best Cape grown 
oranges are from the district of Clanwilliam. 

"October brings with it the Japanese loipiat. another fruit which calls 
for selective improvement. There is as yet far too much pip and too 
little upon the ordinary loquat. Yet there have arisen in .several 
private gardens seminal varieties showing a commencement of bettor 
' nly be increased by grafting, as far as 
; to the chance seedling mode of getting 

'• With November come in the earlier tigs and the strawberry. There 
i a future for the fig, and its selected Cape home and centre of drying 
1 purpose- will probably be somewhere in the Karoo. It 

it as we have successful !\ acelimati-ed the I'lr/ahu. As to 
strawberries, the selection of sorts, g j -eh. is very 

limited, and modes of en! i« rn. As a rule, the beds 

are allowed to continue production for far too many seasons, and the 
fruit oonsequentlv deteriorates, losing both si/.e and succulence. Xew 
blood and new ideas, with the habit of modern practice in strawberry- 
growing, as it is done in Kent and Surrey for the great London market's, 
is very muJi wanted at the Cape. The demand for the fruit i.*. 
practiJ.div unlimited. The month closes with the earl v apricots, and 
this de ioious- fruit queens it right through December, 'if our growers, 
would o iiy learn the first principles of pruning this f, ir too generously 
growing fruit tree, keep its bountiful nature well under control, and 

" Whoever reads this little resume, and begins to turn over in his mind 
the idea of coming out to the C;ipe to utilise there his practical knowledge 

of European fruit-growing, will naturally ask what conveniences already 
exist in the way of supply of orchard stock. Every practical man would 
hesitate to bring out with him a lot of grafted trees, selected as best he 
could, for a country he had not even seen, and of whose climate and soil 
he had had no experience. But very recently there have been introduced 
into the Colony large numbers of the very best modern fruit-sort^ of all 
kinds, by men who have themselves practically learned (lie capacity :ind 
conditions of the Cape as a fruit-growing country, and it is not too much 
to say that, by their industrious multiplication of these picked kinds, the 
market for first-el;. -< orehard >t.ulV i- now aiuplv supplied. There is no 
reason now for continuing the old system of seedlings, unless out of 
pure wrong-headedness and refusal to take up with improved methods. 
So friendly is the climate here to the skilled manipulations of the 
nurseryman^ that first-class grafted yearlings can be obtained at prices 
not greater than those ruling in England, ami thoroughly reliable to 
name and graft-stock. To import for oneself on coming out to the Cape 
would c,i -tainly involve the loss of a season, to say nothing of difficulties 
in the way of immediately finding ground wherein to set out the con- 
signment. Immigrants of the kind one would so gladly see spreading 
themselves over the best districts of the Colony, each with his market- 
orchard grown and tended in the way that means business and sound 
profits, would be wise not to start at once, but to spy out the country 
first for themselves, and for themselves see what our grapes of Eshcol 
are like, take stock of us and our Hi ays and con- 

servative habits of Avorking, and then only, when the land was no longer 
strange, and the altered climatic conditions have become familiar, to 
exploit their capital on some selected fertile piece of land, and add to 
the wealth of their adopted country by successfully adding to their 

"A brief memorandum like the present cannot by any means give all 
the information that an English fruit-grower would find useful when he 
is thinking of looking out for fresh fields and pastures new. It would be 
well to note carefully the details to be found in the Illustrated Handbook 
of the Cape. But perhaps the best idea of the way cultural matters go 

1 i, and the peculiar conditions of Cape rural life, would be obtained 

~ nal, now in its 

fact that the 

Government, unlike those of Australia and New Zealand, have no 
available acreage out of which they can make free grants to new-comers, 
and this is simply because the Colony dates back some two centuries 
before the time when the sister Colonies began to be exploited by the 
intrusive European. All available land, at least within colonial 
boundaries, has long ago been taken up, and is in private possession. 
Purchase or tenancy at a moderate rent is therefore a prime factor in all 
forecasts of new cultural ventures. Suitable land, even such as has never 
felt the plough, but is simply sat upon by the proprietor, and goes with 
his pasture area, would sell at about 10/. per morgen of two acres, 
provided it were within easy reach of a market by railway. The rent 
would perhaps be 10*. to 12s\ per morgen. Mere wheatlands would 
fetch very much less, and if distant from the railway might, perhaps be 
valued at 12*. to 20s. per morgen. Mashonaland certainly offers 
unlimited scope, but its markeUs yet to be made. Also it is only near 
the larger centres of population in the south-west that labourers can be 
found who have even a small degree of skill in the ruder operation, of 
cultural work. Coloured men, the descendants of the old slave popula- 
tion, with a considerable amount of miscegenation, can be relied upon to 


trench, dig, and hoe orcl... h ■ trow, and to 

give the vines their annual prunings, and some of them have even 

recently learnt io graft with fair success. Of course all this issubject to 
a vigilant supervision, and subject also to the fact that the labourer's 
wants are so very few as to make him somewhat independent. He 
therefore favours his employer by working, when he is in the mind, at 

half-a-crownperday. I '< bet! r iu« i eadil; _ I mother .-hilling, and an 
a mind deal sought alter. Mere farm labourers receive 25s. per mouth, 
with rations for Self and family. As a rule these last are perfectly 
unreliable, and are unacquainted with the use of other than the simplest 
band tools. 

culture i 
the colonial rate of intei 
i who is already c 

neanwhile seeki 

the land upon which he lives. 
salary and nothing but board 

offered in the way of remuneration for services rendered. In i 
time experience in Cape ways and Cape seasons would thus be gained, 
and the land spied out. It is much after thi- fashion that the best and 
wealthiest farmers among us have worked their way in and i 

without local knowledge, has much i 
inevitably come to grief in a few years 

>nomy of the orchard. 
' The following details 

, beginning 
i learn and unlearn, or he will 
And what is true of the larger 
with the somewhat more refined 

■ port of Cane 
is returns. It 

is impossible t 

sent up to the ever ready market of the Transvaal, but in the . 
• ' j it has a 

i export of fruit from 1 
vhat proportion this b 

those qualified to judge i 

3 already t 

Return of Fruits exported i 

ie Season 1893-94. 

February. | March. | April. | Total. 

Tomatoes - 





Declared value - •£ 

——\ m Z\n.T7 






(JRnmex hymenosepalus, Torr.) 

The history of this new tanning material was given in two previous 
articles in the Kew Bulletin (1890, pp. 63-G9, and 1894, pp. 167-168). 
A figure was given in 1895 in the Botanical Magazine (t. 7433). 
According to the following extract from the Report for 1896 on the 
Trade and Agriculture of California (Foreign Office 1897, Annual No. 
L922), it i< rapidly making its way as a tanning material for light leather. 

" Canaigre is the American corruption of the Spanish "cana agria," 
sour cane. It is also called " Yevba- Colorado " in Mexico, localisms 
being " red dock " " tanner's dock,' J and " wild rhubarb." The best 
way to propagate the plant is by use of small roots rather than by seed. 
About 1,000 lbs. of tubers will plant an acre, and October and November 
are the best months for putting in the crop, though where irrigation can 
be practised, planting may be done at any time. The value of canaigre 
as a tanning ageut, either alone or in connexion with other tannins, has 
been proved beyond question. For light leather it gives great tensile 
strength, and is far better for split leather than gambler, oak, or 
hemlock. It is a quick tanner, and the yellow colour absorbed by the 
hide in the process of tanning is considered highly desirable for certain 
leathers. The sliced and dried tubers, containing an average of 30 per 
cent, of tannic acid, are worth from SI. to 91. per ton. A yield of from 
seven to 10 tons per acre would give 2^ to 3i tons of the dried product, 
for which there is a constant dcnuind in Europe ;in 1 America. Inasmuch 
as the plant grows wdd in this vicinity, and the seed roots are readily 
obtained, the industry commends itself to the farmer of small means, as 
it is harvested in such a short period after planting." 


The following communication supplements the information already 
given in the Kew Bulletin (1891, pp. 231-239). 

Extract from letter from Director of Gardens and Forest Depart- 
ment, Straits Settlements, to Royal Gardens, Kew, dated Botanic 
Gardens, Singapore, September 18, 1896 :— 

" I have just been down to inspect the little factory where Mr. Arnaud 
makes his gutta-percha. Serullas has gone back to Paris with endless 
patents of different kinds, and Mr. Arnaud alone keeps up the business. 
The leaves are imported in sacks dry from Borneo and Johore. Most 
of the trees are overcut in Singapore, and there are no more leaves left, 
I hear. The leaves and twigs cost four dollars and a half a picul 
(133 lbs.) They are then put, damped with hot water, into a rolling 
machine, two rollers working against each other, which grind them to 
powder. The powder is thrown into tanks of water and shaken about. 
The gutta floats in the form of a green mealy -looking stuff, is lifted out 
by fine copper gauze nets, put in warm water and pressed into moulds. 
I have samples of the gutta as it comes out from the leaves, and the 
pressed out finished article. It is really a very curious little manufactory. 
I do not know how long it will last, on account of the difficulty of 

procuring leaves, 

• later stop the trade.' 


In the Report on the trade of Bordeaux for the year 1896 (Foreign 
Office, Annual Series, 1897, No. 1910), which has been communicated to 
Kew by the Secretary of Stnf. t;,i Foreign Affairs, a striking picture is 
drawn of the effects of the phylloxera on the wine production of 
France, and of the various expedients which have been resorted to to 
make up the deficiency in production. 

" The annual wine production of France, which during the 25 years 
preceding the year 1879 amounted on the average to 1,100,000,000 
gallons, a quantity sufficing both for the wants of home consumption in 
this country and for those of the export trade to foreign countries 
(about 6.5,000,000 to 75.000,000 gallons per annum), has since that 
time (in consequent <•( the ravages of the 
diseases, as well as of unfavourable atmosphei 
years) declined to an average annual yield of about 725,000,000 gallons, 
a falling-off, therefore, of about 375,000,000 gallons per annum. 

" In order to meet this deficiency France, as is well known, has been 
obliged to import largely foreign (more especially Spanish, Italian, 
Portuguese, and Dalmatian) nines, which are to some extent sold in 
their original Mate, but the far larger proportion are used for blending 
with the light French wines of the commonest class. These blended 

Franco-foreign wines find a ready market, 
ys unpalatable, and often very fair (nor 
are, after all, mixtures of the pure juice of foreign and French 4 

grapes); they 

number of even the better-class of hotels 
France. On the other hand, however, the dearth <>f the cheapest kind 
of French wines, which in former tunes were abundant enough to be 
obtained even, by the most modest pane, has given rise to a great 
development of the manufacture of artificial wines (made from raisin- 
and other grape substitutes), aud these find a ready market, especially 
amongst those poorest classes of the population who look more to the 
low price than to the quality of the liquor, of which they are accus- 
tomed to drink a large quantum. That in the Gironde, for instance, 
this daily quantum of wine is considerable amongst both the poorer and 
wealthier inhabitants is evident from the fact that the average annual 
consumption of wine per head of the population in this department 
amounts to 32- 34 gallons. 

Artificial Wines. 

" Though the importation of foreign wines and the manufacture of 
artificial wines had the natural effect of keeping the prices of the 
genuine French product on the whole at a low figure, their competition 
was not so seriously felt and complained of by the wine growers and 
merchants of this country so long as the supply of such foreign or 
artificial wines kept within the limits annually required for meeting the 
deficiency in French production. 

"But of recent years the manufacture and sale of artificial wines in 
France, as well as the importation of foreign wines, have experienced 
such an extraordinary development that the genuine French article is 
now being driven out of the market, and wine growers and merchants 
every year find it more and more difficult if not impossible to dispose 


of then- accumulating stock- ».|" red and white wines of good quality. 
Considering, moreover, that the majoriiy of French vineyard owners 
have, during the last 15 years, spared no trouble and (when they could 
afford it) no expense in combating the many vine diseases, "and, it 
necessary, in replanting the devastated vineyards, and that the sacrifices 
thus made are, to all appearance, certain to bear good fruit in the 
future, and will, at a not ton distant date, bring to Fiance a return of 
her former abundant wine production, it is evident that the gradual 
flooding of the markets of France and also foreign countries with 
foreign or art i He;. -i I imitation- «.(' French wines must create considerable 
dissatisfaction amongst, both vineyard owners and wine merchants in 
Bordeaux and other prominent wine-producing districts of this country. 
The French Government have, during the past year, in consequence, 
been strongly urged by the wine merchants and vineyard owners of the 
Gironde and other departments to apply the existing laws against 
fraudulent imitation of wine in a more vigorous manner, and in the 
interest of the honest trade to increase their stringency ; and it has 
further been requested to take steps for raising the import duties on 
Spanish wines (and any other !orei-u wines not taxed so highly). A 
project of a new law dealing with this subject was submitted to the 
French Chamber his: autumn and passed after certain modifications had 
been introduced. 


" An idea of the extent of the Avidespread damage caused by the 

phylloxera since its first appearance 17 years ago, in the more or less 

valuable vineyards of the Gironde Department, may be gathered from 

Gironde in the year 1879, which is officially estimated at 450,000 acres, 
only 81,820 acres have (owing apparently to the silicious nature of the 
soil) entirely escaped the incursion of this noxious parasite. The total 
area of the vineyards which have been more or le-s serioush infested 
has, up to this date, reached 368,200 acres. Of this large infested area 
104,310 acres have been uprooted and replanted with American and 
Franco- American vines which are able to resist the attacks of the phyl- 
loxera; 49,807 acres of vines are subjected to a continuous preventive 
treatment which prevents the phylloxera from extending its destructive 
work, and 100,950 acres are, owing to the inability or unwillingness of 
the owners to defray the heavy cost of combating it, left to its mercy, 
and suffer of course seriously in their productiveness. But the remain- 
ing 114,100 acres of vine-growing hind infested by the phylloxera since 
1879 are no longer cultivated with vines, and are now either lying waste 
or have been converted into grass land. 

"Thus the aggregate area of vineyard- tinder eulth ation in the Gironde 
at the beginning of the year 1896 was only 336,900 acres ; figures 
showing a very large diminution compared with those given above for 
1879. They moreover also show a small failing-off, namely of 8,375 
acres compared with the figures for 1895, which was due to the fact that 
whilst 12,410 acres of diseased .and unproductive vines were uprooted in 
1895-96, the area of fresh vine plantations reached only 4,035 acres. 

"Amongst the 336,900 acres of vineyards existing in this Department 
at the commencement of last year 104,310 acres consisted (as above 
-tated) in fresh plantations gradually made since the date of the first 
: — 5,212 acres 

French plants. The extent of fresh plantations with these Franco- 
American vines hus> of late years, been and is still steadily increasing, 
"whilst those of direct-producing American vims are being gradually less 
resorted to. It is, however, pointed out by competent viticulturists that 
in spite of the success obtain.-. 1 by the former, great care should never- 
theless be taken to select the right species of American vines for 
graiting upon, for if this be not done, the eventual success of the 
operation (though the first results may appear satisfactory) must be 

"The considerable expense of the preventive treatment of the vines (in 
order to combat the inroads of the phylloxera) by the various eh mica! 
remedies as well as by s I reion of the vineyards under water, which 
latter method is indeed only practicable in some localities, and the 
generally favourable results attained by the fresh plantation, have 
gradually led vine proprietors to the conclusion that the least expensive 
way of "combating the phylloxera is indeed to uproot the infested 
vineyards and to recultivate them with American vines grafted with 

" There can now be no doubt that owing to the considerable increase in 
the value of a vineyard, consisting of vines which are thus not only able 
to resist the ii sera, bul which are extremely produc- 

• . • ■ ■ - 

for their first outlay and trouble. Unfortunately, there is the existing 
dillieulty, t! and artificial wines, a circumstance 

which will render unprofitable, not to s ;1 y disheartening, these and other 
efforts on the part of the sorely tried growers towards improving their 
property and increasing their wine production. 

" It may be here observed that the total actual pecuniary loss cause . L 
to the present time to the vineyard owners of the Gironde Department by 
the ravages of the phylloxera, arising both from a diminution in the area 
and the productiveness of vine growing land, is estimated at about 
2(i.O<«>.oO<>/.. and that of the total" cost incurred in reconstituting the 
devastated vineyards as well as in combating the spreading of the phyl- 
loxera at about 6,000,000/., thus showing an aggregate loss of about 
32,000,000/. to the viticulturists in this department alone. If the loss 
and expense occasioned by the phylloxera in all other wine -producing 
departments of France were added, it is probable that a total estimate 
considerably exceeding 100,000,000/. would be reached." 

preventive treatment of the vir 
■ AW Bulled,,, 1888, 271), whit 

iions has no.v become a standing practice ainon 
had the desired ell'ect of keeping the vineyards free fro 

the other hand the kindred pest called blackrot showed it 
parr- of the (xironde, though the damage done by it was, in 
of preventive treatment taken by growers, not s U -criou> in 
been feared. Though the u-e of the • liouiilie bordelaise ' 
the against hlaekrol is of considerable value, no thorough 
remedy against this disease appears, in spite of contimi 


The development and organisation of the most important botanical 
iii^ril uti-jns of other nations is of especial interest to Kew, which is 
necessarily Wrought into close relations with them. 

The following account of the United Slates National Herbarium at 
Washington, by Mr. F. V. Coville, Chief Botanist to the United States 
'. io\ eminent, is therefore reprinted from the Botanical Gazette for 
November 1896 (pp. 418-420) :— 

"In view of an evident lack of correel information regarding the 
recent change in the custody of the National Herbarium, it has seemed 
desirable that a brief sketch of the present relationship and work of the 
division of botany of the United States Department of Agriculture and 
the herbarium he presented to your readers. 

"During at least the past t hi c admini-i ti ?, covering a period of 
nearly 12 years, there has been a feeling among the authorities of the 
Department of Agriculture that the Division of Botany should be 
relieved of the custody of the National Herbarium, that institution 
having grown beyond a mere consulting herbarium to the dimensions of 
a great" governmental repository of botanical collections, thereby 
becoming a lit 'Ionian Institution. As a result of 

negotiations between the two establish mi was trans- 

ferred ahout two years ago from the Department of Agriculture to 
quarters in th< seum, which is 

under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, the department, 
however, continuing to furnish the money for its maintenance. But on 
July 1, 1896, the museum assume.] complete charge of the Herbarium, 
being enabled to provic* * 

■']- of the 

therefore, through the Smii Two assistant 

curators. Dr. J. N. Rose and Mr. C. L. Pollard, have been transferred 
from the Department of Agriculture to the Museum, with the necessary 
clerical help, and a new assistant curat. .r of the eryptogamic collection-, 
Mr. O. F. Cook, appointed, the botanist of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, Mr. Frederick V. Coville, continuing to serve, without salary 
as curator. Provided with a force of ten people, in addition to the 
curator, situated in fireproof quarters and managed by the Smithsonian 
Institution, the National Herbarium is now favourably situated to 
continue its development as the repository of the botanical collections 
acquired by the various branches of our government. 

"TheDivi- tlture has now 

a force of twenl - clerks and labourers, and funds to 

the amount of SL'iuKH) available for the expenditures of the present 
fiscal year. Mr. Frederick V. Coville i- botanist and chief of division 
and is especially engaged in work upon the native plant resources of the 
United States . i :. . n he g .gruphh i ' but ion of plants Mr. G. 
H. Hicks is assistant chiei and has special charge of -eed investigations 
and the laboratory equipped for that purpose. Mr. L. II. Dewey has 
charge of all matters relating to weeds, information about the damage 
done by them, their present distribution and mean- of dissemination, 
ways of holding them in check, and warnings about newly introduced 

" Mr. V. K. Chesnut has charge of the pharmacological laboratory and 
conduct's investigations on poisonous plants, more particulary those 
native species which are a common cause of poisoning in man or 

i. Mr. A. J. Pieters has charge of the 

rk of the division ami 

experiments on the germination of weed seeds. Mr. W. W. Tracy, 
recently appointed from the seed farm of D. M. Ferry & Co., has 

charge i.l' greenhouse :iii(I outdoor tests of seeds and of the cultivation 
of native food and other economic plants. Mr. J. C. Dabney is assist- 
ing in experiments in seed selection, and is making studies of the effect 
of various chemicals upon germination, Mr. Sotlioron Key has charge 
of laboratory treiniination tests, and is conducting practical irials of the 
relative merits of various kinds of laboratory apparatus. Mr. John B. 
Leiberg is carrying on the greater part of "the field Avork connected 
with the special studies of the botanist. Mr. F. A. Walpole is the 
artist of the division, recently appointed after passing the highest 
i xamination among 21 competitors. 

'" The Division of Botany as at present organised is an 
equipped with the hot scientifically trained men obtair 
the host modern appliances for the investigation ofagricu 


The issue of the twenty-second part concluding the Flora of llritish 
India was recorded in the Kew Bulletin for December last. The 
following correspondence which has been officially addressed to Sir 
Joseph Hooker deserves to be placed on record as a recognition of his 

India Office to Sir J. D. Hooker. 

India Office, London, S.W., 
Sir, May 31, 1897. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to 
forward copy of a letter, in which the Government of India express 
their satisfaction at the completion of your Flora of British India. 
Lord George Hamilton desires heartily to associate himself with the 
Government of India in their acknowledgment of the valuable services 
you have done to India by this great Avork, and by your labour in the 
field of Indian botany, since you first visited that country nearly oO 

yeSir& ag °' I am, &c. 

(Signed) A. Godlbt. 
Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.S. 

My Lord, Simla, April 21, 1S97. 

We are informed by our Director of the Botanical SurYej of 

India that the Flora oj llritish India, which was begun by Sir Joseph 

The value of the'work a- a contribution to pure science has already 
been appreciated and acknowledged by others who are more competent 
to speak in such a matter than ourselves. But we desire to express our 
hearty recognition of the service to India which Sir Joseph Hooker 

has rendered by his monumental undertaking. He In- 

s into a collective form and ph 
completing the work which he 
began nearly half a century ago in the Himalayas. We would ask your 
Lordship to convey to Sir Joseph Hooker our high appreciation of his 
labours, and of their value and importance as systematising and adding 
to our knowledge of the vegetable productions of India ; and our hearty 
itulations upon having brought to a satisfactory conclusion a 
) which he has devoid -<> many \ ears of his life. 
We have, &c 
(Signed) Elgin. 


M. D. Chalmers 
The Right Hon. E. H. H. Colle 

Lord George F. Hamilton, A. C. Trevor. 

Her Majesty's Secretary of State 


e had reached London from his last 
expedition to Sokotra and Southern Arabia. A chill caught on the way 
home brought on acute pneumonia, and he died on May 5, at the early 
age of 45 years. 

Mr. Bent and his wife, who was his constant companion, were 
intrepid travellers in the East, in Arabia, and in Africa. The in- 
teresting botanical results of their memorable journey to Hadramaut 
(in 1893-4), on which they were accompanied by Mr William Lunt, a 
member of the staff of the Royal Gardens, are given in the Kew 
Bulletin for 1894 (pp. 328-343). Those of their second journey in 
Arabia Felix in 1894-5, were published in the K<ir Ihrfletin for 1895 
(pp. 180-186). The materials they obtained brought out clearly the 
relations of the Flora of Southern Arabia to Africa on the one hand, and 
to Western Asia on the other. They returned last winter to the same 
region, visiting in addition the island of Sokotra. But the plants they 
obtained have not yet been worked up. 

Mr. Theodore Bent possessed a singular charm of manner, and an . 
eager intelligence. His own object in travel wa> mainly archa-ologicnl. 
But he was keenly anxious to assist any other branch of science to 
which be could be of use. 

Botanical JMagazine for April. - 

Gongora tricolor. 
id S<'hcc><> SmitliiL The Agave is a Me\i< an -;>■ . ' -s whieh has been 
cultivation at Kew for many years, and flowered for the first time in 
J95. The Geutiiiiui is a tall-growing >peeies with leaves sometimes 
1 inches long. The plant figured was raised from seed supplied by 

the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. Trintauiu laurhta, from 
Eastern Australia, has heen grown at Kevv for a considerable time, but 
the specimen drawn for the Magazine was furnished by Thomas 
Hanburv, Esq., of La Mortola. Gottijora tricolor is a native of Costa 
Rica, whence 'the Kew plant was sent by the late Mr. R. Pfau. The 
fine Scnccio was first discovered by Banks and Solander in Tiorra del 
Fuego during Cook's first voyage. "It has since been found in South 
Chili, and seeds, from which the plant figured was raised, have been 
sent to Kew from the Falkland Islands, where they had been collected 
by Mr. A. Linney, of the Government Gardens. 

Botanical Magazine for May. — All the plants figured are in culti- 
ation at Kew. Agave heicensis, from Mexico, flowered for the first 
ime in the Royal Gardens in 1895. Maiilhirla houttaina is a native 
f Guatemala and Venezuela. The plant figured was obtained from 
he Brussels Botanical Garden. Si/ringu amumisis is a privet-like 
"ant from "North China and Japan. Professor Sargent, who had 

l-:chio„is (hffers from all tl 

iv other sp 

ecies figured i 


which the plant 1 inured wa.« 

e collected by 

the 1 ladran.aul; Expedition ii 

a 1893. 

Hooker's Icones Plantarnm. — Parts one and two of the sixth 
olume of the fourth series (plates 2501-2550) have appeared, 
'wo new irenei-a aie fi-ured. na.nelv. E(nh n.sia (Pa.-siflnra.-ea-) and 

inhabiting Mesopot: 
about a dozen nil 

.' '■ 
received from Tibet, which is becoming more and more the field of 
active exploration. One of these was made by Captain Wellby and 
Lieutenant .Malcolm during a journey across Tibet between 35° and 36° 
N. The other was obtained by Captain Deasy and Mr. Arnold Pike 
when travelling in Western Tibet. Both collections exhibit the stunted 
vegetation so characteristic of this Mora. Selections from both have 
been exhibited at the Royal Society's Conversazione, whore they 
attracted much attention. 

Primula farinosa in the Andes. — Th a species of 

Primn/u in Tier, a do! Fuego and the r'alklan-l Islands, whether 
regarded as S| i the northern P. farinosa or not, 

has been commented upon by most - zraphy. Sir 

Joseph Hooker (/-'/ m Antarctica, ii. p. 337) specially alludes to the 
absence of the genus so 1'ar as then known. from all parts of the Andes. 
and the fact no species had, keen I'our.d in N'orth America in a lower 
latitude than 39". Since then two species nave been discovered in the 
mountains of Arizona and New Mexico, and now Prof. F. Philippi, the 
director of the botanic garden at Santiago, has sent specimens of the 
South American species from two distant localities in the Chilian Andes. 
One is from the Cordillera del Rio Manso in 41° 30' S. lat., and the 
other from the Cordillera de Araucania in 39° S. lat. But Kew 
possessed a specimen of Primula farinosa from Chili, 
•t seems not to have I.een recorded before. This specimen 
by Mr. Pearce, a traveller in the service of Messrs. James 
l & Co., in the Cordillera de Ranco, midway between the other 
•aliii.s. and was presented to Kew in 1884. 
South American specimens represent both large and small- 


inch in diameter 

Ceylon Flora. — The untimely death of Dr. Trimen unhappily left his 
admirable Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon in an unfinished state. 
Two volumes still remain to be written in addition to the three already 
published. Sir Joseph Hooker has most generously offered to undertake 
the preparation of rhese, and his offer has been accepted by the Govern- 
ment of Ceylon. The necessary materials mid specimens have already 
been received at Kew from the Royal Botanic Gar.len, Peradeniya. 
More than thirty years ago Sir Joseph Hooker assisted Dr. Thwaites 
in his Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylani<r. 

Aids to Colonial Development. — The following is an extract from an 
article which appeared in the J»iir„til ih.s Dt'hafs for March 20 last, and 
of which a translation appeared in the United States Consular Reports 
for May (pp. 162-163) : — 

"A nation that desires to form colonies will find that the conquering of 
the territory is hardly the beginning of her task. The resources of the 
countrv must he studied and appraised : the agricultural and geological 
map of the land must be prepared ; the soil must be analyzed, native 

5 catalogued, foreign one- introdu. -.[, \\ lv } )v <t selected, and, finally, 
>ds adopted to in every way advise :;nd assist the colonists. 
Che botanical gardens of our colonies were {'onncrly rich in plants 
uttings, which were generously di-u-:hitrcil. Unfortunately, the same 
it be said to-day, and our rivals (England and Holland) could teach 
1 at Buitenzorg, Java, a 

&c. These are introduced into the neighbouring Dutch colonies. 
Lai .oratories have been established, pamphlets are published, and photo- 
graphs prepared to advertise the useful plains of the colonies an 1 their 

" The English have accomplished still more. The large botanical 

garden at Kew, known all over the world, is in correspondence with eighty 
similar establishments in English possessions — India, (iuiana. Canada, 
Ceylon, A:e. From each Kew receives plants, -ceils. Scv., which are cul- 
tivated with great care, not only in samples, hut in sutlicient number to 
be sent later to other colonics. The Germans, at .Berlin, and the 

" There is 3, and. on the 

other hand, nothing more useful. The majority of industrial produc- 
tions which constitute to-day the wealth of colonies are imported. Is 
coffee cultivated only in its cradle, Arabia ? Has not the cacao tree, 
first found in Mexico, been carried to Java, and the vanilla plant, of the 
same place, to Reunion. The advantage of transporting jute, now the 
monopoly of India, rubber, quinine, gum, and clove-producing trees, as 
well as ortiam. tes where the conditions would be 

favourable, is obvious. It will be found, however, that very few seeds 
retain their germinative quality long enough to permit a change of 
locality, especially when the voyage is of some duration, for instance, 
from Inilo China to the Antilles "or the Congo. The plants themselves 
are too delicate to be transported. A botanical garden that can receive 
them and allow them to recuperate, as it were, from the voyage, before 
continuing to their destination, is indispensable to scientific agricultural 
development of the colonies." 

Spanish name of the plant known in this conntrs a- Lucerne (Mrt/m/t/t, 
British Guiana entirely failed. This is confirmed by trials in similar 

Guinea grass < I'uutcinit nut rimum, Jaeq.) < 

ih"U-li n<-i i In- trial. <j,i 

Maize in two crops for the year gave 

a daily sown. 

A highly nutritious native pea plai 

idely distributed in tropical America) 

id, gave, self-sown, without cultivatioi 
»tal of over 27 tons per acre. 

Alfalfa ( Mulxm/n s</tiva, L.) in two crops for the year, ira 
•tal of 400 lbs. 

specially 6 


specially sown. 

A highly nutritious native pea plant, Phaseohts semi-erectus, 
fwidelj distributed in tropical America) of which a 


The Rose of Jericho. — The plant commonly known as the Rose of 
Jericho is" Anustatiat /licrofliuutira, I,., ami thai ir has borne that 
name for centuries is proved by the fact that it is figured and described 
as such by nearly all the early herbalism. I.onit/er ( Laniard), the 
first edition of whoso. Kr< u.f< r'oich appeared in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, writes of it as a well knov, i in<_ r the names 

Rosen von Hiericho, Rosa Hierichuntis, Rosa S. .Maria'', and Rosa 
Hierosolimitana. Several other - i- write more 

fully on it. But it is now claimed that . 1st, ■ r, S i:ns )>//</ Dueus, Coss. et 
Dur. (Composite), is the true Rose of Jericho. The Abbe Michon, 
who accompanied De Saulcy on his travels in the East, describes 
{Voyage Religieux <■» Orivut. vol. ii., p. 383; a plant under the name 
of Sanlcya Hierochuntka, which he regarded as the true Rose of 
Jericho of the pilgrims of the Middle Ages, because it is introduced 
into the arms of several French noble families. Boissier (Flonr Ori< u- 
talis, iii., p. 17!',) identified Snutt-yn with 1st, n\, us, and cites Michon's 
opinion as to its being the true Rose of Jericho. Here the matter 
rested apparently until 1882, when Dr. P. Ascherson brought the subject 
before the Botanischen Vercins dor Provinz Brandenburg {\~<rhuu<l- 
lungen, xxiii., p. 44), More recently (1886) Dr. G. Schweint'mth has 
written on " La Vraie Rose de Jericho " ( Hull. <lc 1° lust. Egypt., 2 me 
serie, n. G, pp. 92-96), where, according to Just {But. Jahrvs'hrr., 1886, 
2. p. 196), he recognises Astrrisms pygun <»s as tin plant. This covers 
a wider geographical area than the Anastatiru, ranging from Algeria to 
Baluchistan, and it is very abundant in the neighbourhood of Jericho. 
In Astcriscitsi it is the involucral leaves especially that are hygroscopic, 
s and quickly opening 


B U L L E T I 



(Ammophi/a arundinacca, Host.) 
Marram grass is a native of the shores of Europe and North 
Africa. It is the most important grass for binding moving drift 
sands. It may be propagated either from portions of the roots or 
from seed, and is the subject on this account of occasional 
enquiry. It has been successfully introduced into Australia, on 
the recommendation of the late Sir Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., 
and proved most satisfactory. The following detailed account of 
it. prepared by Mr. J. 11. Maiden, F.L.S., Director of the Botanic 
Can!. mis at Svdnev, New South Wales, is taken from the 
Agricultural dazeite for New South Wales, vol. vi., pp. 7-12 :— 

A committee of the Legislature, appointed in 1852 to enquire 
into the means of preserving Cape Cod Harbour, in Massachusetts, 
in speaking of the beach between the ocean on the north and the 
channel of East Harbour, which is all that prevents the sea from 
breaking over into Cape Cod Harbour, says :— This tract consists 
of loose sand, driven about by every high wind, which throws it 
up in heaps like snow-drifts. The wind from any point from 
north-east t«. north-west, drives the sand directly from the beach 
into the channel of East Harbour, and is carried b\ a strong 
current into the north-west part of Cape Cod Harbour. The 

eight years, by the tide that runs through East Harbour channel, 
from eight to ten rods. Where the mail stage travelled only one 
year since, is now the channel, with G feet of water at low tide, 
and from 12 to 11 feet at high water." 

The first effort made bv the State for the preservation of this 
important harbour appears' to have been in 1711. The town was 

11359-1375—8/97 Wt 61 D&S 29 A 


but the inhabitants soon began to leave, and in less than twenty 
years it was reduced to two or three families. After the 
Revolution the place revived, and is now a thriving town. 

The object of the law of 1714 was to arrest the destruction of 
the tree and shrubbery on the province lands, and on the 
preservation of which it was thought, the harbour depended, as 
thev prevented drifting of the sand. 

In 1824 commissioners were appointed by the State Government 
to examine the subject, and report what action was necessary to 
prevent the rapid destruction of the harbour. They recommended 
an Act to prevent the destruction of beach-grass, and reported 
that the sum of 3,600 dollars would be necessary to set out that 
plant, make fences, etc. The Legislature in 1820 applied to 
Congress for that sum, and Congress has, at different times, made 
appropriations to the amount of about 38,000 dollars, which seem 
to have failed, in some measure, to accomplish the object 
intended, and East Harbour is still rapidly filling up. 

Many years ago, it was as customary to warn the inhabitants of 
Truro, and some other towns on the Cape every spring, to turn 
out to plant beach-grass, as it was in the inland towns to turn out 
and mend the roads. This was required by law, with suitable 
penalties for its neglect, and took place in April. 

A farmer of much practical knowledge concerning this subject, 
says : — " Since the cattle have been kept from the beaches, by the 
Act of the Legislature of 182G, the grass and shrubs have sprung 
up of their own accord, and have, in a great measure, in the 
westerly parts of the Cape, accomplished what was intended to be 
done by planting grass. It is of no use to plant grass on the high 
parts of the beach. Plant on the lowest parts and they will rise, 
while the highest places, over which the grass will spread, are 
levelling by the wind. To preserve the beach it must be kept as 
level as possible." 

Beach-grass is of little value, except to prevent our loose sandy 
beaches from being drifted about by the wind. We have but one 
species, and this is fast spreading over our upland, making it 
useless for cultivation. Land that would produce from 20 to 
25 bushels of Indian corn to the acre, without any manure, 
twenty- five or thirty years ago, is now overrun with beach-grass, 
and will produce nothing else. If the dead grass is burnt off in 
the spring, it will make a pretty good pasture for cattle and 
horses. It keeps green longer than any grass we have. It can be 
cultivated from the seed or by transplanting. Our loose sandy 
beaches are the most suitable for its growth. 

Beach-grass seems to require the assistance of some disturbing 
causes to enable it to attain its full perfection. The driving 
winds in some localities are sufficient, while in other places, 
where it does not thrive so well, it is probable that an iron-tooth 
harrow would -ready improve and aid its growth. (Flint, Grasses 
and Furdj/r Phi tits.) 

While this grass has been extensively used in Europe, probably 
for centuries, for binding coast sands, it does not appear to have 
been introduced into Australia for the purpose until recently. 

The seed of the Marram grass was first introduced into the 
Colony of Victoria by Baron von Mueller in 1883, and by him 


entrusted to the Borough Council of Port Fairy for experiment 
on the barren shifting sand-hummocks fronting the coast line of 
Port Fairy. It has proved to be the most effectual sandstay ever 
planted. Practical evidence of its value can be seen in the 
50 miles of sandhills extending between Warrnambool and Port 
Fairy, now reclaimed by the Marram plantations, sown under 
the direction of Mr. S. Avery, the park ranger. So complete has 
been the reclamation of the lands, that where a few years ago not 
a sign of vegetation was to be seen, there now exists a succulent 
grass eagerly devoured by cattle, and growing to a height of 
4 feet. Marram grass is practically indestructible— burning, 
cutting, or eating off only makes it thrive— while in exposed 
shifting sand it propagates as surely as in the most sheltered 

The grass is planted in rows at a distance of 6 feet apart, the 
space between the plants at least 2 feet. The depth to which 
each plant is put into the sand depends upon the nature of the 
sand. If in sand not likely to drift for two or three months, 
9 inches is deep enough ; but if very loose and shifting, the grass 
should be placed from 12 to 15 inches deep. A " plant " consists 
of as much grass as a man can conveniently hold in his hand, and 
care is taken to have the roots regular. The system adopted in 
planting is for one man to dig the hole, and another man puts in 
the plant, around which he well treads in the sand. After 
twelve months' growth the plants are fit for thinning out and 

Cattle are not allowed to graze on the grass until the roots 
become thoroughly established. It takes 3,M0 " plants " to the 
acre ; and there are about 2,800 " plants " to the ton, thus 1 ton 
6 cwt. covers one acre. The most favourable time for plants is 
from 1st May to end of July. The grass retains its vitality, and 
strikes root after being out of its sand-bed for three months or 
more. {Melbourne Leader, 2nd December, 1893.) 

Marram grass commences to flower in November with us. It 
flowers in July in England. 

The following account of the attempts to acclimatise the grass 
at the Cape are instructive :— 

As a specimen plant, Amino/, luht was introduced some years 
ago into the Botanic Gardens, Cape Town, by Professor MacOwan, 
and seed obtained from Lincolnshire, England, was sown on the 
D'Urban Road sands by Mr. Lister. The grass is said to have 
grown well. It was naturally killed by the Port Jackson wattles 
sown with it, and it wa afterwards abandoned as a temporary 
stay in favour of the native Pyp grass. 

At Eerste River sands, 56 lbs. of s< ed obtained from Vilmorin 
& Co., Paris, were sown in situ in IS'j;'. The seed irerminated 
only at the foot of the sandhill experimented upon, and from a 

''>.">!> bandies of thinnin<rs were taken. These have been trans- 
planted on one-sixth of an acre of sail. I, in rows ti feet l>v 2 feet 
apart, in accordance with the method described below. Other 
two-year-old plants will e.ilai-e the Marram Nursery to about 
half an acre, and one-year-old plants have not been thinned. 

The larger plants removed were fully 4 feet high, and thus, 

with the advantage of Cape Town refuse manure, have attained 

14359 A 2 


In two years, from seed, a growth equal to three-year- old. trans- 
plants at Port Fairy. That Marram grass is not readily raised 
from seed appears to be shown in the demand made upon the 
Victorian plant supplies by other Australian colonies, Africa, and 
India ; but once germinated it seems to thrive amazingly. The 
actual yearly increase is not stated in the Port Fairy report. From 
the prolitic growth .of the limited number of plants at the Eerste 
River, it is probable that, in favourable situations, and with 
manure, it will quadruple itself annually. 

In a few years thinnings should be available for distribution. 
To avoid heavy transport charges on large quantities of plants, 
probably the best plan would be to form a small nucleus planta- 
tion of one or two acres at a sheltered spot near the sands to be 
reclaimed, [f such a plantation of 2 acres in one year doubled 
itself only, in six years sufficient plants would have been produced 
to reclaim 128 acres of sand. The probability is, however, that 
the increase would be more rapid. 

The first essential measure to success appears to be the fencing in 
of the sands, to exclude cattle before the grass is mature, and to 
protect it afterwards in the dry season. The cost per acre of 
fencing will vary considerably, according to the shape of the 
sands and their geographical position. On the coast, for instance, 
with an ocean boundary, one side of the sands would be naturally 
protected, whcivas an inland sand might require fencing on three 

To arrive at an estimate from which to make local calculations, 
let us assume a sand-drift to be 1 mile long and half a mile 
broad— say, 320 acres in extent. Fencing can be erected in most 
parts of the colony for £50 per mile, or less ; say, £150 for the 
3-mile boundary, or about 10*. per acre. Holes can be made in 
the sand, and the plants conveyed from the nucleus plantation 
and put in for £1 per thousand, say, 3,500 plants per acre, 
equal v;j 10s. Allowing 5s. per acre for direct supervision, an 
ample charge on extensive works, a total cost of £4 5.s\ per acre is 
arrived at, and on 320 acres would cost £1,360 to protect and 

If a plough were used for drawing a planting furrow, and 
closing it again, the cost might be considerably reduced — (Journal 

Department of Aijrirnlt>iri>, ('n P r T<,ir„, 26th July, 1894). 

This grass has been extensively planted bv the New South 
Wales Department of Agriculture at the sand-drift at Newcastle, 
in conjunction with the Maritime Pine {Pinus maritimaY and the 
vexed question of how to deal with this drift, which, in times 
gone by, has been such a source of expense and anxiety, appears 
to be in a fair way for settlement. The grass is flourishing 
splendidly, the ; U -ea un.ler the -rasa is increasing year bv Year, 
and quantities of the grass are each winter season 'sent away to 
public bodies and private individuals (in this and other colonies), 
who desire to resist the encroachments of coast sands. Following 
is an extract trom a letter received from a correspondent supplied 
by the department, with specimens of the grass for ex] 
purposes : — 

"I beg to report on the success of the experiment to grow 
Man-am grass at Shell Beach, Middle Harbour, where the rootlets 


you kindly obtained for me some months back have been growing 
h[> IfM. lidly, and already throwing out shoots 3 to 4 feet away 
from the main stems. My friend who planted the roots 
states that he put in a handful of manure with each root, which, 
no doubt, assisted the quick growth of the grass, which is now 
about 2 feet in height, and of a deep green colour. 

" Some rootlets that I planted at the same time as the above at 
Edward's Bay, Middle Harbour, have unfortunately been eaten 
down by cattle. 

" I would strongly advise your department to plant the Marram 
grass along the Spit Road beach, Middle Harbour, where, if 
protected during the first year from cattle, it would afford 
protection to the embankment along the road to the ferry, and 
also assist iu reclaiming an extensive flat on the Pearl Bay side of 
the Spit." 

The department will be glad to supply experimental quantities 
of the grass to persons willing to plant it in suitable localities. 
There is no doubt it is far more efficient as a sand stay than the 

> Spinifea 

In a report upon the grazing capabilities of the grass furnished 
to Baron von Mueller, by Mr. Avery, from Port Fairy 
(November 18th, 1893), he states :— 

" I generally put the cattle into the Marram grass enclosure 
after the first rains we get in April, and thm allow them to graze 
there until the season begins to get too dry, when they are taken 
out and kept off till next season. I have been able to keep 
them longer in this season on account of the late rains we 
have had. During the last season I have had about 100 head 
of cattle grazing on about 100 acres of Marram grass for six 
months, and the cattle kept in fair condition during that 
time. There seems to be some doubt in the minds of a great 
many persons who have heard about Marram grass that it is of no 
value as a fodder, but I can assure you that the cattle at Port 
Fairy thrive well on it, and if it was not for this grass during the 
winter months the residents 1 cattle would fare badly. I am of 
opinion that it would make a splendid ensilage {Mrlhnii nir 
Lrrulrr, December 2nd, 1893)." Mr. T. E. Willis planted some 
Marram grass at Edward's Bay, Middle Harbour, but reported that 
they. were eaten down by cattle. Baron von Mueller (Selrrt 
Krtm-frnjjtral Plants, 1SSS edition) says:— '• Like E/i/mxs 
arena r inn, not touched by grazing animals." Dr. George Vasey 
says: — "This grass has no agricultural value." At Cape Cod 
Harbour the grass does not appear to be used for grazing purposes. 

These statements may be reconciled as follows :— When fully 
grown, the Marram grass is notoriously a strong fibrous grass, 
beyond the power of cattle to digest, oven if they are able to 
masticate it. hut the young growth ,and even larger growth if the 

protection a Marram grass plantation requires at this most critical 

" of pasture. Its value 

At the same time the question of keeping cattle away from 
newly-farmed Marram grass plantations must never be lost sight 
of. Fooler in such situations is harsh and sparse, and stray cattle 
will readily bite at the comparatively tend-r Marram plants just 
coming into growth, and perhaps exterminate a plantation unless 

I have since received the following letter from Mr. S. Avery, of 
Warrnambool, Victoria, which shows that the grass is a really 
valuable fodder grass :—" The Marram grass is edible during the 
whole of the year, and cattle will eat it at anytime, but while 
there is plenty of rye grass and clover on the Hats during the 
spring, the cattle prefer rye grass and clover to the Marram grass, 
but as soon as the grass begins to get scarce on the flats, the cattle 
then take to the sanddiills and feed on Marram grass during the 
winter months, and thrive well on it. Before the Marram grass 
was introduced into Port Fairy, the cattle running on the flats 
along the sea coast used to suffer severely from scouring, and a 
great many used to die from that cause, but now you will never 
find a beast scoured that grazes on the Marram grass plantations. 
it being of a binding nature as well as fattening. The Marram 
grass will only thrive well on barren sand-drifts, where it is 
to get anything else to grow, and the greater the sand- 
dnits the better it thrives, and as a sand-stay it cannot be 

A native of the shores of Europe and North Africa, Dr. George 
Vasey states that it grows on sandy beaches of the Atlantic, at 
least as far south as North Carolina and on the shores of the Great 
Lakes, hut so far it has not been recorded from the Pacific Coast. 
It is, however, not indigenous to the United States, though from 
the account which has been given of Cape Cod Harbour it will be 
seen that it has been thoroughly acclimatised on the American 

Joubert Park, Johannesburg, 

August 23, 1894. 

I beg to return you my best thanks for the seeds received 
in two bags, as noted in yours of July 20. The . 1 mmnjihihi seed 
is very acceptable, as I wish to experiment with it to find if it will 
grow on, and bind together, the sand, or tailings heaps, which are 
accumulating so fast along the Main ree f, and around this town. 
Our gold output is now five tons per month, and to obtain this a 
vast number of tons of rock have to be crushed. 

The crushed gold-beating quartz— or rather sandstone, is first 
treated with mercury, and thereafter with cyanide of potassium, 
to obtain every particle of gold. 

The cyanide remains in the tailings heaps, and, of course, is 
strongly poisonous. Blown about by the strong winds here, the 
eands cause serious eye complaints, and illness. 

The question is, will any vegetation grow on such poison 
mountains— for so the tailings heaps may well be called. 
I shall value vour oninion on this serious subject. 

The Director, 
Royal Gardens, KJ 

your opinion on this serious subject. 

(Signed) R. W. Adlam. 


It is a common fallacy to suppose that the state of things 
commonly spoken of as " agricultural depression " is peculiar to 
this country. It is a universal phenomenon of which the stress 
experienced in the United Kingdom is only a particular phase. 
It extends to cultural industries in every part of the world, 
though, from local causes, it is felt in some places more severely 
than in others. Nor is there any reason to suppose that it will 
diminish or be alleviated by palliative expedients. The causes 
are too deep-seated and permanent to be regarded as temporary. 
Mankind will, in fact, have more and more to reconcile itself to a 
new order of industrial conditions. The process will, no doubt, 
entail much individual loss and suffering. But this is inevitable, 
and is the accompaniment of all great changes. The problem 
must find its own solution, and will, in time, adjust itself. 

The fundamental cause of the present state of things is the 
levelling influence on prices of modern facilities of transport. 
This includes a wide range of circumstances all conducing to the 
same end, and, in the long run, producing the same result. Such 
are : — the extension of railways, the construction of inter-oceanic 
canals, the use of iron for ship-building, and the application of 
steam to navigation. 

How these causes act is well illustrated by the following extract 
from the American Garden and Forest of September last 
(p. 391) :- 

"Since 1890 the wheat production of the country (United 
States) has been more than twice as great as it was in lMu, and 
there is no doubt that these large crops, added to the millions of 
bushels which are exported from India and the Argentine States, 
have supplied the world with more wheat than it can eat, or, at 
least, more than it is willing to pay for, and to this it must be 
added that Russia, Hungary and Spain have multiplied their 
production still more rapidly, while Australia threatens to put 
millions of bushels upon the markets of the northern hemisphere. 
But this is only one factor in a great change which has been 
going on all over the world during the last half of the century. 
In agriculture as well as in manufactures, science with inventions, 
which come from increased knowledge, have so cheapened pro- 
duction of every sort that the world we live in is quite a different 
one from the world of the early years of the present century. 
Machinery has so multiplied the power of a single man to 
ultivate and harvest and transport crops that a bushel of w r heat 


wheat-fields of northern New Jersey or Pennsylvania, and it costs 
actually less to put Hour into the New York market from 
Minnesota than it cost our fathers to carry it fifty miles. With 
sulky-plows and horse-cultivators, with cheap fertilizers and a 
knowledge of how to apply them, the market-gardeners and truck- 
farmers of Virginia and southern New Jersey, by the aid of 
rapid transit, can sell fresh vegetables at a profit in this city for 
less money than they could have afforded to sell them on their 
farms a few years ago. It is owing to this cheap transportation 
that the fruit growers of the east are compelled to compete with 
a thousand car-loads of fruit brought into this city every year 
from California. When early apples from Canada come into 
competition with late winter apples from Australia in the Knglish 
market, and perishable fruits like plums and peaches, raised in 
California, are sold in Liverpool, it is evident that the element 
of distance between the producer and the consumer of agri- 
cultural products is practically annihilated." 

When this annihilation has been effected it is simply, in a great 
number of cases, a question whether the producer of any given 
commodity can face the competition of the world. If he can't, 
nothing will save him, and he must, before his capital is 
exhausted, devote his attention to some other industry. 

Cultural industries will be limited then, in the long run, by the 
physical conditions of soil and climate, in the first place, and in 
the next, by the local cost of labour. The cultivation of the vine 
ceased in England, not because, as is often supposed, the climate 
became unfavourable, but because the produce of the ill-matured 
English grape could not hold its own in competition with that of 
France, when that became procurable. On the other hand, as 
already pointed out at some length in these pages (Krir Iliillctin, 
1895, pp. 307-315), vegetables, although they can be readily 
grown in this country, are largely imported from abroad, because 
the cost of production (and perhaps of transport) is cheaper. 
The pacification of Egypt has crippled the growth of onions in 

In a few cases, but it is unlikely that they will ever be very 
numerous, the progress Of discovery has superseded some staples 

The manufacture of alizarine gave the death blow to the 
cultivation of madder. But synthetic chemistry has its limits, 
and it is improbable that mankind will ever be wholly satisfied 
with artificial substitutes for wine or for tea and coffee. Yet 
cheaper and perhaps inferior products will often press heavily on 
dearer and better ones. Cotton-seed oil is daily taking iln- |>1 1<.- 
of that expressed from the olive. But economy is a more exacting 
factor in consumption than the gratification of a cultivated 


(Chenopudium album, L.) 

The plant referred to in the following communication turns 

out to be a familiar British plant. It is very commonly met with 

in Europe and temperate Asia as a weed of cultivation, probably 


having its original home in the latter part of the world. It has 
spread to many climes. Bentham (i<7ora of Australia, vol. .">. p. 1 do) 
remarks: — "Whether it be really indigenous or introduced only 
into Australia is uncertain. In N. S. Wales and Queensland it is 
said to be known under the name of Fat Hen." 

Kiel Villa, Nelson Street, Sans Souci, 

N. S. Wales, May 12th, 1897. 
Dear Sir, 

I send herewith a small packet containing a few seeds of a 
native vegetable — though only treated generally as a weed. The 
vulgar name it has is " Fat Hen " — poultry are fond of it when 
young, but those who use it as an article of diet call it "Australian 
spinach." I don't remember ever seeing a similar plant at home. 
In my early days when in the " bush " far away from centres of 
population I have been glad to eat this and enjoy it too, being 
unable to obtain vegetables, and in my opinion, also of others, 
think it superior to spinach, as it does not taste earthy and does 
not waste so much in boiling. It is everywhere a hardy plant 
growing freely at sea-level and on the high table lands of this 
colony. Any soil suits it, but it revels in a sandy loam, and does 
well with a fair share of moisture ; the more rapidly it grows the 
more succulent and tender it. is. Sow about the middle of May ; 
transplant as cabbage, and when a foot to fifteen inches high take 
about 6 or 8 inches off the top, the portion left will throw out 
abundant lateral shoots right up to early winter ; if left without 
topping will reach five feet high. The shoots become stringy if 
not taken away when young. 

Hoping I have sent you something new and that it may be of 
use, or the means of introducing a fresh plant for food. 

'Yours faithfully. 

^uruluptu, du-rrsicnlnr) for paving carriage-ways it, London, 
was noticed in the K-w Hullrln, (IS'.MI. p. ] S,S : JS'.C, p. ooS). 
Since that time the use of these hard timbers, instead of soft 
woods, like yellow deal, has been extended. In the report of a 
Special Committee of the Paddington Vestry, appointed to 
consider the subject of wood paving in that important parish, the 
following recommendations have been made : — 

28th May, 1896. 
Report of the Special Committee appointed to Consider the 
subject of Wood Paving in the Parish of Paddington. 
Your Committee have taken in hand the thorough investigation 
of the above-mentioned subject, having held four meetings, and 
considered carefully the evidence brought forward. Your Com- 
mittee are unanimously agreed as to the imperative importance of 


hard wood for public thoroughfares, and they entirely endorse the 
words of the Surveyor of Lambeth (J. P. Norrington, C.E.), 
"that it is a wicked waste of public money to pave a line 
of heavy traffic with soft wood." 

Your Committee having seen sections of roadway paved with 
Jarrah, Karri, and other hard woods, subjected to most severe 
traffic, consider that the length of life of these woods has not 
been over-estimated, and that fifteen years is within the limits of 
trustworthy probability. Your Committee entertain very decided 
views as to th iity of the Eucalyptus woods and 

their non-absorbent qualities. 

As to the first cost of hard wood, they have had clear evidence 
that its great durability will not only cover the additional 
expense, but will realize an actual saving in the course of years, 
as well as make t ho lu'cossiiy for renewals far more exceptional 
than can be possibly attained by the best treatment of the soft 

Your Committee have formed a strong opinion of the necessity 
of repaving Praed Street with hard wood, and that it should be 
so paved throughout its entire length as a whole. They also 
think it would be preferable to keep such thoroughfare in repair 
for another year rather than rush the re-paving thereof with soft 
wood, the material last used, according to the Surveyor's Report, 
having been down only for four and a half years. 

The cost of maintenance of a deal wood road varies from year 
to year, so that whilst for the first three years the cost, is very 
light, after four or five years it is very heavy. Thus since the 
last renewal in Praed Street in 1892-3, the maintenance in 1894 
was £1 3s. Gd., in 1895 £10 13s., and in 1896 £73 19s. 8d., and to 
maintain such thoroughfare for another year will probably cost 

Your Committee consider the proposed experiment in 
Souihwick Street as perfectly unnecessary in the face of the 
evidences afforded by the parishes inspected. They also consider 
change of road surface material on a permanent concrete bed to 
be a new work, and not in any sense a renewal, and consequently- 
such undertakings may be met by loans if necessary. 

Your Committee consider that the cost of renewing the existing 
soft wood paving in the parish will amount on an average to 
£7,000 per annum, but should hard wood be adopted they 
anticipate effecting a yearly saving of £2,000. 

Under these circumstances your Committee unanimously 
recommend the use of hard wood blocks of not less than 
four inches in depth, for paving purposes in all suitable 
thoroughfares in the Parish, such blocks to be close jointed with 
creosote and pitch, and they further recommend that the proposal 
to pave Praed Street with yellow deal be reconsidered. 

S. J. Mackie (Chairman). 

The following note headed " Wood Paving at the West End " 
appeared in the Daily News for the 17th August 1897 : — 

"The Vestry of Paddington have borrowed £13,000 from the 
London County Council for the purpose of extending wood pave- 
ments in the parish. Already about eight miles of the streets of 
Paddington are paved with wood, but mostly soft wood. For 

reasons of durability, cleanliness, and sanitation, the Vpstry have 
now abandoned the use of soft deal in favour of hard wood, and 
have accepted a tender for the supply of 850,000 West Australian 
hard wood blocks at £10 17s. Gd. per 1,000 blocks. 


The following article, which appeared in the Hawaiian 
Planters" Monthly (March, 1807, p. 101), has been communicated 
by the Kditor (Mr. H. M. Whitney), who describes an experiment 
undertaken by himself about 20 years ago, which is believed to 
have resulted in producing a " hybrid " cane now largely grown 
in the Hawaii Islands. 

The hybrid is understood to have been produced by grafting 
buds of the well known rich Lahaina cane on the stems of a 
hardy native cane called the " Kouala." The hybrid is said to be 
generally known as "Ko Wini " or "Whitney Cane," also as the 
" Yellow Bamboo." 

The possibility of producing a graft-hybrid in the sugar cane 
has been a good deal discussed, but few people, without careful 
verification, would be prepared at once to admit that such a cane has 
actually been produced. Mr. Whitney's account, which is circum- 
stantial enough in its details, is reprinted in the Ketr Bulletin, 
but it is hardly necessary to add that this does not involve an 
endorsement of his belief that in this instance a hybrid cane was 
actually produced. 

Grafting of Sugar Canes. 

" The question of producing hybrid canes by grafting or 
budding is again being discussed, as though it had not been 
conclusively settled already, by actual results obtained in Brazil 
and Hawaii. A correspondent in the Ma nehester Sugar Cane of 
November last ( page .".77 * quotes an old letter written by the late 
Charles Darwin relative to the hybrid canes produced in Brazil 
some forty years ago, in which Mr. Darwin doubted the correctness 
of the facts published. 

" We have now in our possession a copy of the original official 
report of the Agricultural Department of Brazil translate, [ by 
Mr. C. M. Nathan, of New Orleans, and published in the N. O. 
Pint j/it >te, in 1877. The statements made in this report appear to 
show conclusively that a hybrid was obtained by the process of 
splicing or ' apposition ' of two halves of different varieties — 
the Cayenne and Molle, from which the St. Julian cane was 

"A late number of the QueenzUual S"t/ar Journal refers to a 
successful experiment in that Colony by the same process of 
'apposition.' It is possible that new varieties maybe obtained 
in this way, provided that special care is taken to have the 
surface of the two halves perfectly smooth so as to fit each other 
closely, and care be also taken to prevent the juice and meat of 


the canes from souring, by carefully waxing and covering the 
exposed parts of the splice. But it would seem to us that the 
character of the offspring would naturally be that of the half on 
which the bud or seed was located. We hope that the results 
obtained in Queensland will !>>■ fully reported later. 

" Now, as regards hybrid canes in Hawaii. We have at least 
one genuine hybrid cane, which originated in Kau, Hawaii, in 
1877-78. The editor of the Planters' Monthly— A he writer of this 
article — was then engaged in cane planting at Keaiwa, Kau, near 
where the Pahala sugar mill is located, his land being from 
one to two thousand feet above sea level. The Lahaina variety, 
which is a rich, juicy, and prolific cane, while it is unsurpassed 
for lowland cultivation, is not at all adapted to the highlands on 
either of our islands, as it is extremely sensitive to cold, and 
becomes short-jointed an 1 stunted, it was therefore desirable to 
find a cane which would thrive on the highlands, and yield the 
rich juice of the Lahaina. Among the varieties of native canes 
growing in Kau was a favourite one, called by the natives 
' Kouala ' (or potato cane), from the close resemblance of its meat 
to that of sweet potato. This variety seemed to thrive well at an 
elevation of 2000 to 3000 feet, where stalks of it were found 
growing twelve to fifteen feet in length, and of large girth. It was 
cultivated around the huts of the native mountaineers, and was 
one of their favourite foods. 

" It occurred to the writer that if a hybrid could by any means 
be produced, combining the rich juices of the Lahaina with the 
prolific growth and hardiness of the Kouala, it would render cane 
planting more profitable on the elevated land where he was 
located, and even allow the cultivation of cane to be extended to 
the rich plateaus still higher up. With this object in view, a 
small nursery or ' experiment station ' was prepared and joints 
or ' seeds ' of several kinds of cane planted in it. Special care 
had been taken in preparing the ground, by deep digging, 
mellowing the soil and mixing in old manure, to insure the 
young plants a vigorous and healthy start. When these young 
canes were sufficiently advanced to allow it, grafting and budding 
in various modes were commenced and carried on for several 
months, in the same manner as that practiced with apple and 
other fruit trees in New York State, where the writer spent his 
younger years on a fruit farm and became familiar with the 
process. The grafting was done with a V incision on the topped 
growing stalk, great care being taken to have the graft fit into the 
incision as perfectly as a cabinet maker would insert a piece when 
mending furniture. Not only must it fit in shape exactly, but 
the eye or seed and the root germs of the graft must retain the 
same place in the stalk as the section had, that was cut out. 
The same care was observed in the budding operations — to have 
the inserted section fit exactly that of the bud and rootlets taken 
out. Some of these graft stalks were left growing in the hills, 
care being taken to cut out all the eyes or seeds below the graft, 
and to destroy all other stalks in each hill. The same pi 
was taken in the budding operation. In each case, graft wa> 
bandages were used, as is customary with tree grafting. Sor 
these grafted and budded stalks were planted in the soil as < 
are usually planted. 

" As was expected, many of these grafts and buds died without 
showing any signs of vitality, while of the thirty or forty experi- 
ments made, some ten or twelve sprouted, throwing out two or 
more leaves from each bud. But one after another, they wilted 
and died, -leaving a single plant, which from the start seemed to 
give good promise, and rapidly developed into a healthy hill. This 
nursery was located in the centre of what became a hundred acre 
field of Bahama cane. and when the young plants had grown so as 
to cover the ground, this sole survivor of the nursery began to 
attract notice on account of its dark and straight leaves. As time 
went on, it became so conspicuous that passers-by would stop and 
enquire the cause of this unusual sight. Its growth was quite 
phenomenal, ;md si retching up its leaves above the canes around 
it, it stood like a sentinel alone in the middle of the field. It 
finally ripened into a hill of forty-two stalks, not one of which 
was less than eight feet, and from that to ten feet in length, and 
of large girth. 

"The late Charles N. Spencer, then manager of the Hilea 
plantation, a few miles distant, was greatly interested in this new 
pre-diyy, and obtained a portion of the stalks, which were planted 
on the higher lands of that plantation, where, in the course of two 
or three years, he had a field of two hundred acres of it growing 
at an elevation of 1800 feet. From six hills of his first planting, 
he cut 226* stalks for seed, some of the sialks behur twelve feet in 
length. He considered it the best upland cane he had, and named 
it <Ko Wini' or 'Whitney Cane.' In Hamakua it has been 
called the ' Yellow Bamboo,' but this is identically the same cane 
as the hybrid originated by the writer. It has been planted on low 
lands in various districts of Hawaii, but it has nowhere done so 
well as in its native soil and climate of Kau. But for the object 
intended— a profitable upland cane — it has proved a boon to Kau, 

"Since the above was written, we have be. mi informed by the 
local officers of the Pahala Plantation (Hawaiian Agricultural Co.), 
that thev have been so well pleaded with this hybrid cane, that 
they prefer it to other kinds. The value that they place on it may 
be inferred from the statement made by the treasurer, that of the 
four thousand acres of cane now <jto\\ in ur on their plantation, they 
have 2N5-1 acres of Whitney cane, ;>12 acres of Bahama, and b.")i of 
Hose Bamboo. And the outcome of sugar has been raised from 
4000 tons of former years to NOdO tons as their last crop, and 


{Bouteloua oligostachya, Torr.) 

The following correspondence relates to a proposal to introduce 

the North American " Grama grass " as a fodder-plant into India. 

India Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W., 
Sir, August 7, 1897. 

I am directed by the Secretary of State for India to forward 
a copy of a Memo, regarding " Grama grass," and to ask you to 
favour him with your remarks on a suggestion that has been made 
by a Scotch settler in Mexico that this fodder should be tried in 

I am, &c, 
(Signed) C. E. Bernard, 
Secretary, Rever le nlbtit ti Department. 
The Director, 
Kew Gardens. 

Memorandum by Professor Wallace. 
Grama grass {Bouteloua oligontachya), which is so valuable as 
a pasture grass in Mexico, Texas, and other adjoining states, is 
not grown in this country. Not only is the quality of its forage 
excellent, and its yield abundant under favourable circumstances 
of soil, and climate, but it has remarkable power of maintaining 
its existence in arid regions subject to long periods of drought. 
If it could be shown that the soil and climate of India are suit- 
able to it (and this could be done at little expense at one of the 
experimental stations, such as at Poona), it would form a very 
valuable addition to the fodder grasses of t lie country. It is just 
possible, however, that if it were once established in arable land, 
it might become a troublesome weed to the cultivator, owing to 
the power its roots have of keeping possession of the soil. 

grass into India. 

2. I have consulted upon the subject with H.H.Rusby,Esq.,M.D., 
Professor of Botany and Materia Medica in the College of Pharmacy 
of the City of New York, a well-known American botanist, who is 
now mukiiiL'- researches at Kew. I enclose a copy of a letter with 
which he has favoured me. I also enclose an extract from Vasey's 
Report on the Agricultural Grasses and Forage Plants of the 
United States. 

3. There can be no doubt that Grama grass as it occurs under 
natural conditions affords pasture of great value. How far these 
could be imitated artificially in India is another matter, and one 
I confess, which does not appear to me likely to be attended with 
much success. 

4. If the experiment is considered worth the attempt seed cou 
no doubt be easily obtained from the United States Department 

I am, &c, 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. 
Sir Chas. Bernard, K.C.S.I., 

India Office, Whitehall. 

Kew, August 10, 1897. 
Dear Sir, 

I am pleased to state the following in reply to your enquiry 
concerning the value of Grama grass for introduction to India. 

There are quite a number of species of Bouteloua to which this 
term has been applied, and several of them are designated by 
special prefixes, as Black Grama, White Grama, Sand Grama, etc. 
Some of the species are closely limited as to environment, while 
others possess a wider power of adaptation. Hence some of 
them have remained little known, while others have acquired 
a high repute as pasture and hay-grasses. The best known are 
B. oligostaclij/ii, /l./zn/j/sffr/if/ff. li. rnrrnmsti. and li. r>rrti/>t>/<(h'lf(. 
All are more or less noted for the avidity with which stock will 
eat them, as well as for their nourishing properties. Animals 
show the same taste for them in the field, either green or dry, and 
in the stall, li is a peculiar property of these trasses to retain 
their nourishing properties after drying standing, and after 
remaining for many weeks in this position, exposed to the 
weather, a process which reduces ordinary grasses to the worth- 
less conditioner straws. Another notable property is their ability, 
especially B. oli<jost<t<-lt;/<i, to sul >sist in arid regions, where long- 
continued rainless periods destroy ordinary grasses. I have 
observed the following peculiarity of growth which doubtless 
accounts in some degree for this property. A single plant is seen 
to extend its growth in two opposite directions, forming a little 
ridge. These directions gradually change so that the ridge 
assumes a roughly circular form, enclosing a shallow basin which 
must do something to conserve slight rain-falls. A third important 
character of the plants is that they do not require the formation of 
a continuous sod, or turf, to main tain tied- condition. They are 
thus better adapted than many grasses to grow in those countries 
where sods or turfs will not form. 

The trial of these grasses in India is to be strongly recom- 
mended. It is further to be recommended that a preliminary 
study should be made of the conditions of the locality where 
each is to be tried, so that failure may not result from planting 
the several species in unsuitable locations. The lUack Grama is 
particularly adapted to rocky pla-es, especially mountain-sides 
and .the slopes of valleys. The White Grama i li. <>i;,jnstt ( ,-h;i<() 

well, however, as does //. nirt:pnitli/hi, on desert plateaus, with 
gravelly or partly gravelly soil. JJ. p>.l : istu,-hi/a is a much lower 
grass than the others, but makes a very dense growth and docs 
rcmarkablv well on sands of river-bottoms which arc annually 
overflowed. It is the most valuable sheep-fodder of them all. 


It is remarkable for the rapidity with which it is restored by- 
growth as it is continually eaten off. Indeed, all the species are 
remarkable for the quickness with which they grow and mature 
upon the occurrence of rain. 

My experience with these grasses as weeds in cultivated lands 
is slight, bat it would tend to indicate that it is not their nature 
to act as weeds, or to persist in tilled lands. 

1 :l V yours, 

(Signed) H. H. RUSBY. 
The Director, 

"Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Extract from Vasey, Grasses of United States, Ed. 2, p. 57. 

Bouteloua oligostachya (Grama grass; Mesquite grass) is the 
commonest species on the great plains. It is frequently called 
Buffalo grass, although that name strictly belongs to another plant 
{Buchtik dactyloidss). On the arid plains of the west it is the 
principal grass and is the main reliance for the vast herds of cattle 
which are raised there. It grows chiefly in small, roundish patches 
closely pressed to the ground, the foliage being in a dense, cushion- 
like mass. The leaves are short and crowded at the base of the short 
stems. The flowering stalks seldom rise over a foot in height, 
and bear near the top one or two flower spikes, each about an 
inch long, and from one-eighth to one -quarter of an inch wide, 
standing at right angles like a small flag floating in the breeze. 
Where much grazing prevails, however, these flowering stalks 
are eaten down so much that only the mats of leaves are 
observable. In bottom-lands and low, moist ground it grows 
more closely, and under favourable circumstances forms a pretty 
close sod, but even then it is not adapted for mowing, although it 
is sometimes cut, making a very light crop. Under the most 
favourable circumstances the product of this grass is small, 
compared with cultivated grasses. It is undoubtedly highly 
nutritious. Stock of all kinds are fond of it, and eat it in 
preference to any grass growing with it. It dries and cures on 
the ground so as to retain its nutritive properties in the winter. 
No attempt is made by stockmen to feed cattle in the winter ; 
they are expected to " rustle around," as the phrase is, and find 
their living ; and in ordinary winters, as the fall of snow is light, 
they are enabled to subsist and make a pretty good appearance in 
the spring ; but in severe winters there are losses of cattle, some- 
times very heavy ones, from want of feed. 


The third and concluding part of the sixth volume of the work 

The following extracts are given from the preface : — 

The third volume of the Flora Capensis was published in 1865. 

The following year Professor Harvey, who had been its principal 

author and guiding spirit, died. Although in the preface the 

fourth volume is referred to as "shortly to be in preparation 

for the press." practically muliiiii,' avail, J>le relating to it was 

Its 'continuation was urged upon Kew by Sir Henry Uarklv, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S., who was Governor of the Cape of Good 
Hope from 1870 to 1877. During a long official career in different 
parts of the Empire, this enlightened administrator, himself an 
ardent naturalist, never failed to foster the srientific interests of 
the colonies committed to his charge. Sir Joseph Hooker, at that 
time Director of the Royal Gardens, entrusted the task of 
continuing the work of Harvev and Sonder to me. But the 
pressure of official duties in which 1 almost immediately found 
myself immersed, left me little time for the task. It became 

obably of 
as to botanists, as it 
familiarly as "Cape 

ribution of the localities under the different regions 
laborious and intricate task. It will afford a basis for 
a partial anal \ sis of the Flora of South Africa, which 

1 *:>-,<» 

by Mr. N. E. Brown, A.L.S., Assistant in the 
Herbarium of the Royal Gardens. And finally it has been 
subjected to the invaluable revision of Mr. H. Bolus. 

The orthography adopted for the local names has met with 
some criticism from South African botanists. It has been 
thought advisable, however, to adhere to the standard, no doubt 
in great measure convantional, of authoritative maps. Those 
which have been relied upon principally are : — 

Cape of Good Hope. By J. Arrowsmith, 1834. (Useful for old 
names of localities.) 

A Map of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope and neighbouring 
Territories. By A. de Smidt, 1876. 

Map of the Transvaal and the surrounding Territories. By 
F. Jeppe, 1880. 

Spezial-Karte von Afrika. Gotha : Justus Perthes, 1885. 
It pnly remains to follow the example of my predecessors, and 
give some account of those among a great body of contributors 
who have supplied Kew with the most important recent 

Two names will be for ever memorable in the history of South 
African Botany. 

More than thirty years have rolled away since Professor Harvey 
bore eloquent testimony to the indefatigable services of Peter 
MacOwan, Esq., B.A., F.L.S., then Principal of Shaw's College, 
Grahamstown, now Government Botanist. Time has not staled 
his enthusiasm for the beautiful Flora amidst which he has spent 
the best years of his life, nor his energy in investigating it. 
Without his self-sacrificing aid the present undertaking would 
have been miserably incomplete. By a correspondence which 
has never intermitted, he has done all in his power to keep Kew 
abreast of the progress of botancial discovery in South Africa. 
And he possesses the happy art of communicating some touch of 
his enthusiasm to others, and has thus secured the investigation 
of many parts of the area of the Flora which might otherwise 
have remained all but unknown. 

To Harry Bolus, Esq., F.L.S., the gratitude of Kew is no less 
due for aid and encouragement of the most varied kind. His 
admirable researches into the difficult problem of the geographical 
distribution of South African plants, ami Ins patience and u-curate 
investigation of the Orchidece and other groups, will, it may he 
hoped, always ensure his close personal association with the 
present work. Mr. Bolus has further contrihuteil to Kew many 
hundreds of specimens — a large proportion of which were new to 
science, and many of great Interest and rarity. 

At the risk of seeming to make an invidious choice amongst a 
formidable list of Kew contributors. I cannot but further single 
out the following for particular acknowledgement : — 

Sir Henry Barkly, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.K.S., was indefatigable 
while Governor of Cape Colony in procuring for Kew many of the 
rarer and more remarkable of South African plants. He paid 
especial attention to those of a succulent habit. Amongst many 
interesting introductions to European cultivation, the remarkable 
tree-aloe (Aloe dichotoma) deserves especial mention. And it 

was clue to his support that the approval and aid of the Legislatures 
of Cape Colony and Natal was secured for the continuation of 
this work. 

John Medley Wood, Esq. A.L.S., the Curator of the beautiful 
Botanic (inn I, us at Berea, Durban, in the Colony of Natal, and the 
only institution of the kind in South Africa, lias investigated the 
Flora of Natal with conspicuous energy, and has done more than 
any other botanist to reveal its riches. Kew is indebted to him 
for large and invaluable collections. 

The Rev. Leopold Richard Baur has sent to Kew a large and 
interesting collection of Tembuland plants, chiefly from the 
neighbourhood of Bazeia. 

Maurice S. Evans, Esq., of Durban, has furnished collections 
which, though not numerically large, have proved very rich in 
new species. 

TL G. Flanagan, Esq., has especially studied the rich local Flora 
of the Kei River Basin. Beautifully preserved specimens from 
him have reached Kew chiefly through Mr. Harry Bolus. 

Ernest E. Galpin, Esq., of Queenstown, has sent collections rich 
in undescribed species from the Transvaal, Swaziland, and the 
Qnoenstown district. 

Dr. Emil Hohih contributed the entire collection made by him 
during his travels in Smith Africa between the rears 1872 
and 1879. 

William Nelson, Esq., of Johannesburg, has s«nt an extensive 
eel leer ion of plants from the Transvaal and adjoining territory. 

The Rev. William Movie Rogers, of Bournemouth, has contri- 
buted a parcel of plants from various parts of Cape Colony, 
containing several novelties. 

Mrs. Katharine Saunders has communicated from time to time 
interesting plants from Xatal. Zululand. and the Lobombo 

William Tvson, Ksq.. of Kokstad, Griqualand East, has sent a 
large and interesting collection of plants from the Eastern districts 
of Cape Colony, Griqualand East, and Pondoland, containing 
numerous new species. He is commemorated in the Boragineous 
genus. Ttfsonia. 

It only remains to add that the expense of preparation and 
publication of the present volume has been aided by grants from 
the Governments of Cape Colony and Natal. 

W. T. T. D. 

K'cw. Mav, 1897. 


I'his further instalment of the detailed catalogues of the living 
lections in the Royal Gardens was issued in July. The 
lowing historical account is given in the preface of the history 

the portion comprise,! in the present Handlist:— 


groups of plants of great scientific interest, which, for various 
reasons, are more attractive to ordinary cultivators than many 
which are comprised necessarily in a botanical collection. For 
this reason it is hoped that it may be found not less useful than 
its predecessors. 

A few words may be said as to the history at Kew of the more 
important of the groups now catalogued. 

An order including gingers, arrowroot-plants, and musas. It 
numbers some 450 species, of which 240 are in cultivation at 
Kew. Almost all are natives of the tropics. About 40 species 
are given in 1813 in the second edition of Aiton's Hortus 
Kewensis, and 13i» by John Smith, Curator of the Royal Gardens, 
1841-63, in his privately printed Records of Kew (p. 222) as 
forming " the Kew collection between the years 1822 and I.Sti 1." 

Musa Ensete, one of the most popular representatives of the 
family and a conspicuous ornament of the gardens of Southern 
Europe, was first introduced into cultivation at Kew. In 1853 
Walter Plowden, Esq., H.B.M. Consul at Massowah, Abyssinia, 
sent seeds from which plants were raised, one of which was 
ultimately figured in the Botanical Magazine (tt, 5223, 5224). 

Strelitzia Ret/ina; a beautiful plant, which almost certainly 
preserves an unbroken descent at Kew, was named by Sir Joseph 
Banks in honour of Queen Charlotte, a daughter of the Duke 
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, but of which, with characteristic 
modesty, he allowed the elder Aiton to publish the description. 
Ranks had introduced it to the Royal Gardens in 1773 from the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

SI relit:, a Atn/asfa was introduced in 1791 by Francis Masson, 
the botanical collector for the Royal Gardens, where it has been 
cultivated ever since. It may have been named in compliment, 
to the Princess Augusta, mother of George III. 

The collection is dispersed, according to the habits of the plants 
and the different treatment thee require, between the Palm 
House, No. I., the Stove (No. IX.), and the Water Lily House 
(No. XV.). A few are represented in the Temperate House. 


The order of which the pine-apple is a familiar representative ; 
the species are mostly epiphytal on trees and exclusively natives 
of the New World. According to Aiton's Hortus Kewensis, 
16 species had been introduced at Kew previous to 1813. In 1864 
Smith states (Records p. 206) that the number amounted to 
nearly 100. 

In Appendix IT. to the Kew Report for 1878 a list of species 

Bromdiacece (1889) in great measure on the Kew collection of 
living plants, supplemented by the unique collection of drawings 
also formed by Professor Morren and acquired by the Bentham 
Trustees for the Kew Library. 

For many years the collection of Hmm, Inimr was grown in the 
Palm House. The atmosphere was, however, too dry for their 
successful cultivation, and in 1883 thev w-ere removed to the 
Stove (No. IX.) and Victoria House (No. X.) 

Cape Bulbs. 

The orders Hcemodoracece, Irklece, A mar y Hi dew, and Liliarrm, 
though widely dispersed, are represented in especial profusion in 
South Africa, and the species from that part of the world are 
collectively often spoken of in cultivation as "Cape Bulbs." The 
sixth volume of the Flora Cajtensis is entirely devoted to their 

At the instance of the Royal Society I lie practice was commenced 
in J 772 of sending out collectors of plants to foreign countries 
from Kew. Francis Masson, in Avhose honour the genus Massonia 
was named, twice visited the Cape of (h.od Hope for this purpose ; 
first, from 177 In ; and secondly, from 1 7S< ", -'.»;>. He - collected and 
sent home a profusion of plants unknown till that time to the 
botanical gardens in Europe." 

James Bowie (commemorated in Boiviea) collected at the Cape for 
Kew from 1817-23. He introduced amongst numerous other 

The method of g^ng^^ bulbs in this country ori-inally 

adoptedat Kewisthnsdescrihed i,\ Smith i /,Vc„, ■,/.<, pp. 3,1 2, 313 ): — 
" The garden collection of bulbs were -rown in -lazed frames. called 

and balm Houses, the length of the whole being 234 feci, width' 

When at rest these are kept in a private house (No. XVII. ('.), 
from which, when in flower, they are removed to the Cape House 
(No. VII.). 

Xo trustworthy statistics are available as to the number of 
species of tender bulbous plants cultivated at earlier periods at 
Kew. But the numbers enumerated in the present list are : — 
Hcemodoracr<r, 2<S : lrid«r, 221 ; .-1 man/If idar, 188 ; Liliacea\ hVl ; 
making a total of 1249. 

Yuccas, Aloes, and Agaves. 

AJof (to which may be added lhin->rlhi'i sand Yicra (" Adam's- 
needle "i belong to the order Liliacese Agave to Amaryllidaceas, 
In habit they have all many points of resemblance, aud the 
majority flourish under similar cultural conditions. Hence At/ave, 
though it has no near botanical affinity with Aloe, is often called 

the '• American Aloe." The hulk of the Kew collection is to be 
found in the Succulent House (No. V.). Aloe and Hawortlna are 
confined to the African region, Yucca and .-li/rt/.v are exclusively 
American. Of the group of A loin ere nine species are recorded 
by Hill as grown at Kew in litis, and *> by Aiton in 1811. The 
collection was greatly enriched hy the mission of James Howie 
to South Africa in 1 SI 7- _>;>>. and a large number of species were 
introduced which were describe,! bv Haworth : few of the,v have 
probably been lost since that time. The collection was largely 
enriched in ISS'J by purchases from the celebrated collection <>V 
the late John T. Peacock, Esq., of Sudburv House. Hammersmith. 
A selection from his extensive collection of succulents had been 
temporarily exhibited in the South Octagon of the Temperate 
House from 187S-S1 { Knr AV /W -/, 1878, p'. Y,,. Apprndix If. of 
the Kew Report for 1880 gave a catalogue of the Aloineu', Ynccoidea" 
and Agaves cultivated in the Royal Gardens, including those in 
the Peacock coiieetion. Ji enumerates 296 species. 

Those catalogued in the present Hand List amount to 377. 

One of the most interesting introductions of recent times is the 
great Natal Tree-Aloe ,.l/ w Buincxa), of which the first plant in 
European gardens was raised from a cu'ting seiu to Kew in lSb7 
by Mrs. Barber. It is figured in the Botanlm! .\/ ff ,;, ( '.:tnt!\ t. bS IS i. 
The other African arborescent species (.1. dirhotoina). which has 
beenlost to cultivation, was re-introduced 1a sir Henry Barkly, 
G.C.M.G.. K.C.B, Governor, Cape of Good Hope, 1870-7. 

The history of a specimen of the arboreous Yurm Mi/era of 
North-East Mexico is sufficiently remarkable to deserve notice. 
" The t runic was sent to Kew in October, 1888, by Mr. 0. G. Pringle, 
through Professor Sargent. When it arrived at Kew it appeared 
to be quite dead, and was accordingly placed in Museum No. III. 
After remaining there two years it pm out rudimentary leaves 
aiid an inflorescence, and on being transferred to the Temperate 
House these were fully developed in September, 1890." Unfor- 
tunately, after this effort, it finally succumbed. It is figured in 
the Bot. Mag. (t. 7197). 

greater number are natives of the New World, and in the old 
Africa is poorest in species. A few are found in extra-tropical 
countries, and to these the gardens of Southern Europe owe much 
<>l i he,,- s, riking character and beauty. The Knr Bulinin for 1889 
ipp. L'JH-J'.b ) contain an aeeoum of the species cultivated on the 
ibvnra. In this country these require the protection of glass; 
but one, Trachy carpus excelsa, a native of China, is hardy out of 

The total number of species actually known to botanists is 
upwards of 1100, but many doubtless still remain to be 

In 1768 six species were enumerated in Hill's Sortus Keivensis 
as in cultivation at Kew. In 1787 Alton it, hU // .rta* Kewnsi* 

l the second edition, 20. Smith states 
1830 the collection had increased to 
40 species and enumerates 141 species as cultivated in the 
Royal Gardens from 1760-1864 (pp. 98-106). Appendix II. to 
the Kew lieport for 1*82 (pp. 53-73) contains a classified list 
of the Palms cultivated in the Royal Gardens; this includes 

The number catalogued in the present Hand List amounts to 
407. Of these 40 are represented in the Temperate House. This 
is probably the largest assemblage of species of the order to be 
found in any one place in the world. It is doubtful whether it 
does not exceed that in the Botanic Garden at Buitenzorg, in Java, 
which in any case excels the Kew collection in the magnitude of 
individual species if it does not actually do so in the number 

In 1820, according to Smith (p. 96), the palms " occupied a 
lean-to house called the Palm House which stood about 100 feet 
north of the west end of the present Fern House (No. II.) : it 
was 60 feet loug, 16 feet wide, and 15 feet high at the back." In 
1828, to accommodate the increasing" size of the specimens, " the 
house was raised four feet." 

He continues :— " In 1830 .the collection had increased to 40 
iitated placing some of them in other houses. 
,rs of the reign of George III. and George IV., 
anew Palm House was contemplated, and a plot of ground set 
apart for its erection ; hut nothing was done until the accession 
of William IV., who took much interest in improving the Gardens. 
In 1831 a plan for a spacious I'alm lions. 1 was prepared h\ the 
celebrated architect. Sir .Jeffrey Wyatviile, and in October. 1S3-I. a 
spot was selected and the length of the house marked out in the 
presence of the King." 

The project was not, however, carried out, and it was not until 
the lioyal Gardens hecaine a public institution that it was accom- 
plished. The present building was completed in 1818, from the 
designs of Decimus Burton, Esq. The length of the structure is 
362 feet ; its width in the centre lih> feet, and height 66 feet ; the 
wings are 51) feet wide and 30 feet high. 

The oldest palm in the house is Sabal blackburniana. Of 
these there were two specimens, one of which was taken down 
for want of room in 1876. Smith {Records, pp. 122, 123) gives 
the following account of them: — "On my entering Kew in the 
Spring of 1820, the first hot house I came to was the Palm House ; 
on looking in I was >truek with what I then considered a wonderful ' 
plant, a large-leaved Kan I'alm; and 1 found there was another of the 
same kind and size at the other end of the house .... There 
is no record of their introduction in the Garden books .... 
Probably they formed a part of the great collection of plants 

having introduced the Bread Fruit tree into the West Indies." 
The history of the palm has. however, always been enveloped in 
confusion. Its native home has been shown in the Botany of 
the Challenger Expedition (Part [., pp. It 1-3) to be Bermuda. A 
figure of the Kew^ plant is given on Plate V. of that work. 

A few other old specimens may be mentioned. The large plant 
of Jubuia spectabiUa in the Temperate House is no doubt one of 


"several plants raised from seeds collected in Chili by the 
botanical collector. Thomas 1 '.ridges, and purchased from his agent, 
H. Gumming, in 1843" (Smith, Record*, p. 111). 

Traclti/atrpo* )nnrli<ii><t is represented in the Temperate House 
by two fine specimens purchased "at the sale of the collections 
that ornamented the Conservatory of the Royal Horticultural 
Society's Gardens, South Kensington, in 1889. they are supposed 
to have been original^ obtained from the garden of the Duke of 
Wellington at Strathiieldsave." One is figured in the Bot. Mag. 

v> eiimgu 
(t, 7128). 

a.— " This palm was discovered by W. Milne, 
botanical collector (1852-9) for Kew on the surveying ship 
'Herald.' Captain IKmham. Due plant was received at Kew." 
(Smith, Records, p. 115.) it is peculiar to Lord Howe's island 

burydna. The Kew plant is figured in 'the Bot. Mag. (t. 7018), 
where it is stated to have been sent from the Sydney Botanical 

Trachycar/nts e.rreha is represented by specimens in different 
parts of the grounds. The history of the old specimen near the 
principal entrance (which formerly stood in front of No. I. house 
may be recorded. A native of Chusan and the North of China, 
it is one of " six plants .... received in 1845 from 
Mr. b'oli. it Fortune, a well-known Chinese plant collector" 
(Smith, Records, p. lib). 

Palms in cultivation are slow in developing the full size of 
their crowns. But when once this stage is achieved the upward 
growth of the stem is comparatively rapid. But the time is 

of Livistoaa Immilis, tigured in the Hoi. Mar/ (t. b271). 
According to Smith (Record*, p. IIS), it had been received in 
1824 as a germinating seed sent in a case from Australia by Allan 

Screw Pines. 

The Pandanacem are an order of trees or shrubs allied 
botanically to Aroids, but differing wid.l> in habit They are 
all tropical or nearly so. and natives of the African islands and 
those of the Pacitic and Indian Oceans. 1 nej tiding < 'yrh(,;thacea\ 
some 115 species are known, and of these about half are in culti- 
vation at Kew, mostly in the balm House. According to Smith 
{Records, pp. 126-7) in 18U4 the number of species grown in the 
Royal Gardens was 15. 

The collection has been much increased by the plants raised 
from seeds brought from Rodriguez in L874 by Professor Bayley 
Balfour when attached as naturalist to the Transit of Venus 

Two notable plants which were long perhaps the most striking 
features in the North Wing of the Palm House no longer exist. 
Their prospective removal on account of size was foreshadowed 


in the Kew Report for 1876 (p. 4), but it was not accomplished, 
and in the one case not by design, till nearly twenty years later. 
The following particulars respecting them were given in the 
Kew Bulletin for 1895, pp. 319-3.21. 

Pandanus odoratissimux. — There is no record of the original 
introduction of the striking plant which, under this name, 
occupied a conspicuous position at the extreme end of the north 
wing. Smith mentions its existence {Records, p. 90) in 1823. 
Unfortunately screw pines grow only from the extremities of 
their branches, and do not when cut in produce new growths by 
the development of adventitious buds. No ordinary horticultural 
building can therefore eventually accommodate them, and their 
removal on account of unmanageable size is only a question of 
time. Before its removal the great Kew Screw Bine " had ahout 
40 branches, each bearing a huge tuft of foliage, and it measured 
30 ft. in height, with a diameter of 40 ft, Its weight would be 

It was a female plant and tirst fruited in iSSo, and produced its 
large heads of fruits about a foot long almost .'very subsequent 
season. It was removed in 1894 and was then bearing five heads. 
Up to 1882 it was grown in a tub, and there is a good figure of it 
in that stage in the supplement to the <i<t rdrtierJ Chronirle for 
August f>th, I87l'». In that year it was lowered into a brick pit 

prepared for the purpose 
he? ' 

height of 

of plants of this sex present- great difficulties. 

In July, 1889, a large plant of I'lindanus ixlorut ixsimu* was 
received from the Oxford Botanic Garden and planted in the 
Palm House immediately opposite the P. rrtlr.nis. It died in the 
following November, apparently from the same disease as event- 
ually also killed the larger plant. In lS'.M it was noticed that the 

The great heads of leaves then began one by one to fall over, 

necessary to sacrifice the whole plant. The disease was almost 
certainly due to the attacks of a fungus, Melancon ium I'mxlnni, 
which has been very destructive to Screw Pines in European 
Botanic Gardens. 

Anddeie are a weii- •-, - represented in our 


s are known, of which 360 are cultivated at Kew. They 
abit from terrestial herbs to tall climbers. A large 
l are tropical and these have since 1863 been cultivated 
house, the architectural conservatory removed by 
V. in 1836 from Buckingham Palace to serve the 
" a Palm House, 
in the first edition of the Hnrfus Kncrntis (1787) 

One species, without doubt the most remarkable of the order, 
A)uor/j/io/j/tn//ns Titanum, is no longer in the Kew collection. 
A full description of it is given in the H»t. Mag. (it. 7153-5). 

Sir Joseph Hooker writes: — "The plant, which flowered in 
June. 188l>, was received by Sir Joseph Hooker from Dr. 0. Beccari, 
through the Marchese Corsi Salviati. of Sesto, near Florence, 
exactly 10 years previously (June 187'J). It was then a small 
seedling which had been raised at the Botanical Gardens at 
Florence from seeds forwarded by Dr. Beccari soon after he 
discovered the plant in Sumatra in 1871." The Kew plant did 
not mature seeds and died after flowering. A full-sized picture 
of the species may be seen on the ceiling of Museum No. III. 


vhile to grow under 

and Dendrocalamus giganteus. The former has been in culti- 
vation at Kew from the beginning of the century. The latter, 
which was one of Wallich's discoveries in tie- Malay Peninsula, 
reached it later, probably from the Royal Botanic Garden, 

In the Victoria House then: is growing in the tank a fine 
specimen of tri/nrriinn sarchann'f/rs, the '• Uva grass" of 
commerce. It was sent to the Royal Gardens in 1875 by 
Dr. (apanema from Rio de Janeiro, and occasionally flowers. It 
is figured in the Bot. Mag. (t. 7352). 


n the Fiji Court of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 
1886, there were exhibited by the Mango Island Company, 
iiin-d, a collection of food and other products. Among them 
re some hard, white seeds, with the simple label » Ivory nuts." 
ample of these was obtained, at the close of the Exhibition, for 
Museum of the Royal Gardens, but their botanical origin 
Id not then be traced. Recently samples of the actual seeds 
-e sent out to Mr. D. Yeoward, Curator of the Botanic Station 
Java, iiji, with a request that he would endeavour to identify 


Fiji by Dr. Berthold Seemann, and introduced 
Kun pean gardens, by Mr. John Veitch. A 
Nicholson's Dirtiona'ry of Ga rdrnimj, vol. 1' 
are described in Sfomaim's Flora Vi'tini«is, p. 
is ovoid ellipsoid, tapering into a rat hoi- Mum p< 
and 2 cm. in diameter, and attached, from the 
the endocarp bv moans of the raphe, from w 
of delicate white vascular bundles. At the b. 
parallel to each other, but towards the point <r 
The albumen, surrounded by a purple-coloi 

The L'ruit is about the siz 
changes into bright oran 
base. The kernel lias a 

te. It seems pc 
ition of those 
they may be 

ich, when loaded * 
eight of these bu; 

nuts of South America. 

Curator, Botanic Station, Fiji, to Royal Gardens, h 
Suva, Fiji, 30/J ; 9(>. 

I have the honour 
asking information on the 
Island Company at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. 
The nut is believed here to be that of the native "Niu Sawa," a 
palm which grows to a great height, and is named by Seeman 
{Veitehia Joannu). But, of course, native names are not to be 
relied on, and he inmht have received the name of Xin Sawa for 
some other palm, although his description answers fairly well to 
the seeds of one I am sending you. In the meantime, I will 
prepare specimens of the flowers and a leaf, and if you should 
want them, they will be ready for you. I have cleaned two of the 

that those cleaned are ; ' 
except, of course, the i 
bo hard. 

Yours most obediently, 
D. Yeoward, 


PUBLICATIONS, 1841-1895. 

In the prefatory note to the list published on pp. 1-84 it was 
remarked as probable thai some publications which should have 
b.'.n included, "have eluded research or have been overlooked." 
This proves to have been the case, and the following supplementary 
list has been prepared by B. Daydon Jackson, Esq., Sec. L.S. 

By J. G. BLakerJ, Gard. Chron., 1015. 

W Ub\ XOTK.— hi Harvey's (iei 
by J. D. Hooker, the Filices 
, 458-471.) 

chiefly derived from the Kew Herbariu 
represent iii'jr the essential characters o 
W. J. Hooker and J. G. Baker. [Not 


Kefugiu.n IJotanicum; or, Figures 
hiving Specimens, of little known or 
Interest. Edited by W. W. Saunders. 'I 
J. G. Baker, . . . the plates by W. H 

Epilobium obscurum, Schreb. in Oi 
J. Britten, Journ. Bot., vii., pp. 340-341. 


exposuit. J. G. Baker. 

Refugium Botanicum . . . edited by W. W. Saundei 
descriptions by J. G. Baker, vol. iii. 

Remarks on Amnion eunqxrum, Linn. By J. Britten. 
Bot., viii., pp. 84-80. 

On a new locality (Herefordshire) for Asaniin em 
Linn. By the same, I.e., p. Ml. 

• \V. W. Saunders. The 
mm. By J. Britten, 

. By the late W. J. Hooker 

Hooker. (Ifcp. 


On some of the Economic Plants of Marocco. On the Canarian 
Flora as compared with the Mai-ocean. Comparison of the 
Maroeean Flora with thai <>f the mountains of Tropical Africa. 
App. D. E. F. [bv J. D. Hooker J in " Journal of a Tour in 
Marocco, by J. D. Hooker & J Ball." 

Determination by [D. Oliver] of Plants collected near Akaba 
by Mr. John MiLXE on Dr. Beke's Expedition to Sinai, in Arabia, 
January and February, 1874. In the late Dr. Charles Beke's 
- in Aral.ia and Midian, pp. . r >i>3— 51*4. 

>v \V. W. Saunde 

English Botany; or, Coloured Figures of British Plants, 
:<1. III. . . . by J. T. Boswell (formerly J. T. Boswell Syme), 
revised and figures added bv N. I. Blown,] vol xii. Nos. 84, 85. 


[revised by N. E. Brown,] Nos. 86, 87. 


[revised by N. E. Brown,] No. 88. 

Les Cvpripediees, texte par A. Godefroy-Lebeuf 
N. E. Brown— 1 re Livraison. 

The Vegetable Resources of the West Indies, by D. Morris, 
Journal London Chamber of Commerce, April, 1888. 

English Botany ; or Coloured Figures of British Plants. 

I and 3 [Sapindaceae-Dipsaceae.] 


member of the Staff of the Royal 
ed, on the recommendation of Kew, 
for Foreign Affairs, to the post of 
'entral African Protectorate. 

Long Reiga Celebration— On June 22, the day of the Official 

Celebration of Her Majesty the Queen's long reign, the Roval 
Gardens were closed to the public by order of H.M.'s First 
Commissioner of Works ami Public Buildings, in order to give 
the members of the Staff and employes an opportunity of seeing 
the Queen's progress through London. A Royal Standard, lent 

ISjifure Spar, believed to be the tall 

Honours for Indian Botanists— Amongst the honours bestowed 
by the Queen on the occasion «.f i In* (.■■.•Ids-ration of Her Majesty's 
long reign, two will be peculiarly acceptable to the botanical 
world. Both Sir Joseph Hooker and Lieut.-General Strachey 
were promoted to be Knights Grand Commander () f the Star of 
India. This is one of the most restricted honours in the gift of 
the Crown. The association of the two names in the same 
Gazette was peculiarly felicitous. While the former was 
exploring the Eastern, the latter was occupied with the same 
task in the Western Himalayas. General Straehey's botanical 
collections made at the time have never been surpassed or 
superseded, and supplied indispensable material for the preparation 
of the Flora of British India. 

Botanical Magazine for June.— The plants figured are : Eenanthera 
Stnrici, Strohilanihes callosus, Vero/u'< t 'it ^nurfo/in, var. trisepala, 
Bryonia Baunnuini, and Lwliu lowjipes. The Rmanthera is a 
magnificent species from the Philippine Islands. The droving 
was made from a specimen communicated by Sir Trevor 
Lawrence. Strobilanthes callosus, native of Western India, was 
raised from seeds sent to Kew from the Saharanpur Botanical 
Gardens. The bracts yield a resinous substance which has an 
odour resembling Patchouli (see Kew Bulletin, 18%, p. <>S). 
The Veronica is a variety of one of the numerous shrubby 
species from New Zealand, the specimen drawn being sent to 
Kew from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. Begonia 
Baumanni is noteworthy on account of its ornamental Mowers 

September. IS'.t'I. Tim L"'lia is a small-flowered species from 

by Messrs. F. Sander A Co.. of St. Albans, in 1S'.>:», and tlowered 
for the first time in July. ISiM'i. 

Tropical African Plants. — A large and interesting collection from 
Nvasaland, made by Mr. Alex. Whvte and others, has been 
presented by Sir It. II. Johnston, K.C.B., late H.M. Commissioner 
in British Central Africa. The country explored comprises Zomba 
and its vicinity, Mt. Malosa, the Nyika Range, and the country 


An interesting collection, made in N'gamiland by Major F. D. a-.nd 
Lieut. E. J. Lugard, has been received from the collectors, a.nd 
contains manv undescribed species. The plants collected 1S^ 
Bokotra and South Arabia, by die lati' Mr. Theodore Bent, have- 
also been presented to Kew. 

Fruit Industries in Jamaica —Owing to the depression in the 
sugar industry in the West Indies, considerable interest attaches to 
the development of other industries likely to prove serviceable in 
smh islands as are fortunate enough to possess the necessary 
conditions. In Jamaica, for instance, with a considerable extent 
of land rising above the level of the sea a diversified system of 
cultivation is practicable, and already leading to successful results. 
From the Blue Book of Jamaica, it appears that the total exports 
for the year 1895-90 were of the value of £1,873,105. Of this 
amount the exports to the United Kingdom were of the value 
of £517,5(4, while those to the United States were of the value 
of £l,Oh7,18(5. The considerable trade now carried on between 
.Jamaica and the l'nited Mates is chiefly in fruit and other fresh 
tropical produce conveyed by a considerable Meet of steamers 
specially fitted for the purpose. The principal fruit cultivated is 
the banana. Of this, 1,220,796 bunches were exported in 1895-9(5 
of the value of £31(1. ."»«*.< >. while oranges, owing to the recent 
destruction of the orange trees in Florida, were exported to the 
number of 97,925,398, and the value of £1(59,794. These two 
fruits were therefore shipped to the value of £ 15(5,354. During 
the same period the exported value of sugar (formerly the chief 
staple of the Colony) amounted to only £195,459, while the valua 
of the rum was v|,;p,;ixi. The combined value „f the exports in 

sugar and rum was therefore £3(50,1)59. only -fifth of the whole 

produce of the Colony or about £-J(i(>.(HKi |,s< tbaii the combined 
value of two of the fruits exported, viz.. the bananas and oranges. 
Jamaica has, however, other valuable industries; the logwood 
exported in lS'.i.'.-'.'b reached, in spite of low prices, a value of 
£359.039. coffee a value of £2X4,821. ginger a value of £50,32X, 
pimento or allspice a value of £90, >ln. cigars a value of £7,(549, 
and tobacco a value of £197. It may be mentioned that 
numerous other fruits and fruit products besides bananas and 
oranges are being gradually increased in export value from year 
to vear. The following figures afford interesting indications of 
this increase: cocoa-nuts, £37,774; grape-fruit, £5,832; 

amounts to £53)7,(501. The fruit exported from .lam-dea as 
the Tangerine orange is for the most part the large fruited 
Mandaiin orange, native of China. Both the leaves and the loose 
rind of this fruit possess a characteristic odour unlike that of any 
other of the orange tribe. The true Tangerine orange is smaller 
than the Mandarin, with an agreeable but slightly perfumed 


B U L L E T I 


No. 128-129.] AUGUST-SEPTEMBER. 


The following descriptions include some of the novelties con- 
tained in several important collections recently received at Kew. 
That of Dr. Forsyth Major, amounting to 575 species was made in 
Central Madagascar, an area in which he had been preceded by 
the Rev. R. Baron ; the proportion of new species found was 
consequently not so great as it would otherwise have been. 
Mr. G. L. Bates has sent several small collections from the 
Cameroons region, and although he has not penetrated far into the 
interior, he has succeeded in discovering a number of previously 
undoscrib.'d plants. sir Harry II. Johnston, late II. M. Com- 
missioner in British Central Africa, lias transmitted to Kew the 
extensive and important collections made by Mr. Alexander Whyte, 
Head of Scientific Department, Zomba. A large portion of these 
were made in North Nyasaland, a country which had never 
previously been explored botanically. 

418. Cleome epilobioides, Baker [Capparideae] ; ad C. mono- 
]>//)// /am, Linn., magis accedit. 

Hcrba erecta, gracilis, puboscens. Folia sessilia, lanceolata, 
acuta, integra. ascendent ia, inferiora \l,~l poll, lon.ira, superiora 
vaMe reducta. F/>>rrs axillarcs. solitarii, pedicellis ."> I) I'm. longis, 
t'ructit'eris pat nl is. S^^ihi lancoolaia. ilmsc puliescentia, 2 lin. 
longa. Petala obovata, longe nnguiculata, lilacina, calycc paulo 
longiora. Stamitm S-fd, calvci a^uilomra. Cu/isu/a linearis, 
2-2£ poll, longa, pubescens. crebre longitudinaliter nervata, ad 
basin sensim angustata, valvis a placentis demum discretis. 
Semina curvata, pallide brunnea, glabra, rugis 

419. Pittosporum oblongifolium, C. H. Wright [Pittosporete] ; 
arborescens, foliis oblongis glabris chartaceis, cymis paucifloris. 
14538—1375—9/97 Wt 61 D & S 29 A 


Arbor parva. Folia integra vel obscure dentata, glabra, 7 poll, 
longa, 2^-3 poll, lata; petioli ^-poll. longi. Cymes terminales, 
pauciflorae. Sepala 2 lin. longa, rotundata, valde imbricata, minute 
fimbriata. Petula oblon^i. <|uain sepala sesquilongiora, viridi- 
lutescentia. Filnmenta brevia ; antherse oblongse ; connectivum 
supra in appendicem scariosam productum. Ovarium globosum, 
placentas 3 pluriovulatis ; stylus filiformis, stigmate subpeltato. 

West tropical Africa. Efnlen, Cameroons, Bates, 432. 

The oblong leaves are much larger and less coriaceous, and the 
cymes bear fewer flowers than in any other African species. 

420. Pittosporum malosanum, Baker [Pittosporeae] ; ad P. 

Frutox vel arbor parva. Pami graciles, juniores pubescentes. 
Folia breviter petiolata, oblanceolato-oblonga, acuta vel obtusa, 
subcoriacea, glabra, 2-8 poll, longa, ad basin sensim attenuata. 
Ptninihr dens;e, terminales, corymbosa', ramulis pubescentibus, 
pedicellis calyce ssepe longioribus. Calyx campanula! us, 
pubescens, 1 lin. longus, lobis ovatis obtusis, tubo brevissimo. 
Prtuhi oblaiiconkita. obtusa, Havo-brunnea, 2\ lin. longa. Stamina 
petalis paulo breviora, filamentis antheris longioribus. Fructus 

British Central Africa. Mount Malosa, near Zomba, alt. 
4000-6000 ft., Whyte. 

421. Hibiscus (Bombycella) Carsoni, Baker [Malvaceae] ; ad H- 
micranthum, Linn., et II. petra-nm, Hiern, accedit. 

Ilrha perennis, sesquipedalis vol bipedalis. Gaulix erect us, 
gracilis, setis stellatis appressis scabor. F<.li<i obscure petiolata 
oblaneeolato-oblonya, obtusa, 3-3^, poll, longa, subcoriacea, ad 
basin rotundata. diniidio superiore crenata, infra medium triner- 
vata. Panicula laxa, elongata, ramulis brevibus erecto-patentibus 
ad apicem saepissime triiloris. liraelra' epicalycis 6, lineares, 
appressae, calyce duplo breviores. Cah/x 4 lin. longus, tubo brevi, 
lobis lanceolatis. Petula eunoata, coreinoa, D-10 lin. longa, dorso 
pilosa. Stylus petalis paulo brevior. Car/irl/a dense pilosa. 

British Central Africa. Fort Hill, Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, alt. 3000- JOO0 ft., Ulu/fe ; Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, 
air. ;,000-i;000 ft., ( 'ur.«m. Cultivated at Kew in 1896 from seeds 
sent by Mr. Kenneth J. Cameron. 

422. Dombeya tanganyikensis, Baker [Sterculiaceae] ; ad D. 

lin mi lignosi, irraoiles, trlabri, tcrctcs. Folia longe petiolata, 
cordato-orbicularia, cuspidata, crenata, 3.-4 poll, longa et lata, 
utrinque dense pubescent ia. I'uuieuta terminalis, ampla, 
corvmbosa, ramis multifloris erecto-patentibus simpliciter 
nmbellatis vel furcatis ; bracteae ante anthesin caducae, 
pedicellis pilosis 3-4 lin. longis. Sr r ulu lanceolata, acuminata, 
4^-5 lin. longa, dorso pubescentia. I'^fulu cuncata, rubella, 
persistentia, demum scariosa, sepalis aequilonga. Stamina basm 


coalita ut cupulam ovario aequilongam efficiant ; staminodia 
5, clavata, petalis paulo breviora. Ovarium globosum, dense 

British Central Africa. Fort Hill, Nyasa-Taneanyika 
plateau, alt. 3000-4000 ft., Whyte. 

423. Hermannia nyasica, Baker [Sterculiaceas] ; ad II. glandn- 
ligeram, K. ~Schum., et H. nrabicam, Harv. et Sond., magis 

Svffrutex ramosissimus. Rami graciles, lignosi, teretes, dense 
glanduloso-pubescentes. Folia minuta, sessilia, linearia, integra, 
dense glanduloso-pubescentia. Flores solitarii, axillaris, pedi- 
cellis 2-5 lin. bmgis. Calyx dens*- glaiiduloso-iuilicscrns, 2 lin. 
longus, tubo brevi campanulato, denribus lanceolatis. Prta/a 
lanceolata, rubella, calyce vix longiora. Anthrrw lineares, 
stramineae, 2 lin. longre, loculis apiculatis. Stylus 2 tin. longus. 
Carpclla pubescentia, oblonga, 2 lin. longa, cuspidibus brevibus 


,. Rami erecti, st 

stellatis vei 

stiti in 

iter quos etiam pili 


patent. Folia ascem 

petiolus l|-2 lii 

. longus ; lamina f- 


i, basi longe cune; 


i pilis fasciculate 

longje, i-1 lin. 1 

Flores subfascicn 

ilati ; fasciculi 2-4 

alein raniorum disporsi. lino-tut inlVrioivs 1 i msui-lancfolal ;»> 
vol lincari'S, superiores et bracteohe \\ r 2 lin. longa\ suliulaia-. 
I'.diifinili et pedicelli tomentosi, hi 1-2 lin. longi, illi j-3 lin. 
longi. Calyx 2£-2| lin. longus et latus. subgloboso-campanulai u> 
usque ad £ quinque-dentatus, stellato-toraentosus, dentibus latr < hl- 
toideis aeuminatis. Vvtala \\'\ lin. longa, 2 lin. lata, unguirulata ; 
limbus subobliquus, late oblongus, apice subtnimatus, glamor; 
unguis convoluto-tubulosus, marginibus minute stellatu-i-iliatus. 
Stamina inclusa ; iilamenta 2^ lin. longa, £ lin. lata, oblonga, 
acuta, fere ad medium connata ; anthrra' 1 lin. longa\ oMong;v, 
apice minute bifida'. Orarinm oblongum, pcntagonum, sU'llatn- 
*o tereto glabro. 

425. Hermannia depressa, tf.A\/,Vw/'» [St»-ivuliai-en ];//. ]]', H , ( lii. 
N. E. Br. propinqua, sed minus tomentosa, foliis et stipule 
minoribus differt. 

Rami prostrati, 6-18 poll, longi, subflexuosi, brunnei, glandu- 
loso-pubescentes, interdum per partes pilis stellatis pan.' olxecti. 
Folia patentia ; petiolus 1-2 lin. longus ; lamina i-1^ poll, longa 


£-1 poll, lata, oblongo-ovata, obtusa, basi cordata vel late rotun- 
data, marginibus plus minusve irregulariter crenato-dentata, supra 
glabra, subtus plus minusve glanduloso-pubescens vel raris- 
sime in venis pilos stellatos pancoa gerens. Stipulce L-J h lin. 
longae, |-1 lin. latw, ovatae, acuta?. Pedunculi \-l\ poll, longi, 
axillares, biflori. Bractece 1^ -2 lin. longse, ut cucullum bifidum 
confidant connata\ /'<<//<;■!//' 2-11 lin. longi, imequales. Calyx 
2-2| lin. longus, campanulatus, usque ad medium 5-lobus ; lobi 
deltoidei,acuti : ii utrinque et pedunculus et pedicellus irlandu l<»>o- 
pubescentes. Petti la 3-4 lin. longa, 1^-2 lin. lata, cuneato-obovata, 
obtusa, glabra, aurantiaca. Stamina inclusa ; filamenta medio 
utrinque tuberculata, dorso hirta. Ovarium obovoideum, glan- 
duloso-pubescens, stylo parce hirto. Gapsula subglobosa ; semina 
glabra. — Muhmiiu rr<>di<>l>h -.-. var. la/i/),/ia, Ilarv. <(■ Smut. 
Ft. Cap. I., 214. 

South Africa. Griqualand East : mountains around Kokstad, 
4500 ft., MurOwuH, ILrh. AusL-Afr., 1412. Natal : near 
Umlaas River, 2000 ft., T1W, 1828 ; near Pietermaritzbnrg. 
Sanderson ; near Port Xatal, Sutherland ; and without precise 
locality, (hrrurd. Prince Albert Div. : between the great Zwarte 
Bergen and Kandos Berg, 2000-3000 ft.. Drege, 7309. Albert 
Div.: nearBraam Berg. C>,n,,rr, 136.1. lJasuhdaml, Cnnper, 2007. 
2010. Orange Free State : HUmib-mtoin, //, Inn a;nu 3905 ; Sand 
River, Burke, 400. Transvaal : Mooi River, Xetsmi, 333 ; plains 
around Barberton, 2800 ft,, Galpin, 1080. 

426. Geranium vagans, Baker [Geraniaceaa] ; ad G. »imcnse, 
Hoc-list,, magis accedit. 

Hcrba perennis. Caules deeumbentes, pubescentes, graciles. 
Folia breviter petiolata, ad basin trifida, pubescentia, 9-12 lin. 
lata, segmentis pinnatis, lobis linearibus uninerviis ; stipulae 
parve, lanceolataj, scariosa>. Pedunrufi erect i, gracib-s, elongati. 
biflori, bracteis 3 minutis lanceolatis mucronatis, pedicellis 
elongatis cernuis. Sepulu. lineari-oblonga, 3 lin. longa, conspicue 
mucronata, dorso dense pubescentia. Petala integra, cuneata, 
2 lin. lata, calyce paulo longiora. Stamina calyce paulo breviora. 
Rostrum fructiferum 7-8 lin. longum ; stylus carpellaque 

427. Pelargonium Whytei, Baker [Geraniacete] ; ad P. alche- 
mi/fmflrs,~\y\lhl., er P. multibracteatum, Hochst., accedit. 

Merita perennis, pedalis vel sesquipedalis. Gnule* ascendents, 
graciles, parce pilosi. Folia breviter petiolata, parce pilosa, 
trifida, segmentis obovato-nmeatis 1-11 poll, longis profunde 
crenatis; stipube parva*, ovatro, acuta?, scariosge. Pedunculi 
elongati, ascendentes, 2-4-ib.ri, bra-cis 4-5 lanceolatis cuspMatis 
pnbescentitras ; pedicelli 4-6 lin. longi. Sepala lanceolata, 
cuspidata, pubescentia, 4£ lin. longa. Petala oblanceolata, 
rubra, calyce paulo longiora. Rostrum fructiferum dense pilosum ; 
lobi stigmatici 5, subulati, glabri. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 7000 ft., 
Whyte, 244. 

Catties graciles, erecti, sursum parce pilosi. Folia breviter 
petiolata, oblonga, acuta, membranacea, 2-3 poll, longa, argute 
serrata, facie glabra, dorso pubi'soentia, basi petioloque setia 
paucis gland uliferis pmedita. Fedanrali axil lares, elonsrati, 
erecti, simplices vel furcati. Pet < da parva, violacea ; calcar 
curvatum, 1 poll, longum, tenue, e basi subulatum. Ovarium 
cylindricum, glabrum. 

British Central Africa. Plateau of Mount Zomba, alt. 
5000-6000 ft., Whyte. 

429. Ochna longipes, Baker [Ochnaceae] ; ad O. n)aeroefdi/r,>m, 
Oliv., accedlt, 

Arbor glabra, ramulis gracilibiH. Folia altrrna, scssilia. oblongo- 
lanceolata, acuta wl armmnara, 2k-'.\ pull, longa, 9-12 lin. lata, 
dentata, basi cuneata, modice firma, utrinque glabra, saturate 
viridia. Rare mi brevissimi, axillaris, paueiflori. pcdunrulo 
brevissimo, pedicellis gracillimis glabris 6-9 lin. longis. Sn.ala 
post aniiiisiii viridia, lincari-oblonga, chartacea, 5-6 lin. longa. 
Stamina calyce duplo breviora. Carpella, 5, globosa, glabra : 
stylus 2 lin. longus, apice stigmatosus, integer, capitatus. 

British Central Africa. Mount Malosa, near Zomba, alt. 
4000-6000 ft,, Whyte. 

e] ; ad O. macrocalycem, 

ratis. Folia brevissime 

siniplict's vel basi I'uivati, bivviter pedunculati, pauciflori vel 
multitlori, pedicellis gracilibus 6-9 lin. longis. Sepala post 
anthesin lineari-oblonga, pallide brunnea, 4-4^ lin. longa. 
Stamina sepalis duplo breviora, antlicris parvis oblongis per 
longitudinem totam dcdiiseent ibus. Car/wtla f>. globosa: stylus 
integer, apice stigmatosus, capitatus. 

BRITISH Central Africa. Mount Zomba and Mount Malosa, 
alt. 4000-6000 ft., Whyte. 

431. Gymnosporia ferruginea, Baker [Celastrinece] ; pedunculis 
solitariis haud furcatis. 

virgati, lignosi, pubescen 

432. Lasiodiscus marmoratus, 0. H, Wright [Rhamnaceafl; arbor- 
escens, ramis junioribus dense ferrugineo-tomentosis, foliis basi 

Arbor parva. Rami petioli pedunculique pilis ferrugineis 
vestiti. Folia ovato-oblonga, acuminata, basi rotimdata, breviter 
petiolata, obscure serrata, chartacea, supra glabra, subtus ad nervos 
minute pubescentia, 9 poll, longa, ">.', poll, lata, nervis sk-citate. 
albis. Panicula? axillares, G poll, longae, multiflone. Flore* 3 lin. 
diam. Calycis lobi triangulares, valvati, extus tomentosi, per 
antbesin reflexi. Petalu alba, cucullata, quam sepala multo 
minora. Stamina 5, pt-tul is velata. Discus magnus, annularis, 
ovarium obtegens. Ovarium triloculare, ovulis in quoque loculo 
solitariis ; stylus trilobatus. 

West tropical Africa. Ef ulen, Cameroons, Bates, 358. 

This can be at once distinguished from L. Mannii, Hook, fil., by 
the dense rusty tomentum on the younger branches and petioles 
and by the rotundate bases of the leaves. The veins on the 
upper side of the leaf are conspicuous by their whiteness, at least 
when dry. 

433. Vitis (Cissus) variifolia, Baker [Ampelideaa] ; ad V. con- 
gestam, Baker, accedit. 

Caules validi, flexuosi, pubescentes, cirrhis haud obviis, inter- 
nodiis superioribus 2-3 poll, longis. Folia sessilia, 1-3-fol'mlata; 
foliola oblanceolato-oblonga, subacuta, supra basin crenata, 
6-9 poll, longa, supra medium 2-2£ poll, lata, subcoriacea, facie 
scabra, dorso pubescentia, e medio ad basin s.-nsim angustata ; 
stipulae magna?, foliaceae, persistentes, ovato-acuminatae. Panicula 
terminalis, sessilis vel pedunculate, 2 poll, diam., ramis pubes- 
centibus, pedicellis brevibus. Calyx campanulatus, minutus, 
pubescens, dentibus 4 parvis latis. Corolla 1 lin. longa, viridis, 
medio constricta, petalis 4 diu conniventibus. Ovarium globosum, 

British Central Africa. Plain of Zomba, alt. 2500-3000 ft., 

434. Vitis (Cissus) apodophylla, Baker [Ampelideae] ; ad V. con- 
gestum, Baker, magis accedit. 

Caules validi, flexuosi, pubescentes, cirrhis haud obviis, inter- 
nodis superioribus 3-4 poll, longis. Folia sessilia vel sub- 
sessilia, 2-3-foliolata ; foliola oblanceolato-oblonga, acuta, 0-9 
poll, longa, supra medium 2 'J. 1 , poll. Iut;i, e nu-dinad Itasin snisim 
angnstata, supra basin s.-rrata, membranacea, facie sordide 
viridia glabra, dorso pubescentia. Panicula terminalis, longe 
pedunmlata, ramis sursum valtb' eomposkis pub-scentibus ; 
pedicelli breves. Ca/y.r pubi-sr.Mis. campanulatus, minutus, den- 
tibus 4 parvis latis. Corolla viridis, 1 lin. longa, medio constricta, 
pet&lis 1 diu conniventibus. Ovarium globosum, glabrum. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba, alt. 2500-3500 ft., 


435. Vitis (Cissus) masukuensis, Baker [Ampelidese] ; ad 
C. Buchanani, Planch., magis accedit. 

Caules sarmentosi, graciles, haud lignosi, apice leviter 
pubescentes. Folia longe petiolata, 5-foliolata ; foliola mem- 
branacea, supra basin profunde crenata, snbacuta, utrinque 
viridia glabra, foliolo terminali oblanceolato-oblongo petio- 
lulato 3-4 poll, longo ; stipuke ovata>, persistentes. Panicula 
laxiasima, 5-6 poll, diam., ramis primariis patulis recurvatis laxe 
panieulatis .lense pubescentibus, pedicellis cernuis floribus valde 
longiuribus. Calyx ininutiis, campanulatus, pubescens, dentibus 
-Iparvis latis. Corolla! lin. longa, petalis 4 diu conniventibus. 
Ovarium ovoideum, glanduloso-pilosum. 

British Central Africa. Masuku plateau, near Karonga, 
alt, 0500-7000 ft., Whyte. 

436. Deinbollia nyikensis, Baker [Sapindaceas] ; ad D.pinnatam, 
Schum. et Thonn., magis accedit. 

A rbor erecta. Rami lignosi, apice brunneo-pubescentes. Folia 
4-6 poll, longa (petiolo 1-2 poll, longo incluso), foliolis 3-4 jugis 
BubsearilibuB oblongis pallide viridibus subcoriaceis obtusis 
integris 4-6 poll, longis glabris vel dorso obscure pubescentibus. 
Paniculce terminales 8-9 poll. longa3, ramulis dense brunneo- 
velutinaa, axillares breviores vel nulla}; pedicelli crassi,bivvissinii. 
Sc f H(hi ovata, dense vvlmina, \\ I'm. longa. Prtaln obtusa, pilosa, 
calyc- pauIo longiora. Stum nut 8, peialis subaequilonga, filamentis 
pilosa, antheris lineariluis parvis. Ova riant in floribus submas- 
culis rudimentarium. Fr actus ignotus. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 0<mm>-7ikio ft. 
and between Kondowe and Karonga, Xorth Nyasa-land, Whyte. 

Herba perennis, ramosissima. Ramuli ascendentes, teretes, 
dense pubescentes. Folia breviter petiolata, digitatim trifoliolata, 
foliolis oblanceolatis obtusis vel leviter emarginatis minute 
mucronatis 3-6 lin. longis facie viridibus glabris dorso pallidis 
pubescentibus: stipule minuta;, caducaj. ltucemi breves, termi- 
nales, srepissime densi, pedicellis 1^-2 lin. longis dense pubes- 
centibus ; bractese foliaeese vel minutae. Calyx 2 lin. longus, 
dense pubescens, dentibus lanreolatis vel deitoideis tubo campan- 
ulato sequilongis. Cm-olla calyce duplo longior, lutea, striis 
et maculis rubro-brunneis decorata, vexillo dorso pubescente, 
carina curvata conspicue rostrata. Legumen Beanie, oblongum, 
turgidum, pilosum, 3 lin. longum, seminibus 5-6 brunneis. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
Whytr, 101), 117. 

Baker [Leguminosaj-Genisteae] ; ad 

Urrha perennis, erecta, 
dentes, pilis ascendent ibuf 
brevissime petiolata, digit 

2-3 lin. Ion-is. facie viridibns glabris, dorso 
dense pilosis ; stipulfe nulla? vel cito deciduae. Racemi laxissimi, 
pauciflori, terminales, pedicellis brevibus strigosis ; bracteae 
lineares, minutae. Calyx pilosus, I. 1 , lin. longus, tubo brevi, 
dentibus lanceolatis. Corolla calyce duplo longior, vexillo 
rubroduteo dorso pubescente, carina curvata conspicue rostrata. 
Legumen sessile, pilosum, subglobosum, 2-3-spermum, 2 lin. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
and between Kondowe and Karonga, W/iyle, 

439. Crotalaria phyllostachys, Baker [Leguminosse-Genistese] ; 

ad C. sphm/'oca /■/»/,,/. IVrott., magis accedit. 

Sujfri(t"x erectus, ramosissimus. Rami lignosi, graciles, ascen- 
dentes, teretes, virgati, pilis ascendentibus dense vestiti. Folia 
mucronatis 6-9 lin. longis pallide viridibns facie glabrescentibus 
dorso pilosis; stipulse aullaa ve] cho dccidme. Finns ad axillas 
foliorum omnium 1-3-ni., pedicellis dense pubescentibus 2 lin. 
longis. Calyx pilosus, 2 tin. longns, tubo bivvi, dentibus laneeo- 
lato-delmi leis tubo \alde bmuii.i-il.i^. f'..,->l/a calyce duplo 
longior, vexillo leviter sericeo luteo striis brunneis decorato, 
carina curvata conspicue rostrata. Liyuiwn sessile, oblongum, 
pilosum, monospermum, 2 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft. 
and between Mpata and the commencement of the Nvasa-Tan- 
ganyika plateau, alt. 2000-3000 ft,, Whyte. 

440. Crotalaria Johnstoni, Baker [Legominosa-Geniste®] ; ad 

C. hyssu/jl/olli/.'/i, Kloi/scb, magis accedit, 

Ilrrbft yerermia, erecta,ramosissima. Rami graciles, ascendentes, 
teretes, albido-piiosi. Folia biwiter petiolata, digitatim trifoliolata, 
foliolis oblongo-oblanceolatis obtusis minute mucronatis 6-9 lin. 
longis facie subglabris dorso parce pilosis ; stipule nullae. Flares 
in racemos terminales subdensos 1-2 poll, longos aggregati aut 
in axillis foliorum solitarii, pedicellis brevibus pilosis ; bracteae 
lin. 'ires, pilosi. Calyx pilosus 1± lin. longus, tubo brevissimo, 
dentibus lanceolatis. Corolla pallide lutea, calyce duplo longior, 
vexillo dorso pubescente, carina conspicue rostrata. Legumen 
sessile, subglobosum, pilosum, monospermum, 2 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Near Fort Hill, Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, alt. 3500-4000 ft., Whyte. 

[Legumiiiosaj-Genistere] ; ad 

Ibrh't perennis, erecta, ramosissitna. Ramali graciles, teretes, 
ascendenies. dense ]»ubescentes. Folia breviter petiolata, digi- 
tatim trifoliolata, foliolis ohlaticeolatis obtusis minute mucronatis 
3-6 lin. longis utrinque pallide viridibns dense pubescentibus; 
stipuhe nulla.', llaerini densi, multi, oinnes terminales, globosi 
vel oblongi, pedicellis brevibus dense pilosis ; bracteae parvae, 
lineares, pilosae. Calyx dense pilosus, 1 lin. longus, dentibus 

deltoideis acuminatis tubo valcle longioribus. Corolla pallide 
rubella, calyce duplo longior, dense pubescens, carina valde rostrata. 
Legum&n sessile, subglobosum 1— 2-spermum, 2 lin. longnm, dense 

3-Genistere] ; 

Herba perennis, ereeta, e l>asi ramosissiina. Coal* gnu-iles, 
erecti, semipedales, vel pedales, ubique dense albido-pilosi. 
Folia luvviicr |)t'iin!;i;a, digitathn trifoliolata, foliolis oblanceolatis 
3-4 lin. longis obtusis conspicuo imnTonatis utrinque dense 
persistenter pilosis ; s t i ] > 1 1 1 a- nulla' y.l cito dvciduae. Racemi 
laxi, multiflori, terminales, pedicellis brevibus dense pilosis ; 
bi-actea} lirn-ares. Cahjx dense pilosus, 2 lin. longus, tubo brevi, 
drntilms lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis tubo valde 
longioribus. Corolla pallide lutea, 3 lin longa, vexillo dorso 
dense piloso, carina curvata conspicne i ' 
pilosum, subglobosum vel oblongum, 

British Central Africa. Near Fort Hill, Nyasa-Tangam 
plateau, alt. 3500-4000 ft., Wlnjte. 

443. Crotalaria paucifiora, Baker [Leguminosse-Genisteae] ; 

Suffrate.r ramosissimus. Hamuli graciles, lignosi, 
pulx'scvntes. Folia breviter peiiolaia, digitatim trifoliolata, 
foliolis obovatis obtusis mucronatis 2-3 lin. longis facie sub- 
claims dorso dense pubescentibus ; stipulte ininutae, caducie ; 
Floret 1-3-ni, terminales, pedicellis brevibus cernuis pubes- 
centibus. Cah/.r pilosus, 3 lin. longus, dentibus lanceolatis tubo 
cainpunulato sequilongis. Corolla calyce duplo longior. Legumen 
oblongum, 4 lin. longum, pubescens, oligospermum, breviter 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
common, Whyte. 

444. Crotalaria pilosiflora, Balcer [Leguminosaa-Genisteap] ; ad 

oblongis acutis mucronatis 
pulx'scontibus : stipube mil 
i.Tin'nialrs, p(MlicoHis d»-ns< 

plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 

Herba perennis, e basi lignosa raniosissima. Gaules dense 
caespitosi, breves, graciles, diffusi, pubescentes. Folia breviter 
petiolata, digitatim trifoliolata, foliolis oblanceolatis obtusis 
6-12 lin. longis utrinque viridibus primum dorso pubes- 
centibus demum glabrescentibus ; stipulae parvae, lineares. 
Kacemi laxi, paucirlori, terminales, pedicellis pubescentibus calyce 
brevioribus ; bracteae lineares, minutae. Calyx pubescens, 2 lin. 
ioni^is, dentibus hmo.'okttis t.ub<> loniriori bus. Corolla aurantiaca, 
calyce duplo longior, vexillo dorso glabro, carina curvata conspicue 
rostrata. Legumen sessile, oblongum, durum, glabrum, oligo- 
spermum, 5 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Mounts Zomba and Malosa, alt. 
4000-6000 ft., Whyte. 

Ramuli ascendentes, pallide virides, 
dense pubescentes. Folia petioli iiolata, foliolis 

oblongis acutis 6-9 lin. longis infra pubescentibus supra minute 
scabridis ; stipul.v niinuin', drciduao. Racemi terminales, pauci- 
flori vel multitlori, subdensi, pedicellis dense pubescentibus ; 
bracteae line- * dense pilosus, 4 lin. longua, tubo 

brevi, dentibus lanceolatis tubo valde longioribus. Corolla lutea, 
calyce paulo longior, vexillo dorso pubescente, carina conspicue 
rostrata. Legumen oblongum, sessile, 5-6 lin. longum, poly- 
sperm um, dense pubescens. 

British Central Africa. Between Mpataand the commence- 
ment of the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, alt. 2000-3000 ft., Wlnjtr. 

Herba perennis. Caules ascendentes, pallide virides, pube- 
scentes. Folia longe petiolata, digitatim trifoliolata, foliolis 
obovatis subacutis tenuibus 1-2' poll, longis utrinque viridibus 
facie glabris dorso leviter pubescentibus. Racemi laxissimi, 
terminales et axillares, 4-6 poll, longi, pedicellis, cernuis pube- 
scentibus ; bracteae minutae, decidual. Calyx pubescens, 2-2^ lin. 
longus, tubo campanulato, dentibus ovatis vel oblongis tubo 
aequilongis. Corolla pallide lutea, calyce duplo longior, vexillo 
dorso pubescente, carina curvata conspicue rostrata. Legumen 
oblongum, pubescens, sessile, polyspermum, 6-8 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Kamnga, 

448. Crotalaria gymnocalyx, Baker [Leguminosse-Genisteae] ; ad 
C. maxillarem, Klotzsch, magis accedit. 

Frutex, rainulis lignosis virgatis ascendentibus gracilis. 
Folia digitatim trifoliolata, foliolis oblanceolatis obmsisV.-D lin. 
longis utrinque viridibus obscure pubescentibus, petiolo 3-4 lin. 
longo ; stipulae deciduae, minutae. Racemi pauciflori, laxi, 


glabro, dentibus lanceolatis vol deltoideis acuminatis tubo aequi- 
longis. Corolla lutea, G lin. longa, vexillo dorso idabro. Orarnnu 
stipitatum, lineare, glabrum, muitiovulatum. L<gumex ignotum. 
British Central Africa. Fort Hill, Xvasa-Tan-anvika 
plateau, alt. 3500-4000 ft., and l.rtw.rn Mnata and the eonnnenee- 
ment of the plateau, alt, 2000-3000 ft., Whyte. 

449. Crotalaria vaiida, Ba/Sw [Leguminosfe - Genistese] ; ad 
C. rectam, Steud., inagis aeeedit ; recedit legumine oblongo. 

Frutex erectus. Rami lignosi, dense pabescentes. Folia 
breviter petiolata, digitatim trifoliolata, foliolis oblongis acutis 
basi cuneatis 12-18 lin. longis subcoriaceis facie sparse dorso 
dense pubescentibus ; stipulae minutae, decidual Raccmi ter- 
minales, paucitlori, pedicellis 3-4 lin. longis ; bractea? parvae, 
lineares, subcoriaceaa. Calyx pilosus, 6 lin. longus, tubo brevi, 
dentibus lanceolatis tubo valde longioribus. Corolla 9 lin. longa, 
vexillo luteo-brunneo dorso piloso, carina rostro crasso curvata. 
Legumen sessile, durum, oblongum, oligospermum, dense pilosum, 
9 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 0000-7000 ft. 
Whyte, and between Kondowe and Karonga, Whyte, 373. 

450. Argyrolobium ? deflexiflorum, Baker [Leguminosa -(l.-ni- 
steas] ; a speciebus reliquis adhuc ex Africa tropica missis 

recedit ealyce liaud bilabiate 

Herba perennis, e basi ramosissima. Caales gracilcs, glabri, 

difnisi, intrkati. F>lia bn-vker petiolata, di-iiatim trifoliolata, 
foliolis oblanceolatis obtusis mm-ronatis utrinque viridibus 

lineares, foliaeea-, persis'.eiites. Harem i densi, globosi, omnes 
axillares, pedunculati, pedicellis brevissimis centralibus et 
inferioribus deflexis ; bractea* subulatte, ininuta'. Calyx glaber, 
2 lin. longus, dentibus deltoideis tubo campanulato brevioribus. 
Carol 'fa albo-lilacina, ealyce duplo longior, vexillo dorso glabro 
petalis reliquis breviore, carina obtusa. Legumen sessile, lineare, 
planum, glabrum, oligospermum, 8-9 Jin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Fort Hill, Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, alt, 3500-4000 ft., Whyte. 

This has the llattened pod and obtuse keel of Aryyrofu/jium and 
the calyx of Crotalaria. 


reviter petiolata, digitatim trifoliolata, 
integris basi cuneatis 1-2 poll, longis 

pilosis dorso dense persistenter albo- 

ivatse, acutae, pubescentes. Racemi axil- 
globosi, multifiori, pedicellis brevibus 

■, lanceolate. Calyx 4 lin. longus, dense 


pubescens, profunde bilabiatus, dentibus angustis acuminatis 
Corolla pallide lutea, calyce vix longior, vexillo obovato dorso 
dense piloso. Ovarium multiovulatum, lineare, dense pilosum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
Whyte, 251. 

452. Argyrolobium longipes, N. E. Brown [Leguminosaa-Genis- 
teae] ; A. pumilo Eck. et Zeyh., affine, sed foliis utrinque hirtis 
et pedunculis multo longioribus differt. 

Caules prostrati, ramosi, ramis 3-10 poll, longis, lignescentes, 
appresse pubescentes. Folia petiolata, t t-i t'oi L« »3 at a : [.etioli 4-2ilin. 
longi ; foliola 3-7 lin. longa, 2-4| lin. lata, elliptioa, obtusa, 
mucronulato-apiculata, utrimjue appresse : stipulre 1-2 lin. 
long*, i-1 lin. late, lanceolata; ovaio-Iauceoiate vel ovate, 
aojuninatffl vel acuta*, supra glabra*, Bubtns pilosee. Prdaantli 
folns oppositi, f-3 poll, longi, uniflori, appresse pubescentes. 
Brartrohr \-l lin. longse, subulate vel lanceolate. Prdicrlli 
breves Calyx 2^-4 lin. longus, profunde bilabiatus, appresse 
pilosulus, labio superiore bidentato, inferiore tridentato, dentibus 
.. Cnro/la 4-5 lin. longa; vexillo 
suborbiculari unguiculato dorso sericeo-pubescente ; alis oblongis 
obtusis apice pubescentibus, carina subacuta glabra. Ovarium 
pluriovulatum, appresse fulvo-pubescens. 

South Africa. Transvaal : Berea Ridge, Barberton, 3,000 ft., 
17 e 64 rU 1765 Pin > 13 ° 5, Natal > without Precise locality, Gerrard, 

453 Isdigofera lupulina, Baker [Leguminosaa-GalegeaTI ; ad 
/. strolaftjrram, Hochst., e sectione Capitatarum magis accedit. 

Herba annua, humilis, e basi ramosa, ubique albo-lanosa. Folia 
breviter petiolata, pinnatim trifoliolata, foliolis oblongis obtusis 
o-U lux. longis basi cuneatis facie breviter dorso long.- albo- 
lanosis; stvpute magna?, ovate, acute, membranacese, persistentes. 
hamm axillaivs et terminales, oblongi, pedunculati, <)-12 lin. 
lon-i ; brartcv unitlora;, orbiculares, emarginate, 3 lin. limiraj et 
lata?, persecutes, imbricate. Caly.r] lin. [on-us. tub,, bre\ issium, 
dentibus setaceis. Corolla calyce 2-3-plo longior. Lnioaon 
oblongum, dispermum, 2 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karonga, 
Whyte, 336. 

454. Indigofera nyikensis, Baker [Le-uminosre-Galegere] ; ad 

/• t/risra,n, I'-aker, e section^ Dissitifloramm magis accedit. 
_ >S ".///■" /''■'■ irrai alis. llamuji liguosi, pilis ap])ressis albis et 
ueorsnm ... lis pat ul is bnmueis vestiti. Folia breviter petiolata, im- 

lii.eiiri-siibulatffl, scarios®. Fi donuTpancii 

pedicel], s dense {Miosis. Caly.r 2 lin. b>n-us. ^^n>o pilosus, 
tubo brevi campanulato, dentibus lineari-setaceis glanduloso- 
pilosis tubo multo longioribus. Corolla rubra, calyce duplo 
longior. Ovarium cylindricum, sessile, multiovulatum. Ley omen 

455. Indigofera microsoypha, Baker [Leguminosae-Galegeae] ; ad 
I. ni/i/cnsr,/,, linker, (vide supra) e sectione Dissitiflorarum arete 
accedit, sed differt setis patulis nullis petalisque minoribus. 

Siijn-tifr.r gracilis. Hamuli juniores aseendentes, appresse 
albo-pilosi. Folia breviter petiolata, imparipinnata, foliolis 7 
oblanceolatis mucronatis rigidulis 3-4 lin. longis, utrinque pidlide 
viridibus appresse albo-pilosis ; stipulae minuta 1 , caducw. Flairs 
ad apices ramulorum panel, breviter racemosi, pedicellis dense 
albo-pilosis. Calyx albo-pilosus, 2 lin. longus, tubo brevissimo, 
dentibus elon-mis lincari-setaceis irlanduloso-pilosis. Corolla 
rubra, 3 lin. longa, extus pilosa. Ovarium sessile, cylindricum, 
multiovulatum. Legumen ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Between Mpata and the com- 
mencement of the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, alt. 2000-:', 000 ft., 

456. Indigofera patula, Baker [Leguminosae-Galegeae] ; ad 
/. /irtif/tpht/llam, Linn., e sectione Dissitiflorarum accedit. 

graciles, glanduloso-setosi et appresse albo-pilosi. Folia breviter 
petiolata, imparipinnata, foliolis 7 oblanceolatis mucronatis 3 lin. 
longis, utrinque viridibus dense albo-pilosis ; stipulae setaceae. 
Ruccmi niulti, axillares, laxi, pauciflori, pedunculati, pedicellis 
cernuis. Calyx dense pilosus, 2 lin. longus, tubo brevissimo. 
dentibus elongatis setaceisglandulosis. Corolla rubra, calyce duplo 
longior. Ovarium sessile, cylindricum, multiovulatum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 

457. Indigofera macra, /><//,<■/■ [Le-uminosa>Galegea>] ; ad /. 
]»/,/i//>/t)/l/um, Linn, e sectione Dissitiflorarum magis accedit. 

Herba erecta, ramosissima. Eamuli graeillimi, aseendentes, 
juniores appresse albo-pilosi. Folia breviter petiolata, impari- 
pinnata, foliolis oblanceolatis mucronatis 2-3 lin. longis utrinque 
jrlaucis appresse albo-pilosis ; stipulae setaceae, caducao. Ruomi 
laxi. pauciHori, axillares, breviter pedunculati, pedicellis brevis- 
simis. Calyx 1 lin. longus, dense albo-pilosus, tubo brevissimo. 
dentibus setae, is. Comlhi rubra, calyce duplo longior. Leg u mm 
sessile, cylindricum, polyspermum, dense pilosum, 3 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. Between the Songwe river and 
Karonga, alt. 1700-2000 ft., Whyte. 

458. Indigofera (Sphaeridiophorum) karongensis, Baker [Legu- 
minosae-Galegeae] ; ad /. termiiia/rm, Baker, magis accedit., 

Frulex ramosissimus. Ramuli lignosi, argenteo-incani. Folia 
sessilia, foliolis 5 oblanceolatis obtusis mucronatis rigidis 2 lin. 
longis, utrinque dense persistenter albo-pilosis ; stipulae setaceae. 
Racemi axillares, pauciflori, foliis asquilongi, pedicellis brevibus 


incanis. Calyx § lin. longua, dense albo-pilosus, dentibus deltoideis 
tubo aequilongis. Corolla calyce triplo longior. Legumrn sub- 
globosum, 1 lin. diam., dense albo-pilosum, durum, monospermum. 
British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karonga, 

459. Indigofera (SphsBridiophorum) microcalyx, Baker [Legu- 
minosae-Galegeaa] ; ad /. demissam, Taubert, magis accedit. 

Siijfnitex erectus. Hamuli virgati, ramosi, ubique persistenter 
albo-incani. Folia breviter petiolata, pinnatim 3-5-!'oliata, 
foliolis oblanceolatis mucronatis rigidulis utrinque dense albo- 
pubeseentibus ; stipulae minutae, subulatae. Racemi numerosi, 
densi, pauciflori, brevissime pedunculati, pedicellis brevissimis 
pilosis. (Jaly.r i I'm. longus, pilosus, dentibus acuminatis tubo 
aequilongis. ' C"?olln calyce quadruple longior. Lryumen sessile, 
subglobosum, monospermum, pilosum, 1 lin. longum. 

British Central Africa. North Nyasa-land, Whyte. 

460. Indigofera fusco-setosa, Baker [Leguminosae-Galegeae] ; ad 
/. trachypliyllam, Benth., e sectione Simplicifoliarum arete 

Herha perennis, erecta. Caules pilis albis araneosis et setis 
atro-brunneis patulis vestiti. Folia snbs»-s>ilia. sitnplicia, lineari- 
oblonga, l|-2 poll, longa, obtusa, basi rotundata, utrinque sparse 
pilosa, facie saturate viridia, dorso pallida. Racemi axillares, 
longe pedunculati, densi, oblongi vel oblongo-cylindrici, 2-3 poll. 
lon^i, rhadii dense setosi. pedieellis biwibus : hraetea* limares. 
( 'iily.r brunneus, dense setosus, 3 lin. longus, tubo brevi, dentibus 
setaceis tubo valde longioribus. Corolla atro-pur})nrea, calyce 
panlo longior. Legit/men sessile, lineare, oligospermum, 4 lin. 
longum, valvis turgidis brunneis setosis. 

461. Indigofera lonchocarpifolia, Baker [Legnminos»-Galege»] ; 

ad /. rhynchocarpam, Welw., e sectione Tinctoriarum magis 

Sufi'mtejr, ramulis junioribus pubescentibus. Folia petiolata 
iniparipinnata, foliolis 7 oppositis oblongis acutis petiolulatis 
2-2.', poll, longis facie viridibus glabris dorso pallida viridiboa 
obscure pubescentibus ; stipulae magnae, scariosae, caducae, e basi 
lata setaceae. Racemi axillares, multiflori, pedunculati, foliis 
a-quibrngi, pi-dic-llis brevibus glabris. Calyx obliquus, brunneus, 
1 lin. longus, parce pilosus, dentibus parvis obtusis. Cnrnlhi albo- 
brunnea, 4 lin. longa. Ova nam sessile, lineare, multiovulatum. 

Britlsh Central Africa. Fort Hill, Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, alt. 3500-4000 ft., Whyte. 

462. Indigofera masukuensis, Baker [Leguminosie-GalegeaB] ; 
ad /. Spachii, Baker, e sectione Tinctoriarum magis accedit. 

Suffrntex gracilis. Ramuli juniores copiose albo-pilosi, pilis 
appressis. Folia breviter petiolata, imparipinnata, foliolis 9 


oblanceolatooblongis obtusis mucronatis 5-6 lin. longis facie 
viridibus parce pilosis dorso pallidis dense albo-pilosis ; stipulae 
setaceae. Racemi multi, axillares, densi, multiflori, breviter 
pedunculati, pedicellis brevibus et rhachi atro-brunneo-pubes- 
centibus. Calyx 2 lin. longus, atro-brunneus, pubescens, tubo 
brevissimo, dentibus setaceis. Corolla brunnea, calyce triplo 
longior. Legumen sessile, lineare, pilosum, polyspermum, 5 lin. 

British Central Africa. Masuku plateau, alt. G500-7000 ft., 

463. Tephrosia (Reineria) dissitiflora, Baker [Leguminosae- 
Galegeae] ; ad T. dimorphophyllam, Welw., magis accedit. 

Ihrlxi perennis. Caul™ graciles, glabri. Folia pinnatim 
3-5-foliolata, foliolis lanceolatis subcoriaceis 2^-3 poll, longis 
obtusis mucronatis utrinque appresse breviter pubescentibus ; 
stipulae minutae, lanceolatae. Racemi axillares, laxissimi, longe 
pedunculati, 3-10 poll, longi, pedicellis brevibus; bracteae 
parvae, lineares. Calyx 2 lin. longus, dense pubescens, dentibus 
lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis tubo longioribus. Corolla 4 lin. 
longa, vexillo dorso dense piloso. Leyumen lineare, pubescens, 
rectum, polyspermum, 2$ poll, longum. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba and Mount Malosa, 
alt. 4000-6000 ft., Whyte. 

464. Tephrosia (Reineria) zombensis, Raker [Loguminosac- 
Galegeie] "foliis et floribns T. Voyelii, Hook. til., similis, seel 
calycis dentibus acuminatis tubo valde longioribns dissimilis. 

Frulr.r ramulis lignosis pilis albidis dense vestitus. Folia 
breviter petiolata, 2-3 poll, longa, foliolis 11-15 oblongis obtusis 
1^-2 poll, longis facie viridibus glabris dorso a! bido-sericeis ; 

pedunculati, termiiudes : bractea 1 lanceolate, pub.srcntes. Calyx 
dense pilosus, 4 lin. longus, dentibus acuminatis tubo valde 
longioribus. Corolla rubra, calyce duplo longior, vexillo orbi- 
culari dorso sericeo. Ovarium lineare, pilosum, multiovulatum. 
Ley ma en maturum ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba, alt, 4000-6000 ft., 

465. Tephrosia (Reineria) nyikensis, Baker [Leguminosae-Gale- 
geas] ; ad T.Tiuillensem, Welw., magis accedit.' 

Frutex 6-S-pedalis. Hamuli lignosi, sursum dense pilosi. 
Folia breviter petiolata, semipedalia, foliolis 11-13 coriaceis 
ohlanceolaiis obtusis nmcronaUs 1 [-2 poll, longis facie viridibus 
glabris dorso dense pubescentibus ; stipula? lanceolatae, pubescentes. 
Raeemi densi, breves, saepissime terminales : ovat.-e, pubes- 
centes. Calyx 4 lin. longus, dense pilosus, dentibus lanceolatis 
acuminatis tubo multo longioribus. Corolla calyce duplo longior, 
vexillo dorso dense sericeo. Ley), men linear.-, polyspermum ; 
2 poll, longum, pilosum, stylo applanato. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, all. 6000-7000 ft., 

Frutex 6-pedalis. ift/mi/Z/molliter pubescentes. Folia breviter 
petiolata, 6-8 poll, longa., foliolis 17-19 oblongis obtusis 15-18 
lin. longis utrinque dense pubescentibus ; stipula? ovata?, pilosse. 
Racemi densi, breves, pedunculati, omnes terminales ; bractea? 
ovata?, dense pubescentes. Calyx 6 lin. longus, dense brunneo- 
pilosus, dente infimo lanceolate tubo valde longiore, dentibufl 
reliquis brevioribus obtusis. Corolla rubra, pollicaris, vexillo 
dorso dense sericeo. Legwmen lineare, pilosum, polyspermum ; 
stylus applanatus, glaber vel leviter pubescens. 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe' and Karonga, 
Whtjte, 324. Used by the natives as a fish-poison. 

4G7. Tephrosia (Reineria) melanocalyx, Baker [Leguminosse- 
Galegea?] j ad T. huillemem, Welw., magis accedit. 

Suffrutex, ramulis angulatis lignosis dense persistenter fulvo- 
pubescentibus. Folia breviter petiolata, pinnatim 3-5-foliolata, 
foliolis oblanceolatis obtusis mucronatis 1^-2 poll, longis facie 
sparse dorso dense pubescentibus ; stipulre lineares, pubescentes. 
Racemi subdensi, 2-4 poll, longi, terminales et axillares ; bractea? 
lineares, pubescentes. Ca/i/.r bivviuT [n-.l iccllat us, 1 I'm. longus, 
pilis atro-brunneis dense vestitus, dentibus acuminatis tubo valde 
longioribus. Corolla purpurea, G lin. longa, vexillo dorso dense 
pubescente. Ovarium cylindricum, dense pilosum, multiovula- 
tum ; stylus applanatus, basi solum pubescens. 

British Central Africa. Near Fort Hill, N yasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, alt, 3500-4000 ft., Whyte. 

4G8. Microcharis Galpini, N. E. Broil 
affinis M. tmrlUr, Benth., sed gracilic 
petiolisque longioribus differt. 

Catties e basi ramosi, :>-10 poll, alti, herbacei, filiformi'S, glabri 
vel pilis minutis paucissimis instructi. Foliorum simplicium 
petioli 2-3 lin. longi ; laminae G-16 lin. longa;, \-\ ,', lata-, lineares, 
acuta-. mucronataB, basi leviter angustatae, atrinque pilis appressia 
bifurcis, iis Indigoferarum, nisi quod crura furcaa imequalia sint, 
similibus, sparse instructs ; stipula? subulatae, \-2 lin. longa3. 
Raft-mi I £-3£ poll, longi, filiformes, glabri, floribus 3-7 distant i bus 
parvis instructi ; braetesef lin. longa?, setacea? ; pedicelli filiformes, 
1^-2^ lin. longi. OaXycis tabna \ lin. longus, pilis appressia 
lateraliter adixis pubescens ; dentcs .', lin. b>ngi, subulati. Corolla 
glabra, rubra ; vexilium 1 •{ I'm. Ionium, 1^ lin. latum, late 
obovatum, obtusissimum ; a he 2] lin. longa?, fere 1 lin. lata?, 
cuneato-obovatre, obtusissima? vel subtruncate ; carina 2 lin. longa, 
recta, acuminata. Leg amen 4-5^ lin. longum, | lin. latum, lineare, 

South Africa. Transvaal : summit of Saddleback Mountain, 
near Barberton, 5000 ft,, March, 1891, Galpin, 1315. 

This is the first species of Jlicrocharis that has been found 
Bouth of the tropic. 

ata, foliolis -t— .">- j iiuria 

oblongis obtusis 3-4 lin. longis pubescentibus vel glabresn niibus. 
petiolo seta terminato ; stipulae oblonga?, acuta?, magnae, per- 

Ca/y.t :>-4 lin. longus, pubescens, tubo brevisshno, labiis obb.ngis 
obtusis. Corolla ila\a. glabra, 6 Lin. longa. Oraria,,, evlindrieiim, 
pubescens, biovulatum ; stylus brevis incurvatus. Leg u men 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. fiooo-7000 ft., 
117////'-, 256 ; between Mpata and the commencement of the 
Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, alt. 2000-3000 ft,, Whyte. 

Fruh.r 4-G-pedalis. Hamuli lignosi, recti, teretes, sursum 
glanduloso-pubescentes. Folia subsessilia, 3-4 lin. longa, foliolis 
10-12-jugis linearibus rigide coriaceis imbricatis f lin. longis 
oblique mucronatis; stipula- parva', laneeolata*, eaduca 1 , infra 
insertionem hand producta-. Ilacrmi laxi. pauciflori, in pani- 
culam amplamterminalem aggregati ; bractea- laneenlata', eoriacea?, 
persistentes. Calyx \ lin. longus. labio inferiors oblongo apice 
tridentato quam supetioiv longiore. Corolla lutea, glabra, l'. lin. 
longa. Liyamm glal)runi, 1 »t*o \ i t « -r sti pita! inn. artieulis 2 planis 
dimidiato-orbieularibua 4 lin. longis. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
a common showy shrub, Whytc. 

471. Jlschynomene dissitiflora, Baker [Leguminosa>-IIedysarea>] ; 
estipulis ad priorem, e habitu et t'ructu ad posteriorem attinens. 

Frvtieosa ramulis teretibnfl lignosis sursum pubeseentibus 
gracilis. Folia bre\ iter petiolata. foliolis crebris H>-jugis lineari- 
oblongis 4-5 lin. longis apice obtusis emarginatis mucronatis: 
stipuho magna?, lanceolate, coriacea'. infra insertionem produeta\ 
Jiaconi laxi, elongati, axillares, apice l-2-fiori, nodis inferioribus 
bracteis 2 ovatis coriaceis persistentibus praeditis. Calyx 
pubescens, 2 lin. longus, labiis ovatis, inferiore majore. ( 'oro'/la 
lutea, glabra, 5 lin. longa. Lryanu-n breviter stipitatum, glabrum, 
articulis 1-2 suborbicularibus' 1^-2 lin. latis. 

British Central Africa. Fort Hill, Nyasa-Tanganvika 
plateau, alt, 3500-4000 ft., Whyte. 

472. Smithia (Kotschya) congesta, Baker [Leguminoste-Hedy- 
sareae] ; atT*V. recur ui/oliam, Taubert, magis accedit. 

Sutjrair.r ramosus. Hamuli ascendentes, lignosi. dense pubes- 
centes. Folia subsessilia, foliolis 4-jugis lanceolatis mucronatis 
recurvatis rigide coriaceis 3-4 lin. longis, rhachi decurvato in 


Befell) desinente ; stipulae ovato-lanceolatae, rigide coriaceae, per- 
sistentes. Racemi pauciflori, axillares, congesti, breviter pedun- 
culati, rhaehi setis stramineis magnis praedito. Calyx tubulosus, 
4 lin. lcmgus, strigosus, tubo brevi, dente supremo oblanceolato 
obtuso, infimis brevioribus linearibus ; bracteolas 2, ovatae, acutae, 
eoriacea>, persistentes, ad basin calycis appressae. Corolla lutea, 
6 lin. longa. Ovarium pubescens, torulosimi, biovulatum ; stylus 
ol« nii^ui us incurvatus. Lryuna'n maturum ignotum, 

British Central Africa. Masuku plateau, alt, 6500-7000 ft., 

473. Smithia (Kotschya) drepanophylla, Baiter [Leguminosce- 
Hedysareae] ; ad *S'. recurvifoliam, Taubert, magis accedit. 

Fnitex, ramis lignosis teretibus dense pubescens. Folia sub- 
sessilia. faleata,6 lin. longa, foliolis 8-9-jugis lanceolatis recunatis 
rigide coriaceis 2 lin. longis imbricatis oblique mucronatis; 
stipuhu parva>, lanceolanv, infra insertionem haud productae. 
/ ( ''/ro///pauciilori,axillares, breviter pedunculati, rhachi setisluteis 
magnis Btrigosi ; bractese ovatre, coriaceae, persistentes. Calyx 
pubescens, 3 lin. longus, labiis oblongis oblusis, superiore majore ; 
bracteolae ovatae, persistentes. Corolla lutea, glabra, calyce duplo 
longior. Ovarium pubescens, biovulatum. Legumen maturum 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karonga, 

474. Smithia (Kotschya) sphaerocephala, Baker [Leguminosae- 
Hedysareae] ; ad 8. aipitalifrram, Wehv., magis accedit. 

Rami teretes, recti, sursum pubescentes. Folia breviter 
petiolata, D-21 I'm. longa, foliolis I'-lO-jugis dimidiato-oblongis 
2-i lin. longis rigide coriaceis imbricatis ; stipnke parvaa, 
kmceolata;, caducve, infra insertionem hand produetae. Flow* 
in eapitulis densis globosis axillaribus breviter pedunculatis 
aggregati ; braete:e persistentes, ovato-lanceolatae; eae et rhachis 
setis luteis stigosae. Calyx 2-3 lin. longus, strigosus, labiis ovatis ; 
bracteohe 2 ovata\ coriacea', persistentes, ad basin appressae. 
Corolla lutea, calyce duplo longior, vexillo orbiculari extus glabro. 
Ovarium pubescens, biovulatum. Leg u men maturum ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karonga, 


coriacea', basi in;e<[imliter auriculata-. Harrrni axillai 

iiubricafa-, persistentes, orbiculares, emarginata-, 
5-6 lin. longa; et latae, margine haud ciliatae. Caly 
labiis ovatis. Legumen dispermum, bractea breviu 
planis 2 lin. latis. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. iXhxi-Toihi ft., 

and between Mpata ami the commencement <>!' t ho Xvasa-Tangan- 
yika plateau, alt, 2000-3000 ft., Whyte. 

476. Lathyrus intricatus, Bahvr [Leguminosa>VicieH>] ; ad L. 
kiliiiKtitdsrliaririi,,,, Taubert, arete accedit. 

Caules intricati, graciles, angulati, adolescentes glabri, juniores 
obscure pubescentes. Fulin broviter jietinlata. foliolis uniju.Lris 
linearibus vel lanceolatis glabris 1 [,-2 poll, longis : stipuhe sauit- 
tataa, lanceolata?, auriculis linearibus; cirrhus terminal is, elnmraius, 
tortuosus. F/o/ts 1-2-ni, pedunculis brevibus, pedicelhs pubes- 
oentibus calyce brevioribus ; bracteaa 3-4, lanceolate, segregata*, 
persistentes. Calyx 3 lin. longus, dentibus lanceolatis aouminatis 
tubo campanulato asquilongis. Corolla rubra, 4-5 lin. longa. 
Liymih /, lineare, planum, glabrum, 12-18 lin. longum, 2 lin. latum, 
6-i}-spermum, ad apicem attenuatum ; stylus subulatus, rectus vel 
curvatus, 2 lin. longus. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 5000-6000 ft. ; 

Masuku plateau, alt. »;50()-7<MM) ft. ; Kurt Hill. Xyasa-Tan-an \ ika 

plateau, and between Mpata and the commencement of the X vast- 
Tang - 

nganyika plateau, alt. 300<> ft., Whyti 

L. 1,-i, 

477. Lathyrus malosanus, Hub;- [Leiiuminosai-Yiciea;] ; 
• Ischuria, Taubert, et L. hinin.uhil,,, Taubert. n-« 

iles, -lal.ri. 
1«, terminal! 

glabro, carina pallida curvata obtusa. L<yu,ncn 
British Central Africa. Mount Malo 

alt. lODD-Ctiuilft., Whytr. 

!-Phaseoleae] ; ad 

Ilrrba 3-pedalis, erecta, Hamuli virgati, graciles, teretes, 
pubescentes. Folia pinnatim trifoliolata, breviter petiolata, foliolis 
iinearibus subcoriaceis 5-6 poll, longis e basi ad apicem conspicue 
trinervatis utrinque pubescenribus : stipuhe parvse, caducse. 
Hii'vmi axillares et terminates, breves, densi, nmltiflori, pedicellis 
demum 2 lin. longis ; bracteae lance olatse, sericeae. Calyx pilosua, 
4 lin. longus, dentibus acuminatis tubo campanulato longioribus. 
Corolla cS-i* lin. longa, rubro-lilacina, vexillo 5-6 lin. diam. dorso 
glabro. Legumen lineare, pilosum, rectum, paucispermum, 1 poll, 

British Central Africa. Between the Songwe River and 
Karonga, alt. 1700-2000 ft., Whale. Shire Highlands, Buchanan, 
(1881 collection), 406. 

Frulex erecta. Hamuli lignosi, dense pubescentes. Folia 
longe petiolata, pinnatim trifoliolata, foliolis ovatis vel oblongis 
acutis basi late rotundatis H-2 poll, longis utrinque pilosis ; 
stipuhe nulla} veJ cito caducae. linen ni sub.lensi, terminales, 
{J-^> poll, longi, pedk-ellis luvvibus ascendentibus dense pilosis; 
bracteolae subulatae. Calyx campanulatus, dense pilosus, 2 lin. 
lmigus, dentibus parvis ovatis. Corolla saturate purpurea, '.» lin. 
longa, vexillo obovato 6 lin. lato dorso glabro. Ovarian, stipi- 
tatum, cylindrietim, ni<*li it«-r pilosum, pauciovulatum ; stylus 
elongatus. im-urvatus applanatus, sursum pubescens, stigmate 
obliquo penicillato. 

British Central Africa. Mount Malosa, near Zomba, 
alt. 4000-6000 ft,, Whytc. 

481. Dolichos shuterioides, Baker fXegiiniinosae-Phaseolea'] ; 
ad D. axilla rem, E. Mey., et I). /hrmosum, A. Rich., magis 

Herba volubilis. Caahs graciles, dense breviter pubescentes. 
Folia petiolata, pinnatim trifoliolata, foliolis membranaceis 
utrinque pilosis, foliolo terminali ovato acuto H-2 poll, longo. 
Ilarroii axillares. peduucuhiti, paueillori. pedicellis pilosis calyce 
brevioribus ; bracteae magna?, scariosa% oblonga;, nervosa', siibper- 
sistentes. Culy.r pilosus, '.] lin. longus, < 1 • ■ 1 1 1 « ■ inlimo laneeolato 
tubo jequi longo, lvliquis ovaiis acuminatis brevioribus. Corolla 
purpurea, calyce duplo longior, vexillo obovato dorso glabro. 
Liyunun lineare, curvatum, planum, glabrum, polyspermum, 

482. Rhynchosia (Cyanospermum) floribunda, Baker [Legumi- 
nosae-Phaseolea ] ; ad /,'. fuhjrinum, (Juill. et Perr., magis accedit. 

Caules lignosi, sarmentosi, juniores pilis stepe glanduliferis 
dense pubescentes. Folia distind m trifoliolata, 


foliolis subcoriaceis obtusis integris sparse pubescentibus e basi ad 
medium trinervatis, terminali obovato 2-3 poll, longo ; stipulas 
lanceolate, parvre. Peditnculi lignosi, axillares, elongati, furcati. 

Racial densi, 2 4 polLlongi, pedieellis calyee vix lon.Liioribus dense 
glanduloso-pubescentibus ; bracteai magme, ovate, pubesctntes. 
Oa/g.e, ilore expanso. i lin. longus, dense glanduloso-pubescens, 
dent ibus obtusis tubo vani]>;m n lato suh; t -. ( u il.xmis. ( '■ >r<u 'In saturate 
rubra, extus leviter pubescens, calyee dimidio Ionginr. Legumen 
1 le r 11 ;um, dispermum, pubescens, 6 lin. longum. 


483. Rhynchosia nyasica, Baker \ Leguminosas-Phaseoleje] ; ad 
R. s, t Irn<ln,tr,n, Kchweinf., et R. Mnaannla,,,, DC., accedit. 

Caulex erecti, graciles, lignosi, pilis reflexis haud gland uliferis 
dense pubescentes. Folia petiolata, pinnatim trifoliolata, sub- 
coriacea, utrinque dense pubescentia, foliolo terminali cordato- 
orbiculari integro subacuto 12-18 lin. longo et lato: stipuhe 
parva\ laneeolata*. Uar.-ial axillares, laxi, subsessiles, paueitlori, 
rhachibus dense pubescentibus. pedieellis brevissimis ; bracteai 
parvae, caduca*. Cafg.e pubescens, 2 lin. longus, dente inlimo 
lanceolato tubo aequilom>-o, dentibus superioribus connatis 
brevioribus. Corolla u lin. longa. vexillo pubeseente ilavido 
venis longitudinalibus nigris percurso. Ornriuni cylindricum, 
pilosum, pauciovulatuin ; stylus elongatus, incurvaius. Legumen 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karonga, 
alt. 2000-COOO ft., Whgte. 

Caiiles recti, lignosi, pilis mollibus patentibus band glandu- 
liferis dense persistenten|iie pilosi. Fnliu luwiter petiolata, 
pinnatim trifoliolata, foliolis imbricatis cordato-orbicidaribus- 
cuspidatis integris utrinque pubescentibus, terminali i\-~\ poll. 
longo et lato; stipuhe parvee, lanceolate*. Uacemi axilhuvs, 
dense pubescentes, superiores elongati multitlori, inferiores 
breves pauciflori ; pedicelli brevissimi ; bractee parva>, lanceo- 
lata-. Ca/i/.e dense pubeseens, 3 lin. longus, tubo campauulat... 
dentibus ovato-acuminatis tubo paulo brevioribus. d.rolht u lin. 
longa, vexillo pubeseente flavo-viridi venis longitudinalibus 
atropiirpnreis apice anastomosantibus percurso. Orurium cylin- 
drietun, (Wn^v pubescens, pauciovulatuin ; stylus longus, incur- 
vatus, glaber. Legumen ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Between Mpata and the 
commencement of the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, alt, 2000- 
3<KH) ft., Wlujte. 

, Baker [Leguminosae-Phaseoleae] 
, magis accedit, 
ides lignosi, graciles, sarmentosi, superne pilis l«te brunneis 
apice glanduliferis dense pubescentes. Folia distincte 


petiolata, pinnatim trifoliolata, facie saturate viridia, sparse 
pubescentia, dorso dense pubescentia, foliolo terminali ovato 
integro acuto 18-21 lin. longo ; stipula; parva;, ovatae. Racemi 
densi, multiflori, pedunculati, terminales et laterales, rhaeliibus 
dense pubescentes, pedieellis brevibus ; bracteaa magnae, obovato- 
cuspidatii', pubescentes. ('a/y.r dense pul»eseens, ;")-() lin. longus, 
dentibus imequalibus lanceolatis tubo a-quilongis vel paulo 
longioribus. Corolla calyce paulo lousier, vexillo rubro dorso 
pubescente. Ovarium dense pilosum, pauciovulatum ; stylus 
elongatus, incurvatus, pubeseens. Lnjmnm ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
and between Mpata and tlie Xyasa-Tan-anyika plateau, alt. 2000- 
3000 ft., Whyte. 

■186. Rhynchosia divaricata, Balwr [Leguminosae-Phaseoleaa] ; 
ad It. viscosam, DC, magis accedit. 

Caules graciles, lignosi, sursum pilis brevibus ssepe glanduli- 
feris dense pubescentes. Folia petiolata, pinnatim trifoliolata, 
facie viridia sparse pubescentia, dorso albida dense pubescentia, 
foliolo terminali ovato acuto integro 2 poll, longo; stipulae 
parvaB, lanceolate. Patiicahr amphe, laxa), terminales, ram is 
dense glanduloso-pubescentes, racemis paucifloris, pedieellis inlimis 
calyci aequilongis ; bracteas parva?, ovata 1 , caduceie. Cali/.r ;> lin. 
longus, dense pubeseens. dentibus lanceolatis tubo campanulafo 
aequilongis. Corolla calyce duplo longior, vexillo obovato extus 
pubescente atro-purpureo albo variegato. Ovarian, dense pilosum. 
Leg u mm H poll, longum, dense pilosum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt, 6000-7000 ft., 

487. Rhynchosia sphaerocephal a, Baker [Leguminosae - Phase - 
oleae] ; ad72. viscosam, DC, et /.'. ea rilxva,,,, DC, accedit. 

Cauh-s volubiles, graeiles, pilis appressis baud glanduliferis 
pubescentes. Folia longe p.-tiolata. pinnatim trifoliolata, foliolis 
ovatis inteirris I —2 poll, longis ; stipuhe pubescentes, 
lanceolatae, persistentes. Jtaremi axil lares, densi, paucifiori, 
pedunculati, pedieellis brevissimis ; bracteaj lanceolata», calyce 
breviores. Calyx dense pubeseens, ."> lin. longus, tubo, campan- 
ulato, dente infimo lanceolata tubo aaquilongo, dentibus reliquis 
Iatioribus brevioribus. Corolla calyce duplo longior, rubro- 
purpurea, vexillo orbicular! glabro, carina breviter rostata. 
Ovarian, cylindricum, pubeseens, pauciovu latum ; stylus, 
longus, incurvatus. apice penicillatus. Lrgamm ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
common, Whyte, 211. 

4SS. Eriosema cryptanthum, Jiakn- [Le<,onninosa>Pbaseolea>] ; 

medium tenens. 

Frnfr.r ramulis Iiguosis rectis dense persistenter albido-pubes- 
cens. Folia breviter petiolata, ascendentia, digiiatim trifoliolata, 
foliolis oblae WJittis e medio ail basin sensim 


angustatis, venulis facie dorsali elevatis, foliolo terminal i 1X-21 
lin. longo, lateralibus minoribus ; stipula? . magna?, lineares. 
Race mi terminales, densi, subglobosi, foliis ascendentibus occulti ; 
pedieelli brevissimi ; bracteaa lineares, pubescentes. Calyx pubi- 
scens, 3 lin. longus, dentibus deltoideis tubo campanulato 
aaquilongis. Corolla calyce paulo longior. Ovarium oblongo- 
eylindricurn, pubescens, biovulatnm. Leyumen ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Plateau of Mount Zomba, alt. 
5000-6000 ft,, Whyte. 

• [Leguminosa3-Ca3salpiniea3] ; ad 

petinlata, foliolis :i-i-juiris peti. 
glabris '21, — II poll. l<m-is. />u„>rnfm densa', terminates, ramis 
int'erioribusaxillarilnisei r;imu lis bruuneo-pubescentes ; bracteola3 
obovata?, cucullata\ eonarea*. persistentes, i lin. longa?, brunneo- 
velutinae. Calyx abortivus. Prlala sulwpialia. anirusn, un- 
guiculata, bracteolis breviora. Stamina petalis valde lon<jiora. 
Ovarium oblongum, dens.' pilosutn. paueiovulatuui, stipite brevi 
crasso ; stylus elongatus. Leyumen ignotum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6oi>0-7i>< hi t'r., 

490. Parinarium (Sarcostegia) floribundum, Baker [Rosaceae- 

ChrysobalaniNc j : ad /'. t>nl ; iumlru,ii, Benth., magis accedit. 

Arbor ramulia validis lignosis glabra. Folia breviter petinlata, 
(.l.lon-a. (ilitusa. I -.'. poll, tonga, coriacea, basi rotundata, ufrimpte 
glabra, facie nitida griseo-viridia, dorso pallida. Panirulce 
corymbose, tenninales «■[ Ian-rales, densa'. 1-6 Dull. lata', pedieulis 
erectis crassis glabris. Culyri.s tubus turbinatus 2 lin. longus, 
baud gibbosus, iniiis solid us : limbi setmn-nta orl.iculanu, 2 lin. 
longa et lata, valde imbrieata, exteriora glabra, interiora niatvinibus 
incana. Prfa/a nrbieulara. sepala vix superantia. Stamina per- 
niulta, antberis oblongis parvis. tilamentis eontortis 5-6 lin. 
longis. Ovarium dense pilosum ; stylus elongatus, contortus. 

Hrrba perennis, humilis, e basiramosa. Caules foliiferi breves, 
caespitosi. Folia crebra, opposita, basi connata, ascendentia, 
lanceolata, obtusa, G-9 lin. longa, utrinque albo-hispida, mar- 
ginibus setis albidis ciliata. < 'aa'/esjforifrri breves, graciles, erecti, 
pubescentes, foliis 1-2-jugis valde reductis solum prsediti. Cymce 
plures, in paniculam pirvimi thyrsoideam aggregate; pedicelli 
breves, pubescentes. Calyx \ lin. longus, segmeiitis "> lancrolatis 
]tiibfsr.'i)til)iis. I'rlala Ianceidata, calycr dnplo longiora. Stamina 
petalis breviora, antheris globosis minutis. Carpella staminibus 
aequi longa. 

British Central Africa. Rocks of Mount Zomba, alt. 4000- 
6000 ft., Whyte. 

493. Kalanchoe flammea, Stapf [Crassulaceae] ; proxim- 
K. //laarrswnti, Britten, sed foliis brevioribus brevius pedia 
cellaris, calycis segraentis liberis vel subliberis, corollae tubi et 
loborum proportione diversa. 

Prrrnnis circiter H ped. alta, glaberrima. Caulis parce ramosus, 
civbre foliatus. Folia obovato-oblonga, obtusa, abrupte vel sensim 
in petiolum attenuata, intermedia majora, circiter 2 poll, longa, 
U-H P ol] - lata > vix glanca, rrasse ca'most. iutegra vel obscure 
repando-crenata ; petioli !, poll, longi, $-£ poll. lati. Cymae in 
corymbum densum, 3-3^ poll, latum "dispositae ; pedunculi 
2-4 poll, longi ; rami inferiores 1^-3 poll, longi ; pedicelli 
2-3 lin. longi. Bractcce lineares, obtusiusculse, ad 2 lin. longae, 
eadnea'. Finn* 1-meri. Calyx ad basin partitus, segmentis 
liberis vel basi tenuissime connp>xis angustis lineari-laneeolatis 
acutiusculis 2-2\ lin. longis. Com/la- 1 angulus, 4£-5 lin. 
longus, flaveseens ; lobi ovati, acuti vel cuspidati, 3£-4 lin. longi, 
2 .J, •"» lin. lati, nibro-aurantiaei. Glandules lineares, 1 lin. longa?. 
Cfwjtr/fa 3 lin. longa ; styli 1 lin. longi. 

iland, J//.S.S Cole, (Cult, in horto 

Arbor, ramnlis lignosis apice albo-incanis. Folia alterna, 
breviter peri. data, oblonga, integra, subacuta, 2-3 poll, longa, 
snbcoriacea, facie glabra, dorso albido-incana. Fhres polygami, 
in eapitulas densas globosas terminales et axillares aggn-gati. 
Calyx parvus, canipanulatiis, pilis stellatis brunneis lepidotus, 
dentibus "> parvis obtusis. Vrtala f>, subulata, falcata, glabra, 
brunnea, 3-4 lin. longa. Stamina brevia, filamentis latis brevis- 
simis, antheris valva Iaterali dehiscentibus. Ovarium 2-loculare, 
ovulis solitariis pendulis ; styli breves. F rutins ignoti 

British Central Africa. Mount Malosa, alt. 4000-6000 ft., 
Wlujh: This discovery adds a curious Cape genus to the flora of 
Tropical Africa. 


495. Weihea malosana, Baker [Rhizophoreae] ; ad W.africanam, 
Benth., arete accedit. 

Arbor., ramulis lignosis sursum leviter pilosis. Folia breviter 
petiolata, opposita, oblonga, obtusa, subcoriacea, inciso-cn-nata, 
facie glabra, dorso ad costam pubescentia. Flo res 1-2-ni, 
axillares et terminales, pedicellis brevibus pilosis. Ca/i/.r 3 Lin, 
longus, parce pilosus, tubo brevi, lobis 5 ovato-lanceolaris. Prtala 
calyce paulo longiora, angusta, unguiculata, apice laciniata. 
Stamina circiter - 2i>, ealyci HMjuilonga, antheris oblongis parvis, 
filamentis subulatis glabris Ovarium globosum, basi ad calycem 
adnatum ; stylus staminibus aequilongus, subulatus. Fraetus 

British Central Africa. Mount Malosa, near Zomba, 
alt. 4000-5000 ft., Whyte. 

Rami floriferi graciles, glabri. Folia subopposita, fere mem- 
branacea, glabra, oblonga, circiter semipollicaria, acute acuminata, 
basi rohmdata. Pac'-mi graciles, flexuosi, atque llores pubescentes, 
pedieellis brevibus ; bracteae angustae, quam flores breviores, cito 
decidu33. Flnrrx ;il)sque staminibus exsertis circiter 9 I'm. lnniri, 
fere recti.— C. paniculata, Laws, in Oliver's Fl. Trap. Afr. II. 
p. 434, partim. 

West Tropical Africa. Onitsha, Barter, 1857. 

497. Eugenia (Syzygium) masukuensis, Baker [Myrtaceae] ; inter 
E. owart'ensem B^auv., et E. eordftfam. Laws., medium tenens. 

Arbor, ramulis liimosis virgatis 4-angulatis glabris. Folia 
breviter ])etiolata. obl'mnra. ncuta. erassa, rigide eoriacea, 2-3 poll. 

( [i/oaf multiflora\ globosa\ in paniculam corymbosam 2-3 poll, 
diam. aggregatae. Calyx sessilis, obconicus, brunneus, glaber, 
2 lin. longus, dentibus parvis semiorbicularibus. Stamina 
calyce breviora. Petal a oblonga, calyce breviora. 

British Central Africa. Masuku plateau, alt 6500- 
7000 ft., Whyte. 

498. Dissotis Whytei, Baker [Melastomaceae] ; ad D. john- 
stonianamTBsikeT fil., arete accedit. 

Frute.r ramulis lignosis 4-angulatis scabris sulcatis validus. 
Folia brevissime petiolata. oblonga, acuta, 3 poll, longa, basi late 
rohmdata, e basi ad apicem 5-uervia, facie viridia scabra, dorso 
flavo-viridia etiam scabra. Ci/ma- ad apices ramulorum in 
paniculam parvam congesta* : bracteae cito deciduae ; pedicelli 
brevissimi, scabri. Cah/ris tubus campanulatus, 3 lin. longus, 
setis brevibus sparsis aseetidentibus albidis munitus ; lobi 5, 
seminrbiculares, parvi, patuli, persistentes. Petala obovato-cuneata, 
violacea, 6 lin. lomra. An flora' majores 3 lin. longae, connectivo 
elongato basi antice producto. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba, alt. 4000-6060 ft., 

apice obtusa vel minute emarginata, flavo-viridia, penninervia, 

vt.'iiis priiuariis erecto-patentibus. Gym re simplices, paucitl<>ra\ 
axillares, breviter pedunculate vel sessiles ; pedicelli calycibus 
longiores. Calyx campanulatus, limbo patulo obscure dentato, 
1 lin. diam. Fractax globosus, 3-4 lin. diam., calyce persist enter 

British Central Africa. North Nyasa-land, Whyte. 

500. Trianthema nyasica, Baker [Ficoideae] ; ad, 
Vahl, accedit." 

Hrrba perennis. Can Irs graciles, glabri, decumbentes ramosis- 
simi. Folia sessilia, oblanceolata, subcarnosa, glabra, obtusa, 
4 lin. longa. Flore* permulti, sessiles, axillares. Galyris tubus 
iiii'umlibularis, 2 lin. longus ; lobi 5, patuli, ovati, acuti, tubo 
aequilongi. Capsala conica, membranacea, uniloculars, poly- 
spermy, medio cireumsoissa. Snui/ia atra, reniformia, rugosa. 

British Central Africa. Monkey Bay, Lake Nyasa, alt. 
M)() it, Whyte. ^ *' y 

Hrrba gracilis, ramosa, erecta, glabra. Caa/rs leves, profunde 
ilcati. Folia inferiora ignota ; caulina breviter petiolata, 
■rnata, segnu 'litis lanceolatis acutis serratis. Umbel kv primai-ia? 
-S-radiata\ bracteis involucri obsoletis ; umbelhe secundaria' 
-'J-ilora?, bracteis linearibus minutis. Cuh/ris denies obsoleti. 
■rtala alba. Frue/us planus, oblongus, ii lin.' longus, iugis dorsal- 

5(M 10-701)0 ft., 


Hrrba erecta, elata, robusta, habit u Iferaeho S/i/mmlylio si mills. 
Cmtl»s validi, inultisiilcati, suporne scabri. Folia nulicalia ignota ; 
can lii ia simpliciterpinnata, segmentis 3-5, magnisobovatiscrenatis, 
infimis furcatis. Umbelhe primarisu 15-20-radiata?, involucri 
bracteis linearibus persistentibus 12-15 lin. longis ; umbella? 
secundaria3 multifiora3, bracteis consimilibus multo minoribus. 
Ga/yris lobi obsoleti. Prtala alba. Frarfus obovatus, planus, 
4 lin. longus, jugis dorsalibus 3 elevatis, 2 lateralibus in alas 
1 lin. latas prod net is : vittae solitariae ; carpophorum tenue, 
medio furcatum. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
Whyte, 22i. 

503. Peucedanum valeriansefolium, Baker [Umbelliferae] ; a 
speciebus reliquis africanis facile distinguitur foliis radiealihus 
integris caulinis lyrato-pinnatifidis. 

Herha perennis, gracilis, eivcta. idabra. Co a Irs I eves, profunda 
sulcati. Folia inferiora distincte petiolata, parva. obhmga, acuta, 
obscure crenata, basi longe cuneata : caul'iiu lyrato-pinnatifida. 
Vinbrlht' pritnariaa ti-<S-radiaTa>, t*-is minims linearibus albo- 

uiiniitis linearibus. ( 'alt/cis 1< 
oblongus, planus, jugis dorsali 
in alas latas productis. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba, alt. 40O0-G00O ft., 

504. Vernonia humilis, C. H. Writ/hi [( Ytrnposita'-Vernoniaceae]; 
pubescens, foliis oblongis acutis glandulosis, capitulis 4-G-iioris. 

Can/ is herbaceus vel sublignosus, pubescens, 10 poll, altus 
Folia 1 poll, longa, 4-5 lin. lata, alterna, oblonga, basi apice.pie 
acuta, brevissime petiolata. dentata. 'jlandulis aureis pellucidis 
punctata. Capitula 4-G-flora, 4 lin. longa, in corymbos terminales 
disposita. Invnlnrro m campanulatum, bracteis paucis iinbrieatis 
ovatis obtusis marginibus scariosis. Corolla regulariter tubulosa. 
Antherce basi obnisa', a pice appendices triangulares scariosas 

Tropical Africa. German East Africa: Lower plateau, north 
of Lake Xyasa, J. Thomson. British Central Africa : Mt. Mlanje, 
6000 ft., McClounie, 30. 

The leaves contain numerous pellucid glands, on the surface of 
which in the more recent specimens are golden globules. In 
older specimens the surfaces of the leaves appear densely 

505. Helichrysum concinnum, X. E. Brown [Composita3-Inu- 
loideae] ; H.cnehh-a riformi. DC. prophnpium sed capitulis mino- 
ribus pallidioribus oblongis differt. 

Herha 6 poll, alta, e basi ramosa. Caules graciles, erecti, supra 
paniculatoramosi, laxe foliosi, lanato-tomentosi. Folia linearia 
vel lineari-oblonga, 3-6 lin. longa, 1,-1 lin. lata, sessilia. utrinque 
lanata, apiee fusco-apiculata. Ca/Jfufu 2 lin. longa, U-l;j lin. 
diani . laxe comymbosu-pai lie ii lata, prdirolktta. ob]on<:a.5l >- hO-flora. 

i-oblongae, suba 

ores filifortnes ; 

This ])l;int was assigned by Harvey to //. <■•„■!> Ira ri/>o •////>. DC, 
but it is perfectly distinct from that species, although allied to it, 
differing in its more numerous, much smaller, oblong, and much 

paler coloured flower-heads. In H. cochlear if orme, DC. {H. stel- 
latum, Less., var. globiferum, Harv.) the heads are 3-3| lines in 
diameter, globose, and dark tawny brown in colour. 

506. Athrixia stenophylla, Baker [CompositaB-Inuloideae] ; ad 
.4. ib ibilem] TDC, madagascariensem magis accedit. 

Herba perennis, glabra. Caules graciles, stricti, erecti, 2-3- 
pedales, ad apiceni foliati. Folia alterna, ascendentia,, lineari- 
subulata, 1-2 poll, longa. Capitula homogama. discoidea, pauca, 
in corymbum terminalem diposita ; pedunculi elongati, graciles, 
foliis paucis reductis praediti. Involucrum campanulatum 3 lin. 
longum, bracteis pauciseriatis lanceolatis glabris squarrosis. 
Achivnia angulata, oblonga, glabra, \ lin. longa. Pappi setae 
rigidae, achsmio duplo breviores, et paucas dilatatae, paleacese. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
Wliyte, 219. 

507. Schistostephium microcephalum, l>ab-r [Compositae-Anthe- 
mideae] ; ad S. h&ptalobum, Benth. et Hook, fil., arete accedit. 

Hcrba perennis, erecta. Caxlrs virgati, albo-pubescentes, ad 
apicem foliati. Folia alterna, simpliciter pinnata, parva, segmentis 
linearibus planis mucronatis, infimis 6-9 lin. longis, | lin. latis. 
Ciipituhi multa, homogama, discoidea, 2 lin. diani., in corymbum 

inaequilongis appressis albo-pilosis. Corolla lutea, \ lin. longa, 
lobis parvis ovatis. Acluenia glabra, angulata, \ lin. longa. 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karonga, 

508. Schistostephium artemisiaefolium, Baker [Compositae- 
Anthemideae] ; ad S. heptalobum, Benth. et Hook, fil., magis 

Hcrba perennis, erecta. Can Irs albo-pubescentes, ad apicem 
crebre foliati. Folia sessilia, ascendentia, alterna, bipinnatilida, 
9-12 lin. longa, segmentis linearibus acutis rigidulis marginibus 
revolutis facie sparse dorso dense albo-pilosis. Gapitula homo- 
gama, multiflora, 3 lin. diam., in corymbum terminalem disposita, 
pedicellis pedunculisque dense albo-pilosis. Inv&lucruin cam- 
panulatum, l\ lin. longum, bracteis lanceolatis rigidulis appressis 
inaequilongis albo-pubescentibus. Corolla lutea £ lin. longa, lobis 
parvis ovatis. Achwnia glabra, \ lin. longa. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 
Whyte, 225. 

509. Senecio (Kleinia) antitensis, Baker [Composite— Senecio- 
nideaa] ; a S. melastomatfolia, Baker, recedit pedunculo elongato, 
capitulis discoideis. 

Suffrutex glaberrimus. Folia ad apices ramorum conf ^ rta ' 
oblonga, subacuta, sessilia, basin versus sensim angustata, 15-18 
lin. longa, siccitate rugosa, e basi 5-nervia. Pedunculi gtobn, 
graciles, erecti, subpedales. Capitula pauca, discoidea, laxe 

corymbosa, pedunculis capitulis longioribus erectis. In vol uc rum 
campanulatum, 3 lin. longum et latum, bracteis circiter 8 oblongo- 
linearibus obtusis. Flares involucro paulo longiores. Pappus 
albus, corollas tubo aequilongus. Acluenia matura ignota. 

Mount Antety, Forsyth Major, 678. 

Hrrha perennis, erecta, subcarnosa, tripedalis. Cuu/rs validi, 
glabri, in tertio inferiore crebre foliati. Folia producta, oblan- 
ceolato-oblonga, integra, subacuta, ad basin longe attenuata, 
majora 5-6 poll, longa 1 poll, lata ; superiora reducta, remota, 
parva, linearia. < 'a pit u la discoidea, homogama, terminalia, pauca, 
corymbosa ; pedunculi elongati, validi, erecti. Involucrum cam- 
panulatum, 1 poll, diam., bracteis 13-14 lerpialibus (iis, quae parvae 
basales in speciebus hujus generis excitari solent, nullo modo 
excitatis) lanceolatis subcoriaceis glabris. Corolla lutea, 6 lin. 
longa. Acluenia cyJiudrica, glabra, 2 lin. longa. Pappus albus, 
mollis, 6 lin. longus. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 

Ilerha perennis, subpedalis, erecta. Caul** simplices. gruciles, 
albo-incani, ad apicem foliati. F<>/ia alterua, sessilia, erecto- 
patentia, linearia. integra, 2-3 poll, longa, facie virblia glal>ra. 
doreo albo-incana. Capita/a I -'A, terminalia. liomogaina. diseoidea. 
Involucrum campanulatuni, V-l'2 lin. diam., bracteis multiseriatis 
appressis pubescentibus, interioribus lincari-snltidatis. exterioribus 
sensim brevioribus lanceolatis. Com//// 5 lin. longa, lobis lin- 
earibus. Acluvnia angulata, pilis albisascendentibus dense villosa. 
Pappus albidus, setosus, rigidulus, 4 lin. longus. 

Nyika plateau, alt. 6000-7000 ft., 

Herba perennis. Can Irs decumbentrs. graeiles, subpeda 
sajpissime simplices, superne albo-incani, ad apicem foliati. F< 
sessilia, linearia, integra, 2-'.) poll, longa. facie viridia glabra, dc 

tubulosa, 12-18 lin. diam. I„r>>/urru,n -ampanulatum, mil 
seriale, 15-18 lin. longum. bracteis rigidulis appressis imbriei 
leviter albo-araneosis, interioribus linearibus, exterioribus lam 
latis. Corolla, 6 lin. longa, cylindrica, lobis linearibus. Acha; 
angulata, pilis albis ascendeniibus dense villosa. Pappus all 
setosus, rigidulus, 6 lin. longus. 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karon 
alt. 2000-6000 ft, Whyte. 

513. Blseria raicrodonta, G. H. Wright [Ericaceae] ; fruticosa, 
foliis oblongis glabris minute dentatis, sepalo uno (postico ?) 
ceteris niulto longiore. 

Frutex ericoideus. Rami primum cinereo-tomentosi. Folia 
1-1^ lin. longa, oblonga, glabra, minute dentata, subtus unisuleata, 
supra costa elevata, petiolis \ lin. longis. Inflorescentia 
tenninalis, (ebracteata ?), floribus "tetrameris circa 12 umbel lati in 
dispositis, brevissime pedicellatis. Srjiata libera, unum oa'teris 
multo longius bracteolum simulans. Corolla suburceolata, 1 lin. 
longa, lobis late triangularibus. Stamina, subexserta ; antherse 
bilobatas a]>ice magniporosae, basi aristata3. Ovarium qnadri- 
loculare, multiovulatum ; stylus ■ quam corolla duplo longior, 
stigmate subpeltato. 

British Central Africa. Mount Mlanje, 6000 ft.« 
McClfmnie, 55, 75, 95. 

The absence of glandular hairs on the leaves gives this species 
a very characteristic appearance. One of the four sepals greatly 
exceeds the others in size, and at first sight gives the flower the 
appearance of being unibracteolate. The odd sepal is often green 
and leaf-like and as long as the corolla. 

514. Oncinotis Batesii, Sta r f [Apo<-yn;»c<w] ; proxima O.nitidce, 
Benth., seel petiolis lon-i-. foliis maj< »ri bus, nervatione minus 
conspicua, floribus paulo majoribus distincta. 

Snua/rns, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra. Rami teretes, fusci. 
Folia oblonga, acuminata, basi acuta, ."».'.- 1. ', poll, longa, U-2 poll, 
lata, coriacea, utrimpie nitidula, nervfs utrinque 12 rectis sub- 
marine arcuatim conne.vis ])roininentibus, vents prominulb ; 
petiolus longtts. i'aairula: vel rarenii terniinales vel sub- 
teriniuales. 2- 1 poll, lonui. minute rut'o-toinentelli : bractea> inox 
decidual; pedicelli 1-1!, lin. longi. Calais se-menta ovato- 
elliptica vel elliptic;,. 1.', |]„. lon-a, in d orso m i n . it e ru f'o-i ontentella, 
dense eiliata. Corolla viridi-lutea ; tubus intus dense albo- 
villosus, 2 lin. longus ; lobi mbo a-qitilongi, subobtusi ; squauue 
fauciales lineares. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons, Efulen, Bates, 403. 

Caulrx 1-2 ped. lon-i, -raciles simplices vel basi ramosi. 
volubilos, glabri. Folia V\-'.Y-\ poll, longa, \-\\ lin. lata, iineana 
acuta, basi in petioles 1-2!, lin. longos attenuata, plana nisi q 1 '" 1 ' 
margines angustissime revohme sunt, glabra. I 'i/okv umbelli - 
formes, ad nodos laterales, peduneulata', t;~l2-tlone. I'dhnirah 
3-«; I'm. longi, et pedicelli 2-2!, l"ui.lon-i. titriqtio unitarian! pubendi ; 
bractea 1 \ lin. longa\laneeolato-subulata>, glabne. Sr/>a/a laneeolata. 
acuta, glabra. Corolla profunde 5-loba, '.\ I'm. d'uun.. lobis 1 . r -1 4 
lin. longis | lin. latis erecto-patentibus eucullatis apiee inctirvis 
acutis glabris. Corona subsimplex, breviter cupuliformis, pen- 
tagons levissime 5-loba, 4, lin. alta, lobis erectis obtusis anthens 

appressis nee adnatis. Antherw erecte, appendicitis metnhni- 
naceis ovatis subacutis supra styli apicem convexuin inflexis. 

Madagascar. Without locality, Baron, 2036. 
The very reduced corona of this species slightly resembles that 
of G. sarcostemmatoides, K. Schum. 

516. Cynanchum longipes, N. E. Brown [Asclepiadea?] ; 
('. poljfantho, K. Schum., affinis sed petiolis duplo longioribus et 
corona? lobis incurvis facile distincta. 

( V/ a les volubiles, unifariam puberuli. Folia distantia ; petiolus 
3-3^ poll, longus, gracilis, minute puberulus ; lamina 2-3 poll. 
longa, 1 ] — :2 poll, lata, late ovata, breviter acuminata, basi cordata, 
venis minute puberulis. ('//nor umbelliformes, laxa?, 5-12-flora?, 
pedunculata? ; pedunculi 2-6 lin. longi, unifariam puberuli ; 
pedicelli |-1 poll, longi, subfiliformes, puberuli. Srjmla | lin. 
longa, %-\ lin. lata, oblonga, acuta, glabra. Corolla? lobi 2^ lin. 
longi, \ lin. lati, oblongi, obtusi, apiculati, utrinque glabri. 
Corona 2 lin. longa, quam columna staminum duplo longior, 
tubulosa, 10-dentata, intus nuda, dentibus alternis majoribus 
apice plus minusve bifidis vel ime.malit.T bidentatis, omnibus 
inarcuatis. Antherw subsessiles, subquadrata?, appendicibus ovatis 
acutis supra apicem styli inflexis. 

Upper Guinea. Lagos ; Papalayito, Millen (1895 collection), 48. 

Can lea 9-12 poll, alti, erecti vel apice subvolubiles, siinpliees 
v.I pauciramosi, bifariam pubescentes. Folia patentia, subsessilia, 
H-3 poll, longa, .', I I'm. lata. I'm. -aria, acuta, plana vol marginibus 
afigustissime iwoluta, fere glabra, in costis marginilms.pie pi lis 
pan. 'is aspfi'sa. < '//ouv unibelliformes, ad nodos laterales, pedun- 
culata', H>-2<Mlora'»; pedunculi 6-9 lin. longi, pedicelli U-2;| I'm. 
longi, utrique pilis curvatis minute pubescent os. " Scpala 
§-f lin. longa, ^ lin. lata, ovata, acuta, subglabra vel parce 
puoeecentia. Corolla usque ad | quinqueloba, lobis 1-1^ lin. 
longis \ lin. latis land tnsis giabris. Corona 

| lin. longa, urcoolata. plioato-pontagona. ore conrracto, 5-dontata, 
intus nuda, dentibus ovatis obtusis cucullatis. Staminum 
columna quam corona duplo brevior, anthera? sessiles, deltoidea?, 
crassa3, appendicibus membranaceis anguste lanceolatis inflexis. 

Madagascar. Without locality, Baron, 109. 

518. Ceropegia fusiformis. A'. K. Brow a [Asclepiadea?] ; ab 
omnibus "speciebue Africse tropicse tubo corolla? ad partem 
mediam fasiformi-inflato differt. 

Caulis volubilis, glaber. Foliornm petioli 6-8 lin. longi ; 
lamina? \%~Z\ poll, longa?, \-l\ poll, lata;, ovata? vel elliptico- 
oblonga?, acuta? vel breviter acuminata?, apiculata?, basi cuneato- 
angustata?, glabra;, marginibus parce et minute ciliolata?. 
Iojlorrsrrnlia subumbellatim 6-10-flora ; pedunculi 1-lf poll, 
longi, laterales, glabri ; pedicelli glabri, 3-4 lin. longi. Sepala 


2 lin. longa, elongato-ovata, in subulam complicatam attenuata. 
Corolla) tubus 1^ poll, longus, curvatus, basi ovoideo-inllatus, 
2 lin. diam., ad partem mediam fusiformi-inflatus 3 lin. diam., 
extus glaber, intus parte inferiore hirtus ; lobi 4-4| lin. longi, late 
deltoidei, apiee connati, valde replicati, glabri. Gnroniv. lobi 
oxTfi-ioivs > lin. Iongi, : f lin. lati. late ovaio-deltoidei, apice minute 
bifidi vel emarginati, intus birti ; lobi interiores 1^ lin. longi, 
erecto-conniventes, quam columna staminum multo longiores, 
oblongo-lineares, basi angustati, dorso hirti. 
Upper Guinea. Lagos ; Abeokuta, Millen (1895 collection), 89. 


Hnha perennis, glabra. Caules acute tetragoni. Folia 
cauhna ovata, acuta, sessilia, opposita, 2-2\ poll, longa, e basi 
trinervia Panicula ampla, bifurcata, ramis cymosis longe 
pedunculatis, pedicellis elongatis. Srpala cuspidata, 4 lin. longa, 
dorso late alata. Corolla} tubus ampullaeformis, ealvci subrrqui- 
longus; limbus expansus 12-15 lin. diam, lobis obovatis aeutis 
patulis. Antherce lineari-oblongre, 2 lin. longse, e tubo corolbe 
breviter protrusa?, filamentis brevibus filiformibus. Stylus fili- 
formis, stigmate capitate 

Madagascar. Forest of Isohimanitra, province of Tanala, 
This is much the finest and most florif erous species of the genus. 

Hrrhu perennis, glabra, radiee lignosa. Outfit-* graciles, tetragoni, 
e.vspitnsi. <;-'.» pull. l<„,-i. F„n„ opposita, brevissime petiolata, 
nblongodanrrolata, acuta, 5-h lin. longa. 1 .',-2 lin. lata, linuula. 
glabra, basi cuneata. F/nrrs solitarii, axillaris, pedicellis ascen- 
dentibus. Calyx li lin. longus, tubo brevissimo, lobis lanceolatis 
acuminatis. Corolla tubus cylindricus, apice dilatatus. 8-9 lin. 
longus ; lobi albi, patuli, rotundati, cuspidati, 5-G lin. longi. 
Genitalia in corollas tubo inclusa. Fructus ignotus. 

521. Swertia nummularifolia, Baker [Gentianaceae] ; a $.//tnnila y 
Hochst., reeedit foliis caulinis 1 5 jugis. cytnis condensatis pauci- 

Ilrrha perennis, glabra. Cot/Irs erecti, 4-6* poll, longi, simjrlices 
vel profunde furcati, graciles, tetragoni. Folio iiasalia rosulata, 
caulina 4-5-juga, orbicularia, sessilia, obtusa, basi rotundata, 
firmula, viridia, 3-4 lin. longa et lata. Cymce pauciflorae, con- 
densataa, terminales. Sepala, oblonga, obtusa, herbacea, viridia, 
2 lin. longa. Corol/ce tubus campanulatus, calyci sequilongus ; 
lobi obovati, obtusi, lutei, purpureo tincti, tubo paulo longiores. 
Antherce e corolla? tubo protrusaD, lobis triplo breviores. 

MADAGASCAR. Mount Antety, above Ambositra, Fo-si/fh 
Major, 641. 

Adds this genus to the flora of Madagascar. There are several 
species on the mountains of Tropical Africa. 

522. Solanum nakurense, C.H. Wright [Solanacese] ; fruticosum, 
ramis glabris, folds parvis oblongis leviter siiutatis, antheris 
demum rimis dehiscentibus. 

Frutex 3-pedaIis. Ha mi teiiues, glabri. Folia 8 lin. longa, 

utrinque pilis patteis simplieibus vestita. Ci/oia- subumbellata\ 
prope ramorum apices productse, pedice.ll is inerassatis. Ca/i/.r 
2 lin.diam. ; lobi anguste triangulares, tubo reuuilongi, sub-labii. 
Corolla rotata (alba ?), 5 lin. diam. : Lobi 5, angusti, acuti, subuis 
pubescentes. Aotlcra subsessiles. oblong-e, primum poris maim is 
terminalibus demum rimis longitudinalibusdehiscentes. Ocariam 
ubloiigum, g lab rum ; stylus quam stamina duplo longior. 

British East Africa. Nakuru, Scott Flliott, 0800. 

Allied to S. carense, Dun., but much smaller in all its parts and 
having perfectly glabrous branches. 

/. invoh 

cymbiformilius subuis longe pilosis differt. 

supra pilis appressis vestita, subtns dense tomentosa, 4-;> 
longa, 3-4 poll, lata, petiolis 2-3 poll, longis. Flores cap 

peduneuli 2^ poll, longi ; bracteae cymbiformes, acutae, s 

pilis longis pra-serthn ad basin vestita-. (ai/i/cis lobi sub 
quam tubus paulo longioivs, ad apieem dense pilosi. C< 

hlnXl " 's'/n , / w i 7 il ,;,n'?o,,' 1 lla\limi l ii.Vluvvi(!n i a 

British CENTRAL Africa. Zomba. Fir/;; Whole; Xyasa 

Zomba garde 

524. Tecoma Whytei, G. H. Wright [Bignoniaceae] ; fruticosa, 
f(di(»lis late'lanceefaiis aeufis bast mtundatis obscure crenatis. 

Folia pinnatim 4-5-juga ; foliola breviter petiolata, subtus ad 
nervorum axillas pilosa, 1 poll, longa, 7 lin. lata. Ratrmi ter- 
minates, bracteolis subulatis ; pedunculi 5 poll, longi; pedieelli 
5 lin. longi. Ca/i/.r campanulatus, 6 lin. longus, dentibus 5 late 
trianyularibus aciitis. G»,-<>lhr tubus 1 J poll, longus, curvatus, 
supernr dilatatus; lobi 6 lin. longi, oblongi, apice rotundati, 
2 superiores erecti, 3 inferiores patentes. Stamina lobis su- 
perioribus corolla? aequilonga ; filamenta interne pilosa. Ovarium 
parvum, oblongum. 

British Central Africa. Zomba Plateau, 5000 ft., Wlv/tr. 

The flowers of this species resemble those of T. Nyasxa', Oliv., 
but the shape of the leaflets is quite different. 

Herba perennis, fibris radicalibus multla gracilibiis. Folia 
8-10, rosulata, breviter petiolata, subrotunda, obtusa, 1-^—2 poll. 
longa, utrinque pubescentia, siccitate rufescentia, e basi quin- 
quenervia. Peduneuli graciles, glabri, 6-9 poll, longi. Spie<t> 
cylindrical interdum 8-9 poll, longaj, sursum densiflorse, deorsum 
laxillorae ; bractese § lin. longae, sepalis consimiles. Septt/a 
oblonga, obtusa, 1 lin. longa, glabra, medio brunnea, marginilms 
late albida. Corolla; lobi p:irvi, oblongi, scariosi, patuli. Stylus 
% lin. longus. fa oblonga, glabra, disperma. 

708 ; Betsileo-land, Hit 

There are very few species of Plant t up > in Madagasrax ami 
tropical Africa. P. palnxtta, to which this is nearly allied, is 

Herba erecta. Cuulrs ramosi, pubesoentt's. Fofia petiolata, 
panduriformia, inferiora :>-! poll, longa, lobis basalibus magnis 
ovatis vel oblongis obtusis. Sirica densse, breves, simplices, 
terminal es ; bractese ovatae, acutse, albae, floribus breviores. 
Pfi'ianfhiit))} '2-21, lin. longutn, segmentis 6blongo-lan<vi.hti> 
acutis, albis, carina concolore trinervata. Ovariaai ampulla;- 
forme, in stylum longum sensim attenuatum, stigmate minuto. 

Portuguese East Africa. Zambesi valley, between Tette 
and the coast, Kirk. 

elongato C. 

Suffrntex sarmentosus. Pain all graciles, elongati, sursum 
pubescentes. Folia parva, petiolata, oblonga, acuta, obscure 
pubescentia, ad basin angustata. Cynuv in spicas oblongas 
terminales aggregate ; bracteae minutae. Perianthiam album, 
2 lin. longum, segmentis oblongis 2 lin. longis, carina concolore 
trinervata. Ovariam ampulla^forme ; stylus 2 lin. longus. 
Utriculus viridis, perianthio valde brevior. 

'ortugese East A 

*>2S. Celosia chenopodiifolia, Baker [Amarantaee;e] ; ad C. 
trt(/>/t)a>/>~T\Ann., aco-dit ; ivecdit ttoribus duplo minoribus, fructu 
e perianthio exserto. 

Catties gracillimi, straminei, glabri. Folia perparva, oblonga, 
integra, ad basin attenuata. t't/axe pauciflora\ in spicas termi- 
nales elongatas sursum densas aggregate. Perianthium album, 

I lin. longum, segmentis oblongis obtusis viridi-earinatis. 
Utriculus viridis, globosus, e perianthio exsertus ; stylus 
Angola. Chella mountains, Sir H. H. Johnston. 

529. Celosia semperflorens, Baker [Amarantaceaj] ad C.frit/i/Ham, 
Linn., aceedit : recedit spicis densis, fioribus duplo minoribus 
et stylis duobus. 

Herba, caulibus erectis ramosissimis glabris. Folia pet i< .lata, 
oblnnga vol ovato-lanceolata, Integra, basi cuneata, glabra, viridia 
vel sanguinea, inferiora 2 poll, longa. Spicce breves, densaa, 
simplices vel basi composita- ; braetea- ovata 1 , minuta 1 . J'rri- 
anthiuui album, ;< lin. longum, segmentis oblongis obtusis haud 
viridi-earinatis. Utriculus globosus, perianthio a'<,uilon-us : 

British Central Africa. Abundant at Blantyre, flowering 
nearly all the year, Buchanan (1881 collection), 52. 

Caalrs graciles, elongati, glabri, parum ramosi. F'/ut ].rr]>arva, 
oblonga, subsessilia, basi angustata vel rotundata. ''//'""' pauci- 
florae, in glomerulos globosos congest*, glomerulis in spicis 
elongatis laxis dispositis ; bractea3 ovata?, minuta-. Frriaulhium 
album, | lin. longum, segmentis oblongis obtusis baud viridi- 
earinatis. Utriculus globosus, viridis, e perianthio exsertus ; 
styli 2, brevissimi. 

Uganda. Hannington. 

531. Celosia loandensis, Baker [Amarantacoa-] ; ad (\ trit/i/nuni, 
Linn, accedit ; reeedit habitu suffruticoso, floribus minoribus, stylis 

SiijVniti'.v, ramis elongatis. Ramuli multi, breves, patuli, 
glabri. Folia, petiolata, ovata, acuminata, glabra, basi eordata. 
Cymce in glomerulos globosos congest*, glomerulis in spicis 
bnvilms terminalibus interruptis dispositis ; bracteae ovatre, peri- 
anthio breviores. Perianthivm album, 1 lin. longum. segmentis 
ovato-oblongis ; carina viridi-brunnea. Utriculus globosus, e 
perianthio exsertus ; styli 2, brevissimi. 

West Tropical Africa. Angola ; province of Loanda, under 
1000 ft., Welwitsch, 6537 b. Lower Congo, C. Smith. 

532. Celosia nana, Baker [Amarantacerc] ; annua, stigmatibus 2 

Herba annua, glabra, ramosissima. Hamuli 3-4 poll, longi. 
Folia per])arva,ubi(inga,subsessilia, ad basin angustata. Ci/nurhix-.v, 
iterruptas aggregate' ; brae tea? ovata', 

' ut\ 


Welwitschii, Baker [Amarantaceae] ; ad H. 
(uirf/rrui, hcliinz, arete accedit ; receclit fioribus majoribns lobisque 
staminiferis longioribus tricuspidatis. 

Hrrhd perennis glabra. Caairs graciles, virides. Folia sparsa, 
sessilia, linearia, 1-2 poll, lonya. Spinr densa\ simplices, 1-4- poll. 
longae ; bractese ovatae vel ovato-lanceolatai, perianthio valde 
breviores. Periantliiuni nivemn, ?> I'm. longum, segmentis ovato- 
oblongis acutis dorso distincte toinervatis. ('a pa la sta mini/era 
brevis, lobis elongato-quadratis tricuspidatis. 

Portuguese West Africa. Province of Mossamedes, 

U'rhrilsrh, 6502. 

ruli axillares et in paniculam oblongam terminalem 
aggregati ; flores steriles spinosi, straminei ; bractea? ovatae, 
perianthio valde breviores. Frriunthium 2 lin. longum, basi 
lanosum, segmentis rigidis lanceolatis viridibus albo-marginatis. 
Stamitaxlia quadrata. Ovarium oblongum ; stylus elongatus, 

Portuguese West Africa. Province of Mossamedes, 

athula Mannii, Bah-,- [Ainaraniaee;v] ; ad G.cijlindricum, 

perennis, ramosa, 6-10 pedalis. Hamuli sursum pilis 
•stiti. Folia breviter petiolala, ovata vel oblonga. acuta. 
dense pilosa, inferior.! '!-?■> poll, longa. (Ihnneruli in 
longas terminales aggregati. supremis exceptis reflexi ; 
sterilium spina 1 flnriluis lertilibus longiores, apice 
bractea? seariosae, ovatae, acuminata*, albidae. Pvrian- 
>um, 2 lin. longum, segmentis oblongo-lanceolatis pilosis. 

536. Cyathula polycephal 

nirantacea-] ; ad C.ylubali- 

Hrrha perennis. Rama, 

\uZ^\ poll.dia.n. a-rUg 
L-rminales disposita ; br 
,reviores. Pnarnthi a m-A\ 
cuminatis scariosis. Spit 


i. Folia breviter petiolata, 
i. (ilomrruli in capitula 
10-1"), in paniculasspicatas 
. scariosa', alba-, tloribus 
igum, segmentis lanceolatis 
ei ianthio aquilongae. 

British East Africa. 

Kapti plat* 

•an, Masai-laud, alt. 5000- 

6000 ft., Joseph Thomson. 

:>;'.7. Psilotrichum ( 
cano, 01iv.,recedit, habitu herbaceo, foil 
omnibus terminal il mis. 

piloso ; bractea- parva>, late 
ovata3. Porinntliiii ,» album, 2 lin. longum, segmentis oblongo- 
lanceolatis rigidis pubescentibus. Stuuv norfia abort iva. Stylus 
btvvissimus, stigmate capitato. 
British Central Africa. Blantyre, Last. 

5:-W. Psilotnchum trichophyllum, Baker [Amarantacea3] ; a P. 
africann, ( »li v., recodii t'oliis lirmis subsessilibus utrinque dense 

Sitjf,ut<'.r, ramulis lignosis dense pubescentibus. Folia sub- 
sessilia, oblonga, 1|— 2 poll, longa. acuta, lirutula, utrinque dense 
pubescentia. Sp'a'ir dcnsa\ pauci11<u\-e, in paniculam parvam 
terminaitmi disposita?. Perianthium album, 2 lin. longum, 
segmentis oblongo-lanceolatis rigidis pubescentibus. 

Portuguese East Africa. Lower part of the Zambesi valley 

539. Psilotrichum debile, /;'//.</■ [Amatuntacea.] ; a l'.a/r,ran" 
Oliv., recedit L'oliis obnvatis su Itsi-ssilibus, ramulis elongatis 

Hrrba perennis. Kama?/ 
subsessilia, obovato-cuneata 
mucronata, utrinque pub 
oblongaj, 1 poll, longa', rbacbi subrecto dense piloso ; bracteiu 
ovatse, pubescentes, ftoribus paulo breviores. I'rriunihl>iHi album, 
2| lin. longum, segmentis uhlungo-laneeulat is rigidis dense 
pubescentibus. Sfanii 'aodia quadrata, pilosa. Stylus elongatus, 
stigmate capitato. 

Angola. Wdwitsch, 6570. 

540. Psilotrichum rubellum, Baker [Amarantacea?] ; a P. schim- 

H,;-h„ perennis. crecta. Caab-s graciles. 

tlrma perem 

centes. Folia t 


eretes, glabri. Folia 


petiolata, cordato-ovata, 1 poll, longa, acuta, dorso dense pubes- 
centia. Panicula ampla, laxa, ram is a-eend'-nribus. ramulis capil- 
laribus flexuosis, spicis paucifloris. Preian/hiom viride, pilosum, 
1| lin. longum, segmentis exterioribus oblongo-lanoeolatis rigidis 
dorso distincte trinervatis. 
British East Africa. Sabaki River, Melinda, near Mombasa, 


Herba perennis. Caulea graciles, virgati, glabri, albidi, viridi- 
srriuti, an-iilati. Putin ]j^t iolata, linearia, inie-ra. glabra, ad basin 
attenaata. Spicw densae, primum oblongas, demum cylindrica:, 
2-3 poll, longae ; bracteae lanceolatae, scariosae, deflexse, glabra, 
1^ lin. longae; bracteolae ovatae, ascendentes, periantbio duplo 
breviores. Perianthii segmenta rigida, lanceolata, glabra, 2 lin. 
longa, medio viridia, marginibus pallide rubra. Stamina 
peranthio paulo breviora. Ovarium ovoideum ; stylus elongatus. 

British Central Africa. Between Kondowe and Karonga, 
alt. 2000-6000 ft., Whyte. 

543. Achyranthes Carsoni, Baker [Amarantaceae] ; ad^.. oblanceo- 
latam, Sebinz, arete accedit. 

Herba perennis, pedalis. Gaules simplices vel furcati, erecti 
ad nodos solum pilosi. Folia paucijuga, sessilia, lanceolata 
vel oblanceolatu, subeuriaeea, viridia, glabra, centralia 1-2 poll, 
lonura 3-4 lin. lata. S/iinr simplices, densifkme, terminales. lonire 
peduneulat ,-e. i .") poll, longae, floribus inferioribus patulis band 
reflexis ; bractese parvae, ovatae, acuta-, alba'. Perianthiiun album, 
^labium, 3 lin. longum, segmentis rigidis lanceolatis, carina 
distincte trinervata. ' Stamina perianthio multo breviora. Stylus 
elongatus, stigmate capitato. 

British Central Africa. Fwambo, Lake Tanganyika, 
alt. 5000-6000 ft., Carson (1893 collection), 8. 

544. Polygonum (Persicaria) nyikense, Ba/;er [Polygonaceaa] ; 
ad /'. Put ret ii, Meissn., accedit ; recedit spicis cylindricis, in pani- 
culam brevem aggregatis. 

Cauli* ramosus, modice robustus, glaber. Folia lanceolata, 
3-4 poll, longa, utrinque setis sparsis appressis vestita ; ocbreae 
magna-, ad apie. in apptv.-s;e, dorso pilis sparsis inunit e, mar-ine 
setis densis ciliabc. Sjn'ra- subdeiis;i\ 1-2 poll, bm^e, >-|t>, 

545. Pilea floribuada, Baker [Urticaceae-Urticeos] ; a speciebus 
omnibus"afrir.t" » i.h .'. b~ n-'imir t'oliis magnis breviter petio- 
latis cymifl in paniculam laxam dispositis. 

Caules sublignosi, pubescentes. Folia oblonga, acuta, breviter 
prtiolata, 8--9 poll, longa, medio 2.\-3 poll, lata, ad basin sensim 
angustata, obscure crenata, facie glabrata, dorso pubescentia, e basi 
ad medium triplinervia. PanicnUr- axillares, monoicae, foliis 
paulo breviores, ramis pubescentibus patulis vel reflexis, cymis 
ad apices ramulorum congestis. Perianthii segmenta ovata, 
acuta, pubescentia, f lin. longa. Stamina perianthio aoquilonga. 
Flores feminei et fructus ignoti. 

546. Gymnosiphon squamatum, C. If. Wright [Bnrmanniacese] ; 
(t. nxambarico, Engl., proximum, scd pi-nantliii 1 < >I >is cxtvrioribua 
integris differt. 

Herba debilissima, glabra. <'an!is asivndrus. 3-4 poll. Innarns. 
Folia - 

exteriores integri, ovati, interiores desunt. Stamina perianthii 
fancibus aillxa. Orarhnr, globosum, uniloculare, multiovulatum ; 
stylus perianthii tubo aequilongus, stigmate trilobato. Ca/jsula 
globosa, 2 lin. diam. 

West Tropical Africa. Sibange Farm, Gaboon, Soyaux, 
167, 168 ; Efulen, Cameroons, Bates, 311. 

547. Syringodea luteo-nigra, Baker [Irideae] ; ad S. hirnlnrem, 
Baker, magis accedit : recedit segmentis periantliii tubo paulo 

( 'f/rniHs glol»>sus, lin. diam., tunicis membranaceis brunneis. 
Fitia basal ia 1-5, teretia, gracilia, rigida, glabra, flore longe 
supiTanlia, pedalia, I I'm. diam. Pnlimnilns brevis, strictus, 
erectus, uniflorus, 2-3 poll, longus ; spathae valvae 2, lineares, 
sequilongae, sursum rigidae, deorsum membranaceaj. Perianthii 
tubus gracilis, cylindricus, apice dilatatus, 14-15 lin. longus ; 
segim-nta oblonga, tubo longiora, aurantiaca, dorso nigrescentia, 
15-18 lin. longa. Genitalia segmentis distincte breviora. 

Cape Colony. Queenstown division, on the summit of the 
Andries Berg, near Bailevtown, alt. 6350 ft., and on the Hangklip 
Mountains, alt. 6600 ft., (la! pin, 1516. 

'tlrer [Irideae] ; ad A./>ani'-ulatam,V-AX, 

■to-patentes ; pedicelli 2 lin. longi. Peri- 
(>snla oblongo-globosa, 3 lin. longa, obtuse 
. torulosis. 


549. Aristea zombensis, Baker [Irideae] ; ad A. panicnlatnm, 
Pax, etiam accedit. 

Folia radicalia 5-P>, linearia, rigidula, pedalia, 3 lin. lata, 
conspicue nervata, nervis crebris. Caults pedalis, gracilis, angu- 
latus, folds 3-4 ascendentibus praeditus, infimo elongate, reliquis 
valde reduetis. ('apitula riorum superiora sessilia, infimum 
breviter pedunculatum ; bracteae exteriores magnae, oblongae, 
integrae, marginilms lafe-inembranaeea>. I'erianthium caeruleum 
3 lin. longum, segmentis oblongis. Capsula oblonga, parva, 
subsessilis, obtuse angulata. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba, alt, 4000-6000 ft., 

550. Glaiiolus (Hebea) stenophyllus. Baker [Irideae] ; a G.eduli, 
Benth., reeedit folds subteretibus staminibus perianthio paulo 

Coram* globosus, parvus, tunicis fibrosis supra collum longe 
productis. Folia basalia rigida, subteretia, glabra, facie canali- 
culata, subpedalia. Caulis gracilis, simplex, folio unico reducto 
vaginante praeditus, 6-9 poll, altus. Sj/ica simplex, seennda, 
midtiflora, 2—1 poll, longa ; spathae valva exterior parva, oblongo- 
lanceolata, 3-4 lin. longa. Perian/hinm rubellum, 13-14 lin. 
longum, tubo brevi anguste infundibulari 5 lin. longo, segmentis 
superioribus oblongis cuspidatis basi cuneatis, segmentis inl'eriori- 
bus 3 oblanceolatis longe unguiculatis superioribus a'quiloniris. 
Stamina limbo paulo breviora. 

Cape Colony. Queenstown Div. : Hangklip Mountains, 
alt. 5800 ft., Galpin, 17t>0. 

551. Gladiolus (Eugladiolus) Whytei, Baker [Irideae] ; ad 
(,'. hreri/ntinm, Jaeq., et (1. at mn>i ,■/>>. (mi m, Haker, accedit. 

Cormus globosus, 1 poll, diam., tunicis exterioribus fibris 
robusris parallelis pereursis. Fatin radicalia ad bracteas reducta. 
Ca>//is gracilis, pedalis, foliis 3-4 rudimentariis apicibus liberis 
anguste linearibus brevissimis pra'ditus. Spied simplex, laxa, 
seennda, t> 12 poll, longa; spathae valva exterior viridis, oblongo- 
iiiivii-.ilaris, 0-12 lin! buiga. I'n-iantlii nm pollicare ; tubus 
eurvatus, infundibularis, 1 lin. longus ; tegmenta superiora oblonga, 
obtnsa, a'f.-< .-purpurea, eueullata, basi euneata ; 3 inferiora paulo 
Longiora, alba, limlio par\o medio atro-purpureo. ungue angusto 
elouuato. Stamina segnmntis superioribus paulo breviora. 

ladiolus venulosus, Baker [Iri.Ie.a-] : 
., Handh. Irnl.p. 2: 

leviter curvatus, f> lin. longus ; segmenta superiora oblongo- 
spathulata, haud cncullata, 12-15 lin. longa ; inferiora consimilia, 
vix minora. Stamina limbo duplo breviora. 

553. G-laciiolus nyikensis, Baker [Iridere] ; ad (ijiraiitii. Hiker, 
magis accedit." 

Cormus globosus, parvus. Caali* gracilis, pedalis, foliis 6-8 
anguste linearibus rigidulis glabris praeditus, infimo pedali, 
superioribus sensim minoribns. Spica laxa, aecunda, semipedalia ; 
spathae valvae exteriores 12-15 lin. longae, basi ovatae, scariosas, 
ar-nminibus herbaceie. virides. Peria nflti '" m album, plus minusve 
lilacino tinctum ; tubus curvatus, infundibularis, semipolliraris : 
segmenta superiora oblongo-spathulata, subacuta, haud cncullata, 
15 lin. longa; inferiora consimilia, vi\ minora. Stamina limbo 
triplo breviora. 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt. MOO-Tnou ft., 

554. Gladiolus (Eugladiolus) Johnstoni, Baker [Irideae] ; ad 
G. quartinianum, A. Rich., magis accedit ; recedit floribus 
minoribus rubris segmeniis suprrioribns minus eueullatis stami- 
nibus brevibus. 

Folia radicalia laneeolata, rigide coiiacoa. 1 2-1.5 lin. lata, venis 
marginibusque incrassatis sirammeis. ('unlix simplex, foliis 
patieis rudinientariis vaginaut duis |>r:odi ms. S/'irtt simplex, laxa, 
secunda, tj-'.' poll, longa: spatlue valva exterior viridis D-15 lin. 

longa. Perianthium rubrum; tubus curvatus, ini 
longus ; segmenta superiora oblonga, leviter < 
longa : segmenta inferiora multo minora. Start 

ram lSbo triplo 

IbuTisn Central Africa. Blount Zomba a 
alt. 4O0O-600O ft., H hj/te. 

ad Mount Malosa, 

A fine plant, which would be well worth 

introducing into 

555. Gladblus masukuensis, Baker [Iridete] ; 

a,, 0. ,„ri,h, m 


550. Hypoxia (Euhypoxis) oligophylla, Baiter [Amaryllidaceae- 
Hypoxidere] ; gracillima, uniflora, foliis 2-3 lineari-subulatis. 

Cormus oblongus, 3-4 lin. diam., tunicis interioribus mem- 
branaceis supra collum productis. Folia producta 2-3, erecta, 
lineari-subulata, 2-3 poll, longa, obscure pilosa, uninervata, costa 
incrassata angulata. * Pnhiaralus gracilis, uniflorus, erectus, 1^-2 
poll. Inngus, superne pilosus. P-rianlhii seinnenta oblonlm- 
laneeolata, 3 lin. longa, facie flava, dorso viridula, leviter pilosa. 
Stamina pm-iantbio triplo breviora, antheris linearibus Int. 'in. 
filamentis brevissimis. Ovarium clavatum, pilosum, H lin. 

Madagascar. Mount Antety, Forsyth Major, 669. 

Of this very dwarf slender mountain species the nearest ally is 
the Angolan H. monanthos, Baker. 

557. Hypoxis (Euhypoxis) malosana, Baker [Amaryllidaceae- 
Hypoxideae] ; ad //. canalicalatam, Baker, angolensem magis 

Folia basalia scariosa, dense pilosa ; cetera producta linearia, 
erecta, rigidula, parce pilosa, semipedalia, 1 lin. lata. Feifmtruli 
3-4, gracilhmi, infra apicem glabri, foliis superantes. Flores 
pauci in racemum brevem aggregati ; pedicelli erecti, dense 
))i osi ; bracteae lineares, parvae. Ovarium tnrbinatum, dense 
pilosum. Pmnn/hii se-menta laneeolata, dorso dense pilosa. 
stamina bivvissinia. Cn/tsula medio circumscissa 

JlZl^Twt,,t™ CA - Mo,mt Malosa ' near Zomba ' 

Fob a basalia scariosa, glabra ; caetera producta, multa, linearia, 
nrmula, pilosa, pedalia, 3 lin. lata. Peilunculi interdum 6-7, 
erecti vel patuh, sparse pilosi, foliis breviores. Flores pauci, in 
racemos laxos aggregati ; pedicelli breves, ascendentes, pilosi ; 
bracteae minutae, lineares. Ovarium tnrbinatum. pilosum. Peri- 
",; ,/// ". -'^'i"'nr,t ebbmga, flava, 3-4 lin. longa, dorso dense pilosa. 
Stamina limbo duplo breviora, filamentis brevissimis. Capsula 

.. [Amaryllideae- 
Amarylleai] ; ex aflinitate ('. ),<mri tl,,ri, Baker. 

Bulhux ovoi.leus, parvus, in cllum baud productus. Folia 
'll- syiiaiitlim, J i ii.-:irj :i , -hd.ra, llaccida, 6-9 poll, longa, medio 
b-< lin. lata. Pnfiniaitii* ^meilis. uniflorus, foliis requilongus ; 
spath.-o valv;,. !;, nroolat.-e. 1 >,ria ntUi a m H essile, tubo cylindrieo 
ereefo vindub»3 poll, longo, segmentis lanceolatis dorso rubro- 
vittatis 3 poll, longis 6 lin. hois. Slumina limbo paulo breviora, 
antheris 3-4 lin. longis. 

East Tropical Africa. Banks of the Zambesi River. 
Flowered in the garden of W. E. Gumbleton, Esq., of Queenstown, 
Ireland, in May 1896. 4 


560. Anthericum (Trachyandra) malosanum, Baker [Liliacew- 
Asphodeleai] ; ad .4. Gerrardi, Baker, magis accedit. 

Folia radicalia multa, anguste linearia, firmula, 6-8 poll, longa, 
pilis mollibus patentibus parce vestita. Pedmicnlux gracilis, 
subteres, brevis, simplex vel furcatus, dense vel sparse pilosus. 
Pacini laxissimi, ('.-«.) poll, longi, pedicellia brevibus solitariis 
eernuis, iipice articulatis : bractese minute, membranacea', aeuta*. 
vindi-carinata'. J'rria nfltiitm 3 lin. longum, segment is albidis 
\ii-idi-carinatis. Stamina pcriamhio paulo breviora, antheris 
oblongis filamentis paulo brevioribus. ( 'a/isnfa Lilobosa, nuirieata, 
2 lin. diam. 

Mount Malosa, near Zomba, 

561. Anthericum (Dilanthes) Whytei, Baker [Liliaceae-Aspho- 
deleae] ; ab .4. triJl<»-<>, Ait., (A. Cameroni, liab'r) praesertim 
recedit foliis pubescentibns. 

Folia linearia, chartacea, pedalia, et ultra, 6-9 lin. lata, venie 
crebris elevatis, utrinque dense persistent er pubeScenittrnd. 
]>(>(! nncnlm anceps, aphyllus, simplex, pedalis. Han-ma* simplex, 
brevis, superne densus, pedicellis brevibus medio articulatis, 
inferioribus 2-3-nis ; bracteae ovata>, parva>, imbneahe, brunnese. 
I'manihium 3 lin. longum ; segmenta oblonga, alba, carinata, 
carina pallide ln-unnea. Stamina penanthio paulo breviora, 
antheris linearibus ma^, filann-ntis brevittrfxai*. Ovarium 
globosum ; stylus antheras superans. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba, alt. 2500-3500 ft., 

-Asphodelese] ; 

Folia radicalia sessilia, lanceolata, membranacea, glabra, pedalia 
et ultra, medio 1-2 poll, lata, venis laxis perspicuis. h'acrmi 5. 
c.vlindrici, elongati, ascendentes, paniculam amplam formantes ; 
pedicelli 3-i-ni, breves, pubescentes, medio articulati ; bracteae 
lanceolate, inferiores marine, /'m'unthium album, oblongum, 
3 lin. longum, segmentis lanceolatis obscure carinatis. Stamina 
p lianthiu paulo breviora, antheris parvis oblongis. Ovarium 
globosuni, acute angulatum ; stylus elongatus, curvatus. 

British Central Africa. Mount Zomba, alt. 2500-3500 ft,, 

tnliosi ; pedieelli i-recti. 3-6 poll, longi; bracteae 
he. Pri iantltinm oblongum, segmentis albis laete 
xterioribus lineari-oblongis 1 poll, longis. interi- 
ibus apice incurvatis. Stamina 6, segmentis 

interioribus paulo brevinra. antln ri- omnibus fertilibus, filamentis 
applanatis. Stylus triqueter, trisulcatus, validus, ovario oblongo 
duplo longior. 
Transvaal. Ad/am. Flowered at Kew, June, 1897. 

564. Albuca (Falconera) nyikensis, Baker [Liliacere - Scilleae] ; 
ad .4 cuudulam, Jacq., et A.faxtiyiutam, Dryand., magis accedit. 

Bulhux globosus, magnus. Folia linearia, glabra, deorsum 
9 lin. lata, ad apieem sonsim atienuata I'cd a nmhix elongatus, 

pedicellis erecto-patentibus, inlimis l.V-2 poll, longis ; bracteae 
lanceolatae, acuminata;, pedicellis b re vio res. Pcrianlhium oblon- 
gum, 1 poll, longum ; segmenta lineari-oblonga, alba, dorso 
carinata, carina la-te viridi mult Inervata. Stamina perianthio 
paulo breviora. aniberis omnibus fertilibus, filamentis linearilius. 
Ovarium oblongum ; stylus validus, ovario paulo longior. 
Cajisuhi ovoidea, 9 lin. longa. Semitia multa, turgida, opaca, 

British Central Africa. Nyika plateau, alt, GOOO-7000 ft., 

(''(mil's alte scandens, 80-100 ped. longus, parte florifem i*> lin. 
crassus. F>Iio,-nm petioli C.-10 lin longi ; laminae 8-21 poll, 
longa?, 2]-4;j pull lata 1 , elongato-oblongo-lanceolatae, acuminata), 
valde obliqme vel subf'alcata', l.asi cuneato-acuta>, glabra', venis 
numerosis parallclis ascendentibus leviter curvatis. Pedmiculi 
3-5 poll, longi, glabri. Sputha circa 1-1J, poll, longa, elliptico- 
oblonga, acuminata, dum convoluia rostrata, glabra, alba, Sjiadix 
sessilis, 'M,A poll, longus. Ovarium imperfecte 2-loculare, ovulis 

UPPER GUINEA. Fernando Po, Mann, H>:>. Sierra Leone, near 
Sakuru, S>-<>tt /•////'//, 4910. and near Kurusu, Scott Elliot, 5524. 
Ashantee, Assin-yan-Coomassie, Cummins, 47. 

506. Rhaphidophora pusilla, N. E. Ih-mvn [Aroidere] ; species 
caule tenuissimo et spathis parvis facile distinguitur. 

( 'milis tenuissimus, },-i lin. crassus, radicans, glaber. Foliorwn 
petioli 1-1;] poll, longi"; lamiiue 5-0!, poll, longa", I.j-1^ poll, lata;, 
suboblique lanceohtta-, acuminata', basi cuneato-acuta', utriuque 
glabra', venis numerosis parallclis. Prdanrnti 1 | -2 poll longi, 
graciles, quam petioli duplo brevion'S. Sputim 7-9 lin. longa, 
circa )) lin. diam., dum convoluta cylindrica stibnlato-rost rata. 
Spudi.r 4-5 J, lin. longus, sessilis. Ovarium imperfecte 2doculare 

F m:\cn Congo TERRITORY. Gaboon: Sierra del Crystal 

Pennisetum (BecieropsisJ Kirkii, Stapf [Graminese- 
*] ;~P. unispto, Benth., consimillima, sed gluma ii. magis 

t ;i-,Vn.'rvi. et glumis iii. et iv. similibus distincta. 

Culmi erecti, graciles, ramosi, superne plus minusvo triquetri. 
glabri, lews, multinodi. Fni 'inrii m vagina- subarctae, glabra 1 
vel ad nodos parce pilosae ; ligulas ad pilorum series reductae ; 
lamina? lineares vel lanceolato-lineares, longe attenuate, basi 
angustae vel subpetiolatae, ad 1 ped. longa?, 5 lin. latae, firmula% 
su'>glauca>, scaberulae vel marginibus exceptis leves. Kan-mi 
longe tenuiterque pedunculati, solitarii vel geminati, e vaginis 
superioribus orti, 1-2 poll, longi., rhachi scabrida. Sjnruhir subim- 
brieatae, lanceolato-oblongae, acutae, 1-H lin. longae, seta basali 
circiter 1 poll, longa ; gluma i. rotundata," hyalina, enervis, £ lin. 
longa, ii. ovata vel oblongo-lanceolata, acuta vel acuminata, 
ten niter 15-5-nervis, minute scaberula spiculam aiquans vel «1 imi<.lio 
brevior ; caetera ut in P. uniseto. 

568. Andropogon (Sorghum) trichopus, 8tapf [Graminea-Andro- 
pogoneae] ~~A. bipennato, Hack., allinis, sed paniculae ramulis sub 
spieulis eiliatis et arista brevi 4 lin. longa distincta. 

Culmi 4-f> ped. alti. graciles. F<>li<>ru m vaginae superiores 
longissiniae, glabrae, leves ; ligulae pubescentes ; lamina? subse- 
taceo-convoluta-, glabra', leves, summae 4-6 poll, longa;. Pauicula 
erecta, lineari-oblonga, 6-10 poll, longa ; rami primarii ad 4 poll, 
longi, 6-articulati, secundarii ramulosi, flexuosi, patuli vel demum 
erecti, filiformes vel capillares ; ramuli ultima' ordinis sub 

lanceulaia' vel lanceolato-oblonga-, 2-2 [, lin. longa-, pallida-; 
gluma i. truncata, sub apicehyalinoalbo-pilosa, tenuiterS-9 nervis ; 
ii. glabra, apice hyalino-triangularis, minute liliata; iv. quam 
ii. paulo brevior, ovato-oblonga, obscure 2-dentata, arista 4 lin. 
longa : pa lea nulla. AiitJtrnr 1 j lin. longa*. PriVinVi steriles 
el'-ganter eiliati. quam spieula- sessiles \ hreviores. 

TAPPER GUINEA. Niger Region, Nupe, in open plains, Karter. 

569. Anthoxanthum madagascariense, Stapf [Gramin 

Culmi erecti vel suberecti, ad 1 ped. alti. Folia .'5-4 basi 
et 1 vel 2 a basi remota ; vagina- glabra-, leves vel minutiss 
scaberulae, striata? ; ligube truncata', \-l lin. longa' ; lam 
lineares, subcallose acutae, inferiores \-\\ poll, longa- U-2 
latae, rigidulae, secundum margines reverse pilosae, caetei 
plerumque glaberrimae, in nervis saepe sparse minuteque scaber 
prominenter .striata'. Pauicula spiciformis, ad 2 poll, lo; 
ramulis pedicellisq tie pilosis. S/ucuhr purpurascentes, 2£-2§ 
longae ; gluma i. 1-nervis quam ii.3-nervii paulo brevior ; "iii. e 
aequales, pilosula-, 2j I'm. longa-, vacua 1 , ilia supra medium brev 
haec infra medium longi us aristata ; v. obtusissima vel i 
marginata, 5-nervis, vix 1 lin. longa ; palea sub tlore hermap! 
dito glumae v. asquilonga vel paululo longior, tenuiter 1-nei 
Stamina 2 ; antherae 1 lin. longse. 

Madagascar. Without locality, Baron, 2050, 4098. 


This species belongs to R. Brown's genus Ataxia which has 
been reduced to //V,W//V, but wrongly, us ir lms much more in 
common with nthum. It is very near the South African 
A. Kchlnnii, Stapf (Hierochloe Ecklonii, Nees), which has, how- 
ever, larger and pale green spikelets and sometimes a male flower 
with glume iii. 

570. Ehrharta delicatula, Stapf [Gramineae - Phalarideae] ; 
affinis E. ~rrrta; Lam., Bed dift'ert duratione annua, spiculis 
minoribus, staminibus 3. 

Annua, ad 1^ ped. alta. (.'uhni goniculati, graciles, glabri vel 
minute pubescentes, circiter 3-nodi. Fnlinrum vaginae arctae, 
glabrae vel pilosae ; ligulae breves, truncatae ; laminae lineares, 
1-3| poll, longae, 1-2 lin. latae, flaccidae, minute pilosulae vel 
glabrescentes. Panicula angueta, Bubsecunda, I 'M, poll, longa, 
rhachi glabra filiformi, ramis capillaribus patulis simplicibus vel 
puree r;iniiilosis. Spicules s;i-i»r minutes. 1-1.', lin. longae; gluma 
i. lanceolata, acuminata, § lin. longa, 3-nervis, pilosula vel glabra ; 
ii. similis, 1 lin. longa ; iii. and iv. anguste oblongae vel obovato- 
oblongae, subacuminatae vel acutae, 5-nerves, transverse rugosae, 
ebarbatae ; iii. paululo brevior ; iv. basi utrinque appendice 
semiorbiculari ornata ; v. elliptico-oblonga, minute truncata vel 
subueuta, 5-nervis, iv. aequans. Lodicula; glabrae. Stamina 3 ; 
antherae \ lin. longae — E. panirca var. ri/s/iidala^ees in Fl. Afr. 
Austr., p. 225 (var. mucronata, p. 226) ex parte. 

Cape Colony. Little Namaqualand, near Mieren Kasteel, 
among shrubs, Drhje, 508. Tulbagh Division, Roodezaiul, Dri/p: 

Nees quotes E. puuicen var. mucronata also from the 
following localities: Elleboog Fontein (Little Naina.juulandi, 
Ebenezar (Clanwilliam Div.) and Slangenhuivel (Tulbagh Div.) ; 
but from the description (I.e. p. 225 & p. 226), it appears that at 
least some of the specimens referred to do not belong here. 

rigidioribus, spicularum glnmis iii. et iv. glabris glumas 
i. et ii. paulo superantibus distincta. 

Perennis, 1-2 ped. alta. Culmi a basi interdum prostrata, 
admodum ramosa, geniculatim erecti, graciles, leves, 6-8-nodi, 
internodio longissimo ad 3 poll, longo. Folium >n vagina; glabrae 
vel reverse villosulae ; liguhebrevissimae,ciliatae ; lamina' lineares, 
breviter acutae, 1-4 poll, longa.', 1V-3 lin. lata-, rigidae, glaucae, 
glabrae vel superne scabcrula- vel \ ilbisula-. Panicula erecta, 
angusta, 1-4 poll, longa, subsecunda, saepissime ad racemum 
redaeta, ramis suberectis vel patulis rarius pendulis subcapillunbiis 
puberulis. Spicuke pallida', oblonga;, 21,-3 lin. longa; ; glumaa i. 
et ii. subaequales, anguste oblongae, obtusae, distinctius nervosa? ; 
iii. et iv. glumas praecedentes paulo superantes, glabrae, ilia anguste 
lineari-oblonga acuta, haec oblonga obtusa mucronata vel minute 
cuspidata saepius transverse rugosa basi utrinque appendice 
gemilunari majusculo ornata ebarbata ; v., ut in E. ealycina, 

Caps Colony. Without locality, liar 
)iv., Table Mountain, EcH»n, 1 11* (]w 
Soetmelka Riv. Burchell, 6712. George Di . 
Burchell, 5974 ; Outeniqua Mts., Montagu Pass, Rehmann, 74. 

Rehmann's specimens have been distributed as E. ram<>$a, var. 
RehHKtnni, Hack. ms. 

572. Agrostis fissa, Stop/ [Grainineae-Agrostideae] ; proxiraa 
.1. srhiniprritmtr. Ilocbst.. sod spiculis paulo majoribus et gluma 
iii. ad ±-\ fissa e fissura aristata et arista longiore distincta. 

Cuhni geniculate 2-3 ped. alti, 8-9-nodi, fore tota longitudine 
vaginati, nodis inclusis. Fuhnruni. vagina- laxiuscule, leves vel 
scaberulae; ligula- 2-3], lin. lunge, in dorso scaberulae ; lamine 
lineares, setaceo-acute, 4-9 poll, longe, li-2^ lift, lata?, plana?, 
flacc'nhe, glance, utrinque scabno. Paniculu laxiuscula, 6 poll. 
longa; rami remote fasciculati, admodum inequales, longiorea 
ad 2 poll, longi, filiformes vel capillares, flexuosi, hispiduli ; 
pedicolli spiculis plerumque breviores. Spicules pallidas, 14-1A, lin. 
longe ; rhachilla brevissime producta, glabra ; glum® i. et ii. 
equales vel subequales, lanceolate, setaceo-acuminata3, scaberule ; 
iii. oblonga, § lin. longa, truncata, ad 4-4; fissa, lobo utroque 
2-dentato, glabro, 5-nervi, nervis lateralibus brevissime excur- 
rentibus, callo glabro, arista gracillima recta vel subrecta e fissura 
orta; palea 1 lin. paulo longior, 2-dentata. Antltenv vix h lin. 
longe.— A. vest i (a, Engl. Hochgcbirejsfl. trop. Afr. p. 128 (quoad 
specimen citatum). 

Abyssinia. 'Gageh Merki,' 8700 ft., Schimper (1SG3-8 
collection), 1093. 

The fissure of glume iii. may already be observed in a very 
yoimy state, and the awn springs right from the base of it. When 
mature the awn is rather decidous. 

573. AgTOstis Volckensii, Stu/jf [(iramincavAgrostidee] ; egrege 
.4. Dunmimuc, Aitch. et Hemsl. (Calamagrostis mnnroanas, 
Hoi**.), foliis tenuiter setaceo-convolutis rigidulis glaucis, arista 
pro spiculis minutis validiuscula, rhachi brevissime continuata 

Cuhni graciles, e cespitibus glaberrimis densis erecti, l-U ped. 
alti, ad vel ultra medium vaginati, 1-2-nodi, nodis inclusis. 
Foliorum vaginae leves ; ligule ad 1 lin. loiiire, hyaline, 
dentieulata- ; lamina- tenuiter setaceo-convolute, infime et 
innovationum ad 6 poll, longe, rigidule, glauce, leves vel 
superiores scaberule. I'miinihi erecta,3- f"» poll. longa, angustissima, 
ramis remote fasciculatis admodum inequalibus (longiorilms ad 
2 poll, longis) eapillaril.ns sparse ramulosis levibus, pedicellis 
scaberulis. S/n'cuhte virides vel purpurascentes, circiter 1 lin. 
longa-, rhaehillae proeessu brevissimo pilosulo ; gluma i. et ii. 
lanceolate, acuminata-, interduni iiiucronulata-. 1 -nerves, carinis 
scaberulis, ii . <piam i. paululo brevior ; iii. quam ii. vix brevior, 
oblonga, truncata, pilosa, basi 5- superne 4-nervis, nervis exteriori- 
bus in setulas asperas breves interioribus in dentes productis, 
callo breviter barbato, arista subbasilari 2 lin. longa ad medium 


geniculata infra tortai palea gliimam iii. sul >;•>. ( nuns, lanceolata, 
2-dentata. Antherce obtusae, j lin. longae. — Tri.« ; la no y/ i 'n//mwfti, 
K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenw. Ost-Afr. C, p. 108, non Hochst. 

German East Africa. Kilimandjaro, Kifinika Volcano, 
Volc/cens, 1856. 

574. Agrostis griquensis, Strtpf [Gramine;e-Agrostideae] ; affinis 
.4. rerfirilffifft', Vill., sed gracilior, spiculis paulo minoribus, 
gluma iii. arisrulata, antheris minitnis. earyopsi lineari-oblonga 

Annua. Culmi geniculati, gracilis, paueinodi. tit tota planta 
glabri, ad 1 ped. alt i. Fnlinrum vaginae leves ; liguhe oblonga\ 
acuta 1 , ad 1 lin. longa;; lamina; angustissime linearis, acuta', 1 2 poll. 
longae, ^-\ lin. lata-, leves vel supra leviter scaberula;. Panicula 
spicifortms, saepe interrupta. densa, perangusta, I 1 \ poll. longa ; 
rami breves, a basi ramulosi, rhachi appressi, asperuli. Sj/iculw 
brevissime pedicellate, | lin. longae, pallide virides ; rhachilla 
haud continuata : gluma i. et ii. subaequales, oblonga 1 , obtusa; vel 
subemarginate, interdum mucronulatae, asperulae, marginibus 
ciliolatis ; iii. quam i. paulo brevior, truncata, apice ciliolata vel 
denticulata, tenuissima, obscure 5-nervis, breviter aristulata, arista 
terminali, callo glabro ; palea ^ brevior, hyalina. Antherce 
\ lin. longae, obtusae. Caryopsia liueari-oblonga, conspicue 
sulcata, \ lin. long, in gluma iii. paleaque arete inclusa. 

South Africa. Griqualand West, near Griquatown, Bun-hell, 

575. Agrostis continuata, Stapf [Graminee-Agrostidese] ; affmis 
A. A7//W//,4Iark.,rt .1. ,,al,,h„\i, Siapl,s,-d -lumis i. et ii. tenuiter 
acuminatis. iii. pilosa. rhachilla coin iunata distincta. 

Culmi erecti, 1-2 ped. alti, ut tota planta glabri, paucinodi. 
Fnliorum vagin;e arcbe, glabra' ; ligula 1 lin. longa, obtusa' ; 
laminae lineares, acute attenuahe. ad ii poll, longa', 1-14; lin. late, 
plus minusve flaccide, scaberulae vel subtus leves. Panicula 
subspiciformis, interrnpta ad l> poll, longa, rami I'aseicitlati, 
fasciculis densis erectis oblongis, admodmn ina-quales, longiores 
ad 2^ poll, longi ad ()-'.> I'm. hit i simplices, ca'teri a basi ramulosi, 
parce asperuli ; pedicelli plerumque spiculis breviores. S/n'rultv 
virescentes 2 lin. long* ; rhachilla brevissime producta, arista 
gracillima 4—2 lin. longa vel rarius gluma imperfecta terminata ; 
gluma? i. et ii. a'qtiales vel suba-quales, lineari-lanceolatae, tenuiter 
acuminate, scaberulae ; iii. oblonga, 1 lin. sublongior, tenuis, 
inferne 5- superne 4-nervis, 4-dentata v.-l l-mucronata (mucroni- 
bus exterioribus plerumque longioribus) secundum nervos 
pilosula, callo minute pilosnlo, arista supra hasin orta scabra medio 
subgt'niculata : pab-a quadrat o-ol »louga, 2-dentata, hyalina, £-£ lin. 
longa. Anthrni- j I'm. longa'. 

P.HlTISH CENTRAL AFHIC.V. Nvasaland, Buchanan (181)1 

Pernnux, 2-3 ped. alta. ('/////</ erecti, ut tota planta glabn, 
5-6-nodi. Folio mm vaginas subarctae, leves ; ligulse ^-§ lin. longae ; 
laminae anguste lineares, tenuiter attenuate, 3-7 poll, longae, 
scaberule vel fi 
4-7 poll. 1( 

fasciculati, fasciculis densissiinis oblongis, admodum inaequales, 
ad 1 1 poll, longi, a basi ramuloei vel longiores ad 3-4 lin. simplices, 
scaberuli ; pedicelli brevissimi. Spiculw pallide virides, circiter 
2\ lin. longae ; rhachilla non producta ; glumae i. et ii. subaequales, 
lineari-oblongae, mucronatae, scaberulae, carina validiuscula j iii. 
oblonga, truncata, 4-dentata vel 4-mucronata, 1 lin. longa, basi 
fi-nervis, superne ±-nervis, callo paree pilosulo, arista recta supra 
basin orta scabra ; palea quadrato-oblonga, truncata. hyal'ma. \ ■', I'm. 
longa. Antherce apiculatae, h lin. longae. C«ri/'>/)*ix oblonga, a couiprcssa, sulcata | lin. longa. 

Natal. Umpumulo, 2000 ft., Rev. J. Buchanan, 159. 

This and the preceding species, as well as A. Elliot ii, are also 
allied to .4. antarctica, Hook, til., and to a few South / 
species which were described by Nees under Brom 
differ from them in the subbasal insertion of the a 

577. Avena Newtonii, Sl<tj>f 


.eae] ; affinia 

i, Hook, fil., glumis i. e 

i ii. fere duplo latioribus 4-7- 


, iii. 9-11-nervi distincta. 


nt tota planta glabri. 

Foliorum eulme 

iriim vaginae 

poll, longae, 

1-U lin. 

lata 1 , plana;, superne et secundum inarij 

eta, \ ped. alta ; ra: 

, imequales, longiores ; 

xd 3 poll, longi ; 

?,"!; !l |m 

vel ad 1 poll, simplices, filifonnes, seal 

. lon^e. 2--S-tlora' ; rhaohilla tenuis, articulo \ 


teteris ad 2 I'm. bmgis longe pilosis ; gluma 

ii. similis, 5 lin. longa, 5- vel sub 7- 

lanceolate, glabra 1 , tei 

luiter granulosa?, 


9- vel sub 11- 



\Un;.^l{n U ilZ S : 

barbato, arista e i 

nedio inserta 
.data 1 .' lin. 


''iin^l'^!l!l i ,mo..^'^?' 1 '. r n t 

- "ubeimla ^Min ''hi 

\ n lm ' 1 ° llga '* 



Mossamedes, Sen 

•a da Chella, 

578. A 

vena, muriculata, Stapf 


lee]; affinia 

A. Xrrsn 

.Ttook. til., spiculis min 

oribus, glumis vac 

•u'ts tenuibus 

i geminati vel 3-4-nati, longiores ad 3 

rliachilla? articuli 
ad U 1 in. longi, pilosi ; gluma? vacua? tenues, subhyalina?, lanceo- 
lata.'-i.3-nervis,3-3i lin.longa; ii..">-'>-nervis. I I), lin.longa; gluma 
florentes breviter exserta?, lanceolatn' (iii. 1-1!, fin. longa), glabra, 
scaberulae, tenuiter 7-nerves, sub apice scariosa? purpurascentes, 
bifida, lobis aristulatis, callo parvo barbato, arista medio 
" " . longa; palea? lineares, 3 lin. longa?, carinis superne 

pidulum. — A. Neesii, Schweinl, Britr. Fl. Arfl,inp, 

long i c le ciliatis. Antherw H lin. longa. Oruriom supra 

medium hispid " 

p. 298, non Hook. fil. Trisrlnn, Xrrsii, Hoehst. ex Strod. S>,o. 

i Flora, 1841, I. 

Without locality, Schimper, III. 1993; Tigre, 
Mt. Sholoda, Schimper, I. 402 ; Amba Harres, 7500 ft., Srhimprr 
(1802 collection), 1002 ; Shoa, Ankober, Both. Eritrea : Mt, 
Bizen, 6000 ft. Schwrinfin-th < 1892 collection), 2018. 

magis dispersis, glu 
3 distincta. 

glabra? vel 

intima? primo puberuhe, leves ; ligula? truncata?, ad 2 lin. long* ; 
lamina' lineares, tenuiter attenuate, 5-7 poll, longa?, 2 lin. latae, 
flaccidae, glabrae, rarissime pubescentes, supra et in marginibus 
minute scaberula?. Panicula angusta, laxa, 4-9 poll, longa, erecta 
vel subnutans; rami remote semiverticillati, admodum inaipiales, 
parce ramulosi vel simplices, tenuiter filiformes, flexuosi, scaberuli, 
longiores ad 2 lin. longi. Spicuke dispersa?, 3A-5 lin. longa?, laxe 
3-4-flora3 ; rhachilla? articuke superiores ad 1[ I'm. longae, longe 
pilosa? ; gluma? vacua? pertenues, i. lanceolata, acuta, 1-nervis, 
U--2 lin.longa: ii. obverse lanceolata, acuta vel breviter acuminata, 
'!},-,) lin. longa, :>-ner\ is ; gluma; florentes longe exserta', oblongo- 
lanceolata?, ad 3^ lin. longa?, glabra?, pallide virides, rarius sub apice 
purpurascentes, leves, tenuiter nervosa . apice scariosa'. bidentata?, 
dentibus acutis vel subaristulatis, callo minuto barbato, 
arista supra medium orta tenui columna laxe torta 1] lin. 
seta 5-7 lin. longa ; palea? oblongo-lineares, 2\ lin. longa. carinis 
scaberulis. Antherce f lin. longa'. Onwium apice hispidum, 
deinde ad medium puberulum. — .4. lachnantha, Schweinf. Ilrilr. 
F/.AHhmp. p. 29S, nun lb. ok. til. Tritium lachnanthum, Hochst. 

Abyssinia. Simen. Mi. Aber near ' Dschenausa,' S< simper. II. 

580. Avena longa, Stapf [Gramineae-Aveneae] ; affinh 
geance, Stapf (Triseto dregeano, Staid), sod panicula mnlb 
flaccida laxe contracta et foliis longis flaceidis distincta. 

C&xpitosa, perennis. C ul mi erecti, 2-3 ped. alti, 
circiter 3-nodi, ad fere basin paniculae vaginati. Folia '< 

basin congesta, 3 remotiora ; vagina; laxiusculae, glabrae, leves ; 
ligulas trunoala ■. ad l.'.Iin. longa- : hmiliiM- liiu-aivs. lon-e tenui- 
tenjuo nttenuata-, t'.-lli poll, longa-. 1 J. 3 I'm. lata' smnina 1-2 poll, 
longa). plana; vel plus minusve involute, flaccidae, glabrae, leves. 
Pan ten hi luxe contracta, 9-10 poll, longa, nutans vel flexuosa ; 
rami semiverticillati, longiores ad 2^ poll, longi, filiformes, 
flexuosi, fere a basi rainulosi vol simpliee-s. S/n'rn/tr angusta-, u-9 
lin. longa?, 4-5-florae ; rhachilla gracillima, articulis ad 1£ lin. longis, 
longe pilosis; glumae vacuas acuminato-lanceolat&, i. 3^-1 I'm., 
ii. 4^,-5 lin. longa ; glumae florentes longe exserta?, lanceolatae 
(Hi. 5" lin. longa), glabra 1 , firmiusculae, leves, pallide virides vel sub 
apice scarioso scaberulo bifido purpurascentes. lobis aristulatis, 
callo subulato piloso, arista supra medium orta tenui 10-12 lin. 
longa ; palea- 3 .J, I'm. longa', carinis ciliolatis. Anther)/' 1}-U lin. 
longae. Ovarium praeter basin glabrum puberulnm et in apico 
liispidulum. — Tritium n ularr/irn ///, Nees in Limuva xx. p. 254, 
nee Linncea vii. p. 301. 

Cape Flats, 

581. Avena turgidula, Stapf [Gramineae-Aveneaa] ; val<le ailinis 
A. (intnrelicce, Thunb., sed spiculis ob glumas latiores magis 
approximatas plus minusve imbricatas turgidulis. 

Perennis. Cat mi ereeti, l-2\ ped. alti, glabri, 2-3-nodi. Folia 
]»auca propo basin congesta, circiter 3 remotiora : vagina' subarctae, 
glabra; vel minutissime puberulae ; ligula) truncate, ad | lin. 
longae ; laminaj lineares, acute attenuate, ad 6 poll, longa-. U, lin. 
latae, plana) vel involutae, flaccidae vel rigidula-. subglauca.-, 
plerumque glabra;, superne scaberuho. Panirala contracta, erecta 
vel subnutans. [,-1 ped. alta ; rami semiverticillati, admodum 
inaequales, longiores ad 1 \ poll, longi, parco rainulosi vol simpliees, 
tilii'onnos, scabri. Spirit/,* [-7)}, lin. longa'. virides, tnrgidulae, 
3-4-florae ; rhachilla gracilis aniculis pai'cc vol crebrins pi losis ad 

ii. 4-4 J, lin. longa; gluma3 florentes exsertae, oblongodanceolatae, 
(iii. 3^-4 lin. longa), glabrae, pallide virides, obscure granulatae, 
apice scariosae, bidentata-, dentibus aristulatis, callo brevissimo 
barbato, arista e medio orta tenui 7-9 lin. longa ; paleae lineares, 
3 lin. longa), carinis ciliat is. A nthrnr J.-L lin. Ovarium supra 
medium pubescens, apice liispidulum. '( 'ari/npsi.s 1} lin. longa. 
—TrisHitm imberbc,Xev*, Fl. Afr. Axs/r. p. 347 ; T.tmlu rr/imm, 
Nees, I.e. p. 34(5 (partim). 

South Africa. Cape Colonv : without localitv Z< ■,,/,<;; 4o3. 
Qu.-onstown Div. : Shilo,350ii (i.. I )r,yr ; Ihtitr 77.;.' Ali'val North 
Div. : Leuuwensprnit, i.")00-r>0OO ft., Driyr. Transkei Div. : 
Co'kau, below 1000 ft., Driyr. Tcmhuland : Bazeia, 2000 ft., 
/lain; ;>o4. Natal : I ni/inga, foot of Bigarsberg, Rev. J. 
/;>/.■/„/„„„. |i.n : (Jrovtoxvn, lhr..l. Ilm-I,,, ,,,, „ , 172 ; Kelt Vlei, 
4ooo-.>ooo it.. /,',,■. ,/. ilitrhatmn, 15b\ Transvaal: Pretoria, 
Wonderboomport, Rehmann 4493. 

582. Avena caffra, Stapf [Gramineae - Avenete] ; affinis A. 
anhirrfirtr, Thunb., sed panicula flexuosa, rhachilla longe pilosa, 
glumis florentibus tenuibus levibus distincta. 


Perennis. Cuhui 2 pel. alti. nvcti, glabri, 3-4-nodi, ad fere 
basin panicnlas vaginati. Folia 4-6 prope basin congesta, 3 re- 
motiora ; vaginas glabrae, leves ; ligulae oblongae, ad ;j lin. lnmw ; 
laminae angustissinne, subs^taceo-convolutae, acuta?, inferiores 5-7 
poll, longae (eae innovationum subpedales), glabrae, marginibus 
Bcabriri. Paaicala contracta, circiter 6 poll, longa, subnutans, 
flaccidula ; rami semiverticillati, admodum ina^quales, parce ramu- 
losi vel simplices, tenuiter filiformes, longiores ad 2 poll, longi, 
flexuosi, scabevuli w\ hispidnli. Spiral, p 1 ! :, lin. ].,n-;r, iaxe 
3-4-flora3 ; rhachilla gracillima, articulia ad 1 lin. longis longe 
pilosis; glurnae vacua3 pertenues, lanceolabo, acuminata', i. 2-2i, 
ii. 2£-3£ lin. longae ; glnmae florentes exserta-, J iin-;i ri-ln ti<-»-« *J;i tfc 
(iii. :>-4 lin. longa), glabra, ]>u1IhI:i-, tonnes, ieves, temrissime 
nervosae, apice scariosa 1 , subbifida>, 2-aristulatae, callo parvo 
barbato, arista supra medium orta tenui 7 lin. longa ; paleae 
lineares, 3 lin. longa;, carinis ininnte ciliolatis. Aiitht-nr ad 1£ 
lin. longae. Ovarium apkv hispidulinn.— TrisHam loiu/i folia in, 
Nees, Fl. Afr. Aust. p. 348 (partim). 

Cape Colony. Alival North Div. : Wittebergen, on rocks, 
7500 ft., Drege. 

5*3. Tristachya tuberculata, St<i,,f RJramint'a- - Aveneael ; 

scabndis intcnlmn inhnvulatis. lon-ioriluM -.-I ", poll 1,,-,-k 
p«'diinr:ulis apirr albo-selosis, hclirrllis ' lin I.,n-is- -Minna i' 
ovatu-lanrmlata, subacuta, 2 lin. Ion-,, nirhunn- sr.-umluin urncs 
laterales serie glandularum setigerarum notata • ii ,,!»[, , tl . .-,,-1 r„m- 
Iat ' 1 ' sl|, ' : "- |lt ^ "'-1 lin. l.mga, m i. l.ispriatim'glanduloHO-setosa; 
in oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, 3-4 lin. longa, 3 nervis, minute 
pubescens, paleam obtusam 1 .', lin. Inn-am gerens • iv lin.-.H- 
oblonga a callo ad arista: insertion,-!,! I ■» lin. longa, bifida lobis in 
«"**•>-* Ini.lnngas productis, albida, ad loborum basin barbula 
submarginah sencea ornata, twteruin pubescens, callo sericeo- 
barbato pungente, aristae columna atra 4-5 lin. seta pallida 8-10 
lin. longa; palea lineari-oblonga obtusa li lin. lontra. Stamina in 
utroque flore 3, antheris f-1 lin. longis. Ovarian, gl;.bnim. 
Can/op.vs obovoideo-oblonga, 1 lin. longa, sulcata, embryone 

West Tropical Africa. Senegambia, Heudelot, 141 ; Sierra 
Leone, Sassem by the Scarcies River, on dry rocks, SoAt Fli.ot, 


r Tropical Africa. Senegambi 
^-p Sasseni by the Scarcies River, on dry rocks,' 

584. Tristachya glabra, ^/[Gmmineae-Avene*] , interspecies 
adhuc desenptas 7. ,,,,.,■/,■,,,,,,. Kunth, simillima, sed glumaa iv. 
lobis in setas longe productis atque ovario summo stylisque villosis 


Oulmi l\-?> ped. alti, 1-nodi. Folia pleraque ad culmorum 
basin eongesta, vaginis firmis imis inferne villosis ceteris sparse 
hirtis vel glabris, laminis 4-6 poll, longis. 1-U lin. latis rigidis 
spars.' hirtis vel glabris. S/u'ralaram capitula 3-9, in raeemos 
crrctus disposiia, 1-1 j poll, longa, pedunculis infimis 2-3-natis ad 
1\ poll, longis: glmna i. laneeolata, acuta. 7-10 lin. longa, 
glaberrima; ii. longe subulato-acuminata, 12-15 lin., glaberrima ; 
iii. gimme it. similis. sed 10-12 lin. longa, 5-7-nervis, paleam hiden- 
tatani 9-10 lin. longam gerens ; iv. lineari -laneeolata, involuta, a 
cal l<» ad aristae insertionem 3£ lin. longa, albida, pubescens, 5-nervis, 
bifida, lobis in setas ad 10 lin. longas productis, callo pungente 
villoso 11 lin. hmgo, arista scabrida 2^-3 poll, longa ; palea apice 
truncata et cochlearii'ormis. Stamina in utroque flore 3, antheris 
2^-3 lin. longis. Oca riant apice villosum ; styli villosi. 

Central and South Africa. Shire Highlands: Hlantyro, 
L. Scott. Transvaal : Makapans Range, Strydpoort, Eehmann, 5383 ; 
Johannesburg, /!>/ rhc r : Poteliet'stroom. Yr/so)), 31. 

585. Tristachya biseriata, Stapf [Graminere-Avenea:] : T.</labro?, 
Stapf, (vide" supra) affinis, Eoliis angustissimis subsetaceis et 

gliinia i. biscriatitn glandulosa setosa ii. aquilonga distincta. 

anthera3 haud visas. Ovarium 
l et styli villosi. 
South Africa. Basutoland : Leribe, Rev. J. Buchanan, 220. 

586. Trichopteryx gigantea, Stapf [Graminere-Aveneae] ; ab 
omnibus speciebus huius generis differt magnitudine omnium 
partium, et a plerisque praeterea staminibus 3, haud 2. 

Culmi robusti, 5-12 ped. alti, ereeti, tactu asperi vel leves. 
F»Ua pl.Taqne basalia vel subbasalia, vaginis firmis praeter 
inliinas basi tomeniosas glabris levibus, ligulis ad pilorum seriem 
reductis, laminis linearibus ve] lineari-laneeolatis sotaceo-aeumi- 
natis, },-l ped. h.ngis. 6 S lin. latis glabris glaueis supra aspens. 
Panic il, t strieta. eontraeta, .',-1 ped. longa. rliaehi aspera glauea vel 
albida ad nodos imos \illosula. ramis strietis seahris geminatis vel 

glabra;, l^-l. 1 , poll, long.-i. : -luma i. laneeolata. acuta. 3- rarius 
5-7-nervis, 7U in. longa: ii. laneeolata. longe sul)ulato-aeuminata, 
l\-l\ poll, longa, 3-nervis ; iii. lineari-oblonga, acuta, 10-11 lin. 

longa, 5-nervis, interdnm nervo uno alterove brevi addito, paleam 
obtusam 1-5 I'm. longam gerens ; iv. lineari-oblonga, teres, 6 lin. 
longa, a callo ad arista- insertionem albida ilemum nigricans, 
nitida, pubescens, breviter acuteque biloba, callo longo pungente 

Stamina 3 in utroque flore ; antherae 4 

glabrum. Garyopsis linearis, 4^ lin. longa, teres, sulcata ; embryo 

1^ lin. longus. 

Tropical Africa. Sudan : Bongo land, Doluthe by the Roah, 
Srlurriufxrih, 2260. Upper Zambesi region : southwest of 
Victoria Falls, Haines; Deykah River, south of Victoria Falls, 

I have little doubt that this is De Notaris' Lmuletia su/>erba from 
Upper Nubia, which I know only from the description in Ann. Sc. 
Nat. Ser. III., XIX. p. 369, a description which is a mixture 
of accurate observation and singular misconception. De Notaris 
describes the spikelets as 3-flowered, viz. with a " neuter " flower 
at the base of the pale of the male flower and appressed to it, and 
consisting of a very short fleshy earshaped " palea." He mistook 
evidently a lodicule for an additional " neuter " flower. At the 
same time he says there are no " paleolae," i.e. lodicula;. The 
statement that the pale of the male flower is 6-nervod, is apparently 
also due to erroneous observation, the wings of the keels and the 
side parts often overlapping in such a way as to produce the 
impression of several lateral nerves. Otherwise, De Notaris' des- 
cription answers almost exactly that given here of T. gigmttfa. 

T. elega 

glaberrimis, panicula minus composita, spiculis paulo majoribus 
glaberrimis distincta. 

Cnlmi gracilis, e recti vel basi genieulati, 1-2^ ped. alti, glabri, 
2-3-nodi. Folia 3-4 basalia vel subbasalia, 1-3 remote, vaginis 
arctis firmis hirsutis vel glabrescentibus ad nodos fere semper 
glaberrimis imis persistentibus haud in fibras solutis, laminis 
linearibus acutis 2-4 poll, longis 2-2| lin. latis viridibus hirsutis 
vel glabrescentibus. Panicula erecta vel subnutans, 2-6 poll, 
longa, contracta vel subaperta, ramis inferioribus 2-3-natis 
flexuoeis filiformibus scaberulis 3-2-spiculatis vel simplicibus. 
Sj/iruhr brunneaj, nitida>, glaberrinue, 5^-6^ lin. longam; gluma i. 
ovate, obttisa, 2 lin. longa : ii. lanceolate, obrusa, •">',-»'»[, I'm. longa; 
iii. lanceolate, acuminata, ii. subaqualis, 3-nervis ; iv. lineari- 
oblonga, pubescens, 3 lin. longa, breviter bifida, callo brevi 
tomentoso barbato basi exciso, arista subgracili l.',-2 poll, longa 
ad ^ inferionni geniculate. Stamina 2. <)ra"riam -labruni. 
—LmidoAia elegant. Hook. til. in Joarn. Linn. Soe. VII. p. 229, non 

Upper GUINEA. Cameroon Mountains, Mann, 1346, 2080. 

I found the nodes always perfectly glabrous, with a single 
exception, in which near the base of a culm there were a few stiff 
hairs present. 

:>ss. Trichopteryx nigritiana, Strip/ [Gramineae-Avene;v] : valdp 
aflinis T. siinplici, Benth., differt culmis strictissimis gracilioribus, 
foliis perlongis angustissimis sa-pins plains superne rapillaribns. 
paniculis pedalibus vel ultrapedalibus flavidis uberibus. 

Culmi e ca;spitibus densis strictissimi, graciles, 2^-3 ped. alti, 
glabri vel hirsuti, 2-3-nodi. Fuliu eiiviter 2 prope basin, 2-3 
remota, vaginia arctis glabris vel hirsutis ad nodos barliatis vel 
glabris infimia basi fcomentosis demum in fibras solutis, ligulis 


as glabris 

hirsutisve rigidis. Panicn/u contracta, \lensa vel laxiuscula 
1-14; ped. longa, flavida. ramis s;epe permultis semiverticillatis 
eapiilaribns longiori bus ail 6 I'm. metientibus stepeque ad 
in.-iliiiTu simpliciluis. Spirnhr \},A\ I'm. longa', glabra', structura 
'/'. simpliris nisi gluina ii. saepe iii. a?<|iianto vol subsuperante. 
Upper Guinea. Niger region : Nupe, Jeba, Bart or. 

(''tint! graciles, 4 ped. alti, glabri, leves. Folia superiora taiuurn 
nota, vaginis glaberrimis arctis, ligulis ad seriem pilorum minu- 
torum redacta, laminis convolutis setaceis caj>i 1 hirix »t an.nuatis. 
4-6 poll, longis, glabris vel supra minutissime }>uberulis. 
Pa a lata erecta. angusta, laxiuscula, circiter ( J poll, longa, 
rhachi glabra, ramis capillaribus suberectis sublovibus sa'pius 
fere a basi spiculigeris, spindis infiniis imperfeetis. Spicules 
flavida', ."> lin. longa 1 : gluina i. lanceohita, setaceo-acuininata, 
2\ :'. lin. longa, tennis ; ii. si mi lis. soil angnstior. lungins acuminata, 
5 lin. longa; iii. ut ii. nisi nervis lateral ibns submarginalibiis, 
paleatn a]>ice longiuscule hyalinam 3 lin. longain gerens ; iv. lincari- 
oblonga, U-2 lin. longa, superne minute puberula, breviter 
bifida, callo barbato parvo, arista gracili seabrida 1-H poll, 
longa ad vel infra medium geniculate. Stamina in utroque 
flore 3 ; antberae f-J lin. Orarium glabrum. 

Upper Guinea. Niger region : Nupe, Barter. 

lin. 'ares, apico seetaceoe, 6-9 poll 
vel plus minusve revolutae, hirsi 
s. 1'aniciila contracta, densissima, 1 ped* 

filiformibus scabris semi- 
■ispieulatis appressis brevioribus. Spicules flavidae, 
i\ gland uloso-setosa? ; gluma i. oblonga, obtusa, 

ii. lanceolata, longe rostrato-acuminata, truncata, 
; iii. lanceolato-oblonga, subacuta, 3^-4 lin. longa, 

H-2 lin. longam gerens; iv. oblongo-linearis, 


1^-2 lin. longa, pubescens, breviter bifida, callo villoso barbato 
graeili am to, arista hispidula columna 1 poll, seta 3-4 poll, longa ; 
palea linearis, subobtusa 1^ lin. longa. Stamina in utroque 
flore 2 ; antherae \\ lin. 

Upper Guinea. Niger region : Nupe and Borgu, Barter, 954. 

Barter states that in Borgu the inner plains covered with this 
gregarious species resemble barley crops. 

591. Trichopteryx annua, Stapf [Gramineae-Aveneae] ; proxima 
T. hi > relet furmi, Stapf, (vide supra), sed foliis brevibus et panicula 
laxiuscula minore multo pauperiore distincta. 

Culmi solitarii vel 2-3 fasciculati, stricti, 2 ped. alti et ultra, 
leves, 3-nodi. Folionun vagina) arctae, glabrae vel tuberculis 
setigeris parce aspersa' ; ligula' ad serimn pilornm ivducra' ; lamina' 
lineares, apice subsetaceo-attenuata', 'l\-[ poll. longa>, 1-2 lin. latae, 
planae vel marginibus revolutae, saepius horizontaliter patentes, 
Bubrigidffi, glances, tuberculis setigeris imprimis secundum mar- 
ginem instructae. Panintht stricta, angusta, ad 5 poll, longa, 
laxiuscula, rhachi inferne tereti glabra, ram is scmiviTiirellatis 
geminatisve filiformibus simplicibus vel 2-3-spiculatis, brevibus. 
Sjiiritln (lavidae, ad 1\ lin. longa?, glanduloso-setosae vel sub- 
glabrse, rarius glaberrimae ; gluma i. ovato-oblonga, obtusa, 2.\-3 lin. 
longa; ii. lanceolata, rostrato-acuminata, obtusa vel truncata, ad 
1\ lin. longa ; iii. quam secunda multo brevior, truncatula. 

SUDAN. Jur : Ghattas' chief seriba, Schweinfurth, 2007. 

The spikelets are too young for complete description ; but the 
plant is so well marked, that it is easily recognisable from the 

.V.»2. Trichopteryx flavida, Slapf [Graining- A venese] ; affinis 

villosis hand in fibras soluiis, spiculis paulo minoribiis pt"<» 
Iongitiidin*' latioribus, gluma i. longiore acutissima, iv. 9-nervi 

Ca'spifnsa. Culm /civeti, ad 1 \ ped. alti, glabri vel supernr pilosi. 
3-nodi. Folium m vagina- areta', intiime basi latiuscuhe atijm- longe 
alliido-villosa'. snbpersisti-iites. hand in fibras solum-, superiores 
glabra'. I'aniriihi subflexuosa, angusta, 3-(5 poll, longa, rhacln 
interdum pilosa. rarnis panrispiculatis filiformibus scabridis, 
3-2-natis. Spicuhr flavida', 4-5 I'm. lunirae. glabra- : gluma i. ovata. 

gracilibus. Fuliurum \;.-in..- inliin.r latiusciila', aperta.', ut cetera 
tenuiter striata' : I'nrula'ad s eriem pilorum bre\ issimorum rtMliu-tiu : 
lamina? angusta', lineares, seot.teeo-attenuata>, 3-4 poll, longas, 
1-1 J, lin. lata'. Panieala angustissima, 2 1 poll. longa. .■nri;i vel 
subflexuosa, rhachi ramisque paucispiculatis ei appressis levtbus. 
Sjiinihr pallida'. 3 3> lin. longa; ; glumae tenues ; i. lanceolato- 
oblonga, acuta,, 2-2^ lin. Longa; 11. lanceolate, acuta, 3-3 J, I'm. 
It ultra '; iii. priori similis. 7-nervis. nervis intimisabbreviatis, pal earn 
lanceolato-oblongam 2J> lin.longamgerens ; iv.lineari-oblonga,2-2^ 
lin. longa, glabra, demum purpureo-nigricans, bilida, T-n.-rvis. .alio 
ol.uiso parvo barbato, arista tenui 1 lin. longa infra medium torta ; 
palea lhmari-lancvolata, 2), lin. longa. Stamina in utroque flore 2. 
Oca ritiin glabrum. Cari/n/tsis obovoideo-oblonga, 1 lin. longa, 
sulcata, ctnbryoiu' magno I I'm. longo. 

South Africa. Kalahari Region : Griqualand, Klip Fontein, 
Barchelt, 2KU. 

594. Alsophila Batesii, Baker [Filices-Cyatheacere] ; ex affini- 
tate A. obtu8ilobce, Hook. 

Caar1e.r 2-3 pedalis. Stipitest elongati, graciles, nutli, inenne*. 
sesquipedales. paleis basalibus rigidis castanois lancolatis acunii- 
natis. Frondes oblongo-deltoidea', bipinnata\ meinbraiiacea-, 
utrinque viridcs, glabra', 3 -1 pctb-s longa', 15-18 poll, lata), rhachi 
nuda inermi, pinnis lanceol^tis sessilibus ad basin pinnatis, 
inbrioribiis paucis, centralibus brevioribus majoribus S-'.l poll. 
loiiLiis IS 2<» lin. hit is. scgnu-ntis secimdariis linearibus obtusis 
obscure crenulatis 2^ lin. latis, venulis perspictiis M-15-jugis 
protunde fureatis. Snri parvi, intramediales, ad furcam vcnarmn 

Upper Guinea. Cameroon Mountains: Forest at Efulen, 
Bates, 3(»7. 

Besides A. Batesii only three species of Alsophila are known 

505. Polypodium (Phegopteris) efulense, Baker [Filices-Poly- 
podiacea'] ; ex atlinitate /'. Vni/elii, Hook., et P. nigritani, Baker. 

Stijiites longissimi. graciles, fragiles, supra basin stiaminei, 
nudi. 2- 3-pedales, paleis subbasalibus lanceolatis firmulis brunneis 
eoncoloribus. Frmaies deltoidete, decompositai, membranaceae, 
utrinijue viridcs, facie prater costas glabra 1 , dorso obscure pubes- 
centes, tripedales, pinnis infimis distincte petiolatis quani reii.ptis 
multo majoribus ina>quilateralibus latere inferiore valde productis, 
segmentis ultimis oblongis obtusis crenatis basi in alani costularem 
contluentibus 2 '11 I'm. lata, venulislaxisobscuris erecto-patentibus 
ultimis furcatis. Sort parvi, inter costam et marginein uniseriales, 

Upper Guinea. Cameroon Mountains : Forest Hill, Efulen, 
Bates, 217. 



Frntnii's subsessiles, lineares, obtusae, crenata;, e medio ad basin 
sensim angustata', 1-2-15 lin. Ionise, },~1 I'm. lata', rigide coriaceae, 
paleis subulatis brunneis patulis tenuiter vestita;, costa tenui 
nigrescente, venis simplicibus erecto-patentibus, ad marginem 
haud productis. Sort alterni, globosi, uniseriati, superficiales, 
prope basin laminae haud producti. 

Madagascar. Forest of Ambohimitombo, province of Tanala, 
alt. 1450-1560 ft,, Forsyth Major, 477. 

597. Polypodii 
podiaceae] ; a P. 

Rhizoiaa breviter repens. Sti/otcs ereeti, 9-12 lin. longi, pilis 
paucis patuiis brunneis vestiti. Frondes simplices, lineares, 
integral, 4-5 poll, longae, 3-4 lin. latae, rigide coriaceae, utrinque 
glabra?, margine pilis paucis brunneis praeditae ; venae simplices, 
laxae, erecto-pan-nies. |> ; ,rai j.-i > ■. |iers|>ieua', ad marginem haud 
productae. Sort uniseriati, oblongi, ad venas terminates, inter 
costam et marginem mediales. 

Madagascar. Forest of Ambohimitombo, province of Tanala, 
Forsyth Major, 185. 

598. Polypodium (Eupolypodium) forsythianum, Baker [Filices- 
Polypodiacea;] ; ad P. khasyanion, Hook., arete accedit. 

Hhizoma breviter repens. Stipihs ca'spitosi, lirevissimi, paleis 
subulatis patulis brunneis vestiti. /-V^W^Iam-eolata'^subcoriaeea', 
elastica', 2-2 h poll, longa-, medio 5-*! lin. lata', basin versus sensim 
angustata, utrinque virides, paleis subulatis brunneis patulis 
tenuiter vestita;, ad alam costularem angustam pinnatifidfie. 
Pi/nor lineares, obtusa-, interne, ereetoq.atentes, hasi confluentes, 
centrales \ lin. late ; vena; immersae, occulta;, erecto-patentes, 
bifurcate. Sort globosi, superficiales, inter costam et marginem 
pinnarum uniseriati. 

i of Tanala, 

599. Acro_stichum (Elaphoglossum) subsessile, Baker [Filices- 
Polypodiacea;] : ad A. Jlarridxm, Fee, arete accedit. 

Hhizoma breviter repens, paleis parvis lanceolatis brevibus 
castaneis. Frondes steriies contiguae, subsessiles vel breviter 
stipitat;e, lanceolatae, subpedales, medio 9-12 lin. lata, rigide 
coriaceae, nudae, e medio ad apicem acutum et basin sensim 
angustata; ; venae laxa;, erecto-patentes, perspicuae, simplices vel 
furcatae. Frondes fertiies ignotae. 

Madagascar. Forest of Ambohimitombo, province of Tanala, 
Forsyth Major, 204. 


Botanical Magazine for July— The number opens with ;i figure 

of Zmnia»hlin>m. whii-li lias been in cnlti vatiou at Kew since 1SSO, 
when a plant was procured from Mr. Bull, of Chelsea. It is 
native of New (Grenada. Cdtthi/" rltnt<j<it<(, the beautiful 
l'ohf(j<in kiii bftlchckuanicum (the flowers of which are coloured 
too pink). Ifrli>ni(/i>is tnhn-nsus, and !,i*s,.-c/ii/tts »>i!ni>ji'fnii.* arc 
also figured. The C't/t/r>,„ is a handsome, species from Brazil 
with large flowers having orange-coloured sepal - and petals and 
rose-coloured labellum. It (lowered at Kew in (.)ctober. \S\K\. 
The /'o/f/i/uiimti, native of Bokhara, is a valuable addition to the 
number of good hardy climbers. The Kew plant was received 
from the .lardin des Plantes. Paris. The specimen of the wild form 
of Helianthus tnherosu.% was furnished by the Rev. C. Wolley Dod, 
who had grown it from indigenous tubers. The plate is accom- 
panied by many interesting facts relating to the plant's history. 
The Li.ssochi/us is, as its specific name implies, native of 
Central Africa. The flowers figured were sent to Kew by 
Mr. P. F. Garnett. of South Bank. Liverpool, while the bulb and 
leaves were drawn from a Kew plant which was received from the 
late Mr. John Buchanan. 

Botanical Magazine for August- 

plant used by the people of the latter country to decorate their 
cemeteries, \iaxterhi ftisrf>- t ninrtntn is conspicuous for its much- 
branched inflorescence. Doxlroln H m <h n n,hi ,,.< is a slender 
epiphyte of the Himalayas, whence specimens collected off oak- 
trees were sent to Kew bv J. F. Duthie, Esq., and flowered in 
lS'.lo. Finis rrrcta. var. Sirh<,ldii was sent to Kew by the late 
Dr. Schombunrk : it is a native of Eastern Asia. The last figure 
is that of a Mascarene orchid with an extremely complicated 
(lower: like the majority of the orchids of that region it is of 
terrestrial habit. 

New Edition of Key Plan.— A fourth edition of this skeleton 
guide to the Royal Gardens wa> put on sale during the month of 
August. It has been carefully revised so as to include all recent 
improvements. The size has been somewhat reduced so as to 
111:i l«' i! "lore convenient for the pocket. The printing leaves 
something to desire in the matter of clearness, a rougher paper 
having been unfortunately used by the Stationery Office. 


Water Lily Pond.— South of the lake in the Pinetum is a 
small pond which has Long been dry. The bottom has now been 
puddled with clav and made water-tight. It is supplied with 
condensed water from the steam-emdnes at the waterworks. As 
the temperature of this is fairly warm it is hoped by this means 
to be able to cultivate in the open air many tender aquatics. This 
has already proved successful with the red Xt/iajjlvru Lotus, of 
India, and' with Thalia <h'alhata and some other plants. It is - 
intended also to plant out the fine coloured water lilies raised hy 
Mons. Latour-Marliac, which are an addition to modern open-air 
gardening, as notable as they are delightful. 

Tampico Jalap.— Ordinary Jalap, the " Purgo macho" of the 
Mexicans, is widely known as a medicinal suhstance, and the 
plant [Ijmmora Pn>-(ja, Hayne), with purplish-pink flowers, is met 
with under cultivation not only in -Teenhou>es in Europe, but to 
some extent as a field crop in the neighbourhood of the Cinchona 
Plantations, in the Nilgiris (Madras), and the Blue Mountains, 
Jamaica. Tampico Jalap, on the other hand, which has made its 
appearance in trade of recent years in considerable quantity, is 
produced by a different plant (ipomoca simulans, Hanbury). It 
is stated to grow along the mountain ranges of the Sierra Gorda, 
in the neighbourhood of St. Luis de la Paz, from which town and 
the adjacent villages the roots are carried to Tampico, and thence 
shipped abroad. As Tampico Jalap was not represented amongst 
the plants in the Economic Collections at Kew, an effort was made 
to obtain a few tubers through the Foreign Office, who enlisted the 
kind co-operation of Her Majesty's Minister in Mexico. In 
November last, two lots of tubers were received in excellent 
condition from Her Majesty's Consul at Vera Cruz, labelled res- 
pectively " Tlacolulam " and " Tonayan," and described as having 
been obtained from these localities, "in the canton of .lalapa, in 
the state of Vera Cruz." The Tlacolulam tubers were distributed 
to the botanical departments at Jamaica and the Nilgiris, and to 
the botanic gardens at Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Glasnevin, and Trinity College, Dublin. The Tonayan tubers 
(a small lot) were distributed to Jamaica and the Nilgiris only. 
It was at once noticed that both these tubers were not obtained 
from the locality where Tampico Jalap is collected, and now there 
is little doubt that they are ordinary Jalap (Ipomoea Purga). This 
fact should be carefully noted by the recipients. In the meantime 
another effort is being made to obtain the tubers of the true 
Tampico Jalap 




(With Plan.) 

The settlement of Sierra Leone at one time consisted only of 
the peninsula terminating in Cape Sierra Leone, with an area of 
about 300 square miles. The Colony with its protectorate now 
includes a large extent of cmintrv. intimated at 4,000 square miles, 
or a little more than one-half the size of Wales. The capital, 
Freetown, lying about 1 miles up the Sierra 1. rone river, at the 
foot of a chain of hills rising from L,700 t<> over 3,000 ft., contains 
;>i),(MKi inhabitants, and possesses the best harbour in West Africa. 
It is an important coaling station and a commercial entrepot. 

The scenery of Sierra Leone is said to be very similar to that 
of the West Indies. The soil is fertile and there is an abundance 
of pure fresh water. Tropical fruits grow luxuriantly. These are 
described in the Kew Bulletin for 1SS8 (pp. 221-223). Pine- 
apples especially are produced very abundantly, while bananas, 
plantains, avocado pears, mangoes. limes and oranges are not only 
consumed locally, but are also exported to the Gambia, Goree, and 

As stated in a letter addressed by Kew to the Colonial Office, 
September 1. iSXo', u f rom a scientific point of view the natural 
botanical productions of Sierra Leone are of extraordinary 
interest. Early in this century a limited number of specimens 
found their way into European herbaria, and show that the flora 
is exceptionally rich." 

A very interesting work in the Library at Kew is entitled 
'• Substance of the Report delivered by the Court of Directors of 
the Sierra Leone Company to the ( General Court of Proprietors on 
Thursday the 27th March. IT'.M." To this is attached an appendix. 
in which "the Directors i bought proper to introduce an account 
of the natural prodm-iions of Sierra Leone, being the substance of 

It is evident that more than a" hundred years ago a good ileal 
was being done to establish a successful colony in this part of 

pumpkins, water rue] pine-apple, pigeon pea, maize, millet. 

cacao, cashew nuts, okras, sugar cane, butter and tallow tree, 

tamarind. Ik-tree, hog-plum, country plum, country grapes, 
sorrel, " caleelos " (spinach), mammee apple, cainito, bumelia, 
and icaco or pigeon plum, (from the West Indies), _ country 
cherries, bread fruit, cream fruit, cola, castor oil, " cassia of the 
cane," indigo, cotton, silk cotton. 

" Some account of the native and introduced fruits of Sierra 
Leone" was published by Mr. Joseph Sabine, F.R.S., from 
information obtained from Mr. George Don, A.L.S., in the 
Transacting* of tho Hortimlhrral Sornfi/ (vol. v., 1824, pp. 439- 
466). This gives a very interesting account of the principal 
plants yielding edible fruits in West Africa, with an 
excellent ^coloured plate of the Negro Pencil (Sarrorr/ihalns 
e*rt//rnfns). There are also notes on the Butter and Tallow tree 
(Ponturlrsiiw 1m I '// rarra) and the Kola i < '„hi annninata). Of the 
common pine-apples, even in is stated that " they are so 
abundant in the woods as to obstruct she passage through them in 
every direction ; they grow vigorously and hear fruit abundantly." 
The other fruits already introduced and flourishing in Sierra 
Leone in 1824 were bananas, plantains, cocoa-nuts, papaw, 
oranges, lemons, limes, cashew, rose-apple, tamarind, melons, and 

A small but interesting collection of the economic plants from 
Sierra Leone was presented to Kew by Mr. G. H. Garrett, a 
travelling commissioner, in 1891. In 1892 Mr. G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, F.L.S., who was attached as botanist to the Delimitation 
Commission of the Anglo-French frontier, forwarded to Kew 
f)Ol> species of dried plants in excellent condition, and also seeds 
of various kinds (AT. B., 1892, p. 72). In the following year (1893) 
Mr. Scott-Elliot and Miss Catharine A. Raisin prepared Reports 
on the Botany and Geology of Sierra Leone (Colonial li> fW rt.<, 
Miscellaneous, No. 3, Sierra Leone, 1893. See also A". />'., 1893, 
pp. 167-169). To the former is attached a useful list and index of 

'The Botanical results of the Sierra Leone Boundary C> 
ssion " former 
liot to the L 

formed rhe subj> et of a paper eontnbuted hv Mr. Seott- 
Uourn. Linn, Sue, xxx., pp. 64- 


Plants supposed to belong to a species of Coffea raised from 

seeds collected by Mr. Scott-Elliot in Sierra 1 m- were distributed 

from Kew in 1893. On further exam it lat ion, these plants having 
developed spines, which Cofea never has, were believed to belong 
either to species of Kmi'linoY t 'anlhinm i A'. 11.. 1894, p. 79). 

One of the most interesting of the economic plants of Sierra 
Leone is the highland or native coffee {Coffea simoplnjUa) 
which, though discovered about a century ago hy Afzelius, was 
not described until 1834, and was not introduced into this country 
until sixtv vears afterwards (1894). It was figured in the 
Botanical Mtn/friine (1. 717',). and described more recently in the 
Kew BnlHin ( IS'df,. pp. 1*9-191). This eoil'ee has been widely 
distributed from Kew. It has lately flowered in the West Indies. 
and is there regarded as likely to prove useful for cultivation in 
lowlands where the Arabian coffee will not -row. 

Another promising economic plant in Sierra Leone is the native 

cotton, probably (l>^n r tn ,, 

merit this an effort was mi 

cultivation of the Egyptian cotton in the colony. The following 

letter affords particulars on these points : — 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 


T am desired by Mr. Thiselton-Dyer to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the 2nd instant forwarding a copy of a 
despatch from the Governor of Sierra Leone regarding the 
experiments made in the colony to cultivate Egyptian cotton. 

2. Mr. Thiselton-Dyer has noticed with regret that these 
experiments have not proved successful in Sierra Leone, and that 
the Governor does not consider that there would be any good in 
forwarding more seeds to the colony. 

3. It will be within your recollection that in 1890, at the 
request of the Government of Sierra Leone, Kew undertook to 
obtain a commercial valuation and report on samples of native 
cotton collected in Mafweh on the Bum River ; and in my letter 
of the 9th May, 1890, a copy of a very favourable report furnished 
by the Manchester Chambers of Commerce was enclosed. 

4. The Sierra Leone cotton was stated to be of good quality, and 
valued at sixpence per pound in Liverpool. There was said to be 
a good demand for it, and Lancashire buyers "would Ltladlv 
welcome a very much larger supply than is now available." 
A copy of the correspondence was afterwards published as a 
Government notice (No. ■>(>, dated the 2(hli May. lS'.Xh in the 
local gazette, and the Governor, Sir .lames flay, K.C.M.G., invited 
"the special attention of the public to the" importance of the 

5. It was evident that a very favourable opening existed in the 
Colony of Sierra Leone for extending a valuable industry. There 
are few West African products in the present day that offer a 
remunerative market. Hence this subject of cotton-growing was 
of peculiar importance. 

G. It was thought desirable not only to encourage and extend 
the cultivation of the cotioii already in the hands of the natives, but 
to introduce the more valuable Egyptian cotton, which is in great 
demand "for the length, firmness, and strength of the staple." 

7. If owing to local circumstances the cultivation of Egyptian 
cotton is not practicable in Sierra Leone it may at least be possible 
to extend the growth and export of tlm ordinary cotton. If the 
colony could afford to support a small botanical station in the 
neighbourhood of Freetown, there is little doubt that many new 
industries could be started that are now believed impossible. The 
success attained at the two stations already established in West 
Africa at Lagos and Aburi show that they fulfil a most useful 


As the result of the conference held at the Colonial Office with 
the four West African Governors on the 12th September, 1893 
(AV/r Hulh'ii,,. isi>3, pp. 363— 365), a successful effort to start a 
Botanic Station in Sierra Leone was made by Colonel Cardew, 
C.M.C., in the following year. The subjoined correspondence 
indicates the steps taken to attain that object. 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Downing Street, 

10th September, 1894. 

I AM directed by the Marquess of Ripon to transmit to you 
R pop? of a despatch from the officer administering the government 
of Sierra Leone submitting a scheme for promoting agricultural 
industry in that colony, and I am to say that his lordship would 
be much obliged if you would favour him with vour observations 
and opinion with regard to Colonel Cardew's proposals. 

Government House, 

Freetown, Sierra Leone, 

MY LORD MARQUESS. ^ ****** ^ 

I HAVE the honour to submit for your lordship's approval, 
and strongly recommend for adoption as soon as feasible, a scheme 
for promoting agricultural industry in this colony which the 
Hon. Samuel Lewis, C.M.G., has been good enough to draw up 

2. I attach a copy of the scheme. It would embrace the 
establishment of a botanic garden, machinery for the proper 
preparation of coffee and cocoa for the market, a coffee plantation, 
industrial farming and annual agricultural shows. 

3. In view of the fact that there is now no longer any possibility 
of extending our protectorate, as it is hemmed in by French 
territory on the one side and Liberia on the other, and that 
therefore there is a limit to the area from which produce can b< 
obtained, especially since the restrictions that have been imposed 
by the French on produce coming from the far interior, that is, 
from beyond the limits of our protectorate, crossing our frontier, 
I thmk it is obvious that it behoves this government to use every 
effort to promote agricultural industry so that the products of the 
land, to which alone it is reduced for its source of revenue, may 
be increased to their utmost capacity, not only in the colony itself, 
but also m the protectorate. I therefore laid Mr. Lewis" scheme 
before the Executive Council, at a meeting held yesterday, when 
the general lines of it were unanimously adopted. 

4. The Council did not discuss the details of the whole scheme, 
as they thought that might be done better by a committee, but 
with a view of arriving at an estimate of the expense that would 
be involved by its adoption they confined themselves to the 
consideration of the details necessary for its initiation and 


working, and with their concurrence I beg to request that your 
lordship may be pleased to sanction a vote on the Supplementary 
Kstimate for £950, which would represent the initial expense of 
the adoption of the scheme, including the purchase of land, plant, 
&c, and another for £220, which would be about the proportionate 
annual expense for the three concluding months of this year, 
about the commencement of which period I hope the scheme may 
be introduced. 

6. Turning to the consideration of the different items. 

Initial E.rprnsfs. — A very suitable piece of land on the Padetnha 
road, known as the French Company's farm, is for sale; I have 
visited it with Mr. Lewis: ii seems well adapted for our purpose 
in every way. it has a picturesque site, a fine stream running 
through it, a good sized house on it which would do as quarters 
for the curator and the overseer, and some other buildings for the 
labourers if necessary, and a plantation, in which 1 am informed 
there is about 7,000 coffee trees, and adjoining it there is land 
which could be acquired if necessary at easy rates. 

I have not been able to obtain as yet the exact acreage of the 

for present 

give this government the refusal of the property, pending 
reference to your lordship, and this they have consented to do ; in 
the meantime, the Acting Queen's Advocate and the officer in 
charge of the Survey Department, will obtain all the necessary 
information regarding title deeds, plans &e. 1 may mention that 
it is considered that this property is being offered on very cheap 
terms, and 1 may add that Mr. Crowther, who is the Curator of 
the Botanic Garden at Accra, when he visited this colony in 
March last, in compliance with your lordship's instructions, 
inspected it and reported favourably on it for a botanic garden 
and industrial farm. 

Having in view our object, viz.. the promotion of agricultural 
industry, the establishment of machinery for preparing the coffee 
berry for the market is one of the most promising proposals in 
the scheme. At present the berry is so bruised and broken by the 
crude methods employed by the native cultivators that it does not 
command the best prices: it is hoped that when the cultivators 
find they can get their coffee prepared at a cheap rate, and by 
doing so obtain a higher market price than by their own methods 
of cleaning, that they will be induced to plant more trees and 
that others will commence the industry. 

8. I trust that 1 have sufficiently demonstrated to your lordship 
that there are good reasons for the adoption of a scheme on lines 
similar to that proposed by Mr. Lewis, and 1 may add that with a 
view of obtaining public opinion as to its details T have given 
instructions for it to be published in the Boy at Gazette. 

WITH reference do the question which your Excellency 
proposed for my consideration as to the hest measures to adopt for 
promoting agricultural industry in this colony, I have the honour 
to submit the following statement of my views. 

2. During the hist few years, owing no doubt to keener com- 
petition in trade and the diminution of profits, public attention 
has been much directed to the subject of agriculture, and a few 
efforts, more or less extensive, have been made to give practical 
effect to the new-born idea. Judging from attempts that I have 
my sell: made in the same direction, I have good ground for saying 
that there exists in the colony great ignorance of the conditions 
for a successful and profitable prosecution of agricultural enterprise, 
especially in the presence of intelligent competition abroad. 

3. It is a matter of vital importance to the prosperity of the 
colony that steps should be taken, even at some cost, to give a 
righl direction to the awakened impulse in favour of agriculture, 
and to prevent it from being succeeded by disappointment and 

4. One of the points in which it is felt such direction may be 
advantageously given relates to the mode of preparation for 
market of produce, especially those exported to European and 
American markets. It was suggested whether in respect, at least, 
of the small growers, their produce might not be bought, prepared 
and dealt with by the government. This suggestion involves a 
trading by the government under circumstances in which it will 
come in competition with private enterprise. I think if the 
government should seek to carry out this suggestion, it will 
hinder rather than encourage the very enterprise which it is its 
special object to promote. 

5. The Board of Education has passed a resolution not long age. 
agreeing with the view, that the establishment of a botanical 
station in this colony should be utilized for giving and extending 
practical knowledge in the art of agriculture. The nature of the 
knowledge generally lacking is twofold, viz.: — how to cultivate 
the produce, and how to prepare it properly for market. The 
botanic station, if established, can be so arranged that, within a 
moderate area, it might annex to itself the work of a farm for the 
cultivation of a few of the main products, such as coffee and 
cacao, to which attention is being directed by the people here. 
A correct principle practised in the cultivation of one or two 
plants can in course of time he easily adapted by the planters 
themselves to others ; so that it will, according to my view, not 
be necessary to make at the hotanie station a farm for every one 
of the commercial products to be grown in the colon) . 

cola in a less degree, will he the chief articles cultivated in the 
colony; and there is already evidence of some activity in coffee 
growing. At the same time, there are evident lo those who have 
any practical knowledge of the proper cultivation of fruit trees. 
such as the coffee, grave errors in the method adopted in the 
on here. 

7. What is in the first place required is, that the intending or 
actual tanner shall have some object lesson for guiding his own 
operation, and the opportunity of knowing the reason for adopting 
any specific method in farming. A few minutes of practical 
directions from Mr. W. Crowther, the Curator ot the Government 
Botanical Station at the Gold Coast Colony, on his recent visit to 
Sierra Leone, enabled me better than months of previous reading 
io understand and apply the principles of pruning the coffee tree. 

8. Public notice given of the time for performing certain 
agricuhiiral operations at the botanical station will secure the 
attendance of those who desire to profit by the knowledge of 
these operations. It should be a part of the duty of the curator 
to give such notice, and to invite inspection. Thus the prepara- 
tion of the ground for, and the laying of nurseries, the 
transplanting, pruning, mulching and shading of trees, the 
harvesting and curing of produce, and even the rotation of crops, 
may, to a great extent, be learnt by observation. At present, very 
few of our so-called farmers have any intelligent idea of processes 
so essential to the cultivation of their produce. Hence, 
independently of the preparation of crops for market, our colonial 
products are generallv inferior in .pialitv to those of foreign 

ih The use of implements other than the short-handled hoe and 
the cutlass, which constitute the whole of the farmer's tools in 
Sierra Leone, may be encouraged and taught by proper practice at 

10. The next defect in our agricultural system is the generally 
bad or indifferent preparation of produce for the market. In 
cases even as in that of ginger, wherein nature seems to favour 
ns with a good article, the preparation largely discounts the value 
in foreign markets. 

11. The fear is naturally to be entertained that, with the 
extended cultivation which is going on in the colony of coffee 
leading to a large export, defective preparation will soon fix in 
foreign markets a low standard for Sierra Leone coffee. 

12. The process in use for cleaning coffee in the colony is the 
crude one of drying the berry and afterwards pounding it in a 
mortar and winnowing bv hand with a fan. Besides the 
deterioration of the muddy of the bean caused by drying the 


n the colony. I would, therefore, recommend that the gove 
oent have in connection with the botanical station a few ac 

under coffee cultivation. If it should be decided to purchase the 
French Company's coffee farm at Pademba Road, my proposal 
could be more readily carried oat. In such a coffee farm the 
proper machinery, sufficient for a small farm of fifty acres, should 
be established for working the coffee on the station. Opportunity 
should be given to farmers and others who are desirous of availing 
themselves of it, to inspect the machinery and see how it works. 
Some hand machines also should be used even if it were decided 
to work some by power. 

15. There is no machinery now imported into the colony ; and 
though some growers may be able and willing to procure it after 
seeing and understanding its use, they will act unwisely to get 
now what may prove to be mere white elephants in their hands. 

16. The machinery required for coffee consists of pulper, peeler 
and sizer. Their prices vary. I have an estimate, recently 
submitted to me, showing that for a farm of 600 acres, the cost 
would be about £460, in addition to that of the motive power, 
water, or steam. Single pulpers are quoted as low as £20 
deliverable in London. This estimate is from a Ceylon firm 
(Messrs. Walker, Sons & Co., Limited), who profess to have 
invented the best pulper for Liberian coffee. A London firm of 
John Gordon supplies machinery, but I do not know if their 
pulper is specially adapted to the Liberian coffee. American 
machines appear to be cheaper. 

17. As some or all of the machinery above-mentioned may not 
be within the means of small growers, it will be an advantage to 
them and encourage larger cultivation among this class, if the 
botanical station undertake at a reasonable cost the work of 
cleaning the produce which may be taken to the station for that 
purpose. This arrangement, it is hoped, will find for the 
machinery and the men employed in working it. the full employ- 
ment which the limited production of the station may not give, 
and itwill help to repay the cost of its purchase and maintenance. 

18. Cacao grown even in fairly large quant it ies does not entail 
much cost in preparation, for which no machinery j s required. 
A curing establishment is all that is necessary. Mr. Crowther, in 
his report on his recent visit to the West Indies, says (in page 111) 
that the cost of the buildings needed for this purpose for a farm 
of 300 acres need not exceed £160. If eventually the suggestion 
with respect to providing the means for instructing the public as 
to the best mode of preparing coffee be extended to cacao, the 
additional cost will be comparatively small. 

19. A third plan that I would suggest for encouraging agriculture 
is the establishment of annual shows, in which prizes are to be 
awarded for competition in different departments of agricultural 
labour, for articles and objects produced or maintained in the 

20. Before stating the plan in detail, 1 may mention that one of 
its objects is to direct enterprise to other channels than coffee and 
cacao, in order to avoid the danger of throwing all the economic 
egg of the colony in one basket. 

21. My proposal is that the shows .shall be under the patronage 
of the government, but directed by a committee of which the 

aiding the c 

22. The shows are to be held in Freetown in December or 
January, this season being about crop time for most of our 

23. The articles exhibited are m include representations of all 
kinds of agricultural produce, in the natural as well as manu- 
factured specimens, and live stock. It is suggested 
that exhibitor of farm produce shall be the producers or their 
agents, and not mere collectors. 

24 Between the months of July and October next before the 
show, every intending exhibitor of farm produce should send in 
to the committee a notice of his intention to exhibit, and give 
reasonable satisfaction that produce at the show comes from his 
farm. Provision should be made \'<<r the inspection in November 
of ever\ farm which or the produce from which it is intended 
shall compete. 

32. Though the shows may be open for all kinds of produce, 
whether coming from owners beyond the colony, I would suggest 
that only farmers and inhabitants within the colony should be 
entitled to compete for prizes. 

His Excellent Colonel F. < 'ardew, C.M.G., 
Administrator of the Government 

of the Colony of Sierra Leone. 

My Lord M \nnn-: 


1 HA\K the 1 

lordship's despatch, : 

subject of a scheme 

this colony and to ini 

farm fulfils the reqi 

lirements s; 

thai it was favour;,!, 

of the Gold Coast 

colony in April last. 

of the property. 

2. With respect to 

made in the estimate 

from *: 200 and £Sll 

West indies, would 

require a b, 

l the letter from Kew. 
. Crowther. the Curator 
on of his visit to this 
oncl tiding the purchase 

the engagement of a curator, I beg to request that ; 
may be pleased to direct that a man be selected from Kew for the 
office and ordered to proceed here as soon as convenient on the 
usual conditions. His salary to be from £200 to £250 by £10 
yearly, with quarters and hammock allowance at 2s. Of/, per 

4. As machinery for the purpose of preparing the coffee berry 
for the market will be required as soon as the Botanic station is 
establish'^, it is very doirable that the man to be selected should 
obtain all the necessary information regarding it, from what 
firms it can best be procured and the kind best adapted for this 

5. Your lordship will observe that the estimates for 18t>.">, whieh 
I propose to forward for your approval shortly, do not sullieiently 
provide for the salaries of curator and overseer at the increased 
rate which I now suggest, but as the excess of estimated revenue 
over expenditure amounts to £1,101 there is ample margin for 
the small additional sum required to meet the increased salaries. 

I have, &c, 
(Signed) F. CardeW, 

The Most Honourable, 

The Marquess of Ripon, K.G., &c. 

ber of the staff of the 1 loyal (Jan I. -us. 

temporarily as curator of the Botanic 
t, was appointed curator of the new 

Sierra Leone in November, 1<S«»",. 
ves an interesting account of his first 
ork in the colony. 

Curator, Botanic Station, Sierra Leone, to Royal 
Gardens, Kew. 

Botanical Station, Freetown, 
4th April, 1806. 

anuary L3th last, to the ( 'obmial < Mlice. 

ae samples of coffee, and fibre which 1 have forwarded, I 

account of thi> inter^tin^ tiv hm! it.,- pr.><iuct' will t «■ found on pp. 320-325. 

dreadfully tangl 

hidden by weed 

I have about 

splendidly situai 
the garden. 

about \ inch. 

"•I have started s 
also cleared sevei 

opinion on them, and any 

suggestions you 

■ im T guidance. 

ember "2 1 1 1 1 hist , and have 

dearing the land which 

:, in fact the coffee trees 

were completely 

latterly 1 have been laying the place out. 

16 acres of land altogetht 

etown, about 250 feet a 

ibove sea level ; 

well watered ; a stream l 

running through 

ying out with a view 

to its being an 

s, being so close 

drawback is the poorness, 

, and sliallowness 

.1 like to -et a foot or ei; 

? hteen inches of 

.but labour is scarce. 11: 

,aye only U men 

1 again, the men 

stirs each day, it is so ver; 

I arrived until last week, when we had 

zed nursery, and built ah 

irge plant house ; 

■king Liberian 
ted, so as to be 

gums, \c. also the ,.,(]", ,■ maehiiies which arrived a few days before 
coffee in parchment and the dry cherry huller) were worked. I 

stayed the night at an Kuropean factoi-y, where they buy the 
produce as it is brought down by the natives in their "large 
canoes, this is principally palm-oil, palm-kernels, and rubber ; b [htle camwood, gum, ivory, gold, benniseed, and kola. 

The next morning, as soon as the tide was favourable, we 
continued our journey, the river now narrowed in considerably, 
and a clear view could be obtained of both banks, which were 
fringed with the mangrove, broken here and there by little creeks, 
many only a few yards wide, at the end of which a glimpse could 
be obtained of a native village. Wherever a large break occurred, 
there was situated a small town, and it was at these places that 
the vegetation became interesting: P.hris. Riqriiiu, Plurni.r, and 
Cocas represented Palmae ; also conspicuous were Adansnnias. 
Cola, mango. Eriodcndron, Acnria, Diulium, Pentadesma, 
Hihisrus, cotton. Mimosa. Trurit'tointia, ^<l<t<jut<>lht, several 
ferns including some magnificent pieces of Phth/rrrimn (wthio- 
picuin, 1 suppose), and a few orchids. Owing to its being towards 
the end of the dry season everything was nearly withered up, and 
hardly a plant was in flower. 

During the second day's journey, we passed some very 
large alligators which were sleeping on the mud banks of the 
river. There were also some very fine birds, pelicans, .cranes, 
herons, curlews, &c, and many small birds with very attractive 
plumage. We passed several troops of chattering monkeys, whose 
curiosity was instantly aroused on sighting us. 

I was disappointed in the general appearance of Port Loko, and 
neighbourhood. The town is very large, but the land was not of 
such a fertile character as I expected ; the bush was very scrubby. 
A little rice, and cassava, were cultivated in some places, but tin 
other economic products were grown except by the missionary 
who had a few hundred coffee trees, and at one small town on the 
way up I noticed about 200 trees planted out, and several thousands 
seedlings in beds. I could not ascertain to whom they belonged. 

I must tender you my best thanks for the seeds andpuUicaiion> 
which you have been so kind as to forward to me from time to 

I hope to be able to send more things to Kew in a few months 
time, especially if I am fortunate enough to get a good overseer, 
as then I shall have time to look around, whereas, as 1 am situated 
at present, I have absolutely no time to spare. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq., C.M.G., CLE. Curator. 

The samples of coffee referred to in the first paragraph of the 
preceding letter were submitted for valuation and report with the 
following result : — 

Messrs. Lewis & Peat to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

6, Mincing Lane, London, E.C., 
Dear Sir, 4th May, 18%. 

YOUR favour of the 1st inst. with sample of coffee reached 

The parchment is good, clean, and bright. It has been well 
prepared and well cured, and very hard dried. 

The coffee comes out rather brownish and foxy coated, and is 
small in size for Liberian ; possibly the drought has affected the 
coffee to a great extent, as you suggest. 

To day's value is about 78s. to 80s. per cwt. if husked and 
sized here. 

We are, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) LEWIS & Peat. 

It is a very fair sample on the whole. 

The report on the fibres was not so satisfactory. 

" Smuprieria guineensis. — Fibre of good length but of bad 
colour. A somewhat similar sample from Trinidad was valued 
in lNSf, ;it £20 per ton. Present prices would probably be much 

" The Hibiscus fibre is not suitable for commercial use in its 
present form. " 

, 'Bulletin, J 896, p. 218). 

The duties of the overseer are to undertake the experimental 
cultivation of coffee, cacao and other economic plants, and to 
assist in training native boys in horticultural work. 

The site selected for the Botanic Station at Sierra Leone consists 
of two pieces of land, one of which is shown in the accompanying 
plan prepared l>y the curator. This is the lower or north garden, 
about a mile from the centre of Freetown, at an elevation of 250 ft. 
above mean sea-level, and well sheltered from the prevailing 
winds. There is a perennial stream flowing through the gardens, 
and it is intended to tap this at a higher level, and lead the water 
in small rivulets or in pipes all over the ground. 

The land is not yet properly fenced ; it is in contemplation to 
erect a strong fence, with barbed wire and hard-wood or live 
posts, as soon as possible. A serviceable wooden gate, with stone 
pillars, has been placed at the entrance near the overseer's house. 

The soil is not all equally good. It is described as rather poor 
and shallow in places, " while from ."> to lucres are covered with 
slab rock and laterite." There is, however, a sufficient area of 
good soil, especially along the banks of the stream, for nurseries 
and propagating grounds. Other parts are suitable for being laid 
out in lawns, and capable, by the addition of manure and soil, for 
growing specimen trees in specially prepared holes. 

The other portion of the station is, unfortunately, not accessible 
from the lower garden. It is an isolated plot situated on a slope 

of a small coffee plantation. The trees aiv looked after and 
regularly weeded and pruned, bib beyond this it is not possible to 
a lb.) rd them further attention at present. 

Further particular* aiv eontainecl in the following letter received 
l January last : — 


I HAVE the honour to forward a rough plan of the lower 
or north portion of the station here. I trust it will give you an 
idea of the progress which has been made in laying out the garden 
during the last 12 months. 

As I mentioned in my letter of some months ago, the ground 
is very poor and rocky and difficult to work, consequently the 
results are not very encouraging. 

The nurseries have made fair progress. I have quantities of 
the Liberian and the native narrow-leaved coffee, also cacao, 
abont 500 kola, and about 800 eucalyptus, growing well, main- 
over two feet high, besides black pepper and many other economic 
and ornamental plains. 

The rainfall this last year has been very heavy, nearly 
200 inches. As I was not expecting such heavy rains, I wis 
doubtful if the roads I had made would stand it," but I am glad 
to say they were not damaged in the least ; but the open drains 
at the sides were washed out to a depth of :', to j feet in some 
places. These have now all been made up with stone, and stout 
stakes driven in at regular intervals to stop the rush of water, 
which ifi very great, the garden being on a slope. 

I hope to have several apprentices at work here next month ; 
I want to see them fairly started at work before I go on leave. 

I must thank you for assisting in the selection of such a capable 
man as Hartley as overseer. He has worked well so far and 
I find him a great help and very useful. 

I am a member of the Agrienlturai Fx hi bit ion committee here, 
and also one of the judges in the farm and plantation competition. 
The inspection of the plantations ;md farms entered for competi- 
tion will commence in a few days. It embraces the whole of the 
Sierra Leone peninsula and also Sln-rbro Island and neighbour- 
hood. The Exhibition is on the 16th and 17th of February ; T am 
preparing samples of economic products for exhibition. 

Messrs. Millen & Humphries were able to stop with me for 
several days on their way down the coast to their respective 

(Signed) ' F. e'.'Willey. 

Mr. Willey has been on leave in this ntmiin during the present 

this establishment, and in 
elsewhere respecting the < 
ment of subjects likely to 
up in West Africa. 


! the vast 

possible in consequence of the progressive increase in the yield 
of sugar. This has been obtained by gradual and progressive 

In order to obtain exact information on the subject application 
was made to Mons. H. L. de Yilmorin, who has had a large share 
in bringing the sugar beet to its present condition as a commercial 
source of sugar. The following interesting letter was received in 
reply. It gives a striking picture of what can be accomplished h\ 
persistent selection. 

Moire. H. L. de Vilmorin to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

17, Rue de Bellechasse, Paris, 
December 30th, 1896. 
Dear Mr. Thiseltw-Dyer, 

I can very easily send you the desired information, as the 
subject of sugar-beet is one to which my father and myself 
devoted much time and attention. 

Both the beet-root and the leaf-beei are derived from Beta 
ma fit i ' mn. [,., a native of the shores of the Mediterranean and of 
the western coasts of Kurooe. It was known to the ancient Greeks 

'n lo'dle'lbblfu: 


»f its weight in pure 

•11 t lie existing variety, 

percentage of sugar, 

> weight of the root). 

lining the amount of 

oot were Lntrodw 

?ed by my father, and 

root which hold most 

issues reduced to the 

he Objed lias hi 

en to unite a better 

etseq. You will see that it is an exaggeration to say that the 
4ualiiy has keen enormously increased ; hut it was so in a fairly 
large measure ; and this has raised beet-sugar making from a had 
job into a prosperous industry. 

(Signed) ' 'h. L. DE VlLMORIN. 

In this case improvement was effected by taking advantage of 
seminal variation. The same method might be applied to the 
sugar-cane now that seedlings are obtainable with tolerable 
facility. But progress would necessarily be made slower than in 
the case of the sugar-beet. 

For this reason the method of chemical selection which has 
been practised in Louisiana seems both more practicable and more 
promising. It is fully described in the Kew Bulletin for 1894 
(pp. 86-96). 

; preliminary report 

Extract from letter from Mr. J. R. Bovell, Curator, Botanic 
Station, Dodd's Reformatory, Barbados, to the Director, Royal 
Gardens, Kew, dated March 30th, 1897. 
"When I was at Kew in 1894 you suggested to me the desirability 
of trying to increase the saccharine of the sugar-cane by chemical 
selection. On my return to Barbados at the end of lS'.'l it was 
rather late to start the experiment, but in December, 1895 a plot 
was planted with cuttings of the upper halves of canes that 
contained over the average amount of available sugar in the canes 
tested the first day. A second plot was planted with cuttings of 
the upper halves of those below the first day's average, and a 
third plot was at the same time planted in the usual wav, />., with 
cuttings taken indiscriminately from ordinarily well-grown canes. 
These plots were tested two weeks ago, and the results wen- very 
satisfactory. The canes grown from the cuttings taken from the 
richest canes gave the richest juice ; those from the canes lowest 
in sucrose the poorest juice, and those planted in the usual way 
coming about mid-way between the other two." 


the U.S. Consular Reports for X« 
It is an extract from an address ma< 
Leone (now Sir Frederic Cardew, ] 
Council of Sierra Leone, on the 21st 
Some portions of the forests descr 
the report made by Mr. Scott-Elliot 
Bulletin (ISM, p. 167-169):— 

There are large tracts of forests wi 


sense explored, and they only require intelligent and systematic 
methods for gathering the rubber to yield their wealth to the 
first comer who has the necessary enterprise. 

For instance, the forest to which I have already referred as 
lying between Makali and Kruto may be roughly estimated to 
cover the greater portion of the district between the Seli river 
on the west and the Bagwe on the east, and an east and west line 
drawn through Kruto in the north, and a similar line drawn 
through Makali in the south. 

This area comprises portions of the Kuniki and Koranko 
districts, and the extent of forest land within it may, on the most 
moderate calculation, be computed at about tloo square miles. 

Along a great portion of the route taken by my party the forest 
is of some eight to ten years' growth, but in many parts of the 
district there is, I have no doubt, the virgin forest ; but even in 
the forests of recent growth there is abundance of rubber, and 
three kinds of such plants were pointed out to me. Two were 
vines called, respectively, in the Timni language " lilibue " and 
" nofe," and the third a nee called in the same language " kewatia." 
The " lilibue " yields the choicest rubber in the protectorate. In 
gathering it. incisions are made in the bark of the vine, which is 
not, however, always cut down. In the ease of the "nofe" vine 
it is invariably cut up into small pieces of about 6 inches in 
length, and thus completely destroyed. The " kewatia," i.e., the 
rubber tree, appears to grow rapidly, and in eight or ten years to 
attain a girth of from 2 to 3 feet, but the tree, however, like the 
" nofe," is also destroyed in the process of gathering its rubber ; it is 
felled, and the bark ringed at intervals of about 6 inches along tin. 1 
trunk. The rubber appears to be treatid in a different way to 
that of the vines ; the latter is, as you know, coagulated with lime 
juice, but the rubber which exudes from the rings cut in the tree 
placed in hot water, on the surface of which it coagulates, 
then cut into strips, which are formed into balls for the 

I think we must all admit that the native processes are crude 
and wasteful in the extreme, and it is evident if more intelligent 
and economical methods were adopted, as I understand is the 
case in the Brazils and other parts of South America, there would 
be a far larger yield, and every probability that the West African 
rubber would command as high a price as South American. But 
if some steps are not taken to teach the natives better methods 
of exhacting rubber than thev now use, ir may safely be predicted 
that with the increasing demand f..r rubber, in a few years the 
plant will become extinct, and an industry which should be one of 
the most thriving in the colony will be ruined. 

In the forests 1 am speaking of the rubber is gathered by Susu 
traders in the crude and wasteful manner 1 have described. The 
natives in the Koranko and Kuniki districts, especially in the 
former, appear to be very ignorant of its value and the methods of 
gathering it. I feel quite convinced that if traders were to either 
go themselves or send as agents into these parts men well 

able and expense with rich 1 

The methods which prevailed in South America should be 
studied and adopted if found practicable here. A short account 
of the preparation of the Para rubber, which is the premier rubber 
of the world and is obtained from a large tree which forms 
extensive forests in the lowlands of the Amazon, was published at 
the recent Agricultural Exhibition, and the curator is now drawing 
up an account of other processes which may be suitable to the 
ml >b.>r industry of this colony. 

The natives of the interior require to be trained in an intelligent 
way of working, not only in the preparation of rubber, but also in 
that of palm-oil. It is absurd to think that for the purpose of 
extracting a few ounces, or say, even pounds, of rubber, large 
trees should be felled, as is the case now, not to mention vines, 
and so completely destroyed. In the territory of the Amazon, 
each rubber tree is made* to yield an annual crop, and the bark, 
instead of being ringed, has a number of incisions made in it as 
far up the trunk as the hand can reach, and the milk is caught in 
little hollowed-out lumps of clay which are placed below each 
incision. This work is done by the Indians, and there is no reason 
why the aborigines of the interior should not be taught to adopt 
similar methods. If the traders who purchase the rubber and 
other indigenous products would inform the Government in what 
direction they consider reforms should be introduced in the 
prevailing systems of gathering such produce, the Government 
would, I feel sure, lend an attentive ear to their suggestions. 

The forests in the Kuniki and Koranko districts are, relatively 
speaking, very accessible from here • Magbeli, from which place 
they can be entered, being distant about seven days' easy marching, 
and there is water carriage for light canoes from Benkia, two 
marches from Magbeli, down the l:<><|iielle river. 

But these forests are small compared to those on the Anglo- 
Liberian frontier, along the Morro and Mano rivers, which extend 
for 800 or 1,000 miles. Had it not been for the border raids which 
have been carried on for the last eighteen to twenty years, I have 
no doubt they would have been exploited long ago ; but there is 
an opportunity, now that the raiding has altogether ceased, for 
opening up these forests, which abound in rubber and elephants, 
and the southern portions of which are within two days' journey 
of Sulima. 


(I'entarffsma butyracea, Don.) 
This noble tree of West Africa is a member of the Gamboge 
order (Quttifertv). It extends from Sierra Leone southward to 
the mouths of the Niger, and beyond to the equator. It some- 
tinies attains a height of 70 ft. ; the large glossy leaves are from 
5 to 10 in. long, the flowers are abundant, very handsome, and 
succeeded by a large, lemon-shaped brown berry, 6 in. long and 
4 to 5 in. diameter, with one or two, or sometimes numerous, 
seeds. The plant was described by Sabine in the Tmnaar.ti»ns 
of the HnrtirnUusnl Society (vol. v., 1824, p. 457) as the " Butter 
and Tallow tree." It has recently been figured in Hookers 

Icones Plantarum, pi. 2465 (ISO 6), with a description by 
Professor Oliver. It is known in Sierra Leone as the " Kamoot " 
tree. Professor E. Heckel, in his monograph Lea Kolas A/'n'raimt, 
refers to it as the " Kanya " tree ; and the oil or butter yielded 
by the seeds as beurre de Kanya. 

The following correspondence relates to an investigation that 
has been carried on in this country at the request of the Govern- 
ment of Sierra Leone into the probable value of the seeds of this 
tree as a source of oil. The result, owing to the exceptionally 
depressed condition of the market for oil-seeds, is not very 
promising. It is possible, however, that the information now 
published may prove of service to those interested in West 
African products, and suggest means whereby the seeds may 
eventually become of commercial importance : — 

The Colonial Seceetaey, Sierra Leone, to Royal 
Gardens, Kew. 
Colonial Secretariat, Sierra Leone, 
Sir, 18th December, 1805. 

I have the honour, by direction of His Excellency the 
Governor, to forward to you, through the Crown Agents for 
the Colonies, a case containing seed, flower and leaves of the 
" Kamoot " tree, and to request that you will be so kind as to 
report upon it as a plant worthy of cultivation from an economic 
point of view. 

2. A copy of the letter of Rev. J. A. Cole, who furnished the 
is herewith enclosed for your information. 



Freetown, Sierra Leone, 
Dear Sir, November 25th, 1805. 

According to arrangement made with His Excellency 
Governor Cardew, I beg to forward you a package containing the 
seed, flower and leaves of the Kamoot tree. 

It is an economic plant that may be introduced into the com- 
merce of Western Africa. It grows extensively all along the 
banks of our rivers, and on the mountains. The seed yields an 
edible nil, highly esteemed by the interior natives. 

His Excellency Governor <\,nle\v desires, it to be examined by 
Kew, and I arranged with him that it be forwarded through the 

The seed now forwarded is nut fresh, and the proportion of oil 
may not be estimated fairly from it, but it may be possible to 
arrive at something more definite when fresh seeds are obtained. 
At present it is the flowering season, and the sample of seed is 
fully a year old. 

I remain, ftc, 
(Signed) J. Augustus Cole, 

The Honourable 

The Colonial Secretory, 

Freetown, Sierra Leone. 

The Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 


I HAVE the honour to inform you of the receipt of a letter 
from the Sierra Leone Government of December 18th, advising 
the despatch of a case containing dried specimens and seeds of the 
Kamoot tree. 

2. By means of the former we were at once able to identity it as 
Pr ninths i, i a butyracea, the "Butter and Tallow tree" of Sierra 
Leone, which was first described in the year l.S'24 by Mr. Joseph 
S.ibine in the Transactions „/ the Royal Horticultural Society. 
He says "the yellow greasy juice . . . is given out cupiunsh 
when the fruit is cut or opened, . ... it is not, however, 
much used by the settlers on account of a strong turpentine 
flavour which belongs to it ; this juice is more abundant in the 
seeds than in any other part of the fruit." 

3. As far as I know the seeds have not been introduced into 

the tree is abundant in the colony, they should not be utilised. For 
this purpose the best plan would be to induce some oil-seed 
crusher at Liverpool to give them an experimental trial, and to 
consign to him a quantity sufficient for the purpose. 

4. Probably Messrs. James Samuelson & Sons, Ltd., Scottish 
Chambers, 48 Castle Street, Liverpool, would be willing to take 
til*- matter in hand. 

Sir Hubert Meade, K.C.B., 
Colonial Office, 

Downing Street, S.W. 

tree of Sierra Leone. 

I am going to procure a further quantity of seeds of the "butter 
ree, : 'for the experiment as to their oil vain-' which vuu suggested 
n your letter of January i:',tl, last, to the Colonial Office. 

The native tribes around here all extract an oil from the seeds 
aid use it for cooking in the same way as they do palm-oil. 
have been informed by some natives that they prefer it to palm- 
dl on account of its better flavour. The season for the seeds is 
larch and April. Then the natives prepare and store a sufficient 
uantirv of the oil to last until the next season. The oil is 

extracted by drying the seeds and parching them over a fire. 
They are then pounded in a mortar; water is added and the 
whole boiled over a fire, and the fat or oil is skimmed off as it 

Curator, Botanic Station, Sikrra Leone, to Royal 
Gardens, Kew. 

Botanic Station, Sierra Leone, 
May 19th, 1896. 

I HAVE the honour to forward by the s.s. " Ilaro," two bags 
containing seeds of Pentadesma butyracea, the butter or tallow 
tree of Sierra Leone. 

One bag contains 57 lbs. of dried seed, and the other 115 lbs. of 
fresh seed. Would you kindly have them experimented upon, to 
ascertain their value as a source < f oil. as suggested in your letter 
to the Colonial Office, dated January 13th, 1896 ? 

I don't think it is necessary for me to add more, as 1 explained 
about the tree and how the natives use it, &c, in my letter to Kew 
last month. 

The seeds are sent to Kew because it is thought that they would 
receive more attention from the firm in Liverpool, than if the seed 
was sent direct from here. 

I have, &c, 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
Royal Gardens, Kew, 
10th December, 1896. 

With reference to my lette» of the 13th January last, I have 
the honour to inform you thai a consignment of the seed of Penta- 
drsmff liiiti/i-umi, tiie butter and tallow tree of Sierra Leone, was 
received from the Oovenmieiit of that colony in June last. 

2. This seed was at once forwarded for investigation to Messrs. 
Samuelson & Sons, Ltd., of Liverpool, and the result is con- 
tained in the enclosures herewith. 

3. The price of seed oils in this country at the present time is 
rather low and hence the estimated value of the tallow seeds 
stated by Messrs. Samuelson & Sons (to use their own words) "is 
hardly a fair one upon which to base calculations as to the real 
commercial value of the seeds." 


4. Nevertheless the investigation has been a useful one and the 
thanks of the Government are due to Messrs. Saomelson & Sons 
for the trouble they have taken in the matter. We now know for 
the first time the percentage of oil in these seeds and the probable 
uses to which it can be applied. 

(Signed) W.' T. Thiselton-Dyer, 
The Hon. Sir Robert Meade, K.C.B., 
Colonial Office, 

Downing Street, S.W. 

[Enclosure 1.] 
Messrs. Samuelson & Sons to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Scottish Chambers, 

48, Castle Street, Liverpool, 
2Hrd October, 1896. 
Dear Sir, 

With reference to the investigation with the "butter and 
tallow" seeds received, we find they contain 41 per cent, of oil, 
of which we send you a small sample. Our investigations have 
hitherto only been in the laboratory, and the quantity supplied is 
not large enough for a practical test. 

The oil, we think, would be suitable for soap-making ; this we 
shall be able to ascertain in the course of a week or tw o, as we are 
getting one of our soap-making friends to try it. If it should be 
suitable for snap-making, and t be refuse suitable for cattle foods, 
we think the price of the seeds ought to range from £8 to £10 per 
ton, delivered in England, according to the state of the market. 
Yours truly, 

(Signed) Ed\V. SAMUELSON. 
The Director, 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

[Enclosure 2.] 
Messrs. Samuelson & Sons to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Scottish Chambers, 

48, Castle Street, Liverpool, 

8th December, 1890. 
Dear Str, 

The writer saw Mr. U.S. Timmis, of Messrs. Gossage A Sons. 
vesterdav, and he reports that tie' oil made from the nuts of which 
you sent us two sacks, is (though not an oil of high quality) 
undoubtedly suitable lor soap-making, and, so far as we can tell 
you, would probably fetch about £2 per ton less than palm-kernel 
or cocoa-nut oil. Both these oils are very low at present (very 
little over £20 per ton), and perhaps to-day's price is hardly a fair 
one to base any calculations on as to the commercial value of the 


The cake we have not yet had a report upon ; but as soon as we 
have, we will send it on to you. We do not think it can by any 
possibility be worth more than £3 per ton, which would to-day 
give the selling value of the nuts at a maximum of £(> per ton, 
delivered in Liverpool. Whether it would pay to import at this 
price we very much doubt, and from what we can see of the oil 
we think it would not be suitable for any other purpose than 
soap-making. It is not good enough for candle-making, and it is 
too dear for mixing with mineral oil to make a solid lubricant. 

Any further information we get on the subject we shall at once 
send you. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) Edw. Samtjelsox. 

The Director, 

Roval Gardens, Kew. 

The progress made in the cultivation of coffee at the Gold < - -f 
has been noticed in the Kew Bulletin (1895, pp. 12,21 and 111")). 
In the Blue Book Report for the year 1803 {Colonial Office 
Iie t ,nrts. Annual Series, 1S'J5, No. 130) the following account was 
given of the experiments carried on in connection with coffee and 
cacao at the Botanic Station at Aburi : — 

" A good deal of general work has been done in the Govern- 
ment Botanical Station during the year and considerable attention 
has been paid to the plantations of coffee and cacao, in the culti- 
vation of both of which, but more especially the former, the 
natives appear to have become interested. Along the road leading 
from the Botanical Station through the country of Akwapim to the 
interior are large numbers of small clearings in which coffee 
plants, chiefly obtained by purchase from the Botanic Station, 
are to be seen in a most flourishing condition. The Liherian 
coffee plant appears to thrive best, but there are large quantities 
also of the Arabian coffee plant, the berry of which, however, is 
small and apparently deteriorated. It Avill probably be necessary 
for the Government at no distant .hue, if the coffee industry is to 
be fostered into a trade, to instruct these native cultivators in the 
proper way of preparing the berry for export. At present the most 
primitive method is employed. The berries are scraped by hand 
with a round stone worked' in the hollow of a larger stone, and 
after this process they are washed and dried in the sun. It is 
obvious that a large crop could not be so dealt with, and that the 
employment of machinery in the near future is imperative. The 
initiative will have to be taken by the Government, because of 
the general ignorance on the part of the natives of all machinery, 
even of the simplest character, and because no single native culti- 
vator possesses sufficient capital, enterprise, or experience to take 
the matter in hand." 

During the last two years the Government has introduced machi- 
nery for pulping and curing coffee, and consignments of both coffee 
and cacao have been forwarded through the Crown Agents for 
sale in the London market. This plan afforded the best means for 

testing the commercial value of the produce, and it is gratifying 
to find that the result shows that coffee and cacao can be grown in 
West Africa capable of realising good prices in European markets. 
Much still remains to be done to induce the natives to cultivate 
and cure their produce in a satisfactory manner. 

During the year 1896 there were shipped from the Aburi 
Botanic Station 30 bags of coffee and four bags of cacao. The 
return sales were as follows : — 

Crown Agents to Colonial Secretary, Gold Coast. 

I HAVE the honour to inform you, with reference to your 
letter of the loth April lust, that we have caused the bags of 
coffee and cocoa sent home per s.s. " Cabenda" to be sold at the 
Commercial Sale Rooms, Mincing Lane, London, by a first class 
firm of colonial brokers, Messrs. Rucker & Bencraft, and the 
following has been the result : — 

The 2fi bags marked L were examined, sorted, cleaned, husked, 
and then refilled into 15 bags, and were sold at the rate of 
70- per cwt. 

similarly treated, refilled into 

he four bags of cocoa were sold ; 
rate of :>7- per cwt., the net ai 
realised being 

Net total realised ... £56 19 10 

1 enclose, for the information and guidance of the Colonial 
overnment, copies of the letters, reports and account sales which 
e have received from the brokers. 

I have, Ac, 
(Signed) E. E Blake. 

;17, Minring Lane, E.C., 

Gentlemen, 8th July, 1896. 

The four bags cocoa will be offered at public sale on 

Tuesday next. 

Referring to the shipment of coffee and cocoa — 

1st. We should recommend your friends to use stouter gunny 

fcr their bags. 

2nd. To dry their Mocha seed coffee more before shipping it 
in husk. 

3rd. To clean their Liberian coffee themselves before shipping. 
the husk being so heavy, and there being no colour to preserve. 

The shipments for the current year (1897) are described in the 
following correspondence : — 

Curator, Botanic Station, Gold Coas:\ to Royal 
Gardens, Kbw. 

Dear Sir, 13th June, 1897. 

I HAVE taken the liberty of writing to inform you that 
the Botanic Station is now properly fenced in. It was com- 
pleted on the 12th instant ; there are two gates which are locked 
after 5 p.m. 

The shipment of coffee and cacao for 1897 from this station is 
as follows : — 

Liberian coffee, dried in parchment ... 46 sacks. 
„ „ cherry dried ... ... 8 „ 

Arabian „ dried in parchment ... 5 „ 

This was sent off about the end of May. and with theexeeption 
of the iive sacks of Arabian was harvested and prepared by 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) C. H. Humphries. 
The Director, 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Messrs. Rucker & Bencraft to Crown Agents. 
37, Mincing Lane. K. I . 
Gentlemen, 17th August, IN'.'T. 

We have now the pleasure to enclose contract for tight 
bags cocoa ex " Bathurst " at 58 -. 

The price is very satisfactory : there is at the moment a 
considerable speculation curreni in cocoa, and a few months ago 

In a rising market common sorts ahvays reap the greater 
advantage, in falling markets they suffer more than line cocoas. 

The outside appearance of this cocoa is !'airl\ good, the break is 
too dark and often defective. The dark colour of the beans you 
may be able to remedy, they ought to be rosy in colour ; the 
defective can certainlv be got rid of by more careful curing. 
We are, Ac, 
(Signed) J. A. RUCKER & BENCRAFT. 

Account Sale of 8 bags cocoa, per "BattrarBt" (s.) ri Accra, 
sold by order and for account of the Crown Agents for the 

August 17th. 

8 bags 8*2" 2 8 at 58/- ... 24 14 

Discount, %\ per cent 12 4 

Net proceeds 

Messrs. Rucker & Bencraft to Crown Agents. 
19th August, 1897. 

Referring to the sale of your coffee yesterday 23 bags ex 
M Bathurst M was a normal lot of African Liberian and sold at 
about value. 

Two bags ex " Bathurst " was a retail lot and would have sold 
at 10 - more money if there had been 20 bags of it. 

As regards three bags ex " Bathurst " this was also a retail lot, 
but in quantity it would nm have fetched much more money. As 
t<> thr preparation of this lot, we should imagine much could he 
done to improve quality, the coffees appear thoroughly worm 
eaten and the appearance is verv rough. 

Yours, &c, 
(Signed) J. A. Rucker & Bencraft. 

ACCOUNT Sale of 28 bags coffee, per " Bathurst " (s.) at Accra, 
sold by order and for account of the Crown Agents for the 

3 „ 

28 bags 

Net proceeds 


The development of the system of Botanic Stations in West 

Africa lias been recorded from time to time in the pages of the 
k'fir liiiUctiii. The earliest station was started at Lagos by 
Sir Alfred Moloney, in 1S88 : the next at Ahuri on the Gold (Vim, 
in 1890, under the supervision of Sir W. Brandford Griffith. 
The station at the Gambia was established in 1894, and in 1895 
Sir Frederic Cardew was successful in arranging for what 
promises to be a useful station at Freetown, Sierra Leone. 

The early attempts to start these stations were necessarily of a 
tentative character. Ihu the measure of success which attended 
their efforts to develop the material progress of the West African 
Colonies led to a desire to place them on a more permanent 
footing. At a conference held at the Colonial Office, in 
September, 189:5, at which the four W.-st African Governors 
were present (Knr llulloli,,, lS9:i, pp. Hdo-oTS). steps were 
taken to extend the Botanic Station system and to improve the 
position and standing of the curators. 

As a result of this conference, the !">otauic Stations in West Africa 
have been placed on a similar footing to those existing in other parts 

hnpire, and their influen 

.ce and usefulness are steadily 

tg. The health of the c 

urators has. on the whole, been 

)i-y. The only death 

amongst the Curators of the 

stations occurred at Aburi 

in IS'.i."). when Mr. W. Crowtlier. 

body of native officers to assist in the work of the Botanic 
stations, and take charge during the absence of the Curators, 
arrangements were made to train negro boys in horticultural work, 
and to make a selection of the most promising for further 
training in the West Indies or at Kew. Two such boys from 
Lagos were trained by the P.otanical Department in .Jamaica, and 
afterwards received at Kew for nearly eighteen months. Thev 
returned to West Africa in May. 1894. One is now in charge of 
the Government House garden and grounds, while the other is 
Assistant Curator at the Iiotanic Station. 

It is hoped that efforts will be made to train similar men in the 
other Colonies. 

In the meantime it has been sought to increase the efficiency 
of the Curators themselves, and to afford them opportunities un- 
becoming thoroughly acquainted with the possibilities of 
development of West African industries. 

The official action taken in this direction is shown in the 
following correspondence : — 

Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
Royal Gardens, Kew, 

March 25th, 1897. 

In the memorandum, approved by the Secretary of State, 
transmitted in Mr. Bramston's letter of September 25, 181W, the 
conditions of employment of the Curators of the several Botanic 
Stations in the West African colonies arc laid down. 

2. Number 4 of these provides that these officers shall have the 
benefit of the Colonial Regulations as regards, amongst other 
things, leave. They are therefore entitled to six months' leave of 
absence on full pav after twelve months' consecutive service in 
the Gold Coast Colony and Lagos, and after fifteen in Sierra 
Leone and the Gambia. 

3. While 1 am satisfied that this privilege is essential to the 
preservation of health necessary for the efficient performance of 
their duties, I am doubtful whether it is altogether satisfactory to 
treat such prolonged leave exclusively as holiday. No doubt men, 
animated with some zeal for their duties, will devote a portion at 
least of their leave in this country to work which would increase 
their efficiency. But they are at present under no obligation to 
do so. It appears to me, therefore, a matter well worth the 
consideration of the Secretary of State whether in this particular 
case some moaification of the general regulation should not 
be made. 

•4. I would suggest that each Curator on his return to Engkmd 
should be required to report himself at Kew, and to devote two 
months of his leave to the study of such subjects, whether 
commercial or horticultural, as the Director may indicate to him, 
and that, further, the receipt of his pay for that period shall be 
contingent on a certificate from the Director that he has employed 
himself for the time specified in a satisfactory manner. 
I am, etc., 
(Signed) W. T. ThiseltonDyer. 

Edward Wingfield, Esq., C.B., 
Colonial Office, 

DoAvning Street, S.W. 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 


I AM directed by Mr. Secretary Chamberlain to inform you, 
in reply to your letter of the 25th of March, that he entirely 
agrees with you in thinking it desirable that the Curators of 
Botanical Stations in the West African Colonies should be 
required to devote a portion of their leave of absence to work 
which would increase their efficiency. 

2. It has always been held by the Secretary of State that the 
leave which is granted to Europeans in the service of the West 
African Colonies is not to be treated as an ordinary holiday, and 
that those that receive it may be called upon to undertake any 
work, or go through any course of instruction that the Government 


may think desirable. Many officers have been required to do so, 
and there will be no difficulty in laying down the rule which you 
suggest ii> the case of Curators. 

3. A copy of your letter and of t his reply will he sent to the 
Governors <>f the four West A frican Colonies," for their information 
and guidance. 

4. I am to add that Mr. F. E. Willey, the Curator of the 
Leone, has recently arrived in this 
told to report himself to jou, with a 

the study of such subjects as you niav indicate to him. 
I am, &c, 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Downing Street, 6th July, 1897. 

I AM directed by Mr. Secretary Chamberlain to acknowledge 
the receipt of your letter of the '24th of June, in which you 
surest that Curators of West African iiotanical Stations, who are 
called upon to pursue a course of study at Kew during their 
leave of absence, should receive an allowance of £10 to coyer all 
travelling and other expenses. 

2. It has occurred to Mr. Chamberlain that hardship might be 
caused in individual cases by the grant of a fixed sum to cover 
travelling expenses, which must of course vary greatly, lie would 

the officer's usua 

completion of th< 

5. It may be as 

products in the Museums of Economic Botany, and made notes of 
3t brought into comme: 
in I .Imis, fibres, coffee, 

yet brought into commerce. They have paid special 
spices, and iruuis, and 

standard books affording the 

latest information on these and similar subjects. While studying 
the economic collections of living plants they have made out 
lists of those likely to be suitable for West Africa, and arrange- 
ments have been made to send out a selected number of such 
plants with them on their return to the Colonies. Visits were 
arranged for the inspection and trial of machinery for the 
preparation of coffee and other tropical products, and also to the 
principal bale rojius in Mincing Lane. 

The following memorandum will show what was accomplished 
in one day's visit to the latter :— 

"About a dozen of the principal produce brokers were visited, 
and large collections of products were seen and examined in the 

" The samples of ginger were particularly interesting. We spent 
some time in comparing the samples of African ginger, from 
Sierra Leone, with those which had arrived from the West 

" A considerable difference was noticed in the character of the 
produce when the two sorts were compared. 

" The samples of ginger from Sierra Leone were all coated, and 
the rhizomes were small. The quality was poor, and the prices 
obtained were only about one-third of those of the best Jamaica 

" A small quantity only was shown of coated ginger from the 
West Indies. In nearly all the samples the rhizomes were very 
much larger than those from Sierra Leone. 

"The principal brokers visited were Messrs. Lewis & Peat. 
Here were seen Jamaica sarsaparilla, Rio and Carthagena 
ipecacuanha, Chinese star anise, Tinnevelly and Alexandrian 
senna, Kombe {Slro^/ninthus hispidtis), Pudding pipe (Cassia 
/istn!ft), coffee, cinnamon, peppers, chillies, nutmegs, mace, and 
other spices. 

" The other products noted during the day were gums, wax, 
tapioca, ginger, cloves, sugar, cascarilla bark, buchu leaves, myrrh, 
simarouba bark, &c. 

" Fibres were not so numerous as other products, but a few were 
observed, including raffia, piassaba. bowstring hemp, Mauritius 
hemp, cocoa-nut coir, and West African piassaba. Very little of 
the latter was seen. 

"After leaving Miming Lane, a visit was paid to a warehouse in 
Crutched Friar., w In re the various drugs were to be seen in bulk, 
amongst them dragon's blood, gamboge, aloes in skins and in 
boxes, gum guaiacum, sarsaparilla in bales, ipecacuanha, benzoin, 

(Signed) Walter Hatdon. 

There can be little doubt that the opportunities thus afforded 
will be of considerable value in increasing the efficiency of the 
officers concerned, and in enabling them to disseminate the most 
recent information in regard to West African industries. It is 

impossible to over-estimate the value of such training, and there 
can be little doubt that the result will be apparent in a much 
more rapid advance in the material development of these 
Colonies, which have hitherto been almost entirely dependent 
en trade in native and forest products, and have devoted little 


Mr. Louis Gbntil, a member of the gardening staff of the 
Royal Gardens, has been appointed by the Government of the 
Congo Free State to the post of Agricultural Expert. He leaves for 
Africa in October. 

Botanical Magazine for September-- 1 Mans , 552 am 1 7553 are given 
to a new species of Scheelea, described as S. keivensis. It is a native 
of tropical America, and has been cultivated in the Royal Gardens 
for many years under the wrong name of Ma.rimiliana rr</ia. 
The plant is now 25 feet high, and flowered for the first and only 
time in 1895. Other plants drawn are Cirrhopetalam Curtisii, 
IIc(i((ntlois </i</antcas, and Veronica balfouriana. The Cirr/m^r- 
lafniri is also a new species, having been sent to Kew by Mr. C. 
Curtis, F.L.S., of Penang. It is allied to C. Ko.rba rtjliii and 
C. conrinnum, both of which are figured in Hooker's Icones 
I'faii/arum, plates 1057a and 2060b. The Helianth us is a very 
old species, being-mentioned in botanical works published at the 
end of the seventeenth century. The specimen figured was 
supplied by A. B. Freeman Mitford, Esq., C.B., from his fine 
garden at Batsford Park, Gloucestershire. The New Zealand 
Yi'i'tinira is the third new plant published in this number of the 
Magazine. It approaches I'. I'rarrrsii (plate 0390), differing 
somewhat in habit, and having longer racemes. The specimen 
figured was grown in Sir .J. lb Hooker's garden at Sunningdale. 

Victoria regia.— .V new variety of this fine water-lily has been 
grown at Kew this year. It was raised from seeds received from 
Mr. H. A. Dreer, nurseryman, Philadelphia, it differs from all 
other forms in the pale green colour of its leaves, of a rich red 
underneath, the turned-up rim. winch is from (\ to X ins. high, 
the absence of spines on the calyx lobes, and the time when the 
flowers expand, which is early in the afternoon instead of about 
six o'clock. It also grows with extraordinary vigour, and flowers 
more freely than the type. A second plant sent from Kew to 
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, has shown the same 

New Wing of Temperate House— Kew is well supplied with 
accommodation for plants requiring the temperature of the stove 
and cool greenhouse, but has long wanted an "intermediate 
house" of larger dimensions than the Conservatory (No. IV.). 

This has been supplied by the erection of the South Wing of 
the Temperate House. It was included in the original design by 


Decimus Burton, the construction of which was commenced in 
1860. The octagons were finished in 1801, and the centre block 
in 1862. The two wings were postponed, although the raised 
terrace had been prepared for them. 

This important addition lias been secured in great measure 
by the exertions of the Right Honourable Joseph Chamberlain, 
Secretary of State for the Colonies. It is intended to devote it 
mainly to large specimens of economic plants, such as the Mango, 
Guava, Cinchona, Sisal Hemp, &c. The construction is com- 
posite ; the steel principals are supported on cast-iron columns ; 
the sashes and frames are of wood. The internal dii 

112 ft. 6 ins. by 62 ft. 6 ins. The height of the centre is 38 ft ; 
that of the side aisles 27 ft, 6 ins. The whole of the plants are 
grown in beds, the total area of which is 4,842 square feet. The 
central area is divided into four of these, each 41 ft. by 15 ft. 8 ins. 
Others, 7 ft. wide, run all round the sides and ends of the house. 
A thorough system of subsoil drainage has been provided 

In the centre block Australian vegetation is predominant ; the 
South Wing will have largely a Mexican character. At the south 
end this is emphasized by two pieces of rockwork which have 
been planted with Agaves, Opuntias, and Cere us. With these are 
associated the Old World Euphorbias and Aloes of corresponding 
habit. Along the centre path is an avenue of f 'am* nhnrmsti. < Mln-i- 
forms which will be tout, d are Erythr,, a rm« In Jln t n,< hrhnoreana, 

( 'l l nisa!tl l ! l ''ir r ns i \!^l'rns'''['w.' Wh'h 'Vhese^uv ' hUermixe'l 

stro'Hiia, MurL ,,,,,,, Er,,il,n»u. lll,,L,-l ! I /',''/'/. )*",'-,,) iT. vu-.'. for 
the proper cultivation of which Kew has hit hen., been unable to 
provide the proper conditions. It is intended to proceed at once 
with the erection of the North Wing, for which a vote on account 
lias already been taken. It is proposed to devote this principally 
to Himalayan plants. 

the a 

the Botanic Garden was supplied with water pumped by a horse- 
wheel engine (near the present Cumberland Gate) from a well. 
In that year Messrs. East on and Amos were employed to erect a 
steam pumping-engine, with reservoir in the Campanile, for 
supplying water from the Thames for the Botanic Garden. In 
1853 the fountain in the pond was made. About 1855 the pumping 
station was removed to near Kew Palace. With the growth of 
the establishment a more extensive supply was required, and the 
direct supply of Thames water proved unsatisfactory owing to its 
leaving a muddy deposit on the leaves of the plants. In 1804 the 
engine house in the pleasure grounds was built to pump the water 
from the lake. In 1866-8 the present water-works were con- 
structed ; the tidal water enters the lake from the river, and after 
settling is passed through a filter-bed, and then pumped to a 
reservoir in Richmond Park. The water is thence distributed at 
high pressure over the grounds, and is also laid on to the Museums, 
Herbarium, and the Crown property. 


For some time this arrangement provided an adequate supply 
of water for the needs of the establishment. But in recent years 
it is notorious that the Thames has undergone a considerable 
change. From various causes it lias acquired some of the features 
of a torrent. Often in flood in winter, it is frequently in the 
neighbourhood of Kew almost dry in summer, except when filled 
by the ride. The tidal wave is more rapid and often short, and it 
is now difficult to secure a sufficient supply to fill the lake on 
which the whole system of water-supply depends. The first step 
to remedy this state of things was to make, in L887, a four-foot 
culvert calculated to admit at one tide four times the amount of 
water previously taken in. But the emptiness of the bed of the 
river < I uring the summer months had another and unforeseen effect. 
The Royal Gardens are situated on a vast bed of river gravel, 
which is everywhere pervious to the water of the river. There 
can be little doubt that the average level of the ground-water has 
of late years considerably fallen. The effect manifests itself in 
many ways during dry summers. The older trees suffer severely, 
and many which have succumbed have had, in consequence, to be 
removed. The turf and shrubberies liave suffered still more, and 
can only be kept in a tolerable condition by incessant and copious 
watering. A large extension of the system of water-supply had 
therefore become absolutely necessary if the attractions of Kew 
as a garden were not to be destroyed, and the unique collections of 
plants -rowing in the open air to suffer irreparable damage. The 
first step was to remove the vast accumulation of mud, in great 
part London sewage, from the lake. This was accomplished by 
the employment of discharged soldiers during the winters of 
1891-4. The mud was spread on the stretches of turf to their 
-reat advantage. The next was to increase the pumping power, 
and this was accomplished by the erection, in 1895, of a triple- 
expansion pumping engine auxiliary to the compound steam- 
engine erected in 1864. It was followed by the laying down of a 
complete system of service pipes throughout the establishment. 
This has been distributed over the past three years and is now 
completed. At the same time all the hydrants have been fitted 
with a uniform screw, so that the hose and other apparatus arc- 
everywhere interchangeable. The multiplication of stand-pipes 
will eventually lead to considerable economy by saving the wear 
and tear inseparable from the use of india-rubber hose in great 

The water-works in the Royal Gardens were connected with 
the reservoir in Richmond Park by a single seven-inch main, laid 
down in 1868. This had, owing to the strain of the double 
purpose it served, shown signs of giving way, a state of things 
which might have caused grave inconvenience, and, in the event 
of fire, serious disaster. 

During the past winter a second nine-inch main, two-and-a-half 
miles long, has been successfully laid. As this had to be carried 
under the line of the London and South-Weetera Railway, tin- 
operation was attended with considerable difficulty. It was, how- 
ever, successfully accomplished by Messrs Simpson and Co., under 
the superintendence of Mr. J. Allen, the Assistant Clerk of the 
Works. The old main is now only used for the distribution of 
Avater to the service pipes. 

11523 C 

It is further proposed to duplicate the filter-beds. The sand in 
these requires to be washed periodically, and during this operation 
the water-supply is either curtailed or altogether in abeyance. 
A second set is required, a need which was pointed out as long 
ago as 1875 by the Surveyor of the Office of Works. 

Finally, it will no doubt be necessary ultimately to enlarge the 
reservoir in Richmond Park so as to maintain a more copious head 
of water in seasons of great drought, such as have been recently 

These particulars are put on record because, probably, few of 
the visitors to Kew realise the anxiety and expense which, in this 
and other matters, the maintenance of a great garden imposes on 
those who have the care of it. 

Chinese Bandoline Wood— The origin of this curious product, of 
which a specimen has long been in the Museum of the Royal 
Gardens, has always been a puzzle. 

Shavings of the wood yield a mucilage, when soaked in water, 
which is used by Chinese ladies in " bandolining " their hair. 
Dr. E. Bretschneider (Notes on some Botanical Questions con- 
nected with the Export Trade of China, 1880, p. 14) mentions the 
shavings as being exported from Canton to Peking under the 
cosmetic glue shavings), and 

in leaf of a tree, called "tiao chang," which he had collected in the 
mountains near Ningpo, with the information that shavings of 
the wood were used for the purpose described above by the 
women of that part of China. These specimens were identified 
us Mar/ti/as Th iinheryii, Sid), et Zucc, and flowering specimens 
subsequently received from the same gentleman confirmed the 
identification. Mr. Playfair farther adds, on the authority of 
Dr. A. Henry, that the Canton shavings are from the same tree. 
The species is a native of Hong Kong and Chekiang westward 
" For 

Szechuan, in China ; also of Formosa, Japan, and the Corean 
Archipelago. Owing to the interest attaching to the identification, 
the species has been figured in Hooker's Icones Plantar urn, 
(t. 2538). 

The following communication from Mr. Playfair gives some 
further particulars :— 

H.M. Consulate, Ningpo, 

March 2, 1896. 
My Dear Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, 

Please do not retain any doubt at all about the identity of the 
specimen I sent you of Marhilus Th»„hrrnii with the Chehkiang 
tree, which produces bandoline shavings. I cannot, of. course, 
vouch for the Canton shavings as being produced by the same 
tree, but there is no question that what I sent you does have a 
glutinous juice, for I tested the large branches thoroughly before 
sending the smaller piece. My entire specimen was about 12 feet 
long, and the branch measured quite %\ inches in diameter. 
When cut into chips it produced a viscid matter, when soaked in 
cold water. It is possible that the smaller twigs are not equally 
viscid. The tree grows in this neighbourhood, and the shavings 


used by the Ningpo women are procured locally. It is possible 
that the Canton shavings may be produced by a similar tree, but 
I cannot vouch for it. I will procure fruiting and flowering 
specimens this year, if possible, but the nearest tree I know of is 
a long way off. 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) G. M. H. Playfair. 

Stooling of gutta percha — The question whether the tree 
yielding gutta percha {Dichopeti (infix, Benth..) will produce 
shoots from the stump after the tree has been felled is of some 
practical importance. It appears now to have been disposed of 
in the affirmative : — 

Extract from letter from Director, Gardens and Forest 
Department, Singapore, dated July 3, 1897. 

Re Prof. Ramsay's letter about stooling of "Getah percha." The 
tree always comes up again when cut down. It can be cut to 
within six inches of the ground, and will then throw up shoots. 
Were it not for this there would hardly be a single specimen in 
this country. It grows slowly in this manner, but never fails to 
come up again. 

It is a very troublesome plant to propagate by cuttings, but this 
can be done. 

Argentine palm kernels.— The palm-kernels to which the 
following communication relates, were identified at Kew as those 
of Acrocomia sclerocarpa. This is known as the Gru-gru or Macaw 
palm. It is a native of Jamaica and other West India islands. and <>t 
South America from Brazil southwards. The nuts do not hitherto 
appear to have been turned to any use, though their shell, whicli 
is very hard, has been sometimes used for carving. 

African Association, Limited. 
35a, Castle Street, Liverpool, 
Dear Sir, May 25, 1897. 

My Board instruct me to ask the favour of some information 
from your department in regard to a considerable quantity of palm 
kernels lately arrived at this port from the Argentine Republic. 
They are informed that a very large tract of country produces the 
palm from which these kernels are gathered, and seeing the large 
interest of this Association in palm kernels from the Niger Coast 
Protectorate and other West African districts, my Board are 
naturally desirous to isvt what information they can in respect to 
this new competing product. Can you for their information be 
so kind as to say, is the palm of the Argentine region a true oil- 
palm, and would the fruit or kernel of this palm be likely to 
compare closely, or differ considerably in oily product, from that 
in which this Company is interested. 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) J. Hampden Jackson, 
The Director, 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 


Asclepias curassavica as an insectifuge.— The use of this plant for 
the purposes described in the following communication appears to 
he unrecorded : — 

Rostherne, Red Hill, Surrey, 

July 21, 1897. 

Miss Manning would he greatly obliged if the Director would 
tell her what the enclosed plant is. It grows everywhere, as a 
weed, about the Isthmus of Tehauntepec (Southern Mexico), and 
is used by the Indians there to keep away vermin, especially 
fleas. Miss Manning's friends in Mexico have tried it, and found 
it most successful. They make a rough broom of it, and sweep 
the floors and walls of their huts, and find that they are not 
troubled with fleas for a considerable time afterwards. They 
have tried brushing dogs with it when their coats are full of 
vermin, and it appears to answer the same purpose with them. 

The Indian name of the plant is "Cliilpati." 

Osiers from Madeira— The decay of osier cultivation in this 
country has been discussed in the Kew Bulletin { 189G, pp. 140-143). 
As in the case of vegetables (A'. B., 1894, pp. 219-223"; 1895, pp. 
307-315) it seems often cheaper to import than to grow. But 
considering how easily osiers may be cultivated on land unsuitable 
for any other crop, it seems strange that basket makers in the 
East of London should have to go to Madeira for their materials. 

Wickerwork.— This industry has lately been started in the 
Kast-end of London, and considerable quantities are made in the 
blind and deaf and dumb institutions throughout the United 

equence of this a fairly large and 
?dc ■ 

axpori trade is being done in the "osiers," of which the wickerwork 

The osier grown in Madeira is Salix viminalis. They are 
chiefly grown at the north side of the island, as they thrive to 
perfection on the wet portions of land in proximity to the 
"ribeiros," or mountain streams, which overflow their banks 
during the late autumn and winter months. 

(F. 0. 1897. Annual Series, No. 1871. Report for the Year 1896- 
on the Trade of Madeira, p. 4.) 





The terms of the appointment of the Royal 
appointed to inquire into the condition and prospects of the 
West India Colonies were recorded in the Kew Bulletin for this 
year (p. 109.) The Commission accomplished its task am! issued 
its report in the course of last autumn. It has been thought desirable 
to reproduce in these pages the positive conclusions at which the 
Commissioners arrived. This is likely to give them a wider 
circulation than will 1..- reached by the more bulky Blue-book in 
which they are contained. It has not been thought necessary to 
include the more formal portions of the report or those relating to 
the sugar question, on which the Commission was not unanimous. 

The conclusions at which the Commissioners arrived as to the 
natural resources and possibilities of future development of the 
West Indies have long been known at Kew, where they have for 
many years been attentively studied. But they have never before 
been stated in so authoritative a manner. The present distress 
has been long foreseen as inevitable, and, as far as lay within its 
power, Kew, with \arying micccss. has endeavoured to prepare for 
it by such remedial expedients as were possible. But the part of 
Cassandra is never grateful. The term of office of a Colonial 
Governor is brief, and there are few who care, or perhaps have the 
power, to adopt more than an opportunist policy. New industries 
can only be built up slowly, and the well conceived plans of one 
Governor do not always commend themselves to his successor. 
It is certain, however* that in work of this kind no permanent 
progress can be reached without patient and long-BUStained effort. 

The Commissioners appended to their report a memorandum 
by the Assistant-Director, who accompanied the Commission as 
"exp. rt adviser in botanical and agricultural questions," on the 
''agricultural resources and requirements of British Guiana and 
the West India Islands." In accordance with the wish of the 
Secretary of State that this should he issued in a more convenient 
form, it will be printed as an additional volume of the K>ur 

Colonial Office to the Treasury. 

Downing Street, 
Sir, November 9th, 1896. 

EEPRESENTATlONs eoiii inue to reach Mi. Secretary Cham- 
berlain giving cause for increasing disquietude as to the prospects 
Of certain West Indian an. I other sugar-producing Colonies. 

•2. The Lords Commissioners of the Treasury are aware that 
the price of sugar in open markets has for some time past been 
affected by extraordinary depression, caused both directly by the 
bounties given by some European Governments and indirectly by 
the effect of those bounties in stimulating an enormous produc- 
tion in advance of effective demand. 

3. Early in the year 1895 it was judged necessary by the 
Marquess of Ripon to sanction special remissions of taxation on 
SOgar estates in British Guiana, Trinidad, and the Leeward 
Islands, in consequence of the evidence laid before him of the 
critical position of this industry. In the course of that year very 
urgent petitions and memorials were addressed to the Secretary 
of State from practically all the Colonies affected, through their 
Chambers of Commerce and other associations, making positive 
statements as to the disastrous effect of the sugar trade in the 
abandonment of estates and the disorganisation of industry. 
These representations were endorsed and supported by the 
Governors. In November, 1895, Mr. Chamberlain was addressed 
by a very large and representative deputation on behalf of the 
West India sugar industry, and the commercial and engineering 
interests associated with it, who desired that he should recom- 
mend Her Majesty's Government to take active steps against the 
foreign sugar bounties as the only means of saving the West 
Indian Colonies from ruin. A report of the proceedings on this 
occasion is enclosed. 

4. On the 1st of August last the amounts of the bounties offered 
by the Governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary were 
approximately doubled, and a Bill has been prepared, and will 
probably be adopted in France, to raise the bounties in that 
country correspondingly, although it is computed that they are 
even now equivalent to a grant of £3 5s. per ton. The new 
German rates are from Is. 3d. to Is. 9d. per cwt., or 25s. to 35s. 

5. The prospect created by the announcement of these increased 
rates caused a renewed fall of about £3 per ton in the market 
price of sugar, and has resulted in a fresh s. ries of memorial- to 
the Secretary of State, and in a stimulus to the tendency to 
abandon the cultivation of estates. Announcements of the inten- 
tion to do this, and warnings as to the serious consequences that 
may be expected, are reaching Mr. Chamberlain from most of the 

t"). These facts are very briefly recapitulated without detail, 
which would be superfluous in viaw of the position which Mr. 

Chamberlain has so far been forced to maintain towards all such 
representations, namely, that Her Majesty's Government do not 

> 341 

7. Until recently it appealed not impossible that the Continental 
Bounties might be spontaneously withdrawn, or that the over- 
production which i hey have caused might remedy itself in the 
natural manner by the collapse of unprofitable businesses. These 
possibilities are adjourned h% the increase in the Bounties above 
referred to. 

8. Mr. Chamberlain feels that he cannot any longer disregard 
indications which are arising in the administrative purview of 
thi> Department of impending liabilities and di lliculties which 
the Colonies will not be able to meet unaided. 

9. At the end of the year 1895 there were deficits in Antigua 
and St. Kitts of upwards of £2(5,000 and £16,000 respectively, and 
notwithstanding an unusually heavy sugar crop in those islands, 
and an increase in the rates of taxation, it is expected that these 
deficits will be increased during the current year. The population 
are almost entirely dependent on the sugar estates, and it is 
represented that estates are being abandoned. There were riots 
in St. Kitts this spring arising from the reduction of wages on the 
sugar estates, and if thei'e is any serious lack of employment a 
recurrence of disturbances may be expected. The Windward 
Islands have during ls«.»:> and IK'Jb. notwithstanding severe 
retrenchment and the increase of taxation until the point of 
inelasticity has been reached, fallen into a position of insolvency 
which compels Mr. Chamberlain to apply to the Lords Commis- 
sioners for an Imperial grant-in-aid, as to which another letter 
will be addressed to you. The Lords Commissioners will recollect 
that in the letter from this Department of the 15th of August last, 
in which Mr. Chamberlain applied for assistance in the promotion 
of subsidiary industries, which the Lords Commissioners decided 
not to grant, the possibility that such an appeal might become 
necessary was foreshadowed. The abandonment of the majority 
of the sugar estates in St. Vincent has been definitely announced . 

10. The Government of Barbados has been passing through 
severe financial difficulties, involving reductions of the cost of 
establishments. The effect of the abandonment of estates in this 
island would be particularly grave and would necessitate assisted 

11. With regard to some of these Colonies there may be reason 
to think that improvements in manufacture have been neglected. 
This, however, cannot be said to be the case in Trinidad, where. 

12. This process has a special significance in the two last-named 
Colonies, the Governments of which are responsible for many 
thousands of coolie immigrants, which they are liable to be called 
upon, under contract, to repatriate. If 'sugar cultivation, for 
which British Guiana and Barbados are specially suitable, and in 
which a large amount of capital is invested, were abandoned in 
those Colonies, no alternative industry could at once take its 
place, and the coolies in British Guiana and the negroes in 
Barbados would be thrown on the hands of an insolvent adminis- 


IB the one case, and for their support or emigration in the other 
case. The circumstances of Antigua, St. Kitts and Nevis are 
analogous on a smaller scale. 

13. The special danger which appears in the outlook in the 
Colonies thus dependent on sugar lies in the fact that this industry 
employs far more labour to the acre than any possible substitute, 
and that no substitute is immediately available ; that the revenue 
depends directly on the industry, and that the administrations 
are, therefore, liable to be financially crippled just when there is 
the greatest strain upon them, and that any general failure of 
employment may be confidently expected to produce, if not 
immediate rioting, at least a very dangerous and unstable 
situation, in which more efficient police arrangements than exist 
in the majority of the islands, and possibly the presence of troops 
or ships of war may be necessary to maintain order. 

14. A serious plantation disturbance involving a large number 
of casualties has been reported from British Guiana by last 

15. It must also be borne in mind thai the Colonial banking 
establishments in the West Indies are considerably involved in 
tin- sugar industry, and that a collapse of thai industry would he 
likely to l>ring about a financial crisis, the gravity of which and 
of its indirect consequences, it would be difficult to estimate. 

16. The foreign Sugar Bounties have been and are at present of 
substantial advantage to some of the industries of this country. 
It was in great measure on this account that the bill introduced 
l.y Her Majesty's Government, in the year 1889, to give effect to 
the Sugar Bounties Convention was not pressed. It has now, in 
view of further developments, become a question whether the 
continued enjoyment of this advantage does not involve the ruin 
of the British sugar-producing Colonies, and, if so, what this 
prospect further implies, both as regards the social future of such 
Colonies and in claims for Imperial expenditure which it will 
not be possible to resist, 

17. The position of affairs being as indicated, Mr. Chamberlain 
is not prepared, as Secretary of State for the Colonies, to accept 
the responsibility of allowing matters to take their course and to 
acquiesce in the policy of non-intervention hitherto pursued in 
regard to the Bounties without having satisfied himself as to what 
such a policy may entail, as regards both the Colonies and the 
Exchequer, nor would he think it right that Her Majesty's 
Government should adhere to their present attitude on this 
question, without knowing, as clearly as possible, at what cost 
it may be to the welfare and stability of an important part of the 
Empire, and to industries in which Engl ah capital is largely 

18. Mr. Chamberlain has, therefore, come to the conclusion 
ihat ir is expedient that a Royal Commission shall be appointed 
to inquire into the effect of the foreign sugar bounties upon the 
British Colonial industry, more particularly in regard to the 
West Indies, as early as can be arranged, so as to investigate in 
the Colonies themselves whether their position has improved or 
retrograded within the last ten years, and the causes involved ; 
what are actually the state and prospects of the sugar industry. 

and of any alternative industries existing or possible to be 
established ; what has been the course, of, and what causes have 
affected, the revenue and expenditure of the Governments of late 
years ; what is the condition and temper of the negro and coolie 
populations ; and what line of industrial development it is likely 
that these populations may follow with advantage in the event of 
the extensive abandonment of sugar estates. 

19. There are many particulars of inquiry subsidiary to these 
main heads which would come within the scope of such a 
Commission ; the precise terms of reference may be determined 
if the appointment of the Commission is decided upon. 

20. Mr. Chamberlain desires me to request that you will move 
the Lords Commissioners to give their serious consideration to 
this proposal, which has not been made without mature delibera- 
tion on a long succession of circumstances conducing to suggest 
its necessity. As it would be important that the Commission, if 
appointed, should start for the West Indies without delay and 
proceed as expeditiously as possible with the proposed investiga- 
tions and report, Mr. Chamberlain will be glad if the Lords 
Commissioners will favour him with an early intimation as to 
whether they agree to the principle of the inquiry he proposes. 

I am, &c, 

Edward Wingfield. 

Secretary of State for the Colonies to Sir H. W. Norman. 

Downing Street, 
Sir, December 2i>, 1-SlHi. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to you the Queen's Com- 
mission appointing yourself, Sir Kdward Grey. Hart., M.P., and 
Sir David Harbour, lv.C.S.L, to be Commissioners to inquire into 
the conditions and prospects of the BUgar-growing Colonics in the 
West Indies, and appointing Mr. Sidney Olivier, B.A., to be 
secretary to the Commission. 

j also the honour to inform you that the Queen has been 
b of Daniel Morris, Esq., D.Sc, C.M.G.. Assistant- 
Royal Gardens, Kew, accompanying the Commis- 
sion as expert adviser in botanical and agricultural questions. 

I have to request that you will be good enough to cause the 
necessary steps to be taken for carrying into effect Her Majesty's 
commands contained in the enclosed Commission. 

A separate letter is heiuir addressed to you. iiidicatiui; the 
points to which Her Majesty's Government wish the inquiry to 
be specially directed. 

I have, &c, 



■ Royal Commission 
1 Sir Edward ('•it y ( \> 

present condition and future prospects of the sugar-yrowin- 
Colonies in the West Indies, and to suggest such measures as 
appear to you best calculated to restore nod maintain the prosperity 
of those Colonies, and their inhabitants, I have thought it desirable 
to state more fully than is expressed in the terms of the Commis- 
sion some of the points fco which Her Majesty's Government 
would wish the inquiry to be directed. 

2. In view of the representations referred to in the preamble of 
the Commission, the first subject for consideration is whether the 
sugar industry in the Colonies in question is in fact in danger of 
extinction, and in connection with that question it will be 
necessary to ascertain what are the causes of the present depression 
of that industry whether they are temporary or permanent ; 
whether they include matters independent of the competition of 
Btig&r produced under the Bounty system, such as extravagance in 
management, imperfection in the processes of manufacture, in- 
adequate supervision consequent on absentee ownership, and, if 
so, whether the removal of these causes would enable it to be 
carried on profitably notwithstanding such competition. 

3. A further subject of the inquiry would be whether in the 
event of the production of sugar in these Colonies being dis- 
continued or considerably diminished, other industries could 
replace it and he carried on profitably, and could supply employ- 
ment for the labouring population. If such industries can be 
indicated, it would also be desirable to ascertain whether they 

branch of the inquiry you will, no doubt, derive valuable assist- 

4. It is also of e-reat importance to ascertain what effect the 
total or partial extinction of the sugar industry would be likely 
to have upon the condition of the labouring classes and upon the 
revenue of the Colonies concerned, and whether any loss of 
revenue could be to any man-rial extent met by reduction of 
public expenditure, and whether those Colonies would be able to 
provide the necessary cost of administration, including the relief 
of unemployed and necessitous persons without subvention from 
the mother country. If it appears that such subventions will 
be necessary. Her Majesty's Government would be glad to be 

1 with your opinions as to their probable amount. 

5. I trust that the Commissioners will find it possible to com- 
plete their inquiry in the Colonies within a period not exceeding 
four months, and in order to facilitate their movements from the 
different Colonies 1 have obtained the consent of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty to place a gunboat at their service. 

I have, &c., 

J. Chambuulain. 


10. Your Majesty's possessions with which we haw to deal in 
the present Report are all situated within the tropics, and extend 
from British Guiana in the south-east to Jamaica in the north- 
west, through 20 degrees of longitude and 15 of latitude. The 
dilTiculties of communication between tliem may be illustrated by 
stating that a journey from British Guiana to Jamaica by the mail 
route occupies eight days, allowing for the present detention n{ 
two days at Barbados. 

11. The Colonies may, as a whole, be described as eminently 
suited, both by climate- and soil, for the growdi of special tropical 
products, such as sugar-cane, cocoa, coffee, logwood, nutmegs, and 
various descriptions of fruit, of which the most important are 
bananas, oranges, cocoa-nuts, and pine-apples. 

12. In some of the Islands cattle and horses can be profitably 
reared, but the raising of stock is never likely to be of more than 
local importance. There are extensive savannahs in the interior of 
I .fit ish (iuiana. which are said to be well suite.! for this purpose. 
but they cannot be utilised until means of access from the coast 
are provided. 

established on any considerable scale. Nor is there any mineral 

11. Owing to the nature of the soil and climate such articles of 

necesr-arios of existence for the labouring classes. Tor this class 
of food, which includes yams, sweet potatos, and generally what 
is known in the West Indies as ground-provisions, there is 

mentioned in paragraph 11. It is, moreover, only by means 
such an export trade that the population can be maintained 
such a condition of prosperity as will permit of sufficient revei 
being raised to meet the cost of a civilised Government. 

reference to British (iuiana. where the production of alluvial a 


asphalt industry in Trinidad is n 
support any considerable section of 
valuable source of revenue to the Government. 

16. We do not consider it necessary to treat at any length of the 
economic history of the West Indies, seeing that the special 
causes of the present depression have only begun seriously to 
affect the sugar-producing Colonies within the last fifteen years. 

17. The prosperity of the West Indies in former times was 
mainly due to sugar and rum, and the production of these com- 
modiiies attained such dimensions as to dwarf, and, at one time, 
almost to extinguish, every competing industry. For many years 
the sugar industry has, from various causes, been growing less 
profitable than it used to be, and the production for export of 
such articles as cocoa and fruit has made considerable progress in 
some of the Islands. ****** 

18. The total value of the sugar products exported was about 
three and a quarter million pounds sterling, the value of the sugar 
being some 2,790,000/., of the rum 265,000/., and of the molasses 

19. It will be seen that in most of Your Majesty's possessions 
in the West Indies the products of the sugar-cane, though they 
are now valued at prices which are much below those which 
prevailed a few years ago, still form by far the larger portion of 
the total exports of native produce. 

20. The gravity of the immediate danger to the welfare of 
each Colony which would arise from a failure of the pjugar-cane 
industry may, for practical purposes, be measured by the propor- 
tion which the exports of sugar, rum, and molasses bear to the 
total exports of that Colony. 

21. In such an event the welfare of each Colony would in the 
long run, however, depend on the extent to which it might be 
found possible to establish other industries. ****** 

H9. If such reduction or extinction of the 
if its place cannot be adequately filled by the 
industries, the consequences are likely to 1 

40. The-imnieiliate n-stili would be a great , 
for the labouring classes, and the rates of 


escape, except Grei ia< la. lb-it ish (iuiana would also .suffer severely, 
and the problem to be dealt with in that Colony might prove to be 
one of exceptional difficulty. Jamaica and Trinidad have other 
resources, and the export of sugar from Dominica has already 
been largely reduced, and now contributes less than one-sixth of 
the value of the total exports from that island. 

42. In British Guiana and Trinidad the necessity tor keeping 
faith with the EastJIndian immigrants, and of repatriating those 
of them who had a right to a free passage to India, and wished to 
take advantage of that right, might involve a large expenditure. 
which under the circumstances must fall upon the public funds. 
as it would be impossible to levy the cost from the sugar estates. 

43. The present condition of such an Island as Tobago illus- 
trates the serious character of the economic and administrative 
problem that must arise in Your Majesty's possessions in the 
West Indies if there is a collapse of the sugar industry. The 
exports of sugar from Tobago have already decreased wry much. 
The resident population manages to live, but a considerable pro- 
portion of them is driven, permanently or temporarily, to other 
islands in search of work, and it is impossible to raise more 
revenue than is barely sufficient to meet the necessary expenditure 
on the cheapest and simplest form of government. New roads 
cannot be made, and even those that already exist cannot be kept 
in proper repair out of the revenue. ****** 


107. The conclusions with regard to the sugar industry at which 
we have so far arrived may be summed up as follows : — 

There is, at present, no prospect of any considerable and per- 
manent rise in the price of sugar in the ordinary course of events. 

The etl'eci which (he imposition of countervailing duties on the 
import of bounty-fed sugar into i In* United Kingdom would have 
upon price is uncertain, and, for reasons which we have stated, we 
are unable to recommend such imposition or the grant of a bounty 
on West Indian sugar. 

The cost of producing sugar in those portions of ihe West 
Indies where the old processes of manufacture are still followed 

is not a cause of the present depression, and 
ddent ownership of estates would not 
■ prospects of the industry. 
have ,dread\ been i educed, and no further 


108. We feel some hesitation in expressing a positive opinion 
regarding the future of such an industry as that of the production 
of sugar, which is liable to be affected by so many unforeseen 
influences, economic and others, but on a full consideration of the 
circumstances of the sugar industry in the West Indies we are 
driven to the conclusion that there is no prospect of the present 
area of cultivation being maintained. Where the conditions for 
the production of sugar are favourable, and the latest processes 
have been adopted, and the best machinery introduced, we believe 
that some West Indian sugar estates may, even at present prices, 
continue to show a surplus of receipts over working expenses, 
but that surplus will not, in our opinion, be sufficient in all cases, 
after providing for deterioration, and for the results of exception- 
ally .unfavourable seasons, to yield the ordinary market rate of 
profit on the capital involved in the estates. Under present con- 
ditions, therefore, the prospect before the sugar industry is the 
gradual abandonment of the weaker estates, a process which has 
already begun, and, in some cases, a failure to renew the machinery 
as it wears out on estates that are now well equipped, followed in 
time by a similar abandonment. 

109. There is every reason to believe that a very serious con- 
dition of things is rapidly approaching in Your Majesty's West 
Indian possessions, and that the crisis will In- readied in a very 
few years. We have spoken of the abandonment of estates as 
likely to be gradual, both because the decision to abandon culti- 
vation is not likely to be at once universal, and because on many 
estates, where such decision is taken, work is not likely to cease 
altogether until the growing crop and the < usuiiu! ratoon crop, or 
aftergrowth of the canes, have been manufactured. Where, 
however, the owners of estates depend on loans for the carrying 
on of cultivation, ihe collapse ok the credit of the industrv may 
result, in some instances, in the sudden cessation of all employ- 
ment upon such estates. 

110. It is also material to add that the exceptionally favour- 
able season, which some of the Colonies have recently experienced, 
has to some extent postponed the crisis which must be looked 
for under normal conditions, and that a bad season would 

ederate the reduction of the present cultivation 

111. It may he that no industrv, <„• series of industries, ran 


112. If the sugar estates are thrown out of cultiva 

extremely improbable, and, in fact, it may be stated 

possible, that any industry to be conducted on large ( 

(ruiana, and when large estates cannot be profitably worked 
tlie adoption of the system of cultivation by petty proprietors 
is inevitable. 

113. The labouring population in the West Indies is mainly 
of negro blood, but there is also, in some of the Colonies, a 
strong body of East Indian immigrants, and tin- descendants of 
such i in migrants. The negro is an elliciont labourer, especially 
when he receives good wages. He is disinclined to continuous 
labour, extending over a long period of time, and he is often 
unwilling to work if the wages offered are low, though there 
may be no prospect of his getting higher wages from any other 
employer. He is fond of display, open-handed, careless as to 
tlf future, ordinarily good-humoured, but excitable and 
difficult to manage, especially in large numbers, when his 
temper is aroused. 

114. The East Indian immigrant, ordinarily known as the 
coolie, is not so strong a workman, but he is a steadier and 

116. The settlenu 

may seem best. The small proprietors show some desire to im- 
prove their modes of cultivation, and we shall have some sugges- 
tions to make on this subject. 

117. But whilst we think that the Governments of the different 
Colonies should exert themselves in the direction of facilitating 
the settlement of the labouring population on the land, we see no 
objection to the system of large estates when they can be main- 
tained under natural economic conditions. On the contrary, we 
are convinced that in many places they afford the best, and, some- 
times, the only profitable means of cultivating certain products, 
and that it is not impossible for the two systems, of large estates 
and peasant holdings, to exist side by side with mutual 

118. It must be recollected that the chief outside influence with 
which the Governments of certain Colonies have to reckon are 
the representatives of the sugar estates, that these persons are 
sometimes not interested in anything but sugar, that the establish- 
ment of any other industry is often detrimental to their interests, 
and that under such conditions it is the special duty of Your 
Majesty's Government to see that the welfare of the general 
public is not sacrificed to the interests, or supposed interests, of a 
small but influential minority which has special means of enforc- 
ing its wishes and bringing its claims to notice. 

119. The practical work of cultivating new products must be 

I'" '.I the IkiihN oi ,. , ,., persons, whether owners of large 

120. Your Majesty's West Indian possessions are, as a rule, not of 
large extent, and some oi' them, though possessing separate ad- 
ministrative and financial systems, are of verv limited area. 
Communication between them is difficult, and with the outside 
world it is both tedious and expensive. The persons engaged in 
cultivation suffer from this state of isolation, and are often with- 
out any information as to what is being done elsewhere. The 
cultivator of one product is often quit.- ignorant of the best means 
of cultivating any other, and does not know whether his soil and 
climate might be better adapted for something else. These 
remarks have special reference to the small cultivators, but they 
are not wholly inapplicable to persons interested in the larger 

121. The botanical establishments in the larger Colonies, such 

as Jamaica. Trinidad, and British Guiana, have already rendered 
considerable assistance in improving agricultural industries, and 


department capable of dealing with all questions connected with 
economic: plants suitable for growth in tropical countries, ami we 
reeonimeml the establishment of such a department, under which 
should be placed the various botanic stations already in existence. 
These stations should be enlarged in their scope and character, 
and be organised on the lines found so successful in Jamaica. In 
the latter Colony it is admitted that intelligent and progressive 
action in the direction of encouraging a diversity of industries 
has produced most satisfactory results. To -achieve this.result has 
however, taken more than 20 years of persistent effort, and the 
Government has spent more than 100,00W. during that period on 
its botanical establishments. The department has distributed 
seeds and plants at nominal prices by means of the post office, 
Government railways, and coastal steam service ; it has supplied 
information orally, or by means of bulletins, regarding the culti- 
vation of economic plants, and has encouraged the careful prepa- 
ration of the produce by sending agricultural instructors on tour 
through the Island to give lectures, demonstrations, and advice. 

122. The special department recommended for carrying on 
similar work iiv the Windward and Leeward Islands should be 
under the charge of a competent Imperial officer, whose duty it 
would be to advise the Governors in regard to all matters 
affecting the agricultural development of the islands. He would 
take part in consultations with the object of improving agri- 
cultural teaching in colleges and schools, and of training students 
in agricultural pursuits, and would attend to the preparation of 
suitable literature on agricultural subjects. The existing botanic 
stations should be placed under his supervision, and the charge of 
maintaining them transferred to Imperial funds. Kach botanic- 
station would be actively engaged in the introduction and im- 
provement of economic plants, and in propagating and distri- 
buting them throughout the island. It would carry out the 
experimental cultivation of new plants to serve as an object 
lesson to cultivators, and it would be prepared to give the latest 
information to inquirers regarding economic products, and to 
provide suitable men as agricultural instructors. To effect all 
this will require funds entirely beyond the present resources of 
the smaller islands. We are. therefore, of opinion that as the 
for such a department is urgent, the cost should be 

should receive special 
attention. The cost of some of this work would be a legitimate 
portion of the charge above stated. The chief experiments might 
be carried on as hitherto by the officers in charge of them in 
British Guiana, Barbados, and Antigua, but continued and 
extended, if found desirable, in Trinidad and Jamaica. In 
addition, the botanic stations in the Leeward and Windward 
Islands, would maintain nurseries for the introduction of all new 
and promising canes, and would undertake the distributing them 
within their respective spheres of action. A memorandum by 
Dr. Morris on this subject containing detailed proposals which 
we generally approve, is printed as an Appendix to this Report. 


124. In dealing with the question of introducing new industries 
into the West Indian Colonies, or of extending existing industries, 
it must be borne in mind that for many of the special products 
of the West Indies there is only a limited demand. There is, for 
example, a comparatively large market for coffee, but not for 
such products as arrowroot or nutmegs, and if they were exten- 
sively grown in a number of the islands they would soon cease 
to command a remunerative price. This has actually happened 





12;'). In the coi 

irse of our stay in 

the West 

Indies our attention 

was frequently called 

to the questi 

on of the 

■ progress of: general 

t Obli 

lerable an 

loiint of information 

on this subject. 


v hits been a 

marked i 

ncrease of expendi- 

ture on this ace 

ars, and, i 

10 doubt, the efforts 

made for the ext 

i have be. 

'ii larireh - 

The total expend 

I to about •>:>,• "><>/. i„ 

ISS2, and to nearly 

89(5, showing an increase of 

about 90 per ceni 

:. It 

1 that in Jamaica and Grenada, 

and probably in 


dad' also, it w 

ill not be 

found necessary, on 

financial ground 

curtail this , 


re, but if the sugar 

j fails 

the whole of the existing schoofs. 

126. At the present time a system of ti 
occupation is much needed. We think tha 
botanic stations should have agricultural schools attached to them, 
where the best means of cultivating tropical plants would be 
taught, and if elementary training in agriculture were made a 
part of the course of education in the public schools generally. 
the Botanic Department would be in a position to render valuable 

127. Agriculture, in one form or another, must always be the 
chief and the only great industry in the West Indies, but a system 
of training in other industrial occupations, on a limited scale, is 
desirable, and would be beneficial to the community. 

128. There are good grounds for thinking that the West Indies 
miudit profitably grow fruit for export in larger quantities than at 
present. The fruit trade between Jamaica and New York has 
already attained important dimensions, and it seems possible 
that a similar Trade might be established with>some of the other 

129. In time it might be found practicable to send fruit to the 
London market. If this could be done, the gain to the whole of 


the greatest value, ami there would be no risk of the trade being 
interfered with bj hostile tariffs If a number of steamers were 
regularly employed in such a trade they would, no doubt, carry 
British products to the West Indies on their return voyage, and 
to a certain degree reduce the loss of trade which lias been caused 
by the diversion to the United States of West Indian sugar and 
of the Jamaica fruit exports. 

130. The difficulty of establishing such a trade is due to the 
fact that a considerable amount of capital would be required, and 
that there would be serious risk of mistakes and loss whilst the 
business was in the experimental stage. At present there is only 
the small local demand for fruit in most of the Islands, and 
consequently fruit is neither grown in large quantity nor of the 
best quality. 

131. It cannot be expected that large quantities of fruit should 
be grown until there was an assurance that vessels would be 
forthcoming to convey ii to market, and good ground for believing 
that it could be sold at a profit. 

132. On the other hand, it is improbable that shipowners would 

of en 


■ i.'s. 

v !'!■ 




of packing -the 

m f< 



on bom 

•d Ship, while the 

reference to t 

r ork 

ild encourage the 

growth of such fruit 

•nre theestablb 

St. V 

the e 







xperiment proved 
other Islands. In 
i such an attempt 

[ be carried, in the 
Royal Mail Steam 


;;' l ;; t ^ ; l: ', i r 1 ^:;; i, 

ins nt 

Itrd j 

ui mi 


; lh i J i m ; i 

)erial and Colonial 

or other peri, 



1 or between the 

f freigh 

t on such produce. 

minion is also 



between England 

and Barbados is nun 











js in the present 
- afford the high 

vi;l New York : but weihinkit well to point mit thut communi- 
cation by this route would nffer greater commercial advantages to 
some of the Colonies than the present arrangements; and that 
the time occupied in the transit of mails need not, in all cases, 
be greater, and, in the case of Jamaica, would be less than now. 

137. It will be sufficient for us to suggest that endeavours should 
be made to ascertain, at a sufficiently early period, before the 
expiration of the present contract .with the Royal Mail Company, 
whether alternative tenders offering greater advantages cannot, 
on sufficient notice, be obtained from other shipping companies, 
or at any rate to secure that under the next contract, the mail 
service shall be conducted in a manner better adapted to the more 
pressing needs of the Colonies in their present condition. 

138. It is of great importance that there should be cheap, regular 
and frequent means of communication between the different 
Islands. The want of such facilities was specially brought to our 

139. Such means of communication will assist, or even create, 
isofalio 11 l0Cal "" ,l " '*' ' Ml ' nl r " " u " Al ' ,ImI <' ondition of 
f'^ely to the best markets for iablm^a r.'snh which" is of spechil 

141. Witho 

he shipment of perishable produce and providing for 


the steamer in rni ing from Barbados to St. Lucia should proceed 
to Dominica, Montserrat, Antigua, Nevis, anrl Si. Kitis.and return 
within the week, after completing the circuit. 

145. The maintenance of frequent communication between 
Tobago and Trinidad is ids,, desirable, and the present service 
between these islands could be improved by arranging that the 
steamer connecting Barbados and the Windward [slands with 
Trinidad should call at Tobago, thus giving also direct means of 
transir between Barbados and Tobago, an object which appeared 
desirable to some of the persons who gave evidence before us in 

i. During our stav in the West Indies, the want of what > 

st the innumerable accidents 
aem from paying. The ex- 
regards the payment of direct 
ds of the purchase money of 

assist them in i in provl 1 1-' their land, hut we think it should 
be left to the Governments immediately concerned to move in the 
matter in the first instance, und that the risk of loss should be 
borne by Colonial resources, ami should not be thrown on the 
Imperial Exchequer. * * * # * * 


173. We have dealt in Part I. of our Report with the general 
condition of Your Majesty's West Indian possessions as a whole, 
the prospects of the sugar industry, the consequences of a failure 
of that industry, and the measures to be adopted in view of such 

174. In the present portion of the Report we propose to take 
up the case of each Colony separately, to hriefly its economic 
condition and prospects, and tie- state of its finances ; to indicate 

any i lilications which must he made in our general proposals 

to adapt them to the special requirements of each possession, and 
to set forth any further recommendations we may have to make, 
and which are of local rather than -enoral application. 

175. The agricultural capabilities and wants of each Colony 
have been dealt with by Dr. Morris in a series of separate reports 
on British Guiana and Vour .Majesty's West Indian Islands, and it 
will not, therefore, be necessary for us to enter into the question 
of the resources of each possession as fully as would otherwise 
have been the case. 


JUh^fVbnmry^ Du'rim 

nd left again 
j five days of 
■11) witnesses, 
fledge of the 

vo important sugar estai 
J persons of much expo 


lone, of the British su 



very much larger than all the British West Indian Islands put 
together, and the hmd occupied by cane cultivation is all on or 
close to the coast, and lies so low that extensive sea defences and 
a system of steam pumping must be maintained. The greater 
portion of the Colony, considerably more than 99 per cent., is 
uncultivated and unoccupied, being either covered with forest or 
consisting of grassy and swampy plains, known as savannahs. 

178. The total area is officially estimated at 65,836,000 acres, 
and the extent under sn-ar cute at 66.908 acres. The exports 
consist almost entirely of sugar and gold. In addition to the 
cane cultivation there is a considerable production of articles of 
food. for local consumption, and some attempts are being made 
on a small scale to open up the Colony and to restore cultivation 
which formerly existed in parts of the interior along the rivers, 
not far from the sea coast, but which has for many years been 

179. The population at the time of the last Census in 1891 was 
278,328, and is, no doubt, increasing. Of the population in 1891, 
Europeans, other than Portuguese, were 4,588, Portuguese 12,166, 
Aborigines 17,-163, Africans 3,433, Black and Coloured 141,531, 
and East Indians 105,463. 

180. The leading features of the Colony and its general 
capabilities are fully described in the report of Dr. Morris. 


in some years almost three million 
heavy falling off in the value of tht 
whilst the value of other exports, a 
6l),tH)U/., excluding gold, was, in 1 

stand the strain of additional outlay, even for the relief of 
distress or the opening up of better communication with the 
interior than now exists. The revenue depends chiefly on duties 
of customs and excise, and may be exjw cted to diminish seriously 
as the purchasing power of the community falls off, owing to 
reduced wages and loss of employment arising from contraction 
of the sugar cane cultivation. ****** 

189. The report of Dr. Morris shows that whilst British Guiana 
now depends on sugar products for the maintenance of the 
Colony, it is certain that under the most favourable circumstances 
it must be a considerable number of years before other industries 
could be so far extended as to give employment to the number 
of people now employed on sugar estates or deriving their living 
from the sugar industry. Indeed it is hardly possible that all the 
other industries in the Colony, apart from gold, which will be 
presently spoken of, could for many years to come produce a 
return in any way equal to that which has hem obtained from 

produce locally all that is wanted of this article. Coffee and 
cocoa to the value of 7,5601. were also imported, though there is 
no reason why the coffee and cocoa consumed should not also be 

192. The gold industry is deserving of special attention. The 
value of the gold exported since the year 1890 has been close 

upon three millions siding, and although the production is now 
less than in 1S9.V9J, wlw-ii it was of the value of 510,710/., it 
amounted in the course of the year 1896 to 461,000/. The 
Government should endeavour, by the employment of ([ualitied 
experts, to ascertain what are its future prospects, and if the 


197. The evidence shows that already there is much poverty ill 
the Colony, especially in the Capital, among skilled artisans and 
mechanics as well as among persons above the labouring class, 
whom it would probably be impossible to settle upon the land. 

198. In British Guiana, indeed, as in some of the other West 
Indian Colonies, it is difficult to see how a crisis can be averted 
and heavy demands on the mother country avoided, unless some- 
thing can be done to save the sugar industry, or at all events to 
prevent any early or sudden" collapse. * The very difficult 
problem whether any general measures can be taken with the 
object of savin- the iudustrv, cither bv effectual action for the 
abolition of the bounty system or by the imposition of counter- 
vailing duties has heen dealt with in the first part of this heport. 
If any such measures are practicable they would need to be 
applied promptly ; but in any case we wish to emphasise our 
conviction that even if the Mi-ar industry can be maintained it is 
essential that the Government of British Guiana should do all in 
its power to open up communications, to encourage settlement in 
the interior lands, to arrange for proper instruction of the 
settlers in agriculture, to employ scientific and experienced 
mineralogists to survey and report on the gold fields, to provide 
for the conservation and utilisation of the forests, and in every 
way to encourage the development of .the industries indicated by 
Dr. Morris. ****** 

200. It is, indeed, most satisfactory to find that so competent a 
judge as Dr. Morris considers thai there is a possibility of British 
Guiana becoming in course of time a very productive as well as a 
very important dependency of the Empire, but no such result can 
be expected for many years. 

201. To effect such development as seems possible in British 
Kuiana will, moreover, he a work for which resources will not be 
readily forthcoming. New industries are not likely to succeed on 
the front lands where sugar is now grown. The development of 
these industries will not merely entail a change of cultivation, 
but the opening up of new lands in the interior and a migration 


exist ing charges of an obligatory character, among which interest 
on debt, pensions, maintenance of the poor, and payment of 
police may be classed. * * * * * * 

205. It is only just, before concluding these observations, to 
say that the planters in (Juiana have not been behindhand in 
efforts to improve the cultivation and the mannfaeuire of sugar, 
and that their efforts have been attended with remarkable 
success. The amount of sugar and rum produced has been well 
maintained, and the cost of production has been greatly reduced. 
If it had not been for these efforts, and for an expenditure on 
machinery winch during the last fifteen years has amounted to 
1,;>07, o( !()/., the sugar industry must have practically succumbed. 
The evidence given, and the information obtained in various 
ways, make it clear that though estates have struggled on, and a 
few have even made some slight profit, many of them cannot be 
carried on at present prices, while a material fall would compel 
the proprietors of most of them to cease cultivation. 

20b\ If such a crisis should arise, and it may come very soon, 
the Government could only be carried on even in the most 
economical manner by the aid of subventions from the Imperial 
Exchequer, and a very heavy charge would probably have to be 
met for the repatriation of Indian coolies. * * * * * * 


208. We landed at Bridgetown, Barbados, in the course of our 
voyage to I'.ritish (iuiana, but did not on that occasion transact 
any formal business. \\Y ret urned to the island on t he morning 
of the Ititli of February, arriving from St. Vincent, and remained 
until the afternoon of the -J 1th of the month. We took evidence 
publicly for four days, hearing ;V.» witnesses, and also visited 
various parts of the island and inspected several sugar works. 

201). The condition of I'.arbados is markedlv dill'etvnt from that 
of any other Colony in the West indies. It is very thickly 
populated; the area is I6iJ square miles, and the number of 
inhabitants 186,000, giving an average of 1,120 to the square mile. 
The whole island is already occupied and developed, the total 
acreage is 106,470 acres, of which 100,000 are stated to be under 
cultivation. There are no Crown lands, no forests, no unculti- 
vated areas, and the population has probably reached the maximum 
which the island can even under favourable « " 


nd the density of the population are no doubt the 
reasons wny there are not in Barbados the complaints of the 
supply, or of the efficiency, of labour, which are so frequent 

212. In Barbados there is substantially but one industry, one 
product, and one export— that of sugar, — nor does the island appear 
to be suited for the growth of either coffee, cocoa, or fruit, on a 
scale of any commercial importance. 

213. The value <>!' tin- tola! export* of the produce of the 
Colony in 1SX2 was 1,001.000/., the value of sugar products 
e\p..iT,-.| l.eiim :'.':'..( Mil)'. : that of the total exports in 1890 was 
1,011,000/., of which sugar exports made up l, 

214. In 1896, when the value of the exports had fallen, the 
proportion contributed by the sugar industry remained about 
the same; the figures were then f> 7 7,000/. for the total exports 

in lS'.tO. 7ti,7:»r> tuns, boi !ilt tin- largest amount recorded within this 
period, and in IS'.hi, 1 l',4(i0 tons. The crop in 189.1 was very 
seriously affected !>y drought and disease, and in 1890 to some 
extent I»v the latter cause. 

216. There are no large central sugar factories, the mills are 
small and many of them primitive, a lame proportion of them 
being worked by wind power, and the sugar exported is chiefly 

by the old processes is thoroughly well understood ami the culti- 

abundant labour supply: and '(;») that the soil produces a cane 
eontaining juice of exceptional richness. 

217. The average net cost of production was given to us 
as 8/. 12.v. per ton, but, without going to., closely into the accuracy 
of such figures, it is certain that at present prices, ami under 

- heavily mortgaged 
only to be obtain 
are becoming mor 
of the proprietors i 

IS'.KJ than il is 

derived mainly from import 
therefore chiefly upon the wel 

it did make the average price of sugar 

; present, and enabled some estates to 

that year than they could at existing 

mport duties and excise, and depends 
purchasing power of 

The redtt 

diminished their purchasing power, ami the ell'ect of this upon 
the revenue has been very marked. ''■' 

22:5. Iti IS'.);') and lS'jf, the rates of taxation were largely 
increased, with the object of restoring the balance of t lie finances, 
and the revenue for l.S<)<j rose accordingly, but there was neverthe- 

was suggested to us i 
out of capital, and that the imports ha 1 
ipon the resources of the island, whicl: 
j be so, but some allowance ought to 1 
mces, such as public expenditure in 

population and provide suffic 

228. A further circumstance which will to some extern allect 
the prosperity of:' Uarbados is ihe intended transfer ol' the I njj.crial 
troops to St. Lucia. We were informed that the presence of the 
troops leads to a yearly expenditure in the Colony of about Mi.noo/. 
of imperial money. This causes a demand for local products 

As sugar lands f 
t small lots or leas 
would probably 

natter the Court of Chancery must, of « 
iterests of the persons whom it represen 
for the Government to facilitate the 
i this manner by purchasing and re-selli 

23)1. Emigration is a m 
want of labour elsewhere, 
A con si dei-able number ( 
permanently or temporari 
of them make excellent c< 
experiments as have bet 


unoccupied land, it is possible th:it this may bo done to advantage, 
and, if so, arrangements with this object should certainly be either 
made or facilitated by the Governments concerned. But such 
action, though under any circumstances desirable, can hardly 
be ,rapid or on a scale large enough to absorb more than a 
comparatively small number of the surplus population of 

236. In the \e t tl ei f r 

.sugar industry was flourishing, such a scale of expenditure was 
natural, and we have no wish to say that in Barbados, at any 
rate, it was not justifiable. But the Colony cannot afford it 

240. In the maintenance of the sugar industry in some form 
and to some considerable extent lies the only hope of supporting 
in the island any lar^e proportion of the present population of 
Barbados. We do not think that the maintenance of the industry, 
at any rate in some portions of the island, need be despaired of 
even in the present condition of markets. 

241. Attention has already been drawn to the fact that large 

circumstances of the sugar trade there is no prospect that these 

which we reco 



. i a i„, ur siippl' 

y is more abundant and 

effective than 


iihl the soil of r.arh idos 

is especially w< 

Al suite< 

1 for in 

aucs with exceptionally 

rich juice. These tw< 

es should ena 

,ble central factories in 

Barbados to tu 

tgar al 

: an unusually 

low cost of production 

compared with that which is the average elsewhere. 

24°. In the evidence given by the planters, figures are brought 
forward which, taking into account both the increased quantity 
and quality of the yield from a central factory, show a prospect of 
a gain of 40 per cent, over the old muscovado process. And even 
if these figures be regarded as too sanguine, it seems to us certain 
that the gain would be very considerable and that it would be 
possible for central factories to be worked at a profit even when 

required to set up centra! factories should be obtained on the 
cheapest possible tonus, and we think the Imperial Government 
should find the money and lend it to the Colony at the same rate 
of interest at which it is borrowed. If the Government of 
Barbados is required to borrow the money on its own credit, the 
cost will be greater, and the liability of the Imperial Government 
will not be appreciably reduced ; if general distress arises, which 
the Colony is unable to relievo, it will be impossible for the Home 
Government to avoid giving assistance. The Colonial Govern- 
ment should, of course, he held responsible to the Imperial 
Government for both principal and interest. 

2f>l. We do not propose to attnnpt to settle all the details of the 

iii.— TRINIDAD. 

259. We proceeded dire-t from Barbados to Trinidad, and 
landed at Port of Spain, the chief town of the Colony, on 
Wednesday, the 25th of February 1897. We held four public 
sittings in which we took the verbal evidence of 34 witnesses. In 
addition to other opportunities of which we severally took 
advantage to aopiaint ourselves with the characteristics and con- 
dition of the island, we were enabled to inspect the count ry 
along the line of the Government Railway, and the extension 
now being' constructed towards the Sangre Grande, and to visit a 
coco; ostaf. We also visited I.Vmcestown, the Xapartma district, 
and San Fernando, in die south of the island, drove through the 
principal cane-f.irinh r and sugai-produ ing list rici of the Colony, 
and inspected the Usine Sainte Madeleine, the largest sugar 
factorvin the liritish West Indies, and the estates connected with 
it. We left Port of Spain on the 5th of March, and passed round 
the southern and eastern shores of the island in the Talbot on our 
passage to Tobago. 

260. The island of Trinidad is situated close to the Venezuelan 
coast of South America. It has an area of about 1,120,000 acres, 
of which 800,000 acres are held to be cultivable. Of the cultivable 
land 434,000 acres are in the hands of private owners, and 
366,000 acres are Crown lands. J I is i mpossible to state the precise 
extent of land that is under cultivation at the present time, but 
there is still a large extent of cultivable land in the island 
unoccupied and uncultivated, and much of it is virgin soil. 

261. The total population mav he taken at 215,<MK>, of whom 
fully two-fifths are immigrants' from the East Indies or their 

some portions of the island are well suited for the production of 

263. Trinidad exports about 50,000 tons of sugar yearly, and 

the exports of molasses and Angostura letters, of which rum is 
the basis, are also of some importance. 

264. The cocoa produced in the island bears a high reputation 
in the market ; and its production has largely increased in recent 

price of sugar and 

The average yearly value of the total exports of : 
us and manufacture is stated at l.o.Ti.oin/. durin 

from 1SS1 to I.SS",. at l,-L:'»7,00-V. durin- the p.-riod 
> M:>!), and at 1 , 117.0 ><)/. during the period from U 
in the year 18.)f, the value was^'UlV. 

The corresponding figures for the exports of sugar, 
ol asses during the same periods were : 






1881 8 r 











in 1896 wer 
y not be affe 
j that is likely 

industry. He estimated that, under present conditions, tin- 
industry would be reduced by one-half in three years. The 
extent to which a struggling industry will be reduced within a 
definite period must, from the nature of the case, be a matter of 
doubt, but we sec no reason for dissenting from the opinion which 
Sir Courtenay Knollys has expressed on this point. * * * 

27*. Apart from the recommendations which we have made in 
Part I. of our KYport, in connexion with the subject of experi- 
mental cane cultivation, and the work of the Botanic Department, 
we are unable to oiler any practical surest ion for the adoption of 
measures that could be 'taken in the Colony for improving the 
condition of (he sugar industry. The public burdens on the 
industry are not heavy, and it is to some extent assisted at 
the expense of the general revenues, which bear a portion of 
the cost of introducing Last hidian immigrants. * * * * * 

280. It is recognised in the present day that the business of 
manufacturing sugar may often with advantage be separated from 
the actual cultivation of the canes. It is found convenient in 

growing canes, ami should sell the ripe cane to a central factory. 

to facilitate cane-farming in suitable localities. Both the Cre 
and the East India immigrants prefer growing canes on their 
plots to working as laboti rets on the estates, and they are wil 
to sell their canes at a price which is below the cost at which 

(2) the settlement of the surplus population on the land as peasant 
proprietors ; and (3) the facilitating of access to foreign markets. 
283. The practical work of carrying on new industries must be 
left in the hands of private persons, but, as we have already 
indicated in Part I., there are certain directions in which the 
Government can assist. 

cane, it should comprise a branch tor the tea-lung <»!. tropical 
agriculture, and should form a centre from which teachers would 
be sent to give practical lessons in the cultivation of tropical plants 
and the selection of suitable localities Eor growing them. 

•2N;>. Special and well -considered arrangements should lie made 
for facilitating the settlement of the Creole and East Indian popu- 
lation as peasant proprietors on the Crown lands, and on any other 
suitable hinds that may be, or may become, available. 

288. We are, however, of opinion that special arrangements for 
the opening out of the Crown lands in small lots will not as a 
rule be popular with the persons who are interested in sugar 
estates in Trinidad. In such a Colony, with a sparse population 
and virgin soil waiting to be opened up, the sugar planters have 
experienced difficulties in getting at all times as much labour as 
they required at the prices which they were prepared, or could 
perhaps afford, to pay. and the\ have not looked with favour on 
any policy having for its object the opening out of the Crown 
lands to the labouring population. 

or have the appearance "of aggravating, even temporarily, the dilli- 

and profitable industry in fruit, to be sent from the Wcsr Indies 
generally to the Xew York and London markets. 

296. The question of the probable financial position of the 

importance. Tim ;a\a: ; o>i .,r Trii'i I...1 is nm Ihht ; the total 
general revenue in l.SS;2 was 'VM\:2tM., of which ahout 297,700/. was 
from Taxation. In 1890 the total was 577,140,., of which about 
438,000/. was from taxes, including 2-2,700/. from expert duties and 
royalties on asphab. Additional taxation eon Id he imposed, and 
would bring id some revenue, but it is not desirable to impose 
additional hardens on the Colony unless in case of necessity. 
Tin. 1 expenditure of public money appears to have been on a 
liberal scale in pas: years, halving risen from 403,871/. in 1882 to 
;V.)4 J 4(I". > in 1896, and though the conditions of the Colony may 
have justified such expenditure, greater economy will be necessary. 

301. If there is a great and sudde 
industry, there might be a considerable temporary expenditure in 

pr<c iilhiM- f,, r ] i iinurei -. nil » pw-ia!k tm 

The expenditure would be very heavy if any large number of 
immigrants cl 1 to India at 

the public expense, but we are disposed to agree with Sir C. Knoliys 
in thinking that there would not he any general desire on the part 

a benefit to the whole Colony, and that the whole Colony should 
pay a portion of the cost of introducing them. This view as to 
the introduction of immigrants being a benefit to the whole 
Colony is not held by those persons with whom the immigrants 
compete in the labour market, and if the argument were pushed 
to its logical conclusion it would follow that every industry 

the whole community. It has, however, been pressed upon us 
by evidence which we cannot disregard, that at the present f 

> absolu 

1, would 1 

nills which still 

t'l't paym.-nts in in.oils 


312. The revenue of the island was 14,003/. in 1880, 14,175Z. in 
883, and ll,82u7. in 188,"). After 1885 there was a -rear fall 
?he revenue of iSStl was only S,81 I/, ami notwithstanding suiei 
conomy and severe retrenchnieni successive dclieits were 
ncurred, necessitating a loan of ."1,000/. iV.ini ' T 1 - : 1 1 i < I : t 1 funds, and 

»H" bv careful administration, and the revenue had risen in lSiMi 
o i»,321/., the expenditure hein- ( .i,2ti'.l/., but the net deficit en 
General Revenue Account at the .'lose of the vear was still 

tow worth about 20,000?. a year. 

for the past 20 years is a gloomy 
synonymous with wealth, and the 
ecidedly better than the figures we 


... p. 

OUicaUywnh Trinidad i, 

,1 an alju 

of import duties made. 

It is 

"obago loses by 

3Ii>. We ,,'< 

•ommend the t 


lete amalgamation of Toba 

go and 

egular service of steamers is established between Barbae! 
he southern islands, it may be arranged that Tobag< 
>articipate in that benefit. 

321. It also appears desirable that a Botanic Station sho 
■stablished at Tobago, subordinate to the Botanic Departn 
IVinidad. and having for its object the attainment of tin 


\V2~). Gn nada is the headquarters of the Government of the 
Wi 11 dw.s rd group of Islands, which comprises also St. Lucia and 

St. Vincent. We arrived there from P.ritish Guiana on the evening 
of iSundav the 7th of Februarv, and held two sittings, during 
which we examined k 20 witnesses, on the Mth and 10th of the 
month. We visited several estates of a ivpiral character and left 

of Gs. in cash fa 

lis )U 

.miomndum of 
• the tax of 6s. 
, of such small i 
n rather than 

-iVi U 

house, and the 

fhe other iveom -in- lo make in 

j of (b-enada are, to a great extent, the same as those 
ve have to make in the case of most of the West Indian 
and may be briefly summarised as follows : — 
me work of the Botanic Station should be extended, and 
it should be held responsible for agricultural instruction, 
for the introduction and experimental cultivation of 
tropical plants of economic importance, and for the 
supply of Mich plants, on payment, to the publ' 

. ii. ( . 

at islam! is in a very depressed condition, whilst t 
ical oilicer states that " most of the estates here j 
med by absentee proprietors, who demand rei 
it are much too high under existing circumstances 


purpose, and if 
irwise be arranged 

344. For the three 
arlv value of the 
ports 150,000*. Fc 

d-bi. Thf quantity of siiiiai' exported in the present d 
iao half what ir was in L882. The exports of rum a' 

■lporlance, and the exports of molasses Iniw fallen off 1 

people turned, to some extent, to the cuhivauon of small plots of 
land on their own account, There is now a large number of 

metaver sw 

ae'iii'^ \ ' 

hey pay rent 

or which they cultivate on (he 
ire believed to be squatters on 

Crown or ot 

her land, 

to which the 

y have no title. * * « • * 

349. The 

n of muscoY 

ado sugar for export has almost 

:ido were exported in ISPti, as 

su-ar made 

at central factories. About o<> 

produce sag, 

ar have been abandoned in the 

. Those ■ 

>f The eei 

Ural factories, or send their canes there. 

About 70 pe 

asant prop 

■rietors procli 

ice a small quantity of sugar. 

350. The 

stories do n< 

>i appear to be nourishing. In 

good season* 

apparently h 

old their own, but good seasons 

ery year. ' T. 

he establishment of the Cul-de- 

Sac Factory 

(b)vernment, which borrowed 

4(>.i H>(>/. fur 

the purp. 

>s_e. Of this 

sum, ;j(MHMI/. was borrowed in 

1*71 to 1 

000/. in 1SS7. This money has 

iT'-M^i u-oV 

id the fa< 


it the persons who bought the 
mm, are believed to be working 

in ;i very depressed condition, 
>e feared, as food to 

and land is obtainable. The 

ahoiil two or Three years a-o. 

umm'rauts. the last batch of 155 

to Hi,- Colon 

y in 181)3. The rates of wages 

ihe immigrants are no 

t as hiLiii as those to u hieh they 

by thei 

s. It is not likely that more 

coolies will 

be applied 

. for, and if 

applied for they should not be 


351. The 

revenue o 

f the Colony 

is hardh adequate to meet its 

are in force which are open to 

much objec 

cpenditure is much needed for 

the ,y pair a 

nd main.e 

nance of m. 

ds as well as for other purposes. 


!. Notwithstanding tin- glo»mv picture which we have had to 
of the condition of St. Lucia, the island possesses certain 
rces which, if judiciously developed, may in time restore it 
t least, a moderate degree of prosperity, but the Colony 
res, in a very special degree, careful ami prudent as well as 
g and resolute administration during the coming years. The 
lishment of a coaling si at ion at Castries is a point in its 

obi. The most important measure to l>e taken for the welfare of 
St. Lucia is the settlement of the people on the land. There is 
already a large number of persons who cultivate small plots, but 

arrangements made for giving them instruction in agriculture. 
This instruction can best be given in connexion with the Botanic 



is a central range of mountains runnim,' north and south, with 
spurs extending on both sides to the sea. The soil is fertile, the 
dimme healthy, and the rainfall heavy. 

3(jf). The sugar industry has been in a decaying condition for 
years, and is now on the verge of extinction. No improvements 
have been introduced in the manufacture of sugar, and the sugar 
canes have in recent years suffered very severely from disease, 
this disease being in all probability due, to some extent, to want 
of effective cultivation. 

366. No industry can lie said to have taken the place of the 
sugarcane as the 'cultivation of the latter fell off. The second 
industry in point of importance is that of the production of arrow- 
root, but the price of arrowroot has recently fallen to such an 
extent as to add materially to the depression from which the 
island is now suffering. 

367. There are very few small proprietors cultivating their 
own land. Of the total area 50,584 acres are included in 
129 estates of not less than 100 acres each, while the extent of the 
Crown lauds is estimated to exceed 25,000 acres. The Crown 
lands are situated on the high ground in the interior of the 
island, and a belt extending along the coast, and completely 
surrounding the island, is in the hands of private owners. Of the 
cultivable area not more than 8,000 or 10,000 acres are believed 
to be beneficially occupied by cultivation. 

368. Wages are very low ; they have been reduced in recent 
years ; and there is a lamentable want of continuous employment. 
For some years the able-bodied males have been emigrating, 
leaving, in many cases, the women and children to shift for them- 

rot the approaching exiim 
, and of the fact that thrn 


iy public funds if occupation cannot be found for the labourers, 
t would not 1k> unreasonable, if private enterprise is not forth- 
omin«r to i>uarantee tin- requisite cultivation, for the Government 

nib" regard n> the purchase of hind in St. Vincent and the 
ettloinent of cultivators thereon are carried out, it mav be made 
condition „f ocetioanrv that a certain aiva of each holding shall 

hich it at present manages with diliicttlty t 

ing, if an efficient Government is to I 
revenue, and the people are to be prosp 
these industries must extend still furtli 
no reason why this should not be the c 

r, that this takes 
persons in other 

Iv worked in Mo 

the work .lone l.v ill.- 

: of the island, were si'\vr 
1896, which in other ways t 
nd. The Colonial Kngineei 



, LI ,, „ mlt( „ „„„, 



d;m'i '.ill Monday.' lY..' 

the 18th of March, 

the island. The 

lence in St. John's, 
j made to as for 

7. i'i in a 


J, id. - 

Phe population 

of properties ra 

U are those of ; 



exported was 12,769 tons; in IS'.h; it was i:j,7.14 t.. 
bulk of this export o„.-st„ 1 1„. r.u!r ( | Suiirs n.iirkr 
436. In Antigua, as in all places which .kpeml uj 
of muscovado sugar, the givat fall in the demand to 
been an additional blow to the snirar in.lustrv. 
quantity of the molasses exported was S.: , ,i'»'.l m'hik 

being others into the market, 

2. To provide more facilities of communicati 

other islands. 

3. To encourage and extend the work of the 

41L Skerrett's Uoformatorv School, and the f; 
f the expense of which some witnesses co 
ou!,t, useful establishments if the Pivsidrnc 


and Nevis lie close together and form one 
■a single Administrator. We arrived at Basseterre, 
: St. Kitts, on the evening of Monday, the 22nd 
took evidence, during the 2.">rd and 24th, from 

on the 25th we visited the island of Nevis, and 

450. As in Antigua, die [>«>}Hil;itioii is dependent upon die suyar 
industry, the products of which are practically the only export 
of the island. In ISS2 tho value of the sugar exported was 
•is.'.jus/.. of nun 5,980/., and of molasses 36,373/., making a total 
of 325,461/. In 1896 the corresponding figures were sugar 
96,342/., rum 1,856/., molasses 7,047/.. makin- a total of 105,245/. 
The value of the imports has fallen from 237,289/. in 1882 to 
157,087/. in 1896. 

451. The description of sugar manufactured is almost entirely 
muscovado. The amount in 1882 was 18.601 tuns, and in .1896 
14,822 tons, the difference in quantity being due to difference in 
seasons, rather than to any diminution of the area under cultiva- 
tion. From 1 SSI to lS96";m avera-e of about 40<> ions of vacuum 
pan sugar was manufactured on one estate chiefly for local 

40Y. We inquired as to tin 
Si. Kins and Nevis as to the 
is attributed to sugar estates ii 

f estates (as aire 
460. We desir 
v Mr. Kortrigh 

disturbance, wl 

ien tin 


I) takes place, i 

s very ? 

the " e- 

ridence given 

erintendent of 


; Works, with 

g of the mom 

atain lands. In his 

>f this that the 

and is already 

ids. It would 

be vei 

v desirable to 

e deforesting of land above a certain 

d is no doubt 

included in the area 


idler d 


The 28th c 

;f March, 

and rer 

oained there or 

in the 



mod until 

the iDtll 

of ^^ } y 

,ehl ])ti 

l»lie sittings 
took other 

means of ] 

pl-OS])l'CtS <» 

!" the islai 

cl. On 

the LOth April w 

e pn.e. 

m-|,m| |,y Hie 

allowing for the fact that sum,' person* may hold two or 

plots of land, it is clear thai the island already contains a 

large and increasing number of peasant proprietors. 

L. The Crown Land Regulations offer facilities for the settle- 

of the labouring population on the land, and as sugar estates 
bandoned some of them will probably fall into the hands of 
. cultivators. 

>. Under the agreement made with the Jamaica Railway 
,>any land was to be made over to the company on the 

of one square mile of land for each mile ol." railway exten- 
From the report of the Surveyor-* iencra] of Jamaica it 

eyed to the West India Improvement Companv, and G.444 
which will shortly fall into the hands of the Government 


there is little doubt 
l compares not unf 

paragraph show that t 
illy have deteriorated 

of 51. and under has 
show that in the ten 


scertaineil l)\ personal observation and inquiry that in t 
parishes at least, where sugar cane cultivation has cea: 
bananas have been substituted, a larger population is n 
tained than existed in former days, nor was there any rea> 
ppose that there was any special poverty in those parishes 
>. It does not follow that all abandoned sugar estates coi 
ade to produce bananas, but we received evidence that so 
estates were capable of producing abundant crops of Italian 
hat in some cases portions of coffee estates which had In 
loned owing to the supposed exhaustion of the soil con 

. brought under the same cultivation. 

;enerally less than one-foi 
; shows sufficiently how th 

By the last return receive,! there were 1-1.1:2* Ka 

in 1S4:>, and S,Sti'.i h„ve returned to India. Undei" tl 

them, the (losenimetit hearing the co'm of'the superv 
medical in the Island. 

i been allotted to w< 
to complaints by peas 
aported to compete ^ 

of these Colonies was originally 

ns for the results of whose policy the United 
led responsibility on taking possession of the le 

517. Notwithstanding the failure of negotiations with tin- 
Dinted Suites in L884-85, we are not convinced that the Colonies 
have hitherto lost valuable opportunities of this kind, or have 
been debarred from obtaining benefits which would have been 

518. As a matter of fact, on the must receni occasion when it 
was possible to make special terms with the United Stales, the 
West Indian Colonies were able to take measures owing to which 
their sugar was admitted free of duty. 

519. The benefits, however, of this arrangement were not so 
great as was expected, and the agreement did not last, but was 
put an end to by a change of policy in the United States. The 
same disappointment and the same fate might have hefallen any 
special arrangement for reciprocity. 

520. Hawaii is the only country which has been able to make a 
special treaty of reciprocity with the United States which has 
lasted; but Hawaii, owing to various causes, especially to the 
large investments of American capital in its sugar industry and 
to the general development of American policy with regard to it, 
affords no analogy to the West Indies. 

521. It does not, however, follow because there has been no 
substance in this grievance in the past that there may not arise 
hardship in the future. It is impossible to foresee what offers or 
demands maybe made by the United States, or what opportu- 

522. The question of special reciprocal tariff arrangements has 
been re-opened by the provision made in the Revenue Law of the 
United States by which the President is empowered to enter into 

dth countries willing to give advantages to 

523. The United States is the nearest and therefore, in one 
sense, the natural market for West Indian produce. It maybe 
that in time the United States, either by the development of their 
own beet industry or in other ways, will succeed in supplying 
their own market and so cease to take or to need Wist Indian 
sugar. But at present this is not so ; and perhaps may not be so 
for a long time. In the meantime, therefore, the British Govern- 
ment should take care that if the West Indies lose the market of 
the United States, it shall not be owing to provisions in Imperial 
treaties, which could be removed without involving a loss to the 


525. The recommendations involving expenditure by the 

mother country, which we have considered it our duty to make, 
are based primarily on the present and prospective depression of 

nature of the case. in<>re or- less precarious, and must in the case 
of the West Indies result in a preponderating influence in one 
direction tending to restrict development in other ways. 

527. The representatives of the sugar industry in the West 
Indies have had special means of influencing the Governments of 
the different Colonies, and of putting pressure on the home 
Government to secure attention to their views and wishes. Their 
interests have been to a very great extent limited to the sugar 
industry, and they have seldom turned their attention to any 
other cultivation except when the sugar industry ceased to be 
profitable. The settlement of the labouring population on the 
land, and the encouragement of the products and forms of culti- 
vation suitahle for a class of peasant proprietors formed no part 

Indies might have been much less serious than it is at present in 
view of the probable failure of the sugar industry. 

528. The general statement regarding the danger of depending 
on a single industry applies with very special force to the 
dependence of the West Indian Colonies upon the sugar industry, 
for the cultivation of sugar collects together a larger number of 
people upon the land than can be employed or supported in 
the same area by any other form of cultivation. In addition to 
this it also unfits the people, or at any rate gives them no 
training, for the management or cultivation of the soil for any 
other purpose than that of growing sugar cane. The failure. 
therefore, of a sugar estate not only leaves destitute a larger 
number of labourers than can be supported upon the land in 
other ways, but leaves them also without either the knowledge. 

That tin- repealed occ hitch 
the present crisis is more 
illustrates the danger to ^ 

to facilitate the introdiicti 

should .-hare. 

require assistaiu 
the cost of the 

contributed to tl 

d we do not propose that such assistance, if givei 
nditional. St. Vincent, Antigua, St. Kitts-Xevi; 
tserrat, Barbados, British Guiana, and, possibh 
•inidad, may all require assistance for one or mor 
purposes: — To enable (hem to avoid bankruptcy 

i>r to make roads, or to settle the labour 
or to promote emigration. If a Colonj 

amount ot assistance winch these ( oionms may require as it 
depends altogether on the extent to which the sugar industrx fails, 
the rapidity with which it fails, and the rate of progress in sub- 
stituting other industries. It is, however, certain that a consider- 
able amount of assistance will be required in any case, and of this 

543. The Isla'mls ,,f Si'. j.u'cia, St. Vim-em, Montserrat, Antigua, 
and St. Kitts-Xevis have floating debts which represent acctimu- 

required ma 

v be 


a at 00,000/. 

544. In St. : 


, St. 





it the re 

venue d 

oes not equal the 



e P ^ 


and we 

think it 


that grants 
t required for 

some time. 

545. The 


ent ( 

)f St. Vine 

•ent will 

require a grant to 

enable it to 


a pos 


)n of sonit 

> of the t 


sugar estates 

\\h York. 

54('». Barbados and British Guiana have larger populations an, I 
are no doubt wealthier Colonies, but their prosperity so greatly 
depends upon sugar-eane cultivation at rlie present time that any 
serious reduction of that industry might throw a very heavy 
burden on the mother country. We are not in a position to 

Guiana in connexion with the immigrants mi-hi amount to. In 
Antigua it is almost certain that expenditure must be incurred in 

ST. Kitts the question of assisting emigration may become one of 


547. The question of 


n is extremely difficult to 

nth. at the present ti 

me. The 

failure of the sugar-cane 


have intra 


that islikvlv to fall on them. 


obligatory n 

icii'lituiv which we are able to estimate maybe 

rrant of 27,000/. a year for ten years. 
•rant of 20,000/. a year tor five years. 



Mr. John Henry Holland, who was appointed Assistant 
Curator of the Botanic Station at Old Calabar, in the Niger Coast 
Protectorate {Kew Bulletin, 189G, p. 147), has returned to this 
country after having completed his first term of service. He will 
spend a part of his leave at Kew in studies connected with the 
work of his department, and return to West Africa early next year. 

Mr. Willtam Scott, F.L.S., Director of Forests and Gardens 
in Mauritius, din] somewhat suddenly in Scotland on the 3rd Oct. 
Mr. Scott, after a course of training at Kew, was appointed 
Assistant Director in 1881, and succeeded Mr. Home as Director 
in 1893. He had lately arrived in this country on leave after 
an absence of 16 years in the tropics, and apparently in excellent 
health. Mr. Scott was a capable officer and thoroughly devoted 
to his duties. His death will be a great loss to the Colony in 
which he has so long served. He entered upon the charge of 
Mauritius Gardens under singularly depressing circumstances, as 
his first work was to restore the havoc wrought by the hurricane of 
1893, which had nearly destroyed one of the most attractive gardens 
in the East. By dint of great zeal and energy, he had accomplished 
this work and left his department in excellent order. As he was 
a comparatively young man. it was hoped that he had a career of 


Malpighi Celebration.— The celebrated Italian anatomist and 
botanist, Marcello Malpighi, was a contemporary of Hooke and 
Grew, not less illustrious in our own country. He was elected 
an honorary member of the Royal Society in IMS, and in 1672 
the Society published his great work "Anatome Plantarum." 
On September 8th of the present year a monu ment to his honour 
was unveiled at Crevalcore, near Bologna. The Royal Society 
nominated Dr. Scott, F.R.S., Honorary Keeper of the Jodrell 
Laboratory, to represent it on the occasion. He was, however, 
unfortunately prevented by illness at the last moment from 
travelling to Italy. 

Botanical Magazine for October.— ( 7/ -rhojieUi fin,, robustinu is a 
New Guinea species, having yellow-green sepals, yellow and 
rose petals, and blood-red labellum. The Kew plant was received 
from Colonel Trevor Clarke, in 1893. Agave Bouchei, from 
Mexico, has been in cultivation at Kew for about twenty years, 
but it did not produce flowers till 1896 ; the flower spike w as two 
feet long. Primula sinnix/s was raised from seed, supposed to 
have been received from Ichang, and a plant was sent to Kew by 
Mr. Edmund Hyde, of Haling, in December. 1S96. Ca lather, 
rnf\l>arba, believed to be a native of P.ra/.il, was sent to Kew from 
the Imperial Botanic Gardens, St. Petersburg. The whole plant, 
except the golden-yellow flowers, is clothed with long brown 
hairs. Particular interest attaches to Pterisanthes politu, a 


member of the Vine family, which has one branch of the bifid 
tendrils curiously flattened and bearing embedded male and 
stalked marginal female flowers. It is native of the Malayan 
Peninsula and Islands. The Kew plants were received from the 
Botanical Gardens at Singapore. 

Hop Hornbeam.— Ostrya carpinifolia, Scop. The death and 
consequent removal of probably the finest specimen of this tree 
in Britain, although a grafted one, has unfortunately to be recorded. 
It stood near the Hardy Fernery on lawn L (£) of the Kew Key- 
Plan. For several years it had not been in good health, and on 
being taken down, its roots were found to have been killed by 
fungus mycelium. A portrait of the tree appeared in the 
Gardener^ Chronicle for September 30th, 1890, p. 275 : another is 
given by Loudon in his Arboretum el Frtilieetuut Jirilannicum 
in 1838. The species, which is a native of South Europe, Asia 
Minor, &c, was introduced to this conntry prior to 1724, as it is 
mentioned in Furber's Nursery Cnhilmjite, published in that year. 
The actual measurements of the Kew tree were as follows : height, 
50 ft. ; spread of branches, G8 ft. ; girth of trunk 3 ft. from the 
ground, 9 ft. 4 in. Fruit was abundantly produced, but no perfect 
seeds were ever developed. 

Tropical Fern House.— The reconstruction of No. II. which holds 
the collection of Tropical Ferns, was completed during the past 
summer. The history of the house is given in the Ke.c llulh'tin 
for 1805 (pp. 200, 201). The east wing was reconstructed in 1889 
on the mixed svstem of iron and wool construetion ('(escribed in 
the same volume (p. 300). The west win- and transept have now 
also been reconstructed on this principle. The ridge of the tran- 
sept which formerly did not extend beyond the main body of the 
building, has been continued across it with a great improvement 
of both internal and external effect. The use of green glass has 
now been altogether abandoned. 

of Pitcher plants possessed 
peculiar treatment for theii 
given in a house devoted t 


stove, while employes can enter through a new and light potting 
shed at one end. At present there are about a hundred speci- 
mens of species and hybrids of Nepenthes in the new house, grown 
in teak baskets, and suspended from the roof. The house was 
opened to the public October 15th. 

The following is a list of the species and hybrids cultivated at 

Nepenthes albomarginata, Lobb, Singapore, 
ampullaria, Jack, Malaya, 
bieaicarata, Hook./. Borneo. 
Burkei, Mast. Borneo. 

cincta, Mast. Borneo. 
Curtisii, Mast. Borneo. 

distil latoria, L. Ceylon. 
gracilis, Knrth. Borneo. 
birsuia, Hook. f. Borneo, 
kennedyana, F. MueU. Australia, 
laevis, Lindl. Malaya. 
northiana. Hook. f. Borneo, 
obrieniana, Lind. <£• Rod. Borneo. 
IVrvillei, Blume, Seychelles. 
Phvllamphora, Willd. Cochin China. 

sanguinea, Lindl. Malaya, 
stenophylla, Mast. Borneo. 
Veitchii, Hook./. Borneo. 


Nepenthes amesiana (rafllesiana x hookeriana). 
atrosanguiura (liirsuta x Sedeni). 
Chelsoni (Dominii x hookeriana). 
coccinea (hookrriana x l'hyllamphora). 
cylindrica (Veitchii x hirsuta). 
dicksoniana (rafflesiana x Veitchii). 
Dominii (rafflesiana x unnamed sp.). 
edinensis (rafflesiana x Chelsoni). 
formosa (Chelsoni x distillatoria). 
henryana (hookeriana x Sedeni). 
Hookerae (rafflesiana x Phyllamphora). 
intermedia (rafflesiana x unnamed sp.). 
mastersiaua (sanguinea x -li- 

Hybrids — (continued.) 
Nepenthes superba (hookeriana x Sedeni). 
Wittei (Curtisii x unnamed sp.). 
wrigleyana (Phyllamphora x hookeriana). 
Williamsii (Sedeni x hookeriana). 

Durian in the West Indies —The well-known Durian tree of the 
Indian Archipelago (Durin Zihrtliimis, L.) has been successfully 
introduced to the Botanic Gardens in the West Indies, but 
hitherto it has not fruited anywhere except at Dominica. In 
1895 and again this year fruits have been produced by a tree 
growing in the garden of Dr. H. A. Alford Nicholls, C.M.G., at 
St. Aroment. This was originally received from Kew with 
numerous other plants sent out to the late Dr. Imray and to 
Dr. Nicholls, in exchange for Dominic;, plains, contributed at the 
private expense of the two gentlemen above mentioned. 
Reference is made to the St. Aroment Garden in the Kew 
Bulletin for 1887, June, pp. 9-10 ; and a list of the economic 
plants already established there was given in the Bulletin for 
July of the same year, pp. 10-12. It is gratifying to find that all 
the seeds saved from the Durian fruits so far produced have been 
placed by Dr. Nicholls at the disposal of the Botanic Station at 
Dominica, in order that plants may be raised for distribution to 
other parts of the Western tropics. One fruit was lately received 
at Kew, but, unfortunate] y. it did not arrive in good condition. 
Those interested in the subject may see a fine plant of Durian, 
about 15 feet high, in the Palm House, where it has been established 
for about 15 years, but so far has not flowered. 

Lily culture in Natal.— Lilhtm fnnc/i/lorinii, var. Harrisii, 
popularly known as the Bermuda Lily, has for some years 
been grown on a large scale in Bermuda for the supply of the 
United Status and Europe, the annua! export of bulbs being of the 
value of about £20,000. The bull m arri ve i n England in September, 
when they are planted in pots and kept in frames or greenhouses 
till they flower in April or May. Efforts appear to have been 
made to cultivate this lily in Natal for the European market, as 
is shown b lisement, which appeared in the 

Gardeners' Chronicle for April 17th, 1897 :— 

" Messrs. Protheroe & Morris will sell by auction at their Central 
Sale Rooms, on April 21st, a first experimental consignment of 
4,000 Li! in in Il'irrisii, grown for some years in Natal, where the 
habit of plant and size of flower have attained great perfection, in 
addition to the season of flowering being entirely changed. The 
sender anticipates that by being kept back, or by being potted and 
allowed to conn- slowly, flowers of this -rand lily may be obtained 
when nothing like them is in the market." 

These bulbs were equal in size and .piality to those received 
from Bermuda ; they realised about 15/- per hundred. About 200 
were purchased for Kew. These were planted in pots and placed 
in the open air, where they grew to about a yard in height and 
flowered freely in September, three months after the Bermuda 




No. 132.] DECEMBER. 

The following extracts from a series of letters addrea 
lew by Dr, Henrx during lasi .war -rivr an interesting { 

scientific work ha: 
engrossing official 



. This is fused with i 

i Chine* 

pp i.i , » ,, i! , .i 

,r was printed in * 

i Kew l> 


•• Dr 

. A. Henry to Royal 



••Customs. Mengl 

toe, par L 



" I have 



,lingly I, 



i days on the Red River, where the vegetation is 
. the banana, tomato, Carica and Tamarind occurring 
everywhere in the wild state. The bizarreness of some of the 
fruits here was very striking. One tree (Dolichandrone C«n<ht- 
felina) has long pods (2 to 3 feet) with a dense covering of thick 
brown hair, exactly like the 1 

" On the plateau (7,000 - 
Red River I found a curi 
besetting its base like an onion ; it successfully resists the grass 
fires which here are universal, and flowers indifferently level with 
the ground or on a peduncle 6 to 8 inches high. 

" Immense evegreen oaks occurred in the mountain forest. 

" The most interesting part of the trip was the aborigines. In 
the State, 20 miles by 20 miles, ruled over by the chief, not 
including Chinese settlers, I met with seven distinct races, i.e., 
distinct physiognomy, speaking mutually unintelligible languages, 
living apart, never intermarrying, and with different customs and 

" Their languages, of which I collected short vocabularies, fall 
into three divisions, Shan, Miao-tze and Lolo, all of the Chinese 
type, monosyllabic, non-inflectional. I found the Lolo writing to 
be in daily use. It is apparently derived from ancient Chinese, 
say 2,000 years ago, and 1 have little doubt is the remnant of a 
highly civilised State. If my information is to be trusted, books 
of great interest will be found still existing in MS. in this 

"Great red deer, bears large and small, occur in the mountain 
forests, the smaller bears leaving scratch marks on the trees, in 
which they build nests to sleep in. 

" I have laid, I hope, the seeds of a friendship with the chief, 
and hope to gain much thereby, i.e., an intimacy with the abori- 
gines, which is a difficult matter indeed. 

"April 30,1897. — My own collection has already attained gigantic 
proportions. I have numbered and labelled MO distinct species, 
without making a perceptible gap in the immense pile of bundles 
of dried plants. I al 
the y. 

doing good work, being constantly on the road : and I myself i 
doing everything within a radius of 15 miles round Mengtse, 
which includes mountains to 7,000 feet altitude. 

" Franchet, I believe, estimates Delavay's species from Western 
Yunnan to be 3,000 in number. Both our collections will have at 
least f>.000 species, and 1 venture to predict that Yunnan, when 
thoroughly explored (say in the 20th century) will be found to 
have 10,000 species of plants (phanerogams and ferns with their 

"The Rhododendrons have been very captivating. They vary 
in size from gigantic trees to the tiniest shrubs. The most 
striking one is apparently confined to a mountain peak north of 
here, some 20 miles. It has broadly oval leaves, about 12 inches 
long by eight inches broad, brown on the under surface, and the 
flowers are a delicate primrose yellow, quite large and very 


" The spp. of Clematis are about 20 to 25 species ; Oaks 15 ; 
Rubus 15 ; Primulas 10 (these have been very disappointing in 
number, and none is conspicuous in any way). The Conifers 
include Cunningham i 'a , Cnjptontrria. Krtrlrrria, and three 
species of Pinus ; one of these is P. massoniana ; another 
very remarkable for its perfectly white bark and large 

big tree planted on the top of a mountain, over four graves. I 
haven't yet secured cones, h is beautifully pyramidal in shape 
dth delicate, very green foliage, and a part different from 

3 here, Glcditxrhiu Dphtvayi, 
pods, some 20 inches long, and Panroria 
ueiavayt. i lie latter is an exact imitation of Sapindux Muh oruxsi. 
Of course it differs technically in flowers and indumentum of the 
leaves, but no mere non-botanist would dream of putting them 
in different genera. I will semi plenty of fruit of both (and seeds). 

and Pun-aria running riot in number of species. I have secured 
some very northern forms, as a Fagus, a Betxla, Sec. 

"lam inclined to think that isolation, as in Yunnan by its 
multitudinous ranges and valleys, must play a great part in the 

province will, 1 think, enable some one hereafter to get at 
important factors in this evolution. One of the most curious so- 
called species here is FJurtia cri/l i/ol i« : it is a distinct species. 

and the phvsical characteristics are often verv well .narked, too. 

k ' I have two Lolo MSS. and as yet can't get a Lolo to come and 
explain them. The investigation of this writing will throw, 
I believe, a new light on Chinese. Of the native languages, 
three great stocks (Miao-tze, Lolo, Shan) are of the Chinese 
type, i.e., monosyllabic, tonal, non-inflecting, non-agglutinative. 
The question of tones is a difficult one. One can scarcely tinder- 
stand any people beginning a language with such an absurdity, 
sav, as the Shan words : — 


" In addition to my own collection, I have received from Morse, 
at Lungchow in Kwangsi province, some 400 species. Some are 
quite interesting. He sends me ToumHorthi s,trmentosa, which 
is hitherto known only as an Oceanic plant l Formosa, Mauritius. 
Philippines. Australia), and it is like the very pretty Ostt'onwles 
imthiiUidifnlia in this respect. By the way, have you the latter 
in cultivation? He also sends me l><, I ,,■!,■< n>ir >„> i'nwln-M'nm, 
which I found on the Red River. Its pods are the most comic of 
fruits; along tail of some prehistoric animal would be near it. 
What is the meaning of the projecting hook on fruit of trees, 
such as C(('s((lj)ini!( Sapiimi ? Is it because other climbing 
Caesalpinias have such a point ? It doesn't mean a time when tall 
beasts like giraffes and so on rambled about and got fruits from 
big trees stuck in their woo]. Of course, there are monkeys 
running about in the trees. I can't see any possible use, e.g., in 
hairs of fruit of Purrarlu tint nhnyut tin, at least an v at present. 
The fruits stick on the climbing shrub till they dehisce, and out 
drops the seed. 

oflithT^f" lJ-l\^FnXn,'.T-l^\ 

P. iiitj»>ri<(lis) to compare with it. but it seems to differ from 
both ; it has much smaller capsules than P. Fortunei, according 
ro description. It is the most magnificent tree, in some ways, 

way from Haifong to here, is just about to arrive. 

Of* course, I suppose pictures of trees like the" J 
spoken of, pictures of curious fruits, &c, will be i 
some good scientific line. If you can, please ansv 
and refer me to books or journals, if necessary, fo 
" Szemao (the newly opened port west from 
pretty well. I notice in the estimates that £80( 
salary for Consul at Moiuein (Teng Yueh). and 
place will have a Customs also. Then the ra 
pushed on from Mandalav to Kim-Ion on the Rii 

and angry barking. I clambered up, and through the trees soon 
discerned a great spot of orange : it loomed so large I thought it 
must be a tiger. Further up I saw a beautiful leopard taking a 
quiet look at the pony. Loud I halloed — no sign of the dog; 
the leopard skulked off over the hill. Sorrowfully I rode off, 
making much melancholy reflection over poor -Jack;' the dog. 
To my astonishment I found him lying waiting tor me near the 
foot of the hill, in an open space where he could look all around. 
He had been mauled, but not severely, by claws and teeth, but in 
some mysterious way had escaped out of the leopard's clutch. 

•• The\ talk about the spots of the leopard being protective, hut 
there is no such brilliant object in nature as a leopard on the 
sunny side of a rocky hill. These beasts are nocturnal in habit, 
and perhaps his courage was less on t lint account, and he let the. 
dog go when the latter showed fight. How he did bark, so 

ivwasn^t abTt frig°h 

"With rega 
when I shall 1 
seeds ; one an 


don't know how to begin to work, as compared with a European. 
And as to their ever seriously fighting <>*" competing in the arts 
of peace or war with the Anglo-Celtic nice, it is an idle dream." 

"July 19,1897.-1 would suggest, so great is the variety and 
beauty of the Chinese flora, and so fit are the plants for the 
European climate, that an effort ought to be made to send out a 
small expedition, the funds, o/., being provided by a syndicate of, 
say, a horticulturist, a private gentleman or two, &c. I estimate 
£1,000 would cover the expenses ii.r two years ; and what I 
would recommend is that a man be selected who lias just finished 
his botanical studies at Cambridge. I mean, don't send a collector, 
but a gentleman, a student and an enthusiast. The locality I 
would suggest is the mountain range separating S/echwan from 
Shensi, or thereabouts, the expedition starting from Ichang in 
April and covering two seasons. 

" A person like me, with daily official work, can do little or 
nothing. We live in towns, in the midst of cultivation, and the 
distances to get to the hunting grounds are enormous, and when 
we do get there we are half worn out. There is also something 
uncanny in the way in which herbaceous plants disappear out of 
view after they have had their gaudy season of flowering, and 
when the plant is found the seeds are green, or the capsules are 
empty. Such are some of the difficulties. 

" My own plant collecting, since I have been here, is enormous, 

strictly parallel,,! l,vt!ia> ..f n l.:.nk-H.-rk in London who made 

here is a country which has not been disturbed geologically for an 
immense period The country is cut up into innumerable valleys 
and petty plains and isolated peaks; and isolation seems to be 
the factor which has kept up so many different forms of life, once 
they were started. 

-Another interesting series of questions is to find out what are 
the uses of the supposed adaptations one sees. ,>.,/., what is the 


and curious animals in former geological times have played. 
Take the question of thorns. I think they do serve as protection 
against animals, and are not, as regards their preservation, when 
once developed, mere expressions of climate and soil changes. 

" I was quite disappointed in the spring flora here. The first 
half of the year is rainless, and, except in woods with perennial 
springs and streamlets, the whole country remains almost barren. 
There is consequently a great variety of plants which can bear 
long and sustained drought, and the dodges are innumerable. 
The bulbous covering of scaly leaves in the primrose I mentioned 
as coming up in the burnt grass hills is. of course, not a dodge 
against grass-fires, but a dodge against the drought it sustains. 

"There is one point in connection with the change in the 
cultivated Primula sinensis which is not, I think, generally 
ktiown. The wild form occurs in such a different condition of 
soil from what is adopted in cultivation. hi the Yangtze gorges 
the wild form grows on dill's in practiealh ■ arthless ledges, and 
merely midst the piled-up remains of previous years' leaves, &c. 
In a word, it occurs in the driest possible situation, and 1 don't 
think even in wet weather, in summer, these ledges, when it 
occurs, really get wet, I am now speaking from memory, hut 1 
think I am quite correct as to the habit of the wild plant. The 
ledges, often hundreds of feet in length, present a beautiful 
appearance at flowering time in the dry winter season. In con- 

the Chinese began the cultivation of stud] plants, and it is quite 

remarkable how few specimens of reallv wild forms of mam- 
cultivated Chinese decorative plants t here are. and also curious 

" If you ever again c 
was when we began 
isist on him being mo 
ill help to develop a n 

"Tin- palms used as pap -r are /v;/v/s-*//s ami the Talipot palm, 
erordiny: to Treasury of Botany, but it doesn't seem to me to fit in 
vith descriptions of these. 

" I also enclose for the Museum, if you think it is of sufhVient 

i probably Shan, but Mr. Bons 

e by Mr. Bons, collected on a 
itothe British Shan Stairs, ii 
t once into the Indian type 

rerseen. Ii had the enormous spread iu^-on-the-surface-of-thc 

i quest of a Lolo Pundit that 1 heard of, but we found his hous 
id the compound deserred. as there had been three cases o 


the Governor of Lagos, Sir Gilbert Carter. K.c.M.i:., issued the 
following notice :- 

"'His Excellency the Governor desires to notify to the mer- 
cantile community of Lagos that he has been able to induce a 
party of natives from the Gold ('oast, experienced in rubber 
collecting, to come to Lagos, with a view to the development of 
this valuable and important industry. The men have already 
inspected certain districts, which they report to be rich in rubber- 
producing plants, and it is confidently hoped that Lagos will 
shortly be able to compete with the sister Colony of the Gold 
Coast in the great export of the product.' 

"This confident hope was ipiiek'v justified. Merchants took 
up the idea with enthusiasm. With ' siartlimr suddenness the 
easy-going native awoke to t lie fact that wealth abounded in the 


According to the Colonial Office List, 1897, p. 306, these islands 
were placed under British protection in 1893, and a Resident has 
lately been appointed. His head-quarters will be at Tulage, a 
small island which has been purchased for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a Residency. The British or Southern Solomon Islands 
"consist of the Islands of New Georgia, Guadalcanal-, Malaita, 
San Christoval and small islands in the vicinity of the above 
lying between the 7.1th and 13th degrees of south latitude, and 
the 150th and 163rd degrees of east longitude. The natives are 
Melanesians. They are treacherous, and most of them are cannibals. 
There are a few resident traders, mostly of British nationality. 
A large number of natives use. I to go to work in plantations 
in Queensland, Fiji, and Samoa, returning after the expiration of 
three years, but the number is less than formerly. 

"The principal articles of trade are copra, pearl shell, and 
tortoise shell. The climate is not a good one." 

During the last few years the botany of the Solomon Islands 
has been studied at Kew, and collections of dried plants have 
been received from the Rev. R. B. Comins, Dr. H. B. Guppy, and 
from the officers of H.M.S. "Penguin," communicated by Admiral 
Sir W. J. L. Wharton, K.C.B., F.R.S., Hydrographer of the 
Admiralty. The more interest in ir plants have been described in 
the Annals of Botam/ (vol. v. (1891), pp. 501-508, t. 27 ; vol. vi. 
(1892), pp. 203-21.0, tt. 11-14): Journal of the Lionean Soeiehj 
(vol. xxx. (181)1). pp. 163-165 and 211-217. tt. 9-11): Hooker'* 
Imoes I'lantarum i 1th series, iii. ( 1 891 ). tt. 2207, 2217. and 22-18); 
and the Kew Bulletin (1892. 105; 1894,211-215: 1S95, 132-139. 

An account of the present condition of the Solomon Islands is 
contained in the Colonial llrports (Miscellaneous, No. 8, 1S97) by 
Mr. C. R. Swayne, the first British Resident. The following 
information is extracted ; — 

"From inquiries instituted, both in Sydney and in the Pro- 
tectorate, I find that the exports to Sydney for 1895 and for the 
present year will stand approximately as follows : — 




Pearl Shell. 

Turtle Shell, j Beche de Mer. 



6 10 


Tons. Cwt. 
7 18 
3 15 


"Copra always has been, and is likely for many years to come 
to supply, the chief article of export. Solomon Islands copra is 
what is known as smoke-dried and consequently does not com- 
mand so good a price by from 10s. to 1/. a ton in Sydney as 
sun-dried copra in consequence of its dirty appearance. I was, 
however, informed by an expert in Sydney that Solomon Island 


copra is particularly rich in oil, and 1 see no reason why the more 
usual system of sun-drying should not be resorted to. From the 
natives' point of view smoke-drying is less trouble and they have 
become wedded to the practice, but should cocoanut-planting 
under white management be entered upon, it is not to be supposed 
that any system but sun-drying, or perhaps even the superior one 
of kiln-drying, would be followed. 

"The output of copra from the Protectorate might be very 
largely increased. I have no hesitation in savin- that with the 

these are so easily supplied, tha 
crop of nuts sutlices to satisfy them, and the remainder is allowed 
to go to waste. 1 consider that of all the natives of the Western 
Pacific with whom 1 have come in contact the Solomon islanders 
of the British Protectorate are able to supply their demand for 
articles of foreign trade with the least exertion. 

" In preparingthe copra for sale to the traders the nativesciit the 
nuts in half and the divided nuts are then smoked in a fire. 
When sufficiently dvv the cup-shaped kernels come away from 
the shell. These are strung upon strings supposed to contain 
10 nuts each, or rather 20 half-nuts. The price for a string of 

its equivalent, winch" costs" the trades' rat lmr more than a half- 

During inv l pr^duuVV^iden!v U in ,: the" s!,]!,m ,'ns. 'from ' lSSli 
to ISSi). strings containing IT, or IS half nuts were considered 


hollow core through the middle, and their reluctance to take a 
black dye. More went to Germany and Vienna than to London. 
About three years ago the price of these nuts suddenly jumped 
from about :>/. a ton in Sydney to ]->/., at which price a consider- 
able quantity were sold, and the market probably overstocked. 
Their value has now relapsed to about 5/. per ton in Sydney, at 
which figure there seems to be a good demand. The sudden 
inflation in value was due, so I was informed, to the demand of a 
Vienna firm, who used a considerable quantity for making the 
wheels of roller skates. 

"I consider that there will continue to be a demsind for a fair 

antity at about present prices, ' 

been undertaken bv white residents, native planting operations 
being of the usual 'kind to be met with in the Western Pacific. 
As a locality for the growth of the eoeoanut palm, I believe the 
Ih-itish Protectorate of the Solomons presents advantages un- 
equalled by any place that 1 have hitherto visited in the Western 
Pacific. Situ; ted as if is within the parallels of 7° to 11° of south 
latitude, it is outside the region of the de\astating hurt icanes thai 
occasionally visit the New Hebrides, Fiji. Samoa, and Tonga, 
whilst it is also exempt from those long periods of drought that 
are experienced among the islands of the Gilbert group. The 
appearance of the miles of eoeoanut palms fringing the beach on 
the north coast of the Island of Guadalcanar and along the shores 
of theKubiana Lagoon and elsewhere in New Georgia prove that 
the climate and soil of the Protectorate are eminently suited to 

off the coast of Guadalcanar. by the Marau Company at Crawford 
Island in Marau Sound, by the same company upon a piece of 
land of about />( > acres on the mainland at Aola on Guadalcanar. 
and by Mr. Neilson, the trader, at Gavutu, upon his island of that 
name. The plantations of the Marau Company are at present too 
recent to have yet come into bearing, but it Gavutu, where, when 
I left in November. 1SSS. no palms had been planted, there is now a 
plantation of about l.~> acres in full hearing. I can safely say that, in 

which h;is been vacated b\ the natives ever since the attack upon 
the labour ship ".Janet Stuart,*' several islands and bays at the 
west side of Russell Island quite deserted by the natives through 
fear of the New Georgia head-hunters, numberless uninhabited 
and most fertile islands in the Marova Lagoon, the whole of Gizo 
Island and adjacent islets, quite uninhabited, and numerous small 
islands near Wana-Wana. The Marau Company have within the 
last two or three months commenced work upon a large block of 
land purchased by them on the north coast of Guadalcanar about 
six miles from Marau Sound. The situation appears to have been 
well selected, the land being of the first quality. It is proposed 
to grow cacao, coffee, both Arabian and Liberian, Vanilla, and 
other products. Seedlings of the two former have been raised at 
the Company's head station at .Marau Sound and were l>eing 
removed to the plantation at the time I left the Protectorate in 

"The Company have had some difficulty in procuring seeds of 
cacao, although the tree had been introduced to the Solomons 
some vears ;u?o bv the late Mr. Stevens of J'iri. I found about a 

about the middle of L897. As Marau 
call of the steamer "Titus" and the 
from that place in from seven to eight 
east end of Guadalcanar is as favourab 
land for supplying the Svdnev mark* 
Makira Harbour on San Christoval, al 
his intention of planting bananas f( 
commencement has already been mad 
" Mr. Maben,at present a visitor to th 
embark in the enterprise of coffee pla 

' During the present 

his description it appears to be also a species of Finis. The natives 
of New Guinea, the trader told me, allowed the sap of the tree to 
run over their arms and body and when it was sufficiently solid 
removed it and rolled it up into lumps. The lumps were rather 
larger than a cricket ball and it was worth to the New Guinea 
traders from 2s. Sd. to 3s. per lb. 

"A species of sago palm grows wild throughout the Solomon 
Group in inexhaustible quantities, the nuts being exported as 
vegetable ivory, as described above. So far no attempt has been 
made to utilise the sago contained in the pith of the tree. 
The natives of Shortland Island and Treasury Island understand 
the extraction and manufacture of the sago flour and it is 
extensively used by them as an article of food. They wash the 
pith in salt water and bake the resulting sago into cakes wrapped 
in leaves, frequently with the addition of pounded almonds. 
These cakes, as I can testify, are most excellent and sustaining 
food. From their portability, they are taken by the natives 
upon canoe voyages as they are not liable to damage by salt 
water and, moreover, are most convenient to sit upon. In the 
more eastern portions of the group the natives do not understand 
the manufacture of the sago, but in times of scarcity they hake 
lumps of the pith itself, and they tell me it is not unpalatable 

" During my stay this year at Ugi, while waiting for the return 
of H.M.S. " Pylades," I made experiments in the manufacture of 
sago. I selected a tree which was just sending up its spike of 
flowers and with an axe made an incision in the trunk from 
which I chipped out about a bushel of the soft white pith. This 
I carried to a stream and grated up the lumps of pith in a bucket 
of water. I poured the resulting milky water through a piece of 
muslin into another bucket and allowed it to settle. The sago 
quickly settled on the bottom, when I poured off the water ami 
removed the sago and dried it in the sun. I took the sample with 
me to Sydney, and was told that as starch alone it would have a 
value of at least £8 to £10 per ton. Even at this low price it 
might pay to manufacture on a large scale. The trees are in great 
quantity and a small apparatus for -rati nir the pith, worked by 
water power, and wooden settling troughs might be erected at 
very trilling expense. But apart from any commercial value it 
may possess, the natives should be taught its use as food." 

m consequence or an inquiry lor them. 
" Sandal wood has never, so far as I know, been found in the 
Solomons, but a very dark wood resembling ebony is found in fair 
quantities on New Georgia, and would probably be valuable for 
cabinet making." 


{Pistacia Lentiscus.) 

In 189(5, specimens of plants known in Cyprus as " Shinia " and 
" Must idles " respectively, were received from Mr. A. K. Bovill, 
Principal Forest Officer in Cyprus. The first named wasdetermined 
to be typical Pistacia Lentiscus, and apparent Ly identical with 
the plant yielding the Oimi Masiich of the Creek Archipelago, 
chiefly in Ohio (the modern Scio). The " Mastiches" was regarded 
as simply a broad Jeaved variety of the same species. In some 
localities in Cyprus the trees of Pi star in Lndiscus are tapped, 
" but the gum which exudes is without colour and without taste." 
The trees yielding mastich in Scio are said to be exclusively nude. 
According to Mr. Bovill, the Shinia " grows more or less all over 
Cyprus, from the sea-level to an altitude of 2,o00 feet, and most 
luxuriantly through the Carpas, all along the northern shore of the 
island as far as Ryrenia, all over the Rormakiti Cape from Lef ka 
to the village of Peyia, and from Rouklia, in the Paphos district, 
all along the southern coast to Mazoto, in the Larnaca district. 
Practically speaking, the supply is unlimited, for as fast as it is 
cut down it shoots up again from the stools. 

" Mr. Christian, of the Cyprus Company, Limited, Limassol, 
writing to me on the subject, says : — ' We have been for some 
years past trying to find a market for this article, and have 
succeeded in introducing it to one or two firms in the north of 
England, but thus far the demand for it is limited, and does not 
exceed 100 to 150 tons per annum. Like Sumach, the Shinia 
leaves contain tannic acid, hut to a less degree, and the material 

has been found of value for fixing dyes Our buyers 

prefer to have the Shinia in the leaf, and we have therefore ceased 
grinding it, ami now ship ii in pressed bales.' He adds, ' I feel 
confident that a large demand would grow up for this product 
should its qualities become more widely known, but unfortunately 
it is extremely difficult to persuade English manufacturers to try 
new products.' " 

Further information is contained in the following corres- 
pondence received from the Government of Cyprus : — 

The Chief Secretary, Cyprus, to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Chief Secretary's Office, Nicosia. 
Sir, January 6, 1897. 

I have the honour to transmit to you a copy of a report 
which has been prepared by Mr. Gennadius, the Director of 
Agriculture, dealing with the cultivation of Shinia leaves. 

I shall have pleasure in forwarding to you copies of similar 
pamphlets as they appear, relating to agricultural or economic 

Report on Shinia Leaves. 

j the shrub that grows abundantly 

mastic shrub of Chio (the modern Scio). The leaves only of the 
Shinia have a commercial value, as they serve as a tannic and 
dyeing substance. 

From the wood of this shrub charcoal of good quality is made, 
and from its seed, which is eaten readily by goats and pigs, oil 
can be extracted which would be good for burning purposes, and 
could, in case of necessity, be used for food as well. 

For some time Shinia leaves were exported from Cyprus to 
England by the Cyprus Company, but they were exported in 
small quantities. ;md, as i understand, the. price that was paid to 
those who collected them was 8 paras per oke. 

But the principal market for Shinia haves is Palermo, in Sicily, 
to which there is an annual exportation from Tunis of about ten 
thousand tons. The Shinia I eaves serve at Palermo, chiefly, for 
the adulteration of Sumach (Rhus Corinrin)* which is grown in 
large quantities in Sicily, and is exported to England and France, 
principally through Palermo. 

A good quantity of Shinia leaves is also consumed at Lyons, 
France, as a dyeing material for silk stuffs. 

The course, then, we must pursue, is to get the Shinia leaves, of 
which there is an abundant yield, in Cyprus, into those two 

Dry Shinia leaves are bought at Tunis by Italian merchants at 
■!}, francs <2 shillings) for every 100 kilogrammes (78 okes), and 
being packed in sacks, are sent to Palermo, where they an sold 
at -H to 7 francs (3 7 to f> 7) \'<>v every 100 kilogrammes. 

The Shinia leaves are collected from the month of April to the 
month of September. For that purpose the leafy branches of the 
shrub are cut off and laid in heaps on the ground and left there 
until they dry. Usually they dry in four or live days, during 
which the heaps are not disturbed, so that as few leaves as 
possible should come into direct contact with the sun, whose 
effect is to bleach and overdry them, thus depreciating t licit- 

After being dried, the branches are beaten with the flail, so 
that the leaves get detached : the leaves are then placed in sacks 
and brought to the market for sale. Before the beating takes 
place, the top branches which cover each heap are removed and 
thrown away, because the leaves of those branches being bleached 

:>th hecember, 18%. 


An obscure disease, which appears to be very destructive to 
young fruit-trees, has been recently the subject of careful 
investigation at Kew. Originally (Inscribed by Ludwig in 1SSS, 
briefly discussed in Tubeuf and Smith's Discftsrs <>/ Plants 

(1897), who express some doubt i 

to its fatal character. The following 
however, seems to leave little room for doubt in the mat 

Report on a diseased plum tree sent to Kew for ext 
by, Spencer Pickering, F.H.S. Mucilage-flux; Schleir 
L'Ecoulement des Arbres fruitiers. 

The colourless mucilage escaping from injured po 
diseased plants contains a Schizomycete — Mirrororru, 
/mrllirs, Ludwig ; this appears to be invariably accomj 
the early, aquatic condition of a fungus (Torn/ft mt 
Crda), the subglobose cells of which flout in the hyaline 
and impart to it a brown colour. Inoculations with pun 
of both these organisms demonstrate conclusively the J 
points : - 

(1.) The Micrococcus is alone capable of inducing fen 

Shortly after inoculation the ■ 

organised. At a later stage scatt 
from within, forming suppurat 
mucilage, formed during fermei 

Such wounds present very 

The mucilage, charged with 
on the surface of the bark, is re; 
field-mice and other rodents, w< 



Mr. Horace Walter Leightox Billixgtox, Curator ol me 
Botanic Gardens (Station) at Old Calabar, in the Niger Coast 
Protectorate, died in November, the news reaching London on the 
19th. He was youngest son of the Rev. J. H. Billington, rector of 
Chalbury, Dorset. After spending three years in the service of 
the Royal Niger Company, he entered that of the Government in 
the Niger Coast Protectorate. Arriving in Old Calabar on March 
20, IS 1 .);',, lie created under Sir Claude Macdonald "the botanic 
station that he was just starting, for the purpose of ascertaining 
what economic plants were suitable for cultivation in the 
Protectorate, and to encourage the natives to grow them, as well 
as an example for them to see how useful plants should bo planted 
and grown." 

His first report, from which the above is quoted, was made to 
the Commissioner and Consul-General, February 24, 1894. It is 
printed in the papers (Africa, No. 1) presented to Parliament in 
1895. It includes a remarkable list of the economic plants which 
Mr. Billington had succeeded in gathering together, many having 
been obtained from the West Indies, as well as the other West 
African stations. 

A scheme for the establishment of the station had been 
presented to the Foreign Office by Kew in 1891, at the request of 
the Marquess of Salisbury. The objects which Sir Claude 
Macdonald hoped to obtain through it are quoted in the Kew 
Hi, llrt in for 1895 (p. 164). 

Besides the report on the station, the papers also contain a 
report by Mr. Billington on the botany of the country lying to the 
eastward of the Old Calabar River, and a similar report of the bank 

Mr. Billington had borne the climate remarkably well, but he 
resigned in July of last year, and was only awaiting the appoint- 
ment of his successor to return to England. His untimely death 
at the early age of twenty-eight closes a career of much usefulness 
and promise. But as the pioneer of new cultural industries in 
the Niger Protectorate it may be hoped that his memory will long 
be preserved. 

Botanical Magazine for November.— Mamm/'a americana* a 
native of the West Indies, is cultivated in tropical America for 
the sake of its edible fruit, the mammee apple. The plant in the 
Economic House at Kew flowered in 189o, but did not produce 
fruit; the figure of the hitter was therefore prepared from a 

Flora of British India— The completio 
twenty-second part, of this important coi 
ledge of the existing vegetation of the 
above (pp. 20"), 2(KJ). A general index 
])ul>lished in November last. 

Pelican.— The specimen of Pi-Ucmms nnncrohtln* pre: 
Lew in 1896 by the Zoological Society (AT. B., lS'.t 
mfortunately succumbed to an incurable disease in the i 
winter. The remaining bird, also of the same species. 1 
iven to the Royal Gardens in 1890 by the late Lord Lil 
iad become extremely tame and a very popular pet 

Although from time to time feather-pinioned, durin; 
hided efforts to catch it. In October last it flew awa 
'haincs. and for some time established itself on the 
f the West Middlesex Waterworks, at Barnes. All 

!eard of aTsouthaT "it e'vellluaih l'.'ft 'the Thames v; 
iew southwards. 

Mr. D. N. Olney, of Blenheim House. Robertsl>rid-e 
ms so good as to send to Kew the following "cutting" : 

C/'nt and Sussex Post of October 111, which records the f; 

ng his body nude,' it. swam asho 
w amusement of those who witin 
specimen of the pelican tribe, i 
neasunmr '.' feet 10 inches fron 

Importation of Canadian Fruit.- 

Ih'llrtin for 1887 mid 1SSS. The report on Canadian fruit is one 
of the most important, and is contained in the number for 
November, 1887 (pp. 4-20). The following passage (p. 19) may 
be quoted as the historic foundation of what bids fair to become 

"The experience gained during the recent Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition in London has shown the importance of cold storage* 
in the transportation of fruit, especially of the early ripening 
sorts, and it is desirable that facilities in this direction should be 
offered to the fruit -growers of Canada, so as to stimulate the 
export of autumn fruits." 

The following extract from the Standard for September 25 
(1897) gives the sequel ten years after : — 

"An interesting experiment is being carried out by the Canadian 
Government, with the view of taking full advantage of the fruit- 
growing capabilities of the dominion, and putting the best 
qualities of Canadian "soft" fruits on the English market in 
competition with the products of Californian orchards. By 
'• soft '" fruits arc meant in the trade such produce as the best 
class of table pears, peaches, grapes, and tomatos. and the first 
cargo reached Covent Garden vesterdav, where it was put on sale 
by Garcia, Jacobs and Co. The Canadian Government have sub- 
sidised, under the system they propose to use, the owners of 
seventeen steamers running to London, Liverpool, Bristol, and 
Glasgow from Canadian ports, though chiefly from Montreal, to 
carry the fruit, and have lifted up on the vessels the latest types 
of refrigerators, in which to stow the goods. The steamship 
companies arc hound under their agreements to carry the fruit at 
ordinary rates, with only an additional charge of lO.s. per ton for 
the use of the refrigerators. The export of Canadian apples to 
this country has been a great success, but the import of the best 

are of the Williams variety, though known in Canada and the 
States as Bartletts, and are all from sound English stock. The 
first consignment consisted of 8SO ease,-, of pears, peaches and 
tomatos, and were shipped to Bristol by the steamer " Merrimao." 
The ship arrived vesterdav morning.and the cargo was desptatched 
in time to be disposed of at Covent Garden in the afternoon. 
The quality was described by the experts as excellent, both 1 

Fruits from Grenada in New York.-The following extract from 
Gardni and Fm-rst iXew York i for November 17. lS'.iT. affords 
an illustration of ;i possil.le marker for the minor products of the 
lesser West Indian Islands:— 

"An interesting collection of tropical fruits reached this city 

character to the select stock in one of the fancy fruit 
n Broadway. These Wesi Indian Emits included especiallv 
•anges of excellent quality. The tangerines and mandarins 


private collections formed, since 1840. In 1884, the Victorian 
Government acquired, by purchase, and added to it the Herbarium 
of Dr. Otto Wilhelm Sender, of Hamburg, one of the authors of 
tin- Flnr.i Cn/^nsis. who died in 1881. 

The Melbourne Herbarium is of peculiar value from a scientific 
point of view. It contains the authentic types of all the vast 
number of Australian and other plants described by Sir Ferdinand 
Mueller during a long period of incessant and prolific labour. 
The value of the Australian collections is still further enhanced 
by their having been successively transmitted to Kew for the use 
of Mr. Bentham during the [(reparation of the Flora Australienxis 
(1863-78). In the preface to the last volume of that work, 
Mr. r.entham writes:—'- lie [Sir Ferdinand Mueller] has regularly 
transmitted to me, arranged for each volume, the vast stock of 
Australian specimens collected by his own exertions, as well as 
by the able collectors he has employed, and 
residents and other correspondents whom he had inspired wi 

love for the science The specimens, having 1 

worked up, have been successively returned, and the 
consiLmments have reached Melbourne without ■•, single loss." 

The Australian collections have thus a double authenticity. 
Taken as a whole, it cannot be doubted that the Melbourne 
Herbarium, to use the words of its distinguished founder, to 
whom it may be hoped it will ever remain as an enduring 
monument, is " on a par with the very few really grand herbaria 

the Huntingdon or White Willow 
>een published in the Knr Halldia 

timber was so -Teat that there was great difliculty in procuring 
suitable wood, especially for making cricket bats. The following 
additional information on the subject is taken from the Timber 
News, of October <>, 18i»7 :— 

" It is not to be wondered at that the best quality of willow 
timber suitable for the manufacture of cricket bats has of late 
been selling at prices never dreamt of in the days of our fore- 
fathers. From 2.s. 6cl. to 5s. per cube foot has quite freely been 
given for ' maiden ' (unpollarded) willow timber, if of sufficient 
dimensions for the making of the best class of bats : and it is 
little wonder that such paying prices have tempted owners of 
goodlv-sized trees to have these placed on the market, as well as 
the owners of damn and not too valuahle laud to speculate in 

able quality of 


splintering. But at present little, unless of very second-rate 
quality, goes for that purpose, the bat industry swallowing up 
every bit that can be procured. Fortunately, the cricket bat manu- 
facturer is not wholly dependent on British-grown willow, much of 
excellent quality being sent from various parts of the Continent. 

"When we consider that the first qualin of willow timber can 
be grown on land that would be too damp for the ordinary farm 
crop, that plants and cuttings can be got at a very nominal rate, 
that the tree is not subject to disease, at least to any great extent. 
grows with great rapidity, and is perfectly hardy, added to which is 
the commercial value of the timber, it is not surprising that 
farmers and landowners have been turning their attention to it of 
late, and that already a goodly acreage is now under that crop in 
various parts of the' country."' 


album, R. 



the Keir III, 

ie introd 

to Kew is 


. von M„ 


r wl 

in had 



n collected 

rhey I 



e A'//, 7/0 

■',,1 r, 




ng informei 

lately 1 

1 ould 

Assam rubber in Egypt —Th 
Mr, FLOYJBR to R< 

Messrs. Hecht, Levis, and Kahx to Royal (Jardens, 

21, Mincing Lane, London, E.C., 
Dear Sir, May 19,18'.) 7. 

We have your favour of yesterday ; also a sample of rubber. 
It is equal in quality to the fine Darjeeling Assam, and if it comes 
here exactly like this sample, equally strong and pure, it would at 
the present' moment sell at 2s. M. per Hi., and such rubber could 
lie readily sohl at any time. 

Alwavs at vmir service, we are, dear Sir, 
Yours, &c, 
(Signed) Hecht, Levis, and Kahn. 

Laportea canadensis— A nettle-looking plant was received 
year from the Jardi,, iV 'Acelimatat ion at Paris, under the nam 
Jjo'hmerid candicans. It was said to afford fibre superio 
quality to China-grass (Bcehmeria nirea), or rhea or ra 
(/». fen/teissinia), and its cultivation has been recommende* 
Southern France, Algiers, Egypt, &c. Fortunately, the plan 
arrival at Kew was in excellent condition and in flower. L 
examination it was found to be not a species of Bwhmeria, b 
well-known new-world species, Laportea eanadensis, extern 
from Canada to Florida and Mexico, and westward to the Re 
Mountains. The fibre yielded by this plant was at one i 
largely used ; latterly it has been almost entirely forgotten. 

capable of yielding fibre. Even the < 
nettle [I'rtird dioiru) is a very ancient fibre plant, its inner bark- 
affording a tough fibre suitable for many purposes, and used for 
cordage and coarse cloth. A lace parasol cover partly made from 
this fibre is in Museum L, Case 102. A series of yarns prepared 
from the same plant, and variously coloured, were brought to 
Kew by Mr. B. Gray, of Glenanne, Ireland. 

In t'he Drseripfire Catahujne of t'srf„l Fibre Pidnts of the 

Appointments, 84, 109, 240, 333, 

Afc-fcCM*-. hedge p ,. 

Ar^vrn|,,l,ium : W-llVxiti'.'.ni.M, 


TuMiTn^LM,^://:':;;:?:^! 1 ' 

.Ksdmmnirno .lissitillora, />',/- 

— , '0('-lM.i»'».lium)nyikfM>is./^/- 

Asslm n,l,b,T i„ Ivirypt l-Ji.. 

A^ l vo"it , u«'i, , ,'i'. ,, ii.!i! 

— Haselolli. L'DiI. 

;|:^™^ : 

11 .!h. :1 !uVi'^s / 's 7 /?/ i/' •><>() 

ESiilS^ 1 - 


-tanpdul* Stop/, 293. 


Alsophiht lijitt-sii. />'///./•/•. 'Ji»i». 


-T--!' n-H" , !|;., I s. , '.s7./ /; /-.iS7. 

i;;]!!j!-. l, sVr"j\'^ l ;l^)\";n';,;,i'''.',v. 


I :2v : '-;; ■■•>•"<■■■'''■ 

Bent, J. T., death of, 206. 

Calathea rufibar 

Socotra dried plants, 


Berkheya Adlami, 100. 

Berlinia densinora, Ba/;ri\ ;>6f). 

Canaigre, 200. 

Bignonia buccinatoria, 109. 

Canna disease, 1 

Billington, H. W. L., death of, 

Cape bulbs at K< 


, — Flora, 226. 

liixadus sierricola, 1 7!h 

niMTiamicriHluni^r. //. IlY/y/,/, 

ISort't's in Castilloa elastic;). 177. 

Carica Papaya, 1 
Cattleya elongat; 
(Vlosia chenop 


Botanic Station, Old Calabar, 


, Sierra Leone (with plan ). 


— Stations, W. African, employ- 

— pand'urata, B> 

erilorens, Jjakar, "27 

5<>tanieal 1 > ( -pa rt ments, staffs of, 

Appendix III. 
- enterprise in West Africa, 

British Central Africa, Fh 

— CJuiaiia. fnddcr plains i 

• India. Bainbiisc; 

Crinum (Codonocrinum) par- 

Dolichos malosanus, Baker 

vum, Baker] 284. 

— shuterioides, Baker, 2(>: 

Ootalaria ;ii',i;\ TolobioideS, Ba- 

- trinervatus, Baker, 2(>2. 

Dombeva tanyanvikensis, 

*«r, 244. 

— gymnocalyx, Baker, 252. 

Dominica, report of Royal C 

— Johnstoni", /*//v/-, 2.'(). 

Double rice, 173. 

— leucotricha, AV/ /;/•/■, 251. 

Drift seeds from the Kee 

— nyikensis, Bake,\ 250. 

Islands, 171. 

— oocarpa, Baker, 252. 

Drimia ('olerc, 424. 

— pauciflora, Baker, 251 . 

Durian in the West Indies, 

— phyllostachys, 5fthr, 250. 

Durio zibethinus, 406. 

— pilosiflora, Baker, 251. 

— sparsifolia, linker, 24 ( .». 

— valida, aw,w, 25:;. 

Croton Eleuteria, 10P. 


Cyathula Mannii, Bah;,-, 27S. 

— polycephala, Baker, 278. 

Egypt, Assam rubber in, 42 

(\nancbum_cucullatum, X A'. 

Kbrharta delicatula, Stapf, 

— I.m-ip.'s! A'. A. 7>Y^o,~27;5. 

Engler. Prof .. Yropi'c'if Afr 

( "ynodon dactylon, 201*. 

Cynoglossum nervosum, LOib 

Eriosema cryptanthum. Bet 

<>,„>,< his grandiflora, 424. 

~ (, 'j- 

Floras, Insular, 112. 

Flore de Juan Fernandez. 1 12. 

l'llede la Reunion. 11 2. 

Fodder plants i tl Rririsli<;ui;.n;i. 

Forest products of Sierra Leone, 

<ruu;t peivlia. stooliuy of, 'MM. 
(J wynnc Vaughan, D. T., 109. 
Gyranosiphon sipiatnatuiji. C. II. 
Wright, mi. 

(rynmosporia forniginoa, l>ahri\ 

...i-.-phak.. /;■>- 

Imlian Botanists, honours for, 

Iinli-ofera fusco-setosa, Baker, 


— (Sphaeridiophorum) karon- 
tfensis, Baker, 255. 

— lonchocarpifolia, Bakrr. •>:>{',. 

— lupulina, Baker, 254. 

— macra, Baker, 255. 

Kew Herbarium, algas in, 171. 

— , Hop Hornbeam, 404. 

— , list of Nepenthes cultivated 

oi'! ' L 2:!s'.' "' 

Lily culture in Natal, 406. 


Lissochilus milanjianus, 301. 

List of Kew publications, 1841- 
1895, 1, 238. 

Natal, lily culture in, 406. 

Nepenthes cultivated at Kew, 

Nepenthes cultivated at 

list of, 405. 

Kew, 405. 

— house at Kew, 404. 

Long Reign celebration, 240. 
Lugard. Lieut. K. .J.. Tropical 

New garden plants, Appendix 


African dried plants, 242. 
— . Major P. 1)., Tropical African 

— Cuinea dried plants, 112. 

Niger Coast Protectorate Bo 

dried plants, 242. 

tunic Station, 113. 

Lycoris squamigera, 301. 



Obituary notices, 169, 206, 403. 

Macaw palm kernels, 337, 

Ochna longipes, Bah'i\_2±l. 

MacGregor, Sir W., New Guinea 

— shirensis, Baker, 247. 

dried plants, 112. 

Old Calabar, liutanic Station, 

Machilus Thunbergii, 336. 


Madeira, osiers from, 338. 

Oncinotis Batesii, Skip/, 272. 

Malum, . J., 240. 

Orange and Lemon borers, 177, 


Osiers from Madeira, 338. 

Malpi'dii Celebration, 40:5. 

Ostrya carpinifolia, 404. 

Mammea americana, 424. 

Marram grass, 211. 

Maxillaria houtteana, 207. 

Meade. Sir It., retirement of, 



Memecvlon ftavovirens, Bukn; 

Palm kernels, Argentine, 337. 


Palms at Kew, 232. 

Mentzel, R., 423. 

Panicum maximum, 210. 

Mesquite grass, 226. 

Metallonotus denticollis, 186. 

Papain, 104. 

Mexican whisk, 172. 

Para grass in British Guiana, 

Microcharis Galpini, N. E. 


Brown, 258. 

Paracaryum heliocarpum. 110. 

Mnn.s,rrat, report of Royal 

'' P m hi m'" A^/"'/'' S -V,T :l) ,1<>n " 

Mvnn.-e.,di:.\ni..i„ii, K6, I 10. 

Pefirm at Kew 4->5 

— IVccarii, SC. 

Pennisetum ( Peckeropsis) Kir- 

— Rumphii, 86. 

Mvnneeophilous plants, Aus- 

tralian, SO. 

Myrrh, 98. 

Mvri>tie:i malabarica, kino from, 

— heracleoides, Baker. 268. 

" 101. 

; — valerianad'olium, I><ib'>\ 26)9 

- oblongifolium, C. H. Wrhjht, 
Plantago tanalensis, Jkdrr, '11 C>. 

Rhvuchosia (Cyanospermu 

tioribuiula, li<ikr,\ 'l\Yl. 

— imbricata. l'xihrr, 'li\?>. 

— nyasica, /la/.rr, 2iV,\. 

Rl.uisma ;u 

Ridley, H. 1 
the Keelii 
Rose of Jeri 
Roth, Dr. J. 
Rubber hub 

Sericocoma 'Welwitsehii. hni.rr. 

Seychelles, Vanilla cultivation, 

Shinia in Cyprus, 421. 
Sierra Leone, Botanic Station 

(with plan), 303. 

butter and tallow five, 320. 

, forest products of, 318. 

, Liberian eotfee from. 31 1. 

, rubber collecting in, 31'.». 

Siam. King of, visit to Kew, 301. 

Sniithia (Kotschya) congesta, 

— ( Kotschya) drepanoph vlla, 

— (Kotschya) sphaerocephala, 

Socotru dried plants, 24^ 
Solanum nakurense. 

Wrhjht, 27:>. 
Solomon Islands. 416. 
Sorghum sugar, 173. 
Spanish chestnut, cultiv 


Tecoma Whytei, C. H. Wright, 

Temperate House, new wing of. 

Tender Monocotyledons, hand- 
list of, 22D. 

Tengah bark, 91. 

Tephrosia (Reineria) dissitiflora, 

Tobago, report of Ro; 

tree, ill 


West Africa, botanical enter- 

prise in, 32!). 

Vanilla cultivation in the Sey- 

! , destructive insects, 17."). 

chelles, 113. 

— India Royal Commission, 

Veitch & Sons, New Guinea 

109, 339. 

dried plants, 112. 

sugar trade, 92. 

Veitchia Joannis, 23(5. 

— Indies, Durian in, 400. 

Vernonia hurailis, 0. H. Wright, 

, proposed Department of 


Economic Botany, 350. 

Veronica balfouriana, 333. 

White Willow, 428. 

Whitney sugar cane, 221. 


Win re," A., Tropical African 

Victoria Herbarium, 427. 

dried plants, 241, 243. 

Willow, White, 428. 

Vigna malosana, Baker, 26J . 

Wine production in France. 2U1. 

Visitors to Kew, number of, in 

Wistaria chinensis, var. tnulti- 

1896, 84. 

juga, 169. 

Vitis (Cissus) apodophvlla. 

Baker, 248. 

masukuensis, Baker, 249. 


variifolia, Baker, 248. 

Yellow Bamboo sugar cane, 221. 

• Yuccas, Aloes and Agaves at 

1 Kew, 231. 

Yunnan, a budget from, 107. 


— , botanical exploration in, '.»'.'. 

Water Lily pond, 302. 


— supply at Kew, 334. 

Weihea malosana, Baker, 2(57. 

Wellby, Capt., Tibetan dried 

plants, 208. 

i Ztmia obliqua, 301. 




APPENDIX I.-1897. 

The following is a list of seeds of Hardy Herbaceous Annual and 
Perennial Plants and of Hardy Tree< and Shrubs which, for the most part, 
have ripened at Kew during the year 1896. These seeds are not sold 
to the general public, but are available for exchange with Colonial, 
Indian, and Foreign Botanic Gardens, as well as with regular corre- 
spondents of Kew. No application, except from ivmote colonial pos>.— 
wons, can be entertained after Hi •■ end of March. 


Lam. Cali- | Achillea— cont. 

ligustiea, All. Eur., Orient. 
„ . . Millefolium, L. Northern 

Pav. Chili, 
maerostemon, Hook. f. N. 

microphylla, Hook. f. N. 

myriophylla, Lindl. Chili, 
ovalifolia, Rm 

, Par. Pen 

pinnatifida, Ruiz $ Pav. 

Sanguisorbae, Vahl. NewZea- 

nobilis. L. Europe. 
Ptarmica, L. Northern 

rupe.-tri-, H liter. Calabria, 
setacea, W didst. $■ Kit. 

taygetea, R<,is<. a //</,/,-. 

S. E. Europe. 
umbellata, Kib. S- Km. Greece 

nitum ferox, Wall. Himalaya. 
heterophyllum, Wall. Hiuia- 

LvcocVonum, L. Europe, &c. 
Napellus, L N. hemisphere. 

Adesmia muri.-ata, DC Chili, ^ce. 
Adlumia cirrhosa, Rafin. N. 

Adonis pyrenaica, DC. Pyrenees. 
YEgopogcn gcniitiillurus. if ■'mi,, ■s; 

Bonpl. Trop. America. 
/Ethics ma cappadocicum, 

saxatile, R.Br. S. Europe. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria, L. N. 
\a^^XMt. Origin 
odorata, Mill. Europe. 

Agropyron caninum, Beauv. 

Europe. -d^^mm^ak 
pungens, Roem. &/ Schult. 

— var. pycnantlium, Godr. 
tenerum, Vmey. N. America. 

■rsiis alba. L. Europe. 

— var. gigantea, Roth. 

— var. stolonifera, (Z.). 
nigra, 11 ith. Europe, 
vulgaris, With. Temp, 

iga Chamocpitys, Sch-eb 

Europe. Ac. 
hemilla alpina, L. N. heml 
coMuncti, Bab. X. W 
. Alps, Pyrenees, 
splendens, Christ. Switzer- 
vulgaris, L. Europe. 
Alisma Plantago, Z. Europe, &c. 

urn Ampeloprasum, Z. 

Europe, Orient, 
angulosum, Z. Siberia, 
atropurpurenm, Waldst. 8/ 

Kit. Hungary. . 
Babingtoni. Borrer. Britain. 
bauerianum, Baker. Orient, 
cardiostemon, Fisch. Jy Met/. 

-v Kotschy. 

cyineim P yei 
Cydui, Svhott 
Asia Minor. 
Fetisowi, Rem 
nstulosum, Z. Siberia, 
flavura, Z. Europe, 
giganteum, Beget. Central 

hymenorrhizum, Ledeb. 

karataviense, Regel Turkes- 

0(1. Central 
Europe, N. 
Europe, Si- 


i Androsaeefilif 

orm is Retz. X.Asia, 

geniculatus, L. N. hemi- 
pratensi.-, /.. N. bomi.«phero. 

Andryala raj 

a, Wall. Himalaya, 
rosina, L. Mediter- 

Althaea cannabina, L. Europe, 
var. narbonensis, Ponrr. 


ice. Madeira, 

ficifolia, Car. Dalmatia. 
pallida, Waldst. fy Kit. 

Anemone d 

ecapetala, L. N. 


,Poir. N. America. 

- ilphnren. fl>i\,. * Mui^hi. 

Persia. &c. 
taurinensis, DC. Dalmatia. 


'Buck-Ham. Hi ma- 

Ulrica, Maxim. E. 

gemoneuse, L. Europe. 

Asia. A. K.u-np.. 
maritimum, Z«», Europe. ^ 

Anoda hastata, 

■■/. Mexico 

orientals. Aril. Greece, itc. 
podolicum, Bess. Europe, 


Europe.' &c. 

pyrenaicum, Lapeyr. Pyre- 

mo n tan a. /">. Europe, &cj. 
nobilis, L. Europe. 

var. dis 

saxatilc, L. Europe. 


poivarin:). /.. Moditerra 

u-anthus caudatus, L. Tropics 

of Old World, 
hypochondriasis, L. N. 

IVn- '/'-.ti. DC. Europe. 

-■ ■ . . 
Ammophila arundinacea, Host. 
Europe and N. America. 

L. Europe. 
Puelii, Lceoq 

Apera interrupta. Hucc. Kuropo, 


a, L 

E. Eu 


Arum italicum, 
Asclepiag inc 


. £. 







agus officinalis 

L. E« 








i. Ja«6. # Spa eh. 








ca, Re 


er acuminates, Michr. N. 

alpinus, L. Europe, N. Asia. 
Amellus, L. Europe, &c. 

Curtisii., l.Grtty. N. Anioricfi. 
dahuricus, Beuth. Siberia. 
glaucus, TorrS? Gray. N. W. 

Novi-Belgii, L. N. America, 
puniceus, L. N. America. 
— var. lucidulus, Gray, 
pyrenaeus, DC. Pyrenees. 
Radula, Ait. N. America, 
scaber, Thunb. Japan, 
sibiricus, L. Siberia, &c. 

umbellatus, Mill. N. America. 
— var. latifolius. 
Astragalus alpinus, L. N. and 
Arctic regions. 
boeticus, L. Mediterranean 

Aubrietia — cont. 

erubescens, Griseb. Greece. 

gracilis, Sprun. Greece. 
Aveiui prateusis. L. Europe, 

Baeria gracilis, A. Gray. W. C.-ili 

platycarpha, A. Gray. C.di- 

Baptisia australis, R. Br. X. 

Barbarea intermedia, Bar. Europe 
praecox, B.Br. Europe, 
vulgaris, B. Br. Europe, 
Temp. Asia. 
Basella rubra, L. Tropics. 
Beckmannia erucaeformis, Host. 
N. hemisphere. 
— var. uniflorus, Scrib. N. 

Europe, Ai 

Cicer, L. S. Em-ope. 
Crotalariae, A. Gray. N. 

frigid us, A.Gray. ~N. America, 
glycypbyllus, L. Europe, &c. 

Astrantia Biebersteinii, Fisch. S? 
Mey. Caucacus. 
major, L. Europe, A:e. 
— var. carinthiaca, (Hoppe). 
Atriplex Babingtonii, Woods. 

Bidens cernua, L. N". Tempera fv 
i'rondosa, L. N. America 
grandiflora, Balb. Mexico, 
leucantha, Willd. AVcst 

tripartita, L. N. Temperate 
Biscutella ciliata, DC. S. Europe. 

- var. apula, L. Europe. 
mhachia insignis, Schrad. 
Monte Video. 

Atropa Belladonna, /.. 

- var. grandirlora. 

- var. I.ciehtlmii. //,„•/. 

. rdi, Hort. 

Borago officinalis, j 

Bi-achypodium dista< 

Europe, &c. 

pinnat-um, Beer, 

. I <»id World. 

Bulbinella Hookeri, Benth. 

Hooh.f. N.Zealand. 

Buphthalmum grandiiloruin, 


salicifolium, L. S. Europ 

speciosum, Schreb. Euro] 

Bupleurum aureum, Fisch. 

nigra, Koch. Old World, 
oleracea, L. Europe. 
Tournefortii, Gouan. Medi- 

Briza media, L. Europe, &c. 

minor, L. Europe, &c. 
Brodiaea grandiflora, Sm. N. W. 

peduncularis, S. Wats. Cali- 

uniflora, Babcr. Buenos 

longifolium, L. Europe, 
rigidum, L. W. Europe, 
rotundifolium, L. Europe, &c. 

I>u!(.!iiu- unil/s-'i.-itiis, L. Europe, 


Cakile maritima, Scop. Europe. 

C.'damagrosti.s epigeios, Roth. 
Europe, &c. 
varia, Beauv. Europe, &c. 

Vcincx. < !>!<', ■r.Ewi opr. 
Clinopodium, Benth. N. tero- 

grandiilora, Moench. Europe. 

pilosiuscula, DC. Chili. 

umbellata, DC. Chili. 

Calceolaria mexicana, Benth. 

unioloides, //. B. % K. 
Biwallia demissa. L Peru, - 

Cameling s 


. Crantz. El 




ariaefolia, Willd. 

, &c. 

barbata, L 

, L. Europe. 

Tacq. E. Europe. 




Sibth. $ 


L. Mediterran 
khleich. Switzerlai 

hililol.u. IX Olympus 

ox adusf-i. Boott. N. America, 
arenaria, L. N. temperate 

Cms - corvi, Shuttl. N. 

depauperata, Goot7.Europe,&c . 
divulsa, Good. N. temperate 

flava! L. N. temperate regions. 

f'uscii, All. Europe, <&c. 
hirla, L. Europe, &c. 
hordcistichos, Jill. Europe, 

pemlulii. If n ds, Europe, Arc. 
sylvatiea. Huds. Europe, &c. 
teretiuseula, Good. Europe, 

L. Europe, &c. 


. / 

ill. Europe 

sibirica. /.. 


ope, Asia. 

-us r {Willd. 

E. Euro 

'imb. Europe. 

fin <-,,-. 



L y Hook. f. 
nth. & Hook. 

L. Europe, &c. 
s, L. Europe, &e. 

ilus, Wallr. Europe. 



axillaris, Willd. Europe, &c. 
Crocodylium, L. Syria. 
Cyanus, L. Europe, &c. 
cynaroides, Link. Canary Is- 

dealbata, Willd. Asia Minor, 

diluta, Dry and. N. Africa. 
Fontanesii, Spach. Algeria, 
glastifolia, L. Asia Minor, &e. 
Jacea, L. Europe, &c. 
melitensis, L. Europe, 
nigra, L. Europe, 
nigreacens, Willd. Europe. 

— var. vochinensis (Bemh.). 
pulchra, DC. India. 
Scabiosa, L. Europe. 

— var. olivieriana, (DC). 
Centranthus Calcitrapa, Dufr. 

syriaca, Srhrad. M< ditcrni. 

tatarica, Schrad. Siberia, 
transsylvanica, L. South 

Europe, Asia Minor, &c. 
Cerastium alpinura, L. var. vil- 

losum, (Baumg.) Europe, 
arvense, L. Europe. 
— var. grandiflorum. 
chlorai't'olium. FhcA. Sf Metf. 

,, L. Medit 

W-. A 1 1(1)1 

Europe, Asia 

Chelidonium majus, L. Europe, &e. 

— var. laciniatum. 
Chelone Lyoni, Pur ah. N. America. 

obliqua, L. N. America. 

Chenopodium album, L. Temperate 

and tropical regions. 

ambrosoides, L. Temperate 

and tropical regions. 

Bonus-Henricus, L. Europe. 
Botrys, L. Europe, &c. 
capitatum, Aschers. Europe, 

ficifolium, Sin. Europe. 
graveoleus, Willd. Mexico. 
opulifolium, Schrad. Europe, 


Quinoa, Willd. S. America. 

virgatum, Thumb. Japan. 

Vulvaria, L. Europe, &c. 

Chlorogalum pomeridianum, 

iarneum, Steud. Caucasus, 
jinerariaefblium, Vis. Dal- 
20ccineum, Willd. Caucasus, 
3oronarium, L. MediM-ram an 

Chrysanthemum — coat. 

setabense, Dufour. Spain & 

Za^vadskii, Herbich. E. 
Cliysopogon Gryllus, Trin. 
Tropical and sub-tropical 

Chrysopsis villosa, DC. N. 

Cicer arietinum, L. Europe, &c. 
Cichorium Endivia, L. Orient. 
Intybus, L. Europe, 
pumilum, Jacq. Mediter- 
ranean region. 
Cimicifuga foetida, L. Europe, &c. 
— var. intermedia, 
racemosa, Nntt. N. America. 
CltruHus vulgaris, Schrad. 

Tropical Africa. 
Cladium germanicum, Schrad. 
Temperate & subtropical 

stellatus, Roth. Europe, 
yriacus, Roth. Mediterraneai 

Cochlearia danica, L. N. & Arcti 
glastifolia, L. S. Europe, 
officinalis, L. X. & Arcti 

Codonopsis ovata, Benth. W. Hima 


speciosum, Stu-. Can- 
.insia bartsiaefolia, Benth. Cali- 

bicolor, Benth. California, 
grandiflora, Dougl. N. W. 

p&rviflora, Lindl. N. America, 
sparsiflora, Fisch. $ Mey. N. 

Claytonia perfoliata, Dunn. N. 

sibirica, 1 L. N. Asia and N. 
Clematis integrifolia, L. S. Europe, 
recta, L. S. Europe. 
Cleome integrifolia, Torr. $ Gray. 
N. America. 
vicJacea, L. Europe, &c. 
Cleonia lusitani<a, /.. Spain, \c 
Clypeola cyclodontea, 

Cnicus altissimus, U'ilhl. \ 


grandiflora, Doiu/l. California. 

linearis, Nntt. California, Ac. 


Conium maculatum, /..'Europe. 

Conringia orientals, Dum. Europe, 

Convallaria majalis, L. N. temperate 

Convolvulus tricolor, L. Medi- 

undulatu.^.' <n M- d t<-rrai can 

intermedius, Heller. Europe, 
ligularis. ffort. Ken: Orient. 

fchroleucus, Spreng. Europe. 
oleraceus, Z. Europe. 

Coriandrum sativum, L. Europe, 

Corispermum hyssopifolium, L. 

N. hemisphere. 
Coronilla utlantica, Bans, is Rent. 
vaginalis, Lam. Europe, &c. 
varia, L. Europe, &c. 
Corrigiola littoralis, L. Europe. 
Cortusa Matthioli, L. Europe & 
N. Asia. 

Cuminum Cyminum, L. Mediter- 
ranean region. 
Cuphea lanceolata, Ait. Mexico, 
pmetorum, Benth. Mexico. 
Zimapani, Morr. Mexico. 
CuscutaEpilinum, TFeihe. Europe, 

Corydalis capnoides, Wahlenb. 


glauca, P umlt. N. America, 
lutea, DC. Europe, 
racemosa, Pers. Japan. 

Cynara Scolymus, L. Europe, &e. 
Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. Cosmo- 


sibirica, Pers. Siberia, 

Cynoglossum officinale, L. Europe, 

Corynephorus canescens, Beauv. 
Garden origin. 

petiolatum, A. DC. Hima- 

pictnm, Ait. M 

Cosmos bipinnatus, Cav. Mexico, 

Cynosurus cristatus, L. Europe, 

Cotula coronopifolia, J.. S. Africa. 
Consinia uncinate. Bet/tJ.'S. Asia. 
Crambe B. Br. Cau- 

Mi i 

aurea, Beichb. Europ 

paludosa, Moemh. Europe. 
rubra, L. S. Europe, &c. 
seto^a, Ilall.f. Europe, kc 
sibirica, Z A.ia, &c. 

v irons, /.. Europe, &c. 

S. Europe, &c 
Dactylis glomerata, L. Europe, &c. 

eott. Mexico, 
variabilis, Desf. Mexico. 

I)a1urain,nn -, Jarq Abv^ini: 

Stramonium. /..(,• 

Tatula, 7.. Europe, &c. 

— var. gigairtea. 
Dane us Carota, I.. Europe, &c. 

pusillus, Michx. N. America. 
Delphinium Ajacis, Beichb. 

cai'diiii'.lf. Book, 

Crucianella aegyptiaca, L. Egypt. 
ima calendulaceum, 

dietyuearpum, DC. Siberia 
elatum, /,. Europe, &c. 

— var. alpiuuiii, ( U'nUf.s-t. a 

— var. intermedium, 
formosum, Boiss. $ Huet. 

hybrid um. Step It. Europe & 

maackianum, Regel. Amur- 

orientale, J. Gay. Europe, 

specii^m, Bieb. Caucasus. 

triste, Fisch. Siberia. 

vestitum, Wall. Himalaya. 
Deuiazeria sicula, Dum. Europe. 
Deschampsia eaespitosa, Beativ. 

Temperate regions. 
Deyeuxia neglecta, _ Kunth. N. 

temperate regions. 
Dianthus arenarius, L. Europe. 

atrorubens, All. S. Europe. 

barbatus, L. Europe. 

eallizoniH. Srh>fl <\ Kutsvluj. 

carthusianorum, L. Europe, 

Caryophyllus, L. Europe, &c. 

Diplotaxis piitblia, Kunze. Spaii 

tenuifolia, DC. Europe, &c. 
Dipsacus asper, Wall. Himalaya. 

fullonum, L. Europe, &c. 

laciniatus, L. Europe, &c. 

sylvestris, Mill. Europe, &c 
Discliisma arenarium, E. Mei 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Dodecatheon Meadia, L. va 


petraeus, Wahht. fy' Kit. E. 
phunarius, />. Eurupe, Ac. 

Moldaviea, L. Siberia, Ac. 
nutans, Z. Siberia. _ 
parviflorum,X/'<Y. X.Ameri 
ruyschiana, L. Europe, Ac. 

Drimia robusta, Baker. S. Afric 

tener, £<*#. Piedmont, 
tamnus albus, £. Europe, &c. 
— var. purpurea. 

Dry as octopetala, L. Europe, Ac 

Dimorphotheca ; 

of Good 1 

hybrida, I) 

Echinodorus rauunculuide.-, 
gelm. Europe, &c. 

, Rochel. 

shaerocephalus, L. Europe, 

m plantagineuni, L. Europe, 

ine coracana, Gaertn. S. 

America, &e. 

Erigeron a< 

•fir. angustatus, 
. temp, regions. 
Pursh. N. 

0. Muell. 

t. N. America. 

Jray. N. W. 

— var. glaucifolius, A. Gray. 
sibiricus, L. Siberia, 
virginicus, L. N. America. 
Emex spiuosa, Campd. S. Europe, 

Emilia flammea, Cass. India, &c. 
Encelia subaristata, A. Gray. 

Erinus alpinus, L. Europe. 

bilhu-iliVrianunvSW. Australia. 
Dodonaei, Vill. Europe, 
hirsutum, L. Europe. 
Lamyi, Schultz. S. Europe, 

Hook. f. : 
L. Europe. 

arope, &c. 

trigonum, Schrank. Europe. 
Eragrostis abv-siuk'.-i, Link. 
minor, Host. Tropics. 
Pursltii, Schrad. N. America. 

N. Zealand. 
— var. longipes. 
roseum, Schreb. 



spectebilk, Bieb. Asia Minor, 

tmoleum, Rent. Asia Minor. 
ica satiya, Mill. Mediterranea 

r ngium ametbystimnn, i 

bromeliaefolium, Delar. Cei 

tral America, 
giganteum, Bieb. Armenia, 
planum, L. Europe. Sid. 
triquetrum, Fa hi. N. Afrie; 


aureum, Bieb. Ca 

owskianum, Fisch. ■ 

rupestre, L 

Erythraea C( 


Eschscholzia calit'orniea. 


— var. caespito 

Michx. N. Ame- 
silifolium, L. N. America. 

Euphorbia coralloides 

delicatula, Laq. Spain and 

duriuscula, L. Europe, &c. 

— var. crassifolia, Gaud. 
elatior, L. Europe, &c. 

— var. pratensis, (Huds.) 
gigantea, Vill. Europe, &c. 
Halleri, All. S.Europe, 
heterophylla, Lam. Europe. 

si ma, (Boiss.) Spain. 
Myuros, L, Europe, &c 
panciciana, Hack. Europe. 
Foa, Knnth. S. Europe, 
rigida, Knnth. S. Europe, 
sciuroides, Roth. Europe, 
scoparia, Kern. Pyrenees. 
Foeniculum vulgare,J////. Eun>p« 

Peplis, L. Europe, &c. 
platyphyllos, L. Europe, &c. 
Preslii, Gnss. N. America, 
segetalis, L. Europe. 
Btricta, L. Europe, 
virgata, Waldst. &■ Kit. E. 

Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench. 

Europe, &c. 
tatarieum, Gacrtn. Europe, 

Farsetia clypeata, 

Europe, &c 
Feilia ( 'ornucopiae, 

terranean region. 
Felicia fragilis, Cass. S. Africa 
Ferula communis, L. MTedH 

imperialis, L. Orient. 

kotsehyana, Herb. Asia Minor. 

Meleagris, L. Europe, <fec. 

pontica, Wahl. Asia Minor. 
Fumaria officinalis. I.. Temperate 

regions of Old World. 
Funkia lancifolia, Sprint/. Japan. 

M. li- 

mryiflora, Bougl. N. 

.."'./ ,',// < mcasus. 
•;,. K'„w. [Tiu.alava, &e. 

androsacea, >'/t ??</. California. 

eapitata, »'«/,«. N.W.America. 

tlcnsiflorn. /?<>«</*. California. 

dianthoides, £W/. California, 

inconspicna, Dough Cali- 

laciniaia. Ruiz $ Pav. Chili, 

mierantha, Stcml. California. 

Londe.-ui, /'/si h. Siberia. 

palu.-fre, /.. Europe, ece. 
pratense, L. Europe, &c= 

pyrenaicum, Burm.f. Europe, 

IvuVricnuu'/.". Euv^', <U. 
wftllichianuiu. G. Dnu.. Hima- 

Glycine Soja, Sieb. $ Zucc. Tropi- 

.iindicum, i. Tropics of 
Old World. 

Gratiola officinalis, L. Europe. 

Ill 'J. X. W. Grindelif 

Gunnera chilensis, Lam. Chili. 

( Jyp-Tipliilji 1 mralis, L, Europe, 
pauiculata, L. Siberia. Ac. 
Eokejeka. Ihiii 

nnoides, Bieb. 

Ha-tingia alba. S'. Wat*. California. 
Hebenstreitia tenuifolia, Schrad. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
1 [p.lysarum hovetde,Xutt. N. Ame- 

eoronarium. /.. S. \V. Europe. 
esculentum. /.-/,',. E. Siberia. 
flexuoeum, A. Spain. 
microcalyx, Baker. Himalaya, 
neglectum, Ledeb. Siberia, 
obseurum. L. Europe. 
Sibthorpii, Sym. Mediter- 

Helenium autumnale, L. var pumi- 

lum, ( Willd.) N. America. 

Bolanderi, -J. Gray. Cali- 

Hoopesii, A. Gray. N. W. 

tenuifolium, Xvtt. X.America. 
nuus, X. N. Ame- 


debilia, Ntrtt. Texas, &c 

IMiclirysum bracteatnm, ^wrfr. 
lanatum, DC. Asia Minor. 
serotinum, Boiss. S.W.Europe. 
Heliophila amplexicaulis, L. f. 
Cape of Good Hope, 
araboides, Sims. Cape of Good 

crithmifolia, Willd. Cape of 
Good Hope. 
Heliopsis laevis, Pers. jST. America. 
Heiiotropium europaeum, L. 

lielipterum Manglesii, F. MuelL 

Milleri. Hnrt. Australia. 
Helleborus colchicus, Regel. Min- 

foetidus,' L. Europe, 
orientalis, Lam. Greece, &c. 

Hemerocallis flava, L. S. Europe. 

fulva, Z. S. Europe, &c. 

— var. Kwauso, Regel. 
Heracleum asperum, Bieb. Cauca- 

gummiferum, Willd. Europe, 
lanatum, Mich, v. X. America. 
Panacea, L. S. Europe. 

si^lmiVii.'-:';,.'/.'.' Europe.' 

villosum, JPwcA. Caucasus. 

Ilorniaria "labia. A. Europe, N« 

hirsuta, L. Europe. 

He-periH matronalis, L. Europe. <xe. 
Heterotheca Lamarckii, fCass. N. 

libiscus Trionum, L. Tropics 

Old World. 
Tieracium alpinum, L, Europe. 
nmplexioaule, L. S. Europe. 


corymbosumjF//^. N.Europe. 
Jankae, Ccchtritz. E.Europe. 
lanatum, Waldst. $ Kit. 

murorum, L. var. integri- 

folium, (La,n/c). 
nigreseens, Willd. E.Europe, 
onosmoides, Fries. Norway, 
pallidum. Bic. Norway, 
pratense, Taxm-h. Europe, See. 

Ilippocr-'pis multisilupiosa, 
Mediterranean region. 

Holcus lanatus, L. Europe. 
Hordeum jubatum, L. N\ America, 

maritimum, With. Europe, 

Horminum pyrenaicum, L. Pyre- 

Hosackia subpinnata, G. Don. N. 

Humulus japonieus, Sleb. $ Zucc. 

Hunnemannia I'umanadolia, Svrrt . 


Hyacinthus ametbystinus, L. Py- 

romanus, L. Mediterranean 

Hydrocotyle repanda, Pers. N. 

Hydropbyllum canadense, L. N. 

virginicura, L. N. America. 
Hymenophysa pubescens, C. A. 

J fey. Siberia. 
Hyoscyamus aureus, A.A-i.-i Minor, 
niger, L. Europe, &c. 

Hypecoum grandiflorum, Benth. 
Mediterranr— — 

Hypochoeris glabra, L. Europe. 
Hyssopus officinalis, L. Europ 
— var. aristatum, {Joi'd.). 
rid amarn. L. Europe, 
ciliata, All. Italy, &c. 
lagascana, DC. Spain. 
Boiss. Spaia. 
L. S. Europe. 


ium, Boiss. 

Gebleri, C. A. Meij. Siberia. 
montanum, L. Europe, 
olympicum, L. Asia Minor, 

orientale, L. var. decussatum, 

perforatum, L. Europe, &c. 
pyramidatum, Ait. N.America. 
Richeri, Fill. Europe. 
tetraptcum, Fries. Europe, 


Impatiens ampborata, Edgw, 

balsam ina, L. India & Orient 

parviflora, DC. Siberia, &c 

Roylei, JValp. Himalaya. 

scabrida, DC. Himalaya. 
Inula l> 1, Wall. Himalaya, 

bifrons, L. S. Europe. 

ensifolia, L. S. Europe, &c. 

glandulosa, Pnschk. Caucasus. 

grandiflora, Willd. Himalaya, 

Helenium, L. Europe, &c. 

hirta, L. Europe, &c. 

Hookeri, C. B. Clarke. Hhna- 

salicina, L. Europe, &c. 
tbapsoides, Spreng. Caucasus. 
Iris foetidissima, L. Europe, &c. 

spuria, L. Mediterranean re- 
gion, &c. 

— var. notha (Bieb.). 
Isatis tinctoria, L. Europe, &c. 
Isopyrum fumarioides, L. Europe, 

Iva xanthifolia, Nutt. N. America. 
Jasonia tuberosa, L. S. Europe. 

.liuicu> ;il|>iii'is, /'///. Europe, &c 
bulling, in ! Id. Europe, Ac. 
bufonius, L. N. temperate 

Knnth. Andes. 

compressus, Jaeq. 

effusus, L. Europe, Ac. pisiformis, L. Eur< 

d.-nn-ii-. S,/jf/i. Europe, &c. j rotundii. 

lamprocarpus, Ehrh. Europe, saiivus 

cbusiflorus, Ehrh. Europe, &c. 
squarroaus, L. Europe, 
tenuis, mild. Europe, &c. 

tuberosum. /, 
venosus, U»hl X. 


,Pers.^ temperate 

phleoides,Pe>-s. Mediterranean 
Lactuca hirsute* Mukl. N. 

inuralis, E. Mey. Europe, &c. 
Plumieri, Gren. $ Godr. 

virosa, L. Europe, &c. 


Europe, & 
Leonurus Card in 

>mmunis, L. Europe. 
glabrata, Lindl. C\ 

Liatris scariosa, Willd. N.America. 

Loa-a muralis, Griseb. Chili. 

spicata, Willd. N. America. 

vulcanica, Andre. New 

— var. montana, A. Gray. 


Ligusticum alatum, Sprencf. Can- 

Lobelia Erinus, L. S. Africa. 

syphilitica, L. N. America. 

pynsn&icwm,Goudn. Pyrenees, 
scoticuin, L. Europe, &c. 

tenuior, /P. Br. Australia. 

triquetra, L. S. Africa. 

Seguieri, Koch. S. Europe. 
Thomsoni, C. B. Clarke. 

Lolium multiflorum, Jmdi. Europ» - 


Lonas inodora, Gaertn. Sicily, &c. 

; Mill. Europe. 

anticaria, Boiss. X Rent. 

Lopezia coronata. And,: Mexico. 

Lotus corniculatus, L. Temperate 

bipartita, Willd. N. Africa. 


Broussonetii. Char. Marocco, 

major. Scop. Europe, 
ornithopodioides, L. Mediter- 


ehalepensis, Mill. S. Europe, 

ranean region. 


siliquosu>. /. M 

dalmatica, Mill. Dalmatia. 

lurta, Moench. Spain and 

tenuis, Waldtt 



maroccana, Rook. f. Marocco. 

Tetragonolobus, L. Mediter- 

minor, JJesf. Europe, &c. 
multipunctata, JJo/f'/nf/r/. A 
Link. Portugal. 

ranean region. 

annua, L. Europe, 
rediviva, L. Europe. 


Lupinus affinis. Agardh Cali- 

purpurea, L. Europe. 


reticulata, JJesf. N. Africa, &c. 

angustifolius, L. Mediter- 

saxatilis, Hqffmgg. fy Link. 

arboreus, Sims. California. 

Cosentini, Gnss. Sicilv. 

spartea, Hoffmgg. $ Link. 

elegans, JI 11. ,s K. Mexicn. 

W. Mediterranean region. Benth. Cali- 

triornithophora, Willd. Por- 

Menziesi'i, ^a**&. California. 

micranthu.s Doitcjl. N. 


tristis, Mill. Spain. 

mutabilis, ,SV. New Grenada. 

vulgaris, Mill. Europe, &c. 


Lindelophia spectabilis, Lchn. 

pubescens, Benth. New 


pulchellus. Sweet. Mexico. 

Bubcarnosus, //Wo Texas. 


tricolor, Hort. Garden origin. 

Luzula campestris, DC. Europe, 

angustifoliuni, Umh. Europe, 


grandiflorum, De»f. Algeria. 

nhea^G Em^pT' 

nervosum, Waldst. § Kit. 

Lychnis alpina, MM. Northern 


perenne, L. N. temperate 

■ Tenant 

08. #«*. 

usitatissimum, L. Europe &c 

coronaria, Desr. Europe. 

dioica, L. Europe, &c. 

Flos-cuculi, L. Europe, &c. 

Flos-jovis, Desr. S. Europe. 

fulfils, Fisch. Siberia. 

Grithago, Scop, Europe. 

haageaua, Lemaire. Japan. 

Lagaseae, Hook. f. Spain. 

pauciflora, Ledeb. Siberia. 

pyrenaiea, Berger. Pyrenees. 

Yisearia, L. Europe. 
Lyeopersicum csculentum, Mill. 
Lycopus europaeus, Z.Europe, &c. 

clethroides, Duby. Japan. 

davurica, Lahh. Siberi-.i, &c 

Epheineruin, L. S. Europe, 
punctata, L. Europe, &c. 
quadrifolia, L. N. America, 
vulgaris, L. Europe, &c. 
Lytbrum Graefferi, Tenore. Tem- 

Marnibium — cont. 

pannonicum, Reichb. E 

peregrinum, L. Europe, &c. 

vulgare, L. Europe, &c. 
Mat i -i. -aria glabra, Ball. Marocco. 

inodora, L. Europe, &c. 

— var. discoidea (DC). 

Tcbibatcbewii, Hort. Kac. 
Turkish Armenia. 
Matthiola bicornis, DC. Asia 
Minor, &c. 

incana, R. Br. Me 

sinuata, R. Br. Mediterranean 

tricuspidata, R. Br. Mediter- 
ranean region. 
Meconopsis canibrica, / 7//. Kurope. 

Wallichi, Hook. Himalaya. 
Medicago apiculata, IVilld. 


L. N, temperate 

Europe, &c. 

chia, DC. Greece, &c. 

maritiraa, R. Br. Mediter- 
ranean region. 


Malva Al.ea. /.. Kurope. 

Malvastrum limense, Ball. Chil 
Mandragora offieinanim, L. Me 

L. S. Africa, 
pomeridianum, L. S. Africa, 
pyropeum, Hate. S. Africa. 
Miraulus cardinalis, Doug I. N. 

luteus, L. "N. America. 
Mirabilis divaricate, Lowe 

Modiolaraul.iti.ln, Mnmrh/N. W. 

lea, Moench. Europe, 

Muii<;l.))i- tritidii. Sr/irad. SiWia, 

Moricandia arvensis, DC. Europe, 


rica, L. Himalaya, &c. 

_ a lilom.-nita, Trin. 
N. America, 
mexieana, Trin. N America. 

palustris, Z.av«. Europe, &c. 
Myosurus minimus, L. Europe, &c. 
Myrrhis odorata. Scop. Europe, &c. 
Xardus -tricta, L. Europe, &c. 

Zinnia, Lchm. Cape ot 
Good Hope, 
pubescens, Benth. Cape of 
Good Hope, 
sicolor, E. Mcy. Cape of 

Good Hop 

Nemophila aurita, Limll. Cali- 

insigui^, Dniujl. California. 
— var. grand'iflora, Hort. 
maculata. IU nth 
parviflora, Doug I. N. W. 
NepHa azurea, />'. lir. Abyssiniji. 
Catena, Z. Europe, &c. 
concolor. Bois.s, \ Held,: 
Asia Minor. 

nuda, L. S. Europe, &c. 
spicata, Ihnth. W. Himalaya 
saavis, A*,//,/. N. W. Hima 

peueedanifolia, Pollieh. 

pimpinelloides, L. Europe, &c. 
silaii'olia, Bicb. Europe, &c. 
_ var. australis, JVulf. Car- 

othera amoeua, Lehm. Cali- Spach. Chili, 
biennis, L. N. America. 

— var. grandiflora, Torr. $ 

bistort a, Xutt. X.W. America, 
deusiflora, Lindl. California. 
dentata, Cai-.N. America, &c. 
fruticosa, L. N. America. 

— var. Youngii, ITort. 
glauca, Michx. N. America. 
odorata, Javq. Chili. 
pntnila, /.. X. America, 
riparia, Xutt. E. United States. 
rosea, Ait. N. America, &c. 
siunata, L. X. America. 
spociosa, Xutt. N. America, 
spiralis. Honk. California. 

tetraptera. CV/r. Mexico. 

Orchis foliosa, Solaud. Madeira. 
incarnata, L. Europe, Ac. 
latifolia, X. Europe, &c. 
maculata, L. Europe and Asia 

Origanum vulgare, L. Europe, &c. 
Ornithogalum arcuatum, Stcv. 

exscapum, Tenore. S. Europe. 
fimbriating mild. Asia 

Minor, &c. 
narbonense, Z. Medit 

nutans, L. Europe, &c. 
orthophyllum. Tenore. Italy. 
tenuifolium, Chits. S. Europe, 

• - 

Orobanche Hedeiae, Duby. 

Oxalis corniculata, L. Temperate 

& tropical regions. 
Oxyi.-aplius nyctagineus, Sweet. 
Oxytropis ochroleuca, Bioif/e. 

pilosa, DC. ] 
Palaua dissecta, j 
Pallenis Bpinoea, 

M. iit 

rauean region, 
ricum bulbosum, //. B. $ K. 
capillare, /.. W. hemisphere. 

Cms-gaUi, L. S. Etc 

Isachne, Roth. Medi 

lateritium, C.Koch. Armenia. 
nudicaule, L. Arctic and 

Alpine regions, 
orientale, L. Asia Minor. 
— var. bracteatum, ; Until.). 
pavoninuin.JA//. A . 

pilosum, Sibth. S>- Stn. Greece. 
Rhoeas, L. Europe, &c. 
vupifragum, Boiss. $ Rent. 

L'avadi-i.'i Liliastrum, Bertol. 

Parietaria officinalis, L. S. Europe, 

Parnassia nubicola, Wall. Hima- 
palustris, L. N. hemisphere. 
India, &c. 
Peganum Harmala, L. Mediter- 
ranean region. 
Pennisetum cenchroides, Rich. 
Tropical and subtropical 
orientale, Rich. Orient, 
villosum, R. Br. Abyssinia. 
Pentstemon barbatus, Roth. W. 
United States, 
campanula! us, // 
coeruleus, Xutt. W. United 

confertus, Douyl. Rocky 
Doucjl. W. North 
W. United 



glandulo-us, Dougl. 

\Urt^j\\.' Benth. Mexico, 
laevigatas, Snlund. var. DL 

Perezia multiflora, Less. Brazil. 
Petunia nyctaginiflora, Juss. A 

Peucedanum aegopodioides, Van- 
das. Balkans. 

coriaceum, Reichb. f. S. 

gallicum, Latour. Europe. 

graveolens, Benth. India. 

Ostruthium, Koch. Europe. 

paucifoliuiii. /.- deb, 

sativum, Be nth. % Hooh. J. 

Sowa, Kurz. India. 
Phacelia bipinnatifolia, Michx. N. 

divaricata, A.< . 
hispida, A. Gray. California, 
loasaefolia, Ton: California. 
Parryi, Ton: California. 
tanacetifolia, Benth. Califor- 

Phaecasium lamps; 

Phalaris j.aradoxn, L. Mediter- 
tuberosa, L. Mediterranean 

Phaseolus aconitifolius, Jacq. 

multifiorus, WiUd. Mexico. 
Mungo, L. Tropical regions. 
pUostw, H. B. $ K. S. 

ricciardianus, Ten ore Origin 


Physah"> Alkekengii, L. Europe, 
chenopodiifolia. Lam. Peru. 
Frnnclieti, Must. Japan. 

Phyteuma canescens, Waldst. $ 
Kit. Europe. 
Halleri, All. Europe. 


S. Europe, Asia Minor, 
orbiculare, L. Europe. 
Scheuchzeri, All. Europe, 
spicatum, L. Europe. 
Phytolacca aeinosa. Roxb. Hiraa- 

eompressa, L. N. temper; 
pratensia, L. N. temper; 
trivia lie, L. JST. temper; 


icosandra, /.. 

, &c. 

Plan tagoar en aria, JH 

Kurop,-. ,v. Ru t 

Cynops, L. Europe, Sec. 
Lagopus, L. Mediterranean 

lanceolata, L. Europe, &c. 
major, L. Europe, &c. 
maritima, L. Europe, &c. 
media. L. Europe. 


Polygonum alpi 

eoinp'cmm, uo<>n.j. Japan. 
Convolvulus, L. N. temperate 

orientale, X. Tropics of Old 

atycodon grandidorum, A. DC. 

China and Japan. 
atystemon califoruicus, Heath. 

| Polypogon n 


I Portulaca grai 

tropical re- 
, Hook, Brazil, 

— var. oalabra (Tenore). 
arguta, Pursh. N. America. 

argy ruj h\ 11a, Wall. 1 1 imalaj 

Detommasii, Tenore, S. 

digitata x flabellata. Europe, 
glandulosa, Lindl. California, 

gracilis, Dotujl. California. 
heptaphylla, Mill. Europe, 
hippiana, Lehm. N. W. 

hirta, Z. S. Europe, &c. 
kotschyana, Fenzl. Kur- 

kurdica, Boiss. Kurdistan, 
montenegrina, Pantoc. Mon- 

multifida, L. Europe, &c. 
nepalensis, Hook. Himalaya. 

opaca, L. Europe. 

— var. palmata. 
rupestris, L. Europe, &c. 
schrenkiana, Regel. Central 

semi-laciniata, Hart. Garden 

sericea, L. Caucasus, Ac. 
Thurberi, A. Gray. N. 

officinale,^. Gray. Europe, 
Sanguisorba, L. N. temperate 
itia angulata, Hook. f. New 

Prenanthes purpurea, L. Europe. 
Prim lis capitat; . // oh. Himal.iy: 


denticulata, Sm. Himalaya. 

japonica, A. Gray. Japan. 

Poissoui, Franch. China. 

rosea, Royle. Himalaya. 

verticillata, Forsk. Arabia. 
Prunella grandiflora, Jacq. Europe. 

— var. laciniata, Hort. 

— var. rubra, Hort. 
vulgaris, L. Temperate re- 

Psoralea macrostachya, DC. Cali- 

physodes, Hook. N. W. 

Pulicaria dysenl 

Eamondia pyr 
Ranunculus acris, L. Europe, &c 
— var. Steveni. 
arvensis, L. Europe, &c. 


brutius, 7V„mv. S.Europe, Ac. 

caucasicus, Bieb. Caucasus. 

chaerophyllus, Z. Mediter- 
ranean region, Ac. 

Cymbalaria, Pursh. N. 
America, Ac. 

Flammula, L. N. temperate 

lanuginosus, L. Caucasus, Ac. 
Lingua, L. Europe, Ac. 
muricatus, L. Europe, Ac. 
trilobus, Desf. Mediterranean 

Lan'ola. L. Europe, Ac. 
odorata, L. Ori " 


agadiolus Hedypnois, Fisch. 3f 
Mey. Caucasus, &c. 
stellatus, Gaertn. S. Europe. 

macropterum, Mart. Origin 

webbianum, Boyle. Himalaya. 
Eoemeria hybrids, DC. S. Europe. 
Rudbeckia ainplexicaulis, Vahl. 

digitata, Mill. N. America, 
hirta, L. N. America, 
laciniata, L. N. America, 
maxima, Xutt. Texas. 
speciosa, Wendev.N. America. 
Rumex abyssinicus, Jacq. Abys- 

alpinus, L. Europe, &c. 
Acetosella, L. Europe, &c. 
Brownii, Onitpd. Australia. 
nepalensi-. Spnny. Himalaya. 

X. W. 

glutinosa, L. Europe, &c. 
grandiflora, Etling. 

hians, Boyle. Himalaya. 
Horminum, L. Medi 

oust. ST. W. 

lyrata, L. N. America, 
nubicola, Wall. Himalaya, 
nutans, L. S. E. Europe, 
pratensis, L. Europe, &c. 

— var. alba. 

— var. Baumgarteni, (Heuff.) 

• i, I 1 1 : 1 1 : 
. Europe, 
— var. sylvestris ( ll'aflr.). 

Patientia, L. S. Europe, &c. | 

pulcher, L. Europe, &c. 

roseus, L. Mediterranean re- 
gion, «&c. 

salicifolius, Weinm. N. 

sanguineus, L N. temperate 

vesicarius, L. Greece, Orient, 

B graveolens, L. S. Europe. 

' , -la,'. 1 pilit'r i r(/' : "I=0^ 

sylvestris, Z. Europe, 
tiliaefolia, Vahl. Mexico. 
Verbenaca, X. Europe, &c. 
— var. disermas, (Sibth. 8f 

verticillata, L. S. Europe, 
virgata, Ait. Europe, 
viscosa, Jacq. Europe. 
Samolus Valerandi, L. Temperate 

Vaccaria, L. Europe, &c. 
Saracha Jaltomata, Schlecht . 

Satureja montaua. /.. Europe, &c. 
Saussurea albescens, Hook. f. $ 

Salvia argentea, 
Becker i,7> 

bufbifera, L. Eur< 
caespitosa, L. 


dumosa, Sibth. 

. cVC. 

cartihiginea, JVillrf, Caucasus, 

cochiearis, Rcichb. S. Europe. 
Cotyledon, Z. Europe. 
— var. pyramidalis,(/.«yjc///\). 
crustata, Fe?f. Am- of Europe. 

granulata, L. Eur< 
Hostii, Tavsch. E 


— var. inacnabiana, i/o>'/. 
hypnoides, Z. Europe. 
lactoa, Turcz. Siberia. 
lingulata. Bell, S. Europe. 

— var. lantoscana, (MuJ 

longifolia, Lapeyr. Pyrenees. 

— var. pygmaea (Hate). 
peltata, Tvrr. S- Gray. Cali- 

atropurpurea, L. >. Europe,&c. 
australis, 1l r ulf. S. Europe, 

Portae, Huter. Europe, 
prolifern, Z. Syria. 
Pterocephala, L. Greece, 
succisa, Z. Europe, etc. 
sylvatica, Z. Europe, &c. 

vestina, Face. Europe. 
Scaudix Balansae, Kent. Asia 

SidiizMiithu-ipinnatus, Bxiz^Pav. 
retusus, Hook. Chili & Peru, 
i Walkeri, Sims. 

verna, Huds. W. Europe. 

Seirpus Eriophorum, Michx. W 

Holoschoenus, Z. Old World, 
setaccus, Z. Europe, <fec. 
triqueter, Z. Europe, &c. 

peremris, Z. Europe, &c. 

Scleroearpus unherialis, Bntth. S 
Hook. f. Mexico. 

ulatus, /,. Europe. 

Via, Dun. Himalaya. 
Scorpinru- wrmieulata, Z. Medi 

Greece & Asia 


n<i-, I.. Caucasus, &c. 
ifolia, /,f ( v«/. Algeria. 

Scropbularia .data. Gilib. Europe, 
aquatica, /.. Europe. 
nodosa, Z. N. temperate 

da, Vill. Europe, 
setlonica, Vis. Mace- 

Scorodonia, Z. Europe, &c. 
sylvatica, .Bom. % Heldr. 

rantha, Desf. E. Europe, 
sia Minor, &c. 

rernalis, X, Europe. 

dbida, /..S.E.Europe, 
alpina, Z. Europe, &c. 
altissima,, Z. Caucasus, &c. 
baicalen.-i\ G corgi. Siberia. 

Secale Cereale, Z. Orient. 

Sedum Aizoon, A. Siberia, 
album, Z. Europe, &c. 
coeruleum, Vnhl. S. Europe. 
Ewersii, Led eh. Siberia. See. 
hispanicum, L. S. Europe, 
hybridum, Z. Siberia. 
maximum, Sut. Europe, <fcc. 
— var. atropurpureum. 
middendorrianum, Maxim, 

roseum, Scop. X. temperate 

rupestre, Z. Europe. 
Telephium, Z. Europe, &c. 
villosum, Z. Europe, &c. 
wallichianum, Hook. f. £? 

Thorns. Himalaya. 


i (Jmelini, Uruij. N".regi<ms. 
vivum arvernense, Lecoq § 

lecio adonidifolius, Loisel. 

aegyptius, Z. Egypt. 
Cineraria, DC Mediterranean 

diversifolius, Hull. Himalaya. 
Doria, Z. Europe, &c. 
Doronicum, Z. Europe, 
elegans, Z. S. Africa, 
japonicus, Svh. Bip. Japan, 
kaempfcri, DC Japan, 
macrophvll us. />*/</>. Caucasus. 
nemorensis, Z. S. Europe, &c. 

suaveolens, Ell. X. America, 
thyrsoideus, DC S. Africa. 
viscosus, Z. Europe, &c. 

Serrafula eoronr.ta. /.. Siberia. 

— var. macr.>pliylla. 

Gmelinii, Ledeb. Siberia. 

quinquefolia, Bieh. Caucasus. 

tinctoria, Z. Europe. 
Sesamum indicum, Z. Tropical 

forum, Sin. Crimea. 

viridis, Bca/ir. Cosmopoiir 
Sicyos bryoniaefolia, Moris. ( li 
Sidalcea Candida, J. Gray. N 

folia. Asia Minor. 
Chouletii, Coss. Algeria, 
ciliata, Pourr. S.W. Europe. 

fimbriata, Sims, Gai 

Fortunei, Vis. Chin 
fuscata, Linh. Medi 

gallica, Z. Europe, 
glauca, Pourr Spain. 


Pus. M> 

linicola, C C.G-W/. ibruiany. 
longicilia, Otth. Spain, &c. 
longinVn, Ehrh. E. Europe, 

Silene— cont. 

noctiflora, L. Europe, &c. 
nutans, L. Europe, &c. 
obtusifolia, Willd. VV. Medi- 

paradoxa. L. S. Europe, 
pendula, L. Mediterranean 

pensylvanica, Michx. N. 

portenais, L. Spain, 
pseudo-atocion, Z>e A /. N. 

cpiadrifida, L. Europe, 
rubella, L. Europe, &c. 
Sartori, Boiss. Greece. 
Saxifraga, L. Europe. 
Schafta, Gmel. Caucacus. 
stylosa, Bunge. Siberia, 
tatarica, Pers. E. Europe, &c. 
tenuis, Willd. Siberia, 
undulata, Ait. S. Africa, 
vallesia, L. Europe, 
verecunda, S. Wats. Cali- 

vesiculifera, J. Gay. Asia 

>;h : aim el.iini.-urn. ' W \ Dur. 
N. Africa, Ac. 
Marianum, Gaertn. Europe., Lose. # 
Pard. Spain, 
nustriacum, Jacq. Europe. 
erysimoid.-, Itesf. Mediterra- 

polyoeratuim, /,. Europe, ,Vc. 
Sophia. L. Temperate region-. 

tanacetifolium, L. Europe. 
Sisyrinchium angusti folium, Mill. 
N. America. 

striatum. S„i. Argentina, Sec. 
Sium Latifolium, L. Europe, &c. 

Solanum guineense, Lam. Trop. 

rostratum, Dun. Mexico. 

villosum, Willd. Europe. 

Solidago arguta, 

elliptica, Ait. Origin un- 

elongata, Xntt. X. America. 
glomerata, Michx. S. United 

lithospetmil'otia, Willd. Ilabi- 

Virgaurea, L, N. temperate 

Soncbus oleraceus, L. Europe, 
palustris, L. Europe, &c. 
Spartina Schreberi, J. F. Gmel. 

N. America. 
Specularia falcate, A.DC. Medi- 
terranean region. 
— var. castellana, Lange. 
pentagonia, A.DC. Asia 

perfoliata, A.DC. N. 

Speculum, A.DC. Europe, 


. ri-is. L. Europe. 
Spiraea Aruueu-, L. X. temperate 

L. Europe, &c. 

Staticebelliditolia, doim,,. Europe Teucrium Arduini, A. S. 
cordata, L. Mediterranean aureum, Schreb. 8. Europe. 

region. Botrys, L. Europe, &c 

GmeJinli, Willd. Caucasus, 

gougetiana, Girard. Spain. 

corodonia, L. Europe. 
itrum a g i t fol am, 

Stipa ArisMla, A. 

in. Dcsf. Spain. 
L. Europe, &c 
. affine (Jord.). 

Europe. ' 

— var. 

datum (Jacg.). 

pennata, L. Europe, &c. 

sibirica, Lam. .Siberia, &C. 

^uaeda mantima, '><t>><^ ^- * - s - 

Theles ' 

Blifolram 4 G 

Snccouia balearica, Jferfic. Modi- 


. America. 



perennis, /.. N. temperate 



i', Nuit. N. Anicr 

Svmphyandra Hofmanni, Punt. 


pendula, J.A>r. Caucasus. 

W , anneri,J7«j^ , .Tran^ylvania. 

Thlaspi alii* 

Symphytum officinale, A. Europe. 


A. Europe, &c. 
rpoo, Jfiwr. . 

Syrenia ses-ili flora, A<v/<?&. S. 


Russia, etc. 


um. A. Europe, J 

, Wulf. Austria. 

patula, A. Mexico. 

pusilla, 11 B. $ K Ecuador. 

Thymus con 

HMOS, H«# Tl 

Tarn / * i >pe, &c. 



Tanacetum rulgare, A. Europe, &e. 

Tinantia {"«« 

nix. Sckeidw Ti 

Taraxacum "Vinnanthum, DC. 

cal A 

Mediterranean region. 

Telephium Imperati, A. Mediter- 

Tofidd Boroi 

alv.^a,,, ,/.,-/,: 

Tellima gramliilora, R.Br. X.W. 

Tolmiea Met 


Tetraironia crvstallina. A7A -rit. 

Tolpis barbal 

*,<****. Med 

expansa, Afcrr. Australia. 


itum, Poir. Urete, 

Trachymene piio>a. >'//>. Australia. 

Tragopogon orientalis, L. Europe, 
pratensis, L. Europe, Ac. 
Tricholepis fureata, DC. Hima- 

Tridax trilobata, Hems/. Mexico. 

Trifolium agrarium, L. Europ<\ \c 
armenium,jr//.V.A>ia Minor. 
bifidum, Gray. var. decipieii:-. 

glomeratum, L. Europe, 
hybridum, L. Europe, 
incarnatum, L. Europe. 
Lagrangei, Boiss. Orient, 
leucanthum, Bieb.Cvimea, Ac. 
medium, L. Europe, 
minus, Sm. Europ< 

D, /.. 

. Ac. 

Gren. $r Godr. 

prateiiM', L. Europe, 
repens, L. Europe, 
resupinatum, L. Europe, 
roscidum, Greene. California, 
rubens, L. Europe, 
spumosum, L. Mediterranean 

squarrosum. L. S.W. Europe, 
tomentosum, L. S. Europe. 
tridentatum, IAndl. N.W. 

Trim;. ! I uffnianni,5/ei. E.Europe, 

Kitaibelii, Bieb. E. Europe, 

Ac. , 
Tript-'ii- eheiranthif'olia. Srlmitz. 

Trisetum flavescens, Beauv. 

Europe, Ac. 
rigidum, Roem. $ Schult. Asia 

Minor, Ac.' 

Triticum durum, Desf. S. Europe, 

violaceum, Hornem. N. 
Tritonia crocosmaeflora, Sort. 
Garden origin. 
Pottsii, Benth. S. Africa. 
Trollius asiaticus, L. Siberia, Ac. 
europaeus, L. Europe, Ac. 
— var. napellifolius. 

a, Sm. Peru, 


minus, L. Peru. 
Troximon, America. 

grandiflorum, A. Gray. N.W 

heteropbyllum, Greene. N.W. 

Triglocliin r 

lira illyricii. /;<)/.?*. S.Europe,Ac. 

prolifera, Scop. Europe, Ac. 

Saxifraga, Scop. Europe, Ac. 

Typha anirustil'olia, L. Europe, Ac. 

piliilifera, L. Europe. 
— var. baleariea, (/..). 

Valeriana alliariaefolia, Vahl. 

officinalis, L. Europe. 

— var. exaltata, (Jlikan). 

— var. samlmeifolia, (Mikmi), 
Phu, L. Caucasus. 

carinata, Loisel. 

Europe, &c. 
coronata, DC. S. Europe, 
dentata, Poll. Europe, &c. 
echinata, DC. Europe, &c. 
eriocarpa, Desv. Europe, &c. 
olitoria, Poll. Europe, &c. 
vesicaria, Moench. S. Europe, 

Veratrum album, L. Europe, &c. 
nigrum, L. Europe, &c. 

sax.-itiiK Srop, Europe. 
-erpvllit'olia, /.. Europe, &c 
spicata, /.. Europe, &c. 
Teucrium, L. Europe. & v . 
— var. latifolia, (L.). 

VI!-, II 

. japonica, (Staid.). 
iphicaroa, Dorth. 

aigi-uk-a. Lapii/r. Pyron 
;i. Desf. 

calcarata, Desf. Mediterra- 

Cracca, L. N. hemisphere, 
digperma, DC. S. W. Europe. 
Faba, L. Cultivated. 

— var. equina, {Steud.). 

i,Boiss.,\ II, Idr. 

S. Europe, &c. 
nigrum, L. Europe, &c. 
pblomoides, L. Europe, &c. 
pyramidatum, Bieb. Crimea, 

sinuatum, L. Europe, &c. 
speciosum, Schrad.'E. Europe. 
Tliapsus, I. Europe, 
virgatum, With. Europe. 

■bena Aubletia, L. N. America. 
L. S. America. 
Mich.v. S. United 

officinalis, L. Europe, 

pvrt'iiMien. / onrr. 
sativa, I. Europe, 
sepiuni. I. Europe 

Veronica aphylla, L. Europe, 

I!i l ]dln,//-i''/ : 'xZ 1 , 

Lyallii, Hook f. S. 
officinalis, /.. Euroi 

Wulfenia carinthiaca, Jacq. Car- 

Zaluzianskya capensis, U'nlp. S. 


Xanthium strumariurn, L. Europe, 

Zea Mays, L. Cultivated. 


Zinnia elegans, Jacq. Mexico, 
raultiflora, L. Mexico. 

Xanthocephalum gymnospermoi- 
des, Benth. fy Hk. f. 

tenuiflora, Jacq. Mexico, \n-. 


Ziziphora capitata, L. E. Europe, 
tenuior, L. S. Europe, Asia 

Xeranthemum annuum, L. S. 

Europe, &c. 

Minor, &c. 

cylindracomn. Sibth. >> Sin. 

Zygadenus elegans, Pursh. N. 

Europe, &c. 



Acanthopanax scssiliflorum, St em. 

; Amelanchier — cont. 


— var. oblongifolia, Torr. $ 

Acer argutum, Maxim. Japan. 

vulgaris, Moench. Europe, &c. 

— var. collinum, Wall: 

Amorpha frutieosa, L. SouthUnited 

circinatum, Pursh. N.W. 


Heldreichi, Orph. E. Europe. 

hyreanum, Fisrh. s- Me//. Cau- 

Alalia ehinensis, I. China, 
spinosa, L. N. America. 

Arbutus Andrachnc, L. Levant. 

insigne, Boixs. $ Bnhse. 
N. Persia. 

Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi, Spreng. 

laetmn, C. A. Me,/. Caucasus. 

Asimina triloba, DnnaL S. United 

macrophyllum, Pursh. Cali- 


fornia, &o. 

Aueubii japonica, Thunb. Japan. 

monspessulanum, L. Europe. 

opulifolium, Till. Europe. 

pictum, Tlwnh. Mandslmria. 

Berb-ris angulosa, Wall Hiraa- 


platanoides, L. Europe. 

aristata, DC. Himalaya. 

Pseudo-Platanus.' L. Europe, 

Aqmfblium, Pmrth* W. N. 


-'vutirul'iri^ mchok 

— var. purpureum, Hurt. 

— var! murrayanaV i/or"' *' 

saccharinum, Wangenh. N. 

canadensis, Pursh. N. 

Volxemi/ilfa^ Caucasus ' 

eoncinna, Hook. f. Himalaya. 

Darwinii, Hook. Chili. 

Ailantus glandulosa, Desf. China. 

repens. Lindl. N". America. 

Akebia lobata, Decne. Japan. 

s1^nsisi i /^Cl!i!m'<£ lFm ' 

Afoul cordifolia, Tenore. Italy. \ 

spathula'ta, ' Sri, rati Vhigin 

Urnia, S. <§■ Z. Japan. 

vireseens, £&©*. /. Hima- 

japonica, Sieb.Q Zuec. Japan 

"nha!ni^, // r / ' / '/ X ' l /) m< r'lu- 

-'varhl.eH^ 1 }/!!^ ' 

dlST/>C. Northern hemi- 



Betnla alba. /.. X Hemisphere. 

A ' m 3Ei;:'r," 

Betula— coat. 

Ceanothusamericanus,Z.E. United 

papyrifera, Marsh. N. 



Arnold i, Hort. Garden origin. 

populi folia, Marsh. N\ 

azureus, Desf. Mexico. 


grandiflorus, Unrt. Garden 

pumila, L. N. America. 

ulmifolia, Sieb.S,- Ziur. Japan. 

spinosns, Nutt. California, 

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia, Reichh. 
Europe, &c. 

Celastrus articulates, T/iunb. 

scandens, L. N. America. 

Bryanthus'empetriformis,^, Gray. 

N. America. 

Celtis occidentals, L. N. America. 

: onica, Hems/. Japan. 

Tournefortii, Lam. Orient. 

Bnmelia lanuginosa, Pers. N. 

Oplmlanrhus occidentals, L. N. 



Buxus ,-empervirens, L. Europe, 

Ccrcis Siliquastrum, L. S. Europe, 

— var. latifolia. 

Cistus laurifolius, Z. S.W. Europe. 

— var. prostrata. 

Cladrastis amuivnsis. B< :,)th. Amur- 

Cailuna vulgaris, Salisb. Europe, 


Clematis alpina, Mill. N. Europe, 

Calophaca wolgarica, Fiseh. S 

Flammula, L. S. Europe, &c. 


Calycanthus glaueus, Willd. 1ST. 

infgrifolia. L Europe. 

lanuginosa. /,/,,,//. China. 


Pitcberi. Tnrr. .S f7w//. var. 

Siberia, Ac. 

"iPMe'niri /"nCysht^ 

frntescens, DC. Soutli Russia 

Cletbra alnifolia, L. E. United 

pvgmaea, DC Siberia. 

Colntea arboreseens, L. Eur., <fec. 

— var. aurantiaca. 

— var. nepalensis. 

australis, R. Br. N. \ 

Coccalus carolinus, DC. S. United 

Carpinus Betulus, /.. Europe, £c. 

Coriaria japonica, A. dray. Japan- 

rTrolin'iana'7/7/// N. America. 

Coram alba. A. \ Asia. 

Cnrya poreina, Xutt. N. America. 

A Ti l 'X!!/^/>ir'\. 

Cassandra calyculata, />. />"'. N. 


candidi'ssima, il/>/r*A. N. 

Cassinia fulvida, Honk. f. N. 

Catalpa cordifolia, Jaume. W. 
Kentucky, Tennessee, &c. 

Mas^Em'ope. L. 


(.'rata-gu? — cont. 

pubescens, Nutt. "West N. 

punctata. Jacq. E. and X. 

sanguinea, L. Europe. 

Pyracantha, I'tr*. S. Kuropr, 

Corylus rostrata, Ait. N. America. 

tanacetifolia, ZVr.v. Orient. 

Cotomasier Acuminata, Lindl. 

tomentosa, Z. B. United 



afflnis, Lindl. Himalaya. 

uniflora, Muench. S. United 

bacillaris, Wall. Himalava. 

— var. floribunda, Hart. 

buxifolia, Wall. Himalaya. 

borizontalis, Decue. Himalaya. 

CupressusBenthami. £W/.Mexico. 
lawsoniana. Mnrr. California. 

integerrima, Medic. Europe, 

laxiflora, Jacq. Siberia. 

lucida, Schlecht. Origin un- 

nootkatensis, Lamb. N\ W. 

micropbvlla. Wall. llimalava. 

obtusa, C. JToc*. Japan. 

multittora, Bunge. China. 

Nummularia. Fisch. * Meg. 
Europe, Aria. 

Ihyoide's, Z. N\ America. 

rotundiiolia. Will. Himalava. 

Simonsii, linker . Himalaya. 

biflorus, Vlhrit. Europe. 

Crataegus Carrierei, Vauvel. Gar- 

praecox, //-,/. Garden origin. 

coccinea, 1. E. United States. 

ico !mU>r , /' S lmrmK> EUr0Pe ' 

ehbirosaTea? l J^./7^. Mand- 

- var' ^enduTu" 3 //o,7 

Douglasii, Lindl. West, N\ 

1);,lH " ;C Kuro"!e ,V,li:l ' ^ """' W ' 

--Van'rivularis. Xatt. 

D' Me/ereum / Eurone 

heteropbylla, Flucgg. Orient. 

biemalis," Liuuje. Origin un- 

melanocarpa, Bieb. Caucasus. 

cnapidatam, Hook. X. 

mollis, St he, It. United States. 

monogyna, Jacq. Old World 

marilandicuin, 2?ootf. N. 

nigra, Waldst. $ Kit. E. 

vmdfflorum, Beck. N. 

orientalis, Pall. Orient. 

Oeutzia crenata S 4 ^. Japan. 

scab™, Thumb. Japan. 


sessilifolia, Buck/. Carolina, 

pentagyua, AiV. K. Europe. 

pinnatifida, Bunge. 

— var. splendens. 

Ehretia elliptica, DC. Japan, &c. 

Kl;i.;i- mis argentea, Pursh. N. 

„. S. Km,,,, 
. iy,r. Kun 

Watsoni. DC. Britain. 
Escallonia punctata, DC. Chili, 
rubra, Pers. Chili. 

. ■ 
N. America, 
ouropaeus, L. Europe. 

hamiltonianus, Wall. I lima- 

.-,. •, «.7/„/.v.,lapan. 

parviflora, Michx. Georgia 
tetraptera, L. N. America. 
Hedera Helix, L. Europe, &c 
Hrdysarum nmltijuga, Maxim. 

Uelianthemurn vulgaiv (huriii. 

Exochorda Albert i, lu ;/ ,l. 

Fendlera rupicola, 
United State 


S. W. 

Fontanesia philliracoides, 
Asia Minor. 



Vahl. Japan, 

Fraxinus bungeana 



Androsaeniuiii, /.. Europe. 
Ascyron, /.. N". Asia, &c. 

Ilex Aquifolium, Z. Europe. 
— var. platyphylla, Hort. 
glabra, Gray. N. America, 
lucida, Torr. $ Gray. N. 

rnacropoda, Miq. Japan, 
opaca, Ait. N. America, 
rugosa, F. Schmidt. Sag- 

verticillata, A. Gray. N. 

i fruticans, Z. Europe,&c. 
humile, Z. Himalaya. 
Jiwiipci-us chinensis. L. N. .Asia. 
sphaerica, Lindl. N. China. 

glauca, .4& N. America, 
latifolia, X. N. America. 

Laburnum alpinum, «/. 5. Presl. 

— var. biferum, Zfor*. 

vulgare, J. S. Presl. Europe. 
Larix europaea, DC. Europe. 

leptolepis, Eutll. Japan. 

pendula, Salisb. N. America. 
Lavatera assurueniitk>ra, Ktlloi/ij. 

Ledum latilblium. Ait. IN. America. 

palustre, Z. Arctic Kegions. 
Leiophyllum buxifolium, Ell. E. 

United States. 
Lespedega Buergeri, Miq. Japan. 
"repens, Barton, N. America. 

Stuvei, Nutt. N. America. 

violacea, Pers. N. America. 
Leucothoe axillaris, D. Don. N. 

Catesbaei, A. Gray. Virginia, 

racemosa, A. Gray. N. 



Hook.f. 8f Thorn 

Liriodendron tulipifera, Z. Un 

Lonicera alpigena, 
angustifolia, Wall. Himalaya. 
Caprifolium, Z. Euro 
clirysantha, Turcz. 

iberica, Bieb. Caucasus, 
japonica, Thunb. China and 

Korolkowi, Stapf. Turkestan. 
Morrowii, A. Gray. Japan, 
nigra, Z. Europe, 
orientalis, Lam. Asia Minor. 
Periclymenum, L. Europe. 

Hort. Garden 

4. Gray. N.E. 

Xylosteum, L. Europe. 
Lupinus arborcus, ./..^California 
Lyonia paniculata, Nutt. 

j Menispermum canadense, Z. N. 
Mt lizicsia gl<>bulari.«, Salisb. Alleg- 

! Microgle* 

C/a^e. Himalaya. 

j Morus nigra, Z. Temperate Asia. 

| Myrica ealifornica, Cham. A- 

Schhrht. California. 

cerifera, Z. United States. 

Gale, L. N. Hemisphere. 

Ncillia aiuuren.sis, Benth. $ Hook. 

opulifolia, Benth. $ Hook. N. 

thyrsiflora, Don. Himalaya. 
Olearia Haastii, Hook. f. N. 

PuiiWniii imperials, Sieb. § 

Zucc. Japan. 
Pernettya mucronata, Gaudich. 


Ainygdalus, Stokes. Orient. 
Arnicniacn, J.. N. China, &c. 
Avium, L. Europe, etc. 
Brig&utiaca, Ckaix. S.E. 

Capollin, Zucc. Mexico, &c. 
cei-asitV'ra, Ehrh. Caucasus. ? 
communis, Htids. Europe, 

gray ana, Maxim. Japan. 
humilis, liitnge. China. 

a,r. colchica. 

gordonianus, Lindl. W. 

United States, 
grandiflorus, Willd. S. United 

hirsutus, Xutt. Oregon. 
Keteleeri, ffort. Garden 

Lewisii, Pursh. W. N. 

Satsumi, Siebold. Japan. 
Photinia variabilis, Hemsl. China 

Picea Glehni, F. Schmidt. Sag- 

M. I). Dun. Japan. 
nitida, Benth. $ Hook. f. 

S. United States, 
ovalifblia, D. Don. Himalaya 
Pinus Cembra, L Europe. 

ponderosa, Dougl. N.W. 

tanus occid 

salesoviana, Steph. Sib 
Prun'us acida, Bnrkh. var. s 

Ma.vimowiezi, Rupr. Japan. 
Mume, S. fy Z. Japan. 
Persica, Stokes, var. folii 

prostrata, Lab ill. Orient. 
Puddum, Hovb. Himalaya 
pumila, L. N. 

Ehrh. N. 


viigmhina, L. N. America. 
Ptelea angnstifolia, Benth. Cal 

trifbliata, /.. United States. 

Pyrus americana, DC. N. Americi 

a, L 

N. America. 
Gaertn. Europe, 

auricularis, Knoop. Europe. 
baceata, /.. Asia, 
betulaefolia, Bunge. Japan, 

coronaria, L. E. United 

Cydonia, L. S. Europe, &c. 

lU'caisneaiia, Xichols. Origin 

florilmnda, Xichols. Japan. 
— var. Scheideckeri, Hort. 
gennanica, Hook. f. Europe, 

intermedia, Ehrh. Europe, 
japonica, Thunb. China, 

Pyrus — cont. 

lanata, D. Don. Himalaya, 
lobata, Nichols. Caucasus. 
Malu*, L. Europe, &c. 
Maulei, Mast. Japan. 
- Michauxi, Bosc. Asia ? 

nigra, Sargent. N. America, 
nivalis, Jacq. Levant, &c. 
pinnatifida, Ehrh. Europe, 
prunifolia, Willd. Siberia, &c. 
Ringo, Maxim. Japan. 
sikkimensis, Hook. /. India. 
Sorbus, Gaertn. Europe, 
spectabilis, Ait. Cbina, Japan, 
spuria, DC Hybrid origin. 
Toringo, Sieb. Japan. 

Ribes alpimnn. /.. Km 

amnus Alaternus, L. Europe 
— var. angustifolius. 
carolinianus, Walt. S. 

catharticus, L. Europe, &c. j 
crenata, Sieb. $ Zucc. Japan. , 
Frangula, L. Europe, 
infectorius, L. Europe, 
tinctorius, fValdst. $ Kit. 

Europe, Asia. 
Rhododendron Anthopogon, D. j 

Don. Himalaya, 
brachycarpum, (! . />u«. Jiipnn. 
cainpanulatum, I). Don. 

caucasicum, Pall. Caucasus, 
collettianum, Aitch. $ Hems/. 

ferrugineum, L. Europe, 
myrtifolium, Lodd. Garden 

Ungerni, Trautv. Caucasus. 




tenuiflorum, Torr. 
Dougl. W. United 

Dough W. N. 


Pursh. W. United 


n, Pursh. N.W. 

I i, Li mil. Siberia, &c. 
alba, L. Europe, &c. 
alpina, L. Europe. 

— var. pyrenaica, Gouan. 
arkansana, Porter. United 

beggeriana, Schrenk. Asia. 

— var. Schrenki. 
blanda, Ait. N. America, 
canina, L. Europe, &c. 
carohna, L. N. America, 
damascena, Mill. E. Europe , 

Fendleri, Crepin. New 

ferruginea, Fill. Europe. 

Rhus Cotinus, L. Europe, 
glabra, L. N. America, 
integrifolia, Benth. $ Hook.f. 

ovata, S. Wats. California, 
succedanea, L. China and 

Toxicodendron, L. N. Amer- 
ica. Miq. Japan. 

hispida, Sims. Garden origin, 
humilis, Marsh. N. America, 
involuta, Sm. var. Wilson i, 

Jundzilli, Besser. Europe. 
Luciae, Franch. $ Rochebr. 

lutea, Mill. Ori 


Rosa — cont. 

microphylla, Roxb. China, 
mollis, Sm. Europe, 
moschata, Mill. India, &c. 
multiflora, Thunb. Japan, 
nitida, Willd. N. America. , 
nutkana, Presl. N. America, 
pisocarpa, A. Gray. West. N. 

pomifera, fferrm. Europe, 
repens, Scop. Europe, 
rubiginosa, L. Europe, &c. 
rugosa, S. $ Z. Japan, 
sericea, Lindl. Himalaya. 

— var. fulgens, Hort. 

— var. myriacantha. 

— var. picta, Hort. 
stylosa, Desv. Britain, 
tomentosa, Sm. Europe, 
webbiana, Wall. Himalaya. 
wicburaiana, Crepin. Japan. 

Rubus affinis, Weihe $ Nees. 

balfourianus, Blox. Europe. 
Bellardii, Weike. Europe. 
eaesius, L. Europe. 
Colcmani, Blox. Europe, 
corylifolius, Sm . Europe. 
crata-gifolius, liunfje. X.Asia. 
deliciosus, James. Rocky 

dumetorum, W. § N. Europe, 
echinatus, Lindl. Britain, 
exsecatus, Muell. Europe, 
foliolosis, D. Don. Himalaya, 
fuscus, Weihe % Nees. Europe, 
glandulosua, Bell. Europe, 
hystrix, JVeihe Sf Nees. 

Koehleri, W. $ N. Europe, 
laciniatus, Willd. 
lasiostylus, Focke. China, 
leucodermis, Dougl. North 

leucostachys, Sm. Europe, 
lindleyanus, Lees. Britain, 
longithyrsiger, Lees. Britain, 
macrophyllus, W. $ N. 

melanolasius,!^*?. N. Anier. 
neglectus, Peck. North 

niveus, Wall. Himalaya. 

Rubus — cont. 

mucronatus, Blow. ] 
nutkanus, Moc. 

parvifolius, L. China and 

phoenicolasius, Maxim. 

China, Japan, 
pubescens, Auct. Angl. 

Radula, Weike. Europe, 
ramosus, Blox. Britain, 
rhamnifolius, W.S>- N. Europe, 
scaber, Weihe $ Nees. Eu- 

spectabilis, Pursh. North 

Sprengelii, Weihe fy Nees. 

suberectus, Anders. Europe. 

villicaulis, W. $ N. Europe. 

villosus, Ait. N. America. 

xanthocarpus, Franch. China. 
Ruta graveolens, L. Europe. 
Sambucus glauca, Nutt. West N. 

racemosa, L. North, hemi- 

— var. serratifolia. 
Santolina viridis, // 'Hid. Europe. 
Schizandra ehinensis, Baill. 

China, &c. 
Skimmia Fortunei, Mast. (S. ja- 

ponica, Jlort.) China. 
Smilax rotundifolia, L. N. 

Sophora alopecuroides, L. Asia 


, cU'. 

Spartium junceum, L. S. Europe. 
Spiraea assimilis Zabel. Garden 

betulffolia, Pall. N. America, 
bracteata, Zabel. Japan, 
canescens. />. l>>' 
discolor, Pursh. N. W. 

Douglasii, Hook. N. W 



Ulex europaeus, L. Europe. 

japonica, L.f. Japan. 

Uhnus campestris, Z. Europe, Ac. 

— var. jilabrata, Nichols. 

Umbellularia nilifornica, Xutt. 

lindleyana, 1(7(11. Himalaya. 

Margaritae, Zabel. G-arden 


nobleana", Hook. California. 

Vaia-iiil.iii) A !•(•;< >-taphylos, Z. 

notha, Zabcl. Garden origin. 

salicifolia, L. E. Europe to 

coryni M.1SU111, /.. .n. A,,,. n< a. 

sorbiMia, Z. N. Asia. 

erythrocarpum, M/V/m-. S. E. 

tomentosa, L. United Staled 


phylea Buraalda, S. $ Z. 

hirsutum, Buckl. X. Caro- 

colchica, Stev. Caucasus. 

ovatum, P«r*A. W. N. 

pinnata, Z. Europe. 

padifolium, 8m. Madeira. 


nphoricarpus Heyeri, Dippel. 

W. United States. 

mollis, Nntt. var. ciliatus, 

stamineum, Z. E. dated 



orbicularis, Moench. N. 

Viburnum acerifoliura, £. N. 

racemosus, Michx. N. 

United States. 

rotund itol'ius, A. Gray. W. 

dentatum, Z. N. America. 

rings Eraodi, |CPa#. Himalaya. 
japonica, 7>ojp. Japan. 

hanceanum, }fa.ii»i. China. 


Lantana, Z. Europe, 
molle, Michx. N. America. 

persica, i! Afghanistan. 

Opulus, Z. Europe. fcc. 
prunifolium, Z. N. America. 


marix cbinensis, Lour. China. 

Vitis Coignetiie, P«//. #■ P/tf«dl. 

tallica, L. Europe. 

tetrandra, Pall. E. Europe. 

heterophvlla, Thnnb. Japan. 


xus baeeata, L. Europe, &c. 

lanata, Pari. Himalaya, &c. 

coma radicans, Juts. N. 

rumicisperma, M. Laws. 




VViddringtonia Whytei, Rendle. 






The number of garden plant- annually described in botanical mid 
horticultural publications, hoth Kn-jli-ii and foreign, i- now so consider- 
able that it has been though! doirabl. I ublish a complete list of them 
in the Kew Bulletin each year. The following list comprises all the 
new introductions recorded during 1896. These lists are indispensable 
to the maintenance of a correct nomenclature, especially in the smaller 
botanical establishments in correspondence wiih Kew." which are, as a 
rule, only scantily provided with horticultural periodicals. Such a list 
will also afford information respecting new plants under cultivation at 
this establishment, many of which will be distributed from it in the 
regular course of exchange with other botanic gardens. 

The present list includes not only plants brought into cultivation for 
the first time during 1896, but the most noteworthy of those which have 
been re-introduced after being los! from cultivation Other plants 
included in the list may have been in «_, i s, but either 

were not described or their names had not, been authenticated until 

In addition to species and bofa;: ids, whether 

introduced or of garden origin, with botanical names, and described for 
the first time in 1896, are included. It has not been thought desirable, 
however, to gn rids in such 

genera as Cypripcdinm, <fec. Mere garden varieties of such plants as 
Cnfcirs, Cadi «- inn or Xt/rci.s^/'s are omitted for obvious reasons. 

In every case the plant is cited under its published name, although 
some of the names are doubtfully correct. Where, however, a correction 
has appeared desirable, this is made. 

The name of the person in whose collection the plant was first noticed 
or described is given where known. 

An asterisk is prefixed to all those plants of which examples are in 
cultivation at Kew. 

The publications from which this list is compiled, with the abbre- 
viation used to indicate them, are as follows ; — B. B. — Bulletin de 
L'HerbierBoissier. B. II. X.— Bulletin du Museum d'hMoiro naturelle. 
Paris. B.M. — Botanical Magazine. Bruant Cat. — Bruant's Catalogue 

of New Plants, 189G. B. T. 0.— Bulletino clella R. Societa Toscaua «li 
Orticultura. Buff ( uf.—Bu\\. ( atalogue of New, Beautiful, and Bare 
Plants. Gard.— The Garden. G. C. — Gardeners' Chronicle. G. 
and F. — Garden and Forest. Gfl. — Gartenflora. 
Magazine. III. fl".— ^Illustration ] 
of .fiT.— Journal of Horticulture. 

lorticole. Jard. — Le Jardin. ./. 

J. H. F. — Journal de la Societe 

France. J. 0. — Journal des Orchidees. 

Royal Gardens, Kew. L. 


— Lindenia. Lem. Cat. — Lemoine, Plantes Nouvelles. Lind. Cat.- 
LTIorticulture Internationale, Catalogue. M. D. G. — Mitteilungen der 
Deutschen Den chaft. M. G. Z.-~ Mdller's Deutsche 

Gartner-Zeituug. M. K. — Mon.-itssi'hnt't fiiv Kakteenkunde. N. B. — 
Notizblatt des Konigl. botanischen Garten und Museums zu Berlin. 
N. G. M— Dr. Neubert's Garten -Magazin. 0. It.— Orchid lieviow. 
R. H.— Revue Horticole. R. H. B.— Bevue de l'Horticulture Beige. 
Sand. Cat.— Sanders' Catalogue of New Plants, 1895. Spaeth Cat.— 
1.. Spaeth, Genera] Nursery Catalogue. Veitch Cat. — Veitch & Sons, 
Catalogue of Plants. TV. G. — Wiener Illustrirte Garten-Zeitung. 

The abbreviations in the descriptions of the plants are : — ft. — 
Foot or Feet. G.— Greenhouse.— H. Hardy. H. H,— Half-hardy. 

Abies grandis pendula. (M.D.G. Acer Duretti aureo-marginatum. 

Acalypha Si 

Acer Ginnala, Maxi 

■/ l>. (,. ISO. 

long drooping tail-like spikes of 


Leer Negundo boreale. 

' cold. (H. Sc ! 

Lcanthophippmm mantimanum. Acer Negundo odessanum. (M. I). 

Dogn. (J. O. 1896, 138 j I G. 1896, 2.) H. A foi 
L. 1896, t. 536.) S. A near ally of f a deeper golden colour and 

with ridges spotted and lined with 

purple. I'hiliipine,. 

Internationale, Brussels.) 

(M. D. G. 1896, 80.) 

West Indies. .. 

Kegel & Radde. Aloe Holtzei. 

(G.C. 1896, xix., 240.) Ranunculaeeai. \ A garden hybrid whose prohibit 'parent- 

leaves and yellow now. is about -J in. in Ilatrorthm Kudula. t H:i:,fic \, 

diameter. North China. (Kew.) Erfurt.) 

AeridesFieldingi album. (L. 18»6, t. Aloe Hoyeri. (M. k. isug. m.) g. 

-,■><.) <>, hd. S _- \ -ardVn hxbri between ^ft» «r- 

" mi the type ; ■ . . . ylltm borbomcum. 

>wers. (M. Fl. Pauwels, Denrne, | (Haage & Schmidt. Krl'urt.) 

*Agave laxifolia, Baker. (Z>\ M. 

7 177.) Amavyllidea'. G. A spceies . 
that of mice. Mexico. (Kew.) 

*Akebia lobata, Decne. (/?. M. 

74tC>.) Berberideae. H. This diffe 

Aloe hybrida gloriosa. (J/. K. im.;, 

27.) G. A garden hybrid between 7,o- 

Aloe Lapaixii. (iif . A'. 1896, 27.) G. 

A garden hybrid between (utsttrm 

Alocasia sanderiana gandavensis. 


S. A form witli \oung lea\ 

Amaranthus Dussii, Sprenger. 

nthus superbus. (fi/.Jf. i89C, 

(Haage & Schmidt, Krfurt 1 

*Aloe Beguinii. (-V. A'. 

Anchusa affinis, 

Aloe Chludowii. 

Anthurium puinihi 


) de Laetii. (M. K. 1 

Anthurium triumphans. i G. « . 

(.T. Laing& SousA 

variegated leaves. (Peter Smith & 
Co., Bergedorf, Germany.) 

Arctostaphylos nevadensis. A. Gray. 

(.!/. I). G. 1896, 18.) Ericaceaj. H. 
A prostrate evergreen bush with ovate 
leathery leaves and 


frigida, Wil 


Id. (M. D. I 

Spath, Berlin.) 
Aspidium cristatum x marginale, 

((;. awl /•'. IS'.IK, 144 

H. A supposed natural hybrid betweei 

)idinm simulatum, 

n general characters 
aittermg ctoetiy in its longer stipe, in- 
trorse lower pinnge, larger sori and less 
convolute margins. Missouri. ((J. E. 
Davenport, Medford, Mass, U.S.A.) 

heads with ray-florets 
colour, either solitary or m \ 
top of a long naked stalk. 
China. (M. Maurice de 

(J. H. F. 
~T. A 

Begonia acerifolia. (.Ve 

51.) Begoniacea?. 

•Begonia carminata. (Veitch. Cat. 

1896,2.) G. A garden hybrid between 
H. rnrrlnra and B Dregei. (J. Veitch 

*Begonia odoratissima, Lemoine. 

tuhcrou- r....tfl Uouonias with fragrant 

Begonia Rex x decora. (Jar*. 
1896, 267, f. 123.) S. A series of 
hybrids raised from the two parents 
above-mentioned is described. (MM. 
Cappe, France.) 

* Begonia umbracnlifera, Hook f. 
(B. M. t. 7457.) S. A remarkable 
plant both in habit and in having her- 
maphrodite flowers. A tall species with 
alternate large reniform or peltate 

Astragalus gilgianUS, Graebner. - X. 
B. 1896, 185.) Leguminosse. H. A 
perennial with silvery leaves and deep 
ray-violet flowers. Nearly related to 

A. cretaceus, A. ,^trnpi/,,lins an.! A. 

Asia Minor. (Berlin 

B. G.) 

Baccharis trimera, DC. (R. H. 1896, 

152, ff, 50-2.) Composite, Ci. A 
K'iirles> -hrub attaining a height of 6 ft. 

Argentina. (Ed. Andre, France.) 

Cat. 1896, 
A garden hybrid I 
idB decora. (J. 

Berberis pruinosa, Franehet (G. and 

dwarf shrub "the new growth, the under- 
flowers sulphur yellow." Yunnan. 

Bertonerila. (Lind. Cat. 1896, 7, ff.) 

Melastomacese. Several varieties of :t 

hybrid between Bertolonia 

are here described and figured. < I/flor- 

Billbergia Binoti, B, Gerard. (J. H. F. 

1896, 724.) Bromeliaceae. S. A species 
near B. speciosa, Thunb. Leaves in a 

tinted with reddish- purple, under surface 
light green lined with white. Inflor- 
escence pendulous, stem, bracts, &c. red. 
Organ Mountains, Brazil. (Lyons B. G.) 

*Bocconiamicrocarpa, Maxim. (Gard. 

1896, L., 197.) Papaveraceae. H. A 
handsome species attaining the height 
of 9 ft. The inflorescence forms a 

firm Sumach. X. China. (Kew.) 

Brodiaea ixioides erecta. (Gard. 


Di«go Country. (Wallace & Son.) 

k Bryanthns Breweri, A. Gray. (M. 

charming dwarf evergreen shru 
crowded narrow leaves, and sh 
cemes of purple-red flowers. Cal 

Bulbophyllum attenuatum, 

(K.B. 1896, 45.) Orehidea.. 

♦Bulbophyllum longiscapum. - • 
(A". />'. lS'KJ, 45.) S. A new species 

linear oblong leaves 4 in. long, scapes 
over a foot long and flowers an inch 
across coloured light green with :i red- 
purple lip. Fiji. (Kew.) 

Bulbophyllum orthoglos: 

& Kranzl. (G. C. 1896, xix., 326.) 
S. A new species allied to B. mim- 

! as large. T! 

green with brown stripes, the 

Bulbophyllum trernulum 

ml u-pl. liiu ; mill I n. the latter 
fringed with long hair- 

*Caesalpinia bicolor, C. H. 

. B. 1896, 22, 223.) Leguniinosa 
lew species, forming a tree 20 f 

. flat broad pod 2 in. long. 
•wood, valuable 

Calanthe albata. (G. C. iss 

602.) Orchideae. S. A garc 

hrid between ( . rrratn/nlui 
Cooksoni. (F. Sander & Co.) 

Calanthe Cooksouii. v s '<""< 

♦Campanula regina, Alboff. (G. C. 

1896, xix., 648.) [This u I 

Carrieria calycina, Franch. (R. H. 

Catasetum semiroseum. 

. Petals and sepals whitis 
2d; lip greenish white 
oloured at the base. ( 

hybrid C. splendens, Cogn. 

*Catasetum splendens, Cogn. (Z. 

Catasetum splendens aureo-macu- 
latum. {ift.H. mo, oi,t. .vt.) s 

Cattleya bicolor 

xx., 310.) Orchidese. 

Cattleya granulosa Bannen. (O. B. 

1896, 244.) G. A variety with ihe!- and petal- suffused with bright 
lurid purple, the flower measuring 6 in. 
across. (S. Banner.) 
Cattleya intermedio - Loddigesii 

(G. C. 1896, xix., 593.) G. A sup- 
W. Rothschild.) 

(F. Sander & Co.) 
*Calochortus nitidus. " 

California. (Wallace \ Son 

Campanula balchinensis. 

1896, L., 21" ~ " 

Cattleya Mathoniae, L. Lind. (Z. I Bot. Gard.) [This is supposed to be 
1896, t. 539.) A supposed natural ideal ieaWvit h ('. robnstinn, Holfe. ! 

hybrid between C. Mossice and C. 
hiddemanniana. (L. Linden & Co., 
Moortebeek, Belgium.) 

m Velenovskyi, Hori 

,76,ff. 6,7.) Composit 

Cattleya maxima floribunda. 

1896, t. 506.) A fine form with b 

i edges margined with whi 

ing stems develop to ;i height <»f -4'. it. 

Cattleya Mendelii balliana. <s„,„i. 

Rammeiilaee., . 

Cattleya su^er-Forbesi. (G. C. 1896, 

Cattleya Tri 

• ' 

Cattleya Trianae atrata. (J. 0. 1896, 

40.) A form with large flowers ; sepals 
lip very deeply coloured. (L'Horticulture 

*Celmisia Munroi, Hook, f. (B. M. 

r. 7496.) Composite. G. Whole plant 
. \.-ept the upper suM'are of the leaves 

Clematis Suksdorfii, Kobina 

and F. 1896, 255, f. 36.) 11 
little-known Clematis of the I 

*C(Elogyne balfouriana. 

he flowers being • 
irched spikes. I! at 


lauterbachiana, Kri 

and a half inch Coeloeyne lurida, L. Lind. & Cogn. 

golden yellow, ray -florets white. New i (L 1896, 80 ; t. 532.) S. Sepals and 

Chamaedorea gratissima, L. Lind. [Ui |, i'l!" 1 <V . ', , ; M^'d. (l/iior- 

Ccelogyne vi 

offea stenophylla 

Cirrhopetalum graveolens,>. 

large rloweted s; :es with leaves 12 in. 

by 5 in., scapes 6 in. high, raeeine 7 in. 

Colchictim fascicularis, 

Crinum Lesemanni, 

Coleus spicatus Eondinella. [Gfl. A 



Cupressus goweniana compacta, 

<:;.'.:. ii.'ll-' 

*Coriaria jap^Onica, A. (inn. (J'>. M. indicated in the name. Tli 

petals, which varies from cherry- lo CypripedilUll Al'gO-StOliei. 

Cornns alba Rosenthali. (.M- i> <<■ Cypripedium Chapmani. (G 

C:-r.i:\< cuvynr-.-ty 1 :.:-. >■. - ■ .■".. >' 

*Coronilla cappadocica, Will.!. 

\l" A^sp.'ci,'.' of' prosn'at! ml hahh.' Cypripedhrm goultenianum. t •*«»«/. 

Cotyledon Purpusii, K. Schumann. Cypripedium insignc, ^■■'| i - « /-■ i^ ; - 

*Crassula aloides, X- E. Ur. <A'. /;. e Liiciaui. $. 

Cypripedium lawrencianum yar. 
viride, L. Lind. (L. 1896, t. 546.) 
A variety with flowers much greener 
than the type. (L'Horti 

(M. Bleu! ParisV U 
Cypripedium palatinum. (W. G. 

Cypripedium Reginae. (G. C. 1896, 

Davallia truffautiana. (G. M. 

:;.")!', f.) Filices, G. 

::..]..:-.;.;■ :.■■ i -i- ■ ,■■■ ■ - ■;, .., . . 


is that the under surface is like the 
upper." (L'Uorticulturc Internationale, 

*Debregeasia velutina, Gaud. (.fi. H. 

Cypripedium Sander* 

for an imported plant 

... schofieldianum. (<•■ M- 

(-. bdlaltthun and C. 
(G. W. Schofield.) 

Cypripedium Symondsise. (O. R. 

1896, 16.) A garden hybrid probably 


r and flowers larger 1 

Cyrtanthus obliquus major. 

type. South Africa. (F. S; 
Cyrtochilum micranthum, 

''Ili'ii 1 


brown blotcnes a 

Brazil. (F. Sander & Co.) 

Delphinium tatsiensis, Fra 

Dendrobium Arachnites, Reichb. f. 

(G. C. 1896, xx., 7, f. 2.) Orchideac. 
G. A dwarf species, the pseudobulbs 
only 3 in. long, fusiform, shiimi:. 
flowers ll in. across, orange-scarlet; 
-epaU aud petals Linear, lip pandurate. 
Burma. (J. Bradshaw.) 

Dendrobium chloropterum. (G. C. 

is-.'.;, *ix.. 7T-.) G. ,l!ied to IK 

(H. Low & Co.) C 1P ' 

Dendrobium Curtisii. (Sand. Cat. 

L8'J«J, 12, f.) (J. A garden hybrid 

between I), (iiimtiu and i>. Cavxiopr. 

Dendrobium cymbidioides. (G. C. 

iS'u;. X ix., :»u, I. 90.) S. Allied I.., 
D. Codoivine. I'seudobulbs oval. . 

jenny anum, 

t a broad tn: 
> yellowish o 

(Zollinger- J r 


urn quadrilobum, Rolfe. 

Dracaena Broomfieldii, 

K. B. J 

of the 

ecti'on Cadetia with creeping 

Leaves 15 in. Ion-', 2 i 

ort oblong one-leaved p-eudo- 

margined and -triced ^ 

1 solitary terminal flowers an 

sh rt jointed a inel 

? New Guinea. (Kew.) 
Dendrobmm thyrsiflorum Lowii. 

eveamy-wlnte, lip narrow. <\» on-haped 

Dendrobium Wiganiae. (G. C. 1896, 

I). <;,,„, turn and I) 
nobile. (Sir F. Wigan.) 

Didymocarpus malayana, Hook. f. 

species, with aeuminate green 
leaves overlaid with a covering of white 
silvery hairs. Scapes ■ 
4-6 in. high, each hearing two to four 

primmse yellow colour. Tenang. (J. 

Digitalis campanulata. (G. 1896, 

]<■■;.! Serophalarir.ea'. H. This re- 
eommou foxglove, Ih pin puna. (Vil- 

Fargesii, Franehet. (It It 

Dipladenia Sauderi, Hemsiev. </;. C. 
Disa pulchra, sond.-v. (G.( : \ :>9», 

Dracaena 1': 
Eigouts, Belgium.) 

Draperia systyla, Ton 

Echeveria Purpusi, 

Echinocereus plioraieeus > • in- 

Colorado. (L. Spaeth, Itixdorf- 


er,",>°s' betw< n' E." Endrc, <> 

Epidendrnm xipheroides, 

♦Dischidia hirsuta, 

I:ir<re rose-coloui 
(L. Spath, Berlii 

glabellas var. mollis, A. 

', ■,■!>■ ,!. 1M)0, xlix., 81.) Com- 
H. A pubescent variety with 

Erigeron hybridus roseus. (ill. H. 

1*96 Sol, f. 26.) H. A garden 


■ trunk I (t. in 
t the base. 15m :i 
■itli persistent spines. Ra< 

i near ally of E. caffra. 


etc. H. A distinct specie, u 
reddish-pink flowers, deeper 

ue. Southern Oregon. (Walh 

1896,45.) Amaryllideac. G. A g 

Eulophiella peetersiana. ( g. <»»! 

1896, 51 I.) Ol h > .\ 

posed new species, described as havi 

axillarv spikes. The rhizomes are tl 
Iris-like and yellowish-white; 1 
meter at^eba 


*Fraxinus anomala, Torrey. (ilf. D. 

G. ISlifj, 26.) Oleaceae. II. A small 

single broadly ovate leaflet. Colorado, 

Fritillaria Bornmulleri, Hausskn. 

for plant described in New Garden 

L. Lind. 

Geonoma siesmayeriana, 

(Lind. Cat. 1896, 17.) P 

not given. (LTIorticulture Intcrna- 
tionale, Brussels.) 

Geophila picta, Roife. (A', b. 1896, 

trate plant with ovate oblong leaves 

British Guiana. (F. Sander & Co.) 
Gerbera viridifolia, sd.. Bip. (G<mi. 

This species bear- white "!l'o'»,'I -'h, :,d 
1 , : inches in width, on scapes 1 ft. in 
height. Leaves, inverted, lanceolate 
with long stalks. S. Africa. (Cam- 
bridge B. G.) 

*Geum Heldreichii. (J. of M. 1896, 

xxxii., is:.) liosacecc. H. Said to 
be a variety of G. montanum with 
deep orange red flowers. Greece. 

Gongora portentosa var. rosea, Cogn. 

(L. 1896, t. 508.) Orchidea-. S. A 
form with sepals and petals bright rose- 
purple with small purplish spots, lip 


2 in. broad; racemes si.\ -flowered ; 
flowers yellowish with rose-coloured 
spots. IVru. (F. Sander & Co.) 

low flower-heads. Western 
I 'nited States. (L. Spath, Berlin.) 

, Hook. f. a 

allied to H. dig 

in 'the much laro 

*Haworthia xipbiophylla, Baker. 

(B. M.t. 7505.) Lifiackc. G. This 

Cape Colony. (Kew.) 

(Gfl. 1896, 162.) Ranunci 
H. A form differing from the t 

its hin?e bluish-black flowers. 
Frocbel, Zurich.) 

form differing from the type in having 
pure white flowers. (Haage & Schmidt, 

♦Hibiscus Archeri. (G. and F. 1896, 
324.) Malvaceae. G. A garden hybrid 
between H. Rom-siiimsis and //. schi 
zopetalus. (Kew.) 

Liud. (///. H. 1896, 370, t. 72.) 
Amaryllidese. S. Segments narrow, 
salmon-colour tinted with rose appar- 
ently netirly allied to //. tudivum. 
Brazil. (L'Horticulture Internationale, 

*Homalopetaluni jamaicense, Rolfe. 
(O. R. 1896, 204.) Orchidea?. S. A 

dwarf habit, the rhizomes creeping, 
pseudobulbs -{- in. long, leaves mate. 
$ in. long, peduncle 1 in. long, bearing 

long. It is figured in Huulu-r's lc~ PI. 

Idria columnaria, Kellogg, (f*. H. N. 

1*90, i., LIS.) Tiimariscinoac. G. A 
fornia. (Paris B. G.) 

*Iris albopurpurea, Baker. (#. M. 

from Japan with /. leu 


is assyriaca, Hausskn. (Gard. 1 
xlix., 265.) k. A 

species belonging 

form. (Max Leichtlm, liadea liaden.) 

Iris Lortetii alba. (W. G. 1896, 

137.) H. II. A form I 

the type in its pure white [lowers. 
(Dammann & Co., Naples.) 

Iris paravar. Fost 
xxxii., 536.) H. 
between J. paradoa 
(M. Fosler.) 


^rect instead of horizont dh 

Juniperus virginiana reptans. (M. 

296, f. ; M. D. G. 1896, 

Juniperus virginiana 

(G/7. 1896, 162.) II. A form of com- 
pact, pyramidal habit, and with bluish 
gray leaves. (Otto Froebel, Zurich.) 

*Kendrickia Walkeri, Thw. (G. C. 

1896, xx., :u>4.) Melastomaceaj. S. 
Described as one of the m 

of Ceylon plants. It is :l climber with 



pufpl. lines : m.l a criins 

Laelia autunmalis Fournieri, E. 

Andre, (li. H. 1896, 547, t.) Alar-. 
flowered dark coloured variety. (M. L. 
Fournier, Marseilles.) 

Laelia pumila delicata. (G. C. 1896, 

white flowers. (F. Sander & CoO PUrC 

Laelia purpurata ashworthiana. 

with broad petals ,■,'.,,,, lv d purple ins'e 
and striped with white. (E. Ashworth.) 

Laelia purpurata Lewisii. (G. c. 

the\ip. C (W. L. Lewis & Co.) C *"" 
Laelia purpurata, vais. (Lind. Cut. 

18!' 0, 17-52. )_ A number of varieties 

■ ■. 
culture Internationale, Brussels.) 

Laelio-cattleya Ghislainiae. {O. a. 

hybrid b, tween /, , ' . 

Cuttlnjti Prinzii. < A. Van Imschoot. 


Laelio-cattleya highburyensis. (G. 
hybrid between Laelia cinnabarina and 
Cattleya lawrenciana. (J. Chamber- 

the name. ( M. Fowl 

Laelio-cattleya wargnya 

Lanmm subulatum, 

hirsuta * Sullivantii. 

Ladx dahurica var. japonica, Maxim. lf - A ^• nl,n hybrid. (Arnold 

(M. 1). (i. 1895, 28.) Conifer;.'. II. boretum.) 

Wuish-gLn Tea^ the (X. '^kurilenS, * L ° wia Jongiflora, S<o, * .(6.G1 

*Lavatera insularis. 

Mexico. (T. S. Brandegee, BuI1-) 

*Lednm glandulosum, Nnrt. i .V 
G. 189b\ 19.) Ericaceae. H. ' 
differs from L.latifoliuw und A.;.<i/-/ 

*Macrotomia cephalotes, A. DC. 

a heeseana, 3 

Masdevallia Curio 


1818, and preserved in the Kew Her- 
barium. Leaves two to a bulb, spreading 

<m the surface of the ground. Umbel 
of white green tipped flowers sessile in 
the centre of the two leaves. Orange 
Free State. (Kew.) 

Maxillaria striata grandiflora, 

deep blue petals. (O. Ames, J 

Oberonia Myosurus, Lindi. 


Odontoglossum andersonianum Kit- 

•• ,.. ( r;. <; is-..,-,. „ N . 

358.) G. A variety with lai-e ho.d- 
petalled well-formed flowers, ereaim 
white, tinged with purple and spotted 
with red-brown. (J. H. Kitson.) 

hybrid with pale yellow flowers blotched 

Morus nigra globosa. C/ w - ]) - { 

Nepenthes Pervillei, 

1896, xx., 239.) Ne 
green oblimceolate lei 1 

pitchers 8 in. Seychelh 

*Nephelapbyllum cristati 

Odontoglossum crispum augustum. 


ossum crispum calos. ( i> 

Odontoglossum crispum 

Odontoglossum crispum jiuneli 

Nymphaea ai 

crispum Meleagris 

stellata eastoniensis. Odontoglo 

A variety with the flowers of an v 
form sulphur-yellow colour. (R. 

Odontoglossum crispum 
(G. C. 1896, 

Montoglos- (</. 

Inn ni.-it! : ah . 

Odontoglossum excellens luteolum. 

i o. /.'. i^;.2h.) (, 

sulphur-yellow flowers without the 

In i. v blotches of the type. (Baron 

glossum wilckeanum olivare. 

>. 1896, 40.) A new variety of 

ternationale, Brussels.) 
Odontoglossum wilckeanum rufum. 

Odontoglossum Halli 

hybrid between the 1 

Odontoglossum hunnewellianuni 
grandiflorum. (L. 1896, t. 545.) A 

Odontoglossum luteo-purpureum 

ashworthianum, O'Brien 

with \.-i;..\V 

is, petals broad cream; 
,«.. red-brown spots ; li] 

Columbia. (E. Ashworth.) 

>dontoglossum Eos 

L. Lind. (L. II 

biginosum O, 

A natural hybrid 
1 m. Flowers light 

ispum. I *01yra cone 

Hook. f. (B. M. t. 

bricating, distichous leaves an 
inch long. Costa Eica. (Kew.) 

icidium godseffianum, Kriinzi. 

:i .. 7 .VI.) Urchhleic. 
A new -[Hu'ii< resembling (). puhes, 
differing in its small- r flowers mid in 

branching. Hab. — V (F. !Sa: 

Opuntia rhodantha, K 

Cacteaj. H. 
Colorado. (L. 

Opuntia tetracantha, J. 

Odontoglossum spectabile. (G. ft 

supposed natural hybrid resembling 
O. excellens; flowers yellow spotted 

Odontoglossum troyanofskyanum, 

L. Lind. (L. lH'.tf,, t. ,V4<>.) A sup 

I'.srtilnn-i and ' O. triumphant. 
(L'Horticulture Internationale, Brus- 

Odontoglossum varicosum gigan- 
teum? (<?. ft 1896, 

Flowers much larger than in the type. 
(Sir F. Wigan.) 

ui revolutum, 

An' ally of 

K. Si'liumiuiu. 
. Thi- species 

ovary. Colo- 


.e blotch 

1 K.- 


See. Upper 

ftorea " 

nch longer narrc 
eaves, by the 1 

Paris B. G. 


i. long and greenish- 

*Pentstemon secundiflorus, Benth. 

(G,trd. IS!;i;, xli\.. -178.) Scrophu- 

larinae. II. A pretty sp 

flowers, which are suffus. d 

on the upper surface. Colorado. (Kew.) 

*Pentstemon Watsoni, A. Gray. (Gfl. 
1896, 77.) H. A dwarf-growing com- 
pact species with roundish leaves and 
racemes of blackish-blue flowers. Colo- 
rado. (Herb & Wulle, Naples.) 

Perezia sonchifolia, Baker. 

H. A 


nbigua, H 


substance and dark green in colour." 

Plectocomia crinita, L. Lind. j (Lind. 

given. (L'Horticulture Internationale, 

Polystachyavillosa, Cogn. (./. o.\«w. 

Potentilla dahnrica 

(M. I). G 1896,49.) 
L hybrid between the tw 


Philodendron robustum 

l)i scribed as a speci 

D. G. 

about half as tall-growing as P.fniti- 

Potentilla parvifolia, Fischer, (.v. 
I). (,. hM,j.;.i li. A! .i ..ih- 
CL. Sp.uh, Berlin'.) 

Primula floribunda grandiflora. 

much larger flowers. (Han 

Prunus curdica, Fritach. (M. D. G. 

Asia Minor. (L. Spiith, Berlin.) 

*Prunus snbhirtella, Miqueh (B. M. 


(/?. Sf.t. 747; 

Pittosporea*. G. 1 
shortly-stalked leave 
cles of fragrant golder 

frond being of unusual leathery 

Pteris Childsii. ( 

Filices. <;. "Fn, 
much -ubdhide.l. 


Origin not stated. 

Pteris Drinkwateri. (G. C. m 

592.) G. I'mbabh ., .ecllui- 
.. «ith fronds 2 ftili 

*Pterisanthes polita, Miq. (G. < 

XT., 182.) AtnpelidoiP. S ,\ 

^..1,1,-n vfllow. (L. Spilth, Berlin.) 

Quercus palustris Reichenbachi 

( M. I), (i. 1S9«,27.) < 

lir t opening. ( II. Wendlmid, Ilerren- 

Restrepia sangninea, Roife. (A'. B. 

IS'.m;, 4 I.) Orchidea-. G. A new 

ofthesamelength. Colombia. (Charles- 
Rhipsalis robnsta, G. A. Lindb. (M. 

A. 1896, 53.) Cacteac. G. A South 

Rhododendron Falconen * niveui 

(C. ('. isy«;, six., 702.) Ericaceae < 

Rhododendron halopeanum. (A 1 

hybrid betwe! ■ /? "J"'" "<"» < ' ' 
urh„r,;,m. (M. Halo,.*'. Cherbourg.) 

Rhododendron^ Luscoi, 
Differs ftom the type in 1 

Rhododendron nobilius.^ ^<<- J'-^ 

*Salvia schiedeana, Stapf. ( 
I89fi, 19.) Labiatas. G. Anew 
with hairy steins a foot high ;m< 

Sambncus racemosa plnmosa aur< 

*Sarcochilus hainanensis, 

*Sarracenia Sanderae. (G. 

& Co.) 
*Saxifragaafghanica, Aitch. i 

{Cur,!. is»«, xlix., 260.) Sa: 

Sedum englerianum, Graebner. (TV. 

/>'. 1896, 186.) Crassulaceae. H. A 
densoly-cacspitose species probably 
nearly allied to 5. dasyphyllnm or N. 

Sidalcea malvseflora Listen. < <■■>>,;. 

Sobralia Brandtiae, 

Ribes snccirnbrmn. 

nd • habit and general aspect scarcely dis- 

fastiffiata, ! tinguishable from S. japonica, but 
196 177 «. differing marked in its fruits. Japan. 


Todea arborea 

, -ab 

terrestial plant wit] 

Selenipedium Verdieri. {J. O. iss 
100.) Orchidese. A 

Solanum Farini, 

dlllci. M I) I. IS!» . ■> 
A>h with . ■ 

*Stephanandra Tanakae, 

Trichomanes Fraseri. Jenm. («. 

;reen naked fronds whi 

are sub-flab 


Ulmus campestris umbraculifera 

nova. (M. D. G. 1896, 28) 

Frtieaeea'. 11. This has smaller 

, nbn.r,,/;/,',;,. ,1. Spiith. Merlin.)' 


i. M. t. 74t)b.) Lentihuhuie. 

handsome speci 

large pale 

Taxus floridana, 

Vanda Bensoni 

Thunia alba gigantea. {Sand. Cat. 

1890, 17.) Orehidea-. S. Flowers 
larger than in the t\pe. pure white, the 
lip golden yellow. (F. Sander & Co.) 

Thuya occidentalis Elwangeriana 

aurea. (,M. D. G. 1896, 28.* Coni- 
( L. Spiith, Merlin.) 

Thuya occidentalis Wagne r i . ' / ' < 

Vanda kimballiana 

Tigridia Pavonia a 

Tube'i-e, , juni , IliiarlJin ) ' 

*Tigridia Pavonia flava. 

; ana, Munsen. (G. and F. 
1896, 454, f. 59.) Ampelidese. H. A 
very hardy vine with hoary white leaves 
and branches. Texas. 

Watsonia iridifolia Ardemei. 

A white flowered subvariety of W. 

Mtriana. It is identical with W. 

Brieni. See New Garden 

Plants for 1889. (E. Wallace & Co.) 

Zamia noeffiana, L. Lind. (Lind. Cat. 





LIST of the STAFFS of the ROYAL GARDENS, Kew, and 
of Botanical Departments and Establishments at Home, 
and in India and the Colonies, in Correspondence with 

* Trained at Kev. t Hecoi lenUb K >w. 

Royal Gardens, Kew :— 

KtM- 1 KT«.fHrrl.iinmn:iii.l John liilbert Baku-, F.R.S.. 

I'rimipal.Wistanti l'li;iiM-n.-;uns) -William Hotting H«>mslrv, 

Honorary Keeper, Jodrell La- 

) Dukinfield Henry 


boratory - 

1 F.R.S., M.A.. Ph.D. 

, F.L.S. 

Keeper of Mu 

John Reader .Jackson, 


Assistant (Mu 

seum) - 

John Masters Hillier. 


George Badderly. 

Curator of the 

i Gardens 

George Nicholson, A.L.S. 

Assistant Curator 

William Watson. 

Foremen : — 


•William J. Bean. 


Department - 

* Walter Irving. 


and Ornamental 

Frank Garrett. 



Temperate House 

*William Dallimore. 




University Botanic 

Garden : — 

Professor - 

- Henry Marshall Wa, -d, 

M.A., Sc.D., 



Secretary to Botanic | Walter Gardinei 

■, M.A., 

Garden Syndicate j F.K.S. 


- "Richard Irwin 


ivd-ri.-k W. M.mmv 


Antigua. (See Leeward Islands.) 
Barbados— Dodd's Reformatory, Botanic Static 

British Guiana.— Botanic Gardens :— 
Georgetown - Superintendent and J - 
Government Bo- 
Head Gardener - f« 
Second „ *'. 
Promenade Garden : — 
Head Gardener - ' 
Berbice - - Keeper - - - ] 

British Honduras.— Botanic Station :— 

Ottawa - 

Dominion Botanist 

Prof. .lohn Macoun, 
M. A., P. R. S. C., 

Montreal - 

Assistant „ 

1 Hivctor of Govern- ' 
ment Fxperi- j 
mental Farms. j 

Botanist and Ento 

Director. Universit 
Botanic Garden. 

Jas. M. Macoun. 

Prof. "Win. Saunders,, F.L.S. 

James Fletcher, F.L.S. 
Prof. D. P. Penhallow, 

Cape Colony.- 

Prof. MacOwan, F.L.S. 


"Iluirli McMillan. 

Hakgala - 

Henaratgoda - 
Badulla - 


\V. de Alwis 

AVilliani Xoek. 

Dominica, (& 

. Leonard i.h„„l,., 

Falkland Islands.— Government Hon 

e Garden .— 

Fiji— Botanic Station :— 

- *Daniel Yeoward. 

Gambia.— Botanic Statio 


- •Walter Haydon. 

Gold Coast.— Bol uric Si 

ation :- 

- "Charles Henry Hun 

Grenada.— Botanic Gard< 


- "Walter E. Broadway. 

Hong* Kong-.— Botanic a 

lid AH\» 

restation Department :— 

it- - fCharles Ford, F.L.S, 


mt Sup, 

arinten- *W. J. Tutcher. 

Jamaica.— Department o 

f Publi( 

hardens an- 1 Plantations :- 


>p - 

- tWilliam Fawcett, 
B.Sc, FL.S. 

Hope Gardens - Super i 


it- - » William Crad wick. 

Castleton Garden 

- •William J. Thompson 

Cinchona (Hill 

• "William Harris. 


Kingston Parade 

- «*<** Campbell. 

King's House 


Bath - - - Overse 

- W. Groves. 

Leeward Islands.— B 
Antigua - - Acti 
Dominica - - Can 
St. Kitts-Nevis - Hea 

Mauritius.— Dei 
Pamplemousses • 

Montserrat. (See Leeward [slands.) 

Head Gardener - 
Pietermaritzburg Curator 

New South Wales.— Botanic Gai 
Sydney - - Director - 

New Zealand :— 

Wellington -Colonial Botanic Gar. 

Dunedin - - Superintend 
Napier - - „ 

Invercargill - Head Garde 

Head Gardener - 

John Medley Wood, 

•James Wylie. 
•William Thorpe. 

G. Mitchell. 

Sir .lames Hector. 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
G. Gibb. 
J. McBean. 
W. Barton. 
Thomas Waugh. 
William G oldie. 
•Ambrose Taylor. 

Rockhampton - 
St. Kitts-Nevis. 
St. Lucia.— Botan 

St. Vincent.— 15o 

Sierra Leone.— F 

South Australia.- 
Adelaide - - T 
Port Darwin - ( 

Straits Settlements.— Gardens and barest Department :- 
Singapore - - Director - - - fll. N. Ridley, M., 
Assistant Superinten- *Walter Fox. 

Penang - - Assistant Superiuten-- fCharles Curtis, F. 

Perak (Kuala Kangsar).— Government Gardensand Plantation 
Superintendent- - Oliver Marks. 

„ (Taiping)- „ - - •Robert Derry. 

Trinidad.— Royal Botanic Gardens :— 
Superintendent - 

Melbourne- -Curator - - - W. R.Guiltoyle, F.L.S. 
National Herbarium :— 

Curator - - - J. G. Lnehmann, F.L.S. 

Western Australia.— 


iotanical Survey.— l 

Bengal, Assam, Burma 
East Frontier Fxped 

•l-s; 1 '" 

LL.D., C.I.F., 
•bars : North- 
King, M.D., 

■«;;„ i 

North-Western Provinces and Oudh ; the Punjab ; the Central 
Provinces ; Central India ; Rajput-ana ; North- West Frontier 
Expeditions :— 

Director of the Bo- 1 

tanic Department, , L F Duthie, B A., 
Northern India, > v t « 

Reporter on Econo- ~\ 

mic Products to | Geor „ e Watt? M.I 
the Government )- ^ ^ CLE.. F.L.£ 

BenffaL— Department of Royal Botanic Gardens: — 

- Geerire Kin-, M.D., 
LL.D., CLE., F.R.S., 
Curator of Her- i David Prain, M.B., 

barium - -\ F.L.S., F.R.S.E. 
Curator of Garden - *G. T. Lane. 
Assistant „ - *H. J. Davies. 
Probationer - *George H. Cave. 

Calcutta -Agri-Horticultural Society of India :— 

Secretary - - P. Lancaster. 
Muagpoo - Supcnnt,,,,.™* Go- j George King, M.D., 

Darjeeling.-Llnv<l \\ 

otanic Garden :— 

*William A. Kennei 

Darbhangah— Mahar 

ajah's Garden :— 

Herbert Thorn. 


!tnre — ^ 

*G. Marshall Woodr 


Central Provinces.— 
Nagpur - - Superi 

Madras. — Botanic Department : — 

Ootacumund - Government Botanist 

Director of Govern- ) 

ment Cinchona [ W. M. Standen. 
Plantations. J 

Curator of Gardens * Robert L. Proudlock. 
and Parks. 

Madras.— Agri-Hortk-ultund Society :— 

Hon. Secretary - - Dr. A. G. Bourne. 
Superintendent - *J. M. Gleeson. 

Native States.— 
Mysore (Bangalore) Superintendent 
Baroda - - „ 

Gwalior - - ,, 

Travancore(Trivandrum) „ 
Udaipur - - „ 

*J. Cameron, F.L.S. 
Hi. II. Kruml.u-vl. 
tC Maries, F.L.S. 
*Joseph Beck. 

North-West Provinces- 
Agra (Taj Garden) Superint. 
Allahabad - - „ 

Cawnpur - - „ 

Kumaon (Ramghur) „ 

Saharanpur and ) 

Branch Garden, [ 

Mussoorie. ) 

M. Phillips. 

(x. B. T. Mayer. 
•F. W. Seers. 
* Matthew Ridley. 

William Gollan. 

[All Rights Reserved,] 





APPENDIX II.— 1897. 





Information is issued as an occasional publication from 
the Royal Gardens at Kew. 

The ' : Bulletin " is printed for Her Majesty's Stationery 
Office, and published by Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode, at 
East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.C., and 32, Abingdon 
Street, S.W., and it may be obtained directly from them 
or through any Bookseller. 

Price Fourpence per copy. By post : 5d. per copy. 

Back numbers, previous to January 1893, twopence per 
copy, when available. 

The Price of the Annual Volume of the " KEW 
BULLETIN " for each year, with rates of postage, is as 
follows : — 

The Annual Volumes for 1887 to 1890 are out of print 
and cannot now be supplied. 

The Index to the first five volumes, being Appendix IV., 
1891, may !,•• n, :■] separately, price 2d. 

The Bulletin is also sold by John Menzies and Co., of 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Hodges, Figgis, and Co., 
Limited, of Dublin. 






The number of garden plants annually described in botanical and 
horticultural publications both Kmrli-h and foreign, is now so consider- 
able that it has b.-en thought desirable lo publish a complete list of them 
in the Keio Bulletin each year. The following list comprises all the 
new introductions recorded during lsDii. These lists arc indispensable 
to the maintenance of a correct nomenclature, especially in tin- smaller 
botanical establishments in correspondence with K.-w. which are. as a 
rule, only scantily provided with horticultural p riodkala. Such a list 
will also afford information iv-spe.-: ulrivation at 

this establishment, many of which will be distributed from it in the 
regular course ot exchange with other botanic gardens. 

The present list include- not only plants brought 

thefirsi ti 

ine during 1896, hi 

it the most note 

worthy o: 

E those which hftVB 

m. Other plants 

al years, but either 

described or their 

t been a 

uthenticated until 


In addition to species au 

hybrids, whether 


or of garden origi 

u, with botanical names 

and described for 

the first ti 

me in 1896, are in< 

rfuded. It has 

thought desirable, 

however, t 

o give authorities 

after the names 

genera as 

Cypriptdiiim, &c. 

Mere garden 


Coleus, CodifB-um or Xarciss 

us are omitted for obvious 

In every 

- case the plant is 

cited under its 


■d nam" -dtho'-gh 

some of th- 

> names are doubtf 

ully correct. W 

here, hov 

-/;. /;, -nuiic: 

of New Plants, 1896. B. T. 0.— Bulleiin., delhi 11. Sooirta Toscana «li 
Orticultura. 7?«// Cctf.— Bull, Catalogue of New. Beam iful, and Hair- 
Plants. Gard.— The Garden. G. C.— Gardeners' Chronicle. 6?. 
and F. — Garden and Forest, ({ft. — Gartenflora. G. M. — Gardeners' 
Magazine. III. H. — LTllustration Horticole. Jard. — Le Jardin. J. 
of H. — Journal of Horticulture. J. H. F. — Journal de la Societe 
nationals d'bortienlture de France. J. 0. — Journal des Orchidees. 
K. B. — Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Royal Gardens, Kew. L. 
— Lindenia. Lent. Cat. — Lemoine, Plantes Nouvelles. Lind. Cat. — 
L'Horticulture Internationale, Cainlogtie. .1/. I), (,'.- -Mitteilungen der 
Heutsehen DendrologisehenGesellsehaft. M. G. Z — M oiler's Deutsche 
( larlner-Zeitung. M. K. — Mwnai-sc ■. N. B. — 

N'oii/ltlai.t des Konigl. botanischen Garten und Museums zu Berlin- 
N. G. M. — Dr. Neubert's Garten-Magazin. O. R. — Orcliid Eeview. 
R. H.— Revue Horticole. R. H. B.— Eevue de l'Horticulture Beige. 
Sand. Cat.— Sanders' Catalogue of New Plants, 1895. Spaeth Cat.— 
L. Spaeth, General Nursery Catalogue. Y'citih Cat. — Veitch & Sons, 
Catalogue of Plants. TV. G. — Wiener Illustrirte Garten-Zeitung. 

The abbreviations in the descriptions of the plants are: — ft. — 
Foot or Feet. G.— Greenhouse.— H. Hardy. H. H.— Half Jjardy. 

Abies grandis pendula. CM. D. G. 

^^896, 28.) Coniferae. H. A weeping 
Spiitn, Berlin. 
Acalypha ! 

Acanthophippium eburneum, 

Malaya ? (P. 

Acer Duretti aureo-marginatum. 

(M. I). (,. 1896, 79.) H. A form with 

leaves margined and dotted \\ irli % eilou . 

Acer Ginnala, Max 

3 described bv Coun 

Acer Negundo 

Acer Negundo horeale. {M. 


L. Lind. & Cogn. {J. O. 

by cold. (H. Schroeder, Moscow.) 

Acer Negundo odessamim. (M. D. 

Acer campestre, var. postelense, R. 

^*stu<-he. iM. I). (,: 1896, 80.) Sapin- 
dacese. IT. A yellow-leu ved tWin of 

x., 75; 6. and F. 

S. A variety of 
:rowded imbricating 
West Indies. (J. ( 

Aerides Fieldingi album. (£. isog, t. Aloe Hoyeri. (M. K. u 

5:!8.) OrH.idnr. S, \ f..rn..liflVrin S A -ranl.n livbri.l b«twe. 

from the tv].. rtiht and /.omalopiu/llnm 

Aloe hybrida gloriosa. 

*Akebia lobata, 

loe Lapaixii. ( v. A iss 

Aloe Quehlii. <".y. A. 

Amaranthus Dussii, 

) Amaranthus superb 

i ui, r. 1 

Anchusa affinis, R. Br. 

Aloe Chludowii. 

Angraecum Fournierae, 

Aloe cyanea. (M- A 
Aloe de Laetii. < .1/ 

Anthurium triumpha 

"-Araliacese. H. 

variegated leaves. (Pete 
Co., Bergedorf, Germany.) 

Arctostaphylos nevadensis. A. Gray. 

(J&. B. G. 1896, 18.) Ericaceae. H. 
A prostrate evergreen bush with ovate 
leathery leaves and short racemes of 
reddish flowers. Sierra Nevada. 

Artemisia frigida, wind. (M. D. G. 

Aspidium cristatum 

8.) Filices. 


differing chiefly in its longer stipe, 
trorse lower pinnae, larger son and 1 
convolute inarjjius. Missouri. (G. 


Aster Vilmorini, Faiaoh. (./. H. F. 
species remarkable for its large flower- 

Astragalus gilgianus, Graebner. 

B. 1896, 185.) Leguminosa:. h 

-XP&rennial with silvery leaves and 

^ray-violet flowers. Nearly relat, 

A. rretaceus, A. wjtn.pif.dho an 

p$r- A * r - " 

Baccharis trimera, DC. («. H 

51.) Begoniacese. A tea 

between B. Burkei and B decora. (J. 


carminata. ( I 

ff. A garden hybrid between 
i and B Dregei. (J. Veitch 

*Begonia odoratissima, 

Begonia Rex 

hybrids raided 

decora. (Jard. 
; described. (MM. 

I in having her- 

plant both in habit 
maphrodite flowers, 
alternate large reniform or peltate 

male white flowers with a few female 
and bisexual ones. Brazil. (F.- Sander 

Berberis pruinosa, Franchet. (G. and 

F. 1896, 67.) Berberideffi. H. A 
• the new growth, the under- ^ 

flowers sulphur yellow."' Y 

Bertonerila. {Lind. Cat.l 

Melastomacea'. Several vai 
hybrid between l'„ rh>!,mi„ a 
are here described and fijrurt 
tieulture Internati 

Billbergia Binoti, 

I-'.m;, 7lU.) [iron. 


near B- speciosa, Thunb. Leaves in a 

riute.l with reddish-purple, undersurface 
light green lined with white. Inflor- 
escence pendulous, stem, bracts, &c. red. 
Organ Mountains, Brazil. (Lyons B. G.) 

*Bocconiamicrocarpa, Maxim. (G,,rd. 

1896, L., 197.) Papavenu.v;e. H. A 
lianilsorne .peeic. attaining the height 

plume-like panicle, not unlike the Vene- 
tian Sumach. N.China. (Kew.) 
Brodiaea ixioides erecta. (Gurd. 

flowers. (Wallace & Son.] 
Brodiaea Orcnttii, Bakei 


*Bryanthus Breweri, A. Gray. (3f. / 

IX G. 1896, 19.) Ericaceae. H. A A 

charming dwarf evergreen shrub with 
crowded narrow leaves, and short ra- 
cemes of purple-red flowers. California. 

Bulbophylhim attennatum, Boife. 

{K.B. 1896, 45.) Orchideae. S. A 
new species with a flower scape 9 in. 
long, bearing flowers an inch across 
and coloured purple. Borneo. 

(I. 'Horticulture Internationale, Brus- 

*Bulbophyllum longiscapum, RoKe. 

{K. B. 1896, 45.) S. A new species 

across coloured hi: lit ^tiyii Willi a r.d 
purple lip. Fiji. (Kew.) 

Bulbophylhim orthoglossum, Wendi. 

& Kranzl. ((,. < . 1896. \ix.. .°>'26.) 
species allied to B. man- 

lip purple. Saranga Island. (H< 
Bulbophyllum 1 

(G. C. 1896, xix. 

and C. isophylla alba. (Balchin & 
Campanula regina, Alboff. (G. C. 

1896, xix., 648.) [This is C. mirahilis, 

Carrieria calycina, French. (2?. H . 

tree attaining a height of about 50 ft., 
with the general aspect of Iclrsitt poll/- - 

China. (Paris B. G.) 

Catasetum semiroseum, G. Beck. 

(11. (i. 1896. 12 1, t. 4.) Orchideae. 
8. Petals and sepals whitish or bright 
red; lip greenish white, carmine- 
coloured at the base. One of the 

hybrid C. splendens, Cogn. 

*Catasetum splendens, Cogn. (Z. 

forms of this natural hybrid are figured 

Pseudo- Catasetum splendens 

n splendens aureo-macu- 

//. 1896. 91, t. ;.4.) S. 

■■- ■ 

•Caesalpinia bicolor, C. H 

hi pi i ; the branches thorny, 

> stained with deep 

fine Brazil-wood, ' 

Calanthe albata. (G. c. 1896, xx, 

602.) Orchidere. S. A garden hy- 
Cookmmi. (F. 

Banneri. (O. R. 

. variety with the 
ffused with bright 

purple. (E. Ashwo 

Cattleya granulosa 

sepals and petals si 
lurid purple, the flo 
across. (S. Banner.; 

Cattleya inter medio - Loddigesii 

(G. C. 1896, xix., 593.) G. A sup- 

W. Rothschild.) 
Cattleya intermedio-flava. (#. H. 

IS96, 549.) <;. A ga 

Cattleya lauremossiae. 

(It. B. " 

(G. C. 

A garden hybrid between C. fragilh 

Cattleya Mathoniae, i>. 

hybrid ^between C. llos 

Moortebeek, Belgium. 


ittleya maxima flonbunda. (L. Ckantaeoeuce 

1896, t 506) A fine form u-ith bright , t , „ ,,.' v . . ^ 

rose-coloured flower., 1,,, cnmson purple ■ ||t „, ,, |t 

Cattleya Mendelii balliana. (Sand. \ _, . .,,... ,, ... 

I ■ ■,// is'h; ., Addisonii, Bntton 

Cattleya Trianae. (£-. 1896, tt. 53 

A series of varieties are figure- 


Clematis Suksdorfii, liobinson. (G. 

*Ccelogyne balfouri 

40.) A form with large flowers ; sepal 

and petal- very pale ru-e. tlie rounded the flowers heing coloured cinnamon, 

*Celmisia Munroi, Hook. t. ( /;. M. \ Sander & Co) 

1 :, ' m ■' J '' Ccelogyne lauterbachiana, Eranzl. 

golden vellmv. ray -timet- white. \e ,. "> 's. Sepals' and 

Chamaedorea gratissima, I- Liud. pm-pii-h. niv.n not stated, d/itor- 

Ccelogync \ 

adllJltr to the leafstalk. 1 !n«,T, l,l;i, ' 

Cirrhopetalum graveolens, itaih-v. \\ , 

(O.K. 1890, :{OS.) Orchidea:. S. A commercial value. 

*Colchicum cili / 

yellow flowers. Transvaal. (Kew 

Crinum Lesemanni, G. Beck. (IT 

lowers of this species appear together, j A garden hybrid between C loui/i- 
]oleus spicatus Rondiner 

Cncurbita andreana, ' 

Cohitealon^ahta.K , "■'>■<.- iV'^.V 

/hablya'V nlula I Uruguay. (Ed.. 

*Comanthosphacejaponica, i 

Cupressus goweniana compacta. bd 

A n,:,v . ,/>'.//. 1896,8. f.U Con,- y 
Offering from ^ 

,.;:■.< e la lie,-, date rlarh -reel) 'leaves a Ti « I midal habit. (M. Allard, Ang< 

Lowio- eburneum. 

*Coriaria japonica, 

japonica, \.(ira\. (/>'. M. iudieatcd in the namo. l'bt revei 

Cornus alba Rosenthali. 

♦Cornus corynostylis 

<?„„/. , 18 ^: ;; , ,! 7 > . ,;.", ;„ ; : p;n :;,• Cypripedium goultenianum. (»'«J- 

^^^ "• A ' , „ ' • <V 1S'.«6 'J-.) A Harden hvhnd 

•^ Flowers golden yellow in numerous « -'"'■ ,.;•.: ' .,, ;, r ,.,.//,,,,„, 

otyledon Pnrpusii, K. Schumann. Cypripediuminsigne.WaU. (Z.i.-o. 

(JV.B. 1896, 161.) Orassulac^e. II. t. 510.) I In l..|l.mmg^ • tn > ■ 

Nearly allied to Evlwwia fun,,,,*,,. figured m work 


Cypripedium lawrencianum var. 

Vlriae, L. Linrl. (X. 1896, t. 546.) 
A variety with flowers much greener 

Cypripedium Lawrenceo-Regnieri. 
(M. Bleu, Paris.) 

Cypripedium palatinum. (W. G. 

' ' ,-'■■' 
Cypripedium Reginae. {G. C. 1896, 

\\., VU.) A garden hybrid between 

Cypripedium regnaldianuin . < > '<• » </■ 

iiu Sanderae, 

Cypripedium schoneldianum. >G M. 


( . hf.llaiulum an.l C. hir.suli.^inui,,,. 
(G. W. Schofield.) 

Davallia truffautiana. {G. M. 1896, 

ct specie- with la'.^e 

i- that the m.der surface i> like tin- 
upper." (L'llorti.'iiltui'e Internationale, 

*Debregeasia velutina, Gaud. {R. H. 

1 S'.tCt, :.i2 I , I . I i ■-. i I rticaceae. G. A 

iviih -talked ianccolate, serrate leaves 

!■ - 

Ka-: Indie-. < Paris !!. <T.) 

Dendrobium Arachnites, Reicl 

Dendrobium chloropterum. (G. ('. 

mu, mplnjlhiw ■ dowers greenish with a 
few purple linos mi the lip. Australia 

Dendrobium Curtisii. {Sand. Cat. 

Cypripedium villosum Truffautii. 

(G. C. 1896, vix., 10 1.) Leaves 

broader and timver- larger than in the 
type. (M. A. Trurtaut, Versailles.) 

type. South Africa. (F. Sa 
Cyrtochilum micranthum, 

(<7. ('. LS96, xx., 6.'$.) Orchid 

but -malh ■ h e-r.-.-i h -p. tt, d -, < , 

' the "'Fc?" e ' 

Cytdsus glabrescens, SartorelH. 

(.V I> (,. :-'">,-■ I.eguminosse. H. 
-""A small bush with bright yellow flowers 

cymbidioides. {G. 

long; scapes 9 in. erect, many 
ered ; flowers 2 in. across ; sepals 
petals narrow creamy-white ; lip 
1 white with parp 
.lava. ( Sir Trevor Lawrence.) 

Dendrobium holmesianum. (<•■ <' 

drriannm. ' (V. Hardy.) ' 

Dendrobium jennyanum, Kmnzi. 

( ,;. r. ls'jC. Vv.. W19.) G. A ^new 

Dendrobmm thyrsiflorum Lowii. Dracaena Rigoutsi 

Dendrobium Wiganiae. (G. 
Didymocarpus malayana, 

Kigouts, Belgium.) 

Draperia systyla, Torr (M, D. G. 

180G, 20.) ]lvd>o 1 ,i 1 Ul ;1 cva>. I!, li. 

./»/. Echeveria Pu 

Digitalis campanulata. (< 

P.: I - , i ri t !!. 

niorin, Aiulrinr:, & ( "•>., Pari-;. 

Dioscorea Fargesii, Franehet. 

tn four Ed Mebbesn, 

thn-o «f I Hii.i. (.v. <;. M. |v. 

ino>e 01 Cacte8c . (>. A form ,i ; 

no . ( j the type in its flesli-coWred flowers. 

Echinocereiis phoenicens *ar. in- 

Epidendrum atrorubens, Bolfe. 

China. (M. Maui 

Dipladenia Sanderi, 


ng Epidcndnnn xipheroides, 

*Discbidia hirsuta, 

Erigeron glabellus var. mollis, A. 


(L, Spitfa* Sriin.) 

igeron hybridus roseus. (IB. H. 

896, 301, f. 26.) H. A garden 


rina constantiana, 

not given. (L' 
tionale, Brussels.) 
Geophila picta, Rolfe. (K. B. 
18.) RubiacesB. S. A small 
trate plant with ovate oblong 1 
2 in. long., coloured dull green -n 

Gerbera viridifolia, Sch. Bi P . (Ga,d. 

1896, xlix., 162.) Composite. H. 

This species bear, white tlou rr-h.-^U 

*Erythronmm Johnsoni, 

(G. C. 1896, xix., 548 
Jiiliacecc. H. A disti 

^x^large reddish-pin' " 

flowers, deeper on 

Eulophiella peetersiana. (G.i 


.Madagascar ? (V. Sander & Co.) 

*Fraximis anomala, Tom -v. ( M. n. 

leaflet. Colorado, 


Fritillaria Bornmiilleri, Hans 

Geonoina siesmayeriana, 

Heldreichii. (•/• of H. 1896, 

., 187.) Rosacea-. 11. Said t.. , 
variety of G. montanum will. 

Gongora portentosa var. rosea, Cc 

(Z. 1896, t. 508.) ( >r 

Gongora sanderiana, Kranzl. 

18y6, xx., 456.) S. A new 
allied to G. portent 

flowers yellowish with rose-coloured 
spots. Peru. (F. Sander & Co.) 

<y - 

la Euthamiae, Ton-. & Gra^ 
(Jf. D. O. 1896, 88.) Composi 
)se plant with nai 
; and a profusion o 

Cnited States. ( L. Spiith, Berlin.)' 

Habenaria Elwesii, Hook. f. (B. M. 

t. 7478.) Qrehidea;. (i. This species 

: ■ • - 

long lobes of the lip, aud spur-like 

recesses. Nilghiri Hills. 

*Haworthia xiphiophylla, Baker. 

i/; V i 7 - ■ , Id, oT. (i. This 

by the leaves not bring at all pellucid 
or lineate. Cape Colony. (Kew.) 

Helleborus caucasicus var. nigri- > 

11. A form differing from the type iff 


form differing from the type in having 
pure white flowers . (Haage & Schmidt, 

jaliscanum, S. Wats. (C 

. 1896, 496.) Gesneraceae. C 
decumbent, pubescent ; leave 

Hippeastrum muesserianum, L. 

' H. 1896, 376, t. 72.) 

Amaryllideae. S. Segments narrow, 

entlv nearly allied I" If. iiiiliriim. 

*Homalopetalum i 

(O. It. 1896, 204.) 

habit, the rhizomes creeping, 
pseudobulbs | in. long, leaves ovate, 
£ in. long, peduncle 1 in. long, bearing 
one flower with linear segments l in. 
long. It is figured in Hookers I, . PI. 
t. 2461. Jamaica. C K ew.) 

Hoya Lauterbachii, K. Sebum, i m 

K. 1896, 9, f.) Asclepiadca?. S. A 
large-flowered specie-* with hairy stems. 

-~ie : 

Jimiperus Virginia 

L62.1 II. 

gray' leaves. (Otto Froebel, Zurich.) ' 

*Kendrickia Walkeri, Thw. CO. C. 

of Ceylon plant 

-T! 'I 


ovate fleshy 
rminal umbels 
,-ers Ceylon. 

Laelia anceps protheroeana. CO. C. 

1896, xix., 40.) Orchide;e. G. Sepals 

lobe. CJ- Broome.) 
Laelia autumnalis Fournieri, E. 

Andre. (Jt. If. 1896, 547,1.) \ large 
flowered dark coloured variety. (M. L. 
Founder, Marseilles.) 

Laelia pumila delicata. CO. C. 1896, 

fornia. CParis B. G.) 
*Iris albopurpurea, Baker. (B. M. 

t. 7511.) Iri.le.e. II. The nearest 

^^ally of this species is /. he.ragona, a 

native of the Southern United States. 

The speeies was introduced to Kew 

Hausskn. ((lard. 

Laelia purpur; 

with broa.i 

ia ptirpnrata Lewisii. (G. C. 

v.. x.v. .-..;, ;. Flnu-ors wholh white, 

re a few faint lin. I 

e lip. (W. L. Lewis & Co.) 


Laelio-cattleya Ghislainise. CO 

1896, 39.) Qrchidese. G. A gai 

Iris parayar. Foster. {J. of H. 


H. A garden hybrid 

Laelio-cattleya highburyensis. 

C. 1896. xix., 468.) G. A gai 

Laelio-cattleya velutino - elegans. *Lmospadix Michohtzii, Ridley. 

(G. C. 1896, xx., 360.) G. A garden (Son*. Cat. 1896, 50.) Palmar. S. 

' smb.-din the Garden 

the name. (M. Fournier, Marseilles 

Laelio-cattleya wargnyana. (/>• l 


thr in a large tuft. They i 

Larix dahurica var. japonica, M ;• 

*Lavatera insularis. (G 

i ft. through w 

*Lowia longiflora, Sco 

*Ledum glandulosum, Nutt. iM. /> 
11. This 



*Macrotonria cephalotes, 

iria heeseana, 

wit,, /.. 

asdevallia Curie; 

Lilium szeclmense, i 

red "flowers allied to 
iTXL. sutckuenente, Fr 

name of this plant.] 


i the surface of the ground. Umbel 

*Michauxia Tschihatchewii, 

Odontoglossum andersonianum Kit- 
petal led well-formed flowers .-r.-aun 
with red-brown. (J. H. Kitson.) 

Morus alba aurea. (3/. v. a. 1 *<.,<•„ 

■1.) Irtiea,,-,.. II. A form with gulden 
yellow leaves and brandies. (T. Kothe, 

Morus nigra globosa. (-M. O. G. 

Narcissus triandrus * albicans. 

*Nepenthes Pervillei, Bhum-. (<v. r. 

Odontoglossum crispum ashworthi- 

M/e e(m"re<l withYlottiies of ros.-Timl 

Odontoglossum ^ crispum augustum. 

nlutrhr?. (Dallernagne^ Co., Ham- 

Odontoglossum crispum calos. (L. 

1896, t. 118.) G. A form with a Ian;.' 

Odontoglossum crispum citratum. 


Odontoglossum crispum Meleagris. 

Nymphaea stellata eastoniensis. 

Odontoglossum crispum venustum. 

crimson-purple blotched Odontoglos- 
full. (L'Horticultuie rnternationale, 

Odontdglossum excellens luteolum. 

grandiflorum. (L. 1896, t. 545.) A 

form with larger flowers and a more 
T.riirlitlv-c, inured lip than the type. (L. 
Linden & Co., Moorteheek, Belgium.) 

Odontoglossum luteo-purpureum 
ashworthianum, O'Brien. (G. C. 

1896, xx., 63.) G. Flower, 5 in. 
across, sepals broad, reddish brown, 
with yellow tips, petals broad creamy 

t'riiiired yellow with a purple crest. 

Odontoglossum Eossi var. Pauwelsiae, 

f of this natural hybrid with 
and more brightly - coloured 

Odontoglossum wilckeanum olivare. 

io.) A new variety of 

ternationale, Brussels.) 
Odontoglossum wilckeanum rufum. 

: (B. m. t. 

>ng. Costa Iiica. (Kew.) 

fianum, Kranzl. 

Odontoglossum rubiginosun 

near'' <>. " ' ,,'i'l ckeanum. Flowe: 
yellow with large chocolate - 
'bloteh.-. (L- Horticulture Inte 

it tubercles bearing tufts 
ties and straw-coloured, 
exed loosely sheathed 

Odontoglossum spec t a ; 

1896, xix., 467 * " ~ J ' y 

supposed natural hybrid resembling , Qpuntia xanthostema, K 

otted ( ,/ i) ,, , s ,„j o.,_, n 

with chestnut-brown. ( T. 'Horticulture 


Odontoglossum troyanofskyanum, 

L. Lind. (/,. lH'.iti. t. .-,40.) A sup- 
posed natural hybrid between <). 

,1/IIortieuUur. Internationale, Brus- 
Odontoglossum varicosum gigan- 


rndo. (L. Spiith, Berlin.) 

*Ornithogalum revolutum, .Tacq. 

about 20 flowers, each l\ in. wide, 
of olive brown. S. Africa. (Kew.) 

(Sir F. W.'gan.) 

*PalisotaMaclaudi,Cornu. (J.H.F. 

6, 466.) Commelynaceae. S. A 
r ally of P. thyrsiflora, Benth., but 

rather long stalked leaves, by the hairs 
of the sheaths and stalks being black 
and not brown, by its more woody stem, 
&c. .Upper Guinea. (Paris B. G.) 

Passiflora galbana, M. T. Masters. 

(G. C. 1896, xx., 555, f. 97.) Passi- 

. aves 3 in. long and greenish- 
yellow How cvs .'! in. across. Brazil. 

*Pentstemon secundiflorus, Benth. 

lariiue. II. A pretty species with blue 

iWatSOlli, A.Gray, if,'//. 
II. A (hvarf -growing com- 

-ii leave- and 

rado. (Herb&Wu 

;ty annual with thistle-like leaves 
white flower-heads like miniature 
lellias. Uruguay. (Ed. Andre, 

white spine* to 
leaves pinnate. 

Polystachya villo 

139.) Orchidese. 

furnished with t 

somewhat fleshy old gold-coloured flowers 
more or less tinged with red. Mada- 
gascar. ( Mme. Addc, Patiillac, France.) 

Potentilla dahurica * fruticosa. 
(.1/. /;. G. 1896,49.) Rosacese. H. 
A hybrid between the two species named--^''^ 
Garden origin. 

Potentilla micrandra, Koehne. CM. 

D. G. 1896, 48.) H. A low bush 
about half as tall-growing as P. fruti- 

flowers. Japan. 

*Phaleria ambigua, Hook. 

Philodendron robusttun, L. Lind. 

Described as a species of extraordinary 

*Physnrus chinensis, Roife. {K. B. 

species, with shorl sfc 
ovate green leaves 4 in. long and short 
scapes bearing numerous small flowers. 
Kwantuug. (Kew.) 

Pittosporum eriocarpum, Royie. 

(/»'. Si. t. 7173.) I'ittosporea?. G. A 
small tree with shortly stalked leaves 
and terminal panicles ,{ fragrant golden - 

(T. Hanbury, La Mortola, Italy.) 

Platycerimn Veitchii. (G. C. 1896, 

(L. Spath, Berlm.) •' '^ t yT 

Primula floribunda grandiflora. 

H. Differs from the type in having 
much larger flowers. ( linage & Schmidt. 

Prunns curdica, Fritroh. (M. D. G. 

1896,26.) Rosacea;. II. Int. nnediate 

Asia Minor." (L. Spiith, Berlin.) 1/ 

*Prunus subhirtella, Miquel. (B. M. 
t. 7508.) A small tree, the cherry-like 
leaves appearing after flowering. Flowers / 
in fascici.-s of from three to five, whiteX 
Japan. ( Arnold Arboretum.) / 

Pteris Childsii. (G. c. 1896, xx., 470.) 

Filler. (■■ "Fronds compound, pinme 
much subdivided, the tips and margins 
Origin not stated. 
(T. Childs.) 

Pteris Drinkwateri. 

592.) G. Probably 
Stroud Bros.) 

like :i knife blade, bearing stalked flowi 

golden yellow. (L. Spath, Berlin. ) 

pyramidal habit ivv-inbliiii; that <»1 th<- 
l.' Poplar. Peru. &c. (Ed. 
Andre, France.) 

*Salvia schiedeana, stapf. {K. B. 


mosa plum 

Guercus pedunculata am 


IS96, 4 1.; v^.x. UTO . ^. ~ ..v.. 

*Sarracenia Sanderae. (/ 

& Co.) 
*Saxifragaafghanica, Aitd 

j belonging to the Megai 

Rhododendron Falconeri * niveum. 
Rhododendron halopeannm. (A //. 

Rhododendron Luscomhei splen- 

lens. (G. C. 1896, xix., 702.) H. 

)iffers from the type in having flowers 

lour. (S. C. God- 

Rhododendron nohilius. (G. C. 1896, 


dens. (6 

Differs fro: 

/of a rich < 

nearly" allied to X. H<,* !n ,hylhn,i or S. 

*Senecio multiflorus, DC. (G. C. 

Doroniaon liourgii-i, ]'». M. t. 191M. 

Sidalcea malvaeflora Listeri. (Gard. - 

Ribes succirubrum. (M. 

Sac colabi um Barbey ae , k ., n ,. i . < ;; / 

An.jr^nm nnbricntnm, Lindl. 

SaJix hnmboldtiana *«. fastigiats 

^d. Andre. (*. tf. 1896, 177, fl 
58-60.) Salicineae. G. A form o 

Sophora platycarpa, Maxim. (M.J). 
differing marked in its fruits. .Fapai,. 

Sophro-Laelia Marriottii. (<?. 

xflava. (SirW. 

Todea arborea bipi 

Schoenlandia gabonensis, Conra. (J. j Trichomanes Fraseri, Jenm. (G. C 

An acaulescent rem-tia! plant with ...c.-i.'-s \vitF. \-ivopiiiff rn'otsto'.-k,'' smal 

cordate acute leaves. The solitary e ' V( . t palo „,.,,,/ , i:lk( . (l ln):lll . whi( .| 

in. long bbod ih. 

Verdieri. (J. O. . 

npestris umbraculifera 

{M. D. G. 1896, 28.) 
II. This hns smaller 

"TJtricularia ianthina, Hook. 

(ft. J/", t. 7466.) lAMitibulariea-. 
A handsome species with renin 
leaves and large pale blue corol 

lip being marked with two vert 

*Stephanandra Tanakae, 

Hay. (Kew.) 

Vanda Bensoni 

Thunia alba gigantea 

lip golden yellc 

Thuya occidentalis Elwangeriana 

side-lobes Moiiliiiien. (F. Sander & 

Vanda bicolor, Griff. (G. c. 1896, 

Thuya occidentalis Wagneri. (Jf. D. 

thickj Vanda kimballiana var. Lacknera?. 

Tigridia Pavonia alba immaculata. 

( Card, is'.tu, xlix.,:;«1.) Irideas. A 
spots. (Van 

Tubergen, junr., Hat 

igridia Pavonia flava. 

s.-;. I. . 2-2.) A distinct V! 
>ale vellow flowers. (Kew.) 

A large-flowered richly 

Vriesia mirabile. (Jard. 1896, 199.) 

S. A garden hybrid between V. 

< M. G. Lemaitre, Versaill.'-.) 

(J. Siillier fils, Paris.) 

Vriesia Poelmani. (#• H. , 

229, t.) S. A seedling 



and large pink-tinted fi 
(Berlin B. G.) 



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