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(Illustrated articles are designated by an asterisk* before the page number.) 

AcoDltnm noveboracense. Gray, n. sp., 190. 

Algae, check list of marine, 105. 

Anychla, notes on the species of the Kenns. 

185. ' 

Banbinia cretacea, Newberry, n. sp., '77. 
Botany at the Bnflalo meeiing of the A. A A 

S., 169. 
Botanical Literature, irdex to recent Ameri- 
can, 7, 89, 41, 63, 85, 95, 123, 146, 173, 192, 

222, 247. 
Botanical Notes, 16, 31, 47, 67, 87, 100, 126. 161, 

ISO, 195, 226, ?52. 
Botanical Notes in Virginia and the Sonthern 

Allegtaanles, 69. 
Botanists of the A. A. A. f., a letter from 

Commissioner Colman to the, 228 
Buxbanmia aphylla, time of fruiting of, 244. 
Contributors : 

Bailey, W. W., 61, 62, 101. 

Best, G. N., 121. 245. 

Britton, B. G., 7, 69, '95. 

Brltton, N. L., 6, 41, 84, S9, 185, 205. 

Campbell, D. H., 49, 93. 

Claypoie. E. W., 187, 191. 

Coviile, P. v., 190. 

Davenport, G. E., 81, 129. 

Davis, W. T., 22i. 

Day, E. H., '62, 94. 

Dudley, P. H., 91, 122. 

Foerste, A. F., '39. 

Gratacap, L. P., 168. 

Gray, Asa, 1, 101. 

Greene, E. L., 61, 141, 216. 

Gregory, Emily L., *197, "233. 

Hart, John. 101. 

Holllcli, Arthur, 84. 

Lighthlpe, L. H., 4. 

Mcrriil. F.J. H., 6. 

Morcng, Thomas, 145, "163. 

Nealley, G. C, 247. 

Newberry, J. S., 33, '77, 183. 

Pammel, L. H., "17. 

Plkf, Nicolas, 105. 

Plowright, Charles B., 127. 

Ean, E. A., 120. 

Kedfleld, J. H., 220, 232, 245. 

Saflord, W. E., 114, 244. 

Sargent, C. 8., 78. 

Seaman, Wm. H., 145. 

Schrenk, Joseph, 38, 68, 169. 

Scrlbner, F. L., 181. 

Trelease, William, 135. 

Vasey, George, 25, 29, 62, 118, 162, '219. 

Wlbbe, J. H.,39. 

Willis, O. H., 246. 

Wolle, Francis, 6«. 

Corema localities, still further notes upon, 

Cyperl, preliminary list of North American 

species of, 206. ' 

Dendrolcglcal Notes, 7S. 

Desmids of the United States, Turner's new. 

Dicotyledons, nomenclai ure of leaves of fos- 
sil, 3S. 

Dnct formation In chestnut wood, 91. 

Erica and Calluna on Nantucket, 246 

Euphrasia officinalis, 232. 

Fern Nottes, 81, '129. 

Fern Sporangia, the dehiscence of, 168. 

Ferns, development of the antheridia in, '49. 

Flora of the Amboy clays, fossil, 33. 

Flora of the Hudson Highlands, notes on, 60. 

Flora of New Jersey, notes on, 4. 

Flora of Richmond county, N. Y., 83. 

Flora of Ross county, Ohio, 114. 

Flora of Westchester county, N. Y., additions 
to, 6, 94. 

Floras, Insular, 246. 

Grasses, new American, 25, 62, lis. 

Grasses, new species of Mexican, 229. 

Grasses, a new genus of, '219. 

Hydrocotyle Americana, tuberiferons, 28. 

Juncus Greenll, southern range of, 6. 

Libriform tissue, the pores of, '197, '233. 

Jilarsllea quadrifolia, notes on, 144. 

Moss, a new, from Oregon, 120. 

Myosorus, revision of, 1. 

Wyosurup, a word concerning, 61. 

Naiadaceae in the Torrey Herbarinm, *I63. 

Notes from the Saguenay River, 18S. 

Notes from Schenectady, 39. 

Orange leaf scab, notes on itie, 181. 

Orcuttia Callfornica. Vasey, n. sp., "219. 

Orthotrichnm Pringlei, C. Mull, n. fp., 120. 

Osmunda clnnamomea. var. fronriota, "62. 

Paspalum, synopsis of the genus, 162. 

Peronospora infestans, the mode of destruc- 
tion of the potato by, 191. 

Pine-seed Wings, examination of, 246. 

Finns pungens m New Jersey, 121. 

Pinus monophylla and Plnus ednlis, 183. 

Plants of the Detroit River, 93. 

Plants, Introduced, Summit county, Ohio. 187. 

Plants, rarer, of the valley of the Hudson, 6. 

Platanus occidentalis. 247. 

Polypetalae, some Californian, ]4l, 216. 

Populus grandidentata, leaf forms of, '69. 

Potamcgeton Cuitisii, Mororg, n. sp., 145. 

Potamogeton Wrightii, Morong, n. sp., "158. 

Potato, a curious, '39. 

Proceedings of the Club, 16, 32, 48, 88, 104, 
128, 226. 262. 

Quercus alba, plurality of embryos in, '95. 

Quercus Sluhlenbergii, note on, 40. 

Seeds, Leguminous, structure of the testa of 
several, '17. 

Starch in the wood of chestnut, notes on, 122. 

Union of an oak with a birch, 221. 

Veltheimia, proterendry in, 62. 

Yucca, nectary of, '136. 

Ebbata, Volcmi XIIL 

Page 79, line 30, for Andrews' Bold, read Andrew's Bald. 
" 60, " 32, '• Cousin's Head, " Csesar'a Head. 
" 82, " 30, ** speclmexia, 
" 123, " 4, •' media, 
" 128, " «, " address, 

" 138, " S2, " 446. 


T King street. King's Lynn, Kng. 




Vol. XIII.] New York, January, 1886. [No. I. 

Notes on Myosurus. / 

By Asa Gray. 

It has come in my way to take up the genus Myosurus. My 
preliminary study leaves some points in doubt, which may be set- 
tled by the additional materials and observations which the fol- 
lowing remarks are designed to solicit. 

M. MINIMUS, L. — Down to recent times this was the only 
recognized species, for M. Shortii, Eaf., is clearly understood 
to be identical with the Linnean species.* Some authors have 
regarded our M. minimus as an introduction from Europe. I 
have never seen it growing, and therefore cannot form a judg- 
ment on personal observation. It is not known in the Northern 
Atlantic States east of the Alleghanies. In Elliott's time it was 
known in the Southern Atlantic States, by a station at Augusta, 
Georgia : but from Kentucky, Tennessee, and Texas it extends 
so far westward that we can hardly suppose it to have been an 
European importation. But a good many far- western specimens 
which have been referred to it belong to another species. If 
indigenous, it is one of those plants which are common to Europe 
and America, but not to Asia. The opinion that it is truly 
indigenous to America is much strengthened by the fact that this 
country possesses all the other species. In a very recent Revision 
of Myosurus by Mr. Greene, in Bull. Calif Acad., i., 276-279, 
two varieties of M. minimus are described. The first, var. apus, 
is said to have the scapes only a line or two long, and it was 
collected by Mr. Orcutt back of San Diego. Mr. Cleveland 
sends us from the same habitat fruiting specimens with scapes 

•Our specimens of No. 3 of Drummond's Coll. from New Orleans, distributed by 
Sir Wm. Hooker, are truly this plant, altliough Mr. Greene, in Bull. Calif. Acad., I, 
278, mentions that what he has from thi^ source is Plantago pnsilla. 

from a quarter to a full half-inch long, which very well match a 
similar form in Todaro's Flora Sicula Exsiccata. His var. fili- 
formis needs further investigation of mature specimens of its vari- 
ous forms. Some of the specimens referred to it may belong to a 
variety of the next species, but not the Guadaloupe plant nor that 
of Rusby from Arizona. 

M. APETALUS, Gay.— (Fl. Chil., i., 31, t. i, fig. i.) It will 
be seen that this older name should be restored. When Mr. 
Bentham sent his name and account ol M. aristattis to Sir Wm. 
Hooker, the latter recognized the identity of Geyer's with Gay's 
Chilian plant ; but, finding petals, discarded the latter's name as a 
false one. Sir Joseph Hooker in the New Zealand Flora, fol- 
lowed his father, although stating that the specimens are apetalous. 
And Bentham says the same of the Australian plant, which he 
refers to M. minimus, the M. australis of Mueller, which prob- 
ably belongs to the following variety of the present species; but 
my specimens are too young to prove it. I am convinced that 
the beak, which suggested Bentham's name, is fallacious as a 
character, and tha{ a series may be arranged from the longest 
beaked forms to those which are as beakless as M. minimus often, 
but not always, is. Consequently, if the name apetalus may be 
rejected because the species is often petaliferous, so may that of 
aristattis, because the arista or beak is often wanting. Since 
the latter name must subside, we need not insist that the 
name, as well as the character, was published as Bentham's. So 
that the latter's incidental mention of it, sixteen years later, as 
" M. aristatus, Geyer," whether by mistake or intention, can 
hardly require Mr. Greene to cite the published name as of Geyer. 

Var. LEPTURUS. — I give this name to a series of specimens 
which have generally been referred to M. minimus on account of 
having as short a beak or tip as has the akene of that species, but 
in which the akenes are oblong, narrower, and more carinate on 
the back, and the body thinner walled and more utricular, and the 
seed oblong, as in ordinary M. apetalus, in this even elongated- 
oblong. The best fruiting specimens 1 possess are those of Lem- 
mon from Cahfornia (No. i of Coll., 1874), and of the Howell's 
from N. E. Oregon (No. 38 of Coll., 1882). Hartweg's No. 1629, 
from the Sacramento Valley, Macoun's No. 50, from Vancouver's 

Island in 1875, and even Parry's No. 1 1 of his Wyoming expedi- 
tion, may belong liere, but are not in fruit. Yet they may have 
broader akenes and oval seeds, which would identify them 
with Greene's M. minimus var. filiformis, of which, as I have 
said, more mature specimens are much wanted. The very 
depauperate specimens from Antioch, Cal, are certainly of this 
variety of M. apetalus. Suksdorf's No. 492, Coll. 1885, from 
the Columbia River, is quite intermediate between undoubted 
M. apetalus and this var. lepturus. 

IVT. SESSILIS, Watson, (Proc. Am. Acad., xvii., 363), with 
carpel-spikes even at maturity perfectly sessile at the root, oval 
akenes, with acutely carinate back continued into a beak, and 
short oval seeds, must be a good species, known as yet only 
in Howell's specimens (No. 383 of 1882), from alkaline flats of 
N. E. Oregon. 

M. CUPULATUS, Watson, 1. c, is most distinct. Its small 
akenes thicken on the sides and round the back with a corky or 
coriaceous growth of whitish color, the upper edge of which forms 
a rim or shallow cup around the base of the green and gladiate- 
subulate beak; the proper cell is small, thin- walled, and filled 
by the oval seed. 

M. ALOPECUROIDES, Greene (in Bull. Calif Acad., i, 278), 
the latest-published species, appears to be a good one ; but more 
mature fruit is desirable. It comes between M. apetalus and M. 
cupulatits, yet with the general shape of the akenes more like 
that of M. minimus. It is characterized by the development of 
a soft-cellular border around the oblong back of the akene, which 
thus becomes concave, and the conspicuous beak is laterally 
flattened, as in M. cupulatus, but is narrower. The short spur of 
the sepals may not be trusted, for this is nearly wanting in some 
flowers of M. apetalus. 

The fruit of Myosurus is said to be an akene ; it might as well 
be called an utricle, or even a follicle. For in all the species, 
though least in M. minimus, the ventral portion or proper body 
of the mature carpel is soft-cellular or thin, and more or less 
scarious, and the ventral suture very commonly dehisces when 
the carpels fall from the receptacle. 

A word upon the authorship of the genus. Linnaeus, as his 
manner is, wntes " Myositrus, Dill." So, also, do Endlicher, Jus- 
sieu (except that he goes further back), De Candolle, Torrey and 
Gray, etc., etc. All|this Mr. Greene must have overlooked, 
when, in his revision of Myosurns, he reclaimed this genus for 
Dillenius in a special foot-note, and supposed that he stood 
alone. The practice of recognizing the genera of Tournefort, 
Dillenius, and the like (when adopted by Linnaeus, or subse- 
quently taken up) is general, though not universal. Neverthe- 
less one can understand and appreciate the reasons which gov- 
erned the authors of the last Genera Plantarum, when they de- 
cided not to go back of Linnaeus. Yet we prefer to follow a 
fairly established rule — to follow, indeed, the practice of Linnaeus 

I add a key to the species of Myosurns so far as I now know 

* Mature carpels with back carinate from base to apex, not suberose nor cellular 

t Scapose. 

JI. APETALUS, Gay. — Mature carpels oblong, thin-walled, with narrow promi- 
nently carinate back, prolonged into an ascending or loose beak ; seed oblong. 

Var. LEPTURUS. — Slender-spiked ; carpels less carinate on the broader back ; 
beak short and erect or obsolete ; seed elongated-oblung. 

M. MINIMUS, L. — Mature carpels somewhat quadrate, broad -backed ; seed oval. 
1 1 Scape none, even in fruit. 

M. SESSILIS, Watson. — Carpels of the thickish spikes oval, more scarious- 
utricular, with narrow salient keel prolonged into a subulate beak ; seed short, oval. 

" * Mature carpels with cellular or suberose thickening around the salient and 
laterally flattened-beaked keel. 

M. ALOPECUROIDES, Greene. — Short-scaped spikes thickish ; oblong back of 
akenes with a soft-cellular border and barely concave, the body wholly scarious-cellu- 
lar ; seed oblong-oval. 

M. CUPULATUS, Watson. — Slender-scapose and slender-spiked ; mature akenes 
roundish, with corky or cartilaginous thickening of back and sides, forming a cupulate 
border around the triangular-subulate, much compressed beak ; seed oval . 

Notes on the New Jersey Flora. 

By L. H. Lighthipe. 

At Rocky Hill, Somerset Co., N. J., I collected Staphylca 
trifolia, L.; Orchis spcctabilis, L.; Obolaria Virginica, L.; Paii- 
lowiiia imperialis, Sieb. and Zucc. This last has escaped from 
cultivation and is growing among the rocks along the west bank 

of the Millstone River. There are about a dozen trees, six or 
seven years old, in the woods, over a quarter of a mile from trees 
in cultivation, or from the nearest house. 

At Woodbridge, Middlesex Co. : Aqicilegia vulgaris, L. ; Ra- 
fiuncultis ambigens, Watson ; Ammannia humilis, Michx.; Cuphea 
viscosissima, Jacq. ; Centaurea nigra, L. ; Datura Tatula, L. ; 
Sabbatia stcllaris, Pursh., white flowers; Gerardia purpurea, L., 
white flowers ; Brtmella vulgaris, Tourn., white flowers ; Ger- 
ardia auriculata, Michx., (the only known locality in New 

At Sand Hills, three miles from Woodbridge, on the north 
side of the Raritan River : Cypripedium acaule, L. ; Lycopodium 
dendroideuni, Michx. ; Tephrosia Virginiana, Pers. ; Magnolia 
glauca, L. ; Andromeda Mariana, L; Calopogon pulchellus, R. 
Br.; Arethusa bulbosa, L.; Pogonia ophioglossoides, Nutt.; Droscra 
rotimdifolia, L. ; Drosera longifolia, L. ; Kalmia angustifolia, 
L. ; Leucothoc raccmosa. Gray ; Epigaa rcpcns, L. ; Azalea vis- 
cosa, L. ; Gerardia pedicnlaria, L. ; Lonicera sempervirens. Ait. ; 
Polygonum tcniie, Michx. ; Polygala cruciata, L. ; Habenaria 
blephariglottis. Hook. ; Eupatoriuni rotundifolium, L. ; Eupato- 
rimn tcucrifolium, Willd. ; Euphorbia Ipecaeuanhce, L. ; Aster 
linariif alius. Hook. ; Chrysopsis Mariana, Nutt. ; Pinus inops. 
Ait. Many of these are peculiar to the Yellow Drift formation, 
oi which this is, I believe, the extreme northern limit in Eastern 
New Jersey. 

Near Spring Lake, Monmouth Co. : Polygala polygama, Walt. ; 
Limosella aquatica, L. ; var. tenuifolia, Hoffm. ; Alctris farinosa, 
L; Monotropa Hypopitys, L. 

Near Bay Head, Ocean Co. : Liatris spicata, Willd. ; Limo- 
sella aquatica, L. ; var. tenuifolia, Hofl'm. ; Utricular ia gibba, L. 

At Perth Amboy : ' Liatris spicata, Willd. 

Southern Range of Juncus Greenii, Oakes and Tuck. 

In the last edition of Gray's Manual of Botany this plant is 
credited to the " sandy coast of New England and on the Great 
Lakes near Detroit." It extends much farther southward, how- 
ever, along the Atlantic coast. In the State Flora of New York 

it was doubtfully credited to Long Island, but its presence in Suf- 
folk County was later confirmed by Messrs. E. S. Miller and H. 
W. Young.* It was collected some years ago by Mr. W. H. 
Leggett near Rossville, Staten Island,! and in July of last year I 
found it growing abundantly on the yellow drift along the 
southern shore of the Earitan River near Sayreville, Middlesex 
Co., N. T., and on Sandy Hook. It seems to replace J. dichoto- 
mus, Ell, of southern New Jersey in the northward extension of 
the Pine Barren Flora. 

N. L. Britton. 

Note on Some Rarer Plants of the Valley of the Hudson. 

At Verplanck's Point, near Cruger's Station on the Hudson 
River Railroad, are fine bluffs of palaeozoic limestone. Among 
plants noticed there are Campanula rotundifolia, L. ; Anemone 
dichotoma, L. ; Thuja occidentalis, L. ; Arenaria Michauxii, 
Watson; Viburnum pubescens, Pursh. ; A rabis Ijraia, h. ; Taxiis 
baccata, L., var. Canadensis, Gray ; Verbena angustifolia, 
Michx. ; Potentilla argentea, L. These were all picked up in 
little over an hour. The locality is worth careful examination. 

On the crystalline rocks along the west side of the Hudson were 
noticed Adlumia cirrhosa, Raf, above Jones' Point; Viburnum 
pubescens, Pursh. ; Neillia opulifolia, B. & H., and Corydalis 
^avu la, Ra.{.,a.t ^ est Point; Acer Pennsylvanicum, L., Crow's 
Nest Mountain ; Polygonum cilinode, Michx., and Adlumia 
cirrhosa, 'Ra.i., below Cornwall; Celtis occidentalis, L., Tompkins' 

Along a roadside west of Cornwall, Stellaria graminea was 
growing abundantly. 

F. J. H. Merrill. 

Additions to the Westchester County Flora. 

The following are additions to the Flora of Westchester Co., 
N. Y., not reported in the Willis Catalogue ; Ranunculus pusilbis, 
Poir., Pelhamville ; Viola pubesceus, Ait, double-flowered, Pelham 
Manor ; Artemisia caudata, Michx., Premium Pt, New Rochelle; 

•Cat. Plants Suffolk Co., 1874, p. 13. 
t See Bulletin, iv., 24. 

Callitriche heterophylla, Pursh., Upper New Kochelle, collected 
by Prof. E. H. JJay ; Osmunda cinnaniomea, L. ; var. frondosa, 
Gray, and Equisetum sylvaticum, L., collected at Pelhamville by 
E. G. Knight. From Yonkers, N. Y., collected by E. C. Howe, 
are reported Centaurea nigra, L. (BULLETIN, v. 52, vi. 56), and 
Rutnex orbiculatus. Gray. E. G. B. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Amaryllis Treaties. Mrs. Fanny £. Briggs. (Gard. Month, 
xxviii., (1886), pp. 23-24.) 

Botanical Necrology of 1885. Asa Gray. (Am. Journ. Sci., 
xxxi., pp. 12-22.) 

The death of Charles Wright on the nth of August, and 
of George \V. Clinton on the 7th of September, have called forth 
an interesting account of their work in American Botany, which 
Dr. Gray, from personal acquaintance and correspondence, is so 
well able to give. The frequent and varied botanical excursions 
of Charles Wright in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico, his con- 
nection with the Kinggold- Rogers North Pacific Exploring Ex- 
pedition, and his numerous explorations in Cuba, extending over 
a period of nine years, enabled him to make collections which are 
scattered through all the large Herbaria of the United States and 
Europe, and have provided material for publications of great 
value to North American botanists. But two of these appear in 
his own name. George W. Clinton's botanical work, beginning 
with three years' scientific studies as a young man, and renewed 
after an interval of thirty-two years devoted to law, resulted in 
the Clinton Herbarium for the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 
and a Catalogue of the Native and Naturalized Plants of the City 
of Buffalo and its vicinity. Dr. Gray also gives a very interest- 
ing account of Edmond Boissier and Johannes August Christian 

Cercosporce — Supplementary Enumeration of the. J. B. Ellis and 
B. M. Everhart (Journ. Mycol., ii., (1886), pp. 1-2.) Eight 
additional species to the ten already described in the same 
journal are given ; six of them are new. 

Ciniicifuga raceniosa, Nutt. C. G. Lloyd. (Drugs and Medicines 
of North America, i., (1885), pp. 244-272. Four plates, 17 

Part 8 is on the same extensive scale as the preceding ones, 
containing eleven pages of botanical description of the above and 
allied species, with a map showing the geographical distribution. 
We note the omission of any localities on Staten Island and Long 
Island, though it grows abundantly on the morainal hills in each, 
and Connecticut is also left blank on the map, though the text 
reports the plant as found there. 

The portion describing the microscopic structure was pre- 
pared by Louisa Reed Stowell, and is illustrated by cross sections 
of the root and rhizome, with drawings of the starch grains found 
in the latter. It is to be regretted that the dimensions are not 
given in micromillemeters. Chemical constituents and analyses 
with the history in the Pharmacopoeia complete the number. At 
the present rate of progress Messrs. Lloyd will require long lives 
to complete the series. 

Coca. — The Cultivatiofiof. Dr. Henry H. Rusby. (Therapeutic 

Gazette, x. (1886) pp. 14-18.) 

Dr. Rusby has been engaged for several months in the study 
of the coca-plant {^Erythroxylon coca,) in the mountains of 
Bolivia, and mainly in the district of Yungas, which contains the 
principal coca districts of the Republic These are situated to 
the east of La Paz, on the eastern side of the easternmost cordil- 
lera of the Andes, which here has an average elevation of about 
16,000 feet, and is always more or less snow- covered. He gives 
a brief description of the flora of the region, from which we ex- 
tract the following : 

Descending this slope, which is extremely steep, the first 
coca plantations are met at an altitude of about 6,400 feet, and 
occur down to the 2,000 foot level. The flora of the summit of 
the Cordillera is low and mat-like. A little lower Dr. Rusby 
met with some Gentianacece, among them one which he suggests 
may be the same as Halenia Rotkrockii, Gray, of Arizona, 
accompanied by shrubby Acanihacece and Bignoniacetz. At 
9,000 feet orchids and Calceolarias begin with arborescent Mel- 

astomacece ; at 8,000 feet the first tree ferns are met, the timber 
trees become quite large and Begonias make their appearance. 
" From this point the vegetation begins to assume a really trop- 
ical aspect. We find many species of Calceolaria, Fuchsia and 
Amaryllidacece, while the variety of orchids and ferns is quite 
bewildering. At 6,500 feet we see the first palms, and the for- 
est trees become buttressed giants, staggering under their loads 
, of vines, and climbing aroids and ferns, and their branches cov- 
ered with Bromeliacece and orchids." 

Among the cultivated plants of the coca-districts. Dr. Rusby 
mentions coffee, rice, sugar cane, tobacco, maize, cotton, sweet 
potatoes and the ordinary garden vegetables. Of fruits, there 
are oranges, bananas, cocoanuts, lemons, citrons, grapes, pome- 
granates, figs, melons, pineapples, and several others peculiar to 
the region. He is of the opinion that the coca is adapted for cul- 
ture in many countries, and suggests Guatemala, Mexico, the 
East and West Indies, India, and possibly southern Italy. 
Jamaica presents especially promising conditions. It is doubtful 
if it would grow in any portion of the United States. Several 
years since a small quantity of seeds^were successfully germinated 
in Ceylon, and during the past season the first products were 
sold in London at a high price. 
Council Tree of the Senecas at Geneva, N. Y. (Gard. Month., 

xxviii., (1886), pp. 49-51.) 

The Editor of the Gardener's Monthly gives an interesting 
account of this noble elm, part of which is yet standing on the 
Old Castle farm, owned by the heirs of Mr. Jerome Lewis. It 
is, in fact, a double tree, the two parts branching just above the 
ground. Measurements made on Aug^ist 21, 1879, gave the 
following : trunk, just above the ground, but near the crown of 
the roots, 25 feet; two feet above the last measurement, or about 
three feet above the ground, 2 1 feet, 3 inches ; trunk of west 
branch, 13 feet, 6 inches; east branch, 15 feet, 2 inches, the last 
two measurements being five feet from the ground. Under the 
eastern edge of the tree is a large stone, deeply imbedded in the 
ground ; this has a hollow scooped out towards one end, and 
was probably used by the Indians for pounding corn in, and is 
in the same place where it was used and left by them. A cut 


taken from a photograph accompanies Mr. Meehan's description. 
One of the large branches, comprising about one-half of the tree, 
was blown off in a gale of wind, September 14, 1882, so that the 
elm has now lost its grandeur and beauty. 

Conspectus Hepaticarimi Siibordinnm, Tribuum et Subtribuum. R. 

Spruce. (Trans. & Proc. Bot. Soc, Edinburgh, xv., pp. 

309-588. Plates V-XXII.) 
This is the second part of the Memoir on the Hepaticse of the 
Amazon and of the Andes of Peru and Ecuador, and contains the 
Jungerntaniem of sub-order I., and sub-orders II., III., and IV., 
MarchantiacecB, Ricciacece, and AnthocerotacecB, including 46 
genera, comprising full descriptions of every species, with their 
characters, habits, and distribution in equatorial America. The 
author states that he has been prevented by illness from complet- 
ing the Introduction which he had intended to issue with this 
part, hence he hopes to be able to present it as a Supplement to 
the work, including additional matter on the hepatic vegetation 
and the bearing thereon of the principal features of the region 
explored, with some critical remarks on certain of the genera and 

Curtis, Rev. Moses Ashley. — A Sketch of the Botanical Work of. 

Thomas F. Wood. (Journ. Elisha Mitchell Scientific Soc, 

I884-'8S, pp. 9-31.) 
Cuscuta. — Notes on. E. J. Wilkson (Trans. San Francisco Mic. 

Soc, Dec. 9th, 1885.) 
Dandelion. — A Study of the. E. Lewis Sturtevant. (Am. Nat., 

XX., (1886), pp. 5-9. 

A valuable contribjjtion to the literature of this plant, giving 
the common names in eleven languages, citing authorities dating 
back to 1539 and 1583 for descriptions of varieties, and tracing 
the history of its use and cultivation as a salad in England, Franco 
and the United States. From observations conducted at the New 
York Agricultural Experiment Station at Geneva the author 
describes a dozen different form-species, figures 6 leaf-forms, and 
inclines to the conclusion that they are of natural origin. "Before, 
however, such a radical belief can receive countenance, much 
must be done in the herbarium study of varieties collected from 


various sources, in order that we may have wild forms to which 
our cultivated types can be referred. Our so-called modern vege- 
tables, introduced as novelties, often seem to be such only because 
we are unfamiliar with what our predecessors possessed." 

Fungi. — New Kansas. J. B. Ellis and W. A. Kellerman. (.lourn. 
MycoL, ii., pp. 3-4.) Eight new species are characterized. 

Fissidens. — Notes on the European and North American Species 

of Mosses of the Genus. William Mitten, A.L.S. (Journ. 

Linn. Soc, xxi., pp. 550-560.) 
Three pages of introductory remarks and references, followed 
by the analytical key, precede the specific descriptions. Of these 
there are in all thirty-nine. The key is sub- divided into : I. Forms 
terrestrial ; II. Forms aquatic ; and in the latter he restores 
Conomitrium Julianum, Mont., and C. Hallianum, Sull. and Lesq., 
to the genus Fissidens. " This survey is rendered possible by 
the recent publication of Braithwaite's British Moss Flora, and 
the Manual of North American Mosses." 
Flora of Virginia. — Contributions to the Knowledge of the older 

Mesozoic. William Morris Fontaine. (Monographs U. S. 

Geol. Survey, vi., pp. 144, 54 plates.) 
An account of the geology of the mesozoic areas, forming 
part I. of the work, precedes the account of the fossil flora. 47 
species of plants are there described, and nearly all figured. These 
are divided as follows : Equisetce, 5 species ; Ferns, 25 species ; 
Cycads, 1 2 species, and the fruit of a thirteenth ; Coniferce, 2 spe- 
cies, and three plants whose botanical affinities are doubtful- 
From his investigations of these plants Professor Fontaine con- 
cludes that the flora is not older than that of the Rhsetic beds of 
the Old World, which are at the very summit of the triassic sys- 
tem, or the base of the Jurassic. It is essentially the same as 
that of the mesozoic strata of North Carolina, an account of 
which, taken from the work of Dr. Emmons, is appended, with 
descriptions and figures of plants recorded by him in " American 
Geology," Part IV. 

Jamaica Ferns of Sloane's Herbarium. — On the. G. S. Jenman, 
F. L. S. (Journ. of Bot., xxiv., (1886), pp. 14-17, to be 


They comprise Vol. I. of Sloane's Natural History of Jamaica, 
which, though two hundred years old, contains several rare and 
only recently re-discovei;ed species. The numbers run to one hun- 
dred and three, but these include a few flowering plants which he 
thought to be allied to ferns. Most of the specimens are in ex- 
cellent condition. Sloane's collections in Jamaica and adjacent 
i.slands extended over a period of fifteen months and formed the 
foundation of the immense collections which he bequeathed to 
the British Museum. His classification of ferns and the synonyms 
used are superseded, but the author derived much benefit by 
studying these old types. 

Layia glandulosa, Hook, and Arn. (Curtis's Bot. Mag., xlii., 
Tab. 6856. The specimen figured flowered at Kew in the 
open border, July, 1885. 

Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket — On the Flora of . J. H. Red- 
field. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., (1885), pp. 378-379.) 

The northern portion of the Island of Martha's Vineyard 
rises into rounded hills of considerable elevation, composed of 
gravelly drift, strewn occasionally with large boulders. The more 
central portion consists of level plains of gravel covered with oaks, 
mostly Quercus obtusiloba. The general character of the flora 
is much like that found on the summits of the divides in southern 
New Jersey, though much more limited as to species. In Nan- 
tucket he had found the gravelly hills of much less height, the 
greater portion of the island consisting, in fact, of treeless plains. 
The most characteristic plant of these plains seemed to be Arcto- 
staphylos Uva-ursi. The two species of Hudsonia abound, as do 
Polygala polygama, Myrica cerifera, and various Vaccinece. He 
saw many large patches of Corenia Conradii. But the most in- 
teresting feature is the existence here of three species of heath, 
possibly indigenous. Mrs. Owen, who published a preliminary 
catalogue of the Nantucket flora a few years ago, records Cal- 
luna vulgaris and Erica cinerea as found upon the island. Mr. 
Kedfield did not see the locality of Calluna, but had the privilege 
of seeing that of Erica cinerea. This plant covers only an area 
of eight inches by ten, and has been known for a space of ten or 
twelve years. Since his visit the third species. Erica tetralix. 


had been discovered in a locality very distant from that of E. 
cinerea. There are said to be seven or eight plants, all thriving, 
large and bushy. 

Mertensia Virginica, D. C. 

In the Garden for Dec. 26, 1885, p. 654, will be found direc- 
tions for cultivating this charming plant, and a beautifully colored 
plate accompanies the number. 

Mistletoe in various Localities. 

In the Gardener's Morithly and Horticnltnrist for January, 
1886, (Vol. xxviii., pp. 24, 25.), a number of notes from corres- 
pondents give the host plant of Phoradendron in widely separated 
localities. About Savannah, Mr. C. A. Oelschig reports it as most 
abundant on oaks, especially the water-oak, but had observed tiie 
parasite on pear- trees, and in a single instance on Olea fragrans. 
Mr. S. T. Walker says it is found exclusively on the oaks in Oregon. 
Mr. D. S. Watson notes that in Texas the mistletoe appears to 
have no choice, growing on almost any kind of tree. In western 
Texas it is particularly abundant on the niesquite and hackberry. 
In the vicinity of Hammonton, New Jersey, Mr. F. L. Bassett finds 
it mainly on Nyssa nmltiflora ; he notes a single infested tree of 
the red maple. Another correspondent tells how he found it on 
tlie red oak near Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1863. 

My New Jersey experience with the mistletoe agrees with 
Mr. Bassett's report. I have seen it repeatedly on the Nyssa, 
and have the best authority for its presence on the red maple, in 
but two instances, however. 

For additional information on Phoradendron see this journal, 
iii., p. 26; iv., pp. 12, 13; vi., pp. 64, 147, 235 ; xi., pp. -jG, 87. 

N. L. B. 
North Carolina Plants. — A Preliminary List of Additions to 
Cnrtis" Catalogue of. M. E. Hyams. 

Ninety-three additional species are reported, without locali- 
ties. Errors of spelling are inexcusably numerous. (Journal 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Soc, i884-'85, pp. 74-76-) 
Northern Pacific Railroad. — Notes on the Geology and Botany of 

the Country bordering the. Prof J. S. Newberry. (Ann. 

N. Y. Acad. Sci., iii., (1884) pp. 242-270.) 


The botanical parts of this interesting paper are: (i) A brief 
description of the forests of the Rocky Mountains. (2) Those of 
the Cascade Mountains, and the flora of the Lower Columbia. 
Polyporus. — Notes on. ]. B. Ellis. (Journal Mycol., ii., 

pp. S, 6.) 
Rosa pisocarpa, Gray. (Curtis' Bot. Mag. xlii., Tab. 6857.) 

The Kew plants were raised from seed received from Prof. 
Sargent; they flowered in July and fruited in September. 

Sassafras. — Large trees of. Dr. Gordon W. Russell (Gard. 
Month., xxviii, (1886) p. 22.) 

West of Bridgport, Conn., G. L. Porter measured a tree having 
a circumference of 78 inches, 4 feet above the ground ; and re- 
ports another having a circumference of no inches at ^\ feet 
above the ground. 
Tendril Movements in Cucurbita Maxima and C. Pepo. D. P. 

Penhallow. (Am. Journ. Sci., xxxi., pp. 46-57, PI. V. ; to be 


Recent discoveries on the continuity of protoplasm have 
thrown more light on some studies made by the author in 1874, 
of the movements of the tendrils and terminal bud of the squash. 
After giving careful explanation of the methods pursued in grow- 
ing and recording the movements, as shown by diagrams, he 
proceeds to explain the histology of the tendril. Three impor- 
tant areas were noted, running the length of the tendril, each in 
a depression which is noticeably greener than the rest of the ten- 
dril. To these areas the name Vibrogen tissue has been given, 
as it is to these the origin of movements are due. The subse- 
quent movements are fully explained and torsion has been ob- 
served, contrary to statements of Sachs. The continuity of pro- 
toplasm was demonstrated most clearly in the collenchyma, of 
which a most satisfactory drawing will be found. The move- 
ments which bring about the formation of the double spiral are 
described at length and full measurements given. 
Tencrium Canadense. — Fertilization of. Aug. F. Foerste, 

(Am. Nat., XX., p. 66.) 
Transpiration — Some Notes on Plant. F. P. Venable. (Jour- 
nal Elisha Mitchell Scientific Soc, i884-'85, pp. 63-66.) 

Botanical Notes. 

Poppies on Railway Embankments. The horticulturists who 
do so much to render summer railway travel agreeable in the 
more settled parts of the country by their ingenuity and taste, 
in decorating the grounds about the stations, my perhaps be 
interested to know that in the opinion of M. Cambier, chief 
roadmaster of the French Government railways, the best plant 
yet discovered for consolidating, by the interlacing of its roots, 
the loose soil of a newly made embankment is the double poppy. 
Ten years' trial has enabled M. Cambier, as he says, to guarantee 
that the poppy will be found far more efficient for this purpose 
than any of the grasses or clovers usually employed ; and while 
these require several months for the development of their com- 
paratively feeble roots, the double poppy germinates in a few 
days, and in two weeks grows enough to give some protection to 
the slope, while at the end of three or four months the roots, 
which are ten or twelve inches long, are found to have interlaced 
so as to retain the earth far more firmly than those of any grass 
or grain. Although the plant is an annual, it sows itself after the 
first year, and with a little care the bank is always in good con- 
dition. In France the double poppy is perfectly hardy, and can 
be sown at almost any time from March to November. With us 
it is also said to be quite hardy, and a long embankment covered 
through the later summer and autumn with the dazzling scarlet 
blossoms contrasted with green grass at the foot of the slope, 
would have a most striking effect. — American Architect. 

Specimens of Cuscuta wanted. Prof C. E. Bessey, of the 
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb., desires to obtain by 
exchange or purchase, specimens of Cusctita in flower or fruit. 

Queer Books in a German Library. One of the most 
curiously original collection of books in any library is said to be 
a botanical collection at Warsenstein, in Germany. At first sight 
the volumns appear like rough blocks of wood ; but on closer 
examination it is found that each is a complete history of the 
particular tree which it represents. At the back of the book the 
bark has been removed from a space large enough to admit the 
scientific and the common name of the tree as a title. One side 


is formed from the split wood of the tree, showing its grain and 
natural fracture ; the other shows the wood when worked smooth 
and varnished. One end shows the grain as left by the saw, and 
the other the finely polished wood. On opening the book one 
finds the fruit, seeds, leaves, and other products of the tree, the 
moss which usually grows upon its trunk, and the insects which 
feed upon the various parts of the tree. To all this is added a 
well printed description of the habits, usual location, and manner 
of growth of the tree. — Londott Daily News. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The annual business meeting was held at Columbia College, 
Jan. 1 2th, Dr. J. S. Newberry in the chair. 

The reports of officers were read and accepted. 

The Recording Secretary reported 74 members on the roll. 

The Curator reported 703 plants mounted during the past 
year, and 1,230 species in the Local Herbarium. 

The Librarian announced 60 exchanges with the BULLETIN. 

The following were elected active members : Miss Eliza 
Youmans, Miss M. B. Flint, and Messrs. E. E. Sterns, E. B. 
Southwicke and P. H. Dudley. 

Messrs. L C. Martindale, W. M. Canby, Randall Spaulding 
and Dr. A. W. Chapman were elected corresponding members. 

Dr. N. L. Britton, Arthur Hollick and P. H. Dudley were 
appointed to inaugurate a series of public lectures on botanical 
subjects during the present year. 

The following officers were elected for the current year: 
President, Dr. J. S. Newberry; Vice-President, Thomas Hogg ; 
Treasurer, Wm. H. Rudkin ; Recording Secretary, Arthur Hol- 
lick ; Corresponding Secretary, Maria O. Steele; Editor, Eliza- 
beth G. Britton ; Associate Editor, E. J. H. Merrill ; Curator, 
M. O. Steele ; Librarian, N. L. Britton. 

The following standing committees were appointed : Finance, 
John L. Wall, J. O. Poggenburg; Admissions, Benjamin Braman, 
Joseph Schrenk ; Library and Herbariimi, N. L. Britton, Miss 
M. O. Steele, Miss H. C. Gaskin, Miss Alice Rich. 

Rev. L. H. Lighthipe read a list of rarer plants collected in 
New Jersey. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LIU. 

FIG. 12, FIG. 13. 





Structure of some Leguminous Seed Coats. L H. Pammel. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate Lll. 

FIG, I. FIG. Z. 

Structure of some Leguminous Seed Coats. L H. PammeL 




Vol. XIII.] New York, February, 1886. [No. 2. 

On the Structure of the Testa of Several Leguminous Seeds. 

By L. H. Pammel. 

Plates Lii and Liii. 

The structure of the seed-coats of numerous Legmninosce has 
been studied by several able observers,* but as their observa- 
tions relate in the main to thin-walled seeds, like those o{ Phase - 
olus, Pisiim and Vicia, I undertook an examination of the exceed- 
ingly hard seeds of the Kentucky Coffee Tree, and of the Sea 
Bean and Calabar Bean at the suggestion of Prof Trelease, in 
whose laboratory the work was done. I am greatly indebted to 
him for many suggestions in connection with the work, as well as 
for the use of literature on the subject. The common garden 
bean, or haricot bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, has been taken as illus- 
trating the typical structure of the leguminous seed. Haber- 
landt has fully described the structure and development of the 
seed-coats of Phaseolus* but the following resume of the results 

"J. Gaertner, " De Fructibuset Seniinibus Plantaruin," 1791, ii., p.325, describes 
the seeds of Vicia pisiformis, V. nodosa, V. biennis, V. hybrida. 

G. W. Bischoff, Handbuch der bot. Terminologie und Systemkunde, 1883, Taf. 
XLIII., Fig. 1869. 

M.J. Schleidenund J. R. Th. Vogel, Ueber das Albumen insbesondere der I.egum- 
inosen. Nov. acta d. I>eop. Carol. Academ. xix., pt. II., p. 51. 

F. Nobbe, Handbuch der Samenkunde, 1876, pp. 79-80 and 84, figures and de- 
scribes the seed coats of Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratensc and Vicia f aba. 

A. Sempolowski, Beitraege zur Kenntniss des Baues der Samenschale. Inaugural 
dissertation, Leipzig, 1874, 3 Taf. 

J. Chalon, La graine des Legumineuses, ( I ) cellules de la carapace, (2) albumen, 
Mons, 1875. 

M. G. Monnier, Recherches sur la nervation de la graine. Ann. des Sciences 
Nalurelles, 5 series, xvi., 1872, p. 233. 

Giinther Beck,Vergleiche»de Anatomie der Samen von I'icia und Ervum. Kaiser- 
lichen Akademie der Wissenschaflen, Wien, 1878, Ixxvii., I. Abtheilung, p. 545, 2 Taf. 

R. Junawiez, Die Lichtlinie in den Prismencellen der Samenschalen. Kaiserlichen 
Akademie der Wissenchaften, Wien, 1877, I Abth, Ixxvi., p. 335, 2 Taf. 

Georg Lohde, Ueber die Entwickelungsgeschichte und den Bau einiger Samen- 
schalen. Inaugural dissertation, Leipzig, 1874, 2 Taf. 

Joh. Friedrich Fickel, Ueber die Anatomie und , Entwickelungsgeschichte der 
Samenschalen einiger Cucurbitaceen. Inaugural dissertation, I^ipzig, 1876, 2 Taf. 


of my own examination, though agreeing in general with his 
statements, is given to faciHtate comparison when the other seeds 
are described : 

The Common Garden Bean {Phaseolus vulgaris, Savi.) — 
In the seed-coatsof the common garden bean there are five well- 
marked layers : I. The palisade layer. II. The crystallayer. III. A 
layer of simple parenchyma. IV. A layer in which the fibro- 
vascular elements are found, surrounded by parenchyma. V. A 
layer of very compact branched cells. 

The cuticle covering the palisade cells, as described by Haber- 
landt, is very hard to distinguish because of its tenuity and the 
difficulty involved in getting sections which are thin enough, 
while in some varieties it has a tendency to flake off. 

The prismatic palisade cells are five, six or more sided, and 
in a surface view show a branched cell cavity (Fig. i). In a cross 
section of the seed-coats (Fig. 2) the cells are seen to be greatly 
elongated radially. The central cell cavity, which is somewhat 
widened at the base, extends nearly the entire length of the cell 
to the cuticle (Fig 3).t As a consequence of this gradual widening, 
the lateral walls gradually become thinner towards the base (Figs. 
3 and 4). 

In an isolated palisade cell, macerated in concentrated potash, 
or in Schultze's medium, the structure of the folds and the cell 
cavity are more clearlj' indicated, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. 

In the colored varieties of Phaseolus, the cell cavities are 
filled with a pigment. The narrow " light line " runs close under 
the cuticle (Fig. 2, i'.)j: 

In a surface view the cells of the second layer are five or 
six sided, very thick-walled, and the cavity appears to be filled 
with a crystal of calcium oxalate.'§. 

*G. Haberlandt, Ueber die Entwickelungsgeschichte und den Bau der Samenschale 
bei der Gattung Phaseolus. Separat abdnick aus den Sitzungsbericht der Kais. Akad. 
der Wiss. ; Wien, 1877, Ixxvi., I. Abth. 

tThere are some apparent exceptions to this, as in some cases this portion of the 
cavity seemed only to extend up about one-third of the distance. 

{ Sicyos angulatus is said to have peculiar refractive portions so characteristic of 
LeguminosiT, but they are present in the third layer. (See Fickel, I. c, p. II, Plate 
I., Fig. 22.) 

^In some of the varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris the cells present a different appear- 
ance, since they do not contain crystals. The inner layer ot parenchyma cells in the 
seed-coatsof .bVVyoj o«f«/a/»j contain, according to Fickel (1. c, p. 11) crystals of 
calciutn oxalate in the course of their development, but these disappear when the seed 
has fully ripened. 


In a radial section (Fig. 2, II) the crystals, which are often 
twinned, fill more or less completely the I-shaped cavity, which is 
almost obliterated by the swollen lateral walls where it is not dis- 
tended by them. 

The cells of the third layer are elongated laterally, are 
thin- walled and separated by numerous intercellular spaces. In 
a tangential section they are star-shaped. The cell cavities 
are filled with fine granular protoplasm. Some of these cells in 
the colored varieties contain pigment. 

The cells of the fourth layer are elongated laterally and 
are also thin-walled ; they differ from those of the third layer in 
that the cells are longer and larger. In colored varieties some of 
these cells contain pigment. The fibro-vascular elements are 
present in this layer. 

The cells of the last layer are very compact and appear small 
in a radial section. However, their true structure can only be de- 
termined in a tangential section, when the cells are seen to resemble 
somewhat the star-shaped cells of the third layer, but they differ 
from those in that they are more dichotomously branched. The 
cell contents are made up of fine, granular protoplasm. 

The Kentucky Coffee Bean {Qymnocladus Canadensis, 
Lam.) — The seed of the Kentucky Coffee Tree is anatropous and 
has a straight embryo. With a small magnifying glass there can 
be readily distinguished three distinct layers in the seed-coats. 
The innermost of these is the thickest and darkest layer (Fig. 5). 
On the upper flattened side it generally diminishes in thickness 
as it approaches the poles of the seed. Above the palisade layer 
is the rather thickened cuticle, which has a tendency to separate 
from the palisade cells. This layer when macerated in water and 
allowed to stand, sometimes breaks up into small pieces and sep- 
arates from the remaining part of the seed-coat. It is then some- 
what mucilaginous. In a surface view the palisade cells are much 
the same as in Phaseolus, excepting that the central cavity (Fig. 
6) is greatly enlarged and the folds are less distinct and marked 
as regards their branching. In a cross section (Fig. 7) six well- 
defined layers may be distinguished. I. The palisade layer. II. 
A layer of I-shaped cells. III. A layer of sclerenchyma. IV. 
A layer carrying pigment. V. A layer of vessels and thick- walled 

parenchyma. VI. A layer of star-shaped parenchyma-cells. 
The palisade cells are greatly elongated radrally ; the lateral 
walls are thickened as in Phaseolus, but more uniformly, because 
of the uniformity of the cell cavity (Figs. 8, 9 and 10). In Figs. 7, 
8, 9 and 10 at ^, several prominent rounded points may be seen 
which refract light very strongly. This appearance is not affected 
when the cells are macerated in potash, or Schultze's medium, 
or when allowed to decay, somewhat, in water. The cell cavity is 
slightly enlarged at the base (Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10, at d!), dimin- 
ishing in calibre upward to e, when it again begins to enlarge to 
the point b. From a to the cuticle the cell cavity is faint and 
can only be definitely made out in stained sections.* 

The folds are from two to eight in number and vary greatly 
in their length and manner of joining the cell cavity. In Figs. 
8, 9 and 10 the refractive points are shown; they have the same 
peculiarity that the cell-cavity has. From b to the cuticle (Figs. 
8, 9 and 10) the folds are very faint, and can only be distinctly 
seen after staining. In the lower portion of the palisade cells 
(Figs. 8 to 10) are several slight folds which generally arise 
gradually. After they have attained considerable breadth they 
begin to diminish in size and end as fine threads. Sometimes 
they are apparently disconnected from the cell cavity, as in Fig. 8, 
and in some cases they have more than one of these fine endings. 
There are two well-developed light lines on these cells,! ^ wide 
and a narrow one. The wide light line begins close under 
the cuticle, extends to the refractive points (Fig. 7, a-V), and 
is lighter in its upper than in its lower portion. The narrow 
Hne (Fig. 7, <r) is situated slightly above the central part of the 
palisade cells and has a much clearer definition than the 
broad line. The second layer is made up of I-shaped sup- 
port-cells, homologous with the crystal layer of Phaseolus, but 
having numerous intercellular spaces. The cavity of these 
cells is very narrow at the middle (Fig. 7, II., e), enlarging as it 
reaches the upper and lower cross-bar, thus giving to it also the 
shape of an T. The third layer differs remarkably from any of 

•The fluids used were methy! violet and chloriodide of zinc. 

tl shall speak of their behavior with micro-chemical tests in another connection. 


the others ; the cells are more or less elongated laterally, that 
is, in the direction of the seed-coat. The cell walls are greatly- 
thickened and are beautifully pitted. The cell cavity is very 
narrow, and often has an irregular outline with peculiar markings. 
The cells of this layer change somewhat in size and shape as 
they are followed inwardly, becoming more like the parenchyma 
of the fifth layer. The fourth is a very narrow layer and carries a 
brownish-yellow pigment. This is followed by the fifth layer, 
which is made up of a comparatively thick-walled parenchyma ; 
well-developed spiral vessels are also found in it. 

The sixth layer may be divided into two parts. In the first 
the intercellular spaces are small, while in the second they are 
large and numerous. The first part (/) is made up of thick-walled, 
star-shaped cells, which have an irregular outline (Fig. ii). The 
cell walls are thickened irregularly, as shown in the figure. There 
are from one to four pits in a cell wall ; sometimes these pits are 
small and narrow (Fig. i\.,b). A number of oil globules are usually 
distributed through the protoplasm of each cell. The cells of 
the second portion [g) of the sixth layer are star-shaped in a tan- 
gential section, and have the same peculiar pitted walls as those 
of /. The cell walls of one kind of these cells are thinner 
than those of /, while the cells of a second kind have as thick 
walls as those of a, Fig. II. The protoplasm is very granular 
and has oil globules distributed through it. 

The Calabar Bean {Physostigma venenosum, Balf ) — There 
is a marked difference between the seed-coats oi Gymnocladus and 
those of the calabar bean. The former, when soaked in water, 
become mucilaginous and fragile, whereas the seed-coats of the 
latter are coriaceous and somewhat flexible and have some aflSn- 
ities with those of the sea bean. 

In a surface view the palisade cells are five or six sided and 
very often elongated (Fig. 13). The folds are often branched 
equilaterally, as in Fig. 12, or are of an abnormal form, as shown in 
Fig. 13. A peculiar feature of these palisade cells, macerated in 
concentrated potash, is that they show numerous intersecting stri- 
ations(Figs. 14 and 15) running obliquely, or almost horizontally. 


about the cells.* The cell cavity is quite uniform in breadth, grad- 
ually diminishing upwards, as in Fig. 14, or sometimes quite abrupt- 
ly, as in Fig. 15. In some cells the cavity plainly extends to the 
cuticle, though in others it cannot be traced so far. A number of 
folds run down into the lateral walls, rarely, however, obviously 
entering the cell cavity as in Phaseoliis or Gymnocladus. 

The I-shaped support-cells (Fig. 16, II.) are similar to those 
of Gymnocladus, though the intercellular spaces and I-shaped 
cavities of the cells are frequently larger. The third evident layer 
(Fig. 16, III.) is made up of loose, thick- walled cells with numer- 
ous intercellular spaces. The cells of the fourth layer are rather 
more compact, are elongated laterally and carry the brown 

The Sea Bean {Mucuna urens.) — The seed-coat of the sea 
bean is exceedingly hard, but is only composed of two well de- 
fined layers ; a palisade layer, having a brownish color, and a 
layer of loose parenchyma, the cell walls of which are colored 
dark brown. 

In a surface view (Fig. 17) the palisade cells are five or six 
sided, with the characteristic foldings of Pkaseolus and Gymno- 
cladus, excepting that the central portion is greatly enlarged. 
In most cases the folds terminate in the angles of the cells and are 
often slightly enlarged. In a cross section of the seed-coat (Fig. 
18,) the thickened cuticle of the palisade layer is well defined {a,) 
as is also the light line (Fig. 18, b) which runs close under the 
cuticle and is somewhat broader than in the calabar bean. In an 
isolated palisade cell (Figs. 19, 20 and 21) the cavity is seen to 
extend to the cuticle ; it is much wider at the base than is the 
cell cavity of the calabar bean. At Fig 20, a, it is indistinct and 
small; it, however, gradually enlarges upwards until it reaches 
the cuticle, where it attains considerable breadth. The outline of 
the cell cavity is irregular and wavy. The folds extending into 
the lateral walls are very variable ; some are very short, as in Fig. 

'According to A. Sempolowski, I. c, p. 26, Plate II., Kig. 16, the palisade cells of 
the seed-coats ot Lufinus an^usii/eiius, /.. luteus., L. albus, L. hirsntus, L. pilosus, 
and /.. Cruikshankii have, in the lower part of the cell, what he has called 
pore-canals, in the form of the crossstriations which I have described in the cal- 
abar bean. The cross-striations of the calabar bean are plainly not pore-canals. 


20 ; others straight and longer, as in Fig. 19. Though small, 
the folds are well defined The same clear definition was also 
obtained in a surface view of the palisade cells. In none of 
the specimens studied could the outlines of the cell walls, their 
cavities, or of the folds be made out as in this species. The 
palisade cells show a slight indication of the characteristic stria- 
tions of those of the calabar bean. 

The second layer (Fig. 18, II) may be divided into two parts. 
The first of these is a single layer of cells homologous with the 
crystal layer of Ehaseolus and the I-shaped layer of Gytnnocladus 
and PJiysostigma* But according to A. Sempolowski (1. c, pp. 28, 
30), the second layer is not identical in its structure with the layers 
which follow, but has the true support-cells. There are certainly 
gradations from true support-cells to the parenchyma which fol- 
lows in many of the Leguminos(S. (G. Beck and others.) 

The cells of this layer differ from those that follow in that 
they are much thicker walled and have a small cell cavity. They 
are separated by narrow and large intercellular spaces. The 
fibro-vascular elements are present in the lower portion of this 

These are the chief characteristics of the seed-coats under 
consideration. From the account which has been given, it will 
be seen that the hard-walled leguminous seeds do not differ 
much in the nature and arrangement of their protecting envelopes 
from those of a less resistant character, their greater firmness 
depending usually upon the greater development of one or 
more of the layers which are normally present, and upon differ- 
ences in the nature of the walls of their component cells. The 
microchemical behavior of the walls in the several cases, and es- 
pecially certain interesting peculiarities of the refractive portions 
constituting the so-called light lines, must, however, be reserved 
for consideration in another place. 

'According to Nobbe, Sameiikunde, p. 79, the cells between the palisade layer 
and aleurone layer of Trifolium pratensa, and Medicago saliva are identical in structure, 
excepting the fibro-va.scular elements carried in the lower portion of the layer. 

Giinther Beck (1. c, p. 547). speaks of the " Hartschichte " and the "Quell- 
schichte " ; in the latter he places ( I ) the I-shaped support -cells, (2) the true absorbing 
tissue, (3) the fibro-vascular elements and their surrounding tissue. 


Figs. 1-4. Phaseolus vulgaris. 

Fig. I. Surface view of palisade cell; X 700. 

Fig. 2. Cross section of seed-coat; X 120. I. Palisade 
layer; a, narrow light line. II. Crystal layer. III. Layer of 
simple parenchyma. IV. Layer of parenchyma, containing 
fibro-vascular elements. V. Layer of compact, branched cells. 
VI. Aleurone layer. VII. Starch layer. 

Figs. 3-4. Isolated' palisade cells, macerated in potash; x 250. 

Figs. 5 - 1 1 . Gymnocladus Canadensis. 

Fig. 5. Cross section of bean ; natural size. 

Fig. 6. Surface view of palisade cell ; x 700. 

Fig. 7. Cross section of the seed-coat; x 120. I. Palisade 
layer; a, cuticle; b, wide light line; c, refractive points; d, 
narrow light line. II. I-shaped support-cells. III. Sclerenchyma 
cells. IV. Pigment layer. V. Layer of thick- walled parenchyma 
and spiral vessels. VI. Layer of star-shaped parenchyma cells ; 
f, upper portion ; g, lower portion. VII. Aleurone layer. 

Figs. 8, 9 and 10. Isolated palisade cells, macerated in potash; 
X 17s; b, refractive points. 

Fig. II. Cells of upper portion of VI. layer ; x 350. 

Figs. 12-16. Physostigma vencnosu m . 

Figs. 12 and 13. Surface view of palisade cells; X 700. 

Figs. 14 and 15. Isolated palisade cells, macerated in potash ; 

X 175- 

Fig. 16. Cross section of seed-coat; X 120. I. Palisade layer; 
rt, cuticle ; b, light line. II. I-shaped cells. III. Loose, thick- 
walled parenchyma. IV. Pigment layer. 

Figs. 17-21. Mucuna iirens. 

Fig. 1 7. Surface view of palisade cell ; X 700. 

Fig. 18. Cross section of seed-coat; X 120. I. Palisade 
layer ; a, cuticle ; b, light line. II. c is the homologue of the I- 
shaped support-cells in Gytnnocladus Canadensis, and of the 
cxy'iX.sS.X^ye.x \x\ Phaseolus vulgaris. III. Aleurone layer. 

Figs. 19, 20 and 21. Isolated palisade cells, macerated in 
potash ; X 175. 


New American Grasses. 
By George Vasey. 

Eriochloa mollis, Kth.; van LONGIKOLL\.— Culms 2 to 4 
feet high, slender and branching, leafy ; leaves very narrow (2 
lines wide), I to 2 feet long ; culm and leaves smooth except at 
the nodes ; lower sheaths nearly as long as the joints ; panicle 
slender, 5 to 8 inches long, of 5 to 8 pedicellate, alternate spikes, 
the lower ones 1% inches long, gradually shorter; general 
rhachis and branches finely pubescent ; the spikes at first erect, 
in fruit nearly horizontal, each with about ten to twelve alternate, 
nearly sessile spikelets, which are rather sparingly appressed- 
pubescent and acute. It differs from the species in its much 
more slender culms, narrower and longer leaves, and in its much 
smaller panicle, with shorter and fewer flowered spikes.. 

Collected at Key West, Florida, by A. H. Curtiss. 

Panicum Nealleyl— Stem 3 to 4 feet high, stout, simple 
or sometimes branched, leafy, smooth ; leaves linear-lanceolate, 
3 to 10 inches long, 3 to 5 lines wide, thick, smooth, or nearly so, 
rough on the margin, acuminate, striate, slightly hairy at the 
throat and margin of the sheaths; ligule short, membranaceous, 
sheaths mostly shorter than the joints ; panicle long peduncled, 
oblong, 5 to 8 inches long, 3 to 4 inches wide, rhachis and 
branches glandular or viscid in spots, the branches single and 
scattered, or somewhat verticillate, much divided and many flow- 
ered ; spikelets purplish, i line long, ovate, acutish, sparingly- 
pubescent, the lower glume broad, hardly one-fourth as long as 
the second and third, which are strongly nine-nerved ; flowering 
glume oblong, acutish. This is closely related to P. viscidiim, 
Ell., and is the same as P. scabrmsailutn of Chapman's Flora, 
but cannot be the true plant of Elliott, as that is related to P. 
virgatutn. Collected in Texas by Mr. G. C. Nealley. 

Panicum REPENS, L. ; van CONFERTUM. — Flowering culms 
about I foot high, from thick, creeping, short-jointed root-stalks ; 
leaves distichous, rigid, 2 to 3 inches long, spreading; the pan- 
icle I to 3 inches long, denser than in the type, the branches shorter 
and the spikelets closer together. Collected in Louisiana by 
A. B. Langlois. 


^ Pamicum virgatum, L. ; var. MACRANTHUM. — Whole plant 
glabrous and glaucous, apparently 4 to 5 feet high, leaves rigid, 
the upper part long setaceous involute ; panicle i >4 feet long, 
diffuse, the lower branches 6 to 8 inches long, flowering chiefly 
toward the extremities ; spikelets very large, 3 lines long, the 
lower glume five-nerved, very acute, two-thirds as long as the 
second glume, which is strongly nine-nerved ; third glume seven- 
nerved ; perfect flower oblong, 2 lines long. A striking form, 
with very large spikelets, collected by Dr. Havard, in the Guada- 
lupe Mountains, Texas. 

Var. CONFERTUM. — A form with a close panicle, observed 
particularly on the sea-coast. 

Var. ELONGATUM. — Panicle elongated and narrow, with the 
spikelets unusually slender ; perhaps this is the Panicum clonga- 
tum of Pursh. 

Var. DIFFUSUM. — Panicle longer and diffuse, spikelets more 
distant, and the lower glume nearly or quite as long as the sec- 
ond and third. Sandy prairies, Kansas, Colorado, etc. 

Imperata brevifolia. — Culms 3 to 4 feet high, erect from a 
^ creeping rhizome, firm, smooth; radical leaves numerous, 4 to 10 
inches long, plain, smooth, very acute, 4 to 5 lines wide, contracted 
and long ciliate at the base, ligule short, membranaceous ; cauline 
leaves, four or five, short, first about 4 inches, second 3 inches, 
third 2 inches, fourth I inch long, rather rigid, acute, with a few 
long hairs at the base; ligule short ciliate, sheaths smooth, the up- 
per ones elongated, (6 to 7 inches long) ; panicle erect, nearly cylin- 
drical, 5 to 9 inches long, ^ to J^ inches wide; branches of the 
panicle appressed, sparsely short-hairy below, with spikelets in 
pairs, one sessile, and the other pedicellate, toward the apex the 
spikelets single ; the pedicels slightly hispid, and emitting a few 
long silky hairs; the outer glumes about l]/^ lines long, the 
upper a little longer, lance- oblong, obtusish ; the lower five- 
nerved ; upper three-nerved and ciliate at the apex ; both villous 
on the back with long silky hairs, which are about 3 lines long ; 
third glume smooth, very thin, hyaline, about as long as the 
first ; fourth glume two-thirds as long, narrow ; palet bifid, broad, 
hyaline, nerveless, ^ hne long ; stamen one. 

Southern California, 103 1 Parish; New Mexico, 2001 C. 
Wright ; also from Arizona and Western Texas. 


Aristida Arizonica. — Culms I to 2 feet high, tufted, 
rigidly erect, unbranched, leafy to the middle, smooth ; leaves of 
the culm about four, of nearly equal length, 4 to 8 inches long, 
canaliculate or becoming convolute, narrow and somewhat rigid, 
smooth; panicle 5 to 10 inches long, narrow; the branches in twos 
below, appressed, somewhat distant (the lower internodes 2 to 
3 inches long), unequal, the longer one overlapping the inter- 
node above, and naked below, the shorter one sessile, each with 
two to eight short pedicelled spikelets ; outer glumes nearly 
equal, 6 to 7 lines long, bidentate at the apex, mucronate or awn 
pointed, hispid on the keel, one-nerved or the lower three-nerved ; 
flowering glume to the division of the awn and including the short 
hairy callus, 7 to 8 lines long, slender, smooth below, scabrous 
and twisted above, the awns nearly equal, 10 to 12 lines long, 
widely divergent when mature. This species differs from Aris- 
tida purpurea, Nutt., in a more rigid habit, longer leaves, more 
erect and rigid panicle, and especially in the comparative length 
of the glumes (in A. purpurea, lower glume is only about half as 
long as the upper) ; in the longer flowering glume, (in A. pur- 
purea the upper glume considerably exceeds the flowering one), 
and in the shorter awns. Collected in Arizona. 

Aristida Havardii. — Culms about i foot high, slender, 
leafy ; leaves setaceous, erect, 3 to 5 inches long, the upper one 
enclosing or near the base of the panicle ; panicle 5 to 6 inches 
long, somewhat pyramidal; branches mostly in twos, unequal, 
nlmost capillary, spreading and sometimes reflexed, the longest 
about 2 inches long, loosely flowered, the lower part {%. inch) 
naked ; spikelets pedicelled ; outer glumes nearly equal, 4 to 5 
lines long, narrow, one-nerved, acuminate, the upper a little 
longer than the flowering glume, including the short obtuse hairy 
callus; the flowering glume smooth below, spotted, and tapering 
to the scabrous apex, awns erect-spreading, neariy equal, about 
6 to 8 lines long. 

This has somewhat the appearance of A. divaricata, but is 
much smaller, and without the long naked branches of that spe- 
cies. Collected in Western Texas by Dr. Havard. 

Aristida Orcuttiana. — Culms about two feet high, stout * 
below, above becoming slender, very leafy ; leaves near the base 

with loose open sheaths and rather broad blades, the upper nar- 
row, becoming involute, 5 to 8 inches long or more ; panicle 
long and open, 4 to 5 inches long ; branches rather distant, 
mostly single, flexuous, the lower ones about 3 inches long, the 
lower half naked ; lower glume about 5 inches long, the upper 
one-quarter shorter; flowering glume with the awn 9 lines long, 
the lateral awns obsolete or nearly so ; the main awn bent 
near the middle, and twisted below. The panicle is small for 
the size of the plant, and comparatively few flowered. It ap- 
proaches Aristida Schiediana. Southern California, C. R. Orcutt; 
Arizona, M. E. Jones. 

Aristida Schiediana, van minor. — Culms 12 to 18 inches 
high, rather slender, sometimes branching at the lower nodes; 
leaves of the culm three or four, longer than the sheaths (4 to 8 
inches long). Panicle 5 to 7 inches long, at first narrow, and the 
base enclosed by the upper sheath, becoming divaricate ; branches 
capillary, alternate, single, but most of them dividing immediately 
into two to four long and nearly equal branchlets from 2 to 3 inches 
long, which are again divided about the middle, each into two or 
three smaller branchlets bearing few spikelets; outer glumes nearly 
equal, about 4 lines long, not awned ; flowering glume about 
5 lines, hispid-scabrous above, becoming somewhat twisted in 
age ; lateral awns absent ; terminal awn about 4 lines long. 

This plant is much smaller and less robust than the type, and 
has not the very long naked branches of that species, in fact the 
aspect is so different that it inight be considered a different species. 

Collected in Arizona by Pringle, in 1884, and distributed as 
A. Schiediana ; and by M. E. Jones at Bowie, Arizona, 1884. 

The typical A. Schiediana, as we regard it, (No. 745 C. 
Wright, 1849, 2012 and 2070 C. Wright, 1851-2, No. 27 Havard, 
Texas, No. 385, Lemmon, Arizona), perhaps runs into A. divarica- 
ta. Willd, the lateral awns wanting in some specimens, in others 
occurring of various lengths and otherwise hardly separable. 

Tuberiferous Hydrocotyle Americana, l. 

During a stroll in the woods last fall, near Washington, D. C, 
in a moist, shady ravine on the banks of a small brook, I saw 
some thrifty patches of Hydrocotyle Americana. On pulling 


a handful I was surprised to see a number of whitish threads 
hanging from the axils of the lower leaves. On examination of 
these threads, which were from three to six inches long, I found 
that near the extremity of each of these was a short oblong or 
cylindrical tuber, from a quarter to half an inch long, and these 
tubers were undoubtedly for the propagation of the plants. 
Most of the specimens had evidently borne flowers and fruit at 
the upper axils, but three or four of the lower joints had devel- 
oped these tuberiferous threads. I sent some specimens to Dr. 
Gray, who was interested in them, and wrote that he had often 
observed the threads, but never the tubers. 

Geo. Vasey. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Anemone midicaiilis, n. sp. Asa Gray. (Botanical Gazette, xi., 
(1886) p. 17. 

Dr. Gray calls attention to an undescribed species of Ane- 
nioiie, to which he gives the above name, from wet places 
near Sand Bay, Minnesota, in or near Canadian territory. The 
radical leaves resemble those of A. Richardsoni, but the invol- 
ucre consists of a single petiolate leaf, or is wholly wanting ; the 
akenes are tipped with rather short and hooked styles very un- 
like the long ones of the Arctic plant above mentioned. Flow- 
ering specimens are needed to complete the description of the 

Apples distingtiished by their Floivers. W. J. Beal. (Amer. 
Nat, XX., (1886) pp. 162-165. 

Professor Beal suggests that instead of describing apples by 
their fruit alone, pomologists would do well to pay more atten- 
tion to the floral characters, and extends the same suggestion to 
the varieties of other cultivated plants. He gives five figures 
illustrating the differences in floral structure in as many kinds of 
apples, which show marked differences in the relative lengths, 
breadths and hairiness of the styles and their stipes. 
Asa Gray. By Charles R. Barnes. (Bot. Gazette, xi., (1886), 

pp. I-IO.) 

An interesting account of Dr. Gray's life and an enumera- 
tion of his most important botanical works. A good photo- 


heliotype portrait accompanies the article, and some of the letters 
and congratulations received by the Doctor on his seventy-fifth 
birthday are appended. 
Bidens. — Barbed Awns of Achenia of. J. L. Zabriskie. (Jour. 

N. Y. Mic. Soc, i., pp. 198, 199.) 
EntomopJuhora. — A new larval. J. C. Arthur. (Bot. Gazette, 

xi., pp. 14-17.) 
This hitherto undescribed fungus is parasitic in the larva; of 
the clover-leaf weevil {Phytonomiis punctatus, Fabr.) and has 
been noticed in Western New York and the adjacent portions of 
Canada. Prof. Arthur gives it the name E. Phytonomi, and 
describes and figures the spores, hyphae, mycelium, etc. 
Erigeron Muirii, Gray, n. sp. 

A woodcut figure may be found in the Report of the Cruise 
of the U. S. Revenue Steamer "Thomas Corwin," in the Arctic 
Ocean, 1881, Washington, 1885, p. 146. There is also a helio- 
type plate of the lichens Cladonia uncialis, C. gracilis, C. ran- 
giferina, and C. corniicopoides. 
Dispersion of so^ne Tree Seeds. W. J. Beal. (Bot. Gazette, xi., 

pp. 17. 18.) 
Mildews of the Grapevine. C. V. Riley. (Rural New Yorker, 

xlv., pp. 72, 73, 2 figs.) 
Lobelia syphilitica. — Cross-fertilising apparatus of. J. L. Za- 
briskie. (Jour. N. Y. Mic. Soc, i., pp. 201, 202.) 
Pollen Spores of Tradescantia Virginica, L. John M. Coulter 

and J. N. Rose. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 10-14, one plate.) 
These pollen grains were found exceptionally favorable for 
study ; the presence of two nuclei was readily demonstrated, the 
growth of the pollen-tube watched, and the descent of the nuclei 
therein observed. The grains were cultivated in a moist cham- 
ber, in a hanging drop of a solution of cane sugar. In less than 
half an hour the pollen-tube begins its development, and may be 
seen forcing its way through the extine of the grain. The gen- 
erative nucleus is a large worm-like spindle, and enters the tube 
some time in advance of the vegetative nucleus. 
Superposed Buds. A. F. Foerste. (Bull. Scientif. Lab. Denison 

University, i., pp. 25-36, one plate.) 
An interesting and well-illustrated paper on the morphology 


of accessory buds, with special reference to those developed 
vertically above or below the main axillary bud. The first 
method of arrangement, where the secondary buds appear above 
the first one developed, is termed direct superposition ; the second, 
where they are found below the first bud, inverted superposition. 
Direct superposition is of rare occurrence both in herbaceous and 
woody plants, but is beautifully shown in the Tartarean Honey- 
suckle, where the larger principal bud is surmounted by three or 
four successively smaller ones ; also in Passijlora lictea. Coreopsis 
tinctoi'ia and C. tripteris. Inverted superposition is common in 
many ligneous and herbaceous plants. Usually the axillary bud 
first produced reaches a considerable size before a second one 
appears, and this may be ultimately separated from it for a con- 
siderable space by the elongation of the node. Mr. Foerste finds 
in Fraxinits viridis, F. sambucifolia and vigorous shoots of F. 
Americana, two buds in the same axil, the lower about one-half 
the size of the upper. Ccrcis Canadensis has two or three, the 
lowest often minute and covered by the petiole scar. The 
hickories have the upper of the two buds excessively developed, 
the lower remaining insignificant, except in Carya microcarpa, 
where the lower is of larger size. Many other plants are cited. 
Species in which the upper bud immediately develops into a 
branch while the lower remains in thebud state are rarein ligneous 
plants but abundant among herbs. Among those mentioned by 
Mr. Foerste are Scrophularia nodosa, Gerardia purpurea, and 
Teiicrium Canadense. Later in the season some of these smaller 
buds may produce branches, as in Ambrosia trifida. The flowers 
and inflorescences of certain species, being homologous with 
branches, are sometimes superimposed to buds, as in Delphinium 
Consolida. In Gleditschia triacanthos the thorn is a specially '//• 
developed superposed bud. In Lilium bnlbifernm the bulblcts 
are in inverted superposition to the peduncles. 

Botanical Notes. 

The Nival Flora of Switzerland : Oswald Heer. (Nouveaux 
Mem. Soc. Helvet. des Scie. Nat., xxix, part i.) An interesting 
summary of the results reached by Prof Heer in this work, may 
be found in Nature, Vol. xxxiii., pp. 206, 207. From this we 


learn that 337 species of flowering plants have been observed in 
Switzerland, at altitudes from 8,000 to 13,000 ft.; twelve of these 
occur above 12,000 ft. Monte Rosa has the richest Nival flora, 
but the majority of the species are widely distributed through 
the Alps. Prof. Heer concluded that about one-half of the 
plants of the Nival region came from the Arctic zone in the 
Glacial Period, by way of Scandinavia. The Endemic flora of the 
Nival region arose in the Alps, and a principal centre of its for- 
mation seems to have been the Monte Rosa chain. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held Feb. 9th, at Columbia 
College, the President in the chair. After the reading of the 
minutes, Dr. Newberry gave an account of the fossil flora of the 
cretaceous clays of New Jersey, showing drawings and specimens 
of many of the species recently found. 

It was resolved that Article XII of the Constitution be 
amended to read : " The Club shalk consist of active, corresponding 
and honorary members," and that the following be added : 
" Honorary members may be chosen from botanists who have 
distinguished themselves by valuable original investigations, and 
shall be limited in number to five." 

Dr. Gustavus Ramsperger was elected an active member, and 
Prof. J. T. Rothrock and Prof. Leo Lesquereux corresponding 

Mr. .Southwick presented the club with a specimen of Rhus 
typhina having beautifully pinnate-pinnatifid leaves. 

P. H. Dudley exhibited branches of Selaginella denticulata, 
the lower portions of which had been killed by the growing my- 
celium of Polyporus Rodmantii, (?) saying that the fluid secreted 
by it was sufficient to penetrate the epidermis of the living 
branches, causing their death and ultimate decay. When the 
rootlets beyond the place of contact of the mycelium had not 
reached the ground, entire branches were destroyed. The 
mycelium secretes a fluid giving an acid reaction, which softens 
the fibres of wood, permitting the penetration of the delicate 
filaments of the mycelium. Wood so attacked, if allowed to 
dry, cracks and falls to pieces with the so-called "dry rot." 
Treating the mycelium of this fungus with molybdate of am- 
monia, abundant crystals of ammonium phosphomolybdate were 
obtained, showing the presence of phosphorus compounds, which 
were found to be characteristic of a number of fungi which 
induce decay in wood. Accompanying the above were vast 
numbers of bacteria, which also assisted in the decomposition. 




Vol. XIII.] New York, March, 1886. [No. 3. 

The Flora of the Amboy Clays. 

By J. S. Newberry. 


The Amboy clays of New Jersey represent the middle por- 
tion of the Cretaceous system, and are equivalents of the Lower 
Chalk of England. This has been known in a general way for 
many years, since the clays contain angiosperm leaves, and this 
botanical group, beginning in the earliest epoch of the Cretaceous 
age, shows its first considerable development in the Middle Cre- 
taceous; and the green-sands which overhe the clays are full of 
the moUusks which are characteristic of the Upper Chalk. 

The Amboy clays are several hundred feet in thickness, and 
contain a great nuinber of leaf impressions, which are, to a large 
extent, different in the different beds. Perhaps a hundred dis- 
tinct species have been collected from them up to the present 
time, and it is evident that they hold a very rich and interesting 
flora. As the clays are of great economic importance, and are 
likely to be worked at many places, perhaps for hundreds of 
years, this flora will probably become better known than that of 
any other geological formation except the Coal Measures. Un- 
fortunately most of the leaf impressions hitherto obtained from 
the clay pits have proved perishable — a thick sheet of carbon- 
aceous matter occupying the place of the original leaf, and in 
fresh specimens contrasting beautifully with the light colored clay, 
but cracking, when dried, to a powder that may be blown off with 
the breath. For this reason the collections formerly made have 
been lost, and the study of the flora has been delayed. Within 
a few years past, however, beds have been found at South 
Amboy and Woodbridge in which the leaves are represented by 
a thin film of brown carbonaceous matter, or a coffee colored 
stain, in which the nervation is distinctly discernible. From 


these beds Dr. Britton, Mr. Hollick and Mr. I. H. Woolson have 
obtained many hundred specimens which are permanent and are 
satisfactory objects of study. These I have lately had under 
consideration, have had most of them carefully drawn, and of 
these drawings have composed about fifty quarto plates, some of 
which I now have the pleasure of exhibiting. This material 
gives the first satisfactory view of the flora which it represents, 
and enables me to make this contribution to a knowledge of the 
vegetation, that flourished in the region about the mouth of the 
Hudson, in the Cretaceous age. 

It will, of course, be a long time before a full description of 
this flora can be given, but the hundred species of ferns and ar- 
borescent plants now before us may probably be regarded as a 
fair sample of it ; and as a flora of similar botanical character has 
been exhumed from rocks of about the same geological age in the 
interior of this continent, in Greenland and in Germany, we may 
infer that this group of plants fairly represents the vegetation of 
the temperate zone in the Northern Hemisphere at the middle of 
the Cretaceous age. 

As is known to most botanists and geologists, a great change in 
the plantlifeof the globe took place at the close of the palaeozoic ages. 
Then the coal flora, consisting of acrogens with some gymnosperms 
— lycopods, equiseta, and ferns with conifers — gave place to what 
is known as the mesosoic flora, which consisted mainly of cycads, 
conifers and ferns ; the cycads predominating and giving a special 
aspect to the vegetation. In the Triassic and the Jurassaic ages, 
and through the first epoch of the Cretaceous age, this flora ap- 
parently flourished over the whole world. Toward the middle 
of the Cretaceous age angiosperms began to appear and soon 
became the prevailing style of vegetation ; this has continued, 
with many changes of degree but little of kind, to the present day. 

The beginnings of the angiospermous flora have apparently 
been found in the Kome beds of Greenland and in the Potomac 
group of Virginia, of which the flora is now being studied by 
Prof. W. M. Fontaine. Here a few angiosperms are found min- 
gled with an abundant flora of cycads, conifers and ferns, but as 
yet without any discovered transitional forms between these 
botanical groups. 


In the Amboy clays and in the Dakota rocks of the West, 
which next succeed in time the Potomac clays, the angiosperms 
are predominant and exhibit a variety and a botanical rank which 
are surprising. The Dakota flora which has been illustrated in 
the important memoirs of Mr. Lesquereux and the less volumin- 
ous contributions of Prof. Heer and myself, now stands repre- 
sented by about 200 nominal species, of which 30 are cryptogams 
and gymnosperms ; the remainder are angiosperms. Excluding 
fragmentary and doubtful material, we have about 140 species 
which, whatever their botanical relations may be, are certainly 
distinct from each other ; and of these more than three-fourths are 
arborescent angiosperms. 

The flora of the Amboy clays is closely related to that of the 
Dakota group — most of the genera and some of the species being 
identical — so that we may conclude they were nearly contem- 
poraneous, though the absence in New Jersey of the Fort Benton 
and Niobrara groups of the upper Missouri and the apparent syn- 
chronism of the New Jersey marls and the Pierre group indicate 
that the Dakota is a little the older. 

At least one-third of the species of the Amboy clays seem to 
be identical with leaves found in the upper Cretaceous clays of 
Greenland and Aachen (Aix la Chapelle), which not only indicates a 
chronological parallelism, but shows a remarkable and unexpected 
similarity in the vegetation of these widely separated countries in 
the middle and last half of the Cretaceous age. The botanical 
character of the flora of the Amboy clays will be seen from the 
following brief synopsis : 

AlgcB. A small and delicate form allied to Chondrites. 

Equiseta and Fungi. None yet discovered. 

Ferns. Twelve species generally similar and in part identical 
with those described by Heer from the Cretaceous beds of Green- 
land and referred to the genera Dicksonia,Gleichenias.nd.Aspidium. 

Lycopods. None yet discovered. 

Cycads. Two species probably identical with the forms from 
Greenland described by Heer under the names of Podozamites 
marginatus and P. tenuinervis. 

Conifers. Fourteen species belonging to the genera Mori- 
conia, Brachyphyllum, Cunninghamites, Pinus, Sequoia, and 


others referred by Heer to Juniperus, Libocedrus, Frenelopsis, 
Thuya and Dammara. Of these the most abundant and most 
interesting are Moriconia cyclotoxon — the most beautiful of coni- 
fers — and Cunninghamites elegans, both of which occur in the 
Cretaceous clays of Aachen, Prussia, and Patoot, Greenland. The 
Brachyphyllum was a large and strong species with imbricated 
cones eight inches in length. 

The angiosperms form about seventy species, which include 
three of Magnolia, four of Liriodendron, three or four of Salix, 
three of Celastrophyllum (of which one is identical with a Green- 
land species), one Celastrtcs (also found in Greenland), four or five 
Aralias, two Sassafras, one Cinnamomum, one Hedera, with 
leaves that are apparently identical with those described by Heer 
as h&\ox\%vii^\.o Afidromeda, Cissites, Cornus, Dewalquea, Diospyros, 
Eucalyptus, Ficus, Ilex, Juglans, Laurus, Menispermites, Myrica, 
Myrsine, Prunus, Rhamnns, and others not yet determined. 

Some of the Aralias had palmately lobed leaves nearly a foot 
in diameter — and two of the tulip trees (Liriodendron) had leaves 
quite as large as those of the living species. Oneof these had deeply 
lobed leaves like those of the white oak. Of the other the leaves 
resembled those of the recent tulip tree, but were larger. Both 
had the peculiar emargination and the nervation of Liriodendron. 

Among the most interesting plants of the collection are fine 
species of Bauhinia and Hyinencea. Of these the first is repre- 
sented by a large number of leaves, some of which are six or 
seven inches in diameter. They are deeply bilobed and have the 
peculiar and characteristic form and nervation of the leaves of 
this genus. Batihinia is a leguminous genus allied to Cercis, and 
now inhabits tropical and warm temperate climates in both hem- 
ispheres. Only one species occurs in the United States, Bauhinia 
lunarioides. Gray, found by Dr. Bigelow on the Rio Grande. 

Hymencea is another of the leguminosae and inhabits tropical 
America. A species of this genus has been found in the Upper 
Cretaceous of France, but quite different from the one before us, 
in which the leaves are much larger, and the leaflets are united 
in a common petiole, which is winged ; this is a modification not 
found in the living species, and one which brings it nearer to 


But the most surprising discovery yet made is that of a num- 
ber of quite large hehanthoid flowers which I have called Palce- 
anthus. These are three to four inches in diameter, and exhibit a 
scaly involucre enclosing what much resembles a fleshy receptacle 
with achenia. From the border of this radiate a number of ray 
florets, one to two inches in length, which are persistent and must 
have been scarious like those of Heliochrysum. Though these 
flowers so much resemble those of the Composit<B, we are not yet 
warranted in asserting that such is certainly their character. In 
the Jurassic rocks of Europe and India some flowers not very 
unlike these have been found, which have been named William- 
sonia and referred to cycads by Carruthers. A similar fossil has 
been found in the Cretaceous rocks of Greenland and named by 
Heer, Williamsonia cretacea, but he questions the reference of the 
genus to the Cycadea and agrees with Nathorst in considering all 
the species of Williamsonia as parasitic flowers allied to Briigman- 
sia or Rafflesia. The Marquis of Saporta regards them as mono- 
cotyledons similar to Pandanus. More specimens of the flowers 
now exibited will perhaps prove, what we can now only regard as 
probable, that the Compositce like the Leguminosa:, Magnoliacem, 
Celastracea, and other highly organized plants formed part of the 
Cretaceous flora. No composite flowers have before been found 
in the fossil state, and as these are among the most complex and 
specialized forms of florescence, it has been supposed that they 
belonged only to the recent epoch, where they were the result of 
a long series of formative changes. 

The presence of Hymencea, Bauhinia and Cinnamomum might 
be considered as proof that the climate in which these plants grew 
was tropical, but the willows, magnolias, aralias and other elements 
in the flora are rather indicative of a warm temperate climate. 

No palms have yet been found in the lower or middle Creta- 
ceous, though they are abundant in the upper Cretaceous and 
Tertiary beds in localities far north of New York. We may there- 
fore infer that when the Amboy clays wer- deposited palms had 
not yet appeared in the vegetation of the globe. 

A large number of fruits have been found in the Amboy clays, 
but with the exception of those which belong to the conifers and 
cycads their botanical relations are not yet clearly made out. 


On the Nomenclature of the Leaves of Fossil Dicotyledons.* 

In Vol. XXV., Nos. i and 2, of the " Botanisches Centralblatt," 
A. G. Nathorst publishes an interesting article in which he 
discusses the difficulties which present themselves to the palaeon- 
tologist in classifying and naming fossil dicotyledons on the 
characters of their leaves only. 

The author proposes the following methods which he intends 
to employ in his future publications, and invites his co-workers 
in this field to adopt the same rule, viz, : 

Those species of which leaves only are known, are to be 
named after the genus with which they agree best, with the addi- 
tion of the termination — phyllnm. Therefore, we ought not to 
say Magnolia Capellini, Heer., but Magnoliphyllum Capellini, etc. 
Such a name would indicate that the leaf in question seems to 
resemble most the leaves of a Magnolia, and therefore possibly 
belongs to that genus. If afterwards, together with this leaf, 
flower and fruit should be found, which, without any doubt, be- 
long to Magnolia, the leaf could then be classified with Mag- 
nolia. In the case of leaves for which analagous forms are 
not to be found among living plants, independent generic names 
are to be used, as heretofore, e. g., Credneria, Protophyllum, etc. 

Another part of the article refers to the identification of fossil 
leaves found in different localities, at great distances from each 
other. In most such cases slight differences in form, etc., are, 
at present, not taken into consideration, and the leaves are placed 
in the same species. Thus the leaf A is identified with the leaf 
B (from a distant locality), afterward C with B, then D with C, 
and finally D with A ; in reality, the name of this supposed 
single species may possibly stand for a whole group of species. 

In order to meet this difficulty the author proposes to employ 
a ternary nomenclature. Suppose a leaf were found in Japan 
which resembles Acer trilobatum so much that it would not be 
advisable to make a new species of it, although the similarity is 
not perfect ; this leaf ought to be called Acer trilobatum Japon- 

* Abstracted by Professor Jos. Schrenk, 


A Curious Potato. 

A curious freak of nature is shown in a potato brought to me 
two years ago by Mr. Victor Shinn. One of the " eyelets " had 
grown ; the shoot entered the substance of 
the potato at once after a sudden curve, and 
there gave rise to another potato, perfect in 
every respect, covered with a thin epidermis, 
■-t but without "eyelets." The surrounding tissues 
of the larger tuber, however, were not supplied 
with such an epidermis. I have noticed that 
the latter feature is also presented when roots 
and shoots of other plants grow through the 
substance of a potato. After giving rise to the potato, the shoot 
passed for a slight distance beneath the surface of the old potato, 
and had already produced a slight opening in the skin on its way 
out when its vigor was probably lost and it seems to have ceased 
growth. The small potato, however, attained quite a fair size. 

Description of the figure : A, the smaller potato ; a, the 
place of attachment to the ingrowing shoot ; b, the origin of this 
shoot at the eyelet ; c, the opening at which it reappeared. 


Notes from Schenectady, New York. 

In 1884, the first summer of my residence here, when taking 
a walk along the Mohawk River, I discovered on the " sand- 
bank," between the New York Central and Hudson River Rail- 
road and the well-known Sander's Lake, a grass, Boutelotia 
racemosa, Lag., (^B. curtipendula, Gray), whose distribution is 
mainly from Illinois to Texas and Arizona. The form of my 
specimens is, however, more slender and taller than those from 
the West. A steep sandy bank was perfectly covered with the 
purplish drooping spikes of this new comer, among other grasses 
and Asparagus officinalis, L. The rare Panicum xafithopkysum, 
Gray, abounds in the shady pine groves of the town of Rotter- 
dam. Aster amethystifms, Gray, grows along roadsides in Rees- 
ville. Trapa natans, the water-chestnut of Europe, was planted 
in Sander's Lake, and grows there luxuriantly. 

J. H. WlBBE. 


\ Note on Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm. 

Quercus Muhlenbergii is the name proposed by Dr. Engel- 
mann in 1 877* for the oak originally described by Muhlenberg 
and Willdenow* * as Q. Castanea, known to Michaux t as Q. 
Primes, var. acuminata, and generally regarded as a variety of 
Q. Printis by other authors, up to the time of Dr. Engelmann's 
paper. That it is distinct enough from the common chestnut 
oak of the Eastern States, all are at present agreed. 

The relation of the species under consideration to the Q. pri- 
noides, Willd.f seems, however, more obscure. The latter was 
formerly regarded by Dr. Gray as a variety of Q. Prinus, and in 
his manuals is recognized as Q. Pri^tus, var. humilis, Marshall. 
In his last appendix, however, he considers it a distinct species 
under Willdenow's name. Professor Wood, in his Botanist and 
Florist, calls it Q. Prinus, var. prhioides, but in his class-book, 
Q. prinoides, Willd. 

That it is more nearly allied to Q. Muhlenbergii, than to 
Q. Prinus, however, is plainly indicated in its nearly or quite 
sessile thin cup, with small globose acorn. Dr. Engelmann was, 
indeed, inclined to unite it with his Muhlenbergii, and in this he 
has been followed by Mr. Sargent,^ who says: "a tree twenty- 
four to thirty, or exceptionally thirty-nine meters in height, with 
a trunk 0.6 to 0.9 meter in diameter (Q. Muhlenbergii'), or often, 
especially toward the eastern and western limits of its range, 
reduced to a low, slender shrub, (J2, prinoides) ; rare as a tree 
east of the Alleghany Mountains ; very common in the Missis- 
sippi River basin, and reaching its greatest development in 
southern Arkansas." 

The typical, arborescent, Q. Muhlenbergii is known to Pro- 
fessor Porter in five widely separated stations in Pennsylvania, 
all on limestone soil ; he has found it also on the blue Lower 
Silurian Limestone below Phillipsburg, N. J. I have observed 
it on sandy soil in the vicinity of Bridgeton, Cumberland 
Co., and young trees on the white, crystalline limestone of Stir- 

* Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., iii, 591. 

* * Nirue Schriften Gesell. Nat. Fr., Berlin, iii. 396. 
t Hist. Ckenes Amer., No. 5, t. 8. 

{ Loc. cit., 397, 

\ Rep. on Forests of N. A., Vol. ix, loth Census U. S., 142, 143. 


ling Hill, Sussex Co., N. J., these three localities being the only 
ones at present known to me in New Jersey. The Q. prinoides, 
Willd., is widely and plentifully distributed through southern and 
southeastern New Jersey, where it is seldom over four feet high, 
and commonly fruits at six inches from the ground, occurring 
also in less abundance in the mountains of the northern part of 
the State, where it grows somewhat larger and stronger, reaching 
a height of eight or ten feet about Waterloo, Sussex Co. Prof. 
Porter has informed me that it has a wide range in Pennsylvania. 
It is found on Long Island, and extends northward along the 
coast to Massachusetts. All the numerous specimens which I 
have examined show a remarkable persistence of leaf and fruit 
characters, and if it were not assured us on the highest authority 
that the bushy form passes gradually into the tree in the West, I 
should not be at all inclined to regard them as the same species. 
However, as this appears to be the case, I hold that our eastern, 
shrubby form, is, at least, a well marked variety of Dr. Engel- 
mann's species, and propose for it the name Qiiercus Mtihleii- 
bcrgii, Engelm., var. HUMILIS. 

N. L. Britton. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Adventitious Inflorescence of Cuscuta glomerata known to the 
Germans. C. E. Bessey. (Amer. Nat., xx., pp. 278-279). 
Referring to notes on this interesting subject presented by 
him at the Philadelphia and Ann Arbor meetings of the Amer- 
ican Association, Prof. Bessey remarks that the matter had pre- 
viously been described in Dodel-Port's Atlas der Botanic. Dr. 
Dodel-Port, after describing the normal branching, says in sub- 
stance : " Besides the normal branching there is a copious 
formation of adventitious shoots. These are formed endogenously 
upon the best nourished parts of the Cuscuta stem, and also upon 
the parts which bear the haustoria, where the host-plant and the 
parasite are in immediate contact. The rudimentary shoot-buds 
are formed beneath the cortex of the Cuscuta stem, and break 
through in a manner similar to the lateral roots of vascular plants. 
They develop either into inflorescences, or upon injury to the 
rest of the plant, into vegetation shoots." 


Anemonella tkalictroides, Spach. Asa Gray. (Botan. Gazette, 
xi., p. 39.) 
Dr. Gray adopts the above name for our common Rue Ane- 
mone, which was called Thalictrtim anemonoides, Michx., in his 
Manual, and Anemone tkalictroides, L., by Professor Wood. The 
terminal depressed-sessile stigma is foreign to both Anemofie 
and Tlialictrum, and constitutes the principal distinguishing mark 
of Spach's genus Anemonella. 

Arctic Grasses. F. Lamson Scribner. (Botan. Gazette, xi., 
pp. 25-26, one plate.) 
Professor Scribner records the discovery of Deschampsia 
brevifolia, R. Br., by Lieut. Greely near Fort Conger, Grin- 
nell Land, in 1882, and regards it as of specific rank and 
not a variety of D. caspitosa, Beauv. ; it was also collected 
on Schumagin Island, Alaska, by M. W. Harrington, in 
1871-72. Phippsia algida, R. Br., a curious little species, 
hitherto not known south of Alaska, was obtained about Chicago 
Lake, Georgetown, Colo., by H. N. Patterson, during the 
past season. Agropyrum violaceum, Hornem., was collected by 
Lieut. Greely at Fort Conger, and at Upper Marias Pass, Mon- 
tana, by Wm. M. Canby, in 1883. Figures of the three 
species are given. 

Botanical Notes. Mary K. Curran. (Bull. Calif Acad. Sci., i., 
pp. 272-275.) 
Referring to a classification of the Eriogonece as affected 
by some connecting forms, the genus Nemacaulis is referred 
to Eriogonuni and a new section of the latter genus, to be 
called Bracteolata,\s, proposed, to contain species whose flowers 
within the involucre are each subtended by a spatulate bract. 
E. gossypinum, n. sp., is described. A new Chorizanthe {C. 
insignis) is characterized, as well as two new varieties of pre- 
viously knov/n species of this genus. 

Botany of California and Parts adjacetit. — Studies in the. Ed- 
ward Lee Greene. (Bull. Calif Acad. Sci., i., pp. 179-228 
and 276-282.) 
Three new genera, Bebbia of the Composite, containing two 
species, B. jttncea {Carphephorus juncens, Benth.) and B. 
atriplicifolia {^Carphephorus atriplicifolius, Gray), Mimet- 


anthe, of the Scrophularince, consisting of M. pilosa {Mimiilus 
pilosus^ Watson) and Clevelandia, also of the Scrophiilarin(E, 
with a single species, C. Beldingii {Ortkocarpus Beldingii, 
Greene), are proposed. Fifty-six new species are then described, 
with critical notes on many others, some of which are referred 
to genera other than those where they have hitherto been placed. 
Under the heading, " Notes on Guadalupe Island," Mr. Greene 
gives a general account of its flora, and a list of species hitherto 
found on the island, there being fifteen additions to Mr. Watson's 
list published in the Proceedings of the American Academy in 

The second part of Mr. Greene's contribution gives a Revision 
of the genus Myosurus, which has already been criticized by Dr. 
Gray in the January number of this BULLETIN. Blepharizo- 
nia is a new genus in which are included B. plumosa {Hemizonia 
plumosa, Gray,) and B. laxa {Hemizonia plumosa, var. sub- 
plumosa, Gray.) Four new species are here characterized. 
Cimicifuga racemosa, Ell. (Drugs and Medicines of N. A., i., 

pp. 273-288, concluded.) 
The medical history and physiological action of the drug are 
given in this number. 

Clintonia Andrewsiana, Torrey. (The Garden, xxix., p. 109.) 
This Californian plant flowered in the Edinburgh Rock Gar- 
den during 1885, and information is desired by a correspondent 
of the above with regard to its cultivation. We believe it has 
never been figured. 
Eastern Virginia. — Notes on the Flora of. Lester F. Ward. 

(Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 32-38.) 
Flora of the Peruvian Abides, ivith remarks on the History and 

Origin of the Andean Flora. — Contributions to the. John 

Ball, F. R. S. (Journ. Linn. Soc, xxii., pp. 1-64. 
Professor Ball devotes twenty-seven pages of this communi- 
cation to general considerations regarding the Flora of the region. 
Composite are specially abundant, 50 of the 214 species col- 
lected in the upper valley of the Rimac River belonging to that 
order. In the enumeration of the plants collected, twenty-five 
new species and varieties are characterized, among them the only 
Sedum (5 Andinum) hitherto found in South America. 


Fremontia Californica. (The Garden, xxix., p. 8.) 

A colored plate is given of this showy Californian shrub, 
which is abundant in the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada. In 
England it is commonly grown against walls, and in such posi- 
tions flowers freely and ripens seeds. 

Futigi of the Pacific Coast. IV. H. W. Harkness. (Bull. 
Calif Acad. Sci., i., pp. 256-271.) 
A further enumeration of Californian species, including list of 
forms new to science, described in Gre-oillea during the past year. 
Garden Lettuce — a Study of. E. L. Sturtevant. (Amer. Nat., 
XX., pp. 230-233.) 
At the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, in 1885, 
eighty-three varieties of lettuce were grown under nearly two 
hundred names. These present three distinct form-species — the 
lanceolate- leaved, the " Cos," and " cabbage." Mr. Sturtevant 
gives evidence which supports the hypothesis that these form- 
species have originated from wild forms which have been brought 
into cultivation in different regions, and hence have 'different ori- 
gins. Lettuces are supposed to have been grown by the Per- 
sians some five hundred years before Christ, and to have been 
introduced into China between the years 600 and 900 of our era ; 
they were mentioned by Chaucer in England in the fourteenth 
century, and reached America writh Columbus. 
Hookera v. Brodicea. James Britten. (Journ. Bot., xxiv., pp. 

It is shown that the first of these generic must sup- 
plant the second for this beautiful liliaceous genus. Hookera 
was proposed by Salisbury (Parad. Lond, t. 98), more than a 
month before Smith's paper establishing Brodicea was read 
(Trans. Linn. Soc, London, x., 2, t. i). It was named for Wil- 
liam Hooker, the artist who planned and illustrated the " Para- 
disus Londonensis." Mr. Britten remarks that the plants placed 
under Brodicea by Mr. Sereno Watson in his Revision of the 
North American Liliaceae, must take the generic name Hookera, 
but may retain their specific names. The orthography of Hookera 
is too close to Hookeria, a genus of mosses, but the former has 
again priority of publication, so that if either is to be rejected for 
this reason, it must be the bryological genus. 


Jamaica Ferns of Sluane s Herbarium. G. S. Jennian. (Jour. 

Botany, xxiv., pp. 33-43, concluded.) 
An enumeration of the plants contained in this old collec- 
tion, with interesting notes on many of them. A new species, 
Hymenophyllum Hoiistonii, is here first described. 
Linnmis — The Life and Labors of. A. P. Morgan. (Botan. 

Gazette, xi., pp. 26-32. 
Nelumbium luteum. R. Irwin Lynch. (The Garden, xxix., 

P- 3) 
It is remarked that the seeds of this plant will germmate m a 

few days if the testa is cut through. 

RanunculacecB. — A new genus of. Edward Lee Greene. (Bull. 
Calif Acad. Sci., i., pp. 337-338- 

It is proposed to refer Ranunculus kysiriculus, Gray, to the 
genus Kumlienia, dedicated to Prof T. L. Kumlien, on ac- 
count of its terete seed and thin, bladdery pericarp, the latter 
character being foreign to all other Ranunculi. Mr. Greene re- 
marks that his new genus is nearest Trautvetteria, the fruit- 
structure of which is similar. 
Salvinia nutans. (Botan. Gazette, xi., p. 48.) 

Specimens of this plant, whose occurrence in the United States 
has hitherto been doubtful, have recently been collected by Mr. 
C. H. Demetrio in a bayou of Bois Brule Creek, Perry Co., Mis- 
souri, but whether native or of accidental introduction, is yet 

Synoptical Flora of North America : The Gamopetalce, being a 
second edition of Vol i.. Part ii., and Vol. ii., Part t., col- 
lected Supplements and Indexes. Asa Gray. Published 
by the Smithsonian Institution, January, 1886. 

The two published parts, each with a supplement, are now 
issued in a single volume. Both have been corrected, as far as 
could well be done on the electrotype plates. The supplement 
to Vol. i.. Part i., {Rubiacece— Composite) is of eleven pages ; 
that of Vol. ii.. Part i.. {Ericacece-PlantaginacecB) is seventy 
pages long. A tabular enumeration of all the gamopetalous 
genera and species is appended. The indexes of each part have 
been made anew. In the supplement to Vol. 1.. Part u., p. 44». 
Dimeresia, a new genus of Composite, is described, consisting ot 


a single species, D. tjowellii, from Southeast Oregon. Greene's 
genus Bebbia is accepted. Twelve new species are described in 
this supplement. In that to Vol. ii., Part i., thirty new species 
and numerous varieties are characterized. A number of the 
genera are entirely revised. From the tabular arrangement of 
the Gamopetalae we learn that there are now 1,783 indigenous 
North American species, and 102 introduced, mainly from the 
Old World. The supplements and indexes in pamphlet form 
have been issued separately from the volume. 
Synthyris reniforinis, Benth. (Curtis's Bot. Magazine, xlii.. 

Tab. 6,860.) 
Timber Culture in Wisconsin. F. W. Woodward, (Gard. Month., 
xxviii, p. 82). 

Fraxinus viridis, Michx, thrives best at Eau Claire, 44° N. ; 
F. Americana, L., planted in the spring of 1884, is now 7 ft. high 
and 2 inches in diameter, and Catalpa speciosa, Warder, planted 
the same year, also attained 7 ft. in height and 2]/^ inches in 
Tumble-weed. C. E. Bessey. (Botan. Gazette, xi., p. 41.) 

Upon the plains and prairies of the West our common weed 
Amarantiis albus grows into a compact plant whose stout, curv- 
ing branches give it an approximately spherical form. The 
autumn winds break the main stem near the ground, and the 
upper part goes rolling and tumbling before the wind, often for 
miles. This is an excellent illustration of the effect of climate on 
the physical development of the plant body, as in the East the 
species is a straggling herb, remaining rooted long after its death 
at the close of the season. Dr. Newberry has told us that it is 
also known as the " ghost-plant " in allusion to the same habit, 
bunches flitting along by night producing a peculiarly weird 
appearance. It is doubtless very efficient in the distribution of 
the seeds, and accounts for the wide dissemination of the species 
on the plains. Professor Bessey notes a similar habit in Baptisia 
tinctoria on Martha's Vineyard, Mass., and Panicum capillare 
might also be cited as another example. 

Wild Flowers under Cultivation. Ernest Volk. (Journ. Trenton 
Nat. Hist. Soc, i., pp. 9-16.) 

Remarkable success was attained in growing Lilium Cana- 


dense, L., and L. superbiim, L., the latter averaging a height of 
ten feet, with clusters of more than fifteen flowers. The follow- 
ing were also successfully cultivated : Clirysopsis Mariana, 
Nutt. ; Lobelia cardinalis, L. ; Chelone glabra, L. ; Gentiana 
Andrewsii, Griseb., and Helenium aiitumnale, L. ; but failure has 
attended all efiforts to raise Gerardia purpurea, L., either from 
root or seed, owing, probably, to its partially parasitic habit. 
Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, L'Her. (Drugs and Medicines of N. A., 

i., pp. 289-304; PL XXV., figs. 99-105; with Index and 

Title Page to Vol. i.) 

An interesting discussion of the various names by which this 
plant has been known, follows the botanical description. The 
authors discredit L'Heritier's name, and claim precedence for 
that of X simplicissima, Marshall (Arbust. Amer., p. 168,) holding 
also that the genus is more closely allied to the Berberidacea, 
and is at present wrongly classed. The statement is made that 
the rhizomes are so nearly like those of Berberis repens and B. 
aquifolium, that they could be substituted in commerce. Fur- 
thermore, G. D. Perrins demonstrated, in 1 862, that the yellow 
coloring matter, which gives Xanthorrhiza its intensely bitter 
taste, was berberine, and subsequent investigations have failed to 
discover any other alkaloid. 

Botanical Notes. 

A new Algological yournal.—The publication of a periodical 
devoted to AlgEE, under the title Notarisia Commentarium 
Phycologicum, has been begun in Venice, Italy, under the editor- 
ship of Messrs. G. B. DeToni and David Levi. Systematic 
descriptions and illustrations of Mediterranean forms are com- 
menced in the first number, and much other matter of interest to 
Algologists is presented. 

A new Work on Hepaticce.—Mr. Gotthold Hahn has recently 
published a small handy volume on the Liverworts of Germany, 
entitled "Die Lebermoose Deutschlands." I33 species are 
described and 90 of them figured on twelve beautifully colored 
plates. By comparing the species with Professor Underwood's 
Catalogue of North American HepaticJE we find that over 1 00 
of these are represented in America. Tiie book will therefore 


prove valuable to American students of this interesting but 
neglected order of plants. 

The Testa of Legiimhwiis Seeds. — In addition to the list of 
authors on this subject given by Mr. L. H. Pammel in the last 
number of the BULLETIN, I would mention F. A. Fliickiger, 
Pharmacognosie des Pflanzenreiches, 1883, and W. Marme, 
Lehrbuch Pharmacognosie, 1886. These books contain elaborate 
accounts of the histology of the Calabar bean, and also of fenu- 
greek (Trigonella fcenumgrcecum, L.,) the testa of which has a 
structure very similar to that of Physostigma. 


Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held at Columbia College, 
Tuesday evening, March 9th. The President occupied the chair, 
and twenty-nine persons were present. The following were 
elected active members : Miss Lena T. Potter, Edward B. 
Miller and Henry C. Carter. Dr. Asa Gray was elected an 
honorary member under the amendment to the Constitution 
adopted at the last meeting. Prof. Charles E. Bessey, Dr. O. R. 
Cross and Miss Eliza Youmans were elected corresponding 
members. It was resolved to permanently deposit the Library 
of the Club in the Botanical Library of Columbia College, in 
exchange for which the members have now the privilege of 
obtaining readers' tii-kets to this and the main College Library 
on application to the Librarian of the Club. 

Specimens of the Snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis, which had 
blossomed in a garden in Brooklyn, were brought by Miss Steele. 
Mrs. Britton read the paper announced for the evening, entitled 
" Notes on the Autumn Flora of the Great Appalachian Valley 
and the Southern Alleghanies," and illustrated it with numerous 
specimens. A photograph of Louis D. de Schweinitz, sent by 
Eugene A. Rau, of Bethlehem, Pa., through whom the deSchwein- 
itz library has recently been sold, was exhibited. 

The committee on Public Lectures announced that Prof. 
W. G. Farlow, of Cambridge, Mass., will address the Club and 
its friends on Friday evening, April 9th. The title will be 
announced by card. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Plate LIV. 


V %Ss»/i 

roc. aa Hat. 
Development of the Antheridium in Ferns. D. H. Campbell 




Vol. XIII.] New York, April, 1886. [No. 4. 

The Development of the Antheridium in Ferns. 
By Douglas H. Campbell. 

Plate Liv. 

In a paper read before the last meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, I called attention to 
the readiness with which the prothallia of ferns may be grown, 
and their value as types in the study of development. In the 
present paper I have endeavored to give a few hints in regard 
to the study of the antheridium, suggested by a somewhat ex- 
tended study of a number of species. 

In selecting species for study, it is best to choose those that 
are dicEcious, or else to study the young prothallia of the monoe- 
cious species; as in the larger moncecious prothalha, longitu- 
dinal sections are necessary, while in the small male prothallia of 
such dioecious forms as Asplenium filix-fcemina, for instance, 
they may be studied by placing the whole prothallium upon the 

The observations here recorded were made principally upon 
the latter species and the two species of Onoclea, 0. Striithiopteris 
and O. sensibiiis, all of which are almost ab.solutely dioecious, 
and do not differ in any essential particulars in the formation of 
the antheridium. 

The best results are obtained by growing the prothallia artifi- 
cially, as it is very rare to find them growing naturally, and it is 
a very simple matter to grow them. The spores germinate in 
from three days to a week from the time they are sown, and are 
ready for study in about six weeks time, when under favorable 
circumstances abundance of ripe antheridia may be observed. 
The best results were obtained by sowing the spores in fine 
earth and keeping moist, and somewhat shaded, a bell-jar being 
used to prevent too rapid evaporation. Care must be taken. 


however, not to keep the ground soaking wet, or else there is 
danger of the prothallia rotting. 

The young male prothallia are small, and often of irregular 
form (Fig. i), the antheridia {an.) arising from the marginal, 
or sometimes the terminal cells. They arise as papillae, resem- 
bling very much at this stage, the young root hairs, but soon be- 
come distinguished by their denser contents, and more regularly 
hemispherical form (Fig. 2, ati.) 

The young antheridium now becomes cut off from the cell of 
the prothallium by a wall, and is seen to contain a distinct cen- 
tral nucleus, around which the contents are more granular than in 
the peripheral portions of the cell. Among the granules are 
some chlorophyll bodies, but these are smaller than those of the 
other cells of the prothallium. 

The first wall formed within the antheridium is funnel-shaped 
in most cases, the broad portion being directed upward, and the 
point in contact with the wall by which the antheridium was cut 
off from the cell of the prothallium (Fig. 3, «-«). Sometimes 
before this is differentiated a wall is formed parallel to the latter, 
thus making a pedicel, but this was quite exceptional. In some 
cases the point of the funnel-shaped wall does not reach to the 
base of the antheridium, or the wall may even be nearly flat. 

The second wall (Fig. 3, b) is much less variable, being ap- 
proximately hemispherical, and parallel to the outer wall of the 

Finally a third wall is formed, resembling the first one in 
form, and cutting off the covering cell of the antheridium (Figs. 
4, 8.) 

The antheridium now consists of four cells, three parietal and 
a central cell. The two lower parietal cells are annular in form, 
the upper one flat. They all are nucleated and contain a num- 
ber of small chlorophyll granules. The central cell appears 
pentagonal when seen from the side, and is characterized by a 
large nucleus and dense, granular and highly refractive proto- 

The division of the central cell begins either before, or imme- 
diately after the formation of the covering cell. The first wall 
(Figs. 3, 8) is neariy vertical, and is soon followed by a second 


vertical one at right angles, so that when the antheridium is seen 
from above the central cell appears divided into four, arranged 
like the quadrants of a circle. These are followed by others un- 
til the full number, varying a good deal, even in the same species, 
is formed. 

The central cell now consists of a tissue composed of small, 
thin-walled polyhedral cells, each one having a small but distinct 
nucleus. The antherozoids are derived directly from the nucleus, 
which, previous to their formation, becomes indistinct, but does 
not actually disappear. As soon as it can be definitely observed 
again, it is seen to have increased in size and to have become 
curved (Fig. 9.) It rapidly increases in size, becoming at the 
same time more curved, until it finally comes to occupy nearly 
the whole cell, some granular protoplasm, however, remaining 
between the coils, especially toward the centre of the cell. 
When the antherozoids are fully grown, the sperm-cells have in- 
creased in size so as to crowd upon the parietal cells, and occupy 
nearly the whole space of the antheridium, which is now nearly 
globular (Fig. 5.) 

The walls between the sperm-cells now undergo a change, 
becoming mucilaginous, so that when water is appHed they dis- 
solve, allowing the antherozoids to become separated, but enough 
of the wall remains, so that they are still enclosed in a delicate 
membrane. The dissolution of the division walls is accompanied 
by very evident movements of the contents of the antheridium. 

When the antherozoids are ready to escape, the parietal cells 
absorb water with great avidity, until the pressure becomes so 
great as to rupture the wall of the antheridium. This usually 
occurs between the middle and top cell, the latter being torn 
open ; or sometimes simply through a fissure in the cap-cell. As 
the parietal cells absorb the water they become very much dis- 
tended, pressing in on the mass of sperm-cells, which are thus 
forced out through the opening. In cases where the first wall in 
the antheridium did not extend to the base, it was forced up by 
the absorption of water in the cell beneath, so as to nearly oblit- 
erate the cavity of the antheridium. 

The antherozoids remain for a few moments after their escape 
enclosed in the remains of the wall of the mother-cell, but this is 


soon ruptured and the antherozoid swims rapidly away, dragging 
after it the remains of the contents of the mother-cell as a very 
delicate vesicle (Fig. 7, v.) 

The body of the antherozoid is coiled, the coils toward the 
posterior end being larger. It is generally somewhat flattened 
at the anterior end, where there are numerous cilia, and more or 
less pointed at the other, which may be drawn out into a long, 
delicate filament. 

After the escape of the antherozoids the inner walls of the 
antheridium (Fig. 6) soon assume a dark brown color. 

In the preparation of specimens for study, very httle use was 
made of reagents, most of the work being done with living speci- 
mens mounted simply in water. 


Fig I. Small male prothallium of Asplenium filix-fwmina\ 
X 150. An, antheridia ; r, root hair. 

Figs. 2-5. Successive stages in the development of the an- 
theridium of the same ; X 500. All except Fig. 4 in optical lon- 
gitudinal section. 

Fig. 6. An empty antheridium of the same; x SSO. 

Fig. 7. Antherozoids of the same ; a, before, b, after escaping 
from the mother-cells, x 625; i', vescicle ; — remains of the cen- 
tral contents of the mother-cell. 

Fig. 8. Young antheridium of Onoclea sensibilis. Optical 
section from the side ; X Soo. 

Fig. 9. An older one of the same species from above ; 

X 500. 

New American Grasses. 

By George Vasey. 

Aristida Reverchonii, Vasey. — Culms slender, i to 2 
feet high, unbranched, smooth ; radical leaves 3 to 6 inches long, 
involute filiform, straight or curved ; culm leaves about 3, rigid, 
erect, filiform and involute, 3 to 6 inches long ; ligule a ciliate 
line ; sheaths smooth, close, shorter than the internodes ; panicle 
erect, spike-like, slender, 4 to 6 inches long; the branches 
appressed and sessile, single and alternate, the lower ones i to i ^ 
inches long, all closely flowered, and longer than the internodes ; 


glumes narrow, acute, purplish, the lower 4 lines, the upper 
5 to 5 ^ lines long ; flowering glume as long as the upper empty- 
glume, or slightly longer ; awns about equal, 7 to 8 lines long, 
spreading. Differs from A. purpurea, Nutt., in the narrower, 
denser panicle, with sessile branches, smaller flowers and shorter 
awns. Collected by Reverchon on rocky hills in Crocket County, 

Stipa Lettermani, v. — Culms i to 2 feet high, slender ; 
radical leaves filiform, 4 to 6 inches long; ligule short; panicle 
spike-like, narrow, slender, 4 to 6 inches long, loose ; lower rays 
I to i^ inches long, erect, mostly single, sparsely flowering 
nearly to the base, upper branches shorter ; outer glumes about 
3 lines long, acuminate and awn pointed, both three-nerved ; flow- 
ering glume about 2 lines long, sparsely pubescent, the hairs long 
near the summit, awn bent, 6 to 8 lines long. One of the smallest 
flowered species ; collected in Idaho by Prof. G. W. Letterman. 

MUHLENBERGIA Parishii, V. — This species was described 
in the Bot. Gazette, for August and September, 1882, page 93, as 
M. sylvatica, var. Californica. I am now satisfied that it is a good 
species and name it for the collector, Mr. S. B. Parish, of San 
Bernardino. Cal. 

Muhlenbergia Californica, V. — This was described, on 
page 92 of the same number of the Bot. Gazette, as M. glomerata, 
var. brevifolia. It is sufficiently distinct to constitute a good 

MuhlexbergIA Wrightii, v. — Culms erect or decum- 
bent, usually branching below, i to 2^ feet high, somewhat 
compressed, rather wiry; leaves short and somewhat stiff", 3 to 6 
inches long ; sheaths smoothish, shorter than the internodes, ligule 
short ; panicle spike-like, cylindrical, densely flowered, more or 
less interrupted ; the lower branches are, on thrifty specimens, 
^ to I inch long, appressed and floriferous to the base; spikelets 
frequently two-flowered; outer glumes nearly equal, about i line 
long, with a thin ovate base, and an awned point as long or longer, 
or sometimes lanceolate with a shorter point ; flowering glume a 
little longer and thicker than the outer ones, tipped with a short, 
stiff" awn, ^ to ^ line long, three-nerved below, slightly pube- 
scent; the palet about as long as its glume. 


Throughout the Rocky Mountain region. It is No. 1986, C. 
Wright; 806, M. E. Jones; 3177, J. G. Lemmon, etc. Mr. 
Lemmon found a form which he says grows in ring-Hke patches. 

Agrostis DEPRESSA, V. — Culms decumbent and geni- 
culate at the base, becoming erect, 6 to 10 inches high, slender, 
leafy below ; leaves short and narrow, plain, i to 2 inches long, 
y^ line wide, acute ; ligule conspicuous, about i line long, ob- 
tuse and ciliate at apex; sheaths smooth, striate, the lower ones 
loose ; panicle narrow, i to 2 inches long, or in age broader and 
more spreading ; the branches short, variable in number, 2 to 5 
at the lower joints and unequal ; pedicels scabrous, about as long 
as the spikelets; empty glumes nearly equal, about i line long, 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, roughish on the keel above ; flowering 
glume one-third shorter, narrowly oblong, obtuse or minutely 
dentate at the apex ; palet narrow, half as long as its glume. 
Collected in Clear Creek Canon, Col., by H. N. Patterson, 1885. 

Agrostis exarata, van stolonifera, V. — Ca;spitose ; 
culms 8 to 12 inches high from a decumbent base, with 
numerous short leaves, which are seldom more than an inch 
long, narrow, acuminate ; the radical leaves also short and abun- 
dant ; ligule membranaceous, conspicuous, obtuse ; panicle i ^ to 
2 inches long, purplish, narrow; branches very short and clus- 
tured, mostly flowering to the base, some of the lowest longer 
and naked below; spikelets about i line long, sometimes two- 
flowered ; empty glumes nearly equal, acute, hispid on the keel ; 
flowering glumes one-third shorter, oblong ovate, toothed at the 
apex, sometimes with a short awn, palet small, equaling the 
ovary ; long leafy stolons, sometimes a foot long, are often 
emitted from the base, the joints I to 2 inches apart. Bottom 
lands of the Columbia River, collected by Mr. W. N. Suksdorf 
Perhaps a good species. 

Agrostis exarata, var. littoralis, V. — Culms erect 
from a creeping rhizome, 10 to 16 inches high, stout, with about 
four nodes ; leaves erect or appressed, rather rigid, the upper 
one near the panicle, varying from 2 to 4 inches long, about 
I line wide below, narrowed to a long point, scabrous on the 
margins, ligule conspicuous, obtuse, membraneous; panicle rig- 
idly erect, narrow, lanceolate, densely flowered, the branches un- 


equal and numerous, the shorter floriferous to the base, the lower 
ones (about J^ inch) nearly so ; spikelets about i ^ lines long, 
empty glumes lanceolate, acute, membraneous on the margins ; 
flowering glumes one-third shorter, oblong, obtuse, obscurely 
five-nerved ; palet wanting ; stamens three. 

Found by Mr. T. J. Howell on the sandy seashore in 
Oregon. It differs much from the ordinary form of ^. exarata, 
and perhaps should be considered a distinct species. 

Agrostis foliosa, v. — Culms ij^ feet high, erect, 
smooth ; culm leaves four or five, erect, somewhat rigid, 4 to 6 
inches long, i ^ to 2 lines wide, long pointed ; ligule about 2 lines 
long, lacerate at apex ; panicle 4 to 5 inches long, open and 
loose, the lower branches mostly in fives, unequal, the lower 
I inch long or more, somewhat spreading, capillary, rather few 
flowered, mostly naked below ; spikelets little more than i line 
long, lanceolate, abruptly acute ; flowering glume nearly as long 
as the outer ones, five-nerved, obtuse and shortly four or five- 
toothed at apex ; palet wanting. Collected in Oregon by T. J. 
Howell. The panicle much like a short branched A. alba. 

Agrostis Diegoensis, V. — Culms erect, stout, 2 to 3 
feet or more high, smooth ; leaves 4 to 7 inches long, i to 2 
lines wide, erect, those of the culm with long sheaths (the upper 
ones 8 or 9 inches long) ; ligule about 2 lines long, acute ; pan- 
icle 6 to 8 inches long, lanceolate, the joints rather distant (the 
lower i^ to 2 inches); branches numerous, unequal, erect, the 
longer ones about two inches long, and floriferous above the 
middle, the shorter floriferous to the base, the flowers numerous; 
spikelets light green, Ij5^ to 2 lines long, outer glumes acute, 
scabrous on the keel ; flowering glume one-third shorter, oblong, 
obtuse, the mid-nerve terminating about the middle, with or 
without a minute awn ; palet none. Collected at San Diego, 
California, by C. R. Orcutt. The panicle resembles that of A. 
alba, but is narrower, stouter and more closely flowered. 

Agrostis Oregonensis, V. — Root fibrous (annual ?) ; 
culms about 2 feet high, somewhat slender, radical leaves fili- 
form ; culm leaves distant, narrow, soon tapering to a long, slen- 
der point, 3 to 4 inches long ; ligule short ; panicle 4 to 5 inches 
long, nodding and flexuous, open but not spreading ; branches 

. 56 

capillary, unequal, mostly in fives below, above in twos or threes, 
the longer about 2 inches long, all naked below, and rather 
numerously flowered above ; pedicels slender, as long as, to two 
or three times as long as, the spikelets, which are about i ^ lines 
long, narrowly lanceolate, and gradually tapering to the acute 
point, slightly scabrous on the keel, rather thin and purple ; 
flowering glume a little shorter than the empty ones, narrowly 
lanceolate, five-nerved, apex rather obtuse ; palet wanting. The 
panicle has a rich purple color, and it approaches the A. scabra, 
but is shorter, and with much shorter and erect branches, and a 
firmer culm. Collected in Oregon by Mr. Howell. 

Deyeuxia Cusickii, V. — Culms from a strong creeping 
rhizome, stout, smooth, 4 feet high, radical leaves abundant, a 
foot long and 2 lines wide, tapering to a long point ; culm leaves 
three or four, distant, long and wide like the radical ones ; sheaths 
shorter than the internodes, smooth, striate, 4 to 8 inches long; 
ligule decurrent, thin, about 2 lines long, lanceolate at the apex ; 
panicle 6 to 7 inches long, i inch or more wide, erect, the lower 
joints I inch apart ; branches numerous, verticillate, mostly flow- 
ering to the base, the longer ones i ^ inches long, and naked 
below ; empty glumes lanceolate, smooth, rather thin, about 2 
lines long, strongly acute or acuminate, the lower one-nerved, 
upper three-nerved, and a little shorter ; flowering glume nearly 
equaling the empty ones, narrowly lanceolate acuminate, smooth, 
thinnish, five-nerved, bifid at the apex, awn erect, inserted a little 
below the middle, slightly longer than its glume, hairs scanty, 
about half as long as the glume ; palet nearly equaling its glume, 
thin, membranous. 

A showy grass, with abundant foliage and rather ample pan- 
icle, collected in eastern Oregon at an altitude of 5,000 feet, by 
Mr. W. C. Cusick, who states that the radical shoots are abun- 
dant, but rarely sending up flowering culms. 

Turner's New Desmids of the United States. 
By Francis Wolle. 
It is with a feeling of much satisfaction that I have been ob- 
serving the growing interest in the study of the Desmids, not 
only of foreign countries, but especially of the United States, and 


the ready aid furnished to complete the list of our genera and 

Among- the most recent papers is a pamphlet of twenty pages 
and four plates, extracted from the Journal of the Linnean 
Society, (London, January, 1886,) by W. Joshua, F.L.S., contain- 
mg a list of Burmese DesmidiecB, and descriptions of new species 
occurring in the neighborhood of Rangoon, the whole making a 
large and valuable accession to the knowledge of this family of 
Fresh-water Alga;. 

Messrs. Roy and Bisset, of Aberdeen, Scotland, have made 
a useful print of a number of new forms mostly from Great 
Britain which came under their observation. 

Thanks also are due to Prof J. Schaarschmidt, of Hungary 
for calling attention, in this BULLETIN, to three species of Amer- 
ican Desmids, noted in a work of P. Reinsch, 1875, omitted from 
my Desmids of the United States. The three forms are 
Xanthidiuin Nordstedtiamim, Reinsch, a Cosmariuni without a 
name, and Staurastrum pseudo- Cosmariuni. The first appears 
to be the same as Xanthidium fasciculatum, described and 
figured by Delponte in his Desmidiacearum Subalpinarum, 
1873. Diflfering considerably from the usually accepted form, I 
described it in this journal, January, 1885, as X. fasciculatum, 
van stibalpinum.. Delponte's description was given two years 
earlier than that of Reinsch, and hence has the claim of priority. 
The second, Cosmarium, Dr. Schaarschmidt named C. Reinschii. 
The third is a form I have not recognized ; it must be added to 
our list of Desmids. 

Mr. Alfred W. Bennett, F.R.M.S., Lecturer on Botany at St. 
Thomas' Hospital, has published a paper of much interest in the 
February number of the Journal of the Royal Mic. Sec, "On 
the Fresh-water Alga; of the English Lake District, with descrip- 
tions of twelve new species," illustrated with two plates. 

Mr. W. Barwell Turner, F.R.M.S., read a paper, November 
II, 1885, before the Royal Microscopical Society, London, 
(see Journ. R. M. Soc, December, 1885 and Bull. Torn Bet. Club, 
December, 1885), on what he believes are some new and rare 
Desmids of the United States, but which were mainly derived 
by him from sources that had been already examined and 

• " - 58 

reported upon by myself. His descriptions of American speci- 
mens, with few exceptions, embrace nothing that is either new 
or rare; he has been surprised into applying these adjectives to ' 
the immature or arrested growths and partial developments of 
plants previously described and classified. A few illustrations : — 

The plant he designates as Leptozosma catenula, and for 
which he makes a new genus, is the undeveloped form of an old, 
well known species, Desmidium qiiadratum, which did not escape 
my attention when examining the material collected at Malaga, 
N. J. At first sight it struck me as a novelty, and not until 
many specimens were observed did the facts become evident. 
The process of development of the Desmi4iecB is similar to that 
of the Bambusinm, which is concisely represented in my Desmids 
U.S. (Compare p. 24, Plate I, Figs. 15-25.) The filaments are, 
primarily, entirely distinct in appearance from the mature plants. 
Unless traced through the various stages of growth they cannot 
be recognized. The same difficulty occurs with immature speci- 
mens of Desmidium cylindriciim ; they are entirely unlike the 
mature plants. 

The form of Des7nidium qUadratum from the pond at Malaga, 
differs somewhat from the one illustrated, (1. c. Plate XLIX.) 
The cells are more quadrangular, angles sharper, not so rounded, 
and ends more suddenly attenuated by incurved lines; suture 
thick. These, like all other Desmids, are liable to many minor 
modifications, without destroying the specific character. 

Cosmarium rostratiim, n. sp., is the same as C. aculeatum, 
(1. c. Plate XVI., Fig. 15.) My description reads, " primarily more 
or less densely aculeated ; later the aculei drop off" (p. 66.) 
When the description was written I had seen comparatively few 
specimens. The more usual appearance is with three or four 
small spines on or near the end of the cell, but indications of the 
existence of more can almost always be seen. My illustration ' 
represents, perhaps, an exception, rather than the ordinary form, 
hence I can readily see how Mr. Turner was misguided. 

Euastrum Floridanum, n. sp., is not new ; it is E. ventricosum, 
Lundell. After careful examination of many specimens, I have 
satisfied myself that it cannot be separated fiom Lundell's form 
{ytde Des. U. S. p. 160). Single specimens may indicate some 


slight variations, but these, among the many, cannot be taken 
for a new species. 

Docidimn occidentale, n. sp. Mr. Turner acknowledges to have 
seen but one-half of a cell of this Desmid. A new species on so 
slender a basis cannot be relied upon. Had he seen a fractional 
part of the hundreds which came under my observation, he 
would not have ventured a new name for D. gracile, Bail. 

Staurastrum gladiosum, n. sp. — I fail to see how this form can 
be separated from S. echinatunt, which is by no means a rare 
species, but varies considerably. 

Eiiastrum pseudo-elegans, n. sp. — E. elegans is one of our 
most common forms of the genus ; varieties are without number. 

Euastrum coronatiim, n. sp., appears to be simply a large 
form of E. simplex. 

Cosmarmm getnmaturn, n. sp. — This is nothing more than a 
poor, imperfectly developed form of C. triplicahim, common in 
ponds near Minneapolis, Minn. ; seldom as finely formed as in 
localities nearer the Atlantic. 

Micrasterias mamillata, n. sp., was found in the same small 
cove in which M. apiculata abounds, and appears to be a form of 
that species. 

The following : Genicularia Americana, n. sp. ; Penitim spiro- 
siriolatum, Barker ; Gonatozygon sexspiniferum, n. sp., are forms 
I do not know, and for the present accept as new to our flora. 

Of the value of the many varieties recorded I will say noth- 
ing, but merely make these general remarks. In the study of the 
Desmids, as in the study of other plants, the fact must not be 
overlooked, that none are subject to the mathematical rules 
of preciseness which govern the astronomer or the engineer 
in his calculations. Large allowances must be made for varia- 
tions in the size and form. Two l-aves from the same tree, or 
two roses from the same bush, will scarcely be found absolutely 
alike. Plants derived from seed out of the same pod may vary 
greatly, yet they will retain their specific characteristics. 

For an idea of the variations among Desmids, reference may 
be made to Plate XXX., (Des. U. S.), eight quarter-cells of M. 
Torreyi; Plate XXXI., M. radiosa ; Plate XXXVIII., M. tnmcata. 

Patient study and unwearied examinations can alone decide 


a new species, therefore these suggestions to all who take up the 
study of the Desmids. Uo not be disturbed at the seeming incor- 
rectness of the author ; neither be too highly elated at the pros- 
pect of something new. If on the first examination of a plant it 
does not agree in every particular with the diagnosis, or with 
the illustrations, find another and another ; soon the apparent 
differences may entirely disappear. 

Notes on the Flora of the Hudson Highlands. 

Seeing by a recent note in the BULLETIN that plants found 
in the Hudson Highlands are of interest, I send herewith a list, 
partly the result of my own gathering, partly made up from my 
father's notes, made in the vicinity of West Point. 

Clematis verticillaris, D. C, among the rocks between Fort 
Putnam and peat bog, April 29, 1845, J. W. B. ; Rammcultis 
sceleratus, L., J. W. B. ; R. fasciadaris, MuhL, spur of Crow's 
Nest, April, 1831, J. W. B. ; Thalictrum dioiaim, L., April 3, 
1 83 1, J. W. B. ; Caulophyllum thalictroides, Michx., ravine on 
Crow's Nest, J. W. B. ; Adlumia cirrkosa, Raf, Crow's Nest, 
J. W. B. ; Arabis lyrata, L., all about Fort Putnam, 1879; 
Polanisia graveolens, Raf., Washington's Valley, July 27, 183 1, 
J. W. B. ; Hibiscus Moscheittos, L., near river, J. W. B. ; Tephro- 
sia Virginiana, Pers., J. W. B. ; Vicia tetrasperma, Loisel., 
thicket on the north of Gee's Point, 1830, J. W. B. ; Acer Penn- 
sylvanictiin, L., common at West Point; Viburnum lantanoides, 
Michx., top of Crow's Nest, 1879; Triosteum perfoliattim, L., 
August 22, 1831, J. W. B. ; Eupatorium sessilifolimn, L., August 
23. 1835, J- W. B. ; Solidago latifolia, L., ravine on Crow's 
Nest, and at Kosciusko's garden, 1830; Xanthium strumaritim, 
L., swamp below Kosciusko's garden, 1828, J. W. B. ; Bidens 
bipinnata, L., Chain Battery, 1879; Cichorium Intybus, L., on 
road to south wharf, 1879; Lobelia Dortmanna, L., Kronket's 
Pickerel Pond, September 10, 1831, J. W. B. ; Campanula 
rotundifolia, L., top of Crow's Nest, 1879; Epigfsa repens, L. ; 
Anagallis arvensis, L., Washington's Valley, September 3, 1831, 
J. W. B. ; Asclepias quadrifolia, L., and A. verticillata, L., 
J. W. B. ; Echiiim vulgare, L„ Gee's Point, J. W. B. ; it also 
grows on the road to the new railway station; Scrophularia 


nodosa, L., Washington's Valley ; Collitisonia Canadensis, L., near 
Fort Putnam and on Crow's Nest, J. W. B. ; Asarum Canadense, 
L., ravine on Crow's Nest, 1879; Aristolochia serpentaria, L., 
near Fort Putnam, 1835, J. W. B. ; Acnida cannabina, L., Duck 
Island, J. W. B. ; Polygonum tenne, Michx., September, 1830, 
J. W. B. ; and P. Virginianum, L., Crow's Nest, J. W. B. ; 
Alisma Plantago, L., van Americanum, Gray, foot of Crow's 
Nest, I. W. B. ; Orchis spectabilis, L., ravine on Crow's Nest, 
1879 ; Rhyncospora glotnerata, Vahl., Kronket's Pond, very 
abundant, August 25, 1837, J. W. B. ; Lolium perenne , L., J. W. B. ; 
Woodsia Ilvejisis, R. Br., common at West Point ; Camptosoriis 
rhizophyllus. Link., on Redoubt Hill, Mr. Denton. 

W. W. Bailey. 
A Word Concernine Myosurus. 

Our thanks are due to Dr. Gray for his criticism and correc- 
tion, in the January number of this journal, as regards the 
earliest name, Myosurus apetalus. Gay, for the plant which we 
all had so long been taught to call M. aristatus. That the form 
which he designates as var. leptnrus, belongs under this species, ■' 
rather than under M. minimus, where we had placed it, we can- 
not easily be persuaded, who are familiar with all these plants as 
they grow in the fields, and are moreover supplied with abun- 
dant Pacific coast specimens gathered in all stages of maturity; 
advantages which our learned Cambridge friend admits he' has 
not enjoyed. 

• With reference to the Drummondian specimens oi M. Shortii, 
so long ago distributed by Sir William Hooker, it was not pre- 
sumed that no true Myosurus would be found' among them. We 
only spoke for that representation oi the distribution which the 
herbarium of the California Academy has been favored with. 
The specimens are two only, and neither of them in flower. 
The leaves in both display the scattered but prominent spreading 
teeth of a small plantain ; and the reddish, villous pubescence 
about the bases of the leaves and scapes are the second mark, 
equally unmistakeable with that aforenamed, oi the genus Plan- 
tago, as compared with Myosurus. The species, however, must 
be P. heterophylla, rather than P. pusilla, which latter has its 
leaves entire. EDWARD LEE Gree.m:. 

' 62 
Osmunda cinnamomea, l., var. frondosa. 

Plate Lv. 

In 1876 Miss E. G. Knight and myself found at Pelham 
Manor, Westchester County, N. Y., a single plant of O. cinnamo- 
mea with fronds of the so-called variety, frondosa. I had looked 
from year to year in the same neighborhood for other specimens, 
but failed to find any until last June, (1885). I then found a 
group of scattered root-stocks, — I think some five or six in alh 
bearing modified fronds of the ordinary type, that is with the 
lower pinnai sterile and the upper fertile. Amongst these was 
one which has some of the middle pinna; fertile, and those above 
and below sterile, exactly as in O. Claytoniana, L. In fact, had 
I found it alone, I should have taken it to be that species. It has 
however, as the accompanying sketch shows, the apices of the 
pinnae acuminate. In Eaton's " Ferns of North America," I find 
mentioned two forms of the variety — with the upper or the 
lower pinnae respectively, fertile, — ^but nothing is said of the form 
before us. I therefore think it worthy of especial record, and 
would ask: Does this indicate conclusively that O. cinnamomea 
and O. Claytoniana are varieties of one species ? Or, as these 
two species were both growing in this instance, as they often do, 
near together, could these sports be by any possibility the result 
of hybridization ? 

I took specimens of the two sports from the same root-stock. 

Edward H. Day. 

Proterandry in Veltheimia. 

A plant of Veltheimia viridifolia, growing in my house, is 
now in full flower and exhibits proterandry. After the blossoms 
have been open several days, the style, which till then had been 
shorter than the stamen, elongates and protrudes from the mouth 
of the perianth. At first I thought this a plain arrangement for 
cross-fertilization, but now I am not so sure of it. My wife 
points out to me that the pollen is shed indeed before the stigma 
can receive it, but by a shrivelling or contraction of the perianth, 
is held in a mass, and may be caught by the pistil in its passage 
or precipitated upon it by gravity. The inflorescense is racemose 
or ascending. W. W, BAILEY. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LV. 

Arthur Hollick, del. ad. nat. 

Variation of Osmunda cinnamomea, L. E. H. Day. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Arizona Fossil Wood. — Identification of the. P. H. Dudley. 

(Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, i., p. 220.) 

This silicified wood is of many species, a few of which prove 
to be AraitcaricB. 

Aspidiimi Oreoptcris, Swartz. T. J. W. Burgess. (Botan. Ga- 
zette, xi., p. 63. 

This rare fern, hitherto only known as American from speci- 
mens collected in Unalaska by L. M. Turner, has recently 
been discovered by Professor Macoun on Mount Dawson, British 
Columbia, at an altitude of about 6,500 feet. The fronds are de- 
scribed as narrower and more graceful than those of the Unalas- 
kan and of most European forms. 

Botanizing in Texas. J. Reverchon. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 

Elastic Fruit in Maniinillaria. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Phil. 

Acad. Sci., 1885, p. 378.) 

Development of the Root in Botrychium ternatum. Douglas H. 
Campbell. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 49-53, plate IV.) 
The roots of the Ophioglossaccce are much less numerous than 
those of the true ferns, but of correspondingly greater size; a 
single principal one only is developed at the base of each leaf 
They are thick and fleshy, and almost destitute of fibrils. The 
root-caps do not present the stratified arrangement of cells seen 
in Filices, but walls are soon formed in all directions. The paper 
is well illustrated and thoroughly discusses the anatomy of the 

Fruit of Opiintia. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil., 1885, pp. 365, 366.) 

A series of specimens were exibited showing a gradual change 
from the joint or frond to the fruit of an unknown species, allied 
to O. Braziliensis. 
Fungi inducing decay in Timber. P. H. Dudley. (Trans. N. Y. 

Acad. Sci., v., pp. no- 118) 

Seventeen species are enumerated and many others are yet 
to be determined. Among the most destructive is Lcntinus 


lepideus, Fr., which Mr. Dudley has found attacking Pinus palus- 
tris. Mill, and P. mitis, when these arc used for ties, bridge 
timber and cars. Polyporiis versicolor, Fr., also is very com- 
mon on white and red oak and chestnut, attacking the sap-wood. 
P. applanatus, Fr., has only been identified on the heart- wood of 
white oak, though common on the sap-wood of many other trees. 

Inflorescence of the CompositcB. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Phil. 

Acad. Sci., 1885, p. 376.) 
John Williamson. R. M. Kelly. (Southern Bivouac, i., pp. 


A most interesting account of his life by one who evidently 
knew him well and loved him, illustrated by photographic repro- 
ductions of Williamson's original plates of Kentucky ferns. 

Kansas Mosses. — Third Contribution to the Knowledge of. Eu- 
gene A. Rau. (Bull. Washburn College Lab. Nat. History, 
i., p. 1 14.) 
Eight species, additional to those already determined and 

catalogued in preceding numbers of the same periodical are 

enumerated, and new localities given for several species already 


Lenticular Markings of various Coniferce compared. J. L. Zabris- 
kie. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, i., pp. 218-220.) 
Mr. Zabriskie finds the largest lenticular cell-markings in wood 
of the Sugar Pine {Pinus Lambertiana, Dougl), where they are 
about one one- thousandth of an inch in diameter. Among the next 
largest are those of Pinus paltistris. Mill., Sequoia scnipervirens, 
Endl., 5. gigantea, Dec, and Pinus ponderosa, Dougl., while the 
smallest noted are from the western Arbor Vitae (Thuja gigantea, 
Nutt.) these being but one two-thousandth of an inch across. 
He remarks that the number of markings in a certain length of 
cell bears an inverse ratio to their size. 

Mildews of Indiana. J. N. Rose. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 


Twelve species, with their host plants, are enumerated, and 
critical and descriptive notes given ; they were all collected in 
the vicinity of Wabash College. 


Occurrence of Red Snow. Charles Hallock. (Amer. Month. 

Micros. Journ., vii., pp. 42, 43.) 
Origin of Leaf-forms. — Notes and Criticisms on Grant Allen's 
Theory of the. N. L. Britton. (Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
iii., pp. 38-44) 
Pliyllostictas of North America. George Martin. (Journ. My- 
col., ii., pp. 25, 26; concluded.) 

It appears, from Mr. Martin's enumeration, that we have 70 
species of the genus. 

Pithophora Kewensis. W. G. DeWitt. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. 
Soc, i., p. 218.) 

This Alga, originally discovered in the Water Lily tank at 
Kew Gardens, was supposed by Wittrock to have been an im- 
portation from Brazil, but Mr. A. D. Balen has found it m several 
places near Plainfield, New Jersey, so its distribution is not alone 
tropical. Mr. DeWitt states that it grows well in his aquarium, 
where it has fruited during the past two months. 
Quercns prinoides,W\\\A. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phil., 188s, p. 365-) 

Mr. Meehan exhibited a series of fruiting branches of this 
oak, showing remarkable variation in leaf-forms, which in some 
were orbicular, in others lanceolate ; some had lobed and wavy 
margins, while others were quite entire. The plants all grew 
within a few feet of each other. 
Recent Notes and Descriptions of Eriogonccz. C. C. Parry. 

(Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 54-56-) 

Dr. Parry criticizes the results reached by Mrs. M. K. Curran 
pubHshed in the Bulletin of the California Academy. 
Sketch of Louis 1). De Schweinits {with portrait.) W. A. Kel- 

lerman. (Journ. Mycol., ii., pp- 3' -34-) 
Staining and Double Staining Vegetable Tissues. (Amer. Month. 

Micros. Journ., vii., pp. 43-48-) 

The Editor republishes the methods of Dr. George S. Beatty, 
which were originally contributed to the "Popular Science 
Monthly," and says that in his opinion they are as good as any 
since devised. 


Studies in the Botany of California and Parts Adjacent. — IV. 
Edward Lee Greene. (Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci.,ii., pp. 41-60; 
advance sheets.) 
Under the caption " On some Cichoriaceous Composit£E," the 
author reviews the arrangement of the genus Microseris in Dr. 
Gray's Synoptical Flora N. A., and contends that its species are 
superlatively amplified. He proposes the restoration of the genus 
Calais, DC, to include five species of the above ; Scorzonella, 
Nutt., to include eleven others; Ptilocalais, Gray, with three 
species, and Nothocalais, Greene, nov. gen., for those included in 
section Nothocalais of the genus Microseris by Dr. Gray ; Trox- 
imon cuspidatum, Pursh., becomes N. cuspidata, Greene. Seven 
new species of these Compositce are characterized. Mr. Greene 
also publishes descriptions of four new Euphorbias, two species 
oi Rammculus {R.Bolandcriand R. Lndoviciatttis) ; Meconella den- 
ticnlata, Argemone corymbosa and Draba Sonorce. 

Tendril Movements in Cucurbita maxima ajid C. Pepo. D. P. 
Penhallow. (Amer. Journ. Sci., xxxi., pp. ioo-ii4and 178- 
189 ; concluded.) 
The account of observations on the growth and circumnutations 
of the tendrils of these plants is continued, and the conclusions 
reached are presented. Mr. Penhallow finds that growth is pro- 
moted by an increase of temperature and humidity, and retarded 
by an increase of temperature when other conditions are not fav- 
orable, and also by excessive transpiration. Movements of ten- 
drils and terminal buds, being phenomena of growth, are modified 
by whatever conditions affect growth. With regard to the cir- 
cumnutations of the tendrils he concludes that they are owing 
to unequal growth by producing unequal tension of tissues, 
chiefly in the vibrogen tissue, which may therefore be regarded 
as the seat_ of movement. The transmission of impulses is 
effected through the continuity of protoplasm in the active tissues. 

Virnlence of the Comtnon Parsnip. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. 
Phil. Acad. Sci., 1885, p. 383.) 
Mr. Meehan referred to the death of several children at Dan- 
ville, Penn., in the spring of 1 884, caused by eating the roots of 
the wild parsnip. Some of these roots had been sent him by the 


attending physician, and one of them bore marks of the children's 
teeth. They were planted, and grew into the true garden pars- 
nip, /*^^/?«fl^a saiiva,which has so commonly escaped from gardens. 
There seemed no chance for error in this case. It was subse- 
quently ascertained that in the cultivated form some growers are 
-careful about working among the leaves while the dew is on them, 
as severe cases of poisoning have resulted from this, and on large 
seed farms the workmen have to protect their hands and arms 
against contact with the juices, or risk poisoning similar to that 
from Jihis toxicodendron. 

White seeded Variety of the Honey Locust. Thomas Meelian. 
(Proc. Phil. Acad. Sci., 1885, pp. 404, 405.) 
The seeds of this tree, which grew near Germantown, Penn., 
were white instead of dark olive-brown as in the normal con- 
■dition. It was of considerable age, and had evidently borne fniit 
for many years. The seeds were nearly orbicular in shape, in- 
stead of the usual narrowly-ovate form. 

Botanical Notes. 

Hard Rttbber Slides. — For about six years I have been using 
a kind of rubber slide which I have found very convenient for 
various reasons, so that I think a description of it might be of 
some interest to microscopists. The slide is of ordinary length and 
width (3x1 in.), but quite thin (about I-7 mm.), and is provided in 
the middle with a circular perforation about 15 mm. in diameter. 
I place the slide on the turntable, apply some cement to the edge 
of the perforation, and then fasten a 20 mm. cover glass (circle) 
on the rubber slide, which then can be used like an ordinary glass 
slide. Very thin sections or objects not requiring any cell may 
be mounted on the upper side of the circle (i.e., the side not 
touching the rubber), while, in order to mount thicker objects, or 
such as are to be protected from pressure, I simply invert the 
slide and have a cell the depth of which I can easily increase by 
a ring of cement in the usual way. 

I hardly need to say that the principal advantage gained with 
this slide is that the observer is enabled to examine both sides of 
any object under the highest powers. Perforated slides have long 
been in use, but I am not aware that they were made of rubber, 

. .68 

the material best adapted for this purpose, and, at the same time, 
inexpensive. Jos. SCHRENK. 

A New Botanical Association. — On the evening of March 5 th 
the "Asa Gr^y Botanical Club" was organized in Utica, N. Y., 
with a membership of twenty-four. The officers elected were : 
President, Dr. Jos. V. Haberer ; Vice-President, Miss Phelps ; 
Secretary, Prof Geo. C. Hodges ; Treasurer, Rev. W. B. Cole- 
man ; Curator, Mr. W. P. Shephard. Meetings are to be held 
every Saturday. 

Annals of the Royal Imperial Natural History Museum of 
Vienna. — We have receive«d the ^xk number of this periodical, 
containing an account of the collections which are now provision- 
ally arranged in the new museum building. In a following number 
we are promised an account by Dr. G. Beck, of the Flora of 
Southern Bosnia and adjacent parts of Herzegovina. The "An- 
nals " are edited by Dr. Franz Ritter von Hauer. 

Proposed Monograph of the Desmidiece. — Mr. W. Barwell 
Turner has issued a prospectus of a monograph of all known 
Desmids, to be published quarterly in about twelve parts, each 
to contain from fifteen to twenty plates. The work will be com- 
menced about October ist, 1886, provided a sufficient number of 
subscriptions are received. 

The Evolution of Phanerogams. — The second volume of MM. 
Marion and Saporta's work, " L'Evolution du Regne Vegetal," 
is devoted to the Phanerogamia. These they consider to have 
sprung directly from the heterosporous Vascular Cryptogams. 
They trace three distinct stages in this transformation, viz. : 
Progymnosperms, Gymnosperms and Metagymnosperms, and 
refer the Lepidodendrons, Sigillarias and Calamodendrons of the 
carboniferous flora to the first of these groups. (See Nature, 
xxxii, p. 289, and Journ. Roy. Mic. Soc, vi, p. 99.) 

Death of Professor Edouard Morren. — Announcement is made 
of the death of Charles-Jacques-Edouard Morren, at Liege, on 
the 23d of February, 1886. But a short time previously we had 
received his very interesting essay, " La Sensibilite et la Motilite 
des Vegetaux." Bruxelles, Decembre, 1885. He was perhaps 
best known as editor of " La Belgique Horticole." 

Note on Tiarella cordifolia. ' 

Ttarella cordifolia has more than once been sent to us with 
somewhat attenuated and dentate or even laciniate petals, lead- 
mg one to suspect a possible crossing with Mitella diphylla. 
This is to ask those who meet with this anomaly to notice, where 
they meet with it, whether it occurs in more than single plants, 
and whether accompanied by the two plants. 

Asa Gray. 

[This was received too late for insertion. — El)S.] 




Vol^XIII.] New York, May, 1886. [No. 5. 

Botanical Notes in the Great Valley of Virginia and in the 
Southern Alleghanies. 
By E. G. Bkitton. 

(Read March 9.) 

These regions have been quite thoroughly explored by bota- 
nists, and I can hope to add little that is new to the published 
accounts* of their flora, but as a record of an autumn trip into a 
most delightful country this may not prove uninteresting. 

The great Appalachian Valley extends almost uninterruptedly 
from Lake Champlain southwestwardly to its termination at 
Lookout Mountain in Georgia. It is excavated from Lower 
Silurian rocks, mainly limestones and slates. Having travelled 
southward from Harrisburgh, Penn., to Luray in central Vir- 
ginia, it was here in Page Valley, as the Appalachian depression 
is there locally known, that our botanizing began. The under- 
lying rock is mostly limestone, bounded, however, to the east by 
quartzite, and from these different rocks result two soils differing 
radically in their flora. On the silicious soils were noticed many 
plants which grow abundantly on the sands of southern New Jer- 
sey; among these were : Stylosantkes elatior,Sv/a.rtz; Euphorbia 
corollata, L. ; Ascyrum CriLx-Andrcm, L. ; Cuphea viscosissiina, 
Jacq. ; Tephrosia Virginiana, Pers. ; Chrysopsis Mariana, Nutt. ; 
Gnaplialiiim purpureum, L., Quercus nigra, L., and Q. stcllata, 
Willd., the latter larger than we had seen before. On limestone 
knobs Cercis Canadensis, L, grew abundantly, and on the bank of 
the Hawksbill Creek we found Sedunt telephiodcs, Michx. Its petals 
were white, but the general effect of the plant was pink, owing 
to the redness of the pedicels and stamens. The leaves and 
stems were covered with a beautiful glaucous bloom. In order 
to preserve these lovely specimens they were ironed until flat and 
thin between sheets of newspaper, and then allowed to dry in an 

* See Dr. Gray's account in a letter addressed 10 Dr. Hooker, published in the 
Am. Journ. Sci. (I), xlii., pp. 1-49 ; and Mr. Redfield's paper in the BULLETIN, vi., 
PP- 33'-339- 


oven. Herbarium specimens were thus obtained which have 
not since lost their leaves. 

The banks of the Hawksbill were blue with Eupatorium 
ccelestinum, L. Among introduced plants along the roadsides 
grew Xafithium spinosunt, L., and Filago Gcrmanica, L. ; and 
everywhere growing as weeds, were seen Solanum Carolinense , 
L., with white and blue flowers, and Sida spinosa, L. The most 
abundant Conifer was Pinus mitts, Michx., on whose leaves the 
stomata were conspicuous with a pocket lens, arranged in longi- 
tudinal rows on both sides. Pinus inops, Alton, is very abun- 
dant elsewhere in the valley, but was not noted at Luray. The 
only form of vegetation seen in the famous caverns was the 
mycelium of a fungus growing on wet planks. 

The list of plants noted at the Natural Bridge of Virginia is 
much too long for insertion here, but the following warrant men- 
tion: In the deep ravine of Cedar Creek, which is spanned by 
the Bridge, grew Heuchera villosa, Michx. ; Draba ramosissima, 
Desv.; Samoliis Valerandi, L., var. Americanus, Gray; Sedum 
ternatmn, Michx. ; Rhus aromatica. Ait. ; Jcffcrsonia diphylla, 
Pers. ; Hydrophylbiin Canadcnse, L., and H. Virginicutn, L. ; 
Asarum Virginicuni, I.. ; Aralia quinquefolia, Gray ; Hydrangea 
arborescens, L. ; Ruellia strcpcns, L ; Elephantopus Carolinianus, 
Willd. ; Asimina triloba, Dunal ; Pcllcea atropurpurea. Link ; 
Asplenium Ruta-inuraria, L. ; Cystoptcris bulbifera, Bern. ; and 
Camptosorus rhisopJiyllos, Link. On the hillsides were found 
Houst07iia purpurea, L., var. longifolia, Gray ; Calamintha 
Nepcta, Link ; Asclepias verticillata, L. ; Polygala ambigua, 
Nutt. ; Linum sulcatum, Riddell, with showy yellow flowers — 
which dropped off" when touched — and Salvia lyrata, L. The 
large trees of Arbor Vitae along the walk leading under the 
Bridge were remarkably fine ; one of them measured fourteen 
and one-half feet in circumference. 

At Balcony Falls, where the James river cuts through the 
Blue Ridge, we collected Campanula divaricata, Michx. ; Dicen- 
tra cximia, DC, in full bloom on September 5. Coreopsis seni- 
folia, Michx., andC verticillata, L., were showy along the railroad 
track. Paronychia argyrocoma, Nutt., and Hypericum prolificum, L., 
grew on the rocks above. 

Near Roanoke, Va., were found Cyperus Lancastriensis, Portefy 
and Ipomoea laciuiosa, L., growing as weeds in a cornfield. 

Unless I could show you some of tlie large photographs 
taken for the Philadelphia owners of the Eastern Tennessee and 
Western North Carolina Railroad, you could not begin to realize 
what a lovely ravine it is through which the Doe River makes 
its way out from among the mountains to join the Holston. Un- 
fortunately the focusing plate of our camera was found to be 
broken after the train had left us in the wildest and prettiest part 
of the gorge, on a stone embankment that sloped 50 or 60 feet 
down to the rocky stream below. Above us towered the lofty 
walls of Pardee's Point, on whose steep escarpments scarcely a 
tree could cling. Here, if anywhere, in this shady, narrow 
ravine, must the ferns and mosses grow. But, as usual, it was 
the other side that looked most promising; there, was the nat- 
ural bank of the river wooded to its edge, here, were the piles of 
debris thrown down in the construction of the roadbed from the 
rocky slope, with logs and stumps of trees, and the usual weedy 
looking, rank growth of saplings and other plants which follow 
man's devastating efforts at penetrating nature's wilds. To be 
sure, she had covered up many of the logs and stumps with the 
tender, pink-flowered vines of Adliimia cirrhosa, Raf , and nestled 
in their shade beautiful clumps of Dicentra eximia, DC. ; both of 
these were still in bloom on September 12, and on the shelf-like 
ledges above us were still seen Campanula divaricata, Michx., 
and Corydalis glauca, Pursh, in flower. A few mosses and 
hepatics were gathered from these dripping shelves, and two little 
ferns, Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh., and Aspidmm marginale, 
Swartz. A belated cluster of flowers was picked from a clump 
of Hydrangea arborescens, L., and Aralia spinosa, L., was seen in 
full bloom. It is a handsome bush and forms as pretty clumps as 
our sumachs. Carex stcnolepis, Torrey, was found near the edge 
of the stream. 

But this Doe River gorge is only the gateway, for Roan 
Mountain lies beyond, and we must climb all day in a tossing, 
bone-aching stage-coach ere we reach "Cloudland." Frequent 
walks and stops on the way up enabled us to botanize quite sat- 
isfactorily, and thus we made several new acquaintances. The 


first and most charming of these was Chelone Lyoni, Pursh, with 
its lovely pink blossoms ; we saw the greatest abundance of 
Cinticifuga racanosa, Ell., and luxuriant plants of Solidago ccesia, 
L., followed higher up by an abundant growth of Eupatorium 
ageratoides, L. Both of these were in full bloom, and stretched 
away under the trees a graceful white carpeting to the giants 
that towered above them. Never had I seen such forests, even on 
the slopes of the Green and White Mountains; Chestnuts, Oaks, 
Beeches, Birches, Maples and Tulip Trees, attaining such size that 
it was not uncommon to find logs whose diameter was nearly five 
feet. Magnolia Fraseri, Walt., grew abundantly with these, 
and toward the summit Ilex monticola. Gray, was frequently 
seen 15 to 20 feet high, and CratcBgus tomentosa, L., vdiV. punc- 
tata, Gray. Just before reaching the zone of Abies Fraseri, 
Pursh, which here replaces Abies balsamea. Marsh., and A. nigra, 
Poir., of our northern mountains, we found the ground carpeted 
with Honstonia serpyllifolia, Michx. ; and here also grew showy 
plants of Gcntiana qiiitiqtie flora, Lam. belieing its name, for I 
counted over one hundred flowers on a single plant. Riidbeckia 
laciniata, L., and R. triloba, var. rupestris. Gray, were showy and 
abundant. Among the firs we found Saxifraga leucanthemifolia 
and Heiichera villosa, Michx., very abundant in damp, rocky 
places, and contrasting their delicate white flowers with the dark 
trees around them. 

Three delightful days were spent on the summit, in a large 
hotel constructed of balsam cut right there on the mountain, and 
occupied mainly by hay-fever patients. The top is a great 
mountain meadow, in parts densely cushioned with beds of the 
fine soft grass, Danthonia compressa, Austin, and much Carex 
cestivalis, Curtis. We walked a great deal, exploring the various 
outlook points and ledges, collecting the rare Sediim Rhodiola, 
DC, and Thalictrum clavatum, DC, from Eagle Cliffs, finding 
late blossoms of the pretty little bluet Honstonia serpyllifolia, 
Michx., and the darkpurple ones ai H. purpurea, L., hidden in shady 
nooks ; gathering the lovely red berries of Vacciniiim erytJirocar- 
pon, Michx., and the flowers of Leiophyllunt buxifoliiim. Ell., var. 
prostratum. Gray, which were surprisingly numerous, considering 
it was the second bloom. I found a number of blossoms in which 

all the petals were replaced by stamens ; the plants carpeted the 
ground, covering the stones and spreading everywhere on the 
summit, with Menzicsia ferruginca. Smith, var. globiilaris. Gray, 
and Potcntilla trideiitata. Ait. Ahius viridis, DC, and Rhodo- 
dendron Catawbicnse, Michx., formed beautiful clumps, like 
prettily planted groups on a lawn, and grow in immense quanti- 
ties. In fact I v/as disappointed because there were so many of 
these last four plants and so few others. By careful search among 
the bushes on the south slope of the mountain we found Trant- 
vetteria pabnata^ F. and M., in fruit; fine plants of Angelica 
Cnrtissii, Buckley, Viola canina, L., var. sylvestris, Regel, and 
V. blanda, Willd. ; Prenanthes altissinia, L, and P. serpentaria, 
Pursh., var. harbata, Gray; Lobelia sypldlitica, L., and Chclo7ic 
glabra, L.; Solidago spithaniea, S. patiila, S. bicolor, and quantities 
of the cut stems and leaves of Veratrum viride, Ait., which we 
learned had been dug by the natives for the Inedicinal roots, 
which bring four or five cents a pound. The prettiest of all 
the mountain flowers at this season was the Gcmn radiatum, 
Michx., with its golden yellow flowers, growing most abundantly 
on the northern slope ; and here too we found Geum genicidaUun, 
Michx. ; Aspidium spimdosum, Swartz, var. dilatatum. Gray ; Ly- 
copodium Sclago, L. ; Maianthcmnm Canadense, Desv., and Cir- 
coea alpina, L. Among the Dantkonia on the summit we noticed 
Junetis articidatits, L., Aira flexuosa, Agrostis rupestris quite 
abundant. We walked down the mountain, preferring this to 
jolting down in the stage. Just as we started down we noted the 
Mountain Ash twenty feet high, in beautiful fruit, with Cornus 
alternifolia, L., and an abundance of Viburnum lantanoides, its 
leaves already turned in their peculiar motded way. Along the 
path followed by the mail carriers, where the thickets of Rko- 
dodendron maximum, Michx., had been burned through, we saw 
Plantago Rugcln, Gnaphalium purpiircnm, L. ; Marckantia poly- 
morpha, L., and the moss Fnnaria hygrometrica, Sibth., which 
the French call " La Charbonniere." Ferns were numerous and 
the following were noted : Dicksonia p'dosiuscula, Willd. ; Adian- 
tum pedatiim, L. ; Asplenium thelypteroides, Michx.; Aspidiiiin 
acrostichoides, Sw., var. incisuni, Gray, and A. spimdosum, Sw., 
var. intermedium, Gray ; A. Noveboracense, Sw., and two plants of 


A. Goldieanuni, Hook. ; this extends the southward range of the 
last named species, as given by Gray, Eaton and Davenport; 
Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Fee, and Botrychium Virginianmn, 
Sw. We found Galium latifoliian, Michx., and G. lanceolaUim, 
Torrey ; Galax apkylla, L. ; Pyntlaria oleifera, Gray ; Oxyden- 
drum arboreum,'DC, and fasciated flowers oi Hclenitmi aiitiimnale, 
L. ; Lobelia cardinalis, L. Two different forms of Astilbe dccan- 
dra, Don., were obtained along the trail ; one, the type of the 
species, with acuminate apices to the leaf-lobes, the other with 
blunt and crenate margins to the leaves, and shorter, smaller folli- 
cles. This latter is a new form to Dr. Gray and Mr. Watson. 
In rivulets half-way up grew Saxifraga erosa, Pursh., and 
Diphylleia cyjnosa, Michx., the latter very conspicuous because 
of its scarlet pedicels and blue-black fruit. 

To make this eventful week complete we went to the terminus 
of the railroad at Cranberry, where one of the most valuable iron 
mines of the country is located. It could hardly have been ex- 
pected to find such delightful accommodations as we here enjoyed, 
in a hotel under the charge of Philadelphia people and luxurious 
in its appointments and neatness, situated in a wild and beautiful 
valley. A peculiary hoary Verbena, fine specimens of Spiranthes 
graminea, Lindl., var. Walteri, Gray, and Solidago patiila, Muhl., 
were found here. 

Returning from Cranberry to the Great Valley again at John- 
son City, we went by rail to Morristown. Tenn. From there a 
delightful ride along the valley of the French Broad, brought 
us at evening to Asheville, N. C. Along the river banks we 
saw for the first time since leaving the North the Buttonball, 
Sweet Gum, Ash-leaved Maple [Negundo aceroides), recognized 
Halesias growing quite abundantly, and noticed in the meadows 
the coarse Atundinaria monosperma, Vahl., with glossy cane- 
stalks. Asheville is a southern Bethlehem; standing on an 
elevated plain among low hills with the mountains encircling it in 
the distance, and the Swannanoa and French Broad Rivers at its 
feet; it affords delightful drives and boasts a breezy, sunny loca- 
tion. Along the Swannanoa grow magnificent oaks, Q. falcata, 
Michx., and Q. imbricaria, Michx. ; here Leiicothoe Catesbai, 
Gray, grew in profusion, and we admired its glossy foliage and 


abundant fruit. A single specimen of Aconituvi uncinattim, L., 
was found on a high bank, and Ipomxa coccinea, L., with Chrys- 
opsis gramhtifolia, Nutt, grew wild in cultivated grounds. 

But Asheville is too civilized, and walking was far from agree- 
able in that dusty, hilly region, so we took the afternoon train on 
the W. N. C. R. R., reaching Black Mountain Station in the 
evening. Here, indeed, all else save the hotel is wild and beau- 
tiful. In the valley on the eastern side of the railroad there is a 
mica mine, to which we walked the morning after our arrival, 
botanizing as we went. The woods were sandy and dry, and 
autumn was suggested by the tint of the Sorrel Tree and the 
brown nuts of the Chinquapins. Gerardias were in bloom. 
G. purpurea, L., and G. Ski?ineriana, Wood, and Solidago 
Boottii, Hook, were collected. Helianthiis occidentalis, van Dow- 
elliamis, T. and G., and Coreopsis senifolia, Michx., added to the 
list of yellow blossoms. The prostrate plants of Lespedeza striata, 
Hook, and Arn., carpeted the ground along the roadsides; and 
Cusctita compacta, Juss., climbed up the Blueberry bushes; 
Cacalia atriplicifolia, L., and Polygala fastigiata, Nutt., were in 
bloom in the meadows. 

It was as a special treat that we had decided at the last to 
ascend Mt. Mitchell, for having thoroughly explored the Roan 
we had little expectation of adding much to our collections, only 
we should have come away dissatisfied had we failed to climb 
this, the highest mountain east of the Rockies. Unlike the 
Roan, however, it has no carriage road up it, so that the 
ascent has to be made on horseback, and instead of a big hotel 
full of people, on the summit there is only the rock-encircled 
grave of Elisha Mitchell. Like the Roan, its base is wooded and 
heavily timbered with magnificent forest trees and a dense under- 
growth of Rhododendron and Laurel along the streams. These 
were numerous, and we crossed and recrossed them many times 
in our winding ascent. I longed to visit these wilds in spring to 
see the flame-colored Azalea in bloom, whose fruit-laden branches 
hung over our path. Of low plants there were few in bloom in 
the shady woods. Diphyllcia cymosa, Michx., grew in hollows 
of the streams, and Amianthium musccetoxicum, Gray, and 
Aster Curtisii, T. & G., along the path. Among the ruins of the 


half-way house, Cratcegus punctata was again noted bearing 
many branching thorns, and Hypericum prolificuui was gathered 
in fruit. Here begins the coniferous vegetation of White Spruce 
and Balsam ; the ground and rocks were densely covered with 
mosses and ferns similar almost in every respect to the same 
zone in the White Mountains, save for an occasional bush of Vac- 
cinitim erythrocarpon and Mcjiziesia, or a hollow with Rhododen- 
dron Catazvbiense. The fruit of Lilinni Grayi, Watson, was found 
at one of the clearings, and Angelica Ciirtisii, Buckl., abundantly 
with Monarda didyma, L. As we drew near the summit the 
black, angular fruit of Trillium grandiflorum, Salisb., became 
quite frequent, and at the place where we left our horses for 
the last scramble up to the top, we found a few late showy blossoms 
of Hypcricnni gravcolens, Buckley. Cnscnia rostrata, Shuttlew., 
twined over anything and everything, and its waxy white blos- 
soms were the prettiest flowers gathered that day, and the only 
ofiering I had to lay on Mitchell's grave. Around it is a space 
of forty or more feet, bare but for a low stunted form of Trifolium 
repens with its blossoms close to the ground, and the tiny panicles 
of Poa a7inita in crevices among the rocks. 

An hour's rest, lunch, and a fairly good view, and then began 
the descent. Walking was more comfortable than riding for the 
greater part of the distance, as the horses picked their way 
down the rocks less readily than we, so that it was nine o'clock 
and quite dark ere we reached Mt. Mitchell Hotel, tired out after 
so long a day and so hard a ride — twenty-six miles in all. A 
Sunday morning spent in resting and letter-writing and then we 
turned our faces homeward. As we wound down the mountains 
through the wonderfully beautiful Swannanoa Gap, it was with the 
keenest regret that we bade farewell to these fascinating regions. 
The railroad is a marvel of engineering skill ; in the short space 
of five miles there are seventeen tunnels, one long one curving 
around a point, and others following in such rapid succession that 
three might be seen in line from the rear platform, and at the 
last, just before we reached Round Knob, the train creaked over 
three long white trestles, one above the other over the same 
stream, with a curve between each, and slowed up at the hotel 
for supper. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LVI. 

Bauhinias living and fossil. 


Description of a Species of Bauhinia from the Cretaceous Clays of 
New Jersey, 

By J. S, Newberry. 

Bauhinia cretacea, n. sp. 

Plate Lvi. 
Leaves large, from four to seven inches in diameter, general 
outline circular, deeply two-lobed, sinus reaching below the mid- 
dle, margin entire, base rounded, lobes oblong or broadly spatu- 
late ; nervation strong, radiate or bilateral, midrib slender, from a 
half-inch to an inch and a half in length, running to bottom of 
mesial sinus, there forking equally, each slender branch running 
parallel with the margin of the sinus ; lateral nerves strong, usually 
two, rarely one on .each side springing from a common base, the 
interior lateral nerve strongest, forking several times and giving 
off fine branches, which inosculate to form a graceful festoon 
near the upper margin ; the exterior lateral nerves, throwing off 
numerous branches which anastamose in loops near the margin, 
producing a camptodrome nervation. In those which have but 
a single lateral nerve, the lobes are narrower, and each is covered 
with the ramifications of the branches which spring chiefly from 
the outer side of the single main nerve. 

The form and nervation of these leaves are so precisely those 
of some of the Bauhinias of the present flora, that there can be 
no reasonable doubt we here have the remains of a well marked 
species of this genus, which grew near the mouth of the Hudson 
River, in the middle of the Cretaceous age, and was the associate 
of the Magnolias, Tulip-trees, Aralias, etc., which composed the 
angiosperm forest of eastern North America. In size, some of 
these leaves exceed those of any living Bauhinia, and the outline 
and nervation indicate, that the genus was as perfectly defined 
and highly specialized in the Cretaceous age as now. 

The living Bauhinias inhabit the tropical and subtropical 
regions of the Old and New World : India, Mauritius, Surinam, 
Cuba, Mexico, etc. The genus is closely related to Cercis, and 
most of the species have a similar habit. In a few the leaves are 
orbicular or slightly emarginate, but they are generally bilobed, 
the sinus reaching the middle of the leaf, sometimes extending to 
the base, as is the case with the only species inhabiting the 


United States, B. bmarioides, Gray, of Texas and Mexico. 
In most of the East India species the nervation is more 
crowded than in the fossil leaves before us, each nerve having 
three, and sometimes four lateral nerves, the medial nerve how- 
ever, being quite the same. In several oriental species, and all 
those of the New World, the nervation is simpler, and essentially 
like that of the fossil. In the Texan species the leaves are gen- 
erally divided to the base, and the medial nerve is therefore obso- 
lete ; the lateral nervation is, however, precisely that of our fossil. 
As the depth of the sinus is a variable character, differing greatly 
in the leaves of the same tree, it is quite possible that our Bmi- 
hinia lunarioides is only a dwarfed and slightly modified de- 
scendant of the Cretaceous species. 


Figs. I and 2. Bjiiihinia tomentosa. India. 
Fig. 3. B. porrecta. Cuba. 
Fig. 4. B. parvifolia. India. 
Fig. 5- B. cretacea. N. 

Dendrological Notes. 
By C. S. Sargent. 

The late Mr. S. B. Buckley, many years ago published (Am. 
Journ. Sci., 2d Ser., Vol. xxvii., March, 1859, p. 289) an inter- 
esting account of the forests and trees of the Big Smoky Moun- 
tain region of North Carolina and Tennessee. I am glad to be 
able to bear witness to the accuracy of Mr. Buckley's observations 
recorded in this paper, which has only recently become known 
to me. Mr. Buckley's interesting discovery of Quercus Leana 
on the banks of the Tennessee River near Franklin, in Macon 
County, seems to have passed unnoticed from that day to this. 
His determination of this plant was doubtless correct, however, 
for last September I found Q. Leana on one of the main forks of 
the Tennessee — the Tuckaseego, at Charleston, in Swaine 
County — where a single small tree growing with Q. imbricaria 
was seen. Quercus Leana is now known from the neighborhood 
of Washington to Missouri, and has been found in several remote 
and isolated localities. It is probably of recent hybrid origin. 


The loose scales of the cup and the pubescense upon the under- 
side of the leaves seem to point to Q. tinctoria rather than to 
Q. coccinia, as suggested by Dr. Engelmann as one of its parents. 
But whatever may have been its origin, it is an interesting ques- 
tion whether a plant so widely distributed and so constant in its 
character as Q. Lcana, has not now a sufficiently permanent hold 
of its own upon existence to be considered a species, especially 
as it cannot, even with the broadest extension of any of the rec- 
ognized species, be referred, as a form, to any of these. The 
status of Q. Leana is identical, although it is more widely distrib- 
uted, with that of Q. heterophylla. Both seem to be of compar- 
atively recent hybrid origin, and both have become so fixed in 
character, that it is perhaps permissible to consider them as 
species. Mr. Buckley called attention to the immense size of 
many individual trees in the Big Smoky Mountains. Here, as 
he pointed out, is the true home of Abies Fraseri, which often 
attains a height of lOO to 150 feet, with a trunk from 3 to 4 
feet in diameter. Halesia here becomes a large forest tree, with 
a clean straight stem, often 60 feet to first branch, and 3 to 4 
feet in diameter. Specimens of yEsculus flava 4 feet in diam- 
eter, are common, and nowhere else can finer Hemlocks, Lirio- 
dendrons or Chestnuts be seen. Ilex inotiticola becomes a con- 
siderable tree, 30 or 40 feet high, with a trunk 6 to 8 inches in 

Nowhere else, I believe, in North America, can so many 
arborescent species be found in such a limited area, as in the 
Big Smoky Mountains. We counted sixty-eight species, or nearly 
one-sixth of all the arborescent species of North America, north 
of Mexico, between Charleston, on the Tuckaseego, and the 
summit of Andrew's Bold, a bald spur of Clingman's Dome, 
5,764 feet above the ocean, the whole distance by the trail being 
but thirteen miles. These bald spots in the Smoky Mountains 
are very generally covered with thickets of Vaccinium Erythro- 
carpoii, often 5 or 6 feet high, and which in September were 
loaded with fruit often more obovate than round, and when fully 
ripe, is jet black, shining, very juicy, but rather insipid. The 
bushes everywhere broken down, indicate that the bears find it 


Mr. Buckley does not mention the discovery of Magnolia 
cordata, and later travellers have not been more fortunate in this 
respect. Indeed, it is not probable that this tree, as is also true 
of Gordonia piibescens, has been seen at all since its original dis- 
covery. The younger Michaux's Magnolia cordata, from the 
banks of the Savannah River, near Augusta, probably belonged 
to a not uncommon form of M. aatminata, with broad, and often 
cordate leaves, and with light yellow flowers. Here too, I be- 
lieve, belongs Mr. Mohr's Alabama plant, referred to M. cordata, 
in the Census Report upon the Forests of the United States. 

It is not known when the elder Michaux dicovered his Mag- 
nolia cordata. The early part of his journal is missing, but late 
in the autumn of 1787 he made a long and arduous journey to 
the mountains of South Carolina, principally for the purpose of 
collecting young trees of this species, so that it is fair to suppose 
that he had discovered it on some previous journey, the record 
of which, unfortunately, has not been preserved. He ascended 
the Keowee, to where the head of the river is formed by two 
rapid mountain streams, now laid down on the map as the Devil's 
Fork and White Water Creek, and here on steep mountain slopes, 
overlooking these streams, he found Magnolia cordata in abun- 
dance. This was in the month of December, and as he seems to 
have had no difficulty in distinguishing the species without 
leaves, he must have become familiar with it previously, and 
probably in this very locality. The cultivated plants by which 
this species is now only known must be all descended from the 
seedling trees collected by Michaux in this winter journey, dur- 
ing which he nearly froze to death, and barely escaped starva- 

Magnolia cordata should be looked for then, in the high and 
very broken country a little to the southeast of Highlands, in 
Macon County, North Carolina, and between that place and 
Cousin's Head, in South Carolina. The trail from White Head, 
near Highlands, to Caesar's Head, crosses the sources of all the 
small streams which form the Keowee, and this region is prob- 
ably most easily entered from this direction. No botanist since 
Michaux, so far as I have been able to learn, has ever visited it. 
It is reported to be entirely unsettled, very rough and broken, 


and covered with magnificent forests of immense trees. It was 
just on the northern border of this region that Rhododendron 
Vaseyit was discovered a few years ago. It offers an inviting 
field for botanical exploration. Well developed fruit of Magnolia 
cordata is not known. 

Fern Notes, VIII. 
By Geo. E. Davexport. 
Aspidiuni Lonchitis, Swartz. — This fine evergreen fern was 
found growing on Mt. Peddo (Adams), Washington Territory, 
in August, 1885, by W. N. Suksdorf, of White Salmon. The 
plants were growing on shady rocks at an altitude of from 6,000 to 
7,000 feet, and show all the typical characteristics of the species. 
One interesting dwarf specimen has perfectly fruited, excessively 
spiny fronds only 3 inches high, and from ^ to |^ of an inch 

Aspiditnn aculecHuni, Swartz, var. scopulinnm, D. C. Eaton, 
Botrychiuni iernaium Swartz — previously collected in a larger 
form in Falcon Valley, and on the Columbia; Botrychinm ma- 
tricariafolium, A. Br., Botrychium simplex, Hitch., plants very 
fleshy, and Lycopoditim alpinnnt, L., were also collected on Mt. 

The specimens of B. ternatnm partake of the California forms 
of that species, but are much smaller. Those of B. matricarice- 
folium well sustain the character of the species for variation, and 
their buds conform to the characters previously pointed out. 
(Torn Club Bulletin, vol. vi., pp. 194, 196, 198 ; vol. xii., p. 23.) 
Mr. Suksdorf, who is doing excellent service for the flora of 
his region, has also collected an interesting form of Polypodititn 
vnlgare, L., with long, narrow fronds, and very bluntly rounded 
obtuse divisions; an alpine form oi Poly podium falcatum, Kellog, 
not readily determined but for the very decided liquorice-tast- 
ing root-stock; Isoetes Nnttallii, A. Br, Marsilia vestita, H. 
and G., and Azolla Caroliniana, Wiild. 

Texan Ferx.s. — From J. Reverchon, Dallas, Texas, I have 
received one of the most interesting and valuable collections of 
ferns made for a long time, the following being of special interest 
to botanists : 

Pellcea aspera, Baker. — Fine specimens sparingly collected on 


exposed rocks, Upper Hondo, in June, 1885. 

Pellcea flexuosa, Link. — Superb specimens, and very distinct 
from any forms of P. cordata, J. Sm. 

Pellcea Wrightiatta, Hook. — Typical plants, the smaller ones 
closely resembling P. ternifolia, Link. 

Notliolcena Candida, Hook. — A fine series of the typical form 
of this species, ranging from 2}4 to 15 inches in height, with 
laminae varying from i to 6 inches in length, i to 3^ inches in 
breadth, and with from 2 to 8 pair of pinnae; throughout all, 
however, an almost stereotyped form of segment prevails. 

Aneimia Mexicana, Klotz. — Specimens large and fine, some 
of them showing exceedingly interesting forms of abnormal 
development. In one exam.ple, what should have been the sterile 
lamina has been almost transformed into a fertile panicle, the 
apices of the divisions alone remaining sterile and green. This 
specimen has in addition the usual pair of fertile spikes well 
developed. In another specimen each of the two fertile spikes 
consists of a simple green lamina with a marginal row of fruit on 
each side slightly inrolled, and only partially pinnatifidly divided 
into wholly fertile divisions at the extreme apex. 

Cheilantlies Lindheimcri, Hook. — This remarkable and ex- 
ceedingly beautiful fern seems to hold to its characters with more 
constancy than any other member of the group to which it be- 
longs, and is almost always easily determined, 

Cheilanthes lawiginosa, Nutt., Cheilanthes tomcntosa. Link — 
some specimens near var. Eatoiii, Davpt., Notholcena Hookeri, 
D. C. Eaton, Notholcena nivca, Desv., var. dealbata, Davenp., 
Notholcena simiata, Kaulf and Aspknium parvjihim, H. & G., 
also occur in this fine collection of ferns, which consists of some 
eighteen specimens in all. 

With the ferns came two forms of Selaginella rupestris, 
Spring, the pretty Selaginella apus, Spring, with which our 
eastern botanists are familiar, and finely fruited specimens of Mar- 
silia macropoda, A. Br. 

The whole collection was made during the botanical tour 
through southwestern Texas, by Mr. Reverchon and wife, in 
May and June, 1885, which he has so pleasantly described in 
the Botanical Gazette for March, 1 886. 


Flora of Richmond County, N. Y. Additions and New Localities, 1885. 

Podophyllum peltatum, L. Pleasant Plains, (Miss Rich.) 

Berberis vulgaris, L. Abundant at Tottenville. 
Caidophylhim thalictroides, Michx. New Springville. 

Nymphcea odorata, Ait., van minor, Sims. Four Corners. 

Papaver dtibium, L. New Dorp. (Miss E. G. Knight.) 

Papaver sontniferum, L. Port Richmond. 

Nasturtium palustre, DC. Stapleton Flats. (Miss C. O. 

Erysimian cheiranthoides, L. In a field near Kreischerville. 

Erysimum orientale, Br. Stapleton Flats. (Miss Thompson.) 

Hesperis matronalis, L. Escaped near the Poor House. 

Rapistrum rugosum,!^. Stapleton Flats. (Miss Thompson.) 

Lychnis vesperttJia, Sibth. New Brighton. (Miss Thompson.) 

Rhus typhina, L. Tottenville, (W. T. Davis), Princes Bay. 

Trifolium hybridum, L. New Dorp. (Miss E. G. Knight.) 

Vicia Cracca, L. Richmond Village. 

Lathyrus paluster, L. Garretsons, also a form intermediate 
between this and the var. myrtifolius, Gray. 

Lespedeza reticulata, Pers. Frequent. 

Primus Pennsylvanica, L. Silver Lake. (Wm. T. Davis.) 

Drosera rotmtdifolia, L. Tottenville. 

Callitriche heterophylla, Pursh. Huguenot. 

Scabiosa arvensis, L. Field near Richmond. (Miss Knight.) 

Dipsacus sylvestris. Mill. Brickyards, Green Ridge. 

Lonicera ciliata, Muhl. Hills back of Garretsons. 

Coreopsis discoidea, Terr, and Gray. Huguenot. 

Heliopsis bupthahnoides, Dunal. (?) Tompkinsville. (Miss C. 
O. Thompson.) 

Lactuca Scariola, L. New Brighton. (Miss Thompson.) 

Centaurea Cyanus, L. New Brighton. (Dr. F. Hollick.) 

Hieracium aurantiacum, L. New Dorp and Pleasant Plains. 

Hieracium Marianum, Willd. Frequent. 

Vaccinium corymbosum, L., var. glabrum, Gray, Staten 
Island, (W. H. Leggett) ; var. amoenum, Gray, Gifibrds ; var. 
atrococcum. Gray, Huguenot. 

Campanula rapunculoides, L. Streets of New Brighton. 

Verbascum Lychnitis, L. New Brighton. (Wm. Chorlton.) 


Echijim vulgare, L. Abundant in a field near the Poor House. 

Lycopsis arvensis, L. In ballast at Stapleton. (Miss Thompson.) 

Petunia nyctaginifolia. New Dorp and New Brighton, escaped. 

Utricularia gibba, L. Tottenvilie. (W. H. Leggett.) 

Lycopus Europcetts, L. Clove Lake and tributaries. 

Thymus vulgaris, L. Clifton, 1864. (W. H. Leggett.) 

Salix fragilis, L. New Dorp and Princes Bay, commonly 
bearing branched catkins, (See Bulletin, vol. vi., p. 312) 

Salix cordata, Muhl., van angustata. Gray. Tottenvilie. 

Smilax taninoides, L. Sparingly near Kreischerville. 

Potamogcton pusillus, L., var. tetiuissimus. Fries. Clove Lake. 

Muscari racemosum, Mill. Huguenot and New Brighton. 

ChamcBlirium Carolinianum, Willd. Clove Lake. 

Juncus acuminatiis, Michx., var. dcbilis, Englm. New Dorp. 

Cyperus diandriis, Torr., var. castaneus, Torr. Frequent. 

Carex lagopodiodes, Schk. Staten Island. (W. H. Leggett.) 

Carex laxiflora, Lam., var. blanda, Boott. Garretsons ; var. 
plantagiiiea, Boott, near Clove Lake. 

Eatonia Dudleyi, Vasey, ined. Giffords, (W. H. Leggett) ; 
near Garretsons. 

Panicum microcarpum, Muhl. Court House. 

PanicHin nitidum, Lam. Frequent, also a hairy form 
answering the description of P. pnbescens, Lam. 

Panicum discolor, Chapm. Todt Hill and Tottenvilie, 
(Named by Mr. F. L. Scribner.) 

Sctaria Italica, Kunth. Roadsides near liichmond. 

Botrychium teruatum, Swartz, sub-var. intermedium, Eaton. 
Tottenvilie and Garretsons. 

Lycopodium complanatum, L., var. sabince folium, Gra\'. 
Ocean Terrace. 

Three former lists of additions to our Catalogue of Staten 
Island Plants have been published in this Bulletin (vol. vii., pp. 
1 1- 12 ; vol. viii,, p. 48 ; vol. ix., pp. 1 49-151 ; and vol. xii., pp. 
38-40 ; these have all been reprinted and will be furnished to 
those desiring them on application to either of the undersigned. 

Arthur Hollick. 
N. L. Brixton. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature, 

Abies ptmgens. (Gard. Month., xxviii., pp. 112, 113; with figure.) 
Aster ptarmicoidcs. T. & G. (Gard. Chron., xxv., p. 21; 

four figures.) 
Botany as a Recreation for Invalids. Miss E. F. Andrews. 

(Pop. Sci. Month., xxviii., pp. 77^-78 1.) 
Carpenteria Californica, Torrey. (Garden, xxix., p. 312; one 

This beautiful evergreen shrub has been distributed in Europe 

by M. Victor Leinoine, of Nancy, who succeeded in flowering it 

at his establishment in 1884. It is said to be one of the greatest 

acquisitions among shrubs of the last half-dozen years. At the 

time Mr. Watson's Botany of California was written, it was only 

known to American botanists from fruit. It was first collected 

by Gen. Fremont on the head waters of the San Joachim River. 

Catalogue of the Pkcenogamous and Vascular Cryptogamous 

Plants of Fitchburg, Mass., and vicinity. Published under 

the direction of E. Adams Hartwell, Fitchburg High School ; 

pamphlet, pp. 39, 1885. 

A neatly printed list of 816 species and varieties, of which 
forty-one are Pteridophyta. Certain species are recorded whose 
occurrence in the region we are disposed to question. Among 
these are Erigeron glabellum, Nutt., Brachychceta cordata, Tor- 
rey and Gray, Solidago petiolaris, Ait., Corallorhisa Macrcei, 
Gray, Juncns Elliottii, Chapm., and Cyperus Haspan, L. The 
authors describe a new species of violet, V. parva, which is 
probably one of the multitudinous forms of one of the common 
species. It would have been better for the industrious editors of 
this catalogue to have consulted one of the large public herbaria 
before admitting plants whose hitherto known range probably 
excludes them from their district. 
Durability of Resinous Woods. Heinrich Mayr. (Pop. Sci. 

Month., xxviii., pp. 679 683.) 
Fungi — Notes on sotne published species of. J. B. Ellis. 

(Journ. Mycol., ii., pp. 43. 44) 
Lettuce Mildew. (Perenospora ganglifonnis, De B.^ J. C. 
Arthur. (Fourth Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Agric. Exper. Sta- 
tion, pp. 253, 254; one figure.) 


Lethue Rust. J. C. Arthur. (Fourth Ann. Rep. N. Y. 
Agric. Exper. Station, pp. 250-252; one figure.) 
This disease first makes its appearance in the older leaves of 
the lettuce plants, which turn brown and appear as though pre- 
maturely aged. Both surfaces are found to be covered with 
minute specks the perithecia of the fungus known in this stage 
as Septoria Lactuca, Pers. Its further life history is as yet un- 
known, and no remedy has been discovered. 
Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley. A. P. Morgan. 
(Journ. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist,, iv., pp. 1-8 ; continued.) 
This contribution completes the list of Polyporei. 
New Species of Fungi from various localities. J. B. Ellis and 
B. M. Everhart. (Journ. Mycol., ii., pp. 37-42.) 
Twenty-three new forms are described. 
Notes of a Visit to North America, as Delegate to the British 
Association meeting at Montreal, etc. W. Caldwell Craw- 
ford. (Trans, and Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, xvi., pp. 269- 
Osmunda Clayioniana. — Branching of. A. A. Crozier. 

(Amer. Nat, xx., p. 379; three figures.) 
Pear Blight. [Micrococctis amylovorus, Burrill.) J. C. Arthur. 
(Fourth Ann. Rep. N. Y. Agric. Exper. Station, pp. 241-248.) 
Mr. Arthur describes his methods of investigation of the 
cause of this disease, and reaches the conclusion that it is directly 
due to a specific microbe which Professor Burrill has described 
under the above name ; the germs gain entrance to the tissues 
through the tender surfaces of flowers and new shoots ; they may 
grow in dead organic matter outside of the trees, but on again 
entering the tissues are able to produce the disease in its full viru- 
lence. No formation of spores has yet been detected. 
Peziza. — Notes on. J. B. Ellis. (Journ. Mycol., ii., pp. 44-47.) 
Protococcus viridis. E. B. Southwick. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. 
Soc, ii., 1-8; one plate.) 

An interesting account of the growth of this organism on one 
hundred species of trees in Central Park, New York city, and on 
stone walls of the vicinity. It is most abundant on northern 
and northwestern exposures. Its appearance on the American 
Elm is illustrated. 


Protococcus viridis. — Notes on. P, H. Dudley. (Journ. N. Y., 

Micros. Soc, ii., pp. 9-12; one plate.) 
Spotting of Quince Fruit. J. C. Arthur. (Fourth Ann. Rep. 

N. Y. Agric. Exper. Station, p. 249; two figures.) 

The dark-colored spots on quinces are caused by the growth 
of the fungus Morthiera Mespili, Fickl., van Cydonice, C. and E. 
The mycelium colors the pulp brown for a short space below the 
surface, and the limits of its action are distinctly marked. The 
appearance and money value of the fruit are affected ; no pre- 
ventive nor remedy is known. 
Tree Growth on the Plains. (Amer. Nat, xx., pp. 380, 381.) 

Prof Bessev extracts from a recent paper by Robert W. 
Furnas on "Tree Planting on the Plains," a tabulated statement 
of the size reached by twenty-one different trees, varying from 
fourteen to twenty- five years of age. 
Tree Measurements. Prof J. C. Smock. (Gard. Mon., xxviii., p. 1 1 1.) 

Prof Smock contributes measurements of a number of forest 
trees growing near Holmdel, Monmouth Co., N. J., averaging 
thirty years old. The Red Maple has a circumference of 71 
inches; the American Elm, 60; the Tulip Tree, 63 ; the Locusts 
48 ; the American Lirch, 42. The comparative sizes which our 
trees may reach in a given number of years is a matter of great 
importance, and every accurate measurement made and recorded, 
is a useful contribution to the subject. 
Trichomanes Petersii, Gray. — Proliferation in. (Gard. Chron., 

xxv., p. 372 ; one figure.) 
Weeds and their fungous Parasites. J. C. Arthur. (Fourth 

Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Agric. Exper. Station, pp. 262-265.) 
Western American Firs. C. S. Sargent. (Gard. Chron., xxv., p. 20.) 

Mr. Sargent expresses the opinion that the Abies grandis of 
Oregon, A. lasiocarpa of California, and A. concolor of Utah, 
Arizona, New Mexico, etc., are but forms of a single species of 
great geographical range. 

Botanical Notes. 

The annual election of officers for the Syracuse Botanical 
Club resulted as follows: Mrs. L. Lenora Goodrich, Pres.; Mrs. 
Kate Barnes, Vice-Pres. ; Miss Sarah E. Cobb, Cor. Sec; Miss 
Minnie Overacker, Rec. Sec. ; Mrs. Dora E. Griffin, Treas ; Mrs. 
M. Still and Miss Frances Case, Executive Committee. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

Professor W. G. Farlow, of Cambridge, Mass., delivered the 
first of a series of public lectures before the Club on the evening 
of April 9th. His subject was " Fungous Diseases of Plants." 
It was effectively illustrated by diagrams and lantern slides. At 
the close of the address, on motion of Vice-President Hogg, a 
vote of thanks was tendered Prof Farlow. 

The regular monthly meeting was held at Columbia College, 
Tuesday evening, April 13th. The President was in the chair, 
seventeen persons were present. The Finance Committee reported 
the purchase of the remaining numbers of Volumes I to VI of 
the Bulletin from the Misses Leggett. Dr. George D. Hays 
and S. Lowell Elliott were elected active members, and Prof. 
George Lincoln Goodale, W, G. Farlow and F. Lamson Scribner, 
corresponding members. Several members of the Club, who 
have been engaged in the study of Microscopic and Cryptogamic 
Botany, having organized a section to be known as the HISTO- 
LOGIC AND Cryptogamic Section of the Torrey Botan- 
ical Club, were formally accorded that title and the privilege 
of organizing and meeting in such manner as they may decide. 

The Field Committee of last year, Messrs. W. H. Rudkin, 
J. F. Poggenburg and Arthur Hollick, was reappointed. Mr. 
Southwick reported seventeen cultivated plants in bloom in Cen- 
tral Park. Mr. Hollick showed Epigcea repens, collected on 
April nth on Staten Island. Dr. Newberry read a description 
of certain fossil forms of Baiihinia, illustrating it with drawings of 
the recent species. He also read from the Amherst Record a 
notice of the death of Prof Edward Tuckerman. and gave some 
personal reminiscences. Mr. E. P. Bicknell reported finding Pellcea 
atropurpurea on limestone rocks at Riverdale-on-Hudson. Dr. 
Britton called attention to a specimen ol Eryngium planum, Juss., 
found in Central Park by L. P. Gratacap. Mrs Britton showed 
cones of Abies balsamca and Picea nigra, from Mt. Mansfield, 
Vt, Abies Fraseri and Picea alba from the Southern 'Alleghanies, 
and explained their differences. 

The paper announced for the evening, entitled "Additions to 
the Flora of Richmond County," by Arthur Hollick and N. L. 
Britton, was read by Mr. Hollick and illustrated with specimens. 

Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club. Plate Ivii. 




Vol. XIII.] New York, June, 1886. [No. 6. 

Leaf-forms of Populus grandidentata. 

Bv N. L. Britton. 

Plate i.vii. 

The difference in the form and outline of leaves borne by 
individual plants of different ages, though belonging to a single 
species, has often been the subject of remark. It is specially 
noticeable in trees, and all are familiar with the variation exhib- 
ited in this respect by Oaks, where it generally appears in larger, 
evidently more vigorous leaves, having less serration or lobing 
on the younger plants than on older ones. To this general habit 
the Poplars are no exception, but exhibit it, in certain cases, to a 
remarkable degree. 

For several years I have repeatedly noticed sapling Poplars, in 
many places in the woods, bearingvery large, ovate-cordate, serru- 
late, commonly somewhat acuminate leaves, their upper surfaces 
glabrous, the lower densely covered with a fine tomentum, which 
under the microscope is seen to consist of slender, simple hairs, 
extending over the very prominent veins, and commonly present 
on the petioles and young shoots. Until quite recently I had 
not been able to ascertain to which species these leaves belong. 
Their outline and serration somewhat resemble those of adult 
Cottonwoods {P. monilifera), specimens collected on the Pali- 
sades in October, 1883, being very much like these in outline; 
the tomentose lower surfaces suggested P. hcterophylla, but no 
large trees could be found. In August of last year I obtained 
what would appear to be actual proof that they are borne by 
young trees oi P. grandidentata. I first observed the relation of 
the two at a place on the banks of the Morris Canal, near Water- 
loo, New Jersey, while in company with Professor Porter, but 
later noticed it in several other localities. The adult trees of the 
Large Aspen were accompanied by numerous small ones bearing 
the tomentose, serrulate leaves in question. I could not defi- 
nitely ascertain whether these saplings were root-suckers or seed- 
lings, but as I have since been unable to find the peculiar leaves 


on the former, I suppose they were seedlings. On these small 
trees the tomentose leaves remain until they naturally drop off 
in the autumn, and I have so far seen but a single one of the 
two types on the same individual tree. The age when the nor- 
mal leaves first appear I have been unable to determine, and it 
may vary in different localities; the tomentose iorms were, how- 
ever, seen on plants eight to ten feet high. The text-books 
make no allusion to this remarkable variation in leaf-form, nor 
have I been able to find it recorded in any literature at my com- 
mand ; frequent mention is made of the woolly surfaces of ordi- 
nary young leaves, a feature which exists even on those of large 
trees. The system of primary nervation is much the same in 
boih types, though in the leaves of the saplings here alluded to, 
the mid-vein is straighter, and the disposition of th^ veinlets dif- 
fer also in details. 

Populus grandidentata was named by the elder Michaux 
(Flor. Bor. Amer., ii., p. 243.) He notes the villose younger leaves, 
but makes no reference to the serrulate ones of saplings. P. hetero- 
phylla is a Linnajan species, (Spec. Plant., ist Ed., p., 1034; 
3d Ed., p. 1464), but the diagnosis given is simply "Populus 
foliis cordatus primoribus villosus." Now, a question arises as 
to which species Linnaeus actually had. The above short de- 
scription might apply equally well to the leaves of both, now that we 
have shown the character of sapling leaves of P. grandidentata. 
It would appear that Linnaeus had not seen the fruit. The leaves 
of the Swamp Poplar, (/-". heterophylla), so far as the living trees 
and herbarium specimens which I have seen represent it, vary 
very little in shape ; they are quite uniformly broadly ovate, 
obtuse, and generally though not invariably cordate, so that the 
Linnsean name does not well apply to them. In the Sylva 
Americana the tree is called Populus argentea, which is a better 
name for it, while heterophylla would apply very well to the 
Large Aspen. Is it possible that Linnaeus was aware of the var- 
iation described at the present time ? The two species are very 
distinct, the racemose fertile inflorescence of the Swamp Poplar 
being characteristic, and not met with, I believe, in any other 
American species. In fruit the pedicels become half an inch or 
more in length, a character noted in Wood's Class Book. 


I hope that the presentation of this subject at the present timd 
may direct attention to these trees and that additional observa- 
tions may be placed on record. 


Fig. I. 'HormaX Xeai oi Populits grandidentata. 

Fig. 2. Young sapling leaf of the same species. 

Duct Formation in Chestnut Wood. 
By p. H. Dudley. 
The large ducts in the inner portion of each annual ring of 
Chestnut wood are very conspicuous, attracting attention at once 
in the tranverse and radial sections. When i;ut slightly obliquely 
in the tangential section they form the beautiful and attractive 
contrast to the ordinary wood-cells which has long made the 
second growth of this wood so desirable for the interior finishing 
of cars, and, more recently, of houses. The large ducts form in 
one, two, and sometimes three quite distinct concentric rows 
in the early spring growth of each annual ring. The rings are 
not always alike in the same tree, owing to varying conditions of 
growth in different seasons, and marked variations are found in 
trees from different localities. Some of the ducts appear as soon 
as the wood-cells, being formed adjacent to the cells of the pre- 
ceding year's growth, while others have only from one to three 
rows of cells between. In a specimen cut on May 1st, one row 
of ducts and eighteen rows of wood-cells had already formed. 
The leaves of this tree were only about one inch long and one- 
fourth of an inch wide, yet some of the ducts were of full size, 
well formed, having septa and well defined walls. In certain 
sections were found ducts evidently forming ; they were small, but 
with distinct walls. Around these the wood-cells were of the 
usual shape and not much flattened, and the medullary rays not 
much bent out of their course. After comparing a number of 
more or less advanced ducts, it now seems to me that they in- 
crease in size by expansion instead of by absorbing the surround- 
ing cells. If the formation of these ducts were a process of ab- 
sorption, some of the medullary rays should end at the ducts, 
and not be flattened around them, as I have found to be the case 
in all specimens so far examined. In the section before mentioned 


the cambium layer is but two or three rows of cells in advance of 
the first row of ducts. 

On treating the newly formed wood-cells with Indol, fourteen 
rows gave the so-called reaction for lignine, the indications being 
principally confined to the lamellae joining the cells. In the most 
delicate tests for lignine with this reagent I find that in the older 
wood-cells the lamellae joining them give the most decided re- 
action ; in fact, some woods, especially the bast fibres, give a re- 
action upon applying the proper acid before adding the Indol. 

In regard to the arrangement of the ducts in the completed 
annual growth, we see that as the wood-cells grow and the ring 
thickens, the ducts are inclined through the ring becoming 
smaller and smaller until in the outer portion in this wood they 
are but little larger than the ordinary wood-cells. This last fea- 
ture is only true of some of the Angiosperms ; in others the 
ducts are practically the same size in all parts of the ring. 

Surrounding both the large and small ducts are series of small 
tracheids, their thin places being very small and delicate. Inter- 
spersed among the ordinary wood-fibres are cells which, in the 
alburnum,, are filled with starch during a portion of the year. In 
some instances they are provided with septa, in others they ap- 
pear like round-ended cells one above the other. In transverse 
sections, these are seen to be arranged in irregular rows at right 
angles to the medullary rays, so that the wood is divided off into 
small rectangles of three to four rows of cells on a side surrounded 
by starch-carrying cells on all four sides. The function of these 
latter cells is not fully explained, but for a portion of the year 
they serve the purpose of storehouses for reserve material. In 
the specimen cut on the 1st of May the cells seem more densely 
packed than in any others that I have examined cut in the months 
from September to the present time. Later, when the tree has 
developed its leaves and flov/ered, I expect to find these cells 
nearly or quite empty. 

Wood of the White Oak cut on the same date had one row 
of ducts formed and many rows of wood-cells. The Hemlock 
had not formed any wood-cells. Branches taken on May 9th 
from the Horse Chestnut, and also from Lilacs which were in full 
leaf and flower, had only traces of starch in the medullary rays. 


Plants of the Detroit River. 
By Douglass H. Campbell. 
The accompanying list of plants was made during a month's 
visit to Grosse Isle, near the mouth of the Detroit River, in the 
summer of 1885. A large part of the shore of the river on both 
sides, and along the numerous islands is occupied by extensive 
marshes, which afford an extraordinarily rich harvest to the 
botanist. The list here given is, of course, imperfect, but will 
give some idea of the great variety of forms, especially among 
the Algae. 

Protophvta. — Glceococcus ainpla, Kutz. ; Chlorococcus gi- 
gas, Grun. (?) ; CceleosphcBnum Kutzingianum, Naeg. ; Nephro- 
cjiiitm Ncegelii, Rabh. ; Raphidiiim falciitum, Corda ; Scenedes- 
ntus qtiadricaiida, Breb. ; 6". acutiis, Mey. ; Nostoc sphcericum. 
Men. ; N. comimuie, Vauch. ; AnabcBna Thwaitesii, Italfs ; Cylin- 
drospermtim macrospermiim, Kutz. ; Merismopedia glauca, Nseg. ; 
M. violacea, Kutz. (?) ; Oscillaria insignis, Thw. ; O. (zrtigines- 
cens, Drum. ; O. tenuis, Ag. ; Spirtilina oscillarioides, Turp. ; 
Rivularia echinata, Eng. Bot. ; R. dura, Kutz. ; R. calcarca, 
Eng. Bot. (?). 

ZygoPHYTA. — Conferva fontinalis. Berk.; Microspora floccosa, 
Thur. ; Sorastrum spinulosum, Nteg. ; Cladopkora glomerata, L. ; 
C.flavcscens, Ag. ; Chcetophora endivice folia, Ag. ; C. pisiformis, 
Ag. ; C. elegans, Ag. ; Pediastrmn pertusum. Kg. ; P. Ehren- 
bergii, A. Br. ; P. Boryanum, Turpin ; P. constricUnn. Hass. Des- 
midium aptogonimn, Breb. ; D. Bailcyii, Ralfs. Docidium Tra- 
becttla, Nseg. ; D. crenulatiitn, Rab. ; Cosmarium cruciatuni, 
Breb. ; C, protracttim. Arch. ; C. Botrytis, Menegh. ; C. marga- 
ritiferum, Menegh. ; C. bioculatiim, Breb. ; C. dentatum, Wolle ; 
C. ornatum, Ralfs, var. protractiun, Wolle ; C. intermedium, 
Delp. ; C. nitidnlum, DeNot. ; C. Portianum, Arch. ; C. Ralfsii, 
Breb. ; Staurastrum eustephanum, Ralfs ; S. gracile, Ralfs ; S. 
punctulatum, Breb. ; 5'. Brebissonii, Arch. ; S. arctiscon, Ehrb. ; 
S. polymorphum, Breb ; 5. Avicula, Breb. ; Euastrum elegans. 
Kg. ; E. verrucosuni, Ralfs ; Xanthidiiim fasciculatiim, Ralfs ; 
X. antilopcettm, (Breb.) Kg; Closlerium. costatum, Corda; C. 
Venus, Kg. ; C. Ehrenbergii, Menegh., var. iminane, Wolle ; C. 
rostratum, Ehrb. ; C. Leibleinii, Kg. ; C. acerosum, Ehrb. ; C. 


moniliferinn, Ehrb. ; C. Dianm, Ehrb. ; C. strigosum, Ehrb. ; C. 
Cucumis, Ehrb. ; C. subtile, Breb. ; Micrasterias fimbriaia, Ralfs ; 
M. furcata, Ralfs ; M. laticeps, Nord. ; M. truncata, (Corda) 
Ralfs; Zygtiema stellinum,'VdiUch.; Z. insigne,Y^wXz.\ Spirogyra 
flavescens, Hass. ; 5. longata, Vauch. ; S. crassa, Kutz. ; Stau- 
rospermtim viride, Kutz. ; Mcsocarpiis scalaris, Hass. 

OOPHYTA. — CEdogonium capillarc, L. ; Qi. pahidostcm, Hass. ; 
Gi. deprcssum, Prings. 

Carpophyta. — Coleochcetc orbicularis, Prings. ; C. scutata, 
Breb. ; C. soluta, Prings. Fine specimens of C. pulvinata were 
gathered near Detroit in September. 

Pteridophyta. — Equisetum liinosum, L. 

Phanerogamia. — Zizania aquatica, L. ; Heleocharis obttisa, 
Schultes; Pontederia cor data, L. ; Iris versicolor, L. ; Anacharis 
Canadensis, Planch. ; Vallisneria spiralis, L. ; Alisma Plantago, 
L., var. Americanum, Gray ; Saggittaria variabilis, Engelm. ; 
S. heterophylla, Pursh. ; Potamogcton pectinatus, L ; P. piisillus, 
L. ; P. compresstis, L. ; P. perfoliatus, L., and var. lanceolatus, 
Robbins ; P. lucens, L., and var. minor, Nolte ; P. natans, L. ; 
P. lonchites. Tuck. ; Naias flexilis, Rostk. ; Typha latifolia, L. ; 
Sparganium eurycarpuni, Engelm. ; 5. simplex, Hudson ; Lemna 
trisulca, L. ; L. minor, L. ; L. perpusilla, Torrey ; Speirodela 
polyrrhiza, S<^hleid. ; Wolffia Braziliensis, Weddell ; W. Colum- 
biana, Karsten. ; Acorus Calamus, E. ; Polygonum amphibium, L. ; 
Utricularia vulgaris, L. ; U. minor, L. ; Nescea verticillata, 
HBK. ; Hibiscus Moscheutos, L. ; Nymphcea tuberosa, Paine ; 
Nuphar advcna. Ait. ; Nelumbintn luteum, Willd. ; Ranuncidics 
aquatilis, L. 

Additions to the Westchester County Flora, 

The following plants which I have in my Herbarium from 
various stations in Westchester County, N. Y., are not recorded 
in Dr. VViUis' Catalogue of the plants of that county: 

Corydalis flavula, Raf, near Anthony's Nose; Spergularia 
media, Presl., New Rochelle ; Hibiscus Syriacus, L., Pelham ; 
Euonymns Americanus, var. obovatus, Torr. and Gray, Upper 
New Rochcllc ; Cratcegus Oxyacantha, L., Pelham Neck ; Pru- 
nus Virginiana, L., New Rochelle; Pyrus arbutifolia,!.., var, 


vicla7iocarpa, Torr. and Gray, NewRochelle ; Amclanchicr Cana- 
densis, Torn and Gray, van oblongifolia. Gray, Huckleberry 
Island ; ' Carum Carui, L., spontaneous at New Rochelle ; Valer- 
iana officinalis, L., Pelhani Neck ; Plantago decipiens, Barneoud, 
New Rodielle ; Veronica Buxbaumii, Terore, New Rochelle ; 
Calystegia sepium, R. Br., van repens, Gray, Pea Island; Ascle- 
pias incarnata, L., var. pulchra, Pers., Pelham ; Potamogeton 
piisillus, L., Pottchester; Spartina cynosuroidcs, VVilld., Hun- 
ter's Island ; Tripsaciim dactyloides, L., Hunter's Island. 

Edward H. Day. 

Plurality of Embryos in Quercus alba. 

On Staten Island, in March, 1886, we found the acorns of the 
white oak, Quercus alba, which had sprouted, with radicles four 
or five inches in length. In pulling up a number of them we 
found one which differed from all the rest in being what I have 

called ''double," having two radicles and four cotyledons. It 
resembled the others in the size and shape of the cotyledons, but 
these were divided one-third of the distance from the main radi- 
cle into two smaller irregular lobes, which gave rise in their turn 
to a smaller radicle. The above diagrams will illustrate the struc- 

E. G. B. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

^cidium PhrymcB, n. s. Byron D. Halsted. (Journ. Mycol., 

ii , P- 52) This ^cidium was found on Phryma Leptosta- 

ciiya, at Spirit Lake, Iowa, in July, 1885. 

Botanical Contributions, 1885. Asa Gray. (Proc. Amen Acad. 

Arts and Sciences, xxi., pp. 363-413-) 

I.— A Revision of the North American Ranunculi.— Smce th? 


publication of Torrey and Gray's Flora of North America no 
systematic arrangement of our Ranunculi has been attempted. 
A number of our species ars now referred to older names than 
those generally cited, and some additional ones are charac- 
terized. R. aquatilis, var. divaricatiis. Gray, of the Manual (var. 
stagnatilis, DC.) is regarded as a good species under the name 
R. circinatus, Sibth ; R. hederaceus, L., occurs in fresh-water 
marshes at Norfolk, Va., probably introduced from Europe; R. 
triternatus. Gray, is a new species from Klikitat County, Oregon, 
distributed by Howell, as R. Hookcri; R. Arizonicus, Lemmon, 
from the Southwest, is recognized, and two varieties of it are 
noted ; R. Suksdorfii, from Mt. Adams, Washington, is here 
first described; R. occideiitalis , NTutt, includes R. Nelsoni, Gray, 
and five varieties are made of it ; R. acriformis, Gray, from the 
Rocky Mountains, is the R. acris of Hooker. R. hispidus, 
Michx., a northern and western species, is distinguished from R. 
Pennsylvaniciis, L. f ; R. septentrionalis, Poir., includes most of 
our forms which have gone as R. repens, L., the latter species 
being mainly confined to low grounds near the coast, where it 
has been introduced, but is also indigenous in some localities ; 
R. fascicidaris, Muhl., is regarded as distinct. 
II. — Sertum Chihuahuense : 

The second section of Dr. Gray's Contributions describes 
new and noteworthy species of Gamopetalae collected in various 
parts of Chihuahua by Mr. C. G. Pringle and Dr. Edward Pal- 
mer during the past year. One genus and a great many species 
new to science are here described. 

In the third section the genera Sidalcea, Lyonotlianmiis and 
Dimeresia are discussed, and several new species of other genera 
are described. 

Botanic Gardens. D. P. Penhallow. (Tenth Annual Report of 
the Montreal Horticultural Society, 1886.) 

Cypripediiims in America. — Hardy. Wm. H. Chadwick. (Gard. 
Chron., xxv., pp. 564, 565.) 

Eatonia — Notes on. George Vasey. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 
116, 117.) 
Dr. Vasey characterizes two new species of this genus. 


E. Dudleyi, which ranges from Michigan to Southern New 
York and southward to North Carolina, and E. filifonnis, (E. 
Pennsylvanica, van fiUformis), Chapm., found from Florida to 

Edward Tuckcrinan, LL.D., Professor of Botany in Amherst 
College, and the only American authority on Lichenology, died 
at his residence on the 15th of March. From biographical 
notices which have appeared in the Amherst Record, written by 
his colleague, Professor Tyler, from an account of his botanical 
labors, written by Mr. Henry Willey for the Botanical Gazette, 
and published in the April issue of that periodical, and from Dr. 
Gray's sketch of this distinguished botanist in the American 
Journal of Science for April, we condense the following brief 
account: He was born in Boston, December 17, 18 17; was 
graduated from Union College in 1837, and from tbe Harvard 
Law School in 1838. Subsequently he received the degree of 
M.x'V. from both Union and Harvard Colleges, and that of LL.D. 
from Amherst. His duties at Amherst began in 1854. He was 
first lecturer on history, then professor of Oriental history, and 
in 1858 was appointed professor of botany, which position he 
held till his death. While Professor Tuckerman's botanical work 
has mainly been in the field of Lichenology, and in this depart- 
ment he was probably as high authority as any other living 
student, his name is also associated with other plants. In 1843 
he published a pamphlet entitled " Enumeratio Methodica Cari- 
cum Quarundum," in which 253 species of Carex were listed ; 
his " Observations on Some American Species of Potamogeton" 
in the American Journal of Science of 1849, made known six 
new species of that genus. His last botanical contribution, en- 
titled " Two Lichens of the Pacific Coast," was published in this 
Bulletin for March, 1884. 
Flora of Indiana — Origin of the. Harvey Thompson. (Botan. 

Gazette, xi., pp. 88-90.) 
Fossil Dicotyledonous Leaves — On the Determination of. Lester 

F. Ward. (Amer. Jour. Science, xxxi., pp. '^70-^,'/^,.) 
Fungi — Ellis and Everharfs North American. 

The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of this valuable dis- 
tribution have recently been issued. 


Fniigoiis Diseases of Small Fruits. A. B. Seymour. (From 
Vol. xiv., Minnesota Horticultural Report; 8 pages.) 

Germination of Pond Lily Seeds. George F. Waters. (Science, 
vii , 395- 396.) 
Mr. Waters states that some seeds of Nyniphcea odorata ger- 
minated after a submergence in water of nearly two years. 

Grasses of Coulter's Manual, F. Lamson Scribner. (Botan. 
Gazette, xi., pp. 95-97.) 
Mr. Scribner reviews and criticises the treatment of the order 
Graminece in Professor Coulter's Manual of the Botany of the 
Rocky Mountain Region. 

Hypericace<£ — Revision of North American. John M. Coulter. 
(Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 78-88, and 106-I12.) 
The three genera, Ascyrum, Hypericum and Elodea, are re- 
tained, in which the author differs from Bentham and Hooker, 
who in their Genera Plantarum refer the two species of the last 
to Hypericum. Ascyrum Crux-Andrece, L., var. angustifolium, 
Nutt., is referred to A. hypcricoides, L. ; A. microsepalum, Torr. 
and Gray, becomes Hypericum microsepalum, Graj' ; H. pyrat?tid- 
atum. Ait., is H. Ascyron, L., occurring also in Europe and North- 
ern Asia; H. atigulosum, Michx., is H. virgatum. Lam., and H. 
acutifolium. Ell, is reduced to a variety of this species ; H. cor- 
ymbostcm, Muhl., is H. maculatum, Walter ; H. Scouleri, Hook., 
becomes a variety of H. formosum, HBK. ; H. Sarothra, Michx., 
is H. nudicaulc, Walter. Under Elodea of Jussieu (not Elodes, 
Adans.), E. Virginica, Nutt, becomes E. campanulata, Pursh. 

Liliiun Canadensc. (Garden, xxix., pp. 426, 427 ; plate 
543.) A description of its mode of growth and propagation 
with comparisons with other lilies accompanies the very 
pretty plate We are told that it is still imported into Eng- 
land in considerable quantities. 

Mosses. The American Monthly Microscopical Journal, vii., pp. 
86-88., reprints from Science Gossip, a popular article which 
contains nothing more than can be found in any text-book. 
It is illustrated by crude figures of Funaria hygrometrica, L. 


Plant Dissection. J. C. Arthur, C. R. Barnes and J. M. Coulter. 

(8vo., pp. 256, Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1886.) 
A useful guide for the study of a few common plants. The 
authors have modelled the work after Huxley and Martin's Ele- 
mentary Biology, omitting however, all reference to physiology, 
and prefixing an introduction giving directions for the use of 
instruments and reagents ; methods of cutting, staining, mounting 
and drawing objects under the microscope. The last point is 
illustrated by two plates. The work is outlined for the follow- 
ing' plants : Protococcus viridis, Oscillaria tenuis, Spirogyra 
quinina, Cystopus candidus, Microsphcera Friesii, Marchantia 
polymorpha, Atricfmm undidatum, Adiantiim pedatum, Pintis 
sylvestris, Avena sativa, Trillium rccnrvatum, and Capsella 
Bursa-pastoris. Frequent references as foot-notes and a glos- 
sary, complete a very convenient little guide for the student 
both in the laboratory and at home. It embraces a wider field 
than Bower and Vine's Practical Botany, but goes less into detail. 
Problems relating to the Giant Trees. — A new study of some. C. 

B. Bradley. (Lippincott's Magazine, 1886, pp. 305-316.) 
An interesting discussion of the cause of the restricted oc- 
curence of Sequoia gigantca, in which the writer concludes that 
the seeds germinate only when they reach the actual earth, 
being unable to grow in the humus layer which deeply over- 
spreads the ground beneath the trees. The ease with which 
gardeners succeed in raising Sequoias from seed in ordinary soil 
is cited as an argument in favor of this hypothesis. Mention 
is made of the great abundance of seed produced. Each cone is 
said to contain from 175 to 200 sound seeds, so that the total 
annual product of even a single tree must be enormous. Were 
Mr. Bradley's idea borne out by other observations it would 
seem that the extinction of these noble trees might easily be 
prevented and their distribution as easily widely increased. 
Prodromus Flora Adventicics Boreali- Americana. Th. A. 

Bruhin. (Verhandel. der. K. K. zool. botan. Gesellsch. in 

Wien (1885), pp. 387-450; also reprinted.) 
A preliminary list of adventive, naturalized and cultivated 
plants of North America, compiled mainly from the writings of 
Pickering, Wood, Gray and Chapman, with observations of the au- 


thor in Ohio, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Iowa and Dakota. Among cul- 
tivated species only those are admitted which are grown on account 
of useful qualities or are of wide distribution. It is remarked that 
the species introduced prior to the occupation of North America 
by Europeans are mainly of South American or West Indian 
origin. Those of more recent advent are mostly from Europe and 
Asia, rarely from Africa or Australia. In all 623 species, be- 
longing to 353 genera are included. The Gratninece are most 
numerous, 80 species being noted ; there are 60 Composite, 48 
Leguminosce , and 39 Labiatce, 34 Rosacea and 30 Crucifcrce. We 
have no exotic Ericacew, Orchidece nor Pteridophyta. Europe 
has furnished 420 species, Asia 112, South and Central America 
and the West Indies 64, Africa 12, and Australia i. 383 species 
are claimed to be spontaneous and the the remainder, 240, cul- 
tivated. Herr Bruhin's list, while doubtless not quite complete, 
is of very great interest, and a valuable contribution to the litera- 
ture of plant distribution. 
Scribneria. E. Hackel. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 105, 106; one 

A new genus of Gramincce dedicated to Mr. F. Lamson 
Scribner of Washington, consisting of a single species, 5. Bolan- 
deri, Hackel, of California and Oregon, originally described by 
Dr. Thurber as Lepturns Bolanderi. 

Thalictnini. Wm. Trelease. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 92-93. 
Professor Trelease presents descriptions of T. piirpurasceus, 
L., and T. polyganiim, Muhl., (T. Corniiti of Gray's Manual), 
giving the characters whereby he has been able to distinguish 
the two. He will be grateful for any specimens which will 
throw additional light on either of these species. 
Western South America. — Notes on the Botany of. John Ball. 

(Journ. Linn. Soc, xxii., pp. 137-168.) 
Willoughby Lake, Vermont. — A Trip to. Walter Deane. (Botan. 

Gazette, xi., pp. 11 2- 116.) 

Botanical Notes, 

Tiarella cordifolia has more than once been sent to us with 
somewhat attenuated and dentate or even laciniate petals, lead- 
ing one to suspect a possible crossing with Mitella diphylla. 


"This is to ask those who meet with this anomaly to notice, where 
they meet with it, whether it occurs in more than single plants, 
and whether accompanied by the two plants. 

Asa Gray. 

Note on Bahama Grass. It is generally believed in Jamaica that 
the Bahama Grass — Cynodon Dactylon — so common in all parts 
of the Island, even in the hightest mountains, does not produce 
perfect seeds. This opinion has lately been demonstrated at the 
Government Cinchona Plantations as erroneous, for from ripe 
seed gathered there some time since, a large quantity of well 
developed seedlings have been raised. The planting of lawns 
with this grass has for a long time been a serious expense when 
the stolons or roots of the grass have to be dibbled in, but this can 
now be dispensed with, for in favorable weather on the plains, a 
lawn could be covered with this grass from seed in a very short 
time, and would certainly produce a turf more regular and per- 
manent than that produced by planting tufts at regular intervals. 

Sabal 2imbraculifcra, Griseb. This palm is now recognized as 
being distinct from the Bermuda Palmetto, Sabal Blackbiirn- 
iana — S. timbraculifera. Mart., which is beautifully figured and 
described by W. B. Hemsley, Esq., A.L.S., in the Botany of the 
Voyage of the Challenger. The principal points of distinction 
appear to be in the size of the berries, those of 5. Blackbnrniana 
being much larger than those of the Jamaica Palm. Grisebach 
appears to have adopted Martius' name in error, for the Jamaica 
species. J- HART, 

Supt. Govt. Cinchona Plantations. 

Tcratological. I have found in my yard a seedling plantlet 
of A^er plataiioides with three cotyledons, and have a plant of 
Podophyllum peltaticm which, instead of the usual flower-bud 
terminating the stem, has a minute erect leaf not peltate, as the 
normal ones are. W. W. BAILEY. 

Monstrosity in Iris. A new monstrosity observed in the 
flowers 'of the genus Iris by C. Massalongo. (Nuovo Giornale 
Botanico Italiano, xviii., pp. iSS-'S^; plate X.) P'or two suc- 
cessive years a hybrid form has been found which is probably a 
cross between Iris squalens and / florcutina. Floral diagrams 
are given showing dimerous, trimerous, tetramerous and penta- 


merous flowers, none of them however, entirely regular, as in 
two cases the petaloid styles are either lacking or unilaterally de- 
veloped, and in the four and five-parted flowers two of the petals, 
in each are lacking, and the filaments united irregularly. The 
author hopes that these studies in teratology will throw light on 
the floral morphology of this genus, and perhaps, render more 
manifest its analogy with other families of the monocotyledons. 

A Synopsis of the RkisocarpecE. In the April number of the 
Journal of Botany, Mr. J. G. Baker begins a synopsis of all 
known sfvecies of this interesting order of Pteridophytes ; thirteen 
species of Salvinia are desi-ribed, of which three are new to 
science. Of ^r^//rt, five species are recognized,^. Caroliniana^ 
Willd., being the only one native to North America. 

Researches on the ccll-nncleiis. Rev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D., 
F. R.S. (Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, vi., pp. 193- 
207. Plates vii-ix.) This adds another to the list of studies 
which have been carried on by means of the latest and most 
improved objectives and patient, long- continued observation. 
The organisms selected are Heteromita rostrata, Polytoma 
tivella, Tetramitus rostratus, and Dallmgcria Drysdali, and of 
them Dr. Dallinger says : 

"I know of no clear reason for concluding that they are either 
vegetable or animal ; they possess in fact some of the character- 
istics of both, and certainly they represent the lowliest organiza- 
tion of either great line of organic life." The following conclu- 
sions were arrived at: "The nucleus is the centre of all the 
higher activities of these organisms. The spore or germ itself 
appears but an undeveloped nucleus ; and when that nucleus has 
attained its full dimensions in size, there is a pause in growth in 
order that its internal development may be accomplished. More- 
over it is from it that the flagella originally arise. In the same 
way it is by a complex and beautiful series of delicate activities in 
the nucleus that the wonderful act of fission is initiated, and in 
all probability carried to the end. So too, all the involved changes 
that go with fertilization and the production of germs are a 
series of correlated activities due, at the beginning at least, wholly 
to the nucleus." 


A Sjimmer course in botajty is announced for the month of 
July at Cambridge, Mass. Prof Goodale will give four morning 
lessons a week at the Botanic Garden on Morphology, based on 
Vol. I. of Gray's Text-book, and four afternoon lectures on Phy- 
siology, following Vol. II. Mr. F. L. Sargent will give instruc- 
tion in Cryptogamic Botany five times a week. 

Cross-fertilization of plants by birds. Fritz Miiller. (Kos- 
mos. 1886, i-, 93-98.) A brief review is given in Science (Supple- 
ment, May 14th, 1886) illustrated by three figures oi Feijoa, one 
of the genera of Myrtacccs, and a native of South America. The 
highly modified petals are sweet and soft, very attractive to 
birds (Thamnophilus), which in reaching down to pick them off 
brush away the pollen from the erect stamens, and later dust the 
pistils of other blossoms with it. 

Hibernation of Utricularia vulgaris and U. neglecta. A 
writer in the Gardener's Chronicle, vol. xxv., p. 556, describes 
certain phases in the life-history of these plants. He states that 
after having matured their growth in the autumn the tips of the 
stems exhibit a thickening which reaches the size of a pea or 
even a hazel nut. Later the whole plant sinks and dies, except 
these terminal buds, which now assume the appearance of small 
dark-colored balls, and, under a low magnifying power, are 
seen to consist of bulblets made up of the excessively shortened 
multifid leaves whose slender teeth give the little mass a bristly 
appearance, and probably protect it in a measure from small 
aquatic animals. After resting in this condition all winter, growth 
recommences in the spring, when the axis elongates, the leaves 
spread out, and the plant soon attains a considerable size. This 
mode of vegetative reproduction is evidently of great advantage 
to the Bladderworts, these terminal buds acting as a means of 
distribution, and the plants reaching a considerable size by their 
growth long before seeds could be produced. 

T/ie /delation between tlie " Bloom " on Leaves and the Distri- 
bution of the Stomata. Dr. Francis Darwin contributes to the 
Journal of the Linnaean Society, vol. xxii., pp. 99-116, a paper 
which gives some of the results obtained by his father and him- 
self during an exhaustive study of this subject. It is found that 


in leaves with no bloom on either surfa<;e there is a decided ten- 
dency towards the accumulation of stomata in the lower epidermis; 
in leaves with bloom on the lower surface only, which is thus 
protected from wetting, the tendency is even stronger in the same 
direction ; in those which have bloom only on the upper surface, 
there appears to be an accumulation of stomata on this surface, 
but the few species examined render this somewhat untrustworthy 
as a general conclusion ; leaves having bloom on both surfaces, 
sometimes have more stomata above than below, and sometimes 
the reverse is the case. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held at Columbia College 
Tuesday evening, May ii. Dr. Newberry presided, and twenty- 
six persons were present. Miss Louise M. Stabler was elected 
active member and Miss Mary C. Cook corresponding member. 
Mr. E. E. Sterns distributed the title-page and prospectus of a 
catalogue of the plants of Manhattan Island, requesting the aid 
of the members in making it as complete as possible. Professor 
Schrenk exhibited a pod from a cleistogamous flower of Viola 
ciicullata, in which sixty-six seeds had sprouted and the seed- 
lings had attained the height of nearly two inches ; when he 
pulled it up they still remained attached to the pod. He also 
read a list of thirty-three wild plants in his garden, among them 
Dodecatheo7i Mcadia and Isopynim biternatum. Professor Day 
read a list of additions to the Flora of Westchester County. Mr. 
Poggenburg read a list of fifty-seven plants collected on the 
23d and 24th of April, and Mrs. Britton reported Nuphar 
advea in bloom on the 25th. She also exhibited an acorn of 
the white oak with four cotyledons and two radicles. Dr. Hrit- 
ton exhibited a series of specimens of Populus grandidentata and 
P. hetcropJiylla, and read some notes on the differences in the 
leaves and nomenclature. Mr. P. H. Dudley read the paper 
announced for the evening on the formation of ducts in the 
chestnut, Castattea vulgaris, var. Americana DC, comparing 
them by means of wood sections and photo-micrographs with 
those of the Hemlock, Tsuga Canadensis, Cam, and the Larch, 
Larix Americana, Michx. 




Vol. XIII.] New York, July, 1886. [No. 7. 

Check List of Marine Algse. 

Based on Specimens collected on the shores of Long Island, from 1839 to 1885. 

By Nicolas Pike. 

Sub-Order — NosTOCHiNEyE. 

Sphcerozyga Carmichaelii, Harv. Fort Hamilton, Green- 
port, on decayed algae ; summer. 

Nodularia Harveyana, Thuret. Bay Ridge and Hell Gate ; 

Spirulina teniiissima, Kutz. Fort Hamilton pier, Fike- 
poles, Gravesend Bay ; summer. 

Beggiatoa alba, Treves. Fort Hamilton, Jamaica Bay ; 

Oscillaria limosa, Kiitz, and 

O. subuliformis, Harv. Jamaica Bay, Whitestone. 

Microcolciis chthonoplastes, Thuret. Fort Hamilton, Green- 
port ; summer. 

Lyngbya majuscula, Harv. Canarsie, College Point ; summer. 

L. cestuarii, Liebm. Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge ; summer. 

L. lutco-fusca, Ag. Coney Island Creek ; summer. 

L. tenerrima, Thuret. Jamaica Bay, College Point ; summer. 

L. nigresccns, Harv. Canarsie, Bay Ridge ; summer. 

Calothrix confervicola, Ag., in fresh and salt water. Bay 
Ridge and Fort Hamilton ; summer. 

C. Crustacea (Schousb.), Born, and Thuret. Bay Ridge and 
Fort Hamilton ; summer. 

C. scopttlorunt, Ag. Greenport, Little Egg Harbor ; 


C. pulvinata, Ag. Greenport, Little Egg Harbor ; summer. 

C. parasitica, Thuret. Greenport, Jamaica Bay; summer. 

Rivularia atra. Roth. Hell Gate^ Flushing Bay. 

R. plicata, Carm. Jamaica Bay, Canarsie. 

Isactis plana,i:\\wrtX.. Fort Hamilion, Jamaica Bay on Fwa/.y. 

Hormactis Quoyi (Ag.), Born. Greenport ; July. 


Sub-Order.— Chlorospore^. 

Monosiroma pnlchrum, Farlow. College Point, Sag Har- 
bor ; April. 

M. Grevillei, Wittrock. College Point, Sag Harbor ; June. 

Ulva Lactuca (L.), Le Jolis.* 

U. Lactuca, van rigida (Ag.), Le Jolis.* 

U. Lactuca, var. Lactuca, Le Jolis.* 

U. Lactuca, var. latissima, Le Jolis.* 

U. enteromorpha, Le Jolis.* 

U. enteromorpha, var. lanceolata, Le Jolis.* 

U. enteromorpha, var. intestinalis, Le Jolis.* 

U. enteromorpha, var. compressa, Le Jolis.* 

U. clathrata, Ag.* 

U. Hopkirkii (McCalla.),* Harv. 

(Very common all around the coast). 

Ulothrix flacca {^\\i-w^,'Y\iViX. Greenport; summer.* 
U. isogona, Thuret. College Point, Rockaway ; April. 
U. collabens (Ag.), Thur. Greenport ; May. 
Choetomorpha tnelagonitim (Web. and Mohr), Kiitz. Green- 
port, Rockaway inlet* 

C. area (Dillw.), Kiitz. Bath, Bay Ridge ; summer. 
C. Picquotiana (Mont.), Kiitz. Fort Hamilton ; summer.* 
C. Linmn (Flor. Dan.), Kiitz. Jamaica Bay ; summer.* 
Rhizocloniutn riparimn,^oih.Y{2ir\. College Point; July.* 

B. tortuosum, Kiitz. Orient. 

Cladophora arcta, Dillw. Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge, College 
Point; February to June. 

C. lanosa (Roth.), Kiitz. Rockaway, Flushing ; May and 

C. lanosa, var. uncialis, Thur. Rockaway, Flushing; May 
and June. 


C. rupcstris, (L.) Kittz. Canarsie, Bath, College Point.* 

C. albida (Huds.), Kiitz. Jamaica Bay ; very common.* 

C. refracta (Roth.), Aresch. Jamaica Bay ; very common. 

C. glauccscejis (Griff.), Harv. College Point, Orient, Green- 
port; summer. 

C. laetevirens (Dillw.), Harv. Fort Hamilton, Gravesend 
Bay; summer. 

C. Hutchinsim (Dillw.), Kiitz. College Point; very rare; 

C.flexitosa (Griff.), Harv. East River, Flushing Bay ; summer. 

C. Rtidolphiana, Ag. Jackson Ferry, Hell Gate ; July. 

C. gracilis (Griff.), Kiitz. Fort Hamilton ; April to June. 

C. expansa, Kiitz, Greenport; summer.* 

C. fracta, Kiitz. South Ferry; summer.* 

Btdbocoleon piliferiim, Brings. Greenport; July.* 
Sub Order. — Bryopside^. 

Bryopsis plumosa, (Huds). Ag. Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge; 
May to September. 

B. hypnoidcs, Lamx. College Point, Jackson Ferry ; May 
to September. 

Phyllitis fascia, Kiitz. All round the coast ; November to 

Scytosiphon lomcntarius, Ag. All round the coast.* 

Punctaria latifolia, Grev. Fort Hamilton, Greenport ; 

P. latifolia, var. Zostera;, Le Jolis. Fort Hamilton, Green- 
port; June.* 

P. plantaginea, (Roth.) Grev. Orient, Sag Harbor; summer. 
Family Desmarestie^.. 

Desniarestia aciileata, Lamx. Fort Hamilton, Orient, Green- 
port; summer.* 

D. viridis. Lam. Fort Hamilton; very common ; summer.* 
Family Dictyosiphone^. 

Dictyosiphon fcenictilaceus, Grev. Greenport, Port Jefferson ; 
spring and summer. 


D. hippiiroides, Lyngb. College Point, Jamaica Bay.* 
Family EcTOCARPE/E. 

Myriotrichia clavcefonuis, Harv. Greenport, Orient, Mon- 
tauk Point; summer. 

Ectocarpus nptans, Crouan. Greenport, Port Jefferson ; 

E. tomentosiis (Huds.), Lyngb. College Point; summer.* 
E. gramilosits, Ag. Sag Harbor; summer. 

E. granulosjis, var. tettiiis, Farlow. Sag Harbor; summer.* 

E. confervoides, (Roth.) Le Jolis. College Point, Sag Har- 

E. confervoides, var. siliculosns, Kjellman. College Point, 
Sag Harbor.* 

E. fasciculatus, Harv. Hell Gate, Orient, Quogue ; summer.* 
E. lutosus, Harv. Great South Bay, Fort Hamilton ; 

E. littoralis, Lyngb. All round the coast. 

E. littoralis, var. robustus, Farlow. All round the coast.* 

E. brachiatiis, Harv. College Point, Jamaica Bay ; summer.* 

E. Hooperi, Harv. Greenport; summer.* 

E. DietzicB, Harv. Greenport; summer.* 
Family Sphacelarie^:. 

Sphacelaria cirrhosa (Roth.), Ag. Greenport; October.* 

5. rrtt/zcaw.? (Dillw.), Harv. College Point ; November.* 
Cladosteplms verticillatus, Ag. Orient, Oyster Bay ; Septem- 
ber and October.* 
Family Myrioneme/E. 

Myrionema vulgare, Tliur. Common parasite on other algse. 
Family Leathesi.K. 

Elachistea fncicola. Fries. Common, growing on Fuci ; 

Myriactis pulvinata, Kiitz. Greenport, Southampton, Orient; 
growing on other algse; summer.* 

Lcathesia difformis (L.), Aresch. Parasite; Greenport, Fort 
Hamilton, Orient; summer.* 
Family ChordariExE. 

Chordaria flagelliformis, Ag. Greenport, Sag Harbor, 
Orient ; summer.* 


Mesogloia divaricata, Kiitz. Jamaica Bay, Great South Bay ; 
August and September.* 

M. vcrmicidaris, Ag. Greenport ; rare ; summer.* 
Castagnca virescens (Carm.), Thar. Whitestone, Orient; May.* 
C. Zosterece, (Mohr.) Thur. Whitestone, Orient ; May.* 
Family SroRoCHNE/E. 

Stilophora rhizodes, Kg. Greenport, Peconic Bay, Fort 
Hamilton, Orient; July to November; in fruit October. 
Arthrocladia villosa, Duby. Greenport; rare.* 
Striaria attenuata, Grev. Flushing Bay, Hell Gate, Fort 
Hamilton ; summer. 
Family Laminarie^E. 

Chorda fdum, L. Whitestone, Peconic Bay, Orient ; August 
and September. 

Laminaria saccharina (L.), Lamx. Rockaway Beach, Mon- 
tauk Point. 

L. digitata (Turn.), Lamx. Greenport, Orient. 
Alaria esculenta, Grev. Greenport, Orient, Peconic Bay. 
Sub-Order. — Fucace^e. 

Ascophylhim nodosum, Le Jolis. Common round the coast. 
Fucns vesiciilostts, L. Common. 
F. ccranoides, L. Fort Hamilton, Orient. 
Sargassinn vulgare, Ag. Bath, Freeport, College Point.* 
5. vulgare, var. Montagnci, Farlow. Fort Hamilton, Green- 

5. bacciferum, Ag. Rockaway Beach. 
Sub-Order. — Vaucherie.e. 

Vaucheria Thuretii, Woronin. All round the coast in ditches. 
V. litorea, Nordstedt. All round the coast in ditches. 

Trentepohlia virgattila (Harv.), Farlow. College Point ; sum- 

T. virgattila, var. seamdata, Farlow. College Point ; summer* 
Sub-Order. — Porpiiyre/E. 

Porphyra laciniaia, Ag. All round the coast ; summer.* 
Bangia fusco purpurea, Lyngb. Fort Hamilton, Flushing 
Bay, Greenport ; summer.* 


Sub-Order, — Squamarie.-j-:. 

Peyssonnelia Dubyi, Crouan. Greenport, Peconic Bay. 

Hildenbrandtia rosea, Kiitz. Common, in patches on stones. 

Sub-Order. — Nemalie^. 
Nemalion multifidmn, Ag. Sag Harbor, Greenport ; August 
and September.* 

Scmaia furcellata, Bivona. College Point, Greenport; 
Sub-Order. — Spermothamnie.e. 

Spcrmothamnion Tiirneri, Aresch. Bath, Jamaica Bay, Fort 
. Hamilton ; summer. 
Sub-Order. — Ceramie/E. 

Callithamnion Rotliii, Lyngb. Fort Hamilton; probably 

C. cniciatiim, Ag. Eed Hook, Bay Ridge, Fort Hamil- 
ton ; September and October. 

C. floccosum, Ag. Greenport, Orient. 

C. Pylaiscei, Mont. Peconic Bay, Sag Harbor, Quogue. 

C. Americaniini, Harv. Bath, Shinnecock Bay, College 
Point; June.* 

C. plumula, Lyngb. Fort Hamilton, College Point ; Sep- 
tember to October.* 

C. Borreri, Ag. Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge.* 

C. roscum (Roth.), Harv. Jamaica, Bay, Fort Hamilton.* 

C. polyspertnum, Ag. Bath, Hempstead Bay.* 

C. tctragonnm, Ag. Fort Hamilton.* 

C. Baileyi, Harv. Fort Hamilton ; August to November. 

C. Baileyi, van laxa, Farlow. Fort Hamilton, on Zostera, 
shells and stones. 

C. byssoideum, Arn. Greenport, Fort Hamilton ; October 
and November.* 

C. corymbosiim, Lyngb. Bath, Orient, Greenport; October 
and November. 

C. corymbosiim. var. sccundatiim, Harv. Bath, Orient, Green- 
port, on Zostera, etc. 

C. Dicisiie, Hooper. Greenport.* 

C. seirospermum. Griff. College Point* 

C. tenuc, Harv. Fort Hamilton, Jamaica Bay. 


Griffithsia Bornetiana, Farlow. Sag Harbor, Hell Gate ; 
June and July.* 

Halurus equisetif alius, Kiitz. Greenport, Great South Bay. * 
Ptilota elegans, Bonnetn. Coney Island, Fort Hamilton ; 
September and October.* 

P. serrata, Kiitz. Bath, Greenport; September and October.* 
Ceraminm rnbriim, Ag. Common round the coast ; June 
and July.* 

C. rubriim, var. proliferttm, Ag. June and July. * 
C. rubrtim, var. secundatttm, Ag. Common; June and July.* 
C. rubrum, var. squarrosiitn, Harv. June and July.* 
C. circinnatum, Kiitz. Glen Cove ; August and September.* 
C, diaphanum, Roth. 

C.strictwii (Kiitz.), Harv. Jamaica Bay; August and Sept. 
C. Hooperi, Harv. Greenport.* 

C. fastigiatum, Harv. Rockaway, Jamaica Bay; June and 

C. temiissimum (Lyngb.), Ag. Sag Harbor, Glen Cove ; July 
and August.* 

C. tenuissimum, var. arachnoideum, Ag. July and August.* 
C. tenuissimum, var. patentissimum, Harv. On Zostera and 
alg« ; July and August. 

C. Capri-Cornii (Reinsch.), Farlow. Canarsie.* 
Sub-Order. — Spyridie/e. 

Spyridia filamentosa, Harv. Sag Harbor, Glen Cove, Fort 
Hamilton ; August and September. 

Phyllophora Brodicei, Ag. Glen Cove, Hell Gate, Orient ; 
September and October.* 

P. membranifolia, Ag. Hell Gate, Fort Hamilton, Green- 
port ; September to November. 

Gymttogongrus Norvegicus, J. Ag. Rare, dredged off the 

G. Torreyi, Ag. Common, Fort Hamilton, Glen Cove; 
November to January.* 

Ahnfeldtia plicata. Fries. Fort Hamilton, Port Jefferson ; 
August and September. 

A. plicata, var. fastigiata, l-'arlow. Greenport, College Point.. 


Cystoclonium purpurascens, Kiitz. Common round the coast; 
August to November.* 

C. purpurascens, var. cirrhosa, Farlow. Common round the 
coast; August to November.* 

Gigariina ntamillosa, Ag. Greenport, Montauk Point; 
August and September.* 

Chondrus crispus (L.), Stack. Port Jefferson, Glen Cove, 
College Point ; August to November.* 
Sub-Order. — RnoDYMENiEyE. 

Rhodymenia palmaia (L.), Grev. Orient, Montauk Point, 
Greenport ; September and October.* 

R. palmaia, var. Sarniensis, Farlow. Montauk Point, Green- 
port; September and October.* 

Euthora cristata, J. Ag. Montauk, Orient, Greenport ; 

Lomentaria uncinata, Menegh. College Point, Glen Cove ; 
September and October.* 

L. uncinata, var. filiformis, Harv. 

L. rosea (Harv.), Thur. Montauk, Orient, Port Jefferson. 

Champia parvula, Ag. Bay Ridge, Canarsie, Jamaica Bay. 
Sub-Order. — Hypne/E. 

Hypnea musciformis, Lamx. Greenport, Flushing Bay. 
Sub-Order. — Gelidie^^':. 

Gelidium crinale, J. Ag. Common from Fort Hamilton to 
Greenport; December and January.* 
Sub-Order. — Solierie.*;. 

Rhabdonia tenera, Ag. Common round the coast ; August 
to November. 
Sub-Order. — Spongiocarpe/e. 

Polyides rotundus, Grev. Sag Harbor, Montauk, Port Jef- 
ferson ; April and May.* 
Sub-Order. — Sphaerococcoide^. 

Grinnellia Americana, Harv. Very common. Fort Hamilton 
and Gravesend; July to November.* 

Delleseria sinuosa, Lamx. Montauk Point, Greenport; Sep- 
tember to December.* 

D. alata, Lamx. Montauk Point. 

D. Leprieurii, Mont. Flushing Bay, Glen Cove ; summer.* 


Gracilaria multipartita, J. Ag. Glen Cove, Port Jefferson ; 
November to January.* 

G. multipartita, var. angustissima, Harv. Pond Quogue ; 
Sub-Order. — Rhodomele^. 

CJwndriopsis dasyphila, Ag. Southampton ; June and July.* 

C. dasyphila, var. sedifolia, Ag. Ammaganset Beach. 

C. tenuissima, Ag. Glen Cove, Greenport, Orient ; June.* 

C. tenuissima, var. Baileyana, Farlow. Glen Cove, Greenport, 
Orient; July.* 

C. littoralis (Harv.), J. Ag. Fort Hamilton, Cow Bay.* 

C. atropurpurca (Harv.), J. Ag. Jamaica Bay, Glen Cove.* 

G. atropurpurea, var. fasciculata, Farlow. Fort Hamilton.* 

Rhodomela siibfiisca, Ag. April and May. 

R. subfusca, var. gracilior, J. Ag. Common in Spring at Bay 
Ridge, Fort Hamilton, College Point, Glen Cove; April and 

Polysiphonia urceolata (Dillw.), Grev. Shinnecock Bay, Bay 
Ridge; May and June.* 

P. urceolata, var. formosa, Ag. Fort Hamilton ; May and 

P. urceolata, var. patens, Grev. Fort Hamilton ; May and 

P. subtilissima, Mont. Jamaica Bay. 

P. subtilissima, var. Westpointensis, Harv. Jamaica Bay. 

P. Olncyi, Harv. Canarsie. 

P. Harveyi, Bail. Fireplace Bay, Greenport. 

P. elongata, Grev. Peconic Bay, Glen Cove ; October and 

P. fibrillosa, Grev. Jamaica Bay, Fort Hamilton. 

P. violacea, Grev. Greenport, Montauk ; July. 

P. violacea, \^.x. flexicaulis, Harv. Greenport, Montauk. 

P. variegata, Ag. Common round the coast. 

P. parasitica, Grev. Fort Hamilton, East River. 

P. atrombescens, Grev. East River, Hell Gate. 

P. nigrescens, Grev. Common; May and June. 

P. nigrescens, vsx.fucoides, Ag. Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge. 

P. nigrescens, var. affinis, Ag. P'ort Hamilton, liay Ridge. 


P. fastigiata, Grev. Glen Cove, Montauk Point ; July and 

Bostrycliia rivularis , Harv. Flushing Bay, Whitestone. 

Dasya elegans, Ag. Common; July to November. 

Corallina officinalis, L. Common. 

Melobcsia farinosa, Lamx. Glen Cove, Greenport. 

M. pushilata, Lamx. Flushing Bay, Rockaway. 

M. macrocarpa, RosanofiF. Orient, Canarsie, Quogue. 

M. Lenormandi, Aresch. Fort Hamilton College Point, 

* Those marked with an asterisk were found in fruit at the time specified. 

The Flora of Ross County, Ohio, 

Read June 8th. 

W. E. Safford. 

In Southern Ohio the first of the spring flowers is the "pep- 
per-and-salt", or "harbinger of spring", Erigenia bidbosa, Nutt., 
a tiny Umbelifer. I have found it as early as the last week in 
February, although it does not usually appear until a month later. 
It grows in shady woods, where it is usually found nestling be- 
tween the forking roots of beeches, associated with Isopynmt bi- 
tcrnatum, T. and Gr. The latter is a beautiful little plant closely 
resembling Thalictrum anemonoides, but with fibrous instead of 
tuberous roots. In the region through which I botanized nearly 
every specimen of Thalictrum anemonoides had pink-tinted sepals. 

Of the two species of Hepatica which occur in Southern 
Ohio, Hepatica acutiloba, DC, is much more common. I have 
found many specimens which seem to be intermediate between 
the two species. Many other spring plants occur which are fa- 
miliar to New England botanists, such as : Dicentra Catiadensis, 
DC, and D. Cucullaria, DC. ; Dentaria laciniata, Muhl. ; San- 
guinaria Canadetisis, L., and Podophyllum peltatum, L. Ane- 
mone nemorosa, L., does not occur. I have never found Dentaria 
diphylla, L. ; but it has been recorded as growing in the vicinity 
of Cincinnati. 

Trillium grandiflorum,^a}^\^h.,\% common. Associated with 
it are two Trilliums not found in New England : Trillium sessile, 


L., a small species with spotted leaves and sessile flowers of the 
same dark color as the typical form of Trillmm erectum, L., and 
Trillium nivale, Riddell, a dwarf, with a peduncled white 
flower and petioled leaves. 

Other species not met with in New England are ErytJiro7iium 
albidum, Nutt., a very pretty plant, flov/ering before E. America- 
nuftt, Smith ; Stylophorum diphylbnn, Nutt., a bright showy 
poppy growing in the woods, resembling Chelidonium majus, L.; 
Hydrastis Canadensis, the "orange-root", similar in its manner 
of growth to Podophyllum peltatum ; Uvularia grandiflora, 
Smith, bearing large bright yellow flowers ; Jeffersonia dipkylla 
Pers., the "twin-leaf", looking to a casual observer like a Sanguin- 
aria ; and Camassia Fraseri, Torr., the pale blue "wild hyacinth". 

Polemonium reptans, L., grows abundantly in the woods, 
associated with Delphinium tricorne, Mich., and Mertensia Vir- 
ginica, DC. a richly colored member of the Borraginacese. Hy- 
drophyllum Virginicum, L., H. macrophyllum, Nutt., and H. 
appendiculatum, Mich,, occur. The last takes its name from the 
peculiar reflexed appendages between the parts of the calyx. 
Valeriana panciflora, Mich., with pink flowers like miniature 
honey-suckles, is common in the deep woods. Its specific name 
is misleading, as it is not by any means few-flowered. 

During the last week of May and the first week of June the 
hills are bright with patches of the crimson " fire pink", Silene 
Virginica, L., associated with the pale lavender pink. Phlox di- 
varicata, L., with which it forms a most pleasing contrast of 

In the summer months the open fields are covered with 
Vcrnonia fascicnlata, Mich., a species closely resembling V. Nove- 
boracensis, Willd., but having its involucre composed of blunt 
instead of awn-tipped scales. Another common plant in the fields 
which does not extend to New England is the beautiful Eupato- 
riiim (or Conoclinium^ coelestinum, L. 

Clematis viorna, L , the " leather flower", is very common. 
It often grows in thickets associated with the common Menisper- 
mmn,Smilax glanca,Wa.\t., Smilax tamnoides, L., and the delicate 
little passion flower, Passiflora lutea, L., a beautiful plant climbing 
among the blackberry and papaw bushes, by means of tendrils, 

-—-1 116 

and bearing axillary clusters of miniature green "passion flowers". 

The banks of many of the streams are hedged with Hydrangea 
arborescens, L., associated with Staphylea trifolia, L., Carpinus 
Americana, Michx., Lindera Be?tzoin, Meisner, the red maple 
and the slippery elm. Corttus florida and Viburnum acerifolium 
are common. 

In the month of July the woods are bright with the orange- 
red flowers of the trumpet creeper (Teconia radicans), which climbs 
to the tops of the highest trees. There are also a number of quite 
pretty Labiates to be collected, among which are Scntellaria versi- 
color, Nutt.; Scutellaria cancscens, Nutt.; Blephila hirsuta, Benth.; 
and Monarda fistulosa, L. 

Impatiens fulva, Nutt., and Impatiens pallida, Nutt, are 
equally common. Campanula Americana, L., grows as a rank 
weed, associated with Agrimonia Eupatoria, L.; Silene stellata. 
Ait., and Eupatorium purpureum., L. 

Many of the common weeds growing in hedges and along the 
roadsides are not found in New England. Actinomcris squarrosa, 
Nutt., is a coarse yellow Composite, somewhat like a Hclianthus in 
general appearance, but easily determined by the decurrent leaves 
which form broad green wings along the stem. 

Dysodia chrysanthemoides. Lag , the "fetid marigold", and 
Cunila Mariana, L., are also weeds not found in New England. 
The Peloria state, or five-spurred form, of the common Linaria 
vulgaris. Mill., occurs very frequently in waste places. The 
garden chamomile, Anthemis nobilis, L., has established itself in 
several spots, growing among the Mayweed, Maruta Cotula, DC, 
a plant which it very closely resembles, but from which it may 
easily be distinguished by its pleasant odor. 

Many of the New England asters and golden rods occur, and 
with them a number of western and southern species. Solidago 
rupestris, Solidago Shortii, Torr. and Gray, and Aster Shortii, 
Boott, are all very pretty species. The last has beautiful light 
purple ray flowers and lemon-colored discs. The heads form 
numerous luxuriant panicles, frequently growing four or five feet 

Along the banks of the creeks and rivers another beautiful 
Composite grows, Silphium pcrfoliatum, L. It is associated with 


Rndbeckia triloba, L., a very pretty deep yellow species, much 
more delicate than the R. hirta, which has found its way to New 

Growing in the water of the creeks are masses of Rhytoglossa 
pedunculosa, Nees. {^Diaiithera Americana, L.), one of the Acanth- 

On the gravelly shores Polanisia graveolens, Raf , is a com- 
mon weed. It is usually associated with the " fog fruit'', Lippta 
lanceolata, Michx., a low procumbent member of the Verbenacea;, 
bearing compact round heads of bluish-white flowers. 

Climbing in the hedges and associated with Sinilax glauca, 
Walt., and Smilax tamnoides, L., I found Enslcnia albida, an 
Asclepiad, with small whitish flowers and heart-shaped leaves, 
which resemble at first glance those of a climbing Polygonum. 
Another common hedge-plant is the bind-weed, Convolvulus 
sepium, R. Br. In the fence corners I found an interesting plant 
which proved to be Seymeria macrophylla, Nutt., the " mullein 

Most of the trees in this region also occur in New England. 
The woods are composed of oaks, beeches, maples, hickories, 
Negundo aceroides, Liriodendron ticlipifera, Juglans cinerea, L., 
and Juglans nigra, L. Four Leguminaceous trees are indige- 
nous, which occur in New England only as introduced or natur- 
alized species : Robinia pseiuiacacia, L. ; Gyinnocladus Canaden- 
sis, the " Kentucky coffee tree" ; Gleditscliia Iriacanthos, L., and 
Cercis Cattadensis, L. 

Among the oaks the most interesting is Qnercus niacrocarpa, 
Michx., in which the cup of the acorn is imbricated with pointed 
scales, and is bordered by a mossy margin nearly enclosing the 

The rivers and creeks are lined with tall sycamores, white 
willows and cotton-woods, Populus monilifera. Ait. 

All of the ferns are included in the New England flora ; but 
some of the species most common in New England, such as 
Ptcris aquilina and Polypodiiuii viilgare, I found to be very rare in 
Ross County. Aspidium Goldieanum, Hook., Asplenium angus- 
tifolium, Michx., and Camptosorus rhizopJiylhis, Link., were quite 
common in ravines and on shaded rocky hillsides. 


New Grasses. 

By Dr. Geo. Vasey. 

V Trisetum montanum. — Culms I ^to 2^ feet high, smooth, 
rather slender; cauline leaves 6 to lO inches long, the upper 
sometimes equaling the panicle, somewhat scabrous, the lower 
sheaths pubescent, ligule about I line long, blunt ; panicle 4 
to 6 inches long, loose and open but not spreading, rays in 
clusters of three to five, unequal, ^ to i ^ inches long, suberect, 
minutely scabrous, flowering nearly to the base, the longer rays 
with five to seven appressed branchlets; spikelets about 2^ lines 
long, two-flowered and with a minute hairy pedicel ; outer 
glumes unequal, acute, scarious margined, smooth, except on the 
keel, the lower narrow, about i line long, the upper one-half 
longer, broadly lanceolate ; flowering glumes about 2 lines long, 
narrowly lanceolate, acuminate and terminating in two short, fine 
setae, obscurely five-nerved, minutely scabrous, with short hairs 
at the base and on the rhachilla, the awn from about the upper 
third, diverging, rather longer than its glume; palet narrow, 
little shorter than its glume, bidentate ; ovary not hairy at the 

This must include what I published in Wheeler's Report, Vol. 
VI., as T. alpestre, Beaur., which has short leaves, and a very 
different panicle and flowers. It has been mistaken for an open 
panicled form of T. subspicatum. 

DiPLACHNE Reverchoni. — Culms caispitose, erect, fili- 
form, simple, 4 to 10 inches high; leaves mostly radical, 
numerous, setaceous, smooth, i to 2 inches long, only one 
or two on the culm near the base ; raceme simple spike-like, 
2 to 3 inches long ; spikelets sessile, appressed and mostly 
imbricate, alternate or somewhat one-sided, 3 to 4 lines 
long, seven to nine-flowered ; empty glumes lanceolate, obtusish, 
compressed, one-nerved, the upper about I line long, the lower 
y^ shorter; flowering glumes ovate-lanceolate, acutish, three- 
nerved, smooth, except a slight pubescence at the base and on 
the rhachis, bilobed at the apex, and with a short awn a little 
exceeding its glume ; palet little shorter than its glume, some- 
what stalked at the base. 


Collected on granitic rocks, Llano Co., Texas, by Mr. J. 

Glyceria Lemmoni. — In the Botanical Gazette for January. 
1878, I published this species as Poa Lemmoni. It must now 
fall into Glyceria, section Atropis, and hence the above name. It 
is a very distinct species and has since been collected by Mr. M. 
E. Jones in Nevada, and in Oregon by Mr. T. Howell. 

Festuca Texana. — Culms 2 to 2^ feet high, rather stout, \/ 
smooth ; leaves rather numerous below with loose sheaths, 
only two or three above with long smooth sheaths, and linear- 
acuminate erect blades, 4 to 8 inches long, and I to 2 
lines wide ; ligule wanting ; panicle pyramidal, about 6 inches 
long, the branches erect-spreading, in pairs below, single above, 
somewhat distant, the lower ones 3 to 4 inches long, divided 
above the middle, few-flowered, pedicels nearly as long as 
the spikelets to twice as long; spikelets light green and 
glaucous, three to five-flowered, about 4 lines long ; empty 
glumes linear-lanceolate, acute, rigid, smooth except on the 
midrib, the lower one nearly 2 lines long, one- nerved, the 
upper one ^ longer, three-nerved; flowering glumes ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, mucronate or short-awned, smooth, rigid, about 
3 lines long, indistinctly five-nerved, finely punctulate ; palet 
equaling its glume and as firm in texture, terminating with two 
fine teeth. 

Elymus Macounii. — Several years ago I received from Mr. -J 
J. Macoun an Elymus collected in the Great Plains of British 
America whi'ch I called by the above name, but no account of it 
was published. I have several times since received it from 
within the limits of the United States, and two years ago myself 
collected it freely in the mountains of Colorado. The specimens 
from different localities show considerable variation, but I am not 
able to separate them specifically. It is the smallest of our 
species, and in reduced forms has much the appearance o' 
Hordcum pratensc. It may be described as follows : 

Culms 2 to 3 feet high, smooth, leaves of culm 3 or 4, 
rigid, erect, narrow, scabrous, 3 to 6 inches long; ligule 
short and truncate; spike slender, erect, cylindrical, 3 to 
S inches long ; commonly in slender specimens there is but 


1 spikelet at each joint of the rhachis, in stronger ones the lower 
spikelets are in pairs and the upper ones single ; frequently some 
of the spikelets have three glumes, even some of the double ones, 
i. e., one glume on each side and one in front. Spikelets one to 
three-flowered, empty glumes linear-lanceolate, rigid, scabrous, 
mostly three-nerved, 3 to 4 lines long, and running into 
an awn as long or longer ; flowering glumes oblong-lanceolate, 
punctulate below and scabrous above, 4 or 5 lines long, with 
an awn as long or longer, five-nerved ; palet equaling the glume, 

Elymus NITIDUS. — Culms 2j4 to 2 feet high, rather stout 
and leafy, sterile shoots half as long ; leaves erect rigid, scabrous, 
6 to 8 inches long, 2 to 3 lines wide, slender pointed ; ligule 
nearly obsolete; sheaths scabrous; spike about 4 inches 
long, erect ; spikelets i or 2 at each joint, three to five-flow- 
ered ; empty glumes 6 to 7 lines long including the awn, 
the upper one five-nerved, lower one three to four-nerved, 
scabrous on the nerves; flowering glume about 5 lines long 
with a fine scabrous awn of equal length, obscurely five-nerved, 
smooth or nearly so, punctulate and shining ; palet a little shor- 
ter, ciliate-scabrous on the nerves. 

The spike is less thick than in E. Virginicus, and more com- 
pact than in E. striatus. Collected by Mr. W. C. Cusick on the 
Eagle Mountains in Oregon. Grows in dense tufts, i to 2 
feet across. 

A New Moss from Oregon. 

The following description of a new species of Orthotrichum 
was furnished by Dr. Carl Miiller, made from specimens sent to 
him by Eugene A. Rau: 

Orthotrichum (Euorthotrichum) Pringlei, C. Mull, n. sp. 
Dioicum, caespites elati triunciales laxi flavi; caulis flexuosus ir- 
regulariter dichotome divisus gracilescens flacciduslaxifolius; folia 
caulina elongata horride imbricata madiore valde flexilia patentis- 
sima vel recurvata, e basi brevi angustiuscula semiamplexante 
margine revoluta in laminam elongatam lanceolato-acuminatam 
carinatam margine erectam ob papillas crenulatam apice subulato 
acutatam hyalinam protracta, e cellulis minutis rotundatis flavis 
scabro-papillosis basi folii elongatis densis glabriusculis magis 


aurantiacis areolata; perich. similia; omnia nervo crasso callosso 
in acumine evanido; theca breviter cxserta e basi brevi urniformi- 
oblonga octies plicata fusca tenuis, operculo e basi cupulata recte 
aciculari; calyptrapiliselongatisstrictis reticulatis apice simplicibus 
subulatis glabris hirtissima; peristomii ex^erni dentes ad cap ulam 
reflexi albidi i6 per paria aggregati lanceolati breviter subulati 
Hnealongitudinali tenui exarati obscuri,interni 8 robusti latiusculi 
linea longitudinali exarati latere sinuoso-crenati obscuri crassi. 

Patria, Oregon, Winchester Bay, et Coos River, ad arbores in 
societate Neckera Douglasii, Hook., October, 1881, c. fruct. eva- 
cuatis: C. G. Pringle, in herb. E. A. Rau. 

Ex habitu ad congeneres Orthotkerce, Syrrliopodontiiini c. gr. 
ad O. lycopodioidcm accedens. Species distinctissima pulcher- 
rima excelsa. 

Pinus pungens in New Jersey, 

On the I Sth of May, Rev. R. E. Schuh and myself found Pinus 
pimgens, Michx., one mile eastof Sergeantsville, Delaware Town- 
ship, Hunterdon County. About one acre is densely covered with 
it, and an equal area with scattering trees. The location is a warm, 
sunny one, on a south slope, protected from the north and west 
winds by surrounding woods. 

On inquiry I learn that nearly a half century since the site 
now occupied by it was a cultivated field, in the middle of which 
a small pine was for some reason allowed to grow. Subsequently, 
however, the ground being no longer tilled, there grew up a dense 
undergrowth, among which was a large number of small pines. 
These grew so luxuriantly as to choke out the other vegetation. 
The parent tree still stands larger than any of its offspring, meas- 
uring 30 inches in diameter near the ground, and attaining a height 
of 40 feet. 

Whence came this tree ? It cannot be traced to cultivation. 
In fact I am told that repeated trials have been made to transplant 
the younger trees for ornamental purposes, but with uniformly 
poor results. The other species of Pinus growing in this section 
are Pinus rigida, Muller, P. inops.. Art., P. Strobus, L. I think 
it probable that the seed has been carried here, on snow crusts, 
perhaps, by the wind and, finding a favorable nidus, has sprung up. 


Pinus pungens has a varying appearance depending on density 
of growth. Where the trees grow thickly they are tall, straight, 
and slender, having but few living branches, except near the top. 
Quite the contrary when they grow far apart. The trees then 
present a straggling look, drooping branches loaded with cones, 
running out 15 feet or more, the extremities of the lower ones 
often touching the ground. 

The cones are quite distinctive. They are ovate-conical, fas- 
cicled around the branches in clusters of three to seven, 3j^ to 4 
inches long, armed with stout spines, which are, from the middle 
of the cone upward, incurved, and from the middle downward, 
recurved. The leaves are stout, 2 to 3 inches long, sometimes 
shorter, with short sheaths on mature foliage. The sheaths, how- 
ever, on young leaves about ^ inch long. G. N. BEST. 

RosEMONT, N. J., June 14th, 1886. 

Notes on Starch in the Chestnut Wood. 

I wish to add a note to my communication of last month in 
regard to the starch grains in chestnut wood. 

June 1st I cut a branch from a tree on the Boston and Albany 
Railroad, near the Massachusetts and New York State line, at an 
elevation of 950 feet above the sea. The aments of the chestnut 
trees then were just appearing; the leaves gave to the trees a dense 

Only a few of the upright starch-carrying cells in the fifth and 
sixth rings from the bark still contained starch grains. The med- 
ullary rays in the alburnum and in the bark did not give a trace, 
nor were any found in any of the cells of the bark. In chestnut 
trees at less elevations probably this change had taken place be- 
fore this date, as the aments on the trees in the eastern portion of 
the State were much further advanced. The only timber of chest- 
nut generally seen now in Massachusetts is of second growth, and 
along the line of the railroad mentioned I did not see any above 
1,000 feet of elevation. 

So little is known in regard to the periods when different trees 
store starch and then transform it, that I trust many other observers 
in different sections of the country will give the result of investi- 
gations in this respect. It is a matter not only of great scientific 


interest, but of great practical importance in regard to the cutting 
of timber. 

Wlien the starch is naturally transforming, or is transformed, 
it is a good media in most woods, if exposed, for the growth of 
various ferments and moulds — in short, fungi, which hasten the 
decay of the sap-wood at least. P. H. DUDLEY. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Agave Americana. (Gard. Month., xxviii, p. 171.) 

We are informed that a century plant is about coming into 
flower in the garden of Mr. George Casey, at Auburn, N. Y. 

Algo-Liclien Hypothesis. — A Resume of the. F. H. Knowlton. 
(Amer. Month. Micros. Journ., vii., pp. 101-105.) 
In a paper read before the Biological Society of Washington, 
Mr. Knowlton discusses the hypothesis of the compound nature 
of lichens advanced by Schwendener in 1868, and since elabor- 
ated by other botanists, and concludes with Rev. J. M. Crombie 
that the evidence thus far adduced is insufficient to warrant its 

Arctostaphylos — Notes on the United States Pacific Coast Species. 

C. C. Parry. (Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., iv., pp. 31- 

Arctic Algce — Notes on ; based principally on collections made 

at Ungava Bay by L. M. Turner, in 1884. W. G. Farlow. 

(Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., x.xL, pp. 470, 471.) 

The collections contain a number of Florideae which are sel- 
dom seen in herbaria. 1 50 specimens of Delesseria were collected 
which tend to show that D. corymbosa and D. Bcerii are bnt one 

Chorizanthe. — A Revision of the Genus. C. C. Parry. (Proc. 
Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., iv., pp. 45-65.) 

Conifers.— Contributions to the History of Certain Species of. 

Maxwell T. Masters. (Journ. Linn. Soc, x.xii., pp. 169-212, 

plates II-X and woodcuts.) 

Those who arc specially interested in this group will find 
much to attract them in this article, illustrated as it is on almost 


every page by drawings made from the living plant, either native 
or cultivated. The species from the U. S. described and figured 
are Abies aniabilis, Forbes, A. grandis, Lindl., A. concolor, Lindl., 
A. subalpina, Englm., A. nobilis and A. magnifica, with varieties. 

Contributions to American Botany, XIII. Sereno Watson. (Proc. 

Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., xxi., pp. 414-468.) 

This latest of Mr. Watson's contributions is made up of (ist.) 
A List of Plants collected by Dr. Edward Palmer, in Southwestern 
Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1885. This collection comprises between 
five and six hundred numbers and has furnished many new species; 
the Gamopetalse were named by Dr. Gray, the Gramineae by Dr. 
Vasey, and the Cryptogams by Professor Eaton. (2d.) Descrip- 
tions of New Species of Plants, chiefly from the Pacific States and 
Chihuahua, in which 37 undescribed plants are characterized. 
(3d.) Notes upon Plants collected in the Department of Ysabal, 
Guatemala, February to April, 1885; and (4th.) Notes upon some 
Palms of Guatemala. 
Coreopsis. — Annual Species of. (Garden, xxix., pp. 498, 499, 

with plate.) 

Coreopsis cardaminefolia, C. Drunimondii, C. aiirea, C. At- 
kinsottiana, and C. aristosa, are figured and directions are given 
for growing these and other species in gardens. 

Desinidiece. — Key to the. A. C. Stokes. (Amer. Month. Micros. 
Journ., vii., pp. 109- 114.) 

An artificial classification of North American Desmids, in- 
cluding both genera and species, with references to the pages of 
Mr. Wolle's " Desmids of the United States." 

Mr. E. A. Congdon reported to the Natural Science Association 
of Staten Island a list of twenty-two fossil diatoms discovered near 
Clove Lake. All but three have also been found living in the 
neighboring ponds. These are Stephanodiscus Niagaras, Bibla- 
riiim rhombus and Actinoptychus annulatus. 
Flora of Iowa. — Contributions to the. J. C. Arthur. (Proc. 

Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., iv., pp. 27-30 and 64-75.) 
Flora of the Yello-Mstom National Park. Frank Tweedy. (Pamph- 
let, 8vo, 78 pp., Washington, i886; published by the author.) 


A catalogue of plants hitherto found in the Yellowstone Park, 
with their distribution and habitat, and localities of those less 
commonly met with. The work is mainly the result of Mr. 
Tweedy's explorations of the region in 1884 and 1885, when he 
obtained 605 species. Additional information has been derived 
from published accounts of collections made by Robert Adams, 
Professor Coulter, Dr. Parry and Dr. W. H. Forwood. The 
topographic features of the Park, its forests, the alpine flora, the 
flora of bogs, ponds and streams, the plants found about the Hot 
Springs and Geysers, and the grasses are discussed, and much in- 
teresting information is presented. In all, 657 species are enum- 
erated. The area of the Park is about 3,350 square miles. 

Gentiana Bigelovii. Gray. (Curtis' Botanical Magazine, xlii., 

tab. 6,874.) 

Beautiful figures of this plant are given with quotations from 
Dr. Gray's description in the Synoptical Flora. The plants from 
which the drawings were made grew from seeds sent by Dr. 
Parry, and flowered in August in the rock-garden, being per- 
fectly hardy. 

Harvard's Botanic Garden and its Botanists. Ernest Ingersoll. 
(The Century Magazine, xxxii., pp. 237-248.) 
An interesting account of this famous garden and of Dr. 
Gray's Herbarium. The garden was founded in 1805 under the 
direction of William Dandridge Peck, the first Professor of 
Natural History. For ten years after 1822 it was under the 
charge of Thomas Nuttall, and subsequently was cared for by 
William Carter. Dr. Gray's connection with it began in 1842. 
His library and herbarium were presented to Harvard College in 
1862, and were placed in the fireproof building they now occupy 
two years later. Since 1874 all the instruction in botany has 
been given by Professors Goodale and Farlow and their assistants. 
The herbarium is now said to number more than 300,000 speci- 
HypocreacecE. — Synopsis of the North American. Continued. 

(Journ. MycoL, ii., pp. 61 69.) 
Liliicm pardaliniini. (Garden, xxix., pp. 524, 525, two wood- 
cuts and a colored plate.) 


Montreal Botanic Garden. D. P. Penhallow. (First Annual 

Report, 1885.) 

The site "where the earliest spring flowers bloom " has been 
selected on Mt. Royal, and some progress has been made in 
planting. A government appropriation and several private dona- 
tions have enabled the work to proceed in a quite encouraging 
New Platits from Southern and Lower California. C. C. Parry. 

(Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., iv., pp. 38-40.) 

Phacclia suffrutesccns, Ptelea aptcra, Polygala Fishice and 
Gilia Orcuttii are here described. 
Opium Mould — A yclloiv. (Eiirotium aspergillus-glaucus, Lk.) 

Wm. Trelease. (Contrib. Dep. Pharmacy Univ. Wise, ii., 

PP-5-9! illustrated.) 

It was found on cutting open a cake of Turkey opium. With 
the naked eye the mycelium and perithecia could be distinguished, 
as they differ in color. Other spores were also distinguished but 
could not be identified. 
Oxalis acetosella. (Gardener's Chronicle, xxv., pp. 684, 685, with 


The question is again raised whether this or Trifolium repens 
be the true shamrock. 
Phosphorescent Fungi. J. B. Everhart. (Journ. Mycol., ii., PP- 


Note is made of Panus stypticus having been noted by two 
observers to be phosphorescent in the gills. This phenomenon 
was only noted on specimens gathered in damp weather just 
before a storm. 

Picea Menziesii. (Gard. Chron., xxv., p. 728 ; two figures.) 
Platamis occidentalis. (Gard. Month., xxviii., pp. 165, 166; 

one figure.) 
Quercus virens. — The American Live Oak. (Garden, xxix., p. 

532 ; one cut.) 

Botanical Notes. 

Medicinal Plants wanted. Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, of Bing- 
hamton, New York, is anxious to obtain typical, living, flower- 
ing specimens of Spigelia Marilandica, Stillingia sylvatica, 


Eryngium yiicccefolhim, and Euphrasia officifialis for illustration 
in his work. 

Observationes analyticce in Fungos Agaricinos Italics borcalis. 
Under this title Dr. Pietro Voglino has issued a pamphlet on the 
Agarics of Northern Italy, illustrated by fifty figures. He con- 
cludes that from the form and dimensions of the spores and 
basidii every species may be distinguished. 

Histoire des Hcrbiers. Dr. St. Lager. (Pamphlet, pp. 120, 
Paris, 1885.) We have just received this review of the origin and 
growth of Herbaria in which the author claims that the history 
of the subject has been neglected, and has spent considerable 
time in searching for the originator of the first Herbarium. He 
finally comes to the conclusion that to John Falconer, an English- 
man, belongs that honor, for in 1545 his collections excited the 
admiration of Italian botanists at Ferrare, but unfortunately they 
have not been preserved. The oldest in existence is that of 
Jean Girault, Lyons, 1558, and next that of Aldrovani and Cesal- 
pino, 1553-1563. Many pages are devoted to the enumeration 
of the plants, and descriptions of the collections of Girault, Cesal- 
pino, Rauwolf and G. Bauhin, all ante-Linnsean. 

Hymenomycetcs Britannici, by the Rev. John Stevenson. In 
two volumes with illustrations. Vol. I Agaricus to Bolbitius. 
William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1886, p. 372. 
The first volume of Mr. Stevenson's book has at last appeared, 
asid will be received by the British student of Mycology as a 
boon, inasmuch as hitherto the descriptions of our Hymenomy- 
cetcs have been scattered without order in various publications. 
The main idea of the work is undoubtedly to give the English 
speaking student of fungi, in his own language, an accurate 
retranslation — or rather an interpretation of the work of Fries. 
With this object Mr. Stevenson has availed himself of the descrip- 
tions in the Hymenomycetes Europm as a basis, and has incorpo- 
rated with these, not only the fuller details given in the Mono- 
graphia, but also whatever information is contained in the 
smaller works of Fries. The illustrations of genera and sub- 
genera are from nature, by Mr. W. G. Smith. The spore meas- 
urements are from various authors, and are all given in micro- 
millimeters. One noticeable feature of the book is the fullness 


with which the description of the subgenera are given, and in the 
large subgenera those of the series. This is a great improve- 
ment upon the scanty manner in which they have been treated 
in our previous text-books. 

Charles B. Plowright, 
8 King St., King Square, London. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Club was held at Col- 
umbia College June 8th, i886. Dr. G. D. Holsten and W. A. 
McCorn were elected active members, and Ensign W. E. SafFord, 
U. S. N., and E. C. Smith, of Augusta, Maine, corresponding mem- 
bers. Dr. Newberry exhibited a new, pear-shaped variety of 
orange, recently received in the New York markets from Southern 
California, and remarked on the progress of orange culture in that 
region. Mrs. Britton distributed specimens of Aspidium spimc- 
lostini, Willd., var. dilatatiim, Eaton, and A. cristatuni, Swartz, in 
several forms, some of them approaching var. Clintoniamim, 
Eaton, from Boonton, New Jersey, and exhibited Alyssmn in- 
canuin, L., from Dedham, Massachusetts, where, in July, 1882, 
it was abundant along the railroad and apparently naturalized; it 
is native of Central Europe. Mr. P. H. Dudley read some further 
notes on the formation of ducts in chestnut wood. Mr. Schrenk 
remarked on the phenomena of certain leaves of shedding water, 
especially those of Impatiens, which have a perfectly smooth epi- 
dermis, and attributed it to the abundance of cutine. Those of 
the Snowberry have a similar power. Dr. Newberry called atten- 
tion to a similar action by the velvety leaves of Abiitilon AvicenncB. 
Dr. Britton exhibited specimens of the Dusty Miller, Scnecio Cine- 
raria, DC, collected by Prof E. H. Day on the sea beach of 
Monmouth County, New Jersey, and remarked that it had now 
been noticed at several places on the beaches in the vicinity of 
New York, and might well be regarded as adventive ; also Carex 
ptychocarpa, Steud., from Lake Hopatcong. Ensign W. E. Saf- 
ford, U. S. N., read the announced paper of the evening, entitled 
"A comparison of the Flora of Ross County, Ohio, with that of 
Southern New England." 

The Club then adjourned until the second Tuesday in October. 






Vol. XIII.] New York, August, 1886. [No. 8, 

Fern Notes. IX. 

With Plate LVIII. 

Geo. E. Davenport, 
list of ferns collected on the mountains near the city of 
chihuahua, mexico, during the season of 1885, by c. g. pringle, 
of charlotte, vermont. 

The numbers are those on Mr. Pringle's tickets, and include 
some not given on his distribution list. Those ferns left unde- 
termined on his published list will be found here fully named. 

Adiantum Capillus-vcneris, L. Rocky hills near Chihuahua. 

456 — Adiantum tricholepis, Fee. Santa Eulalia Mt; April. 
A single station, yielding only a few specimens ; none for distri- 

Mr. Pringle wrote that he " travelled many miles over the 
steep, rocky hills of Chihuahua, searching their cliffs in vain for 
more. The clump was growing from black mould which had 
accumulated in a fissure of a clifif, about a foot wide, and was 
sheltered from direct access of rain and sunshine by a projection 
of rock near the upper part of the fissure. I never found another 
place just like it, but am confident there is plenty of the fern 
hidden amongst the cliffs which render difficult of access for a score 
of miles the summits of the mountains within view from the city 
of Chihuahua." 

The fronds on these specimens of Mr. Pringle's agree per- 
fectly with the excellent figure of this species in Ferns of North 
America, Prof. D. C. Eaton (Plate 59), but the rootstocks render 
some modification of the description necessary, as in these plants 
they are csespitose and not creeping. If this is really Fee's plant, 
it is difficult to understand how he could have described its root- 
stock as being "rampant" — creeping — unless we suppose that it 
was inferential from imperfect material in his hands. 

Mr. Baker says that Mr. Pringle's plant exactly matches the 


type specimen in Kew Herbarium from Liebmann, marked A. 
Chilense, Klf., var. pilosulum ; and in Synopsis Filicum the nor- 
mal form of that species, is, with others, placed under A. Aithi- 
opicuni, L. 

444 — Asplenium Trichomanes, L., var. REPENS, n. var. Wet 
ledges, rocky hills, near Chihuahua ; October. 

A most interesting small fern with the habit of Camptosorus, 
the proliferous fronds reclining, rooting at the prolonged filiform 
apices, creeping, and forming closely appressed mats. Appar 
ently identical with A. heterochroiim, Kunze, but as there is 
nothing to show that the normal form of Kunze's plant was pro- 
liferous, ours may be accepted as a good variety, whether under 
that species or Trichomanes. 

Dr. Hooker placed Kunze's plant under A. Trichomanes in 
Species Filicum, and there is apparently no good reason for 
otherwise disposing of Mr. Fringle's. 

442 — Cheilanthes leucopoda, Link. Ledges, Santa Eulalia 
Mt. ; March. 

This and 457 appear to me very doubtfully distinct. They 
seemingly differ only in one plant being more delicate than the 
other. 442 has heretofore been thought to be more delicate, but 
in Mr. Fringle's collection it is more robust. Judging from the 
number of specimens it appears to have been abundant, thriving 
vigorously on exposed limestone ledges, while the more delicate 
4S7 grew sparingly on cool, shaded cliffs. 

The differences between the two are, on their face, exceedingly 
slight. Both are nearly equally glandular pubescent ; the differ- 
ence in the color of their stipites is no greater than in many other 
ferns — in 442 they are usually straw-colored, but in some plants 
they are quite as brown as in 457 — and other differences may 
be readily accounted for by the character of different habitats, 
and varying conditions of growth. But while 1 am strongly in- 
clined to consider these two ferns as merely good forms of one 
species, I have not made an examination thorough enough to 
justify so uniting them here. 

468 — Cheilanthes Lindheitncri, Hook. 

449 — Cheilanthes microphylla, Swz. 

459 — Cheilanthes myriopliylla, Desv. 


4?3. AiA—^Cheitanthes tojuentosa, Link., vaf. Eatoni, DaverC-' 
port, 453 being nearest to the species, which was also collected 
but not numbered. 

445 — Cheilanthes Wrightii, Hook. 

457 — Cheilanthes viscosa, Kaulf. 

465 — GymnogmmmeEhrenbergiana,K\Q\.z. (G. hispida, Mett.) 

466 — Notholcena Aschenborniana, Klotz. 

462 — Notholana ferriiginea. Hook. 

463 — Notholcena Grayi, Davenport. 

Notholcena Hookeri, D. C. Eaton. (No number.) 

451 — NotholcBna nivea, Desv. 

464 — NotholcBna sinnata, Kaulf. 

All variously distributed about the limestone ledges, cool 
slopes and shaded cliffs on the rocky hills near Chihuahua; 
March to October. 

452 — Notholceaa cretacea, Liebmann; (N. Californica, D.C. 
Eaton ; N. Candida, Hk., van cretacea, Davenport.) 

The very fine series of forms of Notholcena Candida, Hook, 
from Texas, recently collected by Reverchon, have quite con- 
vinced me that this fern, which has heretofore been referred to 
that species, should be recognized as distinct. That it is Lieb- 
mann's plant I cannot doubt. Mr. Baker assures me that it 
agrees perfectly with Liebmann's type in the Kew Herbarium, 
and an examination of a pinna from a Kew specimen sent to me 
by him, satisfies me that such is the case. It moreover agrees 
with Liebmann's original description * quite as well as most 

* I am indebted to the of Mr. Sereno Watson for looking up for me the 
following description : — 

"Notochlana cretacea, Uebm. : fronde coriacea 69 poll, longa, lamina 1J-2 
pollices longa, 1% poll, lata, stipite 5 7 pollicari, subrhomboidea parum acuminata 
obtusa bipinnato-pinnatifida, sursum decrescente pinnato-pinnatifida, demum pin- 
natifida, pinnis patulis oppositis sessilibus adnatis.infimis basin versus pinnato pinnati- 
fidis sursum pinnatijidis, incequilateris, latere exteriori imprimis basin versus superius 
superante, deltoideis, poUicem longis et latis, pinnulis lanceolatis obtusis altemis, la- 
cmiis suboppositis oblique ovatis obtusissimis decurrentibus, sinubus acutis curvatis ; 
pmnis mediis lanceolatis ceterum similibus ; pagina anteriori viridi globulis cretaceis 
adspersa, posteriori strato denso cretaceo flavido-albo obducta ; rhaci costisque antice 
leviter canaliculatis pulverulentis, postice convexis nigris; sporangiis majusculis mar- 
gmalibus fuscis, sports sph^ricis nigris; stipite tereti nigerrimo nitido basin versus 
hie illic squamis membranaceis lanceolatis brunneis instructo. 

Rhizoma subterraneum obliqvum breve c.x-spitosum squamis rigidis lanceolatis 
margine membranaceo lacero adpressis obsitum. 


specimens do agree with their descriptions, which are often neces • 
sarily drawn up from imperfect material without sufficient allow- 
ance for natural variations within specific limits. 

Our California plant differs from the Mexican only in having 
brown stipites and rachises instead of black, a difference of hardly 
more than varietal significance, if even that, and characteristic of 
other species in this genus, notably in yV. nivea, where the stipites 
and rachises vary from dull chestnut brown to glossy black. 
Sometimes in Californian plants the upper surfaces of the segments 
appear to be more copiously sprinkled with powdery glands, but 
as I have only seen a few Mexican specimens, while several hun- 
dred California plants in all conditions of growth have passed 
through my hands, I cannot say to what extent this excess may 
go. The glands are clearly deciduous in both cases, and in an 
equal number of Mexican specimens it is probable that some 
would be found as thickly coated as any from California. 
441 — NoTHOL/ENA Pringlei, n. sp. (Plate LVIII.) 
Rootstocks tufted, clothed with black subulate narrowly winged 
scales with sinuately toothed or variously incised membranous 
margins, those at the base of the stipites broadest ; fronds 3 to 8 
inches tall; stipites i to 4 inches long, brown, becoming grey with 
age, furrowed along the face and sparingly clothed with deciduous 
scales and white powdery glands, the scales similar to those at the 
base, but paler; laminae 2 to 4 inches long, oblong or ovate lanceo- 
late, bi- to tripinnate with obliquely ascending alternate stalked 
pinna;, more or less distant, the lowermost from ^ to i in. long, 
pinnules sessile or nearly so, segments oblong or roundish, the 
margins strongly revolute, covering the brown sori ; rachises 
brown, the primary rachis channelled along the face ; texture sub- 
coriaceous, both surfaces coated with white ceraceous powder. 

Voxer selskabelig i Klofter af bratte Kilkklipper over S. Lorenzo i Ncerheden af 
Tehuacan (5400') ; samlet i Frugt i December.- 

Udentvivl en af de smukkeste Arter af Slsegten, og let adskillelig fra alle hidtil 
bekjendte." — Mexicos Bregner, F. Liebmann, Kjobenhavn, 1849, p. 64. 

Remarks. — The above description apparently calls for a taller plant than is rep- 
resented by Mr. Pringle's, and most of the California specimens, but some of the latter 
in my possession come very near to the dimensions given, and the description given 
by Prof. Eaton in the Bulletin for May, 1873, from Mettenius, recognises some very 
much less.— G. E. D. 


In crumbling lime rock, cliffs and banks of gulches, Santa 
Eulalia Mt., Chihuahua, Mexico. Collected by C. G. Pringle, 
April, 1885. Also in Parry and Palmer's collection of i879-'8o, 
from Coahuila and Nuevo Leon (1382, 1383), the specimens 
weather-beaten and nearly destitute of powder. 

It was Mr. Pringle's desire that this fern be given to Dr. Ed- 
ward Palmer, who, with Dr. Parry, had previously collected it, 
but learning that Mr. Baker had named another species in this 
genus (991 Parry and Palmer Coll., 1. c.) for Dr. Palmer, and Dr. 
Parry's name being also in use, it seemed to me eminently proper 
to give it to one whose ample collection of perfect material so 
clearly established its specific value. 

Mr. Pringle wrote that during most of the year the plants are 
as dry as the soil in which they grow, and as white as the lime 
debris which surrounds them. This gives to the whole plant a 
contracted appearance which makes the fronds seem narrower 
than they really are. The species stands nearest to NoiholcBna 
iiivea, Desv., but in that fern the fronds are usually more com- 
pound, with powder only on the under side of the segments, are 
less coriaceous in texture, and the stipites are uniformly terete. 

The wonderful tenacity with which this elegant species holds 
to its life-purpose through so many months of severe drouths, 
fitly commemorates the indomitable energy and perseverance of 
the excellent botanist to whom it is here dedicated. 

447 — Pellcea aspera, Baker. Rocky hills near Chihuahua ; 

448 — •Pellcea cordata, J. Sm. Under dry limestone cliffs ; 

The typical form, and very distinct from the Arizona and New 
Mexican plant (also collected here by Mr. Pringle) now passing 
under this name, but which must, in my judgment, be otherwise 
disposed of The distinctive characters of the two plants will be 
pointed out in my remarks on the next species. 

461 — Pellcea intermedin, Mett. — at least in part — var. pubes- 
cens, Mett. {P. cordata of my catalogue and check list; P. andro- 
medcEfolia, Fee, var. ptibescens, D. C. Eaton.) Near Chihuahua, 
Pringle. Also from New Mexico, Chas. Wright, 825 in part ; 
Rusby, 1880; Arizona, Lemmon, i88i-'82. 


Mr. Baker assures me that this and 448 are both recognized 
at Kew as forms of P. cordata, J. Sm., but thinks that they are 
distinct enough for two good varieties. I must confess, however, 
that I cannot understand why two plants so entirely distinct 
in every way should be retained under one specific name. 

On the one hand, we have in 448 a plant with a short, stout 
rootstock as thick as one's finger, bearing clustered herbaceous 
annual fronds, the veins plainly visible; on the other hand, in 461, 
a plant with a long, slender, wide-creeping rootstock, bearing 
scattered perennial sub-coriaceous fronds, the veins obscure, and 
it hardly seems possible to have stronger or more valid specific 

The difference in texture between these two plants is much 
like that between P. Breweri a.nd P. Bridgesii; or, although per- 
haps in a less marked degree, P. gracilis and P. atropiirpurea. 
The difference in their rootstocks and mode of growth is essentially 
the same as in Aspidium Nevadense and Aspidium Noveboracense, 
a difference constituting almost the one character upon which A. 
Nevadense was founded. Mr. Pringle, whose thorough knowledge 
of plants and extremely careful observations render his views 
too valuable to be set aside lightly, writes very positively in 
regard to the distinct character and habit of these two ferns, and 
considers them two good species rather than mere varieties of one. 

I do not make out to my entire satisfaction the Pellcea inter- 
media of Mettenius, but Kuhn's description of it in Linnaea* 

* I give here the description of Fellcea intermedia, Mett., as 1 have transcribed it 
from Linnrea : — 

fellcea intermedia, Mett. — Rhizoma repens, paleis i .2'" longis, rigidulis, rufes- 
centibus, mox lato nigro carinatis dense vestitum ; folia subdistantia, membranacea, 
glaberrima ; petiolus 4-6" longus cum rachi strictus, pallide rubellus, teres, Isevis; 
lamina 4-6" longa, ovata, bipinnata ; pinnae suboppositje, distantes ; pinnulse 2-3 
jugae, petiolulatae, cordato-ovato, obtusissimse ; nervi densi subimmersi ; sori margine 
revoluto velati. — Mexico (Hb. Fournier). 

Var. pubescens. Mett. Rhachi partiali pubescente. Fellcea flexuosa. Hook. 
Spec, ii., 149, partim. Nov.. Mexico. (Wright 825.) 

Hybrida forte inter F. saggittatum, Cav. et F . flexuosam, Klf., rhizomate paleis- 
que cum posteriore, lamina cum priore congruens, ceterum et F. flexuosa rhachi laevi 
etpubescenti varians."— Kuhn in Linnxa, xxxvi, p. 84. 

Rk.marks. — The only apparent discrepancy here is in the membranaceous fronds 
and cordate ovate pinnules, but as the former is inconsistent with densely immersed 
veins, and the latter is a variable character, I consider that the description as a whole 
points more clearly to the plant under consideration than to any other.— G. E. D. 


fits our plant very well. The type appears to have been founded 
on a glabrous Mexican plant, and the var. pubescens subsequently 
established as one of Chas. Wright's No. 825 from New Mexico. 
I have it from Mr. Baker that one of the specimens included 
under Chas. Wright's 825 agrees with Mr. Pringle's 461, and also 
with Rusby's plant from New Mexico, from which it is evident 
that a portion of Wright's 825 was not Xxv^z flexuosa. 

In the absence of more convincing evidence to the contrary, 
therefore, it seems best to restore Mettenius' species and refer to 
it this plant of Mr. Pringle's which answers to the var. pubescens. 
Specimens collected in New Mexico by Rusby and in Arizona 
by Lemmon, and distributed as P. cordata or as P. Andromedce- 
folia, var. pubescens, must also be so referred. The P. cordata of 
my Catalogue Supplement and Check Lists thus becomes Pcllcea 
intermedia, Mett. 

440 — PellcEa pulchclla. Fee. Limestone ledges, Santa Eulalia 
Mts.; March. 

446. — Pellcea tcrtiifolia. Link. Grassy summits, Santa Eulalia 
Mts.; November. 

443 — Polypodium thysanolepis, A. Br. Cold cliffs, rocky hills; 

445 — Woodsia Mexicana, Fee. Wet ledges ; October. 

450 — Psilotum complanatum. Spring. Seams of rocky hills; 


I, plant. 2, a lower pinna. 3, a middle pinna. 4, an upper 
pinna. 5, a lobed segment with section rolled back showing sori. 
6, scale from base of stipes. 

The Nectary of Yucca. 
By William Trelease. 

The curious facts connected with the pollination of the capsu- 
lar Yuccas discovered by Englemann and Riley* have attracted 
much attention and elicited a good deal of criticism, in most cases 
undeserved. So far as I have observed, none of this has applied 

•Engelmann : Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Hi., 33, 37; iv., 63. Riley: Trans. 
St. Louis Academy, iii., 55, 178, etc. * 


to the behavior of the Yucca moth {Tegeticida Yuccasella, Riley), 
while in the flowers, but mainly to the necessity for its interven- 
tion in their fructification. 

Since reading his articles, I have had a suspicion that Professor 
Riley must have been mistaken in his belief that the stigmatic 
cavity is nectariferous,* as I know of no instance in which a 
liliaceous flower possesses a stigmatic nectary. But it was not 
until the present spring that I had an opportunity to give the 
flowers a careful examination. I then found, as I had expected) 
that the stigmatic tube contains no secretion aside from that 
which is customary to organs of this character, namely the slight 
amount of moisture, of a more or less gummy nature, that 
apparently serves as a stimulus to the nascent pollen-tubes. 

In Yucca, as in many other Liliaceae and related endogens, 
the nectar glands (G, figs, i and 2) occur within the partitions 
that separate the three cells of the pistil, forming thin pockets 
extending nearly from the base to the summit of the ovary. 
These pockets are entirely closed except' at the top. where they 
open externally by a contracted pore (D, fig. i). Nevertheless, 
they represent superficial structures,, since they occur within the 
suture corresponding to the external (dorsal) surfaces of the 

* Trans. St. Louis Acad., iii., 59, 60, 


darpels which constitute the compoiind pistil. They ^re lirled by 
a double series of flat pavement-cells (fig. 3) homologous with the 
external epidermis. It is these closely set flat cells— -very differ- 
ent from the round, loosely connected cells of the surrounding 
pulp — which constitute the secreting tissue or gland proper. 

Brongniart,* who studied this class of glands very thoroughly, 
could find no external opening to tiiese of Yucca, although Y. 
gloriosa is included in his list.t He, was, therefore, of the opinion 
that they must communicate with a narrow canal which runs 
between the carpels from base to summit, and which, as Riley 
has stated, and as I have attempted to show in figure i, passes 
above into the stigmatic cavity, into which the three cells of the 
ovary open by narrow but unmistakable passages. Such stylar 
or intrastylar canals communicating with the ovary are not infre- 
quent in the vegetable kingdom, $ the loose, more or less deliques- 
cent cells which line them replacing the conducting tissue of 
such plants as have a solid style, in the guidance and nutrition of 
the pollen tubes. 

Another point which misled Brongniart was the failure to 
detect nectar about the pistil, as m Allium, Hyacinthus and other 
genera. The reason for this appears to be twofold. The amount 
of secretion under the most favorable circumstances in Yucca 
filainentosa, to which my remarks apply, is very small, nor is it 
discharged externally at the point D, where the gland opens, but, 
as may be seen from a comparison of figures i and 2, it is poured 
at this point into a capillary tube (g), enclosed by the closely 
applied but not outwardly united lobes of the ovary, in which it 
flows downward to a point (N, fig. i) at the base of the pistil, 
where the tube widens slightly into a contracted triangular pore, 
opposite the base of a petal, and discharges the scanty supply of 
fluid, which I have never seen more than filling it, while in many 
cases this opening is not even perceptibly moistened. 

'M^moire sur les glandes nectarifi'res de I'ovaire — Ann. des Sci. nat., 4th Ser., 
ii.-J. See also Grassmann : Die .Septaldriisen. — Flora, 1884, Nos. 7-8 ; and abstract in 
Bot. Centralblatt, xix., 5. 

t Pp. 5-6 of reprint. 

} See Behrens : Untersuchungen iiber den anatomischen Bau des Griffels und der 
Narlie. Inaugural Dissertation, Gottingen, 1875. 


The structure, as I have described it, agrees with the general- 
ization of Grassmann * for all Liliaceae with septal glands, except 
Allium, where the original opening of the gland is lower, but 
otherwise similar. It can be made out by careful longitudinal 
sections like that figured, or even better by breaking the fresh 
ovary lengthwise between two carpels, when the full length of 
the gland is easily laid open. I have also convinced myself that 
there is no connection with either the ovarian cells, the intrastylar 
canal or the stigmatic cavity that prolongs them both, by cutting 
serial cross-.sections of the ovary like that represented in figure 2, 
through the entire length of the pistil, repeating them many times 
at the critical points, namely, the top and bottom. 

There is a more or less prevalent opinion that the glands of 
plants and animals differ in the superficial character and greater 
simplicity of the former; excepting, of course, those internal 
resin and oil passages which do not open for the liberation of their 
secretion — e. g., the resin passages of Conifera; and the oil recep- 
tacles of the orange, mints, etc. It is true that the number of 
vegetable glands which are situated within the plant but discharge 
their secretion at the surface through a duct-like opening is 
small, as I endeavored to show in an unpublished communica- 
tion to the Boston Society of Natural History a number of years 
ago ; but they are occasionally met with. The follicles at the 
mouth of Nepenthes pitchers, described, I believe, by Mr. Potts 
in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy, some years since^ 
are the simplest type of this sort of structures, to which also be- 
long the protective nectar glands on the peduncles of the Cow 
Pea {Dolichos sp.), which I figured in the American Bee Journal, in 
1880; and presumably in the similar organs of species oi Apios 
and Pkaseolus. These latter organs, which correspond to abor- 
tive flower buds, are very complex and will well repay a careful 
study of their developmental history. 

The nearest approach to such lobulated glands of animals as 
the salivary glands is, however, found in the ovarian glands of 
the endogens. In some cases t these are produced into contracted 

•See Bot. CentralblaU, 1884 ; xix., 67. 

t£- g-, SlreJilzia, as figured by Brongniart, 1, c, pi. 4, f. 3. 


and much elongated ducts, while in others* their secreting surface 
is increased by a more or less sinuous development, resulting in 
prominent longitudinal folds in the last two genera referred to, 
and other epigynous Bromeliacese, where the three glands are 
also, for a part of their extent, confluent, merging into the intra- 
carpellary cavity, although they do not appear to discharge 
through this at the stigma, their ducts offering a freer exit for 
the nectar into the base of the flower. 

The glands of Yucca play a very unimportant part in the 
pollination of the flowers, a fact which apparently explains the 
partial loss of secreting power, and is unquestionably connected 
with their adaptation to the good services of the Yucca-moth. In 
watching a good many of these insects at night, while engaged 
in pollinating the flowers and depositing their eggs, I saw only a 
single one attempt to feed, and this tried to probe the three 
glands of a flower at the point D, where the glands open into the 
conducting grooves. Whether it succeeded in penetrating into 
the latter or not could not be seen. It remained at each gland 
not over two or three seconds, and on leaving the flower was 
captured and proved to be a male. During the day the moths 
of both sexes, as well as the bogus Yucca- moth f/'wafe^rw.y^, re- 
main in the flowers, commonly standing on the filaments with 
their heads at the bottom of the corolla. My impression is that 
they feed at this time ; but the disturbance necessitated by open- 
ing the partly closed flowers is sufficient to cause them to stop, if 
this is true, and I have, in point of fact, never seen them thus 

I was not able to see the insects engaged in collecting pollen, 
but there is no reason to doubt the entire accuracy of Professor 
Riley's statement^ that the females deliberately go to the stamens 
and accumulate a supply of pollen on their remarkable spinose ten- 
tacles, before beginning the work of pollination and oviposition. 
While engaged in this work, as he has stated, they will bear the full 
blaze of a lantern in the flower, and may even be watched through a 
lens without desisting, though, if the light is too suddenly turned 

* Strelitzia, 1. c, pi. 4, f. 6 ; Melinonia, \. c, pi. 3, f. 1-4 ; Billbergia, 1. c, f, 

{Araer. Naturalist, xvi, (1882), pp. 62, 63. 


upon them or if the plant is jarred, they sometimes remain quiet 
for a time or hurriedly scuttle out of the flower and take wing. 
I can corroborate in every important detail the account given by 
Riley of the method of oviposition and pollination, either of 
which may occur first, while in a given flower both are usually 
repeated many times before the moth goes to a new one. The 
energetic manner in which the little insect works its head up and 
down^hile depositing pollen in the stigmatic cavity, is very in- 
teresting, and cannot fail to convince a person who sees it that 
there is as much object in its work as in the nest-building of birds, 
or other so-called instinctive operations of the lower vertebates. 
To more effectually accomplish its mission, the moth usually 
pushes the pollen further into the cavity than its tentacles can 
reach, using its tongue for this purpose, and it is perhaps this 
action which led Riley to believe that it sips nectar from the 
stigma while engaged in the act of pollination. Once a pair of 
moths were seen to copulate in the flower, the union not lasting 
more than three or four seconds, the female actively running 
about the flower in the meantime, and immediately resuming the 
labor of oviposition on its completion, when the male flew to 
another flower. 

If what I have observed may serve to disprove any positive 
value of their nectar in the pollination of Vncca flowers, it only 
adds to the general interest of the subject ; for it shows that not 
only the act of collecting the pollen is performed voluntarily and 
without any food compensation, as stated by Riley, but also that 
of transferring it to the stigma — a case without a parallel, so far 
as I know, among entomophilous flowers, if we exclude those 
with false nectaries ; and I doubt if these are all fully under- 

The student who wishes to look up the literature of the 
pollination of Yucca, will find an indication of the principal papers 
on the subject in Thompson's catalogue of books and papers re- 
lating to the fertilization of flowers, in the English edition of 
Miiller's Fertilization of Flowers, to which should be added: 
Meehan, Penn Monthly, 1876, 836; Bot. Gazette, iv., 242; 
Proc. Phila. Acad., 1880, 355; Amer. Agriculturist, 1872, 461 ; 
1873,223; Muller, Wechselbeziehungen, 39; Darwin, Cross and 


Self-Fertilization, 418; Gard. Chron., Jan., 1880, 81 ; July, 1880, 
1 10. Other references occur in the additional papers to which I 
have already referred, as well as in many of these. 


1. Longitudinal section of the ovary of Yucca filamentosa, 
on the line A — B of the next figure, X 2. 

2. Cross section of the same, at about the middle, x6. 

3. A portion of 2, at G, X200. 

G, the nectar gland, opening at D into g, the conducting 
groove into which its secretion is poured and in which it passes 
to N, where it appears at the outside of the ovary. 

Since the foregoing was written I have had an opportunity 
to observe Y. angustifolia in full bloom in the Ute Pass, north 
of Manitou, Col. The nectar glands of this species are about as 
in Y. fdamentosa, and open and discharge their secretion similarly, 
but I have found the latter rather more abundant. The stigma 
of Y. angustifolia is rather larger, and very green, as contrasted 
with the white stigma of Y. filamcntosa, and its secretion is more 
abundant, so that frequently a prominent drop is visible between 
its lobes. The pistil differs in that the stigmatic cavity is short 
aud does not communicate with the ovarian cells, so far as can 
be seen with a three-fourth lens. 

One or more species of Pronuba and Prodorus are met with in 
the flowers in considerable numbers. The opportunity has not 
offered for watching the former at night ; but many of the flowers 
are pollinated, the abundant white pollen contrasting so strongly 
with the dark green stigma as to render its presence evident even 
to the naked eye. Scattering dried capsules on the stalks of. last 
year and an abundant crop of this year's fruit attest the efficacy 
of this pollination, which could only have been effected by the 
moths in the flowers I refer to. 

Jui.v 19, 1886. 

Some Caiifornian Polypetalae. 

By E. L. Greene., 

Streptanthus NIGER. — I to 3 feet high, paniculately 

branching from near the base, glabrous and glaucous ; leaves 

linear, 2 to 3 inches long, the lowest with narrow, divaricate. 


gland-tipped lobes or teeth, those of the branches entire, all 
sagittate-clasping; racemes loose, flexuous, not secund; pedicels 
ascending, an inch long ; calyx very dark purple, very smooth 
and shining; sepals ovate-cymbiform, with a thick, obtuse, but 
prominent nerve ; petals consisting of a stout, thick, lanceolate 
purple claw and a minute, veinless, white lamina; upper pair of 
filaments united almost to the summit, their anthers small and 
rudimentary, not polliniferous ; pod about 2 inches long, nearly 
straight on the ascending or suberect, long pedicels ; seed with a 
very narrow wing. 

Point Tiburon, Marin County, April and May, 1886; col- 
lected only by the writer. Related to 5. glandulostis, but per- 
fectly smooth and very glaucous; otherwise readily distinguish- 
able by the very small lamina of the petals, and the short sub- 
erect, long-stalked pods, in a loose, equilateral raceme. The 
rather large, subglobose calyx is nearly black. 

Streptanthus PERAM^NUS. — A foot or two high, pilose- 
hispid ; leaves sinuately toothed and auriculate-clasping; racemes 
somewhat secund ; calyx a half-inch long, deep magenta ; sepals 
all ovate-cymbiform, sharply carinate, the lateral pair turned in- 
ward behind the upper petals, the apex of each meeting that of 
the other in front of the uppermost sepal ; uppermost pair of 
filaments united above the middle, thence divergent, but their 
anthers reduced and sterile ; each anther of the lowest pair held 
within the folds of the corresponding petal ; upper pair of petals 
a third longer than the lower, limb of all white, with purple veins, 
somewhat conduplicate ; pods 3 inches long, arcuate-spreading, 
on pedicels of less than a half-inch ; seed narrowly winged. 

Oakland Hills ; collected many years ago by Mr. Bolander, 
and again this year, by the writer. A most beautiful species, 
with the habit and pubescence of 5. glandulostis, to which it has 
been referred ; but the living plant reveals at once the singular 
irregularity of the calyx above pointed out. The lowest sepal is 
left apart from the others, and the three form, as it were, a broad 
upper lip, the two lateral curving around the uppermost one and 
meeting point to point in front of it. 

Thelypodium LASIOPHYLLUM. — Turritis (?) lasiophylla. 
Hook and Arn., Bot. Beech., 321 ; Sisymbrium reflexum, Nutt, 


PI. Gamb., 183; Watson, Bot. Cal. i., 41; Greene, Boll. Cal. 
Acad, i., 221. 

Thelypodimn neglectum, Marcus F. Jones, Am. Nat xvii., 
875. — This exceedingly common Californian plant has always 
seemed to me entirely out of place in Sisymbrium. It is a coarse, 
stout herb, usually many times larger than our authors seem to 
know, often growing to the height of four or five feet, and when 
young its whole aspect as well as the flavor of its herbage are 
precisely those of several species of Thelypodium when in the 
same early state. And now, from the rare T. flavescens lately 
rediscovered near Antioch, by Mrs. Curran, I find it is only to 
be distinguished by its smaller flowers and fruit, and by its uncer- 
tain pubescence ; I say uncertain, because the larger states of the 
plant are commonly quite glabrous ; although in some of the 
forms there is a hairiness which extends even to the pods. Near 
the coast, at San Francisco and northwards, the plant is smaller, 
the stem quite simple and the pods pointless and erect. One 
would like to treat this as a distinct species, but there are larger 
intermediate states with pods spreading and even arcuate-re- 

PH/ Menziesii. — Hesperis Menziesii, Hook. Fl. j 
Bor. Am., i., 60 ; Hook, and Arn., 1. c, 322 ; Cheiranthus Men- 
ziesii, Benth. and Hook., Gen. i., 68 ; Watson, 1. c, 35 ; Phmt- 
icaulis cheiranthoides, Nutt., in Torr. and Gray, Fl. N. Am. i., 89. 

To us who are well acquainted with this unique looking Cru- 
cifer, no other opinion commends itself but that of Nuttall who, 
if he had not perceived it to be of a new generic type, would 
have referred it to Pamya, rather than to Hesperis or Cheiran- 
thus. The flat ensiform pods are entirely foreign to both the 
genera last named, and the habit is in equally strong contrast 
with that of either. The deep, thick perennial roots are crowned 
by a distinct, often branching and partly subterranean caudex ; 
and the flowering branches, whether called scapes or stems, are 
in reality only axillary, bracted peduncles. These are usually 
numerous, and always decumbent around the central tuft of 
leaves which terminates each branch of the caudex. Beyond 
this nothing is to be added to Nuttall's full and excellent descrip- 
tion in Torrey and Gray, but his specific name must give place 


to the earlier one imposed under Hesperis by Sir William Hooker 
Calyptridium paniculatum. — Spraguea panicidata, Kel- 
logg., Proc. Cal. Acad., ii., 187, t. 56; Watson, 1. c, 78; Cur- 
ran, Bull. Cal. Acad, i., 132. 

This plant, so fortunately rediscovered by Mrs. Curran two 
years ago, although long-styled like the original Spraguea, has the 
ultimately calyptriform corolla of the several species which have 
already been published under the Nuttalian generic name. By 
these circumstances and the close resemblance which it bears to 
both those species of Calyptridium which Mr. Watson has pub- 
lished, it appears utterly to invalidate the genus Spraguea ; for 
genera cannot be rested on the mere length of styles and 
filaments, at least, when species are so perfectly one thing in 
habit, texture and properties. Monocosmia, the South American 
ally of these plants, while outwardly resembling them quite 
closely, appears well and strongly founded on its herbaceous, 
indehiscent, one-seeded capsule. 

Calyptridium umbellatum. — Spraguea timbellata, Torr. 
PI. Frem., 4, t, i ; Watson, 1. c, JJ; Hook., Bot. Mag. 5,143. 

Notes on Marsilia quadrifolia. 

Near the obelisk in Washington, D. C, are a series of fish 
ponds used by the U. S. Fish Commission for German carp, etc. 
Four years ago, among various plants set out in order to ascertain 
their relations to fish culture, were Marsilia quadrifolia and M. 
sylvatrix, from Germany. The latter died out the next winter, 
but the former appears to have established itself, perhaps perma- 
nently, as specimens have been collected this year in various 
places remote from the point of introduction. This spreading 
, cannot be due to artificial aid, as the first supply (a part of which 
came also from Texas), was rooted out and an effort made to 
destroy it entirely, as experience showed it useless, if not injuri- 
ous to the fish. 

I collected and placed a quantity of it in a large dish kept 
supplied with water, where it grows very thriftily and is rather 
pretty, so that it may prove an addition to our list of aquarium 
plants. The first editions of Gray's Manual do not contain this 
plant, which first appears in that of 1863, Addenda, collected by 
Dr. T. F. Allen in Bantam Lake, Litchfield, Conn. Also found 


in Fresh Pond, Cambridge, Mass. (see Wood's Class-Book, 1874) 
and at Dallas, Texas (this Journal, 1872 p. 23). This station here 
makes the third east of the Mississippi, so far as I know. But 
one species has been found east of the Rockies, and another in 
California. Among the first notices of this plant is a communi- 
cation from Braun to Dr. Englemann, published in Silliman's 
Journal, 1847; ^^^ one of the best descriptions with figure will 
be found in Mechan's Flowers and Ferns of the U. S., Vol. II. 

Wm. H. Seaman. 
[Marsilia quadrifolia has been reported as naturalized and 
fruiting abundantly at Dedham, Mass., by Mr. Henry L. Clapp 
(See Bulletin, viii., pp. 127 and 144). In Underwood's " Our 
Native Ferns and their Allies," pp. 114, 115, six species ol Mar- 
silia are recognized ; all of which are reported from stations to 
the east aud southeast of the Rocky Mountain region. — Ed.] 

A New Species of Potamogeton. 

POTAMOGSTON CURTISSH. — Plant simple or occasionally 
branching, a little upwards of a foot in height; stem and branches 
slender; leaves all submerged, linear, 4-5 cm. long, ^-i mm. 
broad at the widest part, tapering gradually to a point, the midrib 
with two very delicate nerves or a loosely reticulated space on 
each side of it ; stipules hyaline, obtuse, 7 or 8 mm. in length ; 
peduncles 8-15 mm. long, somewhat clavate, erect, axillary and 
racemosely disposed, five or more of them at intervals of one or 
two inches along the upper part of the stem ; flowers small, four 
or five; spikes capitate ; fruit not seen. 

Collected last May in the Blackwater river, Northwest Florida, 
by the indefatigable explorer of that State, Mr. A. H. Curtiss, for 
whom it is named. 

Mr. Curtiss also sent what appears to be a peculiar form of 
P. tiatans. It has small, acute, elliptical leaves, 4-6 cm. long by 
5-15 mm. wide, and erect peduncles about 6 cm. long. It looks 
exactly like specimens in the Torrey Herb., from India, which 
are labelled P. nataiis var. 

Any botanist who may discover this apparently small tiatans 
in fruit, would confer a great favor by sending specimens to the 
writer, Thomas Mokong. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Analytic Key to the Genera of Mosses recognized in the Manual 

of Mosses of North America by Lesquereux and James. 

Charles R. Barnes. (Bull. Purdue Univ. School of Science, 

No. I, 1886.) 

Prof. Barnes has rendered students of Bryology a valuable 
service in arranging this artificial key. 
Botatiical Notes. W. S. Devol. (Fourth Annual Report Ohio 

Agr. Expt. St., 1886, pp. 223-226.) 

Consists mainly of a list of plants identified, principally weeds, 
grasses and forage plants, from all parts of Ohio. 
Cactuses. — New Lower Californian. C. R. Orcutt. West 

American Scientist, ii.. pp. 46, 47; one figure.) 

Mr. Orcutt publishes descriptions of a new species of Echino- 
cactus, {E. Orcuttii, Engelm.) having cylindrical heads, 10 to 18 
inches in diameter and 2 to 31^ feet high, and deep crimson 
flower 2 inches long ; found in Palm Valley, Lower California ; 
and of Cereus phceniceus, var. Pacificus, Engelm, a new form 
from Todos Santos Bay. Both are from manuscript notes by 
Dr. Engelmann. A wood-cut of the Echinocactus is given. 
Catalogue of the Phmnogamous and Vascular Cryptogatnus Plants 

of Missouri. S. M. Tracy. (Pamphlet, two., pp. 106; Jef- 
ferson City, 1886.) 

A neatly printed list of plants hitherto found growing without 
cultivation in the State. 1785 species and varieties are enumera- 
ted, of which 59 are Pteridophyta. 
Celery. — History of. E. Lewis Sturtevant. (Amer. Nat, xx., 

pp. 599-606 ; three figures.) 
Contagious Diseases of Insects, S. A. Forbes. (Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist, ii., pp. 257-321 ; one plate.) 

Bacterial diseases of the European Cabbage Worm — by 
whose ravages the injuries of these pests have received a very 
important check — and of the Yellow-necked Apple Caterpillar and 
the Walnut Caterpillar, very similar to that of the flacherie of the 
Silk-worm, are described. The heliotype plate shows the Micro- 
cocci from a diseased Cabbage Worm. The Muscardine, another 
Silk-worm disease, is not bacterial, but is caused by the filaments 
of a hyphomycetous fungus ; to this Professor Forbes attributes 


the disappearance of a vast host of the Forest-tent Caterpillar 

which devastated forests and orchards in Southern Ilhnois in 1 883. 

Cryptogams. — Guide to the Principal Orders and commoner 

New ^ England Genera. F. LeRoy Sargent. (Cambridge 

University Press, 1886, pp. 39, pr. 75c.) 

This convenient little guide is intended for the Summer 
School at Harvard University, but will be found useful by all be- 
ginners in the study of the more lowly plants, especially Fungi 
and Lichens. 
Cylindrosporium. — Tivo New Species of. J. B. Ellis and VV. A. 

Kellerman. (Journ. Mycol., ii., p. 81.) 
Flora of Franklin Co., Ind. — Endogens. O. M. Meyncke. (Bull. 
Brookville Soc. Nat. Hist, No. 2, pp. 45-49.) 
A continuation of the list of plants commenced in the first 
bulletin of this Society. Ninety-five species are here enumerated. 
The proofs have not been carefully examined, there being many 
inexcusable errors of spelling. 

Forest Rotation. — Causes of. John T. Campbell. (Amer. Nat. 
XX., pp. 521-527.) 

A readable article on this interesting subject. The writer 
concludes that in western central Indiana the seeds of no forest 
trees germinate unless they fall on the soil, those dropping on 
the accumulated leaves beneath the trees not being able to ger- 
minate. Also that birds and other animals are the principal 
agents in the dissemination of tree seeds, the crow being a prime 
factor in this process. 

Fouqniera gigantca, n. sp. C. R. Orcutt. (West Amer. Scien- 
tist, ii , p. 48.) 
Gray Herbarium, of Harvard Uftiversity. (Bot. Gazette, xi., p. 


A brief description of the plan of arrangement, with a long 
account of the cases and their fastenings. 
Harfordia, Greene and Parry. — A Neiv Genus of Eriogoncce 

from Loiver California. C. C. Parry. (Proc. Davenport 

Acad. Sci., v., pp. 26-28 ; reprinted.) 

The proposed new genus includes two species, H. macroptcra 
(Ptcrostcgia macroptcra, Benth.,) and H. friiticosa, Greene (/". 
fruticosa, Greene, in Bull. Cal. Acad., iv., p. 212.) 


Henry James Clark, 1826- 1873. (Cat. Mass. Agr. Coll., 1886.) 
Mr. Clark was Professor of Natural History at Amherst, and 
two of his works were botanical : " The Peculiar Growth of Rings 
in the Trunk of Rhus toxicodendron," (Proc. Am. Acad., iii., p. 
335,) and " The Eccentricity of the Pith in Ampelopsis quinque- 
folia and Celastrus scandens." (Unpublished.) 
Hoiv to Collect Certain Plants. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 135-15 i.) 
The editors of the Gazette have succeded in obtaining from 
specialists a series of suggestions for the satisfactory collection 
and preservation for the herbarium of many groups of plants. 
For the Cacti, Dr. Engelmann's Notes, by Professor Trelease; 
Willows, M. S. Bebb; Carices, L. H. Bailey, Jr.; Grasses, F. L. 
Scribner; Aquatics, Thomas Morong and E. J. Hill; Mosses, E. 
A. Rau and Clara E. Cummings ; Charas, Dr. Allen ; Lichens, 
F. L. Sargent ; Fleshy Fungi, A. P. Morgan, C. H. Peck, H. W. 
Ravenel ; Parasitic Fungi, A. B. Seymour and E. W. D. Holway ; 
Marine Algse, A. B. Hervey ; Fresh Water Algae, Francis Wolle; 
Desmids, Eloise Butler; Nostoc group, Dr. Farlow; Slime Moulds 
and Bacteria, Prof Trelease ; Yeast, Dr. Farlow. 
Larches of Western North America. C. S. Sargent. (Gard. 
Chron., XXV., pp. 652-654, illustrated; also reprinted.) 
There are two species of Larix in Northwestern America. 
L. occidentalis, Nutt, discovered by Douglass in 1826 on the 
Columbia River, and referred by Hooker to L. Americana, from 
which it was distinguished by Nuttall. This is a very large tree, 
reaching 200 feet in height, and was first introduced into cultiva- 
tion in 1880, when Mr. Watson sent seedlings to the Arnold 
Arboretum. The second species, L. Lyallii, Parlatore, is a rare 
and local tree, discovered by Dr. Lyall during the British 
Boundary Survey of 1858-61, and recently detected by Mr. 
Brandegee at the timber line on Mt. Stewart, where it was a low, 
stunted tree, associated with Pinits albicaulis and Tsuga Patton- 
iana. Beautiful figures of the two species, drawn by Mr. Faxon, 
illustrate Mr. Sargent's paper. 

Lichens of Grinnell Land. In Lieut. Greeley's account of the 
Franklin Bay Expedition, (New York, 1886, Vol. ii., p. 397), a 
list of the Lichens brought home is given by Rev. E. Leinhart of 
Washington. It appears that a large collection of Lichens was 


made, but unfortunately they had to be left behind, and only 
seven species were accidentally preserved which were collected 
in Grinnell Land and at Cape Baird. These were Cetraria cucul- 
lata, (Bell.) Ach. ; C. chrysantha, Tuckerm. ; Peltigera aphthosa, 
(L.) Hoffm. ; Placodmm elegans, (Link) DC. ; /-". crenulatiim, 
(Wahlenb.) Tuckerm. ; Cladoiiia rangiferina, (L.) Hoffm., and 
Omphalaria (?). This last was collected on quartz at the ex- 
treme northern point reached, and appears not to have been in a 
state to admit of its being satisfactorily determined. Mr. Lein- 
hart compares it with O. Silesiaca, Koerb., but which, according 
to that author himself, (Parerg, p. 443), is the same as 0. phyl- 
lisca, (Wahlenb.) Tuckerm., Syn., p. 140. 

The writer remarks on the scarcity of C. rangiferina in Grin- 
nell Land as compared with its abundance in Scandinavia. In the 
former it is rare and cannot forma source of food supply for animals. 

New Bedford, July, 1886. H. W. 

Lilium superbum. (Garden, xxx., pp. 8, 9; plate SS^-) 

Our native wild lilies are attracting much attention abroad, 
and are being successfully cultivated. The plate accompanying 
this description is particularly fine, and was drawn from plants 
grown in England. They succeeded admirably in moist, well 
drained situations. 
National Herharinm at Washington. George Vasey. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi., p. iS3-) 

An enumeration of the various collections there preserved, 
made by Government expeditions and individuals, with an 
account of the arrangements and extent of the herbarium. 
Pollen-tubes of Lobelia. B. D. Halsted. (Amer. Nat., xx., pp. 

644, 645 ; three figures.) 
Rhizocarps in the Erian {Devonian) Period in America. Sir 

Wm. Dawson. (Bull. Chicago Academy of Sciences, i., pp. 

105- 1 18; illustrated.) 
Specimens and Specimen Making. Various prominent collectors. 

(Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 129-134.) 
Tradescantia Virginica. — Varieties of. G. A. Brennan. (Amer. 

Nat, XX., pp. 551, 552.) 

A plant of the Spiderwort after thirteen years cultivation has 
developed dimerous, tetramerous, pentamerous, hexanierous, 


arid even heptamerous flowers, which, in addition to the normal 
trimerous one?, have all been borne at the same time. The mod- 
ifications have resulted from the addition of parts. 
Trees and Tree Planting in Massachusetts. — Some additional notes 

upon. C. S. Sargent. (Ann. Rep. Mass. State Board Agric, 

1886, p. 21.) 
Vaucheria. — Some abnormal forms of. Douglass H. Campbell. 

(Amer. Nat., xx., pp. 552, 553; seven figures.) 
Weeds mentiotied in the Wisconsin Weed Law of 1884-5, '^^^ 

several other weeds. A. B. Seymour. (Third Ann. Rep. 

Agric. Exper. Station Univ. Wis., pp. 145-167; reprinted.) 

The weeds that most need to be exterminated in Wisconsin 
are the Canada Thistle, Common Thistle, Burdock, Ox-eye 
Daisy, Cocklebur, Beggar's Lice and Couch-grass. Illustrations 
of all these are given, with notes on their introduction, and pos- 
sibilities of their destruction. 
Winter. — Botany in. Byron D. Halsted. (Amer. Nat., xx., pp. 


Teachers will find this helpful. 
Wisconsin Parasitic Fungi. — Preliminary List of. William 

Trelease. (Trans. Wise. Acad., vi., pp. 106-144.) 

Two hundred and sixty-eight species are enumerated, all of 
which have been examined by the author. The host plants are 
given, and a useful index to them is appended. 
Woods and their Destructive Fungi. P. H. Dudley, C. E. (Pop. 

Sci. Month., xxix., pp. 433-444; illustrated.) 

This is the first of two articles in which Mr. Dudley brings 
before the public some of the results of his investigations of woods 
and the causes of their decay. After calling attention to the in- 
juries suffered by some of the specimens in the Jesup collection 
at the Am. Mus. of Nat. Hist, he proceeds to show the differences 
in microscopic structures of various woods, and has selected four 
of his beautiful photo-micrographs as illustrations. The Gymno- 
sperms are represented by Pinus palustris and Chamcecyparis 
sphceroidea (White Cedar), and the Angiosperms by Quercus alba 
and Liriodendron tulipifera. After lamenting the fact that lum- 
bering is now carried on throughout the year, and calling atten- 
tion to the fact that timber cut in the spring growth will be most 


liable to decay, Mr. Dudley illustrates the penetration of fungi by 
a photograph of a plank showing the mycelium of Polyporus 
radula. The more common destructive fungi are also enumerated, 
and the article concludes with a comparison of the conditions in 
which decay is most and least likely to occur. 
Yucca angustifolia. A chemical study. Helen C. DeS. Abbott. 
(Rep. from Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, Phil., 1886., pp. 254-284.) 

Botanical Notes. 

Specimens of Dcntaria and Cardaniine wanted. — Fruiting 
specimens of any species of Dentaria and Cardaniine are wanted 
for examination by Sereno Watson, Cambridge, Mass. They 
will be returned if desired and postage refunded. 

Lectures on the Physiology of Plants. — Sydney Howard Vines, 
(Cam. Univ. Press, England, 1886, octavo, pp. J^io, pr. $5.00, 
In style, clearness and method this will prove a companion to 
Foster's Physiology of Animals, and deserves a place by its 
side. The chapters are in the form of lectures, twenty-three 
in number, sparsely illustrated, but containing clear deduc- 
tions from the researches of the last ten years. Much space is 
given to Metabolism and Irritability, and the changes due to 
chemical and physical forces, with their effects on the assimilation 
and growth of plants, are discussed in these chapters. The last 
two chapters on Reproduction co-ordinate and bring out the anal- 
ogies of this function throughout the Plant Kingdom, and will 
prove most interesting reading to those whose knowledge of 
German and access to periodicals is limited, and whose experi- 
ence with the varied forms and nomenclature of Cryptogamous 
reproduction has been a source of confusion and discouragement. 
Copious references to bibliography follow each chapter. 

Solanum tuberosum. — Nouvelles Recherches Sur le Type Sau- 
vage de la Pomme de Terre. Alph. DeCandolle. (Archiv. Sc. 
Phys. et Nat., xv., p. 425.) Since the publication in 1883 of 
the " Origin of Cultivated Plants," there have appeared several 
articles on the potato, which have led M. DeCandolle to give 
more critical attention to those " organs and characters which it is 
not to the interest of man to see changed." In the potato the 
calyx and the leaves have remained practically the same since 
its introduction three centuries ago. 


After comparing carefully the forms with obtuse calyx-lobes 
from Chili and Peru, collected in the Andes by Bridges, he 
makes a new species, 5. Bridgesii, and also decides that those 
from the Argentine Republic are not S. tuberosum. 

He says that our native species from New Mexico and Ari- 
zona, which Dr. Gray has called 5'. Fendleri, and 5. tuberosum 
boreale, resemble more closely S. verriicosum, Schlecht., and 
holds that 5. tuberosum and 5'. Maglia are specifically identical, 
that the differences which separate the tuberose species are very 
slight, and that they diminish with the increase of hybridiza- 
tion. The paper concludes with specific descriptions of 5. 
Bridgesii, n. s. ; 5. tuberosum, L., van Chilocnse, var. culttim, 
var. Sabini, var. Maglia, and .S. Mandoni. 

Schimper s Microspores of Sphagna. — In Hedwigia, Vol. xxv., 
pp. 89-92, C. Warnstorf calls attention to Schimper's statement 
in 1858 (Entwickelungsgeschicte der Torfmoose, p. 31) that two 
kinds of spores exist in the Sphagna, one kind being large, tetra- 
hedral (macrospores), the other smaller and spherical-polyhedral 
(microspores) and that they may be found in separate capsules — 
in which case the microspores occur in smaller capsules than the 
macrospores — or both forms together in the same capsule. Herr 
Warnstorf has succeeded in finding both kinds in separate cap- 
sules of 5'. acutiforme, vars. robtistum and tenellum, and 5. acuti- 
folimn, var. hiridum,And both together in the capsules of 5. 
Girgensolmii. The microspores are about one-half the diameter 
of the macrospores, and hence about one-quarter their volume. 
Schimper remarks that they result from the continued division of 
mother-cells into sixteen segments, the macrospores being pro- 
duced by their division into four. Their function is unknown. 
This corroboration of Prof Schimper's discovery is of great in- 
terest and importance, indicating the higher position of the Bog 
Mosses in the Vegetable kingdom, as compared with other Bryo- 
phytes, and agreeing in this respect with the greater complexity 
of their tissues, suggesting indeed, certain relationship to the 
heterosporous Pteridophyta. Herr Warnstorfs researches open 
a field of inquiry which should be followed up in this country, 
and we commend it to the attention of American Bryologists. 




Vol. XIII.] New York, September, 1886. [No. 9. 

Naiadaceae in the Torrey Herbarium. 

By Thomas Morong. 

Plate LIX. 

As it is of general interest to botanists to know something 
about the contents of our large public herbaria, I shall not need 
to make any excuse for naming and making some notes upon the 
species of Naiadaceae contained in the Torrey Herbarium at 
Columbia College. Some service may be rendered to botany if 
students are directed to a collection where authentic or type 
forms of some of the species describud in botanical works are to 
be found. I am also furnished an opportunity to describe sev- 
eral species which have long lain unnamed and unnoticed in the 

In the following paper the specimens mounted on the same 
sheet are reckoned as one, unless from different localities or col- 
lectors. Those supplied by the writer are preceded by an 

As abbreviations, spec, stands for specimen; sp., species; for., 
foreign; Ant., American; Eu., Europe; Coiit., Continental or 
Continent. Common botanical or State abbreviations need no 

The tribe Juncagine/E is represented in the Herbarium by 
two of the four genera viz. : Triglockin and Schetichseria. 

1. Triglockin maritimum, L. Spec. 45 ; Am., from Long 
Island to Puget Sound, California and Sitka; for., from France 
and India. The set of this sp. is all that could be desired. 

2. T. palustre, L. Spec. 16; Am., from the shores of 
Niagara River and Chapman's So. Fl. Herb. ; for., from Siberia. 

3. T. triandrum, Mx. Spec. 8 ; from Key West and Apa- 
lachicola, Fla., and N. Car. ; four of them from Herb. Chapman. 


4- T. bulbosum, L. A sp. not found in Am., spec. 4; one 
in fruit, coll. by C. Wright at the Cape of Good Hope, in Ring- 
gold and Rodgers' Expd., i8S3-'56. Two from Corsica and 
Malta are labelled T. Barrclieri, Lois., a syn. of T. bulbosum, L. 

5. T. procerum, R. Br. For. sp. ; one spec, from Tasmania. 

6. T. centrocarpiitn, Hook. For. sp. Several individuals in 
fruit of this pretty little sp. coll. at Tasmania, Ex. Herb. Hooker. 

7. T. flaccidum, A. Cunningham. For. sp.; one spec, con- 
tributed by Dr. Asa Gray, coll. Raoul, New Zealand. 

8. Scheuchzeria palustris, L. Spec. 23 ; Am., from Mass., 
N, Y., N. J. and Pa.; for., from Sweden, Norway, Russia and 

The tribe Aponogetone^ is represented by Aponogeton, 
Thunb., and Ouvirandra. Thou. 

Ouvirandra differs from Aponogeton only in having the paren- 
chyma between the nerves of the leaf deficient, and is perhaps to 
be considered a sub-genus rather than distinct from Aponogeton. 

9. Aponogeton leptostachyum. For. sp. ; spec, i , coll. in East 

10. A. monostachyum, L. For. sp. (Saururus nutans, L.) 
A fine spec, in fruit from Ceylon. The fruit is on a long crowded 
spike, as in Saururus. 

11. A. distachyum, Thunb. For. sp.; spec. 2; from Edin- 
burgh Bot. Garden. 

12. Ouvirandra fenestralis , T\\omB.s. For. sp. ; one spec. 
from Madagascar of this curious plant, consisting of two of the 
skeleton leaves by which it is distinguished. 

The tribe PoTAME/E is represented by its two genera, Pota- 
mogeton and Ruppia. 

13. * Potamogeton acutifolius. Link. For. sp. ; one spec, 
England, coll. and com., Mr. A. Bennett, of Croydon. This sp. 
is very similar to P. zosterif alius, Schum. 

14. P. amplifolius, Tuckerm. Spec. 11; N. J., N. Y., N. 
Eng., Lake Superior, Ky. *Also spec. Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

15. P. Claytoni, Tuckerm. Spec, from N. Eng., N. Y., 
N. J., S. C. *Spec., Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

16. P. crispus, L. Spec. 8 ; Am., from N. J. ; for., from 
Gr. Brit, Cont. Eu., Loo Choo Is., India. 


Var. serratus, Huds. (labelled P. scrrulatiis, Schr.) Spec. I, 
sent by Nolte from Schlesvvig-Holstein. This is merely a form, 
not a true variety. 

17. * P. decipiens, Nolte. For. sp. ; spec, from Sweden, 
coll. and com., Dr. G. Tiselius, of Stockholm. 

18. P. densus, L., (/*. oppositifoliiint, DC.) For. sp., 
spec. 3 ; Eu. 

19. P. fliiitans. Roth. For. sp.; spec. 4 ; Cuba, Eu. and 

20. * P. gemmipariis, Robbins, in Herb., {P. pusillus, L., 
var. (?) gemmiparus, Robbins in Gray's Manual) ; type spec. 
Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

21. P. gramineiLs, L. {P. heterophyllus, Schreb.) Spec. 12; 
Am., N. Eng., N. Y., N. J., Nevada ; for., Gr. Brit. France. 

I include in this the so-called varieties, heterophyllus and 
graminif alius. *AIso spec, of the type form and varieties, Ex. 
Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

* Var. (?) spathulcBformis, Robbins, of Gray's Man. ; type 
spec, Ex. Herb. Robbins, coll. in Fresh Pond, Cambridge, 
Mass. This was at first called P. spathmformis by Tuckerman. 
I consider it only a form of P. Zizii, M. and K. 

Var, maximus, Morong. Two spec, contributed by Prof 
Tuckerman, and marked by him P. lonchites ; and also one spec, 
contributed by Prof Porter, under the name P. rufescens, are both, 
in my opinion, P. grammeus, L., var. maximus, mihi. 

22. P. Hillii, Morong. One spec, from N. Y., coll. W. H. 
Leggett, and one spec, from Mich, coll. E. J. Hill. 

23. P. hybridiis, Michx. Spec, 18; from N. Eng. to N. 
Mex. ; * one spec. Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

24. • P. Illinoensis, Morong. Spec. coll. R. I. Cratfy, in 
Iowa, and H. N. Patterson, in Illinois. 

25. * P. lanceolatus, Sm. Spec, from England, coll. Mr. 
A. Bennett, of Croydon. A sp. peculiar to Gr. Brit., not yet 
found in fruit. 

26. P. lonchites, Tuckerman. For the present this sp. is 
allowed to retain the name by which it has been known in this 
country ever since it was described by Tuckerman in Silliman's 
Journal thirty-seven years ago ; but I am quite satisfied that it is 


the same as the European P. fluitans. Roth., an earlier name, 
and running with us into several peculiar forms. 
Spec. 4; Am., from N. J., Ky. and Cal. 

27. P. lucens, L. Spec. 6 ; one from Am., with no locality 
marked ; one from Cuba and four from Eu. ; all excellent spec. 

28. P. marinus, L., (/'. filiformis, Pers.) Spec. 5 ; one 
from the Yellowstone Park, *one from Lake Seneca, N. Y., 
one from Mich, and two from Eu. 

Var. (?) occidentalis, Robbins. Two spec, from Utah and 
Nevada, from the original spec, on which Robbins founded the 

29. P. mucronatus, Schrad. {P. pusillus, L.; var, major. Fries.) 
Spec. 2 ; both from Eu. * One spec, from Lake Seneca, N. Y. 

30. P. nutans, L. Spec. lO; Am., from N. J. to the 
Pacific Coast. * Spec, Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins ; for., Cont. Eu. 
There are also two doubtful forms ; one from the Corean Archi- 
pelago, and one from India, coll. Hook. fil. and Thomson, which 
are labelled P. nutans, having small elliptical leaves, and which 
may be forms of this species, but fruit is lacking to settle the 

* Var. prolixus, Koch. One spec. Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 
A mere form growing in swiftly running water. 
P. Niagarensis, Tuckerm., vid. P. pauciflorus. 

31. P. nitens, Webber, labelled "P. curvifolmm," but P. 
curvifolius, Hartm., is only a form of P. nitens, Web. For. sp. ; 
one spec, from Eu. This spec, is a very fine one with floating 
leaves and good fruit, neither very common with this sp. 

32. P. Oakesianus, '2^o\i\yini,. Spec. 4; N.J; * type spec. 
Ex. Herb. Dr. Bobbins. 

33. P. obtusif alius, M. and K. Spec. 3 ; all for., France and 
Gr. Brit. ; * one spec, from Sweden and others Ex. Herb. Dr. 

34. P. ochreatus, Raoul. Spec, from New Zealand, where 
alone the sp. occurs. 

35- P. paucijtorus, Pursh. Spec. 19; N. Eng. to N. Mex. ; 
• spec. Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

Var. Niagarensis, Gray, (P. Niagarensis, Tuckerm.) Type 
spec, from Prof. Tuckerman, coll. at Niagara Falls, but destitute 


of flowers or fruit. Before his death, Dr. Robbins told me that he 
had become convinced that this should be marked as a variety 
o{ pauciflorus, and in that opinion I fully concur. 

36. P. pectinatus, L. Spec. 20 ; Am., N. Eng. to N. Mex. 
and Oregon; for., from Gr. Brit, Cont. Eu., India and Brazil; 
•spec, Ex. Herb. Robbins. 

Van (?) latifolius, Robbins. One of orig. spec, on which 
Robbins founded the var. It is very similar to, if not the same 
as P. flabellatus, Bab. 

37. P. perfoliatus, L. Spec. 15; Am., from N. J. and 
Del. to Wis.; for, from Gr. Brit, and Germany; * one spec. 
Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

Var. lanceolatus, Robbins. Spec. 4. ; N. J., Nevada, Pacific 
Coast; * type spec. Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

38. P. plantagineus, Du Croz. For. sp. ; spec. 2, Germany. 

39. P. polygonifolius, Pourr. For. sp. ; spec, i, from Gr. Brit. 

40. P. prcBlongus, Wulf Spec. 3 ; Am., Mass. ; for., Eu. ; 
* spec, from Sweden, coll. Dr. Tiselius, and Ex. Herb. Dr. 

41. P. pulcher, Tuckerm. Spec. 4; one of the spec, con- 
tributed by Prof Tuckerman, from Spot Pond, Stoneham, Mass., 
the locality in which it was first found, without flower or fruit, 
however ; * spec. Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

42. P. pusillus, L., (including var. tenuissintus, M. and K.) 
Spec. 23 ; Am., from N. J. to Utah and Brit. Am. ; for., Abys- 
sinia ; * spec. PZx. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

43. P. Robbinsii, Oakes. Spec. 5 ; N. Eng., Pa., Pacific 
Coast; *type spec, Ex. Herb, Robbins. 

44. P. rufescens, Schrad. Spec. 1 1 ; Am., from N. J., N. Y. ; 
for., Germany, * Sweden. 

• Forma rivularis, Sond. One spec; Sweden, com. Dr. G. 

45. * P. rutilus, Wolfg., {P. ccespitosus, Nolte.) For. sp. ; 
from Sweden, com. Dr. G. Tiselius. 

46. P. Spirillus, Tuckerm. Spec. lo; N. Eng., N. J. 
Among these are type spec, from Tuckerman, and from Herb. 
Chapman ; doubtless given to Chapman by Tuckerman or Rob- 
bins; *spec. Ex. Herb. Robbins. 


P. striatus. A spec, so labelled, from Chili, S. A., is not the 
real P. striatus, Ruiz, et Pavbn., but P. pusillus, L. 

47. P. tenuicaulis, F. Miiller. Two excellent spec, of this 
rare Australian sp., one from Formosa, coll. Oldham, and the 
other from India, coll. Hook. fil. and Thomson. 

48. P. trichoides, Cham. For. sp. ; one excellent spec. 
from Eu. 

49. /-', Tuckermani, Robbins. Spec. 5 ; N. J., N. Y. 
N. Eng. ; * type spec. Ex. Herb. Dr. Robbins. 

50. P. variifolius, Thore. For. sp. ; spec, i, France. 

51. * P. Vaseyi, Robbins. Spec, from N. Eng. and Canada. 
52 Y. Wrightii, n. s. Leaves all submerged, alternate, the 

blade elliptical, the largest 4^ inches long, 4 or 5 lines broad at 
the widest part, tapering into a petiole i ^ inches in length, and 
abruptly acute or acuminate at the apex, the midrib thick and 
compound, with 5 or 6 lateral nerves on each side, margins en- 
tire, cross veins numerous and sloping slightly upwards; stipules 
scarious, obtuse, i to 2 inches long; peduncles clustered at the 
top of the stem, slightly thickened upwards, i ^ to i ^ inches in 
length ; spikes i to 2 inches long, narrow cylindrical, the fruit 
crowded ; nutlets obovate, about i ^ lines long by i J^ lines 
wide, three-keeled on the back, with a remarkable projection or 
hump on the upper part of the face, and two lateral teeth or pro- 
cesses at the base (vid. figures i and 3 in the plate), the sides 
flattened ; style short, apical ; apex of the embryo pointing 
directly towards its base. Plate 'LIX. 

Collected by C. Wright at the Loo Choo Islands, in the Exp. 
of Ringgold and Rodgers, in 1853-6. 

The plant is without roots, the fragment being about 16 
inches high. A similar specimen is in the Herb, of Dr. Asa 
Gray at Cambridge. In the Torfey Herb, it is labelled P. riifes- 
cens, Schrad., but it is essentially different from that sp., though 
bearing a general resemblance to it. P. rnfescens has leaves 
obtuse at the apex, while here they terminate abruptly in an acute 
or acuminate point; and in this sp. the cross-veining is much 
closer. The fruit, however, forms the most remarkable feature 
of Wright's plant, being totally unlike that of rufescens, or of 
any other sp. with which I am acquainted. 

Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LIX. 

// - 

Potamogeton Wrightii, Morong. 


53- P- Zizii, M. and K., {P. lucens, L., var. minor, Nolte.) 
Spec. 6; Am., N. J., Fla., N. Mex. ; for., from Germany and 
Switzerland. A spec, contributed by Prof Porter has unusually 
fine floating leaves and fruit. 

54- P- zosterifolius, Schum., {P. compressus. Fries, non L.) 
Spec. 5; Am., N. J., N. Y.; for., Eu.; ♦spec. Ex. Herb. Robbins. 

55. Riippia maritima, L. Spec. 16; Am., N. J. and N. Y. 
to N. Mex. ; for., Cuba, Eu., Tasmania and India. 

R. rostrata, Agardh., (probably R. rostellata, Koch.) of which 
there is a spec, is not essentially different from R. maritima. 
The PosiDONE^ are represented by Posidonia. 

56. P. oceanica, Koenig. For. sp.; one spec, from Mauri- 
tius. (/*. Caulini, Koenig. ; Caulinia oceanica, Cand. ; Zostera 
oceanica, L.) 

Of the Zannichelli.*: there are Zannichellia and Althenia. 
57- Zattnichellia palustris, L. Spec, 18; Am., N. Y., Fla. to 
Ind. Terr, and N. W. coast; for., France, India. 

Z. polycarpa, Nolte. A spec, of this contributed by Nolte 
himself from Schleswig-Holstein ; not essentially different from 
Z. palustris. 

58. Z. Indica. A delicate form from the Loo Choo Is., 
under the label " Z. Indica, Cham." I cannot find that Cha- 
misso ever published any such sp., and think it must be wrongly 
referred ; nor can I learn who is the authority for the name. 

Stem capillary; leaves less than I mm. broad; fruit in clus- 
ters of 2 and 3, the clusters sessile, the nutlets about 2 mm. long, 
winged or toothed on the back, otherwise smooth, on pedicels 
3 or 4 mm. long; styles as long as the pedicels; stigmas peltate, 
in the dried spec looking very thin and scarious. The thread- 
like stems and leaves, small fruit and long capillary pedicels and 
styles, mark this as a distinct sp. Collected C. Wright in Expd. 
Ringgold and Rodgers, 1853-6. 

59. Althenia filiformis. Petit. For. sp. ; spec. 2, France. 
{A. setacea, Petit ; Belvalia australis, Del. ; Zannichellia aus- 
tralis, Del.) 

Of the ZOSTERE^ the Herb, contains Zostera and Phyllospadix. 
60. Zostera marina, L. Spec. 6; Amer., Mass. to Key 
West and California; for., France, Italy. 


Var. (?) LATIFOLIA. A spec. coll. by Dr. Antisell on the 
beach at Santa Barbara, Cal. There are spec, of the same thing 
in Herb. Gray at Cambridge, Mass., sent by Mrs. R. F. Bingham 
from Santa Barbara, and by Prof Farlow from Monterey, by 
means of which I am able to make the following analysis ; leaves 
5 to 12 mm. wide, ten to thirteen-ncrved, with 7 or 8 striae be- 
tween the nerves; pist. flower with an ovary 4 mm., and a style 
3 mm. long; fruit costate, 4 to 5 mm. long by 3 mm. in diam., 
ribs about 25. The fruit, and indeed, the whole plant every way, 
is much larger than the common eastern form of Z. marina, 
which has a nutlet 2^ to 3 mm. long, and about i 5^ mm. in 
diam., and leaves 3 to 4 mm. wide, and three and five-nerved. 
The California plant resembles an abnormal form from the river 
Auray, France, a spec, of which is in Herb. Gray, but without 
flower or fruit. 

61. Z. nana. Roth., (Z. minor, Nolte.) Spec. 2; for., 
Schleswig and Belgium. A spec, from Key West, Fla., coll. 
Blodgett, also appears to be this spec, but as it has no flowers 
or fruit, we cannot be certain. The fruit differs from that of 
Z. marina in being perfectly smooth. 

62. Phyllospadix Torreyi, Watson. Spec, sent by Mrs. 
R. F. Bingham from Santa Barbara, Cal. 

The tribe Naiad^tE is represented by Naias. 

63. N. flexilis, Rostk. et Schmidt. Spec, from Mass., N. Y., 
N. J., also Ex. Herb. Chapman labelled " Northern States." 

64. N. microdon, A. Br. Spec, from Cuba, coll. C. Wright, 
No. 605. These are probably of the type spec, sent by Wright to 
Braun, and described by him in a paper read before the Nat. 
Hist. Soc. at Berlin, June 16, 1868. Spec, from Nicaragua, 
coll. C. Wright, in Exp. Ringgold and Rodgers, and labelled 
" Catilinia flexilis." Other spec, are from Monterey, and prob- 
ably this sp. from Chapman, Fla., labelled " Caiilinia fragilis," 
and from Hale, Louisiana, labelled " N. flexilis." * One spec, 
from Texas, coll. J. Reverchon. 

Var. Guadahipcnsis, A. Br. C. Wright's Cuban coll. 3717, 
one spec. 

" N. flexilis, var. (?) fusiformis, Chap." The original spec. 
is in the Herb., but it is the same as N. microdon, A. Br. In 


Our lowest tier of States and throughout Mexico this sp. seems 
generally to take the place of N. Jlexilis. 

65. N. Wrightii, A. Br. Several spec, C. Wright's Cuban 
coll. 3716. Two forms of this, both in the Herb., and both 
under the same number; the one chosen by Braun as the type, 
dense and bushy, leaves about ^ mm. wide, and marginal teeth 
stout, many-celled at base^ and about one half as long as the 
breadth of the leaf; the other called by Braun van laxa, which 
has a lax, open form, with broader leaves, and often rather smaller 
teeth. ^ 

66. N. argiita, H. B. K. Two spec, of Wright's Cuban coll. 
3715 under this name, not the type, as one of them is marked, but 

N. arguta. var. conferta, A. Br. (Seeman's Jour, of Bot. ii, 
274) afterwards changed by Braun, in a paper read before the 
Berlin Nat. Hist. Soc, June 16, 1868 to 'N. conferta. Braun. 

6"]. N. Indica, Cham. For. sp. {N. minor, var. Indica 
A. Br. ; Caulinia Indica, Willd.) 

There is a spec, of this in the Herb, without locality or name 
of collector, but as it is mounted on a sheet with a spec, of N. 
graminea, Del., from the East Indies, I suppose we may assume 
that it came from India. There are several forms both in Herb. 
Torrey and Herb. Gray that are labelled N. Indica, but this is the 
only one which I feel sure is that species, and this unfortunately 
is a mere fruitless fragment. 

Var. gracillima, A. Br. (See Gray's Man., fifth Ed. Supp.) 
Spec, from Albany, coll. C. H. Peck, are in the Herb, under the 
name of " N. minor, var. tenuissima, A. Br.," with which it has 
been sometimes confounded ; and also spec, from N. J. It is not 
an uncommon form in our country. 

68. N. marina, L., (iV. major. All.) Spec. 8; four of 
them marked N. monospcrma, Willd., a syn. ; one from Cuba, 
Wright's coll. 3718, one from Central N. Y., and one from Utah. 

Var. gracilis, Morong. One spec, Florida, Curtiss coll., 

69. N. muricata, Del. One spec, from Egypt. This sp. is 
distinguished from N. marina by having the internodes and leaf • 
blades densely crowded with large teeth, which are longer than 
the breadth of the leaf. 


70. N. graminea, Del. One spec, from the East Indies 
labelled "N. Indica, Cham." The fruit is somewhat smaller than 
that of the original plant from Africa. 

Cymodoce^ is represented by Cymodocea and Halodiik. 

71. Cymodocea cBquorea. Krenig. One spec, from India; 
another spec, so marked is doubtful. 

72. C. manatorum, Asch. Spec, i, Cuban coll. C. Wright, 
No. 3719. 

73. Halodule Wrightii, Asch. Wright's Cuban coll., 3720. 
By some Halodule is regarded as only a sub- genus of Cymodocea. 
Neither has so far been found on our coast, but Cuba is so near 
that we may look for Halodule in our Southern waters. 


Fig. I. Side view of undenuded nutlet of Potamogeton 
Wrightii, Morong., X 12. 

Fig. 2. Nutlet split open, showing embryo, X 12. 

Fig- 3- Front view of nutlet, showing the lateral basal 
processes, X 12. 

Fig. 4. Nutlet, X i>^. 

Fig. 5. Leaf, natural size. 

Synopsis of the Genus Paspalum. 
1 By Dr. Geo. Vasey. 

Section ANASTROPHUS, Benth. 
Spikelets rather distichous than secund, with the back of the 
flowering glume turned outwards or away from the rhachis. 

I. P. platycaiile, Poir. — Culms very slender, 6-18 inches 
high from a creeping rhizoma, peduncle long exerted, terminated 
by a pair of spikes (i to 2 inches long) or 3 or 4 approximate 
slender spikes, and frequently with several long-peduncled lateral 
ones ; spikelets single, elliptical-oblong, acutish or obtuse, outer 
glumes little longer than the flower, generally only two-nerved ; 
leaves narrowly linear, smooth, obtuse, the sheaths much com- 

2. P. Michauxianum, Kth. (^P. Digitaria, Chap, non Poir.) — 
Larger and more robust ; culms i to 2 feet high ; leaves 3 to 6 
inches long, wide, obtuse, smooth or hairy ; .sheaths compressed ; 
spikes about 3, 2 to 4 inches long; spikelets rather distant, about 


2 lines long ; outer glumes lanceolate, acute, five to seven- 
nerved, one-third longer than the flowering glume. 
Van VILLOSUM ; leaves and sheaths very villous. 

Section EUPASPALUM, Benth. 
Spikelets more or less secund along the rhachis, with the back 
of the flowering glume turned inwards or toward the rhachis. 
Subsection Ceresia, Benth. 
Rhachis of the spikes membranaceous, dilated and applied close 
to, and nearly enclosing the flowers when mature. 

3. P. fliiitans, Kth. — Culms i to 3 feet long, from a creeping 
or floating rhizoma ; leaves flat, broad linear ; spikes numerous 
(40 to 50), alternate and verticillate, divaricate, slender, 2 to 21^ 
inches long; spikelets in two rov/s, J^ line long, oblong, pubescent. 
Subsection Ofisthion, Benth. 
Rhachis of the spikes flat, not dilated. 
{a.) Spikes digitate, in terminal pairs, or rarely 3 or 4. 

4. P. conjugatiim. Berg. — Spikes divaricate, 2 to 5 inches 
long ; spikelets very numerous (25 to 30 to the inch), secund, ovate, 
rather actite, hardly a line long, sterile glumes ciliate on the margins. 

5. P. notatum, Flugge.— Culms rather stout; spikes thick, 
2 to 31^ inches long, erect-spreading; spikelets ovate, obtuse, 

1 ^ Hues long, smooth, five-nerved. 

6. P. distichum, Linn.— Culms erect from a creeping 
rhizoma, 6 inches to 2 feet high; leaves lanceolate, acute, /a<, 

2 to 3 lines wide ; spikes little spreading, i to 2 inches long, not 
as thick as in P. notatum ; spikelets oblong, acute or acutish, 
smooth, about 10 pairs to the inch. 

7. P. vaginatum, Swz. — Culms from stout, creeping root- 
stocks, in wet ground or water, very leafy ; leaves distichous, 
involute and pointed ; sheaths loose ; spikes i to 3 inches long, 
erect or spreading ; spikelets oblong-lanceolate, acute, smooth ; 
sterile glumes very thin, three to five- nerved, the lower without 
midrib. This species is united with the preceding by Bentham. 
(<J.) Spikes single and terminal, or one terminal and one {rarely 

more) additional, approximate, with sometimes axillary pedun- 
cled ones. 

8. P. monostachyum, Vasey in Chapm. Suppl. to Southern 
Flora.— Culm with spike 2 to 3 feet high, both rigidly erect ; 


spike 6 to 8 inches long ; spikelets in pairs, very close, smooth, 
about 1 1^ lines long, oblong, obtusish ; occasionally with a long 
peduncled axillary spike, and sometimes the spikelets with a 
third small sterile glume. 

9. P. sctaceum, Michx. {P, debile, Michx.) — Culms i to i j^ 
feet high, very slender; spikes long exerted, about 3 inches long 
and slender; spikelets in two rows, about ^ inch long, very 
close ; leaves narrow. 

10. P. ciliatifoliiim, Muhl. — (/". dasyphyllum, Ell.) — Culms 
stouter, 1 1^ to 2 feet high ; leaves mostly longer and wider, 
smooth or hairy ; spikes thicker; spikelets generally larger, and 
in two or three rows. 

(c). Spikes 2 to ^, rarely more, not digitate. 

* Spikelets i line long or less. 

11. P. ccespitosum, Flugge. — Culms i^ to 2 feet high, 
simple, leafy below; spikes 2 to 4, about i inch distant, i to i ^ 
inches long, closely flowered ; spikelets about half a line long, 
elliptical, minutely pubescent. 

Van LONGIFOLIUM, leaves smooth much longer and narrower. 

12. P. Walterianum, Schultes. — Culms decumbent from a 
creeping rootstock, much branched ; i to 2 feet long, srnooth ; 
leaves 3 to 4 inches long, acute, sheaths loose, the upper enclosing 
the lower spike ; spikes 3 or more, approximate, with many 
from the lateral branches, i to 1 1^ inches long; spikelets in two 
rows, ovate, i line long, smooth ; rhachis broadly winged, the 
margins partly covering the spikelets. 

13. P. lentiginostim, Presl. — Culms 2 to 3 feet high, often 
branching below, joints smooth ; sheaths long and loose ; leaves 
4 to 8 inches long, about }i inch wide ; panicle 3 to 5 inches long ; 
spikes 3 to 5, alternate, ^ inch to i}4 inches apart, the lower 
ones 3 to 4 inches long, upper shorter ; rachis subflexuous, very 
narrow ; spikelets about a line long, in pairs, broadly oval ; sterile 
glumes slightly puberulent, minutely punctate and brown spotted ; 
generally with a minute third sterile glume as in Panicum, 
(350 Drummond, Texas.) 

* • Spikelets from i to i^ lines long. 

14. P. litndum, Trin. — Culms 2 feet or more high, branch- 
ing below, smooth; panicle about 4 inches long; spikes 4 to S, 


alternate, slightly spreading, \ to i}4 inches long; rhachis nar- 
row, straight ; spikelets in four rows, a little more than i line 
long, oval, acutish, smooth, />a/e green ; sterile glumes three- 
nerved, a Httle longer than the flowering ones. (867 E. Hall, 

15. P.prcBcox, Walt. {P. lentiferum, Lam. ?.) — Culms 2 to 3 
feet high, simple, smooth ; leaves long and narrow, smooth, or 
hairy below ; panicle long exerted, 4 to 5 inches long ; spikes 3 
to 6, i)^ to 2 inches long; rhachis straight and flat; spikelets in 
three or four rows, nearly orbicular, obtuse, i to i^ lines long; 
sterile glumes smooth, three- nerved. 

Var. CURTISIANUM {P. Curtisiamun, Steudel.), larger and 
stouter, spikes 6 to 8, spikelets large, leaves and sheaths hairy. 

16. P. la;ve,W\c\\.y:. — Culms 2 to 4 feet high, simple; pan- 
icle 3 to 6 inches long; spikes 3 to 5, rather slender, 2 to 4 
inches long ; rhachis narrow and flexuous ; spikelets single in two 
rows, about i yi lines long, oval or nearly orbicular, smooth ; 
sterile glumes smooth, five-nerved, (two very near the margin.) 

Var. UNDULOSUM {P. undulosnm, Le Conte), leaves flat, 4 to 6 
inches long, 4 to 5 lines wide, the margins undulate. 

Var. ANGUSTIFOLIUM, {P. angustifoluim, Le Conte), leaves 
6 to 10 inches long, narrow, spikes usually longer. 

17. P. plicqtulum,W\c'ay..—Cvi\m.s 2 to 3 feet high, rather 
slender, smooth, simple ; panicle 3 to 5 inches long ; spikes i J^ to 
3 inches long, rather slender ; rhachis narrow, flexudus ; spike- 
lets in pairs, rather lax,, forming 2 or 3 series, smooth, oval or 
obovate-elliptical, obtuse ; sterile glumes about five-nerved, the 
second or flat one when mature with 2 to 3 transverse plications 
on each side neat the margin ; flowering glume brownish purple. 

18. P. remotum, Remy. (?) {P. Hallii, V. & S.)— Culms 2 to 
3 feet high, rooting at the lower joints and branching below, 
the nodes pubescent ; panicle 3 to 4 inches long ; spikes 3 to 6, 
approximate, rather thick, i>^ to 2)^ inches long; rhachis wide, 
nearly straight ; spikelets mostly in four rows, i to i ^ lines long, 
ovate or oval, obtuse; sterile spikelets about five-nerved, pubes- 
cent, or nearly smooth. (804 E. Hall, Texas.) 

Var. glattcum, Scribner. — Culms erect and more rigid, spikes 
5 to 7, spikelets more elliptical. 


Var. GLABRUM. — Culms decumbent and rooting at the base, 
spikelets smooth or nearly so. 

19. P. racemulosum, Nutt. — Culms erect, 2 to 3 feet high, 
simple ; leaves long, the lower ones with the sheaths white-hairy ; 
panicle erect, 4 to 6 inches long; spikes generally 3, lax, few- 
flowered, 3 to 4 inches long ; rhachis narrow and flexuous, spike- 
lets in alternate pairs, distant, distinctly pedicelled, oblong-ovate, 
obtuse, about i J^ lines long ; sterile glumes smooth, seven-nerved. 
20. P. dilatatum, Poir., {P. ovatum, Trin.) — Culms 3 to 4 
'eet high, simple, smooth ; leaves lance-linear, acuminate, smooth ; 
panicle 6 to 8 inches long, lax, cernuous ; spikes 3 to 7, rarely 
more, 2 to 4 inches long, gradually shorter upwards, rather lax ; 
rhachis smooth and straight; spikelets in four rows, compressed, 
o /ate, acute ; sterile glumes about i y^ lines long, acute, five- 
nerved, longer than the obtuse flowering ones, the lower one 
with scattered silky hairs, especially on the margins. 

Var. DECUMBENS ; culms shorter and decumbent, the spikes 
usually 3 or 4. 

* * * Spikelets larger, i^ to 2 lines long. 

21. P. difforme, Le Conte. — Culms erect, 2 to 3 feet high, 
simple, leafy near the base ; leaves 4 to 6 inches long, about 4 
lines wide, flat, upper surface and margins with scattered long 
hairs, which disappear with age, upper leaves very short ; panicle 
short, of 2 or 3 rather dense spikes, i ^^ to 3 inches long; rhachis 
narrow aud flexuous ; spikelets mostly single and in two rows, 
oval-oblong, obtuse, i J^ to nearly 2 lines long; lower sterile 
glume slightly scabrous, five-nerved. Intermediate between 
P. lave and P. Floridantim. (3,570, A. H. Curtiss distribution.) 

22. P. Floridanum, Michx. — Culms erect, rigid, simple, 
tall; leaves long and narrow, hairy or smooth; spikes 2 to 6, 
thick, erect, 3 to 5 inches long ; rhachis narrow and flexuous ; 
spikelets in two to four rows, about 2 lines long, smooth, obtuse, 
ovate, three to five-nerved, finely reticulate-striate. 

Var. TYPICA ; leaves and sheaths rough hairy, spikes 2 to 3. 
Var. glabrata, Englm. ; leaves smooth, wider, spikes more 
numerous, usually 5 to 7. 

23. P. giganteum, Baldw. (ined.) — Culms simple, erect, 3 to 
5 feet high; leaves long and wide, the lower 18 inches long, and 


nearly an inch wide ; spikes 3 to 4, about 2 inches distant, 
spreading and becoming widely divergent, 5 to 8 inches long, 
and rigid ; rhachis nearly straight ; spikelets crowded, mostly in 
two rows, about two lines long, ovate, obtuse, smooth ; sterile 
glumes five-nerved. 

(d.) Spikes more numerous — 7 to 20. 

24. P. purpurascens. Ell. — Culms decumbent and ascending, 
2 feet high, branching, glabrous ; leaves long and rather broad, 
glabrous, or hairy near the base, more or less of a purplish hue, 
as are also the lower joints of the stem ; panicle 4 to 6 inches 
long; spikes variable in number, 5 to 7, sometimes 10 to 12, 
rarely on poor specimens, or on the branches, 3 or 4, 2 to 3 
inches long, closely flowered ; rhachis straight, wide ; spikelets 
mostly in four rows, crowded, about i line long, obovate, obtuse ; 
sterile glumes five-nerved, smooth, of a livid hue ; flowering 
glume becoming black. 

25. P. virgatum, L., van PUBIFLORUM. — Culms tall and 
stout, 3 to 4 feet high, smooth ; leaves long and narrow, smooth, 
hairy at the throat, joints dark ; panicle 6 to 9 inches long, vir- 
gate; spikes 12 to 25, erect and appressed, semi-verticillate, 
flexuous, the lower 3 to 4 inches long, diminishing upwardly; 
rhachis narrow, straight ; spikelets about I }4 lines long, acute, 
ovate, in four rows; sterile glumes white-hairy, especially on the 
margins, longer than the obtuse flowering glume. 

Species little knowx. 
26. P. elatum, Richard — Culms erect, sub-compressed, striate, 
glabrous; sheaths and leaves glabrous, the leaves linear, 
elongated, narrowly acuminate; spikes 5 to 7, sub-fasiculate, 
sessile, approximate, erect, or subfalcate spreading, elongated ; 
spikelets in twos, short-pedicelled, narrowly obovate, twice as wide 
as the axis ; glumes obovate, five-nerved, smooth. In Herb. 
Gray is a specimen from Key West, and another from Texas, 
(No. 364 Drummond.) The description is from Doell's Gram. 

27. P. BUCKLEYANU.M — Culms decumbent at the base, sim- 
ple, 2 to 3 feet high, smooth ; leaves long and narrow, condu- 
F^icate ; panicle 7 inches long, erect ; spikes 6, alternate, erect or 
little spreading, i to 1% inches distant, the lower nearly 3 inches 


long, upper ly^ inches; rhachis straight; spikelets pale, in 
four rows, crowded, elliptical- oblong, acute, nearly lyi lines 
long; sterile glumes sparingly pubescent, three to five-nerved. 
This is described from a single specimen collected by Dr. Buck- 
ley in Texas. It is nearest to P. lividum, from which it differs 
in its longer panicle, with more numerous, longer and more distant 
spikes, and in the form and pubescence of the spikelets. 

The Dehiscence of Fern Sporangia. 

An easy and convenient method of studying the interesting 
process of the bursting of the sporangium in ferns is the fol- 

Place some sporangia from a piature sorus of any of the 
Polypodiacese (an herbanium specimen will do) in a drop of water 
on a slide and cover with a thin cover glass. The dehiscent 
sporangia will soon close; now examine their structure, espec- 
ially the cells forming the annulus. Notice that their outer peri- 
pheral walls are much thinner than the inner and radial ones. 
Apply a drop of glycerine, chloriodide of zinc or sulphuric acid to 
one edge of the cover glass, and draw off the water by a piece of 
blotting paper at the opposite edge. While the water is slowly dis- 
placed by the reagent, concentrate the attention on the cells of the 
annulus; observe that the, radial walls gradually approach each 
other, while the outer curve inward and finally double up. This 
decreases the size of the cells, and hence the length of the outer 
curve of the annulus; the latter gradually becomes straight, and 
finally recurved, so that the ends often touch one another. The 
tension exerted on the thin-walled portion of the sporangium by 
the straightening of the annulus has.i-meanwhile, caused it to 
burst. Suddenly, however, the cells of the annulus resume their 
former shape, it ^t once becomes straight, and the sporangium 
slowly assumes the shape which it had before it was placed in 
the water. If the cells of the annulus be now examined, it will 
be noticed that each contains an air-bubble almost entirely filling 
its cavity. If the reagent be replaced by water the bubbles will 
become globular, grow smaller and smaller and finally disappear. 
At the same time the annulus cells expand to their full size, the 
sporangium .loses entirely and is now in the condition in which it 


was at the beginning of the experiment; moreover, it will repeat 
this performance as often as desired. 

The most curious phenomenon of ail, the sudden appearance 
of the air-bubbles in the cells of the annulus, causing the jerking 
motion by which the spores are scattered, is explained by Prantl * 
in the following manner : 

Theinteriorof thecells ofthe annuhis is lined with a continuous 
layer of protoplasm which is thickest along the inner, thinner 
along the radial, and quite thin at the outer walls. This layer 
can be demonstrated by treating with chloriodide of zinc. (I 
obtain better results by using a concentrated solution of sugar 
and sulphuric acid). It must be assumed that this protoplasm, 
or rather some unknown substance contained in it, absorbs water 
through the cell-wall, with great avidity and force, while there 
is no plasmolysis, i.e., the cell-membrane does not permit the 
water-absorbing substance to pass out of the cell. There will 
be, consequently, great endosmotic pressure exerted on the con- 
tents of the cell, and the air which is present in it will, under 
this pressure, be absorbed by the water. On the other hand, if, 
by using glycerine, or similarly acting reagents, the water is ab- 
stracted from the cells, the first effect is that their space is dimin- 
ished, the outer wall gives way, and folds up inward, etc., but as 
soon as the endosmotic pressure is diminished so that a certain 
limit is reached, the air which had been absorbed will suddenly 
be liberated, and the volume of the cell increased correspondingly. 
In the living plant, the bursting of the sporangia and the 
scattering of the spores must be explained in the same way, viz. : 
by the gradual disappearance of the water from the cells of the 
drying annulus. j^g^p^^ SCHRENK. 

Botany at the Buffalo Meeting 


Aug. i8th-:4TH, 1886. 

The Botanical Club met at 9 A.M., Thursday, Aug. 19th, and 
held three subsequent meetings, Prof J. M. Coulter in the chair; 
Dr. J. C. Arthur, Secretary. Owing to duties as Secretary of 

* Berichte d. Deutschen Bot. Gesell., iv., p. 42. 


the Biological Section, Prof. Arthur resigned and Dr. N. L. Brit- 
ton was elected in his place. 

A letter was read from Dr. Asa Gray, conveying a revision 
of the genus Dodecatheon, in which he recognizes five species, 
differing in this from his conclusion, in the last edition of Vol. ii, 
Syn. Flor. N. A., where all the forms were considered as varieties 
of D. Mcadia. The present classification is based on characters 
of the capsules. 

Prof E. W. Claypole presented some notes on the action of 
the Potato Rot fungus {Peronospora infestaus) on the tubers, stat- 
ing that the mycelium enters at the eyes, where the vascular 
system reaches the surface, penetrates and destroys it, but leaves 
the starch-cells intact. Subsequently Bacterium termo attacks 
the latter. The so-called " resting-spores '' of Peronospora were 
shown under the microscope. 

Prof F. Lamson Scribner described and illustrated his method 
of making drawings of minute portions of plants. The apparatus 
used consists of a Zentmayer dissecting microscope, with the 
metal base replaced by a wooden one, which slides in a frame 
hinged to a heavy base board. When in use, the frame is placed 
vertically and the focal distance adjusted as desired. A Wollas- 
ton camera and an adaptor for lenses are attached ; drawings are 
made on tracing paper and transferred by means of a steel point 
to Bristol board. The final lines are inked with Keuffel & Es- 
ser's pen No. 1459. Remarks were made by Prof Burrill and 
Dr. Beal. 

Dr. W. J. Beal exhibited a cheap and convenient tray to con- 
tain the apparatus used by students in laboratory work, and in- 
vited criticism. Dr. Farlow remarked on the danger to lenses 
from the proximity of reagents. Prof J. H. Pillsbury advocated 
the use of a board with holes and grooves. 

W. H. Seaman read a paper on the occurrence of Marsilea 
quadrifolia in the fish ponds at Washington. (See BULLETIN, 
xiii, p. 144.) Dr. Beal stated that it had spread extensively in 
Michigan. Rev. Thos. Monong said that it was now abundant 
in Concord River, Mass., extending along its banks for miles, to 
the exclusion of other aquatic plants, being almost as objection- 
able asAiiacharis is in Europe. It all appears to have originated 


from the station at Bantam Lake, Conn. In reply to a question 
from Prof. Underwood, Mr. Morong suggested as a possible ex- 
planation for its distribution, the influence of aquatic birds, and 
cited as a similar case the occurrence of Potamogeton crispus in 

Prof Lucien M. Underwood reported the receipt of Salvinia 
natans from Dr. Demetrio in Central Missouri, and referred to 
Pursh's statement that it was found in Western New York, but 
stated that it has not since been collected there. . 


F. V. Coville read a paper on the occurrence of Aconittim 
Noveboracense, Gray, n. sp., near Oxford, N. Y. 

Prof. T. J. Burrill described some home-made apparatus for 
the investigation of bacteria. 

Mr. Morong exhibited Potamogeton fluitaus from the Niagara 
River, where it is abundant, and stated that /-". loiickites, TncV., is 
closely allied, if not identical. 

Miss Lillie J. Martin read a paper on Petroleum Spirit (boil- 
ing 2$°- 45° C.) as a preservative of the chemical constituents of 
plants. The subject was discussed by Professors Seaman and 

B. E. Fernow exhibited specimens of the chestnut bearing 
pistillate catkins, similar to those of the Chinquapin, which were 
found on a single tree growing in the woods in Lehigh Co., Pa. 
These catkins were about five inches long and composed of a 
large number of small burrs which when ripe resembled that of 
C. pumila. He had observed the tree for seven years and had 
never found any staminate catkins. Reference was made to Mr. 
L C. Martindale's description of a similar monstrosity near Cam- 
den, N. J. (Proc. Phila. Acad. Sci., i88o.) Other teratological 
examples in various genera were cited in the discussion which 

W. J. Beat read a paper on the escape of seeds of Sporoboliis 
cryptatidrus when the panicle is moistened. 

Prof C. R. Barnes offered to send on application his key to 
the Manual of Mosses of N. A. 

The Chairman announced the receipt of a letter from Dr. 


Gattinger, of Nashville, containing a description of a new species 
of Hypericum from Tennessee. 


Prof F. Lamson Scribner read a paper entitled " Notes on 
the Orange-leaf Scab in Florida." 

Prof. J. H. Pillsbury described a method of making cheap lan- 
tern slides from drawings. He employed " tracing gelatine," 
such as used by lithographers, placing it over a diagram and 
scratching the lines upon it with a steel point. The gelatine is 
then placed between glass slips which are bound together and 
used as an ordinary lantern slide. 

Mr. B. E. Fernow distributed circulars of the Fifth Annual 
Meeting of the American Forestry Congress to be held at Den- 
ver, Colo., Sept. I4th-20th, 1886. 

Dr. N. L. Britton read a paper on the Composition and Re- 
arrangement of the Columbia College Herbaria, and another on 
the species of the genus Anychia. 

The committee appointed to nominate officers for the next 
meeting of the club, consisting of Professors L. M. Underwood, 
T. J. Burrill and F. L. Sar^nt, presented the names of M. S. 
Bebb for President, and Elizabeth G. Britton for Secretary. They 
were unanimously elected. 


Prof W. J. Beal was elected President pro tern. 

Prof E. W. Claypole remarked "On the Appearance of Eu- 
ropean Immigrant Plants in Summit Co., Ohio." 

Prof F. L. Scribner read a paper on the Botanical Characters 
of the Black Rot of the Grape. 

The following resolutions were then unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the members of the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S. heartjly 
thank the U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture fur his promptness and energy shown in 
appointing an able investigator to prosecute the mycological work recently inaugu- 
rated in the Department of Agriculture, and in giving him opportunities to study the 
Fungi which are injurious to cultivated plants. While they are gratified with the 
beginning made, they express the hope that this work will be still further supported. 
The Botanists here assembled hereby renew their promise to render the U. S. Com- 
missioner of Agriculture any assistance in their power toward making investigations 
in any department of Botany, 

Resolved, That the hearty thanks of the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S. be 
tendered to the Botanical Club of liuffalo for the bountiful hospitality which they have 


shown to their brethren from abroad, and not less for the graceful and courteous man- 
ner in which this hospitality has been extended, with the promise that wherever our 
meetings may be held in the future every visiting Buffalo botanist will find a warm 
reception in our hearts and homes. 

The President pro. tern, expressed the thanks of the Club to 
Prof. J. C. Arthur for his valuable services as Secretary in the 
past and his arduous labors in organizing the present meeting. 

The Club then adjourned to meet at 9 A.M. on the second 
day of the next meeting of the A. A. A. S. 

In the Biological Section the following papers were presented : 
Atavism the Result of Cross-breeding Lettuce, by E. Lewis Stur- 
tevant; The Bulliform or Hygroscopic Cells of Grasses and 
Sedges Compared, by W. J. Heal ; Synopsis of North American 
Pines based upon Leaf Anatomy, by J. M. Coulter and J. N. Rose; 
The Development of the Gymnosporangia of the United States, 
by W. G. Farlow ; Plan for Laboratory Work in Chemical Bot- 
any, by Lillie J. Martin ; A Study in Agricultural Botany, by 
E. Lewis Sturtevant ; Botany of Timber Trees, with special refer- 
ence to the requirements of Forestry, by B. E. Fernow; Memo- 
randa of a Revision of the North American Violets, by Asa 
Gray ; A Revision of the North American species of the genus 
Fissidens, by C. R. Barnes. 

During the meeting of the Association the botanists visited 
Niagara Falls and Point Abino, Canada, excursions kindly pro- 
vided by the local committee. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature, 

Abies Engelmannii. (Garden, xxx., p. 100.) 

It is stated that this tree succeeds remarkably well in St. 

Petersburg despite the extreme cold of Russian winters, and 

that it is not improbable that it will in the future form an impor 

tant element in the formation of artificial forests in Northern 


Agrimonia Eupatoria. P. Baccarini. " Intorno ad una proba- 
bile funzione meccanica dei cristalli di ossalato calcico." (Ann. 
R. I., Bot. di Roma., i., p. 154, t. xv.) 

Amaryllis Atantasco. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., ix., p. 207 ; col- 
ored plate.) 


Aquilegia Skimteri, Hook. (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 146.) 
Asimina. — The Gemis. Asa Gray. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 


Dr. Gray recognizes six North American species of this 
genus : A. triloba, Dunal; A. parvijlora, Dunal; A. grandiflora, 
Dunal; A. cimeata, Shuttleworth, (which is probably^, reticu- 
lata, Chapm.) ; ^. angustifolia, rx. sp., {Uvaria pygmcea. Torn 
and Gray, in part), and A. pygmoea, Dunal. The fruits of the 
southern shrubby species have been but rarely collected, and are 
much needed in herbaria. The petals of Asimina are not truly 
valvate in aestivation as was formerly supposed, but when fully 
grown their summits are more or less imbricated. 
Azalea occidentalis. (Gard. Chron., xxvi., pp. 104, 105, f. 21.) 
Botanical Trip into Lower California. C. R. Orcutt. (W. Am. 

Scientist, ii., pp. 53-58.) 

This is an amusing and interesting account of personal ex- 
periences in collecting specimens during March of this year. 
Near the mouth of San Telmo Caiion were found " beautiful 
specimens of Dr. Parry's Harfordia," and localities for many 
6ther interesting plants are noted. 
Calochortus Obispoensis, n. sp. J. G. Lemmon. (Botan. Gazette, 

xi., pp. 180, 181.) 

This species is allied to C. Weedii and C. clavatus, and has 
been collected in several places about San Luis Obispo, Cal. 
Carpenteria Californica. (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 115, f 22; 

also p. 149.) 
Castanea vulgaris. — Observations on the Structure of. P. H. 

Dudley. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, ii., pp. 73, 74.) 
Cayuga Flora, 77;^.— (Part I). Wm. R. Dudley. (Bull. Cornell 

Univ. (Science), vol. ii., 8vo, pp. 30 + 132, Ithaca, 1886.) 

A most valuable catalogue of the Phanerogamia growing with- 
out cultivation in the Cayuga Lake Basin, Western New York. 
1. 160 species and 118 varieties are enumerated. The species na- 
tive to the region number 963, those introduced 197, and those 
spontaneous but not established and not included in the above, 
number 53. In the introduction the following topics are ably 
discussed : " The Limits of the Flora and its Physical Charac- 
ters," '• The Lesser Floras," " The Affinities of the Cayuga Flora," 


"The Primitive Flora," "Sketch of the Explorations," "Statis- 
tics of the Catalogue," " Explanation of the Plan of the Cata- 
logue," and "The Disappearance of Species." Two excellent 
maps — one of the lake region of Central New York, the other of 
Ithaca and vicinity — are prefixed, and an index to genera and 
species is appended. Full localities are given for all species 
Usted ; all forms mentioned, not recorded in Gray's Manual, are 
described in full. Altogether we regard Professor Dudley's 
work as one of the most useful and interesting local plant cat- 
alogues yet published. 

Chionaiithus Virginica, L. R. Pirotta. " Sulla struttura del 
seme nelle Oleacee." (Ann. R. I. Bot. di Roma, i., pp. 1-48, 
t. i-v.) 
Corydalis aurea and its Allies. Asa Gray. (Botan. Gazette, 

xi., pp. 188, 189.) 
C. micrantha, n. sp. is the C. aurea, var. micrantha, of Engelmann. 
Cotton Fibre. H. L. Brevoort. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, ii., 

p. 81 ; two figures.) 
Dandelion. — The. E. L. Sturtevant. (Proc. Sixth Meeting Soc. 
Prom. Agric. Sci., pp. 40-42 ; also in Amer. Nat., xx., pp. 
5-9; see note in this BULLETIN, xiii., pp. 10, 11.) 
Edible Mushrooms of the United States. Thomas Taylor. (In 
Rep. Comm. Agric, 1885, pp. 100-108, one colored plate.) 
Descriptions and figures are given of Lactarius deliciosus, 
Cantharellus cibarious, Marasinius oreades, Hydnum repandum, 
Agaricus campestris, Coprinus comatus, Morchella esculenta, 
Clavaria cinerea, C. rugosa, Boletus edulis, Lycoperdon gigan- 
teum and Fistulina Hepatica. 

Elias Magnus Fries. Wm. R. Dudley. (Journ. Mycol., ii., 
pp. 91-94) 

An interesting account of the life and work of this great 

Fertilization in Campanula Atnericana. — The process of . C. R. 
Barnes. (Proc. Thirty-fourth Meeting A. A. A. S., p. 293, 
abstract; published in Botan. Gazette, x., pp. 349-3S4, plate.) 
Florida Fungi. — Notes on. W. W. Calkins. (Journ. Mycol., ii., 
pp. 89, 90.) 
A list of thirty-five species of Polyporus with habitats. 


Fraxiniis Americana, L. R. Pirotta. " Sulla struttura del seme 
nelle Oleacee." (Ann. R. I. Bot. di Roma, i., p. 1-48, t. i-v.) 
Ftmgi of California. — Notes on some injurious. W. G. Farlow. 
(Proc. Thirty-fourth Meeting A. A. A. S., pp. 300-303 ; also 
in Proc. Sixth Meeting Soc. Prom. Agric. Science, pp. 29-31.) 
Dr. Farlow found Nicotiana glauca, Grah., afflicted with 
Peronospora Hyoscyami, DeBy. ; P. Halstedii, a common species 
of the Eastern States, grows on Madia sativa near San Fran- 
cisco, and P. leptosperma, DeBy., on Artemisia Ludoviciana in 
Southern California. 

Fungi from various Localities. — Netv Species of J. B. Ellis and 
B. M. Everhart. (Journ. Mycol., ii., pp. 87-89.) 
A new genus, Coscinaria, of the Pyrenomycetes, of a single 
species, C. Langloisii, from near Baton Rouge, La., a variety of 
Dacrymyces corticoides, E. and E., Peziza heteromorpha, Hy- 
poxylon bicolor and Diatrype Compionice are characterized. 
Fungous Diseases of Plants. F. Lamson Scribner. (In Rep. 

Comm. Agric, 1885, pp. 76-87, two plates.) 
Germination Studies. E. L. Sturtevant. (Proc. Thirty-fourth 

Meeting A. A. A. S., pp. 287-291.) 
Gopher-root. Dudley W. Adams. (Gard. Month., xxviii., p. 244.) 

A local name in Florida for Ckrysobalanus oblongifolius. 
Grasses of Yellowstone National Park. I. — F. Lamson Scribner 
and Frank Tweedy. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 169-178.) 
This paper is the first part of an enumeration of the Grami- 
neae of the Yellowstone, collected by Mr. Tweedy in 1884 and 
1885. The new forms described are as follows : Alopecurus occi- 
den talis ; Stipa comata, Trin. and Rupr., var. intermedia, and 
Deyeuxia dubia ; six of the species enumerated are not in Coul- 
ter's Manual. 
Gymnosporangimn macropus on Pyrus coronaria. B. D. Halsted. 

(Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 190, 191.) 
Hybridisation and Cross-breeding of Plants. E. L. Sturtevant. 

(Proc. Thirty-fourth Meeting A. A. A. S., pp. 283-287.) 
Ipomoea leptophylla. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., ix., p. 24.) 

The popular name Man-of-the-earth is applied to this spe- 
cies in Colorado as it is in the East to /. pandurata. 
Iris Douglasiana. (Gartenflora, t. 1,222.) 


Lettuce. E. L. Sturtevant. (Proc. Sixth Meeting Soc. Prom. 

Agric. Science, pp. 43, 44; see also Amer. Nat, xx., pp. 

230-233, and note in this Bulletin, xiii., p. 44.) 
Lilium Parryi. This Hly from S. Cah'fornia is figured in Illus- 
tration Horticole, t. 595. 
Mechanical Injuries to Trees by Cold. T. J. Burrill. (Proc. 

Thirty-fourth Meeting A. A. A. S., pp. 298-300, abstract.) 
Mediciftal Plants. Geo. Vasey. (In Rep. Comm. Agric, 1885, 

pp. 63-75 ; sixteen plates.) 

Among foreign medicinal plants which may, perhaps, be suc- 
cessfully cultivated in the United States, Dr. Vasey notes the 
Poppy, which has already been tried in several States, Liquorice, 
Rhubarb, Vanilla, which he thinks may be successfully grown in 
southern Florida, and the Marsh Mallow, which has become 
locally naturalized on the coasts of New York and New England. 
Descriptions and good figures are given of the following native 
species of medicinal value: yeffersonia diphylla, Ilex Cassine, 
Rhamnus Purshianus, Cassia Marylandica, Gillenia trifoliata, 
Hatnamelis Virginica, Liqiddambar styracijltia, Grindelia robusta, 
Eriodictyon glutinosuin. Euphorbia corollata, E. Ipecacuaiihce, 
Aristolochia Serpentaria, Asarutn Canadettse, Anemopsis Calif ar- 
nica, Ariscema tripkyllunt, and Symplocarptis f(xtidus. 
Megarrhiza Californica. A. Baldini. "Sul tallone di alcune 

Cucurbitacee." (Ann. R. I. Bot. di Roma, i., p. 49, t. vi.) 
Nelutnbium Ititeum. P. Baccarini. " Osservazioni anatomiche 

sopra alcuni ricettacoli fiorali." (Ann. R. I. Bot. di Roma, i., 

p. 82, t. xiii, fig. II.) 
NotholcBna tenera. Gill. — A rare fern. L. G. Yates. (Botan. 

Gazette, xi., p. i8i.) 

This fern, hitherto found only in the United States at a single 
station in southern Utah, is now reported from Santa Barbara 
Co., Gal. 
Nuphar. — Revision of the North American species of. Thomas 

Morong. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 164-169; one plate.) 

Five species are described : N. advena. Ait, which extends 
westward to Utah, with a var. (?) minor, having flowers about 
an inch in diameter when expanded, from Herkimer Co., N. Y. ; 
A^. rubrodiscum, n. sp., common in parts oi Lake Champlain, 


which Mr. Morong suspects to have originated from a hybrid 
between N. advena and N. Kalmianum (N. luteum, van pumi- 
lum, Gray), which latter is his third species ; N. polysepalum, En- 
gelm., of western America, and N. sagittifolmm, Pursh., of the 
southern Atlantic States. 
Osmanthus Americana {Olea Americana^ R. Pirotta. "Sulla 

struttura del seme.nelle Oleacee." (Ann. R. I. Bot. di Roma, 

pp. IS- 1 7, t. i., fig. 9-IO.) 
Otitline of Study of Chemical Botany. Lillie J. Martin. (Botan. 

Gazette,, xi., pp. 1 78-180.) 
Pear Blight. — Proof that Bacteria are the direct cause of the 

disease known as. J. C. Arthur. (Proc. Thirty-fourth Meeting 

A. A. A. S., pp. 295-298; also in Botan.. Gazette, x., pp. 

343-345. and in Gard. Chron., xxiv., p. 586.) 
Pig-nut Hickory. — A fine. (Gard. Month., xxviii., pp. 241- 

243 ; one figure.) 

A tree of this Carya, 113 feet high and 12 feet in circumfer- 
ence 5 feet above the ground, is reported growing on the property 
of Mr. Geo. W. Childs, in Philadelphia. A good figure is given, 
taken from a photograph of the tree while it was bare of leaves. 
Pinus monophylla. Sir J. D. Hooker. (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 

136, fig. 24.) 

Sir J. D. Hooker questions the correctness of Dr. Newberry's 
conclusion that P. monophylla is but a form of P. edulis (Bull. 
Torn Bot. Club., xii., p. 50), and adduces personal observations 
in Nevada, as well as experience at Kew, to show that the two are 
specifically distinct. Dn Hooker states that he is " not aware 
whether their male and female flowers and cones have been 
critically compared." 
Pond-scums (Zygnemacece). — The Question of Bisexuality in the. 

C. E. Bessey. (Proc. Thirty-fourth Meeting A. A. A. S., p. 

291 ; abstract.) 

Professor Bessey concludes that these plants possess undifferen- 
tiated sexuality, and may be designated unisexual ; also that they are 
to be classed with the lower Thallophyta, but little above Protophyta. 
Prothallium of Ferns. Douglas H. Campbell. (Proc. Thirty- 
fourth Meeting A. A. A.S., pp. 292, 293, abstract; published 

in Botan. Gazette, x., pp. 355-360; plate ix.) 


Relation of Ovary and Perianth in the Development of Dicotyle- 
dons. J. M. Coulter. (Proc. Thirty-fourth Meeting A. A. 
A. S., pp. 294, 295 ; abstract published in Botan. Gazette, x., 
pp. 360-363.) 
Rhus typhina. — The Stag's-Horn Stimach. (Garden, xxx., 
p. III.) 

It is noted that the collection and preparation of the leaves 
has assumed large proportions in Virginia. 

RoestelicB from Gymnosporangia. — Development of . W. G. Farlow. 
(Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 189, 190.) 

Mr. Roland Thaxter has continued Dr. Farlow's cultures of 
spores of the Gymnosporangia upon young plants oi Ante lane kier. 
Those of G. clavipes, C. and P., were followed by R. aurantiaca, 
Peck ; those of G. conicum, DC, by R. cornuta, Fr., and those 
of G. clavariceforme, DC., by R. lacerata, Fr. 
Rtibus deliciosus. — The Odor of . (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 50.) 

The odor given off by the young foliage and flower buds of 
this showy western bramble is compared to that of bleaching 
linen or soap-suds, and is not disagreeable. It seems that all the 
plants grown in England bear white flowers. At Kew it blooms 
abundantly but never matures any fruit. 

Science of Botany. — The Demands m.ade by Agriculture upon the. 
C. E. Bessey. (Proc. Sixth Meeting Soc. Prom. Agric. Sci., 
pp. 16-18.) 
Smut of Timothy. Wm. Trelease. (In Rep. Comm. Agric, 1885, 
pp. %T, 88 ; plate xviii.) 

This disease is caused by the growth of the fungus Tilletia 
striceformis, Westd., which occurs in Europe in the leaves of 
several other grasses, and has been noticed by Professor Trelease 
in Wisconsin on Elymus Canadensis, var. glaucifolius , and in 
Massachusetts on Triticum repens. It was especially destructive 
to Timothy in parts of Wisconsin in the spring of 1883 and 1884. 
Spiral Fibre of the Banana Stalk. ]. L. Zabriskie. (Journ. N. 

Y. Micros. Soc, ii., pp. 71-73; one figure.) 
Taxoditim distichum. (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 148, fig. 28.) 

Illustrations are given of abnormal growths of shoots, in some 
cases showing an indication of the formation of ovules at the base 
of the thickened bud scales. 


Trichias. — The banded-spore., Geo. A. Rex. (Journ. MycoL, i:.. 

pp. 85-87.) 

Of the three species of the Slime Mould genus Trichia dis- 
tinguished by reticulated or banded spores, only T. chrysosperma. 
Bull, has heretofore been recorded as American. Dr. Rex now 
finds plants which nearly answer the descriptions of T. affims, 
De By., and T. Jackii, Rostfki. A list of specimens from widely 
separated localities is given. 
Vancotiveria. Asa Gray. (Botan. Gazette, xi., pp. 182, 183.) 

Dr. Gray dissents from M. Franchet's views (Bull. See. Bot. 
France) that the genus should be merged in Epintedmm. 
Variation in Cultivated Plants. W. W. Tracy. (Proc. Sixth 

Meeting See. Prom. Agric. Science, pp. 45-48.) 
Vitality of Seeds buried in the Soil. W. J. Beal. (Proc. Sixth 

Meeting Soc. Prom. Agric. Sci., pp. 14, 15.) 
Wellingtonia gigantea. (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 18, f 4.) 

Trees of the giant Sequoia, planted in Lancashire, England, 
in the autumn of 1864, have now reached a height of 40 feet, 
and are 8 feet in circumference just above the base. A repro- 
duction from a photograph illustrates one of the trees. 
Woods and their Destructive Fungi. P. H. Dudley, C. E. (Pop. 

Sci. Month, xxix., pp. 604-617, illustrated.) II. 

The practical side of the subject, detailing the action of fungi 
on telegraph poles, fence posts, ties and timbers, with descrip- 
tions and illustrations of their special enemies, and their mode of 
attack, are here given. The article concludes with a discussion 
of the various methods of preserving wood and an estimate of 
the annual loss in money to the railroads in this country result- 
ing from the action of fungi. 

Botanical Notes. 

Annnario del R. Instituto Botanico di Roma. Edited by R. 
Pirotta. We have just received the first four fascicles of this 
valuable periodical, illustrated by twenty-eight beautiful litho- 
graphs. Besides several interesting general articles, there are 
enumerated the fungi, lichens, algae, and hepatics from the vicinity 
of Rome. In the last fascicle a new species of Plagiochila is 
described and figured. 




Vol. XIII.] New York, October, 1886. [No. 10. 

Notes on the Orange Leaf Scab.* 

By F. Lamson Scribner, U. S. Dept Agriculture. 

Last summer, and also during the present season, there have 
been received at the Department of Agriculture Orange leaves 
that were diseased or injured through the action of some agency 
not yet well understood. 

Mr. Chas. W. Campbell, writing from Ocala, Florida, July 
29th, 1886, says that "the disease first made its appearance last 
summer and seems to be increasing the present season, particu- 
larly on young trees making vigorous growth. It seems to be 
confined to sour stocks, although this season it has appeared on 
Lemon trees. No sweet Orange trees have been affected, nor 
the sweet buds on sour stocks, even when growing side by side 
with trees badly affected. It is very destructive to the growth 
of trees, and ruinous to young nursery stocks, so that fears are 
entertained that it will seriously affect the Orange interest unless 
means are discovered for checking it. Last season and this have 
been exceedingly wet, and the appearance of the fungi may be 
due to this fact." 

I desire to call attention to this subject more especially 
because there seems to be no literature upon it, and there is 
a probability that the disease in question is new; it is at least, 
of very recent appearance in Florida. The samples received ex- 
hibit a malady of a serious nature ; one certainly deserving care- 
ful investigation. The entomologists affirm that there is no 
evidence nor probability of its being caused or induced by in- 

• Read before the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S., Buffalo Meeting, August, 1886. 


There first appears upon either the upper or lower surface of 
the leaves, more particularly upon the latter, and upon the young 
shoots, small, light colored wart-like excrescences. These ex- 
crescences increase in number and size, the approximate ones 
often running together, until the whole surface is covered, de- 
stroying, of course, the vitality of the leaf. When young leaves 
are attacked they become more or less distorted, and their full 
development is prevented. The top of the older warts, if one 
may so term them, are dark brown, or nearly black, due to the 
presence of a dense fungus growth, which exhibits under the 
microscope, a multitude of irregularly developed conidiophores, 
bearing oblong, oval one-celled conidia. Such low forms as 
here presented are almost unnameable, and are quite beyond 
definite classification, yet they are often among the most inju- 
rious of fungi ; but whether this particular fungus be the cause of 
the disease it accompanies I cannot at present say. Upon some 
diseased specimens recently received from Ocala, Fla., there was 
discovered a species of Fusarium, .which Mr. J. B. Ellis, to whom 
samples were submitted, believes to be identical with F. sar- 
cochroum, Desm., and he expresses the opinion that the tubercles 
are caused by the mycelium of this fungus, these being the first 
outward manifestations of its growth. 

It may be going too far to advance any opinion at this time, 
but I will say that after making many careful examinations of 
the samples received, I am disposed to think that the injury in 
question is occasioned by the first fungus referred to above, the 
hyphae and spores of which are present in greater or less abun- 
dance on all the more developed excrescences. 

From letters received from Mr. C. F. A. Bielby, of De Land, 
Fla., we learn: First — That the trees most severely afiected 
with this leaf disease last season sufifered more than those not 
affected, during the winter. Second — Trees affected last season 
are the ones first attacked this spring, although the foliage of 
these is entirely new growth. Third — So far as observed, sour 
trees alone are affected. Fourth — Location and nature of the 
soil, or of the fertilizers used, have no influence on the disease. 
Fifth — The most vigorous as well as the " sickly " trees are alike 
affected. Sixth — Tf a tree is diseased in part the tendency is for 


the whole tree to become so. Seventh — The malady does not 
appear to spread in the grove, but may occur at several points 
simultaneously. The evidence of these facts points to a fungus 
origin for the disease. 

Remedies. — The application of the following are recom- 
mended for trial as having fungicidal properties : First — A solu- 
tion of bisulphide of potassium, ^ ounce to a gallon of water. 
Second — " Liquid grison," prepared by boiling 3 lbs. each of the 
flowers of sulphur and lime in 6 gallons of water until reduced to 
2 gallons. When settled, pour off the clear liquid and bottle it 
for use. For use mix one part of this clear liquid in 12 gallons 
of water. Third — To 10 gallons of strong soap suds add about 
a pound of glycerine and one-half pint of carbolic acid. 

These solutions should be applied in the form of a fine spray 
to the diseased trees. As intimated, what action they may have 
towards arresting the malady can only be determined by experi- 

Pinus monophylla and Pinus edulis. 

In the Bulletin for May, 1885, I published a note on my 
observations on Pinus edulis and Pinus monophylla in the far 
West. ^Y these observations I was convinced that Pinus 
monophylla is but a variety of P. edulis, a variety confined to the 
more arid portions of the area it occupies; and I was led to con- 
sider P. monophylla as a desert plant, in which the leaves are 
consolidated to diminish their surface area ; following the example 
of Cactus, Holacantha, Canotia, Ephedra, etc. 

I am sorry to see from a note in the Gardeners' Chronicle of 
July 31st, that Sir Joseph Hooker does not accept my view of the 
case. He says, of my article, that " it reads well, but is not sup- 
ported by facts." Now, with due respect to the great botanist whom 
we all delight to honor, I am compelled to appeal from his decision. 
If he could have had my experience, and had himself observed 
the facts from which I infer the specific identity of the two forms, 
I am quite sure he would accept the view I have advanced. It 
happens that I have spent two full years in the region occupied 
by the pines under consideration, and during that time I 
traversed nearly their entire habitat, viz., Nevada, Utah, Colo- 
rado, New Mexico, Arizona and Chihuahua. As botanist of the 


Colorado and San Juan expeditions, my attention was naturally 
early drawn to trees which are the most conspicuous, and over 
large areas almost the only arborescent elements in the vegeta- 
tion, and I have studied every phase of change from one variety 
into the other. In the Rocky Mountains all are two-leaved; in 
some arid portions of Nevada the tree is dwarfed to half its 
normal size and all the leaves are single. Midway between these 
districts, in southern Utah, may be found thousands of trees in 
which the leaves are half double, half single; and I would ask to 
which species these belong ? It is not strange that to one exam- 
ining Pinus edulis in Colorado, then going by rail to Nevada and 
there finding only Pinus monophylla, they should seem distinct ; 
but to one who should travel by day marches from one district 
to the other, seeing the two forms gradually blending, I am sure 
they would be regarded only as geographical varieties. 

I have called the Nevada form depauperate, a terrn to which 
Sir Joseph Hooker objects, because, as he says, the leaves are 
not dwarfed ; but there are not half as many on the Nevada tree, 
which has generally shrunk to half the size of its eastern cousins, 
and in the dryest places it inhabits is barely more than a bush. 

I may also add that Dr. Engelmann and Dr. Torrey were 
both satisfied of the specific identity of the two forms. This 
Dr. Torrey has put on record in his catalogue of the plants which 
I collected on the Colorado Expedition (" Report Upon the Col- 
orado River of the West"), where, under the name ''Pinus 
edulis, Engelm. {P. Fremontiana, Gord.)", which is said to be 
" common in all the higher portions of New Mexico," " var. mono- 
phyllus, Torr.," is recorded and referred to its habitat in the 
Cerbat Mountains, Arizona. In these circumstances it will per- 
haps not seem surprising that I adhere to my opinion that the 
two forms are but varieties of one species, and that the geo- 
graphical distribution of these varieties illustrates in an interesting 
manner the influences which have produced the variation. 

A peculiar confusion seems to exist in the minds of botanists 
in reference to the group of small nut-pines which inhabit our 
Western Territories and Northern Mexico, viz. : P. cembroides, 
Zucc; P. edulis, Engelm.; P. monophylla, Torr. and Frem. (/"• 
Frcnwntiana, Endl. not Gordon); and P. Parryana, Englm. 


{P. Llaveaua, Schiede and Deppe.) They are very much alike in 
habit, cones and flowers, but differ in the number of leaves; P. 
Parryana has three to five, generally four ; P. cembroides, three, 
sometimes two ; P. edulis two, and P. tnonophylla one or two. 
Dr. Engelmann suggests, what seems very reasonable, that they 
are all geographical varieties of one species. 

I would refer those interested in the subject to Flora, 1832, 
Beib. ii.,'93; Endlicher, Synopsis Coniferarum, pp. 192, 193; 
Gordon, Pinetum, pp. 265-274; Veitch, Manual of the Coniferae, 
p. 160; Engelmann, Revision of the Genus Pinus, pp. 16-18. 

J. S. Newberry. 

On the Species of the Genus Anychia, Richard.* 

By N. L. Britton. 
In the course of my investigation of the flora of New Jersey 
I have been impressed by the difference in appearance and 
habitat of the two well known {oxv\%o{ Anychia — the one spread- 
ing, more or less pubescent, short jointed and small leaved, 
occurring mainly in open places, the other slender, erect, smooth, 
larger leaved and longer jointed, preferring dry woodlands, and 
have now reached the conclusion, after a critical examination of 
many specimens both in the field and the herbarium, that they are 
best regarded as distinct species. Under the generic name 
Queria they were early separated by Nuttall, (Genera, 158, 159,) 
who knew the pubescent, short jointed spreading form as Q. 
Canadensis , and the slender, smooth, erect one as Q. capillacea ; 
I have examined a specimen of the latter named by himself 
DeCandolle (Prodromus, iii., 369,) referring the plants to Mich- 
aux's genus Anychia, retained the two species as A. dichotoma, 
Michx., and A. capillacea, DC., though expressing some doubt 
as to their distinctness, and was in this followed by Beck (Bot., 
131); this was again maintained by Mr. J. H. Redfield (Bull. 
Torr. Club, vi., 61, 62), and Bentham and Hooker in Genera 
Plantarum, iii., 17, regard the genus as consisting of two North 
American species. By all other authors, so far as I have been able 
to learn, the two have been considered as conspecific, or, regarding 

* Read before the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S., Buffalo Meeting, Augnst, 


the spreading short jointed form as the type of a species, the slender 
erect one has been made a variety, following Torrey in Flora North. 
U.S., 273. Linnaeus' Queria Canadensis appears from his descrip- 
tion to have been the slender form. My experience with the plants 
has been just that of Mr. Redfield as related by him in the paper 
above cited, except as to the length of the calyx lobes, which I 
find to be variable in both species. That the difference between 
the two is not caused by habitat alone — though it may well have 
originated from some such cause — is indicated by the occurrence 
of A. capillacea in open fields formerly covered by forest but from 
which the trees have been removed many years. We should ex- 
pect to find the plants assuming the spreading, pubescent form 
under these conditions if habitat was the sole agent in the varia- 
tion, but I am well satisfied that this does not take place at the 
present time. I have also noticed A. capillacea growing as a weed 
in gardens. 

As to the distribution of the species, A. capillacea is certainly 
most abundant northward, extending to southern New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania and probably much farther southward, and 
westward to Missouri; A. dickotoma appears to be of more south- 
ern distribution, but is found in New York and New England. 

A partial bibliography, as I understand it, is as follows : — 
A. dichotoma, Michx., Flor. Bor. Amer., i., 113 ; Pursh, Flor. 
Amer. Sept., i., 176; Rcem. & Schultes, Syst. Veg., v., 525 ; 
Torrey, Flora North. & Mid. U. S., 273; Flora N. Y., i., 105 ; 
DeCandolle, Prodr., iii., 369 ; Beck, Bot., 131; Torr. &. Gray, 
Flora N.A., i., 172; Darlington, Flora. Cestr., 162; Gray, Man., 
Ed. 1848,65; Ed. 1867,96; Wood, Class Book, Ed. 1855, 185 ; 
Chapm., Flora South. U. S., 46; Young, Flora Texas, 174; Red- 
field, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vi., 61,62; Schrenk. 1. c, 297; 
Kellerman, Plant Anal., 165. 

A. Canade?isis, Ell., Sketch, i., 307*; Hook., Flor. Bor. Amer., 
i.,226; Darby, Bot. South. U. S., 243. 

Queria Canadensis, Nutt, Gen., 158; Barton, Comp. Flora 
Phil., i., 74; Eaton, Man., 2nd Ed., 394; 6th Ed., 295. 

Paronychia Canadensis, Wood. Bot. &. Flor. ,58; (this des- 
cription would include both species ; his var. pumila is probably 
but a form oi A. dickotoma). 


A. fastigiata, conferta, polygonoides and lateralis, Raf, in 
Torrey Herbarium. 

A. capillacea, DC, Prodr., iii., 369; Beck, Bot, 131 ; Red- 
field, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vL, 61. 

A. dichotoma, var. capillacea, Torrey, Flora North. & Mid. 
U. S., 273 ; Gray, Gen., ii , 19, 20, plate 104; Wood, Class Book, 
Ed. 185s, 185. 

A. Canadensis, var. capillacea, Eaton, Man., 6th Ed., 295. 

A. dichotoma, var. /3. Torr. & Gray, Flora N.A., i., 172. 

A. filiformis, Raf., in Torrey Herbarium. 

Queria Catiadensis, L., Sp. Plant., ist Ed., 90; 3rd Ed., 132; 
Orteg., Dec, t. 15, f. 2(?); Gsertner, Fruct. & Sem., ii., 217, t. 
128; Muhl., Cat, IS ; Bigelow, Flora Bost, 99. 

Q. capillacea, Nutt., Gen., 159; Barton, Comp. Flora Phila., 
i., 74. 

Q. Canadcftsis, var. capillaris, Provancher, Flor. Can., i., 85. 

Notes on Some Introduced Plants, Chiefly in Summit Co., Ohio.* 
By Prof. E. W. Claypole. 

The overrunning of the Western world by the flora of the 
Eastern is a fact of such great interest to the philosophical botanist 
that every step in the march deserves notice. As we look back 
we are often unable to determine where a foreign plant first entered 
a given district for want of accurate notes of its earliest appear- 
ance. Hence I have thought it worth while to place the follow- 
ing notes on record. 

The following plants have been known for many years in 
adjoining counties and in some part of Summit, but they have 
recently increased far beyond their previous amount, and threaten 
to become mischievous : — the English Buttercup, Raminculus 
acris and the Narrow leaved Plantain, Plantago lanceolata. 

The following are in the same condition of distribution, but 
are beneficial rather than mischievous : — Orchard Grass, Dactylis 
glomerata. Tall Fescue, Festiica elatior. 

Those given in this list are already common in some of the 

• Read before the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S. at the BulTalo Meeting, 
August, 1886. 


Eastern States but have only recently appeared in Summit Co., 
and give promise of rapid increase: — Alsike Clover, Trifolium 
kybridum ; Bird's Foot Clover, T. agrarium ; Carrot, Daiictts 
Carota; Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara; Canada Thistle, Cirsium 
arvense; Prickly Lettuce, Lactuca scariola. 

This list contains the names of some European species intro- 
duced in some of the Eastern States which have appeared in 
Summit Co., but in very small numbers or in single specimens, 
and whose spread is as yet doubtful : — Salsify, Tragopogoti por- 
rifolius, increasing in two or three spots, also at St. Catharine's 
Ontario; Mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris, single plant; Upright 
Cinquefoil, Potetitilla recta, single plant; Yellow Flag, Iris Ger- 
mauica, single clump : Field Cress, Lepidium canipestre, one small 
group ; Barberry, Berberis vulgaris, a few bushes in one spot. 

This list contains t'r.e names of unsuccessful immigrants repre- 
sented by single or few plants destroyed soon after their arrival : 
— Birds-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus ; Hemlock, Conium 

I add here the names of a few immigrant? observed elsewhere 
but not yet generally common : \^\xz(txne.,"3Mz\.l2." Medicago sativa, 
steets of Salem, O.; Good King Henry, Chenopodium bonus- 
Henricus, Franklin, Pa., and Niagara, N. Y.; Mexican Tea, C. 
ambrosioides, streets of Pittsburgh ; Galinsoga, Galinsoga parvi- 
flora, lax and dense varieties, streets of Pittsburgh near High 
school; English Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris. Nesquetoning, Pa., 

Notes from the Saguenay River. 

The little French village of St. Alexis in the province of 
Chicoutimi, Quebec, bordering upon its slightly larger neighbor 
St. Alphonse, is built upon a narrow margin of alluvium and 
drift surrounding the higher ledges of syenite behind it and looks 
straight down the wide and beautiful Ha- Ha bay, past steep capes 
on its eastern shore, and retreating slopes of argillaceous farm 
land on the west, to the distant course of the Saguenay river. 
The latitude is 48° N. and the situation is therefore boreal and 
cold. The flora has an alpine aspect. A very brief stay at this 
attractive spot enabled me to make a few general notes on its 


vegetation, which may interest some readers, from the remote- 
ness of the region, though only the most conspicuous species and 
their prevalence are mentioned. The time of my visit was at the 
middle of July, when the day temperature was seldom much over 
70° F. and the night, at times, as low as 50°. 

Over the syenite hill upon which the hotel stands, Kalmia 
a^igustifolia, L., grows in great abundance, while the pretty Poten- 
ttlla trtdentata, Ait., spangles the rocks in white patches. In 
sunny spots the vetch, Vicia Cracca, L., raises its purple or 
blue spires and the red-berried stems of Corntis Canadensis, 
L., fill the cooler nooks. Superb displays of Actcea spicata, 
L., van rubra, are seen in the woods where Sambucus 
pubens shows its coral berries. The yellow-rattle Rhinanthus 
Crista-galli, L., occurs plentifully, ancj through the uplands Eu- 
phorbia Helioscopia, L., with Thlaspi arvetise, L., is seen. Over 
many ledges the Labrador tea, Ledum latifolium, Ait, spreads 
its flannel lined leaves with Chiogenes hispidula, T. and G., Gaul- 
theria procumbens, L., and Vaccinium Vitis-Idcea, L. In many 
places Silene inflata. Smith, becomes a weed ; in wet spots the 
cottony heads oi Eriophornm polystachyoti, L., cluster, and rarely 
the fragrance of Spiranthes Romanzoviana, Chamisso, arrests 
attention. Aralia hispida, Michx., Myosotis palustris. Withering, 
Dtervilla trifida, Moench, Epilobium angustifoliiim, L., Geum 
strtctum, Ait., Thalictrum Cormiti, L., Campanula rotundifolia, 
L., are easily gathered, while less abundant are Sanicula Cana- 
densis, L., Rtidbeckia hirta, L., Linum tisitatissimum, L., Corntis 
stolonifera, Michx., Antennaria margaritacca, R. Br., Epilo- 
bium palustre, L., and Potentilla Norvegica L. 

Our common wayside plants appear in this northern station. 
Here are seen Brunella vulgaris, L , Leonurus cardiaca, L.. 
Stellaria media, Smith, CEnothera biennis, L., Galeopsis Tetrahit, 
L., Chenopodium album, L., Lactuca Canadensis, L., Capsella 
bursa-pastoris, Moench, and Ranunculus acris, L. Two clovers 
are distributed here, Trifoliunt repens, L., and T. pratense, L. 
The fertile patches of strawberries (/^ vesca, L., and F. Virgin- 
iana, Ehrh.) crowd the hillside, and amongst berry producers we 
find Ribes Cynosbati, L., Rubns trijlorns, Richardson, R. stri- 
gosus, Michx., and Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum, Lam, 


Larch and Spruce are abundant, while Birch and Poplar 
cover over as a second growth the bared hillsides. The rich 
and varied display of mosses is surprising, and heavy cushions of 
humus formed by their decay hide the rocks with an elastic 
carpet. L. P. Gratacap. 

Aconitum Noveboracense, Gray.* 
By Fred. V. Coville. 

In the Columbia College herbarium are specimens of an 
Aconitum labeled, "Aconitum uncinatum, Greene, Chenango 
Co., N. Y., received May 30, 1857, A. Willard." 

In the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club for 1885, 
(Vol. xii., p. 52), a single specimen of the same species is re- 
ported to have been found by A. L. Coville at Oxford, Che- 
nango Co., N. Y. In the fall of 1885 the writer found at Oxford 
another station, the specimens numbering about sixty. Speci- 
mens of these, together with those from Greene, in the Columbia 
College herbarium, came to the hands of Dr. Gray, who decided, 
as had been before suspected, that the plant was not Aconitum 
uncinatum.. He has given it the name Aconitum Noveboracense, 
with the following description : 
Aconitum Noveboracense, n.sp. 

Inter A. delphinifolium et A. Columbianum coUocandum 
propter racemum angustum subpauciflorum glabrum ; caule 
bipedali erecto folioso ; foliis membranaceis, 5-7-partitis, seg- 
mentis basi cuneatis trifidis, lobis incisis, lobulis et apicibus lance- 
olatis ; casside gibboso-obovata superne late rotundata fere sym- 
metrica, rostro breviusculo porrecto parum descendente ; sepalis 
anticis angustis parvis ; folliculis oblongis. 

The casque is higher than that of A. delphinifolium, a far 
northwestern species, but broader, -lower, more symmetrical, and 
much less rostrate than that of A. Columbianum. A. G. 

Dr. Augustus Willard, the first to find the plant, has long 
since died, leaving neither herbarium nor plant-records. The 
original Greene station has therefore been lost, the single plant 

* Read before the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S., Buffalo meeting, August, 


first found at Oxford has disappeared ; so that the only station 
now known is that about two and a half miles south of the vil- 
lage of Oxford. The plants grow in shaded alluvial soil, on the 
bank of the Chenango River. 

The Mode of Destruction of the Potato by Peronospora infestans,* 

The tuber of the potato being only an enormous development 
of the stem must possess all the parts that characterize the 
exogenous stem. That is, it should show the central pith, the 
woody or vascular layer, the bark and the epidermis. These 
may be readily seen with the naked eye on slicing the potato. 
The vascular layer appears as a semi-transparent line running 
along the cut surface about a quarter of an inch below the cuticle 
and rising to the eyes where it meets the layer that represents 
the ba,rk. At these points the cutiele is exceedingly thin and 
here the assault of P. infestans is usually made. Its progress is 
marked by a black streak advancing from the eye along the layer 
of vascular tissue which it destroys, either rising to the other 
eyes in its course or meeting similar hosts of enemies advancing 
from them. A layer of the bark immediately under the peel is 
attacked in tiie same manner about the same time. Two parallel 
black streaks are therefore visible advancing side by side below 
the skin of the potato. 

In these two layers the life of the potato resides and their 
destruction consequently ensures its death. To them the attack 
is confined. The starch laden cells of the pith and those between 
the vascular layer and the epidermis are not injured. Indeed a 
tuber in this or even in later stages of decay, is one of tlie best 
sources from which can be obtained perfect starch-cells with their 
contents uninjured for microscopic study. 

Here the action of P. infestans ends. 15ut other enemies 
soon troop in and complete the ruin it has begun. Fusisporium 
Solani abounds, but the greater part of what remains, the starch 
cells, is destroyed by Bacterium, termo, the ubiquitous and ever- 
ready agent of destruction. This soon reduces the tuber to a 
mass of decay and to its action is principally due the smell arising 
from rotten potatoes. E. W. Cl.AYPOLE, Akron, Ohio. 

" Read before the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S. at the liufialo Meeting, 
August, 1886. 


Index to Recent American Botanical Literature 

Ariscema triphyllnm. — Notes on. Thos. Meehan (Bot. Gazette, 

xi., p. 217.) 
Mr. Meehan shows that in the vicinity of Philadelphia, the 
wholly green-leaved, vigorous plants are mainly pistillate, while 
those which produce leaves glaucous or gray beneath, and are 
smaller, are mainly staminate. 
Botanizing in Texas, II. J. Reverchon. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 

Campanula medium. — Notes on. Boiling W. Barton. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi., pp. 208-211.) 
An account of experiments on the cross-fertilization of this 
plant by insects 

Clethra alnifolia. (Garden, xxx., p. 187.) 
Flora of our Sotithwestern Archipelago. Wm. S. Lyon. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi., pp. 197-205.) 
An interesting account of the vegetation of the Santa Barbara 
Florida Fungi. — Notes on. — No. 8. W. W. Calkins. (Journ. 

MycoL, ii., pp. 104-106.) 
Fungi from Various Localities. — New Species of. — J. B. Ellis 

and B M. Everhart. (Journ. Mycol., ii., pp. 99-104.) 
Twenty-five new species are described. 
Kansas Algce. — Third Contribution to the Knowledge of. Francis 

WoUe. (Bull. Washburn Coll. Lab. Nat. Hist, i., pp. 174- 

Five species are enumerated which had not hitherto been 

Kansas Ferns. — Further Notes on. F. W. Cragin. (Bull. Wash- 
burn Coll. Lab. Nat. Hist, i., pp. 175-176.) 
Profe.=sor Cragin records the discovery of Asplenium parvu- 
lum, Mart and Gal., by Miss Lillie O. Hosford, in Chautauqua 
Co., Kansas ; he also gives additional localities for other species 
previously reported. 
Kansas Mosses. — Fourth Contribution to the Ktiowledge of. 

Eugene A. Rau. (Bull. Washburn Coll. Lab. Nat. Hist, 

i., pp. 171-173-) 


A list of 23 species of mosses not hitherto reported from 
Kansas and of new localities for many others. 
Leucophyllum Texanum. Gilbert Onderdonk. (Gard. Month., 

ii., p. 277.) 
Lichetts not previously reported from Kansas. H. Willey. (Bull. 
Washburn Coll. Lab. Nat. Hist, i., p. 176.) 
Five species not hitherto recorded are enumerated. 
Liriodendron Tulipifera. (Lloyd's Drugs and Medicines N. A., 
ii., pp. I -2 1, one plate, six figures and a map.) 
The first part of the second volume of the Messrs. Lloyd's 
valuable work contains a full account of Liriodendron and our 
native Magnolias. Allusion is made to the difference in color 
and texture, of the wood of the Tulip Tree, a difference well 
known to all lumbermen, though the cause is as yet unexplained. 
Magnolia. (Lloyd's Drugs and Medicines N. A., ii., pp. 21-32, 
two plates and seven figures.) 
Figures of M. acuminata and M. glauca are given on plates 
XXVIII and XXIX of the work, and the fruit of ^. grandiflora 
on p. 32. 
Monterey Cypress at Home. (Garden, xxx., p. 189 ; one cut.) 

A good engraving from a photograph taken of Cupressus 
macrocarpa at Monterey, Cal. 

Navajo Names for Plants. VV. Matthews, U. S. A. (Amer. 
Nat., XX., pp. 76j-jyj.) 
Dr. Matthews has rendered botanists and philologists a valu- 
able service in recording the names given by the Navajo Indians 
to many of the plants among which they live. He remarks that 
their plant-lore is remarkable for its extent and accuracy. The 
list given is certainly large, numbering 95 species, and there are 
many others for which no satisfactory etymology can be found. 
Pimts cdnlis. Sir J. D. Hooker. (Gard. Chron. xxvi., p. 300, fig. 61.) 
Polyporiis officinalis, Fries. W. W. Calkins. (Journ. Mycol., 
ii., p. 107.) 
It is stated thai this fine and rare species is occasionally found 
on living trees of the White Pine in the Michigan forests. The 
fungus has a very bitter taste, similar to that of quinine, in place 
of which it has been used to some ex-tent. 


Rt'sin Passages of the White Pine. — Structure and Distribution 

of the. Etta L. Knovvles. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 206-208, 

one plate.) 
Ribcs oxycanthoides, L. J. D. Hooker. (Curtis'.s Bot. Mag., 

(3) xlii., tab. 6892.) 
Robinia viscosa. — Native Locality for. II. W. Ravenel. (Gard. 

Month., xxviii., pp. 276, 277.) 
Mr. Ravenel notes that this species was collected by Prof. L. 
R. Gibbes in 1881 in the same locality recorded by Prof. Sar- 
gent in " Forest Trees of North America ", p. 56, i. e., " Slopes 
of Buzzard Ridge, near Highland, Macon Co., N. C, J. Donnell 
Smith, 1882." 
Rust of the Ash Tree. {Alcidium Fraxini.) C. P3. Bessey. 

(Amer. Nat, xx., p. 806 ) 
Twigs killed by Telephone Wires. F. E. L. Beal. (Amer. Nat., 

XX., pp. 806, 807.) 
Variation of Water in Trees and Shrubs. D. P. Penhallow. 

(Canadian Rec. Sci., ii., pp. 105-116.) 
Viola pedata. (Garden, xxx., pp. 140, 141 ; one cut.) 
Xanthosoma sagittifolium. Gerald McCarthy. (Vick's 111. Month. 
Mag., ix., p. 42.) 

This Aroid grows abundantly in certain boggy localities about 
Wilmington, North Carolina, and is locally known as Spoon 
Flower and Wilmington Lily. Its general habit and appearance 
is much like that of Sagittaria, but the leaves are more 
glossy and very dark green. It blooms from the first of June to 
the middle of July ; the spathe is pure white and spoon shaped. 
The plant has a long tap root covered with warty excrescences 
and long, string-like fibres by which it is attached to the roots of 
the trees among which it grows. The large, coral-red seeds ripen 
about the beginning of September. 
Zaniia integrifolia (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 146.) 

Prof Sargent writes : " That in Florida this Cycad is largely 
cultivated for the sake of the starch contained in its roots, great 
quantities of the starch being made for the Key West and West 
Indian markets," 

Botanical Notes. 

Comparative Anatomy of the Filz-like Hair-covering of Leaf- 
organs. Emily L. Gregory, Bryn Mawr College, Pa. (In- 
augural dissertation for obtaining the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy presented before the Philosophical Faculty of the 
University of Zurich, 1886, p. 42, illustrated.) 
The thickening of the upper cells of hairs as compared with 
the basal cells and those of the epidermis beneath them, together 
with a certain form of stoma, noticed on leaves growing in a 
very moist atmosphere, suggested the probability of a connec- 
tion between the hair-covering and the ability of leaves to take 
up moisture in a liquid state from the atmosphere. The investi- 
gations recorded in this paper seem to show that the leaf-hairs 
may contribute actively to the supply of water in the plant, as 
well as to prevent the escape of that taken up by the root- hairs. 
Recent investigations by others tend to substantiate this conclu- 
sion. Lists of plants are given which are grouped according to 
the anatomical and physiological characters of the hair-covering 
of their leaves. Of those in which the basal-cells of the hairs are 
living and best fitted to absorb water, the following native or 
naturalized plants are worthy of mention : — Tussilago Farfara, 
Inula Heleniurn, Artemisia ludoviciana, Antennaria plantaginea, 
Potentilla anserina, Anaphalis margaritacea and Artemisia vul- 
garis. Of those studied in which this function is doubtful the 
following are mentioned : — Populus alba, Tilia alba and T. 
pubescens, Cynoglosstim officinale, Dryas Drummondii and 
Ledum latifolium. 

Experimental tests were applied in order to determine the 
relative power of absorption of the basal cells of hairs as com- 
pared with the epidermal cells ; wilted leaves were lightly 
brushed with water so as to moisten the hairy coating, but not 
the epidermis, and the recovery of turgescence timed. The 
plasmolytic condition of the basal cells of hairs was found to be 
greater than that of the epidermal cells. The most decisive re- 
sults were obtained with plants of arid regions, Helicrysum pctio- 
latiim from the Cape of Good Hope and Salvia argcntea from 
Southern Europe. In the case of Alfrcdia cernua an interesting 
peculiarity was noted ; it was found that the hairs on the veins 


on the under side of the leaf absorbed water more rapidly than 
those on the spaces between. 

The essay concludes with a critical comparison of the sto- 
mata of plants that are hairy, and emphasis is laid on the follow- 
ing deduction : " Whenever the hairs or scales form a covering 
so that a protected layer of air exists between the covering and 
the epidermis, the stomata are raised, and where the outside air 
has free communication with the stomata, they are not raised." 

Flora Brazilietisis. Fascicle- xcvii of this stupendous work 
was issued on April ist. It contains monographs of the Brazil- 
ian Ternstrcemiacea; by H. Wawra Eques de Fernsee, with 17 
plates, the Rhizobolea; by L. Wittmack with 5 plates, and the 
Dichapetalea; by H. Baillon with 4 plates. 

Cooke's Illustrations of British Fungi. Parts Nos. 42 and 43 
of this fine work, commencing Vol. v., have recently been issued. 
The genus Agaricus is still the subject of illustration, the number 
of plates having nearly reached 700 ; the descriptive text is pub- 
lished in " Grevillea " ; the number of species of British Agarics 
described has now reached 577, as shown by the part issued in 
the September number of that journal. 

Baillon' s Dictionnaire de Botanique. The 19th and 20th 
parts of this work, completing Volume ii., have recently been 
issued, the last genus noted being Gytonanthus. A beautifully 
colored plate accompanies each part ; these, however, are not 
numbered and will be somewhat troublesome to cite. 

Photographs of the Fruits of American Plants. Dr. C. F. 
Millspaugh, of Binghamton, N. Y., has sent us some photographs 
of the fruits of Actma spicata, var. alba, and Celastnis scandens, 
which are intended to be attached to Herbarium sheets. These 
are especially desirable in species- like those of Actcea — whose 
fruit is difficult to preserve. We hope that Dr. Millspaugh will 
find it possible to produce photographs of other species and give 
botanists opportunity to obtain them. 

Cypripedium arietinum in China. In a recent number of the 
Bulletin of the Botanical Society of France, M. Franchet notes 
the discovery of this plant in the mountains of Yun-nan, South- 
western China. This interesting fact adds another link to the 
chain of evidence of the common origin of the Eastern North 
American and Eastern Asiatic Floras. 




Vol. XIII.] New York, November, 1886. [No. II. 

The Pores of the Libriform Tissue. 
By Emily L. Gregory, Ph. D. 

The objections against the imbibition theory of the passage 
of the sap through the cell walls, and the growing favor with 
which the opposite theory is regarded, namely: its passage 
throngh the cell lumina, have suggested a question in regard to 
some anatomical facts that have hitherto been disregarded. As 
the theory accounted for the upward movement of the water 
through the agency of the cell walls of the woody or libriform 
tissue of the stem, no special interest attached itself to the differ- 
ence in the form or frequency of the pores of this tissue. There- 
fore, while the anatomy of the woody tissue has been thoroughly 
studied and described by various authors, Sanio, Hartig and 
others, certain points of difference in the libriform tissue have 
received no mention from these authors, and as these facts appear 
to have a direct bearing on the theory of water movement 
through the cell lumina, a brief consideration of them may not be 
wholly without interest. 

A few words of explanation are here necessary to show why 
a difference in function is inferred from this difference in the an- 
atomy of the pore. Assuming the passage of the sap through the 
lumina, it is plain that the different elements of the wood (holz- 
korper) contribute in different degrees to this result; other things 
being equal, those being most efficacious whose lumina have the 
greatest diameter. Therefore the tracheae take the first rank and 
are supposed to be channels through which the water is passed 
upward to the leaves, instead of being mere reservoirs of water. 
Assuming this of the tracheje, it may be supposed that the thin- 


■walled tracheids have a similar function and rank next in import- 
ance, those ^t least whose walls are so thin that they are of little 
use as strengthening cells, and which differ from the real tracheae 
only by the lack of direct communication with each other, and by 
their usually smaller diameter. It is well known that some of these 
tracheids are supplied with peculiar shaped pores whose function 
is generally conceded to be that of facilitating the passage of some 
part of the cell contents from one cell to another. Next we come to 
the tissue forming the subject of the present work, namely : the lib- 
riform or thick walled woody tissue. In many instances the cells 
of this tissue are found to possess pores of the same peculiar 
shape as those of the thin- walled tracheids. Hence a slight ground 
for the inference that these cells also serve to a certain extent as 
water carriers and rank next in importance to the tracheids, the 
passage of the water being facilitated by the same mechanical 
construction as in the cells of the latter class. Lastly we come 
to the remaining cells of the libriform tissue, which are supposed 
to be of the least importance in this respect, as they are supplied 
only with simple pores, such as are found in all parts of plant- 
organs wherever thick-walled cells occur, and where there is no 
reason for supposing any arrangement specially adapted to the 
rapid transport of water. 

A second and perhaps better reason for this assumption, is 
the result of various experiments with the wood of coniferous 
trees, which contains no tracheae nor thin walled tracheids, but 
with the exception of the cells of the medullary ray, consists en- 
tirely of thick walled tracheids abundantly supplied with these 
peculiar pores. The experiments of Robert Hartig and others 
have proved that no considerable amount of water passes through 
these cell walls, therefore furnishing strong presumptive evidence 
in favor of the assumption that the passage of water upward from 
one cell to another, in the case of the tracheids of the conifers, is 
in some way facilitated by these bordered* pores, which as before 
stated, correspond exactly in form with the bordered pores of the 
libriform tissue of dicotyledonous woods. 

* The word bordered is used here in the sense of the German word behiift, and 
throughout this article the word border is used for the German word hof, when used 
with reference to the widening at the extremity of the pore next the outer surface of 
the cell wall. 


Still another reason for supposing a functional difference be- 
tween bordered and simple pores is founded on the fact, that when- 
ever the libriform cells are used as reservoirs of starch, which Is 
often the case, it has hitherto been found only in those with simple 
pores. In all the woods examined in the work described in the 
following pages only two exceptions to this statement were found, 
and these did not materially weaken the argument used. 

An attempt has been made, as here described, to examine 
the wood of the principal dicotyledonous families, in reference 
to this characteristic of the libriform tissue and to show; first, 
to what extent it is possible for it to aid in the process of water- 
carrying, as shown by the presence or absence of these borders ; 
second, how far this anatomical structure coincides with the mor- 
phological characteristics which are made the basis of the present 
system of classification and serve to determine the limits of genera, 
families, groups, etc. 

It will be necessary at the outset to explain somewhat in de- 
tail what principle or definition has been followed in deciding to 
which class a pore belongs; for though in general, it is very easy 
to distinguish a bordered from a simple pore, many cases occur 
where the necessity for a clear and fixed definition is seen. In all 
thick-walled cells, where simple pores are found, there is, or may 
be, a tendency to a slight funnel-formed enlargement of the canal 
at the extremity where the two pores of the adjacent 
cells meet. The question is, what must be the form of 
this enlargement to give it the name border ? As a 
test of this, examples were taken from the pores of bast 
and sclerenchyma cells, where there is no reason for 
supposing any adaptation to water transport. In 
many of these pores the canal widens sufficiently to 
present the appearance of a very small border. If we 
take, however, the so-called profile view, made either 
by a cross or longitudinal section through the border, 
and compare it with the .same view of that of the pores 
of Conifene (see figures a and b) it will be seen that 
in the former the wall of the canal passes by a curve 
into this opening, while in the latter, it makes always 
a distinct angle. This was taken for a test, and in all 



cases where a decided angle occurs, the pore is considered "bor- 
dered [behoft). Sanio, in his work on the wood elements (Holz- 
korper), probably took another standard, as he has in several 
cases described pores as bordered, which, by this test, must be 
considered simple ; for example — Fraxinus, Betula and others. 

The principal genera of sixty-seven families were examined. 
Of this number there are only eight families in which the libri- 
form tissue contains both bordered and simple pores, eighteen 
contain only bordered, and thirty-four only simple pores. The re- 
maining seven families contain genera which do not agree in this 
respect. These present various points of interest in regard to 
the parallelism between anatomical and morphological character- 
istics, therefore they will be referred to more fully in the second 
part of the work. 

If we begin with the most complex type, or that containing 
the greatest variety of elements, we find this illustrated by the 
eight famiUes containing both kinds of pores in the libriform. 
Here we find not only the highest degree of differentiation of 
tissue, but also the greatest variety of means for water transport, 
according to the assumption that the greater amount of water is 
carried through the cell lumen. One example taken from this 
class will illustrate this and also the manner of arrangement of 
the tissues, in which is found a supposed adaptation to this func- 
tion of the bordered pore. We omit here the part supposed to be 
played by the cells of the medullary ray and wood parenchyma, 
in the upward transport of water — not because it is less import- 
ant, but on account of its lack of connection with the present 
subject; then we have, as before stated, the tracheae, which take 
the first rank as water carriers, both on account of their size 
(diameter) and their open communication with each other ; then 
the thin-walled tracheids, next the thick-walled or libriform 
cells with bordered pores, next the real libriform cells, or those 
containing only simple pores. The woody tissue of Quercus 
furnishes a typical illustration containing all these elements with 
great variation in size. If we make a cross-section extending 
through the growth of a single year — that is, giving us the pic- 
ture of the so-called annual ring — we find the elements arranged 
in the following order : 




Libriform, with 
bordered pores. 

S Autumn. 

■ ! 

Libriform, with 
simple and bordered pores. 

' ! 

Libriform, with 
only simple pores. 

. Summer. 

, S 

Libriform, with 
simple and bordered pores. 

' \ 

Tracheee and tracheids. 


a < 

Spring wood, with 
only few libriform cells. 

!- Spring. 

The cells first formed from the cambium in the spring He 
next to the inner limit of the annual ring (see a), and consist of 
large tracheae and thin -walled tracheids with large bordered pores. 
Next follows zone b, in which the tracheae and tracheids are 
much smaller in diameter, and the walls of the tracheids per- 
ceptibly thicker. In zone c, only a few tracheae occur; the 
walls of the tracheids here are nearly as thick as in the real libri- 
form cells, and contain bordered pores which diminish in size and 
frequency toward the middle of the year's ring or the summer's 
growth. Then follows the zone d, which consists almost entirely 
of thick- walled, simple-pored, libriform cells. This zone varies 
in size ; in the sections examined it averaged between ]^ and i^ 
of the whole width of the year's ring. Then follows another 
zone, e, where the bordered pores again appear, of about the same 
size and frequency as in zone c. Lastly comes the autumn- 
wood, /, in which the pores are all bordered ; they lie mostly on 
the tangential walls, but are not restricted to these ; the borders 
are quite large, often reaching the size of those found in the 
thin-walled tracheids. 

To explain the supposed adaptation here to the transfer of 
water at such times when the need is greatest,, we refer once 
more to the coniferous woods, with which experiments have been 
made which verify some of the assumptions regarding the water 
transport, and furnish a kind of centre around which may be 
grouped other facts and conjectures. It is well known that the 
pores of the tracheids of the summer wood of the conifers lie on 


the radial walls, while those of the autumn wood are found 
almost exclusively on the tangential walls. It has been sug- 
gested that this arrangement is just what might be expected if 
these pores are designed to facilitate the passage of water. In 
the early spring, when the building process begins anew, there 
arises at the same time the necessity for a sufficient supply of 
water for the new cells, which necessity is met by these pores 
forming a direct communication with the cambium layer. This 
in case of the conifers is given only as a suggestion or conjec- 
ture ; but whatever importance may be attached to it as such, 
may be applied with equal weight to the wood of Quercus, and 
also to that of the remaining genera of this and the other seven 
families. In these eight families where both bordered and simple- 
pored libriform tissue occurs, of which Quercus is given as the 
type, we find the last layers of the summer's growth, the so- 
called autumn-wood cells, contain bordered pores, nearly all of 
which are situated on the tangential walls, thus furnishing the 
same means for the rapid transport of water to the cambium 
layer in the spring as in case of the conifers. The first cells 
built in the spring are the large tracheae and thin- walled tracheids, 
which arrangement appears also a part of the same plan, as the 
rapid growth occurring when the leaf-buds develop into leaves, 
must call for a large and rapid supply of water. Later in the 
season are built the strengthening cells, real libriform with simple 
pores, with no special provision for water transport ; then in the 
fall again appear the pores with large borders. 

In Castanea AndFagus the arrangement is the same as in Quer- 
cus, except that in Fagus the zone of simple-pored libriform tissue 
is very narrow. In the genera examined in Amygdalese, this 
zone is much wider than in any of the above mentioned cases, 
while in Spircea the case is reversed, the greater part of the 
year's ring being made up of bordered-pored libriform. In the 
remaining families, Celastrinese, Sapotaceae, Campanulaceae, and 
in Buxus, it is more difficult to determine the average amount of 
simple-pored libriform. In Celastrinese and Buxus the greater 
part of the libriform tissue contains bordered pores. The family 
Myrtaceze we have also included in this number, as it contains 
both kinds of libriform tissue in all the genera examined, with 


but one exception. In Myrtus communis no simple-pored libri- 
form cells were found, though it is possible that they exist, but in 
such small quantities as to have escaped detection. In this fam- 
ily there is a marked difference in the quantity of the simple-pored 
libriform in the different genera, and it is difficult to give a very 
definite order of arrangement of the different layers. In general, 
it may be said, whenever the libriform of any part of the year's 
ring contains bordered pores, they are never wanting in the last 
layers of the year's growth, so that they stand in direct commu- 
nication with the cambium layer in the early spring. 

A few facts of interest in this connection may be mentioned 
in regard to the size of the border and position of the pores in 
the nineteen families where only bordered pores occur. 

In the genera studied, all variations of size occur between the 
smallest and largest found. Among the smallest are those of 
Erica and Taberncemontana. The length of the border in Erica, 
as seen in profile, is about i ^ micromillimeters, measured on the 
cross-section ; the longitudinal section averaged a trifle longer, be- 
tween I ^ and 2 mm. The largest were found in Syringa, Drimys, 
and a few others. One of Drimys was found to measure 9 mm., 
but this was an exception, as they average here from 6 to J}4- 
In Syringa they are between 6 and 7 mm. These larger ones 
compare very fairly with the size of the border in many of the 
Conifers. For example, those of Pinus and Larix measure from 
7 to 7^ and 8 mm. 

Frequently variations were found in genera of the same 
family, as in case of Ericaceae, Magnoliaceae and others, some- 
times in the same specimen, as in Qiiercus, where they vary from 
lYitot) mm., according to their position in the year's ring. One 
or two instances were found where the borders of the same cell 
differed in size. 

Of all the genera examined in these eighteen families, Erica 
and Tabernmmontana are the most interesting, as they furnish the 
only exceptions thus far found, to the statement before made, 
that the simple-pored libriform cells are the only ones used as 
reservoirs for starch. Here the libriform cells contain very small 
starch grains and are furnished with bordered pores ; the borders, 
however, are so extremely small, that in spite of their perfectly 


typical form, they can hardly be considered otherwise than as 
transitional between simple and bordered pores. The family 
Ericacea; is also interesting on account of the difference in the size 
of borders found in its different genera. In Erica the border is ex- 
ceedingly small, in Calluna not much larger, in Ledum s.nA Arbutus 
a marked increase in size is seen, so in Andromeda and Rhodo- 
dendron until at last in Vaccinium and Oxycoccus the border 
reaches a medium size; that of Vaccinium, in one instance, meas- 
urmg 5 mm. Only in the genus Erica were starch grains present. 

In the family Apocynaceae there is also considerable variation 
both in the frequency of pores and size of borders, but in the latter 
case it is much less marked than in the family Ericacea:. The 
borders of the genus Taberncemontana, where the starch grains 
were found, are, if possible, even smaller than those of Erica, but 
perfectly typical in form. 

In the majority of instances, the pores were situated on all 
sides of the cell. Exceptions to this occur in oroximity to 
the limit of the year's ring. Here they are principally on the 
tangential walls. In a few families they show a decided prefer- 
ence to the tangential walls throughout. In Drimys the simi- 
larity between their arrangement and that of the pores of 
conifers is very noticeable. The specimen examined was a one 
year's stem; the pores are entirely limited to the radial walls, 
except in the last eight or ten layers next the cambium ring. 
Here they occur principally on the tangential walls. This genus 
resembles the conifers also in the size and frequency of the bor- 
ders, and in the predominance of this tracheal element. 

Of the thirty-three families containing only simple pores in 
the libriform tissue no special mention is necessary except as re- 
gards one point. Whatever may be the functional differences in 
the elements of the woody tissue, the extreme contrast between 
the most complex and simple forms suggests some plan for the 
division of labor in the more complex. If, as some authors 
have suggested, the office of the trachere is to supply the need of 
water in the leaves, caused by transpiration, while that of the 
tracheids is to supply the local demands, which exist in all living 
parts of the stem, it might be inferred, that in those cases where 
the hbriform has only simple pores, there would be found thin- 
walled tracheids, arfd in cases where the libriform was liberally 
supplied with bordered pores, the other tracheal element would 
not be apt to occur in such large quantities. 
(To be continued.') 


A Preliminary List of North American Species of Cyperus, with 
Descriptions of new Forms. 

By N. L. Britton. i 

(A) Sub-genus Pycreus, Beauv. 
* Umbel simple or capitate, rarely slightly compound. 

t Superficial cells of the achenium oblong. 

1. Cyperus Jiavescens,!^. Canada to Texas throughout east- 
ern North America ; also in northern Mexico, Brazil, southern 
Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. 

t t Superficial cells of the achenium quadrate. 

2. C. diandrus, Torrey. Throughout eastern North 
America, extending westward to Arkansas and New Mexico. 
(Fendler, No. 869.) 

Var. castaneus, Torrey. (C Elliottianus, Roem. and Schultes, 
Mant. ii., p. 100.) With the type. I cannot agree with Mr. C. 
B. Clarke, (Journ. Linn. Soc, xxi., p. 65) in regarding this plant 
as a distinct species under the name C. rivularis, Kunth. The 
varieties eluta and depauperata which he proposes (1. c.) are, in 
my opinion, but forms of the variable C. diandrus. There is 
still another form, characterized by elongated spikelets, which 
has been collected by Hunter in Lincoln Co., N. C, and by Leg- 
gett at Summit, N. J. 

Var. CAPITATUS, n. var. Inflorescence a single capitate cluster 
appearing somewhat lateral ; involucre of one or two elongated 
leaves with one or two bracts; glumes generally brown-mar- 
gined. Texas and northern Mexico to California. Here I in- 
clude the var. castaneus of Watson in Botany of California, ii., p. 
214; No. 1949 of C. Wright's New Mexican Collection, and No. 
49a of Dr. Palmer's Chihuahuan Collection of 1885. 

3. C. bipartitus, Torrey. New Orleans, La., (Dr. Ingalls 
in Torrey Herbarium.) This appears to be distinct, but more 
specimens are needed to establish its relationship ; it may be but 
a single-spiked form or variety of C. diandrus. 

4. C. Nuttallii, Eddy in Spreng. Neue Entdeck., i., p. 
240 ; Torrey. In salt meadows along the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, 3050.) For synonomy see Torrey, 
Ann. Lye, iii., p. 252. C. Cleaveri, Torrey, is but a depauper- 
ate, single spiked form, of this species. 


S- C. Olfersianus, Kunth. Umbel very simple, i to few- 
rayed ; heads composed of few straw-colored spikelets ; achenium 
oblong, its surface marked with quadrate cells ; otherwise re- 
sembling C. flavescens. ■ Plaquemines Co., La., (A. B. Langlois, 
1882); Mexico, West Indies and eastern South America. 

6. C. polystachyus, Rottb. New Orleans, (Torrey Herba- 
rium ; an old specimen.) Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

Var. leptostachyus, Boeckl. {C. microdontus, and C. 
Gatesii, Torrey, C. Texensis, Steud.) Virginia to Florida (Cur- 
tiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3049, part), and Texas, (E. Hall, 6^6:) 

7. C. leucolepis, Carey, MS., fide Clarke 1. c, p. 61, (not 
of Boeckl. ; C. divergens, Chapm., not of HBK.) Quincy, Flor- 
ida. Related to C. pumilus, L., of India. 

8 C. unioloides, R. Br., var. bromoides, Clarke. Spikelets 
much larger than in any of the foregoing species, straw-colored. 
Cienaga, Los Angeles Co., Cal., (J. C. Oliver in Gray Herba- 
rium) ; Mexico, West Indies and South America ; the type in 

* * Umbel compound. 

9. C. flavicomus, Vahl, Torrey, Ann. Lye, iii., 253, Boeck- 
eler, not of Michaux. which, according to Mr. Clarke (1. c, p. 
71), is C. strigosus, L. Virginia to Florida ; also in Brazil. 

10. C. Hochstetteri, Nees. (C. flavicotnus, Torrey, Bot. Mex. 
Bound. Survey.) Glumes dark reddish brown ; achenium broadly 
ellipsoidal, twice or three times the size of that of the foregoing- 
species, which it otherwise resembles. Louisiana (Hale) ; Texas 
and New Mexico (C. Wright, No. 1965) ; also in tropical Amer- 
ica, Australia, India and Africa. 

(B) Sub genus JUNCELLUS, Griseb. 

1 1. C. lavigatus, L Southern California (Brewer, Lem- 
mon, Wright, Parish, No. 1050.) Widely distributed in tropical 

(C) Sub-genus Eucyperus, Clarke. 
Section i. Aristati, Kunth. 

* Spikelets digitate. 

12. 6. amabihs, Vahl. (C aureus, aurantiacus and oligo- 
stachyus, HBK; C. glareosus,\J\eDm) Sanoita Valley, south 
ern Arizona, (Rothrock, No. 599, in Expl. and Surveys West of 


looth Meridian, under C. Nuttallii) ; Mexico, (Dr. Palmer, No. 
49t>, 1885); also in the West Indies, South America, eastern 
India and Africa. 

* * Spikelets in dense terminal clusters. 

13. C. aristatu^, Rottb. {C. inflexus, Muhl ; C. confertus, 
Chapm., S. Flora, not of Swartz.) Throughout North Amer- 
ica, but local. (E. Hall, PI. Oreg., 557, and PI. Tex., 6tj) Dr, 
Chapman's specimens from South Florida, marked C. confertus, 
differ mainly in the reddish-brown glumes, which is the charac- 
ter given by Clarke (1. c, p. 92), for his forma versicolor. The 
species is widely distributed in temperate and tropi al regions, 
not, however, occurring in Europe. 

14. C. sesleroides, HBK. Sanoita Valley, southern Arizona, 
(Rothrock, No. 614, Expl. and Surveys West of lOOth Meri- 
dian) ; also in Mexico, Hartweg, No. 256 ; Liebmann ; Parry and 
Palmer, Nos. 910, 911 and gii)4; Chihuahua, Dr. E. Palmer, 
No. 49^, 1885, named by me C. spectabilis, which appears to be 
a totally different plant. Specimens from various other Mexican 
localities in the Gray Herbarium very closely resembling those 
here cited are determined as C. divergens, HBK., which nearly 
related, if not identical species Boeckeler and Clarke refer to 
C. spectabilis, Schreb. Following these authorities I was led into 
error in my determination of Dr. Palmer's plant. 

Section 2. Cgmpressi, Kunth. 

15. C. compressus, L. Maryland and southward along the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts to Texas (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 
3026 ; E. Hall, PI. Tex., 682) ; also in ballast at Camden and 
Philadelphia ; Mexico and Central America and in the warmer 
portions of Asia and Africa. 

1 6. C. Rusbyi, Britton in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xi., p. 29. 
Near Silver City, New Mexico, Dr. H. H. Rusby, 1880. 

1 7. C. Buckleyi, Britton. Valley of the Lower Rio Grande, 
(Buckley) ; rocky hills near Chihuahua (Pringle, Plantae Max., 
1885, No. 311); Indian Terr. (E. Palmer, 347). 

18. C. Schweinitzii, Torrey. Western Pennsylvania and 
Canada to Texas and Arizona (Lemmon, No. 2905) ; westward 
to the Pacific coast, extending north to Oregon (Geyer) ; also in 
Mexico, (Parry and Palmer, 907). 


Var. DEBILIS, n. var. Much smaller and more slender, about 
6-8 inches high; inflorescence very simple ; spikelets few flowered ; 
glumes blunt, strongly nerved. Arizona and New Mexico (C. 
Wright, No. 1944; Rusby, No. 430, Coll. of 1880) ; also in Mex- 
ico ^Bourgeau, No. 529.) 

19. C. Fendleriamis, BcEckl. Texas, Arizona and New Mex- 
ico (Fendler, No. 865 ; C. Wright, No. 1945 ; Rusby; Matthews; 
also Hall and Harbour, Rocky Mountain Flora, No. 584,) 
Section 3. Viscosi, Clarke. 
■20. C. viscosus, Kxton. {C. trachynottts, Torvfty.) Florida 
to New Mexico (Nos. 1943 and 704, C. Wright; No. 1515, Mex 
Bound. Survey); Mexico, West Indies and northern South 

Section 4. Luzuloidei, Kunth. 

21. C. Lu2ul(e, Rottb., var. UMBELLULATUS, n. var. {C. 
vegetus, Pursh, Muhlenberg, Elliott, Torrey, Chapman, &c., not 
of Willd. ; C. virens, Gray, Manual, not of Michaux ; C. dis- 
tinctus and pseudo-distinctus, Steud.) ; Delaware (Canby) to 
Florida (E. Palmer, No. 586, 1874), and westward through the 
Gulf States to Texas (Lindheimer, No. 201), the Indian Territory 
and Arkansas. Differs from the type mainly in the compound in- 
florescence. Specimens received from Mr. Ravenel, collected at 
Aiken, S. C., closely approach the type, which occurs in Mexico, 
the West Indies and South America, (Mart. Herb. Flor. Brazil, 
No. 245.) 

22. C. virens, Michx. North Carolina to Florida (Curtiss, 
N. A. Plants, No. 3062), and westward through the Gulf States 
to Texas (E, Hall, No. 680) ; also in Mexico and Guatemala, 
(fide Hemsley) ; CaHfornia (vide Watson, Bot. Cal, ii., p. 214.) 

23. C. Surinamensis, Rottb. {C. Driimmondii, Torrey) ; 
Florida, (Curtiss. N. A. Plants, No. 3032) to Texas ; in ballast 
grounds, Camden, N. J., (Parker); also in Mexico, the West In- 
dies and South Arrierica. 

24. C. ochraceus, Vahl. (C. formosus, Vahl (?), vide Torrey 
in Ann. Lye, iii., p. 269; C. aureus {?\ Britton in Bull. Torn 
Bot. Club, xi., p. 85 ) Abbeville, La. (Langlois, distributed as 
No. 855c); Texas (Buckley), and in the West Indies and Mex- 
ico (Botteri. Nos. 739, 740); Mex. Bound Survey, No. 15 19. 

25. C. serrulatus, Watson. Placer Co., Cal., G. R. Vasey ; 
Alta, Cal, Pringle ; Sacramento, M. E. Jones, Flor. Cal., 3530. 

26. C. reJiexus,Yah\. {C. rufescens,Torr. d^ndYlodk.) Texas, 
(Drummond; E. Hall, No. 679, in part; Wright; Nealley.) 
Specimens recently received from Mr. Nealley show that the 
scales are not always red, and that the spikelets may be as many 
as 30-flowered. 

27. C. cyrtolepis. Torn and Hook. Texas (Drummond, 
Wright, Mex. Bound. Survey, No. 1520, E. Hall, 678 in part, 
Buckley, Reverchon) ; Camp Grant, Arizona, (Rothrock, Exp. 
and Surv. W. of looth Merid., 390) ; Indian Terr., (Palmer 351.) 

Var. DENTICAKINATUS. (C m/escetis, var. denticarmatus, 
Britton in Bull. Torn Bot. Club, xi., p. 85.) After a re-examin- 
ation of Mr. Buckley's specimens from the valley of the lower 
Rio Grande, I am convinced that they belong rather to this 
species than to C. rufescens. 

28. C. acuminatus. Torn and Hook. Illinois and Tennes- 
see to Louisiana, Kansas and Arizona ; also collected by Howell 
(No. 567) along the Columbia River in Oregon, and by J. W. 
Congdon in Tulare Co., Cal. A form of this species collected by 
E. Hall at Hempstead, Texas (PI. Tex., Gyg), has dense heads of 
many spikelets. 

Section 5. Haspani, Kunth. 

29. C. Haspan, L. Virginia, North Carolina (Curtis, Can- 
by), to Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3041), and westward 
to Texas (E. Hall, No. 683) ; also occurring in Mexico, the West 
Indies, South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. 

30. C. dentatus, Torrey. Cumberland Co., Maine (J. Blake), 
Rhode Island and northern New York (Leggett), to South Caro- 
lina, mainly near the Atlantic coast, but extending westward to 
West Virginia (Mertz.) 

31. C. Lecontei, Torrey. Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, 
No. 304s) to Louisiana. 

Section 6. Fusci, Kunth. 

32. C. lateriflorus, Torrey. East of Santa Cruz, Sonora, 
(C. Wright, No. 1950.) Not since collected. The species is 
nearly allied to C. difformis, L., of the tropical regions of the 
Old World, and may be the same. 


33- C. Iria, L. Santee Canal. South Carolina (Ravenel ; 
Curtiss. N. A. Plants, No. 3043.) According to Dr. Chapman 
It was probably introduced from eastern Asia, where, as elsewhere 
in warm-temperate countries, it is a noxious weed in rice fields. 

34- C. fuscus, L. In ballast sand, Camden (Parki r) ; Revei;e 
Beach, Mass. (H. A. Young, in Gray Herbarium.) Adventive. 

Section 7. Glomeraii, Clarke. 

35- C. cephalanthus, Torr. and Hook. Texas (Drummond, 
3d Coll., No. 445) ; Louisiana (Carpenter, Langlois.) 

36. C. spectabilis, Schreb. Texas (Drummond, in Calcutta 
Herbarium, fide Clarke, 1. c, p. 142.) Arizona, (Rothrock, 600 
and 601, in Expl. and Surveys W. of looth Meridian.) (See No. 
14 of this List.) 

37- C. distans, L. Eastern North Carolina (Gerald Mc- 
Carthy, 1885.) The species was recorded from the same region 
by Pursh (Flor. Amen, Sept., i., p. 53) and its rediscovery by 
Mr. McCarthy confirms Pursh's statement that it grows "in wet 
woods, Carolina and Georgia." It is widely distributed in trop- 
ical countries. 

Section 8. Corymbosi, Kunth. 
* Culm joi7ited, leafless. 

38. C. articulatiis, L. South Carolina and Florida (Curtiss, 
N. A. Plants, No. 3024) to Texas along the Gulf Coast (E. Hall, 
No. 703.) In all tropical regions. 

Var. conglomeratus, Britton. Valley of the lower Rio Grande 

A form of this species with the spikelets greatly elongated 
has been collected by Mr. Nealley in Texas. 

• * Culms leafy. 
t Perennial by tuberiferous stolons. 

39- C. rotundtts, L. North Carolina to Florida (Curtiss N 
A. Plants, No. 3055) and Texas (E. Hall, 684); also in ballast 
grounds at Jersey City (Brown), Philadelphia and Camden 
(Parker), and at Port Eads, La., (Langlois) ; throughout the 
warmer regions of the globe. For synonomy see Clarke. 1. c, 
p. 162. 

40. C. escukntus, L. {C. phymatodes, Muhl. ; (7. repens. 


Ell.) New Brunswick (Fowler) and Wisconsin to Florida (Cur- 
tiss, N. A. Plants, No, 3052) and Texas throughout eastern 
North America ; westward to California and extending north- 
ward along the Pacific coast to Alaska (J. O. Rainer, 187 1); also 
in Mexico, South America, southern Europe to the Cape of Good 
Hope, and in Australia. 

Var. macrostachyus, Bceckl. {C. lutescens, Torr. and Hook, 
Ann. Lye, iii., 433). Florida (Chapman), Texas (C. Wright, 
1849, No. 705 ; Drummond, 3d Coll., No. 452), San Diego, Cal, 
(Orcutt, No. 13 14.) 

Var. ANGUSTISPICATUS, n. var. Spikelets narrowly linear, 
about one line wide and three-fourths of an inch long; a well- 
marked form. Kentucky (Short), Missouri (H. Eggert), Wash- 
ington, D. C, (Vasey), Lexington Co., S. C, (J. Donnell Smith.) 

Var. Hermanni. {C. Hermanni, Buckley; C. phymatodes, 
var. Hermanni, Watson). Kern River, Cal., (Blake, in Torrey 
Herbarium) ; Bank of San Joaquin (Lemmon, Flor. Cal., 1509.) 
41. CiHallii, n. sp. Culm triangular, 2 to 3 feet high; 
leaves elongated, 2 to 3 lines wide ; involucre of several leaves, 
one of them elongated far beyond the others and reaching a 
length of a foot or more ; umbel more or less compound, of 5 or 
6 elongated rays and several shorter ones ; involucels setaceous ; 
spikelets linear, 9 to is-flowcred, arranged in loose heads; 
glumes ovate, acute, strongly 7 to 9-nerved, dark reddish-brown, 
with lighter colored margins and apices ; achenium triangular, 
linear. Rootstocks scaly. 

Texas (E. Hall, PI. Tex., No. 685, distributed as C. phyma- 
todes, var.) ; valley of the lower Rio Grande (Buckley) ; Indian 
Territory (E. Palmer, No. 353). 

t t Annual or perennial ; roots fibrous, but stems often hard and corm-like at 
the base. 

42. C. strigosus, L. (C Michauxiatms, Schultes, not of 
Torrey, fide Boeckeler ; C. flavicotnus, Michx., not of Vahl ; C. 
stenolepis, Watson, Bot. Cal., not of Torrey.) Canada and Min- 
nesota to Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants No. 1820, distributed as 
C. stenolepis!) and Texas, throughout eastern North America; 
also in California. Among the many forms of this variable 
species I think the following may be distinguished : 


Var. robustior, Kunth, Enum., ii., p. 88. Spikelets large, 
elongated, lo to 25-flowered. With the type. 

Var. capitatus, Bceckl., Linnsea, xxxvi., p. 347. Inflores- 
cence of several capitate clusters, rays short. Indiana (Dr. 
Clapp, 1838); St. Louis, Mo., (Engelmann) ; Illinois (Dr. 
Schneck); Massachusetts (Morong) ; Camden, N. J., (Martin- 
dale); Texas, (Bigelow.) 

Var. COMPOSITUS, n. var. (C. strigosus, var. Torrey, Ann. 
Lye, iii., p. 262.) Umbel compound ; spikelets one-third to 
one-half inch long, 4 to 5 -flowered. Astoria, Long Island 
(Leggett) ; Pennsylvania and New Jersey to Alabama. 

Var. GRACILIS, n. var. Slender, leaves shorter than the 
culm, umbel of 1-3 short rays, bearing few, linear, spreading 
spikelets. Valley of the Lower Rio Grande (Buckley) ; Fayette- 
ville, Ark., (Harvey.) 

Var. ELONGATUS. {C. Michauxianus, var. (?) elongatus, Tor- 
rey, Ann. Lye, iii., p. 432 (?). Rays much elongated, bearing 
single, capitate clusters. North Carolina (Curtis, in Torrey 
Herb.) The originals of Dr. Torrey's variety were collected by 
Drummond in Texas, but there are no specimens from there in 
his herbarium, and I have no means of knowing if they are the 
same as the one from North Carolina on which the present variety 
is based. 

43. \ C. stenolepis, Torrey. North Carolina to Florida and 

44- C. setigerus, Torr. and Hook. (Including C. lutescens, 
Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Survey, p. 227. and Herbarium.) 
Texas and New Mexico (C. Wright, No. 705 ; Buckley ; Bigelow, 
and Herb. Berland. Texano- Mexican urn, Nos. 2410 and 980.) 
I can see no reason for keeping the two species separate, and Dr. 
Torrey states (1. c.) that his C. lutescens is probably too close to 
C. setigerus. 

45- C. sphacelatus, Rottb. Southern Nevada (Lieut. 
Wheeler, 1871, in Gray Herbarium); Cal. (Parish); ballast, 
Mobile, Ala., (Mohr.) ; the specimens almost exactly match the 
others from St. Thomas, W. I, (Eggers), and No. 636, Sagot, 
Guyane Francaise. Resembles the last, but the glumes are 


46. C. refractus, Engelm. (BcEckeler, in Linnaea, xxxvi., p. 
369 ; see also Vasey, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, x., p. 32.) Trenton, 
N. J., to North Carolina and Missouri. Appears to me nearest 
allied to C. strigosus, but is also related to C. Lancastriensis, 

47. C. filiformis, Swartz. Southern Florida; also in the 
West Indies. The Florida specimens do not quite agree with 
C. Wright's from Cuba. 

48. C. hrunneus, Swartz. (C purpurascens, Vahl ; C. ligu- 
laris, Chapm., S. Flora, p. 507, not of L. nor of Chapm. Suppl., p. 
659.) Southern Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3025*), and 
in the West Indies. 

49. C. tetragonns, Ell. North Carolina and Florida (Cur- 
tiss, No. 3059) to Texas ; also in Mexico (fide Hemsley.) 

50. C. dissitiflorus, Torrey. Florida to Louisiana and 
Texas. (E. Hall, Plants Texanae, No. 690, distributed as 
C. litos, Schultes) ; also in Mexico and Brazil (fide Boeckeler.) 

Section 9. Papyri, Kunth. 

51. C. gigantens, Vahl. (C erythrorhisos, Muhl., var. 
erectus, Britton, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xi., p. 85 ; C. densi- 
florus, Meyer.) Texas and Mexico (Herb. Berland. Texano- 

Mexicanum, Nos. 876, 3223 and 2306; Buckley; Nealley.) 
Cuba (C. Wright, No. 1529.) 

52. C. erythrorhisos, Muhl. Lawrence, Mass., (Robinson); 
Hartford, Conn., (fide Bishop, Cat. Plants Conn., p. 17); eastern 
Long Island (E. S. Miller); Camden, N. J., (Martindale), and 
southward to Florida and New Mexico ; also in California. 

Var. pumilus, Engelm. {C. occidentalis, Torrey.) Missouri 
to California, extending northward to Oregon (E. Hall, PI. 
Oreg., No. 558), and Washington (Suksdorf, 221.) 

53. C. Halei, Torrey, ined., in letter to Mr. Charles Mohr, 
1 868, who has kindly furnished me with the following descrip- 
tion : 

Umbels many-rayed, shorter than the involucral bracts ; 
spikes cylindrical, one-half to three-fourths inch long, sessile or 
stalked, forming dense clusters with a few linear, acuminate in- 
volucels; spikelets flat, 12 to 14-flowered; scales with scarious 
margins, brown, sharply carinate on the back, indistinctly 


5 -nerved, blunt, mucronulate, somewhat appressed ; stem 2 to 3 
feet high, obtusely triangular, tumid at the base ; leaves as long 
as the stem, broadly linear, very rough on the edges ; achenium 
small, triquetous. Marshes and borders of lakes in the Red 
River Valley. Repides, La., (Hale); eastern Florida (Leaven- 
worth); Carrabelle, Florida. 

(D) Sub-genus Diclidium, Nees. 

54. C. s/>edosus,Vah\; Torrey in part. (C. Mtckauxzanus, 
Torrey, not of Schultes.) New England to Wisconsin, and 
southward to Florida (Curtiss, N. A Plants, No. 3048) and 
Texas (C. Wright, 1849, No. 706); also in California. 

Var. SQUARROSUS, n. var. {C.ferruginescens, Boeckl.) Scales 
spreading or recurved, reddish. New Mexico (Fendler, No. 
870); St. Louis, Mo., (Engelmann); Texas (Buckley.) 

Var. PARVUS, n. var. (C. parvus, Boeckl.) Low, i to 3 
mches high ; umbel very simole. generally of a single cluster of 
short terete spikelets. Cited by Boeckeler as collected by Dr. 
Engelmann at St. Louis, and Drummond's Collection, No. 34; 
No. 1946, C. Wright, New Mexico, answers Bceckeler's descrip- 

55- C. ferax, Richard. {C. flexuosus, Vahl ; C. pennatus, 
Boeckl., not Lam.) Missouri (F. Bush); Texas (Bigelow, Buckley); 
Arizona (Pringle) ; California (Parish, 1064); West Indies and 
widely distributed in tropical regions. For synonomy see Clarke, 
Journ. Linn. Soc, xx , p. 295. 

56. C. Engelmannii, Steud. Massachusetts (Morong) to 
Wisconsin and southward, but not often collected. 

57. C. oxycarioides, Britton,in Bull. Torn Bot. Club, xi., p. 
86. Valley of the lower Rio Grande (Buckley.) 

(E) Sub-genus Mariscus, Vahl. 
* Umbel simple or capitate. 

t Spikelets few {2 to 6), flowered. 

58. C. ovularis, Torrey. Southern New York to Illinois 
and southward ; westward to Arkansas and Texas. 

Var. robustus, Boeckl. Heads larger, 6 to 8 lines in diameter, 
on longer rays ; spikelets 3 to 6-flowered. (C Wolfii, Wood, in 
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vi., p. 72.) IlHnois (Bebb; J. Wolf); 


Arkansas (Harvey) ; Indian Territory (G. D. Butler); Louisiana 

Var. spkcsricus, Boeckl. Heads smaller than in the type, 
very dense ; spikelets more subulate, reddish brown. Arkansas 
(Dr. Pitcher) ; Indian Territory (Dr. Palmer, No. 348) ; Texas 
(Wright) and Herb. Berland. Tex. Mex., Nos 314, 1568 and 
1 574-) 

59. C. ToRREYl. {Mariscus cylindricus, Ell. ; C. ovularis, 
var. cylindricus, Torrey ; C. cylindricus, Britton, 1. c. vii., p. 48, 
Plate III., not of Chapman.) Long Island (Leggett) to Florida 
(Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3051), and westward to Texas 
(Palmer, Flor. S. W. Texas, l5o. 2017.) 

60. C. retrorsus, Chapm. in Bot. Gazette, iii , p. 17 ; C. rct- 
roversus, Chapm., Suppl., p. 659; M. alternifolius, Vahl.) 
Robert's Key, Caximbas Bay, southern Florida (Chapman) ; 
also in Mauritius. 

61. C. retrofractus, Gray. Southern New Jersey to Flor- 
ida (Curtiss, No. 3053), and Texas (E. Hall, Plantae Texanae, 
No. 691.) 

62. C. flavomariscus, Griseb., Flor. Brit. W. I., p. 567. 
{Mariscus flavus, Vahl ; C. flavus, Boeckl.) Valley of the 
lower Rio Grande (Buckley); Monterey, Cal. (?), vide Watson, 
Bot. Cal., ii., p. 216; in ballast at Philadelphia and Camden 
(Parker, Burk); also in Mexico, the West Indies and South 

Var. PEDUNCULARIS, n. var. Rays of the umbel elongated, 
with setaceous involucels. Chihuahua (Dr. E. Palmer, No. 49, 
1885; Mandon, Plantae Andium Bolivensium, No. 1398.) 

S'>,. C. cylindricus, Chapm., not of Britton. Colier's Key, 
Marco Pass, South Florida (Chapman.) 

64. C. uniflorus, Torr. and Hook. Texas (Drummond, 
Wright, E. Hall, No. 686, Reverchon, Nealley.) 

Var. pumilus, Britton. Indian Territory (Dr. Palmer, No. 
350) ; valley of the lower Rio Grande (Buckley.) 

65. C. WkigHTII, n. sp. Culm slender, triangular, 12 to 15 
inches high ; leaves of the culm few, narrowly linear ; root leaves 
not seen ; involucre of one elongated leaf, and 2 to 4 shorter 
ones ; umbel simple, of 1 to 3 short rays ; inflorescence of i to 


3 dense ovate heads, about half an inch long ; spikelets lanceo- 
late, 4 to 5 -flowered; glumes lanceolate, acute; achenium ovoid, 


New Mexico (C. Wright, No. 1947) ; Mexico (F. Muller, 
without a number). 

tt Spikelets several (4 to 12) flowered. 

66. C. filicultnis, Vahl. Northumberland Co., Canada 
(Macoun), to Wisconsin and southward to Florida (Curtiss, No. 
3036) and Texas. Varies into very slender forms with small, 
single heads. 

6y. C. Gray a, Torrey. (C» setif alius, Torrey MS., and 
Clarke, 1. c, xxi., p. 198.) Sandy plains along the Atlantic 
coast, Massachusetts to Florida. C. ovularis, van tenellus, Tor- 
rey, Ann. Lye, iii., p. 279, is a young form of this. 

68. C. Baldwinii, Torrey. North Carolina and Florida, 
(Curtiss, No. 3025) westward to Texas (E. Hall, No. 687 ; E. 
Palmer (F-lor. S. W. Texas, No. 1332) ; also in ballast at Camden 

69. C. Lancastriensis, Porter. Trenton, N. J. ; Safe Har- 
bor, Penn., (Porter) to Alabama. 

70. C. fuliginetis, Chapm. Key West (Chapman ; Garber.) 

* * Umbel compound. 

71. C. Calif amicus, Watson. {C. speciosus, Torrey, Bot. 
Mex. Bound. Survey.) California (Fitch, in Torrey Herb.) 

72. C. Pringlei, Britton. Catalina Mountains, southern 
Arizona (Pringle.) 

72,. C. ligularis, L. (Not of Chapm., S. Flora, p. 507.) South- 
ern Florida (Palmer, 1874, No. 532; Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 
3046) ; also in Mexico, the West Indies, South America and 
tropical Africa and Australia. 


Some Californian Polypetalse. 
Bv E. L. Greene. 

DendromeCON flexile.— Six to ten feet high, tree-like, 
with numerous more or less drooping branches ; leaves ovate- 
oblong to elliptical, obtuse, often mucronulate, 2 to S inches 
long, fleshy and glaucous, crowded on the branches, short-petio- 


led, their margins smooth and revolute; corolla rather pale yel- 
low, 2 inches in diameter, on a short pedicel ; capsules stout, 
curved, 3 to 5 inches long ; seed large, spherical, lightly scrobicu- 
late, with a large amber colored caruncle. 

A common large shrub of the island of Santa Cruz, very 
strikingly unlike either the original mainland species, or that of 
the neighboring island of Santa Rosa. The large, pallid, some- 
what succulent leaves are so numerous as to weigh down the 
branches, and this gives the shrub a rather graceful appearance ; 
when dry they are thinner and softer than in the other species. 
In their axils the lenf-buds appear as solid, pyramidal, thorn- like 
protuberances, another singular characteristic. 

Dendromecon Harfordii, Kellogg. This low shrub of 
Santa Rosa Island I have not seen growing. It is more like D. 
rigidum than the new one above characterized ; but its very broad, 
entire leaves and short-peduncled flowers, short, stout branches 
and low, spreading habit, doubtless entitle it to the rank of a 
named variety, at least; and most probably it will eventually 
prove itself a good species. 

ESCHSCHOLTZIA RAMOSA. — Annual, a foot high, stontish, 
glabrous and very glaucous; stem simple at base, but above 
compactly branching; leaf-segments numerous, strongly di- 
vergent, or even divaricate ; corolla a half inch or more in diam- 
eter, light greenish yellow ; torus cylindrical, with no rim, but an 
erect, double margin; pod 3 inches long, stout and straight; 
seed globular, reticulated. E. elegans, var. ratnosa, Greene, 
Bull. Cal. Acad, i., 182. 

A strictly insular species, first found by the writer on Guad- 
alupe, then on San Clemente, by Mr. W. S. Lyon, and lastly, this 
year on a small rocky islet occupied by sea birds, very close to 
the northern shore of Santa Cruz. This exceedingly well marked 
Eschsckoltsia differs from all others in its compact, tree- like 
habit. All the rest, except E. elegans, have a loose, straggling 
mode of growth, branching from the very ground, with scarcely 
any part of the plant erect. E. elegans, to which I at first re- 
ferred it as a variety, has different foliage, large deep yellow 
flowers, and smaller, curved pods, besides elongated and smoother 
seeds. It lacks, moreover, ihat singular dendroid compactness 


which is characteristic, as I have said, of the present plant alone, 
of all the genus. 

Platystigma DENTICULATUM. {Meconella denticulata, Greene, 
Bull. Cal. Acad, ii.j 59.) 

Field studies of the past season have brought to light facts in 
abundance to show that it is of little importance in our Papaver- 
aceae. whether filaments be flat or filiform. The same species will 
sometimes be found to vary greatly in this respect; and we have 
even Platystigma with filaments as broad and flat as they are ever 
found in Platystefnon itself Meconella has, therefore, nothing 
but its twisted capsules to recommend it for generic rank; and 
the Benthamian view of the limits of Platystigma, adopted by Mr. 
Watson in the Botany of California, is probably the more correct- 

Thysanocarpus CONCHULIFERUS. — Glabrous, 3-7 inches 
high, with many divergent branches ; leaves linear, the lower cleft 
into narrow segments, the cauline auricled at base; racemes short 
and rather close; pods a line or more in length, cymbiform, the 
conduplicate margin sinuately parted into spatulate divisions, or 
the latter coherent above, leaving narrowly oblong perforations ; 
style equalling the margin of the pod and commonly coherent with 
it ; pedicels nearly divaricate or quite straight, twice as long as 
the pods ; flowers not seen. 

Common on shelves and crevices of the high rocky 
summits and northward slopes of Santa Cruz Island. A most in- 
teresting new species, very remarkable in the character of its fruit ; 
showing how nearly our American Thysanocarpus can approach 
the Asiatic genus Tauscheria and yet remain a perfectly valid 
genus, the very dissimilar Athysanus being excluded. 

Erysimum insulare. — Shrubby, diffuse, a foot high, form- 
ing a dense tuft of from 2 to 6 feet broad, cinereous with a 
minute appressed pubescence, or glabrate ; leaves narrowly linear, 
canaliculate, entire, rather rigid, recurved at apex, crowded upon 
the numerous woody branches ; racemes short and dense, on short 
peduncles, or almost sessile; corolla yellow, a half inch broad ; 
siliques quadrangular, 2 inches long, i i^ to 2 lines thick, beaked 
with a stout style. 

Sandy slopes above Cuyler's Harbor, Island of San Miguel. 
A very remarkable plant, apparently related to certain Old World 

Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LX. 

Orcuttia Californica, Vasey. 


species, and most unlike any other American Erysimum. It is 
a broad, matted, evergreen shrub, the dead foliage oi one or two 
preceding seasons firmly persistent still, on all the branchlets. 
Our specimens are mostly in leaf only, the flowering season having 
been perhaps six months past. One specimen was found partly 
in flower, and with a few clusters oi well matured pods which had 
not yet shed their seeds. 

A New Genus of Grasses. 

By Dr. Geo. Vasey. 

(Plate LX.) 
Orcuttia. — Tribe FesTUCE/E, Sub-tribe Seslerie^. Pan- 
icle simple; spikelets sessile, alternate, many flowered, com- 
pressed, upper ones crowded ; empty and flowering glumes 
much alike, green and thickish, broad, 3 to 5-lobed, unawned, 
strongly many nerved ; palet equaling its glume, hyaline, nar 
now, green on the strongly angled keels ; anthers 3, styles 2 , 
filaments and styles at length projecting beyond the flower. 

O. Californica. — Plant dwarf, 2 to 4 inches high, annual ; 
growing in small clusters of 10 to 20 or more culms from one 
root; culms variable in length in the same cluster, generally pro- 
ducing some small flowering branches from the lower joints; leaves 
2 or 3, the sheaths open and inflated, striate; ligule obsolete; 
blade rather rigid, about i inch long, acuminate ; leaves and 
sheaths sparsely pubescent ; panicle about i inch long, simple, 
usually of 4 to 6 alternate sessile spikelets, the lower 2 or 3 
rather distant, the upper ones crowded; spikelets 5 to lO flow- 
ered, empty glumes sparsely pubescent, broad, about 2 lines long, 
scarious-margined, mostly 3 lobed, the 2 outer lobes longer, the 
lobes each three-nerved ; flowering glumes a little exceeding 2 
lines long, with 5 nearly equal, acute lobes, each lobe three- 
nerved ; palet as long as its glume, hyaline, narrow, strongly 
keeled, dentate at apex. 

Sometimes several spikelets are clustered together at the 
apex of the culm, with only one pair of empty glumes for all. 
A dwarf grass collected near San Quentin Bay, Lower Califor- 
nia, by Mr. C. R. Orcutt, an ardent young naturalist of San 
Diego, Cal., for whom the genus is named. 


Still Further Notes upon Corema Localities 
By John H. Redfield. 

I. Cape Cod. Thoreau, who visited Cape Cod in 1849 
and 1855, noticed the occurrence of Corema Conradii at N.Truro 
and Provincetown,* and I have already mentioned that it had 
been seen at N. Truro by Benj. M. Watson, Jr., and by Mr. 
Robert Smith.! In July of this year I had opportunity of see- 
ing one of the localities at this point. The light-house at N. 
Truro, known as the Highland Light, is situated upon a sandy 
bluff about 120 feet above the eastern or ocean shore of Cape 
Cod. About five or six hundred yards S. W. of the light-house 
is a depression, extending eastward and westward between the 
sand hills. On the southern acclivity of this depression I saw 
the Corema extending over a space of about 100 feet in length 
and 75 in breadth, assuming a very prostrate position, probably 
owing to the strong winds to which these hills are exposed. 

The soil is composed almost purely of large grains of quartz. 
The growth over this space is almost continuous, ending in iso- 
lated patches on the upper side, and beyond these were seen 
occasional very small single plants, in vigorous condition, as if 
seedlings from the older plants. The Corema was surrounded 
and occasionally penetrated by plants of Hudsonia ericoides. 
The nearest other plants were Baptisia tinctoria, and Myrica 
cerifera. The region is very similar in aspect to the more hilly 
portion of the Nantucket downs, and like those abounds with 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi and Poly gala poly gam.a. The locality 
seen by Mr. Smith, which is also in sight of the light-house, must 
be still another, judging from a photograph of it made by him. 
Thoreau saw it " near the edge of the banks, about half a mile 
southward " of the light-house. No doubt other localities exist, 
among the wide extent of the hilly downs of Cape Cod ; but 
after seeing it, one is inclined to wonder that so little of it exists 
in a region where all the environment seems so favorable. 

2. Mt. Desert I. On the ridge west of Long Pond, Seal 
Harbor, I found, last summer, two new localities. This ridge 
lies about a mile west of Barr Hill, on which occur the localities 

* Thoreau's Cape Cod, p. 154. 

f Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club, xi., 99; xii., 93. 


noted in the BULLETIN, xii., 94. The lithological characters of 
the rock are very similar, and the neighboring plants are the same. 
In the first of these localities, at a height of about 150 feet above 
the sea, on an area of open rock, of about 70 feet by 50, are a 
dozen or more patches of the plant. The second locality is about 
a fourth of a mile further N. W., at a height of perhaps 200 feet. 
Here is a large patch about 10 feet in length and 5 in breadth, 
and four or five smaller ones in close proximity. As might be 
expected in these rocky localities, there is never a large area of 
continuous growth, for it is only here and there that there is suf- 
ficient soil for foothold. During the last three summers a very 
large extent of the open rocky hills of the southern part of Mt. 
Desert has been carefully explored by myself and others, but the 
search has revealed only the five locaHties mentioned in this and 
a former paper. 

3. Deer Island. This is the largest island in Penobscot 
Bay, being about eight miles in length, with its greatest breadth 
about five miles. It nowhere reaches great elevation, and is 
separated from the more lofty Isle au Haut, to the south of it, 
by a channel of six miles in width, thickly strewn with islets. 
At the southern end of it is Green's Landing, where the steamer 
from Rockland to Bar Harbor makes regular stops. Mr. Chas. 
S. Wilder, of Florence, Mass., reports that " not far from Green's 
Landing, on the right of the road leading to North West Harbor, 
on a rocky eminence in a small pasture, the Corema is found in 
abundance. Many blueberry bushes are in the vicinity, and no 
pines." I am indebted to Mrs. Flora E. Haines, of Bangor, for 
this information. 

4. Mt. Beattie, Camden, Me. From Mrs. Haines I 
also learn that Miss Fanny T. Hardy, of Brewer, Maine, found 
the Corema on the " east side of Mt. Beattie, on the right at the 
top of the trail, about a quarter of a mile from the edge." This 
confirms the information given by Prof Chickering in Bulletin 
of Torrey Club, xi., 1 16. 

Union ot an Oak with a Birch. 
Along the turnpike road on Staten Island, on the property 
known as the Cebra Homestead, there are two trees that have 
grown together in such a way that they would ordinarily be 


taken for one individual. One of these trees is a White Oak, 
the other being a Black Birch, and from seedlings on, their 
growth has been so even that neither one has gained any advan- 
tage over the other. For the space of 3 ft. 7 in. from the 
roots they have grown solidly together, so that the line of junc- 
ture is no more marked than the weather worn crevices down 
the sides of many large trees, the character of the bark serving 
as the best guide in distinguishing the trunk of one tree from 
that of the other. At the height mentioned from the ground the 
trunks part or branch, forming a Y, the oak being 4 ft. 2 in. in 
circumference, and the birch 4 ft. 5 in., while the main trunk, 
formed by both trees, measures 7 ft. 4 in. around. 

It is no uncommon matter to find cedar branches, owing to 
their unpliability, enclosed by the trunks of other trees, and some 
species often become grafted together, but the case mentioned 
seems to be interesting as a departure from these general rules, 
and also from the symmetrical outline that has been maintained. 

W. T. Davis. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Agarum Turneri. — On the Anatomy mid Development of . James 

Elias Humphrey. (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 

xxii., pp. 195-204; two plates; also reprinted.) 

This investigation is the seventh contribution from the crypto- 

gamic laboratory of Harvard University, conducted under the 

direction of Dr. Farlow. Mr. Humphrey finds that the structure 

of the adult frond of this curious Alga agrees closely with that of 

Laminaria, that the frond increases in length at the union of 

stipe and lamina, and that the perforations of the latter begin 

when a length of 3 to 4 centimetres is attained, and are formed 

by the simultaneous formation of an indentation of one surface 

and the death of a corresponding portion of the other. 

Azalea nudiflora. — (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., ix., p. 294; colored 

Bacteria apparatus — Home made. — T. J. Burrill. (Bot. Gazette, 

xi., p. 276, illustrated.) 
Biology of Timber Trees with special reference to the require- 
ments of Forestry. — B. E. Fernow. (Bot. Gazette, xi., p. 247.) 


Botany at the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. — (Am. Nat. xx., 886; Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 221 
Bracts in Crticiferce. — Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., 1886, p. 60.) Alyssum {Koniga) maritimum i.s cited 
as an exception to the general rule that the flowers of Cru- 
ciferae are bractless. 
Certain Chemical Constituents of Plants considered in relation to 
their Morphology and Evolution. — Helen C. De S. Abbott. 
(Bot. Gazette, xi., p. 270.) 
This paper advocates the use of chemical analysis as a factor 
in classification, and adduces some interesting examples of simi- 
larity between the morphological and chemical characteristics of 
several groups of plants. 

Desmodium molle, DC. John Donnell Smith. (Bot. Gazette, xi., 
P- 274.) 
This name should be dropped from the catalogue, as the plant 
proves to be D. tortuosum, DC. 
Dodecatheon — Essay toward a Revision of. Asa Gray. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi. p. 231.) 
Forests of Canada. R.Bell. (Canad. Rec. Sci., ii ) 
Formation of Crow's Nest Branches in the Cherry Tree. — Thomas 
Meehan. (Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 273, 274.) 
The garden cherry has long been naturalized near Philadel- 
phia, and Mr. Meehan had noticed this curious fasciation of the 
branches on three of these wild trees. He had made the inter- 
esting discovery that the fasciation is simply the growth to weak 
branches of what would normally be flower bearing shoots, the 
leaves being destroyed in spring by the fungus Exoascus Wilsneri, 
a European form closely allied to E. deformans, the species causing 
the "curl" in peach leaves. 

Charles Christopher Frost. Wm. R. Dudley. (Journ. Mycol., 
ii., pp. I14-I18.) 
An interesting sketch of the life of one of the pioneers in 
American cryptogamic botany. 

John Goldie, gardener and botanist. (Bot. Gazette, xi., p. 272.) 
The discoverer of Aspidium Goldieamim died June last in 
Canada West. 


Gymnosporangia of the United States. — The Development of the. 

W. G. Farlow. (Bot Gazette, xi., pp. 234-241 ; reprinted.) 
Houstonia coerulca. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., ix., p. 294; 

colored figures.) 
Hypericum — Some Notes on. J. M. Coulter. (Bot. Gazette, xi., 

P- 27s) 
H. Kalmianum. has been found in Central Tennessee, and a 
new species named by Dr. Gattinger H. lobocarpum is also re- 
ported from W. Tennessee, which seems to be a center for this 
group, as eighteen species are found there. 
Kellermannia. J. B. Ellis and B. M. Everhart (Journ. Mycol., 

ii., p. I II.) 
The characters of the genus are amended, and two new species 

Lichens collected in Florida in 1885. W. W. Calkins. (Journ. 

Mycol., ii., pp. 11 2- 114; reprinted. 
A catalogue of 73 species with habitats. 
Liverworts. J. L. Zabriskie. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, ii. 

pp. 105, 106.) 
The paper contains notes on Marchantia polymorpha, L., and 
Fimbriaria tenella, Nees. 
Lygodium palmatum, and other N. A. Ferns. Garden, xxx., p. 

324, illustrated.) 
Mistletoe. — Additional Facts about the. G. Onderdonk. (Gard. 

Month., xxviii., p. 308.) 
Morphology of superimposed Stamens. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. 

Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 9-1 1 ; two figures.) 
Mr. Meehan concludes, after a study of Mahernia verticillata, 
Cav., and other plants, that "in many cases superimposed 
stamens are the development of theoretical axial buds at the 
base of the petals " being thus of a cauline rather than of a phyl- 
line nature. He remarks that this theory relieves us of the diffi ■ 
culty met in the supposed interjection of an extra whorl of leaves 
in the production of these structures, for which there is no war- 
rant in phyllotaxis. 
Peronospora graminicola, Schr. Byron D. Halsted. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi., p. 272, illustrated.) 
Platystemon Californicus. (Garden, xxx., p. 313, illustrated.) 


Pollination of Asclepias. — Noles on the Mode of. Charles Robert- 
son. (Bot. Gazette, xi., p. 262, illustrated.) 
Quercus alba. — The Structure of P. H. Dudley. (Journ. N. Y. 
Micros. Soc, ii., pp. 107, io8.) 
An interesting account of the formation and structure of the 
Ravenelia glandulceformis. — The Morphology of. G. H. Parker. 

(Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences, xxii., pp. 205-219, 

two plates ; reprinted. 
Secretion of nectar in Libonia. — Production of nectar in Ornitho- 

galum coarctatum. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Phil. Acad. 

Nat. Sci., 1886, p. 59.) 
Smilacina bifolia. "The One-blade." (Garden, xxx., p. 337.) 

A very pretty illustration accompanied by a short descrip- 
tion of its use as a rock-plant, and for carpeting shady places. 
Sporobolus cryptandrtis. — Expulsion of the Seeds of. W. J. Beal. 

(Bot. Gazette, xi., p. 247.) 
Stamen of the Deerberry, Vaccinium stamineum. J. L. Zabriskie. 

(Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, ii., p. 109.) 
Testa of the seeds of Phytolacca. Chas. W. Stockbarger. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi.. p. 274, illustrated. 
Timber. — The Uses of our Native. W. C. Butler. (Gard. 

Month., xxviii., pp. 306, 307.) 
Triccratium. — Five Species of. E. A. Schultze. Journ. N. Y. 

Micros. Soc, ii., p. no; two plates.) 
These Diatoms were photographed from slides prepared by 
Professor Thum, of Leipzig, the material being obtained from 
Barbadoes. The excellent plates were made by the artotype 
process. Mr. Schultze was able to identify but one of the species; 
the others have been submitted to Prof A. Schmidt. 
Vancouveria hexandra. (Garden, xxx., p. 263, illustrated.) 
Vegetable Parasites of Codfish. W. G. Farlow. (Bull. U. S. 

Fish Comm.) 
Viola pedata. (Garden, xxx., p. 141, illustrated.) 
Zephyranthes Atamasco. H. Nehrling. (Gard. Mon., xxviii., p. 309). 
Note is made that in the Suwanee district of Florida this fine 
Amaryllis is known as the " Suwanee Lily," and that both white 
and rose colored forms occur there. 

Botanical Notes. 

Shortia galacifolia. Gray.— Prof. C. S. Sargent has found 
another station for this rare plant. He says, " I discovered last 
September in the Blue Ridge, near the boundary between North 
and South Carolina, Shortia, in what is believed to be Michaux's 
original locality." 

Spiranthes Romanzoviana. — A. D. Webster (Garden, xxx., p. 
253). tells us that " in all probability this plant has been extermi- 
nated in Ireland, for the two boggy fields in the County of Cork 
where it grew have been ploughed up and planted with pota- 
toes; but F. W. Burbidge (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 471) thinks 
that at Bearhaven, Wales, where it has been collected, it has not 
yet "been evicted." It is figured in the Gard. Chronicle (xxvi., 
p. 400; xxi., p. 465.) 

A Botanist's Ramble in Central America. By J. H. Hart. 
(Pamphlet, 8vo, 42 pp., Kingston, Jamaica, 1886.) This is an 
interesting account of a six weeks' trip to the mainland of Cen- 
tral America, made by the author in company with the Rev. \Vm. 
Griffith, a missionary. The time was mostly spent near the great 
lagoon of Chiriqui, where many interesting plants were collected, 
among them a new tree fern, Hemitelia Hartii, Baker. Note is 
made of five varieties of the chocolate tree {Theobroma Cacao) 
cultivated, and a distinct wild species, T. bicolor, H. and B., known 
as Indian chocolate, was also met with. Palms and ferns were 
extremely abundant and in great variety. A list of the species 
collected is appended. 

The Correspondence of Carl Von Linne. The Swedish 
Academy of Sciences has issued a work with this title, containing 
a record of all the correspondents of this famous naturalist, with 
their addresses, dates of birth and death, as well as the date of 
each letter. (Nature.) 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The first autumn meeting was held Oct. 12th, Dr. J. S. New- 
berry in the chair, and 3 1 persons present. The following were 
elected active members : J. W. Martens. Jr. ; W. Beuttenmueller ; 
Miss Winifred Edgerton, Ph. D. ; Miss M. G. Tyler ; Miss Mabel 
Hodges; Thos. E. Jevons, and Henry Ogden. 


F. Le Roy Sargent, Volney M. Spaulding, W. M. Wilson, A. 
B. Seymour, Miss Emily L. Gregory, Ph. D., Geo. E. Daven- 
port, Eugene A. Rau, David F. Day, M. S. Bebb, T. J. Burrill, 
B. E. Fernow, and F. V. Coville, were elected corresponding 

From the report of the Field Committee the following locali- 
ties for rarer plants are taken : Near Little Ferry, N. J., a 
Habenaria, intermediate in appearance between H. ciliaris and 
H. blephariglottis, having lemon-yellow flowers ; at Metuchen, 
N. Ji, Bidens chrysanthemoides, with tubular ray-flowers. The 
excursion to Swimming River, N. J., in search of Limnobium 
Spongia, reported by Dr. Knieskern in his Catalogue of the 
Plants of Ocean and Monmouth Counties, published in 1857, 
failed of its object. 

Mr. Southwick showed a branch of the Cedar of Lebanon 
from Central Park, bearing a fully developed cone. Prof 
Schrenk remarked that he bad collected the cones of this tree in 
Prince's Garden, Flushing, L. I. Dr. O. R. Willis exhibited 
specimens of Erica cinerea, E. Tetralix and Calhma vulgaris 
from Nantucket, and Prof Day reported the last as naturalized 
in the Park at Halifax, N. S. Judge Addison Brown distributed 
specimens of Onoclea Stnithiopteris from the vicinity of Litch- 
field, Conn. Dr. Britton remarked that the fern had now been 
collected at many points in the valley of the Delaware River, ex- 
tending as far south as Trenton, N. J. Prof Schrenk exhibited 
the European Dodder, Cusaita Epilinum, growing on flax from 
Greenwich, N. Y. Mrs. Britton reported having collected 
Eqiiisetmn arvense, var. serotinum, at Mahwah, N. J., and 
Habenaria Hookeri, var. oblongifolia, Paine, at the base of Green 
Pond Mt, near Newfoundland, N. J., and exhibited specimens. 
She also showed Mr. C. G. Pringle's last collection of Mexican 
ferns, with a series of interesting photographs sent by Mr. Daven- 
port, and stated that on consulting the Columbia College Herb- 
arium, two specimens of the new Notkolana Pringki had been 
found— one collected by Dr. Gregg, labelled, " Rock fern, Rocky 
hills, N. W. of Mapimi, April 17th, 1847," and another collected 
by Dr. Newberry at Sierra Rica, Chihuahua, December, 1882; 
both have been pronounced to be N. Pringlci by Mr. Daven- 

port. Dr. Britton read a communication from Rev. E. E. But- 
ler, and showed specimens of nuts and leaves sent by him from 
a tree growing near Morristown, N. J., which seems intermediate 
between Jiiglans cinerea and some species of Gary a ; the 
leaves are 3 or 5 -foliate and pubescent ; the nuts shorter than 
those of the Butternut, and otherwise different. Dr. Newberry 
read selections from the address of Wm. Carruthers before the 
Section of Biology of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, printed in Nature of Sept. 9th, 1886. 

A Letter from Commissioner Colman to the Botanists of the A, A. A. S. 

Department of Agriculture, } 
Washington, D. C October 20th, 1886. \ 
To the Members of the Botanical Club of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : I have noted with extreme gratification the interest 
you have taken in the work established by me in this Department, relative to the in- 
vestigation of the fungus diseases of plants ; and the resolutions you have passed com- 
mending my action and assuring me of your support and aid in securing the necessary 
means for the continued and successful prosecution of this most important undertaking 
are fully appreciated, and I wish to thank you on behalf of the farmers and fruit 
growers of the country, in whose interest and for whose direct benefit this work is 

As you are well aware, only a few of the more important plant diseases have been 
thoroughly worked out by scientists, and the little that has been done— little when 
compared wit^h what there is to do, but a great deal when considered by itself— has 
been the result of private effort on the part of some of your own well-known mem 
bers. Such obscure diseases as the peach yellows, the cotton rust, and the "foot rot " 
of the orange tree, demand immediate attention, and, for their proper elucidation, we 
need to command the services of our most skillful investigators, giving them opportu- 
nities to make special studies in the field until the knowledge desired is gained. As 
you have well suggested, a liberal supply of funds is required for this work. 

In addition to the assistance in this particular, to which you have so generously 
pledged yourselves, I beg leave to call your attention to the fact that you, as botan 
ists, knowmg our cultivated and native plants and the fungus parasites infesting them, 
may do much valuable service as observers in your respective localities, by recording 
such facts as may come to your notice relating to this subject, and by collecting and 
transmitting to the Department material useful in the investigations, or that may serve 
to record the distribution of the injurious species of fungi. 

Facilities for this work, and a free use of the mails, will be accorded those who 
may have such notes or materials to transmit, and the source of all matter that may be 
used for publication will be properly credited. 

Again thanking you for your hearty commendation of my course in relation to 
the subject, and assuring you that I shall continue to do all in my power to further 
the work, I remain, 

Yours respectfully, 






Vol. XIII.] New York, December, 1886. [No. 12. 

New Species of Mexican Grasses. 

Collected by Dr. Ed. Palmer, in S, W. Chihuahua, in 1885. 
By Dr. Geo. Vasey. 

Eriochloa aristata. — Culms 3 to 4 feet high, rather stout, 
decumbent and branching below, leafy, smooth below, scabrous- 
pubescent below the panicle ; nodes finely pubescent or glabrous ; 
sheath loose, smooth ; ligule a ciliate ring ; blade 5 to 8 inches 
'or>g, yi to ^ inch wide, acuminate, smooth, scabrous on the 
margin ; panicle 6 to 8 inches long, simple, rhachis and branches 
scabrous-pubescent; branches irregularly disposed, mostly al- 
ternate, somewhat clustered below, nearly sessile and flowering 
to the base, i J^ to 2 inches long, numerously flowered ; spikelets 
one-flowered, empty glumes acuminate into an awn which is y^, to 
yi their length, 4 to 6 lines long including the awn ; flowering 
glume nearly 2 lines long, shortly mucronate, finely striate. 
With this are fine specimens oi Eriochloa Lemmoni, V. and S., de- 
scribed in the Bot. Gazette for T>&c., 1884. 

Setaria LATIGLUMIS. — Culms 10 to 18 inches high, simple 
or branching, slender, rather leafy, nodes finely pubescent ; 
sheaths compressed, narrow, sparsely scabrous-pubescent, shorter 
than the internodes; ligule ciliate, blade narrow, 4 to 6 inches 
long, smoothish ; spike 3 to 4 inches long, erect, loosely flowered; 
branches mostly few-flowered, sometimes the lower five to six and 
the upper one to two-flowered, mostly with one bristle to each 
flower ; spikelets large, 2 lines long, i line wide ; first empty 
glume y2 as long as the second, seven to nine-nerved, wider 
than long ; second glume 2 lines long and as wide, about 
fifteen-nerved, cordate or auriculate at base, obtuse ; third glume 
(that of the male flower) oblong-ovate, swollen at the base, 2 
lines long, more than half as wide, about eleven to thirteen- 


nerved ; flowering glume of the perfect flower ovate, 1 1^ lines 
long, mucronate-pointed. Bristles 8 to lo lines long. Remark- 
able for the broad, many-nerved, inflated glumes. 

Setaria PAUCISETA. — Culms about i foot high, branched 
at the base, erect, rather rigid, compressed, leafy, the upper leaf 
enclosing the base of the panicle and equaling it; sheaths com- 
pressed and keeled, narrow, equaling or the upper longer than 
the internodes, ligule a ciliate ring, bladfe narrow, erect, 4 to 8 
inches long, acuminate ; panicle narrow, erect, loosely flowered, 
with short mostly simple branches ; rhachis and branches angu- 
lar, scabrous; bristles about twice as many as the fertile flowers; 
branches irregular, i^; to >^ inch long, the upper single-flowered, 
the lower five to ten-flowered ; spikelets about i Y2 lines long, 
ovate,acute, one perfect and one neutral flower, first glume less than 
half as long as the second, becoming inflated, obtuse, thin, five to 
seven-nerved; second glume about i^ lines long, broadly ovate 
or reniform, appearing acute from its volution, thirteen to fifteen- 
nerved ; third glume ovate or oblong, seven to nine-nerved, with 
or without a palet ; flowering glume ovate, slightly mucronate, 
about I line long. This and the preceding species are nearly 
allied, but well distinguished by the larger size and obtuse- 
ness of the spikelets, and the thicker and more inflated 
glumes of the former. The acute appearance of the spikelet in 
the present species depends on the folding of the outer glumes, 
as separately they are obtuse. 

^GOl'OGON GRACILIS. — Culms tufted, erect, slender, smooth, 
simple, 12 to 15 inches high ; leaves mostly near the base, i to 
2 inches long, very narrow, the upper cauline ones half an inch 
or less, ligule short, membranaceous, with the margins prolonged, 
the upper sheaths very long, (2-214 inches); panicle racemose, 
I to 1 1^ inches long, composed of ten to twelve sessile, divergent 
clusters of spikelets, mostly one-sided by the twisting of the 
short alternate pedicels, the clusters consisting of one sessile and 
two short pedicelled spikelets ; spikelets 2 to 3 lines long ; 
empty glumes acutely three- lobed, the middle lobe extended 
into an awn ; flowering glumes oblong, three-nerved, three awned, 
the lateral awns twice shorter; palet oblong, shortly two 
toothed or awned at the apex. 


MUHLENBERGIA RAMOSISSIMA. — Culms numerous from one 
root, rather slender, 2 to 3 feet long, much branched, the branch- 
es long; leaves 2 to 3 inches long, narrowly linear, acuminate, 
smooth ; ligule membranaceous, short, lacerated; sheaths striate, 
smooth, shorter than the internodes ; panicle narrow, nod- 
ding, 4 to 6 inches long, lax, the base included in the upper 
sheath ; branches unequal, erect, capillary, i to 3 inches long, 
flowering mostly to the base, numerously flowered ; spikelets 
I to I j4 lines long without the awn ; empty glumes minute, j 
to I as long as the flowering glume, obtuse, the upper one the 
larger ; flowering glume i line long, acuminate, sparsely hairy 
below, three-nerved, the lateral nerves extended into short 
teeth, the midnerve into a fine capillary awn 9 to 10 lines long. 

MUHLENBERGIA SPECIOSA. — Culms stout, erect, 3 to 4 feet 
high, almost wholly covered by the long sheaths, nodes few and 
near the base ; radical leaves numerous, very long and narrow, 
rigid, those of the culms similar ; sheaths softly pubescent, the 
upper ones very long and overlapping ; ligule woolly, keel and 
margin of the leaves scabrous ; panicle ample, i to ij4 feet long, 
3 to 4 inches vvide, lax, branches irregularly semi-verticillate and 
very numerous, slender, 2 to 4 inches long, subdivided nearly to 
the base, pedicels mostly longer than the spikelets : spikelets 
about I line long ; empty glumes slightly longer than the flower, 
covered with long, white hairs, thin, equal, nerveless ; flowering 
glume ovate, three-nerved, hairy on the nerves, tipped with a 
fine awn 5 to 9 lines long; palet oblong, sparsely hairy, nearly 
equaling its glume. All the glumes and the palet are of about 
the same texture. A very showy grass. 

MUHLENBERGIA Palmerl — Culms erect from a strong, 
creeping rootstock, stout, 3 to 4 feet high, leafy; leaves i to 2 
feet long, narrow, coarse, becoming involute, with long, setaceous 
points, ligule short, rigid ; panicle long and narrow, 8 to 12 inches 
long, ^ to I inch wide, erect, branches numerous, mostly 
flowering to the base, }4 to l inch long ; spikelets 2 lines long ; 
empty glumes nearly equal, ^ shorter than the outer ones, 
mucronate, one-nerved; flowering glume oblong-lanceolate, three- 
nerved, scabrous on the keel, bidentate at the apex, and with an 
awn 2 to 3 lines long ; palet as long as its glume, narrow, acute. 

MUHLENBERGIA ARGENTEA. — Culms numerous from one 
root, 12 to 1 8 inches high, simple, rather slender, leafy; leaves 
about 6 inches long, very narrow, ligule membranaceous, long 
and pointed ; panicle nodding, lax, open, 4 to 6 inches long, the 
base enclosed by the upper sheath, branches capillary, mostly in 
twos, flowering from the middle or below, mostly simple ; spike- 
lets thin and with a silvery lustre, about i ^ lines long, on short 
pedicels ; empty glumes ^ to ^ as long as the flower, flat or very 
little compressed, nearly equal, acute, the upper one three-tooth- 
ed at apex ; flowering glume oblanceolate, membranaceous, three- 
nerved, slightly pubescent on the nerves, two-lobed at the apex, 
the awn between proceeding from the upper fourth, twice as 
long as its glume ; palet as long as, or longer than its glume, 

All the glumes and the palet are flattened or very little com- 

Euphrasia Officinalis, L. 

The only New England locality cited for this species in Gray's 
Manual, is "Alpine summits of the White Mountains, N. H." 
It is also there reported as found at Lake Superior and north- 
ward. It is now known, however, to occur occasionally on the 
southern portion of Mount Desert Island, where I have seen it in 
grassy places near roadsides. I have also seen it in grassy swards 
on the southern portion of Great Cranberry Island, and also on ' 
Great Duck Island, both lying south of Mount Desert Island. 
Pringle also noted it, in 1879, on the south shore of the St. Law- 
rence River, one hundred miles below Quebec, in the fields near 
the shore.* In all these places it would seem to be an introduced 
plant. J. H. R. 

[We can testify to finding E. officinalis on Duck Island in 
1880, and can also add that we have found it grow:ing abundant- 
ly along grassy roadsides at Grand Lake, Nova Scotia, and re- 
member seeing it on the slopes of the fortifications at Quebec. 
In Nova Scotia, along roadsides, was also found the Ladies' 
Mantle, Alchemilla vulgaris, L, which is undoubtedly of Eu- 
ropean origin. — Ed.] 

'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, vi., 366. 


The Pores of the Libriform Tissue.* 
By Emily L. Gregory, Ph. D. 

The results of the investigations in this direction served, in 
most instances, to confirm this supposition. Some care was 
taken to discriminate between small tracheae and tracheids by 
use of macerated preparations. These attempts were not wholly 
satisfactory, owing to the impossibility of examining every sepa- 
rate cell. They served, however, to prove that in some instances 
the cells referred to by anatomists as tracheids, are really small 
tracheae. For example, in Robinia, a large number of tracheid- 
like cells were found to communicate directly with each other by 
means of a circular opening in the partition wall. These two 
classes, small tracheae and tracheids, seem to pass into each other 
here, by gradual transition stages, some being found to possess 
an opening at one end, thus communicating directly with the 
next cell, while at the other end no trace of an opening could be 

Enough examples were studied to show that great variety 
exists in the number of elements of different woods. In 
Quercus, as before described, all the elements occur, so also 
in Ligustrum. Others were found to lack one or more, as 
Ribes, which lacks the thin-walled tracheids; Comarunt, the 
simple-pored libriform ; Berberis, the bordered-pored libriform, 
and also the wood parenchyma. Quite a large number have 
only large and small tracheae ; such are Popidus, Salix, . Acer, 
Fraxinus and others. Here occurs the difficulty before men- 
tioned, of deciding accurately between tracheids and small 
tracheae. In many woods where openings were found between 
the cells it was only by the most careful manipulation, and it is 
impossible to say with certainty that they fail entirely in any of 
the above mentioned cases. On the other hand, when they are 
found to exist in any part of the specimen under consideration, 
we can only infer that they exist throughout in the same element. 

Only two examples were found which contained only large 
tracheae and simple-pored libriform. These are Betula alba and 
Corylus Avellana. Here the tracheae appear to be of a nearly 

'Continued from page 30+. 


uniform size, no small ones being present. In these two in- 
stances it must be inferred that either the simple-pored libriform 
cells do contribute in no small degree to the passage of water, 
or that the local needs are satisfied by some arrangement of the 
numerous large tracheae. Although we have, at the beginning, 
excluded the consideration of the cells of the medullary rays and 
wood parenchyma, as not materially affecting the question of the 
nature of the libriform tissue, the suggestion may be allowed here, 
that a factor of such importance in the water transport, as this 
probably is, may come in play in a somewhat different manner 
here than in cases where the number of elements is greater. 

The simplest woody tissue was found in Veronica Andersoni ; 
a woody stem of two years' growth was found to contain only 
large and small tracheae and simple-pored libriform, and no 
medullary rays nor wood parenchyma. In one year growths of 
Chelone and Digitalis the same structure was found, but the 
woody growth was not so well developed. The small tracheae 
here might easily be mistaken for tracheids, and it is not possible 
to say with absolute certainty that all of these are really trachea. 
The greater number examined were found to communicate di- 
rectly, therefore the others, having the same appearance in other 
respects, are supposed to agree also in this one. 

In the literature on this subject, examples are given of one 
year's stems of certain Cruciferae which contain no medullary 
rays, but these cases of Veronica, Chelone and Digitalis appear 
to be the first ones found where wood parenchyma also fails. It 
is the more remarkable as in other genera of the same family 
well developed and complex forms occur. 

It is conceded at the outset that there is ground in the fore- 
going pages for the following objection, namely: That the 
hypothesis of a functional difference between bordered and sim- 
ple pores is here based mainly upon another supposition, that of 
the water transport through the cell-lumen, which is itself only a 
supposition, and has yet to be substantiated by proof. 

This objection, however, cannot be urged against the consid- 
eration of the question simply from the anatomical-systematical 
standpoint. It must be conceded, that without regarding this 
supposed function of the pores, a certain interest attaches itself 


to the question how far this anatomical difference, that is, the 
presence or absence of the border in the libriform tissue, coincides 
with the morphological characteristics which decide the limits of 
genera, families and groups in our present system of classifica- 

Specimens from nearly all the genera of the large and most 
important dicotyledonous families were studied and compared in 
reference to this question. Some few of these families contain 
only two or three genera with woody tissue ; of others only a few 
species were available, but the greater number of the families 
given in the following list were exhaustively examined. 

With this examination we begin by comparing the genera of 
the different families, as there is no question in regard to the 
similarity of anatomical structure, in this respect, between the 
different species of the same genus. 

Genera from sixty-one principal and six sub-families were 
examined with the results shown in the following tables; the 
sub-families are given here separately owing partly to the large 
number of genera some contain, and partly on account of certain 
differences in structure which incline botanists to regard them as 
distinct families. 

Families whose Libriform Contains only Simple Pores. 

































Valerian aceae. 

Families whose 

Libriform Contains only 

Bordered Pores. 




















Faiiilles whose Libriform Contains Both Kinds of Pores. 

Campanulaceae. Sub-Families. 
CelastraceEe. . 

Fagacece. AmygdaleEC. 

Sapolacece. Spireme. 

Myrtacese. Buxacea;. 

F'amilies whose Genera do not Agree in Reference to the Pores. 

Caprifoliacese. Scrophulariaceae. 

Oleaceae. Solaiiacese. 

Ranunculaces. Tiliacese. 

Saxifragacese. Zygophylleae. 

By comparing these results in reference to the families of dif- 
ferent groups, it will be seen that the idea of relationship between 
these families is not sustained by a correspondence in the anatom- 
ical structure of the libriform tissue. 

In the group Labiatiflorae, for example, we find the families 
Labiatae, Bignoniaceae, Acanthaceae and Verbenacese all contain 
libriform, with only simple pores ; Globulariacese, which accord- 
ing to some authors belongs in this group, has at least one 
example, namely, Globularia with only bordered pores, while 
Scrophulariaceae contains genera which do not agree in this 
respect, that is, some genera contain both bordered and simple 
pores, others only simple pores. The remaining two families 
usually included in this group, viz. : Plantaginese and Lentibu- 
lariaceae, were not examined, as they contain but few plants with 
well- developed woody tissue. 

Of the families of another large group, Rosiflorae, we find 
Pomeae, Roseae and Dryadeae agree in possessing pores with bor- 
ders, while Spiraea and Amygdaleae have both kinds. Of this 
group Poterieae, Quillajeae and Chrysobalaneae were not exam- 

In a number of other groups we find the same difference ex- 
isting between the families composing them, and sometimes even 
between those families in which a certain degree of relationship is 
a well established fact ; for example, Compositae and Dipsaceae, 
the former having simple, the latter bordered pores. So also 
with Anonaceae and Magnoliaceae. 

On the other hand, there are two small groups whose mem- 
bers agree; these are Primulineae, containing the Families Prim- 


ulaceae, Myrsineae and Plumbagineae, all of which have only sim- 
ple pores. The second group is Bicornes, containing Epacrideae, 
Ericaceae, Vaccineae, Rhodoraceas and Hypopityaceae, which con- 
tain only bordered pores. The latter family is not given in the 
list, because the only representatives of this family which were 
examined are placed by Bentham and Hooker in the family 

These examples are perhaps sufficient to verify the statement 
made in reference to the classification of families. In regard to 
the agreement of genera, the tables show without further expla- 
nation that the genera of thirty-three families agree in having 
only simple pores ; of eighteen in having only bordered ; of eight 
in having both kinds, while out of the whole number, sixty- 
seven, only eight are found where genera do not agree. A fur- 
ther description of these eight families will show that in most 
instances the morphological-systematic characteristics fail to in- 
dicate a very close relationship. 

In the family Oleaceae, three genera by some authors con- 
sidered as sub-families, viz. : Syringa, Ligustruni and Fraxinus, 
vary from each other not only in regard to the presence or ab- 
sence of the border, but also in other respects. In Syringa the 
libriform tissue contains pores with unusually large well-devel- 
oped borders. Fraxinus has libriform with only simple pores, 
while Ligustruni has both kinds. The two latter genera dilifer 
widely in regard to the other elements of the woody tissue. 
That is, LigustrufH represents the most complex type, Fraxinus 
the most simple. Specimens of both were treated with Schultze's 
macerating solution, and in Fraxinus only tracheze and simple- 
pored libriform were found. (Wood parenchyma and medullary 
ray cells are also present, as in all examples given where no 
special reference is made to them.) In Ligustrum, on the other 
hand, are found all the varieties of wood elements. As no sys- 
tematist claims for these two genera a very close degree of re- 
lationship, this difference in anatomical structure is not so strik- 
ing. Forsythia has large and well-developed borders in the pores 
of the Hbriform tissue. 

A parallel case is found in the family Saxifragaceae, so far as 
the libriform is concerned. Philadelphus has only bordered- 


pored libriform, Ribes has both kinds. These two genera, how- 
ever, present such morphological differences as to be classed by- 
some authors in separate families. Hydrangea and Deutzia have 
bordered pores. In Deutzia the bor- 
ders are not as large as in other gen- 
era, but the pores are very numerous, 
several lying on the same wall of a 
cross-section, as seen in fig. A. 

Of Zygophyllese only a few speci- 
„ , . ,^ ,., mens could be obtained. Of those 

Z^«»/zra.—b—Libnform cells, a— Cells 

of the medullary ray, examined, Tvibulus has only simple, 

Giiaicum only bordered, and Zygophyllum, both kinds of pores. 

In Ranunculaceae, Clematis has only simple pores ("these, 
however, are very numerous), while Adonis and Pceonia have 
bordered pores. 

In Tiliaceae, the genus Corchorus has libriform pores possess- 
ing borders of medium size. The other genera examined contain 
only simple-pored libriform. In Caprifoliaces, Viburnum has 
only bordered, Sambucus only simple pores. 

This leaves only two more families belonging to this category, 
viz : Solanaceae and Scrophulariaceae. All the genera examined 
of the family SolanacejE, except Brunfelsia and Franciscea, 
agree in having simple-pored libriform. These two genera have 
both kinds of pores in this tissue, the bordered element pre- 
dominating over the simple. Endlicher classes these two genera 
with Scrophulariaceae. With the members of this family they 
agree not much better, though one genus of Scrophulariacea: 
examined contains both kinds of pores. Also the different 
genera of Scrophulariaceae vary from each other in the number 
of elements of the woody tissue much more than those of 
Solanacea. This is so striking as to deserve particular men- 

As before stated, all the genera of the family Scrophu- 
lariaces, examined except Freylinia, contain libriform with only 
simple pores. In Veronica, Chelone and Digitalis, trachea and 
hbriform cells form the entire woody tissue. We have previously 
mentioned Veronica as being the only example where both medul- 
lary rays and wood parenchyma cells fail. This is not strictly true. 


for Chelonea.nA Digitalis both have the same structure, viz: only 
tracheae and Jibriform, but in these cases the stems examined 
were of only one year's growth and the woody portion not well 
developed ; the specimen of Veronica Andersotii on the contrary, 
was a fair example of woody development. In Halleria, 
Celsia, Scrophularia and Scoparia, in addition to these elements, 
medullary-ray cells occur, but no wood parenchyma. In Panlow- 
nia and Diplaciis the wood parenchyma is added ; in Paidownia 
this surrounds the large tracheae, no small ones occur. In Dipla- 
cus the larger tracheae lie in radial rows along the medullary 
rays, thus in both instances the tracheae are in connection with 
living, acting cells. In Freylinia the libriform contains both 
bordered and simple pores, the former predominating ; all the 
other elements belonging to the most complex type are also found 
here, unless it may be the thin-walled tracheids, as it is not pos- 
sible always to decide between these and the small tracheae. So 
here we have a most marked contrast to the simple structure of 
the woody tissue of Veronica. 

This variation of structure in the genera of a few families pre- 
sents a striking contrast to the uniformity prevailing in the great 
majority. While it suggests at once the idea that the degree of 
relationship between the members of those few families may be 
very remote, still in those instances where this idea is not sub- 
stantiated by corresponding morphological differences, as in case 
of the last family described, the possibility of transition stages in 
the development of the border naturally suggests itself 

Assuming only what is self-evident in reference to the func- 
tion of the pores, that is, that they are designed to allow a freer 
communication between the cells than the walls otherwise fur- 
nish, we may suppose that in case of increased demand in this re- 
spect there might gradually occur a corresponding change in the 
form, size, or frequency of the pores to meet this demand. 

First, as regards the form, it is possible that in this way the 
simple pore with its funnel-shaped enlargement at the base nia\', 
by a succession of changes, have developed into the bordered 
pore, the curve of the enlargement having iirown more and 
more defined until at last it has changed into a decided angle. 
The attempt to verify this supposition by observation is, of 


B course, entirely impracticable. There is possi- 

bly a suggestion of such transition in the genus 
Liriodendron, B, before referred to, where the 
borders in the same cell were found to vary a 
little in form, some having the typical lenticular 
form, others inclining more to a circular shape. 
This, however, can be considered only as a sug- 

It is, however, quite diffierent when the ques- 
tion of size alone is considered. Several fami- 
_J— I lies were found in whose different genera all 
variations in the size of the border ocour. For example, the 
family Ericaceae, of which the genus Erica offers, perhaps, 
the best example found of this supposed beginning stage 
of the border. Here the form corresponds exactly with those 
found in the other genera, and we can trace the increase in size 
from one genus to another till we reach the genera Vacciniunt 
and Oxycoccus, where the border attains a medium size. 

In other families there was found great variation in the num- 
ber as well as size of the pores. In the genus Drimys of the 
family Magnoliacese, the number of pores is about as great as the 
surface of the cell wall will allow, and the border quite as large 
as in some of the conifers. In Illicium the pores are consider- 
ably less frequent and the border nearly one-half smaller. In 
Liriodendroti aud Magnolia the pores are so few in number and 
the border so small that they may easily be mistaken for simple 
pores. The difference in regard to the number of elements was al- 
so quite suggestive in these genera. In Drimys, where the borders 
are so large and so numerous, very few tracheae occur, and none 
whose diameter exceeds that of the hbriform cells. Illicium and 
Liriodendroti contain a large number of tracheae of different 
diameters and a smaller amount of wood parenchyma. These 
variations appear very striking when compared with the uni- 
formity found in other families. 

In conclusion, one more family may be referred to, whose 
genera contain both simple and bordered elements in the Hbri- 
form tisssue in such variable quantities as to render it an excep- 
tion to most other families : this is Myrtaceae. As before stated, 


Myrtus forms an exception to all the other genera by the absence 
of, at least, any visible simple-pored libriform. In Eticalyptiis 
globulus a few cells only were found to contain simple pores. In 
Eucalyptus perfoliatus thu number of cells containing simple pores 
is much greater ; in a number of other genera, Leptospermum, 
Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Eugenia, etc.,th.e quantity of each element 
is about the same. 

From this somewhat cursory survey of the various families 
and groups, the conclusion reached is, that there is a certain 
parallelism between this peculiar anatomical structure and the 
morphological-systematical characteristics which decide the 
limits of the family, the principal cases which furnish exceptions 
to this statement being themselves genera of doubtful character. 

Outside the limits of the family, however, this parallelism 
does not exist. That is to say, while the families of two or three 
groups were found to correspond in this respect, the greater num- 
ber of groups showed no such correspondence in the structure of 
the libriform tissue. 

A few words of explanation are necessary in regard to the 
terminology used in speaking of the various elements of the wood)' 
tissue. No particular system has been followed, not from any lack 
of systems, but rather from the opposite reason. Nearly every 
writer on this subject suggests a special method of classification. 
Of all the diiTerent articles on woody tissue that of Sanio is per- 
haps the most thorough and exhaustive. His method of classi- 
fication is extremely difficult to use, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing explanation. He divides the wood elements, whose long axes 
are parallel with the long axis of the stem, into three classes: paren- 
chymatic, tracheal and libriform elements. He distinguishes the 
tracheids from the bordered- pored libriform cells by the difference 
in the size of the border, and further, he says the real libriform cells 
never have spiral thickenings, which are almost always present in 
the tracheids. As they are not always present, and as he gives no 
concrete example which may be taken as a measure for the size of 
the border when we wish to decide whether a cell is to be classed 
with the tracheal or libriform element, we have no means to 
determine definitely. 

A more recent article has appeared, " Vergleichende anatom- 


ische Untersuchungen iiber die Differenzen im Primarem Bau der 
Stengel und Rhizome Krautartiger Phanerogamen " by Wladys- 
law Rothart, in which the author suggests a principle of classi- 
fication which he says rests on a morphological-anatomical 
basis, and claims for this method a great superiority over that 
based on the physiological-anatomical characteristics. He states 
expressly that in this system the mischievous practice of consid- 
ering the probable function of an element in deciding to which 
class of tissue it belongs has been carefully avoided. 

According to this author the wood elements are first divided 
into two classes, Desmogen and Bythom, or "Strang" and "grund " 
tissue. The former he divides into four classes, the latter is not 
divided. Only the first two divisions of the Desmogen are of 
interest in this connection, namely: Inom and Tracheom. As 
Inom are considered all those desmogenic elements containing 
simple pores or none. As Tracheom all those containing bor- 
dered pores ; this class includes the ring and spiral, as well as 
the " netz-gefasse," (reticulated trachejE) the ring and spiral wall- 
thickenings being considered only modifications of the bordered 
pore, and tho reticulated tracheae a transition form between these 
two. This division is based principally on the common sculpture 
of the cell wall, which he says may be considered an infallible 

It is well known that in many instances a single member of 
a trachea which borders on other tracheae as well as on cells of 
the medullary ray and libriform tissue contains large and num- 
erous bordered pores on the side adjacent to the other tracheae, 
while that part of its wall bordering on the cells of the medul- 
lary ray or libriform tissue contains simple pores, and these in 
comparatively small numbers. In these cases the infallibility of 
the wall-sculpture does not appear sufficient to decide the class to 
which the element belongs. Very often in the course of this 
work were found single tracheal tubes ; that is, a tube consisting 
of many members was found isolated from other trachese, and as 
far as could be traced it contained only simple pores. It is not 
improbable that where such tubes joined other tracheje otherwise 
than by a dissolved partition wall, the usual bordered pores occur- 
red, but as far as the section extended these members were entirely 


isolated from other tracheae and contained, as before mentioned, 
only simple pores. Here it is equally difficult to decide to which 
class this belongs. According to the wall sculpture, it must be 
ranked with the thick- walled, closed, libriform cells, a classification 
which to us appears quite as unnatural as any of those based up- 
on the probable function of an element. 

Therefore, as no better method suggested itself, the generally 
conceded functions of the woody tissue were taken as a basis for 
division, viz : to furnish a means for the transport of water 
and to give strength and solidity to the stem. According 
to this idea, the different elements treated have naturally 
grouped themselves into two classes : those whose walls are so 
thin as to preclude the idea that they are of use as strength- 
ening-cells, and those which, according to their anatomical struc- 
ture and all the facts gained by experiment, may serve in both 
capacities, but more especially as strengthening-cells. 

By speaking of this as a method of division, it is not meant 
that it furnishes an exact criterion, but only that it avoids the 
necessity of one. Where the various facts concerning an element 
lead to the conclusion that its principal function is that of a water 
carrier, this element is referred to as tracheal ; where the facts 
point to the opposite conclusion the element is considered libri- 
form. According to this view the bordered pore is considered 
a peculiar organ of the water- transporting elements, and whenever 
it is found in the thick-walled cells its presence is supposed to 
indicate that these cells undertake both functions of the woody 

Since the completion of the foregoing pages, an article, 
"Ueberden SystematischenWerth der Holzstructur bei den Dicot- 
yledon," has appeared, by Dr. Hans Solereder, Munich, in which 
this difference in the libriform tissue has been studied in a much 
larger number of families than the time and material for the 
present work has allowed. As the author only includes this 
among all the various other anatomical characteristics of the 
dicotyledonous woods, with no reference to any possible physi- 
ological meaning, he has, naturally, taken a different standard 
for the bordered pore, namely : the size of the border, and says 
wherever the border is larger than the "spalt" the pore may be 


considered bordered. As this definition is sometimes difficult of 
application, he overcomes this by placing some families with 
small and imperfectly developed borders in the list with those 
containing only simple pores. 

In this way it happens that the tables given by this author do 
not always agree with those of the present paper. For example, 
Betula and Alnus he gives among the bordered pored,although ex- 
plaining that the border is here generally smaller than the "spalt" 
Also the pores of the libriform of Fraximis he says possess 
" deutliche" borders, although smaller than the "spalt." Several 
other instances occur where the different standards taken to de- 
cide what a border is, cause a difference in the classification. 

This indicates, however, no real difference in opinion, as the 
definition is simply arbitrary in both cases, and in instances like 
Betula and Alnus, the test of the angle between the tube and the 
border-opening was extremely difficult of application. Certain 
species of Alnus were examined where, had the decision rested 
on single cases alone, these must have been included in bor- 
dered-pored libriform. 

It is hardly necessary to add in conclusion that the probability 
of the hypothesis assumed in the foregoing pages would be great- 
ly strengthened by experiments proving that water, when forced 
by artificial means though a piece of wood consisting of bordered- 
pored libriform, passed through more readily than through wood 
containing only simple pored libriform. Several experiments of 
this kind were tried at different times in the laboratory of Prof 
Schwendener of Berlin, and also in that of Prof Cramer at Ziirich, 
the results of which were partially successful. It is hoped that 
these results may be verified and the experiments extended so 
far as to render them of sufficient interest for future publication. 

Time of Fruiting of Buxbaumia aphylla. 

In December of 1884 I noticed two patches of this interest- 
ing moss growing near Hamden Swamp, in the vicinity of New 
Haven, Conn. 

My attention was first attracted by the bleached empty cap- 
sules of the preceding year's growth. One patch was situated 
near a decayed stump, the other at the foot of an oak. The soil 


was comparatively dry, the spots where the moss grew being 
elevated several feet above the level of the adjoining swamp. 

When first observed, the growing capsules were green, small, 
and quite soft to the touch. I visited the locality at intervals of 
about two weeks, but found little change in the condition of the 
capsules until the beginning of spring, when they became swollen 
and began to assume a pretty purplish hue. 

On the 19th of April they appeared to be perfectly devel- 
oped. W. E. Safford. 

Examination of Pine-Seed Wings. 

In connection with the recent discussion as to the identity or 
non-identity of Pinus ediilis and P. monophylla, I would sug- 
gest a microscopic examination of the cellular structure of the 
wings of the seed as a valuable means of specific differentiation. 
These cells, no less by their general shape than by their contour, 
are so characteristic, that by them alone the species to which a 
given specimen belongs can be determined with tolerable cer- 
tainty. Such at least is the result of my observation with a lim- 
ited number of species. Further investigation is necessary to de- 
cide as to its general applicability. 

The examination is quite easy, as the wings are translucent, 
and a low power, from 80 to 100 diameters, suffices. 

G. N. Best. 
Insular Floras. 
By John H. Redfield. 

The outer islands lying off the coast of Maine have a flora of 
a triple character. The wooded portions have the trees of the 
mainland, mostly spruces, firs and birches, and under their shelter 
grow the characteristic smaller plants of the northern flora, and 
where the ground is swampy, a great variety of species find a 
home. But the cleared portions, which have been cultivated or 
used for sheep pastures, are often extensive, and these harbor a 
great number of species which may be called " tramps " — some- 
times as unwelcome as human tramps — while, lastly, the rocky 
coasts and stony beaches give a legitimate place to many strictly 
maritime species. Some of these islands have an extensive area, 
and furnish a flora too large to enumerate here. In the BULLETIJW 


of October last, I mentioned the plants seen on a short visit to 
one of the smaller isles, and now I will speak of one still smaller. 
Between Little Cranberry Island and Baker's Island, is a ledge of 
rocks about a mile in length, bare only at very low tides. About 
midway of it is a low, treeless islet, which is above the level of 
high tide. It is protected by a bank of shingle thrown up by the 
waves, while its interior is covered with verdure. The area is 
hardly more than an acre. It is seldom visited, but I had an 
opportunity on September 2d of spending a few minutes upon it, 
and noted the following plants : 

Cakile Americana, Nutt. ; Geranium Robertianum, L. ; Lathy- 
rus maritimus, L. ; Potentilla Anserina, L. ; Rtibus sirigosus, 
L. ; Ribes hirtellum, Mx. ; Ginothera biennis, L. ; Archangelica 
Gmelitii, L. ; Ligusticum Scoticum, L., in great abundance ; 
Aster (?) tardifloriis, L. ; Solidago sempervirens, L. ; Ambrosia 
artemisioefolia, L. ; Achillea Millefolium, L. ; Cnicus arvensis, 
Hoffm. ; Mertensia maritima, Don., in great profusion; Convol- 
vulus sepium. L. ; Scutellaria galericulata, L. ; Plantago decipt- 
ens, Barn. ; Chenopodium album, L. ; Suada linearis, Torn, var. 
ramosa, Wats. (5. maritima of Gray's Manual) ; Triglochin 
maritimum, L. ; Iris versicolor, L. ; Ammopkila arenaria, Host. 

Erica and Calluna on Nantucket, 

On a visit to Nantucket some years ago, Mrs. Catherine 
Starbuck, the President of the Botanical Society there, showed 
me a locality where I saw the Erica cinerea growing. The spot 
was situated miles from any dwelling. Mrs. Charlotte C. Pear- 
son, an active member of the Society, informed me that she had 
found it when a child, in a locality far from dwellings, and where 
trees had never been known to grow. 

In September of this year Mrs. Pearson sent me a specimen 
of E. cinerea from a new locality, and stated that the plant had 
been found in four different places on the island, far apart. 
Early in October she sent me specimens of Erica Tetralix 
and Calluna vulgaris, informing me that they were found in 
a tract planted with Larches imported from England. I wrote 
asking her to procure all the information possible as to the 
locality, when she wrote that Mr. Henry Coffin, a gentleman of 


means, with a desire to afforest parts of the island, imported from 
England 9,000 seedling Larches, and from Illinois 30,000 Scotch 
Firs, and planted them upon twenty acres of land. After I 
wrote for information, Mr. Coffin visited the planted tract and 
made a thorough search ; in that exploration he discovered twenty 
patches in which the Erica was growing; it was about evenly 
distributed over the whole tract, and was as abundant among the 
Firs brought from Illinois as among the Larches from England. 

The seed of the Erica is so well protected that it v/il! endure 
much exposure ; this fact favors a theory that the plant has been 
introduced by man's agency, and that it has either been brought 
by settlers as an ornamental plant, and escaped from cultivation, 
or has been sown by seeds brought on in seed-grain, or among 
the roots of trees. 

But in opposition to this theory, it has never been found in 
the vicinity of dwellings, nor near cultivated grounds. 

O. R. Willis. 

Unusual Leaf-Forms in Platanus occidentalis. 

I send some leaf specimens taken from a Plane tree near 
Houston. Compared with the usual form of the leaf, most of the 
leaves on this particular tree are but slightly toothed, while a 
large proportion are only pointed at the three lobes— the rest of 
the margin entire. Has this peculiar sport of the Plane been no- 
ticed before? It is another instance of the diversity in the form 
and outline of leaves belonging to a single species. 

As this Plane {P. occideiUalis) is easily propagated by cut- 
tings (more readily than its oriental kin) there is reason to be- 
lieve that a fixed variety can be secured. 

G. C. Nealley. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Agaricus campestris. Worthington G. Smith. (Gard. Chron., 

xxvi., pp. 492, 493 ; two figures.) 

A popular account of the field mushroom, with excellent 
illustrations of its structure and appearance. 
Beginnings of Natural History in America. G. Brown Goode. 

(Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, iii.,pp. 35-105; reprinted.) 

This paper is the presidential address delivered at the sixth 


annual meeting of the Biological Society of Washington. Dr. 
Goode traces the early history of zoological and botanical science 
in America. The earliest English naturalist on our shores was 
Thomas Harriott, who was the mathematical instructor of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, and who was landed on Roanoke Island, Aug. 
17, 1585. He was preceded, however, by the Spaniard, Gonzalo 
Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes, who visited Santo Domingo in 
1514, and was subsequently governor of that island, and also by 
Jean de Lery, a member of the Huguenot colony established in 
1555 on an island in the bay of Rio de Janeiro, and by Jose 
d'Acosta, a missionary, who travelled in Peru from 1571-1588. 
It IS a valuable contribution to the history of American science. 
Brodi<2a Douglasii. J. G. Baker. (Bot. Mag., plate 6,907.) 

A beautiful illustration of one of the finest species of the 
genus, drawn from a plant which flowered at Kew in May from a 
bulb sent by Mr. Pringle. 
Caltha palustris, L. — Versuch einer Gliederimg des Formenkreises 

der. Gunther Beck. (Verhandl. K. K. zool. bot. Gesellsch. 

Wien, xxxvi., pp. 347-353-) 

Being occupied with a review of the forms of Caltha hitherto 
found in Austria, Dr. Beck has extended his studies of this plant, 
in order to bring together all the described forms. Four 
European and Asiatic species and their varieties are first con- 
sidered, and seven varieties of the Linnsean C. palustris are then 
noted; these he divides into two sections, (a) sepals large, 
I to 2 cm. long, and (b) sepals small, narrow, about i cm. long. 
In the first section he places var. typica, van integerrima (C. 
ititegerrima, Pursh) and vat. parnassifolia {C. parnassifolia, Raf), 
all of which are credited to North America ; in section (b) we 
find var. minor, (C. minor. Miller) and var. asarifolia {C. asari- 
folia, DC.) credited to North America, and two other Asiatic 
and European varieties. C. flabellifolia, Pursh, C. arctica, R. 
Br., and C. biflora, DC, are excluded by Dr. Beck. 
Darlingtonia Californica. (West American Scientist, ii., pp. 

91, 92 ; one figure.) 

The habitat of this interesting plant is "in mountain swamps 
and along the borders of brooks, at an elevation of from 1,000 to 
6,000 feet, from Truckee Pass to the borders of Oregon." 


Fertilization of Cassia Marilandica. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. 

Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 314-318.) 

An interesting study, in which reference is made to Mr. 
Leggett's notes in early numbers of the BULLETIN. Mr. Meehan 
observed that as soon as the flowers open they are freely visited 
by bumble bees, which alight on the anthers of the long lower 
stamens, using these as a platform, and then open the pores at 
the apices of the anthers of the four shorter staftiens, and empty 
them of pollen. He thinks that these pores are covered by 
membranes and are never ruptured except by insect agency. A 
gauze bag was placed over a panicle of the flowers, completely 
protecting them from the bees, and not one of the blossoms so 
enclosed produced a pod. Mr. Meehan was unable to ascertain 
that the anthers of this species ultimately split longitudinally, as 
Dr. Torrey believed happened with those of C. nictitans. 
Florida Fungi. — Notes on. W. W. Calkins. (Journ. Mycol., ii., 

pp. 126-128.) 

This is Mr. Calkins' ninth contribution, and brings the num- 
ber of species noted up to 136. 
Fungi. — New. J. B. Ellis and Geo. Martin. (Journ. Mycol., ii., 

pp. 128-130.) 

Eleven new species are characterized. 
Grasses of the Arid Districts of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado 

— An Investigation of the. Dr. George Vasey. {Dept. Agric, 

Botanical Division, Bulletin No. I, p. 18, 13 plates; Wash- 
ington, 1886.) 

The most important pasture grasses of the region are the 
"Gramma Grass" (Bouteloua oligostachya) and the "Buffalo 
Grass " {Buchloe dactyloides) ; Dr. Vasey estimates that they 
together form 75-90 per cent, of the whole grass product; 
numerous other species are found, however, and among these 
Andropogon provincialis, A. scoparius, Panicum virgatum, 
Distichlis maritima, Chrysopogon nutans, Kaeleria cristata, 
Muhlenbergia glomerata, Hilaria Jamesii, Sporobolus cryptan- 
drus. S. airoides and Elymus Canadensis are noted and illustrated. 
Hickory Nuts of North America. Joseph F.James. (Pop. Sci. 

Month., XXX., pp. 70-78 ; illustrated.) 

An attempt to trace the genealogy of all our species of Carya. 


Lastarricea, Remy. — Confirmation of the Genus ivith Character 

extended. C. C. Parry. (Proc. Davenp. Acad. Nat. Sci., v., 

PP- 35. 36; reprinted.) 

Chorizanthe Lastarricea, Parry, is L. Chilensis, Remy, and 
two new species from Chili are described. 
Lilium tigridiim. — Notes on. Thos. Meehan. (Proc. Phil. Acad. 

Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 297, 298.) 
Orthotrichia, — A neiv Gejius of Myxomycetes. Harold Wingate. 

(Journ. Mycol., ii., pp. 125, 126; one figure of 6>. micro- 

cephala, Wingate.) 
Paspali of Le Conte's Monograph. — Notes on. Dr. George Vasey. 

(Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 2:54-290.) 

This monograph was published in 1820 in Vol. 91 of the 
Journal de Physique. Dr. Vasey has critically examined all of 
Major Le Conte's specimens contained in the Herbarium of the 
Philadelphia Academy, and gives us the results of his studies in 
this valuable paper. His final revision of the genus may be 
found in the September number of this BULLETIN. 
Pear Blight. — History and Biology of J. C. Arthur. (Proc. 

Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 322-336+; one plate.) 

This paper is a resume of the investigations conducted by 
Dr. Arthur and others on the disease caused by the Micrococcus 
amylovorus, Burrill. 
Pollen in the Flowers of Indigofera.—On Projection of. Thomas 

Meehan. (Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 292-294.) 
Polye7nbryony.—T>. P. Penhallow. (Can. Rec. Sci"., ii., p. 177.) 

Mr. Penhallow records the frequency of this phenomenon in 
the seeds of the Tangierine orange. Among 38 seeds, only six 
produced single plants, while 19 produced two plants, nine three 
plants, and from four seeds four seedlings each originated. 
Pyrola rotundifolia. (Garden, xxx., p. 429 ; illustrated.) 
Quercus dentata.—Note on. Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Phil. 

Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp 280, 281 ; three figures.) 

Mr. Meehan exhibited to the Philadelphia Academy speci- 
mens of this Japanese oak, with pistillate flowers, which, like those 
of our annual-fruited species, are borne at the ends of the new 
growth, in pairs, on short peduncles. The tree was raised from 
an acorn, and is now about ten years old. In DeCandolle's Pro- 


dromus it is stated that its fruit was unknown at the time that 
volume was issued, 

Rhus Toxicodendron. (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 502 and p. 598.) 
Our poison ivy is grown in English nurseries under the name 
Ampelopsis Japonica, and its dangerous character seems to be 
doubted by contributors to the Gardener's Chronicle, though the 
editors try to impress on them the chance of serious consequences 
if the leaves or shoots are handled. The glorious autumn color- 
ation of its foliage is much admired in England, where the native 
shrubs are in general far inferior in this respect to our own. 
Sarracenias. — (Garden, xxx., pp. 366, 367; plate 566.) 

Descriptions of the species, and of their numerous artificial 

hybrids, 15 of which are noted. The plate illustrates S. Moorei 

{S. flava X 5. Drummondi) and S. Popei (S. flava X 5. rubra.) 

Thalictrum. — North American Species of. William Trelease. 

(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xxiii., pp. 293-304; one plate 

and two cuts. Also reprinted.) 

In this revision of our Meadow Rues, which may be regarded 
as preliminary to Dr. Gray's treatment of the genus in the 
Synoptical Flora, twelve species are recognized, as against four- 
teen enumerated by Dr. Watson in his Bibliographical Index, T. 
aneniotioides being referred to AnemoncHa, Spach, and T. 
Wrightii, Gray, to a variety of T. Fendleri, Engelm. The T. 
Cornuti of Gray's Manual is referred to T. polygamum, Muhl., 
and Prof. Trelease finds that it is never glandular, so that all 
glandular plants of the polygamo-dioecious section appear to be 
referable to T. purpiirascens, L, ; the var. ceriferum, Austin, is 
only an extreme state of the species. In the vicinity of New 
York we have found that T. purpurascens generally blooms 
much earlier than T. polygamum, so that when the former has 
mature fruit, the latter is in its most conspicuous state in the 
swamps and meadows. T. Kemense, Fries, of Alaska, is reduced 
to T. minus, L., var. Kemense, and T. Fendleri, Engelm., var. 
polycarpum, Torr., is T. polycarpum, Watson. Prof Trelease 
prefaces the systematic portion of his paper with a discussion of 
the structural features of the genus, and of the adaptation of the 
various species to insect or wind pollination. 
Thistles. Grant Allen. (Pop. Sci. Month., xxx., pp. 101-108.) 


Botanical Notes. 

Absorption of Water by the Leaf -hairs of Reaunmrea and 
Tamarix. In the Egyptian desert the leaves of these plants pro 
duce a number of little basin-like depressions in which the 
glandular hairs secrete a bitter crystalline salt which exudes over 
the surface of the leaf, and by absorbing the dew at night, 
become saturated with moisture. — (Gard. Chron., xxvi., p. 594-) 

Heterontorphous Leaves in Nymphcea rubra. M. J. Costantin 
has recorded in the Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France 
the occurrence of two different kinds of leaves on this Water Lily. 
One is entirely submerged, thin, transparent, and possesses no 
stomata ; the other is the normal kind of floating leaves, with 
stomata on the upper surface. He notes a similar occurrence in 
Nuphar lutea. This feature is well known in our N. Kalmianum, 
and has been observed in Limnanthemum (see this BULLETIN, 
X., p. 34). We do not recollect any statement as to the presence 
or absence of stomata on the submerged leaves of Potamogeton, 

Index Flora Sinensis. An enumeration of all the plants known 
from China proper, Formosa, Hamian, Corea, the Luchu Archi- 
pelago and the island of Hong Kong, together with their distri- 
bution and synonymy. F. B. Forbes and W. B. Hemsley. (Journ. 
Linn. Soc, xxiii., pp. 1-80, plates L and H.) This part includes 
twenty-three orders, and is the first of a series. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Club was held Novem- 
ber 9th, at Columbia College, the President in the Chair and 57 
persons present. 

Mr. John I. Northrop was elected an active member, and 
Messrs. Marshal H. Bright, James Goldie and Robert Gausby 
corresponding members. 

Dr. Britton distributed specimens of Alyssum calycinmn, L., 
from Tuckahoe, Westchester Co., N. Y., where it grows abun- 
dantly on the outcropping surfaces of the crystalline limestones; 
the plant is new to the Westchester County Flora. 

Dr. Newberry read the announced paper of the evening on 
" The Food and Fibre Plants used by the North American 
Indians," which will subsequently appear in the BULLETIN. 




Founded bt William H. Leggett, 1870. 

1 ^O 



(Illustrated articles are designated by an asterisk* before the page number.) 

Abutilon striatum, note on, 96. 

Adiantum pedatum, dehiscence of the spor- 
angium of, '180. 

Alchemilla vulgaris 10, 12, 43. 

Anacardiace£B, a supposed new genus from 
Bolivia, 143. 

Anemone acutiloba, Lawson, Dicecism in, 

Annotations, 228. 

Aralia nudicaulis, L., a new variety of, 166. 

Asplenium rhizophyllum, Eunze, var. Bis- 
caynianum. new var.. *97. 

As8imilat»ry system, on the, 53. 

Asteromphalus Roperianus, Grev., note on a 
variety of, *96. 

Bibliographical Notes on well known plants, 
13«, 165, irr, 215, 226, 257. 

Botanical Literature, index to recent Ameri- 
can, 15, 85, 59, ^7, 100, 126, 149, 167, 191, 219, 
289, 259. 

Botanical Notes, 22, 41, 68, 83, 1C6, 130, 174, 197, 
222, 247, 263. 

Calluna vulgaris, 11. 

Camellia Japonica, note on the inflorescence 
of, 32. 

Caulophyllum thalictroides, some morpho- 
logical notes on, 139. 

Caulophyllum thalictroides, note on the color 
of, 8S8. 

Cerastium arvense, L., and its North Ameri- 
can varieties, *46. 

Characese, some notes on, '211. 

Cliftonia nitida, Grertn., 167. 


Allen, T. F., "211. 

Ami, Henry M., 14. 

Bailey, W. W., 96. 

Bessey, Charles E., 189, 202. 

Best, G. N., 268. 

Bisky, Julius A., 13. 

Britten, E. G., 10, 96, 802. 

Britten, N. L., 19, '45, 84, 114, 148, 149, 168, 

187, 224. 
Burgess. T. J. W., 43. 
Canby, Wm. M., 67. 
Claypole. K. B., 258. 
Cook, O. F., 89. 
Eaton, Daniel C, 97. 
Foerste, Aug. F., '74, 189. 
Gray, Asa, 228. 
Greene, Edward L, 116, 136, 165, 177, 81B, 

Halsted, Byron D.. *131. 
Hoiden, Isaac, 97, 149. 
HoUiok, Arthur, MB. 
Horner, 0. N. S., 218. 
James, Joseph F., 223. 
Kain. C. Henry, 25, 57, 78, 131, 141, 172, 174, 

Xawson, George, 12. 
Lyon, Florence May, "180. 
Meehan, Thomas, 58, 59, 218, 238. 
Miller. E. S., 131. 
Millspaugh, C. F., 188. 
Morong, Thomas. 51. 
Newberry, J. S., '1. 
Northrop, J. L. 230. 
Oyster, J. H., 223. 
Pelrce, Mary P., 289. 

CONTRiBnoKS— Continued : 

Porter, Thos. C. 8. 

Eusby, H. H., 42, 83, J25. 

Safford. W. E., 144, 159. 

Sargent, F. Le Eoy, 63. 

Schrenk, Joseph, 14, 5.3, 77, 

Schultze, E. A., '69, *96, '109. 

Seymour, A. B., 193. 

Smith, Chas. E.. 34. 

Sterns. E. E., 32, 122. 

Stowell, Willard A., 76. 

Taylor, Geo. H., 141. 

Tillinghast, Frank N., 59. 

Underwood, L. M., 89, 

Urban, Ignatius, 106. 

Vasey, George, 8, 94, 98, 103, *138, 203. 

Vroom, James, 12. 

Watson, Serene, 155. 167. 

Willey, Henry, 134, 247. 

Wright, S. Hart, 135. 
Corema Conradii, 11. 
Cyperacece, a new genus in, 135. 
Biatomaceee, new fossil deposits of. 57. 
DiatomaceEB of Shark River, N. J., 29. 
Diatoms, notes on, 25, 57, 78, 181, 141, 171, 173, 

174, 247. 
Diatoms, a descriptive list of Staten Island, 

"69, '109. 
Drying plants with little loss of color, a 

method of, '38. 
Echinocystis, 155, 
Echinopepon, 155. 
Erica cinerea, 11. 

Kryngium Ludovicianum. n. sp., 51. 
Erythroxylon Coca, the lateral lines in the 

leaf of, 125. 
Euphrasia ofBcinalis, 10, 12, 58. 
Fein, another Florida, 149. 
Ferns, notes on some Florida. 97- 
Flora of Banda Oriental, 144. 159. 
Flora of Cayuta Creek, notes on the, 183. 
Flora of the Kittatinry Mountains, note on 

the, 187. 
Floras, a meeting-place for two, 189. 
Grasses, new, 94. 

Grasses, new species of Mexican, 8. 
Grasses, special uses and properties of some 

Mexican, 98. 
Introduced plants, in Eastern Massachusetts, 

Lichen, note on a new North American, 134. 
Lignin, a new reagent for, 14. 
Linneea borealis, L., 136. 
Liquidambar, elongation of the inflorescence 

in, 95. 
Liriodendron simplex, n. sp., (fossil) '6. 
Liriodendron oblongifolium, n. sp., (fossil) '!5. 
Liriodendron quercifolium, n. sp. (fossil), '6. 
Marsilia, notes on the American species of, 89. 
Maz^ilia vestita, var. tenuifolia, n. var., 92. 
Megarrhiza, 155. 

Mollugo verticillata, L., note on, 218. 
Myosurus minimus, Linn., 165. 
Nitella Morongii, n. sp., *214. 
Nitella Muthnatse, n. sp., '211. 
Nomenclature, a point In, 167. 
Notes from Queens County, Long Island, 13. 
Nuphar, 177. 
Nymphrea, 177. 


Panicum Havardii, n. sp., OS- 
Plants, American, some new or little known, 

Plants. Long Island, 59. 

Plant Notes from Termiaoouata County, Can- 
ada, 230. 

Planis. two new Florida, 8. 

Platan us oecidentalig, forms of, 58, 

Poa rupeatris, n. sp., 94. 

Populus heterophylla, L., note on the flowers 
of, 114. 

Proceedings of the Botanical Club of the A. 
A. A. S., 202. 

Proceedings of the Club, 24, 43, 67, 87, 107, 131, 
153, 175, 199, 250, 265. 

Ranunculi, some Calitornlan. 116. 

Rosa, remarks on the group CarolinEo of, 253. 

Rosa humilis, var. lucida, n. var., 256. 

Rosa humilis, var. villosa, n. var., 256. 

Redfleldia, a new genus of grasses. *133. 

Redfieldia flexuosa, n. sp,. *133. 
Sanguinaria Canadensis, notes on, *74. 
Sarraceaia variolaris, note on, 229. 
Saxifraga Virginiensis, some anomalous 

forms of, 122. 
Saxifraga Virginiensis, var. pentadecandra, 

n. var., 124. 
Sherardia arvensis, in Canada, 14. 
Sherardiaarvensia, L., 238. 
Sporobolus annuus, n. sp,, 9, 
Sporobolus racemosus, n. sp., 9. 
Sporobolus Shepherdi, n. sp., 8. 
Starch in tracheal ducts, 77. 
Sycocarpua, gen. nov., 143. 
Sycocarpus Rusbyij n. sp,, 143. 
Tolypella Maeounii, n. sp., *213. 
Tulip tree, the ancestors of, *1. 
Violets, notes on New Jersey, 76. 
Websteria, gen. nov., 135. 
Websteria limnophila, sp. nov., 135. 

Errata, Volume XIV. 

Page 98, line 27, for immediate, read intermediate. 
*' 118, *' 4, " alternately, ** all ternately. 
" 209, ** 15, " Sisyribrium, '* Sisymbiium. 
""' 209, " 34, signature, E. G. Britton, Secretary, omitted. 
" 210, " 19, for Echinpoe, read Echinops. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LXI. 

Cretaceous Liriodendra. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LXII 


Cretaceous Liriodendra. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, January, 1887. [No. I. 

The Ancestors of the Tulip-Tree. 

By J. S. Newberry. 

Plates LXI and LXII. 

The genus Liriodendron, as all botanists know, is represented 
in the present flora by a single species, " the Tulip-tree," which 
is confined to Eastern America, but grows overall the area lying 
between the Lakes and the Gulf, the Mississippi and the Atlan- 
tic. It is a magnificent tree, on the whole the finest in our 
forests. Its cylindrical trunk, sometimes ten feet in diameter, 
carries it beyond all its associates in size, while the beauty of its 
glossy lyre-shaped leaves and tulip-like flowers are only surpassed 
by the flowers and foliage of its first cousin. Magnolia grandijlora. 
That a plant so splendid should stand quite alone in the vegeta- 
tion of the present day excited the wonder of the earlier botan- 
ists, but the Sassafras, the Sweet-gum and the great Sequoias of 
the far West afford similar examples of isolation, and the latter 
are still more striking illustrations of solitary grandeur. 

Before the study of fossil plants threw its light upon the his- 
tory of our living flora such cases admitted of no satisfactory ex- 
planation, but we now know that all the trees enumerated above 
with our Magnolias, Button-ball and deciduous Cypress, are 
relics of the golden age of North America vegetation; of a time 
when a genial climate prevailed all the way to the Arctic Sea, and 
when a well-watered and fertile soil supported forests in which 
our now lonely giants lived surrounded by brothers, cousins and 
more distant relatives as gigantic as themselves, and all combined 
to form the grandest forest-growth the world has ever seen. 
But the glorious summer which continued' perhaps a million 
of years, and created or fostered all the noblest forms of forest 
life that have come down to us, and many perhaps nobler, 
that have perished, was followed by a winter of corresponding 

severity and duration — the Ice Period — in which snows and 
glaciers spread from Greenland and Alaska southward until two- 
thirds of the continent was under snow and ice. All the region 
north of New York and Cincinnati was then changed from a para- 
dise to a howling wilderness, where not a trace remained of the 
luxuriant vegetation that before covered the surface, or of the 
varied fauna that was associated with it, except where leaves, 
trunks and bones, relics of earlier generations, were buried in 
rock or soil too deep to be reached by the grinding glacier or 
the burrowing torrent. These relics we have disinterred on 
Greenland, Disco Island, on the McKenzie and in Alaska, as 
well as at many places further south, in the country bordering 
the Columbia, the Missouri, in New Jersey and Virginia. Seven 
quarto volumes filled with descriptions and plates of fossil plants 
constitute the contribution that Prof. Oswald Heer has made in his 
"Flora Arctica" to our knowledge of the vegetation that covered 
the circum-polar lands before the IceAge,and an equal mass of ma- 
terial has been gathered by Lesquereux, Ward, Fontaine and the 
writer, as a preparation for the work of illustrating the wonderfully 
rich Cretaceous and Tertiary flora of North America. Although 
but a beginning has yet been made, already the remains of at 
least a thousand distinct species of arborescent plants have been 
brought to light. The botanical relations of many, perhaps 
most of these, are yet to be accurately determined, but the gen- 
eral character of the vegetation which covered our continent in 
the later geological ages has certainly been ascertained, and 
much light has been thrown on the derivation and history of our 
present flora. 

With the facts before us, we are fully warranted in making 
the statements, that our angiosperm flora began its existence on 
this continent in middle Cretaceous times, that even then its 
present aspects were distinctly developed, and subsequent 
changes have been rather of degree than of kind. In the banish- 
ment of our Tertiary flora from the great area it once occupied, 
and its restriction to the narrow space at the South into which it 
was forced, many of its finest elements were destroyed ; and when, 
with an amelioration of climate, the exiles returned to that por- 
tion of their former home again opened to them, they came as a 

handful representing a host, perhaps as soHtary species, rem- 
nants of generic groups that mostly perished by the way. 

Among these survivors the Sequoias stand first in magnitude 
and interest, and their story has been admirably told by Dr. 
Gray in his "Sequoia and its History." The Liriodendron, the 
Magnolias, the Liquidambar, the Cypress, the Sassafras and Pla- 
tanus, will also, I hope, have their biographers, and to aid in the 
task of one of these I now give some of the facts which have 
come to my knowledge in regard to the history of our lyre- 
leaved Tulip-tree. 

Three species of Liriodendron are indicated by leaves found 
in the Amboy clays — Middle Cretaceous — of New Jersey, and 
others have been obtained from the Dakota group in the West, 
and from the Upper Cretaceous strata of Greenland. Though 
differing considerably among themselves in size and form, all 
these have the deep sinus of the upper extremity, so character- 
istic of the genus, and the nervation is also essentially the same. 
Hence, we must conclude that the genus Liriodendron now rep- 
resented by a single species was in the Cretaceous age much 
more largely developed, having many species, and those scat- 
tered throughout many lands. In the Tertiary age the genug 
continued to exist, but the species seem to have been reduced 
to one, which is hardly to be distinguished from that now living. 
In many parts of Europe leaves of the Tulip-tree have been 
found, and it extended as far south as Italy. Its presence there 
was first made known by Unger in his Synopsis, p. 232, and in 
his Genera et Species, p, 443, where he describes it under the 
name of Liriodendron Procaccinii. Later it was mentioned by 
Massalongo (Flora Senogalliensis, p. 311) and Heer (Urwelt der 
Schweiz, p. 331) and it is enumerated and figured among the 
fossil plants of Iceland by Heer in his Flora Arctica, Vol. I., p. 
151, taf XXVI., fig. 7 b; taf XXVII,, fig. 5-8; from the Ter- 
tiary of Greenland, Vol. VII., p. 121, taf LXXXIII. Leaves 
of similar form are described and figured in Heer's Flora Ter- 
tiaria Helvetiae, Vol. III., p. 29, tab. CVIII., fig. 6, with the 
name of Liriodendron Helveticum, Fisch. ; also Ettinghausen in 
his Flora v. Bilin, p. 9, tab. XLL, fig. 10, describes a fragment 
which he names L. Haueri. All these are, however, so much 

like the living species that it is impossible to distinguish theni, 
and they should probably be united with it. We here have a 
striking illustration of the wide distribution of a species which 
has retained its characters both of fruit and leaf quite unchanged 
through long migrations and an enormous lapse of time. 

In Europe the Tulip-tree, like many of its American asso- 
ciates, seems to have been destroyed by the cold of the Ice 
Period, the Mediterranean cutting off its retreat, but in America 
it migrated southward over the southern extension of the conti- 
nent and returned northward again with the amelioration of the 

Of the species of Liriodendron found in the Dakota group of 
Kansas, the leaves of one (Z. Primcevum, Newb., Later Extinct 
Flora of North America, p. 12), are much like those of the living 
species, but are considerably smaller. Another species (A. 
Meekii, Heer), has small fiddle shaped leaves (Plate LXI., fig. 
3—4). Prof. Heer considers this identical with L. primcevum, but 
the form is quite different and no connecting links have been 
found. From the Amboy clays we have obtained one leaf 
which apparently represents L. Meekii; it is typically fiddle- 
shaped, though larger then the Dakota leaves. 

Prof Heer also unites with L. Meekii some ovate emarginate 
leaves from the Dakota and Greenland strata, to which he 
formerly gave the names Phyllites obcordatus and Leguniino sites 
Marcouanus, but it is by no means certain that they were borne 
by the same tree that carried the leaves called Liriodendron 
Meekii. Indeed the probabilities are against it since no inter- 
mediate forms have been found, and none of the panduriform 
leaves of L. Meekii have been obtained from Greenland, where 
obovate, entire or emarginate leaves similar to those given the 
above names do occur, and also many of the emarginate, oblong- 
ovoid or lanceolate leaves, which I have called Liriodendron sim- 

Several additional species of Liriodendron are enumerated by 
Mr. Lesquereux among the fossil plants of the Dakota group, 
viz.: L. giganteum, Lesqx. ; L. intermedium, Lesqx., (Cret. 
Flora, p. 93, PI. XX., fig. 5 ; PI. XXII., fig. 2); L. acuminatum, 
Lesqx. ; L. cruciforme, l^&s^x. ; L. semi-alatum, Lesqx. ; L. pin- 

natifidum, Lesqx. (Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, Vol. VII., No. 6, p. 
227.) As only the first two are figured, and that from fragments, 
and the others very briefly described, I am unable to make any 
satisfactory use of this important material in tracing the life-his- 
tory of the genus. 

It is a remarkable fact that among all the great collections of 
Laramie and Eocene plants made on the Upper Missouri, in 
Oregon, Washington, Wyoming and Colorado, and studied by 
Lesquereux, Ward and the writer, not a single leaf of Lirioden- 
dron has yet been identified. 

I append figures and descriptions of three new species of 
Tulip-tree recently obtained from the Amboy clays of Wood- 
bridge, New Jersey. 

Pl. LXI., Fig. i. 

Leaves 6 to 8 inches in length, by 4 to 5 inches in breadth, 
oblong in outline, long-petioled ; base rounded, square or slightly 
cordate ; summit deeply emarginate, sides bearing three or 
more obtuse or acute points, separated by shallow sinuses; 
nervation distinct, moderately strong, midrib straight, termin- 
ating in the bottom of the sinus of the upper extremity, lat- 
eral nerves nearly straight, parallel, forming two series, the 
stronger ones separated by intervals from a quarter to half an 
inch broad, branching and inosculating at their extremities, and 
forming a series of loops near the margin; between these are 
shorter and more delicate nerve-branches, which are usually 
simple and equally divide the interspaces. 

Unfortunately but few of these leaves have been found, and 
none of them are quite perfect. Together they are, however, 
sufficient to determine the general form and nervation. Their re- 
semblance to the leaves of the living species, L. tulipifera, is strik- 
ing, but the form is more oblong. In the living species the lobes 
of the margin are quite variable; generally the basal pair are much 
developed, and above these a deep sinus on each side leads up to 
the terminal points. Not unfrequently, however, we find two, 
and sometimes three, points on a side, and a much nearer ap- 
proach to the form of the leaves before us. The leaves of the 
living species are, however, always shorter, and relatively broader. 

yet the resemblance on the whole is so close that it is impossible 
to avoid the conclusion that we have in these Cretaceous leaves 
relics of the progenitor of the living species with all the more 
important characters of form and nervation already distinctly 

PL LXII., Fig. i. 

Leaves large, 6 inches long by 4 broad, long petioled, base 
horizontal or slightly cordate, summit deeply emarginate, sides 
bearing each three or four pointed, sometimes spatulate lobes, 
separated by narrow sinuses which reach nearly to the midrib ; 
nervation regular, midrib straight or curved, terminating at the 
bottom of the sinus of the summit, strong side branches travers- 
ing each lobe and terminating in the point, between these more 
delicate, generally simple, branchlets. 

The general form of these leaves is considerably like that of 
some of the oaks, Quercus alba, Q. nigra, etc. ; a character 
which has suggested the name. The strong terminal emargina- 
tion, and the nervation suffice, however, at once to separate them 
from Qtierciis, and bring them into Liriodendron . As will be 
seen by the figures now given there is considerable diversity in 
these leaves, some having broader lobes and shallower sinuses, 
approaching the form of those of L. oblongifolium, with which 
they are associated in the Amboy clays. As a wholethey show 
a variation from the leaves of the living species in an opposite 
direction from those of L. oblongifolium, the latter being more 
simple in outline, oblong in form, with small points or lobes on 
the sides, whereas these are much more deeply lobed. 
Liriodendron simplex, n. sp. 

Pl. LXII., Figs. 2, 3, 4. 
Leaves 3 to 4 inches in length, long-petioled, ovate-lance- 
olate in outline, from i inch to 2 inches in width at the 
broadest part; summit emarginate, wedge-shaped ; nervation fine, 
but distinct, midrib strong, terminating abruptly in the sinus of 
the summit; lateral branches forming two sets, the first and 
larger being separated by intervals of about one quarter of an inch, 
branching near their extremities, and anastomosing to form a 
coarse net- work along the border; the spaces between these 

divided unequally by one or several smaller, shorter, and generally 
simple nerve-branches which run parallel with the large ones, 
sometimes connecting with the exterior net-work ; all the spaces 
between tile lateral nerves occupied by a relatively coarse reticu- 

Although so different from the leaves described under the 
names of L. oblongifolium and L. quercifoliiim, these have in 
common with them the peculiar angular emargination so charac- 
teristic of the genus, and essentially the same nervation. The 
more elongate and lanceolate form represented on Plate LXIL, 
figures 3, 4, occurs in considerable numbers, and may perhaps 
represent a distinct species, but others are broader and more 
ovate, like those represented in Plate LXIL, figure 2. 

•Taken by themselves, these two forms would be regarded as 
specifically different, but there are connecting links between 
them, and we must regard the several shapes as showing simply 
the variation of foliage so common in other trees. Prof. Heer 
in his Flora Arctica, Vol. VL, Plate XXII., has represented a 
number of leaves which apparently belong to the same species with 
those now under consideration. All these he regards as varieties 
of L. Meekii, first described by him from the Dakota sandstones, 
but it seems to me that they do not represent either of the two 
forms from the Dakota group, neither of which have yet been 
found in Greenland. Hence, until more material shall show the 
simple, ovate or lanceolate forms to be connected by insensible 
gradations with others, I must regard them as specifically distinct. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate LXL, Fig. i. — Liriodcndron oblongifolium, N., 
Amboy Clays, New Jersey. 

Fig. 2. — Liriodendron prini(EVuni, N., 
Dakota Group, Nebraska. 

Figs. 3. 4. — Liriodendron Meekii, Heer, 
Dakota Group, Nebraska. 

Plate LXIL, Fig. I. — Liriodendron quercifolium, N., 
Amboy Clays, New Jersey. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. — Liriodendron simplex, N., 
{L. Meekii, Heer in part, Atane, Greenland) Amboy Clays, New 
Jersey and Long Island. 

Two New Florida Plants. 

The sets of plants collected in South Florida by the late Dr. 
A. P. Garber, and distributed by him, could not have been all 
alike, for I find in mine the two following species, not before re- 
ported, so far as I know : 

1. Jussiaa acuminata, Swz. It was labelled " Ludwigia 
cylindrica, Ell? Manatee, S. Fla., Dec, 1877. Coll. A. P. 
Garber, M.D." Laid aside for further examination, I took it 
up a few weeks ago, and made it out by the aid of Grisebach's 
Flora. By request, Dr. Britton has compared it with No. 2,559 
of Wright's Cuba Collection, and says it is exactly the same. 

2. Sponia jnicrantha, Decaisne. (DC. Prod., xvii., p. 203, 
van D.) Miami, S. Fla, June- July, 1877. Coll. A. P. Garber, 
M.D. It was numbered 229, and without name. A brief aote 
of Dr. G. calls it " a shrub, .six or eight feet high, with small, red 
berries." In the West Indies it is said to attain the height of a 
good-sized tree. Thos. C. Porter, Easton, Pa. 

New Species of Mexican Grasses.* 
By Dr. Geo. Vasey. 

Sporobolus Shepherdi. Culms 10 to 12 inches high, 
much branched at the base, smooth ; leaves 2 to 3 inches long, 
narrow and acuminate, becoming involute, the lower sheaths 
loose, inflated, striate, short, the upper one twice or thrice as 
long ; ligule conspicuous, toothed at the apex ; panicle about 4 
inches long, i to 2 inches wide, open, the branches mostly scat- 
tered or semi-verticillate, rather erect, slender, subdivided nearly 
to the base, the branchlets and pedicels long, the latter capillary 
and flexuous, thickened above ; spikelets less than i line long, 
smooth ; empty glumes ovate, acutish, a little shorter than the 
spikelet, thin, not keeled nor nerved ; flowering glume ovate, 
famtly three-nerved, thicker than the outer glumes, sparingly 
hairy externally ; palet nearly as long as its glume and of the 
same texture. Apparently annual. 

A pretty grass, conspicuous for the silvery hue of the spike- 
lets. The panicle has the aspect of 5. ramulosus, but is much 

* Continued from the December number. 


larger, with a fuller panicle and larger spikelets. Named for 
A. H. Shepherd, Esq., of Batopilas, who extended great hospi- 
tality and assistance to Dr. Palmer, the collector. 

Sporobolus ANNUUS. Culms 4 to 6 inches high, branched 
at the base ; leaves i inch long or less, narrow ; panicle 2 to 3 
inches long, about i inch wide, branches of the panicle mostly 
single and scattered, about I inch long, filiform, sparsely flow- 
ered ; spikelets about i line long, on scabrous pedicels twice to 
many times as long ; empty glumes ovate, acuminate, sometimes 
awn-pointed, about one-fourth longer than the flower, smooth ; 
flowering glume oblong, obtuse, hairy externally; palet about as 
long as its glume, hairy on the nerves. 

This small, annual grass is remarkable for its long, pointed, 
empty glumes, longer than the flowering ones. It has the habit 
of the preceding, but is easily distinguished. It is mixed in 
some of the sets with that species. 

Sporobolus racemosus. Annual; culms 8 to 12 inches 
long, slender, decumbent and branching below, some of the 
branches floriferous and exserted, others included in the sheaths, 
lower joints short and numerous; leaves short, mostly about i 
inch long, very narrow, sheaths short, striate, somewhat inflated, 
ligule short and truncate ; panicle 2 to 3 inches long, meagre, 
open, branches few, hispidulous, mostly single and alternate, 5^ 
inch to I inch long, simple or sparingly subdivided, few flowered ; 
spikelets racemose, about '■/^ line long, short pedicelled, the pedi- 
cels glandular hispid, appressed, becoming reflexed ; empty 
glumes purplish, about half as long as the spikelet, oblong, 
obtuse or erose, nerveless, nearly equal ; flowering glume ovate, 
acutish, thicker than the outer glumes, smooth ; palet similar in 
texture, nearly equaling its glume. 

Mixed in some of the sets with 5. ramulosus and 5. annuus. 
Both were collected near Noragachie in sandy or gravelly places 
near water. 

Note on Bouteloua. In the Agricultural Grounds we 
have cultivated, the past season, two species of Bouteloua from 
seed collected by Dr. Palmer in Chihuahua, which have been 
distributed to some extent as Bouteloua Palmeri and B. major ^ 
Although these are of extraordinary size and luxuriance, and 


with some marl<ed floral characters, they probably should be 
referred as varieties, one of B. hirsuta and the other of B. oligo- 
stachya. No. 24 of the collection, erroneously distributed as 
B. hirsuta, is one of the forms {B. oligostachya, var. major), but 
smaller than those raised from seed. The other form was not 
represented in the collection. 

Notes on Some Subjects Referred to in the December Bulletin. 

Euphrasia officinalis (xiii., p. 232) is by no means rare in 
Nova Scotia and the Island of Cape Breton. It usually grows 
on exposed hilly ground, on dry, gravelly or sandy knolls, or 
sunny slopes, where the grass is stunted. It abounds on many 
such spots on the hills overlooking Bedford Basin, the large sheet 
of water into which Halifax Harbor opens out at its upper or 
northern end ; also on the hills around Sydney Harbor, Cape 
Breton, and in many other places in this and neighboring Prov- 
inces. As in Britain, it is here confined mostly to localities not 
far from the seashore. In the Manual Dr. Gray speaks of the 
American form as " a dwarf variety, with very small flowers," 
and in the Synoptical Flora, the Maine and Canada plant is 
treated as a European introduction — the indigenous form of the 
White Mountains being referred to the variety Tataric-a, under 
which De Candolle, in the Prodromus, includes the eastern 
European and Asiatic plant. I know of no reason for regarding 
our common Canadian form otherwise than as indigenous. It is 
possible that stray introduced plants may occur occasionally, for 
a few days ago a specimen was brought me to name as large as 
any I have seen in England, and with the robust look of the 
English plant. 

Alchemilla vulgaris, also noticed on same page of BULLETIN, 
in an editorial note, was first observed at Lucyfield, Halifax 
County, in the summer of 1864. There is but one patch, which 
I have seen in flower during every subsequent season ; but it 
does not spread. Botanists here have not noticed it elsewhere. 
It would consequently be of interest to note the " roadside " 
localities more specifically in a future number of the BULLETIN. 
The Alchemilla is an introduced plant of European origin (as 
you state) ; and I had not regarded the one patch found in 1864 


as sufficient to establish it as a permanent immigrant. If you 
will kindly indicate the other places where observed in Nova 
Scotia, I shall be glad to visit them, and report whether the plant 
appears to be taking hold. I have a specimen from Newfound- 
land. It would be an additional favor if minute details were 
given of the Nova Scotia locality for the exceptionally rare 
SchizcBa pusilla, which we are anxious to find. Grand Lake, as 
its name implies, is a very large lake, but my summer residence 
is within walking distance of the civilized end of it, so that it 
would be quite easy for me to visit any part of its shores. 

The notices of Erica cinerea and Calluna on Nantucket are 
very interesting. A case has occurred here of the artificial intro- 
duction of Calluna, within the last few years, in a manner some- 
what similar to that indicated for the Erica cinerea on Nan- 
tucket. My friend Mr. P. Jack had a collection of native ferns 
sent from the Island of Arran, on the west coast of Scotland, 
which he planted on his property of Bellahill, near Halifax, 
in a wild, shaded, moist situation, in the immediate vicinity of 
which were patches of black bog earth. A few years ago, sub- 
sequent to the planting of the ferns, he observed springing up 
two young healthy plants of Calluna vulgaris. They had germ- 
inated in the black earth at the side of a path, and are now grow- 
ing vigorously, and promise to establish a permanent patch ; but 
they have not yet flowered. The facts detailed by Mr. Willis, 
and the one just mentioned, show that Erica and Calluna may 
both be introduced in the soil attached to the roots of imported 
trees or plants. I would like, however, to add that this in 
nowise invalidates the belief of many of us that Calluna is an 
indigenous American plant. It apparently belongs to the class 
of American plants, now not small, which are both " indigenous 
and introduced." The facts have been pretty fully printed, and 
I shall be glad to send a copy of my paper, published some 
years ago, to any botanical student who may desire to look. into 
them. The Calluna, like Coretna, is apparently one of the rem- 
nants of a lost Atlantic Flora. 

With reference to a previous notice of Corema Conradii, it may 
be mentioned that I observed immense quantities of it this sea- 
son growing, in a perfectly gregarious, heath-like manner, in the 


western part of Kings County and the adjoining eastern part of 
Annapolis County, in this Province. It was particularly noticed 
between the railway stations of Bridgetown and Aylesford, on 
the Windsor and Annapolis Railway, and will readily catch the 
eye of every botanical traveler over the line. 

Will Mr. Redfield kindly say whether it was the larger or 
smaller petalled variety of CEnothera biennis that was observed 
by him, and noted in his Island Flora (p. 246). I have noticed 
the latter on our shores, the former inland in one or two places. 

Mr. Safford's observations on the time of fruiting of Bux- 
baumia aphylla are quite in accordance with those made on the 
Sidlaw Hills in Scotland, and in Nova Scotia, where it is found 
in good condition only in spring-time. GEORGE LaWSON. 

Euphrasia officinalis, L., is abundant at St. John and St. 
Andrews, N. B., and, though I have no notes of it elsewhere, I 
think I have seen it at other seaports on the Bay of Fundy. It 
is found by Prof. Fowler at Bathurst, in the extreme north of 
the province, where it is also abundant. Though regarded here 
as a native, its being most frequent near the older settlements 
would seem to favor the opinion that it has been introduced. 
James Vroom, St. Stephens, N. B. 

[Alckemilla vulgaris was found at Digby, on the outskirts of 
the town in August, 1879, on the road toward "the Joggins." 
The locality for SchizcBa at Grand Lake was near the " civilized 
end of it " where the railroad runs. There is an island at this 
end and there was either a saw-mill or tannery. At a point on 
the shore between the outlet of a stream carrying saw-dust from 
the above and a line drawn from the eastern end of the island to 
the shore, on a hummock six inches above the stony beach, 
growing among the roots of Osmunda regalis and Pogonia ophio- 
glossoides, there were found a few small plants of this rare fern, 
with the dry brown fronds of the previous year still attached. In 
a letter from A. H. McKay, dated September loth, 1881, he 
says: "The margin of the Lake had been overrun by fires last 
fall and I fear the plants are destroyed." He made a careful 
search for it at that time. — Ed.] 


Notes from Queens County, Long Island. 

The following plants, which, to the best of my knowledge, 
have not been reported from Long Island, seem sufficiently rare 
to deserve notice : 

Deiitaria diphylla, L. Flushing, near Kissena Lake (R. B. 
Lawrence) ; rare. 

D. laciniata, Muhl. Abundant near Durkee's Pond, Flushing. 
Arenaria lateriflora, L. Winfield ; abundant. 

Eumiymiis Americanus, L. Bayside ; the erect form, not com- 

E. Europaus, L. Frequent in Bowne's Woods, Flushing ; a 

probable escape from the nurseries in the vicinity. 
Trifoiium hybridtim, L. Lawrence Station. 
Geum strictum, Ait. St. Ronan's Well, Flushing. 
Viburmini cassinoides, L. Valley Stream. 

Aster Radula, Ait. Valley Stream, L. I. R. R. (toward Spring- 
A. acuminatus, Michx. Glen Cove, near railroad station. 
Helianthus decapetalns, L. St. Ronan's Well, Flushing. 
Coreopsis discoidea, T. & G. Springfield ; together with small 

form of Bidens connata. 
Lampsana communis, L. Flushing ; roadside. 
Mimulus moschatus, Uougl. Perfectly at home and scattered 

over a boggy swamp, about two miles east of Locust Valley, 

on right hand side of Oyster Bay road. 
Veronica Anagallis, L. ; var. latifolia, Britton. Flushing. 
Mentha sativa, L. With Mimulus moschatus. 
Symphytum officiitale, L Roadside near Flushing cemetery. 
Myosotis verna, Nutt. St. Ronan's Well and College Point. 
Cuscuta arvensis, Beyrich. On Aster linariifolius, L. Cedar 

Solanum Carolinense, L. Flushing. 
Asarum Canadense, L. In woods on old Astoria road near 

Chenopodium murale, L. Glen Cove and Flushing. 
C. hybridum, L. Flushing. 
Trillium erectum, L. ; var. album, Pursh. Thome's Woods, 

Great Neck. 


Amianthium musccetoxicum, Gray. Valley Stream, L. I. R. R. 
towards Hewlett's ; rather abundant in a small piece of moist 
woodland. Julius A. Biskv, Flushing, L. I. 

On the Occurrence of Sherardia Arvensis, L., in Canada. 

Among the most recent introductions into this country is 
this beautiful little Galium, or Blue Field-madder. It was first 
found growing at Ottawa, near the city limits, by the roadside, 
and m tolerable abundance. For three years in succession it was 
collected there, and fifty or sixty specimens were gathered by 
the writer during that lapse of time. Sherardia arvensis, L., is 
a well-known and easily recognized European species occurring 
rather abundantly in fields and meadows, along fences, etc., 
across the Atlantic. With it were found the following species : 
Stellaria media. Polygonum aviculare, P. hydropiper, P. Persi- 
caria, Trifolium pratense, T. repens, Cnicus arvensis, Anthemis 
Cotula, Ranunculus acris, Leontodon Taraxacum, Chenopodium 

This very handsome though modest little plant was in blos- 
som from the middle of June to the month of October, and pro- 
duced seed. Henry M. Ami, 

Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club. 

A New Reagent for Lignin. 

In Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Ges. (Vol. IV., p. 301) Hans Molisch 
recommends Thymol as a reliable reagent for coniferin. As this 
glucoside has been proved to be present in all lignified tissues, 
Thymol will rank with phenol, phloroglucin and indol as a reagent 
for hgnin. The slightest traces of coniferin will be detected by 
means of this reagent, if applied in the following manner: 

A twenty per cent, solution of Thymol in absolute alcohol is 
diluted with water as long as the liquid remains perfectly clear 
t. e., as long as no Thymol is precipitated. Then potassic chlorate 
in excess is added, the fluid is allowed to stand for several hours 
and finally filtered. The section to be examined is moistened 
with the solution and a drop of concentrated hydrochloric acid 
IS added when, in a few instants, the cell- walls which contain 
hgnin will assume a beautiful greenish-blue color. j. 5 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Abies Mensiesii — (Garden, xxx,, 491.) An account of its intro- 
duction and cultivation in England. 
Absorption of coloring Matter by the living Protoplasm of Vegetable 
Cells. — George Lincoln Goodale. (Am. Journ. Sci., xxxii., 
p. 4S6.) 

Prof. PfefFer has shown that when Hving vegetable cells are 
placed in very dikite solutions of certain coal-tar coloring mat- 
ters, the protoplasm becomes distinctly colored, and remains 
tinged for a time. The best results are obtained by placing roots 
with root hairs in pure water with one ten-thousandth of one 
per cent, of any of the " methyl " colors except blue. 
Agricultural Colleges. — How shall Botany be taught in. — A. N. 
Prentiss. (Am. Nat., xx., p. 970; from American Horticul- 
Black Rot {Physalospora Bidwellii, Sacc.) — Botanical Character 
of. — F. Lamson Scribner. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 297-302 ; 
one plate.) 
Botany of California and Parts Adjacent. — Studies in the. — V. 
Edward Lee Greene. (Bull. Calif Acad. Sci., ii., pp. 125- 
154; one plate. Reprinted.) 

In this contribution to the botany of western America Mr. 
Greene discusses " Some Genera which have been confused un- 
der the name Brodicea," and proposes an entirely new arrange- 
ment of these Liliaceae. He points out that nearly everything 
thus far written on these plants has been based on herbarium 
specimens alone, and shows that in drying, some characters which 
are apparent in the field may become obscured. The present 
paper is the result of five seasons' field study, during which many 
of the species have been examined as they grow. The genera 
adopted are Brodicea, Smith, with six species ; Hookera, Salisb., 
with eight; Triteleia, Dougl., with thirteen, and Behria, Greene, 
n. gen., with a single species, B. tenuifolia, Greene. Six of these 
species are new to science. 

The second part of Mr. Greene's paper is on new or note- 
worthy species, mainly from the islands of Santa Cruz and San 
Miguel. Here are described Helianthetnum occidentale; Ceanothus 
arborcus; two Lupines; three new species of the genus Syr- 


matiicm, Vogel, which is distinguished from Hosackia; Heuchera 
maxitna, an enormous plant for this genus ; Galium buxifoliunt; 
Matricaria occidentalis; Baria Burkei; Cnicus fontinalis; Steph- 
anomeria tomentosa; two new species of Malacothrix; Calais 
Clevelandi and Dowingia concolor. The plate illustrates Lyono- 
thamnus asplenif alius. 

Canadian Filicinm. — Additions to. — T. J. W. Burgess. (Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Canada, iv., pp. 9-18; reprinted. 
Since the publication of the revision of Canadian Filicina; by 
Professor Macoun and Dr. Burgess, in 1884. several additional 
ferns have been collected in Canada ; among these are Polypo- 
dium vulgare, L., var. Cambricum, Willd., from Port Simpson, 
British Columbia; Adiantiim pedatum, L., var. rangiferiniim. 
Burgess, n. var., is a peculiar form, having "pinnules longer 
stalked, convex on the lower border, rising from the rachis at an 
acute angle, gradually tapering at the base, deeply cleft into nar- 
row, toothed lobes on the upper side, rounded from below up- 
ward at the outer extremity, sori few." This also is from British 
Columbia. The varieties marginatum., ramosum and multifidttm 
of Scolopendrium vulgate, Smith, have been collected near Wood- 
stock, N. B. The discovery of Aspidium Oreopteris on Mt. Daw- 
son has already been recorded; specimens referred to typical 
Aspidium aculeatum, Sw., were found by Mr. J. R. Anderson at 
Port Simpson, British Columbia. 

Carices: — A Preliminary Syjiopsis of North American, i)ic hiding 
those of Mexico, Central America and Greenland, with the 
American Bibliography of the Genus. — L. H. Bailey, Jr. 
(Proc. Amer. Acad., xxii., pp. 59-157; reprinted.) 
In this valuable paper Mr. Bailey gives us the results of 
his recent studies of sedges. The genus Carex is divided into 
two sub-genera; Eucarex, Cosson, contains the species bearing 
separated staminate and pistillate spikes, three-parted styles and 
triquetrous achenia; Vigneae, Koch, include the species with 
staminate flowers borne at the base or apex of the pistillate spikes 
and having lenticular achenia. As these sub-genera are consid- 
ered in the order named, the arrangement of the species becomes 
very different from that of Boott in Gray's Manual, or that of ■ 
Dewey in Wood's Classbook. The following changes in the no- 


menclature of species as published in recent American botanical 
A^orks are made; the accompanying notes may be of interest: 

C. rostrata, Michx., becomes C Michauxiatia^(x^<:Sf\., Michaux's 
name being preoccupied by Withering for a very different plant; 
the southern, slender forms of C. folliculata, L., with slightly 
awned scales are referred to var. australis, Bailey ; C. lupzilina, 
Muhl., is C. lurida, Wahl., the older name, the C. lupuliformis, 
S;irtw. is referred to this as var. polystachya, Bailey, and C. Bella- 
villa, Dewey, as var. divergens, Bailey ; C. pulla, Gooden. is C. 
sexatilis, L., an Old World species and C. iniliaris, Michx,, is 
made var. (?) iniliaris, Bailey, its systematic position being un- 
certain ; C. ampullacea, Gooden, is C. rostrata. Withering, the 
latter name having one year's priority and C. utriculata, Boott, is 
referred to this as var. utriculata, Bailey ; C. Vaseyi, Dewey, is 
included in C. monile, Tuckerm. ; C. Olneyi, Boott, is regarded as 
a hybrid of bullata X utriculata and C. tentaculata, var. (?) altior, 
Boott, as one oi tentaculata lurida; C. spissa, Bailey, is a gigantic 
new species from the southv/est ; C. lanuginosa, Michx. is C. fili- 
formis, L., var. latifolia, BcEckl. ; C. aristata, R. Br. and C. mi- 
rata, Dewey, are reduced to C. trichocarpa, Muhl., var. aristata, 
Bailey; C. paludosa, Gooden., is C. acutiformis, Ehrh. and is 
introduced in Eastern Mass. ; C. rigida, var. Bigelovii, Tuckerm., 
is regarded as C. vulgaris, Fries, var. hyperborea, Boott ; C. tntl- 
iacea, Muhl., is C /ra««rt, Wahl., the older name; C. salina, 
Wahl., is given as ranging from Boston to Labrador in salt 
marshes: it may be noted that the late Dr. Knieskern supposed 
that he had this species from Ocean County, N. J., as is recorded 
in his Catalogue, but his large herbarium is destroyed, and none 
of his specimens of the plant extant ; C. Barbarce, Dewey, is a 
curious species (poorly represented in the Herbaria) from Santa 
Barbara, Cal, and a few other stations, under which Mr. Bailey 
places C. Schottii, Dewey and C. Prescottiana, Olney. Olney's 
label with the original of C. Barbarce in Herb. Torrey reads 
" guess C. cryptocarpa, Meyer " ; C. gynandra, Schw., is reduced 
to C. crinita. Lam., var. gynandra, Schw. & Torrey ; Muller's 
Nos. 1336, 649 and 1977 from Orizava fall in this Section, Cryp- 
tocarpese, perhaps in C. Ehrenbcrgiana, Boeckl., which by a mis- 
print, we suppose, is said to have spikes one to iowx feet long; C. 


sempervirens, Olney, of the Pacific slope is C. frigida, Allioni; C. 
irrigiia. Smith, is C. Magellanica, Lam. ; C. Hartwegii, Boott, of 
Mexico, is C. cladostackya, Wahll, and is Muller's No. 2014; C. 
polystachya, Wahl., occurs in Porto Rico, an additional station to 
those in Cuba and Jamaica cited by Mr. Bailey ; C. Smithii, Por- 
ter, is referred to C. triceps, Michx.— erroneously, we believe, for 
the plant appears to possess characters which should place it at 
least in varietal rank ; C. longirostris, Torrey, has recently been 
collected by Dr. Best in Hunterdon Co., N. J., a station which 
slightly increases its southeastern distribution as given by Mr. 
Bailey ; C. Knieskernii, Dewey, is supposed to be a hybrid of 
arctata x formosa, and C. Snllivantii, Boott, as a hybrid of 
gracillhna x piibescens; C. glabra, Boott, becomes C. venusta, 
Dewey, var. glabra, Bailey; C. flaccosperma, of Gray's Manual, 
is C. glaiicodea, Tuckerm., while the trne flaccosperma, Dewey, is 
a far southern plant ; a convenient key is given to the varieties of 
C. laxiflora, Lam., var. striatula, Carey (var. blanda, Boott), be- 
ing the commonest; C. ptychocarpa, Steud, is another species of 
this group distinguished by its glaucous leaves, small, sessile 
staminate spike and short culm, ranging from northern New Jer- 
sey southward ; C. Meadii, Dewey, is reduced to C. tetanica, 
Schk. var. Meadii, Bailey ; C. imps, Bailey, is a new species of 
the Montanse from Mt. Hood, Oregon ; C. tenax, Chapm., is C. 
Ckapmani, Sartwell ; C. Fraseriana, Sims, is C. Fraseri, An- 
drews; C. arenaria, L., the "Sand Carex" of Europe, was 
collected by McMinn near Norfolk, Va. ; C. retroflexa, Muhl., is 
reduced to C. rosea, Schk. var. retroflexa, Torrey ; C. stelliilata, 
Gooden., is C. echinata, Murray and its var. scirpoides becomes 
var. macrostackys, Bceckl., of the latter, in which C. sterilis^^WXA., 
IS included ; our common forms of C. canescens, L., are referred 
to its var. alpicola, Wahl, and the var. polystachya, Boott, of New 
England and British America is recognized as such ; C. lagopod- 
ioides, Schk., is C. tribuloides, Wahl., and C. cristata, Schw., is 
made var. cristata, Bailey, of the latter: we had regarded cris- 
tata as sufficiently distinct; C. straminea, Schk., is stretched to in- 
clude an immense number of forms : C. mirabilis, Dewey, be- 
comes its var. mirabilis, Tuckerm. ; var. congesta, Boott, is a'glo- 
bose-headed form from California and Oregon ; var. 'maxima 


Bailey, is the C. Wrightii, of OIney, and we think is more than a 
variety ; C. alata, Torrcy, is also reduced to varietal rank, prob- 
ably correctly ; C. fcenea, Willd., is the var. fcenea, Torrey, and in 
this form the species is found in Mexico (Muller, 1953 ; Berlan- 
dier, 1972); var. mixta, Bailey, is a large form from the Pacific 
coast, and var. inoniliforniis, Tuckerm., is the common sea- beach 
plant referred in Gray's Manual to fcenea, var. sabulonum, and is 
C. silicea, Olney. We prefer to regard this plant as of specific 
rank, its distant silvery spikes affording constant characters ; the 
vars. aperta, Boott, and invisa of W. Boott are also accepted by 
Mr. Bailey. 

Altogether- 289 species are enumerated — 224 of Eucarex and 
65 of Vigneae. The bibliography is arranged chronologically and 
is practically complete, and an excellent index to all species and 
groups mentioned is appended. N. L. B. 

Carpenteria Californica, Torrey. — (Bot. Mag., xlii.. Tab. 6,911.) 

A beautiful plate and interesting description of this showy 
shrub, whose native habitat is still uncertain. 
Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part III. Apetalce. — John 
Macoun. (Published by the Geol. & Nat. Hist. Survey of 
Canada, pamph. 8vo., pp. 228, Montreal, 1886.) 

The third part of this model plant catalogue has recently 
been distributed ; 82 pages are devoted to an enumeration of the 
Apetalae, much attention being given to the distribution of the 
forest trees ; 10 species of pine have been found and 1 1 of oak ; 
the willows, elaborated by Mr. Bebb, number 49 species and 
14 varieties. 

The next 99 pages are devoted to additional species and lo- 
calities for Polypetalae and Gamopetalae. Stellaria graminea, 
L., is claimed as native in the Eastern Provinces; Ilex glabra 
has been found in Nova Scotia ; a new station for littorella, at 
Lake Utopia, St George, New Brunswick, is announced. This 
chapter of addenda brings the number of species of Dicoty- 
ledons up to 2205 ; 47 pages are occupied by a very complete 
index to species mentioned in the three parts now published. 
Dog-tooth Violets, Erythroniiims. (Garden, xxx., pp. 520, 521 ; 
Plate S73-) 

It would seem that in England our pretty little Adder's-tongue 


is prized as well as its more showy sister, E. Dens- Cams, of 

which a beautiful plate is given. 

Etiergy in Plant Cells.— T. H. McBride. (Pop. Sci. Month. Vol. 

XXX., pp. 180-184.) 
Houstonia cxruka. (Garden, xxx., p. 451, illustrated.) 
Mernlins lachrymans, the dry rot fungus. (Gard. Chron. xxvi., 

pp. 626, 627, fig. 125.) 
An account of its destructiveness and the various methods of 
preserving timbers from its devastation. 
Mesosoic Floras of the Rocky Mountain Region of Canada.— 

Sir J. W. Dawson. (Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, iii., Section 

iv., pp. 1-22 ; four plates.) 
An additional list of Phanerogams and Ferns collected mainly 
by Dr. G. M. Dawson and T. C. Weston. Several species of 
Ginkgo have been found in the Kootanie Series, which is re- 
garded as the base of the Cretaceous in Western North America. 
The fossil flora of these strata consists almost entirely of Ferns, 
Cycads, and Conifers, while in the upper beds, numerous species 
of Angiosperms occur. 

Ornamental Trees of Canada. (Garden, xxx., pp. 492, 493.) 
Extract from a paper read by Mr. C. Gibb before the Mon- 
treal Horticultural Society. 
Plan for Laboratory Work in Chemical Botany. — Lillie J. Mar- 

tm. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 311-313 ; also reprinted.) 
Puccinia Malvacearum in Massachusetts.—^. G. Farlow. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi., pp. 309, 310.) 
Remarks upon the Journey of Andre Michaux to the high 

Mountains of Carolina in December, 1788.— C. S. Sargent. 

(Am. Journ. Sci., xxxii., pp. 466-473. 
During last season Prof Sargent explored the head waters 
of the Savannah River with the main object of finding Michaux's 
station for Magnolia cordata and to determine the character and 
geographical distribution of this doubtful species. It is interesting 
to follow the progress of Michaux and his Cherokee guide as given 
in his Journal, and trace with Prof Sargent 98 years later the 
course taken, and furthermore to find the same trails and the 
same plants still in existence. He was able to identify the little 
" arbuste," with "feuilles denticulees" as Shortia and to obtain it 


In the same locality that Michaux described. In another station 
in the vicinity it is reported that " there are rods covered with it." 
The conclusion is reached that M. cordata is but one of the 
rarer forms of M. acuminata and Dr. Gray recognizes it as such 
and appends a description of M. acuminata van cordata. 
Revision of the North American Violets. — Memoranda of a. — 
Asa Gray. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 253-256 and 289-293.) 
The species are divided into two sections ; the first of these 
again into six groups based upon differences in the foliage and 
stigma. V. delphinifolia, Nutt., is referred to V. pedatifida, Don., 
the earlier name. V. palmata, L , is regarded as the type of the 
numerous forms usually considered under V. cucullata. Ait, 
the latter being now var. cucullata, Gray, of the former. V. re- 
nifolia, Gray, is reduced to V. blanda, Willd., var. renifolia ; the 
western V. aurea, Kellogg, is V. prcemorsa, Dougl.; our common 
Dog Violet is to be known as V. canina, L., var. Muhlenbergii, 
Gray. The second section, — that of the pansies, — is represented 
only by the plant referred to V. tricolor, L., var. arvensis, DC. 
Sylva of North America. — Some additions to the. — C. S. Sargent. 
(Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 313-315.) 
Professor Sargent detected in April last, Termimalia Buceras, 
B. & H., Mygittda integrifolia, 'L&m., {M ? latifolia, Chapm), 
and a new arborescent palm which Dr. VVendland names Pseudo- 
phafiix Sargentii, all on the Keys of Southern Florida. 
Synopsis of North American Pines, based upon Leaf Anatomy. — 
John M. Coulter and J. N. Rose. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 
256-262, and 302-309; illustrated.) 
Following up the late Dr. Engelmann's studies of the leaves 
of Conifers, Professor Coulter and Mr. Rose have endeavored to 
find characters in the anatomy of pine needles on which to 
an arrangement of the species. Transverse sections cut from 
near the middle of the needle were used. The primary basis of 
classification is the occurrence in the one group of a single fibro- 
vascular bundle, and in the other of two ; other characters are 
the presence or absence of thick-walled cells next the epidermis 
and resin ducts; the distribution of stomata, and the position and 
relative size of the resin ducts. 

Torsion in the Hollyhock, 'with some Observations on Cross- fer- 
tilization. — Thomas Meehan. (Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
1886, pp. 291, 292. . 

Botanical Notes. 

The Flora of Ceylon, Especially as Affected by Climate, is the 
title of a very interesting paper read by Henry Trimen at the 
meeting of the British Association, September, 1886, and pub- 
lished since in the Journal of Botany for October and November. 
The reader will be impressed by the abundance and luxuriance 
of introduced plants even around the Buddhist temples, and will 
be astonished to learn that as early as 1520 South American and 
West Indian plants were introduced in the East Indies. In con- 
sidering the native flora, the island is divided into two large 
areas — Northeast, or dry, and Southwest, or moist. The former 
is rarely visited, the latter is well known. These are again sub- 
divided according to elevation. The cultivation of rice and other 
grain has caused the destruction of nearly all the lowland forests, 
and a stony, worthless region, covered with Lantana from the 
West Indies, and a small native bamboo replace them. In a few 
cases the native trees remain, and a vivid account is given of the 
plants in these "hot, steamy forest.s." An interesting and 
restricted flora is here found, remarkably like the Malayan; 
while the hill-flora is generically similar and specifically distinct 
from that of the mountains of South India. One of the remark- 
able features of the Ceylon flora is the large number of species 
which are peculiar to the island, nearly 30 per cent, of them 
being found nowhere else in the world, and they seem to be con- 
centrated in the wet Southwest region. The clearing of the hill 
country for coffee estates has left a belt between the lowlands 
and the montane zone, in which nearly all trace of the native 
vegetation is lost, its place being taken by " an army of cosmo- 
politan exotic weeds." This was the great region for epiphytic 
Orchids, and the few remaining strips of forest show a great 
variety of species. The montane zone is forest-clad to the sum- 
mit, and the trees are nearly all evergreen, with thick and 
leathery leaves. Ferns and Orchids are abundant in these hill 
forests, and here, too, may be found many familiar genera, such 
as Anemone, Viola, Ranunculus, Rubus, etc. 

The " Dry Country " of Northeastern Ceylon was once " the 
granary of India," and numerous ruins of religious edifices and 


irrigation works would seem to indicate a large native population 
engaged in the cultivation of rice ; but the forest covers every- 
thing now, and it is remarkable how completely it has regained 
possession. It is to be noted that this dry forest is also ever- 
green, so that-deciduous trees form but a small portion of the 
forests of Ceylon. 

In conclusion, it is stated that no other British colony pos- 
sesses so complete a system of botanical and experimental 
gardens as Ceylon, and these have been located in each of the 
climatic districts, five in number, offering to students great facili- 
ties for botanical research. The director expresses a wish that 
these advantages may be more freely availed of by English 

Some rare and interesting mosses are enumerated and de- 
scribed by G. Venturi in the Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. for October, 
1886. They were collected by the Abate Antonio Carestia in 
the Piedmontese Alps, and have been critically compared by the 
author. One species of Blindia is still uncertain, seemingly 
allied to B. acuta, var. Arenaria, Molendo, to which the name B. 
trichodes, Lindb., may be applied. The following are the rarer 
species : Encalypta spathulata, C. Miill, Hypnum Richardsoni, 
Mitl., Milium subglobosum, Br. & Sch., Grimmia montana, Br. & 
Sch., and Barbula chionostoma, n. sp., described in the Rev. 
Bryol., 1885, No. 5, and more completely characterized here. 

Index Lichemtm Brittanicoruni. In current numbers of 
Grevillea, the Rev. J. M. Crombie gives a list of British Lichens 
according to the most recent Nylanderian arrangement. 

The Genus Eremostachys, Bungc. In Fascicle X. of " Des- 
criptiones Plantarum Novarum et minus cognitarum," printed in 
Vol. IX. of the Transactions of the St. Petersburg Botanical 
Garden, E. Regel publishes a monograph of this genus of Labi- 
atae, illustrated with ten plates. 39 species are described, all 
Asiatic, against 27 enumerated by Bunge. 

A Synopsis of the Rhisocarpece, by J. G. Baker, is concluded 
in the December number of the Journal of Botany. One Amer- 
ican species, Pihdaria Americana, A. Br., is described, of which 
P. Valdiviana, Philippi, is a synonym. 



Proceedings of the Club, 

At the meeting held December 14th, there were twenty-four 
persons present, and Vice-President Hogg presided. Miss E. 
Cannon and Mrs. J. Osborne Wright were elected active mem- 
bers, and Mrs. Catharine Starbuck and Mrs. Charlotte C. Pearson, 
corresponding members. 

An amendment to Article III. of the Constitution was made, 
substituting for "An Associate Editor," the words "Associate 
■Editors, not to exceed five in number." 

P. H. Dudley exhibited a fine specimen o{ Polyporus giganteus, 
which was obtained by Dr. Draper, November, 1886, from an 
apple tree at Hastings-on-the-Hudson. It was 14 inches long, 8 
inches wide, and weighed 5 pounds when collected. Dr. C. F. 
Millspaugh presented a fine plate and specimens of Euphorbia 
Nicmnsis, Allioni, collected at Vestal, Broome County, N. Y., 
on the Susquehanna, where it is abundant and attains a greater 
size than it does on the shores of the Mediterranean. It adds a 
new plant to the Flora of the United States. A note was 
received from Prof. T. C. Porter, accompanying specimens of 
Jussicea acuminata, Sw., and Sponia micrantha, DC, collected by 
Dr. Garber in Florida. 

Mr. HoUick read the paper announced on " Cerastiiim 
arvense, L., and its Varieties," illustrated by specimens. 

Mr. Bisky reported and exhibited twenty-one plants new to 
the Flora of Long Island. Dr. Britton read a communication 
from C. E. Smith on a method of drying and poisoning plants in 
order to preserve their color. Samples of the felt used and photo- 
graphs of the presses were shown, as well as mounted sheets of 
Bapttsta tinctoria, Linaria vulgaris, and other black-drying 
plants with their colors preserved. He also remarked that on 
p. 416 of Vol. III. of Hemsley's Botany of Central America, it is 
stated that no definite station for Typha is known in Mexico; 
he exhibited specimens of Typha latifolia, L., No I 880 of 
Muller, from Orizava, collected in swamps along the Rio Blanco. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, February, 1887. [No. 2. 

Notes on Diatoms. 
Bv C. Henry Kain. 

Within the last few years the number of students of the 
Diatomaceas has vastly increased. The literature of the subject 
has been greatly enriched, the classification of species is more 
definite, and the valuable aid afforded to geologists by the 
investigation of newly discovered fossil deposits has drawn atten- 
tion to the fact that the study of these forms is not without prac- 
tical results. The researches in regard to the structure of the 
diatom frustule, notably those of Dr. J. H. L. Flogel, Prinz and 
Van Ermengem, and Hon. J. D. Cox, while productive of much 
discussion, are likely to lead to valuable conclusions. Some 
observers are devoting their attention to the study of the life 
history of the Diatomaceae, and the number of such students 
should be increased, for there are many points in this connection 
that require verification and further investigation. It is under- 
stood that our veteran diatomist, Prof H. L. Smith, to whom we 
are indebted for the system of classification now so generally 
adopted, has prepared a work upon this subject, and its publica- 
tion is hoped for at an early day. Very little has been done in 
this country in the way of figuring the species of particular dis- 
tricts, and monographs upon our remarkable fossil deposits 
would be very desirable. 

Most unfortunately, many are only familiar with diatoms as 
they are received in a cleaned state, except, perchance, such as 
may be met with in a casual gathering of pond life. Such per- 
sons would often be pleased to make original collections, but for 
lack of knowledge in regard to where to look for and how to 
gather these little plants. This knowledge is only acquired after 
considerable experience. In the writer's early experience, most 


of the collections made resulted in securing a few diatoms and a 
good deal of mud. The efforts to get rid of the fine silt were 
usually so vexatious that the whole lot was often thrown away in 
disgust. The collector should learn that it pays to gather speci- 
mens as free from extraneous matter as possible. It is far easier 
to do this on the spot than to depend upon the various devices 
used for getting rid of sand, etc., after cleaning. It is not diffi- 
cult to make clean collections when one has learned where to 
look, when to look, and how to collect. 

Along the coast of New Jersey and Long Island extends a 
series of shallow bays or sounds, which are separated from the 
sea by strips of sandy beaches. These bays abound in spots 
where various species of marine algae flourish luxuriantly, and 
upon these algae many species of marine diatoms frequently 
occur in great abundance. Frequent inlets connect the bays 
mentioned with the ocean, and it is at the mouths of these inlets, 
between tide marks, that the richest and purest gatherings of 
marine forms may often be obtained. Sand bars which are bare 
at low tide are often prolific spots, but the best places are usually 
in the little coves which are always found near the mouths of the 
inlets. Here the water forms gentle eddies, and the diatoms 
have a chance to settle. At the time of lowest tide, the sand 
ripples may often be found densely packed with diatoms, forming 
a deposit which varies, according to the species, from a light 
brown to a dark chestnut color. This deposit, with as little sand 
as possible, should be scraped up and put into a wide-mouthed 
bottle until it is perhaps one-third full. Then fill up with water 
and shake vigorously. Allow the sand to settle for a few 
moments, and pour ofi" the water, which is now quite brown in 
color on account of the diatoms it retains. Again fill the bottle 
with water, shake, let settle and pour off as before. A number 
of bottles can be filled in succession in this way, and if those first 
filled are allowed to stand for fifteen or twenty minutes, the 
diatoms, unless they are some of the very small species, settle to 
the bottom. The supernatant water can then be poured off and 
the bottles again filled successively. In this way, a large collec- 
tion of very clean material may frequently be made at one spot, 
during a single tide. A little collecting lens is almost indispens- 


able in this work, for it often happens that after one has collected 
at one spot all he desires, another spot a few yards away attracts 
his attention, but, as it presents the same appearance to the eye, 
it is neglected. The collector should not pass any favorable 
looking spot without examination, for pure gatherings of quite 
distinct species may often be made within a few yards of each 
other. One other piece of advice may not be amiss. When one 
finds a really good gathering, be sure to collect plenty of it, for 
the same spot may be visited again at the very next tide, and 
either nothing collected, or the species found may be quite 

It is our design to call attention to some localities along the 
New Jersey coast which have been found prolific, and the first of 
these to which reference will be made is Shark River, at Ocean 
Beach, on the New York and Long Branch Railroad, about nine 
miles below Long Branch. As it is easily reached by rail from 
either New York or Philadelphia, microscopists of those cities 
would be richly repaid for a visit to the locality. The writer is 
only familiar with the species found there during the months of 
July, August and September, but doubtless a visit during the 
open weather we sometimes have in winter would yield rich 
results, for some marine species flourish best during the winter 

Early in July, in the sand ripples on the south side of the in- 
let of Shark River, Cocconeis excentrica may be found abundant 
and pure. It is needless, perhaps, to remark that the time of 
extreme low tide is the only proper time for making collections 
here. Some distance farther up the river, on the south side, near 
the foot of B street, a broad flat occurs which is bare at low water. 
Here Naviaila lyra, N. forcipata and N. hunterosa may be found, 
sometimes well separated. Still farther up the river, and on the 
same side, Pleiirosigma cestuarii and many species of Amphora 
occur. A little farther up, at the foot of C street, the brown 
patches on the sand are usually worthy of investigation, for here 
pure gatherings oi Amphora may be made ; A. plicata, especial- 
ly, is often found here in a very pure state. Later in the season, 
other forms may be met with in these localities, Navicula inflexa, 
particularly, being very abundant at the inlet, late in August. 


On the north side of the river the species are often quite differ- 
ent from those on the south side at the same season. On this side, 
Just within the inlet, is a large flat which is uncovered at low 
tide. Here various species of Amphora may be found ; A. 
apo7iina being usually very abundant during August and Sep- 
tember. On the more sheltered portion of this flat, where the 
flow of water has not been so rapid, the very delicate Nitzschia 
closteruim may often be found in great abundance, also the tiny 
Navicula oculata. On some parts of this flat, however, the col- 
lector may meet with a great disappointment. Spots will be 
found where diatoms are very abundant, but so embedded in 
gelatinous matter as to be almost worthless, for this gelatinous 
material is very difficult to get rid of in cleaning. Besides, it 
retains a great deal of sand with the diatoms. The best plan is to 
avoid collecting such stuff, but collect as near the water's edge 
as possible. Here the diatoms have been washed clean by the 
constant action of the water and deposited in little winrows 
along the sand-ripples, the flocculent matter having been washed 
away. Upon the large flat just east of the wagon bridge, 
Naviaila lyra and N. forcipata may often be found abundantly, 
but the collections made here are not apt to be so pure. Be- 
sides the species enumerated as occurring nearly pure, there are 
many other species which may be found more or less abundantly 
in mixed gatherings. These may be gleaned from the list at the 
close of this paper. 

Above the railroad bridge, the river broadens out into a bay 
over a mile in width, and this is a veritable treasure house to the 
diatomist. In some parts of this bay, at certain seasons, the 
growth of algae is so dense that it is difficult to row a boat 
through it. In June there is comparatively little to be found 
here, but, as the season advances, the growth of algjE and of 
diatoms is more prolific. By the second or third week in 
August, Achnanthes brevipes is exceedingly abundant upon 
Polysiphonia Harveyi, about two hundred yards west of Buhler's 
wharf Farther west, Striatella unipimctata, Synedra fulgens, 
the ordmary species of Grammatophora, Epithemia musculus 
and Melosira nummuloides are often very abundant. Here 
every piece of seaweed should be separately inspected and so 


placed in bottles as to mix species as little as possible. A mile 
west of Buhler's, in the shallow water at Long Point, cream-like 
masses of pure Melosira numniuloides may be sometimes met 
with. On the north side of the river, a little above where the 
north channel opens out into the bay, Schisonema Americanum 
grows in great abundance. It makes its appearance in light 
brown tufts upon eel-grass, about the last week in July, and con- 
tinues for ten days or two weeks, varying somewhat in the time 
of its appearance in different seasons. Amongst it may some- 
times be found Berkleya fragilis, a species which, like the Schi- 
zonemae, also occurs in gelatinous fronds. 

Between the railroad and the broad part of the bay are a 
number of islands, and, in the shallow pools found on these, very 
interesting collections of mixed species may be made. The 
wonderful Bacillaria paradoxa is abundant, and several species 
of Pleiirosigma are found in considerable numbers. 

Occasionally after a heavy easterly storm, but frequently at 
other times, the tide carries in from the sea great quantities of 
several of the smaller species of algae. Upon these, Licmophora 
tincta, L. flabellata and the various species of Grammatophora 
are often very abundant. On such occasions the collector has 
but to anchor his boat in the current and catch the specimens as 
they float by, examining each separately. They should be so 
placed in bottles as to keep the various species as well separated 
as possible. Valuable collections may often be made in this 

The appended list of species is by no means exhaustive, as 
every new gathering is likely to furnish others not previously 
observed. The collections were made principally during the 
months of July and August, and extend over a period of about 
six or seven years. 


Achnanthes brevipes, Agardh, common on algae, south side of bay. 
Amphiprora lepidoptera, Greg., occasional, south side, foot of B 

Amphora aponina, Greg., abundant and pure on flat near inlet. 


A. cynibifera, Greg. ~l 

A. excisa, Greg. | 

A. lavis, Greg. !■ common near inlet. 

A. l(Bvissima, Greg. 

A. lanceolata, Cleve. 

A. naviadacea, Donkin, occasional, near inlet. 

A. obtusa, Greg., common near inlet. 

A. plicata, Greg., abundant and pure, south side, foot of C street. 

A. proteus, Greg., common, foot of B street. 

A. robusta, Greg., common, near inlet. 

Bacillaria paradoxa, Gmelin, {Nitzschia paradoxa, Grun.), com- 
mon in ditches and pools west of railroad bridge. 
Berkley a fragilis, Grev., on eel-grass, south side of bay, August i. 
Biddulphia aiirita, Breb., occasional on algae in bay. 

B. Baileyi, W. Smith, occasional near inlet and in river mud. 
B. Icevis, Ehr., occasional near inlet and on algae in bay. 

B. pulchella, Gray, occasional on algae in bay. 

B. rhombus, W. Sm., occasional near inlet and in mud. 

B. turgida, W. Sm., occasional near inlet and in mud. 
Campylodiscus cribrosus, W. Sm., occasional near inlet and in mud. 
Cocconeis excentrica, Donkin, abundant and pure, south side, 

near inlet, July. 

C. scutellum, Ehr., abundant on alga;, particularly Ceraminm, 

and on zoophytes, especially Sertularia. 
Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Ehr. 1 
C. lineatus, Ehr. | 

C. omphalanthus, Ehr. \ occasional near inlet and in mud. 

C. radiaius, Ehr. I 

C. sit b tilts, Ehr. 

Dimeregramma marimim, Ralfs, occasional near inlet. 
Epithemia {Hantzschia) marina, Donkin, near inlet. 
E. viusailus, Kutz., common on algae, south side of bay. 
Grammatophora islandica, Ehr. 1 

G. marina, Kiitz. [on small brown algs floating 

G. serpentina, Ehr. f in ^^^^ ^^^ 

G. subtilissiina, Bailey. J 

Homcrocladia sigmoidea, W. Sm. {Nitzsekiafasciculata, Grunow), 
common m ditches near railroad bridge. 


Licmophora flabellata, Agardh, on algae in bay. 
L. tincta, Grun., abundant on small floating algse and on zo- 
Melosira mimmuloides, Agardh, abundant in bay near Long 

M. sulcata, Kiitz., common near inlet and in mud. 
Navicula forcipata, Grev., common, on flat near bridge and foot 

of B .street. 
N. granulata, Breb., rare, near inlet. 
N. Hennedyi, W. Sm., common, near inlet and on flat near 

N. humerosa, Breb., abundant, foot of B street. 
N. Indica, Grev., occasional, near inlet and on flat near bridge. 
N. inflexa, Ralfs, abundant and pure, in sand ripples near inlet, 

south side. 
N. lyra, Ehr, abundant, on flats near wagon bridge and at foot 

of B street. 
N. oculata, Breb., common, on flat near inlet, north side. 
N. palpebralis, Breb., occasional, near inlet. 

N. permagna, Bailey, occasional, at foot of B street and in mud. 
N. peregrina, Ehr. {Pinnularia), ommon, in ditches on north 

side near bridges. 
N. pratexta, Ehr., common, near inlet at foot of B street. 
N. pygmcea, Kiitz., occasional, near inlet. 
N. retusa, Breb., occasional, near inlet. 
Nitsschia bilobata, W. Sm., occasional, near inlet. 
N. clostermm, W. Sm., abundant, on flat near inlet, north side. 
N. littorea, Grun., occasional, near inlet. 
N. longissima, Ralfs., occasional, near inlet, north side. 
N. marina, Grun., common, at foot of B street. 
N. vivax, W. Sm., common, at foot of B street. 
Pleurosigma Baltictitn, W. Sm., common, in pools above railroad. 
P. angulatum, W. Sm., occasional, in pools above railroad. 
P. fasciola, W. Sm., common, on flat near inlet, north side. 
P. elongatuin, W. Sm., occasional, near inlet. 
P. hippocampus, W. Sm., common, near inlet and in pools above 

P. decorum, W. Sm., occasional, near inlet. 


P. macrum, W. Sm., occasional, on flat near inlet, north side. 
P. obscnrum, W. Sm., rare, on flat near inlet, north side. 
Podosira compressa, West {Druridgia gerninata), occasional, near 

inlet and in mud. 
Rhabdonema Adriaticum, Kiitz., common, on algae in bay. 
R. arcuatiiin, Kiitz., common, with the last. 
Rliaphoneis amphiceros, Ehr., occasional, near inlet and in mud ; 

several varieties. 
Schizonema Americanum, Grun., abundant, on eel- grass in bay, 

north side, Aug. i. 
Stauroneis aspera, Ehr., common, near inlet and at foot of B 

S. salina, W. Sm., common, near foot of B street. 
Striatella tmipimctata, Agardh, abundant, on algse in bay, south 

Syitedra fulgens, W. Sm,, abundant, on algse in bay, south side. 
Triceratiuin alternans, Bailey, occasional, near inlet and on flat 

near bridge. 
T. Favus, Ehr., occasional, near inlet and on flat near bridge. 
Tryblionella angustata, W. Sm., '\ 

T. Hantsschiana, Grun., ! occasional, near inlet and in 

T. punctata, V^. Sm., | mud. 

T. scutella, W. Sm., J 

Note on the Inflorescence of Camellia Japonica. 

Dr. Gray says that Camellia Japonica has "terminal or nearly 
terminal flowers" (F. F. and G. Bot, p. "jS). Bentham and 
Hooker characterize the genus Camellia as having "flores axil- 
lares" (Gen. Plant, Vol. I, p. 187), and De Candolle makes 
exactly the same statement (Prod., Vol. I,, p. 529). This contra- 
diction led me to examine closely the inflorescence of a consider- 
able number of plants of the common white, full-fiowered variety 
of C. Japonica, and I am satisfied that the facts in the case are as 
follows : Each twig of one season's growth may or does produce 
one terminal leaf-bud and one leaf-bud in each axil. Each of 
these leaf-buds is or may be accompanied by two flower-buds, 
one on each side, and each subtended by a bract closely resem- 
bling the ordinary bud-scales. In other words, the flowers of C. 


Japonica are, accurately speaking, either latero-terminal or latero- 
axillary, the terminal and axillary positions, strictly so-called, be- 
ing pre-empted, as it were, by the leaf-buds. Of course the actual 
bud development falls far short of the possible. Theoretically, a 
twig of five leaves might produce twelve flowers. The closest 
approach to this in the forty or fifty plants examined was six' 
flower- buds on a twig with three leaves, the lower axil being 
vacant. The commonest case consisted of the terminal leaf-bud 
and one of its lateral flower-buds, together with a leaf-bud in one 
or two of the axils. The uppermost leaf is close to the end of 
the twig, and when the flower-bud is developed opposite this leaf, 
with the terminal leaf-bud between the two, the exact appearance 
is produced of a strictly terminal flower and an axillary leaf-bud 
designed to produce a sympodial continuation of the stem. This 
appearance vanishes when the flower-bud stands next the leaf, 
and when both the latero-terminal flower- buds are developed the 
true state of the case begins to be seen. The additional develop- 
ment of a leaf-bud and two lateral flower-buds in the upper axil, 
producing an apparently terminal cluster of two leaf-buds and 
four flower-buds, throws still further light on the matter. The 
partial or complete development of similar triplets of buds in 
some of the lower axils, and the discovery of undeveloped bud- 
germs in places where buds theoretically belonged but failed to 
appear, served to complete the chain of evidence in favor of the 
view I have advanced. E. E. STERNS. 

A Method of Drying Plants with little Loss of Color. 

The press used for drying plants is composed of two cast-iron 

plates I2>^ by 21 inches, yi of an inch thick, and weighs about 
32 pounds. Each plate has two hundred holes in it, ^ an inch 


in diameter. The pressure is applied by a small screw at each 
end. Between the plates are two sheets of ox-hair felt, each one 
inch thick. 

The specimens to be dried are laid directly on the felt, with- 
out paper, and the press screwed up as tight as can be done with 
the thumb and finger, to flatten the specimen ; then laid flat down, 
preferably where there is a draft or breeze, propping up the wind- 
ward end 4 or 5 inches to allow the air to pass under it. At the 
end of six or twelve hours the press is opened to ascertain if the 
plants have become limp. If so, the press is left open twenty or 
thirty minutes. The felt and upper plate are then replaced, but 
not screwed down. In this condition it is left until dry, which is 
from one to four days. If the plants show any trace of shrivel- 
ling, the screws are applied again to flatten them out. 

When dry, the plants are laid between loose sheets of paper 
for at least four weeks, when they are poisoned. If poisoned 
sooner, the color in some species is much injured. Ballast plants, 
however, are poisoned as soon as they are out of the press, as the 
small mseci, Atropos piilsatoria, is sometimes found on them in the 
field. In poisoning all specimens, be careful to poison the end of 
the stem. Atropos attacks the most tender parts first, and gets 
into the pith of the stem. By poisoning that, he is stopped at 

There are a few species in which one sheet of paper under 
and over the plant is used to keep it from the felt ; Galium 
asprelliim, on account of the hooked prickles ; Cuphea viscosis- 
sima is sticky all over ; Tipidaria discolor has large, waxy pollen 
masses, which, in drying, form a cement as hard and strong as 
glue, and the flowers of Azalea viscosa, are sticky. The thistles have 
straight spines, and do not require paper. The use of heat, either 
fire or sunshine, is a di*dvantage, turning the plant black. 
Standing the press on end or on edge is a disadvantage, delaying 
the drying. The greater part of the moisture leaves the plant in 
a vertical line. When the press is on edge the moisture rises 
across the whole page by the longest and slowest line. When 
laid flat down it rises through the leaves and through the felt by 
the shortest and quickest line. CHARLES E. Smith, 

2i6 South Fifteenth Street, Philadelphia. 


Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Alaskan Plants. F. H. Knowlton. (Bot. Gazette, xi., p. 340.) 
A list of 24 species collected by Mr. S. Applegate. The 
rare Carex decidua, Boott, is among the number. 
Ambrosia bidentata X trifida. Asa Gray. (Bot. Gazette, xi., 

P- 339-) 
A hybrid between these species has been found at St. Louis, 
Mo., by Mr. H. Eggert. 

Asimina triloba. (Lloyd's Drugs and Medicines of North Amer- 
ica, ii., pp. 49-60 ; one plate and cuts in the text.) 
Azolla Caroliniana — Note on. S. Henshavv. (Proc. Nat. Sci. 
Assoc, Staten Island, Dec. nth, 1886.) 
" I first noticed Azolla Carolindana in our lotus pond, about 
two years ago, and have no doubt it came with some aquatic 
plants which I received from the South. It was very interesting 
to me at first, looking like bits of floating moss, and apparently 
so frail that it was liable to be blown off the surface of the water. 
It turned out more able to take care of itself than I imagined, 
however, and the innocent-looking plant in a short time covered 
the whole surface, crowding out the more robust growing 
Nymphaas and making sad havoc with all the permanent plants 
in the pond. It even tried to climb the stalks of the lotus, and 
eventually became such a pest that I tried to skim it off the sur- 
face of the water ; but it appeared to grow all the faster. I 
turned the hose on it, and tried to float it off, but it is still here, 
and I know of no way to get rid of it without destroying all the 
other aquatic plants in the pond. 

" Thinking that it might make itself at home in some of the 
ponds and streams in the neighborhood, I threw a little of it in 
the shallow end of Silver Lake, Clove Lake, and along the edges 
of the swamps. This was on May loth, 1885. By July 5th of 
the same year it had spread amazingly, especially in the swamps 
at the head of Clove Lake, where, by autumn, it had covered 
every available inch of surface. Where fully exposed to the sun, 
it assumed a red or rusty appearance and gave rise to many in- 
quiries on the part of people in the vicinity as to what it was and 
how it came there. 

" It has evidently become more or less acclimated, as it 


lived through the past winter and was abundant throughout this 
year. I think we may venture to put it among the plants of re- 
cent introduction." 
Bartoiiia aurea. Chas. E. Parnell. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., 

X., pp.9, lo; one figure.). 
Bulliforni or Hygroscopic Cells of Grasses and Sedges Compared. 

W. J. Beal. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 321-326; one plate.) 
Calif ornian Plants— Two nezv. Volney Rattan. (Bot. Gaz- 
ette, xi.. pp. 338, 339.) 
Carex— Notes on, viii. L. H. Bailey, Jr. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 
328-330; one plate.) 
This IS an account of the several forms regarded by Mr. 
Bailey as hybrids. C. Knieskernii, Dewey, is considered a hybrid 
oiarctata x flexilis. 

Check- List of North American Plants, including Mexican Spe- 
cies which approach the United States Boundary. H. N. 
Patterson. Large 8vo., pp. 151; Oquawka, 111., 1887. 
This is by far the handsomest and most complete publication 
of its kind yet issued. It is printed on heavy paper, in large, 
clear type, and is remarkably free from errors of spelling and 
typographical blunders, and gives us a list of North American 
Phanerogamia and Pteridophyta well representing our flora as it 
IS known to-day. It appears that we have 164 species and 22 
varieties of Ferns and Ophioglossaces. One Lechea, L. mar- 
tttma, Leggett, is omitted, and L. thymifolia, Pursh., which 
this replaces, should be L. thymifolia, Michx.,— the Z Novc^- 
Ccesarec of Austin; several other well-known species have 
been overlooked ; others, reported or described while Mr 
Patterson s work was in press, are also to be added To 

provide room for such on the pages, there are spaces left after 
each of the larger genera. The arrangement of both species 
and genera is alphabetic. There must, in time, be many 
changes and additions, and we hope that Mr. Patterson's venture 
may be so successful that he will feel warranted in issuing other 
editions. ^ 

Costa Rica Ferns— Mr. J. J Coot>pr\ T r h i /t 

T, . i..-ooper s. J. (j. Baker. (Journ. 

Bot., XXV., pp. 24-26.) 

An enumeration of ,12 species collected by Mr. Cooper in 


the forests of Costa Rica and sent by him to the U. S. National 
Museum, whence they were forwarded to Mr. Baker for determina- 
tion. Gleiche7iia intermedia, Adiantum Cooperi, Polypodium 
percrassum and P. aspidiolepis, spp. nn., are described. 
Fasciation in Ailantluis and Sumach. W. T. Davis. (Proc. 
Nat. Sci. Assoc, Staten Island, Dec. nth, 1886.) 

After some general remarks on fasciation, with reference to 
Dr. Master's work, Mr. Davis said : 

" I have observed in my rambles that fire is the chief cause 
of fasciation in ailanthus and sumach {Rhus glabra), but it does 
not appear to have been mentioned as a producer of this de- 

" Along the stone wall on the property of the Sailors' Snug 
Harbor, the vegetation has been burned for several years, the 
dead stalks standing thick among the summer's growth. After 
the fire in the spring of 1885 many of the young ailanthus trees 
became fasciated, the adhesion of branches numbering four and 
five in some cases, and I counted over twenty good specimens of 
these deformed stalks in quite a small area. I noticed also that 
most of the young trees had lost their cylindrical outline and had 
become extremely angular, though after a whole summer's 
growth they failed to develop a fasciated stalk. On the other 
side of the wall, where there had been no fire, the ailanthus trees 
were entirely normal. In the spring of this year these bushes 
and young trees were again subjected to the influence of fire, 
and as the summer proceeded I noted a new growth of deformed 
ailanthus trees and also a number of fasciated sumach stalks. 

" Early this spring I discovered a locality in the vicinity of 
Richmond where the blackened stems of the sumachs showed 
plainly that there had been a fire, and in the summer the leaves 
as well as the stalks became fasciated. Other leaves, though 
normal in shape and showing signs of adhesion, were much en- 
larged. The flowers growing on these fasciated stalks, which are 
also for the most part deformed, are not borne in a single head, 
but extend a long way down the branch, intermixed with the 
leaves. This fact seems to prove more conclusively that the ad- 
hesion of many branches and not the expansion of one, is the 
true theory of fasciation. 


" A great many districts are burned over in the fall, but I 
think it is only the fires that take place after growth has com- 
menced in the spring that produce this result." 
Flora of our Southwestern Archipelago. Wm. S. Lyon. (Bot. 

Gazette, xi., pp. 330-336, continued.) 
Mr. Lyon gives here a hst of the flowering plants and ferns 
of Santa Catalina Island, 151 in number, and one of San Cle- 
mente Island, numbering 81. 
Flora of Washington and Vicinity — Additions to the. F. H. 

Knowlton. (Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, iii., pp. 106- 

132; reprinted.) 
This paper is supplementary to Mr. L. F. Ward's " Guide to 
the Flora of Washington," and contains the additional Phanero- 
gamia and Pteridophyta detected in the region up to April i, 
1886, 39 in number. 

Rev. E. Lehnert contributes " A Revision of the Musci 
and Hepaticae of Washington and Vicinity," and " A List of 
the Lichens of Washington and Vicinity," both bare lists, with- 
out habitat or locality. The changes in nomenclature applicable 
to species published in Mr. Ward's Guide are noted ; new sta- 
tions for rare species are recorded, and a few corrections to 
previously published lists are made. 
Florida Fungi — Notes on — No. 10. W. W. Calkins. (Journ. 

Mycol., iii., p. 7.) • 
Fungous Diseases of the Grape Vine — Report on. F. Lamson 

Scribner. (U. S. Dept. Agric, Botanical Division, Bull. 

No. 2, pp. 136; seven plates. Washington, 1886.) 
It appears that four species of fungi are principally con- 
cerned as vine pests in this country. These are the Downy Mil- 
dew {Peronospora viticola, De By.), the Powdery Mildew {Uncin- 
ula spiralis, B. & C), the Black Rot {Physalospora BidwelH, 
Sac), and Anthracnose {Sphaceloma ampelinum, De By.). These 
are all carefully described and beautifully illustrated. The 
Downy Mildew is found both on our wild and cultivated grapes, 
and has doubtless been conveyed from the former to the latter. 
The Powdery Mildew is also a native of America, and attacks 
both wild and cultivated vines, showing a preference for those of 
the Vinifera class. The Black Rot is likewise of American ori- 


gin. Anthracnose is an importation from Europe, and has at- 
tracted attention in many places during the past season. Two 
other less destructive fungi are noted. The prevention and cure 
of all these diseases are discussed. As appendices to Mr. Scrib- 
ner's report are papers by Mr. Erwin F. Smith, entitled " Synop- 
sis of Replies to a Circular relative to Grape Mildews and Grape 
Rots in the United States;" one by Col. A. W. Pearson on 
" Grape Rot and Grape Mildew;" the third appendix contains 
fourteen papers on " The Prevention of Mildew — Results of Ex- 
periments with various Fungicides in French and Italian Vine- 
yards in 1885." and the fourth is a summary of the results of the 
congress on parasitic diseases of the vine, held at Florence, Italy, 
October, 1886. There is a full index to subjects treated and 
authorities cited. 

George Winter — Sketch of. W. A. Kellerman. (Journ. Mycol., 
iii., pp. 8-10.) 
An account of Dr. Winter's life, and a list of his publications 
on fungi. 
Grasses — New. George Vasey. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 337, 

Sporobolus Bolanderi, Agrostis foliosa, Muhlenbergia Neo- 

Mexicana and M. acuminata are described. 

Hierochloa borealis. Walter Deane. (Bot. Gazette, xi., pp. 

Hypocreacra, Synopsis of the North American, with Descrip- 
tions of the Species. J. B. Ellis and B. M. Everhart. (Journ. 
Mycol, iii., pp. 1-6, concluded.) 
The number of species of this order described is 161 ; an index 

to genera and species accompanies this last part of the synopsis. 

Lobelia inflata. (Lloyd's Drugs and Medicines of North Amer- 
ica, ii., pp. 63-66 ; one plate and cuts in the text.) 

Magnolia. (Lloyd's Drugs and Medicines of North America, ii,, 
pp. 37-46; concluded.) 
In this part there is a full-page engraving of M. macrophylla, 

natural size. Professor Sargent contributes the description of 

the geographical distribution of the genus in the United States, 

which is illustrated by a map. The Professor seems to have 

overlooked the occurrence of M. glauca on Long Island, N. Y. 


(See Bulletin, x., p. 95 ; xii., p. 87.) Dr. Heflebower des- 

scribes the microscopic structure of the bark, which has a well 

marked zone of sclerotic cells in the endodermis ; a good figure 

of this is given. 

Nymphcea flava, Leitner. (Bot. Mag., Plate 6917.) 

Riippia inaritima, L., in Nebraska. C. E. Bessey. (Amer. 

Nat., XX., pp. 1052, 1053.) 
Santa Cruz Island. E. L. Greene. (West Amer. Sci., iii., pp. 
An account of the physiography of this island, with notes on 
its peculiar flora. Castilleia hololeuca, Greene, n. sp., is de- 
Selinum Canadense in Indiana. J. N. Rose. (Bot. Gazette, xi., 

P- 338.) 
Stamens and Glandular Hairs of the Moth Mullein. J. L. Za- 
briskie. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, ii., p. 127.) 
It is stated that the glandular hairs are advantageously shown 
on a thin transverse section of the ovary ; they are comparatively 
short and stout, and composed of three or four cells. The gland 
is a globe about four times the diameter of the hair, and is or- 
namented with a beautiful closely-fluted pattern below the hori- 
zontal diameter. The specimen examined appears to have been 
a hybrid between Verbascum Blattaria and V. Lychnitis. 
Terfezia leonis, Tul. (Tuber niveutn, Desf.) J. B. Ellis. (Journ. 
Mycol., iii., p. 10.) 
This species, known as the " White Trufile," was communi- 
cated to Mr. Ellis by Mr. A. B. Langlois, who reports it quite 
common in the red sandy soil of the Red River in northwestern 
Louisiana. Its home is said to be in northern Africa, though it 
is not uncommon in southern Europe. 

Tsuga Caroliniana. (Gardeners' Chronicle, xxvi., p. 788, fig. 
Prof. C. S. Sargent gives a brief historical account of the 
Carolina Hemlock, with description, habitat and cultivation. 
The illustration is by C. E. Faxon. 

Tumbkweed— Another. C. E. Bessey (Amer. Nat., xx., pp. 
IOS3, 1054.) 
This one is Psoralea tenuiflora, Pursh, noticed bv Professor 


Bessey in southern Nebraska in great loose masses in the rail- 
way ditches. 
Vinegar and its Mother. F. A. Fernald. (Pop. Sci. Month., 

pp. 378-384-) 
Wild Flowers of Dakota. John W. Dunlap. (Gard. Month., 

xxix., p. 21.) 
It is stated that the Heliotropium Curasavicum is extremely 
abundant along the margins of Long Lake, near Woonsocket, 
WtJid and the Tree-Tops. B. F. Hoyt. (Amer. Nat., xx., 

pp. 105 1, 1052.) 
From 156 observations on injuries by the wind to decidu- 
ous-leaved trees, Mr. Hoyt concludes that these are generally 
broken at the crotch, this being the weakest point. The 
Coniferae having a central axis and verticillate branching, are 
seldom broken, but generally torn up by the roots. He 
advances the hypothesis that " the accumulated effects of the 
wind have been to develop excurrent forms of tree-top," and 
queries why the Coniferae should have this in greater perfec- 
tion than other plants, suggesting that deciduous trees are in- 
jured only when in foliage — which is scarcely true in all cases, 
— while evergreens, being always in foliage, are more exposed 
to the wind ; also that as the Coniferae are geologically older 
than Angiosperms, they have had more time to accumulate 
the effects of the wind and develop an excurrent form of top. 
Mr. Hoyt does not take into account the fact that the method 
of branching of Coniferae is largely determined by their growth 
from apical cells. 
Zauschneria Californica. (Garden, xxxi., pp. 28, 29, with 

The Californian Fuchsia has brilliant scarlet blossoms with 
exserted stamens, and is a very showy plant in cultivation. 

Botanical Notes. 

Cottcerning Guarana and Coca. The Oil, Paint and Driig 
Reporter, in its issue of January 5, departs from its usual careful 
habits in printing an extract from the work of Mr. H. Semler in 
reference to "Kola Nuts, Guarana and Coca." The statements 


there made are so opposed to the facts that it is difficult to 
imagine how any one could have made them by accident. Mr. 
Semler states that " no steps have yet been taken to cuhivate the 
Guarana," whereas there is no considerable amount of Guarana 
obtained except from cultivated plants. The fruits are not 
" gathered in October and November," but in January. So far 
from being sold in the Santarem market at "gd per lb.," it is diffi- 
cult at most times to obtain Guarana at 75c. and $1, although 
the price is exceedingly variable. Guarana is not collected on 
the Rio Negro for market, or at least not to any extent. 

Concerning Coca it is stated that the Bolivian Government 
derives an annual revenue of ^40,000 from the " lease of wild 
coca shrubs." Now, the wild coca shrub is quite a curiosity in 
Bolivia, so rarely is it met with, and the government owns no 
shrubs, either wild or cultivated ; nor does its income from the 
export duty on coca reach anywhere near such a figure as that 
named. The author's anxiety to have his work become the 
" standard " is hardly likely to be realized if the whole of it is on 
a par with this extract. There is a class of writers who sail along 
the coasts of foreign countries and pick up stray information 
concerning the interior, and who do much more harm than good. 
Reliable information, especially concerning South America, can 
only be obtained by actually visiting the locality, and then 
depending on one's eyes, religiously excluding the statements of 
the natives, for " the truth dwelleth not in them." — (H. H. R.) 

Botany of the Afghan Delimitation Commission. (Nature, 
XXXV., pp. 173-174.) This is a very interesting, though too brief, 
account, by W. B. Hemsley, of the collections made by Dr. 
Aitchison of the vegetable products of the Perso- Afghan region, 
collections of great economic as well as scientific importance, as 
he paid special attention to the drug-producing plants and settled 
many doubtful questions. The collections contain about 1 00 
new species, and were prepared and packed with great care. 
The main collection consists of about 800 species and 10,000 
specimens, and yet does not include any plants from an altitude 
of more than 5,000 feet. The plants have not yet been fully 
worked out, but a full and illustrated report on the whole collec- 


tion, in which promineuce will be given to the economic plants, is 
promised early next year. 

Awards of Botanical Prizes by the French Academy for 
1886. The Barbier prize was given M. Eugene Collin for his 
work on " Structure Anatomique des Substances Medicinales," 
the Desmazieres prize to MM. Henri Van Heurck et A. Grunow 
for the " Synopsis des Diatomees de Belgique"; La Pons Meli- 
cocq was divided between MM. Gaston Bonnier et G. de Layens 
on the one part and M. E. G. Camus on the other for works on 
the " Flore du Nord de la France," and the Montagne prize to M. 
le Dr. Qiielet for an "ouvrage precieux," entitled " Enchiridion 
Fungorum in Europa media et prsesertim in GaUia vigentium.'' — 
(Comptes Rendus, vol. ciii.) 

The Flora of Madagascar. At the meeting of the Linnsean 
Society of London on November i8th, Mr. J. G. Baker read a 
paper entitled " Further Contributions to the Flora of Madagas- 
car," in which upwards of 250 new species, seven of them repre- 
senting new genera, were described. It appears that during the 
last ten years between 1 100 and 1200 new plants have been made 
known from this island in the Journal of Botany and the Journal 
of the Linnaean Society. 

Alchemilla vulgaris was found in great abundance about 
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, by Professor Macoun and myself in 
1883, growing in fields, etc., bordering on the sea shore. 

T. J. W. Burgess, M.D. 

Magnolia acuminata, Var. cordata, Sargent. A correction 
should be made to the statement on p. 21 of the January BUL- 
LETIN, where it is said, regarding Magnolia cordata, that Dr. 
Gray recognizes it as a variety of M. acuminata, and appends a 
description. The description is by Professor Sargent.* 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held Jan, iith; 23 per- 
sons present. Vice-President Hogg in the chair. 

The following were elected active members : Mrs. P. L. Le 
Brun, Mrs. D. A. McCredy, Miss C. M. Brewster, Dr. H. H. 


Rusby and Prof. C. Henry Kain, and the following correspond- 
ing members: Miss. Maria L. Owen, of Springfield, Mass., and 
J. Reverchon, of Dallas, Texas. 

The reports of officers for the year 1886 were read and ac- 

The election of officers for 1887 was then held, with the fol- 
lowing result : President, Prof. J. S. Newberry ; Vice-President, 
Thos. Hogg ; Treasurer, F. J. H. Merrill ; Recording Secretary, 
Arthur Hollick ; Corresponding Secretary, Miss H. C. Gaskin ; 
Editor, Elizabeth G. Britton ; Associate Editors, Jos. Schrenk, 
F. J. H. Merrill, H. H. Rusby and C. Henry Kain ; Curator, 
Miss M. O. Steele; Librarian, N. L. Britton. 

Prof. Schrenk remarked on the mucilaginous coating of the 
submerged portions of Brasenia peltaia, and stated that this sub- 
stance is present also within the tissues of the plant. Dr. 
Britton called attention to the occurrence of a similar muci- 
lage on the young shoots of submerged Polygonum Muhlcn- 
bergii, Watson, observed near Andover, N. J., last July. 

Dr. Henry H. Rusby gave a brief account of his recent 
travels in South America and of the general features of the 
Flora of portions of Chili, Peru, Bolivia and the valleys of 
the Beni, Madeira and Upper Amazon Rivers. 

Dr. Britton exhibited and remarked on Mr. A. H. Cur- 
tiss' 8th Fascicle of North American Plants. It contains 
among other interesting species the following collected at a 
ballast wharf at Pensacola, Florida : Nicotiana glauca, Grab. ; 
Petunia parviflora, Juss. ; Pliichea Qnitce, DC. ; Inula viscosa. 
Ait. ; Flaveria contrayerba, L. and Acanthospermum humile, 
DC. ; also Cestrtrnt diurnum, L. and Pluchea odorata, Cass, 
escaped from cultivation on Key West. 

The secretary of the Histologic and Cryptogamic section re- 
ported that there had been held six meetings since the organization 
on April 6th, at which much valuable information in Histology 
and "technique," had been contributed. The proceedings will 
hereafter be more fully reported. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, March, 1887. [No. 3. 

Cerastium arvense, L., and its North American Varieties. ^/ 

By Arthur Hollick and N. L. Britton. 

Plates LXIII-LXV. 

While botanizing on Staten Island, New York, during the 
past ten or twelve years, our attention was frequently attracted 
by a Cerastium, which grows abundantly at many places on the 
serpentine hills, and in no other parts of the Island. This plant 
agrees in general with the description of C. oblongifolium, 
Torrey, in the Flora of the State of New York, and yet it exhib- 
its such a variety of forms that we were led to collect a large 
number of specimens and memoranda for comparison. The 
further the subject was investigated the more interesting it 
became to us, and finally resulted in the study of not only this 
plant, but of allied forms from other places. Our studies have 
resulted in the conclusion that the Staten Island plants are more 
properly to be regarded as a variety of C. arvense, L., and that 
many other American forms of Cerastimii are to be referred to 
varieties of this species, as modified by climate, soil, etc. 

In addition to specimens in our own collections and those in 
the herbarium of Columbia College, others from the following 
herbaria have been kindly placed at our disposal : Harvard 
University, United States Department of Agriculture, Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and Torrey Botanical Club. 
In addition to these, we have received specimens and notes from 
Prof. T. C. Porter, Mr. C. E. Smith, Mr. W. M. Canby, Mr. J. M. 
Macoun, Dr. J. C. Arthur, Prof. S. M. Tracy, and others. 

The following is our proposed arrangement of the North 
American forms of the species : 

Cerastium arvense, L. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceo- 
late ; those of the stem distant ; stem and leaves hairy or nearly 

smooth ; bracts small ; capsule equaling or somewhat exceeding 
the calyx. (Plate LXIV., f. I.) 

Spec. Plant., Ed. i., 438; Ed. ii., 628; Ed. iii., 628; Fenzl., in Ledeb. Fl. Ross., 
i., p. 412; DC, Prodr., i., 419; Syn. Flor. Gall., 395; Hudson, Fl. Angl., 201; 
Engl. Bot., PI. 93; Benth., Handbook Brit. Fl., i., 126; Koch, Syn. Flor. Germ., 
135; Reichb., Icon. Fl. Germ., vi., PI. 234, f. 4980; Ettingshausen & Pokorny, Pliys. 
PI. Austr. ix., PI. 889; Hartm., Handb. Skand. Flor., 132; Boiss., Flor. Orient., i., 
728; Regel, Fl. Ost. Sib., i., 427 and 444; Gay, Fl. Chil., i., 276; Rohrb., Linnsa, 
xxxvii., 303. 

Hook., Fl. Bor. Am., i., 104; Muhl., Cat., 46; Bigel., Fl. Bost., 196; Torrey & 
Gray, Fl. N. A., i., 188; Eaton & Wright, 188; Torrey, Fl. N. Y., i., 99; Bot. 
Wilke's Exp., 246; Engelm., Trans. Amer. Phil. Sx., xii., 186; Beck, Bot., 54; 
Gray, Pac. R. Rep., xii., 41; Amer. Journ. Sci. (H.), xxxiii., 405; Proc. Phil. 
Acad., 1863, 59; Manual, 94; Wood, Ciassbook, Ed, 1855, 188; Bot. & Flor., 55; 
Cooper, Pac. R. R. Rep., xii., 57; Chapman, 50; Darby, 247; Meehan, Flowers and 
Ferns, ii., pp. 189-192, excl. figure. 

Porter, Hayden's Rep., 1870, 473; 1871, 479; Porter & Coulter, Fl. Col., 13; 
Watson, King's Rep., v., 38 and 417; Bot. Cal., i., 67; Rothrock, Geog. Surv. W. 
loolh Merid., vi., 71; Willis, Cat. N. J., 12; Britton, Prel. Cat. N. J. Fl., 16; Coul- 
ter, Bot. Rocky Mount. Reg., 33; Macoun, Cat. Plants Can., i., 77. 

C. incanum, Ledb., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb., v., 540 (fide Regel). 

? C. hybridum, Muhl., Ind. Fl. Lane, in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (I.) iii., 170. 

C. Pennsylvanicum, Homem., Hort. Hafn., 435; D C, Prodr. i., 420; Spreng., 
Syst. Veg., ii., 418; Don. Gard. Diet., i., 446. 

C. elongatum, Nutt., Journ. Acad. Sci., Phil., vii., 16. ? 

C. tenuifoiium, Pursh., Fl. Amer. Sept., 321. 

Habitat. Throughout northern North America, extending 
southward along the AUeghanies and the Rocky Mountains; 
also in the Andean region of South America and in Patagonia. 
Throughout northern and central Europe and northern Asia. 

Var. LATIFOLIUM, Fenzl. Leaves lanceolate to oblong- 
lanceolate, shorter and broader than in the type ; those of the 
stem closer ; stems low, 3 to 8 inches high, pubescent. (Plate 

LXV., f 5.) 

Var. lalifolium, Fenzl., and var. alpicolum, Fenzl , in Ledb. Flor. Ross., i., 412; 
Regel, Flor. Ost. Sib., i., 445. 

G. strictiim, L., Spec. Plant., 3d Ed., 529; D C, Prodr., i., 4:9. 

C. ciliaium, Reich., Icon. Flor. Germ., vi., PI. 235, f. 4981. 

C.pubescens, Goldie, Edin. Phil. Journ., 1822; Richards, Frank. Journ., ed. 2, 
p. 18; DC, Prodr., i., 420.; Don. Gard. Diet., i., 447. 

C. Pennsylvanicum, Hook. ,yfaV spec, in Herb. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil. 

? C. arvinsc, Richards, Franklin Journey, 10. 

Habitat. Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Asia and North 
America. Labrador (Steinhaur, Kreuth, in Herb. Gray) ; Utah 
(L. F. Ward, No. 539, 1875) ; Pike's Peak, Colo. (Parry) Franklin 


Expedition (Hooker 1. c.) ; and credited by Regel to " Ross 
Colonie," N. W. America (1. c ) ; Cent. Utah (Parry, Nos. 5 and 
6, 187s); Mts. of Colo., 1872 (Torrey) ; Clear Creek Station, 
Col. (Newberry). 

Var. ANGUSTIFOLIUM, Fenzl. Leaves elongated, linear or 
narrowly linear-lanceolate ; stems pubescent, hoary or glandular. 
(Plate LXV., f. 7.) 

In Ledeb. Fl. Ross., i., 413; Regel, Flor. Ost. Sib., i., 445. 
C. arvense, Hook., Lond. Journ. Bot., vi., 75. 

C. dongatum, Pursh, Fl. Amer., Sept., i., 321; DC. Prodr., i., 417; Spreng., 
Syst. Veg., ii., 417; Hook., J'lor. Bor. Amer., i., 103. 

Habitat. Northern Asia and northwest America. Oregon 
(Geyer, 284). 

Var. MAXIMUM, n. var. Plants strong and stout, 12 to 20 
inches high ; leaves broadly linear to lanceolate, 2 to 4 lines 
wide, I to 2 inches long, acutish; capsule i^ times the 
length of the calyx ; lower bracts generally foliaceous. (Plate 

LXIV., f. 2.) 

Habitat. Noyo, Mendocino Co., California (Bolander, Nos. 
4723 and 6520); western California (G. R. Vasey), near San 
Francisco (Mrs. M. K. Curran). 

Var. OBLONGIFOLIUM, n. var. Leaves narrowly or broadly 
oblong, or lanceolate-oblong, mostly obtuse ; capsules i^ to 
2\ times the length of the calyx ; stems generally taller and 
stronger than in the type; pubescent. (Plates LXIII., and LXV., 
f. 6.) 

Cerastium, n. sp., Torrey, Amer. Journ. Sci., iv., 63. 

C. oblongifolium, Torrey, Fi. U. S., i., 460; FL N. Y., i., 99; Darlingt., Florula 
Cestr., 54, and F). Cestr., 3d Ed.. 33, in part; Torrey and Gray, Fl. N. A., i., 188, 
in part; Gray, Mm., 94; Wood, CUssbook, 188, in part; Bot. & Flor., 55; Beck, 
Bot., 54?; Tatnall, Cat. Phen. & Fil. Plants, Newcastle Co., Del., 17; Newberry, 
Cat. Plants, Ohio, p. 14; Porter, in Mombert's Auth. Hist. Lane. Co., Pa., 583; Wal- 
ling and Gray's New Topog. Atlas, Penn., 25; Macoun, Cat. Plants Canada, i., 77; 
Anderson, in Rep. State Mineralogist, Nevada, 118; Meehan, Flowers and Ferns, 
ii., pp. 189 192; Coulter, Cat. Plants, Indiana, 4; HoUick and Britlon, Fl. Rich- 
mond Co., N. Y., 8; Patterson, Cat. Plants, 111., 7; Arthur, Contr. Fl. Iowa, 9; 
Upham, Cat. Fl. Minn., 32; Ward, Bull. U. S. Nat. Museum No. 22, 68; Tracy, Cat. 
Plants, Missouri, 15. 

C. dUhotomum, Muhl., Cat., 46. ? 

? C. bradeatum, Raf., Proc. Deconv., 36; Poir., Suppl. v., 601; DC, Prodr., i., 
420; Don. Gard. Diet., i., 447; Torrey and Gray, Fl. N. A., i., 189. 

Habitat. Eastern United States from Virginia to New York ; 


near Alexandria, Va. (A. H. Curtiss) ; Washington, D. C. (Vasey, 
Ward); Montgomery Co., Md. (J. D. Smith); Newcastle Co., 
Del. (Canby, Commons); Lancaster Co., Penn. (Porter); eleven 
miles west of Philadelphia (C. E. Smith) ; and abundant on the 
hills of Staten Island, N. Y. ; also extending westward to the 
Sierra Nevada; Sandusky, Ohio (Douglass); Ogle Co., 111. 
(Bebb) ; Dixons, 111. (Vasey) ; Decorah, Iowa (Holway) ; 
Amherstburgh, Ontario (Macoun) ; Belleville, Ontario (Mrs. Roy); 
Santa Magdalena Mts., N. M. (G. R. Vasey) ; near Bozeman, 
Montana (Scribner). 

In the eastern United States, from southern New York to 
Maryland, this variety is apparently confined to magnesian rocks. 
On Staten Island it is certainly restricted to the serpentine 
area ; with regard to the Pennsylvania localities, Mr. C. E. Smith 
writes: " So far as I know or have ever heard, it is unknown in 
our district (Philadelphia), except in one spot about eleven miles 
west of the city, where the road to West Chester crosses the 
serpentine rocks, where it is plenty;" and we have examined a 
specimen of Dr. Darlington's collecting, marked " Serpentine 
hill, Westchester, Pa.," while in his " Flora Cestrica," he remarks, 
" Banks of serpentine rock, frequent;" as to the Delaware sta- 
tions, Mr. W. M. Canby says, " I do not know of its growing 
elsewhere in this State, nor anywhere in this region (Newcastle 
Co.), except on the serpentine, where it is very plentiful," and 
Mr. A. Commons collected it " on serpentine rock, Centre- 
ville, Del." It also appears to grow in other places on magnesian 
limestone, though we have not been able to verify this to any 
extent ; specimens have been seen by us marked " Banks of 
Susquehanna, Lancaster Co., Pa., T, C. Porter;" and Professor 
Porter has sent us specimens from the vicinity of Easton, Penn., 
at both of which localities magnesian limestone occurs ; and the 
original of Dr. Torrey's C. oblongifoliunt came from a region of 
magnesian limestone near Sandusky, Ohio. Further south and 
west than these points we have thus far been unable to follow 
this interesting association. 

In this connection we have thought it a matter of some inter- 
est to present the following analysis of the ash of this plant, from 
specimens collected on Todt Hill, Staten Island, kindly made 


for us by Mr. Ernest J. Lederle, of the School of Mines : 

SiUca ( Si O2 ) - - - - - 3985 

Alumina and Oxide of Iron (AI2 Os and Fe2 O3) 18.58 
Lime (Ca O) ------ 9.35 

Magnesia (Mg O) - - - - - 19.79 

From this it is seen that the magnesia constitutes about one- 
fifth of the entire ash of the plant, and is present in larger 
quantity than any other constituent except the silica. 

It should be remarked that the specimens seen from about 
Washington, D. C, and from Montgomery county, Md., are 
larger than those from the serpentine areas. The same may 
also be said of the specimens from Amherstburgh, Ontario, said 
by Mr. Macoun to grow in " damp woods," and also of those 
from the West. In some respects these approach the forms 
referred by us to var. maximum. 

In Meehan's " Native Flowers and Ferns of the United 
States," Vol. ii., plate 48, is an illustration of one of these large 
forms, made from a specimen collected in Bergen Park, Colo., at 
an altitude of 7,000 feet. If this drawing is correct, it very 
nearly represents our var. maximum, but we have not seen any 
specimens of this from the Rocky Mountain regions. 

Between Dr. Torrey's original description in the American 
Journal of Science and Arts, in 1822, and his later description in 
the Flora of the State of New York, published in 1843, there is 
the following discrepancy : In the former the leaves are described 
as acute, and the capsules as shorter than the calyx, while in the 
latter the leaves are described as mostly obtuse, and the capsules 
as about twice as long as the calyx. This is, perhaps, to be 
accounted for by the original imperfect material. The latter 
description agrees with the characters of our var. oblongifolium. 

Var. VILLOSU.M, n. var. Stem leaves lanceolate to ovate- 
lanceolate ; capsules 2 to 2\ times the lengtli of the calyx ; the 
whole plant densely villous-pubescent. (Plate i:xv., f 8.; 

C. villosum, Muhl., Cat., 46; Darlingt., Flor. Ces'r., 2d Y.i., 279. 
C. hirsiitum, ? Darlingt., Florula tesir., 54. ? 

C. oblongifolium, Darlingt., Flor. Cestr., 3d Ed., 33, in part; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 
N. A., i., 188, in part. 

Habitat. On serpentine rocks, Lancaster Co., Penn. (Porter) ; 

■ 50 

Chester Co., Penn. (Kilvington, in Herb. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil.) 
This variety is to be regarded as the extreme broad-leaved 
and hairy form of the species. Its range appears to be restricted 
to the serpentine barrens of Pennsylvania, where it apparently 
passes gradually into the var. oblongifoliuni. 

Var. FUEGIANUM, Hook., f. Low ; smooth ; leaves short, small, 
coriaceous and imbricated, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate in out- 
line ; pedicels solitary, or in few-flowered cymes ; capsules some- 
what exceeding the calyx. (Plate LXIV., f 3.) 

C. arvense, var. , Coulter, in Hayden Kep., 1872, 762, name only. 

Collected by Professor J. M. Coulter, Aug. nth, 1872, at 
Lower Fire Hole Basin, Yellowstone Park. 

This interesting form is identical with the var. Fuegianum, 
Hook, f., in Bot. U. S. Expl. Exp., i., 129 (our Plate I.XIV., 
f. 4), from Fuegia, with specimens of which we have compared 

As analagous to this remarkable distribution we have that of 
Carex Magellanica, Lam., whose range in North America is 
from the arctic regions to northern Pennsylvania and Utah. 

Plate LXIIL — Cerastium arvense, L., var. oblongifoliuni, drawn 
from a living plant collected on Todt Hill, Staten Island, 
New York, May 26th, 1886. 
Plate LXIV., fig. I. — C. arvense, L. Drawn from a specimen 
collected by Prof. T. C. Porter, on the shore of the Delaware 
River below Phillipsburg, N. J. 

Fig. 2. — C. arvense, L., var. maximum Drawn from a 
specimen collected by Mrs. M. K. Curran, near San 
Francisco, Cal. 
Fig. 3. — C. arvense, L., var. Fuegianum. Drawn from speci- 
men collected by Prof J. M. Coulter, at the Lower Fire 
Hole Basin, Yellowstone National Park. 
Fig- 4- — C- arvense, L., var. Fitegianum, Hook., f. from 
Orange Harbor, Fuegia. 
Plate LXV., Fig. 5. — C. arvense, L., var. latifolium, Fenzl. Drawn 
from specimen collected in the mountains of Colorado, 1872, 
by Dr. Torrey. 

Hulleliii of the Torrev Botanical Club 


Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LXIV. 

il a 

Cerastium arvense, L, and Varieties. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LXV. 

T \ 

Varieties of Cerastium arvense, L 


fig. 6. — C. arvense, L., var. obtongifotinni, from Staten 

Fig. 7. — C. arvense, L., var. angiistifolium, Fenzl. Drawn 

from specimen in Dr. Gray's herbarium, collected in 

Oregon by Geyer. 
Fig. 8. — C. arvense, L., var. villosum. From specimen 

collected by Prof T. C. Porter, in Lancaster county, 

All the figures on Plates i.xiv. and i.xv. were drawn from 
herbarium specimens. 

Some New or Little Known American Plants. 
1-iv Tho.mas Mokonc. 

Eryngium Ludovicianum. a new species belonging to 
Chapman's scaly fruited section is sent by Rev. A. B. Langlois, 
from Natchitoches county, Louisiana. 

Stem slender, erect, about 18 inches high, diffusely branch- 
ing; leaves few, the lower oblong, irregularly serrate or incised, 
the teeth and apex spinescent, 3 to 5 lines wide and i to 2 inches 
long, tapering into a winged petiole which broadens into a clasp- 
ing base, the uppermost linear, more deeply laciniate, often three- 
cleft; involucral leaflets six to eight, rigid, entire or dentate 
towards the base, twice as long as the heads, recurved or reflexed ; 
inflorescence cymose, the whitish heads hemispherical, 2 to 3 
lines in diameter, on slender peduncles )/z to i inch in length ; 
flowers small, light blue ; bracts tricuspidate, longer than the 
flowers ; fruit scaly. 

This plant grows in sandy barrens, and may bo easily distin- 
guished from E. Baldivinii, Spreng., and E. prostratutn, Nutt., 
with which it occurs, and with which it might be confounded, by 
its erect habit, its tricuspidate bracts and scaly fruit. 

Mykiophyi.LUM alterniflokum, DC. This species, hith- 
erto reported no nearer to us than Greenland, was detected last 
August by Mr. J. R. Churchill at Sargent's Bay, Lake Mem- 
phremagog, Canada. It is somewhat like M. spicatum in appear- 
ance, but with much more slender stems and shorter leaves ; spikes 
quite slender and only i to i ^ inches long ; the pistillate floral 


leaves whorled in threes and fours, pectinate, longer than the 
flowers, the staminate opposite or alternate, entire or serrate, 
shorter than the flowers ; staminate flowers alternate, the pistil- 
late alternate or in more or less imperfect verticils. Probably 
this plant occurs in all parts of the lake, and may be looked for 
within our borders as well as in Canada. 

Gray. The writer had the pleasure while on the excursion to 
Niagara Falls given to the members of the A. A. A. S. at 
Buffalo last summer, of rediscovering Tuckerman's old species 
{P. Niagarensis, Tuck.), which had not been found since Tucker- 
man's own collection of it forty years since. Search has often 
been made for it, but without success, and botanists had nearly 
concluded that it had disappeared from the original habitat. It 
seemed to be plentiful in the canal or sluiceway running along 
the brink of the bank on which the village stands, near the street 
leading down to Goat Island. 

Equisetum LITTORALE, Kuhlewein. An Equisetum grow- 
ing on the gravelly shores of Knight's Lsland, Lake Champlain, 
has excited a good deal of curiosity and some dispute among 
botanists who have collected it in situ. By some it is thought 
to be E. variegaiitm, Sleich., and by others E. littorale, Kiihl. 
Specimens of this plant which I collected a year or two ago were 
sent to Mr. A. Bennett, of Croydon, England, and Dr. G. 
Tiselius, of Stockholm, Sweden, both of whom have kindly sub- 
mitted it to good authorities on this family. Mr. Bennett writes 
that he himself and Mr. W. H. Beebe, who has paid particular atten- 
tion to this order, regard it as undoubted E. littorale, Kuhl. Dr. 
Tiselius informs me that Prof. Th. Fries, Director of the Botanical 
Gardens at Upsala, and Dr. Sigfr. Almquist, of Stockholm, both 
pronounce it E. littorale, but that they consider that species a 
hybrid between E. arvense, L., and E. fliiviatile, L. It would 
seem, therefore, pretty certain that the Knight's Island form, 
whether the opinion of its hybridity is correct or not, is distinct 
from E. variegatiim, and is the plant known as E. littorale, Kiihl. 
[An account of the occurrence of Equisetum littorale in Eng- 
land, by Mr. Beebe, may be found in the Journal of Botany, vol. 
xix., p. 54. — I""n,] 

On the Assimilatory System, 

G. Haberlandt, in Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Ges., Vol. IV, pp. 2o6- 
236, pi. xi., furnishes a valuable contribution to the elucidation of 
this interesting subject. 

E. Stahl and other authors have advanced the theory that the 
peculiar shape and position of the palisade-cells are due to the 
influence of insolation. The chlorophyll grains in the layers of 
the leaf most exposed to the sunlight are said to have the tend- 
ency to avoid the intense light of the perpendicular rays by 
placing themselves along the side- walls of these cells. They will 
thus assume a profile position, while the granules in the more pro- 
tected, deeper layers, in the so-called spongy parenchyma, will 
occupy the walls parallel to the leaf-surface, thereby presenting 
their broad side to the incident light. This tendency, 
according to the authors cited, will cause the palisade-cells to 
elongate in a direction perpendicular to the leaf-surface, so as to 
afford the chlorophyll grains ample room to assume the most 
favorable position. The cells on the spongy parenchyma on the 
other hand will, for the same reason, expand horizontally. Thus 
the frequent absence of palisade tissue and the more abundant 
development of the spongy parenchyma in leaves that have 
grown in the shade would be explained. 

When the solar rays strike the surface of a leaf perpendicular- 
ly, the migration of the chlorophyll grains to the side-walls of 
the palisade-cells, can be easily observed in some plants.* Ran- 
unculus Ficaria is said by Haberlandt to be very good for this 
purpose. The chlorophyll grains will leave the transverse walls 
completely in about fifteen minutes. It takes several hours, 
how ever, for them to return to their former position after insola- 
tion has ceased. If a cross-section from a leaf that had been inso- 
lated for some time is examined, the chlorophyll grains are found 
distributed rather uniformly on all the side-walls of the palisade- 
cells. Then, if the sunlight is directed so as to fall perpendicular- 
ly on the long sides of these cells, nearly all the chlorophyll grains 
will gather on those side- walls which lie in the same plane as the 

*Prothallium of ferns, Vaucheria (Stahl), Ornithogalunt nutans and umbcllatum, 
Muscari racemosum, Scilla bifolia, etc. 


incident rays, i. e., tliey will assume the profile position ; a few 
grains will pass to the transverse walls. 

If in all plants, or, at least, in very many, the chlorophyll 
grains were affected by the solar light in this manner, Stahl's 
theory would appear highly satisfactory, but the plants mentioned 
are rare exceptions. Generally the chlorophyll grains do not 
change their position, but occupy the side-walls of the palisade- 
cells without being influenced by the intensity or direction of the 
sunlight. Even the assumption that the chlorophyll grains of 
the palisade-cells always present their profile to the incident rays 
is not correct. There are very many plants the leaves of which 
have large air-spaces under their stomata. These spaces are 
bordered by palisade-cells that have their lower side- walls curved, 
frequently even horizontal. Now these horizontal portions of 
the side-walls are found covered with chlorophyll grains during 
the most intense insolation, when the granules must necessarily 
present their broad side to the incident rays. Scilla bifolia fur- 
nishes a very good illustration.* 

Frequently some palisade-cells will be found projecting with 
their free, upper end into the air-spaces mentioned. In such 
cells the uppermost transverse wall is often densely covered 
with chlorophyll grains, although it is parallel to the surface of 
the leaf Besides, it must be considered that the rays when pass- 
ing through the epidermis are doubtless much refracted and dis- 
persed, so that we cannot positively say at what angle they fall 
upon the chlorophyll grains. We know that in the open air, sun 
rays never rest on a perpendicular leaf for any considerable time. 
If, therefore, for all these reasons, the profile position of the 
chlorophyll grains in relation to the incident rays cannot be con- 
sidered as the normal one, it follows that the peculiar expansion 
of the palisade-cells at right angles with the leaf-surface must not 
necessarily have been developed simply to afford the chlorophyll 
grains greater facility in assuming that position. 

The author proceeds to show that no chlorophyll grains are 
found on the walls separating the pallsade-cells from the cells of 
the next lower layer, and that, in this respect, it makes no differ- 
ence w hether these cross-walls are vertical, oblique, or horizontal. 

" I examined Urgincct Scilli (; S. maritima) wjfh the same result. 


As the current carrying along the products of assimilation, — the 
carbohydrates — passes through these walls on its way to the con- 
ductive parenchyma surrounding the fibro-vascular bundles, it 
appears, so the author reasons, that the chlorophyll grains 
avoid those walls, so as not to obstruct that current. Conse- 
quently the other walls, i. c, the side- walls, must furnish space 
for the chlorophyll grains, hence their enlargement in the di- 
rection of the current. 

In the third and fourth sections of the article the author adds 
a considerable amount of material against Stahl's (and Pick's) 
theory. The most important fact he adduces seems to be, that 
palisade tissue is formed on both sides of leaves growing horizon- 
tally, and that some leaves, although they have grown in deep 
shade, will produce such tissue even on their lower side. This 
certainly seems to tell against the theory that the development 
of palisade tissue is dependent on the intensity of insolation. 

The last section is devoted to the discussion of the author's 
own theory, according to which the assimilatory tissue is con- 
structed on a plan that permits the transportation of the products 
of assimilation the most direct way and in the shortest possible 
time. The radial arrangement of the chlorophyll- carrying cells 
in Cyperus, several grasses, and Equisetiim is illustrated and ex- 
plained, in order to demonstrate that the direction of the current 
within the cells, not their position relative to the surface of the 
organ to which they belong, determines their shape and size. 
# * * 

When I read Haberlandt's paper and wrote an abstract of it 
for the Bulletin, the theory advanced in it seemed to me very 
plausible indeed. But after having carefully examined the leaf 
of Urginea Scilla, both during insolation and after long con- 
tinued exclusion of light, I find that in many palisade-cells 
chlorophyll grains are found on the cross-partitions. In fact, I 
cannot see how the presence of a few granules at those walls 
could materially obstruct the passage of the sap-current. 

I venture to suggest that neither Stahl's nor Haberlandt's 
theories are necessary to explain the structure of the palisade- , 
cells. It is agreed, I think, that an indispensable factor in the 
process of assimilation is the atmospheric air. The chlorophyll 


grains place themselves, with decided preference, along the walls 
bordering on the intercellular air-spaces* with which the tissues 
of the leaf are freely interspersed. (In this respect the leaf of 
Scilla is especially instructive ; a transverse section parallel to 
tlie nerves shows that numerous air-passages are found not only 
underneath the stomata, but between the contiguous vertical 
walls of the palisade cells. Even such leaves which, at first sight, 
seem to have no interstices between their palisade-cells, e. g. 
Pilocarpus, Actostaphylos and Senna, will be found to contain very 
narrow, but numerous air-passages along their vertical walls, es- 
pecially if sections parallel to the leaf-surface be examined). 

At the same time each cell of the assimilatory layers feels 
compelled, as it were, to struggle for its share in the sunlight, 
the source from which it receives all its energy. 

How can we imagine a plan better adapted to fulfil these 
two conditions, than that on which the palisade tissue is con- 
structed ? Into a given volume of this tissue the greatest pos- 
sible number of cells is packed in such a manner that each pre- 
sents its upper surface to the incident rays, permitting them to 
pervade its whole interior, while, at the same time, it furnishes 
ample accomodation to the chlorophyll grains, on its long walls, 
where they have the best opportunity to come into contact with 
the carbonic acid in the air passages. Whether the sun rays 
strike the profile or the face of the chlorophyll grains is indiffer- 
ent (as shown by Haberlandt), but whether some grains lie in 
the path of the sap-current or not, seems to be immaterial also. 
We shall, of course, most Hkely not find many chlorophyll 
grains along the cross-partitions, because there are no air pas- 
sages adjoining those walls. 

That in leaves growing in the shade the palisade-tissue is not 
developed at all, or not so freely as in leaves exposed to direct 
sunlight, might simply be explained by the consideration that the 
force of one of the factors, producing the peculiar growth of the 
palisade-cells, is considerably diminished. In all organisms the 
development of such parts is retarded or checked, which, for some 
reason or other, are prevented from fully performing their func- 

^'°"'- Jos. SCHRENK. 

" Frank in Pringsh. Jahrb, f. Bot., Vol. VIII., p. 299. 

New Fossil Deposits of Diatomacese, 

The diatomaceous deposits of fossil marine forms recently dis- 
covered at Szeiit Peter and Struhar in Hungary, and Brunn in 
Moravia, have been attracting the attention of diatom students 
for some time past, on account of the new and rare forms which 
they contain, but a fossil marine deposit that is likely to prove of 
still greater interest is that from Oamaru, New Zealand. Messrs. 
Grove and Sturt have described and figured many of its forms in 
the last number of the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical 
Club, and expect to make an exhaustive study of the deposit. 

Mr. H. Morland, of Cranford, near Hounslow, England, who 
furnished the material to Messrs. Grove and Sturt, also kindly 
furnished the writer with a supply, and gives the following infor- 
mation in regard to the locality : " Oamaru is a town in the 
middle island of New Zealand, on the East coast, in 45° 8', South 
latitude, and 171° East longitude. The material was found in the 
Cave valley, beneath a series of limestone strata known as the 
Otatara series, belonging to the Lower Tertiary." Messrs. Grove 
and Sturt call attention to the curious fact that several of the 
species in the deposit have only been found previously in the 
famous deposit on the Cambridge estate, Barbadoes, also that 
some of the species found in the deposits from Simbirsk, Siberia, 
and Brunn, Moravia, occur in it with only slight variation. Some 
of the species found in it are still found living in the Indian Ocean. 
Over thirty distinct species of Triceratmm have been discovered 
in the deposit, and over forty species have been found that have 
never been described. As the material is imported into England 
for some industrial purpose, under the erroneous name of kaolin, 
it is probable that diatomists will be able ere long to secure 
abundant supplies of it. It is rather difficult material to clean, 
but amply repays for the trouble on account of the beauty and 
rarity of its forms. To break up the deposit, Mr. Morland re- 
commends the alternate boiling in caustic potash and sulphuric 
acid, as follows : " Boil first in a strong solution of caustic potash, 
pour off the disintegrated portion into a beaker glass, and 
thoroughly wash the undissolved portion, pouring the water into 
the same beaker. Then boil in sulphuric acid and pour ofi" the 
portions thus broken up into another beaker, carefully washing 


as before. Continue the process with the potash and acid solu- 
tions alternately until all lumps are broken up. The disintegrated 
material can then be thoroughly washed and further treated in 
the usual manner." 

Another deposit that is of remarkable interest was struck in 
sinking an artesian well at Cambridge, Maryland, a few months 
since. It contains a number of new and strange forms, but the 
most remarkable is a perfect disc with the raphe and nodules 
of a Navicula. Three species have been observed, two of which 
have a rim closely resembling that of Melosira sulcata. Spec- 
imens of Triccratium, including the curious Triceratium 
Marylandica, are also pretty abundant. It is to be hoped 
that some of our American workers will figure the new forms of 
this deposit and not wait for the work to be done abroad. We 
hope to have something further to say about it. 

C. Henry Kain. 

Forms of Platanus occidentalis. 

I have for many years past pointed out to botanical friends 
the forms of planes of the character indicated at p. 247, Vol. xiii. 
The one with the rounder leaves has them also thin, and of a dull 
green tint. The variety with the more pointed leaves has them also 
coriaceous and with a shining surface. I find the two forms 
together over the whole Atlantic slope, so far as I have seen, 
both in the same localities. Any one can soon learn to distin- 
guish the trees, even when passing them on railroad trains. 
When we collect the specimens and dry them, it is, however, 
very difficult to define the difference. I have several times tried 
to do so with no satisfaction. In regard to variations, gardeners 
find they can be perpetuated by seeds as well as by cuttings. 
In this respect, a variation has not the different behavior from a 
species that at one time was supposed to characterize it. 

Thom..\s Meehan. 

Euphrasia officinalis, L. 

The note on this plant (Vol. xiii., p. 232) indicates that on 
the northern Atlantic slope its preferences are for rather dry 
situations. It may be of interest to add that in my Alaskan col- 


lections of 1883, I found the var. Tatarica, Benth. — a form grow- 
ing but one or two inches high — in the glacial regions, in low, 
swampy, grassy places. THOMAS Meehan. 

Long Island Plants. 

In Mr. Julius A. Bisky's list of plants "not before reported 
from Long Island," in the January BULLETIN, I notice Solatium 
Carolinensc, L., and Symphytum officinale, L. The former Dr. 
Torrey mentions in the State Flora (1843) as growing in "fields 
on Long Island, near Newtown " ; the latter I find in Miller and 
Young's Catalogue of Suffolk County Plants. In June of last 
year I found Myosotis verna, Nutt ,• between Greenport and 

Frank N. Tjlllxghast, Greenport, L. I. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

^chmea Mexicana, Baker. (Gard. Chron., i., 3d Series, p. 8). 
Botanical Necrology for 1886. — Asa Gray. (Am. Journ. Sci., 
xxxiii., 164, 165.) 
, Among European botanists of distinction who died during 
the past year are Edouard Morren, Rev. Wm. W. Newbould, 
Dr. Wm. Hildebrand, Dr. Henry F. Hance, Prof. T. G. Orphan- 
ides, and Prof J. W. A. Wygand. A notice of Dr. Wygand is 
published in the Botanical Gazette for January. Prof Edward 
Tuckerman is the most notable loss among American botanists. 
Carpetiteria Californica. (Garden, xxxi., pp. lOO, loi, plate 

Another beautiful plate of this showy shrub is here published. 
In noting the one in the Botanical Magazine (plate 691 1), on p. 
19 of the Bulletin, we stated that its native habitat is still un- 
certain. This statement was based on Sir J. D. Hooker's re 
mark in describing that plate, " it is singular that the exact 
native country of so fine a shrub as Carpenteria should be 
doubtful." Mr. W. M. Canby has called our attention to the 
oversight, stating that he possesses specimens collected by Dr. 
Eisen, labelled "Big Dry Creek, Sierra Nevada, Fresno Co., 
Cal." The original of the species in the Torrey Herbarium bears 
no exact locality. 


Cercospora, Gleosporiuni and Cylindrospormvi. — Additions to. — 
J. B. Ellis and B. M. Plverhart. (Journ. MycoL, iii., pp. 13- 

Fifty new species from various parts of the United States are 
Columbia College Herbaria.—)^. L. Britton. (Bot. Gazette, xii., 

pp. 9- 1 ' ; reprinted.) 
Cultures of Gymnosporangium, with Notes on their Rostelice. — Ro- 
land Thaxter. (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., pp. 259- 

369 ; reprinted.) 
Disease of Clover Leaf Weevil {Entomophthora Phytonomi.)-^]. C. 

Arthur. (5th Ann Rep. N. Y. Agric. Exp., Station, p. 

291, one figure; reprinted in Report of the Botanist.) 
Echinocystis.—The Western Species of. — E. L. (ireene. (West. 

Amer. Sci., iii., pp. 34-35.) 

Prof. Greene contends that the cucurbitaceous plants de- 
scribed as species of Megarrhisa are not to be generically sepa- 
rated from Echinocystis, which would thus consist of seven west- 
ern species and our eastern E. lobata. 
Eupatoriutn ageratoides. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., p. 56.) 

The writer strongly recommends the use of this species for 
decorative purposes. It is said to bloom a month earlier than 
the E. arboreum, which it much resembles. In places where it 
blooms in profusion, it is one of the most showy native plants. 
Food Plants of Lepidoptera.~\Nm. Beutenmueller. (Papilio, v., 

pp. 53 and 78 ; reprinted.) 

Lists of plants visited by two species of insects are given. 
Eacles intperialis feeds on no less than forty- nine different trees 
and shrubs. 
Forest Trees.— Y . J. W. Burnham. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., 

pp. 39-41.) 
Interdependence of Plants.~T\\omz.% Meehan. (Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci., Phila., 1886, pp. 344, 345.) 
Iris.— The Gnats.- Ass, Gray. (Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 16, 17.) 

Dr. Gray directs attention to Prof Michael Foster's investi- 
gations of Iris, and states that he is anxious to obtain seeds and 
roots of any of the rarer North American species. Any of these 
sent to the Botanic Garden at Cambridge will be forwarded to 


Prof. Foster. We trust that the appeal will not be neglected by 

our western and southern botanists. 

Is Botany a Suitable Study fur Young Men ? — J. F. A. Adams, 

M.D. From the first number of the Swiss Cross. (Science, 

Feb. 4th, 1887.) 
Jatnaica. — Annual Report on the Public Gardens and Plantations, 

1886. 4to., pp. 22. 
Juniperiis Sabina X comuiunis. A hybrid between these 

parents is described by Joanne de Csato in Magyar Nove- 

nytani Lapok, vol. x., p. 145. 
Loco-tveeds. — Francis H. Snow. (Science, ix., p. 92.) 

In western Kansas the two loco plants are Oxytropis Lain- 
berti, Pursh., and Astragalus mollisimus, Torr.; and it is stated 
that the horse bot-fly deposits its eggs on the leaves of the latter 
and thus causes the disease attributed to the plant. 
Method for Subjecting Living Protoplasm to the Action of Differ- 
ent Liquids. — G. L. Goodale. (Amer. Journ. Sci., iii., pp. 

144. 14s) 
New Plants from Northern California. — E. L. Greene. (West. 

Amer. Sci., iii., pp., 24, 25.) 

Ribes Marshallii, Mitella diversifolia and M. ovalis are de- 
Nostoc pruniforme. — Remarks on a variety of. — Geo. B. Twitclieli. 

(Journ. Cinn. Soc. Nat. Hist., ix., pp. 253-255.) 
Pear Blight [Micrococcus amylovorus.) — J. C. Arthur. (5th Ann. 

Rep. N. Y. Agric. Exp. Station, 1887, pp. 275-289, four 

figures; also pp. 300-315; reprinted in Report of the 


An account is given of further observations on this pest, and 
a list of papers published on it is appended. 
I-'etiolar Glands in some Onagracece. — Thomas Meehan. (I'roc. 

Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1886, pp. 349, 350 and Bot. Gaz. xii., 

p. 17.) 

Mr. Meehan remarked that stipules were unknown in Ona- 
graceae but that in Ludwigia paluslris there are two minute 
conical glands which may represent them. They were also de- 
tected in other species of Ludivigia and fussiwa, but in these 
appear petiolar rather than stipular. 


Pharmacognostical Notes. — Jos. Schrenk. (Amer. Druggist, Jan. 

1887 ; reprinted.) 

Professor Schrenk finds, contrary to the statements of Berg 
and of Fliickiger, that many specimens of commercial Taraxa- 
cum root contain distinct pith, the diameter of which in some 
cases exceeds that of the woody zone ; also that the root of 
Atropa Belladonna may contain bast-cells. In discussing the 
structure of the rootstock of Veratrii7n, he states that the cells 
in the endodermis of V. album are more thickened than in V. 
viride, and the lumena of these cells has the form of a V in V. 
album and of a U in V. viride; the rootstocks of the American 
plant appear to be generally lighter in weight than those of the 
European, and of a spongy structure. The structure of the 
endodermis in the rootstock of Cypripedium pubescens varies 
greatly. Professor Schrenk found its cell- walls greatly thickened 
in plants from a boggy wood, while in those from a dry place 
they were thin. 
Plum Leaf Fungus. {Septoria Cerasina.) — J. C. Arthur. (5th 

Ann. Rep. N. Y. Agric. Exp. Station, pp. 293-298, five 
Stawberry Mildew (Sphcerotheca Castagnei.) J. C. Arthur. 

(5th Ann. Rep. N. Y. Agric. Exp. Station, pp. 291-293.) 
Submerged Trees of the Columbia River. — C. E. Button. 

(Science, ix., pp. 82-84.) 
Trees and Tree Planting in Massachusetts. — C. S. Sargent. (From 

Ann. Rep. Mass. State Board Agric, 1886, pamphlet, pp. 21.) 

Professor Sargent concludes "That the native trees of 
Massachusetts are better suited to Massachusetts than any exotic 
trees can be, and that if our woods and plantations are ever to 
assume real importance, and to make profitable returns upon the 
money invested in them, they must be composed either wholly or 
in large part of our native trees." 
Vaccinium inacrocarpon. — (Garden, xxxi., p. 66.) 

The Cranberry is strongly recommended for winter decora- 
tion. " Its fruit, when cooked, is said to be very palatable." 
Violets, North American.— Memoranda of a Revision of the. — 

Asa Gray (Proc. A. A. A. S., 1886, pp. 247-253.) 


This is, in effect, the same paper published in the Botan- 
ical Gazette, Vol. xi.,pp. 253-256, and 289-293, and noted in the 
Bulletin, xii., p. 21. 

Weed Statistics.—]. C. Arthur. (5th Ann. Rep. N. Y. Agric. 

Exp. Station, pp. 298-300.) 

A list of weeds growing on one-twentieth of an acre is given, 
with their relative numbers in 1885 and 1886. 

Botanical Notes. 

We have received a circular from Henry Willey, of New Bed- 
ford, Mass., offering for sale his collection of Lichens and books. 
The various works and collections are specified and enumerated. 
The specimens are mostly mounted or in envelopes, and the New 
Bedford species are heavily duplicated. The whole is valued at 

Les Lichens Utiles, par Dr. Felix Henneguy. Octave Doin, 
Paris, 1883. Octavo, pp. 114; 25 woodcuts. 

The author gives us much more than the title would warrant 
us in expecting. Nearly half the book is devoted to the struc- 
ture and biology of lichens. Then follow chapters on the chem- 
istry of lichens, the uses to which lichens have been put, and the 
classification of lichens. The book closes with a detailed descrip- 
tion of all species known to be of economic value. Many of the 
species are figured, and illustrations also appear in the structural 

The economic part is of necessity chiefly a record of past 
uses, for very few lichens have held their own against modern 
substitutes; thus, of those which have been used in medicine, only 
one (Cetraria Islandica) is nc >' officinal, and since the introduc- 
tion of the aniline dyes, the once highly important tinctorial 
lichens have almost entirely gone out of use. The production 
of alcohol from lichen-starch, carried on to a considerable extent 
in Northern Europe, is one of the most important modern uses 
that are mentioned. 

Not the least interesting portion of the book is the introduc- 
tory half, and the general reader will find gathered here much 
valuable information. It must be said, however, that the vieu.s 


expressed regarding the autonomy of lichens are those held by 
Nylander and the older school of lichenologists, and do not agree 
with beliefs most widely accepted to-day. 

F. Le Roy Sargent. 

Botanical Federation in the West Indies. D. Morris (Nature, 
XXXV., pp. 248-250). This very interesting account of the efforts 
which have been made by several of the islands of the West In- 
dies, notably Jamaica and Trinidad, to establish experimental 
gardens for the culture of various plants of botanical and econom- 
ical value, is by the former director of the botanic gardens at 
Jamaica. Much encouragement and assistance has been given by 
Kew Gardens, and the movement has received a new impetus by 
the appointment of William Fawcett as Director of the Botanical 
Department of Jamaica, and of the transfer of John H. Hart to 
the Botanic Garden of Trinidad. Reports on the forests of Ja- 
maica and St. Vincent have been published, and are valuable 
additions to the knowledge of West Indian timbers. 

The Potato Tercentenary. (Garden, xxx., pp. 535-536- 
Nature, xxxv., pp. 175-176.) The exhibition was held Decem- 
ber 2d-6th, 1886, William Carruthers presiding. 

Mr. J. G. Baker, of Kew Gardens, contributed an interesting 
paper on "The Wild Species of the Potato as at Present Recog- 
nized." He stated that there are five distinct species of tuber- 
bearing Solanums, all natives of America, and expressed the 
wish that some one would undertake to monograph the tuberous 
Solanums in the same way that the genus Crocus has recently 
been monographed by Mr. George Maw. 

Mr. Clements B. Markham contributed a valuable paper on 
" The Cultivation of the Potato by the Incas of Peru and other 
Andean Nations." It is impossible to do justice to the paper in a 
short abstract ; but he stated that the original home of the Potato 
was the Cordilleras of the Andes, where it has been cultivated 
from time immemorial over an area of 3,000 square miles 
throughout the empire of the Incas of Peru and in Chih. 
Vocabularies reveal the fact that the ancient people of Bogota 
cultivated it, and had produced several varieties. 

Mr. George Murray, of the British Museum, read a paper on 


"The Character and Operation of the Potato Disease," illustrated 
by diagrams and specimens. 

Dr. Masters treated of " The Production of Varieties by Cul- 
tivation," and explained the processes. 

In the subsequent discussion a number of prominent gar- 
deners took part. 

On the Cultivation of the Fresh- Water Algce. In the Report 
and Transactions of the Penzance Natural History and Antiqua- 
rian Society for 1885-86, Mr. J. Bernard Magor has an interest- 
ing paper on this subject. He remarks : — " The statement that 
the home-growth of Algae enables their development to be 
studied carries with it its own justification. In these days the 
influence of the study of development in biological work of any 
kind is evident, and the importance oi that study is attested by 
the constant succession of memoirs that are published, dealing 
with the development of all manner of creatures. Valuable in- 
formation may be got in three ways from the cultivation of the 
Algae: i. The identification of species not at first noticed in the 
gathering. 2. The observation of various stages of development, 
and the elucidation thereby of the successive phases of the life 
history of a species. 3. The determination of the effects pro- 
duced on any given species by changes in the conditions of its 

The development of Choetophora pisiformis is then described. 
It is stated that all authorities say that it is devoid of bristles, 
whereas, according to his experience, the young, shooting 
branches nearly all end in bristles. Oscillaria princeps was also 
studied, and some very curious phases of its growth were 

A Method for Retaining the Color of Plants Preserved in 
Alcohol. (Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, iv.. 
No. 8.) Dr. Tschirch has di.'scovered that tannates and coloring 
matters of plants, with the exception oi Xanthophjll, form com- 
pounds with lead and barium which are insoluble in alcohol ; 
therefore, he recommends the specimens to be put into solutions 
of compounds of lead or barium before transferring them to 
spirit, or simply to add concentrated solutions of acetate or nitrate 


of lead, or chloride or hydrated oxide of barium to the spirit. 
The best results have been obtained by plunging the specimens 
first into boiling water before putting them into the above men- 
tioned mineral solutions. 

Anatomy and Physiology of Stinging Hairs. Dr. G. Haber- 
landt has examined the structure of the stinging hairs in a num- 
ber of plants. The main features show a great uniformity in the 
multicellular base surmounted by the very large secreting cell. 
Below the silicified apex of the latter the cell wall is always very 
thin. The substance which gives the stinging properties to the 
fluid of the glands of the common stinging nettle is not, as has 
been generally supposed, formic acid, which could not produce 
the effect in such small quantities. Dr. Haberlandt states that 
the irritation must be produced by a fixed substance, since the 
dried contents of the gland will cause the ordinary effect of a 
nettle sting if introduced beneath the skin. He finds always in 
the fluid a substance which exhibits all the properties of an 
albuminoid. The substance which produces the inflammation is 
probably a compound of the nature of an unformed ferment. — 
(Journ. Roy. Mic. Soc, Dec, 1886.) 

Lamarck's Herbarium. The authorities of the Jardin des 
Plantes have purchased this valuable collection from the Univer- 
sity of Rostock, where it was practically inaccessible. The herb- 
arium contains many type specimens which were described in 
the Encyclopedic Methodique (Nature). 

Ramie Fibre. The cultivation of Boehmeria nivea was intro- 
duced in Spain in 1870, and a company known as the Compagnie 
Ramie Franfaise are separating the fibre at less cost and of better 
quality than that of hemp or jute. The fabric produced is glossy 
and resembles pongee silk, and the refuse is used in the manu- 
facture of paper. — (Gardener's Chronicle.) 

Transpiration- Stream in cut Branches. (Proc. Cambridge 
Phil. Soc, v., pp. 330-367.) " Prof F. Darwin and Mr. R. W. 
Phillips have repeated Dufour's experiments on the effect on 
transpiration of two opposite incisions in a branch. They find a 
general difference in the results between Angiosperms and Gym- 
nosperms, as represented by Hclianthns and Taxns. In the 


former case transpiration is reduced to a minimum : in the latter 
case it is not affected to any considerable extent by the opposite 
mcisions. These facts are regarded by the authors as opposed to 
the imbibition theory, and as explicable only on the hypothesis 
that the movement takes place in the cell-cavity. In the Con- 
iferae the water can still move from tracheid to tracheid notwith- 
standing the incisions; while in Angiosperms, all the vessels 
being cut, the conduction is rendered difficult." — Jour. Roy. Mic. 
Soc, Dec, 1886, pp. 1017, 1018. 

Note on Sponia micrantha. Sponia micrantha, Decaine, is 
now Trema micrantha, B. & H., and under this name is No. 
2543* of Curtiss' distribution. These are good flowering speci- 
mens, while Dr. Garber's are better for the pistillate flowers, and 
fruit. Wm. M. Canby. 

The Genus Pedicularis m Europe. In recent numbers of 
the Botanisches Centralblatt, Hans Steininger gives descriptions 
of all the European species and varieties of this genus at present 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held Feb. 8th, 1887, the 
President in the chair and twenty persons present. The follow- 
ing were elected active members: — Miss Elizabeth Jarrett, Rev. 
L. H. Lighthipe and Mr. E. A. Schultze. 

Mr. Geo. E. Briggs, Model School, Trenton, N. J., w;is 
elected a corresponding member. 

The Librarian distributed the printed list of members of the 

Mr. F. J, H. Merrill exhibited and remarked on plants col- 
lected in southern Florida and in Collin and Robertson Counties, 
Texas, in the spring of 1886. Among those collected on Key 
West, March lOth, were Sida carpinifolia, L., Hypericum fasci- 
culatum, Lam., var. aspathaloides, Chapm., Agcratuin littoralc, 
Gray, Ambrosia hispida, Michx., Bidcns leucaiitha, DC, Touritc- 
fortia gtiapJialoides, R. Br., Solaniim Blodgettii, Chapm., Salvia 
serotina, L., and Euphorbia trichotoma, HBK. 

At Tampa, Florida, were obtained Vicia acutifolia, Ell., Ins 
hexagona, Walt., and Tillandsia rccurvata, Pursh. 


The collections at Calvert, Robertson Co., Texas, included 
Ranunculus macranthus, Scheele, Anemone decapetala, L., ap- 
proaching A. heterophylla, Nutt, a variety of Cerastiunt nutans, 
Raf., a very narrow-leaved form of Claytonia Virginica, L., Cas- 
tilliea indivisa, Engelm., Apogon humilis, Ell, and Erigcron 
te?tuis, T. & G. 

Baptisia splwrocarpa, Nutt., B. leucantha, T. & G., Valerian- 
ella stenocarpa, Krok., a small form of Senecio lobatus, Pers., 
Myosotis verna, Nutt,, Verbena bipitinatifida, Nutt., Scutellaria 
parvula, Michx., and a Gelasine, perhaps G. Texatia, Herb., were 
collected at Leonard, Collin Co., Texas, May ist. 

Professor Schrenk, remarked on Professor Francis Darwin's 
recent paper on the bloom of leaves and the distribution of the 
stomata published in Vol. xxii. of the Journal of the Linnaean 
Society of London. A discussion of stomata and trichomes 
ensued in which several members participated. 

Dr. Britton exhibited specimens of Lathyrus maritimus, 
Bigel., collected by Rev. Mr. Lighthipe at Ocean Beach, N. J.; 
this appears to be the most southern station known for the plant 
on the Atlantic Coast. He also showed a large form or variety 
of Bidens cernna, L , from the tidal streams at Red Bank, N. J. 
Professor Schrenk stated that at the locality near St. Ronan's Well, 
Long Island, where L. maritimus was so abundant, it is about ex- 

Proceedings of the Histologic .^nd Cryptogamic 
Section, January 35th. — Professor Schrenk showed a series of 
leaf-sections of Scilla maritima both stained and unstained ; also 
a very interesting longitudinal section of the rhizome of Aristo- 
lochia Serpentaria showing a dotted duct with a sac-like protru- 
sion of an adjacent parenchyma cell pushed into the duct-cavity 
and filled with starch grains. He also announced the discovery 
of a fourth kind of glandular hair on the leaves of tobacco show- 
ing specimens of variable and irregular branching, found especially 
on young leaves. J. I. Northrup exhibited crystals of calcium 
oxalate in the petiole of Hoya and sclerotic endodermis in Peper- 
omia argyrea. N. L. Britton showed stomata on fossil creta- 
ceous leaves from the clay beds at Perth Amboy, and Mrs. 
Britton prothailia of Onoclea sensibilis in different stages. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Plate LXVI. 



%m Wiiii If 



Diatonns of Staten Island. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, AprU, 1887. [No. 4. 

A Descriptive List of Staten Island Diatoms.* 

By E. a. Schultze. 

Plate LXVI. 

Navicula amphirhynchus, Ehr. 

Xavicula amphirhynchus, Ehr. Amer. 1843, p, 129, t. III., i., fig. 10; Kiitz.. 
Bacill,, p. 95, t. IV., fig. 13, t. XXI., fig. II, and t. XXVIII., fig. 47; Rabenh., 
Siissw. Dial., p. 40, t. VI., fig. 50; Sm., .Syn., Vol. I., p. 51, pi. XVI., fig. 142: 
Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 901, pi. XII., fig. 6; Donkin, p. 34, pi. 5, fig. 9; Van Heurck, 
Syn. Diat. Belg., pi. XIII., fig. 5. 

-V. prodmta, Sm., Syn., Vol. i., p. 51, pl. XVII., fig. 144; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., 
p. 902, pl. VII., fig. 66. 

N. affinis, var., Rabenh., E. Diat., p. 196, (var. 3.gcmiiim). 

Valve elliptical, with produced capitate extremities; stria 
fine, distinct, granular, transverse in the middle, and toward the 
extremities oblique, reaching to the median line; slightly short- 
ened opposite the central nodule, and interrupted near the margin 
by one or two longitudinal lines. 

Hab. — Fresh water, not frequent. In ponds, Clifton, New 
Dorp, Huguenot. Plate LXVI., fig. i. Fossil in the San Fiore, 
Italy, deposit. 

Navicula apiculata, De Breb. 

Navicula apiculata, De Br^b., Diat. of Cherb., p. 16, fig. 5; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., 
p. 903; Donkin., p. 56., pl. VIII., figs. 6a, 6b. 

N. rostelliim, Greg., p. 16, pl. i., fig. 20; Sm. Syn., vol. II., p. 93. 

Valve oblong, elliptical, produced at the extremities ; striae 
reaching to the median line, and oblique from the central nodule 
toward the extremities, somewhat distant. 

[•The descriptions of species givtn in this paper are based upon a comparison of 
the authorities quoted, a careful elimination of points upon which there is a disagree- 
ment, and then a comparison of the amended descriptions with species found in the 
waters of Staten Island. 

The works named are out of print, and most of them are so rare as to be found 
only in public libraries, hence the descriptions and figures will prove of value to stu- 
dents. C. H. Kain.] 


Hab. — Marine, scarce. In sandy gatherings from South Beach, 
Prince's Bay and Clifton. (Fig. 2.) 

Navicula AMPHISB/ENA, Bory. 

Nmicula amphisbana, Kttlz., Bacill,, p. 95, t. III., figs,. 41 and 42; Rabenh., 
Silssw. Dial., p. 40, t. VI., fig. 66; Sm. Syn., vol. i., p. 51, pi. XVIl., fig. 147: 
Ralfs., in Pril. Infus., p. S99, pi. VII., fig. 72; Donkin, p. 36, pi. V., fig. 13 ; Van 
Heurck, pi. XI., ffg. 7. 

N. ventflcosa, Ehr. 

Fnistulia depressa. Kiitz., p. 21, fig. 27. 

Valve elliptical, constricted into rounded apices ; striae fine, 
oblique and shorter at the middle of the valve, producing a lan- 
ceolate, median blank space. 

Hab. — Fresh water, frequent. In ponds, Clifton, Stapleton, 
New Dorp, New Brighton. (Fig. 3.) 

Navicula affinis, Ehr. 

Navicula affinis, Rabenh., Silssw. Diat., p. 40, t. VI., fig. 58 ; Kiitz., Bacill., 
p. 95, t. XXVIII., fig. 6s and t. XXX., figs. 45 and 46 ; Ralfs in Prit. Inlus., p. 902, 
pi. XII., fig. 32 ;Sm., Syn., Vol. i., p. 50, pi. XVI., fig. 143; Van Heurck, pi. XIII., 
figs. 4, 6. 

N. anipliata, Ehren. 
N. liber, var. 

Valve elliptical, slightly constricted toward the extremities ; 
strife transverse and reaching to the median line, shorter opposite 
the central nodule and crossed by a longitudinal line near to and 
parallel with the margin. 

Hab. — Fresh water; common. In ponds, Clifton, New Dorp, 
Huguenot, New Brighton. (Fig. 4.) 

Navicula inflata, Kiitz. 

A'a-.'iaila inflata. Kiitz., Bacill., p. 99, t. III., fig. 36 ; Sm., Syn., Vol. i.,p. 50, 
pi. XVIL, fig. 158 ; Rabenh., p. 191 ; Donkin, p. 21, pi. III., fig. 9 ; Ralfs in Prit., 
Infus., 1861, p. 899. 

Pinmilaria inflata, Rabenh., Silssw. Diats., p. 44, t. V., fig. 10 c. 

Valve elliptical, with produced extremities; stria; oblique; 
frustule small. 

Hab. — Fresh water. In ponds, Clifton. (Fig. 5.) Fossil in 
the San Fiore, Italy deposit. 

Navicula aspera, PZhr. 

Stauroptera aspcra, Ehr., Rabenh., Sassw. Diat., p. 49, t. IX. fig, I., 
Frustulia ftilva, Br^b. 

Slauroneis aspcra, Kutz., Bacill. p. io6., t. XXIX., fig. 12.: Ralfs, in Prit. 
Infus., p. 914; Van H., pi. X,, fig. 13. 


Stauroptera achnanthes, Rabenh., Sussw. Dials., p. 49., t. IX., fig. 2. 

Stauroneis achnanthes, Kutz., Bacill., p. 106, t. XXIX., figs. 20 and 22; Kalfs 
in Prit. Infus., p. 913. 

Stauroneis pulchella, Sm., Syn., Vol. I., p. 61, pi. XIX., fig. 194.; Ralfs in 
Prit. Infus., p. 914., pi. VII., fig. 77; Donkin, p. 62., pi. X., figs. la lb and Ic. 

Valve elliptical-lanceolate with obtuse extremities ; striae 
oblique and granular, forming a stauros at the central nodule. 

Hab. — Marine, not frequent. South Beach, Clifton and Prince's 
Bay. (Fig. 6.) 

Navicula BINODIS, Ehr. 

Navicula binodis, Ralfs in Prit. Infus., 1861, p. 893; Rab nh., Sussw. Dials., p. 
41, t. v., fig. 5; Sm., Syn., Vol. I., p. 53, pi. XVII., fig. 159; Kulz., Bacill., p. 100, 
t. III. fig. 35; Donkin, p. 38, pi. VI., fig. 3; Van Heurck, Suppl., pi. B., fig. 33. 

Valve oblong, constricted opposite the central nodule, and 
terminating in produced, narrow extremities ; striae indistinct. 

Hab. — Fresh water, frequent, not abundant. In ponds. Clifton, 
New Brighton. (Fig. 7.) 

Navicula dicephala, KUtz. 

Navicida dicephala, Kulz., Bacill., p. 96, pi. 28, fig. 60, 62c.; Sm,, Syn., p. 53, 
pi. XVII., f. 157; Brun, Dial., p. 76., pi. VII., fig. 34; Van Heurck, pi. VIII., figs. 
33. 34- 

Pinnularia dicephala, Ehr. 

Valve linear, constricted toward the rounded extremities ; 
striae transverse, granular ; large central nodule more or less 
square ; median line often double. 

Hab. — Fresh water, frequent. In ponds, Clifton, New Brighton 
and Garretsons. (Fig. 8.) 

Navicula didyma, Ehr. 

Navicula didyma, Kulz., Bacill., p. 100, t. IV., fig. 7., I. XXVIII., fig. 75; 
Ralfs in Prit., Infus., pi. XV., fig. 12; Donkin, p. 51, pl. VII., figs. 8a and 8b.; 
Sm., Syn., Vol I., p. 53; Van Heurck, pl. IX., figs. 5, 6. 

Pinnularia didyma, Rabenh., Sussw. Dials., p. 46, pl. VI., fig. 26. 

Diploneis didyma, Ehr. 

Valve more or less constricted in the centre ; extremities 
broadly oval ; striae granular, transverse, but toward the extrem- 
ities oblique, less pronounced near the median line. 

Hab. — Marine, frequent. South Beach, Clifton, Prince's 
Bay and salt meadows at New Dorp. (Fig. 9.) 
Navicula inflexa, Greg. 

Pinnularia infiexa, Rabenh., Eur., Dials., p. 2i8. 

Naviiula inflexa, Ralfk in Prit, Infus., p. 905; Donkin, p. 54, pl. VIII., figs, za 


Frustule small; valve lanceolate, with conspicuous terminal 
nodules; striae oblique, connivent, and shorter near the central 

Hab. — Marine, scarce. Prince's Bay. (Fig. lO.) 

Navicula CUSPIDATA, Kiitz. 

Navicula cuspidata, Kutz., Bacill., p. 94., t. III., figs. 24 and 37; Sm. Syn., 

Vol. I., p. 407, pi., XVI., fig. 131; Ralfs in Prit., Infus., p. 905, pi. XII., fig. 5; 

Rabenh., Sussw Dials., p. 37, t. V., fig. 16; and Europ. Dials., p. 170; Donkin., p. 

39., pi. VI., fig. 6; Bran., p. 66, pi. VII., fig. 6; Van Heurck, Syn., pi. 12, fig. 4- 

Valve broadly lanceolate, with slightly produced apices ; striae 
parallel, transverse, very finely dotted and reaching to the med- 
ian line. 

Hab. — Fresh water, common. In ponds, Clifton, New Brigh- 
ton. (Fig. 1 1.) 

Navicula gibba, Ehr. 

Navicula gibba. Van Heurck, Suppl. pi. A., fig. 12. 

Pinnularia gibba, Sm., Syn., Vol. I., p. 58., pi. XIX., fig. 180; Brun., p. 85, 
pi. VIII., fig. 17. 

Pinnularia tabellaria, Sm., Syn., vol. I. p. 58., pi. XIX., fig. 181. 

Stauroptera gibba, Ehr., Rab., Sussw., Dial., p. 49., t. IX., fig. 3. 

Stauroneis gibba, Kutz., Bacill., p. 107, t. XXIX., fig. 24; Ralls in Pril. Infus., 
p. 914. 

Valve linear, inflated in the centre and at the extremities ; 
striae not reaching the median line, costate, oblique. 

Hab. — Fresh water, common. In ponds and wayside ditches 
at Clifton, New Brighton, New Dorp. (Fig. 12.) 

Navicula humerosa, De Breb. 

Navicula humerosa, Sm., Syn., Vol. II., p. 93; Ralfs in Pril. Infus., p. 903 ; 
Rabenh., Europ. Dials., p. 20; Donkin, p. 18., pi. III., fig. 3; Van Heurck, pi. II, 
fig. 20. 

N quadrata. 
N. crassa. 

Valve elliptical-linear ; extremities truncate ; strise oblique, 
granular, reaching nearly to the median line, shortened opposite 
the central nodule, thus forming a blank space. 

Hab. — Marine, frequent. South Beach, Clifton, and in the 
brackish water of the salt meadows at New Dorp. (Fig. 13.) 

Mr. Donkin remarks that "this species is very variable in size 
and outline. In elongated specimens it is frequently constricted 
in the middle ; it is closely allied to N. latissima and N. granu- 
lata, but readily distinguished from them by its very much finer 


striae, and by its outline near the extremities, which are much 
more produced. 

Navicula elliptica, Kiitz. 

Navicula elliptica, Kutz., Bacill., p. g8, t. XXX., fig. 55; Rabenh., Europ. 
Diats., p. 179; Sm., Syn., Vol II., p. 92; Kalfs inPrit. Infus., p. 899; Van. Heurck, 
pi. X, fig. 10; Donkin, p. 7, pi. I., fig. 6. 

N. ovalis, Sm., Syn., Vol. I., p. 48., pi. XVII., fig. 153. 

Valve oval, or linear-elliptical, striae granular, connivent, sep- 
arated from the median line on each side by a curved longitudi- 
nal line bulging outward at the central nodule. 

Hab. — Brackish water, common. Salt meadows at New 
Dorp. (Fig. 14.) 

Navicula Hitchcockii, Ehr. 

Navicula Hitchcockii, Kutz., Bacill., p. loi; Ralfs in Frit., Infus, p. 894, pi. 
VII., fig. 62; Donkin, p. 29., pi. V., fig 4. 

Valve oblong with triundulating margins terminating in cu- 

neate apices ; striae fine and transverse, reaching to the median line. 

Hab. — Fresh water, scarce. In ponds, Clifton, New Brighton, 

(Fig- 15) 

Navicula lyra, Ehr. 

Navicula lyra, Kutz., Bacill., p. 94., t. XXVIII., fig. 55; Sm., Syn., Vol. II., 
p. 93; Greg., D. of the Clyde, p. 13, pi. I., fig. 13; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 897; 
Rab., Eu. Diat., p. 177; Donkin, p. 14, pi. II., fig 7; Van Heurck, pi. 10, fig. i. 

Valve elliptical- linear; extremities produced and rounded or 
cuneate ; striae oblique, moniliform, interrupted by two longitudi- 
nal unstriated bands branching out from the central nodule toward 
the extremities in the form of a lyre. 

Hab. — Marine, frequent. South Beach, Clifton, Prince's Bay. 
(Fig. 16.) 

Navicula iridis, Ehr. 

Navicula iridis, Kutz., Bacill., p. 92, t., XXVIH., fig. 42; Ralfs in Prit. Infiis., 
p. 907; Rabenh., Eu., Diat., p. 171; Van Heurck, pi., XIII., fig. i; Donkin, p. 30, 
pi. v., fig. 6. 

Pinnularia iridis, Rabenh., Sussw., Diat., p. 42, t. VI., fig. i. 

N. firma, Sm., Syn., Vol. I., p. 48, pi. XVI., fig. ij8. 

Valve linear-oblong, with obtuse extremities ; striae fine, trans- 
verse, reaching to the median line, longitudinally crossed near 
the margin. 

Hab. — Fresh water, frequent. Clifton, New Brighton, New 
Dorp. (Fig. 17) 

Notes on Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

Plate LXVIl. 

In 1884 I published a series of notes on the morphology of a 
few of our most common species. A part of those on the May 
apple I found soon after had already been published in an earlier 
number of the Botanical Gazette, by Prof. Thos. C. Porter. 
Among the notes then sent were a series on the blood-root. 
The drawings, however, were accidentally lost by the editor, and 
the notes returned to me at my request. The present drawings 
have been made from dried specimens, and this will account in 
part for their want of elegance. 

The blood-root, Sanguinaria Canadensis, has a phyllotaxy 
of the y^ kind. Each year's growth begins with a few scales 
arranged on alternate sides of the stem ; these are followed by a 
larger and then a smaller leaf, the rest of the axis being trans- 
formed into a flower, morphologically speaking. In the axis of 
the smaller leaf is found the bud which will continue next year's 
growth ; in other words, sympodial growth occurs regularly 
(Fig. I). 

Frequently the axis of the smaller leaf contains a second 
flower ; this shows its nature as a transformed branch, by bearing 
at the base on one side a small leaf, which subtends the bud for 
next year's growth (Fig. II). Occasionally this secondary flower- 
stalk bears at its base even two leaves, the bud being then 
situated in the axil of the smaller leaf (Fig. III). 

The flowering axis may bear a bract half way up to the 
flower, subtending a second flower-stalk. In this case the scale 
seems to be opposed to the smaller leaf beneath (Fig. IV). In 
the most complicated case known, the plant bears three flowers 
(Plate LXVII, Fig. v). One flower represents the terminal axis, 
another is in the axis of the smaller leaf The second flower- 
stalk has at its base on one side a leaf subtending the leaf bud, 
and opposed to this, half way up the flowering stalk, is a bud 
subtending a third flower. At least six specimens showing this 
method of branching were found by Mr. W. B. Werthner and 
myself during the course of a day in the spring of 1884. 

The sepals (2) may be more or less united on one side, in 
some cases complete cohesion taking place. There are also cases 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LXVII. 

1 dui 

Sanguinaria Canadensis. 


in which two sets of sepals of two each are found ; the lower set 
are then half an inch or less distant from the flower, and do not 
decussate, as might normall)' be expected. They form an angle 
of 45 degrees, or even much less, with the upper set. 

Eichler, in his Bliithendiagramme, figures the plan of the 
flowers as though there were two whorls of petals of two petals 
each. By dedoublement, he derives from these two whorls of ap- 
parently four petals each. This compels him to locate the sepals 
between the petals of the outer whorl. Observation, however, 
will show that the sepals are not thus situated, but are beneath 
two of the petals of the outer whorl. If it be permitted to sug- 
gest another plan or arrangement, the following may, perhaps, be 
nearer the truth : The two sepals may be considered as decus- 
sating with two of the petals of the outer whorl ; these decussate 
in turn with the remaining two petals of apparently the same 
whorl. The two sets of petals considered as a whole then decus- 
sate with the inner whorl of petals. This rather anomalous 
method of arrangement is considered in good taste in other 
plants, and perhaps will be of equal value here. 

((((=0))) |((liC>0^))) ((((oo))) 

(((llo))) (((So)) 

V ' III. 


All figures are represented as having four scales at the base 
of the plant; these with the bracts above are indicated in the 
diagrams by double crescentic lines — the leaves by single lines ; 
leaves and bracts of the primary stem in the plate are designated 
consecutively by Roman numerals, those of the secondary stem 
by Arabic numerals. The stems are represented by circles, in 
the diagrams decreasing in size, in the plate lettered consecu- 
tively. The buds giving rise to the branch of next year are 


represented by minute circles between two minute triangles. 
Flowers borne in the axils of scales on the peduncles of other 
flowers, are connected with both by dotted lines. 

August F. Foerste. 
Notes on New Jersey Violets 

Trenton, situated as it is near the borders of the "Yellow Drift," 
has a particularly rich and varied flora. Not only do we find here 
the flowers of the middle part of the State, but also a large pro- 
portion of those of both north and south Jersey. The genus Viola 
is well represented in this locality, nearly three-fourths of the 
species and varieties mentioned in Gray's Manual being found 
within five or six miles of Trenton. Viola tricolor is reported 
from this section, but I have been unable to find it, and have for 
several years been of the opinion that the var. arvensis, which 
grows here abundantly, must have been mistaken for it. Dr. Gray 
states in his Revision of N. A. Violets that the pansies are rep- 
resented in America by V. tricolor, var. arvensis only, and that 
hitherto he has taken this for a field variety of V. tricolor escaped 
from cultivation. All my observations tend to confirm the opinion 
that the variety is indigenous. 

I have occasionally found, in the fall, a few specimens of V. 
palmata, var. cucullata. Gray, in bloom ; but last year, while 
botanizing near Ramsey's, Bergen County, N. J., I found the 
flowers quite plentiful, and a few days later was surprised to see 
the V. canina, var. Muhlenbergii, Gray, blooming so abundantly 
that in a short time I gathered a bouquet of the flowers as large 
as a teacup. The latter species continued to bloom from the 
time I found it in September to the middle of November. This 
fact is very interesting, since Dr. Gray says our plant is only 
spring flowering, and speaks of a summer form of V. caninaiound 
by Dr. Engelmann near Lake Superior. Whether this was owing 
to some peculiarity of the season, or whether it is of common 
occurrence at Ramsey's, I was unable to ascertain ; but it is evident 
that under certain conditions some species of violets, naturally 
spring-flowering, bloom also freely in the fall ; and it seems to 
me that this occurs frequently enough to warrant its being recorded 
in botanical works. WiLLARD A. Stoweli.. 

Starch in Tracheal Ducts. 

In Botanische Zeitung, No. lO, 1887, Joseph Schrenk speaks 
of the formation of starch in the ducts of Aristolochia Serpen- 
taria, L. Alfred Fisher had reported the occurrence of starch in 
the ducts of Plantago major, L., and had left the fact to be ex- 
plained by future investigation (Bot. Zeitung, xliii, p. 89). 

J. Schrenk noticed that m the rhizoma of ArtstolocAta Ser- 
pentaria the interior of the ducts was frequently crowded with 
those peculiar intrusions from contiguous parenchyma cells, which 
are known as tylosis. He found an abundance of starch in the 
intruding portions of these cells, which would satisfactorily ac- 
count for the presence of starch in dotted ducts; whether this 
explanation would hold good in regard to i/>zVa/ ducts, the writer 
of the article is not prepared to decide, as he is not informed of 
the occurrence of starch in the tylosis cells inside of such vessels. 

In a note to the article, Prof de Bary refers to his book (Vergl. 
Anatomie, p. 179), from which we learn that Unger (Sitzungsber. 
d. Wiener Acad., I Abth., 1867) has described tylosis in spiral 
tracheae. I seize this opportunity to direct the attention of Amer- 
ican students to de Bary's standard work, which, in its English 
version, opens to us such vast treasures of botanical knowledge. 

J. Schrenk. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature, 

Agarics, North American. — The Subgenus Amanita. — A. P. 

Morgan. (Journ. Mycol., iii., pp. 25-33.) 

Twenty eight species are described, none of them new to sci- 
ence. A key to the species is given. 
American Violets. (Garden, xxxi., pp. 168, 169. Plate 584.) 

The colors of the plate hardly do justice to the delicacy and 
brightness of tint of our " Bird-foot Violet," though the writer 
speaks in highest terms of this and others of our species. 
Baptisia calycosa, var. villosa, n. van Wm. M. Canby. (Bot. 

Gazette, xii., p. 39.) 

This new variety is based on Curtis' No. 699, collected in 
Wilson County, Florida. 
Botanical Journals. — C. E. Bessey. (Amer. Nat., xxi., pp. 



Catalogue of the known Plants {Phcenogamia and Pteridophytd) 

of Oregon,Washington and Idaho. — Thos. Howell. (Pamph., 

8vo., pp. 28, Arthur, Oregon, 1887.) 

A list of 2,152 species and 227 varieties of plants from the 
northwestern United States, an increase of about 30 per cent, as 
compared with Mr. Howell's former catalogue, published in 1881. 
Celery Leaf Blight. {Cercospora Apii, Ives.) — B, T. Galloway. 

(Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 66, 67.) 

This disease is said to destroy annually about one-half of the 
celery planted in the vicinity of Columbia, Mo. 
Chippeway Plant Names. L. H. Bailey, Jr. (Bot. Gazette, xii., 

PP- 37-39) 

A list of 54 names of plants used by the Chippeway Indians 
of northern Minnesota. 
Delphinium, an Attempt to distinguish the North American 

Species of. — Asa Gray. (Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 49-54 ) 

A tentative arrangement of the species recognized by the 
author in the section Delphinastrum ; 20 of these are given, with 
five varieties. D. Parryi, D. Parishii, D. hesperium and D. 
Nuttallii are here first described. 
Diatoms, Raising them in the Laboratory. Prof Sam'l Lock wood, 

Ph.D. (Journ. N. Y. Mic. Soc, pp. 153-166, plates vi. andvii). 

Prof Lockwood is so well known as a careful and con- 
scientious investigator, that this paper possesses a peculiar value, 
and will doubtless attract unusual attention. It is certainly one 
of the most valuable contributions to the life-history of the Dia- 
tomaceae ever published. After a series of well conducted exper- 
iments he reaches the following conclusions : That diatoms origin- 
ate in spores so minute that they easily pass through filter paper ; 
that these spores are probably resting spores, not motile, and may 
lie dormant in total darkness for as great a period as thirteen to 
sixteen years ; that the viability of some genera is greater than 
that of others ; that, owing to the environment being abnormal, 
development may be rapid and erratic, and that diatoms have 
embryonal stages or forms with silicate fronds. C. H. K. 

Equisetum litorale, Kuhl. — W. H. Beeby. (Journ. Bot, xxv., 
pp. 65, 66; table 273.) " The most noteworthy features about 
this plant are the abortive spores and the absence of elaters. It 


is best distinguished from E. palustre by the much larger central 
hollow of the stem, and by the more numerous and shallower 
furrows; from E. limosunt by the smaller hollow, by the furrows 
being deeper and fewer, by its paler color, and conspicuously by 
the funnel-shaped uppermost sheaths." 
Fissidens. — A Revision of the North American Species of— C. R. 

Barnes. (Bot. Gaz., xii., pp. i-8, and 25-32 Reprinted.) 

This embodies the results of a winter's work at Cambridge 
with the Sullivant collection and library, and speaks well for the 
author's critical discrimination and judgment. He also used the 
material accumulated by the late Mr. Austin, though no mention 
of this is made in the paper. It reduces the number of species 
from 24 in Lesq. & James Manual to 20, by combining those 
too closely allied and discarding doubtful species, and gives clear 
descriptions and diagnostic characters for those accepted. 
Flora near Santa Barbara, Cal. — Mrs. R. F. Bingham. (Bot. 

Gaz. xii., pp. 33-35.) 
Florida Fungi. — Notes on.— No. 11. — W. W. Calkins. (Journ. 

Mycol., iii., pp. 33, 34.) 

A list of 20 species and varieties of Polyporus, collected near 
Florida's new Palm — Chamcephoenix Sargentii. 

In the Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower, of Feb. 23, 1887, 
IS an interesting account of this new tree, from the pen of Mr. A. 
H. Curtiss. 

Heuchera and Miiella. — Astringent Qualities of. — F. W. Ander- 
son. (Bot. Gaz., xii., pp. 65, (>(>^ 
History of Garden Vegetables. — E. Lewis Sturtevant. (Amer. 

Nat., xxi., pp. 49-59) 

Interesting notes are given on the African Valerian ( Valeriana 
CornucopicB, L.;, native to the Mediterranean Region, and fur- 
nishing an excellent salad ; Alexanders {Smyrnium olusatrum, 
L.) ; Alkekengi (seven species of Physalis) ; Barbarea prcBcox, 
R. Br., known as American cress, though a native of the Old 
World ; Angelica {Angelica Archangelica, L.), and Anise {Pint- 
pinella Anisutn, L.) 
Lewisia rediviva. (Garden, xxxi., p. 124, plate 582.) 

A most delicately colored plate is given of this Western plant. 


Lobelia — C. G. Lloyd. (Drugs and Medicines of N. A., ii., pp. 

67-98, continued.) 

A continuation of the description of the structure and medi- 
cinal properties of L. inflata, and a beginning of that of L. 
syphilitica is made in this number. 
Maple Leaf Scale. {Rhytisma acerrinum.) — Samuel Lockwood. 

(Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, ii., pp. 142-144.) 

This fungus is described as very destructive to the Maples at 
Freehold, N. J. 

Nuclei.— Fixing and staining.— V>. H. Campbell. (Bot Gaz., 

xii., p. 40.) 

The nuclei experimented on were those of the mother-cells of 
the spermatozoids of various ferns. They were fixed by i per 
cent, solutions of chromic acid, or by concentrated solutions of 
picric acid or by corrosive sublimate. Staining was accom- 
plished with hematoxylin and gold chloride. 
Papaver.—An American. — Mrs. R. F. Bingham. (Bot. Gaz., 

xii., p. 6^!) 

The first indigenous species of this genus was discovered by 
Mr. John Spence in the high mountains of Santa Barbara County, 
Cal., and been named P. Californica by Dr. Gray. 

Physiological Botany is the title of the latest of D. Appleton & 
Co.'s Science Text- books. The volume is an abridgment by 
Miss E. A. Youmans of Robert Bentley's " Guide to Structural, 
Morphological and Physiological Botany," in order to make it 
conform to the rest of the series and supplement the volume, 
" Descriptive Botany," by Miss Youmans. The illustrations 
used are the same as those of the original, and were purchased 
from the author. These are not of uniform excellence, some 
being very diagrammatic, especially those illustrating the forms of 
cells, figs. 22-38. After taking a general view of the vegetable 
world, three chapters (191 pp.) are devoted to the tissues and 
organs of the Phanerogamia and Cryptogamia, the remaining 88 
to the Physiology of Plants. The style is clear and simple, and 
the typographical work good, so that this will prove a valuable 
work in those cases where Gray's Series are too difficult and too 
expensive for class use. 


Pinus rigida and P. Lambertiana (Garden, xxxi., pp. 128, 152, 

156, with figures.) 

These may be found in a series of articles on trees and shrubs 
which are being published by this journal, and will be of much 
interest and value. 
Plants found growing in Meriden, Conn., since issue of Catalogue 

in 1885. — Mrs. E. B. Kendrick. (Trans. Meriden Sci. 

Assoc, ii., pp. 54-57.) 

Forty-one additional species and varieties are enumerated. 
Pollen Tubes of Lobelia. — B. D. Halsted. (Amer. Nat., xxi., pp. 

75, yd; ten figures.) 

Prof Halsted found that in all the opened flowers of Lobelia 
cardinalis the pollen within the tube formed by the adnation of 
the anthers was germinating. The nuclei of the grains was well 
distinguished by treatment with acid azo-rubin. In the unopened 
flowers examined, none oi the pollen had germinated. 
Quercus palustris. (Garden, xxxi., p. 217 ; 3 figs.) 
Schwendener Theory of the Constitution of Lichens. — On the. — 

F. LeRoy Sargent. (Amer. Month. Micros. Journ., viii., pp. 

Staten Island Trees. — On the average size and probable Age of. 

— Arthur Hollick. (Proc. Nat. Sci. Assoc, Staten Island, 

Feb. 12, 1887.) 

A list is given of a number of the larger native trees of Staten 
Island, with measurements, and their probable ages estimated 
from observations by the author on felled individuals and from 
notes on the same subject published by N. L. Britton in the 
Bulletin in May, 1879. 
Strasburger' s Laboratory. — Douglas H. Campbell. (Bot. Gaz., 

xii., pp. 3S-37-) 
Tennessee Flora, with special reference to the Flora of Nashville. 

August Gattinger. (Pamphlet, 8vo, pp. 109 ; Nashville, 1887.) 

A list of 1,606 species and 102 varieties found by Dr. Gat- 
tinger or reported on good authority from the State of Tennessee. 
Of these, 1,251 have been found within a circle of thirty miles 
radius from Nashville as a centre. An interesting feature of the 
work is the comparative tables of plants from calcareous and 
■ from silicious soils. There are interesting notes on the three 


species of Leavenworthia, and a description of Hypericum lobo- 
carpum, Gattinger; Koehne's arrangement of the Lythraceae is 
adopted , a var. pygmceus of Cyperus strigosus and three varie- 
ties of Panicum capillare, L., are described, and numerous sug- 
gestive notes are scattered through the catalogue. 
Tree Trunk and its Branches. — B. F. Hoyt. (Amer. Nat., xxi., 
PP- 1^, 77-) 

From four hundred measurements of trunks and of branches 
just above the crotch, Mr. Hoyt reaches the interesting conclu- 
sion that the limbs just above the point of branching contain 1 1 
per cent, more wood than the trunk just below this point. But 
as the strength is as the cubes of the circumferences, the trunk is 
stronger than the sum of the limbs by about 13 per cent. 
Uncinula flexuosa. Peck, on Leaves of the Horse-chestnut. — J. L. 

Zabriskie. (Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc, ii., pp. 144, 145.) 
Vermicularia phlogina, n. sp. Charles E. Fairman. Bot. Ga- 
zette,, xii., p. 67.) 
West Coast Botany. — Analytical Key to. Volney Rattan. 
(Pamphlet, small 8vo., pp. 128, San Francisco, 1887.) 
This work is announced as " preliminary to a West Coast 
Botany for beginners, which will probabl) be completed within 
three years " Concise descriptions of the Polypetalae except 
Umbelliferae, the Gamopetalae except Compositae, and the mono- 
cotyledonous orders Alismaceae, Orchidaceae, Iridacese and Lili- 
aceae. No Apetalaee are given. In his proposed West Coast 
Botany the author intends to '• include some of the Apetalae and 
perhaps a tribe of Composite." Why not include them all? 
Our experience with the several incomplete floras of this kind 
has been far from satisfactory. The amateur finding a common 
plant, and not being able to identify it by means of his book, is 
very likely to be discouraged, while the work itself falls into dis- 
credit. The area of territory covered by Mr. Rattan's Key is 
west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains, and from San 
Diego to Puget Sound. 
Wild Spring Flowers under Cultivation.. Ernest Volk. (Journ. 

Trenton Nat. Hist. Soc, i., pp. 46-52.) 
Wilmington Flora.— A List of Plants growing about Wilming- 
ton, North Carolina, with Dates of Flowering. Thomas F. 


Wood and Gerald McCarthy. (Journ. Elisha Mitchell Sci. See, 

i885-'86, pp. 77-141. Also reprinted, pp. 69, Raleigh, 1887.) 

A neatly printed catalogue of I,i68 species and 34 varieties of 

Phanerogamia and Pteridophyta growing in New Hanover Co., 

N. C. 1,046 species are regarded as indigenous. A map of the 

county accompanies the paper. 

Woodsia obtusa and Viola palntata — Varities of. Willard A. 
Stowell. (Journ. Trenton Nat. Hist. Soc, i., pp. 23-26.) 
Woodsia obtusa, Torr., var. Darlingtonii, is the name pro- 
posed by Mr. Stowell for a large form of this fern, the frond 
nearly tripinnate, the pinnae distant, lanceolate and acute, the 
rhachis scarcely or not at all winged, and the sori larger than in 
the type, from the mountains of Bergen County, near Dailing- 
ton, N. J. 

Variety variegata of Viola palntata, L., is described with the 
following characters : " Pubescent ; leaves dark green, purplish 
beneath, reniform cordate to cordate, coarsely crenate ; petals 
curiously streaked and mottled with white and purple ; lateral 
petals densely bearded." Habitat, dry woods, Somerset Co., N. J. 

Botanical Notes. 

Pittonia* The first number oi Pittonia, to be indexed hereafter, 
will not fail to excite the liveliest interest in botanical circles. It 
comes to us without any prospectus, editorial, or introduction of 
any kind beyond its titular announcement that it is " a series of 
botanical papers." But it is something more than a series of 
papers by one of the most accurate of American scholars, it is an 
appeal by a man who, finding certain of the results of his studies 
at variance with those of the recognized authorities, calls for a 
public judgment upon them. It is to be hoped that we shall not 
follow our usual custom of deciding such questions in the easiest 
and least responsible way, but will give to this one the attention 
that its importance demands. As the representative of the leading 
investigator of our Pacific coast, Pittonia must be welcomed by 
everyone. It brings to us reliable information concerning a class 
of facts not elsewhere accessible ; f< r the publications of the 

"Pittonia. A series of botanical papers by Edward L. Greene, Ass't Professor 
of Botany in the University of California. No. i, March, 1887 ; price, 50 cents. 


California Academy are so scanty as to reach only a favored few, 
and there is no other journal which can bring us just what Pit- 
tonia does. Whatever opinion may exist as to the author's in- 
terpretation of what he sees, we are not aware that anyone has 
yet questioned the accuracy of his observations. His well-known 
advocacy of the importance of field study shows itself very 
strongly in several places. H. H. R. 

Monographie der Gattung Clematis. A monograph of Clem- 
atis by Dr. Otto Kuntze is published in the Verhandlungen des 
Botanischen Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg, 1885, pp. 83-202. 
It is based on specimens collected by the author in his travels 
around the world, and those in the herbaria and botanic gardens 
of Berlin, Kew, the British Museum, Leyden, Brussels and Paris. 
Sixty-six species, about one hundred subspecies and a great 
number of varieties and subvarieties are recognized. His arrange- 
ment of these, so far as it affects North American plants, may be 
of interest to readers of the BULLETIN. 

The genus is primarily divided into two series : (a) Scandentes, 
the climbing, and (b) Escandentes. C. dioica, L., emend., includes 
all our dioecious or polygamous climbing forms ; as subspecies we 
find Virginiana, L., Dominica, Lam. {C. holosericea, Pursh.) from 
the Southern States, Mexico and the West Indies, normalis, Ktze., 
credited to Niagara, (?) Mexico, the Antilles and South America, 
cordata, Pursh. ,(C ligusticifolia, Nutt.) fromVirginia,(?) the Rocky 
Mountains, California and tropical America, sericea, HBK., in 
which is included C. ligusticifolia, var. Californica,V^dXson, asvar. 
typica from western North America, Mexico and the Andes, also 
Drummondii. T. and G., and var. nervata, Benth., and finally 
sub. sp. Catesbyana, Pursh, with five varieties. Under C. Viorna, 
L., we find as subspecies, reticulata, Walt, with four varieties, 
normalis, Ktze, and coccinea, Gray. Under C. Simsii, Sweet, are 
Pitcheri, T. & G., normalis, Ktze., lobata, Ktze., and filifera, 
Benth. C. Viticella, L. emend., has as subs ecies crispa, L., and 
Walteri, Pursh. C. lasiandra, Nutt., includes pauciflora, Nutt., 
normalis, Ktze., pseudoligusticifolia, Ktze., and fallax, Ktze. 
C. pseudoatragene, n. sp., is the C. alpina, var. Ochotensis, Gray, 
and four subspecies of it are created. C. alpina, L., sub. sp. occi- 
dentalis, Hornem., includes the other American plants of section 


Atragene, our C. verticillaris, DC, being here referred as a 
variety with two others. C. integrifolia, L., is made to include all 
our erect and simple-leaved members of the genus ; under it we 
find ochroleuca. Ait., with var. tomentosa, T. & G., and five sub- 
varieties of cultivation ; ovata, Pursh., and Fremontii, Watson. 
C. Scotii, Porter, is kept up, as are also C. Bigelovii, Torrey, 
Baldwinii, T. & G., and Douglassii, Hook., the latter with three 

The grouping in this remarkable monograph is suggestive, 
but we do not believe that American botanists will be quick to 
adopt all Dr. Kuntze's subspecies, varieties and subvarieties. 
Just what is to be gained by such close classification is not ap- 
parent, for nearly every individual specimen examined seems to 
have yielded a new name. N. L. B. 

Food- Grains of India. A. H. Church. This work is more 
than its name implies, for it includes many plants which are not 
classed as grains, and many, also, that are cultivated in other coun- 
tries than India. Thirty-five species are accompanied by full- 
page illustrations, making an attractive and interesting book. 

A new book on Lichens. We are informed by Henry Willey, 
of New Bedford, Mass., that he has in preparation an Introduction 
to the Study of Lichens, to be published this spring if sufficient 
encouragement is given. It will include the collecting and 
mounting of Lichens, their structure and organs, the distribution 
and arrangement of North American species, the History of 
Lichens, with aids to their study. The price will probably not 
exceed fifty cents. 

Notes on Hawaiian Ferns. Lorenzo G. Yates. In a pamphlet 
of fifteen pages, published at Santa Barbara, Cal., Mr. Yates 
enumerates the 1 29 species of ferns known to inhabit the Sand- 
wich Islands, with their habitats and partial synonyms. 

The Ferns of Ceylon. Mr. Yates has also published an enum- 
eration of Ceylon Ferns, in a pamphlet of thirty-three pages, with 
extracts from the manuscript notes of the late Dr. Thwaites and 
the published works of Hooker, Baker and Wall. 

Lejeunea Holtii, a new Hepatic from Killarney, Richard 
Spruce. (Journ. of Hot, xxv., pp. 33-39 and 72-82 ; tab. 272.) 
To all lovers of the mosses and hepatics this will prove to be a 


most interesting paper, for it gives not merely a description and 
beautiful plate of a new species, but also discusses the present 
distribution of the Bryophytes of Europe and America and the 
means of dispersal in various species. The second part also 
abounds in most interesting bits of personal experience and gen- 
eralization. An interesting theory is held to account for the 
presence of tropical species of Cryptogams at Killarney, that they 
have survived since Pliocene times ; the theory derives addi- 
tional support from the presence of two molluscs found nowhere 
else in Europe, Limnaea involuta and Geomalcus maculosus. 
" The Killarney Fern," Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense is another 
example that has occurred to us. 

Multinucleated cells. (Journ. Roy. Mic. Soc, 1887, p. 107.) 
" In a number of plants examined, {Polygonum Sicboldii, Acan- 
thus mollis. Podophyllum peltatum, Eschscholtzia Californica, 
Impatiens noli-me-tangere, Dictamnus Fraxinella, Linum pyren- 
aicum, Polygonatum multiflorum), Mr. A. E. Grant found, on 
making longitudinal sections of the stem and petioles, that the cells 
of the wood-fibres contained several nuclei, sometimes as many as 
ten. These nuclei appeared in general to spring from the division 
of a single nucleus." (From Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., xvi., p. 38.) 

Sur L Origins Botanique de quelques Plantes Cultivees et les 
causes probables de I'extinction des especes, par M. Alph. De 
Candolle. (Arch. Sci. Phys, et Nat, Jan. 15, 1887.) After 
calling attention to the fant that the botanical origin of many 
cultivated plants is doubtful whereas their geographical source is 
nearly always certain, M. De Candolle proceeds to discuss the 
question of the derivation of Zea Mays, Vicia Faba, Ervum Lens, 
Cicer arietinum and Triticum vulgare, concluding the paper by 
indicating the probable cause of the extermination of many of the 
species which are now known only in the cultivated state, by 
attributing it to the agency of animals. 

On the 6th of January, M. De Candolle reported to the Natur- 
al History Soc. of Geneva, that wild plants of Cucurbita maxi- 
ma had been found in Nepaul and seeds sent to Kew. From 
these M. Naudin has cultivated specimens, at Antibes, the fruits 
of which M. De Candolle pronounces to be those of C. maxima. 
(Archives, vol. xvti., p. 75.) 


Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Club was held March 
8th, the President in the chair and fifty-six persons present. Miss 
E. V. Clark was elected an active member. 

A letter was read from M. G. E. Hylten-Cavallius, director 
of the Botanical Exchange Club " Linnsea " at Lund, Sweden, 
asking that the Torrey Club consent to become the agent of 
"Linnaea" for America, It was unanimously resolved that the 
request be granted, and the Secretary was requested to com- 
municate with the Director of the Exchange Club. 

Mr. E. E. Sterns exhibited specimens of Bouvardia leiantha, 
Benth., with dimorphous flowers, confirming Prof W. W. 
Bailey's observations on the plant recorded in the Bulletin, Vol, 
vi., p. io6, which are cited by Darwin. Also flowering speci- 
mens of Pyxidanthcra barbulata, sold by a New York florist as 
" Black Forest Heather ; " comment was made on the extremely 
early blossoming of the plant. Also a flowering bush of the 
poisonous South African " Giftboom," Akokantkera venenata, 
Don, [Cestrum veiienostirn, Thunb.), of the Apocynacea;, and 
remarked on the custom of the natives of boiling the milky juice 
to a gelatinous substance, with which they tip their arrows. 

Mr. E. B. Southwick exhibited specimens of a species of 
Heliconia (probably H. Bahai, L.), collected by Mr. P. H. Dud- 
ley on the Isthmus of Panama, where it is common and known 
as "Wild Plantain." Dr. Britton remarked that the abundant 
starch grains in the stem and leaves are of a large size and oblong 
in shape. Mr. Southwick showed also beautifully preserved speci- 
mens of a number of aquatics grown in the Central Park Terrace 
Pond in 1886, including eight species and varities of Nyinphaa, 
Limnanthemtim iiymphceoides, Lininocharis Humboldtii and 
Cyperus Papyrus. 

President Newberry remarked on the different plants called 
'* Lotus." Nymphcea Lotus formerly grew in the Nile, and parts 
of it are found in the Egyptian mummy-cases, but it does not 
now grow in that region. The " Forgetful Lotus " is a species 
o{ Zizyphus, a native of Northern Africa. 

Dr. Britton showed a specimen of Solidago Missourieusis, 

Nutt, collected by himself at Marquette, Mich, and apparently 
new to the Flora of Michigan ; also a specimen of Cratcegtis 
coccinea, var. macrantha, Dudley, collected by Mr. Poggenburg 
at Fort Montgomery, New York, and flowering specimens of 
Tussilago Farfara, L., collected by Dr. Newberry at Amenia, 
New York. 

Mr. C. F. Cox spoke of the tendency to variation in the genus 
Botrychium, and exhibited five specimens of abnormal B. ter7ia- 
tum, var. lunarioides, from northern Vermont, comprising (a) two 
imperfectly developed sterile segments ; (b) one fertile and two 
sterile segments; (c) two large fertile and one sterile segment; 
(d) one well developed fertile segment with a second, small, fer- 
tile one and a sterile segment; (e) one large fertile segment with 
two smaller fertile and one small sterile segment. 

An exhibition of Microscopical Preparations by the members 
of the Section of Histology and Cryptogamic Botany was then 
given. The objects shown were as follows: 

1. A fungus fruiting in the cell- walls of Pimis Strobus, by P. 
H. Dudley, C.E. 

2. Section of a fungus growing in cord-like masses, 8 to lo 
feet long, in the Dickinson Iron Mine, N. J. The central portion 
of these strings is composed of loosely matted hyphte, enclosed by 
a harder cortex. By N. L. Britton. 

3. Water-pores in the leaves of Fuchsia and Tropceolum, by 
Mrs. Winthrop Cowdin. 

4. Antheridia, archegonia, operculum, annulus and peristome 
of species of Fissidens, Fiinaria and Barbula. Also prothallia of 
mosses and ferns. Mrs. Britton and Miss Steele. 

5. Tyloses in the rootstock oi Aristolochia Serpentaria, show- 
ing protrusions of the parenchyma into a dotted duct, and the 
protrusions containing starch. 

6. Branched glandular hairs of tobacco leaf 

7. Epidermis of Vanilla, each cell containing a tabular 
crystal of calcic oxalate. 

8. Mucilage from the leaves of Nymphcea alba, containing 
immense numbers of several species of Bacteria, both Bacillus 
and Micrococcus forms. This mucilage appears to be the zoogleal 
state of these Bacteria. Nos. 5 to 8 by Joseph Schrenk. 


(;f the 


Vol. XIV.] New York, May, 1887. [No. 5. 

Notes on the American Species of Marsilia, 

By L. M. Underwood and O. F. Cook. 

The accumulation of a large amount of material in public and 
private herbaria permits a clearer view of the relations of the 
American species of this genus, and the need of a thorough re- 
vision is apparent. While the status of some of our species will 
depend upon the light given by further collections and the obser- 
vation of growing forms, it is thought desirable to place on record 
the results of a preliminary study of the specimens in the two 
herbaria most extensively consulted. Free access to the collec- 
tions at Cambridge and at Columbia College has made this study 
possible, and grateful acknowledgment is here rendered. 

The first species of Marsilia discovered in America were 
M. vestita and M. polycarpa, described by Hooker and Greville 
in 1 83 1. A. Braun described a third species, M. uncinata, in 
1839, and a fourth, M. miicronata, in Silliman's Journal in 1847. 
Two other species were described in the same year by Dr. 
Engelmann, viz., M. tenuifolia and M. macropoda. In 1857 ^^^ 
described M. picta from Mexico, and in i860 Dr. T. F. Allen 
discovered the European M. qiiadrifolia in Connecticut. M. 
Mexicana was described by A. Braun in 1870, making in all nine 
nominal species. These comprise all the forms represented 
in the two herbaria named. Two other species were described 
by Braun from the West Indies, but so far as we know they arc 
not represented by specimens in any American collection, if 
indeed they represent valid species. Since 1870 many forms 
have been collected, notably in the Northwest and Southwest, so 
that some of the species are represented by very extensive suites. 


A. — Sporocarps numerous, attached to the stipes in a row 
by short horizontal peduncles - - - M. polycarpa. 
Sporocarps on erect or ascending peduncles, arising 

from the base of the stipe --- B. 

B- — Sporocarps 2-6 on each peduncle ------- C. 

Sporocarps i (rarely 2) on each peduncle . - . . D. 
^- — P^^"t robust, hairy; sporocarps 2-6; sori, 10 in each 
valve ------- ^ . M. macropoda. 

Plant more slender, smooth ; sporocarps 2-3 ; sori, 8-9 
in each valve ------- M. quadrifolia. 

D. — Peduncles 2-4 times the length of the sporocarps ; sori, 
13-14 in each valve - - - - . M. uncinata. 

Peduncles shorter, not more than twice the length of 
the sporocarps ; sori, 6- 1 1 in each valve - M. vestita. 

\.~M. polycarpa. Hooker et Greville, Icones Filicum, II., tab. 160 (1831)- A. 
Braun, Monatsberichte der Konigl. Akad. der Wissens. zu Berlin, 1861, 417- ibid, 
1870, 772. O' t / ' 

HAB.—Cuba (Wright, Nos. 1799 and 1800) ; Jamaica (Ar- 
nott)t; Guiana (Arnott)t plant very large ; Brazil (Burchell, No. 
9488 », Blanchet t). 

TT^ ^■-^'■'1'''"'"/'''^''^ Linnceus, Species Plantarum, Ed. I; Gray's Manual, qih 
M., 678; Underwood, Our Native Ferns and their Allies H5 
.87o!^"4r.t7?6S' ''""" "^P- '''^"'- ^'^- "- A- «-un,'Monatsb., ,863, 4.8: 

Plant usually slender, 5-12 cm. high ; leaflets variable, 4- 1 4 
mm. wide, 5-15 mm. long, margins entire, smooth, or rarely with 
scattered hairs when young ; sporocarps 2 (rarely 3), on a branch- 
ing peduncle, which is usually attached to the stipe near its base, 
but sometimes as much as 2 cm. above; young sporocarp with 
short ye hairs, later becoming naked and dark 
purple; lower tooth obtuse, upper small, acute or obtuse; sori, 
o or 9 m each valve. 

HAB.-Bantam Lake, Litchfield Co., Conn., (Dr. T. F. Allen, 
.861), from whence ,t has been cultivated in .several localities ; 
Lurope ; Asia. 

* t References marked with ■> * ^, c T^ 

with a t are in the Columbia ColLe He h" '" "T ""'^^ "■=^''^""™' '""^^ "'"''^'^ 
raoia i^ollege Herbarmm; those unmarked are in both. 


3- — M. macropoda, Engelmann, Amer. Journal Science, 2d Series, III., 56, 
(1847); Underwood, Our Native Ferns and their Allies, 115. 

M. macropus, A. Braun, Monatsb., 1863, 418; 1870, 726; 1872, 660. 

Plant robust, 10-25 cm. high ; leaflets large, 2-5 cm. long, 2 
cm. wide or less, usually undulate, clothed with white hairs on 
both sides when young, becoming smoother with age; sporo- 
carps 2-6, on erect branching peduncles, ascending, densely 
villose, 6-8 mm. long, 5-6 mm. wide; raphe short, the lower 
tooth obtuse, the upper inconspicuous or wanting; sori, 10 in 
each valve. 

Hab. — Texas, Rio Grande (Wright, 1848;*, Guadaloupe Co, 
(Lincecum)*, Ponds on the Seco (Reverchon)t, Austin (Buck- 
ley)t. Western Texas (Wright, No. 812)*; New Mexico (Wright, 
No. 21 1 1). 

4. — At. uncinata, A. Braiin, Flora, 1839, 300; Amer. Jour, Science, 2d Series, 
III., 55; Monatsb., 1863, 423; 1870, 742; 1872, 665; Chapman, Flora of Southern 
States, 672; Gray, Manual, 678; Underwood, Our Native Ferns and their Allies, 115. 

Plant 6-20 cm. high; leaflets nearly smooth, entire, 10-16 
mm. long; sporocarps 6 mm. wide, 8 mm. long; peduncles 
15-30 mm. long ; raphe long, terminating in two approximate 
teeth, the upper longer and mostly uncinately curved ; sori, 13-14 
in each valve. 

Hab. — Western Louisiana (Hale); Dallas, Texas (Reverchon, 
in Curtiss' N. A. Plants, No. 3819). 

5. — M. vestita. Hooker et Greville, Icones Filicum, It., tab, 159, (1831); Engel- 
mann, Amer. Jour. Science, 2d Series, III., 55; A. Braun, Monatsb., 1863, 424; 1870; 
741; 1872, 662; Watson, Botany of California, II., 351; Underwood, Oar Native 
Ferns and their Allies, 115; Coulter, Manual, 437. 

M. villosa, Brackenridge, Ferns of U. S. Explor. Exped,, 340 (Amer. plant 
only ?). 

M. mucronata, A. Braun, Amer, Jour. Science, 2d Series, III., 55, (1847I; 
Monatsb., 1863, 423; 1870, 740; Underwood, 1. c, 115, 

AL picta, Fe^, Cat. des P'oug. du Mexique, 47 (1857). 

M. Iloitingiana, Schaffner, in Herb. Gray. 

AT. minima, Fournier ex. Schaffner, in Herb. Underwood. 

Plant 3-6 cm. high ; leaflets entire or slightly toothed ; sporo- 
carps 4-7 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; raphe short, lower tooth 
short and blunt, the upper acute, a little longer, sometimes 
curved ; paleae varying from soft, dense and spreading to short 
and appressed, in mucronata forms, where it is sometimes want- 
ing; sori, 6- II in each valve; a very variable species. 


Hab. — California (Wilkes' Expl. Exped., 1838- 1842)*, Sierra 
Co. (Lemmon, 1874), San Diego (Orcutt, 1884)* ; Nevada, Goose 
Creek Valley (Watson, 1868, Expl. 40th Par., No. 1372) ; Ore- 
gon (Wilkes' Expl. Exped., 1838- 1839)*, (Hall, 1871, No. 697), 
Multonomah Co. (Howell, 1877)*, (Geyer, No. 450); Washington 
Ter., Columbia River Valley (Northern Transcont. Survey, No. 
1225; Watson, 1880)*, Klikatat Co. (Suksdorf, 1878, 1883)*, 
Falcon Valley (Suksdorf, 1883, No. 227)*; (Hall and Harbour, 
1862, No. 254)*; Montana, Big Blackfoot. Valley (Watson, 
1880)*; Dakota, Stark Co. (Seiberg, 1884)*; Devil's Lake 
(Nicollet, i839)t; Kansas, Ellis (Watson, 1874)*, (E. N. Plank, 
1884)*; Arkansas (Nuttall)t ; Texas (Lindheimer, 1847, No. 
746)*, between Cibols and upper Guadaloupe (Lindheimer, 1847, 
No. 404)*, Comanche Spring (Lindheimer, 1849)*, Western 
Texas (Wright, 1849, No. 811), (Drummond, 1870, Ex. Herb. 
Gay), Dallas (Hall, 1872, No. 861)*, Austin- (Hall, 1872, No. 
860)*, Dallas (Reverchon, in Curtiss' N. A. Plants, No. 3821) ; 
New Mexico (Wright, 1851, No. 21 12); Arizona, Stephens' 
Ranche (Lemmon, 1882, No. 2896); Mexico, San Louis Potosi 
(Schaffner, 1875-7, distributed as M. Holtingiana)* , (also as M. 
minuta, Fournier, in Herb. Underwood) ; Nicaragua (Wright, 
North Pacific Expl., Exped. 1856). 

Var. TENUIFOLIA {M. tenuifolia, Engelmann, Amer. Jour. 
Science, 2d series, vi., 89, note (1848)*; A. Braun, Monatsb., 
1863, 425; 1870, 740; 1872,664; Underwood, 1. c, 114). 

Plant somewhat slender, 5-15 cm. high, leaflets narrow (2-4 
mm. wide), more or less falcate, the apex often somewhat 
truncate and unequally toothed, villose with appressed hairs ; 
sporocarps single, 5-8 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, the teeth di- 
vergent, subequal ; sori, 9-1 1 in each valve. 

Hab. — Texas (Wright), Pierdenales (Lindheimer, 1847, No. 

The above references include a wide range of characters, a 
few of which seem to call for special notice. Suksdorf's Falcon 
Valley specimens are by far the finest seen, the stipes being cin- 
namon-brown, while the paleae of the sporocarps are long and 
silky ; this form may be regarded as typical of the species. 
Orcutt's San Diego specimens are very large, approaching M. 


macropoda in size and general habit. Drummond's Texan speci- 
men is represented by two plants, of which the sterile has the 
habit of M. macropoda and may belong to that species, but the 
fertile plant is a true mucronata form of M. vestita. Sterile 
specimens collected by Lemmon in the Sierra Valley are aquatic, 
and nearly smooth throughout. Specimens from Kansas, col- 
lected by Watson and by E. N. Plank, are very much reduced, 
being even smaller than Wright's No. 21 12, which Braun called 
var. minima. 

The distinctions which formerly separated M. mucrottata can 
be maintained no longer, since they are sometimes united in the 
same plants, e. g., on Nicollet's Devil's Lake specimen, which 
Dr. Torrey originally referred to M. vestita, but which Braun 
placed in M. mucronata. Specimens cultivated by Braun (coll. 
in Texas by E. Hall) and distributed to the Gray Herbarium as 
M. unciuata, do not agree in any particular with his own descrip- 
tion of that species, but are certainly his M. mucronata. 

Reverchon's Texas specimens, distributed as M. m.ucronata, 
show a tendency to vary toward var. tenuifolia in the narrower 
leaflets, suggesting the inconstancy of that variety. 

M. picta. Fee, is an enormous floating form, curiously marked 
on the under side of the leaflets by radiating ferruginous lines, 
giving it a unique appearance. Its true relations must be deter- 
mined by further observation. 

In order that some important particulars upon which the 
classification depends may be more fully established, it is desira- 
ble that collectors should pay especial attention to the following 
points : 

(i) In the same species note variations dependent upon 
station ; that is, whether growing in mud, in marshy ground, in 
.somewhat dry soil, in flooded regions or purely aquatic. Judging 
from the great amount of variation already noted resulting from 
station and environment, it is certainly desirable to ncrte the ex- 
tent to which this variation is carried ; certain it is, that the hairi- 
ness of the sporocarp, which often varies with age, cannot distin- 
guish one species from another, a principle that has not always 
been considered in descriptive works. 

(2) Note specimens of M. uncinata in mature fruit and de- 


termine the constancy of the characters by which it is separated 
from mucronata forms of M. vestita. These are (a) larger number 
of sori in each valve, (b) greater length of peduncles, (c) uncinate 
upper tooth of the sporocarp. 

(3) Determine the degree of fixity of characters in var. 
tenuifolia of M. vestita. No specimens are known to exist ex- 
cept those of Lindheimer and Wright, collected in 1848, and 
these seem to characterize a well-marked variety. The existence 
of a somewhat intermediate type in Reverchon's specimens 
distributed as M. mucrojtata, and the fact that the original form 
has not been sent in by recent collectors, seem to throw doubt 
upon the constancy of its characters, as does also the considera- 
tion that all the other distinguishing features insensibly grade 
into mucrotiata forms of M. vestita ; hence, if it stands, it must 
stand on the basis of the narrow leaflets alone. 

(4) Observe the relations and the cause of the markings on 
M. picta, Fee, from Mexico. It was claimed by the late Dr. 
Schaffner, who collected Marsilia at San Luis Potosi, that M. picta 
was the floating form of his M. Holtingiana, which we consider 
a depauperate form of M. vestita. Such a marked degree of 
variation would not seem to us impossible, as certain floating 
forms of M. vestita are as markedly in contrast with the usual 
forms of that species, if we except the " pictae ; " and Dr. Schaff- 
ner claimed that these were produced by infusoria and larvae. 
Indeed, we have observed natant forms of M. quadrifolia in 
Bantam Lake that would present a no less difficult problem to 
the species-maker, if he were to observe them as herbarium speci- 
mens instead of in the field. 

New Grasses. 

By George Vasey. 
POA RUFESTRis. Culms densely tufted, 6 to 9 inches high, 
erect and rigid, striate ; cauline leaves (2 or 3) very narrow, erect, 
I to ii^ inches long; ligule conspicuous, membranaceous; 
sheaths smooth, striate ; upper part of culm naked ; panicle ^ 
to ii^ inches long, narrow, and sparsely flowered; branches 
short, single or in twos below, each with 3 to 5 spikelets, some- 
what expanding in bloom ; spikelets about three-flowered, i )A 


to 2 lines long, empty glumes oblong-ovate, acute, nearly as long 
as the flowering glumes, which are about i ^ lines long, oblong, 
the marginal nerves and base slightly pubescent, otherwise smooth 
or minutely scabrous. Common in the Rocky Mountains, re- 
sembling small forms of P. ccesia. Collected by Wolf, Patterson, 
Letterman and others. 

Panicum Havardii. Culms 5 to 6 feet high, stout, leafy ; 
leaves i to 2 feet long, thick, rigid, long acuminate, becoming 
involute, smooth or slightly hairy on the upper side near the 
ligule, which is a conspicuous ring of short hairs ; panicle i J^ feet 
long, smooth, diffuse, the branches 4 to 7 inches long, singly or 
in twos or threes, i to 2 inches apart, naked for the lower third, 
above numerously subdivided; spikelets 3 lines long; lowest 
glume half as long as spikelet, prominently five to seven-nerved, 
ovate; second glume 3 lines long, prominently nine-nerved, ovate, 
acuminate ; third glume (that of the neutral flower) about equal- 
ing the second, five-nerved, its thick palet nearly as long; fourth 
glume (that of the fertile flower) about one-quarter shorter than 
the third ; styles 2, ciliate tufted at apex. 

Found by Dr. Havard in the Guadaloupe Mountains of S. W. 
Texas, in 1881, and last season in Chihuahua by Mr. C. G. 
Pringle. I was at first inclined to consider it a variety of P. 
virgatum, but it seems well distinguished by its long, rigid leaves, 
its smoothness and peculiar gray color, by its conspicuous ligule, 
and the remarkably large, smooth spikelets. 

Elongation of the Inflorescence in Liquidambar. 

On page 435 of Master's Vegetable Teratology, it is stated 
that " Mm. Clos and De Schonenfeld have recorded the existence 
of a variety of the Sweet Chestnut, Castanea, in which the pistil- 
late catkins were as long and bore nearly as many flowers as the 
staminate. This is stated to be of constant occurrence in some 
localities and to be accompanied by a diminished size of the fruits. 
A similar elongation has been observed in the Walnut, catkins 
of which have been seen beanng thirty to thirty-five large nuts." 
We have a similar elongation of the pistillate inflorescence to report 
in the case of the Sweet Gum, Liquidambar styracijlua, found at 
New Dorp, Staten Island The cluster is over three inches long. 

with six distinct glomerules below, the lowest of which is pedi- 
celled, the others sessile and merging into the terminal confluent 

E. G. Britton. 
Note on a Variety of Asteromphalus Roperianus Grev. 

Asteromphahis Roperianus, Grev., var. Disc circular, com- 
partments areolated, truncate, nearly equal ; umbilical lines ra- 
diate irregularly from rounded ends of median ones ; rays six. 

The above described diatom, of which the figure is an exact 
drawing, was found by me in February of this year, in the original 
Santa Monica deposit. The specimen varies somewhat from 
Aster. Roperianus as figured by GreviUe, and later in Schmidt's 
Atlas, plate 38, fig. 15 ; having one ray less. Amplification 650 
diams. Zeiss 1-18 hom. immersion. 


Note on Abutilon striatum. 

I have at hand a specimen of Abutilon striatum, in which 
there are two flowers borne on the peduncle instead of the usual 
one. From the joint of the peduncle downwards there is indica- 
tion of two separate axes which have become confluent. If this 
is so, how did the flowers escape fasciation ? 
Providence, April 7th, 1887. W. W Bailey 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LXVIII, 

Asplenium rhizophylium, Kunze, var. Biscaynianum, Eaton. 

Asplenium rhizophyllum, Kunze, var. Biscaynianum, n. Var. 

" Plate LXVIII. 

Fronds narrowly linear-oblong in outline, a foot or more high, 
^ to I inch wide ; pinnae a dozen or more pairs, 8 or 9 lines 
long, ascending obliquely, the lowest ones scarcely diminished ; 
all but the uppermost pairs cut into about 7 or 8 lobes, of which the 
lowest superior one is three-lobed, the next one or two two-lobed, 
and the others simple; all closely placed; upper pinnae gradually 
smaller and less deeply lobed ; sori usually one on each vein and 
elongated. This form has the large ultimate segments of the 
coarser form of the species, from which it differs in the much 
shorter pinnae, and consequently in the linear rather than lanceo- 
late outline of the frond. The pinnules an inch or two below the 
apex scarcely differ, from those of A. dentatum, with which, and 
in company with the myriophyllum form oiA. rhisophyllun,t, it was 
associated, as is explained below by Mr. Isaac Holden, of Bridge- 
port, Conn., who discovered it at Biscayne Bay, Florida, 28th of 
February, 1887. It seems highly probable that it is modified 
from the type by the influence of its associate. 

New Have::, April 15th, 1887. Daniel C. Eaton. 

Notes on some Florida Ferns. 

In southern Florida, on the shore of Biscayne Bay, some four 
or five miles south of the Miami River, under a projecting arch 
of the coral limestone, is a well, hollowed in the rock to the depth 
of some five feet or so, with cut steps leading down to the fresh 
water at the bottom. This ancient excavation, believed by some 
to antedate the settlement of St. Augustine, is well known in 
that region as the " Punch Bowl." By going northerly from this 
point a quarter of a mile, more or less, through the jungle — hum- 
mock, or " hammock," as it is there called — keeping near the 
slope of the rocks, in which procedure a machete is very useful, 
there is reached a small, comparatively open space in which 
stands a cocoanut tree of a few years' growth, apparently planted 
there by accident, and of remarkable beauty. A few rods beyond 
this tree is a curved recess in the bank of rock which, as I re- 
member it, is at that point some five or six feet in height. On 

the 28th of February of this year, I found tlie steep sides of this 
nook well covered with three kinds of ferns in good fruit, a num- 
ber of specimens of each of which I gathered and took away. 
Unfamihar as I was with southern ferns, I did not doubt that I 
had three distinct species of Spleenwort, but upon subsequent 
examination of them, and reference to the books on North Amer- 
ican ferns, I found that one of the ferns was not described. 

These three ferns, of which there were hundreds growing in 
close proximity or actual contact one with another, were Asple- 
nmm dentatum, Linn., Asplenium. myriophylhim, Presl., and a 
third form of the same genus, larger than either of the others, 
possessed of those features common to both, having rather the 
texture and hue of the dentatum and a leaf-pattern approximating 
to that of the myriophylluin. I send herewith a specimen of each 
of the three kinds. 

Now, considering that this fern grows in company with A. 
dentatutn and A. viyriophylluni (I do not recollect having seen it 
otherwise), that it partakes of their characteristics, and is in most 
respects almost exactly intermediate between them, that it is of 
more vigorous growth than either of those nearly related species, 
and that it belongs to a genus the species of which are strongly 
suspected of sexual looseness, the question arises whether this is 
not a hybrid product of the two species mentioned. 

It is my intention to have a considerable number of specimens 
of this fern from the locality above described next season, when 
the question may receive further consideration. In the few speci- 
mens I have, the marks of the immediate form appear to be as 
definite and unvarying as are those of what are considered good 
species. ISAAC HoLDEN. 

Special Uses and Properties of some Mexican Grasses. 

Dr. Edward Palmer has been engaged in making botanical 
collections in Mexico during several years past, and has given 
particular attention to ascertain the uses to which plants are ap- 
plied. The following notes, gathered from him, respecting the 
uses and properties of the native grasses are of interest : 

Bromus segetum, Schl. — The seeds of this grass are used to 
assist in the fermentation of a favorite drink called Tejuino, used 


by the Tarahumares Indians who live in the southwestern part 
of Chihuahua. The basis of this drink is corn, which is first 
sprouted, then ground on a stone metate, after which water is 
added and a quantity of the seeds of the Bromus. Sugar is also 
added, and the mixture is then placed by a fire for twelve hours. 
Fermentation soon sets in. It is not strong at first, but after a 
day or two it is quite intoxicating. As sold in the markets some 
looks like yeast, other lots are clear and of the taste of beer. 
Those not accustomed to drink this corn-beer, will for a time find 
it quite repulsive to the stomach. It is stated that in some coun- 
tries other species oi Bromus are used in making a fermented drink. 

Elionurus candidus, Hack., called " soccato Colorado," or red - 
grass, from the color of the roots, which have a strong peppery 
taste and smell. They are used by the Tarahumares Indians and 
by Mexicans for curing toothache. The root is chewed and a 
little put into the hollow of the tooth. It is considered very effi- 
cacious, and is kept for sale in the markets. 

Stipa viridula, Trin. var. — A tall, coarse grass, collected in Co- 
ahuila in 1879, which is considered poisonous to cattle, horses and 
sheep, having a temporary narcotic effect upon them. It is said 
that only strange animals will eat the grass, as it is shunned by 
the native animals who have once experienced its effects. 

Epicam'pes robusta, Fourn. — A coarse grass, growing five or 
six feet high. It has very straight, reed-like culms, half an inch 
thick at the base, which, after being stripped of their leaves, are 
used in making rockets, which are much used at the religious 
festivals in Guadalajara. 

MuJilenbergia z.\\6. Aristida. — Several species of these grasses, 
growing tall and straight, and with close panicles, are used for 
making brooms. The leaves are stripped off, and the culms arethen 
tied into bundles three or four feet long and of convenient thickness. 
These brooms are in general use throughout Mexico. The 
bundles are sometimes flattened and used in whitewashing. 

Andropogon Myosuros, Presl. — This has much the appearance 
of our A. scoparius, but less branched. It grows abundantly on 
hillsides in bunches. There are many long, straight, wiry culms 
growing together, and the branches are pulled up and used in 
thatching the houses of the natives at Rio Blanco. 


Cypenis nodosus, Willd. — A kind of rush growing about two 
feet high, with soft, spongy culms, which are braided together to 
form a kind of fan called Sopladors, commonly used to fan char- 
coal fires. 

CathestecHm erectum, V. & H. — A low-creeping grass, which 
is used in decoction to afford relief in painful menstruation. The 
dried grass is kept in the markets and has a reputation in the 
treatment of female diseases. 

Hildria cenchroides, H.B.K. — Also a low-creeping grass, but 
stronger and coarser than the prect ding one. It is used in decoc- 
tion as a popular remedy to purify the blood, especially in the 
case of skin diseases. Found at Guadalajara. 

Sporobolus Indicus, R. Br. — A grass growing in large clumps 
in rich bottoms. It is called Liendrilla. The culms are straight 
and firm, and are sometimes twisted into ropes which, however, 
are not durable. The Indians in emergencies make hats ^nd 
baskets of it. It is not a good grazing grass except when in 
a young state. 

Geo. Vasey. 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature, 

Abies Douglasii. (Garden, xxxi, p. 288, figures.) 
American Poppies. 

Professor Porter has called our attention to an error on page 
80 of the Bulletin, where Papaver Californica is alluded to as 
the first American representative of the genus. In noting Mrs. 
Bingham's communication to the Botanical Gazette, we overlooked 
the well-known P. mtdicaule, L., of Arctic America and the 
Rocky Mountain region — as did Mrs. Bingham. 
Asperfolice — Some West American. — E. L.' Greene. (Pittonia, 

i., pp. 8-23.) 

Professor Greene contends that the ordinal name Asperfo- 
liffi is older than Borragina: and should be adopted. He pro- 
poses Allocarya, n. gen., for some of the plants referred to 
{EritricJiium and Kiyttitzia) by Dr. Gray, and describes seven 
new species. Under Plagiobothrys, Fisch. and Meyer, he places 
the Echidiocarya Arizonica, Gray, as P. Pringlei, P. microcarpa, 
n. sp., and a new variety of P. canescens. Gray. Sonnea, n. 


gen., includes four of Dr. Gray's species of Plagiothrys, and a 

new one, 5. Harknessii. 

Biologia Centrali Americana. — Botany, Part xxii. — By W. B. 


This part was issued in March. The work is approaching 
completion, the present pages containing supplemental matter in 
Compositse and the following ; an enumeration of a collection 
of plants made on Cozumel Island off the coast of Yucatan, by 
F. Gaumer in 1885, in which several new species are described; 
a list of plants from several islands off the coasts of Yucatan and 
Honduras made by Mr. Gaumer in 1886, and a list of Costa 
Rica ferns. The appendix contains a valuable sketch of the 
history of the botanical exploration of Mexico and Central 
Botanical Contributions, 1887. — Asa Gray. (Proc. Amer. Acad. 

Arts and Sci., xxii., pp. 270-314.) 

I. — A Revision of some Polypetalous Genera and Orders. 
Under Pap^veraceae Dr. Gray offers an arrangement of Esch- 
scholtzia, recognizing nine species and one variet^•. In Portula- 
cacecB nine genera are adopted, it being contended that Spraguea 
and Calyptridium are distinct, in opposition to the views of Pro- 
fessor Greene. Of Portulaca, Dr. Gray adopts four terete-leaved 
species, P. parvula here first described. Calandrinia sesuvibides, 
n. sp., is the Claytonia ambigua, Watson. A rearrangement of 
Claytonia is given in which C. cordifolia and C. Nevadensis of 
Watson are included in C. asarifolia, Bongard ; C. Sibirica, I.., 
var. Iieterophylla, n. var., is the C. alsinoides, var. heterophylla, 
T. & G., and C. bulbifera. Gray, is reduced to var. bulbillifera, 
n. var., of the same species; C. spatkulata, Dougl., var. tenuifolia, 
n. van, is C. tenuifolia and C. exigua, T. & G. ; C. Hallii, n. sp., 
is the C. Chamissonis, var. tenerrinia, Gray. Spraguea, Torr., 
is regarded as of but a single species. Calyptridium Parryi is a 
new species from Bear Valley, California. In Malvacece we find 
critical revisions of all our larger genera, Sidalcea pedata, 
Spheralcea Coulteri, (the Malvastrum Coulteri of Watson), S. 
ambigua, (the 5. Emoryi, Torr. in part), 5. Rusbyi, Sida Neo- 
Mexicana and 5. Xanti, Anoda Arizonica, A. Thurberi, A. abuti- 
loides and Abutilon Xanti are new species. Horsfordia is a new 


genus between Spheralcea and Abtitilon consisting of H. alata, 
{Sida alata, Watson), and H. Newberryi {Abutilon Newberryi, 
Watson.) Hibiscus lasiocarpus, Cav., is the oldest name for H. 
incanus, Schrad. & Wendl., and H. grandifloriis, Michx. ; 
its variety occidentalis, n. var., is the H. Moscheutos, (?) var. occi- 
dentalis, Torrey. 

A new order, Cheiranthodendrece contains the genera Chei- 
ranthodendron, Larreat, and Fremontia, Torrey. Three species 
of Tilia, T. Americana, L., T. pubescens. Ait. and its var. lepto- 
phylla. Vent., and T. heterophylla. Vent, are recognized, and Dr. 
Gray thinks that T. Mexicana, Schlecht, is also a good species. 

11. — Sertuni Chihiiahuense: appendix, contains descriptions 
of six new Gamopetalae from Mr. Pringle's Mexican collection 
in 1886. 

III. — Miscellanea. Anemone Oregana, Viola Howellii, Pen- 
tachceta Orcuttii, Gentiana linearis, Froel., var. latifolia, Frasera 
Cusickii, Phlox dolichaiitha, Phacelia hirtuosa, Lyciutn Shock- 
ley i, Castilleia Suksdorfii and Galvesia juncea {Antirrhinum 
junceum, Gray), are here characterized. 

Defoliation. — Illustrated by a Longitudinal Section through the 

Stem and Base of Petiole of the Virgitiian Creeper, Ampelbp- 

sis hederacea. (Cole's Studies in Microscopical Science, vol. 

iv., Sect., I., pp. 29-31 ; plate 8.) 

Diatom — The Life of a. — Samuel Lockwood. (Journ. N. Y. 

Micros. Soc, ii., pp. 135- 142.) 
Drosera rotundifolia — Chas. E. Briggs. (Nat. Comp., ii., pp. 

68, 69.) 
Echinocystis, section Megarrhiza. — Edward Lee Greene. (Pit- 
tonia, i., pp. 1-4.) 

This is in effect the same paper published in the West Amer- 
ican Scientist, Vol. III. pp. 34-35, and noted in the BULLETIN, 
this volume, p. 60. 

Eschscholtzia glauca, n. sp. — E. L. Greene. (Pittonia, i., p. 45.) 
In reviewing Dr. Gray's treatment of this genus in Proc. 
Amer. Acad., xxii., pp. 271-273, Professor Greene describes this 
new species, one of the perennial group, and remarks that there 
is probably still another one in the interior of California — perhaps 
the E. crocea, Benth. 


Flora Ottawaensis — Additions, 1885. (Trans. Ottawa Field Nat. 

Club, ii., p. 363.) 

Nineteen species of Phanerogamia, additional to those record- 
ed in previous lists, are enuinerated. 

Florida Futigi — Notes on. No. 12. — W. W. Calkins. (Journ, My- 
col., iii., p. 46 ) 

Fungi — New Species of. — J. B. Ellis and B. M. Everhart. (Journ. 

Mycol., iii,, pp. 41-45. 

Nineteen new species are described. 
Fungi — The Use of English Names for. — C. E. Bessey. (Amer. 

Nat, xxi., pp. 264, 265.) 

Professor Bessey warmly advocates the use of English names 
for the Fungi, at least those which are familiar as pests. 

Apropos of popular names, a funny review may be found in 
the Journal of Botany (xxv., pp. 120-121) of a "Text-book of 
British Fungi," by W. D. Hay, the index being given in popular 
names which recall " those of some of Dickens' characters, if the 
following may be taken as examples : Wrinkletvvig, Jellysprout, 
Thimblefinger, and Rootingshank." 
Grasses of North America, for Farmers and Students. — W. J. 

Beal, Michigan Agr. College, Vol. i. 

This is the most extensive work on Grasses that has been 
undertaken in this country. The first volume is an Svo of 457 
pages, divided into 17 chapters. The first chapter is one of 40 
pages, on the structure, form and development of grasses, giving 
minute details of the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths, bracts, flowers, 
etc., with many illustrations to show the tissues and microscopic 
structure. Then follow three chapters on the power of motion in 
leaves, on plant growth and composition, on plant affinity, on the 
botanical characters of the oVder Graminese, its economic impor- 
tance, and directions for collecting, studying and preserving 
grasses. These chapters will mainly be of interest to the special 

Then follows a chapter on "Native Grazing Lands," com- 
prising sketches of the grass vegetation of the native prairies and 
pastures of the west and southwest, including parts of Mexico. 
These five chapters form the first hundred pages of the work. 


The next hundred are given to an account of the commoner 
grasses of agriculture, their adaptation to different locaHties, and 
the views of various agriculturists as to their respective values for 
pastures and meadow^ The book is almost exhaustive in its 
treatment of the subject. 

The typographical appearance of the work is very good The 
illustrations vary considerably in character, some being well 
executed, while a few appear coarse and poorly finished. 

We are informed that the second volume is in preparation, 
and that it will contain descriptions " of all known grasses of 
North America, 700 or more species, (if all North America be 
included the number of species will probably be twice as many) 
with illustrations of one species in each genus, and in some cases 
more than one." Its appearance will be looked for with great 
interest by botanists in general and by students of grasses partic- 
ularly. Geo. Vasey. 
Hazardia — A new Genus of Asteroid Conipositce. — Edward Lee 
Greene. (Pittonia, i., pp. 28-30.) 

This new genus is based on two plants formerly described by 
Professor Greene, under Corethrogyne, and a new species, H. 
serrata, from the island of Santa Cruz. 
Heuchera sanguinea, Engelm. — J. D. Hooker. (Curtis' Bot. 

Mag., xliii.. Tab. 6,929.) 
Le Phallus et la Morille. (Le Nat. Canad., xvi., p. 96.) 
Mosses collected in the Neighborhood of Ottawa. — John Macoun. 
(Trans. Ottawa Field Nat. Club, ii., pp. 364-372.) 
An enumeration of 123 species, 3 of them Sphagnums, and 
43 Hypnums, with localities and dates of collection. 
Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, Ohio. — A. P. Morgan. 

(Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist, x., pp. 7-18; continued. 
New Species, mainly Californian. — Edward Lee Greene. (Pit- 
tonia, i., pp. 30-40.) 

Cardamine filifolia, Ribes Marshallii, Mitella diversifolia, 
M. ovalis, Godetia micropetala. Astragalus Miguelensis, A . leu- 
copsis, T. and G. var. brachypus,Galium flaccidum, G. Miguelense, 
Calais pltiriseta, Arctostaphylos myrtifolia, Parry, Phacelia 
scabrclla, Diplacus parvifiorus, Eunanus Austince, E. Cusickii, 


{Mitnuhis Bigelovii, var. ovatus. Gray), E. subsecundus {M. sub- 
secundus. Gray). Mimuhis arvensis, Castilleia hololeuca, Sphacele 
fragrans, Eriogoiium grande, E. rtibescens, E. tripodum, A tri- 
plex nodosa and Qttercus parvida are here described. 
Sepiorias of North America — Enumeration aitd Description of 

the. — George Martin. (Journ. Mycol., iii., pp. 37-41.) 
Sumacs. — Warren H. Manning. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., 

pp. 101-103 ; four figures.) 

An interesting account on the habits and uses of the various 
species of Rhus. Figures of R. glabra, R. vene?iata, R. aromatica 
and R. Toxicodendron are given. 
Sympetaleia. — Asa Gray. (Amer. Journ. Sci., xxxiii., pp. 319, 


Dr. Gray notes that Professor Baillon's new genus Lasella, 
published in a recent number of the Bulletin of the Linna;an 
Society of Paris, has just the characters of Sympetaleia aurea. 
Gray, from Lower California. 
Tomato — The Origin of , horn a morphological standpoint. — L. 

H. Bailey, Jr. (The Am. Garden, April, 1887, pp. 116, 

twelve figures.) 

The author concludes that " most of the large varieties of 
tomatoes give unmistakable evidence of development from the 
cherry tomato, which has regularly a two-celled fruit." 

Trifolium — Some West American Species of. — Edward Lee 

Greene. (Pittonia, i., pp. 4-6.) 

Critical notes on nine species are given, among them T. oliva- 
ceum, T. columbinum, T triflorum, T. Rusbyi, T. exile, and T. 
laciniatum, sp. nn. 
Von Schweinits — Lewis David. (Journ. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, 

l885-'86, pp. 9-24, with portrait.) 

A very interesting biographical sketch of this eminent natur- 
alist, based on a paper by Mr. Walter R. Johnson, published by 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, in 1835. 
Zauschneria — The Species of. — Edward Lee Greene. (Pittonia, 

i., pp. 23-28.) 

Five species are recognized, three of them here first described. 

Botanical Notes, 

We have received the following circular from J. Donnell 
Smith, which is worthy of interest, especially as the collection 
will be named at Berlin by most eminent authorities. 

Baron Eggers has been engaged by the undersigned, and 
under the patronage of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin, 
to undertake a journey of botanical research in the higher moun- 
tain regions of San Domingo that have not yet been explored. 
The plants to be collected will be distributed in two series with 
corresponding numbers. The first series will embrace such plants 
as have not already been distributed in Eggers' Flora Indice Oc- 
cidentalis Exsicc, and will cost forty (40) marks per hundred. 
The second and larger series will omit only the ubiquitous 
tropical species, especially those of the sea-coast, and will cost 
thirty (30) marks per hundred. The determinations will be 
elaborated by the undersigned, assisted by various monographers. 
He will be pleased to receive subscriptions to either series, but 
without prepayment In view of the difficulties of transportation 
on the Island, only a limited number of sets will be collected, and 
a prompt notification is requested from those who wish to sub- 
scribe. Dr. Ign. Urban. 
Friedenau bei Berlin, Germany. 

The Summer School of Botany of Harvard University will 
be held at Cambridge, Mass., July 6th to August 6th, 1887, and 
will include laboratory work in morphology and cryptogamic 
botany under the direction of Mr. J. E. Humphrey, and lectures 
by Prof Goodale four times a week. Application should be 
made to Mr. Humphrey, 6 Divinity Hall. 

Professor Joseph Schrenk announces two series of classes in 
Botany at the College of Pharmacy. An afternoon class in 
Structural and Systematic Botany, beginning Wednesday, April 
6th, and an evening class in histology and physiology of plants, 
beginning April 7th and ending June 30th. Tickets may be ob- 
tained at the College, 209 East 23d Street, New York. 

The new Index of Plant Names. In the Journal of Botany 
for March, 1887, Mr. B. Daydon Jackson gives a very interesting 

107 , 

account of the progress of the work of preparing this much needed 
index, which is based on Bentham and Hooker's Genera Pianta- 

It was begun five years ago, shortly after the death of Charles 
Darwin, who bequeathed a sum for the purpose of supplying a 
want which he had long felt. 

Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattmigen und 
wichtigeren Arten. The first part of this valuable publication is 
written by O. Drude and devoted to the palms. It is fully and 
handsomely illustrated. Much space is given to the description 
of anatomy and morphology, and in the systematic portion we 
find much useful information regarding the economic products 
of these plants. The past history of each genus of which fossil 
representations have been found is given. The work is edited by 
Professors Engler and Prantl, and published at a remarkably low 
price by Engelmann, in Leipzig. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held at Columbia College, 
on April 1 2th, twenty-two persons present, the Vice-President 
in the Chair. 

Hon. J. D. Cox, of Cincinnati, Ohio ; Romaine B. Hough, 
of Lowville, N. Y. ; Rev. R. D. Nevins, of Olympia, Washing- 
ton, and Professor H. L. Smith, o'f Geneva, N. Y., were elected 
Corresponding Members. 

The following members were appointed to act as a Field Com- 
mittee for the season : — J. F. Poggenburg, Miss Alice B. Rich 
and N. L. Britton. 

Attention was called to the proposed meeting of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science in N. Y., Aug. 
lOth, and the President was requested to appoint a committee 
to represent the Club at the meeting of delegates from the 
several societies of the city and vicinity to be held on April 29th. 
The President appointed Judge Addison Brown, Dr. T. F. Allen, 
Mr. F. J. H. Merrill, Mrs. N. L. Britton and Miss Winifred 
Edgerton, Ph.D., such committee. 

Mrs. Britton read a communication from Dr. Thos. F. Wood, 


of Wilmington, N. C, stating that the Pyxidanthera shown at 
the last meeting had been collected in the vicinity of that city. 

Mr. Sterns reported his observation of three fold trichotomy 
in a tendril of Bignonia capreolata, L., which had three main 
branches, each with three secondary branches, one of the latter 
having three distinct tertiary branchlets tipped with small disks 
resembling those of Ampelopsis. He also remarked on an ap- 
parent order in the arrangement of the prickles of Rosa Sinica, 
the Cherokee Rose, there being three to each internode, a pair of 
them sub-opposite and just below the node and nearly at right 
angles to the petiole, and the other considerably lower down and 
in a line with it. 

Mr. J. I. Northrop showed a specimen of Polypodium inca- 
num from Florida, where it is known as the " Resurrection Fern," 
from its habit of curling up when dry and expanding when wet. 

Miss Steele showed a specimen of Richardia having two 
spathes, one below the other, sent by Dr. O. R. Willis. 

Professor Schrenk showed specimens of a fungus found grow- 
ing under the bark of a dead tree, apparently Rhizomorpha sub- 
corticalis, and remarked on its resemblance to those shown at the 
last meeting from the Dickerson Iron Mine, N. J. 

Mrs. Britton showed a specimen of the fruit of Liquidambar 
illustrating elongation of the inflorescence. 

Dr. Britton read a communication from Rev. Dr. J. E. Peters, 
of Mays Landing, N. J., accompanying a specimen of Phoraden- 
dron flavescens collected in the neighborhood of that place. It 
is there found exclusively on Nyssa miiltiflora. He remarked 
that thin sections of the branches revealed the presence of 
chlorophyll in the pith and showed microscope preparations to 
illustrate this fact. He also exhibited a curious specimen of 
wood from the collection of the late Professor Holmes of 
Charleston, S. C. ; it is nearly a foot in diameter, hollow, ^d of 
a peculiar plumose structure. It was found at the base of a tree 
near Charleston, and appears from microscopical examination to 
be of the Bald Cypress {Taxodium distichum) 

The paper announced for the evening, " Notes on a Col- 
lection of Texas Plants," by H. H. Rusby and N. L. Britton, was 
then read. It will be published hereafter. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Plate LXIX. 

Staten Island Diatoms. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, June, 1887. [No. 6. 

A Descriptive List of Staten Island Diatoms.* 

Plate LXIX. 

Navicula viridis, Kiitz. 

Navicula viridis. Van H., Syn. Diat. Bel., pi. V., fig, 5; Sm., Syn., p. 54, 
pi. XVIII., fig. i<53; Kiitz., Bacill., p. 97, t. IV., fig. 18, t. XXX., fig. 12; Schum., 
Diat. d. H. Tatra, p. 71, t. III., fig. 47; O'Meara, Rep. on th Irish Diat., p. 341, 
pi. XXX., fig. 3; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 907, pi. IX., figs. 135, 136; Rab. Siiss. 
Diat., p, 42, t. VI., fig. 4; Bran. Diat., p. 83, pi. VIII., fig. 5. 

Navicula viridula, Kii'z., Bacill., XXX., 47; CI. and Gr., Arct. Diat., p. 33, t. 
II., fig. 35; Van H., pi. VII., fig. 25. 

Finnularia viridula, W. Sm., Syn., Vol. I., p. 57, pi. XVIII., fig. 175. 

Bacillaria viridis, Nilsch, t. VI., figs. 1-3. 

Finnularia viridis, W. Sm. 

Valve elliptical linear, with rounded apices ; costae parallel, 
broad, slightly radiant, shorter opposite the central nodule ; a 
longitudinal, free, median space. 

Hab. — Fresh water, frequent. Clifton, New Brighton, New 
Dorp. (Plate LXIX., fig. i.) 

This species has been attributed to various authors, but if 
Kiitzing be right in supposing it to be the Bacillaria viridis, 
Nitsch, 18 17, it should be attributed to the last named author, 
as Heiberg has done. Smith assigns the species to himself, al- 
though regarding it as r= Navicula viridis, Ehr. Rabenhorst 
attributes it to himself, while Grunow attributes it to Kiitzing, 
Grunow makes this form the type of the group Virides, but 
seems to regard Navicula major, which he includes among the 
Nobiles, to be only a variety of Navicula viridis. Speaking of 
this former he says : "It appears to me to be only a variety of 
Nav. viridis ; tolerably numerous figures which lie before me 

• CMiitiiuicd from pag,; 73. 


present such manifold transitions, as well in respect to the ap- 
pearance of the striation as to the outline of the form, that in 
most cases it is difficult to decide whether the specimen should 
be referred to one or the other." The correctness of this remark 
is obvious to all careful observers, but still the species seem to be 

The following characters seem to distinguish Navicula viridis 
from A^. major : The costse are finer and less radiate ; the median 
free space is narrower and less expanded around the central 
nodule, and the normal outline is linear-elliptical. — 0' Meara. 

Navicula pusilla, W. Sm. 

Navicula pusilla, Sm., Syn., Vol. i., p. 52, pi. XVII., fig. 145; Ralfs in Prit. 
Infus., p. 900; Donkin, Brit. Dials., p. 20, pi. III., figs. 6a and 6b. ; Brun., p. 75> 
pi. VII., fig. 36b; Van Heurck, Syn. Dial. Belg., pi. XI., fig. 17; O'Meara, Rep. 
on the Irish Diat., p. 381, pi. 32, fig. 14; Rabenh., E. Diat., p. 193. 

Navicula gastroides, Greg. 

Navicula tumida, var. subsalsa^ Grunow. 

Valve small, broadly oval with produced short truncate ends ; 
striae distinct, moniliform and reaching to the median line, con- 
vergent opposite the central nodule and radiate towards the apices. 

Hab. — Brackish water, scarce. Salt Meadows at New Dorp. 
(Plate LXIX., fig. 2.) 

Prof. Gregory distinguished his Navicula gastroides from this 
species by its stouter habit and larger size ; but we unite them, 
as Prof Smith has done, being unwilling to add another doubt- 
ful species to this group, which we believe is already too numer- 
ous. — Ralfs. 

Navicula oblonga, Kiitz. 

Navicula oblonga, Kiitz., Bacill., p. 97, t. IV., fig. 21; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 
907; O'Meara, Rep. on the Irish Diat., p. 344, pi. 30, fig. lo; Van Heurck, Syn. 
Diat. Relg., pi. VII., fig. i. 

Pinnularia oblonga, Brun., p. 82, pi. VIII., fig. 3; Sm., Syn., Vol. i., p. 55, pi- 
XVIII., fig. 165; Rabenh., SUssw. Diat., p. 45, t. VI., fig. 6. 

Navicula macilenta, Ehr., Infus., 1838, t. XXI., fig. 13. 

Pinnularia macilenta, Ehr., 1844. 

Pinnularia polyptera, Ehr. 1844. 

Valve elliptical linear, with broad, rounded extremities, 
costae stout, convergent at the centre, and radiate towards the 
ends ; intermediate free space narrow, but roundly expanded at 
central nodule. 


Hab. — Fresh water ; New Brighton, Clifton, New Dorp, fre- 
quent. (Plate LXIX., fig. 3.) 

We follow Kiitzing and Smith in referring P. macilenta, Ehr., 
to this species. Ehrenberg's figures, however, differ from theirs 
in being more linear, with less tapering apices. — Ralfs. 

The form described by Rabenhorst, Siiss. Diat., p. 45, t VI., 
fig. 6, as Pinnularia oblonga, is obviously different from the 
present species. — O' Meara. 

Navicula mesotyla, Ehr. 

Navicuia mesotyla, Kutz., Bacill., p. gg, t. V., fig. 3, t. XXVIII, fig. 84; Ralfs 
in Prit. Infus., p. 895: Schumann, Diat. der Hohen Tatra, p. 77, pi. IV., fig. 51. 

Valve with triundulating margins terminating in obtuse 
rounded apices ; striae slightly connivent ; longitudinal free 
median space broader at the nodules and between the outward 
bulging undulations. 

Hab. — Fresh water; New Dorp, rare. (Plate LXIX., fig. 4.) 

Navicula mesolepta, Ehr. 

Navicula mesolepta, Kiltz., Bacill., p. loi, t. XXVIII., fig. 73, t. XXX., fig- 34; 
Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 894; Van Heurck, Sjn. Diat. Belg., pi. VI., figs. 10, 11. 
Pinnularia mesolepta, Sm., Syn., Vol. i., p. 58, pi. XIX., fig. 182. 

■ Valve elongated linear; margins triundulating, forming 

three equal central inflations, and terminating in broad, rounded 

extremities ; costas reaching to the median line. 

Hab. — Fresh water, scarce. New Dorp. (Plate LXIX., 

fig- 5-) 

^Navicula riiomboides, Ehr. 

Navicula rhomboides, Kiitz , Bacill., p. 94, t. XXVIII., fig. 45, t. XXX., fig. 
44; Rabenh., Siissw. Diat., p. 38, t. V., fig. 13; Sm., Syn., Vol. i., p. 46, pi. XVI., 
fig. 129, and Vol. ii., p. 90; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 903; Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 42, 
pi. VI., fig. II; Brun, Diat. Alpes and Jura, p. 64, pi. VII., fig. 3f; Van Heurck 
Syn. Diat. Belg., pi. XVII., fig. i; O'Meara, Rep. on the Irish Diat., p. 374, pi. 
XXXI., fig. 49; Schumann, Diat. der Hohen Tatra, p. 68. 

Valve rhomboid-lanceolate ; extremities slightly rounded ; 
striae exceedingly fine and parallel ; central nodule but little 
developed, and hardly visible between two longitudinally juxta- 
posited cones formed by two median lines convergent toward the 
end nodules. 

Hab.—Yx&s'n water, frequent. (Plate LXIX., fig. 6.) 


Navicula inflata, Kiitz. 

Navicula inflata, Kiitz., Bacill., p. 99, t. III., fig. XXXVI., i, 2, 3; Sm., Syn., 
Vol. i., p. 50, pi. XVII., fig. 158; Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 21, pi. III., fig. 9; Ralfs 
in Prit. Infus., p. 899 ; Brun, Diat. Alpes and Jura, p. 76, pi. VII., fig. 15; O'Meara, 
Rep. on the Irish Diat., p. 413, pi. XXXIV., fig. 23. 

Pinniilaria inflata, Rabenh., Sussw. Diat., p. 44, t. V., fig. 10 c. 

Navicula follis, Ehr. 

Valve small, elliptical, with obtuse truncated extremities and 
inflated centre ; striae moniliform, radiate, reaching to the median 

Hab. — Fresh water, occasional; New Dorp. (Plate LXIX., 

fig- 7-) 

Navicula latissima, Greg. 

Navicula latissima, Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 17, pi. III., fig. 2; Ralfs in Prit. 
Infus., p. 903; O'Meara, Rep. on the Irish Diat., p. 379, pi. XXXII., fig. 6. 

Pinnularia divaricata, O'Meara, Q. Mic. Jour., n. s.. Vol. VII., p. 116, pi. 
v., fig. 7. 

Valve broadly elliptical, extremities slightly produced; inter- 
mediate free space expanded around the central nodule ; strias 
distinctly moniliform, convergent opposite the central nodule, 
and radiate towards the ends. 

Hab. — Marine, not abundant. South Beach, in deep water. 
(Plate LXIX., fig. 8.) 

Navicula sph^rophora, Kiitz. 

Navicula spharophora, KUtz., Bacill., p. 95, t. IV., fig. 17; Sm., Syn., Vol. I, 
p. 52, pi. XVII., fig. 148; Rabenh., Sussw. Diat., p. 40, t. VI., fig. 65a; Ralfs in 
Prit. Infus., p. 899; Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 34, pi. V., fig. 10; Van Heurck, Syn. 
Diat. Belg., pi. XII., fig. 2; O'Meara, Rep. on the Irish Diat., p. 360, pi. XXXI., 
fig. n; Brun, Diat. Alpes and Jura, p. 67, pi. VII., fig. 16. 

Valve elliptical, constricted into produced capitate apices ; 
striae punctate and slightly convergent, not reaching the median 

Hab. — Fresh water, not frequent. Clifton. (Plate LXIX,, 
flg- 9-) 

Navicula punctata, Kiitz. 

Navicula punctata, Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 36, pi. V., fig. 12; O'Meara, Rep. 
on the Irish Diat., p. 380, pi. XXXII., fig. 10. 

Stauroneis punctata, Kiitz., BacTU., p. 106, t. XXL, fig. 9; Sm., Syn., Vol. i., 
p. 61, pi. XIX., fig. 189; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 912; Van Heurck, Syn. Diat. Belg., 
pi. X., fig. 14; ISrun., Diat. Alpes and Jura, p. 90, pi. IX., fig. 4. 

Stauroptera punctata, Rabenh., Sussw. Diat., p. 50, t. IX., fig. II. 

Valve elliptical, extremities capitate, narrow ; stria: punc- 

tate, radiate and interrupted at the central nodule by a stauronei- 
form blank space not reaching the margin of the valve. 

Had. — Fresh water. In streams, Clifton, frequent though 
not abundant. (Plate LXIX., fig. lo.) 

This species has been placed in the genus Stauroneis by Kiitz- 
ing, on account of the peculiar shortening of the striae opposite 
the central nodule ; it is, however, a genuine Navicula. — Donkin. 

A'avicula longa, Ralfs in Prit. Infiis., p. 906 ; Donkin, Brit. Dial., p. 55, pi. 
VIII., figs. 3a and 3b; O'Meara, Rep. on Irish Diat., p. 344, 345, pi. 30, fig. 11. 

Valve lanceolate, narrow ; costee stout, radiate, shorter oppo- 
site the central nodule. 

Hub. — Marine. South Beach on submerged timber. (Plate 
LXIX., fig. II.) 

Navicula rectangulata, Greg. 

Navicula rectangulata, Greg., Diat. of the Clyde, p. 7, pi. I., fig. 7; Ralfs in 
Prit. Infus., p. 907; Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 66, pi. X., fig. 5; O'Meara, Rep. on 
Irish Diat., p. 343, pi. 30, fig. 8. 

Pinnularia rectangulata, Rabenh., p. 215. 

Valve linear, with broadly rounded ends, bulging at the mid- 
dle ; intermediate free space narrow, but roundly inflated in the 
middle ; costa; stout, converging opposite the inflated space and 
radiate towards the extremities. 

/Ta^.— Marine. South Beach. (Plate LXIX., fig. 12.) 
Navicula major, Kutz. 

Namcula major, Kutz., Bicill., p. 97, t. IV., figs. 19 and 20; Ralls in Prit. 
Infus., p. 896, pi. VII., fig. 65; Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 69, pi. XL, figs. 2a and 2b; 
Van Heurck, Syn. Diat. Belg., pi. V., figs. 3 and 4; Schum., Diat. der Hohen 
Tatra, p. ^o■ 

Pinnularia major, Rabenh., Sussw. Diat., p. 42, t. VI., fig. 5; Sm., Syn., Vol. 
i., p. 54, pi. XVIII., fig. 162; Brun., Diat. Alpes and Jura, p. 84, pi. VIII. , fig. i. 

Valve broad, linear, distended in the middle and at the 
rounded extremities ; intermediate free space broad ; central 
nodule large and round ; costae stout, convergent opposite cen- 
tral nodule and slightly radiate towards the extremities. 
Hab. — Fresh water, frequent. (Plate LXIX., fig. 13.) 
This species scarcely differs from N. nobilis and A'', gigas, 
except by its somewhat smaller size and closer pinnules. — Ralfs. 
Navicula limosa, Kiitz. 

Navicula limosa, Ku!z., liacill., p. loi, t. III., fig. 50; Kai)enh., Sussw. Dat., 


p. 41, t. VI., tig. 31; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 894; Donkin, Brit. Diat., p. 73, pi. 
XII., figs. 6a and 6b; Brun, Diat. Alpes and Jura, p. 73, pi. VII., tig. 12; O'Meaia, 
Rep. on the Irish Diat., p. 368, pi. 31, fig. 30; Van Heurck, Syn. Diat. Belg., pi. 
XII., fig. 18. 

Navicuta gibberula, Kutz, Bacill., p. loi, t. III., fig. 50*; Sm., Syn., Vol. i., p. 
51, pi. XVII., fig. 160; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 895; Schumann, Diat. der Hohen 
Tatra, p. 76; Brun, Dia'. Alpes and Jura, p. 73, p!. VII., fig. 11; O'Meara, Rep. 
on the Irish Diat., p. 368; Van Heurck, Syn. Diat. Belg., pi. XII., fig. 19. 

Navicula leptogongyla, Kutz., Bacill., p. 99, t. IV., fig. 9; Rabenh.,Sussw. Diat., 
p. 41, t. v., fig. 8; Ralfs in Prit. Infus., p. 895. 

Valve with triundulating margin terminating in cuneate ex- 
tremities and forming three inflations, of which the central is the 
largest ; longitudinal free space narrow and slightly expanded at 
the middle ; striae fine and transverse. 

Hab. — Fresh water, frequent. (Plate LXIX., fig, 14.) 
Kutzing seems to have relied on size and outline in separating 
N. gibberula as a species distinct from N. limosa. — Donkin. 

Note on the Flowers of Populus hstercphylia, L- 

It appears that the flowers of this poplar have never been 
fully and accurately described. Dr. Torrey, in the Flora of New 
York, remarks that he had not seen the staminate catkins, and 
there are none in his herbarium. Having recently had occasion 
to collect a large number of both kinds of catkins at the time 
when they were just mature (May 8), I made a careful examina- 
tion of them, and here place my observations on record. 

The staminate are from 5 cm. to 7 cm. long, oblong, 15 
mm. thick ; they are extremely fragile, merely shaking the tree 
causing them to fall to the ground in great numbers, while a hard 
rain was noticed to have the same effect. They do not fall away 
from the branch entire under such circumstances, but break off" 
at a short distance from the base ; they are borne singly on wood 
of the previous year a few inches from the terminal buds of the 
present, but rarely more than two on each twig. They are com- 
posed of numerous flowers, very densely aggregated when 
young, but becoming looser in the elongation of the axis. Their 
flowers consist of an oblique disc with spreading border, some 
what concave in the middle, which supports numerous stamens 
(in one 44 were counted) ; the anthers are oblong and obtuse, 
3 mm. long by I mm. broad, flat on the dorsal side and provided 


with a low central ridge and two slight parallel grooves on the 
ventral side; the filaments are capillary and nearly the length of 
the anthers ; the staminate scales are very early deciduous, falling 
away as the catkin elongates in growth ; they are 5-6 mm. long 
and about the same width, with a cuneate base abruptly expanded 
above and lacerated, the lateral divisions ciliate ; the line of 
junction of the lacerated portion with the basal part is of a darker 
color than the base and quite conspicuous. 

The pistillate catkins are from 2 to 5 cm. long when the 
stigmas reach a receptive condition, and this appears to be the 
case just as the male flowers arc mature. Their flowers consist 
of a single pistil in a calyx about 2 mm. high and half as wide, 
lacerate toothed at the summit and borne on a peduncle 2 mm. 
long (which elongates in friiit to 15-20 mm.) ; the pistil is about 
10 mm. high, its ovary obtusely triangular in section, with slightly 
concave sides and ovoid in shape, provided with three broad, 
parietal placentae, and containing many ovules ; the style is 
slender and 2 mm. long ; the stigma at first appears irregularly 
ridged, is 5 mm. across, and very fleshy, but not glutinous, and 
soon parts into three lobes, each of which is two or three-lobed, 
forming a quite complex structure. The pistillate scales are at- 
tached near the base of the peduncle, are 8-10 mm. long, con- 
cave around the flower, and provided with small lobes just 
above the stalk-like, flat base, and are ciliate all around, except 
the lower portion below these lobes. These scales are also 
fugacious, falling off with the slightest shock. 

A correction must be made in Dr. Watson's " Notes on 
American Poplars," in Amer. Journ. Sci., Vol. xv., 1878, where 
P. heterophylla is grouped with P. tremuloides, Michx., and 
P. grandidentata, Michx., " styles two, with two or three nar- 
row or filiform lobes." The style-lobes are dilated, and three in 
number. My specimens were obtained near Court House Sta- 
tion, .Staten Island, where the tree is quite abundant on the bor- 
ders of swamps. I will gladly supply both kinds of flowers to 
those who care for them, and will collect mature fruit and leaves 
for distribution later in the season. 

N. L. Brixton. 
Columbia College, May 10, 1887. 


Some Californian Ranunculi. 
By Edward L. Greene. 

The first one I would mention, although it is a very common 
plant of the California Coast Range, and especially plentiful 
among the hills back of Oakland and south of San Francisco, 
was first noticed in the Botany of the State Geological Survey 
(1876), where it is named R. hebecarpus, var. pusillus. The 
flowers of this plant have not yet been described. They are so 
minute as to become, in the dried specimen, nearly invisible. 
Even with the fresh plant in hand, something better than a pocket 
lens is requisite to the revealing of their characteristics, which 
are very unique indeed. They are remarkable among flowers of 
this genus both for the extreme paucity of their parts, and for 
the very curious kind of symmetry which they display. 

By way of preparing the reader's mind to rightly appreciate 
the symmetry referred to, and which I am about to describe, let 
me say that the flowers ofRanuncuH in general are not so wholly 
unsymmetrical as they are commonly allowed to be. The sepals 
are five, the petals five (in some species ten or fifteen), the sta- 
mens and pistils both (theoretically at least, and often in fact), of 
some larger multiple of five. Of the species here under con- 
sideration, I have examined this year some scores of examples, 
and I find the following to be the rule of its floral structure. It 
has, instead of the five sepals of ordinary Ranunculi, four only ; 
and these four sepals are, moreover, not flat and reflexed accord- 
ing to the rule in the genus, but spreading and somewhat cymbi- 
form, each embracing a pistil, much after the manner in which 
a number of the Californian Compositae have the ovaries of their 
ray-flowers enfolded each by a corresponding invohicral bract. 

In the place of the missing sepal of the five there occurs, or- 
dinarily, not a petal but a stamen. That this particular stamen, 
which stands by itself alongside the one akene that lacks a sub- 
tending sepal, replaces the missing sepal we know from the fact 
that the stamens themselves are as definite in number as are the 
sepals, each of them as strictly keeping its own place ; and the 
stamens too are four only. The petal is solitary, and, instead of 
taking the place, as it might have been expected to do, of the 


missing sepal, it appears on the opposite side of the flower, there 
replacing what might have been a fifth stamen. We have then, 
so far, four sepals, one petal and four stamens, making collectively 
nine parts of the flower ; and the symmetry is completed, up to 
the requisite number of fifteen parts, by the pistils being, as they 
almost always are, just six, of which five are inserted in a whorl 
around the margin of the minute receptacle, and the sixth sits 
centrally and apart from the rest on the summit of it. Such is 
the ordinary number and arrangement of the parts of the flower 
in this most interesting little plant. I have observed, however, 
not a few instances of deviation from the rule ; but these have 
been what may be called, if the paradoxical phrase may be 
allowed, very regular deviations from the rule, not affecting the 
numerical total of fifteen parts to each flower. There may be 
five pistils and two petals, the stamens and sepals each remaining 
four ; or five pistils, five stamens, one petal and four sepals. 
When the petals are two, one of them takes the place of the 
missing sepal and is, in some respects, intermediate between a 
sepal and a petal, being uncommonly large for a petal of the 
species, and destitute of any trace of the nectariferous pit. In 
this case, too, the second petal is reduced in size, and appears like 
a kind of half-way affair between petaland stamen. The normal 
solitary petal seen under a good magnifier consists of rather dis- 
tinct lamina and claw, with a comparatively large nectariferous 
pit (without scale) located at base of the lamina, which last named 
part about equals the claw in length. The plant is strictly 
annual, very slender, weak and often reclining, growing in shady 
and rather wet places, often in company with Montia fontana. 
The typical R. hebecarpus inhabits the Sierra Nevada, rather 
beyond my reach. It is quite different in appearance, and, 
although much cannot be learned about its flowers from the dried 
specimens, its akenes are many and quite indefinite, forming a 
close round head. For the variety here described I dare not yet 
propose that specific name and rank which it will some day com- 
mand, if the other fail to exhibit more or less of its really won- 
derful characteristics. I wait for some possible coming oppor- 
tunity of comparing the two in living specimens. 

From this, perhaps, smallest of all Ranunculi, I pass to give an 


account of what is no doubt the very largest of the genus, namely : 

Ranunculus maximus. Stems thick and fistulous, 2 to 5 
feet long, but weak and reclining : herbage more or less bristly- 
hirsute: leaves broad, alternately divided, the radical on petioles i 
to i^ feet long, leaflets laciniately lobed ; petals five to eight, and 
10 lines long, oblong-obovate, obtuse, the nectariferous scale 
correspondingly large ; akenes compressed, but not strongly so, 
rather thick, tipped with a long, stout, erect, slightly incurved 
style, forming a globose or round-ovate head. J^. macranthus. 
Brew. & Wats., Bot. Cal, i, 8, not of Scheele; R. orthorhynchus, 
V3.r. platyphylhis, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, xxi, 377, as to the 
Californian plant at least. 

Were I compelled to choose between the two different dispo- 
sals of this plant which have been made by the authors above 
cited, I should take the first. It is surely every way more like 
the Mexican R. macranthus than it is like R. orthorhynchus of 
the Columbia River region. The good fruit characters of the 
latter species, as shown in well-matured specimens from near 
Portland, Oregon, and which agree perfectly with Hooker's 
figure, are these : a much compressed thin akene ; styles rather 
slender, perfectly straight and conspicuously spreading, i. e. 
standing out in all directions at right angles with the center of 
their axis, giving a very bristling aspect to the head. In R. 
maximus they are, as I have said, not only not straight ; they 
are spreading, but in a less degree, pointing in a direction more 
inclined to a parallel with the axis. The remarkable differences 
of foliage, size and habit of the two plants need not here be 
repeated. They can be learned by reference to any description 
of the original and unconfused R. orthorhynchus. 

Our most common Californian species of this genus, the one 
which makes yellow with its brilliant bloom all the running hill- 
sides of the western parts of the State in the months of March 
and April, appears to have been passing for many years under 
a name which, by right of priority, does not belong to it, and 
which should therefore be rejected from henceforth. It is 

Ranunculus Deppd, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. N. Am. i, 
21 (under R. acris), A.D., 1838= A'. Cali/ornicus, Benth. PI. 
Hartw., 295, A.D., 1857. 


Both Ferdinand Deppe, (1832) and Thomas Nuttall, 1836, 
had famihar knowledge of the species in their Californian travels 
about a dozen years before Theodore Hartweg came this way. 
Nuttall named the species for Deppe, it would appear. Then, 
some twenty years later, Mr. Bentham in treating of Hartweg's 
Californian collections, named the plant /?. Californiciis, and this 
new synonym was forthwith adopted by the American authorities, 
who thus relegated to obscurity or oblivion the true and rightful 

DicBcism in Anemona acutiloba, Lawson. 

In the Anemone acutiloba, Lawson, there is a manifest ten- 
dency to be dicEcious. A year ago a plant was found, all the 
flowers of which were strikingly different from those of other 
plants near by. The dark-blue calyx was much smaller than the 
involucre, and the stamens were wanting. The pistils 
were from thirty-five to forty in each blossom, or about 
double the average number in perfect flowers. Only abortive 
stamens were found in two of the flowers. The stamens are 
numerous in normal flowers, and on account of their absence, if 
for no other reason, the blossoms under consideration appeared 
different from the ordinary sort. In addition to the absence of 
the stamens and the small size of the calyx, there was an unex- 
pected development of the involucre. Instead of the ordinary 
number, there was a fourth bract which, although green, had the 
size and shape of the sepals. It, however, occupied a position 
close by the sides of the other bracts, and made up a part of the 
involucre which, in this Anemone, is situated a half inch or more 
below the flower. 

Another deviation noticed in the involucre, was the much 
greater development of one of the bracts, and the dentate or 
notched tip which it possessed. The flower under consideration 
is shown (natural size) at a in the engraving. At b the same 
flower is seen with the calyx laid back so as to better indicate its 
size and the appearance of the centre of the flower with its pis- 
tils only. A rear view of the same blossom is given at c. In all 
of these the exaggerated size of one bract is easily seen, as also 
the manner in which its tip is developed into three quite sharp 


teeth. It is also not difficult to locate the fourth bract, which is 
seen to be much smaller than the other three, and in shape like 
the sepals. There is also the absence of that hirsutness charac- 
teristic of all leafy parts of the plant. 

The appearance of a pistillate flower without any monstrous 
developments, is shown at d. Here the regularity of parts is well 
observed. The bracts are of equal size, and are somewhat 

broader and longer than the six equal-sized sepals situated a short 
distance above them. 

No staminate flowers were found last year; but this spring 
they came to light and were discovered by a student while exam- 
ining specimens of the Hepatica in class. The stamens are more 
numerous than in perfect flowers. In ordinary blossoms there 
are about thirty stamens, while in the staminate flowers there 
were forty or more. The pollen from these male flowers was 
found, by measurement, to be of the same size (40-45 microm.) 
as that of perfect flowers, and to all appearance the 
same. A staminate flower, natural size, is shown at e. It will 
be observed that the sepals are much longer than the bracts, and 
shut them from view when looking down upon the flower. A 
staminate flower with the sepals removed is shown at/. The 
distance between the involucre and the flower is here seen. In 


older flowers this is much more, and when the plant is in fruit, 
the separation is still greater. 

At ^ is seen a form of the involucre of perfect flowers that is 
sometimes found. At first jight there are four bracts, but a fur- 
ther inspection shows that two of them are united at the basal 
end and side. However, the smallest of the three or four, as the 
case may be, is situated above the others, and bears a strong 
resemblance in form and texture to the sepals. If this one be an 
extra bract, it is natural to consider the deeply lobed bract as 
made up of two. Sometimes the four bracts are all of the same 
size, and are disposed in the form of a cross, as seen at h. The 
most interesting involucre, morphologically considered, is perhaps 
the one shown at i. In this there are four bracts, three of which 
are of nearly the same size, and the fourth smaller but green and 
hairy. This one occupies a place just above the larger and 
lower three. In the circle of sepals was one, a little larger 
than the others, one-half of which was green while the balance 
of the organ was white and petal-like. The green portion of the 
sepal is shown shaded in the engraving. This organ is fully a 
third of an inch above the abnomal involucre. 

The tendency toward a cleft condition of the bracts of the 
involucre is not extraordinary when we know that this Hepatica 
is now placed in the same genus with several species where the 
involucre, although quite remote from the flower, is made up of 
foliar organs which are often much incised. Anemone nemorosa 
L., and A. dichotoma, L., may be mentioned as close confreres in 
the genus, while on the other side is the old Thalictrum anemon- 
oides, Michx., which Spach placed in a new genus, namely, 
Anetnonella. The tip of our abnormal bract is more hke that of 
a leaflet of the Anemonella, or of a leaflet of Thalictrum dioiciim, 
L. The dioecious tendency also points in the same direction. 

Each reader is left to draw his own conclusions as to what the 
outcome in the future centuries may be ; whether we shall then 
have a truly dioecious species in Afiemone acntiloba or one divested 
of all traces of a separation of the sexes. 

Byron D. Halsted. 
Ames, Iowa, April 22, 1887. 

Some Anomalous Forms of Saxifraga Virginiensis. 

Along the steep rocky bank near the east shore of upper 
Manhattan Island there is a place, about on a line with One-hun- 
dred -and-sixtieth street, where Saxifraga Virginiensis, Michx., 
still grows abundantly. On April 17th of the current year, when 
the plants were just coming into full flower, I noticed among 
them one with apetalous blossoms, the conspicuous yellow anthers 
making a noticeable contrast with the pure white petals of the 
ordinary form. I collected the plant, but, unfortunately, lost it 
before a critical examination had been made. A week later I 
visited the place again, and found fully a dozen of these peculiar 
apetalous Saxifrages growing within a few feet of each other 
and only a few feet from the site of the one first observed. 

Upon close investigation these plants proved to be unques- 
tionable S. Virginiensis. In size, however, they were decidedly 
below the average of the norrnal form, the slender scapes being 
only two to four inches high, and there was no trace of petals or 
anything of a petaloid appearance discoverable in any of them. 
In most of the plants the flowers were few, small and singularly 
imperfect as regarded the stamens. These were a mere jumble, 
some of them only withered stumps of filaments, others sessile 
anthers greenish in color and curiously like ovaries in shape, and 
not one in twenty was normal in form or appeared capable of 
producing pollen. The pistils, though small, seemed the same 
as usual, but in general aspect the flowers were melancholy abor- 
tions, and if these specimens had been the only ones secured I 
should have concluded that the plants were merely the natural 
imperfect growth from imperfect seeds, and should have given 
them no further consideration. 

Happily, however, two out of the dozen or more collected 
were very different from their weaker brethren. In these two, 
which had more stocky scapes and a generally healthier look, I 
was surprised to find that nature had been creditably successful 
in establishing a new and definite order of things: In other 
words, the variation from the normal structure of the flower con- 
sisted in the regular conversion of the petals into stamens — that 
is to say, a single stamen stood opposite each calyx-lobe, and an 
anteposed pair opposite each calyx-sinus. This made the total 


number fifteen, the extra outer five occupying precisely the posi- 
tions of the five petals. The exact order here indicated pre- 
vailed in fully half the flowers on the two plants. In the others 
some part of the outer whorl was altogether missing, but there 
were always at least one or two of the anteposed pairs. In one 
case two such pairs were crowded in opposite a calyx-sinus, mak- 
iug seventeen perfect stamens in the one blossom. The pistils 
in these two plants appeared entirely normal. The anthers were 
rather larger than in the ordinary flowers, and, when ripe, had 
slightly reddish tips. Even in the bud they were fully exposed, 
the calyx-lobes not being large enough to close over them, a pe- 
culiarity which gave the plant a little resemblance to the com- 
mon mignonnette. I cannot say that this new form of Saxifraga 
Virgitiiensis is any prettier than the old-fashioned one, or even 
as pretty, but certainly in the fresh state the naked compact star- 
shaped clusters of anthers presented a very oddahd interesting 
appearance, stoutly usurping, as they did, the places of the ousted 
petals, and ranging in color from red-tipped yellow in the full- 
grown flowers to translucent white in the smaller buds. 

So far as I can learn, the form of Saxifraga Virginiensis 
here described is entirely unmentioned in botanical records. 
Other freaks of the species, however, are duly recorded. William 
Oakes, in Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture and Botany for 
May, 1847, established, on a plant found at Topsfield, Mass., 
in 1842, the "variety chlorantha, petals pale green instead of 
snow-white, . . . and margins and backs sprinkled with 
short hairs. ..." There is no hint of more than one plant 
ol this form having been observed by him, and the case, as the 
name frankly intimates, was plainly one of simple chloranthy, a 
form of teratology by no means infrequent. 

Another freak is recorded by Mr. Meehan, who reported in 
the American Naturalist for August, 1872, the finding of a 
double-flowered specimen at Woburn, Mass. In the BULLETIN 
for October of that year Mr. Leggett quotes this, and adds that 
he had seen a similar specimen. 

If we regard the two plants which I have described as merely 
teratologic, we bhall still find them of unusual interest, for they 
exemplify perfectly the rare staminody of petals, the exact re- 


verse of the usual change. So rare is this metamorphosis of 
petals to stamens that Masters, in his Vegetable Teratology, re- 
cords only two or three perfect examples of it. In the common 
shepherd's purse, Capsella Bursa-pastoris, he says such a change 
" has been observed," but he quotes no authority. The one pos- 
itive case, which seems to rest on his own observation, he states 
in these words : " There is in cultivation a form of Saxifraga 
grattulata, wherein the petals are replaced by stamens, so that 
there are fifteen stamens." 

5. granulata is a common European species, with large and 
handsome white flowers, and has been a garden plant for many 
years, and it is pretty certain that the variation occurred in some 
florist's establishment, and, being an oddity, was maintained in 
cultivation for a while by division, quite independent of seeds. 
In the present case, however, the new form appears in the wild 
state, and the plant must produce good seeds "after its kind" in 
order to be perpetuated and diff'used. To my mind the evidence 
is considerable that it is already doing this.* 

Now, why has this change occurred in two species of the 
self-same genus, separated as to station by over a thousand 
leagues of land and water ? Is this identity of variation in S. 
gramdata and 5. Virginiensis a mere coincidence ? Or have we 
here a striking case of atavism ? Is this variation the recurrence, 
in the descendants, of the peculiar and long obsolete structure of 
their common ancestor ? Was the progenitor of the hundred 
and sixty or more distinct Saxifragce of to-day a plant with 
apetalous and fifteen-stamened flowers ? We shall never know 
with certainty, but two of its descendants testify strongly in the 
affirmative. I would even go a step farther, and hazard the con- 
jecture that the original of the Saxifi^ges was dioecious, or at least 
polygamous. In the two perfect plants I have described the 
stamens were remarkably vigorous and well developed. In the 
ten or more others the stamens, as I have said, were singularly 
imperfect, and numbers of them were curiously ovary-like in ap- 
pearance. Is it possible that these plants were blindly struggHng 
to reproduce a primitive pistillate form ? A certain confirma- 

* In case the new form should perchance prove permanent, I propose for it the 
name: Saxifraga Virginiensis, var. PENTADECANnRA.— E. E. S. 


tion of this idea is found in the fact tliat in S. crassifolia an ab- 
normal increase in the number of pistils has been repeatedly 

The few conjectures in which I have indulged are confessedly 
mere speculation, and perhaps quite erroneous. However this 
may be, all botanists, I am sure, will agree that it will be well 
worth while to examine with special attention any apetalous 
Saxifragce that may hereafter be detected. 

E. E. Sterns. 

The Lateral Lines in the Leaf of Erythroxylon Coca- 
Commenting on the remarks of Prof Schrenk, elsewhere in- 
dexed, the writer would present the following observations on 
these lines, made during an extended study of the living plant: 
The leaf is longitudinally folded in the bud, the two lateral 
lines supporting the folds below, and the midrib and free borders 
of the leaf forming the upper edge of the bud. It does not 
necessarily follow that the lines are caused by the folding. The 
office of strengthening-tissues at such a point is obvious. It 
has long been accepted by importers that the prominence of these 
lines, and their proximity to the midrib, are characteristic of the 
quality of the leaf as a drug. As to the first part of this rule, 
it is borne out by the statements of the natives who chew the 
leaves. They select in preference a leaf exhibiting strongly pro- 
nounced lines; but I could not learn that their proximity to the 
midrib was at all considered by these people. Conditions of 
growth produce the greatest variation in the appearance of 
the leaf particularly as to these lines, and a corresponding de- 
gree of difference in the amount of alkaloids contained. As soon 
as a plant escapes from cultivation the leaves deteriorate, and the 
lines grow fainter until they disappear altogether. If the plant 
escape to a " pajinal," as the bare sunny hillsides are called, 
the leaves become thick and pubescent ; while if it escape to the 
deep forest they vary in the opposite direction, becoming large, 
pale, thin and flabby; but in either case the lines lose their 
prominence. I have extreme specimens of both these forms, 
with scarcely a trace of any lines, and in which no cocaine can 
be detected b)^ the nerves of the tongue. H. H. RUSBV. 


Index to Recent American Botanical Literature, 

Autumnal Changes in Maple Leaves. — W. K. Martin and S. B. 
Thomas. (Bot. Gaz., xii., pp. 78-81 ; four figures.) 

Boleti of the United States — Notes on the. — Chas. H. Peck. 
(Journ. Mycol., iii., pp. 53-55.) 

Botanical Drugs — A Corrected List of the English Commercial 

Names of. (Supplement >to the Pharmaceutical Era, Jan., 

Botanical Manuals for Students. — C. E. Bessey. Amer. Nat., 

xxi., pp. 376-379) 

This is a very convenient list of the most useful descriptive 
works on all groups of plants with special reference to the needs 
of American students. Approximate prices are given. 

Botanical Tramp through North Carolitta. — Gerald McCarthy. 

(Bot. Gaz., xii., pp. 76-78.) 
Development and Distribution of Vegetation — Sketches of the. — 

T. J. BurriU. (Bull. Sci. Assoc. Peoria, 111., 1887, pp. 51, 52.) 

Dicentra Canadensis. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., p. 152, one 

Erythronium Americatium. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., p. 148, 

colored plate.) 
Flora of Peoria. — J. T. Stewart. (Bull. Sci. Assoc. Peoria, 111., 

1887, pp. 28-33.) 

A general account of the plants found in the vicinity of Peoria. 

Flora of Rhode Island — Some Notes on the. — W. Whitman Bailey. 

(Proc. Newport Nat. Hist. Soc, i885-'86, pp. 3-13.) 
Forests of North America. — Prof N. S. Shaler. (Scribner's Mag- 
azine, May, 1887.) 
Fungal Disease of Colocasia. — J. H. Hart. (Bulletin of Informa- 
tion in regard to Agricultural Matters — I.) 
Attention is called to a disease of C. esculenta and C. anti- 
quorum which is prevalent in Jamaica. 

History of Garden Vegetables. — E. Lewis Sturtevant. (Amer. 
Nat, xxi.. pp. 321-333; continued.) 
In this part Dr. Sturtevant gives notes on Australian Spinage, 


{Chenopodium auncomum,'L\nd.); WAm, {Melissa officinalis, L.) 
species of Basella used as spinnge plants ; Basil, (species of Oci- 
nmm) ; and Beans, {Phascoltis vulgaris and P 7iana.) 

Horticultural Terminology. — I. L. H. Bailey, Jr. (Am. Gar- 
den, May, 1887.) 

Immigration of Animals and Platits. — Fred. Brendel, M.D., 
(Bull. Sci. Assoc, Peoria, III, 1887, pp. 88-92.) 

Indicative Plant?,. — R. W. Raymond, (Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. 
Eng., St. Louis meeting, October, 1886; advance sheets.) 
A very interesting paper dicussing the various plants which 
are supposed' to be indicative of metallic minerals. Figures are 
given of the zinc- violet ( Viola Calaminaria) of Europe, the 
" lead plant " {Amorpha canescens) and of Eriogoniim ovalifolium 
of the Rocky Mountain region, which Dr. Raymond thinks may 
be destined to bear the title of " silver plant." The interesting 
fact is recorded that in pink-flowered plants of the Eriogonum, 
the presence of arsenic was proved by chemical analyses made by 
Mrs. Richards, while in yellow-flowered ones arsenic was not 

Leo Lesquerenx. — Sketch of, with portrait. By L. R. McCabe. 
(Pop. Sci. Month., xxx., pp. 835-840.) 

List of Works on North American Fungi, with the Exception of 
Schisomycetes, published before 1887. — W. G. Farlow and 
William Trelease. (Harvard Univ. Bull., iv., pp. 444-458; to 
be continued.) 

This is the first part of a most useful and voluminous biblio- 
graphical work, which we hope to note at greater length when it 
shall have been completed. The titles are under authors' names, 
which are arranged alphabetically. 

Local Names of Plants. — C. F. Wheeler. (Pharm. Era., i., 

p. 25.) 

Mr. Wheeler notes that Cicuta maculata is known as 
" Fletcher Weed," in Worcester Co., Mass., from the circumstance 
that in the early history of Oakham a woman named Fletcher, 
driven by hunger, ate some of the roots, which caused her 


North American Fungi — The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 
of Messrs. Ellis and Everhart's. — C. E. Bessey. (Amer. Nat, 
xxi., pp. 379, 380.) 
Nova Scotian Fungi — Additiotts to the List of. — J. Somers. 
(Proc. and Trans. Nov. Scot. Inst. Nat. Sci., vi., pp. 286-288.) 
Twenty-three species are enumerated. 
Nova Scotia — New and Rare Plants of— ]. Somers. (Proc. and 
Trans. Nova Scotian Inst. Nat. Sci., vi., pp. 281, 282.) 
Notes are given on Cnicus muticus, white-flowered Cypripe- 
diutn acaule, Apios tuberosa with a very large tuber, Solidago 
sempervirens and Polygala sanguinea. 
Oxytropis Lamberti. (Garden, xxxi., plate 552.) 
Pacific Coast Alders.— Q. C. Parry. (Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., ii., 
PP- 351-354; reprinted.) 

Dr. Parry gives a general account of the history of the Amer- 
ican Alni, and concludes that A. rhombifolia, Nutt, of the 
Pacific Coast and A. oblongifolia, Torrey, of New Mexico, are but 
forms of the same species, Nuttall's name having priority. 
Pharamacognostical Notes. — Joseph Schrenk. (American Drug- 
gist, April 1887.) 

Valeriana, Arnica, Serpentaria, Aconitum Napellus and 
Rhamnus Purshiana are all remarked upon from a pharmacog- 
nostical standpoint. The two characteristic lines or ridges on the 
lower surface of the leaf of Erythroxylon Coca had been de- 
scribed by Hanausek and other authors as " folds " in the blade. 
Prof Schrenk shows, by figuring a cross-section, that these lines 
consist of sub-epidermal strands of collenchyma cells, and sug- 
gests that they might serve as an elastic stiffening to the blade. 
Very curious forms of branched glandular hairs detected on the 
leaf of tobacco are described and figured. Prof Schrenk found 
them rather abundantly on very young leaves, but quite sparingly 
on commercial tobacco. 
Photograph of Ophioglossacece. 

Mr. George E. Davenport has sent us a beautiful photograph 
of American Ophioglossaceae, taken from a set prepared by 
him for the Middlesex Institute. He is willing to furnish 
copies to botanists at 35 cents each. 


Finns macrocarpa. {Coulter's Pine.) (Garden, xxxi., p. 1"]% \ 
two figures.) 

Plant Heliostat. — Byron D. Halsted. (Bot. Gaz., xii., pp. 82, Zt,}) 
Professor Halsted describes the curious habit of the leaves of 
Malva borealis in Southern California of following the sun in its 
daily course, always presenting their upper surfaces to the liglit. 
In cloudy weather this heliotropism is not nearly so marked. 

Plants Collected in and around Truro, during the Summer of 
1885 — Supplementary List of . — G. G. Campbell. (Proc. and 
Trans. Nova Scotian Inst. Nat. Sci., vi., pp. 283-285.) 
53 species are enumerated. 

Plants of the Island of Rhode Island — Native. — //. (Proc. 
Newport Nat. Hist. Soc, 1885-6, pp. 13-15.; 

Rhamnus — Californian Species of . (Pharm. Era., i., p. 150, from 
a paper by Jas. G. Steele in Pacific Rec. Med. and Surg.) 

Scrophularia aquatica and S. nodosa — The Inflorescence^ Floral 
Structure and Fertilization of. — T. Wemyss Fulton. (Trans, 
and Proc. Bot. Soc, Edinburgh, xvi., pp. 379-389, one plate.) 

Tomato Rot. (Amer. Nat., xxi., pp. 380,381.) 

The editor reviews Dr. Arthur's paper in the Fifth Annual Re- 
port of the U. S. Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Ustilaginece and Uredifice — New Species of. — J. B. Ellis and B. 
M. Everhart. (Journ. Mycol., iii., pp. 55-57.) 
Eleven new species are described. 

Vegetacion sabre las alias Montauas de Mexico, ( The Vegetation of 

the high Mountains of Mexico?) Henry de Saussure. (La 

Naturaleza, vii., pp. 333-349.) 

This very interesting paper is a comparison of the vegetation 
on the volcanic cones of Mexico with that on the Alps, and some 
very singular conclusions are reached : 

1st. — The forests extend to almost 5,000 feet greater altitude 
in Mexico than on the Alps and end abruptly without straggling 
or dwarfing. The distance between the timber line and the 
limit of perpetual snows in each is about 2,500 feet. 


2d. — Herbaceous plants do not extend more than 4,000 feet 
higher than those on the Alps, and cease at the snow line. 

3d. — The lichens do not reach any greater altitude, if as great, 
as they do on Mont Blanc. 

After discussing the various meteorological differences and 
their effect on the vegetation, the author concludes that the causes 
which limit the extension upward of the herbaceous and crypto- 
gamic vegetation in Mexico are ^stival rather than hyemal. 

Volutella Ellisii. — A. B. Langlois. (Journ. Mycol., iii., p. 57.) 

Wisconsin Orchids. — John H. Dunlap. (Gard. Month., xxix., 

pp. 150, 151.) 

Notes on the species observed by the author with especial 
reference to their cultivation. 

Botanical Notes. 

BerberidcBriim Japonice Conspectus. In the Journal of the 
Linnaean Society, Vol. xxii., pp. 422-437, Tokutaro Ito presents 
an arrangement of the Japanese Berberidaceae. Caulophyllum 
thalictroides, Michx., appears to be as abundant in Japan as here ; 
the presence of Podophyllum peliatum, L., is not satisfactorily 
authenticated, though another species {P. Japonicum, T. Ito) is 
found ; the Japanese Achlys is referred to A. triphylla, D C, van 
Japonica, Ito, and a beautiful plate of it is given. 

On the Differentiation of the Tissues in Ftmgi. Mr. George 
Massee, in the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society for 
April, 1887, describes and illustrates the structure of several 
Hymenomycetes. He finds in several species of Polyporus a well- 
marked mechanical sheath in the stipe, about half a line in thick- 
ness, composed of densely matted hyphse with extremely thick 
walls. This mechanical support is expanded in the pileus 
to form a number of branched radiating ribs. The latex 
tubes of Lactarius and Russula are described, and the conclusion 
reached that this tissue is undoubtedly connected with nutrition, 
in the transportation of food material, as glycogen. The cystidia 
met with in the hymenium are regarded by Mr. Massee as only 
the ends of latex tubes. 

Karl Theodor Mohr. A biographical notice of this eminent 


botanist is published in the Pharmaceutische Rundschau, Feb , 

Solanum Carolinensc. L. I have a specimen of it in my herba- 
rium collected at Flatbush, Long Island, July 28th, 1865, by the 
late Wm. H. Leggett. E. S. Miller, Wading River. 

Diatom Slides. It may be of interest to some of our readers 
who are interested in diatoms, to know that Miss M. A. Booth, 
of Longmeadow, Mass., makes a specialty of preparing microscop- 
ical slides of named species as well as of general deposits. These 
slides are well-mounted and reliably named, and those who are 
seeking certain species to complete collections will do well to send 
for her list. C. H. K. 

At the Annual Reception of the Am. Museum of Nat. Hist, 
held Tuesday, May loth, there were placed on exhibition a series 
of the nests, eggs, and mounted specimens of American birds. 
Botanically, the mounting is exceedingly interesting, for all the 
details of the surroundings are so truthfully reproduced that it is 
possible to fjjive the specific names of the plants which are imi- 
tated, so naturally are they made. The lady who did this work 
is Mrs. Mogridge, who has done the modeling of flowers for 
South Kensington Museum, and whose services have been se- 
cured for the Nat. Hist. Museum by the liberality of Mrs. Rob- 
ert L. Stuart. All lovers of nature and art should see these 
cases of American birds. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held May lOth, the Pres- 
ident in the Chair, and twenty-five persons present. 

Dr. V. Harvard, U. S. A., Rev. R. E. Schuh, and Mr. W. R. 
Mitchell were elected active members. 

Mrs. Mogridge, British Museum of Natural History, Miss 
Lydia Shattuck, South Hadley, Mass., and R. S. Williams, of 
Great Falls, Montana, were elected corresponding members. 

The Herbarium Committee was requested to prepare a list of 
the rarer and more interesting plants of the vicinity, to be collected 
and distributed to the members of the Botanical Club of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science during 


the coming meeting in New York, in August, and it was resolved 
to invite the members of the Botanical Section of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia to participate in the excur- 
sion to Tom's River, N. J , May 28th to 30th. 

Mrs. Britten exhibited specimens of Asplenmm dentatum, A. 
myriophyllum, and A. rhizophyllum, var. Biscaynianum, collected 
in Florida by Mr. Isaac Holden, and distributed specimens of 
Buxbaiimia aphylla, collected by Dr. Chapin at Springfield, Mass. 

Mr. E. E. Sterns read a paper on " Some Abnormal Forms of 
Saxifraga Virginiensis" and exhibited a large number of other 
fresh plants in flower. 

Dr. N. L. Britton described the flowers of Populus hetero- 
phylla and distributed staminate and pistillate catkins. 

Proceedings of the Histologic and Crvptogamic Sec- 
tion, April 26th. — Miss E. Robertson exhibited some slides of the 
leaf and root of Sparganium showing stellate parenchyma in the 
leaf; also cross-sections of the stem of Galium asprellum with col- 
lenchyma on the angles, each angle terminating in a single-hooked 
cell. Mr. Northrop showed sections of the wood from the plu- 
mose growth of Taxodium distichutn exhibited at the last meet- 

Two slides showing water-pores of strawberry and Cyclamen 
were exhibited from Mrs. Winthrop Cowdin's collection. 

May 24th. J. I. Northrop exhibited sporidia of Gymnospo - 
rangiutn macropus, and specimens of Hydrodictyon and Nitella 
from Clove Lake brook, Staten Island, collected May 2d. 
Miss Jarrett examined pollens found floating in green masses 
from the same locality. Mrs. Britton showed active antherozoids 
of Aulacomnion palustre, each in most violent motion within the 
walls of their mother-cells, yet none of them were found free, 
though many of the cell- walls were torn so that there remained 
less than one-half of their circumference. Mr. Edgar J. Wright 
exhibited photo-micrographs of Diatoms and Desmids, pollens, 
wood-sections and pine-needles, and distributed some of them to 
the members present. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Plate LXX. 

Redfieldia flexuosa, Vasey. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, July, 1887. [No. 7. 

Redfieldia, a new Genus of Grasses. 
By Dr. Geo. Vasey. 

Plate LXX. 

Redfieldia flexuosa. — Culms smooth, flexuous, i| to 3 
feet high, from a strong creeping rhizoma (apparently growing 
in deep sand), leaves i to i^ feet long, or more, mostly near the 
base, rigid, slender, smooth, involute and equaling or nearly 
equaling the culm, the sheaths longer than the internodes ; ligule 
a short, hairy ring. Panicle elongated, lax, half or more than 
half the length of the culm, with distant, alternate spreading 
branches, naked below, the lower ones 4 to 6 inches long, gradu- 
ally shorter upwards, the sparse filiform branchlets and pedicels 
divergent and few-flowered, pedicels }^ inch to i inch or more 
in length. Spikelets ovate, compressed, 2 to 2^ lines long, 
three to five-flowered, the flowers crowded, the base and the 
short rhachilla beset with long or short white hairs. Empty 
glumes about half the length of the spikelet, ovate- lanceolate, 
acute, one-nerved, thinner than the flowering glumes, the lower 
I line long, the upper a little longer and broader. Flowering 
glumes i%to 2 lines long, compressed, thickish and rather rigid, 
acute or short-mucronate, or erose-denticulate, ovate-lanceolate, 
wide below, tapering above, smoothish or minutely scabrous, 
three-nerved, the midrib curved, the lateral nerves prominent 
and midway to the margin, the base somewhat pubescent. Palet 
equaling or longer than its glume, of nearly the same texture, 
acute, bidentate, folded lengthwise in the middle and with the 
two keels prominently folded in the opposite direction. 

This grass was first described in 1863, by Prof Geo. Thurber 
in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences, from specimens collected by Hall and Harbour in 1862. 
The locality is not recorded, but the ticket says : " American 
Plains Flora." Professor Thurber doubtfully referred the grass 
to Graphephorum, which it only resembles in the hairy rhachilla. 


It has been thought to be a Triodia, but it differs widely from 
any American species of that genus, in the compressed, not 
rounded flowering glumes, not three-lobed or three-toothed, in 
the lateral nerves not hairy, and not near the margin, in the 
shorter, nerveless empty glumes, the hairy rhachilla the crowded 
flowers, and in the middle fold of the narrow palet. 

It is hard to fix the relationship of this grass, but in the struc- 
ture of the flowers it seems to come nearest to Festuca, from 
which it differs in the flowers crowded on the rhachilla, in the 
one-nerved empty glumes, in the pointed or conical flowering 
glumes, not rounded on the back and only three-nerved. 

It appears to have been first collected by Bigelow on the 
Canadian River, and later (in 1873), by Messrs. Rothrock and 
Wolf, near Ft. Garland, Colorado. I name it for Mr. J. H. Red- 
field, the genial curator of the Herbarium of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Note on a new North American Lichen. 

Dermatiscum porcelanum, Nyl., n. sp. In the supple- 
ment to my " Introduction," etc., I ventured to describe a sin- 
gular plant from South Carolina as Buellia Catawbensis. Had I 
known that the plant had been sent to Dr. Nylander, before that 
sheet was printed, I should have withheld it. Dr. Nylander, in a 
letter to Prof A. H. Green, who sent him specimens, gives the 
plant the name at the head of this article. Dermatiscum is a 
genus founded upon Endocarpon Thunbergii, Ach. Syn., p. loi, 
a South African lichen. It is placed by Nylander, in his Synop- 
sis among the Lecanorei, just before Urceolaria. 

The description of Endocarpon Thunbergii, Ach., is : " Thallo 
crasso crustaceo-cartilagineo foliaceo orbiculari-repando peltato 
flavo-viridi subtus nudo nigro-fusco ; ostiolis demum subglobosis 
atris." This, so far as the thallus is concerned, applies closely to 
our plant, excepting as regards color. But Acharius appears to 
have mistaken the character of the fruit. A description of the 
genus was given by Nylander in Mohl & de Bary's Bot. Zeit, 
1867, p. 133. I have not seen it. Umbilicaria flavo-virescens, 
Leight, in Journ. Linn. Soc, 1869, pp. 33-35, is a synonym of 
the African plant. H. WiLLEY. 


A new Genus in Cyperacese. 
By S. Hart Wright. 

Websteria, gen. NOV. — Spikes one-flowered, ovate-lan- 
ceolate, pedicelate, umbellate. Peduncles umbellate. Culms 
terete, wiry, stramineous, flexuous, slender, smooth, repeatedly 
umbellately branching. Culms, branches, peduncles, pedicels 
and leaves sheathed. Glumes two only, the nearly opposite 
lower one empty, and somewhat shorter. Style one, bifid two- 
thirds of its length, and plumose on the bifurcations, as long as the 
glumes. Achenia ovate, olive -colored, or brown, minutely pitted 
in finely striate lines, compressed, rostrate with the persistent 
cylindrical base of the style — not tuberculate. Stamens three, 
with the anthers longer than the filaments. Setae tortuous, six 
to ten, often seven, barbed downward, unequal, longer than the 
nut, and nearly white. Named for Mr. Geo. W. Webster, an 
active botanist in Florida. 

Websteria lim.nophila, sp. nov. — Plant growing entirely 
under water. Culm i to 3 feet long, the internodes on the culm 
and branches 3 to 10 inches apart, having long tubular sheaths, 
ending with an awl-shaped bract. Culm and leaves faintly knot- 
ted, as if by internal cross-partitions. Leaves capillary, smooth, 
I to 2 inches long, sheathed at base, and in umbellate clusters, 
terminating the umbellate peduncles and branches. Pedicels 
umbellate, y( to i inch long, sheathed nearly the whole length. 
Peduncles umbellate, unequal, i to 2 inches long, sheathed. 
Glumes }^ to 5^ of an inch long, attenuated at apex, the lower 
one three-veined inside, empty, the fertile glume one-veined, 
both with reddish-brown margins. Involucral leaves few, i to 3 
inches long, i-ioth inch wide, soon decaying. Roots fibrous, 
growing in muddy bottoms of shallow lakes, the culms ascending 
obliquely in the water. Volusia County, Florida, May. 

Observations : It may seem anomalous that a cyperaceous 
plant should be wholly and habitually aquatic, as this is. I dis- 
covered it in December, 1886, in a lake two miles S. E. of the 
village of Lake Helen, in Volusia Co., Florida, not being in fruit. 
Mr. G. W. Webster found it in fruit in April and May, and in 
several lakes. The genus is probably in the subtribe Cypereae, 
and near Dulichhtm. Penn Yan, N. Y., June i, 1887. 


Bibliographical Notes on well known Plants.— I. 

By Edward L. Greene. 

LlNN^A BOREALIS, Linn. Spec. PL, 631. 

Beginners in botanical study are content with knowing that 
this or that species is called by a certain double name, as for ex- 
ample, Liftncea borealis. More advanced students in systematic 
botany become aware of the existence of such rather troublesome 
affairs as synonyms ; or, that very many well-known species have 
been placed under one generic name by one author, and under 
another by another author, until many of them have as many 
generic names as they have petals or stamens. At this stage of 
his progress the learner's eyes are opened to see the advantage, 
if not indeed the necessity, of appending to that binary name of 
a plant which is adopted, the name of the author of that name. 

But to the professional botanist synonyms are not altogether 
an annoyance. That our little rue anemone, which Linnaeus 
called Anemone thalictroides, received three other generic names 
within much less than a century after Linnaeus, is a fact very sig- 
nificant and instructive. And that large class of facts of which 
this is but a ready example, indicates, first : that the system of 
botanical classification which has been in slow process of evolu- 
tion since centuries before Linnaeus even, is still very far from 
perfect ; and secondly, each different generic place which any 
species may have been assigned to, becomes valuable as an ex- 
pression of the individual opinion of the author who placed it 
there, regarding its affinities and its place in the system of plants. 
Therefore any treatise upon even local systematic botany which 
fails to present a full synonmy, however useful it may be to be- 
ginners, is unsatisfactory to the thorough botanist ; for he desires 
to know not only what the present writer thinks, but what others 
have thought about the species. 

The beautiful Linnma borealis, whose book-history I have 
chosen here to remark upon, has no long list of synonyms to be 
appended to it. And yet this plant was well known to botanists 
for more than a hundred years before Linnaeus, but by a very 
dififerent name from this, which was given to it in the middle of 
the last century. It was first named, described and figured by 
Casper Bauhin in his Prodromus Theatri Botanici, published in 


the year 1620; and the binary name which he gave it was Cam- 
panula serpillifolia. 

We have all, in our earlier days, been gravely told by learned 
instructors that before Linnasus there was no such thing as a 
binomial nomenclature ; that the earlier writers gave to each 
species a descriptive phrase, short or long, which served the 
double purpose of a name and a definition of the species. There 
was a good deal of truth in that statement, and nearly as much 
falsity in it, too. Bauhin's works, no less than those of his con- 
temporaries, and even of authors a century earlier, fairly abound 
in these double names, followed by full and often very accurate 
specific characters. Very numerous, indeed, are the binary names 
now in use, and credited to Linnaeus, which were in honest truth 
given to those species by even Bock or by Dodoens two hun- 
dred years before the splendid appearing of that Northern Light. 
So in the case of the earliest publication of the plant before us. 
Bauhin's scholarly page is headed by a very tolerable wood-cut 
representing it entire, from root to flower. Then comes the name 
Campanula serpillifolia, followed by a complete description in 
some fifteen lines, or, to be precise, of ninety-seven Latin vvords ; 
then, just as any careful and appreciative author of a new species 
in our own time would do, he tells all he knows concerning its 
habitat : "' A branch of this plant I had first from my brother ; * 
afterwards we collected it in flower on Monte Baldo ; then M. 
Paschal, the Frenchman, obtained it growing on rocks in the 
Tyrol." Nor does he conclude this charming account without 
appending a final paras^raph, evidently relating to some different 
plant, but which, for its curiosity, I cannot forbear translating 
here : " A similar plant, with leaves whitish beneath and pale 
green above, native of the island of Toupinambo, in Brazil, Bur- 
serus has communicated to me." 

So much for the original discovery, naming and publishing 
of one of the loveliest plants of the northern hemisphere ; and 
under this name the plant was taken up by a number of Bauhin's 
botanical successors; for example: Ray (1686), Tournefort 
(1700), Scheuchzer (1703) ; but there was not a universal con- 
sensus of opinion that it had been correctly referred to the genus 

' The celebrated Johann Bauhin, no doubt. 


Campanula, and Bartholini (1673), Petiver (1695), Plukenet 
(1696), and several other eminent authorities of the time, placed 
it in what is now known as Lysimachia, then called Nummu- 
laria ; and with this class of botanical opinionists it stood as 
Numpiularia Norvegica, the plant having been re-discovered in 
Norway, where it is abundant. 

And so the fate of being placed by some authors in one 
genus, and by others in another, which has befallen so great a 
number of generic types in later times, befell Linncea, too, in its 
earlier days ; nor was Gronovius the first to found a new genus 
upon it ; neither was LinncBa its first proper generic name, for 
as early as the year 1728, while the boy Linnaeus was in the be- 
ginning of his college course at Lund, Buxbaum, of St. Peters- 
burg, published it as a new genus under the name (not well 
formed for a generic one), Serpyllifolia. Then again, eight years 
later, Siegesbeck reasserted its generic rank, and named it, very 
appropriately, Obolaria, and this was the year preceding the ap- 
pearance of the third generic name, Linncea, which now holds. 

It may be presumed that the genius of the illustrious Swede 
had recognized the fitness of the plant for a clear and strong 
generic type, and that his own good taste and rising ambition 
had combined to kindle within him a desire to have it go down 
to future ages under the name of Linncea, and that his friend 
Gronovius was found ready and glad to assume the office of 
sponsorship. At all events, in Linnaeus' Genera Plantarum 
(1737), the name appears, and he gives Gronovius credit for the 
authorship, although that author never otherwise published it. 
Linnseus always used almost absolute freedom with generic 
names which had been in use before him, rejecting many, and 
' making new applications of many more. The first one which 
had been proposed for the genus in question he, with reason, put 
aside. The second, namely, Obolaria, he applied to the little 
North American gentianaceous plant which still bears the name. 

With regard to the authority for the specific name, or, if you 
like, the whole binary name of this plant, our American books 
every one, in so far as I have observed, and those of many and 
distinguished European authors also, are at fault in reading as 
they do Linnoea borealis, Gronovius. Gronovius named the 


genus, but he did not name the species ; that was done by Lin- 
naeus, who so designated it in the first edition of the Species 
Plantarum ; and he always cited Gronovius for Linncea, and him- 
self for Linnaa borealis ; but among later authors of acknowl- 
edged erudition, a majority commit the error named. I cannot 
find the shadow of a fact in all the range of the earlier biblio- 
graphy to excuse it. 

I would remark, finally, that Linnaeus, in first publishing the 
species, cites faithfully Campanula serpillifolia, Bauhin, as the 
oldest synonym, and it was by this name that he must have 
known the plant from those days of his youth when he began the 
studies which were to culminate in making him the great 

Some Morphological Notes on Caulophyllum thalictroides. 

Dr. Asa Gray, in his Manual, describes the genus Caulophyl- 
lum as " sending up in early spring a simple and naked stem, 
terminated by a small raceme or panicle of yellowish-green flowers, 
and, a little below, bearing a large triternately compound leaf, 
without any common petiole," And under the specific descrip- 
tion of C thalictroides, Michx., he adds: "a smaller biternate 
leaf often at the base of the panicle." This plant is quite 
common in Ohio, and the smaller leaf here referred to seems to 
be a constant feature; even a third leaf is occasionally added. 
It is also not uncommon to see the lowest leaf with a common 
petiole nine or ten miUimetres in length, and the smallest leaf 
divided once ternately, with only the middle lobe divided ternately 
again. The inflorescence may be characterized as consisting of 
a terminal panicle with a smaller panicle or raceme a slight distance 
below the same in the axil of the smallest leaf It is not rare to find 
a third small panicle or raceme in the axil of the larger leaf, or even 
in the axil of all three leaves if they are developed. The existence 
of these forms does not indicate that our learned author has been 
caught napping, but serves to show that great variations exist which 
cannot always be taken into account in a condensed work intended 
for the school-room. But they may also serve to show another 
and perhaps more important truth. Many students of botany 
believe that plants did not always exist in the form in which they 


are now found. Their ancestors would have been defined as dis- 
tinct species. Now, our early spring flowers seem to differ from 
their ancestors usually in producing fewer leaves and a shorter 
stem ; these, together with the flower-buds of next year, are 
already stored away by fall in underground buds, ready to come 
up at the first flush of spring and blossom long before the sur- 
rounding vegetation has managed to unfold its leaves and to get 
strength enough to produce blossoms. In some plants, as in San- 
guinaria Canadensis, L. the plants are content to produce only 
one flower on each stem, and in order to further assist in its rapid 
blossoming, this single flower almost always terminates the 
stem, thus securing the first flow of sap, and incidentally giving 
rise to sympodial growth. Such plants frequently produce 
flowers before the leaves have been even moderately developed. 
Sympodial growth is also frequent among plants possessing a 
compound inflorescence, although here its immediate use is not 
always so evident. In Symplocarpus foetidus, Salisb., where this 
sympodial structure may be only theoretically followed, the ad- 
vantage may well be doubted. Spring flowers, therefore, by the 
decrease of the number of their leaves and also often by the re- 
duction of the number of flowers to be produced, have made it 
possible to prepare the parts necessary for next year's growth 
during the previous autumn and then to develop them rapidly in 
the spring.* But they are continually giving signs of their ori- 
gin by producing more leaves, as in Podophyllum peltatum, L. t, 
or by producing a greater number of flowers or even a compound 
inflorescence, as in Satiguinaria Canadensis, L. \, or by increasing 
the number of both, as in Caulophyllum. When we consider, 
however, that their present state is in reality the abnormal one, it 
does not appear so strange that reversion to the old types should 
take place, and usually it takes only patience and a great num- 
ber of specimens to detect such cases of reversion. Often they 
become so frequent As to attract no attention arid are then in- 
cluded in the specific description of the plant. 

Aug. F. Foerste. 

» The Hibemacula of Herbs. Am. Nat., Nov., 1883. 

t The May Apple. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. June, 1884. 

X Notes on Satiguinaria Canadensis. Bull. Toriey Bot. Club, April, 18 


Notes on Diatoms. 

We have received from Dr. Geo. H. Taylor, of Mobile, a very 
interesting gathering of marine diatoms from Tampa Bay, 
Florida. The following is a list of the species which it contains : 

Actinoptychiis splendens, Shadbolt. 

A. undulatus, Ehr. 

Amphiprora elegans, W. Sm. 

Auliscus pruinosus, Bailey. 

A. c(slatus, Bailey. 

Biddulphia pulchella. Gray. Rare. 

B. rhombus, W. Sm. 
Campylodiscus cribrosus, W. Sm. 
Eupodiscus Argus, Ehr. 

E. radiatus, Bailey. 

Melosira sulcata, Kutz. i=^Orthosira marina!) 

Navicula Lyra, Ehr. 

N. permagna, Edwards. 

Rhabdonema arcuatum, Kutz. Rare. 

Stauroneis aspera, Kutz. 

Surirella Febigerii, Lewis. 

Triceratiurn favus, Ehr. 

T. scitulum, Bright. {=var. of T. favus.) 

T. spitiosmn, Bailey. Rare. 

Tryblionella scutellum, W. Sm. {;=Nitzschia circumsuta.) 

Terpsinoe musica, Ehr. 

Dr. Taylor's letter will doubtless interest many of our readers. 

[c. H. K.] 
Editor of BULLETIN ; 

I have read with interest an article on diatoms by Mr. C. H. 
Kain, which appeared in the February number of your journal. 
The article is valuable from the fact that Mr. Kain relates his ex- 
perience in the actual field of investigation, and speaks only of 
what he has accomplished. Mr. Kain unfortunately cautions the 
avoidance of muds in the collection of diatoms. In this I do not 
agree with him, for, if we avoid the muds, we are cut off from 
some of the finest specimens that are easily obtainable by all, 
whether they reside near the coast or thousands of miles from it. 
I am now engaged in working up the muds of the North Carolina 


coast. I must depend entirely upon others for the raw material. 
My plan of operation is to order the muds from the deep water 
where vessels are anchored. When this is received and examined, 
I order again from different locations where oysters abound, for 
it is a well-known fact that the oyster muds always contain many 
beautiful forms. On the Gulf coast there are three classes of 
muds — blue, black and gray. I always select the blue muds. In 
Tampa Bay, Florida, the bottom is composed of three distinct 
classes of marine and vegetable matter. There is a white marl, a 
black mud and a blue mud. As a rule it is only the blue mud 
that is productive. I have often read with surprise the remarks 
of eminent diatomists on the avoidance of marine muds. I am 
now offering a cleaning from Tampa Bay, which I challenge the 
world to duplicate from the same material. Those who receive 
it will find it to contain beautiful specimens of Auliscus priihio- 
sus, Auhscus calatus, Triceratium favus, Nitzschia circumsuta, 
Eupodiscus radiatus, Eupodiscus Argus, Orthosira marina, Ain- 
phiprora elegans, Terpsinoe musica and Surirella Febigerii. 

The mud from which these vigorous forms are obtained is one 
of the most difficult to clean, that is to eliminate the sand, of any 
on the Gulf coast. The result obtained, however, more than pays 
for the labor expended. In cleaning these muds I have used as 
much as two hundred and fifty gallons of water before I obtained 
enough material, in a cleaned state, to cover the bottom of a half- 
drachm phial. I have now on hand a specimen of this kind from 
Apalachicola Bay, which took three gallons of mud and the 
above named quantity of water to thoroughly wash before the 
application of acid. The great mistake generally made in clean- 
ing marine muds is that not enough care is taken in the first 
washings with water. My method is to remove all sand possible 
before shaking is commenced, for the violent agitation of a mix- 
ture of sand and diatoms is very apt to break some of the most 
beautiful forms in the deposit. Another mistake made in clean- 
ing diatoms is by placing too large a quantity of the raw 
material in the vessel for the first washing. Only as much 
should be placed in the bottle or jar as will settle in ten 
minutes, and this should be repeatedly washed until the water 
will settle clear in a few minutes. The jar should not be shaken. 


but rotated, and the sand removed after each settHng. If this is 
followed out faithfully there will be very little trouble encountered 
when the time comes to apply the acid. 

I am ofTeririg to send cleaned material from Tampa Bay to 
any who send me their address, and will allow them to place 
their own value upon it. I make this offer in order to assist me 
in procuring material »from the Atlantic coast, which I am now 
about to work upi I shall send the result of this work to diatom- 
ists all over the country, through Messrs. Queen & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, free to all who apply for it. 

Respectfully yours, 

Geo. H. Taylor. 

A supposed new Genus of Anacardiacese from Bolivia. 

By N. L. Brixton. 

SycOCARPUS. Calyx four- toothed; corolla coriaceous, gamo- 
petalous in the bud; stamens eight; anthers oblong, sessile near 
the summit of a campanulate disc ; pistil one ; ovary four-celled, 
pubescent ; style short, also pubescent ; stigma peltate, its flat top 
marked by four indistinct grooves; fruit shaped like a young fig, 
dry and crustaceous, indehiscent, imperfectly four celled, contain- 
ing one or two erect seeds, laterally attached to an axillary 
placenta. Mature flowers not seen. 

S. RUSBYI. Leaves imparripinnate, 5 to 7 dm. long by 3 to 4 dm. 
wide, broadly oblong in outline ; leaflets opposite, of from five to 
ten pairs, short petioled, oblong, somewhat obtuse at each end, 
entire, 15 to 20 cm. long by 5 to 6 cm. wide, smooth on both 
sides when mature ; racemes appearing in the axils of the leaves, 
once compound, loosely flowered, 25 to 30 cm. long by 5 to lO 
cm. wide at the base; flowers nearly sessile; fruit brown, 12 to 
18 mm. long when mature, pubescent when young, but soon 
becoming glabrous. 

A tree of some 12 metres in height, broadly branching from 
near the base, reaching an extreme trunk diameter of nearly one 
metre, the ultimate branches erect; wood rather soft, covered 
with a thick ash-colored bark, which becomes rough only in age; 
leaves erect-clustered at the ends of the branches. 

Collected in Bolivia by Dr. H. H. Rusby, May, 1886. 


The Flora of Banda Oriental. 
By W. E. Safford, U. S. N. 

After a passage of sixty-six days from New York, the "Van- 
dalia " came to anchor in the roadstead of Montevideo, about two 
miles from the city. 

From our anchorage we could see a compact mass of flat- 
roofed houses rising gradually from the water's edge and crowned 
by a large cathedral with two spires and a dome of glazed tiles. 
To the west of the city was a little harbor crowded with ships of 
all nationalities, beyond which rose the " mount," or cerro, which 
gives to the city its name. To the eastward we could see a broad 
expanse of pasture land, dotted with herds of cattle and sheep, 
and in the distance a number of trees darkly outlined against the 
horizon. All of these, I afterwards found, were introduced 
species : Eucalypti and Acacias from Australia, tall, slender 
"Lombardy" poplars, and weeping willows. Very few of the 
trees indigenous to the region are suitable for shade trees. They 
are mostly of small size, and their leaves are of such a nature as 
to offer but little protection from the sun, narrow and coriaceous, 
and thus admirably adapted to resist the violent winds which 
blow almost continually over the unprotected plains. 

It was a great pleasure to get on shore after having been con- 
fined so long on board ship. Spring had just begun. The 
broad, flat country around Montevideo was covered by a rich 
carpet of tender grass spangled with flowers. The pretty quintas 
were surrounded by bouquets of blooming quince and cherry 
and apple trees, contrasting strangely with the dark, glossy- 
leaved limes and oranges and the feathery palm trees by their 
side. For Montevideo, although in a latitude corresponding 
nearly to the southern boundary of Tennessee, has a very mild 
climate. In the summer time the temperature seldom reaches 
above ninety degrees Fahrenheit, and in winter frost is of rare 
occurrence ; so that Fuchsias, Heliotropes and beautiful Cape 
Jasmines grow to an enormous size. 

To those who have read Darwin's Journal, the Banda Ori- 
ental, or, as it is now called, the Republica Oriental, must have 
almost classic interest. I was eager to wander over the campo of 
whose flora Darwin gives us but a tantalizing glimpse when he 


mentions the brilliant scarlet Verbenas and the daisy-lilte flowers, 
in his description of the country around Maldonado, a region to 
the eastward of Montevideo. I wished to see the Ombii trees 
which he describes as so characteristic of the Pampas, and the 
thistles which grow to such an enormous size as to afford hiding- 
places for robbers. All of these I saw during our stay at Monte- 
video, and I was able to make almost a complete collection of the 
spring plants and trees of the region, nearly all of which were 
determined for me by Don Jose Arechavaieta, of Montevideo, 
who has in his possession the Gibert collection of Montevidean 
plants. I am also greatly indebted to this gentleman for several 
delightful botanical excursions to the interior of the country in 
the province of Comelones, and for his kindness in allowing me 
access to his herbarium. 

I wish to remark here, that although Montevideo has many 
excellent bookstores, in which I found the works of nearly all 
the modern writers on natural science, I failed to discover a single 
book which treated of the natural history of the Banda Oriental 
or of South America, except translations in French and Spanish 
of Darwin's Journal. I was informed by a gentleman in Monte- 
video that the accuracy with which this work describes the coun- 
try is remarkable, and I found that nearly every well-educated 
man whom I met was familiar with it. 

The only thing which I could find bearing upon the botany 
the region was a catalogue of the Gibert collection of plants in 
the Kew Herbarium, a copy of which was kindly given me by 
Mr. Arechavaieta. This gentleman informed me that no manual 
of the Uruguayan flora has ever been published, and that, in 
fact, certain genera and even families of plants of the region have 
not yet been worked up. Among them are the Bromeliaceae, 
the Orchidaceae, the many species of Plantago, Oxalis and of 
Sisyrinchium. He has been paying special attention for a num- 
ber of years to the Cotnpositas, has collected and described 
many fresh-water algae, and is now engaged in working up the 

In the immediate vicinity of Montevideo I noticed many 
hedges of Agave, cactus and a species of dwarf Pandanus, en- 
closing fresh-looking vegetable gardens and orchards of quinces. 


figs and oranges. In many places these hedges are being extir- 
pated, and replaced by wire fences. The wire used is not 
armed with the dangerous barbs so common in the United States. . 
The posts are either of imported timber or they are made of the 
trunks of the Nomdubay tree, one of the Leguminoseae, which 
seems to have the same properties as our locusts (Robinia;) when 
buried in the ground. 

One of my first tramps was to the eastward of the city in the 
direction of Punta Carretas. Not a tree or shrub was to be seen. 
The rich green sward was dotted by whitish clumps of thistles 
and the wild cardoon and bright patches of pink and yellow 
oxalis. Many of the flowers common in our gardens were here 
growing indigenously — beautiful Verbenas, white and crimson 
Petunias, pretty purple Mallows and spiny Solanums with large 
conspicuous flowers. I collected a number of species oi Sisyrin- 
chitim, or blue-eyed grass, varying in height from two feet to 
delicate little plants of a few inches only, with almost microscopic 
flowers. These were especially interesting to me, as we have but 
one Sisyrinchium (S. angustifolimit) in the northeastern United 

Among the other plants in the fields were large woolly- 
leaved Senecios, with conspicuous yellow flowers ; a little An- 
teiinaria or Gnaphalium like the common plantain-leaved 
"everlasting" of our fields; an indigenous clover with tiny 
leaves and loose heads of pretty tawny flowers, besides many 
species of Medicago, which have probably been introduced. 
Among the daisy-like composites were a dwarf Erigeron and a 
species of Antheniis with pretty white flowers, growing in large 
patches. It may be this plant which Darwin, in his Journal, 
says reminded him of the daisies of the English fields. 

The rocks of the sea coast were devoid of any vestiges of 
Alga;. This, I think, may be explained by the great amount of 
mud held in suspension by the water, the irregularity of the tides, 
which frequently leave the rocks exposed for a long period of 
time, and the variability in the saltness of the water. 

In the sand of the beach I found a little African composite 
with fleshy leaves and small rayless heads of flowers, the Cotula 
coronopifolia, L., now so extensively spread throughout the world. 


On my way back to the city I stopped to gather flowers by 

the roadside, under hedges and in the neighboring fields. A 

, pretty little fumitory (Fumaria capreolata, L.) climbed along a 

hedge, under the shade of which a simply pinnate fern {Blechnum 

australe, L.) grew in abundance. 

In the fields near the road, and in waste places, I was sur- 
prised to find many familiar plants, which grow in similar situa- 
tions in the United States. Most of these were European species 
which are adventitious with us or which have escaped from cult- 
ivation. The bright little scarlet pimpernel {Anagallis arvensis) 
greeted me as an old friend. With it were associated the com- 
mon shepherds-purse, Samolus Valerandi, Cerastmrn vulgatuin, 
Sagina procumbens, Lepigomim medium, Fries. , Spergula arven- 
sis, Portulaca oleracea, several species of Medicago, Centunculus 
m.inimus, Veronica agrestis and Veronica arvensis. In an old 
vacant lot I found a rank growth of weeds, some of which have 
established themselves in many parts of the world. Among 
them were several species of Chenopodium and Runtex, the com- 
mon bur- dock, Datura Strainoninm, Marrubium vulgare, the 
deadly night-shade, Stellaria media, Herb Robert, wild carrots 
and radishes, Coniiitn maculatuin, Maruta Cotula, DC, chicory, 
the sow-thistle,/'/««/'(2^(? major, and a tangled mass of GaliumApa- 
rine, Mikania scandens and the common bird-weed of the fields. 

In looking over Don Jose's herbarium I was much impressed 
with the scarcity of Ranunculacese. The whole order was there 
represented by nine species — two species of Clematis, one Ane- 
mone, two Ranunculi, one Aphanostemma, and three species of 
Casalea. In the United States and in Europe the Ranunculaceae 
comprise some of the most beautiful and characteristic species of 
the flora ; in the Banda Oriental none of them are conspicuous. 

I had the pleasure of going on two botanical excursions with 
Don Jose — to Independencia, or La Paz, where I made almost a 
complete collection of the spring flowers of the fields, and to an 
estancia near the town of Santa Lucia, where I collected speci- 
mens of many of the indigenous trees of the country. Both of 
these localities are in the Province of Comelones, and are situated 
on the Central Uruguayan Railroad. From the car windows we 
could see large fields of wheat, well kept vineyards, and orchards 


of peaches ; and from time to time we passed large Ombu trees. 
It may be interesting to note that the Ombu {Phytolacca dioica) 
belongs to the same genus as the common poke- weed {Phytolacca 
decandra). It is a handsome tree with dense foliage, large dark- 
green elliptical leaves, and a swollen buttressed trunk. It is said 
that its berries are sometimes used for coloring wine. Its wood 
is soft and almost of herbaceous consistency, so that it is unfit 
for purposes of construction, or even for burning. Its vitality is 
great ; I saw several young trees growing from the margins of 
stumps of old ones which had been cut down. In describing to 
me the softness of the wood, one of my acquaintances in Monte- 
video said : " You could cut an Ombu down with a knife, as 
though it were of butter." 

At Indepcndencia the railroad embankments were covered 
with patches of purple Verbenas, yellow Senecios, blue Lupines, 
and the daisy-like Atithemis arvensis. We saw also quantities 
of a little European Silene {S. Gallica, L.) and the common 
Echium violaceum. In a little valley near an outcrop of Syenite, 
I collected a delicate "golden" {txw^Gymnogramme chcerophylla, 
Desv.), and the rank Blechnum australe, L. The rocks were 
covered with mosses, among which were a Grimmia and a Cam- 
pylopus. Near by, in a damp place, I found Ranunculus muri- 
catus, an odd-looking Plantago, and two or three species of 
Oxalis, one of which had handsome yellow flowers and thick 
substantial hairy leaves growing on a long trailing stem. 

Near the Arroya de las Piedras, I gathered some beautiful 
grasses, among which were Melica papilionacea, L., bearing 
large pendant glumes like May- flies clinging to the stem ; Calo- 
theca elegans, Beauv. ; and the tiny introduced Briza minor, L. 
Suddenly we came upon a patch of dazzling scarlet which seemed 
to be intensified by the bright green of the grass around it. It 
was the Verbena chamcedrifolia, Juss. (^ V. Melindres, Gill.), a 
plant which gave me more pleasure, I think, than anything else I 
have ever collected. I collected the only indigenous Anemone 
{A. triiernata, Vahl.) thus far known from the region. It looked 
somewhat like a diminutive A. Virginiana, L., and had nearly 
gone out of bloom. It was associated with a tiny umbelliferous 
plant with a bulbous root deep under the surface, somewhat hke 


the Erigenia bulbosa of the middle United States. This little 
plant is probably the earliest of the region to bloom (excepting 
the chick-weeds and other plants which never cease blooming). 
For the Republica Oriental has a well-marked spring season, 
however mild its winters may be. 

{To be contifiued.) 

Another Florida Fern. 

On the south bank of the Miami River, a short distance below 
the rapids, I collected, on the first of March of this year, a fern 
which appears to be Nephrolepis acuta, Presl., not reported as 
having been found before in the United States. It was very 
abundant at that one place, though not seen elsewhere. Fruit- 
bearing fronds were rare at that time, and the few that were ob_ 
tained were past their prime maturity. However, a few sori 
with indusia in good condition remain. Specimens were submit- 
ted to Prof. Eaton, and he says : " I have very little doubt that 
your fern is really Nephrolepis acuta, a somewhat rusty-pubescent 
variety." ISAAC HOLDEN. 

[Mr. Holden's specimens were compared with those of 
Fendler's Plants of Trinidad, No. 55 ; Wright's Plantae Cubenses, 
No. 1,011, and Hayes' Filices Central!- Americanze, No. 15, with 
all of which they agree in having almost circular indusia, sub- 
peltate in the attachment. — Ed.] 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Aquatic Plants of the vicinity of San Diego. — C. R. Orcutf. 

(West. Am. Sci., iii., pp. 123-126.) 
Botany of California and Parts Adjacent. — Studies in the. — VI. 

Edward Lee Greene. (Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., ii., pp. 377-418; 


Professor Greene's si.xth contribution to the Botany of our 
West Coast, opens with " Notes on the Botany of Santa Cruz 
Island," giving a most interesting account of the character of the 
Flora and its relations to that of the other islands of our 
" Southwestern Archipelago," and of the mainland. He sug- 
gests that many of the rarer species of Southern California have 
originated on these islands and they may have formerly been 


connected with some other land area than America, and cites 
many facts which would tend to give weight to this theory. 

"A Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of the Island 
of Santa Cruz " enumerates 321 species, more than 25 of which 
have not yet been found on the mainland. We find the fol- 
lowing new species in this list : 

Thysanocarpus ramosus ; Hosackia (.?') occulta, Bigelovia venata, 
var. sedoides ; Eriophyllum stcechadifolium, Lag., var. depressum ; 
Cmcus lilacinus ; Stachys acuminata and Typha bracteata, the 
latter a giant of its kind, being 15 to 18 feet high, with stam- 
inate and pistillate spikes 12 to 16 inches long. He also makes 
the following changes in nomenclature : — Cardamine integrifolia 
{^=Dentaria integrifolia, Nutt.) and C. Nuttallii (=/?. tenella, 
Pursh.) ; Ai'abis filifolia (=^Cardami7ie filifolia, Greene); refers 
the Water Cress to Nasturtium aquatic um, Tra-^us, 1552; and 
Comarostaphylos diversifolia, (=Arctostaphylos diversifolia. 
Parry.) By using the oldest specific name of three other plants 
he gets three additional species : Sisymbrium pinnatum. (^Erysi- 
mum, Walt. ; 5. canescens, Nutt.) ; Plagibothrys Californicus, 
{Echidiocarya, Gray ; P. Cooperi, Gray) ; and Distichlis spicata, 
[Uniola, L., D. maritima, Raf ) We presume that this will not 
be acceptable to everybody, and would suggest that it would be 
well to have some conventional rule in the matter, which all 
might follow, otherwise there is sure to be an appalling conflict of 
authority. It appears to the writer that if we are ever to get spe- 
cies correctly and satisfactorily located, we must all follow the 
same usage. This would be a worthy subject for discussion by 
the botanists of the American Association. 

Professor Greene's paper closes with descriptions of Horkelia 
Kelloggii, {H. Californica, var. sericea. Gray) ; Horkelia Parryi, 
from Amador County, and Convolvulus Binghaniice from Santa 
Barbara. N. L. B. 

Bulletin of the Iowa Agricultural College, from the Botanical 

Department. — Byron D. Halsted, Professor of Botany. 

(Pamphlet, 8vo, pp. 66. Cedar Rapids, rSSj.) 

This valuable publication contains so much interesting matter 
that it can hardly be justly reviewed in the limited space at our 
command. Part I treats of work with the students, and indi- 


cates a. great deal of interest on their part. The root of San- 
giiinaria Canadensis offers a very satisfactory material for the 
study of pigment-cells ; young prothalli of Equiseta from spores 
germinated on moist sand, were easily obtained and proved of 
great interest ; the pollens of several plants were critically stud- 
ied ; hop leaves are recommended for chlorophyll and cucumber 
placentae for inulin. Part II is devoted to a record of observa- 
tions and experiments by the professor, and accounts are given 
of the germination of Ergot {Claviceps purpurea, Fr.,) from Ely- 
mus Canadensis ; the adhesive bands of Silene antirrhina ; on 
the insectivorous habit of Silphium perfoliatiim ; observations on 
Cnicus altissimus ; a calendar of leafing of trees and shrubs, the 
time of first blooming of spring and early summer plants; notes 
on the Peronosporae and the Ustilaginea; ; a list of Colorado Fungi 
collected with Dr. Bessey in Central Colorado in 1886, and many 
other matters of botanical and agricultural interest. 
Cupressus Niitkaensis. (Garden, xxxi., p. 502.) 
Epipactis latifolia. — Fertilization of. — A. D. Webster. (Bot. 
Gazette, xii., pp. 1 04- 109, from Trans, and Proc. Bot. Soc. 
Edinburgh, xvi.) 
Grasses of the South. — George Vasey. (Dept. Agric, Botanical 
Division, Bull. No. 3. Pamph., 8vo, pp. 63, 16 plates, Wash- 
ington, 1887.) 

This paper is the outcome of a circular letter sent a few months 
since by Commissioner Colman to residents of the South and South- 
west, asking for information regarding forage plants. It is thus 
" a report on certain grasses and other forage plants for cultiva- 
tion in the South and South-west," and much valuable informa- 
tion is contained in its pages. The species Illustrated are Paspa- 
lum dilatatum, Panicum maximum, P. sanguinale and P. Texa- 
num, Sorghum halepense, Phalaris intermedia, Sporobolus Ind- 
icus, Holciis lanatiis, Arrlienathermn avenaceum, Cynodon Dac- 
tylon, Poa arachnifera, Bromus unioloides, Erodium cicutarium 
(Alfilaria), Medicago sativa, Lespedeza striata and Richardsonia 


Iris. Our " tripetalous" Species of. — Sereno Watson. (Hot. 

Gazette, xii., pp. 99-101.) 

An account of the confused synonomy of the /. tripetala. 


Walter, of the Southern States and the /. Hookeri, Penny, of 


Lichens. — An Introduction to the Study of. — Henry Willey. 

(Pamph., 8vo, pp. 58 ; 10 plates. New Bedford, 1887.) 

All who are interested in this peculiar class of plants will 
heartily welcome this work of Mr. Willey, and it must give an 
impetus to their study by American botanists. It contains chap- 
ters on collecting and mounting Lichens ; on their structure 
and organs, under which heading the Schwendener theory is 
briefly discussed in connection with the more recent investiga- 
tions of Minks, and we must confess to a certain sense of relief in 
reading, that " for the present and for practical purposes the 
Lichen remains a Lichen;" the geographical distribution of 
North American species is discussed and the Flora divided into 
six districts, (i) Arctic; (2) Alpine; (3) Atlantic; (4) Southern; 
(5) Western ; (6) Pacific ; there are also chapters on the history 
of Lichens, helps to the study of Lichens, and the arrangement 
of North American Lichens, a very convenient key to the -jQ 
genera being given. The work is concluded by a Hst of pub- 
lished North American species, with habitats, and here the fol- 
lowing new species are described : Buellia Catawbensis (see this 
Bulletin, p. 134 and Bot. Gazette, xii., p. 115); Opegrapha 
levtdensis ; Arthronia carneo-rufa ; A. Floridana ; A. erubescens ; 
A. vernans, A. Ravenelii, Tuckerm., ined. ; A. gregarina; A. 
melanospora, Tuckerm.,, ined. ; A. caudata, and A. subcyrtodes. 
The plates illustrate various phases of the structure of thallus, 
gonidia, apothecium, spermagones and pycnides, and the spores 
of all North American genera enumerated. The pamphlet is 
published at the low price of $1.00, and is remarkably well printed. 
Copies may be obtained from the author, at New Bedford, Mass. 
Mertensia Virginica — How Hmnblebees extract Nectar from. — 

J. Schneck. (Bot. Gazette, xii., p. iii.) 
Monotropa unifiora a Parasite? — George Baptie. (Ottawa Nat., 

i., pp. 40-43-) 

This question was discussed at a recent meeting of the Otta- 
wa Field Naturalist's Club, and considerable difference of opjnion 
expressed, and the suggestion made that the Ottawa Field Nat- 
uralist's Club investigate the matter during the coming summer. 


Nantucket — The Wild Flowers of.— Mrs. H. R. Luney. (Vick's 
111. Month. Mag., x., pp. 166-168.) 

Nymphcea lutea in Brazoria County, Texas. — E. H. Hitching. 
(Bot. Gazette, xii., p. 109.) 

Orchids — Hardy American. (Gard. Chron., i., 3d Series, p. 682.) 
Notes on Calypso borealis, Cypripedium pubescens and C 

spectabile, Goodyera puhescens, and several Habetiarias. 

Pasqne Flower — Anemone Pulsatilla. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., 
X., p. 177 ; one cut.) 

Pinus Strobus. (Garden, xxxi., p. 404; two figures.) 

Sassafras officinale. — W. Goldring (Garden, xxxi., p. 449, 

Scoliopus Hallii, Watson. — Thos. Howell. (Bot. Gaz., xii., p. 1 11.) 
A description of the floral characters of this species, from 

plants collected by Mr. Howell at the original locality. 

Staining and Mounting Plant Sections. — C. Wellington. (The 
Microscope, viii., pp. 133, 134) 

Weeds of Southwestern Wisconsin and Southeastern Minne- 
sota.— \.. H. Pammel. (Pamph., 8vo; pp. 20, Saint Paul. 1887.) 
A list of 88 plants, more or less troublesome as weeds, "a 

contribution to the flora of La Crosse and vicinity." 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held on June 14th, the 
President in the chair, and 28 persons present. 

Miss C. A. Timmerman was elected an active member, and 
Dr. Walter H. Chapin, of Springfield, Mass., and Miss M. A. 
Booth, Longmeadow, Mass., were elected corresponding members. 

The Field Committee reported the following noteworthy 
plants detected on recent excursions : Orchis spectabilis, at In- 
wood ; Cystopteris fragilis,neair\Ne:st New Brighton ; Stellaria 
graminea, Trifolium hybridum, Lysimachia thyrsiflora, at Little 
Ferry, N. J. ; Glyceria distans and Polygonum ramosissimuin, 
at New Lots, L. I. It also reported that the excursion to Tom's 
River, N. J., May 28-30, in company with delegations from the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, had been success- 
fully carried out and had proved an occasion of much mutual 
pleasure and profit. 


Dr. Britton remarked on the re-discovery of Corenta Conradii, 
near Cedar Bridge, N. J. The plant was observed by Mr. F. J. 
H. Merrill, in September last, and the locality visited after the 
Tom's River trip by Messrs. Thomas Hogg, Northrop and 
Britton, and an abundance of specimens in good fruiting condition 

Mr. Rollick reported the discovery by Mr. W. T. Davis of a 
new locality for Clematis ochroleuca, on a sand dune in the salt 
meadows near Watchogue, Staten Island. 

The Committee on the Meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science reported progress, and an offer 
from the Natural Science Association of Staten Island to co-operate 
with the Club in the entertainment of the Botanical Club of the 
Association was accepted. 

Mr. E. E. Sterns remarked on the gradual extinction of native 
plants on Manhattan Island, and exhibited a large number of 
living plants in flower. 

Dr. Britton showed a specimen of Pogonia affinis, Austin, 
collected near Trenton by Prof A. C. Apgar, and others of P. 
verticillata, from Staten Island, and remarked on the unsatisfac- 
tory descriptions of these plants. He also exhibited Symplocarpus 
fcetidus with two staminate spadices and a very large form or 
variety of Aralia midicanlis with compounded leaves and inflor- 
escence, also communicated by Prof Apgar ; also a specimen of 
Sophora secundiflora, Benth., from Texas, with fasciated inflor- 
escence, sent by Dr. Va.sey ; a diminutive undescribed species of 
Houstonia {H. Croftiai, Britton and Rusby), from San Diego, 
Texas, and read a description of a supposed new genus of 
Anacardiacese from Bolivia. 

In view of the meeting of the American Association, it was 
resolved to hold meetings in July and August. This will bring 
about a meeting of the Club on the evening before the assemblage 
of the Association, which it is hoped all botanists will endeavor 
to attend. 

Judge Brown spoke of the paucity of American local floras 
as compared with those of Europe, and said that the descriptions 
of the Manuals, framed as they are for a wide range of locality, 
are very unsatisfactory for careful distinction of species. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, August, 1887. [No. 8. 

The Genera Echinocystis, Megarrhiza and Echinopepon. 
Bv Sereno Watson. 

The first and for a long time the only known North American 
species of the American tribe of Cucurbitacece which is called by 
Bentham & Hooker the Elateriece, and by Cogniaux the Cyclati- 
therea (both names proposed by Naudin and equally appropriate, 
but the latter the earlier), was the Echinocystis lobata, Torr. & 
Gray. This was first described by Herrmann in 1698 from plants 
raised in Holland from seeds which Tournefort had received from 
Canada. It was next noticed by Muhlenberg in his Index 
Florae Lancastriensis (1793)-* By Muhlenberg, as afterwards 
by Seringa in DeCandolle's Prodromus, it was referred to 
Motnordica, and by Michaux to Sicyos. Its distinctness as a 
genus was first shown in Torr. & Gray's Flora, where the name 
Echinocystis was given to it, their previous Hexameria of the 
same year (1840) being preoccupied. 

An allied plant of Oregon which had been collected by 
Douglas and Scouler, and referred by Hooker to the eastern 
Sicyos angulatus, was distinguished from that species by Torrey 
& Gray as S. Oreganus, the specimens being too imperfect to 
show its nearer affinity to Echinocystis. In the years 1854 and 

* It is not probable, as Cogniaux thinks, that the £laiermm trifoliatum, Linn., 
based upon Clayton's description of Virginian specimens, can be referred to this 
species. The description agrees better with Sicyos angulatus, notwithstanding the 
"valvulis vi elastica per maturitatem dehiscenlibus." The Echinocystis is not known 
to occur in Virginia. 


1855 the same plant and similar Califoniian species were collected 
by the botanists of the Pacific Railroad surveys, and specimens 
were submitted to Dr. Torrey for determination. Some of these 
species were also known to Dr. Kellogg, of San Francisco, and in 
March, 1855, he described one of them under the name Marah 
muricatus, noting at the same time its near relationship to 
Echinocystis lobata. In June, however, of the same year he 
appears to have silently discarded or to have forgotten his new 
genus, for he then describes another species of the " giant root " 
as Echinocystis muricatus. These publications were made in the 
columns of a daily newspaper. Dr. Torrey, in ignorance of this 
and as a result of his study of the Government collections made 
under Lieutenants Whipple, Parke and Williamson, referred the 
plants to a new genus which he called Megarrkiza, publishing a 
species {M. Californica) in Parke's report in 1856 and authorizing 
the enumeration of that species and of M. Oregana in New- 
berry's report upon Williamson's plants. The descriptions of the 
genus and species he delayed, intending to give them in full in 
connection with his report upon the collections made by Lieut. 
Whipple. The publication of this report, however, was not made 
until 1857, and in the meantime he learned through Dr. Andrews 
of Kellogg's genus Marah. Consequently, and more especially 
on account of the difficulty of determining, from the scarcity of 
the materials, whether there was really more than one species, 
he omitted from the report all reference to the matter, and 
nothing more was published by him on the subject. Neverthe- 
less, the genus Megarrhiza was recognized by Dr. Gray in 1859, 
in his list of Xantus' Lower California plants, and in i860, in the 
Botany of Ives' Report. In i860, Naudin, of Paris, who chanced 
to have Megarrhiza Californica in cultivation, knowing nothing of 
its previous history, published it as Echinocystis fabacea. His ac- 
quaintance with the eastern E. lobata appears to have been slight, 
but seeds of that species were communicated to him by Dr. Gray, 
together with a knowledge of Torrey's genus Megarrhiza, and 
in 1862 he gave a description of it based upon cultivated speci- 
mens. He still was of the opinion that the two species were 
congeneric, "malgrela grande autorite de MM. Torrey et Gray." 
In 1866 Naudin proposed the genus Echinopepon for sev- 


eral Mexican species, including one of New Mexico (E. horri- 
dus), which Dr. Gray had previously named Elateritim ? Coul- 
teri). Bentham & Hooker, in their Genera Plantarum (1867), 
refer Megarrhiza to Echhiocystis as a subgenus, and include also 
Naudin's Echinopepon, which they knew only from his description. 
Dr. Torrey had in 1861 prepared a report upon the Pacific 
Coast plants of the Wilkes Expedition, among which were speci- 
mens of Megarrhiza, but when in 1873, after his death, the report 
was taken in hand by Dr. Gray for publication, it was found that 
Dr. Torrey "had left the article on this genus unwritten, and 
apparently had not determined either upon the number of species 
or upon the distinctness of his proposed genus." Dr. Gray, 
therefore, as the easiest way of meeting the difficulty, adopted the 
conclusion of Naudin and Bentham & Hooker, and included under 
Naudin's one species (ii. fabacea) all the known western forms. 
This was the condition of things when it became necessary 
for me to revise the species for the "Botany of California." A 
study of all the considerable material and notes that were avail- 
able left me in no doubt regarding the generic distinctness of the 
western species, and I had no hesitation in adopting Dr. Torrey's 
name for the genus, defining five species from the Pacific Coast. 
In 1877 •^he peculiar method of germination in Megarrhiza 
was described by Dr. Gray in the Journal of Science. In the same 
year Cogniaux, of Brussells, discussed the group in his " Diagnoses 
de Cncurbitacees Nouvelles," though uninformed respecting the 
recent work upon it. He followed Bentham & Hooker in includ- 
ing the whole in one genus, which he divided into two sections — 
Euechinocystis of two species (one eastern and one western), and 
Echinopepon, as defined by Naudin, to which he added other 
Mexican and South American species. It was only with much 
hesitation (" nous avons hesite longtemps "), however, that he 
assented to the reduction of the last genus. In his later revision 
of the order (1881) he has found reason for modifying his con- 
clusions so far as to divide the genus into three sections — Euechino- 
cystis for the one eastern species, Marah for the five species of 
Megarrhiza of the Botany of California, and Echinopepon to in- 
clude sixteen southern species. 

The decision to which American botanists should come re- 


specting the rank to be given to these three well-marked groups 
of species is not a matter of authority, nor of personal feeling or 
sentiment, but one simply of good judgment based upon sufficient 
knowledge. As to my own opinion, after eleven years during 
which the subject has been several times under consideration, I 
still think that the separation of the genus Megarrhiza is the 
most satisfactory course to take. I also think that Naudin's 
genus Echinopepon should be re-established. The three genera 
appear to me to be sufficiendy well distinguished by the following 
characters : — 

ECHINOCYSTIS. Annual ; germination epigaeous, as usually 
in the order; flowers hexamerous ; fruit ovoid, bursting irregu- 
larly at the apex, two-celled and the cells two-seeded ; seeds flat 
and thin, rugose, oblong with an attenuate base. — One species, 
of the northern Atlantic States and Canada. 

Megarrhiza. Perennial, with a tuberous root ; germination 
hypogaeous in a peculiar way (so far as known) ; flowers normally 
pentamerous ; fruit ovoid or globose, bursting irregularly at the 
apex, two-celled or four-locellate, the cells one-four-seeded ; seeds 
turgid, rounded at both ends, smooth. — The five species of the 
Botany of California, with M. macrocarpa, Rattan, and M. Gilensis, 
Greene ; the last species in Arizona. 

Echinopepon. Annual; germination epigaeous; flowers 
normally pentamerous ; fruit oblong, attenuate at both ends, 
dehiscing at the apex by a deciduous operculum, two-celled, the 
cells four to six seeded ; seeds small, flattened, rugose. — E. horri- 
dus, Naud., and E. Wrigktii, of New Mexico, Arizona and north- 
ern Mexico, with several other species of still more southern habitat. 

There still remain three peculiar and doubtful southern species, 
which have been referred to Echinocystis, and which may as 
well remain there provisionally until more is known respecting 
them, viz. : E. {?) Bigelovii, Cogn. {Elaterium ? Bigelovii, Wat- 
son), E. minima, Cogn. {Elaterium ? minimum, Watson, first 
described by Kellogg, in 1859, as Marah minima), and E.(?) 
parviflora, Watson. Of the three genera these species should be 
placed in Echinopepon, but it is probable that they will prove 
referable to some other genus. 


The Flora of Banda Oriental. 

By W. E. Safford, U. S. N. 
(Continued from page 149.) 

I saw a number of LeguminosEe about to bloom, and collected 
several species of Lupine, a dainty little Vetch, and a number of 
composita; related to the genus Senecio. These, together with 
the Anemone and the early bulbous umbellifer mentioned before, 
reminded me strongly of the flora of the " prairies " of the United 
States ; and I may remark here that there are also certain zoolog- 
ical resemblances between our prairies and the Pampas ; such as 
the occurrence in the two regions of burrowing rodents and bur- 
rowing owls of the same genera, and prairie wolves or coyotes. 

Continuing our way across the fields, we collected a small 
Convolvulus with finely divided leaves (C crenatifolius, L., 
Herit.), Gnaphalium Indicum, L., an elegant little composite 
with small white flowers in clusters {Pamphalea Commersonii, 
Car.), and a tiny acaulescent composite with woolly leaves 
{Chevreulia stolonifera, Cass.) On a mound made by leaf-cut- 
ting ants I collected a species of Vernonia {V. Platensis, Less.) 
which was not yet in bloom. I saw at least seven species of in- 
digenous Vernonias in the Gibert collection, but none were yet 
in bloom. 

Reaching the brook of Las Piedras, we found growing in the 
water a large Pontederia (/". nympkcefolia, Kunth.) called by the 
natives " camalote " ; a large sedge {Carex riparia, Curt.), and 
the common Typha angustifolia, L. Around its banks I col- 
lected Mentha aquatica, L., Hydrocotyle nutans, Cyr., and Santo- 
lits Valerandi, L., which is so extensively spread throughout the 
world ; and, near by, the only shrub of the region, Cesirum 
Parqui, which I afterwards found growing on the hillsides of 

1 saw great numbers of a small melon-shaped cactus {Echino- 
cactus, sp. ?), and of a stiff pointed leaved Erytigium, neither of 
which were in bloom. In places there were patches of beautiful 
dwarf blue Iridaceous plants, probably species of Polia or Cy- 
prella. I collected also a peculiar orchid which the natives call 
the " toad-flower," from its color, which is green spotted with 
brown ; and on my way back to the station gathered a Lippia, 


a Polygala, a coarse blue-flowered Lathyrus, and a low-creeping 

On the last day of October I accompanied the botany class 
of the National College of Medicine on an excursion to an estancia 
near Santa Lucia belonging to an uncle of one of the students. 
Some of the young men were dressed in gaucho costume — 
ponchos, or blankets, of guanaco wool, with a hole in the centre 
through which the head is passed, very loose trousers confined 
tightly about the ankle, and broad-rimmed hats. Nearly all of 
them carried sheath knives, some of which were thrust in beauti- 
fully embossed silver scabbards, and the saddles of some of the 
horses awaiting our arrival at Santa Lucia station were provided 
with large silver stirrups. 

The country surrounding Santa Lucia is slightly undulating, 
although at first glance it appears a flat plain. It is cut up by 
numerous winding streams of which the banks are thickly bor- 
dered by small trees and dense thorny shrubs. On the estancia 
to which we went, besides large herds of cattle, horses and sheep, 
we saw a number of ostriches {Rhea Americana) feeding on the 
tender Medicago. We were given several of their newly laid 
eggs from which very good omelets were made. For this pur- 
pose the yolk alone is commonly used ; but I had an omelet 
made of both the yolk and the white, which proved excellent. 
An omelet made from a single egg was sufficient for five people. 
I expected to find the flavor strong, but it was as delicate as that 
of a hen's egg. ' Ostrich eggs may be bought in the markets of 
Montevideo, where festoons of the blown shells are also for sale, 
usually associated with wreaths of blooming aerophyte Tillandsias. 
These wreaths are very pretty ornaments. The Tillandsias com- 
monly sold are of two species — one with spikes of flowers of a 
pale canary color, the other with violet flowers surrounded by 
crimson bracts. Specimens which I took on board ship con- 
tinued blooming for several weeks. A third species, with large 
white flowers, called the Clavel del Aire (Carnation of the air), 
was very fragrant. It also continued blooming for a long time, 
hanging in the captain's cabin. 

There were no vegetables raised on the estancia which we 
visited. While there, our food consisted of mutton, beef, good 


bread, preserves, cheese and potatoes. I thought it strange that 
with so many cows no butter was made. The meat was boiled 
or roasted on a spit over the fire. Our cooks were the men who 
lassoed and killed the cattle on our arrival. Each meal consisted 
of four courses : boiled meat flavored by putting grains of maize 
into the water ; soup ; asado, or ribs roasted over the fire, and 
coffee. Everybody drank wine, which was a very good quality 
of claret In the morning and between meals it was customary 
to take mate, an infusion of the leaves of Ilex Paraguayensis, 
which is sipped from a gourd through a silver tube called a bom- 
billa. The gourd is called the mate, the leaves are called yerba. 
This beverage is very common throughout South America. It 
tastes like tea, but has a peculiar bitter flavor, which is not very 
agreeable to a novice. It is taken very hot, and is usually sweet- 
ened with sugar. Frequently, from the scarcity of gourds, or 
perhaps as a social custom, the same gourd and bombilla is passed 
around ; but the custom is not so common as formerly. The 
Indians of the Pampas are said to be very fond of mate. I after- 
wards saw it for sale in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, and all along 
the coast of Chile. 

I noticed a rancho in process of construction, and it occurred 
to me that it would be interesting to know of what materials it 
was composed. The posts, I learned, were made of the Nan- 
dubay, a leguminaceous tree related to the Algaroba, which, as I 
have before remarked, resists decay when buried. All of the 
posts which I saw were riddled with holes made by the larva of 
some boring insect. The tree is now becoming scarce near 
Montevideo. The posts used in building the rancho were each 
composed of two pieces, the lower of Nandiibay, which entered 
the ground, and the upper of sauce del pais (native willow), 
which is very abundant along the banks of the streams. I think 
the Nandubay is a species of Prosopis : the willow Salix Hum- 
boldtiana is the only species of the genus indigenous to the re- 
gion. It is a beautiful tree, the light-green foliage appearing at 
the same time as the blossoms. We found it in full bloom, and 
collected a number of specimens of both staminatc and pistilate 
.flowers. The roof of the rancho was thatched with Paspalum 
quadrifarium. Lam. The sides were to be of wicker-work of 


interlacing boughs of the willow. Some of the other ranchos 
which I saw had their sides made of sod. 

A stream called the Arroya de Canelones ran through the 
estate. Like most of the streams of the regions, its channel was 
very crooked, owing to the flatness of the country. Its margins 
were bordered by several species of water-plants : Pontederias, 
Potamogetons and Typhas, and in places I saw some Lemna 
floating. On the banks grew the beautiful Salix Hnmboldtiana, 
Willd., covered with a mass of yellow catkins; Celtis tala, Walp. 
(nom. vulg., "tala"), a small thorny tree with smooth white 
bark, belonging to the same genus as our hackberry ; Lucunta 
Sellowii, Alph. DC. (called " mata-ojo," or eye-bane), one of 
the Sapotaceae, not yet in bloom, with leaves like those of the 
Oleander ; a small tree called '' Molle " {Dttvana dependens, 
DC), with inconspicuous flowers, just beginning to open, and 
with its branches covered with galls ; and a beautiful fragrant 
yellow Acacia {A. Farnesiana, Willd.) called " espinillo" or 
" aroma" by the natives. This was in full bloom. I gathered 
a quantity of its blossoms to pack away with clothing in my 
lockers on board ship. Climbing among its branches was a beau- 
tiful Solanum (S. hoerhaviafolium, Sendt), with clusters of large 
pale lavender flowers. I afterwards found this vine in barberry 
thickets (Berberis laurina, Billb.), and with it a bright crimson 
TropcBohim [T. pentaphyllunt, Lam.), with elegant nodding tubu- 
lar flowers and delicate five-parted leaves. The effect of the yel- 
low blossoms of the barberry combined with the delicate lavender 
and the crimson of the climbing vines, was exquisite. 

Farther up the stream I collected Ilex dtimosa, Reiss., and 
several species of Euphorbiaceae, arhong which were Phyllanthtts 
Sellowianus, J. Miiller, and two species of Sebastiana, called by 
the natives " blanquillo." All of these were scrubby trees or 
shrubs. I also collected in the monies, or copses, along the 
stream, Schmidelia edulis, St. Hil., which is said to bear small 
edible berries, and Oreodaphne acutifolia, Nees., called "white 
laurel" by the natives from its dark, shining leaves. This, I 
think, completes the list of the trees of the region which I ob- 
served, though I heard of several others which I did not see, 
among which were two or three species of palms. 


While visiting th6 estancia we drove across the country to 
the water- works of Santa Lucia, which supply Montevideo with 
water. The fields were gay with patches of scarlet, white, yel- 
low, blue and rose color, from the Verbenas, Anthemis, Senecios, 
dwarf Irids and Oxalids, which I had before collected at La Paz ; 
and in places whitish patches of thistles extended for miles. I 
collected several species of thistles, but, as I had not brought a 
sufficient supply of paper with me, most of them were spoiled 
before I returned to Montevideo. I call them all thistles, although 
they are of different genera, since they are related to one another 
in structure and habit of growth, and are armed with spines. 

A large variegated thistle had just begun to bloom. It was 
the milk thistle, Silybum marianuni, Gaertn., and is called by the 
natives " Cardo asnal." It has large purple heads of flowers, and 
leaves variegated with a network of white veins. It has been 
naturalized from Europe, and has also established itself on the 
Pacific coast of the United States. It is this species which Dar- 
win calls the "giant thistle of the Pampas." Cynaria cardun- 
culus, also an introduced species, covered hundreds of acres. In 
speaking of the abundance of this and the preceding species m 
some parts of the Banda Oriental, Darwin says : " There were 
immense beds of the thistle, as well as of the cardoon ; the whole 
country, indeed, may be called one great bed. The two sorts 
grow separate, each plant in company with its own kind. The 
cardoon is as high as a horse's back, but the Pampas thistle is 
often higher than the crown of the rider's head. To leave the 
road for a yard is out of the question ; and the road itself is 
partly, and in some cases entirely closed." 

I noticed two other thistles, neither of which were indigen- 
ous — the star thistle, Centaurea calcitrapa, L., which has also 
been sparingly introduced on the eastern coast of the United 
States, and the Centaurea lanatus, D.C. They were not yet in 
bloom, but the former species had its pretty pointed flower bracts 
well developed, forming symmetrical stars with spine-tipped rays. 
Of all the thistles, the cardoon was by far the most abundant. 
Darwin says that he doubts whether " there is any case on record 
of the invasion on so grand a scale of one plant over the abo- 


rigines." We may well be thankful that it has not established 
itself on our Western grazing lands. 

At the water- works we found a number of plants growing on 
the rocky banks which we had not observed elsewhere. Among 
them were a Cupkea, a Scutellaria, and two new species of Ver- 
bena, of which one bore pretty scorpioid racemes of purple flow- 
ers with yellow eyes. I also collected specimens of the rank 
green Valeriana polystachya, Smith, of both sexes ; a climbing 
Mikania ; a Smilax, and a delicate little plant related to the 
Primulaceae, with yellow flowers, on slender peduncles, having 
bearded filaments like Anagallis. 

I must not forget to mention a pretty blue-and-white Salvia 
which I found growing under bushes ; Accena Eupatoria, a rosa- 
ceous plant with the habit of Agrimony ; and a Liliaceous plant 
bearing umbels of white fragrant flowers {Nothoscordum Sellowi- 
anum, Kunth.), which I afterwards found in Chile. In the Banda 
Oriental it is called lagrimas del Virgen, or " the Virgin's tears." 

In conclusion I will mention a few more plants growing near 
Montevideo which are also found in the United States. Some 
of them are South American species which have established 
themselves with us ; others are North American species which 
have probably been introduced into South America, and it may 
be that some are indigenous to both floras. 

The most abundant are the Erigeron Canadense, now of al- 
most world-wide distribution ; Specularia perfoliata. Alp. DC. ; 
Aster sulmlatus, Mich. ; Solidago odora, Ait. ; Bidens bipinnata, 
L. ; Galiiisoga parviflora. Car. ; Gnaphalium purpureiim, L. ; 
Gilia glomeriflora, Benth. ; Quamoclit coccinea, Mcench. ; Evol- 
vulns sericeus, Swtz. ; Physalis viscosa, L. ; Linaria Canadensis, 
Spr. ; Verbena venosa. Gill. ; Euphorbia hypericifolia, L. ; Sene- 
biera pinnatifida, DC. ; Polygonum acre, Kunth. ; Mollugo ver- 
ticillata, L., several grasses and two ferns, Woodsia obtusa. 
Hook., and Polypodium incatium, Swtz. 

The presence of two species of Bauhinia, which have been 
described by Bentham, may be intere.sting to the student of the 
fossil botany of the United States, as this genus has been found 
in the Amboy Clays of New Jersey. 

U. S. S. " Mohican," Panama Bay, April 23, 1887. 


Bibliographical Notes on well known Plants.— II. 

By Edward L. Greene. 
MyosurUS minimus, Linn. Spec. PI. 284 (1753). 

This little herb appears to be no rarity in western Europe, 
where it has been more or less familiarly known to all botanical 
writers since about the middle of the sixteenth century. For 
about three hundred years it remained the only known repre- 
sentative of its genus, and then a second species was added from 
South America. Within the last seven years three others have 
been published from the western parts of North America, and 
there are perhaps two more lying in our herbaria, mixed with the 
typical one, and waiting to be named and characterized. At all 
events, the genus is now proven to belong properly to North 
America, where all the known species are indigenous. As a 
genus it is a very natural one, none of the modern species calling 
for any alteration of the generic character ; and the essential bib- 
liography of it is therefore European, and also rather ancient. 

Bentham & Hooker in the latest edition of their Genera Plant- 
arum ascribe this genus to Linne, probably because they wish to 
avoid — on account of the vast expenditure of time and labor in- 
volved in the attainment of historical truth and accuracy in 
many cases — all reference to pre-Linnaean authorship of genera. 

In each of the two recent monographs* of Myosurus, Dillen 
(1719) is credited with its authorship, rather than Linne (1737). 
But Dillen, although at work under the heading " Nova Plan- 
tarum Genera," does not in his text assume to be propounding, 
in this particular instance, a genus veritably new. He is per- 
fectly aware that this one was so named, and well enough de- 
fined, about a hundred and forty years before his own day. Let 
me translate his very first phrase regarding it : " MyosurOS is 
thought by Ray, in his History, to be referable to Ranunculus, 
and Tournefort, in his Institutes, has followed him in so referring 
it." Then come Dillen's reasons for dissenting from the opin- 
ion of these high authorities whom he has cited. The date of 
Ray's History is 1688 ; of Tournefort's Institutes, ijoo. They 

• Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad., i., 276, Decemljer, 1885. Gray, Bull. Torr. Club, 
xiii., I, January, 1886. 


were, for their time, noble treatises on systematic and historic 
botany. But, keen and penetrating botanical observer that 
Uillen was, he saw generic characters where those venerated 
masters and very high authorities had overlooked them ; and 
then, severely just and strongly conservative man which every 
critical or controversial page of his exhibits him, he stands up to 
proclaim the genius and defend the rights of other botanists a 
hundred years dead, and whose works are thrust aside, now in 
his time, as antiquated. 

It is true we should not now call I'Obel or Dodoens profound 
systematic botanists ; but each of these authors gave his account 
of the type before us, under the name Myosuros, accompanied 
by a very clear wood-cut of the plant ; and many other authors 
of succeeding decades followed them. 

The genus should be credited to I'Obel (1576). A century 
later than his time it became the fashion to call the plant a species 
o{ Ranunculus, and then came the great "Dillenius" to its rescue 
as a generic unit. 

The name is, of course, but the early and apparently univer- 
sal vernacular of " mouse-tail," put into Greek ; and Linne, in 
selecting a specific name for it, allowed his fancy to dwell upon 
the fact that, for a mouse's tail, it was a very small one, hence 
our Myosurus minimus. Little did he dream that at some future 
day a half dozen species would be known, and that then maximus 
would seem a better name than minimus for the original one, 
which is the largest of them all. 

A new Variety of Aral ia nudicaulis, L 

For several years I have found a variety of the above so dif- 
erent from the type as to deserve a special description. It differs 
from A. nudicaulis in being larger, in having many added leaflets, 
and, more than all, in having most of its flowers in compound 
umbels from the first division of the scape. 

Aralia nudicaulis, L., var. PROLIFERA, n. var. Plant smooth 
and nearly stemless ; leaf solitary, decompound, paimately about 
twice ternate, the divisions generally pinnate into threes or fives; 
one division often consisting of a single leaflet ; leaflets, twenty-five 
to forty, oblong-obovate, acuminate, finely serrate; scape with 


three or four primary divisions, the latter having many rays 6" to 
15' long, forming umbels ; the short rays bearing single flowers, the 
long ones umbelets of many (ten to thirty) flowers each ; the 
umbelets on each plant varying in number from five to seventy. 
Near Lambertville, New Jersey. 

Austin G. Apgar, Trenton, N. J. 

A Point in Nomenclature. 

There can be no question that the specific name to be borne 
by our species of Cliftonia is that given to it originally by Gaert- 
ner, namely, Cliftonia nitida. Its synonymy in brief is as follows : 

Cliftonia nitida, Gsrtn., fil., Fruct., iii., 247, t. 225, fig. 5 (1805). 

Ptelea monophylla, I,am., 111., i., 336 (1791). This long remained a puzzle, 
though correclly solved by Nuttall (Gen., i., 104). Jussieu (Mem. Rut., 127) sus- 
pected it to be a species of Rumex. 

Milocaryum ligustrinum, Willd., Enum., 454 (1807). 

"iVallhcria Caroliniensis, Fras., Cat." 

Cliftonia ligustrina, Spreng., Syst., 2, 316 (1825). 

Sereno Watson. 
Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Botanical Estrays. — T. H. McBride. (Amer. Nat., xxi., pp. 572- 

Mr. McBride records the discovery of two species of Lycopo- 
dium at Iowa City ; none have hitherto been reported from the 

Carices of Pennsylvania — A List of the. (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., Phila., 1887, pp. 68-80; advance sheets. Also re- 
printed, pamph., 8vo., pp. 12.) 

Professor Porter enumerates 98 species and 24 varieties of 
Carex, an unexpectedly large number for a single State. We 
doubt if New York has as many, and the number exceeds those 
detected in New Jersey by at least fifteen. Full localities are 
given by counties. Pennsylvania is the southern limit of several 
species, among them C. pauciflora, Lightf , C. retrorsa, Schwei- 
nitz, C. vulgaris. Fries, C. Magellanica, Lam., C. arctata, Boott., 
and C. chordorhiza, Ehrh., while it is the most northern habitat 
of C. Shortiana, Dewey. Prof. Porter contends for the specific 
rank of his C. Stnithii, and describes the following new varieties : 
C. granulans, Muhl., var. Haleana, C. tetanica, Schk. vars. 
Canbyi and Carteri. 


Cercis. — C. G. Lloyd. (Drugs and Medicines, N. A., ii., pp. 

122-125; six figures.) 
Claims of Botany. — W. W. Bailey. (Education, vii., 704-713.) 

We are pleased to note in these arguments some points 
which the teachers of this metropolis will heartily substantiate. 
We fear that "text-book instruction" is yet entirely too prevalent, 
and many are the teachers who know not the common plants 
around them. There is still too much striving after words and 
definitions, statements and compositions, no matter how they are 
arrived at, and plants as objects to look at and to watch and think 
about are not so important as they are to make up into lessons. 
Drawing is not sufficiently used as an accessory and test, and 
children are more familiar with the conventionalized forms of 
their portfolios than with the natural objects. Not only is there 
an increasing demand for teachers, but governesses, companions 
and superior nurses with the knowledge sufficient to answer the 
questions of children are wanted and cannot be had. 
Contributions to American Botany, XIV. — Serene Watson. (Proc. 

Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., xxii., pp. 396-481 ; reprinted.) 

The first seventy pages of Dr. Watson's latest "contribution " 
are devoted to an enumeration of the plants collected by Dr. 
Edward Palmer, in the State of Jalisco, Mexico, in 1886, at and 
about the city of Guadalajara. The collection includes 675 
species, over ten per cent, of which are new. Corythea is a new 
genus of Euphorbiacese and Prochnyanthes a new genus of 
Agaveae. The determinations of Gamopetalae are by Dr. Gray, 
and among them we find a new genus of Asclepiadeae, Melli- 
champia. Dr. Vasey finds several new species of Gramineae, and 
Acrostickttm araneosum, Notholana aurantiaca and Cheilanthes 
Pal-meri are new ferns by Professor Eaton. 

The second part gives descriptions of new species of plants 
from various North and Central American localities. Those from 
the United States are as follows : Cardamine Lyallii ; Arabis 
confinis, which includes all the eastern plants referred to A. 
Drummondii ; A. Bolanderi, A. perennans, A. Beckwithii, A. 
Lentmonii, A. Parishii, and A. pulchella, M. E. Jones, all western; 
Thelypodium stenopetalum, Silene longistylis, Engelm. ; Lupinus 
CusicA'ii ixnd L. Schockleyi ; Astragalus Hendersoni, A. accidens 


and A. lectulus ; Orogenia fusiformis ; Peucedanum circumda- 
tum and P. Kingii (the lsitter=^P.. graveo/ens, Wats.) ; Podistera 
is a new genus of Uml^lliferae. with a single species, P. Neva- 
densis, Microseris anotna/a, from Santa Cruz Island ; Camassia 
Cusickn ; Erythronium Hendersoni, E. citrinum and E. Howellii, 
all from Oregon ; Juncus Congdonii, from Merced Co., Cal. 

N. L. B. 
" Crasy " Pollen oj the Bell-wort. — Byron D. Halsted. (Bot. 
Gazette, xii., pp. 139, 140, one plate; also reprinted.) 
Description and illustration of very curious forms of pollen 
tubes of Uvularia grandijlora grown on culture slides. 
Diphylleia cymosa. — C. G. Lloyd. (Drugs and Medicines N. A., 

ii., pp. 120, 121.) 
Elements of Botany; including Organography, Vegetable His- 
tology, Physiology, Taxonomy, and a Glossary of Botanical 
Terms. — Edson S. Bastin. (8vo, pp. 282, 459 figures; 
Chicago, 1887.) 

Professor Bastin has written a very useful book, and one for 
which we predict a large sale. It is not a reference work in 
any sense, but a simple, straightforward presentation of the subject, 
which will prove of the highest value to beginners and may be 
used advantageously by more advanced students. Its arrange- 
ment and methods are indeed remarkably well adapted to an 
' ordinary undergraduate course of study. 

Organography is first taken up, and followed by Histology. 
It seems to us more advantageous to reverse this arrangement, 
though it is a good deal a matter of taste and depends upon the 
opinion of the instructor. 

The systematic portion of the book is contained in the last 
fifty-four pages, and is a very concise treatment of tlie topic. 
We note a few points in which we can hardly agree : thus Yeast 
is included in Schizomycetes — microbes may better retain that 
name to themselves alone ; the treatment of the Thallophytes is 
far simpler under the natural classes Algae, Fungi and Lichens as 
primary subdivisions, than under' the method of spore formation 
and sporocarps, which throws most unlike organisms together, 
but botanists appear to have gone mad on this system of late, in 
spite of its intricacy and unnaturalness; Sphagna are considered 


as a mere genus of mosses, but may better be taken as a distinct 
class ; in the treatment of Pteridophyta no mention is made of 
the two well-marked series of Homospcyae and Heterosporae, and 
on page 236 the word Filicinae is misspelled so as to remind one 
strongly of Catnip. 

The illustrations are generally good, though some of them 
will not bear close examination. They have one very great 
recommendation — they are all new, the borrowing photo-engrav- 
ing process not having been invoked in the preparation of this 
text book ! 
Erechtites hieracifolia. — C. G. Lloyd. (Drugs and Medicines 

N. A., ii., pp, 126 et seq., one plate and illustrations.) 
Fresh-water Algce of the United States. — Francis WoUe. 2 vols., 

8vo., 157 plates; price $10. 

This work, which has long been looked for with interest, is 
now completed and ready for issue. It supplies a long-felt want, 
for Wood's Contribution, the latest American work on this sub- 
ject, was published about fifteen years ago, and described all the 
then known Algae — only about 375 species. Mr. WoUe's new 
work embraces 13,000 — all the species of this country known up 
to the present time. The first volume contains the text, and the 
second the plates. These are all colored by hand and contain 
over 2,000 figures. The volumes correspond in size, press work 
and plates with the author's " Desmids of the United States," to 
which the work is complemental. The price may seem high, but 
remembering the number of plates and the comparatively small 
demand for a work of the kind, hence the necessarily small edi- 
tion, it is really very low, low even as compared with a recent 
work on British Fresh-water Algae, which sells for $22.00. 
Guatemala. — Undescribed Plants from. — I. J. Donnell Smith, 

(Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 131-134.) 

This is the first installment of descriptions of new species and 
varieties of plants from the collections of Mr. H. von Tiirckheim, 
a resident botanist of Coban. Vochysia Guatemalensis, Hamelia 
calycosa, Ardisia pectinata, Myriocarpa heterospicata, Nephro- 
dium Tuerckheimii, and N. Fendleri, Hook., var. paucipinnatum 
are described. 
Life History of the Diatomaceoe — A Contribution to the. — H. L. 


Smith, Hon. F. R. M. S. (Proc. American Society of Micro- 
scopists, 1886, pp. 30 66; five plates, colored.) 
Prof. Smith is well known as a life-long student of the Diato- 
maceae, also as the distinguished author of the system of classifi- 
cation now so generally adopted, hence his conclusions carry 
with them the weight of acknowledged authority. The paper is 
too long to give a synopsis of, but the subject is treated under 
the following heads : I. Tke Structure of the Diatom Fmsiule, 
the Nature of the Envelope and the Typical Variations. II. Dis- 
tribution and Arrangement of the Internal Contents. 

In summing up the first part, he says: "It appears that for 
all diatoms there is a general type of structure, that the de- 
parture from the normal form is regular and often quite gradual, 
and it is to be regretted that minute considerations, such as varied 
outline, difference in size, finer striation, abnormal forms and the 
like, have sufficed so often for proposing new species, to .say 
nothing about genera ; whereas, looking at the subject from a 
more rational standpoint, and guided by safer principles of philos- 
ophizing, one may well be assured that nearly half the present 
admitted genera, and many more of the species, might be blotted 
out with advantage." C. H. K. 

Lima Beans in Germination — Experiments with. — W. J. Beal. 

(Amer. Nat, xxi., pp. 576,577; one plate.) 
Lindera Benzoin. — C. G. Lloyd. (Drugs and Medicines N. A., 
ii., pp. 117-119.) 

List of Native and Introduced Plants observed in Flozver in the 
Vicinity of Salem during the Spring of 1 886, on or before 
May \st.~-]. H. Sears. (Bull. Essex. Inst, xviii., pp. 95-98.) 
A list of about 150 species with common names. 

List of Recently Identified Fossil Plants belonging to the United 
States National Museum, with Descriptions of several netv 
Species. — Leo Lesquereux. (Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 1887, 
pp. 21-46; four plates.) 

An enumeration of 203 species, of which the following are 
new : Pecopteris Powellii, Cycadeo-spermum aequilaterale, C. fa- 
boideum, C. subfalcatum., Caulinites Beckeri, Iriies Alaskana, 
Qiiercus Crossii, Andromeda linearifolia, Vaccinium Coloradoense, 


Cratagiis Holmesii, Cissites tnicrophyllus, Grewiopsis acuminata, 

Phyllites fraxineus and P. ntiniusopsoideus. 

Lobelia. — C G. Lloyd. (Drugs and Medicines N. A., ii., pp. 

101-106; one plate.) 

Descriptions are given of structure, history and medical 
properties of L. syphilitica and L. cardinalts. 
Milkweeds. — Joseph F. James. (Amer. Nat, xxi., pp. 605-615; 

nine figures.) 

A popular account of the structure of the flowers, the pollin- 
ation and economic relations of the Asclepiadeae. 
Movement of Diatoms. — Cornelius Onderdonk. (The Microscope, 

May, 1887.) 

Although several theories have been proposed to account for 
the movement of diatoms, none have proved so satisfactory as to 
be generally accepted. This paper will be read with interest by 
those who have made the matter a subject of thought. Mr. 
Onderdonk's theory is, briefly, as follows : — That living pro- 
toplasm is matter in rhythmic motion and dead protoplasm is 
matter at rest ; that all living diatoms are encased in an envelope 
of protoplasm, and that it is the rhythmic action of this that 
causes the motion of the frustules. He calls attention to the fact 
that the force exerted is immediately on the surface o{ the diatom ; 
that this force is exerted over the surface from end to end of the 
diatom, and that the force is rhythmic. He considers this 
rhythmic motion to be akin to the cyclosis which takes place in 
the interior of a cell. C. H. K. 

Nitrogenous Bodies in Plants — The Occurrence and Functions of 

Certain. — W. E. Stone. (Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 123-130.) 

An interesting account of present knowledge of this subject. 
Origin of the Tomato from a Morphological Standpoint. — L. H. 
Bailey, Jr. (Amer. Nat., xii., pp, 573-576; one plate.) 

Reasoning from the results of an exhaustive study of twenty- 
five varieties of cultivated Tomatoes, Professor Bailey concludes 
that the "Cherry Tomato," Lycopersicum cerasiforme, Dunal, is 
the original type from which all the others have been derived. 
Primer of Botany. — Mrs. A. A. Knight, Robinson Seminary, 

Exeter, (Ginn & Co., Boston, 1887.) 

The object of this little book is to present the essential points 


of plant histology and physiology with a Httie morphology in the 
simplest objective form to children of primary grades having no 
knowledge of the subject. The use of the microscope is expected 
from the teacher at the start, and yet the questions and statements, 
and even the methods, are so ambiguous that we doubt the 
ability of the average teacher to use this primer intelligently. 

Lesson A. begins with "What the living part of a plant is," 
and the first page alone is the veriest mixture of the simple and 
the complex, as these two sentences will show : " State some- 
thing about a lily." " What is the living part of a plant ?" Some 
of the statements emphasized by heavy type, which are evidently 
mtended for memorizing, are questionable. Here is one : 
"II. Protoplasm is found everywhere in a living plant." The 
statement has its exceptions. Whether the child is supposed in 
one lesson to have arrived at this objectively, or whether the 
teacher is supposed to take it for granted that they are capable 
of fully understanding the scope of everyivhere in this sentence, we 
are left to guess. 
Scrophularia. — C. G. Lloyd, (Drugs and Medicines N. A., ii., 

pp. 106-116; one plate and wood cut. 
The Task of American Botanists. — W. G. Farlow. (fop. Sci. 
Month., xxxi, pp, 305-3(4.) 

"If we are behind some other nations in the quantity and 
quality of our botanical investigations, what is the reason? It 
must be through lack of inclination, lack of time, lack of means, 
or lack of the requisite training." With his usual clearness and 
masterly grasp of the subject, Prof Farlow then tells much that 
we knew or had heard before with a force and individuality 
quite original. He speaks pretty plainly against the amount of 
class-work required of professors in our American colleges and 
the need of more assistance, stating that a " great gain will have 
been made if the public can be persuaded that professors in col- 
leges ought to be allowed time for, and be expected to do, 
original work." In answer to the question, " What sort of botan- 
ical investigation is needed in this country .'*'' he says: " In a new 
country the first work must be almost entirely descriptive and 
class! ficatory; and, when this work has reached a sufficiently 
advanced stage, histology, physiology and the study of life-histo- 


ries assume more and more importance." Where do we stand? 
" We stand where Germany formerly stood. Our country is so 
large, and some parts of it so little explored, that descriptive 
work has by no means reached its limit. The only question is 
how to have it well done." " Strange as it may seem to some 
ears, it appears to me that histological and developmental work 
is what is best adapted to non-professional botanists." 'Inas- 
much as the larger libraries and collections are in the colleges 
and larger cities, descriptive work, if it is not to be shabbily done, 
must be done by persons connected with colleges, having ready 
access to herbaria and libraries." "If we should look to college 
professors and a few experts for what we still have to be done in 
systematic botany, and to those connected with the more impor- 
tant laboratories for physiological work of the higher grade, 
histology and the study of life-histories are subjects of vast ex- 
tent, and, in most of their phases, can be studied successfully by 
private individuals as well as by professionals." " la the older 
parts of the country, including even the Mississippi Valley, it 
seems to me that the rising generation would make the best use 
of their opportunities by working out some of the many impor- 
tant questions in histology, and in studying the life-histories of 
different plants, more especially cryptogams " 
Tulostoma mainmosum — The Growth of. — C. E. Bessey. (Amer. 
Nat, xxi., pp. 665, 666.) 

Botanical Notes. 

Report on the Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of 
H. M. S. Challenger, 1873-76. — Part IV., Diatomacece. Count 
F. Castracane ; pp. 178; 30 plates, 393 figs. 

The literature of the Diatomaceae is so scanty that any addi- 
tion to it is joyfully welcomed, especially when, as in this instance, 
we have the summing up of the results of a famous scientific ex- 
pedition. We cannot help wishing, though, that authors would 
refrain from creating new species upon such slight pretexts, for 
many of the forms figured are clearly referable to species that 
have been already described by others under different names, 
and so the list of synonyms is unwarrantably increased to the 
confusion of the skilled student and utter bewilderment and dis- 


couragement of the amateur. In looking over the work, it is 
remarkable to notice how few type forms are mentioned. Out 
of a total of 337 species described, 241 are marked n. sp., 78 are 
marked varieties, and 18 are type species. Five new genera are 
created, viz. : — Cyclophora, Dactyliosolen, Corethron, Willeinoesia, 
and Ethtnodiscus. It is unfortunate that the author has, in so 
many instances applied names to new species that have already 
been appropriated by others. The following are instances: 
Amphora stauroptera, Daunfelt, Navicula abnormis, Grunow, N. 
decipiens, O'Meara, N. mirabiiis, Fortmorel, Rhapkoneis elliptka, 
Ehrenberg, Synedra lanceolata, Kutzing, Surirella yaponica, 
Ehrenberg and A. Schmidt, S. multicostata, Fortmorel, Campy- 
lodtscus kuniilis, Greville, Aciinocyclus anceps, Fortmorel, Coscino- 
dtscus decrescens, Grunow, and C. undulatus, Cleve. 

One of the most valuable and interesting portions of the report 
IS the introduction, and we trust the author's suggestion as to the 
use of the terms zonal and valval, instead of front-view and 
side-view, will be generally adopted. The latter terms are mis- 
leading, and German writers use them in a different sense from 
English writers. [C. H. K.] 

Annals of Botany is the title of a proposed new serial to be 
edited by Professors Bayley Balfour and S. H. Vines, of England, 
and Dr. Farlow, of Cambridge, Mass. It will be devoted to all 
branches of the science and be adequately illustrated. The sub- 
scription price is one guinea per volume. 

Vincetoxicum nigrum on Long Island. Mr. E. S. Miller 
writes that he noticed this plant growing along the main street 
of Heliport, Suffolk County, June 20th, 1887. 

A Supplement to Bentham and Hooker s " Genera Plantarum." 
The Gardener's Chronicle for May contains a notification of a 
prospectus by Messrs. Borntrager, of Berlin, of a systematic 
alphabetic conspectus of all genera published down to 1885, 
including Ferns and Lycopods. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

The regular monthly meeting was held at Columbia College, 
July 1 3th, 1887. Mr. Henry C. Lee was elected an active mem- 


ber. The resignation of Mr. John A. Staunton was accepted 
and his name transferred to the list of corresponding members. 

Mrs. Britton exhibited and remarked on some seedling 
beeches collected May 2 1st, at Clove Lake, Staten Island, in 
which the leaves showed a tendency to pinnation, such as is 
found in the cultivated " P'ern-leaved Beech " ; also seedlings of 
Nuphar advena, collected near New Dorp, Staten Island, with 
membranaceous submersed leaves similar to those she had 
formerly reported on Limnanthenium lacimosum, and of constant 
occurrence on Nuphar Kalmianuni ; also a specimen of Clematis 
ochroleuca from Todt Hill, Staten Island, with fasciated stems 
and deeply tri-lobed leaves. 

Dr. H. H. Rusby spoke of the advantages of the use of straps 
in drying plants. His method was to carry to the field a quantity 
of newspapers between white-wood boards strengthened by thin 
battens within and without, and secured by a pair of large, stout 
straps. In two pairs of such boards he had frequently carried 
home from 500 to 800 specimens. His driers consisted of two 
thicknesses of ordinary house sheathing, without tar or sizing, 
between which were quilted from two to six newspapers. These 
would become saturated with moisture twice a day, if the weather 
was fine enough for changing so frequently, and would thus cure 
specimens in a very short time, often in thirty-six to forty-eight 
hours. If, on the other hand, the weather was bad, the specimens 
would take comparatively little harm in these thick driers for two 
or three days. By tightening the straps alternately, a pressure 
of 300 pounds could be easily secured. When the plants were 
dry they were placed in small bundles under light pressure and 
exposed to a hot sun for two or three hours before being packed. 

Dr. Britton showed specimens of Oakesia ( Uvularid) sessili- 
folia, Watson, collected near Tom's River, N. J., showing in its 
shining, rough- edged leaves a transition towards the southern O. 

He also remarked on the recent death of Mr. G. M. Wilbur, 
for many years Recording Secretary of the Club, and also on the 
death of Mr. Julius Bisky one of its younger and most active 
members. On motion, the President appointed committees to 
prepare appropriate resolutions. 




Vol. XIV.] New York, September, 1887. [No. 9. 

Bibliographical Notes on well known Plants.— lEL 

By Edward L. Greene. 
Nymph.«A and NUPHAR. 

By a very great majority of botanists, taking the past along 
with the present, these two genera have been confounded. Pond- 
lilies, white-flowered and yellow-flowered, have been known from 
the remotest antiquity, and both were called Nymj)lt(za by the 
Greeks and Latins of old. In all the ponderous folios and quar- 
tos of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth century botany, 
as well as in several of the very front rank of authors in the ear- 
liest decade of our own century, we find Nymphaa still un- 
divided, and embracing all the known species of water lilies, 
whether white or yellow-flowered. Until about eighty years 
ago, Nymphcea alba, a binary name still in use, for a certain 
European plant, included several of our nymphaeas, and Nym- 
ph(Ba lutea covered an equal number of our nuphars. The fact 
that Brunfels, as long ago as the year 1534, proposed for these 
plants the Arabic name Nenufar, in place of the Greek Nym- 
phcea, is worth mentioning only because it is about the first ap- 
pearance of the name at present accepted for the yellow pond- 
lilies. He had not a thought of distinguishing here two genera. 

It is not strange that Linne did not separate them ; because 
the faculty for generical discrimination was not among the 
elements which combined to make his greatness. In this regard, 
there were not many among his contemporaries or immediate 
forerunners who did not excel him. Some of the Linnsan 
genera are pretty nearly co-extensive with natural orders as now 
everywhere received. Yet A. L. de Jussieu (1789), and even 
Joseph Gajrtner (1791), that masterly botanist who, in analytical 
power, surpassed all his predecessors, and whose great work. Do 
Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum,' marked the beginning of a 
new era in the history of genera, still left the old genus Nym- 
phcea undivided. It might well at the present day raise a doubt. 


and move one to make a new and careful investigation of the 
characters of Nuphar, this circumstance, that none were dis- 
cerned by Tournefort, Plumier, Dillen, MicheH, Vaillant, Linne, 
Haller, Adanson, Jussieu, Jacquin, Mcench or Gaertner. When 
all these and other celebrated men of that splendid epoch had 
failed to perceive that the so-called yellow pond-lilies were of a 
different genus from the white, it is, if true, somewhat remark- 
able that a man so little above mediocrity in point of talent as 
Sir J. E. Smith, should have been the one to distinguish them. 
But that it was he is what all our books now seem to =a)- ; for 
Nuphar is everywhere credited to Smith, who published it in 
Sibthorp's Flora Graeca in 1806. That the genus is entirely 
valid we may well believe from this, that ever since its promul- 
gation, now eighty years ago, it has been approved by all author- 
ities, even finding ready acceptance with that celebrated cotem- 
porary writer upon genera, Professor Baillon, who is so little dis- 
posed to admit genera with weak characters, that he remands 
Neginido to Acer, Coptis to Helleborus, and writes Aconitum as 
doubtfully distinct from Delphinium. As for the author to whom 
should be accorded the honor of having separated these two 
water-lily genera aforetime confounded, I venture to express a 
doubt that it is Smith. Such a fine piece of generical discrimi- 
nation seems far less likely to have emanated from that plodding 
conventionalist, than from the penetrating and analytical mind of 
his gifted rival, Salisbury. It was the latter who took the water- 
lilies out of the Papaveracese, where they had been placed by 
the elder Jussieu, and founded on them the new natural order, 
Nymphaeaceae, at the same time separating generically the white 
from the yellow-flowered kinds. It is certain that a portion of 
this work was published prior to the appearing of Smith's Nu- 
pJiar ; perhaps all of it was ; for there is apparently some doubt 
as to whether the part of Koenig and Sim's Annals contain- 
ing Salisbury's dissertation is of the date 1805 or 1806. This 
work must now be rare, and I have not seen it. But the plate 
in the Paradisus Londinensis, bearing the figure and the name of 
Salisbury's Castalia magnifica, was published in October, 1805, 
and this plate alone would almost or altogether establish a gen- 
erical priority. If the corresponding pages of the Annals also 


appeared in 1805, then beyond all question Smith's iV«/;^ar must 
pass into synonymy, and Salisbury's Castalia obtain the place to 
which priority would entitle it. It must be left to some one 
whose library facilities exceed mine to settle this question of the 
dates of publication. As I have intimated above, I am suspi- 
cious that in the matter of these water-lily genera, we have 
another instance of that discreditable treatment of Salisbury's 
genera and species, with which British botanists both of his own 
and later times are chargeable.* 

The uncritical reader will perchance infer from what I have 
been saying, that Smith's Nuphar and Salisbury's Castalia are 
synonymous, which is not the case; for the last-named author 
kept the classical name Nymphcea for the yellow-flowered, or 
nuphar species, and this with good reason. It was very likely 
these plants to which Nymphaa was first applied. Then, for the 
more showy red and white and blue-flowered genus he proposed 
the new and beautiful name, Castalia ; one which I judge, from 
all I am able to gather out of the books to which access is 
afforded me, will have to be restored. 

I must not conclude this note without pausing to qualify one 
general statement made at the outset. It is not true that every 
one of the pre-Linnaean botanists confused tl^e two genera herein 
discussed. They were accurately defined and separately named 
eighty-five years before either Salisbury or Smith took them in 
hand, and that by the very celebrated author, Boerhaave (1720). 
He seemed to know that it was to the homely yellow-flowered 
plants (our nuphars) that the name NyinpIicBa belonged, and so 
he left it to designate that group ; hence Salisbury, in doing 
the same thing, no doubt purposely followed him. For our 
nymphaeas {^Castalia, as Salisbury called them), he coined the 
name Leuconymphcea. Luckily for us who all will prefer the 
easy and graceful Castalia to the lumbering Leuconymphcea, 
Boerhaave's priority goes for naught, inasmuch as it is prior to 
Linne ; but the credit of seeing the two genera in what all before 
him had called one, and of clearly bringing out their several dis- 
tinguishing points belongs to him, and not to any lights of this 
more favored and more boastful age. 

* See Journal of Botany, xxiv, 49 and 296. 


Dehiscence of the Sporangium of Adiantum pedatum.* 
By Florence May Lyon. 

The sporangia of Adiantum pedatum are fixed by slender 
stalks to the under surface of the pinnule whose reflexed margin 
forms the indusium. Each sporangium consists of a flattened, 
somewhat obovate sac. Its walls, consisting of a single layer of 
cells, are — with the exceptions given below — composed of pure 
cellulose. Extending vertically about two-thirds around the 
sporangium is the annulus. The walls which separate adjacent 
cells of the annulus, together with the floor of each cell, are much 
thickened and lignified, while the external wall, which curves over 
the edge of the sporangium in such a manner as to form a half 
cylinder, is a thin membrane of cellulose. In the remaining one- 
of the circumference, about midway be- 
tween the end of the annulus and the 
stalk, are two narrow and elongated cells 
with thick lignified walls. It is between 
these two cells, along a definite line, that 
dehiscence always begins. That this is 
the point of greatest weakness is evident 
from the fact that if an unopened ripe 
sporangium be put into Schulze's mac- 
erating fluid, almost immediately, and 
before any other rupture is seen, these 
two lip-cells gape apart. The same result 
may be produced by strong potash. 
Moreover, the margins of the slit are 
clear cut, and never jagged, as if torn. 
These two cells seem to have been overlooked hitherto, or to 
have been considered of no importance, for they are rarely rep- 
resented in the cuts of fern sporangia, and dehiscence is described 
as taking place transversely, somewhere or anywhere between 
the end of the annulus and the neck. The constancy of this 
structure in the sporangia of the true ferns seems to indicate its 
importance. In the ferns mentioned below, I have found these 
modified cells, with slightly varying details of structure, and have 

Ripe sporangium after 
expelling spores. 

Read before the Botanical Club, A. A. A. S., New York, Aug., l8 


Front view of "lip cells." 

observed that dehiscence invariably begins 
by the clear cut between the hp-cells, and 
then continues as a somewhat irregular 
rent through the thin walls back to the 
annulus. The material from which the 
above results were obtained was preserved in alcohol. Fresh 
plants o{ Adiantum Capillus- Veneris and of Pteris cretica were ob- 
tained from the greenhouse, the remainder were dried specimens 
from the herbarium. 

The species in which the lip-cells were observed are the fol- 
lowing : Adiantum Capillus- Veneris, Pteris cretica, Asplenium 
bulbiferum, A. Filix-fwmina, Aspidium Filix-mas, Polypodium 
vulgare, Scolopendriiun vulgare, Woodwardia Virginica, Wood- 
sia obtusa, Camptosorus rhizophylliis, Pellcea atropurpurea and 
Struthiopteris Germanica. 

Although in general the action of sporangia preserved in 
alcohol was satisfactorily studied, the results obtained remain to 
be verified from fresh specimens. If a sporangium be allowed to 
dry upon the slide, simultaneously with the appearance of the 
rent between the lips the an- 
nulus bends back until the 
ends nearly touch ; then, with 
a quick jerk, it resumes its 
former position, expelling the 
spores by both movements. 
Then the annulus once more, 
but more slowly, straightens, 
generally coming to rest in 
an almost rectilinear position. 
The same phenomena may be 

, 1 -1 -f i.l,„ Portion of the an- 

observed more easily if the ..^i^^ ,^djoi„i„g the 
l-ront view of the portion of sporangium be placed in stalk. 
tween''the"?a"irand'tlfe up- glycerine and the movements somewhat 
per end of the annulus. retarded by the pressure of the cover 

glass. As the annulus recurves the first time, the lateral walls 
of each cell, which in optical section appear like the letter 
U, approach each other, and the tliin outer wall is pressed in so 
that the cavity of the cell is much diminished in size. At the 


moment that the annulus returns to its original position, a bubble 
of air makes its appearance in each of its cells. The sporangium 
when in glycerine rarely comes to rest so widely open as when dry. 
Now, first, what is the initial cause of the arching back of the 
annulus ? Second, why does it return to its former position ? 
Third, why does it finally assume the rectilinear position ? The 
ordinary explanation is that the ring is elastic or hygroscopic. 
This is plainly unsatisfactory. It has been suggested by a late 
writer* that there is greater contraction of the thin external wall 
which thus pulls the annulus back. This explanation is disputed 
in a more recent paper by M. Leclerc du Sablon.t He argues 
that the external wall does not become tense as it would were it 
to contract more rapidly, but, on the contrary, sinks almost to 
the floor of the cell. Schinz offers still another solution, i. e., 
that the lignified walls are not homogeneous ; that the inner lay- 
ers contain more water and consequently contract more upon 
drying than the external ones, and that to this unequal contrac- 
tion is due the initial movement of the annulus. M. du Sablon 
objects to this on the ground that if the annulus be separated 
from the sporangium and cut through lengthwise, each half 
ought to act precisely like the ring when intact. He claims to 
have made this section, but the half ring failed to contract. M. 
du Sablon's own explanation is substantially as follows: "The 
dry air surrounding the sporangium causes the water contained 
in the cells to evaporate. The pressure of the surrounding medi- 
um is greater than the pressure inside the cells, and the delicate 
external wall is pushed in, which accounts for the concave appear- 
ance. The cells of the entire annulus being thus depressed, 
cause it to straighten and curve backward." So far we can offer 
no criticism, although the explanation is purely hypothetical. He 
explains the return movement, however, in a very unsatisfactory 
manner. He believes it to be caused by the sudden formation of 
bubbles of air in the row of cells constituting the annulus, which, 
according to his belief, increase the internal pressure sufficiently 

' ScHlNZ. — Untersuchungen iiber den mechanismus desAufspringensderSporan- 
gien und PoUensiicke. Zurich, 1883. 

t Recherches sur la dissemination des spores chez les Cryptogames vasculaires. 
Ann. des Sci. Nat., Ser. VII., Tom. II. 


to restore each cell to its original size, and thus throw the ring 
back to its original position. He thinks the bubble is formed of 
the air contained in the cell sap. If this be the case, as the 
amount of air is a very small per cent, of the cell contents, even 
should it expand, its pressure could not be so great as that of 
the surrounding denser air. It is difficult, moreover, to under- 
stand why the air in the cell should expand, as there is no dimin- 
ution of external pressure nor any rise of temperature. The 
third movement he accounts for by the further evaporation from 
the cells. 

A clear explanation of the causes which produce the dehis- 
cence in the fern sporangia remains to be worked out. The 
presence of the lip-cells here described, of the existence of which 
M. du Sablon's figures and descriptions give no recognition, may 
prove an important factor. 
Botanical Laboratory University ) 
OF Michigan, June, 1887. 3 

[For other notes on this subject see the Bi lletin xiii, p. i68, ; lier. Deutsch 
Bot. Gesell., iv, p. 42 ; Journ. Roy. Mic. Soc. i886, pp. 828 and 1020 ; 1887, p. 66z ; 
and Flora, Ixx, (1887) pp. 177, 192, 202-208.— Ed.] 

Notes on the Flora of Cayuta Creek. 

Being stationed for a few weeks at Waverly, N. Y. (Tiojjja 
Co.), near the mouth of this stream, I determined to work up its 
bed and shed as far as possible, it being an especially interesting 
locality to me, as it geographically connects my work in Broome 
Co. with that of Dr. Lucy in Chemung Co., and of Prof Dudley in 
the Cayuga Lake Ba.sin. This little rivulet, having its source in 
a small lake by the same name situated a little south of east of 
the head of Seneca Lake and between it and Cayuga, flows south- 
east for half its length and then mainly south to its junction with 
the Susquehanna river, just across the Pennsylvania State line, a 
little east of the center of the southern tier of counties. This 
stream is about 35 miles long, flows through a narrow valley 
whose hillsides are mostly cleared and form fine farm lands, and 
forms a natural county line between Schuyler and Tompkins on the 
north, and Chemung and Tioga on the south. * Thus far we 

* Those who are fortunate enough to po.ssess Prof. Dudley's "Cayuga Flora," 
will find a quite faithful map of this location as a frontispiece. 


have only explored the creek from its mouth to "Bingham's 
Sta.," a distance of about eight miles, yet these few notes will 
show how pecuHarly this region forms the true boundary of that 
portion of the State termed in geographical flora, " Western New 

Archemora rigida, DC, was found about two miles north of 
the State line. This is the farthest eastern station for this species 
that we know of; * the individuals differ from the western in hav- 
ing regularly, finely, and closely serrate leaves (not found in 
Broome Co., nor in the Cayuga basin. Dr. Torrey reports the 
plant in " western part of the State, rare.") 

Oxalis violacea, L., occurs near the mouth of the creek, and 
about three miles up the stream. This violet-like beauty grows 
in the alluvium of the creek, in swales where leaves have accu- 
mulated and decayed; not on rocks, its usual habitat. (Not 
found in the Cayuga region, nor as yet in Broome Co.) 

Polemonium reptans, L., found near the mouth of the creek, 
and by Mr. F. V. Coville about three miles north. At the first 
named station quite a large patch was found intimately associated 
with Asariim Canadense on the alluvial bank of the creek under 
the shade of a large sugar maple and a clump of Neillia opuli- 
folia. (Dr. Torrey, on the authority of Dr. Bradley, reports the 
plant in Cattaraugus Co. Not found in the Cayuga nor Broome 

Euphorbia corollata, L., a few individuals found on "Spanish 
Hill," near the mouth of the creek, but full and typical. (Not 
mentioned in the "Cayuga Flora," still we found a large 
growth of this species, in 1880, about a mile from McLean, N.Y., 
within the Hmits of that region; not found in Broome Co. Dr. 
Torrey, in New York State Flora, reports the plant, on the au- 
thority of Dr. Knieskern, as being found on the rocky banks of 
the Chemung river; our station, " Spanish Hill," is between this 
river and Cayuta Creek. We have no knowledge of the plant in 
Chemung Co., though Dr. Lucy may still report it.) 

Asclepias tuberosa, L, "Spanish Hill." (This species is un- 
common along the southern tier ; we have met with it in Che- 

* Both this species and its var. ambigua. Gray, occur in eastern New Jersey and 
on Staten Island, tad the type is found also on Long Island Eds. 


mung Co., but not in Broome. Prof. Dudley marks it " fre- 
quent" in the Cayuga region, especially upon the east shore of 
the lake.) 

Iris pseudacorus, L. This beautiful, sparingly cultivated 
European flag, grows in a large patch (about % acre), remote 
from dwellings, about three miles up the creek, from whence it 
has become scattered down the stream, here and there, to its 
mouth, and thence on the right bank of the Susquehanna for 
about a mile. The farmers living near the original growth all 
assert, in answer to our questions concerning the origin of the 
station, that, as far as they knew, " it's alwus ben thar." (Marked 
" scarce " in " Cayuga Flora," where three stations are given ; 
not found in Chemung or Broome Counties.) 

Dioscorea villosa, L. This plant was first detected here by 
Mr. F. V. Coville ; we have since found it at his station and 
in a few other places along the creek banks. (Found also in a 
few localities in Broome and Chemung Counties, but not in the 
Cayuga region.) 

Hydrangea arborescens, L. Found in two places within the 
first four miles of the creek ; also located here by Mr. Coville on 
his trip. (This is one of the plants that Dr. Torrey says " prob- 
ably grow in the western district of the State of New York." 
Dr.' Lucy has met with it in one station, " The Narrows" of the 
Chemung river, near Wellsburg, Chemung Co. ; it is not found 
in the Cayuga region, nor in Broome Co.) 

Arisama dracontium, Schott. ; Floerkea proserpinacoides, 
Willd., and Nyssa multiflora, Wang., were located here by Mr. 
Coville, whose stations we have not yet had an opportunity to 
visit. (Broome Co. affords only the last named; Cayuga has all, 
and Chemung the first and last.) 

Lobelia spicata. Lam., is quite plentiful on " Spanish Hill," 
where several individuals exist with pure white flowers. (Plen- 
tiful in Broome Co. ; not found in the Cayuga region, and of 
Chemung we are uninformed.) 

Quercus ilicifolia, Wang., is found on the hills west of the 
creek, and north of Waverly near the creek. (Not found m 
Broome Co., nor in the Cayuga region ; Chemung Co. ?) 

Campanula rotundifolia, L. One of tiie most beautiful plan t. 


we have met this season was an individual of this species two 
feet high, with a profusion of pure white flowers. The species 
grows tall and profuse on " Spanish Hill," both in the open 
woods and over the grassy fields, and averages much larger and 
more vigorous than in rocky places north, its true habitat, ac- 
cording to authors. (Found in Cayuga region, but not as yet in 
Broome Co.) 

Thaspitim barbinode, Nutt, occurs in two localities along the 
creek, in one of which Mr. Coville also met with it. (Dr. Torrey 
mentions the plant, on the authority of Dr. Knieskern, as being 
found in the valley of the Chemung; and Dr. Gray reports it in 
" Flora of New York." from the Canadian side of Niagara river. 
The species has not been found in the Cayuga region, nor in 
Broome Co.) 

Cerastiuin vulgatmn, L. Found on the banks north of the 
reservoir supplying the village of Waverly. (Found also on 
" House's Hill," Broome Co. ; not in Cayuga Flora.) 

Aralia spinosa, L. One individual found on a dry gravelly 
bank of the creek, near its mouth, on the New York side of the 
State line. Though this plant grows in a wild place, at a long 
distance from any habitation, still it may be escaped, though we 
are fully convinced that it is natural. It is small, and either 
young or of stunted growth. (This is the only station to my 
knowledge in the State.) 

A number of other species, that are not exactly rare, but of 
quite infrequent growth along the southern tier of counties, are 
Triosteum perfoliatnm ; Polygonatum gtganteum ; Salix hwnilis ; 
Juglans nigra; Dirca palustris ; Monarda didyma ; Verbena 
hastata, var. paniculata ; Nymphcea odorata ; Cynoglossum Vir- 
gifiicum ; Mertensia Virginica ; Lysimachia thyrsiflora ; Trago- 
pogon pratensis ; Dipsactts sylvestris ; Gillenia trifoliata ; Vicia 
Americana ; I.athyrus venosus ; Acer sacckarinum, var. nigrum ; 
Linuin Virginianum and usitatissimmn ; Polygala Setiega ; Heii- 
anthemum Canadense ; Gentiana Saponaria and quinqueflora ; 
Fraxiuus ptibescens ; Chimaphila maculata ; Cnicus amensis, 
var. albiflorus ; Taxtis Canadensis ; Hypericum Ascyron ; and 
Ranunculus midtifidus. C. F. MiLLSPAUGH. 

Note on the Flora oF the Kittatinny Mountains,* 

In November, 1884, I communicated to the Torrey Club an 
account of some peculiarities of the Flora of the Kittatinny 
Mountains of Northwestern New Jersey.t I then called attention 
to the existence on these mountains of a number of plants whose 
ordinary habitat is in sandy soil near the Atlantic coast, and 
whose occurrence in the region under consideration was appar- 
ently attributable to the highly silicious character of the soil, 
which results from the decay of the sandstone and silicious con- 
glomerate rock of Oneida age — the Shawangunk Grit — of which 
these mountains are composed. Among the species then noted 
were Jiincus Greenii, Oakes and Tuckerm., Solidago puberida, 
^nXX.., Orontiiim aquaticum, L., Tephrosia Virginiana, Vers., Les- 
pedeza hirta, Ell., Lupinus perennis, L., Querais ilicifolia, 
Wang., and the Corema Conradii, Torrey, of Lake Mohunk, the 
latter a few miles north of the New Jersey line in New York, but 
on the same mountain range. Since that time I have been able 
to make further exploration of the region and can furnish addi- 
tional support to the position then taken. 

At Culver's Gap, the first break in the range to the south- 
west of the depression through which the Erie railway is con- 
structed, the conglomerate is well exposed, ■ and here Polygala 
polygama, Walt., Gerardia pedicularia, L., and Lechea racemulosa, 
Michx., all abundant in sandy soil along the coast, occur plenti- 
fully. Here also grew Prunns pumila, L., before noted at 
High Point, and more commonly found on sandy river shores, 
though not a coast plant. On the mountains northwest of the 
Delaware Water Gap, I found, on July 4 of the present year, 
Scleria pauciflora, Muhl. 

But the most interesting spot yet visited is a lake of some 200 
acres in extent, called Sunfish Pond, four miles northwest of the 
Water Gap, near the very summit of the mountain. In shallow 
water along its shore, Juncus miliians, Bigel., was found. This 
species has never before been found so far away from the coast. 
The capillary sub-aqueous leaves had, at the time of collection 

' Read before the Biological Section, A. A. a'. S., New York Meeting, August, 

t Published in the Bru.ETiN of that month, vol. xi., pp. 126-128. 

188 • 

(July 5), become detaclied from the plants, but were seen floating 
and cast up on the shore; it had not yet come into flower. Ly- 
copodium inundatum, L., occurs in wet sand on the shore; the 
plant regarded by Professor Tuckerman as var. Bigelovii of this 
species, is very plentiful in sandy bogs in eastern New Jersey, 
and differs from the northern and European plant mainly in its 
greater size ; Viburnum nudum, L., was collected near by, and its 
var. cassinoides, Gray — for I cannot regard it as a species — grows 
at Lake Nascia near High Point. V. nudum, is common in coast 

Aster linariifolius is abundant all along the mountains, as in 
the sandy coast plains, while the almost impassable thickets of 
Quercus ilicifolia, Wang., make traveling difficult and often pain- 
ful. The resemblance to the pine barren flora is also markedly 
apparent in the great abundance of Ericacese. Gaylussaaa 
resinosa, Torrey & Gray, G. frondosa, Torrey & Gray, and 
Vaccinium vacillans, Sol., are all common to both regions and 
equally very abundant, while EpigcBU repens, L., Gaidtheria pro- 
aunbens, L., whose habitat is not always " cool, damp woods,' 
Cassandra calyculata^ Don., and Rhododendron viscosum,T orr&y, 
occur as well. 

The floral resemblance here traced bears no relation to the 
geological age of the two regions, the coast plains being late 
Tertiary or Quaternary, the mountains Silurian. But there is 
another range of mountains parallel to the Kittatinnys in New 
Jersey and southern New York, whose flora has many species in 
common with that of the latter. I refer to the ridges of the 
Green Pond System, known at Greenwood Lake as the Bearfort 
and Bellvale Mountains and in New York as the Skunnemunk. 
Here Quercus ilicifolia, the Blueberries and Huckleberries are 
very abundant; Solidago puberula^ Tephrosia, Lespedesa hirta, 
Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi, Aster linariifolius and other sand 
plants occur. The rock is a silicious conglomerate much 
resembling that of the Kittatinny, and was supposed by Mather, 
while prosecuting the Geological Survey of New York, to be of 
the same age, though his observations did not fully demonstrate 
the fact. Others have regarded these Green Pond Mountain 
conglomerates to be of several different ages, ranging from Pots- 


dam to Triassic, but the recent field-work of Mr. F. J. H. Merrill 
leaves little doubt that they are what Mather supposed, and we 
have here a most interesting agreement of the floral features with 
the lithological. N. L. Britton. 

A Meeting-place for two Floras.* 
By Charles E. Bessey. 

About half-way across the northern part of Nebraska, a few 
miles east of the lOOth meridian, there is a very interesting bo- 
tanical locality. A small stream starts at a point about twenty 
or twenty-five miles south of the Niobrara River, and runs north- 
ward through a deep and winding carion to the river mentioned. 
The surrounding country is absolutely treeless, and the surface is 
in many places thrown up into rounded hills of what must have 
once been drifting sand. The canon sides are very abrupt, and 
they descend in many places fully two hundred feet before the 
bottom is reached. The stream is known to the whites as Long 
Pine Creek, but to the Indians it was the Wasahancha, which 
signifies " where the pines extend far out." Both names refer to 
the pines which have here a station so far removed from the 
mountains as to have attracted the attention of the Indians, as 
well as the early white settlers. 

In this caiion, as I found in a recent visit, there is a blending 
of the Eastern and the Western floras in a most unusual way. 
The first thing that strikes the visitor is the fact that here are 
growing great numbers of Rocky Mountain pines {^Piniis ponder- 
osa, var. scopuloruni). They are so abundant, and of such size 
that they are largely used in the neighborhood for lumber and for 
fuel. Subsequent examination of the country around shows 
that these pines are found along the streams or on the hills all 
the way up to the mountains of Wyoming, and they appear also 
to be connected with the heavy body of pine in the Black Hills 
in Dakota. There are none, however, eastward of this caiion, 
although the sides of the broad carion of the Niobrara river, near 
the mouth of the creek, are dotted with scrubby pines. The In- 
dian name of the creek — the Wasahancha — is therefore most ap- 
propriate ; " where the pines extend far out." 

* Read before't'heBotanVcal club, A. A. A. S., at the N. Y. Meeting, August, 



By referring to Professor Sargent's volume upon the " For- 
estry of the United States," in the reports of the Tenth Census, 
we find that the pine in question ranges from the far West into 
the Rocky Mountain region, and that its easternmost station is 
given as the Blacic Hills of Dakota. We must now add north- 
ern and northwestern Nebraska to the region covered by it, with 
Long Pine Creek (Wasahancha) as its eastern limit. 

Much as I was surprised at the presence of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Pine in this locality, I was much more so at finding large 
trees of Black Walnut {Juglans nigra) growing in the caiion by 
the side of the pines. The walnut is still very common, and was 
formerly so abundant that a good many thousand feet of walnut 
lumber were manufactured from the logs. The western range of 
the Black Walnut is given by Sargent as " through southern 
Michigan to southern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, and eastern 
Kansas." I doubt whether there is any other place on the con- 
tinent where the Black Walnut and the Rocky Mountain Pine 
grow normally side by side. I could not trace the walnut fur- 
ther west, and have little doubt that this is its westernmost sta- 
tion, or very nearly so. It does not occur at Valentine, near 
Fort Niobrara, fifty miles to the westward. 

The Ironwood {Ostrya Virginica) was another surprise to me. 
At Long Pine it is very abundant, and so I found it at Valen- 
tine, and when a few days later I clambered through the caiions 
in the vicinity of Rapid City in the eastern Black Hills of Dakota, 
I still found it, although Sargent gives its entire limit as " through 
eastern Iowa, southeastern Missouri, and Arkansas to eastern 
Kansas, the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas." Coulter does 
not include it in the " Rocky Mountain Botany." 

The only oak in northwestern Nebraska appears to be the 
Bur-Oak {Quera(s macrocarpd), and instead of being the normal 
form, it approaches the little Mountain Oak (g. undulatd). The 
trees at the eastern stations (Long Pine and Valentine) are fre- 
quently large, 30 to 50 fe;t high, but as we go west — Chadron, 
Fort Robinson and the Black Hills — they are smaller ; in all 
cases, however, the cup is but little fringed, showing in this a 
strong tendency to the mountain species (j2. undulatd). 

The Choke Cherries, from Long Pine westward, are mostly 


of the mountain species {Prunus demissd), and are large and 
edible. Wlienever I could do so, I always collected a handful of 
them, for eating, as I pursued my search for plants. At one 
house where I stopped for dinner, I was treated to choke cherry 
pie, which was very palatable indeed ! The species at Long 
Pine is identical in every respect with that found in abundance 
in the Black Hills, and at Fort Robinson near the line between 
Nebraska and Wyoming. 

The Golden Currant {Ribes aureunt) is another mountain 
species which extends eastward to Long Pine. I found it fruit- 
ing profusely. Likewise, the pretty little shrub, Rhus aromatica, 
van trilobata, is another westerner which I noted in full fruit in 
this famous caiion. 

There are many other plants which show that here the two 
floras meet and overlap, but these given are probably the most 

Index to Recent American Botanical Literature. 

Absorption of Aniline Colors by living Cells. — Douglas H. Camp- 
bell. (Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 193, 194.) 
Andromeda floribunda. — Pursh. (Garden, xxxi.,p. 612; illus 

Asperifolim — Some West American, II. — Edward L. Greene. 
(Pittonia, i., pp. 5S-6o.) 

The new classification of certain Borraginaceous plants, pro- 
posed by Professor Greene, institutes two new genera, viz. : 
Oreocarya, of nine species made up from Eritrichium and Kry- 
nttzia, and Eremocarya of two species, both included by Dr. 
Gray in Eritrichium. Piptocalyx of Torrey is restored to gen- 
eric rank and given two species — the original P. circumscissus 
and P. dichotomus, Greene. 

Asa Gray. (Gard. Chron., ii., June 2Sth, '87, pp. 836, 837.) 
(Bot. Gazette, xii., p. 203.) (Gard. Month., xxix, p. 252.) 
All give notices in full of the various degrees and honorary 
orations delivered at Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh in his 
honor during the month of June. They are particularly happy 
in their sentiment and warm in their praise. He was pronouncetl 
with the degree of Doctor of Science from Cambridge, " F^lorre 


sacerdos venerabilis" ; and at Oxford with a D.C.L., " Moribus 
suavissimis veritatisque semper quam famae propriae studiosior." 
Auxanometer — A simple and inexpensive self-registering. — Her- 

mon C. Bumpus. A registering Auxanometer. — Charles R. 

Barnes. (Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 149- 152; two plates.) 
Botany of San Miguel. — Edward L. Greene. (Pittonia, i., pp. 


The island of San Miguel is the most western member of the 
archipelago lying off the coast of southern California, whose flora 
has received, so admirable an exposition at the hands of Professor 
Greene, Mr. Lyon and others. It is a table-land 200 to 300 feet 
high, rising at points, however, to elevations of over 800 feet. There 
is little arboreous vegetation, but evidence is adduced to show 
that Rhus integrifolia was abundant not long ago, as its wood is 
still found in sufficient quantity to furnish a fuel supply to the 
fishermen and seal-hunters who visit the island. The bulk of the 
vegetation is composed of strictly insular species, while the most 
abundant plant is Mesenibrianthemum crystallinnm, which Prof. 
Greene believes to be indigenous here, as in South Africa. "A 
Catalogue of the Flowering Plants of the Island" enumerates 120 
species and varieties. 

Cactuses in Arizona. (Gard. Chron. ii., p. 17; illustrated.) 
CJiionanthus Virginica. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., p. 227 ; 

one figure.) 
Collinsia — A curious.— Edward L. Greene. (Pittonia, i., pp. 52- 


Professor Greene records the occurrence of regular corollas 
on Collinsia bicolor, the plant thus showing affinity to Nuttall's 
genus Tonella. He maintains that the genera are not distinct, 
and refers T.floribunda, Gray, to the older genus ; T. collinsioides, 
Nutt., is already Collinsia tenella, Bentham. 
Coloring the Nuclei of living Cells. — Douglas H. Campbell. 

(Bot. Gazette, xii., pp. 192, 193.) 

Mr. Campbell has succeeded in accomplishing this process 
with several different aniline dyes during his work in the labora- 
tory at Tiibingen. 
Cortical Peculiarities in the Plum. — Thomas Median. (Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1887, advance sheets.) 


Cypripedium pubescens and C. spectabile. (Vick's 111. Month. 

Mag., X., p. 217; colored plate.) 
Desiderata of the Herbarium of the Department of Agriculture 
for North America, north of Mexico, Ranunculacece to Rosa- 
cea; inclusive. — Geo. Vasey. (Dept. Agric, Bot. Division, 
Bull. No. 4, pamph., 8vo., pp. 15, Washington, 1887.) 
Fungi — A List of Works on North American. — W. G. Farlow 
and William Trelease. (Bibliog. Contrib. Library of Harvard 
University, No. 25, pamph., pp. 36, Cambridge, 1887.) 
We are pleased to chronicle the completion of this great piece 
of work, the first part of which we noted a few months ago. 
About 645 titles are given, and the list is undoubtedly as com- 
plete as such lists can be made on the first attempt, for we have 
no doubt that these industrious authors will come across a feW 
more articles every year for some time to come. Not the least 
interesting feature is the arrangement of births and deaths of 
authors cited, by which we are enabled to ascertain the age of 
everyone who has had anything to do with our Fungi. 
Fungi of Illinois — Parasitic, II.— T. J. Burrill and F. S. Earle. 
(Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist, ii., pp. 387-432.) 
The first paper of this series gave an account of the Illinois 
Uredinece ; the third and fourth will be devoted to the Perono- 
sporecs and Ustilaginea. The authors of the Erysiphece have 
studied the group for many years, and Mr. Earle has given them 
his special attention in both field and laboratory. Two species 
and twelve hosts of other species were collected in the State by 
him alone. The description of the group is followed by an account 
of the development and notes on the classification. Very good 
figures illustrating the six genera accompany the key to the 
genera. The descriptive portion is followed by an index of spe- 
cies and of host plants. 

Twenty-eight species are described : Spharotheca, 5 ; Erysiphe, 
4 ; Uncinula, 6 ; Phyllactinia, i ; PodosphcBra, i ; Microsphcera, 
II. The nomenclature is in harmony with that adopted for the 
UredittecB, and conforms as far as may be to that of Winter in 
the Kryptogamen Flora. Sphcsrotheca mors-uvcr (S.) B. & C, is 
kept separate from 5. pannosa, to which it has been referred. 
The form on Agrimonia is referred to S. humili (DC), Burrill. 


Erysiphe liriodendri^ Schw., is fully described for the first 
time. All mycologists will doubtless be pleased to find the trouble- 
some Erysiphe Martii referred, for reasons stated, to E. com- 
munis. E. cichoraceorurn DC. (=:£'. lamprocarpd), is recorded as 
occurring on twenty-nine hosts. 

Uncintila spiralis, B. & C, is referred to U. ampelopsidis, 
Pk. The former name has priority to the latter and should have 
been adopted. It was first published with a figure in Berkeley's 
Cryptogamic Botany. Uncinula circinata, C. & P., which usually 
grows on Acer rubrum, is here given only on A. saccharinum. 
This and Microsphcera semitosta were collected only by Mr. M. 
B. Waite, who is now a botanist of the State Laboratory. Un- 
cinula salicis (DC.) Wint., includes the forms on both Salix 
and Populus. ^ 

Under Podosphcera oxyacanthcB (DC.) De By., are included 
the forms recognized in Europe under that name, P. tridactyla 
and P. myrtillina. The American specimens show intermediate 
forms uniting them all. 

Microsphcsra alni (DC.) Wint., includes a number of forms 
that have stood as species until now, though always troublesome, 
and recognized by little besides the host. They are : M. pul- 
chra, platani. Van Bruntiana, viburni, Hedwigii and Friesii, in 
addition to M. penicillata. Microsphcera quercina (Schw.), Bur- 
rill, receives the forms on oaks formerly known as M. extensa and 
M. abbreviata. 

The names mentioned above are the principal ones reduced 
to synonyms, and the number of species is thus diminished by 
twelve. Botanists have long felt the need of such a step, and 
the abundant material and years of study have enabled the 
authors to do it well. A. B. S. 

Flora Ottawaensis — Additions to the. (Ottawa Nat., i.. p. JJ^ 

Two indigenous species and four colonists are reported, ad- 
ditional to previous lists. 
Germination, of Cucurbitaceons Plants. — Byron D. Halsted. 

(Agric. Science, i., pp. 149-154.) 
Gytnnogramme triangularis, Kaulf (Garden, .xxxii., p. 44; il- 
Halesia tetraptera, L. (Garden, xxxi., p. 520; illustrated.) 

195 , 

Halesia tetraptera-^The Silver Bell or Sitozvdrop Tree. (Vick's 
111. Month. Mag., x., pp. 195, 196; two figures.) 

HorticulHcral Terminology.— L. H. Bailey, Jr. (Anier. Garden, 
July, 1887.) 
Professor Bailey calls attention to the erroneous use of several 

botanical terms. 

Hunnemannia fumaricefolia, Sweet (Mexico). (Garden, xxxi., 

p. 536; colored plate.) 
Lmacea — A Revision of North American. — William Trelease. 
(Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., v., pp. 7-20, two plates ; also 

Professor Trelease has made a critical study of our flaxes, 
with a view of revising them for the coming volume of the Syn- 
optical Flora. His arrangement of the species is prefaced by 
some historical notes and others on homogony and heterogony 
of the flowers, our indigenous species being all homogone. It 
appears that we have as introduced species both L. usitatissimum, 
L., and L. humile. Mill., the latter to be distinguished by its 
dehiscent capsule with ciliate septa. L. Floridanutn, n. sp. is the 
L. Virginianum, van Floridanum, Planch. 

Lower Californian Plants — Notes on. — C. R. Orcutt. (West 
Amer. Sci., iii., pp. 139, 140.) 

A list of species collected by Mr. Lopatecki with the Spanish 
names, which, as Mr. Orcutt remarks, add considerably to its 

Oaks of Southern and Lower California. — C. R. Orcutt. (West 
Amer. Sci., iii., pp. 1 35- 139; illustrated.) 
An instructive account of the distribution of the nine species 
of Quercus native to the region. 
Phacelia Whitlavia. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., p. 228 ; 

colored plate.) 
Pkiladelpkus microphyllus. (Vick's 111. Month. Mag., x., p. 250; 

one figure.) 
Picea nigra. Link — The Black Spruce. (Garden, xxxii, p. 47.) 
Podospht^ra minor, Howe, and Microspluvra fulvofulcra, Cooke — 
The Identity of. — Martha Merry. (Rot. Gazette, xii., pp. 
1 89- 19 1 ; one plate.) 

» 196 

Pseudotsiiga Douglassii, Carr. — The Douglass Fir. (Garden, 

xxxii., pp. 95, 96.) 
Ptelea trifoliata, L. (Garden, xxxi., p. 566.) 

Roses Ainericaines — Nouvelles Remarqiies stir les. — Fran9ois Cre- 

pin. (Comptes-Rendus, Soc. Roy. Bot Belg., 1887, pp. 43" 

52.) ^ 

M. Crepin's paper is in effect a critical review of Dr. Watson's 
Revision of the North American Roses, in the 20th volume of 
the Proceedings of the American Academy ; he differs from our 
American authority in some points, while on others they are 
agreed. M. Crepin thinks R. lucida and R. nitida need more 
study, but regards R. humilis as easily distinguishable. He 
doubts the distinctness of several West American species, and 
appeals to American botanists to send him specimens, saying 
that our aid is indispensable in closing the monograph to which 
he has devoted so many years of study. We trust that M. 
Crepin's request will not be neglected. 

Sabbatia campestris, Nutt., (Garden, xxxi., p. 509; illustrated.) 
Septorias of North America — Enumeration and Description of 

the. — George Martin. (Journ. Mycol., iii., pp. 37-94.) 

This enumeration, which has been continued through several 
numbers of the Journal, is now completed. It includes 188 
species of Septoria, 8 of Phleospora and 20 of Rhabdospora, 8 of 
Phlyctcena. A complete index to species and host plants is given. 
Species — New or rare. — Edward L. Greene. (Pittonia, i , pp. 60- 


We find here described Eschscholtzia maritima from the 
island of San Miguel, very interesting and important from its 
affinity to Hunnem.annia ; Streptanthus albidus, Thelypodium 
rigidum, Silene simulans, Lepigonuni tenue, Calyptridium. nudum, 
Lupinus Franciscantts and L.pachylobus, Trifolium filipes, Rham- 
nus rubra, Ribes amictum, Oenothera nitida, Cnicus amplifolius, 
Troximon elatum, Gilia mellita and G. parvula, Pentstemon 
leucanthus, Muilla transmontana and Hookera leptandra. There 
are also interesting notes on Carpenteria, in which Prof Greene 
finds close affinity to Philadelphus, and on Stackys Californica, 
Benth., which he well distinguishes from S. bullata. 


Spirogyra under Shock. — Stanley Coulter. (Bot. Gazette, xii., 

PP- 153-157; five figures.) 
Sophora secundiflora — Fasciation in. — George Vasey. (Bot. 

Gazette, xii., pp. 160, 161 ; one plate.) 
Thuya gigantea, Nutt. (Garden, xxxi., p. 615.) 
Vegetable Parasites and Evolution. — W. G. Farlow, M.D. (Ad- 
vance Sheets from the Proceedings of the A. A. A. S., Vol. 
xxxvi; 19 pages.) 

It was a pleasant surprise to receive the vice-president's ad- 
dress in pamphlet form the same day that it was given and to find 
It reprinted entire in the Botanical Gazette (Vol. xii., pp. 173- 
189), ere a week had elapsed since the close of the meeting. It 
IS difficult to put in a fevf words the exact scope of this most 
interesting essay ; suffice it is to say that after stating that zoolo- 
gists have gone farther than botanists in their efforts to explain 
the evolution of higher forms from lower, owing to the fact that 
the palseontological record of lower animals is more complete 
than that of lower plants, the author proceeds to define the term 
parasite, illustrating from the Phanerogams the Algse and Fungi, 
including a long discussion of symbiosis and the algo-fungal 
theory of Lichens and Frank's Mycorhiza, and concluding with 
a few theories on the origin of vegetable parasites. 
White and Yellow Poplars. — H. A. Evans. (Bot. Gazette, xii., 
pp. 16s, 166.) 

Mr. Evans presents evidence to show that the white and 
yellow wood of Liquidambar is not produced by different varieties, 
but by trees of different ages, the older being yellow. 
Yucca brevifolia. (Gard. Chron., i., p. 772 ; illustrated.) 

The statement is made that the London Telegraph is supplied 
with paper made from this Californian species. 
^annichellia palustris, L. — F. W. Anderson. (Bot. Gazette, xii.. 
p. 192.) 

The species is reported from a spring near Great Falls, Mon- 

Botanical Notes. 

Henry William Ravenel, LL.D. Born at Berkeley, S. C, 
May 19th, 1814; died at Aiken, S. C, July 17th, 1887. 

Though most of his life was spent in his native State yet his 


work in Cryptogamic Botany covered the flora of the Southern 
States, and in Fungi and Mosses was practically the first in that 
region. He was the the first to issue a set of American Fungi, 
" Fungi Caroliniani Exsiccati " (1853-1^60), and later with M. C. 
Cooke, the " Fungi Americani Exsiccati" (1878- 1882) were pub- 
lished in eight centuries, collected mostly in the Southern States. 
Dr. Ravenel's abilities and researches were perhaps better known 
in Europe than in America, and he had an extensive correspon- 
dence with Berkeley, Fries, Montagne, and was a member of the 
Zoologische Botanische Gesellschaft, the Academy of Natural 
Science of Philadelphia, and was botanist to the Department of 
Agriculture of South Carolina at the time of his death. His 
herbarium, which is practically the only legacy that he leaves his 
family, contains many type specimens and many well authenti- 
cated by M. A. Curtis, Berkeley and others. A full list of his 
works, as given by W. G. Farlow, will be found in the Botanical 
Gazette, xii., pp. 194-197. 

Swedish Linncean Monument Association. It is proposed to 
erect in Lincoln Park, Chicago, 111., an exact counterpart of the 
statue of Linnaeus recently unveiled in the Royal Gardens at 
Stockholm. Several meetings have been held by the above 
named association, at which definite arrangements have been 
made for carrying on the work. The estimated cost of the statue 
is $30,000, and subscriptions are solicited from all botanists in 
the United States. 

The Tubercular Swellings on the Roots of Leguminosce. H. 
Marshall Ward (Proc. Royal Soc, xlii., p. 331), Prehminary 
Note. " The author finds that the tubercles on the roots of the 
Leguminoseae are due to the action of a parasitic fungus. Not 
only has he produced the tubercles by infection from without, 
but he has also found the infecting agent, and repeatedly seen 
and figured the infecting hypha passing down inside a root-hair 
and across the cortex of the root into the young tubercle. Here 
the hyphal branches bud off yeast-like cells, which are extremely 
minute and numerous, and resemble bacteria at first sight ; they 
differ in their mode of multiplying by budding." 

"The action of these minute germ- like bodies causes the 
protoplasm of the cells of the root to assume plasmodium-like 


characters, and induces the flow of nutritive substances to these 
cells, and hypertrophy results. On the decay of the tubercle, 
the germ-like bodies pass into the soil (where they can always be 
found) and infect other roots ; it is very probable they may be of 
extreme importance in agriculture." 

Tubercles on the Roots of Leguminosce* (Journ. Roy. Mic. 
Soc. 1887, P- 610.) 

The studies conducted by A. Tschirsh lead him to the con- 
clusion that they occur on all species of this order, always on the 
roots ; that they are storage organs for nitrogenous matters pre- 
vious to the ripening of the seeds, and attain their maximum 
development when the plant is in flower. They are of two 
kinds, the Liipinus type and Robinia type. 

Tubercles on the Roots of Alder and ElceagnaceceA (Journ. 
Roy. Mic. Soc. 1887, p. 611.) 

B. Frank has modified his previous views as to their nature and 
differs entirely from those who regard them as due to parasitic 
fungi ; they prove to be accumulations of newly formed albu- 
minous substances and are therefore identical with those on the 
Leguminosae. " The alleged parasitic fungi Schinzia Ahii, 
S. Leguminosarnm, Plasmodiophora Alni, and Frankia snbtilis 
must therefore be erased from mycology." 

Proceedings of the Club. 

A meeting was held on Tuesday evening, August 9th, 1887, 
in Hamilton Hall, Columbia College, President Newberry in the 
chair, and forty-five persons present. Among the visitors were 
many members of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. In the absence of the Secretary, Dr. N. L. 
Britton was elected Secretary pro tempore. 

Mrs. CorneUus Van Brunt, Mr. C. S. Boyer, and Jacob J. J. 
Gress were elected Active Members. 

The Secretary read a letter from Dr. George Vasey calling 
attention to the fact that the United States Government has done 
nothing for botanical exploration for many years; stating also 

• Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. v, (1887), pp. 58-98, (i pi). 
t Ber. Deutsch. But. Gesell. v, (1887), pp. 50-58, (i pi). 


that the Herbarium of the Department of Agriculture is wanting 
in many things that can only be procured by special effort. On 
motion, the President appointed a committee, consisting of 
Messrs. Thomas Hogg, Jos. Schrenk and N. L. Britton, to draft 
resolutions expressing the desirability of making the Herbarium 
of the Department of Agriculture as complete as possible. 

Dr. Newberry remarked on the relations of Pinus edulis, 
Englm., and P. monophylla, Torn and Frem., and referred to his 
former papers on the subject. (See BULLETIN, May, 1885, and 
October, 1886). He exhibited specimens collected by Marcus 
E. Jones at Lewiston, Utah, which show both the single and 
double needles on the same branch, proving that the species are 
not distinct, and that Sir Joseph Hooker's view is erroneous. 
(See Gardener's Chronicle, July 31st, 1886). Mr. Jones states 
in a letter accompanying the specimens, that some trees have 
about half the leaves double, and half single. 

Prof Schrenk exhibited specimens of Halenia deflexa, 
Griseb., from Coshecton, Sullivan Co., N. Y. 

Dr. Rusby remarked on the use of botanical names by phar- 
macists, stating that many are merely trade names, and that there 
is often great difficulty in ascertaining what species is really 
meant. If it were practicable to insist that the author should 
always be cited, much confusion would be avoided. Mr. A. A. 
Crozier spoke of the same difficulty in tracing the names of culti- 
vated, ornamental species. 

Dr. R. E. Kunze exhibited and distributed blossoms of Cereus 
nycticalus. Link., which were much admired. 

Dr. Britton showed Plantago Patagonica, Jacq., var. aristata. 
Gray, collected by Rev. R. E. Schuh at Rutherford, N. J., where 
it is abundant in one locality. Prof T. C. Porter stated that it for- 
merly grew on the campus of Lafayette College at Easton, Pa., 
but has now disappeared. Mr. E. B. Southwick reported it from 
Riverside Drive, New York Island. Prof Farlow had seen it at 
Wood's Holl, Mass. ; and Prof. Claypole at Akron, Ohio. At 
all these stations it appears to be a mere waif 

Prof Porter remarked on the occurrence of Amphiachyris 
dracitncidoides, Nutt., at Easton, where it was introduced in hay 
from the West, and of Blepkilia ciliaia, Raf , near the same 


place. The method of introduction of the latter is not yet ex- 

Prof. Claypole reported Nelumbium luteum, Willd., from Con- 
gress Lake, near Akron, Ohio. Dr. Newberry remarked on the 
dissemination of Nelnmbitim by the Indians, who used the seed