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Full text of "Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club."

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BULLETIN ,j^c 




VJ. 1-' 




*» 



OF THE 



ToRREY Botanical Club 



VOL. 





D 



Founded by William H. Leggett, 1870 



Mo. Bot. Gardeu, 



1896. 



t 



NEW YORK. 

1895. 

Published for the Club. 

The New Era Printing House 

Lancaster, Pa. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



(Illustrated articles are designated by an asterisk * before the page number.) 



Antidromy of Plants. 379, 

Archegoniates, the Classification of the, 124. 

Botanical Notes,' 182, 233. 27S, 331, 370, 470. 
Botany of the Southeastern United States, Studies 
inthe.*43,*365. 

Brinton, Dr. J. Bernard, Biographical Sketch of 

(with portrait), 93. 
Bryology, Contributions to American, *62. 
Buxbaumia aphylla, 50. 

E 

Calamagrostis scopulorum, Jones, 517. 

Characeae, Japanese, 68. 

Characeous Plants of Maine, Contributions to the, 

, 397- 
Citations, Rules for, 130. 

Contributions to American Bryology, *62, *447. 
Contribution to the Characeous Plants of JVlaine, 

^ 397- 
Contributors : 

Allen, T. F.,68. 

Bailey, W. W.,470. 

Barnhart, John Hendley, 1, 394. 

Beringer, George M., 93. 

Bicknell, Eugene P., 211, 351. 

Bolley, H. L., Sec'y* 408. 

Boyer, Charles S,, 171, 260. 

Britton, Elizabeth G., 36, 62, 447. 

Britton, N. L., 220, 460, 470. 

Canby. William M., 162. 

Cook, O. F., 431. 

Coville, Frederick Vernon, 302. 

Crawford, Jos., 93. 

Dewey, Lyster H., 370. 

Earle, F. S., 174. 

Eckfeldt. J. W.,239. 

Ellis, J. B.. 57, 362, 434. 

Everhart, B. M. 57, 362, 434. 

Fernald, Merritt Lyndon, 273. 

Harvey, F. L., 397. 

Havard, V., 77, 98, 216, 

Heritage, Benj., 266. 

Hill, E. J., 71. 

HolHck, Arthur, 225, 460. 

Jelliife, Smith Ely, 274. 

Johnson, L N., 2S9. 

Kearney, T. H., Jr., 517. 

Kennedy, Geo. G., =0, 

Knowiton, F. H., 387. 

Leiberg, John B., 271. 

Lloyd, Francis E., 396, 



■^ 



93 



Nash, Geo. V., T41, 298, 419, ^63^ 511. 
Olive, Edgar W., 390. 
Peck, Chas. H., 198. 485. 
Pollard, Charles Louis, 231, 513. 
Kich, \Vm. P., 51. 
Rydberg, P. A., 306. 
Schneider. Albert, 189, 494. 
Setchell, William Albert, 341, 424. 



Small, John K., 43, 74, 365, 399. 

Tracy, S- M., 174. 

Trelease, Wm., 329, 331. 

Underwood, Lucien M., 124. 

Vail, Anna Murray, 25, 228, 458, soo. 

Ward, Lester F., 308. 
Cryptogamic Notes from Long Island, 274. 
Cyanophyceae, Notes on some New England, 424. 

Description of a new problematical Plant from 

the Lower Cretaceous of Arkansas, *^87. 
Desmids of the United States, Some new and 

rare, *28q. 
Diatomaceous Deposit at St. Augustine, Florida, 

a Fossil marine, 171. 
Diatomaceous Deposit from an Artesian Well at 

Wildwood, N. J., 260. 

Eaton, Daniel Cady (with portrait), 341. 
Emory's Report, On the two editions of, 394. 

Family Nomenclature, i, 77, 216. 

Flora of Richmond County, New York. Addi- 
tions and New Localities, 460. 

Florida Plants, Notes on Some, 141. 

Food Plants of the North American Indians, 98. 

Fossil marine Diatomaceous Deposit at St. Au- 
gustine, Florida, A, 171. 

Fungi, New Species of, 198, 362, 434, 485. 

Fungi, New Species of Parasitic, 174. 

Genus Cenchrus in North America, The, 298.' 

Genus Cracca, A Revision of the North American 
Species of, 25. 

Genus Galactia in North America, A Study of, 

500. 

Genus Sanicula in the United States with Descrip- 
tions of two new Species, *35i. 

Genus Scouleria, a Revision of the, with Descrip- 
tion of one new Species, *36. 

Genus, Zenobia, The, 231. 

Grasses, New or Noteworthy American, 419, 463. 

511. 

Hybrid Oaks from the Southern States, Some new, 

*74- 
Hypericum boreale and Related Species, 211. 

Index to Recent Literature Relating to American 
Botany, 52. 89, 134, 185, 235, 283, 337, 374, 
415,442,478,519. 

Japanese Characeae, 68. 

Juncus scirpoldes and its Immediate Relatives, 

302. 

Lichens of Newfoundland and Labrador, Aa En- 
umeration of the, 239. 
Lichens, Some Special Phylogenetic Adaptations 

in, 494. 
Lichens, the Biological Status of, 189. 



IV 



Malpighiaceae and Zygophyllaceae,A Preliminary 

List of North American Species of, 228. 
Missouri Botanical Garden, 329. 

Nelumbo Lutea, Preliminary Notes on^*266. 

New Fungi, 362. 

"New or Noteworthy American Grasses, 419, 463, 

5"- 

New or Noteworthy North American Phanero- 
gams, 220, 

New Plants from Idaho, 48. 

New Plants from the Cretaceous of Kansas, De- 
scriptions of Three, *225. 

New Species of Fungi, 198, 434, 485. 

New Species of Parasitic Fungi, 174. 

New Species of Physalis, 306. 

New Species of Ustilagineae and Uredineae, 57. 

Nomenclature Question, The, 233, 308. 

Notes oa some Cyanophyceae of New England, 
424. 

Notes on some Florida Plants, 141. 

Notes on some southern Cassias, *5t3. 

Oklahoma Plants, Observations upon some, 390. 
On the Carpets of Opulaster malvacea, 271. 
On the two editions of Emory's Report, 394. 
Opulaster malvacea. On the Carpels of, 271. 



Pignuts, The. 331. 

Preliminary Notes on Nelumbo lutea, *266, 

Proceedings of the Botanical Club, A. A. A. S., 

Springfield Meeting, 408. 
Proceedings of the Botanical Society of America, 

Springfield, Meeting, 414. 
Proceedings of the Club, 51, 87, 133, 183, 234, 281, 

440* 477' 51S. 

Redfield, John H, (with portrait), 162. 
Reviews, 78, 276, 331, 370, 400, 472. 
Rules for Citation, 130. 

Some special phylogenei ic Adaptations in Lichens, 

494. 
Spiralism, Vegetable, 465. 

Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United 

States, *43.*365. 

Study of the Genus Galactia in North America, 

A, 500- 
Systematic Botany of North America, The, 180. 

V 

Teratological Notes, *396, *399-* 

Tradescantia Virginica var. villosa, 71. 

Tumble Mustard. 370. 

Two New Mountain Plants, 273. 

Two Undescribed Species of Rhynchosia, 458. 



Ustilagineae and Uredineae, New Species of, 57 



Papers read before the Section of Botany, A. A. 

A S., Springfield Meeting, 413. 
Personal Nomenclature in the Myxomycetes, 431. 
Phanerogams, New or noteworthy North Amen- Vegetable Spiralism, 465. 

can, 220. 
Physalis, New Species of, 306. 



Young, Herbert A., 51. 



tV-J 



Generic Index. 



Abies, 211. 

Abutiion, 383. 

Acacia, 56, 90, 391. 

Acer, 52, 340, 367, 384, 460, 482. 

Acerates, 392. ^ 

Achnanthes, 261, 274, 275, 

Acnida,288. 

Acolium, 25g, 

Aconftum, 412, 474. 

Acorus, 466. 

Actinidia, 279. 

Actinocyclus, 172. 

Adelia, 53. 

Adiantum, 91, 349. 

Adoxa, 336. 

Aecidium, 60, 61, 136, 237, 284, 363, 364, 392, 443 

Aeschynomene, 143. 
Aesculus, 219, 384. 
Aethusa, 460. 

Agaricus, 203, 204, 286, 489. 
Ageratum, 136. 
Agoseris, 186. 
Agrimonia 460. 
Agropyrum, 518. 
Agrostis, 138,463,464. 

Aira, 511. 

Akebia, 279 

Alectoria^ 113, 242. 

Alliaria, 282. 

Allionia, 223, 224, 284. 

Album, 53, 1T3. 

AUocarya, 186, 416. 

Alnus, 461. 

Alsine, 324, 405. 

Alsophila, 337, 470. 

Alternanthera, 395, 483. 

Althea, 3S2. 

Amanita, 476. 

Amanitopsis, 485. 

Amaranthus, 493. 

Amasonia, 520. 

Amblyodon. 276, 277. 

Ambrosia, 417. 

Ammobroma, 123. 

Amoreuxia, i ii. 

Amorpha, 137, 149, 274, 286, 392, 4^^ 

Amphicarpaea, 121. 
Amphiprora, 274. 
Amphora, 261. 
Amsinckia, 53. 
Anabaena, 427, 429, 430. 

Anacharis, 400. 

Andromeda, 153, 231, 232, 437. 

Andropogon, 143, 145, M^, 437- 
Anemone, 412. 
Angioridium, 432, 433. 
Anhalonium, 117. 
Anihoxanthum, 469. 
Anthriscus, 460. 
Anthurium, 480 
Anthurus, 337. 
Anychia, 170. 
Apera, 405. 

Aphaerena, 137. 

Aphanorhegma, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 135. 

Aphanostephus, 391, 392- 



Apios, loi. 
Aplopappus, 186. 
Aporophallus, 23?. 

Aquifolium, 3. * 

Aquilegia, 91, 2^j6, 460, 473. 

Arabis, 137, 475- 
Arachis, 136, 281, 445- 

Aralia, 225. 

Archilejeunea»287. 

Arctium, 417. 
Arctostaphyllos, 120, 405. 

Arcyria, 333. 

Ardisia, 483. 
Arenaria, 362. 
Arethusa, 445. 

Argemone. 392, 475. 

Argylia, 285. 
Arisaema, 106 

Arisnda, 135. HS* MS- 
Aristolochia, 54. 

Armeria, 405. 

Arnica, 57. 
Arthothelia, 91. 
Arthrodesmus, 296, 297, 416. 

Arthonia, 258. 

Arthronia, 91. 
Arthrospira,430, 431, 482. 

Artotragus, 337. 
Arum, 467. 

Asarum, 170. 

Aschersonia, 436, 440. 

Asclepias, 134, i37; M3> »53. ^54, 238, 392. 

Asimina, 143^ 474- 
Aspergillus, 210, 286. 

Aspicarpa, 228. 

Aspidum, 53» ^37^ ^^9* ^7"^' ^84, 322, 330, 400. 5" 

Aspilia, 337. 
Asplenium, 91, 170, 350. 

Aster, 59- i38»-i82, 273, 284, 375, 39^- 

Asterella, 140 

Asieridium, L76, 177, 288,479. 

Asterina, 139, 237,435* 
Asierionella, 275. 

ANteroma, 237. 
Asterula. 82, 237. 
Astragalus, 54, 284, 338, 284. 

Atta, 413. 
Aulacodiscus, 261. 

Auhscus, 261. 

Azalea, 282,437,461. 

Azoila, 441, 462. 



Baccharis, 391, 392. 
Badhamia,334. 
Baeomyces, 252. 

Baileya, 395- 
Balsamorrhiza, no. 

Bangia, 402. 
Banksia, 382. 

Baptisia, 45> 238. 
Barbula, 442 
Batemana, 417. 
Battarrea, 208, 286. 
Bejaria, 145. 
Berberis, 13^, 474- 
Berchemia, 147. 




VI 



Berlandiera, 143. 
Betencourtia, 501. 
Betula, 92, 338, 417. 
Biatora, 252, 253, 254, 375. 
Biddulphia, 173,261,275. 
Bigelovia, 375. 
Blumenavia, 238. 
Bocconia, 383. 
Boehmeria? 140. 
Boerhaavia, 156. 
Boisdiivalia, 375. 
Bolelia, 338. 
Boletinus, 206, 286. 
Boletus, 207, 286, 477. 
Bonapartea, 138. 
Boretta,4o6. 
Botridium, 402. 
Botrychium, 170, 444. 

Brachiolejeunea, 287. 
Bradburya, 324. 
Brasenia, 474. 
Brassica» 224, 278, 413. 
Braya, 285. 

Brebissonia, 261. 

Breweria, 143, 144, 154, 155, 238. 

Brintonia, 338. 

Brissonia, 25. 

Britlonamra, 25. 

Brodiaea, 114. 

Bromus, 312. 

Brousonnetiaj 461. 
Bruchia, 350, 
Bnigmansia, 4S1. 

Bryophylium, 382, 384. 
Bryum, 442. 
Buda, 405. 

Buechnera. 393. 

Buellia, 256, 257, 258, 260. 

Buettneria, 24. 

Bumelia, 144, 392. 
Bursa, 407. 

Buthograptus, 56. 

Euxbaumia, 30, 91, 350. 

Byrsonima, 229. 

Cabomba, 138. 
Cactus, 116, 

Caeoma, 185,210,286. 
Caffea, 381, 384, 
Calamagrostis, 517, 

Calicum,259,493- 
Calla, 206. 

Calliprora, 416. 
Callithamnion, 52. 
Callithanmopsis, 36, 
Callitriche, 138. 
Callirrhoe, m, 392. 
Calochortus, 114, 140, iSj. 
Calopogon, 158, 462. 
Calothrix, 425, 426. 
Caltha, 474. 

Calvatia, 209. 
Calymperes, 339, 442. 
Calycanihus, 24. 
Calypiridium, 237. 
Camassia, 113. 
Campylodiscus, 261. 
Campulosus, 423. 
Campylopus, 450. 
Canna, 278, 385. 
Capnoides, 405, 406. 
Capparis, 92. 
Capsella, 376, 407, 417. 
Capsicum, 147, 
Capsovia, 427, 
Cardaminc, 137, 
Cardiospermum, 147, 148. 
Carduus, 324, 446. 

Carex, 58, 82, 220, 221, 222, 223, 267, 273, 284, 375, 
382, 462. 
iDaea 25, 

Carica, 53, 92. 




Carpinus, 377. 
Carum, 108, 109. 
Carya. 331. 

Cassandra, 231. 

Cassava, 438. * 

Cassia, 219, 392, 513, 514, 515, 516. 

Cassiope, 231. 

Castalia, 147, 286, 407,473. 

Castanopsis, 377, 

Catasetum, 520. 

Catopteris, 168. 

Caulerpa, 402. 

Cavendishia, 92. 

Ceanothus, 143, 186, 393. 

Celastrus, 468. 

Celtis, 147. 

Cenchrus, 298, 299, 300, 301, 416. 

Centaurea, 461. 

Centrosema, 324. 

Cephalanthus, 151,392. 

Ccrataulus, 261. 

Ceratiola, 144. 

Ceratiomyxa, 235, 283. 

Ceratomyces, 140. 

Ceratophyllum, 138. 

Cercocarpus, 135. 

Cercospora, 82, 178, 179. 288, 438, 479. 

Cereus, 116, 478, 482, 484, 522. 

Cetraria, 240, 241, 

Chaetocladus, 56. 

Chalara, 285. 

Chamaedaphne, 231. 

Chamaeraphis, 422. 

Chapmania, 143. 

Chara, 52, 68, 70, 71, 138, 398, 427, 430, 444, 468 

Chaunostoma, 92. 

Cheilanthes, 350. 

Chimaphila, 224, 225. 

Chloris, 423, 424, 481. 

Chlorogaium, 114. 

Chondrioderma, 332, 334. 

Chondrophora, 338. 

Chrysobalanus, 438. 

Chrysoma, 186. 

Chrysopogon, 58, 59. 

Chrysopsis, 441 

Chrysothamnus, 338, 375. 

Cicendia, 405. 

Cicuta, 238. 

Ciraicifuga, 135, 474. 

Cirsium, 324. 

Cissites, 226, 227. 

Cissus, 226. 

Cladtum, 61. 

Cladonia, 191, 194,250, 251. 

Cladophora, 430. 

Cladosporium, 187. 

Cladoihamnus, 237. 

Cladrastis, 446. 

Clarkia, 416. 

Clathrus, 238. 

Clavaria, 82, 477. 

Claytonia, 49, 50, 90, 107. 

Clematis, 278. 473,474, 493. 

Cleome, 238,475. 

CleomeJIa, 475. 

Cliftonia, 178. 

Clitocybe, 199,286. 

Clitona, 392, 500. 

Cnicus, 110, 143. 

Clostenum, 291, 297, 427. 

Cocconeis, 261, 275. 
Colmil, 25. 

Collaea, 500, 501. 
Collema, 192, 197, 198, 246. 

Colletotrichum, 135. 374, 437. 479- 
CoUinsia, 186, 285, 520. 

Collybia, 199, 286, 486. 

Colocasia, 106 

Cologania, 502. 

Coliibrina, 53. 

Colus, 238. 



VI 1 



Commelina, 143, 160, 238 437. 
Completoria, 337. 
ConomitTium, 350. 
Conopholis, 234.461. 

Convallarja, 384. 
Convolvulus. 154, 395, 401- 
Cooperia, 391. 
Coprinus, 205, 206, 286, 491. 

Cordia, 483. 

Corema, 169, 171. 

Coreopsis, 47, 48 92, 147, 4°^- 

Coronilla,46o, 

Coronopsis, 324. 

Coronopus, 407. 

Corticium, 210. 

Cortinarius, 203, 286. 

Corydalis, 405, 475' 

Corylus, 339, 416. 

Corynephoms, 407. 

Coscinodon, 277* 4'^9' 447* 448> 449- 

Cosinodii-cus, 173, 261, 262. 

Cosmarium. 238, 290, 2g2, 293, 294, 296, 297,293,410. 

Cosmocladium, 296, 298, 416. 
Cosmos, 521. 
Costaria, 139- 
Covillea, 229, 288. 

Ctenium, 423. 
Cucurbita, 100, 415. 
Cuscuta, 330, 417. 
Cycas, 384. 
Cycloloma, 392. 
Cycloteila, 262. 
Cymatopleura, 275. 
Cymbella, 262,274. 
Cymopterus, no. 
Cynanchum, 337- 
Cynodontium, 277. 
Cynoglossum, 461. 

Cynosciadium, 3gi. 

Cyperus, 44. ^°' "5* 161. 
Cypressus, 376. 
Cypripedium, 462, 
Cyrtodeira, 336. 
^ Cyrtopodium, oo> 5^9- 
Cystoplcura, 262. 

Daimonelix, 83. 89, 186. 

Danlhonia, 469. 

Daphnopsis, 521- 

'Darlingtonia, 91. 

Darluca, 437, 479- 
Dasylirion, 133. 

Deanea, 415. 

Delphinium, 53» 375. 3^3* 474» 480. 
Desmanthus, 391, 392. 
Desmonema, 428. 

Diachea, 334. 
Dianthus, 219. 

Dicentra, 475- 
Dichomyces, 140. 

Dicranella, 411,4491 45o, 45^i 452. 
Dicranodontium, 451 

Dicranum, 415, 450, 45^- 
Dictydium, 332. 
Diciyophora, 238. 

Didymium, 333- 
Didymosphaeria, 439, 479- 
Diettenbachia, 336. 

Digitaria, ng, 420- 
Dimerosporium, 175, 237,288. 

Diodia, 131. 
Dioscorea, 4 12. 
Diospyros, 178, 339. 
Diplazium, 91. 
Diplodia, 177, 178, 288. 

Dirca, 399. 
Discosia, 82. 

Ditrichum, 450* 
Doassansia, 364, 443- 
"Docidium, ago. 
DodecatheoTi, 186, 285. 
Dolichos, 307, 



Dothidella, 237. 
Dryopteris, 322, 405, 462. 
Drosera, 150. 
Dysphinctium, 292- 



Eastwoodia, 53- 

Fatonia, 5^1* 
Eccilia, 201, 286. 
Echinocactus, 287. 

Kchinopsis, 91. 

Echinospermum, 324- 
Eciocarpus, 402. 

Elaeagnus, 12a. 
EIodea,24, 138, 405,406. 

Elymus, 517* 518. . 

Encalypta, 452, 453' 454, 455. 4:=^. 457- 45o- 
Encyoncma, 262, 274. 
Endocarpon, 196, 259- 

Ensleiiia, 238. 

Entoloma, 200, 201, 286, 489- 

Entyloma, 57» ^3^- 
Ephemerum, 67, 443. 

Ephestia, 416. 
Epidendrium, 90. 

Epigaea, 236. 
Epilobmm, 131, 138*33°- 
Epipactis, 405. 
Epithemia, 275. 
Equvsetiim,377, 389, 468. 
Eragrostis, 287, 465. 

Eranthis, 475- 
Erianthus, 419, 481. ' 

EngeroTi, 137, 186, 237, 23S, 41°- 
Enodictyon, 482. 

Eriogonum, 143* 39^- 
Eriophorum, 462. 
Eriophyllum, 416. 

Erodium, 468, 4^9- 

Ervum, 503J 507- 
Erj'cina, go. 

Eryngium, 147, 237- 

Erysimum, 285. 

Erythrina, i35» 437- 
Erythronium,236, 415- ' 

Euasplenium, 91. 
Euastrum, 292,297. 
Eucantharomyces, 140. 

Euglcna, 402. 
Euglenopsis, 136. 

Eunotia, 262, 275* 
Euoaia, 174- 
Eupatorium, 134- ^lo, 337. 

Euphorbia, 393, 436. 
Euphrasia, 170. 
Eupodiscus, 173, 275. 

Evernia, 241. 
Excipulina, 209,286. 

Exoascus, 238, 339. 



Fagotiia, 229. 
Fagus, 187, 287. 
Falcata, 121. 
Faxonia, 53- 
Festuca, 362. 
Fimbristylis, 14S. 

Fissidens, 54 » 442- 
Flammula, 202, 286, 489. 

Floerkca, 237- 

Flukigeria, 55- 

Fomes, 362, 443- 
Forestiera, 53- 
Forsythia, 467. 
Foihergilla, 321. 
Fragaria, 219. 

Fragilaria, 275- 
Fraxinus, i53'46i- 

FritteUaria, 237- 
Froelichia, 392- 
Fucus, 403. 

Fuligo, 432, 433- 
Funaria, 469. 

Fusarium, 414- 



f • • 



Vlll 



/ 



Oalactia, 391, 438, 500, sor, 502, 501. 

507, 50S, 509*510, 511. 
j^a ega, 25. 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. 

(jalinsoga, 55. 
Galium, 477. 

Galphimia, 228. 
Garberia, 152, 
Garovaglia, 442. 
Gaultheria, 120, 461. 
Gaura, 391, 392. 

Oaylussacia, 120. 
Genista, 54. 

Geranium, 89, 469. 
Gerardia 461,393. 
Oilia, 338. 

Ginko, 219. 

Gloeosporium, 185. 
Gloeotrichia, 40. 
Glossopetalon, 137. 
Gjyceria, 405,406, 512. 
Glycine, 503. 

Glycyrrhiza, io3. 
Gnaphalimn, 461. 

Gomphonema, 262, 263, 274. 
Gomphrena, 288. 

Gonaiozygon, 291,297. 
Goniopteris, 137. 
Goodyera, 405, 406. 
Goniothecum, 173. 
Gordonia, 438. 

Grammatophora, 17-1.27';. 
Graphis,258. ^^ ^^ 

Grevillia, 435. 

Grimmia, 36, 37, 41,43, 4^8. 
Guajacum, 229. 

Gymnogramme, 337. 

Gymnostomum, 277. 

Gymnosporangium, 188. 
Gyrostachys, 405, 406. 

Habenaria, 53, 157, 186, 462. 
Halenia, 480. 

Halicteres, 468. 

Hamamelis, 412. 

Haplomitrium, 402. 

Haplosporella, 82, 440, 479. 
Hariota. 139. 

Hassalia, 42B. 

Hebe!oma, 202, 286. 

Hedysarum, 508. 

Hcimatomyces, 140. 
Helenium, 147. 

Helianthella, 143, 152. 

Weianthemum, 147,148,238. 
xieiianthus, 100, loi ion -m aaa j^^ 

Hendersonia, ,78. .88, 4V '''' ''"' 
Hemiarcyria, 334. 

liemitnchia, 334. 

Herbertia, 188. 

Hesperocallis, 114. 

Heteranthera, 393. 

Heterocarpaea, 501, 506. 
Heierodictyon, 332. 

Heteropogon, 362', 

Heterothecium, 254. 

Heterotrichia, 333. 

Hcnchera, 350. 

Heydenia, 493. 

Hibiscus. 148, 179.383.469- 
Hicona,33i.4i2,4i7. 

riierochloe, 405. 
Hillia, 390. 

Hippuris, 13B. 

Hockinia, 4S0. 
Holcus, 435. 

Homolocfcnchrus, 407, 
Hordeum, 336, 417. 
Houstonia, 61. 137, 393. 
Hudsonia, 473. 
Hura, 375, 469. 

Hyacinthus, 336. 



504* 505, 506, 



Hyalodiscus, 173, 263. 

HydrocoIeum,429. 
Hydrolea, 154. 

Hydrosera, 263, 374. 

Hydrothyria, 197, 496, 

Hygrobiella, 188. 

Hygrophorus, 200, 211, 286, 486, 487 

Hymenophyllum, 350. 

Hymenophytum, 188. 

Hyophila, 442. 

Hypericum, 46, 148. 211, 212, 213, 2,4, 2 . s, 28 x. 
Hypholoma, 204, 286, 490. ^ ' ' ^ 

Hypnum, 339. 

Hypocrella, 237. 
Hyptis, 89. 

Hysirix, 518. 

Ilex. 3, 176,177. 
lllicmm, i7'5, 177. 

lmpatiens,383, 38s,44I■ 
IndIgofe^a, 392. 

Inocybe, 488. 
Ipoiiiaea, 461. 

Isariopsis, 438, 479. 

Ischaemum, 175. 

Isoetes,g2. 

Isopyrum, 413. 

Isoiachis, 287. 

Itajahya, 238. 

Tthyphallus, 238. 
Iva. 521. 

Ixophorus, 422, 423. 

Jacaratia, 92. 

Jamesoniella, 188. 
Janusia, 228, 

Jatropha, 143, 188,393. 
Jeffersonia, 442. 
Joosia, 469. 
Jubaea, 522. 

Juglans,483. 
Juncoides, 405. 

Juncus, 44, 45, 92, 139, 145, 281, 302, 303, 304, ^o 

330.415, 4»6, 467. ^ 

Jungermania. 

Juniperus, ii3. 

KalLtroemia, 230. 

Kalmia, 377,413, 461, 482. 
Kantia, 287. 

Koellia, 368. 

Kraunhia, 324. 

Kuhnistera, 135, 137, 149, 324, 3^2. 

Lablab, 506. 

Laboulbcnia, 14O. 
Lachnocaulon, 160, 161, 
Lacinaria, 392. 

Lactuca, 284, 481, 521. 
Laesiadia, 176, 288. 
Laminaria, 402. 
Lamourouxia, 446, 521 
Laniproderma, 333, 432'. 

Laphamia, 443, 446. 
Lappula, 324. 
Larix, 113, 

Larrea, 56*229, 230, a88, 
Lastrea, 137, 406. 
Lathynis, 139, 3^5. 
l^aternea, 23S. 
Lecanactis, 258. 

Lecanora,247,248,249,375. 

Leersia, 407, 4x6, 453. 
I^egouzia, 405, 406. 
J-ejeunea, 136. 
Lembosia, 176, 177, 288. 
Lemna, 53, 54, 136. 

Lentibularia, 219. 
Lepidium, 33, 137, 272, 385. 



n 



IX 




Lepidodendron, 470. 
Lepigonum» 325, 405. 
Lepiota, 198, 199, 286. 

Lepra, 198. 
Leptochloa, 175. 
Leptogium, 197, 246, 405. 
Leptogtossum, 210, 286. 
Leptonia, 201, 286. 
Leptorchis, 405. 
Leptotherium, 82. 

Lesquerella, 475. 
Leucobryum, 443. 
Lencodictyon, 501. 
Leucothoe, 146, 231, 232. 
Lewisia, iii. 
Liatris, 143, i52» 461. 
Ligusticum, 363. 
Lilium, 170. 
I.imodorum, 145, 158. 
Limonium, 405, 406. 
Limosella, 519. 
Linanthus, 186, 375. 

Linum, 393. 

Liparis, 405. 

Liquidambar, 467. 

Liriodendron, 54, 285, 376, 383, 415. 

Liriodendropsis, 415. 

Liriophyllum, 54, 

Lissocarpa, 521, 
Lithophragma, 338. 
Lithothamnion, 285. 
Litobrochia, gi. 

Litsia, 440. 
Lepargyrea, 324. 
Lobelia, 383, 484. 
Lophopappus, 55. 
Lophotocarpus, 287. 

Lotus, 469. 
Ludwigia, 392, 393. 

Lupinus, 108, 181 

Lunaria, 310. 

Luzula, 405. * 

Lycogala, 333* 334- 
Lycoperdon, 107, 209, 280, 477. 

LyCOpersicum, 47. 

Lygodesmia, 143. ' 

Lygodium, 170, 481. 

Lyngbya, 285, 428, 429. 

Macrocarpaea, 483. 
Macromitrium, 442. 
Macrosporium, 493. 
Magnolia, 146, 176, 278, 286, 439, 44°, 474 

Mallinoa, 136. 
Maliotium, 197, 496. 
Malpigia, 229. 
Malvaviscus, 446. 
Mammillaria, 116. 
Manihot, 136. 
Marasmius, 487. 
Marattia, 135. 
Mariana, 405, 406. 
Marsilia, 161, 283, 393. 
Masdevaliia, 520. 
MaxUlaria, 417. 
Maytenus, 483. 
Medeola, 114. 
Medicago, 385, 460. 
Alegapterum, 393- 
Alelasmia, 209, 286. 
Meliola, 237. 
Melioloa, 434, 438. 
Meliosma, 483. 
Alelogramma, 82, 440, 479. 
Melosira, 173, 263, 275. 
Melothria, 151. 
Menispermum, 474. 
* Mentha, 8g, 461. 
Mentzelia, 285. 
Meridion, 275. 
Mertensia, 407. 
Wemlius, 82. 



Metzgeria, 136. 
Meum, 405. 
Mibora, 405. 
Micrasterias, 292, 297. 

Microchaete, 427. 

Rlicrocoleus, 427 

Microsens, iir, 338. 

Microsphaera, 52. 

Mikania, 446. 

Mimosa, 413. 

Miniulus, 90, 185, 237, 285. 

Mirabilis, 135, 
Mitchella, 141. 
Mitella, 137 
Mnioides, 406. 

Mnium, 414. 
Mocinna, 92. 

Monilea, 135. 
Monilia, 238. 
Monniera, 46, 47, 92, 393- 
Monnina, 236, 479. 
Monoblepharis, 483. 
Montanoa, 136. 
Mormodes, 480. 
Morongia, 143. 
Mosquitoxylum, 483. 

Mongeotia, 445. 
Muhlenbergia, 135- 

Musa, 383. 

Musineon, 337. 

Mutinus, 238. 

Mycena, 199, 200, 286, 4S6. 

Mylittopsis, 377. 

Myosotis, 383. 
MyosuruB, 474. 
Myriophyilum, 138. 
Myrsine, 436, 483. 

Naias, 138. 

Nasturtium, 405? 475- 
Naucoria, 486. 
Navicula, T73, 263, 264,274. 
Neckeria, 405. 
Needhamia,25. 

Neillia, 271. 

Nelumbium, 324, 384. 

Nelumbo, 102, 120, 266, 270, 271, 324, 370 

Nemophila, 479, 519- 
iNeogoezia, $^9* 520. 
Neosyris, 375 
Nephroma, 245. 
Nephromium, 194, 497* 
Nicotiana, 104, 105, 383, 443. 
Nidulariopsis, 416, 481. 
Nitella, 68, 69. 70. 71, 85, i34» 398> 402. 
Nitzschia, 264, 275. 

Nohna, 158,238- 
Nostoc, 197, 428, 429- 
Nostochopsis, 427. 

Noiothylas, 138. 

Notylia, 417. 
Nummularia, 362, 

Nuphar, 325, 407- . 

Nymphaea, 120, 147, 407, 460, 473. 



Obolaria, 413. 
! Octoblepharum, 442. 

Odonia, 5«>- 
Odontidium,265. 

Oenothera, 151, 339» S^i? 3^5' 
Oligonema, 333- 
Olpldium, 185. 
Omphalia, 200, 286. 

Onagra, 392, 4^0. 

Onoclea, 235, 283, 412. 

Onopodon, 461. 

Opegrapha, 258. 

Ophioceras, 237. 

Opnioglossum, 87. 

Ophrys, 406. 

Opulaster, 271, 272,376, 460. 

Opuntia, 115^ 116, 393 » 4^7 » 4^** 



X 



Oronlium, 102, 106. 
Orthaea, 521. 
Orthotrichum, 52. 
Osbertia, 186. 

Osmunda, 288. 
Ostryra,377. 

Oxalis, 45, 56, 139, 336, 338, 519. 
Oxycoccus, 407. 
Oxytropis^ 405. 

Pachyma, 107. 

PaleohiUia,387,388, 390. 
Palmella, 402. 

Panaeolus, 205, 286. 

Panax, 138. 

Panicularia, 405, 406, 512. 

Pannaria, 246, 375. 

Panicum, 137, 175, 30*1, 419, 4,0, 

44i»4oz, 4S1. 
Parmelia, 191, 194, 242, 243, 244, 497 
rarodelia, 237. 
Paronychia, 156. 
Parosela, 392, 393. 
Parrotia, 227, 
Paspalum, 275, 420. 
Passiflora, 104, 392. 
Pauilinia, 522. 
Paulownia, 467. 
Pavonia, 480. 
Pediastrum, 140. 
Peganum, 231, 

Pelargonium, 383, 469. 
Pelexia, 417. 
Pellia, 402. 
Peilionia, 3^6 

Peltandra, 106, 146, 160. 
Pcltigera, 245. 

Penium,29o, 291, 297. 
Pentstemon, 137,464. 
Peperomia, 445. 
Peramium, 405, 406, 
Peraphyllum, 338. 
Pereziopsis, 136. . 
Peridinium, 402. 
Peronospora, 364, 443. 
I'ersea, 144, 136, 157,238. 
r'ertusaria, 249. 

Pestalozzia, 177, 178 288. 
Petalostemon, 324. 
Petradoria, 186. 

Peucedanum, 109, no. 
Peziza, 82. 

St!^f,^^^^'48,49, 53.90, 137, 186, 
x^nalms, 287. 

Phascum,62,65,66.* 
Phaseolus, 99, 100, 460. 

Phcgopters,35o.444- 

Philadelphus, 461. 

Philbertia, 60. 

Phjiotria, 374, 406. 
Phleum, 179. 

Phlox, 54, 339, 4S0. 

Fhohota, 202,286. 

Phoradendron, 366. 

Phormidium, 427, 430. 

Phyljachora, 210, 237, 440, 479. 

Phyllocactus, 188. 

Phyllospadix, 53. 

Phyllosticta, 436. 

Physalis 54, 306, 307, 308, 417. 

Fhysarum, 332, 333, 334, 432, 433, 

Physcomitrella. 62, 63, 64, 67, 135, 

i'nyscomUrium, 65, 67, 277, 442. 

Picea, 92,467. 

Pieris, 146, 176. 

Pilocereus, 484. 

Pilophorus, 250. 

PiIotrichum,34g, 

PiniiSj 117, 142, 

; 462, 482. 

Piper, 445. 
Piriqueta, 143. 



421,422,423,435, 



37 



475- 
246, 277 



i43» I44> 145, i7i» 2^9i 284. 337 



Placodium, 246, 247. 

Plagiogramma, 265. 
Plantago, 461. 
Platanus, 226. 

Pleurosigma, 173,265.274. 
Fleurotaenium, 290. 

Pleurothallis, 90, 376, 417. 
riowrightia, 135. 

PIuchea,54, 174.392- 
rluteolus, 203, 286. 
Pluteus, 48S 
Pneumaria, 407. 
Poa, 138,465,511, 517. 
Podosiraj 173. 
Podostiema, 145. 
Polychidium, 197, 496. 
Polygala, 236,479. 
Polygonatum, 405. 

Polygonum, 56, 139, 235, 280, 281, 383. 
Polymnia, 136 
Polymyxus, 261, 265. 
Polanisia, 143. 

Polyplocium, 492. 

Polypoms, 207, 286, 409, 418, 493. 

Po ypodium, 137, 146, 444, 520. 

Polystichum, 405, 406. 

Populus, 131, 286, 462. 

Poriieria, 229. 

Portulaca, 143. 

Potamogcton, 142, 374, 393, 462. 
Poterium, 405, 406. 
Pottia, 442. 
Pottiariparia, 469. 

Primicorallina, 56, 
Prionodon, 339. 

Prochynanthes, 443. 

Prosopsis, 120, 121, 363, 385. 

Protococcus, ig8, 402. 

Protophyllum, 227. 

Protubera, 238. 

Prunus, 103, 132, 219, 237 278, 283, 286, 339.442^ 

519- 

Psathyrella, 82, 490. 

PseudauliscuSj 265. 
Pseudoeunotia, 265, 
Pseva, 224. 

Psidium, 436, 437. 
Psoralea, 107, 108, in, 338. 
Ptelea, 519. 
Pteris, 91, 115, 210. 
Pterocaulon, 143. 
Pterospermites, 227. 
Ptiloria, 87. 
Puccinellia, 511, 512. 

Puccinia, 58, 59- 60, 6r, 136, 174, 185, 237, 284. 288,. 

3^3> 435. 442, 443- 
Punctaria, 52. 

Pycnanihemum, 368. 

Pyninula, 191, 198, 260. 

Pyrola, 461. 

Pyrrocoma, 186. 
Pyrus,278. 
Pythium, 235, 283. 

Quercus,74 75.76,89,92. 118, 119. 137. 139. ,^0, 

142. 146* 178, 330i 339. 365, 367. 377, 383, 3Q2, 
396,437i443>452, 519. "^ '' ^//' ^ -i' ^V r 

Radiofilum, 140. 
Railardella, 186. 
Ramalina, 240. 
Ramisia, 521. 
Ramu!aria, 57. 
Ranunculus, 53, 

lTnuZ\t '''' '''' '''• ''*• ''*3- 

Redfieldia, 167. 

Remera, 25. 

Rhabdonema, 275, 

Rhabdospora, 82. 

Rhaphoneis, 173,265. 



138, 186, 224, 284, 285, 460. 473, 



XI 



Rhexfa, T45» i5o» 238. 

Khizophidium, 52, 283. 

Rhizosolenia, 174, 275. 

Rhododendron, 287. 

Rhoikosphenia, 274. 

Rhus, 54, 285, 338, 339, 392, 417, 443. 444. 482. 

Rhynchosia, 143, 149, J50, 238, 458, 459. 

Rhynchospora, 144. 
Rhynchostegium, 469. 
Ribes, 54, 91, 136, 137, 285, 338. 
Riccia, 402, 
Richardia, 151,382. 
Ricinus, 383, 469, 
Rinodina, 249. 
Rivularia, 426, 427, 482. 
Roripa, 186, 187, 405, 460. 
Rosa, 122. 
Rosellinia, 439, 479. 
Rubus, 150, 460, 471, 

Rudbeckia, 139, 378- 

Rumex, 44.92, 137, 237, 330, 367, 444, 480, 482. 

Ruppia, 426. * 

Russula, 477, 

Sabal, T46, 147. 

Sabbatia, 393. 

Sagedia, 259. 

Sagittaria, 105, 106, 287, 330, 364. 

Salix, 90, 383, 385, 462, 482, 521. 

Salsola, 54, 92, 135, 136, 138, 187, 188,417,466,481. 

Salvinia, 462. 

Sambucus, 151, 444. 

Samolus, 137, 

Sanguinaria, 89, 287. 

Sanguisorba, 405. 

Sanicula, 237, 35^, 352, 253f 354. 355, 356, 357, 358, 

359> 360, 3^^y 442- 
Saracha, 4S3. 

Sassafras, 177, 225, 226, 283. 

Saubsurea, 350, 

Savastana, 405, 406. 

Saxifraga, 58, 137. 

Scabiosa, 171. 

Scaevola, 436. 

Scenedesmus, 427, 430. 

Schinus, 186. 

Schistidium, 65, 66. 

Schizaea, i6g, 441. 

Schizophyllum, 439, 479. 

Schizostega, 478. 

Schizothrix, 429. 

Schoenocaulon, 439. 

Scholecotrichum, 178, 288. 

Schollera, 407, 461. 

Schoulera, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43» ^35- 

Scirpus, 115. 

Scirrhia, 435. 

Sclerotina, 135. 

Scolopendrium, 446. 

Scutellaria, 54. 

Scytonema, 428. 

Secotium, 493. ' 

Securidaca, 479. 

Sedum, 287. 

Seeestria, 259. 

Selenipedium, 520. 

Senebiera, 324, 407. 

Senecio, 137, 186, 337, 37S, 37^- 

Sepedonium, 333. 

Septoria, 192, 437, 479. 

Sequoia, 186, 375. 

Sericocarpus, 461. 

Sesuvium, 391, 392. 

Setaria, 161, 175, 422,423. 

Shepherdia, 12 r, 122, 324. 

Si da, 137. 

Sigmatella, 442. 

Sieglingia, 365,407, 482. 

Silene, 57, 460. 

Silybum, 405. 

Sinapis, 224. 

Sisymbrium, 370, 385, 443, 47X- 



Sisyrinchium, 375, 385. 

Smilax, 113, ii4» i44i H^* ^79- 

Solarium, 112, 238, 279, 285, 412, 413, 481, 521. 

Solidago, 145, 147, 152, 182, 338, 368,369, 393, 461, 

519- 

Solorina, 245, 497. 

Sorosporium, 363, 443. 
Sparassis, 207, 208, 286. 
Spalhyema, 106. 
Specularia, 192,405, 406. 
Spergularia, 324, 325, 405. 
Spiesia, 138, 405, 406. 
Spiraea, 237. 
Spiranthes, 158, 380, 405, 406. 

Spirogyra, 185. 
Sphaeralcea, 364. 
Sphaerella, 82, 176, 288. 
Sphaerophonis, 259. 
Sphagnum, 92, 344, 346, 442, 443* 
Sporobolus, 55, 143, 463, 464, 465, 518. 

j Sporotrichum, 237. 
Siachys, 177, 461, 
Statice,405, 406. 
Staurastrum, 294, 295, 297, 298. 

Stauroneib, 265, 274. 
Stemona, 3. 

Stellaria, 171,324, 405- 
Stenophyllus, 143, 161, 238. 

Sienorrhynchus, 158. 

Stenosipnon, 393. 

Stephanodorta, 186. 

Siephanogonia, 174. 

StephoDOpyxis, 174. 

Stereocaulon, 249. 

Stereum, 82. 

Sticta, 245, 495. 49^> 497. 498, 499' Soo. 

Stictina, 495, 496, 497? 49^- 

Stictodiscus, 174. 

Stigonema, 444. 
Stillingia, 1431 392- 
Stipa, 423, 469,481. 
Slipulicida, 148, 238. 
Stropharia, 204. 286, 489. 

Streptanthus, 338. 
Surirella, 265, 275, 374. 
Sweetia, 500. 

Symploca, 428. 429, 43^- 
Synchytrium, 89. 

Synedra, 265, 275. 
Syntherisma, 420. 

Syrrhopodon, 442. 

Systegium, 442. 



Tabellaria, 275. ^ 

Talinum, 107, 391. 

Taphrina, 178, 286. 

Taraxacum, 375. 

Taxodium, 92. 

Tayloria, 442. 

Tecoma, 177, 178. 

Tephrosia, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34. 35» 5". 

Terpsinoe, 265. 

Tessela, 275. 
Tetracyclus, 266. 
Tetraedron, 140. 
Tetraploa, 179, 288. 
Teucriuni, 54, 147. 
Thalictrum, 53M74- 
Thamnolia, 194, 252. 
Thelephora, 492. 
Theloschistes, 242. 

Thelotrema, 249. 
Thermopsis, 186. 

Thryallis, 22S. 
Tiarella, 58. 
Tibouchina,339. 
Tilia, 278, 460. 
Tillaea, 138. 
Tillandsia, 158. 
Tilmadoche, 432,433. 

Tipularia, 462. 
Tissa, 186, 324, 405. 



f' 



XII 



Tolypothrix, 42S. 
Townsendia, 349. 
Trabutia, 237. 

Tradescantia, 71, 72, 73, 137, 143, 147, 462. 
Irematodon, 442. 
Trentepohlia, 188. 
Tribulus, 230, 231. 
Tricamphora, 332. 

Triceratum, 174, 263, 266, 275. 
Trichia, 333. 

Tricho aena, 238. 

Tricholoma, 485. 

Trichomanes, 47g. 

Trichostema, 54,445. 

Trifolium. 53» 139* 186, 213, 409, 519. 
Tnglochin,375. 
Trilisa, 145. 
Triodia, 407. 

Tripsacum, 420. 
Triuris, 3. 

Trypethelium, 259. 

Trybhdium, 237. 

Tsuga, 43, 44, 207, 209, 442, 467. 

Tubaria, 202, 286. 

Tubulina, 333. 

Tussilago, 461. 

Tylostoma, 209, 286. 
Typha, 467. 

Udora, 24,374, 405 406,462. 

Uleomyces, 237. 
Ulex, 460. 

Ulmaria, 52. 

Ulmus, 147. 

Uncinula, 413. 

Unona, 446, 

Unibellularia, 340. 
Umbilicaria, 244, 245. 
Urceolaria, 249. 
Uredinopsis, 479. 

viic^ioi:s: '''' '''' '''^ '''' '''' ''^• 

Uromyces, 57, 136, 237, 284, 436. 
Usnea, 241, 

TJslilago. 57. 136, 175, 2S8, 237, 362, 443, 481. 
Utriculana, 52, 146, 155, 156, 478. 

Vaccinium, 54, 120, 153, 285. 
Valeriana, 112,460. 
Valsa, 210, 211,286. 
Vallisneria, 142, 234, 469, 470. 



m 

Vanilla, 417. 

Vascoucellia, 92. 

Vaucheria, 339. 

Veratrum, 185, 384. 

Verbascum, 383. 

Verbena, 137. 

Verbesina, 136. 

Vermicularia, 177,288. 
Vernonia, 136, 143. 

Veronica, 461. 

Verrucaria, 198, 259. 

Vicia, 186, 522. 

Victoria, 147. 

Vilfa, 463,464. 

Viola, 286, 313.377.475,484. 

V ItiS, 104, 226, 237, 283, 330. 

Vittaria, 147. 
Volutella, 82, 337. 

VoIvaria,487, 488. 
Volvox, 402. 

Weingaertneria, 407. 
Weldenia, 186. 
Whipplea, 364. 

Willoughbaeya, i;6. 
Wistaria, 324. 

WolfTia, 462. 

Woodsia, 349. 

Wyethia, no. 

Xanthidium, 295, 296, 297. 
Xanthtum,4i7. 

Xanthorrhiza, 474. 
Ximenia, 141, 144. 
Xolisma, 153. 
Xylaria, 237. 

Xylographa, 258. 
Xyris, 159, 160, 238. 

Yucca, 119, 158, 288, 330, 377, 392, 4^0. 

Zamia, 107. 
2ea, 99, 520. 

Zenobia, 231,232, 286. 
Zephyranthes, 287, 
Zinnia, 395, 412. 
Zizania, 53. 
Zizia, 60. 
Zygodesmus, 82. 
Zygophyllum, 230. 



i 



f 



I 



A 
? 



1 



■M 
^ 



^ 



Vol. 22. 



JANUARY, 1895. 



No. 1. 



a 



BULLETIN 



^ 



OF THE 



ToRREY' Botanical Club. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 



Edited by 



NATHANIEL LORD BRITTON. 



T 

1 



AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CL-UB 



i 



OONTEMXS: 



rAGB, 



PAGtt. 



Family Nomenclature : y.An Hendhy Barn- 
hart 

A Revision of the Xorth American Species of 
the Genus Cracca: Anna Murray P'aif, 

A Revision of the Genus Sa^uieria w-ith De- 
scription of one new Species ; Elizabeth C 
Brition (Plate 22;) 

Studies in iti^ Botany of the Southeastern 
United States— III: John K. ^>«a// (Plate 



25 



36 



8) 



43 



New Piants from Idaho: Louis F. Hen 



n 



Buxbaumia apkylla; Geo. G, Kennedy , 
Herbert A. Youog: Wm, P. Rich . . . , • 
Procbedings of THB Ct,VB . 

Index to rscbst LirzaATUSK relaxing 

TO AMSRXCAJ4 BOTANT ...•.•«•• 



48 

SO 



5« 



PUBLISHED FOR THE CLUB, 



Ths Nkw £aA PftSMTXMa Hoouc. 

jUAKCAfTn, Pa* 



n^^^ 



j^-^' 



ifli 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1895. 



F ^ 

President^ 

HON. ADDISON BROWN. 



Vice Fresiaenis, 



T. F. ALLEN, M. D. 



L. H. LIGHTHirE, 



R£cording Secretary^ 

HENRY H. RUSBY, M. D., 

College of Pharmacy, New York City, 

Editor^ 

■ r 

N. L BRITTON, Ph. D., 

Columbia College, New York City. 

1 



Corresponding Secretary^ 
JOHN K. SMALL, 

Columbia College, New York City 

Treasurer J 
HENRY OGDEN, 

11 Pine Street, New York City, 



Associate Editors^ 



EMILY L. GREGORY, Ph. D., 
ANNA MURRAY VAIL, 



! 



ARTHUR HOLLICK, Ph. B., 

J 

BYRON D. HALSTED, Sc. D., 



A. A. HELLER. 



Curator, 

JOSEPHINE E. ROGERS. 



Librarian, 

EFFIE A. SOUTHWORTH 



Committee on Finance, 



J. I. KANE. 



\VM. E. WHEELOCK. 



Committee on Admissions. 



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PHANEROGAMIA, 

Prof. THOS. C. PORTER, 
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MARIA O. LE ERUN, 
SMITH ELY JELLIFFE, M. D. 



The Club meets regidarly at Gilranbia College, 49th Street and Madison Ave- 
nue, New York City, on the second Tuesday and last Wednesday of each month, 



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Botanists are' cor- 



dially invited to attend. 

Members of the Clxjb will please remit their annual dues for 1895, now 
payable, to Mr. Henry Ogden, Treasurer, x i Kne St, New York City. 



t-"^^"«* 1* ■ -y'T'T'MT- rW . ^.i 



i 



¥ 



>^ 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



Vol. 22. Lancaster, Pa., January 15, 1895. No. i 



1 



Family Nomenclature. 



By John Hendley Barnhart. 



Although for over a hundred years botanists have recognized 
certain natural groups of plants, variously called '' orders " or 
*' families/' the naming of these groups has been full of incon- 



sistencies, and subject entirely to the caprice of each writer. 
When we come to consider the fact that no author has ever con- 
sistently followed any rule in naming such groups (some have 
even called the same family by two or more different names in 
the same work) it seems strange that the present confusion is 
no greater than it is. 

In spite of the fact that there are no rules, there is a marked 
tendency toward the use of uniform terminations in the naming of 
all groups of coordinate rank higher than genera. In the case of 
family n^imes this tendency has shown itself by the extension of 
the use of the termination *' -aceae," until this has become uni- 
versally recognized as a distinctive mark of family rank. Yet 
some of the usual names are improperly formed from the generic 
root upon which they are based, while quite a number of the 
famihes retain names which aretnot founded upon genera at all. 

This latter class requires special consideration. A generic 
name stands or falls with its typical species, and why should not a 
family name stand or fall with its typical genus ? Such names as 
Umbelliferae, Cruciferae, Legumlnosae, Labiatae, Gramineae, Com- 
positae, etc., are not named after genera. Nor do these names 



9 



\ 



express characteristics peculiar to the families to which they are 
appHed. The AraUaceae are as truly umbelUfcrous as the Um- 
belhferae; the Capparidaceae, hke the Cruciferae, have cruciform 

.flowers ; in the Dipsacaceae the flowers are " composite," as in the 
Compositae. Not being founded upon genera, such names may 
be applied to very different groups, even though they have the 
correct termination -aceae. The name Lomentaceae has been 
used for a division of Leguminosae, and also for a group of Cruci- 
ferae, and these two applications of the name, while equally appro- 
priate, are at the same time alike improper. Custom, then, is the 

*only excuse for the continued use of this class of names. But it 

I 

has proven true in the case of generic and specific nomenclature, 
that -aistoiu must yield to inflexible lazv ; and surely the same 
should hold in the case of family nomenclature. 

What, then, should this law be ? The evident preponderance 
of opinion demands as its most important feature the uniform 
termination -aceae. Then it must be recognized that the family 
names must be properly formed from the roots of generic names. 
Next in importance is the law of priority, so necessary for stable 
botanical nomenclature*. As the history of family names is fol- 
lowed out practical questions arise from time to time, and for 
their decision new provisions suggest themselves, and in this way 
gradually have been formulated the following rules for family 
nomenclature, which it is the object of this sketch to propose. 



Rules for Family Xonieiiclature. 

■ 

Rule 7. The name of each natural family shall consist of the 

E 

root of the accepted name of a recognized genus belonging to 
that family, with the addition of the termination aceae. 

Rule 2. The name of each natural family shall be the oldest 
name published in accordance with Rule i, for any group of 
plants, based upon the accepted name of any recognized genus 
belonging to that family. 

Rule J. The family name must be published in Latin, and in 
the plural number, though not necessarily in the nominative case. 

Rule ^, Authorities shall be cited for family names in the same 
manner as for generic names. If the original author of a family 
name spells the root incorrectly, his name shall be cited in paren- 



- r -:^ 



3 



'r 
i- 



r. 



-theses, followed by the proper citation of the authority who first 
spells the name correctly. 

Rtile ^1 In conformity with the accepted rules of generic and 
specific nomenclature, no family name shall be accepted on the 
autnority of any work published prior to the first edition of 
Linne's Species Plantarum, in 1753. 

The words *^ order" and ** family" have usually been used in- 
terchangeably in botany, but judging from the present tendency it 
appears likely that in the future the name " order " will be re- 
stricted, as has long been the case in zoology, to groups of higher 
rank than families. For this reason the word family has been 
used in the proposed rules. 

It will be well, perhaps, to elucidate the various points touched 
upon by the rules, by giving a few illustrations. 

Rule I. The family name should consist of a generic n?6?/ with 
the termination -aceae. Thus the family founded on the genus 
- Triiiris (root : triurid) should be called TriunddiCezQy LindL, not 
Jm/raceae, Gardn., nor yet J/vV/mceae, Miers. 

It should be based on the name of a recognized genus. 
•* Palmaceae " is not founded on a gemis^ and cannot stand. 
'* Aquifoliaceae " is founded upon the genus Aqinfolium, which is 
not now usually recognized, but is considered a section of Ilex. 
The author who thus disposes of Aqiiifoliiun cannot consistently 
use the name Aquifoliaceae. 

It should be founded on the accepted name of a genus. The 
genus on which Lindley established his family Roxburghiaceae is 
still recognized, but its acceptea name at present is the older one 
Stenw7ia^2iXiA hence for the family must be accepted the newer 
name Stemonaceae. 

Rule 2. Over twenty-five names have been proposed ending in 
-aceae and founded upon genera now included in the family Lili- 

Of these the oldest which fulfills the conditions of Rule I 
is the one just mentioned, which was proposed by Adanson in 

^ 

Rule 3. In 18 19 De Candolle published the new families which 
he called, in French, " Fumariacees " and Frankeniacees" (Theor. 
]Elem. 244), but they were not published in Latin for two years, 
when S. F. Gray published Frankeniaceae, and De Candolle him- 




4 



self Fumariaceae. Again, Schlechtendal, in Linnaea, in 1826, re- 
ferred to the " Melanthiaceen/' but the Latin name first appeared 

in 1830 in Lindley's Natural System. 

Bartling, in 1830 (Ord. Nat. 144), proposed a group *' Cen- 
taureacea." This form was probably intended for the neuter 
plural, but might be the singular of Centaureaceae. In any event 
it does not fulfil the requirements of this rule. However, in 1873, 
Pfeiffer, in his Nomenclator Botanicus, referring to Bartling, spells 
the name Centaureaceae, thus duly publishing it. 

In 1825 Nees von Esenbeck, making a list of the plants belong- 
ing to the family which he called ** Gesnerlees/' entitled the list 
*' Generum familiae Gessneriacearum brevis expositio/' Although 
the name Gessneriaceae occurs nowhere else in the article, and in 
this instance only in the genitive case, this constitutes a true pub- 
lication of the name according to the rule under consideration- 
Rule 4, Citation. There are many illustrations of this rule in 
the accompanying list. 

Rule 5, While this rule brings family nomenclature into line 
with specific and generic naming, it is desirable for another 
reason. In 1759 Bernard de Jussicu laid the foundation of the 
Natural System, which is now so universally accepted. As 
nothing on the subject was published between 1753 and 1759, the 
latter date might have been taken as a starting-point but for the 
convenience of uniformity. 

The following list has been prepared in accordance with, and 
in illustration of, the proposed rules. The omissions may be 
many; the errors, it is to be hoped, are few. Additions to this 
list and corrections of it will be gratefully received. 

It will be well to remember, however, that many of the refer- 
ences in published books are not to be trusted, for they refer to 
places where the group is described^ it may be under a very differ- 
ent name. 



lL,ist of tlie :Katural Families Accordlnip to tlie Classification 

Adopted 111 Kti^i^r and Pranfl^s :^»atuerliciien Pflan- 

^enfamiiieii. Corrected in accordance 

Avitti tlie proposed rules. 

This list includes only the Spermatophyta or seed-producing 
plants; it includes only names which end in -aceae ; it includes 
only names which are formed, directly or indirectly, from the 



i 



5 



name of some genus. This last restriction throws out such 



names as : 

Amentaceae, 

Ampelidaceae, 

Antheraceae, 

asperfoliaceae, 

Aurantiaceae, 

Balsamaceae, 

Campanaceae, 

Ceraceae, 

Cereaceae, 

Chlaenaceae, 

compositaceae, 

Coxaceae, 

Drupaceae, 

Erucaceae, 

FiCOIDACEAE. 

Frumentaceae, 



Glumaceae, 

Graminaceae, 

Granataceae, 

GrOSSULACEAEj 



Palmaceae, 

Papilionaceae, 

Patmaceae, 

PiSTILEACEAE, 



IIippocastanaceae, Pomaceae, 



holoraceae. 

Hvdrocaryaceae, 

Labiaceae, 

Labiataceae, 

Lenticulaceae, 

Lentiscaceae, 

Lomentaceae, 

Lupulaceae, 

nucamentaceae, 

Nuculaceae, 

Oleraceae, 



Potamiaceae, 

Pyrexaceae, 

Rotaceae, 

Saponaceae, 

Sarmentaceae, 

Scitaminaceae, 

Spathaceae, 

Stellaceae, 

Strobilaceae, 

Synantheraceae, 

Umbellaceae, etc 



Names formed by prefixing Eu- to the generic root have been 
omitted also, as 

Eubuxaceae, Eulactucaceae, Eulobeliaceae, Euvernoniaceae. 

The signs used are as follows: 

^ Signifies that the family name is founded on more or less 
than the root of the generic name. In some of these cases it is 
formed by the addition of "-eae" to generic roots ending in " ac"; 
e. g, Smilac-eae. Such names are perfectly correct for tribes, 
though improper for families. 

t Indicates that the generic root is wrongly spelled. 

X Marks family names formed from generic names w^hich are 

not recognized by Engler and Prantl. 

§ After a citation means that it is accepted on some authority 

4 

believed to be trustworthy, but the reference has not been verified 
by actual comparison with the original work. In any such case 
it is possible that the publication may not have been in accordance 

with the proposed rules. 

The families which, in this Hst, are numbered respectively 129- 
^37> 153-159, 175-182, 208-210, 22/^229, 234, 235, and 243-248 



1 



6 



(all inclusive) have not yet been treated by Engler and Prantl, and 
of course their exact limitations and the generic names which will 
be recognized are largely matters of conjecture* 



1. CYCADACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst, Ed. 2, 312 (1836). 

Cycadeaceae* Reich b. Consp. 40 (1828). 
Zamiaceae Reichb. Handb* 139 (1837), 

2. CORDAITACEAE Engler; Engl. & Pr. Nat Pfl. 2: part I : 26 (1889) 

3. PINACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 313 (1836). 

Dammaraceae;): Link, Abli. Berl. Ak. f. 1827, 157 (1830). 
Sausburiaceae| Link, Handb. 2: 523 (1831). 
Taxaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 316 (1836). 
Pineaceae* Horan, Tetract Nat. 22 (1843), 
JUNiPERACEAE Horan. Tetract Nat 22 (1843). 
CuPRESSACEAE Walp. Ann. Bot 3 : 444 (1S53). 
Abietaceae Walp. Ann. Boi. 3 : 446 (1853), 
PoDOCARPACEAE Walp. Ann. Bot. 3: 448 (1853), 
Abietixaceae* K1. Sc Grcke. Bot Erg. Wald. 31 (1862). 
Taxodiaceae Schimp. Paleont. Veg. 2: 309 (1870). 
Araucakiaceae Strasb. Conif. 25 (1872). 
^ Called CoNlFERAE by Engler & Prantl. 
4^ EPHEDRACEAE Dumort Fl. Belg. 9 (1827). 

ThoaceaeJ Agardh, Aphor. 204 (1825). 
GtTETACEAE Lindl. Bot Reg. /. 16S6 (1834).? 

5. .TYPHACEAE J. St Hit Expos. Earn, i : 60 (1805). 

6. PANDANACEAE Lindl. Nat Syst Ed. 2, 361 (1836). 

7. SPARGANIACEAE Agardh^Theor. Syst PL 13 (1858). 

8. ZANNICHELLIACEAE Dumort Anal. Earn. 61 (1829). 

Zanicheluaceaej Dumort Anal. Fam. 59 (1829). 
Zosteraceae Dumort Anat Fam. 65, 66 (1829). 
RuPPiACEAE Horan. Tetract Nat 22 (1843), 
Fotamogeto aceae EngL Fuehr. Brest Bot Cart 18 (1886). 
PosiDONiACEAE Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 644 (1891). 
Cymodoceaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 644 (1891). 

9. NAJADACEAE (Lindl.) Asch. Linnaea. 35: 160 (1867), 

Naiadaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 366 (1836). 

10. APONOGETONACEAE Engler, Bot Jalirb. 8 ; 261 (1887). 

Aponogetaceae* Agardh, Theor, Syst. PI. 44 ( 1S58), 

11. SCHEUCHZERIACEAE Agardh, Theor. Syst Pt 44 (1858). 

Juncaginaceae}: Lindl. Nat Syst Ed, 2, 367 (1836). 
LiLAEACEAE Hieron. Ber. Ges. Nat Berl. 116 (i878).§ 

12. ALISMACEaE DC. FL Franc. 3: 181 (1S05). 

13. BUTOMACEAE S. F. Gray, Arr. Brit PI. 2: 217 (1821). 
14- TKIURIDACEAE LindL Veg. Kingd. 213 (1847), 

Triuraceae* Gardn. Trans. Linn. Soc. ig: 160 (1843). 
Triuriaceae* Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. -21 ; 43 (iS50)< 



^ 



1, 



i 



k 



15, ELODEACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 54 (1S29). 

Vallisneriaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 54, 55 (1S29). 
Hydrocharaceae* Lindl. Xat. Syst. Ech 2, 335 (1836), 
Hydrocharidaceaej Lindl. Veg.Kingd. 141 (1847). 
Hydrocharitaceae (Lindl.) Asch. Linnaca, 35: 158 (1867). 
Halophilaceae Kerner, Fflanzenleb. 2: 644 (1S91), 
Stratiotaceae Kerner, Fflanzenleb. 2: 645 (1S91). 
Otteliaceae Kerner, Fflanzenleb. 2: 645 (1891). 
TiiALASSoiDACEAEf Kerner, Fflanzenleb. 2: 645 (1S91). 
Blvxeaceae* Kerner, Fflanzenleb. 2; 645 (1891). 

Hydrillaceae Kerner, Fflanzenleb. 2: 645 (1891). 

16. POACEAE R. Brown, Flind. Voy. App. 2, 5S3 (1814). 
^ Stipaceae HBK. Nov. Gen. i: 121 (1815). 

Avenaceae HBK. Nov. Gen. i; 143 (1815). 

Festucaceae HBK. Nov. Gen. i : 143 (1815)- 
^ Arunuinaceae HBK. Nov. Gen. i: 148 (1S15). 

Hordeaceae HBK, Nov. Gen. i : 179 (1S15). 

Olyraceae HBK. Nov. Gen. i : 196 (1815), 

Bambusaceae HBK. Nov, Gen. i: 199 (iS]5). 

Bromaceae Dumort. Agrost. Belg. 82 (1^23). 

Fhleaceae Dumort. Agrost. Belg. 8_^ f 1823). 
^ Loliaceae Dumort. Agrost. Belg. 95 (1823). 

i MiLiACEAE Dumort. Agrost. Belg. 135 (1823). 

I Spartinaceae Link, Hort. Berol. i: 46 (iSzj).^ 

i EcHlNARiACEAE Link, Hort. Berol, i: 197 (iS27).§ 

^ ChondrosiaceaeJ Link, Hort. Berol. i: 269 (1827). 

Paspalaceae Link, Hort. Berol. i: 269 (1827). 

Melicaceae Link, Hort, Berol. i: 271 (1827). § 
; Zeaceae Reichb. Consp. 55 (1828), 

I Tripsaceae* Dumort. Anal. Fam. 64 (1829X. 

Rottboelliaceae Kunth, Gram. 150 (1830). 



1^ 



f 

i 



Anthistiriaceae Fresl, Reliq. Haenk. i: (1830). 
Vilfaceae:|: Trinius^ i-innaea, 10: 302 (1S35). 



I Sesleriaceae W. Koch, Synops 788 (1837). 

. Pappophoreaceae* Parlat. Fl. Palerm. i: 127 (1845). 

r 

SESSLERiACEAEf Fries, Summ. Veg. Scand. i: So (1846J, 
^ Agrostaceae* PfeifT. Nomencl. Bot. i: 85 (1S73). 



f- 



l 



Called Gramineae by Engler and Prantl, 

17. CYPERACEAE J, St. Hil Expos. Fam. i: 62 (1805). 

Elynaceae Reichb. Consp. 55 (1828). 
Scleriaceae Reichb. Consp. 56 (1828). 
Scirpace.\e Kerner, Fflanzenleb, 2 : 654 (1891). 

18. ARECACEAE Reichb. Consp. 72 (1828). 

Coryphaceae Reichb. Consp. 73 (1828), 
Nipaceae Brongn. Enum. Genr, 15 (1S43). 
Sabalaceae Schimp. Paleont, Veg. 2: 4S6 C1871). 
Phoenicaceae Schimp, Paleont. Veg, 2: 496 (1871), 



1 
7 



¥ 



8 



i 



BoRASSACEAE Schimp. Paleont. Veg. 2 : 499 (1871). 
Lepidocaryaceae Kerner, Fflanzenleb. 2: 649 (1891). 
CerOXYLONACEAE* Kernet, Fflanzenleb. 2: 649 (1891). 
Phytelephantaceae Kerner, Tflanzenleb. 2: '649 (1891). 
Called Palmae by Engler and Prantl. 

19. CYCLANTHACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 362 (1836). 

LuDOViACEAEDrude; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 2: part 3, 93 (1889). 

20. ARACEAE Neck. Act. Ac. Theod. Palat. 2: 462 (1770). 

Orontiaceae R. Brown, Prodr. i : 337 (18 10). 
PiSTiACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. i : 81 (1815). 
Callaceae Reichb. Consp. 44 (1828). 
AcoRACEAE Lindl Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 365 (1836). 
Colocasiaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 646 (1891). 
PlliLODENDRACEAE Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2; 646 (1891). 

Lasiaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2; 646 (1891V 
MONSTERACEAE Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 646 (1891). 
PoTHOiDACEAE* Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 646 (1891). 

21. LEMNACEAE Dumort. Fl. Belg, 147 (1S27). 

22. FLAGELLARIACEAE Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 20 (1858). 

23. KESTIONACEAE Hieron.; Engl. & Pn Nat, Pfl. 2: part 4, 3 (1888). 

Restiaceae* R. Brown, Prodr. l: 243 (1810). 

24. CENTROLEPIDACEAE Hieron. Abh. Nat. Ges. Plalle, 205 (1S73). 

Devauxiaceaej:^ Dumort. Anal. Earn. 62, 63 (1829), 
Desvauxiaceae;}: Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 386 (1836). 

25. MAVACACEAE Walp. Ann. Eot. 3 : 662 (1853). 

Mayaceae* Meisn. PI. Vase. Gen, 406, 407 (1842), 
2G. XYRTDACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 388 (1836). 

27. ERIOCAULACEAE Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 122 (1847). 

Eriocauloxaceae* OK, Rev. Gen. 745 (1891), 

28. RAPATEACEAE Dumort. Anal. Earn. 60, 62 (1829). 

29. BROMELIACEAE J. St. Hil. Expos. Earn, i: 122 (1805). 

30. COMMELINACEAE Reichb. Consp. 57 (1828). 

CoMMELYNACEAE-J- Endl. Gen. 124 (1837). 

31. PONTEDERIACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 59, 61 (1829). 

POXTEDERACEAE* Martius, Consp. 7 (1835). 
PoXTEDERAEACEAEf OK. Rev. Gen. 718 (1891). 

32. PHILYDRACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 357 (1836). 

Phylidraceaej Horan. Tetract. Nat. 22 (1843), 

33. JUNCACEAE (Vent.) Dumort. Comm. Bot. 66 (1S22). 

JoNCACEAEJ Vent. TabL 2: 150 (1799). 

34. STEMONACEAE Fr. & Sav. Enum. PL Jap. 2 : 92 (1879). 

Roxburgh lACEAE^ \Vallich, PL As. Rar. 3: 50 (1832). 

35. LILIACEAE Adans, Fam. PL 2: 42 (1763). 

Aluaceae Batsch, Gen. PL Jenens. 10, 30 (1786). 
TULIPACEAE Batsch, Gen. PL Jenens. 11, 30 (1786). 
Smilaceae* Vent TabL 2: 146 (1799). 
CoLCHlCACEAE DC. Fl. Fran?. 3: 192 (1S05). 



/ 



9 



Melanthaceae-^ R. Brown, Prodr. i : 272 (1810). 

AsPHODELiACEAE* S. F. Gray, Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 174 (182I). 

PHVLESlACEAEf Dumort. Anal. Fam. 53, 54 (1S29). 

ASTELIACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 59, 61 (1829). 

Xanthorhaeaceae-}- Dumort. Anal. Fam. 60, 62 (1S29). * 

Philesiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 97 (iS?9). 

Convallariaceae Link, Handb. i : 184 (1829). 

Dracaenaceae Link, Handb. l: 187 (1S29). 
Melanthiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1830). 
Trilliaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 347 (1836). 
Gilliesiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 348 (1836). 
KiNGiACEAE EndL Gen. 132 (1837). 
Laxmanniaceae Horan, Tetract. Nat. 23 (1S43). 
FuNKiACEAE-f- Horan. Tetract. Nat. 23 (1843). 
Asphodelaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 23 (1843). 
Haworthiaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 23 (1843). 
AsparaCxACeae Horan. Tetract. Nat, 23 (1843). 
Narthecxaceae Fries, Summ. Veg. Scand. i : 65 (1846). 
Lapageriaceae Kunth; AValp. Ann, Bot. 3: 646 (1853), 
HerreriaCEAe Kunth; Walp. Ann. Bot. 3: 646 (1853). 
Ophiopogonaceae Kunth; Walp. Ann. Bot. 3; 646 (1853). 
AspiDTSTRACEAE Kunth ; Walp. Ann. Bot. 3: 646 (1853).. 
Uvulariaceae Walp. Ann. Bot. Bot. 3 : 650 (1853). 
Phormiaceae Agardh. Theor. Syst. PI. 7 (1858). 

36. HAEMODORACEAE R. Brown, Prodr, i : 299 (1810). 

Haemadoraceaej- Reichb. Consp. 60 (1828). 

HEMODORACEAEf Dumort. Anal. Fam. 58 (1829), 
Wachendorfiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 61 (1829), • 

HoEMODORACEAEf A. Rich. Sett. Astrol. 80 (1834), 
7. LEUCOJACEAE Batsch, Gen. PI. Jenens. 10, 30 (1786). 

Alstroemeriaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 58 (1829). 
Campynemaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 58 (1829), 
Agaveaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam'. 58 (1S29). 
Amaryllidaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 328 (1S36), 
Pancratiaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 23 (1843). 
Hyypoxidaceae Lindh Veg. Kingd. 154 (1847). 

38. VELLOZIACEAE Drude, Phanerog. 3;^^ (1879). 

39. TACCACEAE Reichb. Consp. 44 (182S). 

40. TAMACEAE Gray, Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 189 (1821). 

Dioscoreaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 359 (1836). 
DioscoRiDACEAEf Kl. & Grcke. Bot. Erg. Wald. 42, 55 (1862). 
Stenomeridaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 666 (1891). 

41. IXIACEAE Ecklon, Verzeichn 18 (iS27).§ 

MoRAEACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 58 (1829). 
Iridaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 332 (1836). 

42. MUSACEAE J. St Hil. Expos. Fam, i : 15X (1805). 

T- 



10 



43- ALPINIACEAE Link. Enum. i : 228 (1821). 

r 

CuRCUMACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20, 25 (1829). 
ZiNGiBERACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 322 (1836). 
Amomaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 22 (1843), 

44- CANNACEAE Link, Enum. i: i (1821), 

45- MARANTACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (i8jo). 
46. BURMANNIACEAE Blume. Enum. PI. Jav. i : 27 (1S30). 

Thismiace-ae Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. 3: 615 (1858) ^ 

Arachnitaceae Philippi, Cat. PI. Vase. Chil. 278 (1881). 
47- ORCHIDACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 336 (1836). 

Vanii.laceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 341 (1836). 

Apostasiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 342 (1836). 

Limodoraceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 22 (1843). 

Neottiaceae Reichb. f. Poll. Orch. Gen. 9 (1852). 

Cohxiaceae;]: Reichb. f. Bot. Zeit. 929 (1852). 

Rodrigueziaceae Reichb. f. Bot. Zeit. 929 (1852), 

Chloraeaceae Reichb. f. Bot. Zeit. I (1853). 

Cypripediaceae K1. & Grcke. Bot. Erg. Wald. 33, 38 (1862;. 

Ophrydaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2 : 661 (1891). 

Epidendraceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 661 (1891). 

Vandaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2 : 661 (1891). 
48 SAURURACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 184 (1836) 
49. riPERACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. i : 46 (1815) 
50- CHLORANTHACEAE Blume, Enum. PI. Jav. i: 78 (1S30). 
5'. LACISTEMACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2. 183 (,8.6) 
52. CASUARINACEAE Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 249 (1S47). ' 

Casuaraceae* Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, iSi (1836) 
.33- JUGLANDACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, .80 (1836). 
54. MYRICACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 95 (,829) 
55- LEITNERL\CEAE Drude, Phanerog. 407 ( 1870) 
56. SALICACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2. 186 (,836). 
57- CORYLACEAE Mirbel, Elem. 2: 296 (.8,5). 

Eetulaceae Agardh, Aphor. 208 (1825) 

58. FAGACEAE Drude. Phanerog. 409 (1S79/ 

Castaneaceae Baill. Diet. Bot. i : 630 (1884?). 

59. ULMACEAE Mirbel. El^^m. 2 : 905 (1S15) 

Celtidaceae Walp. Ann. Bot. 3 : 394 ('18;^) 

60. ARTOCARPACEAE Horan. Tetract. Nat. 25 (,84^. 

Cannabinaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 265 (,847) 
Moraceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 266 (1847) 
Cannabaceae* a. Braun; Asch. Fl. Brand. 58 (1864) « 
Dorsteniaceae Kerner. Pflanzenleb. 2: 6S0 (1891) 
Conocephalaceae Kerner. Pflanzenleb. 2: 6S0 (iSon 



•\ 



61. URTICACEAE Reichb. Consp. 83 (1S28). 

Phenaceae* AVeddell, Ann. Sc. Nat Ser 4 i-itc ^iS-n 

62. PROTEACEAE J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. .T.^OSo /. ^''• 

PERSONlACEAEf Klotsch, Linnaea ao: 471 (1847).' 



11 



63. LORANTHACEAE D. Don. Prodr. FL Nepal. 142 (1825). 

ViscACEAE Miers, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (II.) 8: 179 (1851). 

64. MYZODENDRACEAE Hieron.; Engl. & Pr. Nat Pfl. 3 : part I, 198 (1S89). 

65. SANTALACEAE I^ Brown, Prodr. i : 350 (igio). , 

CanopiaceafJ Presl. Epimel. Bet. 608 (1850). 

66. GRUBBIACEAE Endl. Gen. 327 (1838). 

67. OLACACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2,32 (1S36). 

Olaceae* Benth. Trans. Linn. 18: 677 (1841), 
SCHOEPFiACEAE Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. i : 175 (1850), 
Aptandraceae Miers, Ann. & Mag. N. H. Ser. 2, 7 : 206 (1851). 
Olacinaceae* K1. & Grcke. Bot. Erg. Wald. 151 (1862). 

68. CYNOMORIACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 394 (1836). 

Balaxophoraceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 525 (1836). 
Lathraeophilaceae Leand. de Sacram, ; A. St. Hil. Ann. Sc. Nat Ser 2. 

7: 32(1837). 
LOPHOPHYTACEAE Horan. Tetract Nat 21 (1843). 

Sarcophytaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2; 708 (1891). 

SCYBALIACEAE Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2; 708(1891). 

69. ASARACEAE Link, Enum. 2: I (1822). 

Aristolochiaceae Blume, Enum. PL Jav. i : 81 (1830). 
Apamaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 700 (1891). 

70. RAFFLESIACEAE Dumort Anal, Earn. 13, 14 (1S29). 

Cytinaceae Lindl. Nat Syst Ed. 2, 392 (1836). 
Apodanthaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2 : 700 (1891). 

71. HYDNORACEAE Graf zu Solms, Bot Zeit 66 (i874).§ 

72. POLYGONACEAE Lindl. Nat Syst Ed. 2, 211 (1836). 

Eriogonaceae Walp. Ann. Bot 3: 297 (1S53). 

73. CIIENOPODIACEAE Dumort Anal. Fam.' 15, 17 (1829). 

CHENOPODEACEAEf Martius, Consp. 15 (1835). 
Salsolaceae Moq.-Tand.; DC. Prodr. 13: part 2,41 (1849). 
Atriplicaceae Simonkai, Enum. FI. Trans. 465 (1886). 

74. AMARANTACEAE (J. St Hil ) Martius, Nov. Act Ac. Leop. 13: part I, 2:5 

(1826). 
AMARANTHACEAEf J. St HiL Expos. Fam. 1 : 204 (1S05). 

75. BATIDACEAE Dammar; Engl. & Pr. Nat Pfl. 3: part la, iiS (1893). 

76. CYNOCRAMBxVCEAE Pouls.; Engl. & Pr. Nat Pfl. 3: part la, 121 (1893). 

ThelygonaceaeJ Caruel, Nuov. Giorn. Bot. It 5: 170 (1873). 

77. BASELLACEAE Moq.-Tand. Chenop. x (1840). 

78. PETIVERIACEAE Link, Handb. i : 392 (1829). 

RiviNiACEAEf Dumort Anal. Fam. 17 (1829). 
Petiveraceae* Lindl. Nix. PI. 16 (1833). 
Phytolaccaceae Lindl. Nat Syst Ed. 2, 210 (1836). 

79. ALLIONLVCEAE Reichb. Consp. 85 (1828). 

Nyctaginaceae* Lindl. Nat Syst. Ed. 2, 213 (1836). 

80. TETRAGOXIACEAE Reichb.; Moessl. Handb. i : 52 (1S27). 

Mesembryaceae* Lindl. Nat Syst Ed. 2, 56 (1836)- 
Sesuviaceae Horan. Tetract Nat 29 (1843). 



12 



AIZOACEAE A. Braun; Ascli. Fl. Brand. 60 (i864).§ 
Mesembrianthemaceae Lowe, Fl. Madeir. 306 (1868). 
MOLLUGINACEAE Rohrb.; Martius, Fl. Bras. 14: part 2, 228 (1872). 
Si. rORTULACACEAE Reichb. Consp. 161 (1828). 

PoRTULACEAE* Juss. Gen. 312 (1789), 

82. ALSINACEAE Wahlenb. Fl. Suec. 2: Ixxiv (1824). 

CORRIGIOLACEAE Reichb.; Moessl; Handb. i: 51 (1827). 
Stellariaceae Duinort. Fl. Belg. 106 (1827) 

i 

Queriaceae DC. Prodr. 3: 379 (1828). 
Caryophyllaceae;!: Reichb. Consp. 206 (1828). 
Telephiaceae Link, Handb. 2: 45 (1831). 
* Paronychiaceae Link, Ilandb. 2: 430 (1831). 
Silexaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 124 (1836). , , 

Tllecebraceae Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 127 (1836). 
Sclerantiiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 213 (1836). 
Malachiaceae;}: C. Koch, Linnaea, 15: 709 (1841). 
LoEFFLiNGiACEAEf Fzl.; Walp. Reptrt. 1; 263 (1843). 

83. NYMPHAEACEAE DC. Propr. Mul. Ed. 2, 119 (1816). 

NelumbiaceaeI Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 13 (1^36). 
Cabombaceae a. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 4: 46 (1S37). 
Euryalaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2; 699 (1891). 
Nupharaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 699 (1891). 

H I 

Barclayaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2; 699 (1891), 

84. CERATOPIIYLLACEAE A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 4: 41 (1837). 

85. MAGXOLIACEAE J. St. Ilil. Expos. Fam. 2: 74 (1S05). 

Schizandriaceae* G. Don, Gen. Syst. i : loi (1831). 
Schizandraceae Martius, Consp. 39 (1835). 
Winter aceae:)^ Lindl. Nat, Syst. Ed, 2, 17 (1836). 

86. LACTORIDACEAE Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 8; 53 (1887). 

87. TROCHODENDRACEAE Pranll; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3, part 2: 21 (1S91)- 

88. ANONACEAE DC. Syst. i: 463 (18183. 

ANNONACEAEf Link, Enum. 2.^ 87 (1822), 

89. MYRISTICACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 15 (1836). 

90. RANUNCULACEAE Juss. Gen. 231 (1789). 

PaeoniacEAe DC. Prodr. i : 64 (1824). 
Calthaceae Presl, Fl. Sicul. i : 20 (i826).§ 
PoEONiACEAEf Presl, Fl. Sicul. i : 26 (i826).§ 
Helleboraceae Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan, 7: 285 (1S39). 
Nigellaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst, PI. 76 (1858), 

91. LARDIZABALACEAE Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 203 (1847). 

92. PODOPHYLLACEAE DC. Prodr. i: in (1824). 

DiPHYLLEiACEAE Schiiltz, Nat. Syst. Pfl. 328 (1832). 
Bereeraceae* Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 7 (1S36). 

Berberidaceae Torr. & Gr. Fl. N, Am. i : 49 (1838)- 
Nandinaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat 30 (1843). 



J- 



13 



93. MENISPERMACEAE DC. Prodr. i: 95 (1824). 

94. CALYCANTHACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 159 (1836), 

95. MONIMIACEAE Dumort. Anal. Earn. 16 (1829). 

Atherospermaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 1S9 (1836). 
96 CASSYTHACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 16 (1829). 

Lauraceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 200 (1836). 
CASSYTACEAEf Horan. Tetract. Nat. 24 (1843). 
Terseaceae Horan. Telnet Nat. 25 (1S43). 
Litseaceae Benth. & Hook. Gen.* PI. 3: 149, 160 (1880). 

97. HERNAXDIACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 14. 16 (1S29). 

Illigeraceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed, 2, 202 (1S36). 
Gyrocarpaceae K1, & Grcke, Bot. Erg. Wald. 151 (1862). 

98. PAPAVERACEAE B. Juss. Hort. Trian. (1759). 

Fumariaceae DC. Syst. 2: 104 (1S21). 

99. BRASSICACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 58 (1836). 

Called Cruciferae by Engler and Prantl. 

100. TOVARIACEAE Pax; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3 : part 2, 207 (1891). 

101. CAPPARIDACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 61 (1836). 

CLEO>fEACEAE Horan. Tetract. Nat. 31 (1843). 

102. RESEDACEAE S. F. Gray, Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 665 (1821). 

AsTEROCARrACEAEf; Kemcr, Pflanzenleb. 2: 6SS (1S91). 
T03. MORINGACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 43, 48 (1S29). 
104. SARRACENIACEAE La Pylaie, Mem. Soc. Linn. Par. 6 : 379 (1827).? 
lOj. NEPENTHACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 204 (1836). 

106. DROSERACEAE S. F. Gray, Arr. Brit. PL 2: 664 (1821), 

DiONAEACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 14 (1836). 
DiONACEAE* Dumort. Bull. Ac. Brux. 4: 447 (1838). 

107. PODOSTEMACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 190 (1836). 

PuiLocREXACEAEj Bongard, Mem. Ac. St. Pet., Ser. 6, i : 72 (1835). 
Trtstichaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 673 (1891). 
Weddellinaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 673 (1891). 
IIydrostachydaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 673 (1891). 

108. SEDACEAE Neck. Act. Ac. Theod. Palat. 2 : 487 (1770). 

Crassulaceae DC. Fl. Frani;. 4: 382 (1805). 

109. CEPHALOTACEAE Lindl. Key (1835) § 
no. ESCALLONL\CEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 35, 37 (1829). 

Ribesiaceae* Reichb. Consp. 160 (1S28), 
Saxifragaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 36, 38 (1829). 
Hydrangeaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 36, 38 (1829). 
Grossulariaceae|: Dumort. Anal. Fam. 37, 42 (1829). 
Parnassiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 44, 49 (1829). 
Baueraceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1830). 
Brexiaceae Lindl Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1S30). 
Francoaceae A. Juss. Ann. So. Nat. 25 : 9 (1832). 
Philadelphaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst, Ed. 2, 47 (1836). 



14 



1 



RoussAEACEAEf DC. Prodr. 7, part 2: 521 (1839). 
PoLYosMACEAE Blume, Mus, BoL Lugd. i : 25S (1850). 
IXERBIACEAE Guseb. Grundr. Syst. Bot. 122 (1854), 
RoussEACEiAE (DC.) Griseb. Grundr. Syst. Bot. 123 (1854). 
ITEACEAE Agardh, Theof. Syst. PL 151 (1858). 
1 1 f. CUNONIACEAE R. Brown, Flind. Voy. App. 3, 548 (1814). 

1 1 2. MYROTHAMNACEAE Niedenzu ; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3 : part 2a, J.03 (1891) 

1 13. PITTOSPORACEAE Lindl. Nat Syst. Ed. 2, 31 (1836). . 1 

114. ALTINGIACEAE Hayne, Flora, i: 172 (1830). 

Ambraceae* Reichb. Consp. 113 (1828). 
HA^[AMELACEAE" Lindl. Nat, Syst. Ed. 2, 48 (1836). 

Parrotiaceae Horan, Tetract. Nat. 28 (1843). 
Hamamelidaceae Eindl. Veg. Kingd. 784 (1847). 
Amamelidaceae Pfeiff. Nomencl. Bot. i; 129 (1873). 

115. BRUXIACEAE R. Brown, Abel Journ. App. 374 (1818). 

116. PLATANACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 187 (1836). 

1 17. ROSACEAE B. Juss. Hort Trian. (1759). ' 

Agrimoniaceae DC. Fl, Franc;. 4: 448 (1805). 
Fragariaceae Nest. Potent. 14 (1816), 
Spiraeaceae Dumort. Comm. Bot. 59 (1822). 
POTENTILLACEAE IIBK. Nov. Gen. 6: 215 (1823). 
SriREACEAE^ D. Don. Prodr. FL NepaL 227 (1825). 
Hageniaceae Reichb. Consp. 145 (1828), 
Amygdalaceae Reichb. Consp. 177 (1828). 
Cliffortiaceae Dumort. AnaL Fam. 18 (1829). 
Chrysobalanaceae LindL Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 158 (1836). 
Sanguisorbaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 561 (1847). 
Neiluaceae Miquel, FL Ind. Bat. i : 390 (1855). 
Dryapaceae Frank; Leunis, Synops. Pfl. .2: 1 60 (1885). 
Poteriaceae Frank ; Leunis, Synops. Pfl. 2: 173 (1885). 
i;8. CONNARACEAE R. Brown, Exp. Cong. App. 5, 431 (1818)* 

119. CASSTACEAE Link, Handb. 2: 135 (1831). 

Fabaceae:}: Reichb. Consp. 149 (1828). 
Sophoraceae Link, Handb, 2: 143 (1831). 
MiMOSACEAE Reichb. FL Exc. 437 (1832). 
Viciaceae C. Koch, Linnaea 12: 727 (1841). 
CAESAtPiNiACEAE KL & Grcke. Bot. Erg. Wald. 157 (1862). 
Phaseolaceae Pfeiff. Nomencl. Bot. 2: 668 (1874), 
Called Leguminosae by Engler and PrantL 

120. GERAXIACEAE J. St. HiL Expos. Fam. 2: 51 (1805). ' 

Vivianiaceae Klotsch, Linnaea 10: 433 (1836). 
ViviANACEAEf Agardh, Theor. Syst. PL 203 (1858). 
Ledocarpaceae:|; KL & Grcke Bot. Erg. Wald. 121 (1862). 

121. OXALIDACEAE LindL Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 140 (1836). 

122. TROPAEOLACEAE Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 366 (1847). 



15 



123- LINACEAE Dumort. Comm. Bot. 6i (1822). 

HUGONiACEAE Am.; \Yight & Arn. Prodr. i: 71 (1834). 

124. HUMIRIACEAE A. Juss.; A. St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. 2 : 87 (1S29). 

125. ERYTHROXYLACEAE A, Rich. PL Vase. Cub. 254 (1842). 

126. MALPIGHIACEAE Vent. Tabl. 3: 131 (1799). 

HiRAEACEAE Griseb.; Martius, Fl. Bras. 12 : 3, 75 (,1858). 

127. NITRARIACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1S30). 

GuAiACEAE* Reichb, Consp. 200 (1S28), 
Zygophyllaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2. 133 (1836). 

128. CNEORACEAE Engler; Engl. & Pr. Nat Pfl. 3 : part 4, 93 (1890). 

129. RUTACEAE Juss. Gen. 296 (1789). 

Pteleaceae Kunth, Ann. Sc. Nai. 2: 354 (1S24). 
Xanthoxylaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 135 (1836). 
ZANTHOXYLACEAEf Meisn. PI. Vasc. Gen. 64 (1837). 
Correaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 229 (1858;. 
CiTRACEAE Drude, Phanerog. 391 (1879). 
BoRONiACEAE Kerncr, Pflanzenleb. 2: 676 (iSgi). 

130. SIMARUBACEAE DC. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2: 209 (1811). 

Surianaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 142 (1836). 
SiMABACEAE* Horan. Tetract. Nat. 31 (1843). 

131. BURSERACEAE Kunlh, Ann. Sc. Nat. 2: 346 (1824). 

Balsameaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 36,41 (1829). 
BURSERIACEAE* G. Don, Gen. Syst. 2: 79 (1832). 
Amyridackae Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 165 (1836). 

132. MELL\CEAE Vent Tabl. 3: 159 (1799). 

Cedrelaceae a. Juss. Mem. Mus. ig: 213, 247 (1830). 

133. TRIGOXIACEAE Marlius, Consp. 51 (1835), 

,134. V0CHYSL\CEAE Mart & Zucc, Nov. Gen. i : 123 (1S24'). 

Erismaceae Dumort Anal. Fam. 41 (1829). 
Vochyaceae* Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1830). 

135. TREMANDRACEAE Dumort Anal Fam. 43 (1829). 

136. POLYGALACEAE Reichb. Consp. 120 (1828). 

Krameriaceae Dumort Anal. Fam. 20, 23 (1829). 

137. CHAILLETL\CEAE DC. Prodr. 2: 57 (1S25). 

138. EUPHORBL\CEAE J. St Hil. Expos. Fam. 276 (1805). 

Ricinaceae Nor.; Dup.-Thouars, Veg. II Afr. 28 (1807). 
Huraceae Dumort Anal. Fam. 45 (1829)- 
Scepaceae Lindl. Nat Syst Ed. 2, 171 (1S36). 
Trewiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 174(1836). 
Stilaginaceae Lindb Nat Syst. Ed. 2, 179 (1836). 
Axtidesmaceae Horan, Tetract Nat 23 (1843). 

■ 

BEXNETTiACEAEf SchnizL Icon. /. 772 (1S43). 
Bertyaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. PL 190 (1S5S). 
Peraceae Klotsch, Tricocc. 12 (i860) § 
AcAtYPHACEAE Klotsch, Tricocc. 12 (i86o).8 



^4 



16 






rY 



Phyllanthaceae Klotsch, Tricocc. 12 (i860). 
Daphxiphyllaceae Muell.-Arg.; DC. Prodr, 16; part i, i (18691. 
Tithymalaceae;): Kerner, Pflanzenleb, 2 : 674 (1891), 

139. CALLITRICHACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 191 (1836). 

Stellariaceae;}: Mac M. Metasp. Minn. Val. 344 (1892), 

140. EMPETRACEAE Dumort, Fl. Belg. 106 (1827) § 

141. CORIARIACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam 87 (1829). 

142. BUXACEAE Dumort. Comm. Eot. 54 (1822), 

143. LIMXANTHACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 142 (1836). 

144. SPONDIACEAE Kunth, Ann. Sc. Nat. 2; 362 (1824). 

TEREBINTACE.AEf^ JuSS. Gen. 368 (I789). 

Terebinthaceae:]: DC. Fl. Frang. 4 : 613 (1805). 
Anacardiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. i (1830). 

145. CYRILLACEAE Lindl, Veg. Kingd. 445 (1847). 

146. ILICACEAE Lowe, Fl. Madeir. 2: n (1868). 

Aquifoliaceae;): DC. Prodr. 2: 11 (1825). : 

147. CELASTRACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 119 (1836). 

148. niPPOCRATEACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. 5: 136 (1821). 

149. STACKHOUSIACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 118 (1836). 

150. ICACINACEAE Miers, Ann. & Mag. N. H. Ser. 2, 9: 218 (1852), 

PhytocFvEnaceae Miers; Lindl. Veg. Kingd. Ed. 3, 271a (1853). j 

Barreriaceae:}: Martius, Consp. 41 (1835). 

151. SfAPHVLEACEAE DC. Prodr. 2: 2 (1825). 

Staph ylaceae* Reichb. Consp. 200 (1828). 
Ochrantiiaceae;}: Lindl Nat Syst. Ed. 2, 78 (1836). 

152. ACERACEAE J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. 2: 15 (1805). 

Acerinaceae* K1. & Grcke. Bot. Erg. Wald. 124 (1862). 

153. AESCULACEAE Lindl; Orb. Diet, i : 155 (i84[). 

Called Hippocastanaceae by Engler and Pranll. 

154. SAPINDACEAE R. Brown, Exp. Congo, App. 5, 427 (i8i8)- 

Pauluniace^ve HBK, Nov. Gen. 5 : 99 (1821). 
Dodonaeaceae HBK. Nov. Gen. 5 : 130 (1821). 

155. MELIAXTHACEAE Endl. Gen. Supp. 5: 80 (1850). 

156. IMPATIENTACEAE (nofti. nov.). 

BalsamixaceaeJ Dumort. Anal. Fam. 46 (1829). 

157. SABIACEAE Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. i : 368 (1851). 

MiLLiNGTONiACEAE^ Wight & Arn. Prodr. i : 115 (1834). 

\VELLiNGTOxiACEAEff Meisn. Pi. Vase. Gen. Comm. 207 (1840). 
irS. FRANGULACEAE DC. Fl. Fran<;. 4: 619 (1S05). 

Rhamneaceae* D; Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 188 (1825). 

Rhamnaceae Dumort. Fl Belg. 102 (1827). § 

Gouaniaceae Reichb. Consp. 145 (1828). 

Phylicaceae Agardh. Theor. Syst. PI. 186 (1858). 
159. "UEEACEAE DC. Prodr. x : 635 (1824). 

Vitaceae Lindl Nat. Svst. Ed. 2. 10 ri8:!6^. 



17 



i6o. ARISTOTELIACAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 37. 41 (1829), 

Elaeocarpaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 97 (1836). 
i6t. TILIACEAE Juss. Gen. 289 (1789). 

Sparmanniaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 260 (1S58). 

162. MALVACEAE Neck. Act. Ac. Theod. Palat. 2: 488 (1770). 

GoETHEACEAE Reichb. Consp. 204 (1828). 
Sidaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 46 (1829). 
Malvaviscaceae Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2: I, 135 (1831). 
Gossypiaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 68i (189 1). 

163. BOMBACACEAE Schum.; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3: part 6, 53 (1890). 

BoMBACEAE* HBK. Nov. Gen. 5: 294 (1821). 

164. BUETTNERIACEAE (R. Brown) IIBK. Nov. Gen. 5: 309 (1821). 

BUTTNERlACEAEf R. Brown, Flind. Voy. App. 3, 540 (1814). 
Sterculiaceae IIBK. Nov. Gen. 5: 310 (1821). 
Hermanniaceae'HBK. Nov. Gen. 5: 312 (1821). 
DoMBEYACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. 5: 313 (1821). 
BYTTNERlACEAEf DC Prodr. i: 4S1 (1824V 
BuETTNERACEAE* Trattin. Gen. Nov, (1825). 
Triphaceae*:}: Reiohb. Handb. 291 (1837). 

165. DILLENIACEAE R. Brown, Flind. Voy. App. 3, 541 (1814). 

Delimaceae:J: DC. Syst. i : 396, 397 (1818). 

166. EUCRYPHIACEAE Gay, Bot. Zeit. 6 : 130 C1S4S). 

167. OCHNACEAE DC. Ann. Mus. 17 : 410 (1811;. 

Ochneaceae* D. Don, Prodr. FI. Nepal. 224 (1825). 
Sauvagesiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 44, 49, (1829). 

168. CARYOCARACEAE Szysz.; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3: part 6, 153 (1893) 

RhizobolaceaeJ: Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 76 (1836). 

169. MARCGRAVIACEAE Choisy ; DC. Prodr. i: 565 (1824). 

Margraviaceae-j- Dumort. Anal. Fam, 43 (1829). 
Marcgraaviaceae-j- Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1830). 
Noranteaceae Martius, Consp. 61 (1835). 

170. QUIINACEAE Engler; Martius, Fl. Bras. 12, i: 477 (i888> 



/. 



Quiineaceae* Choisy, Descr. Gutt. Ind. 12 ( ). 

171. SCHIZOCHLAENACEAE (nom. nov.). 

Called Chlaenaceae by Engler and Pranll. 

172. THEACEAE DC Prodr. i : 529 (1824). 

Ternstroemiaceae:}^ R. Brown, Abel Journ. App. 378 (1818). 
Laplaceae*^ DC Prodr. i: 526 (1S24). 
Ternstromiaceaej:}: Agardh, CI. PI. 18 (1825). 
Camelliaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 43, 47 (1829). 

173. STACHYURACEAE Gilg; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3 : part 6, 192 (1893). 

174. SYMPHONIACEAE Presl, Symb. Bot. i : 71 (1832). 

Clusiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 74 (1836). 
Hyfericaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 77 (1836). 
Cambogeaceae*^ Horan. Tetract. Nat. 32 (1843). 



18 



f 



Called GuTTiFERAE by Engler and PrantL 

175. SHOREACEAE Roxb.; Wall. Catal. n. 4405 (1832). 

DiPTERACEAE* Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 98 (1836). 
' LoriiiRACEAE Endl. Gen. 1014 (1840). 

DiPTEROCARPACEAE EicW. Blucthendiagr. 2: 262 (1878). 

176. ELATINACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 88 (1836). 

177. FOUQUIERACEAE DC. Prodr. 3: 349 (1828). 

FOUQUIERIACEAE* Dumort Anal. Earn 27 (1829). 
Reaumuriaceae G. Don, Gen. Syst. 3: 155 (1S34). 
Tamaricaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 126 (1836). 
Tamariscaceaej- Lowe, El, I^Iadeir. 46 (1868) 

178. FRANKENIACEAE S. F. Gray, Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 663 (1821). 

179. CISTACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 91 (1836). 
iSo. BIXACEAE Reichb. Consp. 190 (182S). 

181. CANELLACEAE Martins, Nov. Gen. 3: i63 (1S29): 

182. VIOLACEAE DC. EI. Fran?. 4 : Soi (1805). 

Leoneaceae^ A. DC. Prodr. 8 : 668 (1844). , 

Leoniaceae (A. DC.) Agardh, Theor. Syst. PL 142 (1858). 

183. SAMYDACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 16, iS (1829). 

Paropsiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 37, 42 (1829). 

F 

Flacurtiaceae-j- Dumort. Anal. Fam. 44, 49 (1829). 
Flacourtiaceae (Dumort.) Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1830). 
Ktggelariaceae Link, Handb. 2 : 221 (1831). 

Blackwelliaceae:|; Schultz, Nat. Syst. Pfl. 444 (1832). 
Patrisiaceae Martius, Consp. 58 (1835). 
Homaliaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 55 (1836). 
Pangiaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 70 (1836). 

184. TURNERACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. G : 123 (1823). 

185. MALESHERBIACEAE D. Don, Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. 2: 320, 321 (1827). 

186. PASSIFLORACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 37,42 (1829). 

Modeccaceae:|: Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 386 (1858). 

187. CARICACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 37, 42 (1829). 

PapayaceaeJ Blume, Batav. Cour. (1823). 

188. LOASACEAE Reichb. Consp. 160 (1S28). 

Cevalli.\ceae Griseh. Grundr. Syst. Bot 136 (1854). 
1S9. BEGOOTACEAE R. Brown, Exp. Cong. App. 5, 464 ( 1818). 

190. DATISCACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 13, 14 (1829). 

191. OPUNTIACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. 6: 64 (1823). 

Cactaceae:J: Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 53 (1836). 
PERESKiACEAEf Salm-Dyck, Otto & Dietr. Gartenz. 61 (1840). § 
Leuchtenbergiaceae Salm-Dyck^ Otto's Gartenz. 188 (1854) % 

192. GEISSOLOMACEAE Sonder, Linnoea 23: 105 (1850). 
193 PENAEACEAE Sweet, Hort. Brit. 4S8 (1826). 
194. OLINIACEAE Presl, Abh. Eoehm. Ges. Folge 5, 3: 467 (1845). 

Olinaceae* K1. & Grcke. Bot, Erg. Wald. 152 1^1862). 



19 



In 

I 



':. 



*■ 



r 



^J 



195- DAPHNACEAE J, St. Hil. Expos. Fam. i : i8o (1805). 

THYMELEACEAEf Reichb. Consp. 82 (1828). 
Aquilariaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 15, 18 (1829). 
Thymelaceae* LindU Nat. Syst. Ed. i (i83o).§ 
Thymelaeaceae (Reichb.) Reichb. Fl. Exc. 164 (1831). 

196. ELAEAGNACEAE Lindl Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 194 (1836). 

197. LYTHRACEAE Lindl Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 100 (1836). 

Lythrariaceae* Dumort. Anal. Fam. 36, 39 (1829). 
Ammanxiaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 29 (1843). 
• Cupheaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 698 (1891)^ 
Lagerstroemiaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 698 (1891). 

198. HENSLOWIACEAE (Lindl.) Martius, Consp. 14 (1835). 

Hensloviaceae-j- Lindl. Bot. Reg. 20: /. 1686 (1834). 

Crypteroxiaceae a. DC. Prodr. 16, part 2 : 677 (1868). 

Blattiaceae Niedenzu; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3 : part 7, 16 (1892). 
199- PUNICACEAE Horan. Tetract. Nat. 30 (1843). 
200. NAPOLEONACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 28, 29 (1829). 

BelvisiaceaeJ Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1830). 

Lecytiiidaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 523 (1836). 

Barringtontaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 754 (1847). 
261. RHIZOPHORACFAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 40 (1836). 

202. MYRTACEAE R. Brown, Flind. Voy. App. 3, 546 (1814). 

Myrteaceae* Nees, Nov, Act. Leop. 11, i: 113 (1823). 
Chamaelauciaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 721 (1847). 
Leptospermaceae Kerner, pflanzenleb. 2: 691 (1891). 

203. TERMINALIACEAE J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. i : 178 (1S05). 

Combretaceae R. Brown, Prodr. i : 351 (1810). 

204. BLAKEACEAE Reichb. Consp. 174 (182S). 

Melastomaceae^ R. Brown, Exp. Cong. App. 5, 434 ('r8i8), 
Rhexiaceae Martius, Consp. 64 (1835). 
Memecylaceae* Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 40 (1836). 
Mouririaceae Gardn. Hook. Journ. Bot 2: 22 (1840). 
MicONiACEAE^ C. Koch, Berl. Gartenz. 241 (iS57).§ 
Melastomataceae Krasser; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 3: part 7, 130 (1893). 
Charianthaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 697 (1891), 

205. EPILOBL\CEAE DC. Prodr. 3: 35 (i82j^). 

Oxagraceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 36, 39 (1829). 
FucHsiACEAE Dumort. Anal Fam. 39 (1829). 
Circaeaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. i (1830). 
JussiEUACEAE Drude, Phanerog. 385 (1S79). 
Oenotheraceae Drude, Phanerog. 385 (1879). 

206. TRAPACEAE Dumort. FI. Belg. 90 (1827).% 

Called Hydrocaryaceae by Engler and Prantl. 

207. GUxXNERACEAE Endl. Gen. 285 (1837). 

Haloragaceae*! Horan. Tetract. Nat. 25 (1843). 
Halorrhagidaceae K1. & Grcke. Bot. Erg. Wald. 151 (1852). 
Hippuridaceae Sag. & Schn. Fl. Carp. Cent. 2 : 23, 468 (1891). 



20 



2o8. HEDERACEAE Linn. Ord. Nat. (1764). 

Akaliaceae Vent. Tabl. 3: 2 (1799)- 
Panaceae* Reichb. Consp 144 (1828). 
Helwingiaceae Morren & Dec. Bull. Ac. Brux. 169 (1836). 
HELViNGiACEAEf Agardh, Theor. Syst. VI 310 (1858). 
209. AMMIACEAE Presl. Delic. Prag. i (i822).S 
. SiLERACEAE Presl, Delic Prag. i (!822).§ 
BOLACEAE* Reichb.; Moessl. Handb. i: 45 (1827). 
Apiaceae Lindl. Nat, Syst. Ed. 2, 21 (i8j6). 
Called Umbelliferae by Engler and Prantl. 

210. NYSSACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 13 (1829). 

CoRNACEAE Link, Handb. 2 ; 2 (1831). 
Garryaceae Lindl. Bot. Reg. 20: /. 1686 (1834). 
Aeangiaceae Lindl Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 39 ( 1836). 
AUCUBACEAE Agardh, Theor. Syst. PL 303 (1858). 

211. CLETHRACEAE Klotzsch, Linnaea, 24: i- (1851). 

212. PIROLACEAE (Agardli) Drude; Engl. & Pr. Nit. Pfl. 4» V^^^ ^ ' 3 (l«^9)' 

PvROLACEAEf Agardh, CI. PI. 18 (1825). 

MoNOTROFACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 219 (1836). 

Pyroleaceae*! Brongn. Enum. Gen, 72 (1843). 

HypopityaceaeJ K1. & Grcke. Bot. Erg. Wald. 99 (1862). I 

213. LENXOACEAE Solms-Laub. Abh. Nat. Gas. Ilalle, 11: 174 ( 1S70). 

214. ERICACEAE DC. Fl, Frang. 3: 675 (1805). 

Rhodoraceae:}: Vent. Tabl. 2 : 449 (1799). 
Vaccinaceae* LindL Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 221 (1836). 
Vacctniaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 757 (1847). 
Menziesiaceae Klotzsch, Linnasa 24: 11 (1851). 
Siphonandraceae Klotzsch, Linncea, 24 : 11, 13 (1851). 

Arbutaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2 : 671 (1891). 
OXYCOCCACEAEf Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 713 (1891). 
215. STYPHELIACEAE Reichb. Consp. 127 (1828). 



RiCHEACEAE Reichb. Consp. 128 (1828). 
Sprengeliaceae Reichb. Consp, 128 (1828). 
LvsiNEMACEAE Reichb. Consp. 128 (1S28). 
Epacridaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 222 (1836). 
216. DIAPEXSLVCEAE Link, Handb. i: 595 (1829). 

Galaceae* DC. Prodr. 7, part 2: 776 (1839). 
217'. ARDISLACEAE Juss. Ann. Mus. 15: 350 (1810). 

Theophrasteaceae* D. Don; Lindl. Bot. Reg. 21: f. 1764 (1835) 
Myrsinaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 224 (1836). 
Myrsineaceae G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 7 (1837). 
Aegiceraceae* a. DC. Prodr. 8 : 141 (1844). 
2x8. PRIMULACEAE Vent. Tabl. 2: 285 (1799). 

Lysimachiaceae Reichb. Consp. 127 (1828). 
Androsaceae* Reichb. Consp. 128 (1828). 
Hottoniaceae Reichb. Fl. Exc. 398 (1831). 
219. ARMERL\CEAE Dumort, Comm. Bot. 61 (1822). 



21 



b 



Plumbagixaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 269 (1836). 
Staticaceae Trautv. Bull. Ac. Pet. 14 : 250 (1856). 

220. BUMELIACEAE (nom. nov.) 

Sapotaceae:}: Reichb. Consp. 135 (1828). 

221. DIOSPYRACEAE Drude, Phanerog. 377 (1879). 

Ebexaceae;}: Vent. Tabl. 2: 443 (1779). 

222. SYMPLOCACEAE Miers; Lindl. Veg. Kingd. Ed. 3, 593 (1853). 

223. HALESIACEAE Link, Hanbd. i: 667 (1829). 

Styraceae* Reichb.; Moessl. Hanbd. i ; xlii (i827).§ 
Styracaceae a. DC. Prodr. 8: 244 (1844). 

224. OLEACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst, Ed. i (1830), 

Lieaceae Vent. Tabl, 2: 306 (1799). 
Jasminaceae Lindl. Nat Syst. Ed, 2, 308 (1836). 
BOLIVARIACEAE Griseb. Gentian. 20 (i836).§ 
Jasmineaceae* G. Don, Gen, Syst. 4 : 58 (1837). 
Syringaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat, 27 (1843). 

225. SALVADOR ACE AE Lindl, Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 269 (1836). 

AziMACEAE Wight & Gardn. Calcutta Journ. 6: 52 (i845).g 

226. SPIGELIACEAE Martins, Nov. Gen. 2. 2: 132 (1827). 
.^ Strychneaceae* Blume, Bijdr. n. 16: 1018 (1826). g 

LOGANIACEAE Duniort. Anal. Fam. 21, 26 (1829). 
POTALIACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 21, 26 (1829). 
Strychnaceae Link, Handb. i: 439 (1829). 
Fagraeaceae Meisn PI. Vase. Gen. 167 (1839). 

227. GENTIANACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20. 25 (1829). 

Menyanthaceae G. Don, Gen. Syst 4; 167 (1837). 
Erythraeaceae Griseb. Gen. et Sp. Gent. 69 (i839).§ 
Chiron I aceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 27 (1843). 
Exaceae* Benth. & Hook. Gen. PL 2: 800 (1876). 

228. APOCYNACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst, Ed. 2. 299 (1836). 

Vincaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 27 (1843). 

229. STAPELIACEAE Feichb.; Moessl. Handb. i: 40 (1827). § 

Asclepiadaceae Lindl, Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 302 (1836). 
HoYACEAE G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 107 (1837). i 

230. CONVOLVULACEAE Vent. Tabl, 2: 394 (1799)- 

DiCHONDRACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam, 20, 24 (1829). 
CuscuTACEAE Dumort. Anal, Fam. 20, 25 (1829). 
PoRANACBAE Agardh. Theor. Syst, PL 364 (1S58), 

231. POLEMONIACEAE DC Fl. Fran?. 3: 645 (1805). 

POLEMONACEAE * Vent. Tabl. 2 : 398 (1799). 
CoBEACEAEf D, Don, Edinb. Phil. Journ. 10: HI (1824). 
COBAEACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20 (1829). 

232. HYDROLEACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. 3: 125 (1818). 

HYDROLAEACEAEf Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20, 25 (1829}. 
ROMAXZOVIACEAEJ Dumort. Anal. Fam. 26 (1829). 
Hydrophyllaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 271 (1836). 
253, EHRETIACEAE Schrad. Diss. Asperif. 20 (i82o).§ 






22 



* 






CoRDiACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20," 25 (1829). 
BoRAGiNACEAEf Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 274 (1836). 
Onosmaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 28 (1843). 
BoRRAr.iNACEAE (Lindl.) A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 319 (1856). 

234. VERBENACEAE J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. i: 245 (1805). 

Verbaceae* Link, Enum. 1 : 174 (1821). 
Stilbaceae Lindl, Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 280 (1836), 
Phrymaceae Schauer; DC. Prodr. 1:1 : 520 (1847). 
Durantaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 295 (1858). 

F 

Petraeaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 364 (1858). 

235. LAMIACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 275 (1836). 

Nepetaceae Horan. Tetract. Nat. 28 (1843). 
Salviaceae Drude, Phanerog. 374 (1879), 

w 

Called Labtatae by Engler and Prantl. 

236. NOLANACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20, 24 (1829). 

237. SOLANACEAE Pers Ench. i : 214 (1805). 

Retziaceae Bartl. Ord, Nat. 192 (1830;. 
Cestraceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 296 (1836). 
Sclerophylaceae* Miers. Lond. Journ. Bot. 7: 57 (1848). 
Atropaceae Miers, Ann. & Mag. N. H. Ser. 2, 3 : 163 (1849). 

238. RHINANTHACEAEJ. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. i: 227 (1805). 

Melampyraceae Dumort. Fl. Belg. 32 (i827).§ 
Linderniaceae Reichb. Consp. 123 (1828^. 
Caprartaceae Reichb. Consp. 124 (1828). 
Halleriaceae Link, Handb. i: 506 (1829). 
Scopariaceae Link, Handb. i: 822 (1829). 
Aragoaceae D. Don, Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. 19; 113 (1835). 
Sibthorpiaceae D. Don, Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. 19: 114 (1835). 
Selaginaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst, Ed. 2, 279 (1836). 
Scrophulariaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 288 (1836), 
Scrofulariaceae-|- Horan. Tetract. Nat. 27 (1843), 
Veronicaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. Pi. 392 (1858). 
Erinaceae Pfeiff. Nomencl. Bot, i : 1236 (1874). 

239. PINGUICULACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 19, 23 (1829). 

Utriculariaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 19, 23 (1829). 
LentibulariaceaeI Lindk Veg. Kingd. 686 (1847). 

240. OROBANCHACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 287 (1836). 

Lathraeaceae W^lp. Ann. Bot. 3: 204 (1853). ^* 

241. CYRTANDRACEAE Jack, Linn. Trans. 14, i : 23 (1823). 

GESSNERiACEAEf Nees, Ann. So. Nat. 6: 295 (1825). 



Gesneriaceae (Nees) Dumort Anal. Fam. 28, 30 (1829). 
Gesneraceae* Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 283, 286 (1836). 
Ramondiaceae Gren. & Godr. Fl. Franc. 2; 506 (1850.) 
COLUMELLIACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. I (1830). 

243. BIGNONIACEAE Pers. Ench. 2: 168 (1807) 

Crescentiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam, 20, 24 (1829). 

244. MARTVNIACEAE Link, Handb. i; 504 (1829). 




7^" 



23 



Pedaliaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 2S1 (1836). 

Sesamaceae Drude, Phanerog. 373 (1879). 

245. GLOBULARIACEAE Dumort. Ami. Fam. 19, 21 (1829). 

Globulaceae* Dumort. Comm. Bot. 55 (1822). 

246. ACANTHACEAE J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. i : 236 (1S65). 

247. MYOPORACEAE Lbdl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 279 (1836). 

BoNTiACEAE Horan. Tetract. Nat. 27 (1S43). 

248. PLANTAGINACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 267 (1836). 

249. RUBIACEAE B. Juss. Hon. Trian. (1759). 

CoFFEACEAE Batsch, Tab. Affin. 233 (i8o2).§ 
CiNCHONACEAE DC. Ann. Mus. 9: 217 (1807). 
GuETTARDACEAE DC. Ann, Mus. 9: 2x7 (1807). 
Gardeniaceae HBK. Nov, Gen. 3: 407 (1818). 
Hameliaceae HBK. Nov. Gen. 3 : 413 (1S18). 
Psychotriaceae Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 4: 4 (1829). 
Operculariaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 29, 32 (1829). 
Lygodysodeaceaej-:}: Bartl. Ord. Nat, 123, 207 (1830), 
Lygodysiaceae*! J Martins, Consp. 31 (1835). 
Gauaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 249 (1836). 
Naucleaceae Meisn. PI. Vase. Gen. 157 (1S3S). 
MORINDACEAE Schimp. Paleont. Veg. 2: 874 (1S72). 

250. VIBURNACEAE Dumort. Comm. Bot. 56 (1822). 

Caprifoliaceae:(; Vent. Tabl. 2: 593 (1799). 

LiNNEACEAEf Dumort. Fl. Belg. 55 (iS27).g 

Linxaeaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 33 (1829). 

LONICERACEAE Drude, Phanerog. 370 (1S79). 

Sambucaceae Kerner, Pflanzenleb. 2: 711 (1S91). * 

251. ADOXACEAE Fritsch; Engl. & Pr. Nat. Pfl. 4, part 4: 170 (1891). 

252. VALERIANACEAE Batscli, Tab. Affin. 227 (i8o2).g 

253. MORINACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 32 (1S29), 

■m 

Dipsaceae* B. Juss. Hort. Trian. (1759). 
DiPSACACEAE Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 699 (1S47). 

254. CUCURBITACEAE B. Juss. Hort Trian. (1759). 

Zaxoniaceae Blume, Bijdr. 15 : 936 (1826). 
Zannoxiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 103 (1829). 

255. CAMPANULACEAE Juss. Gen. 163 (17S9). 

Lobeliaceae Dumort. Comm. Bot. 57 (1822). 
Sphenocleaceae Martins, Consp. 31 (1835). 
Delisseaceae PresI, Prodr. Mon. Lobel. 46 (1836). 
Cyphiaceae A. DC. Prodr. 7, part 2 : 497 ( 1S39). 
Nemacladaceae Nutt Amer. Phil. Trans. N. Ser. 8: 254 (^843). 
Cyphocarpaceae Miers, Lond. Journ. Bot. 7 : 6x (1S4S). 

256. BRUNONIACEAE Reichb. Consp. 91 (1828). 

Goodeniaceae Dumort. Anal, Fam. 28, 30 (1829). 
Scaevolaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 242 (1836). 
GooDENOUGHiACEAEf bchum.; Martius, Fh Bras. 3, part 3 : 161 (1894). 

257. CANDOLLEACEAE Schoenl.; Engl. & Pr. Nat Pfl. 4, part 5 : 79 (1889). 



i 

i 



24 



% 



Stylidiaceae :): Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed, 2, 240 (1836). 

258. CALYCERACEAE Lirdl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 251 (1836). 

259. CARDUACEAE Neck. Act. Ac. Theod. Palat. 2 : 465 (1770). 

CiCHORACEAE* B. Juss. Hort. Trian. (1759). 
CHiC0RACEAE*f Neck. Act. Ac. Theod. Palat. 2: 463 (1770). 
GUNDELIACEAE DC Ann. Mus. 16: 153 (1810). 
Vernoniaceae HBK, Nov. Gen. 4: 39 (1820), 
Inulaceae Presl, Delic. Prag. i (1822). 

Jacobaceae*:j: Dumort. Fl. Belg. 65 (1827). 

Grindeliaceae Reichb, Consp. 107 (1828). 

Psiadiaceae Reichb. Consp. 107 (1828). 

Calendulaceae Reichb. Consp. 1x2 (1828). 

Ambrosiaceae Reichb. Consp. ii2 (1828). 

IVACEAE Reichb, Consp. 112 (1828), 

Cynaraceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 32 (1829). 

Acarnaceae^ Link, Handb. x : 684 (1829). 

Eupatoriaceae Link, Handb. i : 729 (1829). 

Partiieniaceae Link, Handb. i : 816 (1829). 

Hieraceae* D. Don, Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. 6 : 306 (1829). 

Taraxaceae* D. Don, Edinb. N, Phil. Journ. 6: 307 (1829). 

CicHORiACEAE Reichb. El. Exc. 248 (1831), 

MuTisiACEAE Lessing, Syn. Compos. 92 (1832). ' - 

Nassauviaceae Lessing, Syn. Compos. 396 (1832). 

Asteraceae Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 251, 253 (1836). 

NASSAViACEAEf Endl. Gen. Suppl. i: 1386 (1841). 

Evaceae* Schultz-Bip.; Walp. Repert. 2: 955 (1843V m 

Cassiniaceae Schultz-Bip. Flora, 1 : 129(1852). « 

Centaureaceae Pfeiff. Nomencl. Bot. i ; 646 (1873). 

Helianthaceae Pfeiff. NomencL Bot. i : 1579 (1874). 

Lactucaceae Drude, Phanerog. 369 (1879). 

Called Compositae by Engler and Prantl. 




NOTES ON A FEW OF THESE NAMES. 

F 

15. ELODEACEAE. Elodea Michx. is known as Udora Nutt. Hence this family 

bocomes VALLISNERIACEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 54, 55 (1829). 

94. CALYCANTHACEAE. Calycanthus L. should be called Buettneria Duham. 

(see Kearney, Bull. Torn Club, 21 : 173). As this family contains but one 
genus, it must be called BUETTNERIACEAE (nom. nov.). 

164. BUETTNERIACEAE, The name Buettneria Loefl. being no longer tenable, 

this family should be called STERCULIACEAE HBK. Nov. Gen. 5: 310 
(1821). 




m 



25 



A Revision of the North American species of the genus Cracca. 

By Anna Murray Vail. 

The genus Cracca was established by Linnaeus first In Fl. Zey. 
139-141 (1747) and then in Sp. PI. 752 (1753), the genus being 
based on Cracca Virginiana. In the Sp. PL Ed. 2, 1062 (1763) 
it was Galega Virginiana^ and after that the synonymy becomes 
more and more compHcated and names for the genus appeared in 
quick succession among which are: Co It nil Addons. 1763; Need- 
hamia Scop. 1777; Brissoiiia Neck. 1790; Rcincra Moench, 1802; 
and finally Tephrosia Pers. 1807, under which all the Linnaean 
species oi Cracca have been described until 1891, when Kuntze in 
Rev. Gen, PI. 173 transferred them all to the original generic title. 

Bentham in Oerst. Kjoeb, Vidensk. Meddel, 8(1853) estab- 
lished a genus Cracca based on a West Indian species, Galega 
Caribaea, Jacq. Am. 212, t. 12^ (1781). The six known spe- 
cies of which genus have been transferred by Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 
164 to the genus Brittonamra. 

Bentham and Hooker in 1867 gave the number of the spe- 
cies of Tephrosia as 90, of which some 16 are ascribed to 
Africa and America. Taubert, in Engler & Prantl Nat. Pfl. part 
loi : 269 (1894), gives 120 as the total of species, ascribing 
i^"^ to America. The following revision is an attempt to 
clearly describe especially the rather difficult Southern State spe- 
cies. As far as is known twelve species are native within the 
boundaries of the United States and two C purpurea and C cinerea 
are cosmopolitan plants, the latter known in North America only 
from l^allast ground in Alabama. The Mexican and tropical 
American species are as yet imperfectly known and are more 

numerous than it is supposed.* 

The genus is accepted as described by Bentham and Hooker, 

under Tephrosia. 



* The following species appears to be undescribed : 

±1 

^racca Schottii n. sp. 

Perennial from a somewhat woody base, more or less cinereous or silver>--strigdse 
throughout. Stems branching, angled, 3 dm. or more high, erect or decumbent, sti- 
pules 4.7 mm. long, subulate, persisting; petioles 1-25 cm. long; leaves 4-7 cm. 
long, obovate-oblong in outline; leaflets 5-7, obovate or obovate-oblong, 1-2.5 ^^^ 
long, 5-15 mm. wide, retuse, minutely apiculate, strigillose above, silvery or cmereous- 



i-^ - V-«Ji^ 



26 



4- 



C. Lindheiineri. 



A\ 



Flowers fascicled or more or less remote, forming a soraewliat spicate long-peduncled 
inflorescence. 

Stems erect, pilose with mostly spreafling rusty hairs; leaflets 9-25 cuneate- 

oblong 5' ^' onobrychoides. 

Stems decumbent or ascending, pilose with reflexed or spreading rusty hairs; 
leaflets 5-15, oval or oblong, or in the variety linear-oblong. . . 6. C. spicata. 
Flowers scattered, single or geminate, forming a slender, elongated, spicate inflor- 
escence, much exceeding the leaves 7. C purpurea. 

Flowers single or geminate, scattered at the summit of slender ancipital peduncles, 
mostly exceeding the leaves (often shorter in C a^nhigua) ; flowers white, turning 
reddish or purple. 

Petioles much longer than the leaflets. 

Stems erect, very slender, flexuous ; leaflets linear, . . 8. C angiistissima. 
Stems trailing or assurgenl ; peduncles and leaves erect; leaflets oblong or 

cuneate-oblong. . . • . 9. C*. ambigii^' 

Petioles the length of or shorter than the leaflets (leaves sessile or nearly so in 
C. ckrysopkylla^. 

Stems decumbent or assurgent, slender ; leaflets mostly acute at each end, 

reflexed. \o. C, hispidul(t. 

Stems assurgent, leaflets oblong-obovate. il, C Smailiu 



Stems prostrate, spreading. 

Leaflets 1-7 cuneate-obovate, silky-hirsute beneath. 



12. C, chrysopJiylla. 



strigose and somewhat glaucous beneath, the terminal one usually considerably 
larger than the lateral ones ; racemes t dm. or less long ; flowers few, 6 or 7 mm, 
long, scattered along the slender ancipital peduncle; bracts minute, setaceous ; calyx- 
teeth setaceous, as long as the tube ; corolla rose-purple ; vexillum minutely hirsute ; 
legume 3-5 cm. long, 4 mm. wide^ straightish, strigose ; seeds 5-6, oblong ovoid, 
truncate at the ends, brownish. 

Nearest to C, purpurea^ from which it differs in the apparently constant broadly 
obovate leaflets. 

U. S. Colombia, Cartajena, Schott, Leguminosae No. 16; Ruatan Island, Bay of 
Honduras, G. F. Gaumer, No. 50, 1886. 



Types in Herb. Columbia College (Schott.) and Herb. U. S. Depart. Agric 
(Gaumer )- 




ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flow^ers few or crowded in oblong panicles or racemes at the summit of the simple or 
branched stems (somewhat elongated and spicate in C. ieiocarpa). 

Leaflets linear-oblong or elliptical, panicles sessile or short-peduncled. 

Stems erect, simple ; pubescence on the sessile, crowded panicle silvery ; legume 

cinereous-pubescent or villous 1. C Virginiana, 

Stems erect, branching ; pubescence on the sessile or short-peduncled, crowded ^ 

panicle tawny; legume rusty or tawny, villous or tomentose. . 2. C.leucafttha, 
Stem erect, sub-simple or branching; pubescence on the short-peduncled pani- 
cle appresseddnereous ; legume yellowish, glabrous , . . 3. C. leiocarpa. 
Leaflets obovate or sub-orbicular ; panicles long-peduncled. 
' Stems prostrate or ascending; legume yellowish, velvety pubescent. 




27 



f 



Leaflets 5-13-oblong or oblong-obovate, strigose beneath. 



T ;. C, Florxdana, 



Flowers few, in short-peduncled somewhat spicate racemes, exceeduig the leaves- 
Stems prostrate or ascending; leaflets, 13-17, oblong or linear-oblong, cinereous- 



ctnerea. 



pubescent 14. C. 

I. CrACCA VlRGINIANA L. 

Cracca Virginiana L. Sp. PI, 752 (1753). 

Galega Virginiana L. Sp. PI. Ed. 2: 1062 (1763). 

Tephrosia Virginiana Pers. Syn. 2: 329 (1807). 

Perennial from a woody base and long, tough, ligneous root, 
villous-pubescent or canescent throughout. Stems growing in 
patches, simple, erect, 3-6 dm. high, angled and striate; leaves 
elliptical or linear-oblong in outline, 6-10 cm. or more long, sub- 



sessile ; stipules caducous; leaflets II-2I, I-3 cm. long, linear- 
oblong or elliptical, obtuse or acutish, aplculate, glabrous or nearly 
so above, silky-villous beneath, often becoming -glabrate with age; 
raceme terminal, oblong, sessile; pedicels 5-10 mm. long; calyx 
silky-villous, the teeth acuminate, cuspidate, mostly longer than 
the tube; corolla cream-colored, streaked with purple or pink; 
vexillum pubescent on the outer surface; legume 3-5 cm. long, 
4-5 mm. wide, straight or somewhat falcate, villous ; seeds 4-8 
oblong-ovoid, rounded or truncate at the ends, brownish, mottled 
with black. 

Dry sandy soil, throughout the eastern half of the United 

States and Canada to North Mexico. 

Original locality: Virginia, Canada. 

Type in Herb. Linn. 

Cracca Virginiana holosericea (Nutt.). 

Tephrosia holosericea Nutt Journ. Acad. Phila. 7: 105 (1834). 

Tephrosia V4 
: 296(1838^. 



' t ' 



I 



Stems and racemes densely villous; leaflets sericeous on both 
sides, often sub-lanceolate and acute; legume densely villous or 
tomentose. 

Arkansas (Nuttall), Illinois (Pitcher), Wisconsin (LiJders), 

Louisiana (Hale). 

Original locality: Plains of Arkansas. 

2. Cracca leucantha (H. B. K.) Kuntze. 

Tephrosia leucantha H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 6: 460, /. 577 (1823). 
Cracca leucantha Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL i/S (iSqO- 



28 



W 




Arizona, New Mexico, Mexico. 

Original locality: Near Guanajuato, South Mexico. 

3". Cracca leiocarpa (A, Gray) Kuntze. 

Tephrosia leiocarpa A. Gray, PI. Wright. 2: 36 (1853). 

Cracca leiocarpa Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 175 (1891). 

Perennial from a thick, Hgnescent root, appressed cinereous- 
pubescent. Stems 3 dm. or more high, many from the same root, 
sub-simple, angled and striate; stipules 4-6 mm. long, setaceous, 
persisting; petioles i-3cm.long; leaves linear -oblong in outline; 
leaflets 17-12 or more, linear-oblong, 2-4.5 ^-^^' l<^i^g» 5-"7 
mm. wide, obtuse or acutish, apiculate, glabrous above, sericeous 
and cinereous beneath ; racemes terminal and axillary, short- 
peduncled, exceeding the leaves; bracts caducous; pedicels 5-8 
mm. long ; flowers 2 cm. or less long ; calyx cinereous, the subulate 
teeth as long as the tube; corolla purplish; vexillum minutely 
pubescent ; legume 3-5 cm. long, 6 mm. wide, straight, yellowish, 
glabrous; seeds about 10, sub-orbicular or ovoid, brownish. 
Mature seeds not seen. 

New^ Mexico, Arizona, Mexico. 

Original locality: New Mexico, Wright (No. 965) and North 

Mexico. 

Authentic specimen in Herb. Columbia College. 

4. Cracca Lindheimeri (A. Gray) Kuntze. 

Tephrosia Lindheimeri A. Gray, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 172 

(^1850). 



m 



Perennial from a stout root, cinereous or rusty villous-pubes- 
cent throughout. Stems 3-6 dm. or more high, erect, branching, ^ 
angled and striate; leaves elliptical in outline, i dm. or more 
long; stipules setaceous, caducous; petioles 1-2 cm. long, leaflets 
19-25, 2-3 cm. long, oblong, obtuse, often retuse, apiculate, 
the terminal one often obovatc, minutely pubescent above, silky, 
cinereous-pubescent or villous beneath ; raceme oblong, sessile 
or short peduncled; pedicels 5-8 mm. long; bracts 5-8 mm. long, 
villous; flowers 1.5 cm, long; calyx villous, tawny or rusty, the 
teeth acuminate, shorter, or as long as the tube, corolla cream- 
colored(?), vexillum pubescent on the outer surface ; legume 3-4 
cm, long, straight or somewhat falcate, spreading, rusty^-villous or 
tomentose; seeds 6-9, oblong-ovoid, pale greenish, smooth. 

Very close to C. Virginionay from which it differs in the branch- 
ing stems, more numerous leaflets, and the tawny pubescence of 
the inflorescence and legumes. 







29 



{ 
t 

i 



Cracca Lindheimeri Kunizc, Rev. Gtn. PI, 175 (1891). 

Perennial from a tuberous and ligneous root, cinereous-pubes- 
cent or sericeous throughout. Stems prostrate or ascending, rather 
stout, flexuous, branching, spreading, 6-12 dm. long, more or less 
angled; leaves oblong, linear-oblong or obovate-oblong in outline; 
stipules somewhat persisting; leaflets 9-17, roundish -obovate, 
nearly sub-orbicular, or obovate-cuneate, 2-3 cm, long, apiculate, 
pubescent above, densely sericeous or velvety-pubescent beneath ; 
racemes loosely many-flowered; peduncle i-2 dm. long; flowers 
1.5-2 cm. long ; pedicelsand bracts 5-8 mm. long; calyx sericeous, 
the acuminate teeth about the length of the tube; corolla red- 
purple, vexillum pubescent; legume 3-4 cm. long, 5-9 mm. broad, 
undulate, densely velvety-pubescent, tawny or yellowish; seeds 
about 4, broad, nearly orbicular, brownish. 



M 



M 



(No. 592). 



Liano, Lindheimer 



Type in Herb, Columbia College. 



5. Cracca onobrychoides (Nutt.) Kuntze. 

TepJirosia onobiycJioides Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7: 104 (1834), 

Tephrosia angustifolia and T. midtiflora Featherman, Kot. Rep 

Lousiana Univ. 73 (1871). 

Cracca onobrychoides Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 175 (1891). 

Perennial from a somewhat woody base, more or less pilose 
with spreading rusty hairs throughout. Stems erect, somewhat 
stout, simple or branching, flexuous, striate and angled above ; 
stipules 8-12 mm. long, often persisting; petioles I-3 cm. long; 
leaves oblong or linear-oblong in outline, i-i.6dm. long; leaflets 



^3-25, 2-5 cm. long, cuneate-obovate or oblong, obtuse, 
often retuse, apiculate, pubescent or glabrate above, more or 
less closely silky-pilose beneath; raceme terminal or a.-scillary, 
rusty-villous or rarely glabrate, 3-6 dm. long; bracts 5 mm. 
long, sdbulate, mostly caducous; pedicels slightly longer than 
the bracts; flowers i-r.5 cm. long, 2-several together on al- 
ternate nodes often the whole length of the peduncle; upper 
calyx-teeth shorter than the tube, the lower one subulate and 
longer: corolla white turning to pale scarlet; vexillum pubescent 
on the outer surface, green toward the middle ; legume 3-5 cm. 
long, 5 mm. wide, linear, acute, somewhat falcate, spreading, 
puberulent; seeds 6-1 a, round-oblong. Mature fruit not seen. 

Arkansas, Indian Terr., Louisiana, Alabama, Texas. 

Original locality: In the plains of Arkansas. 



30 



6. Cracca spicata (Walt.) Kuntze. 

Galcga spicata, Walt. Fl. Car. i88 (1788). 
Galega villosa Michx. FL Bor, Am. 2 : 67 (1803)- 
Tephrosia villosa Pers. Syn. 2: 329 (1807). 
Tephrosia paitcifolia Nutt. Gen. 2: 119 (18 18). 1 

Tephrosia hispida DC. Prodr. 2 : 250 (1825). 
Galega paucifolia Curtis, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist, i : 122 (1837). 
Tephrosia spicata Torr. & Gray. FL N. Am. i : 296 (1838). 
TepJirosia mollissima BertoL Bot. Misc. g; 10, r. j. (Bot. Zeit 
g: 902) fide A. Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. (2) 14: 115 (1852). 
Cracca spicata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 175 (1891). 

Perennial from a long, stout root, more or less rusty-hirsute, or 
villous throughout. Stems decumbent or ascending, simple or 
diffusely branching, flexuous, spreading, somewhat angled above, 



clothed with mostly spreading or reflexed rusty hairs and a shorter 
retrose, appressed pubescence, often becoming glabrate with age 
below; stipules 5-10 mm, long, sometimes persisting; leaves 5 
cm.-i.5 dm, long, oblong or linear-oblong in outline, the upper 
ones subsessile, the lower short petioled (1-3 cm.); leaflets 5-^5' 
1-2. 5 cm. long, 7-12 mm. wide, oval, oblong or cuneate- 
oblong (the terminal ones often obovate). obtuse, mucronate, often 
reflexed, minutely pubescent, silky-villous or glabrous above, rusty- 
villous beneath, often reflexed; racemes terminal and axillary; 
peduncles ancipital, 1-3 dm. long : bracts 5-10 mm. long, subulate, 
mostly persisting; flovvers I-I.5 cm. long, remote, few or several 
together at the summit of the peduncle; calyx-teeth subulate, 
hispid, slightly longer than the tube; corolla white, turning 
purple; vexillum pubescent; legumes 3-5 cm. long, 5-6 mm. 
.wide, linear, acute, straightish ; seeds 8-12, ovoid, brown. 

Differing from C. onobrychoides in its more slender and de- 
cumbent habit, fewer flowers and less silky pubescence. Growing 
in low sandy pine lands mostly among grasses, notable for its 
ascending stems and erect peduncles. Depauperate specimens 
with the flowers in the axils of the upper leaves have been 

■ 

collected in Florida. Virginia to Florida, westward to Tennessee 
and Mississippi. 

Original locality not given. 

Type in Herb. Walter. 

Cracca spicata flexuosa (Chapm.) 

■H^ 

^ Tephrosia flexuosa Chapm.; Torr. & Gray, FL N. Am. i: 297 

(1838). 







31 



Tephrosia hispidida y Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i : 297 (1838). 
Stems becoming glabrate; leaflets 2-7 pairs, linear, acute, 
emarginate, reflexed, the terminal one much elonrated. 



Florida and Alabama. 

Original locality : Florida (Chapman). 

Type in Herb. Columbia College. 



\ 



7. Cracca purpurea L. 



piirpure 
piscatot 



Tephrosia leptostachya DC. Prodr. 2: 251 (1825). 
Tephrosia adsccfidens Macfad. FL Jam. 257 (1837). 
Tephrosia tenella A. Gray, PI. Wright, 2.: 36 (1853). 

Annual or perennial from a slender woody base, glabrate or 
strigillose. Stems I-6 dm. high, erect or ascending, branching, 
spreading, strigillose on the angles, often glabrate or glabrous and 
glaucous, striate above; stipules setaceous, often persisting; peti- 
oles I-3 cm. long ; leaves 6 cm.-i dm. long, oblong or linear-ob- 
long in outline; leaflets 7-17, 2-5 cm. long, linear, linear-ob- 
long or oblong-cuneate, obtuse, or acute at each end, apicu- 
late, glabrous above, strigillose or glabrate, h'ghter' and often 
glaucous beneath ; racemes terminal and axillary, 1-2 dm. long; 
peduncles ancipital; flowers 5-10 mm. long, very short pedicelled; 
bracts setaceous; calyx-teeth as long as the tube; corolla white, 
turning purple; vexillum minutely pubescent; legume 3-5 cm. 
Icng, 3-4 mm. wide, linear or slightly falcate, strigillose or gla- 
brate; seeds 6-10, oblong brown. 

A very variable species with a long and complicated list of sy- 
nonyms. Known everywhere in tropical and subtropical coun- 
tries. Two distinct strains have been collected in the United 
States, the broader-obtuse leaved form occurs in East Plorlda. and 
the narrow acute-leaved form {C. tenella^ in Texas, Arizona, etc. 

O. Kuntze (Rev. Gen. PL 173) has united C. purpurea and 
several other species to C. villosa L, The latter has a villous 
calyx with long, acuminate teeth and a short reflexed, tomentose 
legume and is not known from America. 



M 



A! 



ern Central Americ 
in the West Indies, 



Original locality : Qey\on. 



I 



32 



9. Cracca ambigua (M. a. Curtis) Kuntze, 

Galega mnbigtia Curtis, Bost. Journ, Nat Hist, i: 121 (1837). 

Tephrosia Jiispidula /?. Torr. & Gray FL N. Am. i : 297 (1838). 

Tephrosia ambigtia Chapm. FL 96 (i860). 

Cracca ambigua Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 174 (1891). 

Perennial from a woody base, and long, ligneous root, hirsute 
with short spreading, somewhat viscid hairs. Stems 3-4 dm. or 
more high, trailing or assurgent, often purplish, dichotomously 
branching, straggling, angled; stipules 5-7 mm. long, lanceolate, 
persisting; petioles 3-8 cm. long; leaves 7 cm.-i.5 dm. long, 
remote, linear-oblong in outline ; leaflets 7-11, linear-oblong to 
cuneate-oblong or obovate, 2-14 cm. long, 5-15 mm. wide, acutish 
or mostly obtuse, apiculate, coriaceous, glabrous and yellowish- 
green above, appressed hirsute with whitish hairs and the veins 
often turning reddish or purplish beneath; peduncles 1-1.5 cm. 
long, ancipital ; flowers few, 10-12 mm. long; bracts 5 mm, long, 
persisting; calyx-teeth subulate, as long as the tube; vexillum 
pubescent; legume 4 cm. or more long, 4 mm. wide, straightish; 
seeds 8-13, ovoid, brown, variegated with black. 

High pine lands, dry sandy soil. Trailing, with ascending 
and almost erect leaves, leaflets and peduncles, or stems ascending 
with a somewhat bushy habit. 

North Carolina and Florida, westward to Mississippi. 



n 



8. Cracca angustissima (Shuttlw.) Kuntze. 

Tephrosia a?tgustissima Shuttleworth ; Chapm. FL 96 (i860). 
Cracca angustissima Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL 174 (189 1). ' ^ 

Perennial from a somewhat woody base, very slender, glabrate 
or minutely pubescent. Stems 3-6 dm. long, prostrate, diffusely 
branching, flexuous ; stipules 3-7 mm. long, setaceous, persist- 
ing ; petioles 3-9 cm. long ; leaves linear-oblong in outhne ; 
leaflets 5-17, i-3 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, linear, acute at 
each end, minutely pubescent beneath; racemes terminal or axil- 
lary ; peduncles 5-10 cm. long; flowers 8-12 mm. long, solitary 
or geminate; bracts setaceous, persisting; pedicels 7-10 mm. 
long; calyx-teeth subulate, about the length of the tube; vexillum 
pubescent; legume 3 cm. or more, 4 mm. wide, minutely hirsute, 
somewhat inflated at maturity; seeds 6-8, ovoid, truncate at the 
ends, black. , 

Pine barrens, South Florida, near Eau GaUie, Indian River, 
A. H. Curtiss, N. Am. PL No. 584. 

Original locality : South Florida, Rugel. 





V 



33 



Original locality: Sandy woods near Wilmington, North Caro- 



lina. 



Type in Herb. Columbia College. 



' lo. Cracca hispidula (Michx.) Kuntze. 
hispidula Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 68 fi8o 



Tephrosia Hisp 
TepJirosia grac 



119(1818). 



Tephrosia elegans Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7: 105 (1834). 
Cracca hispidula Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 174 (189 1). 

Perennial from a slender, woody base, minutely appressed- 
hispid or glabrate. Stems 1-3 dm. or more long, decumbent or 
assurgent, dichotomously branching, straggling, angled; stipules 
2—5 mm. long, subulate, sometimes persisting; leav^es 3-6 cm, 
long, linear-oblong in outline, short-petioled, (S-io mm.) the 
upper ones often sessile; leaflets 7-1 3, elliptical, oval- oblong, or 
linear-oblong, 8 mm.-2 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, acutish, some- 
times obtuse, apiculate, reflexed, glabrous above, appressed hirsute 
with whitish hairs and the veins often turning purplish beneath ; 
peduncles terminal and axillary, ancipital, 5-10 cm. long; flowers 
solitary or geminate, scattered at the summit of the peduncle, lO- 
12 mm. long; bracts 2-5 mm. long, setaceous; calyx-teeth acute 
as long as the tube; vexillum minutely pubescent; legume about 
4 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, straightlsh or slightly falcate, minutely 
hispid; seeds 8-12, ovoid or nearly orbicular, brownish. 

Low pine lands, sandy soil, stems ascending, rarely prostrate 
or trailing, leaves and peduncles erect, leaflets reflexed, smaller 
and more acute than the other species in this section. 

Virginia and North Carolina to Florida, westward to Louisiana. 

Original localities: Virginia, Carolina and Georgia. 

Type in Herb. Michaux. 



II. Cracca Smallii. 

Cracca intermedia Small, Bull. Torn Club, 21 : loi (1894), not 



Teph 



Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 112 (1879). 



Perennial from a woody base, pubescent throughout and some- 
what viscid. Stems 4-6 dm. long, branched from the base, spread- 
ing, assurgent, flexuous, more or less angled ; stipules subulate, 
caducous ; leaves oblong-obovate in outline, 6^1 2 cm. long ; petioles 
i-cm. long; leaflets 3-1 1, oblong-o'bovate, 1-3 cm, long, 6-14 mm. 
wide, glabrous and yellovvish-green above, strigose with whitish 



34 



« 

* 



hairs and becoming somewhat purphsh beneath, truncate at the 
apex,apiculate; peduncles 8 cm., 1-5 dm. long; bracts subulate, 5-7 
mm. long ; flowers i cm. long, mostly solitary or geminate, remote ; 
calyx-teeth lanceolate, acuminate; vexillum minutely pubescent; 
legume 3.5-4 cm. long, about 4 mm. wide, straightish, strigillose; 
seeds 5-9, oblong or oblong-ovoid, compressed, smooth, variegated 
w^ith black. 

Dry and poor ** blackjack thickets." Differing from C. chry- 
sophylla in its assurgent habit, the greater number and shape of 
the leaflets, the smaller flowers and larger seeds, as well as the 
character of the pubescence on the under surface of the leaflets. 

Florida, Chapman, Curtiss; Georgia, Boykin. 

Original locality: near Jacksonville, Florida (Curtiss). 

Type in Herb. Columbia College. 



12. Cracca chrysophylla (Pursh) Kuntze. 

Tcphrosia chrysophylla Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 489 (1814). 

Galega prostrata Nutt. Gen. 2: 120 (18 18). 

Cracca chrysophylla Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 174 (1891). 

Perennial from a long ligneous root. Stems prostrate, 3 dm.- 
I m. long, dichotomously branching, clothed with a close, short, 
somewhat viscid and spreading silvery or tawny pubescence ; sti- 
pules subulate, caducous; leaves 3-5 cm. long, oval in outline, ses- 
sile or very short petioled; leaflets 3-9, (rarely i-foliolate,) i-3 c"^- 
long, 7 mm.-2 cm. wide, cuneate-obovate, obtuse, often retuse, 
sometimes apiculate, coriaceous, glabrous and yellowish-green 
above, silky hirsute and somewhat lighter or rusty beneath, the ter- 
minal one often conspicuously larger than the lateral ones; pe- 
duncles 4-6 cm. long, axillary, ancipital; flowers I-I.5 cm, long, 
few; bracts 5 mm. long, subulate, persisting; calyx-teeth acumin- 
ate, as long as the tube ; vexillum minutely pubescent ; legume 3~4 
cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, minutely hispid, straightish, erect or 
spreading; seeds 8-10, oblong, ovoid, or sub-orbicular; brownish or 
greenish, variegated with black. 

Pine lands. Truly prostrate, with prostrate leaves, widely 

spreading, forming broad mats, 

Georgia to Florida and westward. 

Original locality : In Georgia. 

Cracca chrysophylla Chapmanni n. van 

A low prostrate slender plant with stems 3 dm. or more long; 
leaves i~2 cm. long; leaflets 5-10 mm. long, oblong or obovate, 




n. 



^ 



^ 




^ 



r- 



35 



apiculate, glabrous above, appressed silky-hirsute beneath ; legume 
2 cm. long, 3 mm.' wide, minutely hirsute, 4-7 seeded, 

St, Joseph's, Florida, Chapman. 
Type in Herb. Columbia College. 



s 



13. Cracca Floridana n. sp. 



Perennial from a short, somewhat creeping ligneous root. 
Stems prostrate, 2-6 dm. or more long, dichotomously branching, 
spreading, angled above, clothed with a short appressed or spreading 
often somewhatviscid pubescence ; stipules 3-5 mm. long, subulate, 
often persisting ; petioles 1-2.5 cm. long ; leaves 4^10 cm. long, ob- 
long or rarely linear-oblong in outline; leaflets 9-13. oblong or 
oblong'obov^ate obtuse or truncate at the apex apiculate, 1.5-3 
cm. long, 5—1- mm. wide, glabrous and yellowish-green above, 
lighter, strigose with whitish hairs and the veins turning reddish 
beneath ; peduncles terminal and axillary, 7 cm.-2 dm. long; bracts 
subulate; pedicels 5-8 mm. long; flowers solitary or geminate, 
I-1.5 cm. long ; legume 3-4 cm. long, 4 mm. wide, erect, straight, 
strigillose; seeds 6-10, oblong, ovoid, grayish or brownish varie- 
gated with black. 

Differing from C. cJirysophylla in its more numerous, narrower 
leaflets and the pubescence of the lower surface, which is that of 
C. Smallii, It is very close to the latter, from which it differs 
however, in its truly prostrate and spreading habit, narrower and 
more numerous leaflets. 

Central Florida. G.V.Nash, Nos. 4943^. 1^9^; 1263, 1334, 
1552, 1615, Louisiana, New Orleans, Dr. Ingalls. 

w 

Types in Herb. Columbia College. 

14. Cracca cinerea (L.) Morong. 
Gakga cinerea L, A nice n. Acad. 5: 403 (1759). 
Teplu'osia cinerea Pers, Syn. 2: 528 (1807). 
Cracca cinerea Morong, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 7 : 79 (1892). 

. Perennial from a stout, ligneous root and woody base. Stems 
prostrate, diffuse, or ascending, 3-6 dm. or more long, appressed 
cinerous-pubescent, or with somewhat spreading rusty hairs 
above, becoming glabrate with age, angled and channelled above; 



stipules 3-8 mm. long, subulate, acuminate, persisting; petioles 5 
mm. to 1.5 cm. long; leaves oblong in outline, 4-IO cm. long; 
leaflets 16-17 oblong, linear-oblong, 2-5 cm. long, 4-8 mm. 
broad, the basal and terminal ones often obovate-oblong, obtuse 
or acutish at the apex, acute at the base, glabrous above, cmere- 
ous-strlgose or pubescent beneath, becoming often glabrate with 



* 



36 



age; racemes 7-8 cm.' long; flowers i cm. long, geminate or in 
clusters, scattered; bracts subulate or setaceous, persisting; calyx- 



teeth acuminate, as long as the tube; corolla purplish, vexillum 



pubescent; legume 3-4 cm. long, 4^ mm. wide, spreading, ciner 
eous-pubescent or glabrate, straight ; seeds 6-9, ovoid, somewhat 
truncate at the ends, brown. 



West 



Mobile, Alabama (Ch. Mohr); M 



J 



I am much indebted to Dr. N. L, Britton for his help and 
counsel in this study and for the use of the Herbarium of Colum- 
bia College. Mr. G. V. Nash has given me valuable assistance 
with copious field notes of the Florida species. •' 

' Mr. Coville also very kindly loaned me the collection of the 
United States Department of Agriculture for examination. 



i 



■ i* 



( 4 



'Contributions to American Bryology.— IX. 

By Elizabeth G, Brixton. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS SCOULERIA WITH DESCRIP- 
TION OF ONE NEW SPECIES. ^ 



(Plate 227.) 

■ 1 . [ 

The genus Scouleria was founded by Wm. Hooker in ,1830, 
on specimens collected by Dr. Scouler at Observatory Inlet, de- 

■" - * t I 

scribed as 5. aqiiatica, and subsequently distributed in Drum- 
mond's Musci American! as No. 63, collected in the Columbia 
and Portage Rivers." A few autograph duplicates of Dr. Scouler s 
specimens were also distributed in this country, and Dr. Torrey 
was fortunate in possessing one of them; as well as a set of Drum- 



:id'^s Mosses. 

r 

In i8si C. Muell 



^ 



as G. 



James in the Manual 1884 



followed his example. Mitten in 1869 also subordinated" the 



B - 

(Journ. Linn. Soc. 12: 96, 1869), which J 



patagonica 



patagonica. Since then the genus has been 



■^ 



m 



f 



■j 



T 






r 
t ■ 

\ 






r 

i 



37 



maintained as valid: In 1889 Kindberg described in the Bulletin 
S.ag7iaHcavdir,7i{grescens;\ch\c\i Mueller in 1890 raided to specific 
rank as S. Nevii. In Macoun's Catalogue, 1892, another species 
was described by Kindberg 5. Mudlai, and in k recent number 
of Hedvvigia Mueller described 5. aquatica var catilliforms from 
Roll's collections. This makes four species and one variety thus 



far described in the genus; 

■ Having had occasion to examine critically sonic specimens re- 
ceived from the Department of Agriculture, collected \x\ the State 
of Washington by Leiberg and Sandberg. I found it necessary to 
see authentic specimens and original descriptions of all the species'. 
These we have been fortunate in possessing either in the Torrey 
or Jaeger herbaria, where we found Lobb's specimens of S. pata- 



gonica^ and the others have been sent us by Prof. IMacoun, and by 
Dr. Watson in former years. . . ■ . 

As a result we have reached different conclusions from those 
of Miiller and Kindberg, and are of the opinion that S, aquatica is 
a very variable species, within certain narrow limits. Tliat the 
forms w^hich.have been separated from it as S. Neidi, and S. Mud- 
leri^ intergrade with it is beyond question, and I have been able to 
prove that the characters which have been relied on to found spe- 
cific differences may all be found on onfe specimen, of either or 
any of the species distributed under the new names. There are 
some characters which seem to have been given too much weight, 
and others too httle. I find that the tendency to differentiation of 
the cells bordering the leaves runs through all the species, and 
reaches its maximum m the Patagonian specimens, by the forma- 
tion of a thick border just inside the margin, composed of paren- 
chyma cells on the upper surface of the leaf, with yellow prosen- 
chymatous cells on the lower surface like those composing the 
vein, giving the leaf the aspect of being triple-veined. In Wat- 
son's specimens from Spokane Falls, which I have described as a 
new species, 5. marginata (presumably those referred to m the 
Manual under G. Sconlen) I also find this character developed 
though in a less marked degree. The margins are bistromatic, or 
else the cells are larger and darker in color, though never as 
dense and dark, as in S. patagonka. Specimens of S. aquatica 
ya^v . mgrescens , also show 'an upward continuation of the basal 



38 

submarginal prosenchymatous cells, and this is more or less evi- 
dent in all the specimens, even Scouler's of 5. aquatica, though 
much less prominent in the young green leaves from the apex ot 
the stems than in the older leaves, where they become different- 
iated in color, showing as yellow streaks, irregularly between the 

vein and margin, but always near the margin. 

Another peculiar character, which has been mentioned in 5. 
patagonica^ but not in any other species, is the development ot 
filamentous radicles on the vein at base. Mitten described them 
" Nervo obscuro inferne dorso radicellis vestito/' This character 
is very prominent in some of our specimens, and in fact is hardly 
absent from any of them, the whole lower surface of the vein in 
some leaves being densely covered with scattered or tufted, seem- 
ingly glandular hairs. The serrations of the margins too, are very 
variable, and of no value for distinguishing the species. The 
young green leaves are always more sharply and irregularly ser- 
rate, generally also at the apex, but the older leaves on the same 
stems, are often entire at apex, and indistinctly serrate below; I 
have even seen leaves quite entire, on the same plants. The teeth 
are often black and swollen, though this is never a constant char- 
acter. 



Muell 



Uformis, is due to the bending of the vein a short distance below 
its apex. This too seems to be a character of the younger leaves. 
They also vary in being serrate on the back near the apex, and the 
. vein is sometimes much thickened, and prolonged to the summit of 
the leaf, as figured by Schwaegrichen, instead of ending below the 
apex as it usually does. The color and size of the 3-4 rows of 
marginal cells of the leaves also varies, and in some leaves the 
green quadrate cells of the margins are so sharply differentiated 
from the elongated narrower submarginal ones, that they form an 
undulate border next to a deep yellow fold on each side. 

ScouLERiA AOUATICA Hook. Bot. Misc, 11 33, A /^ (1830). 

A portion of the type specimens collected by Scouler are in 

our possession, and the following description was drawn from 

them, giving measurements which Hooker did not give. 

Plants 5-6 cm. long, stems flexuose, sparingly branched; lower 
leaves abraded, upper oblong lanceolate, 4 mm. long by 1.5 mm- 




1 




f"-. 



\ 



39 



wide, apex cucullate, rounded, entire or serrate, vein ending below 
it, not filamentous at base ; mar<;ins serrate only above* the middle, 
not bordered, the cells only slightly larger and darker, upper cells 
irregular, .010-.013 mm.; basal rectangular, rarely a few prosen- 
chymatous cells were seen just inside the basal margin, mostly 
pale and rectanglar. Spores .048-.050 mm., smooth, brown. 

On consulting the otiginal description and plate, we find that 
Scoiikria aquatica was originally described as black, and the type 
specimens are quite as dark as Macoun's specimens of var. nigixs- 
cens, thus invalidating the first and most conspicuous character of 
that variety. The leaves are described as dark green, the upper 
ones only as green. The border of the margin is indicated by 
submarginal lines in figures 2-3 of the original plate. 

The specimens distributed in our set and Prof. Macoun's of 
Drummond's Mosses No. 63 differ from Scouler's and from each 
other slightly. Prof. Macoun has three plants, two are 12-13 cm. 
long, large, coarse, simple stems, and sterile, with the leaves long 
and broad, coarsely serrate and bordered with yellpw, the vein 
strongly filamentous, the submarginal basal cells yellow and pro- 
senchymatous, and the lower margins undulate. The third plant 
in his set is a small branching, fertile one, with black abraded 
leaves, shorter and denser, often entire, with the margins yellow 
and thickened. Our specimens of Drummond's No. 63 are like 
these, the leaves being only 2-2.5 mm. long, and differing from 
Scouler's in their blunt, flat, entire ape.x with the basal cells more 
distinctly prosenchymatous and yellovy. They were cited in the 

original description of S. aquatica. 

It seems evident from the above that, as originally founded, 
this species was recognized as variable, for we have indicated three 
discrepancies in the original specimens and descriptions. The 
larger forms may be referred to the variety nigrcsccns Kindb., 
which may be distinguished by the taller plants, darker and 
coarser than the type, with long simple stems, large black leaves, 
often blunt and entire at apex, the basal cells yellow or brown, 
prosenchymatous, with the vein often thickened and serrate at 
apex and filamentous at base. 



The description given in Macoun's ca 
more than half devoted to S. aquatica, and 



890). 
Nevii 



\ 



40 



the main difference is the width and shape of the leaves, and the 
broad, rounded entire apex. We have seen all of Prof. Macoun's 
specimens, and tried the following experiment; taking several 
stems from different plants, we divided them into 5-6 sections 
each, and compared the leaves. In all cases we found that the 
upper green leaves at the tips of the branches were longer and 
narrower, more acuminate and more sharply serrate, with the apex 

K ^ . ■ ■ 

also serrate and generally cucullate; the lower cells also were 
seldom differentiated, generally paler and oblong, not prosenchy- 
matous. The lower leaves on the same plants were shorter and 
broader, often entire and rounded at apex, the cells denser a 
darker, and often yellow with traces of prosenchymatous cells. 



nd 



We 



Nevii 



as a species, even if the name had oriority over the van nigi'csccns ; 
but there seerns to be sufficient reason in maintaining the latter as 
a variety, as we have shown from the descriptions of Drummond s 



Mac 



Ni 



with the specimens from, Yale labelled var. 'z^/n*^^:^'//^ (Bull. Torn 

T - ■ - W ' 

Bot. Club 16: 93, 1889), having the upper leaves of that brilliant 
emerald green color which is so striking in these specimens. On 
the younger and smaller plants the leaves are green. Large, 
coarse, old plants, with ragged leaves, are almost black, 

-r " 

ScouLERiA MuELLERi Kindb.; Macoun^s Catalogue, 6: 62 (1892). 
Macoun*s Canadian mosses, No. 558. 

The description calls for different specimens from those of No. 
558, which we have received from Prof. Macoun. Those sent us 

^ - -- - r ^ - f ~ 

are undoubtedly referable to 5^. aqiiaiica^ with which they agree in 
every w^ay. The description reads the median basal cells " linear 



y 



porose and numerous," the apex entire rounded, and the margin 
*'pale orange." In our specimens the basal cells are rectangular, 
w:ith a few very faint traces on some of the leaves of the yellow 
prosenchymatous cells referred to in the description. The apex 
is as often serrate as entire, and the marginal cells are green, in 
6-7 rows, and though larger and more distinct than the inner 
ones, are not " pale orange." 



1 

I 



l-i 



y' 



t 



41 



;_; We have taken particular pains to see as many -specimens of 

Macoun's No. 588 of S. Mucllcn, as possible, thinking that perhaps 

there might be a mixture of specimens, and perhaps our S, mar- 

ginata be found among the number. But Prof. Macoun assures 

us that the species is local, and all the specimens of this number 

were collected from the same place and grew on the Same rock: 

This is very interesting, for the specimen in our set agrees with 

Scouler's specimens of 5. agiiatica, the ones from Prof. Eaton's set 

are referable to van nigresccns, and these last of Macoun^s, he 

assures me, are, the w^ry ones from which Kindberg named S, 
Muelli 



en. 




Leaves bordered by slightly larger, thick-walled cells, in a single layer, green, 
yellow or black, peristome present, ..■.,■.. i. aquatica. 

Leaves bordered by larger, denser cells in a double layer, often proseiichymatous 
almost to apex, peristome absent, 2. piarginata. 



I. SCOULERIA AOUATICA Hook 



(1889). 



Scoiileria aqitatica Hook. Bot Misc. i: IZ.t. /<? (1830). 

Jr." * 

Grimmia Scoitleri'WxAV Syn. Muse. Frond. 2: 654 (185 1), 
Scoiileria aquatica van lirescens Kindb. Bull Torr. Club, 16: 93 



^ y 



( 



MuellcfiYJiii^h. Maco 

* - - 

aquatica var. catillifo\ 



207 



J/ 7* 

y ■ 

Plants dark green or black, gregarious, growing In tufts ; stems 
rigid, simple or branching, 5-15 cm. long; leaves when old 
abraded, only the veins remainino^, upper green, walls less thick- 
ened, more prominently serrate than the lower, which are often 
black, entire, bordered with yellow or black thick-walled cells; 
vein thick, ending below the apex, often arched and serrate on 
back above and filamentous below; apex rounded and flat or cu- 
cullate, serrate or entire ; basal cells variable on the same plants, 
on the upper leaves pale often entirely rectangular, on the lower 
. often yellow or brown, with streaks of prosenchymatous cells, just 
inside the margin, extending upward irregularly, the marginal 
rectangular, often undulate. Capsules almost immersed, on a 
short seta, oblate-spheroidal, becoming more depressed after the 
dehiscence of the lid, which remains attached to the columella, 
and exserted, long after maturity; calyptra cucullate, peristome 
single, red, teeth 16, irregularly divided and broken, often falhng 






42 






with larger leaves and the basal cells prosenchymatous, the other 
two small branching plants, with short leaves, and the basal cells 
scarcely prosenchymatous. 

2. ScpULERIA MARGINATA n. sp. Plate 227. 



Plants 3-4 cm. high, gregarious in dense black tufts ; stems 



wiry and naked at base, branching and densely leafy above; 
leaves crowded, curled and twisted when dry, only the uppermost 
green, 2-3 mm. long, oblong lingulate, serrate above the middle, 
or^ obscurely serrulate near the base, teeth occasionally black and 
thickened; apex blunt, entire or toothed, vein thick, ending below 
it, smooth on back; basal cells green rectangular, a narrow band, 
near the margin elongated, prosenchymatous, forming a dark dense 
border nearly to the apex of tlie leaf, superposed by rounded small 



If 



with the lid; spores large, smooth, .037-.059 mm. maturing in 
May and June to August and September. 

A variable species, growing on rocks in m^ountain streams,' 
more or less local, but abundant. 

Original locality: Observatory Inlet, Scouler, 1829. Distrib- 
uted from the Columbia and Portage Rivers in Drummond's North 
American Mosses, No. 63. Also collected by Lyall in the Columbia 
River, by E. Hall in Oregon, Bolander in California, Leiberg hi 
Traille River and Lake Pend d'Oreille, Idaho, and by Macoun in 
several localities in British Columbia and Vancouver Island. 

la. ScouLERiA AQUATiCA NiGRESCENS Kindb, Bull. Torr. Club, 16: 

^94(1889). 
Scoukria Naii Muller, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 273 (1890). 

\ Plants coarse and rigid, in large dense black tufts ; stems 10- 
-I5 cm. long, brittle, and clothed with the persistent veins of the 
Ifeaves, branching above; leaves 2-3 mm., oblong lanceolate, blunt 
and entire at the rounded apex, vein ending below it, often radicu- 
lose at base; margins serrate, basal cells rectangular next the vein, 
prosenchymatous near the margin, but extending upward only a 
short distance; some leaves simply hyaline at base with all cells 
rectangular. 

Original locality '* On rocks in Nanaimo River, Vancouver 
Island. Also collected at Sicamous, B. C, in 1889, and Rogers 
Pass, Selkirk mountains, B. C, in 1890 and 1885. Distributed as | 
No. 388 of Macoun's Canadian mosses. 

These four specimens, presumably named by Kindbcrg, illus- 
trate the variation of the species, two being large, coarse plants, 



% 



f. 



* 



:■' 



\ - 



it 



J ■ 



I 



43 



cells; pencliaetial leaves surrounding the capsules, ovate-lanceolatc; 
capsules, small, broader than long, cupuliform when old; lid persist- 
ent on the columella, bordered with red; peristome none, mouth 
bordered; spores .048^.054 mm., green with a minutely roughened 
coat, maturing in August and September. 

" Spokane Falls, Washington Territory, collected by Sereno 
Watson, September 24, 1870." Presumably the same specimens 
are referred to in the manual under G, Scoideri, Muller, as being 
abundant. Distributed with the plants collected on Clarence 
King's Expedition on the Exploration of the 40th Parallel. 

Since collected by Marshall A. Howe on rocks just above the 

water in the Sacramento River, Sims, Shasta county, Cal., August 
10, 1894. 

Closely allied to S, Patagonica^ but the marginal cells are less 
dense, often only one layer of cells, but larger and square in 
section. 



De«9cription of Plate 227. 



Fig. I. Plants natural size. 2, Capsule enlarged, lid on. 3. Capsule after de- 
hiscence of lid. 4-5. Outlines of leaves. 6. Basal cells of leaf. 7. Apex of leaf. 
8. Cells from the middle of the leaf, showing the elongated, submarginal cells. 9. 
Cross-sections of leaf, showing the thickened margins. 10. Cells from the upper sur- 
face of the leaf. 1 1. Spores. 



Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States— llli 

By John K. Small. 
(Plate 228.) 

^UGA Caroliniana Engelm. Coult Bot. Gaz. 6: 223 (1881). 
This tree can now be added to the flora of Georgia, Formerly 

. ,T. • • ir\ :* 



There it 



grew at altitudes ranging from 2,100-5,000 feet. I found it in 
1893 growing on the southern ledges of the cafion at Tallulah 
Falls, thus extending its range many miles to the south and its 
altitude to 1. 600 feet. It was most plentiful about 300-400 feet 
above the river and reached no great development on account of 
the scarcity of soil and the perpendicular position of its place of 



growth. As 



44 



this species, Tsiiga Ctviadejisis \yd.s present and rather 'the more 
plentiful of the two, thus serving to show the great contrast 
between these two hemlocks. ' • . 



*. - 



Cyperus squarrosus L. ,• : . 

This most beautiful little species of Cyperus has been found 
for the first time on. the North American. continent at Jacksonville, 
Florida, by Mr. A. H. . Curtiss, The .Florida specimens agree 
exactly with Wright's Cuba collection, No. 3355 (distributed as 
C. aristatus), 2\sQ with plants from the Antilles, Surinam (Schwem- 
itz), and Bailies' Niger Expedition of 1857-9 as well as with East 
Indian specimens. 

t 

JuNCus Georgianus Coville.'*' -■ 

"^ RUMEX SPIRALIS n. Sp. 

'■'' Perennial, slender, glabrous, light-green, somewhat glauces- 
cent. Rootstock woody, creeping, 1-3 dm. long; roots fibrous; 
stem erect, 8-9 dm. long, simple or sparingly branched above, 



- . . r . / 



Lial, densely tufted, 20 to 35 cm. high ; stems erect, barely exceeding 1 nira. 
, striate when dry: leaves all radical; sheaths striate, stramineous, loose, 





;^ * Juncus Georgianus Coville n, sp. 

_: , Perennial 

in diameter, o.w«..^, *r..^ix ^.^ , ai-^w-c «ix ±c*iw,-u.i, oi^v^lh::, oli^o.^^, o^. «*...- -, 

ininutely auriculate, commonly 2 to 4 cm. long, the innermost closely embracing the 
stem and sometimes reaching a length of 8 cm.; blades erect, some of them reachmg 
at least the base of the inflorescence, transversely flattened, nodeless, striate on the 
back, I mm. or less in width, sometimes involute when dry, sharply acute at apex; 
inflorescence paniculate, about 5 to 10 cm. high, strict or only slightly spreading ; 
lowest involucral leaf foliose, not exceeding the panicle ; flowers rarely more than 25, 
usually not more than 10, inserted singly on the branches of the panicle, prophyllate; 
perianth 4 to 6 mm. long, its parts subulate-lanceolate, when young with a green mid- 
rib, usually reddish brown lateral stripes, and hyaline margins, when old stramineous; 
^ stamens 6, one-half to two-thirds the length of the perianth, the anthers 1.5 to 2 mm. 

in length and several times longer than the filaments; style and stigma long* the 
former often reaching 2, the latter 3, mm, in lengtn; capsule about three-fourths as 
long as the perianth, narrowly oblong-lanceolate in outline, obtuse or broadly acute, 
mucronate, 3 celled ; seed about 0.4 to 0.5 mm. in length, oblong, reticulate, the areolae 
linear and arranged transversely on the seed in about sixteen longitudinal rows. 

^ Type specimen in the U. S. National Herbarium, collected in May. i869r on 
Stone Mountain, Georgia, by William M. Canby. 

. : This plant is most nearly related to Jnncus tenuis, but is easily distingnishable 
from that species by its long radical leaves, its longer and brown-striped perianth, 
narrower capsules, and especially by its very long anlhers. Contrasted with JuncuS 
tenuis, the long radical leaves, short sterns^ and large inflorescence of y. Georgianus 
give the plant a characteristic general appearance. Mr. Canby's specimens were dis- 
tributed doubtfully identitied as y. tenuis^ and no botanist seems to have collected 
the plant since, until Mr. Small rediscovered it July 4, 1893, on the summit of Stone 
Mountain, at the ahitude of 1686 feet. He collected it also on Litde Stone Mountain, 
July 7, 1893, between 1,000 and 1,100 feet altitude. ' 



* 



% 



s 







I 



i. 



X 



v 



# ' 



Frederic Vernon Coville. 



45 



leafy throughout, sh'ghtly flexuous, strongly channeled, woody 
below; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 6-13 cm. long, 
1.5-4.5 cm broad, acute or sometimes attenuate at the apex, the 
lower, ones obtuse or truncate at the base, the upper acute or 
acuminate at the base, all rather long petioled, coriaceous, light 
green, undulate and crisped, neither prominently nor conspicu- 
ously nerved ; petioles strict, 2-5 cm. long ; orceae cylindric 
nearly one half as long as the internodes ; inflorescence terminal, 
simply paniculate, naked; racemes (fruiting) 5-13 cm. lon„, 
dense, rather erect, the terminal one usually about twice as long as 
the lateral ones ; calyx 2 mm. broad ; pedicels varying from 2-4 
mm. in length, Jointed below the middle ; wings broadly ovate 
cordate, broader than high, i cm. long, 1-1.2 cm. broad, straw- 



s' 



'% 



colored, sometimes slightly constricted below the apex, conspicu- 
ously and prominently nerved, crenulate and undulate, each one 
bearing an oblong-ovoid callosity, the three wings strongly spirally 
twisted ; achene broadly oblong-ovoid, 3 mm. long, short-pointed, 
chestnut colored, its faces nearly flat, its angles conspicuously 
margined. Plate 228. 

Found growing in the mud on the margins of ponds near 

Kenedy, Games county, Texas, by Mr. A. A. Heller, collected in 

flower and fruit on May 26, 1894. The altitude of the station is 

about 400 feet. '^t OV/ ', 

Its nearest relative is Rumex altisshnus, from which, however, 
it differs in having more characteristically lanceolate leaves, which 
are longer-petioled, crisped and the larger ones more or less trun- 
cate at the base instead of acuminate. The panicle o{ R. spiralis 
is more open, not leafy, and its racemes are denser and thicker. 
Wings twice to thrice as large as in R. altissimus invest the broadly 
oblong-ovoid achene. The former are broader than high and 
strikingly cordate, whereas those of R. altissimus are higher than 
broad, not strongly cordate and less prominently nerved. So far 
as observed three callosities are developed throughout, 

* ^ 

Baptisia Serenae M. A. Curtis, Amer. Journ. Sci. (I.) 7 : 400 

The range of this species, heretofore confined to the uplands 
and foot-hills In South Carolina and Georgia, has now been ex- 
tended into the low country by its discovery by Miss Katherine 
A.Taylor in the pine barrens about Summerville, South Carolina. 

' OxALis RECUKVA Ell. Bot. S. C & Ga.' 1 : 526 (1821). 



Since writing my paper on the above species 



as 



46 



published in 



the November Bulletin, the plant has been found 



J 



80 



Eastern Tennessee, and by myself at the Falls of the Yadkin River, 
in Stanley county, middle North Carolina, where it grows in the 
sand in shady places at the bottom of the canon. The latter 
locality is within the range as formerly known, but the former is a 
little west of the range shown in the above cited paper. 
Hypericum Buckleyi M, A. Curtis- Amer. Journ. ^ 

When on the summit of the Thomas Bald, on the Georgia ana 
North Carolina boundary, in 1893, 1 encountered a peculiar Hyp^^- 
iciim. This summit Is nearly 5,300 feet above the sea level and 
is remarkable for its shape, which is almost knife-like, being but 
a few yards broad and three miles long by actual measurement. 
The top, which is composed of soU and outcropping gneiss, is free 
from timber, except a few scattered red oaks. On the gneiss out- 
crops this Hypericum forms dense cushions and mats, rising above 
the ground only two inches. Altitude has had a striking effect on 
the species there and at first sight one is not inclined to refer it to 
the above. The locality is in view of the original and later stations 
for H. Buckleyi and a comparison with all the material at hand 
shows these differences. Its leaves are at least one-half smaller 
than the usual and rather constant form. The seeds are one-third 
smaller and more carved, while the flower and all its parts, together 
with the capsule, are also one-third smaller than those from the 
neighboring territory. 

A -' 

y MONNIERA CRENULATA H- sp. 

Perennial, bright green, very aromatic. Stem procumbent or 

decumbent, creeping, ascendinor at- \\\e e^nA^ 'X-fi dm. lon2i 



at the ends, 3-6 dm. 



branched from the creepuig nodes, more or less channeled, pilose 
with rather rigid, irreguhirly jointed hairs; leaves broadly or 
orbicular-ovate, i 5-2,5 cm. long, 1.5-2.2 cm. broad, subcordate 
and amplexicaul, obtuse or slightly emarginate at the apex, re- 
motely but distinctly crenulate, mostly eight-nerved, obscurely 
pilose-ciliate near the base and on the midrib beneath, glandular- 
punctate, exceeding the internodes, except on the lower part of 
the stem; pedicels 1--1.5 cm. long, pilose ; bractlets i cm. long, 
very similar to the leaves in shape, texture, etc., but eciliate ex- 
cept a tuft of hair at the apex; calyx segments lanceolate, ciliate, 
nearly equaUing the bractlets; corolla campanulate, 1-1,3 cm. 



\ 



47 



long, slightly unsymmetrical, cleft for about one-third of its length ; 
style about equalling the distal pair of stamens ; capsule ovoid - 



oblong. 



Found by Mr. A. H. Curtiss, growing in the bottom of ditches 



Jacksonville and Trout Creek, Florida, on J 



ipli 



caulis of Florida, but is easily separated from it by its much larger 
size, its broader leaves, the elongated pedicel and the larger flowers. 
In some respects it is closely related to M. lanigera of the tropics, ' 
but in the latter species the nerving of the leaves is pinnate and 



& 



M. 



J 



leaves are flabellinerved and longer than the Intenodes. 

■Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. 

Is spontaneous about the village of Stone Mountain, Georgia, 
and also at points along the Georgia Railroad. 

Coreopsis longifolia n. sp. 

Annual or perennial (?) from an enlarged and somewhat woody 
base, slender, glabrous, bright green. Stem erect, 7-10 dm. 
long, simple or sparingly branched at the summit, not angled but 
channeled by twelve or thirteen grooves, leafy on the lower half, 
naked above, 'slightly flexuous ; leaves linear-oblong, linear- 
lanceolate or linear, 7-10 cm. long, ,2-1 cm. broad, acutish, 
acuminate at the base, long-petioled, reduced above to narrow and 
inconspicuous bracts; petioles 6-8 cm. long, very narrowly 
winged, enlarged at the base, in most cases forming a short sheath 
which clasps the stem ; heads 1-6, about one hundred flowered, 
3-4 cm. broad; rays yellow, eight, 1.5-2 cm. long,' spatulate 
or oblanceolate, three-cleft, the segments acutish or the middle one 
obtuse ; the outer involucral scales lanceolate, marked with a dark 
rib, the inner scales twice as long as the outer, oblong-elliptic, 



thin, acutish, tipped with brown ; floral scales, linear, 6 cm. long, 
acutish ; flowers, 4 cm. long, style slightly exserted, two-cleft ; 
achene obovoid or spatulate in outline, black, the awns mostly 
fugacious, the wings pectinate, the segments equal or nearly so. 

Related to C. angustifolia, from which species it differs in its 
more slender build, the striking length of the leaves and the 
larger flowers. The a'chene is also larger and of a darker color. 
In C. angustifolia to the wings of the achene are cut in an irregular 
manner and the awns persistent, while the wings in C. longifolia 
are regularly and evenly divided and the arms mostly fugacious. 



The type was 



Tackso 



M 



/ 



48 



v^ Coreopsis major linearis n, var. 

Perennial by a slender creeping root-stock, slender, sparingly 
and inconspicuously pubescent. . Stem erect, 3-5 dm. long, simple, 
conspicuously channeled ; leaves three-parted, the segments linear, 
3-1 1 cm, long, 1-3 mm. broad, acuminate at both ends; heads 
solitary, 3-4cm. broad ; outer involucral bracts 4 mm. long, oblong, 
obtuse; rays oblong obtuse, somewhat two-cleft; achene smaller 



than in the typical form. 



Altho 



fc> 



from Cor cop si 



it It is 



much more distinct than the variety Oclmcri, The strongest 
characters are' the very slender build and the strikingly narrow 
leaf-segments which average about 2 mm. in breadth. Ineir 
length is also greater than we find the ordinary forms of the type. 
, '.I noticed the plant at different localities in middle Georgia, 



and collected 



Mountain 



Valley 



Gwinnette 



Mountain, and also in the Yellow River 
■county.. 

Coreopsis major Walt. Fl. Cor. 214 (1788). 

A peculiar state of this species has been coming to my notice 
for a year or tw^o. It is the above with its leaves 'undivided, there 
being two opposite and entire leaves at each node in place of the 
normal three-parted ones. It seems to have been first collected 
by Dr. and Mrs. Britton, at Black Mountain Station, North Caro- 
lina. Lafer Mr. Heller secured it near Salisbury, N. C, and last 
season (1893) I came upon it at the western base of Stone 
Mountain, Georgia. Besides having this state we have an inter- 

p 

mediate one in which the upper leaves are entire and the lower 
ones three-parted in the usual manner. This latter was secured 
by Dr. and Mrs. Britton at Balcony Falls, Virginia (1885). 



New Plants from Idaho. 



By Louis F. Hendeh'son. 



1 

" Phacelia Idahoensis, n. sp. 



A 



bottom to slightly villous-hirsute in the inflorescence, leafy to the 
top ; radical and lower cauline leaves about 5 inches long, on petl; 



49 



oles from an inch and a half to two inches in length, pinnatcly 
parted or divided into broad or comparitively narrow inch-long, 
cleft divisions, dark above, h'ght beneath, and deh'cately strigose; 
middle cauline leaves sliort-petioled, upper sessile, all pinnately 
cleft or parted; short spikes crowded during anthesis in a naked 



spike-like thyrsus about 3 inches long by 3^ inch thick, in fruit be- 



coming more elongated and open ; flower buds violet blue, becom- 
white-blue on opening; flowers open-campanulate, cleft barely tc^ 
the middle, and bearing the vertical appendages of P. sericea^ an-^ 
thers oval ; styles 2-cleft at apex, these with the stamens hardly 
longer than the corolla ; capsule ovate, short-a^umtnate, con- 
tained within the marcescent-persistent 'cpcolla* i2-22-seeded; 
seeds oblong-oval, generally irregularly and strongly angled by 
pressure, acute at one end, less so at the other, longitudinally and 
rather deeply alveolate, the walls* separating the alveolations thin 
and sharp. 

Common in moist, natural meadows of Craig Mountains, Nez 
Perces county, at about 3000 ft. alt A single specimen in fruit 
was found on the St. Marie's River, Kootenai county, proving 
that the plant must be well distributed in Northern Idaho. That 
the species is closely related to P. sericea A. Gray, is evident on close 
^ inspection. In aspect, however, it is very different, and the rela- 
tionship would hardly be suspected. It differs from this species In 
being nearly glabrous, erect, and 2-1 times as high ; in its stamens 
and style being never more than half again as long as the corolla; 
in its thyrsus being much more slender and rather longer; finally 
in the deeper alveolations of its strongly angled seeds. It differs 
from the var. Lyallii in its taller stature, in its narrower and^ longer 
thyrsus, and, if the flower and seed characters are those of the 
type, in these also. As the writer has no good specimen of the 
variety, on the last points he is doubtful. 

<^Claytonia arenicola n. sp. 

Annual with delicate, fibrous roots, 2-5 inches high : radical 
leaves linear-spatulate, the broadest not over 2>^ h*nes wide (gen- 
erally about a line wide), 1-2 inches long, tapering from near the 
obtuse apex into a delicate petiole ; cauline leaves a single pair, 
similar to the radical but shorter, opposite and distinct : racemes 
numerous and prolifically flowered, the flowers on pedicels 14-^4 
inch long; petals pink-white, 3 lines long, emarginate ; seeds y^ 
line long, shining and resembling those of C Sibmca but only 
half as large. 

Dry, sandy banks along :Streams as well as dry pine woods, 






l//v_ RAf C^rdpn 



i 
* 

1 



50 



^ 



Idaho and Eastern Washington. This plant has been referred for 
me to C. spathulata van temiifolia Gray. I am convinced that 
this ought not to go into C. spathulata Dough, for throughout this 
whole country the cauHne leaves are never united but spatulate- 
linear. The flowers are also much larger and in much looser 
racemes than in this species. Prof. E. L. Greene has sent me a 
species very near this, only differing in the shape of the caunne 
leaves, the leaves in his specimen being linear and slightly en- 
larged at the base, while in this species they are invariably spatu- 
late-linear, I should not think this enough to found a species 
upon and separate it from his species, which he names C. gyp^^^ 
philoides Fisch. & Meyer, were it not that Dr. Gray says (Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 22: 282) that C. gypsophiloides F. & M. is the 
same as the type of the species, viz.: C. spathulata of Douglas. 
Relying upon this, I give this plant of mine the specific name of 
arenicola. If it proves that Dr. Gray Is wrong and Prof. Greene 
right, this name of mine would probably sink into a synonym 
of C. gypsophiloides. 

University of Idaho. 



Buxbaumia aphylla L. 

Biixbaiunia aphylla is generally considered a rare moss, and 
from its large and peculiar capsule it could not escape notice if it 
were at all common. My friends Messrs. Chas. E. and Edwin 
Faxon inform me that usually single plants, or at most two or 
three together, have rewarded their patient search. But this De- 
cember it has been very abundant, particularly in the Blue Hi" 
region, and in one locality of less than 200 feet square I counted 
the following patches of it: Nine of about 9ne inch square con- 
taining from ten to fifteen plants each; one of three by two inches 
of seventy plants ; one of two by four inches of eighty-one plants; 
three patches each about as large as my hand crowded with plants, 
of w^hich one contained two hundred and eighty specimens. I was 
reminded of the pictures of a Roman legion under its testudo 
shields marching to attack a walled town. The locality where 
•these are growing was burned over in a wood fire eighteen months 



51 



ago, and the soil is yet charred from its effects, and nine months 
later what underbrush had started was pretty effectually cut off by 
the Park Commissioners, so that the conditions under which these 
plants grew were different from any they would have found there 



fift 



I would be 



very glad to know if anyone has ever found this moss in such 

abundance. ' Geo. G, Kennedy. 

Readville, Mass. 



Herbert A. Young. 

The news of the death, at Toledo, Ohio, December 8, of Herbert 
A. Young, formerly of Revere, Mass., will be received with regret 
by his many friends in» this vicinity. He early In life became 
interested in botany, and in 1S82 published the "Flora of Oak 
Island/' a botanical station in the vicinity of Boston, familiar to 
botanists since the days of Jacob Bigelow\ He later became in- 
terested in the sedges, grasses and mosses, and contributed largely 
to these sections of the F/ora of Middlesex County, Mass. 

He was a good scholar and a keen botanist, but in recent 
years the demands of his profession as a civil Qngiacer, and later 
as an officer of the Mexican Central Railway, have prevented his 
giving much attention to his faxorite study. He passed away at 
the early age of thirty-seven, but he had already accomplislied a 
work that entitles him to the esteem and remembrance of the 
botanists of Boston and vicinity. Wm. P. Rich. 

Boston, December 26, 1894, 



Proceedings of the Club. 

Tuesday Evening, December iith, 1894. 

t 

The regular meeting of tlie Club was held in the lecture room 
of the new building of the College of Pharmacy, 1 15 West 68th 
street. The evening was very stormy. Vice-President Allen 
occupied the chair and there were forty-eight persons present. 

The Committee on Membership reported favorably upon the 



52 



nomination of Mis Harriet B. Elder, of 515 Lexington avenue, 
City, who was unanimously elected anTtCtive member. 

Mr. Lighthipe reported the transfer of the Club's herbarium 
to its new quarters in the College of Pharmacy building. 

The paper of the evening A^^as then presented by Dr. Rusby, 
on ** Pharmaceutical Botany." 



Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany. 

f 

Allen, T* F. Note on C/iara sejiinda A. 'Br. Bull, Torr. Bot. CluD, 
21 : 526. 24 D. 1894. 

Anderson, C. L, Some new an3 old Algae hut recently recognized 
"* on the California coast. Zoe, 4 : 358-3'62, i fig- 1894. 

New species in Punciaria and Callithajnnion, * 

Arechavaleta, J. Contribucion al Cotiodtriiento de los Liquenes 
Uruguayos. Ann.'Mus. Nac, Montevideo, 2: 173-186. 1&94. 

Arechavaleta, J. Las gramineas Uruguayas (continuatine). Ann. 
Mus. Nac. Montevideo, 2: 93-i7i.j^^^. 1894, 

w 

Armendariz, E, ■ Apuntes acerca de una Conirahiefba 3e Mexico. 
La Naturaleza (IT.) 2: 380-382. 1894. 

Atkinson, G* F. Intelligence manifested "by the Swarm-spores of 

Rhizophidium globosum (A. Br.) Schroeter. Bot. Ga7, 19: 503, 5*^4- 
26 D. 1894. 

Atkinson, G. F. 'Microsphaera densissima (Schwein.) Peck. Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club, 21: 528, 529. 24 D. 1894). 

Bain, S. M. Notes on Uiricularia inflata Walt. Asa Gray Bull 
3: 8 : 4, 5. Ja. 1895. 

Barnhart, J. H. Ulmaria Ulmaria (L.). Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 21: 
491, 2 }. N. 1894. 

Beal, W. J. The Sugar Maples of Central Michigan. Ann. Rep. 
Sec. State Board Agric. Mich. 33: [Reprint, pp. 8. figs. 1894.] 

Best, G. N. Orthotrichum gytnnostotnum Bruch. Bull. Torr. Club, 
21: 527,528. 24 D. 1894. 

Records this species from Newfoundland. 

Blochman, I. M, Californian Herb lore. — V, Erythea, 2 : 162, 163. 
I O. 1S94. 

Medicinal character of various plants. 






\ 



\ 




1 



% 



Madison. Proceedings, 1893, Svo. pp. 60 



Wisconsin. T 



V ' 



Brandegee, T^ S. Additions to the Flora of the Cape Region of 
Baja California— II, Zoe, 4; 398-408. p/. ji. 12. Mr. 1894. 

' Faxonia^ new genus of Compositae. New species and varieties in Ihalictrum^ 
Ranu7ictihiSy Colubrina. Carica. Fores tier a and Adelia, 

-■X ^T" 

\ 

Brandegee, T. S. Two undescribed Plants from the Coast Range. 
Zoe, 4: 397, '^%o. pL JO., 12, Mr. 1894. 

Eastwoodia ele^anSy new genus and species of the Compositae, and Lepidium 
J a redu 

Bray, W. L. See Uline, E. B. 

Clarke, C. B. On certain authentic Cyperaceae of Linnaeus. Journ. 
Linn. Soc. 30: 299-315. 6 O, 1894. 

References to many American species. 

Coville, F. V. The Wild Rice of Minnesota. Bot. Gaz. 19 : 504-509. 
26 D. 1894. 

Davenport, G. E. Two new Ferns Uorcx New England, with some 
observations on Hybridity and Nomenclature. Bot. Gaz. ig : 492- 
' 497- ' 26 D. 1894. 

Describes Aspidiutn cristatum X ^- marginak and A. stmulatum. 

^^vy, J. B. Transcripts of some Descriptions of California Genera and 
Species.— II. III. IV. Erythea, 2: 148-153. i S. ; 164-170. i O. ; 
185-187. I N. 1894. 

Deane, W, Lemna Valaiviana. Philippi. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 21 : 

490- 24 N. JS94. 
Dudley, W. R. PJiyllospadix, its Systematic Characters and Distribu- 

tion. Zoe, 4: 381-385, 26 F. 1894, 
Fernald, M. L. Notes from tlie Gray Herbarium. Zoe, 4: 379, 380. 

26 F. 1894. 

New species and varieties in Habenaria, Allium and Trifolium. 

P'ernald, M. L. See Robinson, B. L. 

. B. E. The Battle of the Forests, Nature, 50 : 116. 1S94. 
Greene, E. L. Corrections in Nomenclature.— V. Erythea, 2: 192- 

194. I D. 1894. 
Greene, E.L. Novitatesoccidentales.— VIII. IX. Erythea, 2: 181- 
" 1S5. 1. N. j 189-192. I D. 1894. 

Describes new species ia Ranuncuhis, Delphinimm, Fhacelia, Amsinckia and 
Trifolium. ' 

Greenman, J. M. See Robinson, B. L. 



ow 



I 



54 



I 



< 
t 

r 

L 

L 

r 

i 

L 
W 

r 



Guppy, H. B. On the Habits of Lenina minor ^ Z. gibba and L. 
polyrrhiza. Journ. Linn. Soc. 30: 323-330. 6 O. 1894. 

Heald, F. De F. Contribution to the comparative Histology of Pul- 
vini and the resulting photeolitic Movements. Bot. Gaz. 19 : 477-49^- 
//. j^. 26 D. 1894. 

Hill, E. J. Salsoli Kali Tragus, Bot. Gaz. 19: 506,507. 26 D. 
1894. 

Notes early appearance of the Russian Thistle in Illinois and Indiana. 

HoUick, A. Wing-like Appendages on the Petioles of Liriophyllum 
popiiloides Lesq. and Liriodendron alatum Nevvb., with Description of 
the Latter. Bull. Torr. Bot, Club, 21: 467-471. //. 220^ 221. 24 
N. 1894, 

Howe, M. A. Chapters in the early History of Hepaticology. — H- 
Erythea, 2: 143-147. i S. 1894. 

Jack, J. G- Notes on Trees and Shrubs. Gard. & For. 7: 294- 25 
Jy. ; 306. I Au, ; 315. 8 Au. ; 326, 15 Au. 1894. 

f 

Notes on various species of Vaccinium ; Genista in Massachusetts; Ribes. 

y 

Jelliffe, S. E. Cryptogamic Notes from Long Island.- — IL' Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club, 21: 489. 24 N. 1894. 

List of 13 Hepaticae. 

Jones, M- E. Contributions to Western Botmy. — VL Zoe, 4 : l^^' 
369, 1894. 

New species in Phlox and Astragalus, 

Jones, M. E. Systematic Botany. Zoe, 4 : 374-379. 1S94. 

Kearney, T. H., Jr. Some new Florida Plants. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 
21: 482-487. 24 N. 1S94. 

Describes Sctitellaria integrifolia nmltiglandidosa^ Trichostema suffrntescens, 
Pluchea foetida imbricata^ Teucruim Nashiiy Physalis arenicola^ Aristolochia 
Nashii and Rhus Blodgettii^ new species and varieties, 

Kerr, W. C. Survival of Storm-injured Leaves. Proc. Nat. Sci. Assn. 
S. I. 4: 52, 8 D. 1894. 

Linn, A., and Simonton, J. S. Fissidens Jiyalinus in Pennsylvania. 
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 21: 529. 24 D. 1894. 

Mocino y Sesse. Flora Mexicana. La Naturaleza (IL) 2: App- 9" 
48. 1893; 49-88. 1894. 

Peck, C. H. Annual Report of the State Botanist of the State of Ne^>^ 
York. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. Nat. Hist. 47 : [reprint pp. 48]. 1894- 

Peckholt, T. Brasilianische Nutz-und Heilpflanzen. Pharra. Rund. 
12: 187-199. Au. ; 240-242. O. ; 285-287. D. 1894. 



* 



65 



Pieters, A. J. The History of the Uredineae. Asa Gray Bull. 3:8: 
8-10. Ja. 1895. 

Pound, R., F. E. Clements and others. Additions to the reported 
Flora of Nebraska made during 1893. Bot. Surv. Nebr. 3: 5-20, 
18 Je. 1894. 

List of 182 additions, including descriptions of 13 new species of Fungi. 

Robinson, B. L. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard 
University, new series. — VI. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci. 29 : 273^ 
330, 23 My. 1894. 

Contains: I, The North American Alsineae; II. Descriptions of Mr. Pringle's 
Mexican collections; III. Notes on the Genus Galinsoga ; IV. Miscellaneous notes 
and new species. 

Robinson, B. L. and Greenman, J. M. Contributions from the 
Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, new series. — VIL Proc. 
Am. Acad. Arts and Sci. 29 : 382-394. 29 Je. 1894, 

Further new and imperfectly known plants collected in Mexico by Mr. Pringle. 

Robinson, B. L. and Fernald, M. L. Contributions from the Gray 
Herbarium of Harvard University, new series. — Vllf. Proc. Am. 
Acad. Arts and Sci, 30: 114-123. 27 Au. 1894. 

New plants collected by C. V. Hartman and C. E. Lloyd in northwestern Mexico. 

Rovirosa, J. N. Viaje a Teapa y a las Sierras que concurren a la 
Formacion de su Valle. La Naturaleza (IL) 2: 269-293. 1894, 

Contains an account of the flora of the region. 

Rusby, H. H. Two new Genera of Plants from Bolivia. Bull, Torn 
Bot. Club, 21 : 487-489.//. 22s, 226. 24 N. 1894. 

Describes and figures Lophopapptts (Compositae) with L. folio sus zxi^ Fluck- 
igeria (Gesneriaceae) with F. Fritschii, 

m 

Russell, H. L. The Fixation of free Nitrogen by Plants. Bot. Gaz. 
19: 284-293. 16 Jl. 1894. 

Saint-Lager, Dr. Traditional Interpretation of Linnaean Nomencla- 
ture. Erythea, 2: 194-201. i D. 1S94. (Translation). 

Scribner, F. L. ' Lower California Grasses. Zoe, 4: sSssOS- ^^ 
F. 1894. 

An enumeration of 69 grasses collected by Mr. T. S. Brandegee, in Lower Califor- 
nia in 1893. Sporobolus expansus proposed as new. 

Scribner, F. L. Grasses of Tennessee. Part II. Univ. Tenn. Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 7 : i-\m. 187 figs. 1894. 

Descriptions and iHnstrations of all the grasses known to occur in the State. 



IT 

1 



56 



Small, J. K- . Two species of Oxalis, Bull. Torr, Bot. Club, 21 : 471 
475- P^' 222^223, 24 N. 1894, 

Describes and figures (9, recurva Ell, and O, grandis n. sp. 

Small, J. K. Notes on some of the rarer Species di Polygonum. 



Bull 



Torr. Bot. Club, 21 : 476-482.//. 224, 24 N. 1894. 

Figures P. boreale, 

Stevens, F. Pistillody; staminody ; teratology. Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club, 21 : 489, 490. 24 N. 1894. 

Sturtevant, E. L. Notes on Maize (continued). Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club, 21 : 503-523. 24 D. 1894. 

Villada, M, M. La Goma Loca de Mexico — !• I.a Naturaleza (II.) 
2: 3^3-385- /^- ^^- 1894. 



Pictures of Larrea Mexicana Moric. and Acacia Jilicina Willd. 



Whitfi 



Mus 



n new Forms of Marine Alga( 
ervations on Buthograptus laxi 

351-358-//. ir. 20 D. 1894. 



Bull. Am. 



Callitha??inoJ>sis^ Chaetocladus and Primicorallina are proposed new genera. 





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SCOULERIA MARGINATA E. G. BRITTON 




BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 228. 




A^/n/fi^. 



RUMEX SPIRALIS SMALI 



Second=Hand Books for Sale. 



The following botanical works, owned mainly by the late Mr. Justus F. Poggen- 
burg, are offered for sale by the Secretary of the Torrey Botanical Club at prices 
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CHARACE^ OF AMERICA. 

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The first hundred of a carefully prepared series of American Algae is no;v offered 
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A new series of papers under this title will be commenced in January 1895. They 
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Vol. 22 



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BULLETIN 



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A MOXTHLY JOURNAL OF BOL\XY. 



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COXXEMXS : 



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New Species of Usiilagineac and Uredineae: 
"^ 7. B. Ellis and B, M. Everhari . , . . 57 
Contributions to American Bryology— IX. i. 
The Systematic Position oi PhyiC0mitril!a 
patens- 2. On a Hyhrid growing with 
Aphanarkegma serraia; 3. On a Euro- 
pean Hybrid of FhyscomitreUa patens : 
Elizabeth G. BHtton (Plates 229-231) 62 
Japanese Characeae— IL: r. F, Aiien , . . 6M 
Tradtscantia Virginica var. villosa Wat- 
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^^0^- 22. Lancaster, Pa., February 26, 1895. No. 2. 



New Species of Ustilagineae and Uredineae. 

By J. B. Ellis anjj B. M. Everhart. 



UsTiLAGO Washingtoniana E. & E. 



W 



(E. R. Lake). 

Sori linear, i mm.-2 cm. long, covered at first by the lead- 
colored epidermis, soon exposed and then mass of spores nearly 
black. Spores globose, 8-I0 /^ diam., olive-brown, minutely 
echinulate and filled with numerous small nuclei. The sori are 
sunk in the substance of the leaf, which is finally eaten away and 
perforated by them. 

Closely resembles Ustilago longissiina (Sow.), but the spores are 
larger and minutely echinulate. 

Entyloma arnicalis E. & E. 

On leaves oi Arnica cordifolia, Latah county, Idaho, July, 

1893 (C. V. Piper, No. 122). 

Spots amphigenous, deep rusty brown above, paler below, 
subangular, 2-4 mm. diam., with a pale yellow shaded border. 
Sori subepidermal. Spores spherical, hyaline at first, then pale 
brown, 10-12 /^ diam., with a smooth epispore ij^-2 // thick. 
Conidia {Ramidaria aniicalis E. & E. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phil. 
1S91, 85) hypophyllous subcyhndrical 15-20X21^-3 /*, 2-3-nu- 
cleate, the upper end mostly a little curved, borne on subfascicu- 
late hyphae 12-20X2^-3 Z'. 

Uromyces pulchellus E. & E. 

On leaves and petioles of Silcnc f sp. Lake Chelan, Wash. 

Aug. 1892 (Lake & Hall). 



/ 



58 



* 



III. Son scattered or circinate, mostly hypophyllous, small 
(i^ mm.), naked, nearly black. Teleutospores obovate or ellipti- 
cal, becoming chestnut-brown, 22-28X18—22 /^, epispore smooth, 
rather thick, moderately thickened at the rounded apex. Pedicels 
35_5o fi long, stout, hyaline. There was no indication of any 
Aecidium on the specim.en examined. 

UrOMYCES CAKICINA E. & E. 

On leaves or culms of Carex scopaiia, Alcove, N. Y., July, 
1893 (C L. Shear, No. 81). II. & III. 

Sori scattered, oblong, ^-i mm. long by about y^ mm. wide, 
covered by yellowish epidermis, not confluent. Uredospores 
sparingly mixed with the teleutospores in the same sori, ovate or 
elliptical, pale, tuberculo-echinulate, 20-22X14-16 /'. Teleuto- 
spores obovate, pale below', rounded at the apex, or often with a 
distinct hyaline papilla, epispore smooth, strongly thickened and 
dark colored at the apex, 19-23+14-16 //. Pedicels yellowish 
about as long as the spores. 

Uromyces Caricis Pk. has naked cinnamon-colored sori and 

larger spores. ^ 

PUCCINIA TRJFOLIATA E. & P]. 

On Tiardla trifoliata Seattle, Wash, June 1 892 (Prof. C.V. Piper). 

I. Aecidium on the slightly swollen stems and petioles 
Erumpent, closed at first, soon open and cup-shaped, about 
mm. diam., thin, margin toothed. Spores ov^ate or subglobose, 
15-20 /T diam., yellowish, epispore slightly echlnulate, amphi- 
genous. 

XL Uredo sori small, pale cinnamon color, ^-)4 mm. diam., 
naked above. Uredospores obovate or globose, 15-22 /^ in the 
longer dlam., rather closely echinulate, hyaline, l)ecoming pale 
brown, 

III. Teleutospores in larger (i mm.) nearly black naked 
sori, elliptical, 22-35X15-20 /^ pale chestnut brow^n, rounded at 
each end, contents granular, scarcely constricted at the septum 
epispore scarcely thickened at the apex, and wdicn examined dry, 
under a high power, covered with a network of raised lines. 
Pedicels very short, almost w^anting. 




» 



Saxif) 



Uredo 



r 

PucciNiA. suBSTERiLis E. & E. " [N. A. F. 3141.1 



TpO^O 



March, 1894 (C. F- 



Baker, No. 219). 

Mostly hypophyllous. Sori (11. and III.) superficial, pulvinate, 
elhptical, black-brown, }4-l mm. long, naked. Uredospores 



59 



I 



echinulate, globose or elliptical, 20-30X18-22 /^ brownish-black, 
epispore nearly equally thickened throughout; pedicels slender 
liyaline, subpersistent, 20-30/^ long. Teleutosporcs (in the same 
sori as the uredospores), oblong or clavate, pale, constricted at 
the septum, 22-30X12-15 /^, epispore smooth, mostly not at all or 
only slightly thickened at the rounded or subtruncate apex. 

The uredospores are abundant and well developed, while the 
,teleutospores are few in number and apparently not well matured. 
This is quite distinct from P. oinnivora E. & E. and from P. 
Chrjsopogi B^rd. 

PucciNiA OMNivoRA E. & E. [N. A. F. 3049.] 

On Chysopogon nutans, leaves and stems, Newfield, N. J., 
■autumn 1893, 

II. and III. Uredospore sori minute, narrow, i-2 mm. long, 
Bt first covered, then rupturing the epidermis and discharging the 
yellow, globose or subelliptical, 18-22 /^, subechinulate spores. 

III. Sori amphigenous, but mostly hypophyllous, oblong or 
Hnear, i mm.-i cm. long, y^ mm. \vide, at first covered, but soon 
bare and margined by the ruptured epidermis, nearly black. Te- 
leutosporcs elliptical to oblong, 22-40X12-16 z^, scarcely con- 
stricted, mostly rounded at each end, but those in the center of 
the sori narro\ver and paler, and gradually attenuated into the 
stout, 50-70X4-6 /^, yellowish-hyaline pedicel, upper cell darker, 
■and in the shorter, elliptical spores mostly rounded at the apex 
without any distinct papilla, the narrower, paler spores with a dis- 
tinct yellowish-hyaline obtusely conical papilla, epispore smooth, 
distinctly thickened at the apex. 

Has the habit of P. gmminis, but the spores are decidedly 
smaller, both the uredo and teleutospores. 

PUCCINIA MAGNOECIA E. & E. 



Aug 



pidcJi 



III. Teleutospores slender-clavate, 40-50x14-16 /., pale-brown, 
almost hyaline below, epispore smooth, much thickened at the apex 
and darker, slightly constricted, crowded in broad (2-3 mm.),bullate, 
nearly black, hypophyllous sori, which are partly covered by the 
epidermis. The upper surface of the leaf is marked by reddish- 
brown spots corresponding to the sori on the opposite side. _ 1 he 
spores are mostly regularly rounded at the apex, but sometimes 
obtusely pointed or even truncate. Pedicels about as long as the 



spores. 



Differs from P. Asteris in its large, dark sori 



60 



PucciNiA Philibertiae E. & E. 

r 

(P. Gonolobi Rav. van Philibertiae Pk. in M. E. Jones' list o 
western plants, not described.) 

On leaves and follicles of Pliilbcrtia viridiflora ? Britton anc 
Rusby, near Las Cruces, New Mexico, Oct., 1892 (E. O. Wooton 

No. 43). 
Ampl 



hypophyllous. Sori hemispherical^, 
dark chestnut brown, }2-}i nim. diam., superficial, mostly circin- 






ate around a compact central group of several confluent or con- 
nate sori ; on the follicles the sori are densely crowded, covering^ 
the entire follicle, which is thus dwarfed and rendered abortive. 
Teleutospores elliptical or obovate, 20-30x15-20 y", scarcely con- 
stricted, rounded and obtuse at the apex, lower cell a little paler 
and often narrowed at the base, epispore smooth, scarcely thickened 
at the apex, contents of the cells granular. Pedicels slender, sub- 
hyaline, 55-65 '" lo^^g- Mesospores abundant, mostly smaller. 

PUCCINIA ZlZIAE E. & E. 

On leaves of Zij:ia cordata, Pullman, Wash., September, 1895 

(Prof. C. V. Piper, No, 164). 

III. Amphigenous but mostly epiphyllous. Sori small (^-/^ 
mm.), not confluent, nearly black, soon naked; seated on small 
(1-2 mm.), whitish, irregularly shaped spots, which are often con- 
fluent. .Teleutospores obovate, elliptical or oblong-ellipticaU 
22-30X15-20 /^ only slightly constricted ; epispore smooth, rather 
thin or only slightly thickened at the rounded apex. Pedicels 
hyaline, about as long as the spores. 

Differs from P. bidlata, in its darker sori, smaller spores and, as 

far as yet known, in the absence of any Accidiiun. 

PucciNiA NiGROVELATA EIL & Tracy. 



Cyp 



oblong-elliptical 



sori, sur- 



Uredospores in short (1-2 mm.), 
rounded by the erect margin of the ruptured" epidermis, ovate or 
elliptical, pale yellowish, aculeolate, 1 5-24 (mostly 1 5-20) Xi 2-i5 
^l, mass of spores cinnamon colored. Teleutospores in 'flat sori, 
1-3 mm. long, ^-i mm. broad, closely covered by the epidermis, 

which appears black by translucence,clavate-oblong, 35-55X14-^^ 
^, broadly constricted, lower cell pale and narrowed to the pedicel, 
upper cell broader and darker, epispore smooth, thickened at the 
apex, which is either rounded or obtusely pointed, with or without 
a hyaline papilla. Pedicels mostly shorter than the spores. The 
teleutospore sori at length open by a longitudinal crack along 
the middle. 



61 



PucciNiA Cladii E11.& Tracy. 

On Cladmm cffusiuii, Ocean Springs, Miss., Aug., 1889 (Prof. 
S.M.Tracy). II. & III. 

,^ On the culms and peduncles o{ the cym^. Son small, e!h"p- 
tical, subconfluent, so as often to envelope and cover the peduncles 
for 2 or more cm. in extent; at first covered, then bordered by the 
ruptured yellowish epidermis. 'Uredospores ovate or elliptical, 
22-25X20 /", or subglobose, 18-20 /^, at first hyaline, then deep red- 
brown (or ferruginous-yellow while lying in the sori) aculeate. 
Teleutospores in similar but much darker colored sori, clavatc or 
oblong, 45~6oXi8-22 /^, constricted, deep brown, lower cell nar- 
rower and paler, epispore smooth or slightly granular-rouglicncd 
■above, strongly thickened at the obtusely rounded apex, or with 
an oblique papilla, or sometimes subtruncate-flattened. Pedicels 
shorter than the spores, hyaline or slightly colored, stout. The 
uredospores are also pedicellate. 

PucciNiA GRAxuLispoRA Ell. & Galloway. 

On stems and leaves of Allium cernuuni? ^Montana, 1890 
(Prof. F. D. Kelsey). 



n. and III. Sori linear, 1/-1 cm. long, shorter on the leaves, 



Yt, mm. wide, at first covered, then exposed by a longitudinal 
cleft in the epidermis, but only slightly prominent. Uredospores 
subglobose, pale, faintly echinulate. 20-30X 15-20 /*. Teleuto- 
spores oblong, clavate or obovate, 45-60X20-25 /^ smooth, with 
granular contents, slightly constricted, upper cell subglobose or 
elliptical, darker, moderately thickened at the rounded or obtusely 
pointed or often truncate apex, lower cell paler, cuneate. Pedicels 
■shorter than the spores, colored. Mesospores not abundant, 
shorter, obovate, 20--23 ^ long. 

Differs from P. Porri in its linear sori and larger teleutospores. 

Aecidium cylindricuji E. & E. 

• On leaves of Houstonia angusiifolia, Osborne, Kansas, June, 

1894 (C. L. Shear); 

Spermogonia? Aecidia hypophyllous, subseriate along each 
side of the midrib, white, cylindrical, about i mm. high, margm 

uitely subfimbriate- dentate. Spores orange-red, angular-glo- 
bose, smooth, 18-22 IK The upper side of the leaves is more or 
less blackened and papillate from the projecting bases oi the 
aecidia. 

Differs from Aecidium Jioustoniatum Schw. \i^ its elongated, cy- 

lindrical aecidia. 



ini 



r 



62 



Un 



Contributions to American Bryology— IX. 

By Elizabeth G. Britton. 

(Plates 229-231.) 

m 

I. The Systematic Position of Physcomitrella patens. 

It must have occurred to every student of the mosses of the 
ited States that the foot-note*^ at the bottom of page 39 of 



Lesquereux and James' Manual indicated a curious state of 
classification, and this feeling is increased when a study of the 
specimens and literature convinces him that the facts which have 
been taken for fixing arbitrary lines are still open to question and 
have been disputed by several well-known bryologists. The 
questions in doubt are these: — Has Pliysconiitrclla patens a de- 
hiscent, differentiated, lid? and is it distinct generically from 
Aplianorlicguia? We propose to answer both these questions in 
the affirmative. 

The history with regard to European specimens is best shown 
by the following citations : — 

Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) Br. & Sch. 

Phascum patens Hedw. Dcscr. i: 28.//. 10 (1787). 
PJiysconiitrdla patens Br. & Sch. Bryol. Eu. I : pL j (1849). 
ApJianorhegma patens Lindb. in Ofv. K. Vet. Akad. Forh. 580 



( 1 864). 

Limpricht (Rab. Kryptfl. 4: 174. 1886) and Braithwaite (Brit. 
Mosses, 2 : 127. 1890) xwdXxiX.'d^xw Physcomitrella as a genus and state 
that the capsule is indehiscent, or the lid not differentiated ; 
hence the former places it among the cleistocarpous mosses, and 
the latter, following Lindberg and Hampe, classes it with the 
Funariaceae. The latter is undoubtedly its most natural alliance, 
Lindberg claims to have seen the lid. Schimper in the last edition 
' of the Synopsis Muscorum (1876) says that he has not seen it. 

" De opercuH vestigi a Clarissimo Lindberg laudato adhuc nil vidi." 

'^''^Aphanorhegma serratiim^ Sulliv., differs from this spec.es {^Physcomitrella 
patens') only in the regular dehiscence of the capsule, which divides in the middle and 
is therefore considered as operculate or stegocarpous, though no discoloration nor any 
kind of modification of the texture is observable on the line of disruption. But for 
this regular dehiscence Aphanorhegma should be described here merely as a variety 
^ of PJiysco77iitrdla patens. It is therefore a remarkable connecting link between the 
Ephemereae ■ nd the Physcomitrieae, which resemble each other also in the areolatiotf 
of the leaves," 



J 



63 



We have taken pains to see all the available Anicrican ma- 
terial of Physco7nitrdla patens in the Sul]i\'ant herbarium as well 
as in that of the Department of Agriculture and others. In Dnini- 
mond's Southern Mosses, No. 5, collected near St. Louis, the 
specimens are still in perfect condition for examination. Many 
of the capsules have not split, but several of those wliich have 
show with a low magnification a perfectly circular rim. Under a 
high magnification, after boihng and mounting, the walls arc torn 



irregularly, but a distinct median line of separation, where the 
cells are elongated with longer transverse walls, was seen, even on 
the irregularly torn capsules. 

No. 10, SuII. & Lesq. Musci Bon Am. Ed. 2 (1865), collected 
in Ohio, also are in fine condition. Few of the capsules have 
sph"t, but after mounting in glycerine jelly, three capsules did split 
regularly in half, and although we have seen no differentiation of 



the cells along the suture, yet from its regularity, we suspect it is 
there. It is almost impossible to determine this after the dehis- 
cence of the capsules, as the walls are so thin, the cells so tender, 
that in boiling to get rid of the spores, the walls are injured be- 
yond possibility oi examination. The stomata are basal, and 
seem partly immersed. 

In Sullivant's own herbarium we found specimens from Colum- 
bus, Ohio, collected in 1852, several capsules of which had split 

It 

regularly in half as seen by reflected light with a low power. 

Quite recently we have received from Fort Sneiling, Minne- 
sota, specimens collected by Grace E. Sheldon on October i, 
1894, which show a differentiation of the cells around the middle 
of the capsule. Fig. 8 of our plate was drawn from these speci- 
mens. These capsules are very fresh and young, the cells of tlie 
walls still contain chlorophyll, and are more distinct than any we 
have seen. Starting from the stomatose base, the longest diame- 
ter of the cells is vertical, they measure .o\zy^.02y mm., gradually 
the cells become larger, still keeping their longest diameter verti- 
cal, and twice the length of the shortest, measuring .027X.054. 
At the line of dehiscence the cells are transversely elongated, 
three times longer than wide, and measures .oi6Xby .054 mm. 

Taking the above observations only for what they are worth, 
it seems to me that we may at least give the question the benefit 



64 



of a doubt, and would advise any one having access to fresh 
material of this rare and interesting species, and who is familiar 
with modern laboratory methods, to do some careful bleaching 
and staining, and try to prove conclusively whether P, patens be- 
longs with the Cleistocarpous mosses or not. 

. The stomata as figured by our artist do not agree with fig. 59 
of Limpricht's Laubmoose (Rab. Kryptfl. 4: 158), but in all our 
specimens they seem to be more or less immersed, and it is only 
in deep focussing that the outlines appear distinct. 

There seems to be some uncertainty as to the position of the 
anthcridia in Physcomitrdla patens. Schimper in the Bryologia 
(/. j) figures them in basal buds, but in the Synopsis Muscoruni 
(Ed. 2, 1876) he corrects himself, saying they are axillary to the 
' upper leaves. As in Aphanorhegma they have also globose-tipped 
paraphyses. 

. Limpricht says they may be either naked and pseudo- 
lateral under the perichaetium or on a branch, seldom at the base 
of the vaginule ; die paraphyses may be thread-like or globose- 
tipped. We have not been able to verify any of these statements 
from fresh American material. 



The genus ApJi 



1848 



(Gray's Man. Ed. i.,647. 1848). Physconiitrella was not published 
till 1849 (Br. & Sch. Bryol Eu. fasc. 42). In his search after ear- 
lier names, Lindberg seems to have allowed dates to have more 
weight than facts. From the accompanying plates and descrip- 

r 

tions, it seems to me that we cannot consider Physconiitrella pa- 
tens and Aphanorhegma serrata as congeneric, much less is one 
'* merely a variety of the other." 

■ T>ei»criptlon of folate 229, I*ti>scomitrella paten» (HedAv.) 

»r. & Hell. 

I. Plants, natural size. 

2-3. Two enlarged, showing the immersed capsules. 

4. Outlines of leaves.- 

5. Half of the hase of one leaf enlarged, showing cells. 

6. Apex enlarged, 

7. Capsule enlarged, showing the stomatose base, and irregular line of dehis- 
cence, the parenchymatic walls and large apical cells. 

8. Cells of the walls still further enlarged, showing the transverse elongation of 
ijiose in the middle of the capsule, the hexagonal ones above. 

9. Apex of capsule enlarged. . „ . . - 




/ 



V 



65 



JO. Spore. _ . . , , ^ 

1 1. Same much enlarged, snowing the spines. 

12. Stoma, enlarged, showing the oveHapping cells. 

13. Calyptra. 

r 

H 

nescriptloii of Plate 230, AptianorheRiiia ^errata SuU, 

1. Plants, natural size, 

2. Same, enlarored. 

3. Outlines of leaves. 

4- Cells at base of one side of leaf 

5. Cells of the apex. 

6. Perichaetial leaves removed, showing the antheridia mixed with the arche- 
gonia in the upper axds. 

6-7, Distinct antheridia! clusters. 

8. One of the globose tipped paraphyses. 

9. Leaves removed, showing the subapical innovations of the stems and the 
nearly sessile capsules. 

r 

10. Single capsule enlarged, showing median dehiscence and flaring rim. 

11. Spores, one enlarged, showing spines. •" 

12. Collenchyma cells below the mouth showing the thickened walls. 
13- Cellsoflid. 
14. Two stomata enlars^ed. 



Ci 



15. Galyptra. 



2. On a Hybrid growing with Aphanorhegma serrata Sull. 

(Plate 231.) 

L 

These specimens were distributed in Drummond^s mosses of 
the Southern States (1S41) as N9. 20, labelled as follows: 

S<^histidut7n serratiim, nov. sp. ' . , • 

Foliis obovatis acuminatis sub apicum serratis, capsula hemisphaerica. 
Near St, Louis, growing with Phascitm serratum. 

In the set belon^rine to the Columbia College Herbarium, there 



;r."'fc> 



Aphanorhc. 



i^inknown /y/;'5r^w//;7>//;/, probably P.hirbinatnm,i\\o\\'^\, of course, 
the hybrid is not characteristic, as the archegonial plant was 
aphanorhegma, and the antheridial plant was not distributed and 
could not be as easily determined. 

Aphanorhegma serrata <? X Physconiitrium turbinatiim S (?). , 
Schistidmm serrafiim Hook. & Wilson in Drummond's South- 

ern Mosses no. 20 (1841). 

Plants 3-5 mm. high, gregarious, bushy; stems branching and 
i*ooting at base of the innovations ; leaves crowded, 2-3 mm. long, 
lanceolate or oblanceolate, from an oblong base, margins serrate 



66 



above, marginal cells inflated with oblique walls; vein ending 
below the apex, or excurrent into the subulate tip. Sporophyte . 
of two kinds. The normal, immersed ones of A. serrata, splitting 
in half w^hen mature, becoming broadly flaring, wuth several rows, 
8-1 o, of dark coUenchymatic cells bordering the mouth ^nd form- 
ing the whole of the lid; the spores rough, .024-.027 mm. The 
hybrid sporophytes cxserted ; seta 2-6 mm. ; capsule turbinate, not 
splitting in the middle, but with a smaller apical lid, which is 
bordered by one row of denser cells and is composed of parenchy- 
matic cells, as well as the w^alls of the capsule ; mouth bordered by 
two rows of dense oblong cells, and a persistent well-differentiated 
annulus ; spores .016-.018 mm., immature- 
Type locality near St. Louis, Missouri ; type specimen No. 20, 
Drummond*s Southern Mosses, in the Herbarium of Columbia 
College. 

I wrote to Kew for information concerning Hooker and Wilson s 
specimens, and Mr. Wright says they also have a mixture in Drum- 
mond's No. 20, but he does not mention any exscrted capsules. 
*' Some of the plants have broad leaves, similar to those of 
PJiasann patens^ as is shown by Sullivant in Mem. Acad. n. ser 
3:60. t. II (1848) and in SulHvant's Icones, /.J/. Others have 
longer, narrower leaves; and an almost sessile capsule, with a 
regular operculum. On another, specimen (13b, Mississippi. 
Drummond) Wilson has written 'In this tuft is also found Phasciim 
patens. 

Drummond's specimens were supposed to be the ones on 
which Sullivant founded his genus Aphanorhegma, but it is clear, 
on consulting his herbarium, that his set of Drummond's mosses 



J Ji 



could not have supplied the figures which are given in the Me- 
moirs of the American Academy (3: 60. /. 2. 1848), for he had 
only a few old ragged plants of No. 20 with deoperculate cap- 
sules. He distributed in the * Musci Allc^hanienses No. 19^ 



(1846) specimens from Virginia and Ohio, as ScJiistidium scrratmn, 
and in the original description of ApJianorhcgma in Gray's Manual 
he makes no mention of Drummond's specimens, and gives the 
distribution " from New England to Ohio." These must be the 
types of the genus, and the ones figured in the Icones Muse. /. 57- 



> 67 



; 



Oescriplion of Rlate 231, 

All the plants taken from Drummond's Southern Mosses, No. 20. 

1. A plant of Aphanorhegma serrata bearing three normal capsules, old, im- 
mersed and empty, with a flaring mouth, broader than the depth of the capsule; the 
spores measure .024-.027 mm., and are rough and brown. 

la. Hybrid sporophyte, with exserted seta 6 mm. long, the capsule not sp!iltin|r 
in the middle, but with a smaller lid, the mouth bordered by two rows of cells and 
an annulus, the spores imperfect, .016-.018 mm. 

2. A plant of Aphanorhegma serrata with one old, flaring, immersed capsule, 
spores .024-.027 mm.; to the left, on a separate branch, two younger capsules, 
immersed and immature. 

3. The lower plant is Aphanorhegma serrata Mith a single immersed flaring 
cai^sule, the spores .027-.029 mm, 

3a. Another immersed, flaring capsule with mature spores .027 mm. in diameter. 

3b. Four other branches, all bearing exserted capsules, less flaring than the 
other two and bordered by only two rows of cells with a distinct annulus, the spore^ 
imperfect and massed together in the sporesac. 

3d. was found in place on 3c., but in boiling it fell off". It will be seen that the 
cells of the lid are quite different from that of Fig. 6. 

4. A simple, unbranched plant of Aphat7orhegu:a serrata, showing the shape 
just after dehiscence. 

5. Same, enlarged, showing the 8 rows of thick, collenchyniatic cells bordering 
the mouth. 

6. Lid of same, enlarged; also composed of collenchyma. 

7. Spores spinosely roughened, .024-.027 mm. from Fig. 4. 

8. A normal plant of Aphanorhegma serrata with two capsules, one old and 
flaring, the spores .024-.027 mm., the other just splitting in half, with the calyptra 
still on. 

3. On a European Hybrid of Phvscomitrella patens. 

There has been recorded in Europe another hybrid which 
makes a curious parallel between Aphanorhegina and Physcoinitrdla, 
and it seems to have puzzled European brj-ologists, for they do 
not agree in the interpretation of the facts. The synonymy is as 
follows : 
Physcomitrella Hampei Limpr. (Rab. Kryptfl. 4: 175. 1886). 

Physcomitrdla patens X Physcomitnum sphacnaim. 

scomitrclla patens var. pcdicellata Br. & Sch. Br. Eu. t. jy 



(1849). 

Ephe^icntm J^atens y 

Aphanorhegiua pate 
Vet Akad. F5rh. 580 ( 

Physcoinitreila pate? 
191 (1869). 



Bryol 



68 



Milde says of it that the capsules are long-stalked with unmis- 
takable indications of a lid. These specimens were collected at 
Blankenburg in the Harz Mountains by Hampe. 

Schimper, Hampe, Lindberg, Braithwaite, Husnot, Sullivant 
and Lesquereux and James (our American authorities probably 
cited the European) all state that P. patens may have the cap- 
sules either immersed or exserted, and Boulay states that it is very 
variable and that the different forms may be found growing 
'* pell-meir' in the same locality. 

Limpricht, in a foot note to his description of P. Hanipti, s^Y^ 
that Lindberg claims to have seen this form in the axils of the 



/ 



patch 



We have a slight addition to make from our own observations, 



for in the J 



Herbarium we find authentic specimens of 



Hampe's labelled: '* Ephemerum patens var. anoniahim. Seta 
exserta. p. Blankenburg. Ex. herbar. E. Hampe, 1865." These 
specimens show what Limpricht says he has not seen, two kinds 
of capsules on the same plant. 

One plant which we have mounted has two capsules; the 

F 

lower one small, immersed, with thin walls and characteristic large 



pate 



The odier is exserted on a 



thick seta 2 mm. long, with regular distinct cells in the walls of 
the capsules and a differentiated lid. The exserted capsules are 
almost all either young or aborted, so that no spores have been 
seen, but one old capsule has been found with the lid off, showing 
the mouth bordered with an orange-colored rim of cells and a dis- 
tinct annulus. The immersed capsules are on the lower part of 
the plants, as in our hybrid; most of the capsules are older and 
have perfected their spores with measure .024-,027 mm. and are 
rough. 




. Japanese Characeae 

By T. F. Allen. 

4 

II. Chara coronata Ziz., collected in Province Ise. differs in no 
essential point from the forms of Nos. 2 and 3. 




Nit. 



Japonica Allen, from 



Ise, namely Yamagami ; distributed with No. 14, under the ex- 
siccatae number 9- ^ 




i 



i 



^ 



69 



I 13- NiTELLA PULCHELLA Sp, nov. 

Nitella polyarthrodactyla, monoica, ^loeocarpa. 

Stems about 460 in diamater. Vertlcels consist of eight 
or nine leaves (with an occasional simple, undivided leaf, but 
not heterophyllous.) Leaves about 150 in dianr; thrice di- 
vided, primary segment much longer, (2680) ; first node bears 
6-7 secondary segments, 68 diam., 600 long ; second node 
bears 5 tertiary segments, 34 in diam., 175 to 200 long; oc- 
casionally one of these divisions is undivided like a simple ter- 
minal with three cells; the third node bears four to six (usually 
four) two-celled terminals, 25. diam., 170 to 240 long. The ter- 
minals are two (rarely 3) celled, the cells about equal in length; 
the terminal cell is not mucroniform, but terminates, ratlier ab- 
ruptly, in a sharp point (some collections more elongated and 
slender); other specimens, terminals very short, forma brachyteles. 
The fertile verticils are somewhat compact and borne upon pedi- 
cels arising from the stem within the primary verticils ; the entire 
fertile verticil becomes a globular, gelatinous mass. The leaves 
o{ the fertile verticil are usually tzvice divided, the antheridia 
borne on the second node are about 225 in diam., and decidedly 
stipitate, the stipes 200 long and 54 in diam. The oogonia are 
borne on both nodes of the leaf, single; usually on the terminal 
node, sessile, the coronula minute. 

The oospore, dark reddish, is 250 long, 200 broad, with *J-Z 
prominent ridges, the surface is strongly reticulated, the reticulae 
5-12 in diam. 

The relationship of this beautiful species is not clear, in some 



fea'L 



N, 



separated from it as well as from the subspecies Zeyheri and 
Lechlcri, . ' 



N. 



A 



section most abound, but this species remains quite unique and 



individual. 



No. 14, Nitdla Japonicay piddltiondl coWtctions, more mature 



from Yamagami, Province Ise, distributed as exsiccatae No. 9. 



J 



Vert 



16, 



apparently irregularly in a double series, some longer, some 
shorter, but all twice divided ; the first node bears three oogonia 
and three secondary divisions, the second node also bears three 
oogonia and three terminals; rarely one of the secondary divi- 
sions does not form a node, but remains as a simple one-celled ter- 



70 



4 

minal; the terminals of the second node, usually three in number, 
are one-celled and acuminate above the middle, terminating in a 
sharp point which is solid. 

The oogonia are aggregated, three together, at each node of 
the leaf, not closely sessile, with a rather large and persistent 
coronuta, the lower cells of which appear to be spreading, as in 
some sub-species of the polyglochin group, in all from 350 to 400 
long. The oospore is marked with 6 striae, 204 long, 180 to 190 
broad. The membrane of the spore is strongly reticulated, the 
reticulae averaging 5 /" in diameter. This Japanese form differs 
mainly in the somewhat smaller spores, which arc much more 
strongly reticulated; the antheridia also are smaller, 200 in diam. 

kawa. Seishin nond. and distrib- 




M 



J 



■ 

to 

No. 16. NiTELLA SUBLUCENS Sp. nOV- 

Nitella diarthrodactyla, homocophylla, monoica macrodactyla, 
subflabellata, gymnocarpa. Fertile verticils contracted into dense 
terminal or axillary heads, long overtopped by the sterile leaves; 
verticils very dissimilar. The long sterile leaves are surmounted 
by a crown of about four minute two-celled leaflets. Fertile 
leaves twice- rarely thrice-divided, terminal segments usually four, 
short, two-celled, the lower of the two cells inflated, theterminal 
cell a sharp mucro, oogonia clustered at the base of the fertile ver- 
ticils and at the first node of the leaves; oospore, 285 long and 
broad, globular, six or seven striate. The present specimens are 
too immature to determine the character of the membrane of the 
spore. Antheridia about 200 in diameter. 

This species is closely allied to A\ ira7islucens (Pers.) Ag; from 
which it differs by its smaller size, and especially the much 
smaller oospore (and its locality). 

This species was collected in Sagami, Kodsu, and distributed 
as No. 16 of my Japanese exsiccatae. 

17. Chara gymnopitys A. Br. var. '' alplia'' A. Br. 

This form, though not exactly corresponding to gyumopitys 
gemnna A. Br., seems to be on the border between that and van 
[l^e/a) ditriuscula A. Br., both from Australia; and as A, Braun 
has left van *' Alpha" blank, it may well be occupied by this 
variety- The stems are about 306 in diam., with small, conical, 
broad-pointed spines; leaves about 8, stipules 16, the cortex cells 
double, alternately large and small, often with additional, partially 






n 



1 



71 



1 

developed cells, so that sections show about 20 cortex tubes: 
bracts at the leaf-nodes equally developed all around,- slender, 
long, acuminate-pointed, about 6o in diam. The oogonia seem to 
be distinctly stipitate, the oospores average 560 long by 365 to 390 
broad, with 8 (lO-ii) striae. The coronula is short, broad and 
square-shaped. Antheridia are rather rarely found, 293 in diam.: 
when present, conjoined. 

This species was collected in Mikawa, Tennu pond, and dis- 

■t 

tributed as No. 10 of my Japanese exsiccatae. 

No. 18, same species and variety as the last, collected in To- 
kio, Shinbashi pond, and distributed as No. 11 of my exsiccatae 
Japonicae. Nos. 19, 20 and 21, Nitella piilchdla Allen, collected 
respectively in Chikubushima pond, Mikawa Tennu pond, and 
Tokio Shinbashi pond, and distributed as Nos. 13 and 14 in my 
exsiccatae Japonicae. 

As a matter of record it may be well to add that the following 
list of Exsiccatae Japonicae has been distributed as far as speci- 
mens w^ould allow; of N. siibliicens Allen only fourteen sped- 
mens could be sent out. 



CHARACEAE JAPONICAE EXSICCATAE. 



f 



DiSTRIBUTAE A T. F. ALLEN. 



/ 



I 



I Chara fragilis Desv. 
Nitella coronata Ziz. 
Nitella coronata Ziz. 

4 Nitella Japonica Allen. 

5 Nitella mucronata A. Br, 



II Chara gymnopitys A. Br. 



var << alpha" A, Br 



T 2 Nitella paucicostata x\llen. 

13 Nitella pulchella Allen. 

14 Nitella pulchella Allen. 



var. tenuior A. Br. 15 Nitella subglomerata A. Br. 



6 Nitella Japonica Allen. 

7 Nitella orientalis Allen. 
S Nitella pulchella Allen. 

9 Nitella Japonica Allen. 

10 Chara gymnopitys A. Br. 



var. Ja]^>onica Allen. 



16 Nitella sublucens Allen. 

17 Nitella oligospira A. Br. 



var, "alpha" A, Br 



\ 



Tradescantia Virgin ica var. villosa Watson. 

There are doubts whether this is a variety of Tradescantia Vir- 
ginica L. or should have specific rank. Forms are found which 
apparently connect the extremes and make it difficult to draw the 




72 



line of separation. As the two are found growing in company at 
Forest Hill, in the southern border of Chicago, and where they 
are clearly distinct, I have had a good chance to observ^e them for 
several years in their native condition. I first met with the vari- 
ety in 1878, and have watched it more or less since. At that 
time it was not easy to refer this low or dwarf plant, broad leaved^ 
green and early maturing, to Tradescan/ta Vtrgmica as described 
in the books, usually a much taller, smooth, narrow-leaved and 
glaucous plant, which kept on flowering throughout the summer. 
Still more than their different look, it was their early flowering 
and disappearance which particularly called attention to them, 
Rafinesque, in the species which he made out and gives in his 

ft 

** New^ Flora and Botany of North America," calls some'^vernar* 

1 

and others *' estival."* This holds good between the two found 
here. Notes made in 1878 give the time of gathering as May 



30th. 



J 



nth, and none were in flower, all having gone to seed. Trades- 
cantia Virginica was then fairly in its season of bloom, only a few 
ha\ing passed that stage. May 12, 1894, a few of the low kind 
were found in flower; on the 2ist they were in great abundance. 
At the latter date but three of the other form were found in flower 
after a long search. On June 19th half a dozen flowers of the 
low^ form were discovered after a search of an hour or more in 
spots where the plants were most numerous. The taller form was 
then in full bloom everywhere. The stems of the low form were 



r 

mostly dead or dying, some lying flat on the ground. Their sea- 



son was virtually over. A number of plants of T. Virginica were 
seen in flower August i6th. The last one observed was on Au- 
gust 29th, except a single plant on October 2d, probably a case 
of flowering the second time. The broad leaved form behaves 
like a vernal plant, early in the season maturing its buds for the 
coming year, its aerial parts then disappearing, a process mostly 
completed by the last of June. . Some of the other form will have 
passed their floral season then, but others keep up the succession 
so that they are common or even abundant in July. I have as 
yet detected the low kind in but one locality, while the other 
rows in profusion wherever the conditions are suitable. 




\ 



) 



*1. c. p, 84 ff. 



73 



i 



The two do not intergrade here, something which might be 

expected where they are so intimately associated in some places 

that both forms can be taken up with the same handful of earth, 

with their roots intermingling. Hence there is little difficulty in 

distinguishing each, their involucral leaves in most cases being at 

once decisive. Sometimes the typical form becomes low, and oc- 

casionally pilose, generally in poor soil or in tlie sand region, but , ' 

it preserves the main characteristics of the plant, and rarely de- 
ceives one. 

As found here the following descriptions will give their points 
of similarity or difference : 

TrADESCAXTIA VlRGIXICA L. 

Plants glaucous, stems single or clustered, i~5 feet high, gen- 



erally 1)4-3 f*^^t, simple, or frequently branched, smooth. Leaves 



channeled, narrow, linear to linear-lanceolate, scarcely ciliate ex- 
cept at base, the sheaths and base of the leaves on the lower part 
of the stem sometimes pilose. Involucral leaves mostly shorter 
than the stem-leaves, generally much shorter, often abruptly con- 
tracted from an ovate base, which usually sheaths the umbel when 
in bud. Umbel simple, many flowered. Peduncles and calyx 
smooth. Flowers blue, varying to purplish blue. Roots coarsely 
fibrous, variable in color, whitish to yellow. 

Abundant in open woods, fields and borders of woods. 
May-August. 

r 

T. ViRGiNicA L. var. vii.losa Watson. 

Plants green, rarely glaucous, stems single or oftcncr clustered, 
2-15 in. high, mostly 5-10 in., simple or occasionally branched, 
sometimes flexuose, smooth or hairy. Leaves flattish, promi- 
nently nerved, broadly linear to linear lanceolate, ciliolate, hairy 
or roughish with short hairs, especially the upper, the lower be- 

. coming smooth or smoothish. Involucral leaves usually longer 
and broader than the stem leaves, }4-i}i '"• "^^''^^' g^'^dually 
tapering from the b^se, which scarcely or not at all sheaths the sim- 
ple, many flowered umbel. Peduncles and calyx villous. Fiow- 

-ers commonly purplish-blue, varying to blue. Roots coarsely 
fibrous, yellow, often deep yellow. 

Woods or borders of woods, frequently in rather dense woods. 

May-June.* - 



S24, 



335). describes T. Virginica as if he had this form in hand. He says the stem is 
"about a foot high,"'^ the involucrum « large, 2-leaved," " flowers pubescent. May 
ic rr;„r» 4.i,_ ^-.^ -ra.. :„_ tr„ .,^^1= « \fv snpri mens are from Lake Michcan. 



is given as the time of flowering. 



Chicago, III. 



J 



"\ 



74 



Some new Hybrid Oaks from the Southern States. 



By John K. Small. 



(Plates 232-235.) 

r 

The foUowincr is a record of some observations on several 



interesting forms of Querczis growing in North Carolina and 



Georgia, together with a striking hybrid existing in two well- 
marked forms, found in Lake county, Florida, by Mr. Geo. V. 
Nash, during his collecting trip of last season. 

w 

QUERCUS PhELLOS X Q. DIGITATA. 

A large and stout tree with rough scaly bark, reaching a 
height of from twenty to thu*ty-five meters, and having a trunk 
diameter ranging from six to nine decimeters. Trunk forking 
several feet from the ground, the divisions thence branching, the 
branches rather erect and the branchlets stra^cfling ; leaves oblong, 
obovate or oblanceolate, 5-20 cm. long, 2-10 cm. broad, mostly 
entire and undulate or somewhat crisped, or more or less two- 
lobed or three-lobed near the apex, acute or obtuse at the apex, 
acute, obtuse or subcordate at the base, the upper surface dark- 
green and glabrous, the lower brown and more or less tomentose 
with reddish brown, stellate hairs, especially about the midrib and 
principal nerves ; mature fruit not seen. (Plate 232.) 

Hills west of the Falls of the Yadkin River, North Carolina. 

In 1892 I found a small grove of peculiar looking oak trees in 
a very shallow depression in the foot-hills of the Falls Mountains, 
just west of the Falls of the Yadkin River, In Stanley county, 
North Carolina. , Specimens were collected, but there was not 
time for a thorough investigation of the case. The specimens 
suggested a form of Q. Riidkini{jQ. PhdlosY. Q. nigKo), and some 
were distributed under that name. Each succeeding year I have 
observed the trees and their surroundings, and am now confident 
that the parents are not those of Q. Riidkini, but Q. Phcllos and 
Q. digitata, the two prcvaihng species of the immediate region. 
Q. nigra, one of the undoubted parents of Q. Riidkiid, was not 
observed within several miles. The form of Q. xligitata, which is 
apparently one of the parents of the hybrid under considera- 
tion, is not that with long, falcate leaf-lobes, but one common 
through the pine woods in the middle country of the Southern 
States. Its leaf is not as deeply lobed and has a more cuneate 



» 



75 



outline. As in the case of the following h>'biid, this one pro- 
duces on tlie same branches leaves almost identical in shape with 
those of the parents. Many, however, are intermediate, in vari- 
ous degrees resembling one or the other of the parent forms. 
The texture is about intermediate, and the pubescence on the 



lower surface less than in Q. digitata and much more than exists 
in true Q. Phellos. 

The cup and acorn, although not mature, each exhibit charac- 
ters which suggest Q, digitata rather than Q. 7ngra. Most of the 



trees noticed had the pecuHar habit of forking about three feet ■ 
from the ground into two erect secondary trunks. This charac- 
ter, together with the striking irregularity in the shape of the 
foliage, makes the trees quite conspicuous among their associates. 

QUERCUS GeORGIANA X Q. NIGRA. 

A small tree of a dark-green color and a somewhat straggling 
mode of branching, ranging from three to ten meters in height and 



having a trunk diameter varying from ten to twenty-five centimeters 
clothed w^ith a dark, smooth, glabrous bark, which becomes rough 
on the trunk. The leaves are mostly obovate in outline, sometimes 
oblong, 4-20 cm. long, 2.5-15 cm. broad, 3-5-lobcd, dark green 
and shining above, brown and dull beneath, glabrous on both sur- 
faces, except a small tuft of stellate hairs in the axils of the nerves 
■on the low^er side, obtuse or acute, equilateral or inequilateral at the 
base, the sinuses either shallow or deep, sometimes penetrating 
\ -almost to the midrib ; the lobes rounded or square-oblong and 
■slightly lobed at the ends, all ending in a slender apiculation ; fruit 
12-15 nim. long, 13-16 mm. broad, short-stalked, peduncle 4-6 
mm. long; cup saucer-shaped or slightly turbinate, reddish, the 
■scales triangular, the acorn depressed-globose, pubescent, some- 
times sparingly striped, ending in a short, abrupt apiculation. 
(Plate 233.) 

Northern slope of Stone Mountain, DeKalb county, Georgia. 

^ 

On the northern slope of Stone Mountain, at an altitude of 
about 1300 feet, there is a grove of stunted trees of various 
species of oaks, Qicerais Gcorgiana and Q. nigra predominat- 
ing, I had been in the grove a number of times, but noticed 
nothing pecuhar until January, 1894, ^vhen my attention was 
called to some odd shaped leaves on the ground and anomalous 
acorns on the branches overhead. This material suggested a hy- 
brid form. Last September I visited the same spot to secure » 
fresh foliage from the trees and make some further observations. 

i 



a 



7G 



Q, Gcorgiana and Q 



imnie- 



cliate vicinity, and the trees in question appear intermediate be- 
tween the two. In place of the graceful port of the preceding 
species there was a certain amount of the rugged habit of the 
latter. The texture of the fohage is intermediate, and leaf forms 
suggesting both species occur on the same branches. Mature 
fruit also has traces of the characters of that of both the parents. 
The accompanying plate gives some of the extreme leaf forms. 

QUERCUS CaTESBAEI X Q. CIXEREA. 

Form A, in zvhicli Q. cinerea predominates {^No. ij86). 

A small tree with the habit of Q. einerea, ranging from two and 
one-half to four meters in height, with a trunk diameter ranging 
from six to twelve centimeters, branching about one meter from the 
round ; the branches somewhat spreading, clothed with a smooth, 






striate bark; the young shoots tomentose with dark-colored 
trichomes. The leaves are narrowly obovate or oblanceolatc, some- 
times eUiptic or lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, 2-6 cm. broad, -entire, 
undulate and more or less crisped or partially 3-7-lobed, either on 
one side or on both, acute or acuminate at both ends, short-petiolea 
or sessile, the upper surface light and very bright green, the lower 
surface lighter but rather dviU and more or less tomentose, the mid- 
rib and nerves white but not prominent above, prominent beneath, 
the lobes short-apiculate; cup hemispheric-turbinate, 13-14 nim. 
broad, 10 mm. high, nearly sessile. (Plate 234.) 

Growing in dry, sandy soil, in high pine lands on the road be- 
tween Umatilla and Lake Ella (about two miles from the latter 
place) in Lake county, Plorida. 

Form B, in which Q. Catcsbaci predominates [No, 1^77)- 

A small tree, with much the habit of Q, Catesbaei, reaching a 
height of tw^o or three meters and having a trunk diameter of six to 
nine centimeters, the trunk branching from within 3 or 5 dm. oi 
the ground, the branches more spreading than in the former. 
Branchlets conspicuously marked with white lenticels, the young 
twigs white-tomentose ; leaves mostly oblong in outline, some- 
times obovate, 6-15 cm. long, 3-10 cm. broad, usually 5--7-lobedv 
sometimes 2-3-lobed or nearly entire, more or less irregular 
and inequilateral, acute or obtuse at the base, short-petloled, 
the lobes narrow, acute and apiculate by a long, sharp bristle, 
somew^hat tomentose beneath, the nerves prominent and conspicu- 
ous on both surfaces. Flowers and fruit not seen. (Plate 235.) : 

Grows in dry, sandy soil in high pine lands, on the road be- 

t\yeen Umatilla and Lake Ella (about three-fourths of a mile frorn 

the latter place) in Lake county, Florida. 



I 



) 



' \ 



77 



( 



p 

■ 

Family Nomenclature. 

By Dr. V. Havard. 

-^ Much credit is due Mr. Barnhart for taking up and elaborating 
this important problem which now forces itself upon the attention 
of botanists for a satisfactory solution. Uniformity and stabih'ty 
m family nomenclature are as desirable and necessary as in genera 



and species, and therefore such nomenclature must be built upon 
secure foundations and placed within the dominion of law. 

The advantages of a common ending for all family names are 
obv^ious and generally recognized, and the ending most habitually 
used is accae. There seems to be no valid reason why it should 
not be applied under all circumstances; it does no violence to 
^^^^^y grammar or analogy, and there should be no difficulty in 
sacrificing custom and tradition to law and uniformit}'. 

To this extent I agree with Mr. Barnhart, and I also recognize 
the wisdom of not going behind the Species Plantarum of 1753. 

To his rule that the root of the family name shall always be 
that o{ the accepted name of a recognized genus belonging to 
that family, I am inclined to demur, and would instead offer the 
following propositions : 

1. The name oi each natural family shall be the oldest name 
properly published, changing its termination into accae if other- 
Avise ended. 

2. The name shall be properly published, if in Latin, in the 
plural number, and accompanied with description clearly based 
upon one or more genera of said family. 

My reasons for dissenting are the following : 



!• Priority is the fundamental law of nomenclature and must 

•dominate every other consideration. As the original author of a 

genus name is allowed entire freedom \]i his choice (within the 

h'mlts of correct construction) and receives credit for it, so should 

• the author of a family name. .- ' * . • 



2. Genera are often separated only b}' minor and secondary char- 
acters, so that their limits are variously estimated, and their names 
accordingly liable to change with the discovery oi n^w species. 
Should the family name share the risk of this instability? 



i 



78 



A 



S 



implies that said genus is the most important, and that the char- 
acters of the family are, in the main, those of this genus, while in 
reality the genus may be one of the least important and materially 
differ in its structure from that of other genera, e, g,, Cassiaccaey 
which is proposed for Legiuninosaceae and Cardttaccae for Com- 

w 

positaceae, 

4. A family name should, so far as possible, describe a charac-* 
ter common to all or a great number of genera in the family, and 
this seems to have been the praiseworthy aim of^sevcral of the 
distinguished authors to whom we owe the existing nomenclature. 
The fact that plants of other families may have the same character 
does not matter: there can be no hard and fast line in classifica- 
tion. For this reason I prefer Cruciferaccac to Brassicaceac^ Gnwii- 
naccae to Poaceae, Coniferaccae to Pinaccae, Umbclliferaccae to- 
Ammiaceae, etc., even though it is true that umbels are also found 
in Araliaceae, and cruciform flowers in Capparidaceae, 

• 5, Our main object being stable uniformity, the rule which 
, will accomplish it Avith the least disturbance, and preserve the 
most of the familiar old names should be preferred ; if priority is 
sufficient for the purpose we must reject the more radical and sub- 
versive rule of Mr. Barnhart * " ' 

Concerning tribal names I presume there is no question that 
they should invariably be formed from the root of a generic name 

r 

with the addition of the termination eac^ as is the usage of our 
best authors. 



Reviews- 

r 

Life and Writings of Rafinesqne .-^YxQ^ss&d. for the Filsorr 



M 



By Richard- 
Ellsworth Call. ' " • 

Filson Club Publications, No. 10. 4to, broad margins, pp. '^'^7- 
plates 5. John P. Morton & Co., Louisville, Ky,, 1895. 

This splendid volume, creditable both from a literary and from 
an artistic standpoint, had its inception, so the preface informs 
us, in an attempt to clear up certain matters connected with 

M 

the synonymy of the Unionidae, in which family of molluscs- 



I 



f 



79 



F 



F 



r 



Rafinesque was much interested and in which he did such valuable 
work. 

The Filson Club is an organization having for its object the 
collection and preservation of original matter connected ^^•ith the 
history of the State of Kentucky, hence the publication of this 
volume as a recognition of " the first resident professor-naturalist 
within the limits of the State." 

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque [Schmaltz]* was born in Ga- 
lata, near Constantinople, October 23, 1783. His father was 
French, his mother of German parentage. His early life was 
spent m France and Italy, 'and his first essay, written In 1796, was 
m the form of a journal, describing a tour to Genoa. That he 
early had the instincts of a naturalist is manifest, for by the time 
he was fifteen years old he had made collections of plants, fishes, 
^ bu-ds and shells, and apparently took but little interest in boyish 

sports or games, or in association with other youths of his own 
age. 

His first visit to America was in 1S02, and here he remained, 
mostly in the vicinity of Philadelphia, until 1805, when he re- 
turned to Italy. There he remained for a period of ten years, 
during which time he wrote many papers, dealing not only with 
matters in connection with his surroundings, but also others based 



upon his observations and experiences while in America. His 
domestic life was unhapp}', however, and doubtless had much to 
Qo with his subsequent eccentric manners. In his description of 
Sicily he says : " She ofifers * * * a fruitful soil, a delightful 
chmate, excellent productions', perfidious men, deceitful women." 
In 1 81 5 Rafinesque left Europe forever and set sail for America 
once more. His arrival was dramatic in the extreme, and doubt- 
less still further heightened his pessimistic ideas. At midnight, 
November 2d, in a dense fog, the ship ran aground off Fisher's 
Island, in Long Island Sound, and all the results of his years of 
toil, mercantile and scientific, were lost. 

He finally came to New York and accepted a position as pri- 
vate tutor in a wealthy family. He soon resigned this position. 

He added this, his mother's name, for prudential reasons, on his return to Italy, 
m order that he might pass for an American and thus avoid certain political compu- 
rgations in which he feared he might become involved. 



80 



however, and went to Philadelphia, where he found several good 
friends and other persons, it seems, who were not, for we hear of him 
■, during his stay there as having been bankrupted in a business ad- 
venture and defrauded of all his savings by the falseness of a fel- 
low-countryman, to whom he had intrusted his affairs while on his 
exploring expeditions into w^hat w^as then called the West, between 
the AUeghanies and. the Mississippi. 

Through the Influence of one of his* Philadelphia friends he 
secured an appointment to a professorship in the Transylvania 
University, at Lexington, Kentucky, upon the duties of which 
position he entered in the fall of 1819. Here he passed seven 
busy years, during which time he made extensive collections, es- 
pecially in conchology and botany, wrote and published many 
papers, attended to his duties at the University and acted as sec- 
retary of the Kentucky Institute — the first scientific society formed 
within the State. One of his great ambitions seems to have been 
to found or to assist in the foundation of a botanic garden at Lex- 
ington, and in 1823 he presented the matter before the State Leg- 
islature with such success that the Senate psssed a bill to that 
effect, but it failed of passage in the Assembly. He then under- 
took to push the scheme by means of priv^ate subscription and the 
. formation of a joint stock company. An act of incorporation 
was secured, ground was purchased and planting was actually 
begun, but those upon w^hom he relied failed to meet their obliga- 
tions and the attempt was finally abandoned. This embittered 
and saddened him still further, and he says: <* =^ * - this garden 
would have been my delight; I had traced the plan of it, with a 
retreat among the flowers, a greenhouse, museum and library; 
but I had to forsake it at last and make again my garden of the 
woods and mountains." 

He does not seem to have been in touch with his associates in 
the L^niversity, who took but httle interest In his scientific work, 
and he was doubtless impatient of their criticisms and indiffer- 
ence. Added to this, the students ridiculed him and finally, in 
June, 1825, he left Lexington and once more made his way to 
Philadelphia. During the next fifteen years he seems to have 
lived in a hand-to-mouth manner, practicing medicine in his own 
way, lecturing at the Frankhn Institute and assisting in the estab- 



B^ . -^ 



81 




t 



lishing of a savings bank. This latter seems to have met with 
success, but although it was in existence at the time of his death,' 
his end came to him amidst surroundings of absokite poverty, 
alone, in a garret in a poor quarter of Philadelphia m 1840* 

His estate consisted entirely of personal property — mostly 
books, unpublished manuscript and specimens of natural history. 
Ihe latter had suffered much from his inability to properly care 
^ for them, and a large part of his plant collection was sold as waste 

paper. Eight dray loads comprised the material which he left 
behind. Some of this is yet preserved in the National Museum ; 
another portion was secured by the University of Pennsylvania 
through Mr. Isaac Burk, and many of his botanical specimens 
finally went to the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, and the Philadel- 
phia Academy of Natural Sciences. The final settlement of his 
estate left it indebted to the administrator in the sum o( ^1443. 

This, in brief, is the outh'ne of his hfe as given in the first sixty- 
nine pages of the volume. Accompanying this are two portraits, 
one taken from a painting in the collection of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society, the date of which is uncertain, and another as he 
appeared in 18 10 at the age of twenty-seven, besides which there 
IS a photographic reproduction of one of his letters to DeCandolIe, 
written in 183S. 

Following this is a bibliography, arranged in chronologic 
sequence, enumerating 203 publications, containing 420 titles. It 
IS almost impossible to conceive, in these days of specialization, 
the wide range of his mental activity of which these give evidence. 
Botany, Zoology, History, Social and Political Economy, Mete- 
orology, Geology, Poetry, Philosophy, Book Reviews, Jour- 
nals of Travel, Astronomy, Physics, Archaeology, Ethnology, 
Medicine and other subjects which might be classed as subdivi- 
sions of the above, all received his attention. 

There is also a chapter devoted to a list of pubhcations in 
which Rafinesque or his works are mentioned by other authors 
and an appendix giving a copy of his will, which, in addition to 
the part describing as to how^ he wishes his property to be dis- 

* According to an article by Thos. Meehan, published m the Philadelphia Ptibiic^ 
i-edger 2. few- years ago, 'dxQ exact date of which is unknown to me, Rafinesque is 
said to have died September 18, 1S42. 



/ 



I- 

f 



p 



Er 



82 



posed, contains the clause, " 1 wish my body to be burnt rather 
than buried, as I do not want to contamine the earth by decay, 
nor be a cause of desease to other men. My ashes^ if they can be 
collected, I wish to be deposited in a Urn, to be kept with my 
collections." 

Apparently his property and certainly his body, was not dis- 
posed of in accordance with either the letter or spirit of this docu- 
ment, and his biographer says that he '' appears to have been de- 
SDoiled of his rights in nomenclature while living; he was de- 






'spoiled of his possessions when dead. 

Many of the most interesting details contained in the volume 
are necessarily omitted in this review, but attention should be 
called, at least, to the titled headings, '' Rafinesque's Name m 
Nomenclature " where he is commemorated both generically and 
specifically in botany and zoology ; " Medals, Diplomas and Other 
Honors " in which a list of these, conferred upon him by scientific 
societies at home and abroad is given ; " Rafinesque and Evolu- 
tion ;" ^'Rafinesque's Literary Style;'' "Personal Appearance of 
Rafinesque/' etc. 

The volume is a model of its kind and is a fittin^f tribute to the 



fc> 



versatile man whose life it memorializes, A. H. 

Annual Report of the State Botanist of New York. Charles H. 
Peck. pp. 48 (From the 47th Report of the New York State 
Museum of Natural History, Albany, 1894). 

Mr. Peck's report for the year 1893 contains a great deal of 
important and valuable information. It deals w^ith the poisonous 

, „ a list of plants added to the State Herbarium, 
of which 40 species w^ere not before represented, gives notes o"^ 
species not before reported in any of his communications, there 
being 14 new Fungi here described in the grenera Psathyrella, 



ivfes 



Menilius, Stereum, Discosia, Haplosporella^ Rkabdospora, Voliiteluiy 
Cercospora, Peziza^ Sphaerdlay Clavaria, Leptothyriiun, Zygodesmns, 
Astenila and Mdogramuia , not all from New York State, how- 
ever ; and under '' Remarks and Observations " w^e find a variety 

r 

of interesting notes on distribution and on characters of numerous 
species. Dr. E, C. Howe contributes the description of CarcX 



•I apt, 



■kjli 



N. L. B. 




i 




1 






83 



N 



L 



Science. This weekly journal of research and discovery, 
abandoned for some months has been revived under most favorable 
circumstances and bids fair to give American students a reputable 
and authoritative medium o^ rapid and regular publication. It is 
published under the cooperation of the following Editorial Com- 
mittee: S. Newcomb, Mathematics; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; 
E. C. Pickering, Astronomy; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics; R. II. 
Thurston, Engineering; Ira Remsen, Chemistry; Joseph Le Conte 
Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleon- 
tology; W. K. Brooks, Invertebrate Zoology; C. Hart Merriam, 
Vertebrate Zoology; N.L. Britton, Botany; Henry F. Osborn, 
General Biology; H. P. Bowditch, Physiology; J. S. Billings, 
Hygiene; J. McKeen Cattell, Psychology ; Daniel G. Brinton. J. 
W. Powell, Anthropology. 

Volume I of the new series was begun January 4th, and the 
seven numbers so far issued are replete with matters of both 
general and special interest. In these days oi extreme special- 
ization and enormous publication, the student tends to confine 
himself to his chosen sphere of thought, and to know as much 
as possible about that little sphere, and it would seem in many 
cases as little as possible about everything else. This tendency 
has been especially noticable in America, and we may now hope 
that it will be in large measure corrected by the publication of 
the journal here noticed. 

Manuscript intended for publication and books or papers in- 
tended for review should be sent to Professor J. McKeen Cattell, 
Garrison on Hudson, N. Y. The subscription is fixed at $5.00 a 
year and should be sent to the Publisher of Science, 41 East 49th 
St., New York City. We bespeak a cordial support of the enter- 
prise by all American botanists. 

Additional Notes on the 7iew Fossil, Daimoiiclix ; its Mode of 
Occiurence, its eross and minute Structure. E, H. Barbour. 
Univ. Studies, Univ. Neb. 2: i-i6.pl. 1-12. 

This exceedingly interesting contribution to the h'terature oi 
problematic organisms is the second one on the subject by the 
author since the ori^nal " Notice oi new gigantic Fossils," pub- 
lished in Science, ig : 99-100./^^. 1-3. The name has evidently 
seemed somewhat provincial to the author, so he begins the paper 



84 



xyith the modest excuse that it was adopted in deference to the 
ranchmen and early settlers who used to know the fossils as 
«' Devil's corkscrews," or " fossil twisters." They have been ex- 
amined by botanists, geologists and paleontologists and have 
been considered as plants, animal burrows and " accidents." If 
they are to be classed with the latter, the author justly says: 
"Such accidents should be immortalized." Sections examined 
under the microscope, however, show a structure which is ceUular 
but not vascular, and the author concludes that they represent a 
new order of aquatic plants, "resembling the red sea weeds more 
closely than anything else," The illustrations are to be particu- 
larly commended, as they represent the location of the fossils m 
the field at a distance, single specimens close to, microscopic sec- 
tions and a general view of the collection as it appears in the Mu- 
seum of the University. A. H. 

American Algae. Century L 1894. Josephine E. Tilden, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

The first distribution of this collection of fresh water algae 
from the upper Mississippi Valley has made its appearance. ^ 
All the specimens, including some rare forms, are mounted upon 
ood white card p'aper in a quarto volume. Labels, includ- 
ing descriptive details, are printed, and the material has evidently 
been determined and arranged with great care. The work as a 
P whole has only commendable features; It will certainly prove to 

be of great value to the few herbaria who may be fortunate enough 

to acquire it, as the edition Is limited to twenty-five copies. 

A. S. 

ThroK^k Glade and Mead. — Under this attractive title Mr. 



5-» 



V> 



Joseph Jackson presents a most pleasing account of the flora 01 
of Worcester county, Mass. This large county, extending across 
the centre of the State, embraces a very diversified topography- 
\Ve have the high peak of Mt, Wachusett, with a few plants ap- 
proaching the sub-alpine character; the rocky cliffs of West- 
minster, the Purgatory Chasm near Uxbridge, and many fine 
p lakes and ponds, swamps and forests. All this region Mr. Jack- 

son has made pecuHarly his own. He takes the reader at oncQ 
into his confidence, and with charming talk by the way leads 



^^ 



85 



him to his chosen haunts. He knows the poets we]], and culls 
from them their sweetest thoughts. In these days, when so much 
of our botanical reading has an aggressive and controversial turn, 
It is refreshing to escape into the fens and forests. Every page 
in this bool<: is odorous with wild flowers and tuneful with bees 
and birds. 

The volume is amply illustrated by photogravure impressions 
of actual Worcester county scenes, or of typical wild flowers. 
Thus the peat-meadow given opposite to page 196 is enough to 
fill a botanist's soul with envy; and who would not love to wan- 
der through the path in the frontispiece? 

The series of familiar papers is followed by a catalogue of the 
plants thus far found in the county, following the last edition o[ 
Gray's Manual as to nomenclature. The author, who is eminently 
fair minded, says : 'Tn the present state of botanical nomenclature, 
and for the purpose for which this catalogue is intended, I have 
not thought it wise or necessary to adopt proposed changes not 
yet generally accepted. The student in such matters can easily 
adapt himself to changing conditions/' 

The press-work and general composition of the book are very 
satisfactory, indeed elegant. W. W. Bailey. 

^^/ie Characcae of America. T. F, Allen. Part II. Fascicle 2, 
Issued December, 1894. Pages 9- 17, plates' 8, species 9, illus- 
trated. 

In this fascicle Dr. Allen has described and fimired three new 



species of Nitclla, N. Bastini, N. dilatata, and N. annul 
six others are fio-ured and described, N. capitata, N. p 



N. davata, N. Macoiinii, N. axillaris, and N. Morongii. E. G. B. 

E 
-I ■ 

List of PteridopJtyta and Sperniatophyta grooving without Culti- 
vation in Northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee 
of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, %vo, pp. ijy. New York, 1893-1894. 

This work, originally issued in signatures to members of the 
committee and such other botanists as expressed a desire for it in 
that form, is now sent complete, simultaneously with its appear- 
ance as Vol. 5, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 

It had its first definite inception at the Rochester, N. Y., meet- 



86 






ing of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
in 1892, after the botanists there present had been engaged in an 



earnest consideration of the principles of plant nomenclature for 
many years, a subject of discussion in which most American 



botanists had taken part. An interchange of views between those 



> 



who were present showed that while there were many differences 
of opinion in regard to details all were practically agreed as to 
certain fundamental principles. A committee w^as, therefore, ap- 
pointed to prepare a draft of a code, which draft was subsequently 
presented, discussed, amended and finally adopted. This is now 
known as '' The Rochester Code." 

This committee was then continued with power to prepare and 
print a list of the plants embraced within the area covered by the 
sixth edition of Gray's Manual of Botany, with the addition of the 
States of Kansas and Nebraska, and the Canadian Provinces from 
Manitoba to Newfoundland, in accordance with the principles 
enunciated in the code. The committee immediately went to 
work and were able to present the list, in manuscript form, almost 
complete, at the next meeting of the Club, at Madison, Wis., in 
1893. 

The committee was then increased by two members, and was 
authorized to proceed with the printing of the list. Several mmor 

I* 

points not determined by the Club, such as capitalization, insertion 
or omission of commas and use of trino"mials, were referred to the 
committee with power, decided by vote of the members, and the 
final result is the volume now before us. 

That it will meet with the approval of over three-fourths of the 

+ 

working botanists in America, we think there can be no question. 
The Rochester Code is and has been accepted by such a large 
■ majority that it is safe to say no work of magnitude could hope 
for future success here if based upon different principles. Some 01 
the minor rules adopted in the printing, however, are not yet so 
generally accepted and may be expected to remain as matters of 
discussion for some time to come. Commas may be either omitted 
or retained between the specific or varietal name and the authority; 
capital letters may or may not be used for specific or varietal 
names derived from persons or places, etc., and varieties may or 
may not be written as trinomials. These are minor matters. 



87 



What concerns us most nearly is that, unless the citations of 
date of publication for some of the names should have been 
wrongly determined, we now have established a permanent basis 
for our nomenclature, and an amount of condensed study with- 
in our grasp, for which all botanists owe the committee a 
deep debt of gratitude. The labor of this research and of the 
verifications which were necessary only the members of the 
committee can appreciate, and we are perfectly willing to forgive, 
in advance, any errors in this respect which may and probabi}" 
Will be discovered when the list comes to be put into practical use. 
Each species and variety is given a consecutive number, beginning 



with I. CM/i 



terminating with 4336. 



tcnnifolia 



with Engler and Prantl's ^'Naturliche Pflanzenfamilicn," To the 
list is added an appendix containing references to typographical 
errors, wrong determinations, changes in synonymy and about 



fifty additional species. 

The committee to whose labors we are indebted consists of X. 



John M 



M 



Greene and Wm. Trelease. 



A. H. 



Proceedings of the Club. 

Annual IMeeting, Tuesday Evening, January 8, 1S95. 

The President in the chair and seventeen persons present 



,' Mr. Leona 

F 

tive members. 



Ekman were elected ac- 



The following officers were elected for 1895 : 

President, Hon., Addison Brown; Vice-Presidents, Dr. T. F. 
Allen, Rev. L. H. Lighthipe; Recording Secretary, Dr. Henry H. 
Rusby; Corresponding Secretary, John K. Small ; Editor, Dr. N. 
L. Britten; Treasurer, Henry Ogden; Associate Editors, Dr. Emily 



A. Heller; Curator, J 



A 



Under the reading of communications, a letter was read 
from Prof. Dr. A. Cogniaux accepting the honorary member- 



F 



88 ■ 



The Secretary remarked briefly on the life 



ship which had been "conferred upon him, with w^arm expressions 
of appreciation. A communication w^as then read from Mr. 
Joseph Crawford ann 
J. Bernard Brinton. 
and character of Dr. Brinton, and announced that an obituary 
notice was being prepared which would appear in the Bulletin* 
A committee consisting of Dr. Britton and Dr. Rusby was then 
appointed to draft appropriate resolutions, and to present copies 
of the same to the family of the deceased. 

The death was also announced, by the President, of Prof. E. H. 



J 



At the same time 



he remarked upon the high character of the deceased as a scien 
tist, a teacher and a gentleman of refinement. Similar remark 



M 



Mr. Ogdcn and M 



inted 



to draft suitable resolutions and to present the same to the family 

* 

of the deceased and to the President of the Board of Education 
of New York City. 

The paper of the evening w^as then presented by Mr. A. A. 



Hell 



er, entitled ''Collecting in Western Texas, 



iy 



illustrated by 



specimens of the flora. 



r 

Wednesday Evening, January 30, 1895. 

w 

L 

The President in the chair and thirty persons present. 
i\Irs. Annie M. Smith, of 78 Orange street, Brooklyn, was 
elected an active member. 

On behalf of the Committee appointed to draft resolutions 
concerning the death of Prof. Day, a report was read by Mr. 
Ogden and a copy placed on file. ■ . ' 

■ The announced paper of the evening, on *' Food Plants of the 
'American Indians," was then read by Dr. Valery Havard, and 

r 

' proved to be one of the most interesting and valuable communi- 
cations presented. to the club in recent years. It will be published 
in a subsequent issue of the Bulletin. 



fr ^ 



j^ 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.^PLATE 229 






JBiidgKflm. 







PHYSCOMITRELLA PATENS (HEDW.) BR. & SCH. 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 230 




J BfidgliOJiK 



APHANORHEGMA SERRATA SULLIV 



M. 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 231 





^1^ 



• 



A 



HYBRID OF APHANORHEGMA SERRATA. 



/ 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 232. 




i 



^1 






lF 



4 



i-. 



QUERCUS PHELLOS X QUERCUS DIGITATA 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.—PLATE 233 




QUERCUS GEORGIANA X QUERCUS NIGRA 



« 



t 



£ 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 234 




fi- 






¥flj 



^m ^ 



I 



QUERCUS CATESBAEI X QUERCUS ClNEREA—FoRM A. 



t 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 235 




it - 



^ 

V 



i li 



* 



QUERCUS CATESBAEI X QUERCUS CIXEREA. 



Form B 



't 






^mi 



89 



Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany. 

Ayres, H. B. The Muskcag Spruce. Gard. & For. 7: 504. / 80. 
19 D, 1894. 

Barbour, E. H. Additional Notes on the new Fossil, Daimonelix^ 
its Mode of Occurrence, its gross and minute Structure. Univ. 
Studies, Univ. Neb. 2: 1-16.//. i~i2. 1894. 

Cross sections under the microscope show these fossils to have been plants with a 
structure that was cellular but not vascular. 

Barnhart, J. H. Family Nomenclature, Bull. Torn Bot. Club, 22: 
1-24. 15 Ja. 1895. 

Bastin, E. S. Laboratory Exercises in Botany, 8vo. pp. 540- figs, 
pi 8y. Philadelphia. 1895. 

Designed for the use of colleges and other schools where botany is taught by 
laboratory methods. ' * • 

Bastin, E, S. Some further Observations on the Structure of San- 
gumaria Canadensis, Am. Journ. Pharm. 67 : 4-9. /- 1-$^ Ja, 
1895. 

Bastin, E. S, Structure of Iris, Am. Journ. Pharm. 67: 78-83. 
/. r-5. Ja. 1895. 

r 

Bessey, C. E. The Russian Thistle in Nebraska. Agric. Sci. 8 : 2S6. 

Je-S. 1894. 
Briquet, J. Decades Mentharum novarum. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2 \ 

691-709. D. 1894. 

Descriptions of a large number of proposed new varieties in Mentha.^om^ of them 



American. 



J. Sur un singulier Hyptis bresilien. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2 : 



715-719. D. 1894. 

Description and discussion of Hyptis Glaziovii, 



J. J 



J 



12. J 



Bush, B. F. Hybrid Oaks in Western Missouri. Card. & For. 8: 



32- 23 J 



\ 



Carleton, M. A. Uredineae Americanae exsiccatae. Bot. Gaz. 20 

32. 18 Ja, 1895. 
Clendenin, I. Synchytrium on Geranium CaroUnianum. Bot. Gaz 

20: 29-31.//.^. 18 Ja. 1895. 



9 F 



S, Geranii n. sp. 



^V 



I 



90 



Coe, C. H. The so-called Florida Sea-Beans. Gard. & For. 7 : 502- 
504. /. 7p. 19 D. 1894. 

^ 

Coulter, J.M. Formulae for Life histories. Bot. Gaz. 20: 31- 18 Ja. 

1895. 

Coupin, H. The Thorns of Plants. Pop. Sci. Month. 46 :^ 49^-5^1 
Jigs. F. 1895. (Translated from La Nature.) 

Dietel, P. Die Gattung Ravcnelia (Nachtrage). Hedwigia, 33: 

367-371. 20 D- 1894. y 

Describes R, Farlowiana^ A\ Indigoferae Tranzschel and R, JSIexicana Iranz- 
scliel as new species. 

Ellis and Everhart. Analytical Key to Ellis and Everhart's North 
American Pyrenomycetes. Pamphlet, pp. 11 [1894], 

Ellis, J. B., and Everhart, B. M. New Species of Fungi from 
various Localities. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1S94: 322-3S6. 30 
N. 1894 (reprint). 

Fawcett, ^V. Two new Orchids from Jamaica. Journ. Bot. 33: 12. 
Ja. 1895. 

Descriptions of EpideiiJrum tridentatum and PI euro thai lis uncinata, » 

Fawcett, W., Editor. ■ Notes on Castleton Gardens. Bull. Bot. De- 
part. Jamaica, i : 161-200. D. 1894. 

Fernald, M. L. Salix balsamifera. Gard. & For. 8 : 28. 16 Ja. 

1S95. 

Greene, E. L. Mimuhis luteiis and some of its Allies. Journ. Bot. 33 : 
^ 4-8. Ja. 1895. 

Henderson, L. F. New Plants from Idaho. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 
22 : 48-50. 15 Ja. 1895. * 

Describes Phacelia Idahoensis and Claytonia arenicola. 

w 

Hollick, A. Additions to the Local Flora. Proc. Nat. Sci. Assn. 
Staten Island, 4 : 55. 12 Ja. 1895. 

Hooker, J. D. Acacia spadicigera. Curt. Bot. Mag. 51: //. 7395- 
Ja. 1895. 

A native of Central America and Cuba. * 

Hooker, J. D. Cyrtopodmvi virescetis. Curt. Bot. Mag. 51 : //. 7396. 
Ja. 1895. 

A native of Brazil. 

Hooker, J. D. Erycina echinaia. Curt. Bot. Mag. 50 : //, 7389^ 
D. 1894. 






91 



I 



\ 




m 



8 D. 1894. 



r 

Adiafiium Capellis-veneris Gard. Chron. 16; 690. 



Note on the occurrence of the species in Jamaica. 



Jenm 



Harrisi 



17: 69. 



Gardn. Chron. 



J 



A new species from Blue Mountain Peak, Jamaica, 

Jenman, G. S. Aspknium {^Dlplaziuni) tenebrosiun n. sp. Gardn. 
Chron. 16: 60^0. 8 D. 1894. 

A new species from Jamaica. 

Jenman, G. S. Fteris {^LitobrocJiia) regia. Gardn. Chron. 17: ^(). 
12 Ja, 1895. 

A new species from Jamaica. 

Johnson, D. S. The Crystallization of Cellulose. Bot. Gaz, 



20 : 



16 



22. ' 18 Ja. 1895. 



Keffer, C. A. Black Walnut in the West. Gard. & For. 8: 
•Ja. 1895. 



12, 9 



Ja. 



Keffer, C. A. Green Ash .in the West. ' Gard. & For. 8: 32. : 
1S95. 

Kennedy, G. G. Buxbaumia aphylla L. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22 : 
50, 51. 15 Ja. 1895. 

Knowlton, F. H. Vanilla and its Cultivation. Pop. Sci. News, 29 : 
^} 2- figs. Portrait. Ja. 1895. 

Kurtz, F. Die Flora des Chilcatgebietes in Sudostlichen Alaska. 
Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 19 : 328-431- 1S94. 

^ibes laxijlorum var. inermis is described as new, and a long list of species 
given with localities. 

Kurtz, F. Die Flora der Tschuktschenhalbinsel. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 
19: 431-493- 1894. 

A long list of species. 



M 



an, T. Aquilegid Ca/iaJensis. Meehan's Month. 5: 21,22 



//. 2. F. 1895. 



M 



P^-i- J 



Darlingfonia Califi 



Meeban 



I, 2. 



M 



Die interessanten Arten der Gattung EchinoJ>sis. Mon- 



fii 



20 D. 1894. 



Miiller, J. Arthroniae et Arthothelii species Wrightii in Insula Cuba 
lectae. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2 : 725-736. D. 1S94. 

Descriptions of several species in both genera, with critical notes on others. 



% 



1 

I 
J 

1 

^ 

H 
-I 



/ 



92 



Mohr, C- Die Walder der Alluvial Region des Mississippi in den 
Staaten Louisiana,- Mississippi und Arkansas. Pharm. Rund. 13: 14^ 
15. Ja. 1895. 

Taxodiunt distichuni is the species under consideration. 

Palnier, T. C. Isoetes saccharata, Bot. Gaz. 20: 32. 18 Ja. 1895, 

r 

RamireZj J. La Mocinna heterophylla, Ann. Inst. Med. Nacional, i : 
- 205-211. pL 2-j. Au. 1894. 

The author is trying to prove that the genus Mocinna will stand next to Carica 

L 

and jfacaratia of the Passifloraceae and VascouceUia DC. 

Rich, W. P. Herbert A. Young. Bull. Terr. Bot. Club, 22: 51. 15 
Ja. 1895. 

Notes the death of this botanist. 

Rodway, J. Nature's Triumph. Pop. Sci. Month. 46 : 456-4^5- F- 
1895- 

Describes the reversion of neglected plantations to a state of nature. 

Rothrock, J. T. River Birch. Forest Leaves, 4 : 185. D. 1894. 

With two illustrations of Betula 7iigra in Pennsylvania. 

Sargent/ C, S. Querais Texana. Gard. & For. 7 : 514-516./. 81, 
82. 19 D. 1894. 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. A monstrous form of the Black Spruce. 



\ 



Gard. & For. 8: 44./ /. 30 Ja. 

IHustration of Picea Mariana, 

Selby, A. D. The Russian Thistle in Ohio. Journ. Columbus Hort. 
Soc. 9: 127-132.//. 6y 7. S. 1894. 

Small, J. K. Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United 
States. — III, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22 : 43-48. 15 Ja. 1895. 

Describes Juncus Georgianuz Coville, Rumex spiralis^ Monniera crenulcit<^ 
and Coreopsis longifolia as new species. 

Smith, J. D. Undescribed Plants from Guatemala and other Cen- 
tral American Republics. — XIV. Bot. Gaz. 21: i-ii. //- ^^3- 
18 Ja. 1895. 

Describes 13 new species with plates of Capparis Hey dean a^ Cavendishia callisi^ 
and Ckaunostoma mecistandrum, the latter a new genus (Labiatae). 

Vail, A. M. A Revision of the North American Species of the Genus 
Cracca, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 25-36. 15 Ja. 1895. 

Description and synopsis of 14 species; C Floridana new. 

Warnstorf, C. Characteristik und Ubersicht der nord-, mittel-, und 
siidamerikanischen Torfmoose nach dem heutigen Standpunkte der 
Sphagnologie. Hedwigia, 33: 307-337. 20 D. r894. 

Synopsis and brief diagnoses of 85 species of Sphagnum. 



» 



1 



Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia 

College. 

[The numbers omitted from this list are out of print.] 
JNo. 4. A List of Plants Collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San Diego, Texas. By 

^ N. L. Brittonand H. H. Rusby (18S7), . , 25 cents. 

i •^<^- 5- New or Notewortliy North American Phanerogams, By X. L. Britton 

XT £ (1888), 25 cents. 

■No. 6. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. H. IL Rushy in South 

America, 1886-18S7. By N. L. Britton. (Twenty-tliree parts published; 
not yet completed.) 
No. 7. The Genus Hicoria of Rafinesque. By N. L. Britton (1888), . . 25 cents, 
^o. 9- A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at Fort Verde and in the 

Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, 1SS4-1888. By N. L. 
Britton. 

The General Floral Characters of the San Francisco and Mogollon Mountains 

and the Adjacent Region. By H. H. Rushy (18S8), 25 cents. 

-No. II, Prehminary Notes on the North American Species of tlie Genus Tissa^ 

Adans. By N, L. Britton (1889), . 25 cents. 

No. 13. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, II. By N, L. Britton 

s (18S9), 25 cents. 

JNo. 14. A List of State and Local Floras of the United States and British America, 

By N. L. Britton (1890), $1. 

No. 15. A Descriptive List of Species of the Genus Heuchera. By \Vm. E. Wheel- 

ock (1890), •25 cents, 

^o. 16. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, III. By N. L. Britton 

(1890), . . .' 25 cents. 

No. 17. The Flora of the Desert of Atacama. By Thos. Morong (1891), . 25 cents. 
No._2o. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, IV. By N. L, Britton. 

(1891), 25 cents. 

-i-^o. 21. Notes on the North American Species of Eriocaulere, By Thos. Morong 

(1891), ...... .' 25 cents. 

No. 22, New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, V. By N. L. Britton 

(1891), 25 cents. 

No. 24. Review of the North American Species of the Genus Xyris, By Heinrich 

Ries (1892), ...'.. ..,-.... 25 cents. 

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Vol. 22. 



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o. 3. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



ToRREY Botanical Club. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 



Edited by 



NATHANIEL LORD BRITTON. 



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AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THK CLUB, 



CONXKMTS: 



PACK, 

Biographical Sketch of Dr. J. Bernard Brin- 
ton (with portrait): By a Committee of 
the Philadelphia Botanical Club 93 

Food Plants of the North American Indians: 
V, Havard 



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College of Pharmacy, New York City, 

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IN OF THE 




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Vol. 22. 



Lancaster, Pa., March 27, 1895. 



No. 3 



Biographical Sketch of Dr. J. Bernard. Brinton. 

[With Portrait], 

r 

\ 

The botanical community of Philadelphia has met with an 
almost irreparable loss in the very sudden death, on December 
^> ^894, of the distina^uished scientist, Dr. 



J 



the founder of the Philadelphia Botanical Club. 

m 

The many expressions of sympathy and high regard which 
have been received by his family from his fellow members of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, the Torrey Botanical Club and 
numerous other scientists with whom he was engaged in active • 
correspondence, prove conclusively that his premature death 
causes a vacancy which will be difficult to fill 

He was preeminent in more than one respect ; most emphati- 
cally, however, in the happy faculty of imparting to others his own 
enthusiasm and love for the study of the Natural Sciences. He 
was noted for the accuracy of his observations in field excursions, 
in which he was generally recognized as the leader and guide. 

His methods were ahvays painstaking and careful, and in his 
aim to secure choice specimens no trouble, labor nor expense 
' was too great. His botanical specimens were preserved by the 
most approved methods, mounted in the most artistic style and 
identified with the most scrupulous care. His mechanical ingen- 
uity was frequently exercised In preparing specimens of fruits, 
stems and other organs, so as to advantageously exhibit their in- 
ternal structure. • In his desire for absolute accuracy he frequently 
sent difficult genera to monographers for scrutiny and revision. 



i 

w 



, , 04 



This solicitude for accuracy made his herbarium exceedingly val- 
uable for reference and comparison to his unmerous friends, who 
were in the habit of congregating in his botanical w^orkroom. 
This place, built as an addition to his home, was familiary known 



exhibitins his scientific collections and numerous devices for faci- 



\ 



as ** The Den " Here he delighted in receiving his friends and | 



% 



litatins botanical studies. 

He was endowed with a marvellous memory for names and 
physical characteristics. This gift frequently enabled him to 
recognize specimens which he had not met with for many years. ^ 

It was always a matter of gratification to him to surprise his sci- 
entific visitors with the demonstration of his mechanical skill as 
an amateur cabinct-maken He personally constructed in the 
most skillful manner, his herbarium cases, tables, stands, micro- 
scopical cabinets, etc., with a degree of perfection rarely excelled 
by expert artisans. He also prepared, with that same mechanical 
skill, all his own collecting presses, which combined the several 
features of collecting portfolio and drying press. He was a micro- 
scopistof no ordinary ability, and took considerable interest in the 
application of this instrument in the investigation of vegetable his- 

■ * 

tology. His collection of minerals in microscopic crystals has, 
' perhaps, never been excelled in beauty and in the neatness dis- 
played in their mounting. His dexterity in the dissection of bo- 
tanical specimens was frequently envied by his less expert com- 
panions. While so ardently devoted to nature in her various 
manifestations, Dr. Brinton did not overlook the advantages of 
linguistic attainments. In his earlier life, much of his time was 
devoted to tlie study of German, in which language he conversed 
fluently. He was also proficient in Latin and French. 

Physically, Dr. Brinton seemed to embody the highest ex- 
pression of perfect manhood. His commanding presence and 
graceful bearing stamped him at once as a leader. His powerful 
frame enabled him to endure and overcome great hardship and 
fatigue. 

, Dr. J. Bernard Brinton was born near Waynesburg, Chester 

County, Penna., August i6, 1835. His parents belonged to the 

religious Society 'of Friends. His early education was received 

F at this place and subsequently at the High School in Philadelphia, 



E 



95 



-during the short residence of the family in that city, previous to 
removal to a farm in Maryland, in 1848, He began the study of 
medicine in 1857 ^^^^ matriculated at the Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, from which school he was graduated on March 25, 1859. 

During his college course, the attention of Prof. Samuel D, 
Gross was attracted to him by the assiduity displayed in his 
Studies; and furthermore by the successful management of an 
aneurism case treated by digital compression. As a result he was 
appointed Chief of the Surgical Clinic soon after graduation. He 
lectured on Practical Anatomy at the Philadelphia School of 
Anatomy and Operative Surgery, and also conducted a Quiz on 
Materia Medica. From his graduation to the breaking out of the 
Civil War he was an active practitioner of medicine, and in i860 



fc> 



Am 



Hava^^n, Conn. 

But the fire of patriotism proved too strong for the peaceful 
tenets of his fathers, and led him early in the war to apply for the 
position of assistant surgeon in the regular army. He success- 
fully passed the rigorous examination, and his commission was 



dated April 16, 1862, signed by the President, Abraham Lincoln, 
and Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War. 

On September 14, 1863, he was appointed Medical Purveyor 
to the Army of the Potomac, and he retained that position to the 
close of the war. During his entire army life he continued his 
botanical studies and collection of plants. At this time it was his 
good fortune to meet another officer equally interested in the study 
of the same science, Maj. Gen. G. K. Warren. A wayside flower 
served as a means of introducing these officers, and the occa- 
sion of that meetincf was a favorite reminiscence of Dr. Brinton. 
The collections he made during the Virginia campaign were cap- 
tured by the Confederate, Col. Mosby, at Belle Plain, iVIay 12, 
1864, and burned with the Supply wagons. Dr. Brinton himself 
barely escaped capture. May 13, 1865, he was brevetted Captain 
and Major for gallant and meritorious services, and on November 
1 6th, of the same year, he resigned from the army. His services 
to the Union were marked by his usual application and devotion 
to his sense of duty; and his report at the close of his term of office 
was considered a remarkably accurate record for one handling a 
vast amount of material under such turbulent conditions. 







96 




Returning to Philadelphia, he continued in the practice of 
medicine for a few years. Desiring more leisure time for the 
study of his chosen science, he abandoned medicine and engaged 
in various manufacturing pursuits. On October 29, 1878, he was 
elected a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, and in 
the same year he connected himself with the Botanical Section of 
that institution. He was faithful in attendance and contributed 
numerous specimens, notes and verbal communications. He was 
an indefatigable collector and made numerous excursions In Penn- 
sylvania and neighboring States. He made a special study of the 
peculiar flora of the Pine Barrens of New Jersey, in which depart- 
ment he was recognized as an authority. He acceptably filled 
numerous positions of honor and trust in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, and at the time of his death was a member of the Board 
of ,Councillors. During the session of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, in Philadelphia, in 1884, he was 
elected a member, and he acted as guide to an excursion of visit- 

ion of New Jersey. 

Only the ardent lovers of nature can understand his feelings on 
that occasion, when the main object was to show. Dr. Asa Gray 
and Mr. Caruthers, President of the Linnaean Society, the se- 
cluded ScJiizcea pusilla Pursh. Nor can the joy of those gentle- 
man be expressed when their eyes rested on that quaint fern form 
for the first time. 

^ 

He was elected to active membership in the Torry Botanical 
Club of New York, January, 1891. Although publishing but 
little on botanical subjects, he corresponded with most of the bo- 
tanical authorities in America and made numerous exchanges. 
Perhaps his most important labor consisted in inducing the young 
to study botany, and his greatest pleasure seemed to be in impart- 
ing to others, either in the field or in his " den," a portion of his 
rich store of knowledge. Chiefly aith this object in view, he 
founded the Philadelphia Botanical Club, in December, 1 892, of 
which he was the President from its orQ-anization until the time of 
his decease. 

The fundamental aim of the Club is to study the local flora and 
prepare an herbarium representing the plants found within a 
radius of fifty miles. Many of the members gratefully remember 



97 



the aid they have receiv^ed in the study of the science from Dr 

■ 

Brinton, whom they regard as their botanical preceptor. An In- 
timate friend. Professor F. Lamson-Scribner,has forcibly expressed 
this sentiment in the following language : 

"Those who have been with Dr. Brinton in his botanical excur- 
sions, as I have, will say with me, that in the field he was a keen 
observer and zealous collector, observing and collecting Avitli an 
enthusiasm which w^as always contagious to his party." 

•' The results of these trips, w^hich we enjoyed to the utmost, have 
enriched the herbaria of many scientific institutions and those of 
botanists in all parts of our country. His work and his conversa- 

r 

tion rarely failed to excite the ambition of others, and I am confi- 
dent that many young men have received inspirations from their 
associations with Dr. Brinton, leading them to become better 
botanists or more earnest students.'* 

r 

Dr. Brinton was married on November 13, 1863, to Sallie \V. 
Clemens, of Philadelphia. A married daughter and two sons sur- 
vive him. As a source of consolation, after the death of his wife, 
he engaged more earnestly in botanical studies. It is a peculiar 
•coincidence that he had expressed an intention of retiring from 
the Presidency of the Botanical Club, and at the time of his de- 
cease had in preparation a farewell address. His last evening was 
■spent at the home of a lifelong friend, and the following verses 
were discussed, which now seem to have fittingly foreshadowed 
the final sleep that should soon come to one of the participants: 



Oever de stillen Straten, 
Geit klar de Glockenslag, 

God' Nacht I Din Hart will slapen ; 
Un' Morgen is 00k een Dag. 

Noch eenmal lat uns sprakea; 

Goden Abend, gode Nacht f 
De Maand schient up de Daken 

Uns Ilerrgott, halt de'Wacht." 



A. W. Miller, M. D., 
Geo, M. Beringer, 
Jos. Crawford, 

Co7?imitfee. 



98 



Food Plants of the North American Indians, 

By Dr. V. Havard, U. S. Army. 

The maxim that ''Necessity knows no law" is well exemplified 
in the diet of the North American Indians who, when driven by 
stres3 of hunger, eat wliatever the animal and vej][etable kingdoms- 
bring within reach, so that it may be truly said of some tribes that 
they reject nothing which their teeth can chew or their stomachs 
digest, however tasteless, unclean and repulsive. 

A review, therefore, of all the Indian food plants would include 
hundreds of species and be as tedious as unprofitable. I shall 
confine myself, in this paper, to the most important; those formerly^ 
or yet, habitually used. 

The subject naturally divides itself into two heads: 1st, plants 
cultivated; 2d, plants growing wild; and of the cultivated plants 
we may consider separately those introduced and those w^hich are 
indigenous. 



At the time of the discovery of America many tribes had 
already emerged from a wild nomadic life and, although still 
largely depending upon game and fish, were entering upon a par- 
tial sedentary agricultural state. So far as a chronic state of w^ar- 
fare would permit, land was set apart for farming purposes and 
upon it was almost invariably planted the triad of vegetables: 
maize, pumpkin or squash, and beans. This primitive agriculture 
was mostly pursued on and east of the Mississippi ; in the arid in- 
terior comparatively small areas were occupied by agricultural 



M 



fc» 



Arkansas 



The vegetables just mentioned were introduced from the south. 



beinjr indigenous to M 



F 

tive state of civilization had fostered their evolution, and soon 
found their way to the St. Lawrence river and from the Atlantic 



to the Rio Colorado of the West. 



M 



treal in 1535, Champlain among the Five Nations in 1603, 
Hudson along the river bearing his name in 1609, the English at 
Jamestown in 1607, De Soto in the Gulf States in 1539, Mar- 
quette, Hennepin and La Salle in the Mississippi States, Cabeca 



^1 



> I 



n 



99 



ft 

de Vaca among the Pueblo Indians in 1528, and Alarcon on the 
Colorado in 1542. 

The Pacific Coast tribes did not cultivate the soil and depended 
entirely on the spontaneous products of land and water. It is re- 
markable that these tribes, although having more or less inter- 
course with the Missouri Indians on the east and the Pueblo Indians 
on the south, and always on the verge of starvation, failed to 
introduce and cultivate the maize or other vegetables. Lewis and 
Clarke in their memorable expedition across the continent, from 
the Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia, in 1804 and 1805, 
found plenty of maize and beans at the Mandan villages, about 60 
miles above the present town of Bismarck, N. D., but none north 
or west of that point. 

Maize (Zea Mays L.) is probably indigenous to the southern 
highlands of Mexico. Under the civilization of the Mayas, Na- 
huas and Aztecs this precious plant received special care and 
many varieties were developed. Humboldt states that the Aztecs 
began to cultivate it in 666 A. D. It rapidly spread northward 
and, it is estimated, in the year 1000 had already reached the 
eastern States. At the time of the landing of Columbus it was 
the principal and most common crop of all agricultural Indians, as 
it soon became that of the white settlers. According to E. L. 



Sturtevant, one of our best authorities on the history of garden 
vegetables, the v^arious agricultural species of maize: the flints, 
dents, softs, sweets and pops appear to be aboriginal forms, and 
we have no evidence that any new varieties have resulted from 
our three centuries or more of civilized cultivation. The very 
hardy form grown in Maine, and which must ripen its grain in 
tliree months from the day of planting, is certainly of Indian de- 
velopment, and so are the peculiar red and blue varieties cuiti- 
vated in New Mexico as well as on the upper Missouri. 

The common Kidney Bean {Phascolus vulgaris Savi) is a South 
American plant ; its culture under many varieties spread rapidly 
through Mexico and the States to Canada and was, next to Maize, 
the most important crop of farming Indians. The finding of seeds 
of this species by Professor Witmack in the prehistoric graves of 
Arizona, not only completed the demonstration of its American 
origin but likewise proved the antiquity of its culture in our own 



100 



r 

country. It is also probable that the Lima Bean [P. hinatus L.), 
which is of BraziHan origin, was used by our Southern Indians. 
The third genus of introduced plants cultivated in pre-Colum- . 



bian time is Cticurbita. 



Pep 



wxll as the Squash {C. maxima Duch.) are natives of South or 
Central America and were grown coextensively with the preced- 
ing by North American Indians some of whose names, as ap- 
plied to certain varieties, have endured to this day. The China or 
Barbary Squash (C nioscJiata Duch.) was also thought by Asa 
Gray to be of American origin andj if so, was doubtless known 
to our Southern Indians, 

We come next to the consideration of natlv^e plants cultivated 
by the Indians. It may at once be stated that our gardens, and 
orchards, unless we except the Jerusalem Artichoke and the Sun- 
flower, do not contain a single plant developed by the Indians 
from any of our wild species. In exculpation we may say that, so 
far as fruits were concerned, an abundant supply could always be 
relied upon, while as regards roots, tubers or bulbs, it seems 
very doubtful whether there are more than two or three sus- 
ceptible of marked improvement. It is only during the last 
40 or 50 years that we have ourselves mostly evolved our 
many orchard forms of native fruits, while we have not yet 
produced a single vegetable. The Indians certainly exhib- 
ited commendable promptness and industry, after the ad- 
vent of the whites, in introducing such fruits as were shown 
to be desirable. Thus the Peach brought into Mexico soon after 
the conquest was, according to the testimony of Du Pratz, found 
in general cultivation among the Indians of Louisiana when the 
French settled that province in 1698, and had become abundant 
in Georgia at the time of the settlement of the English in 1732- 
Wm. Bartram describes the carefully planted Orange groves of the 
Indians which he noticed in 1773. The early introduction and 
propagation of these two plants by the Indians led to the erroneous 
impression that they were of American origin. 

Of the native plants cultivated by Indians we have no very 
clear or precise information, but I believe the following list in- 
cludes most, if not all of them. The first place belongs to the 
Jerusalem Artichoke {Helianthus tuherosns L.). It produces many 



101 



edible tubers, sometimes 2 inches in diameter, in our day mostly 
used for the feeding of cattle, horses and pigs, but which were 
precious to the Indians on account of their hardiness and prohfi- 
cacy, retaining possession of the soil for many years. These 
tubers were mentioned by Champlain in 1603 and brought to 
France by Lescarbot wlio,in 161 2, describes thcm_ as being "as 
big as small turnips, excellent to eat, with the taste of artichoke 

i 

but more agreeable, and multiplying in a wonderful way" As 
the plant is native of the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi and 
does not reach any part of Canada, it is evident that the Canadian 

_ - ^ 

and New England Indians w^ho planted it must have obtained it 
from the tribes further south and west, so that we may infer a 
rather large area of cultivation. The Jerusalem Artichoke is, so 
far, the only contribution of North America, exclusive of Mexico, 
to the vegetable garden of the world, and it can be said to be an 
aboriginal contribution. Strange to note, it is now much more 
cultivated in the Old World than on this continent. 

h 

The allied species If. doronicoides Lam., found from Ohio to 
Missouri, and for a while erroneously thought to be the original 
of the Jerusalem Artichoke, has similar tubers although of coarser 
texture; it is quite probable it was also cultivated. The ''Indian 
Potato" of the Assiniboine tribe, mentioned by Bourgeau, is the 
tuber of a form o{ H. giganieiis !.., w\\\c\i ranges from Minneaota 

to the vSaskatchawan river: 

Apios Apios (L.) MacM. {A. tubcrosa Mcench), the Ground-Nut, 
has edible round or pyriform tubers strung upon long subterranean 
shoots, varying in size from a nut t9 a hen's eg^; they contain a 
large proportion of starch and have, when cooked, somewhat the 
taste of potatoes, being wholesome and nutritious. Rafinesque 
tells us that this plant was formerly cultivated by the Indians, and 
still by the Creeks at the time of his writing, not only for the tubers 
but also for the seeds which, he thinks, are as good as peas. It 
must have been extensively used by the eastern and southern In- 
dians as all early explorers mention it and some were saved by it 
from starvation. The tubers were the "Penacs" of the Canadians, 
the "Hopnis" of the eastern tribes, and apparently the "Openauk" 
of Hariot, seen in Virginia in 15 84 and described as "a kind of 
round root, some as big as walnuts, some far greater, found in 



n 



102 



moist and marshy grounds, growing many together in ropes as 

though they were fastened with a string/' Asa Gray said that 

had civilization started in America instead of Asia, *' our Ground- 

Nut would have been the first developed esculent tuber and would 

probably have held its place in the first rank along with potatoes- 

and sweet potatoes of later acquisition." In this connection it 

should be said that nati\e cultivation does not appear to have had 

any effect upon the size and quality of this tuber, and that expcri- 

' ments by Vilmorin and others with a view to its improvement 

have not been successful, although hardly continued long enough 

to be conclusive. The tuber is of slow growth, requiring two or 

three years before reaching sufficient size to be useful, and its 

creeping, scattering habit renders the harvest laborious. 

Neiu}nbo lutea Pers., the Yellow Nelumboor Water Chiquapin,. 
is the finest of our water-lilies, occurring from the Great Lakes to- 
the Gulf, and westward to Minnesota and Nebraska. In the 
northern Atlantic States it has only been found in the Delaware 



river below Philadelphia, in 



J 



Connecticut valley, so far out of its range as to lead to the gen- 
eral supposition that the Indians brought and naturalized it in 
these local habitats. Although difficult of propagation the plant 
was certainly worthy of the effort. The spindle-shaped, often 
angled and furrowed tubers are 5 to lO inches long and weigh 
from 2 to 8 ounces ; when baked they have, says Dr, G. Engel- 
mann, a pleasant, sw^eet and mealy taste much resembling that of 
the sweet potato, without anything reminding one of their growth 
in stagnant water. The boiled or baked seeds have the taste of 
chestnut and are highly nutritious, while the petioles and young 
leaves may be eatien as spinage. 

Orontium aijnaiiaan L., or Golden Club, the '' Tawkcc'' or 
'' Tawkin ' of the Indians, is also an aquatic perennial with deep,, 
bulbous rootstock and large pea-like seeds. Both roots and seeds 
were much prized by the Indians and, according to Peter Kalm,. 
by some of the white colonists as well; the seeds specially beings 
after sufficient cooking, quite palatable. This plant grows in 
ponds along the coast from Massachusetts to Florida. It has also^ 
been found in isolated places further inland, near the site of Indian 
villages, where it is supposed to have been propagated by the 
natives; but this is a mere hypothesis. 






i 

K 
I 



i 



103 



\ 



The following native plants were cultivated for their fruit- 
The Common Sunflower (//, annmis L.) is an American plant 
which, under several forms, extends from the arctic circle to the 



from 



It was com- 



monly cultivated by the Indians, from Canada to Mexico, west 
and east of the Mississippi, being for many of them a staple article 
of food. The seeds ^Yere parched, ground and made into a pala- 
table and nutritious bread said by Palmer and Douglas to be 
hardly inferior to corn bread. By expression they yield about 20 
per cent, of an excellent table oil which the Indians, more mindful 
of their appearance than of their diet, mostly used for anointing 
their hair and skin. The culture of this plant in Canada was 
noticed by Champlain and, a few years after, by Sagard; in that 
region the seeds must have been obtained from beyond the Missis- 
sippi and a little south, through the agency of intervening tribes. 



7/. 



ty 



native plant is much more extensiv^ely cultivated in the Old World 
than in the New. 

PniHHS A??i€ri€ana Marsh, and P, nigra Ait., our two species 
of Wild Yellow or Red Plum, were, according to several authori- 
ties, planted by the New England and Canadian natives, and from 
the many forms discovered farther west it is not improbable that 
this culture extended to the Mississippi. Some forty-five horticul- 
tural kinds derived from them are described by Prof. Bailey, and it 
is not assuming too much to suppose that several of them are due 



to variations initiated by Indian industry. It is probable enough, 
however, that the native orchard was seldom regularly planted, 
but oftener the accidental result of seeds dropped in the vicinity 



Hag 



Pnnius angustifolia 



is regarded by Prof. Sargent as native oi the eastern slopes of the 
southern Rocky Mountains and of the plateaus extending thence 
to the Mississippi, and as having been introduced by the Indians 
into the southern Atlantic States where it soon became exten- 
sively naturalized. Clumps of it were found about all Indian vil- 
lages, and the variations thus started have doubtless developed 
into some of our seventeen horticultural forms. 

Of the cultivation of Prunus hortidana Bailey, the common 



104 ' 



M 



evidence; but as Plums were planted north and south of that 
region it is quite probable that the differentiation \vhichjias re- 
sulted in giving us some twenty-six horticultural forms is also of 

Indian origin. 

At least one species of grape was cultivated for its fruit. Vt/is 

' m 

Arizonka Eng. has been found growing in rows near Fort Whipple, 
Ariz., which may be accepted as conclusive evidence of its culture 
by the Pueblo Indians. It was unfortunate that the Grape thus 
selected should be described by Munson, the eminent viticulturist, 
as the least promising of all the species for Improvement in fruit. 
Considering the ease with which Grapes are propagated, by seeds, 
cuttings or layers, it is likely enough that other species were 
grown, specially V. Labmsca, our northern Fox-Grape, although 
there appears to be no proof of it. 

It seems quite probable that the Pecan and one or more Hick- 
ories wxre more or less planted, as the abundance of nuts is often 
alluded to by the first explorers. VVm. Bartram, in the account 
of his travels through the South in 1773, mentions an Indian 
plantation of Shellbark Hickory. There is hkewise some ground 
for the belief that our native Red Mulberry was cultivated, the fine 
quality and great quantity of the fruit being mentioned by De Soto 
and others, 

r 

The last of this group of food plants, so far as I know, is Passi- 
fora incarnata L., the Maypop of the Southern States, which was 
cultivated by the Indians of Virginia. Says Captain John Smith: 
♦' They plant also rnaracocks, a wild fruit like a lemon, which in- 
creases Infinitely " ; elsewhere he refers to it as "pleasant" and 
"wholesome." The fact is that it contains but little nutriment 
and does not appear susceptible of improvement. The plant itself, 
on account of its spreading perennial and deep roots, is a noxious 
weed. 

For the sake of completing the list of plants cultivated by abor- 
igines I may be allowed to mentioa one or two which, although 
not food plants, were propagated with full as much industry and 
success as the Maize or the Sunflower; I mean species of Tobacco 



(NicotiaiicC) 



{N. rabacum L.), of South 



America, was not known to our Indians except perhaps as var 



. V 



105 



wididata Sendtner, the Yaqui Tobacco grown by sonic of the 
natives of Arizona and Cahfornia. The Tobacco cultivated by our 
Southern and Eastern Indians was the Mexican species N\ rustka 
L. now naturaHzed and occasionally found as a weed, while on the 
Missouri and farther west the native N. qnadrivalvis Pursh was 
mostly used. The van midtivalvis Gray of the latter, a form de- 
rived from cultivation, or perhaps a distinct species, has been used 
by the Pacific Indians from time immemorial and is said, by 
Douglas, to be the only vegetable which the natives of the Co- 
lumbia cultivated, 

I shall now proceed to enumerate the native plants which in 
their wild or uncultivated state furnish food to the Indians. 



Roots, Tubers and Bulbs. 

Sagiitaria latifolia Willd, {S, varialnlis Eng.), the Common 
Arrow-head, is an extremely variable species, extending from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific and from British America to Mexico. It 
has tuberous oblong roots the size of a hen's egg, but sometimes 
as large as a man's fist, which either boiled or roasted were much 
consumed by the natives all over the land. It was the '' Katnis" 
of the eastern tribes, the " Wabesipinig" or Swan Potato of the 
Chippeways in Minnesota, and the *^ Wappatoo*' of the Columbia 
river Indians. It appears to have been, next to Camas, the most 
useful root of the Pacific slope natives; its name recurs almost on 
every page of certain chapters of Lewis and Clarke's narrative from 
which I quote the following: " The most important spot is Wap- 
patoo Island, a large tract lying between the Multnomah and an 
arm of the Columbia. The chief wealth of this island is found in 
the numerous ponds of the interior Avhich abound with the com- 
mon Arrow-head. The bulb, to which the Indians give the name 



Wapp 



fc> 



article of commerce on the Columbia. It is never out of season, 
so that at all times of the year the valley is frequented by the 
neijjhborintj Indians who come to gather it It is collected 



^HM^^iiii^ xin^iiuii^ \y k\Kj v-vyin^- uvy ^ 



by the women ; each takes a light canoe into a pond where the 
water is as high as the breast, and by means of her toes separates 
from the root the bulb which, on being freed from the mud, rises 
immediately to the surface of the water and is thrown into the 



106 



X 

canoe. In this manner these patient females will remain in the 
water for several hours, even in tlie depth of winter." 

r 

A form with very large smooth leaves, about as wude as long, 
from Central to Southern California, thought by Parish to be the 
introduced 5. Sinensis Sims, is cultivated by the Chinese in Cali- 
fornia for its tubers. 

We next come to the roots furnished by the Arum Family 
(Akaceae). All the plants of this order are impregnated with an 
intensely acrid and pungent principle. The pangs of hunger 
must indeed have been keen which drove the natives to experi- 
ment with them, but the happy discovery was made that drying 
and cooking dissipated this noxious acridity and that the roots 
contained a large proportion of nutritious starchy food. Ai'isac??ta 
tripJiyllum (L.) Torr., the Indian Turnip of our woods, has a bulbous 
rounded or flattened roqt, i to 2 inches in diameter, which, ac- 
cording to G, H. Harris, is the '* Hopnis" of the Seneca Indians 
and once their habitual bread-root. Pcltandra Virginica (L.) Kunth, 
the Arrow Arum, has a short, very thick, deep-seated rootstock, 
sometimes 6 inches in diameter and weighing 5 or 6 lbs., the 
*' Tawho,'' '' Tuckah'' or *' Tuckaho " of the natives, and, accord- 
ing to Capt. J. Smith, the rdot chiefly used for food by the Vir- 
ginia Indians. "In one day," says Peter Kalm,**a savage will 
gather enough for a week . . Unless carefully roasted it will 
prickle the throat extremely, but he so manages it in case of ne- 
cessity as to make bread of it." He adds that hogs are very 
greedy of the roots and grow (at upon them. Bartram told him 
that the savages also boiled the spadix with the berries and de- 
voured them as a great dainty. According to Rafinesque the 
seeds may be used as a substitute for pepper. The other species, 
P. sagittaefolia (Michx.) Morong, has somewhat similar roots. 

The roots of Calla palustris or Water Arum, Orontium aqnati- 
cum or Golden Club, and even of SpatJiycma foctida (T^.) 'Raf., our 
Polecat Weed, were also used but to a lesser extent. Colocasia 
antiqiiorum Schott and C. esculenta Schott were introduced into 
the Southern States at a very early date, but probably not before 
the advent of the whites. 

I may mention here, not as a root, but as a root growth, the 
true " Tuckahoe " or " Indian Bread "of the Southern States, a 






I 



I 



m 



■I 




Sfeff 



107 



fungus, Pachyma cocos Fries {Lycoperdon soli(him\ springing from 

the roots of trees in sandy soil, of about the size of a man's head, 

with scaly woody bark and white, homogeneous granular interior. 

It is, like other fungi, destitute of starch but contains about Ro 

per cent, of carbo-hydrates almost entirely in the shape of Insipid 

pectin whose nutritive value is still undecided but probably not 
great. 

On the low grounds of Southern Florida grows a beautiful plant 
of the CvcADACAE, Zamia integrifolia Willd., the " Coontic'' of the 
Indians, which contains in the caudex and roots about 65 per 
cent, of an excellent starch sometimes called Florida arrow-root. 
This plant supplied the Seminoles with food during their long 
wars with the United States and is now more or less cultivated. 

Certain species of Claytonia^ which we cultivate in our gardens 
for their delicate beauty, grow from deep edible bulbs whose crisp 
flesh and nutty flavor were much prized by the natives. I may 
mention C, Virginica and C. Carolinia?m of the eastern States and 
C. Caroluiiana sessilifoiia Torr. of the Rocky IMountains and west- 
w^ard. C. uicgarrhha Parry has a large fleshy tap-root, but it is 
confined to the summits of the Rocky Mountains and seldom 
available. C, perfoliata Don, of the Pacific States, where it is 
known as "Spanish Lettuce," is eaten as salad and cooked as 
greens. 

Another elegant little plant of the same Purslane Family is 
Talimtm aurantiacum Eng., found everywhere in Texas west of 
the Pecos river and whose tuberous root is quite edible when 
cooked. 

If we now leave the eastern States and extend our investigation 
westward, beyond the Mississippi, the first plant deserving of at- 
tention is Psoraka esailenta Pursh, the " Pomme de Prairie " or 
^' Pomme Blanche" of the Canadian explorers and voyageurs, the 
'"Prairie Turnip" or "Prairie Potato" of the Americans, the 
" Tipsinah " of the Sioux and the " Tahgu " of the Osage Indians. 
It is widely distributed, being most abundant on the dry table- 
lands of the Missouri region, from Montana through Dakota and 
Nebraska to Kansas. The tuber is irregularly elliptical or conical 
in shape, ranging \w size from a large filbert to a hen's egg, aver- 



aging il4 to 2 inches in length. On section it is seen to be com- 



n 



108 




V 



posed of a white granular substance easily pulverized into a light 

+ 

starchy floun Raw it has a very palatable farinaceous flavor 
entirely devoid of bitterness ; cut into slices and dried it is easily 
kept and may be found to this day in all the tents of the Sioux 
Indians for whom it has always been a staple food. They gener- 
ally eat it cooked, and as they appreciate the advantages of a mixed 
pot-ati'fcti, boil it with tripe, fattened pup or venison. According 
to an analysis by Mr. Clifford Richardson (from material I sent 
him) the tuber contains 70 per cent, of starch, about 5 of a sugar 
new to chemistry, and 9 of nitrogenous matter vmder several 
forms. No serious and prolonged attempt has as yet been made to 
develop this tuber by cultivation and selection ; such attempt is 
certainly desirable and, if successful, would give us a toothsome, 
wholesome and nutritious vegetable, remarkable for its large pro- 
portion of starch and nitrogen, and peculiarly adapted to our arid 



regions. 



Five other species 



P. 



Jiypogaea Nutt., a smaller plant than the preceding, with a some- 
what more southern range and probably often confounded and 

E 

collected with it by tlie Indians; P. Culifornica Wats. {P. vicpliitica 
Wats.) and the allied, if distinct, P, castorea Wats., ranging from 
Colorado to California, and affording food to the Pah-Utes; P. 
cancscens Michx. of the Southern States, remarkable for its very 
long subterranean stem ending with a large conical tuber, evi- 
dently too deeply buried to have been noticed by the natives; P^ 
siibacaidis T. & G., a rare and local- Tennessee species. 

Another member of the Leguminous family is our Wild Liquor- 
ice {Glycyrrhim lepidota Nutt.), mostly noteworthy as a very bad 
weed in the west, everyw^here too prevalent. The long slender 
rhizome has a faint sweetish taste of liquorice, and the Indians 
sometimes chew it for its supposed tonic and expectorant effects. 
Much more valuable to the natives is the Chenook Liquorice, a 
Lupine [Lupinus Uttoralis Dougl), of the coast of Oregon and 
Washington, with long tapering granular roots which, when roasted, 
yield a pleasant farinaceous food. 

Our native Umbellifers yield a certain number of useful edible, 
roots. To my taste and within my experience, the most delicately 
flavored (in the raw state) is that of Carum Gairdutri B. & H., the 



w 



» 



100 



"Yamp" or/*Yampah" of the west, extending from the Rocky 
Mountains to California and Britif'i Cohimbia, being particularly 
abundant on the Little Snake, or Tampah, river. The fusiform or 
conical roots are In close clusters of 2-5, about an inch long and a 
half-inch thick, consisting, within the blackish skin, of a pure white, 

■ 

farinaceous substance. They have a delicious sweet nutty 
aromatic flavor, without any bitterness or astringcncy. Raw or 
cooked, they have always been highly valued by Indians, specially 
the Shoshones and tribes of the Snake river and tributaries, as well 

i 

■i 

as by all explorers and settlers. Bears and pigs are very fond of 
them, often tearing up large tracts of ground in their search. 

I 

Chemically, they are remarkable for the large proportion of sugar * 
and albuminoid matter they contain. There is little doubt that 
if susceptible of enlargement by culture, the Yamp would soon 
f become a favorite in the vegetable garden. 

• Two other species, C. Kelloggii Gray, the "Wild Anise" of 
Central California, and C, Oregonum Wats., have similar roots, 
tf Probably still more important to the Indians, among the Um- 
bellifers, on account of its wide distribution and abundance, is the 
genus Pencedanum of which we Iiave some 46 rather closel}^ re- 
lated species. Ten, ranging from the Rocky Mountains to the 
northern Pacific Coast, have tuberous edible roots more or less 
used by the natives. The tubers are seldofii over an inch in 
diameter and almost entirely made up of an homogeneous white 
starchy substance, palatable when raw, with a faint celery-like 
flavor, but generally roasted or baked and pounded into flour 
from which nutritious and wholesome bread or cake is made. ^ 
The best tuber is probably that of P. Canbyi C. & R., the " Chuk- 
lusa" of the Spokane Indians. It contains, according to an 
analysis by Prof. H. Trimble, 17 per cent, of starch, 11 of saccha- 
rose, 3 or 4 of albuminoids and 15 or 16 oi mucilage. The tuber 
of P. curycarpum C. & R., the." Skelaps" of the Spokane Indians, 
has also been examined by Prof. Trimble, who found 35 per cent, 
of starch, about 10 of albuminoids, only 2 of saccharose and 3 or 
4 of mucilage, a composition surprisingly different from that of 
the preceding. The bulb of P. farinostim Geyer, the "Tuhwha" 
of the Spokanes, is equally good ; to it, as well as to other species, 
the name " Biscuit-root " has been given by the whites. 



J ■- 




110 



< 



Other tuberous species worthy of mention are P. 6^^/mWats., 
P, ainbigmim T. & G., and P. Cous Wats., the Indian designation 
** Kous " applying likewise to other species. 

The allied genus Cyniopterus contains also species with thick 
elongated or tuberous, more or less edible roots, much prized by 
the Indians of the Rocky iMountain region and the Great Basin. 
The best known, as esculents, are C, globosits Wats., C glomcratus 
Raf,, C. montamts T. & G. The latter has a fusiform parsnip-like 

■ 

.root the size of a man's finger, of a very agreeable taste, and a 
good vegetable in early spring when soft and tender. C, Fejidlcri 
Gray, the *' Chimaja " of the Mexicans, is impregnated with a 
pleasant anisate volatile oil, and used to flavor meats and make 
bitters in New Mexico. C. purpureus Wats, is used as a pot-herb 
to season soup and mush by Navajo Indians. 

The immense family of the Compositae presents very few plants 
for our consideration; the most noteworthy belong to the genus 
Cnicus or Thistle. Lewis and Clarke describe a Thistle on the 
Lower Columbia called "Shanataque'' by the natives, with fusiform 
root a foot long and about the size of a man's thumb which when 
baked becomes very palatable and '' the sweetest vegetable eaten 
by the Indians." Mr. Thomas Howell thinks the plant must be 
Cnicus cdiilis Gray, although the specific name of the latter refers 
only to the esculenfqualities of the young stems which are fleshy 
and tender; the value of the root appears to have been overlooked- 
Fremont speaks of another Thistle, not determined, found on the 
middle and lower part of Bear river (in Idaho and Utah), w 
root the size of a carrot and very agreeably flavored. I may also 
mention C. Dmninwndi Gray, whose edible roots are stated to 
have saved from starvation a lost explorer of the Yellowstone 
Park in 1870. 

The genus Bahamorrhiza Hook., of the Rocky Mountains and 
the Pacific States is characterized by thick and deep roots w^hich 
exude a terebinthine balsam. They are edible, raw or cooked, 
after peeling off the thick bark which contains most of the bal- 
samic oleo-resin. Not only the roots but also the young stalks 
and the seeds were used for food by the Indians. 



ith 



The same remarks apply 



W} 



which has likewise fleshy roots and large albuminous seeds. 



Ill 



M 

The last edible Composite to be mentioned is Microseris nutans 
Gray, with succulent almost transparent roots full of a bitterish 
milky juice, which are eaten raw by the Nez Perces Indians. 

The PoRTULACACEAE Contain one species noted from the easi- 
est days as an Important Indian food plant, Lewisia rcdk'iva 
Pursh, the " Spatlum " and " Chitah " of the natives, the " Bitter- 
root " of tlie whites, ranging from the Rocky Mountains to the 
Pacific, and giving its name to the Bitter-root mountains of Mon- 
tana. It is a handsome little plant and very remarkable for its 
wonderful vitality, having been revived and successfully planted 
■after being kept months in herbarium. The roots, 3 or 4 or more, 
are curled and twisted and seldom thicker than a goose quill; their 
trownish-red bark is intensely bitter while the inner white and 
farmaceous part is quite palatable and nutritious, although having 
ni the raw state a slight bitterish flavor. Boiled or otherwise 
cooked they are excellent food, extensively used by the Indians. 
An analysis by Prof. Trimble yielded about 15 per cent, of gum 
and mucilage, 3 or 4 of albuminoids and 8 or 9 of starch ; no evi- 
dence of sugar could be obtained. The statement once made hy 
a too credulous observer, and since often repeated by authors that 



thi 



very 



much exaggerated. The other species, L. brachycalyx Eng. has 
similar roots. 

In the Malvaceae we find but one genus with fleshy edible 
foots, Callirrhoe Nutt. One o{ the handsomest species, C. digitata 
Nutt. of the southern plains, has a fusiform root, in shape and size 
between a small turnip and a parsnip, said to be even more pleas- 
■ant tasted than that of Psoralea and highly prized by the natives. 
C. pedata Gray, of the Texas prairies, and other species have 
similar farinaceous roots. 

The showy genus Aviorcuxia, of the Bixineae, is represented 
in our country by A, Wriditii Qx^.y , of southwest Texas and A. pal- 



1 
J 



matifi, 



The 



roots of the former are greedily devoured by peccaries and other 
animals ; those of the latter when roasted have the taste of the 
parsnip and carrot, and are eaten by the Papago and Pimo Indians 



^ 



Mexicans under the name of " Sayas 

^ mniinfprn^ of New Mcxlco. Arizona 



t» 



r ■■ HH 




112 



we find two Potatoes, Solanum ttiberostim borcalc Gray and S. 

» ^ _. - * 

Janicsii Torn, whose tubers have always been among the chief 
articles of food of the Navajo Indians, The van borcale is so far 
removed and cut off from its Andean type, by the absence of in- 

w ' 

termediate Mexican and Central American forms, as to make their 

- • 

close relationship a very interesting fact in geographic botany. 
Its tubers differ. only from those of the Common Potato by their 
smaller size, being from half to three-quarters of an inch in diam- 
eter, and by a peculiar aroma. The tubers of S, Jamesii are still 
smaller, dark-colored and usually covered with minute tubercles. 
These plants are hardy and of easy growth, readily responding to 
cultivation, so that it seems strange that the Navajo or Pueblo 
Indians should not have planted and developed them. The tubers 
of var. borcale are readily improved in size, as shown by Prof 
Bailey who has obtained some 4 inches long still retaining their 
distinguishing aroma. This variety of the Common Potato is be- 
yond a doubt the most promising native food plant of North 
America outside of Mexico, and was the one most worthy of the 
attention of the aborigines. 

In about the same region and extending north into British 
America is found the "• Kooyah" or '' Tobacco-root " of the French 
{Vakriajia cdiiUs Nutt), with large fusiform perpendicular root- 
stock dividing below into deep and thick branches. This root, 
black outside and bright yellow inside, is remarkable when fresh 

■ J 

for its very repulsive odor and taste, resembling those of chewing 
tobacco, but when thoroughly cooked is sweet, palatable and nu- 
tritious. This plant is of great importance to the Indians of the 
Great Basin and the Northwest. Fremont, on reaching Bear river, 
in northern Utah, wrote: ** I ate here for the first time the 
Kooyah, the principal edible root among the Indians who inhabit 
the upper waters of the streams on the western side of the Rocky 
Mountanis." I doubt whether this plant is worth cultivating for 
its root, but its -medicinal properties might be profitably in- 
vestigated. 

The Lily Family (Liliaceae) contributes quite generously to 
the vegetable diet of the Indians, as I shall now proceed to show. 

Taking everything Into account, abundance, size, taste and nu- 
tritiousness, the best of all native bulbs is doubtless that of the 



113 



Cariias or Quamash {Camassia esculenta Lindl.), a showy plant 
ranging from "the Rocky Mountains to California and British 
CoUinibia, sometimes so abundant on rich meadows as to tint 
them a uniform light blue color, suggesting, as expressed by an 
early explorer, "a lake of clear water." The bulb is globular- 
ovoid, resembling a small onion; raw it has a mucilaginous, rather 



msipid taste, but baked it acquires the flavor as well as the color 
of chestnut. Lewis and Clarke were probably the first white men 
to eat it, as told in their narrative : " The Indians set before us a 
small piece of buffalo-meat, some dried salmon, berries and several 
kmds of roots. Among these last is one which is round and much 
like an onion in appearance and sweet to the taste; it is called 
Quam.ash and is eaten either in its natural state or boiled into a 
kind of soup or made into a cake called "pasheco." After our 
long abstinence this was a sumptuous treat." 

Camas has always been one of the chief articles of subsistence 
oi all Indians in and west of the Rocky Mountains. They usually 
bake it in heated pits, sometimes mixed with a black hair-hke 
hchen {^Alectoiia jubatd) which grows in profusion on Larix occi- 
dentalism the result beincr a dark brown homo2^eneous soft mass 



^ V* v^c*.»v ^»v.r.x* ..^. ^ 



which is fashioned into large cakes. 

The other four species of Camassia described, all closely inter- 
related, have the same kind of edible bulb, with the exception of 
C. Cusickii Wats., the largest and finest, whose bulb is said, perhaps 
without sufficient investigation, to be nauseous and very acrid. 



The bulbs of all the species o{ Allium, or Garlic, are more or 
less edible and nutritious in spite of the strong-scented volatile 
oil they contain; many references are made to thcWild Leekes*' 
and "Wild Onions" by the first explorers who were sometimes 

w 

compelled to follow the example of the Indians and eat them to 
sustain life; however, it was their abundance all over the land 
which gave them value rather than their quality. 

Several species of Smilax have thick knobby tuberous root- 
stocks, which were utilized by our southern Indians. The most 
noted is S. Pstndo-China L., with extensively spreading and fas- 
cicled roots containing a large proportion of starch readily obtained 
as a reddish sediment by washing in water, and formerly, accord- 
ing to Bartram, made into soup, bread or jelly. Later these roots 



A 

lU 



were used by the white settlers, mixed with molasses and parched 
corn or rice, to make a very wholesome and palatable beer. The 
rootstocks of S. Boia-nox L., S. glaiica Walt., S, rotiu 



difolia 



and 5. Beyrichii Kunth {S, cmrlculata Chap.) w^ere indiscriminately 
collected and used with those of the last- 

Another eastern plant of this family, but of little consequence, 
is the Indian Cucumber-root {JMedeola Virginiana L.) with hori- 
zontal yellowish rhizome, I to 2 inches long, having a sweetish 
cucumber-like taste and more medicinal than nutritious. , 

The Star Tulips and Mariposa Lilies of the genus CalocJiortus 
so abundant and conspicuous in the Pacific States, have nearly all 
edible farinaceous bulbs, - The best known, as food plant Js C. 

m 

Niittallii T. & G. which extends eastward to the Rocky Moun- 
tains and even the prairie region beyond; it is the "Sego' 
of the Indians and Mormons; the bulb is about the size of a wal- 
nut, very palatable and nutritious, and is still used not only by 
Indians, but by hunters and miners as w^ell. 

Brodi(Ea Smith, a CaUfornia genus, has hkcwise edible bulbs- 
those of B, congesta Smith and B. capitata Benth., although small, 
are agreeably sweet and mucilaginous, 

Hcsperocallk midulataGx7\.Yy the Desert Day Lily, grows in the 
Colorado and Mohave deserts ; it has a deep-buried ovate-globose 
bulb I to 4 inches in diameter, with firm palatable and refreshing 
flesh, quite welcome to Indians and explorers in the absence of 
other vegetables, 

Chlorogahim pomcridiamtm Kunth., of California, is better 
known as a soap and a fiber plant than as a food plant, but it is 
also sometimes called, and for good reason, "Wild Potato." The 
egg-shaped bulb is i to 3 inches in diameter and about 4 long, 
thickly covered with coarse brownish fibres resembling the coir o{ 
the cocoa-nut A chemical investigation by Prof. Trimble 
showed 1.87 per cent, of saponin (or 6.95 in the absolutely dfy 
bulb), as well as glucose, saccharose and mucilage. The large 
proportion of saponin accounts for the use of the bulb as a valued 
substitute for soap. Cooking eliminates all acrid and injurious 
substances, rendering the bulb good, wholesome food with much 
the taste of camas. 

In the Sedge Family (Cyperaceae), we only find 2 or 3 food 



1 



^* 



115 



plants of minor Interest. The Great Bullrush (Sa'rp/s lacusiris L.) 
IS a widely distributed plant, ranging from the Atlantic to the 

.Pacific and from British America to the tropics. The stalks and 
leaves are commonly used by many tribes for mats and baskets ; 
the pollen, beaten off and collected on a cloth, is sometimes made 

" into cake. The thick fleshy rootstock of var. occidcntalis Wats., 

the "Tule" of the Pacific States, Is baked and eaten by hungry 

Indians. Gen. J. Bidwell describes a honey produced abundantly 

on a form of ,'*tule'' in Nevada, and eagerly gathered by the. 
natives. 

Two species oi Cypcrus, the Chufa [C. csculentus L.) and tJie 
Nut- Grass {C, rotnndus L.) are extremely noxious weeds in the 
eastern and southern States on account of their rapid propaga- 
tion by tuberiferous stolons and difficult extirpation. The Indian-?, 
however, looked upon them with favor because of the small edible 
tubers, specially those of Chufa, which are sweet and palatable, 
and even now occasionally planted as food for swine. 

P'inally, it remains to mention one Fern, the Common Brake 
or Bracken [Pteris aqtiilina L.), the most widely distributed of the 
order. The blackish rootstocks are eaten in parts of Europe and 
by some of our Pacific Indians. ** They have a pungency/' say 

F 

Lewis and Clarke, " which was disagreeable to us, though the 
natives eat them voraciously, and they seem to be very nutritious." 



FRUITS. 



The Indians eat not only all the native fruits which we eat and 
have more or less improved, but also many others for which we 
have never cultivated a taste. It is only of these specially aborigi- 
nal fruits that T shall speak. 

In the Cactus Family the genus Opuntia, economically speak- 
ing, is probably the most important. Even the fruit of our little 
Prickly Pear {O. vulgaris Haw.) is not entirely worthless, but it is 
in the arid regions of the Southwest that we find a majority of our 



50 native species in their best development. The fruit has a pecu- 
liar and mucilaginous taste, sometimes pleasantly acid, but often 
insipid and mawkish. It contains little nutriment, but quenches 
thirst in the desert. O. Engelmamii Salm, ranging from the mouth 
of the Rio Grande to the Pacific, is the most noteworthy ; not 




116 



only do Mexicans and Indians eat its frait with avidity, but the 
leaves as well when necessity requires. The leaves, or rather joints, 
of this and allied species are very juicy and an important fodder 
for cattle and sheep, being at once food and drink. 

The Mexican Prickly Pear or Tuna {0. Tuna Mill.), cultivated 
in Mexico from time immemorial, and whose fruit is found in all 
the markets of that country, was not known to our Indians; it 
was brought by the Spaniards into Florida and California where 
it IS now naturalized. 

The seeds, not only of the fruit of Opnntia but of all edible 
species of the order, are often separated by the Indians, parched 

F 

and pulverized and made into excellent gruel. 

■ 

Most remarkable is the Giant Cactus {Ccreiis giganteiis Eng.) 
the Suhuara or Pitahaya of the Mexicans and the vegetable wonder 
of Arizona, a tree mostly without branches, the straight, grooved 
shaft 30 to 50 feet high. The fruit is 2 to 3 inches long, full of a 
rich crimson pulp of a fine flavor and a great dainty to the 
Apaches, Pimos and Papagos. From it they prepare a clear 
light-brown syrup used as a substitue for sugar, and a fermented 
liquor having the taste and smell of sour beer. 

Still larger, sweeter and finer is. the fruit of C. Thtirberi^rig.y 
the Pitahaya Dulce, common in Sonora and Lower California but 
not yet observed in the United States. Half a dozen other arbo- 
rescent species of Cereus with edible fruit have been described 
from Northern Mexico and Lower California. Of the low and 
cespitose species, by far the most interesting from our standpoint 
is the Straw Cactus {C. stnimineuslLng.) of Western Texas, The 
ripe fruit is red, 13^^ Inches long and I thick, with thin skin bear- 
ing but few spines and easily peeled off; the seeds are so fine as 
to be unnoticed; it is'equal or superior, in quality and flavor, to 
the best strawberry. ' 

The genus Manimillariaox, as revised by Prof. Coulter, Cacttis, 
contains many native species bearing red berries of excellent 
taste ; I have eaten these with great relish on the Upper" Missouri 
from C. vivipaj'KS and in Western Texas from C, Heyderldind others, 
while in Southern California C. Goodrichii is said by Orcutt to 
yield a delicious strawberry-like fruit, 

I may close my remarks upon this order by a mention of the 



P 



117 



■ 

Western 



A 



Aiihaloiihun fissiirahim Eng.) of the rocky highlands of 
Texas and Northern Mexico, a pla'nt^nhich, when chewed, 
IS said to produce a sort of delirious intoxication and on that ac- 
count sometimes called *' Dry Whisky/' Another species (A 
Lezvini^ of the Lower Rio Grande and Mexico possesses the same 
remarkable properties. Both are well worthy of investigation.' 

The seeds or *'nuts" of many species of Pine are large and 
albuminous, forming, in several parts of the country, not only an 
important but almost an indispensable source of subsistence to the 
Indians. They are oily and often have a strong terebinthine or 
bitter taste when raw, but after being roasted they are not only 
nutritious but also pleasantly flavored. ' 

. Our best known Nut Pines are the Single-leaved Pine {Pinus 
monophylla Torn), so precious to the Indians of the Great l^asln, 
and the Two-leaved Pine or Pinon {P. edulis Eng.), perhaps only a 
variety of the preceding, ranging from Colorado to Texas and 

na. The wingless seeds are elliptical or globose in outline . 
and half an inch in length. Speaking of their value to the In- 
dians Dr. Newberry says : ''They are treasured as their choicest 
delicacies, and a handful of pine-nuts is to an Indian child as much 
of a treat as are sugar-plums to our boys and girls. Some of 
the Pifion groves on the flanks of the Sierra de la Plata, in South- 
western Colorado, have evidently been visited periodically by the 
Pueblo Indians for ages, for fragments of their peculiar ornamented 
pottery cover the ground." - 

The Mexican Nut Pine {P, cern^roidesZncc), with leaves mostly 
in threes but with the same seeds, extends north into Arizona and 
I-.ower California. Also belonging to this group is P. Parryaha 
Eng., of Southern California and Lower California, with leaves 
mostly in fours. 

The Sugar Pine [P. Lambertiana Dougl.) of the Pacific slope, 
the most gigantic species of the genus, with cone sometimes a foot 
and a half long, has edible seeds a half-inch long. The GrayTeaf of 
Digger Pine of California {P. Sabiniaua Dougl.) has a shorter, 
thick, massive cone with black seeds, the largest in the genus, 
nearly an inch long; these are collected in immense quantities by 
the Digger Indians for winter use, being not only a nutritious 
food but very digestible and specially suitable for delicate 






1 



\ 

\ 



118 



stomachs. Nearly related to the preceding fs P. Coidtcri of the 
coast ranges south of San Francisco, with stout, long, strongly 
incurved cone-spines, and somewhat smaller but equally pala- 
table seeds. 

Another genus of Conifers, Jiiniperns, contains three species 
whose fruit deserves mention: J. occidentalis Hook.^-with its 
several varieties, extending from Texas to the Northern Pacific 
coast; J, Californica Carr. of Southern California, with a variety 
extending to Utah and Nevada; J. pachyphloea Torr. of Western 
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, apparently merging into J. 
Mcxicana Schl. of Northern Mexico. They all bear abundant 
globose greenish or copper-colored berries with a mealy, resinous 
and not very unpalatable taste. Those of the last-named species 
are the largest (often half inch in diameter) and best; I have eaten 
them, not greedily, but without repugnance. Mexicans and In- 
dians consume large quantities of these berries and make them 
into a bread which, Dr. Palmer says, is of ** chaffy and saw-dust 



consistency/' According to the same authority this bread con- 



tains the following constituents which would indicate unexpected 
nutritiousness : Water 14.34, protein compounds 5.69, starch 
17.87, sugar 10.66, 

Another fruit of much importance to the Indians is that from 
many of our Oaks. Acorns contain starch, fixed oil, citric acid and 

They are some- 



astringent 



times sweet enough to be eaten raw without preparation, but it is 
generally necessary to rid them of their bitter principle; this is 
done by shelling and skinning, then pounding them into meal and 
washing thoroughly in water; the meal is then ready for boiling 
into mush or baking into'cakeor bread. Not long ago I received 



specimens of Qiurcus Garryana from Fort Gaston, in Northern 
California, with the information that the acorns were still a com- 
mon article of food among the IToopah and other Indians of that 
reservation. To remove the bitterness they place the meal in a 
hole dug in wet sand, so that in gathering it up more or less sand 
is unavoidably mixed with it, enough to have a decided effect 
upon the teeth. My informant, a medical officer, tells me that he 
has seen an Indian 45 years old with the crowns of his otherwise 



60 



common to see all the teeth worn down, even with the gums 



119 



T-he White Oaks have , sweeter and more palatable fruit thnn 
the Black Oaks, and it is mostly from them that the Indians sup- 
ply themselves. In California the large conical fruit of Q. lobata 
Nee is considered best by the natives who collect enormous 
quantities of it for winter use. Further north, that of Q. Ganyana 
Dough, is held in the same esteem." All the Live Oaks yield 
sweet palatable acorns, from the eastern Q. Virginiana Mill, to 
Q. undtilata Torr., Q. oblongifolia Torr., Q. pungens Licbm., Q. 
hrnoryi Torr., of the Rocky Mountain region, and Q. Engelmanui 
Greene, of Southern Cahfornia. Our eastern Indians consumed 
large quantities of the acorns of Q, Virginiana, aJso obtaining 
from them a sweet oil much used in cooking; they, likewise, ate 
the acorns oi Q. Michauxii Nutt. and Q. prinoidcs WIM. 

Of the Black Oaks the only one affording food to the Indians 
IS Q. agnfolia Nee, the Coast Live Oak of California. 

Of the Walnuts and Hickories our Indians knew how to take 
lull advantage, and sometimes from the nuts obtained delicacies 
apparently unknown to us ; thus Bartram states that the Creeks 
pound the nuts and cast them into boiling water which is then 
passed through a very fine strainer; the thicker oily part of the 
liquid thus preserved is called hickory milk ; it is as sweet and 
rich as fresh cream, and an ingredient in most of their cookery, 



specially hominy and corn cakes. 

Our species o{ Yucca are not only handsome and ornamental, 
but the section Sarcoyucca of our arid southwestern territory pro- 
duces fleshy, banana-like, fruits of agreeable taste, wholesome and 
nutritious. Unfortunately the fertilization of these plants, depend- 
ing largely, if not entirely, upon the agency of certain moths, is 
often imperfect, so that well developed fruit is scant. Y. baccaia 
Torr. is the most widely distributed of our species, ranging under 
several forms from Southern Colorado to Texas, California and 
exico. The ovate or cylindric, more or less beaked fruit is 3 to 
5 inches long, with pulp about a half-inch thick over the large seeds. 
As birds and insects are very fond of this fruit and have the first 
chance at It, Indians and Mexicans collect it when still green and 
let it mature In their dwellings ; they also eat it green after baking 
in hot ashes. The young flower buds, when about to expand, are 
roasted and a prized article of diet. I may also mention that 



120 



the leaves of this very useful plant yield strong, flexible textile 
fibres, while the caudex and root are rich in saponin and an ex- 
cellent substitute for soap. V. macrocarpa Coville. has a stout 
arborescent trunk lo to 30 feet high and i to i^^ in diameter, and 
still larger fruit. K ScJiottii Eng., of Southern Arizona, also be- 
longs to this section, as well as K Trectilcana Carr., of Northern 
Mexico., . ^ 

The Nymphaeaceae contain two plants whose seeds are, or 
were, highly prized by the natives, Nehunbo httca already specially 
noticed for its roots, and Nyinphaca polyscpalai^n^^^oi \\\^ north- 
. ern Pacific slope. The former is called Water Chinquapin, from 
the resemblance of its seeds in shape and taste to the Chinquapin 
chestnut of the South ; they are eaten raw or cooked and said to 
be even more delicate food than the roots. The latter plant dif- 
fers from the eastern N. advena chiefly in having a larger number 
of sepals and a larger fruit ; the pod is often the size and form of 
an egg, filled with well flavored and 'nutritious seeds which con- 
stitute one of the most valuable winter stores of the Klamath 
Indians. 

The Ericaceae are rich in finely flavored fruits; the many 
species of Gaylussacia, Vacchiiuni and Gaultheria furnish the 
Indians with a notable proportion of their vegetable food. Two 



xphyL 



the natives of 



California, A, Manzanita Parry, the Common Manzanita of the 



Manzanita 



western part of the State. The small apple-like fruit is decidedly 
acid before maturity, tasting somewhat like an agreeably tart apple 
and used for making a coolins: drink in summer. When ripe and 



5-» " v.>_.wAi^xw 



dried, it is pounded and made into cake or bread. 

The Mezquite {Prosopis jidiflora DC.) is one of the most wide- 
spread of trees, ranging from the Atlantic to the Pacific, along the 
entire Mexican border, and from the Indian Territory, through 
Texas and Mexico, to South America. It thrives best on bottom 
lands, where it acquires somewhat the size and aspect of an apple- 
tree, but \n\\\ grow almost anywhere, its long slender tap-roots 
dipping down to great depths in quest of moisture. On arid and 
fire-swept plains the spreading superficial roots absorb most of the 
nutriment, becoming thick and tortuous, while hardly any growth 
is visible above ground. 



V 



121 



The Mezquite is invaluable to the Mexicans and Indians of our 
Southwestern territory, to whom it supplies food and fuel, and 



d 



beer. The fruit is a yellow bean-like pod, 6 to S 
inches long, filled around and between the seeds with a sweet and 
very palatable pulp; it contains more than half its weight of as- 
similable nutritive principlesfof which the most important is sugar 
m the proportion of 25 to 30 per cent. Most herbivorous animals, 
specially the horse, mule and donkey, are fond of this pod and 



thri\ 



^e upon it. 



A second species deserves mention, P. pubcscens Benth., the 
Screw-Bean or Tornillo, so well characterized by the screw-like 
"uit. It is abundant from western Texas to California and south- 

co. The pulp of the bean is even finer than that 



Mex 



of the Mesquite, but 

Another but very different plant of the Leguminosae affording^ 



fruit to 



Fakata comosa (L.) Kuntze (AvipJiicarp 



monotca Ell.), the Hog Peanut, a slender, twining perennial, ranging 
from Canada to Florida and westward to Dakota. The rudimentary 
lower flowers, borne on filiform creeping branches, bury themselves 
mto the ground where they mature usually only one large fleshy, 
obovate or pear-shaped seed. This subterranean seed is edible 
and nutritious. I have seen the Indians dig it up in the spring as 
far north as Bismarck, N. D. The seeds of the pods on the 
upper branches, are said to be as good as peas for the table. . 



M 



taries, grows 



f/// 



abundant and ubiquitous shrub, sometimes ^ormmg miles of im- 
passable thickets. The pistillate plant becomes covered with a 
profusion of small globose, nearly sessile, bright red berries, -which 
contrast prettily with the bluish-white foliage; they are very acid 
and hardly edible until touched by frost in the early days of 
October, when they are sweetened and acquire a pleasant flavor. 
They have always been one of the staple foods of the Sioux and 
other Indians who eat them raw and stewed or mixed with other 
esculents. The whites use large quantities of them for making a 
delicious jelly, preferred by many to currant jelly. An analysis by 
Prof. Trimble gave the following constituents: water 71.28, nitro- 



■1 



genous substances O.14, free acid (1 
sugar 5.47, mucilage and pectin 0.42, 



2.45, 



total 



122 



The other species, Shephcrdia Canadensis Nutt, the Soapberry 
of tlie northern States and British America, bears yellowish-red, 
sweetish-acidulous and bitter berries ; these, according to Prof. 
Penhallow, contain 0.74 per cent, of saponin to which they owe 

r 

their persistent bitter taste and their well known property of foam- 
ing when triturated in a little water and beaten up ; the thick 
cream-like, sti*awberry-colored foam thus produced is a favorite 

* 

dish of the natives and, if sweetened, quite palatable. The ber- 
ries are also preserved, dried or made into jam. 

Another plant of this family, with edible fruit, is Elacagnns 
argcntca Pursh, the Silverberry of our northern middle States, and 
an attractive garden plant on account of its silvery-white foliage 
and the delicious fragrance of its flowers; The globose berry is 
dry and mealy and not at all appetizing. 

The fruit or hip of several of our wild Roses, after being touched 
by frost, is sweet and palatable; as it persists through most of the 
winter, when hardly anything else is available, it sometimes be- 
comes useful food to the natives as well as to birds and mammals. 
Rosa Nutkana PresL, the Nutka Rose, ranging from the northern 



Pacific coast to the Rocky Mountains, is the most showy of west- 
ern Roses, having the largest flower and fruit; the latter is juicy 



and pleasantly acidulous and an excellent antiscorbutic for the 
Indians of Alaska, 

Passing over the many native plants yielding edible seeds, 
specially of the Gramineae, I shall close with the notice of a few 
of those whose stem and foliage afford food to the Indians. In 
this connection the genus Agave is first to be mentioned; it is 
essentially Mexican, only a few species extending into our southern 
territory, and has always been of the greatest economic importance. 

The sap of ^. Americana^ a species sparingly naturalized, but not 
indigenous, north of the Rio Grande, is converted into a w^eak alco- 
holic beverage called ''pulque/' the national drink of Mexico. 
Other species, baked, supply the '* mezcal de comer," an excellent 
article of food, and also, by fermentation and distillation, a strong 
drink called ** aguardiente mezcal." The edible part consists of 
the thick juicy base of the leaves, the fleshy axis and central bud, 
together forming the ''cabeza" or head which is slowly baked in 
a pit or oven. In the raw state no sugar can be discovered in 



123 



th 



r - - 

J 

■i 

these plants, but only a citro-glucosid which by heat is converted 
into grape sugar and citric acid, so that, by cooking, the cabcza is 
rendered very sweet and pleasant to the taste. 

Our Indians were not slow in learning the value of A^-am- from 
e Mexican natives; from time immemorial they have utilized 
our mdigenous species, and wherever these grow can be found the 
stone-hned pits in which the.mezcal heads are, or were, baked for 
food. As our native species do not yield sap enough for the pro- 
duction of pulque, and the process of fermentation and distillation 
IS too complicated for native art, it follows that our Indians never 
obtained any alcoholic drink from them. 

A. Parryi Eng. is the Mezcal of New Mexico and Northern 
Arizona, one of the staple foods of the Apaches. When properly 
prepared it is sacchanne, palatable and wholesome, mildly acid, 
laxative and antiscorbutic. A. Palmcn Eng. takes its place In 
souther^ Arizona. A. Wisliseni Eng. is the common Mezcal 
species of the mountains of western Texas, while A. deserti Eng. 
IS that of southern California and adjoining deserts. 

On the mesas and foot-hills of western Texas and northern 
Mexico where Agave is rare, the observant Indians discovered a 
plant which takes its place and is equally useful, furnishing both 
food and drink. This is Dasylirion Texanum Scheele, the Bear- 
Grass of the Americans and Sotol of the Mexicans. When 
trimmed down, the head or edible portion consists entirely of the 
thick, expanded and imbricated bases of the leaves ; it is refresh- 
ing and palatable even in the raw state, but of much better flavor 
when cooked. By fermentation and distillation, the Mexicans ob- 
tain from it a strong whisky called Sotol mezcal, of penetrating 
smell and peculiar taste, and the common alcoholic beverage of the 
frontier population. 

The Lexnoaceae have several interesting food plants, the prin- 
cipal of which is Ammobroma Sonorae Torr., the Sand-food, a 
leafless parasite in the sand-hills o{ southern Arizona and I^xjwer 
California. The long fleshy stem, creeping in the sand, is edible 
raw and cooked, but specially palatable when boiled or roasted, 
the taste being variously described as that of a sweet potato or the 
I^eart of a cabbage. It is eagerly eaten by Cocopa, Papago and 
Vuma Indians, as well as by the Mexicans, It is a valuable 
substitute for water in the desert. 



124 



The Classification of the Archegoniates. 



^ 

* 



By Lucien M. Underwood. 



■k 

There has hitherto been much looseness in the coordina- 
tion of the groups of plants abov^e what have been regarded the 

# 

natural orders and at the same time wide difference m usage in 
group names. It is equally apparent that in some respects 
the botanists have followed a different system of nomenclature 
from the zoologists, and they have not even followed a uni- 
form or consistent system among themselves. While it is 
not possible to crowd a series of forms within the limits of a rigid 

r 

classification, or accurately coordinate all natural groups of plants 
in equally related categories, it certainly is possible to follow cer- 
tain broad principles and maintain a uniformity of nomenclature 
for the higher groups as well as for genera and species. Leaving 
particulars for further discussion there ought to be no difficulty m 
securing the adoption of the following system of group names and 
sequences : ^ ■ 

Sub-kingdom. 
Class. 
Order. 
Family. 

F 

Genus. 

M 

Species. 

This is in skeleton the exact usage of the zoologists and con- 
forms more nearly with the greater portion of the more recent 
usage among those whose work is connected with cryptoganiic 
botany. The differences that have been most prominent have 
arisen among the phanerogamic botanists, and some of the differ- 
ences have even become almost hoary-headed from long usage* 
Indeed incipient baldness marks not a few of them, and perhaps a 
proper ventilation of some of the remainder will cause this to be- 
come even more apparent. ' 

I. In place of the term sub- kingdom, so generally used by 
zoologists, the term series has been used. 'The use of the former 



125 



4 



must eventually be followed by all who deal in taxonomy, if con- 
sistency is to be maintained. • 

2. There has been a standing confusion of the terms order and 
family. The term ^^natural order" has a considerable antiquity, but 
has been confined Slargely to the Spermatophytes. While crypto- 
gamic botanists have by no means been uniform in their termino- 
logy, they have in the majority of instances clearly distinguished 
these two group names. In this they have followed the lead of 
the zoologists, for there would be no opportunity in animal classi- 
fication to confound such distinct group names as the order Car- 
nivora and \he family Canidae. And yet the Ranunculaceae have 
h^^n called indiscriminately a natural order (or simply an order) 
and a famil}^ On account of this general confusion among the plants 
•which are popularly the best known, it will be all the more diffi- 
cult for a time to introduce a uniform and consistent sj^stem. 
And yet it seems to need no are^iment to show that there is no 
good reason for perpetuating this confusion in our terminology, 
and the stand takxn on this point by the German systematists, and 
quite consistently carried out In a number of the most elaborate 
floras that have ever appeared in any country, will go far toward 
establishing the correct terminology. 

3- There has also been a tendency to use the term cohort, much 
as we have used the term order in the proposed system. This 
was introduced by Lindley, and its adoption by Benthani and 
Hooker has had the tendency to fix its use especially in those 
quarters where other emanations from the same source have bad 
much weight. As the Spermatophytes are not all of the vegetable 
world and much less not all of the domain of living things, it be- 
comes a question when we broach the matter of uniformity of 
usage as to whether we shall follo^v a generally established prin- 
ciple or merely a localized usage. Since all zoologists and 
e great majority of cryptoganu'sts have already established 
the term order to include a group of families, it would seemingly 
be folly to attempt to adopt the term cohort in place of the term 
order. Here priority of use might well be argued in addition to 
the axiom that a part is not more important than the whole. 

The adoption of intermediate groups such as sub-classes, sub- 
orders, sub-families and sub-genera can well be left to monog- 



th 






1 



126 

' raphers of special groups, for their necessity will evidently vary in ^ 
every group of plants. It would be a consummation devoutly to 

ft 

be wished if their use anywhere were restricted as much as possi- 
ble, for a too extended and minute subdivision is not only not de- 
manded by most groups of organic forms, but w^hen introduced in 
excess tends more to confusion than otherwise and often obscures 

L 

the real groupings of allied forms. 

So far as uniformity of termination is concerned it would seem 
that the termination-^^A^^ could properly be adopted for orders and 
the termination-rt'rmt' for famihes where this would not interfere 
with long established names. In this connection uniformity would 
seem to be of more importance than priority; especially as the 
limitations of these larger groups have been so long a matter of 
uncertainty and variety of opinion. In the groups above orders, 
there would seem to be less necessity for uniformity of termination 
than in the orders and families themselves. 

In order to illustrate the matter of uniformity of terminology 
and as a contribution toward securing this uniformity, I present 



the following arrangement of the sub-kingdom knowm as Arche- 



goniata. It will be necessary as an introduction to state the limi- 
tation of that group as Ave understand it. In the present 
condition of our knowledge of plant forms, we can probably find 
no more satisfactory primary division of the plant world than the 
following, though of course we are still very far from a natural ar- 
rangement. It is practically the arrangement followed in the 
Engler-Prantl series* with minor modifications. 

S2ib-kingdom IMycetozoa. 

Sub- kingdom Tiiallophyta. 

Sub-kingdo)n Archegoniata. 

Sub-kingdom Spermatophyta. 

A few remarks may be to the point in explanation of this di- 
vision, which in its lower half is necessarily artificial and unsatis- 
factory. 

I. The slime moulds are evidently sufficiently distinct from 
other plants to warrant a separation in this way. That they have 
undoubted affinities with the animals no one can doubt, but it is 
equally clear that they have decided affinities with at least two 

♦Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2 : i, 1-2. 



127 



groups of plants, the bacteria and the moulds (Mucorlni), that can- 
tiot be disregarded. VVhile their structure and function causes 
them to stand somewhat midwdy between plant and animal, it 
would seem more consistent in a systematic arrangement to place 
them at the bottom of the plant world. . 

2. Until the inter-relations of the algae and fungi can be more 
<lef]nitely known and some suitable system devised that shall make 
it possible to unite allied forms on a rational basis, it will be best 
to maintain this unnatural and heterogenous group which we call 
Thallophyta. It is true, as has been stated, that the group is 
practically undefinable, but that is always true of the last division 
of any series in which those forms are placed that do not conform 
to any known natural arrangement. The close alliance of some 
of the lower fungi and algae absolutely precludes the idea of 
establishing these as primary groups, and of the various systems 
of subdivision that have been maintained there are nonethct seem 

^ — 

to be founded on real or natural relationships. Unsatisfactory as 
the group is, we see no present improv^ement that can replace it. 

3- As has been often maintained, there is not a wide distinction 
between a simple Riccia and some of the green algae, and the 
group Archegoniata is not entirely distinct at its lower limit. 
This, however, is true of any great group when its outliers are all 
known, for evolution has not yet resulted in the destruction of all 
the connecting links. We have for the same reason excluded the 

F 

Characeae from this group because of their apparently stronger 
affinities with the other green algae. For a similar reason we 
have included the Gymnosperms at the upper limit because their 
affinities w^hen properly understood seem, to link them more 
strongly here than witli the higher plants. 

With these limitations we present the following outline of the 
■classification of the Archegoniata. 

Sub-kingdom Archegoniata. 
Class Bryophyta. 

(Snd'class Hepaikae.) 

4 

Order Mardiantiaks 



*I have placed these subgroups in parenthesis as representing group names that 
modern research seems destined to retire to a merited oblivion. I have elsevs here 
<5iscussed their abandonment more in detail Cf. Proc. A. A. A. S. 43 : 259-274, 1894- 



128 



- f t" 1 



* 

■ Family Ricciaceae. 

Family Marchantiaceae. 

Order hingerinaniales. 

Family Metzgeriaceae. 

■ ^ ■ 

Family Jungermaniaceae. 
Order A n tJi ocerota les . 

Family Anthocerotaceae. 



F-- 



-m ^ * ^ 



r »t 



{Sub-class Musci,) ^ 
Order SpJiagnales . 

Family Sphagnaceae. 
Order Andracales, 

Family Andraeaceae. 
Order Archidiales. 

Family Archidiaceae. 
Order Bryales. 



> 



^ 'fc 



- r 



(I omit the somewhat numerous families of 
this order as unnecessarily extending this 



» ^ 



illustration.) 



F q 



Class Pteridophyta. 

Order FUicales. 



Family Ophioglossaceae. 
Family Marattiaceae. 

Family HYMENOPllYLLACEAti, 

Family Osmundaceae. 

Family Scihzaeaceae. 

Family Gleicheniaceae. 

Family Polypqdiaceae, 

Family Cyatheaceae, 

Family Marsileaceae. 

Family Salvixiaceae.*' 
Order Eqiiisetnles. 

Family Equisetaceae. - 

Family Calamariaceae (fossil)-f 
Order SphenopJiyllales. 

Family Sphenophyllaceae (fossil).t 
Order Lycopodialcs, 

Family Lycopodjaceae. 



*^ 



See foot- note on preceding page, 



-I ^ 



129 



Family Psilotaceae. 



t 



Family Selaginellaceae. 
Family Isoetaceae.-I; 



t 



Class Gymnospermae. 

Order Cycadaics. 

Family Cvcadaceae. - 

O'rder Cordaifaks (jossWy 
Order Finales. ^ 

m 

Family Pixaceae. {Comferae>j 
Order Gnctales, 

Family Gnetaceae. 

The above classification is not proposed from the fact that it 
contams anything especially novel, but is merely an adaptation of 
the principle of uniformity in the terminology of the lower groups, 
oo far as unhke things can be compared at all, the above families, 
^s mdicated, are groups equivalent with the so-called *' natural 
orders " of the higher plants, e. g. Rantinctdaceae^ Liliaceae, Orchi- 
^aceae, etc.. The separation of the Gymnosperms entirely from 
the Spermatoph>-tes will doubtless jostle with the ideas of those 
who still sandwich them in between the Monocotyledons and 
Dicotyledons, unaware of the modification that has taken place in 
■our ideas of homology in the past two decades, while they have 
been asleep and failed to note the march ofprogre$s over their heads, 
in some instances it may be desirable to introduce a kw subdivi- 
sions, but in the above I have purposely left them out except in 
one instance, that the simplicity of the arrangement might be the 
more apparent- They should not appear except for sufficient 
^nd well founded cause, 

r ■ 

. Greencastle, Indiana. 



*No Hneal series of these families can represent their true affinities. 
f The position of many of these fossil forms is still problematical. 
% The position of this family is by no means permanently decided. 



130 



^4 L 



RULES FOR CITATION 



Adopted by the Madison Botanical Congress and Section G, A. A. A. 5 



Writers and publishers of botariical matter are earnestly requested 
lo adopt the forms here recommended, • Examples of various cifa- 
tions illustrating the application of the rules i7i specif c cases are 
given. Correspo?idence may be addressed to Secretary of the Com- 
mittee on Bibliography, 1284. Massachusetls Ave., Cambridge, Mass, 

1 

In each complete citation there should be given the followingr 

XL 

items: ' 

a. Author's surname in full, followed by a comma. 
. ^. Exact title, verbatim, following the capitalization requ:red 
by the usage of the language in which the title is \yritten, but not 
necessarily the capitalization employed. 



Name 



\r 



list of journals and catalogue of authors under recommendation i. 
a. b:^ 

d. Series, if any, in Roman capitals. 

e. Volume number in bold face Arabic numerals, followed by 
colon. In case there is no volume number, the tiumber of the 
part, heft, lieferung, or fascicle is to occupy this place but is to 
be printed in Arabic numerals of ordinary face. When a volume 
is composed of parts separately paged the number of the part 

* shall be written as an index figure to the volume number. Vol- 
umes in parts with continuous paging require no designation ot 
parts. '. . 

» 

/, Page, in Arabic numerals of ordinary face. In case paging 
of the paper is in Roman numerals these should be used, pre.er- 
ably small caps. Re-paging in reprints and separates is to be in- 
dicated by enclosing the numerals in parentheses. In case the 
original paging is unknown an em dash should occupy its place, 
the reprint paging being given in accordance with the foregonig 

See Proc. Mad. Bot. Cong. 45. Je 1894. 



t 



I 



rsi 



i_ 



No individual or unique paging is to be cited under any 
circumstances. .... 

^. Figures, plates and exsiccatae are to b2 printed in Italic 
Arabic numerals, the number designating the figure or plate to 
be preceded by Ihe abbreviations/ and//., respectively, in Ital- 
ics, d. following a page number may be used, when desired, to 
indicate description of a species. 

^' Exact date must be given if possible, written in the mode 
and with the abbreviations for months used by Library Bureau.* 
The year at least must be given. 

*. Punctuation. Except the comma following the author's 
name, and the colon following the volume number all the items 



be 



rf another citation follows in the 



same luie it is to be separated from the first by an en dash. Spe- 
cihc, generic and varietal names are tobe written and punctuated 
m the method used in the "List of Pteridophyta and Spermato- 
Ph3'ta" issued under the directioil of the Botanical Club, A. A. 

A. S. • 

J- If it is considered desirable to give other data than series, 
number (if any), volume number, page and date, these should 
be added in brackets after the date. But useless or unnecessary 
data should be avoided. 

^- Citations of reviews, abstracts, and all such secondary refer- 
ences should be enclosed in parentheses. 



Examples. 

m 

*- Lagerheim. G- von. Ueber das Vorkommen von Eu- 



Bot. Centralb. 54-324-331. 1S93. 



Q 



2- Trelease, W. A revision of the American species of 

E)pilobium occurring north of Mexico. Rept. Mo. Bot, 

Gard. 2: 69-117, //.r-/<y. 22Api89r. 

3. Sargent, C. S., Editor. PopuUis nionticola. Gard. 

and For. 7-3^3- /-S^^ 8Agi894. 



*Those abbreviations are as foHows: Ja, F, Mr, Ap. My. Je, JI, Ag, S. O, N, 
D; i. e., the initial of the month followed by the first distinctive letter. 



■i 

i 



132 



4 



Dietel, P. Die Gattung Ravenelia. Hed 



pi 



J 



49-69. 1 5 Ap 1894. 



5 
6 



Ell 



The foregoing are correct forms for catalogue by author. The 
following illustrate cases arising under the rules indicated by 
the letter preceding. 

. and Everh. Pyren. 491. My 1892. 



e. 



7. e. 



8. 



e. 



Proc. Phil. Acad. 1894:53-59. 1894. 

The year number, 1894, is the volume number, and not neces- 
sarily the year of publication. E- g., 

■ L , _ 

Bessey, Am. Poiiiol. S03. 1855:42. 1886, 

Mez, C. Bromeliacete. III. Flora Brasilieiisis 115: 

425-634. //. 81-114., iF 1894. 

Not Fasc. CXV, 425-634. t. 81-114. 

Saccardo, P. A. Syll. Fung. 7^:481. N1890. 

w 

10. e. j. Ball. Geol. and Nat. Hi-:t. Surv. Minn. 9:39-42- 2 Mr 

1894. 

r 

Not 9^; nor 9 part 2; nor 1894 [part 2"|. 

11. e. j. Linn. Sp. Plant. 62:125. 1852. [ed. Willd.] 

12. e.j. Gray, A. Man. Bot. 225. 1890. [6th ed.] . 



9 



e. 



13- f. 



Peck, C. F. Rep. N. Y. Mus. 47= — (18). N 1894- 



14- g- Ell. and Kverh. N. A. F. 1642, F1889. 




!5 



16. i. 



Rept. Mb, bot. Card. 2:98. d. pi. 2S. 22AP1891. 

' ■ ■ 

Berhiger, Am. Jour. Pharm. 66:220 M3' i894.~-Tu- 
lasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. III. 7:85. d. pi. 2. f. 3- 



»7. J 



1847. 

Bailey, The Japanese plums in North America. 
Cornell Exp. Sta. 62:3-36. Ja 1894. [lUust.] 

The figures are not numbered. 



Bull. 



18. k. Ell. and Kell. Jour. Myc. 1:12. d. Ja 1885.— (Hedvv 

24: 45 d. Jei885.) Peck, (Grev- 22:111. Jei894.) 



m 



133 



Proceedings of the Club. 



4 h 



Tuesday Evening, February I2th, 1895. 

» r 

Vice President Allen in the chair and 29 persons present. • 
Lieut. \Vm. Lassiter, ist Artillery, U. S. Army, was elected 
an active member. 

A.' 
communication from the Secretary of the Council of the 

Scientific Alliance of New York, transmitting a draft of a pro- 
posed act for incorporating the Council, was read.. The matter 
was discussed by the chairman, Mr. Van Brunt, and the Secretary. 
On motion and unanimously carried, it was . . 

Resolved, That this Society approves of the measure outlined 
m the proposed act of incorporation just presented by the Council 
of the Scientific Alliance of New York, and, so far as this Society 
IS concerned, hereby authorizes the said Council to procure the 
passage of the said act by the Legislature and thereafter to carry 
the same into effect. 

L 

A communication from Professor Halsted, whowas announced 
to speak on ''Abnormalities in Plants due to F^uugus Diseases," 
was read, stating his inability to be present. 

The paper of Mr. Van Sickle, deferred from the last meeting 

was then presented,- entitled ."-.Noteg from my Herbarium." The 
speaker exhibited and remarked upon a very large number of the 

rarer plants of northern '^o.w Jersey, representing numerous un- 
recorded localities and several species hitherto unknown to occur 
Within the State, The communication was a very valuable addi- 
tion to our knowledge of the distribution of the local flora and 
will be published in a subsequent issue of the Bulletin. 

Professor Britton read the announced paper o{ the evening, 
*' The Family Ranunculaceae," outhning his proposed treatment 
of the group in the ''Systematic Botany of North America." 



Wedxesdav Evening, Febrljarv 27TH, 1895. 

Vice President Allen in the chair and about 165 persons 



present. 



Miss Beatrix Jones was elected an active member. 
The announced paper oi the evening was then read by Mr. 
Cornelius Van Brunt, entitled " Wild Flowers in and about Xcw 



134 



York City." The paper was illustrated by a large number of lan- 
tern slides made and colored from nature, the beauty of which 
elicited many expressions of admiration from the audience. The 
paper was discussed by the Secretary, who expressed Jhe hope 
that those present would follow up their acquaintance wdth our 
wild flowers made from the lantern slides, by a personal acquamt- 
ance made in the. field during the coming season, in connection 
with the excursions of the Ctub and of the summer class in botany. 

r 
■ - b 

Dr. Britton called attention to the scientific featur,es of such ac- 
curate illustrations, by w^hich he had noted that a rare species of 
Asclcpias, A. decuvibcns, not previously reported from this locality, 
occurred in the vicinity of New York, He also mentioned the 
strong contrast between the lowland and mountain forms of /t//- 
paioriiim piirpureiun as endorsing his view that they wxre distmct 
species. 

Dr. Britton called attention to two important publications, viz., 
I, American Algae, Century I, 1894, by Miss Josephine E. Tilden, 
of the University of Minnesota; 2, Phycotheca boreali-Anieri- 
canae, fascicle i, by Messrs. Collins, Holden and Setchell. 



Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany. 

w 

■ 

Allen, T. F. Japanese Characeae— IL Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22 : 
68-71. 26 F. 1895. ' 

Describes Nitella ptilchella, N, suhglomerata Japonica^ and iV. subliicens as 



new. 



Arthur, J. C. Black-knot and other Excrescences. Trans. Ind. Hort. 
Soc. 1894; 76-80. 1894. 

Arthur, J. C. Discrimination of Diseases without the Use of the Micro- 
scope. Amer. Florist, 9: 646. 22 F. 1894. Also Ann. Rep. Am. 
Carnation Soc. 1894: 8-14. 1894.' 

Describes seven or eight fungous diseases of carnation and tells how to recognize* 
them aided only by a hand lens. 

Arthur, J. C. and Holway, E. W. D. Uredineae exsiccatae et 
icones. Fascicle L Decorah. pp. 4. //. j. 31 packets of specimens, 
S. 1894. 

Contains 17 species of Lepto- Uredineae, with drawings of the spores on a uniform 
scale of magnification. 



135 



Bastin, E. S. Structure of Cimicifiiga. Am. Journ. riiarm. 67: ijt- 
128. /. r-7. Mr. 1895. ' 

Bates, J, M. Notes on the Trees of Northern Nebraska. Arh. Nat. 
28: 1034-1036. D. 1894. 

Beach, S. A. Some Observations on the Life-history of Flowrightia 
morbosa (Schw.) Sacc. Ann. Rep. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta; (Geneva) 
1893 : eze-()ZZ. 1894. ■ . ■ . . . • , 

An infection of young nursery stock from the conidia of 1S92 (or possibly from 
ascospores of the following winter), produced an outbreak of the knots in June, 1893- 

Bessey, C. E. Notes on the Distribution of the Yellow Pine in Ne- 
braska. Card. & For. 8 : 102-103. 13 Mr. 1895. 

Bntton, E. G. Contributions to American Bryology — IX. A Revis- 
• ion of the Genus" Scoulerla with Description of one new Species. 
Bull Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 36-43.//, 227. 15 Ja. 1^95. 

-Describea S, marginata from Washington and California, . 

Britten, E. G. Contributions to American Bryology— X. Bull. Torr. 
■Bot. Club, 22: 62-68.//. 22^^231. 26 F. 1895. 

Discussion of Fhyscomifrella patens ^nd. Aphanorhegma serra(a and a hybrid of 
the latter with some Physcotnitritifu^ with plates. 

Britten, N. L., and Kearney, T. H., Jn An Enumeration of the 
Plants collected by Dr. Timothy E. Wilcox and others in Southeastern 
Arizona, Trans. N. Y. Acad- Sci. 14: 21-44. J^- 1895. 

New species in Aristida, JSIuhlenbergla, Mir ab His, Berber is, Cercocarpns, 
Eryihrina and Kuhnistera. 

Budd, J. L. The Russian Thistle in its natal Home. Bull. Iowa 
Agr. Exp. Sta. 26: 30-33. 1894. 

Campbell, D, H. Observations on the Development of 3fara/fl'a Doug- 
/aj-// Baker. Ann, Bot. 8: 1-20. //. J'-.?. Mr. 1894. 

Campbell, D. H. The Origin of the sexual Organs of the Pteri- 



dophyta. Bot. Gar. 20 : 76-78. 16 F. 1S95. 
Cheney, L. S. Leucoplasts. . Bot. Gaz. 20: 81. 16 F. 1895. 
Chester. F. D.' Report of Mycologist. Sixth Rep. Del. Exp. Sta. 



tS 



yo : 103-132. Ja. 1895. 



Gives treatment for Peach loi {Monilea) ; observations on rot of scarlet clover 
{Scieroiina Trifoliortim), Colleiotricimm in cow pea seed and ripe rot ( T^/Z^/tf- 



trichutn pkomoides) of tomatoes. 

Colli 



W. A. Phycotheca Bore- 



J 
-I 



1 



ali -Americana. Fascicle I. Maiden, Mass, 1895. 



136 



■ 

Coulter, J. M. New or noteworthy Compositae from Guatemala. 
Bot. Gaz. 20: 41-53. pL 5~6, 16 F. 1895. • 

Describes Vernonia Luxensis, V. Heydeana. V. Shan^ioni, Ageratum rugostwh 
Ettpatornan griseum^ E, vernoriioides, Willoitgbaeya globosa^ Mcllinoa {tt* g') 
co7'ymbosa^ Polyninia Qitichensis^ Moutanoa Sq7?ialensis^ Verbesina Domtell- 
Sfnit/iii, Pereziopsis {n.g,) Donnell'Sinithiiy with plates of the two new genera. 

Coville, F. V. Report of the Botanist U. S. Department of Agricul- 
trure for 1893. Rep. Secy. Agric. 1893: 235-244. 1894. 

Crandall, C. S. The Russian Thistle. Bull. Col. Agr. Exp. Sta. 28: 
pp, 18. //. d. S. 1894. . 

r 

Davis, B. M. Euglowpsis ; a new Alga-like Organism. Ann. Bot. 8: 
377-390.//. ig, D. 1894. 

^ ■ ■ ^ ■ 

Deane. W» Notes from my Herbarium-r-I. Bot. Gaz. 20: 12-15- 

i 

18 Jy. 1894. 

Dewey, L. H. The Russian Thistle. Cir. Div. of Bot. U. S. Dept. 
Agric. 3: pp. 8. /.J. 1894. . 

r 

Eggleston, W. W. The Flora of Mt. Mansfield. Bot. Gaz. 20: 
' 72-75. - 16 F. 1895. 

Ellis, J. B. and Everhart, B. M. New Species of Ustilagineae and 
Uredineae. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: S7-6i. 2(> F. 1895. 

Species of Ustilago, Entyloma^ Uromyces^ Pticcinia and Aecidittm. 

Foerste, A. F. Botanical Notes. . Bot. Gaz. 20 : 78-80. 16 F. i§95- 

J* ^ - 

Spreading of raspljerry bushes and superposed buds and leaf pears. 

Ganong, W. F. An Outline of Phytobiology. Educational Review, 
St. John, New Brunswick. Je. 1894 [Reprint, pp. 15, St. John, 
1894]. 

■ - ' 

Gepp, A. Additional Notes on Mr. W. R. Elliott's Hepaticje. Journ. 
Bot. 33: 82-84. ^Ir. 189-5. 

' Notes on Lejeunea and Metzgeria, . 

Guignard, L. Sur I'existence et la localisation de Temulsine daus les 

plantesdu genre ManihoL Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 4 : 101-107. 1894- 

Guppy, H. B* On the Habits of Lemna minor, L. gibba and L* 



folyrhiza, J 



6 O. 1894- 



Halsted, B. D. Some fungous Diseases of Beats. Bull. N. J. Exp 

Sta. 107: pp. 13./. 5. 10 Ja. 1895. 
Handy; R. B, Peanuts: Culture and Uses. Farm. Bull. U. S. Dept 

r _ 

Agric. 25: pp. 24, /f.^. 1895. . 



• * 



137 



Harms, H. - Plantae Lehmannianae in Colombia et Ecuador collcctae- 

Passiflcraceae. - Beibl. Engler's Bot Jahrb. i8: Hft. 5. 1-14. 21 Ag. 
1894. 

Havard, V. Family Nomenclature. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 77, 
78. 26 F. 1895, ' ' , 

Hay, G. U.- Report qi\ Botany. Bull. Nat- Hist. Soc. New Bruns- 
wick, 12 : 69^ 70. .1894. . 

Heller, A, A. Botanical Explorations in Southern Texas during the 
Season of 1894. Contrib. Herb. Franklin and Marshall College \y 
1-116. pL p. ^ 6 F. 1895. . . . 

List of a 'large number of species with synonymy, and critical notes, novelties 
being described in Parncu?n, Rttmex^ AmorJ^ha^ Kuhuistera^ Sida^Samohis^Asclep- 
las^ Cressa^ Verdena, Pentstemon and Houit nia, 

e - 

Hieronymus, G. Plantae Lehmannianae ■ in Colombia et Ecuador 
collectae additis quibusdam abaliis collectoribus ex iisdem regionibus , 

... * . 

allatis determiiiatae et descriptae.-Compositae. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 
^9: 43-75- 13 Ap. 1894. .. / 

Hill, E. J. Tradescantia Virginica var. villosa Watson. Bull. Torr. 
Bot. Club, 22: 71-73. 2(5 F. 1895.' 

Hooker, J. D. Aphaerema splcata. Curt. Bot. Mag. 51 : //. 7398. 
F. 1895. , ' 

Native of South Brazil. 



A 



' ' ' • ^ , 



Howe, M. A. Chapters in the early History of Hepaticology.— III., 
IV. Erythea, 3: i_6, 25-30. i F. 2 Ja. 1895. 

Review of Columna, Caspar Bauhin and others. 

Howell, T. New Species of Pacific Coast Plants. Erythea, 3 : 1^-2^^- 
I F. 1^95. 

New species in Le^ufiuhi, Arabis, Cardamine, Mitella, Saxifraga, Rides, Eri- 
geron^ Senecio and Phacelia. ' ' " ' 

Jenman, G. S. Aspidiiim {Lastred) basiattentiatmn. Card. Chron, 
i;^: T32. 2 F. 1895. 

A new species from Jamaica. 

Jenman, G. S. PolypOilium {Gohiopteris) nigrescentiwn. Card. 



Chron. 17: loo, Ja. 1895. 

A new species from Jamaica, 

Koehne, E. ' Glossopetalon meionandnn7i n. sp. Gartenflora, 43 : 

w 

237-240./. §2, I My, 1894. 
Koehne, E. Quercus Gamlelii. Gartenflora, 44 

iS95- 



J 



f.i. I J 



t 



\ 



* > 



i 



\ 




138 



I J 

Knuth, P. E. Loevv's Bluthenbiolozische Floristik die miitleren und 

J' 

nordlichen Europa sowie Gronlands. . BioL Centr. 15 : 78. 15 Ja. 

1895. 

1 

A brief review of Loew's work. 

X F 

Lindau, G. Eeitrage sur Argentinischen Flora. Beibl. Engler*s Bot, 
Jahrb. 19: Hft. 4. 8. 28 D. 1894, 

Macoun, J. The Forests of Canada and their Distribution, with Notes 
on the more interesting Species. Trans. Royal Soc. Can. 12 : Sec. 
4. 3-26. 1894. 

Macoun, J. M, Contributions to Canadian Botany— T. -HI. Can. 
Rec. Sci. 6: 23-27. Ja.j 76-88. Ap.; 141-153. N. 1894. 

Record of new localities and critical notes. New species and varieties by Trelease 
in E/i^o5ium, in Spicsia by BriUon, in Agrostis and Poa by Scribner. 

Macfarlane, J. M- Irrito-contractibility in Plants. Biological Lee- 
tures. Wood's Holl, 1893 : 185-209. 1894. 

Meehan, T, Aster specfahilis, Meehan's Month.: 5: 4^j 42. /^- 3- 

Mr. 1895. ' ■ ■ 

Mobius, M. Ueber einige an Wasserpflanzen beobachtete Reizer- 

scheinungen. Biol. Centr. 15: 1-14; 33"44- i J^l. ^^d. ^5 J^- 
1895. 

Discussion of irritable organ-positions in Ceratophyllum^ Naias^ Ranuncu us^ 
Cabomha^ Myriophylluviy Elodea^ HippuriSy CalUtriche and Chara, 

w 

Mohr, C. Die Walder des Slidlichen Alabaraas. Pharm. Rund. 13 "• 

3^-33- F- 1S95. (Concluded.) 
Mottier, D. M. Contributions to the Life-history of Notothylas. 

P 

Ann. Bot. 8: 391-402. //, 20^ 21. D. 1894. 
Nash, G. V. American Ginseng; its Commercial History/ Protection 
and Cultivation. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Botany, i6: PP- 
• 22. fig. 1895. 

L 

Discusses Panax quinqiiefoliuju, 

Newcombe, F. C. The Cause and Conditions of lysigenous Cavity- 
formation. Ann. But. 8: 403-421. D. 1894. 

Nichols, M. A. Observations on the Pollination of some of the Com- 
positae. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci, 1 : 100-103. 1894. 

Owen, M. L. Tilhua simplex. Bot. Gaz. 20: 80, 81. 16 F. 1895- 

Pammel, L. H. Botany of the Russian Thistle. Bulb Iowa, Agric 



CoU. Exp. Sta, 26 : 8-26.//. 7. 1S94. 



amm 



Bull. Iowa Agric 



Coll. Exp. Sta. 23 : 906-917.//. /,/, 2. 1894. 



T--^ 

^ 



^ 
I 
ii 



139 




Pammel, L,. H. Some obnoxious Weeds of Iowa. Rep. Iowa State 
Agric. Soc. 1893: 437-442. 1S94. 

Praeger, R. L. /uncus tenuis Willd. Journ. Bot. 33 : ZG. Mr. 1895. 

Allusion to its occurrence in Ireland. 

Reiche, K. Zur Kenntnissder Chilenischen Arten dur Galtung Oxalis. 
Engler's Bot. Jahrb. i8: 259-305.//.^, 1894. 

Ridgway, R. Additional Notes on the Native Trees of the Lower 
Wabash Valley. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu5. 17 : 409-421. 1894. 

Measurements given of many species. 

Robertson, C, The Philosophy of Flower Seasons and the phaeno- 
logical Relations of the entomophilous Flora and the anthophilous • 
Insect Fauna. Am. Nat. 29: 97-117.//. 8~io. F. 1895, 

Rolfe, R. A. New Orchids. Kew. Bull. 1894: 361, 363, 3C4, 392, 
393-395- ^894. 

Descriptions of a large number of American species. 

L 

nt, C- S. Notes on North American Oaks. Card. &: For. 8:' 
92-93-/' ^3-H' 6 Mr. 1895. 

Description and illustration of a new oak, Quercus Toumeyi^ from the hills of 
Southeastern Arizona. * - 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. The Forests of the Wabash Valky. Card. &: 
For. 8: 101-102. /. 16-ij. 13 Mr. 1895. 

Saunders, De A. A preliminary Paper on Costaria with Description 
of a new Species. Bot. Gaz. 20: 54-58. //. 7. . 16 F. 1895. 

C reticulata from California. 

Schilling, A. J. Anatoniisch-biologische Untersuchugen iiber die 
Schleimbildungder Wasserpflanzen. Flora, 78 : 280-364. 4 Je. 1894. 

Schlichter, R. Britrage zur Kenntniss Siidamerikanischen Asclepia- 
daceen. , Beibl. Engler Bot. Jahrb. 18: Hft. 4. 1-37. 22 Je. 1S94. 

Schumann, K. Hariota salicornioides. Monatss. Kakteen K 5: 

■2.2-20. Jigs. F. 1895. 

Scribner, F. L. Giant Knotweed or Sachaline. Cir. DJv. 
S. Dept. Agric. 5 : pp. 4./. J. 1895. 

Discusses Folygonurn Sack Jinetise and its value as a forage plant. 



Bot 



Scribner, F. L, 



'rus 



Wagner i.') Cir 



/. 2. 189 



Small, J. K., and Vail, A. M. Report on the Botanical Exploration 
of Southwestern Virgioia during the Season of i892. Mera. Torn 

w K ^ - 

Club, 4: 93-201,//. 75-<5*2. 1893-1894. 

Enumeration of several hundred species and descriptions of the following as new : 
Trifolium Virginicum, Rttdbtckia Britto^ii Txnd Asterina Leemingiae. 



I 






i. 

I 
I 



140 



Small, J. K. Some new hybrid Oaks from the Southern States. Bull 
' Terr. Bot. Club, 22 : 74-76. //. 232-233. 26 F. 1895. 

L 

J 
J 

Smith, E. F. ■ Length of Vessels in Plants. Science (II.) i: 77- 

F 

18 Ja. 1895, 

Some notes culled from Strasburger's "Bau iind Verrichtuiigen der Leitungsbahnen 

in den Pflanzen." . ■ • . ■ 

Spalding, V. M. The Traumailopic Curvature of Roots. Ann. Bot. 
423-450.//. 22. D. 1894. • .... 

r 

Spruce, R. Hepaticae EUiottianae, insulis Antillanis St. Vincintu et 
Dominica a cler. W. R. Elliott annis 1891-1892, lectae. Journ. 
Linn. Soc. 30: 331-372.//. 20-jo. 5 F. 1895. 



Twenty-six new species are described. 



-^2. 



Stitzenberger, E. Notes on Western Lichens. Erythea, 3 : ^o-t^ 
I F. 1895. 

Stubbs, W. C. Ramie {Boehmeria nived). Uses, History, Composi- 
tion, Cultivatron'j etc. Bull. La. Exp. Sta. 32: 1126-1146. 1895. 

■ 

Thaxter, R. Notes on Laboulbeniaceae with Descriptions of new 
Species. Proc. Ara. Acad. 30: 467-481. 1895. 

New species in Laboitlbenia^ Heimatomyces^ Die homy ces, Eticantha^ otnyces 
(new genus), and Ceratomyces, 

Tilden, J. E. American Algae — Century L 1894. 

Exsiccata of 100 species. 

Underwood, L. M. Notes on our Hepaticae— IIL The Distribution 
of the North American Marchantlaceae. Bot. Gaz. 20 : 59-7^- ^ 

F. 1895. : ' ■ ■ _ .. 

Describes Asterelia Pringlei from Mexico, and A. Atistini and A, IVrtghin 
from Cuba. 

Urban, I. Additamenta ad cognitionem florae Indiae occidentalis— IL 
Myrtaceae. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. ig : 562-576. 28 D. 1894. 

Waite, M. B. The Pollination of Tear Flowers. Bull. Div. Veg. 
Path. U. S. Dept. Agric. 5; pp. no.//. 12. f. 3. 1894,' 

Wallace, R. W. . CalocJiortus Flummerae. Garden 47 : 8. 2. F. 
1895. 

West, W., and West, G. S. New American Algae. Journ. Bot. 33 : 
52. F. 1895. 

A new variety of Ptdiastrum duplex Meyen, and new species of Tetraedron anc 
oi.Radiofi.luni. ' • 

West, ^A/. Some recently published Desmidieae. Journ. Bot. 33- 
65-70. Mr. 1895, : ^ 



Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia Colleg 



No. 4. 



No. 



5 



No. 6. 



No. 

No. 



7 
9 



No. II. 



No. I 



3 



No. 



^5. 



No. 16. 

No. 17. 
No "20. 



1-^0. 21. 



No. 22. 

No. 24. 



No 



25- 



No. 26. 
No. 27. 
No. 29. 
No. 30. 
No. 31. 



N 



o- 33' 



No. 34. 

No. 35. 



No. 37. 
No. 38. 

^o. 39. 

No. 40. 
No. 41. 

No. 42. 

^'0. 43, 



[The numbers omitted from this hst are out of print.] 
A List of Plants Collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San Diego, Texas. By 

N, L. Britton and H. H. Rusby (1887), 25 cents. 

New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams. By N, L, Britton 

(1888), 25 cents. 

An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby in South 

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The Genus Hicoria of Rafinesque. By N. L. Britton {188S), . . 25 cents. 

A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at Fort Verde and in tlie 

Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, 1884-1888. By N. L, 
Britton. 

The General Floral Characters of the San Francisco and Mogollon Mountains 
and the Adjacent Region. By H. H. Rusby (1888), . . .-. .ascents. 

Preliminary Notes on the North American Species o[ the Genus Tissa^ 
Adans. By N. L. Britton (1889), . , , .ascents. 

New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, II. By N. L, Britton 
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A Descriptive List of Species of the Genus Heuchera, By Wm. E. Wheel- 
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A List of Species of the Genera SdrpusdxiA RynchosJ^ora occurring in North 
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THE HERBARIUM OF THE LATEDR.J, BERNARD BRINTON 

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It consists of nearly 10,000 species and varieties, mounted in 
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'^OL- 22. APRIL, 1895. ' No. 4. 



' BULLETIN 



OF THE 



ToRREY Botanical Club 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 



Edited by 



NATHANIEL LORD BRITTON, 



AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CI-UB 






corvTXErsrTs : 



PAGE. 

Notes on some Florida Plants: Geo. V.Nash 141 Botanical Notes.— A Redfield Memorial 
John H. Rcdfield: Wm. M. Canby (with 
PO'"*rait) _ J62 

A fossil marine Diatomaceous Deposit at St, 

Augustine, Florida: CkarUs S. Bayer. . 171 
New Species of Parasitic Fungi: S. M. 

Tracy ^nd F. S. EarU 174 

The Systematic Botany of North America. . iSo 



PAGE. 



Herbarium Fund; Announcement of the 
next meeting of the American Microscop- 
ical Society 182 

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Indhx to recent Literatuks relating 
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BULLETIN 



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TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB. 



Vol. 22. 



Lancaster, Pa., April i8, 1895. 



No. 4, 



4 

Notes on some Florida Plants. 



By Geo. V. Nash. 



The section of Florida va'sited by me, and where I spent some 
five or six months collecting the flora, had never before been sys- 
tematically explored botanically. One or two parties had col- 
lected for a few weeks in the w^inter season, but no one had spent 
^ny great length of time, and so it was practically a virgin field 
for the botanist. Its flora is most interesting, both in new and 
rare forms. The northern and tropical vegetation seem to overlap 



here. Xhnenia 



Indian shrub, and 



Mitchdla repcns^ our common partridge berry, which has a far 
northern range, w^ere equally common. This is a fair example of 
the extreme diversity of the forms. 

Eustis, a beautiful little town in the high pine land country, was 
the centre of my operations. This is situated on a lake of the 
same name, some six miles long and three miles wide, connected 
with Lakes Griffin and Harris by the Ocklawaha River. It is 
about 25 miles from the Gulf, an equal distance from the Atlantic, 
and some 160 miles south of Jacksonville. I confined my opera- 
tions to a radius of 12 miles of this place. 

Lake county, a small section oi which I explored, is situated m 
Central Peninsular Florida, right in the heart of the lake region. 
It seemed strange at first to find in a country where the soil is prac- 
tically nothing but sand, such a superabundance of lakes. They 
are everywhere. Five or six can be seen at once from the tops of 



142 



some of the slight elevations in the high pine land. They vary 
in size from only a few hundred feet to several miles. There are 
two groups of them: first, the large ones, which are really widen- 
ings of the Ocklawaha River, and second, the small, clear-water 
lakes. These latter are nev^er very large, and the water contained 
in them is as clear as crystal. These are particularly numerous ■ 
in the high pine land. They have no apparent Inlet or outlet, and 
as a rule occur in deep depressions. How it is that the water re- 
mains so perfectly clear and limpid is hard to explain. Compared 
with our northern lakes, they contain little vegetation. Potaino- 
gctons^ Vallisncria, and other forms so common in the lakes of 
the North, are entirely absent, and are to be found only in the 
Ocklawaha River and the large lakes alluded to above. 

Another peculiarity about these clear-water lakes is their varia- 
tion in elevation. The case of Lakes Alfred and Irma will illus- 
trate this feature. ■ They lie a little to the southeast of Eustis,and 
are only separated by a steep hillside some 500 or 600 feet long, 
Lake Tmra being at the top of the hill The difference in eleva- 
tion is about 65 feet. One or" two small streams, rising in this 
hillside, flow into Lake Alfred. But in spite of this its waters 
gradually lowered during the entire summer, and when I left in 
September the lake was nearly dry. The waters of Lake Irma, 
on the contrary, remained at the same level, although It is consid- 
rably higher and would be expected to drain into Lake Alfred. 
As stated before, the flora of this section is very rich, and this 
fact is due to the exceeding variation in the physical features of 
the surrounding country. There are five well-marked areas, the 
flora of each one being different, and having certain plants pecu- 
Har to itself. These might be designated as: High Pine Land, 
*' Scrub," Low Pine Land, " Bayheads" and *' Hammocks." 

Of these the high pine land is the greatest In extent. The 



c 



tall timber is composed entirely of the long-leaved or yellow pine, 
Pinus pahisiris. The trees have perfectly straight trunks, rising 
to a height of 50 to 75 feet, the branches all being borne near the 
top, leaving the trunks entirely naked. The two other prevailing 
trees are Qtiercus Catcsbaei and Q. cincrca, the shining bright 
green deeply cut leaves of the former making a strong contrast to 
the narrow entire and grayish-green foliagre of Q. cinerca. The 



143 



Leguminosae are well represented, and in fact the members of 
this family predominate among the herbaceous plants. Chap- 
mama Floridana^ Aeschynomme hispUula, Morougia augustata, 
Rhynchosia cincrea, Crotalaria Purshii, Cracca ambigua and C. chry- 



oph) 



Anione the more 



frequent of the Compositae are Btrlandicra suhacauUs, Ptcrocaiilon 
tuidiilatuui^ Cuiacs spinosissimus Elliottii^ Lygodcsmia apliylla^ Vcr- 
nonia angustifolia, Hieracium megactphalon, HdiantJidla grandi- 
flora and Liatris secunda. Among other plants characteristic of 
this region are : Tradescaniia rosea, Asdcpias ampkxicaulis^ 
Aswnna pygmaca, Conuneliiia angusHfolia, Polanis ia temdfoUa, 
Brczveria angustifolia, Stillingia sylvatka, Croton argyranthamis, 
Jatropha stwiidosa^ Eriogonuni longifoliiun and E, toincntosiDn, For- 



ph 



The 



grasses are represented by few species, but these occur in great 
numbers. ArisHda stricta^ Sporobolus jnncca, Andropogon argy- 
raeus and A. lojigibcrbis are the commonest. There is only one 



m 



Steiwphyllits Ward, 

The high pine land is subject to annual fires. The cattle 
growers burn off the old grass, so that the roo'ts will start up and 
give a crop of young, succulent shoots. It is wonderful what a 
variety of features protect the plants against these destructive 
fires. Pimis palusfris has a very thick bark at the base of the 
trunk, and the thickening is very noticeable in the shape of a sud- 
den swelling just above the ground. All the herbaceous plants 
have large underground parts, tubers or thick roots, which 
store up nutriment and protect them. Commdina angiistifolia 
has an immense fascicle of fleshy horizontally spreading roots, 
which anchor the plant deep in the ground and keep its 
soft, tender parts out of harm's way. Tradcscantia rosea has a 
similar arrangement. The provision for the preservation of Heli- 
anthclla grandijlora from e.xtlnction is even more noticeable. 
Buried in the ground, 6 or 8 inches deep, is an oblong tuber; 
the stem arising from this, instead of pushing abruptly upwards, 
continues horizontally, sometimes for a distance of I2 or i8 inches, 
and then rises obliquely to the surface; no matter how much the 
fire may damage the aerial portions, the plant has a supply of nu- 



X 



144 



triment, enough to enable it to start up again at once. The above 
are only a few instances of the many means which insure the 
preservation of the different species. 

The ** scrub" flora is entirely different from that of the high 
pine land, hardly a single plant being common to both; in fact 
these two floras are natural enemies and appear to be constantly 
fighting each other. The only large tree growing in this region 
is Pimis clausay which is markedly different from P, palustris^ the 
pine of the high pine land. The latter is a tall, straight tree, 
with the branches restricted entirely to the top. P, clausal oh the 
contrary, is branched almost from the very base and does not at- 



tain a height of over 30 feet. Its needles are very fine, and it has 



received the name of the " spruce pine/' The great part of the 
growth in the '' scrub " is made up of scrub oaks, which are so var- 
iable that no two of them seem to be alike, and how many species 
there may be would be hard to tell. ' Only a number of years of 
close study in the field could determine this. Ceratiola^ with its 
heath-like leaves, occurs here very abundantly. Persea hiimilis^ a 
most beautiful little shrub, makes itself very conspicuous by its 
bright brown silky pubescence, which is noticeable a long way off, 
Biunclia lanuginosa is very common, as is Xinienia Americana. 
Suiilax Beyrichii climbs all .over the scrub oaks, and Is the only 
one of this genus^ observed growing in the ''scrub,*' One of the 
most beautiful plants of this part of Florida is Brewerta grandt- 



fi< 



The stems, with their 



peculiar gray-green erect leaves, spread out in all directions over 
the white sand. I remember one place, several acres in extent,, 
where this plant reached its perfection, the stems sometimes eight 
or nine feet long, fairly covering the ground in all directions, with 
hundreds of the flowers in sight. It is remarkable that a plant of 
such luxuriance and beauty can thrive in an area so devoid of 
moisture as the *' scrub," and yet it selects and confines itself ex- 
clusively to this region. Only one species of Cyperaceae is to be 
found here. This is Rynchospora dodecandra^ and is quite common. 
Grasses there are absolutely none. For some reason this family 
is unable to obtain a foothold. Occasionally some member of the 
Andropogoneae tries it, but soon dies, not being able to stand the 
opposition it meets with for more than a few months. 



Ir 



145 



I 

I Spoke above of the* antagonism of these two floras. This i 
so marked that there is no mistaking it. Wherever they come to- 
gether the line o( division is very distinct. A bare space of pure 
white sand usually separates the two. On one side you will sec 



/ 



reach, and on the 



other the diffusely branched R clausa of much lower stature. 
You may look in vain in the "scrub" for plants occuring in abun- 
dance just over the line in the high pine land, and vice versa. 
The strip of bare white sand dividing the two is neutral ground, 
and each seems to jealously guard against the other's gaining a 
foothold there. The soil of these two sections was apparently 
originally the same pure white sand. That in the high pine land 
is now darker in color, being probably due to the charcoal de- 
posited there by the annual fires. This seems to be the only dif- 
ference. As fires are of rare occurrence in the " scrub," tlie 
plants have made no provision against it, and so when a fire docs go 
through it causes great havoc, almost entirely killing the pines 
and oaks. It is fortunate that fires are of such rare occurrence. 

The flora of the low pine land region Is not so distinct. It 
grades into that of the high pine land. Each has its separate and 
peculiar plants, but the hue of demarcation is not so evident. 



)ph) 



Some 



of the plants which are peculiar to and characteristic of this region 
are: ' Podostigma pedicdlata, Trilisa odoratissima , Solidago Chap- 
in ani, Bejaria racemosa, Cracca hispidida and C. spicata, Eryng'mni 
yttccacfoimiii synchactum, Rhexia ciliosa and R. serndata, Bktia 
verecunda, Limodonun panifloriim and Juncits marginatus pine- 
tornm. The commonest member of the Cyperaceae is Fiinbristylis 
piiberula, which occurs in great abundance throughout the low 
pine land. Aristida stricta also occurs here, as well as in the high 
pine land. Andropogon Floridanus is quite common and a very 

showy member of that genus. 

The low pine land occupies an intermediate position between 
the high pine land and the flatwoods. The latter is not repre- 
sented near Eustis, and so I did not get a chance to do any col- 
lecting among that flora, which differs in a marked degree from 

that of any other section. 

The large swamps, lying generally along the low pine land, 



146 



have a peculiar flora and one quite interesting. These are locally 
known as '*bayheads/' so called, I presume, from the large number 

■ 

of bay trees, Magnolia Virginiana, that occur in them. The shrubs 
most prominent are Fictis niiida and Laicotlioe raccmosa. 
Gordonia LasiantJms, with its large white showy flowers, occurs in 
quantity along the margins. It ranges in height from ten to thirty 
feet, and when in full bloom is a very pretty sight. The plant 
most common, and which attracts the eye above all others, is the 
ever prevailing Sniilax Liurifolia, ' It climbs and clambers over all 
the shrubs and bushes, and makes the ** bayheads" almost im- 
penetrable. Here and there open places will be found where 
sphagnum grows in quantity, and in such spots one is almost 
sure to find Utricularia fibrosa, \\\\\\ its large showy yellow flowers. 
And in the very wet places Pdtandra sagittacfolia makes itself 
conspicuous by its showy ivory-white spathes. Andropogon 
brachystachys occurs in the vicinity of '*bayheads'' and I found it ' 
no where else. 

The soil of all the above, excepting the ** bayheads," is pure 
sand, overlying a stratum of clay, the depth of sand varying from 
a few feet in the low pine land to as much as fifty feet in the high 
pine land. In places the clay comes to the top, and the character 
of the vegetation entirely changes. This forms what is locally 
known as ** hammock land." It is a heavy clay soil, and is gen- 
erally subjected to continuous inundation during the rainy season, 

► r 

which lasts from about June to September, Qiiercus virens, the 
Hve oak, is the principal tree, and often attains a great height. The 
most conspicuous object to the eye of a northerner is certainly the 
Cabbage Palmetto, Sabal Palmetto, It rises to a height of 50 to 7S 

w 

feet, overtopping all the other vegetation. These trees are very 

1 

plentiful and can be found in all stages of growth, from the young 
plant only a few feet high to the tall ones just alluded to. Until 
they attain a considerable size they retain the bases of the petioles 
of the old leaves. This gives the young palms a different appear- 
ance from the one they assume later when they shed these, expos- 
ing the slim symmetrical trunk to view. So unlike do they seem 
that at first sight it is hardly possible to believe that they can be 
the same in different stages of erowth. In some sections the 

Golden Fern. Polvtodmm amrinu nq uell n^ the Old Man*s Beard, 



147 



Vittat'ia Imcata, take possession of the trunks of the young palmet- 
■ tos, thrusting their roots down between the sheaths and the trunk. 
A palmetto thus adorned is certainly a beautiful object. 

i 

The blue palmetto, Sadal Adansonii, also occurs hi the "ham- 
mocks." It never attains a height of more than three or four feet. 
Among the other plants restricted to the hammock lands are; Tra- 
descantm pilosa. Coreopsis Leavcmvorthti, SoUdago Lcavcnworihii, 
Hclontiin midifloritni, Tciicriiun Nasliii, Bcrchcmia scandcns, Cardio- 
spcrnmm inicrocarpitm, Eryngium BaUhvinii, Ulmus Floridana and 



u. acata, Leltis Mississippiensis and Lapsicuni baccatitifi, 

^^^ r 

Owing to this exceeding variation in the physical conditions 
of the country explored, I was enabled to secure a large number of 
species, some ^oo^ several of them being new to science and 
others additions to the flora of the United States. The range of sev^- 
eral plants was extended much further south. I also secured a 
number of rare things hitherto poorly represented in herbaria. 
The following are some of those of pecuUar interest: 



■y 



\Nymphaca renifc 



] 



This was found growing commonly in Lake Ella. There 
seem to be two forms of it, one growing along the shore, the 
other in water lo to 20 feet deep. The two merged into each 
other, and a careful comparison showed tliem to be the same. 
The rootstocks of the shore form were secured and there was no 
indication of any tubers. The leaves varied from 6 to 8 inches in 
diameter in the shore form, to nearly 2 feet in the one growing in 
deep water. The edges of the latter were distinctly turned up, 
much as in the Victoria Amazonica and occurred in large masses, 
making it difficult to propel a boat through them. The flowers 
were long and entirely without odor, with the exception of a faint 
suggestion of that given off by apples. 

815. IIelianthemum Nashi Britton, n. sp. 

Diffusely branched from a thick woody, horizontal root the 
branches decumbent or ascending, slender, terete, densely stellate- 
tomentose even when old, leafy, 2-4 dm. long. Leaves oblong or 
linear-oblong, densely stellate-canescent on both sides, acute at 
both ends or the lower obtuse at the apex, 1-5-3 cm. ong, 
3-6 mm. wide, short-petioled. the margins somewhat revolute ; 
flowers all alike in terminal leafy-bracted thyrsi ; pedicels 2-5 mm. 



148 



long, divergent and ascending; outer sepals subulate ; inner sepals 
oval-oblong, very obtuse, firm, concave, 3-4 mm. long; petals 
yellow, broadly cuneate, slightly eroded, 5 mm. long; stamens 
about I5, shorter than the petals; ovary globose, puberulent 

Nearest to //, arenicola Chapm., but very different in its thyr- 
soid, not corymbose, inflorescense, and obtuse inner sepals. It 
occurs in the " scrub." 

14. Stipulicida filiformis n. sp. 

A diffusely branched glabrous annual, of very slender habit, 
1-2 dm. high. Radical leaves orbicular, acute, about 4 mm. m 
diameter, on slender petioles 5-7 mm. long ; bracts triangular- 
subulate, about I mm. long; inflorescence capitate, i-2-no\vered; 
flowers about 1.5 mm. long, sessile or slightly stalked ; sepals 5, 
scarious-margined, oval, obtuse, the inner 1.5 mm. long, i nim. 
broad, outer about two-thirds as long; petals 5, oblong, 2 mm. long, 
.75 mm, broad, entire or somewhat eroded at apex, minutely^3-5' 
toothed on each side near the base; stamens 3t *^PP^^'*^^ mner 
sepals; filaments linear, .75 mm. long, .25 mm, broad; anthers 
oval, .5 mm. long, .3 mm. wide; capsule globose, obscurely 3' 
angled; seeds more or less triangular' in outline, flattened, less 
than .5 mm. long. 

Differs from ^. setacca in being much more slender; in the m- 
florescence, which is composed of fewer and sessile flowers, and 
in the shorter bracts. 

One of the few plants that grow in both the ''scrub" and high 
pine land. It prefers the latter, and attains a much more luxuriant 
grow^th there. Begins to flower in ]\Iarch and continues through- 
out the summer. 



755- Hypericum aspalathoides^WXA. 



/ 



The 



two occur very commonly around Eustis and are clearly distinct 
species. The latter is found invariably around the lake shores 
and grows from 4 to 12 feet high, sometimes forming a small tree 
with a trunk 2 to 3 inches in diameter. " The leaves are long and it 
flowers about the middle of April, maturing its fruit early in Au- 
gust- //. aspalathoides never occurs along the lake shores, but m 
the low pine land. It is a small undershrub, i to 3 feet high, has 
much shorter leaves, does not flower until five or six weeks later, 
and matures its fruit sometime in September. 



^ 



149 



Hibis. 



H, 



pears distinct from that plant. Its flowers are always pure white 
with a deep purple centre. The leaves are softly pubescent on 
both sides, and are very seldom lobed at the apex, and when they 
are the lobing it is very slight 

37S. Cardiospermun niicrocarpiim Kunth. 

Ot frequent occurrence in the " hammock lands/' climbing up 
the bushes and small shrubs. It appears to be new to the flora of 
the United States. It occurs in the West Indies, and so its turn- 
ing up in Florida is not a matter of great surprise. It has much 



Halicacabiim 



South Florida. 



. Amorpha virg 

Mr. Smnll fmin 



Mountain, Georg 



now^ been found in Florida, several hundred miles further south. 

1523- KuHNisTERA Feayi (Chapm.) (^Fefalosft'mon Ft'aji Ch^pm.). 

This occurs very commonly in both the "' scrub" and high 
pine land. It forms large clumps 3 to 4 feet across. The flowers 
^re a bright lavender. A white-flowered form was also found 
(No. 1524). 

^35^^ RhYXCHOSIA CINEREA n. sp. 

Perennial. Stems numerous, trailing, branching, 6-10 dm. 
^^^S> 3-angIed, striate, clothed with appressed cinereous pubes- 
cence; stipules brown, ovate, acuminate, 3-4 mm. long; leaves 
from 3-5 cm. long, 3-foliolate, terminal leaflet largest; petiole 
11-20 mm. long, rachis 5-9 mm; leaflets appressed-pubescent 
above and on the veins beneath, somewhat rugose ; lateral ones 
unequally ovate or orbicular-ovate, 13-23 mm. long, 9-18 mm, 
wide; terminal leaflet larger, orbicular-ovate to depressed-orbicu- 
lar, 15-26 mm. long, 13-30 mm. wide; petiolules about i mm., 
covered with a dense cinereous, appressed pubescence; flower- 
clusters about as long as petiole; peduncle 3-5-flou-ered; pedicels 
slender, 1-3 cm. long ; calyx somewhat 2-lipped ; lower lip 3-parted, 
divisions lanceolate, acuminate, middle one 13 mm. long, a little 
exceeding the lateral ones; upper lip 2-cleft, teeth acuminate; 
ovary pubescent; pod oblong, obliquely acute at apex, 16 mm. 
long, 8 mm. broad, appressed-pubescent, 2-seeded ; seed orbicular, 
flattened, 5 mm, in diameter, mottled brown. 

Nearest to is", iomentosa Ell., which has a climbing habit, larger 



/ 



150 










leaflets, a yellowish brown spreading pubescence, and the youn 
pod densely pubescent, almost villous. In R. aV/^rm the pod is. 
sparingly appressed-pubescent. Grows only in the high pine land 



region. 



ifoli 



? 



There is some doubt as to this being this species, but more ma- 
terial is needed to decide the matter. It grows strictly erect and 
is armed with most aggressive spines. The leaves are much 
larger and the pubescence seems to differ. There is a specimen in 



M 



No. 79 f, which appears to be the same thing. 



-/ 



iv 



I. 



1 142. Crataegus flava Integra n., var. 

A small tree 4-5 metres high with spreading branches. Bark 
light gray,' on new shoots reddish-brown; leaves obovate, more or 
less undulate especially at the apex, glandular on the margin, acu- 
minate at base and narrowed into a slender glandular petiole, 
10-13 ^^' ^ong. Fruit (not fully ripe) globose, on villous pedi- 
cels, 5-1 S mm. long. 

. Collected in vicinity of Lake Ella in old fields, July 2. ■ The 
fruit was green though apparently full grown. The flowers were 

* 

not seen. 

948. Drosa'ci capillaris Poir. 

This plant occurs in great abundance along the shores of the 
clear-water lakes, and seems to be confined to them. It never 
grows more than 2 or 3 inches high. There is another form 
which is also quite common, but it is much taller. 

1218. Rhexia Floridana n. sp. 

Whole plant of a dark olive green, diffusely branched from a 
woody base, 2-4 dm. high, branches ascending. Pubescence 
glandular-hirsute, spreading; leaves linear, 1. 5-4 cm. long, i-3 
mm. wide, smooth on both sides, one-nerved, remotely and 
sharply spinulose- serrulate, acute, sessile, narrowed at base ; 
flowers short-pediceled ; calyx-tube cylindric-campanulate, spar- 
ingly glandular-hirsute, about i cm. long ; lobes triangular to 



ovate-lanceolate, about 2 mm. long, i mm. broad at base; petals 
purple, mucronate, mucro about i mm, long; fruiting calyx 13 
mm. long, neck 6 mm. long, 3 mm. in diameter, globose portion 
about 6.5 mm. in diameter; seeds snail-shaped, .6^-75 mm. long, 
irregularly ridged. 

Very distinct and well marked. Its dark color and very nar- 




151 



row leaves readily distinguish it from all the other forms of this 



genus. 

Found growing in quantity in wet clay soil on east bank of 
canal leading from Hicks' Prairie, near Eustis. Collected early 
in July. . . 

515- CEnotJiera simtata L. (?) 

Th? stems of this plant are prostrate and 3 or 4 feet long, 
with leaves nearly entire or but slightly toothed. It appears quite 
different from the true plant, which is very common about Eustis. 

865. MelotJiria penditla L.(?) 

There are two forms of this occurring commonly. One, the 
ordinary plant, climbs over the bushes and tall weeds, and has . 
thin sharply angled leaves with a broad open sinus at base. The 
other is always prostrate, and has thicker and more obtusely lobed 
leaves, with the sinus at base almost closed. 

377- Sauibuciis Canadoisis L. 

This often attains a height of 10 to 15 feet» with a trunk 6 to 8 
inches in diameter. Its leaves are very dark green and shining 
above, with long acumination. 

892. CcphalaiitJnis occidentaiis L. 

In the cypress swamps this often reaches a height of 30 feet, 
with a trunk 5 to 6 inclies in diameter. The leaves are also corres- 
pondingly large, some of those measured being over 17 inches 
long. 

730. Richard la Brasilicnsis Gomez. 

This appears to be new to the United States. It is evidently 
introduced, as it occurred only in one place along the railroad 
track, but it appeared at home and well established. 



Dm 



Why 



hard to understand. The mistake would certainly not have been 
made had the two been seen growing. They are entirely differ- 
ent. The latter is a glabrous plant with large tlu'ck leaves. D. 
hirsuta is very hairy with much smaller leaves and larger fruit. 
It occurs in dry sandy soil or in open swamps. In the former 
situation the stems are prostrate, forming mats on the ground. 



152 



In the latter they are only decumbent at base, being erect for the 
last 10 or 12 inches. 

1 183. G arda'ia fniticosa K. Gvdiy. 

Only a few specimens of this very rare shrub were secured. 
The plant seemed to be very common, but the flowers were 
scarce. It probably blooms much later. The shrub is some 4 or 
5 feet high. 

691. Solidago Leaveinvorthii T . & G. 

This rare golden-rod is by no means common. It occurred in 
only one or two places. 

1225. Heliantliilla grandiflora A. Gray, 

The tubers of this showy composite exude a copious resinous 
matter. 

h 

171 1. Liatris secunda Ell. 

This is the L.pmicifiora of the Synoptical Flora where the above 
name is cited as a synonym. It is clearly not the plant Pursh 
had in view; he divides the genus into two sections, tuberous 



\ 



•> 



and non-tuberous. The first contains the species now placed in 

r 

Liatris, the second is composed of a number of plants, part of 
which are now put in Carp hep he tits, the others iu Trilisa. L. 
paiicijlora occurs in this latter group. The description given of 
it is clearly not that of a Liatris^ as now understood. 

390.'^HlERACIUM MEGACEPHALON n. Sp. 

Annual, whole plant generally of a purplish hue, ste^^^s 3-5 
dm. high, channeled, strongly pilose especially at the base. Radi- 
cal leaves broadly oblanceolate, 8-12 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, den- 
ticulate, pilose, particularly on the upper surface and the midrib 
beneath; cauline leaves^ oblong to oblong-ovate, decreasing in 
size towards the inflorescense, lower 4--6 cm. long, 1. 5-2 cm. 
broad, truncate at base, sessile; inflorescence corymbose-panicu- 
late, densely glandular-pubescent ; involucre 8-10 mm. long ; 
achenes fusiform. 

Grows only in the high pine land. Flowers from March-May. 

This seems to belong near H. Gronovii, and the achene 
certainly places it near that species. Its inflorescence, large 
heads, and dense glandular-pubescence clearly separate it from 
that plant. Moreover, H. Gronozni does not begin to flower in 



153 



Eustis until late in August, whereas this plant flowers early in the 
spring. "^ 

700. XOLISMA FRUTICOSA (Michx.) 

{Andromeda fcrmginca fruticosa Michx.) This certainly is 
specifically distinct from Xolisma ftrruginea, which grows from 
6-12 feet high, has light green leaves which are very much rolled 
in on the margins, and flowers early in March. X, fruticosa never 
attains a height of more than 6 feet, has a much stricter habit, 
very dark leaves which are not revolute, and does not flower until 
two months later. This difference is quite marked in herbarium 
specimens, but in the field there can be no mistaking it. . 

i 

573- Vaccinium stamincuni L.? 

This occurs in very dry sandy soil, and has much smaller 
leaves than usual. They are thick, somewhat rugose and of a 
hght green color. The true plant occurs in similar situations, but 
is much larger and thinner leaved. 

941, i6g^, Fraxinus epipfera, Michx. 

■ In the herbarium of Columbia College there are two things 



. V. v..v,x^ «a^ w..v^ ^.....^ 



placed under F. platycarpa. One of these has fruit over half an 
inch wide, elliptical in outline, gradually narrowed at each end. 
The other has linear-oblong fruit?^ This latter I found in quan- 
tity in the cypress swamps and it is evidently distinct from the 
broad-fruited form. Its leaves are thicker and entire, or occasion- 
ally with very obscure serration. It grows from 20-50 feet high 
and fits vtxy well the description of the F. epiptera of Michx., and I 
have called it that. The broad-fruited one is F. platycarpa, 

796. Asdepias Feayi Chapm. 

This was obtained in but one place, in the low -pine land. Its 
pure white flowers, large in proportion to the size of the plant, 
make it very conspicuous. 

419' Asdepias decujnbcns L. 

This is very common in the high pine land country. Although 
it is hard to detect any difference between the flowers of this 
species and A. tuberosa, in the fruit the characters seem to be 
good. The lafier has a pod about 3 inches long and ^ of an inch 
wide, while in A. dccumbens the pod is considerably longer than 



^ '^f-^ U ^-.Ai^c^, rivwf fo, ^* w^ ^^v:^:^^--*- , |L,a.^r^^^.^^i^ 



154 



this and hardly V^ an Inch broad. The relative difference between 



r 



length and breadth is very marked. 

1092. VVSCLEPIAS ACERATOIDES H. sp. 

w 

■Perennial. Stems decumbent or erect, dark purple, simple or 
branched, terete, striate and puberulent ; leaves smooth on both 
sides, those of the stem nearly orbicular or very broadly oblong, 
about 5 cm. long, 3.5-4 cm. broad, emarginate, rounded at base, 
on petioles about 8 mm. long; those of the branches oblong, 3-3-5 
cm. long, 1-2 cm. broad, apiculate, more or less acute at base, on 
petioles 2-4 mm. long; umbels borne in the axils of the upper 
leaves, 20-50-flowered ; peduncles puberulent, 2-3 cm. long ; 
pedicels slender, puberulent, about 1.5 cm. long; sepals greenish, 
lanceolate, reflexed, acute, 2.5 cm. long; petals greenish, ob- 
long-lanceolate, reflexed, obtuse, 6 mm. long, 2 mm. wide; lobes 
of the crown white with a greenish keel, flattened, semi-lanceo- 
late, 5 mm. long, acute at each end, short-stalked; horn protrud- 
ing from the middle of the lobe, horizontal, resting on the column, 
tip more or less ascending ; column sessile, 2 mm. high ; pod erect 
or ascending, puberulent, lanceolate, obtusely acuminate, about 8 
cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, on a twisted and reflexed thickened 
pedicel. 

This plant very much resembles an Acerates. It grows ex 

clusively in the *' scrub," flowering late in June and through July, 

ft. 

1715. Hydrolea corymbosa Ell . 

Occurs in swamps and is very scarce. I searched for it 
carefully, but failed to secure more than a few specimens. It 
grows in the tall grass and might be easily overlooked. 

t 

609, Convolvulus rcpens L? 

This differs from the ordinary plant in having pure white 
flowers, the lobes of the leaves decidedly divaricate-spreading, th*e 
pubescence stronger, and in a distinct climbing habit. It may be 
only an extreme form. 

770. Brewerja villosa n. sp. 

Whole plant villous-pubcscent. Stems several from a peren- 
nial root, simple or much branched, trailing; leaves oblong to 
oblong-ovate, 2.5-7 <^i^- ^ong, 7-20 mm. broad, obtuse, apiculate, 
rounded at base, on petioles 2-8 mm. long; peduncles equalling 
or exceeding the leaves, 1-7-flowered; bracts shorter than the 
pedicels; sepals oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 8-11 mm. long, 3-4 
mm. broad, acuminate, villous; corolla 1.5-2 cm. long, white; 
filaments fihform-subulate, two-thirds as long as corolla, adnata 
and villous for two-fifths their length, lower part of free portion 



155 



■m 

pubescent; anthers 1.5 mm. long; ovary villous, 2'CeIled, cells 2- 
ovuled ; styles 2, adhering for one-third their length; capsules on 
erect pedicels, ovate, villous at apex. 2-celled, cells I seeded; 
seeds >'ello\visli brown, ovate, compressed, flat on one side, 5 mm. 
long, 3 mm. broad. 

Found in low lying oak land in the vicinity of water. Near- 
est to B. aqtiatica but readily distinguished by its larger white 
corolla, villous filaments and adhering styles. 

Nos. 771 and 1508 appear to be the same. They have larger 
and thinner leaves and are not so villous. They grew in more 
shaded situations, and this probably accounts for the variation 
in the leaves and pubescence. In No. 770 the peduncles almost 
invariably exceed the leaves and are many flowered. In Nos. 771 
and 1508 the leaves and peduncles are nearly equal, and the 

latter often only i -flowered. 

/ 
971, Bkeweria angustifolia n. sp. 

Stems numerous, from a perennial root, trailing, slender, 8-10 
dm, long, more or less depressed-pubescent. Leaves narrowly 
linear, 2.5-7 cm. long, 1.5-3.5 ^^^'^^* broad, glabrous or pubescent, 
acute, sessile or on petioles not exceeding 2 mm. in length; pe- 
duncles slender, i -flowered, about equaling the leaves, appressed- 
pubescent; bracts shorter than the pedicels; sepals elliptical to 
oblong, acute, smooth, ciliate, 7-10 mm. long, 2.5-3 mm. broad; 
corolla white, about 2 cm. long ; filaments \n"llous with jointed 
hairs, about one-half ^s long as coralla, adnate for one-third their 
length ; styles 2, three-fourths as long as coralla, adnate for one- 
third their length; ovary villous at apex; capsules 8 mm. long, on 
recurved pedicels, oval, acute, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, 2- 
celled, cells i -seeded. 

Grows only in the high pine land region, where it is very 
abundant. It has been confused with B, hunistrata and B. Pick- 
eriugii, from both of which it is evidently distinct. It differs from 
the former In its larger flowers, very narrow leaves, invariably 
I -flowered peduncles, and 2-seeded capsule. From the latter it 
can be separated by its much shorter bracts, villous filaments, 
styles adnate for a much shorter distance, and like the stamens, 
included. 

1299. Utriailaria resupinata B. D. Greene. 

Occurs very plentifully along the shores of several of the 
clear-water lakes. A few specimens of it were secured by Dr. 



156 



Garber and Dr. Porter was the first to note the extension of its 
range into- Florida. It seems to have been reported from no in- 
termediate stations. 

248. Utrictilana oligosperma St. Hil/ 

This is the largest of Its genus occurring in Florida. It is found 

+ 

in both the rivers and lakes, and is quite common. It reaches 
its perfection in Lake Ella, where the stems often attain a length of 
6 to 8 feet and the branches spread 2 to 3 feet. The growing end 
IS of a beautiful pink color, the middle portion a dark green, and the 
decaying end a rich brown. It is entirely floating, forming a 
beautiful object spread out in the water, and looks like a large 
sea-weed. Its flowers are an inch in diameter and yellow. It is 
found In South America, and the extension of the range to cen- 
tral Florida, where it is evidently indigenous, is remarkable. On 
a specimen of a Utrictilaria in the Columbia College Herba- 
rium, collected by Dr. Chapman, is a note to the effect' that the 
plant appeared in the bay at Apalachicola in 1842, but entirely 
disappeared in a short time. This specimen proves to be this 
same thing, 

974. Bocrhaayia dcaunbeiis Vahl. 

This plant was very plentiful, much more common than the 
other species growing with it, B. erecta. It, always occurred ia 



cultivated ground or Its vicinity and may be introduced. I can- 



not find that It has been reported from the United States before. 

1 185. Paronychia hcrnidriodes (Michx.) Nutt. 

This rare plant was found growing quite freely in one locality 
near Tavares. It 'occurred in dry sandy soil just west of the rail- 
road bridge crossing the Ocklawaha River. It had been pre- 
viously known only from Georgia and North Carolina. 

435. Persea pubescens (Pursh) Sargent. 

Dr. Chapman published this as a variety of P. Caroline n sis. It 
has several well-marked characters which seem sufficient to jus- 
tify its elevation to specific rank. In P. Borbonia (L.) Spreng. 
{P. Carolincnsis Nees) the leaves and inflorescence are glabrous, the 
peduncles equaling or shorter than the petioles, and fruit fully a 
half inch in diameter. In P. pubescens the leaves and inflorescence 
are strongly pubescent, the peduncles generally much exceed 



157 



the petioles, and the fruit is but little more. than half as large, of a 
light blue color. 

574.^ERSEA HUMILIS n, sp. 

A compact shrub, 2-3 metres high, with branchlets, young 
leaves, and whole inflorescence covered with a dense bright brown 
sericeous pubescence. Branches dark slate-color; leaves from el- 
liptical to oblong, 4.5-8.5 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide^ more or less 
revolute on the margins, acuminate at both ends, obtuse at apex, 
yellowish green, smooth and slightly shining above, blackish and 
pubescent beneath, the midrib very prominent; petioles from 1-2 
cm. long; inflorescence capitate; peduncles stout, 4-7 mm. long, 
generally 3-flowered; flowers about 6 mm. long; sepals erect, obtuse, 
outer ones oval, 2 mm. long, shorter than the stamens, inner oblong, 
5 mm. long, exceeding the stamens; fruit purplish black with a 
bloom, globose, 15 mm. in diameter, on peduncles about 15 mm. 
long; seed globose, ii mm. in diameter. 

This seems to be nearest to P, Borbonia (L.) Spreng. It differs 
in its smaller size, shorter, stouter and fewer-flowered peduncles 
which elongate in fruit; and especially in the dense brown seri- 
ceous pubescence of the young leaves and branchlets. This latter 
feature makes the shrub very conspicuous, and seems to be unusual 
in the genus. This, moreover, flowers some five weeks later than 
P, Borbonia, 

Occurs exclusively in the *^ scrub," where it is very common. 
Collected at Eustis in flower in May. Fruit kindly collected on 
November 8th at the same place and sent to me by Mr. W. T. 
Swingle. 

■ 

1397^- CRoroNOPSis spiNOSA n. sp. 

An erect much branched annual, 4-7 dm, high, Clothed with 
stellate-pubescence. Branches erect; leaves linear to linear-ob- 
^<^"g» I -5-3 cm. long, 2-5 mm. broad, acute at both ends, on 
petioles I-2 mm. long; fruit spiny; seeds ovoid to ellipsoid, 
only slightly flattened, 2 mm, long, 1. 5 mm. broad, minutely 
pitted. 

Differs from C. linearis in having a more strict habit, smaller and 



much less flattened seeds, narrower leaves, and fruit covered with 



spmes. 



Collected by Mr. W, T. Swingle at Dunellon, July 24. 

1700. Habenaria blephariglottis (Willd.) Torr. 

Evidently an abnormal form of this plant. Its parts are nearly 



158 



twice as large as usual. Some of the flowers are slightly tinged 



with orange. 

6. LiMODORUM PARViFLORUM (Lindl.) [Calopogou parviflonis Lindl.j 
Quite common in the low pine land. It grows from 6 to 12 
inches high. Its flowers are deep purple, much resembling those 
of Z. tuberosum of the north, which is also common, but flowers 
much later. L. parviflorum was in full bloom early in March. 

557. Stekorriiynxhus Jaliscana (Watson.) {Spiranthes Jaliscana 

Watson.) 

Finding this plant in Florida was a surprise. It-was previously 
known only from Mexico. 
857, 1703. Tillamhia juncea Le Conte. 

This has been placed with T, setacca Sw. by Mr. Baker, in 
his monograph of the Bromeliaceae, The two are very common 
where I collected and are clearly distinct. T. setacea has erect 
setaceous leaves, very narrow at the base while in 1\ juncea th^ 
leaves are much stouter, with a much broader base, and are 
conspicuously recurved, 'The specimens in the Columbia College 
herbarium collected by Dr. Chapman and so named are'evidcntly 

+ 

another species, the T. Balbisiana R. & S. Le Conte says [Ann. 
Lye. N. Y. 2; 131 (1828)] that his species very much resembles the 
figure o{ Bonap art ca juncea in Flora Peruviana, //. 262, The 
plant referred to above certainly does bear a strong resemblance 
to this figf-ure. ^ ^ ...... ■. 



1562. Yucca Jili 



filamentosa 



May 



ally are strongly recurved and rather short, and matures its fruit in 
July. . The other is taller, has whiter flowers in a larger panicle, 
longer and more erect leaves which are narrower In proportion, 
and does not flower until August. They grow in similar sit- 
uations. . With these differences it hardly seems possible that 
they can be the same. 

459. NoLixA Bkittoxiana n. sp. 

Roots a 'cluster of ■ long spreading fleshy fibres. Radical 
leaves 40-70, recurved and prostrate, forming a dense mass around 
the base of the plant, linear, 1-2 metres long, 5-10 mm. wide, 
strongly scabrous on the margins, attentuated into a. long slender 



i 



1 



1 



159 



point; cauline leaves setaceous, 1-3 dm. long, about i cm. broad 
at base; stem arising from a bulbous base, 1-2 metres high; in- 
florescence paniculate, ovoid to oblong in outline, 3-4 dni?long ; 
flowers in clusters of 2 or 3 on erect pedicels 3-5 mm. long; peri- 
. anth segments elliptical to elliptical-ovate, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. 
wide, glandular at apex; filaments flat, broadly subulate, 2 mm. 
long, .5 mm. broad; anthers 1.5 mm. long ; cells oblong, .75 mm. 
broad ; ovary 3-celled, orbicular-ovoid, truncate, somewhat trique- 
trous; stigmas sessile; capsule orbicular, on slender recurved 
pedicels about i cm. in length, 8-9 mm. long, 10 mm. broad, 
cordate, retuse, triquetrous, 2 of the cells i -seeded, the other gen- 
erally empty. 

Grows in dry/ sandy soil in the high pine land region. Some- 
times five or six plants occur together, and then it makes a very 
showy appearance in flower. 

This plant is named in honor of Dr. N. L. Britton who has 
given me much help and advice in working up my collections, and 
to whom I wish to extend my thanks for his many kindnesses. 

1 389. XjTis platyUpis Chapm. 

This is found in the low pine land region and occurs with either 
white or yellow flow^ers (No. 1377.), the former by far the more 
frequent. 

954. Xyris tort a Sm. 

This is the commonest species, inhabiting the low pine land. 
It invariably has white flowers, a fact which does not seem to have 
been noted before. 

1 5 84. Xyris Smalliana n. sp. 

Plant smooth, glabrous and shining throughout. Leaves about 
one-half as long as scape, linear, 3.5-6 dm. long, 3-9 mm. wide, 
striate, the lower half purple; sheath from 2.5-4 dm. long, striate, 
with a blade from i-io cm. long; scape erect, scarcely striate, 
7-10 dm. tall, nearly terete, i-edged throughout, flattened and 2- 
edged just below the head, one edge being much more prominent ; 
heads ellipsoidal, about 2 cm. long, i cm. in diameter when ma- 
ture, ovoid in the early flowering state ; scales orbicular-obovate, 
entire, 5-6 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; lateral sepals conspicuously 
exserted, 8 mm. long, i mm. wide, curved, wing gradually broad- 
ening to the top where it is from one-half to two-thirds as wide as 
the sepal, lacerate-fimbriate for the upper third; petals yellow; 
capsule obovoid, obscurely triquetrous, placentae parietal; seeds 
from cylindric-oblong to cylindric-obovoid, more or less curved, 
pointed at both ends, striate, about .6 mm. long, .2 mm. wide. 



160 



Growing in shallow water at Lake Ella and in very wet soil 
along edge of cypress swamp north of Trout Lake, near Eustis. 
No. 5 39. X. torta and X.fimbriata are the only other species in the 
United States with exserted sepals, the former with white petals. 

1525. COMMELINA SWINGLEANA H. Sp. 

Stems 1-3 dai. high, smooth, sparingly branched, prostrate or 
ascending, from a compact fascicle of descending fleshy roots 3-5 
cm. long; sheaths inflated, 6-9 mm. long; leaves linear to linear- 
lanceolate, 4-6 cm. long, 5-7 mm, wide, glabrous or slightly pu- 
bescent ; peduncles about 5 mm. long, pubescent ; spathe more or 
less pubescent, 2 cm. long, i cm. broad, falcate-acuminate, 
rounded posteriorly; the two large petals deep blue, reniform, 12 
mm. long, 17 mm. broad, claw 3-4 mm. long; capsule depressed- 
globose, 5 mm. long. 4 mm. broad, obscurely 3-lobed, 3-celled,. 
cells i-secded; seed broadly oval in outline, somcw^hat com- 
pressed, flat on one side, smooth, dark-brown. 

r 

The stems of this plant are generally prostrate, about i dm. 
long; occasionally one is found with longer and ascending stems, 
but they are very rare. Collected in the high pine land region at 
Umatilla early in August. 

There are two specimens in the Columbia College herbarium 
which evidently belong here, one collected by Dr. Chapman, and 
the other by Mr. Blodgett at Key West. 

Near to C. hamipila Sauvalle, of the West Indies. That is dif- 
fusely branched; has a smaller seed, gray in color, narrower and 
longer leaves, longer sheaths, not inflated, and an ovoid capsule. 

Named in honor of Mr,- W. T. Swingle, Director of the Sub- 
Tropical Laboratory at Eustis, to whom I wish to extend my 
thanks for the many favors shown me. His knowledge of the 

ft 

country and flora, which were freely imparted, enabled me to make 
much more valuable and extensive collections than would have 
otherwise been possible. 

1015. Peltandra sagittacfoha (Michx.) Morong. 

Occurs in the bayheads, generally among sphagnum. It is by 
no means common. 

148. Lachnocmiloii Beyrichiamun Sporleder. 

This is another rare plant, but very common around Eustis,. 
along the shores of the clear water lakes. It grows in small tufts^ 
generally among tall grass. 



161 



1295- Lachnocaitlo7i Bcyric/imnu^n Sporleder? 

Appears to be the same as No. 148, but the heads are much 
larger than the orighial description calls for. 

1407. Cypenis leiicolepis Carey. 

This rare plant was previously only known from a single col- 
lection. I found it growing quite freely in one place at Eustis. 
Its silvery white scales make it very conspicuous among the tall 
grass. 



X 



Stenophvllus Floridanus Britton, n. sp. 

Similar to S, capillaris, culms filiform, erect, 10 cm. to 20 cm. 
tall, much exceeding the thread-Hke leaves. Sheaths ciliate; 
spikelets linear, acute, several-flowered, rich brown, 4 mm. to 8 
mm. long, i mm. wide, sessile and densely capitate in 4s to los at 
the summit ; scales ovate-lanceolate, keeled, about i rniii. long, 
with a minute slightly spreading tip ; achene obovoid, 3-angled, 
light-colored, slightly longer than thick, the angles rounded, the 
faces somewhat concave, the whole surface cellular-reticulated, its 
cells oblong ; style glabrous, 3-cleft for about one-fourth its length. 

Dry sandy soil, high pine land. 

566. Set aria fiava Kunth. 

This appears to be new to the United States. 

1382, Set aria Ventenatii K u n th . 



» p 



Also an addition to the flora of the United States. 

. Marsilia vestita H. & G. 

This was found srowing in abundance at Orange Bend, the 



same place from which Prof. Underwood reported it. The plant 
occurs along the track on both sides of the depot for about one- 
quarter of a mile. It is confined to that limited area so far as I could 
find out. Its occurrence at such a distance from its ordinary range 
and its limitation to this small section point very strongly to its 
beins introduced. 



■ * 1 ^v, 



162 



John H, Redfield. 



By Wm. M. Canby. 



■ (WITH PORTRAIT.) 

r _ 

J 

L 

* On the banks of the beautiful Connecticut and near the center 
of the State of the same name is to be found the place anciently 
and still called Middletown; and, in accordance with a custom 
nowhere so common as in New England, of retaining for offshoots- 
from the original settlements the name of the mother town with a 
prefix or a suffix, the little hamlet, a few miles up the river, was 
of old called by the somewhat picturesque name of ^'Middletown 
Upper Houses,'* now, alas I changed to the unmeaning one of 
Cromwell. Here, on July lO, 1815, the subject of this sketch w^as 
born. He could claim John and Priscilla Aiden among his an- 
cestors and was in every way of pure New England blood. Many 

* 

of his family had been sea captains, a vocation nowhere repre- 
sented by more honorable, hardy and vigorous men than on our 
northern coast. His father, Williara C. Redfield, at this time a 

F 

country storekeeper in humble circumstances, was a man of enter- 
prising character and of an unusually inquiring and vigorous mind. 
The son only knew his mother as an invalid and she died when 
he was but four years old; and although his father married after- 
ward, he was again bereaved; so that his son owed much of his 
good bringing-up to a widowed relative who came to take charge 
of the household and w^ho, according to the custom of those days, 
did not stint the lessons to be derived from the *' New England 

T 

Primer*' and the "Shorter Catechism.'* Other lessons, more 
pleasant perhaps, came to him early from his father and served to 
stimulate his inherited scientific tastes* 

The following pleasant account is of one of these which oc- 
curred when he was six years old during a long ride taken soon 
after the storm long known as the *• Great September Gale." * 
« My father's habits of close observation led him to watch the 
fallen trees and the effects of that destructive wind. At Middle- 
town the wind had been from the southeast and the trees lay 



* See Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem "The September Gale." 



163 



with their heads northwestward; but on reaching Berkshire he 
was surprised to see that they lay in an opposite direction and he 
repeatedly called my attention to the fact. In conversing with 



the residents of that region as to the time these trees were pros- 
trated he was still more astonished to learn that the wind, which 

^ 

at 9 p. M. had been from the southeast at Middletown, had been 
at Stockbridge from the northwest precisely at the same hour. 



^ ^ ^ ^ 



It did not appear to him possible that two winds of 
such violence should be blowing ae^ainst each other at the dis- 



t> *^fe 



h 




tance of only seventy miles. The only explanation of this para- 
doxical phenomenon was one which he was then led to accept 
hypothetically, but which he afterwards confirmed by years of ob- 
servation and innumerable facts." It was thus that the elder Red- 
field was led to the theory of the rotary as w^ell as progressive 
movement of storms which procured him so much note as a 
meteorologist. 

Our friend's first public education came from the district 
school, which his father had taken great pains to have above the 
usual standard. In addition, there were the '* spelling classes" 
and '* friendly associations/' and a small circulating library 
agencies which he acknowledged to have been helps to him in his 
aspirations for knowledge, as they have been to many others. Of 
the effects of the *'spefllling class" exercises he says: ** I am fool- 
ish enough to believe that those winter evening battles" were more 
useful and creditable than some of the athletic contests which In 
these days are doing so much to brutalize young men, and which, 
by their attendant betting leading to the worst results of gam- 
bling, are tending to make old and thoughtful men raise the 
question whether colleges are not becoming institutions to be 

avoided." 

- Of books at this time there were but few, but all he could get 
he read with avidity. Like every one else, he was fascinated with 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, both as to the story and the quamt 
old prints. He writes : " That of Apollyon's battle with Christian 
so excited my imagination that when, being a little older, I was 
sent to the wood pile in the fast darkening twilight of a winter after- 
noon to bring in the evening supply of wood, I never felt alto- 
gether secure from that dreadful demon until the last armful was 



- ' 



164 



a 

F 

fairly in;" which leads one to wish that these Apollyons Avould 
always scare the bad boys and never the good ones. 

One other book, forgotten now perhaps, gave him the bent 
towards botany, which afterwards so much occupied him. This 
was Thornton's Grammar of Botany. 

About this time steam navigation was occupying the father's 
mind and after some efforts in that way on the Connecticut his 
attention was turned to the Hudson. He was thus frequently in 
New York for long periods while the son's education was con- 
tinued for a year and a half at Stamford. Finally, in 1824, the 
family was removed to New York. The boy was now sent 
to the High School where, under the influence and instruc- 
tion of one of the teachers, a Mr, Barnes, he was instructed 
in mineralogy and had many a pleasant ramble in the 
country in his company. His school education was finally 
completed by a short course which he provided for himself 
at a private school, but between these two periods he at- 
tended the chemical lecture course of Dr. Torrey, an associa- 
tion which must have had great influence in his -pursuits in 
after life. His first business occupation was in a dry goods store, 

m 

where he continued long enough to acquire a thorough detesta- 
tion of it. He then assisted his father in his steam transportation 
ventures and this occupied his business hours for many years. It 
is of more interest to us to know that his love of science continued 
and was intensified when, in 1836, he became a member of the New 
York Lyceum of Natural History, of which Dr, Asa Gray was 
then the Librarian and Superintendent. Here was commenced 
that friendship which was destined to be close and lasting. It was 
at this time that he acquired a taste for conchology, in which he 
made much progress and which resulted in a number of papers on 
this subject published in the Annals of the Lyceum. He thor- 
oughly explored the country in the vicinity, over land much of 
which is now probably closely built upon, and in every way which 
the time at his command and his means permitted strove to 
advance the scientific interests of himself and his associates. As 
early as 1846 he became a member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia. In 1843 he made a very happy mar- 
riage and this, perhaps, was the eventual cause of his removal to 



1G5 



^ r 

Philadelphia in l86i, where he long held a prominent position in 
the extensive and well-known car wheel works of A. Whitney & 
Sons, with the members of which his marriage connected him. 
His allegiance was necessarily transferred from the Lyceum to the 
Academy, of which he soon became a life member, and was gradu- 
ally advanced to many of its most important and laborious offices. 
Thus, in 1870, he became a member of its Council and was also 
made Conservator of its Botanical Section, the latter a most im- 
portant office as it placed the various and very important herbaria 
in his charge. He was Corresponding Secretary of the Concho- 
logical Section in 1879, and after having been long a member of 
its Publication Committee was made its Chairman in iSgi. It 
will thus be seen how important his services were to this institu- 
tion and how great the esteem in which his good sense and active 
exertions as well as his wise and thoughtful counsel were held by 
his associates. But beyond all this, and especially after his retire- 
ment from business cares in 1885, he accomplished a great work 
which no one else connected with the Academy had time to do and 
for which, indeed, no one was better fitted than he. When he 
took charge he found four distinct herbaria as follows: that of Dr. 
C. W. Short; that of Schweinitz, composed principally of Fungi, 
very many of them types; the General Herbarium, and the North 
American Herbarium, the latter of which is of the utmost value, 
not only because of its size and completeness, but also because it 
contains a large number of the type specimens of Nuttall, Pursh 
and others of early botanists of this country. The specimens in 
these were loose in sheets of paper, very often those of more than 
one collector huddled in together, with the labels but loosely 
attached to the specimens. With great care and good judgment, 
and an indefatigable energy, he brought order out of this con- 
fusion, so that at last he had got the greater and more-valuable 
parts of the herbaria arranged and mounted and properly cata- 
logued. Nor did his benefations end with this, for he purchased 
all valuable sets of plants and bestowed them upon the Academy. 
The tender and appreciative minute adopted by it and hereafter 
appended is but a fitting testimony to his usefulness and unselfish 

devotion. 

Mr. Redfield lived for many years in one of the pleasantest 



166 









I 
f 



parts of Philadelphia and quite close to the Academy. He made 
occasional botanical excursions, of which notable ones were to the 
mountains of North Carolina in company with Dr. Gray and other 
botanists. There could not have been a more delightfully cheer- 
ful and obliging travelling companion. The writer well remem- 
bers that on one occasion when at Linville Falls, in what was 
then the wildest and least frequented part of the country, Mr. Red- 
field *< turned up missing/' to the serious concern of the rest- of the 
party. After considerable search he was found sitting on a mossy 
bank, writing up his diary with the utmost serenity, cheerfully an- 
swering anxious inquiries by saying, " Oh, I knew you would 
come for me." In later years his summers were spent on Mt. 
Desert Island, The excellent catalogue of its flora lately pub- 

■ w 

lished by Mr. Rand and himself attest his industry while there. 

It is impossible to speak too highly of Mr. Redficld's personal 
character. Honorable, sincere, courteous, cheerful, always ready 
to do a kind act or to say a gracious word, he displayed that true 
nobility of character which comes of right principle faithfully ad- 
hered to, yet without a trace of aceticisrH or austerity. 

Mr. Rand writes: " He was always being good and doing good. 
I have letters lamenting his death from young botanists, whose 
.names even he may not have remembered or known, all telling the 
same story, — 'he was so good to us, so kind in his interest and 
help, so courteous to us in our ignorance.' " The Rev. Dr. Dickey 
said of him ; '' I have touched many good lives and found pleasure 
and example in close intercourse with many, ^ * =*^ * but I have 
never touched a smoother hfe than this. * * ^ It was not the 
quietness of silence — it was like the soothing murmur of a mount- 
ain brook ; there was a beauty and fragrance like the beauty and 
fragrance of wild flowers, in this simple yet vigorous life." 

And so one cannot wonder that he won sincere and lasting- 
affection and lelt a bright example of a right-living, true-hearted 
and attractive gentleman. Once, indeed, the serenity and happi- 
ness of his old age was broken by the stroke of a severe bereave- 

r 

ment; but it only the better showed the strength of his character, 

"And the more 

i 

Fate tried his bastions, she but forced a door 
Leading to sweeter manhood and more sound," 



167 



After some weeks of failing health he died on the twenty- 
seventh of Febrauary last, in the eightieth year of his age. 

A beautiful western grass, the Redfieldia flexiwsa commemo- 
rates his name and services. ■ . 

■ Appended are testimonials of learned societies and a bibli- 
ography. 

FROM THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES- 

J 

, w 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has heard 
with deep sorrow the announcement of the death of John H. Red- 
field, who, in his unselfish devotion to its interests, has long been 
one of its most active benefactors. 

Always an earnest student of nature his last years of deserved 
freedom from business encjagements were devoted to his favorite 



t>"t> 



studies in connection with the Academy, and to the arrangement 

r ^ 

. and care of the Herbarium. 

. The steady growth and admirable condition of the botanical 
collection constituted an enduring^ memorial of his industry and 

- * ■ 

zeaL 

h 

As Chairman of the Publication Committee and Member of 
the Council the same fidelity and discretion characterized the dis- 
charge of his duties. 

He was a man of strong but tender character; firm in his sup- 

F 

port of the right, but tolerant of all honest difference of opinion ; 

¥ ■- 

cheerful, gentle, modest and cultured. Time to him was one of 
his most precious possessions, yet he was ever gladly at the service 
of those requiring advice or assistance. 

He was an earnest student, a wise counsellor and a steadfast 
friend. His encouragement and loving sympathy endeared him 
to his associates, who felt for him a' personal affection which 
enables them to appreciate the irreparable loss sustained by his 
family, to whom they would offer their heartfelt sympathy. 



Job 
1895. 



FROM THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The Academy has learned with sorrow of the death of Mr 



Mr 



of Natural History, having been elected in 1S36. During his 



168 



years of residence in New York he Was most actrve in furthering 
the work of the Lyceum, a frequent contributor to its proceedings 
and the author of several conchological papers which were printed 
in its Annals. In connexion with his father, Mr. W. C. Redfield, 
he pubHshed, in Vol. IV. of the Annals, the first description of 
fossil fishes from the Mesozoic rocks of America, proposing the 
name of the genus Catopterus and its type species C. gracilis, be- 
sides some others, for specimens from the Triassic beds at Dur- 
ham, Conn. He was thus the pioneer in this important branch 
in American palaeontology. He held the office of Recording 
Secretary of the Lyceum in the years 1887-8, and of Correspond- 
ing Secretary for the entire period from 1839 to i860. After 
his removal to Philadelphia he did not lose his interest in the Ly- 
ceum, but continued his relations with it as a Corresponding Mem- 
ber, not only through the whole period of its existence under the 
old name, but also when the organization was changed and en- 
larged into the Academy and down to the time of his death. 
When the memorial volume was published, in 1887, Mr. Redfield 
furnished a large amount of most valuable data and reminiscences, 
which are embodied and acknowledged at many points in the book. 
Although personally known to but few of our present mem- 
bers, many have known of his great work in connexion with the 
Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, and by reason of 
this, and his early prominence in our Society, he has had our pro- 
found respect and grateful esteem. It is, therefore, 

F 

Resolved, That it Is the sense of the Academy that in the death 
of Mr. John H. Redfield, American science has lost a critical and 
enthusiastic student, a liberal patron and a devoted friend; and the 
Academy a co-laborer who ' greatly aided in its early period of 
organization, as an officer and a scientific investigator, and who 
was almost the last to connect' its present membership with the 
generation of its founders and pioneers. 



FROM THE TORREV BOTANICAL CLUB. 

Mr. John H. Redfield, a highly esteemed active member of the 

Club since the time of its organization, the last but one of its 

original , incorporators, a frequent contributor to our publications, 

the Conservator of the Botanical Section of the Philadelphia 

^ Academy of Natural Sciences, and well-known to the botanical 



169 



"world as an author and editor, died at his home in Philadelphia, 
February 27th, 1895. Therefore it is 

Resolved, That the following record be made in our minutes: 
As a scientific co-laborer, we found in Mr. Redfield an enthusiastic 
lover of nature and of knowledge for its own sake, an energetic 
and persistent worker in the field and in the closet to the very end 
of a long and memorable life, and a gentleman of ripe culture and 
pleasant manners, always generous and helpful to others, and, 
though firm in his convictions as to what was right, ever modest 
and courteous in the expression of them. 

Resolved, That in his death we mourn the loss of a valued as- 
sociate and an ardent and faithful friend. 

Resolved, That this action be printed in our proceedings and a 
copy thereof transmitted to the family of the deceased. 



I^ist of Scientific Papers and Notices toy Jolin H, Rediielcl. 

1. Fossil Fislies of Connecticut and Massachusetts, with a Xotice of an uncle- 
scribed Genus. Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. 4: 35. //. 2. 1837. 

2. Descriptions of some new Species of Shells. Ann. X. Y. Lye. Xat. Hist. 4: 
163. //, 2, 1846. 

3. On the distinctive Characters of Cypraea reiiculaia of Martyn and Cypraea 
hisirio of Menschen. Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. 4: 417. pL i, 1S47. 

4. Descriptions of new Species of Bidlia and Marginelia, with Notes upon 
S. B. Sowerby, Jr.'s Monograph of the latter Genus. Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. 4: 

491. //. /. 1848. 

5. Description of new Species o{ Margwelh, with Notes upon sundry Species of 

Marginella and Cypraea, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. 5: 224. 1852. 

6. Descriptions of new Species of Helidicae. Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. 6: 

14- M. 1853. 

7. Descriptions of new Species of Shells. Ann, N. Y. Lye. Nat.^Hist. 6: 

130. ///. Ap. 1854. 

8. Descriptions of two new Species of North American Hehcidae. Ann. N.Y, 

Nat. Hist. 6; 170. D. 1850. 

9. Description of a new Species of Marginella. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, 

i860: 174. My. i860. 

10. Letter to His Excell. Rawson H. Rawson, Governor of the Bahama Islands, 
with a Chart of the Bahama Hurricane of Oct., 1S66. In Gov. Rawson's Report in 

Blue Book for 1866. 2, 3. Jlr. 1858. 

ir. Note on the first Discovery of Schizaea pusilla. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. 1869: 13. Ap. 1869. 

12. Search for Corema Conradii in Monmouth County, N. J. Proc. Acad. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1869:91. My. 1869; Amer. Nat. 3: 327. Au. 1869. 

13. Notes upon the Monograph of the genus Marginella in Reeve's Concholo- 
gia Iconica, Tryon's Amer. Journ. Conch. 5 : 88. ///. O. 1S69. 

14. New Locality of Aspidium aculeatum in Stony Clove, Catskill Mountains. 

Amer. Nat. 3 : 495. N. 1867. 



170 



15. Observations on Margiuellidae, introductory to a catalogue of the known re- 
cent and fossil species. Trj'on's Amer. Journ. Conch. 6 : 2. Jl. 1 870. 

16. Are certain Species oi Botrychium epiphytic? Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1870: 91, Au. 1870. 

17. Rectification of the Synononiy of certain Species of Marginella, Tryon's 

I ^ 

Amer. Journ. Conch. 6 : 172. O. 1870. 

iS. Catalogue of the known Species, recent or fossil, of the Family Marginelli- 

dae, Tryon's Amer. Journ. Conch. 6: App. 215. O. 1870. 

19. Tetramerism in Lilium aurattim LindL Bull. Torr, Eot. Club, 2: '^2. 

Au. 1871. 

20. Oaks and Mistletoe. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 4: 13. Ap. 1873. 

21. Fertilization ol Asarirm Cauadense^ Bull. Torr. Bot, Club, 4: 21. Je. 



iS73- 



22. Dr. Torrey and Torrey's Peak. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 5 : 18. Ap. 1874. 

24. On Aspleniuni ebenoides, Proc. Acad, Nal, Sci. Phila. 1874 : 154. D. 

1 874. 

25. Geographical Distribution of Ferns of North America. Bull. Torr. Bot. 

Club, 6: I. Ja. 1875. 

26. Notes upon Anychia dichotoma. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 6 : 61. N. 1875. 

27. Note upon Dr. Torrey's first Trip to the New Jersey Pines, prefixed to a let- 
ter of his dated July 9, i8i8. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 6 : 82. Mr. 1876. 

28. Notice of the Botanical Correspondence of Zacharias Collins, in Possession 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1876: 81. Jl. 1S76. 

29. Southern Localities of Lygodium palmatum. Bull. Torn Bot. Club, 6 ; 232. 
My. 1878. , 

30. Obituary notice of Robert H, Brownne. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 6 : 291. F. 

31. Aspidium aculedtiim in Pennsylvania. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 6: 291. 
F. 1879., • 

32. Aspidium aculealu?n at Bushnellsville Clove in Catskill Mountains, Bull. 
Torr. Eot. Club, 6: 33 1. Au. 1S79. . . " 

33. Notes of a Botanical Excursion into North Carolina. Bull. Torr, Bot. Club, 
6 : 331, Au. 1879. 

34. Dissent from Mr. Meehan's Views upon the Timber-line of high Mountains. 
Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci. Phila. 1880: 345. N. 1880. 

35. Herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Bull. Torn 
Bot. Club, 8 : 42. Ap. 1881. 



1S81. 



^ ^ V V "^ 

36. The Muhlenberg Herbarium. ' Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 8 ; So. Jl. 1881. ■ 

37. Aspidium Lonchitis Swz. in Colorado. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 8 ; 105. S. 



38. Occurrence of Hieracium aurantiacu?n in the Catskill Mountains. ; Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club, 8 : 112. O. 1881 ; Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1881 : 429. D. 
iSSi, 

39. Biographical Sketch of Dr. William Baldwin. Bot. Gaz. 8 : 233. Je. 1883. 

40. Note upon the Date of a Letter from Dr. Torrey to Amos Eaton. Bot. Gaz- 



, b 



8 : 317. O. 1883. 



I 



171 



41. Corema Ccnradii and its Localities. Bull, Torn Bot. CIub,ii : 97. S. 1SS4. 

42. Obituary Notice of John Williamson. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, tt : 104. 
S. 1884. 

43. Further Notes upon Corema Conradii. Bull. Torr. Bot. CIul), 12: o- 
S. 1885. 

44. Insular Vegetation; Flora of Great Duck Island, Maine. Bull. Torr. Bot* 
Club, 12: 103. O. 18S5. 

■ 

45. On the Flora of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1885: 378. D. 1885. 

46. Still further Notes upon Corema Conradiu Bulk Torr. Eot. Club, 13 : 220. 
N. 1886. 

47. Euphrasia officinalis on the Coast of Maine. Bulk Torr, Bot. Club, 232. 
D. 1SS6. 

48. On Insular Floras. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club,. 13: 245. " D. 1886. 

49. Rediscovery of Corema Conradii in Monmouth County, N. J. Bulk Torr. 
Bot. Club, 16 ; 192. Jk 1889; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1889 : 135. Jk 18S9. 

50. Finns Banksiana \\\^\ Core?na Conradii on Schoodic Peninsula, Coast of 
Maine. Bulk Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 295. X. 18S9: Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila. 
i88g : 344. N. 1889. 

51. Stellaria hemifusa on the Coast of Maine. Bulk Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 38. 
F. T890. 

52. Notice of the Occurrence of Scabiosa ausfraiis near Pittsfield. Mass. Bulk 
Torr. Bot. Club, 19 : 341. N. 1892. 

53. Obituary Notice of Isaac C. Martindale. Bulk Torr. Bot. Club, 20 : 98. 
1893. 

54. Preliminary Catalogue of the Plants growing on Mt. Desert and adjacent 
Islands. By Edward L. Rand and John H. Redfield. Cambridge. 1 894. 



1 

A fossil marine Diatomaceous Deposit at St. Augustine; Florida. 



By Charles S. Bover. 



h 

4 ■ 

In 1 886 an artesian well was sunk at the Ponce de Leon Hotel, 
at St. Augustine, Floricla. Samples of earth from different depths 
were sent to Mr. Lewis Woolman, who proposes to publish the 
results of his investigations into the geological character of the 
different strata. A layer of bluish clay at a depth of between 85 
and 135 feet was found to contain diatoms, spicules, foraminifera 
and a few polycistinae. Unfortunately, the material was very 
small fn amount, and the diatoms occurred in but two layers at 
the depths of 90 and 120 feet, so that the list furnished below, 
although exhaustive of the material obtained, appears to but indi- 
cate the existence of a richer bed which, it is hoped, may be 



172 



brought to light by another well-boring or the discovery of some 
outcrop. 

■ 

It may be briefly stated, according to Mn Woolman's conclu- 
sions, that the diatomaceous clay bed immediately overlies an 
Eocene deposit and is beneath a Pleistocene. As will be noticed, 
the diatoms correspond, to a great extent, to those of the great 
Miocene beds of the Atlantic coast, such as the Richmond, Not- 
tingham and Atlantic City deposits; the presence of one form, at 
least, if not two, appears to indicate a correspondence with the 
Barbadoes deposit, which is now claimed to be Pliocene, while 
other forms are still extant It is, therefore, difficult to determine 
to what period the Florida deposit belongs. 

The following are the forms : — 



■ 

Actiuocydus Ehrenber^ii Ralfs, several varities. 

A. elliptiats Grun., rare- 

A, interpiinctatns Ralfs. 

A. Ralfsn(\Nm. Sm.) Ralfs. 

A. stibtilis (Greg.) Ralfs, var. 

ActinoptycJiiis Grundleri A. S. 

A. ttndtilatiis Ralfs, several vars. 

A. vulgaris Schum., several vars. 

Atdacodisais Crux Ehf., rare. 

^. 7;/^;;/;;/^57^5(var. ^.r/^;/5?)Grev., very rare. Diam. o. 152 mm. 
Surface, central portion, flat to about one-half of the radius, outer 
edge distinct but somwhat turned inward at the inflations, givjng 
a slightly quadrangular outline. Central space in one specimen 



\ 



round, in the other irregular. 



-/^ 



radius. In Greville^s figure the width appears to be about one- 
half. The processes are also smaller in the Florida form- . Not 
being able to secure a specimen of Greville's species for compari- 

■ 

son, I am unable to determine the differences further. Mr, Adre. 
Le Tourneur, of Paris, from an examination of a photopraph sent 
him, thinks it may be the Variety extans (Grev.) Rattr. This 
beautiful form is quite rare, only two nearly perfect valves arid 
three fragments having been noticed. It has not been found, here- 
tofore, we beheve, in any other of the continental deposits, and its 
presence appears to link the Florida diatoms with those of Barba- 
does. 



173 



A. Alolkfi Grwn. > 

A, Rogcrsii (Bail.) A. S., common at 90 ft. 

The deposit presents all the forms figured by Schmidt, with a 
number of intermediate variations. 

BiddiilpJiia Tiiomcyi (Bail.) Roper. Several variations of this 
form approach B. elegautula Grev., and others are much smaller 
than the type. 

Coscinodisciis apiadatus Ehr. 

C. niarginatus Ehr. 

C. emphalantlms Ehr. 

C. pcfforatus Ehr, 

C. radiatiis Ehr. 

C 7'obiistus Grev. 

r 

The forms of Coscinodisci noticed furnish an interesting study 
of variations, especially In those which approach apiadatus and 
marginatus. 

Cmspcdodisciis coscinodisciis Ehr., 120 ft 

Eiipodisciis radiatiis Bail. A form with five ocelli occurs rarely 
at the depth oi go ft. 

Goniothcciim odontclla Ehr., 90 ft- . 

■ 

Grammatophora maxima Grun. var.? rare. 

Hyalodisctis lacvis Ehr. 

H, S7ibtiiis Bail. The markings in the greater number of 
specimens examined are much coarser than in the type form. In 
some valves which present a greenish color w^hen dry, numerous 
spines are seen at regular intervals, and the zone between umbil- 



H. 



pL 4.. fi, 



Other forms without spines 



M 



on 



Pl 18. A 



Melosira sulcata (Ehr.) K., abundant. 
Navicula Lyra Ehr., very rare, 90 ft. 
N. practexta Ehr., very rare, 90 ft. 
Plcurosiguia affinCy va,r, /ossi/is Grun. 
Podosira Montai^Hci Kiitz. ? , verv^ r 



This form is 



doubtful as the rim is wider and the general appearance more 
robust than in any. of the figures published. 
RJiaphoncis gcvinnfera Ehr. 



174 



Rhizosolenia sp. ? ' . 

Stcplianog07iia {JMastogonid) actinopty chits Ehr., rare. 

Stephanopyxis appendiculata Ehr. 

vS. corona (Ehr.) Grun. 

5. tnrris (Grev.) Ralfs, rare. 

_ k 

Stictodiscus Tninanii Witt. ?, very rare, 90 ft. This form differs 
from that figured by Truan and Witt. (Die Diat. der Polycyst. von 
Jeremie in Hayti,//. 4- figs. 2j & 24), inasmuch as the rim is less 
definite and the outline slightly irregular. Only one imperfect 
specimen was found. It appears to form another^ link between 
the continental and insular deposits. 

Triceratiuni condeconun Ehr., rare, 90 ft. 

T. Kaihii'E. A. Schultze, rare, -120 ft. 

T. scmicimdare Y>n^\\,\\ ,-^ Eiiodia Briglitzoellii Ralfs. 

T. spinosiim (Ehr.) BaiL 



New Species of Parasitic Fungi. 



By S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle, 



[Type specimens in the herbaria of the authors, of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, of Rutgers, Harvard and Columbia Colleges.] 

PucciNiA NOTABiLis n. sp. III. Amphigenous ; sori black, con- 
fluent, forming small hemispherical or irregular masses on the: 
bracts and petioles or involving the larger stems, forming fusiforrri 
black gall-like swellings two or three times their diameter and 
3-4 cm. in length; teleutospores uniformly oval and obtusely 
rounded, slightly constricted, epispore smooth, thickened at the 
apex, 55-60 by 30-33 // ; pedicel hyaline or' slightly tinted, very 
long and flexuous, 225-275 /^. 

On Arrow-wood [Pliichca borcalis ?) Rio Penasco,New Mexico, 
January, 1895. 

PucciNiA Paspali n. sp. 11. Usually hypophyllous, sometimes 
amphigenous; sori linear, sometimes confluent, dark brown; 
uredospores globose or obovate, very abundantly and sharply 
echinulate, brown, 24 by 25-30 [u III. Sori linear, darker than 
te uredo sori, usually on the leaf sheaths; teleutospores irregular, 
35 by 27 to 30 by 35 //, usually oval, much constricted, with the 
slender nearly hyaline pedicel attached obliquely to one side of 
the lower end, often orbicular with the septum vertical and the 



k 



175 



pedicel attached either to the septum or near it, and the cpispore 
of both cells distinctly thickened at the apex. 

On Paspahun virgatwn. New Orleans,. La., November, 1894. 

UsTiLAGO Crus-galli n. sp. Involving the panicles and upper 
nodes, making the panicles abortive and forming pustules some- 
times I cm. in diameter at the nodes ; spore masses powdery, 
black, at first covered by a gray membrane ; spores oval or sub- 
globose, fuscous, sharply echinulate, 9-10 by II-13 //. 

On Paiiicum Crus-galli, Salt Lake City, Utah, August, 18S7. 
This seems to approach U. Maydis, but the spores, though 
equally echinulate, are uniformly larger and more elongated. 

UsTiLAGO.ToNGLiNENSis n. sp. Spore masses infesting the 
ovaries and causing the glumes to open widely at maturity, black; 
spores globose, dark brown, sharply and thickly echinulate, 9-1 1 ti. 

On Ischaemum ciliare, Tonglin, Singapore. H. N. Ridley. 

UsTiLAGO ORNATA n. Sp. Infesting the ovaries. Spore masses 
black, pulverulent, 20-30 mm. in diameter; spores subglobose, 
very thickly beset with strong and prominent echinulations which 
give the spore a burr-like appearance, 12-12 by 15 [i. Panicles 
bearing affected ovaries always remain partially enclosed within 
the sheath of the upper leaf. 

On Leptochloa miicronata, Starkville, Miss., November, 1894. 

UsTiLAGO PERTUSA n. sp. Infesting the ovaries ; spore masses 
Hard and compact, black, finally pulvinate ; spores small, globose, 
epispore covered with prominent irregular verrucose projections, ' 



5-7 /^. 



Queensland. F. M 



UsTiLAGO PUSTULATA n. sp. Infesting the ovaries, or forming 
rounded bullate swellings which often surround the entire stem 
and branches of the panicle, or form irregular distortions on the 
leaves and sheaths ; spore masses dark brown, long covered by a 
stramineous membrane which is a distortion of the tissues of the 
host, 25-75 nim. in diameter; spores dark brown or fuscous, sub- 
globose or oval, cell-wall very thin, slightly echinulate, 7.5 to 9 /i., 
or 7 by 9 (1. 

On Pcmiciun prolifmim, Starkville, Miss., October, 1894. 

D[MER05PORiUM Magxoliae n. Sp. Epiphyllous, on small in- 
definite areas ; mycelium of dark brown irregular branching and 
septate hyphae ; conidia clavate, dark colored, 4-5 -septate, 7-8 
by 45_55^<i; perithecia depressed-hemispherical, black, usually in 
clusters of 5 to 10, astomous, 56-100/^; asci numerous, broadly 
oval or obovate, 8-spored, 35.-40 by 45-50/^, paraphysate ; para- 
physes thread-hke^ colored towards the tips; sporidia biseriate, at 



176 



- « 



first hyaline, dark fuliginous when mature, obovate, I -septate, 
constricted, 9-10 by 20-23 />e. 

On living leaves o{ Magnolia Virginiana^ Ocean Springs, Miss., 

May, 1894. 

AsTERiDiuM Ili.icii u. sp. Hypophyllous ; mycelium none; 
perithecia black, scattered, orbicular, aplanate, membranaceous, 
cellular, not radiant, fragile, wrinkled, 200-400/^; asci numerous, 
suborbicular, 8-spored, 30-40/^; sporidiasubpyriform, often curved, 
granular, colorless, at first uniseptate, becoming 3-septate at ma- 
turity* 

On living leaves of Illiciiun Floridanum^ Ocean Springs and 

Biloxi, Miss., March, 1889. 

Laestadia Illiciicola n. sp. Amphigenous, occupying large 
irregular brownish subarid definitely limited areas, usually in- 
volving the apical half of the leaf; perithecia very numerous, scat- 
tered, erumpent, more abundant on the upper surface, black, 
membranaceous, suborbicular or lenticular, obscurely ostiolate, 
finally collapsing ; asci without paraphyses, clavate, stipitate, 
thickened at the apex, 40-50 by 10--I2 // ; sporidia ovoid or fusi- 
form, continuous, hyaline, granular, about 15 by 5 fu 

On living leaves oi Illicium Floridamun, Ocean Springs, Miss., 
March, 1892. 

Sphaerella Andromedae n. sp. Hypophyllous; spots none ; 
perithecia abundant, scattered, often covering the entire lower 
surface of the leaf, black, erumpent, ostiolate, at length collapsing ; 
asci obovate, somewhat thickened at the apex; sporidia oval, 
hyaline, uniseptate, cells about equal; 7-8 by 2.5-3 />?. ^ 

On living leaves of Puris nitida, Ocean Springs, Miss., March, 
1888. 

Lembosia axgustiformis n. sp. Epiphyllous, on raised brown 



scant 






and narrow, often flexuous, seldom branched, 60-80 by 175-300//; 
subiculum reduced to a few short flexuous slightly fuscous 
branching threads; asci broadly oval, about 15 by i8/i; sporidia 
obovate, some\yhat unequally uniseptate, constricted, at first hya- 
line, becoming light fuhginous, 8-I0 by 4-5 11, 

On Ilex coriacea, Ocean Springs, Miss., May, 1894; Biloxi, 
Miss., July, 1894. 

This differs widely from the following in gross appearance on 
the leaf, in the narrower perithecia, less conspicuous subiculum 
and smaller asci and sporidia. 

Lembosia prixoides n. sp. Epiphyllous, on orbicular pallid 



177 



spots; mycelium scant, brown; perithecia scattered, black, sub- 
carbonaceous, fimbriate-margined, elliptical, subacute, often fork- 
ing, 200-SS0 by l20-i50/_/; subiculum of dark brown irregular 
nodular usually continuous and branching brittle threads; asci 
ovate, 8-spored, 30-35 by 15-18/i; sporidia elliptical, unequally 
uniseptate^ somewhat constricted, subhyaline, becoming fuligi- 
nous, 10-15 by 4-5/^. 

On I/ex coriacea, Biloxi, Miss., July, 1893. 

Lembosja Illicijcola n. sp. Epiphyllous, on large light 
brown orbicular or irregular areas; perithecia numerous, super- 
ficial, carbonaceous, usually linear and strict, occasionally trian- 
gularly stellate, 100 by 300-400/i; subiculum of light brown 
flexuous transparent continuous variously branching and anas- 
tomosing threads; asci very numerous, oval or ovate, 8-spored, 
25-30 by 12/^; sporidia oval, uniseptate, slightly constricted, 

■ends obtusely rounded, hyaline, at length slightly colored, S-IO by 
by 3-4 ^i. 

On Illiciuvi Floridamim with Asimdiuin tUicii, Ocean Springs, 

Miss., March, 1889. 

Vermicularia Stachydis n. sp. Perithecia scattered, sub- 
superficial; setae somewhat floccose and nodular, septate, oliva- 
ceous, paler towards the tips, which are obtuse and slightly en- 
larged ; conidia falcate, attenuate at each end but without evident 
basidia, guttate, at length faintly 4-5 -septate, 35-40 by 3-4 a. 

On dead stems of Stachys affinis, Starkville, Miss., October, 

1893. • ^ 

This differs from other described species in the larger, at length 

several-septate conidia, and the weak rather light colored setae 
with swollen tips. 

DiPLODiA MiNUTA n. Sp. Scattered over indeterminate whitened 

areas; perithecia erumpent, small, 90-120 /^, membranaceous, 
smooth, ostiolate; sporules minute, oval, uniseptate, not constricted, 
light yellow, 6-8 by 3-4 fu 

On living stems of Tecoma radicanSy with Pcstalozzia breviajns- 



% 



M 



DiPLODiA Sassafras n. sp. Perithecia very numerous over 
large areas, black, hemispherical, erumpent, finally openmg by an 
irregular fissure; sporules numerous, ovat-i, fuscous or nearly 
black, with a very distinct hyaline septum near the smaller end, 



13-14 by 5-6//. 

On living twig 
April, 1894. 



?/■ 



9 



178 







Hendersonia Tapiirinicola n. sp. Epiphyllous, on white 
bordered spots. Perithecia scattered, black, erumpent, at length 
collapsing; conidia truncate, cylindrical, fuliginous, 2-septate,. 
constricted at the septa, 12- 14 by 4-5 fx. 

On old whitened blisters of Taphrina on Qiicrais Virginianay 
Ocean Springs, Miss., February, 1887, 

TALOZZiA Cliftoniae n. sp. Epiphyllous, on orbicular 
arid brown-bordered spots. Acervuli scattered, bursting through 
the dried epidermis; conidia obovate, sometimes curved, 4-septate, 
septa often obUque, three medial cells fuliginous, the upper two- 
dark and opaque, the lower one paler, basal cell colorless, smalU 
short, acute, abruptly contracted to the short stipe ; apical cell 
reduced to a short colorless apiculus bearing the three widely 
divirgent setae, 16-18 by 8 p.^ setae 12-14 fi. 

On living leaves of Clifionia ligustrina, Ocean Springs, Miss.^ 

November, 1893. 

Pestalozzia breviakistata n. sp. Acervuli scattered over in- 
definite whitened areas, black, at length collapsing ; conidia curved, 
elliptical, 5-septate, apical and basal cells colorless, medial cells 
fuscous, septa often diagonal, 25-27 by 7-8 fi ; stipe hyaline, half 
the length of the conidium, somewhat swollen at the base, often 
deciduous ; arista single, strongly oblique, thickened, scarcely 
one-fourth the length of the conidium. 

On living stems of Tecoma radicans with Diplodia minutay 

Starkville, Miss., March, 1895. 

ScoLECOTRiciiuM PUNXTULATUM n. sp. Amphigenous ; spots 
indefinite ; hyphae in small caespitose clusters, irregularly flexu- 
ous and nodular, olivaceous, 2-3-septate, 60-70 by 5-6//; conidia- 
oval or oblong, ends obtusely rounded, fuscous, epispore distinctl 
granulose or punctulate, typically uniseptate but often continuous,, 
and occasionally 3-septate, 15-20 by 6-8/^. 

On Iris pabularia, Starkville,' Miss., January, 1894. 

Cercospora flexuosa. n. sp.. Forming large indefinite effused 
patches on the under side of the leaf. Hyphae ferruginous, ir- 
regularly flexuous throughout, sometimes branched, many-septate,, 
denticulate, 75-150, by 4-5/-^; conidia obclavate, fuscous, 2-6, 
3-4-septate, not constricted, 20-30 by 4-5 p. 

On leaves o{ Diospyros Vh'gimana.^WoKx.Wxss,, July, 1892. and 



M 



Diospy 



the same host in "the absence of definite spots. 



,p 



179 



Cercospora GRAMiNicoLA H- sp. Spots nonc ; amphi\c[enous 
and most abundant on the midvein ; hypliac caespitose, straight 
or somewhat flexuous, fuscous, 2-3-septate, 75-100 by 4-5/^; 
conidia clavate, continuous when young but finally becoming 1-3- 
septate, fuscous, 35-40 by 7.5-10 fi. 

On languishing leaves' of Phlctim /ra/^';/^^, Starkville, Mfss.*, 
November, 1894. 

Cercospora Hibisci n. sp. Hypophyllous, on large indeter- 
minate areas; hyphae fuliginous, clustered, somewhat irregular, 
once or twice septate near the base, 25-40 /i; conidia obclavatc, 
somewhat curved, hyaline, guttulate, at length faintly 3-5 -septate^ 
40-60 by 3-4 fi. 

On living leaves of Hibiscus csculentits^ New Orleans, La., No- 
vember, 1894. 

Cercospora maritima n. sp. Amphigenous; not forming defi- 
nite spots, but densely effused over considerable dark-colored 
areas; hyphae fasciculate, mostly straight, olive brown, 5-6-sep- 
tate, often swollen at the septa, 40-100 by 4-6/^: conidia paler, 
elongated, straight or slightly curved, mostly uniseptate, the upper 
cell shorter and broader than the lower, 50-60 by 5-7 a. 

On Croton maritiviuui, Horn Island, Miss,, March, 1892. 

Cercospora Mississippiensis n. sp. Amphigenous, but more 
abundant on the under side of the leaf. Spots small, brownish, 
irregular, usually bounded by the veins, surrounded by an irregu- 
lar raised and darker border having a pallid outer margin ; hyphae 
divergent, irregularly floccose, nodular, usually uniseptate above 
the somewhat bulbous base, 60-70 by 5 ji\ conidia fuscous, nar- 
row^ly clavate, tapering from the rather obtuse apex to the attenu- 
ated filiform nearly hyaline base, 4-8 or more septate, 75-^50 by 

4-5 /^. 

On Smilax glauca, and S, rotundifolia , Starkville, Miss., No- 
vember, 1893. 

Tetraploa divergens n. sp. In black irregularly linear masses; 

conidia broadly oval, dark-fuliginous, 12-14 by 8-9/^, quarter- 

. nately divided, each division usually 2-septate, and terminated by 

an obtuse semi-transparent continuous divergent horn-like pro- 



jection, 4-5 iixvi length. 



On living or languishing leaves of Paiiicum ag 



'difc 



Miss., October, 1894 



180 



The Systematic Botany of North America. 

The Board of Editors of the " Systematic Botany of North 
America'' announce the following arrang;ements for the mono- 



S "^^^^^tj 



graphing of groups thus far decided on. Other assignments will 
be reported as made. It is requested that collectors communicate 
material for study to the monographers, even of the commoner 
and well-known species, so that the geographical distribution may 
be presented as accurately as possible. 

■m 

Myxomycetes : Mr, O. F, Cook, Huntington, N. Y. (at present abroad). 

ScHizoMYCETES : Prof. H. L. Russell, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Chlorophyceae: In charge of Prof. Geo. L. Atkinson, Cornell University, 

Phycomycetes: Prof. Byron D. Ilalsted, Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J, 

Saccharomycetes : Dr. J. Christian Bay, State Beard of Health, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Taphrineae: Prof. Atkinson. 

Helvellineae: Prof. Lucien M. Underwood, Greencastle, Ind, 

Pezizineae, Phacidineae: Mr. Ellis J. Durand, Cornell University. 

Fungi Imperfecti: Prof. Byron D. Halsted, Rutgers College, and Mr. J. B. Ellis, 

Newfield, N. J. ' 
Ustilagineae : Prof. Halsted. 

r 

H 

Uredineae: Prof. J. C. Arthur, La Fayette, Ind. 

Polyporineae: Prof. Underwood. 

Boletineae, Agaricineae: Prof. Chas. H. Peck, State Museum, Albany, N. Y. 

Gasteromycetes : Mr. A. P. Morgan, Preston, Ohio. 

Hepaticae: Prof, Underwood. 

Mvsci— J crocarp': Mrs. N. L. Britton, Columbia College, New York City; Pleuro- 

larpi : Prof. C. R. Barnes, University of Wisconsin; Sphagnaceae : Mr. John 

K. Small, Columbia College, New York City. 
Pteridophyta : Prof. Underwood. 

Typhaceae, Sparganiaceae, Naidaceae, Ju.\cagl\aceae: Manuscript of the late 

Dr. Thos. Morong. 

Alismaceae: Mr. Jared G. Smith, U. S, Department of Agriculture. 

Hydrocharitaceae: Manuscript of Dr. Morong. 

Gramineae : In charge of Prof. F. Lamson-Scrihner, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Cyperaceae: Prof. L. H. Bailey, Cornell University, and Prof, N. L. Britton, Col- 
umbia College. 

Araceae : Manuscript of Dr. Morong. 

LemxaceaE: Mr. E. P. Sheldon. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Eriocaulaceae: Manuscript of Dr. Morong. 

Commelinaceae: Mr. J. N. Rose, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Juncaceae: Mr. F. V. Coville, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Liliaceae: Mr J. N, Rose. 

Smilaceae : Manuscript of Dr. Morong. 



i 

] 



181 



Dioscoreaceae: Prof. A, S. Hitchcock, Kansas Agricultural College, Man- 

liattan, Kansas. 

Saururaceae, Piperaceae, Casuarinaceae: Mr. T. H. Kearney, Jr., U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 
Juglandaceae: Prof N. L. Britton. 
Myricaceae: Prof Britton. 

Leitneriaceae: Prof ^Ym. Trelease, Missouri Botanical Garden. 
Salicaceae: Mr. M. S. Bebb, Rockford, 111. {Salix). 
Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Moraceae; Mr. Geo. B. Sudworth. U. S. 

Department of Agriculture, 

Urticaceae, Loranthaceae, Santalaceae, Olacaceae, Aristolochiaceae: 

Mr. T. H. Kearney, Jr. 
Polygoxaceae : Mr. John K. Small, Columbia College. 

Chenopodiaceae : Mr. Willis L. Jepson, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Amaranthaceae; Messrs. E. B. Uline and W. L. Bray, Lake Forest University 

Lake Forest, 111. 
Phytolaccaceae : Prof A. S. Hitchcock, Kansas Agricultural College. 
Portulacaceae ; Mr. Jepson. 
Nympheaceae: Prof. Chas. A. Davis, Alma College, Alma, Mich. 

r 

Ranunculaceae: Prof X. L. Britton. 

Menispermaceae: Prof A. S. Hitchcock. 

Calycaxthaceae: Mr. T. H, Kearney, Jr. 

Geraniaceae, Oxamdaceae, Linaceae : Prof \Vm. Trelease. 

Malpighiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rutaceae: Miss Anna M. Vail, Columbia 

College, New York City. 
Simarubaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae: Mr. Geo. B. Sudworth. 
Folygalaceae : Dr. Wm. E. Wheelock, Columbia College; 
Caelitrichaceae: Studies of Dr. Morong. 
Malvaceae: Mr. J. Burtt Davy, University of California. 
Guttiferae, Hypericaceae: President John M. Coulter, Lake Forest University. 

Cistaceae; Prof. Britton. 
Empetraceae: Prof Hitchcock, 

Limnanthaceae, Aquifolevceae, Celastraceae, Hippocrataceae, Staphvlea- 

ceae, Aceraceae, Hippocastanaceae, Sapindaceae, Balsaminaceae? 

Prof. Trelease. 

+ 

Rhamnaceae : Mr. Willis L. Jepson. 
ViTACEAE : Prof. L. H. Bailey. 
Loasaceae : Dr Wm. E. AMieelock. 
Cactaceae": President Coulter. 
Thymeleaceae, Eleagnaceae: Prof Hitchcock. 
Haloraceae : Studies of Dr. Morong. 
Araliaceae: Prof Hitchcock. 
Umbelliferae; Pres. Coulter and Mr, Rose. 

r r 

CORNACEAE : Pres. Coulter. 

Clethraceae, Pyrolaceae, MoxotkopAceae, Lennoaceae, Ericaceae, Diapen- 

siACEAE : Mr. F. V. Coville, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



182 



Myrsinaceae, Trimulaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Sapotaceae, Ebenaceae, Sym- 

PLOCACEAE, Stvracaceae, Oleaceae, Loganiaceae: Mr. John K. Small, 

Columbia College. 
Gentianaceae : Mr. Chas. L. Pollard, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Boraginaceae : Prof, Edward L. Greene, University of California. 
Verbe.naceae : Prof. A. S. Hitchcock. • 

Solanaceae, Scropulariaceae: President Coulter. 
Cichoriaceae, Compositae : Prof. Greene {Aster and Solidago by Prof. Thos. C, 

Porter, Lafayette College, Easton, Penn.), 



Botanical Notes. 

> 

J r 

A Rcdfidd Memorial Hcrbarmm Fund, It has been decided 
that no better monument to the memory of John H. Redfield 
could be erected than to arrange for completing and caring for the 



work he loved, and to which he gave freely so many years of his 



life— namely, the Herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

w 

Mainly through his disinterested labors, it stands to-day scarcely 
second to any in the United States, containing, besides many un- 
named, over thirty-five thousand named species of flowering plants 
■and ferns, the half of which have been verified and fastened down. 

No one can probably be found to give the years of time he so 
freely gave. In order to carry on the work, and add to the col- 
lection, as exploring expeditions afford the opportunity, it has 
been proposed to establish a fund for its maintainance. 

Mr. Redfield's will provides that his herbarium, minerals^ 
shells and scientific works shall be sold to help the Herbarium 
thus furnishing a nucleus for the proposed fund. It is in mind to 
raise $20,000, but the interest of any sum that may be contributed 
can at once be made available. Statements will be furnished from 
time to time to contributors, keeping them informed of the pro- 
gress of the contributions. Checks may be made payable to the 
order of Thomas Meelian, Director, or Stewardson Brown, Treas- 
urer, and mailed to either at the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Nineteenth and Race streets, Philadelphia. 

Announcement of the next Meeting of the American Microscopical 
Society. The next meeting of the American Microscopical Society 
will be held at Cornell University, in Ithaca, N. Y., August 21, 22 
and 23, 1895, that is the week previous to the meeting of the 



\ 



183 



American Association for the Advancement of Science, which is 
to be held in Springfield, Mass. 

The unsurpased beauty of the location of the University, and 
the richness of both its terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora, 
make this an ideal place for holding the meeting. It is equally 
attractive to the student of natural history and to those wlio love 
beautiful scenery. 

The University buildings, which will be at the disposal of tlie 
Society, are especially adapted for the formal presentation of 
papers, blackboard illustrations, hanging of diagrams, etc., as well 
as for any demonstration that authors may desire to make. The 
armory is very conveniently located, both for the University and 
for the city, and a soiree there can hardly fail to be a great success. 

Besides the attraction of papers and demonstrations by mem- 
bers, nearly all the opticians have expressed not only a willingness 
but a desire to be present and make an exhibit of their micro- 

w 

scopes and microscopical apparatus, thereby affording the mem- 
bers an opportunity to see all the nevv and standard apparatus. 

A special feature of the coming meeting will be the setting 
apart of one or more sessions for the reading of papers on methods 
and the demonstration of special or new methods^ The chairman 

^ 

of the local committee, Professor W. W. Rowlee, or the President, 
will be glad to receive requests from those who desire to have 
some specially difficult method or structure elucidated, and an 
effort will be made to get some member particularly expert in such 
subject to demonstrate it before the Society. 



Proceedings of the Club. 

Tuesday Evening, March 12th, 1895. 

Vice-President Lighthipe in the Chair and 24 persons present 



ctive members: Mr. Claude Cnt- 
Mr. Eugene H. Van Nest, Mr. 



James P. Gardner, Mr. S. Cook. 

The Committee appointed to draw up resolutions on the death 
of Dr. J. Bernard Brinton presented a report which was accepted, 
and a copy of it placed on file. 



184 



The Instruction Committee reported progress, and submitted 
the prospectus of the summer class for 1895. The report was 

accepted. 

The Chair appointed the following Field Committee for i895" 
Chairman, Mr. Small; Mrs. Britton.; Mr. Tyler; Mr. Van Sickle; 

Dr. Rusby. 

The announced papers of the evening were then' presented 

as follows : 

George V. Nash, " Remarks on some new and little-known 



Plants of Central Florida." IlUustrated by specimens. (Published 
in this issue of the Bulletin.) 

Elizabeth G. Britton, ''Some Notes on the Genus Ifminn" 
(To be published in a subsequent issue of the Bulletin.) 

A. Cogniaux, " Descriptions of new Mclastomaceae from Bo- 
livia," communicated by Dr. Rusby. (To be published in a sub- 
sequent issue of the Bulletin.) 



Wednesday Evening, March 27TH, 1895. 

Dr. Britton in the Chair and 34 persons present, 
Mr. Eugene Smith, Miss BHss, Miss Augusta Bliss and Miss 
Edith Parish were elected active members. 

L 

Dr. Britton announced the death of Mr. John H. Redfield, 
and remarked upon his life and labors. The Secretary also spoke 
upon the subject. Mr. Small moved that the Chair appoint a 
committee of three to draft suitable resolutions. Upon the adop- 
tion of the motion, a committee was appointed, consisting of Mr. 
Small and Professors Porter and Rusby. 

Dr. Albert Schneider read his announced paper on "The Bio- 
logical Status of the Lichens," maintaining that they are entitled 
to recognition as an independent group, and not to be classed as 
a division of either Algae or Fungi, It will be published in a 
subsequent issue of the Bulletin. 



185 



Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany.* 

Alwood, W. B. Ripe Rot or Bitter Rot of Apples.- Bull. Va. Agric. 
& Mech. Coll. (II.) 3 : 59-82.//. 2. My. 1894. 

Description of Gloeosporium fructigenum Berk, with a bibliography. 

u 

Bailey, L. H. Experimental Evolution amongst Plants. Am. Nat. 
29: 318-325. Ap. 1895. 

Argument that species have repeatedly been evolved by cultivation, 

Bastin, E- S. Structure of Veratmm viride. Am Journ, Pharm. 
67 : 196-203. /. 1-6. Ap. 1S95. 

Brandegee, T. S. Mimidns ClevelajidiL Gard. &: for. 8; 134. /. 
20, 3 Ap. 1895. 

A new species from Southern California. 

Britten,' N. L. Publication by Signatures. Erythea, 3 : 50-52. i 
■ Mr, 1895.' 

With notes on the subject by E. L. Greene. 

Clinton, G. P. Relationship of Caeoma nitens and Puccinia Peckiana. 
Bot. Gaz. 20: 116, 117. 16 Mr. 1895. 

Cogniaux, A. Orchidaceae. — IL Flora Bras. 117: 158-31S. //. 
35-75' 15 Ja- 1895- . 

Durand, E. J. Sporangial Trichomes in certain Ferns, Bull. Torr. 
Bot. Clubj 21 : 408. 1894. 

Durand, E. J. The Development of Olpidimn, one of ^the Chytridia- 
ceae. Bull. Torr. Bot Club, 21 : 410. 1894. 

Describes briefly the development of Olpidium entophytum^ A. Braun, in the 
cells of Spzrogyra, 

Gibson, W. H. Welcomes of the Flowers. Harper's Mag. 1894 : 551 
-Sl^'fiS^' Mr. 1894. 

• Discusses relation of insects to flowers, wild and cultivated. 

Golden, K. E. Movements of Gases in Rhizomes. Proc. Am. Assoc. 
Adv. Sci. 43: [reprint, pp. 10]. 1894. • 

Graves, J. A., Chairman. The Pteridophyta of North America, 
north of Mexico. Linnaean Fern Bull. 9: pp. 23. Binghampton, 
1895. 

A numbered list of species and varieties. 



* It is requested that omissions from this list be communicated to the editors. 



186 



Greene, E. L. Cea?iofhus leucodermis^ n. sp. Kew Bulletin, 97 : 15- 
Ja. 1895.. 

Description of a new species from California, found in Kew Herbarium; with 
discussion of C, di artcatus, 

Greene, E. L* Corrections in Nomenclature- — VL Erythea, 3: 36. 
I F. 1895. 

Greene, E. L. Novitates occidentales. — XL Erythea, 3: 44-49- 
I Mr, 1895. 

New species of Ra^iun cuius ^ RoriJ>a, Tissa^ Trifoliuni^ Raillardclla, Crepis^ 
Allocarya^ Collinsia and Habenai'ia. 

Greene, E. L. Novitates occidentales.— X. Erythea, 3 : 17-24- 
I F. 1895. 

New species in Vzcza, Lupinus, Trifolium^ Thermopsis^ Ramuiculus^ Erigeron^ 
Pyrrocoma^ Senecio, Agoseris, Phacelia and Linanthus, 

Greene, E. L. Observations on the Compositae. — ^\^III. Erythea, 3 : 
6-15. 2 JI. 1895. 

Discusses Aplopappus and Chrysoma with several transfers of species. Establishes 
the genera Step/ianodoria^ Petradoria and Osbertia for previously described species. 

Greene, E. L. Some Species of Djdecatheon, Erythea, 3: 37-40. 
I Mr. 1895- 

. Describes Z>. radicaiiun^ D. alpifium, D, teirandrum Suksdorf and D. conjugens, 

Hansen, G. Flora of the Sequoia Region collected in the Counties of 
Amador, Calaveras and Alpine, State of California. Pamph. pp. I4- 
I Ja. 1895. 

A list of several hundred species. 

Hasse, H. E. Lichens of the Vicinity of Los Angeles. — L Erythea, 
3: 41-44. I Mr. 1S95. 

Havard, V. Food Plants of the North American Indians. Bull. 
Tor-r. Bot. Club, 22: 98-123. 27 Mr. 1895. 

Hooker, J. D. Schi/ms depe?idens. Curt. Bot. Mag, 51 : //. 7406, 
Mr. 1895. 

Native of South America. 

Hooker, J. D. Weldenia Candida. Curt. Bot. Mag. 51 : //, 740$^ 
Mr. 1895. 

Native of -Mexico and Guatemala. 

Kelsey, F. D. Some Field Notes. Bot, Gaz. 20: 117-118. 16 Mr. 
1895. 

Kenyon, F. C. In the Region of the new Fossil, Daemo?ielix. 
Am. Nat. 29: 213-227.//. 11. figs, Mr. 1895. 

From the mode of growth the analogies of the organism are thought to be « among 
some of the lower plants and grasses," 



187 



4 

Knoblauch, E. Die Nomenclature der Gattungen und Arten. Bot, 
Centralb. 6i : i-6. Ja. 1895. 

b ■ 

■t 

Lagerheim, G. de. See Patouillard, W. 

Lemmon, J. G. A new Calochortus. Erytliea, 3 : 49-50. i Mr. 
1895. 

C coUinus from Central California. 

Linsbauer, L. Beitrage zur Vergleichenden Anatomie der Capri- 
foliaceen. Verb, Zool. Bot, Gesel. Wien, 45: 43-68. //. 6, 1895. 

Meehan, T. Iris cuprea, Meehan's Month. 5 : 61-62.//. 4, Ap. 
1895: 

Miller, A. W., Beringer, G- M., and Crawford, J., Committee. 
Biographical Sketch of Dr. J. Bernard Brinton. Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club; 22; 93-97. Portrait. 27 Mr. 1895. 

Miiller, J. Graphideae Eckfeldtianae m Louisiana et Florida lectae, 
additis observationibus in Graphideas Calkinsianas ejusdem regionis. 
Bulb Herb. Boiss. 3: 41-50. F. 1895. 

Pammel, L. H. Botany of the Russian Thistle. Bull. Io^va Agric. 
Coll. Exper. Sta, 26 : 8-25. //. 8. 1894. 

Pammel, L. H. Further Notes on Cladosporium car'pophilum, Proc. 
Iowa Acad. Sci. i : 92, 93. 1894. 

Pammel, L. H. Powdery Mildew of the Apple. Proc. Iowa Acad. 

Sci. I : 92. 1894. 
Patouillard," W. et Lagerheim, G. de. Champignons de I'Equa- 

teur. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3: 53-74- # ^- F- ^^95. 

Descriptions of fifty new species. 

Robertson, C. Flowers and Insects.— XIIL Bot. Gaz. 20: 104-110. 
16 Mr. 1895. 

r 

Robertson, C. The Philosophy of Flower Seasons and the Phaeno- 
logical Relations of the Entomophilons Flora and the Anthophilous 
Insect Fauna. Am. Nat. 29: 97-117.//. 8. F. 1S95. 

Robinson, B. L. On the "List of Pteridophyta and Sperraatophyta 
of Northeastern America," prepared by the Nomenclature Committee 
of the Botanical Club. Bot. Gaz. 20 : 97— 103. 16 Mr. J895. 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. The Cherokee Rose. Card. & For. 8 : 114- 

/. 18. 20 Mr. 1895. 
Sargent, C. S., Editor. The Winter Aspect of Trees. Gard. & 

&For. 8: 121./. rp. Mr. 1895. 

With illustration of the Beech-tree. 



188 



Schumann, K. Phyllocactus Thomasia7iiis , Monats. Kakteenk. 5: 
6.//. 20 Ja. 1895. 

Stephani, F. Hepaticarum species novae. — VIL Hedwigia, 34 ; 43- 

w 

48. 15 F. 1895, 

' New species oi Herberta^ Hygrobiella^ Hymenophytum and Jamesoniella includ- 
ing Herherta dura from Straits of Magellan, H, pumila from Argentina, and ya?nes 
oniella Leiboldiana from Mexico, 

Stevens, W. C. Apparatus for Physiological Botany. Bot. Gaz. 20 : 
89-96.//. g~i2. 16 Mr. 1895. 

w 

Terry, W. A. Diatoms of the Connecticut Shore.— VII. Am. Mo. 
Mic. Journ. 16: 41-47. 1895.' 

L 

Underwood, L» M, The Classification of the Archegoniates. Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club, 22 : 124-129. 27 Mr. 1895, 

Underwood, L. M. The Relation of the Red Cedar to our Orchards. 
Trans. Indiana Hort. Soc. 1894: 81-84. 1895. 

Popular account of Gyvinosporangiufn macropus and G. globosiim. 

Walker, Ernest- How Plants use Spines and Prickles. Trans. 

I 

Indiana Hort. Soc. 1894: 86-92. 1S95. 

"Wildeman, E. de- Trentepohlia PittierL La Notarisia, 9 : 6-7- 
1S94. 

A new species from the leaves of various plants in the forests of Costa Rica. 

^A^iley, H. W. Sweet Cassava : its Culture, Properties and Uses. Bull. 
Div. Chemistry, U. S. Dept. Agric. 44: pp. 16./, i. pL 2, 1894. 

Discussion of Jatropha Manihot, 

Wilson, J. The Russian Thistle— (6'(zA^/a Kali Tragus^. Bull. Iowa 
Agric. Ex. Sta. 26 : 3-7, 1894. 

Wooten, E. D. New Mexico Weeds. Bull. N. Mex. Agric, Exp. Sta. 
13 • 36./ /J. O. 1S94. 

W'right, J. S. A Guide to the Organic Drugs of the United States 
Pharniacopoeia. i2mo., pp. 118. Eli Lilly &i Co. 1895. 

Gives brief accounts of drugs and the species yielding them, and a conspectus ot 
the natural orders of plants. 



Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College. 



No. 1 6. 



[The numbers omitted from this list are out of print.] 
No. 4. A List of Plants Collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San Diego, Texas. Ey 

N. L. Britton and H, H. Rusby (1887), 25 cents. 

No, 5. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams. By N, L. Britton 

(1888), 25 cents. 

No. 6. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. H, H. Rusby in South 

America, 1886-1887. ^Y N- L. Britton. (Twenty-three parts published ; 
not yet completed.) 

No. 7. The Genus Hicoria of Rafinesque. By N. L. Britton (iSSS), . . 25 cents. 
No. 9, A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at Fort Verde and in the 

Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, 1884^1888. By N, \1, 
Britton. 

The General Floral Characters of the San Francisco and Mogollon Mountains 

and the Adjacent Region, By H. H. Jlusby (18S8), 25 cents. 

No. II. Preliminary Notes on the North American Species of the Genus Tissa^ 

Adans. By N. L. Britton (1889), . - . 25 cents. 

No. 13, New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, IL By N. L< Britton 

(1889), . . ,. , .,-.... 25 cents. 

No, 15, A Descriptive List of Species of the Genus Heuchera. By \Vm. E, Wheel- 

ock (1890) . 25 cents. 

New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, II L By N, L. Britton 

(1890), 25 cents. 

No. 17, The Flora of the Desert of Atacama. By Thos. Morong ( 1891), . 25 cents. 
No. 20. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, IV. By N. L, Britton. 

(1891), ,25 cents. 

No, 21. Notes on the North American Species of Eriocauleas. By Thos. Morong 

(1891) 25 cents. 

No, 22. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, V. By N. L. Britton 

(1891), - -. - 25 cents. 

No. 24. Review of the North American Species of the Genus Xyris. By Heinrich 

Ries(i892), 25 cents. 

No. 25. A Preliminary List of the Species of the Genus Meibomia occurring in the 

United States and British America. "By Anna M. Vail (1S92), . 25 cents. 
A List of Species of the Genera Scirpus and Rynchospora occurring in North 

America. By N. L. Britton (1892;, ascents. 

No, 27. Note on a Collection of Tertiary Fossil Plants from Potosi, Bolivia. By N. 

L. Britton (1892), 25 cents. 

No. 29. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VL By N. L. Britton 

(1892) , 25 cents. 

No. 30, Ranunculus repens and its Eastern North American Allies. By N. L. 

Britton (1892), . . ; i . . . . 25 cents. 

No. 31. A Preliminary List of American Species of Polygonum. By John K. Small 

(1892), 25 cents, 

^^o- Zl^ A New Species of Ltstera, with Notes on Other Orchids. Ey Thos. Morong 

(1893), 25 cents. 

No. 34, The N. American Species oi Lespedeza. By N. L, Britton (1893), ^5 cents. 
No. 35. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. Thos. Morong in Paraguay, 

188&-1890. By Thomas Morong and N. L. Britton, with the assistance of 

Miss Anna Murray Vail (1892-1893), .' ?^"^n 

No. 37, Further Notes on American Species of Polygonum. By John K. Small 

(1893). ,-^5 cents. 

New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VII. By N. L, Britton 

(1893), 25 cents. 

Contributions to American Bryology, III.— Notes on the North American 
Species of Orthoirichunu By Elizabeth G, Britton, ... 25 cents. 

No. 40. New Genera of Plants from Bolivia. By H. H. Rusby (1S93)- • 25 cents. 
No. 41. The Altitudinal Distribution of the Ferns of the Appalachian Mountain Sys 

tern. By John K. Small (1893) -d" '^^^^"^^' 

No. 42. Notes upon various Species of Iridacene and other Orders. By Thomas 

Morong (1893), . . V ^5 cents. 

No. 43, Notes on the Flora of Southeastern Kentucky. By T. H. Kearney, Jr. 

(1S93), ■• • -^scents. 



No. 26. 



No. 38. 

No. 39, 



No. 44. Contributions to American Bryology, IV. Notes on the North American 

Species of Orthotriclmm-^ll. By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894)/. 25 cents. 
No. 45. Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States, I. By John K. 

Small (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 46, Plants from Virginia, new to Gray's Manual Range with Notes on other 

Species. By A. A. Heller (1894) 25 cents. 

No. 47. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VIII. By N. L. Brit- 
ton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 48. Contributions to American Bryology, V. — Notes on the North American 

Species of Weissia {Ulota\ By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 49, A Study of the Scale-characters of the Northeastern American Species of 

Cusctita. By W. D. Matthew (1893), • - 25 cents. 

No. 50. A Study of the Genus Psoralen in America. By Anna Murray Vail 

(1894), 25 cents. 

No. 51. Our Conception of "Species" as modified by the Doctrine of Evolution. 

By N. L. Britton (1894), , 25 cents. 

No. 52. Contributions to American Bryology, VI. Western Species of Orthotrichum. 

By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 53. New and interesting Species of Polygonum. By J. K. Small (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 54, Contributions to American Bryology, VII. A revision of the Genus Phys- 

comitriuni. By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 55. The Genus Cassia in N. America. By Charles Louis Pollard (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 56, A Revision of the Genus Lechea. ' By N. L. Britton (1894), , . 25 cents. 
No. 57. New or little known Plants of the Southern States. By T, H. Kearney, Jr. 

(1894), 25 cents. 

No. 58. A Contribution to the History of the Formation of the Lichen Thallus. By 

Carlton C. Curtis (1894). 25 cents. 

No. 59. Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States, IL By John K. 

Small (1894), ascents. 

No. 60, Contributions to the American Bryology, VIIL A Revision of the Genus 

Bruchia^ with Descriptions of Types and one new Species. By Elizabeth 
G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 61. The Smilaceae of North and Central America. By Thomas Morong (1894) 

25 cents. 

No. 62. A preliminary Revision of the Genus Lathyrus in North America, By 

Theodore G. White (1 894-), 25 cents. 

No. 63. Two Species of Oxalis. By John K. Small (1894) 25 cents- 

No. 64. Notes on some of the rarer Species of Polygonum. By John K. Small 

(1894), 25 cents* 

No. 65. Some new Florida Plants. By T. H. Kearney, Jr. (1894), . . . 25 cents. 

No. 66. Two new Genera of Plants from Bolivia. By H. H. Rusby(i894), 25 cents. 

No. 67. Family Nomenclature. By John Hemlley Barnhart (1895), • • 25 cents. 

No. 68. A Revision of the North American Species of the Genus Cracca, By 

Anna Murray Vail (1895), ...,*. 25 cents. 

No. 69. Contributions to American Bryology, IX. A Revision of the Genus Scott- 

leria with Description of one New Species. By Elizabeth G. Britton 
(1895), . 25 cents. 

No. 70. Studies m the Botany of the Southeastern United States, IIL By Jo\\n K. 

Small (1895), - . . . -. 25 cents. 

No. 71. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. Timothy E. Wilcox, U. S. 

A. and others, in Southeastern Arizona during the years 1892-1894. By 
N, L. Britton and T. H. Kearney, Jr. (1894), ,50 cents. 

No. 72. Contributions to American Bryology, X. I. The Systematic Position of 

Physcomitrella patens, 2. On a Hyhrid growing with Aphanorhegma 
set rata SuU. 3. On a European Hybrid of Physcomitrella patens. By 
Elizabeth G. Britton (1895), 25 cents. 

No. 73. Some new hybrid Oaks from the Southern States. By John K. Suiall 

(1895), ^ 25 cents. 

The series as above listed will be supplied for $10. 

Copies of the Catalogue of Plants found in New Jersey (1889) by N. L. Britton, 
may be had for $2. Address 

Prof. N. L. Britton, 

Columbia College, 

NE'w "x-ork: city. 



1^ 

Second=Hand Books for Sale. 



Tho following botanical works, owned mainly by the late Mr. Justus F. Poggen- 
burg, are offered for sale by the Secretary of tlie Torrey Botanical Club at prices 
considerably below those ordinarily charged. Purchasers are recjuestcd to order by 
number, remitting the amount in advance to H. H. RUSBY, 

222 West I32d Street, New York City. 

7. Barton and Castle, British Flora Medica, Good. $2.00. 

9. Beck, Botany of Northern and Middle States. 50 cts. 
10. Bertram, Flora von Braunschweig. Good. 50 cts, 
17. Botany. — Library of Useful Knowledge. Good. 25 cts. 

20. Buchenau, Flora von Bremen and Oldenburg. 50 cts. 

21. Buckley, A Short History of Natural Science. 50 cts. 
23. Casse], Outlines of Botany. Good. 25 cts. 

28. Cooley, Easy Experiments in Physical Science. 50 cts. 

32. Darby, Botany of the Southern States. Fair. 75 cts. 

35, Darwin, Fertilization of Orchids by insects. J?i.co. 

37. De CandoUe and Sprengel, Elements of the Philosophy of Plants. 50 cts. 

38. Dewey, Rep. on Herbaceous Flowering Plants of Massachusetts. 50 cts. 

40. Eaton, Manual of Botany. Vol. 2 only. 50 cts. 

42. Eaton, Botany of N. A. Poor. $1.00. 

44. Emory, Mex. Bound. Surv. Vol. I. Fair. |2.oo. 

46. " Mil. Rec. 1848. Poor. 50 cts. 

47. Flint, Grasses and Forage Plants, 50 cts. 

50. Foster & Whitney, Lake Superior Land Dis. Ji.oo. 

51. Fremont, Exploring Expedition, Oregon and California, 1S43-44. $1.00, 

52. « « " ' . «« ** '* -45. 50 cts. 

53. « « « « " « -51. ^o cts. 

54. Freyburger, Organischen Drogen. 25 cts. 

55. Fuller, Practical Forestry. Good as new. 75 cts. 

59- Gould, Grasses and their Culture. Handsomely bound. Good. Ji.oo, 

68. Green & Congdon Class Book of Botany. Good. 75 cts. 

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74. " ' « " « Good. 25 cts. 

78. Hough, Am. Woods. 3 vols. New and in perfect condition. Each ^5x0. 

79. Hussey, Geographical Survey of Kentucky— Botany. Unbound. 50 cts. 

80. International Scientists' Directory for 1S85, 1888 and 1889. 25 cts. 

81. Ives, Colorado River of the West. Good. ^2.00. 

82. Johnson's Botanical Teacher. 10 cts. 

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91. Lindley, Introduction to Botany. Fair. 75 cts. 

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96. Linney, Geographical Survey of Kentucky— Botany. Unbound. 50 cts. 

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103. Marcy, Red River of Lousiana. J2.C0, 

104 Martyn, Miller's Gardeners' Dictionary (1S07). 4 vols. Good. js8.oo. 

105. Martyn, Language of Botany. 25 cts. 

106. Naturalists' Directory for i8S8. 10 cts. 
113. Pittonia. Partial set. Unbound. ^3.00. 

115.- Porcher, Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests. ^4.00, 

116. Porter and Coulter, Flora of Colorado. ^2.50. 

120. Proc. Am. Ac. Arts and Sci- S^v^r^l volumes. ^2.00, 



(( 



ii 



tt 



« 



(( 



(C 



(C 



c< 



Provancher, Flora Capadienne, Poor. $i.oo. 
Rolfe & Gillette, Chemistry. 25 cts, 
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Smith, James Edward. Botany. Good, 50 cts. 
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Vol. 22. Lancaster, Pa., May 15, 1895. No. 5 



The Biological Status of Lichens. 



By Albert Schneider. 



For reasons to be enumerated, our present knowledge of 
lichens is very imperfect. Lack of attention is not the cause, as 
the voluminous literature on the subject will testify. The refer- 
ences, authentic and otherwise, number many thousands. It 
would be an endless task to bring together all the monographs, 
treatises, and especially the ** fragments," referring to lichens. 
Lichenologists of ante-Schwendenerian time supposed that the 
question of the true nature of lichens and their position in the 
vegetable kingdom was permanently settled. Nothing was left 
for them to do but to issue "fragments" describing presumably 
new species and varieties. Collectors set to work in widely dis- 
tributed and circumscribed areas to add their mite to the heap of 
confusion. We all know that the ultimate aim of science is to 
systematize; but no system can be formed from unknown mate- 
rial, whatever it may be. A scientist's first duty then is to study 
{as far as possible) his material before attempting to classify it. 
This careful studying of material is what the mass of lichenolo- 
gists have heretofore failed to do. It is not my intention to enter 
.into a historical review of lichenology, as that has already been 
thoroughly done by Krempelhuber and others. With the above 
introduction I shall now attempt to make somewhat clearer the 
present status of general lichenology. 



190 



The epoch-making researches of de Bary, Schwendener, Bor- 
net and others have conckisively demonstrated the dual nature of ^ 
the lichen structure ; that is, it consists of a colorless hyphal por- . 
tion homologous with certain filamentous fungi; and a green 
celled portion homologous with certain low forms of algae. The 
specific algal homologues have been pretty accurately studied out. 
Concerning the specific homologues of the fungal portion our 
knowledge is less accurate. But in regard to both symbionts 
we are certain of their originally independent ancestral 
forms. This theory of Bornet and Schwendener has from the 
very first met with strong opposition from nearly all lichenologists 
(taxonomists, so called). Even a considerable number of phys- 
iologists and morphologists misconstrued evident facts with un- 
scientific perversity, notably Itzigsohn, Famintzin and Baranetzky. 
Even to this very day there are a number of lichenographers who 

m 

persist In ignoring or directly opposing Schwendener's theory. 
This is simply additional evidence of the correctness of the state- 
ment *' None are so blind as those who do not wish to see/' 

It would be useless to repeat the arguments based upon actual 
experimentation which conclusively prove the correctness of 
Schwendener's theory. There is, however, a question w^hich 
Schwendener and his immediate followers have almost unani- 
mously answered WTongly and that is the question of the true 
position of lichens in the vegetable kingdom. During the ante- 
Schwendenerian time, beginning with the earliest periods, most 
lichenologists looked upon lichens as autonomous structures, 
though this conclusion had no scientific basis founded on mor- 



phology and physiology. Their characteristic distribution and 

■ 

marked macroscopic appearance were thought sufficient to make 
them a distinct group. Schwendener assumed that lichens re- 
sembled certain groups of fungi, both in structure and in their 
manner of growth, and should therefore be classed under fungi as 
ascolichenes and basidiolichenes. It is much to be regretted 
that Schwendener did not see his mistake in time to avoid con- 
fusion and unnecessary and unwarranted opposition to his theory. 
I will frankly admit that I formerly thought it most expedient to 
classify lichens as modified fungi. • But having since made a 
special study of lichen morphology, I now consider such a pro- 




191 



cedure both unscientific and impracticable. This idea is not 
original with me, nor do I stand as its only advocate. Many of 
the most recent scientific writers, notably Reinke, strongly up- 
hold this view. I shall briefly consider lichens from the stand- 
points of morphology and physiology to show that they can only 
be treated as aitionomons structures havifig a phylogcny of their 

L 

vwn. I shall not consider it worth while to enter into word quib- 
bling as to the meaning of "autonomy." If such were my desire 
I might well deduce good arguments to show that angiosperms 
are not autonomons, that they are simply modified gymnosperms, 
that gymnosperms are modified pteridophytes, pteridophytes 
modified mosses, etc., finally having it reduced to a primal cell; 
this cell could still be reduced to organic matter, and that to in- • 
organic matter, etc. I shall consider as autonomous any compre- 
hensive group of organisms having morphological and physiologi- 
cal characteristics differing from those of any other comprehensive 
group of organisnis ; meaning by comprehensive group any col- 
lection of allied individuals comprising natural species, genera and 
families. I will first show why lichens cannot be classed as fungi. 
The method of reproduction in lichens is wholly different from 
that of fungi. It is true that lichen spores have a strong morpho- 
logical resemblance to those of their probable homologues among 
the fungi. Functionally they differ widely. They cannot be con- 
sidered specific reproductive organs of lichens as they formerly 
were of fungi, because they are not capable o( developing into a 



eji a mngus. They will indeed de- 



velop a mycelial network which will however not produce spores 
unless associated with its symbiotic alga. They can only be 
looked upon ds degenerate reproductive organs of their fungal an- 
cestors. This degeneracy is the more .marked as we ascend the - 
scale of lichen development. Taking one of the lower types, as 
exemplified in Pjrejnila,\vc find spore organs having almost typical, 
fungal characters ; that is, apothecia are prominent, paraphyses 
distinct and numerous, spore wall rather thick and colored, spores 
distinctly septate. These are the usual characters of fungal spore 
organs. Considering some of the higher types as exemplified in 
Parvielia and Cladonia, we find apothecia few or wholly wanting; 
when apothecia are present the asci are few in number, spore wall 



5 

■j 

^ 

I 
1 

1 



i 



192 



w 

comparatively delicate and colorless, spores non-septate. There 
is no doubt that lichen spores still play a part in lichen reproduc- 
tion. T/iis can however only take place when the spore ivitJi the 

r 

Specific algal symbionts are placed in a suitable environment. That 
is, spores and algae must fall upon a spot where the algae can 
maintain existence independently until such time as the spores 
shall develop a mycelial network with haustoria with which to sur- 
round the algae, thus forming the beginning of a new lichen thallus. 
Should, for example, the spores with the requisite algae fall upon 
a dry rock the algae would die, and if the spores should subse- 
quently develop there would be no algae with which to form a 
lichen. From this it is evident that lichen spores must be ^^ry 
unreliable as assistants in lichen reproduction. From the very 
nature of things, lichen spores are not true reproductive organs of 
lichens^ hence their tendency to degenerate. 

The question whether lichen spores are sexual or asexual 
products is still unsettled. The observations of Stahl in the case 
of Collema inicrophylhan have not yet been verified. If his obser- 
vations prove to be correct, then we may assume that lichen spores 
are sexual products. I am, however, strongly inclined to believe 
that StahFs observations were probably erroneous. From numer- 
ous examinations of so-called " spermagonia," I believe them to 
be parasitic fungi, of which the "spermatia" are the spores. 
From a rather hasty comparative study it seems probable that 
their homologues are to be found in Septoria or allied genera. 
For example, Septoria Speculariac presents the general morpho- 
logical appearance of spermagonia.. The fact that w^e readily re- 
cognize Septoria as parasitic fungi Hes only in the nature of things* 
In case of Septoria the morphological and physiological contrast 
between host and parasite is great, while in the case of spermago- 
nia this contrast is only slight. No one would ever think of re- 
cognizing Septoria Speculariac as the male reproductive organs of 
Spcailaria perfoliata, upon which it lives. Such a suggestion 
would certainly be highly ridiculous. Then why should sperma- 
gonia of lichens be recognized as male reproductive organs, espe- 
cially since no one has demonstrated that they play such a func- 
tion? According to Wiesner, spermatia do develop a mycelium 
which finally produces spermagonia. From this the true nature 



193 



of spermagonia may safely be conjectured/ To say the least, it 
is certainly unreasonable to assume that spermatia will at one 
time function as non-sexual spores, and at another time as male 
sexual organs. Further investigations will reveal the true nature 
of things. The sooner this is accomplished the better, as many 
lichenologists have already made the deplorable mistake of consid- 
ering spermagonia as important characters in lichen classification. 
To classify plants according to the characteristics of the parasites 
found upon them would certainly be a questionable procedure in 
modern taxonomy. 

Other characteristics wiiich distinguish lichens from fungi are 
the presence of various chemical compounds, notably hchenin, 
which is never found in fungi. 

Characteristics which distinguish lichens from fungi also distin- 
guish them from algae. There is certainly less similarity between 
^n alga and a lichen than there is between a fungus and a lichen, 
though several attempts had been made to classify them as algae. 
In general it may be stated that lichens resemble algae only in so 
far as the algal symbiont resembles algae. The differences will be 
brought out in the discussion of those characters which separate 
lichens from both algae and fungi. For convenience sake I will 
separate these characters into morphological and physiological. 
These are the characters which fully establish the autonomy of 
lichens. 



Morphological. 



Lichens, macroscopically considered, have such a peculiar ap- 
pearance that the most superficial observer is naturally led to 
suppose that they form a group by themselves. They are found 
in places where neither alea nor fundus can exist alone. Especially 



fc>" '*"' '""to 



peculiar is their ability to resist low temperatures. Freezing only 
checks their growth. A temperature of —40 ° C. does not kill them. 
Such crude observations are however not sufficient to establish 
their individualism. 

The lichen thallus is of special interest to the morphologist 
since this structure is typically lichenological. It always consists 
of the hyphal and algal symbionts. The algal symbiont is usually 
more centrally located, being surrounded by the hyphae of the 



194 



fungal symbiont. three types of iichen thallus may be recognized, 
namely, the crustaceous, the foliaceous and the fraticulose. The 
crustaccous type is the most rudimentary and cannot be said to 
to have even a dorsiventral structure, though one would naturally 
expect this from the nature of things. The lower surface differs 
only in having more numerous extended hyphal filaments to en- 
able it to adhere more firmly to the substratum as well as to take 

M ■ 

up soluble food materials. The second type already indicates a 
considerable advance in the evolution of the lichen thallus. It is 
typically dorsiventral. Dorsal and ventral layers are semi-cortical 
in structure ; that is, the hyphal cells are closely united and have 
only few air passages. Between these two layers is a layer 
of loosely interwoven hyphal tissue in which are imbedded the 
algae. From the lower surface extend the rhizoids. On the 
upper are found the apothecia (with exceptions, example, NepJiro' 
viitDii) and soredia, besides the so-called *' spermagbnia" and oc- 
casionally accidental fungal and algal parasites. The third type 

w 

(as exemplified by the vertical thallus of Cladonia and ThauinoHa) 
shows a typical radial structure. Numerous examples showing 
the gradual gradation from the dorsiventral to the radial type can 
be found. In the radial type there is an outer semi-cortical layer, 
which usually differs from that of the dorsiventral cortical layer 
in that it is more compact. The fungal cell walls have become 
somewhat gelatinized and adhere very closely. Next to this layer,, 
on the inside, is the layer of loosely interwoven hyphae containing 

The third and innermost layer consists of longitu- 
dinal closely united hyphae. Sometimes this thallus is hollow in 
the center, sometimes solid, containing a central core of closely 

r 

united longitudinal hyphae. 

Soredia are also typical lichen structures. They are very 
numerous in the higher forms of lichens (example, Parmelia sore- 
diata), ^nd ^ve found on the dorsal surface of the thallus, more 
frequently near the margin. Each soredium is in reaHty a miniature 
thallus. It is usually spherical in form, the outer layer consisting 
. of closely united hyphal cells ; the central portion consists of algal 
cells and loosely interwoven hyphal filaments, Soredia contain 



i 



the algae. 



necessary 



From what has been stated above, apothecia can not be looked 




El 



195 



upon as typical lichen structures, yet their morphology is of great 
importance in the consideration of lichen evolution and classifica- 
tion. Some of the changes in apothecia indicating a probable 
higher or lower stage of development have already been referred 
to. As I intend to consider these changes more particularly in 
a future paper on lichen classification, I shall at present omit 
further discussions. I shall now briefly consider the physiological 
characters which distinguish lichens from both fungi and algae. 



Physiological. 

In their method of growth lichens stand alone. The two 
symbionts form a microcosmos which is enabled to perform the 
necessary life functions w^hich were originally inherent in both, 
and in addition they have acquired new characteristics during their 

r 

phylogeny as lichens, which unmistakably stamp them as autono- 
mous structures. , As a unit they can now exist where neither sym-' 
biont could exist alone. In spite .of this intimate mutualism, it 
is not at all likely that the fungal symbiont is xvJwUy dependent 
upon the algal symbiont for its food supply. For example, a 
lichen spore may develop to a considerable extent as a sapro- 
phyte upon decaying wood/humus, and other dead organic mat- 
ter'; nor is it at all likely that a. lichen can develop upon purely 
inorganic matter, as, for example, pure quartz crystals. Of course, 
the spore, with the requisite algae or a soredium, has bound up 
within itself a certain amount of extra food material, which enables • 
development to begin in the absence of all organic matter. The 
mycelial network then forms a structure for collecting within its 
meshes organic substances, carried to it by air and water currents ; 
this allows growth to continue. No amount of food supply will, 
however, allow the fungal symbiont to mature without its algal 
symbiont, excepting perhaps the lowest forms. Thus we see that 
mutualism of fungus and alga is necessary to form a lichen.. 
The fungal symbiont, considered by itself, still retains its ancestral 
function as a saprophyte ; in addition it has acquired the habits of 
a semi-obligative parasite upon its algal symbiont. The algal 
symbiont, which has the function of chlorophyll-bearing plants in 
general, that of assimilating carbon, must be looked upon as a 
facultative parasite, since it can exist and mature independently of 

J 



J- 
4 



196 



L * 

its fungal symbiont. This has been repeatedly demonstrated ex- 
perimentally. Considered as a unit, the fungal portion of the 
lichen supplies the algal with water, the necessary mineral sub- 
stances, N., O. and H., from the underlying substratum and air. 
The algal symbiont as a result of this unusual supply of food ma- 
terials, forms an extra amount of carbon and nitrogenous com- 
pounds, which is assimilated by the fungal symbiont. Thus it 
is seen that the benefit derived from this association is mutual. 
The term " mutualism," proposed by Tubeuf, is very appropriate 
(and may well supplant the equally correct but more complex ex- 
pression " mutualistic symbiosis/' proposed by Frank. 

Reproduction by means of soredia stands without a parallel 
in the vegetable kingdom. They are of course asexual, and are 
formed in the algal zone of the lichen thallus by the symbiotic 
association of algae and hyphae. They may be designated as 
mutualistic brood buds. They are really vegetative reproductive 
organs, and on that account the objection may be raised that they 
are not true reproductive organs. I shall not here enter into a 
discussion on the ultimate difinition of reproductive organs. The 
fact remains that sondia alone contain the necessary elements for 
forming a new lichen. There is no doubt that the great majority 
of lichens are reproduced from soredia ; in fact, this is the only 
means of reproduction in some species. The outer semi- cortical 
liyphal layer of soredia enclosing the algae maintains a sufficient 
degree of moisture to enable them to lie dormant for a long 
period of time, or until conditions are suitable for their develop- 
ment. They are certainly far more reliable than spores (associa- 
ted w^ith the necessary algae) as reproductive organs. In fact, as 
Reinke has indicated, lichen reproduction by the aid of spores is 
in most respects similar to reproduction by means of soredia. In 
Endocarpon pisilhnn, for example, some of the algae are ejected 
and with the spore adhere to the mucilaginous spore w^all, thus 
forming a sort of soredium in which the spore represents the 
fungal element. If the algae are not ejected with the spores, tlie 
chances for developing a new lichen must indeed be slight, for 
reasons already given. 

In my opinion sufficient reasons have been given why lichens 
cannot be classed with fungi, much less with algae, and must 



197 



therefore be considered as an independent group. Based upon 
.morphological and physiological considerations this group would 
naturally belong midway between fungi and algae. 

In conclusion I shall offer a few suggestions on the probable 
origin and phylogeny of lichens. There is little doubt that vari- 
ous subdivisions of lichens indicate a polyphyletic origin. Of 
this polyphylogeny' either one or all of several forms may have 
occurred. For example, in ascolichenes, a certain fungal type may 
have (during its phylogenyas a lichen symbiont) become so modi- 
fied by its symbiosis with a given algal type, as to enable it to as- 
sociate w^ith other algal species; or it may be that the same algal 
type became adapted to one or even several fungal types. As to 
what the conditions actually were w^e are at present scarcely able 
to say. Of one thing we are, however, certain and that is that a 
lichen is the result of the mutualistic association of a fungal and 
an algal type. Though in general I agree with Reinke as to the 
origin o[ lichens, yet I am not so ready to assume (theoretically) 
that Co//ema represents the oldest lichen type. Colkina is the re- 
sult of the symbiotic association of the alga Nostoc with some 
fungus whose ancestral type is not definitely known. The mass 
of the lichen structure consists of the alga. As compared with 
some other h'chens the following are some of the reasons why 
ColU'ma does not represent the lichen prototype: I. The alga 
has undergone considerable change by way of adapting itself to 
new environments. Originally it was no doubt accustomed to a 
high degree of moisture (as is its present homologue, Nostoc com- 
wunc), while in its present form as a lichen it is able to exist on 
tree trunks, rocks, etc., as most other lichens. 2. Its thallus 
shows a considerable degree of differentiation, as exemplified in 
the closely allied genera Hydrolhyrlo, Polychidium, Lcptogium and 
Maliotiuni. 3. Spores have probably become considerably degen- 
erated as indicated by their thin colorless walls, and in many 
cases indistinct septae. As a rule apothecia are few, though there 
are exceptions to this. 4. Soredia, though not numerous, are more 
frequently present than in many other lichen forms. 

The above are the main reasons why Collema is perhaps not 
the prototype of lichens. In my opinion the true prototype of 
lichens is perhaps to be found in those structures which were for- 



108 



merly recognized as pseudo-lichei;es. They may be observed on 
nearly every tree trunk, on fences, rocks, pavements, etc.; In fact, 

r 

anywhere where the lower forms of algae (especially Protococcns 
viridis) can exist. Examination of these algae will find them 
usually associated with fungal hyphae, sometimes forming ex- 
tended thin thallus-Hke layers. The structure formerly recognized 
as Lepra viridis is an excellent example. Though apothecia are 
never found, yet I am inclined to believe that in so-called Lepra 

L 

we find the beginnings of a future lichen. At least there are. 
many lichens which show an inferior structure as compared with 
Colleinay^nd for that reason are perhaps nearer the prototype. 

■ 

As an example we may mention Pyrenitla, Verrucaria perhaps 
represents a degenerate type rather than a lower type of an as- 
cending series, as is indicated by a rudimentary thalline structure 
associated with rudimentary or degenerate apothecia, spores and 
paraphyses. Whether a given lichen represents a low type of an 
ascending series or a degenerate higher form is in many cases dif- 
ficult to decide; also the question as to the relative phylogenetic 
ages of various lichen groups. There is perhaps little doubt that 
basidiolichenes have had a much shorter phyfogenetic history than 
ascolichenes. There are many problems in lichenology which 
must be left to the conscientious morphologists and physiologists 
to solve. In fact, we know so little of the life history of individual 
lichens that the time for final specific arrangement has not yet 
come. We, however, know sufficient of lichens as a whole to 
give them a proper position In the vegetable kingdom which Is 
in reality the first step toward establishing a lichen system- 
Their proper position I have attempted to indicate In this paper. 






New Species .of Fungi. 

By Chas. H. Peck. 

Lepiota fulvodisca. Pileus thin, convex or nearly plane, ob- 
tuse or umbonate, viscid when moist, white, with the disk or umbo 
fulvous or tawny.-brown; lamellae narrow, close, free, white; stem 
slender, flexuous, viscid, hollow, white or whitish, the base abruptly 
bulbous, the annulus thin, membranous, pure white; spores ovate- 
elliptical, .0003 to .0004 in. long, .00016 t6 .0002 in. broad, usu- 



f 

I 

p- 



L 

L 



199 



t> 



ally containing a shining nucleus and furnished with a slid:it 
apiculus at one end. 

Pileus I to 1.5 in. broad; stem 2 to 3 in. long, i to 1.5 line 
thick. 

Plant fragile, growing among fallen leaves in woods. Pasa- 
dena, California. January. Prof. A. J. McClatchie. 

From L.iilinita Fr. this species is separated by its tawny disk 
of the pileus, its membranous annulus, the bulbous base of the 
Stem and the different shape of the spores; 

Clitocybe pusilla. Pileus at first hemispherical or convex, 

then nearly plane, obtuse, sometimes with a very small umbo, dry, 

pruinose, grayish, flesh thin, whitish; lamellae narrow, close, ad- 

nate or decurrent, white; stem short, solid, pruinose, grayish; 

spores subglobose or very broadly elliptical, .00016 to .0002 \w, 
long. ^ 

Pileus 3 to 8 lines broad ; stem about 6 lines long, scarcely I 
line thick. ■ - 

Densely gregarious or subcaespitose. On manure. Pasadena. 
February. McClatchie. , ' 

Apparently belonging to the tribe Disciformes and related to' 
C, Brcsadolae Schulz, but an exceedingly small plant for that tribe. 

CoLLYBiA ALBOGRiSEA. Pileus fleshy, thin, convex or nearly 
plane, often somewhat irregular on the margin, glabrous, whitish 
or grayish, flesh white; lamellae broad, distant, adnate, white or 
whitish, the interspaces often venose ; stem nearly equal, hollow, 
sometimes twisted, whitish or grayish, the lower part covered w^ith 
a dense whitish, grayish or yellowish tomentum, the upper part 
naked or merely white-pruinose ; spores broadly elliptical, .0002 to 
.00024 J'n. long, .00016 broad, generally containing a single shin- 
ing nucleus. 

Pileus about r in. broad; stem 1. 5 to 2 in. long, i to 2 lines 
thick. . 

m. ^ 

Plant often caespitose and then the pileus irregular from mu- 
tual pressure. Among fallen leaves. Pasadena. January. Mc- 
Clatchie. 

The species belongs to the tribe Vestipedes. 

L 

Mycena elegantula. Pileus membranous, conical or cam- 

' panulate, sulcate-striate, brown or purplish-brown ; lamellae distant, 

adnate with a decurrent tooth, whitish or pallid with the edge 

purplish-brown, the interspaces (in the dried specimens) venose or 

transversely wrinkled ; stem slender, hollow, glabrous, sometimes 



4 



200 



with a loose grajnsh fibrillose tomentum at the base ; spores oblong- 
elliptical, .00035' to .0005 in. long, .00016 to .0002' broad, usually 
containing one or two small nuclei, 

Pileus, 4 to 10 lines broad ; stem I to 2 in. long, .5 aline thick.; 
Gregarious or caespitose. Among fallen leav^es under trees. 



Pasadena. December. McClatchie. 



This plant may be distinguished from the closely related M, 
atroiJiarginata Fr. by its smaller size and the purplish tint to the. 
edge of the lamellae, and from M, pitrpitreofusca Pk. by its differ- 
ently shaped, longer spores. 

* 

Omphalia semivestipes. Pileus very thin, deeply convex or 
subcampanulate, glabrous, grayish-brown in the dried state, paler 
when fresh ; lamellae rather broad, distant, arcuate, decurrent, 
white or whitish ; stem hollow, white or whitish, the upper half 
glabrous, the lower half clothed with a white mycelioid tomentuni ; 
spores elliptical, .0002 to .00024 i^- lo^'^g^ .00012 to .00016 broad, 

^ ■ 

Pileus 6 to 12 Unes broad; stem about i in. long, I to 2 lines 
thick. 

Growing on much decayed wood. Newfoundland. May- 
Rev. A. C. Waghorne. 

This plant is apparently related to such species as (7. setipes 
Fr. and O.grisea Fr. and belongs to the tribe Mycenariae. It is 
easily recognized by the peculiar character of the stem. In the 
dried examples the upper glabrous part of the stem is shriveled 
and longitudinally striate, but the lower tomentose part is plump 
and even as In the fresh plant. 

HvGROPHORUs ELEGANTULUS. Pileus couvex or nearly plane, 
glabrous, viscid, grayish-yellow or slightly tawny, flesh white ; 
lamellae distant, slightly decurrent, white; stem equal, solid, slightly 
floccose-squamulose at the top, elsewhere glabrous, glutinous, 
white or whitish, sometimes abruptly pointed at the base; spores 
elliptical, .0004 in. long, .0002 to .00024 broad. 

Pileus I to 2 in. broad; stem 2 to 3 in', long, 3 to 4 Hnes thick. 






I' 



X- 



Woods. Maryland. November. T. Taylor. 
The species belongs to the tribe Limacium, and is related to 
■ H. discoidais Fr., from which it may be separated by its solid stem 
and larger spoies. 

Entoloma ferruginans. Pileus fleshy, convex, obtuse or um- 
bonate, often irregular, hygrophanous, glabrous, shining, dark 



fuliginous or broccoli-brown, flesh whitish, fibrous and colored at 



201 

I 



the surface; lamellae 4 to / lines broad, adnexed, easily splitting 
transversely, grayish-salmon, becoming clay-color ; stem solid, 
glabrous, yellowish or cream-color, blunt at the base or sometimes 
attenuated and radicating ; spores subglobose, irregular or angular, 



,0004 



fc» 



Pileus 2 to 6 in. broad ; stems 3 to 4 in. long, 4 to 8 lines or 
more in thickness. 

■ 

Under oak trees. Pasadena. February. McClatchie. 

This plant is related to B. rhodopoliU)n,hn\ is separated from it 
by its darker color and solid stem. According to Prof. McClatchie, 
the fresh plants have a strong odor resembling that of ferric chlo- 
ride, and chemical tests showed the presence oi iron. It is pro- 
nounced edible by him. 

Leptoxia edulis. Pileus thin, convex or centrally depressed, 
with or without an umbo, velvety, dark-gray ; lamellae rather 
broad, subventricose, adnexed; moderately close, at first whitish 
or light drab, becoming flesh-color ; stem slender, hollow, colored 
like the pileus, often with an abundant white mycelioid tomentum 
at the base ; spores subglobose, angular, apiculate at on^ end, 
.0003 to .0004 in. long, containing a single large nucleus. 

Pileus 6 to 18 lines broad; stem 12 to 1 8 lines long, .5 to i 
line thick. 

r 

Among grass and weeds. Pasadena. January. 

According to Prof. McClatchie, this plant when fresh has a 
nutty flavor and is edible. The velvety appearance oi the pileus 
has disappeared from the dried specimens. In some, the margin 
of the pileus is striate, but in the fresh plant the margin is said to 
be even. 

EcciLiA NIGRICANS. Pileus thin, convex, umbilicate or cen- 
trally depressed, subzonate, unpolished, grayish-black ; lamellae 
broad, distant, decurrent, light-drab or brownish, becoming tinged 
with flesh-color; stem short, hollow, grayish-black, commonly 
^vith an abundant white mycelium ; spores angular, .0004 in. long, 
nearly as broad, containing a single large nucleus. 

Pileus 6 to 1 8 lines broad; stem about i in. long, .5 to i h'ne 
thick. 

Grassy ground. Pasadena. January. 

Prof. McClatchie's notes say that this plant has the odor and 
flavor of butternuts and that it is delicious when cooked. Also 
that when fresh the pileus is tomentose and the margin even, but 
these characters are not clearly shown in the dried specimens. 



\ 



^ 






■*. 



202 



Pholiota axomala. Pileus at first hemispherical or subconi- 
cal, then convex, glabrous, hygrophanous, broccoli-brown when 
moist, pale-yellow or cream-color when dry; lamellae adnate or 
slightly decurrent, subarcuate. pale becoming brownish-ferruginous, 
often white on the edge; stem cavernous or hollow with irregular 
transverse partitions, sometimes containing a cottony tomentum, 
whitish, with a slight evanescent annulus; spores elliptical, .0003 
to .0004 in. long, .00016 to .0002 broad. 

Pileus 8 to iS lines broad; stem 1.5 to 2.5 in. long, i to 3 lines 

thick. 

Sticks and leaves lying on the ground. Pasadena. January- 

McCiatchie. 

The species belongs to the tribe Truncigenae, section Hygro- 
phanae. It is well marked by its fugacious annulus, subdecurrent 
lamellae and peculiar cavernous stem. - 

Hebeloma foedatum. Pileus fleshy, convex becoming plane 
or centrally depressed, glabrous, very viscid or glutinous, reddish 
cinnamon, flesh yellowish-white; lamellae subventricose, eniar- 
ginate with a decurrent tooth, cinnamon-color, becoming mummy- 
brown; stem solid, equal or slightly thickened at the base, fibril- 
lose, paler than the pileus; spores broadly elliptical, .00024 to 
.0003 in. long, .00016 to .0002 broad. 

Pileus 1.5 to 3 in. broad; stem 1.5 to 2.5 in, long, 2 to 4 lines 
thick. 

Streets of Pasadena. December. McClatchie. 

The species is apparently related to' H. firumni, H. testaceitm 
and H, glutinosiim, from all of which it is separated by its small 
spores. Its viscid pileus causes dirt to adhere to it in such quan- 
tity as to give the plant a very defiled, unattractive appearance. 

Flammula anomalA; Pileus deeply umbilicate or infundibuli- 
form, often irregular, glabrous, whitish; lamellae narrow, close, 
decurrent, pale-ferruginous; stem short, irregular, whitish; spores 
globose, brownish-ferruginous, .00024 in. broad. 

Pileus about i in. broad; 'stem 6 to 12 lines long. 
Plant commonly caespitose. Ground. Trexlertown, Pennsyl- 
vania. October. Dr. William Herbst. 

A whitish umbilicate pileus is unusual among species of Flam- 

r 

mula. This plant appears to belong to the tribe Gymnotae. 

Tubaria pallescens. Pileus fleshy but thin, convex or nearly 
plane, sometimes slightly depressed in the center, glabrous, hy- 



grophanous, brick-red when moist, yellowish or cream color when 



p 



203 



dry; lamellae broad, adnata or slightly decurrent, tawny-buff, 
becoming brownish-ferruginous; stem slender, hollow, yellowish, 
with a white mycelium at the base; spores elliptical, .0003 in. 
long, .00016 broad. 

r 

Pileus 5 to 10 lines broad; stem 12 to 18 lines long, .5 to i 
line thick. 

Sticks and leaves under trees. Pasadena. January. McClatchie, 
When young, slight vestiges of a veil are visible, connecting 
the incurved margin of the pileus with the stem. 

F 

r 

-. 

Pluteolus luteus. Pileus thin, at first subovate, then convex 
or subcampanulate, glabrous, viscid, slightly striate on the margin, 
yellow ; lamellae numerous, close, free or but slightly adnexed, yel- 
lowish becoming ferruginous ; stem slender, hollow, slightly 
thickened toward the base, striate at the top and there sprinkled 
with mealy particles, yellowish; spores elliptical, .0004 to .0005 
in. long, .00024 to .0003 broad. " . 

Pileus 6 to 12 lines broad; stem 1.5 to 2.5 in. long, I to 2 
lines thick. Plant very fragile, gregarious. Under trees. Pasa- 
dena. December; McClatchie. 

The yellow color and viscid pileus are prominent characters of 
this species. In some of the dried specimens the lamellae appear 
free, in others slightly adnexed, but because of the viscid pileus I 
have referred the plant to the genus Pluteolus. 

CoRTiNARius viRGATUS. Pilcus thick, fleshy, hemispherical or 
convex, obtuse or subumbonate, slightly viscid, ochraceous tinged 
with olive-buff, conspicuously virgate with reddish fibrils, flesh 
dingy-white; lamellae subdistant, adnexed, at first subcinnamon, 
then ochraceous-russet; stem short, stout, solid, enlarged and 
fibrillose at the base, pale-ochraceous ; spores subglobose or 
broadly elliptical, .GO024 to .OO03 in. long, .0002 to .00024 broad. 

Pilous 3 to 4 in. broad; stems about 2 in. long, 8 to 12 lines 
thick. 

Under oak trees. Pasadena. February. McClatchie. 
This species is well marked by its stout habit and by the red- 
dish fibrils of the pileus. 

Agaricus Califoknicus. Pileus at first subconical, becoming 
convex, minutely silky or fibrillose, whitish, tinged with purple or 
brownish-purple on the disk, flesh whitish; lamellae close, free, 
pink becoming purplish, then blackish-brown ; stem rather long, 
solid or stuffed, equal or tapering upward, distinctly and rather 
abruptly narrowed above the entire externally silky annulus, pallid 



i 



1 

4 



r 



-.J 



204 



£5^ 



or brownish; spores broadly elliptical, .0002 to .00025 in. Ion 
.00016 to .0002 broad. 

Pileus I to 3 in. broad; stem 1.5 to 3 in. long, 2 to 4 lines 

thick. 

Under oak trees, Pasadena. January. McClatchie. 

This fungus is similar in size, shape and habitat to A. henior- 
rhoidariHSyhwt it is unlike that species in color, in the adornment of 
the pileus and in its color not changing where bruised or broken. 

Stropharia bilamellata. Pileus fleshy, convex, even, whitish 
or yellowish, flesh pure white; lamellae close, adnate, purplish- 
brown when mature ; stem short, solid, white, with a well-developed 
pure white annulus which is striately lamellate on the upper sur- 
face ; spores e'Uiptical, purplish brown, .0004 in. long, .0002 to 
to .00024 broad. 

Pileus I to 2 in. broad; stem about i in. long, 3 to 4 lines 

r 

thick. 

Streets of Pasadena. January, McClatchie. 

This fungus is remarkable for the lamellated upper surface of 
the rather thick membranous annulus. These lamellae are uneven 
on the edge and in some cases they appear to extend upward on 
the stem till they meet the true lamellae. The plant is said by its 
discoverer to be edible. The color of the young lamellae is not 
shown by the examples. 

\ 

h 

Hvpholoma loxgipes. Pileus thin, campanulate, even or ob- 
scurely striate on the margin, fibrillose becoming glabrous, hygro- 
phanous, yellowish-brown when moist, brown or isabefline-brown 
when dry, the margin appendiculate with the very white floccose 
fugacious veil ; lamellae narrow, close, adnate, w^hite or whitish. 



becoming nearly black, often whitish on the edge; stem slender^ " 
long, hollow, striate at the top, w^iite, with a white mycelioid 

tomentum at the base; spores eUiptical, .0005 in. long, .0005 
broad. 

Pileus I to 1.5 in. broad; stem 2 to 5 in. long, i to 2.5 lines 



thick. 



Plant fragile, growing among fallen leaves in very wet weather, 
Pasadena. September. McClatchie. 

The disk of the pileus is so thin and the stem so completely 
hollow to the apex that in the dried specimens there is a depres- 
sion or umbilicus in the center of the pileus. 



^ 



p 



205 



Panaeolus iNTERMEDius. Pileus campanulate or convex, even, 
glabrous, moist or hygrophanous, grayish-brown ; lamellae ascend- 
mg or subarcuate, subdistant, adnate, black ^vhen mature ; stem 
slender, often elongated, hollow, grayish-brown, white-pruinose at 
the top; spores oblong-elliptical, .0005 to .0006 in. long, .00025 to 
.0003 broad. 

Pileus 6 to 12 lines broad; stem 2 to 4 in. long, .5 to i line 
thick. 

Rich soil along gutters or in caiions. Pasadena. January. 
McCfatchie. 

The margin of the pileus does not extend beyond the lamellae, 
and this character with the slender stem suggests the genus 
Psathyrella, but because of the absence of striae on the pileus It 
seems best to refer the plant to the genus Panaeolus. 

Panaeolus DroRESSUS. Pileus hemispherical or convex, gla- 
brous, bay-red ; lamellae very broad, plane, distant, adnate, pur- 
plish black with a w^hite edge; stem short, floccose-fibrlllose 
toward the base, striate at the apex, hollow, a little paler than the 
pileus; spores broadly elliptical, .0005 to .0006 in long, .00035 to 
■0004 broad. 

Pileus 4 to 6 lines broad; stem about i in. long, i line thick. 
On dung. Pasadena. July. McClatchie. 

This plant also diverges from the generic character in its 



lamellae extending quite to the margin of the pileus, and in its 
unpolished stem. 

CoPRiNus CALYPTRATus. Pileus whcu mature adorned with a 
few grayish floccose scales and crowned with a persistent stellately 
split membranous dingy-yellow or subtawny calyptra, radiate 
striate to the disk, grayish-flocculent along the ridges of the striae, 
blackish; lamellae free, dark lead color becoming black; stem 
equal, hollow, white, becoming blackish in drying except at the 
base, neither annulate nor -distinctly volvate; spores elliptical, 



ty 



0005 



Pileus about 2 in. broad; stem 3 to 4 in. long, 2 to 3 lines 
thick. Open cultivated ground. Rockport, Kansas. August. 

E. Bartholomew. 

This species -is well marked by the persistent membranous 

calyptra that adheres to the summit of the pileus. Its margin is 

split into four to six broad rays. The change of color in the stem 

is similar to that ascribed to the stem of C. stcrquilimis Fn, but our 

plant differs from that in its calyptra and in the absence of an an- 



-J 






i 



20G 



nulus and volva at the base of the stem. Only mature specimens - 
were seen, consequently the characters of the young plant remain 
unknown and the description to that extent is defective, 

CoPRiNUS JoNESii. Pileus submembranous, campanulate be- 
coming broadly convex or expanded and split or rev^olute on the 
margin, very blunt or truncate at the apex when young, everywhere 
covered with tawny-gray or pale-cervine floccose scales which 
wholly or partly disappear with age revealing the striate surface 
beneath ; lamellae crowded, linear, free, at first Avhite or whitish, 
becoming black ; stem equal or slightly tapering upward, minutely 
floccose, hollow, white; spores black, broadly elliptical, .0003 to 
.00035 '"- ^^^gj .00025 broad, with an apiculus at one end. 

w 

Pileus I to 2 in, broad ; stem 2 to 3 in. long, 2 to 3 lines thick. 
Plant fragile, sometimes caespitose. In a cellar. Vermont. 



April. Prof. L. R. J 



/ 



easily be considered a variety, but it is easily distinguished by the 
truncate apex of the young pileus, the differently colored scales and 
the smaller spores. C. sobolifems Fr. has the pileus truncated at 
the apex, but it is a very different species. 

CoPRiNus APicuLATus. Pileus membranous, campanulate or 
deeply convex, acute 01 apiculate, furfuraceous, plicate-striate to 
the disk, grayish; lamellae few, subdistant, reaching the stem, 
black; stem filiform, glabrous, white; spores elliptical, black, ,0003 
in. long, .00016 broad. 

Pileus about 3 lines broad; stem i to 1.5 in, long, scarcely 

half a line thick. Lewiston, Pennsylvania. Mrs. E. B. Noyes. 

F 

BoLETixus BOREALis. Pilcus flcshy, convex, obtuse or subum- 
bonate, brownish yellow, obscurely and somewhat reticulately 
streaked with reddish-brown lines; pores large, angular, unequal, 
slightly decurrent, brownish-yellow; stem short, equal or slightly 
tapering upward, brownish-yellow with a whitish mycelioid to- 



000 



,0004 to .0005 m. long .000 



Pileus I to 2 in. broad; stem about i in. lon^. 

Sandy soil. Capstan Island, Labrador, October. Waghorne. 

The markings of the pileus appear as if due to the drying of 
a glutinous substance. The radiating lamellae and the transverse 
partitions of the interspaces are very plainly shown. Described 
from tw^o dried specimens. 



207 



Boletus ixflexus. Pileus convex, glabrous, viscid, yellow, 
often red or reddish on the disk, the margin thin, inflexed, con- 
cealing the marginal tubes, flesh whitish, not changing color 
where wounded ; tubes rather long, adnate, yellowish, becoming 
dingy-yellow with age, the mouths small, dotted with reddish 
glandules ; stem rather slender, exannulate, solid, viscid, dotted 
with livid-yellow glandules ; spores yellowish, .0004 to .0005 ii^- 
long, .00016 to .0002 broad. 

Pileus about i in. broad; stem about 2 in. long, 2 to 4 lines 
thick. 

, r 

- Open woods. Trexlertown. September. Herbst. 
This Bplcuis belongs to the tribe Viscipelles. It is remarkable 
for and easily recognized by the inflexed margin of the pileus, 
which imitates to some extent the appendiculate veil oi Boletus 
vcrsipellis. It sometimes grows in tufts. The paper in which 
fresh specimens were wrapped was stained yellow. Boletus 
Braunii Bres. has an inflexed margin, but that is a much larger 
plant with a yellowish-brown pileus, a fibrillose stem and much 
smaller spores. 

PoLVPORUs ANXEPS. Effuso-reflcxed or resupinate, inseparable 
from the matrix, firm, subcorky but flexible, white ; pileus narrow, 
about 6 lines broad, laterally elongated or confluent, minutely 
<iowny, sometimes, rugosely pitted; pores muiute, subrotund, 
commonly 2 to 3 hnes long, the dissepiments obtuse; mycelium 
white, permeating the bark and wood. 

Dead trunk of hemlock, Tsiiga Canadensis. Stony Brook, 
Massachusetts. October and November. Prof. E. A. Burt. 

The plants are commonly resupinate, but sometimes reflexed, 
f"orming a narrow pileus about half an Inch broad but extending 
laterally for several inches. They are suggestive of the first year's 
growth of P, connatiis Fr., but they do not revive the next year, 
and they have a different habitat. Though differing somewhat in 
texture they are apparently related to such species as P. scmisupi- 
WIS and P. semipiteatus, and with them they serve to connect the 
genus Polyporus with the genus Porta, 



Sparassis Herbstii. — Plants much branched, forming tufts 4 to 
5 in. high and 5 to 6 in, broad, whitish, inclining to creamy-yel- 
low, tough, moist, the branches numerous, thin, flattened, con- 
crescent, dilated above and spatulate or fan-shaped, often some- 
^vhat longitudinally curved or wavy, mostly uniformly colored, 
farely with a k\x indistinct, nearly concolorous, transverse zones 



208 



I 



near the broad entire apices ; spores subglobose or broadly ellip- 
tical, .0002 to .00025 in. long, .00016 to .0002 broad. 



Trexlertown. August. Herbst. 



f/ 



but differs especially in its paler color, with no rufescent hues, in its 
much more branching habit and in the absence of any distinct 



zones. 



um 



2 in. or more in breadth, the basal part hard, thick, even and con- 
cave beneath, convex above and somewhat coarsely reticulate hy 
the bounding walls of broad shallow pits; stem 8 to lo in. long, 
gradually attenuated toward the base, hard, almdst woody, solid,, 
rough except at the top with rather coarse spreading or reflexed 
scales, brown externally, rusty-brown within; spores globose, 
ferruginous, .0003 in. broad; threads of the capillitium destitute 
of spiral thickenings. 

Plants commonly growing in tufts of 3 to 5 individuals. 

Dry sandy soil. Nevada. Collected by C. W. Irish; com- 
municated by Dr. Thomas Taylor. 

The single dried specimen from which, with notes kindly com- 
municated by the collector, the above description was derived,. 
was past maturity and destitute of any volva or exoperidium. 
The upper part of the endoperidium, which is apparently mem- 
branous, had nearly all disappeared, and but a mere remnant of 
the spores and capillitium remained. It is very unsatisfactory to 
attempt the description of a species from such imperfect data, yet 
the characters seen are so peculiar and distinct that I have been 
willing to strain a point in order to make this remarkable plant 
known. It does not agree rigidly with the characters ascribed to 
the genus Battarrea, differing apparently in the solid stem, the 

r 

absence of spiral thickenings in the capillitium threads and in the 
coarsely pitted subreticulate hymenial substratum, so that it might 
easily be taken as the type of a distinct genus. 

w 

The dried specimen has a strong, unpleasant odor, indicating 
its relationship to the Phalloideae, From the notes of Mr. Irish 
we learn that the long stem, which is about half an inch thick at 
the base and one and a half at the top, is almost wholly buried in 
the soil, and that the plants appear above the surface only in 
seasons after heavy snow falls, whose gradual melting has moist- 
ened the earth deeply. 



p 



209 



Tylostoma semisulcatum. Peridium subglobose, usually a little 
longer than broad, 6 to 8 lines broad, g lines long, glabrous above, 
ferruginous-tomentose on the lower half; ostiolum entire, stem 
equal, about 2 in. long, even and glabrous or but slightly furfur- 
aceous on the upper part, the lower part longitudinally sulcate, 
whitish; spores ferruginous, globose, .000i6 to .0002 in. broad; 
threads of the capillitium colorless, not septate. 

Sandy soiU Nevada. Collected by C. W. Irish; communi- 
cated by T. Taylor. .. . . , 

This species is separated from 7! 7na)n)nosum Fr. by its peri- 
dmm, which is tomentose on the lower half and' not depressed, and 
by its stem, which is distinctly furrowed'ih its lower half. 

LvcoPERDON Bellii. Peridium about 2 in. broad, subglobose, 
sessile, grayish or yellowish-brown, exterior peridium continuous, 
adorned with numerous persistent hard angular irregular or sub- 
stellate warts which are smaller toward the base, separable at ma- 
turity from the inner peridium and falling away in flakes or patches; 
the inner peridium thinner, paler, glabrous; capillitium composed 
of long slender interwoven, slightly colored and occasionally 
branched filaments, a little broader than the diameter of the spores; 



0002 



Rocky ground. Digges Island, Hudson's Bay. August. Col- 
lected by R. Bell; communicated by Prof J. Macoun. 

This puff-ball is peculiar in its continuous but warty exterior 
peridium, which is less friable than that of Z. S£parans, The peri- 
aium appears to rupture irregularly, as in Calvatia. It is also well 
marked by the dark olive-brown spore mass. 

ExciPULiNA OBSCURA. Perithecia cupulate, >{ to ^ line broad, 
sessile, black, the margin at first incurved, then erect, thin ; hyme- 
nium subgelatinous; spores subfiliform, curved, plurinucleate or 
obscurely pluriseptate, hyaline, .0012 to .0018 in.* long, .00016 
broad, supported on short sporophores. 

Bark of hemlock trees. Tsusra Canadensis. Newfoundland, 
"'aghorne. . - - ■ • 

. Melasmia imitans. Perithecia hypbphyllous, membranous, 
variable m size and shape, commonl)^ subelliptical or oblong, some- 
^^'hat confluent in nerve-following lines, rugosely uneven, black, 
opening irregularly ; spores subcylindrical, straight or nearly so, 
colorless, sometimes obscurely plurinucleate, .0008 to^^.ooi2^in, 

'*^^S, .OOOl6'fo .c\c\c\9. hrond oozinfy out and forn 



or irregular masses or short thick tendrils. 



ing pallid globu- 



1 

4 
"J 



210 



Lower surface of living fronds of F/iris aqtiilina. California, 

r 



M. A. Howe. 



pt 



appearance, and might easily be supposed to be the conidial state 
of it. The lines of the perithecia are more narrow and less prom- 
inent. The masses of discharged spores are rather large and very 
numerous and partly conceal the black perithecia beneath them. 

-L 

Caeoma aberrans. Pustules suborbicular, slightly elevated, 
•5 to I line broad, at first covered by a whitish membrane which 
finally disappears revealing the mass of orange-yellow spores; 
spores subglobose or elliptical, smooth or nearly so, .0007 to .0009 
in. long. 

Bark of living alder. Newfoundland, May. Waghorne. 

This fungus is peculiar in its habitat. The spores do not easily 
separate from each other, but possibly this is due in some measure 
to immaturity, 

Aspergillus subgkiseus. Grayish; sterile hyphae creeping; 
fertile erect, continuous, simple, .0003 in. thick, terminating above 
in an inflated subglobose vesicle ,0012 to .0,016 in. broad; sterig- 
mata none or obsolete; spores globose, .00016 in. broad. 

On Corticiitm amorphwn, Newfoundland. Waghorne. 

This species is separated from the related A, griseus by its 
larger spores, continuous fertile hyphae and by the absence of 
distinct sterigmata. 

Leptoglossum latum. Club 3 to 6 Hnes long, nearly or quite 
as broad, soft when moist, rather fragile when dry, compressed 
and somewhat irregular, black ; stem about as long as the club, 
black; asci clavate-cylindrical, .0045 to .005 In. long, about .0005 
broad, 8-spored; spores crowded in the ascus, oblong or cylindri- 
cal, straight or slightly curved, continuous, obtuse, colorless, .001 
to .0016 in. long, .0002 to .00024 broad; paraphyses colored, 
thickened at the top and sometimes recurved. 

Sandy soil. Labrador. September. Waghorne. 

A species very peculiar in its broad compressed club. The 
colored paraphyses are conspicuous under the microscope. They 
project slightly above. the surface of the receptacle and give it a 
soft, almost velvety appearance. 

Valsa brevis. Pustules numerous, rather prominent, peri- 
thecia 10 to 20 or more in a pustule, nestHng in the inner bark; 
ostiola even, black, barely emerging from and dotting or oblitera- 



■_' 









211 



ting the orbicular or elliptical erumpent subpulverulent disk; asci 
.0008 to .001 in. long; spores allantoid .00024 to .0003 in. long. 

Bark of balsam fir, Abies balsamca, Labrador. Waghorne. 

This fungus is allied to but differs from Valsa Fnesii in its 
larger pustules, more numerous perithecia and shorter asci and 
spores. The color of the disk is grayish or grayish-green. 

Hygrophorus nigridjus. Pileus fleshy, convex, obtuse or 
subumbonate, glabrous, grayish-brown or black-brown, often a 
little darker in the center, flesh white; lamellae distant, decurrent, 
white; stem rather slender, solid, brownish, white at the top; 
spores elliptical, .0004 to .0005 i"- long, .00024 to .0003 broad. 

Pileus I to 2 in, broad; stem i to 2 in. long, 2 to 4 lines thick. 

Gregarious or rarely two or three united at the base. Pine and 
fir tree woods. Prince Edwards Island. October and November. 
J. MacSwain. 

This fungus differs from H. caprbius Fr. in its smaller size; 



or 
fc> 



labrous pileus and larger spores. A description ol it was pub- 
lished in the Country Gentleman of November 29, 1894, but one 
is'here given that it may be more readily accessible to mycologists. 
In many of the foregoing descriptions I have been obliged to 
give the colors indicated by the dried specimens. It is not likely 
therefore that they will in all cases agree rigidly with the colors of 
the fresh plant. 



Hypericum boreale (Britton) and related Species. 



By Eugene P. Bicknei.l. 



At York Harbor, Maine, Hypcriatm Canadcnse L. abounds, 
presenting itself in varying forms ; Hypericum //w/z/j (Gray) Britton 
frequently grows with it, either strongly typical or with aberrant 
tendency; Hypericum mutilum L. is common also. 

• More characteristic of the region, however, than any of these 
Js a small species, which grows in abundance in open situations, 
about the muddy borders of pools or in moist sandy soil, and 
shows some interesting lines of variation. Some fragmentary 
specimens, collected in 18S8, were pronounced by Dr. Britton to 



212 



* * 



. sJ 



d i _ 

be the little known Hypericum Canadcnsc var. mmimnvi^^^ a plant 
which had never been well understood, but whichj on account of 
its narrow leaves, had been associated unhesitatingly with H. 
Canadc7ise. Now, however, the study of a full series of specimens, 
collected at York Harbor in August, shows clearly that, though 



in one of its forms the plant certainly bears a strong general re- 



semblance to forms of H. Caiiadcnse, its real affinity is with H. 

r 

-I 

r 

miftibmi, to which, indeed, it is nearly allied. Certain noteworthy 
differences, however, forbid its direct reference to that species, 
and give it an identity which is unmistakable when once the plant 
is understood. These differences, moreover, prove to be constant 
ov^er a wide area; at least there is nothing to discredit them in 
specimens which show the plant to have an extensive distribution, 
ranging along the coast and islands of Maine into Nova Scotia, 
and westward through Canada. That it also extends southward 
in the mountains is attested by a specimen from Luzerne county, 
Pennsylvania, and one from ah deviated station in northern New 
Jersey. - . 

It is to be noted of this New Jersey specimen that it shows a 
n'ear approach to viutibtm and may, perhaps, be taken as presump- 
tive evidence that the tAVo plants intergrade. If such be the fact, 
however, it is, after all, only a part of the complementary fact that 
elsewhere the same plants have reached a condition of complete 

4 

separation. The sub-species of one region has become a full 
species elsewhere in its range. 

In cases such as this of complete differentiation in one region, 
how are w^e to deal with intergradation in another? It is practicable 

-^ 

to recognize a plant at the same time as a variety and as a species 
according as to whether it occurs in one or in another part of its 
habitat? . It can only be said that if this condition of things 
exists in nature we cannot refuse to recognize it, and shall have to 
adjust our methods to it as best we may. But while we cannot 
dissect the facts of nature too delicately for certain purposes of 
botanical study, for other, more general purposes, we can often 
reach better practical results with duller tools. For general pur- 

*Dr. Britton has since shown that the name mhiimum of Choisy is not properly 
pplicable to this plant, and has therefore designated it Hypericum. Canadensexixv. 
boreale. Bull. Torr. Club, iS : 365. 1891. 



I 



t 

4. 



21 



o 



poses, therefore, what shall be our practice in cases similar to the 
one before us ? The older idea would appear to have been, Some- 
where a variety, everywhere a variety ; with equal, as it seems to 
me with better reason, it may be held. Somewhere a species, every- 
where a species ; that is to say, everywhere where individuals 
■of such a regional species are found upholding the characters 
which distinguish their type in the region of its perfect em- 
■ancipation. Let intermediates be frankly accepted as inter- 
mediates, not feared or avoided as elements of confusion or as 
being necessarily prejudicial to this or that otherwise unexcep- 
tionable '* species "; let them be sought for and studied ; in time we 
may come to learn from them, in one case perhaps, that they re- 

■- _ ■ V 

present weakening links between diverging forms; in another. 



that they afford indices to old relationships; in yet another, it 
maybe that they mark the first steps in a union of two allied 
species into a broader single one. 

Upon these views the plant here defined is named with specific 
rank as Hypericum boreale (Britton). The conceptions of other 
botanists may require them to write Hpcricum mutilum boreale, or, 
if even more conservative, Hypericum mutilum var. boreale. In 

E 

any case, the fact of nature sought to be expressed is the same. 

"Hypericum boreale (Britton). From i-i8 in. high, mostly 
3-8 in.; stem obscurely quadrangular to terete, upright from an 
^ssurgent, or reclined and rooting base, rarely erect from the i-oot, 
simple or cymose-branched. Main stem-leaves from elliptic- 
iinear to narrowly oblong and elliptic-oblong, or one or two 
pairs in the cyme sometimes slightly broadened to a sub-clasping 
l>ase, those of the lower part 'of the stem much reduced and 
crowded, oval to short-oblong, at the very base of the stem some- 
times thickened and transformed into small lanceolate overlapping 
scales. The small form of the plant which has been known as 
H. Canadensc var. miniimnn, has a simple stem, leafy-cymulose at 
the top, bearing many pairs of nearly linear or linear-oblong leaves, 
sometimes no larger than 3"-4"x \". Another small form has 
^ewer short-oblong obtusely rounded, small leaves, mostly nar- 
rowed to the base, but the pair which subtends the cymule some- 
times broadened and sub-clasping. Larger plants may be cymose- 
branched, even from the base, with narrowly oblong or 
elliptic leaves reaching an extreme size of i6"x3" °'" 4 • 
Cymes leafy-bracted throughout, varying from very simple and 
few-flowered to compound and contractedly many-flowered. 
Bracts foliaceous throughout, oblong to linear, obtuse. Sepals 



-A 



214 



linear to oblong-linear, obtuse. Flowers about 2^'^ broad. Cap- 
sules 2' -21^'' long by i''-i i/'' broad, oblong, rounded or abruptly - 



contracted to the apiculate apex, membranaceous and strongly 
cross-wrinkled, the exposed portion deep purplish in color almost 
from the first, and conspicuously exceeding the sepals. Seeds rela- 
tively large, .03 inch long, linear, 3-5 times longer than broad, pale, 
strongly longitudinally furrowed and muiutely cross-lined, under 
the microscope suggesting a miniature ear of corn."^ 

As compared with boreaky mntiluui, though having sometimes 
the assurgent base of the stem, is commonly erect from the root^ 
the stem distinctly quadrangular, the stem-leaves, which reach an 
extreme size of 14' x ^7^', are throughout larger and much broader, 
and vary in shape from ovate-orbicular to ovate-oblong, often 
gradually narrowed from the broadly-dilated base to the obtuse 
tip, sometimes oblong, but always with a broad sub-clasping base; 
5-7-nerved, thin and much reticulated instead of thicker and often 
3-nerved, with the reticulation sparse, obscure or wanting; the 
cymes more compound and delicately dichotomous, with minute 
and setaceous Instead of leafy bracts ; the capsule smaller, evea 

T 

only half the size(l'-2^'x Yz^-V^ mostly ovoid- or oblong-conicaK 



often but little exceeding the sepals, commonly greenish or, in age^ 
greenish-purple, instead of early deep purple ; the seeds smaller, 
oblong, only 2-3 times longer than broad, yellowish-brown and 
shining instead of dull whitish, very minutely cross-wrinkled, not 
furrowed, but sometimes indistinctly striate. 

The seeds of borcale^ while differing strikingly from those of 

r 

mutihiDi, resemble somewhat those of Canadcnse, which, though 

■ ■ — ' ■ — ^— ^ - — - 

♦Besides the York Harbor series, specimens of Hypericum boreale have been 
examined, as follows: 

Somcsville,- Mount Desert Island, Maine, Aug. 25, 1890, Edward L. Rand. 
Prince Edward's Island, Aug. 2, 1SS8, John Macoun. 
St. John':, Newfoundland, Aug. 6, 1894,' B. L. Robinson and H. Schrenk. 
Notre Dame du Lac, Termiscouta Co., Canada, Aug. 13, 18S7, John I. Northrop. 
■ •' Vermont." 

■ w 

Lily Lake, Luzerne Co., Pa , Aug. 16, 1889, John K, Small. 

Morris Pond, New Jersey, Sept. 11, 1890, N. L. Britton, 

This last is the apparently intermediate speci.r.en already referred to. It is the 



only example seen in which there are any minute bracts in the cymes. 

Hooker's description of H, qidnqiienerviiim of Walter, in Fl. Bor. Am.i: 
no, clearly refers to H, boreale, as here defined, and as clearly excludes true IL 
mutihifu, of which qiiinqnenervium is a synonym. The habitat of the pknt is given 
as ** Canada to Lake Winipeg. Dr. Richardson. Frecj^uent in upper Canada." 



F 



p 



215 

shorter, are of the same pale color, and are evidently striate 
striate-angled, hon-ever, rather than furrowed. The seeds of //uzjus 
prove to differ from those of Canadensc in respect of size, color and 
surface character, much as those of imitUinn differ from those of 
boreale. The broad-based leaves of maJ7is and jnntihim here comes 
to mind and suggests a sort of parallelism between Canadensc and 
viajus on the one hand and boreale and niutUum on the other. 

It may be noted that majus has the smallest and narrowest 
seeds of the entire series; boreale, the smallest plant of all, having 
the largest seeds. 

The relationship between Canadense and boreale needs no ex- 
tented comment. It is true that from the leaves alone some 
forms of each plant would scarcely be regarded as different* but 
the character of the inflorescence of each is perfectly destinctive: 
Canadense will be found io differ constantly in its more strict and 
compound, minutely bracted cymes, with more or less tapering cap- 
sules and calyx lobes. 

It has just been said that forms of Canadense cannot by the 
leaves alone be separated from forms of boreale. This is equally 
true of majns. All three species assume in some of their states a 
narrowly oblong form of leaf which is practically the same in all. 
In specimens of majns, however, which exhibit this form of leaf, 
the other distinctive characters remain unimpaired : it maintains 
the large pod, long tapering sepals, and characteristic seeds. Not 
so, however, Canadense, In the oblong-kaved form collected at 



J 



York Harbor, there Is a general difference also in the inflor- 
escence and capsules ; the cyme is less strict and more delicately 
branched, even becoming somewhat diffuse, and the :short-pedi- 
celled capsules are more numerous and crowded, and only about 
half the usual size, \"~2" instead of 2"-l" long; the seeds also 
take on a darker color, and seem to approach those of nmtiliim- 
Indeed, some examples of this form have much similarity to 
less branched forms of miitilum, and actually seem to be impli- 
cated somehow with that species. In fact, in the case of some 
immature specimens, it can scarely be said to which species they 
belong. 

Compared with fully typical Canadmse, this form presents a 
striking contrast, and in studying the group I have found it con- 
venient to label it vzx. parvicarpiim. 



216 



Further Remarks on Family Nomenclature, 



,1 ' 



By Dr. V. Havaru. 



* * * 



.It is generally admitted that the animal and vegetable king- 
doms cannot be classified on the same lines and divided into 
groups of the same value. Species and genera are nearly identi- 
cal in the two kingdoms, but as we rise above genera the similar- 
ity is less apparent and the higher we go the more doubtful be- 
comes the analogy between the groups, so that near the summit 

■ 

of the scale no comparison is possible^ This is due to the great 
dissimilarity in the nature of the organisms, the infinitely more 
numerous and varied functions of animals and the greater diffi- 
culty of ascertaining their natural relationship. From these con- 
siderations it follows that the application to both kingdoms of one 
uniform and identical nomenclature is impracticable; but, were it 
Otherwise, the desirability of different and distinctive endings 
would still be manifest. 

r 

Zoologists appear to have reached a satisfactory uniformity in 

r 

the terminations of the names of their principal groups. As 
early as 1845, the Association of American Naturalists, -convened 
at New Haven, adopted the following proposition : 

. "It is recommended that names of families should end uni- 
formly in idae and sub-families in viae,'' 

These endings were then in general use; they were confirmed 



.■-\- ' ^ 






h. 
*_ 

{- 



F"* 



at the meeting of the A. A. A. S., in .1877, and are now invaria- 

X _ 

bly accepted. The name of the family or sub-family is akvays that 
of one of its genera with the above endings. It is to be noticed, 
however, that animal families usually contain but few genera, not 
rarely only 2 or 3, often only 3 to 5, and seldom more than 10 or 

■ 

■ ■ 

15. Perhaps they might be more correctly assimilated to botani- , 
cal tribes. The term trilye appears to be very seldom used by 
zoologists, the name of the group intermediate between the fam- 
ily and genus being mostly siib-fcvnily in inae. 

■ A cause of confusion, as pointed out by Mr. L.M. Underwood in 
the March Bulletin, is the variable conception of order, being con- 
sidered^.by phanerogamic botanists a synonym oifandly, while, by 
zoologists and the majority of cryptogamists, it is applied to the 



217 



next higher group above family. It seems to me that a desirable 
step in the direction of uniformity would be taken if all botanists 
would, in this regard, conform to the usage of zoologists; for, al- 
though we need not strive after similarity of nomenclature in the 
two kingdoms, yet we should avoid, so far as practicable, the use 
of the same appellations with a distinctly differeut meaning. 

The termination in aceae is the one now generally accepted by 
botanists for family names. It is strictly in accordance with good 
Latin and otherwise unobjectionable. The vexed question is, 
can it and must it be applied in all cases? A. de Candolle in his 

"Laws of Botanical Nomenclature" (1867) establishes three ex- 
ceptions : ■ ■ . 

1st. When the genus from which is derived the family name 
ends in zx or is (genitive ids, idis or iscis) the termination iceae, 
tdcae or iiieae is admitted : Salicineae, Berberideae, Ta.maris- 

CIXEAE. 

2d. When the genus from which the family name is derived has 

■ 

a name of unusual length, and there is no tribe founded upon it^ 

the termination \n cae is admitted: Dipterocarpeae from DipUf- 
car pus, 

3d. For a few large families, named long ago, and now every- 
where known under their irregular names, the latter are main- 
tained : Cruciferae, Legumixxosae, Guttiferae, Umbelliferae, 
CoMPosiTAE, Labiatae, Cupuliferae, Coniferae, Pal.mae, Gram- 

INEAE. 

These exceptions, when formulated, expressed the best con- 
servative usage of the day, but it is apparent they have lost much 
of their strength and I doubt whether their illustrious author 
would now insist upon the first two. The first has long since 
been disregarded ; thus in Gray's Manual, as well as in Pflanzen- 
familien and Baillon's Histoire des Plantes, we have Salicaceae, 
Berderidaceae, Plantaginaceae, Okchidaceae, Amaryllida- 
ceae, etc: The length of the name is a point upon which we 
need not dwell ; so long as a name is correctly constructed the 
number of syllables cannot be of much moment; thus in Baillon's 
Histoire we have Dipterocarpacees and Cextrolepidacees, and 
in Pflanzenfarailien, Potamogetonaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, etc. 
^t is therefore obvious that whenever the name of a family is de- 

I 



\ 



I , 
i 

i 

r! 



i 



I 



218 



rived from that of a genus the termination in aceae is applicable 
ivithout exception. 

The third exception presents serious difficulties. Here the 
family name is descriptive^ that is, not based upon a genus but 
derived from some structural characteristic. Can the ending aceae 
be applied to it? This ending (from akos or acics) is an adjective- 
suffix, and therefore only appHcable to a substantiv^e, ^. ^. : rosa, 
rosaceiis ; liliiirn, liliaceus, &c., the e being inserted for reasons of 



enphony. 



ipositHS, conif 



\ - 



ertiSy legiiminosiis, graviinctis^ &c.), and such names as ComPOSITA- 
CEAE, CoNiFERACAE, &c., with tvvo adjective terminations, are 
obviously inadmissible. But it happens that all family descriptive 
names (Compositae excepted) are based upon a substantive {comis^ 
wnbclla.criix^ legumcn, labiuui, C2ipula,gra))icn,%ic,), so that we can 
replace the ordinary and variable adjective-ending by the uniform 
aceae and correctly form such family names as Conaceae, Umbel- 
LACEAE, Legumixaceae, practically equivalent to Coniferae, UiM- 
BELLiFERAE, Leguminosae. The principle was recognized by 
Linnaeus who adopted such descriptive names as Amentaceae, 
Papjlionaceae, Spathaceae, &c. 

But admitting, as we may, that Coxaceae and Leguminaceae 
are as correctly constructed as Rosaceae and Liliaceae, it is still 
true that, although with the same ending, they convey an entirely 
different meaning; the former are plants with con^s, bearing Xc- 
gumes, while the latter are plants like the Rose, similar to the 
Lily; the former imply the possession of a certain character, the 
latter imply similitude to a type genus. Clearly this is not admis- 
sible. The uniformity we are striving for must be not only in 
outward form but likewise in the mode of construction and in- 
ward meaning. 

We are thus forced to the conclusion that the ending aceae is 
inapplicable to the names under consideration, and that no change 
in their construction is possible or advisable. What is then to be 
done? Two alternatives offer themselves; Leave them alone, as 

r 

they have stood for several generations of botanists, or abolish 
and replace them by the first published generic names as proposed 
by Mr. Barnhart. The latter course will commend itself to all who 
think uniformity essential, and Is urged upon us by the example 



4 



r 



219 



of zoologists, but such a radical change will not be easily ac- 
quiesced in. In the case of zoologists, the" family usually contain- 
ing only few genera, it is comparati\'ely easy to adopt the name 
of one of them for that of the family, and, as a rule, the characters 
of the adopted genus will not as widely differ from those of the 
Other genera as, say, Fragaria does from Pmmis, Cassia from Tri- 
foliHut or Pimis from Ginkgo, so that such name is readily accept- 
able as representative of the family. It happens that the botanical 
families in question are among the largest of the vegetable world 
and it seems difficult to recognize Cassiaceae as the representa- 
tiv^e of all Legumixosae, and Ammiaceae as that of all Umbellif- 
ERAE. The difficulty would be lessened if botanists, instead of 
extending the boundaries of /amilies as has been the tendency in 
recent times, endeavored to restrict them to the lowest admissible 
limits, those, for instance, of sev^eral of our well defined suborders. 
I am not prepared to make a choice between the two alterna- 
tives. Perhaps a majority of botanists w^ould now prefer that the 
old familiar names be maintained. Be that as it may, a decision 

A V 4 

Will soon impose itself and, judging from the present trend of 
thought, at least in this country, it is safe to predict that long and 
honorable usage will eventually be sacrificed to the claims of 
uniformity and stability. 

If we admit the law that the family name must in all cases be 
based upon that of a recognized genus, we still have difificulties to 
surmount; what is a "recognized" genus? The comparative 
■instability of genera is well known ; authors do not agree upon 
their value and limitations ; should the family name be exposed 
to this insecurity? The danger of possible changes from that 
source is very much mitigated by A. De CandoUe's law : 

"An old genus name which has become the name of a section 



or species can be maintained as the radical oi a family name: 
Lentibulariaceae from Lcntilmlaria, Hippocastanaceae from 
Aescuhis Hippocastanum, Cakvophyllaceae from Dianthus Cary- 

ophyllus, etc." ■ 

Tf this law can be accepted by nomenclature reformers, their 
path will be made much smoother and we shall be the more readily 
inclined to follow them thereon. 



- ^ 



220 



v^ 



New or noteworthy North American Phanerogams.— IX 



By N. L. Brixton. 



Carex Baileyi Britton, n. sp, - ■ 

Carex taitac2iIataYd.^.gracilis^oo\X,\\\,g^. i860. Not C. gra- 
cilis R. Br. 

^ - 

Carex liirida var. gracilis Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, i : 11. 1 889. 

, After observing this plant over a wide range of territory for 

several seasons, I have concluded to propose it as a species. I 

obtained crucial proof of its distinctness from C hirida last 

autumn by finding the two growing side by side near Lake Placid,. 

N. Y. I think the following description will readily identify it. 

It affords me much pleasure to associate the name of my friend^ 

Prof. L. H. Bailey, with this very beautiful sedge. 

Glabrous, culms erect or reclining, very slender, minutely 
scabrous above, 1^-2° long. Leaves slightly scabrous, elongated,. 
i"-2" wide, the upper and the similar bracts exceeding the culm ; 
staminate spike solitary, short-peduncled ; pistillate spikes 1-3^ 
narrowly cylindric, very densely many flowered, all erect or as- 
cending, 9'^-2^ long, about 4^^ in diameter, the upper sessile, the 
lower more or less stalked; perigynia inflated, ovoid, 2^''-3'' 
long, ascending, abruptly contracted into the subulate 2-toothed 
beak, prominently several-nerved, the lower about equalling, the 
upper longer than the linear-subulate ciliate-scabrous scale ; 
stigmas 3. 

. In bogs, Vermont to Pennsylvania, Virginia and Tennessee 
along the mountains. 

Another species has recently been distributed as C Baileyi 
from the Herbarium of Harvard University, but no description of 
it has appeared, and I am informed by Dr. B. L, Robinson that it 
is, probably C Raeana Boott, in which conclusion I concur. 

: Carex Asa-Grayi hispidida (A. Gray) Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club, 
20: 427. 1893. 

Carex Grayi var. hispidida A. Gray; Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, 
i: 54. 1889. 

w 

The occurrence of trichomes on the perygynia in Carex, while 
a very strong character in some groups, is evidently a poor one In 
others. In the species under consideration it is so variable that 
it does not seem to me to warrant the separation of the proposed 






r 



221 



variety, especially as this does not appear to have other characters 

nor any well marked distribution as compared with the glabrous 
plant. 



W 



429. 1893. 



This is another species Avhose perigynia vary from glabrous 
to quite densely pubescent. Professor Bailey has proposed (loc. 
cit.) a variety brevis for those with glabrous perigynia. I find the 
pubescence exceedingly variable; it is true, as he remarks, that the 
northern plants tend to have no pubescence, while the southern 
ones have a great deal, but I have New Jersey specimens in which 
the perigynia are hairy at the base and South Carolina specimens 
whose perigynia are very nearly glabrous. Under these circum- 
stances I see no desirability of separating the northern plant as a 
variety. 

Carex bullata Schk. A form of this species with solitary 
long-stalked spreading pistillate spikes is collected by Mr. Light- 
hipe at Sand Hills, Middlesex Co., N. ]. It was erroneously 
recorded in my Catalogue of Plants found in New Jersey as C 
<^^/t;72, which, after an examination oi several authentic specimens, 

r 

I refer with confidence to C, moftile, 

Carex Hartii Dewey Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) 41 : 226. i865. 
Carex retrorsd van Hartii K, Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 600. 1867, 
Examination of a considerable suite of specimens convinces me 
that this is a species distinct from C, retrorsa. I append a descrip- 
tion : 

Glabrous, culms very slender, smooth or very slightly scabrous 
above, -erect or reclining, i^^-2>^^ long. Leaves elongated, 
rough on the margins and lower side of the midvein, 2'^-3^^ wide, 
the upper and the similar bracts much overtopping the culm; 
staminate spikes I or 2, the lower sometimes pistillate at the base, 
borne on a stalk .^^'-l' long ; pistillate spikes 2-4, scattered, rather 
loosely many-flowered, the upper sessile, the lower slender-stalked, 
J'-2^ long, about j^^ thick, all erect or ascending; perigynia in- 
flated, ovoid-conic, spreading or the lower somewhat reflexed, prom- 
inently few-nerved, about 3'' long, gradually tapering into the long 
2"toothed beak, 2-3 times as long as the lanceolate acute or acum- 
inate scale ; stigmas 3. ' , 

In marshes, Ontario to central New York (and Pennsylvania?) 

west to Michigan. 



009 



Carex atratiformis Britton. 

"C^zn-.r -?r/^/a Rudge, Trans. Linn. Soc. 7 : 96.//. g. 1804. Not 

Burm. 

Carex atrata var. ovata Boott, 111, 114. 1892, 

This plant appears to me constantly different from the Euro- 

- V - ' 

pean C, atrata; I characterize it is as follows: 

Glabrous, culms very slender, erect, sharp-angled, scabrous 
above, 8^-2^ tall, leafy only below. Leaves smooth or but 



slightly scabrous, i^'-l^'' wide, rarely over 6' long, much shorter 



i 



than the culm ; spikes 2-5, dense, oblong or oblong-cylindric, 4 
12^^ long, about 2^" in diameter, the terminal one usually stami- 
nate at the base and sessile or nearly so, the others filiform- 
stalked and drooping when mature ; lower bracts ^'-i^' ^o^g' 



very narrow, the upper ones subulate ; perigynia flattened, ovate 
or nearly orbicular, puncticulate, ascending, about i'' long, tipped 
w^ith a very short minutely 2-toothed beak ; scales reddish -brown, 
oblong, obtuse or subacute, slightly narrower than and about 
equalling the perigynia ; stigmas 3. ■ 

Newfoundland to the mountains of New England, west to the 
Northwest Territory. 

*^ Carex stricta xerocarpa (S. H. Wright). 

Carex xerocarpa S. H. Wright, Am. Journ. Sci. (n.)42: 334, 
1866. ■ ^ 

■ 

.This appears to me to be a very well marked variety, if not a 
species distinct from C. stricta Lam. The pistillate spikes are 
almost filiform, loosely flo\vered and about \" in diameter. Be- 
sides original specimens collected in central New York by the 

describer of the species, I have it from Illinois, collected by J. 
Wolf. " 

Carex Haydeni Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) i8: 103. 1854. 

Carex aperta Carey in A. Gray, Man. 547. 1848. Not Boott. 

Carex stricta var. decora Bailey, Coult. Bot. Gaz. 13: 85. 1888. 

Professor Bailey has shown that the plant referred to C. aperta 
Boott, in the earlier editions of Gray's Manual, is not the same as 
the species of the Northwest to which the name was originally 
applied. I am confident that it is specifically distinct from C. 
stricta. I refer it to C. Haydeni with hesitation, although exam- 
ination of an Immature authentic specimen indicates that this name 
may be correctly applied to it. The species maybe characterized 
as follows : - . .. 



223 



Glabrous, similar to C, stricta but smaller, culm slender, scab- 
rous above, seldom over 2^ high. Leaves i^'-iy^*' wide, rough- 
margined, shorter than or sometimes overtopping the culm, their 
sheaths slightly or not at all fibrillose ; lower bract foliaceous, about 
equalling the culm; staminate spikes linear-cylindric, 6'^-i S^Mong, 
about 2'' in diameter, erect or somewhat spreading, all sessile 
or nearly so, sometimes with a few staminate flowers at the sum- 
mit: penVynia orbicular, obtuse/about 



y^ 



nerved, minutely beaked, the orifice entire ; scales lanceolate, 
purplish, spreading, very acute, about twice as long as the peri- 
gynia ; stigmas 2, 

In swamps. New Brunswick to Western Ontario, south to 
Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Nebraska. 

Carex costata Schweln. Ann. Lye. N. Y. i : ^y. 1824. Not Presl, 
1819. 

Car ex vircsccns var. costata Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. g: 260, 
1825. 

My observations on this plant lead me to believe it constantly 
different from C, virescens Muhl. As the name applied to it by 
Schweinitz has been used before, I propose for it ^ Carex costel. 
LATA and give its characters as follows; 

Similar to C. virescens but taller and more spreading, culms 
slender, i°_2i^o Xo^xg. Leaves \)A"-2" wide, pubescent, espe- 
cially on the sheaths, shorter than the culm, the upper one and the 
similar lower bract sometimes overtopping the spikes; spikes 2-5, 
-narrowly cylindric, many-flowered, rather loose, ^'-1%' long, 
^¥2" in diameter, erect or slightly spreading, the terminal one 
staminate below, the lower one commonly filiform -stalked ; peri- 
gynia oblong, densely pubescent, narrowed at each end, strongly 
several-ribbed, i" long, rather more than i^'' thick, beakless, the 
orifice entire; scales ovate, scarious-margined, acuminate or 
<^uspidate, shorter than the perigynia ; stigmas 3. 
- In woods, Maine and Ontario to North Carolina, chiefly alon 
the mountains. 

•^Allioma Bushi n. sp. Low, glabrous, somewhat fleshy; stem 
nearly White, diffusely branched, about 8' high, the branches 
slender, widely divergent; leaves narrowly linear, sessile, 1-3' long, 

yi" wide, blunt, their width almost uniform from ba 



<y 



fc> 

base to 



^pex ; involucres clustered at the ends of the branches, at first 
campanulate and longer than the flowers, at length rotate and be- 
■coming 10" broad, membranaceous, pubescent, finely reticulate- 
veined, their 3 short lobes semi-circular, rounded, the mid-veins 



i 

! 
-I 



prominent. 



224 



- In dry ground. /Jackson county, Missouri, August, 1893. 

B. F. Bush: - 

Resembles A. Bodini (Holzinger) Morong, which is much 
more slender, its involucres short-pedicelled in the axils, the lobes 

- I- * * - 

ovate-oblong and acute. . . ' ' . 



=*• 



Ranun'culus Alleghexieksis n. sp. 

Similar in aspect to R, abortivits and R. viicrantJms^ glabrous, 
stem widely branched, 1^-2^ tall. Radical leaves reniform or sub- 
orbicular, 6''-2' wide, long-petioled, creriate or some of them 
lobed, the teeth and lobes subacute; stem leaves sessile or the 
lower petioledj divided nearly or quite to the base into linear acute 
entire toothed or cleft segments; flowers about 2'^ broad; petals 
oblong, glandular, not exceeding the calyx; head of fruit sub-glo- 
bose or oblong, 2'' in diameter; receptacle linear, about 2'' long, 
pubescent; achenes slightly compressed and margined, tipped with 
subulate hooked or recurved styles of about one-half their length- 
Mountains of Virginia and North Carolina. April-May. 

Brassica juxcea (L.) Cosson, Bull, Soc. Bot. France, 6: 609. 

1859.^ 

Sinapis jitncea L. Sp. PL 668. 1753. 

Annual, glabrous, somewhat succulent, stem erect, usually 
stout, 2^-4^ talL Lower leaves runcinate-pinnatifid and dentate, 
long-petioled, 4^-6' long, the uppermost sessile or nearly so^ lance- 
olate or linear, commonly entire, much smaller; fruiting racemes 
sometimes i^ long; pods erect or nearly so on slender ascending 
pedicels, not appressed to the axis, i'-2^ long, rather more than l'' 
wide, the conic-subulate beak one-fourth to one-third the length 
of the body. - , 

This plant has been sent to me from a number of points dur- 
ing the past three years and I have collected it twice myself. It 
seems to be fairly naturalized in some regions. As represented in 
the specimens examined, it is readily distinguished from B, Sina- 
pistnim Roiss. by the total absence of the hispid pubescence of that 
species and by its erect longer and subulate-beaked pods. 

In waste places. Southern New York and Pennsylvania to 
Michigan and Virginia, ' Adventive or naturalized from Asia. 
Also introduced into the West Indies and South America. 

Chimaphila Pursh. Additional proof of the non-publication 
oi Psroa Raf., as an older name for this iienus is to be found in 
Rafinesque's review of " A Manual of Botany for the Northern 



r 



225 



States, compiled by the Editor of Richard's Botanical Dictionary," 
Albany, 1817. The author of this work is reported to have been 
Prof. Amos Eaton. Rafinesque's review is printed in the " Ameri- 
can Monthly Magazine," i^ 426-430, September, 1817, where 



among his criticisms he remarks, " He (Eaton) h^s aot adpptt^d the 



ipliila 



Descriptions of new Leaves from the Cretaceous (Dakota Group) 



of Kansas.^ 



By Arthur Holuck. 



CPlates 236, 237.) 



t y 



lege 



During the past year one of the students f at Columbia Col- 
was engaged under my direction in overhauling and nam- 



ing the Dakota Group material in the Geological Museurn, with 
instructions to put aside all specimens which could not be satis- 
factorily identified. I take pleasure in saying that the specimens 
now under consideration were the only ones, except a. ^^w frag- 
nients not capable of being satisfactory determined, which he 
found necessary to thus separate; also to state that they appar- 
ently represent three species and one variety new to the horizon, 
and to give him credit for having recognized them as posessing 
characters different from those of any published plates or descrip- 
tions with which they could be compared. All are from the 
vicinity of Fort Harker, Kans. 

4 ^ 



Sassafras (Araliopsis) Lesq. 

This subdivision of the genus Sassafras was made by Lesque- 
I'eux to contain a number of leaves which might be classed with 
either Sassafras or Aralia. Their systematic position is yet prob- 
lematic, but they are included under the former genus in his post- 
humous Flora of the Dakota Group, edited by F. H. Knovvlton. 
{Monog. xvii. U. S. G. S., 1891.) - ' 



-\ 



^ 



Read by title at the meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences, February 



II, 1895. 



\ Mr. Chas. R. Pollard, now Assistant Curator of the National Herbarium. 



226 



Sassafras (Araliopsis) dissectum symmetricum n. var. 

(Plate 336.) . 

Differs from 5. {A.) dissectum Lesq. Cret. & Tert. FL 57; FL 
Dak. Gr. loi. //, 14. / /, in its symmetrical branching, especially 
that of the lateral primaries, which start from the base of the leaf 
exactly opposite to one another and fork at an equal distance 
above ; also in the fact that the blade of the leaf is not decurreut 
along the petiole, but ends at the point where the lateral primaries 
branch from the midrib. 

I was at first inchned to describe this as a i\^v^ species, but the 
imperfect condition of the upper portion of the specimen seemed 
to render this inadvisable, and its substantial agreement in essen- 
tial particulars with S. [A.) dissectum decided me to class it as a 
variety of that species. 



4 

^ 



CiSSITES HeER. 



r 

This genus was founded by Heer, to include leaves presumably 

^ 

allied to CissitSy but subsequently made by other authors to m- 
clude leaves having more or less resemblance to Vitis^ PlatantiSy 
Sassafras, etc. 

CiSSITES PLATANOIDEA n. Sp. 

w 
\ 

(Plate 237. f. 2.) 

Leaf symmetrical, 2^ in. long by 23^^ in. broad, sub-orbicular 
to fan-shaped in outline, abruptly decurrent at base, obscurely 
3-lobed; margin undulate or obscurely dentate ; nervation 3-pal- 
mate, craspedodrome ; midrib abruptly thickened below the point 
where the lateral primaries branch off, also to a lesser extent be- 
low the point where the upper secondaries branch off; secondaries 
clustered together in two pairs above the middle of the midrib, 
the upper pair extending to the margins, the lower pair merging 
gradually into the tertiary nervation, of which it may perhaps be 
considered to form a part; the latter forming polygonal meshes, 
well defined ; lateral primaries branched mostly from below, ob- 
scurely from above near the extremities and abruptly thickened 
below the point where the first secondaries branch off. 

This leaf is suggestive of species which have been described 



Sassafi 



Hi 



227 



'ifieldi 



these, and rather than erect a new genus I have decided to class 
it with Cissites and to indicate other characteristics in the specific 



name. 



Cissites acutiloba n. sp. 

(Plate 237. f. 3.) 

Leaf 2^ in. long by 2^^ in. broad, sub-orbicuiar in outh'ne, 
three lobed, lobes acute ; nervation 3-paImate ; lateral primaries 
long, almost equalling the midrib, somewhat incurved, margin en- 
tire. 

Differs from C. Harkeriamis Lesq., with which it is closely 
allied, in its more rounded outline, longer lateral primaries and 
acute lobes and apex. ' 



Protophyllum Lesq. 

* 

This genus was founded by Lesquereux to include certain 
leaves of an apparently synthetic type, some of which had been 
described under 'the genera Credncria and Ptcrospcrmites. The 
systematic position of the genus cannot yet be said to be defini- 
tely determined, although in Fl. Dak. Gr. /. c. it is classed in the 
Sterculiaceae. Whatever its systematic position may be there is 
no doubt that our species belongs to the genus as defined. 



Leaf 3 



Protophyllum querciforme n. sp 

(Plate 237, f. I.) 



ovate in outline, rounded above, more or less abruptly narrowed 
from middle to base, slightly acuminate at apex; margin undulate- 
dentate; nervation craspedodrome; lower secondaries relatively 
slender, crowded together, branching from the midrib at an obtuse 
angle; median ones stronger, more distant, branching from the 
midrib at a more acute angle, forked two-three times ; upper ones 
again slender and branching as before at a more obtuse angle; 
tertiary nervation uniform, slightly curved outward, simple, fine, 

and at right angles to the secondaries throughout. 

This leaf somewhat resembles P, Haydenii Lesq., but differs 
in its smaller size, narrowed base and more rounded apex. The 
superficial appearance suggests on^ of our broad leaved oaks, as 
* have indicated in the specific name. 



\ 



228 



In conclusion I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. 
F. H. Knowlton of the United States Geological Survey for criti- 
cisms and references in nomenclature and synonomy. - 



A Preliminary List of the Nortli American Species of Malpighiaceae 

and Zygophyllaceae. 

■■ By Anxa Murray Vaiu ' 



MALPIGHIACEAE. . 

TANUSIA A. Juss, Monog. Malp. 349.//. 21. 1843. 



Janusi. 
DrsTR. 



37. 1852. 
. Mexico. 



2. ASPICARPA Rich, m Mem. Mus. Par. 2: 398. //. /. 181 5. 
I. AspiCARPA HYSSoriFOLiA A. Gray, Eost Tourn. Nat. Hist. 6 : 



167. 1850. 

DlSTK^ T 



Mex 



2. AspiCARPA LONGiPES A. Gray, PL Wright, i: 37. 1852. 

DiSTR. Texas, New Mexico, southern Arizona and North 
Mexico. 

Very close to A. /lumiiis (Benth.), from which it differs mainly 
in its trailing, and decumbent habit and somewhat larger leaves.* 



3. THRYALLIS L. Sp. PL Ed. 2, 554. 1763. Not Tkryallis 

Mart. Nov. Gen. 3: jy, pi. 2jo, 2ji. 1829. 
Thryallis angustifolia (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 89. 1891. 

Galphimia angustifolia Benth. Bot. Sulph. 9. 1844. 

Galphimia linifolia A. Gray, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6 : 166. 
1850. 

DisTR. Western Texas to New Mexico, Lower California and 
Mexico. 

' Very variable. The broader leaved form is 

F 

Thryallis angustifolia obloxgifolia. (A. Gray.) 

Galphimia linifolia /? oblongifoUa A. Gray, PI. Wright, i : 36 
1852. It is found with the type and may possibly be' a species. 



* As^icr.rpa Hartwegiana K.. Juss. Arch. Mus. Par. 3: 598. 1843,15 a synonym 
of Gmidichaudia humilis Benth. PI. Hartw- 6. i%T,g, Jide Kew Index. ' 



r 



* 



229 



Malpi 



4. MALPIGIA L. Sp. PI. 425. 1753. 

GLABRA L. Sp. PI. 425. 1753. 



iSlI. 



Malpigia nitida Mill. Gardn. Diet. Ed. 8 : No. 5. 1768. 
DiSTR. Texas, Mexico, West Indies and South Amer 
BYRSONIMA Rich. & Juss. Ann. Mus. Par. 18: 481. 
BvRsoNiMA LuciDA (Svv.) H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 5: 147! 1821. 
MalpJiigia lucida Sw. Fl.. Ind. Occ. 852. 
DisTR. South Florida and West Indies. 



1800. 



ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. 

I. FAGONIA L. Sp. PL I'it. 1753. 

"*" Fagonia Californica Benth. Bot Sulph. lo. 1844. 
DiSTR. California, North and South Mexico. 

i 

2. GUAJACUM L. Sp. PI. 381. 1753. 
Guajacum Sanctum L. Sp. PI. 382. 1753. 

Gicajaciun "verticalc Ortega, Dec. 8: 93. 1800. 

Guajamm Sanctum V2.x. parvifoliian Nutt. Syh'a, 3: i/- 1849. 

DisTR. South Florida, Bahamas, San Domingo, Porto Rico, etc. 

3. PORLIERIA Ruiz & Pav. Prod. 55. //. g. I794- 
PoRLiERiA ANGusTiFOLiA (Engelm.) A. Gray, PI. Wright, i : 28. 



1852. . 



Giiajaciun angustifoliuni Engelm. Wisliz. Rep. 29. 1848. 



DisTR. Texas and North Mexico. 



t 



■ 

//. 18, ig. 1800. Not 



Larrea Orteg. Hort. Matr. Dec. 15.//. 2. IJ97. 
CoviLLEA divaricata (Cav.). 

r 

Larrea dlvarica'a Cav. Ann. Hist Nat. 2; 12 



tSoo. 



* Fagonia Californica glutinosa n. var. 

Somewhat stouter, the leaflets larger, the terminal one sub-rhomboid, the whole 
plant beset with sub-sessile, aromatic, gold-colored glands. 

Sonora, Mexico, Pringle (18S4) ; Los Angeles Bay, Lower California, Palmer 
No. 546 (18S7); ^ta. Rosalia Island, Palmer, Lower California (1S90). 

The above name appears on a sheet of Mr. Pringle's collection in Herb, Columbia 
College, and I have not been able to find any printed reference to it. 

f Named in honor of Frederrck Vernon Coville. 



2-30 



^phy 



1S24. 



Mode. Pl.Nouv. Am. ji.pl^S. 1833-1846. 



xm 



1848. 



DiSTR. 



Mexico 



Mexico and in the deserts of Chili. 

4 

' Careful examination does not reveal any characters that war- 
rant keeping the Mexican species distinct from the South American. 
The principal differences were found in the stamineal scale. The 
latter is a very variable organ, and three or four variations were 
found, not only on the same plant, but in the same flower.''' 



5. TRIBULUS L. Sp. PL 386. 1753. 

M * 

1. Tribulus cistoides L. sp. PL 387. 1753. 

DiSTR. Florida, Texas, Mexico, Lower California, West 
Indies and tropical America. - 

2. Tribulus terrestris L. Sp. PL 387. 1753. 

DiSTR, Ballast Grounds, Hunter s Point, Long Island, N.Y.; 
South Carolina, Mexico and Brazil. A native of Southern 
Europe, East Indies, etc. 



1^. 



V 



6. KALLSTROEMIA Scop.Introd. 212. 1777. 

1. Kallstroemia Californica (S. Wats.) 

Tnbidus Calif ornkns 5. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11 : 1 25 . 1876. 
•DiSTR. Arizona, North Mexico and Lower California. 

2. Kallstroemia grandiflora Torrey; A. Gray, PI. Wright, i : 28. 

1S52. 

Kallstroemia gmndifiora var. dctonsa A. Gray, PI. Wright, i : 
28. 1852. ■ 

1 

Tribulus grandiflorus Benth. & Hook. Gen.' PI. i : 264. 
1862^67. 

DiSTR. Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, California, North and 
South Mexico, Guatemala. 

3. Kallstroemia maxlma (L.) T. & G. Fl. N. A. i : 213. 1838. 

Tribulus maximus L. Sp. PL 386. 1753. 
Tribulus trijugatus Nutt. Gen. i : 277, 181 8. 



♦The other species are Covillea nitida (Cav.) and Covillea cuneifolia (Cav.)» 
both from South America, and described under Z^rr^^ in Cav. Icon. 6: 40-41- pJ- 
55%5(>o. 1 80 1. 






231 



Tridii/iisdeco/or Mad3idyen,Fl ]a.ma.\c. iS6. 1837. 
DisTR. Kansas, Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, Florida, Mexico, 
and common in tropical and sub-tropical America to Brazil. 

7- PEGANUM L. Sp. PI. 444. 1753. 

Peganum Mexicanum A.Gray, Pi. Wright, i; 30. 1S52. 2: 
106. 1853. 

DisTR. New Mexico and Mexico. 



The Genus Zenobia Don, 

L r 

In 1834 David Don published ''A New Arrangement of the 
Ericaceae/'* in which he separated a number of species from the 
large Linnaean genus Andromeda, creating at the same time sev- 
eral new genera in which the detached species were included. Of 
these additions, Cassandra {now Chamacdaphne), Cassiope and 
Lcucothoe have long been recognized as distinct; but Zenobia^ 



although it was taken up by Bentham and Hooker,! has been 
considered by Gray and later botanists only a subgenus q{ Andro- 
meda. I here propose to restore it to its original rank, thus pre- 
serving the arrangement of Don and of Hooker. 



ZENOBIA Don. 



r 

Calyx free, 5-lobed; corolla campanulate with 5 rounded 
lobes; stamens 10, on short basally dilated filaments; anther- 
cells elongated, 2-awned; stigma simple; capsule depressed-glo- 
bose, 5-angled, loculicidally 5-valved, many-seeded; seeds oval, 
with a spongy testa and fleshy albumen. Smooth or glaucous 
shrubs with somewhat coriaceous strongly reticulated leaves, and 



ary 



-^t 



Zenobia cassinefolia (Vent.). 

Andromeda cassinefolia Vent. Hort. Cels. i : Od. 1800. 

Andromeda nitida Sims, Bot. Mag.//, gyo. 1803. Not Bartr. 

Andromeda spcciosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i : 256. 1S03. 

Fruticose, glabrous throughout; leaves coriaceous, oblong- 
ovate, acuminate, irregularly serrate, the earlier obtuse, the later 
acute, length 5 cm., width 2.5 to 3 cm.: flowers in naked umbelli- 

Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. 17 : 158. 1834. 
t Genera Plantarum, 2: 587. 1S73. 



232 



form fascicles; corolla not deeply 5-lobecl, 6 to 8 mm. long; calyx 
spreading, its lobes acutely triangular. 

North Carolina to Florida. 
Zexobta pulverulenta (Willd). 



piilvemlcnta Willd. Sp. PI. 2 : 610. 1799. Bartr. 

pL 4-74. ^799' without synonymy or 



description. 



'da spcciosa x^x.pidvenilenta Michx. FL Bon" Am. i: 

256. 1803. 

Fruticose, glabrous and prominently glaucous throughout; 
leaves subcoriaceous, elhptical, entire or obscurely serrulate, 
slightly cuspidate, acute when young, becoming obtuse ; length 
5.5 to 6 cm., width 2.5 to 3' cm.; calyx somewhat campanulate, 
its lobes closely appressed to "the corolla, and with the peduncle 
glauco-pulverulent; corolla with lobes more acute than in cassine- 
folia. ' - ■ ; . , . 

Same range as the last, but less common. ■ - 

- This species was figured by Bartram,* who evidently considered 

it worthy of something more than varietal rank, although he did 

- 

not describe it, Michaux placed it under his Andromeda speciosa, 



.t 



^p 



4 

pulverulenta being only a variety, as I very frequently have seen 
intermediate varieties and even had the trace of both on one plant." 
While it is true that Z. pidvcndcnta exhibits a variable degree 
of glaucosity, there are other characters which, on careful examln- 
tion, serve to separate" it from casdncfolia. The calyx in the one 
case Is campanulate, inthe other spreading, with smaller lobes, the 
leaves are eUiptical, and not oblong-ovate ; and the peduncles in 
ptdvcruleiita are always prominently glauco-pulverulent, giving the 
plant a very distinctive appearance. It is also possible that the 
two species may hybridize, as they occur throughout the same 
range, and this would explain the various forms which Pursh 
claims to have seen on the same plant. 

' : Charles Louis Pollard. 



♦ Trav. X, & S. Car. and Georg. 1. c. 
\ FI. Am, Sept. 2 : 294. 1814. 



L"r 



233 



Botanical Notes. 

% 

NomcnclattiraL — A document has recently been issued from the 
herbarium of Harvard University, accompanied by a letter signed 
by the curator of that establishment, objecting to "the system of 
nomenclature adopted almost unanimously by the botanists of the. 
American Association for the Advancement of Science at meetings 
held in Rochester, N. Y., 1892; Madison, Wis., 1S93, and Brook- 
lyn, N, Y., 1894, and recorrimending certain rules as substitutes. 
It seems desirable that this document be brought before our botan- 
ists for their kindly consideration. 

■ 

The principles, or it may be better expressed, lack of princi- 
ples, which are here favored have» as a matter of fact, Seen most 
seriously considered by the American Association botanists for 
more than five years, and every one of them has been carefully 
weighed and found wanting in its application to a stable system ■ 
of nomenclature. The proposed rules have, indeed, been framed 
to support what has recently been fittingly termed the "discredited"' 
plan of nomenclature. Still it may be assumed that they will, 
receive a certain amount of support from plant collectors and 
physiologists, at least until more books shall have been issued 
based on the rules which have beetl proven by long trial in other 
branches of biological science to give nomenclature the stability" 
which is so necessary. The way for these has been paved by that 
magnificent work, the '' Silva of North America," the most ex- 

M L 

haustive and elegant botanical publication yet produced in our 
country; by several State and local floras; and by other papers 
too numerous to mention. The want of easily accessible descrip- 
tive floras, written on this very practical system approved by the- 
botanists of the American Association, is the only circumstance 
which retards its still wider adoption. There is every reason to- 
believe that these will soon be supplied. : 



^ -4 



^h 



234 



Proceedings of the Club. 

Tuesday Evening, April 9th, 1894 



Vice President Lighthope presided and there were 27 persons 

I 

present. 

The following persons were elected active members : Miss 
Alice M. Isaacs, Prof. E. S. Burgess, Miss Francis M. Chapin, Mr. 
John Dallas, Mr. Carl D. Schaeffer, Miss Adelaide Porter, Miss S. 
LeB. Drunim, Mr, Wm. C. Alpers, Miss Helen Parish, Miss Mabel 
Choate and Mrs. Hamilton Kean. 

Mr. Small, for the committee appointed to draft resolutions 
upon the death of Mr. Redfield, presented a report and submitted 
resolutions. The report was accepted and the resolutions adopted/ 
[The resolutions were printed with Mn Canby's biographical 
sketch of Mr. Redfield in the April Bulletin.] 



The announced paper of the evening, entitled *' Vallisneria 



spiralis^' was then read by Miss Effie A. Southworth. The paper 
consisted of an exhaustive review of the literature of this subject, 
some contradictory statements by different authors being con- 
trasted, followed by an account of the work which had been done 
by Miss Southworth looking tow^ard an explanation of such dis- 
crepancies, and the contribution of additional facts to our knowl- 
edge of this plant. 



\- 



Wednesday Evening, April 24TH, 1895. 

Vice-Presideat Allen In the chair and 29 persons present. 
Mr. John G. Block and Mr. John H. Stottler were elected 
active members. 

Dr. Britton exhibited specimens of last year's growth of Conopho- 
lis Amencana, found by Mr. Stottler on Staten Island, where it was 
apparently parasitical on an oak. He stated that several hundred 
plants were growing In this locality, comprising a patch about 10 
feet square. Mr. LIghthipe reported two collections of this plant 

I 

in the vicinity of Woodbridge, N. J., and was able to state that in 
one of the places there were only a few isolated plants. Dr. 
Rusby had collected the plant a number of times, but had always 



235 



r 

found but a few plants growing in one locality. He had also 
noticed this peculiarity in the case cf C Mexicana, Mr. \'an 
Sickle had found a patch of about 50 specimens growing upon the 
top of the Palisades. 

Dr. Britton called attention the 6th volume of Hough^s Wood 
Sections, which was now ready for distribution and to the publica- 
tion of Mr, Small's monograph on Polygonum ^nd exhibited copies 
of both. 

The announced paper of the evening was then read by Mr. H. 
A. Siebrecht, entitled *f Some Interesting Orchids of Cultivation." 
The paper was handsomely illustrated with living specimens in 
bloom. The paper dealt Avith the history of the earliest collec- 
tions and collectors of orchids, and traced the development of 
their cultivation up to the present time. Interesting facts concern- 
ing their native habits and the best methods of growing the dif- 
ferent classes were presented, and a discussion concerning their 
special habits of growth and fertilization was introduced. 



Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany. 

Atkinson, G. F. Additional Note on the Fungi of Blowing Rock, N. C. 



J 



10 : 78. 1894. 



Atkinson, G. F. Additions to the Erysipheae of Alabama. Journ. 
Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 10: 74-76. 1894. 

Atkinson, G. F. Comparative Study of the Structure and Function of 
the Sporangia of Ferns in the Dispersion of Spores. Proc. A. A. A. 
S. 42: 253' 254. 1894. 

Atkinson, G. F, Photography as an Instrument for Recording the ma- 
croscopic Characters of Microorganisms in artificial Cultures. Proc. 
A. A. A. S. 42 : 255. 1894. 

Atkinson, G. F. PreliLninary Note on the Relation between the sterile 
and fertile Leaves of Onoclea, Bot. Gaz. 19: 374, 375. 1894. 

Atkinson, G. F. Preliminary Note on the Swarm-spores of Pythium 

and Ceratiomyxa, Bot. Gaz. 19: 375-37^. 1S94. 
Atkinson, G. F. Some Septoriae from Alabama. Journ. Elisha Mitchell 

Sci. Soc. 10: 76-78. 1894- 
Atkinson, G. F. Symbiosis in the Roots of the Ophioglosseae. Proc. 
- A, A. A. S. 42 : 254, 255. 1894. 



236 



i 



fj 



Atkinson, G, F, The Study of the Biology of Ferns by the Collodiau 
Method. 8vo. pp. 134, /. i6j. London and N. Y., McMillan & Co, 

1894. ^ . ' '. 

Bailey, L. H. The Recent Apple Failures. Bull. N. Y. (Cornell) 
• Exp. Sta. 84: pp. 34./. p.//- i". Ja. 1895. ' . ,. 

Treats largely of apple scab, with colored plate. 

r 

Bailey, W. W. George Hunt. Bot. Gaz. 20: 176^ 177. 20 Ap. 

1895. , ' 

Bastin, E. S. Structure oi Epigaea repens. Am. Journ. Pharm. 67; 
231-236./. 1-3^ My. 1895. . '. 

Bolley, H. L. Distribution of Weed Seeds by Winter Winds. BuIL 
N. Dak. Exp. Sta. 17: 102-105. Mr. 1895. 

r 

Bolley, H, L. Effect of Seed Exchange upon Culture of Wheat. 
Bull. N. Dak- Exp. Sta. 17: 85-102. Mr. 1895. 

Blodgett, F. H. On the Development of the Bulb of the Adder's- 
■ tongue. Bot. Gaz. 20: 172-175.//. 14, 20 Ap. 1895. 

Boyer, C. S. A fossil marine Diatomaceous Deposit at St. Augustme^ 

+ 

Florida. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 171-174. 18 Ap. 1895. 

Britton, N. L. The Systematic Botany of North America. Bot. Gaz. 
20: 177-179. 20 Ap. 1895. 

. Announcement of assignments of groups to naonograpbers. 

Canby, W. M. John H. Redfield. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22 : 162- 
171. 18 Ap. 1895, * 

Sketch of life, with bibliography and portrait, . . 

Chodat, R. Polygalaceae novae vel parura cognitae. Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. 3: 121-135. Mr. 1895. 

Five new species of Polygala and fourteen of Monnina from Central £^nd South 
America are described. ' 

■ 

Coville, F. V. A Reply to Dr. Robinson's Criticism of the " List of 
Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta of Northeastern America." Bot. 
Gaz. 20; 162-167. 20 Ap. 1895.. 

Coville, F. V, Report of the Botanist U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture for 1S93. Rep. Sec. Agric. 1893: 235-244. 1S94. 

Deane, W. Notes from my Herbarium. 11. Eot. Gaz. 20: 150-154- 

20 Ap. 1895. 

Eastwood, A. Two Species of Aquilegia from the Upper Sonorari 
Zone of Colorado and Utah, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 4: 559-562- 
//. 18, i(p. 19 Mr. 1895. ' 

Aquilegia micrantka n. ^p. and A. eca Icar a ^a'Ed.stwood are illustrated and de- 
scribed. 



31 



237 



Forbes, S- A. Experiments with the Muscardine Disease of the Chinch 
Bug, etc. Bull. Ill, Exp. Sta. 38: 25-S6. //. 8. Mr. 1895. 

Sj>oro/ruAum W3.S cultivated lipon chinch bugs, and also equally as successfully 
upon a mixture of cornmeal and beef broth. 

Gardner, F. D. Corn Experiments. Bull. 111. Exp. Sta. 37 : pp. 24. 
F. 1895. 

Cross-fertilization— Effect of removing tassals. 

Greene, E. L, Novitates occidentales. — XII. Erythea. 3: 62-6S. 
I Ap, 1895. 

IS"e\v species in Floerkea^ CalyptrUiufn, Rumex^ Spiraea^ Eryngiufn^ Sanicula^ 
Erigeron^ Cladoihamnus^ F/iacelta, Cryptanthe^ Alimulus, Fritillaria, 

Greene, E. L. Phytographic Notes and Amendments. — I. Erythea, 

3: 53-57. I Ap. 1895. 
Hennings, P. Fungi Goyazenses. . Hedwigia, 34: 88-112. 8 Ap. 

1895. * 

- * 

Describes Fungi collected by Dr. E. Ule in Erazil, New species in Ustilago^ 
Uromyces^ Puccinia^ Cronartium^Ravenelia^ Uredo, Aecidium, A:.terina, Asterula^ 
Asteroma^ Dimerosporizim, Farodieiia, Meliola^ Ilypocreila, Uleomyces (n, g.), 
Ophiocerasy Tjadutia, Xylaria^ Fhyllachora^ Dothidclla and Tryblidium. 

KefFer, C. A. The Banksian Pine in the Nebraska Sand Hills. Gard. 

h * I- 

& For. 8: 152. i My. 1895. 
Kellerman, W. A. and Werner, W. C. Catalogue of Ohio Plants. 

Geology of Ohio, 7: 56-406. 1895. • * ' 

■ A list of plants of the state, citing distribution and known localities for the rarer 
species, prefaced by a bibliography. . . 

Kindberg, N, C- Check-list of European and North American Mosses. 
' Can. Rec. Sci. 6 : 17-23; 72-76. 1894. [Also reprinted.] 

Knobel, E. A Guide to find the Names of all wild-growing Trees 
and Shrubs of New England by their Leaves. Pamph. pp. 41. 1894, 

Knobel, E. Ferns'and Evergreens of New England. Pamph.//. ii. 

1895. 
Koehne, E. [Critical notes on certain shrubs and trees, many of 
them American.] Mittheil. Deutsch. Dendr. Gesell. 3 : [reprint, pp. 

7-] 1894. 

* 

Lodeman, E. G. Black Knot of Plums and Cherries. Bull. N. Y, 
(Cornell) Exp. Sta. 8i : pp. 24./ 6. N. 1804. 

Gives bibliography, manner which the fungus enters%e host, and method" of suc- 
cessful treatment. 

Lodeman, E, G. Some Grape Troubles of Western New York. BulL 
N. Y. (Cornell) Exp. Sta. 76: 4io-454-/- 6, N. 1894. 

Deals largely with fungous diseases, with figures and treatment. 



i-- 



V 



238 



Macoun, J. M. Contributions to Canadian Botany. — III. Can. Rec. 
Sci. 6: 198-210. 1895, [Cdntr. Herb. Geol. Survi Canada, IIL] 

"■ Record of numerous new localities and of several species additional to the Canadian 



flora. 

■- 

Meehan, T 
My. 1895. 

Meehan, T 



t 

Baptlsia tinctoria. Meehan' s Month. 5: 81, 82. //.j J 



John 



Moller, A. Brasilische Pilzblumen. Bot. Mitth. aus den Tropen, 7 : 

pp. 152.//. 8. 1895. , . 

Description and illustration of fungi in the genera /Vo/M^t^rfl!, Clathrus, Colus^ La- 

r 

ternea^ Blumenavia^ Aporophallus^ Mutinus^ liaja/iya, IthypJiallus and Dictyo- 
p/iora, 

Nash, G. V. Notes on some Florida Plants. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 

> ' n - ■ 

22: 141-161. 18 Ap. 1S95. 

New species in Heliantkemum^ Stipulicida^ Rhynchosia^ Rhexia^ Hieraciiini^ 
Asclepias, Breweria^ Persea^ Crotonopsis^ Nolina^ Xyris, Commeltna and Steno- 
phyllus, 

\ ^ , ■ ■ ■ 

Oliver, D. Tricholaena Monachyron, Hook. Icon. PL 24 : //. 2374. 
, Ap. 1895. 

A native of Cape Verde Islands introduced on St, Vincent. 

Pammel, L. H. Potato Scab and its Preventive. Bull. Iowa Exp. 
Sta. 27 : 120-130./. J. i895» 

Pammel, L. H. The Development of Fungi. Gard. & For. 7 : 248, 



249 



1894. 



Brief notes on Exodscus deformans and Monilia fructigena, 

Pammel, L. H. Vergiftung durch ^yasserschie^llng (^Cicitiavirosa 
van maculata^ Pharm, Rund. 13: 102-103./. I-4 My. 1895. 

Parish, S. B. Further Additions to the Flora of Southern California. 
Erythea, 3: 58-62, i Ap. 1895. 

Robertson, C. Flowers and Insects.— XIV. Bot. Gaz. 20: 139-149- 
20 Ap. 1895. 

Schmidle, W. Einige. Algen aus Denver, Colorado. Hedwigia, 34 : 
84, 85./^. 8 Ap. 1895. , . 

- Describes Cwot^Wmw mesochotidrion x\.t\i. 

Schneck, J. Observations on the Spider-flower. Bot. Gaz. 20: 16S- 
170./^. 20 Ap. 1895. ' r 

Notes on Cleome spinosa, . 

ShuU, G. H. Observations on Enslenia alHda^ Bot- Gaz. 20 ; 170- 



172. //. 13. 20 Ap. 1895. 



\ 



BULLETIN OF THE TORf^EY BOTANICAL CLUB. 



PLATE 236 




-^« 



i-rfii^ yii^i^f j™ri->4< -^j^Ef^^ct^^J^^^ 



i 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— BLATE 237. 




t 



1 



5 




1 




\ 



J 



3 



Fig I. PROTOPHYLLUM QUERCIFORME HOLLICK 



Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3. 



CISSITES PLATANOIDEA HOLLICK. 
CISSITES ACUTILOBA HOLLICK. 



Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College. 



[The numbers omitted from this list are out of print.] 
No. 4. A List of Plants Collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San Diego, Texas. ,»y 

N. L. Britton and H. H. Rusby (1SS7), ...:.. .^- .. 25 cents. 
No. 5. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams. By N» L. Britton 

(1888), . ; , ^ ,. 25 cents. 

No. 6. Ail Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby in South 

America, 1886-1887. By N. L. Britton. (Twenty-three parts pubh'shed; 
not yet completed.) 

No. 7. Th^ Genus Hicoria of Rafinesque. By N. L. Britton (18S8), . 25 cents. 
No. 9. A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at Fort Verde and in the 

Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, 1884-1888. By N. L. 

Britton. *. ■ ' 

The General Floral Characters of the San Francisco and Mogollon Mountains 

and the Adjacent Region. By H, H. Rusby (18S8), 25 cents. 

No. II. Preliminary Notes on the North American Species of the Genus Tissa^ 

Adans. By N. L. Britton (18S9), . 25 cents. 

No. 13. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, 11, By N. L. Button 

(1889), . ','.... 25 cents. 

No. 15. A Descriptive List of Species of the Genus HeticJiera, ^y Wm. F. Wheel- 

ock (1890), . 25 cents. 

No. 16. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, III. By N. L. Britton 

(1890), '. . 25 cents. 

No. 17, The Flora of the Desert of Atacama. By Thos. Morong (1891), . 25 cents- 
No. 20. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, IV. By N. L. Britton. 

(189I), ............ . . . ^ '. - . . . . 25 cents. 

No. 21. Notes on the North American Species of Eriocaulece. By Thos. Morong 

(1891), , . ... .•.-..... 25 cents. 

No. 22, New or Noteworthy North American Plianerogams, V. By N. 1*. BrifRm 

■ (1891), ^--.. . 25 cents. 

No. 24, Review of the North American Species of the Genus Xyffs, By Heinrich 

Ries (1892), . . . . . .25 cents. 

No. 25. A Preliminary List of the Species of the Genus Meihomia occurring in the 

United States and British America. By Anna M. Vail (1892), . 25 cents. 
No, 26, A List of Species oi the Genera Scirpus and Rynchospora occurring in Nortli 

America. -By N. L. Britton (1892), : 25 cents. 

No. 27, Note on a Collection of Tertiary Fossil Plants from Potosi, Bolivia. By N, 

L. Britton (1892), . . 25 cents- 
No. 29. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VI. By N. L. Britton 

(T892), . , . . 25 cents. 

No. 30. Ranunculus repens and its Eastern North American Allies. By N, L. 

Britton (1892), , 25 cents. 

No. 31. A Preliminary List of American Species of Polygonum. By John K. Small 

(1892), .,....;.. - - 25 cents. 

No, 33. A New Species of Listera^ with Notes on Other Orchids. BjrThos. Morong 

(1893), - ■ -* '• ....'•..- . 25 cents. 

No. 34. The N. American Species of Lespedeza. By N. L. Britton (1S93), 25 cents. 

No. 35. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. Thos. Morong in Paraguay, 

1 888- 1 890. By Thomas Morong and N. L. Britton, with the assistance of 
Miss Anna Murray Vail (1892-1893), . . .....'.. . . $i.SO 

No, 37. Further Notes on American Species of Polygonunu By John K. Small 

(1893), . . . ^ . .ascents. 

No. 2^^, New or Notewortliy North American Phanerogams, VII. By N. L. Britton 

■ (1893), .,..-.... - .25 cents. 

No. 39. Contributions to American Bryology, III.— Notes on the North American 

Species o^ Orthotriclmm. By Elizabeth G. Britton, , .25 cents. 

No. 40. New Genera of PLmts from Bolivia. By H. H. Rusby (1893), , 25 cents. 
No. 41. The Altitudinal Distribution of the Ferns of the Appalachian Mountain Sys. 

tern. By John K. Small (1893) 25 cents- 
No. 42, Notes upon various Species of Iridacece and other Orders. By Thomas 

Morong (1893), ■* . - - 25 cents. 

No. 43, Notes on tiie Flora of Southeastern Kentucky, By T. H. Kearney, Jr. 

(1893), 25 cents. 



^ 



No- 44. Contributions to American Bryology, IV, Notes on the North American 

Species of Orthotrichum—W. By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), . 25 cents. 
No. 45. Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States, L By John K. 

Small (1894), .•.'..,..... 25 cents. 

No. 46. Plants from Virginia, new to Gray's Manual Range with Notes on other 

- Species. By A. A. Heller (1894) . . ■, . 25 cents. 

No. 47. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VIII. By N. L. Brit- 
ton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 48. Contributions to American Bryology, V,— Notes on the North American 

Species of Weissia [Ulota), By Elizabetli G. Britton (1894), '25 cents. 
No. 49. A Study of the Scale-characters of the Northeastern American Species of 

Cuscuta, By W. D. Matthew (1893), . ,25 cents. 

No. 50. A Study of the Genus Psoralen in America, By Anna Murray Vail 

(1894), ., 25 cents. 

No. 51. Our Conception of "Species" as modified by the Doctrine of Evolution. 

By N. L. Britton (1894), . .,.,.. . 25 cents. 

No. 52. Contributions to American Bryology, VI. Western Species of OrtJiotrichum, 

■ By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 53. New and interesting Species of Polygonum, By J. K. Small (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 54. Contributions to American Bryology, VII, A revision of the Genus P/iys- 

xomitrium. By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 55, The Genus Cassia in N. America. By Charles Louis Pollard (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 56. A Revision of the Genus Lechea, By N. L» Britton (1894), • - ^5 c^i^^^* 
No. 57. New or little known Plants of the Southern States. By T. II. Kearney, Jr. 

.(i894\ , . 25 cents. 

No. 58. A Contribution to the History of the Formation of the Lichen Thallus. By 

Carlton C. Curtis (1 894), .... 25 cents. 

No. 59. Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States, 11. By John K. 

Small (1894), .... * . .•..., .25 cents. 

No. 60. Contributions to the American Bryology, VIII. A Revision of the Genus 

Bruchiay with Descriptions of Types and one new Species. By Elizabeth 
G. Britton (1894), . 25 cents. 

No. 61. The Smibcex of North and Central America. By Tliomas Morong (1S94) 

25 cents. 

No. 62. A preliminary Revision of the Genus Lathyrus in North America. By 

Theodore G, White (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 63. Two Species of Oxalis, By John K. Small (1894) '25 cents. 

No. 64. Notes on some of the rarer Species of Polygonum. By John K. Small 

(1894), 25 cents. 

No. 65. Some new Florida Plants. By T. H. Kearney^ Jr. (1894), ... 25 cents. 

No. 66. Two new Genera of Plants from Bolivia. By H. H. Rusby(iS94), 25 cents. 

No. 67. Family Nomenclature. By John Hendley Barnhart (1895), . . 25 cents. 

No, 68. A Revision of the North American Species of the Genus Cracca. By 

Anna Murray Vail (1895), 25 cents. 

No. 6g. Contributions to American Bryology, TX. A Revision of the Genus Scon- 

hria with Description of one New Species. By Elizabeth G. Britton 
(1895), . 25 cents. 

No, 70. Studies m the Botany of the Southeastern United States, HI. By John K. 

Small (1895), ^ , 25 cents. 

No. 71. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. Timothy E. Wilcox, U. S. 

A. and others, in Southeastern Arizona during the years 1892-1894. By 

N. L. Britton and T. H, Kearney, Jr. ( I S94), 50 cents. 

No. 72. Contributions to American Bryology, X. i. The Systematic iPosition of 

Physcomitrella potens. 2. On a Hybrid growing with Aphanorhegma 
.scrrata Sull. 3. On a European Hybrid ol Physcomitrella patens. By 

Elizabeth G. Britton (1895), 25 cents. 

No. 73. Some new hybrid Oaks from the "Southe'rn States. By John K. Small 

(^895), 25 cents. 

The series as above listed will be supplied for $10. 
. Copies of the Catalogue of Plants found in New Jersey (1889) by N. L. Britton, 
iuay be had for $2. Address 

Prof. n. L.. Britton, 

Columbia College, ' 

NE"W TTORK CITY. 



W 4 

Second=Hand Books for Sale. 



r 

The following botanical works, owned mainly by the late Mr. Justus F. P 



ofcren 



burg, are offered for sale by the Secretary of the Torrey Botanical Club at prices 
considerably below those ordinarily charged. Purchasers are requested to order by 



number, remitting the amount in advance to 



H. H. RUSB\ 



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40. 

42. 

44- 
46. 

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50. 

51- 
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55- 

59. 
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78. 

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81. 

82. 
86. 
88. 

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91. 

92. 

96. 

99. 
loi. 

103. 

104. 

•05. 
106. 

113. 

116. 
120. 



f2.00. 



* 222 West 132(1 Street, New York City. 

Barton and Castle, British Flora Medica. Good. 

Beck, Botany of Northern and Middle States. 50 cts. 

Bertram, Flora von Braunschweig. Good. 50 cts. 

Botany. — Library of Useful Knowledge. Good. 25 cts. 

Buchenau, Flora von Bremen and Oldenburg, 50 cts. 

Buckley, A Short History of Natural Science. 50 cts. 

Cassel, Outlines of Botany. Good. 25 cts. 

Cooley, Easy Experiments in Physical Science. 50 cts. 

Darby, Botany of the Southern States. Fair. 75 cts. 

Darwin, Fertilization of Orchids by insects. ;?i.co. 

Dc Candolle and Sprengel, Elements of the Philosophy of Plants. 

Dewey, Rep. on Herbaceous Flowering Plants of Alassachusetts. 

Eaton, Manual of Botany. Vol. 2 only. 50 cts. 

Eaton, Botany of N. A. Poor. ?i.oo. 

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Vol. 22 



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No. 6. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



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A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 



Edited by 



NATHANIEL LORD BRIXTON. 



AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLUB- 



COXTE^NXS : 



PAGE, 

An Enumeratfon of the Lichens of New- 
foundland and Labrador ; J, IK Eckfeldt 239 

A Diatomaceous Deposit from an Artesian 
Well at Wildwood, N. J.: Charles S. 
Bayer a6o 

Preliminary Notes on N'elumbo lutea: BenJ. 

^^ritage {^UKXi£.-2-i,\) a66 

On the Carpels of Opulaster fnalvacea 
(Greene): yr.hn B. Letber£ ayi 

Two new mountain Plants: Merriii Lyndon 
Fernald 273 

Cr>-ptogainic Notes from Long Island— HI.; 
Smith Ely JelUffe . 274 



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Vol. 22. Lancaster, Pa., June 25, 1895. i\o. 6. 



An Enumeration of the Lichens of Newfoundland and Labrador. 

By John W. Eckfeldt. 

The purpose of this paper is to present as full a h"st of all 
authenticated h'chens that are to be found in the much unex- 
plored regions of Newfoundland and Labrador, as has been af- 
forded during a number of years' sojourn in these lands. The 
entire field of exploration has been the work of the untiring Rev. 
A. C. Waghorne, who has been located there through parochial 
work, and during such residence has endeavored to secure all such 
plants as it has been possible for him to obtain. The labor has 
been attended with many difficulties; the inconveniences for trav- 
eling, the character of the climate, and the ruggedness of the 
country have hindered and delayed him in his efforts. The gen- 
eral character of these plants may be regarded as sub-arctic ; 
many, however, are strictly more boreal in distribution, while 
others are of more southern climes. The determination of these 
plants has been attended with some difficulty, owing to the great 
tendency to variation, depending in part on the nature of the cli- 
mate, and the character of the substratum. The entire work has 
been subject to my supervision, and a number of the more diffi- 
cult species, as well as some new types (particularly in the Leca- 
norei and Lecidacei), have been under the kind observation of Dr. 
F. Arnold, of Munich, and Dr. J. Hulting, of Norrkoping. A few 
species are regarded as new and these will be described. The list 
embraces a large number of types common to both hemispheres. 



1 



240 



Most of the lichens of Newfoundland and Labrador were collected 
from the following localities: Trinity Bay, on the southeastern 
coast; others from Notre Dame Bay, and a (ew from White Bay, 
further north from Placentia Bay to the Labrador. On the La- 
brador the collection was principally made in the Straits of Belle 
Isle, then along the coast from Battle Harbor north to Seal Is- 
lands, and thence about Sandwich and Gross waters to Hamilton 
Inlet. 

F 

Ramaltna Ach. 

R. colicans (L.) Fr. 

Var. canalicnlata Fr. 

Yds.farinacca Schaer. 

R, intermedia Del. 

Thallus whitish, pale straw color and glaucescent, erect, dicho- 
tomously branched, divided and the apices attenuated and divided 
with frequent soredia on the edges, the cortical layer more fila- 
mentous,. Apothecia terminal, subtended by elongated forked ex- 
tremities of the lacinia, pale yellow. Spores hyaline, ellipsoid 
uniseptatev 

R, rigida (Pers.) Tuck. 

R. ptistlla Prev. 

Var. gcmcidata Tuck. 

R, miniiscida NyL [Alectoria mimtsada Nyl.) 

Thallus densely entangled, small and quite scabrous^ apothecia 
not seen in our specimens. A plant closely allied to R. ptisilla 
Prev. from whjch it distinctly differs. 

R. polymorpha Ach. 

R. pollinaria Ach, 

R, pollinariella Nyl. 

Thallus small and finely divided, mostly sorediferous, erect, 
pale straw color. Plants generally sterile. R, vdmisada. / pol- 
linariella Nyl. 

Cetraria Ach. 
C. mtiricata Ach. 

Thallus smaller than in the following species, more densely 
intricate and caespitose, compactly ranmlose, terete to sub- 
terete, and frequently compressed, smooth, shortly branched, 
the branches becoming spinulose at the apices. 

C. aculeata Ach. 

C. Richardsonii Tuck. 



241 



C. arctic a Hook. 

C. odontdla Ach. 

C. Fendlcri Tuck. 

C. conimixta Nyl. 

Thallus clear bright brown to fuscescent, smooth, irregularly 
laciniate, divided ; laciniae erect, much entangled, plane, the mar- 
gins not elevated, apices obliquely furcate, uniform in color, be- 
neath paler; apothecia reddish brown, disk rugose, margui granu- 

lose; spores simple, hyaline, oblong, i^ mic. 

C. Fahhtncnsis [L.) Schr. 

C, Islandica (L.) Ach. 

Var. crispa Ach. 

Var. Delisaci Borr. {C, Jiiasccns Th. Fr.) 

C. ciliaris Ach. 

C laciuiosa Ach. 

C, nivalis Bell. 

C. aureus Tuck. 

C. glaiica (L.) Ach. 

V^v./usca Fl. Thallus brown and dark. 
Cjtinipcnna L. 

Var. Pinastri Ach, - - • 

Var. teirestris Schr. 
C. sacpincola Ehrh. 
C. sacpincola var. cJdorophylla Wahl. 



EvERNiA Ach. 



E, prunastri (L.) Ach. 



USNEA Ach 



U. barhaia (L.) Fr. 
Var. ceratina Schr, 
Var. hirta Fr. 
F. strigosa Ach. 

Vzx.florida Fr. 
F. glabrcscc7is Nyl. 
Var, dasypoga Fr. 



plicata 



U, long 



U, trichodca Ach. 
U. cavernosa Tuck. 



242 



Al-ECTORIA Ach. 

A. divergens (Ach.)NyL 
A. ]iihata L. 

Var. hnplexa Fr, 

Var. cJialybciforuils Ach. • 

Var. bicolor Fr. 

\d.r, prolixa Ach. 

A, capillark (Ach.) Nyl. {A.jiibata var. cana Ach.) 

Thallus pale, hoary to yellowish-rufescent, much elongated 
and frequently branched; branches flaccid, densely entangled and 
somewhat compressed, angular, lacunose beneath ; apothecia un- 
known. 

A. ocJirolaica (Ehrh.) Nyl. 

Var. rizida Fr* 



Var. osteina Nyl, 

Var. jiigricans Ach, (/3. nigricaiis Nyl.) 

Var. circinata Fr. 

Var. sarmentosa Nyl. 



Thelosciiistes Norm. 

T. cJirysopthahmis (L.) Norm. 
T. parietinus (L.) Norm. 
Var. aureola Ach. 

Thallus brighter yellow to orange, rounded, lobate, sinuately 
incised, thicker, crenate, the margins erect, granulate; apothecia 
sub-crenate. 

r 

T, lycJmciiS Nyl. 

T. poly carpus Ehrh, 

Var. pygniacus Fr. 
T. concolor Dicks. [XantJioria canddaria Nyl.) 



P. aundenta Tuck. 
P. tiliacca (Hoff.) Flk. 

Var. sublacvigata Nyl. 
P. cetrata Ach. 

P, jBorreri Turn. 

Var. rude eta Tuck. 
P. saxatilis (L.) Fr. 



Parmelia Ach 



243 



P. saxatilis var. pawiiformis (Ach.) Schr. 

P. saxatilis var. sulcata Nyl. 

P. saxatilis {, furfiirasceiis Schr. Thallus very furfuraceous, 

P. saxatilis var, ompJialoidcs Fr. 

P.fraiidans Nyl. 

This has been regarded as a subspecies of P. saxatilis and fre- 
quently taken for that species, but has distinctions worthy of 
specific rank. 

P. physodcs (L.) Ach. 

Var. vittaia (L.) Ach. 



/ 



Var. cnteromorpJia Tuck. 

Var. obsciirata Ach. 
P. encatista (Sni.) Nyl. 
P. encausta var. alpicola Nyl. 
P. colpodcs (Ach.j Nyl. 
P, olivacea (L.) Ach. 
P. olivacea var. aspidota Ach. 
P. olivacea var. paiunfonnis Nyl. 
-P. olivacea var. soj^ediata (Ach.) Nyl. 
P. /^;/a/^ (L.) Wallr. 
P. stygia (L.) Ach. 
P. coiispersa (Ehrh.) Ach. 

P. leucochlora Tuck. 
P. centrifiiga (L.) Ach. 

P. inciirva (Pers.) Fr. 
P. ambigua (Wulf.) Ach. 

Var. albescens Wahl. (P. hyperopia 



Physcia DC. 



hypoli 



galactoph) 



M 



P. cilians (L.) D. C. 

P. cilians var. crinalis Schr. 

P. aqnila var. detonsa Tuck. 

P. pulvendefita (Schreb.) Nyl. 

P. pidvcrulenta var. leucoleiptes Tuck. 

P* pidvendenta f. nmscigeiia Auct. 



244 



P, stdlaris L» 

P. stdlaris f. adscendcns Fr. 
P, astroidea (Fr.) Nyl. 
P. tribacia (Ach.) Tuck. {P. erosa Borr.) 
P, hispida Schreb. (P. /^;/^//^ Ach.) 
P. crispa (Bers.) Nyl. 
P, caesia (Esch.) Nyl. 
P. ob sacra (Ehsh.) Nyl. 
Var. eiidocJirysca Nyl. 



Umbilicaria Iloff. 



■in 



U. cylindrica (L.) Del. 



/ 



/ 



U. antlwacina (Wulf.) Schr. 
U, polyphylla (L.) Hoff. 
U.Jloccidosa Hoff. 
Z7. hypcrborea Hoff. 
U. erosa (Web.) Hoff. 

U, Muhlenbcrgii [^Kch^ Tuck. 
U. hirsuta (Ach.) Sten. 
Var. s:risca Th. Fr. 



U. vellca (L.) Nyk 

Z7. Pennsylvamca Hoff. 

U, spodochroa Ehrh. 

Thallus varying from moderately large and irregular to small 
and orbicular, thin, fiattish and spreading,' with an irregular 
waving crcnate margin in the smaller forms, pale ashy to light 
purplish brown in older specimens, paler at the centre and mealy; 
beneath brown and minutely granulosa and thickly covered 
with irregular stout brownish fibrils ; apothecia v^xy numerous^ 
sessile and scattered towards the border, elevated, stout and robust, 
orbicular, disk prominent, rounded and con?^picuously papuloid,. 
surrounded by a thick, even or fissured margin, smooth, black; 

spores ellipsoid, simple, ^~i mic. 

The occurrence of this Scandinavian hchen in this country is- 
rather remarkable. 

U. piisttdata (L.) Hoff. 
Var. papulosa Tuck. 



245 



U. Labradorexse Hulting n. van 

Thallus thinner than the proceeding, small, from ash color be- 
coming olivaceous or brown, rugulose» papulose, papules scattered, 
remotely prominent, beneath finely granular, foveolate, foveoli 
small, contracted, sanguineous within; apothecia reddish-brown, 
orbicular with a well raised margin 1-2 mm. broad; spores large, 
orbicular |2 mic. On rocks associated with the preceding variety. 
Labrador. 

Sticta Schreb. 

wS. amplissima (Scop.) Mass. 

S, hcrbacca (Huds.) Ach. 

S. pulmoiiaria (L.) Ach. 

S. qiicrizans (Michx.) Ach. 

5. limbata (Sni.) Ach.; evidently quite new to this region. 

wS*. aiirata (Sm.) Ach. 

S. scrobiciilata (Scop.) Man. 



Nephroma Ach, 



N. arcticitin (L.) Fr. 
N. expallidum Nyl. 
N, laevigatum Ach. 

Yd.r. panic Nyl. 
N, Lusitaniatm Schr. 



Peltigera Willd. 

P. venosa (L.) Hoff. 

P.apthosa (L.) Hoff. 

P, polydactyla (Neck.) Hofif. 

P. nifcscens (Neck.) Hoff. 

P, pidvcnUcnta (Tayl.) Nyl. [P. scabrosa Th. Fr.) 

P, malacca (Ach.) Fr, 
P. canina (L.) Hofif. 

Var. spuria Ach. 

Var. sorcdiata Schr. 

Var. spongiosa Tuck. 



Solorina Ach 



S. crocca (L.) Ach. 
S. saccata (L.) Ach. 



/ 



246 



Physma Mass. 
P. hiridum Mont. A single specimen found 



Pannaria DeL 

P. liypnontm (Hoff.) Koerb. - 

P. lamtginosum (Ach.) Koerb. 

P, nibiginosa (Thunb.) Del. 

P, lertcosticta Tuck. 

P, briuinea (S\v.) Mass. (/*. pezizoidcs S\v.) 

P. viicrophylla (Sw.) Del. 

P. lepidiota Th. Fr. 

P, tryptophylhiin ^Ach.) Man. 

P, caniosa Dicks. 

P. Waghornei n. sp. 

Thallus thickened, congested and irregular, fissured, conglom- 
erate, coarsely granulate, rugulose, from reddish brown to pur- 
plish and seated upon a thin limiting hypothalkis; apothecia scat- 
tered but frequently conjoined, small, rounded and erect, and at 
length flat, Avith a prominent margin, from pale reddish to 

rufescent ; spores ellipsoid, simple, ^^ mic. 

On turfy earth. Evidently a distinct and well marked species, 
and not closely related to any other. 



//- 



Collema Hoff. 



P. nidacniim Ach. 
P. flaccidiun Ach. 



Leptogium Fr. 



L. laccruvi (Sw.) Fr. 
L. tremdloides (L.) Fr. 

Var. cyanesccns Ach. [Collana cyancsccns Schaer.) 

Placodium DC. 

P. dcgans (Link.) DC. 

P. mitromm (Hoff.) DC. 

F. miniatum Hoff. Thallus fulvescent, punctate; apothecia 



bright. 



P. cinvchroum (Ach.; Hepp. 



•247 



P 



P. aurantiaciim (Leight.) N, H. 
P. ccrimun (Hedw,) N. H. 
Var. pyraceum Nyl. 

F. pyritJiromum Ach. Thallus gray to brownish, more or less 
ragulose; apothecia small, sunken and concave, pale green to buff- 
colored. Spores ^°-^4 niic. 

^ 6—9 

P, ere nu latum Wahl. 
P. zitellimim (Ehrh.) N. H. 
Var. aiircUum Ach. 



Lecanora Ach. 

L. rubina (VilL) Ach. 
L. nitiralis (Schrb.) Schr. 

Var. Garovadii Anzi. 

Var- saxieola Scur, 
L. pallida (Schrb.) Schr. . 
Z. sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. ' 
L, atra Huds. 
Z. dispersa (Pers.) Nyl. 
Z. badia (Pers.) A'ch. 
Z. Hageni Ach. (Z. uuibrina Mass.) 

F. zosterieola Nyl. 
Z. subfusea (L.) Ach. 

Var. Jiypnoritm (Wulf.) Ach. 

Var. argentata Ach. (Z. eampestris Schr.) 

Var. atr)m€a Ach. 

Var. coiloeaipa Ach. 

Var. distans Ach. ( Z. ehlaro7ia Ach.). 

F. rtigosa Pers. 

Z. sy)ninieiera Nyl. 

Closely allied to Z. t^^r/^ v. symmieta Ach., but differs as to 
the reaction. K-C. orange. 



Iph 



L. OCHRACEORUBESCENS Arnold n. sp. 

Thallus scattered, elevated, roundish or irregular, greenish or 
yellow, granular, granules at length becoming tortulose and dis- 
tinct; apothecia prominent, elevated, biatorine, sessile and finally 
conglomerate, proper margin depressed or quite wanting, brown- 
ish green to olivaceous with a delicate bloom, spores ellipsoid 



\ 



248 



A 



I 



hyaline, ^mlc. On sandstone. This species is closely re- 
lated to L. Szvartzii Ac\\. 

Var. syimnicta Ach. 

r L 

Var. intricata Nyl. 
Var. saepincola Fr. 
Ntxx. polytropa Ehrh. 

F. ilhisoria Ach, 
Thallus evanescent, thin, apothecia dispersed, infrequent, large, 
disk plane, frequently convex, pale yellow, margin frequently oblit- 
erated. 

L. ventosa (L.) Ach. 
L. elatina Ach. 

Var. ochrophoca Tuck. 

Var. minor Tuck. [Haematomma Cismonica Belt). 

L. palksccns (L.) Schr. 

Var. rosclla Tuck. 
X. tartarea (L.) Ach. 

F. leprosa Nyl. 

F. tdcpJioroidcs Th. M. Fr. 

F, grandinosa Ach. 

F. macrocarpa Th. Fr. 
Z, cenisia Ach. 
Z.. cinerca (L.) Somf. 

Var. lacvata Fr. 
Z. calcarca (L.) Somf. 

L. CINEREO-RUFESCENS (Ach.) Eck. 

Thalhis dark ashy white, paler towards the border, verrucosa 
to areolate, rimose; hypothallus black; apothecia sunken in the 
thallus, convex, disk dark brown, bordered by an entire thalline 

margin; spores hyaline, ellipsoid, simple, ^ mic. On rocks. 

L. CAESIO-CINEREA (Nyl.) Eck. 

Thallus ashy white to darker, thick, verrucose, areolate, broken ; 
apothecia sunken in the areoles, concave, terminating in a white 
thalline border which finally becomes more or less prominent; 

spores hyahne, oblong, simple, !l::il mic. On rocks. 
Z. gibbosa Xyl. 

L.fuscata (Schr.) Th. Fr. 

Var. mfcsccns Th. Fr. 



\ 



249 



Z. glaticocarpa (Wallr.) Ach, 

F. distans Arn. 
L.privigna (Ach.) Nyl. 



RiNODiNA Mass. 



R. sophodes (Ach.) Nyl 



^fc 



Pertusaria DC. 







4 

p. velata (Turn.) Nyl. 
P. panyrga (Ach.) Th. Fr. 
P. Dmitipnncta (Turn.) NyL 
P, dactylina (Ach.) Nyl- 
jP. rhodocarpa Koerb. 
P. coniintinis D. C. 
F. nipesiris D. C. 

P. Icioplaca (Ach.) Schr. 

PJacvigata (Nyl.) Arn. {P. Icioplaca var. laevigata Th. Fr.) 

P. sttbobdiicens Nyl. [P. gloinerata Schr.) 

P. protiiberaiis Smf. 



P.globiilaris Ach. 



Urceolaria Ach. 



U. scruposa (L.) Nyl. 
Var. bryopJiila Esch. 



Thelotrema Ach. 



Z! Icpadiniiin Ach. 
7. subtile Tuck. 



Stereocaulox Schr. 



S. coralloidcs Fr. 

S, paschale ( L.) Fr. 

S. de 7221 datum FL 

S. condensattim Hoff. 

S, tomentosttm Th. Fr. 

S, alpinufft, (Th. Fr.) Laur.(5. tovicntosiun v^r, alpinnmT^x.Vvi) 

S. pikattim Ach. 
S. nanodes Tuck, 



250 



PiLOPHORUs Th, Fr 
F. cereohts Ach . 



V^x.fihda Tuck. 



C. syniphicarpa Fr. 



Cladonia Tuck 



Var. epiphylla (Ach.) Nyl. 
C. cariosa (Ach.) Spreng. 
C. dccorlicafa Flk. 
C. pyxidata (L.) Fr. 

Var. simplex Hoff. 

F. costata FI. 



/ 



pocillion 



'■ft 



Var. radiata Fr. 
^. degenera/is Fl. 
r. ^-wa/w (L.) Xyl. 

Var. verticUlaia Hoff. 

Var. verticiUata f. phyllopJu 

Var. hybrida Schr. 

Var. elongata Fr. 

F. maciocems Tuck. 

F. chordalis Tuck. 

F. amaiira FI. 

F. asp cm Fl. 
^. cornuta (L.) Fr. 
<r. ^//^/;/^z (Ehr.) Hoff. 

Var. conspicua (Ach.) Nyl. 
CpapUlaria (Esch.) Hoff. 

^- ^^'^^^^'^ (Act.) Schs. 

^^r.fnrcellata Fr. 
C squamosa Hoff. 

F. ventricosa Fr. 
F. dcnsicollis Hoff. 
F. asperdla Flk. 
C.fiircata (Huds.) Fr. 
Var, crispata Fl. 



251 



Var. racemosa Fl. • 
Var, stibiilata Fl. 
Var. sqiiamidosa Schr. 

Var. adspersa FL 
C. rangifcrina (L.) Hoff. 
C. sylvatica L. 

Var. alpestris L. 
C Botrytes (Hag.) Hoff. 
C carncola Fr. 

Var. cyanipes Somf. 
C auiaiirocraea (FL) Schr. 
C uncinalis (L.) Fr. 

Var. adiuica Auct. 

Var. Caroliniana Tuck. 

Var. hirgcscens Fr. 
C ^i?7;^7 Tuck. {C. laamosa Bory.) 

C. dilorophoea L. 
F, simplex Hoff, 



C. MULTIBRACHIATA (Fl.) Eck. 

Thallus ashv brown, squamulose, mealy ; podetia erect, slender, 
mostly smooth Vith repeated proliferations or branches, Pe^^jo^^ 
spores curved, ^ mic. This plant is somewhat allied to C. .bloerk- 
eana Fr.. from'Shich it is not easily separated, but considered by 
Dr. Arnold as distinct. 



C Floerkcmia Fr. 
C. cristatdla Tuck. ■ 

Var. ochrocarpia Tuck. 
C. ptdchella Schw. 
C. inacilenta (Esch.) Hoff. 

F. clavata Ach. 
C. digitata Fl. 

F. brachytes Ach. 

F. monstrosa Ach. 
C, dcformis (L.) Hoff. 
C. coccifera L. {C. cornncopmdcs (L.) Fr.) 

Y . plcurotica Ach. 
C. bdlidiflora (Ach.) Schr. 
Var. Hooker i Nyl. 



11 - - -1 rr^-y- ■■ 



252 



Thamnolia Ach, 



T, vcrimctdaiis (Sw.) Schr. 



Baeomyces Fee*. 

B. aeruginosus Scop, 

B. byssoides (L.) Schr. 

B, rosais Pers. 

Var. ftuigoides (Sw.) Ach. {Sphyridiuni fiingiforinis Scop,) 

Biatora Fr. 

B, gramdosa (Esch.) Poetch. 

V2X.escharoidcs'^sQ\\, Thallus very minutely granulose, yellow 
or ashy white ; apothecia confluent, clifflform, strongly convex and 

immarginate, dark brown to reddish chestnut; spores simple, ^^ 

mic. On clay soil. 

B, coarctata Sm. 

Var. clascista Ach. 

Thallus white or greyish, very thin, leprous and effuse, apothecia 
sessile, quite innate, concave or plane with a well defined promi- 
nent white coarctate margin. Spores similar, 

B.fiexiiosa Fr. 
B. russida (Ach.) Mont. 
B. cimiabarma (Somf.) Fr. 
B, vernalis (L.) Fr. 

Var. helvola Koerb. 
B. sayigtdncO'Citra (Fr.) Tuck. Spores about ^^^ mic. 
B, Berengeriana Nyl. 

This plant is allied to B. sangtinco-atra Fr. but may be readily 
distinguished by the absence of violet or bluish granules found 

among the paraphyses in that species. Spores '^~'^ mic. 
B, rufo-fiisca Anzi. 

B, Utrgidida Fr. 

B. rividosa (Ach.) Fr. 

B. arcuatula (Arn.) Eck. 

Thallus flat and thickened, areolate, rimulosc, olivaceous to 
fuscescent; apothecia brownish-black to very black, margin ele- 
vated concolorous and shining, epithecium brown, spores hyaline, 
simple, 2-4-guttate, somewhat curved and obtuse at the apex, 

I^ mic. A species closely related to B. rividosa (Ach,) Fr. Ow 
rocks. 




253 



B. SCRUPULOSA n. sp. 

Thallus of thickened coalesing granules, areolate, rimulose, 
pale olive to yellowish brown, areoles adnata, contiguous, mingling 
into a continuous uneaven crust; apothecia scattered, diffiforni, 
erect, black, plane and somewhat depressed, surrounded by a tor- 
tulous erect concolorous margin; spores simple, broadly ellipsoid, 

hyaline, ^ mic. A well marked species which seems to approach 
B. KocJiiana Hepp. 

B. ALBO-FUSCESCENS (Nyl.) Eck, 

Thallus thinly diffused and even over the surface, plane and 
slightly granular or furfuraceous, or at length quite smooth and 
glaucous; epithecium pale; apothecia very sparse, rounded and 
elevated, at length flat; disk brown and prominent, reddish, mar- 
gin elevated. Spores ellipsoid, pointed, ^^^ mic. On rocks. 

4 

B, mollis Wahl. 

B. Nylanderi Anzi. 

B. nliginosa (Schr.) Fr. 

B. varians Ach. • B. exigua Chaub.) 

B, mixta Fr. {^B. tricolor Nyl.) 

B. Lmireri Hepp. ' 

B, Heerii Hepp, Parasitic on Solonna saccata, 

B. STEREOCAULORUM (Th. Fr.) Eck. {Biatorina Lich. Miquelon, 
Arnold.) Thallus mostly wanting; apothecia very small, black, 
plane; epithecium brown, hymenium colorless to bluish, para- 
physes loosely disposed; spores hyaline, bilocular, 8 inthekes,£| 
mic. Parasitic on Stcrcocaulon alpimini. 

B. sphaeroidcs Dick. 
B, hypnopJnla Turn. 
B. artyta Ach. 

B, rubella Esch. 

B. RUPESTRIS (Sch.) Eck. Thallus cinerascent, thin and closely 
adnate, apothecia flat, mnate. smooth, rufescent with a raised mar- 
gin around the sunken disk. Spores immature. On rocks. 

B. viuscoruni Sw. 

B. unibrijia Ach. 

B. OBSCURATA (Sm.) Eck. Thallus composed of minute pale 
ashy to white rxxgost granules; apothecia minute, rounded and 
flat, dark brown to black, smooth and shining with a receding 
margin, very numerous. Spores broadly ellipsoid 4-IocuIar, ^^ 
mic. On dead moss. 



254 



w 

B. PALLIDA (Arn.) Eck. 

Thallus thin, chinky and minutely granulosa, sparsely scattered 
over a thin but even surface, yellowish brown to fuscous; apothecia 
small, rounded, black, prominent, slightly flattish or convex, with a 
concolorous thalline margin ; hypothallus mostly wanting. 

Spores fusiform, 6-locular, ^^ mic. On smooth barks. 

B. CAESIO-RUFA (Ach.) Eck. 

Thallus thin, w^hite, scattered irregularly, of rounded and closely 



adnata granules, but forming an even uniform crust ; apothecia 



sessile, minute, quite black, turgid, and becoming flat, with a per- 



sistent regular elevated margin; spores mostly 4docular, ^^ mic. 



On smooth barks. 



Heterothecium Plot. 



//. grossiiin Pers. 

H sangutnarmni (L.) Flot. 

Var. endorhoda Th. Fr. 

Var. effusa Ach. 
H. alpina ^ch. 
H. porphyrites Tuck. 
H. Icucoxaiitliimi (Sprang.) Mass. 
H, pezizoidmm (Ach.) Flot. 

LEcmEA Ach. 

L. panaeola (Ach.) Fr. 
L. platycarpa Ach. 

Var. siiperba Ach. 
L entcroletica (Ach.) Fr. 

Var. diasenioidcs Nyl. 
L fusco-atra L. 
Lfttsccsccns Somf. 

Z. polycarpa Fr. 

Var. dcdinans Nyl. Thallus mostly crustaceous ; hypothe- 
cium fuscous. 

Var. sublactca Somf. 

L. CRENULATA (Dicks.) Eck. 

Thallus thin, evanescent, cinerascent to pale yellowish grey ; 
apothecia black, plane and simple, naked, with a raised flexuous 

crenulate proper margin; spores ellipsoid, hyaline, simple, -^ mic. 
On rocks. 



255 



L crustiilata Ach. 



Thallus pale to brownish or often grey, adnate, thin, tartareous 
effuse, subrlmulose to areolate; apothecia numerous, dispersed, 
sessile and simple, black with a distinct thin margin; hypothecium 
swollen, nearly brown; spores 8 in the thekes, simple, oblong, "iris 
mic. On rocks. 7"^ 

L albococriiksccns (Wulf.) Schr. 

V^iX. flavocoeintlescens Schr. 

Var. cinereoatra Ach. 
L. variegata Fr. {L. pantherina Th. Fr.) 
Z. inacrocarpa D. C. 
Z. tcssellata Fi. {L. cyanea Th. Fr.) 
Z, lapicida (Ach.) Fr. 
Z. leii€otJiaUi?ia Ach. 
Z. enipcirca Nyl. 
Z. tench'osa FL 
Z. I a type a Ach. 

L. DISTANS n. sp. 

Thalkis thin, evanescent, but at length becoming minutely 
granulose and frequently continuous over a scurfy surface ; apo- 
thecia mostly subsessile, elevated, large, flat, black with a depressed 
disk surrounded by a conspicuous granulose and crenate margin; 
disk covered by a delicate evanescent thin bloom; hypothecium 

pale ; spores long, ellipsoid, simple, ^^ mic. On rocks. Labrador 

Z. contigita var. meiospora Nyl. 

Thallus thin, ashy white, areolate, rimulose; apothecia black, 
plane, with a proper margin, disk somewhat prulnose, spores sim- 
ple, hyaline, ^^ mic. On rocks. 

Z. KocJiiana Hepp. 

Thallus pale ashy brown to fuscescent, rimose, areolate, 
broken, areoles sunken, plane, bordered by a black margin; apothe- 
cia innate, black, immarginate, flexuous or slightly angulose, diffi- 



form; disk plane, polished and smooth; spores 8 in the thekes, 
oblong, simple, ^ mic. On rocks. 

Z. dtspansa Nyl. (Z. cxpansa Nyl.) 

Thallus furfuraceous, rimulose, thin, black; apothecia very 
numerous, minute, sessile, scattered, black, plane, the margin very 
smooth; hypothecium thin, fuscous; epithecium hyaline; spores 

about 8 in the thekes, simple, ellipsoid, ^ mic. On rocks, 
Z. aurictdata Th, Fr. 
Z. sylvicola (Flot.) Nyl. 



q 



256 



L. CONFERENDA (Nyl.) Eck. 

Thallus verruculose, granulate, obscurely cinerascent ; apothecia 
very smallj black, convex and glaucous; spores oblong, simple, 

hyaline, "^^ mic. On rocks. 

/ ' 3-4 



BuELLiA De Not. 



xpitidata 



Thallus of thin smooth flat discrete granules, becoming at 
length areolate ; areoles irregular and evanescent at the outer mar- 
gin; apothecia scattered, more or less sessile, small and very 
black, flat and bordered by a well raised margin; spores ellipsoid, 

bilocular, fuscescent, ^^^ mlc. On smooth barks. 

' 6-7 

B. PUNCTIFORMIS (Hoff.) Eck. 

Thallus very thin, scurfy, minutely granular, grey or whitish, 
becoming at length nearly obsolete or with a delicate coloration ; 
apothecia small, flat, granular and the disk quite rugose, brownish- 
black to very black, with a raised stout thick granular margin ; 
spores bilocular, ^ mic. On smooth barks. 

B. albo-atra (Hoff.) Th. Fr. 
B. parascma (Ach.) Fr. 
B. disciformis Fr. 
B, spuria Schr. . 

B. lepidastra Tuck. 
B, inynoca?pa D, C. 

B. ATRATA (Sm.) Eck, 

Thallus blackish to ashy brown, areolate, broken, areoles plane, 
small, smooth, convex, hypothallus black; apothecia springing 
from the hypothallus, usually innate, small, appressed, margin thin, 
entire ; spores 8 in the thekes, bilocular,fuscous,!?iiiZ mic. On rocks. 

7** 

B. collitdens Nyl. 

B. EXCENTRICA (Nyl.) Eck. 



lO 



Thallus brownish, white or gray, thin, sparingly more or less 
broken; apothecia pale, black, sessile, plane with a thickened ob- 
tuse margin. Spores 3^r:37 mic, the cells murilocular. 



petraea (Flot,) Kc 

Vdir.grandis Flk. 
Van Monf. 

. empetraea 



(B. atro-alba Fr.) 






257 



B. coxiopsoiDEUM (Hepp.) Eck. 

Thallus consisting of scattered white irregular flat scales, which 
are diffused over a black hypotliallus; apothecia arising from the 
hypothallus, sparingly scattered, black, flat and somewhat promi- 
.nent, with a raised rugose margin; disk roughened and finely pa- 
pillose; spores ellipsoid, 4-locular, ^^-^-^ mic. On rocks. 

7 — 8 



-^- g€ograpJiica (Fl.) Tuck. 
B. pertusaricola Willey. 
B. parmcliariiim Somf. 
B. saxatilis (Sch.) Koerb. 
B. scabrosa (Ach.) Koerb. " 

B. OBSCURATA (Ach. Koerb.) Eck. 

Thallus pale to fuscesent or rufofuscescent, thin, finally areo- 
late, continuous, areoles plane, simple; apothecia black, naked, 
plane, sessile, innate or strongly adnate with a thicker obtuse pale 
margin ; spores 8 in the thekes, ellipsoid, murilocular, ^^~^'^ mic. 
On rocks. """"^^ 

B. RIVULARIS (Plot.) Eck. 

Thallus pale olive brown, areolate, dififiform, areoles flat upon a 

black hypothallus; apothecia large, flat, sunken in the areoles, black 

With a prominent raised waving margin ; spores broadly ellipsoid, 

bilocular, fuscous, 3^-33 mic. On rocks. 

12—15 

■ 

B, CoPELANDi (Koerb.) Eck. 

Thallus composed of large irregular coarse whitish granules, 
becoming areolate, dispersed, seated upon a black hypothallus; 
apothecia large, black and prominent, more or less finely turbu- 
culate, but becoming flattish and concave, with a persistent mar- 
gin ; spores ellipsoid, bilocular, fuscescent, '^r^ mic. On rocks. 

B. badioatm (FI.) Schr. 

B. CONXRETA (Koerb.) Eck. 

Thallus minutely granulose, closely, adnate, pale ashy to 
whitish, bordered by a flexuous hypothalline line; apothecia ses- 
sile, minute and innate, immarginate with a thickened brown 
border; spores ellipsoid, murilocular, ?ir^ mic. On rocks. 

B. CALCAREA (Weis) Eck. 

Thallus determinate, white, roundish, of mealy or tartareous 
granules, areolate, rimulose towards the centre, configurate at the 
border ; apothecia large, black, innate, plane, bluish, pruinose, con- 
vex, surrounded by a white thalline margin, proper margin dark, 
persistent; spores ellipsoid to oblong, 4-locular, £!r^ mic. On 
rocks. 




258 



B. RUBESCENS (Am.) Eck. 

Thallus very thin, white, uneven and broken up into areole- 
like flat scales; apothecia scattered, sessile, small, from flat to con- 
cave, with a prominent raised margin but frequently wanting, from 
reddish-brown to black; spores broadly ellipsoid, bilocular, '^~.|£ 
mic. On smooth barks, ^ 



Lecanactis (Esch. Kbr.) Tuck 



Z. abietina Ach. 
Z. prcmnca Ach. 



Ofegrapha (Humb.) Ach. 



0. zonata Kbr. 

Thallus rufous to ferruginous, thin, subtartareous, smoothish, 
covered by numerous yellow or pale whitish soredia, marked at 
the border by conspicuous thick erect dark lines forming the 
hypothallus; apothecia fuscous to black, scattered, sparse and ses- 
sile; spores hyaline, contracted, fusciform, pointed, '^~^" mic. On 
rocks. *~^ 



O, atra Ach. 
0, vulgata Ach. 



Xylographa Fr. 



X, opegrapJidla Nyl. 
X, parallda Fr. 



Grafhis Ach 



scripta (L.) Ach. 
Var. recta Schr. 
Var. varia Ach. 
Var. limitata Schr, 
Var. pulventlcnta Pers. 
F. radiata Leight 
Y.JIexiiosa Leight. 
F. typogtapha Willd. 



A. radiata Pers. 

Var. Sivartzoidca Nyl. 
A. spcctabilis FK 

A. ptmctiformis Ach. 
A. patdhdata Nyl. 
A. raiuddia Nyl. 



Artiionia Ach. 



259 



Sphaerophorus Pers, 



S.fragilis (L.) Pers. 

S. corallotdes Pers. {S. glolnfems (L.) D. C.) 



AcoLiUM Fee. 



A. tigillarc (Ach.) D. N. 



C. subtile Fr. 

C. turbiiiatum Pers. 



Calicium Ach. 



Endocarpon Hedw. 



E, miniahiui (L.) Schr. 

Var. coDiplicaiiiin Schr. 

V'^x.fulvofiisaim Tuck. 
E, cincrctini Pers. 



Segestria Fr. 



S. majusculuin NyL 



Trypethelium Ach. 



T, virens Tuck. 



Sagedia Mass. Kbr 



S, CcstrensisTwok, 

S, oxyspora (NyL) Tuck. 



Verrucaria Pers. 

K matira Wahlb. 

Thallus dark reddish or jet black, tumid, polished, areolae 
smooth covered with minute points; apothecia immersed and 
enclosed in the thallus, scattered, roundish ; epithecium conspicu- 
ous, poriform ; perithecium spreading at the base, internally black; 

spores oblong, simple, ^?^ mic. On rocks. 



K epigaea Pers. 
V, theliodes Smf. 
V. bryophila Lonnr. {Polyblastid). 

r 

V. rvnosicola Leight. 

Thallus wanting; apothecia black, minute, sessile, rounded, 
shining and polished ; perithecium entire, black; epithecium pori- 



N^ 






260 



J 

form; spores 8 in. the thekes, brown, oblong to linear, 4-IocuIar, 
constricted, ^^-20 mic. Parasitic on BncUia exccntrictun. 



Pyrenula Ach 



P. piiuctiformis Ach. 

P. gl a brat a Ach. 

P, lac tea Mass.' 

P, thelaena (Ach.) Tuck. 

P. nitidella Mull. 



A Diatomaceous Deposit from an Artesian Well at Wildwood, N. J. 



By Charles S. Bover. 



J 



1 



certain depths diatomaceous deposits of unusual interest. Mr. 
Woolman, whose researches into the geology of artesian borings 
are well known, has sent me samples of earths with the request that 
I enumerate the diatoms found therein. The accompanying list 
includes specimens occurring in a bed from 78 to 180 feet deep, of 
which Mr, Woolman remarks in the annual report of the Geolog- 
ical Survey of New Jersey for 1893 (page 401) that " a correspond- 
ing clay bed does not exist beneath the beaches to the northward, 
if we may judge by the specimens of borings furnished from the 
various wells or by the records where no specimens were ob- 
tained. It was probably in some way associated with the deposits 
of the Delaware River delta in a somewhat recently past geologi- 
cal age, and before the present peninsula of Cape May was formed/' 
It is not the purpose of the present paper to give a list of the 
forms obtained from the entire series of the well borinjir which has 
reached the depth of 1245 ^^et, passing through beds apparently 
identical with the Miocene deposits noticed at Atlantic City and 
which have already been described, but as the fresh water forms 
are very numerous and as there are associated with them certain 
marine and brackish water species not heretofore noticed in North 
America, the enumeration of all the diatoms thus far seen at the 
depths of from 78 to 180 feet, is here given. 



261 



\ 



The occurrence of Polymyxits coronalis is of peculiar interest, 
as it has been hitherto considered as growing exclusively at the 
mouths of the Para and the Amazon. It is not a mere accidental 
form, but is abundant in the deposit in all its numerous variations. 
Several years ago I found one specimen in material from one of 
the Atlantic City wells, but supposed at the time that it might 
have been a waif cast upon the shore. As Polyiiiyxus now 
flourishes only in warmer waters the conclusion must be reached 
that the Delaware River delta formed the deposit under conditions 
quite different from those existing at the present time. It is at 
any rate now extinct along the North Atlantic coast. 

The nomenclature of the following list is based upon DcToni*s 

1 

Sylloge Algarum, except \xi a few cases. 

Achnanthes Hitdsonis Grun. 

A, inflata (Kutz.) Grun. 

A. sudscssilis Ehr. 

Actinocydiis Ehrc7ibergii Ralfs. 

A. siibtilis Greg. 

Acthwptyclms heliopelta Grun. forma minor. 

Only one specimen has been noticed. 
A, undiilatiis Ehr. 
A. vulgaris Schum, 
Amphora ovalis (Breb.) Kutz. var. gracilis (Ehr.) V. H. 

Aid aco discus Ar^us Ehr. 



*»> 



Aidiscus pruinostts Bail. 

Biddidphia Rhombus Wm. Sm. 

Brebissonia Boeckii {^u\z?) Grun. 

I have noticed this form in material from the Saguenay River, 



Can. 



iP) 



The habitat of this species is usually given as marine or brack- 
ish water. Van Heurck is the only authority, as far as I have 
noticed, who states that it occurs in fresh water. I have found 
several specimens in mud taken from a supply reservoir in Phila- 
delphia, the water of which is drawn from the Schuylkill River. 

Cerataidus laevis Roper. 
Cocconcis placcniula Ehr. 
Coscinodiscus Argus Ehr. 
C. €xce7itnctis Ehr. 



2G2 



^ 

r 



Cfasciaclatus A. Schm. 

C. marginaius Ehr. 

C. minor Ehr. 

(7- 7iitidiiliis Greg. 

6^. Oadiis-Iridis Ehr. 

6^. radiatus Ehr. 

{7. siibtilis Ehr. 

Cydotdla KYitziitgtana Thw. 

Cynibclla affinis Kutz. 

(7. cistula (Hempr.) Kirchn. 

6^. citspidata Kiitz. 

C cynibiforviis Ehr. 

C Ehrcnbcrgii Kutz. 

6^. gastroit ics K ii tz . 

6^. lanccolata (Ehr.) Kirchn. 

C ttimida (Breb.) V. H, 
Encyoncma ventricosum Kiitz. 

Cystoplcura [Epithemid) Argus (Ehr.) Kunze. 
An abnormal form with flexuose outHne has been noticed. 
C.gibba (Ehr.) Kunze. 
C. gibbcrula (Ehr?) Kunze. 
C. Muscubis {^vXz^Y^wwzQ,, 
C, Mtiscidtis constricta (Breb.) V. H. 
C, Sorex (Kutz.) Kunze. 
C. Zebra (Ehr.) Kunze. 
Eitnotia Arms Ehr, 
E, diodon Ehr. 
E. impressa Ehr. 
E. major [\W Sm.) Rab. 
E, parallda Ehr. 
E. pectinalis (Dillw ?) Rab. 
E. pracriipta Ehr. 
E. robiista Ralfs. 
E, tetraodon Ehr. 
E. triodon Ehr. 

Goniphomma acitminafuui coronatum Ehr. 
G, Augur Ehr. 

G. capitatiim Ralfs. 



\ 



I 



263 



6\ geminatiun (Lj^ngb.) Ag. 

G, gracile Ehr. 

6^. lanceolatitni Kiitz. 

C olivaceiDn (Lyngb.) Kiitz. 

G. titrgidtini Ehr. 

6^. Vibrio Ehr. 

Hyalodiscus stclligcr Bail. 

Zi^. subtilis Bail. 

Hydrosera (Terpsinoe?) Novae-Caesareae Boyer n. sp. 

At first sight this species might appear to be a variety of Hy- 
drosera {Triccratiuni) trifoliata Cleve, but a close comparison Avill 
show that the two are distinct. 

Triangular, sides concave, angles broad at the base^ equally di- 
vided into three projections, surface sparsely punctate. In Cleve's 
species the angles are cuneate and the middle lobe or tooth is nar- 
rower than the two outer, while the punctae are quite evident except 
at the center of the valve. There is a marked difference In een- 



J 



that from New Zealand. . It is quite common in the deposit and 
is of interest, as there is no form similar to it except that from 
New Zealand with the exception of two specimens noticed by 
Mr. Heinrich Reis in clay found near Cold Spring, Long Island, 
w^hich discovery, however, was antedated by that made in the 
Wildwood material I have not sQ.tn Mr. Reis' specimens, which 



Wild 



ifoliati 



Melosira gramdata (Ehr.) Ralfs. 

Navicula acrosphacria Rab. 

N. affi?ns Ehr* 

N. Americana Ehr. 

JV. bicapitaia Lagerst. 

TV. Bonibus (Ehr.) Kiitz. 

N. Brcbissonii Kiitz, 

N. coluuinaris Ehr. 

N. Crabro (Ehr.) Kiitz. 

N. Dactyhis Ehr. 

N. Dariana A, Schm. 

N. decurrens Kiitz. 

TV, distans (W. Sm.) Ralfs, 

N, clliptica Kiitz. 




264 



N. Hschcri A. Schm. 

N.formosa Greg. 

N. gibba Ehr. 

iV. Hitchcockii Ehr. 

N. htimcrosa Breb. 

iV. Iridis avipliirliymcus Ehr. 

JV". Kamorthensis Grun. 

iV. lathsima Greg. 

A^. Leziisiana Grev. 

A^. Liber linearis (Grun.) V, H. 

A^. limosa Kutz. 

A^. Lyra Ehr. 

N. major KUtz. 

N, inesolcpta Ehr. 

A^. imsolepta nodosa Ehr. 

A^, mcsostyla Ehr. 

A^. iiobilis (Ehr.) Klitz. 

N. pachyptera Klitz. 

N. per magna (Bail.) Edw. . 

N, peregrina (Ehr.?) Kiitz. 

iV. placentida (Ehr.) Kutz. 

N. polyonca Breb. 

N. piisilla W. Sm, 

A^. rhomboidcs Ehr. 

N, sphaerophora Kutz. 

A^. SmitJm Breb. 

A^. stanroptcra parva Grun. 

A^. tab ell aria Klitz, 

N, tcnnitina Ehr. 

A^. trinodis infiata Schultze. 

A^, viridis (Nitzsch) Kiitz. 

Nitzschia Campeachiana Grui 

A^. cirumsuta (Bail. J Grun. 

N. gramdata Grun. 

A^. satin arum Grun. 

A^. scalaris (Ehr. ?) W, Sm. 

N. Sigma (Kutz), W. Sm. 

N. tryblionella maxima Grun. 



M 



¥ 



265 



Odontidiitm mtitabile genuinum Grun. 

Plagiogramma tessellattim Grev., rare. 

Plctirosigma eximium (Thw.) Grun. and CI. 
P, Sciotoaise Sulliv. 

w 

p. Spenccrii [Qwtk.) W. Sm. 
Polyinyxiis coronalis L. W. Bail. 

Pseiidatdisais radiattis Bail. 
Pscudocujiotia flcxitosa (Breb.) Grun. 
RJiapho7tds mnpJnceros Ehr. 
R. Belgica Grun. 
R. gemmifera Ehr. 

w 

R. Rhombus Ehr. 

Staiironcis acuta W. Sm. 

vS, gracilis Ehr. 

5. Phocniccnteron Ehr. 

Surirclla angusta Klitz. 

S. biscriata (Ehr.) Breb. 

S. cruciata A. Schm. 

S, cnimena Breb. 

6". elegans Ehr. 

S. Febigerii Lewis. 

S, oblong a Ehr. 

S, oval is Breb. 

S. ovalis ova fa (Kiitz) V. H. 

S. splendida Ehr. 

S, stnalula Turp, 

^. tenera Greg. 

SURIRELLA WOOLMANIANA PeticoIaS, n. Sp. 

Mr. Peticolas, who discovered several specimens, remarks that 

it differs from 5. Gemma, of which I had at first considered it a 

variety, in '* size, outhne, areolation and the hyahne centre. 

Valves broadly obovate, rounded at both ends; costae slightly 
twisted, not reaching the median line, thus forming a pseudoraphe 
broadenin^i at the centre. Costae and intercostate striae much 
more robust than in .9. Gemma. It somewhat approaches certain 
varieties of ^. striatula. 

Synedra dcHcatissima W. Sm. 
S, tnvestiens W. Sm. 

i 

Terpsinoe Americana (Bail.) Ralfs. 



ft 



266 



Tctracychis emarginahis (Ehr.) W, Sni. • 

T. lacnstiis Ralfs. 

Triceratiurn altcrnans Bail. 

T.faviis Ehr. 

T. sailpUtm Shadb. 

Of the above about 80 are exclusively fresh water forms, 47 ex- 
clusively marine, while the others are found in fresh water and 
brackish or in brackish and marine. 



Preliminary Notes on Nelumbo lutea. 

By Benj. Heritage. 
(Plate 23*.) 

In August, 1890, being desirous of investigating the root 



Neh( 



J 



There were about eight acres thickly covered with the species, 
which presented a most gorgeous sight. 

We procured a boat, and after considerable research, we found 
a place at which the water was but a few inches in depth, over a 
very soft mud. He managed the boat, and seating ourself on its 
bottom, with an arm stripped to the shoulder we selected one of 
the large leaves which had a flower stalk in close proximity. 

These we traced with the hand, down into the ooze, to their 
common point of attachment, which brought the arm up to the 
elbow in the mud. There we found a very dense cluster of fibrous 

w 

roots which were loosened, but this did not release the plant ; as 
there was a horizontal portion, the size of a finger extending from 
It in opposite directions. The truth then dawned upon us that 
this majestic plant is stoloniferous! 

We traced this horizontal stolon or stem until we accidentally 
broke it, before reaching its termination in either direction. Its 
course was quite direct, and lay at a uniform depth of about one 
foot beneath the surface of the mud. 

At short distances we encountered very many other similar 
subterranean vines or stolons — portions of other plants perhaps 



2(37 



lying mostly in the same plane and, crossing the pathway of our 
plant at various angles. 

Such as were above ours had to be severed in order to liberate 
the one we were in quest of. At varying distances we found 
other clusters of roots, from each of which a single, large, peltate 
leaf rose about two feet above the surface of the water, while hi 
the axil of several of them there w^as a flower stalk as tall. At 
many of the nodes we found a branch, each of which we traced 
until It, like the main stem, was accidentally broken, except in two 
instances, in which we secured the growing points. Upon finding 
our plants disconnected with the earth at all points, after about 
four hours' assiduous labor, we carefully took it on board, rowed 
ashore, spread it out upon the grass, and wnth the miller's "ten- 
foot pole " accurately measured it. The main stem was forty- 
seven feet long, and the combined length of the branches forty- 
three; in all ninety feet! It was to us a revelation, and exceed- 
ingly interesting, but it would have been even more so had we 
succeeded in unearthing tho, entire plant which, as It lay upon the 
ground before us, proved itself to be an aquatic vine of gigantic 
proportions. 

The internodes were smooth, dull-white and of a uniform size 
throughout the main stem; they were about half an inch in diam- 
eter and were furnished with seven large air passages arranged in 
a circle equi-distant from a small central one and the epidermis. 
They were plentifully supplied with spiral tissue which could be 
drawn out a quarter of a yard before complete separation took 
place. These internodes varied in length from two feet, which 
was the shortest one in the main stem \,o five feet three inches, the 
longest in our specimen. Those o{ the branches were much 
shorter and their diameter less. Long internodes insured the sep- 
aration of the leaves so that they could fully develop without 
coming in contact with each other, and perhaps the nature of the 
soil favored their growth, in confirmation of which we have st^n 
Carex vestita Willd., growing in compact soil with stolons only a 
few inches long, whereas In an open porous soil they sometimes 
exceed two feet in length between the plants. 

The diameter of the nodes was considerably greater than that 
of the internodes and it was from these alone the roots originated. 



I; 



268 



Later examination has shown the roots to be arranged in six- 
usually-circular clusters placed side by side and extending com- 
pletely around the node, those growing from the upper side of 
the node also follow the general law of root growth, /. e,, descend. 

In those examined the number in each cluster ranged from 14 
to 21, averaging no roots at a node. 

The branches occurred regularly at several consecutive nodes, 
but irregularly at others. They sometimes extended to the right 
and to the left alternately like those of a Cucurbitaceous vine; at 
an estimated angle with the main stem of about 60"^ upon an 
average. 

During the course of our investigation, the queries arose 
whether those long internodes are perennial or survive but a 
single season ? Whether the plantlet at each node has a perma- 
nent character or otherwise; and, if the former prove true, 
whether each node becomes the centre from which new growth 
radiates the following year? 

We contemplated a further inquiry the succeeding spring, hop- . 
ing to solve those questions; but, during the interval, our friend 
was stricken with paralysis and incapacitated for additional re- . 
search, and the matter rested. 

In November last and again a month later, in company with 
Chas D, Lippincott, we visited the locality to inquire into the 
winter status of the plant, as well as to determine more fully its 
method of growth ; and perchance to throw some light upon the 
above questions. The results thus far obtained are here sub- 
mitted. 

We secured many' specimens containing buds, but in every 
instance they were at or near the end of a stem or branch, and 
-consisted of one or generally two tuber-like enlargements of the 
stem following each other consecutively. The Internodes of these 
thickened stems had failed to develop longitudinally more than a 
few inches, while transversely their diameter was greatly in- 
creased. The general structure of the stem was maintianed in the 
tubers, and the leaf buds were invariably found at their ends — the 
nodes— which had undergone but a slight modification. The tubers 
obtained varied from three to eleven inches in length, and very 
closely resembled a banana in appearance, both in regard to shape 



269 



and proportions; except that the color was creamy-white, marked 
with purplish dots. They were generally somewhat flattened on 
' the side from which the lateral bud grew at the next lower node, 
which might indicate that the growth was directed to the develop- 
ment of the bud at that point rather than into that portion of the 
tuber in line with and beyond it. 

Their texture is crisp, and it cuts with that peculiar grating 
which we hear and feel while cutting a raw potato with a thick 
knife; and which is doubtless owing, as Prof. Halsted has shown 
with relation to the winter buds of trees, to the presence of large 
quantities of starch stored during the growing season, for the rapid 
development of the embr\'o leaves in early spring, before they are 
capable of assimilating their nourishment. 

There are at least two kinds of buds shown at the tubers; 
First, lateral leaf buds, developed at the nodes; and secondly, ter- 
minal buds, which contain an embryo vine. They are not uniform 
in size; the largest of the former measured five and one-half 
inches in length, and consisted of a single petiole surmounted by 
an involute blade two inches in diameter; the whole completely 
enveloped by a whitish, brittle succulent sheath, the edges of 
which overlap. 

We obtained some specimens in which growth had extended 
just beyond the full capacity of the sheath, and it had been torn 
completely asunder below the blade, both portions having turned 
black. 

The severed part would doubtless hav^e continued to envelop 
the blade, and it would have been carried up through the mud by 
the lengthening petiole — as the calyptra of Musci is borne up on 
the apex of the capsule — and when its office of protection shall 
have been fulfilled the unfolding leaf will cast it aside. 

The terminal buds are shorter and thicker than the others, and 
include a portion of the future vine. An internode and node, to- 
gether wath its young leaf, are all well formed ; also a growing 
point beyond, and, like the leaf buds, they are protected by a 
similar sheath. 

-L 

We also obtained the black shrunken shells of old tubers, from 
which all the nutriment had been drawn, which, with contiguous 
portions of the vine, were lifeless. 



270 



The roots at the nodes, so far as observation has thus far ex- 
tended, all die in the fall; but we found nnuch vitality still existing 
in the nodes. Portions of the internodes were discolored, had 
lost their rigidity, and were dead; such might have grown early 
in the season, and were the first to die. Other portions appeared 
full of life, and their cells, as well as those of the nodes, were filled 

+ 

with starch grains; but not one of the many nodes examined ex- 
hibited a bud, except as above stated, those at or near the ex- 
tremity of the vines. This absence of buds, and the dead roots, 
suggest the early dissolution of all parts of the plant except those 
last formed. Although other portions of this wonderful plant 
may survive the winter, yet if this prove true it is presumed that 
after growth re-commences in the buds of the tubers, the starch 
in the vines behind 'them will be utilized, after which they will 
probably die. Let investigation be directed to this, as well as to 
other points of interest. 

The living buds are at the ends of the tubers. Back of the 
tubers we have a long vine in which starch is stored, and which 
contains no buds, and show no signs of further growth. From 
this it appears that both the. vines and tubers after being fully de- 
veloped serve merely to store nutritive materials, and to transmit 
them to the growing points. 

We now behold this noble plant not only as a true aquatic, 
subterranean vine, but it is metamorphosed into a migratory vine. 
Why migratory ? Simply because the next year's buds are so far 
removed from the location of those of the last. Just how far a 
plant removes its situation in a single season can only be deter- 
mined by locating one in early spring, tracing it throughout Its 
entire length in the fall, and noting the position of the next year's 
buds. Our specimen furnished ocular demonstration that this re- 
moval must have been more than forty-seven feet ! Is this method 
of growth found in any other genus than Nelumbo? we ask 
for information. The annual character of the growth from each 
particular node Is a most wise provision. If all those plantlets 
survived the winter, and became the centre from which new growth 
proceeded, there soon be an overcrowding ; and none would have 
room to develop naturally when deterioration and extinction would 

eventually ensue. 



271 



We 



seen on every side around us, of unmistakable evidences of per- 
fected thought in their creation, each being pecuh'arly adapted to 
the position it holds in the divine economy. 

I am indebted to Dr. Ida A. Keller for the accompanying 
drawings and explanation of figures. 

MiCKLETON, N. J., 1894. 



Kxplaiiatioii of I^late 23T. 

I. Diagram of vine of N'eliimbo lutea Pers. 
St, St. — main stem 47 feet long. 

X — unknown dist. to tubers with living buds — T. 
X/— " « old tuber shells— O. T. 

II. End of stem )^ of natural size, 
St. — unthickened stem. 

St' — two tubers terminating the stem, 

Sh. — remaining portions of sheaths (black). 

B — terminal bud which will develop into a stem. 

B'. — axillary bud (sheath which covered it removed). 

L. B'. — leaf bud, subtending terminal bud. It has a sheath of its own, which 

has Tio\ been removed, is distinct from the sheath marked Sh, The former is 

not black, the latter is. 
L. B'. — leaf bud, upper portion exposed by removal of sheath, 
R — points from which roots will emerge, these arranged in groups as indicated 

in the drawing. 
R/ — dead roots shovving^their articulations. 

P — petiole of the last leaf of the season (now dead). 

III. — Cross section of vine, tiatural size. 



A — air passage. 



■9 



IV. Cross section of tuber, natural size (shows the flattening). 

V. " " involute leaf bud enlarged. 
A — air passage. 

VI. Starch grains. The largest represented {^) being ,0492X.0328 mm. 



On the Carpels of Opulaster malyacea (Greene). 

This species was originally described by Prof. Greene In Pitt 
2: 30, 1889, as Neillia malvacea, from specimens collected by the 
author himself at the north shore of Lake Pend d'Oreille, in 
Idaho. In the diagnosis of the species it is referred to a section 
of the genus characterized by indehiscent carpels. 



272 



Recently I had occasion to investigate the fruit characters of 



Opulasti 



rupture along well-de- 



fined sutures, although it takes place tardily. The fruit of the 
species is usually 2-carpellary,very rarely 3-carpellary. Each carpel 
is from 1-3-ovuled, developing as many or fewer seeds; the usual 



number is i or 2. At maturity'the carpel is nearly triangular, 



much flattened, not at all inflated, and when well developed 
it measures about 4.5 mm. in length, and 3.5 mm. in width across 
the broadest portion. The seeds are oblong, somewhat com- 
pressed, nearly 2 mm. long and 1.3 mm. wide, grayish in color, 
with a firm polished testa and extremely bitter taste. The two 
carpels seen together bear a great deal of resemblance to the 
silicle of a Lcpidiuui as Prof. Greene notes. 

The carpels are connate except at the divergent apices. They 
usually separate along a lateral line at maturity. Occasionally 
this line of demarcation does not form and they remain united. 
The pedicels commonly fall away from the axis of inflorescence 
in autumn or early winter by the development of a constriction at 
their bases, carrying the unopened fruit with them. The dehis- 
cence of the carpels does not usually occur until after they reach the 
ground, but if the pedicels are not detached from the axis of the 
corymb in the fall, which sometimes happens, the carpels will 
rupture in the spring while retaining their original position and 
enfolded by the persistent cal3'x. 

The dehiscence of the carpels takes place along two sutures, a 
ventral and a dorsal. In the majority of the cases that have come 
under my observation the inner or ventral suture opens first, the 
fissure beginning near the apex or at the point of juncture of the 
carpels, and is complete from base to summit. The outer or dorsal 
suture opens immediately after the rupture of the Inner, but the 
line of dehiscence extends across the top of the carpel only- 
Owing to this circumstance the carpel is never two-valved in de- 
hisence, apparently a new character in our North American 



Opulasti 



be considered as follicular. 



When the carpels are so firmly united that no lateral separation 
between them takes place the inner suture opens through both 
simultaneously. John B. Leiberg.^ 

Hope, Idaho, March gth, 1895. 



273 



Two new mountain Plants. 



By Merritt Lyndon Ffrnald. 



Aster Hendersoni n sp, . 

Stem slender, 3 or 4 feet high, cinereous-pubescent, almost la- 
nate, except toward the glabrate base, branching above the mid- 
dle, the densely cienerous branches bearing single terminal heads, 
or themselves divided into naked or scarcely leafy branchkts; 
leaves thin, cinereous on both surfaces, especially on the mid-rib, 
or becoming glabrate above, the entire margins often ciliate; tlie 
upper cauline oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 2 or 3 inches long, 
with auricled clasping bases, the lower oblanceolate, conspicuously 
narrowed above the clasping bases, 4-6 inches long; leaves on 
the branchlets few, scarcely an inch long, often so few as to give 
the appearance of almost naked peduncles; heads large, an 
inch or two across, 4-6 lines high; involucre of two or three 
loose rows of cinereous linear-attenuate bracts, mostly herbaceous, 
but the inner sometimes scarious below, rarely with one two nar- 
row foliaceous bracts; the fifty or more bkie rays j^-^ inch 
long, a line wnde. 

Collected by Prof. L. F. Henderson (No. 2798) in rich moist 
meadows along the St, Maries River, Kootenai county, Idaho, 
August 5, 1894. 

Closely related io puniceus and Cusickii, The involucre is like 
the former, but the plant is more slender, with no trace of the stiff 
pubescence and harsh serrate leaves 'of that species, while the 
lower cauline leaves are contracted above the clasping bases as in 
Custckii, .Hendersoni has the same pubescence as Cusickii van 
Lyalli Gray, but this latter plant has much broader leaves, and the 
outer bracts of the involucre are very broad and foliaceous, and, 
according to Prof. Henderson, it grows in more open and drier 
bottoms than the plant here described, 

Carex scabrata X CRiMTA n. hyb. 

Either stout or slender, the leaves and culm harsh as in sca- 
brata; spikes 5-7, mostly androgynous, varying from ^ to i^ 
inches in length, the upper nearly sessile, the lower on peduncles 
an inch or more long, slightly spreading ; scales lanceolate or 
ovate-lanceolate, with brown scarious margins, and strong green 
mid-veins sometimes continued into rough awns 2-3 times as long 
as the perigynia, sometimes not equalling the perigynia; peri- 
gynia broadly ovate, with the few nerves either obscure or well 



274 



marked, some of them puncticulate, others slightly puberulent; 
the beak short and entire. 

Collected by Dr. Geo. G. Kennedy in a damp hollow near the 

Crawford Bridle Path, on Mt. Clinton, N. H., August 20, 1891. 



V 



Cryptogamic Notes from Long Island. III. 

r 

By Smith Ely Jelliffe, M. D. 

F 

DiATOMACEAE, 



Amphora ovalis Kutz, 
Cymhella Cistula Hcmpr. 
Encyonema ventricosum Kutz. 
Stauroneis acuta \Y. Sm. 
Stauroneis anceps Ehrb. 
Stattroneis gracilis Ehrb. 
Stauroneis Phoenicenteron Ehrb, 
Navicula Americana Ehrb. 

Naviciila ainbigua Ehrb. 
Navicula Jla7n ma A, Sch. var. 
Navicula cuspidate Kutz. 
Navicula dilatata Ehrb. 
Navicula Jirma Kutz, 
Navicula laevissima Kutz, 
Navicula gibba (Kutz.) Ehrb, 
Navicula Hitchcockii Ehrb, 
Navicula apis Kutz. 
Navicula lata Breb, 
Navicula Lyra Ehrb. 
Navicula major Kutz. 
Navicula marina Ralfs. 
Navicula radiosa Kutz. 
Navicula rhyncocephala Kutz, 
Navicula varians Greg. 
Navicula viridis Kutz. 
Pleurosigma angulatum W. Sm. 
Fleurosigma Balticum W, Sm, 
Pleurosigma elongatum W, Sm, 
Pleurosigma Spencerii \V. Sm. 
Amphiprora ornata Bailey. 
Gomphonema acuminatum Ehrb. 
Gomphonema capitatum Ehrb, 
Gomphonema constrictum Ehrb. 
Rhoikosphenia curvata (Kutz.) Grun 
Achnanthes hrevipes Ag. 



^ 



275 



AcJiJtanthes longipes Ag. 
Achnanthes subsessilis Ehrb. 
Cocconeis Pedicularis Ehrb. 

J 

Cocconeis scutellum Ehrb. 
Epithemia gibba (Ehrb.) Kutz.' 
Epithemia turgida (Ehrb.) Kutz. 
Etmotit lunaris (Ehrb.) Grun. 
Eunotia tridentula Ehrb. 
Eunotia major (W. Sm.) Rab. 
Synedra ajfiyiis Kutz, 
Synedrafulge7zs (Kutz.) W. S. 
Synedra pulchella Kutz. 
Synedra longissima Kutz. 
Synedra lanceolata Kutz. 
Synedra Ulna (Nitzsch.) Ehrb. 
Fragilaria capticina Desmaz, 
Asterionella forrnosa Hass. 
Mcridion circulare Ag. 
Tessela interrupta Ehrb. ? 
Tabellaria fenestrata Kutz. 
Tabellaria Jlocculosa (Roth.) Kutz. 
GrafUfnatophora marina Kutz. 
Rhabdonema Adriaticum Kutz. 
Cy77tatopleura elliptica (Breb.) \V. Sm 
Cymatopleura Solea (Breb.) W. Sm. 
Surirella elegans Ehrb. 
Nitzschia fasciculata Grun. 
I^itzschia gracilis Hautzsch. 
I^ifzschia scalaris (Ehrb.) W, Sm. 
Nitzschia sigmoidea (Ehrb.) W. Sm, 
^itzschia tabellaria Grun. 
Melosira Borrerii Grev. 
^'^'^-elosira granulata (Ehrb.) Ralfs, 

Melosira varians Ag. 
^iddiilphia laevis Ehrb. 
■Biddiilphia pulchella Gray. 
d^hizosolenia gracilis H. L. S. 
Triceratiu7n alternans Bailey. 
Eupodiscus radiatus Bailey. 



Botanical Notes. 



Part VI. of this valuable series of 



thin sections of Korth American woods, together with the letter 
press to accompany Parts IV. and V., have recently been dis- 



276 



tributed to subscribers. The six parts now issued contain tangen- 
tial, radial and transverse slices of 150 pieces of trees, and form an 
nvaluable part of the equipment of arty botanical museum. Cross 
sections' of these woods mounted as lantern slides are also pre- 
pared by Mr. Hough. Descriptive matter and specimens of the 
work rtiay be obtained from him by addressing R. B. Hough, 
Lowville, N. Y, 

Photographs of Fungi, We have received from Mr. C. G. 
Lloyd, of Cincinnati, the tirst set of a series of photographs and 
photogravures of the larger fungi, prepared by him for distribu- 
tion among a limited number of students. The execution of these 
photographs is excellent and they cannot fail to be of great aid to 
mycologists. The species are determined by Mr. A. P. Morgan, 
of Preston, Ohio. Mr. Lloyd informs us that the sets are not for 
sale. 



Reviewsi 

Guide to the Study of com)}wn Plants. An Introduction to Bo- 
tany, V. M. Spaulding. 2nd edition, pp. 287. Boston, D. C. 
Heath & Co. 1895. 

The second edition differs from the first mainly in the addition 
of a glossary and index of botanical terms, an index of plant 
names, and a chapter on fungi. 



The text has undergone some alterations and a number of ad- 
ditions have been made to the reviews and summaries at the ends 
of chapters. The chapter on Fruits has been completed by a few 
pages on •' The Organs of Plowerless Plants." 

The chapters on ferns and club mosses have been simplified by 
the omission of the anatomy and developmental history, although 
the latter reappears in a review and summary of the Vascular 
Cryptogams. Many additions have been made to the ** special 
studies," particularly in the portion of the book 'devoted to the 



^ 



families of flowering plants. 



E. A. S. 



A preliminary List of the Mosses of Minnesota. John M. He 
zinger. (Minn. Bot. Studies, Bull. No. 9, March 5th, 1895). 

This list Includes 156 species, arranged according to Renau 
and Cardot's h"st, with the addition of one new variety, Amblyodon 
dealbatus var. Americanus, R. & C. ined., which has been distrib- 



Id 



9 



i i 



uted as No. i8o of their Musci. Am. bor. Exsicc, witli description 
and notes in their observations. These specimens should be com- 
pared with J/. Maconnii Aust. which has been referred to Aviblyo- 
dan dealbatiis in the Manual. Gymiiostomuni aifvirostfum van 
scabnun is also an addition to the flora, not having previously 
been reported. We find several typographical errors, one of 
which is guilty of making a synomym for Coscinodon Raiii. We 
have two sets of specimens from the Bluffs at Winona, and have 
not found t7., Wrightii among them, but C, Rani does occur, and 
the fact that M. Cardot has determined it as C. Rcnauldi, adds 
another point to my argument that the species are identical. 

The citation of authorities for CynodontiiDii Wahlenber 
(Brid.) Hartm. is incorrectly given, and P]iysco))ntrhim py)ifo)ute 
is listed on Cardot's determination. We have not yet seen an 
American specimen which agreed with this species, and the ones 

■ 

sent to us by M. Cardot bearing this name are not excepted. 
Physcoinitrella patens (Hedw.) Br. & Sch. should be added as hav- 
ing been collected by Miss Sheldon at Fort Snelling, Minn., Octo- 



^> 



ber, 1894, E. G. B. 

On nczv Species of Cretaceous Plants front Vanco2tver Island, 

J. W. Dawson. Trans. Roy. Soc Canada, sec. 4 : S'^-72, pi. j-T^. 
1893. 

In this paper are included descriptions of twenty-eight new 
species, some of which are, however, certainly referable to pre- 
viously described species. The figures are poor and some of the 
material upon which new species are founded is too fragmen- 
tary to be satisfactory. In deference, doubtless, to certain critics 
of palaeobotany the author finds it advisable to use these words: 
'* I think it proper to sa}- that I cannot be expected to pledge my- 
self for the accuracy of the generic names attached to mere leaves. 
^^'hen the fruit shall be found connected with them, they may re- 
quire very different reference. At present they merely stand as 
forms of certain types characteristic of a certain geological age, 
and admitting of more or less accurate comparison with modern 
plants," which sentence he sums up quite concisely all that the 
palaeobotanists claims for his determinations. A chapter on the 
value of fossil plants as indices of climate in the past completes 
the paper. A. H. 



n 



278 



Field, Forest and Garden Botany, by Asa Gray, revised and ex- 
tended by L. H. Bailey. 

This once popular little manual, first published in 1869, had 
never been revised nor re-edited by its author, and, in conseqence, 
had, in time, lost much of its value and become somewhat obso- 
lete. Prof. C. R. Barnes began a much needed revision which wa5 
later taken up and has just been successfully carried through by 
Prof. Bailey. Considering the nature of the task it is doubtful 
whether anybody else was as well equipped for it. 

The reviser states that his first aim was to preserve, as far as 
possible, the method of the original, attempting *' nothing more 
than to bring it down to date." The work, however, has been 
more thorough and extensive than those words would imply ; not 
only were the nomenclature and definition corrected, but the an- 
alytical keys and grouping of species into sections have been re- 
arranged and much new matter added, so that the original of 3/4 
pages has been increased to 503 pages. The added matter con- 
sists of no less than "^2 genera and 533 species, the total number 
of species being 3203, of which 1784 are indigenous and 1419 
extra-limital (in cultivation). To give a few examples taken at 
random : Clematis has now 17 described species instead of i.l in 
the original ; Magnolia, 8 species and hybrids instead of 3 ; Bras- 
sica, 8 instead of 5 ; Tilia, 6 instead of 3 ; Pninus, 29 instead of 19 i 
Pyrns, i5 instead of 10; Canna, ii instead of 5 ; Palms, 17 instead 
of 4, &c., and the quality has kept pace with the quantity. The 
typography is also very much improved, being even better than 

that of Gray's Manual, and, indeed, about as perfect as one could 
desire. 

This book is intended to remain, as before, a companion to the 
Manual, and the nomenclature and definition are made to conform 
strictly with it ; whatever shortcomings, therefore, the Manual is 
guilty of in these respects are shared by its companion work. A 
very welcome innovation is the citation of the authority after each 
name ; this, in our day, has become a necessity in a work with any 
pretention to exactness. 

As would be expected, special attention was devoted to culti- 
vated plants, Avhether ornamental or useful, native or introduced; 
in this respect the revision is remarkably complete, including even 



279 



such comparatively recent introductions as Akcbia qiiinata, Acti- 
fiidia polygama, Solaniim imiricattim, etc. It is not only the best, 
but, I may say, the only work descriptive of our domesticated 
flora. It will be heartily welcome by the many who have neither 
time nor facilities for the pure study oi systematic botany, but 
who, nevertheless, love flowers and takes an intelligent interest in 
the wealth of decorative and useful plants which surround them on 



on all sides. 



V. H. 



Pflanzenkranhhcitcn durch kryptoganicn Parasiten verursacJit 
Karl Freiherr von Tubeuf. Berlin, 1895. 

This book is a condensed treatise on plant "parasitism" or 
"symbiosis" in its widest sense. Unfortunately the term plant- 
disease (Pflanzenkrankheit) is not defined, but the reader is led to 
assume that any change produced in a plant due to a ** symbiotic" 
or "parasitic" relation with another plant is considered a plant 
disease. 

The attempt is made to treat the physiological and morpho- 
logical relations of parasitism from a comparative standpoint. 
Physiological and anatomical details are not entered into as that 
would be both impossible and unnecessary because of the copious 
citations of special authors whom the specialist interested may 
consult. All the authorites quoted are recent and standard. With 
few exceptions the figures are excellent. The numerous photo- 
graphs are especially interesting. 

The student of general botany will no doubt find Part I. the 
most interesting. Here the author has very briefly outlined his 
conception of parasitism in the wider sense. Here he also shou*s 
his greatest originality. Especially interesting are his distinctions 
between MutKalisin (" Mutualismus ") and Nuhicism (*'Nutri- 
cismus "). By the former is meant that form of parasitism in which 
the two symbionts mutually benefit each other. As the most im- 
portant examples are to be mentioned the lichens. Here two or- 
ganisms, an alga and a fungus live together for mutual benefit. 
He emphasizes the fact that this symbiosis has so changed the 
life history of the two organisms that they combine to form a nciv 
organism. This union of two originally distinct organisms to 
form an independent organism he dts\gr\dXt% '' iitdividnalisiny By 
nutricism is meant that form of parasitism in which one of the 



280 



symbionts is not benefited because no assistance is required. As 
an example may be mentioned the mycorhiza of certain trees and 
the mycodomatiae (rhizobia) of Leguminosae. Here the author 
supposes that the infecting fungus works in the interest of the 
plant infected without receiving any benefit in return. 

In Part I. are also given various approved methods and means 
for guarding against infection of pernicious parasites and how to 
to destroy them after infection has taken place. 

Part II., which is by far the most extensive, treats of " phyto- 
pathogenic fungi and algaeV It is essentially a systematic de- 
scription of the infecting fungi and algae based upon the most re- 
cent investigations and conclusions. 

w 

Taken all in all, this work is certainly a most valuable contri- 
bution to the science of botany. It will prove of great benefit to 
all botanists. The condensed retrospect of the subject will suffice 
for the general student, while the citations will be found very useful 
by the special student. 

Language and style are scientifically clear and simple. Only a 
a few of the figures are borrowed, Albert Schneider. 

A Monograph of the North American Species of the GemiS Poly- 
gonnm^ by John Kunke! Small. This work, a folio of 183 pages 
(not counting the plates)^ was issued on the 23d of April, 1895, as 
the first volume of Memoirs from the Department of Botany of 
Columbia College. 

In the introduction, after discussing the position of the family 
to which it has given a name, the relation of the g^nns Polygonum 
to its allies is taken up and considered. Then follow chapters on 
the geographical distribution of the species, the general morphol- 
ogy of the genus, the anatomy of the stem and general anatomy. 

Natural and distinct as the genus appears, it admits of division 
into well-marked sub-genera, nine of which contain representa- 
tives in the New Worid, viz. : Bistorta, Aconogonon, Persicaria, 
Amblyogon, Tovaria, Avicularia, Duravia, Tiniaria and Echino- 
caulon. These, as described and figured by Dr. Small, including 
a fossil species from the Miocene Tertiary of Colorado, number /i- 
Each of them is illustrated by an uncolored outline-drawing on a 
separate sheet, so admirably executed as to make the salient charac- 



L 



281 



ters clear to the eye, and the descriptions on the opposite pages 

are models for their terse and accurate use of botanical termi- 
nology. 

The new species, 9 in all and the varieties 8, form a large 
addition to the genus. 

The latter part of the volume is devoted to the comparative 
anatomy of the stems of certain species, accompanied by 15 ex- 
cellent plates, which exhibit such div^ersities of internal structure 
as to afford essential aid in support of sub-generic and even specific 
distinctions. 

To withhold recognition, so fairly earned and so worthy of 
acknowledgment, from a work like this would be wrong. It is 



highly creditable both to the author and to the college whose 
ample resources and friendly help enabled him to produce it. 
The fruit, not of a hasty and rapid incursion, but of persistent, 
patient and thorough study of the field which it covers, the con- 
tribution it has made to science is solid and will endure. What 
Dr. Engelmann did for Jnncus has now been done for Polygonum, 
and more oi just this kind oi labor is needed for the better eluci- 
dation of our North American Flora. T. C. P. 



Proceedings of the Club. 

Tuesday Evening, May 14TH, 1895 



The President in the chair and 22 persons present. 

Mr. A, Ruth and Mr. W. A. Bastedo were elected active 



members. 

The editor announced the pubh'cation of the. third part of Vol. 
4 of the Memoirs, and stated that the fourth part would contain a 
paper by Mrs. Pettit on Arachis hypogaca. 

Mr, Lighthipe reported excellent progress in the rearrange- 
ment of the herbarium. 

The announced papers of the evening were then presented. 

I. By Mr. George V. Nash, "The North American Species of 
the Genus Cenchnis^' illustrated by specimens. 



M 



hyp 



282 



Dr. N. L. Britton exhibited a series of lantern-slides of cross- 
■ions nf North American Woods, oreoared bv Mr. R. B. Hough. 



Wednesday Evening, May 29TH, 1895. 

Vice-President Lighthipe in the chair and 32 persons present. 

Miss Rose T. Roux, Mr. James A. Graves and Mr. Frederick 
King Vreeland were elected active members. 

Mr. Barnhart reported the occurrence of Azalea hitca L. {A^ 
calendiilacca Michx.) in an apparently native state near Tarry town, 
N. Y., and remarked on the distribution of this species, which is 
not recorded in recent writings from further northeast than the 
mountains of Pennsylvania. Dr. Britton called the attention of 
the Club to the recorded occurrence of a yellow-flowered Azalea 
in southern New York by Governor Cadwallader Golden about 
the middle of the last century, and that Colden's account of it had 
been made a part of the citations by Linnaeus of his Azalea hitea 
^'^ 1753- Linnaeus later abandoned the name lutea on account of 
having received specimens of the pink-flowered species which he 
described as A. nudiflora In 1762, supposing them to be the same. 
I\Ir. Barnhart's discovery is an interesting confirmation of the posi- 
tion taken in the recently issued *' List of Northeastern North 
American Plants" that the name A. hitea L. must replace A. calen- 
dnlacea Michx. 

IMr. Barnhart also reported that AUiaria Alliaria, found by him 
last year at Hastings, N, Y., had this year spread over a consider- 
able area and was well established. 

The announced paper of the evening was read by Mr. A. A. 
Tyler on *' Stipules in the Family Rosaceae," illustrated by speci- 
mens and drawings. It was discussed by Dr. Schneider and Dr. 
Britton. 

The Club then adjourned to the second Tuesday evening in 
October. 



-h 



\ 



ri 
■ 



\ 



283 



Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany. 



1895, 



J- C. ' Joseph Schroeter. Bot. Gaz. 20: 230-232. 20 My. 



Atkinson, G. F. Intelligence manifested by the Swarm Spores of 
Rhizophidiiim globosimi, Bot. Gaz. 19: 503, 504. 1894. 

1 

Atkinson, G. F. On the Swarm Spores oi Pythiu7n and Cerafiomyxa, 
(Abstract.) Proc. Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43: 290, 291. Mr. 1895. 

Atkinson, G. F. Relations between the Functions of the Vegetative 
and Reproductive Leaves of Onoclea. (Abstract.) Proc. Am. Assn. 
Adv. Sci. 43; 290. Mr. 1895. 

Atkinson, G, F* The Exoascaceae of Stone Fruits. Gard. &For. 7: 
463, 464- 1894- 

r 

Atkinson, G. F. The Extent of the Annulus and the Function of the 

H 

different parts of the Sporangium of Ferns in the Dispersion of 



Spores. Int. J 



Ap. 1894. (Reprinted 



) 



Barnes, C. R, Vitality oi Mars ilia quadrifolia. Bot. Gaz. 20; 229. 
20 My. 1895. 

Bastin, E. S. Structure of Sassafras. Am. Journ. Pharra. 67; 312- 
318./ 1-4, Je. 1895. 

Benedict, A. L. Tabular Review of Organography prepared for the 
Use of Classes in Botany. Pamph. pp. 21. [Buffalo] 1895. 

Bessey, C. E. Botany of the Plums and Cherries. Ann. Rept. Ne- 
braska State Hort. Soc. 1895: 163-178. 1895. 

Descriptions and illustrations of various species of Frunus, mostly North Ameri- 



can. 



Bessey, C. E. The Botany of the Grape. Ann. Rept. Nebraska 
State Hort. Soc. 1895: 7-26./. 12. 1895. 

Descriptions and figures of various species of Vitis^ mostly North American, 

Bicknell, E. P. Hypericmn boreale (Britton) and related Species. 
Bulk Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 211-215. 15 My. 1895. 

Blight, R. The Origin of the Orange. Rural Californian, 18: 224- 
226, My, 1895. (Reprinted from N, Y. Evening Post.) 

Historical resume. 

Britton, E. G. A. Hybrid Among the Mosses. (Abstract.) Proc. 
Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43: 292. Mr, 1895. 



284 



Britton, N. L. New and noteworthy North American Phanerogams. 
IX. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 220-225. 15 My. 1895. 

New species in Carex, Allionia and Raminculus, 

Britton, N. L. Notes on the Primary Foliage and the Leaf-scars of 
Finns rigida. (Abstract.) Proc. Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43: 293. 
Mr. 1895. 

Budd, E. M. Laws of Floral Colors. Rep. Iowa State Hort. Soc. 
28: 53-56. 1894. 

Bush, B. F. Notes on the Mound Flora of Atchison county, Mis- 
souri, Ann. Rep. Mo. Bot, Gard. 6: 121-134. 1895. 

Card, F. W. Two wild Vegetables of Merit. Gard. & For. 8 : 223. 



t- 



5 Je- 1895. 

The two plants in question are Lactuca Canadensis and Astragalus crassicarptts. 

Chamberlain, C. J. The Embryo-sac of Aster Novae- AngUae, Bot. 
Gaz. 20: 205-212.//. 75, 16, 20 My. 1895. 

Chalmot, G. de. The Influence of Nitrates on Germinating Seeds. 
Agric, Sci. 8: 463-465. Mr, 1895. 

Cook, A. J. Parthenogenesis among Plants. Rural Californian, 18; 
237-238. My. 1895. 

Discusses effect of pollen on development of fruits. 

Coulter, J. M, Some Affinities Among Cactaceae. (Abstract.) Proc. 
Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43: 286-287. Mr. 1S95. 

Crozier, A. A. What is Common Millet? Agric. Sci. 8: 449. Mr, 
1895. 

Davenport, G. E. Aspidium swiulatum Dav. Bot. Gaz. 20: 229, 
230. 20 My. 1895. 

Dietel, P. New North American Uredineae. Erythea, 3: 77-82. i 
My. 1895. 

New species in Aecidinni^ Uromyces and Putcinia, 

Franceschi, Y. Agaves in Southern California. Gard. & For. 8: 
228. 5 Je. 1895. 

Galloway, B. T. Some Factors influencing the Health of Plants 
under Glass. The Florists* Exchange, 468-469. Ap. 1895. 

Ganong, W. F. Present Problems in the Anatomy, Morphology and 
Biology of the Cactaceae. Bot, Gaz. 20: 129-138. 20 Ap. 1895 : 
213-221. 20 My. 1S95. 

Greene, E. L. Corrections in Nomenclature. — ^^''11. Erythea, 3 : 75; 
76. I My. 1895. 






285 



Greene, E. L, Novitates occidentales.— XIII. Erythea, 3: 69-73. 
I My. 1895. 

New species in Raniinctdus, Braya, Erysimum, Kibes, Mentzelia, Dodecatheon^ 
Solanum^ Mimuhis and Crepis. 

Greene, E. L. Problems in modern Botany. Bull. Catholic Univ. 
1 : 200-212. Ap. 1895. 

Halsted, B. D. Notes upon a Root Rot of Beets. (Abstract.) Proc. 
Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43: 293. Mr. 1895. 

Halsted, B. D. Notes upon Chalara paradoxa. (Abstract.) Proc. 
Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43: 293. Mr. 1S95. 

Halsted, B. D. Notes upon Poisonous Plants. Gard. & For. 8: i 
My. 1895. 

Hariot, M. P. Algues du Golfe de California. Journ. de Bot. 9 : 167- 
170. I My. 1895. 

New species are described in LithotJuxmJiion and Lyngbya, 

Havard, V. Further Remarks on Family Nomenclature, Bull. Torn 
Bot. Club, 22 : 216-219. 15 My. 1895. 

Havard, V. When is ^/lus Toxicodendron most active? Gard. &: 
For. 8: 203. 22 My. 1895, 

Hollick, A. A new fossil Liriodendron from the Laramie at Walsen- 
berg, Colo, and its Significance. (Abstract.) Proc. Am. Assn. Adv. 
Sci. 43 : 225. Mr. 1895. 

Hollick, A. Descriptions of new Leaves from the Cretaceous (Dakota 
Group) of Kansas. Bull. Torr, Bot. Club, 22: 225-228. //. 236, 
237. 15 My. 1895. 

Hooker, J. D. Argylia ca?iescens. Curt. Bot, Mag. 51: //. 74^4- 
My. 1895. 

A native of Chili. 

Hooker, J. D. Vacci?iium erythrocarpum. Curt. Bot. Mag. 51: //. 
74^3' My. 1895. . 

Hue, I'Abbc. Lichens de Californie. Journ. de Bot. 9 : 108-1 13. 16 
Mr. 1895. 

Enumeration of a small collection made by M. Diguet in 1894 in the Sierra de la 
Laguna at an altitude of 1800 m. 

Jack, J, G. Some unusual androgynous Flower-clusters. Gard. & 
For. 8: 222./. jj. 5 Je. 1895. 

Keener, A. E. -Collinsia bicolor. Bot. Gaz. 20: 232. 2oMy. 1S95. 
Keffer, C. A. Bull Pine in the West. Gard. & For. 8 : 163. 24 
Ap. 1895. 



286 



Keffer, C. A. Conifers in the West. Gard. & For. 8: 182. 8 My. 
1S95. 

t 

Lloyd, F. E. A new Violet. Erythea, 3 : 74. i My, 1895. 

Viola Macloskeyi from Oregon. 

Maxwell, C. F. Some morphological Relationships of the Cactaceae. 
Trans. Texas Acad. Sci. i : 29-31./, 7-5. 1895. 

Meehan, T. Amorpha canescens, Meehans' Month. 5: 101-102. 
Je. 1895. 

Newcombe, F. C. Regulatory Growth of Mechanical Tissue. (Ab- 
stract.) Proc. Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43; 287, 2S8. Mr, 1895. 

Nicholson, G. The Magnolias. Gardn. Chron, 17: 515,516. 27 
Ap. 1895. 

Pammel, L. H. Diseases of Foliage and Fruit, Rep, Iowa State 
Hort. Soc. 28: 467-474. 1894. 

Pammel, L, H. Diseases of the Cherry, Rep. Iowa State Hort, 
Soc. 28: 248-253. 1894. 

Pammel, Lr. H. Is Parsnip Poisonous? Gard. & For. 8: 228. 5 
Je. 1S95. 

Pammel, L- H. Results obtained in crossing Cucurbits. Rep. Iowa 
State Hort. Soc. 28: 320-322, 1894. 

Patterson, Mrs. F. W. Species of Taphrma parasitic on Fopuliis. 
(Abstract.) Proc, Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43: 293, 294, Mr. 1895. 

Peck, C. H. New Species of Fungi. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22 : 
198-211. 15 My. 1895. 

New species in Lepiota^ Clitocybe^ Collybia, Mycena^ 0?nphal{a, Hygrophortis^ 
Entoloma^ Leptonia^ Eccilia, Pkoliota^Hebeloma^ Fla?nmula^ Tubaria^Pluteohis^ 
Corttnarius, Agaricus^ Stropharia, Hypkoloma, Panaeolus^ Coprinus^ Boletinus, 
Boletus^ Polyporus, Sparasszs, Battarrea^ Tylostoma^ Lycoperdon^ ExciptiHf^^i 
Melasmiay Caeoma, Aspergillus, Leptoglossum and Valsa. 

Philippi, R, A. Plantas nuevas Chilenas. Ann. Univ. Chil. 54-57- 
1893-1894. 

Enumeration and description of a large number of new species. 

Pollard, C- L. The genus Zenobia Don. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 
23^? 232. 15 My. 1895, 

Rolfe, R. A. New Orchids. Kew Bull, 98. F. 1895. 

Three new species are described from South America. ^ 

Rose, J. W. A blue Water-Lily from Mexico. Gard. & For. 8; 205. 
/. SI. 22 My. 1895, 

Illustrating a species supposed to be Castalia elegans (Hook,) Greene. 



\ 



287 



Rothrock, J. T. The Beech {Fagus ferrugmea Ait.). Forest Leaves 
5: 40-41. Je. 1895. 

With two illustrations. ■ ^ 

Sargent, C. S. An Arizona Agave. Gard. & For. 8 : 1S4./. 28. S 
My. 1894. 

Illustration of Agave ITuachucacensis, 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. Rhododendron Vaseyi. Gard. & For. 8: 
214. 29 My. 1895. 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. Sanguinaria Canadensis. Gard. & For. 8: 
214. /j^. 29 My. 1895. 

Schneider, A. The biological Status of Lichens. Eulh Torr. Bot. 
Club, 22: 189-198. 15 My. 1895. 

Smith, E. F. The Watermelon Disease of the South. (Abstract.) 
Proc. Am. Assn. Adv. Sci. 43 : 289, 290. Mr. 1S95. 

Smith, J. G. Notes and Observations on new or little known 
Species. Am. Rep. Mo. Gard. 6: 1 13-1 19. //. 48-56, 25 Ap. 

New sjiecies are described in Sedum^ ZephyratttheSy Sagittaria and Eragrostis, 

Smith, J. G. Revision of the North American Species of Sagittaria 
and Lophotocarpus, Am. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 6: 27-64.//. i-2g. 
24, My. 1894. 

Sprenger, C. Beitrag zur Kentnis der Agave Americana. Monats. 
Kakteenk. 5: 51. 20 Ap. 1895. 

Stephani, F. Hepaticarum species novae. — VIL (Schluss). Hed- 
wigia, 34 : 49-65. 8 Ap. 1895. 

Describes new species in Isotachis^ Jitngcrmania^ Kaittia^ Archikjeunea and 
BracJiiolejeunea mostly from South America, 

Stone, G. E. Plant Diseases. Rep. Mass. Agric. Coll. 1894. [reprint.] 

Sturgis, ^V. C, Report of Mycologist. Rep. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. 
17 : 72-1 1 1. //. 2, 1894. 

Treats of apple scab, grape mildew, quince rot, celery blight, tobacco rots, etc., with 
remedies. 

Thomas, M. B., and Dudley, W. R. A Laboratory Manual of Plant 
Histology. 8vo. pp. 300. Cravvfordsville, 1894. 

Tight, W. G* Notes from the Botanical Laboratory. Bull. Sci. Lab. 
Denison Univ. 8: part 2, 7-12./. i-g. F. 1894. 

Notes on Phalliis Daetnomim and on some floral monstrosities. 

Tourney, J. W. Echinocactiis Wislizeni and some related Species. 
Gard. & For. 8: 154./. -?/. i My. 1895. 



\ 



288 



Tracy, S. M., and Earle, F. S. New Species of parasitic Fungi. 
Bull. Torn Bot. Club, 22: 174-179. 18 Ap. 1895. 

New species in Puccinia^ Ustilago^ Dimerosporhiniy Asteridizim^ Laestadia^ 
Sphaerella^ Lemhosia^ Vcrmicida7'iay Diplodia^ Hendersonia^ Pestalozzia^ Scoleco- 
trichnm^ Cercospora and Tetraploa, mostly from Mississippi, 

Uline, E. B., and Bray, W. L. Synopsis of North American Ama- 
ranthaceae. — TI. Bot. Gaz. 20 : 155-161. 20 Ap. 1895. 

The genera Acnida and Gomphrena. Describes A, tamuriscina prostrata as 
new, 

r 

Underwood, L. M. The Evolution of the Hepaticae. Proc. Am. 

Assn. Adv. Sci. 43 : 259-274. Illust. Mr. 1895. 

Vail, A. M, A preliminary List of the North American Species of 
Malpighiaceae and Zygophyllaceae. Bull, Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 228- 
231. 15 My. 1895. 

Establishes the gemis Covillea in place oi Larrea Cav. (nom. praeoc). 

Webber, H. J. Studies on the Dissemination and Leaf Reflexion of 
. Yucca aloifolia and other Species. Ann. Rep. Mo, Bot. Gard. 6 : 
91-112. //. 45-47^ 1895. 

Weed, C. M. The Cultivation of Specimens for Biological Study. 
Pamph. pp. 22./, ij. 1895. 

Wilder, Burt G. Evidence as to the former Existence of large Trees 
on Nantucket Island. Proc. Am, Assn. Adv. Sci, 43 : 294. Mr. 1895. 

Zenetti, P. Das Leitungs system im Stamm von Osmunda regalis L. 
und dessen Uebergang in den Blattstiel. Bot. Zeit. 53 : 53-78, //. 2. 
16 Ap. 1895. 



BULLETIN OF THE TORRFA' BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 23S 




NELUMBO LUTEA, 



■m 

Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia Colleg 









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No. 4, A List of Plants Collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San Diego, Texas. By 

K L. Britton and H. H. Rusby(i887), 25 cents. 

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America, 1886-1887. ^7 N. L. Britton. (Tweaity tliree parts published; 

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No. 9. A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at Fort Verde and in the 

Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, 1884-1888. By N. L. 
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The General Floral Characters of the San Francisco and Mogollon Mountains 

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^o. 17, The Flora of the Desert of Atacama. By Tlios. Morong (1891), . 25 cents. 
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Some ne\v- and rare Desmids of the United 

—11.: L. jY, Johnson (Plates 232 and 

233) 289 

The Genus Cenchrus in North America: 
Gea. V. Na.sh 298 

yuncus scir^oides and its immediate Rela- 
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The Nomenclature Question ; Lester F. 

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Vol. 22. Lancaster, Pa., July 31, 1895. Xo. 7. 



Some new and rare Desmids of the United States. 




By L. N. Johnson, 



(Plates 232, 233.) 

Since the publication of the first paper of this series' I have 
examined a number of collections of desmid-bearing material 
from various parts of the country. The results oi this examina- 
tion have been to extend very greatly the known range of many 
species, and to add more than a score to the number reported 
from the United States by previous writers. Many species are 
still undetermined and held for further study. MateriaMs also 
being accumulated which will illustrate the great variability of 
many species, but this subject will be discussed at another tinie. 

The present paper is based on collections made in New Hamp- 
shire, Connecticut, New York, North Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, 
Michigan, Kansas and California. From some oi these States 
material representing several localities has been examined. I 
wnsh to acknowledge my indebtedness to the friends who have 
responded so kindly to my request for material, and to Prof. Nord- 
stedt, who has aided me greatly by his criticism and advice. 

I have thought it best to make one change in the manner of 
reporting additions to our flora. After every such species is given 
a number in parenthesis. This refers to a numbered specimen in 
my herbarium. Thus if any species is incorrectly determined it 

1 Bulletin of Torrey Botanical Club, 21 : 285. Je. 1S94. 



290 



will be possible to see the particular specimen on which the re- 
port was based. 

The limits of genera among desmids are so unsettled that 
hardly any two writers agree in all points. Especially is this true 
of the genus Cosuiannm. No attempt has been made to settle 
the points in dispute. In nearly every case the specimens have 
been compared with the original figures and descriptions. Where 
the variation from the type is slight varietal names have not been 
used, as it seems useless to encumber our literature with a long 
list of varieties, many of which represent simply forms of a vari- 
able species. . 

In the enumeration of species only the more noteworthy ones 
from the various localities are mentionedj although careful record 
has been made of all species observed, and specimens have been 
preserved. Species new to the United States are marked with an 
asterisk. 

Plettrotaeniiun nodosum (Bail,) Lund, Near Tallahassee, Fla. 
Scarce. Surface of cell smooth; ends ornamented with a circle 
of conical-rounded granules. 

Docidhcui vcrnicosiiin (Bail.) Ralfs. Frequent in various col- 
lections from Florida. Walle's figures do not give a correct idea 
of this beautiful species. The elevations are nearly square, except 
tho^se of the terminal circle, which are elongated. The apex of 
the semi-cell bears a crown of rounded granules. The Florida 



J 



D 



verrucosiiui. 



\ 



D. coronulatum Grun. Occasional at Meredith, N. H. Sev- 
eral cells were often found joined in series. Diam.— 25-35 /i. 

This is apparently the same species figured by Wolle under 
this name. Griinow's original measurements are larger, and the 
cells as figured by him were slightly different in shape. 

Pcnium annulare West. Baton Rouge, La. Frequent. Found 
by W. West in material from Maine, and described by him^ The 



2 Joshua, W. Burmese Desmidieae, with descriptions of new species occurring in 
the neighborhood of Rangoon. Journ. Linn. Soc. 21 : 650.//. 2J. / /J. Je. 1S86. 

3 West, W. The Freshwater Algae of Maine. Repr, from Journal of Botany 
1S94: (2) pLjis. f.5'(>' D. 1S91. 



291 



present discovery extends its range more than a thousand miles. 
My specimens agree with his description, except that the undula- 
tions are less numerous and the cells rather shorter. Diam.= 20 /i ; 
length:^! lO //. Fig. i. 

* P, Cylindms (Ehrb.) Breb. var. Silcsiaaim Kirch. (532j. Wake 

Forest, N. C. Scarce. Agrees well with the description. Diam. 

14 /^; length=:42 /^. Fig. 2. 

Closteriitm inacidatum Hast. Bridgeport, Conn. Rare. Nearly 

twice as large as Hastings' measurements, but otherwise agrceinji 



to' ---"tj 



with his description. Striae of minute granules and interrupted 
irregularly. Diam.= 50 //. Prof. Nordstedt suggests that this 
species may possibly be a form of CL arcolaJum Wood. Fig. 7. 

CL angustaittm Klitz., var. clavatuin Hast. Bridgeport, Conn. 
Scarce. Diam.= 25 /-«• This seems well marked, but only a few 
specimens were found. Fig. 6. 

^ CL abruptum West. (395). Holdefness, N. H. Frequent. 
Variable in length. Occasionally a specimen is longer than 
West's measurements. Diam.= 12 a ; length=84-200 /^. Fig. 5. 

^ CL Cynthia De Not. (537). Wake Forest, N. C. Frequent 
and typical. Striae very fine and numerous. Diam.= i2-I4 /^; 

length=ioo-i20 /i. Fig. 3. 

CL tumtdiim nov. nom. (416). [CL Cornu ^ of Ralfs.^ ; CI. 
cornu of Wille^ but not of Ehrenberg*^). Burlington, Kansas. Fre- 
quent. Diam. usually 12 /i; Iength=ii6-I20 fi. Occasionally a 
specimen reaches a diameter of iS-20 fi, representing Wille's 
forma major'. West found the latter in Maine. Fig. 4. 

Gonatozygon aciileaUim Hast. Meredith, N. H. Occasional. 
Seems to be a well-marked species. Diam.= i6 fi ; length 300 //. 

Aculeae 6-8/^ long. Fig. 9- 

6^. ^jT/m/;// (Breb.) Cleve. (460). Tallahassee, Fla. Rare. West 
reports it from Maine. The single specimen found was about 
twice as long as the type, but otherwise the same. Diam.^=6 /i ; 

lengths 260/^. Fig. 8. 



^ Ralfs, J. British Desmids. 176- //. 30. f 6 a and b. 1848. 

5 Wille,N. Ferskvandsalger fra Novaja Semlya. Ofversigt af Kongl. Veten- 
skaps. Akademiens Forhandluigar, 1S79, //. 14, /, 80,81, 1S79. 

6 Ehrenberg, C. G. Die Iiifusionsthierchen als volkommene Organismen. 94. ^ 

J^/. 6-/5. 1838. 



1 



292 



■ 

Micrastmas Nordstcdtiana WoUe. Meredith, N. H. Rare, 
Diam.^170//. These specimens differ from Wolle's description 
and figures in that the lobes terminate in two spines instead of 
three or more. The 'end lobe is not so emarginate,and the projec- 
tion on the sides of the neck is larger and nearly cyhndrical, end- 
ing in two spines. Fig. 14. 

M. MahabulesJnvarsensis Hobs. Meredith, N. H. Rare. In 
same material as the preceding. Rays more slender than in 

WoUe's figure. 

"^ Euastruni Sibiricum Boldt (568). Duval county, Florida- 
Agrees well with Boldt's description and figujres. Diam.= i 8/i;. 
length=20//; thick.=^i i/i. It is interesting to find this Siberian 
species in Florida, Probably it will be found to have a wide dis- 
tribution, escaping notice because of its small size. Fig. 13. 

Dysphinctiuni zwV/^ (Corda) De Toni. {Cosuiarhtui Cordamun' 

■ (Breb.) Wolle.; Desmids of U. S. 1892 edition). Reported from 

Nova Scotia, and by West from Massachusetts. I find it common 

in material from Bridgeport, Conn., and Staten Island and Ithaca,. 

N, Y. Diam.=:26«. 

Cosmaritun auiocnuin Breb. Frequent in collections from Flo- 
rida, and from ^leredith, N. H. Typical. 

C, cycliaun Lund. Meredith, N. H. The specimens come- 
close to var. subtmncatiim Hansg. 

C ekgantissbnum Lund. Duval county, Fla., and Meredith, N. 
H. The specimens resemble Lundell's figure ^ though the gran- 
ules are most commonly only faintly emarginate. Wolle's figures 
are singularly incorrect in showing a deep linear sinus, though he 
describes it correctly in this particular. Usually about seven 
longitudinal rows of granules are visible at once in front view. 
Diam.=::22/^; length=5o«. Fig, 27. 

C Minncapolitannm Hansg. [C, prottiberans Lund. var. grami- 
latum Wolle) (489). Ithaca, N. Y. Rather larger than WoUe's- 
specimens (diam.= 34-36/^), but similar in form. 

C. margaritatum{}^un(^.) Roy and Bissett (388). Meredith, N. 
H. Rare. The drawing does not show the granules well. They 
should be much larger and closer together. The position of the 

^. Lundell, P. M. De Desmidiaceis quae in Suaecia inventae sunt. 53. /^-J* A 

r 

20. 187 1. 



293 



hyaline punctations is difficult to make out. They seem to be be- 
tween the granules in the longitudinal rows. Diam.=72 ji ; length 
90 11. Fig. 32. 

G psciidoproUibcraiis Kirch. New Baltimore, Mich. Rare. 
Typical. Diam.= 32/^; Iength=36/z; isth.=iO/^. West re. 
ports this from Maine. Fig, 24. 

* C. costatttm Nordst. (522.) Wake Forest, N. C. Scarce. 
Diam.= 32//; length=42/^; thick.= 2i/i; isth.= i2/^. This bears 
•some resemblance to C. siib'Speciositm van validiiis Nordst., but Is 
much smaller and with less numerous and larger crenae on the 
margin. Fig. 31. 

^ C. Gotlandiatin Wittr. Burlington^ Kans. Occasional. 
Diam.^28 ft ; length=36/^ ; isth.:=g/^. This may be the same as 
C. rectangnlarc Grun. (in Rab. Fl. Eur. Alg.),and in that case the 
latter name should prevail by the right of priority, but it seems to 
me that the identity of the two is not positively proven. This is 
reported as occurring in Nebraska^. Fig. 26. 

"^ C, granatuin ^xQh.xdx. std^-granatum Nordst. (34iO ^"^"^ 
Arbor, Mich. Occasional. Diam.= 25 ft) length= 36 /.«; isth. 
5//. Fig. 16. 

* C, Paidense (Borgesen). (C polymorphuni Nordst. subsp. 
Paidense Borgesen). 277. Duval Co., Fla. Scarce. At the sug- 
gestion of Prof. Nordstedt I raise this to specific rank, as it seems 
to differ sufficiently from C. polyviorpJmm Nordst. Diam.= 36/7; 
length=50// ; isth.= lO/i. Slightly smaller than Borgesen's speci 
mens and differing slightly in the position of the granules, but 
seemingly not distinct. In very clear specimens one can see that 
the wall is hyaline punctate between the five large granules on the 
front. Fig. 17. 

C, pcricyviatium Nordst. (445). Ithaca, N. Y. Occasional. 
Differing from Nordstedt's figures^ in its deeper constriction in 
side view, but otherwise the same. Diam. =28//; length=50«; 
thick=26//; isth.:^24/i. Fig. 28. 

C. porrectnm Nordst. (360.) Burlington, Kans. Frequent. 

8 Contr. from Bot. Dept. of Univ. of Nebraska. New Series III. 46. 14 Je. 1892. 

9 Nordstedt, O. Desmidieae Arctoae. Ofvers. K. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1S75: pi 
7- / 26, 1875. 



294 



Slightly smaller than the original specimens from Brazil. Diam, 
SO/jt; length=50/i; isth.= i3//. Fig, 30. 

C qiiadnun Lund, forma. (359.) Plymouth, N. H. Seems 

L 

to be near var. minus Nordst. Semi-cells decidedly reniform at 
base ; sometimes slightly retuse at the apex. Diam.=40 fi ; 
Iength=44/^; isth.=^i4/^. Fig. 22. 

"^ C, Raddorsku h^gtrh. (365.) Meredith, N. H. Very rare. 
The membrane seems faintly granulate in the upper part of the 
semi-cell, but as the granules were not distinct they were not 
shown in the drawing. This agrees with the type in shape and 
surface, but differs slightly in the inner part of the sinus. Diam. 
= 50/^; length=44/^; isth.^2i^f^. Fig.20. 

^ C. siibspeciosnm var. validius Nordst. (433-) Whitmore Lake^ 
Michigan. Occasional. Diam.^48/i; length=62/^; isth.= i4/^' 
Differs from the original description in having seven vertical rows 
of granules on the inflation and in the fact that they are in more 
or less definite horizontal rows also. This hardly seems sufficient 
ground for separating it as a new variety. Fig. 33. 

^C. synostcgos Schaarschm. (437). Bridgeport, Conn., and 
SIsson, Cal. Common but very minute. The specimens from 
Bridgeport average lO/i in diameter, the others 8 /i with length 
II fi, thick^5 //. The angles in the Californian specimens do not 
appear cuspidate. In most cases the sinus gapes little, if at alL 
This may prove to be a distinct species. Fig. 29. 

*C tetragomim Naeg. var. Lundellii Cke. (512}. Ithaca, N. Y- 
Occasional. Diam.= 24/i; length=42«; th. = i6/^. Fig. 21. 



Turp 



Baton Rouge, , 



La. Slightly smaller than Gutwinski's measurements, but other- 
wise the same. Diam. ==40 /i; length =46 /i; th.=26/>i isth. 
12/^. Fig. 18. 

Stattrastritm brachiatum Ralfs. Duval Co., Fla. Rare. 
SL brevispimim'Qveo. Staten Island, N. Y., and SIsson, Cal. 
Frequent. 

St. commutahtm Kiitz. (349), Duval Co., Fla. Rare. 

St. graiide Bulnh. Bridgeport, Conn., and Meredith, N. H. 
Diam. =68-78/^, 

St. trihedrale Wolle. Frequent in collections from Florida, 
also from Staten Island and Ithaca, N. Y. Diam.=28-3<^/^- 




Apex of semi-cell sometimes shows three slight elevations corre- 
sponding to the three lobes, 

St. protractum nov. nom. {St, grallatoriiim forma Wolle^^) 
(428). This is certainly not a form of St, graltatorium, Wolle 
gives no note on it, but merely figures it. It may be described as 
follows: Length slightly less than breadth. Sinus shallow, linear, 
gaping widely in the outer half. Semlcells nearly square with 
basal angles rounded and armed with two minute spines. Sides 
nearly parallel. Near the apex each is produced into a stout ser- 
rate ray tipped with three spines. Apex of semi-cell truncate, 
projecting above the rays and bearing several serrations. End 
view triangular, sides concave, angles drawn out into rays. Sur- 
face marked by several rows of serrations. Around the centre of 



the semi-cell (in end view) six larger bifid or trifid projections. 



Diam,=i=50-52/^; Iength=:44 /^. Whitmore Lake, Mich, Fig, 35. 
* St, leve Ralfs. (450). Whitmore Lake, Mich. Frequent. 

Diam.— 14/^; lengthz.z=i8/^. Fig. 34. 

De Toni cites among the localities for this species *' Americae 
borealis (Wolle),^^" but I cannot find that Wolle ever reported it, 
and believe this must be a mistake. 

St. Reinschii Roy (348). Duval county, Fla. This does not 
agree exactly with Roy's description, but it comes so near it that 
1 place it here provisionally. The spines are short but distinct. 
It is smaller than the type. Diam.= 24/i; len^h=20^«. Fig. 15 

"^ XantJiidium antilopacuni Kiitz. {oxxi\2. Javaniaim Nordst. (324). 
Ann Arbor, Mich. Diam.=52/^; length:=52/^; thick.=: 30«; isth. 
12/^. The position and number of spines on the end of the 
semi-cell is variable, even in the same individual, but they show a 
tendency to arrangement in a single series. Fig. 10. 

X. concinmim Arch. var. Boldtiamun West. (422). [Arthrodes- 
mits hcxagoniis forma Boldt.y- Duval county, Fla. Occasional. 
Very minute. Diani. = i2//; length=T4/i; thick=:6/^; isth.= 
4/^. Nearly hke Boldt/s Fig. 17, but with sharper angles. In 
front view this looks like an Arthrodesmus, but in vertical view it 

10 Wo]]e, F. Desmids of the United States. //. 57. / 20,21. 1892. 
" De Toni, J. B. Sylloge Chlorophycearum omnium hucusque cognltarum. 
1227. 1889. 

12 Boldt, R. Bidrag till Kannedomen cm Sibiriens Chlorophyllophyceer. Ofvers. 
K. Vet. Akad. Forh. iS^s : 109.^/. 5. / 17, 1SS5. 



296 



i 

shows a marked papilla on each side. It seems to be truly a 
XantJiidiuni. 

X. Tylcrianitm West. {X, antilopaeiim Klitz. var. tnincattim 
Hast. WolleiiiDesmidsof theU-S. 1892 edition.) Ithaca, N. Y. 
Common and typical Although first described by Hastings, West's 
name must take precedence, since Hastings published the species 
merely in a local newspaper. 

The following species are believed to be new : 

Arthrodesmus MiCHiGAXENSis n. sp. Fig. 12. 

Size medium. Length about one-third greater than breadth. 
Sinus gaping, broadly rounded, semi-cells being connected by a 
short neck. Semi-cells sub-elliptical, with the apex of the cell 
drawn out into a broad truncated lobe^ and each end armed with 
a long slightly recurved spine. In vertical view rhombic elliptical 
with a long spine at each end. Side view circular. Diam.= 24- 
30/^; lengths 36-40 /i ; thick=i6-i8 /i; isth.=7-9 /i. Whitmore 
Lake, Mich. Frequent. Type in herb. Johnson, 427. 

COSMOCLADIUM TUMIDUM n. Sp. Fig. 23. 

Minute. Length and breadth nearly equal. Cells usually 
joined in fours by a hyaline, mostly unbranched filament. Great- 
est diameter of cell placed at right angles to the connecting fila- 
ments. Sinus deep, linear; semi-cells hexagonal elliptic, with 
apex flattened. In vertical view elliptical with slight but distinct 
median inflation. Jide view nearly circular. Diam.= 8 // ; length 
9/i; thick=5//; isth.= 2/^. Whitmore Lake, Mich. Type in 
herb. Johnson, 455. 

This resembles C s7ibraniostim Schmidle, but differs from it in 
Its shorter cell, and in the median inflation of the semi-cell. 

. I do not feel perfectly sure that Cosviodadium should be sepa- 
rated from Cosniariiun. 

CosMARiUM Pacificum n. sp. Fig. 25. 

Small. Length about one-fourth greater than the breadth. 
Sinus strongly gaping. Isthmus narrow. Semi-cells sub-eUipti- 
cal. Sides curving regularly from the base to above the middle, 
then converging by a sharp angle to form the rounded end. End 
view elliptical, with no inflation. Side view nearly circular. A 
single pyrenoid in each semi-cell. Membrane punctate. Diam. 
=25-28 /i; length=:= 32-34//; thicks 1 5-17 // ; isth.=6/A Sisson, 
Siskiyou county, California. Altitude 3000 feet. M. A- Howe 
coll. Type in herb. Johnson, 402. 



297 



This resembles Staiirastnun bienianum Rabh. var. conmctens 
Boldt, but IS much smaller, and lacks the short spines near the 
base of the semi-cells. It seems to be a true Cosmarium. It re- 
sembles C, iiiflatnm Wolle, differing chiefly in length of cell and 
curvature of the sides. Wolle's figures are not always accurate, 
and it may be that this is a form of his species. 

Cosmarium dispersum n. sp. Fig. 19. 

Size, medium. Length and breadth about equal. Sinus deep, 
narrowly linear. Semi-cells semi-circular, with the apex some- 
times slightly flattened. ]Margin gently undulate with about 
eighteen elevations, often less distinct toward the apex. End view 
eUiptical; side view nearly circular. Two pyrenoids m each semi- 
cell. Membrane finely punctate. Diam. =^40-44 /i; Iength=40/>^ ; 
thick.=::^20/^; isth.= ii//. Found in material from Baton Rouge, 
La., and from Meredith, N. H., at about the same time. Type 
(from Louisiana) in herb. Johnson, 347. 

Botanical Laboratory, Umv. of Michigan. 



Description of I»lates 232 and 233. 

(Reduced one-fourth in Photographing.) 

^=front view, i^==vertical view, r=side view of cell. 

1. Penhim annulare West'X 5^0- 

2. P. cylindrus (Ehrb.) Breb., van Silesiacum Kirch. >( 75^- 

3. Closteriitm Cynthia De Xot. X 5^^- 

4. C tumiditm nov. nom. X 5*^^- 

5. C abrtiptinn West X S^O- 

6. C angtistatum Kutz., var. clavafum Hast. X 3-°' 

7. C maculaiii?n Hast. X 3^^ (^ semi-cell). 

8. Gonatozygon asperum (Breb.) Cleve. X S^Oj ^ X 11^- 
9- G, aculeatum Hast. X 3-^- 

10. Xanthidiu?n antilopaettm Kutz. forma Javanicum Nordst. X 5^- 

11. X concinmim Arch., var. Boldtiamim West. X 75*^- 

12. Arthrodesmits 3fichiganef7sis, n. sp. X 5^- 

13. EuastJ'um Sihirictim Boldt. X 75°' 

14. Micrasterias Nordstediana Wolle. X 320- 

15. Staurastum J^eitisckii Roy. X 75*^- 

16. Cosmaritufi granaium Breb., var. stihgranatuju Xordst. X 5^^' 

17. C Paiiknse (Borgesen). X 75^- 

iS. C Ttirpi7ii^x^h.,y^x. podoliaim Gutw. X 75<=*- 

19. C dispersum n. sp. X 75^- 

20. C Raciborskil Lagerh. X 75^* 

21. C tetragomirn Naeg., var. Lundellii Cke, X 75*^- 

22. C qnadrum Lund, forma. X 75^* 



1 



298 



23- Cosmocladiuni ttimidiim n. sp. X 75*^' 

24. Cosvtariitm pseudoprotiiherans Kirch. X 750- 

25. C, Pacijicti7n n. sp. X 75^' 

26. C. Gotlandicuvi \YiUr. X 750' 

27. C elegantissuniim Lund. X 75^* 

28. C. pericymatium r^ordst. X 75*^* 

29. C synostegos Schaarschm. X 75^- 

30. C porrectiim Xordst. X 5^*^- 

31. C, costatum Nordst, X 75^- 

32. C margaritatum (Lund.) Roy and Bissett. X 5^* 

33. C stibspeciosivn van validiiis Nordst. X 75^^ 

34. Statirastrum leve Ralfs, X 75*^* 
35- ^* protracium nov. nom. X 5^^' 



« 



The Genus Cenchrus in North America. 



Bv Geo. V. Nash. 



Ccnchriis is a small genus of grasses containing about a dozen 
species, found principally in tropical and sub-tropical regions. 
In the United States it extends into the temperate zone. One 
species, C. tribuloides^ the common bur-grass, occurs frequently \X\ 
sandy soil along river banks, and has a very wide distribution, ex- 
tending from Massachusetts to Ontario, Minnesota and Nebraska, 
south to Mexico. It is also found in South America and in Cuba. 
The other species occurring in the United States are confined to 
the southern parts of the country, one, C. ccliinatiis, extending as 
far north as North Carolina. 

The genus in the United States is readily divided into two 
well-marked groups, the first containing those forms in which the 
involucre consists of two spine-bearing valves, more or less con- 
ceahng and enclosing the 2-6 spikelets, as illustrated in the com- 
mon C, tribuloides; the second has only one species, the involucre 
consisting of 2-4 rows of erect bristles, the outer shorter than the 
inner, the single spikelet merely surrounded by the bristles and 
not enclosed. The single species belonging to this group is C. 
myostiroides, which ranges from Georgia and Florida to Texas, 
and south through Mexico to South America, where it is very 
common. 



\ 



299 



Key to tHe Species. 

Involucre consisting of two spine-bearing valves, enclosing the 2-6 spikelets. 
Involucre armed at base. 

With shorter, generally reflexed spines; pedicels smooth; involucre 2-floAV- 
ered. - 

Involucre globose, pubescent, I. C. tribtiloides. 

Involucre ovate, smooth, 2. C gracillimus. 

With erect barbed bristles; pedicels villous; involucre 4-6 flowered. 

3. C. echinatus. 

Involucre naked at base. 4. C {jtcerius. 

Involucre consisting of 2-4 rows of erect slender spines and bristles, at the base of the 



single spikelet. 



5. C myosuroides. 



I. Cenchrus TRH3UL0IDES L. Sp. PI. 1050. 1753- 

C, Carolinianus Walt. Fl. Car. 79. 1788. Teste Pursh. 

Stems erect or ascending, generally decumbent at base, robust, 
2-6 dm. long, branching freely, sheaths generally strongly inflated, 
smooth, striate, compressed, the lower ones overlapping, the upper 
shorter than internodes, l-Z cm. long; leaves 6-12 cm. long, 4-8 
mm. wide, smooth or scabrous, flat or slightly complanate ; spikes 
3-6 cm, long, generally partially included in upper sheaths, densely 
6-2o-flowered; internodes of scabrous rachis 3-5 mm. long; invo- 
lucre 2-flowered, globose, pubescent to villous, yellowish to light 
green in color, smooth at base, spines 3-4 mm. long, slightly to 
strongly ciliate at base, acutely barbulate at apex; spikelets t-f 



mm. long, generally not exserted beyond the involucre; 1st glume 



hyahne, triangular, acute, about one-half as long as spikelet, spar- 
ingly scabrous, strongly l-nerved; 2d glume of firm texture, 
ovate, obtuse, about three-fourths as long as spikelet, scabrous, 
faintly 5 -nerved at base, strongly so at apex; 3d glume firm, 
ovate, somewhat acute, about equahng spikelet, scabrous, 5 -nerved; 
4th glume chartaceous, broadly ovate, acuminate, 5-7 mm. long, 
scabrous at apex, 5 -nerved ; palet ol first flower about as long as 
glume, 2-nerved, strortgly scabrous between the nerves especially 
toward the apex, empty or enclosing 3 stamens; palet of per- 
fect flower chartaceous, broadly ovate, slightly shorter than glume, 
faintly 2-nerved, scabrous toward the apex; seed oblong-obovate, 
3 mm. long, 2-2.5 "^^- broad, compressed. 

Extensively distributed in the United States ranging from 
Massachusetts to Ontario, Minnesota and Nebraska, south to Flor- 
ida and Mexico. Extremely variable, but its robust habit, gener- 
ally strongly inflated sheaths and light colored globose involucres 
will distinguish it from its nearest relatives. 



300 



•^2. Cenchrus gracillimus n, sp. 

Stems ascending or erect, 3-6 dm. high, simple or occasionally 
sparingly branched above, slender; sheaths smooth, striate, th'e 
lower overlapping, the upper shorter than internodes, 6-j cm. 
long, but slightly inflated; leaves complanate, 5-8 cm, long, 
about 2 mm. broad, acuminate, scabrous on margins and mid- 
nerve; spike finally long-exserted, 3-5 cm. long, loosely 3-6 
flowered, internodes of scabrous rachis about I crn. long; in- 
volucre 2-flowered, smooth, ovate, purplish, deeply furrowed and 
smooth at base ; spines purple, 5-6 mm, long, 1 mm/ broad at 
base where they are sometimes ciliate, acutely barbulate at the 
apex ; spikelets about 8 mm. long, exserted beyond involucre 
for one-third to one-half their length; 1st glume triangular, hya- 
line, acute, one-half as long as spikelet, strongly i -nerved, slightly 
scabrous; 2d glume firm, ovate, acute, 7-nerved, scabrous; 3d 
glume of firm texture, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly shorter 
than spikelet, 5-nerv^ed, scabrous especially toward apex; 4th 
glume chartaceous, 7-8 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, long-acumi- 
nate, strongly 5 -nerved at apex, scabrous for upper half; palet of 
first flower equaling glume, strongly scabrous, 2-nerved, empty or 
enclosing three stamens ; palet of perfect flower ovate, long-acu- 
minate, chartaceous, a little shorter than glume, 2-nerved, strongly 
scabrous toward apex; seed oblong, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 i^^- 
broad. 

Florida, occurring in the high pine land, together with C. tnb- 



tiloidcs and C, ediinaUis^ flowering a little earlier than the former 
and later than the latter. It is readily distinguishable from either, 
especially when growing in the field, by its long slender purple 
spines, smooth involucre, very slender habit and closely compla- 
nate leaves. Begins to flower early in April. My Nos. i^'i and 
288, collection of 1S94. 

3. Cenchrus echtnatus L. Sp. PL 1050. 1753. 

^ Stems creeping, erect, 3-6 dm. long, branching ; sheaths smooth, 
striate, inflated, lower ones overlapping, upper shorter than inter- 
nodes, S-12 cm. long ; leaves i-4dm. long, 5 -15 mm. wide, smooth 
or scabrous, flat; spikes 4-1 2 cm. long, finally more or less ex- 
serted, very densely 20-50 flowered, internodes of the scabrous 
rachis 2-3 mm. long; involucre 4-6 flowered, globose, green to 
purphsh, more or less pubescent, villous at base; spines 3-4 ^^"^• 
long, barbulate at apex, more or less ciliate at base ; bristles at base 
of involucre numerous, slender, distinctly barbed for their whole 
length; spikelets 6-7 mm. long, more or less exserted from in- 
volucre; 1st glume hyaline, lanceolate, obtuse or acute, one-half 
as long as spikelet, strongly i -nerved, sparingly scabrous at apex; 



/ 



301 



2d glume firm, ovate, obtuse, three-fourths as long as spikelet, 
5-nerved, scabrous; 3d gkmie firm, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
sHghtly exceeded by fourth ghime, 5-nerved, scabrous; 4th glume 
chartaceous, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 6-7 mm. long, 5-nerved, 
scabrous at apex; palet of first flower about as long as glume, 3- 
nerved, strongly scabrous ; palet of perfect flower as long as glume, 
chartaceous, ovate-lanceolate, faintly 2-nerved; seed obovate to 
elliptical, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, compressed. 

This plant is well marked by its broad flat leaves, and the 
slender barbed bristles surrounding the base of the involucre, 
which contains double the number of spikelets found in the other 

species. 

North Carolina to Texas, along the coast. 

4. Cenchrus inxertus M, a. Curtis, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist, i : 

135- 1837. 

Stems erect or decumbent at base when young, finally creep- 
^ ^^g» 3-6 dm. long, smooth; sheaths smooth, inflated, compressed, 

striate, lower ones more or less overlapping, upper shorter than 
internodes, 5-9 cm. long; leaves smooth, flat, 4-15 cm. long, 3-5 
mm. wide; spike generally exserted, 3-6 cm. long, 8-20-flowered^ 
internodes of the scabrous rachis 2-5 mm. long; involucre 2- 
flowered, pubescent, ovoid, smooth at base; spines about 3 mm. 
long, very broad at base, ciliate ; spikelets 5 mm. long, more or 
less exserted from involucre; 1st glume hyaline, triangular, acute^ 
strongly T-ner\*ed, one-half as long as spikelet; 2d glume of firm . 
texture, ovate, obtuse, about three-fourths as long as spikelet, 5-7- 
nerved, scabrous; 3d glume ovate, acute, 5-nerved, somewhat 
shorter than fourth glume, scabrous; 4th glume chartaceous, 
broadly ovate, acute, about 5 mm. long, strongly 5-nerved and 
scabrous at apex; palet of first flower about equaling glume, 
strongly scabrous, 2-nerved, empty or enclosing three stamens; 
palet of perfect flower chartaceous, ovate, acute, about equaling 
glume, scabrous at apex; seed oval, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. broad. 

Ranges from South Carolina to Florida and Texas. The 



t> 



smaller involucre, naked at base, with fewer and shorter spines,, 
readily distinguish this plant from C. trikdoidcs which it some- 
what resembles. 

5- Cenchrus myosuroides H. B. K, Nov. Gen. i: 115. 1815. 
Paniaim cenchroides EII. Bot. S. C. andGa. i: m. 1S17. 

Perennial from a running rootstock. Stems 6-14 dm. high, 
simple, or branched above, terete, smooth; sheaths somewhat in- 
flated, 7-14 cm. long, striate; leaves smooth, I-3 dm. long, 3-8 



302 



mm. wide; spikes included in upper sheath, or more or less ex- 
serted, densely many-flowered, 5-20 cm. long, internodes of the 
scabrous rachis 2-5 mm. long; involucre consisting of 1-2 rows 
of barbed sphies as long as the spikelet, subtended by i-2 rows of 
barbed bristles one-fourth to one^half as long; spikelet about 5 
mm. long, resting on the involucre and equaling its spines; 
glumes all more less short-pointed by the excurrent midnerve; 
1st glume hyaline, triangular, acute, about one-half as long as 
spikelet, i -nerved ; 2d glume firm, ovate, acute, about three- 
fourths as long as spikelet, 5-nerved, sparingly scabrous; 3d 
glume as long as the fourth, firm, ovate, acute, strongly 5-nerved 

at apex; 4th glume chartaceous, ovate, acute. 5 i^"^"^- ^^^'^S^ 
5-nerved at apex ; palet of first flower from one-quarter to one-half 
as long as glume; palet of perfect flower equaling glume, strongly 
2-nerved and scabrous at apex. 

Ranges from Georgia (Elliott) to South Florida, western 
Texas and Mexico. 



Juncus sctrpoides and its immediate Relatives. 



Bv Frederick Verxox Coville. 



/^ 



/>ouies several closely related plants which, from the data now at 
hand, seem to require separation into four species. In 1880 Dr. 
Franz Buchenau described one of these as /. Engelnianni, and in 
1890 another as /. crassifolius . I am now convinced that still an- 
other should be separated specifically under the name of/, mega- 
cephaliis, published sixty years ago by M. A. Curtis, of Wilming- 
ton, North Carolina. 

After examining the earlier literature of these plants it has 
been found necessary to change the current names of three species, 
in two cases substituting older names, and in one case supplying 
a new name. The first requirement for a proper disposition of 
the many published names was the positive identification of 



h 

P 
\ 



Michaux's J. pol) 



803 



times, has been attached by various authors to nearly a dozen 
different plants, and has therefore fallen into disrepute and conse- 
quent disuse. With our present knowledge of the group, however, 
the name is capable of positive identification. The current dis- 



1 

1 



303 



ypoides 



J. poly ccp] talus has been to treat it as a synonym of /. 



tion of Michaux's work it is found that he described two varieties 
of y. polycephalus, variety crassifolitis and variety icnuifoliuSy re- 
spectively, giving to the former the diagnosis: "Major, foliis 
multo crassioribus et conspicue compressis." It is clear that this 
variety, which is the type form oi J, polycephalus, is one of the 
two plants known at the present time asy. EngelmanniVi\xc\\, and 
y. a'assifolhis Buch. Since the latter species, however, is a plant 
of the Arkansas-Texas region there can be no doubt that 
M.{c\\zi\xy:!s^ J. polyccphaltiSy acci edited to Georgia and the Caro- 
linas, is the species now known asy. Engehnaimi, v^hich. is abundant 
in these States, and it is necessary, therefore, to so treat it. 
Michaux's second variety, tenuifolms, was diagnosed simply as 
'* foliis subfiliformibus." Dr. Buchenau, examining a flower from 
Michaux's specimen^ of this variety, has pronounced it \x\st Juncus 
scirpoidcs, 

ICey to tlie Species- 
Capsule with a true beak, the valves in dehiscence united above by the beak, their 
margins usually involute. . . 

Uppermost cauline leaf with an almost obsolete blade rarely exceeding I or 2 cm, 

I. J. megacephalusn 



in length. 



Uppermost cauline leaf with a normal blade, few to several cm. in length 

Stamens as long as the inner perianth parts, the anthers exserted between 
them; leaf-blades slender and terete. 2. J. scirpoidcs, . 

Stamens considerably shorter than the inner perianth parts, their anthers in- 
cluded ; leaf-blades usually stout and laterally compressed or even gladiate. 

3* J' polycephahts. 

Capsule without a true beak, the valves in dehiscence flat and separating throughout, 
their apices spreading or rarely loosely attached. 4. J* validus. 



J 



A. Curtis.* 



72(Hcus incgaccphalus M. A. Curtis, Bost. J 
^32. 1835. 



^Buchenau, Monog. June. 325. 1S90. 

* After examining a large number of herbarium specimens and observing both 
plants in the field for several years, I am convinced that Torrey's Jtinctis nodosum 
megacep/ialus does not intergrade with J, nodosus proper. In view of the earlier 
Juncus megacephalus of Curtis, Torrey's plant is named as follows: 

JuNcus ToRREYi nom. nov. 

Juncus nodosus van megacephalus Torr. FL N. Y. 2 : 326. 1843. _ 

Juncus megacephalus Wood, Classbook Bot Ed. 2 : 724. 1 861. Not Curtis. 



304 



Torr. Bot. Club, 



Jitnciis scirpoides var, ecJiinattts Engelm. Tran: 
2: 468. 1868. 

Junais scirpoides Carolinianiis Coville, Mem. 

5 : 107. 1894. 

Plant 30 to TOO cm. high; blade of the uppermost cauline 
leaf only in very vigorous specimens exceeding i or 2 cm. in 
length ; fruiting heads 8 to 12 mm. in diameter; perianth reddish 
brown above ; stamens one-half to two-thirds the length of the 
perianth, the anthers included ; capsule equaling the perianth, its 
valves united above in dehiscence. 

Specimens have been examined only from the southern coast 
region from North Carolina to Plorida, ahhough the plant was 



accredited by Dr. Engelmann with a range as far north as Mary- 



land. 



2. JuNCus SCIRPOIDES Lam. 



Junais scirpoides Lam. Encyc 
Juncus polyccphalus tcnuifolins 



1789. 



193 



1803. 



\%\1} 



Jiinais echinatus " Muhl.;" Ell. Bot. S. C. & Georg. i : 410- 
1817.2 

Juncus umcrosteuion J. Gay ; Laharpe Monog. June. 140. 1825- 
Juncus scirpoides var. macrostevwn Engelm. Trans. St. Louis 

Acad. 2 ; 467. i858. Includes the forms macrostylus and 

hfachy stylus. 

Juncus scirpoides genuimis Bach. Monog. June. 12}^. 1S90. 

Plant 20-70 cm. high; leaf-blades terete, 2 mm. or less in 
thickness, with perfect septa; fruiting heads 8-11 mm. in diame- 
ter; perianth 2.5-3.5 mm. long, green throughout ; stamens equal- 
ing the inner perianth parts, the short anthers exserted ; capsule 
exceeding the perianth, its valves united above in dehiscence. 

A species of the coastal plain from New Jersey and eastern 
Pennsylvania southward through the Atlantic States to Florida 
and westward to Texas. 



■L 
n 

r' 

r 

L 



iBuchenau (Monog. June. 323) has recorded his critical examination of flowers 



from Muhlenberg's specimen. 



2There is nothing to indicate that Elliott distinguished J. megacephahis Itom 
J. scirpoides. He undoubtedly included both, if indeed he ever saw the former, 
under J. echinatus. 



OA-t 



05 



3. JUN'CUS POLYCEPHALUS MicllX. 

Junats polycepJiahis Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. i : 192. 1803. 
Junciis polycephahis crassifoUus Michx. FL Bor. Amer. i: 193 



1803. 

Jiiucus nodostis polycephahis Pers. Syn. PI. i: 384. 1S05. 
Jiniats echinatus 

Jwiais scirpoides var. polyccphalus iormd. minor Engelm. Trans, 
St, Louis Acad. 2: 468. 1868. 

Jiuicics Engelmanju Buch. Krit. Verz. June. Gj, 1880. 

Plant robust, about i meter high; leaf-blades in most cases 
gladiate, 3-8 mm. broad and with incomplete septa, sometimes 
merely compressed, narrower and with complete septa; fruiting 
heads 8-12 mm. in diameter; stamens 'one-half to three-fourths as 
long as the peiianth, the anthers included; valves of the capsule 
united above in dehiscence and usually with conspicuously involute 
margins; the beak w^ell defined, commonly 2 mm. in length and 
not Splitting at maturity. 

From North Carolina to Florida and westward through the 
Gulf States to Texas, This species, on account of its gladiate 
leaves, has been placed by Dr. Buchenau in the group with 
Juncus xiphioides and J, oxynicns, but its true relationship is un- 
questionably withy, scirpoides, as indicated by its flowers and fruit. 



Juncus validus nom. nov. 

Jtinais scirpoidcs polyccphalus forma niajo7\ Engelm. Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. 2: 468, 1888. 

Juncus crassifoUus Buch. Monog. June. 126, 1S90. Not /. 
polycephahis crassifoUus Michx. 1803. 

Plant 40 to 100 cm. high, stout and stiff; leaf-blades com- 
pressed, but never gladiate, 2 to 4 mm. wide, the septa complete; 
fruiting heads 12 to 15 mm. in diameter; perianth 4 to 5 mm. 
|ong; stamens about one-half as long as the perianth, the anthers 
included; capsule exceeding the perianth, its valves flat, separat- 
ing throughout in dehiscence or sometimes slightly united above; 
no well defined solid beak present. 

A plant of the southern prairie region, extending from Arkan- 
sas to Indian Territory, Oklahoma, and Texas on the west, and 
to Mississippi on the east 



* Muhlenberg based his name upon the J, polycephalus 0^ Michaux, evidently 
^ot distinguishing the two varieties which Michaux included therein. 






306 



New Species of Physalis, 



By p. a. Rydberg, 



In a recent study of the North American species of Physalh the 
following new species have been determined. Since the material 
is widely scattered in herbaria, T deem it best to publish the de- 
scriptions pending the completion of the final monograph. 



*/ 



Physalis subulata n. sp. 



Fruiting calyx sharply 5-angled, more or less acuminate, calyx- 
lobes (at flowering time) lanceolate or acuminate, as long as the 
tube or longer; plant more or less villous or viscid-pubescent, 
erect, dichotomously branched, 2-4 decimetres high, stem angular 
and striate; leaves round-ovate, somewhat oblique at the base, 
generally coarsely dentate; pedicels shorter than the small corolla, 
which is 2-3 millimetres in diameter; calyx-lobes shorter than the 
corolla; fruiting calyx sharply angled and purple-v^eined, heart- 
shaped in section. 

This is intermediate between P. Barbadcnsis and the South 
Mexican P. nicandrioidcs Schlecht. From the former it differs in 
the more glandular pubescence, and the long acumination of the 
calyx-lobes; from the latter in its smaller rounder leaves, 
in its calyx-lobes, which are shorter than the corolla, and in the 
fruiting calyx, which is smaller and not of a firm texture. 

-P. subidata has not yet been within the United States, but 
* comes near to its border. 

Mexico. State of Chihuahua: C. G, Pringle, No. i344i 1S87 
(type). It is in the following herbaria: Columbia College, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota and Professor Greene. 



F 



Physalis comata n. sp. 

Perennial, erect, about 0.5 metre high; pubescence fine aad 
short, that on the calyx, pedicels and upper branches mixed with 
long white flat jointed'hairs ; like P. hetcrophylla Nees [P. Virginiana 
Gray,not L.),but leaves smaller, blade not over 0.5 decimetre long, 
rounded, ovate, scarcely at all cordate at the base, about 5 centi- 

* Another related Mexican species is P, hirsttta Mart. & Gal., not Dunal. It dif- 
fers from P. subulata in it^ larger, less veiny fruiting calyx, from P. nicandrioides by 
the calyx, which is not of a firm texture, and from both by its subentire leaves. It 
most resembles P. pubescens^ but differs in its subulate calyx-tips. 



\ 

J 



1 

\ 
\ 



307 



metres long, thin, somewhat repand-dentate or nearly entire; peti- 
oles as long as. the leaves; corolla greenish-yellow with brown 
centre; fruiting calyx as in P. Jiederaefolia Gray, but oi tJiinncr 
texture. 

The validity of this as a species may be doubted. It is inter- 
mediate between P. Jietcropliylla and P. Jiederaefolia and might be 
placed as a variety oi either with about equal n'glit. it, pcrliaps, 
most resembles the latter, but differs in the thinner texture of the 
leaves and the fruiting calyx, in the larger flower and in the long 
white hairs. 

The following localities are recorded : 

Nebraska: P. A. Rydberg, No. 269, 1891 (type). 

Kansas: E. Bartholomew, No. 2, 1892; E. A, Popenoe, 1875. 

Texes : G. Jermy, No. 618, 1890. 

"^HYSALIS VERSICOLOR n. sp. 

Finely pubescent, in age glabrate; stem from a stout perennial 
root, much branched, at first erect but later spreading, slender, ob- 
tusely angled ; lower leaves reniform-cordate, the upper ovate, 
all more or less oblique at the base, sinuately toothed, 2-4 centi- 
metres long, on slender petioles which are generally a little longer 
than the blade; pedicels slender, about the length of the petioles; 
calyx-lobes taiangular-ovate, shorter than the tube ; flowers about 
I centimetre wide, yellow or drab with brown spots in the centre, 
turning bluish in drying; fruiting calyx thin, ovoid-cylindrical, 
reticulate, decidedly lO-angled, 2.5-3.5 centimetres long, gener- 
ally open at the mouth. 

The specimens collected within the United States are more 
erect, have larger leaves and fruiting calyces than the Mexican. 
Hare within the United States. 

New Mexico: C. Wright, 1851 (Mo. Bot. Gard. herb.). 

Arizona: Treadwell, 1879 (Cal. Acad. Sci.). 

Mexico, Guaymas: Ed. Palmer, 621 and 622. 1887. 



Physalis versicolor mickophylla n. var. 

Like the species, but leaves only about i centimetre long, del- 
toid, coarsely toothed, peduncles about twice the length of the 
leaves; fruiting calyx nearly spherical, 1.5 centimetres long. 



tmged with purple. 

Mexico, Guaymas: Ed. Palmer, No. 94, 18S7 (herbaria of 
Donnell Smith, of Columbia College, Professor Greene, etc). 



J 



J 

J 



308 



y 



Physalis macrophysa n. sp. 



Perennial ; root somewhat thick and fleshy ; stem erect, 0.5- i 
metre high, comparatively slender, angled, perfectly smooth, or 
the upper parts sparingly pubescent with very short hairs ; leaves 
large, thin, 4-8 centimetres long, 2~5 centimetres wide, the lower 
obtuse, the upper acute or acuminate, on slender petioles 2-4 
centimetres long ; pedicels I-l .5 centimetres long, erect, in 
fruit reflexed; calyx smooth, lobes ovate-triangular or broadly 



lanceolate, generally a little shorter than the tube ; corolla yellow 



with a dark centre, about 2 centimetres in diameter; anthers gen- 
erally yellow, sometimes tinged with purple ; fruiting calyx large, 
3-4 centimetres long, 2.5-3 centimetres in diameter, pyramidal 
to ovoid-conical, indistinctly lO-angled, deeply sunken at the base; 
berry small, in the centre of the calyx. 

This is nearly related to P. longifolia and P. Philadclphicay but 
differs from both by its very large and inflated fruiting calyx 
and its broader leaves. The following specimens have been ex- 
amined : 

Arkansas: A. E. Heacox, 1889. 

Kansas: E. A. Popenoe, No. 68, 1875. 

Texas: Lindheimer, 1828 ; A. A. Heller, No. 1756. 1894- 

North Carolina (?): Small and Heller. No. 389. 1891.* 
■ Ohio (?) : T. H. Horseford,* 1879; C. W. Short,* garden (?)- 

University of Nebraska. 



The Nomenclature Question, 



By Lester F. Ward. 



The German who was asked why he called his boy Hans re- 

V 4 



plied : 

" Pecaus it vas hees name/' 

The story is an old one, but no one has ever questioned the 

JT 

conclusiveness of the reply. It is the same answer that must be 
made to the question why a botanical name should be changed 
to make it conform to the law of priority. When a child is 
christened the name he receives is the one that he is supposed to 
have during life. A man with several aliases is always an object 

* These specimens lack fruit and may belong to the preceding, but the leave* 
most resemble those of P. macrophysa. 



1 



309 



of suspicion. Is there any reason why the first name* that is 
given to a plant or animal should not always be its name as well 
as in the case of a human being? It is true that there is this dif- 
ference, that the poor plant or animal has no choice at any time, 
while the child after it becomes a man or woman mi^rht have 
something to say if an outsider should attempt to impose a differ- 
ent name. Still it does not seem that the principle is fundament- 
ally changed by this circumstance. If a lost child were to be 
found and named and brought up by the finder, and he should 
afterw^ards learn who his parents were and what his name was, he 
would very likely Insist on being called by that first name. I re- 
member that one of my boyhood playmates was called ' Ed. 
Wheelock,' but even when I knew him he was aware that \Miee- 
lock was not his name, but that of the person who had adopted him, 
and afterward, having lost him for many years from view, on meet- 
ing him again, it w^as Mr. Edgar Currier with whom I had to do. 

Now it seems to me that all we are trying to do Is to find out 
what the name of a plant is. It has happened in so many cases 
that plants have strayed, as it were, from home, been lost, adopted 
by strange persons, and giv^en different names, lost for a time 
again and again found and renamed, and so on, that for us who 
now know them it is an exceedingly difficult matter to trace their 
history back and find out who they are. All this is due to the 
well known vicissitudes of all modern bi-anches of natural history, 
especially of botany. In this general search for the true parentage 
and the true names of plants there should certainly be no differ- 
ence of opinion on the main question and all should admit that 
what is wanted is to ascertain the real name, for all synonyms are 
simply aliases, and the only real name is the first name. 

Nothing can certainly be more confusing than the existence of 
a large number of different names for the same thing, and it is no 
wonder that a movement was set on foot near the beginning of the 
present century, to endeavor to trace up the true history and find 
the true names of plants. It is a significant fact that this move- 
ment was initiated by a botanist, the great Augustin Pyrame de 
Candolle, in 1S13, in his *' Theorie elementaire de la botanique," 
from which I translate the following paragraphs : 

Page 228: "In order that a nomenclature become universal it 



■ "I 



310 




must be fixed, and the fixity of that of natural history is founded 
on this . . . principle . . . that the first one who discovers an 
object, or who records it in the catalogue of science, has the right 
to give it a name, and that this name must be necessarily ac- 
cepted, unless it already belongs to another object or transgresses 
the essential rules of nomenclature," 

Page 241 : "It may be said in general that any name which 
does not involve a contradiction with the plant, and especially 
which does not belong to any other species, is sufficiently good 
to be preserved. The impropriety of a specific name or the pos- 
sibility of finding more suitable ones is not sufficient to authorize 
a change." 

Page 250, conclusion: "All this scaffolding of botanical 
nomenclature would crumble at its base and inevitably fall if the 
reat majority of naturalists did not recognize the principle of 
which I have spoken, viz., the necessity of accepting the name 
given by the discoverer of a plant whenever that name Is con- 
formable to the rules. A name cannot be changed because it has 
little meaning; for on the same principle the second could be sup- 
pressed if a third better one was found, and the third if a fourth 
should present itself, etc.; thenceforward there would be no longer 
any fixity in nomenclature, or rather, there "tv'ould be no longer 

r 

any scientific nomenclature. The author himself who has first es- 
tablished a name has no more right than any one else to change 
it for the simple cause of impropriety. Priority, on the contrary, 
is a fixed, positive limitation, which admits of nothing arbitrary or 
partial ; the most ancient name must therefore be always admitted.' 

De Candolle, it is true, made five exceptions to this universal 
rule, some of which would not now be regarded as valid, such, for 
example, as his exception according to which the name Lunaria 
annual might be changed because the plant is not an annual; but 
it has not been pretended that de Candolle fully grasped the im- 
portance of the movement, but only that the movement is itself m 
the nature of an evolution to which de Candolle, even that early, 
gave the initial impetus. 

The English mind did not become fully aroused to the subject 
until nearly thirty years later, but the movement in that country 

a^^ ■ 

* This name is accepted in the " Kew Index." [Ed.] 



311 



was much broader and embraced not merely botany but all 
branches of natural history. 

Such was the " Stricklandian code," adopted in 1842 and 
Otherwise known as the - Rules of the British Association." 
Among the great names connected with this Stricklandian code 
are those of Mr. Charles Darwin and Professor Henslow. In 
i860 this code was reenacted with only a few changes, all looking 
to greater success in attaining the same object. Mr. Darwin still 
served on the committee, likewise Mr. A. R. Wallace, Mr. P. L. 
Clayton, Professor Balfour, Professor Huxley, and among botan- 
ists proper Dr. J. D. Hooker and Mr. George Bentham. A still 
further revision of the same was made in 1865, and this code now 
stands, but, strangely, has been supposed to be applicable only to 
zoology, although its provisions were equally applicable to the 
vegetable kingdom. In the preface of this code occurs this 
sentence: 

" No one person can subsequently claim an authority equal to 
that possessed by the person who is the first to define a new genus 
or describe a new species." 

In 1867 Alphonse De Candolle presented to the Inter- 
national Botanical Congress, held at Paris, a system of laws of 
nomenclature, upon which he had been long engaged and which 
with very few changes was adopted by that Congress. No one 
certainly could have felt more forcibly the evil effect of the multi- 
plication of plant names than the author of the Prodromus, and in 
the introduction to these rules he says '' in the four volumes of the 
Prodromus published from 1824 to 1830 the proportion of ad- 
mitted genera to synonyms was approximately 100 to 55; that is 
to say, there were at that time about half as many synonyms as 
admitted genera. In the Genera Plantaruni of Bentham and 
Plooker, fascicles i and 2, published from 1862 to 1865, which 
comprise about the same series of families, I have found in mak- 
ing the same approximate calculation 117 synonyms for 100 ad- 
mitted genera. Therefore, the proportion of generic synonyms 
must have doubled in 36 years.'* This CandoUean code was 
based, like the Stricklandian, on the law of priority and Article 
^5 of that code is as follows : 

" Each natural group of plants can bear in the science only 



312 



one valid designation, namely, the most ancient one atlopted by 
Linnaeus, or given after him on condition that it be conformable 
to the essential rules of nomenclature." 

It was a noticeable fact that the Botanical Congress of Paris, 
which .adopted these rules, was not attended by the English 
botanists, and Mr. W. B. Hemsley in an article in '* Nature" for 
December 24, 1 891, says of this Congress: ' 

'*In 1867 a Botanical Congress was held in Paris, to which 
botanists of all countries had been invited, and the most important 
subject discussed was botanical nomenclature. Mr. A. de Can- 
dolle had drawn up a most carefully considered code of rules to 
govern botanists in their writings ; and this code was submitted 
to the assemblage of botanists, each rule being formulated and 
modified as the majority deemed wise. Finally the whole w^as 
printed and circulated. The fundamental principle of these laws 
was priority of publication with adequate descriptions, and unfor- 
tunately it was made retrospective without any sufficiently defined 
statute of limitations. For reasons of their own the Kevv botan- 
ists took no part in the proceedings of this Congress ; whether 
wisely or not it would be difficult to determine and fruitless to 



discuss." 

It would be fruitless for me to discuss the reasons which have led 
the botanists of Kew to manifest so Httle sympathy with the general 
movement in favor of reform in nomenclature. Most of these 
reasons are well known to readers, but, as has already been 
said, this indifference was not due to any lack of appreciation of 
the importance of this reform, or of general sympathy with it, 
on the part of the two great leading systematists of England, Dr. 



t 



Hooker and Mr. Bentham, who, as we have seen, both signed the 
Stricklandian code. In fact, no systematist has ever squarely ap- 
proached the question and given it due attention without arriving 
at substantially the same conclusion. Dr. Asa Gray in his Struc- 
tural Botany, page 348, says: " For each plant or group there can 
be only one valid name and that always the most ancient if it is 
tenable, consequently no new name should be given to an old 
plant or group except for necessity. That a name may be bet- 
tered is no valid reason for changing it." And on this principle 
it is worthy of note that against his convictions he maintained 



] 

\ 

1 



\ 

■1 



1 






313 



our common blue violet under the name Viola palmata L., var. 
cuctdlata Gray, because he admitted the necessity of taking up an 
older name if the plant should be given specific rank, saying : 

" Viola cucullata Ait. ought to have been referred, as an entire- 
leaved variety, to the Linnaean Viola palmata. I am the more 



constrained to do so 



cucullata 



would have to give way to the much earlier published V. obliijua 
Hill, well figured and unmistakable in his Hortus Kewensis/'* 

Dr. David Starr Jordan, President of Leland Stanford Univer- 
sity and a well-known ichthyologist has said, " There are only 
two ways of naming plants or animals, either to give them their 
oldest names or to give them any names you please."! Not- 
withstanding the general agreement among zoologists to the 
principle of the Stricklandian code it was found difficult to en- 
force these principles unanimously, and in 1876 the question came 
up afresh at the Buffalo meeting of the American Association for 
the Adv^ancement of Science, and a new and slightly modified 
code which had been drawn by Professor Dall was adopted one 
year later. :{; It deals largely with the multitudinous details of 
zoological science and makes no concessions, but holds the gen- 
eral law oi priority as the basis oi all sound nomenclature, which 
is there reenacted and amplified. This code is now, I believe, 
almost unanimously enforced by zoologists within the United 
States. 

It does not, however^ seem to have covered the case of orni- 
thology, and the ornithologists were still in the worst possible con- 
dition in relation to the multiplication of names. At last, losing, 
as it would seem, all patience with the system in vogue, they met, 
and by a unanimous action of the American Ornithologists' Union 
the most stringent code of nomenclature was adopted that has 
ever been proposed. This is knou'n as the code oi nomenclature 
of the American Ornithologists' Union, published in 1886. The 
ornithologists had the advantage of perfect unanimity, which is 



one of the most important conditions to making any code a com- 
plete success. The condition of affairs that prevailed before this 

*Asa Gray, Botanical Gazette, 11 : 254. 18S6. 
f Botanical Gazette, 20: 163. 1895. 
JProc. A. A. A. S., 26 ; 1877. Appendix, 



314 



list (1886) is well shown by comparing the lists that preceded it, 
that is, the lists of North American birds published by Baird in 
1859, Coues in 1874, Ridgway in i88r and Coues in 1882. By 
taking the first fifty genera given in the American Ornithologists' 
Union check -list it is found that in only jive cases has the generic 
name remained the same from 1859 to 1886. That is, 45 of the 
50 generic names (90 per cent.) have been unstable. Since the 
American Ornithologists' Union list )iot one of these fifty names 
has changed. Tlie accompanying tabular statement will show 
more clearly than words the changes in these fifty genera. This 
complete list embraces 322 genera and about one thousand spe- 
cies and sub-species. In the ten years that have elapsed since its 
publication it has been found necessary to change only three gen- 
era, one sub-genus, three species and one sub-species by action of 
the law of priority. (See opposite table.) 

This truly astonishing result must certainly be highly gratify- 
ing to the ornithologists, and the question arises whether botan- 
ists can bring about any such result in their department. A feel- 
ing in favor of such a movement has been ^rowintr stronger and 



stronger for a number of years, and has at last taken shape in the 
appointment of a committee of the Botanical Club of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science at Rochester, in 
1892, who proposed a set of rules of botanical nomenclature with 
which all are now familiar. The Club also authorized the. publi- 
cation, as an earnest of what the enforcemt?nt of these rules might 
be expected to accomplish, of a list of the plants of northeastern 
North America. This list is also too familiar to require com- 
ment. Of it Professor Bessey has said; *'This book is the sign 
that the day of ' authority ' as such, is ended, and the day of ' law ' 
has begun.* All that It seems necessary lo say is that there seems 
to be a misapprehension on the part of some botanists as to the 
method by which this list was prepared, It being imagined by a 
few persons that the particular individuals who had most to do 
with it were in some way personally responsible for the result. It 
should be known to all that they were merely the instruments in 
the hands of a large committee, and that every question was sub- 
mitted to all the members of that committee, even when not in 

* American Naturalist, 29: 350. 1S95, 



Baird. 
1859. 



COUES 

•IS74. 



RiDGWAY. 
1881. 



Podiceps. 

Podiceps. 

Podilyiiibus, 

Colymbus. 

Mormon. 

Mormon. 

Cerorhina. 
Ptychorhamphus, 

Ombria. 

Plialeris. 
Brachyramphus. 

Brachyramphus. 

Uria. 

Uria. 

Alca. 

Alca. 

Mergulus. 
Stercorarius. 

Stercorarius. 

Pagopliila. 

Rissa. 

Blasipus. 

Rhodostethia. 

Xema. 

Sterna. 

Sterna. 

Hydrodielidon, 

Sterna. 

Rhyndiops. 

Diomedea. 

Diomedea. 

Diomedea. 

Procellaria. 

Procellaria. 

Puffinus 

Procellaria. 

Daption. 

Thalassidroma. 

Thalassidroma. 

Thalassidroma. 

Fregetta, 

Phaeton. 

Sula, 

Plotus. 

Graculus. 



Podiceps. 
Podiceps. 

Podilymbus. 

Colymbus. 

Fratercula. 

Fratercula, 

Ceratorhina. 

Ptychorhamphus. 

Phaleris. 
Simorhynchus. 
Synthliborhamphus, 
Brachyrhamphus. 

Uria. 
Lorn via. 
Utamania. 
Alca. 

Mergulus. 
Stercorarius. 

Stercorarius. 

Larus. 

Larus. 

Blasipus. 

Rhodostethia, 

Xema. 

Sterna. 

Sterna. 

Ilydrochelidon. 

A nous. 

Rhynchops. 

Diomedea. 

Diomedea. 
Fulmarus. 

Fulmarus. 

Puffinus. 
Aestrelata. 

Daption. 

Plalocyptena. 

Procellaria. 

Oceanodroma. 

Oceanites. 

Fregetta. 

Phaethon. 

Sula. 

Piotus. 

Graculus. 



COUKS. 

ISS2. 



Aechmophorus. 

Podiceps. 

Podilymbus, 

Colymbus. 

Lunda. 

Fratercula. 

Ceratorhina. 

Ptycorhamplius. 

Phaleris. 

Simorhynchus. 

Synthliborhamphus 

Brachyrhamphus. 

Uria, 

Lomvia, 

Utamania. 

Alca. 
Alle. 

Megalestris. 
Stercorarius, 

Pagophila. 

Rissa. 

Larus. 

Rhodostethia. 

Xema. 

Sterna. 
Sterna. 
Hydrochelidon. 

Anous. 

Rhynchops. 

Diomedea. 

Diomedea. 

Diomedea. ' 

Ossifraga. 

Priocilla. - 

Priofmus. ■ 

Oestrelata. 

Oestrelata. 

Daption. 

Halocyptena. 

Procellaria. 

Oceanodroma. 

Oceanites. 

Fregetta. 

Phaethon. 

Sula. 

Plotus. 
Phalacrocorax. 



Aechmophorus- 

Podiceps. 

Podilymbus. 

Colymbus. 

Fratercula. 

Fratercula. 

Ceratorhina. 

Ptychorhamphus. 

Simorhynchus. 

Simorhynchus. 

Synthliborhamphus 

Brachyrhamphus. 

Uria. 

Lomvia. 

Utamania. 

Alca. 

Alle. 

Stercorarius. 

Stercorarius, 

Pagoph la. 

Rissa. 

Larus. 

Rhodostethia. 

Xema. 
Sterna. 
Sterna. 
Hydrochelidon. 

Anous. 

Rhynchops. 

Diomedea. 

Phoebetria. 
Ossifraga. 

Priocilla. 

Priofinus. 

Oestrelata. 

Oestrelata. 

Daption. 
Halocyptena. 

Procellaria. 

Oceanodroma. 

Oceanites. 

Fregetta. 

Phaethon. 

Sula. 

Plotus. 

Phalacrocorax. 



A. O. U. Check-List 

1SS6. 



Aechmophorus. 
Colymbus, 

Podilymbus. 
Urinator. 

Lunda. 

Fratercula. 

Cerorhmca. 

Ptychorhamphus. 

Cyclorrhynchus. 

Simorhynchus. 

Synthliboramphus, 

Brachyrhamphus. 

Cepphus. 

Uria. 

Alca. 

Plautus. 

Alle. 

Megalestris. 

Stercorarius. 

Gavia. 

Rissa. 

Larus. 

Rhodostethia. 

Xema. 

Gelochelidon. 

Sterna. 
Hydrochelidon. 

Anous. 

Rhynchops. 

Diomedea 

Thalassogeron. 

Phoebetria. 

Ossifraga. 

Fulmarus. 

Pufhnus. 

Aestrelata. 

Bulweria. 

Daption. 

Halocyptena. 

Procellaria, 

Oceanodroma. 

Oceanites. 

Cymodroma. 

Phaethon, 

Sula, 

Anhinga, 

Phalacrocorax. 



315 



session, by sending out circulars, and that the deliberate vote of 
each member was taken in each case and the questions settled, 
where not unanimous, by a majority vote. For my own part I 
confess that I voted with the minority on a number of minor 
questions, but always with the feelin<^ which I observed to prevail, 
not only among the members of the committee, but apparently 
througliout the Botanical Club itself, that minor questions were to 
be ignored in the presence of the great necessity for the adoption 
of rules to which all would subscribe. This list, prepared under 
many disadvantages, is, of course, imperfect in many respects and 
contains a few^ features which are especially irritating to those who 
attempt to use it, I hav^e never known a botanist who Avas not 
irritated at the changing of names, yet we have all been obliged 
during the entire course of our studies to submit to wholesale 
changes of names at periodical intervals. This is no new thing, 
as any one may learn by reading the preface to the sixth edition 
of Prof. Amos Eaton's Manual of Botany, published in 1833. He 
saj^s : 

^ 

** It may be asked, why I do not follow De Candolle, scnilcly, 
since so many distinguished botanists have borne testimony to 

I 

his great merit? Perhaps no one is a more devoted admirer of 
his discriminating talents, great learning and untiring assiduity 
than myself. But he imposes on his readers the labor of learning 
a multitude of new names without even a shadow of pretence. 

* As far as I have any influence I pledge it here that 
the embarrassing innovations of De Candolle and others are of no 
possible tise to the science of Botany. All new discoveries, how- 
ever (which are not a few), should be adopted ; and they are 
adopted in this edition. And the necessary new names and new 
nomenclature are also adopted and fully explained." (Italicized 
as in the original). 

No one can doubt Professor Eaton's high motive \n giving 
utterance to what he considered so conservative an expression of 
his views reeardine the chancres in classification and nomenclature 



# * 



j^^*^...^ V^*^ ^^X^V.S^ 



made by De Candolle, and doubtless he considered De CandoUe's 
researches as ill-advised and ephemeral as do some of our esti- 
mable contemporaries the Association code of to-day, yet I am 
constrained to look upon their protests as belonging to no differ- 
ent category than Professor Eaton's. 



31G 



The botanical world has submitted to frequent changes like those 
we have known in the past fifty years with very little remonstrance 
compared to the great annoyance which they produce. In this work 
a new set of changes Is thrust upon us, some of them very great 
and calculated to appeal strongly to our sense of veneration for 
the older names which we have so long known, and it is not to 
be wondered at that those who do not understand that there is 
any difference between this movement and the long series of 
changes that have been introduced in times gone by, in the differ- 
ent editions of our manuals and the new botanical works that 
have appeared, should strongly resent this last proposition to com- 
pel us to memorize a new set of names. In America the princi- 
pal reasons for submitting as tranquilly as botanists have done to 
the changes that have been imposed has chiefly been the great re- 
spect in which all American botanists have held the authors of 
these books. In the case of Dr. Asa Gray that respect amounted 
in a very large number of cases to something more — to a real 
sentiment of personal affection ; but this condition of things no 
longer exists. The argument at best was an unsound one, but 
one which was nevertheless effective. At the present time botan- 
ists must be convinced that any wholesale changes that are to be 
introduced in the botanical nomenclature of America are made 
for good reasons. 

r 

But, on the other hand, there is now far greater necessity for 
the adoption of some fundamental rules of nomenclature than 
have heretofore existed. Formerly there was one high seat from 
which the botanical decrees emanated, and there was far less dan- 
ger that unreasonable things would be done by one or two per- 
sons than by many. At the present time there are large numbers 
of botanical centres, and if matters are to be left to the individual 
judgment of publishing botanists, there will be no comparing the 
confusion that is in store for us with that which we have had in 
the past. Heretofore we have only had the differences which one 
man or one class of men in close cooperation thought best to in- 
> troduce at different periods in their own work. Now we shall 
not only have tlie changes that each individual is likely to make 
at different dates, but as many differences as there are different 
sources from which our works are to emanate. It Is difficult 



Gray, Manual, 

Ed. I. 



Gray, Manual, 
Ed. 2. 



Gray, Manual, 
Ed. 4. 



Lappa major Gaertn 
Nahalus Fraseri DC. 

Diplopappus aniygJa 
^ linus T. & G. 
Solidago serotina Ait 



«< 



gigantca Ait. 



Lap])a Major Gaertn. Lappa major Gaertn. 
Nabalus Fraseri DC. '*' - * " 



Dijjiopnppus amygda- 

linus T. & G. 
Solidago serotina A 



Nabalus Fraseri DC. 



Gray, Manual, 
En. 5. 



Ckav, Synoi'T, 
Kl. N. Am. 



Lappa ofTicinalis AIL Arctium Lappa L. 
Nabalus Fraseri I)C. Prenanthes 



!a- Diplopappus amygda Diplopappus amygda- 

linur. T. & G. linus T is. G. 

it. Solidago serotina Ait. Solidago serotina Ait, 



ria Pursh. 



serpenta- 



Gray, Manual, 
Ed. 6. 



Arctium Lappa L. 
Prenanthes serpenta- 
Liu. i. uiaii. ria Pursh. 

Aster unibellatus Mill.: Aster umbcllatus Mill 



it 



gigantca AiL 



<i 



gigantea Ait. 



M 



gigantea AiL 



var. latifolius G. 

4 « « 



var. Jatiiolius G. var. latilolius u. 

Solidago serotina Ait. Solidago serotina Ait. 

var. gigaii* _.; G. var. gigantea G. 

Solidago serotina Ait. iSoIidago serotina Ait 



Smilacina bifolia Ker. Smilacina Ijifolia Ker. 

Canadensis G. 



Smilacina bifolia Ker, 
var. Canadensis G, 



Smilacina bifolia Ker, 
var. Canadensis G, 



Gray, Manual, 
Ed. I. 



Gray, Manual, 
Ed. 2. 



Gray, Manual, 
Ed. 4, 



Maiaulhcnum 
dense Desf. 



Cana- 



Pulsatilla patens Mill. Pulsatilla Nuttallianal Pulsatilla Nuttalliana 



Gray, Manual, 
Ed. 5. 



Ranunculus Purshii 

Rich. 



Ciray.j Gray. 

Ranunculus Purshii Ranunculus Purshii 



Rich. 



Ranunculus aquatilis Ranunculus aquatilis 



Rich. 



Anemone patens L. 

var. Nuttalliana Gr. 
Ranunculus multifidus 

Pursh. 



Watson, Builiog. 

Index. 



L. 



L. 



var. divaricatus (in 
Viola Muhlenbergii Viola Muhlcnbergii 



var. terrestris Gray. 
Ranunculus aquatilis Ranunculus divarica- 



Torn 
Elodea Virginica Nut. 



Torr. 
Elodea Virginica Xut. 



L. 

van divaricatus Gn 
Viola Muldenbergii 



tus Schrank. 
Viola canina L 



Torn van sylvestris Regel. 



Elodea Virginica Nut. 
Lechea thymifolia Lech ea tliymifolia L cch e a thymifolia 



Pu r-^h. 
Spergularia rubra 

Pers. 
van marina Gray. 

Nuphar hitea Smith. 
van Kahniana Gn 



Pursh, 



Pursh, 



Spergii laria rubra S pe r g u 1 a ria rubra 

Tcrs. Pers. 

var. marina Gray. van marina Gray. 

Nuphar Kalmiana Nuphar Kalmiana 

f^u^'^h. Pursh. 



Elodes Virginica Nut. 

Lechea thymifolia 

Pursh. 
S p e r g u 1 a ria media 

Fresh 

van macrocarpa Gn 

Nuphar lulcum Smith. 
van pumiium Gray. 



Anemone patens L. 

van Nuttalliana Gn 
Ranunculus multifidus 

Pu rsh. 

Ranunculus aquatilis 

L. 

van stagnatilis D.C. 
Viola canina L, 
van sylvestris Regcl. 



Gray, Manual, 
En. 6. 



Anemone patens L. 

van Nuttalliana Gr. 
Ranunculus multifidus 

Pursh. 

van terrestris Gray. 
Ranunculus circinatus 

Sibth. 

Viola canina L. 

var. Muhlenbergii 

Gray. 

Elodes Virginica Nut.' Eludes campanulata 

Pursh. 

L e ch e a thymifolia Lechea minor Lam. 



Pursh. 
Lepigonum medium 

Fries. 
var, macrocarpa 

Wats. 
Nuphar pnmibnn 

Smith. 



var. maritima Gray 
Buda marina Dumort 



Nuphar Kahnianum 
^ Ait. 



L, ^ 

I 



317 



under such circumstances to imagine what the condition of things 
would be were this to go on for several generations. If this ist 
was as complete and general as that of the Ornithologists' Union 
adopted in 1886, there is no reason to suppose that the result in 
botany may not be practically the same as it has proved to be in 
ornithology, and that with the publication of this one last set of 
changes,Vhich would be simply a serious attempt to actually find 
what the true names of our plants are, the long continued process 
of bandying these plants about from one name to another must 
cease and each plant would have at last found its true and per- 
manent resting place. 

r 

To illustrate in botany as has been done in ornithology we 
may take several of the editions of Gray's Manual, Sereno Wat- 
son's Bibliographical Index and Gray's Synoptical Flora, and 
make a few comparisons to show the fluctuations that species of 
American plants have undergone. (See opposite table.) 

These are only a few samples taken almost at random of the 
extensive changes that were made at the different dates given. 
To mention my own personal experience, I began with the fourth 
edition of Gray's Manual only a short time before the appearance 
of the fifth, yet long enough for me to have wasted many precious 
hours in memorizing names destined to be changed. And then 
came the Bibliographical Index for the Polypetalae, introducing 
large numbers of other changes, followed by the Synoptical Flora, 
carrying the work into the Gamopetalae. The sixth edition of 
Gray's Manual edited by Mr. Watson often differs from any of 
the preceding, showing that the general work of wholesale alter- 
ation was still going on. Many botanists supposed, as I did at 
first myself, that all this was necessary and often the authors 
stated that the reasons for their changes were because the names 
formerly published were not the original names, thus directly ap- 
pealing to the law of priority and defending themselves under this 
law, but a general glance at the whole affair shows there never 
was really any systematic attempt to base these changes upon any 
permanent and consistent scientific principles, but that to a large 
extent it was left'to the individual judgment of the author at the 
particular time at which he was writing. The utter chaos into 
which this system has thrown the science of botany is the real 
cause of a movement for a stable nomenclature. 



N 



318 



^ 

But It would seem that notwithstanding the general spirit of 
harmony that prevailed in the Botanical Club, and especially in the 
large committee that it appointed, the work that has thus far been 
done does not receive the unanimous approval of the working 
botanists of the country. A circular has recently been sent out 
bearing the signatures of a considerable number of men w^hom the 
science of botany justly honors, which is, in fact, in the nature of 
a protest against the movement. In urging the '* postponement 
of any radical measures of reform " these gentlemen seem to ad- 
mit the possibility of reform and perhaps the need of it, but, 
after a careful reading of this paper, I am obliged to conclude that 
It is in the mam the result of the temporary irritation, already 
mentioned, which any new attempt to change the names of our 
plants is certain to produce. Of course, there are other causes 
arising out of the respective claims of rival universities, etc., etc. 
Especially is the argiinientum adverccnndiavi very promnient, and 
I might almost say justly so, since I yield to none in the profound 
respect which is generally shared for the great and good Dr. 
Gray, and for the unrivalled w^ork in systematic botany that has 
been done at Harvard University. But still I am disposed not to 
permit mere sentiment to stand in the way of the settlement of so 
momentous a question as the one now before the botanical world, 
and I must say frankly, with all due respect for the eminent names 
that are appended to this circular, that I do not regard their gen- 
eral argument as a sound one, and I look upon the circular as 
little more than an appeal to botanists to preserve the status quo. 
In other words, it seems to be the product of that natural conser- 
vatism which always goes hand in hand with the spirit of progress 
and has its true function of preventing rash actions and hasty 
revolutions. With this spirit of order I fully sympathize, but at 
the same time I believe that the time has come for the completion 
of the reform movement which has merely been arrested, although 
gradually gaining ground since the date of the Stricklandian and 
of the Candollean codes. I do not regard the' present movement 
in any sense revolutionary. It is merely an attempt on the part 
of botanists to secure a uniform system which has not thus far 
been actually put in practice, except to a limited extent It is 
now proposed to practice what has been preached. 



319 



Before attempting to discuss any of the so-called principles 
laid down in this circular, it may be premised that the advance 
movement should be regarded as essential!}- one of disinterested 
principles which only has to oppose what is really prejudice, but 
maybe called by the milder names of sentiment and conservatism. 
The botanists who approve of these rules have just as much to 
lose as those who oppose them, and the difference is that they are 
willing to make this sacrifice, not for their own sakes, but for the 
sake of the future of botany. Their work is therefore a labor of 
love. It is opposed to their personal interest, and they represent 
the class of botanists who are willinj^ for the sake of the future, 



m which they will have no part, to make a great personal sacri- 
fice. Very k\y of the older ones will ever be able to rid them- 
selves of the older names with which they are now familiar. Only 
the very young workers can hope that this action will redound to 
their personal advantage. Those who oppose this mox-tment, if 
there be any (and I have no doubt there are) who really see that 
it might be the last time that serious changes would have to be 
made in botanical names, would seem to do so purely from a per- 
sonal disinclination to incur the annoyance of accustoming them- 
selves to a new set of names. It must be admitted that this mo- 
tive is not as high as we might hope botanists generally to be 
actuated by. It is probable that some of the signers of this cir- 
cular think that no stable nomenclature is possible. It is for the 
benefit of such that I have introduced the argument showing the 
action of the Ornithologists' Union, and surely no one can deny 
that it is equally applicable to botany. In so far as any personal 
rivalry or rivalry between different institutions is concerned I take 
no interest in it, and arguments of that nature are not only un- 
worthy of an answer, but really admit of no answer. 

As regards the familiarity of names and their sanctity on that 
account, much more is made of it than it deserves. For exam- 
ple, I have been obliged to familiarize myself with no less than 
four different sets of botanical names in the course of my own 
work. , The first naa.e I learned for a common plant was felt by 
me to be sacred, and it seemed a sacrilege to substitute another, 
but when convinced that it was necessary I submitted, and soon 
the second name became equally sacred with the first, and so on 



320 



to the end. Now this is the case with us all in learning the names 

■m 

of our familiar plants. The particular name that we learn for a 
a plant is all that makes it sacred, and the rising generation of 
botanists, who will have only before them the actual first name or 
the real name of the plant, instead of some false synonym that 
occurs in the present books, will look upon that name with the 
same veneration as we did upon the false one, and the names that 
we have learned to cherish will be to them nothing but w^orthless 
synonyms. In their case this will be true, whereas in ours we 
were simply cherishing the names that did not properly belong to 
the objects to which they were applied, 

I have said that the new movement is not only not revolutionary, 
but is simply in the nature of an evolution w^hich has long been 
going on. On the contrary, it might be maintained that the so- 
called principles embodied in this circular, which are alleged to be 
an expression of conservative views, are really, on the contrary, 
revolutionary in their character. The following are the principal 
codes which have been proposed by responsible organizations for 
the guidance of writers in zoology and botany : 

De Candolle's Theorie elementaire de la botanique, 1813. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1842. 

Association of American Geologists and Naturalists, 1845- 

International Botanical Congress, Genoa, 1865. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1877* 

Societe Zoologique Internationale, 1882. 

American Ornithologists' Union, 1883-85. 

International Botanical Congress, Genoa. 1892. 

Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, 1892-93. 

The codes adopted by these associations show a steady ad- 
vance from the idea of giving genera and species names to suit 
individual taste toward the idea of giving them strictly their old- 
est names. And the history of nomenclature shows an advance 
in stability and uniformity corresponding exactly with the thor- 
oughness with which these codes have been carried out. The 
circular to which reference has been made proposes a new de- 
parture in nomenclature, revolutionary in its character and, judg- 
ing from the history of the science, capable of producing most 
chaotic results. 



' 



321 



It may be said to embody four rules or principles which are 
opposed to those adopted by the Botanical Club of tlie American 
Association. These, which may for convenience be designated 
the Harvard rules, afford a good opportunity for the comparison 
of the two codes, which every botanist should make for himself 
deliberately and judicially. It seems eminently desirable that 
those who have not yet given thought to the subject should un- 
derstand the full significance of the problem with which the As- 
sociation botanists have been dealing. The first of them, that 
relative to ordinal names, it is unnecessary to discuss from the 
standpoint of the new nomenclature, for no official action on this 
matter has as yet been taken by the botanical club committee. 

The Harvard rules are promulgated after a distinct statement 
of belief* that no stability in nomenclature is possible, and that 
the decision as to what names shall be used for genera is to be 
left to the judgment of individual botanists and not decided by 
the principle of priority.f 

These rules represent the system which for many decades 
botanists all over the world have been trying to escape, a system 
which renders the nomenclature of a book thirty or forty years 
old largely unintelligible, except to the systematist, and which 
gives every promise of repeating its own history. It is preemi- 
nently a laissez fairc system, and the most that can be claimed for 
it is that it has served ** fairly well." .If at the beginning of the 
present century botanists had adopted a system based on priority, 
hovv great w^ould be our obligation to them ! Instead of a hun- 
dred years of heterogeneous and largely unrecognizable names, we 
should have had a botanical literature in which a plant would al- 
ways have had the same name, and ready intelligibility of this lit- 
erature would be possible to every reader. The botanists of the 
next century will not, it is hoped, have such a hundred years of 
constant change to look back upon as we in our time have had. 

Some botanists are prone to pin their faith to the arbitrary 
authority of a standard book, and are holding up that truly mag- 
nificent work, the Index Kewensis, now nearly completed, as the 
safe and only guide in nomenclature. But history shows that the 

""^ ■! ■ I" II ' • 1^ — ^^^^^^^^^^^^ " J.^ 

♦Robinson, Botanical Gazette, 20: 103. Ap. 1S95. 
\ Harvard Rules, No. 2 (May, 1895). 



322 



influence of such a v/ork is only temporary at best. Where now 
is the authority of Steudel's Nomenclator, of Pfeiffer's Nomencla- 
tor. and to what extent have they contributed to uniformity in 
plant names ? Both these works have filled an important place in 
the literature of botany, but for the shnple reason that they did 
not bring forward the oldest name as the valid one they have 
added little to the stability of our nomenclature. It is greatly to 
be regretted that at the time when the Index Kewensis was in 
preparation the demand for a stable nomenclature had not yet be- 
come sufficiently strong to lead its authors to add principle to 
prestige and thus insure its permanency as a nomenclator in addi- 
tion to its inestimable value as an index. 

In the prelude to the Harvard rules reference is made to the 
calling, at an early date, of an International Botanical Congress, 
presumably for the purpose of ** settling*' the nomenclature ques- 
tion. It may not be out of place here to urge upon every one 
who may be a delegate to that Congress, or who may aid in the 
selection of a delegate, the careful consideration of the fact that no 
law is stronger than the authority that makes it, and that no au- 
thority is stronger in the end than the principle upon which it 
rests. 

A specialist in fungi recently made the admission in conver- 
sation, not only that the objections to the new code did not apply 
in the case of the lower cryptogams, but that the actual applica- 
tion of the code itself would be desirable. The reason given for 

■ 

this was that these orders are not popularly known and hence 
their nomenclature has not become established by usage. - There 
is the same tacit admission in the language of the Harvard circular; 



a 



[the Harvard rules] 



to phaenogams and vascular cryptogams.'* 

In all the lower orders of plants, then, we are to be guided by 
the law of priority; but as soon as the Pteridophyta are reached, 
principle is cast aside in favor of sentiment, and because Swartz 
ndim^ o{ Aspidiiun happens to be in common use among fern- 
gatherers, we are enjoined from taking up the perfectly valid de- 



'ryopt^ 



\ 



Relative to international action it is a matter of gratification to 
note that recent legislative change has been in conformity with the 



323 



A 



nerican Association principles. The adoption of the first edi- 
tion of Linnaeus* Species Plantarum, 1753, as the starting point of 
our system of nomenclature was carried through the Genoa Con- 
gress immediately after its adoption at Rochester in 1S92. The 
Austro-German botanists in a meeting held last September 
adopted another fundamental principle of the American code, the 
retention of the oldest specific name, under whatever genus pub- 
lished, a principle already put in practice in the later numbers of 
Engler and Prantl's Natlirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 

There arc some botanists who hold that die Association rules, 
although sound, should not be made retroactive. Even In the 
Harvard rules, three of the four Association rules are expressly ad- 
mitted to be desirable fn future practice. It should be evident to 
every thoughtful person that if these principles are not made 
retroactive the desired reform will in no sense be secured. A 
gardener might with equal wisdom propose to improve a weedy 
garden simply by preventing the introduction of any more weeds. 
In the view of the reformers it Is necessary to remove the old 
weeds as well as to keep out the new. 

In some respects nomenclatural reform will escape in botany 
the difficulties that formerly beset it in zoology. We have the 
gratifying assurance that we are not trynng an experiment, that 
the plan ts not a merely theoretical one, and that its complete 
success will unquestionably be attained in botany as it has already 
been attained In zoology. Furthermore, we are able to do in a 
few years, in one stroke, as it were, what zoologists, feeling their 
way over new ground, were many years in accomplishing. All 
botanists dislike changes in names, and the sooner they can be 



properly made the better. 

There are doubtless some botanists who believe that by gen- 
■eral agreement any set of names may be made permanent — that, 
for example, an International Congress may decide arbitrarily that 
certain generic or certain specific names are to be considered the 
proper ones, regardless of any principle. If this were feasible it 
would be an easy solution of the question, but those who have 
confidence In such a solution surely cannot have taken into con- 
sideration the fact that naturalists and other scientists usually 
liave very little respect for mere authority and very great respect 



324 



F ■ 

for principle. This sentiment is constantly growing stronger, and 
there is every reason for believing not only that a large percentage 
of botanists would refuse to be influenced by an arbitrary agree- 
ment of this kind, but that the ever-growing younger element 
would within a few years absolutely reject it. 

One of the statements made under the second head in this 
circular deserves special eonsideration. It is as follows: "While 
the scope of this rule is left to the discretion of writers, it is 
urged that generic nomenclature should not at present depart far 
from that of the three important works, Bentham and Hooker's 
Genera Plantarum, Baillon's Histoirc des Plantes, and Engler and 
Prantl's Naturlichen Pflanzcnfamihen, from which for some time to- 
come our most complete and accurate information as to generic 
limits and affinities is to be derived." Nothing: could better illus- 
trate the present chaos of botanical nomenclature than a compar- 
ison of these three great works. It would be interesting to make 
such a comparison throughout their entire extent, but of course 
space will not permit of this. We may, however, refer to a few 
cases, taken principally at random, to show how widely these 
alleged standard authorities differ in the case of generic names. 



BENTH. & HOOK. 



ENGL. A PRANTL. 



Stellaria L. 

\Yistaria Nutt. 
Petalostemon Michx, 
Centrosema DC* 
Sliepherdia Nutt. 
Spergularia Pers. 
Senebiera. 
Nelumbium Juss. 
Cirsium DC. 
Echiuospermum Sw. 



Aliiine L. 
Kraunhia Raf. 
Kuhnistera Lam. 
Bradburya Raf. 
Lepargyraca Raf. 
Tissa Adans. 
Coronopus Gaertn. 
Nelumbo Adans. 
Cirsium Scop. 
Lappula Moench. 



BAILLON, HIST. 



Stellaria L. 
Wistaria Nutt. 
Petalostemon Miclix 

Centrosema DC* 
Shepherdia Nutt. 
I'issa Adans, 
Coronopus HalL 
Nelumbo Adans, 
Carduus L. 
Lappula Moench. 



Any one who has the patience to carry out such a comparison 
to a much greater extent will readily see how little effort has been 
made by the great systematists named to arrive at the original 
names of genera, and so long as authorities are privileged to adopt 

*Bradburj^a Raf. is included by Eenth. & Hook, and Eaillon in a list of "genera 
dubia." The plants in question are placed under Centrosema DC. 

It will be seen that all but one of these names cited from Engler and Prantl ac- 
cord with those accepted by the Botanical Club's committee. 



325 



the names that best please them, there never will be any end to' 
these wide variations. • - 

Here again, as in the more general case above mentioned, it 
seems to me that the present circular is based wholly upon senti- 
ment. The time has gone by when it was regarded as the im- 
portant consideration to give special credit to the person who 
becomes the author of a name. It is no longer a question of 
credit, but a question of practical utility. The namer of a plant 
has done nothing more than his duty and while his name should 
of course stand as the author of that name, botanists are not called 
upon to violate the rules of nomenclature for tlie sole purpose of 
doing him some special honor. The argument that the more im- 
portant serv^ice is that of fixing a species under its proper genus, 
and that therefore the binomial combination should bear the name 

w 

of the one who established it falls to the ground, and it becomes 
of far greater importance that the original namer of the species, or 
even of the variety, if there be such, be accredited with that name, 
no matter how many vicissitudes it may subsequently undergo. 
The rule that the namer of the combination may append his nam" 
for the author of the combination, although the last term of that 
combination may have been named long before by another, seems 
to be very vicious from a num.ber of points of view. In the first 
place, if the question of justice were worth considering, it would 
certainly be a gross injustice to the original namer for another 
botanist to usurp his rights and take credit for his name; but this 
is not the chief objection. When I see the names Ntiphar kal- 
miana Pursh and Niiphar kahnimmm Ait., I at once assume that 
the last name refers to a different plant from the first and that the 
words "non Pursh" or '' not of Pursh" are understood; and when 



arp 



I see written Spcrgiilaria media Presl. var. macrocarpa Gray i 
book and Lepigonum niediuvi Fries van macrocaipum Wats., 
entirely at a loss who the true author for the variety macro 
IS. What seems to be most needed is some clue to the history of 
these names, and the particular name should always bear the au- 
thority of the one who first wrote it. 

But I would like to say here that this whole matter of quoting 
authority is one of the worst evils of botanical writing. Any one 
who has the least respect for style must be infinitely annoyed by 



326 



t- 



the necessity of tacking on one or two abbreviations at the end of 
a name in order to give his reader an idea of what he is talking 
about. It makes an ugly cacophony that should not be tolerated 
any longer than is absolutely necessary. Now, as I understand 
it, one of the chief objects of this whole movement is, not to lum- 
ber up botanical writing Avith more things of this kind, but to get 
rid at the earliest possible moment of the w^hole of it. The orni- 
thologists in adopting one set of names for all birds, the same 
name ahvays meaning the same bird, and all agreeing that that 
shall be the case, have already reached the point at which they 
can write popular articles about birds and omit the authority, thus 
lending smoothness and grace as well as clearness to their discus- 
sions. This should be one of the great aims of botany. Botanists 
ought to draw up a list, international in its scope and based on a 
thorough application of the principle of priority, of all the plants 
known to the world, and all a^ree that this list should henceforth 
and forever be adhered to as the authoritative list of all known 
plants. This once done and subscribed to by all, it would no 
longer be necessary in any mention that botanists wish to make 
of any plant known to science to append the abbreviations of the 
various persons who have had to do with naming it. This surely 
would be a consummation devoutly to be wished. Of course, in 
all subsequent names the authority must be given as heretofore, 
and supplementary lists could from time to time be prepared to 
embody the results of current research. 

r 

But it may be said, and is said by some as a matter of fact, 
that advocates of the new rules of nomenclature do not adhere to 
the law of priority, that it has always been necessary to fix a limit 
or earliest date back of which it is not permissible to go. It 
seems superfluous to argue this question because the reasons are 
so thoroughly well known to all, but it may be said in general 
that in going back to Linnaeus, the founder of binominal nomen- 
clature, and to the particular work of his which is regarded as con- 
taining the most complete expression of his law of binomials, we 
are practically going back, as in the case of the individual, to the 
birth or first christening of a genus or species. We may go back 
in language to the time when there were no common nouns and all 
nouns were proper names. We are told that some rude languages 



/ 



327 



are still in that condition. Now in ante-LInnaeandays there were 
no true- names of plants, certainly not systematic names. All 
such names may be regarded as trivial or common names, and 
at the time when Latin was generally written and largely spoken 
they were scarcely more than vernacular names. Moreover, bot- 
anists commenced describing them before they commenced nam- 
ing them, and the binominal nomenclature is a direct descendant 
of a system of describing plants. It resulted from the dropping 
more and more of the adjective terms contained in the character 
until at last the description consisted of only two names, that of 
the genus and that of the species. In later times trinominals 
came more or less into vogue, and as the science advanced it be- 
came apparent that the name had little to do with the description, 
so that although up to this day many or most specific names have 
a greater or less descriptive value, still large numbers of them pos- 
sess no such value whatever, and the combination has become 
simply a name or symbol by which the plant may be known. 
Elementary as these remarks are, it is upon such facts that is 
based the reason for fixing some specific standard for the origin of 



systematic nomenclature, and to all who clearly understand the 
fact this reason is wholly conclusive. 

Since I have commenced the study of fossil plants I have 
found the same difficulty, and although the science scarcely dates 
back of the beginning of the present century the nomenclature is 
in a condition of great confusion. M. R. Zeiller in 1S77 encoun- 
tered this difficulty and expressed himself on the subject in the 
following clear and trenchant language:* 

" The unfortunate confusion that results from these successive 
changes in the name of one and the same object has taken place 
the same and in a much greater degree in other older branches of 
natural history, and to-day the necessity for some remedy is recog- 
nized. The only equitable and rational basis that can be adopted 
is the one that was proposed in 181 3 by [A. P.] De Candolle in 
his Theorie elementaire de la botanique, in the chapter on Phy- 
tography, viz., the maintenance throughout all changes in the 

^ , ^ M—i.^ 

* R. Zeiller, Ingenieur en chef au corps national des mines. Explication de la 
carte geologique de la France, Tome IV.. 2nie Partie. Vegetaux fossiles du terrain 
^ouiller, 1879, p. 5. 



328 



genus of the oldest specific name, or, more generally, the absolute 
principle of the right of priority. In order that the nomenclature 
may be invariable and universally accepted it must rest upon fixed 
principles whose application is not subject in any way to arbitrary 
judgment ; thus we should adhere without exception in the case 
of each genus or species as De Candolle had established it, to the 
name first in date, even where this name has been recognized as 
improper and in contradiction with such and such characters of 
the object or group to which it is applied. Generic or specific 
names are in fact only designations and not definitions, and if it is 
admitted that they may be changed because improper, the door is 
opened to arbitrary action, each author interpreting differently the 
propriety or impropriety of a name." 

I have been engaged for over fourteen years, as time would 
permit, upon the bibliography and synonymy of fossil plants, and 
hope ultimately to publish a complete catalogue of all the names 
that have ever been gi^'cn to the extinct vegetation of the globe, 



s^. .v..^ w^ ^W^- ^.VVIW^V .x_j^ 



a 






fully exposing the confusion referred to and adhering strictly in 
the final revision to the law of priority. 

Inasmuch as the representative character of the Botanical Club 
of the American Association has been called in question. It is of 
interest to know that some of the opponents of the Rochester 
movement formerly thought otherwise, as is seen by the following 
extract fromi the Proceedings of the Washington Botanical Club 
of May 7, 1892, which were pubUshed in the Botanical Gazette 
for June, 1892. These resolutions were duly signed by each mem- 
ber of the committee and are preserved in the minutes of the Club. 

'^Ata meeting of the Botanical Club of Washington, held 
April 23, 1892, a committee was appointed to consider and report 
upon the questions of botanical congress and nomenclature. At a 
special meeting called May 7, this committee presented the fol- 
lowing report, which was unanimously adopted by the Club: 

"Your committee, appointed to consider the questions of a botanical congress 
and botanical noirenclature, held a meeting on the second of May and prepared the 
following resolutions : 

''Resolved, That, while favoring the final settlement of disputed questions by 
means of an international congress, we do not regard the present as an opportune 
time, but we recommend the reference of the question of plant nomenclature first to a 
representative body of American botanists. 



329 



•* We suggest the consideration, by sucli body, of the following questions, among 
others: the law of priority; an initial date for genera; an initial date for species ; 
the principle once a synonym always a synonym; what constitutes publication; the 
form of tribal and ordinal names ; the method of citing authorities; capitalization. 



r ^^ 

"We recognize the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S. as a representative body 



of American botanists and commend to that body for discussion and disposal the sub- 
ject of nomenclature as set forth in these resolutions." 

Respectfully submitted, 

Lester F. Ward, 
Geo. Vasey, 
F. n. Knowlton, 
B. T, Galloway, 
Erwin F. Smith, 

GtO. B. SUDWOKTJt, 

Frederick V. Coville, 

Co7nf7iitfee. 



Missouri Botanical Garden."^ 

I 

■ The attention of botanists is called to the facilities afforded for 
research at the Missouri Botanical Garden. In establishing and 
endowing the Garden, its founder, Henry Shaw, desired not only 
to afford the general public pleasure and information concerning 
decorative plants and their best use, and to provide for beginners 
the means of obtaining good training in botany and horticulture, 
but also to provide facilities for advanced research in botany and 
cognate sciences. For this purpose additions are being made 
constantly to the number of species cultivated in the grounds and 
planthouses and to the library and herbarium, and, as rapidly as 
it can be utilized, it is proposed to secure apparatus for \vork in 
vegetable physiology, etc., the policy being to secure a good gen- 
eral equipment in all Hues of pure and applied botany, and to 
make this equipment as complete as possible for any special sub- 
ject on which original work is undertaken by competent students. 

A very large number oi species, both native and exotic, 
and of horticulturists' varieties, are cultivated in the Garden 
and Arboretum and the adjoining park, and the native flora 
easily accessible from St. Louis is large and varied. Tlie her- 

[*This article has recently been issued as a leaflet. We take pleasure in placing 
3t more permanently on record and in calling the attention oi botanists to the valuable 
facilities for research afforded. — Eds.] 



\ 



1 



330 



barium, which includes nearly 250,000 specimens, is fairly 
representative of the vegetable life of Europe and the United 
States, and also contains a great many specimens from less 
accessible regions. It is especially rich . in material illustra- 



Quercus, Coniferae, Vitis, J 



r 



Sagittaria, Epilobium, Rumex, Rhamnaceae and other groups 
monographed by the late Dr. Engelmann or by attaches of the 
Garden. The herbarium is supplemented by a large collection of 
woods, including veneer transparencies and slides for the micro- 
scope. The library, containing about 8,000 volumes and 10,000 
pamphlets, includes most of the standard periodicals and proceed- 



ings of learned bodies, a good collection of morphological and 



physiological works, nearly 500 carefully selected botanical vol- 
umes published before the period of Linnaeus, an unusually large 
number of monographs of groups of cryptogams and flowermg 
plants, and the entire manuscript notes and sketches representing 
the painstaking work of Engelmann. 

^ The great variety of living plants represented in the Garden^, 
and the large herbarium, including the collections of Bernhardi 
and Engelmann, render the Garden facihties exceptionally good 
for research in systematic botany, in which direction the library 
also is especially strong. The living collections and library like- 
wise afford unusual opportunity for morphological, anatomical and 
physiological studies, while the planthouse facilities for experi- 
mental work are steadily increasing. The E. Lewis Sturtevant 
Prelinnean library, in connection with the opportunity afforded 
for the cultivation of vegetables and other useful plants, is favor- 
able also for the study of cultivated plants and the modifications 
they have undergone. 

These facilities are freely placed at the disposal of professors 
of botany and other persons competent to carry on research work- 
of value in botany or horticulture, subject only to such simple 
restrictions as are necessary to protect the property of the Garden 
from injury or loss. Persons who wish to make use of them are 
invited to correspond with the undersigned, outlining with as 
much detail as possible the work they desire to do at the Garden, 
and giving timely notice so that provision may be made for the 
study of special subjects. Those who have not published the re- 






331 



suits of original work are requested to state their preparation for 
" the investigation they propose to undertake. 

Under the rules of Washington University, persons entitled to 
candidacy in that institution for the Master's or Doctor's degree 
may elect botanical research work as a principal study for such 
degrees, if they can devote the requisite time to resident study. 



St. Louis, Mo., May 8, 1895. 



William Tkelease, 

Director 



Botanical Notes. 

The Pignuts, There is some question as to the exact distribu- 
tion of the Common Pignut {Carya porcina or Hicoria glabra) and 
the related Carya or Hicoria viicrocarpa, and the undersigned will 
be grateful for herbarium specimens and especially nuts with their 
husks, representing both. In the recently published seventh vol- 
ume of Professor Sargent's Silvaa, the range of glabra is given as 



southern Maine to southern Ontario, through southern Michigan 
to southeastern Nebraska, southward to the shores of the Indian 
River and Peace Creek in Florida, and to southern Alabama and 
Mississippi, through Missouri and Arkansas to eastern Kansas and 
the Indian Territory, and to the valley of the Nueces River in 
Texas. H, microcarpa (treated in the Silva as a variety of glabra^ 
under the varietal name odoratd) is said to occur in eastern Mass- 
achusetts, Connecticut, eastern and central New York, eastern 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, the District of Columbia, central Michi- 
gan, southern Indiana and Illinois and Missouri. 

William Trelease. 



Reviews. 

A Mo7iogmph of the Mycetozoa. Arthur Lister, F. L. S. 
London. Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum. 

Rostafinski's monograph of the Mycetozoa appeared in 1875, 
and with the appendix described about 230 species. Massee's 
"Monograph of the :\ryxogastres " was published in 1892; it 



332 



enumerates 430 species. Lister's volume comes to us dated 1894; 
it furnishes descriptions of 174 species "taken from specimens I 
have personally examined," and a list Is appended at the end. of 
each genus of *^ species not met with in the quoted collections;' 
this comprises about 100 species. .. 

The basis of work in all three of these monographs is the 
same, viz. : tlic types of the species of RostafinsM s vionograpli in the 
collections at Kew, in the British Museum and at Strassburg. Of 
course the continued accession of specimens to these herbaria has 
augmented the material of each succeeding autlior, and important 
contributions appear to have been made to Mr. Lister's resources 
by several parties on this side the water. 

Rostafinski, by reason of his original method, which involved a 
complete reorganization of the classification, necessarily reduced 

F 

numerous species of the old writers to the condition of synonyms. 
Massee In general accepted the species as established by Rosta- 
finski, while at the same time making numerous additions to this 
list from descriptions and material derived from American sources 
and elsewhere. Lister, however, while professing to follow in the 
main the arrangement of orders and genera given by Ros- 
tafinski, opens up afresh the question of species and proceeds to 
make a thorough and complete revision of the works of his prede- 
cessors. Upwards of eighty of the species of Rostafinski's mono- 
graph have disappeared in synonomy, united with other species, 
becoming reduced two, three and four or more Into one. This 



/ 



eenera. 



The manner in which species and genera are disposed of is 
sometimes remarkable. For' example, it is suggested that the 
single species of the genus Crateriachca is but a variety of Physa- 
rum cinermm Batsch, and "a careful examination of the type 
specimen of Hetcrodictyon viirahile Rost. leads to the conclusion 
that it is a form of Dictydiwn uuibilicatum Schrad." On page 
89 eight Rostafinskian species are excluded from the genus Chon- 
drioderma, four of them being unceremoniously dumped into 
TrichavipJwra pezisoidca]\xn'^\\ the sin ^. 
is composed of five species of Rostafinski and one of Massee. 

Of the numerous American species of Berkeley and Curtis, all 



333 



but two or three subside into synonomy. Peck and Rex come off 

• a little better, a paltry half dozen or so being graciously allowed 

to remain to each. It is George Massee, however, who has to 

r 

bear the brunt of the crush and to suffer the most acutely. Out 
of upwards of fifty new species named and described by him, only 
a single one is allowed to live, with the exception of two or three 
which are permitted to linger along until Lister can lay his hands 
on the types. This, too, it will be observed, is in addition to the 
Rostafinskian squeeze, the sum of which leav^es Massee's volume 
in a sad state of collapse. 

If the details of Lister's book are accurate and reliable, and the 
work is to be accepted as authoritative, then Massee^s volume is a 
tissue of mistakes and blunders and a monument of ignorance^ 
and vice versa. There is scarcely an agreement in spore measure- 
ments under any of the species, and the discrepancies are often im- 
mense. For example, the spores of Laniprodcnna irideum Massee 
are given in one volume as 1 1-15 n., in the other as 6.5-8 //, The 
measurements of sporangia exhibit the same diversity. Species 
appear under one genus in the one volume and under an entirely 
different genus in the other, Didymiiim flavicouiiivi of Massee be- 
comes Physariim Berkeleyi o{ Lister. The difference in treatment 
of the elegant genus, TricJiia, by the two is something appalling; 
the number of species described by Massee is thirty, while Lister 
recognizes but teti. Massee 's single genus, Het£rotrichia,\\\^ only 
one he ventured to establish, is incorporated in Arcyria femiginea 
Sauter. Two of Massee's species of Lycogala are excluded from 
the Mycetozoa! And Tiibtdina spumarioidca Cooke & Massee is 
declared to be nothing but the common fungus Sepcdonium chrys- 
ospcrnium Lk.! The number of species that are occasionally got 
together sometimes rivals the synonomy of Rostafinski, and pos- 
sibly a righteous retribution has now fallen' on him for having 
made such havoc with the species of the old writers. For ex- 
ample, in Physaruni coinpressum A. & S. are dumped four of Rosta- 
finski's species, two of Berkeley's, three of Massee's and one each 
belonging to Balfour, Phillips and McBride. Oligonema nitens 
Libert is made a dumping place for eight different species, and he 
seems to have seriously considered whether he shouldn't dump the 

whole into Trichia affinis De B. 



/ 



334 



Mr. Lister has made a itv^ attempts at novelties himself, which 

L 

in the main are unfortunate. It is doubtful \{ PJiysamm viurimun 
Lister is anything different from Fhysaruin pidchripes Peck, as he 
has it. PJiysaruui calidris Lister, on his own showing should be 
called Physamm pusillitm B. & C, and the pretext for not doing 
so IS perfectly flimsy. At any rate Physarum nodtdositm Cke. & 
Balf. has priority; it was published as BadJiamia nodidosa in the 
Journal of Mycology in 1889. If Hemiarcyria stipitata Mass. is 
to be absorbed in //. clavata Pers., with more reason should //. 
intorta Lister be included in tjie same species. Tlie definition of 
his new order Margaritaceae is illogical; in fact, the order is un- 
necessary and the genera may easily be distributed elsewhere.^ 
The theory of the tubules in Lycogala is questionable; but if true 
the tubules are not a capillitium traversing the interior oi the spo- 
rangia, but only *'alr-spaces" between them, in which case Lycogala 
goes to Reticulariaceae. The placing of Chondrioderma and Dia- 
chaca inPhysaraceae is awkward indeed, and will receive the approval 
of no one. Hemiarcyria \sdi good Friesian designation much older 
than Hemiirichia. Something is said in the introduction concern- 
ing the *Maws of botanical nomenclature," but it will be seen 
that the nomenclature remains a purely personal one, and that re- 
vision of the generic and specific names in the Myxomycetes is 
still a thing greatly needed. 

We are of the opinion that Mr. Lister has shown too little re- 
spect for the labors of his predecessors and has exhibited a great 
want of consideration for the views and opinions of his contempo- 
raries. We have a lurking suspicion that he is influenced by 
some strong personal bias greatly to the discredit of many of his 
statements; possibly It is only a yearning for notoriety. And we 
are inclined to look upon him as a narrow specialist, disqualified, 
by reason of his limited studies, for forming a proper judgment 
concerning genera and species. . A. P. 

Ufitersuchungen ubcr die Siarkekorncr. By Dr. Arthur Meyer. 
With 99 cuts in the text and 9 plates. Jena, 1895. 

This treatise will no doubt be welcomed by all scientific 
botanists. The author has made an earnest, conscientious effort 
to clear up some of the mysteries concerning the life history 01 
the individual starch-grain. He admits that some of his conclu- 



M 



335 



sions in regard to structure, imbibition, stratification and growth 
are yet theoreticaU Our knowledge concerning the chemistry of 
starch is especially imperfect. It would be impossible to attempt 
to give a full summary of the author's investigations and results. 
The foUow^ing are perhaps the most important conclusions: 

1 . The starch-grain consists of amylose, w^hich separates into 
«-amylose and ^9-amyIose, amylodextrin, dextrin, isomaltose, and 
maltose. Of these substances amylose is perhaps the true starch- 
substance ; the others are the result of processes of inversion. 

2. Starch-grains are sphaero-crystals of amylose and amylo- 
dextrin. This is evident from their optical behavior. 

3. Amylose is split up by the starch-ferment diastase as fol- 
low^s : with the aid of water, the amylose molecule is converted 
into two or more molecules of amylodextrin; this is converted 
into dextrin and isomaltose; a further process of splitting up con- 
V'erts dextrin into maltose, while isomaltose may also revert Into 
maltose. 

4. The starch-grain is porous. The pores are scarcely per- 
ceptible with the highest magnifying powers. The author makes 
a special attack upon Biitschli's *' Wabenstructur" theory. Among 
other things he says, *' Es ist hbchst interessant zu sehen wie ein 
so vortrefflicher Beobachter (Biitschll) die Schaum und Waben- 
structur mit welcher er sich eingehend beschaftigt, in die Ob- 
jecte hinsieht," which, I think, expresses it rightly. 

The following are some of the more important conclusions in 
regard to the biology of the starch-grain. 

1. Starch-grains occur exclusively in the chromatophores. 
They may occur in any kind of chromatophore. The starch-grain 
of angiosperms originates and grows from the beginning until its 
final solution within a chromatophore. 

2. Every starch-grain Is entirely enclosed by the substance of 
the chromatophore. The author points out the difficulty of de- 
monstrating the presence of the chromatophore substance. 

3. The form of the starch-grain is more or less dependent 



upon the form of the chromatophore. The chromatophore sub- 
stance does not always form an even layer over the starch-grain. 
The thickest portion of the chromatophore always lies In contact 
with the thickest stratifications of the starch-grain. 



*1 



336 



4. Several starch-grains may develop in one and the same 

chromatophore, 

5. Solution of the starch-grain within the cell is due to the 

ferment diastase. 

6. Stratification of starch-grains is still not well understood, 
it is perhaps due to a periodicity of growth (deposition of new 
layers), and to the action of diastase. 

Part IV. comprises monographs on the biology of the starch- 



Hordeuin disiichnm^ Dieffenb 



H) 



<P 



The treatise, which comprises 318 large octavo pages, is written 
in clear scientific style. Some of the cuts are poor. Taken as a 
whole, it is certainly the standard w^ork on starch. It shows a 
great advance made since Nageli's memorable communications on 
the same subject. Albert Schneider. 



f 



Catalogue of Ohio Plants. W. A. Kellerman and William C 
Werner (Geology of Ohio, 7 : Part 2, 56-406. 1895). 

Since- the publication of Dr. Beardslee's "Catalogue of the 
Plants of Ohio" in 1874, a great amount of botanical exploration 
and critical study of the flora of the State has been accomplished, 
no less than 1 10 published papers and references to the plants of 
the area, during that period, being cited in the work here noticed. 
It was therefore highly desirable that these records should be 
brought together and incorporated with the unpublished results o 
the recent work of Professor Kellerman, his students and associates 
in the region. The duty has been discharged in a thorough and 
painstaking manner, as evidenced by the fine volume which lies 
before us, and we tender its authors the cordial congratulations of 
American botanists upon its completion. 

The chapter on bibliography cites the titles of 132 papers and 
references, all but two or three of which have been examined. 
The arrangement of the families is that of Engler and Prantl, but 
in a reverse sequence, beginning with the Compositae and ending 
with the Myxomycetes. The nomenclature is based on the prin- 
ciples adopted by the Botanical Club of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. N. L. B. 



1 

1 



337 



Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany, 

Alwood, W. B. Ripe-rot or Bitter-rot of Apples. Bull. Va. Exp. 
Sta. 40: 56-82. //. 2. My, 1894. 

Atkinson, G. F. Damping Off. Bull. N. Y. (Cornell) Exp. Sta. 
94: 230-272. f.S5' My, 1895. 

Treats at length of Artotragus Dcbaryanus (Hesse), A, intermedins (De Bary), 
Com/'lctoria completts Lohde and Volutclla Icucotricha Atkin. 



Baker, J. G. Eiipatorium ciidadoides, Aspilia Glaziovij Senecio arclii- 
/alius. Kew Bull. loi : 105, 106. My. 1895. 

New species from Brazil. 

Britten, N. L., and Vail, A. M. An Enumeration of the Plants col- 
lected by M. E. Penard in Colorado during the Summer of 1S92. 

Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3: 197-221. My. 1895. 

Brown, N, E. Cynanchinn formosiim. Kew Bull, loi : 112. My. 
1895. 

Native of Peru and Ecuador. 

Burt, E, A. A North American Anthurus, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist. 3: 4S7-505, pL49^5^' iS94v 

A. dorealzs, from East Galway, N. Y., described as new. 

Card. P. W. Garden Herbariums. Gard. and For. 8; 242. 19 Je. 
1895. 

Christ, H* Fougcres nouvelles ou pen connus. Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 
33: part 2, 92, 95. 27 Je. 1895. ^ . 

Gyfunogramme Eggersii from Cuba (Eggers, 48S2a), and Alsophila monosticha 
from British Guiana, 

Christ, H. XJn cas d'androgynie dans le genre Pinus. Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Belg. 33 : part 2, 88-92. 27 Je. 1895. 

-P. Czibensis Griseb. from Bluffton, S. C. 

Clark, H. L. Studies in Plant Development. Folio, Chicago, 1895. 

Blanks for recording studies in comparative morphology. 



/ 



Fb. 1895. 

Demonstrates the desirability of artificial polhnation in field* culture. 



J. M. The Botanical Work of the Government. Bot. Gaz 



20: 264-268. 17 J 



L M., and Rose, J. N. Musineon of Rafinesque. Bot. Gaz. 



20 : 258-260. 17 J 



Musi 



338 



Coville, F. V. Directions for collecting Specimens and Information 
illustrating Aboriginal Uses of Plants. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 39 : 
• 1-8. 1S85. 



J 

Dietel, P- Uber Quellungserscheiniingen an den Teleiitosporenstielen 
vonUredineen. Pringsheim's Jahrbiicher, 26: 49-81. pi. 4. 1894. 

Refers to a number of North American species. 

Eggleston, W. W. Astragalus BlakeL Bot. Gaz. 20: 271. 17 
Je- 1895. 

A new species from New England. 

Greene, E. L. Novitates occidentales.— XIV. Eryth. 3: 98-101, i 



J 



M. 



seris, Ilieraciiim and Bolelia. 

Greene, E, L- Observations on the Compositae — IX. Fvryth. 3 : S9-98. 
I Je. 1895. 

Establishes the genus Brintonla for Solidag-o discoidea: enumerates the species of 
Ckondrophora and Chrysothamnus; describes C, elegens as new. 

Greene, E. L. Phytographic Notes and Amendments. — IT. Eryth. 3: 
102-105. I Je. 1895. 

Describes new species in Liiho/hragma and Gilia, 

Harrison, W. H. The Poison Ivy. Card, and For. 8: 268. 3 Jl- 
1895. 

Harshberger, J. W. When is Rhus Toxicodendron 
Gard. & For. 8: 239. 12 Je. 1895^ 



most active? 



i 



Hillman, F. H. Early Flora of the Truckee Valley. Bull. Nevada 
Exp. Sta. 24: pp. 96. N. 1894, 

Account of the commoner floweritig plants occurring within the Truckee Valley hy 
midsummer. 

Hooker, J. D. Peraphyllum ramosissimum. Curt. Bot. Mag. pi- 
1420. Je. 1895. 

Hooker, J. D. Ribes bracteosum. Curt. Bot. Mag. //. 7419- J^' 
1895. 

Jack, J. G. Hybrid Birches. Gard. and For. 8: 243, 244. / 3^- ^9 
Je. 1S95. 

Illustrations are given of Betula pianih X lenla. 



M 



8vo, pp. S8. 



figs. New York, 1 895 . 
Meehan, T. Oxalis violacea. Meehan's Month. 5: 121-122. p^- 

7' Jy. 1S9S. 



839 



Nichols, M. A. Abnormal Fruiting of Vaucheria. Bot. Gaz. 20 : 
269-270. ■//. 2T. 17 Je. 1895. 

Putnam, B. L, Poison Ivy. Gard. and For. 8: 249. 19 Je. 1895. 

Reiche, K, Die VegetationsA^'erhaltnisse am Unterlaufe des Rio 
Maule^ Chile. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 21: 1-54. 

General account of the flora and enumeration of 664 species. 

Renauld, F., and Cardot, J. Musci exotici novi vel minus cogniti. 
VI. Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 33 : Part 2, 109. 1895. 

Includes descriptions of Calyjnperes Nicaraguense from Nicaragua, Prionodon 
Haiiensis from Haiti, and Ilypnum Barbeyi from Bolivia. 

Robinson, B. L. The Nomenclature Question. Bot. Gaz. 20: 261- 
263. 17 Je. 1895. 

Rose, J. N. Notes upon Corylus rostrata and C Californica. Gard. 
and For. 8: 263, 3 JI. 1895. 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. The Live Oak at Drayton Manor. Gard. & 
For. 8: 233. f. 35. 12 Je. 1895. 

Illustrating Querais Vi7'ginia7ia in South Carolina. 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. The New York Botanical Garden. Gard. & 
For. 8: 261. 3 JL 1895. 

Sargent, C.S., Editor. Tlie Persimmon. Gard. & For. 8: 262. 

f-38. 3JI-189S. 
Stapf, O. Tibouchina piciodon Vi. sp. Kew Bull 100: 104. Ap. 1895. 

Native of Brazil. 

Stewart, F. C. Witches' Brooms on Cherry trees, Gard. and For. 
8:269. 3 JI. 1S95. 

Note concerning the occurrence of Exoascus Cerasi on Primus Avhtm and P, 
Cerasus in America. 

Strasburger, E. The Development of Botany in Germany during the 
Nineteenth Century, Bot. Gaz. 20: 193-204. 20 My.; 249-257- 



J 



J. Does Poison Ivy discriminate? Gard. & For. 8 



J 



'W. Mexican Water-lilies. Gard. & For. 8: 237. 12 J 



1895- 



Wau£h, F. A. CEnothe 



J 



W 



239. 12 Je. 1895. 



340 



Wetherill, H. E. List of Plants obtained on the Peary Auxiliary Ex- 
pedition of 1S94, Bull. Geogr. Club, Philadelphia/ 5 : [reprint pp. 
.10]. 

Wood, A. H. The Flow of Maple Sap. Bull N, H. Exp. Sta. 24: 
pp, 8. Feb. 1895. 

"Wright, F. W. Oregonian 



forms of Umbelliilaria. Eryth. 3 : 97 



J 



BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 232 



i 



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I 



NEW AND RARE DESMIDS 



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BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.— PLATE 233 






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NEW AND RARE DESMIDS. 



Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia Coileg 



ii 



[The numbers omitted from this list are out o[ print.] ' 

Volume L 

No. 4. A List of Plants Collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San Diego, Texas. By 

N. L. Brittonand H. H. Rusby (18S7), 25 cents. 

No. 5. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams. By N. L. Britton 

(1888), 25 cents. 

No. 6. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby in South 

America, 1S86-18S7. By N. L. Britton. (Twenty-three parts published; 

not yet completed.) 
No. 7. The Genus Hicoria of Rafmesque. By N, L. Britton (18S8), . . 25 cents. 
No. 9. A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at Fort Verde and in the 

Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, 1SS4-1SSS. By N. L. 

Britton. • 

The General Floral Characters of the San Francisco and Mogollon Mountains 

and the Adjacent Region. By H. H. Rusby (18S8), 25 cents. 

No. II. Preliminary Notes on the North American Species of the Genus Tissa^ 

Adans. By N. L. Britton (1SS9) 25 cents. 

No, 13. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, II. By N. L. Britton 

(1S89), 25 cents. 

No. 15. A Descriptive List of Sj)ecies of the Genus Heuckera, By Wm. E. Wheel- 

ock (1S90), •. . . 25 cents. 

No. 16. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, III.. By N. L. Britton 

(1890), 25 cents. 

No. 17. Tlie Flora ol the Desert of Atacama. By Thos. Morong (1S91), . 25 cents. 
No. 20. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, IV. By N. L. Britton. 

(1891), , 25 cents. 

No. 21. Notes on the North American Species oi Eriocauleoe. By Thos. Morong 

(1891), 25 cents. 

No. 22. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, V. By N. L. Britton 

(1891), 25 cents. 

No. 24. Review of the North American Species of the Genus Xyris. By Heinrich 

Ries (1892), 25 cents. 

No. 25. A Preliminary List oi the Species of the Genus Meibomia occurring in the 

United States and British America. By Anna M. Vail (1S92), . 25 cents. 

Volume II. 

A List of Species of the Genera Scirpiis and Rynchospora occurring in North 
America. By N. L. Britton (1892) 25 cents. 

No. 27. Note on a Collection of Tertiary Fossil Plants from Potosi, Bolivia. By N. 

L. Britton f I S92), 25 cents. 

No. 29. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VI. By N. L. Britton 

(1892), 25 cents. 

No. 30. Raminculus repens and its Eastern North American Allies. By N. L, 

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No. 31. A Preliminary List of American Species of Polygonum, By John K, Small 

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No. -^1^. A New Species of Listera^ with Notes on Other Orchids. By Thos. Morong 

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No. 34, The N. American Species o^ Lespedeza, By N. L. Britton (1893), 25 cents. 

No. 35. An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. Thos. Morong in Paraguay, 

188S-1S90, By Thomas Morong and N. L. Britton, witli the assistance of 
Miss Anna Murray Vail (1892-1893), ^.$1.50 

No. 37, Further Notes on American Species of Polygonum. By John K. Small 

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No. 38. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VII. By N. L. Britton 

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No. 39. Contributions to American Bryology, III— Notes on the North American 

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No. 40. New Genera of Plants from Bolivia. By H. II. Rusby (1S93), . 25 cents. 

No. 41. The Altitudinal Distribution of the Ferns of the Appalachian Mountain Sys- 
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No. 26. 



No. 42. Notes upon various Species of Iridaceaa and other Orders, By Thomas 

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No. 43. Notes on the Flora of Southeastern Kentucky. By T. H. Kearney, Jr. 

(1893), 25 cents. 

No. 44. Contributions to American "Br>^ology, IV. Notes on the North American 

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No. 45. Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States, I. By John K. 

Small (1894), . . .25 cents. 

No. 46. Plants from Virginia, new to Gray^s Manual Range with Notes on other 

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No. 47. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, VIII. By N. L. Bnt- 

ton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 48. Contributions to American Bryology, V.— Notes on the North American 

Species of Weissia [Ulota). By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 49. A Study of the Scale-characters of the Northeastern American Species of 

CtiSctUa. By W. D. Matthew (1893), 25 cents 

No. 50. A Study of the Genus Psoralea in America. By Anna Murray Vail 

(1894), ' 25 cents. 

Volume III. 

No. 51. Our Conception of "Species" as modified by the Doctrine of Evolution. 

By N. L. Britton (1894), ■ 25 cents. 

No. 52. Contributions to American nryology, VI. Western Species of Orthotrichiim. 

By Elizabeth G. Bricton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 53. New and interesting Species of Polygonum. By J. K. Small (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 54. Contributions to American Bryology, VII. A revision of the Genus Phys- 

comitriunu By Elizabeth G. Britton (1894), 25 cents. 

No. 55. The Genus Cassia in N. America. By Charles Louis Pollard (1894), 25 cents. 
No. 56. A Revision of the Genus Lechea. By N. L. Briiton (1894). . . 25 cents. 
No. 57. New or little known Plants of the Southern States. By T. H. Kearney, Jr. 

(l894)> 25 cents. 

No. 58. A Contribution to the History of the Formation of the Lichen Thallus. 15y 

Carlton C. Curtis (1894), ... - 25 cents. 

No. 59. Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States, II. By John K. 

Small (1894), .... 25 cents. 

No. 60. Contributions to the American Bryology, VIII. A Revision of the Genus 

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No. 61. The Smilacece of North and Central America. By Thomas Morong (1894) 

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No. 62. A preliminary Revision of the Genus Lathyrtis in North America. By 

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No. 63. Two Species of C»x^/z>. By John K. Small (1894) ^5 cents- 

No. 64. Notes on some of the rarer Species of Polvf^omim. By John K. Small 

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No. 65. Some new Florida Plants. By T. H*. Kearney, jr. (1894), ... 25 cents. 

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No. 73. Some new hybrid Oaks from the Southern States. By John K. Small 

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No. 77. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams, IX. By N. L. Britton 

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Title-pages for Vols. II. and III. can be supplied. 

The series as above listed will be supplied for $12. 

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Attention is called to an error in the numbering of plates issued with the July 
Bulletin. The numbers should have been 239 and 240. A set, pr.:)perly'numbered, 
to replace the faulty ones is issued with this Bulletin, and we requf s-t all members of 
the Club and subscribers to correct the numbers on pages 289 anl 207. 



Vol. 22. AUGUST, 1895. No. 8 

BULLETIN 



OF THE 



w 

ToRREY Botanical Club. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 




Edited by 



NATHANIEL LORD BRITTON. 



AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLUB. 



[^ 



OONXE^NXS: 



PAGE, 

Daniel Cady Katon, 1834-1S95: Wiiliam Al- 

hertStichelL (With portrait) 34^ 

The Genus Sanicuta in the eastern United 



VAGE. 

Studies in the Botany of the southeastern 
United States. —IV.: yokn K. Small 

(Plate 246) 3^5 

Botanical ISTotbs.— Tumble Mustard: Lys- 



States, with Descriptions of two new Spe- 
cies : Eugene P. Bicknell (Plates 241- [ ter H. Dewey 370 

245) 35X I Reviews. —A Manual for the Study of Insects; 



New Fungi, mostly Uredineaeand Ustilagineae 
from various Localities, and a new Fames 
from Alaska; y, B. Ellis and B, M, 
£verhart .,..,..♦,. 362 



Studies in Plant Development. * . . • • . 370 
Index to recent Litkraturb relating 
TO American- Botany 374 



PUBLISHED FOR THE CLUB. 



The Naw Era Printing Housk. 

Lancastbb, Fa. 



THE TORRRY BOTANICAL CLUB. 



OFFICERS FOR 



1 o 



95 



HON. ADblSON ERCWN, 



Vice J^fUd^nts, 



T. F. AT.FEN. M. D. 



I H. LIGHTHirF 



Recording Secrelarj^ 

HENRY H. RUSUV, M. D., 

College or Pharmary, New Yfstic City. 

N. L. BKITTON% Mu I),, 

Coiualia CoH'-tf , K*:* Yr.rk Ciiy 



Corrnpondinr Seerefnry^ 

JOli>f K- 5MALU 

CotaaibtK Cojv^-. N*rw York CUy. 

HFN'KV OGDFN*. 



II PintSfTf* 






V * Oiy, 



Associiiie Fail, r s. 



EMILY T,. GRKG(ji'.y, I'h. D., 
ANNA MUkkAV VaIL, 



ATTlnjR HOLI-ICK, Ph. I'. 
BYRON h. 11 Vl-STKH, Sc D., 



A- A. in.i,T,T:n. 



Cw rater, 

JOSErillNt K. R(>GKKS 



Z, * ?r/.J«, 



KIIIF. A. bULTIlWORTH 



Commitlet en Fincnct, 



J. T. KAXE. 



^VM. EL Win 5 



CK- 



CcmmitUe on A Imi$si9n$. 



CORKELiUS VAN I'.RVNT, Ml^S JKANKlT iE B. GREENF, 



j:^ E^ «;r^ Street, New Yoric Ctij*. 



otr 



Library ana llerh.intim C-nt'^utif^^ 



JOSEtMiI^'E F- ROGERS, 
EFFIE A, SOLTIiWORTII. 



HFT FN M. IXGERSOLL, 



CimmiiUa pn t^r /.cJ /V*/ ?. 



Prof. TIIOS. C PnRTKR, 



CHWroaAMiA, 

EUZAIW *ii <;. BRMTUN, 
^Mn n FLY JELLH FF, M^ T>. 



rue. New York City, *^n the r^ramd Tue^^^ ^n-l kjit wv ';. *^ of each ••n^^' 

except June, Jtily, August AtA Scj/Urmt^r, at S t^VIocIc, i ^'. BoUfct'^ ' ^^^ ^*^ 

dkllj invited to attend, 

Membf.rs or TitK C?t'n win p?e^s« rcn^^t their .v : «d ?*■ :^« for 1895* ^-'^' 



payable, to Mr. IIct>?j Ogden, T 



rc«~> 



, n Hjie >^t, New V. -' Hj. 



^ 





vr 






f • ^— - ^3^^^^^-^^ 



&y ji^^ 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



^'oL 22. Lancaster, Pa., August 31, 1895. JVo. 7. 



Daniel Cady Eaton 
1834-1895. 



J 



By William Albert Setchell, 

(With portrait.) 

The death of Prof. Daniel C. Eaton, at his home, In New 



J 



a: us the last Hnk in- 



timately connecting the s^-stematic botany of the present with 
that of the past. During the first half of the present century the 
most influential writer upon, and teacher of, botany in this country 
was Amos Eaton, Senior Professor of the Rennselaer Institute at 
Troy, N. Y., and grandfather of the subject of our sketch. His 
Manual w^as the inspiration and guide of our earlier botanists, and 
continued to be until supplanted by the works of Torrey and 
Gray. The botanists earlier than and contemporaneous with 
Amos Eaton were writers of Floras, but Amos Eaton, himself, 
was a teacher of great ability an'd awakened, even among the 
members of the New York Legislature, so it is said, a deep and 

+ 

widespread interest in natural history. From him John Torrey 
learned the rudiments of botany, and \vas able to broaden and 
deepen the knowledge and interest in botanical things of Asa 
Gray, whose first knowledge of the subject came from Amos 
Eaton's text-books. Of Gray's influence upon the botany, not 
only of this country, but of the w^orld, it is needless to speak, so 
present is it with all of us. Of Gray's associates and pupils two 
were more intimately thrown together than any others, and these 



342 



were Daniel C. Eaton and Screno Watson. With them we may 
say, perhaps, that the direct line of succession ends. Others 
there are, no less illustrious, but they have departed more widely 
than these two from the direct line of work, and the mantle, while 
it has fallen upon most worthy shoulders, yet lacks the accumu- 
lated traditions which were a precious heritage in themselves. 
Daniel C. Eaton, as he was called to distinguish him from his 



-^ 



cousin, D. Cady Eaton, was the son of Amos B. Eaton and Eliza- 
beth Selden,and was born at Fort Gratiot, Mich., on February 
T2, 1834. His father was an officer in the Regular Army of the 
United States, had served with distinction in the Seminole and 
Mexican Wars, had risen to the office of Brigadier General, and 
was entrusted with the very important work of supervising the 
Commissary Department as Quartermaster General during the 
Civil War. Although he never had any special scientific educa- 
tion, as had a sister and a brother who became teachers in these 
lines, yet he possessed a keen interest in natural history and 
helped to direct his son's education whenever the roving life of an 
army officer allowed him to do so, Mrs. General Eaton was a 
sister of Samuel K, and Henry R. Sheldon, two distinguished 
jurists of Rochester, N. Y. 

Daniel C. Eaton*s early training was obtained in different places. 
For a time the family resided in New York City, and during the 
Mexican War the mother and children remained at Rochester. 
Later he attended the Rennselaer Institute for a short time and 
General Russell's Military School in New Haven, while prepar- 
ing for college. His final preparation was made with a private 
tutor, and he entered Yale in the autumn of 1853. 

During his college course he distinguished himself particularly 
in Latin, and he retained during the rest of his life an especial 
fondness for this language and its literature. But his chief inter- 
est lay in botanical pursuits, and this distinguishing trait is a 
prominent feature in the recollections of his classmates with 
whom he was a great favorite. He never had a doubt as to his 
future vocation, and his ambition was to become the professor of 
his favorite subject in his alma mater, the institution where his 

m 

grandfather had received a part of his own botanical and chemi- 
cal education under Professors Silliman and Ives. 



343 



During his undergraduate days he derived much pleasure and 

^^^^ r 

profit from his correspondence with Torrey, Gray and Sullivant, 
to whom he sent his specimens and to whom he applied for 
counsel. His herbarum still contains many of these specimens 
with notes from these distinguished authorities. Such was his 
advancement even then that in his junior year he published a short 
paper in *'Silliman's Journar' on three new ferns from California, 
his first contribution to science upon a group to which he devoted 
later his chief attention. 

He obtained the degree of B. A. from Yale College in 1857, 
and spent the three succeeding years in the Lawrence Scientific 
School of Harvard University in special botanical studies, under 
the direction of Professor Asa Gray. He devoted himself partic- 
ularly to the study of the ferns and produced several papers. He 
enumerated and described the new species of ferns from the col- 
lections made by Charles Wright of the Rodgers Exploring Expe- 
dition in Cuba and Japan, for Torrey's Flora of the Mexican 
Boundary Survey and for Chapman's Flora of the Southern United 
States. Finally, in i860, he presented to the faculty of Harvard 
University, as his thesis for the purpose of obtaining the degree 



s 



M 



During the Civil War his botanical studies were interrupted and 
he held the position of clerk and inspector of stores in the Com- 
missary Department of the United States Army In New York City. 
He, however, had an opportunity of associating more intimately 
with Professor Torrey and of increasing his store of botanical 
tradition. 

After the war, in 1864, he was elected to the chair of botany 
in Yale College, which had been established by some of his friends, 
and his duties were assigned to the Sheffield Scientific School, 
with which he continued to be principally identified. A few years 
later he was appointed University Professor, and continued to give 
instruction in both departments until the end of his hfe. He took 
up his residence in New Haven in the fall of 1864, and in 1866 he 
married Caroline, daughter of Treadwell Ketcham, of New Haven. 
Mrs. Eaton, a son, and a daughter survive him. 

Professor Eaton made two trips to Europe, one early in 1866 

I r 

and another in 1887. As the later trip was taken for the benefit 



I 



344 



of his health, he visited httle and indulged in practically no botan- 
ical study. In 1866 he visited the botanists and botanical collec- 
tions at Florence, at Geneva, at Paris, and in London at the 
British Museum and the gardens at Kcw. At the latter place he 
spent two weeks in the careful study of ferns, working assiduously 



every 



J 



Gardens. 



He took many 



Jersey 



M 



Hampshire, and a portion of the last summer of his hfe was spent 
at Shelburne, N. H., with Professors Farlow and Penhallowin col- 
lecting the Sphagna of that region. During the summer of 1869 
he spent a month botanizing among the mountains of Utah, as the 
guest of Clarence King, who was in charge of the geological sur- 
veys of the fortieth parallel. 

Ev^en in his undergraduate life his preference for the cryptoga- 
mous plants was marked, and he will be remembered chiefly for 
the work he did among them. His knowledge of the phaenoga- 
mous species, nevertheless, was very extensive and exact. He 
preferred, however, to entrust the work of publishing upon these 
plants to Professor Gray. His attainments in this line are shown, 
however, in the masterly way in which he has treated the Coui- 
positae of King's Expedition, and the additional material and other 
aid afforded by him in the preparation of the whole of the botany 
of that expedition is gracefully and effectively set forth in Wat- 
son's general introduction. Besides this work his published ob- 
servations on the flowering plants are few, although he retained 
much interest in them even until the last. 

His chief work from the beginning (1856) until about 1883 
lay among the ferns and their immediate allies. His first several 
papers were devoted to enumerations of various collections of 
ferns and descriptions of new species. He contributed the ac- 
counts of the Vascular Cryptogams to Torrey's Botany of the 
United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, to Chapman's Flora 
of the Southern United States, to Gray's Manual of Botany of 
the Northern United States (both to the 5th and the 6th editions), 
to Gray's Field, Forest and Garden Botany, to the Botany of 



345 



King's Survey, to that of Wheeler's Survey, and to the Botany of 



Cahfornia. 



In 1873 h^ began a series of notices of ** New or Little 



^ 



Known Ferns of the United States/' directly leading up to his 
great work on <* The Ferns of North America." This classic and 
and well-known work consists of two royal octavo volumes con- 
taining 683 pages and illustrated by 81 colored plates, after draw- 
ings by Emerton and Faxon, representing 149 species, all that 
were known at the time from North America north of Mexico. 
They were issued in 1879 and 1880, but the notes on ferns in the 
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club were continued actively 
until 1883, after which there were very few articles from his pen on 
this subject. 

He w^as for many years much interested in Algae and spent a 
considerable time upon them. He spent a portion of one summer 
with the United States Fish Commission at Noank, engaged in 



the study of this group. He published very little upon them, 
however, limiting himself to a Hst of Eastport Algae, another of 
those collected by Edward Palmer in Florida and the Bahama 
Islands, and directions for mounting and preserving specniiens. 
He was associated with Professor W. G. Farlow and Dr. C. E. 
Anderson in issuing the Alrae Americae-Borealis Exsiccatae. 

The later years of Professor Eaton's life were devoted to the 
study of the mosses and liverworts- His interest in these plants 
Was well advanced even in his undergraduate days. He collected 
nauch and carried on a considerable correspondence w^ith W. S. 
Sullivant in regard to the determination of his specimens. His 
knowledge of the New Haven IMoss and Hepatic Flora was very 
extensive, and he contributed the account of these plants to the 
Catalogue of Plants growing within 30 miles of New Haven, pub- 
published by the Berzelius Society of the Sheffield Scientific 
School in 1878. His other publications on these groups are con- 
fined to lists of Patagonian species and a few notes on new or rare 
species of the United States. 

He spent a great deal of time in the study of the Hawaiian 
species, both of Mosses and Hepatics, and had almost completed 
the determination of the species of the various collections in his 
possession. He spoke to the writer only a few weeks before his 



o 



4C 



death of issuing a list with notes and descriptions of new species. 
His collection of Polynesian Mosses is very large and complete. 
For a number of years he had been collecting and studying 
the various species of the genus Sphagnum, In 1893 he issued a 
list of the North American species and a prospectus of a proposed 
distribution, undertaken in connection with Mr. Edwin Faxon, to 
be called ''Sphagna Boreali- Americana Exsiccata." He spent 
much time in collecting, preparing and determining sets, and was 
very particular about the excellence and homogeneity of his speci- 



mens. Many 



distribution, 



and it is to be hoped that these, at least, may be issued at some 
future time. 

r 

Professor Eaton prepared the botanical definitions for Web- 
ster's International Dictionary, and contributed many reviews of 
botanical books to the various periodicals. During the last four 
or five years he has contributed the botanical reviews to the ** Na- 
tion " and to the " New York Evening Post/' touching upon cur- 



rent botanical changes and opinions in the graceful and discerning 
way characteristic of him. 

Professor Eaton was one of the original members of the Tor- 
rey Botanical Club, and remained an active member for a number 
of years. Later he became a corresponding member. He was a 
regular and active contributor to the Bulletin, especially during 
the earlier years of its existence. 

Besides his botanical interests Professor Eaton had many 
others. He was an enthusiastic lover of athletic sports, of archery, 
of baseball and football, and of fishing and hunting. He was an 
ardent student of anthropology and genealogy. He was a mem- 
ber of several genealogical societies and made a considerable study 
of the genealogies of the Eaton and Selden families, and published 

L 

the results in several papers. He was also Governor of the Con- 
necticut Society of the Colonial Wars for some years. 

In pohtics Professor Eaton was a Republican until 1884, but 
from that time took an active part in the independent movement 
in Connecticut. 

; His interest in the classics, both of the Latin and of the 
Greek, was very great, and he much deplored the present lack of 
facility and even use of proper Latin, both in the choice of generic 



Ul 



and specific names and in descriptions. He strongly advocated 

the publication of a Latin description in the case of a new species; 

He was very impatient of the use of barbarisms in Latin nomen- • 
clature. 

As a man, Professor Eaton was possessed of a most pleasant 
personality, winning the esteem and love of all who had the privi- 
lege of acquaintanceship with him. He was generous to tlie ex- 
treme and counted neither time nor trouble when performing 
any act of friendship. 

As a botanist he was careful to an extraordinary degree. No 
work of his was ever slovenly or hastily done, and he had little 
sympathy with work of that kind on the part of others. His in- 
struments were most carefully kept in order, his microscopic 
preparations most neatly prepared, finished and labelled, and all 
the results of his study compared and worked over and over 
again. Llis extraordinary severity in these matters led him to 
publish much less than he otherwise might well have done. 

Professor Eaton was vQry conservative in regard to changes in 
scientific methods and views. He was loth to part with what he 
considered good until he was absolutely convinced that he might 
obtain something better. But when the better had really been 
demonstrated he lost no time in changing either views or methods. 
His attitude toward the various proposed changes in the rules for 
governing the nomenclature is a good case in point. While 
anxious that there should be no blind adherence to rules already 
established, and perfectly ready to accept such changes as might 
lessen such confusion as already really existed, he viewed retroac- 
tive measures overturning hosts of names already long and firmly 
established in the literature as productive of great immediate con- 
fusion without giving by any means a certain promise of surer 
crrteria upon which to establish stability in the future; in fact as 
giving no greater certainty, if as great, as that given by the rules 
already existing and followed for years by the best workers. 

As a teacher he was kindly and inspiring, not suited to manage 
large classes of unwilling students, such as often fell to his lot, 
\vhere much sternness and rigor Avas needed to compel the 
wavering attention and to force the stubborn mind to effort, but 
especially fitted to encourage and to train those desirous of purr 




348 



suing either some especial line or even of obtaining a general bo- 
tanical education. To these he tendered the privileges of his 
library and collections, which had to be supported by himself 
alone, and opened to them not only all the material resources at 
his command, but unlocked for them all the treasures of his own 
experience, the results of the patient study of many years. 

Professor Eaton's religious views were shown rather in the 
•earnestness and simplicity of his life than by any profession of 
faith. Where he could not thoroughly understand and believe he 
was contented to hope, and his last months, even during intense 
suffering, Avere hopeful and peaceful, and he left this life calm in 
his trust in the good to come. He was a communicant of the 
Episcopal Church, and attendance upon divine worship was to 
him a pleasure and an inspiration rather than a duty. At his 
particular request, his funeral services were of the nature of simple 
religious consolation to his relatives and friends, with an entire ab- 
sence of official ceremony. 



Bibliography,* 

1856. On three new Ferns from California and Oregon, Amer. Journ. Sci. (H.) 

22 : 13S. 

1858. Characters of some new Filices, from Japan and adjacent regions, collectea 
"by Charles Wright in the North Pacific Exploring Expedition under Captain John 
Rodgers, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 4: ixo, in. 

1859. Enumeration of Ferns collected by Mr. Charles Wright in Eastern Cuba 
in 1856-7. Amer, Journ. Sci. (IL) 27: 197-201. 

Eiiuisetacea^, Filices, etc. U. S. and Mexican Boundary Surv. f Botany by John 
Torrey.] 233-236. 

i85o. Filices (Ferns). [In: Chapman's Flora of the Southern U. S., 1st Ed.» 
8% New York.] 585-599. 

[Reprinted without change in the 2d Edition, 1885.] 

Filices Wrightianae et Fendlerianae, nempe Wrightianae Cube nses et Fendierianae 
Venezuelanae (nonnullis Panamensibus,etc.,ex coll. A. Schott et S. Hayes interjectis) 

^ — ^^M * 

" The basis for the present list was taken from the ** Bibliographies of the present 
officers of Yale University/* edited by Prof. Irving Fisher (New Haven, 1893). The 
list of works there given was written out by Prof. Eaton. This has been followed m 
the main, but the greater part of the references have been compared and some changes 
and additions made. The writer 13 ytry much indebted to Mrs. Eaton, to Mr. George 
F, Eaton and to Prof. W. H. Brewer for much help, both in connection with the de- 
tails of the bibliography and of the sketch of the life of Prof Eaton, 



U9 



enumeratae novaeque descriptae : dissertatio inaui^uralis, quam in auditorio botanico 
Universitatis Harvardianae ad gradum baccalaurealem in scientiis legitime obtinendum 
die XIV. Jul. MDCCCLX., habuit Daniel C, Eaton, A. M. Mem. Acad. Amer. 
Scient. et Artium. (II.) 8: 193-218. 

1861. Statistics of the Class of 1857 of Yale College, collected by Daniel C. 

Eaton, Class Secretary. New York, 8*^, pp. 93. 

1S65. On the Genus IVoodsta, ^Canadian Naturalist, (n. s.) 2: 89-92, 

Two new Ferns of California. [In: Botan. Contrib. of Asa Gray.] Proc. Amer. 

Acad, of Arts and Sci., 6 : 555, 556. 

1867. Filices (Ferns). [In: Manual of the Botany of the North United States, 
etc., by Asa Gray, 5th Ed., 8^] 655-672. //. /J-zp. 

1868. Acrogens [In: Field, Forest and Garden Botany, etc., by Asa Gray. New 
York, 8'\] 359-374. 

1869. Ein neues Adiantum von Cuba {^Adiantum serzceum.) Botan, Zeitung, 
27: 361-362. 

1870. Biographical Record of the Class of 1857 of Yale College duruig twelve 

years from graduation with an account of the decennial meeting of the class. New 
Haven, S**. pp. 54. 

1871. Compositae, Equisetaceae and Filices. Exploration Fortieth Parallel, 5 : 

136-208, //. 13-20; 395-397- pi- 4^^' 422-425, 

1872. Plain Directions for collecting Algae. New Haven, S'^, pp. 4. 

1873. Characters of new Ferns from Mexico. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., 
8: 618-619, 

List of marine Algae collected near Eastport, Maine, in August and September, 
1872, in connection with the work of the U. S. Fish Commission under Prof. S. F. 
Eaird. Trans. Conn. Acad, Arts and Sci,, 2: part 2, 343-350. 

1873-1883. New or little known Ferns of the U. S. Bull. Torrey Botan. Club, 
4-' 11-12, 1873; 4: 18-19, 1873; 6: 33, 1S75; 6; 71-72, 1876; 6: 263-265, 1878; 
5: 306^307, 1879; 6- 360-361, 1879; 7: 62-64, iSSo; 8; 4-5, 18S1; 8: 99-100, 
iSSi ; 8: III, 1881; 9: 49-50, 18S2; 10: 26-29, 1883; 10: I0I-I02, 1883. 

1874. TozLmsendia Parryt O-xiA T, conJettsata, [In; Botanical observations in 
Western Wyoming by Dr. C. C. Parry.] Amer. Naturalist, 8 : 212, 213. 

1875- A List of the marine Algae collected by Dr. Edward Palmer on the coast 
of Florida and at Nassau, Bahama Islands, March-August, 1S74. New Haven, June, 
^\ pp. 6, 

1877. A Moss new to the U. S. [^Piloirichmn undulatum Beauv.) Botan. 
Gazette, 2: ^^. 

■ Calvin Selden, of Lyme, and his children. (An address delivered at a meeting of 
the Selden Family at Fenwick Grove, Saybrook, Conn. Aug. 22.) New Haven, 8% 

PP- 15- 

1877-1889. Joint editor of Farlow, Anderson and Eaton's AlgcS Americct- 
Borealis ExsiccatcB, Fasc. 1-5, Boston. 

1878. Ferns of the Southwest. An account of the ferns which have been col- 
lected in so much of the territory of the United States of America as is west of the 
ro5th degree of W. Longitude, and south of the 40th degree of N. Latitude. U- S. 
Geog. Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian. First Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, 
Corps of Engineers, U, S. Army, in charge, 5 : 299 -340, //. ja. 



350 



" Introduction " and " Anogens." [In : A Catalogue of the flowering Plants and 
higher Cryptogams growing without cultivation within thirty miles of Yale College, 
Published by the Berzelius Society. New Haven, 8".] V.-VII.; 61-71. 

Hybrids and hybridism. Rept. Sec. Conn. Board Agric, pp. 19. 

Conomitrzum Jzdianum at Hamden, Conn. Bull. Torrey Botan. Club, 6: 244. 

1S78 and 1880. Fendler's Ferns of Trinidad, Botanical Gazette, 3 : 89-91 ; 5 * 

109-110 (121-122). 

1879. A new Hawaiian fern {^Hymenophyllum Baldwinii). Bull. Torrey 

Botan. Club, 6 : 293. 

A new Hawaiin fern {^Aspidhtm Boydirn^, Ibid. 361, 362. 

1 879-1 880. The Ferns of North America. Colored figures and descriptions, 
with synonymy and geographical distribution of the ferns (including the Ophioglos- 
saceae) of the United States of America and the British North American Possessions. 
The drawings by J. H. Emerton and C. E. Faxon. 2 vols., 4*>, \ : XIY.+352, //. 

1880. Vascular Acrogens. [In: Botany of California, by Gray, Brewer and 
Watson, 4*^, Cambridge, Mass.] 2: 329-352. 

Systematic Fern-list : a classified list of the known ferns of the U. S., with the 
geographical range of the species. New Haven, 8^ pp. 12. 

1881. Anew American Cynaroid Composite {Saussurea Americana'). Botan, 
Gazette, 6 : 2S3. 

1882. Vegetable Fibres in an Oriole's Nest Bull. Torrey Botan Club, 9 : 57. 

1883. Plants new to the Connecticut Flora. Ibid. 10; 102. 

1884. Tea, Coffee and Chocolate : their nature and their effects. West. Farmer's 
Almanac, 36-38. 

Another Florida Fern {Fhegopteris tetragona Mett). Bull. Torrey Botan. Club, 
11:67. 

Teratology in the Ox-eye Daisy. Ibid. 11 : 67. 

The Dedham Eatons from 1635 ^^ ^^^^ ^'^^^^ generation. New Haven, 8^ pp. 8. 

1887. Asplenium rhizophyllum var. Biscaynianum, Bull. Torrey Botan. 
Club, 14; 97. 

1888. The Family of Nathaniel Eaton, of Cambridge, Mass. (read April 22, 
1S84). Papers of the New Haven Colony Histor. Soc. 4: 185-192, 

Report of the Secretary, [In: Rept Eaton Family Assoc. New Haven.] 1-6- 
The family of John Eaton, of Dedham. Ibid. 11, 12. 

1890. Vascular Acrogens or Pteridophytes. [In; Manual of Botany of the 
Northern United States by Asa Gray; 6th Ed., by Sereno Watson and John M. Coul- 
ter. New York and Chicago, &\j 675-701. //, 16-21, 

An undescribed Hextchera from Montana (//. Williamsii), Botan. Gazette. 
15 : 62. 

A new Moss of the genus ^r//<r/^/^. Bull. Torrey Botan, Club, 17: 100,101. pi.ior. 

On Buxlaiimia induslata Bridel, Ibid. 126, 127, 

A new Fern ( Cheilanthes Brandegei), Ibid. 215. //. 104, 

A new Fern from Lower California {Asplenium biepharodes), Zoe, i : 197- 

Botanical definitions in Webster's Intemat. Diet., Springfield. 

1891. Report of the Secretary and report on the Eatons of Dover, England, 
[In: Rept. Eaton Family Assoc. 1890. New Haven. J I-14. 



351 



iSg2. List of Ferns from Southern Patagonia. List of Mosses from Fuegia and 
Patagonia. Contrib. U. S. Mational Herbarium, i : I38-139. 

1893, A Check-list of North American Sphagna, arranged mostly in accordance 
with the writings of Dr. Carl Warnstorf. New Haven, 8^ pp. 10. 

Sphagna Boreali- Americana Exsiccata. [ Prospectus, with directions for collect- 
ing and preparing specimens.] New Haven, S'% pp. 3. 

Reviews, Amer. Journ. Science (nL),7: 520-522, 1874; 15: 75,1878; 17: 
487^-488,1879; 18: 76-77, 1879; 21: 330-332, i88i; 22: 158-160, 18S1; 24: 
156, 1SS2; 39: 240-243, 1890. The Nation, 51: 4SS, 1890; 52: 36-37, 1891; 52: 
326, 189J; 52; 466, 1891; 53: 55, 1891; SZ'* ^2P-.i2,\, 1S91; SI' 320-321, 1891; 
53: 336.1891; 54: 193, 1892; 54: 197, 1892; 54: 267, 1S92; 55: 114, 1892; 
55: 360, 1892; 55: 482, 1892; 57: 271, 1893: 57: 287, 1S93; 57:^ 373, 1893; 
57:474-475. 1S93; 58: 155, 1894; 59: 146-147, 1S94; 59: 176, 1894; 59; 
195^196, 1894; 59: 216, 1S94; 59: 234, 1S94; 59: 407,1894; 60: 12, 1895; ^^'• 
'47» 1895; ^0= 258, 1895; ^^' 306. ^^95- 



The Genus Sanicula in the eastern United States, with Descriptions 

of two new species. 

By Eugene P. Bicknell. 



(Plates 241-245.) 

It has been generally received as a settled fact of our geogra- 
phical botany that the genus Saniada had but two representatives 
in the flora of eastern North America. These plants, 5. Mary- 
landica and 5. Ca^iadcnsis^ though coming down to us as well- 
accredited species from the time of Linnaeus, have proved a recur- 
nng source of confusion to our botanists and, as now appears, 
have never been rightly understood. In 1824 Dr. Torrey reduced 
Canadensis to a variety oi Marylandica (Fl. U. S. 302), and in 1838 
Torrey & Gray (Fl. N. Am. i : 602) discredited the plant altogether 
naming it as a synonym of the latter species. A few years later, 
however, Dr. Torrey took occasion to restore the plant to its 
original status, remarking that he had become persuaded that the 
two species were quite distinct (Fl. State of N. Y. i: 265); not- 
withstanding this, recent authorities have reverted to Dr. Torrey's 
earlier view. In the " Review of North American Umbelliferae, 
Coulter & Rose" (1888), S. Canadensis finds recognition only as a 
slightly differentiated form of S. Marylandica, a disposal of the 
plant which is followed in the sixth edition of Gray's "Manual" 



1 



I 



352 

(1893). Dr. Britton, however, in his *' Catalogue of Plants found 
in New Jersey'* (1889), again accords both plants , full specific 
rank. That this understanding of the problem is the only one 
which the facts allow does not admit of any question whatever. 
The most zealous reductionist need have no trouble in assuring 
himself of this, provided only that ordinary eyesight and an open 
mind be not wanting to his equipment. Indeed, as species present 

' themselves, these two plants must be regarded as not even very 
closely related within their common genus. The trouble all along 
has been that we have unwittingly been seeking to force /o7fr dis- 
tinct species into the limits defined for two. As an inevitable re- 
sult these two, though wholly distinct, have been seen under such 
confused outlines as to make it appear quite impossible to assign 
any constant characters to either. It thus becomes necessary to 
diagnose them anew In connection with the description of their 
long over-looked congeners. 

It has not been ventured to define two new eastern species 01 

K 

this difficult genus without considering very carefully their rela- 
tionships with the species already known, at the same time keep- 
ing in mind the harmfulness of distinctions too finely drawn. The 
danger of fallacious distinctions, however, proves not to press at 
all closely in the present case. A critical study from herbarium 
specimens of the four plants here presented, which has supple- 
mented an intimate acquaintance with three of them in the field, 
enables me without any reservation to subscribe them all as 
authentic and well-defined species. 

Sanic2(la Marylandica L. 

^ 

. Commonly two or three feet high— one-and-a-half to four feet; 
stem single, or two or three together from the same rootstock, ter- 
minating in a general umbel which is usually but ^s to % the length 
of the entire plant; there is frequently also a short, imperfectly um- 
bellate lateral branch. Leaves thickish, dull bluish green, two or 
three on the stem between the basal leaf and the involucre; basal 
leaves several, on long erect petioles, only one of them cauline, the 
others rising separately from the rootstock ; free stem-leaves nearly 
or quite sessile, or the lowermost short-petioled ; involucral leaves 
usually much reduced, sometimes under an inch long, cleft or 
parted, not divided into separate leaflets; larger leaves five-divided, 
appearing seven-divided from the deep partition of the basal leaf- 
lets; upper leaves five-divided, or appearing so. The leaves gen- 



353 



erally are large, spreading from three or four to eleven inches, the 
leaflets reaching a size of six inches by three; leaflets variable in 
shape and marginal pattern; cuneate-obovate, to oblanceolate, or 
sometimes elliptic, obtuse or acute, irregularly doubly serrate, ser- 
rate or dentate-serrate, with mucronately-pointcd teeth, usually 
more or less incised-lobed towards the apex. Branches of umbel 
rather rigid, usually sharply ascending, normally three — two to 
four — and sub-equal, two to eight inches long ; ultimate rays three, 
an inch long — .3'^-! 8'^ — (abnormally longer and bearing a pair of 
minute bracts) sometimes divaricate ; rarely the umbel may be 
unevenly three times compound; secondary involucres of firm foli- 
aceous bracts, either cut-lobed or merely serrate, often minute, 
rarely reaching a length of one inch. Sterile flowers numerous, 
with the perfect flowers, or in separate peduncled capitate clus- 
ters ; pedicels 2^' long; calyx i^\ cleft nearly to the base into 
narrowly lanceolate attenuate-cuspidate lobes; petals oblanceo- 



late, equalling or slightly exceeding the sepals, greenish-white, as 



are the anthers; filaments exserted, 2-^ long; umbellets at anthesis 



5 '-7'^ wide. Fruits large, 3-6 in each umbellct, somewhat o\'oid, 
sessile, spreading, the body 2'^ long and nearly as broad or, 



through the bristles, 3'^-S'' wide, 3^'-3>^'' high; bristles numer- 



ous, crowded, arranged in no regular order, very straight to the 
minutely hooked apex, prominently corky-bulbous below, rudi- 
mentary at base of carpel, above becoming 2'' long, ascending, 
the uppermost erect, parallel with and about equalling the erect 
calyx-lobes; styles long, at first erect-spreading but early recurv- 
ing from the top of the closed calyx sometimes quite outside o( 
the bristles. Transv^erse section of seed somewhat oblong, seed- 
face plane or slightly concav^e, dorsal surface more or less fluted 
or grooved for the partial accommodation of the five large oil- 
tubes ; frequently a slight separation of the wall of the pericarp 
from the middle of the seed-face leaves a cavity having the ap- 
pearance of an additional oil-tube ; pericarp corky-thickened, pale 
brown; commissural scar broad, elliptic. Root perennial, of 
very coarse fibres fasciculate from a short knotted contractedly- 

branched rootstock, which, when cut, has a distinct terebinthine 
odor. 

Newfoundland and Canada, southward to the mountains of 
Georgia, west to the Rocky Mountains. (Plate 241.) 

A specimen of a Saiiiada which, for the present, must be re- 
garded as an aberrant form of this species was gathered on Look- 
out Mountain, Tennessee, June 21, 1S94. The plant is small and 
has two very unequal branches, one capped by a single umbellet, 
the other bearing an umbel of four divaricate rays; the leaves are 
trifoliate, with obovate nearly simply-serrate leaflets, the lateral 






354 



ones deeply deft ; the three stem leaves are slender-petioled, even 
the involucral leaves are short-petioled. The immature fruit when 
crushed exhales an odor much like that of the herbage of the 
carrot, and very different from that of true Marylandica. The 
styles are shorter than normally, and not recurved, and with the 
stylopodium are perfectly developed in all the infertile flowers, 
which are further noteworthy from their rigidly spreading sepals. 
I have observed no other instance of styliferous sterile flowers 
In any of our eastern Saniculae, though an examination of speci- 



'/ 



species. 



So far as an inference may be drawn from this single specimen, 
we may suspect the existence in the Southern Alleghenies of still 
another form of Saniaila meritinG' definite recognition. 



J, V^^.I.U..V, l^WV^^ 



Majyl 



New York " well illustrates the confusion that has prevailed with 
regard to this species. The large leaf in outline, together with 
the single bristle, the mature carpel and the fruit section, are of 
5. Marylandica; the figure of the upper part of a fruiting plant, 
and the detached umbellet, are good representations of S. gregana 
as here distinguished, 

Saxicula gregaria n. sp. 

"^ Stems rather weak, often clustered, from one to three feet high, 
commonly two to two-and-a-half feet, naked to the first branch or 
with a single petioled leaf, above dividing into a freely branched 
three or four times compound general umbel wdiich takes up us- 
ually }( to j4 the length of the plant. Basal leaves usually 
more numerous than in Marylandica, sometimes nearly as large 
and as long-petioled, only one of them truly cauline, the others 
rising from the rootstock near the base of the stem. Leaves thin, 
bright green, digitately five-divided, the divisions all petiolulatc,or 
the lateral pairs slightly united at base; leaflets varying from 
cuneate-obovate, through rhombic, to elliptic and lanceolate, 
sharply doubly-serrate with bristle-tipped teeth, often regularly 
serratc-lobed along the margins, sharply incised-lobed above, 
acutely-pointed; involucral leaves scarcely reduced, trifoliate, the 
petiolulate leaflets commonly lanceolate, often somewhat curvedor 
sub-falcate ; involucres of the second, and even of the third, series 
conspicuously foliaceous, the former three-divided, and sometimes 
spreading four or five inches, the latter merely lobed. Branches 
of general umbel, with their divisions, commonly in sub-equal 



y 



355 



series of three, sometimes of two, slender, straight, ascending, the 
ultimate rays 6'^-i5^' long or, occasionally, much longer in ^effort 
to branch again for an umbellate division of the fourth series, 
which may be perfectly realized. Frequently the primary 
division of the stem is only sub-umbellate owing to the displace- 
ment of one of the branches; on many plants there is a well- 
developed lateral flowering branch. Staminate flowers with the 



fertile, or in separate heads peduncled in the forks of the stem or 
rnain branches; pedicles slender, i''^-2i^^' long, four or five times 
times the length of the minute campanulatc calyx, whicli is cleft 
little more than half way down into somewhat triangular-ovate 
rather obtuse lobes; flowering umbellets small, about 3^^-4^^ in dia- 
meter; petals obovate, heart-shaped, fully twice the length of the 
sepals, yellowish-green, filaments exserted, anthers bright yellow. 
Fruits very small, 3-5 in each umbellet, broader than long, and 
somewhat obovate in outline, measuring through the bristles ij^^'- 
2'^ high, by 2^^—2j4^^ wide, evidently pedicelled, pedicels not over 
I long, papillose w^ith rudimentary bristles ; bristles of the fruit very 
small and weak, rudimentary at base of pericarp, gradually length- 
ened above, but not exceeding i'', and commonly half that size, 
not crowded, arranged in eight or ten rows which may be evident 
or obscure, curved at tip into a more open hook than in Maty- 
landica ; though sometimes slightly depressed-dilated at base, they 
commonly rise abruptly from the nearly even surface of the ma- 
ture carpel, which is of a dark or blackish color; fruit reflexed at 
maturity; styles abruptly spreading and recurved among the 
bristles, sometimes extending more than half way around the fruit. 
Seed rounded-oblong in cross-section, dorsal surface even, not at 



fc> 



all sulcate or angled, commissural face plane; pericarp thin and 
membranous, closely investing the seed; oil-tubes five, very small; 
commissural scar linear. Rootstock much as in Marylandica, but 
not so stout and contracted, the fibres less fasciculate, much more 
slender and fibrillose, and of a blackish instead of brownish colon 
The substance of the rootstock has a fainter and altogether differ- 
ent odor. (Plate 242.) 

This plant when once known is in no danger of being con- 
fused longer with either Marylandica or Canadensis. It is clearly 
a perfectly distinct species, 'not even to be regarded as inter- 
mediate between the other two, nor as related to them by any 
nearer ties than those of a common genus. Its nearest affinity is with 
Marylandica, with which it has been mainly confounded, notwith- 
standing that the general aspect of the two is strikingly dissimilar. 
To compare the superficiary characters, S. grcgarials a less robust 
plant, more widely branched and more leafy above, but with less 



356 



leafy stem, quite missing the general appearance presented by 
Marylandica of a tall strict plant stiffly umbellate at the top of a 
simple stem. The general umbel of gregaria is more compound 

Ik 

and much more slenderly branched and foliaceous; the leaves are 
thin and bright green, in contrast with the firm and dull or bluish- 
green leaves of Marylandica; furthermore the leaves oi gregaria 
are never seven-divided, nor are the basal leaflets parted or deeply 
cleft, as seems always to be the case with both Marylandica and 
Canadensis ; the leaves, too, are more pointed, and more sharply 
incised and serrate-lobed than in Marylandica^ and never assume 
the narrowly oblanceolate form wath long tapering base so often 
seen in that species. In the early spring the plant forms dense 
clusters of leaves which may number forty or more rising from 
one compound rootstock. At flowering time the bright yellow an- 
thers and yellowish-green petals o{ gregaria give the plant a char- 

I 

acteristic appearance and distinguish it conspicuously from our 
other species. The flowers, moreover, have a slight fragrance 
faintly suggestive of those of the spice bush. 

This plant seems to have escaped the observation of every one 
of our botanists except Dr. Darlington, who, in his "Flora Ces- 
trica/' makes an unmistakable allusion to It. Speaking of S, Mary- 
landica, he says, "It also presents a variety, wnth dullish yelloiv 
flowers." . ' 

As already remarked, a good figure of this species appears m 
"The Flora of the State of New York," in the plate of S. Mary- 
landica. 

S. gregaria usually grows in close leafy often extensive com- 
munities, in damp low woods and thickets ; S, Marylandica is much 
less gregarious, scattering itself in loose colonies through rich, often 
hilly or rocky woods ; 5". Canadensis often grows in a still more 



scattered way, and seems to prefer a simpler more earthy soil than 
Marylandica., Sometimes, however, in damp thickety spots in 
somewhat rocky woods all three plants may be found near 
together. 

S. gregaria Is the first of the three to flower in the springs 
coming into bloom at New York from the second to the fourth 
week of May ; 5. Marylandica follows a week or two later, more 
or less; 5". Canadensis Is much later, not flowering before the 
third or fourth week in June, in some seasons not until July. 



357 



S. gregaria is perhaps the most common Saniaila near New 
York City, and is described from specimens collected in Van 
Cortlandt Park. In the Herbarium of the Torrey Club is a speci- 
men labeled *' New Durham, N. J., June 6, 1863, W. H. L. 
[eggett]."^ The specimens contained in the Columbia College 
Herbarium arc as follows: ^'Virginia, Asa Gray, 1840," also 
bearing the stamp of the Meisner Herbarium; '* Southwestern 
Virginia, slopes of White Top Mountain, 2600-5000 feet, col- 
lected xMay 28, 1892, by N. L. and E. G. Britton and A. M. Vail;" 
"Southeastern Virginia, Greenville County, June 19, 1893, A. A. 
Heller;'^ -* Fort Riley, Kansas, May 27, 1892, E. E. Gayle;" 
"Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher;" "Northeastern Nebraska, June 15, 1S93, 
Fred Clements." 

Sanicula Canadensis L. 

Usually lower and more slender than 5. Marylandica, but some- 
times even stouter and taller, one to over four feet higrh. Stem 



always single, widely branched above, and readily putting forth 
alternate axillary branches which, sometimes beginning at the 
base of the stem, may number six or more up to the terminal 
fork; branches ascending, naked below, their upper divisions often 
widely spreading, even horizontal, the whole forming an open 
panicle which may spread to a breadth of two feet. General plan 
of branching dichotomously or paniculately-umbellatCj often ap- 
pearing widely dichotomous throughout from the constant 
suppression of a third branch in each ascending series; the um- 
bellate character of the branchings is thus much less obvious than 



m our other species, realizing itself definitely only in the distal 
ramifications or in the terminal umbels; above the involucres the 
branching varies from definitely dichotomous and two or three 
times compound, to indefinitely decompound, with somewhat 
fasciculate umbellets ; the fruit-bearing rays are only i''-5'' 
long, much shorter than in any other one of the eastern species. 
Basal leaves from two or three to six or more, erect on long 
petioles, all strictly cauline ; free stem leaves commonly four to 
eight on petioles of gradually decreasing length above, but not 
becoming obsolete even in the involucral leaves, or indeed, in the 
secondary involucres; leaves three-divided appearing pentafid 
from division of the lateral leaflets, or the upper stem leaves, more 
rarely the lower, sometimes simply trifoliate ; leaflets dull green, 
cuneate-obovate, oblong or elliptic, often oblique, with less pro- 
nounced tendency to narrowly obverse development than is shown 
by Marylandica, and never, apparently, assuming the oblanceolate 
forms so frequent in that species ; also, as a rule, less coarsely ser- 



V 



358 



rate, and much smaller, though occasionally reaching a breadth of 
six inches, with leaflets over yA^^X i>^''; involucral leaves more 



or less reduced, even sub-bracteal, three-divided, those of the 



succeeding 
lobed. 



series very small and bract-like, divided or cut- 
Umbellets very small at anthesis, few-flowered; sterile 
flowers with the perfect ones, never in separate heads, few, often 
only one or two in each umbellet, j4^^ long, on pedicels not over 
i'^ long, often less; calyx deeply parted, sepals narrowly lanceo- 
late, acute or cuspidate, exceeding the minute white petals; an- 
thers white, little exserted. Fruit subglobose, three together in 
one plane, the lateral spreading or slightly reflexed, very small, l 




// 



long and broad, or, measured through the bristles, about 



// 



long by 2^^-3^'wide; short-pcdicellcd, more distinctly so when 



young ; pedicels 





long, wrinkled, striate ; bristles numer- 



ous, dilated below, somewhat regularly arranged in longitudinal 
rows, well developed to the very base of the carpels, of more uni- 



rarely 



exceeding 



MaryL 



rr 



1^' in length, the uppermost closely parallel 



with and equaling, or slightly exceeding, the erect calyx-lobes; 



styles small and difficult to observe, shorter than the calyx-lobes; 
mature fruit dull brown; commissural scar linear. Seed more 
rounded in cross-section than in Marylandica, the dorsal surface 
more prominently sulcate-fluted, the face convex, sometimes 
sharply so, and bevelled off on either side to permit a more interior 
position of the commissural oil-tubes than is seen in Marylandica. 
Root consisting of rigid horizontal fibres, which taper slenderly 
from a strong woody base, 

Massachusets to Florida and Texas, west to Kansas and Ne- 
braska. (Plate 243.) 

The genus Saniaila is set down as consisting of "perennial 
herbs," yet this plant, in the vicinity of New York at least, is 
not perennial but apparently biennial. Unlike Marylandica and 
gregaria, the mature plant is readily pulled up from the soil, and 
in the autumn, while these species are still green, is to be found 
completely dead throughout, with the roots beginning to decay. 



This species stands sharply apart from both Marylandica and 
gregaria, not only in the characters of leaves, flowers and fruit, 
but in fundamental differences in the root and the plan of branch- 
ing. It is indeed hard to understand how^ such obviously distinct 
species could ever have been confused. 

The species shows two main lines of variation which, in their 
extreme manifestations, present plants of somewhat dissimilar as- 
pect. On the one hand the result is a slender plant with small 



359 



fruit and leaves, the latter with finely-cut marginal pattern, the 
branching widely dichotomous and confined mainly to the upper 
part of the stem ; the opposite form Is coarser and stouter, with 
ascending or even-suberect, often simpler, branches and larger 
fruit; the leaves arc much larger with coarser serration, and more 
trifoliate tendency, those of the upper stem sometimes perfectly 
trifoliate. An extreme example of this form in the Columbia Col- 
lege Herbarium, labelled '' Massachusetts '* in Dr. Torrey's hand- 
writing, is the only specimen seen in which the character of 
short styles does not hold strictly true; in this specimen, which 
is in the flowering stage, the styles are longer than the sepals, and 
somewhat spreading, though not recurved. It is to be said, how- 
ever, that this particular plant Is pretty certainly abnormal; the 
branching is unusually coarse, and the rays and pedicels some- 
what thickened, apparently Indicating a tendency to fasciation. 

Sanicula trifoliata n. sp. 

About two feet high ; branches several, alternate, ascending, 
or the lower often longer and suberect, simple, terminating either 
in the flowering umbel or in two frequently widely-spread- 
ing umbel-bearing rays, with a shorter simple ray between; rays 
of flowering umbels three to five, about an Inch long; involucres 
and involucels of small serrate leafy bracts. .Caullne leaves petioled, 
large, five to seven inches broad, conspicuously trifoliate, the 
broad leaflets petiolulate, ovate. cUiptlc-ovate or rhombic, coarsely 
doubly serrate with rather open, almost spinescently-mucronate 
teeth, or even incised-lobed, acute, the lateral leaflets mostly not 
at all cleft, except sometimes in the lower leaves ; basal stem- 
leaves long-petioled, smaller than the main cauline leaves, the 
leaflets even slightly united at base, often obtuse, the lateral pair 
narrowly cleft on the lower side, but not sufficiently so to destroy 
the trifoliate character of the leaf Sterile flowers few, U^^ or less 



long, on slender pedicels about 2'^ long ; sepals lanceolate, acumi- 
nate-cuspidate with slightly incurved points. Fruits sessile, three 
to five together, somewhat reflexed at maturity, ellipsoid or 
globose-oblong, large, becoming 3}4^^ high to tip of the erect 
sepals, the greatest spread of the bristles under 3'^; prickles 
stout, swollen below, not crowded, small and reflexed at the 
base of the carpel, above becoming l^" long, and' spread- 



ing or ascending; sepals on mature fruit i^' long, united at 
base, appressed, echinate with sharp, slightly incurved points, 
raised on a slight prolongation at the apex of the fruit, and 
forming a conspicuous beak-like projection quite distinct from the 



s 



360 



surrounding prickles and usually a little exceeding them; styles 
short, nearly erect, strictly included; commissural scar elliptic, 
occupying most of the face of the mericarp. Seed somewhat cres- 
centic in transverse section, the dorsal surface even, the face con- 
cave, sometimes almost sulcate; oil-tubes of two kinds, one set 
consisting of a pair of large vittae latero-commissural in the peri- 
carp; the other set a series of minute ducts hning the inner face 
of the pericarp, especially along the commissural concavity, where 
they may number as many as twenty. In the dried fruit the 
hardened secretion of the large tubes is nearly colorless, that^ of 
the minute ducts of a reddish-amber color. Root somewhat similar 
to that of S. Canadensis and likewise, apparently, not perennial- 
(Plate 244.) 

While in its general aspect this plant stands out clearly enough 
from our other species, the crucial test of fruit characters shows it 
to be indeed profoundly different. In fact, its fruit, in the 
numerous minute oil-tubes, supplemented by a large outer pair 
having, apparently, a different secretion, presents characters hith- 
erto unreported in the the genus so far as I have been able to dis- 



cover. 



I find three specimens of this plant in the Columbia College 
Herbarium, and one in the Herbarium of the Torrey Club, now at 
the College of Pharmacy in New York. Of the former, one is es- 
pecially interesting as having passed through Dr. Torrey's hands 



1-. 



Maryli 



S. Canadensis;'' it is labeled simply '' Ohio." The other specimens 
are all named 5. Canadensis ; one is No. 835 of the Geological and 
Natural History Survey of Canada, and is labeled '' dry, rich woods, 



M 



lected by Dr. Britton at Indianapolis, Aug. 25, 1890. The speci- 
men in the local Herbarium is of a complete fruiting plant and 
bears witness to Mr. Leggett's careful methods in botanical 
work; it is labeled " Canaan, Conn., '68, W. H. L.^' The label, 
however, is not m Mr. Leggett's handwriting, and, as it was doubt- 
less copied and affixed after his death, is perhaps open to doubt 
as applying to the identical plant which now bears it. The locali- 
ties of Ontario, Ohio and Indiana suggest a more exclusively 
central distribution than limits our other species, though the plant 
may well occur further east. I feel almost certain of having myself 
seen it in Alleghany County, New York, in 1891, in a flora 
strongly characteristic of the northern Alleghenies, 






361 



In this connection it is interesting to note that when, in 1S24, 
Dr. Torrey reduced S, Canadensis to a variety of S. Marylandica 
he evidently based his conclusion upon the examination of a spec- 
imen of the very plant here described as 5. trifoliata. This is 
made pretty clear by his description of his var. Canadensis, which 
was drawn up, by the way. from a specimen collected at Litch- 
field, Connecticut. As already remarked, Dr. Torrey afterwards 
revised his opinions in regard to Canadensis and a plate of the 
species occurs in his flora of the State ol New York. 



Descriptive Key to the eastern Species of Sanicula. 

Styles long^ recurved ; brail chi)7g defiji it ely umbeliaie ihroughotit ; sterile Jlowers 

often in sep'.rate heads ; perenniaL 

a. Fruit large, 3'^ or more high to tip of sepals, ovoid, sessile, spreading ; pericarp 
corky-lhickened ; bristles stout, bulbous at base, becoming 2'^ long, but not exceeding 
calyx-tubes; sterile calyx i" long, deeply parted; sepals lanceolate, cuspidate-acute; 



general umbel twice compound, y^ to y^ the length of entire plant; stem-leaves two or 



three; larger leaves 7-divided; involucral leaves cleft; petals and anthers greenish-white, 
the petals oblanceolate, equalling the sepals; commissural scar elliptic; seed furrowed 
dorsally ; oil tubes large. 



Maryla7idica, 

h. Fruit very small, under i^'^ somewhat obovoid, short-pedicelled, reflexed; 
pericarp membranaceous; bristles weak, not bulbous at base, ^ ^' to I ^' long, but exceed- 



ing calyx-lobes, sterile calyx J^'^ or less, cleft only halfway down, sepals ovate, obtuse; 



general umbel three times compound, % "^o yi the length of plant; stem naked or with 



a single leaf; larger leaves 5-divided; involucre of distinct leaflets; anthers deep yel 
low; petals yellowish-green, obovate, twice the length of sepals; commissural scar 
linear; seed not furrowed, oil tubes very small. gregaria. 

Styles shori^includcd; branching Juostly alternate and dichotomous; sterile Jlowers 
not in separate heads; bieniiial at least as to c, 

c. Fruit small, under 2'^, subglobose, short-pedicelled, scarcely reflexed ; bristles 
weak, under 1" long, dilated below; sepals on mature fruit inconspicuous among the 
longer erect bristles; pedicels of sterile flowers V^ or less; calyx deeply parted; 
larger leaves mostly 5-divided; branching more or less decompound; commissural 
scar narrow ; oil tubes five, large ; seed furrowed on dorsal surface ; seed-face convex. 

Canadensis. 

r 

d. Fruit large, becoming 3^^^ ellipsoid, sessile, reflexed; bristles stout, becoming 
i}4^^ ^ong; sepals on mature fruit forming a conspicuous beak like projection free from 
the somewhat spreading bristles; pedicels of sterile flowers 2"; leaves large, conspicu- 
ously trifoliate ; branching once or twice compound; commissural scar broad; oil tubes 
of two kinds, a pair of large ones and numerous small ones; dorsal surface of seed 

trt/oliata, 

Plate 245 is a conventional representation illustrating the plan of branching and 
foliar arrangement of each of the four eastern species of the genus. 



not furrowed; seed face concave. 



\ 



362 



New Fungi, mostly Uredineae and Ustilagineae from various Lo- 
calities, and a new Femes from Alaska. 



By J. B. Ellis and B, M. Everhart. 

r 

L 

X 

FOMES TJNXTORIUS E. & E. 

(On hemlock trees or logs ?) 

Admiralty Island, Alaska. Collected by James G. Swan, no. 
20, 851,- Comm. Frederick V. CoviUe, Botanist, U. S, Dept. Agn 

Pileus dimidiate, sessile, subungullform, convex below, slaty 
brown, with a few elevated concentric zones, the surface of which 
is more or less cracked, substance flocose-fibrous, deep red, some- 
what friable, superficial layer indurated, slate color, margin ob- 
tuse, 6~y cm. long and broad, by 4-5 cm. thick. Pores large, i-2 
cm. long, 1)4-2 mm. thick, same color as the Inner substance of 
the pileus, filled with grumous matter and spores. Spores sub- 
globose or short eUiptical, red, 5-6 x 3/4-4 /^/i- 

Resembles somewhat /^ latcritius Cke., but pores much larger 
and not stratose. When ground up it looks like madder, and is 
used for dyeing. 

USTILAGO ArENARIAE E. & E. 

In the inflorescence of Arenaria con^esta Nutt., North Park, 



\ - 



Colo., July, 1894. Alt 9000 ft. (Prof. C. S. Crandall, no. II9-) 

Spore mass purplish-black. Spores oblong-ellipticah opaque, 
14-17x8-10/^, with a minute hyaline appendage at the base. 
The spores resemble the sporidla o{ Numuiularia BitUiardi Tub 

USTILAGO MULFORDIANA E. & E. 

Infesting and destroying the panicles of a species of Festiica 
while still enclosed in the sheath. Near Boise City, Idaho, June, 

1892. (A.I. Mulford.) 

Mass of spores nearly black. Spores when moistened gl^" 
bose or nearly so, TO-14/i diam., epispore minutely roughened; 
when dry many of them become oblong or short-cylindrical, 10- 
14x6-8 /A 

USTILAGO MONILIFERA E. & E. 

In ovaries of Heteropogon contortus. Tucson, Arizona, May, 

1893. (Prof. J. W. Toumey, no. 2.) 

Mass of spores tobacco brown. Spores concatenate, lying i^ 
parallel chains, subglobose, subcubical or subangular, hyaline at 
first, then brown, 8-12 « in the longer diameter, and very nu- 
nutely echinulate when highly magnified. 



363 



SOROSPORIUM SOLIDAGINIS E. & E, 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. February, 1893 : 156. 

This is the same as S, mncahivi Schofield, in the 2d Ed. of 

Webber's Appendix to the Cat. of Flora of Neb., published June, 
1892. 

PUCCINIA LiGUSTICI E. & E. 

On leaves of Ligusticuui scopulortun Gray. Sangrc dc Christo 

Mts., Colo. Alt. 10,000 ft. July, 1SS8. (Rev. C. H. Demetrio, 
no. 201.) 

III. Sori hypophyllous, minute, chestnut-colored, erumpent and 
surrounded by the ruptured epidermis, densely crowded in subor- 
bicular clusters 1^-2 mm. diam. on small, pallid spots mostly 



near the margin of the leaf. Teleutospores, elliptical or oblong- 
elliptical, obtusely rounded at both ends, pale brown, scarcely or 
only slightly constricted, 22-30 x 1 5-20 /i, epispore slightly 
roughened but not distinctly thickened above. 

PucciNJA Nesaeae (Gen). 

Aecidiiun Nesaeae Ger. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 6: 47. 
On leaves of Nesaea verticillata near Concordia, Missouri. 
(Rev. C. H. Demetrio, no. 145.) 

III. Sori orbicular, minute, bordered by the upturned epidermis, 
collected in dense clusters or also scattered singly, usually clus- 
tered on the tubercular-thickened parts of the leaf previously oc- 
cupied by the Accidium. 

Teleutospores oblong, clavate oblong or oblong-elliptical. 



deeply constricted, strongly thickened at the apex, usually with a 
hyaline papilla, pale yellowish brown, 30-45 x 12-15 /^. Pedicels 
stout, subhyaline, about as long as the spore. 

Ravenelia Arizonica E. & E. 

On living leaves of Prosopis jidiflora. Tucson, Arizona, Aug., 

1894. (Prof. J. W. Tourney, no. 37.) 

Amphigenous ; sori erumpent, soon naked, small, black; heads 
not compact in the sori, orbicular. 75-85/^ diam., deep chestnut 
browfi, hemispherical, spiny, marginal spores about 20 '18-25) in 
number, inner spores about as many more, 18-22x7-8/^; number 
of spores in a cross section through the center oi the head 7-9. 
Cystidia ovate-globose, swelling out so as to be visible around the 
margin of the head viewed from above. Stipe short, straight, con- 
sisting of only a i^w hyphae. The short, nearly hyaline spines 
are distributed over the entire surface of the head, about as in R, 
echinata D. & L., from which this differs in the larger orbicular 




304 



Hoh 




300 



heads, containing a much greater number of spores. 
Dietel on the same host, has no spines. Uredospores in the same 
sori with the teleutospores, obovate or elHptical, rough, 23-30 X 
I5_i8^</, pale yellowish-brown. 

DoASSANSiA AFFiNis Ell. & Dcamess. 

On Sagittaria variabilis. London, Canada, July, 1895. (Dear- 

ness, 2269.) 

Sori hypophyllous, pustvdiform, 
in the longer diameter, dark-colored and collapsing above, grega- 
rious in elongated groups, the part of the leaf occupied being at 
first yellowish. Spores globose or elliptical, 8-iO/^ in the longer 
diameter, epispore comparatively thin. 

Differs from D. Sagittariac on the same host, in its larger son 
and smaller less angular spores with thinner epispore. From D. 
obscura Setchell it differs in habit and character of the sori ; D. 
opaca Setchell differs in its larger spores as well as in some other 
respects. 



Aecidium Sphaeralceae E. & E. 



'tifolia. Las Cruces, New Mexico. 

June, 1895, (Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell.) 

Hypophyllous, densely cespitose in clusters' 2-8 mm. diam. 
Aecidia deep orange color, cylindrical, closed at first, then open, 



margin toothed, becoming entire, cups about Yz mm. high, 35^ 



K 



400 II broad. Spores subglobose or elliptical, smooth, 15-20 fx m 
the longer diameter, orange- yellow, Spermogonia on yellowish 
spots on the upper side of the leaf. 

Differs from A, Callirhocs E. & K. in its cylindrical aecidia 

and deep orange color. 

Peronospora Wiiippleae E. & E. 

On leaves of Whipplca 7;/^^£'j.7^, Ukiah, Mendocino Co., Cal, 
May, 1894 (W. C. Blasdale). 

Mycelium hypophyllous, effused, dirty gray. Fertile hyphae 
250-350 /-f high, 3-4 times dichotomously branched, the ultimate 
divisions simple or bifid and usually bearing on one side a short, 
straight, lateral branchlet 6-8 /i long. Conidia short-elliptical, 
brownish, smooth, 18-32 x 1 2-i 5 ;^. Oospores not seen. 

This appears to be distinct from P. ribicola Schrtr., the only 

other species recorded on Saxifragaceae. 



3G5 



Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States.— IV 



■Cv John K. Small. 



(Plate 246.) 



SlEGLINGIA ChAPMANI n. sp. 



Wi 




of the inflorescence), bright-green, perennial by a horizontal root- 
stock. Cuhns solitary or two or three together, erect, strict, 9- 15 
dm. tall, mostly purple about the nodes; lower leaves rather 
numerous, nearly erect, 4-6 dm. long, the upper few, divaricate, 
somewhat shorter, all firm, flat when young, soon involute and al- 
most filiform, 7-1 1 -ribbed, smooth and glabrous; lower sheaths 
about I dm. long, upper ones often 2 dm. long, all }^-)4 shorter 
than the internodes; ligule a short fringe of rigid villous hairs, 
above which, on the upper surface of the leaf, is a tuft of longer 
villous hairs; panicle averaging about 2 dm. high, viscid above, 
broadly ovoid, its branches rigid, filiform, divaricate (not drooping 
at the ends), the nodes tufted with bunches of silvery-villous more 
or less viscid hairs ; spikelets very slender-pedlcelled, rather few, 
7-S mm. long, tinged with purple, almost linear (w^hen dry oblong) 
5-flowered; empty glumes lanceolate, one-nerv^ed, the lower one 
^ longer than the upper; flowering glumes oblong-elliptic, 3- 
nerved, 3-pointed by the excurrent nerves v\hich are villous for 
their length ; palet 2-nerved, scabrous on the two nerves, 
slightly curved, 

A species of southern distribution separable from Sieglingia 
scslerioides by its more slender and wiry habit, the very slender and 
diverging branches of the panicle and the usually conspicuous 
tufts of viscid hairs at the nodes throughout the panicle. 

I found it last season growing in sand on the slopes of Cur- 
rahee Mountain, near Toccoa, Georgia, and along theYellow River, 
Gwinnett County, in the same State. Its range may be given 
as follows : Georgia, as just cited, to Texas : J. Rcverchon ; Bige- 
low. Camp No. 4, between Ft. Smith and the Rio Grande, south 
to Florida: Chapman, Curtiss (3454) Duval County. 

QuERCus Geokgiana M. a. Curtis; Chapm. Fl. S. States, 422 
(i86o). Although heretofore supposed to be confined to a single 
station and to exist only in shrub form, Q^ Georgiana is now 
known to have a considerable range and also to reach a develop- 
ment which allows It to be classed as a tree. 






1 

1 



366 



Stone Mountain, Georgia, is the original locality of this 
species. There it is more plentiful than at ^ any of the new sta- 
tions, but seldom attains the form of a tree. During the last two 
years I have found this interesting oak at four new places, and at 
all of these it grows plentifully and the tree form predominates 

Instead of the shrub. 

Along the Yellow River, about six or seven miles east of Stone 
Mountain, there are several large groves on the sides of the canons 
where the granite rocks outcrop. Six or seven miles east of the 
Yellow River there occurs another outcrop of granite, and here 
two fine trees stand and bear fruit in great abundance. Travel- 
Hn<j between the last mentioned station and the Oconee Mountam, 
a little to the south of east, I came upon another granite outcrop 

r 

just west of the Oconee River. There the species again appears, 
and it is interesting to note that whenever found it is confined to 
granite outcrops. A fifth, or fourth, new locality is Little Stone 
Mountain, situated about nine miles south of Stone Mountain. 
There the species reaches its greatest development in size, meas- 
urements showing a height varying from twenty to thirty feet 
and a maximum trunk diameter of fourteen inches. The follow- 
ing map will give an idea of the geographic distribution of this oak. 




M 



383. 1856. 



Moun 



367 



tain, Georgia. At all the places where I found it in that region 
its host was Qiicrcus Gcorgiana, although there were numerous 
other deciduous-leaved trees growing with the latter species. 

RUMEX FASCICULARIS n. sp. 

Perennial by a cluster of fusiform tuberous roots, glabrous, of 
a dull, rather dark or olive-green color. Roots in clusters of from 
3-5 J ^-^o cm. long; stem lax and weak, 5-6 dm. long, de- 
cumbent and ascending, strongly grooved, abruptly thickened at 
the base and slightly thickened at the nodes; internodes 1-6 cm. 
long; leaves mostly oblong, occasionally a few oblong-ovate or 
ovate, 7-17 cm. long, 4^7 cm. broad, of much the same size 
throughout and clustered at the shortened end of the stem near 
the inflorescence, acute or obtuse, somewhat undulate and crisped, 
mostly truncate or cordate at the base, sometimes obtuse, thick 
(drying very thin), petioled; petioles stout, 3-7 cm. long, strongly 
dilated at their bases; ocreae thin and brittle, fugacious; panicle 
1 2-1 6 cm. long, rather dense in fruit; racemes ascending, 1-5 cm. 
long; pedicels slender, narrowly clavate, winged at the summit, 
deflexed \w fruit, 1-2 cm, long, articulated at the base; wings of 
the calyx broadly deltoid, 4 mm. long, 5 mm. broad, undulate, 
strongly nerved, each bearing an ovoid rugose callosity: style- 
segments reflexed on the angles of the achene; achene broadly 



pyramidal-ovoid, triquetrous, 2 mm. long, chestnut-colored, 
smooth and shining, the faces concave, the angles slightly mar- 
gined. Plate 246. 

A peculiar and striking species on account of its clustered 
leaves. The shape of the latter is different from that of any other 
North American member of the genus. By its inflorescence, 
wings and achene It is related to R. Floridamis and R. verticillatus, 
but the achene is broader and shorter than that of either of those 
two species. The stem is junable to support the weight of the 
leaves and inflorescence and bends over/endeavoring to rise again 
at the end. 

The specimens were collected by Mr. Geo. V. Nash, on his re- 
cent excursion to Florida, \w cypress swamps, on the marshy shore 
of Lake Harris, near Eldorado, in the central part of the peninsula. 

Acer leucoderme n. sp. 

Acer Floridamtni actuninatwn Trel. 

A shrub, or small tree reaching a height of eight meters and 
a trunk diameter of from one to five dm., clothed with a smooth 
white bark. Trunk very short, sometimes almost wanting; 
branches (secondary trunks), two to eight together, erect or as- 



368 



4 

cending, conspicuous by their white bark ; branchlets clothed with 
a gray or reddish bark; leaves depressed-orbicular (/. e., broader 
than high), or rarely orbicular in outline, mostly three-Iobed, 
sometimes imperfectly five-lobed, 4-9 cm. in diameter, cordate or 
truncate, petioled, with a rather open and shallow sinus, dark green, 
glabrous and marked with light nerves above, greenish, tinged 
with red, prominently nerved and very velvety (to the touch) be- 
neath, the lobes acute or acuminate (the 4th or 5th when present 
obtuse), each (or the terminal one only) bearing two obtuse teeth ; 
petiole slender, reddish, 3-6 cm. long; flowers not seen; wings 
of the samaras oblong-spatulate, 1-2 cm. long, red, conspicuous, 
parallel or nearly so (more or less spreading when the fruits sepa- 
rate at maturity); seed oblong, its covering prominently veined. 

A very handsome maple, characteristic on account of its habit 
of branching near the base into from several to many second- 
ary trunks, and the w^hite bark. The bright green color of its 
foliage and the usually bright red fruit render it conspicuous, 
and while the velvety pvibesccnce on the lower surfaces of the 
leaves is not prominent it is remarkably soft and dense to the 



touch. ' 

As far as I have observed, the tree is confined to the bottoms 
of two rocky canons, that of the Yadkin River, in Stanley county, 
North Carohna, and especially that of the Yellow River, in Guiit- 
nett county, Georgia. Dr. Trelease has reported the tree from 
further south, where it doubtless occurs, but I do not know the 
character of the localities. 



(M 



1 891. 



Pycnanthevmm Torreyi IBenth. Lab. Gen. & Sp. 329. 1834- 
This species of Koellia has never been recorded as growing 
further south than Southwestern Virginia,^ and consequently it has ^ 
not been credited to the Southern Flora, In August, 1893. ^ 
found the plant growing in Northern Georgia, in Rabun county, 
near Estotoah Falls. It was quite plentiful in the valleys and 
ravines, at about 2000 feet altitude and inhabited localities much 
like those \n which it was found in Southwestern Virginia. 

^SoLiDAGO Yadkinensis (Portcr). 

Solidago Boottii van Yadkinensis Porter, Bulk Torr, Club. 1 892- 
Perennial, slender, wand-like, glabrous and of an olive-green 



* Mem. Torr, Club, 4 : 146. 



369 



color throughout. Rootstock long, chaffy, horizontal ; stem 5- 15 
dm. long, erect, simple below the inflorescence; basal leaves tufted, 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolete, the blade 10-30 cm, long, acute at 
the apex, acuminate at the base, the petiole O-i 5 cm. long, winged ; 
cauline leaves lanceolate, linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, 3--15 

cm. long, erect and appressed, acute at the apex, sessile, the lower 
ones like the basal, serrate with a few distant appressed or spread- 
ing teeth; inflorescence consisting of a simple terminal secund ra- 
ceme or thyrse; heads campanulate, stalked, 3-4 mm. high, 25-35 
flo\vered; involucral bracts in four to five series, oblong or linear- 
oblong, 1-2 mm. long, ciliate, obtuse, with a dark-green midrib 
and tip ; corolla slightly longer than the pappus, more or less pubes- 
cent; rays yellow, oblong-spatulate, entire, 2-3-apiculate ; achene 
columnar, obtuse at the base, io-14-ribbed, pubescent with a few 
spreading hairs. 

This species was first described as a variety of Solidago Boottii 

by Prof. Porter, from collections made by Mr. Heller and myself 

in middle North Carohna In 1891. On first meeting with the 

plant it seemed to me a good species, and field observations on it 

each succeeding season have convinced me of its specific validity. 

It grows only in rather open meadows scattered through the 

■ 

pine woods. The first specimens seen were of the simple type 
{i- e., in which the inflorescence consisted of a simple terminal 
raceme) and not over six dm. tall. They were found near Gold 
Hill, N. C. Last season I found this type near the base oi Dunn's 
Mountain, in the vicinity of Salisbury, N. C. However, a more 
robust and branched form is the more common state, and this oc- 
curs at many localities in middle North Carolina. Up to last 
season Solidago Yadkinensis was not known to grow outside the 
last mentioned region, but in September (1894) I met the plant 
growing luxurlently at two stations in middle Georgia; the one a 
botanically prolific meadow near Loganville, Walton county, and 
the other meadows near the base of Little Stone Mountain, De- 
Kalb county. The Georgia specimens are a little more robust 
than those from North Carolina, but otherwise they are almost 
identical. The variation that does exist is due to the less exposed 
conditions under which the Georgia plants grew. 



370 



Botanical Notes. 

Tumble vmstard. A species of mustard that promises to be 
one of the most formidable tumbleweeds yet introduced in the 
United States has been found by Mr. J. H. Sandberg and Mr. J. 
M. Holzinger, well established as a roadside weed in the side 
streets of Minneapolis. It is Sisynibriiim altissimtim L. This 
species was collected on ballast ground at Philadelphia in 1878, 
and in 1885 it was found near Castle Mountain on the western 
boundary of Alberta. During the past five years it has become a 
troublesome weed in the vicinity of Indian Head, Assiniboia. It 
is there known by the very appropriate name of "tumble mustard- 
It has also been found at Ottawa, Canada. 

The tumble mustard may be distinguished from the other 
mustards by its slender siliques, 3 to 5 inches long, and by its 
characteristic tumbleweed habit, making a rather dense bush-like 
plant at maturity. If discovered elsewhere than in the five places 
mentioned, the undersigned will be grateful for reports of the lo- 
calities. In case of doubt as to determination franks will be sent 
for mailing and the specimens will be determined at the National 
Herbarium. Lyster H. Dewey. 

Washington, D. C, August 14, 1895. 



5 



Reviews. 

A Manual for the Study of Insects. John Henry Comstock 
and Anna Botsford Comstock. 8vo., pp. 701. Ithaca, N. Y. 
Comstock PubUshing Company. 1895. 

The entomological sky has become much cleared, so far as 
the student or beginner is concerned, by the publication of this 
Manual for the Study of Insects. There should be no difificulty 
now in determining in nearly every case the native insects as far 
down the scale of classification as the families to which they 
scientifically belong. This is made possible by numerous figures 
and tables of classification for each order, coupled with a general 
clearness of statement that does not bristle with an array of 
scientific terms. The book is essentially about insects and not 



371 

■ 
I, 

their describers, for' no authorities are given. This matter is no 
doubt left to the check lists and other more special works. 

The first chapter deals with classification and nomenclature; 
the second with crabs, spiders, centipedes and other near relatives 
of the true insects, and the remaining nineteen with the six leg- 
ged insects or Hexapoda, each chapter being devoted to a sepa- 
rate order. This number of orders, as Prof. Comstock says, 
slightly exceeds that commonly adopted. The difference, as will 
be seen by the reader, results from dividing the Platyptera of 
recent classifications into four separate orders. Those adopted in 
the work are the following: 

Thysanura Bristle-tails, Spring-tails. 

Ephemerida May-flics. 

Odonata Dragon-flies. 

Plecoptera Stone-flies. 

Isoptera White-ants. 

Corrodentia Procids and Book-lice. 

Mat.lophaga Bird-lice. 

EuPLEXOPTERA Earwigs. 

Orthoptera Cockroaches, Crickets, Grasshoppers, etc. 

Physopoda Thrips. 

Hemiptera Bugs, Lice, Alphids and others. 

Neuroptera , Aphis-licris, Ant-licris and others. 

Mecoptera Scorpion-flies, etc. 

Trichoptera . Caddice-flies. 

Lepidoptera .,..,.. Moths and Butterflies. 
DiPTERA . . Flies. 

SiPHONAPTERA Fleas. 

CoLEOPTERA Beetles. 

Hymenoptera ..,,/.. Bees, Wasps, Ants and others. 

It is not supposed that this sequence is altogether a natural 
one, but the best that can be expressed in a linear series, and 
indeed, it does not make any difference whether, for instance, the 
Lepidoptera immediately precede or follow the Diptera. 

The greatest space is given to the chapter on Lepidoptera, 
which occupies 222 pages, and it is chiefly in this much collected 
order that changes of classification are noticed. They are based 
^ipon the venation of the wings ; the character of the antennae, 
vestiture, etc., not holding so prominent a position as In other sys- 
tems. This classification seems to be very good so far as clear- 



372 



ness is concerned, and is easily comprehended by the general 
reader, but perhaps specialists will not take to it so kindly. 

In the chapter on Coleoptera the tiger beetles are mentioned 
first and the Scolytidae last In some recent classifications running 
from the lowest to the highest this system is reversed. 

The book is finely illustrated, containing 797 figures and six 
plates, the frontispiece (Plate I.) being colored. On page 154 is 
a picture of four grotesque leaf-hoppers sitting in a row^ on a grass 
blade, who rival in absurdity of expression the famous Browmes. 
Some of the illustrations include the plants on which the insects 
feed, and the food plants are also often mentioned in the text. 
Entomology as a rule does not form a conspicuous part in books 
on botany, but the botany of an entomology is a more important 
matter, many of the insects taking their names from the plants 
upon which they feed. The illustrations of the wing-veins are 
particularly numerous, and it is these, and the tables for determin- 
ing the families and higher groups, that contribute largely to the 
clearness of the book. W. T, Davis. 

r 

Studies in Plant Development, Henry L. Clark. Chicago. 
1S95. ' 

One is at a loss to know just what to say on examining this 
outline of plant analysis, for such it is, neither more nor less. 
Judging from Its mechanical construction and arrangement one 
would conclude that it was intended to serve as an aid in teaching 
young children the first principles of systematic arrangement, but 
the terminology, which is that of Vines (^see his recent text-book 
on botany), will at once condemn it for such a purpose. The 
terminology used would lead one to suppose that it was intended 
for the use of advanced students and specialists in botany. Any 
one sufficiently advanced to comprehend the meaning and applica- 
tion of such terms as gametophyte, apogamy, germ-plasm, body- 
plasm, microspore, macrospore, etc., etc., certainly does not require 
an outline in the study of plant types. It is detrimental to teach 
students that such outline-study is botany. It is true, the author 
recommends a " constant use" of Vines' Text Book of Botany in 
connection with this outhne work, which is good as far as it goes. 
It is, however, wholly wrong to teach students that they can be- 
come systematists without having first studied morphology and 



373 



physiology. This prevailing idea has already done an inestima- 
ble amount of harm to the advance of botany. No student '' may 
quickly be taught the small amount of technique (of the compound 
microscope) necessary to do outline work." It requires years of 
patient toil to learn how to use the compound microscope. A^ij per- 
son can look down the tube o( a compound microscope, but whether 
said person knows and comprehends what he sees, or whether he 
sees anything at all, is another question. My advice is that the 
student should lay aside the '^ Studies in Plant Development" un- 
til he has mastered the rudiments of plant morphology and physi- 
ology by years of patient w^ork in some well equipped laboratory 
and by consulting not only Vines but all other standard authori- 
ties on plant physiology and .morphology. After this is accom- 
plished the ^* Studies" may be permanently stored away in the 

* ■ - 

garret along with other similar analyses. 

As far as the make-up of the " Studies'' is concerned it lacks 
nothing. Binding, paper and print are excellent. There is space 
for the "study" of fifty types. A short list of modern (Vines) 
botanical terms wath etymology and meaning is added. In his 
classification we are pleased to note that lichens are recognized as 
a distinct class. It may be that the " Studies " could be made use of 
by advanced students in our universities, provided it was thought 
advisable to take the time for making the records. Of what use 
these records mi^ht be afterwards is more than we can understand 
at present because there are already printed records of all the 

known plant species. 

It is with regret that we make this adverse criticism, but we 



firmly believe that any mistaken tendency should be checked 
early. The mistaken idea of what constitutes plant study has 
already gained such a strong footing that we must put forth every 
effort to check its progress. Let us sincerely hope that pernicious 
"plant analyzing" may never be substituted ior Boia/ij' in our 
higher institution^ of learning. Let us hope that in the future the 
author will expend his time and talent on some work which will 
prove a real benefit to the advance of botanical science. __ 

Albert Schneider. 



■4 



1 



374 



r 

L 

Index to recent Literature relating to American Botany. 

■ 

Atkinson, G. F. Some Observations on the Development of CoUeio- 
trichuM Lindemidliianum in artificial Cultures. Bot. Gaz. 20 : 305-311. 
//. 22. 15 JL 1895* 

Ave-Lallemant, Prof. Briefe aus Argentinen, Mitteilungen d. 
■ Geogr. Gesellsch. u. d. Naturhist. Mus. i. Liibeck, 7: 53-91- ^^95- 

Contains a few notes on the flora. 

Bailey, L. H. The Plant Individual in the Light of Evolution. Sci- 
ence (n. s.), i: 281-292. 15 Mr. 1895. 

Bates, J. M. A new Astragalus, Am. Nat» 29: 670, 671. Jl. 1895. 

A. lotijlorzis Hook, var, N'ebraskensu^ from Brown County, Nebraska* 

L 

W 

Beal, W. J. Notes from a Botanic Garden.— I. Gard. & For. 8: 
303. 31 Jl. 1895. 

Notes from Agricultural College, Michigan. 

r 

Beal, W, J- Teaching Botany one Topic at a Time, illustrated by 
suitable Materials at any Season of the Year. Science (n. s.)? i • 355- 
29 Mr. 1895.. 

Bennett, A. Notes on the Potamogetons of the Herbarium Boissier. 
Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3 : 249-260, Je. 1895. 

Memoranda on a number of American species. 

Bessey, C. E. Some Features of the native Vegetation of Nebraska. 

Am. Xat. 29 : 486, 487. My. 1895. 

r 

Bessey, C. E. The Division of Agrostology. Am, Nat. 29: 487? 
4S8. My. 1895. 

Beyer, C. S. A Diatomaceous Deposit from an Artesian Well at 
Wildwood, N. J. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 260-266. 25 Je- 
1895- 

Describes new species in Hydrosera and Surirella. 

Britton, N. L. Daniel Cady Eaton. Science (n. s.), 2 : 57, S^- ^9 
Je. 1895. 

Britton, N. L. The generic Name of the Water Weed. Science (n. 
S-). 2:5. 5. Jl. 1895. 

Proposes Philotria Raf. 18 18, for Udora Nutt. 1818, but later. 

Bush, B. F. A list of the Trees, Shrubs and Vines of Missouri. Rep. 
State Hort. Soc. 37: 353-393. Je. 1895. Reprinted. 



375 



Clarke, C. B. On certain authentic Cyperaceae of Linnaeus. Journ. 
Linn. Soc. London, 30: 299-315. 6 O. 1894. 

Contains numerous notes on American species, 

Curtis, C. C, Interesting Features of well-known Plants of New York 

Harbor. Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc. 11: 6^-73. //. jo, ji, Jl. 

1895. 

^^vy» J- B. Plants hitherto undescribed. — L Erythea, 3: 116-118. 

Describes new species in Lupimis^ Senecio and Triglochin, 

Didrichsen, A. Om Tornene hos Hura crepitans. (Sur les epines de 
r Hiira crepitans). Bot. Tidskr. ig ; 189-200, 1895. 



Eastwo 



Sequoia sempervb 



Proc. Cal. Acad, (IL) 5: 170-176. //. 15-18, 13 My. 1895. 

Eckfeldt, J, W. An Enumeration of the Lichens of Newfoundland 
and Labrador. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 239-259. 25 Je. 1895. 

New species in Pannaria^ Lecanora^ Biatora and Lecidea, 

Fernald, M. L. A red-seeded Dandelion in New England. Bot. Gaz. 
20: 323,324. 15 Je. 1895. • 

. Note on Taraxacum erythrospermum. , - . 

Fernald, M. L. Supplement to the Portland Catalogue of Maine 
Plants, Proc. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist. 2 : 73-76. 1895. 

Fernald, M. L. Two new mountain Plants. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 
22: 273,274. 25 Je. 1895. ■ ■ 

. Describes yfii'fr Hendersoni and Carex scabrata X crinita new hybrid. 

Ganong, W. F aLboratory Teaching of large Classes in Botany^ 

Science (n. s.), i : 230-234. i Mr. 1895. 
Gerard, J. N. American Irises. Card. & For. 8: 286. 17 Jl- 1895. 
Goodale, G. L. The New York Botanic Garden. Science (n. s.), 2 : 



I, 2. 5 Jl 



k 



Greene, E. L. Novitates Occidentales— XV. Erythea, 3:" 118-121. 
I Jl. 1895. ' 

Describes new species in Delphinium, Boisduvalia, Aster, LinanthHS and Sisy- 
rinchiutn, 

Greene, E. L. Observations on the Compositae— X. Erythea. 3: 

Enumerates the species of Chrysotkamnus ; establishes the genus Neosyris for 



Bigelovia kyfohuca and B, fuliginea. 

Harshberger, J. The 
i: 92-98. 25 Ta, i8< 



(n. s.) 



876 



1 

Nelumho httea. Bull. Torr. Bot. 



Club, 22: 265-27I! pL 2JI, 25 J 



a : 



^ 

^ 



Hill, E. J.^ The Saguenay Region— I.-III. Gard. & For, 8: 182- 

183; 193; 213. My. 1895. ' .:'.:"" 

Holm/T." On tlie Validity of some fossil Species of Liriodoidron. 



Bot. Gaz. 20 : 312-316. //. 23. 15 Jl 



'■)' 



j. D. 'Senecio Hualtata. Curt. Bot, Mag. //. 7422. Jl 



. 1895.. . ^ . 

' Native of Chili and Argentaria. 

JellifFe, S. E. Cryptogamic 



f 1 



» V- 



III. Bull. 



1 'P- 



J 



' V 



* « t 



W."A. Ohio Forest Trees. Pamph. pp. 16. Columbus. 



>. 



Bot. Gaz. 20: 



Colum- 



1895. " ■ 

Keys to arid descriptions of the native species. 

Kellerman, W, A. Poisoning by She] 
325. 326. 15 Jl 1895. 

Kellerman, W. A. Spring Flora of < 

bus, 1895, ^ -^ ' .._ : -, • . 

A concise descriptive flora, . 

Knowlton, F. H. Use of the initial Capital in specific Names of 
Plants. Science (n. s.), i: 423, 424. 19 Ap, 1895. 

L I 

-■^ 

J ' 

Kranzlin; ' F. Eine neue Pleurothallis-Kxl. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3 '■ 

.. 3S9> 360- Jl- 1895. • . • V ■ . • : 

P. Autraniana n, sp. 



-^' 



t ^ « 



Leiberg, J. B. On the Carpels of Opilaster ?mjvacea ("Greene) 
^ .Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 22: 271, 272. 25 Je. 1895. - 



4 ^ 



Lemmon, J. G. Handbook of West American Cone-Bearers. Ed. 3 
pp. 104. /^5..^ Oakland. 1895. 



j^ 



f 



Masters, M, T. The Guadeloupe Cypress. Gard. Chron, (lU) "= 
- 62./. g.'- 20 JL,iS95. .. - - - ,•-.•- ' 

Description and illustration of Cypressus ?nacrocarpa Guadelotipensis (S. Wats.) 



Mast. 



\' 



' 



Minot, C. S. The fundamental Difference between Animals and 
r\ Plants,^ Science (n. s.), i : 311, 312. 22 Mr. 1895. • • . •. 

• r 

Mottier, M. D. Contributions to the Embryology of the Ranuncula- 

,; ceae. . Bot. Gaz. 20: 241-248. //, ij-20. 17 Je.; 296-304. ^5 

Jl. 1895. . ■ ■ • ■ = " 



377 



'■ ' * 9 "S- 



Pammel, L. H.^ Conifers in Iowa. Gard. & For. 8: 279. 10 Jl. 



' - . i 



1895. 

■ M 

Patouillard, N. Mylittopsis^ nouveau genre d'Hymenomycctes 
heterobasidies. ■ Journ, de Bot, g: 245-247: '16 JL 1895'. ^' '^•'' 

, Description of the genus, and oZM, Langloisii from Louisiana. 



• '- . T - .' ' • i; 



Pollard, C. L. Viola sagittata Ilicksiij var. nov. Bot. Ga2. 20: 326. 






Robertson, C. Harshbersrer on the Origin of our vernal Flora. Sci- 



b^^ ^" ^-"^ ^^^o 



1 ' 



"••'ence' (n. s.), i: 371-375. 5 Ap. 1895. '- ' . : 

ft 

Sargent, C. S. Carpinus cordata. Gard. & For. 8 : 294. / 41. 
24 JL 1895. 

■ 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. A northern Forest. Gard. & For. 8 : 282. 
/. 40- 17 Jl. 1895. 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. Kalmia latifoUa var. myri'folia. Gard. & 
For. 8: 315. / 44. 7 Au. 1895. 

Sargent, C. S., Editor. The Tree Yuccas in the United States. Gard. 
&: For. 8: 301./ ^2. 31 JI. 1895. 

Illustrating Y. inacrocar^a. 

Smith, E. F. The Botanical Club Check List. Pamph. pp. 16. No 
date. 

Smith, Y. D. Undescribed plants from Guatemala and other Central 
American Republics. ^XV. Bot. Gaz. 20: 281-295. 15 Jl. 1895. 

Tracy, W. A. The simultaneous Origin of similar (or identical) 
Varieties from different Stock. Am. Nat. 29 : 485, 486. My. 1895. 

Tourney, J. W. Notes on the Tree-Flora of the Chiricahua Moun- 



tains—I. _II. 



figs- J 



670. Jl 



W. The Missouri Botanical Garden. Am. Nat. 29 ; 668- 
1895 ; Science, n. s. i : 716, 717. 28 Je. 1895. 

Trimble, H. On the tanning Properties of the Bark of three North 
American Trees. Gard. & For. 8: 293. 24 Jl. 1895. 

Notes on the tannin of Castanopsis chrysopJiylla, Querciis densijlora and Ostrya 
Virgin I an a. 

Underwood, L. M. An interesting Equisefum. Bot. Gaz. 20 : 

figs. 15 JL i8gc. 



320 



Abnormal 



ail, A. M. The Ji 
For. 8: 282. 17 Jl 



Gard. & 



378 



.Vance, L. J. The Future of the Long-leaf Pine Belt. Gard. & For. 8: 
278. 10 Jl. 1895. 

Ward, L. F- The Mesozoic Flora of Portugal compared with that of 
the United States. Science, n. s., i ; 337-346. 29 Nov. 1895. 

Williams, T, A. Notes on Mexican Lichens — I. Am. Nat. 29: 
/ 480-485. My. 1895. 

Wolley-Dod, C. Cone-flowers. Garden, 47 : 418-419. pL lOiB. 
- 15 Je. 1895. 

Descriptions of the cultivated Rudbeckiae^ with illustrations of R, maxima and 

R. pinnaia^ 



-mf 



4^ 

v'- 



h#^ 



^ 



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Underwood. Catalogue of N. Am. Hepaticae. S\ 
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Olhaff. Elenchus Plantarum. 129, 1656. 

Sprengel, C. Florae Halensis. 8«. 1806 and 2 suppl. 

Schumacher. Plantae Saellandiae. 2 vols., 180T. 

Schlechtendal. Flora Berolinensis, Part 2, Cryptogamia. 1824. 

WulfT, J. C. Flora Borussica. 12^5 1765. 

Schrank. Florae Salisburgensis. 12. 1792. 

Weinmann. Enum : Stirpium in Agro Petropolitano. 8^ 1 837. 

Martius. Flora Erlangensis Crypt. 8, 6 ph, 1817. 



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Hooker, W. J., and Baker, J. G. Synopsis Filicum. Colored plates, S^ cloth. 

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Vol. 22. 



SEPTEMBER, 1895. 



No. 9. 



\ 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



ToRREY Botanical Club 



*, 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 



Edited by 



NATHANIEL LORD BRITTON, 



AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLUB 



X 



KXEMTT 



PAGB. 



PA 



^^^'i^romy of Vl^nts: George Macloskie . . 379 
Description of a new problematical Plant from 

the Lower Cretaceous of Arkansas {Uliis- 

irated): F, H. Knoivlion 38? 

Observations upon some Oklahoma Plants: 

J^dgar IF. Olive 390 

On the two editions of Emorj^'s Report, 184S ; 

7okn Hendlcy Barnhart - ■ • 394 

Teratological Notes (Plate 247): Francis 

£. Ll'yyd ^ 396 

Contribution to the Characeous Plants cf 
iMaine—l.; F. L. Harvey 397 

Terarological Xotes {lUnstraied): John 
A' Small . . - . . - 



399 



Reviews.— Systematische Phylogeaic der Pro- 
tisten und Pilanzen; The Natural History 
of Plants; The London Catalogue of British 
Plants; Among Rhode Island Wild Floorers 400 

Proceedings of the Botanical Club, A. A. A. 
S., Springfield Meeting, Aug. 29ih to Sept. 
2d, JS95: H, L. B^l^ey, Secretary . . . • 40S 

Papers read before the Section of Botany, A. 
A. A. S., Springfield Meeting 413 

Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Amer- 
ica, Springtield Meeting, August, 1S95 , . . 4H 

INDKX TO RECENT LlTBRATURK RELATING, 

TO American Botaety 



♦ • 



415 



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The Club meets regularly at Columbia College, 49th Street and Madison Ave- 
nue. ^ew ^ork Oty, on the second Tuesday and last Wednesday of each month, 
except June July, August and September, at 8 o'clock, p m. Botanists are cor- 
Gially invited to attend. 

Memb^s of the Club wiU pleas* remit their annual dues for 1895. °«* 
payable, to Mr. Henry Ogden, Treasurer, 11 Pine St. New York City. 









V > 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



^ *^1- 22. • Lancaster. Pa., September 30, 1895. ' No. 9 



Antidromy of Plants.'^ 



By George Macloskie. 



During the summer of 1893 I made observations on Indian 
corn, which were published in abstract in the Princeton College 
Bulletin of November, 1S93. It was then shown that, if we judge 
from the modes of overlapping of the leaf margins of Maize and 
of other Gramineae, there must be two kinds of plants of every 
species of the order; the one kind or " caste " has its lowest foliage 
leaf (the leaf next above the pileolus in the embryo) with the 
nght margin of its sheath overlapping the left margin, " dextrally 
infolded " as I term it ; and the other caste has the left margin 
overlapping the right, '* sinlstrally infolded." The leaves at sub- 
sequent nodes are alternately sinistral and dextral. In order to 
ascertain the origin of this duph'city I read Van Tieghem's re- 

r 

searches on the Cotyledons of the Gramineae (Ann. des Sci. 
Naturelles, 1872), which stated that the leaves of the plumule 
within the seed are alternately enfolded on each other, but failed 
to indicate the direction of the enfolding of the first leaf.f The 
dissection of one or two seeds revealed a dextral initial folding; 
^nd soon other grains were found with sinistral folding. Thus 
It became manifest that as there are two castes of maize-plant, so 



*Read before Section G., A. A. A. S., Springfield meeting, September, 1S95. 
f He states that the direction of the evolution of the leaves is determinate, but 
there is variation as to the first green leaf, and he had not been able to discover its 

cause. 



380 

there are two castes of grains, the one being the '' amidrom " of 
the other, the leaf-folding starthig diversely, and the leaves of suc- 
cessive nodes, running contrariwise in the plumule of one grain 
as compared with that of another grain. 

The next problem was to orientate the grains of each caste in 
the ear of Maize. The ear consists of columns each containing a 
pair of rows of grains; w^e may designate the row opposite our 
right hand dextral and the other row (opposite our left) as sinis- 
tral. It was soon made out that in the particular ear examined, 
the grains of the dextral row wxre all with dextral embryos, and 
those of the sinistral row had sinistral embryos. Whether this 
law w^ould apply to all the ears on one plant, or whether the order 
would be inverted between the ears arising from successive nodes, 
or between the ears of different plants, is yet to be determined. 
On examining the very young ear of maize I found the grains of 
the paired rows of each column orientated close to each other, 
almost face to face, the j'oung styles running up together, and a 
gap between the adjoining two-rowed columns. 

From this discovery the inference was obvious that the seeds 
of corn differ from each other antidromically, according to the side 
of the placenta or axis from which they arise; that their embryos 
vary hi consequence, and determine the caste of the future plant. 
Whilst it was easy to see that the same rule wnll include all the 
Gramincae, I hazarded the suggestion that it may be found in 
some measure to dominate other orders of plants. The dis- 
covery as to the corn .disposes of Sachs's crowning argument 
against phyllotaxy, wiiich he supposed could have no significancy 
as to Gramineae, on account of their distichous leaves. 

Early in August, 1895, I was struck by the graceful inflores- 
cence of Ladies' Tresses {Spiranthcs praccox Watson, S. granwica 
var. Waltcri Gray). Its spiral rows of pure white flowers are anti- 
dromic as between different individual plants; about half the 
specimens have dextral spirals (viz., turning in the direction of the 
thread of a common screw), and the same number have sinistral 
spirals. Another interesting point was that the phyllotaxy, or 
arrangement of the distichous leaves in a primitive spiral, of each 
of the plants of Sptranthcs follows the order of the inflorescence, 
dextrorse phyllotaxy invariably accompanying the dextrorse an- 



ykMA 



381 



thotaxy, and conversely.* The numerous seeds of these plants 
are