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1956 - I960 



W/NTER 1956 
Vol. VI, No. 1/ 


Board of Trustees 

President Frits W. Went 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Mrs. John R. Mage 

Howard A. Miller 

George H. Spalding 

Charles S. Jones 
John C. Macfarland 
Samuel Mosher 
Stuart OMelveny 
Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 
Harold F. Roach 
Mrs. William D. Shearer 
Henry C. Soto 
Frank Titus 


Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 
Robert Casamajor 
Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 
John Anson Ford 
J. D. Funk 
William Hertrich 
Lionel Louis Hoffmann 
Henry Ishida 

Honorary Tru 

Ronald B. Townsend Mrs. J. J. Gallagher 
Manfred Myberg 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee 

Wray Turner 

Telephone DOuglas 7-8207 


Annual Associate Membership 

$ 5.00 


Annual Contributine Membershio 

Annual Sustaining Membershin i 00 nn 

Annual Sponsor Membership 


.11,000 or more 


. 5,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $ 

i deductible under Federal 

WINTER 1956 

Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticuhural Institute and 
the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issued on the first of 

January, April, July and October. 

Robert Casamajor Philip A. Munz 

Philip Edward Chandler Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Ronald B. Townsend 

Mildred Mathias Lee Wray Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture! Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology PieRRe Miller 

Societies George H. Spalding 

W. QuiNN Buck 

Scott E. Haselton 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. Munz 

Janet Wright, Ecihor (On leave) 
L. B. Martin and R. K. McGah, Ac/wg Editors 

Vol. VI JANUARY, 1956 No. 1 


Arboretum Administration Building William S. Stewart 2 

Air Pollution Research W. M. Noble 3 

Dr. F. W. Went, New President 7 

Our Cover Picture 7 

Tree Ferns in Southern California Alfred W. Roberts 8 

Morton Arboretum C. E. Godshalk 9 

LASCA Library R- K. McGah 13 

Genus Pereskia Wm. Hertrich 14 

In Answer to Your Question Donald P. Woolley 16 

Select Small Palms Nolan W. Kiner 18 

California International Flower Show 20 

Growing Notes George H. Spaldmg 21 

Names, Notes, and News 23 

Book Reviews and Comments 24 



WINTER 1956 


sion and opening off the central corridor 
is the research office with a photographic 
dark room and small laboratory, and the 
taxonomy office. There is also a basement 
to house heating, mechanical equipment 
and to provide some limited storage area. 

An important feature of the building 
will be the conference room and meeting 
garden at the east end. This room, about 
20 X 40 feet in size opens by sliding doors 
onto a walled patio garden with colored 
cement tile floor. The conference room 
and meeting garden will provide space 
for gardening and botany classes of limited 
size and for lectures and staff meetings. It 
also will be available to garden clubs and 

forums. The meeting garden opens to the 
outside by a grille gate leading to a con- 
crete ramp sloping gently down to the 
street level where there is ample parking. 

assembly area, and walk leading to the 
jeep train station. Features of the gate- 
house include a public information office, 
a naturalist-guide office and electrically 
controlled entrance turnstiles. The infor- 
mation office will have two information 
wickets, a counter, and is so arranged 
that post cards, bulletins and books con- 
cerning the Arboretum, gardening and 
horticulture can be sold. Inside the yatc- 
will be a covered tour assembly arui with 
wooden benches and an attracti\cly fillctl 
planter. The final toucli in the prcsciit 
construction project is an attractive illum- 
inated entrance sign on Baldwin Avenue 
and the flagpole forty feet high. 

It is expected the building will be com- 
pleted in June, 1956, and the dedication 
ceremony should occur soon thereafter. 
That's a great day coming! 


W. M. Noble 

In 1943, Hazon Gill of El Monte first 
noticed that certain crops could no longer 
be profitably grown. Since that time many 
people from nurserymen and farmers to 
the man with only a small plot of lawn to 
mow have become increasingly aware of 
the eflPect on vegetation of what, for want 
of better terminology, we call smog. Dur- 
ing the latter part of this period a number 
of organizations have done a considerable 
amount of work in this field and many 
observations, both scientific and casual 
have been made. Some of these have been 
erroneous, but many have been valid. It 
seems, therefore, worthwhile to summarize 
briefly some of this information in a semi- 

cerned with raising anything from a rad- 
ish to an orchid. 

The Los Angeles County Air Pollution 
Control District attacked this problem in 

the spring of 1949 with two thoughts in 
mind. First, no damage of this sort had 
been observed elsewhere in the world up 
to that time and this peculiar injury al- 
ways appeared following a period of eye 
irritation and low visibility. Thus plants 
themselves could be used to detect the 
pollutants which caused these symptoms 
and also to trace the areas to which this 
pollution spread. Second, the District was 
concerned with the loss to growers, one 
farmer having estimated his loss in spin- 
ach to have been $30,000 from a single 
smog period. 

Immediate action was begun by the Dis- 
trict, in cooperation with the California 
Institute of Technology and the Univer- 
sity of California at Riverside which cul- 
minated in the discovery by Dr. Haagen- 
Smit of compounds present in gasoline 
which on combination with ozone would 


this injury (1). Continued work by 
lant Section of the Air Pollution 
ol District later established the fact 
:ar exhaust fumes combined with 
would also readily produce this type 
ury (2). After extensive studies,' no 

tion, some fifteen test stations ha' 
established covering roughly the ; 
eluded by San Fernando, Pomon 
heim, Long Beach and Westwood Vil 
A week's supply of plants is t ' 
of these stations and placed in a growing 
chamber receiving a constant flow of fil- 
tered smog free air (Fig. 1). The filtering 
medium is activated coconut shell carbon. 
Each day a local operator, housewife, 

exposes a set of these plants for a single 
24-hour period in a duplicate chamber re- 
ceiving unfiltered air. In this manner an 
estimate of the intensity of the pollution 
for that day may be made and the area 

The appearance of the injury on the 
plants varies considerably depending upon 
the anatomy and physiology of the leaves 
and upon the intensity of the pollution. 

silvery or glazed 
surface of leave; 
spinach, petunia 
cotyledonous pi 
which follows st( 

typical symptoms are a 
appearance on the lower 

uch as red beets, dock and darker colored 
napdragons also show a reddening. 

WINTER 1956 


tions makes it difficult for the uninitiated 
to separate smog damage from other types 
of i"i^^y ^""^^ caused by heat, nu- 

tivity lists of dubious value for the pur- 
pose of identifying the cause of injury. 
Three things, however, are helpful. First, 

leaf surface are typical and, when not con- 
fused with insect or frost injury, are 
reasonably definite. Second, microscopic 
examination of the leaf shows that the 
cells immediately below the stoma are col- 
lapsed without their cell walls being dis- 
rupted ( 3 ) . The third symptom, and one 
of the simplest to observe, is that cells are 
normally damaged at only one stage of 
growth (4). 

?ries of smoggy days it is not uncommon 
» find four to six bands of injury on a 
ngle leaf or blade of grass, each band 
lused by a different day s exposure ( Fig. 
) . The injury occurs where the most re- 
;ntly matured cells are found. Younger 


ired while 

iparently protected by 

durmg very Heavy smog periods, these 
bands will sometimes merge, usually how- 
ever, they are distinguishable. 

A partial list of sensitive and resistant 
plants has recently appeared in a previous 
issue (5). Some additional resistant plants 
are coleus, stock, pansy, zinnia, marigold, 
nasturtium, verbena, sweet peas, calendula, 
begonia, iris, gladiolus and most bulbs. 
However, as has been stated, even these 
under certain growth conditions such as 
are found in greenhouses, may be injured. 
Usually plants such as philodendron, dief- 


fenbachcia, aralia and others used in plant- 
ers appear to be very resistant. 

Trees and shrubs have not been exten- 
sively studied but work is being begun on 
these both by the University of California 
and by the Air Pollution Control District 
in cooperation with the Arboretum. Many 
observations have been made in the green- 
house where numerous varieties are avail- 
able for study. These plants will be fol- 
lowed as they mature since resistance 
varies with age. For example the early 
leaves of ceanothus and sedling bananas 
have been found to be quite sensitive 
while older plants are rarely injured. 

An extensive list of smog resistant 
plants will be presented in a future issue. 


1) Haagen-Smit, A. ]., Darley, E. F., Zaitlin, 
M., Hull, H. M., and Noble, W. M., Plant 
Physiol. 27, 18-39, (1952) 

2) Cann, G. R., Noble, W. M., Larson, G. P., 
Air Repair, 4, 83-86 (1954) 

3) Bobrov, R. A., Proceedings of Second Na- 
tional Air Pollution Symposium, 129-34 

4) Noble, W. M., Af^ric. Food Chem. 3, 330- 
332 (1955) 

5) M.ddleton, ]. T., Darley, E. F., Kendrick, 
J. B., Una Leaves V, No. 1, 7-11 ( 1955) 

WINTER 1956 



New President of the California Arboretum Foundation 

The board of trustees of the Califor- 
nia Arboretum Foundation and the Board 
of Governors of the Los Angeles State and 
County Arboretum have announced the 
election of Dr. F. W. Went as their Presi- 
dent. He succeeds Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr. 
who has been President for the past three 

^^Dr. Went, Professor of Plant Physiol- 
ogy at the California Institute of Tech- 
nology is internationally known among 
plant scientists for his outstanding work 
on plant hormones and on the relation- 
ships between climate and plant growth. 
The famous Earhart controlled environ- 
ment greenhouse at the California Institute 
of Technology was the first laboratory of 
its type to provide control for so many of 
the environmental factors affecting plant 
growth. Dr. Went directed the planning 
and construction of this laboratory. It is 
operated and maintained under his super- 
vision. Scientists from all over the world 
have come to avail themselves of the op- 
portunities it presents for advanced study 
in plant growth. It is significant that both 
the French government and the Austrahan 
government are planning to build similar 
controlled environment greenhouses. 

Dr. Went was born in Holland, the son 
of Dr. A. F. Went, at Utrecht. He re- 
ceived the Master Degree and Doctorate 
Degree from the University of Utrecht 
and for several years thereafter conducted 
research at the Botanical Gardens at Bui- 
tenzorg, Java. He joined the staff of the 
California Institute of Technology in 
1933. In 1937 a book ?h)tohormones 
was published with Dr. K. V. Thimann 
as co-author. This summarized the knowl- 

that time and was^one of the first books 
on this subject to be published. The classi- 
cal experiments performed by Dr. F. W. 
Went during his days at Utrecht Univer- 
sity in Holland are reported here. 

Dr. Went has been President of the 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, 
of the Western Society of Naturalists and 
was the first President of the Board of 
Trustees of the California Arboretum 

He has just returned from a four and a 

made at the invitation of the Australian 
government. During this tour Dr. Went 
collected seeds for the Los Angeles State 
and County Arboretum from nearly every 
section of Australia. The seeds are now 
being grown in the propagation houses at 
the Arboretum for subsequent planting 
on the grounds and testing for their value 
as ornamental plants for Southern Cali- 
fornia. He is an authority on desert plant 

Dr. Went is recognized among his col- 
leagues for his originality of thought, his 
boundless enthusiasm and his complete 
appreciation of plants. 

W. S. S. 


and^'south Af dcX'^'win knd^ it*s^ gr'afeful 
form and beauty to the semi-tropical 
aspect found elsewhere on the Arboretum 
grounds. In addition the placement of 
these two groups of palms highlights two 
new features of the Arboretum now under 
construction. First, the Gatehouse whose 
entrance will be just north of the palms 
in the left foreground of the picture, and 
second, the Administration Building, 
whose west entrance will be accented by 
the thirteen trunk cluster of palms, right 

We are very proud of such a gift and 
though the donor wishes to remain anony- 
mous, the California Arboretum Founda- 
tion acknowledges his generosity with a 
heartfelt thanks. 




Alfred W. Roberts 

Cihotium sch'iedei is considered by some 
to be the most beautiful fern in existence. 
It is now planted quite extensively out-of- 
doors in lathhouses or protected and shel- 
tered coastal areas. The golden-green 
fronds are produced in great profusion, 
and they droop gracefully. Excellent if 
planted high on top of a wall so that the 
fronds are permitted to cascade down. It 
is also suited for hanging baskets and is 
well known for its decorative qualities 
indoors. Will withstand temperatures of 
20° if established outside for several 

Cihotium cham'issoi, a Hawaiian species 
of tree fern, has a heavy trunk with 
arched fronds of a glossy texture and 
golden green hue. Average height in 
Southern California is 4 to 6 feet. Since 
the fronds are produced less numerously 
on imported trunks, this fern is often used 
in front of ornate stone or wood struc- 
tures^ Sporelings will produce more 

in Southern California and distinguishes 
itself from other species by having darker 
green, shiny and leathery leaves produced 
on dark, hairy stems. It is not so tolerant 
of sunlight as the above-mentioned spec- 
ies C, chami.soi 

fern, has become quite popular. Its beau- 
tiful mahogany-tinged foliage makes it a 
charming subject for well protected situa- 
tions. In appearance it closely resembles a 
cycad and is therefore quite exotic look- 
ing. It requires a very sheltered location. 
In Bra2il and Peru it produces a 4 to 5- 
foot trunk and 3 to 5-foot fronds. 

Closely allied to B. braziliense is Lo- 
nnma gihha. a very symmetrical dwarf 
tree fern requiring a warm location with 
no overhead watering during the winter 
months. Truly a beautiful fern, it should 

be planted in pots or open ground in a 
semi-outdoor environment. In New Cale- 
donia this fern produces a trunk 5 feet 
tall, and its gracefully, arching fronds are 
said to grow from 3 to 4 feet long. 

To obtain best results with tree ferns 
one should select a sheltered, frost-pro- 
tected area free from dry winds, and pro- 
vide a well-drained moisture-retaining soil 
which is rich in humus. To avoid disturb- 
ing surfact roots, do not cultivate but 
mulch frequently with rough leafmold and 
cedar or redwood bark. Fresh stable ma- 
nure should not be used. A well balanced 
organic acid plant food or an acid liquid 
fertilizer, diluted to one-half of recom- 
mended strength, and applied three times 
from May to September will provide nu- 
trients for good frond development. Too 
much nitrogen tends to give fronds a 
weaker structure. During warm summer 
weather, a late afternoon or evening over- 
head watering creates a moist, cool condi- 
tion so beneficial to most tree ferns. 

When removing old fronds do not pull 
or tear them from the trunks, but remove 
them with a sharp knife or pruning shears, 
leaving a portion of the leaf base attached 
to the trunk for insulation and frost pro- 
tection. Eventually these leaf remains will 
detach themselves or can be easily re- 
Should insects such as scale, mealybug, 
red spider and thrips appear, spray with 
the latest approved and safe spray ma- 

WINTER 1956 


Transcript of address delivered at National Shade Tree Conference. Santa Barbara 
by C. E. Godshalk. Director of Morton Arboretum. 

I AM SORRY John Wister could not be large on Mr. Morton s definition. A piece 
here tonight to address you as originally of land can be laid out like a park and 
planned. However, I am glad of this op- have labelled living woody plants arranged 
portunity to tell you about the Morton in rows or in taxonomic sequence so they 
Arboretum. are easy to get to and according to either 
The Morton Arboretum was founded of the previous definitions would classify 
by Mr. Joy Morton, son of J. Sterling as an arboretum. From what I have ob- 
Morton, the founder of Arbor Day. Sur- served it takes more than that to make 
veying was started in the summer of 1921 people plant conscious, 
and the first construction work was done We realized this fact early and tried to 
that fall. The Arboretum lies partly in the do something about it. My feeling, and 
DuPage River Valley, in DuPage County, that of our trustees, has been that we want 
about 23 miles west of Chicago. The origi- the Morton Arboretum to be a live, active 
nal 419 acres deeded to a board of nine part of our community as well as having 
trustees, by Mr. Morton, have been added it influence the midwestern area to do a 
to from time to time by the trustees from better job in beautification of its surround- 
the Morton estate farm land. Now the ings. In other words, our first appeal has 
Arboretum comprises about 1200 acres been to the layman who plants and in 
and may include more farm land later doing a good job there we also have some- 
making it 1500 acres. Mr. Morton set up thing worth while for students of plants 

all time. The key to making an arboretum an 

The Arboretum has about 14 miles of attractive and inviting place is in the ar- 

roads and at least 25 miles of paths with rangement of the plantings. Coupled with 

large meadows and several artificial lakes it should be some sort of educational pro- 

which form a skeleton work around which gram, even in the simplest form, so as to 

approximately 5000 varieties of woody enable persons visiting the arboretum to 

plants are arranged for the convenience of know how best to use it. In view of these 

study. The land so set aside for this pur- observed facts I would define an arbore- 

pose, properly endowed and planted with turn as follows: ''An arboretum is an out- 

labelled plants arranged for study, was door musetwi of labelled troodj livwg 

sufficient to classify it as an arboretum. plants, true to name, arranged aesthetically 

Webster gives a definition of an arbore- jor the convenience of study, and sufiple- 

tum as, "A place where trees are cultivated mented with an educational program en- 

for scientific or educational purposes", abling users of it to derive the maximum 

Mr. Joy Morton, the founder, preferred benefit". 

to define it as "An outdoor museum of You will notice I have included in my 

labelled living woody plants arranged for definition that plants should be true to 

the convenience of study". I like Mr. Mor- name. That, as you all know, has been one 

ton's definition better because it includes of the great failings in most institutions, 

all woody plants, not only trees. His defi- In our eagerness to build up collections 

nition also distinguishes it from a park, in many times plants are included which 

that the plants are labelled and arranged have not had their original sources prop- 

for the convenience of study. erly checked. We, like the rest, are trymg 

After observ^ing the public making use to correct this situation, 

of our arboretum for 34 years I would en- In my definition I also say plants should 



WINTER 1956 

ers and it took three classes a week to ac- Joy Morton was living as the foundation 

commodate the enrollers. Every year since years of the Arboretum h.story^I like to 

we have never had any trouble with lack think of the period 1934 to 1953 when 

of students using the Arboretum. Mrs. Cudahy was chairman of the board 

That was the beginning of our educa- of trustees as the years when many of our 

tional program. In 1934, at the death of refinements were made and the educa- 

Mr. Joy Morton, Mrs. Joseph Cudahy, tional program was put into effect, 
his daughter, built the Administration Mrs. Cudahy died April 7, 1953 and 

Building as a memorial to her father. She jefj- ^ sizeable fund to the Arboretum. At 

at that time, became chairman of the this time Mr. Sterling Morton, son of the 

board of trustees. She was greatly inter- founder, who introduced me tonight, was 

ested in the educational work and the ^nade chairman of the board of trustees. 

the Arboretum \oday. Mrs. Joy Morton phase of the Arboretum development, a 

died in 1941 and left funds for the research phase. A major development at 

Thornhill Building which is now our edu- the Arboretum this year is the building of 

cational center with classrooms, lecture ^ laboratory wing to the Administration 

room etc. Building as a memorial to Mrs. Cudahy. 

We now have classes four seasons of it will have a large glass pavilion on the 

the year which include plant identification, hedge garden axis, a lecture room seating 

scout leader groups, gardening classes, a about 100 with a class work room beneath 

landscape class, garden literature classes it. There will be a large laboratory room 

etc. Recently we opened our own nature equipped with unistrut partitions so it can 

school where people come and live for a be flexible in its arrangement. There will 

week or two and attend concentrated na- be a reception room and several offices, 

ture study classes. All classes are so large Qn the second floor there will be three 

the enrollment has to be limited and most sleeping rooms and a living room with a 

rlasses are 10 week courses, free of charge, kitchenette thus enabhng students or 

1 the form others working on assignments to stay for 

of a Nature School \ 
choice of three classes, one in plant iden 

; being 

ance and one in landscape garde 
Besides we have three nature trans ^^^j^ ^^^^^ ^-^^^ ^^^^^ ^tc. One cold 

, guide his own group ^^^^ j^^^^^^^ , 

through a trail by use of a nature trail hardiness studies. Considerable ian( 

guide we prepared. The students get work ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ available pla 

sheets to do at the end of the trail so the ^ research plantings, 

leader can see how well they learned what ^^^.^^ ^^^^ 

the nature trail teaches. We are planting the tvDe of re< 

terested persons as to the type of res 
many native trees in a ^^^r ain area anu .^^^^^ ^ ^j^^ ^^^.^ 

tify them by our simple key so 
learn something as they collect t 

we have over ouu s.uuc.u. ......5 ^^^^ .^^.^^^ H^j^^;^ State Na- 

'l^hi^k frZ what I have told you so tural History Survey, whose offices and 

far you can sTe why I used the tide for laboratory are at Urbana, to use a part of 

my'talk, 'The Morton Arboretum, More our laboratory in ^^IP^jf.^^J^^^^^^ 

thin a Collection of Woody Plants". In spread of Dutch Elm Disease and (Jak 

looLg back I associate the years Mr. Wilt in the Chicago area. Dr. Carter and 


his assistants, I'm sure, will welcome that 
help as they are now swamped since Dutch 
Elm Disease is getting in the Chicago 
area. They in turn will be able to give us 
more pathological help in some of the 
problems we are working with such as 
spruce canker, wilt in Redbuds etc. 

Though we do not have Our laboratory 
arting some studies 
J and effects of de- 
liation, as well as a number of other 
idies. We are starting some field tests 
1 fertilizers, mulches etc. We are at the 
Dment in the process of using the dirt 
cavated from our new building to fill 
3und various groups of forest trees at 
ried depths, some with and some with- 
t tree wells, to study the effects of fill 
Dund trees when people grade for new 

; field i 




A^hich have shown 
pruning tests on 

mg. we are giraimg t 
depths and cutting off cit 
• ? to sti • 
1 help , 

lay be wrong 
^mptoms create 


: performing another service for 
wiucn we have been commended. It is to 
prove or disprove some of the cure-all 
remedies that are being advocated to con- 
trol everything from Dutch Elm Disease 
to Oak Wilt and Phloem Necrosis. The 
use of salt for curing Phloem Necrosis is 
being tested on 25 trees in the area of 
Urbana through the U. S. Natural History 
Survey Division. In cooperation with Dr 
Spencer and the American Salt Producers 
Assn. twenty-five trees are being used as 
check trees. So far no results have been 
given out. We at the Arboretum are run- 
nmg tests on a product called Norma! 

Soil £ 

its du 


>ts of ,1 

to uncontrollable < 
11 be many cure-all 
d the Arboretum, 

these hysterical timc^ of Dutch Elm Dis- 
ease by proving or disproving their value. 

We also hope in some small way to aid 
in the Dutch Elm Disease fight by run- 
ning as many physiological tests as we can 
to aid in stopping the effects of the dis- 
ease while pathologists are doing their 
best to stop the spread of it by controlling 
the beetles. 

One of the things we have been doing 
in the last few days is to experiment with 
composting of chopped hay, legumes, 
weeds etc. freshly cut from meadows. The 
International Harvester Company experi- 
mental farm near us has been furnishing 
the equipment for the experiment. I 
thought this would be a good time to tell 
about it for our chairman will then be 
better prepared if at the fall trustees meet- 
ing he is approached for more equipment. 
All kidchng asiclc. the project looks at 


In September a 
competition will be 
Howard A. Fischer and Associates for the 
purpose of getting the best possible de- 
signs for a new staff and labor housing 
project for the Arboretum. Seven new 
houses will be built at first and several of 
our old houses will be moved in to the 
housing project. The streets in the new 
housing project will be lined with the best 

wiinru" ed af a'dc'''' 
housing and landsianini:. Actual construe- 

rt « 

WINTER 1956 



Three years ago Mrs. Janet Wright ex- 
plained the problems involved in arrang- 
ing a collection of books to advantage for 
the use of both amateur and professional 
horticulturists {Lasca Leaves, Vol. Ill, 
No. 1, 1952-53). At the same time Mrs. 
Wright outlined the classification scheme 
devised by Miss Dorothy Manks, Librarian 
of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
Library. This scheme appeared to answer 
our needs and was adopted for use in our 
Lasca Library although with certain adap- 

During these early years of our institu- 
tion appropriate material — books, reprints 
and files of serial publications have been 
donated by individuals and societies and 
purchased by funds granted by the Cali- 
fornia Arboretum Foundation and by Los 
Angeles County. This growing body of 
material is constantly in the process of 
classification and cataloguing. 

The limits of our quarters have long 
since been outgrown. Last year the floor of 
the temporary library quarters was rein- 
forced so that the physical weight would 
not cause disaster in that direction. This 
year we can look forward to the next step 
in our growth. The permanent administra- 
tion building will soon offer the library 
safer quarters, though still temporary, 
while we await the day when the library 
will have its own permanent home. 

Requests to use the library have in- 
creased greatly and are widely varied. In 
addition to use by the staff of the Arbore- 
tum it functions also for the inquiring 
public. Those doing research in botany, 
landscape architecture, horticulture, Cali- 
fornia history and many other fields come 
seeking information which may be ob- 
tained from our shelves. The administra- 
tors of County funds recognize this service 
and have increased the hours of the librar- 

In acquiring items for our shelves we 
have endeavored to consider the varied 

horticultural interests as well as adding to 
our collection of descriptive material of 
botanical genera and of various floras, 
especially those of areas of the earth simi- 
lar to Southern California. 

We have approximately l400 volumes, 
2000 reprints and are receiving 184 peri- 
odicals currently by subscription, gift, ex- 
change or publication. The binding of 
over 300 volumes of periodicals has been 

Angeles County. Outstanding among the 
acquisitions of recent months have been a 
bound set of United States Department of 
Agriculture Plant Inventories complete 
through Number 126, and a bound set of 
Curtis's Botanical Magazine from 1793 to 
1831. A set of the photostated references 
on Begonias of Mrs. Helen Krauss which 
has been added to our shelves is being in- 
dexed by a most competent volunteer. Be- 
cause of the very fine Herb Garden being 
developed in the Arboretum by the local 
chapter of the Herb Society of America, 

books on Herb gardening has decided 
that this collection will be most construc- 
tively used as part of Lasca Library. We 
have acquired a card key to the Eucalyptus. 
This key makes possible the identification 
of more than 600 species of Eucalytus. It 
is of the punched card variety which per- 
mits mechanical sorting and selection. 

With satisfaction we observe that the 
classification scheme adopted is serving as 
the tool which unlocks the information 
contained in our library for those who are 
searching for it. It is especially proving 
itself as demands upon it become more 
varied. We are encouraged that the body 
of material is steadily growing though 
limited funds spread this growth very 
thinly. Increasingly do those who own re- 
lated material realize that when it has 
served their needs it can serv^e many others 
from our shelves. 

R. K. McGah, Librarian 




company in^ photograph 

GENUS PERESKIA (Tribe 1. Pereskieae) 

Wm. Hertrich 

Primarily found in the more tropical mental shrub somftimes of 
sections of the American Continent, this 
group of plants is roughly described as 
including leafy shrubs or trees, though a 
few are clambering vines. The more or 
less woody type of plants among them 
have straight spines in clusters in the axils 
of the leaves, occurring occasionally in 
pairs; rarely are they entirely devoid of with 10 c 
spines. The leaves are either flat or chan- Found 
neled, ranging in shape from orbicular to tribe enio 
a more elongate form, from about three various s 
inches long by one to one and a half or the West 
more inches wide. The woody typ 
Pereskia is deciduous. 

Huntington Gard 

for about fourte 
to the ground i 
heavy frosts occi 

South Ame 

tely 8 feet 

md P. pereskia, which , 
climbing form, are practically evcrg 
during milder winters, while other spi 
are barren of leaves. Flowers are 

bels; fruiting of certain of^the speci( 
very prolific. In locations free of h 
frost, P. pipafilea forms a lars^e n 

Adoption of the nomenclature 

honored Nicholas Claude Fabry de PeiresC 
■1637), '■ a member of Parliament 

L , _ 

and devoted to Botany." The speliii 

V learned i 

WINTER 1956 




Donald P. Woolley 



the Arborc 




Well, knowing how keenly alert South 
em Californian home gardeners are tc 
new plants which have particular orna 

age the use of more plants— trees a 
shrubs, which do not constanly need pri 
ing or create so much brush haulage. . 
We thought you'd agree. Bearing this in 
mind, there are several plants which go 
right along with this trend and are being 
offered to the public from several nurs- 

very fine, low, rolling form of the^ old! 
reliable Abelia, spreads about three feet 
along the ground ; and as much as ocean 
waves come running to our feet at ebb 
tide, It gently overlaps to form a beautiful, 
sloping mat, 12 to 16 inches high. It is a 
plant easily regulated by pinching a stray 
upright and is very acceptable. Although 
only recently patented it is coming along 
in good quantity. * ^ 

Second, another ground cover even 
lower than the first, is the strikingly beau- 
tiful Juniperus horizontalis glauca Run- 
ning over the ground in all directions 
from its eight-inch crown, it stays Jess 
than a foot high and roots as it runs. The 
slate blue, glaucous, tamarisk-like foilage 
is more beautiful than that of other juni- 
pers now grown in the Southland. SpillinL' 
over a wall or down a bank, it adds charm 
and draws attention wherever used. How 
far each plant will spread is not known at 
present, possibly 12 to 1$ feet. 

Third, is the old favorite, Viburnum 
robustum. in a dwarf form. Now, sir, this 
shrub is a pleasant surprise; it looks per- 
manently juvenile! It is 24-30 inches tall; 
spreads in proportion to its height; has 
white flowers almost constantly, followed 
by bright, blue berries. Its reddish i 
growth gives it a youthful beauty far 
passing the old, well known, but larger 

form Thanks, I thought you'd like 

those. ^ 

"A perfect shrub?" 

Is there such a thing Well, let s 
we've all looked for a shrub that would 
be neat and full-fohaged ; intcrestir 

Southern Cahfornian condition and cvei 
having winter color. Dodomuui viscos, 
var. atropnrp;n ta seems to be the answer 
It's hardy to cold and likes hot sun. Wind 
doesn't bother it. It likes good drainage 
but can live with less watering when 
drainage is poor. It's fast growing to 8 or 
12 feet; has interesting, pink, papery, 
heart-shaped seed vessels in late summer 
and always has the club-shaped, green and 
reddish bronze, beautiful foliage which be- 
comes deep purple bronze in cold weather. 
Although it starts as an open pyramidal 
form it thickens with age and growth 
until it is a fuller, broader cone; some 
branches becoming pendulous. For an 
evergreen it is not heavy in littering. 
Several nurseries are offering it or you 
may see it growing here at the Arboretum. 

Did you say you wish you could be sure 
of getting a certain shade of red flower 
when you buy a young Eucalyptus jici- 
folia} You're in luck! Soon you will be 
able to do so and even in dwarf variety 
that can be grown in tub or pot. Two of 



Nolan W. Kiner 
rticuittne, Pierce Agricultural College 
Canoga Park, California 

Fortunately, for the sake of our 

cies are exceedingly well adapted for 

ers. We say fortunately because the palms 
not only have much to offer in grace and 
beauty, but they survive and look well 
with a minimum of attention. 

It is true that considerable variation 
occurs among the palms regarding hardi- 
ness to temperature and light extremes, 
but actually this only tends to substantiate 
their versatility, when proper selection and 

best in a slighly heavy soil. Excessive su 
light is objectionable to Kentias; thi 
they serve admirably in reduced-light s 
uations of interiors, or shaded patic 
Little or no frost is tolerated, which points 
up one of the advantag( 
plant, it can be readily moved to protec- 
tion when necessary. 

This normally deep nrcen feather (or 

usage i 


long or far to notice that much emph; 
is currently being placed on the use 
handsome, bold, foliage plants for acc 
and atmosphere, both indoors and 
patio design. Further, it is notewor 
that the palms are playing no small t 
in helping to fulfill this interesting tre 
The following are a few of the sma 
members of this majestic family v 
brief descriptive and cultural remarks. 
Far from being a ne^; 




ways appreciated for its fresh tropi 
appearance is the Kentia palm. Botani- 
cally designated as Hotvea forsteriana, it 
is commonly referred to as Paradise palm, 
or sometimes as Thatch palm. A graceful 
sister species is the slightly slower estab- 
lishing Curly palm H. belmoreana; it is 
also used for tub and patio planting. 

Both of the above palms are typically 
planted in multiple arrangement of four 
or five to a tub for fuller eflfect and are 
widely seen in hotels, restaurants, and 
larger dwelhngs throughout the country. 
They tolerate considerable root restriction, 
moderate watering, and seem to thrive 


remain at from 

about four to six'fcet in height 

ber of years, maintained in a ten- to four- 
teen-inch tub. The most striking place- 
ments are: corners of large interior roo - 
along blank walls, and protected p 

Chamaedorea elegans, frequently 1 
died by greenhouses and nurseries 
Neanthe bella, is also a readily adaptL^ 
small palm for everything from dish gar- 
dens to dense tropical clumps in the gar- 
den. One of the commor 
dainty-growing member 
and it has adorned n 
many years. 

Several other specii 

Belair (Wcstw_.., 

four to eight feet in height. ' 

Probably the most delicate and g 
of the feather palms is the Pygmy ] 

WINTER 1956 


Roebelen palm, Phoemx roebdeni. A very 
symmetrical but airy crown and basal leaf 
spines, typify this miniature Phoenix mem- 
ber. The fronds have a soft arching habit, 
lending themselves best as single speci- 
mens, rather than mixed with other foli- 

Several degrees of frost are tolerated, 
but full sun slightly burns and yellows the 
larger leaves ; thus shelter from wind, sun, 
and cold, with moderate watering suit this 
handsome little palm best. The eventual 
height range for older specimens is about 
five to eight feet (in the ground) depend- 
ing largely on the soil, and water practices. 
^ The only fan palm native to Europe, 
" ' 'Us, has proven itself re- 
ibly worthy of use for large container 
garden. Often referred to as Dwarf 
m palm, Hair palm or Cluster palm, this 


stiff, rugged member grows to a maximum 
of 12 to 18 feet, making a striking speci- 
men wherever used. The fan-shaped or 
palmately arranged leaves measure about 
15 to 20 inches across, have sharply 
armed petioles and form a compact, glo- 
bular head effect. Normally a rather dull 
green, much variability of foliage size and 
color shows up in seedlings, many are a 
glaucous green. 

The typical growth habit, if left alone, 
is to form dense clusters or masses, but 
most garden and park specimens are kept 
to from one to four or f^ve trunks. This 
member seems to set seed while very 
young, and with seedlings arising from 
the base of the mother plant the clustering 
growth results, making for the picturesque 
outward and upward trunk forms. Dwarf 
varieties or seedlines are quite well suited 



for small containers (one to three feet 
diameter), while older or larger plants 
may need containers of larger proportions. 
Moderate water and fertilization are suffi- 
cient culturally, with a sunny or partially 
shaded placement. 

Actually, many palms other than those 
mentioned above may be used satisfactor- 
ily in containers while young, the selec- 
tions depending largely upon the indi- 
vidual's taste for texture and foliage type. 
The following are suggestions of ex- 

amples frequently used for this purpose: 

(several species); Erylbea armata, E. 
edulis. E. brand egeei; Phoenix reclinata, 
P. rupuola; Rhaffis excel ui. R. hnmiln; 
Trachycarpus jortunei; and in ample 
quarters, Wasbingtonia robusta. 

When these are found to be outgrow- 
ing their particular container or situation, 
they may be quite readily planted per- 
menantly in the garden or sold in favor 
of smaller replacements. 


The Educational Dnrsion 

Few of us will journey to the 1956 
Olympics to be held in Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia ; therefore, the Educational Division 
of the International Flower Show will at- 
tempt to bring a portion of the Olympics 

Mr. Philip A. Chandler, University of 
California at Los Angeles, chairman of 
the Educational Committee states that this 
year's theme will be patterned, in part, 
after the familiar Olympic emblem of 
internationalism, the five interlocking 
circles. A replica of this emblem against 
a background of a stadium will be at the 
center of this exhibit. The rings, each 
representing one of the five participating 
continents, will be constructed of plant 
material. The plants for each ring will be 

color found 

of that 

This unity of purpose and action found 
n the philosophy of the Olympic games 
5 in itself the keynote of this particular 
xhibit. Many agencies of the Los Ange- 
es area, such as the: Parks Dept., schools, 
■arm Advisor, nursery trade and Arbore- 
um will work together to make this plan 
. reality. 

In addition to this central display, two 
;ardens will be featured. One, a typical 

Australian plants now found in the South- 
ern California area; the other, a tropical 
garden, suggesting a more exotic land- 
scape, will feature a second group of Aus- 
tralian material. 

A third feature will be the floral dis- 
play along the walls surrounding this sec- 
tion of the show. Here, whenever possible, 
living plant material native to each coun- 
try participating in the Olympics will be 
seen. These plants will be labelled with 
both the scientific and common names. 

A unique opportunity is offered this 
year by the committee to the plantsmen ot 
Southern California. AH those who have 
specimen plants indigenous to Australia 
or its neighboring islands and wish to dis- 
play them at the show, are urged to con- 
tact the members of the committee. 

The California International Flower 
Show will be open to the public begin- 
ning Saturday, March 17th and will close 
the night of March 25th. 

Members of the Educational Committee 
in addition to Mr. Chandler are: Mr 
Deane, Mr. M. H. Kimball, Dr. Mildrj^ 
Mathias, Mr. L. Matthews, Mr. Fred W. 

WINTER 1956 



George H. Spalding 

One ( 


the past year is Hypericum yakusimense. 
A native of the Orient, it resembles the 
well-known Baby's Tears {Helxine solei- 
rolii) so much that visitors often pass it 
by without special notice. The resemblance 
is superficial, however, as closer examina- 
tion will reveal. The stems are red and the 
sessile leaves a dark green. Seeds of 
H. yakusimense germinate in about two 
weeks. Its fine seed and resulting small 
seedlings require careful handling. Dur- 
ing the first year, our plants appeared to 
be creepers, attaining a height of not over 
three-quarter inches and a diameter of 
about eight inches. One year from seed 
they bloomed, the flowers being small, of 
yellow color but not very showy. How- 
ever, it would be well worth growing as 
a ground cover if it never bloomed for it 

round when grown in the proper loca- 

The past six months have provided 
additional opportunity of observing this 
Hypericum and we can include the fol- 
lowing data: The plants flourished on a 

third in diameter during the spring. With 
the onset of hot weather they stood still 
and finally began to brown rather badly 
apparently from the heat as there is no 
evidence of disease. This is rather surpris- 
ing as the Hypericums as a group are sun- 
lovers, but it serves to point out the fact 
that there are often exceptions in plant 

groups. We 

The plants flowered well last spri 
but the flowers are rather inconspicuo 
It will be grown as a ground cover l 

the Arboretum. It 
and two-year-old 
proximately eighte 

I sloping bank with 

days. The 

Hypericum is not difficult 
nates in approximately el 
seedlings are small of coi 
seed would indicate then 
plants will bloom in ap{ 
year from seed. So far the plants have not 
been subject to any insects or diseases and 
have grown with an abandon which would 
seem to indicate that this little creeper 
might become rather rampant. The accom- 
panying artist's illustration will give some 
idea of the landscape effect of this plant. 
It is to be hoped that as fine a plant as 
this will again become available in the 
trade and enjoy a wide use throughout 

Southern Calif or r 
Kunzea seric 

ilvery silky, a greyish appear- 

When the brilliant red flowers 

ir in May and June the effect is more 
striking. The blooms are borne 

ir or in pairs and look like the in- 




.MiLi)Ri:n E. Ma 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Percy C. Evere 

William Beresford Earle E. Humpi 

Howard Bodger Vernon T. Stc 

Philip Edward Chandler Harold Swant( 

Ralph D. Cornell Richard Westo 

Samuel Ayres. Jr. 
Robert Casamajor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 

Roy F. Wilcox 



Group or Club 

Associate (for individual in member group c 

Contributing Member 

Commercial Member 

Sustaining Member 

Life Membership 

Ask > 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plumm 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Communit)^ Building 

Telephone DOuglas 7-^^07 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arhoraum Om.-. -DUu^ia. 



Board of Trustees 

President Frits W. Went 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mf)SHER 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Sti art O Mi i vi nv 

John Anson Ford Mks. Ri dom-h J. Rk makds 

William Hertrich Mks, W'ii i iam 1) Shi:aiu:r 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Henry C . Soio 

Henry IsHiDA I-rank I iu s 

Honorary Trusi hes 
Ronald B. Townsend Mrs. J. J. Gallagher 

Manfred Myberg 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Telephone DOuglas 7-8207 

Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Life Membership ^00.00 

Benefactors "i.OOO or more 

Club memhersbips are availahle at a>/y aiwnul. Imm $10 j year or more. 

-Arcadia — California 

Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly P^j^'/'^^""'^^^ ^^'^^ ^*'"J^"^"j^f/^^ " sued"on^hl fi«f X ^""^ 
January, April, July and October. 

Robert Casamajor Philip A. Munz 

Philip Edward Chandler Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Ronald B. Townsend 

Mildred Mathias Lee Wray Turner 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design. Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology PieRRe Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation..;: W. Quinn Buck 

Succulents ScOTT E. HaSELTON 

Lxonomy r 

.Philip A. Munz 

Louis B. Martin, Editor 

Vol. VI APRIL, 1956 No. 2 


The Use of Cistus in Erosion Control Gustaf Juhren 26 

Mrs. Wright Begins New Work R.K.M. 30 

Johann Friederich Eschscholtz Willis Linn Jepson 31 

The Cover Illustration 31 

The Introduction of New Plants John C. Wister 32 

Arboretum's Calvacade Booth 36 

The California Botanic Garden Elmer Lorenz 37 

Cypripediums for the Arboretum W. Quinn Buck 40 

Construction Progress, Arboretum Gatehouse 42 

Growing Notes George H.Spalding 43 

Names, Notes, and News 44 

Book Reviews and Comments 46 

SPRING 1956 27 



were brought into the Earhart Laboratory. 
The seed, in lots of 100, were placed be- 
tween pads of filter paper moistened with 
deionized water in plastic germination 
dishes. These dishes were then divided 
between six different conditions of tem- 
perature (see Table 1 ) . In each tempera- 
ture combination there was a transparent 
dish which received light, and a black 
painted one in which the seeds were in 
darkness. There were two replications of 
each treatment. Germination counts are 
given in Table 1. Germination was best in 
the low and moderate temperatures. At 
the high night temperatures of 20 and 26 
deg. C. however, seed was germinating 
better toward the end of the experiment. 
The tests had to be discontinued after 10 
weeks because of an infection by moid. 
With high temperatures, germination was 
better in the light; with low temperatures, 
better in the dark. 

of C. villosus than the moistened filter 
paper in closed dishes. 

at all tei 

C. day and 17 deg. C. 
condition, markedly 

The thing which seemed most interest- 
ing was the sporadic character of the ger- 
mination, so different from the usual ger- 

maximum then declines. 

Following the tests in the laboratory, a 
second set of tests were made in soil in a 
greenhouse. Six species of Cistus were 
used. Flats were filled with a regular nurs- 
ery mixture of 1/3 sand and 2/3 garden 
loam. One hundred seeds were planted 

peratures were recorded daily. Germina- 
tion counts were made daily, seedlings 
being marked with toothpicks. After a 

Temperature Plast 

C. villosus (Lannan clnyor 
C. cdhidus 

As in the field plots ar 

Peaks in germination occurred on different 
days for different species. No correlatior 
could be detcx ted between these peaks and 
the fluctuations of temperature. Tigure 1 

the Earhart Laboratory was much better. 
Also, the sand and gravel mixture used 
in 1949 for seed bed material may have 
been more favorable for the germination 

Comparison flats of seeds were planted 1 
soil taken from an adjacent unburne 
area. Four hundred seeds per tlat ot <■ 

SPRING 1956 


L month, 55 percent of the seed in 
from the burned area had germi- 
A'hile, 30 percent of the seed had 


both tyt 

in the hght of the experiments at the 
Arboretum, in which more seedHngs ap- 
peared beneath the burned bushes than 
1 below the unburned bushes. Ad- 

appeared t 

of Cistu; 

Returning to the field trials, it m 
mentioned that Cistus, through the 
unbroken period of heat during A 
and September, 1955, remained gree 
ing good condition longer than did i 
plants in the same areas. Plantings 

, be 


' of sites. Such plantings are 
now being made. More trial-plantings 
should be made to determine the fitness 

trol measures at high elevations as well as 
in the foothills. Considering the present 
evidence, there seems good reason to hope 
that Cistus will constitute a valuable addi- 

The author wishes to express his grati- 
tude to the California Institute of Tech- 
nology and to Dr. Frits Went for the use 
of the Earhart Laboratory. He also thanks 
his wife, Marcella, for her part in carrying 
out the germination tests in the laboratory. 
And finally, an expression of appreciation 
is extended to Mr. Paul Bauman and Mr. 
E. C. Kenyon, Los Angeles Flood Control 

at McClure dam. Con 
ing of Lannon dam 
the U. S. Forest Servii 
tion of Gustaf Juhren 

nd plan 



t Wright, who has bee 

ntington Botanic Gar- 
om these positions to 
Order. Mrs. Wright 

assisted Mr. Hertrich i 
tor and Curator Emeritus for almost ten 

Long before her association with Mr 
Hertrich, Mrs. Wright began an interest 
in herbs; growing them at her home; 
studymg them in the literature of Hunt- 
ington Library; writing on herbs; Icctur- 
mg for, and participating in the activities 
of the Herb Society of America. Being 
well versed in other phases of Southern 
California plant life she became of valued 
assistance to Mr. Hertrich in his writing 
of Palms and Cycads and Huntington Bo- 
tank Gardens. 1905-1945. 

When Mr. Hertrich retired from the 
active management of the Gardens, Mrs. 
Wright began to share her time with the 

growing library according to a sche 
which she adapted from that used at 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
brary. During her editorship Uuca Lec 
grew from its beginning of but a - 
pages to a 24 page publication, the < 
■ • • ■ of material constantly 

proving its quality 
■ ^'r. Hei 


worked long hours assisting 
carrying on her editorship 

, work c 
n Gardens, she 
a him and also 

SPRING 1956 



Willis Linn Jepson 
(Reprinted by permission from Madrotio Vol. I, No. 1^. Dei 1929) 

On Oct. 2, 1815, the exploring ship 
Rurik entered San Francisco Bay. It had 
been fitted out by the Russian chancellor. 
Count Rumiantzof, to undertake a round 
the world voyage of discovery under the 
command of Lieutenant Otto von Kotzc- 
bue of the Russian Imperial Navy. Two 
naturalists accompanied the voyage, Adel- 
bert von Chamisso and Dr. J. F. Esch- 
scholtz, the latter being the surgeon of the 
expedition. These two botanized on the 
San Francisco peninsula during the month 
of October, after which the Rurik sailed 
for the Sandwich Islands on November 1 . 

Among the new plants collected at San 
Francisco was a poppy-like species which 
Chamisso, after his return home, dedi- 
cated to his companion as a new genus, 
Eschscholtzia, and thus made well known 
to all future Californians the name of the 
surgeon of the Rurik. Probably the first 

paper devoted txclusivcly, sa 

scriptioncl PLmt.iruni No\.k r.ilitor.u.iL-. 
was published 111 tiK- Mcmoires dc- 1 A.a- 

bourg in 1823. For the first time we have 
here named and described various very 
common Californian plants: Abronia lati- 
folia, Navarretia (Hoitzia) squarrosa, 
Polemonium capitatum, Solanum umbelli- 
ferum, Ceanothus thrysiflorus, Rhamnus 

When Kotzebue undertook his second 
voyage of exploration Dr. Eschscholtz 
again went out with him. After this Esch- 
scholtz became professor of anatomy in 
the University of Dorpat. His writings are 
of importance but they lie mainly in the 
field of zoology. Born at Dorpat in No- 
vember, 1753, he died there in May, 1831. 


As a flower of that group of Cypriped- 
iums whose dorsal bears spotted markings, 
no more striking representative can be 
found than C. Milmoore (C. Mildred 
Hunter x C. Farnmoore). This seedling 
was registered by Mr. L. Sherman Adams 

in 1953. The Arboretum's recent good 
fortune in receiving as a gift the Cypri- 
pedium collection of Mr. Arthur Freed is 
described in detail by Mr. W. Quinn Buck 
within the pages of this issue. 




'e r.gmmil mcetmg of the Awerican A 
'S at the Katiomil Shade Tree Confen 
August 3, 1933. Reprinted by permi 

Santa Bar. 
^ of author. 

Whether we live in Maine or Califor- 

growing plants brought to us from many 
other parts of the world. Some of these 

the result of systematic search. From the 
earliest prehistoric times the human race 
has been moving plants around the globe. 
Well known examples are wheat, rye and 
other grains. Centuries later the so-called 
medicinal plants were grown and taken 
from place to place, and then in the days 
of Greece and of ^he early^ Christian era 


, John 

of Veitch, including Ja. 
Gould Veitch, Maries, and E. H. 

We come to the explorations under- 
taken from this country and the work of 
David Fairchild, Frank Meyer, N. E. Han- 
sen and E. H. Wilson, and the more re- 
cent men who have followed or are fol- 
lowing in their footsteps. 



ught in by the Romans. 

We have more knowledge, of c( 
of the introductions of more recent 
turies— of the British and Continent; 
plorers who came to this country to 

Myrtle and many other was referring, of course, to natural 

^L'Zf f/fe"./r species. To those'of us who grow plants 
I distinction to those who merely look at 
lem dried in papers in an herbarium, it 
'ould seem that the day of exploration 
'as only just beginning, because there is 
5 much more ahead that needs to be done 
nd that never has been done, except in a 
ery small way. , 
A few examples will illustrate what 1 
lean by this. Most of you are familiar 
nth the fact that Father David discovered 
nd sent back to France Buddleia Daindt 
and thai 

' plants to send back to Europe. And 
know a good deal about early explora- 
s in China from the time the Portu- 

se found the orange and the French interesting "plant.' lt was little grow 
lit Father d'Incarville brought us the in a few years was " " 

We know the plants brought by later 
Jesuit Fathers— David, Delavay, Fatiges 
and others. We know of the explorations 
encouraged by Kew. We are familiar ^ 
the famous explorers of the Royal H( 
cultural Society, Douglas, Fortune, 
others, and of the twenty-two explo 
sent out by the great British nursery 

tion Mtteen or m^^^Ss U Wilson 
found the same species in China, but be- 
ing a horticulturist as well as a botmist, 
he recognized that the plants he saw wer 
ith slightly different from the plants that ra- 
ti- ther David had introduced, even though 
nd they undoubtedly belonged to the same 

SPRING 1956 


effect that the phu 
quickly. Some bn\ 
sjrike aVpuIa"r'd 

)oth in France and in this country. 
)f the hybrids have the misfortune 
ring their heads, just as the parent 
sent from China had done. The 

were hidden under the foliage, 
ame Ludlow and Sheriff who, in 
:plorations on the border of Tibet, 
a plant that they sent back under 
le ///fed, Tibetan variety or Ludlow 

Botanists are still arguing whether 

This"is^i'.ow' bcin^ 

ough the efforts of 
3ma Rhododendron 
ot only personally 



course, is something that will not be 
known for many years, but at least there 
is the possibility that a superior wild form 
has been given to us that may prove of 
great value to our gardens, not only for 
its good garden characteristics but as a 
parent of new hybrids to be made by plant 
breeders of the future. 

There are to be found in our own great 
country, without going to China or else- 
where, innumerable forms of familiar spe- 
cies that are superior to the ones that we 
grow in our gardens. All it takes is some- 
one with a keen eye to travel and search. 
This has been done by a number of people 
as you well know, and our gardens have 

I, as an Easterner, have hoped the 
of course, has been that in the course 
?ir travels, they would find certain 
; which although they might not be 
spectacular in bloom might prove ' 


■ hot and the 

the East, where s 
rainfall sometime 
For gardens ir 
need explorations as tar nortn and at as 
high an altitude as the particula^ species 

is not so important for California and the 



Pacific Northwest, but there similar ex- 
plorations for wild plants can be under- 
taken looking for forms of species that 
would adapt themselves better to their 
garden conditions than the forms of the 
same species they are now growing. 

It is not even necessary to go out in the 
wild to search for new plants. Many fine 
plants practically unknown except to bota- 
nists can be found by visiting arboretums 
botanical gardens, nurseries and private 
gardens. Some arboretums have recog- 
nized fine new plants appearing spontane- 
ously. Witness Malus arnoldiana, spring- 
ing up in the Arnold Arboretum near the 
Crab Apple collection. It looked so good 
that it was named and made available to 
A. F. den Boer, per- 

aps ( 




Dccausc ne kept his eyes open, found a 
particularly fine form of the wild Iowa 
crab, which no one in the town of Boone 
and p'o" Tt' d 1 ^'^^^^^ ^""^^ ■"^^'0"'^ 
merce under the name of Boone Pa"rk.°"' 

Many nurserymen recognize superior 
plants among the varieties they grow from 
seedlings but do nothing about them, be- 
cause of the trouble, or the expense, that 
It would involve to propagate them and 
then publicize them. We ought to be on 
the lookout for these and if the nursery- 
men are not prepared to exploit them per- 
haps we could take over the best of them, 
test them thoroughly, and if they prove 
worthy make them available. 

There are plenty of interesting but 
nearly unknown plants in private gardens. 
A member of one of the Philadelphia gar- 
den clubs went one day to Wilmington 
and noticed a plant of Calycanthus flon- 
dus which had a fragrance quite different 
from the one in her own garden. She 
begged a piece and now has it growing in 
her garden alongside of the common 
form. It has never been propagated mm 
mercially. It should be. I don't mean th^t 
It is a world-startling plant, but it is a 

charming plant and gives a fragrance dif- i 
ferent from the one usually found in old J 
gardens. Our arboretums, by the way, I 
could do a service to horticulture by mak- 1 
ing available to nurseries plants of their 
truly fragrant forms of this species. The ' 
plants ordmarily sold under the name : 
Calycantbns tloridn.^ from nurseries are , 
without fragrance. 

Arboretum executives, as well as nur- 
serymen and amateurs, should be always 
looking for the plant which is not only 
difl^erent but better. Too often in the past, 
the plants which nurserymen of the last 
century picked out to propagate were dif- 
ferent, but were not, in my opinion, better. 
The nurserymen were so used to the com- 
mon run that any change seemed to them 


real expense to thcnscKcs I know of a 
number of examples pcrscnully. Here are 
two of them that concerned Professor Sar- 
gent and E. H. Wilson. A Pennsvlvaiiia 
farmer who had just returned from the 
Army in 1920 was strolling in his woods 
and noticed that the native azaleas there 
were not all alike. He picked and pressed 
a couple which were different and more 
beautiful than the others and sent them 
to the Arnold Arboretum. How he, in a 
small community, had ever heard of the 
Arnold Arboretum I do not know! But 
he had heard of it and he sent the flowers 

longed, and urged him to be on the look- 
out for particularly good forms and also 
to grow in his garden other azaleas and 
rhododendrons. After the man had bought 
a few well known kinds and got started, 
Mr. Wilson arranged to send him seeds 

SPRING 1956 


of species not ordinarily in commerce. 
Later on Wilson made it possible for him 
to get pollen from rhododendron growers 
in England. The result has been that this 
man, with no botanical training, no horti- 
cultural experience beyond his general 
farm and orchard knowledge, a year or 
two ago received in recognition of his 
fine breeding work the gold medal of the 
American Rhododendron Society. You all 
know whom I am talking about— Joseph 
Gable of Stewartstown, Pennsylvania. 

This story was almost repeated a little 
later in the case of C. O. Dexter of Sand- 
wich, Massachusetts. A landscape architect 
had planted a good selection of rhododen- 
drons and azaleas for him. He became in- 
terested in them and wanted additional 
species. Professor Sargent and Mr. Wil- 
son enabled him to get them. He took up 
breeding on a large scale, grew about ten 
thousand seedlings a year during the last 
twenty years of his life. He kept no rec- 
ords and his plants usually were not 
marked. After his death, there remained 
scattered collections of them in the gar- 
dens of people to whom he had given or 
sold unbloomed seedlings. A group of 
men from the American Rhododendron 
Society has been trying to find which are 
the best of the many thousands of seed- 
lings they have examined in a score of 
gardens in the East. If they can do that, 

ern rhododendron growers. Among the 
institutions represented in this small 
group of men are the Arnold Arboretum, 
the National Arboretum, Cornell Univer- 
sity, and, I am proud to state, the Scott 
Foundation at Swarthmore. 

Could not literally dozens of amateurs 
be found who might do similar work in 

encouragement of a f'lw people in our 
Association, who would encourage them 
and guide their early footsteps? 

great ccfllections of plants that they did a 
quarter of a centur)' ago. Economic condi- 

tions, the high cost of labor partiailarly 
and the almost impossibility of getting 

forced them to cut down on the items they 

ties of fewer kinds. This is .i severe- blow 
to Amcriean horticulture-, whuh miuht 
have developed in.inv more- uo.ukr'lul 

that fit in the back yard. Our greatest ad- 
Can not these back yard specialists in 
some way be kept informed of the work 
of arboretums and to learn what plants or 
what pollens are to be had of the rarer 
kinds not ordinarily seen in nurseries, 
which they might advantageously use in 
their breeding? 

No one arboretum or botanical garden 
can do this alone. Such institutions might 
outline objectives or work needed in cer- 
tain groups of plants which might interest 
garden clubs enough to take some of their 

and put it on what seems, to us, the more 
important phase of producing new plants 
superior to those which have gone before. 

After the new and superior forms of 
plants have been discovered, tested and - 
evaluated there remains the job of prop- 
erly publicizing them and making thei4 
known to the gardening world. Most insti> 

at least brief ^accounts of the new plant. 
I commend to your attention the recent 
release by Professor Lantz of Iowa of the 
story of the Jonadel Apple — brief and to 


SPRING 1956 


lous era of wealth and free spending, the 
pretentious program of the Cahfornia Bo- 
Businessmen saw the advantage ^f the 
idea and scientists asserted that the climate 
and site were ideal for the formation of 
such a garden. Some of the Southland's 
most influential personalities assisted and 
encouraged the undertaking of this enter- 

The whole area of 


: Can 


Highway, comprising 3200 acres, was 
purchased from the Los Angeles Moun- 
tain Park Company and H. C. Oakley. 
This property was placed in trust with the 
Metropolitan Trust Company of Califor- 
nia for the sole benefit of the Garden. A 
minimum of 800 acres was set aside for 
the establishment of the Garden. The re- 
maining 2400 acres was to be administered 

for the Garden. The^( 
would flow from the well of sales of t 
surrounding property for fashionable 
homesites. The source of the well's supply 
indeed must have seemed limitless when 
an association could legally incur an in- 
debtedness of ten million dollars ! 

The post of directorship was filled by 
Dr. E. D. Merrill, then Dean of the Col- 

sity or 

California. His Associate Director was Dr. 
E. B. Copeland, former Dean of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture of the University of 
the Philippines. 

Financial and social affairs were under 
the guiding hand of a Board of Gover- 
nors. The available records show that the 
following personalities were numbered 
among the Board members : Harry Chand- 
ler, Hugh Evans, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary 
Pickford, G. Allan Hancock, William 
Randolph Hearst, William Hertrich and 
Rufus B. von Kleinsmid. 

The goals of horticultural and botanical 
endeavors to be reached within the Gar- 
den's scope reflected the grand scale of its 
financial creation. Every field o^f plant 

a library, approximately 1200 species of 
plants growing in the various sections and 
an herbarium containing some 180,000 
sheets of dried specimens. In addition, 
seed and plant exchanges, both foreign 
and domestic, had been arranged. 

One project which was underway, but 
■ ' appeal strictly foi ' 

tered around a 
est of Far 


. Hei 

uld be fo^ 

ing to the "Index to Trees Planted in the 
Forest of Fame", in the author's posses- 
sion, a portion of this planting contained: 
a pine planted by Mary Pickford; a silk 
oak planted by John Philip Sousa; an 
olive by Lord Allenby ; a box elder planted 
by the G.A.R.; while Alabama donated a 
bald cypress; Alaska an Alaskan cedar; 
Colorado a blue spruce; Mississippi a 
magnolia; Utah a juniper; and Wisconsin 
a white birch. 

That the Garden did not fulfill its 


ianned destiny but closed its ga 
few short years after its hirth 


y but closed «ts gates only best, of the details of the closing of the 

f . r • ^'f ^^^^^ "^^^ Garden. Time and another age were left 

A? n f"^"^^ development of the site that 

Dr. Merrill. The Crash" and the "De- had been The California Botanic Garden, 

pression years which followed must bear The author, wishing to avoid any shad- 
ow of misunderstanding, cautions the 

It has been reported, that with the reader that the Los Angeles State and 

growing knowledge that the Garden's County Arboretum is not a revival of the 

days were numbered, Dr. Merrill was con- California Botanic Garden and is in no 

cerned as to the fate of the library and way connected with it. 

herbarium collections. A chance meeting As/,,.,/ , i.,medof 

on a bus, with Dr. Carl Epling of the the d.^ of D .^M^rnl^m^^^^ 

University of California at Los Angeles -ntr.but.ons t<. both bV.tany and hordculture, 

settled the matter. While the two men dis Y'' P'^'''"^' ^ rcKrcttcJ by his many 

Zlf ' T^^"""' P'- ^p^'"^ J;""? hf hSi tinv'idaK oJ it^:: lii 

that the collections be given to the Uni- offices m suentiiu l.rJ' nSt^^^ world over. 

versity. As far as can be learned, that is He served as J.recto; of' both the New York 

their present home. Botanic Garden as well as the Arnold Arbore- 

Little is known, and possibly that is Ih^A^' M A b'"^''"" '1 ^T''"r j"""""'" 


One of the final plant accessions of 
the year 1955 was also one of the most 
important yet received by the Los Aneeles 
State and County Arboretum. This extraor- 
dinary and valuable gift was of some 
eleven hundred cypripedium plants from 
the Arthur Freed orchid collection. The 
group includes both species and hybrids 
many of the plants being quite rare. 

These newly acquired lady-slippers are 
very similar to the native Cyp^ped^ums of 
the Northeast except that most of them 
are derived from species indigenous to 
mild or else to completely tropical areas 
of Asia. These orchids are fascinating for 
the great range of patterns, colors and 
forms that they exhibit. The hybrids are 
vastly superior to the species which were 
their ancestors, and these hybrids especial- 
ly demonstrate the accomplishments in 
plant breeding possible from the efforts of 
a somewhat limited group of enthusiasts 

Among the species in this gift are repre- 
sentatives of both the cooler Prowina 

Sanderae; C. concolor: C. Godtjroyc 
its variety leucochdm 
C. Curthn; C. Lain 

1 The 
■are C 

Charlesu'orthu and such 
seen species as C. Sp'icerhwum : C. inugne 
and its variety Sanderae: C. phHippineme, 
and C. exul. 

In the collection are many plants of the 
hybrid, C. Maudiae, including the varie- 
ties 'magnificum', The Dell', 'Bankhouse, 
'coloratum', 'Baldwin', 'Frank J. Lind 
and 'Oakland'. Other albino hybrids of 
this lovely white-and-green type are 
Rossetti, Goliath" and 'Fowler's ; C. Clair 
de Lune, 'A.M., R.H.S." and 'Edgar van 
Bells', A.M., R.H.S. ; and C. Holdenii, 

The collection also is surprisingly rich 
in the lovely white hybrids derived from 

SPRING 1956 



Officers 1955 

Board of Directors 

Howard Bodger Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Philip Edward Chandler Harold Swanton 

Ralph D. Cornell 

Richard Westcott 

Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casama jor 

Manfred Meyberg 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher. Jr. 

Hugh Evans Rov F. Wilcox 


Annual Member ^ ^ 

Group or Club \ 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 

Contributing Member 

Commercial Member 

Sustaining Men,ber ■. Z;;. . 

Life Membership 

Ask the Secretary about prn.leges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 

25.00 year 
50.00 year 


The official publication of the Southern ( alitornia Hortu iiUural Institute 

Operated by 

ARBORETA AM) B()i \- ' ■ 


Board of Trustees 

President Frits W. Went 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer Manfred Meyberg 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O'Melveny 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J. D. Funk Harold F. Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Lovell Swisher, Jk. 

Charles S. Jones Frank Titus 

Honorary Trustees 
Ronald B. Townsend Mrs. C. C. Henry 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Telephone DOuglas 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000 or more 

Benefactors 5,000 or more 

Club memhersbips are available at any amount, jroni $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 

SUMMER 1956 

Lasca Leaves 

*the^ Calif ST Arbom I^ssiILd on th 

January, April, July and October. 

' Place of Many Waters * 


Thousands of people hat e cowe fmm all over the u arid to Ine 
and icork tnthin the original boundaries of Ranchn Santa Anita 
(called ''Place of Many Waters' by the aborigines ). They include 
scientists at the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, scholars 
at the Huntington Library and Art Gallery. prr>mi,ing pupils at 
the Hugo Reid public school in Arcadia. 

Such people way reside on tmy fragments of the Spanish land 

Arcadia, California 
July 15, 1956. 


howinc stone work along the lagoon shore line an 
Title Insurance and Trust Company, Los Angeles 



"place of many waters" 
Susanna Bryant Dakin 

Since remote time, visitors have marvelled at a homesite bloominu perennially in 
and, Southern California country. First to tome upon the wonder were Indians, of 
Shoshonean stock and tradition, who roamed the region for centuries before Spanish 
occupation. They gaily decked their nakedness with flowers and fished the spring-fed 
Watert''^"^^""^"' g^^w alongside, which they named AUnp-kig-mt, -Place of Many 
The Indian homes were low round huts (jacilc^) built of bent oak branches and 
woven tule reds from the water's edge. Through the years, discoveries of arrowheads 
pestles, pots and baskets, cold-weather and ccTcmoni d shell ornaments and 
shell money, human and animal bones- all these ha^ c aided m 'authentic re-creation of 
a vanished, carefree way of life. 

The limited population had a plentiful supply of food fish abounded in the lake, 
and birds in the reeds and bushes. Thv liulians also ate a \arKlv of snakes and animals 
— excluding only the rattler and the bear (whose black body was feared to contain a 

grasses used for 

flowered sage from which nulrkTouT mush"4s made)^ Soaf 
came from a star-flowered marsh plant (ChloropMn, hnm.y,^}^v,nn ) . Hu£0 Re'd, 
first lay owner of the land, was a Scot married to - 
knew many of the ancient recipes and indigenous i......... 

lo certain plants were ascribed healing properties. A local medicine man wouW 
have prescribed wild tobacco pills to cure fever, whipping with branches of nettle and 
drinking the ,uice of Datura meteloides (Jimson weed) for paralysis. Rheumatism 
received a heat cure through the application of pressed dry nettle fuzz, set on fire-" 
hke spunk. Lime pounded up with wild tobacco was eaten to clean out the stomach and 
bladder. Purification" after child-birth included lying on hot rocks in a sweat house. 

Hugo Reid, a pioneer anthropologist, concluded that "in regard to the diseases then 
preva ent, inasmuch as syphilis was unknown, brandy and its associates unused, and 
high living at low ebb, their nosology was very limited." Due to diet (everything was 
unrefined and eaten cold) "they carried their teeth perfect to the grave." , . 

The Scot, informed by his wife, was first to reveal facets of Indian life completely 
unknown to the conqueror race. Far from being stupid, dirty "diggers" fitted only for 
serv^ude, these Shoshones once had an advanced system of government, an imaginative 
mythology and belief in a Diety so sacred that His name never was mentioned aloud, 
a spoken language with though no literature. The so-called "court" language 

and traditions came down through the generations by word of mouth. Elders were 
venerated for their memories and store of knowledge. Hugo Reid mastered the lan- 
guage and talked to many of the "old ones", recording conversations over a twenty-ye^^ 
pertocl (trorn his first visit to California in 1832 to the year of his death, 1852) . . 
unknown t tT ^'f^ "^"^ ''7'"'^ °" ^'^^ neighboring tribes, and warfare seemed 
unknown. But they all possessed weapons, for hunting, and it is difficult to see why 

SUMMER 1956 


these aborigines — hving the unpressured life of natural man in a productive land 
should have yielded without a struggle to Spanish contjucst. Thty tar-out nunihcrtd tlic 
first white men to reach California. Perhaps the appealing piety aiul intrepid ihara^tLr 
of the "founding fathers" convinced them of the need to change tlieir ways. Hugo 
Reid, a sceptic, wrote an account of the Indian "conversion' that tlie ( hunii banned 
for many years (16).^ 

More than two hundred years after discovery by Spanish explorers. Alta ( alitornia 

of these gray-robed, sandalled pri 

Spanish soldiery and other colonists arnv 
planning contained elements that were ni 
religious. Presidios and pueblos sprang up 
de la Rehia de Los Angeles" not far from / 

Following the establishment of San Gab 

ige was claimed by the Mother thurc 
if N 

The fertile "Place of Many Waters" came under ec< 
rancho called Santa Anita. Indians burned their own homes at Alci4p-k!i^->h! and else- 
where in the region. Persuaded by priests, prodded by soldiers, they exchanged their 
freedom for the complete care of body and soul offered under the Franciscan system. 
Great numbers came to live in dormitories (called moujnrios) within the mission walls. 
With unending labor, they carried out the great design. 


Father Juan Crespi belonged to that small company of "splendid wayfarers" — of 
missionary explorers who penetrated the world's wdderness m attempts to spread the 
Christian faith beyond safe, established boundaries. Tluough the centuries they recorded 
what they saw and did ; and of all the diaries in church archives, none are better written 
nor more informative than Crespi s (4). 

The missionary fervor of this gentle kindly padre spirited him from a comfortable 
home in Mallorca across the ocean to Mexico, in company with Junipero Serra ; across 
the North American continent and up the entire length of the aiifornias— often afoot 
and alone, always unarmed 

"As the only one who had gone all the way by land from the royal pres,dto of Loreto 
to the very end, at the port of our Father San Francisco", Crespi was asked by Serra, ^/ 
padre presidente. to record the historic Portola expedition, seeking mission sites for the 
Franciscanorder in Alta California— 1769-70. . j 

Crespi wrote of a free and happy people living on a generous land, and knowing 
how to use its gifts for food and medicine, clothing and shelter. Only their spiritual 
state perturbed him and this-he was convinced -w-ould be elevated by embrace of 
the Christian, Catholic religion. Crespi himself had been a pupil of Father Junipero 
Serra, and for many years his close companion. From this most splendid w^ayfarer he 
inherited a burning, blazing faith to light the way. He longed to share it with even the 
humblest heathen, in the furthermost wilderness. ti ,n 

The San Gabriel valley he saw with dawn-struck eyes on Sunday, July 30, 1769. 
From a camp site in the [Puente] hills his party entered "A valley of very large live 
oaks and sycamores." He recorded, "We then descended to a broad and spacious plain ot 
fine black earth, with much grass, although we found it burned. After travelling for an 

SUMMER 19^6 

them like rope. They sew thes( 
for covering for modesty's sal 
but all of the men go as nakct 
feel the least shame m prescn 

Tremendous tasks lav bcl 
lan earthquake ridden w. 
hen Alfred Robmson snc 

Robinson was a Bostonian, rather stitT in bearing and formal in attire, who travelled 
for several years up and down Alta Calitornia as resident agent for the Boston trading 
firm, Bryant and Sturgis. His recollections of those years became the celebrated Life in 
California", reprinted many times in several languages (17). He recalls the visit to 
San Gabriel and to Santa Anita, the mission tuwcho. 

"It was Saturday evening and as we approached the buildings of the Mission, the 
chapel bells tolled the hour for prayer. Hundreds of Indians were kneeling upon the 
ground, and as the tolling ceased, they slowly rose to retire, and a merr> peal announced 
the coming of the Sabbath. 

"The director of San Gabriel was Father Jose Sanchez, who for many years had con- 
trolled the establishment which, through his management, had advanced to its present 
flourishing condition Possessing a kind, generous and Inch disposition, he had accjuircd 
in consequence, a multitude of friends, who constantly flocked arouncl him, whilst 
through his liberality the needy wanderer, of whatever nation or creed, found a home 
and protection in the Mission. , , , , 

"In the morning, at six o'clock, we went to the church where the priest had already- 
commenced the service of the mass. The imposing ceremony, glittering ornaments and 
illuminated walls, were well adapted to captivate the simple mind of the Indian, and 
I could not but admire the apparent devotion of the multitude, who seemed absorbed, 
heart and soul, in the scene before them. The solemn music of the mass was well 
selected, and the Indian voices accorded harmoniously with the flutes and violins that 

^'^There'are se^v^ral extensive gardens attached to this Mission, where may be found 
oranges, citrons, limes, apples, pears, peaches, pomegranates, figs and grapes in abun- 
dance. From the latter they make yearly from four to six hundred barrels of wine, and 
two hundred of brandy; the sale of which produces an income of more than twelve 
thousand dollars The storehouse and granaries are kept well supplied, and the corridor 
in the square is usually heaped up with piles of hide^ and tallow. Besides the resources 
of the vineyard, the Mission derives considerable revenue from the sale of gram , and 


the weekly slaughter of cattle produces a sufficient sum for dothinc and supporting 

"The two 'ranchos" of St. Bernardino and Sta. Anita are nuludcd m the possessions 
of the Mission; the former of these has Ixtn .issiuncd hv the padres tor the sole pur- 
pose of domesticating cattle, and is located some 'leagues dist.uit. in a secluded valley 

mill, surrounded with^f!uk^"reis^ncl^flowe!s' 'a blaut.d'ul 'lake licw'alm and unrffBed 
in front, and all around fresh streams are gushing from the earth, and scattering their 
waters in every direction. It would be a magnificent spot for a summer retreat, and 
much reminded me of many of the beautiful locations to be met with in the vicinit)' 
of Boston. 

"The Mission of St. Gabriel was founded in the year 1771. and its population, in- 
cluding the two ranchos before mentioned, now numbered from twelve to fifteen hun^ 
dred. It was thought at one time to possess from eighty to over a hundred thousand 
head of cattle, besides horses, mules, and sheep and countless numbers which run at 
large. No advantage is derived from them beyond the value of their hides and tallow, 
and thus thousands of dollars are yearly left to perish on the field. ... 

"Speaking of the rich character of the valley of San Gabnel, the author would say 
that years .subsequently [after the Secularization Act was passed, in taking all 

temporaUontroI from the mission padrcs j^thc good old l-.u"hc r^urgecl^him to pet^o 

It was a triumph for the Franciscans when the Comicrab.ts, family of chieftains, 
came to live within the mission walls at San Gabriel According to custom each Indian 
to^rpadres'^Tw^ Christian^ name, and the small girl among them became B^rto|^^'f 
the young girl therbeing^Towned QuLn o7^ Hugo Reia:^ 

w.fe was known as "Dona Victoria" to the t .cwos who revered her for aristocratic 
grace, medical skill and unbounded hospitality 

A beautiful Indian's enduring romance with i h uidsome educated Scot provided 
Helen Hunt Jackson with source^n.aterial for "Ramona ' th^- best-selling novel which 
in the 1880s aroused almost as much sympathy for the abused red race as had "'Uncle 
Tom's Cabin" for negro slaves before the Civil War 

Dona Victoria s knowledge of her people, elicited and recorded through the years by 
an understanding husband, was used with telling effect and full acknowledgement by a 
friend and neighbor named Benjamin Davis Wilson a native of Tenne.ssee. 
f ^x? ^^"^ ^"'^'^^ California in 1841 as 'a trapper with the Workman party 

from New Mexico, acted as first United States Indian Agent in the territory. He wrote 
a humane report in '52, attempting to interest President Fillmore in long-needed regu- 
lation of Indian affairs, and outlining a long-t 

white men's diseases, no longer protected by the badres, exploited as personal servants, 
deprived of ancestral lands-even though the Ac^ allowed for distribution of land and 
livestock to each converted Indian 

Dona Victoria was one of the few Indians ever to own land as an individual. To her 
Scottish husband she brought a dowery of San Gabriel mission land acquired in appf^- 

SUMMER l^-sc, 

ciation of early, housekeeping services to the !kiJi\k This was known is Hmrti d 
Cuati" ["Orchard of the Twins"] and later acqutrcJ hv H 1) W .lson {21 ) ^^h 
changed the name to "Lake Vineyard". 

In successive decades, "Don Benito" went on from his [xH)rI\ j\iid i:o\trnnKin jo 
as Indian Agent to become leading orchardist. \iiu\.irdist .iiui Miitiur m Souther' 

He participated in successful water development in the area, and had a mountain 
named after him -with a famous observatory built upon it. But in 1S77, when inter- 
viewed by historian Bancroft as a pioneer prominent in all these fields, Wilson s one 
rec]uest was that he be recorded as a friend of the Indians and credited with urging 
their settlement on reservations." 

After marriage to Hugo Reid. Dona Victoria did not occupy her orchard property ( a 
westerly portion of the original Rancho Santa Anita). Nor did she ever live there with 
her first, Indian husband— christened Pablo Maria—who died ot smallpox in 1836 
or early '37. Twenty years her senior, he was a superior individual of aristocratic lineage 
who managed the large San Pasqual ranch for an old lady named Dona Eulaha Perez. 
After his death the young widow lived on, with her children, as a ward of Dona 
Eulalia. Indeed the week-long celebration of her second wedding took place at San 
Pasqual (the present site of Pasadena) . 

To many people's astonishment, the young Scot adopted his wife's Indian children 



as his own. According to extant mission records, they were four in number, named 
Felipe, Jose Dolores, Maria Ygnacio (to become known as the "Flower of San Gab- 
riel") (12) and the baby, Carlitos. The little Indians received an education rare in 
early California, first from their step-father and then the older boys went on to William 
Hartnell's pioneer coleg}o (5b) in Monterey. 

The Reids' first home was a two-story adobe in San Gabriel near the mission, built 
Monterey-style. The mud-brick construction was strengthened by heavy timbers cut and 
hauled from the forests of San Bernardino; the roof shingled, as was rare in Southern 
California. The Scot used the upper floor (where his wife never would go, for fear of 
earthquakes) for a schoolroom and library. Here he kept books, including a set of 
Shakespeare and Byron's poems; newspapers and magazines sent by far-away friends, 
rangmg from "London Punch" to the "Polynesian" published in Sandwich.* chile 
peppers drying on the rafters, and clusters of Indian corn added color to the large 

There were daily lessons in French, English, Spanish, arithmetic and geography. 
Don Hugo, a born and experienced teacher, took keen pleasure in them. He was a lin- 
guist, a skilled accountant, and the geography lessons were thrilling reviews of his own 
adventures. They served as an outlet for the old wanderlust that had been stemmed by 
marriage. The children listened, wide-eyed, and went at their studies with fen'or. 

In the dusty twilight of the attic, their .step-father revealed to them the sesamic qualit)' 
of education. As a result, they did not rebel at the drudgery of learning grammar rub 
and how to spell hard words. 

Dona Victoria, for whom reading and writing were against nature, used all her in- 
genuity to find distractions for the young ones. She feared that too close indoor applica- 
tion would ruin their health. Gardening, fancy work and teaching household skills to 
Indian servants occupied her time— when there was no entertaining to be done. 

Within a year after Hugo's marriage, William Heath Davis came from San Francisco 
to ban Gabriel on a business trip, and stayed with the Reid family. Of course he had 
been offered hospitality of the home for as long as he liked, by an old friend. This was 
the custom in a country without hotels. But Davis accepted Reid's invitation doubtfully 
— fearing like many others, that the Scot had become a typical "squaw man", that he 
would find himself in a brush jacal or at best a two-room adobe swarming with /^^/^ 
(tleas) and dark, dirty little "diggers". Instead, following directions with a companion, 
he drew rein at a two-story home rivalling that of the United States Consul, Thornas 
Larkin s in Monterey, and found "old Reid" living happily and luxuriously with a 
companionable wife who was no more than tanned in appearance and dressed Castihan- 
style, like the Scotch Paisano" himself 

Jl^^u'l ^T^^"/^ '^^y "^^'^^ ^ pair-both above middle height and 

each the flowering of a race. The Anglo-SaxonVas ruddy blonde with the deep Wu 
eyes of a sea-captain; the Indian more mysterious in appcLance, with crow-black hai 
friendT^ ^ ' "^'^^'''^ ^^•^^'"^ ^ 

ho^eLeninTn7r "J^",^?"^^^^/"^ delighted with the excellence and neatness of the 
were f. if A ^^'^^ ^^"'^ ^^^^^ been excelled. The beds wh ch 

IhleJlr^A ° '^""P ^^''■^ exquisitely neat, with coverlids of satin, th 

Do?. F.?i1P P ^'''u '^l^T]'^ ^'^^ '^^^ ^"'^ h'Khly ornamented." (From the ancien 
Treasnr^ f ' n ^^f^^^^.l^'^'-^^d the European arL of lacemaking and embroide^- 
Ireasures from Don Hugo s travels minded harmnninndv «;.>h Hnn, Victoria s f^f 

afc Thfi^ rf (privileged class) in the late 1830s. M 

*As the Hawaiian Islands then were called 

SUMMER \9'>6 

iam Davis, in a widely read hook ( 
married life. He not only dcs^nlxd 
•oth to San Gabriel and, later, to H 

"This I consider doing more than the Lopez tamiiy would do in littv vcars. not- 
withstanding that your uncle D. Jose Antonio Carrillo has made out new representations 
for them and intends pleading for them with the governor. . . Now. since you were 
down, I have built a new house in the mission [nwr/v;], flat r(>of d and eorridor'd. 
Certainly government will never be so blind to take away land from one anxious for 
the progress of the country, to give to another who has neither a just claim, means, or 
yet will do anything." 

The case dragged along for more than a year before Reid went to Monterey, then 
capital of Alta California, in April '41, and secured a decisive grant from the Gov- 
ernor. Wryly the Scot wrote to "Don Abel" Stearns (2b) who. somehow, had accumu- 
lated more land than any other man in California; 

"His Excellency has attended to the papers of my ranch in the same nianncr in^ which 

As Reid had written to Hartnell, the ranchhouse that he designed and built on the 
homesite at Santa Anita was "flat roofd and corridor d Los Angeles style. Blaik 

helped, a few years earlier, to build the more pretentious San Gabriel house called L , 
Espina. in which the family continued to hve. Often the Reids rode oj drove in a 

struction problems. 

The new, low house (one-story out of deference to Dona Victoria s fear ot earth- 
quakes) was L-shaped, placed on an eminence overlooking the San Gabriel valley on 
the south and in view of the Sierra Madre mountains. The garden planting, of seeds 
and slips from Uva Espina or the mission, grew luxuriantly near all-year water. 

The children, most of all, loved the Santa Anita— for the fish, easy to catch in the 
: birds nesting in the tules and water grasses; wild grapevines festooning the trees 

and forming hiding-pl 

ng the ranch entailed .seasonal activities such as u.nihj. or the sowing of 
id corn in December; harvest from July to September; irrigating and picking 



at various times; grape gathering and wine-making — Don Hugo's mam mterest as a 
ranchero; then the great rodeo, or roundup of cattle in April, and smaller ones through- 
out the year for la matanza (slaughtering), doctoring, dehorning or branding. Of 
course there were intermittent activities like hide curing, garden fencing, gopher killing, 
adobe repair and whitewashing after heavy rain. Indian labourers lived as they used to, 
with their families in jacales near the lake, and an old mill built by the padres was 
repaired and used. 

With so much to do at Santa Anita and a nice new house to stay in— the Reids spent 
increasing time at the ranch. When William Heath Davis came again (in November 
1843) with a business associate and fellow countryman of Don Hugo's named Jim 
McKinley, he found the whole family living there in lavish hacendado style. His de- 
scription of meals served at Santa Anita is mouthwatering (6b) . 

"During our stay as guests at Santa Anita, we feasted daily on good food. For break- 
fast we had honey (the production of the land, and in fact everything we ate was), 
fresh eggs from the poultry yard, which was well stocked with chickens, ducks, geese 
and turkeys; coffee, with rich cream; chocolate and tea; 'chino beans' (curley beans), 
which looked like scrambled eggs, especially for breakfast; lortillas made of flour or 
corn; but no butter, strange to say, with hundreds of cows on the place, t>"^^°^'^7" 
this was characteristic of the ranches at that season of the year. This composed the hrst 
meal of the day. The cloth was neat, and the furniture of the table exquisitely dean. 

"As the house clock sounded the noon hour, the visitors were summoned by a mai 
servant to the dining room for a midday meal, which was a solid meal of beef steaic 
with and without onions, broiled beef, stewed chickens, or hash made of came sea 
(dried beef) with scrambled eggs mixed, seasoned with onions, tomatoes, and a sprinK- 
ling of red pepper (this dish was very palatable), beans prepared with plenty of gravy, 
the water from which it was boiled preparatory for the frying pan, and seasoning, 
homemade bread, California wine, and finished with black coffee. This noon repast 
could not be excelled in respect to neatness and in preparation of the food. 

"The dinner consisted of chicken soup, roast ducks, guisado de came richly flavored, 
sweet potatoes grown on the land, jriiSles, chicken salad, and lettuce. This fine dinner 
was served with old wine of the make of the Mission of San Gabriel, and custard ana 
pies and coffee. , 

"During our stay of nearly two months, we were well fed, the meals varying bu 
little from day to day in the makeup of the viands. On Sundays for dinner a turKey 
this week, roast geese for the next, and for the third Sunday roast ducks, and so on to 
the end of our sojourn, and we regretted when the day of our departure had arrive , 
which was the day succeeding the festivals of Christmas, the birth of our Saviour. 
"These festivals were prepared in grand style, with all the nice things for the ce 

bration of such happy occasion The turkeys had been fattened for more than 

month previously, with walnuts whole with the shells on pushed down the throats o 
the mutinous birds as part of their food, the flavor of which is still on my palate, or tn 
remembrance of it. There were many invited guests who contributed largely to the e 
joyment of the occasion, and dancing prevailed after the sun had appeared above tn 
peaks of the lofty mountains; and from the gay hall McKinley and myself departed ro 
Los Angeles, amid the greetings of the assemblage. , ^ 

"Both Reid and his wife were epicures, and they had everything (their own rriarKca 
place on the hacienda) to entertain visitors sumptuously. Dona Victoria had a nn 
Indian cook who had been educated in the art at the Mission of San Gabriel, thougn 
the lady herself superintended more or less in the preparation of our good living. 

"James McKinley and Reid our host were both from Scotland and from the sam 
town, and knew each other in the Old Country ; hence the great kindness bestowed o 
the former, and to me as his friend, by Don Hugo and Doiia Victoria. Hugo Reid ^vaJ 
the grantee ... of the Santa Anita rancho ... It was then the most picturesque spot o 
Southern California, with mountains, valleys, springs and running silvery streams, i 

eid was a cultivated and educated i 
f, not only by Reid himself but b 

More than a decade elapsed between the end ot the pe.ik u.iis at Kaih ho Santa 
Anita, under Reid ownership, and its ace|uisition as an in\e^sUiKnt l>v ( orhiit and 

management of a circus man named Rowe. many hue plantni'> ol mission stink snt 
fered from neglect and even disappeared espeually tlie ,uardcn plants and trei> that 
had no practical value. Tides encroached on the oiue Jear water ot the lake, and its 
level went down during drought years until it seemed siartelv more than a marsh 

The countryside also changed, and the easy goint:. luispiiable atmosphere during 
the war years and subsequent transition from Mexiean to Ameruan ways. Lite m the 
San Gabriel Valley no longer centered around the mi.ssion. It took little time, during 
the secularization process, to destroy what had been years in the building. Hugo Reid 
wrote sadly: "Destruction came as a thief in the night. The whites rejoieed at it. They 
required no encouragement, and seemed to think it would last forever. Even the mere 
spectators were gladdened at the sight, and many of them helped themselves to a suffi- 
ciency of calves to stock farms." 

As the pueblo of Los Angeles displaced San Gabriel in importance, hotels were built 
and the stranger no longer participated in home life as a matter of course. He could 
easily remain unaware of its delights. For instance, when young Thomas Dibblee came 
to look over the Santa Anita and report on conditions there to his brother Albert, it was 
natural that he should stay at a hotel— not in a run-down ranch-house nor a strange 
home. He was accompanied by his sister Helen, an elegant young lady from New York 
who found Southern California quite disappointing. 

"Dear Brother," they wrote together from Los Angeles on March 25, 1859, to Albert 
in San Francisco: u i 

"Your letter to Ellie per Overland Mail was received yesterday afternoon, the mail 
having been delayed by upsetting of stage. We had a pleasant pas.sage in the Senator , 
and a good day for the ride from San Pedro here, on Sunday, the sky being overcast. . . 

"Ellie was not affected by the journey. We were told on arriving at the hotel there 
was no room, but after Mr. Banning (14) spoke to the proprietor, we were led 
through a dirty alley between wooden shanties, to an old wooden house on the rear ot 
the lot, up an outside wooden stair and in the second story of the house shown a room 
which Ellie was to have, and another room which Mr. Burnett and I were to occupy in 
common with two other persons. . . r i 

"After trying in vain at the "Lafayette" Hotel opposite the first to ge quarters, arid 
also without success inquiring for a private family where both of us or Ellie alone could 
go, I was compelled to take the above rooms, but in the afternoori changed them for 
others a little better at the "Lafayette. For myself it would have made ot ^ourse no dit^ 
ference about accommodations, but it has not been very comfortable for Elbe although 
she does not complain. This town is a queer place, very unprepossessing, and we have 
laughed a good deal at the idea of our bringing so many things in clothing which will 
never be required, particularly dresses for Ellie. There do not seem o be any ladies 
here fas we have seen none) or any houses in town where any arelikely to reside. The 
whole place appears, so far is buildings go, to have felt very little the effect of chang- 

of Corbitt and Dibblee, Dalton and Ro' 



ing from Mexican to American hands and is entirely behind the age. The new hotel 
'Bella Union', not yet finished, is a good brick two story building; there are two or 
three other two story buildings, the rest are old and dilapidated, low, flat-roofed, one 
story adobes, except here and there a one story brick store. But of course ten years 
hence there will be great improvements. There are many vineyards near town, generally 
on sandy soil . . ., and at this time the vines being mere scraggly trunks without leaves, 
the places are uninviting. The Sanseverain vineyard however looks fine having shade 
trees about it which others generally have not. 

"We intended to go to the Ranch (St. Anita) on Monday but it rained a drizzle all 
day and we deferred it until Tuesday when we went, Mr. Corbitt on his horse, and 
EUie, Mr. Burnett, myself, and Mr. Leighton, surveyor, in a two horse buggy. After.all 
the bare coast country and many hills bare of trees on our way out towards San Gabriel 
we were delighted to come to a tract with trees and fine pasture and soon after to enter 
upon the west end of Santa Anita. 

"That part of the ranch is covered with trees (small leaved oaks) standing apart 
sufficiently to drive through ; the ground there is undulating and altogether it forms a 
very pleasant place; the grass and clover too are green now; this description applies to 
nearly all the part we passed through lying west of the house and also from a short 
distance north of the house, northerly to the mountains, but in parts above there are 
open places or fields clear of timber. The trees are oak I should think, and their trunks 
are rough and crooked and the branches also crooked and wide spread. Among these 
trees and knolls there are several spots quite picturesque; back of the whole ranch at the 
north, rise up abruptly the Sierra Madre Mountains, steep and rugged and bare except 
the gulhes which appear to be filled with brush and scrub timber; the top of the range 
IS broken into sharp peaks. Around the house the ground is probably moist as it is 
covered with a thick growth of clover grass and mallows and near by is the springy 
place which is now being converted into a ■mill pond ' and from which is a fine flow 
of water. East of the house is the vineyard and beyond for miles lies the plain, extend- 
ing far beyond the end of the ranch ; on this plain are the sheep and not far off from 
them a herd of cattle, the latter belonging to some Drover, I believe ; and beyond the 
ranch, south of the house about mile distant commences' a tract of poor land, being 
a plain covered with clumps of scraggly bushes, the soil being very poor; this continues 
to the southerly boundary. There are some other poor fields but I think that generally 
the soil IS good and in many parts very rich. One trouble is the ground is full ot 
gophers (don t know whether I spelled it correctly). The house is situated on a bare 
knoll commanding an extensive view to the eastward, but behind the house (west- 
wardly) is a high knoll with a very gradual rise having some good oaks upon it and 
being altogether a better place for the house except that it is further from water; but 
it was a mistake . . not to have built either there or on the edge of the oaks on the 
rising ground a little further towards the mountains where are some green and beauti- 
ful spots probably capable of being watered from springs which oughfto exist near the 
foot of the mountains toward which the ground gradually rises. ^ 

■ adobe in form of an L about 58 on one side by 80 on the 

other and c 

ne part 20 feet deep, the other 18 feet deep, divided into three rooms m 
ind (as they told me) five rooms in the othef, the latter being for the hired 

- of the ends (the west) was cracked and settled and will 
.cquuc ue reDuiit H it is intended to keep up the house eventually. The roof is goo^ 
tTf wlu ^' i think first rate, and is of Shingle- 1 should hive said the rest o 

nuZt u r? ^ ^^'^ '^'^^^^^^ ^^"Tt as above, but the 

ought to be protected from the wet by either very wide eaves to the roof or some other 
'It must be remembered that Thomas Dibblee is desmbina 
Dalton neglect and Rowe alterations amounting t^Z Zi 

SUMMER 1956 61 
ans, — a piazza could have been built but it would have cost a great deal as the 
gth would be very great. There ought at any rate to have been around about half 
; distance and projecting eaves for the remainder; the eaves now project about 15 
18 inches and it would have cost very little more to have made them project double 
t, the outer plastering has mostly crumbled. Four of the rooms are floored, none are 
ed and there are no window sashes — Mr. Corbitt showed me one room which he 
1 if I came to stay there I had better take, and which could be made comfortable 
'Ugh at small expense. 

"I am much pleased with the ranch and agreeably disappointed as from what little 
id seen of a few of them and of the country previously I was prepared to see a very 
. ^_ J j^^^^ whether others look as well — I do not 

know what effect of the s 

some land which would probably be green but I do not believe there is much of it. 

Mr. Corbitt is very enthusiastic, I fear rather too much so, but at the same time he 
is very energetic about it and enters into the matter with zest. There are a number of 
men now at work driving on the ditches, etc., for the vineyard. The latter is not yet 
completed although in good progress— he is driving it on as fast as possible and has 
now gone out to stay some days there. He has some difficulty about men— some leaving 
JJJ^^^pectedly sometimes and making it necessary to get others. 

"Ellie seems to like the place— I am finishing this letter at "Thompsons', a little 
tavern about five or six miles from the house [at El Monte} where I have come with 
Elhe for a few days, this being the nearest to the ranch where I can find a place to stay. 
Ihe truit trees and cuttings arrived yesterday at Los Angeles and have been sent to the 
Ranch. I am just going over to see the setting out. I have not examined them but Mr. 
Corbitt looked at them; he says the trees are budded some and vines look very dry- 
also that the cuttings are so small he will have to plant them at present in a nursery, as' 
if put out in the usual way in the vineyard, they will be ploughed up and otherwise 
stand a poor chance." 

Corbitt and Dibblee's plans for developing the Santa Anita were intelligent and 
extensive. But an increasing loss of confidence in Corbitt, by the Dibblee brothers, 
added to problems induced by the drought years, caused their decision to sell the 

Albert Dibblee was especially disappointed, because he envisioned a paradise in the 
Santa Anita. This appears in a letter to his older brother William who, of all the 
brothers, knew most about agriculture. He managed the family farm at Kingston, New 
York state. Writing from San Francisco to New York, April 1, 1858, Albert admits: 

1 have never seen the property, but have as good a knowledge of it as one can 
derive from witnesses and all agree in describing it as one of the best Ranchos in the 
Southern country. 

In 1854, Jos. A. Rowe, then a successful circus proprietor (having returned from 
Australia with a reported $100,000 to SI 50m) after examining that part of the State, 
selected this Rancho and paid for it $33,000,— he also spent $6,000 in re-building a 
house now upon it and other expenses for an orchard and etc., say in all S40,000 

'^We paid for the property, 13,316 acres (a 1.25,-516,645. 
. 'The great drawback of most Ranchos in Cala, is want of wood and water. This one 
•s abundantly supplied with both,— in fact the wood could be sold for a large sum. 
Corbitt is in active business and cannot reside on the Rancho, nor can I. 

The Southern country is our vine growing district, the production of the grape 
there is almost fabulous, far surpassing the yield in Europe. The culture is attracting 
great attention, already many are going down to Los Angeles to engage in it. Already 
several persons have made fortunes by their vineyards. 

Santa Anita is admirably suited for grape growing. Every fruit of the temperate 


zone flourishes there and most of those of the tropics—^oranges, almonds, etc., etc. My 
idea of the property is that it should be turned to account for stock raising. Cattle 
wmter themselves, as you know, in this State. A few Vacjueros only are needed to keep 
on the look out— their wages are about $15. or $18. p. mo. and board, say beef and 
beans. 2 or 3 only are needed for a large number of cattle. 

"The increase of cattle here would be about 80% an.— that is 80 calves to 100 cows. 
3 year old cows will always have calves and often sooner. So you can readily see how 
rapidly the cattle accumulate if not sold off. 

;;This is to be by far the greatest stock raising State in the Union. 
1 think It a safe calculation, 300 cows put on the Rancho and looked after, none 
sold till end of seven years, would then allow 1000 head p. an. to be sold and still keep 
the number whole. 

"Cattle are usually worth |15 to $18 each in Los Angeles Co. Also sheep can be 
profitably raised by present appearances, so as to pay, for wool growing. At the present 
hey are valued most for mutton but for that purpose they will not always pay. I know 
isTnclred'^ '^'^ ''"'^ ^^''^ expense for wintering 

"While the stock were increasing, by degrees a splendid vineyard might be got ready 
Id moderate expense,— plowing per acre $2.50 to $3.50, by contract, cutting costs 
$2.50 p. thousand (1000 to an acre), irrigation at Santa Anita would cost very little,- 
in 5 years the vines are in large bearing and would thereafter produce regular crops; 
20 acres or so per year might be got into vineyard. The vines y eld by Umest estttMie 

fhat .^IT A I"^"" y^^" 1^^"^^' by largely increased production, so 

tha after It had been refined and acquired age it wou d be worth only 50 cts., it would 
Sis ^wle'ne ' J'' ""^^^^^ 500 gals. p. acre would produce 50,000 

In Europe I heJrT is only 300 f °^ production are 800 to 1000 gals. p. acre. 

^^"g^l^'i" profusion, but won't pay as they won't bear trans- 
portation. Pears also thrive splendidly and pa; to send here^There is a pear orchard 

probably run out') ' ^"^"^ ""''^^"^ "'^^ ^^^^ ^^^^'^ '"'^ " 

raZlTet wiu"^' '^'^.7 '^'''^ ^^ght quality, say Languedoc, or Tar- 


scribed"!" b^in^ltV^l^'^rT^ ^"''^ be splendid corn land, as it is 

om land in cL xi 'k' off, which is the W 

drsummer »?j h i f " o""' *e State fit for corn, owing to the W 

haT=e ■„1tt";':in°gs- " ^ ">-^ 

n caitt" ,r ,°lflT ' '"'^r.'""'^ ten ts he'nce ::;il atne estate. 

•■Ne"gSors o "ur are'carce ^K^f °' *^ P^P^^^' , «I» 

predomfnates 'as yet, but A^ertSs ^ t 3 Yk"'. ^^fd^r v^^^S 

the Span,sh. Many of the old and wealthrcS "n1a"s "stifl Te' P ope^ '"^ 
are sa.d to be very pleasant and poUte people to associate t,lh Of'he Americans, there 

SUMMER 1956 

are many highly respectable people no^ 
known in St. Louis in his cholera pra( 

Anita (but remember, S. A. is 7 or 8 n...... , „ 

State Senator, adjoins it with his vineyard. I find many here are thinking of investing 
in the vincgrowing country and I believe a good population, Germans and French, will 
by degrees get in there. .. . 

"I think this Rancho if used carefully would within ten years pay more profits th.ui 
80 or 90 such farms as you have at Kingston 

-The climate of Los Angeles is one of the healthiest in the world. Suniiiic rs i think 
by all accounts, milder than New York, nights always cool (this .s a uiKiranicx .i<Mnist 
the lassitude of your hot summer days and sleepless nights). Winter ,i httic JiiU'v hut 
only agreeably so. You may judge how mild the winters are from the orant'cs ri(uiiin>' 
in Jany. and Feby. (this is a very profitable fruit also,) in fact Los Axvj^^Cs ( „i,,itv 
the garden of California. 

"A friend of mine, a great agriculturist and horticulturist, Wm. Ncely 'I honipNon. 
has just returned from his first visit to Los Angeles, perfectly charmed with the country, 
—he heard much talk of our purchase down there, and all expressed a high opinion of 
the property and the bargain. . . . Another idea has occurred about the stock. The regu- 
lar stock men seldom pretend to milk any cows. Now, at least a portion of the cows 
might be milked while the feed was good and all the milk made into cheese, (butter is 
too much labor) ; Cala. cheese, ordinary, is worth 22 to 25 cts, if made of unskimmed 
milk It would bring 3 to 5 cts. more, and large quantities can be sold. Would not this 
pay ? I don t know the process of making cheese, but it cannot require any great labor 
In August I shall probably go down to see the Rancho. ... 

"Winter is the time for nearly all kinds of farming operations in this country. I have 
written 5 times as much as I meant, but couldn't say all in less. Wish I had a chance to 
talk this over with you and mother and Thomas. It would be farming on a scale one 
might be proud of after a few years." 


Albert Dibblee never saw the Santa Anita, while he owned it. The rancho remained 
a beautiful dream— to tantalize him in the midst of all the corruption, violence, arson, 
greed from which San Francisco suffered during the Gold Rush, and for a few years 
aiterwards. During the 1850s, Vigilantes formed of the better element acted outside 
the Law, because no enforcement was possible under corrupt city and state officials. 

Unpublished, family papers reveal Albert Dibblee as a member of the inner, inner 
Vigilante Committee of Three. (7)** At that time, and for a few years longer, he lived 
alone in a ramshackle apartment above a store (his money was mostly made in trade). 
Four times the city burned, in as many years. The scream of sirens, the shouts of 
drunken miners often disturbed the young man who lay dreaming of Rancho Santa 
Anita in the peaceful, sunny south. 

Not for twenty years was the Dibblee dream materialized, and then by a man of 
equal, and oddly similar vision. "Lucky " Baldwin fell in love with the Santa Anita and 
bought it straightway (14)— with a fortune wrested from a violent, northern scene. 
.I^he Comstock Lode, flourishing a quarter century after the Mother Lode, offered silver 
mstead of gold to greedy miners from all over the world. 

Tangible evidence of vision combined with industry, was described by H. H. Ban- 
cfoft during a visit to "Lucky" Baldwin's "Home Place" in 1891, when Rancho Santa 
Anita appeared at the very peak of production. Like many visitors before him, and 
many more afterwards, the historian was moved to rhapsody: 

The scene is one of fairy-like loveliness ; not only the little bijou residence and its 
^Generously loaned by Harrison Dibblee, Jr. of Ross, aiifornia. 


surroundings," but the entire estate, with its groves and vineyards, its golden fruit and 
waving harvests, its shaded drives and vistas of mountain peak and valley, carrying the 
beholder into an ideal region, calm and peaceful as the fabled realm of Rasselas, where 
soft vernal airs induce forgetfulness of the din and turmoil, the crowded sreets and 
selfish intensity of city life." 


King of Spain— 1771 
The Mexican Nation — 1822 
Hugo Reid— 1839-45 
Henry Dalton — 1847 
Joseph A. Rowe— 1854 
William Corbitt and Albert Dibblee— 1858 
William Wolfskin — 1865 
Harris Newmark— 1872 
Elias Jackson ("Lucky") Baldwin— 1875 
Harry Chandler— 1936 
State of California— 1947 

King of Spain — 1771 
Title to the Californias, first Baja (Lower) then Alta, was vested in the King of 
Spain under the monopolistic Laws of the Indies. Following the establishment of Mis- 
sion San Gabriel in Alta Cahfornia in 1771, more than 13,000 acres, extending north 
of San Gabriel to the Sierra Madre mountain range became the mission farming land 
known as Rancho Santa Anita. Franciscan monks administered it for many years. . 
Cattle horses, hogs, sheep, grain and fruit were raised on the fertile land, the virgin 


I springs, str< 

padres built a grist mill. Besides supplying mission needs, they engaged in a flourishing 
hide and tallow" trade with sea calami and '■superca;goes-- who%ailed to the West 
Coast in increasing numbers from the outside world.'" 

The Mexican Nation— 1822 
Spanish rule in Alta California yielded to Mexican in 1822, after Mexico's successful 
revolt against Spain. Temporal power of the Church was broken, through passage of 
the Secularization Act of 1833. But the able administration of Rancho Santa Anita by 
padres from the San Gabriel Mission continued until secularization of all the missions 
was completed, in the late 1830s. 

Hugo Reid — 1839-45 
Reid, a Cambridge classmate of Charles Darwin was a Scot who became a Mexican 
citizen in 1836 — after st ' ' ' - - - 

In '37 he married an In( 
bered for informed and i 

I!rredls^" -I^g^nt house built for entertaining Jt far^from the simple old adohe^ 

seLrate "^^T^''^ °" ^^T^- Sharing the lake and the mountains, they still are strange!) 
separate. Each typifies an era, as did their builders, Reid and Baldwin 

SUMMER 1956 
for Rancho Santa Anita in 1839, when church property was fast pas 

Assured of eventual title, Reid built an adobe ranch-house, usinu I 
started new orchard and vineyard plantings. In '41 he received pro\ i 
Governor Alvarado. But not until 1845, on the very eve of Mexico s 
United States, did the first lay owner of Rancho Santa Anita rccci\ c II 
last Mexican governor of California, Don Pio Pico. 

Henry Dalton— 1847 

Dalton was an English merchant who settled in Southern ( al.toriiKi 
successful business career in Lima, Peru. A decade earlier. Huuo Rc 
partner m a trading venture to Hermosillo, Mexico, and tticv renewed i 
ance. Like the "Scotch Paisano", the Englishman became .i i\kxu i 
Catholic in order to own land in California and marry a native dai 
father-in-law was Don Augustin Zamorano remembered k rh,- t,ro 
territory (11). ' i as the hrs, 

The newly-weds came to live near the Reid family at Rancho Azu a 

Anita on the ( 

; the Mexican War, when Reid became 

point ot offermg Rancho Santa Anita 

(S2 700)-although he kept the Azusa as his permanent home 
to f^ II^*'!,'^'"'' ^^J^ California was ceded to the United States and, in 1850, admitted 
to statehood. Henry Dalton s title to Rancho Santa Anita was upheld by the American 
Mexln Commissioners, in spite of being a last-minut'e grant by the fleeing 

Mexican governor. Several such grants the Commissioners ruled invalid. 

Joseph A. Rowe— 1854 
T'T """l^ performer of California's pioneer circus (19), bought the 
J'anta Anita for $33,000— retiring from the sawdust ring to raise cattle He also 
pastured a few wild animals and performing horses. 

But Rowe and his pretty wife, both trick riders, were inexperienced and unsusccessful 
lynchers. After giving a mortgage on the place to William Wolfskill, they took the 
money and went back in the show business— off to Australia — leaving a foreman to 
run the ranch as best he could, until a buyer appeared. 

William Corbitt and Albert Dibblee— 1858 

Albert Dibblee, a New Yorker who attained prominence in San Francisco's business 
and political life, bought the Santa Anita as an investment, sight unseen, in partnership 
with a Los Angeles promoter and trader named William Corbitt. They took over the 
woitskiU mortgage and accjuired a fine ranch of 13,316 acres for Sl6,645. Joseph 
Rowe, the only owner who did not make a profit out of Ranch Santa Anita, wanted to 
De rid of a burdensome property— even at a 50*^^ loss. 

Neither of the new owners ever lived on the ranch. It was managed by a younger 
brother of Albert Dibblee's named Thomas, who left a promising law practice in New 
r^ork City to come to Southern California. Albert remained in San Francisco, earning 
the money for capital expenditures. Their hopes rode high until the catastrophic years 
Californl^^ ^""^menced in the early '60 s, ending the great days of cattle ranching in 

The beautiful lake at Santa Anita, fed by springs, dried and shriveled into an ugly 
marsh. Livestock died like flies on bare, paper-dry pastureland. When the partners 
decided to sell, Thomas Dibblee moved to Santa Barbara. He married into the royal 
family of the region, that of Don Jose de la Guerra; and managed another ranch, the 
i-ompoc, for his older brother. 

Leonard Rose— 1865 
Rancho Santa Anita was sold in two sections. The first and most important sub- 
•sion of Reid's original grant, 2,000 unimproved acres in the west, went to an indus- 



trious German named Leonard Rose, for $2 an acre. In time, after extensive irrigation, 
he created a splendid estate — a showplace known as "Sunnyslope". Grapes grown from 
Rhineland slips and trotting horses became Rose specialties. He also produced high- 
grade citrus fruits, wine and the brandy called aguardiente (firewater) by the ^amnoi. 
William Wolfskin— 1865 
Wolfskin bought the remainder of Rancho Santa Anita including the homesite- 
11,316 acres for |20,000— with the idea of irrigating and raising more diversified 
crops than anyone in the country. Widely known as a horticulturist, he appears in 
Bancroft's "Pioneer Register ' as "the pioneer [with his French vecwo. Louis Vignes] 
of California's greatest industry, the production of wine and fruit." He had known 
and coveted the Santa Anita ever since mission ownership. 


Wolfskin first came to California from Taos in 1831 heading an overland beaver- 
trapping expedition (13). He was a Kentuckian of German ancestry, belonging to th^t 
reckless breed of men" who met and overcame incredible hardships crossing the cont^ 
iiet afoot or horseback— fighting hostile Indians sinking in deep snow, suffering i^<^^ 
thirst on interminable desert stretches ' 

The Wolfskin party n.ade a winter crossing of the Wasatch Mountains, the Great 
Mojave Desert and then-only five years after Jedediah Smith showed the wa 
climbed over the Sierra Madre and down into San Gabriel, where exhausted men foun^ 
Rtnthnl ? a''> "^ffu- ^'r' ^^'^^ '^'^'"^^ ^h^^^ that the party leader first saw 

w ?f ^ n Anita and fell in love with the land. 

Wolfskin settled down in Los Angeles. His home in the center of town became 
mecca for former trappers, and a showplace surrounded bv fruit trees. He married 
daughter of Don Jose Lugo, Magdelena, with whom he raised a large and congenial 

SUMMER 1956 


family. Often the WoUskills would pile into a aiyreia. or nde horseback out to the 
Santa Anita— to visit with Reids, Daltons, Rowcs, or Thomas Dibblee. But possession 
came too late, for William died in 1866. He had only time to plant some eucalypti from 
Australia, and a few date palms which he introduced to California from Atrica. 

Harris Newmark— 1872 
Newmark, the merchant author of "Sixty Years in Southern California" (15), paid 
^85,000 for Rancho Santa Anita, reduced by sales to 8,000 acres. Besides putting more 
land under irrigation for orchards and vineyards, he pastured sheep in the rocky toot- 


hills, as an adjunct to a flourishing wool business in Los Angeles. He did not live con- 
tinuously on the ranch, but made good use of the adobe during frequent visits. 

Newmark deeded a northern section of his property to the Southern Pacific realizing 
that land values would skyrocket with the coming of the "Iron Horse". But betorethis 
could happen, he sold the Santa Anita for a fabulous price to a fabulous person. 
Elias Jackson ("Lucky") Baldwin — 1875 

"Lucky" Baldwin— rich from the sale of Ophir mine stock, in the Com stock Lode 
paid $200,000 for Rancho Santa Anita. Born of poor, pioneer parents in the umo 
wilderness, he set out to rival all the "Bonanza Kings ' in Northern California -^vlth 
his racing stables and private track, his deer park and stately peacocks, his pleasure 
pavilion and exotic plantings around the lake that he restored beyond its original size 
and beauty. Like his German neighbor, Rose of Sunnyslope, "Lucky" had a pract'cai 
side— shown in the fine livestock and poultry, fruit and nut trees, grain 
yards, winery and the buttery that supplied his ranch houses and three hotels that ne 
built (in Arcadia, San Francisco, and Lake Tahoe) with plenty left to sell in the open 
market. Among his frequent guests at Santa Anita were stars from the Baldwin Iheatr 
in San Francisco, always entertained in his "Oakwood Hotel" or the elegant^ (^ueen 
Anne Cottage" right on the ranch," while he himself lived in the simpl( 
southern end of "Baldwin Lake". There, eventually, he died — remair 
versial, contradictory character to the end of his days (10). 

nts have been tantalized by g 
: tempo of living commenced 
accelerate, even in the south where easy-going rcwcbews made sudden fo^^^f ^''3 
beef to rich but hungry miners. Besides pasturing and mining,'-' other uses o the 
were explored by new owners, of all nationalities. Of the new uses, even indudmg "'j 
discoveries, the sale of real estate has made easy money for the greatest numbe 
people, through the years. 

As early as 1855, Henry Dalton became the pioneer realtor— using modern proni° 
tional methods. During the first decade of his residence in Southern California, n 
quired approximately 45,000 acres of ranch land. With the sale of Santa Anita to no 
in '54, he commenced to break up this huge acreage— acquired mostly without cos , ) 
grant from the Mexican government. To dispose of the dry and rocky foothiU sea 
of Rancho Azusa, he tried the lottery method— offering prizes, in real and perso ^ 
property, including 240 "elegant lots in the town of Benton". This might be calie 
"ghost town", since it existed only in his imagination. . ^ 

Not enough gullible people had yet found their way to Southern <^^l'f°''"^J:^n 
Dalton failed in this promotion scheme. Not until the boom of the '80s did a 
actually rise at Azusa. As a real estate operator Dalton was forced into second p 
when Nathaniel Carter came out from Lowell, Massachusetts, to recover from 
sumption". Arriving in '71, he bought 17 acres of Santa Anita foothill property 
Dalton's son-in-law, Louis WolfskiU who by then was doing some sub-dividmg 
his own. 

7i! 71''°"'" ''t ^'^°^^^ ^'""^"' terminology and, for reasons of his own, "Lucky.jf ^ 

. The cottage was completed in 1881. It is a typ"^ 

, . ears in Southern CaUfornia. ''Although cattle raiJ>"J^ot 
California for many years, and gold m-i"" f^'aved a very iwP^j, „f 

the mainstay of Southern California 
part here, Wells Fargo and Co., du. 
gold at a time, gathered from Santa Anita, San Gabri 
equally large amount was forwarded out through otl 

SUMMER 1956 

Carter's recovery was quick, and he became "the most picturesque b(X)mer" Cali- 
fornia has ever known (8). He circulated a picture of himself called "Before and 
After Taking", and would explain that this referred to the climate as a sure cure for t.b. 
Even before the Southern Pacific reached the area, in 1S72 he tried to interest Collis 
Huntington, as one of the railroad "Big Four" (14), in adding cheap excursion cars 
to westbound trains. Two years later, and for twenty-five years thereafter, Carter made 
annual trips back home for the express purpose of advertising his adopted state. He 
achieved official status as Excursion Agent for the Santa Fe. 

Nathaniel Carter prospered by becoming the "first California booster to boost on a 
large scale." In 1881, he bought 845 acres from "Lucky" Baldwin for $33,880. He 
piped water down from the Santa Anita and Little Santa Anita Canyons, divided the 
entire property into town lots, advertised widely. spcMisorcd a stylish iiotel i..ilkd 
"Sierra Madre Villa", also a church and a school ' and soon attracted .i colony which 
he called "Sierra Madre". "Lucky" admired his way of doing things and asked him to 
act as agent for the Baldwin properties. Together they planned the "Santa Anita Tract" 
— a model to this day of high-class residential subdivision. 

Mr. Baldwin had added to his original holding at Santa Anita, by canny foreclo-ure 
and timely attendance at county tax sales as well as, by outright purcha e. By 1885 he 
owned over 80,000 acres of increasingly valuable Southern California property. Unlike 
Henry Dalton, thirty years earlier, he found the time ripe for a successful sale of his 
surplus land. His first prospect appeared as an overnight guct at the Santa Anita, a 
railroad engineer from Texas named William Monroe who had settled in Los Angeles 
and became a member of the City Council. 

After seeing the Carter advertisements of Sierra Madre, Monroe decided to build a 
modest country home in the San Gabriel valley, somewhere. His host enlarged his ideas. 
Before departure next day he had bought eight thirty-acre "choice, frost-free" lots in 
the wild undeveloped area that became the boom town of Monrovia. 

A Los Angeles businessman named Jonathan Slau<^on revived interest in Azusa as a 
townsite and helped to organize the Azusa Land and Water Company, with a capitaliza- 
tion of $500,000. Although this company acquired 4000 acres of predominately fertile 
land from the Dalton family, Slauson located the town in a desolate, rocky, sandy wash. 
When asked why, he answered: "If it's not good for a town, it isn't good for anything. " 

With examples of such enterprise all around him, Mr. Baldwin commenced to plan 
his own community. From the Santa Anita Tract sprang Arcadia, east of the historic 
homesite where "Lucky" continued to live. Water rights were shared with the Sierra 
Madre Water Company, founded by Nathaniel Carter; and shade trees, Santa Anita 

. I 1 , .. ., streets. Arcadia was solidly established when the 

d of a rate war between the rival Southern Pacific and 
Santa Fe railroads. 

At one time, in 1887, the cost of a ticket from Kansas City to the coast descended to 
Si. Mr. Carter's excursion trains overflowed with gullible prospects, well supplied with 
real estate liturature. Mr. Baldwin learned the jargon, and even improved upon it. 
When one prospect protested the price as too high for unimproved property the 
answer was, "Hell, we're giving the land away. We're only selling the climate. " So 
successful were "Lucky's " methods that the Louisville Courier-Journal used him as a 
symbol of California aggressiveness. 

The boom was all but forgotten when that indefatigable historian, H. H. Bancroft, 
paid Mr. Baldwin a visit in 1891, to interview him for Chronicles of the Builders (2a). 
His affairs were in good order, aside from periodic lawsuits involving women and 
water rights. Cash realized from Carter sales of Baldwin property had brought the 
"Home Place", the historic homesite, to a peak of production and beaut)^ So it re- 
mained until "Lucky's" death in 1909. 

Distributees of the estate of Elias Jackson Baldwin, under the decree of distribution 
rendered April 24 1913 were Baldwin (McClaughry) Baldwin l^; Dextra (Mc- 



Claughry) Baldwin I/4; Albert Snyder I/4 ; Rosebudd D. Mullender 1/4 (subject to the 
Life Estates of Anita Baldwin. McClaughry and Clara Baldwin Stocker) 

The buildings at Rancho Santa Anita depreciated sadly after Mr. Baldwin s death, 
although his peacocks increased and some care was taken of exotic trees and shmbs 
planted by him and earlier owners around the lake. No member of the family continued 
to live on the Home Place. It was managed by his younger daughter, Anita, who took 
back her maiden name after divorce from a lawyer named Hull McClaughry. barlier, 
at sixteen, she had briefly married her cousin, George Baldwin. Her own mother Jennie 
Dexter (Lucky's third wife) was not much older at the time of Anita's birth. Fivemar- 
of "Lucky", his elder daughter Clara, and Anitas 
uing inheritance confusion. . ' 

A widow who never remarried, after resuming the Baldwin name, Anita operated 
the Santa Anita successfully as a stock ranch, but lived at her own home (now Anoakia 
School). She improved and even increased her father's fine cattle, sheep and hogs, ana 
kept some of his champion race horses, out of sentiment. Only a month after his deatn, 
a state law was passed banning horseracing in California. A spectacular era ended sud- 
denly at Santa Anita. The private track echoed to its last starting bugle on Apnl ^u, 

Arcadia voted dry, April 15, 1912, and not long afterwards "Lucky's resort hote^ 
"The Oakwood", burned to the ground. No more gay passengers climbed down trom 
the Baldwin tally-ho, to open wicker baskets of viands and vintage champagne on tK 
grassy mall of the "Home Place". Sporting life in Arcadia remained in suspension 
save at Clara Baldwin Stocker's "Clara Villa"— until long after World War^^»- 

^ "Balloon School " in 1917. Not .^wml^^x. y^ai^ ^.^ ............. s 

Santa Anita racetrack site sold by Mr. Baldwin's heirs to San Francisco's Dr. Strub and ^ 
his associates. Mrs. Anita Baldwin was their honor guest at the Grand Opening on | 
Christmas Day, 1934. | 
Harry Chandler— 1936 | 
(Rancho Santa Anita, Inc.) I 
Baldwin heirs agreed to sell the historic homesite of Rancho Santa Anita to M \ 
Chandler, owner and editor of the Los Angeles Times and already a great landholder 
in California, Arizona and Mexico. The price was undisclosed, also the acreage. 
Chandler anticipated that complete subdivision of the Santa Anita would be mor 
profitable than any sort of ranching, considering the phenomenal growth of populatio 
in Southern California. Therefore he set up a corporation to conduct a high-class resi 
dential subdivision, calling it "Rancho Santa Anita, Inc." 

The City of Arcadia, whose first mayor had been "Lucky" Baldwin, expanded eno 
mously as a result. So did the new racing establishment. Modern homes, shop^ 
churches, schools all were encroaching on Mr Baldwin's "Home Place" by 
when the State paid $320,000 to Chandler heirs for property amounting to lU acre^" 
This was the last vestige of the once vast Baldwin estate. Contrast Henry Dalton s pay 
ment, considered adequate 100 years ago, of $2,700 for 13,300 acres! 

State of California -^1947 
We, the people, form the final link in Rancho Santa Anita's Chain of Title. 
The Santa ■ ■ - 

i became the r 

s of the Los Angeles State and County 
a part of a long-term master pa - 

^wv. ^.xjuyuiciu. /IS a pare or a long-ienii ""^■^7* ^^j^iJ. 
Committee works on restorations, both architectural and hort.oj 
tural, in a nine-acre "Historical Preserve". This borders Baldwin Lake, incudes ^^^9 
Baldwin cottage , and carriage house, besides the .,dobe built by Hugo Reid m 
and used by each successive owner. Director of Restorations is Maurice Block, forni^^ 
Curator of the Henry E. Huntington Art Gallery and originator of the period rooff 
there. Because of depreciation— caused by dry rot, termites and vandals— the latest 

SUMMER 19^6 

be built was first to be restored. The frame "Queen Anne Cottage", finished in 1881. 
was dedicated as Historical Landmark No. 367 of the State ol ( .ditorni.i. in \'-)'^ \. 
Money from the accumulated Tidelands fund has been alloc.ited hv the St.ite tor .irJii- 
tectural restorations of the frame carriage house and the ././ ///^ raiuh liousc. Pri\atL 
funds have paid for the elegant Victorian restoration, and will he needed lo liirni>h 
and landscape the other two buildings in the Historical Preser\e 

A formal garden enhancing the Queen Anne Cottage was planned and planted h\ 
the late Charles Gibbs Adams. From boyhood visits, he renienihered and restored 
pampas grass reflected in the lake, Russian violets edging the paths, hanksia roses rani 
pant. His successor, whom the Historical Committee shares with the entire Arboretum 
as Landscape Consultant, is Edward Huntsman-Trout. To aid hini in planning an 
authentic setting for the ^{(iohe, there is Hugo Reid's own planting list lor is t ( ui 
closed in a letter to his friend, "Don Abel ' Stearns.'^ 

Early plantings are treasured wherever they survive. Several ot the aiuKiit trees lia\e 
grown from tiny seeds or slips to extraordinary size. There is a poniegranate. more 
than 100 years old, probably from the San Gabriel Mission garden, a eLKalyptiis gnen 
to Albert Dibblee in the 1850s by a sea-captain coming in from Australia, a date palm 
introduced from Africa by William Wolfskill, seven ginkgoes earned home by ' Lueky " 
Baldwin after a big game hunt in India, and so on. 

With the exception of Rowe the circus rider and Chandler the newspaper tycoon. 

of the land, modern farming methods. 
Henr)' Dalton originated a method still in use, of packing grapes in sawdust. Among 
these were the first French winegrapes grown in California, started by Hugo Reid from 
slips of his vecwo Louis Vignes. 

Reid's planting inventory is an amazing document of the time and place. He diversi- 
fied Santa Anita products as seldom was done. On vast ranges of the early nmcbos in 
California, there was no attempt to produce more than hides and tallow for the coastal 
trade. Variety in foodstuffs, clothing, et cetera, came mostly through trade. On arrival 
of a sailing vessel at the nearest port, rancheros and their families from mdes around 
climbed aboard— to see and feel and taste wonders from the outside world. 

Back in home pastures choice meat may have been left for the buzzards, after a 
slaughter for hides that sold at $2 a piece. Few rancbews bothered to make butter or 
cheese, or even to keep cows that must be milked. Irrigation did not become general 
practice until after the disastrous drought of tht 1860s. In that empty, bountiful land — 
California before the Gold Rush— there was scarcely any need for the residents to 
exert themselves. The aborigines lived without farming at all. 

As the population increased and there was less land for higher price, its use became 
intensified. As acreage shrank, on the original rmcbos. production went up. Moving 
with the times, using the most advanced farming methods, each owner of the Santa 
Anita developed the fertile land for his private need and gain. With the establishment 
of a public arboretum a new era has commenced. 

People of world-wide reputations already have contributed thought, time and money 
towards an ideal which cannot be realized by one man s effort or in one man's lifetime. 
As in earlier days, seeds and slips arrive from similar geographical zones ot the world, 
for experimental planting. William Wolfskill, more than 100 years ago, was first to 
explore Africa as a source of trees for semi-arid, semi-tropical Southern California. 
But, like all the private owners of Rancho Santa Anita, he was limited in concept— if 
not in space. Confined to a tiny fraction of the original land grant, dedicated men and 
women at the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum continually are expanding their 
contributions, in the allied fields of horticultural, medical and historical research. 
"Dated June 1, 1844. Preserved among the Stearns papers in the Huntington Library. Published in 




Officers 1956 

Presicletit Mildred E. Mathias 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Treasurer Fred W. Roewekamp 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Marston Kimball 

William Beresford Mildred E. Mathias 

Kenneth Bishop Victoria Padilla 

Howard Bodger Alfred W. Roberts 

Philip Edward Chandler George H. Spalding 

Ralph D. Cornell . Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Earle E. Humphries Harold Swanton 

Richard Westcott 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Manfred Meyberg 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Murray C. McNeil Roy F. Wilcox 


Annual Member I 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50,00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— DC. 
Foundation Ofhce— D( ' 

William S Sir 'X --r ^ 


J. Tm 

Edwajid Hunt- 

DON \Ll> P V\ , 


Board of Trustees 

President Prits W. Went 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O'Melveny 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J- ^- Funk Harold F. Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Frank Titus 
Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 


.Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Telephone DOuglas 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership . . . . ' 500.00 


$1,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 TyZ ol more. 
All contributions d ' ^ 

deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 
c 688— Arcadia— California 

AUTUMN 1956 


Lasca Leaues 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute an 
the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issued on the first of 
January, April, July and October. 

editorial committee 
Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Ellzabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Succulents Scott E. Haselton 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 

Louis B. Martin, Editor 

Vol. VI OCTOBER, 1956 No. 4 


Southern California Herb Garden Mary B. Darrow 74 

Rare Trees in Elysian Park Theodore Payne 76 

Manfred Meyberg 

Edward Owen Orpet Victoia Padilla 80 

Selective Weed Control in Dichondra Turf with CMU 

Boysie E. Day and Chester L. Hemstreet 83 

Names, Notes and News 

1955 Weather Report 

All material in Usca Leaves may be freely reprinted, but acknowledgement 
is requested, together with a copy of the publication contammg the reprmt. 




Herbs, mystery plants to the moderns 
of our atomic age, will soon be finding 
their way back into our everyday life. As 
the beautiful herb garden at the Los Ange- 
les State and County Arboretum becomes a 
fully accomplished fact, the time for their 
re-entrance becomes ever nearer. The ener- 
getic work of the Southern California Unit 
of the Herb Society of America tErough 
continual planning and planting has al- 
ready made the garden an attraction for 
visitors to the Arboretum. 

It was a telephone call in November of 
1951 which resulted in a meeting at the 
Arboretum with the late Charles Gibbs 
Adams, Dr. Seibert and a committee from 
the Unit, to discuss the idea of an herb 
garden. The Unit agreed to furnish the 
plants and aid in designing the garden. 
Mr. Edward Huntsman-Trout, a noted 
landscape architect, was engaged to aid in 
the project planning. George Spalding, 

, Dar 

Arboretum Superintendent, was 
to work with the Unit Commit 
ing began in November of 1952 
final plan approval and the garuv.. - - 
tion finally established. 

Today, a beautiful rosemary nioi 
draws the attention of the visitor to 
north side of Tallac Knoll, just west ot 
Coach Barn, where herb dreams are 
'""Ai^^thV^arden's entrance, brilliantly 
colored annuals, well known ^to rncS^t 
herb gardeners, greet one. In o den ja^ 
many flowers which are just that to ' 
today, were used for home remedies, 
nearly every flower has been listed 
herb at some time in history. 

After one passes the ^ower bed^^^ 
sees a "pattern'- garden. Here ^ 

AUTUMN 1956 


where color is supplied by the foliage c 
the herbs. Boxwoods border the stone chi 
beds. Planted near the patterns are sant( 
lina and germander, forming small hedg( 



. plot 

irden (.1, 

> be the base for an 
astrolobe. Set in the four corners of the 
paving will be ornamental hollies shaped 
as they were in medieval days, when holly 
was a well used herb. 

From the paving, one walks into an 
allee, where a vista has 
planting eighteen flow 
this spring. These trees 
Unit from the Los Ang 
On either side of the allee, arc beds i,; 
culinary, fragrant and medicinal herbs, the 
latter used by the American Indians and 
the Aztecs. There is also a bed of simples. 
A collection of thymes will be seen in a 
bed ninety feet long and seven feet wide. 
Included in this collection will be many 
species unknown at present to the modern 
home gardener. 

The sweet httle old fashioned dianthus 
or pink finds a place in the fragrant gar- 
den. Mints, both beds and borders, will 
also be found here. At present, a clipped 
border of apple mint forms a well kept 



salvias, flax, fever-fe 

nted and other 

walled medieval garden (future) i 
ping well. Designed by Mr. Hu 
Trout, the well suggests a replica 
of ancient days. The well curb is 
bnck. An ornamental iron arch witl 
rope and bucket add authentic: 
charm to this setting. 

An old fashion rose collection i 
planted in a separate garden. This 

located across the roai 

rectly south of the Coach Barn. A display 
timulate herb ; 

of some 200 

their petals for potpourri. 
. The special labels, placed as each plan 
ing IS completed, will make an education 
feature of the two gardens for the botanis 
horticulturalist and gardener. Further plai 

the Herb Class if 
well. The well's design was created by 
Mr. Huntsman-Trout 

include an opportunity for many visitors 
to obtain herb products. Funds raised in 
this manner will be used for the garden's 

Although incomplete, the herb garden 
has enjoyed visits of internationally recog- 
nized herbarists whose comments rank this 
garden as one of the finest collections in 

Note: Between July 11 and August 15, 
the following members of the Unit con- 
ducted a highly successful series of six lec- 
tures on herbs and their uses: Mrs. A. D. 
Richardson, Miss Edna K. Neugebauer, 
Mrs. S. A. Briggs, Miss Ruth B. Randall, 
Mrs. Maria Wilkes, Mrs. F. E. Betts, Mrs. 
E. J. Morgan and Mrs. M. B. Darrow. 
These weekly classes were a part of the 
Arboretum's developing educational pro- 
gram. A special thanks is expressed to Mrs. 
Harold Wilcox, president, and Miss Mar- 
guerite Dumbauld, class organizer, for 




This is the history of the collection of 
rare trees and shrubs in Elysian Park; 
where they came from and how they hap- 
pened to be planted there. 

Back in 1890 an Englishman named 
H. A. Brydges established a nursery at 
440 South Broadway. Two years later this 
nursery was taken over by Lyon and 
Cobbe. The firm of Lyon and Cobbe was 
succeeded in turn by Lyon and Company; 
Ethehnd Lord; Lord and Evans- Evans 
Boyson and Saint; Evans and Saint; and 
Hugh Evans. On November 3, 1903 I 
purchased the nursery from Hugh Evans 
for the sum of $800.00. 

So being, as we might say, the legal 
heir to the firm of Lyon and Cobbe, and 

lege to write this story. 

At a meeting of the local horticultural 
society It was proposed to establish a 
small botanic garden of rare plants in 

Elysian Park and for this purpose the 
Park Department set aside an area at the 
head of Chavez Ravine. A botanic garden 
committee was appointed, the members of 
which were— William S. Lyon, J. C. Har- 
vey and Austin Campbell-Johnstone. Wil- 
liam S. Lyon was a well known ' ' ' 

did ( 


collecting in Southern California and on 
Catalina Island. The tree Lyonothamnus 
"Catalina Ironwood" was named after 
him. Also Prmius lyonii "Catalina Cherr)'" 
and many other plants. Before going into 
the nursery business he was the first State 
Forester of California, ser\'ing in that ca- 
pacity from 1887 to 1892. He wrote a 
book, "Gardening in California" pub- 
lished by George Rice & Sons of Los An- 
geles ; a fine work now long since out of 
print. Later he took a government posi- 
id died there 


J. C. Ha 

1 official of the Stan- 

^dendrum capense, "Cape < 

AUTUMN 1956 


^ ^ ^ Photo by Ralph D.Cornell 

dard Oil Company. He was an enthusiastic 
horticulturist and an authority on tropical 
and semi-tropical vegetation. He traveled 
a great deal in various countries and col- 
lected many of the seeds from which these 
trees were grown. 

He and Lyon more than any others were 
responsible for this project; they shared 
the expense and donated the trees to the 
Park Department. 

Austin Campbell-Johnstone and his 
brother Conway were the owners of the 
Campbell- Johnstone Ranch near Pasadena, 
including Johnstone Lake. He was an 
authority on Australian flora, especially 
the eucalypts and acacias. While interested 
in horticulture generally, his special hobby 
was bulbous plants of which he had a fine 
collection at his home on South Fairoaks 
Avenue in Pasadena. 

Charles Russell Orcutt, a well known 
botanist of San Diego, took quite an in- 
terest in this undertaking and collected 

some of the seeds. Possibly William S. 
Lyon imported some kinds. 

The Botanic Garden Committee and 
members of the horticultural society used 
to gather in the Park on Sunday morn- 
ings. The trees and shrubs were planted 
out in 1893 and 1894. Ernest Braunton, 
an employee at the Lyon and Cobbe Nurs- 
ery, did the actual planting. 

I met Mr. Lyon a few days after arriv- 
ing in California in June of 1893, and 
made the acquaintance of Charles Russell 
Orcutt, Austin Campbell-Johnstone and 
J. C. Harvey soon after entering the em- 
ploy of Germain's in April of 1896. 

Much of the above information to- 
gether with a list of plants was given to 
me by Ernest Braunton many years ago. 

Today about fifty of these trees are still 
growing in the park. It is not my inten- 
tion to list all of them but simply to 
mention a few of the most interesting 


By far the most beautiful tree in the 
park today is Calodendrum capense "Cape 
Chestnut", from South Africa. With its 
rich dark green foliage and numerous 
terminal panicles of lilac pink flowers it 
is indeed a pleasing sight. This tree has a 
spread of 67 feet and when in bloom 
carries thousands of flower spikes. It is 
most likely the parent of all trees of this 
species in California today. 

Just across the path from the foregoing 

some evergreen tree producm, 
of yellow orange or orange i 
When this tree is in bloom : 


large spec 

Handsome trees witn pinnate 

foliage and quantities of yellow flowers. 

Chorisia speciosa 'Tloss-Silk Tree" 
from Brazil is an odd looking specimen 
with a swollen trunk which looks almost 
like a barrel. The trunk and branches are 
of a greenish color and are covered with 
immense numbers of stout thorns. The 
soft silk or cotton from the seed vessels 
of this tree is used for pillows and 

js a large spreading tree with pinnate 
leaves sometimes over two feet long It 
furnishes a fine wood used for cigar boxes 
and furniture. Interesting for its large 

hkeimdf s zi::r'' ^'^^^ ^^^^ 

A large specimen of Cupressus guada- 
luj,enm "Guadalupe Cypress" is quke 


Not far from this cypress is a very tall 

straight specimen of the^^.^//,/r aJstndn 
Kauri Pine", from New Zealand This 

tree must be well over 100 feet high. 
There is a fine specimen of the Macada- 

mia ternijolia "Queensland Nut" with 

rich green foliage. 

Dalbergia sissoo "Sissoo" from India is 
described as growing into tall tree, how- 
ever the specimen in the park is probably 
not over 25 feet tall but has a spread of 
40 feet. 

Across the road from the other trees is 
a fine specimen of Scbotia latifolia, a native 
of South Africa. This particular plant is 
not very tall but has a spread of over 30 
feet and the foliage completely covers the 

Of special interest is a very fine speci- 
men of Phius cenibroides var. pmjaM, 
"Parry's Nut Pine" a native California 
species. This tree is about 40 feet high and 
has a trunk diameter of 20 inches three 
feet from the ground. It is doubtful 
whether there are any trees in the wild 
state larger than this one. 

Another unusual plant, also a Califor- 
nia native, is a very large specimen of 
Sintmonds'ia calijormca "Goat-Nut" or 
"Jajoba". This plant is 10 feet high and 
has a spread of 12 feet. I have never seen 
anything in the wild state to compare with 
it for size. A few years ago it was really 
taller than now. It was about l4 feet. 
Then it fell over and continued to grow 
in a reclining position. It is the most intri- 
cately branched plant I have ever seen. 
The branches twist and turn in every di- 
rection forming a fantastic mound of 
intertwining vegetation. 

It would be well worthwhile for any 
lover of plants to visit this site and see 
this interesting as well as botanically his- 
torical collection of fine specimen trees. 


A recent view of the Herb Garden look- 
ing north from Tallac Knoll. In the rigW 
foreground, one sees the "Pattern' 
den. Leading from this garden to the let 
is the allee bordered by flowering '^f^ 
trees. Toward Tallac Knoll, left fore- 
ground, will be the Medicinal Garden- 
North of the allee can be seen the Kitchen 
Garden. A detailed story of the develop- 
ment of the Herb Garden appears within 
the pages of this issue. 

AUTUMN 1956 



We are gathered here as friends to say 
farewell to one of God's noblemen— Man- 
fred Meyberg. Few men ever lived who 
had so many friends or so well deserved 
them — Manny knew and understood bet- 
ter than most men the truism "Friends are 
not made— they are recognized." The 
warmth of the man — the excellence of his 
character— the completeness of his integ- 
rity was deeply impressed upon all who 
have had the good fortune to know him. 

Manny finished out his three score and 
ten ; God has been kind to him. The vigor 
of the man, the brilliance of his mind kept 
him constantly busy until the hour of his 
passing doing things for his fellow man, 
planning things for the future which 
would bring happiness to others. 

He leaves a heritage to his community 
which cannot be measured with exactitude 
any more than it is possible to evaluate a 
sunset, a rainbow, or a view of the gran- 

At a time when so many have been over- 
burdened with the materialistic necessities 
of life, Manfred has given to this com- 
munity a greater appreciation for the in- 
tangible values which have made this a 
finer and more beautiful place for us all. 

There are many facets of his life that we 
could dwell upon at great length, all of 
which bring out the splendid qualities 
which are the measure of our friend. 

He was a devoted husband whose fore- 
most purpose in life was to provide a 
home in the truest sense of the word. He 
lived for the happiness of his loving wife 
Elza and her son Melville, who gave his 
We for his country in World War II. 
Elza has stood at his side and has entered 

encouragement. Their home life has been 
^ superb example to all who undertake 
burdensome responsibilities in the business 
and civic world. 
Manfred was a devoted son of parents 


career as a horticulturist. At the age of 35 
he was entrusted with the responsibility of 
one of the leading horticultural firms in 
the United States. In this capacity he served 

But Manfred Meyberg was more than a 
successful businessman. He was a creative 
genius in his field and his firm became a 
leading developer of All-American roses 
which became world-renowned. 

That his firm became one of the nation's 
largest seed distributing firms is a tribute 
to his leadership — that the members of his 
fine organization respected and loved him 
is a tribute to the high principles which 
motivated his conduct. He had a deep and 
abiding affection for his co-workers who 
were in a true sense members of a family 
working together for common objectives. 

Manfred was a successful businessman 
who recognized and accepted a full mea- 
sure of civic responsibility. He gave of 
himself unstintingly in causes for the 
beautification and betterment of our com- 
munity. Those of us who worked with him 
have been constantly impressed by his 
boundless energy, his great tolerance, his 
generosity and his selflessness. He was 
never one to seek credit for himself. He 
was a motivating force in many successful 
community enterprises in which he pre- 
ferred to remain in the background and 
gave generously of his time and his sub- 
stance to these causes. 

We all will remember him for his in- 


spirational leadership in the California In- 
ternational Flower show which he helped 
develop into the leading institution of its 
kind in the world. There are innumerable 
organizations with which he was actively 
affiliated, such as the California Arboretum 
Foundation, the California Institute of 
Technology, Los Angeles Beautiful, and 
the Los Angeles Business Men's Garden 
Club of which he was a founder. There 
was no organized effort for the beautifica- 
tion of the Los Angeles area in which he 
did not have an active and interested par- 
ticipation. Many of us here today have 
worked with Manfred in these endeavors 
—we will all know how greatly his en- 
thusiasm and counsel will be missed. His 
work will continue through those who 
have been inspired by his love of our com- 
munity and his love of beauty. 

Manfred believed in the good that is 
established by the Creator and he en- 
deavored in every way possible to bring 


I life. 

Manfred, but I am only one of many 
whose lives have been benefited by the 
generous manner in which he gave of him- 
self in service to his fellow men. We all 
know and loved Manfred Meyberg— We 
shall always cherish his memory. 

From sense 
From mist a 
The dawn c 

The V 

i shadow into Tri 

nging: I have found the v, 

My own life has been enriched I 

Vaya con Dios, Manny. Go with God, 
under whose protecting and understanding 
arm you have walked all of your fine, hon- 
orable and constructive life. 

Charles S. Jones 


Victoria Padilla 

Like so many of the plantsmen who 
have contributed to California horticul- 
ture, E. O. Orpet (as he prefers to be 
known) is an Englishman who at an early 
age came west to find his fortune. Even if Jerse^ to take ch 
he had wanted to, young Orpet could not ' - - 

have escaped his destiny as a plantsman, 
for his father, a professional gardener, 
reared him among plants ; and at fourteen 
he was apprenticed to learn gardening on 
a large estate. Here he learned by doing 
aided by such notable works as the Gar- 
dener's Chromcle, the Gardener's Assist- 
ant, and Nicholson's Illustrated Diction- 
ary of Gardening, which he endeavored 
to memorize. He became interested in 
ferns, the growing of fruits, and the culti- 
vation of rare plants, particularly orchids. 
He made a large and comprehensive her- 
barium, which proved to be a great aid in 
helping identify plant material. 

After four years, Orpet found gainful 

and then 

employment in another 

later at a well-known nursery. It was m 
1887, when Orpet was but twenty-tour 
that his employer sent him to New 
to take charge of the nursery o 
Woolsen & Company in Passaic. A feature 
of this business was the propagation anu 
export of new American plants, especial y 
of native California lilies which were col- 
lected for the firm by the late Carl Purdy. 
At this time Orpet begai 
of horticultt " 

n the long series 

pear constantly through the years- 
first being on N~ r,.^-;^ 

^ of the 

/ears of Orpet's 

life were spent as superintendent ot 
estate of E. V. R. Thayer m So"th i-ai^ 

which he had ...... 

days. Not satisfied with the collect] 
orchids which he could purchas 

I the epiphytes to 
racted in his earh^ 
actions 0 
se, Orpet 

AUTUMN 1956 

soon began to hybridize and raise his own 
seedhngs. In October, 1900, he exhibited 
at the Massachusetts Horticultural Show a 
collection of hybrid Cattleyas which he 
had raised from seed. This was the first 
time that any hybridizing of Cattleyas had 
been done in this country, and his display 
created no small furor. For this collection 

Photo by Ralph D. Cornell 

where in California for a permanent plai 

It was on Thanksgiving Day in 19^ 
when Edward Owen Orpet first arrive 
in Santa Barbara. As his train pulled im 


eyes ' 

great i 

bloom. A land which could boast of such 

In 1910 upon the death of Mr. Thayer, 
E. O. Orpet became manager of the estate 
of Cyrus McCormick in Lake Forest. Here 
he remained for nearly eight years in an 
entirely different environment working 
with vast masses of outdoor material. He 
had to give up orchid culture, but his 
herbacious borders became famous and 
he received many awards for the perfec- 
tion of his perennials. 

But for years Orpet had desired to go 
Jo California, and so it was that in 1917 
he accepted the position of chief propa- 
gator for the United States Department of 
Agriculture at its station in Chico. After 
five years of raising plants, the seeds of 
which had been sent by the Department's 
explorers, Orpet decided to look else- 

and here he has resided ever sir 
months after his arrival in Southei 
fornia, he was made Superintenc 

a Santa Barbar 
he held for ten years, 
cultural beauty of this city is due to 
Orpet's extraordinary talents. The plant- 
ing along Cabrillo Boulevard and the 
islands in the Bird Refuge, the rows of 
olive trees the length of Olive Street, the 
cork oaks which he raised from seed on 
Samarkand Heights, the beautiful Erythea 
edulis on upper State Street bear silent 
tribute to this farsighted plantsman. 

During the years he was working for 
the city of Santa Barbara, Orpet was also 
busy experimenting with new plant ma- 
terial at his home. David Fairchild sent 



him seeds of all the new plants which he 
thought might be of interest to him. 
Orpet had purchased six acres of gently 
sloping land, where the soil was unusually 
rich, and upon which he erected his home, 
two greenhouses and two lath houses. He 
was chiefly interested in plant material 
that was rare and unknown, and yet not 
too difficult to grow. He had not been 
long in Santa Barbara before he realized 
that the plants which would do best were 
those that could withstand long periods of 
drought. So it was that his interest turned 
to succulents and cacti. He saw many pos- 
sible uses of Mesembryanthemums, espe- 
cially for highway use. With the help of 
Kate Sessions of San Diego, he intro- 
duced three spedes—Hymenocyclus cro- 
ceus, Hymenocyclus purpureo-croceus and 
Hymenocyclus luteolus —which can be 
seen today in areas south of Santa Bar- 

From Dr. Marloth in South Africa, 
Orpet obtained seeds of some of the finest 
aloes and has grown superlative specimens 
of Aloe candalabrum, A. supralaevh, A 
Marlothii and A. speciosa. These aloes 
have been used extensively in parkways 
and intersection plantings in Santa Bar- 
bara, and at the present time there is a 
spectacular grouping of them outside the 
wall of a residence on Channel Drive. 
Orpet s interest spread to aeoniums and 
euphobias, and he has done much to 
popularize these interesting plants. 

The exotics that E. O. Orpet has intro- 
duced into Southern California are lecion 
Many of the trees and vines which Cali- 
tornians today accept as alwavs having 
been a part of the landscape 
which were tried out as exper.x.i^ut:, m 
his garden There lived happily plants, 
the seeds of which came from the farther: 
most corners of the globe. From East 
Atrica he brought the now f 
1 Chil< 

miliar T/mn 

the startlingly beautiful terrestrial brome- 
had Puya alpestris. from the Himalayas 
he secured seeds of the beautiful tree 

Orpet begai 

amaryllids and did much to create an in- 
terest in this very interesting bulb family. 
He found them to be particularly adapt- 
able to Southern California growing con- 
ditions, the plants requiring a period of 
drying off in the early summer in order 
to produce flowers. From Mrs. Bullard, 
who had imported much interesting bulb- 
ous material, Orpet obtained some white 
forms of Amaryllis multijlora, which he 
used in his early hybridizing, creating the 
famous 'Orpet white'. Later, with the 
assistance of Mr. Dickinson of Las Po- 
sitas, he brought in more of the whites, 
including "Hathor". As a result, both the 
white and colored A. multi flora are well 
established in and around Santa Barbara. 

Orpet has collaborated with others in 
introducing some notable plant material. 
He was associated with Hugh Evans in 
the introduction of the popular Chamae- 

were responsible for bringing into Cah- 
fornia many beautiful dwarf flowenng 

In 1930, due to the serious illness of 
his wife and also to the fact that his 
nursery required all his time, Orpet re- 
signed from his park work. Mrs. Orpet 
died in 1931, but the following year he 
married Mildred Selfridge. This was a 
happy choice, indeed, for she is a woman 
possessing a keen intelligence, a gracious 
personality, and a great enthusiasm for 
the work of her husband. For the past 23 
years she has been his closest companion, 
and through much writing has done a 
great deal to perpetuate his place in horti- 

Although Orpet did not arrive on the 
horticultural scene in Southern California 
until 1922, his place as one of its leaders 
is undisputed. Not only would Southern 
California gardens lose much of their 
charm if those plants which he introduced 
or popularized were taken away, but if he 
had not been attracted by the lantana 
abloom at the station in Santa Barbara, 
California would have been denied one 
of its most colorful and dynamic person- 

(At the Ju 

ting of the Southern 

AUTUMN 1956 


California Horticultural Institute, a spe- horticulture and in particular for the con- 
cial award was given Mr. Orpet in recog- tributions he has made to the hortic-ultural 
nition of his outstanding achievements in scene in Southern California.) 



n of the 

Both greenhouse and field experiments 
indicate that mature dichondra has a prac- 
tical degree of tolerance to CMU. Some 
injury usually appears after treatments but 
this can be minimized by washing 
residues from the foliage by sprinkle 
gation. Otherwise, foliar abs 
herbicide causes chemical «.xv. 
chlorosis of the leaves. Injury from foliar 
absorption is superficial and temporary 
with plants recovering normal vigor and 
appearance within about six weeks after 

CMU is the abbreviation of the chemi- 
cal name of the herbicide 3,/? chlorophenyl 
1, l-dimethylurea. CMU is widely used 
for weed control on rights of way and in- 
dustrial sites and has limited agricultural 
uses. It is most effective when leached into 
the soil to be taken up by plant roots. The 
action of CMU is not widely selective be- 
tween species although older plants are 
more resistant than immature plants. 

Applications of CMU at high rates (20 
or more pounds per acre) render the soil 
sterile to the growth of virtually all plants 
for a number of years. Established peren- 
nials and well-developed annuals vary in 
their response to low rat^ 
the soil is treated with n 
pounds per acre, we fina mac some spcu 
are susceptible while others are resistar 
However, the seedlings of nearly all sp 
cies of plants are killed by applications ■ 
CMU at low rates. It is thus possible wi 
jow-rate treatments to selectively sterili 
he soil in which mature plants of rel 
tively resistant speci 

s of CMU. 

le to foui 

Certain economic plants including pine- 
apple, sugar cane, asparagus, grapes, and 
citrus, once established, are relatively re- 
sistant to CMU. The soil in which these 
plants are growing may be selectively steri- 
lized prior to the germination of weed 
seeds by low rates of CMU. For example, 
California citrus orchards may be main- 
tained entirely free of weed growth indefi- 
nitely by treating the soil with CMU at the 

Weed control by selective soil steriliza- 
on should be particularly advantageous 
1 established turf in those cases where the 

moval are of limited usefulness in turf 
and the chemical methods, now available, 
do not control all of the common weed 
species. Crabgrass (Dig/taria spp.) and 
other weedy grasses are resistant to the 
;gulator type of herbicides. In 


; vary i 

herbicides. Dichondra {Dichondra 
repens Fordst), for example, is sensitive 
to most of the herbicides now in use and 
the control of weeds in dichondra lawns is 
largely limited to hand methods. Control 
of weeds is a major limitation in the cul- 
ture of this attractive species. 

In the course of a screening test on a 

number of turf species we 
dichondra was relatively resi 
The present paper reports 

observed that 
itant to CMU. 
the results of 


and to test the feasibility of \ 
for selective weed control in 

ing 80 percent active ingredient Karmex 
W, supplied by the DuPont Company). 
Rates of application are expressed as 
pounds of the 80 percent material per acre 
of turf treated. Following the initial field 
tests which indicated appreciable tolerance 
of dichondra to CMU, tests were made in 
the greenhouse, using turf grown in ten- 
inch pots and in flats. Chemical injury was 
judged by visual ratings of foliage symp- 
toms and loss of vigor. 

In greenhouse tests, CMU, which is 
only slightly soluble in water, was applied 
by spraying suspensions of the wettable 
powder formulation in the dichondra fol- 


washed from I 

> the s 

spray residue was 
aves into the soil by 
In other instances, 
effect of permitting CMU to remain 
on the foliage was observed. 

Field studies on mixed stands of di- 
chondra and weeds were conducted at two 
1 San Bernardino County. Spray 
> were applied to small test 
plots with either a compressed-air knap- 
sack sprayer or a hand-propelled boom 
sprayer. In large-scale tests, a power 
sprayer equipped with a twenty-foot spray 
boom was used. Visual ratings of turf in- 
jury were made. Weed control was evalu- 
ated by visual estimate, and in one case 
by counting the number of weeds of each 
species appearing in randomly-placed 

any) appearing directly 

recorded. The density of dichondra, 
weeds, and bare soil was calculated and 
evaluated statistically. Ten counts of 60 

Mature dichondra turf in pots was 
treated with CMU at rates of 1, 2, and 3 
pounds per acre by foliage spraying, fol- 
lowed by daily sprinkler irrigation. The 
dichondra was observed and compared 
with untreated control plants over a per- 
iod of several weeks. Treated plants did 
not show symptoms of injury, nor were 
they measurably retarded in growth. 

In another tolerance test, flats of turj 
were treated with CMU at rates of 3, 4, 5, 
6, 7, and 8 pounds per acre, applied as a 
foliage drench. The spray residue was al- 
lowed to remain on the foliage for 24 
hours prior to the initiation of daily 
sprinkler irrigation. Injury, consisting oi 
marginal browning and slight chlorosis 
of leaf tissues, appeared within three to 
five days after treatment. The severity ot 
injury was roughly in proportion to the 
amount of CMU applied. 

Injury reached a maximum two weeks 
after treatment and was followed by rapid 
replacement of injured foliage. Al 
were judged to be fully recovered two 
. 4 summary ot 


AUTUMN 1956 


Rapid kill and browning of leaf tissues, 
as appeared in this test, is not a character- 
istic symptom of injury to plants growing 
in soil treated with CMU. Soil treatments 
normally cause gradually increasing chlo- 
rosis over a period of one to three weeks 
followed by the drying of leaf tissues to a 
light straw color. These factors along with 
the rapid and vigorous recovery of the 
plants to normal growth suggested that 

of the foliage rather than systematic in- 
jury due to root absorption. If injury were 
the result of foliar absorption, washing of 
the leaves by sprinkling with water soon 
after application of the spray would be 
expected to reduce or eliminate injury. An 
e^eriment was carried out to test the 
effect of rinsing residues from the leaves. 

Four flats of dichondra were sprayed 
with CMU at the rate of 21/2 pounds of 
80 percent CMU per acre applied as an 
0.62 percent suspension in water. Two 
flats were immediately sprinkled with 
water to rinse the herbicide residue from 
the foliage into the soil. The foliage of 
the other two flats was rinsed four days 
after treatment. To avoid washing the 
foliage during the four-day waiting per- 
iod, the flats were sub-irrigated daily by 
placing them in shallow pans of water. 
On the fifth day sprinkler irrigation of all 
flats was resumed. Control flats were sim- 

ilarly irrigated but were not treated with 
the herbicide. 

The leaves of the dichondra in the flats 
that were rinsed immediately developed 
slight chlorosis visible only upon careful 
inspection. The foliage of the plants in 
the flats first sprinkled four days after 
treatment was severely injured. Many 
leaves were killed and those leaves that 
survived developed chlorosis and brown- 
ing of the margins. The injured plants 
recovered rapidly, regaining' normal ap- 

It would appear that injury to dichondra 
by low rates of CMU is caused predomi- 
nantly by foliar absorption and that injury 
can be largely eliminated by sprinkler irri- 

Five field tests of CMU in established 
stands of dichondra turf were conducted 
in San Bernardino County. Treatments in- 
cluded 100- and 300-square-foot, repli- 
cated plots and two unreplicated field 
trials. The larger of the field trials was a 
nine-acre field of dichondra grown for 
seed production. Results from these tests 
are summarized in Table II. 

The field data provide further evidence 
of the tolerance of dichondra to CMU. 
Where appreciable injury occurred the 
symptoms were of the "chemical burn" 
type which presumably could have been 
largely prevented by rinsing the foliage 



vas washed by flood 
-v^ii vji lauuall soon after application in 
the other tests, except the nine-acre field 
trial. Injury was negligible in all except 
the latter test. Here the chemical remained 
on the foliage for several days causing 
some browning of the leaves. 

In the replicated plot tests begun on 
November 15, 1955, the dichondra stand 
^"^o^t 50 percent of 
; the plots A 

On April 1, 1956, more than three 
months after the herbicide was applied, 
quadrat counts of weeds were made in 
the nine-acre treated field and in an un- 
treated control strip through the field. 
Counts of 31 quadrats showed an average 
of 138 ±22 weeds per square foot in the 
control area and none in the treated area, 
Species composition of the weed popu- 
lation in the control area is given in 
Table IV. 

Stands of the weeds listed in Table IV 
germinated in the treated area following 
each rain or irrigation. Seedlings grew 
■mally for a few days after emergence, 

treated. On April 16, 1956, about five . ..^ ...^ 

jJ;?''^^''^^^"'^"*' ^'^hondra and then became chlorotic and died. Dichon- 
«7<=P ^„..^„ ... . exceptic 


./eed density measurements were made by 
point transects in the control plots and in 
the plots treated with three pounds per 
acre. Data are given in Table III. 

The 0.2 percent density of weeds in the 
treated areas represents more than 98 per- 
cent reduction of the weed population as 
pared to the control plots. Dichondra 


density was not affected. It is 
that the encroachment of weeds 
untreated plots was primarily 
areas of bare soil. 

Iso evident 

appeared to be i 
than seedlings of the weedy species. 
development of resistance by dichondra 
appeared to be correlated with maturitf 
and the assumption of its creeping habit 
of growth. 


Results with respect to weed contro 
are in agreement with the results ot 
numerous experiments conducted by *e 
authors in orchards and nurseries under 

Species Compositioi 

Gnaphalium spathulatum Lam 
Unarm canadensis Dum. 
Poa annua h. 
Cotulaaustralis Hook. 
CapsellaBuTsa.pastons (L.) Medic. 

arium L'Her. 
■io L. 

s (Nutt.) Green 

Common f 



J. T. McGah 


The highest temperature of the year was recorded on September 1, 1955 when the thermometer 
went to a record high of 114°. During the first seven days of September the peak high did not go 
below 106 . On twelve days during the year the temperature reached 100° or more. Ten of these 
dZlng'm" September. A temperature of 90° or over was recorded on sixty-eight days 

turl^of ^40°"* temperature of the year was recorded on the nights of February 4, 20, : 

i observed on forty-four mornings, 
s observed on one-hundred-sixty-five c 
ine through October. 

lights the t 
y of Smog was greatei 


Officers 1956 

President Mii,i>Rin I- Mathias 

Vice-President Rai.c.i (<.kni:i.l 

Treasurer Fri n W. Roi^ i kamp 

Secretary Gi:()R(.i-: H. Spalding 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Marston Kimball 

William Beresford Mildred E. Mathias 

Kenneth Bishop Victoria Padilla 

Howard Bodger Alfred W. Roberts 

Philip Edward Chandler George H. Spalding 

Ralph D. Cornell Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Earle E. Humphries Harold Swanton 

Richard Westcott 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member ^ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 
Box 688— Arcadia— California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-820j 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

Index Vol. VI. 1956 



Eliovson, Sima, "South African Flowers for the Flixweed 86 



• Tru 

.Frits W. 

V/ce-PresMeni Ralph D. Cornell 

Vice-Presideut Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary GcoRGE H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O Melveny 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

Arthur Freed Harold F. Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovi:ll Swisher, Jr. 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Frank Titus 

Honorary Trustees 


I Club 


esident, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
Southern California Horticultural Institute 
r\N, California International Flower Show 

Wray Turner 

> Office— Hllltrest 6-5247 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders qOO or more 

Benefactors ' ^^/)00 or more 

C///^ memberships are available at any amouul. from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

8— Arcadia— Califorr 

WINTER 1957 


Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute and 
the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issued on the first of 
January, April, July and October. 

Philip Edward Chandlfr Phii ii> A Mi n/ 

William Hertrich Wn i iam S. S i i w ak i 

Louis B. Martin l.i i Vkav '1 i km k 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Kathf.rine K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents f-ouis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemver 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native Cahfornia Flora PeRCY C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological." .' .' ." .' W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis. Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology ^^^-^^^ Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Succulents Scott E. Haselton 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives ^- ^^^'^^ 

Louis B. Martin, Editor 

Vol. VII JANUAR Y. 19-)^ ' 


Arboretum Dedication Program S, Stewart 2 

Africa, Plants, Elephants and Hippo Pools ! ^p'"'^^ chm 8 


Progress in Botanical Illustrations Scott E. Haselton 12 

A Visit to Linnaeus's Botanical Garden Elizabeth McChntock 5 

Coral Trees in Southern California Philip Edward Chandler 19 

Names, Notes and News ;^ 

Edwin Owen Orpet, In Memoriam 

Book Reviews and Comments 

All material in Usca Leaves may be freely reprinted, but acknowledgement 
is requested, together with a copy of the publication con^ the reprmt. 

WINTER 1957 


WINTER 19^7 



Peggy Sullivan 

Going to africa is like going home. At to stop at ti^iy flower would find \.h 

least, to a California horticulturalist, this group still on the Congo River where th^ 

is^true. For the eastern and southern areas trip started.^ Perhaps . '''^>|^^^°'^j 

overgrown wL'^h all^/zfgarde'n pknls. But a bicycle - but then there are l.ons. 
these plants are growing wild for them. Which brings to mind some iantasti 

One feels as if the natives had stolen them partnerships. Where one looks at wil< 

from our gardens, planted them around phmts in Africa, be also sees or feels th 

their huts, and that the plants had reseeded presence of wild .uimials. At close rang 

say it is'tL'Ther'Ua^aroundTwI^^^^^ capablc\If\lisp'"'^^ Ir.ul man witl 

from them. just one bite. Our gophers, aphids ant 

Therefore, a journey about Africa by snails cannot compare ! Perhaps one of th 

lor anyone mterestei 
not scream "stop" at the sight of > 
Gloriosa lily in full bloom, but one ( 

This in turn becomes extremely annc^— ^ , . 11. 

to other passengers, who for some unex- tional Park a stop was made along I 
Plainable reason do not become hysterical Rwindi River to closely admire magn 
over a Hae.uwth.s .mltitiorns m full cent clumps of P/...;//.v yet 

In Albert Na- 


the I 

■ which the tall trunks 
gracefully curve is honeycombed with 
hippo pools — and they are occupied ! One 

breeze. A second look reveals three gigan- 
tic elephants heading down for a drink. 
No cluster of palms stops them, they 
merely force the trunks aside, as though 
they were papyrus stems. 

In a more gentle way, a smaller animal, 
the Weaver bird ,s associated with this 
ilm. Although the 

ilm is found frequently 



Weaver bird evidently 'occ 
Uganda. As only here was seen the ludi- 
crous sight of dozens of large Weaver bird 
nests suspended from the fronds, like 
Christmas balls from a decorated fir. No 
doubt they feel very safe there, but what 




Toperly ma, 


but also c 

- Maweya Lodge, in Queen Elizabeth 
, Uganda, this garden problem has a 
side. Here the hippo from Lake 
;d the simple rose 

dscape architect, 
complaints from 
ng a garden. B 

tit will seem valid. Over thei 
ave troubles. Mrs. Peter Pottei 
the head of Hluhluwe Game R( 
I South Afric 

11 not let her. They casually drop in 
^ry afternoon-at tea time-^stumble 
ough^the beds in order to reach the 
ugh the turf, 
raffe who de- 

mile trip north to the Mediterranean, and 
while visiting its Paraa Lodge it was 
noticed that not a single cultivated plant 
was growing within camp. This was un- 
usual, since the head of the lodge was Brit- 
ish, and they are ardent gardeners. It was 
explained that to grow anything would be 
impossible as entire herds of elephants 
tramp through camp frequently, leaving all 
planting squashed underfoot. That night 
a certain young lady spent the entire sleep- 
less night shaking on her cot, hoping that 
a very small, filmsy tent with brightly 
glowing lantern would not be annoying to 
a seven ton African elephant. 

Even one's dignity is jeopardized in 
Africa. While stalking close to a magnifi- 
cent male ostrich ,with bright pink neck 
and legs, this photOL'rapher stumbled over 
a lush pink crinunT and fell full length 
into the marsh. But where else but in that 
ever amazing land can one see animal and 
flower sharing the same shade of pink? 

All these animals, farce or friendly, are 

ve. For, in Uganda he 
iture shrubs in hedges 
and the white fragrant 
touch of luxury to his 
Even the pigmy, ^^^^"P; 
g about the Ituri Fore 

blside his^hi 

and 1 

I skele- 

Edward ha 
garden adjacent 
In two nights previous to our Trn;aTThey 
sauntered up at dinner time and reduced 
every plant to its "bare root" appearance. 
A fence was suggested but it seems that 
it IS, and will rip out any fencing, post by 
post. Needless to say, no one loirs th^ 
garden there at night ! 


5 Falls, 

/ gan- 

t Murt 

t the Nile begins its 3000 

ton of woven branches. His hut resembles 
a compost pit ! 

Even a tourist lives like a native. For as 
sleep approaches and a hyena laughs, one 
eyes rest overhead upon the exposed Euca- 
lyptus beams and thick papyrus thatching 
Actually "our- Eucalyptus globulus ^i^^ 
over Africa. How did a botanist de 
cide they were born m Australia As ne 
drives through main thoroughfares m 
capital of Ethiopia, constant attention mu 
be paid to the dodging of great m^unds^^ 
Eucalyptus branches heaped on lit"^ 
keys. Only the skinny legs are see" ^'.^j^ 
mounds bump into town to warm tn 
wet nights in the 8000-foot high city- . 
Addis Ababa spreads through a torest 
tall Eucdyptul globulus. Ostt on 

WINTER 1957 



Unfortunately, being in a car dulls the 
senses and there is not complete enjoyment 
of the plants. But with good luck, flat tires 
and broken steering rods occur, the car 
stops, and the senses are shielded no more. 
It is then possible to sit and admire the 
fragrance of Gardenia thunbergi or peer 
into impenetrable clumps of Grew 'ia cajfra 

While driving near the Indian Ocean in 
South Africa one becomes acutely con- 
scious of a color scheme composed mainly 
of yellows and oranges. The massive red- 
dish orange Aloes like a grotesque tree, 
countless Erytbrwa caffra brilliant orange 
agauist the deep blue sky, swamps of apri- 
cot Tritoma, yellow Gazania creeping into 
the road bed, and the dignified Strelitzia 

ntly amid the drj- 

But then in Capetown area the pastels 
of Proteas predominate, all complement- 
ing the silver patina of Leucadendron ar- 
geutea. This Silver Tree chose well, when 
it chose the noble Table Mountain as its 

they shall not fade. This is^a continent 
that grows Strelilzia mcolai thirty feet high 
in its wet canyons. On its plateaus are Silk 
Cotton trees encrusted with the paper}' 
jewels of Staghorn Ferns. Nearby is a herd 
of elephant— keeping one in the car-the 
the ca'm'craT"^ an a e p 


Francis Ching 

like the parei 
may be rooted. 

nethod of propagating 
joc ana/or stiffly erect plants. 

the new plants are ^renf4i^3IIv 

xond, branches 

isly, only a very few pla, 

by ordinary air-layenng 
are detailed program 
therefore was planned, 

method of propagation. Ma; 

has been of questionable value Another 
problem involved in air-layering is that 
though the newly formed plants form a 
substantial amount of roots, the plants may 

estigation designed to determine 
St suitable and practical methods 
tmg plants by air-layering and for 
^'ing the air-layer for further deveh 

were completely girdled. Alpha naphtha- 
leneacetic acid (NAA), a root inducing 


concentrations of NAA^ ^^e joss . ^ 
squeezed of excess moisture and ^pp 
around the girdled area of the ff^'^'.^x 

after treatment, the air-layers w^r^ 
moved by severing the cane below 
girdled area. The cuttings, decapitated^.^j^ 
nodes above the girdled area ana 

WINTER 1957 




without any visible roots. Shoot growth of 
these plants developed immediately but by 
the end of the fourth week, most of these 
plants had lost their mature leaves and 

Cuttings that were treated with 10 
p.p.m. NAA developed substantial shoot 
growth one week after transplanting, al- 
though the mature leaves were lost by the 
fifth week. Only three of the plants that 
were air-layered with 100 p.p.m. NAA 
produced shoot growth after five weeks 
but ten weeks later, all of the plants still 

While there were no apparent differ- 

were air-layered with white or black polye- 
thylene film, the lower temperatures re- 
corded when white polyethylene was used 
for wraps indicated that this color may be 
/nost favorable to use. Most air-layering is 

iir temperatures Tre high and when light 


Mildred Davis 


culture of Hellebores makes the average 
person afraid to attempt to grow them. 
There are many conflicting cultural instruc- 

Yet with the possible exception of H. 
u'lger. they are almost foolproof to raise. 
Planted in a humus type soil, given ade- 
quate water, good drainage and partial 
shade they will thrive. Most of the species 
are quite cold tolerant. 

Now to disprove some of the "don'ts" 
m the culture of Hellebores. 

They prefer a neutral soil; they can be 
balled and moved even when in bloom ; 
the old leaves may be cut off to improve 
appearance. In fact, on some hybrids which 
have excessive foliage the leaves should be 

thinned to let the blooms show. At the enj 
of the blooming season, the foliage 
be cut almost to the ground level for ne 
shoots will soon come up. . 
The Hellebores will readily fend to 

rows and'thickets in rather dry sod. Supe 
phosphate applied in late summer an 
again durinti blooming period wiU pt 
btneficial. At other times^ a balanced com- 
mercial fertilizer will suthce. It takes sev 

' ■• ■ ■ • ' r bloom mg or » 

ally bloo 

next season. 

WINTER 1957 

the Hellebort 

The entire clump can be dug and divided 
or small divisions taken off around the out- 
side of the mother clump. 

Most of the Hellebores will cut, some 
species lasting longer than others. The 

pin frog in shallow water, a condition in 
which they wilt quickly. If the stems are 
burned or slit from the base upward along 
the stem before being placed in deep 
water, they will last for days. H. niger is 
perhaps the best keeper under most cir- 

In the coastal areas where cold is not the 
order, H. niger is the least happy species 
in cultivation. Therefore, I would suggest 
in quantity. Most of 
.s H. niger (in this 
area) are not that species but orientalis 
hybrids. The former is lower growing, the 
roots are black, the leaves are widest in 
the middle, the flowers are large, usually 
white and borne singly or at most in twos. 
The flower stem is never more than once 

The orientalis hybrids, H. orientalis 
(Lenten rose) are from mixed parentage 
and have considerable variation in size and 
form of leaf. They exhibit a great color 
range in blooms. The true petals are incon- 
spicuous; it is the large broad sepals which 
form a corolla-like bowl that we speak of 
as the flower. Color may be white, pale 
green, pink, rose, purple or reddish ma- 
hogany. Many have curious dots or spots 
in them. A mature clump may be two feet 

tall, carrying 50 to 

In the past, many hybrids were raised 
m Europe, particularly in France. Many 
named hybrids in separate colors were 
once available also. Most of these now 
appear to be lost, but as they grow readily 
from seed there are many possibilities for 
" ' In order to buy a particular 

color, it ii 

seedlings should be transplanted early, 

seed usually takes oxer a year to germinate. 

While all the orientalis hybrids have at- 
tractive foliage, somewhat like eastern 
peony, it is really their bloom that is out- 
most valuable. This species has sculptured 
grey-green leaves, spiny on the margin and 
immense trusses of pale green bloom. Usu- 
ally with us, it grows about three feet in 

at the base of the parent plant, 
undisturbed, it will germinate by the fol- 

October until well into May. .t lx.irs Ho^^ - 
ers. Unless spent flowers .irc removed, the 
blooming season is apt to be curt.iiicd. The 

ground'Ind'which'germinate readily. Old 
leaf stalks past their prime may be cut ofl^ 
to the base. This particular species is beau- 
tiful combined with Mabonia bealei and 
M. lotnctriijolia. It also makes a spectacular 
container plant. While it is more tender 
to cold than other species, it is somewhat 
more sun tolerant. Its native habitat is the 
Island of Corsica from sea level to moun- 
tain side. Even there, those growing along 

stems are deeply tinged and mottled red. 
The flowers are more slate than green but 
f o t t I> this species is not easily ob- 

Another good foliage Hellebore is H. 
foeticlus. The leax^es ^''^"'"^^ f"'^^^^ "^^^^'^ 
inconspicuous because of their smallnc^s 
and coloring. They are^ only about three- 
pencil margin of purplish red. It is a native 
of England. A mature plant has an air)-, 
shrub-like appearance. , , . ■ , 

At present, the supply of good hybrid 
Hellebores is not equal to the demand. 
This makes the initial outlay for them 
seem expensive; however, the future divi- 
dends of beautiful blooms and many plant 
divisions more than repay the cost. 

These Santa Monica. California 



Scott E. Haselton 

ictures, in some form, have been used 
e the earliest records of man. With 
r beginning as hieroglyphics chiseled 

the rock, to the present day printing 
nillions of copies of a single picture, 
can boast that considerable progress 

been made. Illustrations of plants 
ig with religious symbols were among 
first subjects used. 

traced to the Chinese as far back as 700 
A.D. and later to Japan and European 
countries. This process was the cutting 
away of the background on fine, side- 
grain wood and later end-grain blocks of 
wood, leaving in relief, fine lines and 
masses to produce in black upon the 
paper. The final eflPect would appear simi- 
lar to a pen and ink reproduction which 
we use today. The illustrations by the late 
Alfred C. Hottes which have appeared in 
from woodlutr distinguished 
Printing from woodcuts in Europe dates 
back to the fourteenth century Plavina 
cards were also among the early subjects 
With the prints hand colored Wi>h n... 

lages i 

irds the end 

prints of sacred subjects were sold to the 
pilgrims who took them home to insert 
into books of devotion or to put upon the 
ivall, thus establishing a private shrine. 

The popularity of medicinal plants led 
:o the publishing of herbals which are 
imong our earliest illustrated books. The 
irt of engraving was practiced by gold- 
smiths who mastered unbelievable fine 
ines and intricate designs. Even up to 
Zivil War days the intricate war scenes 
Ncrc a challenge to the engravers, many 
5f whom signed their names on the wood- 
ut as do painters of today. Plant catalogs, 
:'Iant dictionaries, and botanical books 
vere fully illustrated without the aid of 
iny mechanical process in making the 
printing plates. 

While wood engraving was being per- 



fected, another process and material was 
taking the place of wood. Copper plates 
were used in which to engrave the print- 
ing lines. The design was incised, not ele- 
vated above the printing surface, and 
when filled with ink gave a relief appear- 
ance when applied to paper. These early 
engravings can be detected by an impres- 
sion on the edge of the plate or a slight 
inking of the corners and background. 
Later these copper plates were etched with 
acid after the drawings were transferred 
to the treated copper. 

The finest botanical work appeared with 
the advent of lithography about 1800 
This process was the drawing on the sur- 
face of a polished stone in greasy crayon. 
In printing, water and ink were applied; 
the ink being taken up by the grease while 
the water covered the remaining surface 
of the stone. Only the inked portion was 
reproduced. The cumbersome stones gave 
way to lighter sheet material and our off- 
set-lithography of today was the outcome 
of this process. Hand coloring the early 
lithographed prints was practiced until the 
appearance of color photography fifty years 

The development of the photographic 
process in the middle of the eighteenth 
century replaced the wood and copper 
hand engraving and made possible the re- 
production of photographs by the half- 
tone process. This chemically etched cop- 

per plate is composed of fine dots which 
faithfully reproduce all tones instead of 
the black lines of the former processes. 
The photographs in Lasca Leaves are all 
half-tone engravings. 

This present day is not only an age of 
pictures but now color is a requisite. 
Hand tinted prints have been superseded 
by the so-called "four-color process". In 
this process the subject is broken down 
into its three primary colors and by print- 
ing a yellow, blue, and red plate one after 
the other, the results are a full color re- 
production. One may ask, "Why not make 
all pictures in color.?" The answer is one 
of simple mathematics— color prints such 
as were used on the cover of the autumn 
issue of Lasca Leaves. Vol. V. No. 4, cost 
eighty to one-hundred times as much as a 

I see the progress that has been 
the reproduction of botanical 
ivherc pictures are of so much 
have passed through the tedi- 
ous stages of hand engraved wood cuts, 
hand engraved copper plates, hand draw- 
ings and the transfer of ilcsigns to stone, 
to the photographic application of pic- 
tures on copper with practically no hand 
work, and now the rendition of subjects 
in full color. It is difficult to foretell what 
the next advancements may be but it is a 
certainty that color will be the dominant 

black and wh 

alue. We 

WINTER 1957 


WINTER 1957 


Uppsala until 1 
he left tor the o 
stop at Hambu 

'tU'n o^Harcltrwyc k in 
.Uone to Harderwyck to 

and others wh 
!y the time he rc 
1739 he had I 

Many travelled to then imexplored regions tained twent) -Icur Jasses and luinKrou 

and brought back plants which Linnaeus orders, all based on the nuiul^crs ot pistil 

named, described and sometimes grew in and stamens. The plants described ii 

his botanical garden. Linnaeus's great botanical classic 

The Botanic Garden of the University Plcuilarnm published in 17x> are arrange^ 

of Uppsala first laid out by the cider Rud- according to this system. Linnaeus ^ t)otarii 

beck had been much damaged by the fire cal garden was, therefore, strictly "ti .tana 

of 1702, and even in linnaeus's student and designed to illustrate his system ol 

Jays it was not completelv' restored. In classification of the Howenng plants know. 

March 17-12, Linnaeus complained to uni- to him. , , j 

vc-rsity authorities of the neglected state of In Linnaeus's later years he purchased . 

the botanical garden, requesting that it be farm at Hammarby about six miles south 

restored and that it be provided with a east of Uppsala winch he anc Ins fam.h 

warmed glasshouse for the growing of used as a siuiimer home anc where i< 

tropical plants. His requests were granted family lived until alter his cieath. t re 

and the old garden was completely rear- mained in the Linnaeus tamily until h 

ranged. New plants were procured through when the Swedish go% ernment purchasec 

his many friends in Holland, England and the buildings and land tor a museum, i n< 

I^rance. a glasshouse or Orangery was built, house, a simple, unpretentious woodei 

and the old stone house built by the elder structure, is somewhat the same in plan a, 

Kudbeck was rebuilt and became the home the house in Uppsala. Around the house v 

0^ Unnaeus and his family for the rest of a garden, not of the formal type, .n wh.d 

ceased to be the offi 
cM> university botanical garden after 1787 
^■hen King Gustav III presented the gar- 

'1^-n ol the Castle to the University, an ^ - _j j . 

linnaeus planted a number ot toreign 

WINTER 1957 


Philip Edward Chandlkr 

Most garden-minded property owners 
in Southern California know the coral tree, 
Erythrina. Few persons realize that there 
are seven distinct species and one hybrid 
from which to make specimen selections 
in the Los Angeles nurseries today. There 
is never a month in the year when at least 
one of the corals is not in bloom. Blossom 
color ranges from light shrimp-orange, E. 
lysistemon, and light bronzed red of high 
light intensity, E. crista-galli, through vari- 
ous shades of orange and orange-red to 
pure red, E. bidivilli and E. coralloides. 
Most forms of this genus are deciduous or 

^of 1 


embryana and as £. T;5/]L/ro"i''the 
largest growing, at least twenty-five feet in 
height, with an ultimate spread of at least 
forty feet. It starts the calendar year by 
dropping its heavy canopy of leaves early 
in January, or earlier if weather is hot and 
dry, and bursting into bloom immediately 
if there is plenty of sun. Its large, heavy 
clusters of burnt orange flowers drip with 
honey. Some years it breaks into solid color 
overnight, some seasons sparingly, with its 
great show in late winter, usually winding 
in early March in a mass of fresh, 
bright green leaves as gay and lush as its 
flowers. This African native is a bit tender 
to frost. It usually blooms best where there 
[s no lawn around it ; its roots should not 
be overly wet at any season. Some speci- 
mens bloom early in life, others not until 
long established. Where space permits, 
fhere is no equal for its great limb spread, 
•ts strongly tropical look. 

Erythrina speaosa furnishes the design- 
conscious gardener with a thorny, free- 
torm small tree, crooked and interesting 

with very large compound leaves, ribbed 
above and hairy beneath. Flowers appear 
in early spring (following mild winters) 
at branch ends, firecracker like, a brilliant 
light orange-red. Normally, tlic plant\ 
height will achieve twelve to fifteen feet 
It likes hot sun, tolerates little frost aiui 
prefers light watering when mature. 

The most recent addition to California s 
corals is E. falcata. So far, three years, it 
has remained green throughout the winter 
and grown exceedingly well. Most of Jhe 

bloom. Any particular weakness and grow- 
ing needs have not been determined, but 
the prevalence of this species in southeast- 
ern South America indicates considerable 
water tolerance. 

Best known of the pure red corals is Ery- 
thrina coralloides (formerly known incor- 
rectly as E. poiaitthes). It is a March 
through May performer of gaudiest poin- 
settia scarlet on naked, twisted boughs. 
This species is somewhat more cold hardy 
than E. cajfra and E. speaosa. achieves 
medium height and spread, twenty-five by 
twenty-five feet, and seems to bloom 
equally well with lawn watering or m a 
drier exposure. Its shade is dense, its foli- 
age brilliant yellow i 



From the rainy sections of Brazil comes 
the coral longest in cultivation in Califor- 
nia, Erythrim crista-gaU,. It is probably 
the species^ responsible for the popul" 

' because the long, thorny 

3lor from a slight dista 
species varies greatly from seed, a superior 
strain preserved only when propagated 
vegetatively. In areas of heavy frost, all 





The members of the Southern California Horticultural Society and the California Arboretum 
Foundation, Inc. express their deep regret and share in sorrow with Mrs. Orpet, the recent death 
of her husband, Edwin Owen Orpet. A brief account of Mr. Orpefs life and horticultural achieve- 
ments appeared in Usca Leaves, Fall, 1956. 




Board of Diri-ctoks 
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William Beresford Mildred E. Mathias 

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Howard Bodger Alfred W. Roberis 

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Ralph D. Cornell Vernon T. Stoutemver 

Earle E. Humphries Harold Svc anton 

Richard Westcott 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor FRei' RoE^x■EKAMP 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher. Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Tov>; nmm' 

Roy F. Wilcox 

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The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

sponsors of 


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reasurer Howard A. Miller 

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Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

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President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
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president, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
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SPRING 1957 

Lasca Leaves 

ly publication 
e California J 

Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wrav Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara — Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Succulents Scott E. Haselton 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 

Louis B. Martin, EJilor 

FoL. VII APRIL, 1957 No. 2 

Horticultural Research Notes on Gibberellic Acid 

W. S. Stewart and F. T. Ching 26 

Book Review Mildred E. Mathias 28 

Citrus for Ornamental Planting in California W. P. Bitters 29 

Book Review Dora M. Gerard 44 

The Zoysia Lawn Grasses H. R. Halsey 45 

All material in Lasca Leaves may be freely reprinted, but acknowledgement 
is requested, together with a copy of the publication containing the reprint. 


Horticultural Research Notes on Gibberellic Acid 

W. S. Stewart and F. T. Ching 

Gibberellic acid, a relatively new chemi- 
cal in the field of plant hormones, is now 
readily available for research and horticul- 
tural uses and is being widely advertised. 
One company is selling the crystalline po- 
tassium salt of gibberelHc acid under the 
trademark of "Gibrel". In general it has 
the effect of causing elongation of plant 
cells and when applied as a foliage spray 
it frequently induces the stems to grow 
longer. This response may have numerous 
horticultural and agricultural applications 
when It is desired to obtain taller plants 

Another response mduced in some 
plants by gibberellic acid is an acceleration 
of flowering and breaking dormancy. Let- 
ter before flowering, will flower without 
the cold treatment when sprayed with gib- 
berellic acid(2, 4). Hyoscyamus, another 

period prior to flowering, has flowered in 
response to gibberellic acid applications 
without the dormancy (3). 

gibberellic acid results obtained from ex- 
periments at the Los Angeles State and 
County Arboretum during the past eight 
months are presented here in the form of 
a brief progress report. 

In these^ experiments gibberellic acid 

spray or in lanolin as a narrow ring about 
3 mm (Vs inch) wide around an elongat- 
ing stem. 

The first series of experiments, initiated 
in September, 1956, were with greenhouse 
grown tomato seedlings var. ponderosa 
(Ferry Morse selection) about 15 cm (6 
inches) in height at the time of treatment. 
The expected stem elongation resulted 
from both the lanolin ring applied around 
the stem at the cotyledonary node and the 
foliage spray. An unexpected difference 

SPRING 1957 




ing the image of citrons. Other articles bearing citron fruits imprinted thereon have also 
been found. The citron became an important part of the Hebrew's religious rites, and 
the Etrog citron is currently utilized in certain Jewish services, namely the Feast of the 
Tabernacles. The Bible, however, makes no reference to citrus fruit. The term "apple" 
was loosely used as a term for fruit in general, and the citron is still occasionally referred 
to as the Persian apple or Median apple. 

The conquest of Alexander the Great introduced the citron to Greece. Later, conquests 
by Rome extended it to the shores of Italy. Both Greece and Rome recognized its decora- 
tive value and ancient mosaics, murals and sculpturings, found in their temples, public 
baths and other public buildings included the citron. Such mosaics were found in the 
ruins of Pompeii, Tusculum and other Roman cities. 

There are many legends concerning citrus in ancient mythology; only a few are men- 
tioned in this article. One of these suggests that at the wedding of Jupiter and Juno, the 
king and queen of the gods, a tree sprang up bearing golden fruit. So proud were the 
gods of this fruit, but so fearful of its being stolen, that they placed it on the Isles of 
Hesperides with Atlas the giant to guard them. The hero, Hercules, was assigned as one 
of his twelve tasks, the feat of obtaining some of these "golden apples of Hesperides' . 
As you know he succeeded, although the giant Atlas almost tricked him into holding up 
the sky. Apparently later Perseus who slew the Gorgon (from out of whose body sprang 
Pegasus, the winged horse) must have also visited the Isles of Hesperides. Atlas, fearful 
that Perseus was going to steal some of the "golden apples," tried to force Perseus to 
leave, and Perseus, holding up the head of the Gorgon, turned Atlas to stone— and the 
Atlas mountains in northwestern Africa hold up the sky today. 

There is also the story about the Grecian maiden Atlanta, who was as fleet of foot as 
Jhe was beautiful. She had many suitors, but her conditions for marriage included beating 
her in a foot race. If they did not, they lost a very important part of their anatomy when 
they were beheaded. One of the suitors, Hippomenes, obtained some of the golden 
apples and beat her in the foot race by rolling the apples at her feet as she passed him, 
and won as she stopped to pick them up. 

These arc but a few of the legends and myths. How and when these legends arose is 
not known, but it should be pointed out that the citron was apparently the only citrus 
fruit known to these countries ; the sour orange and the sweet orange were introduced 
centuries later. The citron is also frequently mentioned in the writings of Theophrastus, 
Vergil, Pliny and other writers of that period. 

^In passing, it might be of interest to^briefly mention the origin of the name "^'^^^^^'^ 

for poison, correcting feLd breath, relief L''a?hmatkrprote°ctk)n^ against moths a 
remedy for rheumatism and sore mouth, a cure for intestinal disorders and a cure for 
dyspepsia. According to one explanation, since the fruit had the same general uses as the 
wood of the Sandarak tree, (Callistrus quadnvalts) the ancient name of this wood was 
applied to the fruit as hUa Otrea. The naming of the Median apple as the citrus apple 
led to the application of the name "citrus" first to the citron and later to other citrus 
fruits. According to another explanation, the word citrus was derived from the Roman 
designation of the African citre (C//r//.f lyhica Varron). The African citre was cypress- 
like in appearance and was valued for its beautiful wood. This wood later became 
extremely rare, and while wood of the citron bore no resemblance to it, the high esteem 
with which both were regarded probably led to the application of the term "citre" to the 
Median apple. 

The Moors or Arabs in their era of conversion by the sword, spread the j 
^c^■ , • . n . -pheyr ' ' ' 

due of the 

3ur orange and incorporated it into their planting designs. Beautiful mosques were pi 
1 Cordoba, Granada, Seville and many other Spanish cities. Supposedly, the largest 2 

SPRING 1957 

most magnificent in all Islam was the Mosque < 
976 A.D. In connection with it, the "Patio de los naranjos" or coui 
was completed at the same time. Sixteen rows of sour orange tree< 
one of the arched entrances of the mosque, were orientated so the a> 

metry and integration of planting design with architectural design 
istic of the moslem architecture. The lemon was also introduced to 

is of the orange rows 

The Crusades opened to tne peo 
the expansion of the Arab empire a 
saders were men of the highest c 
products of art and agriculture in 

their native lands. As a result the sour orange, lemon ana 
vated. The sweet orange reached Europe around the 15th c 
tion of the early explorations 

le people of Europe those 

reas which had been closed by 
e for arts and luxury. The Cru- 
■ere attracted by the desirable 
mght them for their homes in 


soms at her wedding, and as the story goes, so started the custom of orange blossoms 

"Orangeries", or buildings for growing citrus, spread throughout Europe during the 
Middle Ages and the Rennaisance as a result of the Crusades. The first published book 
devoted entirely to citrus was printed in 1646 A.D. It was written by Ferrari and titled, 
"Hesperides". In it may be found a number of drawings of these orangeries. The art of 
budding, espaliering, growing trees in small containers, the "Verdelli" practice of 
making trees bloom ol¥ season were apparently well known at that time. 

By far the most elaborate of these orangeries was that built by Louis XIV at Versailles, 
France in 1682 A. D. The main body of this building was 500 feet long and 40 feet wide, 
supplemented by wings 350 feet long at both sides. Louis XIV used the potted citrus as 
ornamentals about the courtyard and in the palace, especially in entertaining at state 
occasions. His gardeners too used the "Verdelli" practice, and Louis had the scent of 
orange blossoms at his disposal the year around. This building still exists and is currently 
used for this purpose. 

Modern transportation and world trade brought to an end the monopoly that the 
noble and rich held on citrus, and bv the end of the 17th century even the commoner 


A good discussion of landscape principles may be found in Robinson (9). Whether 
these principles are acceptable today or not, they serve to point out the importance of the 
three design factors: color, texture and mass and what to look for in citrus varieties to 
be used for ornamentals in a landscape design. 

Color: The landscape gardener has at his disposal a range of plants from small 
flowering succulents, through herbaceous plants and vines, to trees. In addition, they 
may be deciduous or evergreen, and have various foliage colors as well as the tremendous 
range in color of flowers, size of flower and season of bloom. In citrus, color is more 
limited. In those which might be used as ornamentals, the color of the leaves is, more or 
less, a basic green. One can also consider the color of the new growth, which is in some 
instances, a reddish purple, and also the flowers, which are generally white, although 
some are pinkish or tinted with purple. Bloom is generally confined to the spring season. 
The fruits, however, may be very striking in color, generally orange, but may be green, 
blue, brown, yellow or even red' The fruits also vary widely in size, in number and the 
length of time they are on the tree. 

Texture: Texture in landscaping refers to the degree of fineness or coarseness, as it 
pertains to plant parts. A catalpa tree has a much larger and leathery leaf, for example, 
than the finely divided, feathery leaf of a jacaranda tree. A fan palm is much more coarse 
or rougher textured than a cocos palm. In citrus too texture is a factor although confined 
chiefly to size and spacing of leaves. The size of the leaves and the distance between the 
leaves varies greatly. The shape of the leaf, whether compound or simple, and the sur 
face texture of the leaves are further factors for consideration. The shaddock leaf may be 
eight to ten inches long and four to five inches across, whereas, that of the finger lime 
may be one inch long and one-half inch across. Leaves of the box orange are almos 
round and leathery, while those of the orange jessamine are finely divided and fragile- 

Mass: Mass in landscape design refers to the size and form of a plant. Some plan^* 
are markedly dwarfed while others grow quite high Plants are variously shaped— some 
grow as mats, others as hedges, some are dome-shaped, egg-shaped, vase-shaped, pear- 
shaped, columnar, etc. In citrus, considerable size variations occur. Some plants such as 
the ponderosa lemon are inherently dwarfed and slow growing and may be grown m 

SPRING 1957 


pots ; others, such as the sour orange, grow large enough to make 
Citrus trees also vary in shape and many withstand pruning to sha 
In any planting design it is desirable that two of the three d' 
constant, one may vary. For example, if mass and texture arc con: 

ery well to the use of citrus in a planting. 

Simplicity implies restraint in use of plants. Don't o 
actors. It is best accomplished by repetition and the us( 
ize a singleness of impression. A few citrus trees go a 

Scale relationship involves a knowledge of the i 
s well as their texture. Don't plant a citrus tree that 

ill or vigorous citrus in front of slow growing or dwa 
Balance calls for related organization of the plant: 
se in a planting. It is brought about by uniformity ( 
ree roses are planted on both sides of a walk — not the 

rees are paired. This consideration 

should be given to the 
growth characters. 

Sequence is concerned with proper graduations of the design factors ; color, texture 
and mass. Sequence is thus a uniformity of change, movement or transition from one 
line to another, one mass to another, one color to another, etc. In a planting, a tall variety 
should not be planted next to a dwarf variety, but rather plants of intermediate height are 
used from border to background. Likewise certain colors clash and varieties should be 
planted in which colors blend well or moderate one another. Be familiar with the citrus 
varieties, particularly their size and texture and how they may be associated or blended 
with other plants in the planting. . 

FocALiZATioN is a uniformity of emphasis. It is the proper use ot plants to accent 
or highlight, and in some instances subordinate, a P^'^*''"^^'^ ^^^^j'j^^j^'J^ "^^^^^^^^^^ 
s™p angk'oT7roof"or g^ble, or to hide a compost pile. The striking color of citrus 
fruits will readily attract attention and the compact, dense foliage provides a good screen 

In a planting design, citrus may be used for the following purposes: hedges basa 
plantings, shade, corner accent, framing, '"^^^'^^.^^^/F^^^'u^^ 

J°det1es,'odd^ '^f^.'" 
containers. In the discussion which follows, the autf - ..^ 
he thinks have ornamental possibilities and sugges 

ed. Whil. 

; for such purposes i: 

:ed. they 

gre;'n7oliigrSe7oniy,' while not very showy, they are exceptionally 

fragrant and several selections are nearly everblooming. Lastly, the fruit is in many 
instances edible or useable in one form or another, besides being attractive and showy, 
and may hang on the tree for long periods of time. . , ■ r 

By the term "citrus" the author is referring to the taxonomic classification of W. T. 
Swingle(ll) which refers to those plants in the orange subfamily /! /mm W.v^^ in the 
plant family R»taceae and includes those_ genera ^"^^^^^F^^'^^J a!e refSS^o unXrThe 
closely related, may be generally intergrafted 

and Chr 



or hybridized and have similar potential ornamental qualities. The author has also con- 
fined his remarks chiefly to specimens with which he is familiar and has observed in the 
citrus variety block at the Citrus Experiment Station or in various landscape planhngs 
throughout southern California. For lack of any simple systematic way in which to dis- 
cuss these potential ornamental specimens, they are principally presented according to 
specific grouping and within the group in the alphabetical order of their commonly 

"if'^the^sl^^e amount of care is given to a citrus tree as to a rose, gardenia or camellia 
plant, the results will be equally as satisfying. Cultural practices, irrigation, pest control, 
fertilization, etc. are thoroughly discussed by Johnston (8) and will not be gone into here. 
The Sour Orange Group 
Bouquet sour orange: The Bouquet Sour Orange has been occasionally grown 
in both California and Florida as an ornamental shrub. The variety has been very often 
confused with and mistakenly called the Bergamot Orange. It is apparently identical 
with the Bouquet des Fleurs and generally just called Bouquet. The Bouquet is a type 
of the sour orange with very closely spaced leaves. Specimens rarely grow over eight to 
ten feet high and are somewhat spreading with dense foliage which tends to cluster 
because of the short internodes (distance between leaves). The leaves are more rounded 
than those of sour orange and the fruits are not as large or as conspicuous in color, in 
addition to containing fewer seeds. An extensive hedge of this variety may be found 
at the Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, California. This hedge is now 40 years old 
and IS still healthy and beautiful, requiring a minimum of pruning. It appears to be well 
adapted for this purpose, but is not nearly as fruitful as individual specimens. As a shrub 
it could be used in situations similar to those in which pittosporum is commonly grown. 
It is generally propagated by budding. The fruits are sour, like a sour orange and can 
probably be used for making marmalade or even pie. The tree could also be used tor 
framing, corner accent, an individual specimen or even backgrounds. This variety has 
been extensively grown in southern France where the flowers are used in the manufacture 

Chinotto and myrtifolia oranges: Although somewhat distinct the Chinotto 
and Myrtifolia orange (Citrus aurantmm var. myrtifolia) will be discussed as a group 
since they are so similar. Both are apparently variants of the sour orange. 

The Chinotto has a slightly broader leaf than the Myrtifolia and a more open type 
growth. The flowers are not as showy. It annually bears a very heavy crop of deep orange- 
colored fruits, slightly flattened in appearance, and about one and three-eights inches m 
diameter. This profusion of bright colored fruits, which persist throughout the season 
superimposed on the dense, fine textured foliage make this variety ne plus ultra ot th 
natural dwarf selections. The juice is usable for making a refreshing drink. Some strain^ 
are seedless and are prized for the preparation of candied oranges, jellies, preserves an 
other similar products of distinctive character. This variety makes an excellent pot varie 
or individual specimen and can be used satisfactorily for framing purposes or bas 
plantings. It would also make a good hedge. It may be budded on other stocks and n^ 
been successfully grown from seed, a limitation with the seedless varieties. , 

The Myrtifolia is a small dwarf tree or shrub, with thornless branches and very small, 
closely set leaves. The leaves are only about one-third as large as a standard sour orang 
and their close spacing presents a rosette type growth. The foliage is thus very dens^ 
and compact and the tree is very symmetrical. Growth is generally slightly tol""^"%. . 
conical and mature trees 25 years old at Riverside are only about ten feet in height. Th 
tree has a prolific bloom but in contrast to the Chinotto sets very few fruit. The Myrtifol^ 
IS similar in appearance to pittosporum and could be used for hedges, backgrounds, m 
vidual specimens or corner accent very effectively. 

SPRING 1957 


jolia. which as the name implies, is a willow-leaved variety. It is .i larger tree tlian citlicr 
the Chinotto or Myrtifolia. The leaves are about one-half inch wide and three inches long 
and are more of a yellowish ^reen in color giving a slight "^c? 'as '^'i "^'■'^'^^'^''^ 

variety has not been observed outside of the Citrus Experiment StalHui \arict\ ^illcition. 

has been known and grown for hundreds of years. It was a fa\oi itc u liic Aral^s w hc] 

mental value, the sour orange was extensively used in the landscaping ot the mosc|ucs, 
courtyards and public buildings. In recent years its principal \ aluc has ken as .i rootstock 

(sectoral) fruits of contrasting colors.' jZc^taiii towns recognizing its hc.uity ha\e used 

t^rScrippTcolkge^foJ Girls'^'ckremont, California have effectively used sour orange« 
in patios, courtyards and drives. It may best be used as a shade tree, individual specimen, 
background or corner accent. Sour oranges probably should be budded. Seedlings may be 
grown, but they tend to be more columnar and thorny. 

The Lemon-Lime-Citron Group 
Citron; The Citron, Citrus n/edica. is one of the oldest of the ^'t''}'^ /'"'f'^^^^,"^'! 
tainly one best known tc 
It is not commonly grow 

; United States because the trees are fairly sensi 
) than the 1 

a suitable micro-climate for its planting. The trees are generally grown as cuttings and 
are dwarf in size. They tend to be short-lived. The citron blooms almost throughout the 
year. The leaves resemble a lemon, but are generally coarser and more leathery. The tree 
is generally open or sparsely foliated. The fruits are large, averaging hye to seven inches 
in length and three to five inches in width. The fruit is principally used tor its peel. The 
rind is generally more than an inch thick and is used in the production of candied peel 
which is extensively used in the flavoring of confectionwnd ^^^''^"j J^J^'^JJ^^^^^^ 
flavoring ofTqueu^s anTvermouth and for medicinal purposes. Because of their thick 
rind the fruits keep for a long time and are very attractive when used in table displays. 
The Etrog variety is used by the Jewish people in the ceremonies connected with the 
Feast of Tabernacles. The trees could probably best be grown as individual specimens 
and could also be espaliered. ; , ; ui i 

Fingered citron: The fingered citron. Citrus m.dna var. sarcndac )^n although 
r^ot known to be in California'as an ornamental at the present time (1957 , has been 
introduced under the University's new citrus importation FOgram as a result o^ numer- 
ous requests by garden clubs. The variety is also known as Buddah s Hand While it is 
a horticultural monstrosity, fruits of the fingered citron are highly esteemed for their 
fragrance and used extensively by the Chinese and Japanese as sachets for perfuming 
rooms and clothing. The floral end of the fruit is split into a number of finger-Iike 
sections, hence the name. The plant may be grown from cuttings. Since it is a dwarf, 
it can be grown as a potted plant or as an individual specimen. 

LimeqSats: The limequats are hybrids of the, Otrus aurantiioha. with the 
kumquat {Fortunella sp.). The crosses were made to provide the tender with some 


of the hardiness of the kumquat. All of the limequats have fruits resembling the lime 
in appearance and character, and are used as a substitute for it. While they are more hardy 
than the lime, they are still sensitive to frost, and this with their thorniness and poor fruit 
characters make the limequats not too desirable in most locations. The Eustis and the 
Lakeland are the best varieties, but some fine specimens of Tavares have been observed. 
Limequats can be grown as potted plants or as dwarf specimens. 

Meyer lemon: The Meyer lemon is also referred to as the Dwarf Lemon. The 
variety is perhaps a hybrid of orange and lemon and has some of the characters of both. 
It is a semi-dwarf tree, spreading in character, almost thornless, with dense lemon-like 
foliage. The fruits are very smooth-skinned as well as thin-skinned. The fruits are ellip- 
tical in shape, and obtain the size of a commercial lemon. The fruit is light orange in 
color with similarly colored flesh. The flesh is juicy, lemon flavored and of medium 
acidity. Fruit is available more or less throughout the year. It is an excellent variety for 
home use and is an acceptable substitute for a lemon. This variety is nearly as tolerant to 
cold as standard citrus trees. While it is generally grown as a cutting, the Meyer lemon 
grows well-budded on sweet orange or rough lemon stock. Its principal use is as a dwarf 
variety, used as an individual specimen or a basal planting. However, it should be 
pointed out that as the Meyer grows older, either as a cutting or a budded tree, it may 
grow to large size. The Meyer has also been used as an espalier, and has successfully been 
grown as a hedge. Frequent use of it as a pot plant has also been made. The Meyer lemon 
is very precocious in bearing and one year old cuttings will set and bear a few fruits. 

PONDEROSA lemon: The ponderosa lemon is also sometimes called the Wonder 
lemon or American Wonder lemon. It is a small tree, eight to ten feet tall at 20 years of 
age, depending on growing conditions. While it resembles a lemon, it is undoubtedly a 
hybrid, possibly with the citron. The fruits are large (hen'.t the name, ponderosa) are 
slightly obovate (tear-shaped), and may average up to five or six inches in diameter and 
weigh more than a pound apiece. The fruit is seedy, but juicy and sour. While the flavor 
of the fruit is not as good as the lemon, it could be substituted for it. The fruits resemble 
a lemon in color and are available throughout the year. This variety is frequently grown 
as a pot plant by nurserymen in the northern United States. It is perhaps best adapted 
for this use, but may be used as an individual specimen as well. The variety roots easily 
from cuttings. 



covered with beautiful fruit the year around. The fruits are seedy and are too small to be 
of commercial value but do have an excellent flavor. Trees of this variety would best be 
used for background, individual trees or corner accent. Its somewhat pendant branches 
would not adapt it for shade purposes. 

Skekwasha: The Skekwasha, Citrus pecthiifera. has characters very similar to the 
calamondin and the Cleopatra mandarin. The fruit is about the same size as the Cleo- 
patra, more yellow in color, less seedy and of better eating quality. It could be substituted 
under similar situations. 

Chinese box orange: Severinia sp., commonly called the box orange are additional 
citrus relatives. In habit of growth they very closely resemble the common box ( Buxus 
sempervirens). There are many forms differing slightly in height, character of growth, 
size and shape of leaves, thorniness, etc. Generally they are a low shrub or dwarf tree 
with somewhat rounded leathery leaves about one and one-half inches long (varying 
with the variety) and attached by short stalks to the twigs. The internodes are short, so 
the leaves are densely crowded on the branches providing a very compact growth. Some 
varieties are thorny, others are spineless. The flowers are small, white, inconspicuous 
and lacking in aroma. The fruits are small (about the size of a pea), round, dark blue 
(nearly black) and filled with one or two large seeds. This species may be propagated 
by cutting, seed or budding. It is compatible with citrus, trees 26 years of age are growing 
on it in the rootstock plots of the Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside. The chief value 
of this species is its foliage. Its symmetrical shape and beautiful, dense, vivid green 
foliage would make the small leaved varieties an excellent substitute for the common box 
as a hedge. The large leaved varieties as an individual specimen in any situation where 
pittosporum or carissa might be used. It stands pruning well but is compact enough not 
to require pruning. In addition to being quite tolerant to cold, it also appears to have a 

SPRING 1957 

The seedlings are very spiny. The leaves are probably the smallest ot any ot tlu mn 
citrus and the citrus relatives averaging about one inch long and oiic-tourth to one li.dt 
inch wide. The habit of growth is such that young trees especially have the 
of a very dwarfed fir tree. New growth is long and pendant, and purplish in color. I Ik 
flowers are small, pink and fairly attractive. The fingcrlinu- produces a truit about thru 
inches in length and three-fourths inches in diameter. The Iruits are verv aroinatu and 
could probably be used for making pickles or preserves. Since most ot these \arKtu s au- 
quite vigorous, they could be used for hedges or windbreaks. Fruiun.L; tlu- lower hiaiu hes 
would produce an attractive shade tree and it could be used as an niduuhial tree or 
a backround specimen. Propagation may be made by butKlmi: on utrus. In (.iiftms^s 
or seed. 

HespeRETHUS ACRENULATA: This citrus relative lias some promise- .is an ornamenta; 
because of the pendant nature of its beautitul, teathcrv ,i;reeii tt)ha;:e. It is lompatihle 
with citrus. Experience is lacking with this varietv but it dois .ks,r\( misi.h nimn 

Fig. 4. Kumquat trees for framing at stairway entrance to a sunken garden. 
KuMQUATs: The kumquats or Fortunella sp., are also citrus relatives. There are a 
number of varieties commonly grown in the United States, the best known of which are 
the Nagami, Marumi and Meiwa. F. hindsii. a very dwarf small fruited variety is also 
now available. All are truly deserving of the Chinese synomyms ' golden orange or 
"golden bean". The various species, although inherently dwarfs, differ in their growth 
and are generally propagated on trifoliate orange stock which markedly dwarfs them 
further. The tree and the fruit resemble a miniature orange. The leaves are one-fourth to 
one-half the size of the average orange leaf and are more lanceolate (narrow and 
pointed). The fruits are small, seldom more than an inch iri diameter and var>Mn shape 
with the variety The fruits are bright orange in color and have a thick, fleshy sweet, 
- - - ■ citrus. The pulp is mildly acid and contams several 

in its entirety. The author believes the Meiwa is the 

eaible peel — a uni 
seeds. The fruit is 
sweetest of the com 

generally e 

'. The fruits also make excellent pickles, marmalade and 


candied fruits. The fruits may also be used as attractive and distinct table decorations, 
particularly during the Christmas and New Year holidays, and are generally clipped 
with a short section of the stem and a leaf or two attached. Kumquat trees have a high 
ornamental value because of the numerous, small but highly colored fruits it bears which 
remain on the tree nearly the year around. They may be grown as pot plants but are most 
effectively used as individual specimens for corner accent and as framing plants. In China 
it is frequently the custom to place bearing potted plants on the table during dinner 
where the guests can pick off the fruit and eat them between food courses. The kumquat 
would probably make a fine hedge. These plants are very resistant to cold and can be 
grown in many sites where other citrus will not tolerate the temperatures. 

Triphasia trifolia: Triphasia tr/ folia or limeberry, is yet another of the citrus rela- 

In some instances it has been used for a hedge. It has a cornpound, trifoliate leaf and 
fragrant white flowers, followed by dull red fruits about one-half inch in size. The 
foliage is an attractive, shmy dark green. The plant makes a small, round-topped shrub, 
suitable for dooryard plantings or potted specimens. It has become naturalized to certain 
sections of the United States, is now at Riverside and seems very worthy of consideration 

PONCIRUS trifoliata: The Trifoliate orange, because it tolerates cold, is widely 
propagated in the East as far north as New Jersey. It has a trifoliate leaf, is extremely 
thorny and is deciduous. The flowers are very conspicuous in the spring since they pre- 
cede the leaves. The fruits are about the size of a golf ball, very seedy and inedible. It is 
frequently used for hedges but appears to have no place in areas with temperatures which 

SiNTON citrangequat: a very attractive ornamental in Florida and has recently 
been introduced to California. It is a trigeneric hybrid of trifoliate orange and sweet 
orange crossed with kumquat. The fruits are a very deep reddish orange and are very 
conspicuous throughout the winter and spring. The fruit is not edible. The trees are very 
hardy and could be grown out of the range of normal citrus. 

Orange jessamine: Murraya sp. (Murraya exotica. Murraya paniculata, Chalcas 
exotica), frequently called the "orange jessamine" is a citrus relative perfectly adapted 
as an ornamental. It has a compound leaf, finer in texture than that of the Wampee, very 
simdar to a wisteria leaf but more delicate. The small leaflets are a shiny dark green. 
The twigs are thin, spineless and flexible, providing a dense but pendant type of foliage- 
The flowers are white, fairly large and conspicuous, hanging in large panicles (clusters) 
at the terminals of the twigs or on laterals. These blooms are exceptionally fragrant 
and reminiscent of jasmine. This tree is practically an everbloomer at Riverside and it 
delightful fragrance graces the air throughout the season. The Murraya is fairly fruitful 
and the species at Riverside sets a small red fruit about one-half inch long and one-fourth 
mch wide. The variety question is a little confusing with Murraya. Specimens observed 
"""" • fruitful but less vigorous than those observed in California, ine 
asting green background coupled with the attractive and fragran 
s of citrus ornamentals. Murraya at Riverside withstands 
com as wen as commercial citrus and is practically pest free. The plant withstands prun- 
ing well. It may be grown as a basal planting— such as cotoncaster or abelia, as a corner 
accent plant, as an individual specimen or as a background plant. A very attractive hedge 
may be found in Riverside. Generally, not compatible with citrus, it is best grown as a 
cutting although the author has successfully grown it from seed. The foliage provides 
excellent greens for floral arrangements. Mnrraya koetuPii which is more tree-like m 
growth is in California. Its leaves are used in makintj currv 

Wampee: The Wampee (Clamena lamium) is not a true citrus but is a citrus rela- 
tive. It grows as a tree and may attain a height of 20 feet or more. The leaves are com- 
pound, somewhat similar to those of a native black walnut in size and shape. The leaves 

SPRING 1957 


or intensity of green such as in a variegated ivy. If a plant has \ 
has variegated fruit, but it may possess variegated fruits with 
leaves. When this occurs in the fruit, various peel sectors of the 1 
color. Sweet orange, lemon and sour orange selections are avail 

riegated leaves it also 
ut having variegated 
Jits are of contrasting 
)le in this form. One 

Dnx^arfing ROOTStocks: Common varieties of citrus may be held to small stature f 
by having them propagated on dwarfing ro( 

f the home gr* 

stocks(l). Such trees not only Teq ... , 

pest control. These trees are generally very product 
small size enables one to grow more trees or more vaw^ti^^ ..i a 
foliate orange is generally used as the dwarfing stock although other stocks 
of dwarfing and are used to- I'— -^--J ■ ' ^- 

e and the 

. „ „ ^.:k and to spray f 

proportion to theii 

c although ottier stocKs aic capable 
may be dwarfed up to fifty per^^ent 

endy-dwarf7d\;d:n Jd/;;:; m^bV"^ " 

In addition to dwarfing rootstocks it is also possible to reduce the size of the tree by 
removing a ring of bark and inverting it when it is replaced. In some a small 

strip ot the original bark is left in place. The degree of dwarfing vari. 
of the ring or the width between rings, if a second ring is used. This proce 

Ire un'derwaf with citruV' ^""^P^^"^ P'^''^''^ 

Unusual varieties: The home grower seldom has adequate space to grow j^J^ 

vith the v^^clth 

mid like. Standa 


irge qu 

ting should bee 




or may be used foi 

)ck. Old trees, i.uv^^--; 
, Thought should be 

SPRING 1957 



H. R. Halskv 
The word Zoysia is rapidly becoming 
of southern California. It is the genus 

) specK 

the market, namely, Zoysia japom 
"Meyer Zoysia" or Z-52 and Zoy. 

In the past year, nearly eve 

these two grasses. The prof. 

deluged with questions by the pul 
information and sources of supplies 
or the other of these two grasses. 
approach of another season of lawn plant- 
ing and care, the Zoysias will, no doubt, 
again take their place as the number one 
lawn query here. 

Recently, an article appeared in The 
national Horticultural Magazine (Vol. 35 
No. 3, July 1956) which should be read 
by all Zoysia enthusiasts and potential Zoy- 
sia lawn owners. The author. Dr. Halsey, 
was from 1935 to 1942 Fourth Corps Area 
Educational Adviser, Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps. Since his retirement, he has 
devoted much of his time to furthering the 
n the South. The 


use of Zoysias lawns in the 5 
present article is based on som 

Zoysias. His present address 
Georgia. Space does not allow us to re- 
print his complete article. However, with 
permission of the publishers, The Ameri- 
can Horticultural Society, we have abridged 
the article to bring those parts significant 
in the cultivation of the Zoysias in south- 
ern California. 

The Zoysia Lawn Grasses 
"During the nineteen thirties there were 
three species of Zoysia grass grown in the 
United States: the japonica, the matrella. 
and the tenuifolia. These were introduced 
by plant explorers of our national Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, who collected sod 

nd the slow proc 
ion discouraged i 
iterests. But the t 

niform turf. The lapomc^i blades are 
nd rather stiff, varymg m width ti 
bout three to five m.lhmetcrs. The 
rella blades arc somewhat more flex 
nd their width runs from slightly ( 



It buckles and wrinkles in growth. Its r 
system is rather shallow. It is used to so 
extent in Florida and southern Califorr 
but in very limited areas. 

"The japonica, or Japanese lawn gr: 
is the most aggressive of the three, 
most hardy, and the least attractive 
pearance. It covers ground i 
than either the tenuifolia or 
and has a root system deeper than the 
tenuifolia, but not so deep as the matrella. 

LI I j^^^^ appearance of 


ysia niatrella, or Manila grass, has 
a root system forming a very thick and 
tough turf, unsurpassed for wear resis- 
tance, and thus for children's play areas 
by any grass known. ... The spread of this 
species IS mostly by stolons. The arching 
of these stolons into the air and back to 
the ground is a never-failing source of in- 
terest to the new Zoysia lawn owner. The 
nodes from which roots strike into the soil 
are at about half-inch intervals as against 

Bermuda grass. The resuking^r^Hystem 
is, then, naturally more dense. 

"The zonal range of Zoysia niatrella 
was at first thought to be limited to the 
'Deep South,' but it is growing now in 
Ohio, New York and Connecticut, among 
other more northern states. It is seldom 

advisable to draw sharp zonal limits for 
any plant that can survive a good freeze. 
... It is not so much the severity of the 
winter weather that limits Zx)ysia as it is 
the brevity of the growing season. The 
slow growth of Zoysia matrella requires 
two summers in Minnesota to accomplish 
what it can do in one summer in Georgia. 
The Zoysia japonica grows much faster 
than the matrella and is able to survive a 
longer and colder winter. Several lawns of 
Meyer Zoysia, a strain of the japonica. are 
reported flourishing in the Detroit area. . . . 

"Fertility of the soil is not so important 
as the first dealers in Zoysia grass and sup- 
pliers argued. Any good complete fertilizer 
can be broadcast, about twenty pounds to 
the thousand square feet, and tilled into 
the soil. A starter solution of any good 
soluble fertilizer is worth using as a wet- 
ting agent in which to soak the sod to be 
planted. The sprigs of grass vary in size 
with the different operators, from three 
inches of a single stolon or rhizome with 
roots and shoots to a small handful of the 
material. The important thing about the 
planting is to get the roots down into the 
soil without drying out, and a portion of 
the stems up in the air. It is fatal to cover 
the whole plant, although Bermuda grass 
is very effectively planted by covering com- 
pletely. To make easy the planting of Zoy- 
sio sprigs, the tilled soil is furrowed witn 
a pointed hoe, about two or three mcfie 
deep and at intervals between the furrows 
of from six to ten inches, depending on 
the type of Zoysia grass and the plan tor 
its growth. Probably the most frequently 
used interval for the matrella planting nas 
been ten inches. Sprigs torn from themois 
sod are dropped into these furrows au 
intervals of not more than ten inches, ana 
the soil on both sides of the furrow i> 
packed about the roots and lower portion 
of the stem. . ^ 

"After the planting, the soil must d 
kept moist. Atthis stage^d^epjtting^ 

wetting « 
rapidity of growtl 
depends very largely upon the ^ontmuou 
supply of moisture to the sprigs. This nec 
continues throughout the time req^'^^J. . 

npletely the area planted, but, 
■ I established, Zoysia m 

after the law 

SPRING 1957 


trella is unusually drought resistant. An 
established Zoysia lawn is a paragon of 
lawn virtue, requiring less water and less 
fertilizer, less weeding and less mowing, 
less edging and less worry than any other 
grass known. Its beauty is surpassing, its 
permanence has not been challenged. No 
diseases or insect enemies have yet made 
any serious threat. The only disease of 
Zoysia watrella seen by the author in four- 
teen years of observation has been the 
fungus fairy ring, and that was a single 
case apparently not of much consequence. 

diseases and pests do from time to time 
remind us of the vulnerability of all life. 

"The best time of the year to plant 
Zoysia is undoubtedly just before warm 

the planti 
weather. Once the sprigs are in the grc 

'Mowing of the Zoysia lawn is done 
during the first year chiefly to keep the 
weeds down. If there are few weeds, if 
weed killers have been used, the mowing 
may be postponed. But an unmowed Zoy- 

unlike a beige rug. The c.i 
keep the rug free from t'al 
twigs and other debris is i 
able. In case the price is 

hght ka/ covmng ^ i 



to uniform height. . . . This grass will flou) 
ish under mowing to less than 
o^more than three inches. A longer i 

nap' of the carpet, but the shorter cut 
neater in appearance and freer from I 
danger of exposing a loss of color at I 
stem base following a decided change 

: evergreen 

The Zoysia gra< 
except where there is no frost. The ma 
trella loses its color after the first severe 
frost, usually a few weeks after Bermuda 
grass has become dormant, and it does not 
regain the green until after the freezing 
weather has made its last appearance for 
the year. During the winter season many 
Zoysia lawns are kept clean cut and swept 
With a decidedly attractive appearance not 

it. Thus top dr^sing is dangerous to Zoysia 
grass. A very light top dressing can be used 

season, but the grass must not be com- 
pletely covered at any pojnt. It is well to 

falling from the air and that they germi- 
nate and grow more easily on top dressing 
than upon Zoysia grass blades. 

"The clippings of Zoysia ///alrtlla are 
unlike most grass clippings in that they do 
not readily decay. They should be removed 
from the lawn unless they are very short. 
Since they do not ferment and heat rapidly 
in piles, they can be used as mulch for 
many shrubs. In the compost pile they need 
chemical aid to produce humus within 

ristic of Zoysia matreHa 
: unique is its ver>- slow 

t may 


but steady sprea( 

such an area to a distance of a foot ( 
away from the soil in which it is growing. 
. . . This ver)' slow spread to an adjacent 
area keeps the Zoysia grass from becoming 
a troublesome invader of gardens. ... The 
rate of spread for Zoysia niatrella is usually 
counted as five inches a year, but it can be 
made greater than that, and for the 



i almost always greater. . . . 
)ing ahead in Dr. Halsey's article, 
the thread again as he intro- 
duces certain other Zoysia species. 

"The Meyer Zoysia is a greatly im- 
proved strain of the japonica. capable of 
making a very handsome turf during the 
growing season and lacking the loose straw 
appearance associated with the common 
japonica during the winter. It can be dis- 
tinguished instantly from the matrella. 

during the years of initial promotion was 
Dr. Fred V. Grau, who was chiefly re- 
sponsible for the success of that promo- 

"In the spring of 1955, another new 
Zoysia was released to nurseries for propa- 
gation, this time a hybrid cross between 
the japonica and the tenuifolia, named 
Emerald Zoysia. . . . 

"Emerald Zoysia is an excellent grass. 
It has a beautiful color, as have all of the 
Zoysias when growing vigorously. It has 
a leaf slightly finer than that of the ma- 
irella. It grows faster than the matrelk, 
but does not grow so tall. Its stems are 
shorter than tnatrella stems and this may 
reduce the discoloration that can follow 
•scalping' with the mower. Its shade toler- 
ance seems to be good. It forms a thick 
wear-resistant turf and has shown no sus- 
ceptibility to disease or insect enemies. In 
short, it appears to have the good qualities 
of Zoysia matrella, to be slightly finer 
leaved and to be a faster grower...^ 
iracteristics of the Emerald to watch 
shade tolerance and drought resistance. 
The zonal range of Emerald Zoysia has 
yet been determined, but there is at 
sent no evidence that this grass will not 
ucceed wherever any Zoysia may be 

sprmg r 

overy is excellent — almost simul- 
^ith the matrella. It does not 
thrive so well in the shade as does the ma- 
trella, but the faster growth with full sun- 
light tends to exaggerate this difference. 
The mature turf is not so thick as that of 

"According to the service bulletin of 
the National Better Business Bureau, dated 
February 27, 1956, the Meyer Zoysia was 
selected from plants grown from seed by 
the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture in 1941 and developed by the Depart- 
ment, the United States Golf Association 
and Agricultural Experiment Stations. It 
was named for Frank Meyer, plant ex- 
plorer, introducer of Centipede grass. The 
director of the U. S. G. A. Green Section 

• national life, 
vhen we can consider the beauty 
of our homes and parks, our cities an 
countryside, of vital importance. 
physical environment is not simply the 
concern of the very wealthy, and of garden 
clubs, and of old men, and of professiona^ 
landscapers. It is a matter of national 
pride, of state and city and neighborhood 
pride, and above all, of personal enjoy- 
ment in adding beauty to our own prop- 
erty. For this purpose the Zoysia grasses 
are proving of immeasurable value. 


Officers 1957 

President Mildrkd E. Mathias 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornhll 

Treasurer FRi^n W. Rohwfkamp 

Secretary Gi:or(,k H. Spalding 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Marston Kimball 

William Beresford Mildred E. Mathias 

Kenneth Bishop Victoria Padilla 

Howard Bodger Alfred W. Roberts 

Philip Edward Chandler George H. Spalding 

Ralph D. Cornell Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Earle E. Humphries Harold Swanton 

Richard Westcott 
Advisory Council 

, JR. 

Robert Casamajor 

Murray C. McNeil 
Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swishe 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. To>* 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member 

Group or Club 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 

Contributing Member 

Commercial Member 

Sustaining Member 

Life Membership 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership c 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer I 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 

50.00 ^ 

. 500.00 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— HIikrcst 6-5 217 

WiLLL\M S. Stewart 


W. QuiNN Buck 

Louis B. Martin , . , , 

]. Thomas McGah ...... 

RussELLA K. McGah 

George H. Spaldoh^g 

Edw.^d Huntsman-Trot:: 




^ceivcl^ SUMMER 1957 
Vol. VII, No. 3 

JUL 8 



resident Frits W. Went 

ice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

ice-President MRS. John R. Mage 

reasurer HOWARD A. MiLLER 

ecretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs, Harry J. Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs, Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O'Melveny 

John Anson Ford Mrs, Rudolph J. Richards 

Arthur Freed Harold F. Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Ixecutive-Secretary Mrs, Lee Wray Turner 

Arboretum Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10-00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000 or more 

Benefactors 5,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

SUMMER 1957 

Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute and 
a 1 ornia ^r^or«um ^oun ^^^^^^^^ on t e 

Robert Casamajor Mildri d Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Ml nz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wrav Turner 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. St( 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Succulents Scott E. Haselton 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. Mi^KZ 

Louis B. Martin, Editor 

ill material in Lasca Leaves may be freely reprinted, but acknowledgement 
i requested, together with a copy of the publication containing the reprint. 

SUMMER 1957 


curious it is ever a challenge and place 
of unique beauty. With a scientifically 
equipped mobile laboratory the answers to 
the above and many other fundamental 
questions will be sought. 

But why the necessity of a iiiohilt lab- 
oratory.' There are several reasons for its 
desirability. Perhaps the most obvious one- 
is that it enables study of more remote and 
interesting places than ^ould otherwise be 

it permits the scientist to follow the rain, 
upon which all life in the desert depends. 
Since very often, such as at the present 
time, there are prolonged periods of 
drought, the usefulness of a stationary 
laboratory might suddenly be drastically 
reduced by finding itself completely out 
of range of living plants. Furthermore, a 

urements of photosynthesis, transpiration, 
water content, etc. to be made on plants 

fundamental studies, which cannot readily 
be carried out in the artificial environment 
of a laboratory, not only is a better under- 
standing of the growth and survival of 
desert plants gained, but it is hoped that 

be applied to make the desert a more 
productive place for the betterment of 

The value of the mobile laboratory is 
even further enhanced by what might be 
termed a symbiotic relationship between it 
and the Earhart Plant Research Laboratory 
at Caltech. The latter, because of its unique 
controlled conditions, makes it possible to 
duplicate the climate in nature, while 
eliminating or reducing the number of 
variables. For instance, the effect of such 
single factors as temperature, rainfall, etc. 
may be tested while day length and nutr^ 

Thus, the observations made in the field 
may be tested and analyzed, and in turn, 
the predictions made on the basis of lab- 
oratory tests may be studied in the natural 
environment. In this way both field and 
laboratory work gain a much greater sig- 
nificance than each would have separately. 

In the broadest sense the reason for, 
and spirit behind, the mobile laboratory 

can be summarized in the words of Mrs. 
McManus, its benefactress, who at the age 
of 78 has a refreshingly young attitude: 
"We are all children and must keep on 

' ''As^trange rirravaiTas ever pioneered 
the wilderness, the mobile desert labora- 
tory is a sharp contrast to traditional desert 
associations of camels laden with water 
bottles. Instead, it consists of a beautiful 
two-toned blue house-trailer which might 

fellow trailers honk a cheery salutation 
from a distance, only to gape with aston- 
ishment as they come in sight of the name 
proudly engraved on its side: "California 
Institute of Technology Mobile Desert 
Laborator>^" The secret to its self-suffi- 
ciency lies in the large red truck which 
pulls it. Housed herein is a 500 gallon 
water tank, a generator, air compressor, 
and a stock of gas, oil, and miscellaneous 
tools, with the result that the trailer has 
hot and cold running water, electricity, 
refrigeration, gas, and is fully air-condi- 
tioned. The interior resembles an ordinary 

drawers filled with beakers, slides, petri 
dishes, etc., a small library, microscopes, 
balances, and other special pieces of appa- 

Thus, not only is it equipped for the com- 
fort of the workers, an important factor in 

vides the essential tools to add to the scope 
of the research. 

Stationed at Rancho Senora de Lago 
near Palm Springs, the laboratory is in the 
capable hands of Mr. Lloyd Tevis Jr., a 



Giltcch research fellow. An cxtelleiit cc 
ogist and zoologist, Mr. Tevis condu 
full time research on the animal-plant 
lationships of the desert. In cooperati 
with the Earhart Labcjratory, this W( 

. convenient location in 
interesting and varying t^ 
easily accessible. Included 
LS the Salton Sea, nume 
washes such as Box Can 
and Joshua Tree Nati( 


of the mobile laboral 
vestigation of a number of intriguii 
problems has already begun. Although a 
tually still in the organizational stage, wi 

Tis^fouTd that such desert 
trees\s Palo verde, Smoke tree, and Iron- 
wood occur only in washes. The secret to 
their survival here lies in a controlling 
mechanism of germination which assures 
an adequate supply of water for snn'i 
of the seedling. Germination 
a moderate shower would pr 

i-like reactic 

tcr merely 
? fatal and 


tering new prospects to explore and open- 
ing wider and wider horizons. 

In order to gain some idea of the scope 
of desert research and the usefulness of a 
mobile laboratory, let us look briefly at a 
few of the problems. 


^labo^rato'iy'', regardless 
Disture supplied, provH 
raded, they 

readily. This is exactly what occurs n 
ture. During the floods which occur i 
area of their growth, sand, rocks, etc 
ried by the rushing waters provide a g 

SUMMER 1957 


le bottom of 
r II NT 

American Canal recently. It was found in ior of desert shrubs, one woiulers w 

one area that there was a sharp division the reasons are. To fnul the atiswers. we 

of vegetation. On the one side a healthy must go to the basic physiologital proc- 

growth of Palo verde, Smoke tree, and esses of the plants, such as photosynthesis, 

Ironwood, and on the other, a noticeable respiration, transpiration, etc. It is one of 

lack of all these trees and a generally poor the objects of the laboratory to study these 

state of associate shrubs. The disappear- in detail in the natural environment. By 

ance of the vegetation on the latter side learning the unique adaptations of desert 

was entirely of man's origin. The whole plants, much basic knowledge of these 

area which originally had been a wash had fundamental processes can be gained and 

been partly blocked to flood waters in perhaps, eventually, application of it will 

order to prevent clogging of the canal, make the desert more productixe for man. 

The results were clear-cut. Where nature The present equipment for these purposes 

had been tampered with, death of the is as yet incomplete but preliminary inves- 

vegetation dependent on floods had disap- tigations have been made. In desert plants. 

The mobile laboratory makes it possible water through transpiration could be seri- 

to study the survival of vegetation under ous. Nature has ingeniously endowed these 

the extremes of desert conditions and thus tough dwellers with the means for their 

to gain a more comprehensive view of the protection as seen from measurements, 

factors involved. At present, the results of Thus, Hofmanseggia showed practically 

a prolonged drought are being investi- no measurable transpiration at all, and 

gated to see which shrubs have survived, both Creosote bush and Ironwood showed 

Only those which are able to exist under a maiked decrease during the hotter part 

most extreme conditions are found to be of the day. After watering the last two 

still alive. For instance, near Palm Springs shrubs. Creosote bush showed an increase 

grow in association, Franseria is seen to be wood had not as yet changed, 
the first to be dying off. In areas where In the ability of many desert plants to 

hillsides result in an accumulation of rain vary the size of their leaves or even lose 

water thus effectively increasing the total, them depending on the availability of 

sharp differences are noted from nearby moisture, is seen another of nature s meth- 

flat places. Hence, in a particularly dry ods of pre ' 

: of the 





brownish green ones, and if the drought 
continues, it may drop them altogether 
and still live for some time without rain. 
Dew is believed to be of importance in 
supplying moisture to plants which appar- 
ently have no other source. However, very 

Whereas perennial shrubs in the desert 
depend for their survival mainly on toler- 
able growing conditions throughout the 
year, this is not true of annuals which, 
under unfavourable conditions, are tided 
over for varying lengths of time by dor- 
mant seeds. In order to study the nature 
of such germination, twelve stations have 
been marked off in Joshua Tree National 
Monument and rain gauges stationed in 
each one. After a rainfall the seedlings 
can then be counted and the survival pat- 

of rainfall. Searching for desert seedlings 
is one of the most fascinating of occupa- 
tions. Few people have ever seen these 
beautiful frail-looking plants because of 
their minute stature; in order to find them 

plants'). Perhaps the most remarkable 
thing in connection with these annuals is 
that once they have germinated, regard- 
less of the density in a given area, survival 



more lies in the nature of the seeds, which 
germinate only after sufficient rainfall has 
occurred, because of inhibitors associated 
with them which must be leached out. 
This has been confirmed by laboratory ex- 
periments in which water supplied from 
below failed to cause germination, where- 
as when artificial rainfall of sufficient 
amount was given from above, enabling 
the required leaching to occur, germina- 
tion followed. Furthermore, it has been 
found that the nature of the annuals 
which will germinate after a rainfall de- 
pends on the subsequent temperature, 


; only after a November or 

SUMMER 1957 


Went's belief that the^ concept of compe- 

that evoktion operates mainly thr()Ui:h .i 
process of control of germination, or in 
other words, a form of 'birth control'. 
This is dramatically demonstrated in the 
desert annuals which, rather than conipete. 
share the available water, light, nutrient, 
etc. although these are at a premium. 
Much more work remains to be done in 

NoV^ud'y ofXsert"°vegetation, n,) mat- 
ter how extensive, could be complete 
without a consideration of the relationship 

isting in the desert, such as ants, rodents, 
rabbits, snakes, etc. plants and especially 
seeds, are of essential importance as their 
food supply, and consequently the effect 
on the plant's survival and on evolution 
cannot be overlooked. For this reason, the 
study of animal relationships will occupy 
an equal place with that of plants in the 
program of the mobile laboratory. 

Mr. Lloyd Tevis is presently undertak- 

ants to desert annuals in this respect. This 
is done by marking colonies (of Black 
Har\'ester ants) and then following their 
fate over a period of time. By digging up 
their storage granaries, or simply by rob- 
bing the ants of the seeds which they are 
carrying, it is possible to study the types 
of seeds upon which they depend for their 
food. It was found that of the 15 odd 
kinds of seeds which they collected, over 
90% of these were of Plantago and Pecto- 
carya, which also were found to be staples 
of the kangaroo rat. The question, there- 
fore, arises, what is the effect of this on 

nation is drastically reduced, then it might 
be expected that over a long period of 
time this plant would disappear. In order 
to study the types of plants which have 
seeds in the vicinity of the colony under 
observation, equal plots were marked off 
and watered once at different times of the 
year. As previously shown, germination 
depends on the temperature subsequent to 


The problems indicated here are but a 
few of the numerous possibilities which 
a set up such as the mobile desert labora- 
tory can cope with. It is hoped that its 
unique facilities will be used by many 

by the Laboratory, the effect on the re- 
looked. For science is the result of the 
imagination of man and among that which 
feeds the imagination, man's contact with 
nature is perhaps the greatest. The desert, 
which is a place of extreme beauty of 
colour and form, of deep calmness and of 
peace, cannot fail to have a stimulating 
effect on him who comes to study its mys- 
teries. In observing the plants of this area 
of extremes, can one fail to absorb some 



of its philosophy ? For the laws of nature 
apply equally to plants and man, and if 
desert plants can survive and bloom in the 
face of such apparent odds, surely man can 
live happily with his abundance of natural 
blessings. Wordsworth expressed this more 

One impulse from a vernal wood 
May teach you more of man, 
Of moral, evil, and of good 
Than all the sages can." 
The mobile desert laboratory, fully 
equipped and self sufficient, in the middle 
of the wilderness, stands as a symbol of 

help gain a better 

insight into nature's 
ivilization, often too 
ifused, it brings the 
atural world to study 
o those who would 

present and the study is wel 
Or, as is enscribed over the em 
Biolog7 Building at Columbia 

Demonstration Home Garden of Native Plants 
at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden 

Kathhrinh K. MtJi 

The growing interest of visitors to the 
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden in the use 
of native California plants for home land- 
scaping has been strongly indicated in re- 
cent years by the frequent questions asked 
of the Garden staff. To illustrate the use of 
native plants in an area of limited space 
and to show the means of using them to 
meet numerous landscape problems of 
home owners in the Santa Barbara area 
the Botanic Garden recently completed 
planting of a demonstration home garden. 

The site selected for this demonstration 
garden measures approximately 57 by 61 
feet. It ,s located north of the Strawberry 
Meadow and readily accessible to Garden 
visitors. Grape stake fences along the two 
sides and a steep bank at the back, below 
Mission Canyon Road, enclose it as a dis- 
tinct unit. Because of the slrmintr c.v^. fU.. 

I laid 

planting beds. Con 

las planting spac 
cupied by path an 

■ . \- ^ ''^'^ steps, a 

e-grey shale for paths and outdoor liv- 
area, and natural sandstone rock for 

low retaining walls. The basic plan was 
done for the Garden by the office of Cor- 
nell, Bridges and Troller. 

Only plants known to be available in at 
least some nurseries and to be relatively 
easy of culture were used in the home gar- 
den. Thus a shady corner includes Colum- 
bine, Bleeding Heart, Wild Ginger, Bar- 
berry, Alum Root, Douglas Iris and Verba 
Buena. A hot dry section is planted princi- 
pally to Buckwheats, Sages and Monkey- 
flower hybrids. Prostrate Ceanothus and 

ile the upper bank includes 
amental shrubs and peren- 

shrubs have been placed i 
the fences or in especially selected spots. 
Small beds have been left for spring wild- 
flowers and free flowering perennials such 
as Penstemons. 

It was felt that labels placed near the 
plants would destroy the effect of a home 
garden. In their stead, a numbered map 
has been used with each plant indicated by 
a number and a list of the corresponding 
names attached. This is posted on a fence 

SUMMER 1 9 5 7 57 

Although the garden was completed Director, 
only last fall and \iiany of the plants are Scw/.i Barbara Botanic Gardtti 




H. H. Benson 

Bamboo is one of the most useful and in- 
teresting members of the family of grasses. 
It belongs in a separate grouping with 
those that have branched woody stems 
There are well over one thousand known 
th^ A^^' ^'^^ ^^"^^ seventy kinds native to 
They are found for the most part in the 
tropics, and seem to grow at their best in 
the monsoon regions of Asia. The temper- 
ate zones lay claim to some of the sturdier 
) of these, native to North 
V wild in our southern States 

•Cane Brake'. One of them, Armtdinana 
gigcwtea. grows from fifteen to twenty-five 
feet high, and is called 'Large Cane'. The 
other, Arundmaria tecta, grows from two 
to twelve feet, with common names like 
Small, Switch or Scutch Cane The name 
'Cane Brake' however is in general use for 
either kind. 

Unlike most other plants, bamboo is 
found growing at all elevations, from sea 
level to as high as fifteen thousand feet 
In some instances it has been known to 
survive zero temperatures. Many of them 
grow under all sorts of adverse conditions, 
with drought, rocks or sandy soil seeming 
to offer no particular draw-back to thei? 
development. Those that grow near the 
Trf^L^'^ n'"^j^ evergreen. Species that 
are normally deciduous when growing 

Tn f,^ United States. It is interesting 
to note that over fifty varieties are growing 
under test on the Arboretum grounds. ^ 
The range of size and shape is tremen- 

tTl.^"^' T ? " «f ^bout 

ten inches when fully grown, and have 
mom I Pf ^'^I'J^s ^here plenty of 

room IS available Others grow ^ell over 
a hundred feet tall, with a culm or trunk 
diameter up to fifteen inches. There is of 
course every size in bet\\'een these two 

In color the leaves range through many 
shades of green, which in some species 
turns to yellow as the season advances. 
There are a few kinds with variegated 
leaves in white, silver or yellow. Other 
parts of the plant may sometimes join in 
this parade of contrasting color. The culms 
or trunks, tho' generally green, are often 
purple, reddish brown or golden yellow 
and even these, like the leaves, change 
color with age. Stems in some instances 
are purple, black, green, brown or yellow. 
The nodes also come in for their share in 
the color scheme with rings of purple, 
blue, black, white and brown. Even the 
petioles add a distinctive touch here and 
there with green, yellow, purple and 



and manner of 

growth give many of the Bamboos 
additional claim to charm and beauty. 
There are kinds that have a dainty appear- 
ance, with small leaves spaced at little in- 
tervals along slender canes, presenting an 
attractive and lacey silhouette against a 
back-ground of sky that is really eye pleas- 
ing. In others, the leaves grow in greater 
numbers, are larger and nearer together, 
and from the ground up seem to billow 
in lush surges of lovely green, one above 
the other, in a way that is truly fascinating. 
Another stands quite tall, with a long bare 
culm and the foliage all bunched at the 
top. Some have a plume like manner of 
growing, and these huge plumes, swaying 
lazily in the slightest breeze, gives one an 
entire new conception of foliage beauty. 
The differences in foliage arrangement are 
almost endless. 

Bamboo blossoms are what you would 
expect to find on any grass, a delicate 
tassel-like cluster of feathery beauty. Some 
of the species flower on leafy branches, 
while on others the leaves fall off before 
the bloom appears. On still others the 
flowers grow on separate leafless stems. 

There are kinds that flower every year, 
the way most other plants do, and others 






Wednesday evening, May 29, marked 
the opening of the official dedication exhi- 
bition and ceremonies for Horticultural 
Hall, a recent addition to the California 
Museum of Science and Industry, 700 State 
Drive in Exposition Park. 

Dr. Rufus B. von KleinSmid delivered 
the dedication speech. He emphasized that 
this hall has been added to the Museum to 
provide a location to exhibit annual and 
special horticultural shows and other tem- 
porary exhibits. 

Donald P. Loker acted as Master of 
Ceremonies. Norman M. Lyon was chair- 
man of the dedication ceremonies. Other 
distinguished guests included C. A. Ney- 
man Chaplain, University of Southern 
Cahfornia who delivered the invocation 
Jesse M. Unruh, State Assemblyman Ran- 
m"L^.^ C^llicott. City Councilman, Ray 
Nortvedt, deputy to John Anson Ford and 

Participants in the show included the 
Agricultural Extension Service, Un.vers.t) 
of California, Los Angeles, Southern Cali- 
fornia Floral Association, California T^^f- 

of Technology, Descansi 


Los Angeles State and County Arboretum. 
Los Angeles City Recreation and Parks Ue- 
partment, Los Angeles Beautiful, Southern 
California Turf Grass Council, Hunting- 
ton Botanical Gardens and Southern Cali- 
fornia Horticultural Insi 

sho^^ ' 


t iic S()ut hern ( il i forn i i Horticultu^' 


SUMMER 195 7 

These anthocyanins or flower pigments 
have other interesting properties. They 
change color as they become more acid or 

more alkaline. The red pigment of the 63" dui 

Anigozanthos flowers possesses this prop- 68° da 

erty, and, therefore, when some red hairs greenhc 

of these flowers are placed in an alkaline and 53 

solution, they turn purple, and change the plai 

back again to red when put in an acid tions, c 

Using the amphoteric property of this months 

pigment, some interesting experiments can <-old .ur 
be made with Anigozanthos flowers. When the 

such a flower or a whole inflorescence is ^orm ii 

placed in a jar, in the bottom of which house c 

some spirits of ammonia are poured, the a very |- 
ammonia vapors will spread inside the jar ^^^^^ 

the hairs are not damaged. When 

egar in the bottom, the vinegar va- 
/ill counteract the alkalinity of the 

;ed othei 

ronform with the color scheme of 
in which i 

cells, and after some time the hairs-and house much less red p^ment developed 

the whole stem-turn the same brilliant the, therefore the stems appeared 

red they were before. This can be repeated P'nk and the ovaries orange. Also a mucn 

manv L.. .nd thu. this plant codd be smaller number of flov^^rs opened; most 

^. . r of the earlier flowers aborted. Therefore, 
vhen one sees these plants growing out- 
ide, it is possible to tell what the growing 

which first were green, turn red too, and ^j^^ ^^j^^^ 

thus not only the color of stem and ovaries ^entialities (hereditary background) and 

changes, but that of the flowers too. [j^^ environment under which it developed. 

All sorts of variations on this general -fo get a really first class plant it is not 

theme can be produced. If a jet of am- enough to select one with a desirable par- 

monia vapor is directed on a short segment ^ntage, and to feed it properly ; one has to 

of the stem or on one flower only, this ^^i^^ ^^^e to give this plant just the right 

segment or flower only changes color. Or growing conditions as far as light and 

with the proper dilution of the vapor in- temperature is concerned. We hope that 

between colors can be produced. the Arboretum, in cooperation with the 

In the Earhart Plant Research Labora- Earhart Laboratory will contribute much 

tory of the California Institute of Tech- useful knowledge about the optimal grow 

mber of Anigozanthos planl 
from seed. When they wer 
they were transplanted an 
)ur plants were placed in five giv/.....^, — 
henhouses under five different gardener has i 
conditions. In the hot green- in his own gai 
were kept at 86° during day of a greenhou; 

ditions of some of the more spec- 
This is not just 



Fire control by plants is a research 
project which has been in progress at the 
Los Angeles State & County Arboretum 
since 1953. The Malibu burn of December, 
1956 afforded a comparison of fire re- 

For two weeks prior to December 26, 
1956, the hot, dry desert winds (Santanas) 
had poured over the Santa Monica Moun- 
tains toward the Malibu coast area of 
northwestern Los Angeles and adjoining 
Ventura counties. On that fateful Wed- 
nesday morning, the first of a series of fires 

40,000 acres of chaparral, beach and^m^oi^^ 
tain residential areas. The fire was called 
a national disaster. 
This report is based < 


the hope of obtaining information relative 
to the role played by the vegetation, par- 
ticularly trees and shrubs, in protecting 
property from lire damage. 

The most conspicuous plantings in the 
region burned were groups or lines of the 
Tasmanian blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, 
primarily used as windbreaks. The leaves' 
of this and other species of Eucalyptus 
were found to have been killed by the fire 
or its heat but not to have been consumed; 
they did not burn, except where young 
closely surrounded by other 

fiercely burning bri 

: that 


' flamed from t 

furthered the fire without being destroy< 
themselves. In the Nickerson nurseries 
Dume Canyon, above Zuma Beach, a fair 

Eucalyptus tre( 
passed by the 

Las Flores Canyon, 

might have been killed, it was found 
mid-February, 1957, that only the smaller 
branches were seriously affected. 

Other plantings, primarily shrubs, also 
suffered the death of their leaves but were 
not totally burned, and in some cases it 
could be seen that only the sides of the 
shrubs toward the fire were affected at all. 
Notable among such plantings were those 
of Oleander {Naium oleander cultivars) 
and especially Ngaio {Myoporum laetum, 
often called Sandalwood locally). These 
two shrubby species, the first from the 
Mediterranean area and the second from 
New Zealand, develop a dense low growth 
that, if it proves as effective as it then 
appeared to be, may provide protection 
from the low ground fires. The Myo- 
porum, which grows particularly well in 
coastal areas, is credited with some pro- 
tective results in the Zuma Beach fire dis- 
trict by at least one landscape designer, 
but the details were not clear and other 
factors may have been equally or more 
effective than these plants. A number ot 
other kinds of plants were seen which sur- 
vived the fire in various areas but not fre- 
quently enough to justify even suggestions 

On the negative side of the ledger, ap- 
parently some [ilaiil types to be avoided. 

SUMMER 19^7 

ipecies of Eucalyptus, oleander antl Myo- 
Jorum, in the fire areas visited, apjK-arcd 
:o have been less completely burned than 
he native shrubs and pines, and they may 


What Flowering Tree Is That? A hand- 
book for the tropics, by Edwin A. Men- 
ninger. Published by the author, Stuart, 
Florida, 1956. 110 p. Indexed. $3.00. 
From the writings of Edwin Menninger 

individualist in our age of conformity. This 
trait has been a boon to the landscape of 
Florida where gardeners follow 

n article by M. H. Moon 
in Baileya, Mr. Menninger's tree-nursery 

has led him to contact hundreds ^of botan- 
ists and k)cal plantsmen all over the world 

the flowering trees of tropical countries. 
Through the years his tree introductions 
have increased from 25 to over 500 new 
kinds in one year. He uses the whole com- 
munity as his laboratory, but naturally not 
all the species have propagated successfully. 

Mr. Menninger's aim has been to intro- 
duce Florida gardeners to the wide range 
of showy-flowered tropical trees not prev- 
iously available in this country. His book 
presents "non-technical descriptions of 1,000 
kinds of exotic flowering trees to be found 
in my garden at Stuart, Florida, and mostly 

For the native of Florida a price list may 

be obtained to accompany the book; of the ^ ^ 

576 trees listed herein, Mr. Menninger be- * * 

lieves 136 are his own introductions. De- How to Landscape Yoi 
scriptions in the book are for the layman, Robert S. Malkir 
but are well authenticated by many 
erences and quotations gleaned from 




there is need for an explanation of pro- the garden than just plants". It is decided 
cedure in adapting to one's own property where plants will be used in the general 
many things which are usually photo- arrangement, then the sizes and shapes of 
graphed — an outdoor fireplace, a lovely the plants to he used in planted areas, then 
garden. He re-defines landscaping as "the the location of each plant, and last the par- 
se that it is pleasant both to look at and ments. The preparing of soil, planting and 
to be in. Anything which accomplishes transplanting of trees and shrubs, lawn 
these results, even if plants are not used at making, pruning and maintenance are dis- 
all, is 'landscaping'." He has produced a cussed in some detail, 
helpful manual to be used by the home- Mr. Malkin recommends the hiring of 

grounds with or without the^aid of a pro- have know-how ^and skill. In reference to 

fessional architect. An amateur can do all this he lists cost comparisons of materials 

but the heavy work himself. Often people and labor which will give an approximate 

who "do" things do not study books; the idea of how costs run, even though dollar 

best cooks vary the ^recipe, the best gard- values fluctuate. The Appendix contains 

a property copy the grounds of a friend^' suggestions, hardiness zones, kinds of trees 
Although much of the material can be and shrubs for varied uses and locations, 
found in other books, Mr. Malkin has The is attractive antl there is a good 
given^^detailed information on every con- index. This book is reconi mended to any- 
selecting the site to placing theks" flower! barVgrmuid.^'' '"'^''^ 
which will provide expert guidance to the Doua M. Ci kakd 

The book is arranged in three parts: A new edition of the "Plant Buyer's 
Design, Construction and Plants. In dis- (mide", to be published by the Massa- 
cussing design the author places emphasis chusetts Horticultural Society late in 1957, 
on the arrangement of the layout. He is now being prepared by H. Gleason Mat- 
starts with two sketches of the same garden toon of Arlington, Vermont. The sixth 
arranged in different ways to illustrate the edition of this vital source book will con- 
benefit of imagination in planning. There tain the most complete list available of 
are 514 such sketches by the author; var- seeds, plants and bulbs which can be pur- 
lous arrangements of the same scene, line chased by mail from American firms. In 
drawings, illustrations of procedure, etc. addition, a representative list of European 
The sketches make the book a manual sources will be included, 
rather than an essay and will be valuable For several years, gardeners, nurserymen, 
to amateur and architect. The headings ai^boretum directors and horticultural 
under design include drainage, location of specialists have been looking forward to a 
doors and windows to secure benefits from new edition. The last was compiled m 
sun and wind, traditional styles of land- when the nursery industry had not 

plann ^ 

^hich will be used. The 
n this part are rough grading, fill and 
:ut, slope in front, moving earth, pavings, 
encing and other types of wood construc- 
ion, eye catchers and potted plants. Defi- 
iite specifications and materials are given 
The section on plants is placed at the 
md to stress the fact that "there is more to 

SUMMER 1957 


Officers V)^7 

President Miiimio li Maihias 

Vke-Presicient Rai pm D ((.kmm 

Treasurer Fhid W, Rmivxikamp 

Secretary C;b.K(.i H. Spai lin.. 

Execiitive-Secretary Vu i..iua I^m.ii i a 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Marston Kimball 

William Beresford Mildred E. Mathias 

Kenneth Bishop Victoria Padilla 

Howard Bodger Alfred W. Roberts 

Philip Edward Chandler George H. Spalding 

Ralph D. Cornell Vernon T. Stoutem-i er 

Earle E. Humphries Harold Swanton 

Richard Westcott 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member ^ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member ^^.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 
GRanite 2-4659 
Box 688— Arcadia— California 


and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

Sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, C^ifornia 


Board of Trustees 

President Frits W. Went 

Vke-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O'Melveny 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

Arthur Freed Harold F. Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 




idation Office— Hlllcrest 7 

Lee Wray Turner 


Annual Membership 



Annual Contributing 
Annual Sustaining M( 


Annual Sponsor Mem 

. . 250.00 



Club memberships are 
All contribution 

■ available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
s deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

c 688— Arcadia— California 

AUTUMN 1957 


Lasca Leaves 

the California Arbor 

i Southei 


Robert Casamajor Mildri d Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Vic toria Paoilla 

William Hertrich William S. STE^XART 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material .Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies^ George H. Spalding 

Propagation. W. QuiNN Buck 

Succulents Scott E. Haselton 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Tixonomv of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 

Vol. VII OCTO BER. 1957 No. i 

Tree and Shrub Planting for 

Tomorrow's Highways Ralph D. Cornell 74 

Our Cover Picture 79 

Effects of Gibberellic Acid Sprays on Thompson Seedless 

Grapes W. S. Stewart, F. T. Ching, D. D. Halsey 80 

Characters Useful in the Identification of 

Species of Ficus Ira J. Condit 81 

Some Librar)^ Acquisitions of the Past Year- 
Compiled by R. McGah 86 

All material in Lasca Leaves may be freely reprinted, but acknowledgement 
is requested, together with a copy of the publication containing the reprint. 



Tree and Shrub Planting for Tomorrow's Highways 

Ralph D. Cornell, F.A.S.L.A. 
Presented before the Western Chapter, National Shade Tree Conference, 
Yosemite Valley, May 8, 9, 10, 1957 



that highway planting of the future may 
well be somewhat different from that of 
the past. This may be a well taken point 
for two reasons ; first because of changing 
attitudes and abilities within the field of 
highway planning and planting: and sec- 
ond because of changing conditions which 
the future highways of America probably 
will project into the problems involved in 

Considerafions which relate to highway 
planting seem, basically, to be twofold. 
They involve aesthetics and economics. The 

work, in the past, has been that of appear- 
ance—of aesthetics. Presumably this was 
the dominating incentive in the treatment 
of the early parkway plantings and the 
rows of highway trees that were planted in 
the horse and buggy days. This, in itself, 
was and still should be sufficient reason 
for wishing to provide the roadsides with 
shade trees, flowering plants and attractive 
foliage. One need go no farther than that 
for justification of the expenditures re- 
proper highway planting. 

Currently, however, the rapid rate at 
which urbanization of our nation is being 
accomplished brings a changing appear- 
ance to the countryside through which one 
travels wherever he may go. Country roads 

freeways. All o^ these ^erase much of the 
intimate loveliness of the old roads. Simple 
roadways, winding through picturesque 
countryside, give way to surfaces of bil- 
liard-table smoothness, and to the monot- 
ony of high speed lanes along which the 
landscape becomes but a blurr. Thus, in 
increasing measure, the ways of modern 
travel stress the need for aesthetic planning 
as well as for engineering planning in the 
construction of roads of all classes. 

The aesthetic planning of future high- 


is full as important to our natic 
health and economy as is their er 
ng planning. And it should be s 

and fill banks as the 
id degre 


nake the difference between a 

finements of good taste. A job 
which is built in a purely mechanical way 
may embody sound engineering principles 
and yet fall far short of being an attractive 
thing to see. The day has passed when we 
can afford to overlook the elements of 
beautification that make a livable environ- 

The gap, if such exists at all, between 
the aesthetics and economics of highway 
planning and planting is much less than 
might be expected in casual consideration 
of the matter. Actually, good aesthetics m 
planning and planting generally do consti- 
tute good economics, for some of the 
things that are done primarily for appear- 


handle properly. Wind breaks and dust 
control planting may reduce highway haz- 
ards and maintenance problems at the same 
time that they enhance the beauty of the 
roadsides. Plantings which reduce or elimi- 
nate headlight glare and transmittal ot 
noise or which screen from view unsightly 
and distracting objects may be attractive, 
in themselves at the same time that they 
reduce or even eliminate driving hazards. 
Thus the aesthetics and economics of 
ning become inextricably entwined to tn 



inadvisable to plant trees in continuous 
straight lines along highways. For one 
thing, modern, mile-a-minute speeds are 
such that uniformly spaced plantings may 
become monotonous and sometimes even 
hypnotic to the point of creating driving 
hazards. The rhythmic blur of muted forms 
at the side of the road and the even pattern 
of light and shadow cast on the pavement 
may create eye strain that becomes a serious 
menace to safe driving. 

With all this in mind there is much to 
be said in favor of scattered, rather than 
continuous, highway plantings. Clusters of 
trees or shrubbery at intervals of consider- 
able distance may be much more pleasing 
and economical than a monotonous over- 
planting of material, tightly grouped. Such 
design-approach permits greater freedom 
and makes it possible to locate trees and 
shrubs in soil pockets where they may be 
expected to thrive,— while skipping the 
poorer spots. Such planting may emphasize 
certain views or vistas, perhaps hide un- 
sightly spots. Intelligent application of the 
theory may accomplish very interesting re- 
sults at the same time that it saves both 
capital outlay and maintenance costs by 
reducing the quantities of material and the 
amount of care necessary. 

This type of highway planting has been 
done along some of our California high- 
ways in a more or less limited way. In some 
of the desert sections, for example, where 
it is too dry to grow trees without water 
and where there are long stretches of road 

without suitable soil, trees have been 
planted at the spots where the roads cross 
natural water channels. Maybe it is one or 
two trees, or a half dozen, that have been 
planted in th^ tarth-fill abutting road cul- 
verts. With the help of a little water to 
establish them, perhaps even with some 
continued maintenance, these desert trees 
have developed into attractive plants very 
refreshing to the passing motorist. They 
provide a definite lift to the highway trav- 
eller and certainly at a minimum of main- 
tenance effort and cost. They may be spaced 
at very wide intervals but present-day auto 
speeds take care of that. They suggest what 
might be done on a larger scale. 

In all such roadside planting it is appro- 
priate to use native materials, indigenous 
to the region, whenever they are suitable 
and available. Many natives are difficult to 
grow and to establish but, when they are 
appropriate, they stand a better surviva 
chance than do some of the exotic types of 
material. However, there are always cer- 

stem trii^elen^iiorrhardy than our own 
natives. Thus there is no infallible rule to 
be followed. Experience and good plan- 
ning arc the best guides. In any case it is 
necessary to give intelligent attention to 
soil conditions since few plants will grow 
and thrive in poorly drained soils, in saline 
or alkaline soil or under generally difficult 

There are sections of the country where 

AUTUMN 1957 


fornia and some other western states. Such 
areas may be treated with greater freedom 
and kishness of growth hut the planning 
of tree spacing and grouping is as impor- 

We have discussed design and mainte- 
nance ahnost as one topic. They do relate 
very closely. But still there are design 
thoughts and principles that may apply to 
highway planning regardless of the region 
w here they arc to be used. 

there would be places where it might be 
■ group several 

■ effective to cluster 
5 at the ends of blocks 
them like poles in a block-long, stra 
. This surely would be a less costly 

ain. If width of streets 
light be spaced not only 
Is but they might be plac 

from the property line. One or two or three 
might be placed in a tight cluster, such 

random .spacing. There are many ways to 
give character and interest to planting. The 
thing against which to guard is that type of 
design that will mechanize an attempt at 
casualncss. If irregularities become fixed or 
monotonous they will defeat the purpose 
for which they are undertaken. 

roadside design. Shrubbery is very effective 
for screening both sight and sound, for 




Then, too, there are times when no street 
trees or shrubbery at all should be planted, 
the reason for not planting trees could 
be one of many. Where roadways wind 
through picturesque and lovely country 
which already is wooded and verdant it 
could be highly possible that artificial rokd- 
side planting would distract from rather 
than add to the aesthetic appearance 
Where soil and rainfall conditions will not 
support satisfactory plant growth it is bet- 
ter not to plant anything than to fail in an 
ill-advised attempt at planting. Where toes 
and tops of cuts and fills come so close to 
the roadway as to make it impractical, the 
conventional type of street trees in rows 

should be avoided. In the higher type oi 
residential development, in which spacious 
grounds prevail and planting is lush on 
property adjoining the street, there may ce 
times when added street planting would 
create confusion rather than add beauty to 
the landscape. Other streets simply do not 
provide sufficient space for proper develop- 
ment of trees between curbs and property 

than a rule-of-thumb procedure that can dc 
taken from a book. Each highway should 
be personalized to express those 1"^^.''^^^^ 


AUTUMN 1957 



Ira J. CoNDiT 

In number of species the genus Ficus is 
one of the larger genera of plants. Volume 
1 of the Kew Index and its eleven Supple- 
ments list 1,887 species, only a small frac- 
tion of which have been introduced into 
cultivation. I have had under personal ob- 
servation in Cuba, Florida and California, 
some 157 species. There are now growing 
in California 65 species, about half of 
which I have introduced as seeds, cuttings 
or rooted plants. There are also under 
cultivation approximately as many plants 
labeled simply Fkus as there are plants 
with specific names. 

Fig species are indigenous to practically 
all the tropical and subtropical countries oi 
the world as shrubs, trees (large and small, 
evergreen or deciduous), lianas or climb- 
ers, epiphytes, all these quite often grow- 
ing in nearly impenetrable jungles. 

It is not strange that the systematic 

confused state fhan that^of any other large 
group of plants as botanists have found in 
their efforts to produce satisfactory keys to 
separate the species. It is the intent of this 
paper to call attention to some of the dis- 
tinguishing characters of fig species m the 
hope that they may serve as a guide to those 
who wish to pursue the subject further. 
First let us consider the floral characters. 


Theophrastus and other ancient writers 
regarded the fig as a flowerless plant. The 

without a flower. It has long been known, 
however, that fig flowers are borne on the 
inside of a hollow receptacle and that these 
flowers are either staminate or pistillate. 
The systematic classification of fig species 
is based on arrangement and structure of 
the flowers in the receptacles and the man- 
ner in which the receptacles are borne on 
the plant. Botanists have separated Jhe spe- 

For example, the common fig, F. carica. 
belongs to the Eusyce. with receptacles 

one plant, receptacle's with both 
short-styled flowers aiui st.miinatc flowers 

forests. .7/ u hteomes a strangling 

Seedlings of several species, especially 
those from Mexico, develop bulbous bases 
even when they are very young. Some spe- 

AvenuTiif Whit'tief California,Tad^to be 
removed because of the damage done by 




and papery, brittle or soft and pliable. eye. Fkus elast'ica. F. retina and f . hen^A- 

The key which I have constructed to initia are examples of species glabrous in 

identify ornamental figs uses two promi- leaves, stems and fruits. F. rubiginosa iai 

nent characters for separation into groups, F. wacrophylLt have a scurfy material on 

first the margin of leaves, whether entire the lower surface which can be partly 

or variously notched. Leaves of Fkus re- rubbed off. /-. doliaria has buds and leaves 

tusa, F. elastica, F. mysorensis. and numer- which show a prominent, rusty pubescence, 

ous others are entire, while those of F. There are two forms of w>'wm/i, one 

quercifolia, F. roxhmghn, and F. asper- much more pubescent than the other. Some 

lobed. The second character used is the they are actually used for scouring wood 

presence or absence of pubescence on and metals. Examples are rf.f/'^'mV/w and 

twigs, buds or leaves. A hand lens is an F. steuoc<npn. 

essential piece of equipment to determine In color, fig leaves are various shades of 

this character as in some cases, notably on green above and usually show a somewhat 

lower side of F. bengalensi.s leaf.' the lighter green below. Some species like 

puberulence is hardly visible to the naked Funs vympheaejolia have leaves conspicu- 

well illustrated in this tree of P.I. #139,365. 

AUTUMN 1957 




whereas the variety comosa has yellow 
fruits. F. altissima also produces scarlet 
fruits; those of F. mysorensis are orange 

In the introductory paragraph of this 
paper I showed that only eight per cent of 
the named species of the genus Ficus have 
been introduced into cultivation. The sur- 
face has therefore hardly been touched. 

There undoubtedly are many scores or even 
hundreds of named and unnamed species 
which should be obtained and given a 
thorough study. It is my hope that some 
interested horticulturists either by coopera- 
tion with the Federal Plant Introduction 
Section at Beltsville, Maryland, or on their 
own initiative may obtain material for this 
















TUNISIE 2 vols. 





Cadavall: FLORA DE CATALUNY.V Vol. 1 parts lo 


Clarke: RHODODENDRONS - 1956 

Clifford: GERANIUMS 




AUTUMN 1957 







Engler: DAS PFLANZENREICH vol. 106: Campanulaccac-Lobclioideac 












Gray: MANUAL OF BOTANY 8th ed. 


















Lecomte: MADAGASCAR . . . LES BOIS . . . 








Mueller: FRAGMENTA PHYTOGRAPHIAE vols 3, 4, 5 & 7 "H 





Specter: HANDBCX )K ( )!• HI()L()(,I(:AL DA T A 

Spegazzini: PLANTAE PER FUl XM AM 

Ticquet: SUCCESSFUL GARDEN! X(; W i l l K )l 1 S( 

Trelease: BOTANICAL OBSER\'ATI( )NS ( )N Till. \/.( )RI,S 





Officers 1958 

j^^jjf Mildred E. Mathias 

..President Alfred W. Roberts 

Fred W. Roewekamp 

George H. Spalding 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Eric Johnson 

William Beresford Marston Kimball 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Mildred E. Mathias 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Earle E. Humphries William S. Stewart 

Vernon T. Stoutemyer 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor F^ed W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member ^ 5 00 ^'c 

Group or Club 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 ye; 

Contributing Member 

Commercial Member 

Sustaining Member 

Life Membership 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each members 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plumn 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Communit)- Building 

25.00 year 
50.00 year 
50.00 year 
. . . 500.00 

: 2-4659 


and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

Sporuors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, Califorcua 

WlLLL\M S. StEW.^RT . 

Thelma G. Blanch 

j Thoma> MrG..H , 
RussELLA K, McGah. 
Georgb H. SP.U.i:.LS>:.- 


Index Vol VII. 1957 


Jo. 1 appeared Oct. 1, 1950, comprised of 5 issues, through Oct. 1951. 

Administration Building— L.A. State and 

County Arboretum 21 Illus. 
Africa, Plants, Elephants & Hippo Pools 5 
Anigozanthos manglesit 64 
Arboretum Education for Children 70 Illus. 
Arboretum Dedication Program 2 
AUTHORS of "Lasca Leaves" articles 
Benson, H. H. 

The Bamboo Story 58 


"How to Landscape your Own Home" 
Malkin (Book Review) 67 

, W. 

for Ornamental Planting 

Ching, Franci 
Ching, F. T. 


, Ralph I). 
Tree and Shr 

morrow's Highways 
)avis, Mildred 

Hellebores in So. Califoi 
Terard, Dora M. 
"Art of Growing Mil 
Ishimoto (Book Revit 




Halsey, D. D. 

Effects of Gibberellic Acid Sprays 
Thompson Seedless Grapes 80 
Halsey, H. R. 

The Zoysia Lawn Grasses 45 
Haselton, Scott E. 


Mildred (Book Rev 
s^ative Plants for Caliiorr 
Lee W. Lenz (Book Re 

McGah, T. 

Weather 1 
Muller, Katl 

"Nathe Vu tralian Plai 
(Book Review) 23 

"Wild Flower (iarde 
(Book Review) 44 

Bamboo Story, The 58 
Blombery, A. M. "Native Australian 

Plants" 23 
Chidamian, Claude "Bonsae Miniature 
Trees" 22 

Graf, Alfred Byrd "Exotic Plants" 24 
Ishimoto, Tatsuo "Art of Growing Min- 
iature Trees, Plants & Landscapes 

for Cali- 

Lamb, Edgar "lUus. Refer 
and Other Succulents" 

Lenz, Lee W. "Native PI 
fornia Gardens" 28 

Malkin, Robert S. "How to Landscape 
your Own Home" 67 

Menninger, Edwin A. "What Flowering 
Tree is That?" 67 

Mattoon, H. Gleason "Plant Buyer's 
Guide" 68 

Taylor, Norman "Wild Flower Garden- 
ing" 44 

Thomas, Graham Stuart "Old Shrub 
Roses" 69 

Wilson, Carol Green "Alice Eastwood's 
Wonderland" 23 
Bouquet sour orange 34 

Calamondin 37 

California Arboretum Foundation 63 
Cauliflory Illus. 84 

Characters Useful in the Identification of 

Species of Ficus 81 
Chinese Box orange 38 
Chinotto oranges 34 
Citron 35 

Citrus for Ornamental Planting in Cali- 
fornia 29 
Cleopatra Mandarin 37 
Coconut Palm Illus. 79 
Coral Trees In Southern California 19 

Demonstration Home Garden of Native 
Plants at the Santa Barbara Botanic 
Garden 56 

Descanso Gardens Camellia Show 21 

ts of Gibberellic Acid Sprays < 

Thompson Seedless Grapes 80 
■aid zoysia 48 
nments in Air Layering 8 

Ficus species 81 

Fingered Citron 35 

Finger Lime 38 

Fire Control by Plants 66 

Fuchsia & Shade Plant Show 69 

Acacia 67 

Adansonia digitata 67 
Aleurites moluccana Illus. 78 
Amgozanthos manglesit Illus. ( 
Arundinaria gigantea 58 
Arundinana tecta 58 

multiplex 'Alphonse 

Illus. 60 

Bauhinia variega 
Buxus scmpervin 
Callistrus quadri 

2 67 

< Illus. 27 

. mynijoUa 34 

pectinijcni 38 
Clausena lansiutn 40 
Clerodendron myricoides 7 
Cocos nucijem Illus. 79 
Corydalis nobilis 17 
Crotalaria agatijlora 7 
Delonix regia 67 
Dyck_ia altissima Illus. 62 

Eucalyptus ficifolia Illus. 75 
Eucalyptus globulus 6, 66 
Eusyce 81 

f altissima 82, 85 
asperrima 84 
bengalensis 82, 83, 84 
benjamina 82, 84, 85 
benjamina, var. co/no^a 85 

W« 81, 83 
continijolia Illus. 85 
diversifolia 81 
^/o//a//a 84 

^-ZaiY/f^ ///«.-. 81, 82, 84 
e-z-e-r/a 81, 82 
eriobotryoides 83 
.r/m/a ^/a^m 82 

hindsii 39 
Gardenia thunbergi 8 
G///a capitata chamissonis 28 
G/o;70.-^ rothschildiana 7 

Haemanthus multijlorus 5 
Helkboruscorsicus 11 
/o./,^«.lU, 11 

Leucadt ndron argenti 
Lilium martagon 17 

jacqulnifolia 85 
macrophylla 84 
megacarpa 81, 83 

Illus. 77 
Plumeria acutifolia 67 

pandurata 82, 83 
Mo/«;vV Illus. 83, 85 
pseudopalma 83 

r^^/ra«^ 81 
r«^/«//n« 85 
;r%/o^fl 82, 83 

/^oy^/one-^ re-^/a Illus. 79 
sp. 38 

Sinocalamnus oldhami Illus. 61 
nicholai 8 

Ta^f argentea 67 

Thunbergia gibsoni 7 

Washingtonia fHijeral 

z7y\tTaponklmZ^ 45, 46, 48 
;tf/7r7«/V^ var. "Meyer Zoysia" or 

45 Illus. 48 
matreUa 45 Illus 46, 47, 48 
tenuijolla 45, 46, 48 

Gibberellic Acid Research 26, 80 


Hellebores in Southern California 10 
Horticultural Hall 63 

Horticultural Research on Gibberellic Acid 

Italian Stone Pine Illus. 77 

Kukui Nut Illus. 78 
Kumquats 39 


Lasca Leaves Reprints 21 

Library acquisitions, partial list 86, 87, 88 

Limeberry 40 

Limequats 35 


Meyer Lemon 36 

Meyer zoysia 45 Illus. 48 

Mdbile Desert Laboratory Illus. 50, 52 

Myrtifolia oranges 34 


Names, Notes & News 21 
National Shade Tree Conference 74 

Oatheite Orange 36 
Orange Jessamine 40 
Orpet, Edwin Owen In Memoriam 22 

Ponderosa Lemon 36 
Progress in Botanical Illustrations 12 

Rangpur Lime 36 

Robertson navel orange Illus. 43 

Royal Palm Illus. 79 


Salicifolia orange 35 

Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Illus. 57 

Scarlet Flowering Gum Illus. 75 

Science on Wheels 50 

Skekwasha 38 

Sinton Citrangequat 40 

Sour orange 35 


Thompson Seedless Grapes Illus. 80 
Tree and Shrub Plantings for Tomorrow s 

Highways 74 
Trifoliata Orange 40 


Variegated lemon Illus. 42 
Visit to Linnaeus's Botanical Garden, A 1^ 

Wampee Illus. 41 cover 
Weather Record 72 
Went, Dr. Frits 50 


Z-52 45 


Board of Trustees 

President Frits W. Went 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Vice-President MRS. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O'Melveny 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richard^ 

Arthur Freed Harold F. Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray TURNER 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership ^^-^^ 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000 or more 

Benefactors 5,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

Box 688 — Arcadia — California 

WINTER 1958 

Lasca Leaves 


Philip Edward Chandlkr Philip A. Mi'nz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stexx art 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wrav Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology P":RRE Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 

Louis B. Martin, EJitor 

The House of the Scotch Paisano 

William J. Wallace, Roger J. Desautcls. George Kntzman 2 

The Cover ^ 

Bird Notes , , ^ . 

The Fja^s retusa^frtida Complex Ira J. Condit 14 

Coral Bells Howland Atwood 17 

Trees of Note— Italian Stone Pine Frank E. 18 

Vegetative Propagation of Eucalyptus 

Francis F. T. Chmg and Andrew M. Edwards 19 
Horticultural Effects of GibberelHc Acid 

Francis F. T. and William S. Stewart 21 

A Conservatory — Just the Beginning Glenn H. Hiatt 22 

Book Reviews and Comments ^3 

All material in Usca Leaves may be freely reprinted, but acknowledgement 
is requested, together with a copy of the publication containmg the reprint. 

Archaeological Investigations at the Hugo Reid Adobe, 
Arcadia, California 

William J. Wallace, Roger J. Desautels, Geor<;e Kritzman 

This is an account of archaeological work at the Hugo Reid Adobe on the grounds of 
the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum in Arcadia, California. The project was 
proposed by Aubrey Neasham, Historian, and Glenn Price, District Historian, DivisioD 
ot Beaches and Parks, and was carried on under a contract between the Division of 
iieaches and Parks and the Department of Anthropology University of Southern Caii- 
were utSd'"'''"^ ^"""^ laboratory facilities of the U.S.C. Department of Anthropoloff 

Work began on November 10, 1 956, and is continuing At this writing, approximateh days of work have been completed. The initial excavating wat done on ueek- 
Rnhtr/A A^^^r^^g'^-I R^^search Associates. The following members participatd: 
Det^lt^f ' A^'J^'u S""^' Lily Colvin, Gary Coon, Taylor Dark, Roger 

Desautels, Lynd Esch, Jean Gardner, Richard Goger, Robert Hammond, George Kntz- 
Flir: n D^'^' L^'^Lange, Bonnie Mend.tto, Ernest PhiHins, Dorothy Piper. M^n 

worked at the Adobe on Saturdays. The digumg Jrcw cons.s ed of tourtecn student 
Dolfn. F wS^'u ^r'^^ Breidenbach, Gary C;o<>n, John Crone, Kenneth Dmf 

at ^te on™,'"*"' l"".'^ of Southern California was invited to exo-* 

A S A ml K weekends. Charles Ro2aire. Field Chairman, supervised this «*: 


J^^/r'^ault 'aXoteLZ^^ " '"^ " 

prokTwilhr^',."' "f.^"""^ '° °' people for their a,d and interest in * 
b«n «rrTf willmgness to work Ion,; hours, the investi^;ati,>n eoulJ not h'; 

been carried on successfully. Many other persons have also assisted in one way or anotte' 
S StS"a"re to 'h Coun^Arb^^rrlm under D.reior 

lack Fawce» nf^K i u'"'^'^'' h<«Pi(iiiity and their many and varied s"" ;^ 


avoid , 

Gratrtude must also be expressed for the encouragement of the .nembers ot *< 

Historical Committee, under the co-chairmanship ot" Mrs. 
John R. Mage for their valued suggestions and suppori 
Beaches and Parks, and Walter A. Walton, Division of / 
helpful throughout the progress of the work. 


The Hugo Reid Adobe, one of the oldest surviving huiKlmgN m si)uthcrn ( .ilitorin.i, 
is located on the grounds of the Los Angeles State and ( ountv ArhdniLiiii in Ar..idi.t. 
California. The house stands on a slight ri,se on the- southern sl.urc ol .1, spnnc 
fed lake. The lake is surrounded by flat and slightly r.-lini,!: I.uui with lou ni.irsh^ 
terrain. A few hundred yards west of the Adobe is .i larce. o.ik mactc i hill ('I'.ill.u 
Knoll) which rises abrubtly to an elevation of about ^0 kxt. lUnc tlu surround, Kind 
The Reid home and the surrounding 127 acres of the Arh..rc(uni urou.uis ,.r. ,dl (lu.t iv 
left of the more than 1 3,()()() acres of the Santa Anita RaiH ho. 

The broad outline, though not the details, of the history ol the Rcul Adobe .uui (Ik 
Rancho is known. Following the establishment of the San C;ahncl Mission in l^-l. the 

rather than for cattle-raising. A !?/o//no or grist-mill \\as erected on the hill above the 
lake. There may also have been an adobe house to shelter padres from the- mission when 

In 1841, Hugo Reid, a Scot who settled in California and became a Mexican citizen, 
was given provisional title to the land but not until four years later did he obtain full 
legal ownership. Here he built an adobe house, planted orchards and vineyards, and 
sowed wheat. Later, he grazed his cattle and horses on the land. Although Reid main- 
tained a more elaborate home at San Gabriel, he and his family spent considerable time 
at Santa Anita. 

Reid, in 1847, sold thrrlncho to Henry Dalton, an English merchant who had taken up 
residence in California. Dalton, already a large landholder, did not live- at Santa Anita 
but at his Azusa rancho, adjoining Santa Anita on the Additional acreage was 
planted to vineyards. Whether the Reid Adobe stood idle during the period of Dalton's 
ownership is not known. Possibly it housed Indian xaejueros and farm-hands. In any 
event, the home seems to have suffered from neglcet. 

In 18! 

foreman to run the rancho until it could be disposed of. Albert Dibblee. a prominent 
San Francisco businessman, and his partner, Los Angeles trader and promoter, William 
Corbitt, bought it as an investment in 1858. It was managed as a cattle ranch by a 
younger brother of Dibblee for several years. But the severe drought of the early 186(Vs, 
when thousands of cattle died on southern California ranchos, led to the failure of this 

Rancho Santa Anita was next, in 1865, sold in two parts. A 2000-acre parcel on the 
west was purchased by Leonard Rose; the remainder including the house, was acquired 
by William Wolfskill, early Los Angeles settler and horticulturist. Wolfskill put much 

Harris Newmark, pioneer Los Angeles merchant, bought Santa Anita, reduced by 
iales to 8000 acres, in 1872. Additional acreage was placed under irrigation for orchards 
ind vineyards. Sheep were pastured on the hills. Newmark did not live at the rancho 


The new owner raised hvestock, including race-horses, and poultry ; fruit and nut trees, 
vines, and grain were cultivated. Many improvements, including the planting of orna- 
mental shrubs and trees, were made. Baldwin built the Queen Anne Cottage, completed 
in 1881, where he entertained friends, and the lavish Coach Barn to house his carriages 
and horses. He himself lived in the Reid Adobe and here he died in 1909. 

After Baldwin's death, his younger daughter, Anita, operated Santa Anita successfully 
as a stock ranch, but did not live on it. There were many years when nobody, except 
perhaps a caretaker, dwelt in the old house and it and other structures deteriorated badly. 
The rancho stayed in the Baldwin family until the heirs sold it to Harry Chandler, 
owner and editor of the Los Atigeles Times and possessor of vast real-estate holdings. 
In 1936 Chandler set up a corporation to develop a residential subdivision. The Hugo 
Reid Adobe, Queen Anne Cottage, and other buildings remained empty and neglected. 
Vandals caused great damage. 

Little remained of the once great landholding in 1947 when the California State 
Division of Beaches and Parks purchased 1 1 1 acres, including the homesite, from 
Chandler s corporation for the establishment of the Los Angeles State and County 
Arboretum. Additional small parcels of land were acquired by Los Angeles County, 
bringing the total to 127 acres. As part of a developmental plan for the Arboretum, m 
advisory Historical Committee, made up of a group of citizens whose knowledge covers 
the fields of history, anthropology, architecture, and botany, was set up to plan restora^ 
tions in a 9-acre "Historical Preserve." This includes tlu Queen Anne C;ottage and Coach 
Barn besides the Reid Adobe. The Queen Anne Cottage, badly damaged byjhe elemen|J- 

torical Committee. Money has now been allocated by the Division of Beaches and Parks 
for a full and authentic reconstruction of the Reid Adobe and Coach Barn. Each archi- 
tectural restoration, on completion, will be further enhanced by plantings of p"'° : 
Prior to any rebuilding of the Reid home, which is to be restored to its original torfflo 
1840, an archaeological exploration is being undertaken by the Department of Anthro- 
pology, University of Southern California, with State funds. 

The archaeological 
tural study designed t( 
concern therefore has been an accumulation of data on overall size, floor plan and am^" 
of construction of the original house Exploration has been complicated because as 
adobe passed through the hands of successive owners, each left some imprint on _ 
There have been at least two major remodelings. the period of ncglec-^ " 
Dalton's ownership, Rowe spent $6,000 on repairs, a considerable sum in the 
Baldwin demolished one adobe wine and replaced ,t witl. a woollen frame build . 
Others patched, rebuilt when necess.;rv with Jdobe. bruk. stone, and wood. To tO J .; 
matters more, adobe bricks, and perhaps other materials, were s.iUaged -i^d ^^V- 

WINTER 1958 


knowledge from man's past from a prehistoric habitation or settlement. Before any work 
was done, record photographs were taken of all outside sections of the building and of 

done, as far as possible, with trowel and brush, stripping otT the soil in 6-inch levels. 
In some spots, small mattocks were needed to break through hard, compacted soil. Attcr 
being loosened and examined, the earth was shoveled into a '/j-inch mesh .shaker screen. 
All material caught in the mesh was looked over carefully before being discarded to 
insure against missing any historical objects. All important features encountered were 
cleaned, measured, drawn to scale and photographed. A plan was made ot each section 
of outside wall and room as it was exposed. Objects unearthed during the digging were 
placed in paper sacks, labeled as to where found and at what depth. These artifacts were 
later taken to the laboratory for cleaning, numbering, and restoring, activities which are 

The ordinal plan was to follow around the outside edges of the building in order to 
expose original foundations. An exploratory trench, 5 feet wide and 60 feet long, start- 
ing at the northeast corner of the Reid Adobe, was dug along the north wall. This 
excavation revealed no early construction, as the lower part of wall had been faced with 

begun at right angles to the first to determine the nature ot the soil between tl 
and the lake. This was abandoned after digging disclosed great recent disturb; 
nothing of particular interest or significance. The soil was a heavy, dark gra; 

' that little inforr 

1 the Reid building ^ 


Explorations were then made in the Reid Adobe itself. The wooden flooring was first 
taken up and then each large room was divided mto four c^uarters and each smaller one 
into two halves for ease in excavating and recording. Digging was continued until a 
hard yellow layer of clay, presumably an earthen floor, was encountered. This was 
exposed over the entire floor area of each room. Later, a 5 x 5 foot or larger test pit 
was carried down through the compacted layer in the corner of each room except Num- 
ber 3 (where a unique flooring of adobe blocks was encountered) . The test pits revealed 
the buried courses of adobe bricks underlying the standing walls. The same procedure 
was followed in the Baldwin Annex where adobe walls were found beneath the frame 
structure. The wooden wing was demolished after archaeological work in it was nearly 

The deposit overlying the clay surface or floor in each room was a loose black earth. 
Scattered through it were bits of buildin^ materials— broken adobe bricks, pieces of 
plaster, lumps of asphalt from the old roof, fragments of wood and rusted nails. Broken 
crockery, glass bottles, animal bones and other debris were also imbedded in it. The black 

wall to expose^outer surfaces of the buried LlI>brbrKk.r'ntrlc^^^ which is of 

stone, will be investigated in a similar manner. I-urther digging will later be done in the 


Excavation has revealed the remains of an L-shaped adobe- walled structure (Fig- 
ure 1 ). One wing (Hugo Reid Adobe) is oriented north 'and south ; the other (Bald^v^n 
Annex) lies in an east-west direction. Originally there was no Breezeway between the 
two. The building has many typical characteristics of a southern Californian ranch house 
of the Spanish-Mexican period. 

Many changes have taken place in the old home since it was built more than a centur)^ 
ago. There have been major repairs, additions and re-buildings, as well as many m^^ot 
alterations through the years but these will be mentioned only when relevant to the dis- 
cussion of the 1840 Reid house. The foUowini' room-bv-room description of architec- 

This wmg has three rectangular rooms xar>,ng somewhat in size Its ^t'H^^^'^^^fj 

Room 1. 

Dimensions- north-south 11 feet ^'A inches cist ULst 16 Icct 1^ inches 
A hard-packed layer of yellow clay, cxt'endl'n^ fn.iu wall'to wall was encountered unJef 

being the earthen floor of the 1«4() house 
Excavation beneath the clay showed that 
hve rows of adobe bricks extended downw 
The prc'sent exterior walls rest upon burie. 
An adobe brick partition separates Roo 



north-south, 16 feet 2V2 inches; east-west, 16 feet 3% inches. 
An unusual feature here is the flooring. The entire room is paved with evenly-laid, close- 
fitting adobe blocks. Those adjacent to the walls have been carefully cut to assure a 
tight fit. 

The base of the east wall and three-fourths of the adjoining south wall have under- 
gone extensive repairs. This corner of the room must have become insecure and it was 
found necessary to replace the adobe with fired, red bricks in order to stabilize it. It is 
interesting that the latter are joined with clay mortar. 

There are two doorways in Room 3, one in the center of the east wall and the other 
opposite on the west. Their lintels are of commercial lumber with sawn ends. They may, 
however, be 1840 openings as they conform in position and size to doorways in Rooms 
1 and 2. Their log beams may have decayed and were replaced. The window in the south 
wall has nothing to demonstrate its antiquity. 

There are many details regarding this wing which are not yet clear. Thus far, 1840 
door and window openings have been difficult to establish with certainty. Original door 
openings have been identified solely by the presence of hand-hewn lintels, rather insecure 
evidence. No window apertures definitely attributable to Reid's time have been dis- 
covered. The present-day openings may represent the position though not the dimensions 
of the originals as they are quite large when compared with those in other ranch houses 
of the Reid period. It is conceivable that there were no windows whatsoever in the 1840 

Nothmg has been found to prove the former presence of a corridor or covered porch 
running around the house. Posts, postholes or other remains of such a construction ma) 
be uncovered when more digging is done outside of the walls. Another consideration 
of importance, yet to be worked out, is the original height of the Reid home. It evidently 
was never more than one story high but its exact height is hard to establish because ttie 
pitch of the roof has been changed and new roofing has been put on several times. 

The buried courses of adobe bricks present a problem. There are two possible expla- 
nations for their presence. One is that they are all that remains of a former house. Hugo 
Reid may have found an adobe building, erected while Santa Anita was still a missio 
rancho, already on the site. If so, it must have been in an advanced state of ruin. Utnei 
wise, he probably would have rehabilitated it. If this conjecture is correct, the upper p^ 
was razed and leveled off, leaving only five courses of brickwork upon which to er 
new walls. Reid's Indian workers must also have done a certain amount of filling m 
earth until the desired floor level for the new dwelling was reached. No visible openings 
for doors have been detected in the subsurface brickwork and no well-defined floor 
been found at its base. 

An alternative, and perhaps more satisfactory interpretation, is that the bune rn^^ 
sonry is a foundation. Adobe bricks may have been laid in excavated trenches to ^ 
a firmer footing to the walls, though no traces of such trenches have been found durj 
the clearing of the brick. Why adobe, a not too suitable material in damp soil, 
employed in constructing a foundation instead of the usual field stone is not kno ^ 
Certainly the latter material, in the form of granite cobbles, was available at no ^ 
distance. If the subsurface brickwork represents a foundation the apparent absenc 
door openings becomes understandable. 

Beneath the Baldwin wooden frame structure were found remnants of the walls 0 
adobe wing. The south wall proved to be only two bricks high ; the north has hve. 
carefully laid, courses of brickwork. There is no foundation, the lowest bricks res . 

WINTER 19 58 9 

Hu^i. Ri ,J A I. .be .ind Foundation under Baldwin Annex. Looking east: Ken Dampf shovels out 
back dirt; Dr Wallace cleans about pipe in pit: Gar,- Coon searches rocker screen. 


s: north-south, 13 feet 9 inches; east-west, 9 feet 6 inches. 
; north wall of Room 3 was destroyed during the digging of a trench across 
laying a huge iron drainage pipe. The south wall is also incomplete. Part of 
ed in the same pipe-laying operation but additional masonry, for some 
iken out, leaving a large gap. The opening does not have the appearamf 

Dimensions: north-south, 13 feet 10 inches; east-west, 10 feet V2 inch. 
The north wall of this room is interrupted by a curious feature. Near its center is a small 
cistern-like construction of adobe. Its exact form and possible function remain to be 

Room 5. 

There has been conslkrable ^rd^^ uitire wall and the 

connecting one-third of the .south wall, adobe bricks haxe been replaced with rou^ch 
stones, irregularly coursed and mortared with concrete. A minor feature is a large irrej:u- 
lar hole cut through the clay floor and subsurface soil to a depth of about 18 inchey 
It was filled with black earth and debris of occupancy. The use or meaning of the 
depression is not known. 

There are c]uestions regarding this wing also. Means of entrance to the rooms ha5ii|^^' 
been establi.shed as no door openings have lucn observed in the 

compartments or whether all led direclly out of-doors. As upper ^^'^t'^^'^''. °' ^^J^jj^e 

of window openings, if any existed. . 

The north and south walls differ in appearance and seem to have been erected at di. 
ferent times. Brickwork along the north side of the building is superior to that on j 
south. The bricks arc like the buried ones in the Reid Adobe wing, well-finished 
meticulously laid in regular courses. In contrast, the blocks making up the south «^ 
appear to have been hastily manufactured and placed in position with less care. ,^ 

There are no buried courses of adobe brick here. The digging of 5 x 5 toot tes ^ 
in corners of four of the rooms failed to turn up any lower masonry. This seemin.i: ) , J 
an important bearing on the problem of the original form of the Reid home. If tlu 
work in the other wing is a foundation its absence here makes it almost "-'^J^'^' . 
Reid did not construct this section. It is doubtful that a builder would place a firni ■ 
ing under the walls in one part of his house a 3-room affair and nothing in aaoHKT 
a 5-room dwelling. A later owner perhaps Rowe, must then have added the hve-rcK^^^^^ 
wing. Observable differences m the cjuality of workmanship in the ^Y.-n'Xu"^- 
Thus the 1840 building apparently ^vas rectangular and not L-shaped. 

superficial e.vamination ii 
tion and appearance, wer 
one section of the house 




Pins— straight and safety 
Hooks and eyes 

Belt buckles 
Wire jar handle 

Drinking glass fragments 

onelahi and Pottery 

Dish fragments 

Bowl fragments 

Cup fragments 

Figurine (minus head) 
?rishable Materials 

Leather shoe and sole 

Playing cards 

Kerosene lantern chimney 

Flash1)ulbs of old type 
Window glass fragments 

Buttons — 
Poker chip 
Tiddly wii 

Mothcr-or-peari t 
Tortoise shell hair 

Glass arrow 
Shell belds^' 

Millmg ston< 

trenches. Their 
- as well as below it indicates 
ter tenants or by roving bands 
making flaked stone (or glass) 

This wo. IH P°^^'^^^/^^V^' ^^^^^ built on the site of a former 
Jccurr^n^' ^^^u P-"^^^"^^ °f ^^^'^^^^^ in the outside 

occurrence w, hm the house and above the earthen 
either use of the adobe by Indian workmen of R^.Vl r 
of Indrans. It is doubtful fhat mis" i:n"neo hyt tre^ 
J^nZr I P "^^'^'^ P^"^^y these ai 

b^ ^ne Jdl T T^"""" 'u^'""'^ '° ^^^^ ^^"^ points and pottery may have 

tleral Sd. T ^'^^ ^^o occasionally camped in the adobe. In 1847-48 tf 
T:!/a'L'"'^""^ ^^'^^'"^^ horses, killing cattle, and even murdering . 

^ k J „ ""^"y '^^^'d' or chopped, were unearthed ^ 

also fo H T^'"" ^''^ P— ^bly of chic 

or walnuts rpit^ .1*?'? ^^'^^^ ^^''"^i"^ «f Pl^nt f"od in the form 
Lrhes tlnm.^ . T'^ P^^"^"^' ^'"^0"ds, and Brazil nuts, pits of 

tWw o.^^l?.t .^^'T' °f watermelon, and corncobs. These food 

tnrow some light on the diet and food preferences of the former tenants. 

It Santa An 
Hundreds of anin 

1 the archaeological evidence thus far secured, some tentative conclusions 
as to rne original Hugo Reid home. The three-room (Hugo Reid Adobe 

WINTER 1958 


can with some assurance be identified as the 1840 home. The other (Baldwin Annex) 
wing appears to have been erected at a later, as yet unknown date. 

The 1840 house was a simple, solidly built, rectangular structure, more or less identi- 
cal in outline and size to the surviving adobe house. It was divided into three rooms by 
two adobe brick partitions, both long since removed. Each room has two doors leading 
out. A definite conclusion as to whether the rooms also had windows cannot be reached 
at this time. 

Archaeological work within the house is not yet complete- and new discoveries are 
still to be expected. Not all of the area beneath the yellow clay floor within the 
Hugo Reid Adobe has been fully explored. The lower adobe masonry is only partially 

There must be much still buried evidence beyond the walls of the hoiisc as well 
If Hugo Reid followed the usual early Californian custom, there must have been out 
buildings of various sorts. Like all other households the Rcids also had to have places 
for disposal of trash. That some refuse was thrown into the lake is likely, but it is also 
probable that pits were purposely dug near the house for disposal or that excavations 
opened for other purposes were used for dumping debris. Trash pits of this kind gen- 
erally contain quantities of discarded household objects and are rewarding to dig. Prior 
to landscaping or other disturbance of the soil around the house, it would be highly 
advisable to search for the remains of other structures and trash pits. 

There is great need for archival and library research on the history of the Reid Adobe 
and Rancho Santa Anita, as any meaningful discussion of the archaeological findings is 
dependent upon a thorough knowledge of all documentary sources. An exhaustive search 
should be made of mission records, official reports, accounts of visitors or travelers in the 
area and other sources for possible information on the appearance of the Adobe. Con- 
temporary sketches, or original paintings, if any can be located would, of course, be of 
immeasurable assistance in establishing certain facts concerning original construction. 
Photographs would aid in documenting major changes in the building. With a more 
complete historical and pictorial record, a larger number of the archaeological findings 
could be explained with more certainty. 

Though, as indicated, there is much still to be learned, a significant amount of infor- 
mation has been revealed by trowel, brush and careful recording. If nothing else, the 
exploration has demonstrated how successfully archaeological techniques can be em- 
ployed to produce otherwise unrecorded and unobtainable data from an old building. 
Where a historical site is meagerly or vaguely described, as in this case, the archaeologist's 


This was probably the last picture taken of the Hugo Reid Adobe showing the condi- 
tion of the building before the restoration work began. The picture was taken December 
1, 1956 and shows portions of the south and east walls of rooms 3 and 2. This, and the 
pictures within the article were taken by Mrs. Wallace. 


Modesty would prevent Dan Quattlebaum Mr. Gerry Patten of the Arboretum staff con- 
from telling one anything about his charming tinues to lead the Sunday morning Bird Walks', 
and interesting booklet "The Song of Birds, In- the first and third Sunday of each month. Won t 
formal Ideas of an Amateur". Now that you are you join him at the Gatehouse, 8:00 A.M. some 
in the "know ", maybe he will autograph a copy Sunday soon? 

and then sent to London by way ot India, arc sls: 

The late Dr. Harold Lyon reported that appcari 

there are several varieties of the Chinese ylohosc 

Banyan or Indian Laurel in Hawaii, some Miss B 

producing aerial or prop roots to a much hvinu 

greater extent than others. One tree in in l-Ior 

Thomas Square, Honolulu, has never pro^ seen n: 

Dr. Frances^hi, who introduced n- the La 

tu.ui into Santa Barbara, stated in 191 1 that kixuria 

of all the members of the genus, it has trous si 
probably gained the widest reputation as The 

an avenue tree. He added that there were com par 

formerly some fine specimens in the center or no .1 

of Los Angeles, but these had to give forms ; 

duction and propagation by seed of F. re- elliptic 

tusc] in California was made by a Los obtuse. 

Angeles nursery in 1941, the fertile seeds and a 

ling fn 


widely distributed and other nurseries 
multiplied them by cuttings. 

It may be well to review here the botani- 
cal background of ihe "retNsa-nitida" com- 

and the variety nitiiJa. has been published 
by Mary Barrett in the Bulletin of the Tor- 
rey Botanical Club for January 1949. This 

wish to study further the systematic botany 
of the species. 

fia/s retusd was described by the bot- 

Thunberg in 1786. For almost one hun- 
dred years the two were considered as 
separate species. In 1861, however, George 
Bentham expressed the opinion that F. ni- 
tdia was a synonym of F. retiisa and most 
of the 20th century have accepted 
iriety. Approximately twenty- 

mtidci i 
eight botan 

plants or specimens simila 
these are all now regarded a 


umbrageous as those ot the s 
seen elsewhere, and the frui 
fested by a specific fig insect, 
various insect predators, mes; 

^ During the ^course of sevc 
Mexico, from 1947 to 1957, 

from Sonora in the north t 
extreme south, apparently 

Indian Laur 



According to my notes, aerial roots 
ere common on trees at Mazatlan and at 
San Blas^ But I do not remember seeing 
any with well-developed prop roots or 
multiple trunks such as are foind on cer 
tarn other species of Fuus native to Mex- 
Ko. Most trees of this species are planted 
along streets. Multiple trunks would 
herefore, be undesirable even though the 
aenai roots did become anchored to the 
ground before the tips dried out in the 



provided excellent shade, but was messy 
on account of the almost continuous drop- 

ping of leaves and figs onto the patio and 
surface of the water in the adjacent swim- 
ming pool. My friend, the late Henr; 
Dutton, published in Trees Magazine for 
June 1 954, an account of a tree of F. mtik 

in Oaxaca. A count of the growth rings on 
the cut stump seemed to indicate an age of 
1 ,(){){) years for the tree. But city records 
showed that the tree had been planted onlv 
80 years previously. Apparently the mp 
were not annual but monthly averagini; 
1 2.5 for each year of tree growth. 

In California, I have not found trees ol 
the Indian Laurel comparable in size ot 
trunk and spread of branches to trees ol 
r. waa ophylla or of F. rubigmosu. Like 
F. elastn-a. the branches and foliage are 
subject to frost damage except in the most 
protected places. Dr. V. T. Stoutemyer. 
University of California at Los Angeles. 

>ecimens arc found in Balboa Park an 

California horticulturists mos 
with the two forms agree to the fo loj-nj 
conclusions. Trees of f. retusa t)pn 



poor for hedgii 

the fairly open top and the spre^" 
• - hich droop at the top. The) ; 


hab.t of growth and are, therefore, ^^^^ 
lent for hedqe or screen plant'"^' 
are elliptual, narrowmg from th. 
middle towards both base and apex^J 
arc smaller than those ot F. ret/rui. 
my about V4 mch m diameter. 

Tn r. nf two forms produce aerial^^j 
I rccs ot two rorms I .....Jty hunn" 
m (al.forn.a only under unusuall) ,^ 
conditions Both forms can be ^^^^ 
propagated from cuttings ce ^^.^ 
types arc being selected as ^^t.pIicifO'' 

WINTER 1958 


sus of twenty young plants on the campus glossy leaves, and fruits when present 
of the University of California at River- small in size. 

type, of an upright growth habit, with R/ui uJi . Cjl/jmnu 


An Anti- American riot and the inter- 
ment of a young physician during the 
Mexican War effected the discovery of 
Coral Bells, a dainty Mexican plant that 
has become a favorite garden subject from 

Coral Bells, Heucheni sangnhiea, was 
discovered by the traveler, author, physi- 
cian Frederick Adolph Wislizenus (1810- 
1889), a native of Germany. His first 

America in 1835 was the famous journey 
of 1839 to the Rocky Mountains and into 
the present state of Idaho. 

An accounting of this early journey into 
comparitively unexplored country, the 

Mexico fo'r the''duratk)ToTthe* war, his 
botanical forays, his plant collections, and 
the discovery of a new member of the 
genus Heuchera may be found in a report 
by Dr. Wislizenus (1) following his re- 
lease and return to the United States. Dr. 
George Engelmann (2) authored the bo- 
tanical description of Heuchra satipuitiea 
in 1848. 

Later explorations by other botanists 
revealed the extensive distribution of H. 
satiguitiea from northern Mexico into Ari- 
zona's Cochise, Santa Cruz and Pima coun- 
ties to southern Apache County (3). 

Heuchera sangu'tnea. a member of the 
Saxifrage family, grows in leafy clumps 
that average four or five inches in height 
and eight inches in width. Mature leaves 
of the plants usually seen in gardens are 
about two inches across and heavily veined. 
The stems, undersides and dentate edges 
of the lobed, rather heart-shaped leaves are 
quite hairy and the upper sides are smooth, 
dark green, with grayish-green mottling 

stubby rootstocks. bearing on their extrem- 
ities numerous reddish or coral-pmk bell- 

How and when H. satiguitiea became a 
part of American flower gardens is some- 
what of a mystery. Probably the first culti- 
vated plants came from the mountains of 
Arizona. Plants were no doubt, brought 
from the wilds by the "women folk ' to 
beautify the yards of the early homestead- 
ers. Friends and strangers, rewarded for 
their admiration of the plants, carried 
"slips" to their own homes. Eventually, 
Coral Bells attracted the attention of nurs- 
erymen and quickly became a commercial 

The plant was introduced into England 
about 1882 by a Mr. Ware of Tottenham. 

consternation for a time among gardeners 
and nurserymen who had spent their life- 
time developing huge and grandiose flow- 
ers which by 1903 were generally regarded 
as vulgar according to publications of that 
period. Professional tradesmen, however, 
soon sensed the public acclaim of small 
flowers and articles recommending Coral 
Bells for perennial borders, rockeries, 
woodland dells, cut flowers, etc., began to 
appear in garden literature. 

Coral Bells reached continental Europe 
at about the same time and was equally 
sensational. Messrs. Victor and Emile Le- 


moine of Nancy, France in the Lorraine 
are responsible for many of the finer 
named Heuchera hybrids. 

Cultural practices for Coral Bells are 
quite general. Any good textured well 
drained, deep rich loam seems to be very 
satisfactory but they are sometimes seen 
growing very happily in afternoon sun in 
heavy California adobe with the poorest of 
drainage. The plants seem to be fond of 

incorporated fragments of lime plaster 
generously during soil preparation. Coral 
Bells requires little care. The plants are 
neat the year around. In most areas of the 
country, Coral Bells is grown chiefly in 
sunny locations, but in Southern Califor- 
nia morning sun seems preferable with 
light shade in the afternoon. Hybrid Heu- 

As far as is known, Coral Bells is perfectly 
hardy anywhere in the United States and is 

Propagation Is quite simple, the most 
satisfactory method being the division of 
old clumps. The time depends somewhat 
on the locality, but may be done in the fall 
or in early spring just before active growth 
starts. The divisions may be planted di- 
rectly in the soil or may be placed in a 
cold frame until sturdy plants develop for 
transplanting to the garden. Coral Bells 
grow easily from seed (germinating with- 

in three weeks) and may be increased by 
leaf cuttings, but these later methods are 
rather slow and tedious. 

Some of the uses of Coral Bells have 
already been mentioned. It is drought re- 
sistant and its flowering is apparently un- 
affected by such conditions. Coral Bells 
makes a nice potted plant and is frequently 
forced by florists. Its value as a border 
plant or for edging walks, flower beds 
and terraces can hardly be over-estimated. 
Large groupings are very eflfective in the 
foreground of herbaceious perennial and 
shrub plantings or for perennial borders 
featuring red flowers. It is very useful 

soon disappearinj'foliage would otherwise 
leave large bare snots in the garden. It 
combines well with white nansies, violas, 
blue columbines ir ihis mertensia, shasta 
ci usics white sweet William and dwarf 
campanulas. It is especially adaptable to 

'''\vuly!'cnrd Bc'lls has a place in ever)' 


Frank E. Collihr 
.■AN,).N. SPHUMrNs of the^ Um^ ^ The average c.rcunUc.enc^^^ 

ena' The^wxt plan^^^^^ '"hir dll best^vi'c^- of these large spreaJ^ 

operty then belonging to Margaret ing trees go west on Monterey Koa 
r Grahan.. an early California wr.ter. South Pasadena about__a half ;n.U;^ 

planting was from seeds brought froi 
Italy to the Graham place by Mrs. Kathc 
rine Hooker, the wife of John D. Hooke 
who donated funds for the hundred-inc 
telescope on Mt. Wilson. 



appearance of roots that were deeply fas- 
ciated. At 10 ppm IB A, callus formation 
appeared to be enhanced while with in- 

ber of layers with a heavy callus decreased 
as those with a light callus, increased (Fig. 
1). At 1000 ppm IBA, half the layers 

root promoting substances, two-thirds of 
the layers possessed a light callus while 
the remaining layers had a moderate to 

Two weeks after the layers were canned 
in a potting soil, 65% were lost, possibly 
due to drying. The weather was unseason- 
ably warm at this time and while the 
plants toward the rear of the greenhouse 
and somewhat shaded, remained in good 
condition, those placed near the center 
aisle and more exposed to sunlight and 
drying winds, dried out. 

During the first week of August, new 
vegetative growth was evident on the re- 
maining plants, but during the following 
weeks, growth was slow and chlorotic. 
With an application of Hoagland's nu- 
trient solution, the leaves of the new vege- 
tative growth turned dark green which 
was an indication that roots were present. 

On removal of plants from the cans, it 
was observed that all of the remaining 
layers that did not receive a hormone treat- 
ment, rooted and that most of these layers 
possessed the heaviest amount of roots 
(Fig. 2). Half of the remaining layers 
that had been treated with 10 ppm and 
100 ppm IBA had no roots, while the 
remaining layers possessed a light to mod- 

The overall results observed indicated 
that vegetative propagation of Eucalyptus 
fcifolia is possible by means of air-layer- 
mg. It is also likely that layers need not be 
treated in any way with growth substances, 
as callus formation, although stimulated 
by a low concentration of IBA may retard 
root growth and development. Also, the 
factor inhibiting root formation may be 
overcome by removing the layer at an 
earlier date or by replacing the treated 

sphagnum moss with fresh untreated 

The high mortality rate is nothing new 
to workers experienced in air-layering and 

3. F. T. Ching, "Lasca Leaves ' 7: 8-10, 195^ 


Francis F. T. Ching and William S. Sti vc art 
Stofifiiary of a paper pre.^enteci at the AIBS ainuial lueL-lnig. August 2^-29. ^ 
Stanford Unirersity. Palo A/trK Calijonua 



OR hids ) u crrtKltcV\.\'th'i!:.hhcVcliie ^ ul 
(GA) in xarious v^a>s o\cr a [xriod ol 
16 \^ecks When tuo drops ot 2^ parts 
per million O^pm)^ GA were placed m the 

sometimes three flower buds were pro- 
duced on a single stem. Occasionally, only 
one of these buds expanded into a full 

4 j 

flowers on the same stem expanded, the 
first flower possessed a 'leaf bract' in place 
of the normal bract (Fi^^ 1). From the 
center of this 'leaf bract' the stem of the 
second flower developed. Under these con- 
ditions, internodes of the plant elon^»atcd, 
the new lateral stem growth developed at 

a higher position and also expanded at a 

new multiple lateral vegetative growths 
developed. When only one shoot growth 
instead of the apex of all shoots was 

GA, but in different amounts, no visible 

P. King Arthur 'Burgoync' were treated in 

F.g. 1. Flower formation ot I'jpiv.^ p.Jn^um^ 

the same manner as the P. Maud me. but 
no visible efl^ects were evident. 

termine the full eflPects of gibberellic acid 
on P. M^ucliae. although it appears, at this 


Gibberellic acid and indoleacetic acid 

'^^irJli .n stem d.aimtcr in rc 
beXTcid Iroukttira^IsolatAl .asc 

I'lth gilirrdhc acid In the ca c ot^ papa 
ya% the results indicate that gibbcrelli 
acid applied in a lanolin paste is not trans 

(lAA) were applied at various concentra- 
tions, in lanolin, to the basal portion of 

stem diameter was evident in the area of 
application for the following treatment 
concentrations: 25 ppm GA, 250 ppm GA 
and 25 ppm GA plus 100 ppm lAA. The 

located in the plant. 

A marked increase in the germinatioi 
of seeds of certain native California an 
nuals was observed following treatmen 
with GA. Gilia capitata var. cbamissotii 


(Globe Gilia) seed, collected in 1948 was 
treated with 0 ppm, 10 ppm, 25 ppm, 100 
ppm and 250 ppm GA. Seed collected in 
1953 were treated with 0 ppm, 100 ppm 
and 250 ppm GA. A second experiment 
was carried out using seeds of Eschschol- 
zia caespitosa v^r.Kerriensis (Gold poppy) 
collected in 1948 and 1953. The seeds 
were treated with 0 ppm, 25 ppm, 100 
ppm and 250 ppm GA. 

The results observed strongly indicated 
that gibberellic acid is not only effective 
in increasing seed germination but that it 
also appears to be more effective on older 
seeds. With Gilia, 

seeds treated with 250 ppm GA i 
by 13 times over the controls wi 
1953 seeds, using the same conc^ 


Si 1 hr rc Its were observed with Esch- 
scholzia seeds. With treatment of 250 ppm 
GA, germination of 1948 seeds increased 
26 times over the controls while germina- 
tion of 1953 seeds increased about 6 times 
over the controls. , 

Further germmation tests along wit 
bio-assay determinations will be initiated 
to ascertain the full value of the obser^'a- 
tions reported here. This work was sup- 
ported by a grant-in-aid from Longwood 
Gardens and the Longwood Foundation. 
Kennett Square, Pa. 

1 Item #^81 Abstracts, American Society tor 

Horticultural Science, Fifty-Fourth Annual 


Glenn H. Hiatt 

ouse (Casa,m,or ii°^^J^'\':lrl 
ons: (a) 65°t. mimmuiu 
^1. ^i^tuiiuuse for growing and displaying maximum (b) 55°F. minimum to 
plants and a place for their preservation maximum. This house ,s used for the cuta 
and safe keeping ' —than the Los Angeles vation of Cypripediums. These two hou 
State and County Arboretum? are located north of the Admmistrabon 

We are destined to have one of the Building, and to the west of the Sen^^ 
most outstanding collections of orchids Unit. Each of these houses was constru 
and tropical plants in the world. The as a result of generous gifts oi mon ) 
present and future plans for the Arbore- the California Arboretum Foundat.ort^. 
turn assure conditions for "displaying" and 
"preserving" rare, awarded, unusual, and 

name only. In addition, "safe keeping"', 
where all plants will be grown to speci- 
mens, not broken up unless necessary, and cattley; 

not for sale. on display. ■ fot 

One might ask what the Arboretum's So much for the physical^ 

and display 

nd of the extent of our present orchid tions themselves. Again, the plai 
nd tropical plant collections. The follow- received as gifts to the C 

'ia Arbof- 

allied hybrids, i"^!"^'"^ Le. 
hybrids flowering for the ft St 

WINTER 19 58 


3- Many botanical orchids, so 
flowers no larger than a pin 1 
others the size of a salad plal 

4. Approximately 325 recent v 
brids, both terete and strap Ic 

5. Approximately 750 large 
Cymbidium plants, most o 

ung Spring, 
is currently in flower^ 
about 500 CypripcdiL 

hobbyist and commercial man, and also to 
stimulate a new hobby or appreciation in 
the minds of many visitors. The many Cat- 
tleya plants in flower now will continue to 
be colorful throughout the winter and all 
year, as seasonal hybrids follow the suc- 
cession of bloom. The Cymbidiums added 
to this show of flowering plants by Spring, 
mixed with other genera not even mcn- 

AU plants in flower will show clearly 

Each plant is displayed to its own best ad- 
vantage in viewing the flowers, size of 
plant, growing medium, etc. Each plant 
also is displayed in close proximity to near 
relatives to help the visitor study and com- 
pare. Finally, all plants are displayed to 
harmonize with our concept of agreeable 

quality, ^arlt>^ and beauty, but unless dis- Extension Servue Manual 23. 332 pp. 195^. 

played for the comfortable enjoyment of si.oo. 

the thousands of visitors to the Arboretum. ^<^^^^ ''Jh''?ni' r\!n ' h^ntrrrl** rfrdT^Snd" 

all purpose is lost. It might seem that to puMKltlun^ThcV'' C ivlum h'r ProJut 

frow these plants and then display them Health Container-Grown Plants Manual 

'n the present facilities would be a diflicult 23. edited bv Dr. Kenneth F. Baker, Professor 



Officers 1958 

President M'^^'-^'^" ^^^^"'^^ 

Vice-President Alfrfd W. Robkrts 

Treasurer F^kd W. Rokwekamp 

Secretary ■ George H. Spalding 

Executive^Secretary : ' . Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Eric Johnson 

William Beresforp Marston Kimball 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Mildred E. Mathia; 

Ralph D. Corne 


Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Earle E. Humphries William S. Stewart 

Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor F^ed W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher. Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townseni 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member ^' ^ 

Group or Club ^' ^. 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 

Contributing Member 

Commercial Member vw y« 

Sustaining Member '" ''jOO^O 

Life Membership 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

50.00 ] 

nd Thursday ot each moncn, rmi. 

7377 Santa Monica Boulevv^ 
ta Hall of the Communit)- Buildir 
GRanite 2-4659 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 




Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office — Hlilcrest 6-5247 


Board of Trustees 

President Frits W. Went 

Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry J, Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O'Melvenv 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

Arthur Freed Harold F. Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovi;ll Swisher, Jr. 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray TURNER 

Foundation Office— Hllkrest 7-H2()7 

Annual Membership ^^-^^ 

Annual Contributing Membership ■ -^"^^ 

Annual Sustaining Membership ^^^ '^^ 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 5^^- 

Founders $1,000 or more 

Benefactors *),000 or more 

All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

: 688— Arcadia- Califorr 

SPRING 195f 

Lasca Leaves 

Philip Edward Cha; 
Mildred Davis 
William Hertrich 
Louis B. Martin 

ims and Botanical Gardens: 
Northern California— Llizai 
Santa Barbara— Katiii rim 
Southern California— J. Ho\ 

Gco-botany, and Plant Pa 



Native California Flor 

Plant Material 

Ralph D. Corntll 

a PnRf vC Evhrett 

Robert Casamajor 

W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Societies 

George H. Spalding 

W. Quinn Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics. 
Taxonomy of Natives. 

Philip A. Mi NZ 

Louis B. Martin, EJitor 

Vol. VIII 

APRIL 1, 1958 No, 2 

The Cover 

Arbor Day 

Selection and Propauation of Functional Shade and Street Trees 

* ' Maunsell Van Rensselaer 

Hibiscus Ross H. Cast 

Choosing a Tree tor the Average Garden M.ldred Davis 

A New Philosophy for Descanso Gardens William S. Stewart 

Bonsai \ Joan Case 

Lilacs on the Desert Francis H. Bourne 

The History of Our Trees— The Tasmaman Blue Gum 

Richard M. Straw 

The Palm Society Lucita H. Wait 

Growing Notes George H. Spalding 

Book Reviews and Comments 




Barbara Joe 

A WIDE SELECTION of fcms is Cultivated along the margin except at the ends of the 

in Cahfornia. The brake fern, Ptem: a segments and sinuses, and are covered by 

large tropical and subtropical group, is the reflexed leaf margin. The brake ferns 

represented in our ornamental flora by may be distinguished from the bracken, 

seven species with many cultivars. They PU i/J/ui//. by 'the absence of hairs on the 

are frequently encountered as dish garden rhizome and frond. They may be separated 

or bedding plants. Most of the species are from the clitT brake, Pellaea, by having the 

qui?] shide manytln'totratc'stro^^ 'r'^the^rThTn^on free vein ends. The rarely 

with indirect sun and P/ens vUlaUt and P. cultivated Histiopieris has a wide creep- 

treni^iht can withstand some direct sun. ing rhizome, and widely separated fronds 

The brakes are easy to cultivate and will which is distinctive from the Pteris. 

grow in a fairly wide range of soils. They The species are fairly easy to distinguish 

may be propagated by divisions. in their native environment but sometimes 

short, scaly rhizome. The fronds are clus- the many cuitivarv The following key, 

tered, pinnate or pinnately decompound, based on vcuctative characters, has been 

never finely divided, herbaceous to leath- prepared to distinguish the species culti- 

ery, smooth and the veins free or united. \,ited in ( alifornui. 
The sori are narrow, linear, continuous 

Fronds simply pinnate throughout P i''"'"'' 

Fronds not simply pinnate throughout 

Upper pinnae simple or with a few coarse lobes 

Sterile segments elliptic, the tips rounded to blunt-acute P- e>ruf<>i"i'^ 

Sterile segments linear, the tips long-tapering 

Rachis winged between upper 1st and 2nd pairs of pinnae. 

Rachis winged between upper three or moi 
nae, the segments usually less than V4 in. 

Upper pinnae regularly pinnatifid into mar 
Pinnae folded inward along the midvein 
Pinnae not folded 

temperatures below 320F. Information is (hi it ' )rv Tla mines of f^f"* ^' 

often inadequate on cold tolerance but the , ; , , supplied in the tra 

plants listed as hardy withstood the cold '^^'^ trequcn v •[[ .u^ , omn 

winter of 1949 when temperatures reached '^'^'^'^ inisappi.ed names and tn 

I80F in many areas of Los Angeles. Ferns botanical synonyms are itahcsed m p 

listed as semi-hardy may withstand winter thesis following the correct nanies. 





Maunshll Van Rensselaer 
Presenled at the National Shade Tree Canfereuce. 
Philadelphia, Penn., August 27. 19^7 
The need for better and more uniform street plantings has long been recognized on 
the Pacific Coast. Since World War II, a phenomenal population increase has brought 
about the development of countless new residential districts in most western cities and 
towns. Planning of these areas by competent public agencies has focused attention on 
the street tree problem and the necessity of eliminating some of the glaring mistakes of 
the past. 

The utilitarian considerations of this problem are doubtless much the same throughout 
the nation. Among the essential considerations, much thought has been given in the west 
to the elimination of damage by tree roots to sidewalks, curbs and sewers and to the 
reduction of interference with overhead wires and street lights. Considerable work has 
been devoted to the selection and propagation of trees which might serve to improve 

community, attention has been directed to the adxantagcs ot tlic use of more flowering 
trees and those with dramatic autumn color. Gcncrall) 'spcakmu. small to medium-sized 
trees are preferred except in the hot interior valleys and in desert communities where 
protection from the heat of the day is an essential factor. Though many westerners 

increasing maintenance costs and will welcome new species of horticultural vaneties 
requiring a minimum of spraying, pruning or watering. „ 

Selections and tests are currently being made in a number of places on the Paafi 
Coast on the basis of the above considerations. New species and selected varieties a e 
being introduced from east of the Rockies and from various temperate parts of the world 
for evaluation and testing under environmental conditions existing here. Species m uj 
in the west for years are being carefully examined in search of variants having desiraW'^ 

At the Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, greatest emphasis thus far has been place<^ 

on selections of Ginkgo biloba, Pistacia chin eu sis and Magnolia grand i flora. 

seedling-grown stock of 

f these species- 
ital conditions. 

If seedlings of a common origin are grown under compai.... „ . , _f 

It may be assumed that marked variation between indiMduals is essentially mhert" 
Hence, to perpetuate desirable features and to attain uniformity in streetside plantat'O. 
vegetative propagation of selected forms is essential. Since budding or grafting is 
method usually employed, the importance of seed source in the growing of vigor 
rootstock cannot be overemphasized. ,. ., 

Ginkgo biloba no longer exists in the wild state though it was once widely distribute 
over temperate regions of the earth. Unique among trees, it is referred to as a i f 
fossil. Fortunately for posterity, this beautiful and adaptable ornamental was kepU 
by pnests in the temple grounds of China and Japan. From there it was '^^^'<'^''^.l, 
Europe m 1730 and was brought from England to the United States in 1784. 
been successfully grown in most parts of the country. . . _ .,n. 

of seedli 

ing-grown g.nkgoes has long been discouraged since rnc 
•kable variation in habit of growth, and the fleshy truits of the ^ 
sive odor when ripe. Western park superintendents report ttiey 

SPRING 1958 


ise many ginkgoes as streetside trees if they eoui 
orm habit of growth. Among the desirable c|u.i 
^'idc range of climatic conditions, pest resistanc e .i 
welve selections of male trees have been made 
v'idely separated places in the United States .iiid 
'he parent trees vary in habit of growth from ni 
Sentry"), through oval-upright forms ( 'Autumn' 

types would add a distinctive touch to the landscape However, it is doLihtlul tha 
these are being propagated. 

growing — at least in the'fi'rl' few^yc'^r's ' a.s 'hol"'graftL'l Vr hlid^^^^ 
Budding on second year seedlings is the method preferred at Saratoi:a Some ol 
predict that these habit types may not come true to form. Others arc of the opim 
the symmetrical habit of the progeny of a clone such as Autumn CoUl' iiiav be U 
reaching 50 years or more of age. There seems to be no conclusive experimental c 

propagated progeny of several of the forms at Saratoga maintain the essential ch 
istics of the parent trees. 

Pistdcid ch'niensis. a deciduous species from China, is referred to as ha\ ing tl 
vivid autumn foliage of any tree in the Pacific southwest. This. too. is a dioecious 
Though the variation in habit among individuals of P. c/v;/.;;./. is not as notice 

habit and bears brighter autumn foliage than the female tree. The former'conditi 
be due to the absence of an annual, heavy crop of fruit. This species withstands be 
and drought, and is free from pests, hence its maintenance cost is low. It is be: 
increasingly popular as a streetside and shade tree in central and southern C ali 
especially in the hot interior valleys. The individual selected for propagation at S, 

metrical crown 38 feet in diameter, is 36 feet tall and has striking orange-red fol 
the autumn. Propagation is by budding. Second or third \car seedlings growi 
selected seed trees are used as rootstock. 

Floridl and Texas, has long beei^ popular with westerners 'and is widely planted 
Pacific Coast. Trees from seedling-grown stock xary markedly m { 1 ) h-ibit of ^ 
(2) size and shape of leaves, (3) size, shape and quantity of flowers. {\) ler 
flowering period, and (5) amount and richness of brown tomentum on the under : 
of the leaves. 

Several selected forms of MdgnoVtd graudi^ovd have been sparingly propagated 
west. The best known of these is 'Saint Mary". This selection was 'made by th. 
Saint Mary Nurseries in Glen Saint Mar>', Florida, some 30 years ago. A typica 
30 year old specimen in their growing grounds is 52 feet high, has a bluntly - 
shape with a crown diameter at the base of about 30 feet, is branched almost 
ground, and has a trunk diameter of about two feet. The foliage is attractive a 
six-inch flowers are fredy produced. Plants bloom at an early age'. Those who intn 
this clone into California in 1939 are of the belief that the trees will grow mucl 

P>yct var. Idnceoldtd (var. exonieiisis) .This has leaves narrower than the type and 
to be somewhat erect when mature. Thought to have originated in England, it is sa 
thousands of specimens cover the walls of houses near London and in southv 


England. Another form rarely seen here is var. golhilb, notable for its flowers one foot 

Seedling variants selected in California by the Saratoga Horticultural Foundation and 
soon ready for distribution are 'Stalwart', 'Margarita' and a form as yet unnamed. Graft- 
ing on second or third year seedlings of the species is the method of propagation 
employed at Saratoga. The parent specimen of M. gnmcl/flora 'Stalwart' has been care- 
fully nurtured throughout its life and is now a mature tree about 35 years old. It has a 
dense crown, flowers freely, is 49 feet tall with a branch spread of 26 feet at the base, 
tapering slightly to the summit. Plants propagated from this tree bloom when young. 
'Stalwart' is recommended for streetside planting. The parent tree of the clone 'Mar- 
garita' is now 20 years old, is 18 feet tall and has a branch spread of 20 feet. At the 
present time, it shows evidence of remaining a relatively small tree of pleasing^propor- 

being made of this variety as a wall plant. The most noteworthy feature of the unnamed 
clone is its large, glossy, prominently veined leaves. 

Selected forms of the following species are also being propagated asexually at Sara- 
toga. Tests indicate that some of these have considerable promise as streetside and shade 
trees for this region. 

Oir)ins ^/////^^///7- - Geographic race from the southernmost stand of this spctic:. in the 
Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Propagated on rootstock of C uifuljUi sinu 
the latter is more resistant to heat and drought. 

koelyeNleyia IniMah,^ -Upright form. 'nnruUn - Twn , In,,,, '^nn- , . I,.,:,-,,,,. ..n."...,.' str.nn. and the other 

blocks of plants of this clone in the nursery where envircMimental conditions arc 
controlled, but it has not been deter/nincd 'if this will hold true when planted m 
different regions under varying conditions of soil nutrition, moisture, exposure 
and temperature. This form is distributed under the horticultural name Palo 

■ columnar than the other, 
upright than the type. 

SPRING 1958 



Ross H. Cast 

As IS THE CASE with many plant families, 
the botanical history of the hibiscus is 
fragmentary and confusing. However, we 
do know something of the introduction 
and development of the species we now 
call H. Rosa-swensis, as well as the sev- 
eral other species which have been crossed 
with Rosa-sinensis to produce the hybrids 

planted horticultural varieties of hibiscus 
in America, Hawaii, Asia and Australia. 

The exact date that H. Rosa-sitieiisis was 
brought to England has not been deter- 
mined, but it was being grown in English 
green houses early in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury. And there is evidence that George 
Washington grew the plant in his hot 
houses about the same time. Its introduc- 
tion in the United States could have been 
direct from India or China (where it is 
native), or even the South Seas, or it could 
have come in by the way of the West In- 
dies to which area it was introduced quite 
early by the English and the French. In 
England as well as the Colonies, hibiscus 
was always grown as a hothouse or "stove 
plant", in tubs, or as a "wall plant", 
trained to conservatory walls. 

Hawaii, where hibiscus finds its hap- 
piest home, probably received its first 
Rosa-sinensis direct from China soon after 
the first whites arrived. Hawaiian ports 

the fur^ trTirbXten^ Chi^I a'^d the 

Northwest Coast of America which flour- 
ished around 1800. 

Hibiscus spread throughout the South 
Seas very early: Dr. E. D Merrill says 
that insofar as the South Seas are con- 
cerned, hibiscus was a -rre-Magellan man- 
introduced ornamental from the Islands to 
the West", meaning of course, the East In- 
dies. The red hibiscus is mentioned quite 
frequently in Polynesian folklore, and in- 

bariensis', published in Amsterdam in 
1678. The short text is illustrated with a 
black and white plate and shows a double 
hibiscus, described as being -rose red". It 
appears much like the double red intro- 
duced into England 1 50 years later. 

Rhumphius' "Herbarium Amboiniensis ', 
published in 1743. and the plant described 

Von Rheede. He also mentioned a double 
white, although he did not describe it. In 

idlVthTdouble Wbiscus 1° re the'fiS^lo 
be described. As late as 1836, the "Botani- 



(double) varieties oi 
yellow, buff and evi 
common in collectic 

Both Von Rheede and Rhumphius ante- ^^^'jf 
date Linnaeus. However, for some time ^^J^^ 
after Linnaeus brought the species and the The "Botanical Cabinet" Vol 
name Rosa-sine.sis together; there was ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^le red much 
some confusion: ev^en such a well known ,j , ^^^jj ^^^^ Florida 
plantsman Phillip Miller, director of the ^ , n W ^ /' In the same- 
Chelsea Botanic Garden, and credited with ' , th do ble forms 

His Gardener s Dictionary , published ■ • ' . . . j . 

in 1763, described 22 species of the hibis- ^7 " Thl "Touc 

cus family, but among t'hem was only one hTSfer zon " th s r ety 

th.t . nn. placed in the cbsely related found m'^ny old Xti/ns. 

other variety shown was H. Ro.ut-sin 
Inlea. or deep yellow hibiscus. Th 
much like the double now listed as 

but Mi] 

H. nwtahilh as R. Rosa-.u,?em,s. 

. The first reproduction of H. Ros.-sn.n- Z"ZZJ":^":J:^:^"^o: 
.r/x in color that I have been able to find ' ' rjcL'ated hibisa 

appears Jn^ Curtis' Botanical Magazine, Xtc'.n' color.' We still refer 


Vol. 5, 1791. This sho 

of^he flower which we now Then 
hich has 

equently in gardens than any Xr ^""Z vol 21, -Botanical Registe^r", 1836, 
Hassinger was first showi 

" ^.wu ^aii Luiiiuiuii rea, wnicn nas k ^ f i K„Kr;,^« 

Id^wide distribution, and is found '^1.!!'^'''^ ^^'^"^'^"^ 

g the 1820's, colored olates of Mrs Hassintrer was first shown ir . 


horticultural publications in England, for dark, reddish-black center zone. It ha 

by that time new forms were being brought been widely used in crossing for the past 

m from South Asia. In fact, some hybridiz- 100 years, and this is possibly the reason 

ing was being done, too, and several of for the "dark eye" in many of our modern 

the closely related species were being used hybrids. . 
m these crosses. Of these, H. aunero.n. During the latter part of the Nineteen 

from Madagascar, H. schnop.tabn from Centurv horticulturil literature covered 

South Africa, the several forms of n itive Hihisais Ron uueinis quite liberally, and 

the native Hawaiian red, have been the a dedicated 'group of amateurs in Haj^^" 

only ones to be successfully crossed with began to work with the plant, and t ^ 

rt. Kosa-swemis. H. cameronu "blood" these men and women who are mainly ^ 

can DC seen in modern hybrids in the form sponsible for the gorgeous forms J 

of striped petals; H. schizopetalus hybrids colors that are available today for grown 

are very common throughout the tropics, in tropical areas. Some work was done 

and are generally characterized by a long, Florida, and in the West, but 

pendulous staminal column. Native Ha- Hawaiian group t<K,k the lead, and e^en 

[.Spraque, T. A. Kew ] 


southern California can have a wide range ber of varieties which we no. 

of color and form m h.b.scus, all perfectly ^l^'^^^^ll' 

at home here. They may not always survive LITERATURE 
extreme low temperatures, but they will be 

as hardy or hardier than the limited num- Bulletin 29, 


Mildred Davis 

THE RIGHT TREE properly placed can give given function ^^^^'^.^J^^'I^aI 

the most ins en ficant house a touch of dis- view, to screen an unsignuy uujtc y 

tmc "n h3. , a tree should be chosen phone pole or a ne.ghbor s second sto,^ 

with the same care as a fur coat, for given window) , to cast a shadow pattern on wa 

reasonable care both last a life time Trees °^ P-^^-^J J^f fohage or^spring 

add value to property and impart (espe- autumnal color in J^""''^ , [ ■ 

.n| tracts) a feeling of glory 

^^JusTany^ tret l^annot^ fulfill a definite but 'along with them 

need, for every tree has a special growth must also be consid 

form which distinguishes it from others, thinks twice betore s 

The open clover leaf like pattern of Eiica- is in need of contmu 
lyptus cladocalyx silhouetted against the 

e of mainter 

norma laiiuiiuiiK, i.ivcwis^ -iu..,c j.runing ^^/^'^'-T^'^!^'" ^^^^ 

laix wa,... bole of the Washingtonias which frosts easily. Likewise one ^^^^^ 

topped by clusters of fan like foliage. ^^^^ '^'T tn wTn^slype of root 

These trees afford what is termed a sky soils, its resistance to wind, its 

line" affect, and are especially useful ^Y^tem (if invasive and gree^^^^^^^ 

where background height is needed. The hibit growth beneath). Ultimate sa^^^^ 

thin drooping form of Casurina with its is most important for ^^''^'^^'i ^-^^ the 

pine like foliage and sparse branching sug- and design in plant catena • 

an,a.ed pine but a defi- ^or.^.^^^^^^^^^^^ 
n the average garden. 

^ ■ f 1 J I I u k «r cm-,!! tree foliage small 

Acaaa vesUta-^ graceful pendulous large shrub or sma I ^txc g^^^ 

'^^S.^^t^ seen at HOO Mnto 

PI. (Bel Aire off Sepulveda). , , ^ . .rowing 

^/^/zz;W././;..;//,.-^feathery mimosa like foliage, ^'.-^.^7r';^:/^'j'°;;;;;,;h but ^'^^ ^5 
ultimate 20-25 feet, spread of same. Somewhat rigui hahit or g ^^^^^ but*'" 
thinned for less stylized affect. Appearance is lust with adcqua e v. ^ ^^ o!^ 
exist with little. Group of 3, 20990 Las Mores Mcs.i Dr.. f lores 
be seen from road, rear north. W ' 1 "^'^ growth, rose 

acToss. Need, oaas.nnal pruning o prevent wond.n . 1 a, ^^^^^^ „p„gW 
on top of rear slope (from street) at 809 Bramble Way (Tiger laii;- 


delicious pineapple flavored fruit. 299 No. Saltair near entrance. 

Ficus r^///w— small leaved rubber, neat, glossy dark green leaves, pendulous habit ot 
growth Slow growing eventually 25-30 feet high, 20 feet wide. Full sun coast or 
pardal shade, Inland partial shade (tender to frost). Best specimen at office of 
Pereira & Luckman, Sunset Blvd. at edge of Beverly Hills. 

Harpephyllum caffrmn (Kafir Plum) -attractive dark green pinnate leaves ver) 
glossy, new growth very bronze. Plum like fruit, dark red. Fast growing to 2 
feet high and wide. Better as a multiple trunk specimen. Needs drainage, doe 
not like wet feet. Tender to frost. Needs considerable pinching of terminal 
growths when young to attain good form. _ ,, . -j v.^\,.r 

Hy.Lospono. flaL^-^^lossy dark green foliage, 20-25 feet tall 15 wide. Rather 
^ open growth that needs cutting back when young to produce a good compad 
head. Flowers in loose terminal panicles about 1-1 inches, deep yf ow, veq 
fragrant. Not easy to find in the trade. Needs adequate water but good drainage. 
Peebles rear garden 2179 LevenLane, Brentwood. 

Lepiospenuur..Lu,.-open arching growth, bronzy 70fet h 

Delightful lemon fragrance to foliage. Needs excellent drainage. To 20 feet high 

1 L V Ireen le'^ one- incli nmk'flowcrs olf and on ail year. By pruning 
linear grc> green icaxcs, o'u inui [ i / sunnottoo 


William S. Stkwart 

/ill be featu 
^ith theoutstanc 

The Los Angeles County Department a different plant group ' 

of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens was re- for the general public witl 

quested on January 28, 1958 by the County Camellia display ^'°"^'!i?/"^j^j^edule f< 

Supervisors to operate Descanso Gardens of the main features. The sc 

effective July 1, 1958. In making the re- monthly displays is now being ^P^^|^^„ 

quest the Supervisors accepted a tentative Suggestions have been: Apri ^j^.^. j,j 

program for the Gardens. The emphasis Wildflowers and Bulbs; May ^^^^^^ 
and philosophy of this program is based Bcuonias and ''^'l ,,nts ai 

on an educational function for Descanso IVrns; September '"^^^^ J^. fjove. 

Gardens. ( ..nsetx at ion ; October Uer- 

ties of Los Angeles County wi^l be given 
the opportunity to participate. Each month 



Joan Case 

Sunday, April 27, marks the opening of the first major Bonsai exhibit ever to he sta.^c 
in the United States. The Cahfornia Bonsai Society, headed by John Naka. will prcsei 
the First Annual Bonsai Exhibition at the Cahfornia Museum of Science and Industr 
Exhibition Park, Los Angeles. , c i 

Opening on Sunday, the exhibition will continue for one week through ^uiula 
May 4. Hours for the exhibition will be 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. '^^^''>^^^"'|'^■'|"^\J,'"^^ 

beauty and^health ire^es^sential. Age, alone, is not the important factor. 

The Bonsai are grown in a container in a controlled manner. This is an unnatur; 
environment for the specimen and as a result horticultural problems arise. The charact, 
of growth of such specimens is controlled, in part, by the culturahst through the selectn 
pruning of both the branch and root structure, through a careful feeding program an 
by satisfying a varying range of microclimatic requirements. 

Aesthetically, the specimen is controlled, to an extent, by traditional patterns goven 
ing the shaping of the specimen and its relationship to the container and support.r 
earth. Also it is controlled, to an extent, by the culturalisfs own individuality and mte 
pretation of nature. 

This first exhibition is being staged for a dual purpose : namely, to encourage great 
interest and understanding on the part of the general public about these mmiature tree 
And to afford the Bonsai enthusiasts an opportunity to exhibit their outstanding speci- 
mens and to gain greater knowledge about the compL 

■ed in E 


old-tashioned lilacs were planted 24 years 
ago. Today, the ranch has over 20 acres of 
lilacs, five of which are French hybrids of 
25 varieties. The Ramblin' K sells from 
6,000 to 10,000 bunches of lilacs to Los 
Angeles florists yearly. The entire Ante- 
lope Valley supplies about 40,000 bunches. 
When Easter falls around the first of 
April, growers cannot supply the demand 
for lilacs ! 

Seven years ago, Mrs. Craig Wilson, a 
Palmdale resident, began a practice of dig- 
ging up rootings from the bushes in town 
and giving them to residents who had no 
lilacs. The Palmdale Garden Club has con- 
tinued this project. This year to date, 1,500 
plants have been distributed to new resi- 
dents. To further promote the planting of 
lilacs, Mrs. Wilson initiated a yearly "Plant 
Lilacs Now" poster contest in the elemen- 
tary schools. Besides earning prizes and 
ribbons for the contest Darticinants th^ 

posters, placed in communicy siui^ 
dows, encourage nursery sales of lilacs. (A 
lique relationship with communit)' 
msiness. Ed.). 
The popularity of the lilac won for i 
the title of the Official Flower of Palmdale 
in 1957. Today, there are over 100 vane^ 
ties growing in the area. A few of th 
favontes are: Vestale, Ami Schott, Ohver 
DeSerres, President Grevy, Decaisne, ri^ ■ 
Fallieres, Montaigne, Katheri"- Have- 

Chas. Joly, Lu^*| 
Iharles X and Edith 

Spaeth, Volcan, Charl 

^Visitors often ask, "Why do lilacs thrive 
in Palmdale on the desert?" f 

the temperature drops to 10 ^^^^^^ ^j. 

though'thi" is'a short winter in terms 
the eastern United States home of lda<^ 
conditions here are quite satisfactoj 
produce beautiful blooms year alter 

Lilacs require very little care. . 
flower budLtarttoform forthe ne^^^ 
year's bloom right after flowering, 



; trip around the of the French Marines in the East Indian 

^r was John Francis area as their reward, the search party set 

1 hero of the Seven sail eastward from the Cape of Good 

nd who had proved Hope, and in April, 1792, sighted the hills 

: in 17S2 by hrinii- of Van Dieman's Land, now known as 

Hiidson s Bav and Tasmania. Through an error of the navi- 

inst.illatu^ns there, gator, which the captain, being confined to 

aitv rounded Cape his cabin by illness, was unable to correct, 

idcly in the Pacific the ships entered Tempest Bay— named 

alifornia coast, the for its violent winds — instead of Adven- 

w ail. tiic Aleutians, tare Bay, on which the city of Hobart now 

tralia. His last dis- stands, but found shelter by towing into a 

s\ 1788, were sent small cove, where they dropped anchor. 

■, the site of Sidney From this base the exploring parties- 

.y Cook s explorers surveyors and naturalists — s^et out to dis- 

without word from On April 23, 1792, Labillardiere re- 

N. E. We were 
the sight of these 
, the sound of the 
ird. The eye was 
lating the prodi- 
■es. . . . The finest 
the different spe- 
nrdinarY thickness 

%\ crc pLkcd under the command of Gen- cies of ei/calyptus. Theii m^asu.v- 

story of the Blue Gum the important per- some that were twenty-five feet in circum- 

[Xn^Hmit^dc Ldlil^^^^^^^^^ ^'o"n May 6th, after continued explora- 

f.ahillardiere was thirty-six years old tion in the forests of Tasmania, the natu^ 

when the expedition left Brest in 1791. He ralist wrote, "I had not as yet been aWe i 

had, by his own account, studied natural procure any of the flowers of a new^r^ 

history since his early years, and had just of the eucalyptus, remarkable by its ^ 

returned from two years exploring and which very much resembled a coat-button 

collecting plants in Asia Minor when the in shape. This tree, which is one o ^ 

new adventure presented itself. He con- tallest in nature, as it grows sometime 

sidered himself well prepared for the the height of 150 feet, blossoms only 

journey, and proved himself right. its summit. [It is said that he reqm^d » 

As the ships of la Perouse had been telescope to assure himself that it 

intended to circumnavigate the globe, Aower. ]... We were obliged to c^t^ 

d-Entrecasteaux set out to intercept^hei; one of these trees in order o obt^'" , 

track by the shortest route, and after a blossoms. Being already m a slanting 

stop in the Canary Islands, the Recherche tion, it was easily felled . ^ 
and Esperance made port at Capetown, And thus, the tree now known 

where for some time they sought word of Tasmanian Blue Gum ^. ^^^jlike 

the explorer among the returning globulus because its fruits IJoKe 

seamen. With only a vague rumor that globular coat buttons to a French natu 



a ^Plant-k 

-nin^' aboL 

iLisiasm. The Society was tormally crc.itui 
1 April, 1956 and will celebrate its sa- 
id anniversary when members gather in 
Iiami for the biennial meeting April 
7th, 1958. 
Already there are almost 400 members, 
Dah^ren,, Burret, BaUey, o^r .4 .a^ a^ U .pes.- 
vjlttcened tle'ttlnho" t^^^^^^ Members share their knowledge through 
ria eT o^n oTh'rpla^^ the Socety s quarterly journal, PlUNa 

' ^ ^ PES, and through correspondence among 

. , themselves. A seed bank has been estab- 

. , , ^ . ^ hshed for the dissemniation of seeds not 
il factors are involved. One is the obtainable through commercial outlets, 
ze ot most palm species, which Officers at present are- President, Dr. 
d.thcult if not impossible, the ^^^^J-^ ^ j^P^ Longwood Gardens, 
lon ot herbarium specimens from ^^^^^^^ g ^^^^^ . yjce President, Dr. 
.xonomusts do most of their study. ^ ^^^^^ ^^^.^ Sub-Tropical Experiment 
thirtv t-et long, an inflorescence Homestead, Fla. ; Secretary Mrs. 

" Ti'S'i u u P^""'^''/^"'^ David Fairchild, The Kampong, M'amu 
could till a shoe-box, are not easy , . -Treasurer Mr Nat J. De Leon, 
from the wilds and place between ' . ', . executive Saretafy- 

papers. Then, palm^ literature is ^^t^Twai Sou^^-i, Fla.;Eai. 

' '^J^^ * tor of Princ.pes, Dr. H. E. Moore, Jr- 

Cornell University, Ithica, N. Y. ^ 
No dues have been established. 

been made 
name gets into the tra 

possible to change when proper identifica ^^^^^ nave oeeii "^'^^-^'.jj^'-j-^ ^ny 


i made, as in the confusion of b^^^^hip is by voluntary ^^''f^^p^^^^ ^oyalt)' 
' ^ ' ' — - - ''.Welcomed. 

■util e Secref*'^'^ 
\e Palm Societ) 

Solitaire fPfycbospen>ut of the plant world", is w 

palms, and the Areca-Chrysalido- ^^'^e the Executive ^^A^";'"'^; ■ j^. 

ix-up. A similar situation exists in S. W. 54th Ave., Mian. 
s phnuosa-Arecastrum Ronmnzof- Exec "''' ^ . 


Officers 1958 

President MiLDREU E. MatHIAS 

Vice-Pyesideut ALFRED W. ROBERTS 

Treasurer Freu W. Roewekamp 

Secretary GEORCiE H. Spalding 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asfer Eric Johnson 

William Beresford Marston Kimball 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Mildred E. Mathias 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Earle E. Humphries William S. Stewart 

Vernon T. Stoutemyer 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member s^roup only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining,' Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of eacii month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Buildinc 

bfficial publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— Hlllcrest 6-5247 


SUMMER 1958 
Vol. VIII, No. 3 


Board of Trustees 

Resident Robert Casamajor 

St Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry Bauer Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Dr. Elmer Belt John C. Macfarland 

Howard Bodger Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 

Atrhur Freed Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

John Anson Ford F. Harold Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher 

Roger Jessup 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership. . ... 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000 or more 

Benefactors 5,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 

SUMMER 1958 

Lasca Leaoes 

Quarterly publication of the Southern^California Horticultural Institute and 

Robert Casamajor Mildrkd Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Vic;toria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Loi is C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology PierRE Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN BuCK 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives P"" 'P A. MuNZ 

Louis B. Martin, Editor 

Vol. VIII JULY l, 1958 

Horticultural Technical Training Towai 

e...J. E. Repton 50 
Lee Wray Turner 54 

A Different Look at European Horticulture Philip A. Chandler 56 

Ferns Cultivated in California Barbara Joe 60 

Cypripedium Orchid Culture Glenn Hiatt 65 

What's the Common Name? Catherina Went 66 

Arboretum^Youth Education M. Gertrude Woods 69 

Weather Report 

Names, Notes and News ,• ■ ■ • 

Bird Notes W. Dan Quattlebaum 71 

Book Review 

The Cover and Elsewhere ; ^2 



J. E. Repton, Esq., F. Inst. P. A. (S.A.) 

%Zde\is anrcoltTmpLu^ ^ of a Projessional School jo/ Gardeners. - 

Once more we have reached i 
and look back on the road trav( 
ture in this country. , , 

In other professions such as Medicine, Engineering, Law, we have long respected the 
evidence of their learning, and throughout most walks of life those callings which have 
come to be regarded as professions, base thtir standards on qualifications obtained 
examinations only after close application to the study of their work. Without qualihca- 
tions indeed, practice in most professions is not permitted. . 

The effect of this is profound, upon the standard of attainment, upon the Prestige o 
the profession, upon the services rendered and upon the remuneration commended. 

There is therefore, merit in a system which produces such results and it is worth while 
observing that this system has a very long history and is established practice. 

The necessity of obtaining the best equipped personnel for the purpose of Parks horti- 
culture is a problem needing our urgent attention. . „ . 

That the necessary facilities to employing authorities to encourage their statts 

qualify by taking appropriate professional, technical and administrative examuuu.y^ 
are available. Recrui^s^o local government, public works and other public bodies shou 
be given to understand that those facilities are or will be made available and they shouW 
be given every opportunity of rendering themselves eligible to progress in course o i 
to the higher posts. . , r 

It is necessary to ensure that the standard of local government service and particuia y 
Parks departments will at all times be commenserate with the duties which that serv 

fii^lLTme^^nrthrins^ and its members will be assisted in their educational 
endeavours and become fully recognised for what they stand, a body of '^^"/''f_'"^ ^. 
undertake the responsibilities of all public horticultural works, in the fields ot the p 
tice of horticulture, the design and construction of public Parks and open spaces, 

This leads to the question "Are qualifications worth while?" Who heard of a tow" 
Engineer, Town Clerk, Medical Officer of Health being appointed to a P^s/tio" 
did not hold a professional qualification ? But how often do we hear of Supenntenden^ 
and other senior officers of a Parks Department being appointed who hold no . , 

qualifications. More frequently, I am afraid, than those who do. And what is the resu • 
A lower status. , ^^,^5^ 

I do not want to go into details and pro's and con s of examinations and ^'P j^j^-h 
but I am going to say emphatically that it is the only system in any profession oy 
a man can be judged by laymen as to his knowledge of the work , ^j^eir 

. . . Directors and other qualified men of the Public Parks profession should le^^^^^^ 
voices be heard and not accept an unsatisfactory situation which would not be ^^^^^ 
in any other profession. They have earned their right to attack by long ^°"[^f 0,ade 
and expenditure of finance in gaining their coveted qualifications, which should d 

SUMMER 19 58 

really worth while; and so that eventually men may be appointed : 
their standard of attainment. 

I say this because I genuinely feel that it is time adequate rctognitH 
to the qualified Parks officer and the status of the Public Parks profc- 
acknowledged. . . . 

Efficiency in the occupational world does not depend only on intcll 
stamina, or qualifications; it depends also on a person's ability to ada| 
ing conditions, and moreover to changing conditions. It depends on 
ciate with other people, to apply new ideas and innovations. 

The well known f)hilosopher Kahlil Gibran once said -Your ,ur 

over the obstacles and disappointments. 

Mr. A. J. Mellor, said recently at a management sdiool, Man.i-ni 
business is more difficult today than it has ever been. It has iunct bcci 

called for men of outstanding ability, that is the case today, ami it is a fair assum| 
Wh^of tLsed^rectors'oahe to 

One of the consequences of a shortage of a trained personnel in an expanding nati 
economy is that an organisation is obliged to lower its standards of employment in c 
to fill the many positions falling vacant and therefore to appoint people to position: 

grossly overpaid i ^ . d t k 

We must make the best use of the existing local material, and that means we must 
accept our social responsibilities as directors and horticulturists and spend money on the 
selection, education and training of employees. We must do so not in a spirit of charity 
but because it is a first-class investment to develop our human resources. 

This leads to the question of the lack of adequately trained personnel. Whenever 
horticulturists gather they have at least one thing in common, a grouse on the scarcity 
of the true exponents of the craft, and public Parks probably suffer more than most in 

The difficulty of obtaining the right type of boy to be trained is firstly due to the lack 
of knowledge of what horticulture implies and the opportunities that are available for 
advancement in this sphere, secondly an inherent love for gardening and nature appears 
to be lacking in modern youth. Thirdly a basic factor in this shortage of suitable entrants 
into horticulture and the relatively low recruitment of the better educated youth is due to 

(i) the relatively small monetary reward during training, 

(ii) the difficulties encountered by the pupil with abilit)' to obtain professional status 

(iii) the attraction of jobs of the "collar and tie ' variety which are sometimes regarded 

It is^TceLTry fo^reclp^uLru^n^ urgent need for recruiting and training our 
own men of the right type and the obvious advantages of a pup.lsh.p scheme on a 
national scale, although deploring that a national scheme of training seems as far off 
as ever. Parks Departments now bear a very heavy obligation to supply necessary trained 
men for themselves, and a very high minimum standard IS essential. 

It is of course, only the really large departments capable of employing upwards of 
half-a-dozen pupils, who are able to adopt a really s 
many departments can fulfil all the requirements ir 
''^rL^t^tmTm^^^ inadequate and consequently many good 

pupils are being deprived of what is their right and will be no ornament to the protes- 


sion through this lack of proper training, and not really through any fault of their 

"^^The're can be no efficiency unless there is pride in work well done. 

All the preceding leads to one end only, how can this very complicated national prob- 
lem of training be remedied ? How can large and small departments alike support a 
common standard that the profession can and will honour. 

A very deciding factor regarding low work standards and slackness is that if men in 
authority do not possess the necessary qualifications and sense of obligation to youth, 
how can they expect to exert their authority in the interests of everyone and everything 
and particularly in the training of youth. 

Other causes of the problem can be traced to: 

(i) lack of proper facilities for necessary training thereby causing low standards of 
work, lack of or poor tools, foremen in charge who have not the necessary quali- 
fications thereby causing disinterestedness. 

(ii) too severe discipline or lack thereof which can be over done. 

(iii) lack of consideration for staffs regarding small but important details, such as work- 
ing conditions, poor organisation, etc. 

(iv) favouritism this can be a very big factor in causing discontent and lack of interest. 
To put is strongly, many of those in authority think on these lines, "I am allright, why 

worry about others." 

Now the whole problem of the existing conditions for the training of young horticul- 
turists can hardly be described as satisfactory. The reasons for this are so important and 
perhaps so little understood by many of as to demand the attention of all those who 
have the interests of horticulture at heart. 

Horticulture as a profession lacks unity. The various branches such as Public Parks, 
Public Works, S.A.R. & H., Commercial gardening and nurseries, Div. of horticulture, 
Traming Colleges, Forestry, work in watertight compartments and have few contacts 

:erned with their own affairs, com- 
? training of gardeners, despite the 

, , s bound up with the proficiency ot 

. of Horticulture staffs normally are little in touch with Public Parks, 
and from an educational point of view, they are mainly concerned with the dissemina 
tion of new scientific knowledge and research and not with the training of horticulturists. 

In view of this disunity it is not surprising to find that there is no general policy 
in regard to training and that such facilities as do exist are scrappy and inadequate. 

The existance in horticulture of highly specialised branches is natural and desirable. 
It should be recognised, however, that specialist establishments cannot provide tne 
broad initial experience which is the best foundation for a horticultural career. 

The composite nature of horticulture is one of the important factors which bear on 
this question of training. The other is the rise of scientific horticulture. The lack oi 
certain training facilities may be a consequence of the great progress made in horticul- 
tural science in the last two decades. 

Scientific methodes are, very properly, displacing rule of the thumb, and at the sam 
time a host of new methods, new materials and new machines is replacing earlier sJi"' 
plicity. One may ask whether these complexities will result in better plants and bene 
gardeners. The answer is that whether they will do so will depend on training. This i 
where the rub comes. 

Most young horticulturists have little hope of acquiring the new knowledge unles 

an adequate training scheme can be evolved • ^ 

There is reason to hope that a determined effort could and will be made to organ 
horticultural education on a scale and with a method that will ensure a steady tlow 
well trained horticulturists into public as well as commercial horticulture. 

SUMMER 1958 

in the existing"^ N.Tc'coIlrsVs!' Wc^m^ nnmllt^^^^^^^ 

I ho'^e wiU^ be TLxes^^c^inSisu' " ua"t\u hc^aimxllll f work ' | 

course to Lmn^thifyefn'^ ^^^^ ^'ufti^>^"t students 

Much remains to be done to further the cause ot hortu nlturc 
convinced that nothing but the estabhshment of adcc|uate trauimt: 
departments capable of doing so, secondly the establishment ol a 
pupilship scheme, thirdly the establishment of suitable lorrespon^ 
N.T.C. and the Dip. Horticulture and Parks Admmistrat.on. an, 
necessity for the establishment of a National Trauimi: Centre or ( ^ 
for a two years course can solve this problem and make i:ood th< 
pupils the opportunity of obtaining scientific training in this com 

The problem of the establishment of a traininu centre in Hortu i 
for urgent attention. With the establishment of the Hortaultura 
Roodewal, Pretoria by the division of Horticulture on a scale whic 
the biggest research stations in the southern hemisphere in the 
excellent progress made with Botanical Gardens at Silverton. Pre 
of Botany, this problem seems to me to be nearer solution 

On analysis it is obvious there is little hope that any Parks depari 
immediate capital gain by assisting in the training of a pupil other 
of having the labour of a keen eager man as he is training. 
^ Raising the current standards and providing all-round training i 

in the long run and small authorities will have a fair share in place 
It will be experience and training and not reputations and influence 

Finally, there is the wider aspect of the subject which should not lu cnerlooked. 1 lie 
training of gardeners or horticulturists is a far bigucr thing than ensuring a sup[^l\ oi 
craftsmen for a particular trade or profession. The land does not merely supply food tor 
our bodies, it is an indispensible instrument of education in the broadest sense. 1 he 
destiny of our nation and the welfare of our people are both dependent on a wuie appre 
ciation of this fact. If we are to profit by our experience we must see to it that horticul- 
ture, is equipped to meet the needs of the future and that when a job has to be done the 
trained man is there to do it. .. . m } jp i (ISVMt tl • 

youth o/alUrme^^^ mention t e mes g g > jj- ^ 

and reject all which will not stand the closest investigation;. Keep your imagination 
within bounds, taking heed lest it run away with your judgement. Above all let me warn 
you young ones of the danger of being led away by the superstitions which as this day 
of boasted progress are a disgrace to the age, and which afford astonishing proofs of the 
vast floods of ignorance overflowing and desolating the highest places." 

SUMMER 1 9 58 55 


with Sunset Magazine. More than 9,000 
visitors toured these gardens during the 
first three days. 

1. An orchid display greenhouse. 

2. A tropical water pool. 

3. Support for fellowship research 


Philip A. Chandler 

other types of horticult 
appeared 1 

tour of Euro]u-. The fortnightly flower along with a dynamic approach to prob- 

wIkic this writer was fortunate to see the veloped and put into practice that is ot 

grdiide from S. W. Scotland at the Rhodo- 
dendron Show. Then one can never forget ^ 

the masses of rhododendrons towering to growers who have visited this countr}' the 

40 feet height in full flower at Killerton last few years on Kellogg Foundation 

House in the West of England. The ex- Scholarships it was interesting to see their 

tensive collections of rhododendrons and own establishments. Among these the 

magnolias at Caerhays Castle in Cornwall, visit to Frampton's Nurseries in Sussex 

where many of the original plants col- stands out, again meeting Mr. Jack Mat- 

lected by George Forrest in China ' * ' ' ' 

to be seen in their full glory. Tf 
of rhododendrons at Exbury, a nai 

associated with this genus. The blue of positive attitude in the approach to X SheldonVi at Bodnant, lems of the day, that this organizatio 

North Wales, and the scarlet of Embo- gone ahead with the latest of ideas. 
ihy-unn cocaueum at Penryn Castle in the This firm has been one of the lead 

same area. the development of the mobile i. 

Then who could forget the time spent house. This idea of moving greenli 

at the Keukenhof, Holland, the show from one crop to another growin.s: 

place of the Dutch bulb growers, espe- side may have in the minds of ni r 

dally when one was fortunate to visit this peared in the realm of fantasy at 

fine garden when the daffodils, early tu- ago. But in England and other ^ 

hps, hyacinths and other early spring of Europe it is a practical appro,. 

bulbs were at the peak of perfection to- problem of utilizing greenhouse : 

gether. These are only some of the high- to the fullest. For example, th. 

lights of a trip taken in the spring of greenhouse can be moved from ^ 

1956, the best time of the year to visit the tomatoes finished in August to 

gardens of Europe. early flowering chrysanthemum^. 

Then like the majority of tourists who when these are finished, to a late 

are interested in horticulture, visits to Kew chrysanthemums, still later back to c 

and Wisley and other well known gardens crop of f reesias in boxes where the toir^;^ 

were on the list of places visited. toes were originally. Movii 

This writer is very familiar with many is carried out with the use ot n 

of these places, especially Kew, having tracks and a winch. This firm 

been a student tl^ere at one time, also one's been one of the pioneers in £■ 

birthplace. It ,s, however, a discussion of the all year round production o, 

.of tlu-h 



Hansen accomplishes this, is quite novel. 
During July and August, the main tourist 
season in Copenhagen, also the time when 

ranges with the other growers for the 
surplus flowers to be used in the public 
rooms of all the boats that cross to Malmo. 
Sweden. Also for a small bouquet in the 
taxis that ply the streets of the city. A 
small unobtrusive tag is attached to each 
flower with the name K. Storm ly-Hanscn. 
Many readers, I can visualize, will have 
ideas where similar methods can be used 
to brighten our lives, especially in Cali- 

Odense, the birthplace of Hans Chris- 
tian Andersen, is also the center of the 
agriculture production of the Isle of Fu- 
nen, Denmark. Crops range from cereals, 
fruits and vegetables to a complete selec - 
tion of greenhouse products. Denmark is 
the home of modern ideas in the use of 
decorative foliage plants. However, it is 
the co-operative market that impressed the 

, dull day 

ould 1 

, Holland. Ev( 
hide t 


ness of this wholesale market, with ade- 
quate parking, well organized offices and 
cafes. Similar to other markets in Europe, 
the produce is sold by the use of the elec- 
trical auction clock. First, the buyers can 
view the produce that is for sale whether 
It be vegetables, fruits or flowers in well 
hghted warehouse areas. The actual sell- 
ing takes place in a theatre like room with 
each qualified buyer having his own seat 
with an electrical button with which to 
stop the clock. The auctioneer sitting in 
a projection-like booth operates the clock 
and the flow of produce on electric carts 
to the auction floor. Unlike most auctions 
m this country the price on the clock starts 
at a higher figure than the expected item 
IS hkely to bring and then moves down- 
wards at a constant speed until one of the 
buyers presses his button to stop the clock 
and so make a This buyer then 
has the right to purchase the whole con- 
signment or part. Immediately when the 
transaction is completed, the clock returns 
to the higher figure and starts downwards 
again. Speed of operation is outstanding. 

So much so, that almost before the buyer 
can leave his seat, his account is made up 
ready to settle. Further, it is a question ot 
limited credit, for if the account is not 
settled by the next day or within 3 days by 
commission men, the buyer's button is dis- 
connected so he cannot bid. This gentle 
is enough. No ' 



efficiently with 

s to Holland think 
of the bulb fields and rightly so. At any 
period of the year, a brillian^ floral display 

Aalsmeer, the center of flower production 
under glass. The flower auction markets 

this market is that a large portion c 
stock sold arrives by small barges, 
the canal leading right into the aii 




dots) on the back of £ 
genus, distributed it 
temperate zone, is 
ornamental flora by t 

The Giant chain-fern, iroocluwcl/a 
fmbriata, is a CaUfornia native commonly 
found in the nursery trade. It is hardy and 
easily cultivated; once established it will 
withstand considerable neglect. The fronds 
remain green through the winter months 
in southern gardens and numerous new 

ments of 
de range of 

this fern. It will gro^ 
soils. Spore-grown plants comprise moGl 
of the trade stock; however, some plant; 
are started from root-clump divisions. 
The European chain- fern, IF. radicans 


ully arching fronds r 

species an excellent 
elevated places. When temperatures begin 
to cool, the fronds of this hardy plant 
take on a purplish hue. On the midrib of 
the frond are scaly buds which often take 
root while still attached to the mother 
fern. Propagation is achieved by rooting 
these buds, by dividing the roots clumps, 
or by spores. 

vith rusty-brow 
•anged in a c. 

; genu 

the margin. The sori 
frond in chain-like 
if the midrib of the 
m is flap-like, shaped 

)ward the midvein, and is attached to a 

The following key is limited to the spe- 
ies which are presently grown in Califor- 

Fronds erect, never with 

buds on the midrib W. pihmUi 
Fronds greatly arching, 

often with scaly buds 

on the midrib »"'• 'v'^"'^'" 

'■'oodwardm (imhruita Smith (W . Ou- 
mnsoi, W. radicans var. amemdna) 
Giant chain-fern. Fronds erect, 3 to 9 ft. 
long; blades linear-oblong to oblong- 
ovate, narrowed at the base, pinnate- 
pinnatifid, without buds; pinnae ver)' 
deeply pinnatifid, the tips short-acumi- 
nate. Veins with a regular row of areo- 
les next to the midvein, beyond this hrst 

Columbia to California. Hardy; of easy 
culture. Mostly 3 to 5 ft. tall in oiiti- 

Voodu'ardta radicans Smith. European 
chain- fern. Fronds laxly arching, 4 to 
6 ft. long ; stipes short and erect; blades 
oblong, hardly narrowed at ' " 
pinnate-pinnatifid; scaly bud; 
along midrib of the blade 

nae ver)' 
; iong-acunii- 
41 as the segments of the 
le. Veins with two rows o 
tto the midrib, beyond these 

basal pint 

rows the veins casually joining — 
other row of areoles or free. Europe 
and Asia. Hardy; 
propagates readily by buds^^ 
Other species reported t 

. To 3 ft. 

Moore, IF. or}enlan 
losa Mart. & Gal. anc 


Many fine specimens of large epiphy^'' 
ferns aL cultixLed in CaUfornia. Per ^ 
the staghorn ferns are the most fa^'^^^^ 
epiphytes, but even more striking a 




colored powder, making them interesting 
garden subjects. These ferns, now placed 
in the genus Pityrogramma, have in the 
past been known under the names Cer- 
opteris, Gymnogranima or Acrostichtan. 
They are found mainly in the tropics; 
however, California has a native species 
of this genus, the California Gold fern, 
P. triangularis. 

Represented m our ornamental flora are 
two species and one hybrid. They are the 
Gold fern, P. chrysophylla. the California 
Gold fern, P. tnaugularis, and the hybrid 
between the Silver and Gold fern P. X 

The cultural requirements of the Pityro- 
gramma speci( 

conditions associated with dead or injured 
vegetation attached to the clump. 

The genus Pityrogramma is terrestrial, 
natively growing in rocky woods or on 
banks. The ferns are small to medium in 



I del- 

toid-pentagonal in outline with abundant 
white or yellow powder on the lower sur- 
faces, herbaceous to subleathery in tex- 
ture; the veins are free and forked. The 
sporangia (fruiting bodies) arc borne 
alnrur fhc veins and are not covered 

55° F. Because the hybrid is more 1 
ant in habit and capable of with 

40^° F.), it is more frequency" cult 
than the Gold fern. The hybrid 
outdoors through the 

California < 
key to the c 

southern Califor 
months in southern garde 


the ( 

iS. They are quick to establish tl 
after transplanting and are kr: 
)duce many volunteers from 


The hardy California Gold fern 
ordinarily curtails its growth dun 
dry months in its native habitat, 
green throughout the year under 
conditions. It may tolerate strong i 

itering or poor drainage. Not Pi. 
eration be impaired, but the de- 
of various molds and rots will 
ged by the resulting cool, moist 

m.hmrn X chr)u^plnliO- M^l^" 
chr^soph)lla except thc^ blades 

SUMMER 1958 


Glenn Hiatt 

This outline was prepared for distribu- 2. Plants will tokr.ik ,is 

tion to the Cahfornia Arboretum Founda- without ilctrimcntal rif 

tion. Inc. members receiving a cypripedium 3. Too low ni^nlit temp 

orchid plant at the Annual Membership growth- plants turn yt 

meeting, May 20, 1958. 4. Move plants into garaj 

HABITAT: Native to Tropical Asia, Ma- niuht if temperature 

laya and nearby islands. There are two 35 "F. 

types ; 1 ) solid green leaves found at high H//wv//7) 

altitudes, and 2) mottled green leaves 1 . Sprav overhead three 

found at lower altitudes. All are subject daily during warm w( 

to abundant rainfall and reasonably cool sible. 

temperatures. All grow on an accumula- 2. Alternative to daily sp 

t(on of decaying vegetation on ledges or in pi^^nts near ground le 

crevices of rocks, partially shaded by over- fr^m dry bree'e Place 

hanging cliffs or trees. heyonfas. fuchsias, etc. 

CULTURE: Solid green leaved type. ]r,,i,rw(^ 

Locafiou 1. Growth is cc-<ntinuous. > 

1. Lath house, under trees on sloping dium should never dry 
ground or raised beds. 2. Durinj: hris'lit w( .itlur 

2. Leave plants in pots and sink pots in ^' f^vjce each week 
ground, leaving rim of pot exposed. ^ Leach compo^t with c 

3. Place about three inches of pea gravel ' -^^^^ 
under pot for drainage. r ,, }}fn 

^ .'^La . 

1 . Shade throughout the year, slightly 


;ak liquid fertilizer may be added 
e per month to healthy, vigorous 
color throughout year. plants. 

sity of light should 
10% -15% of direct si 

should remain dark green 

4. Too much light 
causes yellowing of leaves. 1- Pot 

5. Not enough light retards flowering. has 

Compost should be loose and well 
drained, such as leaf mold, palco 
wool, german peat moss, fine sand, 



and sphagnum moss, mixed in equal 

3. Divide to not less than three growths. 
Larger plants flower better. 

4. Do not over-pot. Leave space for 
about two new growths to edge of 

1. Slugs and snails should be controlled 
with bait. 

1 . Plants will flower during winter, so 

also protect from cold. Do not leave 
indoors during entire year. 

2. Flowers should last from four to 
eight weeks indoors and up to three 
months outdoors if protected. 

Arbore(/wi 0,M Specidnt 


Catherina Went 

The Latin name may reca 
but not its dearest associc, 
This question, more than any other, 
interrupted the Home Landscaping Class 
when the students were introduced to 
plant materials. That not all plants had a 
common name and others had many, was 
not much help. As the eager members of 
the class discovered more and more plants 
which would fill their specific needs, the 
frustration brought about by their un- 
famiharity with Latin names and the re- 
sulting reluctance to use them, mounted. 
Spellmg was a problem too, but handing 
out mimeographed lists of the plants to be 
discussed largely took care of this aspect. 
The introduction of scientific botanical 
nomenclature was one that required more 
thought and work. 

Among other "Pros", the class was told 
that; strawberry geranium was neither a 
strawberry nor a geranium, poison oak not 
an oak, Cape chestnut no chestnut, and the 
African violet not a violet. Their only 
guarantee to obtain what they wanted was 
m the correct Latin name on the plant ob 
tamable in the nursery 

An attempt was made to show the class 
members that the names on plant labels 
more often than not, is the key to discov- 
ery of interesting bits of information, of 
lore, adventure, explorers, plant breeders, 

first class in the spring of 
h the sixth class this spring, a 

5 devoted 

portion of each class meeting ^ 
to a phase of botanical nomenciacuic 
and classification. The discussions were 
planned to accomplish the following^ 
A — provide a botanical background and 
workable vocabulary, B — to arouse 
student's interest for scientific nam 
through the history and lore of plant nam 
development, C-to convince the student 
that nomenclature and classification 
terns sufl^ered a long formative period ana 
that real people, from many walks ot W^; 
contributed freely to the task, ^""^^^^^J. 
example of plant materials and w 
sheets, guide the student into using^the 
proper terminology in his everyday 

asked to identify an annual, commu-^ 
many yards, by its common name y 
Thus- "Bunny-mouth", -^^^^ 
"Toad's-mouth", "Cow's-mouth^, ^^^^^ 

snap —trie — 
in Hp of recognition, 


light bring a twinkle of recogni 
generally the 

"Snaplion", and "Snapdragon - 
anyone answered. From this point, 
(see list), living plants and the wo 
sheets (Figs. 1 to 4) were employe^ 
carry on the lesson. 



SUMMER 19 58 



M. Gertrude Woods 

The Youth Education Program is off to 
an auspicious beginning. During the past 
eight months there have been 11 courses 
of instruction serving 170 children, grades 
two through eight. Total time for various 
courses ranged from eight to twenty hours. 

Two fall classes on Junior Bird Study 
created great interest and served to 
fill badge requirements for several Girl 
Scouts. During the Christmas vacation 
period, 18 eighth graders from Arcadia 
Schools attended an Arboretum Explora- 
tion course. Many of the Arboretum staff 
contributed to this class within their own 
divisions. The work and facilities of this 
fast growing horticultural center were re- 
viewed from greenhouse to garden to Ad- 
mmistration offices. The response to this 
experience indicated that such a course 
might well become a regular part of our 
youth program in the field of vocational 

A course in Conservation was requested 
in January, by a teacher of the Los Nietos 
School District for his student Science 
Club. After six productive Saturday morn- 
ings with them at the Arboretum, the 
course was climaxed by a field trip to the 
Lux Arboretum, Monrovia, Calif., where 
these children could test their new knowl- 
edge in observation of a natural watershed 


especially apprec 
r their school-spoi 

ated as preparation for their school-spon- 
sored Outdoor Education week in the San 
Jacinto Mountains, at Idyllwild, the fol- 
lowing week. This class made a fine ex- 
hibit for one of the pavilion display cases, 
emphasizing plants as the controlling fac- 

Two classes of Weather had great fun 

nd hai 

In February, Anokia School for Girls 
sent a General Science class of 14 students 
with their teacher for our Conservation 
course. They requested a continuation 
after the eight sessions and did creditable 
work on Exploring the Plant World. This 
subject began in April, continued through 
May for a class of 20 boys and girls, 
eighth graders, from Arcadia Schools. 
They were a most interested group. Such 
meeting titles as Anatomy of Plants, How 
Plants Do Work, Plants of Past Ages. 
Plants of the Future, Line, Form and 
Color in Plants and simple plant experi- 
ments kept interest high. 

Nature Study for younger children has 
explored life in the soil and in the water. 
They took a census of living things around 
part of the Upper Lagoon. They came up 
with 819 different living things of 73 
of the interde- 
dence of soil, water, plant and animal 

^ore than 700 hours of specialized in- 
ction and observation have been given. 
Qy classes have provided displays for 
Pavilion. The children's section of the 

SUMMER 1958 



Officers 1958 

Board of Directors 

J. Howard Asper Eric Johnson 

William Beresford Marston Kimball 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Mildred E. Mathias 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Earle E. Humphries 


Vernon T. Stoutemyer 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member * 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5-^^ 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member ^^'^^ >'^^' 

Commercial Member 5° °° 

Sustaining Member ^^'^5^00 00 

Life Membership 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month. Hummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 
GRanite 2-4659 
Box 688— Arcadia— California 


and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 
sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— HI llcrest 6-5247 


William S. Stewart 

Ralph Ames 

W. QuiNN Buck. . 

Louis B. Martin . , 
J. Thomas McGah 

Russella K, McG,\^^ 
George H. Spalding 
Edward Huntsma:- 
Donald p. Wooll- 

AUTUMN 1958 
Vol. Vin. No. 4 ^ 


Board of Trustees 

President Robert Casamajor 

1st Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry Bauer Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Dr. Elmer Belt John C. Mac;farland 

Howard Bodger Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 

Atrhur Freed Mks. Ruwjlph J. Richards 

John Anson Ford l-. Harold Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership l^^-"" 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, frc 
AH contributions deductible under Federal 1 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 

AUTUMN 19 58 


Lasca Leaves 

terly publication of the Southern California Horti, 
the California Arboretum Foundation, T ' 

Robert Casamajor Mildri-d Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewari 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 

Southern CaUfornia— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. WurrLrR 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora PeRCY C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology P'^RRn Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives P"" ^ ^^^'^'^ 

Louis B. Martin, Editor 

Vol. VIII OCTOBER 1, 1958 iMo. 4 

Indian Artifacts from the Hugo Reid Adobe 

William J. Wallace and Edith Taylor Wallace 74 

Index for Volume VIII ^^'^^'^^ 

San Gabriel Flower Show Glenn Hiatt 81 

•■Rice, Bamboo, Kyoto- Peggy Sullivan 82 

Descanso Gardens and Its Role in the Department 

of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens John L. Threlkeld 84 

V Test Station. Donald P. Woolley 88 

elope Valley Test Stai 
A Progress Report 



William J. Wallace and Edith Taylor Wallace 
For the past year and a half, archaeologists from the University of Southern California 
have been carrying on an investigation of the Hugo Reid Adobe. This historical struc- 
ture, one of southern California's oldest surviving buildings, is located within the 
grounds of the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, Arcadia, California. The 
house stands on a low rise along the shore of a spring-fed lake. Its builder, Hugo Reid, 
was a Scot who settled in California and became a Mexican citizen (Dakin, 1939). 
In 1839 he applied for title to Santa Anita Rancho, formerly a San Gabriel Mission 
property. Reid received provisional ownership to the three square leagues of the rancho 
in 1841. This was renewed in 1843 and confirmed in 1845. Here he sowed wheat, grazed 
his cattle and erected an adobe house. Although Reid and his mission-trained Gabnelino 
Indian wife, Victoria, maintained a more pretentious residence at San Gabriel and 
another at their vineyard two miles from the mission, they and their children occasionalU 
lived at Santa Anita. Hugo Reid played a prominent role in local affairs and politics and 
was one of the delegates to California's first Constitutional Convention. 

Straitened circumstances resulting from several unprofitable business ventures forced 
Reid to dispose of the rancho in 1847. In the years that followed, it was sold and resold, 
the property passing through many hands. The adobe house was altered, enlarged ana 
modernized by its various owners. Since 1947, it and a small portion of the once vas^ 
Santa Anita Rancho have been under the administration of the Los Angeles State and 
County Arboretum. 

Plans were formulated for restoring the historic building and its surroundings, as 
nearly as possible, to their original appearance. Funds were allocated for this purpose D) 
the California State Division of Beaches and Parks in 1956. Prior to any rebuilding, 
archaeological exploration was undertaken by the University of Southern California 
Department of Anthropology. This first phase of the work began on November 10,IP 
and was continued until September 15, 1957. Excavations were made within the house 
and around its outside perimeter (Plate 1 ) . 

A h te t r 1 f at es re c Ic 1 by the digging have been described elsewhere (Wi^- 
lace, Desautels, and Kritzman, 1958). In addition to providing data on the forme 
appearance of the house, the excavation yielded hundreds of objects, lost or discarde'i 
by various tenants. The great bulk of the collection is made up of commercially man" 
factured items-rusted nails, bits of porcelain, broken glass and the like. These ob)^ - 
when thoroughly studied, will throw some light upon the tastes, habits and dom 
hfe of former occupants of the adobe. Included also are artifacts of Indian manufacture^ 

INDIAN artifacts 

Aboriginal objects were found within the house and in the outside trenches. Rep^ 
sented are on y those items made from durable, decay-resistant substances as tne 
from which they came is damp and not favorable for the preservation o pe" 
materials Included are stone objects, potsherds, one bone artifact and a handful ot sn 
beads. There are also two specimens made from bottle glass. , ^ 

Three more or less complete and two f....n... '^-ectile^points w-/-^^^^^^^ 

I small, stemless poim 

isoceles triangle (PI. 2a). It has a slightly c 






(PI. 2d). Its stem was expanding; the butt end is missing. Blade edges ai 
The specimen is not suliiciently intact to measure accurately. 
Dimensions: ^'Y,^: (e.stimated) 3.2 cm. 

Thickness: ^.5 mm. 
5. The tip of a well-made, straight-sided point of reddish chert was found 
This specimen originally may have corresponded in shape and proportic 
glass one. Its former length and width cannot be estimated with any accu 

I # # I 

There are two bilaterally flaked sections of blades in the collection. Presumably bo:h 
were used as knives. Neither is complete enough to ascertain its shai^' or over-all size 

1 . A small piece froin the edge of an obsidian blade was obtained. It is carefully flaked 
over both surfaces and .sharpened by delicate retouciinig .ilong its border. The only 

2. The rounded base of a poorly chipped blade of reddish c hert was recovered. Bis 
IS possibly an unfinished artifact, broken during its making and then di.scarded. It 
has large flake scars on both surfaces and its edges are pressure-flaked. 

Dimensions: Length: indeterminate 
Width: 3.0 cm. 
Thickness: 3-6 mm. 
A single chipped stone drill was found. This tool is fashioned from a thin slightly 
curving flake of obsidian. One end has been flaked to form a straight-sided shaft; the 

iaW^fo" usfas Tlii' er^of '""^ 
Dimensions: Length: 4 7 cm 

Width: 3.5 cm. 

Thickness: 2.6 mm. 
a Jf.rK T^"'' fl^ke scrapers. There are 5 of these ea 1) 

art tacts; four are whole and one is fragmentary. 

bottJe glass (PI. 3). It is more or less oval in form, sharpened around its enj _ 
V^o7ZTin^^^^ ^ 1-^^ fl^ke sLr near its upper edg^ 

Dimensions: Length: 4 7 cm 
Width: 3 5 cm' 

Thickness: 2-6 mm. . 
:rapers show no particular group characteristic. They a 

SSTESn'"^"^^' unilater^rp;;;;;;/^;^^;^:;;^^- bo^der^P- 
one is of h o^ or scrapmg edge. The flake scars are ?ery tiny. Two are chert fl^^^ 
one IS of brownish jasper ; the other is chalcedony. 

AUTUMN 1958 


Dimensions: Length: range 1.2-2 cm. ; average 1 .6 cm 
Width: range 0.8-1.7 cm. ; average 1 .2 ar 
Thickness: range 1-2 mm. ; average 1 mm. 

Pi-ATF S Glass scraper. Green bottle glass. Photo: EcJith Wallace 

All workshop material resulting from the manufacture of chipped stone tools was 
saved. There apparently was no immediate supply of suitable stone as there was not a 
great amount of waste material in the deposit. Twenty stone flakes and a portion of a 
"quarry blank" were collected. The latter is a central section from a core of reddish chert, 
roughly flaked over both surfaces. Of the flakes, 12 are chalcedony, 10 are chert, 5 are 
quartz and 1 is Grimes Canyon fused shale. No doubt some of these after bemg struck off 
during the fashioning of points and blades were picked up and used briefly as scrapers. 

Most abundant of the stone implements are handstones (maiios), 20 whole and frag- 
mentary examples of which were unearthed. They have all been used for grindmg on 
both surfaces. The majority also exhibit well-worn edges. There is some variation in out- 
line: the large handstones tend to be straight-sided with rounded corners (PI. -4 top 
row) ; the smaller ones are somewhat more oval in form (PI. 4 bottom row) The 
materials are: scist (7 examples), sandstone (7 examples), granite (4 examples) and 
quartzite (2 examples). 

Dimensions: Length: range 9.6-16.2 cm. ; average 12.5 cm. 

Width: range 8.6-9.2 cm. ; average 8.7 cm. 
Thickness: range 4.2-5.0 cm. ; average 4.4 cm. 
Milling stones (metates), only 2 small pieces of which were found, were made from 
fairly thin, flat slabs. They have worn, well-defined depressions on one side resulting 
from the use of a handstone. Both are schist. No pestles or mortars were recovered. 

There was a surprising scarcity of hammerstones with only 4 examples collected. Two 
are broken quartzite pebbles battered on one end. 

Dimensions: Length: 8.1 cm. (1 specimen only) 
Width: 6.2 cm. (1 specimen only) 
Thickness: 3.6-4.5 cm. 
The remaining hammers are percussion-flaked cores with large flakes struck ofl^ to form 
rough edges which are battered from use. 

Dimensions: Length: 6.1-7.3 cm. 

Width: 5.0-5.8 cm. 
Thickness: 4.2-4.4 cm. 


ral handston 
gray slate pebble 

• pou. 

• appca 

moothed and worn on one surface. One long edge also shows 
. The pebble is thin, rectangular in outline with rounded corners. 
Dimensions: Length: 4.3 cm. 

Width: 1.5 cm. 

It apparently was employed in smoothing wooden or bone implements, or pottery v 

V vessels. 

•nployed in smoothing wooden or bone implements, ( 
A smgle fragmentary bone artifact was found. It is a broken awl or V^^'^i'^'^^i^i 
fragile specimen, made from the limb bone of a small mammal, was tapered by c ^ ^^^^ 
and thinning along the lower shaft to what must have be 
missing. The specimen shows little or no use polish. 

Dimensions: Length: (estimated) 7.0 cm. 
Width: 1.7 cm. 
Thickness: 1.3 mm. 
Seventeen Olhella shell beads (PI. 5) came from the deposit. They a 
parts of the body wall of the shell and are basically oval in outline though son , 
irregular. Each has a perforation drilled from one surface. The hole for stnt^^'^^^j 
regularly at or near the center of the bead, though on one specimen it is close tr 
The range in size is not great and presumably the beads all came from a single 
Dimensions: Length: range 6-9 mm. ; average 8 
Width : range 6-8 mm. ; average 7 
Diameter of perforation: 1 mm 

5 tapered oy _ 
dtip. Both ends are 


AUTUMN 19 58 


i'l .VI 1 V Shell beads. Olivella shell. Photo: Edith Wallace 
Sherds ot' Indian pottery were found in several trenches but in no large quantity. There 

1. The majority of the sherds (18) are of a plain, well-made, brown w.iri ot .i t.nrlv 
fine paste, tempered with sand containing a good deal i^t mua and soiiu small 
quartz particles. The sherds are polished on the outer Mirtacc wlmh is darker iii 
color than the interior. There are no rim sections and nothing could lu hariud ot 
vessel form or size. The sherds vary in thickness trom 5 to S mm. 

2. Also well fired is a reddish ware represented by 12 sherds. Its paste contains a 
moderate amount of sand, mica and quartz particles. The sherds exhibit a smoothed 
and polished exterior; their inner surfaces are less well finished. Fire clouds arc 
noticeable on several pieces. Two rim sections arc plain with flat Ixirders and exte- 
rior thickening. Curving wall fragments indicate that at least some of the sherds 
are from a wide-mouthed jar. There is no clue to overall vessel size. Body sherds 
vary from 6 to 8 mm. in thickness. 

3. A single thick (1.2-1.3 cm.) sherd, apparently a basal fragment, is of coarse paste 
tempered with sand containing a high percentage ot angular quartz partKlc>. it is 
rough on both surfaces and is not polished. 

4. Another fragment has a black exterior and is reddish-orangc inside. Ihe paste is 
liberally mixed with sand and bits of angular quartz. The piece-, a bod\ sherd. ,s 
4 mm. thick and hke the above specimen, it has rough surtaets. 

It is perhaps of interest that Hugo Reid, who left an important chronicle ot Indian 
life in Los Angeles county, in his letters serialized in the Los Angeles Star in 
(Hoffman 1885, Ellis 1926, Dakin 1939), states that the Indians manutactureci no pot 
tery prior to their missionization. Sherds are not found abundantly in arehae.>logic al sites 
in the coastal district of Los Angeles and the number of pieces reported to date is ^^^^ <-y 
ingly few. The local Indians either were acquainted with the potter s art but made ittle 
use of it, or occasionally obtained vessels in trade from peoples living farther inland. 

There was a total absence of trade articles obtained from Caucasians. The lack ol glass 
beads is somewhat surprising and these were the most popular of items whieh reached 
the Indians directly or indirectly through the agency^ of Whites. Certaml> some ot the 
Indians who lived in and around the house had some sort of contact with \Vh:te eniliza- 
tion. This is demonstrated by the bottle glass scraper and arrow point. 


From the archaeological evidence m hand it can be inferred that 1"^'^" ^^^"P/^'^" 
of the Hugo Reid Adobe site represents two oceupational phase-s, orje perhaps s fair 
lengthy, the other brief and transient. That the localitv was inhabited b> 1"^"^"^ ^ -^o^ " 
the house was constructed is demonstrated by the finding of aboriginal artifacts at some 
depth in the exploratory trenches outside of the structure and in test pits carried neiow 



a hard-packed earthen floor, presumed to date from Reid's time, within its walls. The 
deposit here consisted of a rather sandy, yellowish clay differing in no noticeable way 
from the regular subsoil. Indian objects were recovered from it to a depth of 36-42 
inches below the present ground surface. 

Artifacts from beneath the floor or from a corresponding level (below 12 inches) in 
the outside trenches include : 

1. Blade fragment (obsidian) 4. Milling stone fragments 

2. Drill (obsidian) 5. Handstones 

3. Flake scraper 6. Flaked-core hammerstones 

It cannot be demonstrated, as yet, when this earliest Indian occupation began or when 
it ended as the tools ascribable to it are varieties which have no known value as time- 
markers. The only certainty is that the spot was lived upon in pre-Hugo Reid times and 
that the ranch house was erected upon the site of a former native village. 

It is not surprising that Indians selected this spot, as it was a favorable one for a 
hunting-gathering people. There was a plentiful supply of food. Game, particular^ 
migratory waterfowl which visited the lake (originally apparently more of z. aenegao 
swamp than a lake) and nested in the marshy ground around it, was abundant; her 
may have been fish in its waters. Groves of oaks on nearby hills offered a supply oi 
acorns; other native vegetation provided edible seeds. Water, wood for firewood hous - 
building and artifact manufacture as well as stone suitable for making some implements 
were readily available. 

Hugo Reid lists a single Gabrielino village, Aleupkigna, on Rancho Santa Anita 
(Dakin 1939, p. 221). Its exact location is unknown though it presumably was som 
where near the ranch-house (Johnston 1957, p. 164). There are three other arcna^ 
logical sites in the immediate vicinity: one is on Tallac Knoll, just south and westot tne 
adobe; another, now almost totally destroyed, is located around the Arboretum gree 
houses; a third was nearly obliterated during the construction of a parking lot at san 
Anita Park. Any one of these could be Aleupkigna. Of the three, the parking lot, wn^^ 
lies a short distance to the east of the house, is the most likely candidate. It is dou . 
judging from the artifacts recovered, that the adobe house site was inhabited when Ke'.^ 
took over the rancho. This occupation appears to fall entirely within the prehisto 
period, well before the coming of the first Europeans to the region. 

Indians also visited or lived in the locality after the building of the house. This 
shown by the recovery of native artifacts within the structure and above Hugo ^e^^.^ 
earthen floor. These objects were found scattered through a deposit of loose blacK ^ 
and rubbish, 18-24 inches thick, overlying the floor and in the outside trenches " 
depth of about 12 inches. The specimens are of considerable interest as a samphngo^^l^ 
kinds of objects produced and used by southern California Indians during the 
decades of the 19th Century. Little is known regarding native material culture durin. 
this transitional period. Artifacts here consisted of: 

1 . Projectile points (stone, glass) 6. Smoothing pebble 

2. Blade fragment (chert) 7. Bone artifact 

3. Flake scrapers (stone, glass) 8. Shell beads 

4. Handstones 9. Potsherds 

5. Pebble hammerstones 

The only Items occurring in both levels were: flake scrapers (more ' eo- 

floor) ; handstones (more abundant below floor, including largest and best-made r 
mens) and blades (1 above and 1 below floor). 

These later materials could have been discarded or lost by neophyte laborers or 
herds hired by Reid or some later owner or by roving bands of Indians. The latter 
nation seems more plausible as it is doubtful that mission-trained Indians were 

AUTUMN 19 58 

chipping stone arrowheads and modehng iiiitivc pottery in the IS id s. These handicrafts 
fell into disuse very soon after missionization. 

It is likely that the above-floor artifacts were ktt hchnul hv niar.uiJiii.L; huii.ui Kinds 
from the interior who occasionally camped in the adobe. Neither Reid nor Henrv Oalton, 

could have used it for shelter now and then. It was the habit ot ro\ nm Indi.ui'v Iroin tin 
Mojave Desert and beyond to cross the mountains and raid the randios ( ( au::liev I'J'*.', 
p. XX). They generally killed a few head of cattle, but primarily thev uerx at Ur h-ases. 
which were easier to drive and preferred as food. The fiiuiinu ot ashes .uul ^ liaru>al and 
the remains of a horse, apparently butchered and eaten, with the artifacts m the house 
adds support to the assumption that Indians camped m it. 

It would be premature to attempt a systematk uimpanson ot the Hiii:<) KciJ A.lobi 
artifacts with those from other archaeological sites in soiitlu rn ( ahtonna 'I lu colU^tuMi 
is too small and there is little published data on materials I rom sites in tin ininudiatt 
area. Further information will be forthcoming from the Hli,i:o Reid Adobe 1(h.iIii\ as 
excavation has been resumed in the patio west of the house, it tan be antiujMted 
more Indian articles will be unearthed. Also this di^^ing should shed additional h.cht 
on the extent and depth of the older archaeological deposit, information necessar) tor 
a proper interpretation of the site. 

Dakin, S. B. 1939. A Scotch PaisaJo (Berkeley, University of Gilifomia Press) 




Peggy Sullivan 

It is frequently said about the Philip- 
pines, particularly by those who visit by 
ship with one day per country, that Manila 
is filthy, war scarred and a city to miss. 
This is true. Yet during this past spring 
the writer and her Mother spent several 
extremely interesting days on Luzon. The 
secret lies in leaving Manila behind and 
travelling by car to the interior. Although 
even while on the outskirts of the city, a 
horticultural eye views many thrilling 
scenes. Wild Bird Nest Ferns, five feet 
high with fronds rolled together into 
cylinders, are hawked like newspapers on 
Dewey Boulevard. Gigantic clumps of 
Dendrobiums, captured from the moun- 
tains while in their peak of bloom, hang 
from a bamboo pole over the shoulder of 
a man as he leans against a gigantic Ficus 
rehgiosa. With these inhabitants of the 
Philippine jungle, have come into civiliza- 
tion seeds of the unbelievable Jade Vine, 
now pendulant with heavy chains of green 
pea flowers in many Manila gardens. 
Along Manila Bay instead of staring at 
war ""momentos" rusting in the shallow 
' • more enlightening to peer 
ts holding a pot collection 

» small . 

and 1 

^illea, Achillea, 


always reinforced by a tangled mass of 
into thr^'" and Paphiopedilum tossed 
Plant-wise, the only residential district 
of interest is Forbes Park. Here the homes 
are magnificent. But the gardens fall short, 
due to unimaginative designing, low water 
pressure and a sub-soil hardly worth the 
effort of penetrating. Individual plant 
clumps such as the Traveller's Palm and 
species of the Fishtail Palms were impres- 
sive but without design they resemble a 
Botanical Garden ! 

Beyond Manila one finds the villages 
and authentic Philippine countryside. The 
countless rice paddies, banana plantations, 
coconut groves are interesting, especially 
m the evening when bordered by wallow- 
ing carabao. But fabulous are the "gar- 

dens" — actually wild orchids, fcrr^ 
begonias — all in clay pots fasten i. 
bamboo butts on stilts high .li 
ground and chickens. 

What should be mecca for all pi 
is the gorge at Pagsanjan. Ver\ 
dark and deep, it is beloved b\ 
nilans for its gentle rapids taken 
lowed-out log. But to one who h. 
the Colorado River these rapids \' 
quaint! Actually, the overwhelir 
felt in the gorge is derived fron^ 
play of native plants clinging by v. 
tips to the vertical cliffs. Here are t: 
Bird Nest Ferns and Polypodiunl^. v 
thuriums, palms, orchids, begonias, tra 
ferns, Ficus, all in their splendor, with 
monkeys for companions. 

We left Manila with regret, not know- 
ing that the next three days would be spent 
flying each day back and forth from Ma- 
nila to Hong Kong, never being quite able 
to pierce the Hong Kong ^ 

Hong KoHL' 
„dy for ju: 

Tiger Balm Garden is atrociouy 
deal of the native vegetation on t: 
sides has been replaced by shacks oi^^- 
refugees from the Communist regime, m 
Colony is pathetically overcrowded, du^ 
the orchid trees (Bauhinias) vvere 
bloom, an occasional Coral tree 
thrina), and red Ceiba were 
against the rich green Banyans, \\ ; 
clumps of bamboo, tree ferns aiu 
scattered about the hillsides. Rath- 
mal horticultural picture, yet a n'"^"^'''-.;^ 
utter delight occurred while ^'^'^ 

Red ] 

t soldie 

, made near the 
^ at the Cominu- 
, we noted one 
ring the customary 


inches ot 
fringe was d.^; 
of flowers of the intensely 

fcao'tl^werTamazed to 
all Chinese children rov 


in^' about the- Buddhist Temple .olleduit: 
the fallen rioucrs of the mu.uitu red ( e.Ki 

touyht to keep bahiixc. Throuizh the 
mountainous dirt roads, the car brushed 
a.uainst the tree ferns. Alpinia. Philoden- 
dron, Bc^'onia. Datura and Asp^ini^us pln- 
fiinsus. Enter into the tangled profusion, 
and one became hopelessly clutched bv 
blooming Passion Vine. Hiyher up the 
mountain Rhododendron and Azalea ap- 
peared as foreigners to the lush tropical 
jungle below. Rank ureen Pandanus lined 
many streams, just as blue Hvdrangeas re- 
placed the rice plants at the paddv cdue. 
AH enclosed in veritable caces of eiant 

Oddly no private uardens ire dexel- 

l^^mg encloserTidi" ducks inside' !ind 

Tlie Botanital Garden at Taipei is casu- 
ally maintained, rich in palm specimens 
and deaf to the Enulish lanuuayc The 

accompanied bv a thorouchb^ soaked and 
bored interpreter- -all handicaps to en- 
thusiasm. But few cities in the world can 
provide on their trains, as the> do. glasses 
of hot tea followed by scented hot to^^els, 
all this while rolling along through masses 
of red Clerodendron under crimson Ceiba. 

left Taiwan while still in shock from 
receiving so much and expecting so little. 

In Tokyo we were suddenly in the 
numbing cold of the Temperate Zone in 
tarly April. But in the f^ve weeks to follow 
we were continually warmed by the sincer- 



that all this is done with the eyes closed, 
the design ideas coming from within. But, 
no, the eyes are open and studying the 
natural landscaping of Japan itself. The 
Inland Sea and the pine clad little islands 
of Matsushima are all represented in gar- 
dens with quiet dignity and sensitive pro- 
portion. While hiking along the trail 
above Myanoshita a small canyon was ob- 
served consisting of boulders, thick moss, 
and deciduous trees 


familiar with the Japanese nursery trade 
would see great similarity between nursery 
methods and stock there on the Islands 
and here at home. Only the gallon can is 
missing! It is replaced by burlap and raffia 
or newspapers. A startling difference in 
balling methods is noted. Trees to be 
transplanted are dug with extremely small 
balls of earth and moved about the garden 
by manpower, with the assistance of young 
lady gardeners. 

But it is in the design of the garden 
that the Japanese show their capacity for 
detail and philosophical leanings. Their 
technique has been described long ago and 
is not to be repeated here. But it may be 
said that their understanding is great or 
the writer would not have sat for thirty 
minutes on the floor of a Kyoto Temple 
and absorbed the raked sand and fifteen 
stones arranged as islands on the ocean. 

Before visiting Japan one might think 


the God-i 
sessed an almost unearthly resttulness. An 
emotion not easily copied from the wild. 

Actually all of Japan is blessed with 
great natural beauty .To this is added sake 
and chopped octopus, poached birds egg 
in soup,Tnd seaweed {ea. It was difficult 


-Y 1, Descanso Gardens was in the Los Angeles community 
ed from the Department of Parks cultural center where plant soc 
- ■■ ' ^ ' ■ den clubs and professional horti 

may assemble, demon: 

and Recreation to the Department of 
boreta and Botanic Gardens. This shift 
administration marks a shift in policy from their special 
that of garden display to a policy which ized and pi 
emphasizes education and testing in the various horti 
horticultural and botanical fields. Descanso 
It is planned that test plots will be in- adapted for 
stalled to determine adaptability of certain facilities wh 
plants to local conditions and to demon- 
strate their proper landscape use and 
growth requirements. Outstanding in this 
category will be plant families represented 
by horticultural societies and test organi 
zations such as the various All-America 
selection groups. It is planned also to fea 
ture a demonstration garden of California 
native plants to further interest in th( 
choice plants of California and to educate 
young people in nature appreciation anc 

to the public 

tional purposes with little or no expena.^ 
ture. The first facility to be ^sed 'S tn 
Lakeside Cottage for the Children^ 
cation program. Here j 

various phases of naturt 
It is expected that th 

:ial courses i 


The Gardet 


1 important role 

■al study. The Gardens proper, 
11 probably always be the ma 

AUTUMN 1958 


AUTUMN 1958 



A Progress Report 

Donald P. Woolley 

The Los Angeles County Department of 
Arboreta and Botanic Gardens maintains 
a small test site in the Antelope Valley 
near Palmdale, California. This article 
presents a brief report on a 14 months 
growing period at the test site. 

Maximum summer temperatures during 
the period reported reached 109°F. Lowest 
winter temperature was 16°F. Recorded 


^CdliUemon phoe>nceus 
*Callistemon .udignui 
Cea>wthus crussrfolius 

*Eucalyt„us enthauerru 1-2 

* Eucalyptus rodamhu 2-3 

*EucMyl>tus rugou 1-2 

*Font.„esu,phyllyaeo}des 1-2 

rainfall for 1957 was 10 inches. The plants 
received weekly maintenance of watering 

Performance of the plants has been ten- 
tatively and empirically rated as follows: 
1— Excellent, 2— Good, 3— Fair. A rating 
such as 1-2 is the average performance of 
the total number of a particular species. 
An ( * ) means the plant is new to the area. 

•^Syringa pinetorum 
V>hurnum Opulus steale 


Typical of the thousands of annual visitors to Descanso Gardens the young coupj^ 
enjoy the world famous camellia display while Junior looks for squirrels or ducks. The 
Garden House (background) often features displays of flowers or other horticultur 
subjects, and is used as a classroom for the Adult Education Program. 



Pres}dent . 

Mildred E. Mathias 

Vice-President Alfred W. Roberts 

Treasurer Fred W. Roewekamp 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
J. Howard Asper Eric Johnson 

William Beresford Marston Kimball 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Mildred E. Mathias 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Earle E. Humphries William S. Stewart 

Vernon T. Stoutemver 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member 5 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 


sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— HlUcrest 6-5247 

William S. Stewart 


rhe official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 

Index Vol. VIII. 1958 


Volume I, No. 1 appeared Oct. 1, 1950, comprised of 5 issues, through Oct. 1951. 
Subsequent volumes, 4 issues each, commence with the calendar year, publication 
dates on the 1st. of Jan., Apr., July, Oct. designated respecdvely as Winter, Spring, 
Summer and Autumn issues. Pagination is consecudve through each separate volume. 

.\ntelope Valley Test Station 88 
Arbor Day Illus. 29 
Arboretum Youth Education 69 
Archaeological Investigations at the Hugo 

CoralBells 17 
Barbara Joe 
Pteris Species Cultivated in Califon 

Ferns Cultivated in Cal 
Bourne, Francis H 
Lilacs on the Desert 41 

Chandler, Philip A. 

A Different Look at European Horti- 

Ching, Francis F. T. & Andrew M. 

Veg«ative Propagation of Eucalyptus 
Ching, Francis F. T. & William S. 

Horticultural EflFects 
Acid 21 
Collier, Frank E. 

Stone Pine 18 
da Complex 14 

Condit, Ira J 

The Fictis n 
Davis, Mildred 

Choosing a Tree for the Aver, 
Garden 36 
Cast, Ross H. 

Hibiscus 33 
Cerard, Dora M. 

"Flowers and their Histories" 
Review) 48 

"A Guide List to the Plants i; 

"African Violets" (Book Review) 48 
Mathias, Mildred 

"A Summary of the Culture of Cali- 
fornia Plants at the Rancho Santa 
Ana Botanic Garden, 1947-1950" 
(Book Review) 24 
McGah, J. T. 

Weather Record-1957 70 
Quattlebjum, Dan 
Bird Notes 13, 71 
Repton, J. E. 

Horticultural Technical Training To- 
ward the Future 50 
Spalding, George H. 

Growing Notes 47 
Stewart, William S. 

A New Philosophy for Descanso 

Gardens 38 
"The U.C. System for Producing 
Healthy Container Grown Plants" 
(Book Review) 23 
Straw, Richard M. 

The History of Our Trees -The 

Rice, Bamboo, Kyoto 8 
Threkeld, John L. 

Descanso Gardens anc 

California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

Van Rensselaer, Maunsell 
Selection and Propagation of Functional 

Shade and Street Trees 30 
Wait, Lucita H. 

The Palm Society 45 
Wallace, William J. & R. J. Desautels. 

Geo. ] 

; Scot 

A Con; 

, Just the Beginnir 

h Paisano. The 2 
, 5c Edith Taylc 

jm the Hugo Rei 

:;ENERA and species Contd. GENERA AND SPECIES Contd. 

Deutzia spp. 88 Koeheuteria bipinnata 32 

Drynuyia heradeum 62 pamcuhihi 32 

1-leagnus fiUpense 37 Lagerstroemia indica 88 

Ekagnus umballata 88 Leptospermum atratum 38 

eucalyptus cladocalyx 
crythronema 88 
ficiiolia Illus. 19 

sellowiana 37 
benjamlna 14 

./>7m77/«« 32 
styracijlua 'Palo Alto' 32 
Liriodendron chinense 32 

parvijlora 32 Mayf^nj^i ^o^?/7rt 88 

Gf«/j-to .-^/7. 88 Melaleuca 19 

G///a ra/j/Zfl/fl var. chamissonis 21 Metasequom glyptostroboides 

Gin\go biloba 30 M/V/^f//fl /«iTflto 82 

^//o^fl 'Autumn Gold' 3 1 Olea chrysophylla 32 

Wo^a 'Canopy' 31 Paphiopedilum King Arthur 

biloba pendula 31 Maudiae 'magnificum' lUu: 

biloba 'Sentry' 3 1 Parkinsonia aculeatus 88 

G/.^/to« 'Sunburst' 32 Pawlonia lilacina 88 


Phellodendyon atnurense 33 

Philadelphus spp. 88 

18, 88 


San CJabriel Valley Flower Show 81 Vegetative Propagation of Eucalyptu 

Selection and Propagation of Functional 

Shade & Street Trees 30 \V 

1 Blue Gum, The 43 


Board of Trustees 

President Robert Casamajor 

1st Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Ho\x'ard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry Bauer Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Dr. Elmer Belt John C. Macfarland 

Howard Bodger Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 

Atrhur Freed Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

John Anson Ford F. Harold Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher 

Roger Jessup 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 

Annual Sponsor Membership 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 

Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural ^nstitute and 
January, April, July and October. 


Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— J. Howard 

Economic Plants Louis B^Mart^ 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture'. Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ra^^h D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Pe^^^y C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithologicai W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology ^'^^^^ 

Plant Societies GEORGE H. Spalding 

Propagation: ::::::::::::::::::: w. quinn buck 

T.v^.^^^,, r.f T5.^..v. Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of E: 

Taxonomy of Natives 

Louis B. Martin, Editor 

Vol. IX JANUARY 1, 1959 

. . . Ralph D. Con 

No. : 

The Principles of Landscape Design 

Applied to Gardens 

Ferns Cultivated in Olifornia B^vb^r^ Jo 

Historical Research Pertaining to the Original 

Hugo Reid Adobe House William J. Wallace 

Cover Picture 

Book Reviews and ( 



Presented before the Southern California Horticultural Institute, 
October 9, 1958 

This is a topic which, at first glance, might seem to be very controversial because of 
the fact that design, and taste in design, can mean something different to each wfio 
observes or concerns himself with such matters. Design is what the mdividual sees and 
puts into any arrangement of objects or forms or patterns or colors when he undertakes 
to compose them in a manner he hopes will be pleasing. We do not all see eye to eye. 
Our backgrounds, experiences, education, all vary. These matters of trainmg, as well as 
those of individual temperament and potential, affect our attitudes, our likes and our 
dislikes. Furthermore, both the abilities and the tastes of any individual, however tal- 
ented he may be, incline to run rather a wide gamut of variation during the period of 
his lifetime. 

So it is, in considering the principles of landscape design, that one must avoid per- 
sonal likes and dislikes and consider only the basic controls which govern design. The 

nd fundai 

to work as do their contemporarie 

: which the 

■ design different from another, it a 
common program and use requirement is established for the problem. From the same 
stock of ingredients may come products of highly varying quality. 

Education has a great deal to do with both tastes and our abilities. Therein lies both 
a danger and a wonderful well of opportunity because we are inclined to enjoy and 
appreciate the things to which we have been educated. We usually like that to which we 
are accustomed and which we have been taught to like. 

I recall an incident that occurred during World War II when I was driving the high- 
ways for countless miles on war housing work. I stopped to "give a lift" to a Manne 
with a busy thumb. Usually such beneficiaries of a weak moment immediately filled the 
car with an eye-smarting haze of thick smoke or fell asleep when they hit the cushions. 
Not this boy! He was alert and alive to the beauties of the roadside after having spent 
some months in Guadalcanal. And Guadalcanal he did not like. His first comment was 
"My God, it is good to get back where they have billboards. I didn't see a billboard aii 
the time I was in Guadalcanal. I come from Chicago where they have good billboards. 
What price background, education ? 

If one were born and raised in a stable, then a stable would be home sweet home to 
him. Thus it is important that we provide desirable surroundings for our •^'^'^'^^j^'r.f s 
ourselves. And also it is important that we disassociate merely personal likes and disUK 
when we consider the principles of design. 

It probably is good that to the first title of this talk was added the afterthought,- 
"AppHed to Gardens", since it pins it down a bit and makes it possible to talk of but one 
phase of the work encompassed by the profession of landscape architecture, landscaj 
architecture deals with the planning of space. Hs use, and the placement of objects upon 
or within it. It is land or land-use planning. At the turn of the century it was deh^^^*^ ' 
"The Art of Fitting Land to Human Use and Enjoyment". Please note that it is a recog 
nized art, by that definition and by general acceptance by the other arts. Initiated as 
course of instruction in the most advanced schools of our country, late in the "'"^f^ 
century, it had an innocent beginning relatively free from complications. Quickly, no 
ever, it developed a side-arm of City Planning and other types of specialization, so 
of which have outgrown their humble beginning until they scarcely admit or recogniz 

WINTER 1959 


landscape archit 

recreation areas, industrial grounds, schools, institutions, cemeteries, subdivisions and 
city planning of various sorts. 

^Although already quite specialized, landscape architecture probably is the youngest ..f 

than half a century. In other erS of culture^ back through the centuries, it sccmiimlv \\ .is 
the trend of the times for an artist to operate in many fields, not just in one hraiuh ot 
design. The architect also was the sculptor, the painter, the landscape desigmr. He pro- 
duced a total product rather than just one phase of a given undertaking. And it was 
good, if we can judge from what has been left unto our day. Now the tendency is for 
collaboration of the many, each a "specialist" in some particular phase of all that it takes 
to complete a total project. 

This comment, however, deals primarily with gardens and the principles of landscape 
design as applied to them. As landscape architecture probably is the youngest of .ill pro- 
fessions, so is gardening the oldest of professions, — as old as man, iunisclf. (Kirdcns 
are as old as the records and date from the Garden of Eden. The first garden was started 
when one of our ancestors crept from his cave and consciously planted a seed in the 
accumulation of debris which he had piled about its entrance. From then on our profes 
sion was in the running, though a bit embryonic. There are records of gardens that go 
back as far as 3000 B.C., the temple of Karnak in Egypt perhaps being the oldest one 
of note. The gardens of the Great Mughals, the Hanging Garden of Babylon, the lovely 
gardens of the Orient, those of the Renaissance in Europe (without reference to correct 
chronology) all are part of the garden heritage. In the great Euphrates and Tigris valleys 
of today's Iraq, are remnants of irrigation canals that are 1500 years old, with indications 
to suggest that those people knew much about the ways of plant growth in an arid land. 

There have been many types and styles of gardening throughout the centuries. For the 
most part gardens have been designed for pleasure, enjoyment, leisure, peace and tran- 
quility, for protection from the outside world and expansion of family life within their 
walls. The Roman atrium was a forerunner of the modern patio. The gardens of Babylon 
and the Moorish gardens of Spain expressed reaction to the harsh environment of their 
surroundings and made use of the sound and sparkle of water movement. The Italian 
gardens of the Renaissance reflected the society and environment of their time and 
stre:sed seclusion from outside influences. The Grand Style of le Norte (much copied 
by others) was a reaction to the lavish court life of that era. English gardens ran the 
gamut, copying many other styles and developing their own idea of the country' park,-- 
mtroducing the romantic and melancholy into some of their parks, by use of dead trees 
and gloomy objects. Even this country developed highly stylized garden design of con- 
siderable merit in the New England, the Southern and the Monterey Colonial eras, 
much of which still exists in original or copied form. Now comes the contemporary 
garden in an upsurge of creative design. 

A design, of any kind, is neither good nor bad because it is traditional or contempo- 
rary. Whether or not one likes it may be purely a matter of taste, perhaps one of educa- 
tion—depending upon which billboard he was exposed to in his youth. However, the 
basic principles of design remain constant and apply to any style or type garden one may 
fashion. Regardless of its type, those which have been successful and have remained as 
satisfying examples of the art of garden design, always have expressed a way of life of 
f people and have been adapted to the climatic surroundings and environment ot their 
location. Thus, each of those which are mentioned in this talk, was an express:on of its 
day, of the people and their culture and their adjustment to physical environment. With- 
out such adaptations a style does not develop and cannot live as an expression ot a 


Very few people are endowed with creative genius. Most of us are followers rather 
than leaders. We try to copy something that another has created with feeling and under- 
standing, but which we perhaps do not comprehend. True art has a meaning and 
expresses many things in many ways. A mere copying of zigs and zags, an uncompre- 
hending use of tricks and foibles does not constitute good design. 

The owner of a garden should have the type of garden that his heart desires, because 
that is why he builds it. It may not satisfy the tenets of good design but if it satisfies the 
owner, he (perhaps alone) is happy. Thus it always is important to know, at the outset, 
why one is building a garden. If the owner interest is dominantly horticultural and he 
wants only a plant museum, should that not be his privilege? If his garden is for social 
entertaining, or for personal seclusion, it should abet such uses. And if enough gardens 
develop along similar lines to express a community, a local or a national way of life,— 
then is a style developed. But the purpose, the reason, the program for its design must 
come before the garden is built. 

A copy of any style, transplanted into a new land and different society, is a legitimate 
thing for anyone to possess but it is never more than just a copy of something else. It does 
not express anything vital within the current life of its new setting. Perhaps it may be 
a collector's item, justifiable only as such. Only as the designer is able to free himself 
from the copying of other work or other styles does he, himself, become a creative artist; 
and to be creative he must design to fit the conditions at hand. Since all designers have 
the same materials with which to work, it is the way these materials are used and put 
together that establishes the success of their effort. 

Materials from which gardens are designed include space, air, land, sky, trees, forms 
of many kinds, textures, colors, architectural objects, sculpture— anything that is seen 
or used. With the purpose of the garden in mind, the designer seeks good space com- 
position in the arrangement of his materials. He must recognize the need, the way of 
hfe, the program of plan and design before he starts. Without such understanding he 
expresses the wrong meaning. 

WINTER 1959 


Subordination of immediate foreground and enframement of distant view, brings outside landscape 
features into the garden. Honolulu, Hawaii. Cornell photo. 

If a physician were to diagnose a patient's symptoms incorrectly, and prescribed on 
the basis of his diagnosis, he would be treating the wrong ailment and might not succeed 
m a cure. Similarly, if one fails to analy2e the garden problem and need, it is very pos- 
sible that he may build a garden without much meaning or use efficiency. He must adjust 
nis pattern and detail to the site, its topography, its size, shape and surroundings as he 
applies the principles of design" to his problem. 

These design principles are constant for all of the Arts— for music, painting, archi- 
tecture, sculpture, home decoration, dress design, whatever may be. They seek unity, 
with interest, and become concerned with balance, rhythm, repetition, sequence, texture, 
torm, accent, contrast, color, dominance and subordination. If one is familiar with any 
one of the arts he may apply the basic principles that govern that art to any of the other 
rorms of expression. 

Although unity is sought in all design, absolute unity may become monotony, just as 
utter lack of unity does become chaos. In a musical score, complete unity of note and 
tone may be tiring ; and so the composer introduces a bit of contrast in the form of stac- 
cato or allegro to give animation to the composition. He adds sparkle by injecting accent, 
contrast and color, and change of pace. Crescendo and diminuendo contribute variety 
and the elements of dominance and subordination enter into his composition. From these 
comments it will be apparent that I am not a musician but I try to make a point. These 
same values enter into any design and most surely apply to a garden. 

i^irst of all, by the simple etymology of the word, a garden is an enclosed space. It does 
not become a garden until it is enclosed. Enclosure thus provides the first sense and 
awareness of unity but, alone, may not create interest. So following the program one then 


decides what is to be the purpose and domir 
nated elements are to contribute to that dominance 
introduced to animate the design without loss of i 

fulness to idea and purpose is very important, particularly since there seems to be a 
human tendency to collect things. If all plants and objects within a garden carry indi- 
vidual interest to the point where they attract attention to themselves they become com- 

: motif of the garden, how the subordi- 

nd functional efficiency. Faith- 

iihin ' 
attention to themselv( 

than for the quantity of lace, ruffles and embroidery she can bestow upon the tout 
ensemble. So it should be with the garden. Use what you already have of experience, 
and apply it to the design of the garden. One sometimes observes a tendency to confuse 
a multitude of details with design. It takes more than a collection of gadgets to create 
a garden. 

And then there is color. Design can be done in color, just as in form, space, line or 
texture, but the garden designer must consider the complex use of all these factors. His 
problem is not simple, and color is a medium that carries tremendous impact. In fact the 
power of color is so great that it, alone, may make or ruin a design. It carries psycho- 
logical, as well as, visual significance. We all know that we can be ""tickled pink" or 
white with fear ; we feel blue, act yellow and 
ssipates but slowly. Such metaphor is not idle 
I deep connotation which should be heeded well by those who "dabble 

WINTER 1959 


Mental hospitals, industrial plants and "practical" business men have learned the 
significance and value of proper color use in relation to human reactions and efficiencies. 
When a highly exciting color film is shown in the theater and warm spotlights are used, 
the air-conditioning units of the theater are taxed to compensate for increased body 
temperatures of the audience, incited by the color. After such a show has closed, conden- 
sation gathers on walls and ceilings to cause plenty of trouble for the technicians. 

The same principles apply to the use of color as apply to all other media of design. 
Color presents excellent opportunity and material for establishing unity, accent, focal 
interest, rhythm, harmony, contrast, scintillation, and so on. Since it can be dynamite 
however, it is important that it be used only with skill and intelligence. A little intense 
color might be very good in a situation where excessive use of color would destroy the 
composition entirely. Let's say that a suit of clothes has a hundred times as much material 
in it as has a single necktie. Then, if a red necktie is par excellence as a coup in haber- 
dashery, is a red suit one hundred times as good ? Que dicen, amigos ? 

Now, how do garden design and horticulture relate one to another ? Each is depend- 
ent upon the other if it is to achieve its highest expression, and yet they are entirely 
separate professions. Training or skill in either of the two does not insure one's under- 
standing of the principles that govern the other. A good landscape designer may be a 
poor horticulturist and knowledge within horiticultural fields does not qualify one as a 
landscape architect— although there seems to be much lack of understanding of such 
fact. With building construction, a skilled mason or carpenter, who knows his trade well, 
seldom considers himself to be an architectural designer. So it is in landscape work, 
a knowledge of plants does not suffice to certificate one as a designer. 

With gardening as perhaps the oldest profession of man, it would seem rather logical 
that the best results in garden building might be achieved by the "wedding" of garden 
design and good horticultural practice. Each will profit by its consideration for the other. 
To realize its highest development, each must depend upon the other. The landscape 
architect and the horticulturist should join hands and work together, rather than as 
independents who assume responsibilities for which they may not be trained. 

It may be helpful quickly to enumerate some of the common pitfalls to which many 
of^us fall heir in building a garden. They would include, but not be Umited to, the 

(1) Lack of a precise program. 

(2) Failure to hold to a firm objective. 

(3) Overcrowding of things within a design pattern, with too many items of indi- 
vidual interest. 

motif, in relation to which other details are sub- 

(5) Confusion tending toward chaos, instead of simplicity and unity. 

(6) Failure to provide proper enclosure and to screen from view the neighborhood 
distractions of many kinds. 

Although it is oft misquoted it still is good, and I would like to close these hurried 
and madequate remarks with words spoken by Francis Bacon, about three hundred years 
ago, who said: "God Almighty first planted a garden and, indeed, it is the purest of 
pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment of the spirit of man, without which buildings 
and palaces are but gross handiwork: and man shall ever see that when ages grow to 
civility and elegancy, man shall come to build stately sooner than to garden finely, as it 
gardening were the greater perfection". 



Barbara Jo 

he Hart's-tongue fern, PhyU'itis scolo- 
irium, is a familiar garden fern in the 
hern hemisphere. The tongue-shaped 
ids for which this plant is named are 
ntimes ruffled, fringed, forked or 
?rwise different from the normal con- 
3n. In the nursery trade, this plant is 
known under the older name Scolo- 
drunn vulgare. 

Evergreen and very hardy, this fern is 
h to be desired in northern gardens. 

cv. 'Fimbriata'. Margins fringed, 
cv. 'Muricata'. Fronds erect, long and 
narrow, the upper surface with a 
linear ridge or a raised corrugation 
sometimes bearing the sori. 
cv. 'Sagittata'. Eared base extended, 
cv. 'Variegata' . Variegated. 

The Hacksaw fern, Doodia, is one of a 
small group of ferns occasionally culti- 
vated in rock gardens or fern beds. Young 
ferns are sometimes used as table ferns. 

on limestone rocks. Lii 
as oyster shell or dolomit< 
may not be necessary, especially if the soi 
used in the planting mix contains adequat< 
calcium, or if the water used is hard wit! 
a low sodium content. Propagation is b] 

Members of this genus are small ever 
green ferns. The rhizome is erect, bearing 
the fronds in a cluster. The stipes an 
coarse and scaly. The frond is simple, en 
tire, and strap-shaped ; the tip ends in at 
acute point, the base is heart-shaped, th( 
texture is thick-leathery. The veins an 
free, twice-forked, extending f 
midrib to a point short of the 
where the ends of the veins are enlarged 
or thickened, forming hydathodes. The 
son (clusters of fruiting bodies) are linear 

lendation to add mired for their red color which is gradu- 
on the frequency ally replaced by a deep forest green as the 
nd growing wild fronds mature. 

is usually applied Doodia media is considered hardy to 
h additions semi-hardy in southern California. Inland 
and further north this fern may be more 
sensitive to cool temperatures, and may 
need to be planted in a protected place or 
a cool greenhouse. In the southern coastal 
areas this fern withstands some direct sun- 
light. The remaining cultural requirements 
of this species are the usual ones required 
by ferns. Propagation is by spores or occa- 
sionally by divisions. 

The genus Doodia contains about ten 
species. They are native to Polynesia, Aus- 
tralia, and Ceylon. The ferns are small, 
the the ascending harsh-scaly rhizome bears 
gin, the rigid fronds in a i " ' 


vein branch and one on the h 
branch. The indusium is shaped like the 

sorus, and opens toward its partner. This 

genus has also been known under the forked The 
names Asplenium or Scolopendrium. csne nr fwo , 

There are over 500 described cultivars. 
Some of the more common types found 
in California are: 

cv. 'Crispa. Edges of the frond ruffled. 

cv. 'Cristata'. Ends of the frond tasseled. 

the blade is 
pinnarro/^^innltifil narrowed at both 
ends, and the many pinnae are closely set, 
sharply toothed, and harsh in texture. ^ 
veins are netted to form one or mo^e row 
of areoles (meshes) on each side ot tne 
midrib: elsewhere, the veins are free an 
curved or oblong,. 
each side of the mid- 
ribs of the pinnae and parallel to them^ 
The membranous flap-like ind^siurri 
shaned like the sorus ; it opens toward h 
midrib, and is attached to a vein ot tn 



Doodia species are readily distinguished out. The frond itself, however, is very 

from other cultivated ferns by their small thick and capable of storing some water 

narrow pinnate or pinnatifid fronds with to carry it over a mild dry period. In the 

the oblong sori borne parallel to the mid- nursery trade this fern is best known under 

rib of the segment. Other species reported the synonym Cyclophorus lingua. 
to be cultivated in the United States are The rhizomes and fronds of mature 

D. aspera R. Br. and D. caudata R. Br. specimens will often cover the baskets, 

PYRROSIA forming a mass of foliage. In southern 

Among the forty types of hanging bas- California, the baskets are left outdoors 

ket ferns cultivated in California gardens, through the winter. However, in areas 

there is one that is distinct because of its with frost this is not advisable. Northward 

felt-like texture. The Japanese felt fern, the fern should be treated as a cool green- 

Pyrrosia lingua, as it is called is also house subject, at least during the winter 

known as the Tongue fern, a common months. Though this fern is not a rapid 

name less suitable because of the many grower, there is nothing difficult about its 

other species with tongue-shaped fronds, culture. Once it is established, all it will 

The fronds of this plant are long-lived, require is a shaded place and adequate 

Close examination of the surfaces will re- moisture. Portions of the rhizome will take 

which help to keep the blade from drying kept moist . 


WINTER 1959 


The hundred or so species belonging to 
the genus Pyrrosia are distributed mainly 
in the Old World tropics. They are small 
epiphytes with slender creeping rhizomes. 
The fronds are usually simple and entire, 
leathery, and covered with stellate hairs, 
at least on the under side of the frond. The 
veins are immersed in the frond and diffi- 
cult to see; they are finely netted with in- 
cluded veinlets. The sori are borne on the 
under surface of the frond ; they are round, 
close together, and sometimes confluent. 
They are not protected by an indusium. 
Members of this group have been known 

phorus. Pyrrosia is the botanical name 
used by contemporary botanists. 

Several cultivars are apparent among the 
cultivated material. Some have margins 
which are wavy or slightly ruffled, another 
is variegated. Cultivar "Variegata' has 
bands of yellow extending from the mid- 
rib to the margin. The amount of variega- 

plant. The slender rhizome, the^ simple, 
entire frond with the tapering base, and 
star-shaped hairs readily separate this fern 
from other cultivated species. 

The airy light green foliage of Llavea 
cordifolia presents an interesting contrast 
to the usual darker greens of our other 
cultivated ferns. Long cultivated in Euro- 
pean greenhouses, this fern has not been 
well known in California. This is indeed 

fern is in nearby Mexico and Guatemala. 
Because the fertile parts of the frond are 
^j^stinctly different from the sterile parts, 

mon name Flowering fern, alluding to the 
Tk^'^H ^^^^^^^ pinnules as being fjower- 
appiied to species of Osmunda. 

In the mild climate of southern Cali- 
fornia, this fern may be grown outdoors 
'n protected places. In the inland areas or 
where cooler winter temperatures prevail, 
the foliage does not maintain its best ap- 
pearance through the cool months. Should 
temperatures drop consistently below 
F. It may be best to keep the plant as a 

greenhouse subject. The remai 

ferns. Propagation is by spores 
sionally by divisions. 

The genus Llavea has only or 

moderately arching. The stipe is covered 
at the base with large needle-shaped scales, 
which are lemon-color when young and 
darken with age. The blade is tripinnate. 
The sterile segments are ovate, more or 
less serrate and about 1 to 2 inches long. 
The fertile segments are linear in shape 
and always appear toward the top of the 
blade. The veins are free and repeatedly 
forked in the sterile segments and once 
forked in the fertile segments. The spor- 
angia (fruiting bodies) are borne all along 
the veins, and often spread over the entire 
under surface of the segment. The mar- 
gin is reflexed in the fertile segment and 
partially covers the sporangia. 

The Royal fern, Osmuvda regahs^ which 
is seldom cultivated in California, has con- 
tracted fertile pinnules at the top of the 
frond However its fronds are bipinnate 
rather than tripinnate and it does not have 
yellow scales. 


PbylUtis scolopendrmm (L ) Newm. 
(Scolope.dr,un> vulgare) Only one spe- 
cies is cultivated in California, and most 
plants seem to be derived from the Euro- 
pean species rather than the American 
Lriety.^ Harfs-tongue fern. Evergreen 
fronds stalked; blade strap-shaped the 
base eared, the tip acute, sparsely scaly be- 
neath except ^abng^^^^ 
rTlVi ft. Shade. Europe and North 
America. A decorative fern for rock gar- 
dens or beds because of its bright glos^y^ 
green fronds and evergreen hab t^ 
normal frond is distinct from all cultivated 
strap-shaped ferns by its eared base. 

noodia media R. Br. (D. lunulata) 



var. Brackenridgei Carr. Fronds 12-20 
in. long, 2-5 in. wide. Pinnae long 
linear, apex acute. Sori in 2 irregu- 
lar rows on each side of midrib. To 
IV2 ft. Viti. Larger than the species, 
best planted in fern beds. 
Pyrrosia lingua Farwell. (Cyclophorus 
lingua, Niphobolus lingua). Japanese felt 
fern, Tongue fern. Rhizome slender and 
creeping. Fronds simple and entire, ob- 
long-lanceolate, covered with stellate hairs 

which are denser on the under surface. 
Semi-hardy. To 1 ft. Shade. Evergreen. 
Japan, China, Tonkin, and Formosa. 

Llavea cordifolia Lag. A handsome fern 
for accent use. Semi-hardy to tender. To 
2 ft. Shade. Medium to rapid in growth. 
Mexico and Guatemala. It is readily rec- 
ognized by its yellow-green foliage, the 
canary-yellow scales on the stipes, the 
ovate sterile and linear fertile segments. 
The latter are always borne at the top of 
the frond. 



In preparing to restore an historical structure, two types of research are regularly 
undertaken in order to determine as nearly as possible its original appearance. One is 
archaeological, digging into the soil in a search for buried foundations and other sub- 
surface remains. The other is historical, examining the archives for maps, deeds or other 
records, descriptions by visitors or travelers and pictures of various sorts relating to 
the building. These two approaches complement one another ; combined they provide 
the fullest possible evidence. 

Both lines of research have been followed in providing data for the restoration of the 
Hugo Reid Adobe, part of which still stands on the grounds of the Los Angeles State 
and County Arboretum in Arcadia, California. Archaeological exploration has proven 
extremely fruitful and considerable knowledge concerning the earliest form of the 
building has been secured from it.^* Historical records have provided less information. 


An effort was made to bring together all available historical material published ana 
unpublished, relating to the original Hugo Reid ranch house.^ This involved a con- 
siderable tracing and combing of sources in libraries and other institutions of California. 
CoHect.ons in the Huntington, Bancroft, University of Southern California, University 
of California (Los Angeles), California State, Los Angeles County Museum and South- 
west Museum libraries were consulted. Documents at the Santa Barbara Mission and in 
seA^ral Los Angeles county agencies were also checked. Time and facilities were no 
rf^hTstte\nd°Lion*^' investigating of all possible items, scattered in various parts 

to^^fh^f/'^^lu ^«^""^ents, maps and testimony of the witnesses gatfier^ 

together for the land claims case for Rancho Santa Anita upon which the Reid Adobe 

WINTER 1959 


homesite was located This hearing was held before the Board of United States Land 
Commissioners in September and November of 1852.3 Also useful was Hugo Reid s 
correspondence, the bulk of which is in the Abel Stearns Collection of the Huntington 

^' AsTesearch progressed it became increasingly evident that there were only stray bits 
of information available. When assembled, however, these provide some information on 
the Reid residence and allow for the drawing of certain inferences. 

Santa Anita Rancho was formerly a San Gabriel Mission property. This landholding 
of gently sloping, grassy land, oak-covered foothills and narrow canyons was three square 
leagues in extent.^- It reached north to the San Gabriel Mountains and was bounded on 
the east by Rancho Azusa de Duarte and by Rancho Pasqual on the west. During mission 
days the rancho served as a grazing ground for herds of sheep and goats and, presumably 
cattle. The land was well suited for this purpose. Native grasses and herbs turnished 
excellent pasturage, whether green in winter or dry in summer. There were year-round 
pools of water for thirsty animals to drink from and oaks and other trees under whicti 
they could find shade on hot days. . ^ ,. , . 

Under mission ownership, the rancho was uninhabited except by Indian herdsmen. 
These retainers probably lived in easily constructed grass- or brush-covered shelters. JNo 
satisfactory evidence has been found that an adobe house was built to shelter them or an 
occasional visiting padre such as were erected at Rancho San Bernardino.- No reference 
to any structure is made in the Informe on Musion San Gabuel 1802-1822 which lists 
mission properties.' A similar list compiled in 1827 by Father Sanchez likewise mentions 
no buildings.* - , , r 

When California came under the flag of Mexico, following the f "^^.^^^VT. KvX 
Spain in 1822, a new land policy led to a gradual relinquishing of mission lands by he 
padres and made possible their granting to individuals. Their disposal was lett to civ.i 
officials with final disposition in the hands of the governor himself 

The sprawling acres of Santa Anita attracted several petitioners for "hip- ose 
Maria Ramirez in 1834 ; in 1839 Bernardino and Jose Maria Lopez Jose Antonio Cardlo, 
Vicente de la Ossa, and Jose Antonio Yorba all asked for Santa Anita ^^P^^s ther^t. 

5 after his arrival, he swore allegiance 
to Mexico and adopted the Catholic faith. Now known as Don Perf ecto "l^S.^ J^^'f ' 
soon identified himself with the life in the province. Unlike "^f ^t^^j; ^^^.^'f^S 
•n California, he did not seek the hand of f daughter of one of the rich influen lal 
Spanish-Mexican families. Instead, he claimed as his bride a mission-trained Gabnelino 
Indian woman, Bartolomea Comicrabit, later known as Victoria .,j,„;n,\frator 
In May 1839 Reid applied to Juan Bandini, Prefect of the District ^nd administrator 
of San Gabriel, for ownership of the land.- His formal petition f'''^p,^'l^^^^^ 
ntizenship, described the desired tract of land.-^ The Ayuntanuento C^^^^ 
the Pueblo de los Angeles was asked to look into the matter. Its corn"^'"?^ " , 
lands, finding that Don Perf ecto had all necessary 
upied, recommended that 

, 1839 record the folio; 
rupied by a 

upon his request. Their proceedings of May 1 ^ , , 


Rcid s 1839 petition was accompanied by the usual diseno or map of the desired land- 
holdmg which showed its location, area, natural boundaries landmarks and names of 
contiguous grants. This earliest cIne>lo. prepared by Reid himself, depicts no house or 
cultivated fields. 1^ The petition endorsed by Bandini was sent on to the governor of the 
province, Juan B. Alvarado. It was next transmitted to the Departmental Assembly at 
Monterey which passed favorably upon Reid's request. Actual title was slow in coming, 
however. After nearly two years had elapsed, Reid again filed a claim for possession 
He received provisional ownership from Alvarado on April 16, 184l.^'^ Not satisfied 
with this somewhat precarious title, which amounted to nothing more than a right to 
occupy, he continued to request a firmer one. The provisional grant was renewed by 
Governor Manuel Micheltorena on July 5, 1843. At this time Fray Thomas Estenagaot 
^an Gabriel Mission strongly supported Reid s claim in a note to the Governor dated 
June 5, 1843, in which he stated, 

"The title of property in the land which they call Santa Anita can be granted 
to the interested party because it is unoccupied entirely and for reason of 
services rendered for the benefit of this Mission by his wife and her late hus- 
band Pablo who rendered so much services to the said Mission."-^ 
The question of title was left unsettled for another two years It was not until 1845 that 
It was finally confirmed by Governor Pio Pico 

Hugo Reid had not waited until full title was received before occupying Santa Anita. 
Almost immediately after the had passed favorably upon his first j^etition. 

WINTER 1 95 9 17 

Aif ^^"^ horses to his new landhoiding, sowed wheat and set out a few fruit trees. 
All of this was done to fulfill his obligations and to strengthen his claim to the property 
for Mexican land law required that a grantee, in addition to being a Mexican citizen and 
some trt'^' ^^^"''^ ^'^^ ^""'^"^ ^^"""^ °" ^""^ P^^"* 

Hugo Reid did not at once build a permanent house at Santa Anita. Instead he erected 
a temporary shelter. The dwelling probably had walls of upright poles with branches 
intertwined and was thatched with straw or grass. In a letter to William Hartnell, 
pioneer English merchant and trader, on November 12, 1839, he reported that. 

As the season is far advanced I have merely put a straw (skp' habitation on 
It tor the boys. At present they are making conales, sowing wheat and pre- 
paring wood to fence a piece for gardening."-' 
iwo months later, on January 27, 1840, he again wrote to Hartnell, this time referring 
TO the house as a "jaca/," a Mexican Indian term for a dwelling made of poles covered 
witn grass brush or tules. In it Reid also mentions having built a new house at the 
ssion flat roof'd and corridor' d."-i A little over a year later, in a letter to Governor 
n 1 ' '^^^^'^ ^P^'^ 12, 1841, he describes having built a '". . . casa de pared" 
X n I ^'^^^'^ ^^'"e person, assigned by me would always stay to look 

stJnrJ r ^^^^^ ■ ■ ■"" '^^'^ presumably the adobe house, part of which still 

nrnk ki 7"^^ constructed sometime between January 27, 1840 and April 12, 1841; 
probably during the summer or fall of 1840. ' ^ ' ^ 

NO contemporary description of this house has been found, perhaps because it was 
so many others of its time and did not impress visitors or travelers. The only illus- 

Photo-copy (from Bancroft Library) of a portion of Hugo Reid's 1839 letter 


^/./z - y/^^ A-^^- z//....-.^-. 

which accompanied his petition 
a modest structure with a single door 
and window. Other details are open to different interpretations. The sketch may be a 
stylized representation and not intended as an accurate picture of the building. In any 
event it is too tiny to give much information on the house's original appearance. 

There is little doubt that the earliest adobe dwelling was a rather rude affair. Most 
outlying ranch houses of this period were small buildings with only two or three rooms. 
Rancher OS added to their houses as they prospered and their families increased m size. 
Archaeological findings indicate that Don Perfecto's house had three rooms, an earthen 
floor, stamped and pounded until it was hard and firm, and was without fireplace or 
chimney. Cooking, presumably, was done outside in an open shed or special oven. 

The spot selected by Don Perfecto as the site for his ranch house was a small rise ot 
ground on the shore of a shallow spring-fed pond or lake. On the 1845 dheno this is 
designated as a "cienega' or swamp rather than as a "laguna" or lake. This sugges s 
that It was more of a tule-choked marsh than an open body of water. It is quite possible 
that there were no plantings close to the house as remote ranch houses of this period were 
regularly erected on slight elevations of land, clear of trees and shrubbery, so that bands 
of approaching Indians could easily be observed. Andres Duarte, on neighboring Rancho 
Azusa de Duarte, placed his house on high, open ground free of trees and other plant 
growth.- William Heath Davis describes this as typical. 

"The houses of the rancheros were usually built upon entirely open ground, 
devoid of trees, generally elevated, overlooking a wide stretch of the country 
round, in order that they might look out to a distance on all sides, and see 


Although being j 

^ had little 

appeal tor mm. He seems to have spent little time at Santa Anita. None of his letters 
bear a Santa Anita date line and there are surprisingly few references to the rancho in 
his correspondence. The wording of Abel Stearns' testimony in the 1852 land claims 
case to the effect that Hugo Reid 

". . . had a house there which was inhabited and he cultivated land and had 
several hundred head of cattle on the land. He continued thus to occupy the 
land living on it himself a portion of the time until he sold to Daltoh . . 
seemingly indicates that someone else besides Reid regularly lived in the adobe ranch 
house. Don Perfecto's family moved out to the rancho during harvest but on at least 
one occasion, he stayed behind.^' 

Hugo Reid preferred to live in greater comfort at Huerta de Cuati (Uva Espina), 
about two miles from Mission San Gabriel. This tract, often referred to in his corre- 
spondence as the "Vineyard", had been granted to his wife Victoria by Governor 
Alvarado on October 12, 1838. She had occupied some of the land before her marriage 
to Keid.-« This was a well-established place with gardens, a large vineyard, and an 
extensive fruit orchard enclosed with an adobe wall.^" He also spent considerable time 
at his town house at San Gabriel . . 300 yards from the Mission Church,"^" where 
he also cultivated vines and fruit trees. It is apparent that Reid favored farming over 
stock raising. 

During his ownership of Santa Anita, Don Perfccto used its three leagues primarily 
lor grazing stock and for growing wheat or other field crops. Apparently a few fruit 
trees were planted in the vicinity of the house. Although Reid asserts in a letter to 
nn^nnr! ^^""^'^^ ^^""^ ^ ^^'^'^ orchard (1000 fruit trees) and vineyard 

(10,000 vines) '2 there is no real evidence that he ever planted them. In his petition 
to Governor Alvarado, April 12, 1841, he states, 

". . . I planted a vineyard consisting of a considerable number of vines . . 
But again there is no indication that it was set out. These statements were undoubtedly 
made to impress Hartnell and the Governor with his industriousness and thus to 
strengthen his claim to the land. Reid's own 1845 dlsefio shows only some field crops. 

Hugo Reid never seems to have had many cattle and horses at Santa Anita. Certainly 
his herds did not compare with those of some of his neighbors, which numbered in the 
housands. He probably did not pasture on the r^^r/./many more head of livestock 
than was required for a land grant. In a letter to Abel Stearns in 1844, he mentions 
only 400 cattle and Stearns stated that he had only "... several hundred head of cattle 
Za m J j ^f^P ^^^y f''^"^ crops and trees there were wooden fences, 

and possibly hedges of tuna cactus. No fences were required to enclose the entire rancho 
ann! .1 '^^""'"^ '^estock could easily be separated from those of neighbors at the 
w.^ rlL. j""" [ ^"r^^' ^ y^^"" ""^^ ^ere branded. Hugo Reid's branding mark 

'^t'^j on April 21st, 1840.^^ . ^ 
Re^^d'n^.";""'^'"'""' ^"'^^ l^ft to someone else, apparently to Felipe, 

As Inch 7 nineteen year old when Don Perfecto first took over Santa Anita, 

fdobe hont '"^ ^^"^'^y '"^^^i^'l 1843) would have lived in the 

dwelt ntrby intuT:^^^^^^^^^ servants -undoubtedly 

ertk^DonVerfel''^ ' ''"'^^ ^'^^ proportions, as well as of other valuable prop- 
to disnnrnf ri . ' "^T ^^'y prosperous. Almost perpetually in debt, he decided 
May 29th ^Ly^u '^i^u^^ '^'^'^^ ^o dispose of Santa Anita and on 

Californf; .nd l the r.,.r/.. to Henry Dalton, an Englishman who had come to 

cons ZL? '''"^^ S2700. The deed of tra1.sfer describes the land as 

WINTER 195' 


. Reid to Hartnell, Nov. 12, 1839, Bancroft Ubrarv I 




Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— HI Ikrcst 6-5217 

William S. Stewart 

Ralph Ames 

W. QuiNN Buck 

Leonid Enari 

Glenn H. Hiatt 

Louis B. Martin 

J. Thomas McGah 

RussellaK. McGah 


. Plant Pathologist 

. . Orchid Specialist 
.Plcwt Physiologist 
. . . Plant Recorder 



/^ecerv^X SPRING 1959 
I /ipp .T n i,9P9 ) Vol. IX, No. 2 


Board of Trustees 

President Robert Casamajor 

1st Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry Bauer Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Dr. Elmer Belt John C. Macfarland 

Howard Bodger Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 

Atrhur Freed Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

John Anson Ford F. Harold Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher 

Roger Jessup 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Lite Membership 500 00 

Founders . . ^ ' i.^^ 

^^-f-^- 5:000 o^L. 

Club memberships are avadable at any amount, from $ 10 a year or more 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law 

Box 688- 

Lasca Leaves 

of the Southern California Horti 
January, April, July and October. 


Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Louis B. Martin, Edi 

Vol. IX APRIL, 1959 No. 2 

Vines for Specific Situations Mildred Davis 26 

Cover Picture 28 

Hugo Reid Adobe Orvel B. Johnson 28 

Herb Gardening Mary D. Darrow 32 

Marine Plants — An Agricultural Challenge Michael Neushul 33 

Book Review 37 

Maelic Hydrazide Treatment of 

Indoor Foliage Plants Arthur N. Brown 38 

Trees-In-Color Calendar Philip E. Chandler 41 

Names, Notes and News 45 

Book Reviews 45 





Mildred Davis 

Today, many people shudder at the mention of the word vine. It is hkely to conjure up 
a picture of a house smothered in ivy or creeping fig, or trees and shrubs enveloped in 
the toils of a passion vine. 

In the past, vines were used to cover poor architectural design. No effort was made to 
keep them under control. They became untidy messes. They frequently caused untold 
damage to tile and shingle roofs. 

However, vines carefully selected for a given use, with full knowledge of their uki- 
mate growth and kept properly pruned, are an asset in landscape design. 

In a brief article, it is impossible to discuss all the potential vine species ; therefore, 
a few of the best have been selected for detailed consideration. 


One of the most useful functions of rampant vines is for covering a cut bank where 
there is little possibility of planting on the sheer face. For this situation, vines may be 
planted at the base of the bank where it is possible to build up sufficient soil for good 
growth. They may be planted at the top and allowed to drape over. In the latter case, 
water must be provided by way of a sprinkler system. Single wires or chicken wire may 
be extended from bottom to top and anchored with steel reinforcing rods. This wire 
need not cover the entire surface but merely act as a support for the establishment of 
the vine. 

A. Sunny Exposures : 

Araujia serkofera—A frost tolerant vine. Medium sized grey-green leaves. Many 

small white, star-like flowers. Fruit pods like milkweed. 15 to 25 feet. 
Ipomea W;— Common Morning Glory. Decidedly rampant and invasive. To be 
used only where it will not invade a garden. For covering sheer cliffs it is excellent 
Pandorea pmdorana-^Cle^n, shiny dark green, divided foliage. Panicles of small 

white flowers. Fast growing. 20 to 30 feet. 
Passiflora Typical flowers of the passion vine. Flowers deep pink. Very 

rampant. 20 to 30 feet. 
Pbaedranthus huccinatorius (Bignonia cherere)— Trumpet vine. Good foliage, ram- 
pant grower once established! Long flame red trumpet flowers over many months. 
Tender. This can be seen in many places in Santa Barbara. 
While these same vines might be used to cover a chain link fence, I do not advise it. 
Any other plant material used in front of the fence will soon be enveloped by the vme 
and strangled. Vines on fencing only serve as a display area. They never give complete 
privacy as their height will only be that of the fence. 

B. Shade Exposure on Cliffs: 

No visible flowers. 20 to 30 feet. 
^ nd Saucer Vine. Very rampant. Soft toli- 
age. Bell shaped flowers on five inch stems. Tender. To 30 feet. 
Clematis armandi—hn evergreen clematis. Exceedingly rampant. Glossy, leathery 
foliage, unhke other clematis. Many clusters of rather small white flowers. Used 
in San Francisco Bay area. Foliage at end of season has browning in part and then 
needs pruning. 20 to 30 feet. 
Philadelphus ^^t-x/fd^/zj— Evergreen Syringa. Light green leaves. Many cream white 
fragrant flowers. Blooms over a long period. Fairly frost tolerant. 15 to 20 feet. 

SPRING 1959 



Cmiis rhombifoUum—Gtii^pQ Ivy. Best in partial shade. Try it instead of the inevitable 
ivy. Allow at least eight feet between plants. 

Lo7ucera confusa—A much more refined Honeysuckle, too seldom used. Full sun along 
coast, partial shade inland. Foliage light green. Flowers creamy white and borne in 
profusion. 6 to 10 feet. 

SoUya heferophy//a—Austrdian Bluebell. Full sun, excellent drainage. Small foliage. 
Many deep blue, bell-shaped flowers. 6 to 8 feet. 

Trdchelospermum jasmhwidesSiiv Jasmine. Sun or partial shade on coast, partial 
shade inland. Apt to tip frost. A good ground cover to replace ivy. One plant may cover 
8 to 10 feet. The runner can be pegged down or if nipped early, will bush. Glossy 
dark green leaves (medium). Many pleasingly fragrant small white flowers. Slow to 
start, but do not plant too closely. 

Thunbergm g'ibsonj~V\A\ sun. Tender. Small grey green leaves. Vivid orange flowers 
borne solitary on five to six inch stems. 


Clytostoma callistegw'ides (Bignonia speaosa) — One of the most satisfactory all pur- 
pose vines. Good foliage, lots of bloom (lavender blue trumpet flowers) in spring and 
early summer. Sun along coast or partial shade inland. Quite cold tolerant. To 20 feet. 

Distictis lactijiora 'Riversi — Long blooming season. Flowers trumpet like, deep rosy 

^ lavender-purple with yellow throat. Tender. To 20 feet. 

Yellow bell shaped flowers in late winter and early spring.' Sun or partial shade^Cold 

Solamon jdswi>w/des— White Potato Vine. Everblooming clusters of white flowers. 
Shiny foliage, best in partial shade. Fairly cold tolerant. Can be cut to ground if too 
rampant, soon blooms again. 25 to 30 feet. See cover illustration. 

Pandorea jasminoides — A lovely vine. Glossy divided leaves. Masses of trumpet flowers, 
white with deep rose throat. To 25 feet. 


Antigonon leptopus—CoiA Vine. Herbaceous. Best inland, needs heat. Heart shaped 

leaves. Sprays of watermelon pink flowers. 8 to 10 feet. 
Bomarea caldasiana—Vleshy root. Partial shade. Usually herbaceous. Many umbels of 

tubular flowers, red and yellow. 8 to 10 feet. 
Clemaus~\n variety. 

Herdenbergia comptoniana — Australian vine needing good drainage. Small pinnate 

leaves. Flowers in racemes, pea shaped, white, lavender, blue and sometimes pink. 

Fairly cold tolerant. Sun to partial shade. 12 to 15 feet. 
See Ground Cover Vines. 
Stigmaphyllon r/7w///w — Orchid Vine. Tuberous like roots. Herbaceous. Velvety, heart 

shaped leaves. Yellow orchid-like flowers in umbels. Partial shade, good soil. 6 to 8 



Hoya carfwsa— Wax Plant. Strong grower. Leathery leaves. Unusual star shaped flower 
(look like carved from paraffin) pink, in clusters, fragrant. Tub plant in or out of 

Oxera p^ilchce/la— Leaves leathery. Flowers in immense clusters in axils of leaves. They 
are ivory with long exerted stamens. Can be grown as fountain like shrub. 15 to 20 

Pctsslflora racemosa— One of the best of the passion vines. Medium growth. Foliage 



leathery, less susceptible to depradations of caterpillars. Flowers in racemes 12 to 18 
inches long, deep rose red. Partial shade. 


Small six foot trellis are not sufficient to support a vine; either trelliage should be built 
agamst a wall as part of the design, or the vines should be attached by other methods. 
Vme guides are only satisfactory for dainty vines, as they are not apt to pull off the wall 
with heavy growth. Galvanized wire can be placed from the foundation (attached to a 
cement nail) and run to screw eyes in the rafters. This allows for taking down when 
painting is necessary, keeps growth orderly and in any desired pattern. 
Landscape Consultant and Instructor. 


Whether on a trellis, patio fence or softening the austere laundry line post Solanum 
]asniinoides or White Potato vine, adds a bit of daintiness to any scene. Mr. Patten's ink- 
brush rendition catches this abstract quality. 



Orvel B. Johnson 
Presented to the Wstorical Committee meeting of the CaUfornia 
Arboretum Foundation, Inc., November 19, 19^8 
On October 9 and 10 the writer did more investigation at existing structure and adobe 
foundations at west ell. Findings are as follows: ^ 

"^^^ T^'l'T ^^".b^tween rooms 1 and 2 was removed. This wall was laid up with 
very dark adobe, with a binder which appears to be tule material. When wall was 
removed, a cut was made on interior to bottom of adobe foundation at east and west 
wa s. It was found that the yellow hard clay area in room No. 1 continued under this 
wall. Chunks of material which looked like La Brea tar were also found on top of the 
Clay strata. 1 he yellow material ran to the deep foundation which is directly opposite 
the partition wall location. The west wall near north end of existing structure has some 
of the dark adobe blocks in it. We have previously described this area as an area between 
cold vertical joints in west wall. 
Unfortunately the north end-wall of structure slipped from its foundation, which 
made >t necessary to remove the adobe. However, due to this it was revealed that the 

west end of wall had been chopped off, and the wall had at one ti ''^ 

2. Evidence strongly points to a structure that stood on existing 
prising three rooms, before the existing three room structure We 
history of the area, so will make no attempt to surmise what nerir 
The adobe blocks in the foundation are larger than the blocks in 

SPRING 1959 

^ith the 

chunks of La Brea 

found, appear to have been in a fire. 

3. We will call this part of report: Building Number Two. 

After the first building tumbled, possibly from erosion, another building was erected, 
using part of the remaining foundation, including the north end and part of wer — — 
This was a structure some thirty six feet long, running east ai ' ^ 
blocks were used to lay a foundation on the clay strata, and 
west from existing walls. This could have been a single room structure, with walls 
approximately twenty inches lower than existing walls , m , .1, . 

The remaining foundation running west for sixteen feet, is same type of block as that 
on interior partition foundation. Chunks of La Brea are also apparent under his area. 
The west foundation on this west section is diflferent from any of the other walls further 
west. Also the corners have been keyed in, which indicates a roonri or building corner. 
The adobe block in cross walls, and in south wall of this area (Baldwin Annex), show 
large chunks of burned La Brea. No doubt the clay floor was used in this structure the 
same as in the first. 

4. This deals with the existing structure which was probably built eight to twelve years 
after structure noted as Number Two. Part of structure Number Two was s ill standing 
when existing structure was built. This accounts for the "cold" joints, and blocks having 
been chopped off. 

Some of the adobe taken from the middle partition wall had Indian designs on them. 
These were not the dark block, but the light colored block similar to the north end wall. 
The height of existing walls is apparently the original; however, the heads of windows 
were approximately ten inches lower than existing, and sill was twelve inches above 
existing adobe cut-out, being in size approximately forty inches wide and fifty inches 
high, rLgh opening. The openings had a wood jamb, sill ^^^ead cased m.d^ 
out. This would give a finish opening of some three feet in width, and three teet seven 



inches in height. Point of evidence on cased openings is wood grain marks on mortar 
and good corners on adobe block, which indicate moisture did not get to these areas 

Door heads were about four inches lower than existing. These had a wood jamb about 
seven inches wide, set on inside with doors swinging in. Height of door was about seven 
teet. Reveal at exterior of doors was adobe, with limewash material. This was, perhaps, 
reason for erosion at corners, which were later rounded and plastered. 

There was one door to exterior on east side, and one to exterior on west side in section 
running north and south, and perhaps a door to exterior in ell running west. Windows 
were as indicated on elevations shown group on September 24, 1958. 

Apparently the adobe floor in what is called Room Number Three was laid on the 

itl7^oli:7::^^^^^^^^ ^^^-^^^^ ^^^y - 

From evidence uncovered the interior and exterior on the existing structure was a 
f(J!^ndTn soH^^^''^^' "^'^^ P^'^^P^ ™lor added, for interior. Flecks of blue have been 

There is little doubt that the clay and adobe floors were used when this structure was 
thll ,U T^' ^^^^^f by the plaster extending down to this area. We have found 
If In^l""!! '""'^''^ ^''^ aforementioned lime wash sometime before plaster 

wa applied. No piaster material was found in soil strata encountered at exterior south- 
east corner of building. 

..T!^!r Tf^rf ^^^""'^ mentioned which is at "cold" joints, is of the same period 
to hXh?^J ; ^PP^m" hcm^y^r, that walls on the ell section were never built up 
i^M?? ^^''^•'"^ ^^^e independent roof structure, or a 

gable type roof tying into main roof 

stZZtT^utll^'lT '"""^ ^""'^^ *^ 

inrh''whS""* r° jP'/'t " ?P " " one-eighth by eight and one-half 

Xj'ittZ KteL ':.':rL:.1St Th°" the e.stin, 

ti^anr, rent »K 7'';'f"»^\""""i»l 'PPIM at one time. They are red fif, ind whipsawn. 
pre em ™f *hl *e wood plate as before mentioned, and possibly some of the 
present roof timbers were used ,n the present structure when it was first built. 

Aw^^^.t?;lr_'° '"^^S™"? °" September 29, 

aiic k.j f 11 1958, that a part of the ^a^. --v. 

block in hirwlll K ' !!!^ r''^ '"-^"'^^ ^ ^"'^ foundation"^ Some of the adobe 
of the ori^na7finish''^ I'mewash on them inside the wall. This is further evidence 

waH^whtrh °" "f/'^' ^^'^^ fi"^^ i"' perhaps done after the 

mdius w7. fn A J""^ ^ ^^^'"^ ^^'•"e^ ^dobe, with plaster on the 

after thirwaHw.; K IT"'?^- ^'^^''^^^^Y first plaster was applied to building 
with adZ ri T t""- ledge around perimeter was built up 

iial fror^^h' P^^^^ered. This ledge is about twelve inches high, a difl^erent 
tru^ne fouTd.r 1"^ blocks, and was placed integral on top of pro- 

Iin1aIosrot?erofcty%tTal.^^^^^ ^'^'^ ^'^^ ^ 

to exi^tlnl'"."^"? L" '"'"^ regard to room partitions relative 

ll:^f.. !''"!.'''".''"^"- P'-of^sion of adobe blocks show original partitions in same 
art of restoration. The brick partition is accounted for 
ick foundation was placed under 

uure as before mentioned 
ime type brick were used, a... 
adobe partition? Evidently suflSc 

lymg V 

SPRING 1959 


and fallen wall to replace exterior wall, but not the partition. 

The "black" adobe partition was re-built still later, perhaps after deterioration of 
other adobe, which was of the second, structure. If it was built at the same time as the 
brick partition, we are unable to account for adobe in lieu of brick. The fireplace was 
cut into the adobe after the wall was erected. There was a wall in this location prior to 
the black adobe. The side wall had been chopped down. A wood door lintel had been 
cut back for a thinner wall. Behind this wood lintel was a piece of log section which 
might have formed the lintel for an earlier door, which could have led to the exterior. 

On exterior at west side two holes have been found which had rotted wood in them. 
These, no doubt, were posts to support a porch roof. Inside of posts, and running full 
length of west side from ell, was rotted wood which appeared to have been a log. This 
could have been used to retain fill at porch area, due to its location. This was definitely 
before the Baldwin period. Further investigation will be made later to see if this same 
condition exists along ell section. 
5. Baldwin Annex west of ell. 

The north wall (foundation), running west appears to be of the same period as the 
existing three room section, built, however, of block probably salvaged from first struc- 

amounts of La Brea which indicate that they were made from soil about the area, after 
the first structure was down. If this was a building, and all walls were constructed from 
this type material, it would not have withstood much weather. 

We conclude as follows: 

a. The original structure relative to the existing walls still standing, contained four 
rooms. Three rooms lay north and south, with one room forming an ell at north end 

b. The foundation sections on interior, with walls to side of each, were made use of 
for seats, tables or something of this nature. 

c. The west side of building was front of house, having dirt-filled porch floor, small 

d. Back of house was on the east side, with a dirt-filled porch floor, small in size, with 
no roof over. 

e. Thresholds at doors were about twelve inches above clay floor level, with flattened 
log step down to floor. 

f. Window openings had wood jambs and sills, and were cased inside and out. 

g. Door openings had wood jambs and wood thresholds, cased on inside only, about 
seven feet in height. 

h. Both doors and windows had wood shutters, or windows could have had casement 
sash, glazed. The articles found by Dr. Wallace's group will be checked by the writer 
for clues in regard to glass, if used, hinges and other items. 

i. Top of walls were about as they are now, with some of the top adobe replaced. 

j. Sawn timbers were used in roof construction and window and door material. Hewn 
Imtels were used at window and door heads. 

k. Further investigation could change our version regarding the roof structure, but at 

1. The north wall running west from ell was built at time of existing structure, from 
salvaged adobe. Cross walls, front wall and west end wall were built later. This was 
possibly a low wall adobe structure, but due to composition of adobe block, they having 
been made from spoils of the first structure, did not last long. 

m. The items discussed in this report present three periods of adobe construction on 
the site, plus a remodeling with adobe and brick, and then the Baldwin period. As before 



stated, we have not had the time to study site history on this project. Known history may 
or may not support our findings, but from physical evidence bearing on construction 
principles as old as time, and in the absence of supporting documents, we believe our 
findings to be correct. We have refrained from saying the existing structure is the Hugo 
Reid Adobe. However, it is possibly of a period before 1870, based on other adobes of 

Diyect CoustructioH Supervisor 

Gdiforma Stale Department of Archhecture 



A BEE skep! Who today, has seen or 
even remembers seeing the old fashioned 
rounded bee hive, made of coils of twisted 
straw .5 They really have become a garden 
antique. Your next trip to the Herb Gar- 
den at the Arboretum will give you an 
opportunity to catch up on this old, yet 
new addition to the Garden. 

For those who are not familiar with the 
Herb Garden {Lasca Leaves. Vol. VI, 
No. 4, 1956) let us explain. The members 
of the Southern California Unit of the 
Herb Society of America have established 
an attractive, as well as, functional garden 
of herbs at the foot of Tallac Knoll. Their 
mterest takes the form of both financing 
and working in the garden. Although it is 
not completed, it already has been judged 
the finest garden of its kind in the north- 
ern hemisphere. 

Established at present are: a Kitchen 
Garden, an Herbs for Landscaping Sec- 
tion, an Herbs for Fragrance Section, a 
dippmg well, a cascade pool, a rock gar- 

ill Knot Garde... 
ing the past year, the following 

e been accomplished 
lawn at the entrance; decomposed 
has replaced the gravel walkways, 
travel within the garden more p 
and a small glass house constructe 

tesy of Dr. Stewart, Arboretum Director. 
This house is used to propagate the seeds 
purchased by the Unit for the garden. A 
full time Gardener, Mr. Tom Parker, has 
been assigned to maintain and assist the 
Unit members in planning and planting 
the Garden. 

Building and maintaining the Garden is 
only one phase of the Unit's endeavors. 
Making ends meet, financially, has re- 
ceived a large portion of their attention. 

First, they harvest herb crops from the 
Garden. Then they sell both fresh and 
dried products of this harvest. Basil vine- 
gar, bottled in attractively shaped, greejj 
containers bearing hand made labels, seU 
rapidly. Mrs. Arthur D. Richardson is 
given credit for the labels and containers. 

A second project has been the publish- 

SPRING 1959 

ing of a series of Cook Books. A unique 
feature of this series is the Herb Cookie 
booklet. All the delicious tasting and frag- 
rant cookies, soups, salads, teas, cakes, 
pies, breads and beverages are tested reci- 
pes from kitchens of the members. Dr. 
Grace Lawson, dietitian and member of 
the Unit, acts as editor. 

An Herb Chart, suitable for framing or 
otherwise placing in the kitchen where the 
'Lady' of the house keeps her spices, is 

Many sales are made at the Gate House 
of the Arboretum under the sponsorship 
of the California Arboretum Foundation, 
Inc. The Unit gratefully acknowledges the 
Foundation's cooperation and assistance in 
this venture. 

All proceeds from^ these various 'com- 

cfrden. ^""^ ^e\elopment of the Herb 
In addition to planting, harvesting and 
preparing items for sale, the Unit has 
plunged into the lecture field with enthusi- 
asm and success. Cooperating with the 
Adult Education Program at the Arbore- 
tum, Unit members have given a series of 
six lectures at least five different seasons. 
Originally given at the Arboretum, this 

Fall the series was given at Descanso 
Gardens, La Canada. Miss Marguerite 
Dumbauld, Unit Treasurer, arranged each 
lecture series and was assisted in the pre- 
sentation by Dr. Louis B. Martin of the 

Subjects for the lectures have ranged 
from: Books on Herbs, Mrs. Darrow; The 
Culture and Use of Lavenders, Miss Edna 
NeuRebauer; Native Uses of Herbs in the 
Southwest, Miss Dumbauld; to Cooking 

(past National FrcsKlcnt ) , Mrs. l-rcd S. 
(Mirandy) Bauersfeld, Mrs. Henry Wil- 
der, Mrs. Floyd (Kay) E. Betts and Mrs. 
Maria Wilkes to list only a few. 
^ The Herb Garden as it serves the public 

It is a training garden for new Unit mem- 
bers. Here the neophytes can contribute 
hours of productive work and gain practi- 
cal and interesting information about the 

The Unit extends a most cordial invita- 
tion to all to visit and enjoy their handy 
work — Herb Gardening at the Arboretum. 

Chan man. Son then? Gil if anna Unit 
Herb Sonet) of America 



Michael Neushul 

Man began agriculture by learning to control the plants which grew naturally 
around him on the land. Man is learning now to control the plants which grow in the sea. 
This natural resource will meet the needs of man through efforts which might properly 
be called "mariculture". 

The thin layer of plant life on the earth could well be considered our most important 
natural resource. This green layer of plants is spread over nearly the entire earth. Seventy- 
one percent of the earth's surface is covered by ocean, and a major portion of the primary 
production of organic material takes place there. The production of organic resources on 
land compared with that in the ocean yields a surprising figure. Approximately 10/1 Iths 
of the food manufacture by plants in the world takes place in the sea. The productive 
capacity of the sea is very high. The calculated average producrion is 3.75 tons of carbon 
fixed into organic material per year for every 2.5 acres, as compared with 1.3 tons on 
land. The need for the study of this tremendous natural resource has been emphasized 
recently by Walford in his book, Ui ing Resources of the Sea. 



The great primary productivity of the sea can be attributed to microscopic phyto- 
plankton. The use of plankton organisms directly has been advocated. However, most 
of the benefit derived from this form of life reaches us indirectly via the long food chain 
in the form of fish or other marine animals. Some marine plants can be utilized directly; 

The use of marine plants extends to the limit of recorded history, seaweeds having 
been used in China and Japan for many hundreds of years. The greatest use of algae for 
food occurs in Japan. The 180,000 miles of coastline provide an abundant supply of 
marine algae. Some 25 to 30 species are eaten. The Japanese harvested 310,000 tons of 
seaweed for food in 1955. 

The principal marine algae utilized as food in Japan are shown in figure 1. These can 
be purchased in local markets dealing in Japanese foods. Some other marine algae have 
uses other than for food. Funori, Gloiopeltis furcata is used for glue and sizing material 
and Makuri, Digenea simplex is used as a vermifuge. 

Figure 1 

Nori Porphyra lacinata Soups and with 

P. vulgaris many foods 

Wakami Undaria pinnatifida Vegetable, soups 

Alaria fistulosa 

Hijiki Cystophyllum fusiforme Used as vegetable 

Aosa Ulva lactuca Garnish similar to 


Tengusa Gelidium cartilaginium Jellies, soups, saki 


Many algae are utilized as food in Hawaii. They are called "Limu" and form a con- 
siderable portion of the vegetable diet. The algae are, for the most part, eaten raw. Some 
of the genera used are Codium, Ahnfeldtia, Sargassum, Haliseria and Uha. 

In contrast with the traditional use of marine plants in the Orient, they have not been 
utilized as fully in the western world. Roman ladies used a rouge prepared from the 
rock-weed, Fucus, and seaweed extract was used to dye garments ; however, in general 

In more recent times seaweed industries have flourished in Scotland, England, France 
and the United States. The uses of marine plants in this country are different from those 
of the Orient. There they are mainly used directly as vegetables, whereas in this country, 
chemical extracts and industrial treatment of marine plants produce substances which 
are widely used but infrequently noticed. 

Few of us in America realize that algae furnish many familiar and useful products. 
Irish moss or carrageen, Chondrus crispus, grows on our Atlantic coasts from Maine to 
the Carolinas. It is used in puddings, jellies and similar desserts. In New England towns, 
dulse, Rhodymenia, is eaten as a vegetable. On our west coast alone approximately 6,0W 
tons of marine plants are harvested annually. The major portion of this amount is the 
giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. From i^iacrocystis a colloidal substance called algin 
extracted. There are many uses for algin, (figure 2). Macrocys^s grows abundantly 
along the aiifomia coasts attached to rocky bottoms by large root-like holdfasts, (hg" 

SPRING 1959 



ure 3). The long fronds float to the surface forming masses which are readily seen on 
the surface. These areas, or kelp beds as they are called, occupy nearly 100 square miles 

Seaweeds today are being used in many ways. Even so, man's use of them is regulated 
by what the sea has to offer: plants exposed by the tides, floating on the surface, or cast 
upon the shore. No real attempt to "domesticate" marine plants has been made. The 
closest approach to marine "agriculture" is perhaps in Japan where marine plants are 
cultivated by increasing the available surface to which the naturally produced spores 
can attach. This situation might be considered analagous to that which existed more 
than 7,000 years ago when man's use of land plants was the mere acceptance of what 
nature offered. 

Periodic destruction of naturally occurring areas of kelp along the Pacific Coast of 
North America greatly limits the supply of raw materials during certain periods of the 
year. The destruction of marine plants by man-made pollution is a serious threat to the 
seaweed industry in Japan, and the loss of California kelp beds near polluted areas has 
suggested that similar problems may be encountered here. At the present time our 
knowledge of marine plants is not adequate to cope with these problems. 

In response to the urgent need for more knowledge of our seaweed resources, recent 
efforts in the study of California's marine plants are worthy of mention. In connection 
with the State Department of Fish and Game and the State Water Pollution Control 
Board, The Institute of Marine Resources of the University of California is conducting 
mvestigations concerned with the basic biology of the giant kelp, Macrocystis. and with 
the relation of this plant to pollution. 

The State Department of Fish and Game is conducting studies on the possibilities of 




Arthur N. Brown 

Growers, florists and home owners have long valued the Dieff enbochia for its color- 
ful fohage and its ability to grow well as an indoor ornamental. However, the tendency 
for this plant to seldom branch, to soon over-grow its container and in time to become 
spindly with foliage only at the top, leaves room for general culture improvements. 
Branching can be induced by pinching back, but this may spoil the appearance of the 
plant. The grower and retailer cannot profitably hold a plant long enough for it to 
re-grow new tops; the home owner will not pinch or cut his "beauty" when it should 

The chemical, maelic hydrazide, has been used to retard the growth of certain lawn 
grasses. It has also been used to induce branching on chrysanthemums. The following 
reports the results of using maelic hydrazide (also designated as MH) as a foliage spray 
on several indoor ornamentals. 
Materials and Methods. 

Six species were used in the experiment: Dieff enbochia Roehra supenba, Aralia 
elegantissma, Philodendron dubia, Peperonia fosteniana, Pathos aureus and Pellonia 
fulchra. Only the effects of MH on D. Roehra supenba and A. elegantissma will be 
considered in detail. 

The plants were received as 21/2" liners and planted in 4" fern pans. After allowing 
three weeks to establish themselves, they were treated with varying strengths of maelic 
hydrazide (Diethanolamine salt of 1, 2 - dehydro - 3, 6 pyridazinedion.) To find the 
most effective concentration, from 500 ppm (parts per million) to 2000 ppm were tried. 

The greenhouse temperatures ranged from 70O-80°F. during the days with humidity 
of 90-100%. Night temperature was 70°, but due to mechanical problems dropped 

A.ralia were treated with each concer 

Spraying was done on November 11, 1957, when air temperature varied from 69° t 
1°F. and humidity was 64%. Each plant was sprayed separately until run-off occurre 
n both top and bottom sides of the leaves. After the leaves dried the plants were r. 
irned to the greenhouse. In the case of the Dieffenbochia a second spray was applie 

made to determine how much or how long the material rc 
, great care was taken in watering so as not to wash the 


It will be noted that there is marked reduction in leaf size of Diefl'enbochia 

.w..«,.u Luucenrrations of MH which is undesirable. Plants recovered from this 
aII^" u^r .'^"^ excellent specimens (see photo) except in the highest concern 
Although further work is needed to determine the exact time of application ar 
centration, 1000 to 1500 ppm can be recommended to give the best over-all re; 
these two species. * 

These results suggest that maelic hydrazide may be of value to greenhouse op 
m producing compact, branched plants. 

SPRING 1959 


Dieffenbochia Roehra supenba 

(Average of 14 plants at each concen 


Increase in number Average length of 2 

Number of Bred 


4 9.4 inches 



3 8.6 



3.4 7.5 



1.9 6.1 


2.0 6.2 
4.4 9.2 


Aralia elegamissma 

(Average of 3 plants at each concentration) 

PPM No. of branches Height No. of nodes Totallength of stems 

500 1.7 5.9 in. 37.0 11.25 inches 

750 2.0 3.25 33.7 5.4 

1000 4.7 3.75 42.3 7.3 

1250 3.5 2.6 36.5 6.6 

1500 7.0 2.3 62.3 7.0 

2000 3.0 2.4 34.0 6.4 

Control* 1.0 5.1 20.0 5.1 

t r 1 


Aralia elegantissma: Left to right, treatment with MH-2000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 
1250 ppm, 1000 ppm, 750 ppm, 500 ppm and control. Photo Sept. 1, '58. 


SPRING 1959 



For Greater Los Angeles 

Philip E. Chandler 

The plants compiled by Mr. Chandler are for immediate consideration in answering 
the perennial question of year around garden color using trees. However, Mr. Chandler 
and/or Lasca Leaves would appreciate comments about the trees listed, either in the form 
of new species, culture practices to fit varied locations, flowering time or additional loca- 
tions where specimen plants can be observed. 


Acada ba^leyam—YeWow, evergreen, scant summer water, 20 to 30 feet— Common. 

Acacia poc/alyriaefo//a— Yellow, evergreen, scant summer water, 15 to 20 feet— North- 
east corner Bristol and San Vicente, Brentwood. 

Call/stemon lanceolatus— Bright red, evergreen, usually grown as shrub, but is good 
small tree, 8 to 18 feet— Surf rider Inn, 1700 Ocean Avenue, Santa Monica. 

Erythrhia cafra— Burnt orange, usually deciduous, not hardy, 30 to 40 feet high and 
40 feet across— 255 South Barrington, Brentwood. 

Eucalyptus caesia—Dusty rose flowers with gray-green foliage, evergreen, habit open 
and pendulous, 10 to 20 feet — Los Angeles State and County Arboretum. 

Eucalyptfis erythrocorys—Bnght red buds, chartreuse flowers, evergreen, best as a mul- 
tiple trunk, 15 to 20 feet— 255 South Barrington. 

E/icalyptus /^/e^^^./ro/v////./— Chartreuse, evergreen, 20 to 35 feet— UCLA Botanic Garden. 

Eucalyptus orpeta—Rose to red, evergreen, 8 to 15 feet— Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr., 4665 
El Cammo Corto, La Canada. 

Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea (pallens)— Rose, evergreen, usually pendulous, very hardy, 
30 to 40 feet— UCLA west side of Royce Hall. 

Eucalyptus torquata—Rose to red, evergreen, open but narrow, 15 to 20 feet— Dr. Sam- 
uel Ayers, Jr. 

Eugenia snutbii (Acmena)— Orchid fruits, evergreen, slender, 10 to 20 feet. 
^Ugnolia denudata (Yulan)— White, deciduous, 15 to 20 feet— Huntington Botanic 
Garden, San Marino 

Prunus campanulata (Formosa cherry)— Rosy red, deciduous, narrow, 20 to 25 feet— 
^ UCLA campus. 

Prunus mume (apricot)— Shell pink. Rosemary Clark: white, fragrant. 15 to 20 feet— 

Huntington Botanic Garden, San Marino. 
Prunus persica (peach)— Early red, deciduous, 20 to 25 feet. 


Acac'ui pycnantha—YeWow, evergreen, fast growth and short lived, « 
20 to 25 feet—City College Campus, Santa Monica. 
1 1 St em on Lwceolalus~^ee January. 602 25th Street, Santa Moi 
>ylbri>ia americana — Red, deciduous, trunk g ' ' -■^'^ 

dale Boulevard, first block north of Los I _ ^ ^ 

i^y)tbrnui cajfra-See January. Down center of San Vicente Boulevard, West Los Ange- 
les and Santa Monica. 

Eryt/jn„a lysistemou^Or^ngt, deciduous, somewhat tender, 25 to 35 feet-Mature 
specimen near northeast corner of Union Oil Building, Beaudry Street, Los Angeles. 



• of Stanford and Montana, West Los Angeles (fine group showing seedling 

Eucalyptus torquata — See January. Dr. Samuel Ayers, Jr. 
Eugenia smithii (Acmena) — See January. 

Magnolia campbellii— Pink, deciduous, 20 to 30 feet— Mrs. Jack Evans, 14225 Sunset 

Boulevard, Riviera. 
Magnolia daivsoniana — Pink, deciduous, 15 to 25 feet — Mrs. Evans. 
Magnolia denudata — See January. Mrs. Evans. 
Magnolia veitchii—Pink, deciduous, 12 to 15 feet— Mrs. Evans. 
Prunus campanulata — See January. 

Prutius cerasifera atropurpurea (pissardi)— Light pink, 20 to 35 feet— Old specimens 

in Stone Canyon near Copa de Oro, Bel Air. 
Prunus cerasifera blireana—Pmk double (earliest of cerasifera), deciduous— Common. 
Prunus niume — Rosemary Clark and white. See January. 

Stenocarpus sinuatus— Orange red, evergreen, slow, 20 to 25 feet— Los Angeles State 

and County Arboretum. 
Robinsonella cor data—Bine to lavender, virtually evergreen, rarely blooms here, but 

spectacular when it does; 25 to 30 feet. 


Acacia pycnaiitha — See February. 
Callhtemou lanceolatus—See January. 

Callistemon viwi?2alis—Red, pendulous, 20 to 30 feet. Not as showy as C. lanceolatus, 
needs ample water, food, thinning; long noded, sparse green— Corner Sunset 
Boulevard, one block west of Highland Avenue, Hollywood. 

Cercis canad en sis—Rose purple, occasionally white, deciduous— UCLA Botany Garden. 

Cercis occidentalis — Rose purple, deciduous — Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Clare- 

Cercis siliquastrurn— Rose purple, rarely white, deciduous. 
Erythrina americana—See February. 

Erythrina caffraSee January. Motor court on Barrington Avenue, opposite Paul J- 

Howard's California Flowerland. 
Erythrina coralloides~Red, deciduous, 20 to 30 feet— Huntington Botanic Gardens, 

San Marino. 

Eucalyptus erythronewa^See February. Los Angeles State and County Arboretum. 

Eucalyptus megacornutaSee January. 

Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea (pallens)-See January. 

Eucalyptus torquata~^ee January. Los Angeles State and County Arboretum. 
Eugenia smithii (Acmena)— See January. 
Magnolia campbellii—See February. 
Magnolia dawsoniana—See February. 

i^agnolia lilifiora nigra— Uzroon, deciduous, 10 to 18 feet. „ , 

Magnolia veitchii—See February. Miss Peggy Sullivan 221 2 Mandeville Canyon, Brent- 

wood. Here it frequently blooms early. ' . 

^runus^c^^asifera atropurpurea (pissardi)— See February. I6th Street at Arizona, Santa 

Prunus persica Helen Borchers— Double pink, deciduous, 20 to 25 feet— Common. 

SPRING 1959 


, deciduous, best away from coast, 15 to 25 feet- 


Aesadus carnea brioti— Rose red, deciduous, 15 to 20 feet. 
Aesculus carnea~P\nk, deciduous, 15 to 20 feet. 

Bauhhiia rati e gat a— Otchid or white, usually deciduous, 20 to 25 feet— 150 Harrington 

Place, Brentwood. 
Callistewon lanceolatus — See January. 

Callistemon viminalis—Ste March.— 513 7th Street, Santa Monica. 
Cercis canadensjs~S>tt March. 
Cercis occidentalis—See March. 
Cercis siliquastrum—Stt March. 

Enthrimi coralloidesSee March.— Union Oil Building, Bixel Street entrance. 
Erythr'nict falcata—Deep pink, evergreen, to 50 feet— Los Angeles State and County 

Evytbrina lysistetuonSee February.— 825 San Vicente, Santa Monica. 
Enthvimt ovalifolia—Vit^, new, probably tall. 

Ei jtbm/a mnbrosa — Red, evergreen, 30 feet— Entrance to Los Angeles State and County 

E/ualyptus erythrocorysSee January. 
Euccdyptus fiafolm— Red, orange, pink, pea( 
lar specimen northwest corner of Mont 
Eucalyptus megacornuta — See January. 
Eucalyptus slderoxylon rosea (pallens)— See January. 
Eucalyptus torquata—Sec January. 
Magnolia lilifloraSee March. 

Malus floribunda am old /ana— Rose to white, deciduous, 8 to 10 feet. 
Malus (Hopa) species in question— Pink and white, 15 to 25 feet. Best crabapple, grows 
best near ocean. 

Malus sylvestris eleyi—Y^ee^ rose, deciduous, 20 to 25 feet— Common. 
Prunus persica Helen Borchers— See March. 

Prunus persica Late White— Deciduous, last peach to bloom and possibly showiest, 20 
to 25 feet— Northeast corner Fourth and Normandie in old Wilshire district. 

Prunus subhirtella—See March. 

Kobinia idahoensis Monument— Deep pink, deciduous, 20 to 25 feet— Los Angeles State 
and County Arboretum 


Acacia pruinosa—Pde yellow flowers and copper new leaves, evergreen, 25 to 35 feet— 
Aescu^^ 25th Street, Santa Monica. 

"^esculus hippocasf^n»tF~White, deciduous, 20 to 40 feet— Opposite Beverly Hills 

Hotel on Sunset Boulevard (southwest corner). 
o^iihwia corniculata— White, daw-like petals, stamens colored, 10 to 25 feet— UCLA 

Botanic Garden. 
l^'^b'niafordicata—Ctesim, semi-deciduous, 10 to 15 feet. 

^^^uhnua variegata-^See April. West side of Normandie between 3rd and 4th, old Wil- 
district. ^ 

C/jistemon lanceolatus— ^ee January. 
^^ll'stemon viminalis—^e January .- 

2216 23rd Street, Santa Monica 


Erythrina falcata—See April. 
Erythrina ovahfoliaSee April. 

Erythrina umbrosa — See April. — Southeast corner Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Bixel 
Street, Los Angeles. 

Eucalyptus erytbrocorysSee January. 
Eucalyptus fnyfolm—Ste April. 
Eucalyptus megacornuta — See January. 
Eucalyptus torcjuata — See January. 

ditions, very hardy, 15 to 20 feet and across. ^ ^ 

H))iuiiosporu»i flavufu — Light yellow, fragrant, semi-deciduous, 20 to 40 feet — 528 

Alta Street, Santa Monica. 
jacaranda acul/fol/a~~'B[ue or rarely pink, deciduous, 30 to 50 feet— Pink at Los Angeles 

State and County Arboretum. 
Koelreuteria paniculata— Yellow, deciduous, 20 to 25 feet. 

Maguolm grandi flora (Forms of M. exoniensis and M. St. Mary's)— White, fragrant, 
evergreen ; the former 40 to 75 feet, the latter two 20 to 25 feet. 

Malus ioensis Bechtel— Light pink double, deciduous, 15 to 20 feet— Common. 

Metrosideros to??ientosa — Red, evergreen, slow; especially for coastal areas and immedi- 
ate ocean front; 20 to 30 feet— Palisades Park at foot of Broadway, Santa Monica. 

Stenocarpus sinuatus-^See February. 


Acacia prui)?osa — See May. 
Bauhima corniculata — See May. 
Bauhima forficata—See May. 
Callistemou hwceolatus—See January. 
Calhsteniou l iwinalis — See March. 

Calodendron capense~OiQ\):\A, semi-deciduous, best coastal, 20 to 40 feet— Two speci- 
: • on Ohio just east of Federal, West Los Angeles. 

te, fragrant; evergreen; fastigiate; needs thinning, partial shade, 
in cool gardens; 15 to 25 feet— 353 19th Street, Santa Monica. 
Dais cot!tujoha—V\nk\ semi-deciduous; slow and temperamental; needs good drainage 
and moisture; 10 to 20 feet— Glenn Peebles, 12179 Leven Lane, West Los Angeles. 
Daubeutoma tripetti—Ox^nge, deciduous, 10 to 15 feet— Common in San Fernando 

Erythnua 07.r/rf-^,,///--Bronze red, deciduous, 15 to 20 feet— 255 South Barrington Ave- 

Eucalptus caesia — See January. 
Eucalyptus erythrocorys—See January. 
Eucalyptus [icifolui—^eG April. 
Eucalyptus ,uegacornuta~^?>t^ January. 
Eucalyptus orpetn—See January. 
Feijoa sellouuanaSte May. 

Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Hybrid tree-form)— White, pink, red, yellow; evergreen, ten- 
der, eventually to 20 feet. 
Hymenosporum flarum—Sce May.— 393 19th Street, Santa Monica. 
Jacaranda acutifolia—See May. 
Koelreuteria paniculata—See May. 

Liquidambar orientalis—^ed purple foliage, deciduous, height undetermined— Los An- 
geles State and County Arboretum. 
Magnolia grandi flora and more dwarf forms— See May. 


Officers 1959 

President Mildred E. Mathias 

Vice-President William S. Stewart 

Treasurer Fred W. Roewekamp 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
William Beresford Nolan W. Kiner 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Mildred E. Mathias 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Earle E. Humphries William S. Stewart 

Eric Johnson Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Marston Kimball Maria Wilkes 

Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 



I Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 
GRanite 2-4659 
Box 688— Arcadia— California 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 


William S. Stfwart Dirccto. 

Ralph Ames p/^^^^z Pathol ogis 


Leonid Enari .... 

Louis B. Martin Plant Phys>olo^ 

J. Thomas McGah p/^,^,/ Reco)\ 

RussELLA K. McGah Lihiitr 

George H. Spalding Superintend. 

Edward Huntsman-Trout Landscape Architect Consult. 

Donald P. Woolle 

. Chief Hoi 


^ Tiu 


• Cas. 

1st Vice-President Ralph D. Corne 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Ma 

Treasurer Howard A. Mill 

Secretary GEORGE H. Spaldu 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turn 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry Bauer Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Dr. Elmer Belt John C. Macfarland 

Howard Bodger Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 

Atrhur Freed Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

John Anson Ford F. Harold Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Lovell Swisher 

Roger Jessup 

Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 



Foundation Office— Hlilcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership. . . .. 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000 or more 

Benefactors 5,000 or morf 

Club memberships are available at any amount, jrom $10 a year or man 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law 

Box 688— Arcadia 

lUMMER 1959 

Lasca Leaves 

E Southern Calif 

the California Arboret 

editorial committee 
Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

Mildred Davis Victoria Padilla 

William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology PierRe Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation. W. QuiNN Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxnnomv nf Mfll-ives PHILIP A. MUNZ 


Trees-In-Color Calendar Philip E. Chandler 50 

Graft of Chorisia Speaosa Successful George H. Lewis 54 

Archaeological Excavations in the "Patio" of the Hugo Reid Adobe 

William J. Wallace and Edith Taylor Wallace 55 

Cover Picture 

Ferns Cultivated in California Barbara Joe 61 

Hellebore in Our Changing Times Kay Betts 68 

Diseases of Ornamentals and Lawns Ralph W. Ames 70 




For Greater Los Angeles 

Philip E. Chandler 

The plants compiled by Mr. Chandler are for immediate consideration in answering 
the perennial question of year around garden color using trees. However, Mr. Chandler 
and/or Lasca Leaves would appreciate comments about the trees listed, either m the orm 
of new species, culture practices to fit varied locations, flowering time or additional loca- 
• the months of January 

. 2, Spring 


Albizzia julibrissin— Light pink, deciduous, 20 to 50 feet anc 
blooming trees at Occupational Ther^ 

Albi^tajlubrissm rosea—Y^tc^ pink, deciduous, 20 to 25 feet— Los Angeles State and 

Brachychiton Jiscolor—Kosc, erratic bloomer, semi-deciduous, 30 to 80 feet— Best in- 

Callistemon lanceolatus — See January. 

Cdodendron capense—See June.— Sunset Boulevard through Riviera. . 
Castanospermum australe—Ydiovj and red, evergreen, apparently blooms best mland, 

15 to 30 feet— Huntington Botanic Gardens, San Marino. 
Chhanthodendro7i platanoides—D^tk red with yellow, evergreen, fast, slightly tender, 

30 to 60 feet— 14229 Sunset Boulevard, Riviera. 
Clethra arborea—See June. Common, but usually badly grown. 
Daubentonia tripetU—See June. 

Eucalyptus caesia—See January. Dryish conditions only. 
Eucalyptus ficifolia—See April. 
Eucalyptus torquata—See January. 
Feijoa sellowiana — See May. 
Hibiscus Rosa-smemisSee June. 

Jacaranda acutifoliaSce May.— Along several streets east end of Santa Monica Canyon^ 
Lagerstroemia indica— White, pink, orchid, rose, red ; deciduous, mildew near sea bu 

fine inland, 10 to 30 feet. 
Uquidambar oHentalis—See June. Good specimen in UCLA Botanic Garden. 
Magnolia grandifiora and forms — See May. 
Nerium oleander — See June. 

Pittosporum rhombijolium—White, flowers showy, evergreen, 15 to 35 feet— Holly- 
wood High School campus, Sunset and Highland Avenue, Hollywood. 

Sophora japonica'-Cttd.m, deciduous, 30 to 70 feet. , , . 

Thevetia thevetioides—St^ June. Fine specimen on north side of Chaparral, half blocK 
west of North Barrington Avenue ( 1 block north of Sunset) . 

Tipuam tipuSee June. See entire 2500 block of Colby Avenue, West Los Angeles. 

Albizzia julibrissin—S^e July. 
Albizzia julibrissin rosea—See July. 

SUMMER 1959 


Bauhinia grandiflora — (possibly incorrect species name, but this is nomenclature in 

trade) Large white, virtually evergreen, 15 to 25 feet. 

One of very best orchid trees and virtually lost to market. 
Callistemon vimmalis—Sec March. 

Casta>wspermum australe—See July.— 255 South Harrington, Brentwood. 

Chiranthodendron platanoidesSee July.— Parking lot across South Barrington from 
Paul J. Howard's California Flowerland. 

Chorisia speciosa — Light pink to deep purplish rose, semi-deciduous, 30 to 60 feet. Out- 
standing, Los Angeles State and County Arboretum. 

Daubentonia tripetti—S^c June. 

Erythrina crista-galli— See June. Cut back flowering branches hard immediately after each 
blooming to hasten next performance. 

Erythrina humeana— Orange red, deciduous, slightly tender, 20 to 30 feet. Possibly old- 
est specimen at Morgan Evans, 14229 Sunset Boulevard, Riviera. 

Eucalyptus erythrocorys—See January. (Usually blooms a month and rests a month). 

Eucalyptus megacornataSee January. 

Lagerstroemia indica—See July. 
Liquidambar orientalisSee June. 

Magnolia grandiflora and forms— See May.— 310 San Vicente, Santa Monica (exonien- 

Sophora japonica — See July. 
Stenocarpus sinuatus—See February. 
Thevetia thevetioides—See June. 
Tipuana tipu—See June. Fine old specimen at Los Angeles Country Club, Wilshire 
Boulevard between Beverly Hills and Westwood; also St. John's Hospital, Santa 


Bauhinia grandiflora — See August. 
Callistemon lanceolatus—See January. 
Callutemon viminaUs-See March. 

Cassia mulijuga— Yellow, evergreen, very showy, 15 to 25 feet— Los Angeles State and 
County Arboretum. 

Chiranthodendron platanoidesSee July.— Brentwood Hospital Therapy Garden, Vet- 
erans' Administration, West Los Angeles. 

Chorisia speciosa—See August. Fine specimen south e 

Erythrina humeana—See August. Usually reaches dim 
men at 1st and Los Angeles streets. The best coral 

Eucalyptus erythrocorys—See January. 

Eucalyptus flcij olia—See April. Usually at best early fall. 

Eucalyptus megacornuta—See January. 

Hibiscus Rosa-sinensisSee June. Usually reach climax in September. 
lagerstroemia indica—See July. 
Liquidambar orientalis—See June. 

Magnolia grandiflora and forms.— See April. 346 19th Street, Santa Monica (exonien- 

^erium oleander— See ]nne. , . c 

Pntosporum rhombifolium— Orange yellow fruit. See July.-Cherokee from Sunset to 

Hawthorn, Hollywood. 
Stenocarpus sinuatus—See February. 



quently best in ! 
, red and yellow 

Giss^a c-amaval— Yellow, showy, evergreen, 15 to 20 feet— Los Angeles State and County 

Cassia mult/fugaSee September. 

Cass/a splendida—L2irge bright yellow, evergreen, 15 to 20 feet— Arboretum. (Species 

per Arboretum nomenclature, not old sple72dida of trade.) 
Chiranthodendron platanoides—Ste July. 

Chorisia speaosaSee August.— Sunset Boulevard center strip through Beverly Hills 

(specimens still very young) . 
Erythrimi cnsta-ga/!/—See June.— 521 l6th Street, Santa Monica. 
Erjtbr'nia bumeana — See August. 

Erythrim lysistemonSet February.— 436 20th Street, Santa Monica. 
Eucalyptus caes/aSee January.— 353 19th Street, Santa Monica, Mrs. M. Davis. 
Eucalyptus erytbrocorysSee January. 

Eucalyptus ficifolia—See April— Along Mountain Drive, Glendale. 
Eucalyptus wegacornuta-Sct January. 
Eucalyptus orpetii^See January. 

Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea (pallens) — See January.— Along Embury Street, Pacific 

Eucalyptus torquata—SGQ January. 
Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (tree form)— See June. 

Koelreuteria formosana— Yellow flowers, salmon seed pods, deciduous, 25 to 35 feet- 
Benedict Canyon just north of Sunset Boulevard. 

Liquidambar styraciflua~Red, yellow, purple foliage; deciduous, 40 to 75 feet— Park- 
way along Chevy Chase in Glendale. 

Liquidambar orientalis—See June. 

Magnolia soulangeana—See January. Fine specimen, 800 block Lincoln Boulevard, Santa 

Monica. Usually blooms fully at this time. 
Nerium oleander—See June. Centinela Avenue north from Wilshire, Santa Monica. 
Pittosporum rbombi folium—See September.— Georgina Avenue, 17th to 19th Streets, 

Santa Monica. 


Arbustus unedo—See October. Common as large shrub, less common at best as a multi- 
ple-trunk tree. 
Callistemon lanceolatus—See January. 
Callistemon viminalis—See March. 
Cassia carnaval—See October. 
Cassia splendida—See October. 

Chorisia speciosa—See January. One of the showiest ornamentals at this time. 
Eucalyptus caesia—See Jai 
Eucalyptus erytbrocorys— 

Eucalyptus erytbrocorysSee January. 
Eucalyptus fafoUa-SeeA^nl. Linin, 
Magnificent avenue in Corona de 
Eucalyptus megacornuta-See January. 
Eucalyptus orpefn—See January. 
Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea (pallens)— See Jai 

g streets near ocean edge of Huntington 


A "T" bud graft of Chorisia speciosa. Top of stock has been removed 
and scion bud shows healthy, vigorous growth. 
Photo by Denis Kucera, Arboretum staff. 


George H. Lewis 

A growing interest has been shown in the winter flowering tree, Chorisia speciosa, 
commonly called Tloss-silk tree'. It is a native of Brazil. 

The principal type of propagation to this time has been by seed. Of the plants whicn 
have flowered at the Arboretum, color variation of the blooms has been observed. A 
method of propagating outstanding seedlings seemed desirable. This article reports our 
first successful grafting of one of these selected seedlings. . . 


14" high and with a stem c 

a gallon can, having been planted on December 5, 1958. The scior 
from a tree which produced deep rose colored flowers. When the "T" incision was maae, 
the stock plant exuded copious quantities of a very gummy, clear substance which jelled 

Ten days after making the graft the bud and stock had made union. After six weeks, 
the top was removed from the stock plant. The "T"' incision scar had almost become 
invisible by this date. The newly grafted bud was forced to break and start growth, (see 

This trial showed that Chorisia speciosa can be propagated by grafting. Uniform 
plantings of clonal material, therefore, become a possibility. Arboretum Nurseryman 

SUMMER 1959 




William J. Wallace and Edith Taylor Wallace 

Between March 1st and May 24th, 1958, a limited archaeological excavation was made 
in the "patio" west of the Hugo Reid Adobe on the grounds of the Los Angeles State 
and County Arboretum in Arcadia, California. It was exploratory in nature and its aims 
were fourfold. The main task was to determine if there had ever been a garden wall 
along the south side of the area. A second purpose was to ascertain original ground level 
and to learn something of the nature of the soil beneath. A minor objective was to obtain 
further information on a prehistoric Indian village site believed to underlie the home- 
site. And, finally, on the basis of the findings, to judge whether a major archaeological 
exploration covering the entire courtyard would be profitable. 

The investigation was part of a program of archaeological and historical research de- 
signed to provide the California State Division of Beaches and Parks with information 
necessary for an authentic restoration of the old adobe house which was erected in 1840 
by Don Perfecto Hugo Reid, an early settler in southern California.^ Earlier excavations 
had provided data on original floor plan and had revealed something of the complicated 
constructional history of the house.- An examination of the documentary sources had 
added a few shreds of evidence concerning the structure's earliest appearance.' 

The "patio" is a level-surfaced, rectangular section falling within limits of an L-shaped 
adobe house revealed by previous digging. It measures, roughly, 45 feet in a north-south 
direction and 65 feet east to west. The area is grass covered with a few shrubs and other 
se. The only trees are a small palm and an incense cedar, 
^arby whose roots extend far into the patio. 

The first step in the patio exploration was selection of a suitable spot for digging. A 
plan of the courtyard as it was during the ownership of Elias J. "Lucky" Baldwin, the 
home's last occupant, showed that much of it had been covered with garden, paths, 
drains, a fountain and the like (Figure 1). All of these had been razed some years ago. 
It was decided that the most profitable digging would be in a section some distance from 
the southwest corner of the house. There had been no extensive disturbance here and it 
seemed a spot likely to provide maximum information. 

The datum point was established at the southwest corner of the adobe and from this 
a grid of 5x5 foot squares was laid out with a transit, each square being assigned a letter 
designation for its north-south position and a number for its east-west location. The first 
trench, beginning at a point 20 feet west of the datum and including 8 pits, was staked 
out so as to be astride of the remains of a garden wall if one had existed along the south 
side of the patio. A second, shorter trench, actually an extension of the first, was laid out 
at right angles. Figure 2 shows the layout of the grid system and position of excavated 

The exploration was carried on by a class in archaeological field methods from the 
Department of Anthropology, University of Southern California Its members were: 
Gary Coon, James Heard, Arbie Keown and William Schmidt. Volunteer workers were 
Diane Alexander, John Crone and George Kritzman. The diggers met at the site on 
Saturdays and worked a six-hour day. Excavation began on March 1st and was continued 
intermittently until May 24th. Seven Saturdays and a few additional weekdays were 
spent in digging. 

SUMMER 1959 


Excavating was done as far as possible with trowels. In many spots, however, the soil 
was so hard that mattocks were needed to loosen it. All earth was carefully scrutinized 
for artifacts before being shoveled out. Its nature precluded screening. 

The deposit was removed in 6-inch levels. Although the soil was sterile of artifacts 
below 18-24 inches, digging was continued to a depth of 36 inches below present ground 
surface m all pits. This was done to avoid missing any possibly deeply-buried architec- 
tural remams and to learn more about the underlying soil. Core borings were made into 
the subsoil for an additional five feet in several pits. 

Records were kept of the soil's appearance in each 6-inch level and changes in color, 
texture and so on were noted. Sketches were prepared of the strata when the excavation 
was completed. Two distinct soil layers with a zone of intergradation between them were 
revealed (Figure 3). The uppermost 8-12 inches consisted of a dark gray soil, basically 
clay, containing much decomposed organic material. Below this was a yellowish-brown 
sandy clay. The latter contained many granite cobbles, some ranging up to 2 feet in 
diameter. The darker topsoil had been badly disturbed by cultivation and digging into it 
for other purposes ; the earth beneath was relatively untouched. 

Core borings showed that the yellowish-brown clay continued downward for an addi- 
tional 2-3 feet to where a 6-8 inch layer of fine-textured, yellow clay was encountered. 
This thin band appears to have been water-deposited, perhaps during a minor flood. 
Beneath the clay lens the sandier soil resumed. The earth was quite moist below the 
3-foot level. 


The soil contained surprisingly few artifacts. Eighty commercially made objects were 
recovered with the vast majority coming from the upper 12 inches. Only a scattering of 
Items was obtained from the 12-18 inch level and a single piece of porcelain from below 
18 inches. Eighteen stone artifacts of Indian manufacture were also unearthed. The 
aboriginal materials all came from the upper 12 inches. Their presence with commer- 
cially-made items, many of an obviously later date, is the result of mixing of materials 
such as often occurs in shallow archaeological deposits. Building refuse— bits of plaster, 
fragments of fired brick, cement and the like— was met with from time to time. The 
pieces were too small and decayed to be useful and so were not saved. 



Metal: Thirty-eight iron objects, all heavily rust-encrusted but which could be identified 
as to probable form and use, were unearthed. Most numerous were nails, 28 of which 
were found. Twenty-six are of the old square variety and average 6.5 cm. in length. 
There are also 2 modern wire nails in the collection. Seven pieces of spikes or bolts, 

A flat piece of iron has the appearance of being part of the blade of an ordinary 
kitchen knife. It has a hole near one end, undoubtedly for the attachment of a handle. 
Its handle was probably of wood because one of bone or ivory would not have deterio- 
rated beyond recognition. Another part of a kitchen utensil, perhaps a large serving fork 
has a flattened end with two minute holes. Its shaft is diamond-shaped in cross-section. 
It also must once have had a wooden handle. 

The only other identifiable iron object is a threaded pipe connection with an inside 
diameter of 2.5 cm. There are two pieces of iron, one thin and the other thick, which are 
too fragmentary and rusted to give a clue as to original shape. The number of metal 
objects other than iron was not great. There are 6 brass cartridge cases, 5 of .38 caliber 
and 1 of .22 caliber, a narrow strip of zinc with two nail holes near one end, a scrap of 
the same material and a bit of twisted copper wire. 

Glass: Glass fragments were fairly plentiful with 21 specimens recovered. Five— 2 dark 
green, 2 light green, and 1 brown— are from large bottles assumed to have contained 
spiritous liquors. A thinner light green piece seems to be part of the base of a small 
medicine bottle. The remainder are clear glass. Included are the neck of a medicine 
bottle, a portion of the rim of a large bottle or jar, and 4 curved fragments. Four thinner 

SUMMER 1959 


Some glass surfaces are scaly and iridesce 
time and earth. 

Procelain: Five pieces of porcelain were collected. Four are plain white. Two thin speci- 
mens are edges of a small but deep saucer or dish; the other two are from a coarser, 
thicker ware. Of special interest is a tiny fragment with blue designs painted on a white 
background. None of the bits of porcelain bears a manufacturer's trademark. 
Tile: Two pieces of curved roofing tile were found. Both are of fairly good quality. The 
first has a reddish hue, inside and out ; the other has an orange exterior and a yellowish- 
buff interior. Surfaces of the latter are striated and it is possible that it is a portion of an 

Wood: The soil was quite damp so that perishable materials were not to be expected in 
quantity. There were only two pieces of wood. One is a thin (7 mm.) sawn section with 
traces of white paint along one edge. The other is a knot. 

Stone: The 18 stone Indian artifacts include 10 handstones, 7 hammerstones, and a 
pohshing stone. There are no chipped stone projectile points or knife blades or parts 
thereof. The only indication of stone-flaking is a tiny bit of chalcedony. It is apparently 
just a waste flake struck off from a nodule. Its sharp edges give no indication of use as 
a scraper. 

Of the 10 handstones, 2 are complete and 8 are broken. The most nicely finished one 
is oval in form and has two flat, well-worn grinding surfaces. Its edges have also been 
used for grinding. The specimen is of granite and measures 13.9 cm. in length, 9.5 cm. 
in width and is 4.0 cm. thick. Three handstc 
single flat grinding surface with the other s 
uniface example is irregular in outline; the others appear to have been oval. Two are 
made from sandstone cobbles ; the other is schist. Dimensions of the complete handstone 
are: length 14.6 cm. ; width 11.1 cm. ; thickness 6.4 cm. The balance of the specimens, 
3 schist, 2 sandstone, 1 granite, are small fragments. 

There are two varieties of hammerstones. Four, (2 quartzite, 1 quartz and 1 sand- 
stone), are ordinary pebbles with battered ends. Two are angular; the third is rounded. 
They are of average size with dimensions as follows: length 7.3-8.3 cm., average 7.7 cm. ; 
width 5.8-6.3 cm., average 6.1 cm.; thickness 4.7-5.4 cm., average 4.9 cm. The other 
group of 3 hammerstones, all broken, have flakes removed from their surfaces. They are 

Relatively lirtle food refuse was found in the trenches. Thirty mammal bones, the 
majority cut and sawed, were obtained. They all appear to be from domestic animals— 
cattle, sheep, and pigs. Five broken bird bones were also recovered. The only other food 
remains are a complete Black Walnut and half of another. 


No remains of a garden wall were unearthed. The only structural feature encountered 
was a disturbed row of fired bricks along the south edge of the main trench. This pre- 
sumably is a section of the brick drain shown in Figure 1. 

Remnants of a fairly large palm tree, evidenced by a darkened area and by decayed 
roots, was discovered 12 inches below the surface. No trash pits or other areas of con- 
centrated debris were encountered. 



Although the archaeological exploration was limited in scope, it achieved its objec- 
tives. The chief result was the establishment of the fact that there was no garden wall 
along the south side of the patio. The area was never an enclosed courtyard. It was also 
determined that ground level in the past was about the same as it is today. Original top- 
soil was presumably a yellowish-brown clay similar or identical to that encountered 8-12 
inches down in the trenches. Its present darkness developed subsequent to the building 
of the first ranch house in 1840. Although there has been considerable filling in the vicin- 
ity of the adobe house, no evidence of extensive addition of earth was detected in the 
excavated area. It is, of course, possible that a few inches of garden soil was introduced. 

The scarcity of cultural materials and refuse of any kind is surprising in view of the 
almost 100-year occupation of the adobe. A greater accumulation of household debris 
was to be expected. Trash must have been disposed of elsewhere, perhaps in the nearby 
lake or in specially dug pits. Or, daily work and living may have gone on outside of the 
area examined so that rubbish collected elsewhere. 

No unusual artifacts turned up during the courtyard dig. The commercially-made 
items are like those recovered in previous excavations and are of types which cannot be 
precisely dated. No object contemporary with the first building has been identified in 
the collection. It is possible that some items do date from Hugo Reid's time but they 
cannot be recognized with certainty. 

The finding of Indian artifacts confirmed the existence of a prehistoric village site, 
presumably abandoned long before Hugo Reid built his house on the spot.^ Knowledge 
of the nature of this site was extended. It was learned that the deposit bccamcs shallower 
to the south, away from the lake. Whereas aboriginal objects had been found previously 
to a depth of 36-42 inches in trenches farther north, none was found below 12 inches 
during the recent digging. 

The archaeological findings indicate that a full-scale excavation of the patio probably 
would not be worthwhile. If further excavating is to be done, it should be concentrated 
on the east and south sides of the house. There may exist in one of these localities trash 
pits or buried remains of an oven or outbuilding for cooking. The problem of the 
original surroundings of the Hugo Reid Adobe has not yet been solved. 

1. Dakin, Susanna Bryant, A Scotch Paisano, University of California Press, 1939. 

2. Wallace, William J., Roger J. Desautels and George Kritzman, The House of the Scotch Paisano, 
Lasca Leaves, Vol. 8, No. 1, pgs. 2-13. 

3. Wallace, William J., Historical Research Pertainirig to the Original Hugo Reid Adobe House, 
Lasca Leaves, Vol. 9, No. 1, pgs. 14-23. 

4. Wallace, William J., and Edith Taylor Wallace, Indian Artifacts from the Hugo Reid Adobe, 
Lasca Leaves, Vol. 8,' No. 4, pgs. 74-81. 


orms of Cyrtonutini jalcatttni. Left to right; C. fcdcalum: C. jalcatu 
; C. falcatnm cv. 'Mayi' ; C. falcalum cv. 'Rochfordianum'. Approxin 

SUMMER 19 59 



Barbara Joe 


The handsome Holly fern, Cyrtommm falcatuni. is one of the most popular garden 
ferns. The glossy foliage is tolerant of dry atmospheres, making this fern suitable for 
house culture as well. It is of easy culture and is said to be capable of withstanding the 
winter temperatures of the eastern states with some protection. The foliage is evergreen 
in coastal California ; tip burn results at temperatures near 20 deg. F. ; lower temperatures 
may cause the foliage to be deciduous. Shade, good drainage, moisture at the roots and 
some organic matte? in the soil are the main requirements of this fern. The addition of 
a suitable commercial fertilizer at about half the usual recommended dosage improves 
the color and growth. Propagation is by spores. Generally, scale and mealybug are the 
only serious pests of this fern. Malathion spray or dithio smoke are the most effective 
controls. The latter, being very toxic to humans, is available for use only by commercial 
growers. The well known story of the lady who laboriously scrapped off all the scale 
from the back of fern frond, only to find that the "bugs" were the fruiting bodies ot 
the fern, prompts the author to provide a picture for the benefit of those who may not 
be familiar with the appearance of sori and scale. The large dots are the scale, and of 
course the small dots, restricted to the back of the frond are the son. 

Species of the genus Cyrtomhwi are all terrestrial, medium in size and have their 
fronds arranged in a circle. The rhizome is ascending to erect, and densely covered with 
broad scales. The firm and generally leathery fronds are simply pinnate. The often falcate, 
eared pinnae taper to a point. The margins are entire, sub-entire or with sharp teeth. 
Fine hairs are present on the under surface of the frond. The veins are concealed in the 
tissue; they are usually netted with a free vein included in each mesh. The son are large, 
round and scattered over the pinnae. The indusium is round with a depressed center; it is 
shaped like a mushroom and is attached to the frond by its stalk. 

Species of Cjrtomium have been known under the names: Aspidiutn Polystichum or 
Pbanerophlebia. There are twenty species distributed in the Old and New World, and 
the Hawaiian Islands. Only three species are widely cultivated in the Un.ted States and 
all are represented in our California gardens. They may be identified by the following 

A. Pinnae 3-6 pairs, to 6 in. long, the terminal pinna as large 

or larger than the lateral pinnae ^- ^^'J^^^"^^""^ 

AA. Pinnae 10 pairs or more, seldom more than 5 in. long, the 
terminal pinna smaller than the lateral pinnae. 
B. Pinnae bright green, glossy, the apex entire, or in 

some forms crested or coarsely incised ^- H"^ 

BB. Pinnae dull i 

but sharply pointed t 

. C. Fortunei 

C. caryotideum Presl. Pinnae 3-6 pairs, large, to 6 in. long and to 2 in. wide, the ter- 
minal pinna as large or larger than the lateral ones, the margins finely serrate-dentate. 
India, China, Hawaiian Islands. Semi-hardy. To 2 ft. Slow growing. Seldom culti- 
vated. May be confused with forms of C. falcatum except for the margins which are 
finely serrate-dentate to the very tip of the pinnae. 
C. falcatum (L.f .) Presl. Holly fern. Pinnae 10 pairs or more, glossy green, mostly ovate- 


falcate, thick-leathery, the margins thick and entire or variously lobed or incised, but 
not finely and regularly serrate. Japan, China, India. Hardy. To 3 ft. Moderate to 
rapid growth rate. Of easy culture. Many forms common in cultivation, some not as 
distinct as others, and often blending into one another: 
cv. "Butterfieldii". Margins deeply serrate. 

cv. 'Mayi'. Tips of pinnae crested, tip of frond often forked and crested, 
cv. 'Rochfordianum'. Margins coarsely fringed. Most widely sold Holly fern. 
C. Fortunei J. Sm. Similar in general appearance to C. falcatum but pinnae dull green, 
mostly lanceolate- falcate, not so leathery, the apex with minute but sharply pointed 
teeth. Separated from C. caryotideum by fewer, smaller pinnae which are to 3 in. long 
and to 1 in. wide, and by the smaller terminal pinna. Japan. Hardy. To 2 ft. Moderate 

Habit of Cyrtomium caryotideum. 

SUMMER 1959 


pact, scaly rhizome. The fronds are medium-small in size, usually broad at the b: 
3-4 times pinnate, and finely divided. The segments are small, narrow, pointed, ; 
smooth; the fertile segments are somewhat contracted. The veins are free; those in 
sterile segments are forked with the ends club-shaped ; those in the fertile segments 

The indusium of c 
opening from the cent< 

:er of the 
Only one 

. The flap-like indusium is a reflexed leaf margin, 
segment meets the indusium of the opposite side, both 

The six species which comprise this genus are nativ. 
species is known to be presently cultivated in California: 

Onychium japonicum (Thunbg.) Kunzc. Japanese claw fern. Carrot fern. Fronds lax, 
triangular, finely divided into slender, sharp-tipped segments; texture firm-herba- 
ceous. Semi-hardy to hardy. To 2 ft. Moderate growth rate. East Asia and Himalayas 

This fern is distinguished from other cultivated ferns by its finely divided foliage and 
by the two flap-like^ indusia which occupy most of the small sharp-pointed segment. 
Sometimes confused with Asple>i 'mm hulhijeruw. the Mother-fern, which has segments 
with rounded tips and a single flap-like indusium attached to the midrib of the segment. 

s bold leaf pattern scram- 
e. In gardens, it is rarely 
y basket. Basket specimei 


A climbing fern oi 
(Identified by C. 
bles over the groi 

given this wide freedom and is ordinarily confined in a hanging oasKci. x.^..- ^^^y^l" 
several feet across produce a magnificent display of g-f tit^^^^^^^^ 
from all sides of the basket and completely hiding in the foliage. The ^nght yellow 
green color of the fronds often blends into a bronzy-green and may take on a m«a 

' xlle pinnate fronds are borne on slender rhizomes which ^^fj '^^^^^^.^l 
growing ends of the rhizomes may often hang down ^ ^^.^J'^ , • , pi„«, 
feathery basket, these loose ends are trained back into the basket or ^I'PP^'i; f^^^^^^^^ 
rhizome take root readily. As fertile fronds are not frequently produced in cultivation, 




Kay Betts 

When most flowering plants are content 
to settle down for a long winter's rest, 
Helleborus niger chooses the holiday sea- 
son for its dramatic show. In fact, Gerard's 
Generall Historie of Plant es of 1636 states 
that this herb was called the Christmas 
Rose "because it floureth about the birth 
of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

Even a light blanket of snow is no de- 
terrent to our beautiful perennial which 
actually seems to thrive best when the 
temperature drops to near freezing. 

In southland gardens, however, a more 
popular species known as H. orientalis. 
which enjoys a warmer climate and often 
delays its blooming until later in the 
spring, is commonly identified as the Len- 
ten Rose. Orientalis lends itself particu- 
larly well to hybridizing, and we are 
pleased to acknowledge the work of Chel- 
sea Bellona who has successfully produced 
a number of spectacular horticultural va- 


project, Mr. and Mrs. Bellona now dis 
play about twenty-five unusual variants 
When visiting the Bellona gardens in lat 
spring, we found the colorings quit 
breathtaking: some of the delicate pink 
softly irridescent, chaste white bloom 
polka-dotted with deep purple, others deli 

ly dashed with 

Considering the number of his favor- 
ites, we can understand why Mr. Bellona 
has not as yet dubbed each of them with 
an appropriate name, although he hopes 
to present many of them on the market- 
perhaps in another year. Two of his choice 
specimens may be seen at the Arboretum. 

Although most of the Bellona collection 
are growing in large pots and tubs, there 
is a low evergreen border of hellebore en- 
circling the front lawn which illustrates 

vided partial shade, rich loamy soil, good 
drainage and frequent watering, clumps of 
hellebore have been known to thrive for 

-dropping their own 
y propagation. The 
uUy divided during 

I Helleborus niger Virus. 
The true blackeHellebor. 

SUMMER 1959 


helpful when planting. Liquid fertilizer, 
in light proportions, may be sprayed on 
the leaves weekly during the blooming 
period as a "luxury feeding" to promote 
healthy but not too luxuriant growth. 

Single stems of H. n 'lger and orientalis 
supporting shiny dark green leaves aver- 
age 11/2 to 2 feet in height. Five petal-like 
sepals, about 21/2 inches across, resemble 
the wild rose or a glorified buttercup in 

Another exotic beauty is H. coruais 

3 feet— with dusters of smaller blossomf 

enjoys living in a tub to provide charming 
and mobile accent in garden decor 

For centuries Helleborus has graced our 
gardens, not only as a rare gem but to our 
early ancestors beloved as a symbol of 
family protection to ward off all evil. In 
fact, an ancient gardener eyed his helle- 
bore with varying degrees of utility. Its 
talents" or "wondrous vcrtucs" were rife 
and ranged from being employed as poi- 
son for predators to a euphoric purge for 
the relief of melancholy. Although the lat- 
ter smacks of empiric brews, Gould's 
Medical Dictionary (20th century) notes 
as adrasV°°^ of H. uiger has been used 
h-.^ fascinating psychological trea- 

tise on the frailties of the human mind and 
reputedly the most elaborate treatise on 
iove was published in 1628 by Robert 
Burton called The AmUomy o Mela,;- 
^holy. Rated as herbs extraordinary are 
borage and H. niger— both of which ap- 
pear in illustrations on the frontispiece Jf 
i book. Concerninj? the "vf^rh.^." of our 

Treacle, a Terrestrial Balm." 

lame, Black Hellebore was apparently s 

oots are many, with long blacke string 
oming from one head." Its root has cor 
istently been employed medicinally, esp( 
ially in veterinary practice, the constiti 
nts which include Helleborin havin 
owerful narcotic effects. In defense 0 
jch violent drugs, Burton points oui 


ig of it." 

In a recent publication by Louise Beebe 
Wilder, entitled The Fragvcwt Path, there 
is mention of Helleborus odorus. which 
she describes as "a sweetly scented species 
that bears its greenish blossoms through^ 

"itmas Rose, Burton writes 
Black Hellebore, that moi 

nd fai 


choly, antiquity so mi 

and admired, was first found 
Melampus, a Shepherd (as F 
cords) who seeing it to puryc h 
when they raved, practiced .'tup, 
j^""^'hters. that ruled 
^adia and restored them to thei. 
health. In Hippocrates' time it 
only request, insomuch that ht 

wild over the wooded regions of eastern 

Unfortunately our nurseries are not famil- 
iar with this attractive species, and to date 

Science may produce more glamoriaed 
versions of the venerated old hellebore but 
the legend of our Christmas Rose remains 
unadorned and comes to life each Christ- 
mas as fresh as holiday spirit. For long, 
long ago there was a small child who stood 
apart from the throngs wending their way 
to visit the Christ child, all bearing gifts. 
No one noticed the unhappy little girl nor 
heard her sobbing because she had nothing 
holy infant. Thoroughly de- 
the ground. Suddenly, 
all about her were lovely flowers, and 
wherever a tear fell there would spring 
another blossom— delicately tinted. Her 
sadness changed to unbounded joy as she 
recognized that here was the beautiful gift 

t the holy 1 

that sh 

wanted. Hers would be 
, for this flower— beautiful 
Id rose— would bloom each year in 
of this holy day and would be 
as the Christmas Rose. 




Ralph W. Ames 

A PLANT DISEASE must be prevented in order to obtain really satisfactory control. Once 
the disease is established, it is difficult, if not impossible, to cure the plant. For that 
reason, our attention should be directed toward growing healthy plants. This includes 
making the right choice of plants for the type of soil, water, temperature, etc. with which 

aiding they are available and horticulturally^ desirable. However, 

often such plants are not available and then the home property pest control opera 
called upon to make correct diagnoses of plant ailments and to follow up with mea; 
designed to control the trouble. Such action must be forthright and honest if the c 

dence of the public is to be mai 

No attempt will be made to cover all of the disease problems encountered. Only a few 
of the more prevalent diseases will be discussed. 

Powdery mildews: These diseases are common and destructive on a rather wide range 
of host plants. They are caused by fungi which are quite restricted in their host range, 
i.e., the fungus which causes the disease on one plant species will not be able to attack 
another species. The fungus which couses the disease is largely found on the surface of 
the leaves and twigs. This means that it is sometimes possible to cure a plant after the 
first symptoms are seen. However, the fungus over-winters in the twigs or other peren- 
nial parts of the plant and is lurking for susceptible plants the following season. Thus, 
m order to get satisfactory control one should have adequate spray programs at least 
two years in succession. 

Powdery mildew of rose is very common here and can be rather readily controlled by 
applications of Actidione PM (following the directions on the package). Actidione at 
double the concentration is effective on crape myrtle, and it is possible that still higher 
concentrations will control powdery mildew of oaks. Also a double strength Karathane, 
now being formulated, may prove effective on oaks. Sulphur is still used to some extent. 
Extreme caution is indicated when the temperatures approach 90 F. when using sulphur 
or Karathane. Phaltan (2 lbs/100 gallons), iscothan and other chemicals are effective in 
controlling various powdery mildews, with phaltan reported as being especially good for 
controlling mildew on roses. When chemicals are used during bad mildew years it is 
desirable to spray often enough so that the plants will be protected, i.e., every 7 or 10 
days It is necessary to use a good wetting and sticking agent so that thorough coverage 
will be obtained when spraying. One of the best means of preventing witch's broom ot 
oak, IS to treat the trees so that the minimum amount of succulent growth (highly sus- 
ceptible to infection) is produced, i.e., do not overprune overfertilize with nitrogen, etc. 

Antbracnose of Sycamore: This disease appears first in the spring when the leaves and 
growing tips of twigs may turn brown and die as they emerge from the bud. Usually the 
disease develops later, first as spots along the main leaf veins which rapidly enlarge into 
large dead areas. These areas gradually coalesce, finally killing the entire leaf. During 
moist weather, small cream colored dots, about the size of pin heads, or short threads 
of spores appear on the lower leaf surface along the veins. These spores may infect addi- 
tional areas. Killed leaves soon drop and severely affected trees remain bare until a 
second crop of leaves is produced later in the year Cankers may be formed on the twigs 
and may girdle the twigs. Often water sprouts develop below the cankers. In the spring 

SUMMER 1959 


the spore producing bodies break through on the surface of the cankered areas and 
initiate new infections. To control the disease it is desirable to destroy the fallen leaves 
and to prune off and destroy all infected twigs and branches. Puratized Agricultural 
Spray or Bordeaux have been reported as giving satisfactory control when applied several 
times as the leaves are expanding (first after the buds have opened but before the leaves 
are half grown, etc.). Puratized Agricultural Spray has caused some damage to under- 
plantings, so care must be exercised in its use. 

Oak Root Rot: Although this disease is called oak root rot, the fungus involved at- 
tacks a wide range of host plants. The fungus is present in many canyon areas, in washes, 
stream beds and adjacent flood plains. Prolonged wet soil conditions during summer 
months favor the development and extension of the disease. This is why it is so often 
seen in destructive proportions in home plantings. Often, water loving plants, such as 
azaleas, camellias, ferns, etc., are planted under oaks and when water adequate to their 
needs is supplied, the oak root rot fungus thrives and the susceptible plants succumb 
more readily. 

Above ground indications of the disease include a gradual decline of the plant or 
its sudden death, not unlike those due to other causes. However, the presence of the 
fungus can be rather easily detected. Diseased plants have a white or cream-colored, flat, 
fan-like mat of fungus material between the bark and affected root or crown tissues. 
Such diseased tissues have a strong mushroom odor. Brown to black "shoe-strings" which 
dmg to the surface of the root and grow into the soil are also useful in identification, 
but they are not always present. Clusters of tan-colored mushrooms often appear at the 
base of diseased trees or from shallow roots in the surrounding area in late fall or winter. 
These are the reproductive stage of the fungus which causes the disease. 

Smce the disease develops most readily in moist warm soil, it is desirable that during 
the summer months, only the water needed for the growth of the oak trees be supplied. 
Thus, it is unwise to underplant with species needing a lot of water. One of the best 

? flagstones and thei 

which can be watered individually. If a diseased tree is discovered in time, its life span 
can be extended considerably. Surgical removal of the diseased tissue in the root crown 
area and painting the exposed wounded area is often effective in slowing down the 
advance of the fungus. The life of the trees may be extended by removing the soil from 
the trunk and root crown, since exposure to air and drying is effective in retarding the 
advance of the fungus. In general, it is not feasible to control oak root rot by trenching 
or the installation of permanent barriers around diseased areas. However, plants which 
can tolerate a limited root area have been grown successfully in clean soil in concrete 
containers with adequate drainage. Carbon disused injection into the soil often is not 
practicable, because of the difficulty of getting adequate and uniform penetration under 
many situations. However, it may be useful under certain conditions. 

I'lrebhght: This bacterial disease is common on flowering pear, apple, pyrocantha 
cotoneaster, etc. It appears rather suddenly as a browning of blossoms, sepals, leaves and 
^'gs. Dieback may extend down the twigs and give the appearance of having been 
scorched. Also dead leaves hang on and give the appearance of having been scorched, 
hence the name. During warm humid weather, recently infected areas may exude arnber 
colored droplets made up of bacteria and plant juices. During dry weather this dries 
aown to a thin glistening sheet. When the twig blight extends into the limb, trunk or 
foot, localized or diffuse cankers develop which vary in size and shape. As these cankers 
out they may be separated from the healthy tissues by small cracks. 
1 he bacteria which cause this disease overwinter in the cankers, so it is well to remove 
n ^^'^ P^""^"g cankers, the cut should be made far enough below the canker 
so that all the diseased area is removed This means that the cut should be made several 
'nches below the visible canker Also the pruning implement should be sterilized between 



cuts. Spraying with fixed coppers or with antibiotics (Agrimycin 100, etc.) during the 
blossom period gives some control. No really desirable resistant varieties are currently 
available, so the best cultural practice to prevent fireblight is to avoid measures which 
favor the production of rapid tender growth, i.e., do not prune heavily, do not over- 

W^iitef molds: These are fungus diseases which usually start at the tips of main or 
lateral roots, but which may rapidly involve all below grounds parts. They develop under 
conditions where the soil moisture level is high. Two kinds of symptoms may develop: 
1 ) a sudden wilting and death of all of the above ground parts due to death of the roots 
or, 2) a more gradual death of the plant by a branch at a time being affected and dying 
from the tip down. About the only recommended treatment is to cut down on watering. 
The use of captan, thiram, etc. as a soil treatment in established plantings has been used 
with varying degrees of success. 


Byow>/ patch: This is a hot weather disease which appears rapidly from June through 
September during periods of high relative humidity when the day temperatures of 80-95 
drop to night temperatures of 60-70. Dew, fog or irrigation late in the day favor the 
development of this disease. Also, overstimulation with nitrogen favors the development 
of the trouble. Wettable Thiram or ferrated Actidione give rather effective control when 
used as directed. Many golf greens apply fungicides every 2 or 3 weeks, but in home 
plantings Actidione may be used mainly as a preventative, by applying as soon as symp- 
toms appear and about one week later or as indicated by conditions. 

Dollar Spot: This is a cool weather disease (fall and spring inland and^all year 

or early evening. The disease may be recognized by the irregular, roughly circular, brown 
patches which vary in size from an inch to three feet or larger. Usually, the grass is not 
completely killed within the spot. Recovery often starts at the center of the spot and 
spreads outward, while the margin may still be enlarging. Actidione (ferrated), Pura- 
turf 177, Calocure, Calochlor and Kromad when used as directed have given satisfactory 

Damphg-off: This is especially bad on rye and is difficult if not impossible to control 
if the weather conditions favor the development of the disease. However, ferrated Acti- 
dione has proved effective in some areas and a mixture of captan and fermate has been 

Meltwg out: This disease caused by a species of Uebnmthospormm. is apparently 
becoming more prevalent in the spring on golf courses. Early symptoms of this disease 
are an indefinite gradual yellowing of the plant. The most obvious symptoms consist ot 
a bright yellow leaf blade or distinct yellowish-brown spots with darker borders. Dead 
spots may be found on leaf sheaths, stems and roots. Actidione and Kromad have been 
used with sporadic and somewhat unsatisfactory results. 

Bacterial leaf -spot of Ivy: This disease is very common in the spring and can cause 
considerable damage. Cutting down and destroying the old foliage will reduce the 
disease somewhat in that the amount of inoculum is reduced. Following this, it is e^si 

to protect the remaining leaves with fungicides. Bordeaux has been used satisraciu^ ; 
except that the discoloration produced is objectionable in some areas. Agrimycin 
and possibly Agrimycin 500 should be effective in controlling this leaf spot. Actispray 
reported to control this disease effectively. 

Various root rots of strawberry, ajuga. ivy, etc.: Several fungi, including Fusarium, 
Rhizoctonia, Verticillium, Pythium, Phytophthora, etc. are involved in causing root ro 
of a wide range of plants. In general, it is best to plant in clean, well drained soil, us 

fnToIvS"^^' ^'^^^^"^ '''''''' pC 


Excciitiv.-Secrelcny Victoria 

Board of Directors 
William Beresford Nolan W. Kiner 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Mildred E. Mathias 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Earle E. Humphries William S. Stewart 

Eric Johnson Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Marston Kimball Maria Wilkes 

Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member % 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Contributing^ Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary ahont prn Heges of each membership class. 

. Hall ot the Commi 
GRanite 2-46 


sponsors of 


Operated by 


Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— Hllkrest 6-8251 

William S. Stpwart Director 

Ralph Ames pi^nt Pathologist 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

LroNiD Enari Taxonomist 

Glf.nn H. Hiatt Orchid Specialist 

Loins B. Martin pi^„t physiologist 

J. Thomas McGah p/,,;// Recorder 

RussF.LLA K. McGah Librarian 



Edward Huntsman-Trout Landscape Architect Consult, 

Donald P. Woolley chief Horticultm 


President Robert Casamajor 

1st Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Dr. Elmer Belt Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Howard Bodger John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Atrhur Freed Samuel Mosher 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J. D. Funk F. Harold Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Roger Jessup Lovell Swisher 

Mrs. Archibald B. Younc 
Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 
Chairman, California International Flower Show 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 1 00.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership . 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders 51,000 or more 

Benefactors 5,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 
Box 688— Arcadia— California 

AUTUMN 1959 73 

Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute and 
the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issued on the first of 
January, April, July and October. 

Victoria Padilla 
William Hertrich William S. Stewart 

Louis B. Martin Lee Wray Turner 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara^KATHERiNE K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical' Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemver 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora PeRCY C- Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology PiER^E Miller 

Plant Societie?. George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 


Ferns Cultivated in California 

Slow Burning Plant Research Project. . 

Index, Volume IX 

Perfumes, Yesterday and Today 

Care of Our Native Oaks 

The Cover 

Three Dimensional Radiation Photogra 
Book Reviews 



Jems Cultivated in California 

Barbara Joe 


Hypolepis punctata is a large fern which has been cultivated in California for some 
time without the botanical name ever being determined for it. (Identified by C. V. Mor- 
ton.) It resembles the common Bracken in habit, but is softer and finer in texture. The 
rather closely placed fronds produce a mass effect of foliage about 3 to 4 ft. high. 

This vigorous fern requires little care. An established bed may need to be occasionally 
contained by cutting back the rhizomes. Unlike the Bracken, the rhizomes of H. punctata 
remain on or near the surface of the soil and are easily removed should they creep out of 
bounds. Specimens may also be planted in pots or tubs where the rhizome may be con- 
fined. In coastal areas the foliage remains in excellent condition with full sun. It seems 
to be able to endure temperatures near 26° F. and thrives on the usual winter tempera- 
tures of Southern California. Its growth rate is moderate to rapid. A short rest period 
takes place in late fall and new growth appears in very early spring. Unless the winter is 
cooler than usual, the old fronds remain green through the winter. Readily propagated 
by rhizome divisions, it may also be propagated by spores. Though present in many 
gardens, this fern is rarely found in the nursery trade. 

Members of the genus Hypolepis are distributed mainly in the tropics where they fre- 
quently form thickets. All are characterized by being large brake-like ferns with long 

veins ar^c- free. The mund'sori' arc phu'cd closcTo the maTg'in and^'are usually covered by 
.1 sm.ill, thm rcflcxcd tooth Of the n spcties knoxsn, only one is presently cultivated 

HypnU-pr. /v/,/. /.,/.,• (Thunhu., Mut. I.aruc trumui.lar-shaped fronds, deeply qu^^^; 
pinnatihd witli sliort crisp hairs on midrib and branches. Sori sometimes exposed, 
though usually partly or all covered. Japan and tropics. Semi-hardy. To 3 ft. Sun o 

AUTUMN,19 59 

Hypolepu repens (L.) Presl. formerly cultivated in California, differs from H. piojctata 
in having a prickly stipe and small needle-like spines along the midribs. H. itevuijolui 
(Forst.) Bernh. is reported to be cultivated in the United States. Hypolepis may be 
distinguished from the Bracken by its more finely divided fronds and the round rather 
than linear sori of the latter. From the closely allied Dennstaedtia. it is distinguished 
by the absence of a cup-like indusium. Microlepia differs by having the sori set back 
from the margin and covered by a scale-like indusium. 


Slow f^uming Plant Kesearck Project 

F. T. Ching 

Angeles State and County Arboretum to determine the possibilities of obtaining plants 
that are slow burning or somewhat more resistant to burning by brush tires than the 
existing native plants in the mountainous foothill regions of Southern California. Prior 

published (13,16). ^ 

As reported in these publications, various species of Ctstus (Rock Rose) have been 
found to be slow burning, consequently species of Cistus have received the emphasis 

In many areas of Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, plots have been estab- 
lished to determine the ability of Cistus seeds to germinate and grow when sown 
directly on the ground (1,11). To date, the results have been gratifying as there has 
been natural germination and the seedlings are actively competing with the native 
vegetation. In many localities the growth of Cistus appears to be very slow, but like- 
wise the growth of the native vegetation is slow. In some localities no germmation was 
noted the first year following seed sowing; however, germination was obtained the 
second year, as many as 50 seedlings per 25 sq. ft. having been observed. 

Despite some verbal reports that Cistus is not able to grow well, if at all, in Southern 
California the Angeles National Forest has been using Cistus for erosion control for 
many years, planting it both on road slopes and on the faces of flood control dams. 
These plants have grown vigorously and have produced an abundance of seed (12,13). 

In cooperation with the United States Forest Service, Cistus plots have been estab- 
lished in the Cajon Pass area of the San Bernardino National Forest, and, as m the 
Angeles National Forest, Cistus is growing very well despite the adverse conditions 
encountered, i.e., low rainfall, extremes of temperatures and a very sandy, porous soil. 

Within the past two years, native and introduced plants other than Cistus have been 
receiving an equal amount of study. Erhdictyon trkhocalyx and Atriplex halimus ap- 
pear to possess at least equal slow burning qualities as Cistus. In some field pots it ap- 
pears that Atriplex hdimus will produce a faster and heavier foliage growth than 
Cistus, while Erhdictyon trkhocalyx spreads over a large area quickly by means of 
root suckers (2). 

Currently, the research program at the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum 
^enters around six major projects with all work being done in cooperation with State, 
County and U.S. Forest Service Departments. These projects are: 

AUTUMN 1959 


Under both natural and laboratory conditions it has been observed that germi 

of seeds of Erwdictyon sp. is negligible. Since it has been generally observed 
brush fire in the foothills will either stop or slow down where a large establishii 

seed treatment to increase germination. 

It has been reported that if a small hole is drilled through the seed, i;c 
tion is increased, but this operation is impractical due to the small size of tlic sec 
It has also been reported that heat will enhance germination, and although laU 
tests have confirmed this report, the process has been considered imsuitahlc 
amount of germination was still very low (l.H^f ) and seed must be soun m 
ately following treatment (4,10,15). 

Experiments at the Arboretum have shown that as much as 40 ''V ^crmin.itK 
obtained when Eriodictyon seeds were treated with giberellic acid and tjcrniinj 
petri dishes (5). When seeds were soaked in solutions of gibberellic acid iox 1\ 
and then sown in a mixture of 509r sponge rock and 50^ Geor^L'i.i peat. -Lriiii 
as high as 207r was attained (6). Seeds treated with gibbcrcllK aeid dust tornu 
and sown in the same potting mixture did not germinate well. After this same 
ment, the seeds did not germinate at all when sown direct))' in the tield ("). 
tests this winter should determine the suitability of increasing germination by s( 
Eriodictyon seeds in a gibbercllic acid solution prior to sowing. 


Design and construction of a portable fire tunnel has been completed. Such a t 
of sturdy but light construction, is to be used in the field for replicated burnin. 

The iirst tunnel was built entirely of aluminum. Although it was light and fl 
for field use, it was not sufficiently sturdy to withstand the temperature of 140 
obtained, in the field, when mature stands of Adenostenia fasicidcitum were u 
test material (9). 

The second fire tunnel has just been completed, constructed of remforcmg ste 
galvanized metal. The tunnel is in five sections and, in operation, has the appro: 
dimensions of 20' x 5' x 4'. 

A standard burner has been constructed for igniting fires using a propane ga 
tamer. A pressure regulator makes it possible to ignite tires ot the same degree 
consistent regularity. 



To simulate the wind often encountered in in actu il Forest fire in our foothills 
50" electric fan placed at one end of the tunnel forces air through the tunnel at i 
proximately 10 to 12 mph. A portable gasoline generator furnishes the electricity I 
operating the fan. See Figures l and 2. 


The primary purpose of these plots is to test the ability of various plants to wi 
stand a burn under simulated forest fire conditions with the use of the fire tunr 
Accordingly, replicated field plots 4' x 16' have been established in the following are 

Topanga Canyon Los Angeles County Saddle Peak 

Descanso Gardens Los Angeles County La Canada 

Lux Arboretum Los Angeles County Monrovia 

Clear Creek Los Angeles County Angeles National Forest 

Cajon Pass San Bernardino County San Bernardino National Forest 

The following species have been planted in the plots: 

AUTUMN 1959 


Eriodktyon trichocaly> 
Helianthemum mutabi 
Bacharis pihdans var. 

RoJmarinm 'officinalis 
: halimus 


to observe the ability of the various species 
; from the seacoast, to the mountains and des 
ability to compete with the native vegetatit 

A second purpose of these plots 
grow under different climatic conditi 
regions. And finally, to observe th( 
Thus, in the Topanga Canyon plots it has been found thi 
vigorous growth, with Atriplex halimu. 
three months following planting (Fig. Erhdictyon trichocalyx has been sprc.Klu 
by sending up root suckers (8) (Fig. 4). In the San Bernardino area, with less th, 
7" of rainfall, the growth of plants is much less vigorous, although when compared 
the growth of native plants, growth is considered satisfactory. 


The ultimate goal of studies with plants, selected for their slow burning qualitif 
will be the establishment of field plots of several acres in size. These will be subject( 
to fire under favorable forest fire conditions. If the selected plants can pass this test, 
IS expected that they would be planted around homes, along road shoulders, fire breal 
and highways in the mountain areas as effective controls against the start or spread ( 

AUTUMN 1959 


Perfumes, yesterday and Zoday 

Marjorie Warvelle Bear 
Perfumes are the essence of the past, so deeply and sweetly do they transport us 
to ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, then to medieval Europe and finally to modern, 
chemical America. 

Perfumes, the souls of flowers, have always mystified and delighted man s inner 
spirit, and, even more than great music or painting, have brought the most nostalgic 

^'rhfradieL'^rrordrassociate the use of these precious scents with the worship of 
the gods and to those of royalty and wealth— always the ingredients ot these sensuous 
and dream provoking mixtures have been costly, even as they are today. The alchemists 
who knew the secret of these mysteries were held in great esteem by the royal courts 

Richard Le Gallienne once wrote that although the history of mankind may De wrir.en 
in blood and tears, ,t also is written, and perhaps more completely, in perfumes. Th, 
revealing statement is strengthened by the unearthings from the tombs ot the ancient 
civilizations. Here are to be found, lying beside instruments of war and ,ars of food 
exquisitely beautiful oil and unguent vases, iridescent glass perfume bottles and incense 

lamps. ... u ■ ^ th -enturv the art of 

Starting with the Renaissance and continuing into the nineteentn cent >, 
perfume making became known to the monasteries with their cloistered herb gardens, 
to the peasants and to the great ladies with their still rooms. „^,,„:„m 
The still room was a most fascinating place. Lavender, rosemary, rose geranium 
lemon verbena, roses, violets and orange blossoms were distilled ^''^pl^' "'^^f;;/'^^ 
condensers with the water flowing in from a nearby creek. Here, also in the tra a 
stillness, herbs such as mints, sagfs, and artemisias were hung to dry. Some were used 
for culinary purposes, others for strewing. Strewing herbs were used as ^ ^'^T 'jK^I 
deodorant, a? they were swept across the floors of the much lived in rooms, which 
^^tlL^SgrSTungu^ and floral waters have be^^d for bathing^ 
deodorizing and healing as well as for the sensuous enjoyment ot their exn ^ 
or soothing odors ^ lil f^rms were 
Also, in the still room such flowers as muguet, narcissus aim , ^kcorbed 

pressed or macerated on sheets of beeswax. After many ^PP^'^f f^"^". 'J^ i„ s% 
the precious concentrated oil of the flowers; it was then washed or d.ssohed in sp.r , 
as alcohols were then called. . m removal The 

machinery, using tanks holding tons of fresh Ao^^'^ Fj^.^'" .^^ ^„ i^.^i^h propoi 
A fp«, r^r.H.r\^. r^nppn's anothecarv blended in a mortar, lu r r 

of perfumes. Today, 

.go, the queen', -PO*ecary wenaea u. . ■ ■ ^. j 

tions, such ingredients as musk tonquin, ambergn 
dunum, producing one of the most lasting 

Napoleon's Josephine still recall that potent ^'^^^^^^X ^ highly technical 

Entering the twentieth ^enttiry, perfume b^^^^^^^^^ 
Chemical process. Alchemists and still rooms Decamc .i France and Bul^ 

factories took over the many small home '"^"stries ot sout ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
The flower growers pooled their produce just as y""'' j^akin^, such as n 

in the United States Certain precious components of perfume making. 



became a rarity with the little musk deer becoming almost extinct from the age-old 
traffic in this particular animal native to India and China. 

The science of organic chemistry suddenly bloomed into a fragrant bouquet of 
flower-like odors and flavors. The synthetic odors rivalled the actual extracted essential 
oils of plants, in that the chemical isolates were duplicates of the natural odors, more 
lasting and cheaper to create. 

The petroleum age, with its ever expanding benzine ring aided by the simplest of 
organic and basic elements, such as milk, yeast, sugar, and the mother of vinegar, gave 
us wondrous floral bouquets with their acids, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, ethers and 

The brilliant colors of the spectrum found in the new chemical dyes, the amazing 
development of plastics and synthetic rubber, not to mention the new wonder drugs 
and some older drugs like aspirin— all of these are the miraculous discoveries of the 
petroleum age and the chemists' continued interposing of the atoms in the benzine 
ring — just plain coal tar, the ABC of organic chemistry. 

Having established certain synthetic controls, the perfume chemists continually are 
analyzing the natural essential oils of widely separated families of plants that have 
common trace elements or chemical components. Even the nose of the botanist was 
suspecting such relationship years ago. Nature in her lavish ways puts for example, 
lemon, ^a most desirable perfume and food flavor, in a citrus fruit, verbena ^bush, 

icals. One can do the same for the odors of rose, camphor, peppermint, pineapple, 
apricot, strawberry, clover, mushroom or nut. 

Just so, in organic chemistry these constituents can be isolated or imitated with 
many fine shadings or nuances of the particular odor or flavor required. 

What then is modern perfume Is it all chemical as would be inferred with all these 
resemblances of odor ranging from pleasant to most repulsive .> Chemically, there are 
such odors as fatty, sweaty, putrid, fecal, ammoniacal, musty, rose-like, vioiet-like 
hlac-like, camphor-like, resinous, spicy, woody, nutty, fruity, moss-like and medicinal 

Where is the soul of the flower? Modern perfumes of top grade are not composed 
entirely of synthetic substances. It has been proven over a period of fifty years that 
those precious oils as jasmine, muguet, otto of rose, neroli, orris and violet and sucn 
animal fixatives as ambergris, civet and musk as well as such plant fixatives as lau- 
danum and benzoin are still needed for a mellowed, lasting and pleasing perfume. 

However, modern perfumery, even the most expensive, may contain only about ten 
percent of natural oils and fixatives. The secret of the diversity and lilt of many 
popular present day perfumes is due to that surprising result of many atoms of many 
chemicals embracing the nature oils of many plants. The new creation which emerges 
from the perfumer's vial is equally a surprise to him. It may be a masterpiece or 
dud. How true of the painter and the composer too ! Even our Creator makes a te 
malforms. No art is ever perfect— it is "the indefatigable pursuit of an unattainaDie 
perfection." And yet, as Shakespeare wrote: "A strange invisible perfume hits tne 

ArSERsl^r^an^a BatbT^^^^ '"''''^"'^ ''"'^ manufacture at her studios, RIVIE 

AUTUMN 19 59 



Care of Our Native Oaks 

Harold P. Martinez 
The native oak, including Quercus agrifolia, Q. etigehnamu. Q. lobata, are a part 
of the heritage and history of this wonderful state. They are of extreme value, both for 
beauty and utility, in our public gardens and home grounds. Their life span is long, 
given the proper care. 

Beginning in the recent past, and ignoring the reduction in the amount of 
rainfall, the rush of home site developments and often ill-advised landscaping 
have made the survival of our oaks a question of the "luckiest" rather than of tlic 
fittest". In the following paragraphs, the home owner may find some helpful sug.ycv 
tions to aid him in preserving his favorite garden tree. 

PRUNING— Pruning of our oaks should be done during the months from juK 
through August, the hottest part of the summer. Reason— it prevents oak miKku 
(witches' broom) from attacking new growth. All pruning wounds should be proper!) 
painted with an antiseptic asphalt mixture paint. Sealing the wounds prevents de\ clop- 
ment of heart rot. Only dead wood and dangerous limbs should be pruned, since the 
rule for pruning a tree is concerned with the health and safety of the tree, rather than 
just making the tree more attractive. 

TREE SURGERY— Cavity repair, cabeling and bracing may be done at any time 
and should be done as soon as the need is discovered. Qvity work and bark tracing 
will be most quickly healed at their edges by the healing callus, if this work is done in 
the spring or early summer. 

TREE BASE PLANTINGS— Do not grow moisture loving plants at or near the 
base of our oak trees. Such plants as azaleas, camellias, rhododendrons, begonias, ferns 
and many others often require daily watering, and most of this watering can be con- 
sidered 'out of season' for the oaks. This treatment invites trouble from the oak root 
fungus. ArmHlaria mellea. 

TREATMENT OF TREE BASE— The soil around the base of the tree should be 

to keep the area immediately around the^tree base free of plants, and to divert water 
from sprinklers away from the base. Placing rocks or gravel next to the trunk is better 
than allowing soil to reach the bark. A brick or stone walled dry well around the base 
of a tree is a common practice for keeping the area of the trunks— soil line— root 

WINTER WATERING FOR NATIVE OAKS— Under natural growing conditions, 
our oaks usually receive the majority of their moisture during the winter months. The 
oaks should receive supplemental water, in the winter, when Nature fails; summer 
watering, as stated before, invites oak root fungus infection. For deep irrigations from 
December to April, watering can be accomplished by digging holes, using a post-hole 
earth auger, around the outer edge of the drip line of the tree. A sod soaker or 
sprinkler can be used to supply water to these holes for a period of eight to ten hours 
each month. Another method is to use sub- irrigation attachments which can be pushed 
"ito the soil around the tree and allowed to run for six to eight hours once a month, 
^uch a method should be repeated in four or five positions around the drip line. 
, FERTILIZERS— The best time of year for applying fertilizer is early spring, except 

the case of Quercus agrifolia. This species should be fertilized in late summer or 
early fall. However a tree that shows symptoms of the lack of proper nutrients should 



be fed, if practical, whenever this condition is discovered, regardless of the season. 

Organic fertilizers may be applied preferably in holes if the soil is badly compacted, 
as already suggested in connection with winter watering. The fertilizer may consist of 
cottonseed meal, blood meal, bone meal, and manufactured sludge in about equal pro- 
portions. It may be mixed with sand. Large oak trees may need as much as 100 pounds 
of fertilizer each year. One formula used to estimate the number of pounds of 
10(N)-8(P)-6(K) fertilizer to apply to each tree is to add the height in feet + the 
crown spread in feet + the circumference of the trunk one foot above the ground in 
inches. For example, a tree 40 feet high + 30 feet in crown spread + 30 inches in 
trunk diameter will need 100 lbs. of fertilizer. For large trees, it is best to apply the 
fertilizer in holes spaced 2 feet apart in concentric circles around the tree— at intervals 
of 2-21/2 ft., as far out as the spread of the branches. If any fertilizer remains after the 
holes have been filled, it may be scattered over the soil surface around the tree. 
Sprinkled down immediately to dissolve the soluable part of the fertilizer, thus making 
it quickly available to the feeding roots. 


OAK MOTH— This is the most common and the most serious insect contributing 
to the decline of our oak trees. It can defoliate an entire tree, leaving only a network 
of veins. It can consume the entire leaf or portions of it. The larvae that do the chew- 
ing are about an inch long and olive green with a prominent black and yellow stripe 
on the side and back. Two broods usually develop one in the spring and one in the 
summer. The adult moths appear and lay eggs in Oct. and Nov. The eggs hatch during 
the later winter and spring months. Then the spring hatched larvae become mature 
moths and lay another crop of eggs, which in turn hatch and become leaf-eating larvae 
for the second time during the year. To get effective control of both the adults and 
lar\'ae on large trees it is best to hire a commercial spray company to thoroughly spray 
with a power sprayer. Control of oak moth is obtained by using 50% wettable D.D.I ■ 
powder at the rate of 2 lbs. per 100 gal. water or 757r wettable D.D.T. powder at the 
rate of 1 lb. per 100 gal. water, plus 25% wettable malathion powder at the rate of 2 
lbs. per 100 gal. water. This is an ideal combination spray to control any of the over 
wintering pest. The spray should he applied when leaf damage is noted, from the 
middle of March through April or May, and then possibly again when the moths are 
flying in June, July or August. In gardens where fish pools are located under oak trees, 
use Cryolit (it doesn't kill fish) or cover the pool with a tarp or with a sheet of poly- 
ethylene film during the spraying. 

OAK TWIG GIRDLER— This is one of the most damaging insect of oak trees. 
The leaves dies because their source of water and nutrients has been cut off by this 
insect's twig girdling. The twig girdler's burrow may be found by peeling the bark 
from dead twig. The only way to control its activity is to destroy it when it emerge 
in May and June. Since the life cycle occupies two years, there is only about one month 
in 24 in which the insect is outside the twig and can be contacted with a spray. Presently 
D.D.T. in the same formula used on oak moth is used as a control spray. Cryolite is 
not effective. Best control is obtained when this spraying program is continued over 
period of at least 3 to 4 years. Where there is heavy infestation, 2 yearly sprayings are 
recommended. The first of these should be applied during the latter part of ^fY 
first part of June, and the second during the latter half of June and the first half ot Juiy- 

capable of causing serious damage to both live oaks and deciduous oaks. A severe in- 
festation on young growth will cause the tips to die back. The pitting effect is mosi 
noticeable on the bark of the younger growth and is less conspicuous on the older bar • 
The recommendation for control of the pit scale and lecanium scale is to spray some 

AUTUMN 19 5 9 





Rotterdam, Netherlands, March 25-September 25, I960 

Holland, the world's leading exporter of horticultural products, will be host at a 
world's fair of gardening in which more than a dozen countries are to display their 
skills and accomplishments in the field of horticulture. 

The year I960 is a fitting one for Holland to stage the Floriade (a word that is a 
combination of Flora and Olympiade, signifying an Olympics of horticulture). This is 
the year that the Dutch celebrate the 400th anniversary of the arrival of the tulip m 
Holland, and the 100th anniversary of the Royal General Dutch Bulb-Growers Society. 

The Floriade will occupy more than 12 5 acres in the center of Rotterdam. In addi- 
tion to setting aside the park area, the City of Rotterdam has contributed more than 
S2 million to the development of the Floriade. More than 5 million visitors are ex- 
pected during the spring and summer of next year. The event will run for six months, 
from the end of March through the end of September, i960. 

The subject of the Floriade is horticulture in its broadest sense: everything from the 
newest in roses, to the latest methods of freezing vegetables for shipment and storage. 
The theme of this international horticultural exhibition is "from seed to force." 

There will be specifically national displays, in an area to be known as the Gardens ot 
the Nations. Here, individual nations will stage displays of indigenous plant materials, 
landscape design practices, or emphasize special or unique interests and activities. 

Countries expected to participate in the Floriade are the United Kingdom, Ireland, 
the United States, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Denmark, 
Sweden, France, Switzerland, Italy, Hungary, Spain and Israel. . 

A 350-foot tower named the Euromast, has been built on the exhibit grounds. 
Symbol of the Floriade, its circular "crow's nest" terrace, high in the air, commands a 
view of half of Holland. A restaurant is located at the top for the convenience ot 
Floriade visitors. 

Unlike other world's fairs characterized by exhibits only on a nation-by-nation basis, 
the Floriade will, in addition to the national exhibits, be organized into sections 
voted to different phases of horticulture. For example, roses from each country will 
grouped in the Rosarium, where visitors will view a garden of all roses of *e world; 

Also in outdoor exhibits, life-size market gardens and florists' greenhouses will sho 
the techniques used by professional growers in raising fruits and vegetables, as well 
flowers and plants for commercial markets. 

Visitors will be treated to a constantly changing series of indoor flower shows 
during the six months of Floriade. More than 161,000 square feet of indoor display 
area have been set aside for the purpose. , . 

Opening March 25, the Floriade will be given over for six weeks to one of the most 
theTpt"^ ^j^spl^ys of tulips ever created in the land that has become synonymous w' 

Following the tulips, the Floriade will feature open air shows of flowers as they 
come into season: roses, daffodils, rhododendrons, gladioli, iris, annuals, dahlias, cnry 

■ established by the American Horticultura 
ipation by America's industries, professiona 


Officers 1959 

William Beresford 
Howard Bodger 
Philip Edward Chandlef 
Ralph D. Cornell 
Mildred Davis 
Earle E. Humphries 

Marston Kimball 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. 
Robert Casama jor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 
Mildred E. Mathias 


George H. Spalding 
William S. Stewart 
Vernon T. Stoutem 
Maria Wilkes 
' Council 

Murray C. McNeil 
Fred W. Roewekami 
LovELL Swisher, Jr. 
Ronald B. Townsen 
Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member S 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each »iembership class. 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park. 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 
GRanite 2-4659 
Box 688 — Arcadia— California 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Instit 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

William S. Stewart Director 

Ralph Ames Plant Pathologist 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

Leonid Enari Taxonomist 

Glenn H. Hiatt Q^jy^^ specialist 

Louis B. Martin Physiologist 

J. Thomas McGah p/^^^ i^.corder 

RussELLA K. McGah Librarian 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Edward Huntsman-Trout Landscape Architect Consultant 

Donald P. Wooli 

. Chief Horticulturist 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

Index Vol IX. /959 

Summer and Autun 


appeared Oct. 1, 1950, comprised of 5 issues, through Oct. 1951. 
les, 4 issues each, commence with the calendar year, publication 
of Jan., Apr., July, Oct. designated respectiv 



Ferns Cultivated in California 8, 61, 

Bear, Marjorie Warvelle 

Perfumes, Yesterday and Today 81 
Betts, Kay 

Hellebore in Our Changing Times 68 
Brown, Arthur N. 

Maelic Hydrazide Treatment of 
Indoor Foliage Plants 38 
Chandler, Philip E. 

Trees-in-Color-Calendar 41, 50 
Ching, F. T. 

Slow Burning Plant Research Project 

Cornell, Ralph D. 

The Principles of Landscape Design 
Applied to Gardens 2 
Darrow, Mary D. 

Herb Gardening 32 
Davis, Mildred 

Vines for Specific Situations 26 
Gerard, Dora M. 

""What Flowering Tree is That.?" 

(Book Review) 24 
"Principles of Horticulture" (Book 

Review) 45 
"'The Amaryllis Manual" (Book 

Review) 46 
"Gardening Indoors Under Lights" 

(Book Review) 47 
"Hawaiian Flowers and Flowering 

Trees" (Book Review) 85 
"Enjoying America's Gardens" 
(Book Review) 85 


Hiatt, Glenn H. 

■'The Orchids, A Scientific Study" 
(Book Review) 86 
Johnson, Orvel B. 

Hugo Reid Adobe 28 
Lewis, George H. 

Graft of Cho 



"Wild Flowers of the Santa Barbara 
Region" (Book Review) 47 
Martinez, Harold P. 

Care of Our Native Oaks 83 
Mathias, Mildred E. 

"Maples Cultivated in the United 
States and Canada" (Book 
Review) 46 
McGah, Thomas 

Weather Notes 87 
McCaskill, Billie 

"Symbolism in Flower Arrangement" 

(Book Review) 24 
"The Art of Flower and Foliage 
Arrangement" (Book Review) 46 
Neushul, Michael 

Marine Plants, An Agricultural 
Challenge 33 

"^■Camellia Culture" (Book Review) 

Wallace, William J. 

Historical Research Pertainmg to the 
Original Hugo Reid Adobe House 

Wallace and Edith Taylor 

Archaeological Excavations in the 
"patio" of the Hugo Reid Adobe 

Dutton, Joan Perry "Enjoying Ameri- 
ca's Gardens" 86 

Ferry, Ervin S. "Symbolism in Flower 
Arrangement" 24 

Krantz, Frederick H. and Jacqueline L. 
^Gardening Indoors Under Lights" 

Kuck, Loraine E. and Tong, Richard C. 
'Hawaiian Flowers and Flowering 
Trees" 85 

Menninger, Edwin A. "What Flowering 

Tree is That?" 24 
Muller, Katherine K. "Wild Flowers of 

the Santa Barbara Region" 47 
Mulligan, Brian O. "Maples Cultivated 

in the U.S. and Canada" 46 
Rutt, Anna Hong "The Art of Flower 

and Foliage Arrangement" 46 
Steffek, Edwin F. "Pruning Made Easy" 

Tourje, E. C. "Camellia Culture" 37 
Trau^ Hamilton P. "The Amaryllis 

Withner, Carl L. "The Orchids A 
Scientific Study" 86 

Care of Our Native Oaks 83 

Diseases of Ornamentals and 

Ferns Cultivated in Californi; 
Floriade 88 



Acacia baHeyana 41 
Acacia (?odalyriaefolia 4l 


7antba 41, 42 

Arlemwa vulgaris 82 
Asplenium bulbiferum 65 
Atriplex halimus Illus. 75, 76, 79 
Bacharis pilularis var. typica 79 
Bauhinia corniculata 43, 44 
Bauhinia jorficata 43, 44 
Bauhinia grattdiflora 51 




Brachychiton discolor 50 
CalUstemon lanceolatus 41, 42, 43, 

50, 51, 52, 53 
CalUstemon viniinalis 42, 43, 44, 51 

52, 53 

Calodendron capense 44, 50 
Calycotome villosa 79 
Cassia carnaval 52 
Cassia multijuga 51 
Cassia splendida 52 
Castanospermum australe 50 

r occidentalis 42, 43 
r silquastrum 42, 43 
nthodendron platanoides 50, 

sia speciosa 51, 52, 53, lUus. 5 


Cissus rhombijolium 27 
Cistus albidus 76, 79 
Cistus birsutus 79 
Cistus ladaniferus 19 
Cistus laurif alius 19 
Cistus purpureus 79 
Clematis 21 
Clematis armandi 26 
Clethra arbor ea 44, 50 
Clytostoma callistegioides 21 

Porphyra lachmta 34 
Prophyra vulgaris 34 
Porphyra vulgaris 34 
Prunus campanulata 41, 42 
Prunus cerasijera atropurpurea 42 

cerasiferabltreana 42 
Prunus mume 41, 42 
Prunus p er si ca 41, 42 

persica 'Helen Borchers' 42 

/^m/Vd 'Late White" 43 
Prunus suhhirtella 43 
Pjfroj/d lingua 10, Illus. 12, 1 4 
2//err«j^^W/^^/i4 83 
Quercus lobata 83 
Robinia idahoensis 'Monument' 43 
Robinsonella cordata 42 
Rosmarinus officinalis var. prostratus 79 

fleTelaldi 82 
5^//^/^ leucophylla 82 
54//^/^ ^//^////^r^ 82 

Solanum jasminoides 27, Illus. Cover 
^^//^ heterophylla 27 
5^/7;^ord 50, 51 

Stachys bullata 82 

Stenocarpus sinuafus 42, 44, 45, 51, 53 
Stenochleana palustris 61 
Stenochlaenatenuifolia 65, 67, Illus. 
65, 66 

Stigmaphyllon ciliatum 27 
Thevetia-Ahevetioides 45, 50, 51 
Thunbergia gibsoni 27 
Tipuana tipu 45, 50, 51 
Trachelospermum jasminoides 27 


Ulva lactuca 34 

Undaria pinnatifida 34 
Graft of Chorisia speciosa Successful 54 

Hellebores in Our Changing Times 68 

Herb Gardening 32 

Historical Research Pertaining to the 

Original Hugo Reid Adobe House 

Maelic Hydra2ide Treatment of Indooi 

Foliage Plants 38 
Marine Plants, An Agricultural Challei 

Perfumes, Yesterday and Today 81 
Principles of Landscape Design Applied 
to Gardens, The 2 

Slow Burning Plant Research Project 75 

Three Dimensional Radiation Photographs 

Trees-in-Color Calendar 41, 50 

Vines for Specific Situations 26 
Weather Report, 1958 87 


Board of Trustees 

President Robert Casamajor 

Isr Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Dr. Elmer Belt Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Howard Bodger John C. Macfarlanu 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Atrhur Freed Samuel Mosher 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph |. Richards 

J. D. Funk F. Harold Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Sh. aki k 

Roger Jessup Lovell Swisher 

Mrs. Archibald B. Youn(; 
Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership . . 25.00 

Annual Business Membership 100.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

^^""'iers ■ ■ ■ " Si' 000 or more 

Benefactors 5 000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount from $10 a year or more 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law 
Box 688-Arcadia— California 


Lasca Leaves 



The Native Plants of California Percy C. Everi-tt 

Shade Ground Covers of Distinction Mildred Davis 

Cover Picture 

Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Katherine K. Muller 

Story of the Mexican Tiles Robert Casamajor 

Festival of Garden Lighting John L. Threlkeld ] 

The Southern California Horticultural Institute. .Victoria Padilla 1 

An Eminent Scientist Rexx a Glenn 1 

Pumice Enters Horticultural Field J- W. Matthexx s 1 

Koelreuteria Formosana Philip E. Chandler 1 

Chorisia Speciosa (Picture Story) ^ 

Notes from the Strybing Arboretum Arthur L. Menzies ] 

Lasca News ^ 

Book Reviews 

Native Plant Nature Trail ■ 

Elm Trees Threatened by Bark Beetle Harold P. Martinez ; 

Names, Notes, News ' 

An Editorial ' 

Robert Casamajor 
Philip Edward Chandler 
Mildred Davis 
Louis B. Martin, Editor 
Mildred Mathias 

Philip A. Munz 
Victoria Padilla 
F. Harold Roach 
William S. Stewari 
Lee Wray Turner 



Zhe J^ative Plants of California 

Percy C. Everett 

We are introducing a new section, "The Native Plants of ^aliforma' which we pre^enUy^^^^ 
tendenHf RanX''santaTna''Botank Garden, Cllremont^ Through this ^^'^^^^p^^^^'JJJ'^^^j]^^^^ 
wTSiU mtrodi^e otre^wri'terro^n'^hrsubTectrTnd^in fac^we hopTto make Usca Uans the 
clearmg ce^nter for the dissemination of ail sorts of factual "^^^^^^^^ 

questions 'SpoS^Me^kh^^ correspondence^Due to our inability 

to get such information, we are very anxious to know what species are being grown m commercial 

Among the many interesting genera of plants native to our western land, none is more 
beautiful or more useful than the group so appropriately named by the early Californians 
"manzanitas," translated as "little apples." For years they have been favorites ot the 
writer, and judging from the enthusiastic remarks heard on countless occasions, it wouw 
appear there are many others who likewise appreciate their many qualities. Of P^rtic"^ 
interest is the satiny beauty of the dark reddish-brown bark of the taller species, the 
choice of growth habits, their all-year good looks, and their profuse flowering tro 
December through March, with an occasional bloom throughout the year- 
flowering period, clusters of small, apple-like fruits appear, which gradually ching 
from a dull or bright green through hues of red to rich shades of brown. The fniiK 
remain on the bushes for several months, creating lovely contrasts as they change 
shade texture. And with so much emphasis placed on form, color contrasts and texni _ 
the manzanitas admirably fit into the modern landscape picture. It is for these reaso 
that our first article will discuss one of the newest and most useful of the group, 
Little Sur Manzanita {Arctostaphylos Edmund m J. T. Howell) . . , 

To set the stage, let me relate some of the interesting facts about this manzanita. in 
summer of 1949, Mr. L. L. Edmunds, owner of a fine native plant nursery m Uam . 
Calif., while searching for seeds of Ceanothus griseus v. houzontalis near the moutjoi 
the Little Sur River, Monterey Co. came across this low-growing manzanita, whic 
says was unlike any he previously had encountered. He states there were possibly a do ^. 
plants, 6"- 18" tall, spreading 8'- 10' across, creeping over the edge of an ocean t? 
sandy soil. He visited the site again on Nov. 28, 1950, and Nov. 29, 1951, 
times the plants were in bloom. Mr. Edmunds further stated in a letter to John ino 
Howell, Curator of Botany, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate ^^'"^^ , 
later described the plant as a new species, that he had never seen elsewhere on the 
terey Peninsula anything resembling this plant. The plants were free-flowering, 
flowers being a flesh-pink, and the bright green leaves, especially the young ones 
EzanTta '""^ ""^^^^ ''"'^'^ 

All herbarium specimen collected by Mr. Edmunds, while on his 1951 trip to the siK- 
was designated as the "type specimen" by Mr. Howell (Leaf. West. Bot. 6:202 ^ )^ 

r remarks, stated: "The Little Sur Manzanita appears most ^ 

related Ajechoens^s Dudley, a species restricted to the coastal hills and mounta s 
San Luis Obispo Co., but differs in the sub-prostrate habit, subglabrous leaves thaM 
stomatiterous only on the lower side, glandular-puberulent pedicels, and glabrous 


1 plant without a 
■ems; the branch- 
n, andtheratkt 

A more tormal introduction to the Little Sur Manzanita is that it 
basal burl, subprostrate, from 6"- 18" tall, 6'- 10' across, roots along th 
lets are somewhat hairy, the new tip growth reddish, later turning g 
intricately branching habit is clothed with dark green 
leaves, 5/4 "-1" long, about Vi" wide; the new leaf grc 
margms, and in cooler weather, the leaves are almost 
like flowers are small, white to pink, and grouped in 
round small, at first green, then becoming a colorful red 
when fully ripe. 

We have no definite date for introduction of this usef_. 
may be safely assumed to have been in 1950. Mr. Edmunds first collected propag^; 
materia m 1949. In June, 1950, we received from Mr. Edmunds, three plants 
then called Arctostaphylos tomemosa v. hebeclada. He told us they were erov. 
cuttings taken on his first discovery trip to the Little Sur River, but as a temp. 
ure, he was using the above name until it was definitely decided whether or ii> 
T! ^ "^"^/P^^es. We planted the three specimens in April, 1953, in full ■ 
open flat of rocky, decomposed granite loam, a far cry from the species' natur- 
They have grown exceedingly well, no losses have occurred, and the plants are no- 
IS first observed in January, 1 954, and fru^^^ 
■ A. Ednmndsti. In October, 1953, we gatje 
i^ZZTF T ^'^^ P*^"^^' 26 out of 65. The semi-hard wood 

rsSn p f f ^ ^'^^ Hormodin #3, and put in a mixture of Va peat moss, % p^^ < 
imn?ri!^ S^- ^"""''"S ^'■^"^^^'l about 50 days, but since then our technique 
soft, tip cuttings, mist spray, bottom heat, the same 
ng the cuttings with Rootone we .re .Mp oet betwee 
n 2-4 weeks. 

broadly ovate, elliptic or rou 
vth .s a lighter green with red J 

ally a deep rich bro»E 


and by \ 

nd at th^ 

April or May seems t( 
- cALcuent results throughout the 
proper time of the year, we have done 

:ar. Due 
;ry little 

WINTER 1 960 5 




Shade Q round Covers of 'Distinction 

Mildred Davis 

The discriminating gardener who is satiated with the eternal Algerian ivy {^eie^i 

, seeking more interesting material may find it in the following plant 

list. While these do not serve exactly the same purpose (hillside planting, parkway plant- 
ing, etc.) yet for smaller, more intimate areas where more distinction is sought, they will 
serve admirably. Unfortunately, any plant material somewhat out of the ordinary is not 
found too readily in the average nursery, yet this need not deter the earnest seeker, tor 
given one plant, propagation is not too difficult. 

Aspenda odorata Sweet Woodruff. An herb used for scenting of linen and in flavor- 
ing. It has a sculptured look with deeply cut leaves around a square stem. Height six to 
eight inches. One small plant will increase by running (slowly to be sure) to cover t^^'0 
to three feet. It is readily grown from tip cuttings and divisions. Shade and moisture are 
prime requisites for successful culture. The herb section of a nursery might provide a 
parent plant. 

Ljsimachia nummularm Creeping Jenny. Its common name is aptly given, for in a^v^t 
shady place it will creep rapidly. The leaves are dark green, shiny about V2 inch across. 
Small yellow flowers dot the stem in summer. One need not fear uncontrolled invasion 
for the growth inhibitor, maleic hydrazide, may be used as a check. 

MkromerJa chanmsoms Yerba Buena. A native with small roundish leaves (grey 'n 
color) on long trailing stems which root at the tips, thus spreading readily. When 
brushed or trod on, the leaves give off a pleasing "herb" scent. This plant seeks shade 
and will often be found growing under nearby plants. 

Tohmea menziesn Mother of Millions. Most frequently seen as a house plant/^^°° 
is a native growing in woods. The leaves are rather heart shaped, greenish yellow 
color which makes for contrast with darker foliage. The leaves make a dense basal ma 
and the plant spreads for several feet. It is also propagated from small plantlets wnic 
form at the tips of the leaf petioles. Whence comes its common name of 'pick-a-Da 

Veronka filijormis hugs the ground. Its leaves are dark green, round, about 1/2^1"^^ 
in size. It bears tiny lavender blue flowers. In some exceptional situations it "^'S , 
quite invasive, although that has not been my experience. This might be a substitute! 
Helxine (Baby Tears). 

Polypodium Imgua. This fern does not look as the average person expects a fernjo 
look. The leaves are shaped like a tongue from four to eight inches long and about 
inches wide. It creeps aid slowly covfrs a given area. The form and scale of this fem 
make it useful for planting beneath "lush" foliaged materials. 



portion of the Admir 




le Board of Trustees, dictates the first 1 
; Frances Hannah, office secretary. 

Sa//ta Mara Manic 0ardm 

Katherine K. Muller 
The recently completed addition to the Blaksley Library building of the Santa Bar- 
bara Botanic Garden is expected to facilitate the administrative work of the Garden as 
^ell as to aid in the educational program. Construction of the addition which is the hrst 
unit in a long-term plan of future expansion, was made possible by gifts from the Santa 
Barbara Foundation and from Mr. and Mrs. Sterling Morton through the Chicago 
Morton Fund. 

The upper level of the building is devoted to the Garden administrative office. Built-in 


file cabinets, and drawers for membership records, abundant storage cupboards for sup- 
plies, and ample room for office machines are all planned to meet the particular needs of 
the Garden. The extension is located on the slope above the Arroyo Trail and windows 
along the outer walls look into the tops of the trees planted on this trail. The lower level, 
adjoining the herbarium, includes an 8x10 foot dark room and a room that serves 

currently as a combination office and classroom for the horticulturist. As future buildings 
are constructed, this will be used as a herbarium work room. 

Removal of the office files from the main room of the library has permitted additional 
shelvmg for books, and will make this room more readily usable for meetings of variou 
sorts without disturbing the office routine. 



Story of the Mcfckan Ziles 

Robert Casamajor 

So MUCH INTEREST has developed over the unique and beautiful tik-s haiminu on the 
walls of the entrance ramp at the Arboretum, that it seems fitting' to relate 'the' story of 
where they came from, and how the California Arboretum Foundation acquired them. 

Colonel and Mrs. William Green resided in Mexico City over thirty years a^o where 
Colonel Green made his headquarters in his operations in Mexican oil properties. 

Some time before 1930, he purchased the old Vosburg Ranch in the Sierra Maiirc Villa 
section adjacent to Pasadena, California. He and Mrs. Green hved there in the oKI 
ranch house and developed the avocado orchard which still covers part of tlie tlurty lour 
acres, much of which has now been sub-divided. 

One of the purchasers of a part of the Green ranch was Dr. R. S. Harris.Mi. tin 
of the Department of Radiology at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena. 

After William Green died, Dr. Harrison as a friend and neighbor d.d nianv \x^ax. 
for Mrs. Green and she in turn, to show her gratitude, presented Dr. and Mrs Harrison 
with the wooden boxes containing the collection of tiles, which the Greens liaJ acquired 
years ago. These tiles had been made by the Mexican artist and tile maker, of Fuehia, 
Pedro Sanchez. They had long been stored in the old barn on the Green ranch, unopened. 

colorful pictures have been fitted 
Administration Building Wing. The size 
measuring 12x18 inches, to the largest wh; 
^eet high. Subjects depicted 


ures five feet wide by seven and a half 
,s of Columbus (the Nina, Pinta and 
, . .... of Columbus; Don Quixote astride his horse and followed by his 
Sancho Panza ; and five scenes of peacocks. 



Curiosity, as to what the tiles were like, prompted the Harrisons to open the boxes 
and attempt to put the pieces together. The only place available was the floor of their 
spacious living room. When they were all assembled, it was obvious to the Harrisons 
that there was no way they could be used in their home and equally obvious that such 
rare works of art belonged in some institution where the public could see and enjoy them, 

As a friend of the California Institute of Technology, Dr. Harrison offered the col- 
lection to them if they could use them in the walls of any of the buildings then under 

About this time I was invited to view the tiles spread on the living room floor, and 
when Caltech regretfully declined the gift, I suggested to Dr. Harrison that he give them 
to the Arboretum Foundation for use in one of our proposed buildings. Our Director at 
that time, Dr. Russell J. Seibert, inspected them, recognized at once their value and 
when Dr. Harrison offered them to us, he arranged to photograph them in Kodachrome, 
repacked them in the boxes, and stored them in the Coach Barn at the Arboretum, until 
a way could be found to make use of them. 

There the tiles lay for another two years while plans were developing for the new 
building containing the library, herbarium and large meeting room. 

Uncertain as to whether they could be used at the entrance and permanently set in the 
walls. Dr. William S. Stewart conceived the idea of mounting them in steel frames and 
hanging them like portraits. 

This treatment has been most successful and so pleasing that in addition to the unique 
character of the tiles themselves they are now displayed in an equally unique and eftec- 

The California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. wishes to thank Dr. and Mrs. Harrison 
for their generous gift. 


John L. Threlkeld 
During the month of October the Descanso Gardens Guild and the Departmert^ 
ctdlts ^"'^ Gardens sponsored the Festival of Garden Lights m Uesc 

This was the first time that a public show featuring garden lighting excM^lJlt 
been presented. The purpose of the exhibit was to present ideas which could be dup^^ 
cated in home gardens and indeed, anywhere that garden lighting was desired. "^^^ 
staged to coincide with the change from daylight saving time to standard time to 
advantage of the long evenings. ^, 

T iJh^^ 7'°^^'''°"^^ coordinator for the festival was Mr. Don Lewis, owner of a M^nt^o^^ 
Light Company. Equipment used was representative of different manufacturers. 

WINTER I960 11 

plywood backing creating an interesting brickwork appearance. Another wall featured 
a fountain bubbling out of a large piece of feather rock, the water cascading through 
tiny pools with small ferns growing out of pockets in the rock. 



benches of modern design, artifully placed on sculptured pieces of feather rock instead 

Next to the outdoor living room was the food preparation center. Here a charcoal 
broiler was housed in a piece of sculptured pumice as were adjoining tables and storage 
shelves. Convenient to the foor preparation area was the dining area. A table, supported 
by a large pumice stone, had a two place dinner setting with all the table trimmings. An 
umbrella projected from the stone over the table. Adjacent to the two place table was a 
sand box which was divided with sand on one side and a small table and benches for 
children on the other. The entire exhibit was landscaped with such special features as a 
sculptured Easter Island head, large bird forms and interesting plant materials. 

Other types of outdoor furnishings were also displayed. 

The festival was viewed by approximately 8,000 persons, most of whom were very 
expressive of their enjoyment of the exhibits. 

It is felt that the Festival of Garden Lights was very successful both as a stimulus to 
the fall program in Descanso Gardens and as a public service. The Descanso Gardens 
Guild realized much benefit by receiving a greatly accelerated number of membership 
applications and by obtaining much press notice. 

It is hoped that the event will be an annual affair with steadily widening participation 
by exhibitors. 

Zke Southern Calif cm ia Morticultutal 

Victoria Padilla 

Since its incorporation almost a quarter-century ago, the Southern California Horti- 
cultural Institute has been the leading organization of its kind in the Southland. Estab- 
lished at first as a purely professional institution, it soon had to open its doors to the 
amateur gardener, for the excellence of its monthly meetings became so publicized tha 
all plantsmen of any repute clamored to be admitted. Many old-timers today remember 
with pleasure those early meetings— the dinners at the Mayfair Hotel, the exciting pro- 
grams held at the University Club, the Elk's Club, and the Friday Morning Club^lHose 
were the days when Jan de Graaf flew from Washington to show his newest bulb intro- 
ductions, when Mulford Foster made a special trip from Florida to lecture on bromeliads, 
when the halls were so crowded that many members had to be turned away. 

The Board of Directors of the Institute has always been a hard-working, energec^^ 
group. Considering the smallness of its number, the Board has been nothing short o 
amazmg in its accomplishments. The formation of the Men's Garden Club ot LOS 
Angeles, the establishment of the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, and 
holding of the International Flower Show are among the most noteworthy of its achie^'^' 
ments. The Institute, too, has been responsible for awakening interest in civic beautift<-J- 
tion, and it was largely due to the efforts of such men as Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr., 
organizations like Los Angeles Beautiful were formed. .■^■■e 

The year 1939 saw no diminution in the activities of the Institute. Its latest objectne 
is the publication of a history of horticulture in Southern California. This project wa 
initiated by the late Manfred Meyberg, who was sadly disturbed that the men who 
devoted their lives to making the South a more beautiful place in which to live were tas 
becoming forgotten. The book, which will be a sizable volume and amply illustrate , 



will serve as a memorial to Mr. Meyberg, who during his life was one of the staunchest 
supporters of the Institute. Although no flower show was held this year, it is the desire 
of the Board of Directors to stage another show— one of a more educational nature— 

The Institute acts in an advisory capacity whenever the need arises for expert horti- 
cultural advice. Help is being given in the making up of a flowering-tree calendar, a 
project started by Los Angeles Beautiful. When the Los Angeles City Zoo, as sponsored 
by the Friends of the Los Angeles City Zoo, gets under way, the Institute will give its aid 
by suggesting appropriate plantings. 

The meetings for the general membership of the Southern California Horticultural 
Institute are held monthly on every second Thursday evening at half past seven. The 
meeting in January is held at the Descanso Gardens in La Canada; that in October at the 
Arboretum in Arcadia. All other meetings are held in Fiesta Hall, in Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard, Hollywood. The programs consist not only of a fine 
lecture, given by an expert in his field, but also a presentation of the newest and rarest 
in the way of plant introductions. This plant forum is under the capable management of 
Dr. Vernon T. Stoutemyer of U. C. L. A. Guests are welcome at all the meetings. 

Bminent Scientist 

Rewa Glenn 

Reprinted from The New Zealand Gardener, Vol. 15, Feb. 1, 1959 
On the 12th day of this month, February, 150 years will have passed since the birth of 
Charles Darwin. Science has made amazing advances since then, so that some of Darwin's 
giv'^°th^^^^ seem very simple with present-day knowledge. But it needed a Darwin to 
His father, a doctor, was the fon of Erasmus Darwin, also a physician as well as a fol- 
lower of the principle of evolution, and his mother, who died when he was eight years 
oW, was the daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, of pottery fame. After her death Charles 
became a boarder at Dr Butler's school at Shrewsbury, the home town of the Darwins 
and the Wedgwoods. It is interesting to note that Samuel Butler, who satiri2ed in his 
iirewhon" parts of Darwin's classic "The Origin of the Species", was the grandson of 
this Dr. Butler. 

. Charles had no taste for Greek and Latin, the two subjects that were considered as all- 
jmportant at that time, so that it is not surprising he was rated rather slow to learn. He 
had a passion for collecting such things as shells, coins and minerals, and became very 
interested in dogs, birds and chemistry. At the age of seventeen his father sent him to 
study medicine at Edinburgh where he stayed for two years. But the only part of the 
course that interested him was botany, and as that science then was regarded simply as 
an introduction to other professions, Darwin decided to study for the ministry at Cam- 
bridge. ^ 

Here he continued his botany lectures under Professor Henslow, who, noticing some 
^c.r,u . 5 student, invited him to his house to meet distinguished men of science: 

Charles s 

interested in the whole field 

fo"'!"^ Professor Sedgwick (geology) to Wales he became engrossed in the study of 



the survey of the southern coasts of South America, including Tierra del Fuego. A letter 
from the commander, Captain Fitzroy, offering him the post of honorary naturalist gave 
him real cause for excitement. Henslow had recommended him to the captain as an able 
naturalist and a suitable companion: Charles was always a great favorite with his asso- 
ciates, a happy trait for a long sea voyage. 

He was only 22 when, m December, 1831, the Beagle sailed from Plymouth. Fitzroy 
stayed three weeks at the Cape Verde Islands, and Charles in a letter to his father told 
him of the delights of strolling under coconut palms, through banana thickets, coffee 
plantations and viewing the beautiful wild flowers. Two months after leaving England 
they reached Brazil. While Fitzroy was engaged in surveying, Darwin was able to explore 
for short distances inland. At Rio de Janeiro he was thrilled to see a tropical forest in all 
its sublime crandeur". 

: spent in charting the southern c 

and after v 

various islands in the Pacific a course was set for New Zealand. High winds were en- 
countered, and now, in a calm after the storm, the Beagle sailed into the Bay of Islands 
on December 21, 1835, anchoring opposite the missionaries' homes at Paihia. Darwin 
still suffering from sea-sickness, was by this time feeling depressed and homesick anJ 
except for his estimation of the kauri as "noble trees" records little in his diary of the 
New Zealand flora. After a walk on the near hills he stated that the country was \w 
impracticable. All the hills are thickly covered with tall fern, together with a low busn 
which grows like a cypress." But the stay in New Zealand was very short, only ninedajs, 
On December 30 the Beagle sailed out of the Bay of Islands and on October 2 ot tne 
following year touched the shores of England once more. 

Darwin lived in London for six years after his return, married his cousin Emma 
Wedgwood, and then bought a property of 18 acres and a three-story brick house a 
Down, in Kent, 16 miles from London. It was fortunate that his father was wealthy ami 
generous, for Darwin had not yet begun to earn his living by his pen. With the in p>« 
tion and knowledge gained through travel he began his life work in earnest. The sohj 
of many problems in natural science. He corresponded with naturalists whom he na 
contacted during his long voyage and received plants from them. Joseph Hooker, tn g 
eight years his junior, was soon an intimate friend. Hooker relates how th^ <^''' 
trudged through the garden, where there was always some experiment to visit. ^ 
Darwin farmed part of his property and utilized the rest for gardens, expenmen a 
plots and greenhouses. He was the first to discover that sundews and the many pa 
that belong to the Droseraceae actually trapped insects and were partly no^^'^^'f. ous 
"•"-ogen absorbed through their leaves and pitchers. A glance through his ^jfe. 
nfc realize what meticulous pains he took in his experiments, is 

-r-B ^ .x.cuu, said, "Charles is treating Drosera (the sundew plant) )ust U 
ving creature and I suppose he hopes to end in proving it to be an animal, {^^t 
•ations of New Zealand Droseras see N.Z. Gardener March, 1957.) ,, 
Orchids also gained Darwin's special interest Here too, were plants that were cW 
ssooated with insects, in which marvellous devices had been evolved to g^'^.^'^'- 
nation. He stated that "these contrivances have for their main object the fert^.^a ' ^ 
ach flower by the pollen of another flower", and in a letter to a friend he said: I ne^^ 
^as more interested in any subject in my life." 

°as ab ^ ""li^^'"" '™' him the free use of his hot-house, and here D«;^__^ 

-as a lovely orchid from Madagascar with large si^rlyed flow^s like stars fornl«l»' 


WINTER I9 6 0 

nectaries were more than 10 inches long with only the lower 
Darwin could only surmise that there were certain large moths 
were able to reach this sweet juice and so pollinate the i\o\\\ i- 
long coiled proboscis was discovered in Madagascar. 

On the opposite side of the world the orchids ot a new fu K 
A green orchid, first discovered by Joseph Banks in 1769 ami i 
by Robert Brown, was rediscovered in 1826 by Alhin Cumiini:! 
"remarkable for the noble size of the flower at the top ol a tohj 
Thomas Cheeseman, in 1862, procured a copy of Darwin s I 
that had just been published. He noticed that no mention uas 
was plentiful in bush areas about Auckland. He noted the 
flower gains cross-pollination and sent an account ot his ohst i 
passed the letter on to Darwin. In a later edition ot the book I), 
of the tricky device, and stated that he had taken it ■ Ironi ll 
;:ivcn by Mr. Cheeseman". 

At that time the geographical distribution of plants was 
explorers. How was it that the same species were found soiik 
hundreds of miles apart? The popular belief was that tonncr I 
cause. Darwin believed that plants could spread by other mean 
ments by soaking seeds in sea water. After 14 days many ot thcr 
in his opinion, were carriers not only by eating the berries but h 
to their feathers or in mud between their claws, and came to tl 
sional transport" was far more probable than "continental exter 

Darwin died at the age of 73 and was buried in Westminster 
Sir Isaac Newton. Four of his sons inherited his interest m nati 

Pum/ce Enters Mortieultural Tield 

J. W. Matthews 

Reprinted from The Netv Zealand Gardener. Vol. l6, Sept. I, 
The raising of plants from seed and cuttings is as old as gardening itself, hut tor cen- 
turies man has been striving to find new and more efficient methods ot tarrying out these 
methods of plant propagation , 

Some seeds will germinate and develop into sturdy plants if sown in the open ground, 
but the more delicate types require a great deal of skill, as they must have the right de- 
grees of moisture, temperature and aeration to germinate and grow without damping-off^ 

Cuttings of many plants also require special attention if they are to callus, root ana 
grow. Lack of efficient treatment results in many failures, and often in poorly-rooted 

One of the oldest methods of raising "difficult" seeds, and of f "'^'"^ '"/^fl ' 
t'ngs has been the use of sand, but unless just the right grade is used it is liable to become 
ted with fatal results to the plants. . . _ 

Other preparations such as that expanded form of mi 
fype of pumice subjected to 
considerable success. These 

light and open nature, have been found useful 
The latest aid to propagation is a pure type of pumic 

It expanded form of mica known as vermicume, auu ^ 
derable heat and known as perhte, have been used with 
-ials are largely used for insulating purposes, but owing 




mits the movement of water and air through it, but which does 
consohdate. It is now being used extensively by a number of nurserymen who agi 
it is superior to other products they have tried for the raising of seedl: 
of cuttings. ^ t l hh' t^l OS uently the orga 

dam^JITng^off an^otLT tr^ubk disea^scs'^are not prese/t in it, and seed raised in it 
does not suffer from these parasites. On account of its hght, loose and open nature, 
pumice does not consolidate when subjected to frequent waterings, which is a very im- 
portant point, as many seeds will quickly rot, or even if they do germinate, the seedlings 
will collapse, unless the medium in which they are growing is well aerated. 

Aeration, by the way, means a soil that permits air to move through it, and the gases 
which are secreted by the roots of all growing plants to escape into the atmosphere 
When a soil is not adequately aerated, these gases accumulate, the soil becomes toxic and 
plants die. , 
Pumice absorbs and holds a limited amount of water, but never becomes soggy and 
water-logged, and when liquid fertilizers are added to it, a high percentage adheres J 
the pumice particles, thus enabling the roots of the growing plants to obtain these nu 
ents without undue effort. ,. 

Seedlings growing on pumice usually make rapid growth and the loose medium 
enables their roots to proliferate without^^ieeting obstruction through which they have 
to push their way— an effort that can impose a severe strain on a small plant. 

Pumice may be used for seed-sowing or rooting of cuttings m its pure form, pr^^ 
reasonable precautions are taken to ensure moderate watering, shading and protection 
from draughts. It can also be used with excellent results for loosening upjoamy ot ci) 
soils; thoroughly mixed with them it brings about a degree of aeration which tacin 
the movement of moisture and air. , . 

Pumice has been found ideal for adding to the standard seed composts and tor 
in all potting soils to ensure that they will not become "sour-, water-logged or con ^ 
pacted. It is not a plant food, but a soil conditioner, and needs to be reintorted 
fertilizers if plants are to be retained in it after they have rooted. . 

Pumice for horticultural uses is being pioneered by Messrs. J. B. Gilberd & Sons u^. 
of Wanganui, whose sandsoap has been used by many generations of New Zealandecs. 

Koelreutem ^ormosam 

Philip E. Chandler ^ 
[ON PINK SEED PODS like clustered paper lanterns light up this tree's top ^J^'. 
en, following a brief show of yellow flowers in large panicles. The ff^^^,^ 
d golden-green leaves rarely attacked by insects of anf kind, appear in late Feb^;^^^, 
drop about Christmas exposing the strong yet delicate structure above hands 
trunk and well-behaved roots that tolerate choice planting closely. V'lsa is 
rella usually 25'-35' and across, this member of thcSa^nuLeae from Form^^ 
proof to most Southern California locations excepting those of salt and extre 

and Ideal shade subject for lawn, garden, terrace or streetside. Representahve sp^^ 
^may be seen on La Mesa Place jusfoff 26th Street, Santa Monica, at 353 19 h ^^^^^ 
m Santa Monica, and on the east side of Benedict Canyon just north of Suns 
evard in Beverly Hills. 






J^otes from the Strybing Arboretum 

San FraiKisco, California 
Arthur L. Menzies 
The recent trend in architecture and landscape design— the building of houses pri- 

of the house into outdoor living space — has made the use of bamboos most popular. 
Widely sought by landscape architects and home owners alike, the slow increase and 
comparative rarity of some of the choicer kinds has forced the prices of these plants into 

Bamboos are perennial woody grasses widely spread throughout the world and are 
found in tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate zones. They extend from sea-level in some 
regions to altitudes of 15,000 feet in the Andes. Under favorable conditions some species 
reach a height of over 100 feet and have culms with a diameter up to 12 inches. The 
nomenclature of bamboos is most complex and confusing and many of the kinds found 
growing in the Arboretum as well as in the trade are perhaps misnamed. 

The flowering of bamboos is a phenomenon of peculiar interest. Simultaneous flower- 
ing of all plants of one species although widely spread throughout the world and 
nder many diflPerent conditions has been noted. Examples are known of plants 

is Phyllostacbys hambmo^Ls. Planted frc , ^ , 

developed into a magnificent clump some twenty feet across. The individual culms reach- 
ing over 20 feet in height are well spaced and have a diameter of nearly three inches. 
Nearby is the much smaller and very popular (and expensive!) Phyllostacbys niger.m 
Black Bamboo of China and Japan. Growing to a height of 10-12 feet with us, this dis- 
tinct species has stems green at first, but changing to black the second year. A plant ot 
c|uitc X diflFerent type is Sasa senanensis var. nebulosa. Having slender green stems 4-(i 
kct tall, this bamboo is noted for its large leaves 10-13 inches long and 2-3 inches wide. 
Iiurcasmg by underground runners, this bamboo spreads rapidly and forms dense 
thakets so that ample space should be allowed at planting time to prevent its eventual 

Hnrticiiltimst ^ 
Strybing Arboretum 


The Southern Regional meeting of the Dr. Mildred Mathias, Dr. Willi^ ^• 

National Shade Tree Conference, Western Stewart and Dr. Vernon Stoutemeyer. 

Chapter will be held on Friday, January Luncheon will be between 12:15 a" 

22, I960 from 9:30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. at 130 p m . . 

the Los Angeles State and County Arbore- The afternoon program, beginning 

Registration and a series of lectures by tour of the Arboretum grounds. 

WINTER 1 9 60 19 


Descanso Gardens, La Canada, California 




Sim Zrees Zhreatemd by Bark Beetle 

Harold P. Martinez 
The Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle (Scolytus multistriatis) is a tiny insca. intro- 
duced into the United States in 1909. Its infamous career is well known in the eastern 
United States concerning the spread and devastating effect of the Dutdi EInYiiscas.. 

long, colored brownish to black. Adults emerge in May or June, flyin,i: to lualthy trees, 
where they feed in the crotches of twigs. The adult female proceeds to drill into the 
wood and lays eggs in galleries running with the grain of the wood. Upon h.itthmu. the 

Factual information concerning the beetle in Southern California is si.mty. ( onsider 
able damage has been found, however, especially in the San Fernando Valle\. hMdemes 
of the beetle have also been found in scattered locations throughout the entire Los An- 
geles Basin. 

The life of your elm trees may be prolonged if the following reeomnundations arc 

1. Maintain the health and vigor of your trees. A healthy tree is not as apt to be at- 
tacked. Thorough watering is essential. Soak the root-zone of your tree to a depth 
of three to four feet once every three or four weeks, except during the rainy season. 
This is essential even though your tree appears to have sufficient moisture. 

2. Examine the trunk and larger limbs of your trees frequently. The first evidence of 
beetle may be small pin-holes in the bark of your tree. Adult beetles are active trom 
May through November or possibly December. 

3. If you have a beetle problem contact a qualified agency such as the Agriculture 
Commissioner's Office, Arboretum Department, Park Department, Tree Depart- 

4. Destroy all dead, dying or infested elm trees. Dispose of all elm wood in such a 
manner as to kill all beetles in the wood and prevent future inf( t tions 

The Smaller European Elm Bark Bettle has been instrumental in killing thousands of 

i throughoi 


county and municipal agencies and by property > 

wners followed by 


January 16th: Rose Pruning Demonstration 
yay, sponsored by the Pacific Rose Society, the 
L>escanso Gardens Guild and the Department of 
Aboreta and Botanic Gardens. This event will 
eature a special program with participation 
"^^J"janous members of the Pacific Rose Society 
light 2500 bTndks of rLTcuttingTwill'b^ gi^e^n 
away by the Giendale Area Girl Scout Council 



Aft Sditorial 

From time to time, it has been suggested that we editorialize on ideas and needs of 
certain functions concerning Cahfornia Arboretum Foundation, Inc. or Southern Call- 
tornia Horticultural Institute. Several times copy has been prepared but then set 
in preference to publishing the efforts of a contributor. 

You will notice that two articles in this issue are reprinted from The New ZeaUnd 
at enei. 1 his is not an unusual procedure; however, such a practice always twixts an 
editor s ego ,n the manner of reminding him that he has failed to present original copy. 
Keprmting is the crutch with which an editor remains ambulatory. 

The literary ( }) fare presented in Lasca Leaves is varied. The original Editorial Com- 
mittee set the topic coverage to include: horticulture, gardening, exotic plants, native 
plants, landscaping, travel in connection with plants, California history ; in fact, almost 
hJi^lied admissible so long as there is a plant subject relationship expressed or 

We are entering our tenth volume of Lasca Leaves. Copy for each issue of each 
be r\.^' sufficient, but never in surplus. Each issue starts from scratch, articles 
being obtained as late as three weeks before the - '--•'^^ 
Now, in publications of F " 

of them, it is not ' 

ment. Some editoi 

of limited circulation such as Lasca Leaves, and there are many 
al for the Editor to shoulder the major portion of copy procure_ 
1 write much of the copy— in this practice is hidden the seed ot 
a wide subject field:"" '"^'^ '"^''^'^^ ^""''^ ^"^^^^^^ '"^P""'^'^ 
no'^renHn^^^'''' ^'"""n materialistic rewards for authorship. No royalti^i 

wor d^Tr ^"-^"J^^'O" """^ber, although our efforts are mailed around the 

Z -^'".r^^- ^bout all we can ofT?r is an opportunity for anyone to see 

h.s thoughts in print (the author does receive five free cooies of the issue) and to have 
™ ^'^^^^ personaLx^ertSse-^ hoW 



doub^ 3DaceH ^^r. I'^l/""" September 10. It is helpful if copy is tyH; 

doub sS eoua! ^^^-^'^^^ -PX - fir.e. Two and Thalf pages of 

black and^ whiteTho^^^^^^^^ "^'fl ^"^^^^ ^^^P ^ 

P-S. Our pre ent .nn w '^"^^y^ ^ bright spot of appeal to any article, 
faithful coSutnrf L ^""'t^'' '"^^"^^^ ^he eyes of our regular^" 

long ago ^'^hout who's generosity we would have written this editonal 


Officers 1959 

William Beresford 
Howard Bodger 
Philip Edward Chandlj 
Ralph D. Cornell 
Mildred Davis 
Percy C. Everett 
Earle E. Humphries 

Samuel Avres, Jr. 
Robert Casamajor 

Hugh Evans 

Eric Johnson 
Nolan W. Kiner 
Elmer Lorenz 
Alfred W. Roberts 
George H. Spalding 

Vernon T. Stoutemv 

I Wilkes 

Y Council 

Murray C. McNeil 
Fred W. Roewekamp 
Lovell Swisher, Jr. 
Ronald B. Townseni 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institut 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office- Hlllcrest 6-8251 

William S. Stewart Director 

Ralph Ames Plant Pathologtsl 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

Leonid Enari Taxonomist 

Glenn H. Hl\tt Orchid Specialist 

Louis B. Martin Plant Physiologist 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Russella K. McGah Librarian 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Edward Huntsman-Trout Landscape Architect Con uUa t 

Donald P. Woolley Chief Horticulturist 


Vol. X. No. 2 


Board of Trustees 

President Robert Casamajor 

Ut Vice-President Ralph D. Cornell 

2nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

ecretary George H. Spalding 

Executive Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Dr. Elmer Belt Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Howard Bodger jqhn C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Atrhur Freed Samuel Mosher 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J- ^- Funk F. Harold Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Roger Jessup Lovell Swisher 

Mrs. Archibald B. Young 
Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Foundation Office— Hlllcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Business Membership 100.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 5OO.OO 

■.■.■.■.■.■.■.".■.'.■.■.■.■. $1,000 or more 

5,000 or more 

Club rneniberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law 

Box 688-Arcadia— California 

SPRING 1960 

Lasca Leaves 

!rly publication of the Southern California Hortii 
he California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issuec 
January, April, July and October. 

Vol. X APRIL 1, I960 No. 2 


Observations on Cultivated Ferns RoHa Tryon and Alice Tryon 26 

The Native Plants of California Percy C. Everett 34 

Cover 38 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Ayres, Jr., M.D. 39 

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Percy C. Everett 

Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Book Review 

California National Fuchsia Society 

Plant Nutrients and Manures 

Lasca Calendar 

Antelope Valley Test Station Donald P. Woolley 48 

Robert Casamajor Philip A. Munz 

Philip Edward Chandler Victoria Padilla 

Mildred Davis F- Harold Roach 

Louis B. Martin, Editor William S. Stewart 

Mildred Mathias Lee ^R^y Turner 



; United 

iches, ravine 

Observations on Cultivated Ferns: 
The Hardy Species of Tree Ferns (Dicksonia and Cyatheaceae) 

RoLLA Tryon and Alice Tryon 
Reprinted with permission from American Fern Journal, Vol. 49, No. 4, 

October- December, 1959, pages 129-142. 
The delicate, lacy leaves characteristic of the ferns are most elegantly 'iispj^^^j" 
tree ferns, where the stem becomes a trunk and holds them aloft ' " " ' 

vation of these handsome plants is unfortunately limited to a f 
States that are generally frost-free and cool and moist, or where 
lath houses can provide these requirements. Most of the species are native tu ui^^u 
drenched ravines or highlands in the tropics and sub-tropics but a few inhabit cooler ana 
drier areas. In sub-tropical Florida and coastal California from San Francisco to sin 
Diego, where they are cultivated, they are imports from New Zealand, Australia, an 
few from Mexico. There remains considerable horticultural potential in the group, 
encompasses some 700 or 800 species in six genera or more. The groves in ban rr 
Cisco's Golden Gate Park are especially notable and probably the most unique display i 
cultivation. Our interest in tree ferns stems from these. We found a total of 8 speoe^ 
in the park, in several groves of predominantly one or two kinds, and there are recora.^ 
that two others have grown there. In the Los Angeles area we have seen specimen 
herbarium records of notable collections at the University of California Botanic Oarae°, 
La Fleur Nursery, and in the gardens of Dr. W. C. Drummond and Mrs. Fay h. i 
Fadden, members of the Fern Society. The most complete herbarium collections oi 
vated species are in the California Academy of Sciences at San Francisco, ^e University 
of California, Los Angeles, and the United States National Herb: 

. This study has 

1 the hardy tree ferns and we have not considered those grown under glass. 

In spite of their distinctive aspect, the tree ferns have not been comprehensnei) 
studied and their grouping into genera is a perplexing problem. We have cn 
recognize Alsophila and Hemitelm in addition to Cyathea rather than unite tnei^ 
under the latter genus as has been done by several recent authors. The nature ot tne 
sium may not be a wholly reliable character nor may it afford the most natural dassu 
tion. However, until the several hundred species of the family have been adeq^^jj 
studied and a better classification proposed on a sound foundation it seems best 
abandon a character that does have a great deal of utility. . ,u the 

It may be noted here that in several species we have been able to observe bo h tn^ 
juvenile and mature plants of the same species and there are some ^^^^^^"^^^^ the 
leaves. The petiole of leaves of young plants may be much longer in PfoP2?'f",sitiofl 
blade than m old plants and the petiole scales may persist for a longer time. The posi 
of the pinnae, whether plane, somewhat erect or drooping seems to vary ^f"^'"' 
age of the plant and the amount of shade it receives. In Dicksonia fibrosa and ^- ''^^^^ 
Uca the characteristic l^f-cutting may not be found in the young leaves sine . 
are no differences in indument, it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish young^ 
viduals. Identification of the tree ferns is most easily done with fertile leaves having 
son mature but not old, thus allowing the indusium to be easily seen. However, w 
found many sterile specimens. We have employed in the key characters of these as 
possible. The best vegetative characters appear to be the indument of the blaae, 
[Volume 49, Number 3, of the Journal, pp. 97-128, was issued September 29, 1959-] 




DiCKSONiA ANTARCTICA Labill. Nov. Holl. Pi. Spec. 2: 100, /. 249. 1806. Tasmanian 

This species and D. fibrosa are not readily distinguished but it seems best to maintain 
them until a thorough study of the species in their native habitat is made. The characters 
presented in the key are not always correlated and occasional specimens will be difficult 
to identify. Leaves of young plants and small leaves of older ones are usually impossible 
to determine. However, all of the cultivated material we have examined was easily deter- 
mined when the specimens were adequate. Splendid plants up to 12 feet in height, hav- 
ing a crown of 25 or more leaves up to 10 feet long, occur in a grove near Rhododendron 
Dell along the Main Drive in Golden Gate Park. Among a hundred or more specimens 
in the park we noted a single plant with an offshoot at the base of the trunk. 

Native of Australia and Tasmania. 
Dicksonia fibrosa Colenso, Tasm. Journ. 2: 179. 1844. Woolly Tree Fern. 

The problem of distinguishing this from the previous species has been discussed. We 
have observed that in cultivated plants the trunks of D. fibrosa are generally shorter (the 
tallest we have seen was 7 feet) and the leaves are also shorter than those of D. antm- 
tica. The two species grow together in Golden Gate Park and there plants of D. fibrosa 
may have somewhat stiffer, more erect fronds. 

Native of New Zealand. 
Dicksonia squarrosa (Forst.) Swartz in Schrad. Tourn. 1800^: 90. 1801. Slenderer 
Rough Tree Fern. 

Trkbomanes squarrosum Forst. FI. Ins. Prod. 86. 1786. 

The long, appressed, leaf -bases give the slender trunks a unique fluted appearance. 
The two previous species have relatively stouter, unfluted trunks although the leaf-bases 
• Stolons are reported in native plants of this spa ■ ' ' 

L handsome grove of these in Delavega Dell in Golden Gate 
'ark with specimens 10 feet tall. 
Native of New Zealand. 

Alsophila R. Br. Prod. Fl. Nov. Holl. 158. 1810 
Alsophila australis R. Br. Prod. Fl. Nov. Holl. 158. 1810. Australia 

^aweaaustralis (R. Br.) Domin, Pterid. 262. 1929. 

cate petiole-base bearing nearly uniformVbright 'b'rown "scales," the' bullate scales on tw 
under-surface of the pinnule-rachises and costac, and the absence of squamules on tnc 

do not know of this species cultivated out-of-doors, but it is included because it is 
nly confused with Alsophila Cooperi. It may be identified by the brow 
ly uniform, bright brown 

Native of Australia and Tasmania. 

Alsophila Colensoi Hook. f. Fl. N. Zeal. 2:8 / 73 1854 Creeping Tree Fern. 
Cyatbea Colensoi (Hook, f.) Domin, Pterid. 262. 1929. , „,„t- 

We have not seen living plants of this species although there are specimens docujie 

ing Its former occurrence in the Strybing Arboretum and the La Fleur Nursery. 

SPRING 1960 


plants are reported to have prostrate trunks although the apex may be erect and up to 
5 feet tall. It resembles Hemitelia Smithii in having copious small, red, stellate squamules 
on the leaves ; these are particularly evident on the rachises and costae. The two species 
are clearly distinct when fertile, for the indusium in H. Smithi, is conspicuous and hemi- 
spherical m form whereas it is absent in ^. Coleusoi. Sterile specimens of A. Colensot 
may be identified by the following characters: The whitish or tan to light brown scales 
of the stipe, the bullate or subbuUate scales on the pinnule-rachises and costae (P'^ ^l 
and the simple veins of the ultimate segments. Hemitelia Snutim is characterized by dark 
brown stipe scales, flat or twisted scales on the pinnule-rachises and costae (Fig. 6). and 
forked veins of the ultimate segments, at least near the base of the segments. 

Native of New Zealand. 
Alsophila Cooperi Hook, ex F. Muell. Fragm. Phyt. Aust. 5: 117. 1866. Cooper's 
Tree Fern. 

Cyatbea Cooberi (Hook, ex F. Muell.) Domin, Pterid. 262. 1929. 

This is probably the most frequent and successfully cultivated species of the tree ferns 
It is grown both in Florida and California where we have seen specimens up to 12 feet 
tall ; it is reported to reach three times that height in Australia. Unfortunately this 
has been widely distributed under the name of A. australis: probably most of these culti- 
vated specimens are properly referred to A. Cooperi. In Los Angeles a vigorous strain 
of this species grown by Mrs Fay MacFadden and A. W. Roberts has been descriptively 



called Robust Tree Fern. The species is closely allied to A. excelsa; these two are dearly 
distinct from other species in having narrow, reddish scales among broader whitish to 
yellowish brown ones at the base of the petiole. Both kinds of scales have spincsctnt- 
serrate margins. Intermediate forms of scales occur. The species are also characterized 
and particularly distinct from A. austrdis by the early dehiscence of the petioles, which 
leave clean, oval leaf-scars on the trunk. 
Naive of Australia. 

Alsophila excelsa R. Br. ex Endl. Prod. Fl. Norfolk. 16. 1833. Norfolk Island Tree 

Cyatbea Browrm Domin, Pterid. 262. 1929, not Cyathea excelsa Swartz, 1801. 

This species is quite close to A. Coop en. The characters by which we separate the two 
in the key are large adapted from the work of Miss Tindale on the Australian Cyathe- 
aceae. It is rare in cultivation and we have seen only two living plants in Golden Gate 
Park, the largest of which was 22 feet tall. 

Native of Norfolk Island. 

X Hook. Icones PI. 10: /. 9Sy & text. 1854. Gully 

This is apparently rare in cultivation for we found record of it only at the Strybmg 
Arboretum where there is a single plant having a slender trunk 13 feet in height, ine 
blade of the leaf is of a thin texture and the petiole has scales of two kinds, both having 
delicate margins which erode. The scales of the blade and axes are stellate in form some- 
what resembling those of Alsophila Colensoi and Hemitelia Smithii but are mostly large 
and tan to brown. Some unusual scales may be found on the costules among the son, o 
a color and texture similar to the indusiurn, but subbullate in form and with a reddish 
brown, stellate apex. 

Native to Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. 
Cyathea dealbata (Forst.) Swartz in Schrad. Tourn. 1800^: 94. 1801. Silver King, 
Silver Tree Fern. ^ 
Polypodmm dealhatum Forst. F. Ins. Prod. 83. 1786. , 
The white, waxy covering on the under-surf ace of the leaves, which may extend to 
rachis and petiole, is distinctive of the species, although it is sometimes absent or poor ) 
developed. Roberts' Nursery has young plants and there are specimens recording it trom 

Cyathea delicatula Maxon, Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 13:4. 1909- 

This and the following two Mexican species were introduced into cultivation by J 
late Frank Montoya at the La Fleur Nursery in Los Angeles and were original y^a 
AlsophiU armata. Unfortunately, they have not proved to be as adaptable to cultiva 
as the Australian or New Zealand species and only a few have survived. Herbariuin 
^Fci^mens^have been preserved of these species and it is largely from these that we 

The pinnules and ultimate segments in this species are shorter and narrower than those 
of C. julva. giving a more delicate aspect to the leaf. 
Native of Guatemala and Mexico. 

Cyathea fulva (Mart. & Gal.) Fee, Mem. Fam. Foug. 9: 34. 1857. 

Alsophila fulva Mart. & Gal. Mem. Acad. Brux. 15: 78, /. 2.5. 1843. 

As indicated in the previous discussion this species resembles C. delicjiNii. Both lia\ c 
many bullate scales on the costae, although in this species (Fig. 9) they may be twice as 
large as in C. delicatula (Fig. 10). The indusium, completely endosmg the sorus in both 
species, is a remarkable, iridescent, cellophane-like tissue. There is a plant in the garden 
of Dr. W. C. Drummond. 

Native of Mexico. 

Cyathea MExiCANA Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 616. 1830. . , • ^ 

ing blackish spines on the petiole and in having ^the scales of the blade flat, whitish, and 
with marginal spinules some of which are red (Fig. 11). The pinnules are articulate, 
leaving clean scars on the pinna-rachises. There are plants m the garden ot Dr. W. C. 
Drummond and at Roberts' Nursery. 
Native of Mexico. 

Cyathea medullaris (Forst.) Swartz in Schrad. Journ. 1800^: 94. 1801. Black Tree 

Poly podium medullar e Forst. Plant. Esculent. 74. 1786; Fl. Ins. Prod. 82. 1786. 
This is the largest and most impressive of the tree ferns in cultivation. There is a 
splendid colony of them bordering the Lily Pond in Golden Gate Park, with specimens 
25 feet tall or more, and with leaves up to 16 feet long. The petioles of young plants 
may be greenish, rather than black, and new leaves on older plants may have the petioles 
greenish on the upper side. The black petiole becomes brown ^hen the leaves are dnea 
at a high temperature. The scales of the stipe base are of two kinds, both having 
spinescent-serrate margins. The scales of the pinnule-rachises and costae are remarkaDiy 
beautiful under magnification. The central portion is glistening white with a ^o^^e " 
attenuated marginal spinules, some of which are red. Dr. R. C. Cooper gives ^" ^^^^o"" 
of the decorative pieces called Ponga Ware that are prepared from the t^^nk^ « ^^i^ 
- • ' • ► mentions the former use as food of the pulp m the center of the trunk 

Hemitelia R. Br. Prod. Fl. Nov. Holl. 158. 1810 
Hemitelia Smithii (Hook, f.) Hook, in Hook. & Bak. Syn. Fil. 31. 1865. Soft Tree 

Cyathea Smitbii Hook. f. Fl. N. Zeal. 2 : 8, /. 72. 1854. ^ 
The fertile leaves easily distinguish the species but sterile ma enal 
culty because of similaritL ^'A Ahophna Colensou The matter 
treatment of that species. We have seen only a small, sterile, living plant of H. Srmthn 
m the Strybing Arboretum, which has leaves of an unusually thm texture. 
Native of New Zealand. 

Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

^This Journal, 47; 89-91. 1957. 



Z he Native Plants of Calif or ma 


Percy C. Everett 

;'We entered a country I little expected to find in this region. For about twenty miles 
It could only be compared to a park. ... The underwood, that had probably attended its 
early growth had the appearance of having been cleared away, and had left the statelv 
lords of the forest in complete possession of the soil, which was covered with luxuriant 
herbage, and diversified with pleasing eminences and valleys; which with the ran^eot 
lofty rugged mountains that bounded the prospect, required only to be adorned with the 
neat habitations of an industrious people, to produce a scene not inferior to the most 
studied effect of taste in the disposal of grounds." 

This passage from Captain George Vancouver's journal, describing his impressions 
while exploring California in the early 1790's, is a characteristic expression of the sur- 
prise many explorers experienced when they first beheld the oak-covered central Cali- 
tornia valleys. The records of the first early coastal expeditions led one to believe all of 
Cahtornia was very much a dry, desert land, lacking in forests. Needless to say, the vast 
park-like vistas of our many kinds of oaks are one of the chief charms of our state. And, 
wittiout a doubt, the species that excited the most comment was the Valley Oak {Querm 
/^^^/^ Nee) Many famous early-day explorers of our land, such as Vancouver, Fremont 
Bolander Newberry, Brewer and others, all expressed their admiration for the regal 
beauty of this native oak. ^ 

n.i" *^^^°"^se of our duties, it is necessary to collect California plant materials in all 
pa ts of the state, at all times of the year. We are envied by many fo^ these opportunities, 
but he trips are arduous, to say the least. However, there are many compensations, not 
the least of which is to behold at first hand the ever changing beauty of our land. We are 
Lnmn r ^ ? ''''' ^'^P' ^^^^ through the GreSt Valley where from the south- 

vTev uf "'^'".^ "'""y directions, to the uppermost parts of the Sacramento 

Coast^iVe oL m*"" ^b^^^^^the Valley Oak. In my opinion, the Valley Oak and tk 
beW ]Z\?f"v ^^"J"\'Sr'fon^ Nee) share equal honors, each in its own way, for 
being the stateliest and noblest of all the native California tre^s. 
orovidinr'^lv^ *''P needed acorns of the Valley Oak for 

vS^the ir. f -r" plantings. It had long been the desire of the writer to 

for the fnlfill I ^n Chico. What better excuse could one have 

tor the fulfillment of such a wish.? In due time we arrived at the scene To obser^■ethl^ 

1 at first hand, ; 

all sides by hundreds of others 

S and lefrn i ^' '""^ '"/'""^ with Ed Price of the Da?ey TreeSu,yer.^ 

A=a Gray flmous lm. ^"""^^ °^ C'''™' i"'^P<=*<i *e oak in company "j^ 

in the ^'oM7ZtC:^:,l^:::^. ;-e, Hooker pronounced it the Iarg«^ j 

S we know now it is not. Little did he realize that some day it 

SPRING 1960 

bear his name, and I'm sure he would be proud of the privilege ot lKi^>nc a not le 
specimen do homage to his memory. A plaque, attached to a hea\y lolumn oi tc c 
used to support one of the massive limbs, states the tree is 93 tcct tall .t "-^^^'^^^^^j^ 
reported as 101 and 110 feet) ; the spread north to south is 153 teet; the- Lirt.cs < ^^^ 
branch is 105 feet long; the circumference of the outside branches is i iO icc , ^^^^^ 
cumference of the trunk, 8 feet above ground level, is 29 feet; and it tu^ ^'^y^ J- ' ' ' 
■ " ing 2 square feet per nerson. could stand ,n Its sha.k. 

w-^aiiy a\>yju people, allowing z squaic j'^i j-v-.^^v..., 
itimated age is said to be 1000 years ; however, numerous studn 
go by the late Dr. Willis Linn Jepson, noted California botanist, pro%co mere aie 
f any, trees of the Valley Oak over 500 years old. roachment 

The "Sir Joseph Hooker Oak" is protected for all time against human cnc 
)v th^ ix..J- . 1 Ri,i,.,r^ll and Mrs. Annie h. K. Biowci 

by th; fa. Z'::.'Z^[:;X\,u'g::::A B^^^ and Mrs. Ann-e K^B-^Ud 
granted to the city of Chico 2400 acres for a park, making it the 5^^^^^^ 
park in the United States This park is noted for the many huge specimens otJ)C^mo^^ 



eep, richalluv 
nd spring raia 

niner's Tree" in Big Oak Flat was probably the first of the Valley Oak to attract attention. 
It was said to have a trunk diameter of over 1 1 feet, and was so venerated by the gold 
seekers that they passed a camp ordinance to protect it. However, it is said they them- 
selves caused its demise, when sluicing operations above caused the land to slip and carry 
the huge tree along with it. 

Other notable specimens of great size are the "Henley Oak," in Round Valley, Mendo- 
cino County, and the "Ward Oak," near Visalia, Tulare County. A tree in Priests Valley, 
San Benito County, is said to have a trunk circumference of over 36 feet. It is agreed by 
everyone that the "Henley Oak" is the largest of the Valley Oak specimens, though the 
good people of Chico claim the "Sir Joseph Hooker Oak" is the biggest. It little matters 
which is the biggest, except that it serves as a guide to know where such worthy speci- 
mens are located, and to make every attempt to preserve them. We are losing our heritage 
fast enough, and all we can do to preserve these native monarchs for posterity will all 
be for the good. 

It is not uncommon for this species of oak to reach 100 feet in height and to assume 
uge proportions. This is brought about by the fact that it almost entirely inhabits the 
' ' " 'al soils of our inland valleys. It appreciates great quantities of winter 
and with a water table not less than forty or fifty feet below the ground 

The lowering of the water table in many areas has been most detrimental to 

their continued healthy condition. Never is the species found growing naturally nearttie 
immediate coast, there being always a mountain range separating it from the direct ocean 
breezes. Altitudinally, it chiefly is found between 10 and 1400 feet, but may range to 
2700 feet in the northern half of its distribution to 4500 feet in the southern portion, 
and from the San Fernando Valley (a few specimens are said to extend as far as Pasa- 
dena) in southern California northward to the Trinity River and Shasta County in the 
Sacramento Valley. 

Best known as the Valley Oak, indicative of its natural habitat, Quenus lobata is otten 
called the California White Oak, the Weeping Oak (for its long, pendulous branches i. 
and Roble by the Spanish-Calif ornians who may have thought it was indeed the oak o 
their native homeland. In many ways, it may be compared to the eastern White Uauj 
the light green leaves and light gray bark, or even more distantly related to the beautiru 
Norman or English Oak (Quercus Robur). Captain Vancouver, while exploring ^ 
Santa Clara Valley in 1796, recorded that he thought it (the valley) had been "planter 
with the true Old Enghsh Oak." ^ 

A general description of the tree is: commonly 50 to 75 feet tall, but not rarely 
feet; its great crown, in typical form, is broader than high. The long, tortuous branc 
sweep down to the ground in pendulous, whip-like branchlets. The trunk ranges r 
2 to 8 or even 10 feet in diameter, the bark being light gray and divided into cuboia 
rectangular plates, 1 to 2 inches across, and split almost to the wood. The leaves 
usually 3 to 4 inches long, 2 to 3 inches broad, green above, paler beneath. The \oo t 
IS deep, with very few, if any, teeth. The acorn is long and cartridge-like, msertea 
moderately deep, warty, drab brown cup, and is at first bright green, later shading 
a mahogany or rich chestnut-brown. Huge crops of acorns are often pro^^^^^J- w^rnu 
as 2000 pourids in one season can be gathered from the largest specimens. The Call 
Indians relished them, as indicated by the following information noted by ^'^^f'^J 
his famed Second Expedition of 1844, when he found "an Indian village, consist, 
two or thrje huts; we had come upon them suddenly, and the people had evident! 
run off. Their huts were low and slight, made like bee-hives in a picture, five or s.x i 
sh^n^rf ^ ' °f interlaced branches and grass, m s'ze 

shape hke a very large hogshead. Each of these contained from six to nine bushels. ^ 

SPRING 1960 


were filled with the long acorns already mentioned, and in the huts were se\era nc. 
made baskets, containing quantities of the acorns roasted. They were sweet and -^greeabn 
flavored, and we supplied ourselves with about half a bushel leaving one ot our shirts, 
a handkerchief, and some smaller articles in exchange." , . , . 

In contrast to this, the hard wood of the Valley Oak is of httle -mpor ^"ce being 
quite brittle, and it was and is now used for firewood. For this reason, the raincr acris 
common name "Mush Oak" was applied to this tree by the ^'^^'y VM^ln^r 
favorites of the woodpeckers, wild pigeons, crows and magpies. Perhaps ' ^ .^'"^^^^ 
that commercially this oak is of no value; otherwise it would have been destroyed long 
ago and much of our rich heritage would have been lost forever. 

Horticulturally, the oaks have never been very popular, except for Tt:^""'-'Y,'f ' 
parks and large estates. One reason for this may be the erroneous opinion huo 
many people that they are all too slow growing. True, many fine species arc ""Y'^J ' 
but there are numerous species that can be grown to quite good s'^^^ '.^"'" ' - 
Our Valley Oak is among those attaining heights of 30 to 40 feet within "^J^^;'^,^^^;^ 
or 30 years. Their culture is not difficult, needing only a few ^^orns wnicn ta i 
directly into the desired location or started in seed beds so as not to namf 

•ng somewhat on the season), and while it has been said there is f 

produced, we always noted a very lovely soft gold each year. In late ^P^.^.^^^V/f^ 

grayish-pink foliage casts a most enchanting haze over the ^."ole c > ^ 

then our Valley Oak, and other deciduous species too, come into their ow n. u g 



hot, dry summer months, the filtering shade is most welcome, a fact noted by so many 
early California travelers, and to this day they provide a canopy for many a farm dwell- 
ing, and are preserved by cattle raisers for protecting the animals from the furnace-like 
summer heat. 

Jepson pointed out in his "Silva of California" that the Valley Oak has four marked 
stages of growth in its life history. The pole stage is first, strictly erect trees 10 to 20 feet 
tall. Then follows the elm stage, trees assuming a vase-like shape, 30 to 60 years old, and 
30 to 45 feet tall. Maturity is reached when they take on their normal aspect of the weep- 
ing stage, 100 to 300 years old, 50 to 100 feet or more high, and showing a very broad 
crown of tortuous branches and weeping sprays. The last stage is second youth, old trees 
that have lost their main branching system, through storm or disease, and as a last burst 
of strength, produce a growth of ascending branches, frequently irregular in outline and 
often broken topped. 

The first specimens of Q^uercus lobata were collected in the Monterey region in 1792 
by Senors Robredo and Esquerra, Spanish naval officers of the Malaspina Expedition. 
Accordmg to early British authorities, the species was introduced into Britain by Mr. 
Bolander in 1874, and possibly earlier. And there, it is reported, the tree has little to 
recommend it, being slow of growth and not striking in foliage. Undoubtedly, this fact 
IS due to the coolness of the climate, because this species must have heat as well as deep, 
rich soil, to do its best. For that reason, it would seem to be an interesting and very useful 
tree for our hot, interior valleys. So far as we know, it is not more readily subject to 
diseases than many of our most commonly grown trees. Where planted too near the coast, 
mildew will often attack the new growth, and among some of the older trees where con- 
ditions are least favorable, the leaves are attacked by anthracnose. Rot may take its toll 
m mutilated or improperly pruned trees. The most serious disease is the oak root fungus, 
common to many of our oaks, and for which it is a host. This alone might cause some 
hesitancy about planting it. However, let us fully enjoy while we may the many natural 
park-hke groves, and whenever and wherever possible, preserve these giants that add 
so much to California's beauty. 



look of the Administration Building at Rancho Santa 
It, California. The new wing, far right, adds 7000 square 

SPRING I9 6 0 

Kaneko Santa Ma botanic Qarden 

Percy C. Everett 
Since the Garden moved to Claremont some eight a-o. i.ipi^l pn 
made in the development of the general plantings and several ^[x.lah/.(.A 
Rock Garden, Desert Garden, Desert Sand Dune. Coastal Sand Duik, His 
and Plant Communities. An average of 15,000 plants have beui added ea^ 
with the very important and expanding scientific activities, it has lueii nut 
several additions to the physical plant, and to change the hours \\ lien ihe 
to the public. 

The most important project was the completion of a reintoued u)n^ 
air conditioned, two story wing on the east end of the Administration 1 
over 7000 square feet. This extra space provides much ne.ded ro.-m 
growing herbarium; several separate study rooms and a LLhor.itoiv t 
students; a 100-capacity assembly hall for seminars and for puhlu use. a 
space for supplies and publications. Louvers were installed aaoss the 
front of the entire building, in keeping with the design of the new addi 
tioning was installed for the library, and a new coat of paint was applit 

To beautify the main entrance to the Garden, a handsome new gat 
structed of native rock and redwood, providing an approach of dignity 

vith Mrs. Munz, librarian. Photo: Paul Kennedy 

new rcstroom was built at the north end of Inc 
nursery activity, a 10' x 40' section was added t 
It is of interest to all of our many friends and 
open to the public every day of the year to 5 p. 
Day, Fourth of July, Thanksg- ' • 
" ' made for 
1 Saturday 

post cards of Garden scenes and various publi 
purchased at the Garden. The Botanic Gan" 
hill Boulevard (Highway #66) in Clarem( 

i of increased 

a. To take c 
am lath house, 
itors that the Garden is now 
1 four hohdays, New Years 
reservations for guide sen- 

ly be made for every day except Saturday and Sunday. Attendants will be o.. - 
ds on Saturday and Sunday for those seeking information and other help. Colored 

New Aspect of America to be shown abroad for first time 
^^"^ty" American way of life will be demonstrated abroad for the firj 
time. With the opening March 25th ,n Rotterdam of the U. S. Exhibition at the w . 
Floriade an aspect of America will be revealed that is almost unknown to the peop 
in other lands. 

The family garden will be planted to bloom throughout the entir 
ana landscaping will include evergreens, cherry and redwood trees. 

Co-sponsors of the U. S. display which will cover three-and-one-half acres, are tn 
Foreign Agricultural Service of^thlb. S. Lp tmen o^ and the An^r^an 

Hor icultural Council. The Council, which h!s been working for nearly a year to ob^'j 
horHnt representing amateur, professional and commera 

cuW °'^«^"i2ations of the nation, as well as private citizens interested m bo^^' 


■ipled in number during her 
five year term of office. 

Mrs. Turner was instrumental in promoting such financial aids to the Foundation as 

and herb charts and recipe booklets. 

Yearly, at least 150,000 people enjoy riding the famous "Jeep Train". This was pos- 
sibly one of Mrs. Turner's most important supervisorial responsibilities. 

By choice, Mrs. Turner wished always to remain in the background at any meeting or 
gathering of the Foundation membership. However, her sparkhng blue eyes and capti- 
vating ready smile, never failed to draw the members and brightened any function she 
attended. She will be remembered by all of us in her role of a charming and interested 

Although she will not be in the office, she will continue to be associated with the 
Foundation in a very active manner on a volunteer basis. 

The Board of Trustees of the Foundation, during their regular March dinner meeting, 
paid honor to Mrs. Turner, expressing their sincere thanks for her many accomplish- 
ments in the name of the Foundation. 

To Lee, we wish the best of luck and happiness in the years to come and tender her 
a most heart felt 'au revoir'. 


Le Monde des Plantes, by Fernand Seguin and Auray Blain. 186 pp. Illustrated wth 
colored frontispiece, 2 colored maps, 6 color plates and 467 color photographs. Pub- 
lished by Centre de Psychologie et de Pedagogic, 8225 boulevard Saint-Laurent, Mon- 
treal 11, P. Q., Canada. 1959. $2.75, plus postage. ^ . . , 

It IS rare that an elementary textbook is deserving of review and that a text of any 
•s of general interest. However, this little volume, written for eighth and ninth grad« 
classes in Botany, makes the conventional book drab and uninteresting in contrast u^e 
four hundred of the almost five hundred plates are excellent reproductions in color or 
original kodachromes taken largely at the Montreal Botanic Garden by Dr. Blain, sta" 
cytologist and geneticist. Only a few of the plates have suffered in reproduction and tn*; 
quality of most is excellent. The plates are arranged to illustrate the parts o a p ant, 
and the common plants in several families and major groups of the plant kingao ^ 
Colored charts are used where photographs would not be effective. The whole lorni 
of the book shows the experience of both authors in popularizing the sciences m mo^es. 
radio and television. They are to be congratulated on another successful pro'^"^'^";, u 

Le Monde des Plantes is a book which pleases the eye, attracts the reader and shouW 
be a pleasure for the beginning student. If you have a child learning French here is ^ 
easy-to-read book which will give him Botany as well. If you are a green-thumber n^<i 
ing some elementary information on plants aLactively presented this book will p ove^ 
useful addition to your library. All too often our references are monotones and unattrac 
Tl' A I ""^u ' "'^^^^ ^^^t be done and should provide inspiration to^ 
a student, author and publisher. An English edition is in preparation which wiU ^ 
a Innet ,7'" ^^^cn\^tlon and is certain to be met with similar acclaim since it 

A " ^'"^^ ^^'^^^^^ recommended for every reference she 

Itbrary and schoolroom to that of the professional taxonomist, hordculturist or )ustpl^' 

SPRING 1960 

Annual Fuchsia Flower and Shade Plant Show, sponsored by the California Nation 
Fuchsia Society, will be held Saturday and Sunday, June 18 and 19, in the Long Bci. 
Municipal Auditorium, Long Beach, California. The show will be open to the puhl 
from 2 p.m. to 10 p.m. Saturday and from 12 noon to 9 p.m. Sunday. Admission 
be $1.00. 

Individual garden displays will be exhibited by California National TuthsKi Souctv 
30 branches, extending as far north as San Luis Obispo, featuring landsL.ipLcl c.u.kv. 
outdoor living areas, unique ideas and natural settings. The show will Ix dcAclopi 
around the theme "Fact or Fantasy". 

Garden areas by other cooperating garden clubs will feature related sh.ulc- plants 

Individual entries are open to the public as well as to society members IIksc \\ 
include hundreds of fuchsias, fuchsia blossoms, begonias, ferns, Alrican \ i<ildv lIo 
inias and bromehads. Separate classifications will be provided for novices \xiio h.i\c n 
won a ribbon or trophy in any previous show and for experienced amateurs. 

Blossoms of fuchsia seedlings for future introduction, as well as recent vear s Jioi 
introductions, will be on exhibit by some of California's most prominent hvluidi/ers. 

Hundreds and hundreds of fuchsia blossoms, each variety displayint^ its proper nan 
and growing habits, will be on exhibit to the viewing public. 

Additional displays will feature the latest in garden equipment and material tor ,4:a 
deners. The Southland's most prominent shade ph ' ' ''"^ 
garden personalities will be at the show to give indi . <t r \ 

Grand introduction of the show will take place Saturday at 2 p.m when Miss 1 uehsia 
Queen of I960 will cut the ribbon, thus ushering in the opening of the show otttciaU) . 

Miss Fuchsia of I960 will be officially crowned Saturday evening by M>ss Be sie C.a} le 
Davis of Inglewood, last year's queen. Thereafter the Fuchsia Queen of I960 assisted 
by her two princesses, will award over 50 trophies to winners in the various classifications. 

California National Fuchsia Society is a non-profit organization with a zest to s^'";"^^ ^ 
interest in and the culture of fuchsias and other shade plants, and is probably the largest 
shade plant society of today. 


Plant Nutrients and Manures 
How the Various Elements Affect Growth 

H. Jacks 

Massey Agricultural College, Palmerston North 
J.?!: t'^'.' ^ widely known soil scientist, has prepared for fhe ^^^f^^/^^ °J Jj; 

s of plants 

(Reprinted fron, T^e Neu^ Zealand Gardener Vol. 15, No. U July 1, 1959 and Vol. 15. .no. 
August 1, 1959) 

recommendations be made for a definite soil type and district. ^tt^^ixon 

To obtain favorable responses to fertilizer treatment the grower must p > 
tothefollowinp: ^ 



(aeration, drainage, soil structure, water 
ition and by maintenance of organic mat- 
wither by apphcation of animal residues, compost, mulches, or by growing of 
green manure crops. 

2. Improvement of soil reaction levels and their maintenance to suit the crop. 

3. Use of balanced proportions of the main nutrients, and application of adequate 
amounts to ensure optimum yields under the prevailing conditions. Control of trace ele- 
ment deficiencies. 

4. Placement of fertilizers in the most beneficial way, and use of these materials at 
the right time. Avoidance of materials likely to be injurious to certain crops. 

5. Use of good seed of vigorous varieties selected for respective regional conditions. 

6. Control of weeds, diseases and pests. 

In general, although we discuss individual plant nutrients and their effects on growth, 
they must be considered in the light of being part of the plant as a unit. They can increase 
yield when acting in combination with other substances, and can depress yielc' 
' " ..... - - _ -^^ - ^5takeo 

ilthy plant development. 
Nitrogen is associated ivith plant proteins, important growth processes and manutac- 
turing and growth-promoting substances. Its lack affects the size, color and yield of crops 
and the length of the growing period. In excess it induces luxuriant top growth, but the 
root system remains ineffective to supply sufficient moisture, especially under conditions 
of partial drought. Spongy and weak tissues are produced in excess of strengthening 
tissues, and susceptibilities to the effects of climatic variations and diseases are increased- 
In addition, ripening is delayed and quality of produce is often depressed. When applied 
in combination with phosphoric acid and potash, it is instrumental in increasing yieW 
and quality. Plants cannot absorb nitrogen from the air, where it constitutes 78 percent 
of the atmosphere, but this is utilized by certain groups of micro-organisms. Leguminous 
- ^j^^ ^.^j^ ctti^:m bacteria which supply them with nitrogen in conv 
acteria fix nitrogen from the air and provided soil conditions and 
nutrient supplies are adequate, may add up to 200 lb. of nitrogen per acre. Small amounts 
of nitrogen are also washed in by rain. 

Nitrogen is not supplied by soil forming minerals but by the soil organic matter. The 
only soils rich in nitrogen are those amply supplied with organic matter, e.g. peaty soils, 
their nitrogen content being made available to plants by fermentation processes of so i 
micro-organisms. In mineral soils, nitrogen supplies are meager and they generaU) 
respond to supplementary applications. Plants take up nitrogen in the nitrate and am 
monmm form (urea, a compound rapidly absorbed by plants is also transformed into 
ammonium by an enzyme present in plant tissues) . In most soils both forms have prove 
equally effective in plant nutrition and the availability of both forms to plants is som - 
times of advantage. Under favorable conditions the ammonium form is rapidly trans^ 
formed into the nitrate form by the action of micro-organisms. The maintenance o 
satisfactory reaction levels is important to ensure oprimum conditions for the benehaai 
sou organisims. The ammonium form may, however, be of disadvantage where mag 
nesium deficiency is prevalent, as ammonium restricts the uptake of magnesium, 
nitrate promotes it. ^ 

Phosphorus plays an important part in the nutrition of soil organisms responsible for 
the transformation of organic matter it is instrumental in the utilization of energy 
plants and the formation of plant fats, it is an essential consrituent of vital cell constitu- 
ents and of many enzymes. Deficiences are made manifest by poor root development- 

applied in excess either by being toxic to the plant or by' upsetting the uptake of other 
elements essential for healthy plant development. 

bined fo^ 

SPRING 1960 

small leaves with greenish-red, reddish-brown, purple or bi 
ripening are retarded, fruits are small. 
Bacteria supplying leguminous plants and through them c 

loped root system for absorption of available soil supplies, l.x^os cttut^ oi 
phosphorous are highly exceptional. A high phosphate content of plant pnuhi.L is 
sirable for the nutrition of man and animals. Soil supplies of this cknunt nproui! ,i 
rather difficult problem. Supplies available to plants are rapidly converted into 
able forms, especially in acid soils. 

Added amounts are normally utilized by plants during the first year. .1 p ut oi 
additions being locked up by soil processes. By placement of phosphate in iuiuls ilu 
locking-up process can be delayed, plants are able to use larger proportions ol additums 
as these are exposed to lower amounts of soil than occurs under normal uMiJitiotis o! 
applications. In soils with high fixing power it is of advantage to usl less casih s.iluhli 
materials, e.g. serpentine super. 

A proportion of soil phosphorus exists in organic combinations ami Ix.oii'es a\ailah e 
to plants when organic matter is decomposed. Apart from supplyin.u plK)sp lorus to 
plants, organic matter is instrumental in delaying fixation, and mobilizmg supplies t rom 
mineral matter. Unlike nitrogen, which in the nitrate form is rapidly Icaehed out oi t le 
soil, phosphorus is not subject to leaching. Topsoil removal by surtaic erosion is t je 
greatest cause of losses. Soils to which regular additions of phosphate ha\c txen maoe 
can thus be enriched to an extent of allowing reduction of applications after .ertain 
levels have been attained , ■ • 1 1 ». 

Potassium is taken up by plants in very large amounts. It is very mobile in the plant 
and accumulates where growth processes are most active. Deficiency- symptoms are mo tly 
discernible in older leaves It acts on the vascular mechanism of plants, reducing the 
tendency to wilting, promotes the uptake and assimilation of energy K'v>ng carbond.^ 
oxide from the air, the formation of sugars, fats and proteins, etc. It is correc-tn g 
excess nitrogen, contributing to hardening of supporting tissues ^^1"?'"^ f J' ^ V 
ance to lodging, and better quality fibre in plants grown for production of this ma^cri 
It also gives better keeping qualities to fruit, and increases the f f/^^f/ ' ■ „ 
disease. An excess of potassium uptake may cause thick skin and delayed -"'pcnrng^o 
otrus fruit, and in all crops reduce the absorption of magnesium, thus aeecn u ^ 
deficiency of this element. Potassium present in soil minerals becomes ^^^^^^^^ 

element and smaffanl f;;q"u;nT;p plications should be made to reduce je-hinK b^^^^^^^ 

or brownish-grey and die off later. The rest of the leaf remains healthy and gree 
Deficiency symptoms may be particularly marked during drought peric 


Iris Society Flower Show— April 30 and May 1, I960, Arboretum. 
Arboretum District Flower Show-May 7 and 8, I960, Arboretum 


Mtelope Valley Zest Station 

A Progress Report 
Donald P. Woolley 
The Los Angeles County Department of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens maintains a 
small test site in the Antelope Valley near Palmdale, California. This article presents 
1 brief report of the plantings covering a 17 months period. The first report, published 
in Lasca Leaves, Autumn 1958, Vol. VIII, No. 4, covered the first 14 months of the 
site's establishment. 

Maximum summer temperatures during the period reported, 1959, reached 107°F. 
Lowest winter temperature was 15°F. The plants received weekly maintenance of water- 
ing and weeding. 

itatively and empirically rated as follows: 1 — 

the plants 1 

Clematis heraclaefolia 
Pyracantha (sport) 
Acacia aibida 
Berberis wilsonii 
Callistemon lanceolata 
Callistemon salignus 
Ceanothus crassifolius 
Cercidium torreyanum 
Cotoneaster serotina 
Eleagnus umbellata 
Eucalyptus erythronema 
Eucalyptus rodantha 
Eucalyptus rugosa 
Fontanesia phyllyraeoides 
Genista spp. 
Ilex wilsoni 

Lagerstroemia indica (dwarf) 
Ligustrum ibolium 
Madura pommifera 
Prunus pumila 

Prunus sieboldi 
Pyracantha spp. 
Salvia grahami 
Sophora davidi 
Viburnum Opulus sterile 

Actinostrobus pyramidalis 
Albizzia julibrissin rosea 
Broussonetia papyrifera 
Catalpa ovata 
Chilopsis linearis 
Cupressus stricta 
Golden Locust 'Sunburst' 
Liquidambar orientalis 
Maytenus boaria 
Parkinsonia aculeatus 
Pawlonia lilacina 
s halepensis 

Pistacia atlantica 
Quercus acutissima 
Quercus variabilis 
Washingtonia filifera 

Tie? iS^q"' 'r?"' ^''''^ P^^) '^^d^ ^^^^Ile^t growth during the s 

Tier, i^5>>, and set an abundance of seed. 

varrml^"^ Eucalypts were tried and although they were very small, only one specii 
ktiZ^f-A^''' T^^ '"^^"'^^d the r96l Progress Report. 
Rabbits and ground squirrels continue to cause damage during the winter months 


Officers 1959 

William : 


Board of Directors 
William Beresford 
Howard Bodger 
Philip Edward Chand 
Ralph D. Cornell 
Mildred Davis 
Percy C. Everett 
Earle E. Humphries 

Nolan W. Kiner 
Elmer Lorenz 
Alfred W. Roberts 
George H. Spalding 
William S. Stewart 
Vernon T. Stoutemy 


Advisory Council 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. 
Robert Casamajor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 
Mildred E. Mathias 

Murray C. McNeil 
Fred W. Roewekamp 
LovELL Swisher, Jr. 
Ronald B. Townsend 
Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member 

Group or Club 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 

Contributing Member 

Commercial Member 

Sustaining Member 

Life Membership 

j Thursday of Lh month, Plumn 
-Ml Sant.i Monica Boulevard 
,w.,ilnf the Community 

Box 688— Arcadia—California 


e official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Instit 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office— HI llcrest 6-8251 

William S. Stewart Director 

Ralph Ames Plant Patbologfst 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

Leonid Enari Taxonomist 

Glenn H. Hiatt Orchid Specialist 

Louis B. Martin pUru Physiologist 

J. Thomas McGah plant Recorder 

RussELLA K. McGah . Librarian 

George H. Spalding ; Superintendent 

Edward Huntsman -Trout Landscape Architect Consultant 

Donald P. Woolley chief Hortkulturtst 


Board of Trustees 

resident Ralph D. Cornell 

St Vice-President. F. Harold Roach 

nd Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Assistant Secretary Mrs. Elsie L. MURRAY 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. ■ Charles S. Jones 

Dr. Elmer Belt Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Howard Bodger John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Atrhur Freed Samuel Mosher 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J. D. Funk F. Harold Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Roger Jessup Lovell Swisher 

Mrs. Archibald B. Young 
Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 

Foundation Office— HIilcrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership ^^-^^ 

Annual Contributing Membership ^^-^^ 

Annual Business Membership 1^"-^^ 

Annual Sustaining Membership lO^-^^ 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders Si, 000 or more 

Benefactors 5,000 or more 

All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 


Lasca Leaoes 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute and 
the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issued on the first of 
January, April, July and October. 

Vol. X JULY 1, I960 No. 3 


Botany at UCLA Lyle Py^att 50 

The Native Plants of California Edward K. Balls 

All Aboard! 

Plant Nutrients and Manures, Part II H. Jacks 

Horticultural Nomenclature V. T. Stoutemyer 

Dodonaea vhcosa purpurea V. C. Davies 

A Professional Gardener School 


The World We Live In Edward Huntsman-Trout 

Book Review T. C. Robertson 

Demonstration Turf grass Plots 

Tw^o Book Reviews "^'"''^ 

15th Horticultural Congress and Annual Meeting ''^ 

Names, Notes and News 

Weather Record 

69. 71 

Robert Casamajor 
Philip Edward Chandler 
Mildred Davis 
Louis B. Martin, Editor 
Mildred Mathias 


Victoria Padilla 
F Harold Roach 
William S. Stewart 
Lee Wray Turner 



Lyle Pyeatt 

The Department of Botany at UCLA has moved from its original quarters in the 
Physics Building to the new four-story Botany Building recently completed in the 
north end of the Botanical Garden. The increased facilities include, in addition to 
administrative and staff offices, eight teaching laboratories and a classroom with a 
total area of nearly 6000 sq. ft. and eight research laboratories with approximately 
the same area. Growth rooms with controlled light and temperature conditions for 
plants grown by students in the elementary classes provide an unusual feature. The 
collection of nearly 300,000 herbarium specimens, previously stored in the Plant 
Physiology Building, is now located in a multilevel unit within the new building. 
Adjacent to the herbarium are a taxonomic reference library of 1600 volumes, and 
ample study and work areas. 

A pleasant, shaded patio at the rear of the building will be used as an informal, 
outdoor classroom. Landscape plantings around the new structure and in the patio 
have been completed by Botanical Garden personnel. Many of the accent trees, 
including specimens of Phoenix roehelenVt, Phoemx recVnmUu and Lhistona cmstrdn, 
were formerly on the Vavra Estate. 

The new building, opposite the Plant Physiology Building, brings together in one 
area the various fields of interest within the Department. The lower level of the 
Plant Physiology Building has been completed to provide several temperature and 
light control rooms and a research laboratory. On the upper level are two research 
greenhouses with a total area of 4800 ft., a teaching laboratory and a research 


With the new building located on the grounds of the Botanical Garden, rcquircnuiits 
for plant materials can now be provided more efficiently. Students may use tlic cirdui 
during regular class and laboratory sessions and the field and lath house arc more 
readily accessible for research projects that require outdoor growing sp-ue. 

There are 12 academic staff members in the Department of Botany, a non- 
academic staff of 10 and 45 graduate students. Research activities include; Taxonomy 
of native and ornamental plants, electron microscope studies of the cell wall, studies 
on photoperiodism, endogenous rhythms, mineral nutrition, virology, nudical 
mycology, soil fungi, marine algae, plant hormones including auxins and mhlxrcUins. 
and other subjects. 

The Department of Botany offers opportunities of graduate study for the M A 
and Ph.D. degrees. The programs leading to these degrees are very flexible inakin.i: 
it possible for students to prepare for careers in teaching, research or a combination 
of teaching and research. In addition to the classical botanical fields ot Anatonn. 
Morphology and Taxonomy the department includes the fields of Plant Pliysiolo-v. 
Medical Mycology, Virology, Genetics and Evolution. This unusual breadth. wIikIi 
is one of the unique and desirable characteristics of botany at UCLA, will he nHreascd 
with the addition of an Ecologist to the academic staff next fall. 

The Botanical Garden occupies approximately eight acres along a ravine in k 
southeast part of the campus. A diversity of growing areas is provided ranging trom 
aquatic to dry, exposed slopes. Plantings of special interest are succulents paimv 
camellias, conifers and Australian plants, especially Acaaa and Eucalyptus. Botanic ! 
Garden facilities include a lath house, a small screen house for controlled pollmations. 
a plot for the field growth of experimental plants and a small greenhouse or 
tropical plants. Classes from several departments within the University and near 
schools and colleges make use of the garden. These classes r^P'^^^"^'""'^^^^^^t,on 
a-ctivities as ornithology, art and cinematography. In addition to its use in ins ^^^J 
the garden offers a park-like atmosphere on the busy campus. It is ^^^4"^""^ , 
by staff and patients from the adjacent Medical Center as well as by the genera 
' - • .J. f^. ^.hirf. shidv Nurserymen and home-owners 
.nged for large groups. 

Zhemive Plants ofCalifomia 

Edward K. Balls 

^'^Pertana icaas: ■ r , petiole 

"Frutex erectus 2-5 dm. altus; foliolis 5-9 frequenter 7, J^^go dm high: 

basi distante ovato 2.5-6 em. longis, dentibus 7-9 spinosis. Sterns erect 2 5a . j 
^^flets 5.9 commonly 7, the low'er' pair usually distant frorn 
° '^te 2.5-6 cm. long spinose-dentate, with 7-9 teeth on each margin ^PF .j^^ 
go^sy green rather^ finely reticulate, the lower sur ace Pjl? oid- 

«^'Oid. Usually on thinly wooded slopes Arid Transition Zone, Jackson ^ J F 
Counties. OreLn Tvrl^..;.. .n^ northern Lake County, California. 1}?^ / 





Mr. P. C. Everett, we have not once come across native plants of B. aqu'ijoUum south 
of the Oregon border. The herbarium records here at Claremont have only two 
specimens of this latter species from California, one from Trinity Co. and the 
second from the Warner Mts. in Modoc Co. Over the border in Oregon, B. aqiajoliiim 
is more abundant as one travels northwards. 

So far as we have been able to observe the two species under conditions of cult.vat.on 
in Southern California, B. Piperiana would appear to be the more handsome plant, 
with rather broader and darker-colored leaflets and stronger, reticulated veining on 
their upper surfaces. One single leaflet measured was 3I/2 i"^hes wide by 
inches long; and leaflets of this size are not uncommon. The growth ot this speucs 
is often more dense, though the stems will frequently grow taller— up to c-i,!:hi lea. 
or more. The individual racemes of flowers in B. Piperiana are rather longer th.ui 
those of B. aquijolium, up to 41/2 inches. The flowers are a soft yellow, simiLir to 
other species of the genus. The berries are in general larger and carried in ^^x^ 
heavy, handsome clusters. ., , 

We have noted that in our hot, dry summer climate the leaves ot B aqui]oi,um 
are quite subject to the attacks of leaf-miner and tend to become ragged or shabby, 
while this evil is much less evident with the more robust B. Piperiam.^ 

W. J. Bean in his '"Trees & Shrubs Hardy in the British Is es (1929) says ot 
B. aquijolium, "Few evergreen shrubs introduced from abroad have ever ^een so 
valuable in British Gardens as this . . . Raised from seed it vanes to a considerat e 
extent." This praise could undoubtedly be shared between the two species ^'^e^ 
there is little or no reference to B. P^pefiana in the literahire of horticulture as the 
species seems to have been overshadowed by B. aquijoltum, or not recognized 
separate from it, by collectors and growers alike. . ^ j . „rn^, fhis 

The first attempts made by the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden to^^°^ J. 
species were not very successful. From seed we had no germination though a numb 
of treatments were given, such as: soaking in water and lye, burning pine needles 
on the planted flat, holding in the refrigerator for periods up to ^ j 

"months, and so on. Bare root plants brought in from the ^''l'^ ^^^^ "^'^jf^hc 
and some plants were grown from tip cutfings. While many of thf jre-^J^j^ 
^teep, east slope where they were planted, shaded by a heavy growth P onl) 
S.X remained alive by 1948, one to two feet talL In 1951 ^^^[^^"'"^Je planted 
moved into cans for transfer to the new site in Claremont. ^^'^^^^"i ^^,5. 

thtv'nt- '^T '^-^ '"-^'^ ^y^- i"°TulfCarf n^^^^^^^^ tall 

"'ey continued to improve in condition year by year untii_rney dit _ 
and three feet through. They started flowering, after their move m 1955 n ^ 
^ere borne the following year. These plants have ^ ^/p of this 

^^very year since then. While they are still not the most handsome g/oup ot 
pes in the garden now, their present condition ^ould seem to suggest th 

Fifty-five plants were planted out from this collection _ 



of Arbutus Menziesii and Cercis ocddentaUs. This latter group is now one of the 
finest in the garden. While those in the open sun and sharply drained granite are 
somewhat less vigorous they are still excellent plants to six feet tall and five feet or 
more through. Both colonies have been flowering and fruiting freely since 1955 (a 
little over two years from seed). In the heavier soil with rather more irrigation 
plants are now up to eight feet tall, with a spread up to ten feet. 

Other collections of seed, both from the wild and collected in the garden have 
Deen stratihed either by placing them in moist sand or sphagnum moss in glass jars 
in the refrigerator, or later, by placing the flats in which the seed was already planted 
directly into the refrigerator held at a temperature of 38° to 40° F. Germination 
regularly takes place in approximately three months and is usually a very high 
percentage of the seed sown. / ; & 

So far as we know, the only nursery which is offering this valuable plant is the 


1960, the California Aboretum Foundation, Inc., proudly displayed 

ai.u puc into service their new Jeep Train 

As the picture shows, the design of the Train 
present equipment. Now visitors face forward, elimi„...^ - 
AU^ JT points of interest "now on the right" or '"now on the left" of the traffl. 

The ?r """f ' '^^'^ ^"^^'"S off tl^^ bench as the tram rounds a corner. 

•si/fF f A represent more than two years of planning by the Arboretum 

wofkm; ^atTer^ Seal's "^^^^^^1 ArborLm's _^peJM needs. Final 

fabrication of the " 
Anaheim, Caliform 

The new equipment .nitinh.. .n Arboretum Foundation plan to 

nplete change from the 

»juiu meet the Arboretum' 
: by the engineers of Weld-It Co. of Los Angeles i 
was completed by the Taylor-Dunn Manufacturing Co. ' 


equipment initial 
trams as funds become available. The ...^ 
'g equipment .s made possible by the generosity of the 

A'ho take the 



Plant Nutrients and Mdn^^^s 

H. Jacks 

Massey Agricultural College, Palmerston North 
(First half of article appeared in Lasca Leaves, Vol. X, No. 2, Spring I960, pg. 45 It is a rcpHnt 
from The New Zealand Gardener Vol. 15, No. 11 and Vol. 15, No 12). 
Calcium is applied to the soil to bring acid soils into a pH range favorable to plants 
grown, to allow optimum development of microbial life and earthworm adivity. aiui 
thus improve soil structure and to supply this nutrient to plants. The laruc .unounts ot 
lime applied to soils are mainly for improvement of physical conditions. ( aKium .ifTnts 
water absorption in plants, protein, sugar and fat production, etc. Excess of (..iluuin 
restricts the uptake of potassium, it can therefore induce deficiencies of potassium aiui 
also those of other elements, i.e. iron, zinc, copper, manganese and boron. It is not 
mobile in the plant and accumulates in older tissues. Deficiencies occur first in youn.ucr 
tissues, but symptoms (yellowing of leaf margins) tend to merge gradually into hciltln 
tissues. Leaf margins are contorted and may show brown spottmg. . 

Magnesium is important in the production of sugars, protem and fats, in cnz)mc 
reactions and in the formation of vitamins. It promotes absorption and translocation oi 
phosphorus. Application of compounds containing magnesium to the soil may take some 
time before they are effective. Absorption of sprays through the leaves is more rapid. 
Uptake of this element is favorably affected by nitrate and adversely by ^l^o"';;^' 
potassium and calcium. Deficiency symptoms first appear in the older leaves and migrate 
to younger leaves later in the season. Since magnesium takes part m the formation or 
chlorophyll, its deficiency brings about spots between leaf veins. Leaves acquire 
checkered or stripey appearance. Affected areas do not die, but take .^^^'^^^^ ^7 ' 
e.g. yellow, yellowish-grey, brownish-red, violet and may be shed in large numDers. 
Adverse effects on yield may be prevented by spraying with "^^g""'^'^ /"^.f "'S, j 
, Sulphur, is essential for enzymes controlling vital plant processes. It n ed 'I b> 
legumes and soil micro-organisms It is usually supplied in other fertilizer materials, c.g^ 
superphosphate, sulphate of ammonia and potash, etc. Deficiency symptoms are sin^lar 
to those of nitrogen; i.e., uniform yellowing of leaves and reduced grov^th. 

Boron, is necessary for growth processes and absorption and translocatio 
stances byjhe conducting vessds.^Its^deficiency js^there^ore fijst ^^'^^^^^ ^^Zo^l: 
An effectix 

These show curling, malformation, sunken 1 

frequently observed on light soils than on heavy ones. An enfant uc 
application of borated supfr. or 15-30 lb. per acre of borax. Sudden ^^^^^ 
!'me accentuate boron deficiency. Excess is dangerous and revealed in injuries 

nd to roots. 

Iron, is a key element in various processes vital to effective plant grov 
symptoms first appear on the young shoots, leaves remain small and na 
color sometimes turning almost white. Deficiencies are more prevalen 
shrubs than in annual crops Iron applied to the soil may be fixed before 
"P by plants, but chelated compounds (organic complexes) have given , 
It can also be supplied by spray applications, e.g. the ferbam 

^nt growth. Deficiency 

of leaf. 

spots contains iron. , chlorophyll, reduction of nitrat 

.manganese, like iron is necessary for plant chloropftyn, ^e-.-" - ■ 
P'^ation, and acts as go between (catalyst) in ^^^y .^^^f^ '"f P' Xere areas between 
occurs mainly in light soils of high pH; appears first in ^I^^^^^^lJ^^^^^^^^^^ uptake of 
ems are bleached while leaf vein^ remain green^ ^''""I'^Jm. with Sydrated 
>^on and magnanese. A single spray application of manganese sulpna 



lime prepared like Bordeaux Mixture 6:8:100, controls this deficiency for 2 to 3 years. 

Copper, promotes the formation of enzymes and vitamins. Deficiency symptoms are 
most noticeable when water is in short supply. Leaves and twigs may turn yellow and 
die. Its deficiency in pastures causes serious stock diseases. Spraying with fungicides con- 
taining copper controls this deficiency. Excess soil applications must be avoided. 

Zinc, typical deficiency symptoms occur in fruit trees. These show up as dwarfed 
growth and "little leaf" together with rosette like formations, shortening of internodes 
of young shoots and loss of green color of foliage. The deficiency may occur on localized 
parts of trees. It can be controlled by an annual application of zinc sulphate with hydrated 
lime prepared as is Bordeaux Mixture. 

Molybdenum, is required in minute amounts for the assimilation of nitrates and fixa- 
tion of atmospheric nitrogen by the nodule bacteria living in association with leguminous 
plants. Its deficiency causes "whip-tail" of cauliflowers. When applied in excess it may 
be injurious to plants and animals. Rates of application range from 1 oz. per acre of 
pasture to 1 lb. per acre for cauliflowers. 

Other nutrient elements. Cobalt deficiency brings about a disease afi^ecting the grazing 
animal. Its presence in the plant is instrumental in the manufacture of vitamin B-12 
which IS essential for man and beast. Iodine and fluorine are required for the formation 
ot hormones and development of teeth. Vanadium and wolfram replace molybdenum 
in the requirements of some free-living notrogen fixing bacteria in the soil. 

Organic manures (animal and plant residues) contain nitrogen, phosphorus, small 
amounts of potash and very small amounts of trace elements and growth promoting sub- 
stances. Contents in major nutrients are considerably lower than in fertilizers. Their 
greatest value lies in their beneficial effects on the soil, for apart from adding nutrients, 
organic matter promotes microbial processes and earthworm activity, improves soil struc- 
ture, and with It aeration and water holding capacity. It has an adjusting efl'ect on soil 
temperature, delays the fixation of phosphate in the soil, and during decomposition it 
aids in the release of nutrients from soil minerals. It is also a source of slowly available 
nitrogen and other nutrients to plants and its effects are discernible over several seasons. 
Organic manures create in intensive agriculture the necessary conditions for successful 
use ot fertilizers, i.e. good soil properties for crop establishment and optimum growth 
further promoted by the addition of nutrients in fertilizers Plant residues with a low 
nitrogen content, e.g., straw, sawdust, etc., can cause temporary nitrogen deficiency for 
crops growing in soil to which these materials have been added. This is due to the micro- 
organisms concerned in breakdown processes requiring certain amounts of nitrogen 
which they withdraw from the soil if the material is not able to provide it. The nitrogen 
content of micro-organisms is set free again after their death. When using organic ma- 
eriai poor in nitrogen, heavier dressings o f inorganic nitrogenous compounds should 
pkMs^ ^ decomposition processes and avoid nitrogen deficiency m 

Farmyard manure, poultry manure, compost are still widely used in many regions as 
the main nutrient additions to the soil. W^de variations in the nutrient content of the 
above may occur according to the type of animals, their feeding, bedding and the method 
ot conser^^ation. The mean montent may be 12 lb. nitrogen, 6 lb. phosphoric acid and 
romnnf 5 t'' '^.^'^ ^'^^^'^^ ^^'^^ products should be used for 

cornpost, and the value of compost could be greatly increased by mixing 30 lb. sulphate 

ston^rth e^ery Ion oTwSe materi T ^^'''^ ^ 

Dung. Is effectively distribuS ovSr'our pastures by the grazing animals. A large part 
from^H ""•'^^'^ thus being returned to the soil. When collected 

rrom cattle or poultry yards and distributed over cultivated ground it may add approxi- 

SUMMER 1960 57 

mately 40-100 lb. nitrogen, 30-60 lb. phosphoric acid, 40-60 lb. potash, 80-100 lb. hmc. 
20-40 lb magnesium and other elements per short ton. Distribution and incorporation 
into the soil should closely follow collection to avoid loss of nutrients by volatilization. 

Green manures. These represent a very cheap and effective way of improving soil fer- 
tility. Green manures take up soil nutrients which may have otherwise been lost troni 
fallow land by leaching and weed growth. When legumes are grown as green manure 
crops, considerable amounts of nitrogen are also added to the soil, provided the soil in 
well supplied with phosphate and potash. The advantages of green manure crops tor 
intensively cultivated areas can be summarized as follows: 1. Conservation ot nutrients 
2. Supply of organically combined nutrients after incorporation into soil, 
ing period; 3. Increased biological activity in soils; 4. Increase in the rc case o 1 1 
ents from soil minerals owing to products of fermentation and biological aetivity, n - 
provement of soil structure; 6. Supply of organic matter to the subsoil by .ntensl^e rom 
distribution; 7. Loosening of subsoil by root growth; 8. Protection ot soil against sur- 
face (sheet) erosion. ., , „„.u stnw 

Mulching is a process by which the soil is covered by plant residues su^n as _ . . 
grass, sawdust (or even paper or plastics) . Mulches protect soil from d'""^/ ""'^^^^^^^^ 
its effect on loss of soil moisture by evaporation, and prevents shattering o ur aec stru. 
ture by the impact of raindrops. Unde? mulches root distribution is effective n th op 
layer of soil, and this leads to better utilization of the ""Orients supplied by fert^^^^^^ 
They also acid nutrients to the soil but their decomposition is hastened by application 
additional nitrogen, e.g., 1 oz. per sq. yard of sulphate of ammonia. 


V. T. Stoutemyer 

A rose by any other name would smell as sweet "J '° ^'fJ^^^^^^ 

Shakespeare play However, in horticulture, the confusion of "^"^^^ ^^here the 
of difficulty and possible financial loss. There are ^'^f^f,',!,' ' invoices The 
species of trees actually planted were not those listed on *e P^rcMse ' ^^^^ 
extensive synonyms of names of camellias existing in the trade a f ew ea g^^^^^^^ 
their popularity began to revive, cost some collectors hundreds of dolia^ ^.^^^^^ 
acquisition of duplicates. Also, incorrectly named PI^"^^/ "^^^ .o^nty lines, 
present California Code and may meet difficulty if ^^'PF^'^ ^'If^ch are usually 
We shall avoid a discussion of the question of common nam-J, JJ^^'^^^.^ ^^^^ 
regional or local. Such names as "cypress" or cedar are ..^j^^rican elm" 
meaning. On the other hand, we must admit that ^I'f^l'Xtm stable for a long 
butternut- or "pin oak" are widely understood and ha^e been^ ^^^^ ^^^^j^ 
time. There are doubtless instances of common names wnicn 
over the years than the Latin binomials. Common eve^ ridiculous, 

layman and the Latin binomials sometimes seem a br^ remote ^^.^^ 
However, much of the reluctance to use the scientinc n by 
... , . ^^^^^ the w'^^5P'''^'^/'^,:°\^^^^^ and wholesale 

- ... ..... ...... ..J:::^t^^:^^^;Xs^ 

^e no more difficult or complicated than the names of human diseases 
'lace names which we in California use freely every day. ^ ^^^^^ communica- 

. One of the great needs of the modern world is for um \ ^ ^ uniform world- 


from a hundred different nations. The symbols of the mathematician are likewise 
universally understood. Botanical descriptions of plants have been published in 
Latm from the time of the founding of modern plant taxonomy and this convention 
has been followed by botanists of all nations. A few eccentrics have published 
descriptions of new plants in national languages but these are not recognized by 

There have been some irritating changes of horticultural plant names in the past 
few decades. Some of these were due to changes of the official rules. Others were 
due to the findmg of prior valid publications and to the drastic reorganization of 
certain plant groups by the taxonomists. However, the situation has improved and 
the rules seem to be nearing a condition of stability and finality. The rules for 
botanical names are found in the current International Code of Botanical Nomencla- 
ture. These rules were originally formalized about a century ago and have been 
revised at intervals by the various international botanical congresses. Since horticul- 
turists necessarily give names to plants which would be lumped together by the 
botanists, they have a supplementary set of rules. These can be found in the 
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants which was issued in 1958. 
MaTsach°^ ft^ document can be purchased from Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain 30, 
The term "variety" as used by botanists and horticulturists unfortunately has 
entirely different meanings. In order to avoid this confusion, horticulturists are now 
rapidly adopting the substituted term "cultivar," which is a coined word derived from 
the term "cultivated variety." The term "cultivar" has a very broad area of reference 
and It includes (1) line bred selections which come relatively true from seed, such 
as are most varieties of garden flowers grown from seed; (2) vegetatively propagated 
clones; and (3) line-hybrids, which are plants with uniform characteristics produced 
at will by the crossing of selected parents maintained for the purpose. Doubtless the 
word " cultivar" will come into common horticultural use just as the earlier invented 
word clone" is now standard, but there is no compulsion to adopt it. 

The new code for cultivated plants was prepared by several cooperating international 
groups of horticulturists, foresters and other agriculturists It has already been 
approved by the last International Horticultural Congress at Nice. France, in 1958 and 
presumably will have the official approval of the other sponsoring organizations in 
A,.. A. , ,. . . . ^^^^^^^^ ^^^J^^^^^ ^.^^^I^^t the 

^ zations will also in due time take 

- , mity in both^'botai 

good indeed. We believe that these two codes represent a sane and constructive 
approach to a difficult problem. Doubtless both may need some future development 
and revision. The writer personally does not agree with some of the policies adopted 
for the naming of cultivars in the present code, but nevertheless urges that hort.cul- 
mm7 ™, '^'^^j^^o '^^"^ fervently hopes that there will be no misguided schismatic 
mo\ements such as have occurred in the past. Quite a substantial portion of tnc 
confusion of plant names in America has been caused by the mistaken rebellion o 
certain American botanists and the introduction of the American code of botanical 
a~L?ppea::J' " '''^ "^t^^^''^' «^ ^"^^ ''''' 

Another movement which now seems to be nearly dead was that which was 
sponsored by the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature which 
ever/? 1" ^^^^ ^^"^ National organizations of nurserymen, florists, park 
sneriJliZ'^ pharmacologists, and landscape architects in cooperation with m^ny 
specialized plant societies. They issued a book "Standardized Plant Names," ^ 



1923 and a revised edition of this in 1942. Some taxonomists in the U. S. Departi 
of Agriculture assisted in the preparation of these trvo volumes, but systcri 
botanists have, in general, never had a high regard for the work. For a tune it 
used widely in the preparation of nursery catalogs, but it never was able to atli 
wide enough acceptance to achieve its aims. Presently it does not even h.ui- 
support of the leading organization of its sponsors. The American AsMKiatioi 
Nurserymen. We shall be greatly surprised if it is revised and reissued. A a 
release from the national office of the American Association of Nurserynun indi, 
that the organization is planning to use instead the new revision ot Iluky s M. 
as the source of plant names. Apparently this organization may soon turn o\cr 
work of their present plant registry committee to the American Assou.itioi 
Botanical Gardens and Arboretums, which has present secretarial headc]u.irtLrs .v 
Arnold Aboretum. This organization has agreed to conduct registration tor ,i 
year trial period. If this is successful, the aboriculturists would logically t. 
the same clearing house for plant names of trees. r . 

At the present time, the work of searching and clearing plant nanKs lor rc^i 
is done by the various specialized plant societies. Some of these arc purci\ 
in scope of activity, but some are international at least to a degree. P'^' 
time, nine organizations have the official approval of the last International ■ 
cultural Congress as centers of registration for cultivar names in their parti 
specialized plant groups. We may expect to see the list grow rapidly and v%e 
that there will be a trend toward a more truly international and perhaps 
comprehensive type of organization for doing this necessary work^ 
^Personally, we regard the proposals to use the next edition oHortu^^^^^ 

'^to be^'t 

the clearing house 

: U.C.L.A., by agreement, is me ecu, 
: California University system 

repository of ornamental cultivated plants in the Lalitornia ; 
IS working closely with the Bailey Hortonum on the revision ot tne pi - 

° W:^SLVar't?e varietal or cultivar names of trees will become —^^^ 
important in the future, especially in street tree ' ^^^'veg^^^^^^ 
uniformity and for predictable size and shape. The extra ^^^^ «f ^^^^^^^ by planting 
'On IS very trivial in comparison with the g^^^^^.^^^f °- ' Hon' sih as the 
trees whose performance is more nearly predictable^ Some -"^t tut.o^ns ^sikH 
park system of Rochester, New York, the various Arboretums, u , . ; .j^ble 
cultural Foundation, have done notable work in assembling and "^'^^^'J- ^^f^^^.^y 


R-e believe that the pictu 
system can be ^eveloped. W^^ 

We have tried to show the shape of things to come auu - -^^^^^^ 

' of horticultural groups and that gradually a ^'^^^/"{y/'J'^^^^eld 

-Fcrate with the work of the A 
terim trial period. We believe th 
^.^Partment of Floncidti/ye ami On 
'"^^'•^^'O' of California Los A>i^ 



DodoHaea viscosa purpurea 

The following two letters, received by Mr. Lyle Pyeatt, bring us one step closer in 
our knowledge about the popular 'Purple Hop Bush'. 


15 March, I960 

Dear Sir, 

Thank you for your letter of 1 March. Re Dodonaea viscosa purpurea. As far as I am 
aware, this plant was found growing in this Island in its native state on the coast near 
a town called Blenheim which is in the Marlborough province. This is at the extreme 
north east corner of the South Island of New Zealand. 

However, I have written to a botanical friend living in Marlborough, who I think 
has something to do with the finding of this plant, and as soon as I get a reply I wiU 
attach it to this letter. 

The green variety is common on many of the coastal parts of New Zealand and was 
largely used by the natives for timber, as it is one of our hardest timber we have. It 
was used for tool handles, fighting and ceremonial implements, and other articles 
where extremely hard timber was necessary. 
Thanking you. 
Yours faithfully, 
V. C. Davies 


22 March, i960 

Dear Sir, 

Re Dodonaea viscosa purpurea. I have just had word from a friend who lives in Blen- 
heim and is familiar with the origin of the purple leaved Ake Ake. 
The information as received by me is: "It was a chance seedling and the coppery 
leaves in the young stage of the plant attracted the attention of an old lady. 
She nurtured it and it grew into a nice tree and produced a few seeds. She sent the 
seeds to Mr. Robert Nairn, Nairns Nurseries Ltd., 166 Lincoln Road, Christchurch, 
N.Z., who sowed the seed and it came true to colour Naturally he was delighted, and 
sent the old lady back a few small plants 

Meanwhile the original continued to grow and to produce 

given to every pe. ' . . ■ _ . 

visited her home. 

The old lady's garden was situated near the hills at Tua Marina, where the ordinary 
Ake Ake trees grew in abundance. Her copper leaf plant was a chance "sport". 
Trusting this information will be of use to you 
Yours sincerely, ^ 
V. C. Davies 

Two facts i 
lady's name! 

1) The date of the original find, and (2) 


A Professional gardener School 

Plans are going forward at the Los Angeles County Department of Arboreta and 
Botanic Gardens for the opening of a Professional Gardener School this fall at the 
Arboretum in Arcadia. 

That California has become the nursery-stock and flower-seed production center of 
the United States was stated in a recent "Training Requirement" study, conducted by 
the California State Department of Education. This same study reported that the gar- 
den horticulture and nursery industries of California need more and better trained 
personnel than are now available. To assist in training young men and women for a 
career in professional gardening horticulture and to meet this need, the Arboretum is 
planning a curriculum to be scheduled for five half-days a week for a period of one 

The curriculum of the new school will consist of two parts: 1, lectures of four hours 
a week will include classroom studies in botany, plant identification, plant physiology, 
greenhouse management, floriculture and arboriculture; and, 2, practical experience 
will give the student an opportunity for on the job training. Experience in horticultural 
and gardening work will range from the greenhouse, nursery and other plant pro- 
duction centers to planting and maintenance of established field areas. The Depart- 
ment's horticultural facilities include climatic zones of seashore, inland, and desert 
communities. The practical phase will consist of sixteen hours a week. 

Prospective students will be expected to meet the following minimum requirements: 
Age— 17 to 25; Education— completion of high school; Health— good; Marital 
status— single; and present evidence of interest in following a career in horticulture. 
Students planning to enroll are required to submit, in writing, a brief biography at- 
testing to the above requirements. 

Registration for admission to the Professional Gardener School will be accepted 
through September 1, I960. 


Many an alumnus of the Botany Department at UCLA, your Editor included, sighs 
with envious emotions on visiting the campus and seeing the modern, spacious and 
obviously efficient new Botany Building. Completed this spring, one realizes that the 
student of today will miss the thrill and adventure of botanizing on the fourth floor 
of the Physics Building. To the current freshman, the pleasant, shaded patio at the 
rear of south side of the new building will serve as an informal, outdoor classroom. 
A very short walk from this patio moves the class into the Botanical Garden proper- 

SUMMER 1960 63 


Edward Huntsman-Trout 
The world we live in is complex, and fascinating; full of excitements and ihal^ 
lenges. Beginning slowly and haltingly with the industrial revolution ot sonic hundrul 
and fifty years ago, techniques and skills have developed at a constant .un.uj'hl". 
Within the span of my lifetime, the horse has given way to the motor .ar, -nul, not 
content with speed on the highway, man has invaded the sky m the airpLuK. I lu 
magic lantern has grown to become the motion picture, and the motion pKtiirc lu.u 
must compete with T.V. Finally, practically all of us have still to catch up Nutli iIr 
scientific and technological explosions of the last decade or so, mdeed ot the past feu 
years. Few of us understand or even know about all the changes in our ccononn 
which characterize the brave new world. ,, 
It is a new world true enough; but with all that, the human animal is substantial K 
what he was many thousands of years ago, and most certainly what he was at ccrtam 
high points, as I think of them, in the history of mankind,— the golden age ot urttce 
the high renaissance in Italy, the Elizabethan age in England, and the p.onec^r dajs 
and the birth of a new republic here in America. , 
many ways, we are far ahead of our forbears,— in our ^ ^^^^^^^^ 

real brotherhood 

public health, 

mon life span, and in the currently expanding social patte 

nor of the dark cloud of communism which lowers over yonder, am ^h^^^^'^^^^^.^ 
of the every-day world which we have made for ourselves, ^^^^^^'''^J" Jj^SfAPE in 
and work. As a landscape architect, I propose to discuss with Y^" LANDf^^^^^ n 
that context ; not the cosmetics of landscape architecture, the latest f^'l'l^'^'^f 
patented roses, in aluminum or plastic gadgetry, but the matter-ot-tacr srr 
common out-door world which we most use. specifically, our roads st cets^^ _^ 
byways, the highways, and the throughways ; any one of which at m ) 

he true city; for how long, as the tide now runs, ^^o knows ? Tlien the e 
landscape, the country, which is founded on productive f^^'^'f"^' ^^^J'^,, fragments 
« the surprises of a journey out of our valley is the discovery ^h^^ f nj ^^e untamed, 
of the rural world ari still in good working order. Last ,s w Id^mess, t^^ 
^nhumanized landscape, where man is an onlooker, a transient c 
^'hich is something to be enjoyed and to be used as need be, but not 

'^rlrthif i."'" , u,,e we left to talk about? Here we have 

m this our southern California, what have we len planner, our 

rnf^.t?'^ ^ ""^lly and truly aty. According to ^"f ^f''^.^ ^^^o hundred and 
COUNTRY is being swallowed up' by the subdiv.ders at the jate ot ^ 
fi% acres each day^As for WILDERNESS, the httle moun am chaparra 
brushwood that still remains to us is by definition not our subject. 



What we shall talk about is that never-never land, the impossible, the non-existent, 
suburb; the welter of black-top paving, power poles, houses, shopping centres, and 
what have you, that sprawls from Chatsworth to Santa Ana, from the ocean to San 
Bernardino, and beyond ; the sprawl that smothers any possibility of a true city and 
wipes out whatever of country there was ; where I have lived and worked for the most 
of my life, liking the country as it was with all my heart, and little liking what man 
has done there. 

Aesthetically and economically, the suburb has never quite "come off". The nearest 
approach to success has been in the pre-bulldozer development of rugged tracts, either 
with over-size lots of an acre or more, resulting in a cross between country and wilder- 
ness, or with postage-stamp lots, where building is catch-as-catch-can, climbing up and 
down slopes, and organically arranged through force of contours into tight clusters 
with waste lands between, resulting in a crofs between city and wilderness. In bot 
cases, never a great made earthen slope but often a retaining wall. These are both 
worthy a look for the charm of friendly adaptation of building to building and ot 
building to site. And they can both pretty much take care of themselves, so long as 
the bulldozer stays out. OUR subject is the run-of-the-mill suburb which blankets the 
open country, mostly in checker-board layout; sometimes de luxe and costly, custom- 
ized; sometimes minimum tract housing. Let's see what we can find to quarrel about, 
and what might be possible by way of betterment. , 

To ask for betterment, to propose changes and checks in the established order ot 
boom-town expansion, is to ask for the moon. It will deny many rights of exploitation. 
It will contradict established custom. It has truly been said that "we are unable to 
mobilize much cultural support for aims which do not yield an immediate payott tor 
somebody producing some commodity for some market". I still believe in asking or 
the moon. It's your world, it's our world, if enough of us will step out and take it, 
and for that reason I hope that you will lend a thoughtful ear to my argument, no 
being obliged to subscribe further than you may feel inclined. 

In brief, the argument is, — ,- ][ 

First,— for economy of land use, for conservation of country and of wilderness, u 
use of all occupied land areas for economy of maintenance and for the elimination 

Second,— the creation of communities that are self-contained, of human size, that 
is, walkable for primary schools, shopping, and neighborhood activities, with ecu . 
and city both at hand; communities defined by greenbelt, parkway, or freeway. 

Third,— Communication control, by a comprehensive traffic plan; for rapid trans., 
to relieve freeway congestion and the glut of city streets from freeways pouring ^ 
for expressways designed for speed with safety and planned to connect and not 
enter communities, with restricted use; for highways for miscellaneous traffic 
medium speed, supplementing expressways to bound and connect residential c 
munities, etc.; for byways, dead end streets to dwellings; for elimination of/^\ 
parking (present lawn areas may provide space for private off-street parking j , 
pedestrian ways separated from mofor traffic, for power poles, etc., on highways onJV 

Fourth,— smog and noise control, and whatever else may be necessary to ro 
and maintain the humane city. 1^ 

And perhaps that is enough of asking for the moon. At any rate, think 
particularly the livable city. No one shoSld be forced to suburban life for want ot 
proper humane city. 

However, I have here a small bouquet of slides, shot hurriedly, from the hip so W 

speak, and at random, m 
companion to comment. 

.t hurriedly, trom J^-vH 
........ ...... .k.niJo.eAf^'^^j:,, 

; possibilities of ways and means to min^ 



suburbs as they are. As the pictures are shown, remember that landscape architecture, 
whether garden or park or street, or whatever, is,— 

First of all,— the out-door creation of space, of volume; m three dimensions, call it 
a room (or a hall) , with floor, and walls, and ceiling. 

Second,— the creation of order, of some kind and of some degree, the creation ot 
an entity, a thing, with related parts. ^ , , 

Third,— the promotion of communication; the physical movement of people and 
things; the communication of ideas, ideals, emotions. Here we add a fourth dimension, 
time-past, present and future. Robert Oppenheimer calls for a "shared tradition, a 
certain slowness of change, so that the past is meaningfully present in the present, and 
meaningfully relevant to the future". , . 

Remember, too, that the essential conditions of landscape architecture (and ot 
architecture) are such that no picture can convey the actuality which has been created. 
The created space must be entered into, and walked about it, in order to be r^'^l'^ed, 
and I hope that these slides and comments may lead you to walk about your neighbor- 
hood with a critical eye and an enquiring mind. 


Z"lu Journal. Field Notes of a Naturalist in South Africa, by Dr. Raymond B. Cowles 
Professor of Zoology, University of California, Los Angeles. University of California 

ACalifornian member of the Veld Trust, who introduced himself very modestly as 
a South African zoologist working near Los Angeles, once sent us an article about tnc 
wild flowers and shrubs of his native land that he had discovered growing '^^ f'^^ 
west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Years later he helped us in our ^g^^ 
protection of the sea birds with a thoughtful analysis of the hygienic role or m 
predators in eliminating diseased and weak fish from the vast shoals around our cu _ 

Then a magnificently printed, bound and illustrated volume ^^^"^ /.'^e Univers.t o^ 
California Press, Zulu Journal: Fteld Notes of a Naturahst m Sou^o "^^'"^-^^^1 
*'th a brief note from the author, Professor Raymond B. Cowles. This l^^'-f '^X^ 
contributor to Vddtrust; and froi^ the dust cover I learned that he had been o^^^^^^^^ 
to Walt Disney when he made The Living Desert and to Lrje when it published the 
^ '^^^I^:.^^ only be compared with what the river digger feels 
I S Y ""'^^^^^^ ^ the bantoms on his sorting table. 

A FLAWLESS GEM . r ,u wild life the 

L,ke the digger I reached for the scales, my own f P^"^"^^^ Ri^ers to deter- 
P«^ple and conservation work between the Umzimkulu and 
"I'ne the carat weight of the literary discovery. After reading it fr^f,/", .f'qu.iiH, 
1-e-by-hne I founS that here I had^a flawless gem stone ^.^ Pp^^^^^c^^ t'Tbac^- 

This book could hardly have been otherwise. Everything m ^nder- 
f^f and training seems almost to have predestined him to .^"^.^^^f^^^^ingaan, 
J^"dmg and greatSechnical knowledge about the country ^^^^hak^and U^^g^^^ 
wals T'' ^"'^ Af^i^^"^ know only from history hooks as the scene ^.^^.^^ 

where the rivers flowed with blood. He was born in 1^96 at the a ^^^^^^ 
D r l"'^ 'P^"t his boyhood in the valley of the UiBZumbwe Kiver 
,;^^"^herg to the west His mother had also grown up '"^^^ jf ^ev collected for 
aT;;^' a college education for her brothers by skinning the b ds they c^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
to museums. For the first 14 years of his life his own anthills to 

tJ!,^^4uisition of practical first-hand natural history, ^hile co 1^ g ..^^ 
^^•i the chickens he kept as a source of pocket money, he made the 



which even the Zulus were ignorant," that the Nile monitor lizard, what we know as 
the leguan, does not lay its eggs in the warm sand but in the termitaria. Reporting on 
the habits of these lizards later served as part of his Ph.D. requirements. 

This book is possibly of greater importance to the professional soil conservationist 
in South Africa— and especially those who are engaged on the reclamation of native 
areas — than it is for the growing army of "nature lovers." It is a great naturalist's 
urgent warning — not only for the farmers but all the people — about the rapidity with 
which the symptoms of danger are developing. 

His final chapter on Man tells how, even for scientific man, there is a limit to 
natural resources. In South Africa our first approach to the problem was from the point 
of view of agricultural method — the application of certain engineering works and 
isolated test plot discoveries; and then, on the basis of this experience, there emerged 
very gradually the idea of an ecological balance, of "working with nature." But Pro- 
fessor Cowles has a somewhat different approach. He looks into the future of conser- 
vation and preservation of nature, not only in Zululand but as a global phenomenon, 
in the light of man's truly animal behaviour. He maintains that he has as much right 
as the anthropologist, the sociologist, the economist or the political scientist to enter 
this field since Homo sapiens is also an animal, responsive to environmental factors in 
a manner that, at the fundamental level, is simply that of an animal organism. 

It is a section of the book of such importance to members of the National Veld 
Trust and others in this specialised field of conservation, that I will review it in more 
detail in the next issue of Veldtrust. 

T. C. Robertson 

Demons tratm Zurf grass Plots 

Twenty-three different varieties of lawn or turfgrass have just been established in 
plots at the Arboretum in Arcadia, to serve as demonstration and test plantings. These 
grass plots will allow the home owner, landscape architect and professional turf men 
an opportunity to make side by side comparisons of the current popular grasses with 

The planning, establishment and future work with these plots is a cooperative 
project between the Department of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens and the University 
ot California Agricultural Extension Service. Mr. Wayne C. Morgan, Los Angeles 
County Farm Advisor represents the University and Dr. Louis B. Martin represents 
the Arboretum. 

The following groups of grasses can now be observed as they develop into mature 
turfs: 1) seeded pure stands of fescues and bluegrasses; 2) seeded commercial lawn 
mixes; 3) yegetatively propagated varieties of improved bermudas, zoysias and bent 
grasses; and, 4) dichondra. 

Since some of the improved species of bermuda grasses, zoysias and bents do not 
come true to type from seed, it is necessary to plant these by the use of small pieces 
of the plants. Examples of this method of propagation can be seen in the plots in the 
torm of sprigs, stolons, plugs and sod. 

From the very beginning of soil preparation to the final steps of planting, the plots 
have been used to test and observe the newest products and methods available for 
lawn establishment. The results of these and other trials will be published and made 
available to the general public and home owner. 


Now that Spring and Summer are hard upon us it is a good time to think about going 
to the country and partaking of edible plants and herbs. The books mentioned below 
contain many plants that grow in the West even though one specifies Eastern North 
America and the other was written in England. 

Edible wild plants of Eastern North America, by Merritt Lyndon Fernald and Alfred 
Charles Kinsey. Revised by Reed C. Rollins. New York, Harper, 1958. 452 p. Bibli- 
ography. Indexed. $6.00. 

This is not a new edition of Fernald's book in the true sense, as the original edition 
has proved to be fundamentally sound and major revisions have not been required. 
It has been brought up to date in nomenclature and currently accepted interpretations 
of certain species. Some of the war-time plates have been replaced by better copies. 
Pagination is the same. 

Unlike the herbals with their curative lore, this is mainly a factual account of plants 
that are edible, including a chapter on poisonous plants. Scientific name, key-characters, 
habitat, range, season of availability, and uses are given for each plant. The descriptive 
text gives a short history of uses by the Indians and others and even some recipes for 
preparing many of the plants. The arrangement is in four chapters: edible plants classi- 
fied according to uses (soups, cereals, etc.) , poisonous flowering plants, detailed enumer- 
ation and discussion of edible wild flowering plants and ferns (bulk of the text), and 
mushrooms, seaweeds and lichens. The danger of consuming the wrong plant is stressed 
throughout. In fact, the discussion of poisonous plants discourages anyone but an experi- 
enced botanist from attempting to live off the country. It is interesting to note that one 
of the late authors is Alfred Charles (Before-the-Report) Kinsey. The writers have 
experimented with many of these foods. There are 25 photographic plates prepared by 
the authors and 129 line drawings by Edwin J. Hertl and Helen P. Schiefer. 

For a meal available in any part of the country in the autumn the authors suggest: a 
chief entree of giant puflP-balls, pasture mushrooms, fary-rings or some other speci«, 
hickory-nut [or walnut] bread and butter, a potherb of sow-thistle or a mess of seaside 
plantain cooked like string-beans, escalloped roots of goat's-beard, jelly or marmalade 
from any one of two hundred sources, a choice of scores of fruits for dessert, cheese 
with thistle-flowers or sundew-leaves as rennet, and tea from many mints or from sweet 
fern, sassafras or strawberry leaves." 

Cmquejoil; herbs to quicken the five senses, by Hilda Wauton Leyel. With drawings by 
Mildred E. Eldridge. London, Faber, 1957. 368 p. Indexed. 35/ ($4.90). 



Her book takes up Herbs for the Eyes, Herbs for the Sense of Smell, Herbs for the 
Sense of Hearing, Herbs for the Sense of Taste, and Herbs for the Sense ot Touch (skin 
and extremities) . Each chapter starts with a short essay giving some anatomy, philosophy, 
diseases and remedies of the organs connected with the senses- -eyes, ears, nose, tongue 
and skin. The beautiful drawings are expertly done against a hght bkie background. 
The rare copper-plate engravings of the Five Senses by the famous botanical artist ot the 
late sixteenth century, Crispin de Pas are reproduced for the first time in this book. 1 he 
plants are listed under the popular name, then given full nomenclature, botanical names, 
other popular^names, foreign names (French, German, Ilalian, etc ) istmlocu il con 

of the plant is given and poetry chosen for each is actually on the plant iisdt. sIiowihl' 
a great familiarity with literature and herb lore on the part of Mrs. Level. 11k re.ulcr 
whether an ardent herbalist or not can derive great enjoyment from this book 
An example of the treatment: "In homeopathic from Daphne MtZinu», is a uirc tor 

■1 jui A more ramuiar piant: /\ppie luice iicuciAnti-o ..v... , . 

. The fresh juice of the wild apple will remove warts from the .skin and a pouit, 

the wild apple will remove warts trom the skin and a po 
ind inflamed eyes.", or "Medicinally the Cherry tree cures 

and bronchial catarrh. It has valuable astringent and pectoral propertic 
good sedative." 

Even if one does not agree with the author in her thesis that herbs are the only medi- 
cine to cure catarrh and other allergic diseases which dull the senses, there no doubt 
that we would be better for a simpler life and diet, with less exposure to vile tumes ana 
synthetic foods. 

"Snake-venom, tide and time, 
These wait for no man 
Haste, make haste! 
Use me as a potion, liniment or paste 
And even dragons may be safe defied ! 

Dora M. Gerard, UCLA 


Dr. Mildred E. Mathias was an invited particip^t ^t "^^"JS ^ 
lems of Concern to the United States, held at the Fairchild i/oP"^^' 


itional Research Council 

time. Dr. Mathi: 

y4''^T'^^°f°^^3ifo""^ ^""'"^l^lJJw^^nThe'draTnage of the Hualla^:a 



15th Horticultural Congress and Annual Meeting 
American Horticultural Society 
November 9-12, I960 
Wednesday— November 9. Preconvention Tour. 

8:00 A.M. Disneyland— (Advance reservations required) 
2:00-5:00 P.M. Registration 
5:30-6:30 P.M. Reception— get-together 
6:30 P.M. Board of Directors— Dinner Meeting 
Thursday— November 10. Program— Huntington-Sheraton Hotel 
Chairman, Dr. P. A. Munz, Director Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 
9:30 A.M. "Buckets of Pollen and Tons of Seed," Howard S. Bodger, Bodger 
Seeds Ltd. 

10:15 A.M. "Historical Notes on Camellia," Douglas G. Thompson, President, 
Pacific Camellia Society. 

11:00 A.M. "Eastern Pot Plants in Western Gardens," Philip E. Chandler, Horti- 
cultural Consultant and Lecturer. 

12:00 Noon Luncheon— Huntington-Sheraton Hotel. "Coastal Gardens— Roots m 
Mexico and the Orient," Peggy Sullivan, Landscape Designer. 
1:45 P.M. Buses leave for Huntington Botanical Gardens Tour. Return at 4:30 

7:00 P.M. President's Dinner— "The Gene— 1960 Model," Dr. G. W. Beadle, 
Nobel Laureate and Dean of Faculty, California Inst, of Technology. 
Friday— November 11 (Armistice Day) 

9:00 A.M.— Buses leave for Los Angeles State and County Arboretum. Chairman, 
Dr. Wm. S. Stewart, Director Los Angeles State & County Arboretum. 
9:30 A.M. "The History of Horticultural Explorations on the Pacific Co^c- 
Harlan Lewis, Professor and Chairman, Department of Botany, 
U.C.L.A. . . 

10:00 A.M. "The Challenge of Teaching An Applied Program in Horticu W ^. 

O. A. Batcheller, Chairman, Ornamental Horticulture Department, 
California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg - Voorhis Camp , 
Pomona, „ . i q 

10:30 A.M. "The University's Research Contributions to Horticulture^ Uamc • 

Aldrich, University Dean of Agriculture, University of ^f^^^ 
1 1 :00 A.M. "Pacific Coast Horticulture-Big Business Today." John H. McW 

Program Leader, Special Projects— Agricultural E^ten. Servic • 
12:00 Noon Luncheon at Arboretum. "Brothers Under the Skin —t^ow 
and Landscape Architecture Ralph D. Cornell, Landscape 
1:30 P.M. Tour of the Arboretum 

2:45 P.M. Buses leave for Huntington-Sheraton Hotel. ^ Treasurer's 

3:00 P.M. Plenary Session. President's Report. Secretary's Rep^rt^ JLfs 196I 

Report. Committee Reports. Election of Officers & Board Members 
7:00 P.M. Annual Banquet— Awards. Introduction of 1961 Oncers 
Saturday— November 12 -..perry's 
8 :30 A.M. Buses leave Huntington-Sheraton Hotel for Tour of Nursene 
Plants— Montebello, Buena Park Greenhouses, Monrovia 
, ,0 T. . (Lunch enroute or at Monrovia Nursery) 
3:30 P.M. Return to Huntinrrton-.Sheraton Hotel. 

; Architect. 



Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, Arcadia, California 

Total Inches 11.60 53.040 


The lowest temperature, 35 deg. F. was recorded on February 18th. The highest temperature. 
109 deg. F. was recorded on July 10th. During the year there were fifteen mornings of 40 deg. F. 
or less. A temperature of 90 deg. F. or more was recorded on seventy-three days; eight of these 
days the instruments registered 100 deg. F. or more. The lowest relative humidity reading occurred 
in November; the highest were in May. 

Rainfall was measured on twenty-four days for a total of 11.60 inches for the year. 1959 
dry year compared with the previous year of 1958 when 25.42 was recorded. The greatest prec-F" 

t t^^i '"^'''j"^ ^^■."'^^ "^^^^^ water loss through evaporation was measured during the year. This 

J. T. McGah, Plant Recorder and Weather Obsener 

^^alifornia, Los Angeles, Subtropical Horticulti 


Officers 1959 


\ 'n-e-Presicient Nolan W. Kiner 

Treasurer Fred W. Roewekamp 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
William Beresford Eric Johnson 

Howard Bodger Nolan W. Kiner 

Philip Edward Chandler Elmer Lorenz 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Percy C. Everett William S. Stewart 

Earle E. Humphries Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Maria Wilkes 
Advisory Council 
Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Fred W. Roewekamp 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Ronald B. Townsend 

Mildred E. Mathias Roy F. Wilcox 


Annual Member $ 5 00 year 

Group or Club .\' 5.00year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

^ustaining Member 50.00 year 

L'fe Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privHeges of each membership class. 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 
GRanite 2-4659 
Box 688— -Arcadia— California 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Arboretum Office- -Hlllcrest 6-8251 

William S. Stewart Director 

Ralph Ames Plant Pathologist 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

Leonid Enari Taxonomist 

Glenn H. Hiatt Orchid Specialist 

Louis B. Martin Plant Physiologist 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Russell a K. McGah Librarian 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Edward Huntsman-Trout Landscape Architect Consultant 

Donald P. Woolley Chief Horticulturist 


Board of Trust ef.s 

■ ■ Ralph D. Cornell 

t/ Vice-President p Harold Roach 

nd Vice-President ... , Mrs. John R. Mage 

reasurer Howard A. Miller 

"^^^^^n George H. Spalding 

s.ustcmt Secretary Mrs. Elsie L. Murray 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Dr. Elmer Belt Mrs. T. R. Knudsen 

Howard Bodger John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Atrhur Freed Samuel Mosher 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J- D. Funk f. Harold Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Roger Jessup Lovell Swisher 

Mrs. Archibald B. Young 
Honorary Trustees 
President, Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles 
President, California Garden Clubs, Inc. 
President, Southern California Horticultural Institute 

Foundation Office— Hllkrest 7-8207 

Annual Membership 10 00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Busmess Membership 100.00 

Annual Sustaming Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership ->50 00 

Life Membership 500 00 

^^""^^'•^ 51,000 ormore 

5,000 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law 

Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute and 
the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issued on the first of 
January, April, July and October. 

Vol. X OCTOBER 1, I960 No. 4 


The Sydney Botanic Garden R. H. Anderson 74 

Index, Volume X Center Section 

California Native Plant Garden Mark Anthony 82 

Educational Programs 83 

Ferns Cultivated in California Barbara Joe 86 

Cover Picture 88 

Registration of New Cultivars Percy C. Everett 88 

Book Review William S. Stewart 88 


Robert Casamajor Philip A. Munz 

Philip Edward Chandler Victors Padilla 

Mildred Davis F- Harold Roach 

Louis B. Martin Editor Willlvm S. Stewart 

Mildred Mathias Lee Wray Turner 


Zhe Sydmy botanic garden 

R. H. Anderson 

Situated on the foreshores of Port Jackson and close to the heart of the city, the 
Sydney Botanic Gardens consist of some 66 acres of closely cultivated land and are 
surrounded by 125 acres of park lands comprising the Sydney Domain. 

As Botanic Gardens they are noteworthy for the unusually wide range of plants 
that can be grown outdoors, between three and four thousand different species being 
successfully cultivated. The temperate climate enables plants from many lands to be 
grown in the open and most visitors from overseas are impressed by this feature. The 
collection of outdoor palms, for example, is regarded as one of the most extensive of 
its kind. A former Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Sir Edward Salisbury, 
commented on the value of this particular collection. 

Being close to the city the Gardens are visited by many thousands of people, particu- 
larly in the spring, when the well-known Spring Walk gives a colourful display of 
Azaleas, flowering Peaches and Plums, Wisteria, Eupatorium and other shrubs. This 
walk is over 100 years old, having celebrated its centenary in 1956. 

From many points in the Gardens, fine vistas of Sydney Harbour may be glimpsed 
through the framework of trees across spacious lawns. 

The area on Farm Cove has been the traditional landing place for Royalty visiting 
Australia and a number of commemorative trees have been planted in the Botanic 
Gardens by them. Such trees still remaining include: 

Martiusiella imperialis, a native of Brazil, planted by the Duke of Edinburgh m 
1868 when visiting Sydney on H.M.S. Galatea. . 

Melaleuca inridi flora, the "Broad-leaf Paper Bark" of N.S.W. and Queensland, 
planted by the Duke of York (later King George V) in 1881. 

Lwistona austral /s, the "Cabbage Tree Palm" of Eastern Australia, planted by the 
Duke of Clarence in 1881. 

Araucaria columnaris, a native of New Caledonia, planted by the Duchess of Corn- 
wall and York in 1901. 

During the visit of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh, 
commemorative trees were planted at Government House, and in addition trees were 
planted in pots which were subsequently placed in their permanent position in the 
Botanic Gardens by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir John Northcott. 

Aproximately 570 official botanic gardens are listed throughout the world and al- 
though many of these, particularly the European ones, are of great age, the Sydney 
Botanic Gardens are older than 80^r of such establishments. In the southern hemis- 
phere only the Botanic Garden at Rio de Janiero is older than those of Sydney. 

■ Gardens have been associated with the development of Australia from the tirs 
■ hat, within their area, began the agricul^ 
other area in any of the continents can 


When the First Fleet arrived in Sydney in 1788 many plants and seeds werebrougW 
from England, Rio de Janiero and the Cape of Good Hope. From England was brough] 
seed of crop plants, such as wheat and corn. From Rio de Janiero came plants and 
seeds of coffee, cocoa, cotton, bananas, oranges, lemons, guavas and the cochineal 
prickly pear. S , , S 

The Cape of Good Hope supplied figs, bamboo, sugar cane, apples, quinces and 

AUTUMN 1960 


pears. Governor Phillip had the urgent responsibility of growing food crops immedi- 
ately upon his arrival and an area was cleared near Sydney Cove where some of the 
introductions were planted. The area, however, was far too small for the growth of 
crops so other ground was selected to the east of Sydney Cove where a small stream 
and some alluvial soil gave promise of suitable conditions. The ground was cleared 
and to it were entrusted the first crops in Australia, the place soon being known as 
Farm Cove. In July 1788 Governor Phillip reported "a farm 9 acres in corn" and so 
began the history of Australian agriculture. 

The area forms part of the pre; 
Gardens being preserved as moi 
Australia. In 1952 a stone and plaque were placed ( 
part of our history (6J 4 q.). 


For the first few years of settlement the areas under cultivation were used primarily 
for supplying the Governor and officers with fruit and vegetables and for many years 
portion of the Gardens continued to be used for such purpose. In a plan endorsed by 
Governor Phillip in 1792 the farm at Farm Cove was named the Governor's Farm and 
early Governors tended to regard the areas at Farm Cove as adjuncts to Government 
House. Governor Phillip, however, set aside a large area for parks and gardens which 
was subsequently known as the Phillip Domain. This included the present Botanic 
Gardens and Domain, but extended far beyond the present boundaries, including Hyde 
rark and adjoining ground. 

Subsequently the various areas became more definitely defined by roads, walls and 
fences. The Macquarie Wall was built through portion of the Phillip Domain during 
the early years and portion of this built about 1812 still remains along the northern 
side of the Spring Walk (6H 6u). 

The official date for the inauguration of the Botanic Gardens as such is June 13th, 
1816. This is the date inscribed on Mrs. Macquarie's Chair which is carved out of 
rock on the eastern point of Farm Cove. It marked the completion of Mrs. Macquarie's 
Koad which was commenced in 1813 and which represented part of Macquarie's efforts 
^ define the Domain and the Gardens. Charles Fraser was appointed to supervise the 
gardens, a'though his actual title is in some doubt. He was known variously as Colonial 
botanist and Superintendent in later years, but his task of supervision can be said to 
Jiave begun in 1816. Thus although the ofi^cial birthdate of the Gardens is taken as 
\«16 It can be claimed that portions of them have been under continuous cultivation 
since 1788. ^ 


Ihe Botan'c Gardens in their present form consist of 4 portions, the Upper Garden, 
Middle Garden, Lower Garden and the Garden Palace Grounds. The Middle Garden 
^"^^'^ P^^t'O" of the gardens and it was here that the first cultivation began. In 
^«^5 about 5 acres of land west of the creek were added to it. The main entrance to it 
^^^s at the point (7K4n) at present marked by 2 palms {Vvistona chinemis) v^hich 
^ere brought from the Island of Bourbon, now the Island of Reunion, in sugar barrels 
by Jules Bourbon in 1847. , . 

The Middle Garden has always been closely cultivated. The well-knowri Spring 
2 planted with azaleas and other plants in 1856 when the soil on the 

^«"|thern side of the wall was removed to a depth of 21/, feet and replaced with sod 
compost from Rose Bay 


J^riginally the Upper Garden consisted mainly of a kitchen garden for early Gover^ 
5 acres being devoted to this purpose. In addition various buildings such 



as stables, workshops and official residences used in general maintenance of the Gar- 
dens were erected upon it. Space was also provided for the various propagating grounds 
and green feed for various animals and birds was grown. A garden road bordered by 
a paling fence led from the main entrance to the Middle Garden and this was the only- 
portion to which the public had access. 

It was not until 1876 that the area was made available to the general public. The 
present entrance gates (7Lls) were erected in 1872-1873, the cost being L408, and 
subsequently the adjacent areas were cleared and landscaped. Various stone dams were 
built in the creek between 1870 and 1880. 


The Lower Garden was added to the Gardens as the need for expansion became 
pressing. Some of it was laid out by Charles Eraser, and Surveyor-General Mitchell's 
plan of 1833 shows it in a form roughly agreeing with the present boundaries. 

The waters of the harbour, however, in those days came up nearly as far as the 
present refreshment kiosk and a great amount of reclamation was required. Silt dredged 
from the mouth of the Tank stream in Sydney Cove was used as filling, in addition to 
excavations from city buildings. 

Indeed much of the soil in the Botanic Gardens came from outside sources. The 
natural soil except for a few patches was poor with rock close to the surface. The 
reclaimed areas of the Lower Gardens, especially where filled with silt, provided some 
of the best and deepest soil. 

The present sea wall built of stone was commenced about 1848 and finally com- 
pleted in Its present form in 1878. Mrs. Macquarie's Road ran through the Lower 
Gardens along the stone wall bordering the Middle Garden, but was closed about 
1850. The present broad walk running along the upper part of the Lower Garden on 
the southern and eastern sides corresponds roughly with the old road. 

Ihe line of Swamp Mahogonies {Eucalyptus robust a) bordering this road are still 
in existence on the northern side of the stone wall (7H8r) They were planted by Jack 
Wright who held a potato stall in the markets. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Some of the native trees or seedlings from them which grew originally on the area 
still sur^'lve. Probably some of these trees were growing when the First Fleet arrived. 
The small clump of Swamp Oaks {Casuarina daucd) growing near the Maiden 
Memorial Pavilion (7G7s) forms such a survival^The Fofest Red Gum {Eucal^m 
other^exampies^ """"^ Bangalay {Eucalyptus botryoides) (3F6m) are probably 


originally this area was enclosed by a paling fence and used partly for grazing the 
Governors stock. On it at various times were situated 3 windmills held on leases 
granted by Governor King, and some difficulty was experienced in finally ejecting the 
es ees. One of these windmills was situated' approximately on the spot where the 
sitiS ne^rb"^'"'''" """"^ '^^""^^ {2Hl>n) . The State Bakery was also 

In 1869 3 

:ed along Macquarie Street, enclosir 

the grounds in a more fitting manner 
JV.T.rf^ P^'P"'"^ the International Exhibition and the im- 

£lme knot P^^^^^'^^^je'l- This was destroyed by fire in 1882 and the grounds 
dens The r ^^^^"'^^ ^''t^^^y P^^t of the Botanic Gar- 

finished in TsRQ ZaT' ^T' ^'^^ ^^^"^ °PP«^it^ the Public Library were 

nnisned in 1889 and formed a very appropriate entrance Above the centre gate is a 
representation of the Garden Palace ^ ^ 

m 1900 the last addition to the Botanic Gardens was made by the inclusion of 



5 acres of land from the Inner Domain on the west side of Farm Cove. The widening 
of Macquarie Street, in 1912 resulted in a strip of land about 20 feet wide being 
taken from the Gardens. 

The early development of the Gardens was stimulated by the great interest shown 
in Australian plants by botanists and nurserymen in other parts of the world. Most of 
the important botanic gardens and similar institutions considered it most desirable to 
have a "New Holland" collection of plants and this led to a brisk exchange of seeds 
and plants. The Sydney Gardens provided the centre for such exchange and gradually 
valuable collections were added to the existing plants. 

The early of?icers-in-charge took part in expeditions which added naturally to the 
Gardens. Charles Eraser accompanied Oxley on his three exploring expeditions during 
1817-1819, during which many districts were visited in New South Wales and many 



Watering facilities were also inadequate. Moore 
water as he was limited in dry seasons to a fe^ 
Fountain fed by Busgy's Bore. In 1852 Moore lamented the loss of most of his work 
men who joined in the gold rush of that year. 

Early regulations governing the conduct of the Gardens were few. Smoking was 
prohibited in 1848 and the ban remained until 1921. In 1838 a regulation was issued 
forbidding cultivation of vegetables in the Gardens, following on Allan Cunningham's 
protest and resignation. The Director in 1848 had the right to refuse entry to all 
3ung persons not accompanied by 


Botanic Gardens require a scientific background in order to carry out their proper 
functions. The National Herbarium of New South Wales provides such scientific 
service for the Sydney Botanic Gardens. It contains the State's collection of plants and 
is the centre of research on systematic botany in New South Wales. 

The Herbarium includes over 700,000 specimens, many of which are of considerable 
scient'fic and historical value. Research work has been active particularly since 1896 
when J. H. Maiden assumed office, and as a consequence the Sydney Botanic Gardens 
have gained an international scientific status. 

Apart from publication in the journals and proceedings of various scientific societies, 
many publications have been issued direct from the Herbarium, including Maiden's 
monumental "Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus", the "Forest Flora of 
N.S.W." and other works; Blakeley's "Key to the Eucalypts"; Rupp's "Orchids of 
New South Wales"; and Anderson's "Trees of New South Wales". Since 1939^the 
South Wales NaUonrmerbanW^ Contributions rom 

In continuation of the tradition of being of service to primary industry the botanical 
section identify and report on many thousands of weeds, poison plants, and fodder 
plants, sent in by fa-mers and pastoralists every year. In addition services are provided 
for the general public. State and Federal Departments, the University and local gov- 
erning bodies. 

The greater part of the Herbarium has been developed during the past 60 years. 
Prior to 1899 efforts to form a State Herbarium were of a very spasmodic nature, only 
a few thousand specimens being attach-d to the mu:eum of the Sydney Botanic 
Gardens. In 1899, however, the present building (7K) was erected, and in the words 
habitatk)n^'d'^^h ^^T,""""^"^ Botanist at that time, "the Herbarium had at last a 

The first collections of New South Wales plants made by Banks and Solander in 
1770 were lodged in the British Museum, and it was rot un^il 1905 that a number ot 
these were presented to the New Sou h Wales Herbarium by the trustees of the British 
Museum. Other early collections made by Dr. John White, William Paterson, Robert 
Brown and George Caley were placed in various European herbaria. 

In 1816 Allan Cunningham was appointed King's Botanist and the large collections 
made by him v. ere sent to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and to the British Museum- 

? Royal Botanic Garc.., - 

:ablishm?nt of the Sydney Botanic Gardens, Charles Fraser 

AUTUMN 1960 

was appointed Colonial Botanist and made fairly large collections of plants. Most of 
them, however, were subsequently lost through neglect, the residue being sent to 
England. The German naturalist. Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt, collected freely bet\^'een 
1844 and 1846, and although many of these specimens were sent to Germany, a 
number were placed in the Sydney Botanic Gardens Museum. 



Charles Moore, on taking office as Colonial Botanist in 1847, stated that not a vestige 
remained of the herbarium formed by his predecessors. During his long term a small 
collection of plants was gradually accumulated, but on J. H. Maiden taking office there 
was still very little evidence of a representative State collection. A fairly large portfolio 
containing some 150 pages represents a survival of this collection. 

On it is written in Maiden's handwriting: "One of twelve books of specimens which 
constituted the National Herbarium of New South Wales up to May, 1896". In the 
annual report of 1898 Maiden states that the number of named specimens in the 
Herbarium was probably less than 15,000. 

In 1899 a new building was provided, and this was formally opened in 1900. From 
that time onwards systematic additions were made to the collections until at the present 
time the Herbarium contains over 700,000 specimens. 

Calif om'm J^ative Plant Qardm 

Descanso Gardens has long been famous for its camellias, azaleas and roses, but now 
under the guiding hand of Theodore Payne the California Native Plant Garden has 
been established. It is located on a ten acre site, rich in native growth, near the western 
boundary of the Gardens. 

In order to facilitate this work the California Native Plant Gardens Committee com- 
prised of: Dr Wm. S. Stewart, Arthur Barton, Percy Everett, Conrad Fanton, Theodore 
Payne, John L. Threlkeld, and Sim E. Jarvi, was formed and the Garden was formally 
dedicated on May 1, 1959. 

After trails and roads were laid out, a boulder strewn stream was constructed through 
fern canyon to the little lake in the lower part of the Garden. , , 

First the native pines, firs, junipers and cypress were set out; next came a sizable 
planting of California redwoods, both S. sempervkens and S. gigantea. Then ceanothus, 
in dozens of kinds, were planted. After these, came hundreds of native species, too 

The largest percent of these plants were donated by Mr. Payne from his nursery but 
others came from the Santa Ana Botanic Garden or were grown here at Descanso. From 
our water canyon north of the Gardens we brought in a planting of Humboldt lili« 
that bloomed to perfection this spring. A large planting of native blue eyed grass 
{Sisyrinchium bellum) was also moved to the native area. Many of these new plants 
were quite small. Mr. Payne planted drifts of California poppy, lupin, baby blue e)'es^ 
godetia, clarkia, gilia, phocelia and coreopsis so as to have a carpet of flowers around 
and underneath until the plants became larger. 

The plants are labelled with both common and botanical names so that people going 
through the Garden can learn what to plant in similar spots in their own g^rd^^^. . 

A rest ar^, covered with native grape vines, has just been finished on the edge ot jn 
Native Garden. This structure allows a person to rest leisurely and see the entire garden 
spread out before him. 

Trails leading from the Native Garden continue into the back country behind the 
hardens and open up an entirelv new -ir^ fr» KiU^^rc ^r.A r>oH,r^> Invprs alike 

The Native Plant'co^n,;,tee' ponsors hr« or o" tetur^^ which highligM 

sab,eets deahng with California native plants. 

AUTUMN 1960 

Sducatioml Programs 

Los Angeles County Department of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens 
'he I960, Fall Semester of the Educational Programs began with the Adu 
I Courses on September 12 and September 19. The following sample sch( 
various educational activities report the details of all programs, 
'his fall, the Department initiated its Professional Gardener School. It is 

quirements and daily program is included for the record. 

Dr. Louis B. Martin is in charge of all the educational activities tor (Ik- Dcpartnunt. 
Mrs. Gertrude Woods supervises the Children's Program for the Arboretum and also 
aids in the supervision of the same program at Descanso Gardens. Mrs. Dorothy Pool 
is in direct charge of the Children's Program at Descanso Gardens. 

In addition to the 'Formal' courses for children, there are special guukd tours at 
both the Arboretum and Descanso Gardens for Elementary Grade level children. Mrs. 
Woods and Mrs. Pool direct this activity at their respective locations. 

Adult Program 


Course Day h 

ARBORETUM, FALL I960: Co-spon; 

S2.00 each course: 
I- Intro. Home Horticulture M Se 

ARBORETUM, FALL I960: No fee: 
5. Botanical Sketching T Sept. 13-Dec. 1^ 

Co-sponsored with 

^LanTscaSng #836AB M Sept. 19-Dec. i: 

'TheorT#832AB M Sept. 19-Dec. i: 

"SSgn #806AB ^'^''^ T Sept. 20-Dec. 1; 


Extended Day; no fee: 

9- Intro. Home Landscaping M Sept. 12-Dec. 12 

10- Home Landscaping M Sept. 12-Dec. 12 

11- Botanical Sketching M Sept. 12-Dec. 12 
12. Orchid Culture W Sept. l4-Dec. 1^ 



Profess 10 ml Qardmer School 

AUTUMN 1960 


iviusc read and report on a minimum of one book per month, chosen 
recommended Reference Library reading hst. 

Must prepare and present a minimum of one seminar during the year. 
Must maintain a grade of 75 in all Lecture Phase work. Major portic 

grade of 'competent' in Practical Phase work. 

e-half day, 8.00 AM to 12:00 PM Noon, 

IL Operation: 

1. The School will be in 
Monday through Frid; ^ 

2. Four (4) hours a week will be devoted to the Lecture Phase; and six 
(16) hours a week devoted to the Practical Phase. 

3. The first student class will be in session for one year from beginning dat^ 

Subjects - 
1. Botai 

- Lecture Pha; 


4. Floriculture 

5. Aboriculture 

6. Plant Identification 

7. Plant Pathology 

8. Plant Physiology 

9. Entomology 

10. Turfgrass, Weed Control 

n. Plant Genetics 

12. Review, Exams, Seminars 


5. Descanso (Roses) 

6. South Africa 

8. ' Talkrknoll 

9. Demonstration Garden and 
Herb Garden 

10. South America 

Children's Schedule 

Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, Arcadia 

1- Each child is eligible for one class. 

2. Registered children will be admitted and dismissed at the 291 Old Ranch Road 

3. Wear outdoor clothing and shoes suitable for unsurfaced trails. No beach 
walkers please! , 

4. When registration slip is returned, your child is accepted unless you are notified 


Subject Grade Time Day Begins Ends 

Indoor Gardens 1 3:00-4:00 Wed. Oct. 5 Nov. 9 

Indoor Gardens 2 3:00-4:00 Fri. Oct. 7 Nov. 11 

Exploring Nature 3-4 3:45-5:15 Tues. Oct. 4 Nov. ^8 

GardenTng^""^"'^ ^^"'^^ 4-5-6 ltltl2:00 Sat. Oct. 1 Jan. 28 



Nov. 22 Dec. 

Children's Program 

Descamo Gardens, La Canada 

1. Each child is eligible for one class. 

2. Registered children will be admitted and dismissed at the Lake Cottage. 

3. Wear outdoor clothing and shoes suitable for unsurfaced trails. No he^c 

tvalkers please! 
4. When registratic 



9erMs Cultivated in California 

The Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium uiponku> 

sive fern when seen 
i formed by planting 

■ral of the ferns in a row^ and allowing them to cover a frame of string or wire. 
Tightly twining in habit, the fern will grow for considerable distances "PO"J^^''Pf^he 

What i 

rm" of the fern is actually the rachis 

frond. The entire frond extends from the ground to the tip of the growing point som 
times a distance of several yards. The foliage portions are The pinnae of the frond rathe 
than the individual fronds as one might believe. Climbing leaves are unusual among 
ferns, for ordinarily the climbing parts are the stems or rhizomes. In the wild, ths 
climbing habit serves to carry the foliage above the surrounding vegetation to poi 
of better light and air. 

This fern is grown outdoors in pots or beds in southern California. However, green- 
house specimens, found throughout California, are usually more luxuriant m gro^"^; 
Aside from providing some type of support for this semi-hardy species, the remain' ^ 
cultural practices are the same as required by ferns in general, lhat is a medium shade, 

AUTUMN 1 960 87 

and a soft soil with a good amount of organic matter. Propagation is by spores or by 
divisions of the underground rhizome. 

The genus Lygodiutn is composed of forty species which are all climbers. They are 
distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of all continents. The hair)' underground 
rhizome gives rise to fronds of indefinite growth. The midrib is stem-like, long and 
twining, bearing the alternate pinnae, which are easily mistaken for fronds. Tlu- piiiii.ic 
are borne on short stalks which branch dichotomously into two pinnules. The pmiiuks 
are variously pinnate or palmately divided. The fertile pinnules arc kui- 
tracted, and have along their margin a fringe of short, narrow lobes. lolx- Ix.irs 
two rows of sporangia which are covered by a hard, scale-like indusium. 

The only species presently cultivated in California is L. japnuicimi. trctjiieiitU niis 
named L. scandens in the trade. 

on each side, very unequal, the lower ones long stalked and pinnate 
Asia and Australia. Semi-hardy to tender. L sav?cie}}s Swartz \\ ith w hi 
been confused has less divided fronds, the segments being simple ai 
at the base. Other species reported to be cultivated in the United States 
(Burm.) Swartz, L. palmatum (Bernh.) Swartz, and L. voluhile 
twining habit and the fertile parts borne on marginal lobes readily dis 
of this genus from all others. 



Lygodium japonicum, Japanese Climbing fern. Left, portion of frond with sterile pinnae. 
Right, fertile pinnule. 

Percy C. Everett 

As a member of the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboretums, 
the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, Cahfornia, has agreed to assist in 
the registration of all new cultivars and to supply its facilities as a repository for the 
necessary records, for the following genera: Arctostaphylos, Ceanothus, Dendromecon, 
Fremontia, Garrya, and Romneya. Anyone wishing to introduce a new cultivated variety 
m any of the above genera, in accordance with the rules as set forth by the International 
Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, should consult with the above institution 
before proceeding. Information and forms will be provided to formally inaugurate the 
necessary steps for registering a new cultivar. 


This volume tells i 
Written in a clear cor 

and practical methods of imrJiediate value to anyone ir^volved 'in home landscaping on 
a relatively small scale. 

Section headings are: The Viewpomt; Defining The Space; The Front Yard; The 
Back Yard; The Material; Gettmg Your Lot on Paper; Analyzing Your Landscape, 
and ; Orgamzmg The Garden. Within the sections are intriguing discussions under 
such titles as: Logic in a small lot; A 1900 house brought down to earth and up to 
date; Parking in the front yard; On a postage stamp- Overcoming the bulldozer; 
Variety in fifty by sixty feet, and ; A hint of the past. ' 

Landscaping on a limited budget is the theme ( 
the Do It yourself approach and methods given, 
ttie author —is hoped, will help many families w] 
ary city or suburban lots in neighborhoods either new or old." 

The author conducted the Budget Landscaping class for five and one-half years a 
Kingwood Center, Mansfield, Ohio. Many of the valuable examples presented wer 
actual home landscaping problems brought to class by the homeowner and solved n 
coninr^.nn ^,,,1^ ^im. Some of the solutions include a scheduled development of th 

property ovei 

i budgeting t 

Although the book has the flavor of eastern and mid-western landscaping the basic 
oncepts of good landscape design and the methods are equally applicable in the west. 
.>h!ni?^'i^'f'^'''P^"^" ^^^o^imended for the layman who has an urge to create 

T? sP^^e an area that is more useful, attractive and enjoyable to him. 

It is a book for I960 living! auracuve, a j j 

William S. Stewart 


Officers 196() 

President William S. Stlwart 

Vice-President Percy C. Everett 

Treasurer Fred W. Roewekamp 

Secretary George H. Spaldin(. 

Executive-Secretary Victoria Padilla 

Board of Directors 
William Beresford Nolan W. Kinek 

Howard Bodger Elmer Lorenz 

Philip Edward Chandler Jim Perry 

Ralph D. Cornell Alfred W. Roberts 

Mildred Davis George H. Spalding 

Percy C. Everett William S. Stewart 

Earle E Hlimphries Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

f Council 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Henry R. Davis Fred W. Roewekamp 

Hugh Evans Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Mildred E. Mathl^s Ronald B. Townsend 

Roy F. Wilcox 

Annual Member * ^-^^y^^ 

Special Rate for Husband and Wife 6.00 year 

Group or Club ^-^^^^^^ 

Associate (for individual in member ,«roup only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member '5.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 

, ^, , . 500.00 

Life Membership 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 
Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Piummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Buildmg 
GRanite 2-4659 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Instit 

sponsors of 


Operated by 

Box 688 
Arcadia, California 
Arboretum Office— Hlllcrest 6-8251 

William S. Stewart Director 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

Leonid Enari Taxonomist 

Glenn H. Hiatt Orchid Specialist 

James Martin Plant Pathologist 

Louis B. Martin Plant Physiologist 

]. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Russella K. McGah Librarian 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Edward Huntsman-Trout Landscape Architect Consultant 

Donald P. Woolley Chief Horticulturist 


The official publication of the Southern California Horticuln. 

Index Vol. X. I960 


Summer and . 

All Aboard 54 

Antelope Valley Test Station 48 

Anderson, R. H. 

The Sydney Botanic Garden 74 
Anthony, Mark 

California Native Plant Garden 82 
Ayres, Samuel, Jr. M.D. 

Robert Casamajor 39 
Balls, Ernest K. 

Native Plants of California 51 
Casamajor, Robert 

Story of the Mexican Tiles 9 
Chandler, Philip E. 

Koelreuteria " 
Davis, Mildred 

Shade Ground Covers of Distir 

Davies, V. C. 

Dodonaea Viscosa Purpurea 60 

Everett, Percy C. 

The Native Plants of California 
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic G; 

rard, Dora M. 

"Edible Wild Plants of North Amer- 
ica" (Book Review) 68 
"Cinquifoil; herbs, etc." (Book Re- 


I Nomenclature 57 


Trout Edward Huntsman 

The World We Live hi 63 
Trvcn. Rolhi and Alice 

Observations on Cultivated Ferns 26 
Woollev. Donald P. 

Ferns Cultivated in California 86 

ithias, Mildred E. 

"Le Monde des Plantes" (Book 

lartiner. Harold P. 
Elm Trees Threatened by Bark 
Beetle 23 


Fldridee. Mildred h. Cinquitoil; 

herbs, etc. 6S 
IcrniH I md A ( Kmscv 

• Edible Wild Plants ot Eastern 

North America 6« 
Howard. Frances Landscaping' with 

Vines 19 
I CCS Carlton B. Bud^'et Landscaping' 

BOOK REVIEWS— continued GENERA AND SPECIES— continued 

Sequin, Fernand and Auray Blain "Le Cercidim^i torreyanmn 48 
Monde des Plantes" 44 ChHopsh I means 48 

Botany at U.C.L.A. 50 Cbonsia specwsa 17 

Cihotium 27 
C Chtus spp. 48 

California National Fuchsia Society 45 Clematis heraclaejolia 48 

California Native Plant Garden 82 CUanthus speciosus 48 

Cotoneaster serotina 48 
D Cupressus strkta 48 

Darwin, An Eminent Scientist 13 Cyathea australis 30 

Demonstration Turfgrass Plots 66 Cyathea Colensoi 30 

Cyathea Cooperi 31 
E CiV««/-«^/^dW/i 28, 29, 32 

Cyathea dealhata 28, 32 
Cyathea delicatula 28, 29, 32, 33 
Cyathea fulva 2^, 
^ Cyathea medullaris 28, 29, 33 

Ferns Cultivated in California 86 Cyathea mexkana 28, 29, 33 

Festival of Garden Lighting 10 Daphne Mezereum 69 

Floriade 42 Dendromecon 88 


Dkksoniaceae 27 
Dkksotj'ia antarctka 26, 27, 30 
Dkksonia fibrosa 26, 27, 30 

Acacia albida 48 Dicksonia squarrosa 27, 30 

Actinostrobus pyramidalis 48 Dodonea viscosa purpurea 60 

^/^izzi^ julibnssin rosea 48 £/^./^;///.f umbel lata 48 

Alsophila australis 28, 30 Eucalyptus botryoides 16 

Alsophila Colensoi 28, 29, 30, 31 Eucalyptus erylhronevia 48 

32, 33 Eucalyptus robusta IG 

Alsophila Cooperi 28, 31 Eucalyptus rod ant ha 48 

Alsophila excelsa 28, 32 Eucalyptus rugosa 48 

Arctostaphylos 88 Eucalyptus tcreticornis 16, Illus 

Arctostaphylos Edmundsii 2, 3, 4 Pontauesia phyllyraeoides 48 

Arctostaphylos pechoensis 2, 3 Vremontia 88 ' 

Arctostaphylos pumila 3 C?r/rr}v/ 88 

Acrtostaphylos tomentosa v. hebeclada Genista spp. 48 

4 Hemitelia Smithii 26, 28, 33 

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi 3 //^.x ^^.77.r^;//■ 48 

Asperula odorata 6 Koelreuteria jormosana 16 

Brfw^jid ericifolia 78 Lat^erstroemia iudica (dwarf) ^ 

B^r^^m aquijolium 52, 53 Z:/>//.r/ /V;.^////;;; 48 
B^r^^'r/'j Piperiana 51, 52, 53 

Berber is wilsonii 48 L/z^'f/^ 

Brachychiton rupestre 79 Lr;.7/.f/ ... 

Broussonetmpapyrtjera 48 L;^^^//..;. ar.7««///;« 87 

Calhstemon lanceolata 48 Lygodium japonicum 86, 87, 

f/ra/;.r 50 

Lygodium palmatum 87 
Lygodium scandens 87 
Lygodium volubile 87 

/vLrZ/^r^ pommijera 48 

Mabonia dicyota 52 
Mahonia Pipermna 51 

Lasca Calendar 47 

Lasca News 18 

Little Sur Manzanita, The 

Phoemx roehelenii 50 
Pbyllostachys bambusoides ] 
PbyllosUKbp mger 18 

Names, Notes, News 23. 69, 71 
National Shade Tree Conference \^ 
Native Plants of Qlifornia. The 
Native Plant Nature Tr.ul 20 

Ouercus lobata 34, 36, 37, 
Quercus robur 36 
Qtiercus vanabilis 48 
Romneya 88 
Rosemary 48 

^r^/:>d;«i 48 

Plant Nutrients and Manure 
Professional (i.irdcn.r SJk.o 

Santa Barbara Botanic Garden ' 
Shade Ground Covers of Distir 
Southern California Hortuultu 

Institute. The 1 2 
Storv of the Mexican Tiles 9 
Sydney Botanic Garden. The "^^ 

ashhigtonia filifera AS 

Turner, Mrs. Lee Wray 43 

Valley Oak, The 34 

Horticultural Congress (15th) ; 

Meeting 70 
Horticultural Nomenclature 57