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"VOL. 3CI. -IPC* 



It is requested that all Communications respecting the 
Printing of the Journal of the Society, or List of 
Members, may he sent to Professor Liversidge (Editor), 
Union Club, Sydney. 

All Donations presented to the Society are acknowledged 
by letter, and in the printed Proceedings of ihie Society. 







. Trubner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 


L'he Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 182 1 
,s the " Philosophical Society of Australia" ; after an interval 
>f inactivity, it was r< sus tab I l rS^o, under the name of the 
'Australian Philosophical S . it was known 

mtil 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wale-;" : ami finally, in May, 1866, by the 
anction of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed 
ts present title. 




I.— List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, Bj-1 
and List of Members 

II.— Anniversary Address by H C. Ruaadl, I 
F.R.A.3., F.M.S, Vice-President 

III.— The Forest Vegetation of Central and Xortl 

ABT.IV.-Oni; ■ itA,,,/ . • . 

Cui-acoid. Rilis. and Seal- ,.f Ctenodus. By W. J. 

. VI.— On tbe Tertiary Depo-it* of Australia. By the Rev. 
J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.R.G.S 

By Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., Sus 

By Professor I ivcrsidg 1 I - F.G.S., I R.G.S., &c 

. IX.— On a New Method of extracting Gold, Silver, and 

other Metals from Pyrites. Bv W. A. Dixon, F.C.S. ... 

Art. XI.— A Synopsis .of Australian Tertiary Polyzoa. By B. 


Art. Xll.-Ctenacanthus, a Spine of Ifybodus. By W. J. 

Barkas, M.E.C.S.E 

Art. XIII.— A Syslc a , f X, tati n •■ ' pted to explaining to 

Students certain Electri< il Operations By the lion. 

J. Smith, C.M.G., M.D, LL.D, M.L.C 

AET. XIV.— Xotes on the Meteorology, Natural History, &c, 

of a Guano Island ; and Guano and other Phosphatic 

Deposits, Maiden Island. By W. A. Dixon, F.C.S 

Art. XV.— On some Australian Tertiary Corals. (Two plates.) 

By the Rot. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. ... 
Art. XVI.-On a new and remarkable Variable Star in the 

Constellation Ara. By J. Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

Art. XVII.— On a Dental peculiarity of the Lepidosteida-. 

By W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S.E , 

Art. XVIII.— A New Fossil Extinct Species of Kangaroo, 

Art. XIX.— Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 213 to 218 

Art. XX.— Proceedings 219 to 235 

Art. XXL— Additions to the Library 236 to 244 

Art. XXII.— List of Exchanges and Presentations 215 to 251 

Art. XXIIL— Reports from the Sections 253 to 279 

By F. Milford, M.D., &c 270 

2. X'otes on some local Species of Diatomaee*. 

By G. D. Hirst 272 

\ \ \ F \ \ M. t ieal Obser- 

Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government Astronomer 281 to 294 

Art. XXV. -List of Publications 295 to 302 

Art. XXVL— Indbx 303 to 305 

lonal ^ocictn of Mcfo ^outfi W9tik$. 



PRi>FK>>OK T.lYi-:ii<[D..;E. | Dr. ADOLPII LEIBIUS 


JO.XFS. 1'. SUiNHY, M.D. j SMITH. IRi.V. .1.. C.M.G.. M.L 



Object of the Society. 
1. The object of the Society is to receive at its stated meetings original 
lapers on subjects of Science, Art. Literature, ami Philosophy, and especially 
n sueb MiUjccts a- tend to develop ther< - -uivc- « f A i>tralia, and to illustrate 

of the : 

ball cuv 

isiat « 

.f tv 






'#— ■ 



ambers, shall 

:ier Member* 



lie Gem 

•ral Mccti 


the month of 


-.* darny 

//„; ,y P „, 

ynfirmation of By-laws. 

of Faada^ulal Eu) 


Passed at a General Meeting of the Society, held June 7th, 187G 

the first W, 

innuul Omrral Me, tiny.— A, m,.,>l I!, r o,-t«.— Election of Office 
IT. A General Meeting of the Society shall he hehl annua 

Officers and Council. 

nual General Meet 

proposed at one meeting of the Council, and agreed to : 
subsequent meeting. 

Y. Each member present at the General Annual Meeting 
shall have the power to alter the list of names recommended by 
the Council, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and removing from it an equivalent 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 

Council Meetings. 

VI. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take place 
on the last "Wednesday in every month, and on such other days 
as the Council may determine. 

-'''-■. : 

VII. Any member of the Council absenting himself from three 

proceeded with at the next Council meeting in accordance with 
Fundamental Eule V. No business shall be transacted at any 
meeting of the Council unless three members are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 
VIII. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties : — 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 

3. At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 

the presents made to the Society since their last meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidate! 
the Society, and such original papers commu 
: read by their respecth 

4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transact ions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 

6. To bo responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the Society. 

7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

&c, in the Library Catalogue, a lid of all pivsentaiions 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the issue and return of books, 

&c., borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

printed copy of the Forms ]S T os. 2 and 3 (in the 
Appendix), together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Fundamental Eules and By-laws, and a card of 
the dates of meeting ; and to a 
made to the Society, by Form No. 5. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 
Wednesday iu each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 

Council at the Con: fche Ordinary 

General Meetings of the members of the Society, in 
order that the same may be laid before the Society at 
the Annual General Meeting held in the month of 
The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, divide 
the performance of the duties above enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
members of all Committees appointed by the Council. 

Candidates for admission. 

IX. Every candidate for admission as an ordinary member of 
the Society shall be recommended according to a prescribed form. 
by not less than three members, to two of whom he must be 

Election of nnc Members, 

X. The names of such candidates, with the names of their 
supporters, shall be read by one of the Secretaries at an Ordinary 
General Meeting of the Society. The vote as to admission to 

ballot %h 


t of 

at least 


Rfoa 6 

the members voting 

shall be requisit 


the admission 

4 Vu-< 




ben to be 


ed of tl 

eh- election. 

XT. E 

cry n 

W 1 

lember si 

all re 

eeive d 

ue notification of his 


n 1 1m 


died with 

B en; 

y of the obligation (No. 3 in 

Append! j 

). tog 


with a ci 

pj of 

the Ei 

udaniental Rules and 


of the 


t of 


s, and a card of the 

dates of 


aeetings nor to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall his 
iame be printed in the list of the Society, until he shall have 

obligation signed by himself. 
shall sign Bides— Formal admission. 


to th< 



\er$ >h 





er ^ 



at the 




M-nt. si 


Eoyal Society of New South Wales I 

XIV. Annual rabscription s .1k.11 become due on the 1st o£ 
May for the year then commencing. The entranee fee and first 
year's subscription of a new member shall become due on the 
day of his election. 

Sufixcriptions in arrears. 

XV. Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 
current vear. on or before the Mist of May. shall be informed of 
the fact by the Hon. Treasurer. 

And at the meeting held in Jul;, : ml n all s thsequent meetings 
for the year, a list of the names of all those members who are in 
arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 
Kooms of the Society. Members shall in such cases be informed 
that their names have been thus posted. 

Resignation of Members. 

XVI. No member shall be at liberty to withdraw from the 
Society without previously giving notice to one of the Secretaries 
of his desire to withdraw, and returning all books or other 
property belonging to the Society. Members will be considered 
liable for the payment of all subscriptions due from them up to 
the date at wdiich they may give notice of their intention to 
withdraw from the Society. 

Expulsion of Members. 

XVII. A majority of members present at any ordinary meet- 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member from the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after the meeting at which such resolution 
has been brought forward. 

Contributions to the Society. 

XVIII. Conti *y, of whatever character 
must be seat to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 

Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promul-ai ion ami discussion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such commumea pose, as well as 

to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society. 

Order of Business. 

XIX. At the Ordinary Gi usiness shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1— Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

3— Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4 — Candidates for membership to be proposed. 

5— Business arising out of Minutes. 

6 — Communications from the Council. 

7 — Communications from tue Sections. 

8— Donations to be hud Q» ''••' Efljhl and acknowledged. 

9 — Correspondence to be read. 
10— Motions from last Meeting. 

11— Notices of Motion for the next Meeting to be given in. 
12 — Papers to be read. 
13— Discussion. 

14 — Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 
Admission of Visitors. 

XX. Even Of v.v the privilege of admit- 
ting two friends as visitors to an Ordinary General Meet i pg of 
the Society, on the following conditions : — 

1. That the name and residence of the visitors, together 

wiili the name of fcl dng them, be 

entered in a book at the time. 

2. That they shall not have attended two consecutive 

meetings of the Society in the current year. 

duce visitors, irrespective 

Management of Funds. 

XXI. The funds of the Society shall be lodged at a Bank 
named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 

Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid bv the 

Money Grants. 

XXII. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society— to Sections or to members — shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 
may be re-voted. 

XXIII. Such grants of money to Committees ami individual 
members sh ill not be used to defray any personal expenses which 
a member may incur. 

Audit of Accounts. 

XXIV. Two Auditors shall be appointed annually, at an 
Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts. The 
accounts as audited to be laid before the Annual Meeting in 

Property of the Soeu ' . to I ■■? tl e V '^-Presidents, Sfc. 

XXV. All pr jiug to the Society shall be 
vested in the Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Secre- 
taries for the time being, in trust for the use of the Society; but 
the Council shall have control over the disbursements of the funds 

XXVI. The Members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 

regulations as the Council may think necessary. 

Branch Societies. 

XXVIII. The Society shall have power to form Branch 
Societies in other parts of the Colony. 


XXIX. To allow those members of the Society who deyote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 
restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society, — Sections or Committees may be established in 
the following branches of science : — 

Section B. — Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 

to the Arts and Agriculture. 
Section C. — Geology and Palaeontology. 
Section D. — Biology, i.e., Botany and Zoology, including 

Section E. — Microscopical Science. 
Section F. — Geography and Ethnology. 
Section O. — Literature and the Eine Arts, including 

Section iT— Medical. 
Section I. — Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Beportsfrom Sections. 
XXX. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of November in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to the 

Section Committees— Card of Meetings. 

XXXI. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman, Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
for distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Money Grants to Sections. 

XXXII. By application to the Council, grants of money may 
be made out of the General Funds of the Society to the Sections. 

JlcmbcrsJiip of Sections. 

XXXIII. Xo person who is not a member of the Society shall 
have the privilege of joining any of the Sections. 


1. During the Session, the Library shall be open for consul- 
tation, and for the issue and return of books, between 4 and 6 
p.m. on the afternoon in' each Wednesday, and between 7 and 10 
p.m. on the evenings of Monday - W» dnesday, and Friday. 

2. No book shall be issued without being signed for in the 
Library Book. 

y. Members are not allowed to have more than three volumes 
at a time from the ! mission from one 

of the Honorary Secretaries, nor to retain a book for a longer 
period than fourteen days ; but when a book is returned by a 
member it may be borrowed l.y him a-ai :. provided it has not 
been bespoken by any other member. Books which have been 
bespoken shall circulate in rotation, according to priority of 

4. Scientific Periodicals and Journals are not to be borrowed 
until the volumes are completed and bound. 

5. Members retaining books longer than the time specified 
shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for each volume. 

G. The books which have been issued shall be called in by the 
Secretaries twice a year ; and in the event of any book not being 
returned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 
shall be answerable for it, and shall be required to defray the 

Feom Personal K: 

-— - | 

member of the Royal Soeiety of 1 
you a copy of the Fundamental E 
copy of an obligation, a list of m 

Form No. 3. 

Royal Society oe New South Wales. 
undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeavour to promote 

its Rules and By-laws as long as I shall remain a member thereof. 

Form No. 4. 

The Society's 

} by cheque or Post Office order 

I am desired by the Royal Society of New South Wales tc 

Form No. 6. 

Royal Socixey of New South 1 
The Soc 

Balloting List for the Election of the Officers and Cou 

fl.e Orti.vis ami Coim. 


N™ pro p^„M«, 



Hon. Treasurer. 

— ■ 

Members of Council. 






i ran 

gcpi S0jf«tg of $fto ^xjutlj »Ics. 

1869 (P 2 i Bcususan, 

Corrected Address. 

.877 I Eurnell 

E irgrapli Office, 

tore, Bowen, Queensland. 

. a. I. M„ M : 

;, J. K., Cooma Cottage, Y* 

76 j j Jackson, Henry William, L.R.C.S. Edin., Lie. E, Phys., . 
76 JenkS, Richard 1 lJwis, M.R.C.S., Ifepean Towers, Doi 

Univ. Paris, 131, 

ii. Citv Bank, Pitt 
i XcilL A. L. P., City Bunk, Pitt 

Ollev, Rev. Jacob, Hunt 
O'Reilly, W. W. J., M.I 

. 7W/..M.R.C.S.,ZV, 

Pendergast, Robert, 


»'cu7 M.. M.R.C.S 

, Woollahra. 

ley. Dr. J. A., O.S.B., LL.D., Syd., Lyndliurst College. 

:r : ;,». 

■I: ..-' 

Reac. o 
R (! i i. Ri 

Roberts' Atfrea^M.R. 

A/rf»-. F.R.C.S.E., 295, 

Hon. Mem. Zool. and I 

s College, Newtown. 

Ko-s, .1. (i ration, 24, Bi ^ 
L' 12 fK - H '• < iV.A., St/d., F.R.A.S., F.M.S., Hon. Mem. 

Sal.l. Cliiirl.-^L.. German Co 
Samuel. Tlv Hon. Saul, CM.( 

. Ferndale, South He; 

re. Thos.. Commander R.X.. Australian Cluk 
George Milner, B.A., F.G.S., Mem. Geol. Soc. of Ger- 
; Cor. Mem. Xat. Hist. Soc, Dresden; F.K.G.*. of 
vail; Five Dock. 

Vm. Edmund, M.D., Aberdeen, M.R.C.S., Eng., Liver- 
he Hon. Alexander, M.P., Colonial Treasurer, Ciunes, 

. •:! . F.K.l .-.. I, 

, R.yVhMvA.-jluni; Cook's Eivt 
, i>itt->tivct, Rodforn. 

i K.hwinl, M.I) , M.1M ■>.. ^>, ("..ll.'g.-^ 
if. A. $>,<!., X, uin-l..-, (',,11, ; ,.. P.uTuniaH 

, 101, Mark-ay -street. 

IIoxojiary Members. 

Agnew, Dr., Hon. Secretary, Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart Town. 
Earlee, The Hon. F., late Colonial Secretary of Western Australia. 
Beexats, Lewis A..F.L.S., Vice-President of the Queensland Acclimatization 

Eileet, Robert F., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., aovernment Astronomer of Victoria, 


Brisbane! 1 **' ' ime J 01 

Haast, J)v. Julius von, rii. I)., F.R.S., F.G.S., Government Geologist and 
IIectok, James, C.M.G., M.I").. F.E.S.. l)i,vetor of the Colonial Museum and 

lion. F.O 

F.R S., F.L.S., 

rsB, F. G., F.G.S, C.M.Z.S.. (Alitor 01 the Museum, Adelaide, 
lev. Julian E. Tenison, F.G.S., F. Il.G S., Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc, 

Obituakt, 1S77. 


[Delivered before the Royal Society of N.S.W., 2 May, 1877.] 


At the commencement of last session it was your pleasure 
to elect me one of your Vice-presidents, and in so doing to lay 
upon me the dut; ing address this session. I 

wish your choice had fallen on some one with more leisure than 
myself, or that we might, as in years past, have had the pleasure 
of listening to our honored and senior Vice-president, whose 
unceasn g labours on behalf of our Society have earned for him 
such a high place in our esteem. 

Fifn six years 1 r passed < n if , > i eai lest workers 
met together in Sydney, and formed the first Scientific Society 
in Australia. V :\e origin of our 

Society to that early effort made to plant science on a new soil ; 
and although there have been periods of depression — " droughts" 
in our ecientifii i was made — yet 

the Eeport you have just heard contains ample proof that the 
yoimir Sueicty was planted on congenial soil. 

You have h( bare done during the past 

year, and I need not dwell upon it, except on one or two points, 
for which I ask your forbearance. 

First, however, allow me to congratulate you upon our flourish- 
ing condition. 

"With 132 members added to our number during the year, with 
seven working sections formed, with 1,000 books added to our 
library, besides furniture and instruments purchase! for our use, 

with, a volume sin < - . than any which 

has preceded it. v. _, relations established with 

no less than 107 kindred Societies scattered overall parts of the 
world, with a growing spirit of w r ork amongst our members, and 
with a fair prospect that a liberal Government will help us to 
carry out our purposes, we certainly have good reason to con- 
gratulate ourselves on the year's progress. 

The following list of papers read does not include those read 
to the Sections ; n a rs favourable comparison 

with the number (10) read the previous year : — 

1. Anniversary Address. By the Rev. W. B. Clarke, MA., F.R.S. 

2. Notes on some remarkable Errors shown by Thermometers. By H. C. 

Russell, B.A, F.R.A.S. 

3. On the Origin and Migration of the Polynesian Nations. By Rev. 

4. On the Deep Oceanic Depression off Moreton Bay. By Rev. W. B. 

Clarke, MA., F.R.S. 
■5. Some Notes on Jupiter during his Opposition of 1876. By Mr. G. D. 

6. On the Genus Ctenodus. By Mr. W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S.E. 

7. Part 2 of above paper, being Microscopic Structure of Mandibular 

and Palatal Teeth of Ctenodus. 

8. Part 3 of above, Vomerine Teeth of Ctenodus. 

9. Part 4 of above, on I be I >• _ -palatine Bones of 

10. On the formation of Moss Gold and Silver. By Archibald Liversidge, 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. 

11. Recent Copper-extracting Processes. By Mr. S. L. Bensusan. 

12. Meteorological Periodicity. By H. C. Russell, B.A.. F.R.A.S. 

13. Sfieefe of Forest Vegetation on Climate. By Rev. W. B. Clarke, 

Professor of < •'.,• Umver>it\ of Sulney. 

In addition to the above, four papers were read in the A stro- 
ma -a] Section, three in the Sccli- ui'.>rl'iiciiii>tr. and Miu« raloir; - 

five in the Microscopical Section, one to Fine Arts Section, several 
read to the Medical Section (number not given in Report), two to 
the Sanitary Section ; besides which, a great deal of useful work 
was done in the Sections, and several of them formed a basis on 
which they will be able to increase their usefulness during this 

The work done by our Sections was therefore considerable, and 
will appear still more so, if it is borne in mind that, owing to the 
time lost in preliminary arrangements, they could not begin until 

"When it was announced at our last Annual Meeting that Sec- 
tions would be formed, some of the most sanguine amongst us 
thought that not more than three or four could be formed on a 
working basis ; and I confess that I was not a little surprised 
when seven out of the nine proposed were formed. Surely no 
better proof CO ■ wish to be at work was 

increasing amongst us. And the progress made last session justi- 
fies the hope that, during the one on which we are entering, much 
more will be accomplished. There are amongst us, no doubt, many 
workers who have not the leisure required to prepare such a 
formal paper as the Royal Society requires, who will find, in the 
Sections ample opportunity for bringing their work forward. 
And, if I may venture to make a suggestion on this subject, it is 
that they should devote themselves specially to such facts and 
phenomena as are peculiar to Australia, for by so doing our 
Journal will become of ver\ _ mation of those 

to whom we send it in exchange for the valuable works which 
they publish. 

The Report has justly reminded you of the obligation we are 
under owing to the liberality of our Government in printing our 
Journal ; but I cannot let the dlusioi ;•■•- \H >ut calling your 
attention to the uimeuln there ; ^ in getting much of the technical 
matter we publish through the Press, and the obligation we owe 
both to Mr. T. Richards, Government Printer,and to Mr. C. Potter, 
Acting Government Printer, for their uniform courtesy and atten- 
tion to our wants while getting the Journal through the Press. 

Another matter which should not he passed over with so short 
a notice as is given to it in our Council's Eeport, is the establish- 
ment of exchange relations with no less than 107 other and 
kindred Societies scattered over the world. By this means we 
have, in return for 579 volumes sent out (our own and others 
given us for distribution), secured at least 1,000 new works for 
our library, very many of them valuable ones, which could only 
have been obtain ihange for works 

of a kindred Society like ours. This alone is no small matter to 
record for the past < , . 1 1 t reminds me of something! wished 
to say. Tou all know how our Rules set forth that the " object 
of this Society is to receive original papers on scientific subjects, 
art, literature, and philosophy ; and especially such subjects as 
tend to develop the resources of Australia, and illustrate its 
natural history and 1 vou also know how, in a 

humble way, we have steadily kept to our purpose, but by adding 
to it this year the distribution of our own and other publications 
of a like character, partly for the return we knew we should get, 
and partly with the object of spreading knowledge, we have, so far 
as our means permitted, taken in this Colony the position held by 
the Smithsonian Institution in America. That institution had, as 
you are aware, an origin very different from ours, it is a monu- 
ment to the love of knowledge and munificence of an Englishman 
named " Smithson," who, on condition that the money was spent 
for the "Increase and diffusion of knowledge among men," 
devoted his fortune (about £100,000) to found it. Eight nobly 
the work is carried on by the Regents or Council of the institu- 
tion, in publishing new works, and in sending them, together 
with all the scientific books they can get, the world over. 
Sustained by ample funds from the endowment, they can act 
as their love of science dictates, while we who have only our 
subscriptions to work upon, are following their example as far as 
we can. It is a laudable position for us to aspire to ; and I hope 
that as our "Smiths, i" has not yet appeared, our Government 
will help us to do this work, which is for the public good, until 

The Ecport also alludes to two other matters which I should 

we have devoted a considerable sum of money to the purchase of 
scientific periodicals for our library. ;uid alt h..u^h it has helped 
materially to reduce our Treasurer's balance, it is a good invest- 

The other is the number of valuable donations that have been 
received from our members. Their names as donors have already 
been laid before you at the monthly meetings, and will be found 
recorded in our annual Journal, now on the table. I would like 
to read them over, but the list is too long. I cannot, however, 
refrain from calling your attention to one fact, that the spirit 
amongst us which these donations evince is a most satisfactory 
one to recognize. It is the source from which kindred Societies 
in England and elsewhere derive so many valuable books and 
instruments. And I have no doubt that when it becomes known 
that the donors' names are permanently recorded as benefactors 
of the Society, and that such gifts in the hands of the Librarian 
become extremely valuable to the members, we shall have many 
more to record. From the three sources I have named, we are 
collecting a library, which as many of you are aware, is rapidly 

I hope that I have not be > . _- these remarks. 

I have done so because I think we have arrived at a most 
important period of our history, and much of our future progress 
will depend upon the course we now adopt. For we have 
grown to be a large Scientific Society ; we have divided 
ourselves into Sections, and find many willing to work — 
more even than we expected, and we have no elbow-room in 
which to accommodate them. If this continues, it will be found 
one of the most effective things in checking the usefulness of the 
members, who at least expect a comfortable place to work in. 
Indeed, the S< ise-room. and it mav be 

said, perhaps to its credit, that it has heretofore thought more 
of its work than its home. And I hope it will continue to do 

so. But I am sure I am only speaking the conviction of the 
majority of our members when I say that the time has 
arrived when we ought to have, when we must have, a home of 
our own. Every kindred Society that I know of is provided with 
a home at Government expense, both here and in other places. 
In England, the Royal and other Societies are provided with 
splendid rooms in Burlington, House, which must have cost the 
Grovernment upwards of £100,000. They receive also annual 
grants from the Grovernment, and this year the Royal Society's 
share is £5,000, a clear proof of the value of such an institution 
in the community. Coming nearer home, the Royal Society in 
Victoria received from the Government a piece of land in Mel- 
bourne, and £2,000 towards their building, together with an 
annual grant of £200. In Tasmania the Royal Society is pro- 
vided by the Government with fine rooms, and has an annual 
grant of money, and so in other places ; while the Royal Society 
of Sydney has never received any assistance from Government 
except the printing of our Journal since 1873. This is not a fair 
position for us to be in ; and I am convinced that if we rightly 
represent the matter, we shall obtain the assistance we need to 
enable us to extend our usefulness. I will not here discuss the 
question of how this should be done ; but I think it is a proper 
object to place in the hands .of a committee of the members. 

"With one remark bearing upon the subject I will leave it. 
The question may be asked, does it pay to foster science ? We 
have not far to look in the experience of other countries for an 
answer, and their experience points unmistakeably to the fact 
that science is the mainspring of advancement in arts and 
manufactures. Let science keep in the back-ground, and art at 
once becomes a machine, reproducing the same thing agr after 
age, with a gradual deterioration proportionate to the wear and 

thoughtful workers in its fields, and it is soon found to be but 
an easy step from pure science to pure art. 

the world we must do likewise. As one of the leading 
day has recently said— "There can be no doubt that,whe 
be looked upon as a means of culture <>r as a means of 
progress. j t ; s |^ >t ] l our ,j lirv ;lU( | ,, ur interest to prom 
Turning now to the scientific progress made during 
feel that it is hopeless to try to condense within theli 
address what would fill a goodly volume; and the field 
that I fear even to enter it lest I should not get out I 
patience was «. - - ; - - have anothei 

few facts from the great multitude. 

: - -co very has been 

much has been done in its various branches. Meat 
and Schuster's . 3 into the absorpth 

■ •■ ' - ■ 
varying absorptive powers of metallic and metalloic 
under different temperatures, and especial] \ with 
calcium, which gives two distinct spectra — are mo: 

Mr. Christie, using the large spectroscope of the 
•Observatory, has confirmed I * i Up us discovery of 

the proper motion of stars, but he has not been able, any more 
than Dr. Huggins, to find proofs of motion in the nebulae. No 
doubt this is owing to the inherent difficulty of getting exact 
measures of the bright lines of faint spectra. Dr. Huggins has 
this year made another advance in the examination of star spectra, 
and has succeeded in so imp: that a star can 

be kept on the slit of the spectroscope until a photograph is 
taken ; and he has secured the finest photographs of star spectra 
yet obtained. The advance thus made is must important, for the 
spectra can now be measured and compared at leisure, free from 
all the difficulties which beset the direct analysis of the star- 

In the magnificent physical observatory which has just been 
constructed at P baa been spared 

to provide it wlti. 'ruments. Dr. Yogel, the 

-director, says that the spectroscope made by Hugo Schroder, of 
Hamburg, is a splendid instrument, and its twenty-one single 
prisms, combined into a system on Rutherford's plan, will enable 
him to measure one-hundredth part of the space between the D 
lines, and shows in the same space nine fine lines. When I saw 
this statement recently published, it recalled the information I 
had given you in November, 1875, viz., that nine fine lines had 
been seen at Berlin between D 1 and D 2 with the spectroscope 
then in use ; that some years previously (1868) Dr. Huggins, 
.using the great spectroscope at Oxford, saw twelve lines in the 
same space; and that Colonel Campbell, with a spectroscope 
made by Hilger, had in London seen nineteen lines between the 
two Ds ; and comparing these statements with my own experience 
here, using a much finer spectroscope (also by Hilger, of London) 
which shows me seven lines between the two Ds, I was led to 
think that these differences must be due to atmosphere, and not 
to the quality of the spectroscope. If so, it is a most important 
question to determine ; and I have therefore carefully examined 
these lines with our large spectroscope, which has a dispersion 

numbered them 1 to 7, beginning at Dl. and their positions as 
determined by a number of readings with the micrometer arc as 
follows : — 

Dl 1 2 3 4 5 G 7 D2 D3 
000 | 41 I 67 | 124 | 151 | 173 | 213 | 232 | 291 | 299 

of the zinc line ; 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 are evidently atmospheric 
lines, as they increased in distinctness very fast as the sun neared 
the horizon ; 4 also seems to enlarge as if there were an atmo- 
spheric line coincident with it, and 6 increased faster than any 
other; when the sun was near the horizon it was as thick again 
as Dl ; 7 did not increase at all, and almost disappeared when 

The line D3 has not, I think, been described before. It is a 
difficult line to see, and only to be made out with high powers. 
I have not reduced my measures to wave lengths, because the 
results obtained by Dr. Huggins and Colonel Campbell are only 
recorded in drawings, without measures. I have had prepared 
enlarged drawings of thoso obtained in Oxford and London, 
with a careful plot from my own measures, which I now show 

There are not many of the lines which agree ; but as Dr. 
Huggins used bisulphide of carbon prisms, and Colonel Campbell 
only eight prisms, some of the differences might disappear if all 
could be reduced to wave lengths. On closely comparing the 
drawings, it will be seen that five lines were recorded in London 
between my 7 and D 2, two others between D 1 and No. 1, and 
three between JSos. 2 and 3. These spaces appear in Sydney, 
even under the most favourable conditions, entirely free from 
lines, or any sign of them. It would appear, therefore, that 
there must be some gases in the atmosphere of Europe, and 


especially of London, which are not present in Australia. What- 
ever these may be, they have eluded chemical analysis, and they 
may prove to be of importance in judging of the purity of an 
atmosphere. If it should prove so, it will be rather curious that 
we are obliged, after all, to use our eyes to see what we breathe. 
Whether these lines indicate substances which make the difference 
between health and disease, cannot yet be decided ; but there is 
no doubt that the air at times contains the cause of disease in 
such a subtle form as to elude all the ordinary modes of investi- 

Astronomers have this year to chronicle another temporary 
star, showing spectroscopic evidence of a sudden and extraor- 
dinary increase in its temperature. The new star, which was 
discovered on the 24th of November last by Professor Schmidt, 
of Athens, was of the third magnitude, and not far from Eho 
Cygni. On the 2nd December it was spectroscopically examined 
by M. Cornu, of Paris, aud found to give a spectrum of bright 
lines, the positions of which were fortunately determined, 
although the star was then only of the fourth or fifth magnitude. 
Eight lines were measured, and five of these were found to be 
almost exactly coincident with C, D, E, F, and Gr of the Erauen- 
hofer lines. So that the principal lines in the star spectrum 
coincide with the brightest lines of the sun's chromosphere seen 
in total eclipses, which seems to prove that the materials of the 
star were in a state of incandescence. It will be remembered 
that a still more remarkable st 
appeared in 1866— T. Corona? 
beyond the limits of unaided vision. 

Mr. Crookes seems disposed to give up the theory that the 
radiometer motions, or any part of them, are due to light only, 
for he says : — " I have recent! succeeded producing such a 
complete exhaustion in the radiometer that I have not only 
reached the point of maximum effect, but gone so far beyond it 
that repulsion nearly ceases, aud the results I have thus obtained 
seem to show conclusively that the true explanation of the 
action of the radiometer is that _-; < v. by Mr. Johnstone Stoney, 

Un the other ; • M. bedttn/, m a paper 

read before the French Academy, remarks, thai the tlieory which 
explains the action of the radiometer by saying that li?bt falling 

temperature between the discs and the tias in the case, which 
produces the motion, expressly requires that there shall never be 
an equilibria! • the discs and the gas in 

the case of the radiometer ; but this cannot be admitted, for the 
arms keep revolving at a uniform speed so long as the light is 
present. He had tried many experiments, and in one of them 
the instrument was heated nearly to redo the discs beg 

to move, but the speed was sensibly accelerated by the momentary- 
presence of a single flame, which joined its action to that of the 
radiant beat ; and be had obtained perfect rotation in an instru- 
ment in which both sides of the disc were equally polished. 

It will be remembered that in 1S72 Herr Groneman, of Gonin- ■ 
gen, propounded a new theory of the origin of the aurora. His 
hypothesis is that there are in space streams of minute particles 
of iron, revolving about the sun in the same way that meteors do, 
and that these, when passing the earth, become attracted to its 
poles, and from them stretch out as long filaments into space ; 
but as they nice; 

they become ignited, and thus form the luminous aurora, giving 
with the spectroscope a green iron line. He has recently returned 
to this theory, and brought forward much additional matter in its 
favour. In connection with this subject the researches of Pro- 
fessor Nordenskiold are very interesting. He has been examin- 
ing the purity of snow, both at Stockholm and near the Korth 
Pole. To north-west of Spitzbergen he found the snow con- 
taminated with minute black particles, which proved on examina- 
tion to be exactly the same as those found at Stockholm, and con- 
sisted of particles of metallic iron, phosphorus, cobalt, and frag- 
ments of Diatornacea?. 

From observations made in June last on two bright spots scei. 
on Jupiter, Mr. John Brett infers that sucli spots have a proper 
motion on the surface <>f the planet, and that they are globular 
bodies almost as large as the earth ; and he further infers, from 
their gradual disappearance a- they approach the limb, that they 
are wholly burners trial of the planet. 

The rate of proper motion assigned to them is 165 miles per hour. 

A most interesting inquiry is opened up by this observation — 
viz., whether there are such bodies revolving about Jupiter. The 
white and black spots so frequently seen, though better defined 
in outline, would seem to belong to some such system. Analogy 
of course would teach us to expect such forms as the results of 
cyclones in the a' jueuee of its rota- 

tion. But the rate of motion — 165 miles in a hour— is certainly a 
difficulty, as the motion of storm centres on the earth is only 
4 to 6 miles per hour ; but it must not be forgotten that there 
are some barometer wave- ; our atmosphere 

at the rate of 50 miles an hour. 

Professor Ha U ;^ig the great 

26-inch refractor. !•■<■, nth -hie • . >1 a small well-defined white 
spot on the planet Sal u hi II \va s reported to six other American 
observatories an I -lie observations 

gives a rotation period to the planet of 10 hours 15 minutes, 
which agrees very well with Sir. W. Herschel's determination, 
made in 1793-4, of 10 hours 16 minutes O^t seconds. 

opinion that the roved to be a thin stratum, 

which cuts off one-half of the heat that would otherwise reach 
the §arth. This, he considers, is proved by its action in produc- 
ing the dark lines in the spectrum, or, in other words, stopping 
the light and heat of the sun; and he calculates that should this 
envelope be increased 25 per cent in thickness, the mean tem- 
perature of our globe would be reduced 100° Fahrenheit, and 
possibly some such phenomenon took place in the glacial perio I. 

endulum experiments winch have been carried . 
onncetion with the Trigonometrical Survey since 1865 

lecdat -taMe c\ i.K-n 

strata of the ei 

irth/s crust which lie under continents and moun- 

tains, and an in 

eroase of density in the strata under the sea. 

The progress 

of meteorology during the past year has not been 

so rapid as man 

y persons desire and think possible, but there can 

be no doubt tha 

t the wide- '.'-as and obser- 

vations is tendu 

ig to place meteorology in the position of a true 

science, from w 

hich we may expect a complete account of the 

motions of the ei 

irth'satmosphereand ocean, as well as of the various 

other elements 1 

which form climate : ;;> well as the relations which 

subsist between 

i them ; and the cosmical phenomena which, with- 

out doubt, have 

much to do with the changes we see. Each step 

in advance seen 

is to bring fresh proof of the intimate relations 

etween the earth's atmosphere and the sun's sur- 

roundings, and 

branches of sci 


How far the 

former is a result of the latter no one is at present 

prepared to say 

show the depen 

deuce of meteorological changes on sun spots, and 

the amount of e 

ridenee brought forward to prove it, show how com- 

monly the belie: 

F is entertained by those who reason on the subject. 

Meantime nn 

.'teoroloiry '"- ■■ ' M<-tical side. 

and the great s 

uccess of weather maps and storm warning! in 

led to their adoption by other European States ; and there seems 
little doubt that Europe will soon be covered by an international 
system which will afford as much information to the seaman and 
the farmer as the weather-map of America does. In Australia 
we may congratulate ourselves on having made a beginning ; and 
the weather-i. v inoy since the 

3rd February, 1877, is only the first of a series which will be pub- 
lished daily in each Colony ; by which means the information which 
is now being freely exchanged by the four Colonies, South Aus- 


tralia, Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, will be placed 
before the public. As the method of producing the weather-map 
here isnovel and <!:::'■ inland America, 

perhaps a few words of explanation may be devoted to it. In 
England, after the telegrams are received, a map is prepared by- 
hand for lithographic printing, and 500 copies are printed by. 
3 p.m. each day, and distributed to subscribers, who pay a moderate 
sum for the information. Several of the daily newspapers repro- 
duce portions of this map by engraving it on a block, and taking 
a cast from it, w\ • 1 . ; such at least was the 

method when I last heard. In America a stock of outline maps- 
of the States is kept ready to receive the weather information. 
Such parts of it as can be given in type are set up and printed 
on the outline map. The isobars are then put on a lithograph 
stone and printed on the map, which is then transferred to the 
stone containing isotherms, and there receives its fourth and last 
printing, and is ready for distribution early in the afternoon ; but 
it is not, so far as I am aware, reproduced by the newspapers. 
About 2,000 copies are distributed daily by post, and must of 
course take days in reaching some places. 

In Sydnej the map is prepared in this way : — A block of metal 
of the size of the map, and one-eighth of an inch less in thickness 
than the height of ordinary type, has fixed upon it an electro 
outline of the coast and mountains of the eastern half of Aus- 
tralia ; the electro is just of the thickness required to make it type 
high. At the poe don occupies a hole is cut in 

the block, of the right size to receive" the wind symbol, and the 
type necessary to express the force of wind, height of barometer, 
letter for rising or falling barometer and the temperatures. Spaces 
are also cut out to receive the list of temperature and rainfall, 
also for the explanatory jnatter. The rest of the block is fiat, 
and, as I have stated, i-inch lower than the type. When the 
telegrams have been reduced and corrected, they are given on a 
convenient form to a compositor, who in a short time makes all 
the changes that are necessary to convert the figures of yesterday 
into those of to-day. 

lhc compoi 
map ; these ar 

other symbols. As soon as this is done it is ready to print from 
in an ordinary piv» ."ami a few eepies an- printed off for distri- 
bution. Hie map is then sent to the Herald Office, and there 

to the Observatory for next day's map. In this way it is thought 
that the information reaches the public sooner than it could by 
any other method. There is, however, nothing to stop the issue of 
copies each day soon after noon if thought desirable ; for it is 
evident that the time required to prepare this map is less than 
others referred to, and printing from type can be done much 
(pucker than from a lithograph stone. 

Turning now to other matters : it will be remembered that 
experiments on the amount of sunshine were made in Loudon, 

method was. it I- true. < \ :i yielded an 

been found to give t lie infor 

record of the sunshine. 1 

logical Office, London, has : 

original instrument. Instead of wood to be burnt he uses slips 

of cardboard ruled into hours ; these are placed daily at the back 

of the . glass bulb, and each day therefore has its "'own record. 

This is a great improvement, but we are not told how the effect 


is now to be meae mlty la the way, 

since the weight of the cardboard would vary with the state of 
the weather, and this would be a serious difficulty if the sun's 
effect is to be ascertained by weighing. 

In connection with this subject, it will be remembered that 
about seven years since a French inventor, M. Mouchot, exhibited 
before the Emperor a steam-engine worked by direct sun heat. 
He has been w« i ever since, and some of his 

recent results are so good tl that direct sun 


The machine is thus constructed : — A mirror in the form of a 
truncated cone, 74 inches in diameter, has its axis converted into 
a boiler 11 inches in diameter and 31 inches high. With this 
the mirror makes an angle of 45°, so that all the rays falling on 
it are reflected into the boiler. To prevent loss of heat by 
radiation, the boiler is coven -lass case. This 

apparatuses placcl > :i an a\ - parallel to that of the earth (a 
polar axis) and then turned so that the axis of the cone points to 
the sun. Clock-work is then connected to the polar axis, and 
keeps the mirror turned to the sun. The results obtained in 
ordinary weather are as" follows : — 4 gallons of water introduced 
at a temperature of 68° Faht. at half-past s a.m. were turned 
into steam of 30 lbs. pressure per square inch in forty minutes. 
The pressure was then allowed to rise to 75 lbs. on the inch, 
which it did in a few minutes, but the boiler was not strong 
enough to carry the test to a greater pressure. The steam was 
used to drive an engine and a pump. At another trial the 
machine distilled a gallon of wine in fifteen minutes. 

These are surprising results to be obtained in the climate of 
France, and seem to make the experiment worth trying on our 

Another use, however, might be made of it. Such an instru- 
ment, properly c istru teak i i-lit lu kept at work always, and 
made to deliver the water distilled into measures placed at fixed 

during the year extremes have been readied both in the earth 
and near the pole. A remarkable series of observations oil 
underground temperatures have been taken in a boring made at 
Sperenberg, near Berlin. The bore was earned to the extraor- 
dinary depth of 4,172 English feet. The first 2S3 feet of it were 
made in gypsum, with some anhydrite, and the remainder' 
entirely in rock-salt. The greatest depth at which the tempera- 
ture was obtai:; . upper part of the bore was 
lined with iron pipes, and could not therefore be plugged to prevent 
convection of heat. The first temperature was taken at 721 feet 
from the surface. Two plans were adopted for securing the actual 


temperature of ai 
the temperature a 
advance for several feet ; into this the thermometer was lowered, 
and a wooden plug driven into the top of the small "bore, so as 
to prevent convection affecting the temperature. After the ther- 
mometer had remained in from twenty to thirty hours, it was 
withdrawn and read. The other method was, to cut off by means 
of two plugs sections of the well, in which a thermometer was 
kept about the same number of hours. I give the results of 











79 6 













i 1,751 
| 1,957 





i 2,163 




j 3,491 





* Mean temperature of air at the well. 
This gives an average of 1° Faht. for every 51*5 English feet, and 
the increase for the last 1,300 feet was not so rapid as in the 
higher levels. 

Turning now to the other extreme, we learn from Captain 
Marham's letter to Commodore Hoskins, re Polar Expedition, 
that :— 

"The cold up to the end of February, 1876, was not felt 
severely, although the temper.-.; ::rv -. ..- r nijiug from - 30° to 
- 60° ; hut during the last few days of that month and beginning 
of March the cold was intense, the temperature falling as low 
as - 74°. This, I believe, is the lowest that has ever been 
recorded. In this temperature glycerine became perfectly solid 
and quite transparent, rectified spirits of wine became of the 

of a better simile), whisky fro 

a bottle resembled frozen 1 
nesa. On chloroform, howe 
The lowest mean temperatu 
was - 70-3 ; for thirty-six < 

ation, 83° 20' 26". May 12. l>7(i." 
remembered that the lowest temperature e^ 

niles high (32,001) feet), on September 5, 1862. 
dy detained you toe Ioult. and with just an allusi 
u'g question raised by Mr. J. A. Brown, of Lond. 
Mr. Brown, in a paper on simultaneous variatk 

ng, and anothe 

Admiral Fitzroy strongly objected to the theory that the curve 
of the barometer iudieaied the hei-hi of atmosphere over it, or 
that it represc I bb; and he thought these 

effects were due to the action of the polar and equatorial currents 
on' each other, and s h«>v e 1 that thoe waves of pressure travel to 
north-east and south-west, and are quite distinct from the local 
changes in pressure due to storms, &c. Their rate of motion 
also is quite different from that of storms, which make from 4 to 
6 miles per hour only ; while these waves of pressure travel here 
oyer south-eastern Australia at the rate of 20 miles, and in some 
cases 50 miles an hour. Thev are a very marked and interesting 

to mc at variance with Fitzroy's theory that they are caused by 
air-currents. A glance at the curves, plotted for a year over the 
whole Colony, show* that these waves uniformly travel from west 
to east, and in it; i at the crest appears all over 

i '; '■•'' ■.:_- 'Hi tin 8 tri aslation seems to 

me to point to some e.vten il c use; and on comparing Sydney 

year, I was struck with the number of coincidences in the 
character of the curves. In many cases the points of elevation 
and depression occur on the same day at both places, and in 

local causes, hut the similarity is very striking. 

h- - ' : ' ■ - -; ■ ' • • - . i 'i ' 

making a great demand on the trade winds which are supplied 

pressure. The fact that such a loss of pressure causes an in-rush 
of polar wind seems to confirm this view. That there are such 
sudden changes in the sun's heating power has been shown in 
many ways, and notably by Mr. Grlashier, in the paper I have 
alluded to to-nigbt. 

The Forest Vegetation of Central and Nor 
New England, in connection with Geolc 

[Read before I 

I to extend ti 

Tli.-a ■ ti,i- ,,_> 

that they are not only influ 

outer crust, th m below spirta op and is 

(^Fawkes" . . . h-tweeli tne 

Severn and >Lde liiver.. i< na.ipo, 1 almost ,-xclusiveh of Mich 
formation. Those localities are all characterized bv "the same 
description of forest vegetation. Stringy-bark (specimen 19),. 
Eucalypti^ ■ ;ir-,- dimensions, more 

of sapling. ''/'■■ ' ^ There liie 

owths on those soils. On the 
* the sally occurs, and occa 
h the peppermint for some 

species of the group Leiophloits, 

grey gum (No : Nod 2 and 2 V ) 

■ _.-i,u.-. ami the -iv.i.T •'.■■ Ilal.ilit . M tli<- intru-it.ii of trees 
..-her . hara-teiv The A'-/ 4., ' /V'V/ fXn -'5s ). Acacia. 

[ various undergr* . •' * _ 

s. It may be \ . in all the localities of 

• district iu which I 'have seen the liunkm, growing, molyb- 


i class of soil are hollow, and do 
wth which marks most of the 

Tins U lit jUenth- more marked 

in those localil 

generally appear to dwindle and lose a great portion of ' 
limited vigour wind; thei atiai 
1 ci r class of soil. 

Inlocaliti micaceous quarts 

granite, with numerous outcrops of quartz and dvkes of >', 
(as specimens r;. s, and t). such as on tin.- Dividing Range betwt 
Dundee and ilh'u I'dgin. scrub oak, ami two or three spei 
of acacia, among which is that known as Lhjnu.n vtttp, comb 

VCJ'V iirr 

>es. and form those rich 

: ' : 

- . 

On thos 

e soils the "e-ifects 

u • <•! nge on the forest 

appear to he mow 

others in 

New En-laud; am 

■h they vary <■■■ 

in ditfi-rcn; localities, and gei 

cases the < 

fleets, are so v 

nonable doubt can ex 

heir cause. For instance, 

gum (No. 9), Euc 

'un.insto,!,,,, in the colder 

leh as about BenLo 

d Glen Innes, forms open 

forests, for the most part of 

ruber, wish a flight intt-r- 

mixture of 

On r 

l.nsnltic soils it is almost 

warmo,- regions heiow the 

wesC by the white 

• i p hWvn Thepeppm- 

pears altogether or 

thesanm class of soil on 

•he number of 

appears to 

On the 

be increased. 

soils of the colder 

rotrlons i 

;he prevailing timbers are 


, of white gum, with 

■ee ; the Vegetal 

libers on one of them that 

; --M,r )■■'.;■;;> 

::> I'm 

l' JiiUYlMtr /. ■ 

mtiacus, a species of 

mou on it, while in the w: 

*;„ijir tl 


h for the most part -rows 

on poor soils. 

On those i 

toils 1 

he Darling pea (Swansonia 

(jalegifolia) appears 

. the 

;r and richer regions 



is a source of great trouble and annoyance to 


„ v t ,,rs a,;., this plant wa 

■ the east of Ashford, 

and just with 

; but I was informed 

the other da 

■J b J 

time this no3 

the carrying 

capacity of the run by nearly o 

ne-half . I have not 



on the indigenous vegetation. On those 
as specimen marked o, which is h-<nu a . 
1 have traced for more than 30 miles, a; 
same character, with occasional pisolitic 
the surface, the vegetation is through* 
wild hop (Daviesia latifolid). 

This soil 

/ S that a exhfbited a in e s 

for the mo 

ount of decompositio 
?r state of friability. 
st part in this districi 
11 cases totally differe 

being a white gum — specimen 
apple-tree (Angophera), with o 
division between those two soi 
and although the patches of t 
entirely of pisolitic nodules, wi 
entirely surrounded by other wej 
encroached upon by them. 

In reviewing the various facts 
I fear, but inadequate success, 

ich I have endeavoured, with, 

lay before the SucieU , with 

) the connection lous forest vege- 

the principal ^eohi^ical formations of Central and 
iew England, it will be observed that, while many oi 


s the coinii 

y formation; so "aU 


eties, and ma 


al.r f;.uml in the dr. 

(>T<(ck*o,ui' scoparia) and grass- 

tie regions, and .ire seldom found on any other ; while ' 
■ j,'!im (specimen ">), E. Hliuirtin^n .' Daviesia, the wild 1) 
ir to be peculiar, or nearly so. to basaltic soils. ,, 


• The following are descriptions of twenty-one species of the 
genus Eucalyptus d Northern New England. 

Specimens were exhibited at the meeting when this paper was 

Spotted Gmt.— Group LeiopMoice (specimens Xo. 1 and 1a.) 
--;..' ;■ ■ ~ ■ I '■ . ■ iv :';;-.■ 

most of the ordinary species, and is mottled with light and dark 
' patches, caused b\ t! t r. , In: .-u a the <mti r -kin. Leaf: The 
leaves are lanceolate, from live to six or seven inches long, and 
alternate, suppi.* - in length. The midrib is 

slightly above the plane of the leaf, and the marginal nerve is 
indistinct ; a distinct nerve runs round the outer edge of the leaf. 
Seed-vessel: The umbels contain generally seven florets, six of 
which are set on the peduncle at right angles to it, and the 
seventh stands upright in the centre. The operculum is three 
times as long as the capsule, and is conical, the pedicle about a 
quarter of an in< < ,. about the same length. 

Wood: The wood is hard and tough, and is said to be durable as 
fencing material. Habits, Sfc. : This timber grows generally ab< mt 
the junction of rich soil with that of a poorer class; in localities 
>. I ; , - ■ ' .vith that from 

• • - owing. In some 

localities this is very much defined. At the Xine-milel'reek. where 
one ridge is < . ■ ■ lie. a tin i liner infi n led 

me that lie worked a- to- as i 1 c 1' ic of gun <. and that the stan- 
niferous washdirt never encroached on the ground occupied by 
them. The gums there are of this species, and I have observed 
that it always in this district i_ r r >v. - under tin se conditions men- 

Ked Gum. — (. '■ j. 2 and 2a). — 

The bark of this timber is of a greyish-brown colour, and the 
wood is red, and very hard and brittle. It is a durable timber 
for fencing material. Seed-vessels: The umbels contain from 
seven to ten florets. The operculum, which is conical, is two and 
a-half times as long as the capsule. The capsule is four-celled, 
and the valves protrude. Its margin is not well-defined on the 
fully developed seed-vessels. A red streak runs round the 
junction of the operculum with the capsule. It sometimes lias a 
smeared appearance, as if the streak had been drawn with red. 
ink and partly wiped off again. Lmf: Alternate, and from six 
to eight inches long. When held to the light it appears mottled. 
It is of a dark bluish-green colour, not glaucous, and the midrib 
is prominent on under side. The marginal nerve is well-defined. 
Habits, Sfc. : This tree is found generally on patches of poor 
< v. •< - my with box and 

apple ; but where the soil . its combination 

of . of mu ineh in length. ,s'/v,.'-,-,-,vay7 .- Tlic seed-ve? 
considerably from nil the other species on New En<d 
umbels are "not regular in either the number of Hon 
systematic arrangement on peduncle. Many of the floi 
ns if they liad been >tuck on ai random. The opereu 
and a half times as km- as ilie capsule, and is of abou 
dimensions throughout, ha\ hvj, a blunt, rounded extrei 
capsule is thicker th in t! e on. r. ui mi. and forms a d 
at the juuetio] . solum had been 

the capsule. T : ^ . - • 

caivx r >qt tht r. 1' . imbeN ireuer start from junction of 

leaf stem, but not always ■ mj to depend 

Bbowbt-babked Gi — ' mienNo. 4). — 

Bark reddish brov tly mottled. The wood is 

red and hard. The Leaf is from 3 to i indies long, and 1 wide, 
supported on petiole 7 of an inch in length, alternate, midrib 
well defined, marudnd m-vo rather iedi.unet, veins very 
very Raucous. Seed- 
. florets, six of which 
Ltre. On the young 

jr. 'The peduncle is 

flower is of a vellowish-whito coi^t-Tiim'r'hiVu^.'si!! 
growth of dogwood {Jacksonia 8C 
White Gum.— Group Z<W, 
smooth and clean, slightlv mot 
(November) the outes ski i ha 

- ' ^1 longer than 

hree ^nd^some fun >■-<•<•' Fed. and the 'lalu- 
5T«fcfr, ^c. ; This timber generally grows in 
Is which are stun. 

This tree attains ,, height of from fifty to sixty feet, and 
diameter from fifteen to twenh inehey 'The bark is smooth 

mottled. The wood is hard. S> ■■ <!- ■■;■.. ..!/,• .- A twanged in umbels 
of three florets, on short thi<d, j,, . i •! ami ],<-d uncle one-fourth 
of an inch long. The operc rffc to the capsule. 

Theealvx is a. fre<|uen.!v three as four ceihd, and the valves 
protrude. Leaf: The leaf is Ion- and rather thick, and the 
midrib well defined ; the nun- - I , r , • is delicate, and close to 
edge of leaf. It is frequently covered with small carbuncles 
about the size of f\\ -dirt, which iri\es the leaf a dirty and rough 
appearance. The midrib is particularly prominent on under side. 

Habits, Sfc: Frequents basaltic s . , i 1 s . generally, in the wanner 
parts of New England, in conjunction with box and apple, with 
occasional native cherry (/.' ftr— i ) . fee live 

is of a ratlier drc k .jm'ii^ liahit. ami is in >t common in Xew England. 
Geev Gum.— Group Leiophlour (specimen Xo. 7).— Bark: 
Smooth, blotched dark and li u dit lead colour; \ cry slightly fibrous. 
Rough for about six feet up trunk._ Wood .- Light-coloured, soft 
and heavy ; fairly durable as Fencing material. Leaf: Five to 

same branch let ; petiole halt' an inch lon<: : midrib prominent 

three well-detined longitudinal veins run paraded to the midrib 

Seed-vessels : Are arranged in umbels of three, four, five, or six 
florets, standing generally in junction of petiole and twig, on 
peduncle about one -third of an inch long. Some capsules are 
tri-valved and some quadri-valved ; the valves protrude. The 
operculum is equal in length to the calyx. Habits, Sfc. : This 
gum i? ireiu rail} indicative of j i or so 1 t c ters into combina- 

f a few feet, it is smooth and of a 

at butt, but after a height of i 
dark green colour ; it is thinner than the generality of the barks 
of the genus. Wood .- The wood is almost useless, except as 
fuel; it is usnall lepidopterous larva 1 , and 

the aborigines frequently cut up small trees tor the purpose of 
obtaining those grubs. Leaf: The leaf is alternate. On small 
shoots from the root it is almost circular and large, but in older 
trees it is from three to four inehi- ' ■■ _: . :.d about one inch 
wide, and is lanceolate. It is ribbed very much like the leaf of 
the E. coriacea. Seed-vessrd : The seed-vessels are about one- 
tenth of an inch in diameter, and are arranged in umbels of 
twelve florets, on short pedicels ; the peduncle is not more than 
one-eighth of a rh thick. The 

capsule is three-celled, and the valves sunk, and operculum short. 
Habits, Sfc. : This tree usually does not exceed a diameter of 
from eight to twelve inches, but there are numerous specimens 
which assume a diameter of thirty inches or more. The latter 
are of rather a drooping habit, and are pretty Trees ; but the 
smaller ones ar It frequents 

granitic soils wi1 ~ from argillaceous 

rocks, and never grows far from watercourses. It is is very 
common on the banks of the Henry River, the Mann, and Mitchell 
Rivers, also on the Severn, above Dundee. All those are cold 
localities in the most elevated portions of Xew : 
have never seen this tree in warmer regions, nor have I seen it 
growing in the vicinity of river tea-tree. 

rt"si. — Group L No. 0). — Bark; 

oitt for a few feet, but above that is smooth and 
iwii l; mi g light ami dark coloured stripes along the 
*.- The leaf is from five to eight inches long, with 
' marginal nerve and protuberant midrib. The veins 
stinct. alternate, but not regularly so: in many cases 
irly opposite. Petiole, about an inch long, lanceolate. 
i wood is soft, and is not considered durable. It is 
sdges, and, owing t 

",., .'. '. 

It : > i-m -i 


table timber for sawing. It is a bad 

a-tl-tlM U 

ally attains a diameter of from two to 

four :• 

- : :] 

, P t 

alight. Seed-vessel: The seed-vessels 


ur, or five florets, supported on very 
ncle is about three-tenths of an inch 

short pec 

ieels. The pedu 

long. The ca; ? ule is 


h of an inch in diameter, and is as 

■ ^ ; ■ ' 

',, ' 

adrivalved. The valves are slightly 
s round the mouth of the calyx. It 


els the pedi 


ippears to be part of the capsule. 

c. : This gut 

On rich 

h Lor red. 

\ 1.-- it i 'U Miles wit I 

n the colder regions, as about Glen 

Inne- ' 


chiefly on ridges, as the gum forms 

*: ■";■■■ ■ 

rim |.jrj.- 

to Lo-fi>nthii. 


antiacus (mistletoe) frequently grows 


w Box.— Gr 


IL'mipUoia (specimen No. 10).— 

There ar 


id the other I 



i l . Litter, which gnevs chieil in 

us ,,[• grauiti 


nations. Then arc hot; 

by a bri 

g the commo 

that of the box. Wood: 

tough ; v< m 


•aide as material for Fencing: makes 


of the leaf ; margins 
t an inch long, on t 

wl: The umbels ge 



are about equal in 
Habits, $c: Then 

;::! is about two-thirds 

usually four-celled. Habits, av. ■ Tli 

_:■....".: - ' ' 

. . : : v. ! 

mation. It combines wi 
us kinds of gum. 

White Box.— E. HemipUoia ; ( 

Tl e average < i-iit - * tli s tree - f'r 

diameter from Is to SO im-hcs. ^ The 

- m.ooth. Ii is li:,dst-coh 

roup Hemiphloice (12). 
• [stent on trun 

ised for covering 
more liable to en ./, audi- not 

nearly so durable. The vooJ is hard, tough, and durable; it is 
heavy and elo>e<ruim-d. ami. i- _'mierally difficult to split. It 
forms an excellent fuel, as it burns readily, throws out great 
heat, and leaves little ah. The leaves are of a bluish-green 

rolour. slL'htlv irlaucous : the midrib is prominent, as also the 
marginal\'o -, ami the u 1.- an b,tttr defined and further 

width of the lea I 2 '• 'V.o petiole 

seldom ew< eds \ an inch in length. On some trees the leaves 


leaf civw more rapidly tha: 

standing in the centre. The pedicel is very short, and appears 
to be simply tl h calyx. The peduncle 

nearly | j '" " 

by four o: 

and the valves are deeply sunk. In the fully developed seed- 
vessels the ribs disappear. The capsule narrows slightly above 
the valves and then widens out again at the mouth, giving it 
rather a hell shape. Hahits, #c. : This tree occurs chiefly on 
good basaltic soils, in warm regions, similar to those occupied by 
gum and apple in colder parts of New England. 

Peppeemint. Group BJiytiphloice (specimen No. 13).— Bark: 
Rough and wrii I the apple-tree (Angophera 

■si>lnrhiti,i'n. bat iLoif luir-b .iii.i -olid. Of a dark brown colour, 
slightly fibrous. Wood: Li'_dit-cohmred. soft, heart reddish- 
brown. It is generally said to be unfit for use as a timber, 
except for fuel ; but I recently examined some pegs which I put 
in the ground in June, 1872, and found them to be perfectly 
sound and good, excepting the sap, which was slightly decayed. 
The straight bole is very free in the grain, and easily worked. 
From specimens of this tree about Glen Elgin it appears to be 
a fast-growing timber, attaining a diameter of 12 to 18 inches, 
and height of about 50 feet in twenty-five years. Leaf: Alternate, 
lanceolate, from 2\ to 4 inches long (those of saplings are 
generally longer, i in many cases) ; 

dark green colour ; midrib well defined ; narrow marginal nerve; 
veins indistinct ; petiole half an inch to an inch long. Seed- 
vessel : Small ; some trivalved and some quadrivalved on same 
tree. The umbels contain four, five, or six florets ; the peduncle 
is about one-fourth of an inch long, and is four times as long as 
the pedicel. One or two florets generally stand in the centre of 

are slightly "protuberant. 

the * 

twig. Habits, $c. : In the coldest portions of New England this 
timber grows on basaltic soils, as at Ben Lomond ; but it is 
generally found on granitic soils, or those of an argillaceous 
formation. On purely granitic formation it forms open forests, 
but on the others it is generally in combination with yellow box, 
gum, or stringy -bark. 

Box Messmate— Group Bhyt't^Lluia (-p.-cimenNo. 14). — This 
timber appears to partake in some respects the nature of the 
white box E. hemiphloia), and in others that of the Now England 
peppermint. The bark so much re*eml 

the tree is frequently mistaken for that timber. ii i . however. 
thicker than box bark, and on being cut with an axe pieces 
frequently break off with a com-hoidal fracture, owing to the 
large amount of sappy substance which it contains. In the grain 
s somewhat like peppermint bark. Wood : 

and light coloured, very much resembling the pepp 
perhaps contains mon moisture Leaf: In the leaf 
differs from both the peppermint an n ' 
longer and more lanceolate than 

vessel: The seed-v 

box further than the c.>L>ur "f the hark, ami further they belong 

Bastard BOX.— Group Bhytiphlox.—Bark : "Rather lighter 
in colour than tli;i1 of peppermint : resembles that of blackhut. 
but is persistent to branehlets. Leaf: in alternate pairs on 
young trees, but alternate on old ones ; dull green with a 
mottled appearance, which is more observable on the under side 
of leaf, looking like grease showing through on patches. The 
leaves are curved, and are about 5 inches long in full-grown trees, 
but those of saplings exceed that length by 2 or 3 inches. They 
are lanceolate, and the midrib is prominent ; the marginal nerve 
is narrow and veins well defined : petiole f of an inch long. 
Seer -vessel : >< • e calyx is about half as 

long again as the operculum, and the umbels contain seven 
florets. Wood: Soft and free ingrain, easily worked, but will 
not bear much exposure to the weather. Habits, Sfe. : This 

country, in combination with peppermint, grev gum, banksia, 
blackbut, and occasional stringy-bark. Ferns mix with the 
undergrowth. I fa I have seen this timber 

out, and is thick. It i> usnalh u-ed f<<r the purpose of covering 
outbuildings, and if proper 1 ; it forms a very 

good roof, lasting for several years. The wood is easily split or 
sawn ; it is gc B in grain, and the average 

size of the timber beiic - ight inches in 

di.Uia ter. Vv-t: -t _ * ' <- ft 1 feet. v> ith lit 

branches, it is much in request by splitters and fencers. The 
leaves are alternate, and the younger ones are of a bright, glossy, 


! form an angle with the midrib of about thirty degrees. 
oeea -vessels : The umbels contain six or more florets," generally 
with one or two standing in centre , tin pereulum is short and 
hemispherical. • duncle three- 

tenths of an inch long; the capsule is slightly contracted at 

orifice, it is triva \ '• t lv. Habit*, 

$c. : This tree grows in all classes of soil except black alluvial ; 
on the red friable soils of the basaltic formal ions about Vegetable 
Creek it is a large tree, frequently exceeding four feet in diameter ; 
on those soils it is always; 1 hop (Dodonea) 

and wattle {Acacia) ; on granite and elvanitc soils its under- 
growth is generally -aplnm- of -t. 

however, on those soiU a<-<-on pann d b\ v,; ttlo ; it.- timber com- 
binations are ire kinds of gum. 

Yellow Irox-baek. — (I ; lecimen Iso. 17). 

— The bark of this tree is much less wrinkled and the wrinkles 
are narrower than ' and it has a rich 

yellow sap-coating umh ■. Tin v.t ; k t-< t .; i diamond shapes. 
In the larger trees the bark is smoother than in the smaller ones. 
The wood is hard and lough ; the heart reddish brown. It is a 
durable wood, and well suited for poles and shafts of drays. 
Leaf: Lanceolate ; midrib is prominent on the under side, as are 
also the marginal nerves : bluish-green colour, and the petiole is 
about half an inch long, alicrnaie. >,,,/-•- v.. Y j/ .• The umbels 
contain generally six i'orets, supported on long, thin, and pliant 
pedicels nearly half i i h lo>i'_ f ; rhc\ droop. The operculum 
is much shorter tl a the < b \. wh di n-nti u-ts at the orifice. 
The capsule is a cs are sunk ; the orifice is 

surrounded by a well-defined lip ; the peduncle is about a quarter 
of an inch long, and is thin and tough. Habits, Sfc. .- Frequents 
poor granitic soil- in company with % 

also stringy -bar! \v box; the blue gum also 

grows on this soil. In swampy patches the plant known as 
"bottle-weed," a flesh-eater, Drosem peltata of botanists, occurs. 

Iron-babe:.— Group Schizophlma (>}>ccimen No. 18).— This 
tree generally inhabits soil of a very poor character. On INew 
England it grows on elvai lit t- r '_;. -'■.-■ ■'•. icntly^ not often 
on purely granitic country. : it the junction of 

granite with basalt. The bar] bard; the creases 

are deep and irregular; its general colour is dark brownish 
black, but between the creases ii - red* ish The wood is yery 
hard and durable. There is more evenness in size between the 
leaves of young and old trees than is usual between those of 
most other species of the gei ure about three 

inches long, a-. , of a bluish-green colour; 

dark and sombre looking foliage. They are alternate in pairs, 
the intervals between the pairs on one side of the twig being 
shorter than those of the other ; after two or three alternations 
one pair is opposite. The petiole is three-tenths of an inch long, 
and the midrib is well denned, but does not stand above the plain 
of the leaf ; the veins are delicate and regular, but the marginal 
nerve is not well defined. Seed-vessel : The umbel generally 
■contains seven florets, and there are frequently two or three 

- : ere M tho ralvx. fn 

ided bv a 

l.r.':vl ere si-J band I£t'hit*,\yc. : 1 

.■! t-t". i • t 1 ^ i run ( f sands' 

with all 

■ - ' -— Or, .a 

7? /';///, 

20).— This tree is very similar in 1 

box (A' /"^v; '- . bill the leaf is 


thai ,.f t 

.,' vcllou- 

By the Eev. W. B. Clabke, M.A, F.K.S., &c. 

[Read lefore the Royal Society o/N.S.W., 6 June, 1877.] 

In the year 1869 a letter of mine appeared in the Sydney Morning 
Herald on a subject of some interest to Australian naturalists. 
(See Appendix No. 2.) 

A discovery had recently been made of the fossilised femur of 
a bird resting on a block of granite, at a depth of 180 feet in the 
superficial beds of Peak Downs, in Queensland, about latitude 22° 
40' S. 

This femur was submitted to examination by the Curator of 
the Australian Museum, and was compared by him and myself 
with New Zealand specimens of femora of the genus Dinornis. 
"We came to the conclusion that the bone belonged to a species 
of Moa. (See Appendix No. 1.) 

This was afterwards stated by me in a communication to the 
Geological Magazine (vol. vi, p. 283), in which I dwelt, perhaps 
prematurely, on the supposed evidence offered by this bone of a 
former connection between New Zealand and Australia, inasmuch 
as flightless birds could not have passed so wide an ocean as 
intervenes between these countries. In my " Remarks on the 
Sedimentary Ft Wales" I have considered 

that connection in another light. (See Appendix No. 3.) 

Professor Owen, to whom a cast of the bone was sent (the 
original still remaining in the Australian Museum), informed 
me that it had some characteristics agreeing with those of 
Dinornis, but that others led to the determination that it did not 
belong to the Moas, having nearer relation to the Emu. 

time, in the Transactions of the Zoological Society, 
the learned Professor published a description and figures of the 
bone, with comparisons which no one was better able to make 
than himself. (See Appendix No. 4.) 

In that memoir he says : " Of the femora of Dinornis, I have 
selected that of Din. elephantopus (Transactions Zoological 

Here we have - F had ventured 

to express. But, \a review, he adds: " I infer 

; : . ' . . . j ' • < - ■ ■.".'.''..'. 

bone in tlie Emu tb i in tin )I> i. and th t the characters in 
which it more resembles I),'. is are coi somitant with and 
related to the md tess of the bone, from which 

we may infer th k1 [fested diuornithic strength 

and proportion.- of 1 :: h characters of 

closer affinity fcp the r, more slender-limbed, and 

swifter wingless bird peculiar to the Australian continent. 

" From the proportions of the femora of Dinornis I infer also 
that those of the tibia arid im tatarse would be longer and more 
slender than in / ■-. and in a greater degree 

than is the case with the femur. I'diim i|uenth . ! lie stature of 
JDrouionus would be neater in proportion to the solitarv bone 

\ of tl 

i the former existence in Australia of a bird nearly of the 
stature of the ostrich. Inn with relatively sin. rtcr and stronger 
hind limbs. * * * * From the general analogy, not un- 
frequently pointed out, between the recent animal and vegetable 
forms of the A;; \ thief ones of the 

European oolitic beds, together with the massive mineralized 
condition of the ornithic and mammalian fossils found deep 
in the enormous • - ,v.< <>i drift and trappean 

wl 11- , : ,e . a! ! : . - i •• ist has been modified i 

tinent, but that it may have been subject exclusively to the sub- 

s uf change ,■ . olitie deposits 

of Connecticut.' 

These remarks of the illustrious palaeontologist are not with 
bearing on other point.- ! have ventured 

speculate elsewhere. 

But, as my object in this communication is to show %\ 
t the history of Dromoi-nis, 1 must 

on the look out for additional evidc 
at not till 187G did I meet with anv. 
that year, when at Goree, near Mudge. 
i that a ■'.■■■ ' : 

depth of 200 feet at the Canadian (fold head. On going t 
day, with my friend Mr. Lord, I found the bone in the pos 
sion of Mr. Deitz, a former correspondent of mine on miu< 
matters : but not (as I suspected from the first account o: 

pelvis of the I 


Owen, anil :\ 

On the 5th December ho writes : '"Ast.. the h^vm-les* bin 
the only bone yiel.lin- iuf nn .: .n t. <titii- 1 ... ii st its Moa-shi[ 

>ss to rei-..r.l l 


figured in the " Palseontological Appendix " to Mitchell's work of 
1838 (pi. 32, figs. 12-13) :—" The length of that bone was thirteen 
inches ; the breadth of the middle of the shaft was not quite three 

Whether any further communication from the distinguished 
Professor alter or confirm his present determination remains to 

But of this i 


generally aware, there t 
region of Australia a gigantic bird, or birds, of which we shall 
soon know more ; and then we shall see fresh proof of the extra- 
ordinary fact which I noticed in connection with the Queensland 
femur (Address to Eoyal Society, K. S. W., 1870), that in all the 
tracts of land in the southern hemisphere, insulated or conti- 
nental. tliL.dul<v-< '■:•!- have roamed over extensive regions, and 
that, as in New Zealand, so in Australia, there were ornithic giants. 
"Whether, therefore, the impiiry ho respecting Dii/on 

the Epio 
the Solitaire of Rodriguez, all of which are now extinct. 

In closing this brief account of the progress of impiiry as to 
an Australian fossil flightless bird, which 1 hope will have the 
effect of inducing researches by others, I cannot resist pointing 
out, in the words <,f Professor ( )wen. that there is another of the 
giants of the past of which more is required to be known. He 
says, in concluding his last letter to me — " How strange it is that 
no tooth, or portion of jaw, or fragment of skull of the contem- 
porary great Ian ; • mies to hand. Vertebrae I 
receive from time to time, with their evidences of extinct mam- 
mals. But there must be an end in finite working, and I am 
therefore sending the 'Researches on the Fossil Mammals of 
Australia' to the binder." 

I may here conclude with an earnest request that gold-diggers, 
and others who work in deep soils and river banks, or in caverns, 
will preserve and consign for scientific examination all fragments 
as well as whole bones of fossilized animals, or birds, or 
reptiles. They cannot confer a greater favour on Palaeontology 

Ho. 1. 

To the Editor of the He rail 
Sir,— The Rev. W. B. Clarke called at the 

eovered 1M) Feet below the surface, in the in 

i;.M-k!Kiv.,;.1..n (I think i. We eompaivd the f.> 

I must confi 

of a Dinomi* I 
Clarke that it 

species of Dinonii*. which will be fully described hereafter. 

I am, &c, 
Mav 18th, 1869. GERARD KREFFT. 

To the Edit 

Two or three 

e T * »r\\ar-; 1 t Pr f, >,or Huxley, for 
and teeth of Crocodile 

That district is therefore of a very- 

pebbles aad bo 


found under 30 feet of alluvial clay 

hieli milv a little wa> reached. 

rom having broken up many hundred 



partially ronndi I Secondary ages, 

as well as those belon-in- to local i-.icous rooks, among which 
I detected two ■ ^ ' .hog gold, which 

c irre.-p' ndt ncc I had on the subject with the late Gold Commis- 
: Vrmont. 
The Dhwrnis hone leads to the inference that views long ago 
expressed by me of the former connection of New Zealand witk 

this country were correct. 

But I am bound t.. iv that this b me is not the first evidence 
of the existence of bird* in Australia in Pleistocene times ; for 
on reference to the Catalogue of Industrial Products of Xew 
South Vales, exhibited in the Australian Museum in November, 
lSol.aml aflorv. a,-,!. i:i \\w\,. ■. .-u v, ill find enumerated in the 

sion< av. 

,„U" ..tin 


rnarv r 

elics, the following :- 

-" No. 49, 

<>... ,, ! 

Iradigbee Cavern)." 

Tims Xew 

South W« 


island in the discov. 

,rv of bird 

bones of Pleistoc< 


, 10th M 

ay, 1S69. 

P.S.— 1 

'ho Duo 

wnis bor 

ie is k 

) completely filled in 


of a reptilian than a 

hastily compared wit" 


of birds. 

f Mr. 

Krefft, and afterw; 

1 descriptions of Bit 

me to confirm Mr 

n : and as I have nnci 

With th€ 

: Dlao 

mis in the Museum, 

doubt as 

to the genus. 

t'i.U M . \! , ,1 i< V Tint' fllio a 
'V. in < "' " ■ nt to Broad Sound. 
The wed passed through 30 feet of black 




is been traverse.! bv 
, that of Leichhardt 



-orv, tc 

W settled, and a eoi 

1 sidc-ral)Io 
the west 


ifle. A year o; 

my friend F: 

ry. but that th.y v., , 
: ' 

ickfl of the neighbour- 
' may be in part of Tertiary age. 

ling more to the south-eashvard from 
. ■ ! ^ V ■ the M;u- 

f Trionyx 

: ihi> 

I may add, in conclusion, that I look forward to further dis- 
coveries in the vast accumulations of drift that encumber some 
of the localities in the neighbourhood of the rivers watering the 
Leichhardt district, where, among other relics, are those of the 
Carboniferous formation, which now presents only the wreck of 
a mass of strata that once must have been partly continuous over 
an area comprising several degrees of latitude "and longitude on 
one side or other of the Tropic of Capricorn. 


St. Leonards, New South Wales, 19th May, 1869. 

P.S. — I have omitted to mention that, in the collection I exhi- 
bited at Paris in 1865, No. 49 consisted of osseous breccia (bird 
bones) from the Coodradigbee Cavern in New South Wales. So 
Dinornis, though new, is not the first of the order. 

On DnrOHKlS (Part six) : containing a description of 

Femur indicative of a new genus of large Wingless Bird, Deo- 

moe^is At/stralis, Owen, from a post-tertiary deposit in 

Queensland, Australia. Eead June 4th, 1872. 

[Plates LXII and LXIH.] 

In 1836 Sir Thomas Mitchell, F.G.S., Surveyor General of 
Australia, discovered in the breccia-cave <>i Wellington Valley 
a femur, wanting the lower end, mutilated, and incrusted with 
the red stalagmite of the cave, which I determined to belong to 
a large bird, probably, from its size, struthious or brevi-pennate, 
but not presenting characters which, at that time, justified me 
in suggesting closer affinities. 

Three views of this fossil, of rather less than half the natural 
size, formed the subject of pi. 32, figs. 12. 13, of my " Paheon- 
tological Appendix" to Mitchell's work. 

The length of this fi,s>il was }:>, inches; the breadth of the 
middle of the shaft was not quite 3 inches. 

interesting discovery of a femur, nearly 12 inches in length,' a well at IVak Downs, in Queensland. 

The well was &vaak through 80 EeeJ of the black b»pp«MJ 
alluvial soil comi I then fcbrougi 

Mr. Krefft was so good as to have three photographs takei 
the fossil : one showing the hack view of the hone, three-ii 
of the natural size ; the two others, the front views of 
proximal and distant halves d" the b-ue. of ven nearly 

On the Sphenoid, Cranial Bones, Operculu 

supposed Ear-bones of Ctenodus. 

By W. J. Barkas, M.E.C.S.E., L.K.C.P.I 

cavity connected with the teeth, we o 

• ■-..: :Y , - ■,. M ... 

probable tha 

satisfactorily with Ci 

, ,,f ^ iu tT- »,-|. .1 / 

arrreoinsx with Cerates 

tli, ertem ! i n 1 _ 

If this fossil fish had 

Wts ,.f tin M_lWU,t^. b-uh 1 ...11,111! 

with undoubted bones 

abundant, the teeth, i 

. r ca ample . yet for every tooth found 1 

ought to have 1 ••-■ lie, at the lowest computa- 

tion, from eight to twelve verteb •■. A a 1 iicr fact tends to prove 
the cartilairi : -uch fishes as 

Mieodopsis, JJ Ocelot i tthus, Arrhi htfa/*, 

all of which are found in the same coal shales, possessed osseous 
vertebra 1 , and which having become preserved in the shale, are 
now obtained ii- her hone* of tho.-c fMics. 

This absence of osseous vertebral "segments in CtenoJu* and 
Cei-otnihts; at once renioi - T 1 < *t tidies from the CtcwJi '■,',,>, 
of Eiehwald, but Ztyto-«* may still pertain to that group, as its 
■ osseous. 
The sphenoid or havil bone ..-•upies the space in the base of 
the cranium caused by the divergence of the pterygopalatine 
bones as they pro.. -.: j. -- .vsis. Judging 

from the -re;- must have pro- 

than this bone "does in Dipterns or even in f : , •- (<><hts. in w hich it 
reaches as f ;t r bade as the third neural spine. In the case of 
Ct< i h< the postei or projection - \ > \ gn H \ produced, much 
more so than mCerafod ads very little 

further than the extremities of the pterygopalatine bones. 
Although the basal bone of Ctenodus is of much greater length 
than the sphenoid of Ceratodus, it possesses the same funda- 
mental conformation. This bone was first described by Messrs. 
Hancock & Atthey in the " Transactions" I have so often had 
occasion to refer to, in a paper entitled " A few remarks on 
Dipterus and Ctenodus, and on their relationship to Ceratodus 
.Forxteri, Krefft" : but they did not give any illustrations. Mr. 
T. P. Barkas, F.G.S., in 'his - Coal Measure Palaeontology," 
merely mentions the fact of some sphenoid bones being in his 
possession, and portrays one in an excellent lithograph. Messrs. 
Hancock & Atthey thus describe the bone in the paper mentioned 
above : — " The* ,- Qgated depressed bone, with 

a wide lozenge-formed expa : r extremity ; in 

other words, the posterior ,>: ■; >rmed expansion 

is much produced, while the anterior angle is only slightly pro- 
duced. The frontal portion (the pre-sphenoid) is rounded, 
inclining to conical at the extremity, and fits in between the 
divergent bones that support bb. The lozenge- 

formed expansion lies partly behind these bones ; and the 
elongated post <: is continued for 

a considerable dil ;, in the large species for 

nearly five inches. * * * The basi-sphenoid at its junction 
with "the lozettge-fi :s usually thick and nearly 

circular ; elsewhere it is flattened." A specimen in my cabinet 
differs slightly from the ab< I at the anterior 

1 1 a conical 
. _ r __no 
th the lozenge, ; 
point it rises into a high crest on the buccal surface. 1 notice 
also in my specimen a point not mentioned by Messrs. Hancock 
& Atthey, and it is that on « rior to the lateral 

swelling in centre of the basi-sphenoid is a small oval depression 
like the depression of an articulation, and I am inclined to con- 
sider that it is the remains of a joint between this bone and the 
first rib, just as we see is the ease in Crratodm. I am not aware 
that the rib has ever been discovered in situ, but analogy would 
certainly lead one to infer that my conjecture is correct. For 
comparison with the above account, I give Giinther's brief 
description of the basal bone of Ceratodus : — " It is lance-head 
shaped, broade-- tperfog in front. 

and still more behind, tilling out the entire space between the 
pterygopalatine-, and ■ \t. •.•■_- ! ,.■!, van!- far beyond the com- 
mencement of the vertebral column, to the level of the third 
Jo of its length, 
where large medullary cavities are imbedded." It is perhaps 
unnecessary for me to add t] rior extension of 

t: .' -.. ; •: ■■-':< ■ ' . ' > ■ ' . /■• •■ •. / 

and Astn-oh . '-ring to pages 46 to 74, Hugh 

Miller's 'Footprints ■ f the Cn 11 • r,' by comparing which with 

hapsTmost closely ar those of Ctenodus, 

but in Bipterus 

the parietals are bet 

ach other, while in Ctenodu 

separated from each 

other In the width of tl 

ie broad occipital 

plate." The groups 

; of cranial hones men! ion. 

trated in the M atlas 


ork. Mr. Atthey 

mentions that he ha 

among his speci- 

mens the anterior, 1 

three posterior latei 

1< that these hones 

inC.^- ( v/,/«y- 

mble the same 

bones in Bipterus 

genus" ; but on this point it u . \„ >,t <dt t'Mr FJark.i>. n 
the quotation I gave front his work, points out a marked differ- 
ence between these two fishes in the arrangement 1 I 
and frontal bones, Bipterus having the parietal.- bcr.vti 1 -■ 


bones, while in Otenodus they are ou each side of the occipital. 
Mr. Atthey may be correct enough in his statement, it I may 
judge from the namee he gives, for the bones he has had the 

opportunity of examining are posterior to those described by 
Mr. Barkas. The whole of this subject, however, is so imper- 
fectly known, each anatomist seemingly giving new names to the 
cranial bones, that it mi\ p..ssibl\ be that Mr. Atthey and Mr. 
Barkas are both oft< n ,. t' . t i • s ne h mes, Mr. Atthey 
taking the nomenclature of Pander, Mr. Parkas that of Huxley. 

bones in the CeratoJus skull but tliislattei I .-t ma) arise from 

conjecture the bones forming the group to be the frontal, supra- 
occipital, median occipital, epiotic. parietal. 1 n another fragment 
of a cranium 1 1 i - row-head projection which 

may correspond with Mr. Atthey's occipital, which is thus 
described : " In the latter (C. t./btri-ubttn*) it (the frontal border) 
projects and has a wedge-shaped process in the centre." If this 
be so, then we m;. .^ composed of the 


fc myself to an opinio 
led numbers of them 
ever had an opportui 

hahh A ii uu 1 re « i- . ar-1 .me . f .1 ti-h. Fig. 170, 

I '> pinion,' vol. i 


- hours at, r o, I found that, in 

ishes of a differen 

i <- f tin ti<! 1 < 

ii piVSt.TVfd. L'\n<n a -. 

r Ctenodl, 

vc that the lenticuh 

M h ov they may be fin 

By "W. J. Baekas, M.K.C.S.E., -L.E.C.P.L. 

The next bone I have to 

occasionally found associat 

whether it is real 

determined. Its 

a certain degree c 

f iikenos 

This much can 1 

the scapular or th 

■ pelvic nil 

little, if at all, fr 

Ctenodus. With 

description, and 

been either dew 

ribed or fi 

shape, the apex b 

the basal extremi 

upper and lower 

are thick and strc 

to the apex, the 1 
point which gives 

between the two 

borders r 

apex towards the 

base. Th( 

culation found in other fossil lish or re 
the conformation of the bone, I infe 
scapular areli and is the scapula itsel: 
hereafter proved to be a scapula of C, 
it, will present one great point of differc 
scapula', in that its articular extremity 
cavity in the coracoid, instead of vice 
Ctenodus has been obtained both by ft 
Atthey, but its discovery is comparative! 

,.e beenfractu 
•• callus " which has 1-ec.m; 
frequently discovered : a> i 

the structure i 

isualh- fonnd in the "callus" of a reunited bone ; 

a full account 


paper read be 

fore the Northumberland and Durham Medical 

leton may still be considered in a state of doubt, 

rhorities", Mr. Barkas and Mr. Attbey, differ. Mr. 

that lu- has discovered the scales of 0. elegant and 

C. ohU< lt m,, .u 

id gives descriptions and figures of three, one be- 

former aud two to the latter .species ; while Mr. 

their being scales of Ctniodia, and this be does 

,g words, quoted from his " Coal Measure Pal»on- 

lthonuh nearly 1,000 teeth of Ctenodus have 

bce^ud in 
proportion o[ 

the Northumberland Coal Formation, and a large 

many teeth of 

and elsewheri 

>, it is a remarkable fact that, up to the present 


otcd or undeserved scales discovered in the Nor- 

m- Staffordshire Cal Measures that can with 

propriety be 

assigned to Ct,,»nl-«. As scales are vastly 

Lave been d 

iscovered, and ' each fish had only four or six 

d< M-rih-d U 


',,,',,-•.• a :eU" 



igth nearly tv 

rceiv be'< 

the size of the 

■idges. becomi 


inch objeet-<_dass, the central area is 


to be finely reticulated 

with slightly elevated bony fibres, 1 

les being sunk, so that 

the surface is minutely punctati 

b. Thi 

s is undoubtedly the 

under-side of the scale ; the uppei 


i is revealed on frag- 

extremity, is minutely granular. Of course, in the latter case, it 
is only the cast of the upper surface that is seen; and at this 
point it is evident that the granules are enlarged and become 
arranged so as to form imperfect an.l very irregular vermicular 

"The second species is h - -t described; 

the greater portion, however, of the scale is preserved ; but the 
border of one side is gone, as well as the posterior margin, and 
part, of the anterior. The sides are slightly convex, and so is the 
anterior extre: • border is wide, 

and distinguished" by sever,. growth, and five 

minute radiating stone, fts in be central area 

is likewise bud " ore is finer, and 

the bony network .n out in the long axis of 

the scale ; the punctures are not so large and distinct. This 
fragment (for fragment it is) measures two inches long, and one 
inch and one-eighth wide. 

" The third nm : ortion of the 

' extremity . / ,ts imperfect, 

been more nearly square t] tit two forms, and 

is characterized by a very narrow border, which shows only one 

bony network of tlu- central area is ilne ami indistinct, with a 
longitudinal am ■•■ second species; 

the punctures are numerous, rather large, and longitudinally 

" The last desei i >f a mere cast of the under 

surface: but a small portion of tlie scale, e.vhihiting the upper 

"••'i '!!''',,"' t| , '.o 1 ' , re'.-i. , . , . l ^.ilar form distinguishes these from all 
the cycloid scales with which we are acquainted; and they are 

if growth and min 

lie- stihe are s 


he entire surface. 

The scale 

of t'fnwitir* h 

internal structure 

irder, the under su 

well shown in ou: 

r second sj 

"un-ies, the sp 

. i,ii,.] 

The forms of the. fins and tail are also unknown to me : 

dr Attl y. froi i 1 ie . ■ ishod specimen of C. elegan. 

lossesses, and to which I referred in speaking of the sc 

mi those parrs tnat vol may ho consi 
such as the scales. '\Viien we take hit 
pen*ul in which Clc nodus lived we ca 
typo cuulfl ha\e horn handed down to 

With regard to the food of Ctenodus nothing can be 

tained, as fWh ; ;ever been found associated 

with its remains, but from the shape and arrangement of the 
teeth we can easih ii U v that it u I i [> u erustaceous aud ' 
ceous animals, and probably upon some of the smaller hMic 
Nome amount of c.vrtaintv i ; -iven to this irin 
the fact that the coprolites of fishes that swam in the 
waters as Ctenodus have been obtained, and in them w< 
■. ■;.-■■ '. mal lite. 

[Read before the Eo,j,,J >',„•>'- ',/ .,/ y 

a led f.-. 

materially mod ■iu.dons. This w 

ri'sv.i>i' : of the present state of Australian tertiary geuU 
an epitome has; long been wanted, not only by men ( 
but by the public generally. The time is not* far (list 
hope, when a popular exposition of Australian geolo: 
prepared. The materials are sufficient, or nearly 
While awaiting tin's, what I here firing before the not 
Society may serve as a contribution to the subject, 
encouraged" to the task by the fact that most of what I 

NewSauth w! auction tl i 

formations are extensively developed in this Colony. 
no doubt chiefly vol i i ie'< - al ' . with drifts and 


of marine strata. ridea of Tasmania, 

- \- - • i strata are not known. 

This is a significant fact, whi tportant influence 

on our geological historj ' ' while marine 

strata are not via fcer <leposits and 

drifts, all clearly tertiary, are abundant. Xo attempt, or at least 
no successful attempt, has been made to classify them. It is 
possible that ] eful survey would 

reveal the age and relative position of these rocks, yet something 
might be done even by amateurs. That all our volcanic rocks 
possess features of their own, by which they may be recognized 
almost as surely as if they contained fossils, is a probability 

the microscopical and analytical researches of Mr. Ulrich have 
revealed astonishing facts. Already the augitic and hornblendie 
rocks are found to arrange I jieally, and, as far 

as the learned alogist has gone, show an 

important bearing on the ij nest iiut ol auriferous rocks. It may 

belonging to different periods, e.g., the miocene and pliocene, 

then of itself v. tertiary volcanic 

geology, and when once take leave us long to 

wait for valuable cone-fusions, lu the meantime I draw attention 
to the subject as a most interesting and untrodden field for 
observation, and I trust that my remarks on tertiary Australian 
geology may induce observers to stray into a held where an easy 
and abundant harvest awaits them. 

Tertiary marine ,-trata om-r the whole or very nearly the whole 
southern portions of the A Erom about the 

125th to the 145th meridian of east longitude. There are in- 
terruptions to these beds, more or less ; on the east side the 
formations get more and more narrowly confined to the sea, 

,h.i..s ut 

This latter feature is the projecting , 
forms a remarkr/'V iMrrrupt,'. n. hut 
western rdde <>f Pert Phillip the tertian 
The spur of the Dividing Eange whit 
Wilson's r/romontorr is probably the fi 
beds, though some of them may yet I 
in Grippsland. 

Other and minor interruptions the 

generally it may be said that a great sere 

the southern portion of 

; . ha.< Leeii 

of tiie [daces marked t 

really ..ccupied by terii: 

Various attempts hav 
..fthes, < i> iu no . 
and it may be doubted i 

suited in the defe 

was that of IWt— > r i ! '.~ , 


Society) . 

this resulted in little more than a lew figures and names. Pro- 
fessor Duncan immediately afterwards took the corals in hand, 
and in a series of papers in the Geological Society's Proceedings, 
threw great light on the nature and affinities of our fossil corals, 
from materials supplied by myself. In 1865 I published figures 
and descriptions of several of the more remarkable Brochiopoda 
occurring in the Mount G-ambier formation, with a few Echino- 
dermata and some e .m-hifer; ' /'■■ h'.iute). These were published 
and the figures lithographed by me in the Proceedings of the 
Adelaide Philosophical Society.' In W,<> Dr. G. G Lanbe, in the 
.Sitz. d, k. Akad. d. Wi sen. Wim i Vienna) B. lix. Ab. 1, 1869,^. 
193, figured and published a very extensive catalogue of the 
Erhinodmnafti. naming a number of new speeies from the Murray 
Eiver beds. Shortly afterwards Professor M'Coy commenced the 
publication of his decades of Australian Palaeontology, which left 
nothing to be desired in the figures or descriptions of the species 
named. But as the decades include other beside- tertiary 

all, however, of the highest interest. In 1874, during a mis- 
sionary visit to Tasmania. The Council of the Hoyal Society there 
placed at mydisp-'-al for classification a number of fossils in 
the Society's' Museum, collected bv Dr. Million. Mr. Stephens. 
and Mr. E. M. Johnston. The collection showed me at once 
that the great tertiary formation of Australia extended to the 
north-west portions of Tasmania. Among well recognized forms 

and I therefore described 
that accomplished natural-] 

them, the ii. 
1 by° 1 Mr. r Jo' 

Mrs. Ch, 

■al most interest in- papers on 

i the t»i codings of the Roi 

same time he placed so vai 
issils at mv disposal that I wa: 
rison of the Tasmauian beds 

.vith thn« 

- Ih-oii published en the Mil.irct 
fw-il IVrmn hYhin.dennala In the so, 

a most valuable ac 
He has entered up 

in Southern Aust 

private t 
highest i 

An 1 tii-M 

what percentage of n-.-sils in any u'ivon bed belong to species 

all the tertiary bed, [ ha\ o"ex;n ml- A. Neither have we any 
formation presen I to n-. as far a^ T ha v. eeii able to ascertain, 
which can be called the remains of a coast or littoral deposit. 
This circumstance renders us unable to apply the percentage 
test, and thus deprives us of those opport ' -ft - .>f ( '-Mr num. 
or rather correlation, with European deposits which would justify 

the employment of such terms as olie^ocene, miocene, &c. This 
Professor Duncan ha* p int .1 oui. and l,a n -ested the emplov- 
ment of the word cainozoic as a general term to distinguish 

those lower torn. \ ! ... u Ilt ain the commencement of 

our modern faunae new life. While , [U i>c a-reeiim- with the 
learned professor in this, my ion- acquaintance with all the 
tertiary formations and m- - -dls induce me 

to offer a few su^estions whicli l" think may carry our know- 
ledge a little further. If we cannot apply the percentage system, 
we can, at least, form -em conclusions from superposition, 
distribution. &c., as to the chronology of the series— if I may so 
speak. And it seems to me that we must not entirely dis- 
regard what I may term a family likeness in the deposits. 

svidely separated 

not inhabit there 

dose a general resemblance that it i, onlv after' 
■■■■■■■ .V... , ■ 

m the faunas of very w: 
t> whii 1: beh nn to t! e saim e; o h ; and this, i.. _ 
"" J , as far as my observation goes, almost justifies 

dely separated 

believe however, that it is a generally received opinion that, as 
we go further : v , ;,[,,,. ra , for specieSi 

until in the ea> n \ v s , )(rl n, xaril n all mer It is not quite so certain, however, that v. hm-e u ide- 
spread specific identity 1> g ; !;se affinity stm 

shows the influence of the former rule. It seems to me, however, 
that J* is so, an d | bearing on facts which I 

now adduce. A an seas We have a series of 

•;. inces, all united by one general Australian fades, 
yet all with di- ,. t( , ea( .] 1> rp an „ one 

conversant with Australian conchology it would be easv to tell at a 
glance to what province any given collection of shells belonged 
lor my own convenience I have been accustomed 

~ l^Sydney, or Kastern ;' Victorian, or 

an; 5, South-western; the 
ape Leuwin. Now each of 

Observation as yet wi! 
how many of the speci 

varieties. However, we can be certain that for those' 

divide the 

nces outside the tropics. 

) say with certainty 

My til us latus, Lamk., 

me r! ; .:r xh 

absent from the fossils. 3rd. The tertiary area at our disposal 

tertiary formations a 

data. Whether we could ever hope by its aid to erect sub-di- 

must be of importance imt 

The oldest portions of our tertiary beds, as far as we can judge 
from the contained fossils, appear to be about Schnapper Point, 
Mount Mart! . ' \V -tei P rt if. vi hi le clays, and the 
general appearance of the > !v remind one 

of the eocene beds of West Barton, in Hampshire" ; and as Pro- 
fessor M'Coy lias lone; ago pointed out, there is a good deal more 
than mere external resemblance. Some of the fossils closely 
imitate in elm: a tin English beds h\ 

what the learned professor has termed ' ; mimetism." The resem- 
blance is so close that some might even suppose the identity of the 
fossils. This i- . . '■'/■/*, M' Coy, and 

r. anticut'julaia. But these fossils, it must be added, are also 
found in new. v f. nu ti. us. sucli as Table Cape in Tasmania, and 
Muddy Creek in Western Victoria. The general character of 
the Biount Martha aad 3 - is first in the 

beautiful state of ptv-vnal i..n iii w hicli the fossils occur. The 
most delicate markings and fine edges are as fresh as if they were 
just dredged up from the deep. The clay in which they are 
found is of a light blue or ash grey colour. Foruminijh'a are not 
common, at least not so common in this finely levigated mud as 
in many of the higher beds. Polyzoa are also the exception. 
Pedicillate corals are, however, numerous, few of existing species, 
but of characters similar to those now living in the Japanese and 
China seas. There are now i nation, at least 

beds have been explored, and that, it must be ad- 

nly slightly. An undescribed j 

'urotduia, alst. 

marked I'lcurotaiiia, also canuht my attention, as well as a Fusus, 
so like the bea e -pined F. pagodus of the 

Philippines, that it lias. 1 believe, been named Fiisus paqodaides 
by Professor M>Coy. 

Above those beds, and not separated from them by any 
very clear line of demarcation, we find a series of different 
deposits of some thickness and very wide spread. The charac- 
teristics differ in different localities. In the Creelong beds, 
and then westward from ( cnbool, we meet 

with clays and mnds, sometimes intercalated with plant remains, 
and a long succession of horizontal or slightly inclined stata. 
The precise number of the beds exposed has not been clearly 

and an extensive period in our tertiary geology. To the north 
of Warrnambool they are found at a place called Hamilton, or 
around it, in the form of light brown clays, very rich in fossils. 
They are overla; k hard rock of ferruginous 

or ochreous limestone, entirely composed of polyzoa and the 
fragments of shells. The whole district is overlaid by much 
later outpouring c tertiary rocks 

become hidden. v .ire underneath, 

as, when wells or shafts are sunk to any depth, if they pierce 
through the basalt, the polyzoan limestone is reached. Now and 
then we find outcrops of .granite, but even there traces of the 
tertiary formation appear. At a creek near Harrow, in "Western 
Victoria, about 600 feet above the sea, we find, on the slopes of 
the granitic formation, a thin clay of a few inches thick, full of 
highly ferruginous fossils. These are hard and glazed, and have 
evidently owed their preservation to their ferruginous character, 
since the beds wherein the a entirely disap- 

peared, and the : which is almost 

rooted in the granite. They are all of species common in the 

Creelon^ beds, such as Cm-nlLin co-io/-,!*!*; Pectin ipihlaisis, 
i Tenison-AVoods) ; Cassidaria rrticulospiru (M'Coy) ; Placotrochus 
deltoideus (Duncan). 

Not very lonu; ano it would haw been difficult to name many 
of the fossils found in this immense series of deposits, but since 
the labours of M'Coy, Laube, Duncan, Etheridge, already re- 
t erred to, and my own humble efforts, so large a number of the 

be quite beyond the limits of this paper to nivo even a list of 

In Tasmania we find the same deposits, but under different 
conditions. The matrix is rather a muddy gravel than elay, and 
contains fragments of what are evidently the remains of a basaltic 
rock. There are also an immense number of rounded quartz 
grains, and the whole formation suggests the proximity of some 
granitic and basaltic rocky shore. The fossils are not different 
from those of Victoria, but only different from the character of 
the fauna in the same locality now. In describing over, I think, 
ninety fossils from those beds, I did not meet half-a-dozen similar 
to those now existing on the coast, and those only of shells which 
are now of rare occurrence. Pi^unJhi c-nr:>cnata (Crosse) is 
a case in point, and one or two which are doubtfully referred to 
European forms still existinc. or of miocene age. Corals abound 
throughout the formation, whether in Victoria or Tasmania. One 
form, Placotrochus deltoideus, seems to prevail everywhere, and is 
very common : but no characteristic eocene form, such as Tur- 
binoli. Balamat i ■presented, but 

the specn- in Ta^m.mi:: di i:\-r, nt. and one closely allied form, 
DendropIniU'utAv^ two species depart inn very widely from any 
known forms. In Victoria no reef-building coral was found, but 
in Tasmania I discovered itims. Dune.) 

to be not uncommon, t, _< nfaM (T. sera, 

Dune.) not hitherto found in Australia. The general conclusion 
forced upon palaeontologist- the >eas were then 

much warmer than they are now. The types approach nearer to 
the fauna of the Philippine Islands and ChinaSeas than 
living near Australia. It is true that two or perhaps three 
species of Trig* 'normal forms. 

The strierlv A i. - .nUa,BanMvia, 

TrocJioi-uchl'ti. r » 7 /'. Thalotia, Siphonaria, &c, are not re- 
doubtful Thalotia. 

It is a remarkable circumstance of the fauna of these beds that 
there has been lania, one almost 

perfect skeleton of a wallaby, Halmaturw (?), imbedded in a soft 


yellow sanely el;i'. ■ '-. Tliov are principally 

small Turritellce, T. Warhurtom, ; >''>■ and others. There is 

deposited at the same lime as the shells. It may have been 
carried out to s. - r ream, or it may 

have been dropped into the sea by a bird of' prey. There it lies, 
however, firmly ii ssfls, a land animal among 

marine shells. I was not able to ascertain whether the remains 
could be referred to any existing species. The specimen lies in 
the Museum of the Royal Society at Hobart Town, where unfor- 
tunately there are no "marsupial skeletons for comparison. It 
seemed to me to be the remains of an animal --outer in proportion 
to its length than any we are acquainted with now. The fossil 
is of great interest, because first of all it points out the great 
luitiipun of the m;.i'-u;>i:'.' !'; una < f A i-,tr; ' : . - ml secondly, will 
serve as a guide to the interpretation of some of our cave remains. 
At Portland, nearly on the western limit of Victoria, we have 
a commencement of a newer tertiary formation, known as the 
Mount Gambier or Polyzoan limestone. It is quite different in 
character from the lower strata we have been considering, and 
has been fully described in two publication's of mine— viz., 
" Geological OL ■■■■ alda," and " Two Lectures 

on the 'Geology of Portland "—both of which are now in the 
Society's library. It has also been continually noticed in the 
reports of the \ a. Mining Depart- 

ment of Victoria. I shall not therefore describe it now, but 
refer to some features which have not been previously noticed. 
Pirst of all the deposit is dieting abundance of 

Poli/zoa and F -incipally (nay 

almost entirely) composed. The greater part is a kind of marble, 
very loose and friable, which seems to be composed of broken 
foraminifera?. The other fossils may be easily enumerated. 
They are few and far between, and may be said to comprise 
Echinodermata, Brachiopoda, and Pecten, and even these are 
scarce, except one urchin. Thi- is L,,r,„,,i F„*h,>tii (Woods and 
Duncan).* This lies on strata a few inches thick, with no other 
fossil, showing bo they mud have flourished in the 

days of their existence. N deep-sea dredging 

as a guide in estimating the conditions of life at great depths on 
the ocean floor, we easily understand what we see here. Some- 
times the dredge of the"" Challenger" would come up full of one 
kind of echinida-, as it there was nothing else to be found. Here 
we see a similar thing 

;;:;., i 

The tertiary beds are f 
interrupted by the voh-an 
may call them, until the Gr 
Eauge is reached. They ; 

•.' hecll I'OlllUl 

; :;iMi'f on the 
.iii^elf. The 

I find that at a meeting of the Geological Soc 

<7. a [ „, i r u is read from Profess 

South Australia. The fostoia were named hv 1: 

ensued, the '. 

upon the interest attached to the discovery of this Belemnite, 
which added another to the curious examples of the survival of 
older forms of life in Australia. He thought it could hardly 
have been derived from secondary strata. The Salcnia was evi- 
dently tertiary, and, as it was somewhat cretaceous in its aspect, 


added another to the cretaceous forms which had outlived the 
cretaceous period. This and similar discoveries showed the im- 
possibility of comparing Australian and English strata on purely 
paheontological data. Mr. J. S. Gardiner remarked, in connec- 
tion with the discovery of cretaceous forms still living in modern 
times, that American cretaceous beds may be like our eocene. 
If a Belemnite lived on into the tertiary period, this might give 
quite another reading to those supposed cretaceous beds, whose 
determination rests mainly upon their Horn. Mr. A. W. Waters 
said that two years ago he exhibited to the Society Belemnites 
from Bonca. Since then it has been shown that in the deposit 
at Eonca there are boulders from older beds, so that although 
his Belemnites are not rolled, and he regarded them as probably 
tertiary, the evidence must be considered incomplete. These 
Belemnites were like liassic forms, but very unlike those dis- 
covered by Mr. Tate. The Rev. .1. V. Blake said that Professor 
Tate's specimens were more like oolitic than cretaceous forms, 
and the\ certainh did not belum; to the genus Belemnitella. 

the idea of a non-uniform deposition of beds, and a more con- 
tinuous succession * ii< in \ns i th n ti Europe. Profes- 
sor Rupert Jones said that in 1857 Belemnites found in a tertiary 
deposit north-west of Germany were exhibited at the meeting of 
the Naturalists" Association at Bonn. Professor Seeley remarked 
that it was impossible from the material before the Society to 
determine the species to which the Belemnite belonged. The 
characters were not sufficiently clear to show whether it was 
a true Belemnite, or might form a distinct but allied genus. He 
agreed with Mr. Gardiner with regard to the resemblance of 
American cretaceous shells to those of the English tertiaries. 
Professor Duncan remimu I ere is a sharply 

\ istralia. 
If I should venture to suggest anything in this matter, it 
would be that our tertiary formations are older than the period 
' 'nk either th r ir<-n t ;t< < , us 

s quite so clearly defined as imagined ; neither is it safe to say 
that the southern analogues would be so very different from our 
lower tertiary beds, though I am far from saying that they would 
be the same. They may, however, be nearer to each other than is 
t believed. 
Westward of the Onkiiimnnira and \ ] d i n ira beds we have the 
tertiary formation well represented in some parts of Torke's 
Peninsula. At Kadina, Moonta, and the Wallaroo mines generally, 
fossils are found at a small depth below the surface, mostly Echi- 
noderms (Arachno tat ,'. Forbetit). These are well 

known forms of the Mum naps they occupy 

- G 


the same geological horizon. They completely, or almost com- 
pletely, cover the cupriferous veins, which are in true hornblendic 
or dioritic dykes. The deposit seems widely spread on Yorke's 

Peninsula. ' 

Westward of these deposits we have the thick fnssi]iTerous 
formation of the groat Australian Bight, which extends for 300 
leagues in an unbroken wal 1 . abutting on the ocean at heights 

fossils I have seen from these beds have been familiar forms 
from Victorian or South Australian beds. 1 should imagine. 
from the description of the beds themselves, and the fossils 
submitted to me, that they were nearer to the Mount Gambicr 
formation than those of the river Murray. I have however, 
never seen a good series of fossils from the cliffs of the 
Australian Bight, and no doubt they would be of the highest 

thinking that there has been no >h,w uphea\al in the ease of the 
Australian Bight. The cliffs, sometimes COu feet high, abut upon 

;otes on the Iirachiopoda oi theiertia 

The fold and sinus s 
i. The ribs also see 
ncMf."- T. Davids* 

No. 1. 77" v' . JF.macropora,WCoy,M.S. 

" Called so from pores which separate it from W. flavescens, to 
which I drew attention mam year. ;,- . *vheu printing that name. 
I do not, howevei - from Davidson's 

W. Garibaldiana." — Professor M'Coy. "This species has much the 
character of W.fl \ have not a good collec- 

tion of Australian recent species of Bracluopoda, but have one that 
has a good deal om Table Cape, 

Tasmania, but m the same shape. It would be 

well to compare with W. flavescens. It is a new but allied species, 
and has also a little resemblance to my W. Garibaldiana, although 
I think not the same species. The sub-pentahedral elongated shape 
is remarkable, but it is difficult to guess at the variations a species 
may assume by the inspection of a single specimen." — T. Davidson. 
" The commonest Brachiopod in the middle beds of the Murray 
cliffs."— Prof. Tate. 

No. 2. Young of preceding, T. Davidson. Professor M'Coy 
did not recognize it with certainty. Prof essor Tate thinks it may 
be a Terebi'ot"! i^a and Table Cape. 

Xo. 3. WaWlicimi'i ,-jri-y „w. Mi'oy, M.S.: "I do not know 
this species with a broad depression on the smaller valve. It 
seems to me to be quite new." — Davidson. 

Terebratula gambicrensis. Ether. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1875. 

however, very difl irons closely allied 

Implicated Ttrelratidce from the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Ter- 
tiary periods. It is singular that, although biplicated species of 
Terebratul.ce are so abundant in the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and 
Tertiary periods, that hitherto not a single species so constructed 
has been found al fc conditions." — T.Davidson. 

"Common at Aiding^, ecies, sometimes 

without biplications."— Professor Tate. 

No. 4. Terebratula vitreoides, n. s. A small, smooth, orbicular 
species, with very conspicuous concentric lines of growth. Fora- 
men small. I only figure and name this fossil provisionally, of 
which Mr. Davidson says. '-This is another of those undecided 
forms that res e .-ribed as distinct species. 

It has some resemblance Jo T ciirtM or io T. orhtcuhita, Nequenza, 
I would not like to assign it positively to any of the species, 
although I would not assign to it any "very distinguishable fea- 
tures. I think you should publish a description and figures of 
these very interesting species, not only on account of the species, 
but of the fori.:: : s ,ey come." 

No. 5. Terebratula Tatca.ia, n. s. Small, miooth, without ribs 
or folds, closely Sow.) Beak somewhat pro- 

duced. The specimens sent to Mr. Davidson too small or im- 
perfect for deteri ' ' ' 




The CnwrmtAX said the paper was particularly interesting to 
lum, and the d> t brought many things to 

his remembrance. He was born on the tertiary formation of 
East Alalia, and had lived for years in the tertiary district of 
Dorsetshire, as well as on those of the continent. He had also 
written on the subject of tertiary formations. He would take 
the liberty of making one or two "remarks on the valuable paper 

boulder clay. It n 
elsewhere, and tha 


\ Between 

, :tr.'Ordanc'.' 

. - has been 

with the district betweei 

Blue Mountains at th ■ 


The Eev. W. Scott 
"Woods. This was the fi 


tion was admissible. If they were derived, we should expect to 
find them under different conditions. What he had seen con- 
vinced him that it was a mass of fossils accumulated in the sea. 
It was said there were, in the Bight, fossils found in North Aus- 
tralia, He had noticed one or two tropical forms there. As for 
the strata, he would hardly be prepared to say they were the 
same as the Murray cliffs, but the fossils were clearly tertiary. 
As to the subsidence of the eastern side of the continent, Mr. 
Clarke was more competent than any other man living to form an 
opinion. As to the depth found by Captain Stanley, he (Mr. 
Woods) thought four miles hardly a reliable one in those early 
days. As far as lie had hoard, there seemed to be a gradual 
shelving; but there was evidence of great subsidence, or of 

: New Australian Polyzoa. 

sisox Woods, F.G-.S., Ac, Hon. Mem. 

[Head before the Royal Society of N.S.W., 4 July, 1877.] 

The following two new species of Serlalarla belong to the 
family Vesicular iadiv (order Infi xdibulata, sub-order 3, 
Ctenostomata). It is now some years since I noticed the first, 
but had no opportunity to examine 'ii until the year 1874, when 
by the aid of that experienced microscopist and scientific statist, 
Mr. W. H. Archer, F.L.S.. Ac, I was able to determine its 
character. I may say here that Mr. Archer made all the neces- 
sary investigations with the aid of his very extensive microscope 
apparatus and the drawings were made by Mr. J. E. T. Gold- 
stein of Warnambool, under the direction of Mr. Archer. 

Serialarta— Lamarck. Character :— Polypidom confervoid, 
hornv, tistular. and branched. Cells, tubular, uniserial, and uni- 
lateral. di>|H.»ed in close parallel companies in internodes at 
stated intervals. — Johnston, " Brit. Zoophytes," vol. i, p. 368. 

seven to 'ten tubular cells, adnate to one a 
the frond, curved, and lengthening towards the end of the e 
Internodes serial, or giving off two others at right angles. Two 
long ligulate processes pro from the terminal 

cell mouths of each internode. These are about twice the length 
of the internode. Mouth of cell somewhat crescentic, with a 
thickened margin. 

Found after storms in masses amongst seaweed in Guichen 
Bay, South Australia. It is of light brown colour, and very like 
a mass of aphides. The transparent fistular branches, whence 
the ceils arise, are corrugated and constricted at the internodes. 
In section they appear rhomboidal. Some of the cells seem to 
be provided with a conical cap. Are these ovicells ? 

This species is very close to S. lendigtra, Lamarck, but it is 
much more stout and solid, the cells are in a doulle mdfi* Mid 
quite fill up each internode, while there are frequently long 
vacant spaces in the British species. The ligulate processes are 
double at the end of each internode, while they are often single 
and only occasional in 8. ton, Brit. Zooph., 

1st edit. (1838), p. 251, fig. 40. In Ellis's Nat. Rut. of the 


Corallines, Loncl., 1755, at p. 27, we find the following notice 
of that species — " (' ■ • • • • ■ '■.,'■' ' ■'''"■ *" ' '' '"• 

vesiculis ex /■<;.< . .v///.v. uf sijriniiani l J <tai- 

referent. Furo* uti^ hr instur im- 

\> Coralline. This extremely small climbing < 

nd ftt< 
dodder does over'otber plants. The vesicles have the appearance 

of rows of denticles are placed in such a regular order on the 
end of each joint that when they are magnified they represent 
the antique figure of Pan's pipe. I have called it the Nit 
Coralline from Mr. May'- enliing it the Nit -hearing Fucoides. 
The small vesicles closely-jointed together in little speck-like 
figures among the irregular capillary branches gives us some idea 
of that form." I may add that the" Australian species does not, 
as far as I am aware, climb over sea-weed as above deserihed. 

S. p. dichotoii cells in series ol 

twenty to twenlv-; ; the axis of the 

branches. Cells 'flat, nearly four times as long as wide, each 
provided at the mouth with two divergent hollow spines half as 
long as the cell. 

Common at various places on the southern coast of Australia 
and in Tasmania, The spiral < ells distinguishes 

i from all others. In appearan 


knotted fibre or a delicate moss. Under the micro- 
scope it seems at first like a series of little conical cups placed 
one within another, and surrounded with spines. It is not easy 
to trace the epn iral series of cells, as their 

transparency blends their different parts into a confused mass. 
The cells on the summits of t! e brai chc?s are usually incomplete, 
and have their spines truncate and hollow. The clusters of the 
internodes form an < ■>.-. n ■ ■<■; I ■■■',■ for grains of sand, shell, and 
f ' •: i'i-t of the struc- 

ture. Ovicells in large oval cups at the base of some of the 
spirals. Colour, dark brown. 

It is to be remarked that neither of the above species polarises, 
whereas the calcareous jxdy/M;. all >h<>\\ \\A\ defined peculiarities 
of structure under the polariscope. It would be an interesting 

ia Austbalis. Tenison-Wood?. 
(Highly magnified.) 

Seeiaiabia spinalis. T 

(Highly magnified.) 

the occurrence of Chalk 

IRead be/are the Royal Society of N.S.W., 4 July, 1877.] 

In the following brief notice it is my wish to communicate to 
the Society a description of ' tea and chemical 

composition of recently brought 

from tlie above group of Islands. 

The specimen which I now have the pleasure to lay before you is 
not only interesting in itself as an example of what is known as 
an organioalh formed n ek. *'mce it is built up almost entirely of 
the calcareous s -. but it is inter- 

esting in a still higher degree, as it apparently indicates that a 
m< ist i a\ ortant geolog - been made of the presence 

of chalk in an hitherto unknown and even unsuspected locality. 

In October last the Rev. Gr. Brow 
b rough 1 - (am. : _-• -ain and Xew 

Ireland (New ! Le I degrees south, and 150 

degrees east long ires of men and 

animals, which had been carved by the natives of the above 
islands out of a soft white somewhat pulverulent material, 
having much the appearance of plaster of Paris or chalk. 

Some of tins i in the Museum, and a 

fragment broken off from one of them was placed in my hands 

On examinaii .mdnifera are at 

once detected, the forms of the larger ones being plainly visible 
even to the unaided eye ; under the microscope the whole mass 
of the rock is seen to* be almost entirely composed of the shells 
and fragments of shells of i .'ins of globige- 

rina being most abundant. 

To obtain the shells of the foraminifera free from the cement- 
ing calcareous matter, it is only necessary to gently rub the 
surface of the specimen with a soft tooth or nail brush under 
a stream of water, when the whole surface of the fragment 
submitted to the operation speedily becomes studded with the 
minute shells and fragments of shells of foraminifera, now left 
standing out in relief. 

To obtain the foraminifera perfectly free from the accompany- 
ing powder, it is sufficient to dry the collected debris and to place it 


upon the surface of some cle In a glass beaker or 

other vessel ; the larger an ! ra minifera float on 

the surface of the water, while the broken fragments, much of the 
amorphous powder, and many of the denser foraminifera, are 

milky supernatant liquid. 

In the sediment the microscope reveals the presence of the 
smaller foraminifera, of a few sponge spicules, and minute grains 
of what are evidently siliceous and igneous rocks. 

The further ea b rial is limestone, 

having a very close resemblance to chalk, both in chemical com- 

the light grey varieties. 
Although it is essentii 

perfectly pure ; there are certain impurities present, in 
of alumina, iron "' 

the form of a ; ■ ■ ■ ■ i .-u i ganese, and 

but reference will again be made to this question later on. 

To ascertain -., that the rock might be 

regarded as chalk and not "merely as a soft white friable recent 
limestone, or as a deposit sm g over parts of 

to Mr. H. B. Brady, IVR.S., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, who has 
devoted himself to the study of foraminiferous deposits, and who 
is recognized as one of then" these matters. 

I have since received a rep] lie says: — 

" First, let me speak of your chalk from the New Britain 
group. I suppose you ha re Is is a cretaceous 

chalk, and not a friable tertiary limestone. All the foraminifera, 
or nearly so, are south Atlantic recent deep-sea species, GloU- 
gerina lulloides, Ql. infiat anlii (a thick 

variety which I do not think is yet named), P Mieheliniana, 
and probably P. Karstm . Xonionia de- 

pressula, Buliui f [),n!>dina, TTvigerina, 

&c. ; also a characteristi c \ -hell and honey- 

combed surface, not yet described, of which I have quantities in 
the "Challenger "material * * * The whole of the "Challenger" 
foraminifera' have been handed over to me to work out." 

In answer to a questioii 1 node of occur- 

rence of the material used for the carving's The Rev. G. Brown 
wrote to me as follows : — 

" The chalk of which the figures are formed is, I am informed, 
only found on the beach at '; • nog cast up there 

in large pieces by the tidal wave ; it is only found, as far as we know 
at present, in one district on the east side of New Ireland." 

Magnesia . . . 
Potash ... 

Chlorine ... 
Combined wa 

Specific gravity, 2-199 at 5 
The specific gravity wa< tn 
grammes, which was allowed 

The aW figur 

undoubtedlv a far les 
chalk, as the followin 

Chemical Co, 

by Mr. W. J. Wa 

! R.S., also examined some specimens of 

chalk, the analyses of which are here cited. The first analysis 

position of a piece of white chalk from Shoreham, 

I the second of a piece of grey chalk from Folke- 


. i carbonate 

Phosphoric acid \ 
■-.-■A loss) 

Sodium chloride ... 


(Vide " Geology of England and Wales." Woodward, p. 239.) 
Another sain; well at Driffield was 

found by Mr. T. Hodgson to have the following composition : — 

Moisture 520 

Calcium carbonate 9330 

-■' _ ... •!•" 

Iron sesauioxide and alumina ... "20 

The specimen from New Ireland closely resembles in chemical 

ke rock occurring in New Zealand. 
Dr. Hector, CM « \ . F R.8., I > : -tor of the Geological Survey 
of New Zealand, pnblidit > in bis An-uml K.y-rt for 1875-6, the 
description and analysis by Mr. Skey, 

chemist to the Survey, as follows :— " No. 1,767. Chalk, con- 
tributed by Mr. H. Higginson, from South Canterbury, very 
closely resembles some taken from the same district by the 
Survey some time since. Thetjg samples, as to their physical and 
chemical characl . exactly repre- 

sent the chalk of the cretaceous formation as occurring in 


Carbonate of lime 8412 

Carbonate of magnesia ... ... 2"10 

Clay 1257 

Iron oxides and alumina, soluble in acid 121 




the - 

tic. forthe'analv 
son. F.K.S..iuh 


and varying proporti 

The same author me 

M Of 

analyses : hut the '-insuhihl 

David Forbes, F.K.S.. probab 

The only locality for chalk 

and Coral Islands." See p. 3C 

corals, and which resembles cha 
Mr. Dana there savs— 
- The formation of chalk from 

its production. Moreover, when simply ( 

ried, it has much the 

appearance of chalk, a fact pointed out by 

1 also by Mr. Darwin, 

and suggested to the author bv the mud ii 

the lagoon of Honden 

Island. Still this does not explain the nri 

[in of chalk, for, under 

all ordinary circtnnstam-es. this mud solid! 

would be naturally 

expected. What condition then is necess 

•; The only locality of' chalk anion- th 

reefs of the Pacific, 

10 feet deep. 

"The rock could not be distinguished fi 

om much of the chalk 

of England : it i> equally tine and even in 
in its fracture, and so soft as to be used or 

its texture, as earthy 

the blackboard in the 

native schools. 

" Some imbedded shells look prcci-th 

ike chalk fossils. It 

n, 9280 per cent, of 
lagneaia, besides some 

carbonate of lime, 2-33 of carbonate of 

alumina, oxide of iron, silica, &c. 

"The locality is situated on the shores, 

quite above high-tide 

level, near the "foot of Diamond Hill. Thi 

a hill is an extinct tufa 

cone, nearly 700 feet in height, rising fron 

the water's edge, and 

in its origin it must have been partly sub 

marine. It is one of 


time of an eruption through a fissure, the lava of which appears 
at the base. There was some coral on the shores when the erup- 
tion took place, as is evident from imbedded fragments in the 
tufa; bat the re Ik appeared to have been 

subsequent in formation, and afforded no certain proof of any 
connection between the fires of the mountain and the formation 

" The fine earthy texture of the material is evidence that the 

the peculiar 

prerogative, the world over, of shores exposed to waves, or strong 
currents, either of marine or of fresh water. We should infer, 
therefore, that the accumulation was produced either in a con- 
fined area, into which the fine material from a beach may have 
been washed, or on the shore of a shallow, quiet sea — in other 
words, under the same conditions nearly as are required to pro- 
duce the calcareous mud of the coral inland. But although the 
agency of fire in the result c 
improbable, from the position 
have been a hot spring at the spot occupied by it. 

" That there was some peculiar circumstances distinguishing 
this from other parts of the reef is evident. 

" This, if a true conclusion, is to be taken, however, only as 
one method by which chalk may be made ; for there is no reason 
to suppose that the chalk of the chalk formation has been 
subjected to heat ; on the contrary, it is now well ascertained 
that it is of cold water origin, even to its flints, and that it is 
made up largely of minute foraminif era, the shells of rhizopods. 

" Professor Bailey found under his microscope no traces of 
foraminif era, or of any thing . the chalk." 

The entire absence of any remains of foraminifera must, I 
venture to think, completely destroy any claim for the Oahu 
limestone to be regarded as chalk proper. 

Neither can the Atlantic ooze, rich though it be in coecolith9 
and the shells of foraminifera, be regarded as chalk. It is true 
that it may in future geological ages fulfil Professor Wyville 
Thomson's prediction and become such, but even of that we 
cannot be certain. At present it is a soft calcareous mud, and a 
very impure one. When consolidated and converted into dry 
land, instead of forming a brilliant white chalk limestone, a hard 
compact argillaceous or siliceous slaty limestone may be the result. 

The true white chalk so familiar to Englishmen is found over 
an area extending from the fan to Bordeaux, 

a distance in round numbers of 850 miles, and again from the 
northern part of Ireland to the Crimea, i.e.. about 1,140 miles. 

I am, of course, referring to the extent merely of the soft 
white limestone known emphatically as chalk, not to the areas 

wide distribution, being found ii' 

New Zealand! 

It may, perhaps, be mentions 
tlit* probability of the New Ir 
regarded of cretaceous age, th; 

liassic form) and other fossils, such as , arc 1 ,, ' , f ath nndpecfens, 
all of which may or may not belong to the cretaceous age. 

It would be by no means a startling thing to find that these 

Islands, a distance of only a few hundred miles, which would 

comprise an area bv no means equal to the extent of country 
occupied in Europe by the typical white chalk. 

yet been foun.; ■■:■ \u .Ww Guinea. 

t indistinguishable from 
i that it has had the sam- 
3 not, unfortunately, si 

On a Method of Extracting Gold, Silver, and other 

Metals from Pyrites. 
By W. A. Dixon, F.C.S., Cor. Mem. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow. 

[Read lefore the Royal Sn.-i.h, ,-,/ X.S.W., I A";/i/.it, 1877.] 

Some three years since, Mr. Wood, Under Secretary for Mines, 
suggested to me that the extraction of gold from complex 
minerals was a subject well worthy of investigation, and one 
which if brought to a successful issue would be of great value to 
New South Wales and Queensland. Both these Colonies yield 
minerals conta m ride ruble quantity, 

but so mixed up with sulphides of copper, lead, iron, and other 
metals, that none of the ordinary methods of \ 
more than a very small proportion of it. 

Acting on this suggestion, I obtained 
Mariner's Beef, Gympie, which in the 
analysis : — 

Copper 62 percent. 

Lead 19 

Gold 3 oz. 3 dwts. 2 gi 

Silver 32 oz. 9 dwts. 3g] 

Another larger portic 

winch was found to am* 
mineral, gave — 


om the same reef, after being ground 

as much as possible of the quartz, 

imount to about 60 per cent, of the rough 

17-02 or Copper pyrites 4845 

3786 Gold and s 


I bad also a small lot of copper pyrites from this Colony con- 
taining 24 per cent, of copper, and gold equal to 78 oz. 8 dwt., 
and silver 4 oz. 2 dwt. 10 grs. per ton ; arsenical pyrites con- 
taining when thoroughly roasted 11 ozs. 18 dwts. grs. per ton; 
iron pyrites containing when roasted 5 ozs. 6 dwts. 3 grs.' gold per 

As much attention has been given, by others more conversant 
than, my self with ilation, to the extraction of 

gold and silver, by grinding with mercury in variously designed 
pparatus, with comparatively small success so far as these ( 


- ■ ' 

acerned, I have confined my attention principally 
to tnose chemical relations of gold which would enable me to 
obtain it in solution. I may note, however, that in Grermany 
ores containing more than 1 per cent, of copper, or 7 per cent, 
of lead, have not been found suitable for amalgamation ; and that 
an increase of density of the accompanying gangue from the 
presence of heavy spar, &c, or of tenacity from the presence of 
clay, seriously reduce the yield of precious metals, consisting in 
their case principally of silver ; and that nearly all the gold is lost 
in the tailings, with about 15 oz. of mercury per ton of ore treated. 
The loss of silver by amalgamation, working with ores con- 
sidered suitable for that process, has been found t 
many from 5 to 10 per cent, of the contained quantity. 4 

With the Comstock silver ores in America the loss is 12 per 
cent, by barrel amalgamation, whilst with the same ores by pan 
amalgamation the yield never exceeded 80 per cent., seldom 75 
per cent., with a general average of 66 per cent.f 

At the Port Phillip Works at Clunes, Mr. Latta reports that 
the average loss of gold by amalgamation in a period of seven 
years was 6 dwts. 10 grs. per ton, the highest loss being 7 dwts. 
15 grs., the lowest 4 dwts. 8 grs., the pyrites being free or nearly 
so from copper and lead.J 

In treatment by fusion it is found at Kongsbeck in Norway, 
that after repeated fusion slags carry away 1 oz. 2 dwts. of 
auriferous silver per ton ; and in Lower Hungary by a similar 
process the loss is in the slags 1 oz. 12 dwts. per ton, besides a 
loss of 3| per cent, of the total silver in the smoke. 

Bivot says : " The yield of gold and silver from pyritieal ores 

greater in assays of richer than of poor ores, amounting always 
to more than 80 per cent, and with fahlore and ores containing 
arsenical pyrites to more than 50 per cent. The loss incurred 
when working on a large scale is less than in laboratory assays- 

gold \va< to take advantage oFti.e 

solubility of sub 

r if this could be effected it 

would render the roasting ot" the on. 

In 1859, Henderson included in 

bis patent for the extraction 

a process for extracting i 

;old as sulphide. His direc- 

> obtain a matt which is to 

be fused with two parts of salt eakt 

I (crude sulphate of sodium), 

and the matt run into pi-s. These 

placed in water crumble to 

pieces; and the gold is obtained i 

a solution, whence it may be 


In iMis. a pn-eess v, as patented i 

a America for the extraction 

llendet si in's proces> was tried with Mariner's Reef ore, pro- 

regu i- disintegr t< d i 1 w: u r as described by him, I could not, 

modified, with - ' ; results, by fusing with 

sulphi "e f - dim'.;. ! y fusion with sulphate of sodium and char- 
coal, and bv h ■- u ore to a dull red with 
• " ■:'■ 
The extraction of gold from its ores as chloride was proposed 
by Price, who. in .J..\ ....-;.. l*-">7. patented a process in America 
for the extraction of gold from its ores by fusing them with 
sulphide of ir - eg : tlus with aqueous chlorine 

or an acidified hypochlorite. This introduced a source of diffi- 
culty, as the e!i ■ convert the sulphide into 
ferric sulphate before any gold could be obtained in solution. 

Ziervogel prop lyrites with chlorine, and 

used at Chemnitz. 

This process v, ■-. ,1 in the United States bv 

a. F. Deetken, in 1SG3, and has been used with tolerably satis- 
factory results in California in two establishments. The process 
is there carried out as follows .- — The concentrated pyrites are 
subjected to a ti. and when sulphurous anhy- 

dride ceases to be evolved, the residue is withdrawn from the 
furnace and cooled. It is the. prinkle-! v, it h water, and turned 

formed, and the s« 
sels, where the gold 

On a»a\ ing a portion of the residue, it was found I 

Gold ...1 oz. dwt. •"> grs. leau'iii: 2 oz. 

Bflrer. .6 ws. 1(5 dwt. 10 grs. „ 33 oz. 

Another portion, shaken n;> with a solution 

of iron to decompose the chloride of silver. 

ground up as before, yielded — 

Gold ... 1 oz. 1 dwt. l.ts. leaving 2 oz. 1 

Silver. . . 31 oz. 3 dwt. 5 grs. „ 5 oz. 1 

These results showing that even after the 

removal of sulphur, or at all event- what wo 

1 , the greater part i ' 

rater shaken 

sbestos filter, t! ■«• r. -.■: i. 

Lsted arsenical pyrites, treated with hypochlorite of calcium 
sulphuric acid* as above gave— gold 11 ozs. 15 dwts. 5 grs., 

-ing 2 dwts. 10 gr>. Roasted iron 

i difficult to account for the fact, that in the case of the 

;le action on the gold, and that when all the copper has 
removed previous to treatment; but in every fcri 

- were obtained. It -coins pr<>l«a1 U-. however, that the state 

- was there- 

• m of iodine or with 
;old iodides, is scarcely to be wonder* 

j, .-vanideof notassim 

applied for 

n isiis {'o,- (he use of cyanide of potas- 

i of gold from its ores, but I have no 

- of the proc 

■\ this salt. 

ess. It seemed to me, however, that the 

iis instability when exposed to the air 

and in -oiution, and its € 

■xtremely poisonous properties, precluded 

this purpose. On trying the 
cipitated gold and cyanide of potassium, I found that it was 
extremely slow if the gold was at all dense. In presence o\ 
alkaline oxidizing agents, however, I found that the solution of 
the gold wassufheii nth rapid. Thus.o>, stand trover night, the 
quantity of gold and cyanide of potassium solutions being similar 

dissolved, but with the addition of calcium hypochlorite, ferro- 
cyanide of pota- manganese, all the gold was 

dissolved; with eliminate of pota.Mum, a small quantity ; with 

■:' : 

AVith ferrorx. .. me I did not obtain any 

gold in solution -lavs, but I thought that 

with suitable oxidizing agents it might be obtained in solution 
according to the equation — 

4Au + 2KJFeCy 6 + 70 + 411,0 = 1 A ■ .■ - ■ - - 

* Chem. News, XXII, 245. fWatt's Diet. : Cyanides of Gold. 

much. In some of the experiments all the oxidizim; airent 

and I "found that after or ti\c times the theoretical quantity 
had been add* i, had little or no influence on 

the result. W hand, from 

thirty-five to t' ' - - ; , _- 

results. The material used had been roasted with salt and 
extracted with acid, and contained so little copper that 50 grs. 
digested wit;. ...ade alkaline bv ammonia, 

and made up to 50 CC. had only a faint colouration in a cylinder 
3 inches deep. It contained — 

and yielded from 3 ozs. 12 dwts. to 5 ozs. 1 dwt. of gold. and from 
46 ozs. to 46 ozs. 3 dwts. of silver per ton. This showed that all 
the silver which had "been converted into chloride during the 
roasting was obtained in solution as cyanide. With the gold, on 
the other hand, all 'he r, ^ult- ~1., .u-d*th;-t v. it li complex pyrites 
a portion only con ither in mercury or 

in water as ev ; ■ ; ' -t none could be obtained as 


There being therefore no method by which the precious metals 
could be removed and the base metals left, it remained to fall 
back on one of the first principles of metallurgy, viz., to remove the 
base metals at the earliest stage possible, and leave the precious 
metals as a residue. In ordinary metallurgic operations this 
end is attained by dressing and Buceessive smeltings. I however 
arrived at the conclusion that smelting was not a desirable pro- 
" " s expensive and the gold and silver would at last be 

found alloyed with a large quantity of copper, whilst ronsidei 
able ipuuititie.s of these metals would be lost by \ ' 
l the slags. These losses have been found else 

large, even when tested against the usual assay, which as Kivot 
observes is itself open to losses. That the loss of gold by any 
process involving smelting must be considerable is evident, when 
we consider that glass will hold a large amount of gold in solu- 
tion. Thus, calculating from the quantity of gold used to form 
ruby glass, which is perfectly colourless when first melted, I find 
that it contains 10*88 oz. of gold per ton, imitation topaz 8*21 oz. . 
of gold per ton, imitation garnet 27*18 and 46*33 ozs. per ton, by 
two different receipts. The gold is added in the form of purple 
of Cassius, that • . i .1 with oxide of 

tin ; this usually contains 30 per cent, of gold which I have taken 
in ealculatinu* the above numbers, or of chloride of gold — an 
oxidizing agent beinic added at the same time. In smelting 
operations the ferric oxide would act as an oxidizing agent, and 
when once in solution it seems improbable thai auv practieable 
amount of smelting in presence of other metals would reduce 
and collect all the gold. 

Thinking, however, that i u • .' ms a process of 

smelting was the only one which was likely to be successful, I 
turned my attention to the removal 'of the copper, so that I 
might obtain it separate from the gold and silver. Although 
many wet extraction processes have been used with success else- 
where, none of them appear to be quite suitable to the circum- 
stances obtaining in these colonies. Perhaps the mosksuccessful 
has been the Longmaids' process as improved by Henderson, and 
so far as the recovery of gold and silver are concerned by 
Claudet. Worked in Great Britain, it has rendered available 
immense quantities of copper ores too poor to be treated by any 

greater pari of the mining and carriage and the whole cost of 

oxide of iron fret' from copper and sulphur is nearly of the value 
of haematite for f culin^ puddling furnaces; here both would be 

's process for c\t rai-'iiiLT the small 
obtained in solution along with tie 
copper "by precipitation with iodide of /.inc. the very small cost 
of which '('.»d. per ton of ore) has been noticed in the report of the 
Victorian Commission appointed to inquire into the treatment of 
pyrites, and others. 1 may note thai this is only the additional 
cost of extracting thoM' metals bey.. ml that incurred in extract- 
ing the copper. It is only applicable 

the copper be in solution as cuprie chloride,! 
iodide is precipitated. As the formation of cuprie chloride 
involves the use of more salt and its precipitation of more iron 
than cuprous chloridt th [uu- ha In n ih.-indoned in many 

I tried whether the addition of sueeosive portions of raw ore 
would not gradually convert the urea* or part of the copper into 
sulphate during the roasting. After well roasting a quantity of 
pyrites. 1 extracted the sulphate formed with water from a 
sample; this v.. nt as oxide was 

dissolved by dilute hydrochloric acid, and its amount determined. 
It was found to be equal to 654 per cent, of copper. 

To 700 grains of the remainder (from winch the sulphate had 
not been extracted), I added 40 grs. of fresh pyrites and roasted 
sweet at a dull-: tnffie, which took about an 

hour, treated a portion as before, and found the copper present 
as oxide to be 6"01 per cent. The remainder was again made up to 
700 £rs. with once-roasted ore, 40 trrs. raw pyrites added and 
roasted sweet, when other ft> irr> was added and the cal ination 
continued until complete, when the copper present as oxide was 
found to be 4 7. I I] reduced, 

but the proce.-- '< be of u-e practically. 

I then calcined 400 g 
200 grs. of raw ore and again calcined, then added 
raw ore, and com . .1 .•- were no longer 

evolved, when the residue was found to contain 6 46 per cent, of 
copper as oxide. This process was therefore of no value ; hut I 
noticed that after each addition of pyrites considerable quantities 
of white vapours '.vert- evoked, and as the ore contained but little 
arsenic this could only arise from the formation of sulphuric 
. anhydride. I therefore proceeded to determine how much sul- 
phuric acid could be obtained by calcining a mixture of raw 
pyrites and roasted residue. 

A combustion tube was fitted with a smaller tube leading 
through water in a Woolfe's bottle, the second neck of which 
was connected with an aspirator, and mixtures of raw and roasted 
pyrites were heated to a dull-red in the combustion tube, a 
current of air being maintained through the whole apparatus, 
and the ore occasionally stirred with a bent wire. In this 
arrangement however 1 found that a iar-e quantity of the white 
fumes escaped condensation, and I therefore substituted for the 
Woolfe's bottle a Hash containing a small quantity of water, the 
exit tube of which was connected with an inverted Liebig's con- 
denser. The water in the flask was kent gently boding, and I 
found that by this arrant-men; the condensation was very good. 
100 grs. of raw pyi ites c< utainin- oTSO per cent, of sulphur, mixed 
with 50 grs. of the same which had been well roasted and the 
copper extracts . . ■ in the tube was 

digested with hydro. 1 i >ri< at id. . i d t! e su phuric acid formed 
determined in o the condensed 

.."•.■'-:!■■ ....::■-■;■' -■ ;"■ ----- 

\ of residue _-.... ; ;■ . - ite . . 3 L •65 grs. 

f ■ • "• -- 

calculated on the 100 grs. used, this gave — 
Sulphuric acid in residue == 868 sulphur. 


hich calculated on 100 grs. used gav< — ■ 

id in residue zr 8 - 70 sulphu 
water = 1900 „ 

Total... 27-70 Bulph 
i reducing the roasted ore to 15 grs., 

dcd metallic iron, forming sulpli 

,- presented itself in, was. to calcine 
the ore at a low t, ; in^turc and extract the >ulphates of copper 
and iron formed with the mixed sulphurous and sulphuric acids 
formed during the roasting, then to reduce all the iron to the 
metallic state a . when the gold, 

silver, antimony, and lead would be left. The only points that 
remained to be decided were, how to reduce the iron to the 
metallic state, and to obtain the copper In m solution. 

The reduction of the iron was necessary, because the sulphuric 
acid obtained would be too dilute to act on the ferric oxide, and 
. ferric suli 

1 I first 

litable for the action 

account of the coal and the danger of explosion. Coal-gas 

reduced the iron readily, hut at a how temperature much finely 

wetting it difficult, and the powder was very pyrophoric. 

■Reduction by finely -round carbon at a low-red" heat, I found 
could be so managed as to obtain the iron as a metallic powder 
which was readily attacked. 

For the removal of the copper from solution the use of metallic 
iron had to be abandoned, on account of the quantity required to 
precipitate it from its solution as sulphate, which on the large 
scale is found 1 ;• of the copper 

precipitated. A • cover some of 

the s ilphui • a, . i. the use f suiphuri tted 1 ydrorren presented 
itself, but after i xeeeding bulk of the pre- 

cipitate present on any considerable scale 

would be insuperable, and has indeed been found to be so where 


I therefore determined to try whether it could not be recovered 
by en sta lization ; and the result of many trials showed that by 
taking a cold saturated solution of sulphate of copper, and, after 
adding sulphur;. irons acid, I had 

a solution which would render all but traces of the copper and 
sulphate of iron in well-roasted pyrites soluble without dissolving 
any. In fact it deposited crystals on being mixed with the 
calcined ore from the sulphates of copper and iron withdrawing 


the residue was obtained saturated ' 
llphate of copper which would not deposit crystals. 
This solution could be so displaced by water equal to one-half 
the bulk of the residue as to leave only 0-07 per cent, of copper 
in a soluble form, whilst if an equal bulk of water was used the 
copper left was ouly 012 per cent. Practically, therefore, it was 
possible to remove all the copper in such a way as to deposit it 
in crystals without increasing the bulk of the fluid, so that no 
evaporation would be required. 

The mixed crystals of sulphate of copper and sulphate of iron 
evolve on calcination lar^e quantities of Sulphurous and sulphuric 
anhydrides, which could be condensed in a solution of sulphate 
of copper and used to extract a future lot. 

I now proceeded to treat twelve pounds of the dressed pyrites 

an iron door fitted at the front. From the back of the muffle an 
iron pipe led into a small upright leaden tower fitted with 
moveable perforated leaden trays, so that the evolved gases 
» the trays in Buccew I I .he chimney 

e top. On the upper fa 
pped ti ' 

a trapped tube, and dripping from tray to tray flowed < 
a pipe at the bottom, whilst steam was admitted at the bottom m 
sufficient quantity to keep the lower half of the tower warm. 
Half a pound having been calcined, the copper and sulphate 
of iron was extracted with water containing sulphuric and 
sulphurous acids, the residue was reduced with carbon at a 
dull-red heat, and the metallic powder being spread on the 
trays was subjected to the net ion of the -ases from the second 
half-pound, the >• . u trotted as before, and to 

the gases from the third and so on, until the whole was operated 
on. The last half-pound was, after reduction, treated with 
dilute sulphuric acid, my parcel of ore bein- exhausted. The 
whole of the soluble matter was then extracted with water, 
which reduced it to a small bulk which was almost entirely free 
from iron but contained a small quantity of copper as sulphide. 


It was therefore on 1.- in o.l on an iron trnv. and the copper extracted, 
by .lilute sulphuric nchl. The dried* residue wei-hed I'll <»/.s.. 
and being melted with some oxide of iron ami a Utile carbonate 
of sodium and carbon -ave a brittle button uei-hin- o| „zs. To 

liarcoal. v. hen i 

The mother I be of copper crystals wore 

evaporated to dryness (tins evaporation was necessary in the 
experiment to reeov. r all the copper, but w.rul 1 be unnecessnrv 
on the lnr^e scale, the mothers being then used airnin and lo-rain 
indefinitely so loni; as there was iivsh materia] to bo extracted), 
and the whole of the sulphate was dried. One-half was heated 
to a full-red heat, to reduce the sulphates to oxides : the other 
half was heated to a dull-red to decompose the sulphate of iron. 

The averse M ; ; obt, „ ! from this ore 

Copper 1702 per cent. 16-5 per cent. 

These numbers are very satisfactory ; and, although it is 
scarcely to be expected that the results would be equally satis- 
factory working on a large scale, it seems more than probable 
that returns better than those by any other process would be 

"Whilst experimenting on the removal of copper from solution, 
I found that this could be conveniently done by filtering the 
slightly acid si itemed from the 

same ore by simple melting. This method of separating copper 
from solution may be of advantage in treating poor copper ores 
or pyrites contain but it is obvious 

that' for ores in which gold and silver form an important con- 
stituent, it is not so advantageous as the process already described— 
as, firstly, the gold and silver, so far as contained"in the matt 
used tor precipitating the copper, would remain with that metal, 

sulphates of copper and iron, and are available f 
of roasted ore, giving with those evolved during the roasting a 
superabundant supply of acid, would be lost. Neither of these 
objections would, however, have any force if copper were the only 
metal to be extracted. The matt obtained by simply melting 
poor cupreous jjyi ent roasted ore to 

form a flux for the silica present, consists of sulphide of iron 
containing more or less sulphide of copper ; and by filtering 
through a bed of this matt the solution of sulphate of copper 
riion of the ore, 
the copper is deposited, whilst the iron goes into solution. I 
3 of the iron could be thus removed 
into sulphide of copper, 
but found that in all cases the action stopped short of this. The 
percentage of copper in the treated marl varied from 30 per 
cent, to 33 per ■ endure to copper pyrites. 

which contains 346 per cent, of copper. From this residue 
refined copper could be made in three operations. 

This method of treatment, as well as the one above described, 
for the separation of the various metals, have in common with 
ordinary copper smelting the advantage that no materials except 
those yielded by the ore are required, with the exception of fuel, 
water, and air. 

In working ores on the large scale for the recovery of 
gold and silver by the process, which I have founded on the 
experiments, of which 1 have given a brief resume, it is 
advisable to obtain the sulphides as free as possible from 
vein stuff before proceeding to the actual treatment. To 
this end the crushed ore may be washed when any free gold 
contained in the quartz may be recovered by amalgamation, 

..'that nearly all 

tiou of matt without preliminary dressing. On the other hand, 
ores containing sulphide nt' silver lose itmcli of that metal by 
washing; the sulphide hein-; exceedingly i'riahle it is carried 
away in the slimes, which are often richer in silver than the 
original ore. 

The method of treatment of the concentrated ore, or regulus, 
is the same whether the sulphides are rich in the precious metals 
or not, but req ling to— 1st the presence or 

absence of copper ; 2nd, the proportion of copper; and 3rd, the 
presence or absence of lead. 

To begin with the simples; ease, viz . with pyrites free from 
copper. The apparatus required consists of— 1, a roaster, a ; 
2, a reverbatory furnace, F ; 3, an arsenic flue, b (if the pyrites 
are arsenical ; : \ ■ : 5, a leaden 

i best to construct the furnace 

A, is built a- a mutHe. with a sole of brick, or cast-iron plates laid 
at a slight incline, to facilitate the transference of the charges. 
At the lower end there i> a depression of about six inches, forming 
a recess. E, will ' ' " ■ • ver erat ryfnrnao 

and has an opening, which can be closed with a slide, through 
which the contents of tb.e recess ?nav be at once transferred to 
the furnace. At the end of the roaster is an arsenic flue if 
required. Farther on is ti r, built of sheet 

lead, supporte- [] Bg of wood ; the sole is of 

sheet lead, supported on iron plates over the flue, cc. The sole 
is divided into • . t stag Dch higher than 

the one nearer the roaster. Beyond the combination chamber is 
a condensing r t of brick, laid in a putty 

of clay and coal tar, or better, sheet lead, supported by an 
external framing of wood. The condenser is filled with coke or 
pebbles, supported on iron bars covered with lead, allowing a free 
space for the entry of the gases evolved in the roaster. Sur- 

mounting the coke is a perforated sheet of lead, with suitable 
ngs for the escape or til Sffl ieh may be con- 

cted by a pipe to the chimney. On the perforated lead plate 
" ler, kept sup- 
the holes in 
ad plate is uniformly distributed over the coke, and trickles 
downwards, escaping over the sole of the combination chamber, 
flowing over each stage in succession, and from the lowest to a 
wooden cooler, whence it is again pumped to the cistern. 

The roaster should have two or three small fireplaces at in- 
tervals underneath the sole, to get it to a working heat, which 
may be closed n I he flame from the reverber- 

atory furnace, mixed with a sufficient quantity of air through 
openings in the flue, then supplying sufficient heat. 

The roaster sole being heated to a dull-red heat, 2 cwt. of 
the dressed pyrites, or m-ound rc-ulus, is mixed with from ten to 
fifteen per cent, of previously roasted ore. and charged into the 
upper end of the roaster, so that it occupies about 2 feet of 
the length, and spreads across the sole, whirl, it should cover to 
the depth of one and a half inches. The ore soon becomes 
ignited, evolving sulphurous, sulphuric, and arseuious oxides. 
The last is condensed in the arsenic flue, and the two former pass 
through the combination chamber to the condensing tower, and 
are there absorbed by the descending water. 

In an hour's time the charge is moved two feet to the left, and 
a second charge of the mi ace cleared. At 

the end of another hour th< d two feet to the 

left, the second to the space cleared, and a third is introduced, 
and so on until at the end of twenty -four hours the sole of the 
roaster is covered. The upper part of the roaster should be at a 
very dull red heat, whilst the lower should be sufficiently hot to 
decompose any sulphate of iron formed. 

On the sole of the recess e from 35 to 40 lbs. of coal dust, 
charcoal dust, or other carbonacious matter is now spread, and 
the calcined residue from the tirst charge is turned over on top 
of it, each charge in the roaster is moved downwards, and a 
fresh charge of mixture introduced. In another hour a similar 
quantity of carbon is spread on top of the charge in the recess, 
and the second charge is turned over on top, and so on until 
eight successive charges of roasted residue and carbon are in the 

The contents of the recess are then transferred to the rever- 
berator}- furnace, through the opening e, the whole is well 
stirred up and spread over the -ole The furnace is closed, and 
kept at a moderate-red heat for eight hours, the furnace being 
kept full of a smoky flame to assist reduction. The oxides are 
thus reduced to tin metal ie state, and the !j at should be kept 


so low as to prevent the reduced iron from agglutinating into 

<;, which is immediately clo»e3, 80 as to prevent arce-s of air. 
The furnace is a-a:'i charged from the recess, w hich has mean- 
while filled. 

The metal is r: 

sulphate, sulph 

it e. and hy] 

!. aml'mav 

■p it for a 

conversion int. 

ric arid which 
pperin .mail 

obtained from the residue as before. 

Ores or sulphides containing much copper are r< 
dull-red heat, t \ I ore, roaating 

deusation of the gases being conducted as before. 

rented ore. is withdrawn from the fun.: :e -a ■• <• 


cooled residue is then shaken into a lixiviating tank partly filled 
with a solution of sulphate of copper, containing sulphuric acid 
and sulphurous acid, obtained as below described ; the mixture 
is allowed to digest, and treated with successive portions of the 
acid solution until the escj as free sulphuric 

.acid. The lixiviation is then carried on with a cold saturated 
solution of sulphate of copper from the coolers, which is made 
boiling hot in a leaden of e< specific gravity 

of the entering ami escaping solutions is the same. The whole 
of the copper liquors are run into wooden coolers, where crystals 
of the sulphates of copper and iron are deposited. When the 
lixiviation has been carried as far as possible with the copper 
• , - , i '.nids only an inch 

or so above the solid contents, and 12 inches of water are 
carefully floated on top, an copper solution 

continued from below until the water is only an inch above the 
.-■olid contents, when a second was]] is run on, and in the same 
separate tank to be used for the first 
vash ot another lot. 

If the ore contains silver, a little is found in solution in the 
:opper liquor, and is separated therefrom by filtering it through 
i bed or beds of cement copper, or, better, of precipitated sulphide 

i ■ „ ,.-!,,' 

ourth of its weight of carbon, reduced, and otherwise 
above described, to obtain the gold and remaining 

ne to time, drained and dried. One 
charged into the muffle furnace, fig 

a full cherry-red heat, so as to c 
ilphates into oxides. The sulphi 

coolers are 


copper solutioi 


Hid used for extracting r< 
tiger evolved the calcined 
A similar charge of dried 

evolved the cl 

the whole is in a ti 

and the rough COppe 

If the ore contain 


;erfere with the amalgamati 

If m.i ru 

present i 

treated with a little eondenst 
extracted with solution of caustic soda, when the gold an< 
may be amalgamated. The solution of lead in eaustic 
mixed with sawdust or carbon, evaporated to dryness, 
strongly, and the carbonate of soda dissolved out with 

ic by lime, when the load remain 

s-ith carbon. 

-V . :' 

(VjtJ^.rnpwf/Kr/w'h, <> Urtho 

- . \IH, /v. train PqHtts, 

wW.A hiacorv.F.s 

Palceontological Evidence of Australian Tertiary 

At a recent meeting of this Society I read a paper on " 
Tertiary Geology," on which I proposed to prepare at si 
time a eomplete h'>t <»f our di'>erihed Australian Tirti 
This task has occupied a good portion of my leisure 

induced by Prof. Tate to d< 

In the courser,: 

of our Tertiarj ■ -y prominently 

I do not mean to en able to arrive a 

definite conclua - a compai 

permanent conclusion may be verj 
the Palaeontological evidence ha 
together — the • ta are *< men 

l -roup them, so that the 
of some of the beds and most of the fossils, and of the ex 
fauna, extends over many years, and it may be as well for 
oge them, as a help to others who in 
I said in my former paper that it was not eaa 

■ ■>_■ • . '• i ■'. . : - : ' .. ' • -' = ' ■ "' 
of this knom 

deal of the Mollusca, f Polyzoa, am 

Braehiopoda; for the Echini alene we may say uur ki >\\ 

>rked out. Bo tl 

i found. I shall then 
no living or 


fossil repn sent n;\ s elst win re. Tl is I i. uin means'. Whore do 
we find anything 7//a j our fossils ? The solution of these questions, 
as far as our knowledge goo-, »\ ill met -r'.i 1\ Kelp to clear the 
ground of at least some of the obscurity which at present rests 

But, before I do tie-. I mil- '< in ■ ■ li I I mean by our Ter- 
tiary formations, i do not mean ihe rai-ed !■< - 1 dies, or the more 
recent Pliocene formations. The evidence of nil these is clear 
and unquestionable. I mean only the great Tertiary formation 
which extends, with the interruptions I have already described, 
from the river Murray to Gipps Land, and from Tasmania some 
distance inland in South Australia. In this formation there are 
many subdivisions, as T havi al:vad\ i dieated. and some no doubt 
are much older than others. Tin \ are spoken of as one formation 
by European geologists ; but the Pliocene of Italy, the Miocene 
of Vienna. Touraine. and Malta, and the Koeene of Paris and 
widely separated than the Murray 
ddv Creek, Western Por . < 
[ shall deal pi-in.-i |»jilly \viih the Tertiary 
rocks which are re; r< s, nted in \ i toria,in the south-eastern dis- 
trict of South Australia, and North Tasmania. There are various 
subdivisions in these rocks. They have been generalh clawed as 
Cainozoic by Professor Duncan, the learned President of the 
Geological Society. They are variously regarded as Lower Mio- 
cene and Pliocene bv geologists in Australia. A succession is 
established by the Victorian Geological Survey, and to this I may 
say that I adhere : regard; la as the equiva- 

lents of the Muddy Creek and Geelong formations, and regarding 
the Mount Gambier limestones and the Poly/oan beds at Cape 
Otway as the uppermost of the series.* A s I am not in a position ■ 
to say anything of the fossils of the Aldinga beds and those of 
the Australian Bight, I must not be understood to include them 

Bight strata sett ' s. and I regard 

the Aldinga format < l..u, ■ than anvthim/we have in Victoria 
or South Australia. 

I now proceed to examine the recent species found as fossils 
in ear Cainozoic rocks. I may include generally the far greater 
portion of the Fomminifn-n. *1 am not aware that many purely 
extinct forms have been discovered. They ; re tertiary in character. 
Knowing the wade vertical and horizontal range which these 
species have, we must not expect any conclusive evidence from 
them; and even if we would, they have never been carefully 
examined. Ampin <f< : /i,nr , •■/ / , ■ , \, , : |, UM dant in the Muddy 
Creek beds, and of large size. The following were determined 

* Prof. Tut, - j that the Mount Gambier 

for me by Professor Rupert Jones, mam years n^o-.—JPohjnwr- 
phhuthtctert, T ;,,? rimihil'h>hh-s. 

Huulinijcri, R n-tiri'hf/,,. li ot ht Thru- in no Xuuuuulitv* 
or any of the characteristic forms of our Koccne beds. 

Turning now to the I'olyzoa, ue must sa\ in this ca-e :i }>o ih.-tt 
a careful examination is wanting. A AY/^0,7/. very nearly allied 
to It*, moiulijcrii- il noi identleal with il — is common at '.Mount 
Gambier, so is the existing ^nUconniria aimu^t ( ilassal ). and 
Gellepora pumicosa (Busk). Some of the Exvharida- have been 
doulitfiiilv referred to existing species ; but it must he- remem- 
bered that by far the larger portion of our living Australian 
Poly zoa are of familh s which would ir.ewtr.iily be destroyed ere 
they could be entombed in our rocks. They are jointed with 
horny joints in a single or multiple series of cells and' these horny 
joints would rap :ause the destruction of the 

whole. It is a i that! should look for the most 

important results, for these are well preserved, and are abundant 
in the living and fossil states, yet neither have received much 

Memhrttaiporti- living on our south, rn coasts, and I have carefully 

success. If ever there were a held where a careful observer 
might make most useful researches and extend our knowledge, 
this is one. It is, I may say, quite untrodden, and the facility 
with which the study could be approached, and the beauty of the 
forms to be de. j .it equally attractive. As- 

far as my own observations extend, I should say that we have 
but a small portion still existing of those which were likely to 
become fossils. 

Referring to the corals, tx • c which is most 


G-ambier forma I a, ( orals are almost entirely 

absent. In fact, I can remember none except a rare cast of Pla- 
cotn hm oc< isi i B M Creek ( \ eelong, and Table 

Cape, Tasmania, they are numerous. >»'o\v the exist in-: forms 
among all these •'• namely, Fla- 

h,Uum n ,,',. „ i, , F l //^ .' i'-us, all Edw. 

and Haime, and a new species of the genu- Spin nutn-rhi^. which 
I have named >, > he hrst is a well known 

form in the Red Sea and off th :i>r i .Japan: the second 

occurs at .Japan aud i th. Mioceiu fan a of Touraine. Both 
m the condition 
under which tht same corals Aouid havt to exist wen thej 
flourishing in V '. r «w found as 

fossils, behocyathus italicus, Edw. and Haime, is another species 

(Gray). The first is a specie with rather a wide range, being 

generally an ] i ■<; -lusive) and Pacific species, 

topical, but not 

found as a fossil now. Mekm and, we may say, 

all over the world. I have set -' < ' >> - '•< : i almost t \en part 
of the coast, though it is more common within the tropics. Schi- 
zaster vnitneoms is said to he Australian. but I have never seen a 
str&lia. It is not common iu 
]N T ew Caledonia and some of the tropical islands of the Pacific. 

lian ; and, of the other two, one is not found in the same localities ; 
and all are mor Boies, though they are some- 

Referring now t . the M 1 i\ism. we find the same paucity of 

we know, the i n I &«■»', Pectvn- 

cuius latirostatus (' Laim-k. ). <\>rh>>t<i sulcata (Linn.), Cylichna 

arachis (Quoy and Gaim), Fissurella concatenate Crosse, Ancil- 

lariu iHvcnmata Sl>\\ Li Milium Im-trum, 

Limopsis attrita Sass Trivia n , I 'iadis <lca,Rec\( 

Eulima subulata, Donovan, >y,;ml,t i,jas,iata, Xatica polita, 

Xhticn polita, Cylic 

near the beds where 
common, with the e\<v 
The European shells 

proportion of liv 
that of these so 



of 'J 

.ortonia. 1W 


,m. * Echh.urar 



deposit at Fata 


' . 

.; . '•' , , 

u i!r< -i,ht ma 

to forms 


nd in Tertiary i 

u , ' 


l the end sufficient differences have heen 

them to be regarded ; - distinct. In ucarh every case these 
identifications have been with well knew a Pliocene or Eocene 
forms. We may 1 «>\i ev< 1 ike v ' ' P ..ft -or 31' Coy has called 
the " mimetism" of our Volutes in the oldest of our Tertiary 
rocks as instances of at least .[iia-i-ident •! y v. itli well-known 
Eocene forms of Europe. Some of our fossil Brachiopoda are 
extremely like described species from the Malta Miocene, but we 
have the very bes "'■ Davidson, for regarding 

them as distinct. Prof. Tate thinks that the Brachiopoda have 
no affinity with the Italian forms, though there is a similitude 
in some species. He looks upon them as unique in facies. 

I shall now proceed to examine the question of the relations 
of our Tertiary fossils, that is to say. failmu complete resemblance 
or identity, what fossils do they resemble the most, and what is 

i geological hori/on to which 'those fossils belong ? In dealing 
i few words on what is generally 

ignized i 

Mesozoic facies which the Australia 
<we estimate this beforehand, we might be 

I astray as to the character of our extinct Tertiary fauna. And 
it is also necessary to refer to it to pursue another inquiry of 
considerable interest, which is— Do we find in our Tertiary rocks 
stronger and stronger Mesozoic resemblances as we go down, so 
that our present fauna may be said to be what is left of a very 
slow extinction of the Mesozoic fauna ? 

I need not dwell upon the evidence of our existing fauna, winch 
is familiar to every naturalist-, still I may say that it has been 
somewhat overstated. In the marine fauna it is slight ; in the 
mollusca I know- «l' i .i hit g except our j ,--, <-ing some species of 
Triijoniu. These an . however, ven .list i net from the Secondary 
forms. In the Tertian he. Is ve have three species. Two are 
like our existing speen- i : . , /' aeuticoxtata, 

and T. micittii—WC.y). and one i< very much like the middle 
Secondary forms {T. xemiunJulata—WCoy). A very remarkable 
instance of a surviving ancient form, which is even palaeozoic in 
character, is f.e, ; . .' ■■o-ini P. ft rtiaria, M'Coy). 

♦IntheAldmga 1 . - r "- ii.\.;- > 1 i h ink will be found 

older than any Tertiarv of Victoria or Tasmania, and perhaps 
even passage 'bod* bet-Veen our Tertiary and Secondary rocks, we 
have learned through the careful researches of Professor Tate, 
that Salenia and _7,V/o t, >*; i < \i-t Now Salenia is a creta- 
ceous form, and I need hardly dwell on the significance of such 
fossils as B-lrmnites ; yet they were associated with truly charac- 
teristic fossils ; • V .:. , !' ;M\ deptJsits. 

But, while so much! ' 

our Australian Fauna. • 


aspect of our natural history- yet it 
has been already culled bv'hhiropeai 
between the plant remain, of ttioc< 
present flora of Australia. The coi 
Australia arc Miocene fossils ,,f To 
Co,, ,,t , / ,/,s K and If . i-HM 
For my own ran. I am not verv cert; 
the corals arc extremely close in any 

and separated by so ^reat an interval <>f t imo, is very singular. 
Con ■ ,t ii'yi, ,„i a/if* is wry Turbinolian in its aspect, with four 
cycles of costs? and only three of septa ; the second and third of 
the latter uniting like" many Eocene Turianoliae, but with pali 
and no columella. If we bear in mind the survival of European 
Miocene forms amongst us, of course it very much weakens the 
inference that might be drawn from any identity of species 
between our Tertiaries and beds in Europe whose horizon is well 

Speaking of the corals generally, we have more affinities with 
Miocene forms than any other formation; but a few genera are 
common to both Eocene and s. We have no 

truly Eocene forms such as Turbinolia, which are found in the 
Eocene beds both of Europe and America ; neither have we 
among the many Poraminifera such characteristic fossils as 
Nummulites ; but we have certain American genera which have 
seldom been found, as far as I am aware, above the Eocene. I 
shall shortly describe in the Transactions of this Society some few 
very characteristic Eocene genera of America, and one Cerato- 
trochis (C.fenestrata), which is both Miocene and Eocene, as it is 
both American and European. The commonest of our corals in 
the Muddy Cre. to, "Woods and 

Duncan ; and of this Professor Duncan says it has a greater 
resemblance, as far as shape is concerned, to the PJ 
the German Qhg ia, m and there- 

fore not in the same sub-division of the Caryophyllian sub-family. 
Hitherto only one member of the genus has been found in either 
the Indian, Southern, or Pacific Oceans ; there is a new species, 
C. Australia, whose diagnosis will shortly appear in a monograph 
of our living \ ft I am preparing for '" 

Linnean Soci 
been found b 

abundant, which is an anomalous fact, and one not in keeping 
with the evolution theory. The genus best represented in the 
number of spec -,\ ell, is Balano- 

phyllia. " These," says Professor Duncan, " give a very Falun- 

har, pi.,,-, it!..-. 

- ' - :..:--■.... 

• i ■ ■' ' 


nian and Crag fae os to tlu Austi lian < orals a> a u hole, especially 
as there are no recent species in the seas around." But I don't 
think that we are quite without the recent species, as far as I can 
judge from an examination of many undescribed forms in the 
Australian museums. I believe there are undescribed species 
in the Sydney Museum from Port Jackson, and another, if I am 
not mistaken, iseum, from the East coast 

further north. Dr. Duncan adds — " Forming a large proportion 
of the fossil fauii, deposits with a 

definite character as regards the depth at which they occurred, 
and this is rendered aln <>m ,. *t .li i !., t . i -h\ metrical dispo- 

- : • : ■ ■ : \ • ' 

trochw,*a&A#*phihi a moat Faluns (Miocene) con- 

tain vast quantities of Balo,> ies) a Flabellum, 

•. and there, as in tlu- \.u>lraiian Tertiarios, every 
gradation of se i I i » tide mark, is 

represented by species." {Quart. Join: Gcol. Soc, 1370, p. 3l0.) 
With reference to this I must remark that our corals have 
been collected from beds widely apart, and evidently deposited 
under different condition-- That \\her< ('• /»['■'' < !l > - s "" •■ 
trochi, and Flabellum occur we have few or no Unla^o^niUhr. 
There are few at M ( • t fable ("ape in Tas- 

mania. But we have in place of them in the hitter place, 
remarkable spe : -cf- forming corals; all the 

others enumerated being solitan . tnr - a^e. . nd for the most of 
the genera free. Such forms as Dendrophj/Jlia. Ileliaatrif-a, and 

in the manner i red, of a deep warmer sea 

than in Tasmania. Professor Duncan has called in question my 
opinion that the sea was also a deep one, but I think he misun- 
derstood my meaning The— f s-i -, i... <!• r.\,\ r/row in a sea of a . 
few fathoms, but they did not grow where they are found, but 
are evidently brought from a distance. They are associated with 
organisms gener v deep sea, and 

this is the origin of my opinion. The Thamnastrcea '( T. sera, Dune.) 
is a very peculiar form of early Mesozoie niliainv : in 
blea a form from the Lower Oolitio of England (T. 
Walcotti, Duncan). It might, indeed, have been washed out of 
some older rocks ; but there are ether specimens, and no other 
oolitic forms with it. It is. however, always found very much 
wornandmuch ■ -.u the aeeompanvine; fossils. 

The Heliastraa (H. Tasmaniemis. Dune.) is quite fresh' and unlike 
the other. It is of a genus of which other Tertian- species exist, 

!•;-:'■•'.-■■■•. h ■-<• ■< :■•'■■.> ■-.■■■■. •': ; 1 . ■ ', -,v ■--';- 

fossil (H. cortica, Stol.) from the Oootatoor rocks. (See Prof. 
Dune, Q. Jour. Geo. Soc, lS7Q,p. 313.) Both these genera had. 
as before obser .lives, bat ID-licutrwa cul- 


' period, w' '■ . 

3.) is another anomalous form, wi tli Mi-«./mV 
alliances and a genus with no living form, except one in Bitavia, 
and of which a specimen was lately brought down from Darn ley 
Island by the Chevert Expedition' and is now in the Maeleavah 
museum. The genus N well represented in the West Indian 
Miocene, and in i core, and Arabian Miocene. 

It is not at all uncommon in the Brighton beds, but there is no 
other species, and it has no living or fossil representative in these 
latitudes now. 

The general facie* of our Australian Tertiary corals is there- 
fore Lower Tertiary, between Koeene and Miocene, with strong 
Mesozoie alliances. It" w « - - ■■•ies according 

to the locality in which they occur, we should find that the Eocene 
forms predomi i ; Muddy Creek, and Schnap- 

per Point formations w hile the Miocene forms are more common 
in the beds at Spring Creek. >;\n en miles south of Geelong, and 
,. Western Victoria. 


presented by fc] . i M ■ tuU , and a 

ffln/ \uai dug apt lit aids, -that 

the general facies of the whole is older than is warranted hy the 
geological position." (p. OS.) .1 cannot well understand what 
is meant by the "geological position," for that is at present 
undecided. It must be remembered, on. the one hand, that we 
have in otu* Australian lied to Tewne- 

chinua CL m ., re found a true 

T''iu ,<](,,! >s in von recent Tertian beds from Xew Guinea 
associated with , Peronella decagon alis, Les- 

son. On the otib n bag special 

;u d t 1 o spot is ,,f the sa : - very marked. 

There is a ver rwecn our living Lovenia 

>lu,uj„1n and the fo-.-d L. F- -It mi. But I have >tn»ng reasons 
for believing 1 1 , ralousfasciole, 

in w-hieh cast : . allied to our 

living UntnlW J v. G.l 31 nt ' ' Did < 'It i- 

a form which is retained in the genus in spite of its having a 
lateral £asciole,b .1 ion to some 

extent. There is no such ban,! visible on M. plunnhita, which is 
not known to naturalists as an Australian species, hut which I 
find is not at all uncommon at Port Jackson and on the east 
coast. The species is a variable one, the specimens at Port .Tack- 
son are smaller, paler in colour, and with much more salient and 
conspicuous large spines, so that I think we may consider Pro- 
fessor Duncan's species as perhaps a variety. It was found at 
the mouth of the Sherbrook Kiver in W. Victoria, very far 
removed from the present \ia Australia is 

another of the f< 

which two other species are described by Professor Duncan. The 
genus of Monostychia must be abandoned, according to the same 
author, because it is founded on a mistaken appreciation of the 
11 3riproct. "With 

graph I have examined forty or fifty specimens of Arachnoides 
placenta from various localities. I find it a very variaMe species. 
The position of the periproct is the most uncertain feature. It is 
very infra-marginal and marginal. Psammech in us Woodsii, Laube, 
is said to be a form closely allied to our Echinus tnagellanicus, of 
which Agassiz states that he r< <vi\ e< ! t\\ i . s p< -r i mens from Austra- 
lia. It is nearer to a epecj ed by me from 
Darnley Islands There are four species of 
Eupatagus described from our Tertiary beds, all differing but not 
■"* siderably from E. Yalenciennesii — Agas., — 1 --~ 1 ~ 

but I am not aware lhat : 

Altogether the f acies of i ■ i o - n lewhat recent, 

and in some respects related to past periods of the earth's history. 
In those respects in which H Ms at least of 

early Tertiary affinities, with strong Mesozoic alliances. Its rela- 
tion to the recent fauna, with only one or at most two exceptions, 
is to inhabitants of remote localities in Australia and of much 

1 shall have to deal more generally with the mollusca in treating 
of their alliances. I hasten in the first place to correct an erro- 
neous impression, conveyed in my last paper read before this 
Society. I there stated that Australian genera, as the term is 
understood, were almost en1 l.oked the fact 

. Wales, Sept., 1877. 


that he has found a Ph,*mnella and an Ehnehus. I referred 
to the ThaUtia,\\\\\A\ I said was doubtful. I think that we must 
still conclude that our present A tral fauna is not the fauna 
that we find even -< iori. illy re; its. i ti 1 in .mm- Tertiary fossil - 
liferdus formations. Nairn-; list- lia\e !>e< n an nstomed in regard 
Australia and New Zealand as ov.o province, but this gives rise to 

common New Z< I on \n-iralia, 

and NewZeala;. in Australian forms. We 

have only a anal a rare, and on the east 

Zealand genus. The difference- would he too [,„,- to enumerate 
here, but they are at least sufficiently marked to prevent the two 
places being grouped as one province. ,\s to species, it is quite 
the exception' to meet with instances where thev are common to 
both. We have far more which are common "to Australia and 
the Philippine.-. Hut still the differ, nces are -reat bet ween those 
two provinces. The h. i, -of our !.ou. r r rtm .iolliM n t .una 

which wTmav'- Miocene and 

Upper Eocene is Philippine. We meet with some existing forms 

Thus, Dr. Carpenter 

the Mazatlan shells. 


T*. lamawl/afa c-xi> ts, Imi! with decided!;, specific differences. 
Our fossi Pt/rti < are i c . " ! ike our recent forms, but are 
peculiar — one P. foulcheri, nobis, is spinous. P. i/aJthnsi.i, nobis, is 
finch hnhri< ited £>.<■>,•;>,,»<* i-deli „• 1\ -t ria ted, P. coarctatus* 
and P. tfambiemmh, nobis, are both ^ coarsely granular ; in all of 
which particula from our recent species. P. 

■>..,.••: .',.-.•; -;":,.. 

well-known German Miocene species. P. II»Q\mini, Goldf., us to 
be easily mistaken for it ; but the valves are both alike in the 
German fossil, while they are different in the Australian. Cjqrrcea . 
(Ariciaj ffujun is a very pecuii •;' an I lat :v >peei< -. differing very 
much from any form fossil or recent, wl i i . ■ 

scarcely be distinguished from Trivia an liana of the British 
Oligocene, and is very like T. ajfinis of the French Miocene and 
British Lower Pliocene. The -miera best represented in our 



French 31 n 1 ui find t . 

mote. There is a far greater similarity 

: Tertiary (Jrnthuuhc have been described. 

ir jewel 



.,/o, i .^.v.Mro^.v,h 1 cIi^exe, i .lin-ly 
er. of the Miocene of Westphalia. Ilali- 
1 1L. iLj'j-rubooknsis, are both forms with 
1. ovi/ta and if. Hoei, Gray, respectively. 

- v ni m, imuli'i.tU Mi R . M otm 

Eoec it md Miocene deposits of Malta \ nci 

•ica, and Jamaica. 

i?™™* oblonyus, Forbes (see Wright, ^»n. 1 

Vat. Hist, vol. 15, 

from our existing 
is the number of 

Li >it hi a Austral is, Gray. The only difference 

pairs of pores, and this depends upon age. Th 

pairs of pores instead of a single row on th< 

ambulacra. It would be interesting to find thi 

Miocene forms of Europe which are not to be J 

temporaneous rocks survive in the existing h 

una here. There 

are not wanting facts which would support this 

view— it certainly 

given hv J>r \\ ' . I »• iraw. 

W extremely like Woods and Dune, but they 

belong to different genera. I question, however, whether the 

':•■ • :, ■■■■ 

sidering how very easily when there is no depression such a mark 
disappears. It is very rare to see the internal fasciole on our 
fossil, but it seems to me that even from Wright's figures ( Journal 
cal Society, vol. 20, pi. 21, figure 1) t 

petals. I commend this to the 
a England who can refer to the 


So sum up a gathered on this 

subject, we may say that our Tertiary formations probably range 
tihroogh all the various Miocene periods which arc represented 
by different deposits on other portions of the globe. We may 
certainly conclude that the whole of the central parts of South 
Australia, tlu north of I', >] iani au<l t! e Islands of Bass' Straits, 
were under the sea .lurin- that epoch. There is quite sufficient 
evidence to show that we have Tertiary rocks of a lower horizon 
than the Miocene. I conclude this from the small percentage 
of recent species, the relations of the fossils, and the general 

It is also evid* • • ■•■ th veiw few exceptions 

such as we only find at present in much warmer seas. This fact, 
winch all paleontologists ;. ; o the discovery 

of certain reef-building kinds in Tasmania, has led to a most 
interesting discussion recently at the Geological Society of Lon- 
don, when the President, Dr. Duncan, suggested that it might be 
accounted for by supposing an alteration in the earth's axis. 
This was fur*'. - by a shifting 

of the earth's crust on a fluid and molten mass. It seems to me, 
however, of very little real service to scienee to make such specu- 
lations. They rest on such slight infer, nee- that they are readily 
overturned, and really Lche u- no insight into the question. If 
I might venture to offer an opinion to men so much more qualified 
than nivself to judge, I should sav that the theorv is too much 
for the fact* 1 axis of the earth, so as to 

place, let us say, Tasmania within the tropics, we should expect 
to find a tropical marine fauna as well. But do we find this ? 
On the contrary, the species are those of a warm sea for the most 
part ; but were" we to find such a fauna in a warm sea, we should 
be equally puzzled to account for the presence of certain specie* 
and for the absence of others. Another remarkable peculiarity 
about our older fossil shells is. that thc\ are thin and fragile, and 
. ■ - [ - 

16 aC he a firs e t thing 

which we Hud in the British coral ra:; (oolitic), for instance, 

imperfectly acquainted with the circumstances which govern t 

v oci< < at prcH'iit to be able toapplveven irenera 

anv roax'iiinu- t* > such tacts as those he fore us." Climate alo 

will not account for them. Indeed, we ha\e nothing (rrv, , 

-• those who miu'lii read the tacts in'another u; 
that 'is by saying that species which now li\e in warm >eas \\ L 
formerly 'inhabitants of temperate or even cold waters. 

In conclusion. 1 may remark that throughout the whole 
Australian I we find a certain peeaE 

character, which is often distiiuui-hed by its aim .st oapri.-io 
variation from well-known types of the other 

I uraUal remark that he w 
astonished when he first came to Australia to tind m> many 
the hirds \\ r iiif.' L'ha s, 1 sup; o<, that 1 evsei nn 1 In the 
peculiarities to stray outside the ri-i.l «i. tinii ot'is < f genera, at 

except the 

- I 

acquaintance with the fossils themselves will furnish abundant 

; now from what it \ 

eful survey. My paper professes to deal with the 
only. Prof. Tate's zeal and industry in the matter 

:i.U that in making th 
. cv.ii'riruced was that 

la as a means of comparison, he should 

lection would give. He wished to make 

• first care. If he wanted to obtain in 
ollection of recent echini, or corals, or 
Le to find it. This was a matter which 

uld be a most useful acquisith 

A Synopsis of the known Species of Australian 
Tertiary Polyzoa. 

Scotland, formerly Assistant Geologist, Geological Survey 
of Victoria. 

{Communicated ly Key. W. B. 

1. Introduction.— X trust 
department, and may be 

F.E.S. To the* ace of the former 

We are indebted for one of the i:n -t e< iuph to works on the Upper 
Australian Ter: I. .-h Ids labours 

as a collector that we" owe our knowledge of the organisms in 

2. History m l a ppear to have 

been first collected in Auatra i any definite 

record, by Captain Charles Sturt, during his memorable boat- 

his vu.rk. •■']' - ii hern Ans- 

•^ at the -reat 

north-west bend of the Murray. Unfortunately these figures 

purely from general resemblance. The reference of his speed - 

:■■ . ■ : ■ : .. ' : ■; - : :■ '..- . . . . • <: 

out t r -.„„« r tfa. t'u l!n J.ll I'.Lh n-Wood^ 

U'ter Start's .riuinal d < i \ i + " - - the tertiary beds 

''i, Mi ! . '!• -T Lr ll} j t u to have dropped out of sight 
until systems! Sir. "Woods. His first paper 

on the "subject, so far a> •• H shed in 1859, 

entitled, " Eemarks on a Tertiary Deposit in South Australia." 3 In 

^London : 2 toIs. 8to., vol. ii. pp. 253-54. pi. 3. ' 

: «r.. :_•,.,;,..; . 
i.-. - 1 .... ; 

) referred, 
logical information, to the occur] 
the Mount Gambler deposit. 1 l"n the next year (1SG0) another 
paper by Mr. Woods waa | been read, like the 

preceding one. before the Ph ! ,- j u Ii -titute of Victoria 
(now the Royal Society). " On the Tertiarv Ih posits at Portland 
Bay, Victoria,"'- The author here notifies the discovery of 
Dolvzoa bv hire .1 to those of Mount Gam- 

bler, at the Whaler's !Jluir\ l'-rthmd Bay. 

! ,, . • ' eontiibuti <\ to the history of Aus- 

tralian Terti tr. P.,lv./ t appc ml as an Appendix by Prof. Busk 
to another paper of the Rev. Mr. Woods', " On some Tertiary 
Rocks in the Colony of S. Australia," pu! li>l < .1 in the Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society of London." In the paper 
itself, the country between the C'lenelg River on the S.E., the 
Murray on the X.E.. and Spencer's (I n't' on the west is described, 
one of the chief ; :he occurrence of 

a bed of limestone, a few feet below the surface, almost entirely 
The specimens collected from 
■fount Gunbier were >ubmitted 
Aho gives in the Appendix a list of 

forty* distributed through fifteen or sixteen uvnera. i'our'of which 

" these fossil for ei fie types as to 

render it proba in winch they are found 

corresponds in point of relation to the existing state of things 
with the lower erag of England." 4 

In 1862, the Rev. J. E. Teuis.m-W'oods published his " Geo- 
logical Observation a in 8, A gives an inter- 
esting and instruct he description ,,-f Mt. Gambler, and lists of the 
fossils from the bed of limestone at that locality. Of the latter 
there are men:] i thirty-seven 
species, but m if generic ones are 
-■■■< !'■■■■ 

biereiisis. Husk. A table is also given, showing the identity of the 
species figured by I it. Marti t Mm Cliffs section with 

those obtained by the author from the Mt. Gambier limestone. 
Eight species of Polyzoa are mentioned, of which five are common 
to the two localities. 7 More appears to have been published on this 

0, toI. xvi, pp. 253-261. 

•■;'• 18 and 404. 

? year before or since, up to the 
,-o papers by Mr. Woods, one in 
■ Tertiarv Deposits in the Colony 
the Tnmsaetion. of the hNyal 

III -tte first of th ' , own days, «ato- 

more recent facies. In the second of the I 
cations the author notices the resemblance i 
bier deposit to the English Lower Crag. 
of 3I.r. Busk's previously named species, i 
others. Thirteen figures are given. 

The same volume of the Victorian Tran 
paper by Mr. H. Watts, "On Fossil Polv 
account is given of a deposit containing Polv 
"Warrnainbool, extending along the sea-coat 
from 6 to 7 miles, and is from 30 to 40 fee 
3 deposit, three or four pounds in weig 

species of Polyzoa, 1 

was also by Bay friend and form* 

colleague, Mr. t'. S. Wilkinson. F.U.S.; -On the Cape Otwa 

attached to Mr. Selwyn's G-eological Survey Keport ft 

the calcareous portion of the yellow sand;.- limestor 
brming the upper part of I 3 Han, near (Jet 

long. 3 It is necessary to refer here to one of the results of tli 
Austrian X. Ex; i whieii i nut din. t 

Polyzoa. It ;;: . 
latter were colleen, I by tin- 
sand of Or k< Bav, Vuckh 
Dr. Stolkv.ka. in one of the 
^edition. He descn 


Gambierensis- and ' and makes many 

critical remarks on some of the other Australian forms, which 
will be refen i 

have a: 

Jn'lsfk'MV'it Ii'n, \' 1 . rii ^ /l.'t '.'M.i L- "'ri'r't Pi-uln- 
Eeportof the (then) Geological Survey of Victoria." a list of 
the fossil organic remains of Victoria, drawn up by Professor 
M'Coy. 1 The only Tertiary Poly/.oa mentioned are Betepora 
Maccoyi, B. Ethu 1_( hi t u Uh^otcnt hed> of Schnapj er 
Point.' ami r,,/,,. , , ( r , a' i no ,v. IJu.k, from Vlioeone strata. 

In 1874, a short notice of one of the preceding fossils by 
myself was published in the Transactions of the Eoyal Society 

to li. Plur.iir,. . ' ..U oi>rhna]M.K'r l>oim, 

Hobson's Bay." To the species in question I gave the name of 
Itetr^orn Jfcrruj/i. and I also pointed out the occurrence in the 
same deposit of one of the Orakei Bay forms, Spirupariiia ver- 
In the '• Monthly 

, Busk. Its 

4'ress Report 

Serous gr;u el at the. Welcome Eush, 

uved, Lepralia StawellensLs, M/Cov. 4 

Mr. Smvrh to he of ;h 


discovery in Ids - Third Progress 
i places the Stawell ferruginous bed 
;okl drift (Lower Pliocene;.' 

l llr -u Ui.'= - i\-. L'i--" Report," 1876, pp. i 


I now pass on to the Synoptical list of tlie species mentioned 
r described by t - • \ hu\c railed attention 

o. I trust that the references, as abbreviated, will be compre- 
hended by all wbo may have invasion to refer to them. It is 
more than probable that when the Australian Tertiarv Poh/oa 
are systematically worked out. certain specific determinations of 
'arious authors and their generic references will require careful 
evi.don. In the present paper, it lias been more mv desire to 
how what is the state of our present knowledge <>n the subject 
han to critically pass in review each separate species. 

' •• v ir respective 

ections "Artie ..-." and the species in a 

irnilar manner under them. This has been done for convenience 
of reference. 

In a recently published paper, " On some Tertiarv Fossils from 

Table Cape,' n the Eev. J. E I'enisnn-VV. is has given some 

interesting details of the Tertiary beds and fossils at that locality. 

Amongst the latter he mentions Gellepora Gambierensis, Busk. 

Class— POLTZOA. 

Order— GtTM^olemata. 

Sub-order — Cheilostomata. 

Section Articulata.— -Pol; 

Genus Cakda. 
Obs. One well established species of 

determined by Prof. Busk in the Eev. Mr. \W 

from the Mount Oambier coralline limestone, as given in the 

appendix to his paper " On some Tertiary Eocks in the Colony of 

, ralia, 6 

1. Cajtda Angtjlata. Busk. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 1860, 
xvi, p. 2G0; Woods, Trans. E. Soc. Vict., vi, p. 4; pi. 
1, f. 2. 

Genus Oxchopoba. Bush, 1855. 3 
. Obs. Of this genus, established by Prof. Husk in the Quart. 
dour. Microscopical Science, again, only one species has as yet 
been noted from the same h iu the last. 0. 


Busl: (MS.), loe. cit. p. 1 

this species has as yet appe; 
" iTsTo^rasmania, for 1875 (p 

b'Orbigny's gem 


2. O. vertebraxis. Stoliczhi, Xperoporina. Pal. Neu 
Seeland, 1865, p. IOC. pi. 17. f. 6 ami 7: E. Etheridge, 
junr., Trans. 14. Society, Vict., 1874, si, p. 14. Prof. 
Busk considers this form to be a Cheilostome, and not 
one of the Cyclostomata as placed by the late F. 
Stoliczka, and further to be a species of his geniis 
Oufhopora. Tern.;;- ■■ Bay. \cw 

Zealand; and Oligocene beds of Sehnapper Point, 
Hobson's Bay, Vict. 

Genus Salicokxauia. Cuvicr, 1S17. 1 

Obs. Four species of this very elegai t -ciici x\\ Inn bci 

discovered in the Australian upper tertiary deposits. Two have 

been determined by Prof. Busk, and two by the Eev. Mr. "Woods. 

They are :— 

1. Salicors-aria gracilis. Busk. Brit. Museum, Cat. 

Polyzoa, 1852, pt. 1, p. 17, pi. 153, f. 3, pi. 05. /,,,-. f. 2 ■ 
Woods, Trans. E. Soe. Vict., vi, p. 4. Coralline lime- 
stone of Mt. Gambier, S. Australia. 

2. Salicorxaria parkeri. Busk. (MS.) Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc, 1860, xvi, p. 260. An undescribed species 
— same h. last species. 

3. S. sixuosa. HassaU. Farcimia. Annuls Xat. History, 

1841, vi, p. 172, pi. *>. f 1 and 2 : > •//( - ,.,,-in. Husk, 
Monograph. Foss. Polyzoa Cra-. I.s50. p. 23, pi. 21. 

Interiors. Australia, 1833, ii, p. 251. pi. 3. i. 5, Saliror- 
naria. Busk. Quart. Jour. Geol. Sec. 1^50. xvi. p. 
260;Woo,ls. Gi-,1. OWnanu- S AtMrai.a. 1-02. 
pi. 1, f. 5. ; Trans. R. Soc. Vict., vi, p. i, pi. 1, f. 1. More 
than ordinary int. r. -i is attach, d to this species, as it 
was one of the forms collected by Capt. Start in his 
memorable boat expedition down the Murray, and it ( 
figured in his interesting work. The identity of 
Olauconome rhombifera, Start (non Goldfuss) with 
Sulirornaria siuuosa was pointed out by the Eev. 
J. E. T. -Woods, in the work in which be* has bo ably 
illustrated the ireoloiiy of S. Australia It is found in 
the coralline limestone of Mt. (J.m.k'er. th M .vra\ 
Eiver dirt'-, tl- M ■ ( uek l.d-. Hamilton, \ lot", 
& tcnuirostris, Busk. Brit. Museum Cat. Polyzoa, 
1852, pt. 1. P . 17. pi. 03, f. 4. : Woods, Trans. E. Soe. 
Vict., vi, p. 4. Mt. Gambier, S. A. 

1 Le Eegne Animal, vol. iv, p. 75. 


St -t ion I narticexata. — Poly zarium continuous 

Genus Cabebea. Lamx., 1316. 1 
Qi's. The Mount Gainbier coralline limestone I 
dr. Wools with one speeios, and it is, so far as 
nly one yet determined tVo:a Australian beds. 

1. Cabebea eata. Busk. Brit. Museum. < 
1852, pi. 1, p. 30, pi. 47; Woods, Quart 
Soc., lMi.-.. xxi.p. :,:»; ; Trans. R. Soc. \ 
pi. 1, f. 11. 

Genus Cellepora. O. Fabricius 1780, 
Oh*. This genus is numerously represented in tl 

rl.e M.. 

i seven species have been detected there, and 
llv so. Dr. Stolie/k: 

the ni 

:-.!«•; res>ed Crlltpo 
from the Mount Gamb' 
further considers that c 
(=CcIfrj,oru) : ,lnl,uhrris, may he found amongst the South J 
tralian forms under a different name. 

1. Cellefoka o-m-atv. J BV,;-(MV..Quart. Jour. Geol. 

',-. Br,!- (MS/). Quart. Jour. Gt-1. 

l^L. W k r.e. ! Oh^rvation. S. 

pp. 74. so. !)1; Trans. R. N„c. Vict., 

most interesting form, from the 
ifl found, its peculiar characters, 
ide geographical distribution, and 

at certain horizons in the Austra- 

the Murray Cliff section by Sturt ; named by Busk from 
specimens" eollei-t. <1 :;t Mt. Gambier by "Woods; then 
figured by the latter in his S. Australian work ; re- 
corded : ■ « i •;;.!!!, near Geclong, 
by Wilkin- _ i V i ' \ \ "M 
E. B. Smyth 3 ; described and figured in detail for the 
first time ■ tertiary beds of Orakei 
Bay, ]S"ew Zealand, and, lastly, again disco\ cml in 
the Table Cape beds, Tasmania, by theEcv. Mr. Woods. 
Cellepora Ga,ahirreasi is said b\ l)v Mediczka to be 
still living on the coast of New Zealand. 
4. C hemispherica. Busk. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, I860, 
xvi, p. 261; Woods, Geol. Observations. S. Austral™, 
1862, pi. 1 f. 3 ; Trans. E. Soc. Vict., vi, p. 4, pi. 1, f. 
4. Capt. Sturt figured a form as Glh'pov< 

lurray Eiver Cliffs and Mt. 

5. C 5i5ntn,iiir.v. Busk. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., 1860, 

xvi, p. 261 ; Woods, Geol. Observations, S. A., 1.S02. pi. 
1, f. 1 ; Trans. E. Soc. Vict., vi, p. 4, t. 1. f. 5. Mount 
Gambier, S. A., and perhaps also at Geelong, Vict. 4 

6. Cellepoea spongiosa. Busk. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 

1860, xvi, p. 261; Woods, Geo] i, SJL, 

1862, pt. 1, f. 2 ; Trans. E, Soc. Vict., vi, p. 5, pi. 1, f. 
7. Mount Gambier, S. A. 

7. C. tebelosa. Busk. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1860, 

xvi, p. 261; Woods, Trans. E. Soc HSct., vi, p. 5, pi. 1, 
f. 6. Mount Gambier, S. A. 

Genus Gelesciiaba. Busk. 1860 (MS.) 
Obs. This is a manuscript name used by Prof. Busk in the 
to the Eev. Mr. Woods' paper "On some Tertiary 
South Australia." 

Aon; Brsk. (MS.) Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc, 1860, xvi. p. 261. Mount Gambier lime- 


Genus Es< ir vn v. R.-.i i , /,■*), 1724. 
Obs. As the genus Cel ■ characteristic 

of the Mount (rambicr beds. ^> Mr. Woods states is Escliara 
peculiarly typical of the Hamilton series in Victoria, no less 
1 Cape OtAvay Report, 1865, p. 23. 


Woods, Quart. Jour. aeol. Soc, 1865, xxi, p. 394. 

than eleve 

different forms orcurrin- there ; ; and further, those 

of the \\:v 

lilton beds are remarkable for the singular beaut v .»f 

their rolls. 

the Mr. Gambier speeies on the other hand hein^ 
sly destitute of ornament. 

1. Es 

hara arcuata. /?„,*. (MS.) Quart. Jour. Geol. 

x-., 1800. xvi, p. 2G1. Mt. (Jambier, S. A. 

2. E. 

BIMARGIXATA. J5«*&. (Ms.) , he. cit. p. 261. Mount 

3. E. nASTKiKitA. Bush. (MS.), he. cit. ^. 261. Mount 

1, E. tno;;n via. £«*£. (MS.), Zoc. «V. p. 2G1. Mount 

5. E. oci-lata ; Bush (MS.), 7o<?. «*. p. 261. Mount 

(i- E- i'AiMr.i.vTA. i?« s £. (MS.), he. cit. p. 261. Mount 

7. E. piriformis. ,SV«/7. T\vo Expeditions Interior S. A., 

1833, ii. p. 2.5:i pi. 3. f. 2 : AVoods' Geol. < 

S. Australia. 1^62, p. 10-*i. Goldfuss lias described a 

-. ' - 

8. E. simplex. Bush (MS.) Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 

I860, xvi, p. 261. Mt. Gambier, S. A. 
0. Escuara, sp. i>d. AFoods' Geol. Observations, S. A.., 

> : - ';.-.: ';■!■::: ■■ - \ 

10. Escuara, sp. ixd. Start. Two Expeditions Interior 

S. A., 1S32 : ii. p. 2H. pi. 3, f. 3. Murray Cliffs. S. A. 

To the above must now be added the following ten species of 

Zschara described^}- the Eev. J. E. Tenison- AVoods in lb70, :i 

E. cavernosa. Mount Gambier. 

fa. (? monilifera. Bush) Mount Gambier. 
ldgei. Mount Gambier. 
I Jambier. 

Mount Gambier. 

Genus Lepralia. Johnston 1 , 1838. 
Obs. This very extensive genus is represented in the Australian 
srtiaries probably by many species, but so far as I know only 
juv ha\ e received names. 

1. Lepraeta doliiformis. BusJc (MS.) Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc, i860, xvi, p. 201. Mt. Gambier coralline limestone. 

2. L. Stawellexsts. M'Coi/. Stnvi' 

No. 2, p. 22, f. 1. This .species was 'discovered by Mr. 
Norman Tavlor. in a frmigimms stratum overlvim,' an 
auriferous drift at the " Welcome Hush" near Stawell, 
Vict., and from its geological position and associated 
fossils is of and interest. The ferru- 

ginous deposit is placed by Mr. B. B.Smyth 

3. L. Subcaeixata. Busk (MS.) Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 

1860, xvi, p. 261. Mt. Gambier coralline limestone. 

4. L. Sur.M uu>r> \ i v. Bi'sl- i MS i, he. cit. p. 261. Mount 

Gambier coralline limestone. 

Genus LrxrilTES. Lamarc¥, 1876. 
Obs. Undetermined species of this genus occur both in the 
Mount Gambier .;. Creek (Hamilton) beds, 

acoordiiiLC to the Rev. Mr. Woods. 

I. LrxiTLiTES. sp. ixd. (2) Woods. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., 
1805, xxi, p. 394. 

Genus Melicerita. Milne EJwaMs. 1S36. 3 

Obs. The on: \ -ooeies of jD-liecritn is ,,f 

interest from it > . .-ion. Tt is also of interest 

from the limited number of sjnvies , .-,■ in-in- in the European 

Tertiaries, and again as one of the commonest forms at Mt. (lam- 

Melicerita AXursriLOBA. BusJc. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., 
1800, xvi. p. 201 : Woods. Gc.d. < nervations. S.Aus- 
tralia, 1802. pi. 1. f. 1 ; id. Trans. K. Soc. Viet.. 1805, 
vi, p. 5, pi. 1, f. 8 ; St.d - '.k i. !'.. . -or. i X< u S,m ! md, 
p. 20, f. 15— is. Mt. (1/ .'•■ r < 
stone, S. A.; Muddy <Y,.vk boos. Hamilton. Vict. ; 
Tertiary greensand of Orakei Bay, New Zealand. 

1 History Brit. Zoophytes, p. 277. 

3 Annales des Sciences >ature!les, vi, p. 317. 

recorded from Australian tertiary rocks. 

2. M. wmm'a^K,'ltu*V. MnniJ 
Crag, 1S59, p. 3-1, pi. 2, f. 1 ; Quart 

Mt. Garnbier li 
Genus Psile 

Ofo. Tit 


Retepora disticka. Sfurf. Two EA-prGirious. In 

LOS. This is 

..' ■ -. <- •- ; ' ' - ''. ;■ 
pi. V>. f. 15), but is more probablv Hornera G 
bierensis, Busk, or perhaps au Idmone'a. 
R , kv M>. w ff i> ■ . «n. Trans. E i 
.7 _ I eda of Sclinaj 
IV-inr. 1'wrt I'iJ!:;. Kav. Vict 

3. E. moxilifera. MGilUvrm/} Trans. E. Soc. Yict., 

i860, iv, pt. 2. p. KW. pi. 3 : \V Is. Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc, 1865, xxi, p. 391. Mt. Gambier limestone, S.A. 

4. E. yibicata- Short. Two Expeditions Interior S. Aus- 

tralia, 1S33, ii. p. 25 1. pi. 3. f. 7. Betepora, sp., Woods, 
Geol. Obs : L862, p. 74, fig. — . Bet. 

sihcata, id. ibid,f. 105. This i 8 no1 Bri 
Goldfuss (Petrefacta Germanic, i. p. 103, pi. 36, f. 18); 
as Capt. Start appca!--; to have thought. Both the 
latter ami the Re\. Mr. Wmuls n-an-e t "; i e same species ; 
that of the last named is considered by Dr. Stoliczka.- 
to be possibly R. Btnni.-mit. King, Murray E. Cliffs and. 

Genus Scutueabia. Busk (MS.), 1SG0. 
Obs. This, at present only a manuscript name, Mr. Busk 
informs me (by for the reception of certain 

forms not unlike \ different zrecia. It was 

probably a free form, and may perhaps be placed in Mr. Busk's 
1. ScrirLARTA pktiia. Bush (MS.) Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc, 1SUU xvi, p. 261. Coralline limestone, Mt. 
Gambier, S. A. 

Sub-order Ctclostomata. 

Section Aettculata. 

Genus Crtsia. Lamouroux, 1812. 3 

Obs. Only one species has as yet been noted from the Austra- 

1. Crista EBURyEA. I. itiah Zoophytes, 

" ■ Woods, Trai ~ ' 

pi. 1, f. 12 ; Quart. Jour. Geol. 
p^394, Busk ; Brit. Museum Cat. Polyzoa, 
" " 1, pi. 5, f. 1 & 2, 5-10. 



Section Ikabticelata. 

Genus Horxera. Lamouroux, 1821. 4 

Obs. This genus is divisible into two well marked sections, 

according as the frond is ramose or fenestrate. Pot the latter 

group a distinct name Betihornera has been proposed by Herr 

1 Notes on the Cheilostomatous Polyzoa of Victoria, and other parts of 
Australia. Tram. . .. iv, 1860, pt. 2, pp. 159-168, 

Seeland, 1865, p. 125. 

3 Bulletin des Sciences de 1 

i EsposiUon llcthodique des Genres < 

K i rriicn j win'. The best known o 

of this genus, H. Gambieremis, Busk, is one of 

1. Horxera Gambiere>'sis. Busk. Quart. . 
Soc., I860, xvi, p. 261 ; Woods. Trans. R 

ticiil with that given by Woods as //. Gnuhirmixis, 
although I think it has more the appearand' of an 
Idmonea than Iloivirra. Mt. Gainhier limestone. S. A. 
2. H. eugttlosa. Bush. Quart. Jour. G-eol. Soc. IsijO, 
xvi. p. 261: Woods. Trans R. Soc Viet., 1Mj5, vi, p. 
5, pi. 1, f . 9 ? Mt. G-ambier limestone, S. A. 
Genus Idwoxe.v. Lamoirroux, 1S21. 1 
_ Obs. Two species have been obtained from the Mount Gam- 
ier limestone. 

1. ImroxEA ltgueata. — Bush. (MS.) Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc, I860; xvi. p. 261. Stoiie/.ka. Pal. Xeu Soeland. 

1865, p. Ill 

2.1. milxeaxa D'Or ' X logie, Voyage dans 1' 

Amerique Merid., p. 20, t. 9, f. LT 21. ' Bu.-k. Quart. 

Stoliczka. Pal. 

p. 261. Woods, ibid. IM!o. 
Xeu Seela-.d. 1m Jo. p. 111. 

Genus E^talopuoea. Lamouroux. Is21. 
eric term for poly/on or' thi< rlo.-eripti«.n is the sc< 

•riptiou of the Orakei Bay fossils. 

1. Pi-stulopora dtstaxs. Busk. Quar. Jour. < 

lMJO; xvi, p. 261. Mount i :■• 

Stoliczka remarks that thi speeies may { 

identical with his Eat I ' ■ Ib>s*t r 

2. P. rxouLATA. Woods. Mount Gambler. 1 
ft P. corregata. Woods. Mount Gambler.* 

<?«iu* TrBEMPOEA. ILagen. 
1. T. Gaateieeexsis. Mount Gambier. 4 
Exposition Mel frdre des Polypiers 

■ : - - .._-.- 


In the following table I give 
in the foregoing Synopsis which a 
alphabetical order. 

Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia. Busk. 
New Zealand. Busk. 
Tasmania; East Falkland Inlands. 

6. Betepora monilifera. M'Gilv King's Island, Bass's Strait ; Queens- 
cliff, Vict. 
Hia! ' a ' ■tflinvtj} North Britain. Busk. 

Note.— In addil pora GamUerensis, 

Busk, is said by Dr. Stoliczka (Pal. N. Seeland, 1865, p.—) to be probably 
still living on the coasts of S. Australia and N. Zealand. The Rev. Mr. 

Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1865, xxi, p. 394. 

a. Species common to the Mt. Gambier limestone a! hi Murray 
liver cliff beds. 

1. Cellepom echinata. Sturt. ( ? C. hemispheria. Busk). 

2. „ escharoides. Sturt. (? C. hemispheric Busk). 

3. „ Gambierensis. Busk. 

4. Betepora disticha. Sturt. (? Hornera Gambierensis. 


5. Betepora vibicata. Sturt. ( ? B. Beaniana. King.) 

6. Salicornaria sinuosa. Has3al. 

b. Species common to the Mt. Gambier limestone 

1. Cellepora nummularia. Busk ? 

2. Mellicerita angustiloba. Busk. 

3. Membranipora cyclops. Busk. 

noria sinuosa. Hassal. 

c. Species common to the Mt. Gambier Limestone aud Spring 
Creek beds. 

1. Cellepora GamMerensis. Busk. 

2. „ nummularia. Busk? 

d. Species common to the Mt. Gambier Limestone, and the 
Greensand of Orakei Bay, Auckland, IS". Z. 

1. Cellepora Gambier ensis. Busk. 

2. Idmonca Melneina. D'Orb. 

3. Pmtulopora distans. Busk ? ( ? Entdlphora Hoastiana, 


e. Species common to the Schnapper Point beds, Victoria 
(OUgocene), and the greensand of Orakei Bay, Auckland. 

1. Onchopora (Spiroporina) vertelralis. Stol. 

Ctenacanthus, a Spine of Hybodus. 
By W. J. Baekas, M.E.C.S.E. ; L.E.C.P.L. 

fX the Geologic 
In it • I attemi 

from the works of Agassiz, ]S 
direct comparison of the external 
above-named fishes showed, as I 
a fish having teeth similar to tr 

existed during the Coal Measure! 

Fo^dTe th frL P thrXOTthuml 
which appeared in the '" Monthh 
for 1874, I gave a full account of 
the teeth of Hvbodus from the 
Cladodus from the Carboniferous 
ings of the structure of Cladodus 

CTEs-ACAvrurs, \ sitxh • 

dentally I mentioned that the teeth of Hybodus and Cladodus 

were discovered comparatively frequently as 

spines of Ctenacanthus, and that from that and other circum- 

(following the plan I adopted in my " Hybodus, a Coal Measure 
Fish") place before you the descriptions of the spines of Ctena- 
canthus and Hybodus as given by other palaeontologists, viz., 
Agassi/., Minister, ic. ami ile-t.-nptious of the so-called spines of 
Ctenacanthus in the possession of Mr. T. P. Barkas, F.Gr.S. 

After having thus referred to the external characters of these 
spines, I shall draw attention to their microscopical structure and 
point out what similarity there may be between the minute 
characters of an undoubted spine of Hybodus and those of a 
reputed spine of Ctenacanthus. In order that there might not 
be the slightest doubt as to the veritableness of the spine of 
Hybodus from which the sections for microscopical examination 
were to be mad, palaeontologists, 

the Earl of Enniskillen and Sir Philip de Grey Egerton, for 
portions of an undoubted spine ; they very graciously supplied 
me with the rc^u • i 

_:trd to the sections of the spine of 
Ctenacanthus heing undoubted, I may state that the remains of 
" spines that I destroyed to make them are in Mr. T. P. 

different spines, and from different ] 

Barkas' possession, and also that the sections were cut from fiv< 

Agassiz, present the following external characteristics : — " Les 
rayons de ce genre, surtout ceux des especes du Lias, se font 
remanpu-r pax rable. lis ont une forme 

<isti<jues. lissontge. 
i arques,f plus fjros et plus larges vers leur b 
mte, et se terminent en une pointe plus oit mo 

i, spiTios to pot-tain to Hybodus, I shall 

■•'■<.. M i- n«. and that Hybodus 
; Lias, Wealden, «S;c. 

le tiers de la longueur totale ; elle est finemcnt striec longitudinale- 
ment et ouverte en cote posterieur en forme de sillon tres-evase 
qui se resserre pour t'< inner une ea\ite iuti>rieure as§ez spaeieuse 
et qui s'etend j usque vers l'extremite du rayon. La partie des 
rayons qui soutenait le bord anterieur des nageoires est plus 
ou moins arrond , /. coupee moins 

on plus earn'. < iiord anterieur; 

toute sa Burfaci . rieur, sont ornes 

de fortes aretes 1 , plus ou moins paralleles au 

bord anterieur du rayon et qui alternent avec des sillons assez 
profonds et a peu-pres de memos dimensions que les aretes qui 
Beparent. Yers le bord anterieur res aretes et ees sillons sont 
generalement plus -n s, plus prut >uds. plus u-os et plus distans 
que vers le bord anterieur (sir). /•■ / .;/' <:■'■; > I its se confondent 
frequemment,ainsi '/>"' vers la point e. Le long du bord posterieur, 
qui est plus ou moins plat et finement strie en long, il y a deux 
rangees plus ou moins distantes de grosses dents ueerees, et 
arquees vers la base du rayon; vers son extremite ces deux 

r : _ , . ■ . ■ : . . ■ 

: .;- -•■..: j , - ■/• . 

ing Hybodus apicalis he says : — " le bord anterieur est aussi pins 
argue' que le bon if, saufla pointe 

qui se courbe as-i, ~ , '< , > \" Trie! a_ .i with regard to 2Z". 

curtus — "LesiT »< . et la eavite 

rapidement vers l'extremite du rayon." In H. Uptodus—" Les 
dents des bords posterieurs sont greles et assez distantes, e'est- 
a-dire. plus distantes les unes des autresque les sillons longitudi- 
naui. - ' AV'hen « :'■'. > >i' II. reticulatus 

he remarks—" lis sont au contraire souvent sinueux, et s'anaato- 
mosent de temps en temps." In H.formosus the grooves on the 
anterior surfaces of the spin ■■>." According 

> Agassiz then, the above are the principal external characters 

of different spines of Hybodus. He mentions seventeen other 
varieties, at least he makes them species, though I think he has 
in this case fallen into the bad habit of hair-splitting, for many 
of the spines 1 if them are exceed- 

ingly similar and some are evidently crushed specimens ; in fact 
to distinguish these twenty-two varieties from his drawings 
requires a remarkable amount of imagination. 

Count Minister, in Ins " Beitriige zur Petre-facten-kunde," 
gives the following short account of H. hexagonis—" Der rucken 
und die Seite- ' ;i sind -'ark gefurcht ; 

Eippen und Fu: ichseite ist glatt ; 

der Durchschnitt zeigt ei> ige Form. iStech 


I '■;. i -' ichel doppeit so 
gross.*' An evidoiith incomplete description of a portion close 
to the apex of the spine. 

We have now learnt the appearand - presented by the spines of 
this genus. fr+>m >ritie> : and the portions 

of the sphies r f <iy< Ii'-lhil i no- --. and from which I made 
ic< '! m- iom-pi u< 1 > ' ( o\, descriptions. 

I will now refer to the external characters of the spines of 
Ctenaeanthus in nu po ession and quote the descriptions of 

parisons between (.'tonaeantfm and llybodus. Let us take 
Agassi/, first, lie says: — " Les Ctenaeanthus out d*immonse 
rayons tros-comprimes.'a base large " ' La partie do ces rayons 
ca'ehee dans les chairs parait avoir etc considerable. Au bord 
-:■ i - ,-oient quel [ues petites epines. La surface est 

ornee de strii's \> : •.: . : • - que celles des 

Hybodes. peetiiu'es. e'est-a-dire. ereiielees traus\ersalement et 
sa'illanles en forme de dents qui alternent d'une serio a l'autre, 

describing G. major he observes — " he rayon est eh'gainmcnt 
arqtie en forme de vau.v •■•■ * Au bord posioneur du rayon, et 
vers sa pointe seuleincnt, on remarque quelques petite Vpir.cs, 
ou plutot quel.,- tee en forme de peigne sur 

1c 11 ni _m i Sa coup, ti sver> 1. est i de, arrondie 

du cote de l.'i : et trauehante a son bord 

anterieur. Lai.. . ; :re la partie sillonoe du 

rajon * * et sa !<a-e li— e v " e-t ttvs-oblique." 

The descriptions of Ctenaeanthus given bv McCoy in his 
-■British Pahvfzoie Fossils." and by Messrs. Xewberrv and 
"Werthen in the " Geological Sm-ve'v of niinois, U.S.!" are 

hin like Hybod 

ess 'sharp. The portion of the "spine buried iu the flesh 
- considerable enough and 


between this portion of the spin 

is marked hy a very distinct line of demarcation, which is some- 
times very oblkpie* and often curved. The posterior surface of 
the base of the spine is open, a very deep furrow extend- 
ing deeply into the hud;-. -.■.!> upwards it 
becomes closed in p< sit ri< rl; . no forms an < vai cavil; . this oval 
character is in many cases h;st. for numbers of the larger spines, 
having necessarily arue e cities, hau been crushed in by the 
superincumbent pressure : the cavity extends nearly to the apical 
extremity. The exposed portion of the spine is rounded anteriorly, 

slightly concave, tin eom:a\h;. bcinu' \vr\ shallow near the apex, 
making the surface there nearly tiat. The anterior surface and 
sides are mark, . .. • . which are separated from 

each other by grooves oi msions as the 

ridges; the grooves aud ndires "run parallel with the anterior 
border, but as tht appi < i 1 i apex the\ become fewer ia 
number by anastomoses, and iu some cases when close to the 
extremity "the\ disappear altogether, leaving a small surface 

■eful comparison ions of Ctenacan- 

1 Hybodus will show that the so-called spines of Ctena- 

differfrom the - : -\ particulars, 

150 cTENACAXinrs, a spi^e of hybodus. 

tome a spine, H. leptodus, in which the teeth are situated 
like those in Ctenacanthus, however Hyhodus has never fonr 
rows of denticles that I am aware of. Second, that the longitu- 
dinal ridges on the exposed portion are often tuhereulated. Of 
course the tuberculated variety of Ctenacanthus may be con- 
sidered quite a distinct species from those with smooth ridges, 
but I cannot accept this opinion, for the spines present every 
variation between the two t pieties are found 

associated with the teeth of Hybodus and Cladodus and also with 
undoubted dermal tubercles, which were consequently designated 
tubercles of Ctena e two va r ieties have exactly 

the same microscopical structure. For the purposes of compari- 
son with the spines of Hybodus, I have of course chosen the 
most typical specimens of Ctenacanthus. No. I* is the upper 
portion of a spine of Ctenacanthus ; on its lower part it is to 
be observed that there are two rows of denticles on the posterior 
surface, and that as they proceed upwards one row disappears. 
Suppose I had : a spine near the apex and 

placed it side by side with fch< I ed by Miinster 

in his "Beitrage zur Petrefacten-kunde." L'afel xvi, figs. 16 and 
17, one would have had some difficulty in distinguishing which 
was Ctenacantt lr. No. II is a portion near 

the base, it closely resembles the same portion of the spine of 
-rmis which is figured by Agassiz in his*" Poissons 
Fossiles" ; these spines are so alike at their base that no dissimi- 
larity is noticeal- a the part that was buried 
in the flesh, in the line of demarcation between that portion 
and the spine proper, or in the smoothness of the ridges on the 
exposed portion. A transverse section through No. I shows the 
shape of the internal cavity and the slight concavity of the 
posterior surface ; with the exception of being larger, there is 
little difference n and the section of S. 
pleiodus exhibited in " Poissons Fossiles," vol. 3, tab. 10, fig. 17. 
The transverse sections of Ctenacanthus given by Agassiz must 
not be compared with similar sections of Hybodus, because the 
former are very far from correct, in fact, if his drawings were 
true to nature they would cause Ctenacanthus to resemble 
Hybodus still more strongly than I have shown it to do. I have 
stated that all the specimens I have examined, and that were in 
perfect condition, were slightly concave on the posterior surface 
of the ridged portion of the spine, but that sometimes the surface 
was flat near to the apex. Now, Agassiz, in his descriptions and 
figures of C. tenuistriatus (Poiss. Foss., vol. 3, tab. 3, figs. 10, 
11) makes that surface evenly convex at the lower portion, and 
as it proceeds towards the apex it bulges out more and more 

* Referring to specimens I have had the opportunity of examining. 

at its centre. Then again, m (' 

posterior surface "est ovale et arrondie." These description! 
and figures are manifestly incorrect ; it may be that the speci- 
mens he examined were either crushed spinea or else much 
buried in the matrix ; if they were not, then the spines were not 
appurtenances of the fish he named Ctenacanthus. All the 
specimens I ha \r < ';.'...'■•■•'. haw si ■ ii: v appearances to ISo. II 
at their base, except when the specimen has been crushed, which 
is almost invarialily the case near the lower extremity, where 
there is not any cavity, but a broad, deep excavation perfectly 
open at the posterior part. 

The microscopical structure of these spines is very little known, 
the only author that I am acquainted with who attempts to 
describe' it is Agassiz ; in his " Poissons Fossiles," tome 3, he 

STv ' 

of hie illustrations, to recognise a section of Hybodus under 
the microscope. He remarks — " Ce genre ne se distingue du 
precedent (Asteraeanthu*) que par le plus grand nombre de 
couches concentriques qui entourent la cavite mediane et dans 
lesquelles on distingue egalement des tubes caleiferesdendritiques, 
mais en petit nombre. Les lisieres obscures qui se trouvent 
entre la dentine res sont entoures 

sont 1rrs-l irires et presentent un aspect finement pointille. 
Pour toute la reste, la structure esl i 

celle des Asteracanthus." The latter spine he states is similar 
in structure to the spine of ( 1 1 ybodus, accord- 

ing to A-gju»] . semblance to Gyracanthus, 

though what the points are he does not say. His description of 
the structure of I ' .■ - 

I know many points of resemblance to Ctenacanthus and there- 
fore to Hybodus. Agassiz does not refer to the structure of 
Ctenacanthus. pon whom I can 

depend for a correct account of the minute structure of Hybo- 
dus and Ctenacanthus, I shall rely solely 
have had made in my presence. In order to pre 
amount of repetition I will state at once that the 
these two spine- are- wi > <:::: ■. wr under the microscope it is 
well nigh impossil •■ to 'say ivhlch ; - which. In preparing the 
sections great care is required, for if too thick nothing can be 
seen but the o; .r.als and dark tissue be- 

tween the oritii , I us imperfectly 

I confess does somewhat resemble the ; 

thin, then the calcigerous tubules, more especially the finer ones, 
are broken or ground away. The spine of Ctenacanthus is 


K .1 i ! N. whir], are open at the 

nity of the base where they ;•< ct iveu their \ ■ ■ 
;;iss up the si -allel Villi its vertical ;i\i 1 with 

iurse of the canals is 

of an inch 

they aris, 

; they branch seldom 

?cn equals about tw 

\-'„r>U of 

:maK. ' i- 

m-.-itric I; 

imin* ; from all the - 

i-rimils arise 

[ this boundary and inosculate 
ic neighbouring system. The 
?e -i-oVoth of an "inrh at their 
-age of an inch. There 
ascular tissue surrounding the 
as we proceed upwards this 

of the spine the canals 
e near the circumferen 

layers, and thos; also decreased in size to 

ab'out the 200th of an inch l.uttlu- an not surroundt lb\ lamella*. 
The circumferential portion of the body has now, therefore, a 
superabundance of tissue over canals, but near the centre they 
are about equal. Erorn all the canals caleigerous tubes _ arise, 

quentlv with each other", so much so that where the tubules are 
numerous as ne ar the external n : . ■ . tl . > (ill the tissue be- 

from which arise 

1 bv section.- ■ 

I when similai 
even the sizes of the tubules 

of the fossil i/ed spine ami of the continent hrittlcm 

\W have !. i.t'l 'tenaeanthus 

Hybodus both externally and internally, ami to me 

similarity of firm, markimjis ami structure may not b 
as sufficient evidence to settle this matter. I will t 
their benefit bring forward further geolo-ieal proul 
'an accepted fact that the spines of Ijyhedus are ahv 
the same formations as the teeth of llybodus. at h 

des Hybodes et j'ai la certitude .pi'lls appartieum 

des ravons do <• ■ tvp -. il e.viste an— i des dents anal, 
versd." Now. in '■ flybodus, a Coal 31 e 

M , • ,.\ , \; ' ,; !W of Dental 5 

February. 1>, 1, I proved t.i. t these teetli of liybo< 
<" d \[i i«.un >- — d a -uailar structure to the 

from the Weald* n \\\ have therefore shown th. 

:- :m undoubted specimen of Ctena- 
eanthuswith ■• emitaet with it 

are thirteen u « 11 in- a , ,, -< u>, tnd the whole 

pi< ce of shale is c ,ven ,1 * ith the so-called l t, k , ant Sum tui ere, s. 
3ius„-s il , , 

in the "Trans , ions ol tl Nort « b land and Durham 
Natural II,-' i\ N> th." < t. 1 tbt r ] « iet that the teeth, 
tubercles ami spine, belonged to one fish, and Mr. Thompson of 
Glasgow has also -iven :' . ■ Ai none of them 

--,-...■' ....:.. \V\ ■:•-. 


Another proof, though not so direct, is that when the teeth and 
spines are found - iably associated 

with the tubercles have been dis- 

covered accompa' <-s or teeth in the Wealden 

or Lias I do not know, but even if they have never been found so 
associated in these formations my Aiew would not receive any 
confutation, for in order that these light tubercles should be 
deposited in close proximity to such heavy objects as spines and 
teeth the water would have to be in perfect quiescence, and then 
again the character of the fish itself might have undergone 
change in this respect during the mighty ages which passed away , 
between the Carboniferous and the Jurassic periods. 

Both the spines and teeth of Hybodus from the Coal Measures 
have been found buried in or associated with masses of shagreen 
and disintegrated cartilage. 

Eichwald, a not* r an examination of some 

spines found in the Carboniferous Limestone of Russia, came to 
the conclusion that they belonged to Hybodus and named them 
accordingly H.panderi. "lie also asserts, in his " Lethea Rossica," 
that R. polyprion of Agassiz has been discovered in the same 

To sum up -. all the deductions and descriptions drawn out by 
Agassiz and others with regard to Hybodus from the more recent 
-:-:—. the spines of 

Hybodus (Ctena ±h of Hybodus (Cladodus) 

from the Coal Measures ; the only statement requiring correction 
is the following from the " Poissons Fossiles": — " Les Hybodes 
s'etendent depuia Q isqu'a la Craie, 

e\st-;\-iIire jus tea et weldiens; 

ils existent meme dans la Craie." This 'will require the substitu- 
tion of " vieux gres-rouge" for " gres-bigarre," for although 
this paper is directed principally to the Coal Measure remains, 
undisputed spines of Hybodus (Ctenacanthus) are found in the 
Carboniferous Limestone and in the Old Bed Sandstone, hi 
these latter formations teeth of Cladodus are also discovered, 
but not those of Hybodus, so far as I am aware. This, however, 
is of no importance, because it is probable that the fish Cladodus 
possessed spines exactly similar to Hybodus, if Cladodus be not 
a true Hvbodus, for the genus was founded on teeth alone. The 
teeth of Cladodus differ from those of Hybodus only in the facts 
that the secondary denticles of the former increase in size as 
they proceed from the centr I they are always 

equal in number on each side of the 
Hybodus they decrease in size and ma^ 
each side. ISow, I have e\ 1 1 ybodus "having 

' / *' * 


number on each side of it. I have also seen other teeth with 
the secondary denticles equal in number, but decreasing in size 
on each side. We have therefore teeth alike in every respect, 
with tbe exception that in some the secondary denticles din-case- 
in size as they proceed from the centre, in others they increase, 
and in others ag .< equal in height. Taking 

these facts into account, and knowing that the teeth of Cladodus 
are similar in structure to those of Hybodus,* that they are often 
found as-.,, ,-iai. d rcles, or it may 

be with all at once, as in Mr. Ward's specimen, the simplest 
conclusion we can come to is that Cladodus is onlv a varietv of 
Hybodus. bur I think that the e\ ideiu-e proves that the teeth 
called Cladodus really pertain to Hybodus, but are situated 


;mus Ctenacanthus, and I also 
think the genus Cladodus. With regard to the teeth of Cladodus, 
I am pleased to find that other Coal Measure palaeontologists 
agree with mv ■ j 10 \ :' '' t a \ ;:v i - \ , >• t ties, of Hvbodus, 
and therefore that that genus should be abolished. If this be so, 
then both the teeth and spines of Hybodus extend as low down 
in the earth's cr Sandstone, rendering the fish 

Hybodus another of those examples that further research has 
proved to have i acted period, and that tends 

to break down the artificial barrier between Palaeozoic and 
Mesozoic times. 

System of Notation adapted to explaining 
Students certain Electrical Operations. 

[Read lefon W.S.W., 3 October, 18*7.] 

For a number of yours I have been in the habit of nsimx in mv 
lectures on electricity a simple kind of notation in applying the 
double-fluid hypothesis to the explanation of Yolta's electro- 
phorus, the eleeti .1! 1 1 1, 1 m , h 1 •_, ^ a Leyden jar, and 
analogous operations. This notation lias enabled me to present 
such operations to students in a more clear and definite form 
than by any e\ I ; :i books. Of course it 

may be objected that, as the fluid hypothesis is not only not 
proved, but is in the view of many highly improbable, any in- 
genuity exerted must be entirely 
thrown away. But the same objection may be urged, with 
greater or less force, to any other hypothesis ; and if in teaching 
:ntil it has been 
elevated to the d>_ rut ro\e<l tin n w< must repress the 
imaginative fa<; ::yto a demon- 

for both teacher and taught. Provisionally then we use the 
fluid hypothesis lelf readily to all the ordinary 

phenomena, and affords a simple means of classifying or con- 
necting them together. De la Hive says of it :—" Although 
subject to strong objections, it is, in the present state of the 
science, a very c ly exact manner of repre- 

Benting to ■' rioity." 

particles find it >1 the use of 

to be thought by some that 'h< >\> i-* incon- 


directions; and that they act at a distance only by acting on 
the couth/ nous and intermediate particles." In another place 
(No. 1667) he says :— " The theory of induction set forth * * 
* * does not a 3 a 3 to the nature of the elec- 

tric force or forces, but only as to their distribution. The effects 
may depend up" thiid with the 

particles of matter,as in the theory of Franklin. F.pinus, Cavendish, 
and Mossotti ; or they may depend upon the association of two 
electric fluids, as in the theory of Dufay and Poisson ; or they 
may not depend upon anything which can properly be called the 
electric fluid, but on vibrations or other affections of the matter 
in which they appear. The theory, though it professes to 
perform the important office of stating how the powers are 
arranged, does not, as far as I can yet perceive, supply a single 
experiment which can be considered as a distinguishing test of 
the truth of anyone of these various views." With the humility 
that was a striking characteristic of Faraday, be said, at a meet- 
ing of the British Association at Swansea : — " There was a time 
when I thought I knew something about the matter ; but the 
longer I live, and the more carefully I study the subject, the 
more convinced I am of my total ignorance of the nature of 
— icily." 

Tn making use of h ' m always can 

ful to impress upon my students their provisional nature, an 
the risk we run of confiding too much in them, and of attributm 

• value than our knowledge warrants, 
point Tvndall remarks: — "In our conceptions and reasoning*. 
regarding the forces of nature we perpetually make use of 
symbols which, when they possess a high representative value, 
we A ignii'y with the name of theories. Thus, prompted by certain 
analogies, we ascribe electrical phenomena to the action of a 
peculiar fluid, sometime:- -est. Such con- 

ceptions have - intages ; they 

afford peaceful lodging to the intellect for a time, but they also 
circumscribe it ; and by and by, when the mind has grown too 
large for its lodging, it' often finds difficulty in breaking down 
the trails of v. ■■. ison instead of its home." 

The fluid hypothesis is sonu times appl ..1 in a manner that may 
to beun'nners'convev erroneous impressions; as. tor example, in 
Tyndall's Notes on F . .-tr.ciu. : ; la iatio U of Volta's eleetro- 
phorus— " If the surface of a cake of resin be electrified, a plate 
of metal laid upon it will haw; its neutral fluid decomposed, its 
positive fluid being attracted and its negative repelled. On 
touching the metal plate its free (repelled) electricity flows to 
the earth ; and now if the plate be raised bv an insulating handle 
it will app 

.' v is giv-n off ■ 


inference that the cover is thus entirely depr 

he action of the electrical machine, Tymlall sa; 
lass plate is turned by a handle ir passes betv 
s and is positively electrified. The electrified l 

virh it to roirc 

urate th. 


charged wid 

sly gives up 

dlv abstracts from them 


i other books 

usually in the hands of 


■e equally liabl 

e to misconstruction. 

In explain! 

excitation U 

the two-fluid theory, I 

.wnt * 

otal quantity of electric 

g to a body 

s never a here 

. but its in; 

changed by t 

of the one fluid for an 

r uneleetritie rj 

ined in equal 

i v ■'■... :"-/•■ 

.,!i r! ,. ,.',,-tr.. 

kind, the total 

proper to the 

r.". :,,'•. f. n 

rilk rubber— 

: 1 ; ■■ \ 

the compound 

ftuid on both bodies gets 

completely or 

composed ; the whole or part of the 

electric Hui.l attached to it as at first, but the quality of the f 
is changed — each body has now an excess of one fluid, and a 
corresponding <:■ -and therefore each body 

is electrically e\» h and the other 


Take now the case of the electrophorus. When the metal 
cover is put down on the excited cake of resin, the compound 
fluid of the cover is decomposed by induction, its positive portion 
being attracted towards the cake and its negative repelled. If 
the cover be toucl be repelled nega- 

tive is conveyed awe. and an < pii'l measure ef positive takes its 
place, leaving the total measure unchanged ; but there is now an 
excess of positive, and when the cover is removed from the 
inductive action of the cake and touched with a conductor, it 
gives off its excess of positive and receives an equal amount of 
negative, thus restoring the neutral condition of the cover. Let 
us see how these changes may be simj \y rej re cnt d 

Let Y be a measure of vitreous or positive electricity, and E 
an equal measure of resinous or negative ; V + E will then 
represent the neat llni I I* w . t , iu id on the surface 
of the resinous cake to be V -f- E we may suppose it to be 
entirely decompost I h\ friction, arid it w 11 then become 2 B. 
Eepresent the fluid of the cover thus : ^TTT Tlie coyer being 

put down on the c tk. . the w hoh 1 i d will be decomposed by induc- 
tion and we shall have ^~ Touch the cover with the finger. 
The 2 E of the cover attracts 2 V from the finger ; they combine, 
and the neutral tlui 1 thus formed i- iustanth distributed on the 
contiguous surfaces, T + E going to the cover and the same to 
the finger. The cover will then show ^L+J* V being in excess 

and ]{ deficient. Remove the cover bv i 

it'- insulating handle and 

touch it— V is given off, and E receivec 

1 iu its place, leaving the 

cover as at first }>** 

\ + R. 

In Dr. Golding Bird's "Elements of 

' Natural Philosophy", a 

two hmhesnf the edge. Placing il witl 

, the r,,:wed side on the 

■ ■ • . 

covered with amalgam: then caivfully 

corner, place it on a badly conducting si 

uface, as a smooth table 


or the cover of a book, with the uncoated side downwards. Touch 
the tinfoil with the tinner, then carefully elevate the plate by ono 
corner and a vivid spark will fly from the coating to any conduct- 
ing body near I; nen it, again elevate it, and 
a second spark will be produced." This simple apparatus is very 

and deserves more attention ihari it appears to have got. It 
affords an excellent illustration of induction, and of the manner 

in which the on< ' 1 Is • «1> lm other prisoner as it were. 

.At the same time it is rat hi r ptiz li ^ to -indents, and the above 
notation helps to make it plain. The following experiments may 
be made with this electrophorus : first, lay the coated surface oil 

plate by friction: of course ,\ hecomes charged with positive 
electricity. Lift up the plate and bring the coated back in con- 
tact with a charged electroscope. It gives off positive electricitv. 
Excite the face again, turn over the plate on the book, lift up 
book and plate together, and again touch the electroscope with 
the coated back. It is now J ejative electricity. 

(This experiment is not mi g Bird.) Remove 

the plate from the book, and again touch the electroscope with 
the back ; it now gives a positive charge. The great difficulty 
with students is to une.- - ■ i back gives a 

positive spark when away from the book, and a negative when 
the face of the plate is kept in contact with the book. Let us 
.' phases. 
At the outset uh plate may be 

represented as V+E. After friction the face maybe supposed 

to repel the V of the back into the book and attract It from the 
book. The result would be 2 Eon the back, if the book were a 
good conductor ; but the book is an imperfect conductor. (To 
render it so, it should be well warmed at the beginning of the 
experiment.) 1 - -u i siv half) 

of the V is driven away, 8 K. We then 

have on the back $ (V + R) + R. On lifting the plate away from 
the book, the 2 V on the face tends to repel the remaining | V 
from the back, which is thus able to charge an electroscope 
positivelv. But, on turning the plate over on its face on the book, 
the 2 V on the : on the book in preference 

to acting through tin -lass ; and, being then bound or masked by 
2 R on the boo', . ; . coercing influence on the 

electricity of the ! , . • Bur that eiee'n n > i R in excess of 
the normal quant.- _ -ith an electro- 

de pe. a ne-! - ' he communicated ; at the 

-.■: ; - ' v . -. • • _■-. • ■ .-• ■ : ' .-.■.' 

resumes the condition represented by Y + B. Finally, on lilting 


;•:..< - 

m'iPH ,'- 'r!!,' 1 mal~!h' h\'l 
much stronger :ds„ than then 
urn the plate and book are rais 


ftr.''. 1 ,!:':',! 

. ■'"^tiol^l'ir 

i .-(.u-idri- : 


friction, all the \" collects upon the uhc- am! all the K upon the 
rubber. The Y on tin Ja~ Don acts h. induction on the neutral 
fluid of the positive prime conductor, attracting K and repelling 
T: this latter acts in the same manner on the fluid inside the 

rth point the insulating glass of the j: r'prcvcnts 
This state of ailair,- may he represented as 

The neutral fluid form. tstbeinsta 

ray the other half the other way. We then have - 

We still have the o _di •' <|.u nitv i<t * itral fluid on the 
machine and P.P.C. : but on eaeh side of the jar although the 
quantitv is unaltered the <]u; if, i- more eh: n-< d. the V accumu- 
lating inside and the R outside! It must he needless to repre- 
sent the action in detail farther. The next eyele of operations 

ont'd'de'R^ V- "Vi \ \\\ Vi. Ihe "tries e\iden% 
tends to 2 V inside, and J K out, Me. Lait eaii never absolutely 

The two fluids being eqa 

By W. A. Di: 

[Head before the Royal Society q 

Having, during a residence << Maiden I.-dand extending over 
two and a half years, from October, 1S66, to March, 1869, made 
a number of observations on various subjects, I have thought 
that it might interest some of the members of this Society if 
I placed them on record. As I have only a superficial knowledge 
of some of the bc i >main many of the observa- 

tions lie, it may be that some of them are not new ; but as few 
men have an opportunity of passing a similar period in such a 
i probable that some may be, which forms my excuse 

1 Byron in 1825, is situated 
in lat. 4° 2' S. and long. 154° 58' V., and at that time was unin- 
habited, though there were signs of previous occupation. The 
native name of the island, according to the traditions of the in- 
habitants of M; md,WM "Tera Kupatea," 
derived from "Tera," the sun, and "Kupatea," the only tree growing 

de had been washed off the island. Appearances 
am not warrant this assertion, however, though it seemed as if 
the sea had at one time made a breach over one spot, and such 
an occurrence may have induced the inhabitants to abandon a 
place possessing few attractions. 

In form the island is triangular, and according to a rough 
survey it covers an area of 19,700 acres, of which about 9,000 is 
occupied by a lagoon situated considerably east of the centre. 
On the surface the island is of purely coral formation, the only 
siliceous mineral i rne pieces of pumice, which 

in many places I ta surrounded 

by a fringing ?■ nniformly 200 feet from the 

beach where tl'. ' to three or four 

fathoms, and th ' into deep water, the rate 

of descent being about one in two. Immediately inside the reef 
the bank of the island rises, formed of broken coral and madre- 
pores thrown up by the waves. This hm 
on the different the north and south sides , 

166 IS'OTES o>~ 

being alike, and east and west unlike, but all about 400 yards 
wide. On the north and south sides the outer portion of the 
bank is formed of successive ridges of madrepores and corals in 
large pieces forming a strip about 100 yards wide. The ridges, 
nine in number, are toleral ; b, as are also the 

hollows between them in depth. The outer ridge presents a 
somewhat steep face toward^ the sea, and they all follow the 
coast-line with great regularity. I had an opportunity of seeing 
one of these ridges formed during a great tidal disturbance in 
December, 1868, before which the lower part of the beach was 
so sloping that one could walk along it without much incon- 
venience, but the : 1 1 e « • < » 1 1 1 i n g o ver the reef 
piled up the whole of this beach with much more material from 
the fissures in the reef, forming a ridge as high as the others, the 

posed of a wide 


At the - 

ivestend the ' 

coarse cor 

al sand, and th 

water level was 21 

L'ecr. the highest on the island. 

r inside the ridges of 1 

)laek broken corah and separated 

>y a sharply defined 

line, the bank was formed of 

ith sand or guano, or both, with 

Mattered .slabs of cor; 

il rock, and it sloped gradually 

j general level of the 

interior, except at the east end 

interior of the island was composed of masses of coral 

situ, betv, ecu which were patches of guano ..f varying 

-:■ : . - :■■■....: . . , ■.., •' - :, ■"■ u., -.;'- 

tly to its formation. 'The water "m the open'p..r. and in 
n and fell 

■: :' . I'V 


was about 05 inch. I tin •> n bich was placed 

in the ground iu an exposed situation 21 feet above sea-level, 
but there was no rain-fall to record from that date until the 1st 
September, 18G7, or ten months. The rain-fall then gradually 

Year 1316 No. of^i 

1868, Jan. 7 0408 

<, Sept. 3 0003 
10 0-102 
Oct. 4 1-681 Temp, of rain 73' F., of air 77' F., wind dm 

udy all clay, sun seldom seen ; shade 
1 p'.m. 93° F. ; 6 p.m. 81° F. 

28 626") 

Feb. ~2 0074 

19 0223 

21 0589 

571 ii - 

tliai I ; :ul was :m ;ui;t<,M which I <jot from on 

('XCOj)t OH till N ,-. si,,! .,,.!, ,i;;!, ,\r r, mistered 

11.1U. Tlli.- is ;!l„,ntl.-i I 

nee being no doubt 

of eiuht days ending lltli 


"Wind :— Iu the beginning of October tlie wind was generally 
light east with calms. and he north-east trades !.rsm about the 
middle of the month, varying frmn K. to X.K. till the end of 

iary, 1869, the wind was strong westerly 
large enough to check the trade wind, so" 
almost always a dead &lm at the west et 
sionally a barely perceptible movement fi 

this sand was washe 

introduced on bal tst ffi green weed 

which -rew v ■'._ I uoen cover the 

whole of the reefs, growing; v 6 r and killing the corals. 

luxuriantly when there 

Water 624 or Water 

Phosphoric anhvd.. 

Posphate < 

B and alkalies (Traces) 

in i .' i i i i ' t » n i . m<id< |> .1 ti hi ( imim .1 

- f MLM-1 to nlISM! |> "i |,-i| ' ||\ , , f niillUte ff;l 

. with a few diatoms and sponge spicules. T 
grew was actually 

saturated, contained — 

Phosphate o: 
Sulphate „ 

Of the animals inhabiting the island there were twenty-two, 

Five of those w.-rv i:i<cc!^. 1st. The common house-fly, 
which is found or have been inhabited, 

'iL li/.ards : a snipe or sandpiper, and i-urlt-w. ! 

i the edge of the reef 

■ 'l.nn (I. pmv white, and black. 

tropic bird, pi eton. and th frigate bird, Ttu-lirprlrx ni/uih'n 
Of these birds the only one .\hieh (mill a ih-n1 was the grev 

marshy la ids : ar r] e -• . : . ..'_ ions, where the nests by suc- 
•!_! is inches high, The 
frigate bird scorned at times to have a vague idea that a nest 
would be an La ozen twigs, but 

then turned tired of it and laid on the ground. The boobies 
frequently lay two eggs and sit on them, but I never saw more 
than one young one ; all the other birds lay one only. The 
mutton birds in holes dug in soft ground or between rocks, and 

being of exactly the same colour is onlv soon with ditiienhv ; thev 
are quickly hatehe I. and in u : da* s tin \ .us _ have down. 

i., - vakc and the 

frigate bird, and it is to them that the deposits of guano on the 
island are principally due. 

The wide-awake lavs on the sloping bank twice a rear, in 
October and A. bnte of •portnlaea. In 

extraordinary rapidity. 

in the same place, unless the flock has 
when they desert all the e_-_> and re:.. ■• 
then lav again. The \ ui._ f oiu U-iut 

The fri 
portulac* ^ 
sajne spot whether laying or not. They ] 

ire about 5 inches in diameter, 
re or two covered with birds, every alternate one with his 
l\ inflated, and contrasted wit ,-. -;. he feathers, forms 
■,-i-ht : when living they usually allow the pouch to collapse. 

r of all others; the boobies 
(I remorselessly by them as long as they 

Liiside il.nvn to make them d 

isgorge part of thei 

riches dexterot»ly I 

oung of the other birds also 

left unguarded wh 

tough to be bwj 

if a Iloek of fri-a 

birds in the ai: 

down or 

h they carry up into 

the air, 


i drop a few ■ 

in catch and swallo 

z of wide-awakes has settled 

i of hatching, the frigate birds roost on the I 

out for any chicks that may be left for a moment un- 

:1. This bird never seems to sit on the groum 

tching, always roosting on 

a twig or stone. wh( 

're they 

..]■ hours together preening 

themselves with th 


mmediately on the appearand 

li into the' air into the slur 

re of a shower of r, 

.in they 

n-cloud for many miles. 

ilHnas are remarkable for th< 

> extreme regularity 

of their 

lis, starting at 4 a.m. for th 

•vitli the 

gn it.- 

■ .- ,.-• 

le all is quiet, when a 

the a iris filled with their cri. 

?s,and by daybreak oi 


v have disappeared. At 4 p 

.m. they begin to ret 

tation were B 

30 feet by 12, and was surrounded at a distance of a few yards 
by lines of coral slabs set in the ground, about b' inches project- 
ing above the surface. 

There were i aps composed of ashes and 

ignited stones, which are used in the Kanaka mode of cooking. 
Many of these were of large size, and judging from the insig- 
nificance of tin - the Kanakas employed. 

tions, so that it si < ms | ■■ . . • ■ ( -Ian. 1 was inhabited by 

a few families for a lone period. Near the kitchen heaps in scleral 
places were wells (seven in all ) Mink to a depth of 2.V feet, and 
carefully faced with coral slabs, hut I never saw any water in 
them, and on sinking one a foot deeper salt-water only was 
obtained. It was evident that fiv.-h water had always been very 

which would collect and retain rain-water, i 
or more slabs of coral to protect the water fi 
hollows had in most cases become filled witl 
clearing this out I generally found the belb 
' ^ b there as a drini 
Opposite all thekitche 

tept there as a armuing vessel. 

e places, the ridges had been levelled to 

ones were in. . : t6 waves, forming a record 

at present unread " • 

In one spot there was a rude attempt at architecture, several 
coral slabs being set on edge and covered by other slabs laid 
horizontally, forming two den.- about 4 feet cube, w tl e t e i 
18 inches wide. There had apparently been others at the same 
place which had fallen into disrepair. 

There were numerous graves surrounded by upright coral 
slabs. I opened several of these, but was ret successful in find- 
ing any remains in thetn : •■■-_• n was more suc- 
cessful, the first grave In • i em d yi -Ming a -\ ill and tibia of a 
man who from the length of this bone must have been nearly 
6 feet high. In the same grave wer« 

edge made from the shell of a tridacna ; two ohise!-hke tools 
formed of the outer lip of dge at one end ; 

■•' : ■ ■.■ . 

for s 
:ls chipped roughly out "of tridacna shells. These 


isily made. "the shell being first broken transversely, 
when a blow on the fractured surface breaks out from the interior 
of the shell an adze-shaped piece which seems to me to be the 
pattern on which many of the South Sea stone adzes are formed. 

The Guano and other Phosphatic Deposits occurring 
on Maiden Island. 
By W. A. Dixon, F.C.S. 

[Head before the Royal Soviet,, •>/ X.S. //'.. 3 Octoler, 1877.] 
The guano deposits on Maiden Island are entirely phosphatic, 

riaonate, aifcalies,' 

See H. Pellet, Bull. Soc. Cliim. [_'] xvi 

principally of roots of 
appears, on this island at all 

The guanos deposited W the mutton l>irds ( 
poor in phosphates, as they principally inha 

dust — composed of carbonate and sulphate of .. 

i H.>ut 3 i: • r al ..v., u„r. i 
i diggin 

jeering rocks are laid bare which enclose pockets of guano. The 
imiii. dntt miu << i- n< \u i t }.'!:.' - _th< mt min"tol 
with c;il.-inii , t ,r richness in phosphates in 

with the depth. When the pockets did not extend down to the 
water level, the bottom v..~ ted guano very 

rich in phosphates crust guano of Wlker, loc. cit.) Of this I 

recently obtained j 

'separated by Rose's method : 


In this (as in most other analyses that I have made of the 
same material) both calcium and magnesium phosphates are 

Where the i ■■ the water level, on the 

other hand, when this was attained the material altered in 
appearance, from being a aoft yellow-brown powder (when 

removed and allowed to dry) to hard grains of a chocolate-brown 
colour, whilst the rocks were found incrusted with a hard choco- 
late-brown sub-; ite specks. This 

gradually incn I ' » or six inches when that 

level was attained, whilst the coral rock beneath it was often 
completely disintegrated— so much so that on removing the crust 
it formed a milky mixture with the water. This incrustation 
was principally composed of calcic! phosphate, magnesium 
phosphate being absent. It gave a slight effervescence with 
acid, which apparently arose entirely from the white specks. Its 
fracture was slightly ehoncoidal, it gave a yellow -brown powder, 
and was very hard. 

The following numbers show the composition of the different 
layers from the surface down va b th< ter-ial b< i il: tak< n as 
dug out— so that they contain all the water, of which from 14- 
per cent, to 16 per cent, dried out on exposure to the air. The 
fields from which the different samples were obtained were about 
three-quarters of a mile apart : — 

1st Field. 2nd Field. 

Top 6 inches of guano. Loss on ignition 24 31 2351 

Calcic phosphate* 28-07 3421 

l* ii > ■'- \» i'o'v W. L. Calcic phosphate 71-85 
Inerusting .-tone Loss on ignition 825 

Deducting from each of these the percentage of volatile mat ter. 
to make the increase more evident, the residues would contain of 
calcic phosphate — 

Top 6 inches 378 ... 447 

From water Wei to 18 inches below ... 952 ... 919 

Stone phosphate 937 ... 93"4 

I have lately tried to discover the mode of formation of the 
.-tunc phosphate, hut \\ th iut an; very sat i« factory result. Tri- 
calcic phosphate in solution in water saturated with carbonic 
acid, I find, does not deposit any by prolonged contact with 
calcium carbonate, and this result is not altered by the presence 
of any of the salts present in sea-water ; neither does «i cold 

, although in all cases calcium carbonate was found i 
uxture of tricaleic apesic phosphate, 

treated with carbonic acid, and the filtered soli 

" 'Tin sciatic 


allowed to escape, deposits traces of both magnesia and phosphoric 
acid, but in no Cf sited amount to 

more than 2 per cent i solution. 

It seems probable, howe-, i ed by the action 

of sea-water on an indurated guano, the sulphate of calcium 
converting the magnesic phosphate into calcic phosphate, whilst 
the carbonic acid generated by the slow decomposition of 
organic mar carbonate in solution. 

In most places where the natural coral rock projected above 
the surface, it was covered by a pale bluish grey coating or skin, 
which although extremely tli'n. 'a a- perfect!} it pervious to water, 
so that rain collecting in any hollows remained there until 
evaporated ; but if this skin was broken through at the bottom of 
a hollow, the water rapidly percolated away. This coating was 
ea hard enough to strike fire with the point of a 
pick ; it did not effervesce with acids, and was apparently 
entirely composed of calcic phosphate. 

Amongst the recent guano deposits any loose stones were 
found to be similarly incrusted with calcium phosphate, which 
had in many cast me to a considerable depth, 

sometimes entirely so. They were found on the surface of the 
guano, and not I stones ground 

up together gave the result No. 1, whilst a single stone which 
did not effervesce on the surface, and was sonorous when struck, 
gave No. 2. 

Mr. Dixon if he thought 

]>mi\ : Yes. Only one man had seen the previous wet 

[ the existence of the species of plants described 

Mr. Dixon : The place was smooth and level, lik 
was quite salt on the surface, and yet the seeds gerr 

Mr. Moore : There are many graces that grow; 


On some Australian Tertiary Corals. 
By the Eev. J. E. Texisojt- Woods, F.G.S. ; Hon. M< 

The subject of 

the Am 

■ tralian 


1 corals 


occupied mucli 


n-sea dredging 

has brought t 


not onlv have 

links of 

1 hi> 

tory been thus 

discovered, but 

features of the 

with fossils in 

remote places. 

It was 

attention iva 

s first drawn to 

them by Prof, 
of President ot 


31lt h 

i.orable position 

' the Eoyal Geol 


iondon. In the 

year referred ti 

3 he pub 

l.v.ed i 

a the 

of I 

uit. Historu the 

results of b i - 

;;-y ! 

)f corals sent by me 

It, Wa.t«n V,Vf, «.,■«, 

to him, from the tertiary beds < 

It was suppos ( d oe from Mount 

Gambier, but this was not the case. Tlie Mount Gambier lime- 
stones are sin- ; ey are wonder- 
fully rich in Polyzoa. They all came from the bed of argillaceous 
limestone which underlies tin • i- Its at Muddy Creek about 5 
miles from Hamilton in Western Victoria. The result of Prof. 
Duncan's examination was that seven or eight new species were 

interest, with the usual anrn ot Australian " afowniialitirs" as 
they are called. The relations were mostly with Miocene forms, 
and the living species among t! « m were \u-Tralian but tropical. 
Prof. Duncan- \ery elaborate 

monograph in 1 • of London for 

ls7n in nhieh he not :cw of all the 

species known to . . - . - i e\\ ones which he added, but 

ho ■■ v .•:,-:■■ • . ■ , ■ ■-. ''■'■.■■:. :■ :: - ■. ■ -^ .■ . .; ,- ■ -■ r.. 
the whole quest wry geology. By this means 

we became acquainted with many new species and two new 
generu, im./I ■ ■■.■rlu.t, Cono- 

trochus, Troche ' : < \fa, Palceoserus, 

Ampiekelia, • - I a as enabled to 

examine the Com -mania, a parcel of corals 

of the Australian forms, a 

reef-builders, . ' eeies described were small 

pedicellate solitary corals (with the exception of Amphihelia) 
living at moderate depths at the bottom of the ocean. 

learned Pro it —.1 >, i i-i this particular 

department, and hem am -lad to acknowledge with what courtesy 
and painstaking industry he has always addressed himself to their 

of his aid. But latterly I have found in various public and 
private museums specimens which I am unable to send away for 
determination, and therefore am obliged, though fully aware of 
my own deficiencies for such ;i task, to undertake their investiga- 

feelmy'insu: 1 :-' Ip 1 lb ' b" m lu <■ from 

• ,'■■"-■'■". ' ' -. .'': ii , ■/ '- '..',■..;".' "';";.'.'' :';.;■ 

earefullv « orkod out of late vear<. "The -real standard authority 
of the subject b t o 7 .' 1/ \„ E.nrards 

and Jules' Haime (3 < ' su uith atla^ but tl.< student must 

aZ'i'-T. v .', ."wVhe^ame 

authors. a „.|. - of the Pahcon- 

i "y 


• -; V 





ffl it ( 

llli y 


■''. d . 

1 v ■> 

cost®. These parts are susceptible of the same modification* as 
the septa, aud are in fact only the exterior continuation of 
them, which is easily seen by examining the Turhinolidce, Phyllan- 
f/ia (imrrit'ttna, I! ny other corals 

simple and compound. AJU I ie septa, there- 

fore, is true of the eosta? as to their relative positions and modes of 
multiplication. Nevertheless, incertain rare, use s.*'A plmnr> L hi/lli/i 
ixmXJLu-rahar'ui. the costa' alternate with the external edge of the 
si'pta as if the two leases which compose the edge of these were 
divided exteriorly from one another to unite with the external 
leaf of the neighbouring septum. On the other hand, mBasmia 

exceptional, ami nearly always the cosi;e are only distinguishable 
from the septa by their position outside the wall." 

jSTow in our Australia! c.-ral< n. lii d that a v< ly large proportion 
with the septa, but exceed tliem in number. If this took place 

£eatur< mai fee 

s m another spec 

as if the coral ar 

■ ae m the Turlmolid* 

1 .tiiers it depen. 

. r with p., 

the utmost diffidence, and no 

by creating new divisions,. 01 

xs. 187 

are of importance, when we remember how badly preserved and 
bow worn fossils often are from which new species and genera 
are created. A little wearing down may make a world of 
difference, when the classification rests on "slight details. This 
department of Natural Histoid still awaits its Linmous to found 
a system that all would accept*. We have not it is true those 
definite organs with ascertained i'nm-t ions ilia; botanists possess, 
and probably we shall not have until the lining animals are 
better understood. For most of our corals we must resign all 
hope of any further study than that which the stony portion 
will furnish, as the majority have flourished as past beauties of 
the earth's history, and are only known now as fossils. But 
light, and much light will come from those which still live, and 
probably for this we must wait. In the meantime I have drawn 
attention to these points, that abler and more learned naturalists 
may folio 

bring unc 

Creek, near Hamilton, We 
locality in Dec : .' was untbrtunatelv taken 

ill while at the hospitable station of Mr. S. P. Winter of the 
Wannon, and so was obliged to content myself with two small 
boxes of clay from the edge •■'' the ctvi ; 'which Mr. Winter's 
brother brought to me. these have been most industriously 
searched and sort d by M- n..- -;«.:• • rued and zealous 
Curator of the Museum, n many novelties, 

j were few, except the well knon 

and Cn/wxMi/xi 
obliged to plac. 

and some othei 
appear. ' 



e only OnyopJu/UaceeB present. 

. v -. S.uilotroclnix, 
narkable forms. I have been 

Prof Duncan's Ctuyophfllht, 
vered, for reasons which will 

Fata. Turbixolip^. 
Edic. Sf Haime, 1848. 

Corallum, simple, free in a Lull .tare < . iumella highly de- 
veloped and las, i, ul - sept large am ex* ivall with it 
any epitheca. ; r to the base, 
the principal being ornamented. Fossil only and tertiary- 
Miocene of Italv, 1'li iviieut fuseany. Eocene of India. This 
genus was ere.- - yoniamented 
with spines and perfectly represented in a 
worn specimen of donbtfttl - --sis of which I 
reserve for e - nation. 

columella, pali before penultimate cvde. 

We have only had one fi m 1 species of this genus in the 

strengthened by the curious discovery of two other species in 

_■ first thicker at their origin, becoming 

fourth order at about a third, and the 
.lice; intercostal spaces narrower than 
between the higher ordi i - 

| Meal. There 

ilium ; septa in six systems of three 
ching to the pali but slightly united 
very 11 ex no us at the inner edge and 
very conspicuous, forming six very 
inded lobes. There are no septa to 
1 cycle of costse, but the wall bends 
y young 

lum, conical, the 
>st® in three cycla, 
ery granular and 

metimes reaching 


granulans, costae coyered'with a thin pelli 

-LapM, hi 


t : ba>o i-ni 

of i. M ual u 

idth, broad 

Corallum, sin e. straight, and 

cuneiform; colnim-i ;i an. I ->■'■;. i like Pin : ■■ hns ; no epitheca ; 
costse genera ■ crisped. 

, t •■ E n, t.."l ,t n. 

h coste one belongs to the 

rt in the young 

kolc,. {,.. L) 

The alliance* of this species are therefore Eocene or older 
crtiary. and had it nor been found living would have tended to 
well the evidence in favour of the greater age of the deposits to 

Inch it belongs a kind ot'eiid< in howewn w Inch this instance 
hows must be received with great caution, and not at best 

r,h ,, ,-v, mot 1} allied to S australis, Dune, 
f Muddy Creek and G-eelong, but differing in the absence of 
osta> and the form of the base. The arrangement of the septa 

tioris, and there is no laminary columella, b 
reticulated mass. From this we must conclude tl 
is not essential or does not rise from the base. 

Genu. SuiLOTRocnxs. Milne Edward and 

Corallum, simple, straight, cuneiform. free and v\ 

adherence. Xo columeila. septa lineiv granula 

and touching bv their inner edge. 'Wall nak 

,-ttofteW {Plate II, juj. 2 and 

- /ormS 

are not w bed. ... w.dc form-. 

Suilotrochus vacuus, y.s. 'Corallum, very small, spear- 
presenting ' at each side of the centre an elongated swollen 
tuberosity which tapers off dightly above, but is produced into 

t.-d at the cali- 

eentral vacuity. Alt., 5 ; may axis. :; ; min., I ' millim. Very rare. 

ls^ Group. Trochoctathaceje (many circles of pali). 

Genus Deltoctathus. Mil. Ed. Sf H., 18*8. 

Corallum, simple, conical, free, no trace of adherence, calice 

nearly circular, and shallow, columella ending in a rounded mul- 

iv-jii-'-t-. r ■ v ':' ■••I'Vvar from the 

flhwlnt viola, nobis, m, l^GO; 
{.,1865). Corallum, 

iiddie, and the apex obtuse. The calin 

i-.[iial in thiri 
ay^mnch' on, 

■ ... - 

rounded broad lobe in front of the secondaries only. Columella 
tJiiel,; so? id. and ending in two or three neat rounded compact 

lobes. Costa? visible to the base, routided. xlrcnr/lif, sJ/arp, and 
rou<jhln t/nantlur .• in tour cyela. and corresponding to the septa, 
primaries, and - ■ . :<-riiaries almost 

immediately above : fourth a, d tini. orders, a fourth of the height 
from the base. Intercostal grooves rather wider than eosf;e. and 
showing at the edge a very thin wall. Alt., 10 to 12; maj. 

.rudmn-ntarv 1 : -■ three orders. 

The J/rt7/W indicate where 'rem Prof. Dun- 
can's. {Plate II } f 3 .Z.) 

Deltoctathus exctsi-s (Sjihcnoh'oclius r.rri*ns, Duncan, 

short points Miiun I i I | t 1 , » i L u broad, flat, 

regu'a7l\ ilttrn.iti.u' wit 1 ' *h. - u : inti ivum il .paces n-ulady 

eovered with short, .-ton* ting about half 

all the septa ver ; -in. Pali moderately broad 

to Prof. Duncan 

: but i 

Jxmfrorhu* than 

nmii. 'Th 

a d'oubU-ul rhara 
pressed, (.-special 

:: h 

. ' 

9 the 

same sp 


l.jhj. >.)„. a 

ad plate If.jlrj 


nihj . 


* Th< 

~ ; 

Duncan. 1 

OCA Hmmwn 

Pedicel yeiy smaD, coal - rcifch prominent 

Costse faint, coral curved and horn-shaped. O. licycla. 
The following is a lisr of all the Uiu.wn Australian Tertiary 
Morals corrects ■>-. < proem paper : — 

n- Woods. 
nestratus, „ 

Ti-ocliurii<tt!iu.s ntrriiHunaUs. Duncan. 


M McC<„,i. 

'■':' , s ' 


M. Ed. and 1 








•,■ WomUi. 


h gam*. 

„ armata. 


The results of the 


That we have no CaryoplnjUia living or fossil in 
2. That we have three well marked and peeuli 

3. That 

> species of Sphci 

5. That we have a fossil form of the Cretaceous -onus 
Smilotmr/ms in our Miocene rocks. 

0. Also a new species of Cu>/o^,nlia with only two cycles. 

I may add also that, in a monograph. I am preparing of our 
Australian living corals. 1 shall 'nave occasion to describe two 
new species of Deltocyathus, one very similar to D. viola, and 
several speck - ' std.imia, $c. 

L'xL'i.ANAiiOx of Plates. 
Plate I 

Fig. \.—Placotrocht 

* f 2&&&n~ 


.■<'. : ..'w.-.' v ' 

[triable star in the constellation Ara. My 
■tore the Society the detailed observations 
discovery of the star's variable character, 
interesting to the members, and at the 
lias been done before in the history of 

obserw'd with the comparison stars, in 
identity of the latter beyond all doubt, 
general plan pursued "by me for the 
parison -tars, I will proceed to expla: 

it. Thefoui 
itar C of the 8th magni; 

i- it. Tiu- 
i < '. A roii 

' ' ■ ■ ■ 
north polar distance as B passed ver 

and a star or • .' il ,' 'y~. I in. 

latter being th • aboul a decree apart, J 

first took to be Sigma Arae. This 5th magnitude star I will f 
convenience designate V. A reduction of this comparison ga 
the following results for difference of right ascension and nor 
polar distance of the star- 1 1 .ugh the cent 

of the ring and the field.— 

E.A. N.P.D. 

' = _ 57 830 

3 determined with 
accuracy as follows :- 

D— B, in B,A. = + 1 1269 D— B, i; 

T may state thai the value ad 
small round n-l'mla a-.p^ared 

V. which latter acrordnm to a remark of this .late was -a 

and asbotb ol ■ from its centre the 

for north polar di-taime u a- sati^i'a lory. The following 

B-V, in B.A. — — 57. 711 B-V, in X.P.D. = — 16 1( 

On this evening there is a rough sketch of the comet am 

sketch. On the . . 

with the sextant the star V. which 1 had erroneously supp. 

a single comparison of B and Y across 
lation of the difference of north polar 

Adopting the - ' \ hair and Antares. taking 

the "Nautical Almanac" ami emjhovum mean refraction for 
temperature o0 : . and procure 1>'J(J in. in the reduction, I get the 

Iv.nplovinirnov. X h • ; a ., -cAta.M distances from Theta Scorpu 

and Emllm, c : ,ud they both establish 

deduced from the measurements from Altair and Antares ; so 
there cannot be the slightest doubt that the position of the star 

the imperfect going of the clerk for to 1 am an interval as fifty- 

reference to B as t 

WliLlt- en-M-o.1 in s,-;in 

r faint one of the 11th i 

Melbourne, with the reqiu 

example in proof of that eminen 
The Observatory, Windsor, 
November 22nd, 1*77. 

On a Dental peculiarity of the Lepidosteidao. 
By W. X.Baekas, L.K.C.P.L., M.E.C.S.E. 

[Bead before the Boyal Society ofN.SA 

1 species of Pal:v.mi>L-us v 

point, as in tiie I'aheonisei. The tail 

belongs as is stated to the specimen) is a true hcteroeerral f<>na 

im.listin-uis!::; .: ■i.i.M-us. The position of the 

character to the fish, and I pi <, — * ' - t :] >»■ as ,i,iH- 
podeus. The result, then, of the examination of these .specimens 

ied to Platy- 
Agassi/." In the above extract there are three known genera of the 

Lepi.lo.sreid;e uam< ! -Pa oni, rns. I\ ^•pTerus. and Acrolepis,so 

Urosthenes, and • mily that have 

been obtained i of New South 

"Wales. Unfortunately I have never seen these specimens, nor 
have T been ab (I of them. It 

will be noticed I above, there is 

no description of Urosthenes nor of Myriolepis, and the only details 
of the characfc the position of 

the dorsal fin a i taiL Considering 

WC will I:.!,: 'a;;s well t-MOU-ll ilopi.lir 

with tho external char;' crki, nt Pal* P\-.»pti 

In.lucMiim-Jliad thepleasui 

undoubtedly tipped with en; 
teeth of Lepidotus and Dape 

have been unsuccessful, and I cannot learn from others that the 
teetli have ever been seen: however, twelve out of the eighteen 
are Wm to have enam. i I ir teeth; it is, 

so characterized, and I a —ion that any 

- that has not its 

teeth tipped h; - "tains to some 
other family of Ganoids.* 

Having pointed out how general this peculiarity is in the 

known Lepido.-;< (particularly 

to the teeth theniM '-.- u,.l 1 - al talv. the it eth of Paheoniscus 

and Pygopterus as tv| >i ■■.■' .cause they are 

Since my paper was written, I hare roc 
«h belonging to this fcunilv, viz., A. bh 
ipped I know not. 

are Lepidosteus and Polrj 

h of the ja 

iking) and 

i: 1; ^^} , ;' ! ' 1 '''^:'" '"^t" 

hfa °ome 

they are so numerous that tl 

is that thoy are " m broker 


genera I have taken as typ 

■ arranireiiicui or t!ie enamel is 

The tooth 

approa.-h. < the apex it rap! 


classification did good. 

. [Mr. MacDonnell has evidently quite mistake 
paper. In writing it my object was to point out 
of the genera in the family Lepidost( 

supposed genera and species of t 
teeth probably pertained to some 
steidae. I referred to no particula 
)ecimens — being Australian— aw a 
found my paper. Of course, i 

ifnT Zubt P their da- nVu^n'-'t 

Notice of a New Fossil Extinct Species of Kangaroo. 
Sthenurus minor (Owen). 

(Owen), i ll.A., , F.R>.,"i'r;' 

At the close of tl . ,< il that I had 

received from Mr. Lowe, of Groree, a portion of a skull of an 

.As that iv p. way of some members of 

Marsupial known to them feasor I )\ven"s 

remarks, in order to a-.-Ni' in e\:ei..h,u in formation on the 
Marsupials of Australia. 

The report is headed, " On a new species of Stkemtnus. with 
remarks on the relation of the -onus tu Dorcopsis, Muller. Bv 
Professor Owen. ( .15.. F.E.S.. F.Z.S.. \e." i Plates xxxvn and 


The author says:— "The present species of extinct kangaroo is 
; : o molar series 

of both sides of the upper jaw, with the intervening bony plate. 

is tlucc null- t.urh.As In 

" What 

% are well shown in the portic 

' t, , ' . ' L 

Diprotodon from the 
reprint*,! by spe 


s of the 

teeth, specie* divc-runl fivuu the common 
vorous types in Sfi/loifon ami TlniU-othe 
tv]);.' in 'l>oli)J<h> and St, rt'otjnathus in on 
carnivorous type exemplified In Triroiu 

'['I. 1-tVVr; 

Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances. 
5y II. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government Astronomer. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S. W., 5 December, 1877.] 

etric Disturbances, recorded by the 
i the Observatory, are so remarkable 

that 1 think a few notes about them should be placed on record 
for reference ; at the same time they will doubtless be interesting 

The nmark il mij- m , ti i -pin ..• pr t ., U re during hur- 

ricanes are well known. Fit/ Hoy stated that a fall in Europe of 

where the usnai i mch maOer 

than in Europe, a similar fall would of course indicate a corre- 
sponding v <r,. ea ter disturbance, f have, therefore, for the sake of 
comparison, taken out from various ■eeords 1 i ivcra-e results 
for twentv hurricanes. 

From these the aVerage ricane comes on 

-is 0-147 in.; the ,mr^ pcf.o,l\ Nor win h t'v fall extends is 10> 

The av 




of 31 -'J -iZ. 1 






-Lor ro.( 12 


r i - 



and by 11-30 






ice is that for It 

'. \ 

that day 



in the office at 4 p.m., w 



Dg W 

ere observ 

ed in several . 




1 350 in. per hour, 
ecorded, the anemo- 
rind right round the 

to remark ; the 
,-!■ lmv collier 

tir. How 


• tliuiKler- 

.11 [t'l'-l-lullll i 

of It 

must get 

passed over Co , not given. We 

reported at i' 


incl the sudden fall 
ons of the velocity, 
nt to the partial 

216 notes ox some reoest bakometkic distubbances. 


Mr. Conbeb said he was taking observations in connection 

with the trigonometrical survey party near Carcoar when thi.- 

storm occurred. They were on' the outside edge of the storm. 

From half-past 5 till (j o'clock lie wa,- trying to see the station 

ising-ove'r C u t H. . tt t t c ist of the 

Mr & Scott: What was the -m 

itest velocity of the wind 

registered at the Observatory? 

3Ir Ih^iu : l.'-'i i.-il— an hour ? 

oeared to 

travel was not improbable. The incr 

ea>ed U :H mo>i 

cmiM h;irdly be produced by the tli 

• : • ' 

the water, as the cloud was earned h; 

the wind before it. !':■• 

1 a cv, lone on a small sen e. 

t spo't the barometer would 

rise, then fall as the centre passed <;\ 

Mr. Kusseli, said he forgot to men 

.,",-■' ' ,- ' : ' .■.-'•' ■■:.'•, -'■: 

<■ ■■'.■■■: •■; , ., -- ,■ ■■, ..:-. ■ . . 

The velocity of wind at the 

,^p .mall i du 1- 

from S to 20 miles per hour. 

t account for 

mier-rl md. 

se here from the south-west : we 
niug from the south-west, evi- 

forin liuhtnini:. The velocity of 
velocity of the cloud. The uppc 

a hot, dry wind, c 

harged with electricity, and when a cold 

5 vapour gets condensed, and, as Professor 

i, the electricity becomes distributed over 

fewer and larger wa 

this meeting-ground 

of the two winds varies with the trades. 

the trade comes farther south, and we 

are in the latitude o 

f the mar-in, and therefore in the latitude 

while in an ordinary year the meeting- 

ground of the two 

storms. That the in 

nnediate cause is this meeting, I think, is 

and polar) could be 

traced in 178. The fact that .luring the 

pasUvvo warm years 

we have had few storms seems to he opposed 

tated ; but I think it could be explained in 

late hour. With re 

gard to the vortex theory which Mr. Scott 

has suggested. 1 tin, 

k we can hardly accepi it as an explanation, 

mis the b 

in America a thcorv has !..■.. . - > account for the 

storms which arc so frequent there. It has not been generally 
accepted, but it is in accordance with vcrv manv .observed 
facts. According to this theory, when the tropical and polar 

there would be a c rrc*;> u.ding - tcuum. Of course, pressure 
exerted on a fluid is distributed all over it, but when large spaces 
are concerned this takes time, and we know from many experi- 





l General Meeting c 

it the Eo 

val Society o 

f Ne 

w South 


held in the Society's 



H. C. Eussell, F.TL 
Annual Eeport of tht 

'(•;;' l> 

' *t\v: ( -.' 

L r :_ 


n.lits ;»r.. 


ement of 


lS is°very S 'encouraiii) 


»,|V l 

;;; : ;;- 




for the time 
being; Aet] ■ ii were not held 

the respective 

several Sect ions were well attended i 
members, others may still be considered as only in their preli- 
minary stage, and the Council hopes that the session now com- 
menoing will bi _ a Seel gorous activity. 

" The general meeting.- • \s 1S7G were, 

in addition to the annual Conversazione, which was held at the 
Masonic Hall on the 3rd of May, eight ordinary meetings and 
two extra meetings held at the Society's rooms. The meetings 
of the various Sections were held monthly at the Society's rooms. 

"The Council A\ the papers read at these 

meetings, as well as an Abstract of its Proceedings and those of 
the Sections, under the (for a small Society) less pretentious 
name of Journal,' instead . f ' 'I'l-ni^nm i.-' as before. 

" The Council I fti oidable delay in the issue 

of the Journal for 1^7(5. which they hope, however, will be in the 
possession of members before long." 

" During last year, a very large number ■ f the Society's ' Trans- 
actions,' together- iblicahons issued 
by the Government, relating to this Colony, were forwarded by 
the Council to different Scientific Institutions in England, 
America, and the Continent of Europe. The Society has thus 
become one of the most effectual agencies for making this Colony 
favourably known abroad. 

"Already a very numerous and valuable collection of books and 
pamphlets, recei those just referred 

to, forms the nnc - ientific library ; 

and to this end the C urn I have a sodurit g last year subscribed, 
through Messrs. Triibner A. Co., in London, for twenty-five 
different scientific periodicals— English, French, and German. 

" The acquisition of these hooks and scientific periodicals has 
already filled up most of the available space at the Society's 

" The Council has decided to open the rooms of the Society for 

viz., on Monda 7 to 10 o'clock— 

to enable member.; to make'use > f the books and periodicals. 

"For the present, the Council has deemed it unadvisable to 
allow any books or periodicals to be taken away from the 
Society's rooms bvanvof the members; but as soon as the books 
are properly arranged and catalogued such advantage will be 
readily <•< needed, under { rot or restrictions. 

"in May last a deputation elected by the members of the 
Society waited upon the then Minister of Justice and Public 
lu-trutt on. w th a » w . t u:_ • g upon the Government the 


claim of the Society to a liberal assistance in the shape of an 
annual endowment, and also a lump sum towards providing a 
suitable building for the Society. 

" This deputation was courteously received by the Minister 

v»ho promised to bring the matter before his colleagues. 

" i'he eluuiu'i t M ,i-ny >\h l ,ub since occurred, prevented 
this matter beiiui hrou-ht "io i ho desired issue. It has, however, 
quite lately been brought under the favourable consideration of 
the Hon. the Colonial Secretary and the Council feel confident 
that both the Government and Parliament will take a liberal 
view of the position of this Society and its requirements. 

'" In such a ease ils us,:' . tsed, while at 

present the want of adequate funds prevents the Council from 
carrying out some of the most essential means for effecting such 

At the cone' UB informed the 

members of the Society that 3Ir. Catlett. who had been 
Assistant Secretary former twenty years, had, in consequence 
of the increased duties e> ' : sphere of the 

Society, been compelled to tender his resignation, which the 
Council accepted with much regret. 

Mr. W. H. Webb had since been appointed as Assistant 

The following ir ending 30th 

April, 1877, was read by the Rev. W. Scott* M.A., Honorary 
Treasurer : — 


! adopted. 

taken, ami the follow iii£ cent ieineii 

{e.v-officio) : 




Arthur B 

Alfred J. 

The eert: 

iliesites of eiu 

The Cka 

nnrw sunn 

?ek to the 111. 

-.^f-ronom;.. \<-., W.vln.'j.lay . 

^.;:;;;;^;' : ' V [Friday 

[iVfl-.siziniir ■ 


The Vice-Presidents ;in.l Council receive.! the 

\nillery played a seleetit 

Ruhmknrff roil and electrical t\ 
series of experiments from tim 

Mr. H. C. Russell B.A. 
Mr. Chas. Moore. F.L.s 
ProtV>->or Liversidge. 

The following gentlemen were dulv 
of the Society, viz. :— 

Griffith Evan Russell Jones, B.J 

Josiah Mull 
Percival R. ] 

Professor Lrvi 

A paper on the '■ Sphenoid. Crania] Bones, Operculum, ami 
supposed Ear Bones of Ctenoditx," and on the " Scapula. Coracoid. 
Eibs aDd Scales of Ctenodua" by Mr. W. J. B&rkaa, M.K.C.S.. 
was read. 

The Eev. ^Y. B. Cr.ARk;: then read a paper entitled "Xotice of 

a new fossil ^i^antic Bird of Australia, now named I)n>niorni>t 
Australia (Owen). 

Mr \MiM. Hoi i is th n n id , pnpei en flu Liernm 

As the bichromate solution p 
the ordinarv bichromate cell. 

, Bav View Asylum, CooVa Eiver. 

John Bennett, Sydney. 

Fn Ik E\ uisSI [h s>(5 ( >\-f. 1 -treet, Sydney. 
Samuel MaeLh.miell. :i'2i\ George-street, Sydney. 

John Mann. Neutral Bav. 

! „• . >• , ._ M.i l\' Beach. 

mittee: s. L. & 


.). s. 


G. j 

V. Monvll. 

C.E., J. W. M-Cu 


«* D— Jfaf*«ri jfi 

md Boi 

any.— 1 


man: R D. 

pps. Corn- 

E. Dai] 

tor of Her- 


/.v,i i:-J/u-;-o,v, v ,y 


in t ! ;!!ni, 



:, M.E C.S., 


.1. m.;V 

..'w. Mac- 



ion F— Geography. 

Secretary: W.Eo 
E. L. Monu-iiur,. 

t-.i, < 




r, E.B.GS. 

&e*tM H— JfafeoJ 8t 


r. N« 

ild. Seere- 

H. G. A. Wright. 




rd, Dr.Sehuette, 

Dr. O'Reilly. 


ion I— Sanitary an 

d Soou 

// x-/ tt! 

an : Alfred 

K..herr-. M.KC.S. S.vietary: 11 
M |{ I s D r . :',_,., \\ (, \J > 

i appointed for the 
purchasing a Ik 

L by Parliament 

Jamee Eenry, 7.11. George-street. 
Andrew Cunningham, Queanbeyan. 
W. J. Weston, Union Club. 
Kdwanl U. Fairfax. I 77. 3Ia<- . ; iiarie-street. 
Henry A. Perkins. ( >eeau--!ivi-t. Woollahra. 
! I i.uiun M Y,Pi-t.~ i Mttmnati^ lin 

Professor Livebsidoe announced that the Journal 
had been received from the < b'venunent Printer, and ^ 

distributed to the i teiubo^ of the ^- -iety without delay 


KusBell, B.A., F.E.A.S. 

Mr. W. A. Divnv. p'c.S., then read his paper "On am 
toftthodofext 1,8 ad other metals from Pyritei 

Professor Livebsidge, at the request of Mr. P. X. Treh 

."' , .'; .';'( . -". , : ' :■ '. .. ; ; ■ 

■..Im.mai-sti ' . -: up in the san.lsl m 

harphuv ly the " hakiu- action" of a dyke or overihnv of 1, 

table to the Society. 


Seville Griffiths, the Domain, Sydney. 

A. W. Anderson. Union Club. SvdneV. 

Thos. James Thompson. Pitt-stiver. Sydney. 

Edward I.I, i 1 Jotu s. :Uo. <;-, ,i- e -street, Svdne 

Pichar.l Pead, AI.l)., Sindeton. 

Charles Jam,- J'aehe. C!e\ eland House, Eedfern 

From the Go 

South Wales 

The Rev. J. 

,-"s Rooms, Eli> 

" ■ . ■ ■ 

Ordinary monthly meeting of the Koyal So, 

Wa <-. lu-i.l i tlu- s, t -u s i; 

■ im.ic-r f:iv,.urahl. 

Eussell, B.A, r.K.A.S. 

The Eev. W. Scott, M.A., Hon. Treasurer, announced that in 
response to two circulars the sum of £399 3s. had been promised 

We Iune the honor to inform you tl 
r., | '7/tL. - ,' ' u > ],, 

In re Deputation to the Govf.rnm i;vr from the Rotal 

Society of New South Wales. 

Reasons J assistance. 

1. Popular Scientific Lectures.— To enable the Society to institute 

courses of popular scientific lectures. 

2. Working Sections.— To permit the establishment of working 

Sections of the Society for the promotion of special branches 

;!. Scientific Lihrari/.—l^ enable the Society to form a Library 
of standard scientific works. 

1. To collect . . . — To found a central insti- 

tution in New South Wales for the exchange of scientific 
publications between the institutions of this Colony and 
those of other Countries. Recent experience has shown 
that the Transactions of this Society will be received as an 
equivalent for the publications of most of the leading 
Societies of Europe and America. 

5. Scientific investigations.— InEngland. similar sci. utific Societies 
afford valuable ...fom a*,< u ;■• tin- Government on many 
subjects. The Royal Society of Sydney has done something 
in the past, and is anxious to do more in the future. 

G. LisiiJ/irienf funds.— The money at its disposal will not permit 
the Society to maintain even its present relations with the 
public and other Societies, and it is totally inadequate to 
carry our fcl of usefulness. 

7. Other Societies receive aid.— Thev feel that thev are justified in 

" ieties established here 

eive grants of money 

Societies in other Colonies.— The corresponding Societies in 
Victoria. New Zealand. ;! nd Tasmania, are liberally sup- 
ported and pro-, ided n . v their respec- 

promotion of sci 

hi -her educat: 


ion in the Colony ; 

and the undersigned iiuiv respect fully ask. 

in the name of the 

Society, for assistance truui the (Jovemm 

ent, in order that 

they may make 1 

abilities I" 

1 Famish scientific 

•vided witli suitable air. 

mnnodation— Bur- 

lino-ton House h 

aviiur been r"ecnt!y reinn'It at great cost 

expressly for this _ 

i purpose ; and tbe Kbu.-il S,.cief\ of London 

has large sums of momy annually placed 

at its disposal by 

the Government. 

W. B. CLAEKE, Vice 








A LEIBHTS, If. raormy Secretary. 

A. LIVEBSIDGE, Honorary Secretary. 

'Enclosure Xo. l.'J 

RT.T.Y promise to eonti 

■ibute to the B ■.. 

of the Royal Society 

of N 

.S.W. tbe sum of .£ 

Qount of 

£1,000 be obtanu-,1 m-ee 




[Enclosure No. 2.] 

s the Building Fund 



,F NKW SorTH WA1E3, Xovt 

mber 12th, 1877 :— 


ribb, W. A., F.R.G.S 

Double Bar 

le, Rev. W. B., M.A., 


".".". 5 5 



ix.J*nu>- K.. DouW. 


Hon. John. M.A.. R< 



e, Frank, (}um;i,m 

5 5 


jlison, J. F., F.G-.S., : 

W^ street '" "' 


-i^r/lW^,,. The 


hi ml. R. A. A.. :»'('. <> 


?u.'h. c, b.a'., f.r. 


: :, .:' ■• 

*? j[ J| 


ht/H.a.A, M.R.C.: 



7. (Two cop 

The Insti 

j at the Adelaide C 
ruary, March. April 

August, Septembei 

Report of tlu« P- z - (' ti ■ t t li i (. 

liuumrn • i -1876". Dr. Schor, 

The Opinio CVr.-inuin oi the Palm House in th Botanic G:u 

Bo=ro>- : -Fir>f Annual Report of the Board of Health of the City of 
Do.' do., do., 1875. 


i Insurance Report, 1869-70-71-' 


iugs' Banks, 1867-68-69-7 
;ral of tbe Commonwealth 
The Smithsonian Imlituth 

The Association. 

1874-75. The Director of the Board. 

Bulletin of Museum of Comparative Zoology. Vol. III. 

Memoir! of W ogy, Wo.«10. 

The Museum, Harvard College. 

C Institute Historical Coll. 

Part IV. Part V. 
Part VI. 
Agricultural Stal tmry Return. 

Reports of tl V . -torm), quarter 

The Victorian Year I 

. I, fasc 3 ; and 


A ; . :.K ; ,1 R, ] „ , ; • , . S) New South Wales, for the 

.vear 1876. The Secret 

■:;■::•■! : \ . - 


K>,:iy on Now South Wales. TAe Goo r 

« South Wales. If. C. Swrf/, i?.^., F.R.A.S. 

■ ■ > 

New S.uth Wale.. 1*76. 

A. - V-w South Wal.-. Part IV. 

icn. XXVI Band, Jai 

Vol. I., January and March, 1874. 

r Lectures, No. III., on Strain and Over aeti. n • f the If. art 

Leport of the State Geologist. (O.-ol.-si.-ul Sun.y of New 
y); 1874^75. The State Geologist, S 

; land third edition. 1876. 

I Printing Office. 

Astronomical and 14 - „t the U.S. Naval 

Daih Bulletin of Weather Reports. 12 vol... 1*73. 

Kf Chief AVvW f#7.r,-. TTar fl^r/ 

Report of Explorations and Sunw>. V. !. HI. Geuloir.v. witli pis 

Do. do. Tol. V. Zoolotry, do. 

Fir-' R.-pnrt of 
Report of the Co 

The Chief of Engineers 

.- - 

Do. Tli.-Tn-rian M..H,,...:, :m,l K,- ! 
Crili.-ii Li.t of the ilollusea of New Z«i 

. l,-i i; ' lx :ia a Fibrous Plant (hvo] 

Manning James ; Eerier on the Re] 

alogue of Meteorolog. !n-in;;:i ^iN.\.-. 

hed 1787.) n^;.,,''.'/ jr. ;. r.'',-. 

C, F.K.A.S. : The I 

hysieal Gojlogy anl Geography of Great 

The \_\xrCml 

Pro/. Lh-enidye. 

era. Wen, t!>,. R.vky Mountains Tertiary. 


Prof Liver»i.lqe\ 

r First: "The Rh.-.i. 1 ho! ! edr:»ri',-'-.." 

J/. Por,/rr JT«Mfc, ^., Jf.D. 

• GoU Fields and Mineral pL-triets of 

J/,-. ./,,«,* /Z, ::■>, 

Geological Observations li 

Specimens (2) of Colum 

1 Expedition. 

Prof. Lhertidge. 



Cambridge— The -\ 

Harvard Coll 

Chicago.— AoademT 

Jtinneopolis.— Mim 
New York. -Ameri 

": "xl'i 

Penikese Island. - 
Philadelphia.- a cao 


: {~f; 1 

Salem <Maas.)-lVn 

St. Louis.- A.:; 

• . . - 

1.2.3 t.3. 

Al-o ; Trans 


Liege.— So 

Saint Etienne.--s. 

Cape Town.— The ] 
Port Louis— The I 

Auckland— Anck 

OtagO.-Otago Ins 


Hobart Town -Tin' Koval : 

Melbourne.— The KcW;;,- s 

Bordeaux.— Acad 

Lille. - 
Montpellier— A, 




Frankfurt «/M.- 


Gottingen.— K.», 

Gorlitz— Naturf 

Konigsberg— Di< 

Leipzig (Saxony). 

Marburg.— The I 
Muhlhausen — Ei 
Muncheii. -Btaij 

Stuttgart— K.»n, 

Wurtemberg— I 



Siena— R. Aoea<l«'i,.i:i d- Fisiocritk-i. N,*. 1. 
Trieste— Societi Adriatic* di Sci- uz< Natural- 

Amsterdam.— A. id. n i? i: >m u- .1. - s, , 

Also, Mines and Mineral Stal 
Haarlem— Soriet,' Hollandai.e .l.-s Seien 

MOSCOW.— La So. .'t,' Imp. rial. il< - Natu 
St. Petersburg.-L'Aetulemio Imperials 

Edinburgh— <- ._..:-...•. •?. N - i, 2. 3, 4. 

" Th?'i:.v '- , " \ - i ViTi. ' 

Glasgow— GeoU.-i.-al S,,rieiv. Xoj. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
The University. Nos. 1, 2, 4, 6. 

Madrid.— Instituto Geografleo y Estadistico. Nob. 1, 2, 3, 4, 10. 

Stockholm —Kongliga Svenska Yentenskapo-Akadentie. Rot. 1. ! 

Greneva.— Institute National Genevoie. Nos. 1, 2, 
NeUChatel— Societt' des Sciences Natuivll,-s. No, 

Number of Publ 

., Sydney, 19 Augurt, 1877. 




Mr. H. C. Rttssell, F.R.A.S., in the Chair. 

Tin: prelimii <v\ meeting of tliis Section \\a- held on 9th 
1877, and th. ited as office-b 

For the Session of ls77 .—Chairman : Mr. II. C. Krssi:r.i.. 

revious represo fthe Galaxy. 

fter discussion th. Seen ian's proposal, 

ml it was decided that drawings should be prepared for the next 

Mr. Russell - of Lissaious's 

ml were drawn by an instrument made from Mr. Russell's 
tstruetions by Mr. Lenehan. 

FRIDAY, 1 JUNE, 1877. 

Mr. II. C. Russell, F.R.A.S., &c, in the Chair. 

The Rev. Geo. Martin read a paper on "The appearance 

:' that portion ,.f ihc Milk\ Way tnw ;- _: -i 

Gent&ttruB" and "Crux An- I vrithadrawing 

'!i-ideiMii!c discrepancies in representations of the (ialaw, 
".-.Alpha and I»-t.i <'•:.- . ,i to lie in the 

es on the ever memorable and 
1876 (the '-Dandenon-" -ale). 
Me traced the course of the -ale in its progress through the 
Colony. The high velocity of the wind (1.53 miles per hour) 
registered by the < )b < v\.J <r, inst • mi< nts was confirmed beyond 
a doubt. Mr. Russell exhibited some maps and drawings in 
illustration of his paper. 

r i . ( imiurvN r ' ' L m ,, , > , n-sof the " Milky 

Way" in the neighbourhood of the " S.mtlu ro Cross." Some of 
fche drawings is request in the early part 

present npp. aVan.v < f ,i, p'-.C lie !k,1 Potued n^idrPn 
alteration m t„ i |U t . ,!, 1 , ,t d portion o Ll *hn 

• : ■ 

ano, 1630. 

Selu iner, 

1 designs by Mr. MacCican ; the speciality 

isists in the necessity for having a slit 

y to telescopes of 3-ineh 

the points brought before the Section 

FRIDAY, 3 AUGUST, 1877. 

Mr. II. C. Eussell, F.R.A.S., &c., in the Chair. 

The Chairman stated that he had been in correspondence with 

Mr. H. J. Beats,,,.. Lite .Master R.X.. and resident in Levuka, 

Fiji, relative to the transit of some dark bodv across the sun's 
disc on 1711) M:;re!>. L877. Mr. Heatson had in the first place 
communicated his .,!..- nntinii t<> the Sydney Observatory, in a 
letter dated 10th M v. 1>77. aod in r. < nest from Mr. 

Eussdl for fuller details ho supplied the following account of 
his observation: — 

Levuka, Isle of Ovaulau, 

Fiji, 12 July, 1877. 
H. J. Bcatson, Esq., to H. C. Bussell, Esq. 

1 was usinjj m\ sextant as usual with a moderately 

cut the di 

seof the planet 1 

ike the inter-eel ioi 


circle— whereas 

in Wanv 

n Do La Rue's dr 

awin- of Mars.-U 1 

position of IS*? 

details on the 

ncy of Mars in 

d blotted them on 

" Mr.'j. 

U. C. Colter , 

exhibited a workh 

is IQi-ineh silvere 

'l ' , 

del of an obser- 

es for the fine ref 



ve shown by the 

.. These eye-pie 

-ns In Mr. Russe 

the ease with wl 

ed, and consequ 

ent lessening of 


of injury when 

Mr. Ki 

ad a paper by H 01 
opes of the future. 

irobb, F.R.A.S. 

of Dublin 

r inv 

rhich the author 

ntended with in the 

1 " 

parative advantages and disadvantages betw 
refractors, finally inclined to the opinion that the Cassegrainean 
form of reflector would offer least difficulty in any increase ,.f 
dimension over those now in use. The meeting then terminate!] 


Mr. H. C. Eussell, F.E.A.S., &c, in the Chair. 

Both the Chaibuan and Mr. G. D. Hirst brought several fine 

drawings of Mars. A comparison between these and the work 

of observers at former oppositions brought out many points of 

agreement: suffii • rd a complete 

-•.field - 

with the results of previous workers 

ronomy. The great snow T -cap surrounding Mars' southern 
3 had of late decreased considerably in size, owing doubtless 
i rapid approach of midsummer to the planet 
}here. From a mean of m-v. :\i! mc^i;r, - Air. Eussell 
polar compression of *Vth closely in accordance with 
Main's results, who makes it \,th : it is to be noted, however, that 
other observers have give; Lies to this com- 

pression, the ellij -iinguishable by the eye like 

that of Jupiter. 


Mr. H. C. Eussell, F.E.A.S., &c, in the Chair. 

Mr. Eussell submitted a series of drawings of Mars made bv 

himself, Mr. A. Fairfax, and Mr. G. D. Hirst. These were 

l of the planet. 

on comparison with the drawings of Dawes, but the markings as 
a whole showed little resemblance to anv previous delineation of 
the planet. M telegram had been received 

from Sir G. Airy, the Astronomer Boyal. informing him that two 
satellites to Mars had been discovered at Washington, and re- 
questing a Beard < Mr. Eussell said he had 
kept a careful v, : or, but had not 
succeeded in seeing them. A discussion took place on some 
curious facts connected with the thunderstorm of 23rd September, 
1877, and the meeting closed. 

This meeting lapsed, owing to the absence of several of the 

nged so as to form a consecutive se 

' "eatim-s ■ 



<to the future w. 
He also propo 

eems to indicate that deposit* ha 
Mr. BsffSTOAK exhibited sample 

the different p 


Professor LiTEKStbGB in the Chair. 
Mr. M-Cutcueox brought under the notice of the Section a 
process forthe ; cobalt, founded 

n cyanide of potassium 
and the insolnl cobalt. 

3Ir.Sr.EEi'<. ystallized quartz penetrated 

by aeieular crystals, probably hornblende and crystallized 
cuprous oxide (cuj/rite,i, t'l-.un ( hmcurrv mine, encrusted with 
the uii'..- carbonale <>r ehessylite. 

Mr. Beksusax mentioned having found associated with some 
specimens of noumeitc a considerable quantity of carbonate of 

FRIDAY, 20 JULY, 1877. 
Pjkhfessob Liyeesidge in the Chair. 

been placed at the disposal of the Section, for the purchase of a 
suitable cabinet. 

A conversational discussion took place upon chemical and 

geological subjc Us, < pceia l\ el ting to »vorh wi ich the Section 

FRIDAY, 17 . 
E LiyEESiDGE announced thai the Hon. 

Mr. Layard, C.M.G., 

Consul in the Eijis, I received from him a email specimen of 
lignite which he had obtained from the Eewa Eiver. Descrip- 
tion : black in r ore or less grey ; 
brittle, breaking with a sub-' he fresh surfaces 
possess a resinous lustre ; yields readily to the knife, and fur- 
nishes a black j Teak; it burns readily, but 
like charcoal almost without flame ; no coke is formed, but a 
voluminous brown-coloured ash is left. Sp. gr. 1/30. Small 
particles of pyrites are present. 
A •■. ■ • 

Moisture 16-82 

Combustible matter 7516 


A second piece yielded only 72 per cent, of ash. The portic 
entered under head of con ides the sulphu 

nitrogen, o\\ _ • . n ' i -h it was not thougl 

u ■-■•■-■■■ u-;is received 

to the extent and thickness of the deposit. It is not dissimil 
to many lignites used for fuel in Europe. 

dTUBDAT, 28 OCTOBER, 1877. 

E the Section, on the invitation of Mr. P. N. 

he head of Lane Cove to examine the 

ie had bmn- ■ -' the Society 

.- meeting, of this session. 

■ truoture. in which the individual pieces are of 
■ • • . occurs on the top of a hill. 

Professor Liversidge exhibited some interesting specimen* 
f the siliceous and osh, r deposits from some of the hot springs 

after the manv able deseripth 
already published by various observers. He would only trouble 
them with a few remarks upon certain of the specimens, and 
would invite their attenti graphs placed on 

the table, in lieu of any description of the place. Amongst the 
specimens were some sample- of siliceous sinter, from a spring 
opposite the hotel at Ohaiawai. on the mad between the Bav of 
Islands and Hokianga on the west coast : also of cinnabar, from 
the mercurial springs near to the same place. Professor Liver- 
sidge mentioned thai ho was much struck by t lie general similarity 

limited area, ami that water is absent ; hence there are no hot 
springs or pools of warm water at Mount "Wingen, as there would 
be if the jets of steam and heated vapour had to make their 

( ward passage through water. The escaping gases „„ „„, 
laces possess very much the same general character, and deposit 
milar sublimates of sulphur and certain volatile salts around 
ie vents. At the hot mercurial springs near Ohaiawai the 
lercury occurs both in the native state and in the form of 
nnabar ; some of the i i ;y of recent 

""hi, since it was observed in one place to uniformly 
apletely fill certain -i all eracks and crevices existing 
snaly rock, but the greater part of it is evidently 
" brought to the spot by the small stream which 

■rgomg a 
3 sufficient to account for the phei 

at (>! i iwai ami other hot springs in INew Ze 

bright blue colour of the watt i' in the basins on the Pink and 
White Terraces at Ivotomahana, a blue so extraordinarily beauti- 
ful that many tra>. lor- are unable to find words to express 
their admiration for it, Profess c Lirersidge explained that the 
blue colour was due to the reflection of the light from the 
innumerable m a suspended in the water 

—just as the pale sky-blue colour of a mixture of milk and water 
is caused by the reflection of the light from the minute fat 
globules suspended n it "-' attribute the 

little doubt that the escaping steam bears minute par- 

,-ith it in its up' 

e. The colour of the 
t of the colour of 

sr below it, an v a of the water h 

due to a reflection of the skv. The beautiful opale 

the watci in Hit basin is vci em in appeal met 

r but equally ma ae of one of ng\ 

that the terraces and basins are hnilt'up. So rapidly is tbis 
dep isitcil that leaves id twi-s bocun qui 1 1\ i ivt ted, and it- 
is stated that even dead birds become elated with it before the 
animal matter has time to decav and fall to pieces. The pink 
colour of the pi te to the entanglement 

by tl ( asp( riti. s on tin stal i fa« es of the terrace* of small 


of mixed ncwh formed iron pyrites 

and dead vegetable 


born meetings of the Botanic Section have been held this session, 

contributed, b : the Herbarium 

which has been established. 

- proposil e Section should 

undertaken by four of the 


meeting of the session was held on the above date. 
s absence of the Chairman, Mr. II. C. Eussell, BA-, 
, took the Chair. 

harp, of Adelong, 

parasites, neatly mounted in glycerine, 

A vote of thai; .vorded to Mr. Sharp. 

Mr. G. D. Hirst exhibited Swift's new patent achromatic 

condenser. He m I « t i i I read a few note 

on the use of a elm nh condenser -cnerallv. 

Mr V\". Mv. 1>. n i . , ■ .r measuring 

thin -lass covers t„ the ,,'.,,, inch. 

The Eev. Geo. Martin exhibited Crouch's Xo. 1 A binocular 

microscope, a pa fc, with concentric 

Dr. Milford exhibited a large binocular by Collins, with 

sub-stage and aclirouiatic condenser added by Gaunt, of Mel- 
Mr. G. D. Hirst exhibited a prize medal binocular by Swift. 

l the Chair, 
ibiect of the 

; power. 31 r. 

Mr. "Wm. MacDoitkeij ■ No. 2a binocular 

microscope, -wi'.:; fcu8. The instrument was 

furnished with u bich perfect centricity of the 

stage with the optic axis of the tube was easily secured. 

Mr. H. Patki> atoms he had obtained from 

the fresh water stipplied in the city mains. 

A discussion ensued in reference to diatoms obtainable in the 
vicinity of Sydney, both marine and fresh water species ; and 
the Chairman suggested that members should endeavour to 
procure and mount specimens for the next meeting, and in doing 
■so should keep notes of the locality and surroundings of each 
variety, with a view to the ultimate construction of a complete 
collection of the - I nd its neighbourhood. 

Mr. J. IT. C. Coltee exhibited specimens of Drosera peltata, 

found in the neighbourhood of Sydney. He made some remarks 
upon the leading i ~e species, and promised 

to pursue the matter further and place the results before the 
Section in the form of a paper. 

Mr. Gr. D. Hibst showed a drawing of a new species of 
Branch tonus— a rotifer apparently common at the present time 
in ponds on the Sydney water reserve. A specimen was exhibited 
under the microscope. 

Mr. II. G. A. Wbight exhibited a patent |-mch objective by 
Eoss, and as a sample of its resolving powers he showed a valve 
of the P. angulatum, which with the D. eyepiece and illuminated 
}'v Koss's ' \\\ inch achromatic condenser was finely resolved 
into dots. The objective was also tested for penetration on the 
trachse of a caterpillar, and was found also to be thoroughly 
satisfactory in this respect. 

The Eev. Geo. Mabtik exhibited some slides of his own 
preparing, arm . a Port Jackson, 

mounted in damar. and ■ rnal structure ; 

also Polypidc < : , >a Newcastle, and the para- 

site Cimex leetul acetic acid, and 

showed the structure of the thorax and abdominal segments. 

Mr. Wii. MacDoxnell exhibited a collection of anatomical 
slides, including blood dis>~ -is, and reptiles, 

and showing the different size of the corpuscle in each species. 

MONDAY, 13 AUGUST, 1877. 

Mr. Alfred Roberts, M.R.C.S., in the Chair. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

Mr. ¥m. MacDoxnell exhibited Swift's popular achromatic 
condenser. He read a few notes descriptive of this piece of 
apparatus, which combines in itself all the accessories usually 
adapted to the sub-stage of first-class instruments. 

The Chairman then referring to the proposition made at the 
last meeting, viz., that members should endeavour to procure 
and mount apecu ' be vicinity of Sydney, called 

upon those wii" ;-t the result. 

Mr. H. Paterson said he had obtained numerous specimens 
from a pond in the Botanic Gardens, and from the Mater supplied 
to the city he e\ i . 1 - ui slides of these. 

The Rev. Geo. .Mm:, in stated thai be had examined the mud 
from anchors of orms of diatoms, 

but with poor results ; he had. however, obtained specimens of 
A. Iont/i] l /< and J' , > from scrapings obtained from 
floating objects, lie exhibited a slide showing valves of the 
P. amjulatuDi. 

Mr. G. D. Hirst read a paper on " Some local species of 
I)iatoin>tiT(v" with an account of the method he recommended to 
be followed in i A some remarks 

on the use of diatoms as test objects ; he also exhibited 
numerous slides of the species he had found. 

On the motion of Mr. IE. G. A. Win our. seconded by Dr. 
Milfohd. it was J I be appointed 

for the classification of local -pecies of diatoms, and the fol- 
lowing gentlemen wen 1 appointed: — Rev. Geo. Martin, Dr. 
Morris. Mr. J. U. C. Colyer. Mr. G. D. Hirst. 

Dr. Mn.niHi) read a paper on the Coccus of the Cape Mulberry, 
illustrating the ■ this parasite in 

its abdominal and dorsal aspects. 

Mr. Percital Pedley exhibited some Foraminifera from New 

Rev. Gso. Martin in the Chair. 
The Secretary read a note he had received from the Chair- 
urn. Mr. Alfred Roberts apologising for his absence through 
professional engagements. 

Mr. \V.\i Mai Dovxelt exhibited tw< in objectives b\ 

Seiberz. These lenses showed the very finest defu 
apacity for working through covering glass "007 inch in thick- 

Mr. MacDonei i al a < hil in I Crouch's new eemenn 

maelf, and subjecte 

- :' :■ ' 
•■•i.\s of Podura, mounted 
' ' n « s accorded. 

n the habits ,,fth. cor at ires, the 
■i (.ucce-hful in finding them, 
mded to be adopted I 


way in which these cheap lenses are made, and contrasted it with 
an account of the elaborate and careful manner in which such 
makers as Zeiss and Seiberz construct their work. 

Mr. G. D. Hirst read a paper on " Professor Abbe's Theory 
of Microscopic Vision," illustrated by experiments with his dif- 
fraction platte. Mr. Hirst's paper showed the possibilitv of 
misinterpretation when close-lined objects are viewed under 
high powers, and some novel facts bearing closely on the study of 
the markings on diatoms were proved by experiments with" the 
:. platte. 

Mr. Alfred Roberts, M.R.C.S., in the Chair. 
The Secretary reported that he had no papers from the 
members to be read that evening. 

The Rev. George Martin read a letter that he had received 
from the Rev. Mr i . _didi microseop- 

ist, on the choice of objectives of medium power. The letter 
entered fully into the debah aperture, and 

some important information was furnished as to the capabilities 
of objectives differing widely from each other in this respect. 

Dr. BfOBBIE oscope by Browning, on the 

Stephenson's to his order by 

this maker. The microscope differed from the ordinary Wenham 
" u p to the iV-in. 

objective with good definition and a well illuminated field. The 
stage was constructed so as to remain horizontal while the tubes 
of the microscope incline at a convenient angle for observation. 
The whole insl daily made, and the finish 

reflected <jreat credit on the maker. 

sugar-cane from the Maryborough districts, Queensland. Pro- 
fessor Liversidge stated that Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
Director of the Botanic Gardens, Kew, had written to him for 
some specimens of the affected canes, as he thought that the " dis- 
ease" might be somewhat the same as that affecting the coffee 
plant. By the last mail a reply had been received saving that 
the specimens had been submitted to careful examination by Mr. 
Berkeley and Mr. Broom, the two ablest English funglogists, 
and they had pronounced the markings on the leaves to be due 
to the presence of a minute fungus, a species of Depazea. and 
the little cup-like bodies under the leaf scrolls which Professor 

sted as resembling the fructification of 

red to be due to a coccus. 
. wived that an application should be made to the 
to obtain if possible the use of the room for the Section 
artnight during the recess. 

Remarks on the Coccus of the Cape Mulberry. 
By F. Miwoed, M.D, M.E.C.S., &c. 


w years ago in 

the neighbourhood of Pari 

■amatta, I 

number of mulbe 


1 to the Cape variety 

, c,v U, ,; < 


These latter lnfvo 

and ilouri-lnng. The Cape trees have sign 



a blac 

k colour, and the foliage has been very 


tion of the cause I 

found, some three 5 

almost all 


ipo trees affected ^ 
the tender stalks 
similar to gall-nuts 

vith a parasite havfi 
and young leaves h; 

:'"' ;?' 


and varied from a 


ter. These dome 

on The affected brat 


ive surface, I found 

of deep orange-coloured dust, and that the 


it adhered was of 

a white woollv a 

Wlicro. ■' 


seemed most sickly, 

at!,! accordingly I was d 

ing their 

eans for their destri 

ess with the presenc 

e of these 

dingly I procured 

? the dome-shaped 

bodies, and the dust 


irvse of an insect. 

. Scott, and having 

he objects prepare 

d and a branch of 

the tree, 

he at once 


of the 

History of Insect* 

i, VHth of the Fam 

is an ; 

iccount of some va 

rieties of European 

coccus, and recom- 

■leto glean the fo g int mat ion with reg I 

The protuberances visible on the trees are the 
These dying after _ impregm,- v. th. : ■ ■ - -- - 

smaller than the female. The female, wlm is fumishe-i w.f. ■* 
juices ; here she remains stationary. The male when at liberty 


does not use his wins*. ,lut walks up to the female and remains 
with her. After fecundation the female deposits her egga 
between the tree and herself, having exhausted the whole of her 
substance in general i ng the ova: she then dies and becomes a 
covering for the eggs, which in their turn go through the same 
course of existence. I have here views of the larva in its abdo- 
minal and dorsal aspects and the e-g mamiiiied LDU diameters, 




ing some 

of these creatures. 


ra called GW/in* 

hoo! ' ll n\h>\ 

■ ,m j>; a y 

-'■ | 

hit in the tarsis 

two Ming., ul. 

■ nt.-n 

y upon the ifody 


is terminated 

y two threat 

furnished vvitl 

a proboscis. 





mentioned by Cuvi 


« hnhhm. 

'These creat 

urs 'here .1 


d hare a single 


t in the 

able to captur 

,f tl 

. These 

y from the 

l 1 '' : 

h attacks 

the orange, wh 

!ch I liave ..I 

mined inicroscopi 


Deal Species of Di 
r a. D. Hiest. 

done, it would i I work if such of 

the members as were able, would devote a little time to obtaining 

businesfha?] " r ten days from 

."'"'!. [ch [° ^U^askVou to 

, ^- ■ - ■ ^ " • . ;■ :■ ; «!■••' 

the feeling , ., to begin. ' The 

Bmtomaceae an or no work has 

yet been done to classify the very numerous species which may be 
found within a mile of Sydney, and I have been much embarrassed 
sometimes in: .-miens with any drawing or 

description in the standard works on the subject. 

Manywell-km representatives 

m these waters, but there are many more whose designation one 
lieMt.-itos to fix from the want of some work in which these 

marine and braAi>h u tirwii^ my first uathorin- ^ as from 
some .stranded 1.., kod promising, 

that is to sav ijreen and i;i. . i washing and 

prcparaiion the result turned out absolutely nil, not a single 
diatom rewarded my search : however, as the locality looked so 
rerj favourable I determined to try again, and a few hundred 
yards further u ' 

being covered on their under surface with a thick brown scum. 
This on being treated yielded a fair supply of various 
forms, promim- ;. Jticum, valves 

rather smaller than the English species, but the cross-lines 
coarser : I measured them 34,000 to the inch. Prichard in his 
Infusoria gir< eu id Continental 

species. The following were also in tolerable abundance in the same 
gathering: — I'l- diagonal lines 57,000 to the 

inch, being finer tli an Knu'lish spivii 
Two or three species oi' Stuuruiu-is 

cs fMiiHl Of 

lot f. while 

probably from freshwater,} 
the diatoms were an immeiis. 
bodies not more than the 2 



mg in the 

xtreme length 

without. I have been una 


V/ : 


doubtedlv present in va<t" 
the city/ ( >f tlie known s, 

anT's t .\,.n!l"ktndH of PfeS 


i 'the" w; 

and on the Coi • ifferenl places 

yield each a chara. i, i ti. . mmnwii , iul, spent 8 ZVt«n>- 

wh.Mvishes i> i .mtin-toMiir 

The conditions required for tl v given diatom- 

It may not be out of place here if I mention the pi-oeess ] 
adopt for cleaning the diatom valves, and freeing them from the 
extraneous matter, which even in the purest featherings is sure 
In lie present, and which ! have found out of several methods 
tried to be the most simple and efficacious. Of course the 
process of cleaning will in some instances have to he modified 
by the peculiar nature of the matter in which the diatoms are 
contained, but the following will answer very well for any of the 

The apparatus required will he a couple of Idorence flasks, "a 
spirit lamp, a small quantity of chlorate of potash, and some nitric 
and sulphuric acid. Place the -athering in one of the Florence 
Masks, half-till with water, and shake well for a couple of minutes; 
this will detatch the diatoms from the vegetable and lloeculent 
matter to which they adhere; after shaking, hold the flask 
upright for eight or ten seconds, when the particles of sand will 
subside to the bottom, now before the diatoms have time to 
settle also, decant the liquid into the other flask; this process 
might be repeated wirh ah. it age once or twice, when one 
troublesome element, that is the sand, will have been prettv well 
got rid of. 

After the final decanting let the liquid stand for half-an-hour, 
giving everything plenty of time to settle, carefully pour off 
" ' dist *' 

■■ the se< 
about one-third full ; th 
[amp for 

is before, pour off the a 

lour off the liquid after givi ig the d< p. - t full 
f there is :,o : - t his must 

deposit to eel 

again, and again pour o 
time to settle. If ther 

he got rid of by the addition of hydrochloric acid : a little of this 
add added will immediately show' its presence by effervescing; if 
there is no lime, sulphuric acid can now be added in about the 
same quantity ■ be boiled until it fails to 

turn aiiv darker; if there is much carbonaceous matter in the 
gathering the mixt ire will turn q i t. ok While the acid is on 
the boiling poi i ry small portions at a time, 

to prevent any chance of < '.red chlorate of 

potass: the li:;. .■ntually quite 

clear, the diatoi I in it in the form of white 

cloudy flocculent -■-•-•. \V in < ■ ■ •■' - ■ . a-i.l cautiously 
water until the ' liatoms ample 

time to settle, as the acid on account of it- hi-h specific e:rayin 
keeps them suspended for a longer time than water alone ; when 
they have at last settled pour off and add more water, repe iting 
the process until the diatoms are washed clean from the acid. 
whi -h will he when the liquid poured off gives no acid taste when 
applied to the tongue. 


The diatoms may now be transferred to a convenient receptacle 

feno'id growths lln ibove p .cess may s md somewhat form id 
able to those not experienced, but it practically is not trouble- 
out. I have here two bottles, in one of which is the r*i'r material 
iflmavso term it. and t!i< other oontan < the pure diatoms 

ippears to be as tar as my experience goes, that all those 

e difficult tost object.-, are better mounted dry. 

-■■ " " ••:■ .'•■ . i ', ....-.■ 

uecessfully resolving a difficult test is by no means wasted. The 

vro sitting down before his newiv aom':. 

bjeetonthe stage, turn* . gh1 from hw 

^et him try the si licate diatom 

alve : and" where in the hand of the skilful manipulator a moment 

trt- m.w doing theii best Has this t , 
I think not ; he will carry the knowledge of 

: apply it in the broad field of real 
before him on every side. Should he turn his a 

In- is far 

ii without this preliminary tr; 


fc oS] he iTrd 

° l i'' t sv ;il" ( k i v t ( ti^lu l!n',V\V 

■ ; 

end ther, 

ns of familiarizing 

our disposal, and the questions T hi 

ive <([ 

loted will be duly 

answered " 

—the time spent will not be u 

i ram. 


SD E' 



ig the first meeting; of the Sectio 

ie present rear the 


rers were elected to serve on tl 

unittee : The Hon. 



<. b. i 

Will r ah 

[ FoBDE, H. A. GlLLIAT, JaM 

KS 3L\ 

JWOT&, and E. L. 

Umn i 

oee, out of which number 31 

r. Dc 

Fair was elected 


the general objects of the Section 

ing the past session, and Mr. 3 

•or.le i 

had prepared on 

subjects, to which 


tion of members was specially. 1 

1. With a view of 

ble; a 

nd clippings from 

I- m.p,-.,., 

\M;'!n 1 !!!no".mmir..''"i^ailM 


will be gladly re- 

rhich recently left 


■n surveyors who have been i 

•ecently extending 


[No report of meetings of this 


nwere elected member- of the Committee 

H. N. MacLa 

- Secretaries 

Section were well attended. 

that any of them should I 
published in the Journal of tbe Eoyal Society. 

Xov. 27th, 1877. II. X. MA CLACK IX. 


I Sanitary Science Section of Royal 

To the Pr. -ident uf th ■ II. \ il SocieU of Xe.v South Wale-. 

I have the honor to submit the following report : — 
The Section held its first meeting on the 21st day of March 
last, when the gentlemen were elected to the offices named. 

Messrs. Jacksox, Bedford, Belgkaye, and Mtieeat, mem- 
Mr. IIarhie Wood, Honorary Secretary. 
On the subject of the Vital Statistics of the Colony further 

as ..stained from the Registrar General. 
Steps were taken to procure the Report of the Royal College 
of Physicians on the " lm Towns, IS 10 to 

1869," Report on L dging-koTOea/' 

Report oh Model Lodging-houses. Rumeig (H. W.), "Public 
C- ' T .-. ■ : .._.-., ■-. ■ ■■;■■.■. '• ;. . • .■.-■ '.■•■•. . 

The C'lrurn;. ''.'■ paper -nhicii he ha.l piv- 

pared on the Leirneur system of Sewage, before the Society, on 
account of its public importance. 

On the 16th July last, Mr. Jackson read an able paper on 
Small-pox in its hygienic aspect. 

Some of the re psed for want of 

a quorum, owing to the inability of members to attend. 
I have, &c,, 




JANUARY, 1S77.— Gexeeaj, 1 

Higlust Reading 30-066 ir 

-■ir .5- xaiir. Lowest Hiding 29-357 

Mean Height 29717 

Willd ... Greatest Pressure 8"4 lbs. 

Mean Pressure 06 lb. 

Number..! !'-'.... 
Prevailing Direction ... S. 


inchest in the Sun ...1492 On the 6th. 

11 iiiln st in Mack Box with 

Glass Top 203-1 On the 10th. 

I.owrr-t on the Grass ... 553 On the 29th. 

Total Fall f ™ £ %{ 

Evaporation Total Amount 6*811 inches. 


:t obseryatory, 

EBEUAEY, 1*77.— General Abste 

tiffl.ct Reading 30- 13<> inches o„ 

owest Reading 39567 „ on 

Temperature Highest in the Shade 

Highest in Black Box 

• ■ : ■ . •.;:.■■ ; .: ■ .- ■■-■ 


MAECH, 1877.— Ge 

iri K lu...t Reading 

a- Faht. I - -. i: tim- 

'lean Height 

Wind ... Greatest Pressure... 

Mean Pressure ... 

r of Days Calm 

Prevailing Din 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 909 ... On t 
Lowest in the Shade ... 595 ... On t 

Greatest Range 177 ... Out 

Evaporation Total i 

Electricity. . . Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky- Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days ... 
Meteors ... Number Observed 

r have all been above 


APEIL, 1877.— General Abstkact. 

Lghest Reading 80-293 inches on the 15th, at 1 

At32°Faht. Lowest Reading ... 

'.'.'. 29515 

Mean Height 

... 29-948 

(Being 024 inch greater than that in the game 

month on an V 

rerage of the preo 

Vind . • ■ Greatest Pressure . . . 

... 14-6 lbs. on the 26th. 

Mean Pressure ... 

Number of Days Calm 

Prevailing Direction 

(Prevailing direction during the same 

S month for the 

preceding 18 year 

temperature Highest in the Shade 

... 83-7 

On lh.- loth 

... 1441 

On the 10th. 

Highest in Black Box with 

Glass Top 

... 1865 

On the 10th. 

On the 27th. 

Mean Diurnal Range 

... 13-7 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount . 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 7 

Cloudy Sky Mean Amount 4"1 

Number of Clear Days ... 

Meteors ... Number Observed 2 



MAT, 1877.— Gesebal Absteact. 

Highest Reading 30-308 inches on the 31st, at 10 a.m. 

on the 23rd, at 5 p.m. 

At 32 g Fahl 
(Being 207 

;. Lowest Reading 

Mean Height .... ... 

Willd ... Greatest Pressure 

Mean Pressure 

Number of Days Calm ... 
Prevailing Direction 


e Highest in the Shade ... 
Lowest in the Shade 
Gi-eatoM Range ... 

Highest in Black Box with 

Lowe a st 8 on°the Grass .'.'.' 
Mean Diurnal Eange ... 
Mean in the Shade 

Humidity .. 

. Greatest Amount : 

Total Fall... 

/ 6749 inch 
{ 9945 inch 

Evaporation Total Amount 
Ozone ... Mean Amount 
(Being 1-9 greater than that in the 

2776 inch 

Electricity. . . Number of Day 
Cloudy Sky Mean Amount 

s Lightning 9 

.; ■ • ■:■"'■'".■'" - ';'..: 

■■■■-/. . ,• : ....... . - .. . ■■- - '-■-■ : 

JUNE, 1877.— Ge>'E 

etion ... W. 

, 22-6 on the 20th. 

Mean Diurnal Range 

Evaporation Total Amount 

Mean Barometer is this month 0T9G greater than the average, and the tern 

a \-rv dr\, excej 

- have fallen, and a 

I of the month ttu »1 ve summer level 

ng, while the Darling is still below summer level. 


JULY, 1877.— General Abstract. 

ligbest Reading ... 30508 i 
t32°Eaht. Lowest Reading 29510 

Electricity . . . Number of Days Lightni 
Cloudy Sky Mean Amount ... 

Number of Clear Days .. 
Meteors ... Number Observed 

The Barometer has been much above the average, and the weather unusually 

i along tiTcoast' on [v, i iraaheanert o 

...........,....,,-...: _■ ■- :- : ■■■•• ■ ■ ' "■'.. 

1 1 e If,. td B 1 1 the ■ «* the mara mr, g e 
le time and place the river Darling was very low. 


AUGUST, 1877.— General Abstract. 

Highest Reading 
At 32° Faht, Lowest Reading 


Greatest Pressure . . . 
Mean Pressure 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 

(Prevailing direction during the Bai 


Highest in the Shade 
Lowest in the Shade 
Greatest Range 
Highest in the Sun 
Highest in Black Box 

Lowest" on the Grass 
Mean Diurnal Range 

(Being 18 gr 

eater than that of the same ir 

Humidity ... 

Greatest Amount . . . 

(Being 07 greater than that of the same n 


Number of Days ... 
Greatest Fall 

Total Fall 

(Being 0172 inc 

h greater than that of the san 


Total Amount 
Mean Amount 


Electricity- . . Number of Days Lightning 5 

Cloudy Sky Mean Amount 3 3 

Number of Clear Days ... 10 

Meteors ... Number Observed 8 

Excepting just along the coast, from Sydney northwards, the month has been a 
very dry one throughout the Colony, and at 38 out of 49 recording utal 
has been less than one inch of rain, and at many pla - 

■■-• -.'•■■ _■ - ■ ■ .- ■ .• r. :.■ ■ ■■■ 

'"*\ v ■..-...■.-.,- ■.■•:-..-. ^ -..;■■... • 

Sydney a hut VS Re, 10 p.m. ; and on the 15th there was a 


SEPTEMBER, 1877.— General Abstract. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 
At32°Faht. i 

Mean Height 

Greatest Pressure 252 \h<. on i: ,.- - 

Number of Days Calm ... 


?atest Range 262 On the 6th. 

'best in the Sun ...1367 On the 19th. 

*hest in Black Box with 

Mass Top 183-1 On the 19th. 

Mean in the Shade 

(Being 01 less than that of the same t 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount ... 


Electricity- . . Number of Days Lightning 9 

Cloudy Sky Mean Amount 55 

Number of Clear Days ... 2 


OCTOBER, 1877.— GrESTEBAI, Abstbact. 
Highest Reading 

At 32 l-'aht. T.uhl-1 Reading 

„ on the 19th, 

Mean Height 

.. 29 891 

(Being 0056 inch greater than that in the same month on an av, 

srage of the preceding 1 

Wind ... Greatest Pre- ure 

.. 19-8 lbs 

Mean Pressure 

Number of Days Calm . 

Prevailing Direction 

.'.' S.S.W. 

(Prevailing: direction during the same mc 

.nth for the preceding 18 years N.E.) 

Temperature Highest™ the Shade 

.. no-8 

On the 27th. 

.. 48 2 

On the 22nd. 

Greatest Range ... 

On the 27th. 

Highest in the Sun 

" 147 

On the 27th. 

Highest in] 
Glass Top 

On the 25th. 

Lowest on the Grass 

'.'. 41-8 

On the 15th. 

Mean Diurnal Ran*' 

.. 149 



ber of Days 
test Fall 
.Fall ... 

... 14 rain and 3 

... 4890 inches. 

f 6-895 inches. 

- (8-312 inches. 


Total Amount 

... 5966 i 
... 62 


(Being gi 

an that in the 


nth on an aver 

age of tl 

Cloudy Sky 


ber of Days 

► Light, 

... 57 


NOVEMBER, 1877.— General Abstrac 

[ighest Reading 
32 Fuht. L 

Mean Height 

Temperature Highest in the Shade 

Highest in Black Box 
Mean Diurnal Range 

12 rain and 2 dew. 
1088 inch. On the 19th. 
1-fifttinrh. G5 feet alove 2 r..und. 
2725 inches. 15 in. above ground. 

Electricity. . . Number of Days Ligb 
Cloudy Sky.. Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days 
Meteors . . Number Observed . . . 


DECEMBER, 1877.— General Abstract. 

' ading 20114 inches on the 1 

Mean Diurnal Kant 

in and dew. 

finch. Ontl 

iiu-h. *',:, t'eet above ground. 

Number Observed . 

- ■ = ■■ ' ' ' -■ ' ■ ' ."< ' .; ' ■■■ 

siderably below the average, but inland drought still holds sway, and the 


SOUTH WALES, 1862-1865. 



numerous new Theorems and Pl , 

Solutions to celebrated Problems. Paper N< 

Researches concerning n'gons inscri 
of the second degree. Paper No. < 
" " - desirability of a system! " 

< »n ' . < ! t of September, 1862. 
September, 1862. 

£ -■•'- 

J Gerard Kreff t. 

. P t ^i 

Gerard Krefft. 
J Martin Gardiner, C! 

a •!„.■' 

1 Martin Gardiner, 0.1 

nrrea of 


[ Martin Gardiner, C.] 

:"!'; hern 

[ JohnTebbutt.junr. 

John Tebbutt, junr. 
John Tebbutt, junr. 

. Rev.W. B.Clarke, M., 
' F.C.s.. ,V V.-P 

MeetiBg of 7th g 
On the Cave Ten 
On Snake bites a 

■.;;nCav,-s Dr. James Cox. 

On the Fibre Plai,-> .f V- w S...,i!, W ■'• - ... Charles Moore. 

0l WBSl iU Sd aild ImUUm ' " btainei1 from N0WS ,Uth j A. Leibius, Ph.D. 
On the Prospects of the Civil Service under the ~) u Q ^ t Ward 

Superannuation Act of 1864 J 

On th e Distribution of Pn >fita •, ; B p ell 

New S. nth Wales C. Rolleston. 

Or, +h* TWo,„,„ a ^ T>„-f Jackson G. A. Marell, CJfc 

IT- a h.i • fBeT.W.B 

Rocks in Australasia ... | p , ; s FR .G-.S. 

On the Oology of Australia E. P. B»nwejr. 

The Theory of Encke's Comet ■•• G. R. Sraalley. 

Changes and Astronc 
The present state of A 


[naugural Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., &c, Vice- 

Article L— On Non-Linear Coresolvents, by the Honorable Chief Justice 
Cockle, F.R.S., President of the Queensland Philosophical 

„ II.— Remarks on a paper by S. H. Wintle, ) Gerard Krefft, Curator 
Esq., on the bones found in a cave at V of the Sydney Mu- 

! V. -Qn^ tl.e ^--app, avan.-, ui Sl-uitv m the j E Bedford) M . R . C .S. 

V.-fVti .' Ka'tV, \ m , , ,l ,.. and Fxpecta-^ M. B. Pell, B.A., Pro- 
turn ot 1 , N - \\ ' 

""( R.'v/ \v! U "B. Clarke, 
{ M.A, &c. 

e on the Geology of the Mary River 
the Mutual Influence of Clock Pen- " 

Opening Address by George R, Smalley, B.A., F.R.A.S., Vice-President. 
Article I.-On the value of Earth Temperatures ... £ ^^ ^sf^ 7 ' EA '' 
Il.-On the Improvements effected in Modern C ^^^fcUltofri 
an Australia^ the Sv<i: 


) M.R.C.S. 

and Phenomena of) Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
Earthqu- toV 'M.A., F.G.S., &c, 

f Sydney '... Professor Smith, M.D. 
Vf_I; " u ' " f i,h } Christopher Rolleston. 


WALES, 1869. 

Vol. III. 

Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President. 

Article I.-On the operation of the Real Property Act J Examiju'r VJ Thiol! 

Article II.—Andv{„-al Solution ot Sir W.Ihunilton's) 

Problem on the Inscription of Closed i Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

.. IV. — K-,: 

Sod! .-Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

„ V._On the Wee. ru- Telegraph bet ween Eng-^ 

land and India, and how to ,. nn.-.-t E. C. t 

graphic systems ot Em-ope and graphs for N.S.W. 

„ VI.— Notes on the Geology 'of the "country"/ . ,, T] , q p t, 

, XII.— On 
, XIIL-Kei 

Vol. IV. 

Opening Address, by the Eer. W. B. Clarke, M.A., 

iiA G . _ .i f Lu 

Article II. 

—Remarks 01 

of the Water 

Andrew Garran, LL.D. 

,, HI. 

„ IV. 

-Notes on the Auriferous Slate and 
(Irani te Veins f New South Wales 


E. Bell, M.I.C.E. 
H. A. Thomson. 
By Norman Taylor and 

WALES, 1871. 

Article I.-Remarks or 

Vol. V. 

s by Professor Smith, M.D. 
the Nebula around Eta 

• H. C. Russell. 

„ IT 
,, HI. 

—Remarks on 

* Lord Howe's 

H. C. Russell. 
■ Charles Moore. 

„ IV. 


■ Rev. Dr. Lang. 

Matter Professor Pell. 


Vol. VI. 

Opening Address by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., Vice-President. 

Gold from Argentic Chloride, as ob- 1 Dr. Leibius. 
tained in gold-refining by chlorine *ras ) 
„ II.— Remarks on the Fallacy < 

III.— Remarks < 

[ Dr. Leibius. 
1 by some Manuals of Assaying ) 

J \ Dr. Leibius. 

IV.-On Australian Gems ,. £ George Milner Stephen, 

V.— Astronomical Notices H. C. Russell, M.A. 

, VI.— On the Coloured Cluster Stars about > „ c , v u xr a 

KappaCrucis j H. C. Russell, M.A. 

„ VIL-On the Deniliquin Meteorite ( ^cg 1 * Liversidge ' 

- • of the Progress of) 

New South Wales in the last ten [ Chris. Rolleston, Esq. 
years, 1862-71 ) 



WALES, 1873. 

Vol. VII. 

Article 1.— Anniversary Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., Vice- 

. Parti. Ormthod.Iplua ' Gerard I 
stigafciona Martin Gardiner, C.E. 


WALES, 1874. 

Vol. VIII. 


Article I.— Duplex Telegraphy E. C. Cracknell, Esq. 

II.— Hospital Accommodation A. Robert-. -V.R.C.S. 

„ III.— Crimn [stati-tic- N v ^'« tllWal ^>) Chris. Rolleston. 
.. IV ■ i - - 

Terrestrial an 3hefii J Jin Brazier, C.M.Z.S. 

north-east Australia ) 

V.— Iron Pyrites J. Latta, Esq. 

„ VI.— Sydney Water Supply by Gnmtati m •! n. . - II *i ■ msr. 1'"- 1 
„ VII. -XL. - Professor Liversidgc. 

„ VIIL-Iron Ore and Goal Deposits at Wallera- J p rofessor Llver sidge. 
„ IX.— Some o •;.u> Tf n R n BA 

of the Transit of Venus in N.S.W.... ) H " C " KUSeU ' * A ' 
„ X.— The Transit of Venus as observed at| Rey Wm gcottj M A 


Vol. IX. 

(Edited by Professor Liversidge. 
-List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-h 


j H. C. Russell, B.A., Gotc 
>Oystallization {IllustraU 
r Sooth Wales. ByProf« 

Vol. X. 

. I' H>. 

plates. ) B v W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S 

VIII.-O * V ,■: n ,.f Moss Oold and SUver By 

Archibald Liv.-ri-i.lL'.'. L'r h «- uv .>! Mmrrai /v 
mthel .. ... °:. 



.— Effects of Forest Vegc 

tation on Climate. By 

W. B. Clarke, M.A, 

F.R.S * 


I>on,.<it, K 

lh'\L\' IndllnlV'^uVX'^LZ^ 

, XIV.- 

!\ ample i 

plates.) By Professor Liversidjje 

, XV, 

, X V [. 

-Additions "to Library" 

. XVII. 



befoee Sections. 

1. Macrozamia spirali; 

3. Bj F. Milford, 1 

2. Transverse Section « 

>f Fang of" Human To 

showing Exostosis 

. By Hugh Paterson 

3. Notes on two Sped 

es ui Ins, ( t. „•,.,;« I"] 

Colony. BvJ.U.C.Co: 

4. Etching and Etcher; 

i. By E. L. Montefior. 


-Appendix : Abstract of 

the Meteorological Ob 

Vol. XI. 

(Edited by Professor Livereidge.) 
Article I. — List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, 

IL— A H. c'Eusseil, B.A.', 

F.R.A.S., F.M.S., Vice-President 

Ill— ] Xorthern 

\ - :: . 


Bird of Au-t .. 1 . i i: . W.B.Clarke, 

M.A., F.R.S. , &c, Vice-President 4 

V.— I ; Bones, Operculum, and 

supposed Ear-Bones of Ctenodus. On the 
Scapula I E Ctenodus. 

By W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S 5 

VI.— On the Tertiary Deposits of Australia. By the 

Rev. J. E ; - F.R.G.S.... 6! 

„ VII.— ' wood- 

cuts.) By Rev. J E. Tenison- Woods, F.G.S., 

&c s; 

„ VIII.— On the occurrence of Chalk in the New Britain 
Group. By Professor Liversidge, F.C.S., F.G.S., 
F.R.G.S., &c 8i 


lie IX.— On a New Method of extracting Gold, .silver, a 
other .U i;.I- iron l'vrites. By W. A. Dixc 

F.C.S * ... „. ... 

X.— T • 

tiarv lor ,■!,,, . ]!■ , ' , i;« v J.J,. Tei,i^ 

Woods, F.G.S., F.K.G.S 

XI.— A Synopsis of A I I 

HI'' ICSS. ... ... 

XII.-C,,-:: - .; .. E y,Y. 

Barkai, M.R.C.S. ... ... ... 

11../ J s „ ,\ m (! \[ J) j'f ,") v'Vl 

i' ■ 1 - ,,1 i J' 'In a:m,!'i/ .l'bVx 

A. Dixon, F.C.S " 






-Keports from the 

Papers be 

berry. By F. M 

2. Notes ..!,"„ i-o 

By G. 1). Hir,L 


-Appendix : Absti 

ByH. C. Buss 

Barkas, T. P.— Otolites of Cti 

- , P si,ofAu>t 

Report of the Council of the Royal ^ 

Russell, 'iL C.","on" recent' barometric 

Ik in New 

n 85 i 

Tate, Professor, Bt I 

Tebbutt, J.— >\-u; Variable Star in Ara 

Temson-Wou.K Kcv. J. E.-Aus- 

Yariable Star in Ara.. 


ibers are informed that the -Library will be open for c 
lion, and for the issue of books, on Wednesday afternc 
i 4 to 6 p.m., and on the evenings of Monday, Wednes< 
Friday, from 7 to 10 p.m. during the session, except on 

1 of the following publical 
:an be obtan 

of the Phil. Soc. of N.S.W., 1862-6, price, 
:tions of the Royal Society, N.S.W., 1867,