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Royal Society of New South Wales. 
From 11th September, 1877, to September, I884. 

Abbott, Hon. J. P., M.L.A 

Abbott, Thos. K., S.M 

Abbott, W. E 

7. F., M.R.C.S 
Bennett, G. F., C.M.Z.S 

Brindley, Thomas 

SaW. A, M.L.C., F.R.G.f 
Brooks, Joseph, F.R.G.S 

.as, The Hon., M. 

Cameron, John 

• Ai.-x.. M.L.C. 
Campbell, Allan, L, K.C.I'., (£.' 
Campbell, Rev., M.A. 

Clarke. V,v. \V. B.. M.A., K.K.S 

(Wriimton, J. F., M.K.C.S., L.R.C.R, Lon. 

R.N.k" .'.'.'. 2 

Dean, Alex., J.P... 

Pelaruo, L. II 

De Salis, Hon. L. 1 
D-SalN. L. W.,j!i 
Dight, Arthur . 

Kuan. J. Frazer, 
Fairfax, E. R. .. 
Fairfax, Jai 

,' Hon. John,"M.L.'0." 

Grahame, Hon. \V., M.L.'c" 
Griffiths, F. C. (£10 10a., £5 

Guru. ■. 

Haege, Hermann ' . 
Hall, R. T. (21a., 21s 

11 ■ - l. m ..i . i'"..."t:i6) Jj 

Henry, James ; - 1 

Heron, Henry (fin 10s . £.-,, £■> -s , .* . 

Holt, Hon. Thomas, M.L.C.'.. * 

Horton, Rev. Thomaa .'"'"," 10 


Hunt, Robert, I 'AV'\ » 

Inglis, Ja 

Jones, J. A., L.R.C.P., Edin. 

Jones, P. Sydney, M.D 

Josephson, J. F., F.G.S 

JS^; 1 -- -"'■'<•■'- <«*■•* 

k -n ■ ';; 



Latta, G.J "."." 

Leibus, A Ph.R, M.A 

Lenehan, H. A 

Liversidge, Professor, F.K 

MacDonald, E. 

I, S 

MacDonnell, W. (fo, £2 2s.) 
Mackenzie, John, F.G.S .... 


Matthews, Robert C. (£1 Is., £1 Is 
Markey, James, L.R.C.P., Edin 

Marsden, Right Rev. Dr. 

Martin, Rev G. ... 

Merriman, J 

Moir, James 

Moore, Charles, F.L.S. ,'fo.' C 2 2s.') 
Morehead, R. A. A. (£10, £5) 

Mullens, Josiah, F.R.i; S 

Mullins, J. F. L., M.A. 

Murray, W. G. (£5, fl Is.) 

Mylea, C. H 

Norton, Hon. James, M. L ( ' 

O'Reilly, Rev. A. Innes, B.A. „..]". 

id. (£5 5s., £2 2s.) ..."".". 7 

Parrot. T. S. . 
Paterson, H. ... 
Pedley, P. R. 

Roberts, John 

Robertson, Thomas 

Rolleston, Christopher, C.M.C 

, £3 3s., 21s., 21b., 21s.) 

:'• r. CM.i;.. M.l.i . ,£.-.. L "J 25.',' 

Thomas, H. A 

Toohey, J. T 

Trouton, F. H 

Tucker, G. A., PhD 

Vosh, H. H., J.P 

Walker, 1 

Waterhouse, J 2 

Watt, A. .1. ..€.-> .33., «J! Is.) 6 

.'....;;;;.';;. I 

Du Faur, E., F.R.G.S. . 

Evans, George ... 

Fairfax, E. Ross ..." 

Frazer, Hon. John, M.L.C ZZZZ 

Grpps, F. B 

Goodlet, J. H ZZ.'. 

Goode, George, M.A., MD.^TrinV G.iLTVub' 

•Haege, Hermann 

Helms, Albert, Ph.D... 

Hills, Robert ZZZZZZZ 

Kmbbs G. H., Mem. Inst. SnvvZ'Z.'. 

Knox, George, M.A. (Cantab.) "] 

A., F.C.S. 
ersidge, Professor, F.R.S.',"&c! 

Lord, The Hon. 
McCulloch, A. H., mnr' M 
Manning, Sir V- 
Mealed, E. M. 
Mullens, Josi»: 

Roberts, C. J., C.M.G. 
Henry Ling, F.S. 

Sharp, Hej 

Starkey, J^T. 




Thomson, Dugald 
H, J. P. 

t debt on the Building amounts to £900. ' 

>'.S., &c 

^ veraidge, professor, F.C.S., &c 

Moore, Charles, F. L. s! 

Russell, H. C, B.A.,, 
Smith, The Hon. J., C.M.G., &o 

WrigSTa d a., m.r.c.'s.*e';' 








Messrs. Triibner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 

Mo. Bot. Garder 



The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 182 1 
as the " Philosophical Society of Australasia"; after an interval 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed its present title, 
and was incorporated by Act of the Parliament of New South 
Wales in 1881. 



Officers fob 1884-85 

Act of Incobpobation 

Rules, List of Members, &c 

1. May 7. President's Address. By the Hon. P: 

2. June 4. On the Removal of Bars from the entrance 

Rivers. By Walter Shellshear, Assoc. I 

3. July 2. No 

On some JNew oouin v*aic» xu^, 
Livfirsidra. F.R.S 

>tes on Gold. By Dr. Leibius, M.A., F.C 
j some New South Wales Minerals. 1 

Liversidge, F.R.S 

5. ., „ On the Oven-mounds of Aborigin* 

Rev. Peter MacPherson, M.A 

6 Aug 6. Notes on the Trochoided Plane. By Lawrence 

7. Sept. 3. A new fori 
B.A., F. 

of Actinometer. By H. C. \ 

«.«ov. 5. *°5-g£~™ #atai By D. A. Porter 75 

9. Dec. 3. Notes on Doryanthes. By Charles Moore, F.L.S ^ »1 

10 Water Supply in the Interior of N.S. Wales. By 

W. E. Abbott 

11. „ „ Notes on a New Self-registering Anemometer an 

Pluviometer. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F R.A.S^ l« 

12. „ 17. Embryology of the Marsupialia, M°notremate .and 

Ceratoous. By W. H. Caldwell, M.A, Balfour 
Scholar, and Fell. Caius Coll. Cam j ' 




MtMecA S, , '/,,,-Cases of Mental Disturbance after IW to 
the Head, with particular reference to the Loss of Memory. 

[Manning, M.D '•■' 

oeical Observations at the 
Observatory. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., 

By F. Norton 
ndix : AT 

the year 1883. 
Lis* of Publications 

% gogal ^wietjr of fefo £o»t| Kales. 

OFFICERS FOR 1884-85. 

. C. EUSSELL, B.A., F.R.A.S., &c. 






An Act to incorporate a Society called " The 
Royal Society of New Sonth Wales." [16 
December, 1881.] 

WHEREAS a Society called (with the sanction of Her p 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen) "The Royal 
Society of New South Wales" has under certain rules and 
by-laws been formed at Sydney in the Colony of New South 
Wales for the encouragement of studies and investigations 
in Science Art Literature and Philosophy And whereas 
the Council of the said Society is at the present time 
composed of the following office-bearers and members His 
Excellency the Right Honorable Lord Augustus Loftus P.C. 
G.C.B. Honorary President The Honorable John Smith 
O.M.Q. M.D. LL.D. President and Charles Moore Esquire 
F.L.S. Director of the Botanic Gardens Sydney and Henry 
Chamberlaine Russell Esquire B.A. (Sydney) F.R.A.S. 
F.M.S. London Government Astronomer for New South 
Wales Vice-Presidents and H. G. A. Wright Esquire 
M.R.C.S. Honorary Treasurer Archibald Liversidge Esquire 
Associate of the Royal School of Mines London Fellow of 
the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland and 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of 
Sydney and Carl Adolph Leibius Esquire Doctor of Philo- 
sophy of the University of Heidelberg Fellow of the Insti- 
tute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland Honorary 
Secretaries W. A. Dixon Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry 
of Great Britain and Ireland G. D. Hirst Esquire RobertHunt 
Esquire Associate of the Royal School of Mines London 
Deputy Master Sydney Branch Royal Mint Eliezer L. 
Montefiore Esquire Christopher Rolleston Esquire C.M.G. 

Charles Smith Wilkinson Esquire Government Geologist 
Members of the Council And whereas it is expedient that 
the said Society should be incorporated and should be invested 
with the powers and authorities hereinafter contained Be 
it therefore enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty 
by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council 
and Legislative Assembly of New South Wales in Parliament 
assembled and by the authority of the same as follows : — 

1. For the purposes of this Act the following words in 
inverted commas shall unless the context otherwise indicate 
bear the meaning set against them respectively — 

" Corporation" the Society hereby incorporated 
" Council" the Members of the Council at any duly con- 
vened meeting thereof at which a quorum according 
to the by-laws at the time being shall be present 
" Secretary" such person or either one of such persons 
who shall for the time being be the Secretary or 
Secretaries honorary or otherwise of the said Society 
(saving and excepting any Assistant Secretary of 
the said Society). 

2. The Honorary President the President Vice-Presidents 
Officers and Members of the said Society for the time being 
and all persons who shall in manner provided by the rules 
and by-laws for the time being of the said Society become 
members thereof shall be for the purposes hereinafter 
mentioned a body corporate by the name or style of "The 
Royal Society of New South Wales" and by that name 
shall and may have perpetual succession and a common seal 
and shall and may enter into contracts and sue and be sued 
plead and be impleaded answer and be answered unto defend 
and be defended in all Courts and places whatsoever and 
may prefer lay and prosecute any indictment information 
and prosecution against any person whomsoever and any 
summons or other writ and any notice or other proceeding 
which it may be requisite to serve upon the Corporation 
may be served upon the Secretary or one of the Secretaries 
as the case may be or if there be no Secretary or if the 
Secretaries or Secretary be absent from the Colony then 
upon the President or either of the Vice-Presidents. 

3. The present rules a 

by-laws of the said Corporat: 
any of them are or shall or n 
under the powers for that purpose therein contended "or "are 

■ incompatible with or repugnant to 
any ot tne provisions ot this Act or any of the laws now or 
hereafter to be in force in the said Colony. 

4. The Corporation shall have power to purchase acquire I 
and hold lands and any interest therein and also to sell and " 
dispose of the said lands or any interest therein and all 
lands tenements hereditaments and other property of what- 
ever nature now belonging to the said Society under the 
said rules and by-laws or vested in Trustees for them shall 
on the passing of this Act be vested in and become the 
property of the said Corporation subject to all charges claims 
and demands in anywise affecting the same. 

5. The ordinary business of the Corporation in reference o 
to its property shall be managed by the Council and it shall £ 
not be lawful for individual members to interfere in any c 
way in the management of the affairs of the Corporation 
except as by the rules and by-laws for the time being shall 
be specially provided. 

6. The Council shall have the general management and p 
superintendence of the affairs of the Corporation and except- ° 
ing the appointment of President and Vice-Presidents and 
other honorary officers who shall be appointed as the by-laws 
of the Society shall from time to time provide the Council 
shall have the appointment of all officers and servants re- 
quired for carrying out the purposes of the Society and of 
preserving its property and it may also define the duties and 
fix the salaries of all officers Provided that if a vacancy 
shall occur in the Council during any current year of the 
Society's proceedings it shall be lawful for the Council to 
elect a member of the Society to fill such vacancy for the 
unexpired portion of the then current year The Council 
may also purchase or rent land houses or offices and erect 
buildings or other structures for any of the purposes for 
which the Society is hereby incorporated and may borrow 
money for the purposes of the Corporation on mortgages of 
the real and chattel property of the Corporation or any part 
thereof or may borrow money without security provided that 
the amount so borrowed ■■ i ever exceed 
in the aggregate the amount of the income of the Corporation 
for the last preceding year and the Council may also settle 

i covenants powers and authorities to be 
securities aforesaid. 

7. In the event of the funds and property of the Corpo- Li 
ration being insufficient to meet its engagements each m 
member thereof shall in addition to his subscription for the 

then current year be liable to contribute 
towards the payment of such engupmex 

otherwise individually liable for the sat 

liable for any amount beyond that of one 

8. The Council shall have the custody 

of the Corporation and have power to' l 

ny of the s< 


eon 1,,-lmlf . 

" 9. The T 

tin- S.-.-n-tii 

all Courts of si 
been made unc 


Annual General Meeting ... 

Auditors and Audit of Accounts. 

Alteration of Kules 
Admission of Visitors 

„ of Members ... 

: . tiw Sorictv 

Corresponding Members ... 
Council. Klection of 

Erasure of Name 

Funds, Management of ... 
Governor, Honorary President 

Meetings, Ordinary 

Money Grants 

Object of the Society 


„ Duration of 

,, Vacancies amongst 

Order of Business 


„ Honorary 

Property of the Society 

Quorum at the Council Meetings 

„ for the Election of Officer! 


from Sections 


Eules, Alteration of 

Sections or Committees 

t Sections .. 
Vacancies in the Council.! 


(Revised October 1st, 1879.) 
Additional Rules adopted November 5th, 1884, marked thus, Xa, Sfc. 

Object of the Society. 

I. The object of the Society is to receive at its stated meetings 
original papers on Science, Art, Literature, and Philosophy, and 
especially on such subjects as tend to develop the resources of 
Australia, and to illustrate its Natural History and Productions. 

Honorary President. 

II. The Governor of New South Wales shall be ex officio 
Honorary President of the Society. 

Other Officers. 

III. The other Officers of the Society shall consist of a 
President, who shall hold office for one year only, but shall bo 
eligible for re-election after the lapse of one year ; two Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, and one or more Secretaries, who, with 
six other members, shall constitute a Council for the management 

Election of Officers and Council. 

IV. The President, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, Treasurer, 
and the six other members of Council, shall be elected annually 
by ballot at the General Meeting in the month of May. 

V. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare a 
list containing the names of members whom they recommend for 
election to the respective offices of President, Vice-Presidents, 
Hon. Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names 
of six other members whom they recommend for election as 
ordinary members of Council. 

The names thus recommended shall be proposed at one meeting 
of the Council, and agreed to at a subsequent meeting. 

Such list shall be suspended in the Society's Eooms, and a copy 
shall be sent to each ordinary member not less than fourteen days 
before the day appointed for the Annual General Meeting. 

Va. There shall be elected on to the Council for each ensuing 
year, at least two and not more than three members of the Society 
who were not members of the Council for the previous year. 

VI Each member present at the Annual General Meeting 

i recommended by 

3 of any eligible 

shall have the power to alter the 

the Council, by adding to it the namei 

not already included in it and removing fr 

number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 

alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 


The name of each member voting shall be entered into a book, 
kept for that purpose, by two Scrutineers elected by the members 

No ballot for the election of members of Council, or of new 
embers at least shall 

Vacancies in the Council during tie year. 

•i„^\f ^ VaCanCiCS ° CCUrring b the Council of Management 
during the year may be filled up by the Council. 

Candidates for admission. 

VIII. Candidates must be at least twenty-one years of age. 

fc^* 8 f ° r admissi0n - » ordinary member of the 

certffiLe b r " nded aCC0 ^S to a prescribed form of 

Indtdate J ^ " ^ ^ ^^ to two of whom the 
candidate must be Derm... all*- i™_ 

*4 certificate must act forth the natnes, piace ef residence, 

t be personally known 
-ate must 
and qualifications of the 

during the intervals between those three meetings, it shall be 
suspended in a conspicuous place in one of the rooms of the 

The vote as to admission shall take place by ballot, at the 
Ordinary General Meeting at which the certificate is appointed 
to be read the third time, and immediately after such reading. 

At the ballot the assent of at least four-fifths of the members 
voting shall be requisite for the admission of the candidate. 

Entrance Fee and Subscriptions. 

IX. The entrance money paid by members on their admission 
shall be Two Guineas ; and the annual subscription shall be 
Two Guineas, payable in advance ; but members elected prior to 
December, 1879, shall be required to pay an annual subscription of 
One Guinea only as heretofore. 

The amount of ten annual payments may be paid at any time 
as a life composition for the ordinary annual payment. 

IXa. The entrance fee and first annual subscription shall be 
paid within two months from the date of election j otherwise the 
election shall be void. 

The Council may, however, in special cases, extend the period 
within which these payments must be made. 

IXb. Composition fees shall be treated as capital, and shall 
be devoted to the Building Fund Account, or invested. 

New Members to be informed of their election. 

X. Every new member shall receive due notification of his 
election, and be supplied with a copy of the obligation (No. 3 in 
Appendix), together with a copy of the Bules of the Society, a 
list of members, and a card of the dates of meeting. 

Members shall %// liulvs— Formal admission. 

XI. Every member who has complied with the preceding 
Eules shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which he 
shall be present sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation in a 

book to be kept for that purpose, after which he shall be presented 
by some member to the Chairman, who, addressing him by name, 
shall say :-"In the name of the Eoyal Society of New South 
Wales I admit you a member thereof." 

Annual subscriptions, when due. 

XII. Annual subscriptions shall become due on the 1st of 
May for the year then commencing. The entrance fee and first 
years subscription of a new member shall become due on the 
day of his election. 

XIIa. Persons elected on or after the first day of October in 
any year shall pay the annual contribution as in advance for the 
following year, but in every case within two months after noti- 
Settary ^^ ^ ^ ™** "° **" ^ ^ H ° n0rM 7 

Members whose subscriptions are unpaid not to enjoy 

XIII. An elected member shall not be entitled to attend the 
meetings or to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall his 
name be pnnted in the list of the Society, until he shall have 

reined tTT ** ^ ** - 1 "*-**»■ ^ ^ve 
returned to the Secretary the obligation signed by himself. 

Subscriptions in arrears. 

XIV Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 

th7ilri°V V h t T ° thG 3l8t ° f **' sha11 be formed of 
the fact by the Hon. Treasurer. 

suWriXtt 1 ' be OTti ' led ' OVOte ° rh0U ° fe * M ° tis 
subscription for the previous year remains unpaid. 

The name of any member who shall be two years in arrears 

to snTlr 7"° nS " *" 6raSed fr ° m «* ** ° f — bers, 

arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 
Booms of the Society. Members shall in such cases be informed 
that their names hare been thus posted. 

XIVa. Any member in arrears shall cease to receive the 
Society's publications, and shall not be entitled to any of the 
privileges of the Society until such arrears are paid. 

Resignation of Members. 

XV. Members who wish to resign their membership of the 
Society are requested to give notice in writing to the Honorary 
Secretaries, and are required to return all books or other property 
belonging to the Society. 

Expulsion of Members. 

XVI. A majority of members present at any ordinary meet- 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member from the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after the meeting at which such resolution 
has been brought forward. 

Honorary Members. 

XVII. The Honorary Members of the Society shall be persons 
who have been eminent benefactors to this or some other of 
the Australian Colonies, and distinguished patrons and promoters 
of the objects of the Society. Every person proposed as an 
Honorary Member must be recommended by the Council and 
elected by the Society. Honorary Members shall be exempted 
from payment of fees and contributions : they may attend the 
meetings of the Society, and they shall be furnished with copies 
of the publications of the Society, but they shall have no right 
to hold office, to vote, or otherwise interfere in the business of 
the Society. 

The number of Honorary Members shall not at any one time 
exceed twenty, and not more than two Honorary Members shall 
be elected in any one year. 

Corresponding Members. 

XVIII. Corresponding Members shall be persons, not resident 
in New South "Wales, of eminent scientific attainments, who may 
have furnished papers or otherwise promoted the objects of the 

Corresponding Members shall be recommended by the Council, 
and be balloted for in the same manner as ordinary Members. 

Corresponding Members shall possess the same privileges only 
as Honorary Members. 

The number of Corresponding Members shall not exceed 
twenty-five, and not more than three shall be elected in any one 

Ordinary General Meetings. 

XIX. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Eoyal Society, to 
be convened by public advertisement, shall take place at 8 p.m., 
on the first Wednesday in every month, during the last eight 
months of the year; subject to alteration by the Council with 

Order of Business. 

XX. At the Ordinary General Meetings the business shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise :— 

1— Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 
2-New Members to enrol their names and be introduced. 
3— Ballot for the election of new Members. 
4— Candidates for membership to be proposed. 
o— Business arising out of Minutes. 
6— Communications from the Council. 
7— Communications from the Sections. 
8-Donations to be laid on the Table and acknowledged. 
9— Correspondence to be read. 
10— Motions from last Meeting 

i2=p;t 8 t : £ S for tho neit Meeting * be *™ in - 

13— Discussion. 

14-Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 

XXa. At the ordinary meetings of the Society nothing relating 
to its regulations or management, except as regards the election 
or ejection of members, shall be brought forward, unless the same 
shall have been announced in the notice calling the meeting, or 
be otherwise provided for in these Rules. 

XXb. A special meeting of the Society may be called by the 
Council, provided that seven days notice be given by advertisement, 
or shall be so called on a requisition signed by at least twenty-five 
members of the Society, to consider any special business thus 

Annual General Meeting. — Annual Reports. 

XXI. A General Meeting of the Society shall be held annually 

in May, to receive a Beport from the Council on the state of 

the Society, and to elect Officers for the ensuing year. The 

Treasurer shall also at this meeting present the annual financial 

Admission of Visitors. 
XXII. Every ordinary member shall have the privilege of 
introducing two friends as visitors to an Ordinary General 
Meeting of the Society or its Sections, on the following con- 
ditions : — 

1. That the name and residence of the visitors, together 

with the name of the member introducing them, be 
entered in a book at the time. 

2. That they shall not have attended two consecutive 

meetings of the Society or of any of its Sections in the 

The Council shall have power to introduce visitors irrespective 
of the above i 

Council Meetings. 
XXIII. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take 
place on the last Wednesday in every month, and on such other 
days as the Council may determine. 

XXIIIa. The President or Hon. Secretaries, or any three 
Members of the Council, may call a meeting of the Council, 
provided that due notice of the same has been sent to each Member 
of the Council at least three days before such meeting. 

Absence from Meetings of Council— Quorum. 

XXIV. Any member of the Council absenting himself from 
three consecutive meetings of the Council, without giving a satis- 
factory explanation in writing, shall be considered to have vacated 
his office. No business shall be transacted at any meeting of 
the Council unless three members at least are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 

XXV. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties :— 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 

3. At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 

the presents made to the Society since their last meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Society, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors, 
and the letters addressed to it. 

4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 

6. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the Society. * 

7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

&c, in the Library Catalogue, and of all presentations 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the issue and return of books, 

&c, borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

printed copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in the 
Appendix) , together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Rules, and a card of the dates of meeting ; and 
to acknowledge all donations made to the Society, by 
Form JSo. 6. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 

"Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 

Council at the Council Meetings and at the ordinary 
General Meetings, in order that the same may be laid 
before the Society at the Annual General Meeting held 
in the month of May. 
The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, divide 
the performance of the duties above enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
members of all Committees appointed by the Council. 

Contributions to the Society. 
XXVI. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character, 
muBt be sent to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 
Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promulgation and discussion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such communications as are suitable for that purpose, as well as 
to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society. 

XXVIa. The original copy of every paper communicated to 
the Society, with the illustrative drawings, shall become the 
property of the Society unless stipulation be made to the contrary; 
and authors shall not he at liberty, save by permission of the 
Council, to publish the papers they have communicated, until 
such papers or abstracts of them, have appeared in the Journal 
or other publications of the Society. 

XXVIb. If any paper of importance is communicated during 
the recess, the same may be ordered for publication by the Council, 
without being read to the Society. 

Management of Funds. 

XXYII. The funds of the Society shall he lodged at a Bank 
named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 
Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid by the 

All cheques shall be countersigned by a member of the Council. 

XX Till. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society— to Sections or to members— shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 

XXIX. Such grants of money to Committees and individual 
members shall not be used to defray any personal expenses which 

r may incur. 

XXX. Tw 

Audit of Accounts. 

shall be appointed annually, 

Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts. Tl 
as audited to be laid before the Annual Meeting : 

Property of the Society to be vested in the President, Sfc. 

XXXI. All property whatever belonging to the Society shall 
be vested in the President, Yice- Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and 
Hon. Secretaries for the time being, in trust for the use of the 
Society ; but the Council shall have control over the disburse- 
ments of the funds and the management of the property of the 


XXXII. To allow those members of the Society who devote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 
restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society --Sections or Committees may be established in 
the following branches of science : — 

Section ^.—Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Mathematics, 

and Mechanics. 
Section B — Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 

to the Arts and Agriculture. 
Section C— Geology and Palaeontology. 
Section B.— Biology, i.e., Botany and Zoology, including 

Section JS. — Microscopical Science. 
Section F.— Geography and Ethnology. 
Section 0.— Literature and the Pine Arts, including 

Section H— Medical. 
Section 7.— Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Section Committees— Card of Meetings. 
XXXIII. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman, Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
for distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Membership of Sections. 
XXXTV. Only members of the Society shall have the privilege 
of joining any of the Sections. 

Reports from Sections. 

XXXV. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of December in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to the 


XXXVI. It shall be the duty of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Honorary Secretaries to annually examine into and report to 
the Council upon the state of— 

1. The Society's house and effects. 

2. The keeping of the official books and correspondence. 

3. The library, including maps and drawings. 

4. The Society's cabinets and collections. 

Cabinets and Collections. 

XXXVII. The keepers of the Society's cabinets and collec- 
tions shall give a list of the contents, and report upon the 
condition of the same to the Council annually. 


XXXVIII. The Honorary Secretaries and Honorary Treasurer 
shall see that all documents relating to the Society's property, 
the obligations given by members, the policies of insurance, and 
other securities shall be lodged in the Society's iron chest, the 
contents of which shall be inspected by the Council once in every 
year ; a list of such contents shall be kept, and such list shall be 
signed by the President or one of the Vice-Presidents at the 

Branch Societies. 
XXXIX. The Society shall have power to form Branch So- 
cieties in other parts of the Colony. 
XL. The members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 
regulations as the Council may think necessary. 
Alteration of Bules. 
XLI. No alteration of, or addition to, the Eules of the Society 
shall be made unless carried at two successive General Meetings, 
at each of which twenty-five members at least must be present. 


1. The Library shall be open for consultation and for the issue 
and return of books daily (except Saturday), between 1-30 and 
6 p.m., and on Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 1-30 p.m. ; also, on the 
evenings of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 7 to 10 p.m. 

1a. The Library will not be open on public holidays. 

2. No book shall be issued without being signed for in the 
Library Book. 

3. Members are not allowed to have more than two volumes 
at a time from the Library, without special permission from one 
of the Honorary Secretaries, nor to retain a book for a longer 
period than fourteen days ; but when a book is returned by a 
member it may be borrowed by him again, provided it has not 
been bespoken by any other member. Books which have been 
bespoken shall circulate in rotation, according to priority of 

4. Scientific Periodicals and Journals will not be lent until 
the volumes are completed and bound. 

4a. Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and other works of reference 
and cost, Atlases, Books and Illustrations in loose sheets, Draw- 
ings, Prints and unbound numbers of Periodicals and Works, 
Journals, Transactions and Proceedings of Societies or Institu- 
tions Works of a Series, Maps or Charts, are not to be removed 
from the Library without the written order of the President or 
one of the Hon. Secretaries. 

5 Members retaining books longer than the time specified 
shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for each volume. 

The books which have been issued shall be called in by the 

►tanea twice a year ; and in the event of any book notbein* 

turned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 

-ha 1 be answerable for it, and shall be required to defray t» 
cost of replacing the same. 

mtL N V tra T F ShaU be admittGd t0 the Librai 7 exce P fc ^ the 
vi tor U t°,l y " "^^ Wh ° Se name > t0 S ether ^ that of the 
Msitor shall be inserted in a book kept for that purpose. 

Ho!°strZet a11 ^ "^ With ° Ut GXpreSS I)emi8si0n fr0m the 

Form No. 1. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 
Certificate of a Candidate for Election. 

Qualification or occupation 

Signature of candidate 


^SSSSES 81 " 

Form No. 2. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 

The Society's House 



18 . 

I have the honour to inform you 

that you have this day 

been elected a 

member of the Royal Society of New Si 

>uth Wales, and I be. 

y to forward to 

you a copy of the Rules of the Society, 

a printed copy of an c 


of members, and a card announcing the 

dates of n t ng dun 

ng the present 

;ording to the Regulations of the Society (vide Rule No. 9), you are 
o guineas for the current year, before admission. You are also requested 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 
, the undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeavour to promote 
interests and welfare of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and to 
jrre its Rules and By-laws, as long as I shall remain a member thereof. 

Form No. 4. 

Eoyal Society of New South "Wales. 

The Society's House, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 

I have the honour to inform you that your annual subscription of 
for the current year became due to the Eoyal Society of New Soi 
Wales on the 1st of May last. 

It is requested that payment may be made by cheque or Post Office <m 

Hon. Treasurer. 

Form No. 5, 

Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 

The Society's House, 
' Sydney, 18 . 

I am desired by the Eoyal Society of New South Wales to forward fa 
you a copy of its Journal for the year 18 , as a donation to the library o\ 
your Society. 

gir The Society's House, 

On behalf of the Eoyal Society of New SouJwZ,' I beg to Tkno', 
l^ge he receipt of and T am ^^ ^J ^° 

be* thanks of the Society for your most valuable donation. 

Hon. Secretary. 

Baixoting List 

for the election of the Officers and Council. 

Present Council. 

Na^nes proposed as Members o* the new Council. 



Hon. Treasurer. 

- — 

— — 


$0ftf Stoodg d IMr Simtfe Hales. 

Point, St. Leonards. 

AM.. - .,i -. I-., 
Allerding, H. 
Allwood, Eev. Canon, B.A Cantab 

Road, Woollahra. 
Amos, Robert, " Eenneil," Elizabeth Bay Road 
Anderson, H. C. L., M.A., " Aberfeldie," Summer H 
Cunningham Archibald, i 

^ E»g.. M 

Rorklands," Edgecliff 

Backhouse, Alfrec 
zabeth Bay. 

™ ' Erith Colliery, Bundanoon 

Baker, E. 

Balfour^ James, The Oriental Bar 
., Registrar, Sydi 

Barff, H. _., _ 
Barker, Francis Lindsay, Pitt- 
Barraclough, William, Donnelly-street, B 
Barry, The Most Rer. Dr. A., D D., D ( 

Court, Randwick. 
Bartels, W. C. W., Richmond Terrace. 
Bassett, W. P., M.R.C.S., Eng., Bathurst 
Bayley, George W. A., Railway Departm 

Court Judge, "Melita," 

Members are particularly requested 
of address to the Hon. Secretaries, for which 

Bedford, W. J. G, M. 

hys., Irel., Lie. R. Coll. 
•Waratah," Newtown, 

Beilby, E. T., 91, Pitt-street. 

: : - I!.. MIL /:/'.. M.R.C.S. Eng., 60, I 

men IF.. " Eversleigh," Armidale. 
Belisario, John, M.D., Lyons' Terrace. 

w, Clement A., 30, College-street. ■ 
Bensusan, S. L., 44, Castlereagh-street, 
Bennett, George F., C.M.Z.S., Toowoomba, Queensland. 
y, Augustus, II. M. Customs, Sydney. 
Edwin Ilenrv, L.R.C.S., Ir*L, L.R.C.P., Edin., P 

. Olentb.-rne. r...ul. 

Black, Begin 

, Herbert. M.R.C.S.E 
isane, GUI 
Bolding, H. J., P.M., Narrabri. 
JBond, Albert, Bell's ChainLei^. 

!:. dy. 

LR.C.P. Zond., Hospital 

. K. \ (•. Coll. Phys. Irel,, Lie. 

'on- M.K.S./I.:- . SJ 

hn Le Gay 

.M.I). St. Andrews, L.R.C.S. Ed 

Domain Terrace. 

s, Joseph, F.RG.S., "R 
i, Henry Joseph, Newca 
i, John Studd, Dubbo. 
n, Thomas, Eskbank, Bo 
CyrM.2, Eur., The I fon. William, M.L.C., "Redleaf," South Hea 

Road, Woollahra. 
ash, Thomas James, Engineer's Office, Gas Works, Sydney. 

■ [.milestone," Ocean-street, Wc 
Campbell, Mian. L.R.C.P., Ghmgou\ Yass. 
Campbell, The Hon. Alexander, M.L.C. Woollaim, 
Campbell, The Hon. Charles, M.L.C., "Clunes, Soi 

Cameron, John, Geodetic Surveyor, Trig. Branch, Survevor- 

General's Office. J 

Campbell, Eevd. Joseph, M.A., " The Parsonage," Glen Innes. 
Cane, Alfred, 110, Victoria-street. 
Cape, Alfred J., M .1 

Carruthers, Chas. Ulic, L.K.Q.C.P., L 

Chandler, Alfred, " Wambiana," Horn. 
I, Thos., P.E.C.P., E.E.C.S. 1 

, 1. Lyons' Terrace. 

L.S., Surveyor General's Office. 

1 - 


Cod£ington^ John Fj-edk., MJl.C.S., E. ; Lie. E.C. Phys., L. ; 

Collie, Eevd. Eobert, FX.S., "Tte Manse," Wellington-street, 

Newtown. b ' 

Colquhoun, George, "Eossdhu," Darlingburst Eoad 
Colyer, Henry Cox, M.A., "Clinton," Liverpool-street, Darling- 

LS.N. Company, Syd 
' Kumvjong Heighl 

t.NJircare of Mr 

C. K. 1 

:■■ \ :■■ 

Comrie, Jame 

.. Survey Office, 
Conlan, George Nug< 

Union Club. 
Copeland H. P. E., S.W.S. Camp, Karelian. 
Cornwell, Samuel, junr., Kent Pre 
Cottee, Wm. Alfred, 2, Spring-stn 
Cox, The Hon. Geor^ II, , r C. M I. ( , «< Winbourn " Penrith 

^J2t££$£ 0SL ' ™ s - * Victoria T — ' Mil1 - 


Curran, Eev. John Milne, Dubbo. l * UUinbe > an - 

quarie^tf^ *" ^ ° f ^^ <****> & <*>•' Mac- 

£2v' Hon W^?^ St Leonards - 

•hi' M " M - L - C " BA - Wentworth Court, Eliza- 

Fane, M.L.C., " Tliarwa," 

., Fellow and ] 

d Irel., Lecturer on Chemistry, The Tech- 
. College, School of Arts, Pitt-street, Sydney, Vice- 

Dixon, Fletcher, English, Scottish, and Australian Chartered 

Bank, George-street. 
Dixson. Cmi-. M.B., CM., Edin., M.E.C.S., Eng., M.D. Syd., 

2, Clarendon Terrace, Elizaheth-street. 
Dixson, Thomas, 1£.B I .llalong," Ashfield. 

Docker, Ernest B., M.A. Si/d,'.. 

1 tonkin, J. Li., The Exchange, Sydney. 
Douglas, James, L.E.C.S. Edin., 3, Hope Ten 

Drake, William Hedley, Fellow of the Inst.' of Bankers, Lond., 

•. N / 
Du Faur, Eccleston, F.R.G.S., " Marfa," Croydon. 

Blue's Point, North Shore. 

. Eng., 2, Hyde Park Terrace, Liverpool- 
les F., M.D. Heidelberg, M.E.C.S. Eng., Bridge- 
, Elizabeth Bay. 
;, " Como," Dar" " 
is, M.R.C.S., E., „„, . 
?razer, M.B., Mast. Surg. Ui 

Macquarie-street North. 

Fairfax, Edward E., 115. Macquaru'-.-trect. 
Fairfax, James R.^ Herald Office, Hunter-street. 
Ferguson, J. W 

Firth, Rev. FlB Waverley. 

Fischer, Carl F.. U L.R.C.P., Lond.-, 

F.G.S.; F.L.S.; F.R.M.S.; Member Imp. Botanical and 
Zoological Society, Vienna; Corr. Member Imp. Geographical 
Society, Vienna. 

u erald, R. D., F.L.S., Deputy-Surveyor-General, Sydney. 
Flavelle, John, 340, George-street. 

Forbes, Alexr. Leith, M.A.. Dept. of Public Instruction. 
jForeman, Joseph, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Edin., 161, Macquari 

r, W. J., Temple Court, King-street. 

Fraser, Robert, Vickery's Buildings, 80a, Pitt-street. 

Fraser, Rev. John G, M.A., Warden of Camden College, Glebe 

•aser John, B.A., Edin., Dengue General (pour l'Oce'anie), 

we de Paris, Associate of the 

tote of Great Britain, "Sauchie 

iner, Rev. Andrew, M.A., Glebe Point, 
iner, John, Chief E 
m, Harrow Eoad. 

Garrett, H. Edwd., M.R.C.S.E., 37, Wynard Squar 
(arvan, J. P., East St. Leonards. ' q 

Gedye, Charles Townsend, "Eastbourne," Darling I 
George, Hugh, Sydney Morning Herald Office. % 
George, W. R., 346, George-street. 
Gerard, Francis, Occupation of Lands Office 
~~, Pitt-street North. 

■Potts's Point. 
Jfarrickvilie.' ™ 

i Club. 
, The Exchaiig 

Gibbs, J. Burtoi 

Gilchrist, ' 

Gill, Rev. Wm. Wyatt, 3 

Goergs, Karl V, 

Goo4' George' MTlM.DrMrb^TS'coU, 

House, Camden. 
Goode, "Wm. Hy., M.A., M 


Surgeon Royal Navy, Coras. Mem. Ro : 
S2 ~l T ?ty ' ^ em - Brit - Med - Ass °c-. Lecturer on 
Trth * Univerait y of S ^ney, 159, Mac 

Goodlet, John H, George-street. 

Gr^eTw °A n ' I^ LG > Stratheam House, Wa, 
Greaves, W. A. B., « Braylesford," Bondi. 

Ghirney, T. T. ( M.A. Cat 
Cambridge, Professo 
losophv, University of Sydney. 
Haesie, H.-rmann, 93, Pil t -street. 
ill, Richard T., "Thornton." Upper 

Lodge, Millswyn-street, South Yarra, 

, M.A., Balmain. 
Sir John, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., A.M. Aberdee 

' tho r.oL'i-liiliTO Council, Rose Bay, Woollahra 

Libert, Ph. D., £erh„. ■ 

, Douglass, " Eurimbulah," Port Curtis, 

Engineer, Town Hall, 

ewett, Thomas Edward, Technical Col 

G., M.A. 0*0*., S.C.I... \ 

Holruvd. Arthur Todd. f.n,f.>J,.,M \\ 7uto».,F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

F.R.G.S.. S),erwood Scrubs, Parramatta. 
Horton, Rer. Thomas, Ina Terrace, Woollahra. 
Houison, Andrew, B.A., M.B.C.M., Edin., 128, Phillip-street. 

London, Deputy Master of the Royal 3 
urst, George, M.B., Univ. Lond., 
28, College-street, Hyde Park. 

[redale, Lancelot, A.F., Goolhi, 

i-nVris. Rev. James. I. LB., ; 'The Retreat/' NV 
onkius, Edward Johnstone, M.A., M.B., O; 
M.R.C.S., L.S.A., ioB^., Prince Alfred Host. 
olmson, James W., " Brooksby," Double Bay. 
ones, James Aberdeen, Lie. R.C. Phys. Hdin 

ones, P. Svdnev, M.J). Land.. F.R.C. 
..m:s, Kdward Lloyd, 349, Georga-sti 

James, Bathurst-street. 

.lohnTivvor, C.E., No 

° 3 Nort°h.' 

-, H. E., " Mount Broughton," Moss Vale. 
Keele, Thos. Win., Harbours and Rivers Department, Phillip- 

i'.roughton," Leichbardt. 
Kendall, Theodore M., B.A., L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., Lond., 50, 

K ' 1 U I Janksia," Wdliam-street, Double Bay. 

Knaggs, Saml. J., M.D., 16, College-street. 

Knibbs, G-. H., Mem. Inst, of Surveyors, Trig. Brancb, Surveyor- 

Knox, Edward, The Hon., M.L.C., O'Connell-str 

Kopsch, Or., 8, Boulevard, Petersham. 
Eyngdon, P. B., 221, Darlinghurst Eoad. 

' ..Fred.ll , .M.l> ./v. •/.,„.• L.s.A., /.. ■ 


Eyngdon, Boughton, 69, Darlinghurst I 

Lx-key, Jobn, M.L.A., Union Club. 

Laure, Louis Thos., 
PC tLeiWi ' ' 

bins,,. Ph.D., Heidelberg, M, 
Chemistry of Gt. Brit, and lr!. ; Seine 
Branch of the Royal Mint, Hon. Sec. 

rg. Univ. Pans, 138, 
Hon. Secretary. 

. I.,.nd.; 

Little, Wm, L.R.C.P., L.R.C 
3tLiversidge, Archibald, F.R.S. ; Ass 
F.C.S.; Fel. ln~t. Chemistry of 
F.L.S.; F.B.G.S.; Mem.Phy.t 

logical Soc. Gt. Bri. 

Cor. Mem. St-n, <rt • Cor. Mem. Soc. 

d'Acclimat. Mauritius; Hon. F« 1. Roy. Hist. So * 
Mem. Min. Soc. of France: Professor of Chem 
Mineralogy in the University of Sydney, Son. 
The University, Glebe, 
lovd, George Alfred, F.K.G.S.. " Scott fort h," Ehzabc 

d, The Hon. Franeis. M.I, C. North Shore. 

•ell, R. Ilaynes, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Lond. 26, WynwardSq. 

v, Hamilton, H.M. Customs. 

w Andrew S., " Merrylands," Granville. 

ire, Edwin, Wilgar Downs Statio; - ' 

MacCormick Alexr., M 15 . <'h.M . M.Il.C.S.L, ! 

M'Culloch, A. H., jun., M.L.A., 121. Pitr-stm-: 
M'Cutelieon. John Warner, Assayer totheSydne 

Royal Mint. 
MacDonncll, William o., x.xv.^-.o., ±,a.^ ^ J ..-- 
auel, 312, George- street, Sydney. 
MacGillivray, P. H., M.A.,M.R.C.S.,F.L.S., Sand! 

C.E., " Seaton," Point 

Kay, Dr., Chi 
M'Kinnev, Hug 

Piper Road, Paddington. 
MacLaurin, Henry Norman, M.A., M.D. Umv. Edtn., LicR. 
Coll.Sur. T- "*""*• 

.. Peter, M.A., 187, Albion-^- 

Mackenzie, W. F., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Edin., Eng., Lyons 

Mackenzie, Kev. P. F., 4, Jamieson-street. 
Mackenzie. K. M., Pond-street. 

O.E., Engineer's Office, Govern- 
ment Dockyard, Biloela, Sydney. 

Madscn, Hans. F„ " Hcsselmed " Hou«e, < v >ucen-st reet , Xewtown. 

Maitland, Duncan Mearns," Afreba," Stanmore Road. 
Imund C, Montague-street, Goulburn. 

Edgecliff Eoad, Woollahra. 
arming, James, Milson's Point, North Shore. 
Manning, Frederic Norton, M.D. Uniy. St. And., M.R.C.S 
L ".'l-, 1 '<• S ■<■■ \]) tli. Loud., Gladcsyille. 
msfield, G.A., 121, Pitt-street. 
Markey, James, L.R.C.S., Irel, L.R.C. Phys., Edin., Regenl 

Ma str 1 e°et^" V " MD " ^^ ^^ Clarendo11 Terrace, Elizabetl 
Marsden The Right Rev. Dr., Bishoj of Bathurst, Bathurst. 
Marshall, George, M.D. Uniy. Ola,., Lie. R. Coll. S. Edin 

Lyons Terrace. 
Masters, Edward, " Lurlei," Marrickyille. 
Mathews, R. H., L.S., J. p., Hin^leto.i. 
?J at w e,s L 8 ' ?_ ob ? rt '_ Tumut-street, Adeloug. 

Milford, F., M.D. Heidelberg, M.R.C.S. Eng. 

Montefiore, E. L., ] 

Moore, Charles, F.L.S., Ji uv ,. ;( , r 

Botanic Gardens. 
\\ -re, I'.' i.l L., Exchange Buildings. 
Morehead, R. A. A., 30, O'Connell-street. 
Morgan T C. L.R.C.S. Edin., M.K. & Q. Coll. Phy 

Australian Club. 
Morley, Frederick, 47, Surry-street 
Morrell, O. A., C.E., Pitt-stVct. 
Moms, Will,;,,,,, Fel. Fac. Phys. and Surg Glas 

Lond., 53, Castlereagh-strcct, Vice-President "', David. J.l'., T, nterti,],!. •"*""»«• 

Botanic Gardens, 

2i«». Macquane-.treet : 

: Mullens, Josiah, F.R. 

Mullins, John, F.L., M.A. 

Murnin, M.E., "Eieenfeli 

Murray, W.G., 93, Pitt -street. 

Myles, Chas. Henry, "Dingadee," Burw, 


Neill, A. L. P., City Bank, Pitt-street. 

Newton, Dr. J. L., Mudgee. 

Norrie, Andrew, M.D., Mast. Surg., Alerdeei 

Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. 
Norton, James, Hon., M.L.C., solicitor, ( 
Nott, Thomas, M.D. Aberdeen, M.E.C. 

Nowlan, John, " Eelah," West Maitland 

(\ m rilvr.. 1. 

entworth Court, Elizabeth- 


Oram, Arthur Murray, M.D., Univ. JEdin., Liverpool-street, 
O'Edlly! W. F W. J., M.D., M.C., Q. Univ. Irel, M.R.C.S., Eng., 
O' Redly, Eev. Alexr. Innes, B.A., Cantab., Hayfield, Parrauiatta. 
jn. M., J.P., Berrima. 

r. M.D.. M.A.. " Hillcrest," Stani 
v. Wynyard Squi 

nd Q.C.P., Irel, L.R.C.S., Jrrf., 540, Park 
I J). Aberdeen, Ch. M.,M.R.C.S. Eng., 40, 
r, L.S., Department of MingSydney. 

i, P., care of Commercial Bank of Sydney, Lombard- 

Quaife, Fredk. Harrison, M.D., Mast. Surg. 

" Hughenden," Queen-street, Woollahra. 
Quodling, W. H., " Couranga," Eedmyre Eoad, I 

■ - '■ 7 

1 JEamsay, Edward, F.L.S., Curator of the Australian J 
JRatte, A. F, F.L.S, The Museum, Sydney. 

mild Bligh M.E.C.S., Eng., Coogee. 

83, Castlereagh- 
n, Australian Joint Stock Bank, Sydney! 
Eenme, Edwd , H., M.A. 8yd., D.Sc. Land., Prof 
L "niversity, Adelaide. 

' .S,.., Land., M.D. JEdin., B.A 
F.E.C.S. Edin., M.L.A., 295, Elizabeth-street 
Eenwick, Geo. Jas., B.A., M.B., C. 

street, Hyde Park. 
Riddell, C. E., Union Club. 
Eoberts, J., 340, George-street. 

R ° t^'vUnn Brid M eSSe S t *"*" ^ ^^ ^ *** Bot * 
Eoberts, C. J., C.M.G., " Chatsworth," Potts's Point 
Robertson, Thomas, solicitor, 85, Pitt-street 
Eobertson, Rey James Thomas, MA., "The Manse," Tumut. 
Rolleston Cbnstopher, C.M.G., Palmer-street, St. Leonards East. 
Koss, J. Grafton, O'CoiuhmUi r , ,■! . 

|. M.B., CM., Hospital 
Roth, Henry Ling. 
Fellow of the E<_ 

48, Wunpolp-str. | , w 

Rothe, W. 11., Union Club. q ' ' W " 

30 t RuS g sel^Henry C, RA 8yd., F.E.A.S., F.M.S., Hon. Mem. 
ObseTvator^, " ° Vernment As t™nomcr, President, Sydney 
Eussell, H. E., Tattersall's Chamh^r, TT„ f <- .. 


Sahl, Charles L., German Consul Con 

Empire, Wynyard Square. 
Salinier,., Rev. K. M., Glebe 
Sands, Eobert, 374, George-street. 
Schuette, Rudolf, U.H 

10, College-street. J ' 

Schulze^ Oscar, 331, George-street. 
:Scott, Rev. William, MA Cantab., Hon, 

"Hi iijllts. 

Scrivener, Charles Robert, Camp, Ryde. 
Sedgwick, Win. Gillett, M.E.C S., La., 

Sharp, James Burleigh, J.P., Clifton Wood, Yass. 

Sharp, Henry, Green Hills, Adelong. 

",harp, Bevd. W. Hey, M.A. Oxon., Warden of St. Paul's 

College, University. 
Shellshear, Walter, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., " Lauraville," 

Cambridge-street, Stanmore. 
Shepard, A. IX, Box 728, G.P.O., Sydney. 
Sheppard, Bev. G., B.A., Berrima. 
Shewen, Alfred, M.B., M.D., Univ. London, M.R.C.S.E, 

Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. 
nclair, Eric. M.B., CM., Univ. Glasgow, Lunacy Dept., 

Grladesville Hospital for the Insane. 

rland, Secretarv, Austrahan Museum. 
Eirving, Bobt. 8c - I red Hospital. 

Slattery, Thomas, Premier Terrace, 169, William-street, Wool- 

Sloper, Fredk. . 

:, 360, Liverpool-s 

Ledlev, John, 92, Eldon Chambers, Pitt-street. 
dth, Bruce, Messrs. Howard Smith & Sons, Melbourne. 
iith, John, The Hon., C.M.G.. M.D., LL.I)..--f/vniV< ■». M.L.C., 
F.C.S., Hon. Mem. Kov. Soc. Vic., Professor of Physics 
. 187, Macquarie-street. 

, Macquarie-street. 
ads," Edgecliff Road. 

•■ .-- 
'Steel, John, L.B.C.P., L.B.U.S., Edin., 
Stephen, George Milner. B.A., F.U.S., 
any ; Cor. Mem. Nat. Hist, Soc 
>nnraU ; " Almaville," Pyrmont 3 
♦Stephen, Septimus A., South Kington. 
Stephen, Alfred F. 11., Gleh. 

l'l-of. --. ■:• of Nati 

range, Fredk. B., 

Edwd., K.C.B, F.B. 

Dawes' Point. 
J.S., "Cardowan," Manly 
m, M.E.C.S., Ting., Liver- 

tiatomv and Phvsiolo-v in the University of Sydney. 
s G. M . 1, ( ■ !'• '■ C. _• st . 

■rland, Rev. J. P.. 19. Wentuorth Court, Elizal " 
Suttor, Win. Henrv. M.L.A., " Cangoura," Bathurst 
Frank Weston, 89, Pitt-street. 

LR.C.S.. M.L.A., Macquar 

A.S., Observatory, Windsc 

f R. Harper & C 

Tebbutt, Jol 
Thomson, D „ 

Thompson, Joseph, Bellevue Hill, Double Bay. 

""■ eet, Sydney. 

Thompson, Tlios. James 


:.- . ,; 

wr N., f!ui!ler-street 
'i'rebeek, P. (J.. ltunter-slnel. 

Trebeck,TomB.,M.A., N v ,/., Cni v., '• L v t on" 72, Elizabeth Bay. 
Trouton, F. H„ A.s.X. ( ,\ - < » ',... Sydney. 

:Tucker,Cr.,\., PI . , , w A sy luni, Cook's 

Tucker, William, "Clifton," North Shore. 

Tulloh, W. H., "Airlee," Greenwich Point Road, North Shore. 

Twynam.Georgel-:: -., .S.E "Cleott*" 

West-stn-et, l'eter.-luun. 

Walker, H. 

) Co., 129, Pitt- 

■ • 
i ■• ■ 
Want, Sydney A. " Can.1,,,:,' Miiw i> om t, North Shore. 
V.ard.K. I)., M.R.C.S.iV, North Shore. 
Wardell, W W Fellow Eoyal Institute of British Architects, 
- Member Institute Civil Engineers, I, 

ii Edward, M 

I.Ch, Qu, 

Vr' , U i J1j ''„ - t ' r,)less,,r r,t ' Engineering, 
Madeley," London-street, Enmore 


121, Elizabe 
gh School, West Maitland. 

Watson Gfius e( 11 M U , . / 

\nalyst. Treasury Building 
Waugh, Isaac, M.B., M.C., T. CD., Parramatta. 

Webster, Rev. William, " Manse," Inglewood, Victoria. 

\\ iy 1 Ub.-rt Uuli< - i, U V. <> \l.\.s,„l II, I Mast i 

of the Sydney Grammar School, College-street. 
Wesley, W. H., Stella House, Penzance, Cornwall. 
\V"<>t. Arthur Anneshv,M.l>., M. ("h. Trin. Col. Dub., L.E.C.S., 

F.R.C.S. /«'/., Derbv House, Glebe. 
Westgarth, G. C ; -eth Bay. 

WhilfVl'd. I. ,■«;-. H \. s;,i„, v , The Grammar School, Sydney. 

White, Rev. James S.. M . A .. I . I 

White, Hon. James. M.L.C., " Cranbrook," Double Bay. 

White, Rev. W. Moore, A.M., LL.D., T.C.D. 

Whitelegge, Thomas, Orient Brewery, Bourke-street. 

Wiesener, T. F., 334, George-street." 

Wilkinson, C. S., F.G.S., Government Geologist, Department of 

. Bliss, 12, Spring-s 

: .li,.. ivrv i 

:, Regent-street, Petersham. 
I.D., Hospital for the Insane, 

, F. R., P.M., Berrin 

indeyer, W. C, His Honor Judge, M.A., Sj/d., King-str 
ise, George Foster, Immigration Office, Hyde Park, 
ise, Henry, Savings' Bank, Barrack-street. 

Mount Gilead," Campbelltow 


Woods, T. A. Tenison-, 110, Fitzroy 
Wo..lrv,-h. F. B.W., T — 
Wrieht, Frederic, M.l 
t Wright, Horatio G. A 

Wright, Rev. Edwin J 

, Young's Bu 

Ion. Secretary, Royal Socie 

Bernays, Lewis A., F.L.S., F.E 

Cockle, His Honor Sir Ja: 

3 Chief Justice of Queensland, 

De Koninck, Prof., M..V., Liiege, ueigmm. 

Ellery, Eobert P., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Government Astronomer of 
Victoria, Melbourne. 

Gregory, Augustus Charles, C.M.G., F.R.G.S., Geological Sur- 
veyor, Brisbane. 

Haast, Dr. Julius von, C.M.G., Ph. D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Professor 
of Geology, Canterbury College, and Director of the Canter- 
bury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

Hector, James, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., Director of the Colonial 
Museum and Geological Survey ..f NVu- Zealand, Wellington. 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, K.C.S.I., M.D., C.B., F.R.S., Ac., 
Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Huxley, Professor, F.K.S., 1.1,1)., r<l.S. F.Z.S., F.L.S., &c, 
&c, Professor of Natural History in the Royal School c* 



. TC.CM.C.. \r.D.,Ph.D.,F.R.S., 
ist, Melbourne. 

).C.S., LL.I).. F.L.S., 

- o] l.ir_'f I >r . Director of the Botanic Gardens 

Tyndall, John, D.C.L., Oxon., LL.D., Cantab., I 

" Natural Philosophy in the Royal 1 

Waterhouse, F. i 


LZ.S., Curator of the Musei 

Loy. Soc, T 

VI-m,. V. 

Limited to Twenty-Jive. 
P. Anthropological Institute, ', 

Etheridge, Robert, j 

, The British Museum 

r-General, R.E., Cannes, 

a' Vincent w'. 
Ma ■! e in, L. H. J., M.D., M.E.C.P., Lond., M.E.C.S. 
Phillips, H. 
Shepherd, T. W. 

Honorary Members. 
Barlee, His Excellency Sir F. P., K.C.M.G., 
Bentham, Geo"™' F.E.S., V.P.L.S., C.M.G. 


Established in memory of 

Eevd. W. B. CLAEKE, M.A., F.B.S., I 

Vice-President from 1866 to 1878. 

alogy, or Natural History of 

1878. Professor Sir Eichard Owen, E.C.B., E.R.S., Hampton Court. 

1879. Mr. George Bentham, C.M.G., F.E.S., The Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 

1880. Professor Huxley, F.E.S., The Eoyal School of Mines, London. 

1881. Professor F. M'Coy, F.E.S., F.G.S., The University of Melbourne. 

1882. Professor James Dwigbt Dana, LL.D., Yale College, New Haven, 

Conn., United States of America. 

1883. Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.E.S., 

F.L.S., Government Botanist, Melbourne. 

1884. Dr. Alfred E. C. Selwyn, LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S., Director of the 

Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 

1885. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, E.C.S.I., F.E.S., Director of the Eoyal 

Gardens, Kew. 


By the Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., M.L.C., &c., President. 
[Delivered to the Royal Society of N.S. W., 7 May, I884.] 

In taking up once more the meetings of the Society, we 
have the satisfaction of looking back upon a fair amount of work 
and progress during the past year. Nine meetings were held 
in 1883, with an average attendance of about forty members. 
Thirteen papers were read, their titles and authors being as 
follows: — May 2, 1883, "President's Address," by Chr. Rolleston, 
C.M.G. June 6, "On the Aborigines inhabiting the great 
Lacustrine and Riverine Depression of the Lower Murray, Lower 
Murrumbidgee, Lower Lachlan, and Lower Darling," by Peter 
Beveridge. July 4, "On the Wianamatta Shales," by the Rev. 
J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S. : "Further Remarks on 
Australian Strophalosise, and Description of a New Species of 
Aucella from the Cretaceous Rocks of North-east Australia," 
by Robert Etheridge, junr., F.G.S., &c. August 1, " On Plants 
used by the Natives of North Queensland, Flinders and Mitchell 
Rivers, for Food, Medicine, &c." by Edward Palmer, M.LA., 
Queensland. September 5, "Notes on the Genus Macrozamia, 
with Descriptions of some New Species," by Chas. Moore, F.L.S., 
V.P. : " A List of Double Stars," by H. C. Russell, B. A, 
F.R.AS. : "Some Facts connected with Irrigation," by H. C. 
Russell, B.A, F.R.A.S. : "On the Discolouration of White 
Bricks made from certain Clays in the Neighbourhood of Sydney," 
by R H. Rennie, M.A, D.Sc. October 3, " On the Roots of the 
Sugar-cane," by Henry Ling Roth. November 7, "On Irrigation 
in Upper India," by H. G. M 'Kinney, M.E. : " On Tanks and 
Wells of New South Wales Water-supply and Irrigation," by A 
Pepys Wood. December 5, "Additions to the Census of the 
Genera of Plants hitherto known as Indigenous to Australia," by 
Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., &c. 


Besides these formal papers, there have been short discussions 
on other subjects, and interesting specimens and apparatus have 
been from time to time exhibited. Two of the Sections— the 
Medical and the Microscopical— have kept up their meetings 
regularly, and have gone through a considerable amount of useful 
work. From the report of the Council just read you have learned 
that the Society has very nearly reached the maximum number of 
members allowed by the resolution passed about three years ago. 
The accessions last year more than balanced the defections by 
fourteen. The annual income keeps well up, being over £1,000, 
while the expenditure has been kept within the income by about 
£50. The debt on the building has been reduced by £400, and 
towards this Mr. Frederick Dangar gave the handsome donation 
of £50. The debt now stands at £1,100, and, although the 
interest upon this is by no means a heavy burden, yet it is 
desirable that it should be got rid of. The Society could make 
a better use of the money. For example, if we could afford to 
pay for the bringing out of the annual volume of " Proceedings," 
it could be placed much more promptly in the hands of the 
members. Our best thanks are due to the Government for their 
liberality in printing our volume, and the Government Printer 
turns it out in admirable style, but the exigencies of the Public 
Service stand in the way of a speedy execution of the work. 

We have also to tender our thanks to the Government for the 
continuance of their annual contribution to our funds, in the pro- 
portion of one-half our subscriptions. It would be well, however, 
if we could do without this, and if the proper resources of the 
Society could be made sufficient for the whole of its expenditure. 

Three years ago the Society began to offer money-prizes for the 
best essays on prescribed subjects. These prizes are still offered, 
but they fail to bring the response that was expected. Only two 
have as yet been awarded. Last year nine essays were sent in, 
but, after careful scrutiny by all the members of the Council, none 
were considered to have sufficiently met the conditions. In 1882 
twenty-one essays were received. This year we add the temptation 


(such as it is) of a bronze medal to accompany the money-prize 
and it is hoped that the results may be more encouraging. 

The Clarke medal for this year has been awarded to Mr. Selwyn, 
Director of the Geological Survey of Canada, and who formerly 
held a similar position in Victoria. This is now the seventh 
medal that has been awarded since its institution. 

The vacancy in our limited list of honorary members caused by 
the death of Charles Darwin has been filled by the election of M. 
Pasteur, the well-known French chemist. Pasteur, in the course 
of a long life, has made many valuable contributions to chemical 
science, but he is best known to us by his successful researches 
into the nature of fermentation and the propagation of zymotic 
diseases. It was he that proved that the only effective agency in 
fermentation is a living organism, and that if this is hindered from 
access to a fermentable liquid, or destroyed in the liquid, the 
fermenting process cannot go on. His valuable discoveries have 
brought him many honours in his own country. For example, in 
1878 he was made Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, and 
in 1882 he was appointed a member of the French Academy. He 
is also one of the fifty foreign members of the Royal Society of 
London. Towards the end of last year a Bill was introduced into 
the Chamber of Deputies to increase the pension allowed him by 
the Government. On that occasion M. Paul Bert gave a brief 
sketch of the great chemist's labours, from which I extract the 
following, as published in an American paper : — 

"He was the first to prove that fermentation is simply the result 
of the development and nutrition of an infinite number of infi- 
nitely small organisms. He studied successively alcoholic, acetic, 
lactic fermentations, and the putrefaction of azotised matter, and 
arrived at the result that each is produced by a special organism. 
The question then arose as to the source of the germs producing 
fermentation, and among other theories was that of spontaneous 
generation. But this theory Pasteur disproved by showing that 
liquids most subject to change, like blood and milk, can be kept 


in their natural state, exposed to the air, without previous prepa- 
ration of any kind, by simply preventing the germs of fermentation 
floating in the atmosphere from coming in contact with them. 

"But M. Pasteur's labours have had practical results of the 
greatest importance to the world. The first practical applications 
of the truths discovered were made in the case of beer and wine, 
which were often subject to destructive secondary fermentations. 
The discovery of the cause and nature of fermentation enabled him 
to destroy by a determinate degree of heat the organized germs 
that produce these effects. Fermentation can be regulated by the 
rules laid down by him ; and now the manufacture of wine, beer, 
vinegar, &c, which was formerly carried on by empirical processes, 
is governed by science. 

" The next great work of M. Pasteur was undertaken at the 
request of the French Government, which requested him to study 
the 'ptbrine,' a disease which threatened to exterminate the silk- 
worms of France and Italy. He discovered the cause of the malady 
to be a microscopic organism developed in the silkworm. Then he 
showed that the eggs of the silkworm moths not containing " cor- 
puscles" always produce healthy worms. This discovery solved 
the problem, and saved the important industry from destruction. 
In speaking of these discoveries Professor Huxley says that they 
are sufficient of themselves to offset the war indemnity of five 
milliards paid by France to Germany after the war." 

Now, to fill up the remainder of the time usually occupied by a 
presidential address, I have, in default of anything better, strung 
together some gossip connected with scientific matters gathered 
during my recent visit to Europe. As it is now nearly a year 
since my return to Sydney, there must be to some extent a lack 
of novelty in what I have to bring forward, but I have had no 
sufficient leisure to provide anything more deserving of your 

On the way homewards I made a break of the voyage at Bombay, 
and took a hasty run by rail to certain historic places in India. 

Some notes of this Indian tour were published in the Sydney 
Morning Herald. Before reaching Bombay, two points of minor 
scientific interest came under my notice. In passing up the 
Arabian Gulf in January we had an excellent example of sea and 
land breezes — the latter beginning about midnight and freshening 
till about 9 a.m., bringing faint aromatic odours from the shore, 
then dying away with rapid rise of temperature to 83° or 84°, and 
being succeeded by the sea breeze about midday. The other item 
was the change of magnetic polarity in the stanchions and other 
upright pieces of wrought iron about the decks. South of Ceylon 
the lower ends of these had south polarity, but on passing up the 
Gulf they changed decidedly to north. Of course, in each case 
the upper ends presented opposite polarity. It is this changing 
of polarity in different hemispheres through the magnetic induction 
of the earth that makes the permanent correction of binnacle 
compasses impossible. It is fortunate, however, that certain parts 
of the ship are about neutral to the compass. 

At Bombay I visited the handsome new buildings of the Uni- 
versity, two large halls, a little distance apart. One for library 
and offices, with a tower 250 feet high, commanding the best views 
of the city, was built by a native gentleman ; the other, for 
convocation, was built by joint contributions from a Parsee 
gentleman and Government. The latter is a beautiful structure, 
with arched stone roof, floor of marble and encaustic tiles, and 
painted windows. The University examines and confers degrees, 
but does not teach. I visited the Grant Medical College affiliated 
to it, with its contiguous hospital containing 600 beds, clean, cool, 
and airy. I was told that there were about 600 students going 
through the medical curriculum. Connected with the University 
I may mention an incident related to me by a fellow-traveller. 
While rambling in a town in Southern India he came upon a 
blacksmith's shop, where two young natives were resting awhile 
from their labours, and improving the time by reading Balfour 
Stewart's " Elementary Physics " and Roscoe's " Elementary 
Chemistry," with the view of matriculating in the University. 


In travelling northward through Jeypore to Delhi, then south- 
ward by way of Agra, Cawnpore, and Lucknow, to Benares, and 
finally westward to Bombay, I was frequently struck with the 
amount of uncultivated land, and with the absence of forests. 
India is so densely peopled, and so much of the population is 
engaged in agriculture, that one would naturally expect the whole 
country to be subjected to husbandry ; but, as a matter of fact, 
large tracts lie waste, probably for want of water ; and at the 
time of my journey, which was the dry season, active cultivation 
seemed restricted within the limits of irrigation. I was interested 
in observing that the methods of raising water from wells for 
irrigation were mostly the same as in Egypt ; but one process was 
new to me. It consisted of a huge water-bag, made out of a 
bullock's hide, lowered down by ropes and pulleys to the bottom 
of the well, then drawn up by two or four bullocks, and, by a 
simple arrangement of the pulleys, when the mouth of the bag 
comes to the surface, the bottom is pulled higher, so that the 
contents are emptied into the channels which convey the water 
to the desired points. 

In regard to forests, I rarely in my journey of 2,400 miles saw 
anything that we in Australia would call "bush." There were 
some patches about Delhi, and also near the Nerbudda, between 
Jubbulpore and Bombay, where, however, the trees were very 
young ; and, lastly, on the picturesque ranges which are crossed 
before reaching Bombay. Solitary trees, often of great size and 
beauty, were not uncommon, and many villages were embowered 
in leafy groves. 

In regard to temperature, although it was the coolest time of 
the year (January), the thermometer sometimes got as high as 
95° in the shade. The nights were generally cold, and the daily 
range occasionally as much as 50°. We seldom had any wind, or 
not more than light airs ; and as the sky was usually cloudless, 
the sun poured down its heat upon us without mitigation. 

This is not the place to enlarge upon the wonderful architecture 
of India, especially the old mosques and tombs of the Mogul 

dynasty, exhibiting most graceful forms, executed in beautiful 
materials, and enriched with an exuberance and delicacy of orna- 
mentation which words fail to depict. To specify only one 
example of ornamental work — the perforated marble screens round 
certain tombs, and separating apartments or filling window spaces, 
are unique in their character, and so exquisite in design as to 
resemble the finest lacework. The lower part of such a screen, 
where not perforated, is often covered with a mosaic of flowers, 
birds, &c, in coloured stones. 

The tomb buildings are not only superb examples of decorated 
architecture, but usually they are surrounded by gardens full of 
bright flowers and fountains and noble trees. The gem of these 
Mogul tombs is admitted to be the Taj Mahal at Agra, of which 
the well-known writer on architecture, Fergusson, says : " There 
is not perhaps in the whole world a scene where nature and art 
so successfully combine to produce a perfect work of art as within 
the precincts of this far-famed mausoleum." But I must return 
to more prosaic matters. 

We passed through the Suez Canal in the middle of February, 
and at that time the traffic was enormous. No fewer than twenty- 
two steamers going southward met us on the day before we 
reached Suez. At that port we were detained a day waiting for 
a chance of entering the canal, and while lying at anchor I counted 
forty steamers, mostly of large size, in the bay around us. It 
took us three days to get through to Port Said, and over three 
dozen steamers passed us in that time. At Port Said I counted 
twenty-six steamers, most of them waiting for permission to enter 
the canal. It was no wonder that an outcry arose for increase 
of canal accommodation, but the diplomatic difficulties seem 
greater than the physical, and nothing appears yet to be definitely 
settled. It is proposed by Baron Lesseps to cut a second canal ; 
but to an unprofessional mind it would seem more advantageous 
to double the width of the existing one, for then vessels could 
maintain a higher speed in the transit, and could pass each other 
at any point while underway ; whereas at present they can pas* 

only at appointed stations, which occur every 5 or 6 miles, 
and those going one way must make fast to the hank. The speed 
also has to be restricted to about 5 miles an hour. Now in a 
second canal of the same size the speed would still have to be kept 
low, and the grounding of a large vessel would block up the 
channel, as at present. 

On returning through the canal in April last year the appearance 
of traffic had greatly diminished. There were only two or three 
steamers at Port Said, and as many at Suez ; and during our 
passage of forty-eight hours from one place to the other we met 
about two dozen going northwards. The charges on steamers are 
very heavy, amounting in our case to about £1,200, and the profits 

To resume the homeward journey. We were not allowed to 
land in Egypt, through fear of having cholera brought from India, 
and such of us as wished to proceed to Italy had to go on to 
Malta. From Malta I crossed to Sicily, and spent a few days on 
the east and north coasts of that picturesque island. A curious 
optical appearance on Mount Etna may be worth mentioning. We 
watched the sunset one evening from the ruins of a Greek theatre 
at Taormina, a village romantically perched on a steep and rocky 
mountain side, about 600 feet above the sea, and looking down 
upon the site of Naxos, the earliest Greek colony in Sicily. After 
the ran had disappeared behind the snowy crest of Etna, a speck 
of bright silvery light, like a large star, remained for a few 
minutes at the point where the sun had vanished. The guardian 
of the ruins explained to us that this was not an unusual appear- 
ance. It was probably connected with reflections from fields of ice 
on the distant side of Etna ; but, whatever the cause, it was 
certainly a striking and beautiful phenomenon. 

From Palermo we crossed to Naples. There I visited the Zoo- 
logical Station, superintended by Dr. Dohrn. It is admirably 
got up, and puts through a large amount of biological work. At 
the time of my visit there were seven naturalists and thirty-five 
servants on the paid staff A steam launch and boats were kept 

for dredging, and the equipment included diving apparatus, 
arrayed in which Dr. Dohrn sometimes takes a walk at the 
bottom of the sea for the mere pleasure of it. There are forty 
tables available for work, but only fifteen were at that time 
occupied. Each table is charged £80 per annum. The German 
Government pays for ten, Cambridge one, and the British Associa- 
tion one. Each table has gli earns of sea- water 
running through them, besides other appliances. Three publica- 
tions are carried on to report the work of the station, all published 
at Leipsic. One of them is beautifully illustrated. 

The aquarium on the ground floor is admirably contrived, and 
is filled with most interesting and beautiful objects. A living 
torpedo is usually kept in a convenient place for giving shocks to 
visitors. I was told that the annual expense of the whole 
establishment amounts to about £5,000. 

Dr. Dohrn has attained to great success in preserving specimens 
of the most deli • life without change of colour. 

Different species require different treatment. Some are killed 
by immersion in strong corrosive sublimate before transference to 
alcohol ; and it was discovered accidentally that the use of tobacco 
smoke in stupefying some jelly-fish was successful in preserving 
delicate colours that had always hitherto proved evanescent. Dr. 
Dohrn sent a large collection to the late Fisheries Exhibition, 
and the specimens (nearly 400 in number) were much admired 
for the extra ■•■ ling their preservation. 

You may remember that in my address to the Society three 
years ago I called your attention to this Zoological Station at 
Naples, and to the efforts then being made by Baron Maclay to 
establish such a station here, and I asked you for contributions to 
assist in this enterprise. The Council, on behalf of the Society, 
made such a donation to the funds as to entitle it to nominate a 
worker in the laboratory, but no one applied for this privilege. 
I call your attention to the matter again, in the hope that some 
member of the Society may be disposed to take up biological investi- 
gations, and make use of the convenient laboratory now available. 


At the University of Naples Professor Palmieri showed me his 
ingenious apparatus for recording any movements of the nature 
of earthquakes, but I took no notes of the instruments at the 
time, and cannot now recall the details. The University contains 
some very fine mineral specimens, and among these is the largest 
mass of rock crystal probably in the world. One prism must be 
7 or 8 feet in girth. 

I ascended Vesuvius, and had the benefit of the funicular rail- 
way for the last and most difficult part of the way. The volcano 
being tolerably quiescent, we were able to stand on the outer rim 
of the crater and watch the explosions of steam and showers of 
scoria from the inner cone. So long as Ave kept on the windward 
side the position was safe and comfortable enough, except that the 
ground was very hot under foot ; but now and again the atmo- 
spheric eddies enveloped us in choking clouds of hot sulphurous 
steam, which could scarcely be breathed. The lava and ashes 
about the old crater were tinged with many and beautiful colours, 
chiefly by sulphur and its compounds ; and at some distance down 
the east side we came upon a stream of fluid lava about 2 feet 
wide, flowing sluggishly at a white heat down to a hollow far 
below us. On returning hot and weary to the upper station of 
the railway, we received the depressing news that the engine had 
stopped for want of water, and there was no help for it but to 
walk or slide down the cone of loose cinders and ashes for 1,000 
yards to the lower station where carriages were waiting. The 
water for the engine had to be brought in carts from the foot of 
the mountain, but tanks were then being constructed for con- 
serving rain-water at the station. 

In passing northwards through Italy I embraced every oppor- 
tunity of visiting collections of philosophical apparatus in the 
various Universities and Scientific Institutions, in order that I 
might expend to the best advantage the money entrusted to me 
for the purchase of apparatus for the University here. At Rome, 
in the commodious new buildings erected for physical science, I 
saw some excellent electrical apparatus and 

however, not in Italy, but in Paris. At Florence there were 
huge electrical machines and batteries, and an electrical pendulum, 
which had been oscillating between two dry piles for twelve 
years. Here also I noticed a simple method of purifying mercury 
by distillation at a low heat in vacuo. The Museum of Natural 
History in another part of the city is a noble collection, and the 
wax models, illustrating human and comparative anatomy, are 
probably unequalled in the world. 

The University of Padua I found rich in electrical machines 
and electro-magnetic engines. There is a pair of dry piles, with 
a light pendulum oscillating between them, as at Florence ; but 
this one was made in 1830 by Zamboni, and has been going 
almost continuously ever since. It was explained to me that 
when the atmosphere is very dry the motion sometimes stops, but 
a piece of moist paper placed under the glass shade will start it 
again. I saw afterwards, at Yerona, the house where Zamboni 
lived, and on a marble tablet attached to the wall he is styled the 
inventor of electric perpetual motion. Later in the year I saw 
at Oxford another of these electric pendulums, that had been 
going forty-two years. 

The University of Padua has now about 900 students and fifty 
professors, far outstripping its more ancient and celebrated neigh- 
boar at Bologna, which has now about 500 students. In its best 
days it is said to have numbered 10,000, though that probably is 
an exaggeration. 

At Pavia, Turin, and Paris, and afterwards in various parts of 
England, I inspected collections of philosophical apparatus, and 
visited workshops where such apparatus is made. These factories, 
especially where electrical appliances were turned out, had increased 
considerably in numbers, and the old ones had materially expanded 
since my previous visit to England twelve years ago. I need not, 
however, enter into further details on this subject, beyond stating 
that everywhere I found great activity prevailing in such factories, 
so much so that I had some difficulty in getting my comparatively 
small orders attended to. 


The electric-lighting fever was raging when I reached England, 
and new patents were taken out and new Companies formed about 
every week. I took every opportunity of observing the electric 
light in actual use, and was fortunate in seeing the last of the 
Electrical Exhibition at the Crystal Palace. At the preceding 
Exhibition in Paris the arc light was the leading feature, but at 
the Crystal Palace the chief novelty was the incandescent light, 
which in the short interval between the two Exhibitions had come 
to the front. The incandescent light is far the pleasanter of the 
two, and is much steadier, but unfortunately it is much more 
expensive. In this important matter of expense it never seemed 
possible to get trustworthy returns, so that to the present day it is 
still a matter of debate whether gas or electricity affords the cheaper 
ligbt. It is, however, generally understood that the arc light for 
large spaces and outdoor work is less expensive than gas, but that 
the incandescent light for house illumination is usually more 
expensive. The arc light, from its troublesome and unsteady 
character and unpleasant glare, lias rather lost ground of late. It 
is probably less used publicly at the present time in Paris, London, 
and other cities than it was two years ago, while the incandescent 
light, though far from perfect, seems steadily rising in favour. It 
would no doubt spread more rapidly if a durable, trustworthy, 
and not too expensive secondary battery could be supplied to 
regulate the light and diminish the risk of accidents; but such a 
battery has still to be invented. 

Electric lighting has had the effect of stimulating and improving 
gas lighting. Many new forms of burner and lamp have been 
brought out, and gas has obviously a long career of usefulness 
before it. I had several good opportunities of comparing the two 
modes of street lighting in London and Paris, and there could 
be no doubt that the best examples of gas lighting were more 
successful than the electric lighting. It was softer, better diffused, 
steadier, and more agreeable to the eye. In the South Kensington 
Museum I saw some halls lighted with gas, and others with arc 
lights, and no one could hesitate in giving the preference to gas ; 


but, had the electricity been used through the medium of incan- 
descent lamps, the verdict might have been different. The finest 
examples of the latter kind of lighting which I came across were 
at the Savoy Theatre, in London, and the Adhambra Court in the 
Crystal Palace. In both these cases the lighting was very effective 
and agreeable. 

The dynamo-electric machines for generating the necessary 
currents were continually being improved; at all events, new 
patents were following in quick succession ; and I could not learn 
that any one form of dynamo was considered clearly superior to 
others. The number of fatal accidents that had occurred in the 
use of machines giving electricity of high tension was leading to 
the invention of machines of a different type, worked at lower 
speed, and producing currents of less intensity. I had an oppor- 
tunity of inspecting the largest dynamo-electric machine yet 
constructed, the invention of Mr. Gordon, Engineer of the Tele- 
graph Construction and Maintenance Company, at Greenwich. 
This machine weighed about 18 tons; the wheel carrying the 
revolving electro-magnets was 9 feet in diameter, and weighed 
7 tons. When 1 saw it in action it was keeping up 1,300 Swan 
lights of sixteen or twenty candles each, but it was said to be 
capable of running 5,000 such lights. 

I visited the works of the Electric Power and Storage Company 
at Millwall, where about 400 men wore employed in the 
manufacture of secondary batteries. The Faure-Sellon-Volckmar 
battery there made was the favourite one at that time, and great 
expectations were cherished of its value in promoting the applica- 
tion of electricity to lighting, and as a source of mechanical 
power. To exemplify the latter application, the Company had 
fitted up a boat with electric propeller ; it made frequent trips 
on the Thames, and attained a good speed. At the time of my 
visit there was also a street tramcar being fitted up with electric 
motive power; it was afterwards put in operation, but with 
doubtful success. By recent accounts I learn that secondary 
batteries have developed weaknesses which, if not overcome, wi! 
stand materially in the way of their general adoption. 

electrical appliances, I may mention the 
friendly rivalry that was going on at the time of my stay in 
England between the President of the Royal Society (Mr. 
Spottiswoode) and Mr. Warren De La Rue— a rivalry unfortu- 
nately brought to a close soon afterwards by the lamented death 
of the former. These gentlemen were studying (among other 
electrical phenomena) the discharge through vacuous tubes, and 
for this purpose electricity of pretty high tension is required. 
Mr. Spottiswoode used induced electricity, and he had made for 
him the largest induction coil ever constructed. It had a primary 
coil of 660 yards, enclosing a core of iron wire weighing 67 lbs., 
and the secondary wire measured 280 miles. With thirty Grove 
cells this coil gave a spark 42 inches long. This powerful machine 
was ruined (as I understood) at the Paris Exhibition. He after- 
wards got an induction machine of the Topler variety, consisting 
of 85 pairs of ebonite plates, about 2 feet in diameter. I saw 
this in action, and it gave a splendid rush of sparks. Mr. 
Spottiswoode showed me also a large magneto-electric machine 
that he was getting made for the same experiments. 

Mr. De La Rue, on the other hand, sought to compass the 
same ends by battery electricity, and to obtain the necessary 
tension he had to multiply cells to a great extent. He invented 
the chloride of silver battery, in which the elements are chloride 
of silver and zinc, immersed in solution of sal ammoniac enclosed 
in a small test tube. Each cell has an E. M. F. of 1 volt. He 
continued to add cells to this battery until at the time I saw it 
there were no fewer than 15,000. This number gave a spark three- 
quarters of an inch long. 

One of the pieces of apparatus that I was commissioned to 
get for the University was a polariscope of large size. My 
instructions were to get the largest Nicol prisms procurable, 
and my hunt after these was troublesome but at the same 
time interesting. I applied to all the principal dealers in these 
articles, and could find no prisms with so much as 2 inches 
aperture. I consulted with Professor Adams, of King's College, 


and -with Mr. Spottiswoode, both of whom had very fine instru- 
ments. That belonging to Mr. Spottiswoode was, I understood, 
the largest in the world, the diameter of the prisms being about 
4 inches. He informed me that the supply of Iceland spar fit for 
making prisms had entirely stopped, the quarry being exhausted. 
He had tried to induce people to search for other deposits in 
Iceland, but without effect, and he advised me to secure the best 
prisms available without delay, as the market wxrnld soon be 
cleared. He said he believed there was only one large crystal in 
London remaining to be worked up ; that there was a larger one 
at Copenhagen, but the quality was not so good ; and that if I 
did not secure the English one it would likely soon go to America. 
It was some time before I could learn where this big crystal was 
to be found. There seemed a degree of mystery about it. At 
length I came upon the coveted prize in an obscure and dingy 
workshop, and speedily agreed upon terms for its purchase. It 
made a polariser ure, but it was impossible to 

get an analyser of the same size, and I had to be content with one 
less than 2 inches. Now, however, the University is in possession 
of a fine instrument, there being only (as I was assured) three or 
four polarisers in existence of larger aperture. 

Another instrument of far less pretension, in which I felt con- 
siderable interest, was the " Rainband Spectroscope." It is simply 
a direct-vision pocket spectroscope, carefully made, so as to give 
fine definition of the absorption lines. It was brought into 
prominence chiefly through the writings of Professor Piazzi 
Smyth, Astronomer Royal for Scotland, who extolled its value in 
prognosticating rain. One of these instruments, made by A. 
Hilger, I now exhibit. I have made frequent use of it for more 
than a year, and only on one occasion has it afforded me a distinct 
indication of rain prior to the usual atmospheric signs. This was 
at Melbourne, at the close of a day of hot wind, when the air 
seemed excessively dry, and no appearance of a change. Indeed, 
ordinary observers were prognosticating a hotter wind for next 
day ; but this little instrument showed the vapour bands with 

marked distinctness. The upshot was that the weather changed 
completely about midnight ; rain set in, and continued for several 

"With this spectroscope I have frequently examined the red 
glows which at intervals for nearly eight months have afforded 
such grand and puzzling displays of nocturnal splendour. Even 
yet they occasionally irradiate the evening and morning skies, 
though shorn of their earlier glory. 

The spectrum of the red light appears to be almost identical 
with that of the ordinary red clouds which often attend the 
setting sun. I exhibit two di;u:r;i.iMS, in which I have attempted 
to represent what I have seen with this spectroscope — first, when 
directed to a glowing sunset in the tropics, and, second, when 
directed to the red after-glow here. The two are substantially 
the same, the chief difference being on the red side of D, where in 
the case of the tropical sunset there is a distinct line, which I 
understand to be the special "rain-band," and in the after-glow this 
line disappears in the general shading that stretches from D half- 
way to "a." The line a between D and C is broader and denser 
in the after-glow than in the sunset. So far the evidence might be 
taken as showing that both phenomena arise from the same cause, 
namely, water in some form in the atmosphere ; but the spectro- 
scope is by no means able to settle this difficult question ; it 
analyses the light that comes to us, but does not identify the 
agency that decomposes and reflects the light. It is possible that 
the polarisation of the reflected rays might throw some light on 
the nature of the reflecting substance, but probably the light is 
too faint for such an observation ; at all events I have not seen 
any record of observations of this kind. You must all have 
watched and admired these strange and beautiful evening and 
morning displays, for which, by the way, we are in want of a 
good distinctive appellation, and no doubt you are all aware of 
the various explanations that have been put forth ; but let me 
remind you of the leading features of the phenomenon. T have 
not myself been favourably situated for good observations, and I 

IESS. 17 

therefore copy the following from an anonymous writer in the 
Herald: — "I have observed the sun to set in a cloudless sky, 
coloured orange yellow ; the daylight seems to decrease for fifteen 
or twenty minutes after sunset, when I observe a whitish oval patch 
of light, at an altitude of 20° to 30° ; this rapidly changes in colour, 
becoming yellowish purple, pink, brick red, and crimson; the 
coloured patch of light at the same time elongates and settles 
rapidly down on to the horizon, this phase ending about forty-five 
minutes after sunset. A second purplish patch now appears, at 
about 30° altitude, the horizon turning to a brown colour : this 
second patch is more widely diluted and its boundaries are more 
ill-defined than the first one ; it changes to yellowish purple, 
yellowish red, brick red, and crimson, spreading in azimuth, and 
settles down on the horizon in about 100 minutes after sunset, 
when the last tinge of colour disappears." My friend Mr. Comrie 
has supplied me (under date March 10) with some observations 
made by him at Northfield, Kurrajong Heights, about 1,870 feet 
above the sea : — -"We first noticed them here the first week 
in September. They were not always red, but sometimes pink, 
deeper or lighter crimson, golden yellow, peculiarly bright, having 
the power of lighting up everything brilliantly, and often a deep 
rich orange. I have been watching them for months, and, although 
they have lost something in brilliancy, they are still (March 10) 
to be seen. We have also seen the bright red glow that precedes 
the sunrise, and have heard from others who have watched the 
morning glows more than I have been able to do, that they were 
at first finer, richer, and more extensive than the evening ones. A 
special feature of the evening glow is its not appearing till after 
the sunset glow has passed away and the evening shadows begin 
to fall. Then the objects on tl e kwi be i to lose their indis- 
tinctness, a sudden brightness envelopes them, and they stand out 
clear and distinct, clothed with a golden radiance which seems 
reflected everywhere, and for five or ten minutes the whole lawn 
is lighted up and glows like a fairy bower, when as suddenly as it 
came up in the heavens the glow passes away, and everything is 
speedily shrouded in darkness." 


My friend Mr. Wright, of Drummoyne, on the Parramatta 
River, informs me that the morning glow has frequently been 
more intense and rich than the evening, and that the river east- 
ward from Drummoyne has sometimes been, as it were, turned 
into blood. The grandest of these weird and flaming heralds of 
the morning occurred in the early part of last month, and previous 
to that there was a gorgeous display on the morning of March 1. 

One of the finest of the later exhibitions of evening glow at 
Sydney was on February 26, when the rosy light extended all 
round the horizon. Yenus, in the west, shone with a beautiful 
green colour, complementary to the surrounding brilliant red. On 
March 13 there was also a fine display, with Venus showing 
distinctly green. Since then the evening glow has become rarer 
and more faint. Mr. Russell tells me that at Cobar, about 350 
miles inland, the most brilliant display of evening glow was on 
February 24. 

I adduce also a description by Mr. Todd, C.M.G., Government 
Astronomer at Adelaide, because it brings out some further 
details, and to show that the phenomenon has the same character- 
istics there as here : — "On every clear evening during this month 
(October) and the last fortnight of September a peculiar phe- 
nomenon has been apparent in the western sky. Shortly after 
sunset a red glow will make its appearance at an altitude of about 
50°, being very faint at first ; but, as the brightness of the sky near 
the horizon dies away with the receding sun, the red glow will 
expand downwards, becoming at the same time more brilliant, 
until at last the whole western sky will be lit up with a beautiful 
light, varying in colour from a delicate pink to a most intense 
scarlet, and the spectacle presents a most brilliant appearance. 
The upper part will then gradually fade away, until the colour is 
noticeable only at 7° or 8° above the horizon, at which time the light 
is about its brightest. Afterwards a secondary glow will sometimes 
make its appearance at an altitude of about 50°, and gradually 
spread downwards until the sky is again lit up. In the secondary 
phenomenon the colours are generally more delicate. The whole 
thin- will fade away about 8 p.m." 

RESS. 19 

No doubt you are aware that three explanations have been put 
forward to account for these remarkable appearances. The first 
is that they are due simply to water vapour at an unusual altitude. 
This, I think, must be set aside, for it is scarcely conceivable that 
the phenomena should be so rare were this the cause. The present 
generation has hitherto seen nothing similar, and there seems to 
be no distinct record of like appearances in former times, unless 
indeed the atmospheric phenomena of 1831 were of the same kind. 
It is true that Professor Piazzi Smyth and others aver that they 
observed like appearances some thirty years ago, but it appears to 
be generally admitted that the atmospheric phenomena referred to 
were connected with ordinary red sunsets, where the rich colour- 
ing is evidently produced by the action of the sun's rays on water 
or ice in fine particles, and that the late appearances are of a 
different character ; and even if it were conceded that in some 
one part of the earth water vapour might occupy an unusual 
position and produce unusual displays, is it at all probable that 
within a limited period a like condition of water-vapour should 
prevail over the whole earth, and continue for months 1 

The second, and apparently the most popular, explanation is 
that the wonderful decomposition and reflection of light has been 
caused by fine da ■ great eruption of Krakatoa 

in the end of August last year ; and the third hypothesis is the 
same in so far as dust is concerned, but differs in regard to the 
origin of the dust, accounting it to be of meteoric or cosmical 
origin, instead of an emission from a terrestrial centre. 

Now in favour of the volcanic origin we are informed that dust 
as actually collected from new-fallen snow at Madrid on Decem- 
ber 7, very similar in composition to dust that had fallen near 
Krakatoa, Volcanic dust (of a different character however) waf? 
also found in new-fallen snow at Philadelphia on January 22; and 
at Constantinople on December 2 there was a shower of a white 
substance like snow, of saltish taste and soluble in water. On the 
previous night there had been a gorgeous display of colour, the 
crimson glow being visible an hour and a half after sunset, and 


on the morning of December 2 the same magnificent colour flooded 
the eastern sky long before the dawn. I understand that at other 
places also, dust from the atmosphere has been collected, more or 
less resembling a volcanic product. 

But the argument chiefly relied on is the fact that the splendid 
colouring on the twilight skies began to be observed immediately 
after the great eruption, and that the phenomena seemed to spread 
from Krakatoa as a centre. A careful examination, however, of 
recorded dates makes this last fact very doubtful ; and m regard 
to the former, I have been assured by Mr. Baracchi of the Mel- 
bourne Observatory that exactly the same atmospheric appearances 
were frequently seen by him at Port Darwin as early as February 
of last year. Of course Krakatoa had nothing to do with these. 
The evidence obtained from a comparison of dates is open to a 
good deal of uncertainty, inasmuch as in many cases the first 
appearance of the colours was not noted or has not been definitely 
published. Even here in Sydney I am unable to fix the date of 
first appearance, nor have I been able to obtain definite first dates 
for Melbourne or Adelaide ; but if we can determine within even 
a few days the time of first appearance at a considerable number 
of places, we may be able to judge how far the eruption of Kraka- 
toa might account for the necessary distribution of dust. 

The earliest date of the abnormal appearances that 1 can find 
(leaving out of view for the present the case of Port Darwin) is 
August 28, at the Seychelles, and on the same date at Karachi, 
the former place being 3,000 miles west of Krakatoa, and the 
latter about as far to the north-west, the two places being about 
2,000 miles asunder. The great eruption occurred on the after- 
noon of August 26, through the following night, and during the 
forenoon of the 27th, and we are at once met with the difficulty 
of conceiving how dust could travel so rapidly. We have certainly 
no reason to suppose that the higher aerial currents ever move 
so fast. If it should be supposed that the earth's rotation had 
anything to do with it, then we are confronted with a record at 
Yokohama, on the 29th, 3,200 miles to the north-east ; and at New 

Ireland on September 1, 2,700 miles to the east. Again, we have a 
record at Maranham, in the north of Brazil, on August 31, 9,000 
miles to the west, so that the dust must have travelled 2,000 miles 
per day westward from Seychelles. An inconsistent observation 
comes from the Gold Coast, September 1, G,300 miles to the west^- 
inconsistent I mean with the supposition that the dust came from 
Krakatoa ; but it is not fatal to that supposition, as a cloudy sky 
may have hidden the first red glow on the Gold Coast. On Sep- 
tember 2 we have the phenomenon recorded at Trinidad, 10,000 
miles west, and at Panama, about 1,000 miles further west. The 
latter case gives a movement of 1,000 miles per day westward 
from Brazil. On September 2 it appeared also in Peru. On 
September 3 we have a record from a ship 4,000 miles west of 
Panama ; but this can scarcely be connected with the westerly 
movement, and we must turn again to the easterly. On Septem- 
ber 1 we had the phenomenon at New Ireland. From that to 
the place of the ship above indicated is an eastward course of 
3,600 miles, giving 1,800 miles per day. Honolulu lies about 
900 miles north-west from the position indicated, or 6,000 E.KE. 
from Krakatoa, and there the phenomenon occurred first on 
September 5, quite inconsistent with the previous case. But, 
waiving this anomaly for the present, it seems to me quite im- 
possible that upper currents of the atmosphere could carry dust 
from Krakatoa eastward and westward simultaneously at such a 
prodigious rate. If the dust came from Krakatoa, then the only 
agency that seems capable of dispersing it is electrical repulsion, 
and to that view there are serious objections. 

On September 8th we have the first record at Ceylon, 1,600 
miles to the north-west, although at Karachi, 1,400 miles further 
in the same direction, the record is August 28. Ongole, Septem- 
ber 9th, 500 miles northwards from Ceylon, and Madras, not so 
far north, both agree well with the Ceylon observation. At these 
places, as at some others, the first appearance noted was the green 
colour of the sun ; but as this seems undoubtedly to be caused by 
the same agency that produces the red glow, it is not necessary to 
distinguish the two phenomena in giving dates. 


Early in September, probably about the end of the first week, 
we began to have the magnificent red skies at Sydney, 3,000 miles 
south-easterly from Krakatoa ; and the same approximate date 
will answer for Melbourne and Adelaide. About the same date 
we have a record from Virginia, and a little later from the west 
coast of South America, both of which agree tolerably well with 
the record at Panama and Trinidad on September 2. At the 
Cape, 5,200 miles south-westerly, the first appearance was on 
September 20. Comparing Sydney and the Cape, we find the 
dispersion occurring simultaneously at about the same rate to the 
S.E. and S.W., but this rate is very much slower than the E. and 
W. dispersion. 

The next place in order of time for which I have a date 
is Sapporo, in the north of Japan, 3,800 miles N.E., where 
there was a red sun and fall of ashes on October 13. Santa 
Barbara, 8,000 miles E.N.E., October 14, although San Francisco, 
not far away, seems to have had nothing till November 23. 
On November 9 the red skies were first seen in England, about 
6,300 miles north-westerly, giving 85 miles per day of dispersion, 
although places much nearer Krakatoa on the same bearing were 
later. For instance, Constantinople, 1,300 miles nearer, gives 
November 20 ; Italy, November 25 ; Berlin, November 28 ; and 
Madrid (a little further away than England), about the same date. 
Thesr cases do not at all correspond with the supposition of a 
dispersion from Klrakatoa. November 23 is the date given at 
Iceland. On November 27 we have the first record from New 
York and the north-eastern States of America, 10,200 miles 
E.N.E. On that date we are told that the fire-engines were 
tuurned out at Poughkeepsie, on the Hudson, under the impression 
that a great conflagration was going on. This date is inconsistent 
with that from Virginia early in September. 

If we suppose that the dust travelled westward from England 
to New York, it would give us a rate of about 167 miles per day. 
If we try the eastward movement, we get a much slower rate 
from Honolulu (48 miles per day), although up to that point it 

must have travelled 667 miles per day. On the same day that 
the red skies appeared at New York, they appeared also at 
Victoria, British Columbia, about 2,200 miles westward. 

It seems needless to pursue the matter further. If these dates 
are at all trustworthy, we cannot account for them by dust from 
Krakatoa, for neither winds nor electrical repulsion would explain 
such erratic movements. Another difficulty in the way of admit- 
ting that Krakatoa is the source of the dust, is the persistency of 
the phenomena. Here at Sydney we have enjoyed frequent dis- 
plays of the rich celestial colourings for nearly eight months, and, 
although they have become fainter in the evenings, I am assured 
that some of the morning glows, within the last few weeks, have 
been as grand as ever. We are driven, therefore, to conclude 
that the dust, if dust is really the agent in question, must have 
been meteoric, and had its origin outside our earth. The dates 
however require fresh examination ; and this will, no doubt, be 
done effectually by the Committee lately appointed by the Royal 
Society of England to investigate the whole matter. 

It now only remains for me to induct my successor, Mr. Russell 
your newly elected President, and to take my leave. 

By Walter Shellsiiear, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S. IF., 4 June, 1SSI] 

The removal of bars from the entrances to our rivers is a work of 
national importance, directly affecting as it does the progress and 
trade of the whole group of Australian Colonies, and in New South 
Wales especially it is the great step necessary in the development 
of the abundant resources of our fertile coast districts. A paper 
on this subject may not, therefore, be without interest to the 
members of this Society. 

The coast of New South Wales might not inaptly be described 
as ironbound, the cliffs in most cases rising perpendicularly from 
the water, the sea being of great depth right up to the shore. It 
is broken by a few bays and sandy beaches, some of the latter being 
of considerable length ; but deep water is invariably found at a 
moderate distance from the shore. The rivers fall into the sea 
mostly through sandy estuaries obstructed by extensive sand-liars, 
but in some few instances they pass into rock-bound inlets of 
considerable depth, notably in the case of the Hawkesbury River. 
The formation of bars at the entrances to our rivers is mainly due 
to the action of the v.av, , ,,f sand as they 

pass into shallow water, the sand being carried up the estuary by 
the incoming tide, and is deposited as soon as it is beyond the 
influence of the waves ; the ebb tide, being unassisted by the 
waves, is unable to cope with the incoming sand, and thus we see, 
when the tide and waves are left to themselves, the tendency is to 
close the entrance altogether. To this is to be attributed the 
deplorable state of our river mouths in time of prolonged drought. 
This point is very forcibly brought out in the notes on the 
Admiralty charts, where it is stated that certain entrances are only 
open after a heavy fresh. 

The opinion that bars are mainly formed by the action of the 
waves is held by many leading authorities on the subject. Mr. 

nber of Council Inst. C.E., said :— 
:e he propounded the theory — and 
ved he stood alone in holding it— that the 
bars of the rivers of the United Kingdom were due entirely to the 
action of the sea constantly heaping up sand and detritus, and 
that but for some counteracting influence the effect of that action 
would be to form a continuous line of beach across the mouths of 
navigable rivers and estuaries. The counteracting influence to 
which he referred was that of the tidal and river scour. He 
might say that that theory, now thirty years old, had been fully 
confirmed by his subsequent experience. * * * * It was 
further known that those bars were always worst after a pre- 
valence of on-shore wind and heavy sea, and were best when the 
river was in flood. * * * * The waves were the true < de- 
positors ' of the bar, the river was only an 'excavator,' and there 
would still be all the phenomena of a bar at the mouths of estu- 
aries, although the river water did not bring down a single particle 
of suspended matter. * * * * If his bar theory, as applic- 
able to tidal rivers, was right, it clearly followed that, if the pier 
heads were carried into water of sufficient depth to prevent the 
waves from acting upon the bottom with such force as would 
throw up sandbanks, it would be possible to secure permanently 
the depth obtained by extending the piers, because there would be 
no submerged beach thrown up by the sea, and the alluvial matter 
in suspension would be carried out with the current." Mr. I. J. 
Mann, C.E., in his valuable paper on the removal of river bars by 
induced tidal scour, remarks :— 2 " With reference to the bar at 
the mouth of the Liffey, the author has no hesitation in attributing 
its formation to the combined action of waves and current of the 
flood tide, the former stirring up and keeping in agitation the fine 
sand of which the bottom of the bay is composed ; the lower 
stratum of the water becomes therefore surcharged with sand, 
which is carried along by the tidal current." 

Sir John Coode, remarking on the formation of bars, says : — 
8 " They were formed almost entirely by the sea, some rivers 
illustrating this in Australia. At the Swan River, on the coast 
of Western Australia, facing the. Southei " 
tide, there was a bar of the worst possible desc: 
Yarra, at Melbourne, which discharged into a sheltered embay- 
ment at the head of Port Phillip, though it had a rise of tide pre- 
cisely the same as the Swan River (about 2 feet), had no bar, 
simply because it was in a sheltered position, and there was no 

1 Minutes, Inst. C.E., vol. xxxvi, p. 236. 

2 "Engineering," vol. 27, p. 108. 

3 Minutes, Inst. C.E., vol. lviii, p. 130. 

heavy wave action to throw up the material to form a bar." The 
same remarks are equally true in the case of the Hawkesbury 
River, the entrance of which is sheltered, and there is therefore 
no bar. The contrary effect is seen in the case of the Richmond 
River, where the entrance is exposed to the wave action; con- 
sequently a bar obstructs the entrance. 

We may safely deduce from this that, in order to cope perman- 
ently and successfully with the sand, it is necessary to extend 
artifically the entrance to a point where the depth of the water is 
such that the waves are unable to heap up the sand, to make the 
entrance of such form that the force of the waves will be 
expended before they advance into shallow water, and at the 
same time directing and concentrating the action of the ebb tide 
and upland waters, so that their force may be used to the best 
advantage in combating the mischievous action of the waves. Sir 
John Coode's observations show that the movement of the sand 
from the beach seaward always terminates in about 3| fathoms, 
and in his works he goes upon the broad principle of passing 
beyond the line of disturbance. 1 This demonstrates the advisa- 
bility, where practicable, of carrying the works out to at least 
that depth. On dealing with the action of waves he says that 
" the effect of wave action is at least a hundredfold greater than 
that of the tidal action." And if this be so, it clearly proves the 
necessity of breaking the force of the waves before they have an 
opportunity of throwing up sand. 

Mr. Walter Raleigh Brown 
upon the subject, says :— 2 " I 
the mouth of a harbour, the pi 
opinion, was to concentrate all efforts upon one point, in order to 
keep a clear and deep channel at that place." Mr. Vernon 
Harcourt, M. Inst. C.E., in reply to the discussion on his paper 
on " Hai-bours and Estuaries," ' J considered that "a harbour should 
be formed with s < ,i t some distance 

apart, and converging at their extremities, which should be carried 
into as deep water as practicable." 

It may be well at this point to examine what has been done in 
dealing with bar harbours situated in similar positions to those 
on our coast, in other parts of the world— that is, bar harbours 
situated on rapidly shelving coasts. 

The entrance to the Tyne (plate No. 1) has many points of resem- 
blance to our rivers. Upon an examination of the chart of the Tvne 
in 1813, it will be seen that at that date it was in almost exactly the 

, Inst. C.E., vol. lxx, ] 

same state as our principal rivers are Lit pre i... nam !y, nearly 
blocked by a shifting sand-bar, v.i;h deep water on either side. 
A reference to a receu! ehari of the sani ■ ri\ • r -bows what a great 
transformation has been made in this entrance by the carrying out 
of judiciously planned works. By the construction of the two 
breakwaters/starting from teslio it L < nsiderable distance 
apart, approach n 1 tl tl f extend seaward into deep 

water, the sand-bar has ceased l» ,xist, having been removed by 
the combined action of the induced scour and dredging; the 
breakwaters extending into deep water thus prevent the waves 
from lifting fresh sand, the waves losing their force after they 
enter, on account of the widening out of the works, and at the 
same 'time the tidal scour has been greatly improved by reason of 
the large area enclosed hy the breakwaters. The foreshore has 
only slightly advanced, and from the rapidly increasing depth sea- 

The entrance to the Tees (plate No. 2) has undergone a somewhat 
different treatment, the rivei h vingbeeutah, through the estuary 
between half tidal groining walls ; but those not having proved as 
successful as the Tyne works, it was decided to construct two 
breakwaters in some respects similar to those on the Tyne, one of 
which has been constructed and the other is in progress, the result 
so far being most satisfactory, for since the completion of the 
south breakwater, a considerable improvement has already taken 
place, the b a wveral feet. 

the i 

treatment of a difficult bar. 
menced in the last century, by the construction of 
wall, extending seaward in almost a straight line 
crossing the low foreshore known as the South 11 
effect of this wall was to fix the direction of the cl 
plans were suggested early in the present cent) 
improving the entrance, and it' possible for the ren 
Eventually it was decided to construct the great n 
ing some distance up the coast and convert-in \ to-, 
the great south wall, thus enclosing a great tidal 8 
purposes, at the same time forming, with the sout 
nozzle, direct: _ the action of 

bar, and likewise protecting the inside harbour fix 

advantage on 

for some distance from 

inn pap,r l>v Mr. J. P. (mfmh. M. Inst. C.K.' 

From these cases it will he noticed that tlie, 

princi;.!. -; i:iv«>lved in each find all of them. T 

eep water. By referring to the 

xtending from the mainland to '. 
nly aliorded partial shelter, Ave li 

tidal current, and reducing the width of the channel to very 
narrow limits, by the formation of the dangerous " oyster-bank." 
The improvement of the reef by the construction of the southern 
breakwater somewhat reduced the " oyster-bank," and now the 
breakwater has been extended beyond Nobby's Head. The 
entrance being thus more perfectly protected from the waves, we 
see a most satisfactory improvement by the widening of the 
channel and the almost entire removal of the " oyster-bank," 
brought about by the comparatively undisturbed action of the 
tidal and upland water scour. At the present time, the entrance 
is so far protected by the breakwater on the south, and the bay- 
like line of the coast on the north, that the tidal and upland 
waters have decidedly the best of the situation, and thus we see a 
progressive state of improvement. 

Although this harbour possesses great natural advantages, by 
the position of the reef upon which the south breakwater has been 
built, and by the deep water and absence of sand to the south of 

the great curvature of the river at the harbour, the effect of which, 

at certain points, and to throw up banks and others, and there is 
no doubt that this action will necessitate a large amount of 
dredging to keep the harbour of uniform depth. 

In investigating how far the general principles set forth above, 
and illustrated by the works at the Tyne, Tees, and Liffey, may be 
applied in dealing may be well to take the Rich- 

mond and Clarence Rivers as examples ; and, in dealing with these 
, to show how, with modifications to suit local circumstances, 
iay be genera! r riven along our coast. 

" ' >nd River (plate No. 4) flows through one of the 
most fertile districts of the Colony, and is navigable for vessels of 
moderate size for some distance from the entrance ; but, as is 
unfortunately the case with most of our rivers, it is blocked by a 
very dangerous shifting bar. The width across the entrance is 
about 6,000 feet. The North Creek joins the main river at nearly 
right angles, opposite the centre of the entrance, thus forming a 
somewhat complicated combination. The general tendency of the 
waves is to hea,p up the sand-bar across the entire distance between 
the heads, with the exception of a narrow channel under the 
North Head, and occasionally there is a second channel at the 
South Head, but this is not permanently navigable. 

In attempting to improve this entrance, the first thing to be 
considered is at what point should the entrance channel be fixed ; 
and in fixing tli i v to study the effect of the 

tidal waters from the North Creek upon the tidal waters of the 
river, and, if possible, to combine them into one concentrated 
stream, to act jointly upon our fixed point on the bar. Looking 



at the case with the above considerations before us, it appears 
that the best point mi which to focus our large available scouring 
power, would be in the neighbourhood of A on the plan, as near 
as possible in a direct line with the centre of the last reach of the 
river, and somewhat to the north line of the North Creek. 

Having determined this point, we have to consider what works 
would be necessary in order that the tidal and upland water scour 
might be concentrated at that point. Firstly : By the construction 
of a breakwater starting from the South Head, extending sea- 
ward for about 2,000 feet in an easterly direction ; the entrance 
would then be protected from the south and south-easterly weather; 
at the same time the tidal waters would be directed so as to im- 
prove the South Channel. Secondly : By the construction of a 
wall from the pilot station in a south-easterly direction, crossing 
the sandbank, and terminating by a breakwater of about the 
same length as the proposed south breakwater, leaving an en- 
trance of about 1,500 feet between the extremities of the 
works. The northern works would protect the entrance from the 
north-easterly and easterly w eatl i er, which, as is well-kncwn, are 
the principal agents in heaping up bars ; they would, in conjunc- 
tion with the southern breakwater, direct and concentrate the 
tidal action on the bar, thus enabling the ebb-tide and upland 
water to carry the sand well out to sea. Considering the large 
amount of tidal water available, and the great depth of the sea a 
short distance from the entrance, there can be no doubt that, in a 
short time after the completion of these works, there would be a 
sufficient depth at the entrance to enable the largest steamer 
afloat to enter ; moreover, the lower reach of the river being 
protected from the prejudicial action of the waves, and having its 
direction tixed by the position of the entrance, would soon make 
for itself a permanent deep channel. 

.Judging from the effect of the works at Dublin, where an in- 
significant river has been made available for a first-class shipping 
trade, by the correct application of sound principles, the author 
has every confidence in predicting that, if works were carried out 
on the lines proposed, this great natural highway, which is now 
closed to all except small steamers and coasting craft, would be 
available for our first-class intercolonial steamers, the effect of 
which, as far as enhancing the value of property and increasing 
the prosperity of this district, cannot well be gauged, or, in these 

sideration of this case, the author feels convinced that, by the ap- 
plication of the most modern and improved construction, these 
works could be carried out for a sum not exceeding £200,000 or 

The Clarence (plate No. 5) is undoubtedly the most important 
of all the rivers of this Colony running into the Pacific. It flows 

through one of the most productive districts of New South Wales ; 
and from the wonderful richness of the soil, there can be little 
doubt that this di play an important part in 

the development oi a of this Colony. 

But for the existence of the bar at the entrance of this great 
natural means of internal communication, Grafton and the Cla- 
rence district would, there is little reason to doubt, be next in 
importance to Sydney herself, for with the entrance once secured 
the port would be the natural outlet for the trade, not only from 
the immediate district itself, hut from the whole of the country 
' stretching away to the table-lands of New England and beyond. 
The pressing necessity, therefore, of removing this obstruction to 
the progress of this important part of the Colony cannot be over- 

In examining this case the same contending forces are seen at 
work—namely, the struggle between waves and tide, the result 
being that the entrance has been driven into a most awkward 
corner by the action of the north-east winds, the river being di- 
verted from its straight course into one of the most ugly bends 
imaginable, with the result that, instead of a good channel, we see 
a succession of deep holes and sandbanks, and to make matters 
worse there are several dangerous sunken rocks in this already 
uninviting entrance. Nature has done much towards the removal 
of this most unsatisfactory state of things, the entrance being well 
protected on the south by the South Head j moreover an enormous 
volume of tidal water is available, only wanting skilful directing 
in order that it may become a most powerful agent, and one that 
would be more than equal to the task of removing all obstructions. 
Wanting such directing, this great natural power is expended in 
dredging deep holes in places where they are not required, and 
heaping up sand-banks on the site of the much desired entrance ; 
at the same time, on account of the frequent changes of direction, 
troublesome eddies are formed to further increase the difficulties of 

There should be no great difficulty in fixing the entrance and 
removing the bar, considering that Nature has provided perfect 
protection on the south side ; all that appears necessary is the 
construction of a breakwater to protect the entrance from the 
north and north-easterly Aveather. At the same time, the channel 
should be straightened by cutting through the spit, and deflecting 
the stream from the south side of the river by the construction of 
a dyke from the south bank to Rabbit Island, extending a short 
distance into the main channel. The breakwater, once constructed, 
the removal of the spit would be an easy matter ; for by cutting a 
narrow canal parallel with Queen-street, Iluka, the tide would 
soon complete the work of cutting a good channel. The new 

channel being atn ' moreover require but little 

protection, as they would not be subjected to the excavating action 

"xl.'i ''.'' 

; advantages of this plan of treatment must be commendable 
to the most casual observer. Firstly — The entrance being pro- 
tected on the south by the South Head, and on the north by the 
breakwater, extending into deep water, the protection from the 
waves is complete. Moreover, the channel being straightened, the 
tidal and upland waters, unimpaired ly any abrupt changes of 
direction, would do the work of maintaining and improving the 
channel, and at the same time keeping the entrance clear of all 
obstructions. Secondly — The entrance being well protected and 
in deep water, and the channel being straightened and removed 
from the neighbourhood of the sunken rocks, the port would be 
made available for the passage of large vessels, and could be 
entered without danger in all weathers. The benefit that would 
follow the opening up of this seaport, and the increased wealth 
and prosperity it would confer upon this valuable portion of our 
territory, does not require to be enlarged upon in this paper. The 
straightening of the entrance channel would be by no means as 
formidable an undertaking as it at first appears, for with the pro- 
posed breakwater once constructed, this would be the natural 

A remarkable instance of the ease with which the channel of a 
river may be diverted from one bank to the other is given in the 
case of the Missouri River, where by the construction of a com- 
paratively inexpensive dyke, the centre of the channel of this 
groat river was shifted from the west to the cast hank, a distance 
of nearly 2,000 feet ; and in a few months the river cut for itself a 
new channel many feet in depth. 1 This rase clearly demonstrates 
the practicability of the works proposed for the Clarence. The 
entrance to the Clarence has been compared to that of the Hunter, 
and it has been argued that works carried out on similar lines in 
the two cases should have like results. Careful consideration will 
show that there is but little grounds for such conclusions. The 
two entrances are alike in this respect— that they are both protected 
on the south by a natural breakwater ; but in the most important 
particular, as far as the treatment of the bars is concerned, the 
cases are widely different; for whilst the entrance to the Hunter is 
in a great measure protected from the KE. wind by the easterly 
direction of the coast-line between Newcastle and Port Stephens, 
the Clarence is exposed to its full force, and, as is well known, the 
long prevalence of N.E. winds has a very prejudicial effect on 
the river entrances exposed to them, as is evidenced by the heap- 
ing up of the sand at all such rivers ; thus clearly showing the 

1 See Railroad Gazette of New York, for November 30. 1883. 

necessity of treating each case according to its own special require- 
ments. To carry out the works proposed by the author at the 
entrance to the Clarence would probably cost about £150,000 to 

In coming to the above conclusion as to the best method of 
treating the Clarence River, the author has been guided by the 
experience gained in the successful treatment of the Tyne, Tecs, 
Liffey, Danube, the Kurrachee mouth of the Indus, and the recent 
great works at the mouth of the Mississippi, in all of which 
cases the object kept in view has been the protection of the 
entrance from the wave action, and improving the scour by making 
the entrance channel as straight as possible ; whereas the existing 
works on the Clarence, in his opinion, merely deal with the 
" result " brought about by tl if the waves and 

tide, instead of treating with the " cause ; ' by protecting the tidal 
action from the disturbing action of the waves, which would be 
the case if the works proposed by the author were carried out. 

The entrance to the Bellinger River is rather a complicated case, 
judging from the country map and the Admiralty chart, and in the 
absence of a detailed chart of the river if would be unwise to 
speculate on the best method of improving it. The Nambuccra 
and Manning Rivers have more direct entrances than any of the 
md could probably be dealt with by the 
less stupendous works, at a moderate cost. 

The entrance to the Macleay River is one that would require 
careful study ; but as it is well protected on the south by Trial 
Bay, and having a large volume of tidal water available for main- 
taining the entrance, there should be no great difficulty in acquiring 
a satisfactory channel across the bar. 

The entrance to the Hastings River at Port Macquarie (plate 
No. 6) could be much improved, and at the same time a valuable 
harbour formed, by taking advantage of the sand-bank oppose 
the town, and constructing a break water on the north in the direc- 
tion shown on the map. This breakwater would protect the 
entrance from the north-easterly weather, and at the same time 
steady the tidal current along the south side, thus forming a deep 
channel near the town, and by the increasing width of the harbour, 
the force of the waves in time of easterly gales would be broken ; 
the current at the same time would be focused at the entrance, 
and be enabled to keep down the bar. 

With skilful handling, many of the inlets that are now prac- 
tically closed for navigation might be made available, and those 
that at present can only be frequented by the smallest craft might 


As to the best system of carrying out such works as are pro- 
posed in this paper, great strides have of late years been made in 
this branch of civil engineering, by the use of large concrete blocks, 
breakwaters having been constructed at a speed altogether 
unknown a few years since. Thus, 710 feet were added to the 
Manora Breakwater, Kurrachee, in less than four months, by the 
use of concrete blocks of 27 tons each, placed in position by 
suitable machinery; at the same time this work was carried out 
at a very moderate cost compared with similar work under the 
old system. Many other instances might be quoted where, by the 
use of concrete in its different forms, works have been rapidly 
constructed at a moderate cost that wjuld have been well nigh 
impossible to carry out except at an enormous outlay, but for the 
aid of this most valuable material. Another great advance has 
been made in the direction of cheapening such works, by the use of 
large mattresses made of fascine, which, when sunk in position, 
prevent the sand from being washed out. Layers of stones are 
placed on these mattresses, which in their turn are covered with 
other mattresses, the work being thus well bound together. This 
system has been used with great advantage in America, and has 
recently been adopted in Holland, where the extensive works at 
the mouth of the river Maas have been carried out on this 
system at a very moderate cost, and at the same time giving great 

In conclusion, the author's apology for bringing this subject 
under the notice of the Royal Society of New South Wales is its 
vital importance to the best interests of the coast districts of the 
Colony ; the improvement of the river entrances being the principal 
work necessary to develop the resources of these rich agricultural 
lands. From valuable instruction in the principles that govern 
the movements of solid matter held in suspension by tidal and 
wave-disturbed water, imparted by Dr. James Thomson, during an 
engineering course at the Glasgow University, and from careful 
study of the subject extending over several years, and from 
personal inspection of many important harbours, the author is 
convinced that all that is necessary to ensure success in the 
treatment of our different rivers is : " The close observation of 
physical features and effects, and the adoption of means to assist 
the operations of Nature instead of opposing them" — that is (as 
expressed in the charter of the Institution of Civil Engineers), 
" directing the great sources of power in Nature for the use and 

illustrated by numerous charts and maps, from 
3, 4, 5, and 6 have been prepared. 

X(^— ?f 

Richmond River 

•fO U T H 

Clarence River 


Notes on Gold. 
Leibius, Ph.D., M.A., F.Ci 

/he Royal Socie 

1. On a remarkable occurrence of gold in Queensland. — Towards 
the end of 1882 three brothers, named Morgan, discovered about 
25 miles from Rockhampton, near the Dee River, auriferous 
deposits, which, not only on account of their richness, but 
especially from a scientific point of view, bid fair to be classed 
among the most remarkable examples of auriferous deposits yet 
known. The lucky prospectors have for some time kept their dis- 
covery rather quiet. Last year they had been for several months 
retarded in their work of developing their mine by want of water, 
and it is only comparatively lately that its extent and richness 
have been ascertained. The C"/,ricornia,>, a Rockhampton news- 
paper, in its issue of 22nd March last, idvesan interesting account 
of this mine, under the heading "The Dee Gold-mine," from which, 
and also from information and specimen kindly supplied to me by 
Mr. Walter Hall, of Sydney, one of the present owners of the 
mine, I have obtained much valuable information regarding the 

The Mount Morgan Mine, so called after the name of its dis- 
coverers, is a mountain ridge, rising about 400 feet, and consists 
of ferruginous quartz in which the gold is disseminated in a very 
finely divided state. This mountain ridge appears to be the result 
of a thermo-spring which i 
in solution, and from whicl 

finely divided slate, more or less coated with hydrc 
iron. As the mine is being developed caves are opened out, from 
the roof of which this oxide of iron and silica han^slike stalactites 
the size of a finger, and in which the gold is readily seen finely 
disseminated, as shown by samples brought here to-ni^ht. 

As the Capricornian, before referred to, says, " the formation 
Operated on cannot be called a reef. The whole hill-top seems to 
be of richly auriferous stone. It is merely cut away to suit the 
convenience of the miners, so that a quarry or broad terrace has 
been formed. The cutting is 20 feet high and about 100 feet long, 
and the stone is of the same character the whole distance, and 
extends to the summit of the mountain, several chains higher." 

needs to be put in anywhere along the workings, and tons of it 
can be displaced. The expense of securing it is therefore com- 
paratively small. It is carted about a quarter of a mile along a 
good metalled road down the mountain side, and is then thrown 
into a wooden shoot, wide and deep, and about 200 feet long. 
At the bottom a cutting has been made for the reception of the 
stone, and barriers raised to prevent its progress down the hill. 
It is then carted about half a mile to No. 1 battery." There are 
two batteries, one of ten the other of fifteen stampers, where about 
230 tons are passed through per week. 

The before-mentioned paper says : — " The owners here possess 
an apparently inexhaustible deposit of auriferous quartz, and are 
able to mine it for almost a quarter of the usual cost. They are 
very reticent as to the amount of stone they are putting through 
and the yield obtained ; but we understand about 100 tons are 
being crushed at No. 1 battery, and 130 at No. 2, weekly. The 
return is said to be not less than 5 ozs. to the ton." 

While, however, especially from a geological point of view, the 
occurrence of this gold is highly interesting, the character of the 
gold obtained is not less so. Lock, in his work on gold, published 
1882, says:— "No gold has yet been found in nature unalloyed 
with silver," yet this gold from the Mount Morgan Mine, of which 
since February last already over 10,000 ozs. have been received as 
retorted gold at the Sydney Mint, is found to be free from silver — 
a minute trace excepted. I have brought some of this retorted 
gold rolled out very thin to show its toughness. It assays 99 and 
7-10ths per cent, of gold ; the rest is copper, with a trace of iron. 
Gold assaying 99 and 7-10ths per cent, is worth £4 4s. 8d. per 
oz. Gold from the same mine received at the Mint assayed as 
high as 99 and 8-10ths. per cent. It is, as far as I know, the 
richest native gold hitherto found. The richest gold next to this 
comes, I believe, from Maryborough, Victoria, which assays 99 
and 3-10thsper cent. ; while that from its namesake in Queensland 
contains only 85 per cent. gold. 

F. B. Miller, in his paper on "Gold-refining by Chlorine Gas," 
read before this Society in 1869, alludes to the curious fact that 
as a rule the gold contains more silver as we go northwards, giving 
the average fineness of Victoria gold as 96 per cent., New South 
Wales, 93 per cent, and Queensland, 87 per cent. He says, how- 
ever, " these are averages only. It is not to be supposed that there 
is a regular and consecutive diminution in fineness with every 
degree of latitude we go north. There are exceptional localities in 
the north of this Colony, as at Rocky River, where the gold is over 
96 per cent." To these exceptions we must now add the gold from 

Having now shortly described the remarkable occurrence and 
purity of this Mount Morgan gold, a not less interesting, though 
less satisfactory fact, is this— that only about half the gold is 
extracted by the ordinary quartz-crushing and amalgamating 
machinery. The Capricornian says : — " The tailings which are 
being stored are said to contain as much gold as is saved, and as 
they will be subjected to treatment at a future date, the result will 
be highly advantageous to the owners.'' Having the small M uartz- 
crushing machinery erected at the Sydney Mint under my charge, 
I have had an opportunity of testing this fact. In November 
last we received, through Mr. Hall of Sydney, 458 lbs. of this ferru- 
ginous quartz, part of it consisting of picked stone. It was 
carefully crushed and amalgamated in the Chilian mill, with 240 
lbs. of mercury. Thus 7*44-100 ozs. of gold, assaying 991-5, were 
extracted. Another lot, weighing 17 1 lbs. was similarly treated, 
and 12-12-100 ozs. of gold extracted, assaying 998-2. Thus lot 1 
gave gold at the rate of 39-32-100 ozs. standard per ton of quartz; 
while lot 2 gave gold at the rate of 169-86-100 ozs. standard per 
ton of quartz. In lot 1 gold at the rate of 46 ozs. 2 dwta 12 grs. 
per ton was left in the tailings ; while in lot 2 the tailings assayed 
64 ozs. 5 dwts. 18 grs. of gold per ton. Both lots of tailings were 
now mixed and passed for two hours in the Chilian mill with 240 
lbs. clean retorted mercury— only 1-66-100 ozs. of gold, assaying 
•981, were, however, obtained l.v this treatment. The tailings 
were dried, and found to weigh 476 lbs., com, 
rate of 1 1 ozs. 1 3 dwts. 16 grs. per ton ; or in above 476 lbs 

ings no less than » ozs. 1/ dwts. «> grs 
"lings here. Under the 
ught that if the i 

these tailings here. Under the microscope there is no gold 

ible. I thought that if the oxide of iron were removed, by boiling 

e solution filtered off, the 

grs. , 

the tailings in hydrochloric 
gold might more readily be discernible in the boiled-out residue. 
I found, however, that this was not the case, and that 1,000 grs. 
of tailings thus hoil.-d in strong hydrochloric acid, by which about 
20 per cent, were dissolved, gave me only 0730 grs. of pure gold; 
while 1,000 grs. of the original tailings, not boiled out, gave 1-306 
I <*old, the same as when boiled out within nitric acid. The 
: gold by boiling in hydrochloric acid was no doubt due to the 
etion of this acid upon manganese in the ore, whereby chlorine 
gas was formed, a ready solvent for gold. 

That the ordinary amalgamating Chilian mill did not extract all 
the gold in this stone I can only attribute to the supposition that 
the oxide of iron has literally coated some of the tine gold, thus 
preventing it from coming in contact with the mercury. Forsuch 
ore Plattner's chlorination process, if worked on a large scale, 
ought to be highly successful. I am glad to hear that arrange- 
ments have been made by which the tailings will presently be 
treated at the mine by the chlorination process, whereby the gold 

is dissolved by an aqueous solution of chlorine gas, and precipitated 
by hydro-sulphuric acid. It would, however be interesting to see 
whether some or any of the numerous patent gold-extracting 
machinery or appliances would be able to overcome the difficulty, 
and to treat economically and successfully these tailings or the 
original ore. That it would be of great advantage both to a 
patentee and the owners of this mine is evident. 

While on this subject I may be permitted to allude to the want 
in this Colony of a mining laboratory, supplied with all the appli- 
ances, not only for examining ores, but for extracting by the most 
approved methods their metalliferous treasures on a large scale. 
Of course such an establishment would be both extensive and 
expensive, bin id to mining enterprise, it 

could be made not only self-supporting but remunerative. All 
depends on ii a ability to our wants. 

I have brought here one of the printed circulars issued by the 
celebrated Government Smelting Works of Clausthal, Freiberg, 
and Eisleben, in Germany. This circular gives the price-list for 
extracting different metals, such as u'old, silver, copper, lead, 
bismuth, cobalt, nickel, arsenic, and zinc from their ores, as well 
as for treating Mint and jeweller's sweep. Prom this it will be 
seen that the German Government not only makes use of these 
establishments for home purpose, but actually courts for customers 
all over the world. Such an establishment, with a staff of highly 
experienced officers, would soon become a school wherefrom our 
future mining managers and metallurgists might issue, and our 
mining industry would thus receive the much-wanted scientific 
basis to work upon in developing the great wealth hidden in the 

2. 1' reparation of fine gold, — The preparation of absolutely pure 
gold, such as is required by a.-sayers, cVc, is tedious. The gold is 
dissolved in nitro-muriatic acid, evaporated, largely diluted with 
water to precipitate all silver it may contain, when the gold is pre- 
cipitated in the filtrate by oxalic or sulphurous acid. By Miller's 
refining process with chlorine gas, bv which since 1869 to present 
date, oyer 720,000 ozs. of silver— more than 20 tons— have been 
extracted in this Mint out of the gold imported, the present quantity 
of silver thus obtained being between 40 and 50 thousand ounces per 
year, the gold is obtained of an average fineness of 99-6-10ths per 
cent., some being per cent. The occurrence of 

this almost pure gold at Mount Morgan suggested the experiment 
of submitting the same to a short chlorination process whereby the 
small quantity of copper, Arc, would be readily eliminated. The 
result of such chlorination carried out in an unglazed clay crucible 
was highly satisfactory. I have here some of the gold which has 
been subjected to a series of most carefully conducted assays, and 
compared with line gold r i of the London 

Mint, Professor Chandler Roberts, F.R.S., with the result that it 
was found to be absolutely line, and since the process by which it 
became so is a very short and simple one, I was very glad of seeing 
it so successful. 

3. Volatilization of Gold.— On this subject a vast amount of 
notices have from time to time appeared in print, and the slight 
volatility of gold under certain conditions is therefore nothing new. 
The erection of a scaffolding round the Mint chimney, preparatory 
to its being repaired, enabled me to get some of the stuff which 
was found outside the chimney on the very top coping-stone. This 
stuff, of winch, however, there was but little, was found to contain 
in 235 grains of sweep, 3-424 grains of gold and 1 1-212 grains of 
silver, or about 1-46 per cent, gold and 6-06 per cent, silver. The 
gold could be seen under the microscope. The horizontal flues in 
front of the melting furnaces, as well as the base of the chimney to 
the height of about 20 fe< t, '. and gold and 

silver extracted therefrom. Since the Mint chimney is about 70 
feet high, it shows how under certain conditions and strong draught 
is carried to the top, and probably beyond. 

In conclusion I would draw your attention to several interesting 
specimens of auriferous ores, and also a beautiful specimen of 
native silver from the Boorook mine, which I have brought here 
or your inspection. 

On some New South Wales Minerals. 

•X Sockty of X.S. Jl'., 2 Jul;/, 1SS4-] 

Native Gold 
Is found in association with antimonite at Sandgate, county of 
Sandon, New England. In some cases the antimonite serves as 
the matrix of the gold, but in most of the specimens which have 
come under my notice the gold is held l»y quartz, intimately mixed 

extremely rare, not only in New South Wales but elsewhere. 
At the new Reform Gold Mining < 'miipauy, Lucknow, native gold 

Crystallized Gold. 

A beautiful group of gold crystals is to be seen in the Museum 
of Science and Art at Edinburgh — perhaps one of the finest 
in existence. The model of tins rare and very valuable nugget, 
now on the table, has been kindly made for me by Professor 
Archer, the Director of the Museum. 

As will be seen from the photographs (plates 1 and 2), the 
crystals are for the k 

dodecahedron, joined e 

Professor Archer was under the impression that the specimen 
came from New South Wales, but the exact locality is no longer 
known. This notice may, perhaps, draw attention to the specimen, 
and be the means of eliciting some information as to its history. 

It is much to be regretted that more of such specimens have not 
been preserved. At the present day they are extremely scarce, 
and even in the early days of the gold discoveries they were never 

Group qf G Museum. 

abundant. Unfortunately most of tlinn very quickly find their 
way into the melt in. -pot', :md of the few which have been pre- 
served, probably even fewer are to be found in Australia than 


Amongst the specimens pi 
examples of tourmaline crys 
Uralla, which I obtained fror 
and appearance tiny closely resemble tin 
black rhombohedral crystals, for whic 
Tracy, in Devonshire, used to be so fam< 

Great credit is due to Mr. Cleghorne for the good service he has 
done to the knowledge of the mineralogy of New South Wales, by 
collecting and preserving these and many other minerals hitherto 
unknown in the Colony. 


Scheelite or tungstate of lime occurs in massive lumps in 
association with molybdenite and molybdenum ochre at Hillgrove, 
county Sandon. 

[ before you are some very hue 
collected by Mr. Cleghorne of 
m in June, 1883. In form, size, 
nble the large and well-developed 
the locality of Bovey 

This mineral has been found near Xundl ■, by Mr. D. A. Porter 
of Tamworth, a diligent and painstaking collector of minerals, to 
whom we are also indebted for bringing to light several minerals 
new to the Colony. 

The ( ryst ds ire large, f i il\ \ i i 1 1 ind of a clove brown 


Mr. Porter h. in the same district, of a 

green colour, associated with small colourless garnets, crystallized 

in rhombic dodecahedra, apparently of the variety known as 

time and alumina. 

Ironstone Concretions. 

The hollow nodules of ironstone were found by Mr. Murdoch, 
of the Railway Department, in the bed of the Macquarie River, 
near Dubbo, when: they apparently are not uncommon. 

The outer shell consists for the most part of brown hydrated 
oxide of iron, and when first found they are quite soft and can be cut 
withaknife. lam informed that tin* interior is usually tilled with 
sand, which can be shaken out, leaving a hollow cavity/ Although 
hard and compact, they are evidently of quite recent origin. 


A vari 

ety of 

copper a 

t the ( 

Ireat Blayney Mine, 

copper is 


scattered through i 


which I saw was about < f ■> 

■t abov 

e Bowling Alley 

Point, and tlie apparent thickness of the 

40 odd 

ring loose on the 


d black slates. This deposit ought 

■asily and cheaply 


ne iron of good quality also occurs 

: iue beyond 

Young i 

n the Bland district. 

Iron Pyrites Concretions. 


very interesting concretions of in 


ites occur at the 

Corner Silver and Gold Mine, 

Mitch- -1 

I's Creek, some 16 miles from Rye 

lal, !m 

the Western line. 

46 on 

The rocks in which the Sunny Corner deposits occur are altered 
Devonian or Silurian shales and sandstones, penetrated by a 
porphyry dyke. The portion of the lode worked for silver, which 
bears nearly north and south with westerly clip, is mainly composed 
of a loose earthy ferruginous material, and is rather cavernous in 
places. The vuggs or cavities vary much in size, but are usually 
small, and are lined with stalactites of brown haematite, externally 
of a deep brown or black colour. 

The vein stuff is very variously coloured, yellow, brown, green, 
red, black, &&, and contains but little mineral matter of a definite 
and readily recognizable character except galena and pyrites; 
occasionally small crystals of barytes are found and some black 
oxide of copper. In places it is as much as 50 feet across, but 
usually much less. 

Formerly this mine, when owned by Messrs. Winter & Morgan, 
the first of whom used to bring me specimens from it for identifica- 
tion, was worked for gold only, and yielded some very rich returns. 

In some respects these concretions of pyrites resemble the cal- 

used for the preparation of hydraulic cement ; i.e., as far as 
general form and structure, both are more or less rounded and 
both are fissured, but the fissures or cracks in those from Sunny 
Corner are filled in either with pyrites or with quartz. lam 
indebted to Mr. J. M. Smith, of Sydney, the superintendent of 
the mine, for the various specimens placed before you, as well as 
for the many others which he has been good enough to obtain for 
me from time to time. 

The concretions occur in a pale-coloured shale of a greyish tint, 
abutting against the vein, full of cavities, which can be seen to 
have formerly contained crystals of iron pyrites. This gradually 
passes into a slaty shale of a dark Mui^i-iw colour, studded with 
cubical crystals of pyrites, most of winch are twinned. 

As will be seen from the figure No. 2, the concretions of pyrites 
have a somewhat concentric structure, and are fissured in a more 
or less regular radiate i: 

Concretion of Iron Pynto, ihouvig 

'i. As there 

■ pyrites falls 

irregular, exaggerated hoi 

lers and exposes t 

the septa are left in the form of 

■ structures (fig. 3). 

e chants which appear to have gone on are as follows : — 
1. The iron pyrites, crystallized in more or le.-,s w.-ll-dcvlopod 
cubes, were formed in the slaty shah-, prohahly while it 
t and clay-like condition. 
yrites crystals gradually passed i 
iyiitrs was gradually re-depositei 

2. The pyrites crystals gradually passed into solution. 

3. The pyrites was gradually re-deposited from solution, not 

in the form of cubical crystals, but in the form of 
nodules of marcassite, i.e., the rhombic and less durable 
form of iron pyrites. 

4. The pyrites nodules (marcassite) cracked or fissured, pro- 

bably from unequal contraction. Probably due to the 
outer portions of such nodules having become hardened 
first, then as the inner portions hardened and contracted, 
fissures would necessarily form within, since the hard 
outer portions would not give way so readily as the 
softer and weaker inner portions. 

5. The fissures in the pyrites nodules were next filled in, in 

some cases with pyrites in others with quartz ; it may 
have been that the latter were also filled in first with 
pyrites which was afterwards dissolved out and replaced 
by quartz. 

6. Finally the marcassite has been removed and the silicious 

septa set free (fig. 3). 
The pyrites of the nodules oxidizes with great rapidity : speci- 
mens kept for only a few months rapidly fall to powder, and 
become incrusted with crystals of iron sulphate. 

[Two photo-lithographs.] 

The Oven-mounds of the Aborigir 
By the Rev. Peter MacPherso 

/ Suci, '// „f JV.S. W., 2 July, 188£] 

In the district of Meredith, midway between Geelong and Ballarat, 
there is a considerable number of mounds, locally known as Black- 
fellows' ovens. In the landscape they appear as ordinary irregu- 
larities on the surface of the ground, and in many cases would be 
passed by without arresting the least attention. At times, how- 
ever, the grass growing upon them presents a freshness of luxuri- 
ance which shows that the soil in which that grass is growing is 
richer than the soil around. In a field near Meredith two ovens 
and was planted with 
ch took place clearly marked c 
the position of the ovens. The growth, however, was too rank, 
and the luxuriant bunches gradually faded, leaving the crop of 
potatoes at the roots far inferior to what prevailed generally in 
the field. In another case, at < 'argerie, a piece of land, on which 
was an oven-mound, was ploughed up and soAvn with oats. There 
was a vigorous growth of stalk, but the grain came to nothing. 
On the uncultivated country the oven-mounds, in ordinary seasons, 
are not easily distinguished from irregularities of the surface of the 
earth. After severe droughts, however, they are much more easily 
discerned. This was exemplified during the very dry season in the 
early part of 1869. Owing to the drought which then prevailed, 
the green mantle of grass had disappeared, leaving the black 
patches of the oven-mound- bribable from the 

bare surface of the soil generally. Numbers of the mounds could 
Endows of the Geelong and 
Ballarat Railway, at Brace's Creek, near Lethbridge, and also on 
the slopes of the heights at the upper part of Cowie's Creek. The 
powdery black ashes of the primitive hearths and cooking-ovens of 
the aborigines are distinguishable from the blackest soil, and can 
be traced on the ploughed fields long after the subverting agency 
of the ploughshare has l.een at work. Still it is obviously only a 
question of time when the last traces of such hearths will disappear 

Mo. Bot. G? 

As cooking was concerned, the necessity for ready access to 
water explains at once why so many ovens are to be found along 
the banks of creeks and rivers, as well as by the margin of lagoons 
and lakes. In a hollow of the Woodbourne Creek, near Meredith, 
there is an oven so near the channel of the creek that the ashes 
fall over the bank into the water. Rising out of the ashes is the 
stump of a tree four feet in diameter. About a quarter of a mile 
from this oven, in the direction of Cargerie, there is another oven 
perched on the very apex of a large mound of ironstone nodules, 
and occupying the highest ground in the neighbourhood. Taking 
one locality with another, ovens are to be found in all positions 
between these two extremes — the lowest and highest points. They 
are found, as just shown, on the very brink of a creek, or a few 
yai-ds from it, or in an angle, or on a gently rising slope, or on a 
steep brow with volcanic rocks cropping out close by, and on the 
flat ground or heights beyond. A point to be noted is that they 
are to be found on the eastern bank of a creek as well as on the 
western, exposed apparently to the full strength of the westerly 
and north-westerly gales. The explanation why sites appear to 
have been chosen exposed to so much inconvenience is probably 
to be found in this, — that as the ovens are very numerous, suitable 
ones could be used according to the season of the year when they 
were required. A similar explanation applies to cases in which 
l found at considerable distances from permanent water. 

TJicy wt'iv 
readily in wh 

e locally called crab-holes and in small depressions 
on the surface of the ground. Moreover, it is to lie remembered 
that ovens which appear now to be quite shelterless, were probably 
not so when used by the aborigines. The destruction of trees by 
the white settlers affects the question. Restore the hundreds or 
thousands of trees which have been destroyed, and the oven, which 
appears now to occupy a bleak and exposed position, will be well 

the outer slope leading to the lagoon near Woodbourne, well 
sheltered at present owing to the thick growth of trees. Now this 
oven would be in a very exposed position were the trees to be cut 
down. Some of the trees, also, in this locality, are peculiarly 
well adapted for camping purposes. They spread out their 
branches to a great distance, forming a covering only 3 or 4 feet 
overhead. Doubtless the dusky limbs of the poor wandering 
aborigines have often reposed during hot winds under the branches 
of these very trees which are so near the cooking-ovens. From 
beneath the agreeable shade of the spreading eucalyptus, no doubt, 
the aboriginal cooks watched the progress of the steaming process 
by which large quantities of game were cooked at once. The native 
bread or potato (Mylitta australis) also prevailed in this locality ; 


it is occasionally turned up yet in the district by the plough. 
Altogether, the numerous ovens on the Woodbourne Creek and in 
the neighbourhood, also the numerous traces of bark-stripping to 
supply material for pegging boards for stretching out opossum 
skins, also for en belters, afford clear evidence 

that the locality now in question was a favourite haunt of the 
aborigines in former times. It remains only to be stated, in 
regard to the sites of the oven-mounds, that they are to be seen 
indiscriminately on the east and west side of a creek, hence there 
could not have been in this locality any prevailing superstition 
leading the aborigines to prefer either east side or west side for 
their cooking-ovens. 

Structure of Oven-mounds — External. 

Let us now come to a closer scrutiny of the mound and its 
oven. The collection of ashes, charcoal, and stones may be 20 
or 30 feet in diameter, and 1 or 2 feet thick at the centre. But 
the real oven, formed of stones, is much smaller than what the 
foregoing %mvs indicate. The stone oven itself varies in size 
from 4 to 9 feet in diameter; 6 feet, however, may be taken 
as a common size in the whole of the Meredith District. This 
stone oven is usually slightly concave, or crater-like, with a central 
stone larger than those otherwise employed in the oven. Such a 
central stone, or occasionally two, maybe commonly seen in those 
ovens which have been formed with some regularity. Such central 
stone was obviously convenient for the process of cooking by steam. 
Kangaroo and other game were placed on the oven of heated 
stones, grass and bark were placed over the game, and earth scraped 
up from alongside the oven was placed on the grass and bark. 
An opening was left or made for pouring water down upon the 
heated central stone, and the operation of the steam was rendered 
all the more effectual by the arrangement of grass, bark, and loose 
earth. The places from which the earth was scooped up are quite 
distinguishable many years after the aborigines have ceased to 
use the ovens. In an oven at Cargerie the dimensions are 9 feet 
by 5, but here the space of 9 feet is broken by the occurrence of 
two stones at intervals, both of which would seem to have been 
used for the purpose of producing steam. Moreover this oven is 
a considerable distance from the Cargerie Creek, but there are flats 
and depressions, within a hundred yards, where pools of water 
collect in wet weather, as the writer has oftened witnessed. 

Besides the ovens which gave evidence of some regularity of 
formation, with central stone or stones, there are also those which 
present the appearance of a mere promiscuous collection of stones. 
These little heaps have sometimes been made so near each other 
that, in course of time, the ashes of the different heaps have 


co-mingled and formed one irregular oven-mound with some 
approximation to the circular shape. The interior ovens vary in 
size from three or four stones to a cart-load. 

In dealing with the external shape of the oven-mounds we have 
to consider the action of gravity, when the ovens are made on 
slopes ; and also the action erf - the loose ashes 

of the mound. The stone oven, of course, will remain till dis- 
turbed by the white man, but it is otherwise with the loose ashes 
and charcoal. While the ovens were in use the constant trampling 
of feet kept the ashes loose and all the more exposed to the trans- 
porting agency of the winds ; moreover, when the ovens were built 
on inclinations more or less steep, the action of trampling would 
urge the ashes downwards in the direction of gravity. Thus the 
oven-mounds as well as the trees become records of the prevailing 
direction of the winds. The inclination of the trees is from 
north-west to south-east, and the drift of the ashes of the oven- 
mounds is the same, modified, however, by the action of gravity. 
When wind and gravity both acted in the same direction, the stones 
of the oven formed a sort of nucleus from which a fan or comet- 
shaped tail spread downwards. 

Structure of Oven-mounds— Internal. 
Having surveyed the oven-mound externally, we have to take 
pick and shovel to examine its internal structure. We select one 
for our operations on the Woodbourne Station, near the dam on the 
Meredith and Cargerie Road. The stones are larger than usual, 
being, in some cases, larger than a man's head. Patches of vari- 
ously coloured ashes are turned up, sometimes red, sometimes 
bluish-grey, but mostly black — sooty black. The colours seem to 
indicate different kinds of wood used for fuel. The stones also 
present the plainest evidences of having been subjected to the 
action of fire. In many cases they exhibit a greasy appearance, 
strongly reminding us that, no doubt, the fat of em a and 
kangaroo, as well as of opossums and other creatures, had often 
oozed out upon these stones. Moreover the cooking by steam 
included putting hot stones in the inside of the larger animals, in 
which cases pieces of porous bluestone, volcanic lava, would become 
saturated with animal fat. Some of the stones also presented the 
ghastly white appearance of having been subjected to great heat. 
But continuing to use the pick, we remove all the stones connected 
with the oven and come to a layer of ashes in which are no stones. 
This would seem to indicate that quantities of ashes, in some cases 
at least, were allowed to accumulate before the stone oven was 
made. It is this layer of ashes which has become such a conveni- 
ence for the rabbits. They burrow into it very easily, and the 
covering of stones becomes a protecting barricade to them. 

Moreover, some mounds i rcoal without any 

stones. This is sometimes accounted for by the fact that there are 
no stones in the neighbourhood. But the anomaly also occurs of 
two mounds being situated near each other, the one having 
quantities of stones in it while the other has none. This the 
writer noticed in regard to the mounds in the Meredith district, as 
well as about Mortlake, localities which are 80 miles apart. 
Along the Coolebarghurk and Cargerie Creeks, honeycomb, the 
volcanic lava commonly called bluestone, is invariably found in 
the ovens, because the country through which these creeks flow is 
covered with lava. On the Moorabool, however, the Silurian 
slaty shale, producing the picturesque scenery of the river just 
named, naturally supplies the small fragments of stone used in the 
ovens. In a locality between Meredith and the Moorabool a coarse 
red conglomerate makes its appearance, and fragments of this are 
accordingly found in the ovens In parts of the Colony where 
there is no stone available it is said that the aborigines were in 
the habit of baking clay into a coarse kind of brick or pottery, 
and of using it as a substitute for heating purposes in their ovens. 
Baked clay of this description is said to have been used by the 
Murray blacks. 

Circles of Stones about Oven-mounds. 

Besides the stones which are used for making the cooking oven, 
there are sometimes others which present all the appearance 
of having been designedly placed as circles about the mound. The 
writer took note of two such specimens of oven-mound in which 
the circles were in one case quite complete, and in the other case 
very nearly so. These two may be deserved. One was situated 
on die Native 1 hit Creek, near Meredith, on the east bank, and 
about 40 yards distant from the creek. Its longer diameter was 19J 
feet by 18 j feet shorter diameter, while the ashes and stones at 
the centre were about U foot thick. The stone oven was about 
6| feet in diameter, and was embedded in a layer of ashes which 
extended quite distinctly below the stone oven; moreover there 
were several of those shallow excavations around, from which no 
doubt the earth had been scooped out to cover over the bark and 
grass, as already described in regard to the cooking operations. 

It may be noticed also that the basaltic rock cropped up 
close by; and although the aborigines squat down in oriental 
fashion, yet it is no unreasonable stretch of imagination to suppose 
that the patriarchs of the tribe sat on these blocks, forming natural 
seats, and held converse with one another, while the kangaroo and 

placed there 1 Now and again sharpening-stones are found about 
the mounds, but these were t , and the number 

of them puts the supposition of sharpening-stones aside. The same 
applies to the suggestion as to the stones havingbeen used for cracking 
the marrow-bones of the larger animals. The number of stones 
is altogether too great, and above all there was no necessity to 
arrange them so methodically in a circle around the oven. It must 
not be omitted to take proper notice of the fact that the stones of 
the circle have been somewhat disturbed. The treading of sheep 
and cattle will easily account for that. The fact remains that, 
notwithstanding some disturbance, the evidence of the circular 
cannot be doubted. 

Moreover these stones, seldom as large as a man's head, are in 
no way to be confounded with those built up into shelters or break- 
winds in bleak localities on the great plains in the west of Victoria. 

But the second case to be described presents us with an oven- 
mound surrounded with a circle which may be regarded as com- 
plete, although a few stones have been displaced. The object of 
our attention in this case is situated on the Cargerie Creek, and 
about 1 50 yards from the east bank. It is about 14 feet by 13 feet 
in longer and shorter diameter, the stone oven in the centre being 
5| feet, and the thickness of ashes, charcoal, and stones, being about 
lfoot. The oven bedded in the ashes contains about sixty stones, 
mostly small, not much larger than a man's double fist. The ring of 
stones is 18 feet in diameter, thus leaving a space of about 2 feet 
between the outer edge of the mound and the circle of stones. 
About 150 stones formed the circle, mostly small in size, very few 
of them being as large as a man's bead. Although a few have got 
displaced, yet the circle extends right round the oven-mound. 
Here obviously the question of sharpening-stones and crackers for 
breaking the marrow-bones of the larger animals used for game is 
quite insufficient to explain the facts. The same applies to the 
breakwinds already noticed. As a circumstantial point, it should 
be mentioned that the oven-mound with this ring of stones is 
situated in an angle, and not far from it the ends of basaltic rocks 
crop out, as in the case already described. 

While thus illustrating the fact of stone rings extending round 
the oven-mounds of the aborigines, it may be noticed that the cir- 
cular arrangement is also carried out in the case in which a whole 
mound consists of about half a dozen stone ovens, formed in a 
circle around a central oven. 

Of course it is not our purpose here to enter upon the subject of 
the mystic stone circles in Britain, India, and other countries, yet 
in passing we may note the fact that there are such materials, 
which, along with others, will one day help to throw light on the 
origin and migration of the Australian race. Perhaps it should 
3d here, that the magnificent stonehenges, c 


monolithic blocks, 8 or 9 feet high, represented in the illus- 
trated papers of Melbourne and Sydney a few years ago, as existing 
in the west of Victoria, were works of imagination, except in so 
far as they seemed to have been modelled on the plan of the 
Druidical circles which are found in various places in Britain. 
Contents of Oven-mounds. 

The mass of the mound, in accordance with what has been 
already said, obviously consists of ashes, charcoal, stones, and earth. 
The stones, as already pointed out, vary according to the district. 
But besides the materials which, one way or another, have come 
before our notice, we may expect to find remains of the reptiles, 
fishes, birds, and quadrupeds, as well as shells which were used as 
food by the aborigines. No doubt the large number of miserable 
dogs, which constantly kept about the encampments of the blacks, 
would destroy a large quantity of the smaller bones of birds and 
various animals ; still, an examination of the ashes brings to light 
traces of the game used by the aborigines. In some mounds 
about half a mile from the bay at Geelong there are fragments of 
shells which no doubt were brought from the neighbouring sea- 
shore. In the largest of the mounds examined, near Lake 
Webster, at Mortlake, in the west of Victoria, the writer found 
a considerable quantity of animal remains in the ashes. These 
consisted of fresh-water shells, fragments of emu egg-shells, jaw- 
bones and teeth of opossums, as well as bones of kangaroo. This 
mound was 79 feet in diameter, with 5 feet of ashes at the centre. 
Human Remains in Oven-mounds. 

In the neighbourhood of Mortlake, in the west of Victoria, an 
oven-mound was pointed out to the writer us one in which it was 
said that the remains of an aboriginal had been placed. It was 
said, moreover, that these remains had been removed from another 
still larger mound. It is possible this removal of the remains 
might be owing to the fact that a European dwelling was built 
near the large mound, and the ashes of the mound were used to 
improve the soil in a garden. Proceeding with a spade to make 
excavation, the first important point was to decide where to begin, 
as the quantity of ashes in a mound GO feet in longer diameter, 
and 4 feet thick in the centre, was very large. Scanning the 
mass carefully with the eye to detect if there were inequalities, 
the outline presented a beautiful curve. After continued examina- 
tion, one spot was chosen for the purpose of making a beginning 
in the operations, as it seemed to present a very alighi Saw in 
the regularity and symmetry of the curve representing the surface. 
The first 6 or 8 inches were nearly as hard as brick, but 
under this hard dome the ashes were quite loose and easily tossed 
about. After prolonged work there was no sign of human 

remains. Another portion of the mound was pierced and searched, 
hut stil] without success. Returning to the portion first tried, the 
spade was driven into the open side, wlira several hones fell down 
along with the loose dry ashes. In succession the leg and thigh 
hones made their appearance, as also the arms and vertebra?, ribs 
and skull, as well as a number of small bones, all being evidently 
the remains of a human being. The skull was nearly erect, and 
not many inches beneath the surface. The leg and thigh bones 
were huddled together, and stuck out at right angles to the 
vertebra. The arm bones were found at the sides, the hands 
having been doubled up so that the bones of the fingers were near 
the neck and cheeks. 

On surveying another of the large oven-mounds which are 
numerous about Mortlake, the writer's attention was arrested by 
the presence of three rather large stones, so placed together upon 
an oven-mound as to indicate that they must have been designedly 
placed where they were. On removing these three stones another 
was found under them and well hedded in the ashes. Upon 
digging under these stones in the loose ashes a second entire 
human skeleton was discovered. From the charred wood which 
was found lying across the skeleton, as well as from the appearance 
of some of the bones, it seemed that an attempt had been made to 
consume the body with fire. In both cases the leading idea 
seemed to be to huddle the remains into the smallest space; 
hence the limbs were all doubled up at the knee and elbow 
joints. In the first case the body was laid on the back, with the 
arms at the sides and the legs pressed over to the right side ; in 
the second case the body was laid on the I *' " 
bones were found like a bundle 

Distribution op Oven-mounds. 
The necessity for water accounts at once for so many oven- 
mounds being situated near creeks, rivers, lagoons, and lakes. 
Sometimes they occur at considerable distances from permanent 
water, but, as already stated, in tin; winter time crab-holes and 
small depressions on the surface of the ground would be supplied 
with water for weeks together, or even longer. Where game and 
water both were abundant, there would be the more numerous 
encampments, and these would be continued the longer in use. 
The forests afforded not only food and shelter, but also the impor- 
tant element of fuel for the ordinary fires and the cooking ovens. 
It is a curious fact, however, that large oven-mounds are in 
existence on extensive plains where there is no forest wood within 
many miles. Such oven-mounds are to be seen near the lakes on the 
great bare expanse to the west of the Leigh River. The sugges- 
tion might occur that forests once existing have disappeared, but 
when the ashes are examined there is no appearance of charcoal^ 

Upon making specific inquiry into the matter the writer ascer- 
tained that the material used for fuel was the coarse kind of peat 
or turf forming at the edge of lakes which are situated at some 
places in the region called The Plains. Quantities of long 
grass are also available. In the circumstances it is interesting to 
find that to make the most of (he materia: , to hand, the aborigines 
on the western plains of Victoria hit upon the very same device 
which was adopted by the inhabitants of the Faroe Islands in the 
northern seas of Europe. The stormy petrel was used as fuel (as 
well as a candle to give light) by the inhabitants of the north, and 
so the fat of the game used by the aborigines of the west of 
Victoria was used to feed the flame which cooked the animals 
themselves intended for food. 

In connection with the distribution of oven-mounds may be 
taken the question of size, a in the Meredith 

district from those in the netg tk a The mounds 

in the latter district are often of great size ; some of them are 
described as upwards of 100 feet in diameter, with ashes about 10 
feet thick at the centre. The writer paced one which was 79 feet 
in diameter. The largest which he saw in the Meredith district 
was only about 33 feet in diameter. Points which supply at least 

these: — Many of the Meredith ovens are on small creeks, whereas 
the large accumulations of ashes in the Mortlake district, are 
alongside lakes v. hieh ahound w ith water-fowl, iish, and eels. With 
plenty of forest to supply fuel, the aborigines could thus remain 
at the same camping places all the year round; whereas in the less 
favoured places about Meredith they would have to wander about 
much more extensively. Another point is that the number of 
aborigines in the Portland district, as the region including 
Mortlake was called in the early times, was very much greater than 
in the Meredith district. 

But, the most important point in connection with the distribution 
of the oven-mounds is the limited area in which they are found in 
Australia. They extend from the Murray to the sea, through 
central Victoria; they are numerous and large on the Murray, 
and extend for some distance into New South Wales on the banks 
of the Lachlan, where Sir Thomas Mitchell's attention was first 
arrested by them. He had not seen such collections of ashes in 
other parts of this Colon v. although heaps of shells, the refuse of 
aboriginal feasts, have been observed on the shores of Port 
Jackson, and in other localities, as on one of the little islands in 
Lake Macquarie. Other observers have noticed the absence of the 
oven-mounds in Central Australia, and also in Western Australia 

These facts raise broadly the question, how are the mounds 
restricted to so small an area 1 The suggestion has been made that 
the accumulation of ashes supplied a space elevated above the 


cold wet soil, and more agreeable for the feet of the aborigines in 
rainy weather. Allowing something for this suggestion, there 
still remains the outstanding question, how were the stone ovens 
not used in other parts of Australia? The point is every way 
worthy of notice, as it may help to give a clue to the course of 
migration in the original occupation of the country by the blacks. 
Antiquity of Oven-mounds. 
It has been noticed that trees are to be seen growing out of the 
oven-mounds. None, however, have been seen by the writer 
which would indicate an antiquity of more than half a century. 
As to the materials, which may yet be carefully examined, in 
the large accumulations in the Mortlake district, it remains to 
be seen what evidence may come to light bearing on the question 
whether aboriginal man in Australia was contemporaneous with 
any species of our extinct fauna. We have also the evidence 
which may be deduced from the size of the oven-mounds. But 
here there are some elements calculated to perplex the problem. 
We may indeed measure the existing accumulations, but the 
sstion arises, how much larger would they have been but for 
; quantity of ashes dissipated by the prevailing winds 1 As to 
the space occupied by the stones of the ovens, where such exist, 
measurement can approximately determine how much deduction 
is to be made on this score. There is, however, the more difficult 
point to determine, namely, how much earth was pulverized to be 
mixed up with the ashes, on account of the cooking arrangements 
before noticed. While considering this question the writer ob- 
served the common ash-heap which had been formed in a country 
connected with a European dwelling. It was about the 
one of the smaller oven-mounds to be seen in the Meredith 
district. It had been formed in about ten years by a family of 
about ten persons. There is this very important point, that the oper- 
ation of the prevailing winds, in causing the ashes to be drifted away 
and dissipated, would be nearly equal in both ruses, the aboriginal and 
the European. Proceeding tentat ivelv, are there any even general 
conclusions to which we can cornel Let us put together such 
materials as there are to bear upon the point. The oven-mounds 
in the Meredith district may he regarded as varying in contents 
between 100 cubic feet and 500. In a space of about 14 
miles by 10 the writer counted forty oven-mounds. Then let us 
suppose that an average mound of ashes and charcoal would be 
produced in ten years by a family of ten aborigines. Then 
200 would leave behind them twenty such mounds in ten years. 
Now 200 is the actual number of aborigines who inhabited the 
district in 1845, according to a census taken by the New South 
Wales Government at the time. But the same 200 roamed over 
the whole of what is now the county of Grant in Victoria, an 


that for -which we have been 
ne rate the whole area would 
include 800 oven-mounds, a number probably much greater than 
the reality, as the area of special observation presented the mounds 
in much greater numbers than were noticed elsewhere. Still, 
taking the foregoing figures, the 200 of an aboriginal population 
would cover the area in question with the 800 mounds in the space 
of 400 years. But again, while working out these figures, let it 
be clearly understood there is no pretence of attempting to fix 
a real approximation. On the other Land, it would seem that on 
data of no extravagant or improbable character, we reach a general 

helplessly to admit some great antiquity, such as 3,000 or 4,000 
years, much less fabulous ages of hundreds of thousands of years, 
to the time when palaeolithic or neolithic man first began to build 
oven-mounds in the county of Grant in the colony of Victoria. 

It is true that the enormous mounds in the Mortlake district 
would seem to drive us back into a much greater antiquity than 
400 years, but several material points have to be kept in view. 
If the mounds are so much larger, they seem to be proportionably 
fewer. Moreover, according to the census already referred to, the 
aboriginal population in the Mortlake district appears to have 
been far more dense than in the Meredith district. Thus the 
process of accumulation of ashes and charcoal would be all the 
more rapid. But, again, if the unity of the Australian race, and 
various considerations on the strength of which a great antiquity 
is claimed for that race, are to be taken as resting on substantial 
grounds, we shall have to regard the building of ovens and the 
accumulation of the mounds oi rely modern inno- 

vations. In this aspect of the matter the inquiry arises, what 
reasons can be discovered to explain why the innovation sprang up 
in that part of all Australia in whi, h it is found to prevail? And 
the stone circles, too, are they to be regarded with the interest 
which attaches to mystic ideas early implanted in the mind of the 
human family, and carried perhaps by one division of mankind to 
Britain, and by another or others to India and Australia, or are 
they the mere spontaneous illustrations of aboriginal fancy and 
playfulness, dating back but a few generations or centuries at the 

The Trochoided Plane. 
By Lawrence Hargrave. 

[/.' ,vl brfors the Royal Society o/xV.<J 

I HAVE been told that the subject of this paper is one that would 
interest the members of this Society, and therefore I have strung 
together my thoughts, experiments, and deductions, that refer in 
any way to the trochoided plane, pointing out where I see Nature 
working with it, and how it can be used by man for the trans- 
mission of force ; and I trust that if other members have heard of, 
or made similar observations, they will bring them forward so 
that my mistakes may be corrected by comparison with the ideas 
of others, and also that the truth may be elicited about a matter 
that does not seem to get its fair share of investigation. 

I will first endeavour to make clear what I mean by the several 
terms I use, or have had to invent, in describing the action of the 

The " trochoided plane" is a flat surface, the centre of which 
moves at a uniform speed in a circle, the plane being kept normal 
to the surface of a trochoidal wa\ v. having a period equal to the 
time occupied by the centre of the plane in completing one revolu- 

By " Normal " is meant tangential to an undulating surface. 

"Orbit" is the path of any particle of a substance through 
which undulations are being passed. 

"Crank" is the radius or radius-vector of the orbit. 

" Connecting-rod" is the line at right angles to the trochoided 
plane ; the length of the connecting-rod is equal to the crank 
multiplied by the secant of the pitch-angle. I used to call this 
the normal to the trochoid, but to avoid confusion I shall in 
future call it the connecting-rod. unless some one points out its 
true mathematical designation ; radius-vector of the trochoid 
seems a good name also, but not so descriptive as connecting-rod ; 
every one knows what a connecting-rod of a reciprocating engine 
is, and its familiar motion. 

" Pitch" or length of wave, is the distance of waves from crest 
to crest, measured in the line of propagation ; the length of a 
trochoidal wave is equal to the length of the orbit of a particle 
divided by the co-tangent of the pitch-angle. 

"Pitch-angle" is the angle contained between the crank and 
connecting-rod, when the trochoided plane is at half the height of 
the wave ; it is also the angle contained between the trochoided 
plane and the guides when in the before-mentioned positior 

By " tlte guides" T 
the connecting-rod 

It a wave. 

The "trochoidal wave" maybe defined as the projection of a 
right helix on to a plane parallel to its axis, and is resolvable into 
an infinite number of trochoided planes. _ n 

The « prolate-cycloid td," " cydoidrd" and " curtate-cycloidal 
waves are the projections of the helix on to a plane that is at 
various angles with the axis of the helix. If we take a right 
cylinder, and cut it diagonally, and open the two cylindrical parts 
out flat, we get two trochoidal waves or curves of sines. 

If one circle touch another internally, and we cut through the 
circles at the point of contact, and open out the figure till the cir- 
cumference of the small circle becomes a straight line, the resulting 
figure will be bounded on the other side by a curve of the same 

The line drawn on a uniformly moving sheet of paper, by a pen- 
dulum swinging at right angles to the line of motion of the paper, 
is also the trochoidal wave. 

If the waves are prolate-cycloidal, the orbits of the particles are 
elliptic, and the crank or radius-vector follows Kepler's second 
law, describing equal areas in equal times, the focal distance being 
measured from the crest of the wave ; the connecting-rod varying 
in length from the focal distance to infinity, and it is obvious that 
when the distance of the foci becomes O, the waves are trochoidal, 
and the orbit is a circle. 

It is evident that if the weight of the moving parts be neglected, 
it is immaterial at which end of the connecting-rod the trochoided 
plane is placed, and that waves may be thrown or generated by a 
plane, or infinite series of planes, that are trochoided in unison ; 
and that each plane may be trochoided by moving the ends of the 
connecting-rod or its continuations in the various combinations of 
the straight line, circle, and ellipse, and doubtless other figures ; 
but each combination is reducible to the simple principle of the 
plane at right angles to the connecting-rod, moving in a circle, and 
guided by a straight line. 

The area of the triangle, that is bounded on two sides by the 
crank and connecting-rod, is directly proportional to the thrust at 
right angles to the guides : and the thrust is greatest at the centre, 
and decreases gradually to the sides of the column of matter acted 
on by the trochoided plane, so that there is no violent ( 
of any two parallel streams. 


If I have succeeded in communicating my views with regard to 
the motion of a plane surface when acted on by an undulating 
one, and the converse, it will be obvious that if the undulating 
surface is rolled up into a cylinder, with the axis parallel to the 
direction of propagation of the waves, the same reasoning will 
hold good, and reduce the examples of cylindrical waves to plane 
waves ; but when we consider the action of the particles com- 
posing the axis of the cylinder, it becomes necessary to explain 
the spherical wave. 

Let us suppose a spherical shell to be composed of any elastic 
medium, also, the polar axis to be similarly constituted ; let the 
point of bisection of the polar axis mine exactly between two of 
the particles composing it, which two particles we will set approach- 
ing and receding from one another ; this will send an equal series 
of waves of extension and compression through the two halves of 
the polar axis, culminating in the pushing out and pulling in of 
the poles synchronously, and the generation of a series of ring 
waves passing over each hemisphere, meeting at the equator, and 
crossing each other to the opposite poles. The orbits of the par- 
ticles composing the sphere will at first be long ellipses ; as the 
waves recede further from the poles the orbits become circular ; 
one wave length from the equator they become elliptic again ; at 
the equatorial plane they move radially to the sphere, and after 
one wave has reached the opposite pole, every particle of the 
spherical shell will be moving radially and harmonically with the 
two central vibrating particles. Any number of atoms may be 
conceived as being at the centre, and completely filling the sphere, 
vibrating in every direction, causing any number of spherical 
waves on the spherical shell, crossing in every direction. 

If we take the converse of this, and suppose the equatorial 
particles, or those in any ; be set vibrating 

in unison, radially, the resultant will be an intensified vibration of 
the polar axis longitudinally; this is closely analogous to a sea 
wave meet ii ring that 

downward-moving vortex that is so destructive to the f 
of steep smooth marine struct un - in >/• <U» r water. Where this 
occurs, the practice is to tumble in loose blocks of stone or con 
crete, the effect of which is to break up the vortex, and rob it of 
its power. 

Our Sydney summer thunder-storms often show this atmospheri- 
cally; the sun's heat over the land causes the sea-breeze to come 
in from the I^.E. with increasing force as the day advances, and 
the heated air returns to the sea by an upper current from the S. W. 
There is an upward current at the Blue Mountains, or where the 
sea-breeze takes off in force, and heavy cumulus clouds gather, 
their tops being drawn out by the return current in long streaks 
pointing seaward ; toAvards evening, if more air comes in than can 

readily be restored by the upper current, a plenum is formed, 
resulting in an uprush, sudden cooling, and downfall of air at the 
centre of the disturbed area, that produces a horizontal vortex, 
which pushes itself under the sea-breeze, and shows its presence 
by a long roll-shaped cloud, rotating on its axis, the upper surface 
moving from N.E. to S.W., the under surface almost touching the 
tree tops, moving from S.W. to N.E. Sometimes the thunder- 
storm comes w it: bic cloud, sometimes there are 

; in saying he does not account for its formation m 
this manner. If we substitute the trade winds, equatorial calms, 
and return trade winds for the sea-breeze, plenum, and return 
S.W. upper current, the result is one or more hurricanes or 
cyclones, instead of the roll-cloud. 

Allied phenomena are those witnessed when a drop of water 
falls into water; if the drop falls from a short distance, only 
ring waves are formed j if from a height, the drop seems to make 
a hole in the water, as well as the ring waves, and the closing up 
of this hole sends up a peak with sufficient force to detach another 
drop from its point. 

Also, if a large drop be allowed to fall from a height, it will be 
seen that after it has attained a certain speed it will leave its 
spherical shape and spread out into an irregular ring ; the move- 
ments of the particles of the ring being similar to those composing 
a smoke ring. 

But to return to the spherical wave ; if one of the central 
particles bears an infinite proportion to the other particle, the 
vibration of the smaller one will send waves through a sphere 
surrounding both, resulting in an equal vibration of the antipodes 
of the smaller particle. 

When this action of spherical waves is applied to the supposed 
string of spherical particles composing the axis of a cylindrical 
wave, it is obvious that we may conceive the great circles passing 
through the spheres and the longitudinal axis of the string of 
spherical particles, as being shoved out of shape or made elliptical, 
first transversely, and thi ■ I otherwise, the 

pulsation of the spherical particles is their vibration or change of 
form from the ellipsoid to the oblate-spheroid ; here, I take it, we 
are brought face to face with one form of infinity. 

From this it is evident that if the ultimate composition o£ a 
cylinder be elastic spherical atoms, the organised pulsat ion of _ these 
atoms in unison will produce waves on the surface of the cylinder, 
and the converse proposition will also be true, that is, that if the 
pulsations be produced in a pipe covering the cylinder, the waves 
will be communicated from the inside of the pipe to the contained 

I will now state my views as to the 
t plane passing end on through 

'if .':.. 

perfect and of no thickness, and tin- 
vortex can be fori ' 
imperfections, at approximately equal 

lomogeneous, no vortex can be formed ; but if the pla 

fttely aqod distances, zones of compi 
and tenuity will be formed at and between the imperfecta 

and their amplitude will constantly, increase as they recede from 
the leading end of the plane, the stratification of the medium 
parallel to the plane becoming prolate-cycloidal. When the pro- 
portion between the amplitude of the disturbances, and the wave 
length or distance apart of two zones of compression, exceeds 
that of one to II, or the prolate cvcloid passes into a curtate- 
cycloid, vortices will be formed in the loops, and go on increasing 
in diameter till they nearly equal the wave length, when anti- 
vortices will be formed between them, that either break up the 
system of waves, or begin a fresh series farther out from the plane. 
If the force acts at right angles to the plane, a vortex is generated 
behind the plane. 

A breaker shows the vortex initiated vertically, but gravity 
prevents its complete formation. 

A common instance of this action is seen in the skin of eddying 
water that adheres to the side of a vessel in motion, and, it is 
my opinion that vortices formed in this way eat away the tips of 
screw-propeller blades in the unaccountable manner we so often 
see them. 1 may also add that the pitting of the interior of steam- 
boilers at and near the water-line is to my mind clearly the 
mechanical action of vortices formed by the rapid circulation of 
the water. 

This brings us to a considerable distance from where I started 
with the plane wave, but 1 thought it l>est to indicate the natural 
sequence and deductions that follow from the trochoided plane to the 

and mechanisms that I associate with the ditl'erent sorts of waves. 
First, about ocean waves, we find much has been written by 
the late Mr. Scott Russell and others, dealing with their form, 
and the motion of the particles composing them, about the forced 
wave and the free wave ; but no one, as far as I have read, seems 
to note when dealing with the trochoidal form, the motion of the 
imaginary line that I call the connecting-rod, and which appears 
to me to be as important in describing that wave as the radius is 
to the circle (this is probably due to the form of long free ocean 
waves being appr<:rh,i<it>-I>i trochoidal) ; and I do not hesitate in 
saying that the connection of the trochoidal wave and trochoided 
plane with our simplest mechanical movement, the crank and con- 
necting-rod, opens up a field for the development of engineering 
talent as extensive as the discovery of the screw did when our 
d to the use of the lever and wedge. 

The power may be abstracted from the swell of the ocean by- 
means of the trochoided plane, thus : — Take a flat float, and rigidly 
connect a plane at some distance below parallel to the float, and it 
will be found that the plane and float alternately pull each other 
in the direction of propagation of the waves, the result being that 
the apparatus progresses through the water faster than a float 
without the plane attached. 

If the plane is fixed vertically, or at right angles with the float, 
the resultant is in ■ f to that in which the waves 

are moving. 

Again, if two floats are connected by linkwork end to end, and 
separated by a distance equal to half a wave, the trochoidal move- 
ment of each float may be used to propel the whole concern. 

From this it follows that when a vessel has another in tow in a 
seaway, the length of the hawser should be such that both vessels 
are as near as possible to the crests of waves at the same time ; if 
there is a cross sea, this is ii ipossiMe : if the so t is at all regular, 
attention to this, whether '■■■■: a ■ ident or design, saves many a 
savage jerk to the tow-line; the distances, \ wave, 1£ waves, 2| 
waves, are obviously those to be most avoided. 

I will now draw your attention to the motion of living organ- 
origin, and that the trochoided plane is the mechanical power 
almost universally used by Nature for the transmission of force. 

The backfin of a fish is a good example to begin with ; observa- 
tion will show that the cuds oi the .nines that keep the membrane 
extended, are points in the curve of sines, or trochoidal wave, and 
that if they are rotated on their axes in unison, or oscillated from 
side to side harmonically, a series of complementary waves will be 
thrown by the membrane towards " 

the first case is an isosceles triangle, and in the second a s< 
a circle; the membrane of the tail is trochoid <\ 
raise or depress the head; the prolate-cycloidal wave is 'ah 
in fin swimming. This actio " ' 

speed required does not necessitate the use o 
the body ; the converse of this proposition h 
makes trochoidal waves on a fluttering flag. 

The geometry of body swimming may b<> seen in its simplest 
form in a slow-moving organism like the leech. You will observe 
that the head is raised and thrust forward, depressed, and drawn 
backwards, describing a circle for each undulation that is passed 
through its frame ; as the motion increase:- in rapidity, the circle 
becomes an ellipse, and then a straight line. Then we want to 
know how the undulations are produced in its frame ; here, the 
cylindrical wave comes to our aid, and it becomes evident that if 
two cylindrical muscles be enclosed in a skin (take the swimming 

of the eel as the type), and a series of waves be passed through 
each muscle, such that the thick part of one wave is abreast the 
thin part of the wave on the other side of the eel, the backbone 
and skin will necessarily take a trochoidal form, and as long as 
the waves are generated the eel must go ahead. 

It will be observed that if the fish or eel is swimming with its 
body, and the fins on the back and belly :uv kept rigidly extended, 
they serve to increase the trochoided surface. The body swimming 
of fishes reaches its extreme form in the sunfish, whose powerful 
body cuts trochoids of extreme length in proportion to their 

Porpoises, when rolling, seem to cut vertical prolate-cycloidal 
waves, and they blow when passing the crests ; the horizontal 
position of the tail is well adapted for this mode of ] 

If the top edge of the tail of a schnapper, or other deep fish, be 
twisted to one side, and the lower edge to the other side, and the 
trochoidal action of the body continued, the fish at once turns on 
its side, and will thus be able to dive suddenly. 

The effect on the water of this action of fishes that are long 

to produce right-handed vortices on one side, and left-handed ones 
on the other, so that after the fish has passed the two series gear 
together, as it were, like a train of equal sized -cog-wheels. 

If we conceive the action of the back fin, as thus described, to 
be communicated to a series of legs on each side, as in the centi- 
pede, the effect will obviously be progression along a surface ; and 
if we cut off all the legs but two pairs, separated by a distance 
equal to one wave length, we have the quadrupedal action popu- 
larly assigned to the giraffe ; if the two pairs are oidy half a wave 
length apart, we have the trotting pace of a horse, and the various 
other paces become clearly dependent on the length of the wave 
used by the animal. The legs ,-ind body of an alligator or lizard 
show the connection between many-legged and four-legged pro- 
gression, as well as any one instance I can point to; but it is 
impossible to define any hard and fast line between any two 
classes, as the more instances of progression we notice, the more it 
is forced upon us that they are but links in a chain, the two end 
links of which are unknown, whilst any two adjoining links are 
hardly distinguishable. The swinging of the hands and arms, in 
walking or running, is evidence that bipedal is evolved from quad- 
rupedal progression, which to me seems to have developed from the 
trochoidal action of a fin. 

When the amplitude of the waves is in a vertical plane, each 
pair of legs is moved together, and the form of the wave is plainly 
seen in the back of a dog when going full split ; this method of 
progression reaches its extreme form in the hopping birds. 


Slugs, and other so-called one-footed organisms, move by a 
beautiful application of the trochoided plane ; their mode of pro- 
gression will perhaps be best understood by examining the converse 
movement, as exemplified in the fluttering of a flag, in which CMC, 
as I pointed out before, the passing wind communicates ripples to 
a stationary flexible plane ; in the slug the ripples on its base are 
applied to the surface, across which it wishes to move ; the crests 
of the ripples are transversal to the longitudinal axis, and move 
towards the tail ; the slime is a great aid in passing over a smooth 
surface, as a partial vacuum can be formed in the hollow of each 
wave ; if the surface of the slug's foot is covered with cilia, the 
undulatory motion of these may be conversely seen on a field of 
waving corn as the breeze passes over it ; the mode of progression 
of some caterpillars is parallel with that of the slugs. 

In order to make this more than mere theory, it 1 

sary to pursue c 

go in for a 

system of instantaneous photography in connection with i 
graph, or to make some models, the geometrical constn 
which would show the trochoided plane, and the outward appear- 
ance and movement of the apparatus would appeal direct to the 
eye. I have adopted the latter course, for several reasons, the 
principal one being that the first method, besides being very 
expensive to me, would only be accessible, if understood at all, by 
the few ; whilst the second course is now within the reach of any 
boy who can handle a few tools. As these are experiments that I 
venture to call capital, it will be excusable if the details seem 

The simplest trochoided plane may be constructed by attaching 
a flat surface at right angles to the connecting-rod of the ordinary 
crank and connecting-rod motion of the reciprocating engine ; and 
if two of these be coupled with the cranks at right angles (Fig. I), 
the sum of the sectional areas of the columns of wind or water, 
acted on by the two planes, will be the same at every point in one 
revolution, and if the apparatus be placed so that w r ind or water 
act on the planes at right angles to the guides, a uniform rotary 
motion will be communicated to the crank-shaft ; if we rotate the 
machine by steam or hand, motion is communicated to the air or 
water by the two planes. 

If two oar-like planes (Fig. VI) be protruded vertically under 
the counter of a vessel, and trochoided through ball and socket 
joints or cross-journals, the connecting-rods and guides being in- 
board (as was shown in the largest model), it will be found to 
possess several advantages as a propeller that are not to be despised; 
it seems impossible to foul it, as no amount of floating canvas, 
nets, or ropes, could be twisted round the blades ; the blades would 
be no impediment to sailing, and a rudder would be superfluous, 
as the steering is effected by rotating the guides ; the engine would 

m. 69 

not need reversing gear, and the pitch could be made easily adjust- 
able by altering the length of the connecting-rods of the propellers. 

Again, if we take two floats that offer equal lateral resistance 
(Fig. II), and fix a bar in the centre of each float at right angles to 
the vertical longitudinal section; then put a rotating crunk with 
the shaft vertical in the centre of one of the floats, and a guide of 
some description on the bar of the other float ; unite tho end of 
the bar from the crank-float to the guide, and the end of the bar 
of the float that carries the guide to the crank pin, and it will be 
seen that the whole apparatus will be propelled through the water 
by rotating the crank ; this is like a common feat with skates on 
ice. Two wheels may be substituted for each plane in this model 
for motion on a surface, but the results are unsatisfactory. 

If a pair of equal floats be made with a total displacement 
exceeding that of a man, it will be found that crank, guides, and 
connecting-rod can be dispensed with, and that the floats can be 
trochoided by the feet. The steering is effected by bearing a little 
heavier on the float towards which it is wished to turn ; the 
increased skin resistance will do the rest. The total absence of 
mechanism will commend this form of exercise, and I hope to see 
it become a feature in our regattas. 

But these experiments an vey to every eye 

the identity of the trochoided plain with the mechanical power used 
by a fish in swimming, so it was thought necessary to make some- 
thing with a general likeness to a fish, and cut it up into a number 
of sections, and unite the sec I hey were free to 

move from side to side on vertical hinges (Fig. IV). Each section 
was provided underneath with a keel, and every alternate section 
had a vertical guide stuck in its centre ; the section corresponding 
to the head of the fish was enlarged so that it was able to float a 
coiled spring driving a wheel and pinion ; on the end of the pinion 
shaft was soldered a right helical wire ; the diameter of the helix 
was made equal to the amplitude of the trochoidal waves it was 
intended the model should use, and the pitch was made equal to 
the wave length. The forward end of the helix was brought into 
the centre, as if it had been idle instead of a 

cylinder; this helical shaft was rove through the guides on the 
alternate sections of the model, and as you saw trochoided all the 
planes together, and made the model swim in a strikingly natural 
manner ; by drawing the model tail first through the water, the 
operation is reversed, and the trochoided planes wind up the 
spring. This model is remarkable for the diminutive nature of 
the motive power, the easy trochoiding of the planes, and the 
small percentage of slip. 

Here, I would remark, that a running stream offers a good field 
for investigation on this subject : however straight its channel is 
cut, it will, if left to itself, meander, and the bends work down 

the guides 

ream. This may be best seen when the stream runs through an 
luvial flat ; it will be observed that the down stream sides of 
le bends are continually being washed away, and that deposits 
re made on the down stream sides of the points. 
If the upper ends of the guides in the last-described model be 
nected to a rigid bar, the motion of the helical wire will make 
. elastic web covering them, take the form of a 
ction I have previously described. 
Again, if a number of pieces of wood be rove loosely across a 
rotating helical wire, the ends of the pieces will be trochoided like 
the legs of a centipede ; owing to difficulties about making the 
clawing apparatus, this was made to float in water, and you had 
an opportunity of judging for yourselves whether or not it proved 
the truth of mv deductions.* 

I will now direct your attention to the swimming of that com- 
mon jelly-fish (medusa), as being a slow and easily observed case 
of cylindrical waves; watch closely the movement of the equa- 
torial ring of its hemispherical head, and the path described will 
be seen to be similar to that of a zone of particles in a smoke 
ring ; the equatorial ring moving forward when most contracted, 
and backwards when most expanded ; the superficial resultant 
being annular at wwvea thrown backwards, 

. through a cylindrical hole : 
another obvious case of cylindrical waves, and from the worm's 
movement on a flat surface it appears capable of throwing more 
than one wave to :ae time, or, in other words, 

that its body is longer than a wave length ; in this case the motion 
of the rings is evidently not circular, as in a smoke ring, but very 
elliptical, with the major axis parallel to the direction of propaga- 
tion of the waves. 

If you note the mechanical action of swallowing, it will be 
evident that it is the converse of the motion of the worm ; observe 
the jaws or mouth opened and thrusi forvvanl, closed and drawn 
back for a fresh bite, the prey being forced to the stomach by a 
similar movement of the rings of the gullet. 

The trochoidal action of fins, muscles, and legs, seemed so plain 
that I could not help being led to theorize on the action of wings 
in flight ; I say theorize simply because I have not a flying-machine 
to show you, but the chain of evidence seems so complete, that I 
have no doubt it will soon be accomplished without the aid of the 
screw or gas bag. 

The wings of flying-fish are, in my opinion, only used for flight, 
or when the fish is swimming vet y slowly v ith its' fins alone, with- 
out trochoiding its body. 

* A six-legged model was afterwards made and exhibited that worked 

There is a di '; we see when a 

bird hovers or rises straight up from the ground, as exemplified by 
skylarks, hawks, partridges, and the horizontal flight of ducks, 
pelicans, and albatrosses ; in the first case, the wing which is in 
effect a plane, is rotated in a cone, and kept normal to a trochoid 
during each revolution ; the connecting-rod is moved in a plane at 
right angles to the axis of the cone, and the guides are horizontal ; 
the plane of the wing being in the line of the connecting-rod, and 
not at right angles to it ; the path cut in the air by this motion is 
a zigzag, one of the pieces between two angles being half a tro- 
choid, the two half trochoids making up each revolution of the 
axis of the wing. 

In horizontal flight the conical movement is the same, but the 
;iit angles to the plane of the wings, 

flight is the resull the waves of air being thrust 

layed by the 

flight is the same as that of the 

downwards and backwards by the wings. The part pla; 

id the plun 

[ plane in Fig. II. I have not put the second plane in 

s models of wings, as I think it useless before the power of 

i to overcome its specific gravity. (Fig. V 

>dels have the second plane.) Peacocks' 

birds of paradise, are a hindrance to flight, 

and the ettects ot sexual selection. 

The same action takes place in the wing that I mentioned about 
the leech's head, and is equivalent to sliding the plane along the 
connecting-rod towards the guide-pin, so that the centre of effort 
moves first in a circle, then in an ellipse, and finally in a straight 
line. I have shown the first and last movements in Fig. YII and 
Fig. III. 

These are the motions we often see when the passing breeze sets 
a blade of grass rotating ; it is common with flat leaves having 
thin stalks, and must have been observed by every one present 

Fig. VII will show the geometry. 

remarks refer to all wings, but, in addition, it is observ- 
able that jointed wings can be trochoided by opening and shutting 
the wing, the connecting-rod working in a vertical plane trans- 
versal to the line of flight. 

A little consideration will show that turning, rising, and descend- 
ing, are merely resultants dependent on the position of the centre 
of gravity, and the direction the waves are thrown in; by depressing 
one side of the tail, and raising the other, a portion of the thrust 
is directed to one side ; and in the construction of a flying-machine, 
it is an unnecessary waste of power to try to lift the enormous 
rudders that are given such prominence to in many of the schemes 
we see depicted. 

As to the soaring of birds, that branch of flight has been well 
argued lately in " Nature," and it is quite clear to me that the 

Natural selection and the survival of the fittest account for the 
development of the wing membrane on the afterside, and its cur- 
tailment on the leading edge of wings, and not as I have made it 
in the models equal on each side of the quill ; it is so constructed 
because I recognize the course the evolution of artificial flight will 
take, and that in its first stages the motion will be slow ; and, as 
we gain confidence in the construction of the machine, we shall 
notice that by leaning our body in the direction we wish to go, 
that is, altering the position of the centre of gravity, and reducing 
the speed of the planes, our object will be attained ; and then we 
shall find the leading edge of the planes will be liable to double up 
and get damaged, making it necessary to follow in the footsteps of 

These are my views, stated as concisely as I can ; and if you 
think there is any novel truth embodied in them, this Society is 
welcome to any of the laboratory models that aided me in finding 

In conclusion, gentlemen, I should like your opinion as to 
whether or not th iiow that there is a power 

almost universally used by Nature for the transmission of force, 
that can claim to be regarded as distinct from those previously 
used in our mechanisms ; and if not, under what head do you 
class the trochoided plane 1 

Regarding these models,* they are exhibited here as the result of 
about a dozen efforts in the direction of artificial flight, and they 
are, to the best of my knowledge, quite original ; and let me point 
out the certainty that if only twenty more are made several marked 
improvements must be evolved ; and if there are any mechanical 
members of this Society who see that the successful construction 
of such a machine would be advantageous, they could, at the cost of 
a few shillings, copy these models, making such alterations as their 
imperfections suggest, and a comparison of the improved models 
would show what progress had been made ; this would hasten a 
process that is, to say the least of it, laborious and tedious. 

* These models were somewhat similar to Figs. Ill, V, and VII, and were 

/,; fjn./ii.of, H,i.<n, t 

On a New Form of Actinometer. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.E.A.S. 

[Read before the Boyal Socief,/ of X.3. It'., 

Amongst the instruments designed to record the sunshine, I have 
not seen one whi< til ions required, viz., an instru- 

ment that would not only record the hours of sunshine, but mea- 
sure and record the heat received on a given surface in a given 
time. I have tried to fulfil these conditions in the instrument 
before you. You will see that it is .similar to an equatorial stand 
for a telescope, in so far that it has a polar axis and clock-work, 
and also a means of setting the lens to the declination of the sun. 
For the recording part it was considered best to put a half 
cylinder over the polar axis, and attached to the stand, so that two 
arms attached to the cross-head of the polar axis and parallel to it 
would move above this half -cylinder and at the same distance from 
it throughout the day. The use of these arms is to carry a light 
pen-carriage and pen resting on the paperwhich is attached tothe half 
cylinder. Attached to the upper end of the polar axis is a frame 
supporting a short-focus 12-inch lens, so arranged that its axis for 
adjustment in declination would, if continuous, pass through the 
continuation of the centre of the polar axis. Now, the intersection 
of these two axes is obviously a point the locus of which will not 
be changed by the rotation of the polar axis. At this point I put 
a miniature water-boiler and supply it with water from a fixed 
reservoir attached to the stand, the supply going in at the bottom 
and the steam out of the top ; the water in the boiler will therefore 
be at a practically constant height and supplied at a temperature 
known by a thermometer placed in the reservoir, which is pro- 
tected from the direct rays of the sun. When the instrument is to 
be used, the lens is turned to the sun and adjusted until its focus is 
on the boiler ; the clock-work is then started and keeps the lens 
pointed to the sun, and therefore its focus on the boiler, which goes 
on boiling in proportion to the intensity of the sun's heat ; the 
steam thus generated turns a small turbine, and its motion by 
means of light wheels is made slower, and then given to the pen- 
carriage, causing it to move down its guide-bars 1 inch for a given 
amount of water evaporated, and may in a very hot day make it 
move the whole length of the slide, 9 inches. 

Now, while this steam-engine is giving one motion to the pen, 
the clock-work is giving it another motion over the paper with its 
guide-arms at the rate of 1 inch per hour. Should the sun be 
hidden, the boiling would cease and the pen would be carried in a 
straight line by the clock ; and should the sun come out and start 
the engine, and thence the pen, the mark would be an oblique one 
or compound of the two motions. 

You will see, then, how this machine will show not only the 
hours when the sun shines, but also the intensity of that heat. In 
such an arrangement some of the water evaporated must be lost in 
the machine, and I propose to measure the water into the reser- 
voir in the morning and measure it out at night, so determining 
exactly the quantity of water boiled away during the day, and by 
means of the pen record the relative rate of evaporation during each 
moment of sunshine. Experience will no doubt suggest precau- 
tions and modifications of this proposal which will make it a 
complete machine. 

Notes on some Mineral Localities in the Northern 
Districts of New South Wales. 

By D. A. Porter, Tamworth. 

: pyramids s 
crystals often much rubbed, but good specimens with clean faces 

and sharp angles are easily obtained. Crystals occasionally exhibit 
imperfect cleavage, and often penetrated by prisms of orthoclase. 

and cassiterite. The quartz crystals of this locality have probably 
been derived, as abo the tourmaline, topaz, r~ J ' 
drusy cavities in the granites of the surround 
granite is hi character. 

In Cope's Creek (X.K.), and in tributaries of the same; colours, 
brown, black, colourless ; associated with corundum and tin ore. 
Often penetrated by rutile. 

At Glen Elgin (N.E.), in crystals in alluvial drifts; colours, 
brown, rarely black, colourless. The purple variety (amethyst) 

Associated minerals, g< 
and given corundum. 

At Bixrl'uKj AH< ■,/ Point , mar Nundlc, in bunches 

prisms often have a frosted appearance from partial formation of 
minute crystals ; almoin separate crystals, or crystals which are 
attached by side of prism, and which have double pyramidal 

At 'ifnw'il^j nock, near Nundle, about half a mile north from 
Mr. P. Pride's hotel; in loose crystals in surface clay; derived 
from cavities in the auriferous quartz veins of the neighbourhood. 
Semi-transparent to opaque, greenish. Similar crystals occur in 
Balala Creek, near Stony Batter. 

At GarrawiHa, Liverpool Plains, radiated, with stilbite and 
calcite, often in flat even p] similar plates of 

stilbite. Derived from the amygdaloidal cavities in the basalt of 
this locality. 

3 New England District. 

with Btilbite. 

At Uunfjhifj Hock, Xundlo, half a mi!- south from Mr. Prisk's 
hotel, near Pub] aids massed together and 

In Cujj '* Cr< //(X.E.). at lower crossing, in rounded polished 

At Stannifer (N.E.), in drifts with tin ore, rounded portions of 

rough; colours, black, brown, colourless. Crystals coloured in 
i i r black, common. 

At the Gulf, near Emmaville (X.E.), in the "Dutchman's" 
claim, from drusy cavities in oiiartz, and feh puthic granite veins. 
Crystals Luge, transparent; often tapering from base to summit 
of prism. Splendid specimens for cabinet purposes are to be 
obtained at this locality. 

There are a great number of New England localities, not herein 
mentioned, in which good specimens are occasionally obtained ; I 
have however only enumerated those places in which good speci- 
mens occur plentifully, or in which peculiar varieties are found. 

locality (a part of a prism) measured i! ; inehes in circumference 
by 2 inches in length, and weighed 9\ oz. Some of the specimens 
from this locality are hexagonal, but mostly hemihedral. Both 
forms of prism are found terminating in three-faced pyramids. 
are oft,.,, penetrated l,v crystals of quartz. 
Near Bendemeer, 7 miles down the M 'Donald River, with 
Muscovite in milkv quartz, prisms J to \ inch thick, hemihedral, 

At Work .Turk Mmuituni (Mt. (Julligal), near Bendemeer, in 
quartz vein with orthoclase, i„ liemihedral prisms; colour, black, 
opaque. A specimen from tins locality measured 2 inches in 
length (broken prism), 8| inches in circumference, and weighed 
\i\ ozs. ; another from the same locality, 4 inches long and 6 
inches in circumference, weighed 14| ozs. The last-mentioned 
specimen was penetrated by two smaller prisms of the same 

Near Bingera, m disintegrated conglomerate drift, with diamond, 

highly polished : in shape (■ 

thing resembling date-stones; black, opaque, form of prism 

At Balala, near Uralla (N.E.), in long slender prisms on white 
quartz j colour, black, opaque. 

At Never Fever, 15 miles north from Tam worth, in large 
masses of broken crystals agglutinated together, forming schorl 
breccia, black, opaque. 

Near Kentucky (Fralla, KE.) in amorphous masses, often 
cxi cm lin ~ > ! i hi. Mack, opaque. 


At Oban (N.E.) in stanniferous drifts, with gold, quartz, feld- 
spar, and tourmaline; colour, greenish, yellowish, bluish, pale, 
also colourless; generally in irregularly l.roken fragments, but 
good crystals are not uncommon. Prisms generally with one 
perfect termination. A prism with perfect termination from this 
locality was 1 ■: inches in length, 1 .', inelies in circumference, and 
weighed 3 -87 ora. troy. I ts sp. g. was 3-57. Another specimen 
from the same 1 ■■■/.. troy, and had a sp. g. of 


At Scrubby (hdl a (Emmaville, y.K.), with eassiterite, in rolled 
fragments much rounded an 1 mho ahed, i, to 1 inch in diameter; 
colour, pale, gn enish. yellowish, colourless. 

At Mochj River (Ural la, X.E.), with gold, spinels and titanic 

garnet ; colours mostly blue, green, or grey. G 
regards size, tint and freedom from flaws ; ve 
varieties are often met with, but are invariably sma 
bad colour. 

At Gh'n Khjin, 30 miles east from Glen Innes, i 
gold, and tin ore ; colours principally green or ye 
transparent, semi transparent. Prisms, with one p 
tion, are sometimes found, and do not appear to 
far, as the angles and edges are ir t n ti 


In Cope's Creek (N.E.), with tin ore, titanic iron, and water- 
worn quartz crystals ; colours, blue, green, brown ; opaque, 
semi-transparent, common ; good-coloured transparent stones, rare. 

At Rocky River (N.E.), in alluvial drifts, with gold, titanic iron, 
and spinel, small, much worn ; colours, blue or brown. 

Near Bingera, in Eaglehawk and Doctor's Creek, with diamond, 
spinel, gold, magnetic iron sand, and waterworn tourmalines, semi- 
transparent, opaque, sometimes transparent ; colours, blue, red, 
brown, green, yellow ; generally small in size. 

At Oban (N.E.), rare, but occasionally found in comparatively 
large pieces, always much rubbed. 

Parti-coloured stones are often met with in the before-mentioned 
localities ; some specimens are from blue to green, others from blue 
or green, in part, to colourless. Some varieties exhibit rays from 
centre to circumference. 

No. 1. SevernEiver 68| 4-151 

No. 2. , 103 4-120 

No. 3. „ 194 3-959 

No. 4. Oban 257 4015 

No. 1. Colour, blue, semi-transparent. 

No. 2. Green, pale, transparent; much flawed, worn 


No. 3. Blue, opaque ; slightly worn on edges. 

No. 4. Blue, opaque ; very much rubbed and rounded. 

All the above specimens, except No. 4, have been broken 

such a manner as to prevent the original crystalline form fi 

being recognized. No. 4 is apparently a portion of a prisu 

which cleavage has taken place at right angles to the longer a 


Car.. ._ 
s small, rarely l 

_ Emmnville (N.E.), in Carr's claim. Gulf tin-mines, in 
1, rarely more than x \ inches 

In Vegetable Creek (Emmaville, N.E.), rar 
fragments with tin ore, small j colour, pale { 

nl< t basalt, in prisms ami fragments Lfeiierally much 
d in the drift with quartz and topaz; both of which 

ur in rounded polished pieces ; blue and brow 
o found in these drifts with the beryls. 

Following is a description of four of the largest stones observed 
from this locality : — 

No. 1. Colour, pale green ; exterior, rough; edges, rounded 

weight in air, 755 grs. ; sp. g. 2 673. 
No. 2. Portion of prism not much worn ; colour, green, rather 

pale ; weight in air, 341 grs. ; sp. g. 2-664. 
No. 3. Irregular fragment ; colour, green, pale ; weight in air, 

319 grs.; sp. g. 2-703. 
No. 4. Green prism, much worn, f -in. in diameter, \ in. long, 
transparent; weight in air, 269 grs. ; sp. g. 2-690. 
In Eaglehawk and Doctor's Creek, near Bingera, in drift formed 
by the decomposition of quartz conglomerates, associated with 
blue, green, red, and colourless corundum ; also, topaz, garnet, 
tourmaline, and quartz. All the associated minerals are more or 
less rubbed and worn. 

At and in the neighbourhood of Tingha (N.E.), small diamonds 
are occasionally obtained whilst washing for tin ore. A large but 
misshapen octohedral stone was found, or said to have been found, 
in Cope's Creek, at Tingha, some time in the year 1882. This 
stone, which is now in the possession of Mr. S. W. Moore, of 
Tingha, is nearly amber yellow in colour. The solid edges formed 
by the meeting of the faces are smoothed off, and thus give the 
stone the appearance of being worn, but I suspect that this is the 
natural form. 

The conglomerate rocks from which some persons— especially 
the miners — are of opinion the diamonds in the Bingera Mines 
have been derived, are found outcropping on some of the low 
ridges about the locality. Much of this rock, which might be 
more accurately described as a brecciated, ferruginous, quartz con- 
glomerate, has become disintegrated, and has spread out and 
enveloped the sides of the hillocks ; other portions, having been 
carried further downwards, have filled up some of the small 
valleys adjacent. It is from this disintegrated conglomerate drift 
that the diamonds found in this locality are in nearly every instance 
obtained, though there appears to be as yet no certainty as to 
whether they have been really derived from these conglomerate 
rocks, or have only become associated with the disintegrated 
materials after the decomposition of the original rock. The con- 
glomerates in question are found to be resting unconf on natty upon 

have obtained fossils of Lepidodmd 

cone-bearing tree, from exposed portions of the slates adjacent i 
and underlaying the diamondiferous drift ; but have never had a 
opportunity to make a proper search in this locality for fossils. 

Point, near Nundle, 

ar garnet, penetrating serpentine rock ; in tetragon; 
pyramidal t< 
parent, glassy lust 

; 1 tei-minations ; colour, d 

t of specific gravity being taken ; white streak. Before 
blowpipe fuses easily to a greenish glassy globule j associated with 
small crystals of pale yellow garnet. Good specimens would 
probably be met with if proper search were made. 

About 5 miles south ist i'm.u 1/ /,' ihrai/ Station, in 

tabular acute-edged crystals, grouped together, ghssy lustre ; 
hardness between 6 and 7. Scratches glass, is scratched by quartz; 
colour, brown; when newly broken has a decided violet tinge; specific 
gravity, 3-11 ; streak pale, nearly colourless ; not observed in situ. 
The specimen examined was found detached, on side of steep 
mountain. Before blowpipe fuses readily to black opaque bead ; 
gives the reactions for manganese. 

{Tung state of Iron and Manganese.) 

In tributary of Rogue's Creek, near the road from Glen Innes to 
Dundee, about 14 miles from Glen Innes, in large lumps in 
amorphous quartz, associated with molybdenite and tin ore, both 
of which occur sparingly. 

At Wilson's Downfall, 30 miles north of Tenterfield, in white 
quartz, with tin ore. 

At Kingsgate, about 20 miles from Glen Innes, in milky quartz, 
associat ed witl . . ! . A specimen 

from this locality had a specific gravity of 7-196, and possessed the 
usual characteristics of wolfram. 

Notes on the Genus Doryanthes, with a notice and 

description of a new species. 

By Charles Moore, F.L.S. 

{Read he/ore the Royal Society of N.S.W., 3 December, 18841 

The Genus Doryanthes— the Gigantic Lily of colonists, or the 
Goumea of the abori-iucs - was founded in 1800, on a single 
species discovered by the earlier settlers in this country, growing 
in great numbers on the western extremity of Botany Bay, near 
George's River. Not one of the many remarkable new forms of 
plants found by the first scientific explorers in this country appears 
to have attracted more attention than this so-called Gigantic Lily, 
with its singular! v large rompac! heads < f reddish flowers borne on 
long stalks from 10 to 20 feet high. Although first found near 
George's River, it is by no means a local plant, as it has a range 
extending in more or' lo a as Jervis Bay, 

and northwards to the Manning ltUer: it may. however, extend 
still further in hoc!, directions, as Mr. Hill, of Brisbane, is said to 
have found a white varietv growing on Mount Lindsay, north ot 
the Tweed River. I suspect, however, that this white flowering 
plant, of which no description has been given, may he a form of 
a different species. Dorj/.nHhes />„hurn, subsequently gathered 
near Toowoomba, Queensland. l»e that as it may, the country to 
the west of Botany Bay may be regarded as the central locality ot 
this type of the genus. , , 

It was not only that this plant was remarkable for the beauty 
of its flowers, but it was also found that the leaves produced a 
valuable fibre, which iurni>h.-d the natives with a material for 
fishing lines and nets. The late Sir Thorn;; , Mitchell— who long 
held the office of Surveyor-General of this Colony, and perhaps on 
the whole the mo - ! Australia can yet boast 

of— one of the founders of this Society, read a paper at one of its 
first meetings, entitled the "Resources of the County of Cumber- 
land," in which he drew marked attention to the beauty, tenacity, 
and probable ultimate value of its fibre, of which, prepared for the 
-—Meed, nearly 3 feet in length, 

and of quiti i sill pearam but no tlisi Hn , i \ mi 

qualities of this tihre, and that it could be obtained many quantity 

over the whole* :IU<1 Dlawwrnh 

it has not as yet been, .so t. irned to any com- 

mercial advantage. In a botanical sense Doryanthes dues not 

belong to the lily tribe, but is one of the family of Ana r\ llidrw, 
a class of plants | ihed from the lilies by having 

the fruit inferior, i.e., under or outside the floral leaves, instead of 
within the floral envelope, as characteristic of the Lily family. 
For more than sev< nt- \ i Ids ingular plant stood alone in our 
text-books of Botany as the only one of its kind, and often 
referred to by botanists as an extraordinary feature in our vege- 
tation, standing alone without any very close congener. It was 
therefore most n ar 1870, another 

and very distind covered growing 

in many places i : far from Cun- 

ningham's Gap, near the. Darling Downs, Queensland, and first 
accurately described in the " Botanical Magazine," tab. G,665, by 
Sir Joseph Hooker, under the name of Doryanthes PaJmeri, in 
honor of Mr. Palmer, the then Premier of Queensland. Curiously 
enough a plant of this new species had been in cultivation in one 
of the conservatories of Kew Botanic Gardens for upwai ds of six- 
teen years previously, having been sent to that establi him nl as 
Doi'ijinHh-H >;cr,_h<t ; its true character not having been discovered 
until it flowered. 

I shall now refer to the object of this short paper, which is to 
record a third species of this remarkable genus sent to me by Mr. 
George Larkim Lismore. The locality from which this novelty 
was obtained lies about 25 miles north-west of Lismore, i.e., 
between the Richmond and Tweed Rivers, where it was found 
growing on basaltic ranges. The only material from which to 
describe this plant yet placed in my possession is a scape or stalk 
with flowers and some leaves ; hut these are, I consider, sufficient 
to identify it ■ , , l enable me to draw out and 

submit a description of it. 1 cannot, however, disguise from 
myself that it is very dnsely allied to the Queensland II. Palme ri ; 
but when I become better acquainted with its appearance and 
habit I shall then be able to j baracter and, as 

a means to do this, Mr. Larkin has most kindly promised to send 
mo 1 : mis '•■ I - ■ Is, as well as photos of the plant in its natural 
habitat. At some future time I may therefore have to bring 
this subject before our Society ; in the meantime I accept the 
plant as a new species, which I have much pleasure in naming, 
after its discoverer, as Doryanthes Larkini. 

Radical leave Eonn, 4 to 5 feet long, and 

about 4 inches broad, much ribbed, terminating in a sharp brown 
tubular tip tapering to within '.» i td«. < o! fh. Wise, and then of 
equal breadth to the point of c 


Scape rarely erect, from 6 to 8 feet high, clothed with acute 
lanceolate leafy bracts becoming broader towards the apex. 

Inflorescence about 4 feet long, thyreoid, loose of many long 
few-flowered spikes, the primary rachis being about 14 inches, 
;..!■_■■•..: i at the base and 

gradu iting into an a< ute point, and t< rminating in short trichoto- 
mous spikelets, and each bearing from two to three flowers. 

Flowers red, tube of the ovary about 1 inch long, segment of 
the flower erect, the outer row slightly longer than the inner, 
narrowly oblong, paler in colour on the inside, and rather longer 
than the tube of the perianth. 

Stamens shorter than the segments of the flower, gradually 
narrowed upwards. 

Fruit unknown. 

Although this new 4 ecies i.s very closely allied to D. Palmeri, 
it may readily be distinguished from that plant by the erect stem, 
loose branching rachis — the branches being some distance apart, 
and from 12 to 14 inches long, and by its shorter leaves and 
smaller flowers. The stem or scape of 1>. Pnhnr-ri is never erect; 
the spikelets of flowers adhere close to the stem, which are in con- 
sequence somewhat secund, or all bearing towards the upper side. 
From both of the preceding D. excelsa can at sight be recognized 
by its large compact head of flowers on a perfectly straight erect 
stem, and by its narrower es and recurved 

segments of the perianth. 

Water Supply in the Interior of New South Wales. 
By W. E. Abbott, Abbotsford, Wingen. 

[Read before the Boyal S 

Is dealing with the question of water supply in the interior of 
New South Wales, it will be most convenient to divide the subject, 
and deal first with " wells ordinary or artesian," and next with 
the " conservation of surface water." In practice, of course there 
is no such division, as both methods of obtaining a supply of fresh 
water will be found in operation to a greater or less extent on 
almost every station in the interior of the Colony. The interior 
of New South Wales is almost wholly occupied by the watershed 
of the Darling River, wine':, <>f drainage of 

the Australian Continent. The tributaries of this river flow away 
from the great dividing range to the north-west and west through 
a great alluvial plain, sloping imperceptibly from the spurs of the 
range for a distance to the Darling River of from 200 to 300 
miles. The section map appended, taken from Mr. Russell's 
"Physical Geo-: NVw Soutk Wales," gives 

an excellent idea of the general slope of the country. This great 
plain is not timberless, though nearly all the timber which grows 
on it is stunted, and different in every way from the forests which 
clothe the eastern slopes of the great dividing range. As it has 
been suggested that the water supply of the great western plains 
might be increased bv planting forests, 1 have endeavoured to 
form an estimate of how much of it is timbered at present, and 
what would be the chances of success in the attempt to plant 
forests. From my own observations, made in many parts of the 
Darling watershed, I do not think more than 20 per cent, of the 
country is timberless. and on that part which is timbered there is 
a rather larger number of trees to the acre than on our eastern 
slopes of forest country. The real difference is in the size of the 
trees. Except along the courses of the rivers and in a few isolated 
spots, trees of a foot in diameter are extremely rare, scarcely one 
to 100 miles of country in some places. I think this is o\\ mg to 
the extremely s; -d only to a small extent to 

climatic conditions. The proof of this is in the fact that * here 
we may reasonably suppose the soluble salts to have been to a large 

extent washed out of the s 

trees of the larger kinds are unable to exist in the salt-bus 
In 1880 I examined an orchard on the Lower Macquarie which 
had been planted about five years on a piece of salt-bush country. 
The trees grew v for some time, and then died. 

It seemed to me they died as soon as their roots reached the salt 
subsoil after passing through the surface-soil, out of which the salts 
had in a great measure been washed by rain. In other places I 
have seen orchai i; but always on the banks of 

rivers where the country had been liable to flood for ages, and where 
large gum-trees grew, as they do along the banks of rivers, but 
scarcely anywhere else. For these reasons, I do not think it would 
be possible to co i ; , even if it were 

certain (which it is not) that the result would be to increase the 
rainfall or the flow of water in the watercourses. In endeavouring 
3 conclusion a 

inland plains by wells, ordinary or a 

3 length with tl 1 If t m of that part of 

New South Wales. The whole of the interior of the Colony may 
be described as a single plain, sloping away imperceptibly to the 
west from the spurs of th . . 4 , .. 

This range is on a 
many of the peaks rise considerably abov< 
where does it reach the line of perpetual snow 
which flow away to the west, to feed the Darling River, are only 
maintained by the annual ra i , e summit of the 

range, is about 30 inches, becoming less gradually as we go west, 
until near the western boundary of the Colony it falls below 10 
mcfcea : the average for the five years from 1879 to 1883 inclu- 
sive being a little more than 22 inches on the Darling watershed 
above Bourke. River Obs., 1883.) That this 

plain is of aqueous origin, I : unk, will -,,■, ,- \ be denied by any- 
one who carefully considers the numberless facts which support 
such a conclusion. 

I know that it has been maintained by Mr. Tenison-Woods 
that the interior of New South Wales is wholly a formation of 
wind-blown sand, but I trust that gentleman will yet see reasons 
for changing his opinion. 

The conclusion at which I had arrived some years ago, when 
I first went through the Darling country, was that the whole of 
tnat part of Aui ;„> Darling watershed had 

been covered, within comparatively recent geological time, by a 
sea, partly or perhaps wholK landlocked. 

Apart from the scientific interest centred in this question of the 
geological formation of the ! baa a very direct 

bearing on the probability of obtaining, by boring or sinking, an 

adequate supply of artesian or other well water, and for this 
reason I shall endeavour to state, as shortly as possible, a few of the 
facts on which I hold are grounded. 

From the western spurs of we find the land 

sloping away to the west as far as the Darling River. West of the 
Darling, as far as the South Australian boundary, the country, 
except for a few low ranges, seems to be almost level, as shown by 
the uncertain course which the water takes. In that part of the 
Colony there have not yet been any railway surveys made, so that 
we have no accurate records of the levels in any direction. 

Bourke, on the Darling, as shown by the railway survey, is only 
349 feet above sea-level, and Dubbo, on the same line of railway, 
is 865 feet above sea-level. Dubbo is situated just near the edge 
of the great western plain; and here \\v hive an average slope 
of about 2 feet per mile, but the slope is much greater in the 
first 100 miles than after, as Nyngan, about 100 miles from 
Dubbo, is only 567* feet above sea-level. Ti k „ tl tl 

wester line of railway, I find that Ctmnedah, in the northern 
part of the Colony, situated near the edge of the great western 
plain, close to the spurs of the dividing range, is 874 feet above 
sea-level. In 1880, by barometer measurement, I made Walgett 
(which is situated on the Darling River, a little north of west 
from Gunnedah, about 180 miles and about the same distance up 
the river from Bourke), 468 feet above sea-level, so that here we 
have also a fall of something more than '2 feet per mile. In 
addition to the slope away from the great dividing range, the 
plain which forms the interior of New South Wales has a very even 
slope to the south-west, along the course of the Darling River, 
of something less than 1 foot per mile. The fall along the 
course of the Darling River, following the bends, is only a few 
inches per mile; but I think, in an a series of observations made 
by myself a few years ago, that the general slope of the country 
from the Queensland boundary to Bourke is about 8 inches 
per mile. Below Bourke the fall becomes less. Between 
the courses of the Bogan River and the Lachlan there is a 
slight rise in the country, which has turned the Bogan to 
the north and the Lachlan to the south-west. This rise seems 
to be continued right across the Colony to the western boun- 
dary, and all along the higher ground the older silurian and 
devonian rocks come to the in many places, 

quartzite, and conglomerates of undetermined geological position. 

* In a time-table issued 10 September, 188i, from the Railway Depart- 
ment, th, hnjbt nl„,v, -. .i !, • , ! , t Vyn- U s.^ i .is 637 feet, but aa my 

'• • > . • . ....;.- 

The slope from the rivers Lachlan and Bogan to the centre of this 
dividing rise is so gradual as to be quite imperceptible in riding 
over the country, and no well-defined watercourses are formed in 
the whole of that piece of cow tape, about 300 

by 250 miles, w] : 11 >y the three rivers — Bogan, 

Darling, and Lachlan. In speaking of this rising ground being of 
Silurian, devonian, or granite formation, it must not be understood 
that any large proportion of the country belongs to these forma- 
tions. In this part of the Colony, as well as in all the rest of our 
western plains, the country o -or at least 90 

per cent, of evenly deposited clay beds, thinly interspersed with 
stretches of sandy country, which are probably all of tertiary ^ or 
recent geological age. And here I may note that in a country like 
the interior of New South Wales, where wc have a vast area of 
nearly level country covered by clay beds and sands, probably of 
recent formation, with the harder underlying rocks coming to the 
surface in isolated spots, we are apt to take the fossils of these 
older rooks as ini »f the formation, 

which they do not, as these more prominent parts pierce through 
stratified beds of much more recent date. 

The peculiarities of the great western plain which forms about 
three-fourths of the Colony of New South Wales are, first, that it 
runs up among th Qg range exactly in the same 

way that water penetrates a broken coast-line, forming deep bays 
and inlets with ranges and peaks of hard crystalline or conglomerate 
rock, rising through the evenly stratified clay-beds like capes, 
peninsulas, and islands, along a broken coast-line, the islanddike 
peaks becoming fewer and few* r a- v.e L ... v..-i until we reach the 
Darling River ; and here wo may travel 'hundreds of miles without 
coming across a rise in the country of even a few feet. The whole 
country slopes away from rhe lower spurs of the range with a 
wonderfully even slope, first of about l! feet to the mile, becoming 
gradually less until th. Daring is reaehed, where the western 
slope ceases, and the only fall of the country is to the south or 
south-west. Numerous creeks come down from the range along 
well-defined valleys, \ hich are < < i l,.,itly valleys of erosion, and on 
reaching the heads of the inlets of plain spread out and are lost, 
only the larger watercourses forcing a way through the plains and 
ultimately reaching some tail g. This is the 

case more particularly in the Liverpool Plains district. That 
these creeks could never have had a defined course through the 
plain during all the ages in which they have been cutting down 
the gorges in the mountains through which they flow, but must at 
the point where they now spread out on the plain have always 
either flowed into water where there was no current, or into a 
plain as they now do, which had by some agency been rendered 
so level as to prevent the concentration of their waters in any 

3 0-170 will begin to work on fine clay. 

8 0-4, 546 as linseed. 

12 06,8 ..ravel. 

24 1%( tia meter. 

(D. Stepln i tug, p. 315.) 

The current of the Darling River with a fall of only a few- 
inches per mile is from half a mile to more than a mile per hour. 
The fall from the \ astern »purs of the range towards the Darling 
is at least 2 feet per mile, and probably for the first 100 miles 
more than 3 feet, so that with such a fall these creeks would, as 
the above table shows, have been able to maintain and deepen 
their channels, if tin • v- ever Inul had any. The larger creeks or 
rivers which ha . < <i water carried 

down from the mountains, succeeded in cutting defined channels 
through the plan -west level to form the Dar- 

ling, have one p iiout exception, is found in 

them all. From the point ai which they leave the mountains 
they have no defi l above that point the valleys 

are well defined, an 1 must liav< taken ages to cut out. All the 
tributaries of the Darling from the Gwydir in the north to 
the Bogan in the south have the appearance of canals rather than 
rivers, and yet with a fall of from 2 to 3 feet per mile, and a cur- 
rent of 3 or 4 miles per hour, as some of them have, we should find 
many signs of long continued erosion unless, as I suppose, the 
country had by some agency been rendered so flat in the cross sec- 
tion of the river courses that the most of the water always spread 
out over the country. The older and harder strata on which the 
clay beds rest are not level, as is shown by the various depths at 
which they are reached in sinking wells, then fore it seems clear 
that if the present rivers, with the current which they would have 
had with a fall of 2 or 3 feet per mile, had ever flowed along this 
uneven bottom i could have built up an even 

plain with a general level extending over hundreds of miles. 
Besides the fact that these clay -beds and sand drifts with nearly 
horizontal sbrai da of feet below 

sea-level, and there contain fossil trees and other signs of the 
proximity of land, seems to me an unanswerable argument against 
any theory of their formation, except that of an inland sea or vast 
salt lake. From the Gwydir to the Bogan, travelling across the 
courses of the Namoi, Castlereagh, Macquarie, and Bogan, it is 
impossible to say where the watershed of one river ends and that 
of the next begins. There is a remarkable sameness about the 

whole of the interior of New South Wales. The plains consist 
almost wholly of two sortsof soil, which inthe mostwidely separated 
places are found to possess the same distinctive characteristic*. 
One which const I rths of the whole watershed 

of the Darling in New South Wales is a red clay with a very 
slight admixture of extremely find sand, commonly called the red- 
soil country. All the salt-bush plains are of this formation. The 
other is a greyish black soil, commonly called black-soil country. 
This lies chiefly along the courses of the rivers, and is gene- 
rally liable to be flooded in wet seasons, the red soil being 
rarely, if ever, covered to any depth or extent by the over- 
flow from the rivers. This black or greyish black soil, when 
found along the Darling or the lower courses of its tributaries, M 
extremely fine-grained, and when rubbed between the fingers in 
water leaves no grit, the whole mass dissolving in the water. 
Near the spurs of the dividing range, along the edge of the great 
western plain, it is much darker in colour, and contains a large* 
proportion of grit or sand than further west. In addition to these 
two kinds of country, there are stretches of sandy country having 
the same general level as the rest of the plains. The black soil 
is the newest of the three kinds of country described, always 
overlying both the red soil and the sands. Wherever wells have 
been sunk in the black soil country, either the red soil or the sand 
has been reached at a small depth. It generally follows depres- 
sions in the country, and is found all along the courses of the 
rivers, seldom if ever beyond the line of flooded country, and 
almost all flooded country is black soil, and it is never of any 
great thickness. This black soil lias evidently been formed by the 
finer particles of soil carried down and deposited in shallow 
depressions of the older formations of red soil and sand. "With 
regard to the red soil and the sand, I have been unable to satisfy 
myself that there is any regularity in the way in which they lie with 
reference to each other. I believe they are contemporaneous, and 

lay be found passing under or over each other in 
Owing to the kindness of Mr. James Doyle, 

obtain samples of both the red ana 
black soils for analysis. I had some hope that the analysis, or a 
microscopical examination of the samples kindly made by Mr. 0. S. 
Wilkinson, would have thrown some light on the origin of both 
these formations ; but all that has been shown is that both soils, 
though very different in appearance, are similar in constitution, 
and the black soil is probably derived from the red, having been 
deposited from water having little or no current, as is shown by 
the extreme fineness of the particles. The fact that the particles 
of silica are not rounded but angular, will also have some bearing 
on the question of the eolian origin of these formations. Mr. 
Wilkinson, who examined these soils microscopically, " found no 

trace of any organism," and describes them as "chiefly silica 
in angular grains, such as would be derived from rocks of a very 
silicious nature, siu-h as the silurian, devonian, or tertiary sand- 

They are probably derived fnmi the same strata as the quartzite 

conglomarates called murillo ridges, or from these conglomerates. 

The following analyses are by Mr. Chas. Watt, Government 

Analyses of red soil j'r^m th> Dn.rlhxj watershed. 

Soluble in cold hydrochloric acid- 
Peroxide of iron 2-76 

" as" " 

Soluble si 
Decomposable by i 

, a and silicates, undecomposable by 
sulphuric acid 

Combustihle and voh 

Moisture at 125° C. 


Analyses of black soil from the Darling % 
Fixed S 

Decomposable by sulpbui 


i(K 2 0) . 

Soda(Na 2 ( _ 

Neither of the above samples of soil show any trace of chloride 
of sodium, which I suppose arises from the fact that being taken 
from near the m, i 1 !,een washed out 

by rain-water. Throughout the whole of the western plains the soil 
must contain a large quantity of common salt or chloride of 
sodium, for on an average in live wells out of six sunk salt water 
is found, and the whole country gets its name of the salt-bush 
country from the fact that nearly all the fodder plants which grow 
in that part of New South Wales contain a very large proportion 
of common salt and soda. In a paper published in the " Journal 
of the Transactions of the Hoy al Society of New South Wales, 
1880, by W. A. Dixon, K.(\S,\>n Salt-bush and Native Fodder 
Plants, u is shown that in the ash of the salt-bushes soda and 
chloride of sodium range as high us 4282 and 3 5 -3 6 per cent. 
respectively; while in Kn^lisli fodder plants, the percentages of 
whnh art- given for comparison in the same paper, there is no 
soda, and only in one instance does the chloride of sodium go as 
high as 11-04 per cent., the next highest sample to this having 
only 3-84 per cent. About Brewarrina, and in other places on the 
Darling, along both banks of the river, at from 20 to 30 feet below 
the general level of the country, there are strong springs of intensely 
salt water flowing into the river ; and so large is the quantity of 

water becomes too salt for use, and sometimes the fish die in large 
numbers. That the salts contained in these springs and in wells 
wheiv salt water is found all through the interior of New South 
Wales are identical with the > alts contained in the sea or in many 

of the great salt lakes now in existence is shown, I think, by t'.i a 
following series of analyses : — 

Analyses of water from S/irnc/ Ulh/e, Liverpool Plains, from well 
22 feet deep, in centre of black soil; plain about 1,100/eef 
above sea-level. 

Chloride of sodium 864-83 ' 12-146 "***' 

magnesium 170-25 2*389 

Sulphate of sodium 54-80 0-769 

Carbonate of soda 6057 0-850 

magnesia 33-25 0467 

Silica, iron, and alumina 2-10 0029 

Organic matter ]2-90 0182 

1,21685 17 087 

Total chlorine 669 "65 grains per gallon. 

„ sulphuric acid 30'SS „ 


to render it total h i cattle; it should 

Analyses of v;it>:rfr<>in Diomonrl-drill, Girilambone. 
Colour bright. 

Total fixed matter 812-48 grains per gallon. 

„ chlorine 365 "63 

■odium, carbonate 
>f lime, sulphate of zinc, &c. 

Analyses of vaterfrnm I)ia.mond-drVh Girilambone. 
Total fixed matter 775-04 grains per gallon. 

Analyses of vyibrfrom Diauwnd-driU, Girilambone. 

Total fixed matter 777D2 grains per gallon. 

,, chlorine 346-12 ,, 

Fixed matters coi . -odium, carbonat 

f lime, sulphate of lime, oxide of iron, &c. 

Analyses of icater from I'uspiav $<a, near mouth of Hirer Ural 

Chloride of sodium. 

potassium 0O076 


(Mg C0 3 ) 

Constituent (except where otherwise stated). 
Chloride of sodium 3'83 

Sulphate of calcium 


Analyses of water from the Dead Sea. A. Geih 
Constituent (except where otherwise stated). 
Chloride of sodium 3-6372 

Bromide of magnesium 08157 

ium 0-0SS9 

1 constituents of ocean water occur in the following 

average ratios : — 

' psui tj 4-617 

sulphate (Epsom salts) . 

Total percentage of salts in sea-water ... 3 527 

A. Geikie 
Chi' comparing these tables of analysis, it will be seen that salt 
lakes vary mviik in the proportion of the mineral constituents 
contained in th< ly ''very case sodium chloride 

(common salt) as in the sea, is the chief constituent, and where 
sodium chlorid paesram chloride 

does ; and this is found to be the .same in the Darling salt water. 
Thes«> variations are < aused perhaps to a small extent by the local 
geological cond i watershed of each particular 

lake, but chiefly, as I will show further on, by the stage of con- 

l which has been reached by the waters. A noticeable 
feature in the formation of the western plains is the wide distri- 
bution of gypsum in nodules and beds interstratified with the 
clay beds. In every part of the Darling country which I have 
examined, I have noticed gypsum in the excavated material from 
tanks and wells, and also on the surface in places ; and on ques- 
tioning well-sinkers, I was much struck by the generally expressed 
opinion that wherever you find gypsum you will find salt water 
not far off. The manner of formation of gypsum will show that 
the generalization reached by the practical experience of the well- 
sinkers is probably not far from the truth. 

Professor A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S., Director-General of the 
Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland, says — (Text-book 
of Geology, p. 398) : — "The study of the precipitations which take 
place on the floors of modern- t lm>\\ inglight 
on the history of a number of chemically-formed rocks. The salts in 
these waters aocu i- m is reached, or 
until by chemical re-action theyare thrown down. The least soluble 
are naturally the first to appear, the water becoming progressively 
more and more saline till it reaches a condition like that of the 
mother liquor in a salt work. Gypsum begins to be thrown down 
from sea-water when 37 per cent, of water has been evaporated, 
but 93 per cent, of water must be drawn off before chloride of 
sodium can begin to be deposited. Hence the concentration 
and evaporation of the water of a salt lake having a composition 
like that of sea-water would give rise first to a layer or sole of 
gypsum, followed by one of rock-salt. This has been found to be 
the normal order among the various saliferous formations in the 
earth's crust. But gypsum may be precipitated without rock-salt, 
either because the water was diluted licfoiv the point of saturation 
for rock-salt was reached, or because the salt, if deposited, was sub- 
sequently dissolved and removed." Sir A. C. Eamsay, L.L.D., 
F.R.S., P.G.S., President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, lias connect, d the occurrence of certain 
red formations with the existence of salt lakes, from the bitter 
waters of which not only iron of oxide, but often rock-salt, 
magnesian limestone, and gypsum, were thrown down. He 
points to the presence of land plants, footprints of amphibia, and 
other indications of terrestrial surfaces, while truly marine organ- 
isms are either found in stunted condition, or absent altogether. 
(Geikie, Text-book of Geology, p. 711) ; also (Inaugural Address to 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1880, by A. C. 
Bam say, President). The absence or scarcity of marine or 
lacustrine fossils (for we cannot say they are absent) in the 
Darling formations of recent deposit is not without a parallel in 
c a similar character now being deposited in other parts 

the bottom are from time to 
time exposed, and show a surface of bluish clay or marl, full of 
crystals of common sail ami gypsum. JVds of similar saliferous 
and gypsiferous clays with bands of gypsum rise along the slopes 
for some height above the present surface af the water, and mark 
the deposits left when the Dead Sea covered a larger area than it 
now does. Save occasional impressions ofd: i r't < •< 1 terrestrial plant.-, 
these strata contains no organic remains." (Ceikie, Text-book of 
Geology, p. 401). But the part of the world which most resem- 
bles what the Darling watershed must have lieen, is the great 
depression now occupied by the Caspian Sea. This inland sen or 

shoals or sand banks, is from 2,000 to 3,000 feet deep in places, 
has no outlet, and is below sea-level. It is being gradually silted 
up; and if sufficient time were to elapse, and no subsidence to take 
place, must ultimately become a great plain, with a slope away from 
the rivers bywhi fried in, Saliferous clays 

are being deposii ■ in some places 

with a very even slope, while in other places sand-banks and shoals 
come to the surfaces of the water. Where the drainage of the 
large rivers reaches the Caspian, the waters of that lake or sea are 
not so salt as those of the Mediterranean, or even as those of the 
ocean ; but in the parts most remote from the mouth of the great 
rivers crystals of salt and uvpsum are beim: deposited with the 
1 up by sand. (A. Geikie, F.R.S.) 
ourselves this -reat depression tilled 
i that such a filling up is inevitable, 
unless changes of level are produced by subterranean causes, 
would we not have something so closely resembling the western 
plains of New South Wales that it would be impossible to come to 
any other conclusion than that both formations had been produced 
under like conditions. 

In many places the slope of the land round the borders of the 
Caspian to and under the water is so gradual that the water is 
often driven by the wind blowing from the sea far inland, and it 
is impossible for even the smallest boat to approach the shore. 
Having all these things in view, I cannot come to any other ^con- 
clusion than that the great western plains of New South Wales 
are of salt or bitter lake formation. Possibly there may be a con- 
siderable variation in the beds as we pass downwards, but I think 
there can be no doubt that the saliferous clays and sands with 
which thev are in terst ratified, as well as the beds and nodules of 
gypsum, are of salt-lake formation, and that they are now, and have 
been for a long period, undergoing a process of washing out, by 
which the salts deposited from the bitter waters are being gradually 
dissolved out of the soil and carried away to sea, partly through 
the rivers and partly by underground drainage. Of course in 

such a process of washing out the order in which the salts were 
deposited would be reversed, the more soluble such as chloride 
or common salt being dissolved out first, and the least soluble 
such as gypsum remaining. 

I know of no agency, except water in such a land-locked sea as 
the Caspian, capable of producing all the conditions found in the 
Darling watershed. 

A theory has been put forward by Mr. Tenison- Woods, which 
attributes these formations to wind-blown s:ui<l, and he has com- 
pared them to the wind-blown sand formations of China, described 
by Richtofen ; but the formation described by Richtofen is a 
yellow calcareous clay, who!/'/ )'ndr>;t'it'fl, with a thickness in 
places of from 1,500 to 2,000 feet, and of course does not in any 
way resemble thi i ;t of saliferous 

clays, interstratified with gypsum and uncompacted sand or sand- 
drifts, and some cemented sands covered in places by the black 
soil, which in some respects resembles the Tundras, north of the 
Caspian, the stratilication being always, as far as I can judge, 
nearly horizontal. Quite recently it has been suggested to me by 
a gentleman whose opinion should have very great weight, that 
the plains might be a river formation, and I have given the idea 
careful consider,-, niot deal with the question 

now, I may say that on comparing the suggestion with my own 
observations, I find the difficulties in the way of accepting it 

Taking the facts as above stated, and apart from any theory or 
conclusion as to how the country assumed its present form, I will 
endeavour to show what are the probabilities of and the difficulties 
in the way of obtaining a supply of underground water, either 
artesian or by ok 1 uin ' , t, in diieh th wat i would require 

to be lifted. I need not do more than allude to the well-known 
work which has been done by Mr. Russell, the Government 
Astronomer, in the last ten b water supply 

in the interior of New South Wales. The conclusions reached, 
though at first disputed, are now, I think, generally accepted. 
They are, shortly, that the n a berated is not 

adequately accounted for by evaporation, and the outflow of the 
river, and consequently there must be some other means of escape 
for the missing water." Mr. Russell has shown ( Rain and River 
Obsr nations, 1883) that in dry years, such as 1883, only riv of the 
rainfall of the Darling wa ■ Bourke passes 

that town, and in good years about 1. The difference between the 
Darling and the other rivers, even in New South Wales, in this 
respect, is very marked, as in most parts of the world the outflow 
of the rivers r, , one-third of the total rain- 

fall of the area drained. This applies to risers having a compara- 
tively level course like the Darling. River, with steep and hard 

watersheds sometimes carry off as much as 90 per cent, of th 
amount of n age area. 

The following tables of outflow of various rivers in clifferen 
parts of the world by different observers will perhaps give i 
tolerably fair average or normal ratio of outflow to rainfall : — 
e or outflow to rainfall. 

Ratio o/drt 


Arkansas ami White Rivers 

^'V KlNt1 ,, -; 

Entire Mississippi, exel 

usivc of 

btea Government, 

... 0-90 I j 

The Thames, in England, carries off a little less than one- 
third of the r .•: ■ V- 201). The 
Elbe carries off one-quarter of the rainfall (Verhandl Geol. 
Reichsanstalt, p. 173). The Seine, at Paris, carries off a third 
of the rainfall (A. Geikie). The Upper Nepean and Cataract 
Rivers, on the eastern slopes of the dividing range in New South 
Wales, carry off about 39 per cent, of the rainfall, as shown by 
the Commission of the Sydney 
water supply. The Murray, which most nearly in climatic con- 
ditions and character of watershed approaches the Darling, 
discharges at Euston nearly one-fourth of the rainfall, or about 
the same as rivers of simila ■"'* of tue world 
(H. C. Russell : Journal of the Royal Society of New South 
Wales, 1883). The Murray is a western river, and in area of 
drainage is only second to the Darling of all our Australian 

Mr." Russell's calculations as to average evaporation in the 
interior of New South Wft] ! ' bed as nearest 

to the truth of any which have yet been made, as there are 
numerous instances in the recent drought of tanks only 10 or 
12 feet deep watering large numbers of sheep for more than 
twelve months without any water running into them. And I may 
mention one case on Gurley Station, in the Gwydir district (my 
informant is Mr. Keene, the Manager of Gurley), where 2,000 
sheep were watered for consul ibl\ mm than a aar from a tank 
10 feet deep, and there was still water in the tank, though none 

This is only i &. But I do not see the use 

of multiplying instances, as a hnndivd cases only prove what one 
proves— that in a dry year in the interior of New South Wales, 

most, 6 feet per year, and is probably less than either of these 

estimates. Supposing Mr. Russell's conclusions as to the missing 
water to be true, the question arises how does it find its way to 
the sea,— through what strata or channels. The greater part of 
the interior of New South W ; , clays, inter- 

stratified with fine sand beds or drifts, permeable by water, hard 
cemented sand, impermeable, and gypsum, the stratification being 
generally horizontal or nearly so. In some places the harder 
underlying formations of more ancient geological date come to the 
surface, as at Cobar, and along the rising ground between the 
Lachlan and the Bogan, and in some places we find isolated peaks 
of crystalline rock rising through the clay beds, and also quartzite 
conglomerates. The fact of these older and harder formations 
coming to the surface in places all through the Darling watershed, 
while in the other places, as shown by wells that have been sunk, 
the stratified clays and sands have a thickness of several hundred 
feet, and pass down far below sea-level, proves that the present 
remarkably level surface ' "' 
filling up the hollows of tL. 
level of the higher country, 
is of course open to question, but that it has "been done is beyond 

The only attempt which has yet been made to collect and tabu- 
late information concerning the wells that have been sunk in the 
interior was made by Mr. T. K. Abbott, P.M., and the results 
?qqa m the Journal of the R °y al Society, New South Wales, 

1880. The wells there described are all situated in the Liverpool 
Hams district, a small district just on the edge of the great 
western plain and partly among the spurs of the great dividing 
range. If such work had been done for the whole of the western 
country it would be of immense value now. Mr. Abbott says :— 
.brom the sameness of the western country, it may possibly happen 
that what is true of Liverpool Plains mav'l... t n i« ■' of the rest of the 
Colony; and this supposition, I find, after making due allowance for 
the proximity of the great d Lvi ted by the infor- 

mation which I have been able to collect in the last few years in 
reference to wells bored or sunk on the Darling and its tributaries, 
Ot eighty-nine wells described by Mr. Abbott in the water- 
shed of Cox's Creek and the Mooki River, seventy-three bottomed 
m sand or gravel with abundance of fresh water, six in clay 
with salt water, eight in rock with water hard to brackish, one 
in sand with water bitter, and one in rock with water good. 

must not be supposed tl repre- 

sents all the wells sunk in a given area of country, as there 
would be no record of many of the failures, while the successes 
would be always there to be seen ; but I think the main facts 
brought out will be found to be generally true of all the western 
country, though further west and away from the main range the 


proportion of successes to failures becomes gradually less. The 
most important fact brought out by Mr. Abbott's paper is that, on 
Liverpool Plains, the sand beds are the water-bearing strata. 
The great well at Booroora, between the Narran and Mooni 
Rivers, which gi : 

water (described bv W. E. Abbott, Journal of the Royal Society, 
N.S.W., 1880), and all the other good wells in the most widely 
separated parts of our western plai >. liav< tie ir source of supply 
in the sand drifts, The Government borings, as far as I have 
seen accounts of them, seem to support the inference that these 
sand drifts are the only sources of fresh water in the west. In 
many cases the water-bearing sand beds are so line-grained as to 
make it difficult, if not impossible, to keep wells or tubes from 

all depths, are i ! i never, as far as 

I have seen, very much inclined, and come to the surface in many 
places. That the fresh water passes from the surface through 
these sands, and has by reason of their permeability dissolved out 
of them the greater part of the soluble salts which they in common 
with the clays may have ori_ [think, tolerably 

certain. Probably these sand beds are not 
large area of country included in the wester: 
likely to be all connected with each other ; 
tain fresh water there must necessarily be t 
the surface from which they obtain fresh water, and with some 
outlet, either through the rivers or underground to the sea, by 
which the Bolubl r have been carried off in 

the past. If this were not so, tin- water contained in the sands 
as it is in the clay beds, where it has been imprisoned by the 
impermeability of the strata, would be salt. 

There must have been for a long time a tolerably free circu- 
lation of water through the strata where fresh water is now 
found. It is shown in Mr. Abbott's wells of Liverpool Plains, 
that in every one of them where water was found in the clay 
it was salt, and I think at least five out of six wells sunk 
further west on the Darling to a depth of 100 feet or under 
reach salt water. In one case, I knew of nineteen wells sunk 
on one station, and only one reached fresh water. Of course 
if we go deeper the chances of striking fresh water are increased, 
as the sand-beds are numerous, and when we reach one through 
which there is a free circulation of water it will be found to 
be fresh. It has been held by some that the missing portion of 
the rainfall passes down through openings in the ground or 
permeable strata to an underground lake or series of lakes, and 
there remains without any ottl ration will show 

that such a lake. same character 

as if situated on the surface without any outlet. It would be salt 
or bitter, as the soluble salts would be dissolved out of the sali- 
ferous clays and carried into it. Looking at the quantity of salt 
water found in every part of the interior of New South Wales, the. 
saline nature of the vegetation, and the numerous salt springs 
which break out along the banks of the Darling River, it seems 
to me that the only possible explanation of the fact that fresh 

it flowing 
"' ■•■' ! - wn hereby the soluble salts have 

nearly all b. inage and carried 

away._ Where 

<l ua »t""--S 1> ' -tits, womav fairly con- 

f m[v ' ,r , i: '' tha1 " ' ; ' "" «< : > < '■'! t, or the flow in past ages 
i id carry away all the saline 
the above deductions to be 
true, it will be seen that tl hag a supply of 

nndoaruvul water s 

he Darling country should 

• pectations. The c mud springs are evidently 

cail r"' '■", l ," v '" ltr U!1 ''' v ould be strong 

fP. 1111 Y' 1 tl \:\ v . '*' ' f are of the over- 

the water to force a way 

, " '. ■■,'.,' ■::■■■ :0 

W ,ott °"h :i1 " 1 obtained i„ this way. The fact of the 

h the clay shows that 

verv'.h' T , " (;U1!1 ^ Strata Ut tl]at P articular point cannot be situated 

Thl ' P [ i"' s ™ )ul(l > T think, sink by their own weight, and if, as 

. the source of supply is a sand bed, 

wnen .ins was readied the ..,,], tn ,, r , ipeg 

aiH.\e -ae surface. Of course it would ] )0 necessary to clear the 

mud out of the pipe, or ; ati] the water . 

T es with water 

,'P V " ,<TC prcsscd down the hydraulic pressure of the water 

rlyif the pipes 

as to obtain a 

good head of pressure against the mud. For the purpose of water- 

l ''~ .: ' ' " ' • •' . ; :. : ■ ■ . rr,,;,ni 

;'''■ ' ' ' '■• ..-.:■, ..,:: h:,:.^ 

{■■'-■ ■■.-■■■■ ■■ - ■;..., ;,-v- 

" ,,i " i . . .'".' f New South Wales, I 

E^*™** 1 nntilour pop*. 

jj V"-: - n " ;»ltnation ot the soil is only carried on to a very 
inn eel extent m what in our new Land [Jill are called the Eastern 

and Central Divisions of the Colony, audit is certainly unreason- 
able to suppose that in the tar west auv sei ot men will be found 
foolish enough to engage in a kind of cultivation in which the 
expenses would be tenfold greater, and the cost of getting produce 
to market increased in the same ratio. Yv ells of some kind are 
almost a necessity on any large stationsituated on the western plains, 

I years, 

ng as three years, 
ights during which 

wells. I would certai: 
bore some wells if there be any reasonable pros])ect of success ; 
but I am quite rs or intending squatters 

were to attempt to water i wells only, they 

would in nine cases out of ten be ruined before they got any 
returns. In every part of the world the search for artesian w T ater 
has been a costly and uncertain process; and though I think the 
chances of obtaining it are as good in the interior of New South 
Wales as anywhere, still I am of opinion that the main supply 
for ordinary watering purposes must be by the conservation of 
surface water. As time goes on the experience gained in par- 
ticular localities will make w< 11-1 lorine; less a matter of uncertainty, 

artesian well bored giving adjoining holders a better chance to 
estimate the pi id OOBt in thai particular 

locality; but it must by no means be forgotten that nothing is 
more common than for bores to be put down within a W-w hundred 
feet of each otli i in the town of San Fran- 

cisco), and some will giv< i d aii water, while 

. though sunk far below the level of the source of general 
■ perfectly dry. 

lie perfectly d 

If. a- I - 

. Wales is cont Led in tie - id-bed of a 1 i or 

inland sea formation, out of which the soluble salts have been 
dissolved, the chances of obtaining artesian water, or water that 
will ri>e within i a- i . r t o th< surface, are unusually good ; 
but yet I would say to those who are engaged in the enterprise of 
stocking the dry country, in the words of the wise councillor of 
Queen Elizabeth, "above all things it is necessary that ye hasten 

Conservation op Surface "Water. 

There are two ways by which surface water in the interior of 

New South V. a] oral watercourses 

by means of dams and weirs, or, where there are no suitable water* 

courses, by leading the water which falls on a hard surface through 
drains into tanks excavated below the surface level. The first 
method has not been very generally applied, as small water- 
courses suitable for such a purpose are very scarce in the western 
plains. As I have before remarked, the tributaries of the Dar- 
ling resemble canals rather than rivers. We may follow their 
courses for hundreds of miles without finding any creeks flowing 
, if any, can be said to be permanently 
* odies of water pass down them in 
What are called temporary dams 
b of them when a fresh has nearly run 
past, and in this way considerable quantities of water are stored 
until the next fresh carries away the embankment. Overshot 
dams of timber have also been tried, but have, so far as I know, 
been always failures, and the reason is not far to seek. Such a 
thing as a solid rock foundation is unknown, and the fine clay 
through which all these rivers flow is so easily and rapidly exca- 
vated by running water that the existence of an overshot dam is 
short and precarious. It might be possible for a skilful engineer 
to construct an overshot dam of timber with a clay foundation in 
such a way that it would be permanent, but the expense and risk 
would be too great for any lessee to incur. Quite recently it lias 
been suggested that weirs and locks should be placed in the 
Darling at such distances apart as would render the river perma- 
nently navigable, as well as throwing the water back a consider- 
able distance in all the main tributaries. For such a national 
work as this both the necessary money and engineering skill 
might be found, but I cannot help thinking the dilHeulties have 
been very much underrated by the engineers who luivt- discussed 
the question. First, the foundations of the weirs in almost all 
cases would be in cl y. which is vm .» sily washed out by flowing 
water, and the ends at both sides of the river would have to 
abut against banks of similar clav. Next, for scores of miles 
along the banks of all these inland rivers there is no stone of any 
kind, and timber suitable for piles is very scarce But the greatest 
difficulty which I see would be to prevent the rivers from com- 
pletely changing their courses and leaving the weirs high and 
,1 4.^ oourge Q £ ^g £) ar ]j n ,, ;lt s ,„ m , distance back 

from the 

as much as 20 

shallow watercourses called warrambools, along which the flood- 
waters pass in wet seasons. One of these warrambools, north- 
west of the Darling above Brewarrina, runs parallel to the river 
for more than 100 miles before iv tun ling into the main channel. 
It seems probable to me that if any serious obstruction were 
placed in the Darling River, it would totally change its course, 
or change it in many places, returning to and leaving the main 
channel, as these warrambools offered a freer course. Three or 

four years ago, I saw an ea . 1 been placed in 

the course of the Narran, and raised above the level of the 
banks, in the expectation that the river would flow out on the 
plain and return to its course below the dam. Instead of doing 
this, the river took a new course ; and though when I saw it 
the dam had only been made about seven years, the new channel 
was quite as deep as the old one, and looked as if it bad been 
occupied by the river for ages. Knowing that in many places large 
areas of very valuable country are situated more than 100 miles 
from any watercourse, it will be seen that the western plains can- 
not generally be watered by dams or weirs in the natural water- 
courses. There can be no doubt, I think, that a material altera- 
tion in the average flow of the western rivers will be caused by 
stocking the whole country, more particularly with sheep. The 
difference between stocked country and that which has never been 
stocked is apparent even after a few years. The surface becomes 
firmer, and water runs where it never ran before. The habit 
which sheep have of travelling in single file soon cuts out a track 
a few inches deep, and wherever these tracks happen to have the 
same direction as the fall of the country, the water is concentrated 
when it rains, and a small channel cut out. The accumulated 
effects of this process over an immense area of country must in 
time cause an appreciable increase in the quantity of water carried 
off by the main I squatters have informed 

me that in the Bokhira and other channels, in the delta of the 
Ballonne, it does not now take half the amount of rain to puc 
water in the rivers that it did thirty years ago, just after it was 
first settled. 

Next, we come to the method of watering dry country which is 
most common, — I mean by means of excavated tanks and drains. 
This plan lias mine into very general use in the last ten or twelve 
years all through the western interior, an.l there is much to be 
said in its favour. These tanks are made of \ arious slopes, sizes, 
and depths, and there can be no doubt there is much yet to be 
learned as to the principles which are most conducive to success. 
Excavated tanks have many advantages over dams and wells, and 
squatters have been quick to see those advantages. No doubt 
wells would be far superior ; and artesian wells are above every- 
thing else if they could only be bored with a reasonable certainty 
of success, and at; ng successes with 

means been yet & the interior of New South 

Wales ; nor do I think it will be attained for many years, or until 
along series of experiments have been made. Dams must be 
made where the natural features of the country are suitahle, and 
the choice in this respect is so limited that they can never become 


a main source The idea of storing the 

water in the ranges and carrying it out for hundreds of miles 
across the plains^ is far too expensive, unless we had a vast, half- 
starved population like that of India, or China, with only the bare 
means of subsistence, living from day to day in the imminent fear 
of starvation if the rains failed,— and this state of things, I trust, 
is far from us. If it should ever come in Australia, with our very 
uncertain climate, and the absence of any snow-fed rivers, whole- 
sale death from famine in some part of the continent would be a 
thing of almost annual ocranviur, With excavated tanks the 
advantages are, first, — the choice of position is much more exten- 
sive than with any other method of obtaining water in the western 
country, and the position of a watering-place with reference to the 
surrounding country may make it of double or treble the value 
which it would otherwise have. Second, there is no danger from 
floods of the wat ,y. d at a time when plenty 

of water is available for co,. , ms . Third, and 

srhaps most important of all, it is possible to calculate before- 

and the cost of 

watering a given area of c 

stored for a given sum. Kno 
average rainfall of any district, and how the rain generally 
falls, the number of acres required per sheep, the position of 
available sites for tanks, and the tenure and rent of a given 
area of country, it is possible to say, with a reasonable amount 
of certainty, whether it will pay to water and stock it or not; 

and this is an im iho investment of capital 

it makes all the difference between legitimate speculation and 
gambling. In ! . ; v, it seems the 

greatest mistake that has been made by the average squatter is 
that of compelling sheep to travel over too great a distance for 
water. I have seen runs on the Darling where some parts of the 
paddocks were more than 10 miles from water, necessitatis* 
journey of 20 miles if sheep went to the back for food. Of 
course in such a case the outside country is only available in wet 
weather or during the winter when sheep do not require much 
water. It may, I think, be laid down as a principle that in ho 
case should sheep, if we expect to make the best of our country 
and our sheep, be asked to travel more than 6 miles in search of 
food — that is 3 miles out from water and 3 miles back. From my 
own experience, I feel confident that if the western plains were by 
any means watered so as to place sheep in this position of not 
having to travel more than 3 miles back with only the same 
amount of food available, 50 per cent, more sheep could be depas- 
tured in the interior of New South Wales. A little consideration 
will show with mathematical certainty that this must be so. 

There is only a certain fixed quantity of force or life-sustaining 
power in the food available, and if in addition to sustaining the 

vital functions the sheep has to find sufficient energy to carry him 
daily over 15 or 20 miles of country, he must either consume more 
food or die. If we avoid the necessity for travelling more than 
is sufficient to maintain health, all the available food may be 
devoted to sustaining the vital functions. I believe the mistake 
of making the paddocks too large and the watering-places too far 
apart arises from thoattempt to spmid a small capital over a lar^e 
extent of country, when it would really pay to concentrate it. The 

sheep on our inland pastures a fairHiance would no doubt be very 

nginto it carefully, it would pay 

xpenditure. The best 

Frank which lias yet been made is that in which all the 

storage of water above the surface. 

close to the main tank, and connected with it _, _ 

which can be closed when the main tank is full to surface le\ 

and the water must then be pumped from the tank over 1 

embankment, to be stored above the surface in the main tank, r 

out again from above the surface by means of a syphon and pumj 

from below for the useof stock. A puddle -utter, which is sini] 

a trench 6 or 8 feet wide and carried down to the firm imp 

meable subsoil, to be afterwards filled up with clay from i 

excavation, should always be made along the line where 1 

emkankmmt is to stand.' All the drains from the catchment ai 

the roofs of 1 : 

the extremely slight fall in the country, it is often almost impossible 
to say which way water will run ; and I have frequently seen tanks 
so placed that the water ran away from instead of into them. I 

would be found that available sites are much more numerous'on 
any given area of country than is generally supposed, and of course 
the mistake above mentioned would be avoided. The curvature 
of the earth being about 8 inches to the mile, and the slope of the 
country in many places out west about the same, it is of course 
necessary to take this into c _ for a sufficient 

slope to cause Avater to run. The cost of excavation is, on an 
average, about Is. per cubic yard; and such a tank as I have 
described, with an excavation in the main tank of 10,000 yards 
and m the sdt tank of 1,000 yards, would cost, when finished, 

more than 3 miles out from water. Evaporation at 5 feet per 
annum would remove something more than 2,800,000 gallons, 
leaving 3,900,000 gallons for the use of the sheep for one year. 
Eleven thousand sheep at on. <_ ".-:. i-a--h ] ■<■ day would use a 
little over 4,000,000 gallons. 

It will be seen from this that a tank such as I have described, 
though of at least four trams the capacity of most of the tanks in 

fc-class c 

:ountry tl 

trough one 

little or no 

iter in the 

of tlin 

,000 sheep 

: of 20,000 

■ sayii 

ig that i 

of .',• 

stock on 

the station 

than three years. For my own part, in spite of all we hear from 
old settlers, I do not believe there ever has been a period of three 
years during which over any considerable exient of country there 
was no rain or storms suhicient to till a tank with a good hard 
catchment area. In nearly i rn plains, when 

we get clear of the spurs of the dividing range, the soil is what 
tank-makers call good holding ground- that is, it is impermeable 
to water ; and . the extreme fineness of the 

particles and the homogeneous nature of the clay. There are no 
veins of gravel such as we find in the more broken country, and 
the whole appear licate a sameness con- 

tinuing over long periods in the conditions under which they were 
deposited. If a tank is not quite water-tight at first, the very fine 
sediment carried in with the water will generally make it so in 
time, more particularly if the slopi s are not too steep. In water- 
ing dry country, it must not be forgotten that a tank will water a 

rding to the capacity of the tank, 


the number of stock ca] 

depend < 

which I have described \ ._ 

they would !«,« 

have to travel more than 3 miles back from water • but if the 
country will only carry a sheep to 4 acres (i. -,.m ith ],] ,. -nnditions 
it will only water 5,500. Of course there will be more water 
availab] aft-r ded ting f,., ,,.,„ .n, but even allowing for 
this, the expense of watering sheep on dry countrv becomes abso- 
lutely g]-< mKi-tN'! , <■ - l -. . , ._ I lm c u^.-d -Mr. Husm-11's 

about 5 feet, but I cannot 1 , \ ZJ protected 

l) y thl " l,lt '- : '- ' irge body of water to pre- 

vent the temp-, : ..-,.., the d tfae 

evapor;.; - i, , x < n 1 ^ than this 1 h ^> i o ( \,ut m. i-uk'u , uK 
to suppoi A ] js opinion, but it is -ipport.-d bv the numerous in- 
stances which have come under my notice of comparatively shallow 
wnks folding '; of drought. Seeing that 

fc&ecnief mdusri ; continue to be 

the chief industry of the interior for many years to come, is so 

nvovcr. that the amount of silt carried in varies so 
with the nature of the watershed, the way in which 

ule would only be to mislead. To clean out ai! old 

tank which has been silted up is a work of very great difficulty, for 
long after the water has dried out the extremely fine mud remains 
in a semi-fluid state, incapable of being shovelled, and even after 
the surface has become dry the mud underneath is so soft that it 
is impossible to take horses or teams of bullocks with scoops into 
the tanks. For these reasons, it will be almost if not quite as 
cheap to excavate a new tank as to clean out an old one which has 
been silted up. Another source of difficulty would be the necessity 
for allowing the tank to dry out, which could not be done if the 
country were fall t providing some other way 

Thinking over this matter, and seeing its importance in the 
future as the country is becoming overspread with excavated 
tanks, which only in a few cases have yet had time to silt up, it 
has seemed to me that it might be possible to clear out the silt 
and even materially to deepen and enlarge the tanks while they 
were full of water ; and if experience gained in other places is 
borne out in this instance, it might even be done more cheaply 
than excavating in the first place. In the hope that some one will 
test it practically, I will make the suggestion. The method I 
would suggest is to excavate the silt while the tank is full of 
water in a wet season. Silt is removed from a depth of 20 feet 
of water in harbours and carried out to sea at a cost, I believe, of 
less than 4d. per yard ; and it was found in excavating the Suez 
Canal, that, after the water was let in, the bottom of the canal 
could 1)0 dredged out for nl>' of removing the 

dry earth. On the Panama Canal dredging machines are now 
being used, by w al way by means 

of buckets on an endless chain and then passed into pipes through 
which it is dumped at some distance from the bank. 

Know he_r these tilings, it seems that it should be possible to con- 
struct a small dredging machine, in parts, so as to be portable, put 
it together on the station or on the tank, and then dredge out the 
silt and as much of the clay as was soft enough, and convey H 
over the bank in a wet time when the tank was not immediately 
required. Of course only one machine would be necessary for 
hundreds of stations, as the work could be done by contract at so 
much per yard, and there would be no pressure to get the tanks all 
done within a limited time. No new invention is required, but 
only an adaptation of a known process, which is a much simpler 
matter. If we have to depend for many years to come, if not 
always, chiefly on excavated tanks — and I think this is pretty 
certain — these tanks must be made very much larger in the future 
than they have been in the past, and some means must be found to 
make them more permament. I offer this suggestion as a possible 
way of attaining these ends. 

The conclusions which I would deduce from the foregoing facts 
and arguments are :— That the interior of New South Wales is of 
salt or bitter-lake formation— in fact the deposits from an inland 
sea, resembling in many ways the formations now being deposited 
m the Caspian depression. That there is probably in the sand 
drifts or beds of loose sand thai are intermit iiied with the clays 
a large supply of ill rise above or near enough 

to the surface to be available. That in the interior of New South 
Wales fresh water is only found in any quantity in those strata 
through which for ages past there has been a sufficient flow of 
water to wash out and carry away the greater part of the soluble 
salts with which they were originally charged. That, owing to the 
natural conditions of the great western plains, and the scarcity or 
absence of water-courses of any kind in much of the country 
though the flow of water in these channels where any are found 
maybe materially increased bv the Making which is now "oing 
on, watering by dams or weirs can only be a method of minor 
importance as far as the greater part of the country is concerned. 
That though in the interior of New South Wales the probabilities 
of obtaining su] plies er are as great as anywhere 

else in the world, still, as the search for such water has been at all 
times and in all places a costly and uncertain process, colonists in 
the interior will have to depend mainly for their water supply on 
excavated tanks, and it is h a , se tanks should 

be made much larger than they have been, and kept clear of silt. 
In view of this, it seems a pity that our new land law directly 
discourages improvements of a permanent character in the Western 
Division of the Colony, for without such improvements these plains 
can never be fully utilized. The money which has been spent in 
water improvements is only a tithe of what must be spent before 
these plains can be fully stocked. 



Diagram I 

Datum High Water of Spring Tide at Sydney. 

A New Self-registering Anemometer and Pluviom 
for Sydney Observatory. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.8.W., 17 December, 1884-2 

The first Self-registering Anemometer and Pluviometer in Sydney 
Observatory was made and set to work in 1863, and, with 
slight repairs, this instrument has done its work ever since ; but 
the wear and tear of twenty-one years has told so severely on some 
of the wheels, more particularly the one into which the s 
of the cu; 

stopped the record, it -\ 
embodying some ideas which experience had suggested. As these 
may be useful to others, I have d t -i , ,h< d r . , xplain to you the 
more important parts of the new instrument. 

Owing to the fact that the Time-ball and shaft are on the only 
available tower, it was necessary from the first to elevate the vane 
and cups above them; otherwise the wind eddying round the shaft 
affected the cap ' : ]> u t as this required the 

cups to be 17 feet above the leads, there was some difficulty in 
bringing the motion dr. it. r.gist > i i _, p 1 i 1 or cylinder. In 

the old one this was effected by reducing the rate of motion of the 
cups, by screw and wheels, until the last wheel which worked the 
chain turned once for 560 revolutions of the cup, or 4 miles of 

In the new anemometer, a brass box 6x4x3 inches is placed 
on top of a tube 3 inches in diameter, and extending 1 7 feet above 
the leads of the tower. Into the top of this box a piece of inch 
brass tubing 12 inches long is fixed, and serves to support the 
upper bearing of the f-inch tube that carries the vane. The lower 
bearing of this i f the box, and a bevel wheel 

is attached to th - into one of equal size on a 

horizontal axis. On this is a wheel with a V-shaped groove. 

The cups are 4 inches in diameter, and set 4 feet from centre to 
centre; they work on a spindle inside the vane spindle, the top 
bearing being of bone and the lower one a hardened steel cup, 
larger than the end of the screw spindle that works in it, so that 
it serves as oil-cup and bearing. This screw spindle works a wheel 
of fifty teeth, the axis of which is a screw working into a wheel of 


fifty-six teeth. The axis of this wheel carries a wheel with a grooved 
rim and a light arm which is free to move round it ; a spring 
keeps this pressed up to the wheel; the end of this arm projects 
beyond the edge of the groove, and to it the wire working the 
velocity-pen is attached in such a way that it hangs in front of the 
groove* and when the wheel is turned round by the motion of the 
cups, and the pin in the side of it catches the arm and carries it 
round the wire falls into the groove and is wound up one turn on 
the wheel. As the wheel continues to revolve, it brings the arm 
against an unlocking part which throws it off the pin, and the 
weight of the wire at once pulls it round to the starting-point. 
For each 20 miles of wind, therefore, the wire is drawn up 4 inches 
and suddenly let go. 

In placing the cylinder, a convenient position for reference 
at all times was considered of paramount importance. The old 
one being 50 feet above the ground, in the top room of the 
tower, was very inconvenient, and it was determined to put the 
new one on the ground floor, but as this was 58 feet below the 
leads and 75 feet from the vane and cups, it became necessary to 
devise some means of carrying the motion down which should give 
the least friction, and at the same time be rigid enough to convey 
every oscillation of the vane. A suitable material for this was 
found in steel wire, and it was applied in the following way : — 

Holes having heen eut in the four Hoors, a wire was taken up 
to the grooved wheel on 1 ; ; I lie bevel-wheel; 

passed one and a half times round it and then down the tower 
again, where it was passed through the pulley on a weight of 5 lb., 
and then fastened to the other end, thus making a double length 
of wire from the vane to the floor, i.e., 75 feet, arranged for endless 
motion, so that it does not matter how often the vane turns round, 
it will not come to the limit of motion allowed by the wire. This 
motion was made to record itself on the vertical cylinder by 
attaching the wive to a very light frame made of J- inch brass 
tubing, and carrying four pencils. The means of attaching this to 
the wire is a screw clip, and if the pen frame is carried over a space 
of 8 inches, that is two complete revolutions of the vane, it is 
necessary to disconnect it and make it fast again, — an operation 
taking only a few seconds. This arrangement is even more satis- 
factory than I anticipated, for I feared the elasticity of such a 
length of wire might allow the vane to move without moving the 
pencil, but it does not, — the - ■ ifficient to keep 

the wire straight, and as it has no friction to overcome except 
that of the pencil and frame and the axis of the bevel-wheel, it 
moves with the greatest ease and responds to every motion of the 

at the rate of 1 inch per hour ; but the clock is provided with an 
additional wheel which can l.e thrown into gear in a moment, and 
which then causes the cylinder to revolve at the rate of 2 inches 
per hour. This is only used for heavy storms. 

The top and bottom bearing of the cylinder project beyond it 
1 J in. and form the guides for the pencil carriage just described, 
as well as for that which carries the pen showing the velocity. I 
have already described the motion of the parts of the velocity gear 
for 20 miles of wind, and the wire there referred to passes right 
down the tower by the side of the direction wires and is attached 
to a light frame similar to that used for the direction, and the 
record is made by a glass pen. This frame and pen serve to pull 
the wire down when the click is unlocked at the top. 

It will be seen from what has already been said that the motion 
of direction pencils and velocity pen are in straight lines; and it is 
only necessary to add that the points record in line so that both 
point to the same hour line at once. The direction pencil accords 
on the upper part of the paper using 4 inches and the velocity pen 
records on the lower 4 inches, and the spare pencils do not catch 
on the pen because, when pa [ding on the guide 

which lifts them off the paper except when over that part on 
which they have to record. 

The rain is collected on the tower 65 feet above the ground, and 
is carried by a pipe thence to the top of a vertical tube 2 inches 
in diameter and 45 feet long, and it drops from the pipe into the 
middle of the tube, and thence to the bottom without touching 
the sides, so that little or none is lost between the receiver and 
the recording parts. When the rain reaches the bottom of the tube 
it is caught in a small glass funnel fitting the tube, and thence led 
into the tip bucket which happens to be uppermost. These buckets 
each hold 0-20 in. of rain, and are fixed bottom to bottom on an 
axis in such a v. a\ thai when standing upright they are not 
balanced but tend to fall over. This tendency is prevented by a 
catch which holds them uprij rain has fallen in. 

As the rain accumulates, the bucket which is at the end of a lever 
and held up by a spiral spring, descends, pulling down with it the 
pen frame which records the rain, and is similar to the other two. 
By the time the bucket has received the 0-20 in. it has descended 
far enough to bring the catch on to a stud and unhook itself. Its 
want of balance instantly takes effect. It falls over and the 
momentum carries it 180°, or until the other bucket has taken its 
place to receive the rain and follow the same motions. When 
the water is thrown out, the spring lifts up the pen-frame 
ready to begin again ; so that the rain record appears as a series 
of lines more or less like the teeth of a saw according to the rate 
of rainfall. The pen moves 2 inches for 0-20 in. rain. The 
rain so thrown out by the machine is received in a bucket and 

116 A NEW SELF ->:. TOR, ETC. 

measured when the paper is changed, i.e. once a day. I have 
already spoken of the ease v. I ion-parts work, 

and may add that the cups which are, as just stated, 75 feet above 
the ground, will go on recording one or two miles per hour, when 
there is perfect calm on the ground and amongst the trees 20 or 
30 feet high. This favourable result has been attained by making 
the cups as thin as possible and the arms supporting them of brass 
tubing, — the gross weight of cups, arms, and screw-spindle, being 
only 30 ounces. The old and new anemometers have some time 
been working side by side, and in very light winds the new one some- 
times registers 10 per cent, more than the old one, but in a good 
breeze, 20 or 30 miles per hour, there is practically no difference in 
the number of miles recorded. 

The design for this instrument includes a record of the pressure 
of the wind, and also an electric pen which, under a signal from 
the standard clock, will record on the paper each hour as a check 
upon the time of its own clock, but these parts are not yet made. 
One valuable property of this arrangement was not seen in the 
design, viz., that the position of the join in the wire showing the 
direction keeps a record of the number of whole revolutions the 
wind has made in one direction, and in four months it has not 
made one complete turn backwards, but several times the vane 
has "hacked" 90°, and once or twice 180°, but in 120 days it has 
turned in the normal direction 12| times, or once in ten days. 

[The Royal Society of N.i 

Mr. Caldwell, in introducing his remarks, described the circum- 
stances under which, he had been led to the Colonies. It was three 
years since his master, the late Professor Balfour, F.R.S., suggested 
to him, when si :■ - i I ile for him to 

leave his university for a period of two or three years to obtain 
the necessary in natter. On Pro- 

fessor Balfour's death, the memorial which was subscribed for in 
ttxglaad and a ility much easier 

to him (Mr. CaM «t in Cambridge 

he was still attached by holding the Balfour Studentship. When 
he came out, two years ago, he found very great difficulty in 
getting specimens of the platypus or echidna. Whilst every one 
told him it was to be obtained in this river or in that, he generally 
found that the skin-hunter had been before him. The first few- 
months of the present year he spent in obtaining marsupials, such 
as kangaroos, opossums, and native bears. A knowledge of the 
early stages of the marsupials was considered in the Colonies to be 
universal ] iroperty, and every one considered himself qualified to tell 
him how the L young. As a matter of fact, 

the scientific world knew aln o produced its 

young in the same way as the rest of the milk-diving animals. 
That had been ; :y fifty years ago, 

whilst the early stages of the development which formed the basis 
of modern morphological work upon the subject had not been 
found. Although no naturalist expected to find the kangaroo 
growing on the teat, no one had found the stages from impreg- 
nation up to birth of the young. This material, however, he had 
obtained in the last months of 1883 and the first few of the 
present year. He had made a number of expeditions all < 

r South Wales in search of marsupials, and in April of this 


year he went to the Burnett River, 
ceratodus is found. He had remained there since that time 
whilst he obtained there the ceratodus, he also got in the 
district the early stages of the ornithorhynchus and the ec 
or porcupine. 

He then said a few words ..bout his camp. He found i 
useless to live on the si 

hoped to observe the ceratodi. It was four months before he 
any trace of their mode of depositing their eggs in the rivt 
he found it by a chain-. have occurred 

was obtained by an aboriginal camp, he having l.„ ~~. 

many as fifty aborigines at work for him. They got the porcupines 

for him, and some he empli for the ceratodus. 

He proposed to describe the outlines of the embryology of the 
three main groups of animals which formed his scheme of work 
in Australia, E which was, in the case 

of two, entirely unknown before, and in the case of marsupials 
unknown in the early stages. To make the matter clear to those 
present, he asked them to listen to a few elementary tenets 
he would state. Many present might think that only the hen 
and similar creatures laid eggs, but, as a matter of fact, all 
animals except the very sin illy by ova. He 

then entered upon an explanation of the structure of the egg, 
illustrating his r< marks b\ diagr; ins on a black-board. What he 
would state with i _.o 1 > his investigations w ere not theories 
but were facts, and were consequently not open to argument. 
Within the last few weeks he had received several letters from 
people denying that the plat they wanted him 

to argue about it. That was impossible. He stated a fact ; it 
was possible to disbelieve it; but, being a fact, it could not be 
argued. The interpretation of these facts he was not prepared to 
add, as he had come there with the simple intention of exhibiting 
a few specimens, ami m t with the intention of entering into any 
theoretical consideration derived from these facts. 

Starting with the marsupial animals, he would go on to describe 
the ceratodus and then the monotremes. Marsupials were found 
all over Australia, and were in a way characteristic of it, as it 
was the only place where they had their habitat except in South 
America, and reaching to North America, as far as Florida and 
San Francisco ; but they were essentially Australian. They were 
milk-giving animals, the same as the higher mammals such as 
dogs and cats; but the difference between the marsupials and 
the higher mammals of the old world was that the young were 


born at a very early stage, ai . ith it a series of 

differences in sta .• of marsupials. 

But on the whole the marsupials did not differ to any great extent 
from the ordinary mammals, such as the cat, dog, or sheep. The 
main difference between these latfer and the marsupials was that 
the embryo in the uterus before birth had no vascular attachment 
to the walls. There was no blood nourishment passing from the 
parent to the young animal. The egg of the marsupial had, in 
common with that of the higher mammals, a very small amount 
of food yolk (holoblastic). He then, by the aid of diagrams, 
described the structure of the egg of the marsupial. But the 
marsupials liad a pent liar arrangement of the membranes, though 
the development of theegg i; j different from 

the higher mammals. 

He then passed on to the development of the ceratodus. This 
animal was a representative of a series of animals which once 
were numerous in many parts of the world. At the present 
day there were th • livm« t , -■ i \ <. of this group of 
animals — the ceratodus, found in Ou i -! n 1 . nly, in the Mary 
and Burnett Rivers ; the other, the lepidosiren, found in the 
Amazon; and the third, the protopterus, found in certain of 
the rivers of Africa. These three formed a class different from 
all other animals, inasmuch as they possessed gills, and had the 
form of a fish in an adult state, and at the same time tbey 
possessed lungs. The structure known in other fish as the air- 
bladder became in this fish highly vascular, and the aerated blood 
freshened by oxygen did not pass from the air-bladder through the 
system, but passed direct to the heart, and there they had the 
first indication of two chambers in the heart, and they had for the 
first time arterial blood in the heart of a fish. Blood was found in 
an arterial state in animal-, v. it li lun^s, but only in a venous state 
in animals without lungs. One of the chief objects in coming to 
Australia had been to study the development of the ceratodus. 
He went up to the Burnett River in April, and found that at 
that time the fish were ripe, the ovaries and testes being nearly 
developed; but it was not t i I - ptember that he 

found the first eggs of the ceratodus. He spent many weeks hunt- 
ing, and, with the assistance of the blacks, turned up many hundred 
waterholes before he found the eggs. The eggs were laid upon 
the weeds. Tim mibling those of the com- 

mon newt. The of the ceratodus had a strong 

resemblance to that of the amphibians, and any one who had any 
acquaintance with the development of the newt would at once 
perceive the resemblance. These eggs were fertilized in the water 
in a similar way to some species of the newt. The eggs he found 
it very difficult to get. They were covered with an enormous 

quantity of gela require! some special means 

to remove. He was eight days before lie got a single egg out 
whole. When fa 

to rear them until they v,i' ■.} with the adult 

fish. This was a very difficult task, as the enemies of the ceratodus 
were very numerous. There were two kinds of fungi which 
attacked the eggs. He put in Crustacea to devour the fungus, but 
these in turn aft; when it emerged from the 

egg. He was three months, till near the end of November, 
developing the eggs. Thelivi ; been hatched 

some weeks ago. but th ■ hind I gs were not i >t developed. The 
development of the fins would probably yield important know- 
ledge on embryology. The egg of the ceratodus underwent a 
hat of the kangaroo. 

He then proceeded to describe the monotremata, namely — the 

ornithorhynchus and < -hidna. These, though differing from one 
another, were identical in structure, and were in every way similar 
animals. These two living anethiim" quite 

as uni-ue in its way as the ceratodus. They were both milk-diving, 
and both suckled their young. When he came out he had a strong 
belief that the < hidna produced their young 

in much the same v ay , , the m ir upi ds, and he thought last year 
he had confirmatory proof of this being so ; but he found he was 
in error. He & i u , i ichus a cellular 

membrane, hut it was probably only part of a ruptured egg. He 
then, with tin: aid of described the stages in the 
development in th. pi pus. pontine out th< 1 irge food yolk and 
mrrohhr,t i( - segmentation. lie had found that invariably the 
female platypus had two , ,,.„, :lf . ;i l,ont, 

disco ven d by a lucky chance. He happened to kill one which 
had laid one egg, and had the other on its way out through the 
passage, and tin e_ of this egj- enabled him to determine when 

would be made up in the early stages by the ornithorhynchus, 
and in the latter by the echidna. 

These were the fiicts determined by his researches. But 
the research was still in its early stages. Years would elapse 
before the details of the development could be discovered and 
interpreted. So far the material had been onlv rou-hlv examined. 

and it promised to produce, with the help of the instruments now 
at the command of the embryologist, great results. They might 
perhaps ask what, after all, these investigations were for. In 
the early days of Darwinism it was lioped to get a pedigree for 
every animal. : for which much excellent 

work is done. 1 !u is are Darwinists, pedigree- 

hunting has gone out of fad , that each living 

of the marsupial, and how it becomes attached to the mother's 
teat, said that the exact mode in which the kangaroo or other 
marsupial put the young to the teat was not of so much import- 
ance as the other facts. It had been observed by Professor 
Osborne, of America, who had seen the act, that the mother lifted 
it from the vulva to the teat. Marsupial embryos possess at 
birth a very large and seusit ive tongue, which probably assists 
them in attaching themselves to the teat. At first the newly-born 
young were not attached to the teat at all. For a week or so 
after birth the shock c 
from the mammary £ 

attachment that the lips grew over the extremity of the teat, but 
no connection actually took place between it and the mouth. By 
careful manipulation one could always extricate the lips of the 
young kangaroo from the teat. He had not personally observed 
how the embryo was actually moved into the pouch — he had not 
considered it of • to waste any time about. 

He could concei lips or tongue of the mother 

kangaroo placing the yoin;--. which was at least an inch long 
when born, upon the teat. The question did not appear to him 
to be a matter of any importance it did not form part of his 

conveyed the thanks of the Society to Mr. 
Caldwell for the interesting account of his researches and dis- 

Mr. Caldwi ' I si ites In is wr\ anxious to find a large number 
of kangaroos, and would be obliged if any one knowing of a kan- 
garoo dm r in what part of the Colonies, 



\v/:dx/:s/>ay, 7 may, 1SS4. 

The minutes of the meeting held 1 
read and confirmed. 

The Annual Report of the Council was then read, as follows :— 
" In presenting its Annual Report, the Council has the pleasure 
to state that the Society's affairs continue to steadily prosper. 
The number of new members elected during the year was thirty, 
the Society lost by death six members, by resignation two, ten had 
( to be struck off the roll for th : mil subscription, 

the election of three new members was cancelled on account of non- 
payment of the - sriptaon, and two names were 
restored to the roll, making the total number of members on the 30th 
April, 1884, 494. The vacancy in the list of Honorary Members 
caused by the death of Dr. Charles Darwin was filled by the e" ' 

Survey of India, v 

" Duri 

to various kindred Societies, as per accompanying list, to which the 
following names have been added during the year, viz : — The 
Royal Agricultural - ■ ; . ; , . t \'a._\ md, the Institute of Chemis- 
try, London ; th : .i the Editor of 
' Science,' Cambridge, Mass, U.S.A. 

'_' The Council has subscribed to fifty scientific journals and publi- 
cations, and has purchased 588 volumes, amongst the most impor- 
tant of which are the following complete series from the com- 
mencement : — The Philosophical Magazine of London; Proceedings, 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool ; Old and New 
Sydenham Society's publications j Monthly Microscopical Journal ; 
Royal Geographical Society, Journal ; Popular Science Review \ 
Quekett Microscopical Club, Journal ; Science Gossip ; Telegraphic 
Journal; Photographic Society, Journal; Geological Society of 

Dublin, Journal ; Journal of Telegraphic Engineers ; Anthropo- 
logical Society, Memoirs, Journal and Review; and the Ray 
Society's publications, at a cost of £342 3s. 3d. 

" The following Societies and Institutes have been written to, 
soliciting such volumes and pans of their publications as are 
required to complete the sets now in the Society's library ; and 
those names marked by an asterisk have either complied with the 
request of the Council or promised to do so as far as possible :— 
Baltimore, * Johns Hopkins University ; Brussels, *Societe Royale 
Malacologique de Belgique ; Caen, *Academie Rationale des 
Sciences, Arts. et utta, Geological Survey of 

India ; Cambridge, *Philo:s. I , Royal Dublin 

Society and Royal Irish Academy j Edinburgh, Botanical Society, 
♦Geological Society, and * Royal Physical Society; Glasgow, 
Geological Society; Leeds, Conchological Society; liege, *Soci6te* 
Geologique de Belgique ; Liverpool, *Literary and Philosophical 
Society ; London Physical Society, South Kensington Museum, 
and *Royal As* perinteadent of 

Public Property ; Manchester, *Geological Society ; Melbourne, 
♦Government Botanist; Paris, *Societe Zoologique de France; 
Penzance, Royal Geographical Society of Cornwall ; Philadelphia, 
Academy of Na r ' t ute ; Plymouth, 

♦Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural History, 
Society ; Rome, R. Accademia dei Lincei ; Salem, Mass., American 
Association for t Issex Institution ; 

"Washington, Ai i uiation, Chief of Engineers 

(War Department), -( hi. i Signal Officer (War Department), 
Director of the Mint, *Hon. Secretary (Department of the Interior), 
♦Smithsonian Institution, and *United States National Museum. 
" During the past year six new Societies have entered into 
an exchange of publications, viz :— Royal Agricultural Society 
of England, Bristol Natur - aence Company, 

Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. ; the Botanic and Zoological Gardens, 
Singapore ; Koniglich Offentliche Bibliothek, Dresden ; Verein 
fur Erdkunde zu Dresden. And the following Societies, already 
on the list, have commenced sending their publications, viz. : — 
Academic des Sciences, Inscriptions et Belles Lettres de Toulouse, 
Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris, Societe d'Encouragement pour 
l'lndustrie Nationale, Societe de Geographie, Societe Zoologique 
de France, Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein in Karlsruhe, Peabody 
Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

" The Council reports that during the past year the mortgage 
upon the building has been reduced from £1,500 to £1,100 ; the 
amount subscribed to the I to ' year was £100 

16s., and the b*J i the credit of the fund in the 

Bank is .£44 4s. lid. The sum of £267 8s. has also been promised, 
on condition that the full amount of £1,000 be obtained neces- 
sary to secure the Parliamentary grant of £500. 

" The Society's Journal, vol. xvi, for 1882, has been distributed 
to all members entitled' to it ; the issue was greatly delayed owing 
to the press of work in the Government Printing Office. Vol. 
xvii is already in type, and will be published very shortly. 

" During the year the Society held nine meetings, including one 
adjourned meeting, at which thirteen papers were read. The 
Medical and Microscopical Sections have held regular monthly 
meetings. The Chairman of the Medical Section, at the prelimi- 
nary meeting of the Section this year, announced ' that never 
during the history of the Section had its meetings been so numer- 
ously attended, and that the value of the papers read before it was 
attested by the fact that so many of them had been reprinted in 
the home journals.' At the Council meeting held on 13th 
December, 1883, it was unanimously resolved toavnvd the Clarke 
medal for 1884 to Alfred R. C. Selwyn, LL.D., F.R.S., Director 
of the Geological Survey of Canada, and formerly Director of the 
Geological Survey of Victoria from 1853 to 1866. 

" In response to the offer of prizes by the Society for communica- 
tions containing the results of original research or observation 
upon given subjects, the following were received :— On the Chemis- 
try of the Australian Gums and Resins, nil ; on the Water Supply 
in the interior of New South Wales, six papers ; on the embryo- 
logy and development of the Marsupials, two papers ; on the 
Infusoria peculiar to Australia, one paper. The Council, however, 
awarded no priz", :is it \\;:s <•< iisid, red that none of the papers 
complied sufficiently with the published regulations. The good 
done must not, however, be measured simply by the essays sent in 
for competition. Attention has, by the Society's action, been 
drawn to the various subjects, as shown by the subsequent con- 
tribution of non-competitive papers to the Society, and by the fact 
that in certain cases it has caused the subjects to be d 1 i 

the daily papers and elsewhere. 

" The Council has since issued the following list of subjects, with 
the offer of the Society's bronze medal and a price of £25 for each 
of the best researches, if of sufficient merit. Series III— To be 
sent in not later than September 30, 1884 : No. 9. Origin and 
mode of occurrence of Gold-bearing Veins and of the associated 
minerals. No. 10. Influence of the Australian Climate in pro- 
ducing modifications of diseases. No. 11. On the Infusoria 
peculiar to Australia. No. 12. On Water Supply in the interior 
of New South Wales. Series IV.— To be sent in not later than 
May 1, 1885 : No. 13. Anatomy and life history of the Echidna 
and Platypus. No. 14. Aj ory of Mollusca 

peculiar to Australia. No. 15, The chemical composition of the 
products from the so-called Kerosene Shale of New South Wales. 
Series V— To be sent in not later than May 1, 1886 : No. 16. 
On the chemistry of the Australian Gums and Resins." 


The following Financial Statement for the year ending 30 
April, 1884, was presented by the Honorary Treasurer : — 

To balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1883 7 7 2 

„ subscriptionfromlst May, 1883, to 30th April, 

1884 613 8 6 

Parliamentary Grant on 

-=iibs(.Tiptioiia and en 

ranee fees, 

31st December, 1883— £675 ! 

viz., half the amou 

sale of Society's Journal 

£ s. d. 

„ Assistant Secretary— 12 


342 3 3 

„ bookbinding 

12 14 6 

, corporate seal and press 

14 18 6 

sentations to Foreign Societies 


4 17 3 

„ engraving illustrations for Society's Journal 

and Clarke Medals 

16 5 6 

, freight, cartage, Custom 

10 10 

', housekeeper, to 30th Apr 

I, 1884 '.'.'. '." 


! ^surScro^buddfnglfo 

00 ... '..'. '.'.'. 

8 5 

, insurance on books and furniture (for 


2 10 

, Microscopical Section 

— Orthoscopic eye- 

pieces for Microscope ... 

» Postage 

33 18 

15 2 

,' rales-City, water, and' 

ewerage '. 

34 8 

(general meetings" 

in 19 2 

Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1 

Sydney, 2nd May, 1884. 

Honorary Treasurer. 
, H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 

January to 31st Decern 

t amount paid Savings Bank of New South 1 

duction of mortgage 

1 . ! m, , in Union Hank, 30th April, 1884 ... 

P. N. Tkebeck. 
Sydney, 2nd May, 1884. 

rent °oF Hall, Senate 
30th April, 1884 

, premises in Elizabeth t 
, balance in Union Ban 


W. G. Murray, 
P. N. Trebeck. 

Sydney, 2nd May, 1884. 

in Orie 

Messrs. E. L. Montefiore and P. N. Trebeck were elected 
Scrutineers for the election of officers and members of Council. 

A ballot was then taken, and the following gentlemen were duly 
elected officers and members of Council for the current year : — 

G.C.B., &c, &c., &c., 

H. C. RUSSELL, B.A., F.R.A.S. 


W. A. DIXON, F.C.S. 


Ho\. Prot. SMITH. C.M.(!., M.D., I CHR. ROLLESTON, C.M.G. 




The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society :— 

Baynes, Richard B., Sydney. 
Haswell, Wm. Aitcheson, M.A., B.Sc, Sydney. 
M'Cormick, Alex., M.B., Ch.M., M.R.C.S.E., Sydney. 
Mills, Walter Wallace, Sydney. 
The certificates of three new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of six for the first time. 


different Sections of 
the Society were announced, viz. : — 

Microscopical Section.— Chairman : G. D. Hirst. Secretary : 
F. B. Kyngdon. Committee : Dr. Morris, H. G. A. 
Wright, M.R.C.S.E, P. R. Pedley, and R. Fraser. 
Medical Section.— Chairman : Dr. H. K MacLaurin, M.A. 
Secretaries: Thomas Evans, M.R.C.S.E, Dr. Hurst. 
Committee : Dr. Fortescue, Dr. Brady, Dr. Shewen, Dr. 
F. K Manning, Dr. Oram, and Dr. Craig Dixson. 
Two hundred and ninety-five donations were laid upon the 

The Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., &c, President, then read his 

Mr. Russell (the newly elected President) briefly expressed his 
thanks for the great honour done him, which he said was for the 
third time. He trusted that the Society would progress faster 
than it had ever done before. The paper which they had in 
their hands showed that 494 names were on the roll, and it was 
probable that the limit cf 500 would very soon be reached He 
hoped that the doings of the Society in the future would be of 
such a character as to bring it into repute in all parts ot the 
world. The Council invited the members of the Society to a 
gathering on the third Tuesday in June, to be held in that room. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the retiring President and 

About fifty members were present. 

H. C. Russell, B.A., President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society: — 

Skirving, Robt. Scot, M.B., CM., Sydney. 
Syer, Frank Weston, Sydney. 
Townsend, G. W., C.E., Sydney. 
The certificates of six new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of four for the first time. < 

The President reminded the Meeting that the reception would 
be held on Tuesday the 17th instant, at 8 p.m., and requested 
members having < ; ' P rove mterest - 

ing to the Society to deliver the same at the Society's House the 
day previous. 

Forty-six donations were laid upon the table. 

A paper was read on "Rain and its Causes" by Mr. Edwin 

Mr. Walter Shellshear, A.M.I.C.E., read a paper on "The 
Removal of Bars from the Entrances to our Rivers." 

A discussion followed, in which the following gentlemen took 
part, viz. : — Messrs. J. Trevor Jones, W. G. Murray, and the 

Dr. Leibius, on behalf of ited a peculiar 

scum taken from a water-hole near Campbelltown, which possessed 
the property of changing its colour from red to green, and vice- 
versa, at different hours of the day. Upon examination under the 
microscope it was thought to belong to the Infusoria, of the family 
Astasia, viz., Astasia hcematodes,"Ehr. 

Mr. E. L. Montefiore presented to the Society a drawing of 
the skeleton of the Iyuanodon Bernissartensis, found in the coal 
measures of Bernissart, in Belgium. The skeleton, which is 
placed in the Royal Museum at Brussels, is about 1"> feet high, and 
24 feet in length from head to tail, and bears a striking resemblance 
to the common kangaroo, only of gigantic size. 

About forty members were present. 

H. C. Russell, B.A., President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society : — 

Binstead, W. H., Petersham. 
Lackey, John, M.L. A, Sydney. 
Sands, Robert, Sydney. 
Smith, F. Moore, M.D., Sydney. 
Verde, Felice, Spezia. 
Wiesener, T. F., Sydney. 
The certificates of four new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of nine for the first time. 

Fifty-four donations were laid upon the table. 
Dr. Leibius, M.A., F.C.S., read a paper « tfotes on Gold." 
A discussion followed, in which the following gentlemen took 
part, viz. :— Messrs. W. Neill, Dr. Rennie, J. Henry, Hon. Prof. 
Smith, Prof. Liversidge, Dr. Leibius, and the Chairman. 
_ Professor Liversidge, F.RS., made a few remarks in explana- 
tion and description of certain minerals which he had brought to 
the rooms for inspection. They consisted of a model of beautifully 
crystallized gold, in large crystals, joined end to end in branching 
arborescent forms, prepared from the original in the Museum of 

irgh, by Professor Archer, Director. 
Specimens of concretions of iron pyrites, containing septa of quartz, 
resembling the well-known septaria from the London clay, occur- 
ring at Sunnyside, Mitchell's Creek, Bathurst district ; collected 
by Mr. J. M. Smith. Axinite, in large crystals of a clove-brown 
colour, from the bundle district. Idocrase, with small well-devel- 
oped crystals of red and coloi u ttly of the variety 
known as grossularite. These, together with the axinite, were 
found by Mr. D. A. Porter, of Tamworth, a most diligent and 
painstaking collector of minerals, to whom the Society was indebted 
for the discovery of several minerals previously unknown in New 
South "Wales. Mr. Cleghorne, of XJralla, has also done good ser- 
vice in working out the mineralogy of this Colony, and the credit 
is due to him of having brought to light the very fine specimens 
of tourmaline from XJralla, placed on the table ; one very large 
specimen is crystallized in forms similar to those from the well 
known Bovey Tracy locality in Devonshire. With the scheelite, 
tungstate of lime, from Hillgrove, county Sandon, are some 
specimens of molybdenite and molybdenum ochre; in the same 
district antimonite, containing native gold, is met with— a very 
rare association. Lithomarge, a hydrated silicate of alumina, with 
native copper, from the great Blayney Copper mine. Hollow 
concretions of ironstone from the bed of the Macquarie Kiver, 
found by Mr. Murdoch, near Dubbo. Professor Liversidge also 
submitted specimens of nardoo, yowa, munyeroo, and kootoo 
seeds, and small bulbs used by the aborigines of Central Australia 
for the purposes of food. 

Mr. J. W. M'Cutcheon expressed his regret that the opportu- 
nities which had been given in this Colony for collecting crystal- 
lized gold had been completely thrown away, and he supposed that 
in a few years there would be no more crystallized gold, because 
the deeper they went the fewer crystallized specimens seemed to be 

Professor Smith said crystallized specimens were not infrequent 
in the early days, but they were not so frequent in the present day. 
Large sums had been offered for specimens of the kind for the 
Museums, but they could not now be obtained. 

The Be v. P. Macpherson, M.A., read a paper on " The Oven 
Mounds of Aborigines in Victoria." 

A discussion followed, in which the following gentlemen took 
part, viz. :— Dr. Creed, Messrs. J. W. M'Cutcheon, J. Henry, and 
W. Keill. 

Mr. W. Neill exhibited some very r 
quartz and mispickel from the new mine 

About twenty-five members were present. 

H. C. Russell, B.A., President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society : — 

Barry, The Most Rev. Dr., D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Bishop 

of Sydney. 
Chesterman, Alfred H., St. Peter's. 
Jones, L. C. Russell, Sydney. 
Sunderland, Rev. J. P., Sydney. 
The certificates of nine new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of five for the first time. 

The Chairman announced that the Conversazione would be held 
on the second Wednesday in October (Oct. 8), in the Great Hall of 
the University. 

The paper was explanatory of some models of animal progression 
exhibited before the Society (at a recent reception by the Council), 
and gave in detail the opinio] bad formed from 

his observations of the natural motions of animals. The author 
was of opinion that there wi i- il Nature almost 

universally used the trochoided plane for the transmission of force, 
and that its use by man opened up a wide field for engineers. Mr. 
Hargrave requ< • its opinion whether or not 

there were grounds for believing that the trochoided plane was a 
distinct mechanical power, it head did the 

members class it ? 

Some remarks were made by the Hon. Professor Smith and 
Mr. H. C. Russell. 

The Ciiairmax read a telegram which had been received by Mr. 
Ellery, from Kiel, respecting the position of Barnard's comet on 
the 1st August. 

Some remarks were made by Mr. G. D. Hirst. 

About thirty-five members were present. 

H. 0. Russell, B.A., President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Cox, Saml. Herbert, F.C.S., F.G.S., Sydney. 

Dowling, Edward, Sydney. 

Gardiner, John, Sydney. 

Gibbs, J. Burton, Sydney. 

Gill, Rev. Wm. Wyatt, B.A., Lond., Marrickville. 

Jenkins, Edw. Johnstone, M.A., M.B, Oxon, M.R.C.P., 

M.R.C.S., L.S.A, Lond., Sydney. 
Kendall, Theodore M, B.A, L.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Lond., 

Mackenzie, John Bower, M.I.C.E., Sydney. 
Wood, Arthur Pepys, C.E., Sydney. 

read for the second 

One hundred and five donations were laid upon the table. 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., read a paper on "A new 
form of Actinometer." The instrument, although not quite com- 
pleted, was exhibited and described by Mr. Russell. 

Some remarks were made by Messrs. G. D. Hirst, L Hargrave, 
and W. A. Dixon. 

Twenty-six members were present. 


A Conversazione was held in the Great Hall of the University, 
under the management of a Committee composed of the President, 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A, Dr. W. Morris, one of the Vice-Presidents, 
the Hon. Secretaries, Prof ss..r Liversidge, F.R.S. Dr. Leibius, 
M.A, and Messrs. Charles Moore, F.L.S, Robert Hunt, F.G.S., 
and F. B. Kyngdon. 

The Hall and the approaches were tastefully decorated with 
palms, ferns, and rare pot plants, by Mr. C. Moore, F.L.S., Director 
of the Botanic Gardens. 

Messrs. J. Massey and F. Morley presided at the organ, and 
select pieces were played at intervals. 

The number of guests present was between 800 and 900. 

List of Exhibitors. 

Balfour, James. — Views of Indian scenery. 

Bolding, H. J. — 1. Microscope. 2. Curious specimen of pine 
eaten away by white ants. 

Cox, Hon. Geo. H., M.L.C. — Views of Indian scenery. 

Crummer, H. S. W. — "New Zealand Illustrated," by George 
French Angas. 

Delarue, L. H. — Microscope and objects. 

Department of Mines (from Geological Survey Branch). — 1. Collec- 
tion of silver ores from the mines near Silverton, Barrier 
Ranges. 2. Collection of various minerals from New South 
Wales. 3. Collection of fossils from New South Wales. 
4. Geological maps of New South Wales. 5. Coloured 
photographs of gold-workings at Temora and Adelong. 
(From Diamond-Drill Branch). — 1. Sections of borings for 
water and coal. 2. Plans of diamond-drill connections, arte- 
sian tubing, etc. 3. Samples of cores. 

Flavelle Bros, and Roberts. — 1. Insulite galvanic battery. 2. 
Microscope by Ross, and objects. 

Fraser, Robert. — Microscope showing Ghrisophrina Australia. 

Gipps, Fredk. B., C.E— 1. Omnimeter. 2. Model of an improved 
Poirie movable needle weir. 3. Rare book; History and 
Geography of Cashmere, written in Persian. 

Hargrave, Lawrence.— The Trochoided Plane, and its relation to 
animal progression. 

Haswell, W. A., M.A. — The Barnes automatic microtome. 

Jenkins, Dr. Edward J., M.A.—" Australian Views" by Captain 

Knox, E. W. — 1. Three polariscopes for sugar analysis. 2. 
Colorimeter, for comparing the relative amount of colour in 
two liquids. 3. Microscope showing a living Acarus sacchari. 

Kyngdon, F. B.— Microscope and objects. 

Liversidge.Prof., F.B.S.—l. Model of crystallized gold, Australian. 

2. Specimi >ns er gold, Ne w South Wales. 

3. New models of crystallographic axes. 4. Microscopes 
Little, Dr. William.— Microscope and objects. 

I >r. C. K— Microscope by Swift. 
Makin, G. E.— 1. Silurian and Devonian fossils from Yass and 

Murrumbidgee. 2. Fossils from Capertee Creek, Mudgee. 3. 

Fossils— Glossopteris, Phyllotheca, &c., from Joadja & Berrima 

Colliery. I,' town of Berrima. 

Manning, His Honor Sir William, LL.D— 1. Microscope. 2. 

Medallion of Oliver Cromwell. 3. Malachite from Peak 

Downs, Queensland. 
Martin, Rev. George. — Two microscopes and objects. 
Morris, Dr. W.— Microscope and objects. 


Robertson, Thomas.— 1. Large photograph of the Moon. 2. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. — 1. Microscope by Swift. 

2. Photographs, anthropological, &c. 3. Autograph letters 

Russell, H. C. — 1. Automatic circle-divider. 2. Harmonograph. 
Sinclair, S.— 1. Specimens of Greenland Flora. 2 Models of 
Greenland canoes, deer, dogs, &c, cut in bone by the natives, 

Smedley, John.— 1. Two volumes of Japanese hand-painted works 
of illustrations of their \> events. 2. Three 

books of original sketches in China and Japan. 3. Japanese 
enamel vases, &c, 

Smith, Hon. Prof., C.M.G.— 1. Electric reading-lamp. 2. Portable 
battery and bell. 3. Static induction machine driven by a 
Griscom motor. 4. Magneto-electric machine by Breguet. 
5. Electro motor by Apps. 6. Electro motor by Ayrton & 
Perry. 7. Ammeter by Ayrton & Perry. 8. Spectroscopes. 

Surveyor-General's Department (Trigonometrical Branch). — 

1. Large telescope of colonial manufacture. 2. Three electrical 
contact chronometers. ' 

Technological Museum.— 1. Enlarged models in papier mache, 
plaster casts and fictile ivories, photogravures. 2. Official 

University (Chemical Laboratory).— 1. Petrological microscope. 

2. Cut and polished ornamental stones. (3) Apparato* to 
show the manufacture of sulphuric acid, (4) coal gas, (5) 
white arsenic, (G) water from hydrogen and oxygen by weight, 
(7) for drying gases, (8) the diffusion of gases, (9) for 
electrolysis. 10. Agate mortars. 11. Goniometers, 12. 
Furnace for heating sealed tubes, itc, kc, kc. 

University (Medical School).— 1. Microscopical preparations. 2. 

Phvsiological apparatus. 
Walker, H. O.— Microscope by R. & J. Beck, and objects. 
Watson, P. Fletcher. — Water-colour drawings, fas. 
Wiesener, T. F.— 1. Microscope and accessories, made entirely by 

apprentice. 2. Seven large photographs— Italian scenery. 

3. Compound microscope. 4. Dissecting microscope. 5. 
Student's microscope, kc. . 

Wilkinson, C. S., F.G.S., F.L.S.— 1. Photographs of interior of 
the Jenolan (Fish River) Caves. 2. View of cliffs at Bondi 
showing sti ■ Rocks. 3. Shoe made of 

feathers and human hair, used by the natives of Central 
Australia). ten marauding. 4. Paint- 

ings, kc. 5. Dutton's illustrations of the Grand Canon 
District, United States, America. 

Wright, H. G. A., M.R.C.S.E.— Microscope by Ross, and objects. 

H. C. Russell, B.A, President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members of 
the Society :— 

Lucas, John Hector, Five Dock. 
Perdriau, Stephen R, St. Leonards. 
Ross, Chisholm, M.B., CM., Gladesville. 
Williamson. Wm. Collir, M.D., Parramatta. 
Yeomans, Allan, Gilgoin. 
The certificates of three new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of four for the first time. 

The following donations were laid upon the table : — 115 books 
and pamphlets, thirteen charts, and oni \ he to^iaph 

The additional rules which had been agreed to at the last meet- 
ing (3 September) were unanimously adopted. 

A paper was read by Mr. D. A. Porter, " Notes on some 
mineral localities in the Northern Districts of KS. Wales. 

Remarks upon the same were made by Prof. Liversidge, F.R.S., 
and Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S. 

The following extracts from a letter by Mr. Caldwell to Prof. 
Liversidge, dated Burnet River, Oct. 8th, 1884, were read :— 

"Ceratodus has interfered v latypua eggs were 

hatched three week England by now, 

1 how they have not been got before. The fact 

viparous is the end of the research for many. 

i it is the fact of the egg having a lot of yelk 

. Here are some of the principal 

observed on the whole embryos. 

i have not attempted to make sections vet ; 

is now-a-days. The egg measui I r, and has the 

1 surrounded by a 
'• . mm. thick. The 

segmentation h compl. te (holobla^tie. ) Part of the blastopore remains 
open, and persists as anus. The stages up to hatching closely resemble 
those of the newt Amblystoma. After hatching, the larva goes into the 
mud. It lies on its sides like Pleuronectidae among Teleosteans, and the 
changes I expect v, have two plan? to 

save my waiting here, both of v. I xecution at once, 

station, where a n v, of the fish in a 

bottle every day. . a to Sydney, and 

attempt to rear !:; .1 hope to get to Sydney in 

about a fortnight or three weeks' time. I have more than 1 1 1 
me now ; they have found over six weeks." 


The following exhibits were shown : — 

Prof essor Liversidge, F.R.S., exhibited specimens of gems from 
river gravel at Berrima, together with other mineral specimens 
from the old gold workings near Mittagong, where gems had 
lately been found. Sapphires, zircons, the topaz, and diamonds 
were mentioned by the Professor as being met with in relation 
with other gems in the districts mentioned ; and, in answer to a 
member's question, he stated that some of the diamonds, though 
nail, were worth cutting, and remarked 

ones in N.S.W. should not discourage miners. The Professor 
further mentioned the interesting fact that flints occurred at the 
mines near Mitt ling those of the cretaceous 

formations at home, and he intended to make sections of them, to 
see if they contained those signs of sponges which appeared in the 
chalk flints. 

Remarks were made by Messrs. H. E. Kater and C. S. 

2. Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., exhibited a large specimen of 
carbonate of lead, containing chloride of silver, from the Christ- 
mas mine, near Silverton j a specimen of tin ore in micaceous 
granite from Hodgson and V. iamacca, Barrier 
Ranges ; a sample of gold-bearing quartz from the Red Jacket 
reefs, near Silverton ; a specimen of lode-stuff containing argenti- 
ferous galena from Thackeringa ; a fine specimen of native anti- 
mony iii calcitr, found by Mr. Newman in the New Reform mine, 
Lucknow ; also, from the same mine, a specimen of dendritic gold 
and arsenical pyrites in massive serpentine. 

3. The Hon. Prof. Smith, C.M.G., exhibited a Hughes' Induc- 
tion Balance and Sonometer. 

Mr. Charles Moore announced the discovery of a new species 
of the giant Australian lily on the high grounds between the 
Clarence and Richmond Rivers. Up to fourteen years ago, he 
said, only one species was known ; but about that time another 
was discovered in Queensland, and now, strange to say, a third had 
been found — strange because so large a flower had escaped notice 
before in a populated district. The flower-stem was 9 or 10 feet 
high, and the species was .mite distinct from the other two. He 
had stems of the three species to submit to the Society at its next 
meeting, when he hoped to be able to read some notes upon them, 
which he had been prevented from doing that night by official 

About thirty-i 


H. C. Russell, B.A., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — ■ 

Henson, Joshua B., C.E., Sydney. 

Kyngdon, Boughton, Sydney. 

3 read for the second 
time, and of three for the first time. 

The President stated that the Council recommended that the 
following gentlemen be elected honorary members of the Society :— 
Sir George Beddell Airy, K.C.B., M. A., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c 
Professor John Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., F.B.S., &C 
The election was carried unanimously. 

It was resolved that Messrs. P. X. Trebeck and W. G. Murray 
1m- appointed Auditors for the current year. 

i -a the table. 

The President announced that the Council had considered the 

papers received m response t 

nmunication (provided it were of sufficient 
merit) containing the results of original research or observation 
upon each of the following subjects, viz. : — 

Series III.— To be sent in not later than September, 30th, 1884. 
No. 9. — Origin and mode of occurrence of gold-bearing veins 

11. — On the Infusoria peculiar to Australia. 
12.— On Water Supply in the interior of New South 
Xo essay was received on subject No. 10 ; eight papers had been 
received on No. 9, and one paper on No. 11, but none of the 
essays were consii ant merit to be awarded the 


In the case of No. 12, "On the Water Supply in the interior of 
New South Wales" four papers had l.e.-u sent in, and the Society's 
modal and prize of £25 had been awarded to Mr. W. E. Abbott, 
Ahbotsford, Wingen. 

Mr. Charles Moore read a paper, "Notes on Doryanthus." 

In the absence of the author, Mr. T. K. Abbott read Mr. W. E. 

Abbott's paper on "Water Supply in the interior of New South 


A discussion followed, in which the following gentlemen took 
part :— Messrs. C. S. Wilkinson, C. Moore, the Hon. J. P. Abbott, 
J. Trevor Jones, H. T. Wilkinson, and the Chairman. 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., conducted an experiment illus- 
trating the formation of comets. Assuming the existence of a 
large gaseous spheroid (probably of C0 2 , CO, and H), with a 
central solid meteoric mass, or aggregation of meteorites, he 
suggested that the nucleus of a comet may be the point where the 
sun's light, on passing through the spheroid, is focussed or concen- 
trated by refraction near tin pheroid, and that 
the rays of light proceeding from this point illuminate the meteoric 
dust in space, and give rise to the appearance of a " tail " of a 

The President regarded the experiment as interesting. There 
were, however, many difficulties in connection with the tails of 
comets, and he feared Mr. Wilkinson had not solved them all. It 
would be well for astronomers, lie thought, if comets had no tails. 
One great difficulty in connection with Mr. Wilkinson's theory was, 
that it supported the hypothesis that the tails consisted of reflected 
solar light on meteoric matter, whereas the spectroscope proved 
them to consist principally of incandescent gases. Another fact 
was that the tails of some comets extended themselves towards the 
sun, and in sue h Wilkinson's explanation 

would not be feasible. 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., exhibited and read some 
notes upon a new self-registering Anemometer. 

Between thirty and thirty live members were present. 


H. C. Russell, B.A., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Caldwell, of CaiusColl.-f, C.-unhrid-v. exhibited specimens 
illustrating his researches into the embryology of the Marsupial*, 
Monotremata, and Ceratodus. 

About eighty members were present. 




(The names of the Donors are in Italics.) 

Transactions, Journals, Reports, fee 

I :— The Aberdeen University Calendar for the : 

Adelaide :— Report of 

it riantat 

1 Observations made at the Adelaide Observi 

dings and Report of 
[, 188f " 

_ Observatory. 

Royal Society of South 

The S -'-- 

lal Report of t 

: South Australian Instit 

York State 

, and 64th Reports < 
1880/1881, and 1882. ,*_**. 

93rd and 94th Annual Reports of the Regents of the University oi the 

State of New York, 1880-1881. 
The Correct Arms of the State of New York. The Trustees. 

..." k/,i 

j Reeks. Deel. XVIII, 

LTiMonn (Maryland):— 
American Chemical Journal. Vols. II, III, IV 

* P S 


: ■ 

American Journal of Philology. Vol. Ill, Nos. 10, 11. 

", V,' ',', \,2. 
Annual Report of the Johns I 

)m the Biological Laboratory. Vol. II, No. 1. 

„ III, Nos. 1, 2. 

13, U. 16, 1 
>, 21, 22, 23 Supplement, 21. ■>. -J!'. ::n. :M. 32. 

The Governor am! ('hhf G<oh„fi*f, Wisconsin. 

Bet.gkx :— Nye A] iihhorende Norges 

Fauna ved Drs. J. Koren og D. C. Danielssen. The Mv* inn. 

Berlin : — Sitzua y Akademie der Wis- 

senschaften zu Berlin. Nos. 38 to 53. 18 Oct. to 13 Dec. , 1883. 

„ 1 to 39. 10 .Ian. to 31 July. 1SS4. 

Index. ErsterHalbband Jan. bis Mai, Stuck I— XXVI. The Academy. 

Berne :— Jahresbericht der Geographischen Gesellschaft von Bern. Vol. 

VI, 1883-84. The Society. 

Birmingham :— Addresses delivered to the Birmingham and Midland 

F. Max Miiller. 

by The Right Hon. the Earl of Northbrook. 
and Industry," by Dr. Chas. Wm. Siemens, F.R.S. 

A Lesson on Democracy, 

Report of the Council of the Birmingham 

the years 1881, 18?" ,0 ~ 
Programme for Session 

dings of the Birmingham Philosophical Society- 
)1. I. Nos. 1 and 2. 

„ IV. Parti. The Society. 

5TRITZ (in Siebenburgen) :— Jahresbericht der Gewerbeschulc zu Bistntz. 
Part IX. 1882-83. 
„ X. 1883-84. The Director. 

D Vereines der Preussischen 
j;. . 
Jahrgrang XXXIX. Folge 4, Band 9, Halfte 2. 1882. 


s-Lettres et Arts c 

. Belles-Lettres et Arts 

Ann<5e 10, Trimestre 4 

Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de 
1871-72 (3rd Ser.) 

■;■.;.:.. ; -; -. .■■ - • <■ • ■ 

-tonques (1711-171 
Catalogue des Manusmts ile 1 an. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History — 
Vol. XXI. Part 4. Jan. to April, 1882. 
„ XXII. „ 1. May to November, 1882. 
_ The Society. 

Hand-book for Readers in the Boston Public Library [New edition, 1883.] 
The Trustees. 
isgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen 
Verein zu Bremen. Band VIII. Heft 2 
„ IX. „ 1. 

The Society. 
:sbane :— Acclii,, usland— 

Report of the Council for the year 1883. The Society. 

Last ot Members and Annual Report, year ending 30 April, 1884. 

The Society. 
Brussels :— Mnaee | . ( i c Belginue. 

Bulletin, Tome I. 1S.S2. 

„ II. 1883. The Museum. 

Observatoire Royal de Bruxelles— 

A. Lancaster. Tome II. Memoires et Notices, 
Diagrammes du M^teorographe van Rysselberehe 

ISS1, 1SS2. 
Observations Meteorologiques Inte 

L Series, Tonic II. 1SS2. 

Proces Verbaux des Seances. Tome XII. Jan. 7 to Ji 
r J 
Calcutta :— Asiatic Society of Bengal- 
Journal, Vol. LI!. Part 1. W l, 2, 3, 4, 1883 
» ,, „ II. „ 2,3,4, „ 

Proceedings, Nos. 9 and 10, 1883. 

„ lto9, inch, 1SS4. 
Geological Survey of India. 

Memoirs, Vol. III. ! 'art 2. 

„ IV to IX, complete. 
Records, Vol. 

XX. I -a 

„ XVI. p ar t4. 

„ XVII. ,, land 4. 


L6 Geological Survey of India. (Paloeontologia Indica) :— 

I— IV inclusive. 

ident of the Geological Survey of India. 

" " x, „ 1. September, 1883. The Museum. 

"Science." Vols. 1, 2, 3, complete. 

„ 4, Nos. 74-91, 93-99. 

5, „ 100-101. The Editor. 

Cassel :— Berieht d vafa zu Cassel. 

Vols. XXIX ami XXX. 1881-83. 

XXXI. 1883-84. The Society. 

m North Atlantic Expedition, 
>idea by D. C. Danielsaen and 
The Editorial Committee. 

A :-Boletin de la Academia Naeional de Ciencias T ? m ^I3' 

Entrega 1-, 2«, y 3». 1884. The Academy. 

>OKT (Iowa) :-Proceedin g s of the Davenport Academy of Natural 

L, J. ;:. complete. January, 1879, to 

The Academy. 

W •— Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Erdkunde zu Dresden. Band 

IV.' Ik/t Will, MX ..,1XX. The Society. 

General Direction der Koniglichen Sammlungen fill 

Wissnischaft, Mittheilungenausd. : 

ratui'-^ehn.-lito. W. XL Heft 1^. 1882. 

jJie decorative Jvunst fie. ueierung y a: 

Wissenschaf t zu Dresden. 1 880-81 . ' 
Publication: len Museums zu Dresden. 

A. Purgold. 
V. Ueber N eu< t i ugern von Helmstedt, Budden- 

stedt und Schleweke. Mil Mineralogischen 

Museum, von Dr. H. B. Geinitz. The Director-General. 

Dublin :— The Seientifi 

(NewSer.) Vol.111. 

The Scientific Tra 

(Ser. II.) Vol. I. No 

„ III. Nos. 1, : 

Vol. VII. Part 2 

Transactions. Vol. XXX. Part 2. Session 1881-82. 

List of Members, W ^November, 18S3. " " The Society 

Vol. XIII. 

„ XIV. „ land 2. 1884. The Society. 

: :tomologica Italiana — 
Trimestre 1 and 4. 1883. 

„ 1 and 2. 1884. The Society. 

iNKFijRT, a/m. :— Abhandlungen uber die Senckenbergischen Natur- 

forschenden G .■.-. 5 4. 1884. 

Bericht „ „ „ 1882^83. 

The Society. 

3 de l'lnstitnt National Genevois. Tome XV. 

The It 
Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova— 

Glasgow :— Transa< 

Part 1. 1880-81, 1881-82. 
The Glasgow University Calendar for the year 1 

iv,? .In ATusi'-e Teyler— 
New Series II). Vol. I. Part 2. 1881. 
„ 1. „ 3. 1882. 

1. „ 4. 18S3. The Museum. 

ives Neerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles — 

lurkundige V erhanaelingen — 
Tome IV Serie 3. 1883. 
Programme pour l'annee 1882. 

Origine et but de la Fondation Teyler et de son Cabin 

Halifax (Nova Scotia) :— Proceedings and Transactions ot tUe JNOva 

Vol. VI. Parti. 1882-83. The Institute. 

HAMBURG :-Mittheilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg. 

Heft 1. 1882-83. The s " r """ 

Bericht des Direktor Professor Dr. Pagenstecher. 1883. 

Tiber einiee Afrikan inch 

Museums, von Dr. J. G. Fischer. The At 

Heidelberg: V licinischen Vereins 

zu Heidelberg N.F. Band 3. Heft 3. 1884. The Soctety. 

Hobaet :— Monthly Notices of Papers and Proceedings and Report of the 

Roval Society of Tasmania for 18S3. 

Abstract of Proceedings, 11 Aug., 8 Sept., 13 Oct., 17 N <%JSg4^ 

Jexa : — Tfiiaische Zeitschrift _.. 

"T £& N - F -, E,nd h. H f !: 2 ' 3> *• St ». mm 

KbxiGSBERG :— Scriften der Physikalisch-bkonomischen Gesellschaft zu 
JahrgangXXIV. Abtheilung 1 and 2. 1883. The Society. 

ces Naturelles- 

The Society. 

\'ol. X 1 X. No. 89. 1883. 

EDS :— Tenth Annual Report of the Yorkshire College. 1883-84. 

The College. 

Leeds Philoao] 82,1883-84 

The Society. 
Journal of Conchology— 

Vol. IV. No. 5. January, 1884. The Conchological Society. 

i la Society Geologique de Belgiqui 
Lille :— Annales de la Societe" Geologique du J 

The Society. 
Liverpool :— Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Vol. XXXV. ' 1880-81. 
" XXXVII. 1882-83. The Society. 

^ Nos. 2, 3, 4 

„ XIV. ,, 1, 2. The Institute. 

li Sponges in the Geological 

Department .,. By Geo. Jennings Hinde, 

Ph.D., F.G.S. The Trustees. 

CV. 1884. The Institution. 

Journal. Botany— Vol. XX. Nos. 130 and 131. 

„ XXI. „ 132, 133, 134, 135. 
Zoology— Vol. XVII. Vols. 1U2, Iu3. 
„ XVIII. „ 104, 105. 
Proceedings. ;,, June, 1883. 

List of Members. October, 1883. The Society. 

I Office— 
Meteorological Atlas of 1 I X T o. 53. 

Sunshine Records of the United Kingdom for 1881. Official 

. at Copenhagen, August, 1882. Non-official 

port of the Meteorological Council to the Roval Society for the 

} aven.ling31 March, 1883. 
e Quarterly Weather Report (New Series). Parts 2, 3, 4. 1876. 

1 1 1 er Report. 1 878. (Appendices and Plates. ) 
Official No. 55. 

Pharmaceutical Societj 

„ VI. „ l'and2. The Society. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal (Series II)— 

V ?!' ii. ** 9, 10. TU Club. 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal (Second Series)— 
Vol. XIX. Part 2. No. 38. . a . , 

„ XX. „ land 2. No. 39 and 40. The Society. 

Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal— 

y Vol. XVI. Parts 1-4. 1884. The Society. 

Royal Astronomical Society- 
Monthly Notu I to 9 inclusive. 

„ „ „ XLV. „ 1. 

Memoirs— Vol. XLII. 1873-75. 

» XLVII. 1S82-S3. , „ . 

" „ XLVIII. Parti. 1884. The Society. 

Royal Colonial Institute— 

Rep C o e rt d of the Council. ' 30 June, 1884. The Institute. 

Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings— 

**£%£•.» im ***** 

Royal Historical Society. Transactions (New Series)— 

Vol.1. Part 4. _ c .. 

„ II. Parts 1,2,3. Ine society. 

Royal Institution of Great Britain. Proceedings— 
Vol. X. Part 2. No. 76. 1883. 

x 3 >f 77 . 1884 . The Institution. 

Royal Meteorological Society— 

^ Quarterly Journal. Vol. IX. Nos. 46, 47, 48. 1883. 

Meteorological Record." No's. 9, 10, 11,' 12.' 18S3. ' The Society. 
Royal Microscopical Society. Journal (bei" 

III. Part 6 

'p^eedings. Vol. XXXV. Nos. :i^ 

" ilS - V0L olI 4 * ^ 

List of Fellows. 30 November, 1883. 
Royal United Service Institution. Journal— 
" Vol. W VII X - 121, 122. 1883, and In 
„ XXVIII. ,„ 123-126. 1884. 
Zoological Society of London. Proceedings- 
Farts 1, 2, 3, 4. 1881. 

Luxembourg -.—Publications de l'lnstitut Royal < 

-Manchester Geological Society. 
Vol. XVII. Parts 1-18. 

axy and Philosophical Society- 
Memoirs. Vol. VII. 1882. 
„ IX. 1883. 
ol. XX. 1881. 
„ XXI. 1882. 
„ XXII. 1883. 


Sitzungsberichte, 1882. 

rm TT . » !883. The Society. 

The Umvers.ty-Forty-four Medical Theses. The University. 

Melbourne :— The Victorian Naturalist— 

Vol. I. Nos. 1-12. 1884. 

„ ». ,, 13. 18S5. The Field Xaturnlittx' Cluh of Vh-tnrin. 

Eucalyptographia. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.t;., K.R.S., 

Fragment Phytoir^hia^Au^ralia?. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, 

Einige Bemerl r ier Pflanzen-Benennuneen von 

Huron von Mueller. 1884. 
Agricultural Statistics, 1883-84. Table I. 

is 7 and 8, and General Report. 
ith Wale*. * 

Handbook of the Colony of Victoria. 
Statistical Register of the Colony of Victoria- 
Parts 7, 8, 9, and Index. 1882. 
Victorian Year-book 

Mining Registrars. Quarters 

„ 1883-4. 
JrSTi"' i: port of Progress. No. VII. 

< ' ol,l - ,i ■' ag Registrars ( 

ended ' ,. |-88A. 

Mineral Statistics of Victoria for ISS3 
Report of 1 1: «« for 188a 

Report of th | Rt;gistrars . Q uarters ended 

31 December, 1883, and 31 March, 1884. 

Report of the Trustees of the Public utJ^Lmn ", i'nV&Snai 

Gallery of \ ictoria. 1883. 77,, '/',■„, t, _■ 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. Vol! 

AA - 18S4 - The Society. 

Metz :— Jahresben ., mle zu Metz 

BandV. 1882. The Society. 

JVIiDDLESBoiiorGH :— The Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute— 

, 1883. No. 1 

-Bulletin ,le la Societe Imp^riale des Naturalistes de Moscow— 
ome LVIII. Nos. 3 and 4. 1883. 

The Society. 

The Society. 

VIunchen :— Sitzun. -ik-classe der K. B. 1 

Gedachtnissrede auf Otto I 

Franz von Kobell— Eine Denkschri 

fur das jahr 1884." The Academy. 

: _Bolletino della SocietA Africans - 

^^To^^^llt^^ Scxenoes^turenesae^eu.^. 

NEWCASTLETpoN-TYNEt-Natural History Society of Northumberland, 

I.uih »,.. -in,! N, v.. a.tle-upon-Tyne. Transactions- 

Vol. VIII. Parti. 18S4. 
North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. 

V *£ SHkm. 1883-84. The Institute. 

NkwYokk. v J ., 

New York Academy of Science 

December, ISS'J. Tin /Ion. 

Geological and Natural History Si 

|; ( .,.,.rtof Progress for 1880-8 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. 

Polypetala?. Parti. P" 

Oxford :— Radcliffe Library (Oxford 1 

logueofE ' 

difl'e Observat 

""" tl '?A ( ;"7Vi, 

" Astronomical and Meteorological Observat 
XXXIX. 1881. 
Paris :— lAibservatoire de Paris. . . 

Papport Annuel sur Petat de l'Observatoire de Pans, 1883. 

The Observatory. 

ie VI. Fasc. 4, 1883. . 

VII. „ 1, 2, 3, 1884. The Society. 

idaires des Seances. 

, Itn 1, ., r . -J.i, 30, 33, 34, 36, 39, 40, 
' The Society. 

Penzance :— Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. 
Transactions. Vol. X. Parts 4 & 5. 

Philadelphia :— Academy of Natural Sciences- 
Proceedings, Parts 1, 2, 3, 1872. 

" I, 2,' 3,' 1874. 

" 2, 3, 1883. 
„ 1, 2, 1884. 
American Philosophical Society- 
Proceedings, Vol. XX, Nos. 112, 113, June IS 

The Society. 

mone, Vol. VI, Fasc. 1, 1884. The 

rTH:— Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall 

History Society. 
Dual Report and Transactions, Vol. 

V, Part 2, 1 
„ „ 3 " 
VI, Part 1 

VII Part 1 

ulemia Pontificia 
Tome, XXXV. - 
„ XXX VII, „ 

ie 'Nuovi Lincei. 

Vol. II. 

Proceedings, Vol. 28, 1879. 

J) H 31,' Parts, 1 and 2, 1882. The Association. 

Essex Institute.— 

Bulletin, Vol. XIV, Xos. 1-12, 1882. 

, Vol. XIX, Xos. 1-12, 1SS2. The Institute. 

Neue Redud 

bis 1762, von Arthur Auwers, Band 11, 1882. 

San I'd LNCISCS Qg Bureau. 

First Report of the State Mineralogist, 1880. 

Second „ „ 1880-82. 

Third „ „ 1883. 

Fourth „ „ 1S84. 

Singapore :— B ■ raita Branch). 

Journal, No. 12, December, Ins:;. 

„ 13, June, 1884. 
Superintend ,il Gardens. 

Report for the year 1882. No. 52. The 

Stockholm :--M >lma Hugskola. 

iirttembergische J 
herausgegeben vo 
Hand 1. fiaitte 

„ II. „ 1. „ TheBtrea*. 

Jahreshefte des Vereins 

temberg. Jahrgang XL. 1884. The Society. 

Sydney :— Amsterdam International Exhibition, 1883. 

Report of the Kv . utn l n or. t ir\ . Tht X.S. W. ( Ww<V.« J. 

Catalogue of the Li 
Report of tl ~ 

t'.'. !',•[>. 


Gustave Fischer, C.E. 
Road Pavements iu Sydney, by A. ('. Mountain. The ' 

Report from Trustees for 1883-4. The Trustees. 

'•I'l. November, 1884. The Institute. 

Linnean Society of New South Wales- 
Proceedings. Vol. VIII. Part 4. 

„ IX. „ I, 2, 3, and 4. The Society. 

1882, ancT 1883. * ' The Department. 

The Au-,ti iUm.ui Saint u \ ( 'imkuiui of s^ ,mey. X.S. W.. lbb I — 

Report, Mini td Appendix. 

The Board. 

Register of Medical Practitioners for 1884, 1885. The Board. 

Anniversary Address to the Royal Society of N.S.W., by H. C. 

Cusseli, B.A., F.R.A.S. 
New Double Stars. 
Physical Geography and Climate. 

Results of Rain and River Observations in N.S.W., 1SS2, lb83. 
The Spectrum , & c But Comet. 

The Sydney Observatory. History and Progress. 




List of Members. February, 

V, No. 10, 188L 

V; 1 "!.-. 

Mtthoilungeii, Baud XXV. N.F. XV. 1882. 
K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt— 
.lalnl.urh, [land XXXI [I, No. 4. 1S83. 

;; ;; IV ;, 1-2. tu- xmmmu m. 


PmiVssi, nal X. ! - 1? < ipl n i Jward Maguire. 

ReP Paris! Aug.-Nov^lSsT, by Major D. |^Jg^ o/ .^ ; ,.. ^ 

( 'lm-f Signal Officer (U.S. Army)— % , j 

Professional Papers of t , - ' - * ^ -'Ml 1-^1 

Commissioner of Agricidture — 

Report for 18S1 and 1882. T**, Comr,w*iowr. 

Director of the Mint- 
Annual Import for the fiscal year ended 30 June, 1883. 


Washington— conth 


Abstract of 

Paper on Deep- mperatures in 

■ Stream, by Commander J. R. Bartlett. 
Catalogue of I \a Directions, published by 

the United Stat , July, 1884. 

List of Lights of West Coast of Africa, &c, Nos. 3-32. 1 July, 

!y, 1884. 
Notice to Mariners, Nos. 157 to 216. 1883 and Index. 

1 to 187, 189 to 35S, 364 to 49-2. 1884. 
Publications of the Hydrographic Office, Quarter ending 31 

30 June, 30 September, 1884. 

North Atlantic Ocean. Meteorological Charts, January to Decem- 
ber, inclusive. 1884. 
North Atlantic Ocean. Pilot Charts, Nos. 1 to 12 

December, 1883, to November, lss4. 
South Atlantic Ocean. The Coast of Bra 

Nos. 29 and 30. 
South Pacific Ocean. Lobos Afuera Islands, No. 927. 
Caroline Island, .\ >. 92s. 
' 1,09. 

id of Upolu, No. 97. 
[Newfoundland, &c, Xo. 924. 

Thf U.S. II i/.i ,;.•!•■■ <'<'<■ Ojj'". 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey- 
Report, 1882. The i 

U.S. Geological Survey- 
Tertiary History of the Grand Caft 

C. E. Dutton. Monograph II. 1882. 

War Department- 
Annual Report of the General of the Army to the Se 

Record of Engagements wit' 

. X.Z. :— 

Colonial Museum— 

Eighteenth Annual Report of the Colonial Museum and Laboratory, 

Meteorological Report, 1883. 

Reports of Geological Explorations during 1882. 

The Director. 
New Zealand Institute- 
Transactions and Proceedings. Vol. XVI. 1883. The Institute. 

The Asiatic Society of Japan- 
Transactions. Vol. XI. Parts 1 and 2. 

„ XII. „ 1, 2, 3. The Society. 

Zagreb (Agram Crotia) :— 
Soctete' Archeologique— 

Godina V. Broj. 4. 

„ VI. „ 1, 2, 3, 4. The Society. 

(Names of Donors are in Italics.) 
Akmann, Dr. R. : — 

"Das Wetter." 1 Jahrgang. No. 4. July, 1884. The Editor. 

3 Collection du Prince I 
No: 24." ~~ " 

ological Tables, a.b 
Browne, H. J. :— 

The J I i-her Branch of Science, or Materialism refuted by Facts. 

The Auilmr. 
Campbell, Rev. Josh., M.A. :— 

The Amateur Photographer's Primer. The Author. 

Cyrillus in S. Johannem, a.d. 1508. T. K. Abbott, S.M. 

Chemistry. E. Masters. 

Fletcher, J. J., M.A., B.Sc. :— 

Catalogue of ! kting to the Mammalian Orders, 

Marsupialia, and Monotremata. The Compiler. 

Geddes, Patrick :— 

A Re-statement of the Cell Theory. The Author 

Gill, Rev. W. W., B.A. :— 

Myths and Songs from the South Pacific. 

Savage Life in Polynesia. The Autluyr 

Serous Cobalt and Nickel Ores. 

, Capt. F. W., F.G.S. :— 

The Author. 
Illustrated Sydney News :— 

V6L XXI. Nos. 2 to 13 (inclusive). 

XXII. „ land 2. The Proprietors. 

Jack, Robert L., F.G.S. :— 

Mount Morgan Gold Deposits— Report. ,„,_.., 

Tin -Min i. II. n> it »n. \\ t Tu m 

the Silver M ' Queensland— Report. 

The Author. 
Krakatau, l'Eruption du, en 1883, Les Premieres Nouvelles concernant. 

Prince Poland Bonaparte. 
Lamb, Professor H., M.A., F.R.S. :— 

Klei ti : . d Motioi - in a Spherical Conductor. 
History of Electro-Magnetism. 
Indnction oi 

, :•>, ■•■ fi 

Marcou, M. Jules : — 

Note sur la Geologie de la Californie. The Author. 

Newlands, John A. R. :— 

The Periodic Law. The Author. 

Orient Line Guide. G. S. Yuill. 

2nd Sup] 

The Author. 
Rogers, J. W. :— 

Grammar and Logic in the Nineteenth Century. Tlie Author. 

Shropshire Sheep Breeder's Flock Book. Vol. I. Rams. Nos. 1 to 1,331. 

f the Sign and Gesture Language a 

The Phancroganu.. • Basin. Article I 

ibo, Dr. J. :— 
First Minim: E \ merica at Den 

New Microchemical Method of det< 

for Southern Eyre Peninsula. 

, F.G.S. :— 
r of Kangaroo Island, 
ecorded foi 

I Plants and of new Localit: 
ith-east part of South Australia, 
some Plants inhabiting the North-eastern part of the Lake 

ie?of some new Plants from South Australia, by Baron Sir F. 
l Mueller, M.D., F.R.S., and Prof. Tate. 

The Author. 

■aph of Etesidenc r, N.S.W. View 

tn the N.W. J- reNnat. 

in Davies, M.D., Lond., F.R.C.S.E. :— 
1 Disease, with special reference to its prevalence in Australia. 

) 27 en 28 Augustus, 
The Author. 

Topographische en Geologische Beschrijving van een Gedeelte van 
Sumatra's \ 

H. M. No! 
Waters, Arthur W., F.G.S. :— 

New Method of reading a Thermometer and Hygrometer at a distance 
by means of Electricity. Th e Author. 

Periodicals purchased in 1884. 
ace and Art (Silliman). 
Annales'des Chimie et Physique. 
Annals of Natural History. 

Chemical News. 
Courrier de 1' Art. 
Comptes Rendus. 

Analytische Chemie. 

snce Monthly. „ . 

of the Photographic Society. 
Journal de Me-decine. 
Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. 
Journal of Botany. 
Journal of Science. 

■ • 
Journal of the Society of / ' 


ical Record. 

M di ,1 I! , ,r.l «t X «-. ^ i .. 
Mining Journal. 

v - 

Notes and Queries. 


quarterly Journal ot Microscopical Science. 

"""''iiiNi'i Natural History. 

Delegraphic Journal and Kl> - hi, al K< vi. w. 

Agricola do n 

• ' Jc 

Vol. XXI, 

i Microscopical Journal, 
riical Regi 
Australian Handbi 

Beale— Microscope in Medicine, 4th edition. 
Biedermanu— Teoh , oh, L882-8a 

ornal of. Vols. 1 to 13. 

I v -Journal. Vols. 1 to 28. 

a- VI, XVII. 
Comptes Rendus. Vols. 1 to 81. Index, 2 voLs. Supplement, 2 vols, 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. Vols. 1 to 34. 

:; , 
ia Britannica. Vol. 17. 
Engineer. Vols. 1 to 46. 1856-78. 
Engineering. Vols. 1 to 36. 1866-83. 
Falconer's Paheontological Memoirs. 2 vols. 
Franklin Institute Journal. Vol. 106, No. 636. 
Geikie's Text Book of Geology. 
Hassell's Fresh Water Alga?. 2 vols. 
International Scientific Series. Vols. 24 to 49. 
Landsborough'sZ()oph\f, -. (First Ivliti n). 
Linnean Society Journal. Botany. Vols. I to XIV. 
Zoology. Vols. I to XL 
n „ Proceedings. 4 vols. 

,, „ Transactions (First Series). Vols. I to 30. (Second Series), 

Botany. Vol. 1. Zoology. Vol. 1. 

. Vol,. L.YVI. LXVII. 
mac, 1888. 

*'•"• r>'l' ,lh '"" ^ ^'- I'ublications. Vols. 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109. 

I Institute. Transactions. Vol. 2. 


Physics and Chemistry. 

Vol. 1. 

Zoology. Vols. S, '.). 11 
Lentific Evidences 

of Organic Evolution. 

Sands' Directory. 1884. 
Science, Journal of. Vols. 1 t 

;o6. 1871-76. N< 

rterly Journal of. 

■ 1..S l>iat..nifi.-. 

Vols. 1 to 

7. Parts 1 to 28. Old Series. 

2 en-Kunde. 

Sowerby's British 

Tyndall (J. ) Address before 1 

the British i 

Diamagnetism, &c, ReseE 
1 Phenomena, Le 

ity, Lectures on. 

Faraday as a Discoverer. 

Floating M 

Forms of Water. 

Fragments i 

Heat ft mode 

Light, Notes on. 

■; . : ,-i';- : .<■.-, 

ibutions to. 

\\ f, ,,,, 

Weld's History of the Royal Socie 
Whitaker's Almanack. 1884-85. 

Collection of Fossils from t 



The Journal and proceedings of the Royal Society of N.S.W. for 1883, vol. 


3ocieta Adriatica di Scienze Naturali. 
Anthropologische Gesellschaft. 
K. K. Central Anstalt fur Meteorologie und Erdmagnetis- 

K. K. Geographische Gesellschaft. 

K. K. Geologischejteichsanstalt. _ 

K. K. Zoologisch-. 

*Musee Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique. 
♦Observatoire Royal de Bruxelles. 
•Societe Royale Malacologique de Belgique. 
>ciete Geologique de Belgique. 
iciete Royale des Sciences. 

■*Institut Royale Grand-ducal de Luxembourg. 
MOIIS.— *Societe des Sciences, des Arts et des Lettrea du Hainaut. 

20. Bordeaux 

21. Cae 

22. Dijon— *Academie des Sciences, Arts, 

23. Lille.-*Societe Geologique du Nord. 

24. Montpellier. — *Academie des Science 

25. Paris.— *Academie des Sciences de I'll 

26. „ *Depot des Cartes et Plans de 

♦Muse'e d'Histoire Naturelle. 

-• ' -' • . ! . ..:■;.■ , ; I ■■, >\,,: 

Societe Botanique. 

..ologique de Frar 
*Societe Geology; 

i-ologique de Frai 



*Societe Zoologique de France. 


54. Bremen.— *Naturwissenschaftlieher Verein 

55. Berlin.— Deutsche ChemiEche Gesellschaffc. 

Eheinlande und 

Westphalens in Bonn. 
■ Braunschweig.— *Verein fur Katurwissenschaft za Braunschweig. 
• Carlsrulie.— Gro«9herzo K liches Polytechnikum zu Carlsruhe. 

•Gene lichen Sammlungen f iir Kunst 

„ *K"6nigliches Mincralogische Museum. 

Frankfort a/M.— *Senckenbergische Naturforschende GeseUschaft in 

Frankfurt a/M. 
Freiberg (Saxony) -*Die Berg Akademie zu Freiberg. 

Naturforschende GeseUschaft zu Freiberg. 
Gorlitz— *Naturforschende GeseUschaft in Gorlitz. 
Gottingen— *Konigliche GeseUschaft der "YVissenschaf ten in Gottingen. 
Halle AS— *Die Kaiserlich Deutsche Leopoldinisch— Carolinische 
Akademi, A. S. (Prussia). 

Hamburg.-*Die Geographische GeseUschaft in Hamburg 

„ *Yerein fiir NaturwissenscliaMiche Lnterhaltung in 

Naturhistorisch Medicinische GeseUschaft zu Heidel- 

76. Jena. — *Medicinisch Natunvissensi-haftliche Lies. 

77. Konigsberg.— *Die Physikalisch-okouomische G 

78. Leipzig (Saxony).-UniTersity Library. 

79. Marbnrg— # Gesellschaft zur Beforderung der 

wisscnschaften in Marburg. 

81. Metz— *Verein fiir Erdkunde zu Metz. 

82. MEulhoUSe.— *Industrial Society. 

83. Munchen— *Konigliche Baierische Akademie d 

84. Stuttgart— *Koniguches Statistisch-Topographische Bureau to 

85. M *Verein U fi?r a Vaterlandische Naturkunde in Wurtemberg. 


86. Birmingbam.-*Birmingham Philosophical Society. 

90. Cambndge.-*Phiio8ophic 

91. „ *PublicFre< 

92. „ Union Society. 

93. „ University Library. 

94. Dudley —Dudley and Midland Geological and Scientific Society and 

Field Club. 

95. Leeds.— *Conchological Society. 

96. „ *Philosophical and Literary Society. 

97. „ »Yorksbire College. 

■ Liverpool.— *Literaiy ami Philosophical Society. 
• London— * Agent-General (two copies). 

Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

•olociral Office. 
Museum of Practical Geology. 

■■■■■..' !. :■- ;■■■.. .'.'.. -: 

Quekett Microscopical Club. 

Royal A;n n ci I Society of England. 

Royal College of S 

ttoyal Microscopic: ! Sir 

Royal Society'of Literat 

ixhal Society. 
*Owens College. 
— *Iron and Steel Institute. 

Tyne — *Natural History Society of Northum' 
♦North of England Institute of Mining 

•Society of C hernial Yndustrv. 
'an LibTMT. 
i Library. 

. Penzance.— *Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. 

. Plymouth— *Plymouth Institution, and Devon and Cornwal] 

History Society. 
. TrUTO.— *Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 
. Windsor.— The Queen's Library. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
. Cape Town.— *South-African Philosophical Society. 

Dominion op Canada. 
. Halifax (Nova Scotia).— *Nova Scotia Institute of Natural 
. Hamilton (Canada West).— Scientific Association. 
'. Montreal.—' 1 !a - 

i. „ Natural History Society of Montreal. 

• Toronto. — *Canadian Institute. 

Dublin— *Royal Dublin Society. 

„ Royal Geological Society of Ireland. 

169. Port LOU] «*■ and Sciences. 

New South Wales. 

171. Sydney.— Australian Club. 

172. „ * Australian Museum. 

173. „ *Free Public Library. 

174. „ *Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

New Zealand. 

180. Auckland.— * Auckland Institute. 

181. Christchurcll.— Philosophical Society of Canterbury. 

182. Dunedin.— Otago Institute. 

183. Wellineton.—* Colonial Museum. 

184. „ *New Zealand Institute. 

185. „ Philosophical Society. 

. (Forwarded per favour of the Wellington Museum.) 

on Society of Qu< 
'Royal Society of Queensland. 


188. Aberdeen —*Dunn Echt Observatory, Earl of 

Crawford and 

190. Edinburgh.— *Editor, Encyclopaedia Britanni 

191. „ 'Geological Society. 

a, Messrs. A 

192. „ 'Royal Botanic Garden. 

193. „ *Eoyal Observatory. 

194. „ *Eoyal Phvsical Society. 

195. „ 'Royal Society. 

197. Glasgow— 'Geological Society. 

198. „ 'University. 

South Austbalia. 

199. Adelaide.— 'Government Botanist. 

201. „ 'Observatory. 

202. „ *Royal Society of South Australia. 

203. „ 'South Australian Institute. 

204. „ *University. 


205. Hobart.— *Eoyal Society of Tasmania. 


206. Ballarat— 'School of Mines and Industries. 

207. Melbourne— Eclectic Association. 

208. „ Government Botanist. 

209. „ 'Government Statist. 

210. „ 'Mining Department. 

211. „ 'Observatory. 

212. „ 'Public Library. 

213. „ 'Registrar-General. 

214. „ *R 0ja l Society of Victoria. 

216. „ 'Victorian Institute of Surveyors. 

(Forwarded per favour of the Melbourne Pub 

219. Bologna— Accademia delle Scienze dell' Istituto di Bologns 
■"U. „ Umversita di Bologna. 

221. Florence.— 'SocietA Entomologica Italiana. 

222. „ 'Societa Italiana di Antropologia e di Etnologia. 

Naples— Society Eeale Accademia delle ScieJ 
*Societ-i Afvicana d'ltalia. 
*Stazione Zoologica (Dr. Dohrn). 

Palermo.— *Accadomia Palermitana di Scien 

Pisa.-*Societa Toscana di Scienze Natural!. 
Eome— ; Ar -1,11 iiiia Pontiflcia de'Nuovi Lim 

■ loll. :io Koiua-K 


• Turin— Eeale Accademia dello Scionze. 
Regio O 
242. Venice— *Bealo Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. 

■ Yokohama.— *Asia 



218. Bergen— *Museum. 

219. Christiania.— *Eongeligo Norske Frederick* 

250. Helsingfors.-Societe des Sciences de Finlm 


253. Madrid —Instituto geograpliico y Estadial 


256. Beme.— *Societe de Geograpkie de Borne. 

257. Geneva.— *Institut National Genevois. 

L— ".Souii'tL' des Sciences Naturell 

261. Albany .— *New York State Library, Albany. 
868. Annapolis (Md.)-Naval Academy. 

I L'i.ib. 

CMcagO-Academy of Sciences. 

Cincinnati.— *Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 
Coldwater— Michigan Library Association. 
Davenport (Iowa).— *Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Hoboken (N.J.) ■•Stevens' Institute of Technology. 
Iowa City (Iowa).— *Director Iowa Weather Service 

Newhaven (Conn.)— *Connect.c at A.ndemy ol 
New York— * American Chemical Society. 

.phical Society. 

r York Academy of S 
~ lumb 

Dlogical Socie 

School of Mines, Columbia Colle£ 
Philadelphia.— *Acan 1 emy of Natural ScL 

■t-r.. ;.: 


291. St. Louis.— *Academy of Science. 

292. Washington.— * American Medical Association, Pennsylvai 

293. „ *Bureau of Education (Department of thi 

294. „ *Bureau of Ethnology. 

295. „ -Bureau of Navigation (Navy Department). 

296. „ *Chiefof Engineers (War Department). 

297. „ *Chief Signal Officer (War Department). 


♦Surgeon General (IT. S. Army). 

*U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (Treasury Depart- 

um (Department of the In- 






Preliminary M, , tin;/, h-hl A PHIL, I884. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. 
It was decided to hold the meetings of the Section on the evenings 
of the second Monday in each month. The following gentlemen 
were elected office-bearers for the ensuing session: Chairman: 
Mr. G. D. Hirst. Secretary: Mr. F. B. Kyngdon. Committee: 
Dr. Morris, Dr. Wright, Mr. P. R. Pedley, and Mr. R. Fraser. 

12 MA Y, 1884. 

Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 

Dr. Morris presented nine slides of A. pettucida, mounted in 

the following media :— dry, balsam, phosphorus, oil cassia, liquid 

amber, sulphur, biniodide of mercury, biniodide of mercury and 

barium, monobromide of naphthalene. 

Mr. Ky.vcdon exhibited a new microtome by Zeiss, a binocular 

the Amazon. 

Dr. Morris exhibited n pus corpusrie. having radiating pseudo- 
podia, from a case of chronic cystitis, stained by a new fluid and 
mounted in a new medium. 

Mr. Hirst showed the bright scarlet stentor Sh tor xg 
from a pond in the Botanic Gardens. 

Dr. MORRIS— A. -prllurida, mounted in phosphorus, beautifully 
resolved with Powell and Lealand's new £-in. c' 1 ~ 
objective, having an angle of 112°. 

9 JUNE, 1884. 
Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 

Dr. Morris exhibited Spencer's new frin. homogj 
sion objective, having a numerical aperture of PS 
angle 127°— in every respect a superb glass ; also a 
homogeneous objectives, viz., oil of resin, used pui 
with oil of cedar. 

14 JULY, 1884. 
Dr. Morris exhibited a series of slides of a filarial worm, 

StroHtji/iiiH hroiichiclis, found in the extreme ends of the bronchial 

Dr. Wright showed a slide mounted by Mr. Hy. Sharpe, of 
Adelong, of the proboscis of the blowfly, mounted in bin iodide of 
mercury, and showing minute membraneous structure whereby 
the insect appears to be able to close or protect the orifices through 
which it sucks the juices th;i1 form its food : also a series of test 
diatoms prepared by J. D. Moller in the highly refractive medium 
bin iodic it- of mercury and iodide of potassium. 

Dr. Morris showed A. pellucida, mounted by Prof. Smith, of 
Geneva, New York, in a medium known only to himself ; also a 
slide of the same diatom mounted by himself in phosphorus, and 
resolving in a manner quite equal to Prof. Smith's celebrated 

11 AUGUST, 1884- 
Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 
The Chairman showed the supposed roe of an eel. 
Dr. Wright — Tolles' &-in, homogeneous objective, with a new 
front made by Green of Boston. 

Dr. Morris— Four forms of parasites found in the body of a 
diseased sheep, viz., the liver fluke, Distoma hepatica ; the stomach 
worm, Sfroni/i/fi/n amturtus ; the tapeworm, Taenia expansa ; and 
the intestinal worm, Dochmius kypostomus. 


Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 

Mr. Haswell described his new microtome based upon Mr. 

Caldwell's pattern, but with a new ribbon take-off of a very in- 

Dr. Morris exhibited a new mounting medium, having a re- 
fractive angle of 2-6, the highest known, "and comparing favour- 
ably with the celebrated one of Professor Smith, of Geneva, New 

_ Sulphur is melted on the slide, and the cover to which the 
diatoms are attached is dropped upon and pressed down upon the 
sulphur. The refractive index of sulphur is 2*, also selenium and 
sulphur ground and mixed together, and the slide prepared as 
above— K. index about 2-3 ; also selenium by itself— K. index, 26. 
With all the above media A. pellucida was splendidly resolved. 
These experiments by Dr. Morris wore undertaken with a view of 
enabling objectives of the older constructions and of less angular 
aperture to resolve the highest test diatoms as easily as the new 
wide-angled homogeneous lenses. Dr. Wright showed several 

preparations of the feet of flies, mounted by Mr. Hy. Sharp of 
Adelong, in biniodide of mei Ilea 1 -fa objective. 

The intention wi - hairs fringing 

the feet exuded a fluid or had a cup-like termination, but sufficient 
data were not forthcoming. Mr. Lane exhibited three slides of 0. 
Fasoldt's celebi , _s, advancing from 5,000 to 

120,000, 200,000, and 250,000 lines to an inch respectively. Mr. 
Haswell, a slide of serj.ula prepared by .Mr. < aldwell's automatic 

ness; Mr. Wiiitelegoe, slides of mosses, gathered in the neighbour- 
hood of Sydney, of the species Ii(<t*',n m, showing the capsules 
with spores in progressive series of developement. 

13 OCTOBER, 1884. 
Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 
Dr. Morris exhibited Powell and Lealand's new solid front & 
oil immersion objective, with a numerical bure !■:>: as<> 

a series of mounting media in which sulphur has been dissolved, 
viz., Canada balsam, liquid amber, chinoline, mono-bromide of 

17 NOVEMBER, 1884. 
Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 
Mr. Hirst exhibited A. />> Unchhi resolved by Zeiss's \ water 
immersion objective, in a manner scarcely to be surpassed by the 
new oil immersion objectives. The diatom was mounted in sul- 
phur — this proving I >r. Morris's theory thai a highly refractive 
mounting media enables low angled objectives to compete in reso- 
lution with the new oil immersions; also a brass turntable on 
Aylward's principle, made by himself. Mr. Fraser showed a slide 
of the micro-fungus, an cecidium that infests the orange trees of the 
Ryde district. 

8 DECEMBER, 1884. 
Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 
Mr. Pedley showed several beautiful slides of spicules of 
sponges and gorgoni a collected and prepared by Mr. Durrand, a 
visitor present, and a member of the Quekett Microscopical 
Society. Mr. Weisener showed a collection of very choice slides 
by "Wheeler of London. Dr. Morris — A. pellucida mounted in 
a film of pure metallic silver, and resolved easily by Powell and 
Lealand's j water immersion objective — Refractive index, 2-3. 


The Medical Section of the Royal Society held a preliminary 
meeting for the election of officers, on the 18th of April, 1884. 

The following were elected :— Chairman : Dr. H. N. MacLaurin. 
Mr. Thomas Evans, M.R.C.S.E., and Dr. Hurst. 
Dr. Fortescue, Dr. Brady, Dr. Shewen, Dr. Manning, 
Dr. Oram, and Dr. Craig Dixon. 

Five general meetings were held during the session ; they were 
well attended, and were amply supplied with subjects for discussion. 

Although in point of importance there were not so many papers 
read as during the previous session, yet, in exhibits of pathological 
and microscopical specimens and in the number of medical and 
surgical cases reported, it exceeded its predecessor ; the remarks 
and discussions thereon always occupied a period longer than that 
allotted to the meeting by the rules of the Section. 

Papers were read by Dr. Manning, on " Cases of Mental Dis- 
turbance after injury to the Head, with particular reference to Loss 
of Memory "; by Dr. Foreman, on ' : A case of Ovariotonus "; by 
Dr. Cosby Morgan, on "A case of Fracture of the Cervical 
Vertebra"; "Two cases of Fracture of the Skull," and " A case of 
Hydated Cyst," by Dr. Chambers ; on "A case of ruptured 
Ovarian Cyst, with recovery," by Dr. Williamson ; on " A 
Lunatic who died after swallowing some metal buttons," by Dr. 
Eric Sinclair and Dr. Jenkins. 

Exhibits were made by Drs. Carruthers, Evans of Balmain, 
Sinclair, Foreman, Professor Anderson Stuart, Drs. Deck, 
MacCormick, Jenkins, Knaggs, and Goode. 

H. K MACLAURIN, Chairman. 
THOMAS EVANS, l Secret „ rie « 
GEORGE HURST, J becretarieSt 

Cases of Mental Disturbance after Injury to the Head, 

with particular reference to Loss of Memory. 

By F. Norton Manning, M.D., Inspector-General of the Insane. 

[Bead before i of N. S. W., 

Case 1. — Some years ago a neighbour and friend presented himself 
with a generally dishevelled appearance at my office, and informed 
me, with some minuteness of detail, that he had been thrown from 
his horse owing to suddenly putting up his umbrella, at which 
his horse, shied j that he was stunned for a short time ; that a 
man had caught his horse and assisted him to remount, and that 
not feeling very well he had come direct to me. His manner was 
so strange that I thought it best to see him home, and during the 
short walk thither he repeated to me over and over again, with 
wearisome reiteration, the detailed story of his fall. I left him in 
bed, with strict injunctions to stay there, and then found the man 
who had witnessed the accident, and discovered that the account 
given to me was correct, that the head had struck the ground, and 
that there was insensibility for two or three minutes. The next 
morning my patient remembered everything up to the time of the 
fall, even the fall itself and the cause of it, but all else was a blank. 
The assistance rendered him to remount his horse, his visit to me, 
our walk to his home, and our talk by the way, had never been 
recorded on the tables of his memory. No serious symptoms 
followed; headache, at first troublesome, disappeared in two or three 
days, and after some days rest and quiet my patient resumed his 
ordinary professional work, apparently none the worse for the acci- 
dent. Such cases are not uncommon, and are indeed met with by 
most medical men in active practice. Their main interest lies in 
the loss of memory, on which I shall have something further to 

Case 2. — A man when drunk fell down a stone staircase, lighted 
on the back of his head, and was admitted into hospital on Octo- 
ber 16. There was a contused wound of the scalp nearly 2 inches 
long and exposing the pericranium. No slit or depression in the 
bone could be found. Blood issued in moderate quant it v from the 
nose and left ear. There was insensibility, with relaxed nmseles, 
pallor, cold surfaces, regular somewhat dilated pupils, and shallow 


quiet breathing, with occasional sighing. Pulse 60, small and 
uneven. On the next day the insensibility had somewhat dimin- 
ished ; there was restlessness, some irritability when disturbed, and 
incoherence of speech when roused. Pulse 100, fuller and more 
even; temperature 101. No fluid from ear, and nothing to point to 
fracture of base of skull. On the 19th the insensibility had disap- 
peared, the patient was restless, irri table, confused, and incoherent, 
with a pulse of 108, and an evening temperature of 103. Under 
cold to head, purgatives, complete rest and quiet, the temperature 
subsided, and the patient became more rational. Three weeks 
after the accident the memory continued much impaired ; there 
was a loss of recording power for recent events, the manner was 
peculiar, there was occasion, ad dizziness on 

standing up. He was deaf in the left ear, where a raw line 
extended across the tympanum. The pulse and temperature were 
normal. The memory slowly returned, and the patient progressed 
to complete recovery. 

Case 3.— T. T., aged 46, a storekeeper, and sharp man of busi- 
ness, when inspecting a new store in process of erection, stepped 
back and fell into an excavation for a cellar about 12 feet deep, 
striking his head violently. He was attended by Dr. MacQueen, 
to whom I am indebted for particulars of the early symptoms. 
The first were those of concussion, and as these passed off symp- 
toms of cerebral equently there 
were luilhiciivitious uf siejit and hearing, complete loss of the 
sense of taste, great restlessness, and many of the symptoms of 
subacute mania He was admitted into the Licensed House for 
the Insane at Cook's River, on October 27, 1881, one month after 
the accident, and I saw him on the following day. His expression 

answered some questions rationally, lmt displayed a number of 
exalted delusions. lie claimed as his own all the property around 
the asjlum, had an exaggerated idea of his business capabilities, 

memory was extremely defective. I le had no knowledge whatever 

of his accident, and stoutly denied that he had been in any way 

ill or under medical care. No single event which had happened 

since the accident had made any impression on his memory. He 

had no idea even how he had travelled from home to Cook's River, 

and, further, he was considerably astray, as I ascertained from 

Dr. MacQueen and his brother, as" to the "events of his past life- 

With all this I ■ 

reference to n 

ligent. The j 

slightly more 

weeks after the accident), 

less rapid, the temperature was n 

recognized intimate friends who visited him, and spoke 

freely, he had no remembrance at the next visit (even thougli tne 

a few minutes after the visits hul no remembrance of the con- 
versation which had passed. There was no remembrance of the 
accident, and he gave a peri (Want of how he 

came to the UBjha l be had started from some 

new diggings and not from home. The sense of taste had returned, 
and the exalted delusions, though still present, found less ready 
and frequent expression. By the middle of December, more than 
two months after admission, and more than thr< e months after the 
accident, the delusions had all but vanished, and the memory had 
much improved; the registering or recording power for recent 
events was nearly, if not quite, re-established, and his account of 
his past history was connected and correct. The period from the 
accident until "about one month after admission was an absolute 
blank. He was discharged at the end of December, went to 

•cntly muri-i' mory appears 

. and that liquor affects 

-,\o following, in addition to the 

rd exaltations and delusions of grandeur and 

mind was astray. II.' exhibited numerous extra v.-igant 

." "ijr was seen by I>r. Cox, bv whose advice, after a short 
„ ssent t .Clad*. ,vilh> Hospital, on January 
''.). On admission (two months after the accident) the 
.sure was normal, and the chief physical symptoms wore 
' dcbilitv. ile was thin and out of condition, and looked 
e had suffered from a long and exhausting illness. lhs 
our was quiet and gentlemanly, and he answered ordinary 


questions rationally and freely. He had not the slightest remem- 
brance of his accident, or of any event which had happened in the 
two months which had since elapsed, and insisted that he came 
from India eight days ago, to see a sister who was ill in the 
hospital. He could not remember that he had ever lived at 
Adelong, where he was in practice for years, and described himself 
as the Commander of a Russian man-of-war, and the absolute 
owner of several large ships, a talth. He knew 

the attendants who were ctii 1 recognized the 

medical officers al in an hour or so forgot that 

he had seen them. He occupied himself in reading newspapers and 
books, but did not appear to retain what he read, and he was inter- 
ested in the ordinary amusement and life of the hospital. A month 
after his admission (three months after the accident) his wife visited 
him ; he recognized, and seemed very pleased to see her, but in a 
short t ime had no remembrance of her visit. The recording power 
seemed absolutely gone. He seemed to have forgotten all 
about his home and the practice of his profession, and even his 
professional knowledge seemed lost. His delusions (all having 
reference to wealth and importance) were very numerous, and he 
was at times irritable, especially as to his detention, though, as a 
rule, most gentlemanly and well-eonducted. l!v the end of April, up- 
wards of five months after the accident, he was much stouter, the 
delusions had almost disappeared, his memory was improving, and 
he began to speak on professional subjects. In June his delusions 
had altogether disappeared, and the memory had so much im- 
proved that current events were duly registered, and his past life 
easily recalled. Hisaceident, and all events subsequent to it, until 
within the last six weeks, had, however, left no impression on his 
mind. He returned to the practice of his profession, and died in 
the year 1881, from causes unconnected (so far as I could discover) 
with his accident. 

Case 5.— J. K., aged 40. Like the last patient was a member 
of the medieal profession, and as I eventually ascertained, after 
much correspondence and trouble, was of intemperate habits, and 
had led a wandering and unsettled life. After some years prac- 
tice in Ireland, he served as medical officer in the Paraguayan 
army, then lived for some time on the western coast of South 
America, was wrecked in the Pacific, landed on one of the 
South Sea Islands, was rescued by a ship bound to Melbourne, 
and in Melbourne was engaged by the agent as surgeon to one of 
the San Francisco steamers, which he joined in Sydney. In 
March, 1870, whilst his ship was in Sydney, he fell, whilst in a 
state of intoxication, from a first floor balcony of a house in Mac- 
quarie-street, and was taken to the Sydney Infirmary. He was 
unconscious for some hours, and on recovery was found to have 
lost his memory and to be peculiar in manner. He was admitted 

to Gladesville in the month of April, 1870, and was then in aver- 
age general health, though somewhat thin and pale ; the pulse was 
quiet and the temperature normal. He was exceedingly polite 
and gentlemanly in manner and correct in habits, and expressed 
himself as very contented with his surroundings. He had various 
extravagant delusions as to his importance and wealth, and spoke 
frequently of his knowledge of and association with eminent and 
wealthy people. He had not the slightest remembrance of the 
accident or of any events since, and beyond the fact that he was 
an Irishman and a doctor nothing as to his past life could be 
obtained from him. There was completeabsenceof the registration or 
He did not even r< 
him from day to day, and though 
vspapers, he had no idea what they contained. 

.me particulars of his past life when questioned, lmt recollection 
ivolved an effort, and, as he pathetically said, it was harder for 
im to remember these things than it was at one time to pass 
' ' ion the extravagant 

i medical knowledge had abso- 
lutely vanished, and the impression made by current events was 
so Blight that it seldom lasted beyond three or four days. 

After this time some troublesome ulcerat ions appeared in various 
parts of the body, which were evidently syphilitic and yielded to 
iodide of potassium. There has been no farther mental improve- 
ment, and no retrogression. He is now at Callan Park, and is 
always polite in manner and correct in habits. He is able to read 
and to play simple games, recognizes his immediate associates and 
frequent visitors, and his feelings and emotions are correct and 
apparently unimpaired, but the intellectual faculties and ideas, and 
professional knowledge, are almost effaced ; the registration of new 
impressions is very faint, and the record when made seldom lasts 
more than a few days. 

As a preliminarv'to discussing the pathology of the cases the 
notes of which I have read, it is necessary to point out, tirst, that 
though "there is memory in every nerve cell, to use Mandesby s 
words, in its highest forms it is an organization extending widely 
through the cortical layers of the cerebral hemispheres ; and 
second, that in the three cases in which the loss of memory was 
both marked and prolonged, the parts of the memory most 
affected were those which are the first to fail in progressive 
amnesia due to old age, or accompanying the dementia of chronic 
brain disease. In these conditions forgetfulness, limited at tirst 
to recent events, extends to ideas, to intellectual acquisitions, the 
technique of science and professional knowledge. Then personal 


recollections are obliterated ; whilst the feelings and emotions which 
are the most profound, the most common, and the most tenacious 
of the phases of mental activity, and the organic acquisitions, the 
aptitude for mechanical work, the routine of daily life, and the 
habits which become more or less automatic or instinctive, require 
only a minimum of conscious memory, and have their seat in the 
cerebral ganglia — the medulla and spinal chord,— remain until the 
last. Pathologic attack first, and 

in many cases to be limited to the most highly developed and 
most unstable forms of memory, to those which have a personal 
*. localization in 

time, and constitute what may be called the " Psychical memory." 
According to Ribot, "progressive destruction of memory follows 
a logical order, it wh-tmer.i pro;/ rrssirrl;/ from the itnxtable to the 
stable. It begins with the most recent recollections which, lightly 
impressed upon the nervous elements, rarely repeated, and conse- 
quently having no perma:. ' organization 
in its feeblest forms, and it ends with the sensorial instinctive 
memory which becomes a permanent and* integral part of the 
organism, and represents organization in its most highly developed 
state." From the researches of Griesinger, Foville, and others, it 
would appear that the pathological cause of this intellectual disso- 
lution is "an atropln ,'■','., ji, ' iurades the exterior cerebral 
layers, and then penetrates to the white substance, causing a fatty 
and atheromatous degeneration of cells, tubes, and capillaries of 
the nervous tissue," so that these elements, a prey to atrophy and 
degeneration, are no longer capable of the conservation of new 
impressions. If the perception is entirely new it is either not 
registered at all in the nervous centres, or if registered the 
impression is faint and soon effaced, whilst new modifications and 
dynamical associations of cells are either impossible, or if possible, 
are not permanent. Bearing these facts in mind, and turning to 
cases of more or less temporary amnesia, we cannot pass over the 

epilepsy. In attacks of ]><fif nrd. and epileptic vertigo, although 
the outward signs of disturbance are in some cases extremely 

mental (jute.,.-' _ '-liable from that seen in 

some cases of injury to the head. The pathological condition 
in these cases is, according to Ilughlings .Jackson, who in the 5th 
vol. of the West Riding Asylum Reports enters at length into 
this question, one of exhaustion of the cells forming the highest 
nervous centres, due to a nervous "discharge'' during the paroxysms, 
but there is probably at the same time a disordered condition of 
the cerebral circulation in the corvex., continuing for some time 
after the "discharge"' has occurred, and interfering with the 
nutrition of the cerebral matter. 

I necessary to mqm 

We may note in passing that the ultimate consequence of 
repeated epileptic seizures, especially in the form of vertigo, is the 
progressive and final destruction of psychical memory. 

In all the cases which I have related the first symptoms were 
-in the first case were limited to these — and 
3 in what this somewhat mysterious con- 
The theory put forward by Rokitanski and 
Nelaton, that the symptoms are due to minute extravasations of 
blood in the brain, may be passed over, because it has been re- 
peatedly ascertained by jwst mortem examination that these small 
apoplexies are in some cases entirely absent, and all that ran be 
inferred from their presence is that concussion and extravasation 
occasionally co-exist. Such was indeed probably the condition in 
the third case I have given, in which there was loss of taste, due 
to some injury or extravasation, caused by counter-stroke in the 
lower part of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe, where, according to 
Ferrier, the centres of taste and smell are localized in immediate 
relation to each other. The remaining theories of concussion 

1st. That propounded by Fischer, of Breslau, who believes that 
the blow on the head produces reflex paralysis of the vessels of 
the brain and serious interference with the nutrition of the cere- 
bral ganglia, and points out that an empty state of the arteries 
and a congested state of the veins is the only condition which is 
found on post mortem examination constantly accompanying the 
symptoms which clinical observation discovers to be those of 

2nd. A modification of the old vibration theory of Pott, which 
supposes a molecular disturbance of the protoplasm of the tissues 
of the brain, which is accompanied by an impairment or abolition 
of their functioi 

me highly probable that in extreme ami pro- 
of those I have narrated, both f 1 -— ~ 

theories are required to explain the symptoms. Fischer's theory 
is no doubt sufficient to explain the symptoms of concussion, and 
the very temporary loss of memory which as a rule aceompam. s it, 
but it is difficult to imagine the reflex paralysis ot the vessels 
lasting long enough to interfere wit' 

ve existed in 
there had been some molecular 
disturbance in the nerve cells themselves ; though of course it is 
possible that sudden changes in the blood supply may alone be 
sufficient to initiate these. , 

There can I think be no doubt but that the prolonged loss of 
memory in the cases mentioned was due to minute or molecular 
changes in, and to subsequent want of nutrition of, the nervous 

that as 

nutrition and h 

ealth were 

re-established the memory 

I. The whole his 

cases puts any question of 

coarse patholo_ 

s out of cons 

In the fifth and last 

was no return of function 

beyond i 

i certain point, and in this tl 

lere were the complications 

lis and alcoholic e: 

, , - . 

■o the latter that I attribute 

the faihi 

one of the 

symptoms of cerebral de^e 

ing. Tl 

lie mental exaltath 

winch ■ 

was distinctly pr. 

5 5th case, was extremely 


in the 3rd and 4tl 

I have i 

my cases of brain a.flec+ion 


they hi 

ses of acute mania and of 

)f chronic cerebral softening 

pie thrombosis sue 

corded by Dr. Gasipiet in the 

I nf Mental Sdn 

ice for April, 1884.' The existence of 

ave detailed 

is no doubt due to the fact 

■ original injury or 

disease invol 

, ordinative 


i of the cerebral 

corvex, and that with the temporary 

the lower centres, no longer 

ed, were thrown 

or sprang i 

nto activity. 'The patients 

lived fi 

lout memory of what they 

en. But why tli 

took this particular form 

a_.-nce, ;md 

changes, or 

was due to temperament, I 

can oft". 

* no explanation 

i, though I 

would point out that in all 

inflammation with 

disease are at times i in- 
muscular strength or j 
the great majority of cases of general 

assist in the correct diagnosis of that a 


these eases under your notice becav 

interesting by reason of the pathologi 

cal probh 

completely psychical memory may be re < 

absence, when the loss has been due t« 

3 uncomp] 

the head. 




JANUAET, 1884— Geneeal Abstbact. 

At 32° Faht., but not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 

Mean Height 


Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 1008 on the 14th. 

Lowest in the Shade . . . 54"4 on the 18th. 

Greatest Range 36"5 on the 14th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 1567 on the 14th. 

Lowest on the Grass ... 48"3 on the SOth. 

Mean Diurnal Range ... 148 

Mean in the Shade ... 716 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount ... 960 on the 16th. 

Least 270 on the 21st and 22nd. 

Rain Number of Days 8 rain and 3 dew. 

Greatest Fall 0337 inches on the 18th. 

™™ {SS: S^S 

Evaporation Total Amount 4303 inches. 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 2 
Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 60 

At^Sydney, pressure, temperature, and wind have been about the average; but I 
rainfall was only Bi Mw the average. In the country i 

■weather has been hot and dry, pari [ rtricta, over a large p 

of which not a drop y getting only light ra 

of little use. 


PEBEUAEY, 1881.— G-enebal Abstbact. 

Barometer... Highest Reading 30-179 inches on the 6th, at 10 a 

At 32° Faht, but not corrected to sea-level. 

Mean Height 29838 

Wind Greatest Pressiiro ... 13*0 lbs. on the 3rd. 

Mean Pressure 0-8 lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 


Number of Days 

Greatest Fall 

Total Fall i 



on the 28tl 


Electricity ... 
Cloudy Sky... 

Total Amount 

Number of Days Lightning 

Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days ... 

3- 112 


T dry month, the majority of the 

only a few of the coast and high land stati 

ingara heads the list with 422 

y and February together is not equal to the 



MAECH, 1884.— Gekeral Abstbact. 

ITii:ho?t Beading 30267 inches on tin 

Number of Days Calm ... 2. 
Prevailing Direction ... N.E. 

Mean Diurnal Ham 

Humidity . . . (haute* 


Number of Days rain nnd 2 dew. 


Total Fall {lim " 15 in. above g 

Evaporation Total Amount ... 
Electricity ... Number of Days Lightn 
Cloudy Sky . . . Mean Amount . . 
Number - 



Barometer -• Highest Beading... 

... 30-354 inches on the 30th, at 

At 32° Faht., but not corrected to sea- 

Lowest Readin ... 

... 29547 „ on the 25th, at 

Mean Height ... 

Willd Greatest Treasure 

... 16-2 lbs. on the 7th. 

Mean Pressure ... 

Number ot H.ul hn 

Prevailing I>im-tion 

... S. 

Temperature Highest in the Shade 

Lowest in the Shade 

... 53-9 on the 27th." 

... 19-5 on the 23rd. 

... 1320 on the 6th. 

Lowest on the Grass 

... 48-1 on the 23rd. 

Mean Dil 

Mean in the Shade 

th on an average of the preceding 25 yea 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 

... 100-0 on the 6th. 

... 51-0 on the 23rd. 

Mean ... ... 

Rain Number of Days... 

Greatest Tall ... 

'.'.'. •: ir.3 .m-Iu's on the 6th. 

Total Fall 

•••fSKm " 6 ^ t - a 5, OTegr 

Evaporation Total Amount ... 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightni 

Cloudy Sky . . . Mean Amount, . . . 

Meteors ... Number observed 

3ydney on the night of April 5th, and the measure on the 

■ ' . - i ■ • 

dry weather of the preview . .. v h en a general 




(3 51' 41" ; LoNom df^IO ^ _ <> M ^ - > |- v j ' ^ , { _ ' n ' 

MAT, 1884.— General Abstract. 

. Highest Reading 30-369 inches on the 

fall was under 1 inch. While on the coast generally very heavy rains 
more the record was 1682 inches. 


JUNE, 1S84.— General Abstract. 

Barometer ... Highest Reading 30-295 inches on the 30th, at 10 a 

At 32° Faht., but not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 29'491 „ on the 11th, at 2 p.E 

Mean Height 29941 

Wind Greatest Pressure ... 9'2 lbs. on the 11th. 

Mean Pressure 06 lb. 

Number o| ! ; 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 66-5 on I hoist. 
Greatest Range ... '.'.'. 210 on the 25th. 

Mean Diurnal Range 
Mean in (lie Shade 

Evaporation Total Amount 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 
Cloudy Sky . . . Mean Amount 

101) the :?!-.], lot 1 :, ; 


JULY, 1884.— G-ENEKAii Abstract. 
Highest Reading 30321 inches on tl 



Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Ca^ 
Prevailing Direction 


Highest in the Shad 
Lowest in the Shade 
Greatest Range ... 
Hi-hest in the Sun 
Lowest on the Gras: 
Mean Diurnal Rang 
Mean in the Shade 

Evaporation Total Amount ... 
Electricity - Number of Days Lightn 
Cl0Udy Sky... Moan Amount ... 



ATTGrUST, 1884.— General A 
Highest Reading 30319 ii 

Mean Height '.'.'. '.'.'. 29874 
(Being 0-062 inch less than that in the same month on an aver 


. Greatest Pressure ... 259 lbs. on the 26th. 

Moan Pressure 071b. 

Number of Days Calm ... 3 

Prevailing Direction ... W. 


iling direction during the same month for the preceding 25 years, W.) 


Highest in the Shade . . . 82"0 on the 31st. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 428 on the 3rd. 

Greatest Range 27"8 on the 24th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 127-2 on the 31st. 

Mean Diurnal Range ... 166 

Mean in the Shade ... 569 

(Being 2-0 gr 

eater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 25 years 

Humidity .. 

. Greatest Amount ... 97'0 on the 2nd. 

Least 300 on the 26th. 

Mean 673 

(Being 4 91 

ess than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 25 years. 


. Number of Days 9 rain and 8 dew. 

Total Fall f^sIS " 1' ^ "^h** ^un 

Evaporation Total Amount ... 
Electricity ... Number of Days Lightni: 
Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount ... 

Number of Clear Days , 

rhis month the barometer at Sydney has been slightly below and the temperature 
'greater than the avn , average. Rain also 

3 2-21 inches less than the averse. In the country. A iigust has been a very dry 
roth, and, with the exception of one or two comparatively small areas, the rainfall 
J been under 1 inch ( an ,1 , „ , m ,!„,-: -. tl „ an inch). Even the coast has 
b escaped the dry weather. In Sydney, l!,e t<.tal fall, January 1 to August 30, 
s 37-03 inches, and the average for I n hcs. The weather 

s also remarkably warm for the season. 


SEPTEMBER, 1884.— General 
... Highest Reading... ... 30'338 inches on the 5t , a a.m. 

t., but not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 29 356 on the 10th, at ^u p. 

Mean Height ^ ^..^ ^ th 2 ^^ average f the preceding 25 years, 
t TJatst^e^ ■"" ^ l^flbs. on the 21st. 


Temperature JH-u -t 

11 rain and 5 dew. 
f 0-760 „ ° 65 ft. above ground. 
{ 1-125 ,. 15 m. aboyeg ronnd. 

Evaporation Tot; 
Electricity ... Nui 
Cloudy Sky... M« 

iber of Clear Days 


column was added .h. ;W , . .1.. m ..d UMv* >;!' -^ ^ ^ ^Xr 30, from 

■ ■ - 

■, lSS-i, it iVmt lu-r greater than 1SSS; a 

les8 wa ay ^Vi D ; 

OCTOBEE, 1884.— General Abstract. 

Evaporation Total Amount ... 
Electricity ... Number 
Cloudy Sky . . . Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days ... 
Meteors ... Number observed 

) have had lees than 1 ine 


NOVEMBER, 1884.— Genebai, Abstract. 

... Highest Reading 30" 176 inches on e ,a 

t .., but not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading ... - 27'508 on the 28th, at 2 a.m. 

Mem Height ... - 29 " 867 M ■««■«.» 

ht _ ^ ■eding 25 years. ) 

... Greatest Pressure ... 12'5 lbs. on the 6th. 

Mean Pressure 08 1b. 

Number of Days Calm ... 

PrenaBng Direction ... N.E. _ - vea rsS) 

rP Highest in the Shade ... 79-9 on the 24th. 

Humidity ... Greates 

Evaporation Total 1 
Electricity ... Numb 
Cloudy Sky ... Mem . 

afet^kftl SftTSi?Zwe«*«a 

favoured spots are r 


DECEMBEE, 1884.— General Abstract. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 29-914 inches on the 29th, at \ 

At 32° Eaht., hut not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 28'986 on the 3rd, at 1 p.m. 

Mean Height 29592 

(Being 0-146 inch I. ■ ; 1, „n an average of the preceding: 25 y« 

Wind Greatest Pressure ... 30-4 lb. on the 15th. 

[ighest in the 

Mean in the Shade 
Humidity ... Greatest Amount 

Haul Number of Days 9 rain and 5 dew. 

Greatest Fall 0540 inch on the 15th. 

Total Fall (°' 77 ° » 65 ft. above ground. 

(Bein 902 inch less than th 

Evaporation Total Amount 5-279 inches. 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 6 

Cloudy Sky ... Mean Amount 5 

Number of Clear Days ... 2 

Meteors ... Number observed ... 

December was a' vTry Arj^K^Jm^ey^^oil^^lo^- 

usual ; and coming as this dry weather did after so many 
weeks of previous drought, its effects upon an n ere intensified. 

In the list are a number of rain stations that began to record late in the year. 
Speaking of the whole Colony, the years 1883 and 1884 have been rem 

remembering the loss and suffering by the 
drought of 1888 , it in 1884 mav easil be im 

• north of the Macleay had more rain in 1884 than in 1883, but south 
of that all had less, about Wollongon- orally, all the 

■ ' • ' 
Zmot^J: f 1883 ' but at Wellington tL 


Diagram for Mr. Russell's Bain Map, 18». 

•S/°/fCS £Q(//?LS 0/T£ fo 

01 A GRAM 


in each Square Degree of 

New South Wales 

\TLagk & Cluk- Sydney 

Diagram for }f Russell* /lain Map fcr 18S4- . 


SOUTH WALES, 1862-186o. 
On the Vertebrated Animals of the Lower Murray } 

economy, and geogra- V Gerard *re 

phical distribution ••• ■" , "'* a erar d Krefft. 

On Snakes observed in the neighbourhood of Sydney txerara 
"Geometrical R<- -tin Gardiner, C.E. 
mewTheo amua* r 

Paper No 

n'gons. J^aperlNo. z . ■•■ .< . ,. g ] 

Researches concerning n'gOM i ; u rtm Uarainer, 

of the second degree. Paper No. 4 • •• --> 

On the desirability of a eyst. i . x Tl .i,buti. junr. 

obt .-. ,ti d of. variable Stars in the Southern > 

Hemisphere •"■£."' '". Johl 

On the Comet of September, 1862. JNo. l ... John Tebbntt, JOB* 

Oh the Tomel of September, 1862. No. 2 ... - ^^ 

On Australian Storms ••• '•■ ,- ' -. i'.. v U . 1! * 1:;i ' ! ' ■ M ' 

Remarka on tl " M j f..;.>.. ft*., V«* 

Meeting of 7th September, 18G4 ... •■• "" ' p r . Berncastle. 

On the Cave Temples of India ... ■■■ - ]h . i^rncur-tle. 

lidotes - ifr.jMneeCox. 

i, van Caves ... ■■• , - '" Charles^'- 1 ""'- h ' L 

On the Fibre Plants of New South Wales - 
On Osmium and Iridium, obtained from iNew souiu , A Le ibiu., x 

°S^':s l Se; * ce ir *| u- ^ ta * w- " 

Monlrf Profits in Mutual Insurance j M# B . Pe ll. 

aces of Port Jackson ... - '"pi 
On the Transmutation of Rocks in Australasia ... { ^G & £ - ' ' 
On the Oology of Australia ... - •" '" GhRSmalley. 
On e SS 0f ofs"bfe e 're?arons between Geological) q, r. Smalley. 

ChangeTan^i '' " .i'-il and} 

The present state of Astronomical, Magnetical, ana i ^ R Sma .\lej. 

Meteorological Science ; and the practical bearing j 
OnlSStaSfLd Customs of the Aborigines of J Gerard Erefft. 

the Lower Murray and Darling ... 

mral Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke 

e I.— On Non-Linear Coresolvents, l.v tl 
Cockle, F.E.S., President of th 

M.A., F.G.S., &c, Vice- 


Esq., on the bones found in a cav< 

III.— On the \u.-li,TMl, .,-,[ other' Mel 

at £ of the Sydney Mu- 

VerchLTservTce 06 ° f ScUrTy ™ ^ } E - Bedford, M.R.C.S. 

V.-On the Rates el M„r« li.\ ,,:i M taX M. B. Pell, B.A., Pro- 

tion of Life m New South Wale., as * ,, . / V • , ,. 

compared with Lnjun! n,l olherj. tics in I lie I iwrsih 

VI.— Note on the Geology of the Mary River f Rcv - "• E - C1 arke, 
VIL-On the Mutual Influence of Clock Pen- ) G. R. 'smaUey, B.A., 

Vol. II. 


Opening Address by George R. Smalley, B.A., F.E.A.S., Vicc-Pr- side,.. 

Article I.-On the value of Earth Temperatures... < Gh^R. Smaller, B.A., 

II.— On the Improvements effected in Modern C Ger!lrd K,vtVl - FJ '- S - 
Museums in Europe and Australia ) £ M - Z \ 8 -' C " rator of 

n.-o» t- H« Pil „, KeqniMts Jt&Hsgr- 

' V^ -Rcsnb^in S ?^T ° f Syd x T ey - ^ofessor Smith, M.D. 

' VIL ~ Ee Co a n kS ° nthe Dl7 EaS ^- of( Edward Bedford, 
VIII.-On Jta^i Wio-k Wd^lSSft.* 
past, present, and future } M.RCS 

WALES, 1869. 

Vol. III. 

Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, MA., F.G.S., Fice-B^wdm^ 
Article II -An£., ■ l;^-^^^^ ^n^ Gardiner, C.E. 

Divisions •) 

rioriu io tho Kn-ash sin. I !-ivn..-li . irart in Gardiner, C.E. 

urope an J grapw or 

,e country j A M . Thomson , Sc. D 

uonsl rating -„ r.,- T,nn«r. M.P. 

Vol. IV. 

>le II.— Remares on the Report of the Water ") 

to the George's River scheme ...) 

III.— On the Botany Watershed E. Bell, M.I.C E. 

IV.— Notes on the Auriferous Slate and) ^ . __ 

Granite Veins of New South Wales) H " A ' Th o m son. 
V.— On the occurrence of the Diamond near ) By Norman Taylor 

Mudgee i Prof. Thomson, S< 

Opening Address hy Professor Smith, M.D., Vice-President 
Article I—Remarks on the Nebula around Eta^ _ p „ " . 

Argus J II. C. Russell, B.A. 

" ttt~ JJag 1 "*" 5 Variations at Sydney !" H. C. Russell, B.A. 

„ III.— Remarks on the Botany of Lord Howe's) „ , „ 

Island J Charles Moore, F.Li 

„ TV.— New Guinea— a highly promising field") 

for settlement and colonization— that/ t, ^ T 
. such an object could be most easily f Eev - Dr - Lan S- 
and successfully accomplished ...J 

Opening Address by the Rer. W. B. Clarke, MA., Vice-President. 
:le I.— On an Improved Method of Separatir 

„ II.— Remarks on the Fallacy of 

method of Assaying Antimony Ores [ Di 
ttt -n glVe , n b ^ some Ma nuals of Assaying) 

„ Hi—Remarks on Tin Ore, and what may) „ 
appear like it 

„ IV.— On Australian Gems 

>■■.:■• MiinrrStephei 

VI r"Tf !?, H. C. Russell, B.A. 

» rx.— un the Coloured Cluster Stars about") 

Kappa Crucis j H. C. Russell, B.A. 

„ VII.— On the Deniliquin Meteorite C Archibald Liversidgc, 

VIIL-Statistieal Review of the Progress of) * M 

jeaTs 18M-n ale8 m thC la8t tCn ( Chri8 " R ° neston » Es * 



Vol. VII. 
I.— Anniversary Address, by the Key. 

1 and Coal Ports 
VII.— Appendix to " On our Coal 

Vol. VIII. 

B. Clarke, MA., Vice- 

t the Per. W. B. Clarke, 

I Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

' H. C. Russell, B.A. 
James Manning. 

i James Manning. 

James Manning. 

Article I.-Duplex Telegraphy ^^^ ••• - ^' Roberts, M.E.C.S. 
"„ IIL-Criillin-u Stat i-ti'."' ' I ' V" ^"th Wales > J Chris. Eolleston. 
" ^S^J' Mi.n^'SXfSnn John Brazier, C.M.Z.S. 

V-Iro n np h rit a e S s tAUStralia '.-" ■'■'• "• J ' Latta ' E ^' 
" vn-iieTX^WN^^b^ prfSsSeSidg?.' 
"vnil-IronOre (ValD - Wallera- j Pro f esS or Liversidge. 

IX — SornTof'the Bcsults of the Observation } H c Resell, B.A. 
of the Transit of Venus in N.SVV .... 3 
X.— The Transit of Venus as observed at J EeT Wm Scott> M .A. 

— mg&Esazsr* S0CIEir 

Vol. IX. 

(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) pA(JK# 

Article I.-List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, and . ^ ^ 

II.— Proceedings 

, Vice-President 

, VII.— Stanniferous Deposits 

By S. H. Wintle, Hobart Town 

, Till. LVimanent Water Supply to Sydney by Grai 

tion. By James Manning 
IX.— Metropolitan Water Supply. By James Manning 
X.— Water Supply to Sydney by Gravit. • 

XL— Scientific Notes. By H. C."Russell ; 'B.A.,"Govern- 

XII.— Examplis o! Pseudo-Crystal li (ion {Illustrated), 

XIIL— The Mineral- \ I \! wS, „,i u l!( ,/' By p ro f essor 

152 to 153 
154 to 215 



Vol. X. 


(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 

Article I.— List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, and 

List of Members i to xxi 

IL — Anniversary Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 

Irrors shown by Ther- 

7.— On the Origin and Migrations of t 
'.—On the Deep Oceanic Depression off More 

M.A., F.R.S 
III.-Notes on some Remarkat 
mometers ( />/V///,y/,„). 

ngin and JS 
By Rev. Dr7 Lang 

By Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.R.S. ... 
» VI. — Some Notes on Jupiter during his Opposition. By 

„ FIL— On the Genus Ctenodus. Parts I to IV.' (Five 
plates.) By W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S 

„ VIIL-Ontle • I-' : M and Silver. By 

Archibald Liversidge, Professor of V, 
in the University of Sydney ... W 

„ IX.— Recent Copper Extracting Processes. By S. L. 

„ x.— onBOB ■;.; {Tll .; n>hll ^ 

By Rev. J. E. Tenison -Woods. F.G S.. V I..S. 
» XL — Meteor., 1. _ , [ [', , ,1, |, (Thro ,' i mis) 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S.. < 


-^/^ggiX™™*^*^ m to 235 

Lifcrous 8i '' R f 1Ter ' 

He plate) ; and the m 9<V7 . 2 oq 

*5 ; ; :i ;:;!',;v;;:r(£ 

267 to 276 

'' XVIII— Reports from tlie Sections 

1. Macrozamia spiralis. By F. MjI&g 

(Two plates.) 
2. Transverse "" 


Xrtioii of Fang of Human Tooth, 


\: -Plnnfa 


lowing m«»»T -^ Tr, aP pHvorous Plants 

S OTt To£^T^?J^C.Colyer 300 

" 1 '^ ,10U - t . , : t ;" >L ° U ^-r L. Montofioro... 308 

H. C. Russell, B.A., F.B.A.S., Government 31g tQ 32g 
Astronomer •■■ ■■■ - 329 


Vol. XI. 

(Edited by Professor Livcrsidge.) 


:. F.M.S., 

HI.— The Fo: 

IV.-On Dr 


VI.— On the 
VII.— On soi 

Article IX.— On a New Mr:" .,h-er and 

other Metals from Pyrites. By W. A. Dixon, 

tiary Formations. By the Rev. J. E. Tenison- 

Woods, y.c.s., I-M;.i;.s 113 to 128 

XI.— A I . ; , oa _ g v 

R. Etheridge, junr., F.G.S. ... \.. .?. l29tol43 
„ XII.— ( : ■ Hybodus. By W. J. 

Barkas, M.R.C.S. ... .. 145 to 155 

„ XIII.— A 'fining to 

Students ci ' ,. By the 

ytv ^ 0n - J - ? m i th ' CMG ' Mt> " LLI) -' MLC - 157 to 163 

„ XIV.— Notes on the M j — &c>5 
of a Guano Island; and Guano and other 
Phospbatir D, , ■ its, M |,] „ Island. By W. 
A. Dixon F.C.S 165 to 181 

„ XV.— On some An-; ;.. {T)ro 
phf.s.) V, y tl„- Rev. .1. K. 'JYnisonAYoods, 
Yn E.G.S., F.R.G.S 183tol95 

" XVI.-0,, ,,,„ and Sftarinthe 

TVTT n Const e lla ^ n Ara - % J. Tebbutt, F.R. A.S. 197 to 202 

„ X\II.-On a Dental | dortdcUe. 

„ XVIII.-A new' FossU Extinct 'Species'of Kangaroo; ^ *° ^ 
*//,■ uicrvs ,„hmr (< Iwen). By the Rev. W. B. 

XTY C arke ' M - A -. F -R-S- .- 209 to 212 

„ XIX.— .Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances 

vv -By H. C. Russell, B. A., F.R. A.S 213 to 218 


XXI.— Additions to the Librarv .. 
X™— ^ 3t of Exchanges and Present 
XXIII.-Roporta from the Sections... 

Papers read before Sections. 
1. Remarks on the Coccus of the Cape Mul- 
berry. By F. Milford, M.D., &c. 

2, -D N n teS T,° n x/ 0me local 8 I )ccies of Diatomacea?! 

I'.V <■. I>. Hirst 

r .— Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Ob- 
»— -^ the Sydney Observatory. 

" XXVl'ZJnde^ PubIications b y the Society .' .' .' 

Vol. XII. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge and Dr. Leil 
rticle I.— List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, Bv 
and List of Members .. 


f Address, by Christopher Rolleston, 
Forests ; their Botany and Economical 


-The Molluscan 

;ome Australian Tertiarv Fossil Corals 

'oii : 

VII. -On t 

t New South 

V™'' diagrams.) By ^^J 8611, RA ;'. 
1877.^ (TA«e diagrams.) By J. P. Joseph 

O.Russell,B.A., l\l^A.v 1,N>..^- 
■YT On the Metallurgy of Nickel and Cobalt. .By 
XIL-ThePeJp^cllU at, rs of Sydney. By*. A; 

17 to 28 
29 to 56 

VIII.— List of Exchanges a 

-Reports from the S«u««— ••• 

Papers read before the Sections. 

1. NoteonthePlanettTranus. By John Tebbutt, 

2. On' ttt S ixmgitud'e of Sydn. 

, on the Observatories 

-',.11, F - R ^-^ 

T r V ''7l< ' ^ rometer - B y H - C - Eussell, 

N, ;t< "it ■luj.iter during his Opposition, 1 S7s! 

1 ' 
■ s ' : ■•■..■■■,.■, 

Venus. By H. C. Russell, B.A., !'.!; \ S 

Notes on the Geocentric Conjun.ti.i of Mars 

F n R.A S S tUm ' 1879- By J ° hn Tebbutt ' 

2. Remarks on the Mounting of Large Obiect- 

o n glaS lf" ^yH-C-^^B.A.rP.R.A.S. 

6. On a New Form of Equatorial Mounting. Bv 
j H.C. Russell, B.A.,F.R.A.S. ... g 7 

4. Note on the Boorook Silver Mine Bv A W 

Dixon, F.C.S ' J ' 

5. Notes on the Incrustation of the Svdnev 

Water Mam. IM),. Morris... * * 

of Photography in our Schools of Art and 
Science. By Ludovico Hart 

7. On Music. By Mons. .Jules Meilhan.. 

-" B.A., F.R.A.S., Government 

" J™-- List of Publications"! Z 

„ XXII.— Index _" 


Vol. XIII. 


(Edited by Prof. Liversidge.) 
Article L - Lis a t n( f^°ffi c f ^, i Fundamental Rules, By-laws, 

TI — Al ^ \h>n. Professor 

■ ...Russell,' 

University of 

By the Rev. W. 

^l^w/ °i Distich opora,* 'with 'a Mono- 
graph of the Genus. By the Rev. J. E. 

lemson-\\,„„ls. r.d.S.. |\L.,S 

1 Formations of New Zealand 

VT n% y ? iarp '- 
VI.— On the Anatomy 


compare, Jwrth &« 
VIII n % c *? r ' SI -"-.< , -M.<J.. F.IJ.S. ... 
V1I1._ On the Langu ._, f Austral a in , ■ i„, , i 



Article IX.-Photography, its relatxon to ropu- . 

By L. Hart ... " yB on vo; . m m u r, 

.. X.-Ottehapraterita F.v M.By^an) 

:.C.M.G, M.D., P;H^ t X Stars, Epoch 

.„, of Latitude 
880. ByH.S.' 


Likable Boulders n 
°the Hawkesbury Rocks. 
Xm._The L #e I Sr!h Hurricane^ By H. CI 
B.A., F.R.A.S. ... - - • 
XIV. -Proceedings ••• - - "" 
XV._Ad, 1 iti nstothel.l ; ra 1 > rcseutat . ons 

XVII.— Reports 

new met! ' Z 163 

11. r. !•:■•• .,., Sept. ig5 

•;. TheBiVer a, B.A., 

pass through it. Hy »• v - _ ... 1M» 

F.R.A.S... ■■■ ^•"g^ives manufactured 

5. Notes on * 1 Hirst ... *' 

U ( nl Zeiss. ot.U-na. >> \. Qnt oue -tenth 

- . ,,;■■ 

tri»l< E B liana and 

\rtCritu-is.... Uv 1 ; L ' ^^n by L. 
Th( , 1; i,,.k Forest. Vrom »*' m 1861 ... 

rr G K™7 

\im.>ndix ; Abstract 01 
By H. C. Russell, U.A., 



List of Officers, Rules, anu ^ 


Vol. XIV. 



and Jupiter. By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

VTT / KA «- ' 

IX.— On Thunder and HaifstnrmV 

aTd^r^ 6 Col r s of ***«* B ^.' 

ana some changes observed thereon durine 
the Opposition of 1880. By G D Hirst 
XII.-A Catalogue of Pknts collected during Mr.' 
TffS * 0I ?T s geographical Exploration of 
North-west Australia in 1879. By Baron 

lbte ba . rkmgand its Effects - *y w - e. 

Xl\ .- Won the Fossil Floraof Eastern Australia 

y^t ^ H - ** ennie > M -A., Btsc. 

r 77^ Vr " wlulKer J'eistmantel. 
V? A T?? tlVe Currant l; - v K - 

IX -'V;' ii Islands. By ^ 

taS^ S f Cast " iron acte <* '^Pon by 7 148 

XXL-OnT ^ r \ I H9 to 154 

xxit t! 111 ; vXiL i55toiw 


XXVI.-Notes™ —"ST -.. 

I;REtheridge,junr F.GS. (Plate-) 2*7 to 258 
XXVIII -AT. .■ ^inspect Mid 

K laterSupplyfor j^jg, 

XXIX._ 0n Sy Wc e £ Af iLS W By £ 

K Ml t I'M (1/.;) ••■ £»»££ 

ixl:=E jjfr**'* "U 

Society of New South Wales ... ••• £, ^ m 
Papfr bead befobe the Medical Section. 

Vol. XV. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge, F. R. S. ) 


the Rev. Peter MacPherson, *.»■■ recent 
n Comet II, 18b . y „„ sures of some ot 

X.— New Doubl \ l S ^' ir JUUU . 

R^^!a'^K:A>;. , ''' V ' 1 


Article XII. -On the 

Ferns. By W. A. Dixon, 

.r.M <..,M.D.,Ph.D.,F.R.S. 
XIV. -Notes on Wool. By P. N. Trebeek 

„ XVI.— Proceedings 333 to 348 

„ to the Library 349to365 

, , X VI ! I . d e I )y the Royal Society 

of New South Wales 366 to 373 

Proceedings of the Sections 377 to 407 

Papers read before the Sections. 
On the Star Lacaille 2145. By John Tebbutt, F.E. A.S... 379 

On the Variable Star 11. Carinas. By John Tebbutt, 

F.R.A.S 380to385 

On sonic 01 . ByW. 

J. Conder 386 to 392 

The Orbit-Elements of Comet II, 1881. By John Tebbutt, 

F.R.A.S 393to395 

Is Insanity increasing ? By F. Norton Maiming, M.D. ... 399to407 
Abstract of the Meteorological Observations at the 



Vol. XVI. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge, F.R.S. 

Officers for 1882-83 

Act of Incorporation 


(Second notice.) By A. 

F.C.S. (Three Plate,) ° ... 

Bingera Meteorite. New South 

By A. Li' 

ersidge, F.R. 

T ,r ^yA.Liversidge, F.B.S., F.C.S. (One Plate) 35 to 37 

:il. Hocks, 

New South Wales, &c. ( Preliminary notice ) 

V "~^dimT."u$' notice!," ''->'"' A. Liversidg,', 

V iL_TropS , "uai'"^ ' V:> 'ii'. «;. 'kVissl-II, i'..a : . 

IX - s t:,,; '.- <;'V 

t„ v hcr .Ib.llestoii, C.M.U., Auditor-General, 

XI - » K ;;;' ty 

Temson- Woods, t.US., r-.L-b., a.c. U"' Lt 
the' Aborigines of New Holland. By 

e Kpipliytie Orchids. 

XTV-AFosId!'! ''^^ ''r'V^tws' 

XV.-Th F e Aborigines of New South Wales. By J. ^ tQ ^ 
Fraser, B.A. ... ••■ ."V climates 

Xrtnwt). By Dr. Andrew Ross, M.L. A, 235to242 

Molong ... •" '" '., 243to256 

Proceedings ... " "' "\ Z ... 259to27] 

; ; v the Royal Society of New South ^ 

w£Tw82 ••• - •'• - '" "! 283to28! 

IVncrc'lill^ of til. >r,!i-.lis ... . ■ ■■ ;; -^ t the 

Al ' lH Sv!lnc\ Obsm-itory. !'■> H < • ^ U ' »■ A " ' ' ^^ 293to30 
,, ■ ( ;T^Z i Vt\Ty^ r im:'^y H- CRussell, B.A., 

i'.i:. \'s. ... - 305 to 31 

ustoi l'ui'HcHtions... -• ■•■ - ;;; ;;. .. tato» 

Vol. XVII. 


(Edited by Prof. Liversidge, F.R.S.) p ^ 

Officers for 1883-34 ... - - '" '//. '/.'. ... « 

Act of Incorporation... ••• — #< ... ... *v 

Rules, List of Members, &c. 


I.— President's Address. By Christopher Kolleston, 

II.— On the Aborigines inhabiting the Great Lacus- 
trine and Rivertine Depression of the Lower 
Murray, Murrumbidgee, Lower Laehlan, and 
Lower Darling. By Peter Beveridge 

III. —On the Waianamatta Shales. By the Rev. J. E. 
Tenison- Woods, F.G.S., P.L.S., Ac. 

IV.— Further B D Strophalosise, 

and description of a new species of Aucella 

Australia. By Robert Etheridge, iunr., 
F.G.S., &c. (Tier Plates) ... ... ... 

V.— On Plain Yorth Queens- 

land. Flinders, and M it -ln-11 Rivers for food, 
medicine, &c. By Edward Palmer, M.L.A., 

jcies. By Charles Moore, 
ByH. C.Ru!sell,B.A., 

VIII. -Some Fac 

. C, Russell, B.A, F.R.A.S., F..M.S. ... 

„ IX.— On the discolouration of white bricks made 

from certain clays in the neighbourhood of 

Sydney. By E. H. Rennie, M.A., D.Sc. ... 

„ X.— On the Roots of the Sugar-cane. By Henry 

Ling Roth, F.MS., F.S.S. (Two Plates) ... 

XI.— On l Irrigation in U],,, v India. ByH. G. 

xil— on .",, Sol " lth { VaIi ;^ 

Wood Sui ' ply ' and Irri g ation - B y A - Pe pys 

„ XIII. -Additions to tlio ( ensus , ,f the Genera of Plants 

hitherto knoun a- indigenous to Atistralia. 

Ph.R? r F n R V S.?& ] c IUeller ' KC - M - G " M ' D " 

„ XIV— Abstract of Papers upon the Chemistry of 

_ _,. A »*< -l-'l' du t.s I., \ \\ Dixon, F.C.S. 


Additions to the Library 

^'tesoufh WaTeTS" "^ ^ *°** ***** ° f 

Proceedings of the Sections 

Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Observations at the 
PM l 7 n ' 1, B.A., F.R.A.S , 
r.ivi.s., Government Astronomer 

f R.S for the year 1883 - B r H - c - Kusse "> B -A.',' 

List of Publications... 



Vol. XVIII. 


(Edited by Prof. Liversidge, F.R.S.) 

Officers for 1884-85 xiii ' 

Smith, C.M.O., M.D., LL.D 

2. June 4. On the Removal of Bars from the entrances to our 

Rivers. I - c. M. Inst. 

3. July 2. Notes on Gold. By Dr. Lcihius, MA, F.C.S. ... 

4. „ „ On some New South Wales Minerals. By Prof. 

Liversidge, F.R.S 

5. „ „ On the Oven-mounds of Aborigines in Victoria. 

By Rev. Peter M' Pherson, M. A 

6. Aug. 6. Notes on the Trochoided Plane. By Laurence 


7. Sept. 3. A new form of Actinometer. By H. C. Russell, 

B.A, F.R.A.S 

8. Nov. 5. Notes on some Mineral Localities in the Northern 

Districts of N. S. Wales. By D. A. Porter ... 

9. Dec. 3. Notes on Doryanthes. By Charles Moore, F.L.S. 

10. „ „ Water Supply in the Interior of N. S. Wales. By 


11. „ „ Notes on a New Self-registering Anemometer. 

By H. C. Russell, B A., F.R.A.S 

12. „ 17. Embryology of the Mirsupmlm. Monotreinata, 

and Ceratodus. By W. H. Caldwell, M.A., 
Balfour Scholar, and Fell. Caius Coll. Cam. ... 


Additions to the Library 

Exchanges and Presentations made by the Royal Society of New 

Sydney Observai 

F. MS., Gov,™ 


Caldwell, W. H., M.A., Balfour 
Scholar and Fell. Caiua Coll. on 
the Embryology of the Marsupialia, 
Monotremata, and Ceratodus 117, 1 

Caspian Sea at Baku, analyses of 

■ " ' 

Clarence River 31 

I liii 

Climate of New South Wales 85 1 

Comets, experiment illustrating for- 


i, Building Fund iii. 

Coode, Sir John, on the formation of 

River-bars 26 

Corresponding Members Iii 

Corundum 77 

ations 139 

Crystallized gold 43 


Dead Sea, analyses of water from ... 95 

Diamonds 79, 139 

/ii/postomus (intestinal 

worm) 176 

Donations, Building Fund » 

Doryanthes 8* 

Doryanthes Palmeri 81 

Drainage or outflow, ratio of, to rain- 

ting • 12 

Elton Lake, Kirghis Steppe, analyses 

of water from 95 

»,Moao- _ 

tremata, and Ceratodus 117 

Exchanges in 18S3 lb& 


Flints at Mittagong ■•■••• 139 

Fracture of the cervical vertebras, 

by Dr. Cosby Morgan ............ 1»U 

Fractureof theskulL by Dr. Chambers 180 

Fund, Building donations • • • • » 

contributions promised ill 

Galena, argentiferous 139 

Gems from Bern in a 139 

G & c j ilj :. o( ... the .. c . 0,oni8ts ' " r si 

. analyses of water from 

Irill 93 

Gold, Noteson, by Dr. Leibius, M.A., 

F.( '.s 37 

Gold in Queensland, remarkable 

„ 'preparation of fine' ".".'.'.'.'.'.'. ...... 40 

„ volatilr/at.on of 41 

„ native, with antimonite 43 

„ crystallized 43 

Head, Mental Disturbance after 

injurytothe 181 

Honorary Members li 

Hughes' Induction Balance and Sono- 

■ i ns in oven-mounds 55 

>.\ Dr. (.'iiai l'ii l v <» 

tdocrase, near Nundle 45 

Induction Balance— Hughes' 139 

Injury to the Head, Mental Distur- 
bs nor o! \ v South Wales, water 
supply in the 85 

-Krakatoa, great eruption of 19 


Lca.l. carbonate of, Silverton 13C 

Leibius. A.. IMi.D., M.A., F.C.S., 

Notes on Uold 3' 

Library, Ad.l * on, to the 145 

■ 8] 

JBkyney ! 4! 

Prof., F.I 

Liversidge, Prof., F.R.S. &c. On 

gems from Berrima 139 

Loss of memory 181 


MacPherson, M.A., Rev. Peter, on 

the < iwii-mounds of Aborigines in 


■• ii i'' : ;••■•■ ■ 

, • ,...;.. 

to Loss of Memory 181 

fall for year 1883. Appendix. 

•j. of t in • . . 117 
ke liii, 3 

V V. 

i • _...'i ib'i: •- • • i" 

is of 181 

'arbance after injury to 
the Head 181 


' ' \[Z l T.T..^T* i7i 

rulings 17S 


Districts of New South Wales 11 

Liversidge, F.R.S 

Mittagong, gems from .. 


Monotrentata, Embryology of the ... 
Moore, Charles, F.L.S. Notes on 

Munyeroo, aborigines' food 



Nardoo, aborigines' food 

Native bread or potato •• 

New South Wales Minerals, by Prof . 
Liversid-o, F.R.S 

in the Northern Districts of 

N.w South Wales, Water Supply in 


Observations, Meteorological, at the 

Officers xiii 

st — ruptured, by Dr. 

Williamson 18C 

lb, a case of, by Dr. Foreman 18C 
Oven-mounds of aborigines 4£ 


Pasteur, M., M.D., elected honorary 

! . • \ 

Wales * 81 

sln-yos, Burnet River ... 13* 
r, anew self- registering... 119 

Poolamacca, tin ore from 13! 

Porter, D. A., Notes on some mineral 
in the Northern Districts 

of New South Wales 7! 

Presentations in 1883 161 

President's Add re^. 1>\ tin- 1 1 mi. Prof. 

M.G., M.D., LL.D 

Proceedings of the Society 121 

Proceedings of the Sections 17! 

. list of 20: 

Pyrites concretions 41 

Pyrites (arsenical), in serpentine 13! 


Queensland, remarkable occurrence 
ofgoldin 3' 


Rainband Spectroscope 1. 

Rainfall Map for year 1883. Appendix 
Wall, rates of> to drainage or out . 

^f5ows'"::::::::::::;;:;;;:;::;;;;;;;;:;: I 

•Ked soil from the Darling watershed, 

analysesof ° 9 

Report, Annual, ..f the Council ,..12 
River Bars 2 

PvUll'S ^ 

k «^h.'"c.'; , ra;; Tra.sta 

new form of .\ 
Ru8se n,H.C.,B.A.,F.R.A.s:, Nutrs 
°n a new self -registering Anemo- 
meter and Pluviometer.. 11 


Russell, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S., 
Meteorological Observations at the 

Sydney Observatory 189 

fall Map for 1883, by Appendix. 


Salt Lake, Utah, analyses of water 
from 94 

Icheelite at Hillgrove 44 

self-registering Anemometer and 

!elwyn Dr. Alfred. "e."c",' FRS.'^ 
aded Clarke Medal for 

1SS4 Hii 

..alter, Assoc. M. Inst. 
C. E. On the Removal of Bars from 

ident's Address 1 

malysesof 91 

Sonometer— Hughes' 130 

i new mounting medium. 178 


'/',,,,.;,; rrpanxa (tape-worm) 178 

argentiferous galena 

"e Pooiamacca,' Barrier 'Ranges 139 

. .. ..77. i.;;< 

Trochoided Plane »J 



Water analyses . . _ 0> 

[yses of, from diamond- 

Water Supply in the interior of New 
South Wales 

Waves, action of the — Mr. David 
Stevenson, F.R.S.E., on the 

Wilkinson, C. S., F.G.S., e 
illustrating formation of c