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Royal Society or New Sorrn Wal 

Abbott, Hon. .1. I'.. M.I. A. (CI Is.. C". 

Abbott, Thos. K.. S.M \Y. I-:, f CI Is.. CIO).. 

Alexander, G. M 

Amos, Robert 

Ilrodvil.b, linn. \V. A., M.L.C., F.R.( 

Brooks. Joseph, F.R.G.S 

Ifcwn, II.. I. | CI Is., f I Is.) 

Burnell, A. J. (£2 2s., 
Cailell, The Hon. Thoi 
Cadell, Alfred 

Alex., J. P. (£1 Is., £10).. 

ie, L. II 

lis, Hon. L. F., M.L.C {£ 

Flavelle, Bros, and lie 
Flavelle, John 

Ha.-^ilrnnaiuMio 5s„ C3 3s.) 

llaklraVv. Liwivi'uv' '.'."..'.". '.'.'.'.■.".'.■.'.!'.;■. 
. M. (£10 10s., £10) 

Hay?Hon. Sir John,' K.(\M.^', i'fl'O," 
Helms, Albert, Ph. D., Berlin 

.' •. I'tiio ii)s'.^'£ri," t-i'-is.)"! 

Hills, Robert. 

Keele, 'J 

Mac Donald, E. (£2 :2s., £2 2s.) 

MacDomicll, S 

MacDonnell, W. (C;>, 'J2 2s.) 

Mackenzie, John, F. G. S 

MacPherson, Rev. 1'., M.A. (£2 i 

Maitland, D. M 

Makin. <;. K. ,L'l h,.,£-2-2,.) .... 

Manfred, E. C 

Mann, J. F 

Manning, !\ X., M.])., St. And. ( 
Manning, sir Win., LL.D. (£2 2s. 
Matthews, Robert!'. (€1 Is.. CI 
Markey, James, L.R.< '.[>., Kdin.. 
Marsden, Right Rev. Dr 

Merriman, J.. 


Morlev. !\ . 

s. v.L.S 

A. A. ( 


f 2s ; ] ' 

Norton, Hon. J 

. A. Innes, B A 

CrReillv, W. W. J., M.'T).. i hi 
■ i-.A., (Viand:.. 

Pedley, L". R 

Potts, F. H. 
Quaife, F. H 

'': ,: '"'" 

Robertson, Th 

Smith, Hon. Professor. l.M.i ;., M.I. < . (£5, £2 2s., £1 Is.) 8 3 

Smith, Robert, M.A 10 10 J 

Starkey, J. T • * 

Stephens, Prof. W. J., M.A on 

Styles, G. M - - 

Suttor, W. H 7 V n 

Syer, F. W } \ " 

Taylor, W ^ J J 

Tebbutt, J., F.R.A.S 10 

Thomas, H. A. (£3, £2 2s.) inn 

Thomson, Joseph j> 

Thomson, Dugald o o n 

Thompson, J. Ashb 2^0 

Toohey, J. T 10 

Trouton, F. H. (£3 3s., £1 Is.) 4 4 

Tucker, G. A., Ph. D 10 10 

Voss, H. H., J.P. (£10 10s., £20) 30 10 

Walker, Thomas 500 

Walker, H. 1 1 

Ward, : Major-! k-neral Sir Kdward, K.C.M.G., R.E 5 

Ward, J. \V. (£2 10s., £2 10s., £2 2s., £2 2s., £2 2s.) 11 6 

Ward, R. ]>., M.R.C.S 5 5 

Wardell, W. W., M.I.C.E 3 3 

Waterhouse, J 2 2 

Watt, A. J. (€5 5s., £1 Is.) 6 

Watt, Charles , 2 2 

Webster, A. S. (£10, £10) 20 

W -ton. W. J. i £ 
■White, Rev. Dr. • 

Woolrych, F. B. W. (£3 3s., £2 2 
Wright, II. K. A., 1I.R.C.S.E. ( 

I, '104 








"VOL. XX. 

Messrs. Triibner & Co., 57, Ludsrate Hill, London, E.C. 

Mo. tfot. Garo 



The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 182 1 
as the " Philosophical Society of Australasia"; after an interval 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
"Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed its present title, 
and was incorporated by Act of the Parliament of New South 
Wales in 1881. 

>me new Poisonous Plants dis- 
Liver, North C 
, F.L.S. 

VI.— Further Additions to the Census of the Genera of 
Plants hitherto known as indigenous to Australia. By- 
Baron Ferd. vattM i h.D., F.R.S., &c. 
VII. — Notes on the Process of Polishing and Figuring 18-in. 
Glass Specula by 1 1 i wi rh Flat Surfaces. 

By H. F. Madsen , 

VIII. -Tin Deposits of New South Wales. By S. Herbert 

Aboriginal Nar 
logically examined. By 

X.— Our Lakes and their Uses. By Fredk, B. Gipps, C. E. . . . 
XI.— Notes upon the History of Floods in the Paver Darling. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., &c 

XII.— Notes on the Sweet Principle of Smilax Glycyphylla. 

By Professor Edward H. Rennie, M. A. , D. Sc 

XHI.— Notes on the Theory of Dissociation of Gases. By 

Professor R. Threlfall, B.A. (Cantab) 

XIV. — Results of the Observations of the Comets Fabry, 
Barnard, and Brook- i.V, I ls>.;. v. Windsor, N.S.W. 

XV.— Notes on some Rocks and Minerals from New Guinea, 

Art. XVI.— Notes on som. Iver and other 
Minerals. By Professor Liversidge, F.R.S., &c 

Art. XVII. — On the Composition of some Pumice and Lava from 

the Pacific. By Professor Liversidge, F. R. S. , &c 

i George. By H. C. 


Exchanges u. Society of 

Proceedings of the Sections 

Sanitary Section. 
The Ventilation of Sewers and the Dwelling. By J. Trevor 

Jones, City Engineer 

On the Rational Construction of Chairs and Desks. By Reuter 

E. Roth, M.R.C.S.E 

Notes on I r the Eastern Suburbs, &c. 

By F. H. Quaife, M.D. (Univ. Glas.) 

The Recent Outbreak of Small-pox on M.M. "Oceanien." 

By J. Ashburton Thompson, M.D. (Brux.), San. Sci. Cert. 

(Camb.) T. 

A Note upon Scavenage. By J. Ashburton Thompson, M.D. 

(Brux.), San. Sci. Cert. (Camb.) 

Sanitation of the Suburbs of Sydney. By J. Trevor Jones, 

\t ^ogal Sooetg of |te Stout]} Males 





M.L.C., A.M., M.B. I M.D., Brux. 

PEDLEY, P. R. WEIGHT, H. G. A., M.B ( £ E, *< 



An Act to incorporate a Society called " The 
Royal Society of New South Wales." [16 
December, 1881.] 

WHEREAS a Society called (with the sanction of Her P 
Most Gracioi - M.-iji-n the Queen) "The Royal 
Society of New South V. in ru l e s and 

by-laws been formed at Sydney in the Colony of New South 
Wales for the encouragement of studies and investigations 
in Science Art !.:;• ratlin eu d Philosophy And whereas 
the Council of the said Society is at the present time 
composed of the following office-bearers and members His 
Excellent \ t! IViA'A 1! mi I'LniA., '-tus LoftusP.C. 
G.C.B. Honorary President The Honorable John Smith 
<*.M.<; Vh [.L.D IV. i ' ., and Charles Moore Esquire 
F.L.S. Director of the Botanic Gardens Sydney and Henry 
Chamberlaine Russell Esquire B.A. (Sydney) F.R.A.S. 
FAl.S. London Government Astronomer for New South 
Wales Vice-Presidents and H. G. A. Wright Esquire 
M.R.C.S. Honorary Treasurer Archibald Liversidge Esquire 
Associate of the Royal School of Mines London Fellow of 
the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland and 
Professor of < . - in the University of 

Sydney and > •' ., ,:,•■• Doctor of Philo- 

niYeraity of Heidelberg Fellow of the Insti- 
tute of Chemistry of Great l.'Vitain and Ireland Honorary 
Secretaries W. A. Di 

of Great Bri tai R obert Hunt 

Esquire Associate of the Royal School of Mines London 
!) ' tj M t< - [j I) ch R Mint Eliezer L. 

Montefiore Esquire Christopher Rolleston Esquire C.M.G. 

be So 


y hereby i 




; : t ; ] ;.':;; 

a quorum according 

at' th 


mo being 

shall be present 



one of such persons 

> of the said Society 
dstant Secretary of 


the Presii 

lent Vice-Presidents 

lid Society 

.- for the time being 

which it may be requisite to serve upon the Corporation 
may be served upon the Secretary or one of the Secretaries 
as the ease may be or if there lie no Secretary or if the 
Secretaries or Secretary he absent from the Colony then 
upon the President or either of the Vice-Presidents. 

3. The present rules and by-laws of the said Society shall 
be deemed and considered to be and shall be the rules and 
by-laws of the said Corporation save and except in so far as 
an\ of them are or shall or may be altered varied or repealed 
under the powers for that purpose therein contained or are 

and hold Ian. Is and any intmst th.r. in ami :. 

..'... . . .-...., ■'■;,■ 

■-. under 1 1 1 « - 

i- ih. in shall 
. • • ( : i ■ • 

find demands in anyv :-■ 

[ property of the Corpo- Liability 

then current year be liable to contribute a sum equal thereto 
towards the payment of such engagements but shall not be 
otherwise individually liable- for the same and no member 
who shall have commut <\ his annual s U b> ription shall be so 
liable for any amount beyond that of one year's subscription. 
8. The Council shall have the custody of the common seal 
of the Corporation - m d have power to use the same in the 
affairs and business of the Corporation and for the execution , 
of any of the securities d uler such seal 

authorize any person without such soul to' execute any deed 
or deeds and do such other matter as may be required to be 
done on behalf of the Corporation but it shall not be neces- 
sary to use the said seal in respect of the ordinary business 
of the Corporation nor for the appointment of their 
Secretaries Solicitor or other officers. 
lf 9. The production of a printed or written copy of the 
rules and by-laws of the Corporation certified in writing by 
the Secretary or one of the Secretaries as the case may be 
to be a true copy and having the common seal of the 
■■■ shall be cniu-lusive evidence in 
all Courts of such rules and by-laws and of the same having 
been made under the authority of this Act. 

10. In case any of the elections directed by the rules and 
by-laws for the turn b i u of the Corporation to be made 
shall not be made at the times required it shall nevertheless 
be competent to the Council or to the members as the case 
may be to make such elections respectively at any ordinary 
meeting of the Council or at any am 

meeting held subsequently. 

11. The Secretary or either one of the Secretaries may 
, ,v l' n s, ' nt th '' Corporation in all legal and equitable pro- 
may for and on l-imlf of the Corporation make 

' ■ and do su.-h acts and si-n hU eh documents as 
are or may be required to be done bv the plaintiff or 
complainant i 
which the Corporation may be parties. 

was not able to < xantine the se.-tioi 

..,,11-..' of th ■ uiat< rk ! on t!a surface, which is included in tl 
90 feet of sinking, appears to consist of a line-grained f. 
. : „- ash, whirl, Ii; > hern convert* 1. at places. b\ derompositi, 
ash beds are found in other seci 


Section along tunnel in Bailey's Claim. 

T. Tunnel from which wash-dirt has heen removed :— 

a, Slates. 1>. Felspar porphyry. c. Sediment overlying the tia-wash. 

and I believe a similar section was met with in the old workings. 

This felspar pori Ip n . which, is < all* d gi mite locally, is looked 

such is 1,1 eonbterih th- <- , > It i- of th gieatest importance, 
however, to place on record the fact that at one point in this 
mine there is an undoubted instance of a tin gutter on this 
rock, the lead of tin being overlain by a rock which corresponds 

in all respects wirh th<> lower one. This section is cut across by 
a small prospectir.-- drive, in the .-ale of which it can be seen, as 
follows :— 

„ Admission of 

Money Grants 

Object of the Society 


„ Duration of 

„ Vacancies amongst 

Order of Business 

Property of the Society 

Quorum at the Council Meetings 

Kules, Alteration of 

i, Hon., Duties o: 


(Revised October 1st, 1879.) 
al Rules adopted November 6th, 1S84, marked thu, 

Object of the Society. 

I. The object of the Society is to receive at its stated meetings 
original papers on Science, Art, Literature, and Philosophy, and 
especially on such subjects as tend to develop the resources of 
Australia, and to illustrate its Natural History and Productions. 

Honorary President. 

II. The Governor of New South Wales shall be ex officio 
Honorary President of the Society. 

Other Officers. 

III. The other Officers of the Society shall consist of a 
President, who shall hold office for one year only, but shall be 
eligible for re-election after the lapse of one year ; two Vice- 
Residents, a Treasurer, and one or more Secretaries, who, with 
six other members, shall constitute a Council for the management 
of the affairs of the Society. 

meet ion of Officers and Council. 

IV. The President, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, Treasurer, 
and the six other members of Council, shall be elected annually 
by ballot at the General Meeting in the month of May. 

^ V. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare a 
list containing the names of members whom they recommend for 
election to the respective offices of President, Vice-Presidents, 
Hon. Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names 
or six other members whom they recommend for election as 
ordinary members of Council. 

The names thus recommended shall be proposed at one meeting 
of the Council, and agreed to at a subsequent meeting. 

Such list shall be suspended in the Society's Booms, and a copy 
shall he sent to each ordinary member not less than fourteen days 
before the day appointed for the Annual General Meeting. 

Va. There shall be elected on to the Council for each ensuing 
year, at least two and not more than three members of the Society 
who were not members of the Council for the previous year. 

VI. Each member present at the Annual General Meeting 
shall have the power to alter the list of names recommended by 
the Council, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and removing from it an equivalent 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 

The name of each member voting shall be entered into a book, 
kept for that purpose, by two Scrutineers elected by the members 

No ballot for the election of members ot Council, or of new 
members, shall be valid unless twenty members at least shall 
record their votes. 

Vacancies in the Council during the year. 

VII. Any vacancies occurring in the Council of Management 
during the year may be filled up by the Council. 

Candidates for admission, 

VIII. Candidates must be at least twenty-one years of age. 
Every candidate for admission as an ordinary member of the 

Society shall be recommended according to a prescribed form of 
certificate by not less than three members, to two of whom the 
candidate must be personally known. 

Such certificate must set forth the names, place of residence, 
and qualifications of the candidate. 

The certificate shall be read at the three Ordinary General 
Meetings of the Society next ensuing after its receipt, and 

place in ouc of the rooms of the 

The vote as to admission shall take place by ballot, at the 
Ordinary General Meeting at which the cert iiicato is appointed 
to be read the third time, and immediately after such reading. 

At the ballot the assent of at least four-fifths of the members 
voting shall be requisite for the admission of the candidate. 

Entrance Fee and Subscriptions. 
IX. The entrance money paid by members on their admission 
shall be Two Guineas; and the annual subscription shall be 
Two Guineas, payable in advance ; but members elected prior to 
December, 1879, shall be required to pay an annual subscription of 
One Guinea only as heretofore. 

The amount of ten annual payments may be paid at any time 
as a life composition for the ordinary annual payment, 
otherwise the 

IXb. Composition fees shall be treated as capital, and shall 
be devoted to the Building Fund Account, or invested. 

New Members to be informed of their election. 

X. Every new member shall receive duo notification of his 
election, and be supplied with a copy of the obligation (Xo. 3 in 
Appendix), together with a copy of the Eules of the Society, a 
list of members, and a card of the dates of meeting. 

Members sL ' dmiuion. 

XI. Every member who has complied with the preceding 
Eules shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which he 
shall be present sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation in a 

book to be kept for that purpose, after which, he shall be presented 
by some member to the Chairman, who, ftddrt wing him by name, 
shall say :— "In the name of the Eoyal Society of New South 
Wales I admit you a member thereof." 

Annual subscriptions, iclten due. 

XII. Annual subscriptions shall become due on the 1st of 
May for the year then commencing. The entrance fee and first 
year's subscription of a new member shall become due on the 
day of his election. 

XIIa. Persons elected on or after the first day of October in 
any year shall pay the annual contribution as in advance for the 
following year, but in every ease within two months after noti- 
fication of their e!< rtion has b< t m le to tin in l>v the Honorary 

XIII. An elected member shall 

be printed in the list of the Society, until 1 

returned to the Secretaries the obligation sig 



Subscriptions in arrears. 

XIV. Members who have not ; ; 

ul wript 

ions for the 

current year, on or before the 31st of .Uav. 

-hall bo 

informed of 

the fact by the Hon. Treasurer. 

No member shall be entitled 1 

subscription for the previous rear 

The name of any member \s\ 

with his subscriptions shall be ■ 

but such member may be re-admitted on { 

explanation to the Counei!, and 

arrears wiih their . K-.I in Hie 

Eooms of the Society. Members shall in Mich eases be informed 
that their names have been thus posted. 

XIVa. Any member in arrears shall cease to receive the 
Society's publication-, and shall not be entitled to any of the 
privileges of the Society until such arrears are paid. 

Resignation of Members. 

XV. Members who wish to resign their membership of the 

Society are requested to give notice in writing to the Honorary 

Secretaries, and are required to return all books or other property 

belonging to the Society. 

Expulsion of Members. 
- '■• 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member from the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after t: om, tii * hieh t-ucli resolution 
has been brought forward, 

Honorary Members. 

XVII. The Honorary Members of the Society shall be persons 
who have been eminent benefactors to this or some other of 
the Australian Colonies, and dist . ■ promoters 

of the objects of the Society. Every person proposed as an 
Honorary Member must be recommended by the Council and 
elected by the Society. Honorary Members, shall be exempted 
from payment of fees and contributions : they may attend the 
meetings of the Society, and they shall be furnished with copies 
of the publications of the Society, but they shall have no right 
to hold office, to vote, or otherwise interfere in the business of 
the Society. 

The number of Honorary MJ -.'" one ' time 

exceed twenty, and not more than two Honorary Members shall 

be elected i 

■ vear 

Corresponding Members. 

XVIII. Corresponding Members shall be persons, not resident 
in New South Wales, of eminent scientific attainments, who may 
have furnished papers or otherwise promoted the objects of the 

Corresponding Members shall be recommended by the Council, 
and be balloted for in the same manner as ordinary Members. 

Corresponding Members shall possess the Bame privileges only 
as Honorary Members. 

The number of Corresponding Members shall not exceed 
twenty-five, and not more than three shall be elected in any one 

Ordinary General Meetings. 

XIX. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Royal Society, to 
be convened by public advertisement, shall lake place al s p.m., 
on the first Wednesday in every month, during the last eight 
months of the year ; subject to alteration by the Council with 

Order of Business. 

XX. At the Ordinary General Meetings the business shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1 — Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

2— New Members to enrol their names and be introduced. 

3 — Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4— Candidates for membership to be proposed. 

5 — Business arising out of Minutes. 

6 — Communications from the Council. 

7 — Communications from the Sections. 

8 — Donations to be laid on the TaMc and acknowledged. 

9 — Correspondence to be read. 
10— Motions from last Meeting. 

11— Notices of Motion for the next Meeting to be given in. 
12— Papers to be read. 
13 — Discussion. 
14— Notice of Papers for the nest Meeting. 

XXa. At the ordinary meetings of the Society nothing relating 
to its regulations or management, except as regards the election 
or ejection of members, shall be brought forward, unless the same 

be otherwise provided for in these Rules. 

XXb. A special meeting of the Society may be called by the 
Council, provided that seven .lays notice be given by advertisement, 
or shall be so called on a requisition signed by at least twenty-five 
members of the Society, to consider any special business thus 

Annual General Meeting. — Annual Reports. 

XXI. A General Meeting of the Society shall be held annually 
in May, to receive a Eeport from the Council on the state of 
the Society, and to elect Officers for the ensuing year. The 
Treasurer shall also at this meeting present the annual financial 

Admission of Visitors. 

XXII. Eveiy ordinary member shall have the privilege of 
introducing two friends as visitors to an Ordinary General 
Meeting of the Society or its Sections, on the following con- 
ditions : — 

1. That the name and residence of the visitors, together 
with the name of the member introducing them, be 
entered in a book at the time. 

have attended two consecutive 
ty or of any of its Sections in the 
current year. 
The Council shall have power to introduce visitors irrespective 
of the above i 

Council Meetings. 
XXIII. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take 
place on the last Wednesday in every month, and on such other 
days as the Council may determine. 

XXIIIa. The President or Hon. Secretaries, or any three 
Members of the Council, may call a meeting of the Council, 
provided that due notice of the same has been sent to each Member 
of the Council at least three days before such meeting. 

Absence from Meetings of Council.— Quorum. 

XXIV. Any member of the Council absenting himself from 
three consecutive meetings of the Council, without giving a satis- 
factory explanation in writing, shall be considered to hare vacated 
his office. Xo business shall be transacted at any meeting of 
the Council unless three members at least are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 

XXV. The Honorary Secretaries shall pcrfoi 
the Assistant Secretary b 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 

3. At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 

the presents made to the Society since their last meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Society, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors 
and the letters addressed to it. 

4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 

6. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the Society. 

7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

&c, in the Library Catalogue, and of all presentations 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the issue and return of books, 

&c, borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

printed copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in the 
Appendix), together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Kules, and a card of the dates of meeting ; and 
to acknowledge all donations made to the Society, by 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 

"Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 

Council at the Council Meetings and at the ordinary 
General Meetings, in order that the same may be laid 
before the Society at the Annual General Meeting held 
in the month of May. 
The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, divide 
the performance of the duties above enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
members of all Committees appointed by the Council. 

Contrilutions to the Society. 
XXVI. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character, 
must be sent to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 
Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promulgation and discussion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such communications as are suitable for that purpose, as well as 
to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society, 

XXVIa. The original copy of every paper communicated to 
the Society, with the illustrative drawings, shall become the 
property of the Society unless stipulation be made to the contrary; 
and authors shall not be at liberty, save by permission of the 
Council, to publish the papers they have communicated, until 
such papers or abstracts of them, have appeared in the Journal 
or other publications of the Society. 

XXVIb. If any paper of importance is communicated during 
the recess, the same maybe ordered for publication by the Council, 
without being read to the Society. 

2[<uuir/cmcnt of Funds. 

XXYII. The funds of the Society shall be lodged at a Bank 

named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 

Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid by the 


All cheques shall be countersigned by a member of the Council. 
Money Grants* 

XXVIII. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society — to Sections or to members— shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 
may be re- voted. 

XXIX. Such grants of money to Committees and i I 
members shall not be used to defray any personal expenses which 
a member may incur. 

Audit of Accounts. 

XXX. Two Auditors Bhall be appointed annually, at an 
Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts. The 
accounts as audited to he laid before the Annual Meeting in 

Property of tie Society to be vested in the President, §e. 
XXXI. All property whatever "belonging to the Society shall 
be vested in the President, Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and 
Hon. Secretaries for the time being, in trust for the use of the 
Society ; but the Council shall have control over the disburse- 
ments of the ftu iuent of the property of the 

XXXII. To allow those members of the Society who devote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 
restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society, — Sections or Committees may be established in 
the following branches of science :— 

Section A. — Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Mathematics, 

and Mechanics. 
Section B.— Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 

to the Arts and Agriculture. 
Section C— Geology and Paleontology. 
Section D. — Biology, i.e., Botany and Zoology, including 

Section JEJ. — Microscopical Science. 
Section F. — Geography and Ethnology. 
Section G— Literature and the Eine Arts, including 

Section JZ - .— Medical. 

Section I. — Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Section Committees — Card of Meetings. 

XXXIII. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman, Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
for distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Jfemhcrship of Sections, 

XXXIV. Only members of the Society shall have the prink 
of joining any of the Sections. 

Reports from Sections. 

XXXV. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to presi 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pi 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the H( 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of December 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section duri 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to t 


XXXVI. It shall be the duty of the President, Vice-I'residcu 
andHonorar\ i j examine into and report 
the Council upon the state of — 

1. The Society's house and effects. 

2. The keeping of the official books and correspondence. 

3. The library, including maps and drawings. 

4. The Society's cabinets and collections. 

Cabinets and Collections. 

XXXVII. The keepers of the Society"* cabinets and coll 
tions shall give a list of the contents, and report upon ! 
condition of the same to the Council annually. 


XXXVIII. The Honorary Secretaries and Honorary Treami 

shall see that all documents relating to tin- • 

the obligations given by members, the policies of in -urance, I 

other securities shall be lodged in the Society'- in, n chest, 

contents of which shall be inspected by the Conn ii once in ev 

year; a list of such contents shall be kept, and 

signed by the President or one of the Vice-Presidents at 

annual inspection. 

XXXIX. The Society shall have power to form Branch So- 
cieties in other parts of the Colony. 


XL. The members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 
regulations as i : ! necessary. 

Alteration of Bides. 

XII. Xo alteration of, or addition to, the Eulea of the Society 
shall be made unless carried at two successive General Meetings, 
at each of which twenty-five members at least must be present. 


. The Library shall be open for consultatic 

and return of boob 

i (1 

ally (except 

Sat unlay), 

from 0-30 a 

.1 p.m., and 2 to 

(5 p. 


930 a.m. t< 


U. The Libn 


not be open 

on public h 


2. No book 

si, all 


issued wit 

hout being 

signed for 

Library Book. 

3. Members i 

ire n 

Ot : 

lave more t 

ban two vo 

at a time from 1 

he T. 


arv, without 

: special pe 

•v S( 


■taVies, nor 

to retain a 

hook for a 1 

period than foi 


membei it may 

■ be 


•rmved by 1 

lim again, p 

rovidod it h 

been bespoken 

by i 


other mem 

her. Hook 

s which hav( 

bespoken shall 



:e in rotati 

on, accord i: 

ag to prior 

4a. Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and other works of reference 

Journals, Transactions and Proceedings of Societies or Institu- 
tions, Works of a Series, Maps or Charts, are not to be removed 
from the Library without the written order of the President or 
one of the Hon. Secretaries. 

5. Members retaining books longer than the time specified 
shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for each volume. 

G. The books which have been issued shall he called in by the 
Secretaries twice a year ; and in the event of any hook not being 
returned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 
shall be answerable for it, am! shall he required to defray the 
cost of replacing the same. 

Hon. Secretaries. 

Form No. 1. 

Royal Society of New South "fi 
Certificate of a Candidate for Elec 

jeing desirous of admi^ion into the Royal Society of New South Wales, i 
he under<iened member.- of the Society, propose ami recommend him a 

Dated this day of 18 

From Personal Knowledge. I Fhom Gexei 

Form No. 2. 

Eotal Society of New South Wales. 
The Society's Hoi 

Regulations of the Society (ride Rule No. 9), you a 

To Hon. Secretary. 

Form No. 3. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 

I, the undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeavour to promote 

the interests and welfare of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and to 

observe its Rules and By-laws, as long as I shall remain a member thereof. 


Form No. 4. 
Royal Society of New South Wales. 

The Society's House, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

for the current year became due to the Royal Society of New South 
Wales on the 1st of May last. 

It is requested that payment may be made by cheque or Post Office order 
of the Hon. Treasurer. 

Form No. 5, 
Royal Society of New South Vi 
The Boric 

Your most obedient servant, 

On behalf of the Royal Society of New ; 
ledge the receipt of am \ j ar 

Your most obedient 

Balloting List for the Election of the Officers and C 
Royal Society of New South Wales. 

Baixotixo List 

for the election of the Officers and Council. 

Present Council. | y m proposed as Meters of the new Council. 



Hon. Treasurer. 

Hon. Secretaries. 

Members of Council. 

;itute any other name in place of that proposed, < 
e se -oi d column, and v. rite opposite to it, in the tl 

) substitute. 


giopl gmelg si f *fo ^rnttlj Males. 

rill, .S.1L, Central Police 

1874 i Al S er, John. Union Club. 

1868 I | Allcrding, F., 25 Himtei^tm-t. 

1856 ; Alii -Hands" Edge. 

„ J j Road, WoolklnM. 

1877 -^'"- 1[ < I M V ' V - mm. i Hill. 

1873 At! Bw'lfiwSrie^toStHoflfc 

■ :, L.R.C.P. Loral, Hospital i 


Campion, Hi, Kx-.-oll,-.^ Ti.o lliglA Hon. Lord, G.C.M.G-, 
I &C.7&0..&C., llo„.l>rcsid (ll t. 

I Clm 

Dclavuo. Leopold H., 37! 
Do Salis, Iho Hon. : 

:., Eur,., SIM. Si/d. 
Ellalone," Ashfield 

.R.C.P., Zond.; 

Flavelle, John, 340, Geo] 

Forbes, AU'm-. Leirh. M. 
♦Foreman, Joseph, M.K.C 

PI Eraser, John 


P3 < ; pp< i IS 'I I .. \i 

[\. -, M 1 
; llartrravr. Lawreure. " K: 
jJHams, John, M.L.A., "I 


llav. Xl„- lion. Sir John. K.CM 

P,v- I, ,ttl, I.,- 1 ,W (-.1 


Heaton.J. H., M.P.. St. Stephen's 

Helms, Albert, Ph. D., 2ter//», Sydi 


li J J- i E C.I ~A»i!aht 

/Licensed Survey 

Hemn, llenrv. ,o!i it r. .V* Hunt, 
He-A,!t, TL„r,a- IMv ■ 1. r.r-.m 

iC * it «v k ''.;^, M 

i/alvth Bar. 
Hitchins. Edwd. Lytton, " Florer 



ITii-t Geo J) 377 Georsre-Mn-or 

ou')M.I>. Univ. 
7.,//;-/^, 197, LiVerpool-Btreet. 

1876 Haboy toi.,M.D.3tf«..,F.L.S.,F.Z.S., 

F.R.GhS., Sherwood Scrubs, Parmmatra. 
1S8G j Holmes, Speneer Harrison, "The Wilderness," Allandale, 

1879 ! Houison^AnclreV. P..A.. M.I?.. CM.. iV/»., 128, Phillip-street. 

1886 ! Hozier, Charles H. S., F.R.C.S., hvl, L.K. and Q.C.P., IreL, 

1877 Huin^TK.'A'.h-i.lah " Camphelltown. 

1878 tHunl K,.yal Mint, Sydney, 

1S79 j Inglis, The 

Jackson, Henry \Y [{. C. Phys-.^rfw., 

Jackson, Eer. H. L., M.A. (Cantab.), St. James's Parsonage, 

Jeiferis, Rev. James, I.!. I)., "The Retreat," Newtown. 
Jenkins, Edward Johnstone, M.A., .M.D., Oron, M.E.C.P., 

M.R.C.S,, L.S.A., Z I., irae.juarie-street North 

, Phillip- 
UL, 36, 

-. M.A., F.C.S 

Lloyd, The Hon. Go _ \ u !. M.L.C., F.R.G.S., "Scott- 
forth," Elizabeth Bay. 

Lord, The Hon. Frun.-is, M.I... .. North Shore. 

Lovell. R. Uuvnr-. 2u, Wvuvard Sq. 

Low, Hamilton, HAL Customs. 

Low, Andrew S., " Men-viands."' Granville. 

Lowe, Edwin, Wilgar Downs Station, via Girilambone. 

:, Public Works, Sydney. 
.M. Edin., M.E.C.S.E., 
maty of Sydney, 205, 

1,A„ 121, Pitt-street. 
M'Cutcheon, J. ■ ; - v dney Branch of t 

Koval Mint. 

1S..F.L.S., Sandh 

'House, Queen-street, » 

1880 I Manfred, Edmun 

177 Mann, .!■ ■ ntral Bay. 

181 ! Manning, Sir W. M.. U. I'.. I 

Edeecliff Koad, Woollalvra. 
,73 P C Maiming .Tnme>. " ViL-tis.'* Double Bay. 
1876 Mmnin- V'-v.l N- i" >. M I >. Univ. 5/. ^nd., 

A\»?., Lie. So.-. Aiioth. /..>;„/., Hunter's Hill. 
Mansfield, G.A., 121. Pitt-street. 
M irano. (>. V.,M.D. I uiv. S^.U *, CI; r< ndon Terrace, I 

Marker. James, L.E.C.S., Jref., L.R.C. Phys., Edia. 

1875 1 Montcfloro, E. L.. 

1876 I ! Quaife, Fredk. Harrison 

| ''HusWeu/'Qu,,,, 

1886 Quaife, Wm. Francis, B J 

1881 P3 Eer 

1880 ( Ekldell, C. : 

1836 , Eigg, Thorn 

1856 [ J Eober 

E. ! -.r-'. ■ 







;i;;i;;;^];-;V^ ; 


urrajong Heights. 

I Sharp, h at. 

I PI Sharp, Revd. \V. llrv, M.A. O.P0.1., Warden of 

College, University." 
: PI Shell>hear, Walter, Assoc. 31. Inst. C.E, " 1 

Holt-street, Stanmore. 

' SheppardfRe^'a^BXp^rrima. 

! j Shewen, Alfred, 11.1!., MP.. Univ. ZowrfoB, 1 

" ,.<\M.. i-: 

1 i\ Fivdk Fvan<, 3fli 
iley, John, 263, Geor 
h, Kobt.. M.A. Si/d., 

Smith,' Robt,' Burden ie-street North. 

Smith, Frede. Moore. M.D, M.R.C.S, Uoast Hospital, Little 

-1 ,i * .1 1 Huw...U Ca-tlereagh-street. 

Steel. Join,, LI 1- E lizabeth- street 

Hvde Park. 
Stephen. George Milner. P,A.. Mem. Geol. Soe. of Ger 

many: Cor. Mem. Nat. Hist. Soe, Dresden; F.R.G.S. 0. 

iSteph, i , Ihe II. n S. ptimu? A . M L.C., South Kingston. 
^ hen, Alfred F. II., Audit Department, Bligh-street. 

of Natural His 
>ry in the l rlinghurst Road. 

Stephen, Cecil B, M.A., 101, Elizabeth-street. 
Strange. Fredk. R , Pimvood. 

" t.Jolm Renrhll. M.L.A, '■Birtlev. - ' Eliza! th Pay Roa.l. 

Strong, Wm. Edmund, M.D, Aberdeen, M.R.C.S., jE,y. : 
GoTerament ' mator for Sydney, 

r.S., Cro«- street 
t, T. P. Anderson, M.D, Un 
natomy and Physiology in the University of 
M,G. -. (!. Mi.diimai], Uommereial Bank, George-s 
Sui.d, ,■: ,m 1, R, ,. J. !>.. 1-1. Wentworth Court, Eli 
j Suttor, The Hon. Wm. Henry, M.L.C., "Cangoiu 


Trebeek. Pn -p<T X 
Trebeek, P. C, 91 I 
Trebcck, T. B., M. 

Trouton, F. H., Cli 
£Tuckcr, G. A., Pb.l 
Tucker, William, " 
Tulloh, W. II., "Ai 

Tuxen, Peter Willi. 

Tebbutt, John, F.R.. 
Thomson, Dugald, ca 

Thompson, Jos ph, " 
Thompson, Thos. Jai 

iarper & Co., 409, George-street. 
' Bellevue Hill, Double Bay. 
a Chambers, Pitt-street, Sydney. 
M\D. Brux., Health Department, 

Thomas. 1". J.. Hunter River. X.S.N. Co., Sussex- 
Thornton, Hon. Geor-, M.LC. 377. C^..r_-.-tv. 
i. B.A., Cantab., Professor of PI 
sity of Sydney. 
Tibbit's.W.-.'h.Tir.^h. M.RC.S. Enr/., M:mlv. 
Toohey, J. T., "Moira," Burwood. 

, G. W„ C.E., Booty 

Macquarie-street Xortl 

Edwd., L.E.C.P. Loi 

J., M.B., CM., Edhu, Pav View Ho. 
■ Sp, z ia. Italv. ' 
Vernon, Walter X., M.S.A., « Cljtha " House, Ne 

Voss, Houlton H., J.P.. Goulburn. 

Walker, H. 0., Au< 

Watt, Clsarles. Parramatta. 
\Yan_k U,a-. M.B., M.C., T.C.D., Tarramatta. 
Webster, A. S., Gresham Chambers. 
Weigall, Albert Bythesea, B.A. Oxon., M.A. Syd., He 
of the Sydney Grammar School, College-street, 

Westgarth, G. C, solicitor, " Tresco," Elizabeth Bay 
Weston, W. J., 5, Spring-street. 
M.A. Sudnn 


Judges' Cham! 
LL.D., Syd., "Gowrie," Singleton. 

White, Rev. Jan 

White, Hon. Ja ■ k," Double 

. Moore. A M, 1 i. D., T.C.D. 


t Wilkinson, C. S., F.G.S., F.L.S., Government Geologist, Depart 

. -- ■ .• ,-■■■-. 

M.L.X.. - 11 ,1 IW1. 

Wilshire, T. R,. P.M., Berrima, 
Wflshire, James I b," Burwood. 


\ ; . ;■-. i ;,-■-..■■ : . . '■•" - ■"■' . . "■ ■ • ! 

W-. »1. Hi in- J.!'., ["i ler *v . r, ! -y t r Mine?, Department 

. M.D., CM., 

d," CampbelltoTrn. 

'., 31, College - 


i " ■.-;•.:■ ' 

iew, Dr., Hon. Seci Cl »i ,, 
V, Sir George Bid I 

., F.R.S., , 

! Beraays, Levn* A., 1 


M.A.. F.K.S.. Ealing, London. 
M Do Koiiinfk, Prof., L.G., M.D., Liege, Belgium. 
Ellerv, E ,h t 1" F.R.S F. R.A.S .. G..vei .1 

Victoria. Melbourne. 
Gre.wv r.M.G.,M.L.C.,F.R,G.S., 

Geological Surveyor, Brisbane. 
Haast, Sir Julius von, K.C.M.G., Ph. D., F. 

ILelor. .Tarn 
Din t r 

M M'Coy, IV 

C.M.ZS., Professor „i 

P4- Mii,'!le<- I: 

M F.L.S., Government 15, 

M Own. Profe,so r Sir K, I 


, V.!'./ 

sh Museum, London, 

1810 P 1 Choke, Hvd, 


)n, Dr. J. L 
er, Alfred. 
' Karl W. 

MacPherson, Rev. Peter 
Schuette, Dr. Rudolph. 
Stuart, Hon. Sir Alexan 
Thompson, II. A. 


Established in memory of 
Rbtd. W. B. CLARKE, M.A., F.R.S., I 

aor Sir Richard Owen. K.C.D.. F.R>.. Hamilton Court, 
eorge Bentham, C.M.G., F.R.S., The Rojal Gardens, Kew. 
sor Huxley, F.R.S., The Royal School of Mines, London. 
sor F. M'Coy, F.R.S., F.G.S., The University of Melbourne 
sor Janus Dwiglit Dana, LL.D., Yale College, >"ew Haven 

Ferdinand von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

L.S., Government Botanist, Melbourne. 

R, C. Selwyn, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Director of th< 
ologieal and Natural History Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 
eph Dalton Hooker. K.C.S.L, CM., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D. 
., Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
sor L. G. De Koninck, M.D., University of Liege, Belgium. 

Hector, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., Director of the G olog ca 
rvrv of Now Zealand, Wellington, N.Z. 

Members are particularly requested to communicate any change 
of address to the Hon. Secretaries, for which purpose this slip is 

i Royal Society of N.S.W., 

37, Elizabeth-st, Sydney. 


By Professor Liversidge, F.R.S., &c 

Ox this the 65th anniversary of the foundation of the Royal 
Society of New S res upon me to address yon, 

and to thus continue what has hitherto been the annual custom 
since the first formation of the Society. It is true that there have 
been breaks, but the wars in which they have occurred are few 
and far between. For many reasons I should have been glad to 
have been relieved, but I am afraid that it would have appeared like 
shirking the duties and responsibilities of the high office to which 
you elected me, after having enjoyed the honors of the position. 

It has been more than once suggested by previous Presidents 
that the custom should be discontinued, since the Council has often 
failed to secure the services of competent members to fill the 
Presidential Chair, simply on account of their inability to find 
time to prepare the expected annual address. For my own part, 
I can thorough] •>: and :| « * compromise 

between the usual address upon scientific matters to which you 
have hitherto been accustomed, and none at all, I venture to 
bring before you a few remarks upon certain matters which may 
perhaps be not altogether devoid of interest to you, inasmuch as, 
with one or two exceptions, they may be regarded as belonging 
more or less completely to the domestic affairs of the Society. 

In the first instance, it is my melancholy duty to place on record 
a brief notice of such of our members as have been removed from 
our midst during the past year. 

At the meeting held in November last we expressed our grief 
for the loss we had sustained in the removal of the late Hon. Prof. 

John Smith, C.M.G., M.L.C., LL.D., M.D., our former President, 
our appreciation of his life and labours, and our heartfelt sympathy 
idow in her great bereavement. 

It is, however, only fitting that I should give a somewhat fuller 
account of the work which he did for us and for the public at large, 
and especially, as I said on that occasion, .since but very few appear 
to know how much the Colony is indebted to him. Quiet, unobtru- 
sive, conscientious workers, such as he, especially when they are 
unpaid for their self-imposed and philanthropic labours, seldom 
receive during their lifetime a just recognition of their deserts, 
and not always after their death. 

Professor Smith was born in Scotland, about the year 1821, 
and was educated at Marischal < 'olhge, in the I 'niversity of Aber- 
deen, where he took the degrees of M.A. and M.D. After taking 
his degrees, he for some five years carried on the chemistry class 
in M u \» hal O 11 v dm igi illness of Prof. Clarke. 

When the University of Sydney was endowed and incorporated, 
a Committee was appointed in London, consisting of Sir John 
Herschel, P.R.S Tut St f rge Airey, Astronomer Royal, 
Prof. Maiden, of University College, London, and others, to select 
Professors for the Chairs of classics and mathematics, and one for 
certain portions of science. This Committee made the three ap- 
pointments in 1852, and Dr. Smith was selected as the first 
Professor of chemistry and expi rimental phvsics ; and he retained 
the latter portion of the original Chair from the time of his arrival 
in October, 1852, until his°death in ( )ctober, lss.,. In addition, 
he was for many years Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. He 
was a Fellow of the Chemical Society of London, and an honorary 
member of the Ptoyal Society of Victoria. 

Soon after landing here, in I *.*>:}, he was appointed to the Board 
of National Education, and remained one of its most prominent 
and useful members until I80G, when the Board was superseded 
by the Council of Education, constituted under the Public Schools 
Act, to which he was "azetted as one of the first members, and of 
which he was nine times elected President. During his period of 

loss of their late Preside 

lit, of his 

many good qualitie 

s and great 

consideration for those I 

mder him- 

-as one of them sti 

ites, he was 

" the last to censure but 

the first tc 

i forgive" — and of t 

he great in- 

delitediit'ss of the Colony 

- to his labours. 

He spent years of se 


g toil without emo 

lument and 

without hope of reward. 

The worl 

c was done so quietl 

y and unob 

trusively that lie could i 

lot have been actuated cither 

by hope of 

r -.eld disti 

action, the 

motive being a real 

love for the 

work and of his fellows. 

One or more afternooi 

as and mos 

t of his evenings in 

each week 

were spent at the offices 

of the Coui 

icil, transacting its 1 

•usinoss and 

arranging for future act 

ion. He : 

in fact performed : 


the work which would li 

;ive dcvolv 

ed upon the Ministt 

?rfor Public 

Instruction Lad one thei 

i existed. 

As a mark of the vah 

ic set on hi 

is business qualities 

, it may not 

l>e out of place here to r 

nention tha 

tin 1864 Dr. Smith 

. was (.-hoM-n 

a Director of the Austr; 

ilian Mutual Provident Sociel 

by, and was 

for many years its Chairman. 

In 1867 he was President of the Royal Commission appointed 
to inquire into the supply of Water to Sydney and its Suburbs. 
From his position he necessarily had much to do with the direction 
and methods of investigation followed, and especially in the 
scientific questions relating to the sources of the water supply, 
and the collection and chemical examination of the samples. 

The labours of the Commission in examining witnesses, visiting 
the catchment areas, obtaining records of rainfall, flow of rivers, 

preparation of sections and other matters extended over some two 
years, and the work was not completed until 1869, in most of which 
he took a leading part. The scheme recommended by the Com- 
mission is practically that now being carried out by the Govern- 

He was elected a Member of the Legislative Council in 1877, 
and retained his seat until his death. He always showed great 
interest in his legislative duties, and often took a leading part in 
the debates, especially when they were connected with scientific or 
medical questions. 

For some years he was a Trustee of the Australian Museum, 
but relinquished his connection with the Museum about 1870, on 
account of want of time. 

He was appointed one of the Commissioners tor carrying out 
the Sydney International E.vhihiuoii of 1 8 7 i • . Uefore this he had 
sat as a member of other similar Commissions. He was a member 
of the Commission for the New Zealand Exhibition in 1865, and 
for the Paris Exhibition in 1867. He was a member too of the 
Royal Commission upon the Sydney and Suburban Sewerage and 
Water Supply, which was appointed in 1875, and took an active 
part in its labours and investigations. In recognition of his public 
service in this Colony, his alma mater, the University of Aberdeen, 
made him an Honorary LL.D. in 1876, and in 1878 he was made 
a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. 

Before settling in this Colony Dr. Smith had travelled exten- 
sively, having visited China, Java, the Polynesian Islands, 
Mauritius, India, Indian Archipelago <fcc ' after hia arrival he 
visited New Zealand and the oth.-r Yustnlasian Colonies. He re- 
visited Eurone o ,'i,:. .K ..l„..Jt of the 

leading adentifie 

the benefit of his gleanings, by . 

Dr. Smith was one of the oldest members of our Society, he 
having joined it as far back as 1852, when it was known as the 
Australian Philosophical Society. 

At a meeting presided over by Sir William Denison, tho then 
Governor-General, held on May 9th, 185G, the Australian Phi- 
losophical Society was remodelled, and renamed the Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales, when Dr. Smith was appointed one 
of the Honorary Secretaries in recognition of the active part lie 
had taken in bringing about the changes ; he retained this position 
until 1860, and the earlier records in the minute books are in his 

He was a member of the Council for nine out of the eleven 
years during which the Society was known as the Philosophical 
Society, and during those years he read the following papers :— 
August 13th, 1856.— "On the action of Sydney Water upon 

November 16th, 1859.—" On the Separation of Gold from 

Mundic Quartz." 
August 15th, I860.— "On the Quartz Reefs of Upper 

November 11th, 1863.— "On ancient flint Implements found 

near Abbeville." 
August 17th, 1864.— "On the probable reasons that led 
Fahrenheit to the adoption of his peculiar Thermometric 
Afterwards, when the constitution was again reformed and the 
name changed to that of the Royal Society, he was retained as a 
member of the Council, which position he has held for eighteen 
years. During this time he filled the office of Vice-President for 
ten years, and he was twice elected to the Presidential Chair. 
Previous to 1879 the Governor for the time being was, ex officio, 
President, so that Dr. Smith, as senior Vice-President, was in 
reality performing the duties of President for several years. 


: read by him betwen the years 1868 

14 Oct., 1868.—" On the Water Supply of Sydney." 
17 Nov., 1869.— "On the results of the Chemical Examina- 
tion of Waters for the Sydney Water Commission." 
12 May, 1871.— " Anniversary Address." 

3 Oct., 1877.--" On a System of Notation adapted to ex- 

plaining to Students certain Electrical Operations." 
28 May, 1879. — Anniversary Address. 

4 May, 1881.— Anniversary Address. 
7 May, 1884.— Anniversary Address. 

He was a regular attendant at the Council meetings as well as 
at the general meetings, and did much in many ways for the 
promotion of the objects of the Society, its interests and welfare. 

I repeat what I have already said on a previous occasion— that 
only those who have worked with or who have otherwise been 
closely associated with our late Vice-President can fully appreciate 
and testify to his great honesty of purpose, impartiality, even dis- 
position, tolerance, and uniform courtesy. 

The regret of his friends and the respect in which he was 
,o er lly 1 ell were shown at his funeral l,v the large gathering 
of all classes, and espeeiallv of Ins ,,w students Public bodies, 
such as the University, th, b-islativ, ( \,„,nil, and other institu- 
tions with which he was ■ ']•'•• nrecia- 
tion of his long and meritoi resolutions of 
condolence and sv moat hv u it 1 r i ' . " ". t 


esident, in t 

Rev. W 

• B. Clark- 


funds, to fo 

meritorious contril. 


', that the 


»t for the : 

During the past year death lias l.een unusually husy amongst 
our medical members. By the death of Dr. Fortescue^ Ml'., of 
London University, and Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, 
this community has lost one of its most prominent memben of the 
medical profession, and the Society one of its most respected 
associates. Dr. Fortescue was twice a member of the Conned 
viz., in 1867, 1868, and he was three times elected a member of 
the Committee of the Medical Section : l>m being a husy man, he 
only found time to prepare one paper for the Section, viz., " Upon 

of Duboisia mynporold^." He was for several years a Trustee of 
the Australian Museum, in ok great interest. 

On account of his genial and kindly disposition he was a general 
favourite, and his loss is regretted by a wide circle of friends. 

In Dr. T. Cecil Morgan we have lost another much respected 
member of the medical profession. Dr. Morgan joined the Society 
in 1876, and was a constant attendant at the meetings of the 
Medical Section ; he was twice elected on to its Committee, he 
regularly took part in the discussions, on several occasions brought 
forward matters of interest, and twice communicated papers to it. 
Dr. Morgan was more particularly distil guished for his attain- 
ments and position here in respect to ophthalmic science. 

I regret to have to record the deaths also of two of our younger 
members, in the persons of Dr. Arthur Annesley West, M.B., of 
Dublin University, and of Dr. George J. Renwick. The latter 

degree in Arts. He afterwards went home and studied medicine 
at Edinburgh, where he took the degrees of M.B. and CM. 

Dr. Renwick gave great promise of occupying a prominent 
position in his profession, and what would probably have been a 
distinguished career has been arrested by his premature death. 

The Colony has sustained the loss of a valuable life and the 
Society of a much respected member by the death of Sir George 
Wigram Allen, K.C.M.G., the late Speaker of the Legislative 
Assembly. Sir G. Wigram Allen joined the Society some fifteen 

8 president's address. 

years ago ; his attention was not particularly drawn to matters 
-with which the Society is interested, he being more closely 
identified with politics, but he devoted a good deal of time to 
educational matters. He was associated for fourteen years with 
the late Professor Smith as a member of the National Board 
for Education, for some years he was a Trustee of the Sydney 
Grammar School, a member of the University Senate, and he was 
the first Minister for Justice and Public Instruction. Although 
he never took an active part in the work of this Society, that he 

his founding a scholarship at the University for the encourage- 
ment of the study of legal science 

The Society has also lost by death two other members, in Mr. 
Douglas Helsham and Mr. William Wall is, the later an old 
colonist, whose name deserves to be recorded us the contractor for 
the first railway in the Colony, and for the encouraeement he «*t 

le that the number 
lg the present year 

ot members has 

undergone a 
will doubtles 

The number i 
494; during th. 
elected, and tw< 
this increase we 

9f members C 

mainly by leaving necessary matters undone, and it lived upon 
fch - - iving of m energ i pi - ' 1 " !1 - a *> 

they lasted, and as a consequence nearly died the ignominious 
death of a pauper. It is our duty to expend the funds entrusted 
to us wisely— certainly to the best of our ability— to promote the 
Society's ol ■.'] .1 -xtravagance, neither should we 

wrap them up idly in a napkin. 

During the past year the Society's house has been much im- 
proved by the alterations and additions to the front of the 
building. Alter defraying the cost of the improvements, some 
£168, the Council is still in a position to pay off another .£100 
from the debt, so thai the amount now owing upon the building 

if the members would at once si 
with the Government grant an 
the mortgage. Up to the present, < 
160 have subscribed to the build 

be extinguished. I d< 


think this is a: 

have probably but few 

- members wdto cannc 

Closely connected w 

we shall hardly be in 
debt. We are deep! 

•itL t 


frotnime!l!da! n wmVh 

volume; we cannot* ] 

10 president's address*. 

possible in scientific periodical lit-rature, i.e., in the Transactions, 

Journals, ami si: 

tutions. A poor Society such as this cannot, of course, hope 

that chosen is the one less likely to be undertaken by other 

Libraries in the Colony. Most modern scientific books can be 
purchased at any time, and are purchased by the Free Public and 
other Libraries in Sydney, hut the earlier volumes of the Transac- 
tions of Scientific Societies are not so likely to be purchased by 

to obtain every day. Such publications are absolutely essential to 

investigator can refer to what has already been done by others, 
much labour may be unnec a I liable time lost 


We have now ; series; in the future the 

expenditure upon such publications need not be so large, although 
many important sets have yet to be completed. 

Many of our series have been completed by the generosity of the 
Societies which pul »me of the presentations thus 

made at our solicitation are extremely valuable and important. 

During the past year the Society has received 1,420 vols, and 
pamphlets as donations, amongst which the following call for 

Faune du Calcaire Carbonifere cle la Belgique. Vols. I-III 

10 parts, 4to. Presented by the author, Professor De 

Reports of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 

76 vols. Presented by the Board of Commissioners. 
Monographs and Reports published by the United States 

Geological Survey. 9 vols. 4to. P e te I 1 y the 

Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Artsand Sciences, 

from the commencement in 1866 to 1885 complete. 

Presented by the Society. 

Bulletin of the Societe Mineralogique de France. Tomes 1 to 

8 complete. From the Society. 
Bulletin, vols. 1 to 4, and Memoires vols. 1 and 2, 4to. of the 
Comite Geologique Institut des Mines, St. Petersburgh. 
Presented by the Committee. 
Journal of Civil Engineers (4 series). Yols. 1 to 5, and 
atlases of drawing--:. Presented by the Minister of 
Public Instruction at Rome. 
A large number of missing parts were presented by the Boston 
Society of Natural History, and the Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, to make the sets of their various publications, now in 
the Society's Library, as complete as possil >le. 

A complete set of Braithwaite's Retrospect of Medicine, vols. 1 

generously presented by Dr. 

The Society lias presented its Journal and Proceedings vol. 
XVIII for 1884 to 326 kindred institutions, as per printed list, 
and it has likewise been distributed to all the members entitled to 
it. Vol. XIX is in typ >. and will soon be ready for distribution. 
Since the last year the following new Societies have entered 
into an exchange of publications, viz. : — 

Amsterda ■' iale Neerlandaise. 

Denver, Colorado Scientific Society. 

Edinburgh, Scottish Geographical Society. 

Florence. Soeh t • A ti u-a; I Italia (Sezione Fiorentina). 

Lt ipzig, Iv nigln h Sa< hsis. he( !e.s< lls< haft des Wissenschaften. 

Xew York. Xew York Microscopical Society. 

Philadelphia, Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 

Vienna, tv. K NaturhiM >rh he Hofmuseum. 

And the following Societies already on the list have c 
-« nding their pub-ieat'n ns, in - xehange for ours, viz. : — 

Adelaide, Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery of South 

Helsingforr. Sociel tes Sci n< s de Finhmde. 
Liege, Societe Boyale des Sciences. 
The Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

12 president's address. 

The Society lias subscribed to forty-eight scientific journals and 
periodicals, and has purchased 390 vols., at a cost of £260 14s. 5d., 
amongst the most important of which are the following complete 
scries from the commencement : — 

Annals of Natural History, Series 1, 2, 3, 4. 76 vols. 
Catalogue of the Pathological Department, Royal College of 

Surgeons, 7 vols. 
Modieo-Chirurgical Society- Transactions, vols. 1, 64, GS. 
Obstetrical Society — Transactions, vols. 1, 23, 24. 
Pathological Society— Transactions, vols. 1, 32. 34. 
Petermann's Mittheilungen Geographie, vols. 1, 25, 27. 
Reports of the Medical Officer of the Local Board of Health, 

London, 1858-1883, 17 vols. 
Scientific American (2nd series), vols. 1-39. 
Zoological Society -Proceedings (coloured plates), 1830- 
1883, 55 vols. 
During the past session the Society held eight meetings, at 
which the following papers were read, viz. : — 

6 May. Presidential Address, by H. C. Russell, B.A., 


3 June. Notes on Flying Machines, by Lawrence liargrave. 

„ On a System of Accurate Measurement by means 
of long steel Ribands, by G. H. Knibbs. 

1 July. Local variations and vibrations of the Earth's 

surface, by H. C. Russell, B.A.,F.R.A.S. 
5 Aug. Some causes of the decay of the Australian 
Forests, by Rev. Peter MacPherson, M.A. 

2 Sept. The History of Floods in the Hawkesbury River, 

by J. P. Josephson, A.M.I.C.E. 

7 Oct. The Ringal of the North-western Himalaya, by 

Dr. Brandis, F.R.S. (Communicated by Baron von 
Mueller, K.C.M.G.) 

4 Nov. Notes on experiments in mounting the Ampld- 

pleiira pellucida in media having a higher refractive 
index than Canada Balsam, by William Morris, Fel 
Fac. Phys. and Surg. Glas., F.R.M.S., Lond. 

and some other countries, l.y IN-v. IVter MacPherson, 
2 Dec. On a Form of Flying-machine, l.y Lawrence 
„ On a Now Form of Anemometer, by II. C. 
Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 
The Medical Section held eight meetings, at which eighteen 

The Microscopical Set lion held eight m< etings, and three papers 
were read by Dr. Morris, viz. :— 

11 May. OnPlu/lhu-rra rastntri,: 

14 Dec. Method of mounting in sulphur and arsenic. 
The Clarke Memorial Medal has been awarded for the year 
1886 to Dr. L. G. De Koninek, M.D., the celebrated Belgian 
Geologist, formerly Professor in the University of Liege. A 
more deserving award could not have been made. It is not 
necessary to point out in detail the work which he has done for 
geology and palaeontology. Professor De Koninek has been 
selected in recognition of his long continued scientific researches 
and numerous valuable publications upon geology and palaeontology 
and distinguished scientific attainments, but more particularly on 
account of his splendid contributions to our knowledge of the 
palaeontology of the carboniferous rocks of Europe, the geology of 
Belgium, and the palaeozoic fossils of New South Wales. The 
award will probably be none the less acceptable to the recipient, 
inasmuch as I understand Professor De Koninek is an old friend, 
and certainly for long a coadjutor of the late Rev. W. B. Clarke. 

It is a source of some regret that the Clarke Memorial Fund is as 
yet too small to permit us to proceed with the proposed Clarke 
Memorial Lectures. There has been a slight loss in interest by 
the suspension of the Bank in which the funds were deposited, 

14 president's address. 

but it is expected that in time the whole of the capital will be 
repaid ; we then hope to be in a position to make a commencement, 
giving occasionally a short course of lectures upon geology, the 
science to which he was so much devoted. 

According to established custom, I waited upon His Excellency 
the Governor, and I have the pleasure to inform you that Lord 
Carringfcon has expressed his willingness to accept office as our 
Honorary President, and to render every service to the Society, and 
promote its interests in any way which may be within his power. 

As you will see from the ballot papers, we are about to lose 
the valuable services of Dr. Leibius, who for the past eleven 
years has been one of our Hon. Secretaries. When I state 
that we all regret that he finds it necessary to retire from the 
position which li<- ! - - . I i •:<.! I\ and efficiently filled for so 
many years, I feel that I am but imperfectly expressing the 
gratitude which the members entertain for the many services he 
has rendered to the Society, their appreciation of his great worth, 
and of the interest and care which he has always shown for the 
Society's welfare. 

Personally I am probably better aware than most of you how 
much of his time he has given to its affairs. Not only has he 
been one of our Secretaries for so long, but previously to that he 
was for some years a Member of Council. I know that he has 
often devoted his leisure and evenings to the Society, at a great 
sacrifice to his own comfort and convenience. I need hardly 
remind you that his duties at our Council and general meetings 
absorbed but a small portion of the time which he has cheerfully 
placed at our disposal. I trust, and I am sure you will all join 
with me in expressing the hope, that he will long remain with us 
in a more honorable although less exacting position such as that 
tor which he has been nominated. 

It is a source of much regret and considerable concern that the 
number of original papers contributed to the Society is so small. 
Out of nearly 500 existing members, only thirty-five have con- 
tributed papers, and the majority of those have been supplied by 

president's address. 15 

some seven or eight individuals. It is not from lack of subjects, 
for there are many questions which require investigation, but 
rather from the lack of competent investigators who can spare the 
necessary time. There are but few men of leisure in the Colonies, 
and still fewer of learned leisure. 

Up to the present but little original work has been done in 
working out the chemistry of our mineral and vegetable products, 
and really but very little in many branches of biology. The 
descriptions, . of our flora and fauna are making 

fair progress, but still very little has been published relating to 
the development and life history of the fauna of Australia, even 
of forms of life peculiar to this part of the world. 

In matters of natural history, geology, and allied subjects, it 
is apparent to every one that the materials for original work are, 
in New South Wales, thickly spread about us, and a considerable 
amount of very valuable work is being done in this direction by 
the Linnean Society of New South Wales, but the amount which 
\B waiting to be done is f:ir more than we can cope with at 

There is probably a greater number of questions waiting to be 
solved in other branches of science, yet, from the circumstances 
naturally connected with a new country, it is not easy to make 
progress with their solution. Too often physical, chemical, and 
similar questions, not only involve long-continued labour for their 
investigation, but too often also bulky and expensive apparatus is 
required — not always to be obtained in new countries. Fortunately 
in certain branches of natural history this is not always the case, 
and, accordingly, much more work has been done in questions 
relating to the systematic sciences than to problems in the experi- 
mental ones ; but few workers here have the advantage of even a 
poorly furnished physical or chemical laboratory, and no one of a 
first-class or well-appointed one — such does not at present exist in 
the Colony, although some improvements have of late years been 
effected in this direction at the University. 


This Society is doing what it can to encourage original work, by 
offering its medal and money prize for the best original communica- 
tions upon cert ts; but the amount which 
we can spare for this out of our 1 ite I income is only £100 a 
year, and we are quite aware that the Society's medal and the sum 
of <£25 will not repay any one for perhaps years of labour ; but it 
is hoped that the recognition which the award carries with it may 
serve as a slight ai promote the taste 
for original investigation. 

Up to the present time wo have had but few researches of suffi- 
cient merit to entitle us to make the award. I am, however, con- 
fident that good is being done, and I do not think we should 
lose heart; attention ia •is, and doubt- 

less work is being done, in response to our suggestions, of 
which we as yet know nothing. The writers of the many papers 
which failed to reach the required standard, although perhaps 
disappointed, have not suffered by the failure of their attempts, 
but on the contrary, have doubtless been much benefited by their 
efforts, and our stock of information upon those subjects will in 
the future probably owe much to their apparently disregarded 
work. We'hav< cientific chemists in England 

and elsewhere for supplies of material, notably of the gums and 
resins, the so-called " kerosene shale," and of the iron and other 
ores of the Colony. Arrangements have been made in two cases 
to furnish a supply of the kerosene shale. I may perhaps here 
mention that attempts have been made, by repeated advertise- 
ments and otherwise, to obtain samples of the New South Wales 
gums and resins to supnly those who wish to examine them, and 
for our Museums, but unsuccessfully up to the present ; hence it 
might be thought that the Colony is not so rich in such products 
as is usually stated. 

I regard this difficulty of obtaining sampl. :-; of gums and resins, 
true to name, as an additional pm ,!■" <>r' the ignorance whieh exists 
with regard to the natural products of the Colony. It is quite 
certain that but little use is made of therm Of the large number of 

gums, resins, ta; ' !'■!• similar prod' 


If such questions as "The Chemistry of the Austr 
and Resins," "The Tin Deposits of New South Wi 
Iron Ores," and the " Silver Ores of New South Wales 
thoroughly worked out, the results would doubtless 
pecuniary value to the Colony; and their iuvestigatio 
matter of great public importance, and accordingly 

it single-handed : it is a work in which the Govern 
assist with propriety— special help in particular case 
rendered to those who are willing to engage in such 
The Imperial Government places the sum of £4,000 
the disposal of the Royal Society of London fo 

understanding, of course, that 
jonally, but merely to defray 

Certain of the other Knglish Societies, like the Chemical Society 
and the British Association, also expend considerable portions of 
their own funds in encouraging research by such grants. The 
former has a fund specially collected for the purpose. 

past year to justify the award of the Society's Medal and prize. 
The Council lias accordiivd\ invited contributions upon the same 
subjects for the year 1S88, so that the list of subjects for which it 
offers the Society's Medal and prize of £25, for communications 
containing the results of research or observation, is as follows :— 
Series V.— To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1886. 

No. 16.— On the Chemistry of the Australian (lums and Resins. 
The Society's Medal and £25. 

.—On the Iron Ore Deposits of New South AVales. The 

Society's Medal and £25. 
.—List of the Marin a, with descriptive 

notes as to habits, distribution, &c. The Society's 

Medal and £25. 

New South Wales. The 

22. —Influences of the An od ucing modifica- 

tions of Diseases. The Society's Medal and £25. 
23.— On the Infusoria peculiar to Australia. The Society's 
' Medal and £25. 
Series VII.— To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1838. 

No. 2-1.— Anatomy and Life History of the Kehidna and Platypus. 
The Society's Medal and £25. 
25.— Anatomy and Life History of >]ollusca peculiar to Australia. 

The Society's Medal and £25. 
26.— The chemical composition of the products from the so- 
called Kerosene Shale of New South Wales. The 
Society's Medal and £25. 

This Society also tries to encourage scientific research by offering 
money grants under the usual conditions, but up to the present 
there have not been applicants for such assistance. This may be 
partly due to the offer not 1 ei s h entlv k own, but in some 
instances would-be applicants have refrained from applying, since 
they feel that the Society cannot well afford to do more than it 
does ill offering the £100 a year for special prizes. 

The Microscopical Section has a wide field before it ; and many 
of its members, who are not already contributors, have the 
necessary ability and appliances for doing some good original 
work, and I am confident that they could do much if they would 
only take up some definite line of investigation. I know that in 
some cases the non-production of papers is due to a feeling of 
diffidence; and an idea that such work can only be performed by 
those who have undergone a special training, but this is not 

necessary, although of course it 
advantageous. Most of the adva 
micro-copy have been made by wl 
Even the preparation of lists of m: 

urge every member wle 
work of some kind. He will be pi 

before the Medical Section as are suitable should be published in 
the Society's volume. The others, if necessary, and thought desir- 
able by the Section, might be printed separately and forwarded 
only to the members of the Medical Section. 

One of the few facilities for sen utiric work which we possessed 
here and in which the Society a— 1st id in founding, viz., the 
Biological Laboratory at Watson's Bay, has been closed. I regret 
to say that the Government has resumed the house and grounds 
for defence purposes. Up to the present the laboratory has not 
been so much used as was hoped and ex; eeted ; this was probably 
due to its comparatively inaccessil ility, and to its lack of fittings 
and appliances, especially for marine biology,— ML de M. Maelay, 
to whose exertions the formation of the laboratory was mainly 
due, having been, so far, the only worker who has made use of it. 
The Government will doubtle s refund the trustees the cost of the 
building, and with that as a nucleus we may be able to start 
afresh. It would be a great pity to allow such an undertaking 
to drop here, especially as there is such an unlimited field for 
marine biological work before us in Australia. 

In the course of years it is to be hoped that this scarcity of 
scientific workers in the Colony will gradually disappear with the 
spread of genera! a. By a liberal education 1 

nman something more than ordinary course in Arts. 

After a lapse of some thirty odd years from its foundation, the 
University had at last been aide, by the greater liberality of Parlia- 
ment, and by the receipt of private endowments, to make better 

ments are still of a very mea _ tracter ? and more 

or less unworthy of the boasted greatness and richness of the 
"oldest and richest Australian Colony." The accommodation and 
appliances are by no means equal to those of many schools for 
boys at Home, on the Continent, and in America, and certainly 
not to colleges in Japan. 

Of late we have been told by the newspapers that the University 
is richly endowed. This is very far from the case. If the income 
of the Sydney University be compared with that of other Univer- 
sities (not Australasian, for none of these have yet been placed 
upon a proper footing), it will be seen that proportionately it is 
very poor, and in a more or less starv-d condition. To properly 
equip the University in all the various departments of science, 
literature, art, medicine, law, engine ring iVc, would require very 

In connection with the subject 

expressions of opinion on this, 
dential Address to the Royal So 
ing of scientific education, says :- 
of things why the student who i 
should not in the first place go t 

cal and physical science ; nor wlvy this instn 
may borrow a phrase from medicine) I may t 
science, should not be followed up by mow 
covering the whole field of that partieuh 

say not only that there is no reason 
be done ; but, on the ground of practical < 
to add there is no difficulty in doing it 
then refers to the success of the Royal Schc 

the level of his great enterprise more otiectually than certain 
modifications, on the one hand, of primary and secondary school 
education, and on the other, of the conditions which are attached 
by the Universities to the attainment of their degrees and their 

"We have a right to claim that science shall Vie put upon the 
same footing as any other great subject of instruction, that it 
shall have an equal share in the schools, an equal share in the 
recognized qualification for degrees, and in the I niversity honors 
and rewards. 

"It must be recognized that science, as intellectual discipline, is 
at least as valuable, and, as knowledge, is at least as important as 
literature, and that the scientific student must no longer be 
handicapped by a linguistic (I will not call it literary) burden, tin- 
equivalent of which is not imposed upon his classical compeer. 

" Let me repeat that I say this, not as a depredator of literature, 
but in the interests of literature. The reason why our young- 
people are often so scandalously and lamentably deficient in 
literary knowledge, and still m< re in the feeling and desire for 
literary excellence, lies in the fact that they have been withheld 

often passes under the name of classical instruction. * * * 
"Nothing is of more importance to the man of science than 
that he should appreciate the value of style, and the literary work 
of the school would be of infinite value to him if it taught him 
this one thing. But I do not believe that this is to be clone by 
what is called forming one's self on classical models, or that the 

writer is of much value. 

" Le style est Vhomme mane'' as a man of science who was a 
master of style has profoundly said : and aping somebody else does 
not help one to express oneself. * * * * * 

" A good style is the vivid expression of clear thinking, and it 
can be attained only by those who will take infinite pains, in the 

2:> president's address. 

first place, to purge their minds of ignorance and half knowledge, 
and in the second, to clothe their thoughts in the words which 
will most fitly convey them to the minds of others. 

" I can conceive no greater help to our scientific students than 
that they should bring to their work the habit of mind which is 
implied in the power to write their own language in a good style. 

"But this is exactly what our present so-called literary educa- 
tion so often fails to confer, even on those who have enjoyed its 
fullest advantages ; while the ordinary schoolboy has rarely been 
even made aware that its attainment is a thing to be desired." 

Lord Rayleigh, in his Presidential Address to the British 
Association, at Montreal, says : — " It can hardly be denied that 
their supremacy (i.e. of the dead languages in school education) is 
the result of routine rather than of argument * * * * I do 
not myself take up the extreme position. I doubt whether an 
exclusively scientific training would be satisfactory ; and where 
there is plenty of time and a literary aptitude I can believe that the 
Latin and Greek may make a good foundation. But it is useless 
to discuss the question upon the supposition that the majority 
of boys attain either to a knowledge of the languages or to an 
appreciation of the writings of the ancient authors. The contrary 
is notoriously the truth : and the defenders of the existing system 
usually take their stand upon the excellence of the discipline. 
From this point of view there is something to be said. The laziest 
boy must exert himself :i little in puzzling out a sentence with 
grammar and dictionary, while instruction and supervision are 
easy to organise and not too costly. But when the case is stated 
plainly, few will agree that we can afford so entirely to disregard 

"In after life the intellectual energies are usually engrossed 
with business, and no further opportunity is found for attacking 
the difficulties which block the gateways of knowledge. Mathe- 
matics especially, if not learned young, are likely to remain 
unlearned. I will not further insist upon the educational impor- 
tance of mathematics and science, because with respect to them I 
shall probably be supposed to be prejudiced. 

president's address. 23 

" I believe that French and German, if properly taught, which 
I admit they rarely are at present, would go far to replace Latin 
and Greek from a disciplinary point of view, while the actual 
value of the acquisition would in the majority of cases be incom- 
parably greater. In half the time usually devoted without success 
to the classical languages, most boys would acquire a really service- 
able knowledge of French and German. History and the serious 
study of English literature, now shamefully neglected, would also 
find a place in such a scheme." 

Herbert Spencer, in his essay upon Education which appeared 
in the Westminster Review for July, 1859, since reprinted with 
his other works on Education, makes the following remarks : — 

" Among mental as among bodily acquisitions, the ornamental 
comes before the useful. Not only in times past, but almost as 
much in our own era, that knowledge which conduces to personal 
well-being has been postponed to that which brings applause. 

" In the Greek schools, music, poetry, rhetoric and philosophy, 
which, until Socrates taught, had but little bearing upon action, 
were the dominant subjects ; while knowledge aiding the arts of 
life had a very subordinate place. And in our own Universities 
and schools at the present moment, the like antithesis holds. We 
are guilty of something like a platitude when we say that through- 
out his after-career, a boy, in nine cases out of ten, applies his 
Latin and Greek to no practical purposes. The remark is trite 
that in his shop or his office, in managing his estate or his family, 
in playing his part as director of a bank or a railway, he is very 
little aided by his knowledge he took so many years to acquire- 
so little that generally the greater part of it drops out of his 
memory j and, if he occasionally vents a Latin quotation or alludes 
to some Greek myth, it is less to throw light on the topic in hand 
than for the sake of effect. If we inquire what is the real motive 
for giving boys a classical education, we find it to be simply con- 
formity to public opinion. Men dress their children's minds, as 
they do their bodies, in the prevailing fashion. As the Orinoco 
Indian puts on paint before leaving his hut, not with a view to 

any direct benefit, but because he "would be ashamed to be seen 
without it ; so, a boy's drilling in Latin and Greek is insisted on, 
not because of their intrinsic value, but that he may not be dis- 
graced by being found ignorant of them— that he may have 'the 
education of a gentleman' — the badge marking a certain social 
position, and bringing a consequent respect. 

" Men who would blush if caught saying Iphigenia instead of 
Iphigenia, or would resent as an insult any imputation of ignorance 
: espect n tl e Cabled labours of a fabled demi-god, show not the 
slightest shame in confessing that they do not know where the 
Eustachian tubes are, what are the actions of the spinal cord, 
what is the normal pulsation, or how the lungs are inflated. While 
anxious that their sons should be well up in the superstitions of 
two thousand years ago, they care not that they should be taught 
anything about the structure and functions of their own bodies- 
nay even wish them not to be so taught. So overwhelming is the 
influence of established routine— so terribly in our education does 
the ornamental over-ride the useful V 

The opinions of many others might be also cited, but the above 
are perhaps suflicient. 

Although written nearly thirty years ago, Mr. Spencer's remarks 

should be read by ( 

referred to the : 

iy as when they were penned, and 
I have quoted these opinions, and 
particularly in reference to school 
education in the Colonies, since at the University the science and 
professional student is now, after many a hard struggle, emanci- 
pated from most of the old classical fetters in cases where he has 
not the time or inclination to proceed with such studies. 

Mr. Spencer evidently regards the compulsory and often un- 
leasoning drilling in the classical languages as a fashion which came 
in a few centuries ago, and which will also work itself out in time. 
I believe that amongst a few there still lingers an antiquated 
notion that the study of science is not so respectable as that 
of the classics; and scholars on what is termed the modern side 

perly be regarded as a liberal one, since it only attempts to educate 
one portion of the htinli'iu's faculties : bis powers of observation, 
and of reasoning t'r< ini sucl iv neglected and 


It must not be thought tl ■ ge the study of 

the classics — such is far from my thoughts — it is quite fitting and 
necessary that some should devote their lives to such subjects; 

in which they are not likely to distinguish themselves nor obtain 
much profit from the alleged beneficial discipline which these 

Ju Iging £1 mi m\ , . rience as an examiner, I should say that 
by far the largest majority of the candidates who present them- 
selves for the Mai Ixaminations, in 
science, have not only never performed any of the most elementary 
experiments for themselves, but have not even seen them performed 
nor the instrumen Jibly enough describe from 
books ; and they would probably be dumbfounded if the simplest 
piece of apparatus itself were placed before them, and they were 
asked to perform an experiment with it. 

In my experience it is no uncommon thing for a candidate to 
reproduce the book description of a common rock, mineral or 
fossil, but fail to recognise the same when the actual thing itself 
is placed before him for description. He has p< 
piece of granite correctly, according to the book or 
has failed to recognize a common and 
it when placed before him at the 
although allowed ample time to examine it minut. ly. 

of capaeliy : ]m bus probably done 
Id have gained 

real knowledge, and not the false half-knowlec 

Until this is remedied, we cannot hope for 
in primary scientific education. 

As at home, i 

lm compulsory number of experi- 

mental illustrations should be given by the teacher, when the 
knowledge imparted, although smaller in amount, i.e. covering less 
ground, would be of real value as far as it goes. 

There are several drawbacks to the pursuit of science, especially 
in the Colonies, which deter many from taking a degree in science 
instead of in arts. One is the fact that it is easier for a lad who 
has had the ordinary school education to take a degree in arts, 
for which he has already done much of the work, 
science subjects, which are probably quite new to him, and another 

is that the student in the natural sciences has at present usually 
but very little prospect of any great pecuniary success in life, 
in spite of their having been termed the « bread and butter" 

The openings are but few, and usually not well paid. The 
necessity of having well-trained scientific managers to mines, 
metallurgical works, and manufactories, is hardly yet recognized 
— and certainly this is the case in the Colonies. 

In many cases it would pay companies to have a Manager well 
trained in scientific principles, at the rate of even £3,000 or 
£4,000 a year, instead of a more or less incompetent one at a 
small salary, as is too often the case ; the thoroughly trained man 
would often make the difference between failure and success. 

The Board of Technical Education is now doing good work in 
spreading elementary, scientific, and t clinical education over the 
Colony, by means of science classes in Sydney and at various 
centres outside of Sydney, and in a less systematic manner by the 
aid of itinerant lectures. The latter are sent out mainly to draw 
attention to the fact that there are educational subjects other than 
the ordinary school courses, and to help to create a taste for such. 
Many people who are considered fairly well educated are quite 
ignorant of such matters, and lie under tin- impression that the 
subject of physics deals with drugs, and the subject of chemistry 
with the art of compoui _ the same, so that if 

they are only taught that physics deals with the forces of nature 
some good has been clone ; for of course we cannot expect much 
to be learnt from an attendance upon one or two more or less 
popular lectures; it is more or less true, as has been said by 
Faraday, " popular lectures do not really teach, and lectures which 
really teach are not popular." 

It is gratifying to find that the necessity of scientific education 
i* gradually being realized in other quarters; and it is satisfactory 
to notice that at the present time there is a motion before the 
Legislative Assembly to place the sum of £10,000 upon the Esti- 
mates for the establishment of Schools of Mines in the various 

purpose. It is highly probable that on* 

would be in every way preferable and much more efficient. 

A School of Mines pure and simple could not possibly have a 
large number of students, while it is a most expensive institution 
to maintain. The best plan is to attach a mining department to 

for instruction in mining. Even at home— with its population of 
35,000,000 to draw from, the Royal School of Mines never had a 
large number of students, and in order to lessen the expense by 
more fully utilizing the staff and appliances it has been recently 
amalgamated with the X.-nn-d S lmol of Science. 

are aware that at the present 


but up to now none have come forward, although the existence of 
the department has been made public. 

Then at the Technical College, Sydney, under the Technical 
Board, a fairly complete course of instruction in all branches suit- 
able for the miner are giver.. If, which is not 
taught at the University, for the reason given ; but the number of 
students is so small that it is almost a question whether the Board 
is justified in continuing the outlay f.>r this department. 

The Board also is giving instruction in mineralogy, geology, and 
other allied subjects needed by the miner in certain of the country 


tly but few, 

moment tli 

lere are prac 


At the 1 

Jniversity we 

or School, 

and instructk 

the subject 

s but two, ai 

appointed i 

in those subje 

but there is no doubt that many 

who are c 

education do not seem to be awa 

re how fai 


supplied, and that the technical < 

.'ducation < 


for is in some instances being gn 

'en and tb 

■ cla 

for want of students. There apr 

►ears to 1 

e a 

cases in bringing the student an 

(1 the insti 


is no doubt whatever as to the d< 

sartb of ec 


taking the management of mines 

There is another motion to be 



Assembly, to make provision for 

the creati( 

twenty scholarships, of the value 

of £200 r 

for three years, at the Sydney I 


carried will I am sure be follow® 

:l by satis 


As another instance of the way in which the existing agencies 
for technical education are not fully recognized, I may mention 
that very few , I we have in our midst the 

nucleus of a very good Technological Museum, at present obscurely 
and indifferently sheltered in the old Agricultural Hall in the 
Domain. The collections would have been much more complete 
had it not been for the loss of all the first collections in the 
Garden Palace fire ; but in spite of that, the managing Committee 
have already quite sniiich .t n u rial to fill a much larger build- 
ing than the present temporary and unsuitable one. Many things 
cannot be shown ot all, and the others are so overcrowded it is 
difficult for visit 1 moreover they 

suffer from the combined attacks of the sun, wind, and rain, for 

A special feature in the Museum is the series of educatior 
appliances, and especially of cheap and simple sets of physic 
chemical, and other apparatus, geological and other collections,! 
the use of schools and teachers, so arranged that they can see t 
kind of apparatus to he employed and its cost. 

I do not refer to what has already been done for technical 
education to stay the hands of any one, because a vast amount 

presence of exi- . Les in this direction. 

Professor Huxley, in his Anniversary Address to the Royal 
Society, in November last, speaking of the Fellowship, says :— 
" Since this Society was founded, Kuglish-speaking communities 

quarters of the globe: to use a naturalist's phrase, their g,- i-rui<hical 
i; is 'world-wide.' Wherever these communities have 

together for the promotion of natural knowledge has worked in 
them and produced most notable results. The cpiantity and quality 
of the scientiiie work now being done in the Cnited States moves 
us all to hearty admiration ; the Dominion of Canada, and our 
Colonies in South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia, show that 
they do not mean to be left b, hind in the ,„•■■ : and the scientific 
activity of our countrymen in India n.-d> ,,„ ,, lli:iI e,,t. 

"Whatever may be the practirabiHt v ol' i.o!iti.-al federation for 

the globe, some sort of scientific federation should surely he possible. 

"Nothing is baser than scientific Chauvinism, but still, blood is 
thicker than water." And he further says -"I have < .f ten ventured 
to dream that the Royal Society might associate itself insomespecial 
way with all English-speaking men of science; that it might 
recognize their work in other ways than by the rare opportunities 
at present offered by election to our Foreign Fellowship, while 
they must needs be deprived of a large part of its privileges. 

" How far this aspiration of mine may be reciprocated by our 

not know ; I make it public on my own responsibility, for your 
and their consideration." 

Doubtless all agree with Prof. Huxley that it is desirable to 
have closer bonds of union between the U„ v; d Socktv and the 

speaking countries, but it does not appear to be very eas 
suggest a method for bringing this about. 

It is really very difficult to suggest any improvement upon 
[•resent relationship between the parent Society and non-rcsi 
I--nL;lisii -peaking men of science certainlv as far as the Cob 
are concerned, for any one who really does good work in 
Colonies is seldom overlooked, but his merits are usually 
acknowledged by election to the Fellowship of the It oval Sue 
There are probably many earnest workers in science in Eng 
speaking countries who would like to be connected with the E 
Society, and who are well fitted, as far as attainments go, tc 
elected to its Fellowship; but I fear that many difficulties wil 

One amongst others is, 

that tl 

.e number of Fellows, 

at present 

limited to 50C 

', would hav. 

a to be 

very largely increased 

; for if we 

assume that tl 

Iiere are sixt 

y to » 

eventy millions of tin 

? English- 

speaking race 

resident els, 


than in the United Kin 

gdom, and 

the proportioi 

i of men w 

orthy t 

md desirous of the ur 


great honor of 

1 its Fellows 

hip be 

anything like that amongst those 

resident in tin 

3 United Ki 


then the 500 would h 

ave to be 

made at least 

1,0C0, and 


jly much more, a nun: 

iber which 

would swamp 

the old Roy 

al Soeh 


the suggestion with considerable diffidence and with all 
•t), until - m< workable s< me 1 s be. 

oyal Society might be able to grant certain privileges to the 
>ers of the older and recognized Colonial and American 
ies. The members of the branch Societies — for the Colonial 
.merican Societies are really offshoots of the original Eoyal 
y — when visiting the old country might be given increased 

1 granted copies of 

32 president's address. 

It is true that at present the Royal Society's rules are so liberal 
that a visitor need seldom be debarred from attending its meetings, 
yet increased faeiliti. i \ iglit be granted to a certain number of 
properly accredited members of external Societies. 

Another way in which the Royal Society and other scientific 
Societies at home could render us material help is by giving us 
assistance in the publication of our papers. Too often a paper 
read before a colonial Society is practically not published at all 
outside of the particular Colony in which it is read and printed. 

Although the publications of the colonial Societies are usually 
distributed to the principal Societies and Journals outside of the 
Colonies, yet but few people see them. The book is placed on the 
library table or shelves, and is perhaps just glanced at by one or 
tAvo ; when as if absi v ict , of the papers which it contains, or even 
their titles, were to be more regularly inserted in the pi 
of the home Societies, more use would be made of the work done 
in the Colonies and America. In the case of the more valuable 
papers, it might be desirable to have the whole of the contributions 
published in the Journal of some home Society; arrangements 
could readily be made so that the paper should appear simul- 
taneously at home and in the Colony. Any such recognition 
would, I am sure, do a great deal to further the advancement of 
science in the Colonies. 

NW-a-days few have the time to unearth books in a large 
library ; to reach the person for whom it is intended, the paper 
must be placed in his hands, or otherwise closely brought under 
his notice. 

In the same way it might be arranged that papers written in 
England, America, and elsewhere, upon matters interesting in the 
Colonies, might be simultaneously read and published by the 
Colonial Societies. 

After a paper has been published (i.e., technically) in the 
Colonies, although very few have seen or heard it, no other scien- 
tific Society according to the present custom can pay any i 

to it, so that to all intents and purposes the matter remains 
unpublished. Hence, as 1 have already said, publication in the 
Colonies is too often practically no publication. 

The effect of this is often seen in popular books upon the 
Colonies, and in some too which are not intended to be popular, 
where the same long exploded errors, are carefully reproduced by 
generation after generation of writers. 

Whether the late distinguished President of the Royal Society 
is able or not to cany out his wishes, we cannot but be grateful to 
him for the full recognition he makes of our efforts to follow in 
the footsteps, although in but a feeble way, of the grand old 
parent Society. 

On September 16, 1884, the following letter appeared in the 
Sydney papers, and was afterwards n-producvd l,y most of the 
other Colonial and some of the Home papers :— 
" The Britisii Association. 
" To the Editor. 
"Sir,— During th-..- past fortnight wo have received several tele- 
grams from London respecting the late mating of the British 
Association at Montreal, and in some of them references arc made 
to suggestions that a future meeting should be held in Australia. 

" As far as one can judge, the idea seems to have been thrown 
out when Professor Moseley, F.R.S., announced Mr. Caldwell's 
discov. r> of th • o\ ij arou - m ture of the \ lah i us and An tralian 
porcupine.- The news seems to have created or rather re-awakened 
interest in the peculiarities of Australian Natural History, and 
on the spur of the moment some of the more enthusiastic members 
appear to have proposed that a subsequent meeting of the British 
Association should be held in Australia. 

"The Victorian Premier, with commendable promptitude, at 

iphyd the mvexsary invitation for the Association to 

Writ Melbourne next year; an invitation might also have gone 

from Sydney, and especially under the circumstances. "Without 

such invitation the meeting is not likely to take place here, for the 

34 president's address. 

Association only visits towns to which it is invited, and generally 
there is more or less competition amongst the principal towns to 
secure the acceptance of tin ir invlt ttinns, and to bring this about 
the competing towns offer as many attractions as possihle. 
" For tli the great Englis] 3 

United Si ir fares to members 

made free to them, and the Telegraph Companies also granted 
i ee use f tier 1 s 11 C nada and the United States. 

members and their families merely paying for their meals and 
-sleeping-berths at quite nominal rates. 

"In addition to the reductions made by the Steamship Com- 
panies, the Canadian Committee voted .--] t,000 for the purpose of 
still further reducing the cost of members' (and of their relatives') 
passages to Canada. The Australian Colonies would of course 

i time of voyage into aecouni, tie- amount to be raised 
here would have to be many times as much. 

Zealand, and the Islands offer great attractions to many of the 
members (I know of one eminent scientific man who is returning 
to England via Australia from the Montreal meeting), yet but 
comparatively few could afford the time and money to come out 
here. The visit to Montreal and the excursions through Canada 
and the United States could all be managed in a month or six 
weeks, and at a comparatively .mall expense in fact, most of those 

holiday or visit to the seaside ; but out of the 2,000 to 3,000 

1883) only a comparatively small number could arrange to wait 
Australia; the round voyage could .scarcely be squeezed into the 
long vocation of those fortunate enough to have one, and the 


necessary travelling expenses would considerably exceed the whole 

year's income of many — for the pursuit of science is not a lucrative 
one, and as a rule its followers are poor. Hence, taking all thing* 
into account, I do not think we could expect more than fifty 
members, if so many. And unless some 400 to 500 attended 
(between 800 and 900 entered their names for the Montreal 
session) the gathering could scarcely be considered as a meeting of 
the British Association. Therefore, instead of looking for a near 
visit from the Association, I would suggest that we should rather 
be preparing the way for issuing an invitation later on, when we 
have made suitable provision to entertain our intended Scientific 
guests : and as a preliminary step I would venture to suggest, as a 
life member of the parent Association, that we might try to bring 

Australasian Association for the advancement of Science on the 

general meeting in Sydney on the hundredth anniversary of the 
Colony, when there will probably be an International Exhibition 
to celebrate that event. With the combined attractions we might 
hope to gather together a wry fair number of scientiih- visitor^ to 

" I mooted this question during the last Exhibition in Sydney 

in 1879, but ma;- tor it ; but now, perhaps, 

Association suited to the scattered Austral- 
rily offer Bome difficulties, but they can all 

"After the first meeting - place annually, 

Australasia, as agreed upon by the members. 


" 1 am sure that such an Ass ei tion - hi. h mast come sooner 
or later, if we are to hold our own — would not only do a great 
deal for the advancement of science in the Colonies, hut would 
;Ui-o materially favour their progress in many other ways. 

"Trusting that this letter may 1 rim. !>out an expression of 
opinion upon the matter, — 


"The University, September 16, 1884." 

I am still of opinion that arrangements should be made for 
holding such a m for founding the proposed 

Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and I 
shall be glad if those who are in favour of it w ill kindly send me 
their names as i; ■ul tim accessary prelimi- 

nary steps can be taken. 

The regulations i r tht Australasian A sso. it ion might be drawn 
up on the same general lines as are followed by the parent 
Association, but ns to suit our local cir- 

cumstances ; they might be somewhat as follows : — 

There should be a General Committee or Council, having 
the supreme control, to be composed of delegates from 
the different Colonies or Colonial Scientific Societies, who 
could be elected or appointed according to some scheme 
to be decided upon. The number of delegates from each 
Society or Colony should be proportionate to the number 
of members subscribing or otherwise taking part in 
the proceedings; each Society might be allowed to 
nominate a delegate for each one hundred members. 
A local Cominitb.- would be iv.piiivd in the place of meet- 
ing, to make arrangements for the reception and enter- 
tainment of the visitors, and to make preparations for the 
business of the General Meetings. 
Sectional Committees would also require to be appointed for 

the following subjects : 

Section A.— Astronomy, Mathematics, Physics and 

Section B. — Chemistry and Min.-ral.^x . 

Section C. — Geology and Pah-eon tology. 

Section D. — Biology. 

Section E. — Geography. 

Section F.— Economic Science and Statu 

Section G. — Anthropology. 

Section H.— Medical and Sanitary Seien 

The rights and priv 
main similar to 

for 1888. 

If the General Committee were appointed on the basis suggested, 
viz., one delegate to each 100 members or less, the total number of 
such representatives would be about twenty-five to thirty, since 
there are some twenty recognized Scientific Societies in the 
Australasian Colonies, and the number of members between 2,500 
and 3,000. 

From the above numbers it does not appear unreasonable to 
expect a sufficiei tt number < m eeting a success. 

In addition toi use be organized 

to various places of interest, such as the Jenolan, Wambeyan, and 
other Caves, the Blue Mountains, and similar places of interest to 

Probably the best and most suitable place for the general and 
other meetings would be the University, as it is the only building 
in Sydney which possesses a sufficiently large hall and the requisite 
rooms for the sectional meetings. 


The objects of I ion are as set forth as follows, 

and the proposed Australasian Association would probably do well 
to try and follow the same lines: — "The Association contemplates 
no interference with the ground occupied by other institutions. 
Its objects are — to give a stronger im| al-e ami a more systematic 
direction to scientiiic inquiry- -to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate science in different parts of the British Empire, with 
one another and with foreign phi! >sophcrs— to obtain a more 
general attention to the objects of science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of i impedes its progress. " 

Amongst its rules which might also be adopted are these — I 


All persons who have attended the first meeting shall be entitled 
to become members of the Association upon agreeing to conform 

Tho Officers, Members of Council, Fellows, and Members of 
Literary and Philosophical Societies, publishing Transactions or 
Journals in the British Kmpire, diall be entitled in like manner 
to become members of the Association. Persons not belonging 
to such Institutions shall be elected by the General Committee 
or Council to become life members of the Association, annual 
subscribers, or associates for the year, subject to the approval of 
a general meeting. 

All members who have paid their subscriptions shall be entitled 
to receive the publication of the Association gratis. 

The Association shall meet for one week or longer. The place 
of meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two years 
in advance. 

The first meeting of the British Association was held in 1831, 
and it was attended by 353 members, since that date the numbers 
have increased very largely, and close upon 3,000 members and 
associates have been present at the later meetings, and even at 
the Montreal meeting the number was 1,777 ; of which 235 were 
old life members, 20 new life members 317 old annual members, 
219 new annual members, 826 associates (/. e. members for the 

duced their fa 

the Presidency of the Mayor of Montreal, were appointed to make 

of the Association were at the beautifully situated M'Gill College. 
The Presbyterian, Wesleyan, and Congregation Colleges were 
also placed at the disposal of the Association for meetings of the 

All the most prominenl lents, not only in 

Montreal, but in Canada generally, seemed to have vied with one 
another in extending their hospitality to their visitors, and in 
endeavours to ma ' one : i isits and excursions 

were planned for all, some of great length, and welcomes were 
extended from o<. i ig from the Governor-General 

downwards. About 1 40 residents in Montreal alone each received 

from two to six gu< -,n is: their houses, and, from the account of 
the Montreal meeting given by General Sir J. Henry Lefroy, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.S. to the Colonial Institute, the gathering 
must have been very interesting and most enjoyable. Any one 
wishing for fun !i paper, to which 

I am indebted for some of the above references to the Montreal 

Although so many old members of the British Association 
visited Canada, guished members, 

we cannot, I think, as I said in my letter, reasonably expect the 
British Association to visit Australia for some years to come, bui 
I think that if we arrange for a gathering of all the most pro 
minent scientific men and \\c11-\n i-h. . s *.f sch nee in Australia, and 
invito the members of the British and American Associations tc 
visit us, we may i \ visitors. 

would permanently i ii e the !>i:;h water-mark of thought in all 
the Colonies, and especially in connection with scientific matters. 

for most branches of knowledge. 

The British Association meeting at Montreal seems to be re- 
garded on all hands as having been a success from every point of 
view — from the special scientific one of the Association itself, and 
from the picnic point of view of those who merely went for 

taken to take stock, as it might be termed, of all scientific matters 
more particularly connected with Australasia. 

all the scattered and fragmentary g< i 
relating to the various Colonies, and 1 , 

It would be beneficial if botanists were t 

•H>ution ; and similar questions could be di 

ists for land ami marine organisms. 
If the proposed Australian Association fo 

nately, without the time to give it that som<-.\ hat ruthless pruning 
which I feel it needs. 

With this my d,;:i< - a • F:. sidt-nt o a-,-: and it now only remains 
for me to express the pleasure I have had in endeavouring to fill 
the office to the best of my ability, and to hope that the Society 
may have a Ion. '• It has, I think, safely 

got over most of the troubles incidental to such Societies in new 
countries. We now have a large roll of members, the largest of 
any single Society in any of the Colonies ; we have the nucleus of 
a good special library, and a fairly comfortable and commodious 
house and hall for our meetings ; whereas a few years back the 
whole of our chattels and effects were carried backwards and for- 
wards by the Assistant Secretary in a carpet-bag ; so that it now 
only remains for us to make a reputation for the Society by the 
character and amount of the work which is done under its auspices. 

Description of an unrecorded Ardisia of New 

[Read !■</. V. s. l|\, . ./„„,, 1SSC] 

Ardisia porantherea, F. v. M. & C. Moore. 
Glabrous ; leaves large, chartaceous, lanceolar, somewhat acmni- 
nated, narrowed into a short petiole, shining on both sides, hardly 
paler beneath, entire at the margin, copiously pervaded by trans- 
parent short lineoles and dots ; umbels crowded into short terminal 
panicles ; pedicels about as long as the umbel stalks or longer ; 
flowers pentamerous ; segments of the calyx elliptical, membranous 
at the margin ; corolla pale-bluish or almost lilac-coloured, nearly 
twice as long as the calyx, its lobes about three times longer 
than the pale tube, broad-oval ; filaments hardly half as long 
as the anthers ; the latter yellow, from a somewhat bilobed 
base broad-linear, gradually attenuated upwards, opening in- 
trosely by two terminal confluent pores, considerably shorter 
than the corolla ; style hardly surpassing the stamens, setaceous, 
as well as the ovary glabrous. 

New Guinea.— Cultivated in the Botanic Gardens of Sydney 
by Chas. Moore, Esq., F.L.S. A large elegant plant, of seem- 
ingly climbing habit ; leaves dark green, to 7 inches long and 
to '2h inches broad, thinly penninerved, finely net-veined. 
Panicles much shorter than the leaves, the general peduncles 
bearing umbel-stalks already from near the base. Pedicels 
mostly twice as long as the flowers. Bracts conspicuous, 
cymbous-lanceolar, at first outside soft-hairy, soon deciduous. 
Segments of the calyx about }. inch Inn--, densely Hneolar and 
punctular-spotted except towards the hyaline margin. Corolla 
tender-membranous, its resinous lineoles and dots dark brownish, 
its lobes quite blunt. Anthers about 1 inch lung. Stigma 
not broader than the summit of the style; fruit as yet not 
obtained. In its affinity this new species approaches to A. 
porosa from Malacca and the Sunda-Islands, forming with that 
plant and with A. paludosa from Madagascar the section Mono- 
porus, which might perhaps be restored to generic right, unless 
carpologic characteristics, against expectation, should be found to 
interfere with this segregation. A porosa differs already in less 
resinous-glandular leaves and in racemously arranged flowers of 
smaller size from the new Papuan congener. 

A Comparison of the Dialects of East and West 

Polynesian, Malay, Malagasy, and Australian. 

By the Rev. George Pratt. 

[Read before the Royal Society o/N. S. W., 2 June, 1386.] 

Some of these dialects were collected f 

from books. The orthography is sometimes peculiar and arbi- 

In Lifu j stands for th, 

c for ch, as in church, 

x for ch, as in loch, 

e is much like i in vin (French), 

k is hard g. 
The natives call a fowl either kutu or gutu. 
Malagasy sounds o as u. There are thirty-four Eastern Polynesian 
roots among thi re are sixty-six 

East Polynesian roots among the Malay words. These words were 
selected from th< Malay given by Wallace, and 

from the Malay dictionary. Kanala (New Caledonia) abounds in 
double consonants — ng, mb, kh, kw. It has three consonants 
coming togeth. i - father a nasal d than two 


The Australian dialects (except Kamilaroi) are written after 
•unds in English letters, 

It will be observed that the East Polynesian dialects are sub- 
stantially branches of one language ; whereas the Western Poly- 
nesian dialects entirely differ, and have very little in common even 
among themselves. I found over 100 Eastern Polynesian words 
in the Duke of York Dictionary; I account for the presence of 
these words to be owing to i t lenient among 

these people. Such, we know, happened in two instances. A large 
party of Tongans and Samoans reached Efate (New Hebrides) and 

settled there by force ; arul a slanders took pos- 

session of one end of the island of Iai, in the Loyalty Group, and 
these have preser\ ■ >st pure. Australian words 

rely from both East and West Polynesian. 





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^iiiN"M-=4 = = = MiMhi 

! -i ■?, I" = 1 1 

I ! f, , 



iiiiiiiiiJiiiWli J 

llMflMfibblflHl i 

, 2 .§ ' g .SI, | 

s i ... 

m-AMMm A 



58 a courAsisos or : 

1= I „ s1s«i-si 111 


...-.* u 


^53ilil^i53i55^^ = £j'l^ 

i ...-a Si i L^& 



iijiiiiiyjik iti & 

J: 3-§3=3i s.§ ; 

The following notes have been furnished by Mr. J. F. Mann :-— 
I have no means of my > , T of words with 

the language used by the aboriginals of New South Wales ; copious 
vocabularies which I made years ago have long since been lost ; 
I am from other .bled to supply a consider- 

able list of words used by natives of at least four of the tribes of 
South Australia. It will be observed that in no instance do the 
words given by the Rev. Mr. Pratt under the heading of " S. 
Australia " agree with the accompanying list. This may be 
accounted for by the following reason : \\ custom prevails among 
the aboriginals of naming a child after the first living object seen 
by the mother or nearest relative at or immediately after its birth j 
thus, a bird, butterfly, reptile, &c, Szc, each afford a name for the 
youngster, and this name holds good until the child, if a male, 
becomes a young man, when he has to submit to many very painful 
operations and extraordinary ceremonies in order to enable him 

another name, also derived from some animal or vegetable, or 
in reference to some incident worth recording. Should this man 
die, such is the objection to repeat the name that another word 
has to be coined to represent it. Jealousy between tribes often 
prevents the mutual use of a word : so that in forming vocabularies 
each tribe has to be closely questioned as to the proper word, and 
even then much discretion must be observed, as the natives do not 
like to be cross-questioned ; so unless you are thoroughly in their 
confidence you are likely to be misled. 

The pronunciation has to be closely noted ; thus, one reverend 
missionary record d a length of time with a 

tribe before he discovered that the words sin and thin had been 
confused, consequently these poor blacks thought that a thin 
person had no ch vn, and took great trouble 

to cram and fatten up all whom they thought worthy of 

My authority for the accompanying list are the Rev. G. Taplin, 
Rev. Mr. Teichelma; . Mr. M.r.i.-l.. ■.-.-. !.■ \. Mr. Schurman (South 
Australia) ; Mr. J. Gason, Cooper's Creek, Dieyerie Tribe ; Mr. J. 
W. O. Bennett, Northern Territory. 

List of some words us ■.! b\ tin - iti\ s of >< nth Australia: — 

if If 

1 1 V 



~i h * 




I'll lillfe 





§ i a 

*B* W*« 


H,j.| 1 i 

?i -s 


U L 

iii in 



111 Jtsii 





S * g ^ 1 

! s i 


e'S 1.3.* 5 a a* I? 


f 111 II ill llll 

j HJliffi fl IP 
i i r J 

i 1 1 li ! I II 2 1 
LLl si, 

5 1 f litii s s K Mi 

HH ; ill gljlfl 

g ifl Ul i . 



Preliminary notes on some new Poisonous Plants 
discovered on the Johnstone River, North 

By T. L. "Bancroft, M.B., Edin., F.L.S. 
(Communicated by Prof. T. P. Anderson Stuart, M.D.) 

[Read be/on //<■ Uoi/ol Swn t,j of X.S. ])'., : June, 1SS6.] 

Among many bai 3 collected on the Johnstone 

River during 1885, with a view to ascertain if they possessed any 
physiological activity, was the hark of ;i small tree called Dapk- 
riantlm r>ji<indula, F. v. M., of the order Mojiintiaca' . which 
possesses ;i somewhat hitter taste. 

This hitter property exists in all parts of the plant. 

Extract of the August, 1885, and experi- 

ments instituted the following October. 

A grain or more of alcoholic extract suspended in a few minims 
of water injected under the skin ot guinea-pigs asphyxiates them 
rapidly, bai jometimes recover. 

As a rule if animals live for half an hour they ultimately 

The following symptoms may lie observed when a grain of the 
alcoholic extract suspended in live minims of water is injected 
under the skin 01 

The animal becomes at first very restless and eats with avidity, 
but this continues only a few minutes, and is probably due to 
the irritation of the injection. As soon, however, as the animal 
quietens down, . f the extremities, and after- 

wards of the whole body, occur every second or two, but they are 
not of a violent kind, and continue until death. The eyelids 
blink in a curious way oca is increased, and 

the front legs are no longer able to support the body ; the animal 
in consequence rests upon its chest. This condition is very 
characteristic, and is an almost certain sign that the dose has been 
a fatal one. 

The animal up to this time could exercise voluntary movements. 
The hind legs next become weak, and if the animal be now placed 
upon its back, it is no longer able to ri-ht itself, although there yet 
remains power of movement in all the limbs; it is perfectly 

sensible to pain. Soon, how lysis of the whole 

muscular system takes place, the animal dying asphyxiated. 
Violent contractions of the facial muscles are the last apparent 
sign of life ; but the heart in some cases heats on slowly for a 
few minutes : rhjor mortis rapidly ensues. 

I conclude, from experiments madf upon cats, guinea-pigs, 
frogs, and grasshoppers — 

1. That this poison paralyses the motor nervous system. 

3. That it is not a muscle poison. 

Ben th., and in a in >p <> nl i • imi i :< i discovered on the 
Johnstone, and so named by my friend Mr. F. M. Bailey on 
account of its aromatic taste and smell resembling Sarsaparilla. 

B. — Archidendron Vailluutii, F. v. M., a leguminous tree, 

attracted attention by it,-, i ■ lining beans of a 

black colour and nauseous hot taste. The hark is also hot and 

Alcoholic extract of the dried bean was made, live -rains of 

ark was found 

i-pi.^s poisoned \ 

and force as the p 
paralysed, and the c 
before they die, and 
death the muscles c 
through their nerve: 
Neither the moto: 

Two other species of Zxnthn..-,,],,^. vi/.., Z. tor,-.',,, 
and Z. brachyacantlii'n), V. v. _M., hum \ 
genus are likewise poisonous. 

Numerous experiments were made with extract of i. 
this tree upon dogs, cats, rats, frogs, and grasshoppers. 

It acts upon the spinal chord, increasing the rellex <•■> 
and finally paralysing the chord. 

It poisons grasshoppers, while strychnine lias no ac 

It tetanises frogs, even when applied to the skin. 

In its physiological action it resembles strychnine. 

The following may be taken as a typical example of tl 
this substance upon warm bloodi d animals : — 

Four grains of the alcoholic extract suspended in five 
water and five of spirit were injected under the skin of a 
Immediately afterwards the cat was uneasy, would lie d 

minutes there were convulsive contractions of the fore limbs and 
muscles of chest ; a strong light would not alter the iris. In 

commenced; during one of these attacks the respiration is very 
laboured, inspiration stertorous, the head hangs down, and the cat 
jerks itself backwards ; directly after the spasm goes off the cat 
lies down exhausted. In forty-five minutes there was a tetanic 
spasm every minute, and the animal was expected to die every 
convulsion." In fifty-five minute tetanic spasms last about a 
quarter of a minute : inspiration extremely laboured and prolonged, 
with wheezing ; at times no air can be inspired, and the chest 
becomes collapsed. In sixty minutes the cat jumped and fought 
for breath in a frightful way. and died ; the heart could be felt to 
beat regularly for two minutes afterwards. Four hours after 
death there was ri<jor moD . \.-\ivt was empty, 

and the left ventricle firmly contracted ; the intestine was bloodless 
and contracted. 

With larger doses than five grains tetanic spasms come on 
rapidly, and the animals die in a few minutes. 

Large dogs recover sometimes after five grains have been injected 
under their skin. 

Metallic Meteorite, Queensland. 

[Read bcforr th- Rn>,„! Son. t,, ,./X.S. W., 2 June, 1886.] 

Pbelimixary Notice. 
This meteorite was found at Thunda, Windorah, 

idly lent I 
by Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., Government 
Geological Surveyor of New South Wales. 

Mr. Wilkinson was informed that this specimen was broken off 
a larger mass weig .lit or more, and it certainly 

has every appearance of having been recently detached. The 
large piece is said to be buried ahout 4 inches in the ground, and 
the natives had covered it with stones, so that they evidently 
regarded it ;is something of importance or value. The weight of 
the fragment was 2")8-7 grammes, and its specific gravity was 
found to be 7"77 at 1(5' C, being the mean of two determinations 
made on separate pieces, viz., 7'7-"> and 7 - 79. In form it is very 
irregular, the i acture is well shown by the 

fractured surface, the plates standing out in bold relief and 
meeting one and b are apparently 

those of the octohedron. In the hollow on one side a distinct 
pitted structure is seen showing that this apparently formed 
one of the external surfaces of the meteorite, although the usual 
well marked skin of fused t present. 

Up to the present I have not had time to make more than a 
preliminary qualitative examination, but this shows clearly that 
this specimen has the usual composition of the metallic group of 
meteorites. It c ■;:, with nickel, and a trace of 

cobalt, both sulphur and phosphorus are present, and apparently a 
trace of carbon, and I think it will be found not to differ materially 
from the New South Wales meteorite found at Bingera. (See 
Journ., Eoy. Soc, N.S.W., 1882, p. 35.) 

Further Additions to the Census of the Genera of 
Plants hitherto known as indigenous to Australia. 
By Baron Feed, vox Mueller, K.C.M.G, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

< L rx. 

Pyenarrhena, Aliens in Ann. and Ma --a;-:, of nat. hist. set. ser. 

VII, 37 (1851) ; after Paehygone. '" 
Melicytus, R. &, G. For.stcr char. gen. 123, t. 62 (1776); after 

Tehxstkokmiackai:. Mirbel in Bull, do k Soc. philom. 381 (1813); 

after Guttiferae. 
Sarauia, Willdenow in Schriffc, naturf. Freundezu Berlin III, 406, 

Herniaria, Tournefort tost, rei herb. 507, t, 288 (1700); after 

Diptor.mtiiemmn, F. v. M. in Wings South. Science Pec. Ill, 281 

(1884); after Ptilotns. 
Cyathula, Loureiro II. < 'odmichin. 1. 101 (1790); after Amarantus. 
(Vlosia, Lima' gen. [,!. 34 (1737) ; after Deeringia. 
Uleistocalyx, Blume Mus. hot. Lugd. Bat. I, 84, t LVI (1849); 

Bphenodea, Gaertner de fructib. I, 113, t, 24 (1788); after 


Salvini;i, Miclieli nov. plant, -on. 107. t. 58 (1729) ; after Azolla. 
Meniscium, Schreber gen. plant. II, 7-17 (1791) ; after Grammitis. 
•Selerodontiuni, Sdiwae-riclien in Hedw. spec. muse. Suppl. IJ, 

124(1824); after Neckera. 
Omphalanthus, Lindenberg ,v Noes synops. hepatic. 303 (1845): 

after Phragmicoma. 
Bryopteris, Kees Eurup. Lebenn. 111.211 (1838); after Frullania, 
Plagiochasma, Lehn.ann pugill. plant. IV, 13 (1832) ; after 

Alectoria, Acha 

after Pai 

Lerauia, jlii iImiil" Vli" 1 '. ;> . <li Lirli- u. 1 12 (18-">: 

. <:. llwn- Enhviekl. ,hv Fleckt. 3i>7 (182, 

'- hi vins in Schrail. ncu. Journ. fuer Bot. I, .' 
after Graphia 
Glyphis, Acharius ^ynnps. licli -n. LOG (1S1I) ; after Gi )] 

!M. ,Shlvi! U '0l .Vlllrit. ill .las St'!<l. : 

10 (1804) ; after Yerrucaria. 
Kadulum. Fri s plant Lomon. SI (1^2-V): liter Tfv.l m . 
L.t.-rn-a. T 2 (1*20); after Clathi 

test. 55 (1818) ; after F 

(lSi.V)'; after Phoma. 

. - << ikI.i ;]!.,'_ f-i_ III. »,"»> lh^) : aft r 

Uidiolla, Sa.T.i 
hvsterium. Sp, 

in this part of thu worH. Thr y 
.;. - r ..;, . .. . • 

Kuftzin- -n-1 Xr>r<I,tedt. For tl 
■ : -> Mr. F. M. Hail 

! • 

Notes on the process of Polishing- and Figuring 

18-in. Glass Specula by hand, and experiments 
with Flat Surfaces. 

/ !,./„)•• >!>< i:o>mi s,.y„ >,,<,/} 

themeth kI which I have followed is not altogether the usual one, 

etission have been attempted l>y hand, 1 haw thouglu it probable 
that certain notes taken down by me during my experiments 
might not lie altogether void of interest to some of the members 
of this Society. 

It is now more than four yea 

spoctila-llats, etc.. with other optical experiments. During this 

period several mirrors from 7-in. to lS-in. diameter Lave been 

it. As the 

18-in. mirrors were somewhat : expensive, these. 

have been refined and repolished se\eral times to gain praetical 

. in their construction. They were imported from 

Chance Bros., Birmingham, and when polished were found to 

have been well annealed. 

A piece of plate-glass l'»-in. diameter wa> cemented to the back 
of each mirror to suit its intended cell or mounting, and the weight 
of the whole speculum when finished was about 70 lb. (fig. 1.) 

In producing these specula the first thing to consider is natu- 
rally the convex tool with which they are ground to the proper 
curvature; and my first attempt was made by procuring two fiat 
discs of glass of the same size, and grinding them together with 
emery and sand, the intended sp< uppermost 

position until they had attained the desired form; it being well 
known that two Hat discs when ground together will form them- 
selves into spherical surfaces, the overhanging part of the top one 
pi od vexity in the one underneath. 

My succeeding trial was made by the usual iron tool turned to 
.■" curvature in a lathe: but it was found that two of 

they became of a true spherical form ; and knowing that the co- 
efficient of expansion of iron was 0.000012, that of glass only 
0.000008, and that in both cases the surfaces were very sensitive 
to small vaviatio ' 

surfaces), I formed the opinion that a truer surface could be pro- 
duced by having the tool made of the same material as the intended 
reflector, and therefore in producing the two larger specula under 
consideration 1 reverted to my former process. 

Three plates of rough glass 1-in. thick and IS 1 , -in. diameter 
were ground togethei to tit one another, and then cemented so as 
to form a firm and solid block. 

To produce the proper convexity in so large a size in the usual 
manner would occupy a considerable time, ;md require a great 
amount of labour : yet bug] fiy given to it by 

the machinery «m d'h\ \<\u\- -la- grinders. I had the tool made 
of about one quarter more convexity than the required concavity of 
the speculum, and the latter having being partly hollowed out by 
the use of a leaden weight and rough emery, the two (tool and 
glass) having I I hemselves into 

perfect spherical surfaces, r roper curvature. 

Where many specula are to be produced upon the same tool, 

ronmay be pre in urfaoe becoming extremely 

hard; but I have with one of glass ground or rather refined the 

speculum during three hours, without producing so much as 1-in. 

in the focal length. 

During the course of my earlier attempts with smaller glasses, 
much time was lost in the p thing process mot 

having been suffi< i I h the finest grade of emery, 

but with the two under consideration to-night, this was guarded 
against, and no polishing was begun until the mirror was bright 
enough to reflect the image of the sun at an almost perpendicular 

In one instance, to ascertain the exact form of the surface given 
to the speculum by the glass tool, I endeavoured to render it 
thereby reflective enough without polishing for a preliminary 
examination at the centre of curvature. In this I did not quite 
succeed, but with 5m. polishing it reflected the light from a very 
small pinhole, and when thus examined 1 was delighted to find 
that it presented a traesj ' ly inclining from 

the spherical toward., the spheroidal form, and that irregularities 
of more than ,o,W part of an inch (probably much less) had 

of tool I had used left 
. ng, then, at this stage 
of the process an absolutely true curve, the polishing was pro- 
ceeded with in the usual 'manner with roum- upon pitch (the 
speculum I ie late Dr. 

the surface int 

o a paraboloid of revolution, t 

he spheroidal 


as spherical ; 

forgotten that 1 

the spherical fora 

lis the only state in w 

except by varying 

the distance o 

Foucault test o 

centre of curvature, 

that variations 

of -00000 L inch (as is prove< 

:1 hereafter) c 

noticed. Supp 

using, however, 

l>een obtained. 

the most dolica 

viz., to change 

it into a parabo 

had of revolw 

don, or what 

is the 


Some optica 

ais have attained 


1, and 

) doubt that a si 

milar etiect oa 

n be produced 


13 v making the polisher a little larger than the speculum 

(llerschell). ■ v by i : 'in. axis as 

10 to 9 (Shorts process). Without doubt this will 
lengthen the outside ray., but the regularity of the curve 
from the centre seems to me doubtful. 
By -radually lengthening the strokes (Dr. Draper), not 

3 By raising the temperature of both glass and polisher, and 
before the pitch becomes of its usual hardness to use a 
few long strokes (half strokes), afterwards gradually 
decreasing them to nothing. This I have tried with 
partial success. 

4. By local polishing, as adopted by Lassell ; perhaps the one 

now mostly used, and the process by which the greatest 
success has been obtained. Its defect is that small 
irregularities are almost impossible to avoid. 

5. By graduating the pitch polisher, which in my experiments 

seems to be the process most certain of success : yet in 

large surfaces, where a considerable amount of correction 

is to be performed, great care is necessary to avoid it 

running into an irregular curve. 

As in this process the main point to be considered is the correct 

vsteui of graduations to be used, I began by inquiring into the 

orm of the solid interposed between th< sphere and paraboloid oi 

he same curvature at the point of contact, seeking thus to com- 

>ine theory and practice. 

The general equation to this solid becomes complicated, but as 
t was only required to know tin- variation in the thickness ot a 
iection from centre to edge by combining the equations of the 
jircle and parabola, I deducted an approximate expression (correct 
'or the usual shallow cur\» s to eight places of decimals) thus: 

Equation to parabola origin A is x x = .. "., - 

,' expressed : 

Let now y x = y, 
4th, we have by s 

and neglecting big 



rs of i/ than 
1 to thickness 

any value of y = ■- 

- and supposing r < 

' T . 

t is seen that .■ 

varies as 4th powet 

-of semi diameter. 

Let now z be calculated for interv 
of y with radius (r) = 320 inches as in 
sid'Tation. and as has i)een done ir 
section will be represented by the fo 
the solid line represents a section of 
the dotted line the corresponding paral 


of i : 

,. spe. 

inch in the lei 

m b 008880000 

Iii this table the first column gives tla 1. igth from centre ot 

<;]■ •;, or the amount cf abrasion 
required to change the section of a sphere into thai of a 

of revolution, and the 1th am! r>th columns, the h- . 
aberration of the latter curve existing at the centre of its main or 
rather least curvature : calculated from the formula ', (approxi- 
mately), and this is known to be four times the amount the same 
speculum uouhl show (if spherical) in the telescope at its focus. 
Although in this case the relativa length' of focus to diameter is 

table, some startling truths aiv revealed. 

,f ILle by the variation in the reflect- 

ing surface of one-millionth part of an inch, which is actually the 

At 4 inches from the centre the distance from the two curves 
is onlv that amount, ami vet this produces -,»„- inch Ion. 
aberrational the centre 'of curvature, which, under favourable 
circumstances, can easily be perceived : hut, on the oil 
this small variation might be produced l.y three strokes of the 
polisher, or by the smallest irregularity in temperature, it shows 
that practically the curve for the central 8 inches should be 
spherical, and that, with mi ror:- Laving \vr\ shallov curve- as 
l-2'm. diameter to 20ft. focus, such a form is as good if not better 

In the abc 

■ve caiculatioi 

is the point 

i of contact (al 

-,. origin 

of the two 

been s 

upposed 1 

to be at t 

& revolution 

as in tin 

3 parabolo 

the curvatu] 

■ ; '• ■ ; ■'■ : ' 

Cted ei 

the three c 

ould be i 

is shown 

1, 2, and 3. 

Figures 4, 5, and 6 (plate 1) represent the corresponding 

acting part of tin so surfaces the tiine required can he altered. Of 
,,,,,1^ the same object m;iv be obtained l»y reducing the squares, 
as long as the given proportion is maintained. 

Pitch being a yielding (non-elastic) substance, might he expected 
not to act similarly t<. a rigid surface, hut still I have found Nos. 
I and -2 to give the desired result. No. -1 does not seem to answer 
with the weight of the glass over the polisher. 

The form with which the present glass was figured was No. 2. 
lioth polisher and _ ■ raised in tempera- 

ture were left together (the glass having heen now and then slightly 
moved round its^axis) until cool, after which the usual stroke for 
keeping the spherical form was proceeded with for about ten 
minutes, when th 

In another ease. Xo. 1 form was used upon a similar mirror, 
but with only 10' 1" focus requiring abrasion at rlie cage exceeding 
^J oo part of an inch. 

Knowing that theoretically a curve of revolution could not 
coincide with the polisher, except when the axis of both were 
in one line, this position was maintained and the glass simply 
revolved. Bv this motion rings were expected to appear, hut such 
was not the case, and in less than 10 minutes an over-corrected 
but true surface was the result. 

The greatest inconvenience in this method is, that - 
mirror become over corrected, or a hyperboloid, the polisher must 
be p modelled before the spherical form can be restored. A per- 
fectly even temperature must exist, and the polishing powder be 
evenly distributed, with uniform contact at every]-: 
the two surfaces before the correction or figuring can be satis- 
factorily proceeded with. 

Supposing, then, that in this way a regular curve r 
the sphnv through the t llipsoid towards th* hyp' i 1 " -loitl has been 
obtained, it will' next be necessary to judge the exact time when 
the paraboloid has heen developed, and to do this nor 
satisfactory as the artificial star, or minute pinhole test at tin- 
centre of curvature, first invented bv M. Foucault. For use m 
this test the fourth and fifth columns'of the above table have been 
calculated, but it was shown that in mirrors in which ' 
of focus exceeded twentv times their diameter, no cor: 
the spherical form was ivquir, d, and that the amount " 
rection would increase i„ the ratio ; (y constant), from which i> 
would seem that this form of specula would be the easiest to make 

Such is, however, not the ease except within certain limits. 
The rate of decrease in the ;. 'I is v " ! '-' 

rapid with the increase of radius of curvature, but the injurious 

ell'ect from almost 

higher decree, and it 

theoretically perfect speculum could l.e obtained with from 1»0 to 

40 feet focus, the slightest touch or variation in temperature 

-would be sufficient to destroy its good definition under a high 

magnifying power, irrespective of the disturb] g 


By decreasing the focal length the rays en.-s at a less acute 
an^le. and small variations in the reflecting surface lia\e not so 

lg as the proportion is : 

during my working of these 

t and the can 

iperature hv handling, Arc, I 

uess of the silver film r 

m inch, and variations in that am 

any optical defect in the telescope.* 


His results were obtained by measuring the quantity of silver 
deposited over a large surplus, but my intention was to compare 
its thickness with the length of a wave of light. To do this I 
required two perfectly flat surfaces. After long and patient work, 
I succeeded in producing three such surfaces 5 -inch diameter, 
which by the coloi !, y Mr - Brashear 

in a paper read before the Engineers' Society of Western Pennsyl- 
vania, produced at an asi-do of incidence of 65° one uniform colour 
gradually changing by other inclinations, and showed by mono- 
chromatic light straight, dark, and coloured bands (fig. 7.) 

Several precautions must, however, be taken in using this test, 
An even temperature is absolutely necessary. The angle of obser- 
vation should not be greater than 70° with the normal, but better 
much less, and the glasses must he as perfectly clean as possible. 

These precautions refer more particularly to compound solar 
light. When monochromatic light is used, the test may not he so 
delicate, but is certainly of much mur- pr.iHi.-al use, and as will 
be demonstrated correct to less than 1 -200,000th part of an inch. 

When one end of the glasses Is pressed, or svhen impurities pre- 
vent them from being exactly the sane- distance apart, the devia- 
tion from theoretical llatncsscan !,.• judged and rigidly calculated 

in the middle band were by measurement found to oe -„ 
iation from flatness in one or both of the glasses would be 
p =0.0000C65; and, as even a much smaller displace- 

The thicki 


It mav also be noticed that when the source of heat was 

amoved it nnlv occupied 2 m. for the glass to return to its normal 
state, and that' the thickness of the glass was ;= of an inch. 

~ w< re next removed from the wooden support to an 
iron on S e of the same shape, and although this had been kept m 
the same room yet the chill from the iron was enough in less than 
1 ml to produce convexity in the middle surfaces to the extent of 
„i_ part of an inch, but also in a regular curve (tig. 11). 
A pressure of 8 lbs. was next applied to the same cei I 
of the glasses, when the colour began to change, but in a different 
manner to that produced by heat 

Two wide bands of colour (fig. 12). appear 

■ U1 d c-essed in the middle, showing that 
they had become strained in two directions, and their figure com- 
stroyed. . 

Tins shows th it although or* sure has to 1 < iv. 
regularity in tempi rat are is the most important tactm- in the pro- 
duction of the true glass surfaces, and that in tini 

rlv with long foci) a very small inequality m the tem- 
perature of 'their sides will produce serious defects in their defining 

It also shows that a material of small heat-conducting power 
would be the most desirable for the mirror to rest upon. 

In conclusion, noting the regular contraction of the 
face towards its centre, it has occurred to me that it might be 
nirrors, but 

V e received. 

lossible to employ heat as an a<: 
'. have not yet tried the effect. 

Since this paper was transmitted f> tic- Society I Have recco^ 
he last monthly number of the - English .Mechanic, m which J 
vish to draw attention to two articles. One, No. 2.1. i iOd, 1 >y .Mi - 
Brashear, in which the writer expresses the same opinion as l 
mve, in regard to the practical e 

" the 

valuable papers on (lla'ss Specula), in which my conclusi 
the thickness of the silver film seems to be doubted, e 
to be disproved. 

He says : "The fact that a thick film will receive s 
becomes visible by reflecting light from its sides, pro 
silver film is thick enough to perceptibly allow a d< 
the figure of the surface below." 

Dr. Scliroeilor (."•ciLi>triii-t('(l a lar^p rot'r.-irtiin;- telescope for the 

is required in constvui im; lar-v <^h , and some specialists re- 

However, In Ijdi < -I im mu «'ill u tl\ be made for the 
Lick Observatoi ; in diameter. 

HiUU* ^ w> 



equal *Un of Air or ptrfatty Flat Striates 

Concave (Byflmt 


Enures 10, 11, 1% best s/uwn urukr CvrtyouruL 
Solar Lujht ) 


Deposits of New South Wales. 

I do not propose in the present essay to attempt any exact 
delimitation of the boundaries of the different systems of rocks, 
"but there are several points of interest which have come under 
my notice, and which are, I trust, worthy of record although only 

The mainVvst< ms of ro ks \vl i. h are represented in the district 

(a) Igneous Rocks. 

1. Granite rind Greisen, partly metamorphic and partly as 

2. Acidic ]f/ucov.* l!<>ck.% consisting chi -tiy of ipiartz porphyry 

.'1. Fdsjxdhir colriDiir Ash 11 /*, whah are pi-ol .ably associated 
with the aci lie eruptions last mentioned. 

(b) Sedimentary Rocks. 

z!\z i :tl 

that will 

r ;; 

!at "im-e t 

I»y a pe 


:. i; ti 

limentary bods 


;; ; 2 


ilswld, 1 


ceepted that the 

>i from 1 


id Mi! 


iw "Vm-land' mti 

st have 

pheric agents si 

nee the a 

lose of the Carboniferous pei 

3re is no evidenc 

e that, si: 

ace th 

o granitic 

• upheav 

a! firs 

i: to 

v- enor 


,v.w t the time ar which the 
tig rocks commenced, and may also 
tracing the period of the i'el».>athic eruptions. 

The dykes of felspar and quartz porphyry traverse both the 

and, indeed, in < ■: ' ■ <\ s, which may 

rocks themselves, are found resting upon 
These tufaceous beds correspond very 

fact that t 

ce there is to be gathered would appear t 

.': the country. 


In some cases, were followed by 

fragmental eruptions of greater or less violence, and in some parts 

i accumulated on the surface. 

The outpour:. sen followed by 

basaltic eruption ing been already 

determined, the more fluid h ; ..d<- lava-, wh- n ihcy were ejected, 
flowed for great i burying up the 

gravels of the - he wealth of tin 

thus entoml g action of the rain. 

These basaltic rocks are of very great extent, and have buried up 
enormous areas of country; thus, between (lien Innes and 
Inverell they cover an area over 20 miles in width, forming 
all the peaks of < a has not, up to 

the present time, proved to carry tinstone below the basalts, 
although alluvial workings exist about 7 miles east of Inverell. 
All the earlier :• y were obliterated by these 

flows, and Ne ■ gion of hills and 

valleys to one mo land in character, 

Occurrence of Lodes, &c. 

Although up to the preset i ; i e somewhat rare 

in the New Engl >ubted instances 

of their occurrence, and I propose to describe in detail one of the 
more remarkable, premising tl I ■ «s yet be found. 

It is in the El I the only true tin-bearing 

lodes are being worked. These are known as Butler's and the 
Dutchman lodes, but other outcrops, which appear on the surface 
to belong to the true iissuiv veins, are found in the Cumberton, 
Hammer and Drill, and Pearman Beacroft & Co.'s claims, all of 
which are situated near Glen Creek, and are on the line of the 
Dutchman's lode, which is being worked on the tableland. 

Thenumerou- ' ■ h are receiving attention. 

such as those in the Dolcoath mine and the so-called Ottery lode, 
belong to one or other of the irregular deposits which will be mem 

Tile .Butler's lode may be taken as a fair type of these true 
fissure veins. It is well delim i. > irying in thickness from 3 or 4 
feet up to 23 feet in some parts. It consists chiefly of quartz, 
many crystals of which are encased in chlorite, and in some parts 
of the mine this chlorite; is v< tv plentiful, carrying tinstone as 
crystals and crystalline patches. 

The lode is a true one, lying between well-defined walls, and has 
an average north cbes it generally 

takes on northing. In pi ' Kile one portion 

goes tc the north's t-east course, the 

westerly branch as it leaves the lode underlying at a flatter an; 
than the more easterly one, so that the branches will probably jui 
in depth. 

i generally on the hanging " 


) far as I < 

1 judge, about 

sufficiently rich to pay for \ 1 

5% of thiHtoii.- is in some cases even less is 

worked, 2 or 3 per cent, paying for crushing. 

The lode has to " ;il =? tne surface, 

and a shaft about 60 feet deep sunk from the adit level, carrying 
the lode down with it. The country in which the lode occurs 
consists of a porphyrin.- -ranitr. which is decomposing rapidly on 

The presence of chlorite in the lode is of interest as affording a 
parallel case to 1 1 - Adelong, which also trav- 

erse granite, and i is a product of 

decomposition of the rocks which were shattered by the movement 

Xii., follow me of the points of interest 

with Butler's lode. The positions of the rich parts 
midline of the lode in depth, while the 
3 of the 

i the pinching 

Although true 

there have been numerous discovered which 

are sufficiently productive to pay for working, and some of these 
are exceptionally rich. These are all somewhat closely related 
one to the other, and will be better described together. 

The granite its as belt already alluded to is 

largely impregnated with cassitente, a small percentage occurring 
throughout the length and breadth of the exposure, but along 

and slate shown in the section (pacje b7), the granite is some- 
times so richlv impreuiKUed as tot -m a tin rock, which would 
be of high economic value as stamps work. Probably the 

' ' 

work Z 

ome of these irre 

gular deposits, 

this is under- 

3me description 

t, more especially 

because some 

1 found from tinn 

NVilS tlu 

face was traced 1 

for a consider- 

also sunk and 


on the surface ; 

sses of 

eassiterite were 

extracted, one 

: over 7 cwt. in weight having been taken out solid. 

■ar to have been several patches of ore raised 

run.'iing poor: but even now there seems to be sufficient 
ement to further prospect the claim, although, the shaft 

full of water, it is impossible to examine the old workings. 
e country rock, which is granite, is traversed by a perfect 
)rk of veins of quartz carrying tinstone in greater or less 
itv, and with economical crushing appliances would make a 

chiefly to these : < stock work.-."' 
about 2 miles north of the 
this class of deposit. In this 


mine the main leader, which has been followed, and which is only 
a few inches i course ; but the 

rock, which is a hard haplite, somewhat resembling a coarse elvan 
in character, is tiw - * 1 b\ immm, 1 i 4e u all strings and veins 
of quartz and tin b country m every direc- 

tion, and form a perfect network ~* -"■ 
The Buchart Company has lorn 

I since become defunct ; but even 
vein, and , , - 1 i h maki ic. it 
pay, Lihhouo'h , rh\w'are'''oiil > - fossicking- and crushing the 
da pestle and mortar. 
Lying to the west wan L ol ■ &ine is situated, 

and in this another vein of been met with, 

also coursing nor< occurs 1S a s ?" 

decomposed granite, ,-u.d alihongi. ii.. re are several _ thin veins 
there does not appear to be so complete a network as m the other 
locahties mentioned. The deposit 

The alluvial tin has been found on either side of the granite spur, 
but at no great distance from the ridge, and close to the vein, the 
oranite was liter «■ Ifc would appear pro- 

bable that this ri had been derived from floors 

Gash Veins in Slate. 

Closely associated with those deposits last described are some 
which, while not appearing to be of much economic value, are still 
of great scientific interest. These deposits occur as thin veins or 
leaders traversing the slates which occupy the hollows in the 
granites already alluded to, and which are shown on the section 
(pace 5). Some work has been expended on these veins, both in 
Taylor's claim, Glen Creek, and also on parts of the area held by 
the Dolcoath mine. 

These leaders are seldom i idth, and consist 

chiefly of quart:: ' tinstone ; but 

Jd one case, in Taylor's claim, a vein of this sort has widened 

leader which is cos s pi ith ,i.'N".i, and > , might lie looked upon 
as a segregation vein. 

These veins would appear to have been formed by fractures of 
the rock during the upheaval of the granite, by the folding of the 
.slates in fact, and as no subsequent movement appears to have 
taken place it is ertremi I veins will lead 

down to true lodes below, I iniah at the junc- 

tion of the granite and slate in depth. The granite, however, would 
. in- even contact 
'.lit occur. 

A good deal of work has been expended on these veins, and 
I venture to tbinl . perhaps, been devoted to 

them than they deserve; but h rare occurrence 

that these deposits are deserving of mention, although even these 
are very poor illustrations of a class of deposits to which some 
authors attach :- ..'<,f which has 

previously been < by Mr. J. A. Phillips and 


Near Bilverton tinstone '<. crystals through 

greisen which is trav< srsrng ting out, near by, 

both to the east and west. At Pearson's claim, Poolamacca, a 
large body of stone is r« port, d to occur about 8 feet wide between 
well-defined wall.-, but fch r ok would lead one to believe that it 
had been intruded from below. The characters of both the vein- 
stuff and the country would augur well for the future of the 
district from a of view.* 

Associated Minerals. 

Other minerals have been found in great variety associated with 
the deposits of fci h they are not, 

hitherto, quite B scribed from the 

tin-bearing area 'hie to the fact 

that the country has not yet been so carefully studied, mineral- 
ogically, as the older and more settled mining districts of Cornwall 
and Germany. 

Most of those minerals, however, which are generally looked 

found in Xew i-hi-h i I: and tirst of all should be ment 

wolfram, which is tin curse of tl tin-min 1 in ( ornw ill, 

occurs in tin- same lodes as the tin, and, in 

quence of its '^"nh that i 

i, defies . 

of the Barrier 

i the centres of the 


3 of fluorspar 


been found, but 

they are not of fre- 

quent occurre 

ieposits hitherto h 


;;;;': y. ; ; 


ig fluorine in their 
, are of frequent oc 
he alluvial deposit 

jcurrence : and topaz 
s, sometimes as fairly 

relation of 

in th, 

! possession of Mi 

\ D. Porter, at Tam- 

The a 


with the tinstone 

of the Gulf mine is 

well km 

iccurrence deserves a pf 

since ir 

is unusual to 

find I 

.ervl titerally forming a rock, as in this 


e Inverell Di: 


S^v^ 1 ?- 

perhaps it would be 

. the diamantiferous 

, for there is 

fficient tinstone pi 


done, although it 



ig, and serves to 

partially defray the 

expenses of working. 


s in a variety of forms and of different 

Even in the 

■ mine we frequently find pure white 

oxide of 

tin, ruby tin 

;k crystals. In some 

V.V. vh' 



the different coloui 

and the other half 
P8 blend, one with the 

-reatlvinit- , crystals an' inch through 

UingWociated^tthth, l,ne,t dust, and this, m addition to th 

like tinstone with a battery, renders perfect: saving appliance,; 
absolutely necessary. 

At Pearson's claim, Silverton, previously referred to, some of 

the tiii-iom- lias a ino.-t n , : . . green, red, and 

blue— imparting to it the appearance of a copper mineral, but this 
is probably due to some > ! instone. although 

seldom excee( 

l.'d i' 

ivia! « 

are confined t 



Thr l.a-alti 

present, t< 

■tiu t'nmi 1 

•am of'ti. 

is rock has been 1 

, a dis 

tance of abc 

as W 

n prospected 

2es only that p 

[ley, Two 




cited as the only places which have yet been shown to carry tin 
in leads which are worth working. 

There would seem to be some reason to believe then that tho.e 
different deposits have not been formed by one and th 
stream, or, it they were, lnu ecei\ i i t'i la il 

1 into the vall'-v oi that time; .id this i, 
more likely to he the case when we consider that between the 
Two Mil 'and Kangaroo Flat a distance of 15 miles intei 

of equal length exists between K i > ' ig Cree ^ 5 

■. it must be home in miml lb;.: 
y have been missed in the .- 

' « .unk, and ^nthii lead, ma . 

In support of this view it may be mentioned that at Rose 
Valley a great deal of work was, q, nd< d by Fail.; 
before airy pa^ iU 1 id i ''■" 1 ] *» ! "< 1'dU 

itmue pros- 
pecting with the result that at the present time a lead, from a 
to 30 yards wide, and from 2 feet to 8 fed tl 


teen's, and ill probabl « t be found m Moran s 

^, ,„!,,! ia [nosp.cting the latter without anything payable 

, , , . . n Mil 

This lead in Bailey's claim v, is f. und I 

. . . . ■ ■ ' ; ^ ' ' , . ' ■ ;: 

of water was met with in the <■: rlv d-u < of the nun 

now been reduced to a minimum; and is easily kept down by 

Tnf section of the shaft, as given me by one of the proprietors, 
is as follows:— 

Soil and pipeclay SO feet. 

Sediment l - » 

Drift (no tin) 8 „ 

From which it will h,- seen that the basalt is not passed through 
• Mnkna althomh in th< vim. < lain., and at a short distance 
o'nlv from" the shaft, the solid basalt is met with, and is as much as 
80 feet thick. 


I was not able -' : *h it is lined, 

but some of the material on the surface, which is included in the 
first 90 feet of sinking, appears to consist of a fine-grained fel- 

spathie ash, which has been converted, at places, 
into clay, and these ash beds arc found in othe 
Ivin- the basalts. 

The bottom in Bailey's mine is of groat interest. It con 
p^par porphyry in part, resting upon slates, each of tin 

he case. Tt is of th- :.. 


i record the fact that at one point 

in this 

; doubted instance of a tin gutter i 

n: thifl 

l>eii:u' overlain by a rot ; 


Although this lead of tin is small and lias no immediate 
ing evidence of tin- po-dhle v. id^pivad (.ccurivnce of leads below 

period of the ditl'erem 

.- later tii 

■)al)lc that during the early liist«.ry of this district son 
iart/. porphyry ami felspar porphyry might have heen h 
aigh hoth the" granites ami slates, the haplite at tl 

It is a somewhat diiliciilt thins 

n, 3 per' "y ,,iy to 

tless even less would 

We may conclude, however, thai where deposits of any size 
exist, even in places which are not easily accessible, a yield of 5 
per cent, of black tin would he a payable return. 

As regards tin mce need only be made 

to the deep leads, and in these from 1 cwt. to J, ewt. per load of 
27 cubic feet is © lead in Bailey's 

mine, which has di ady 1 , fall} described, being payable at | 
cwt. to the load, with 1 •' :"> iW-i of sinking. In shallow ground of 

As regards the methods of treatment employed ronsid.-rahlf 
nprovements have been made of late years. The i >rigi aal shallow 
;ads were worked v err imi ind that much of 

lie sluicing applian 

Where crushing 

convex buddies a 

very little tin app 

obtained from the 

At the Tent Hil 

would mention that, notwithstanding the 
enormous output of less than 64,794 tons 

and 15,268 tons 11 cwt. tin as ore having been exported from the 
tin-fields from the time of their opening in IS"2 to the close of 
1883, there is yet room, in my opinion, for a gr. 
this productive industry, in the development of Loth deep leads and 
lodes, as well as those irregular deposits which approach the lodes 

Previous papers relating to Tin-mining Indu 
in Australia. 

Article on Mi; 

of Tin in N IJev. W. f, Clarke.— 

fydncif Morning Herald. 16fch April, IS 19. 

A Report on the Tin Discoveries in Queer 

Qnartn-h/Jovrnal - 
Ohservations on some Tin Discoveries 

South Wales: by G. il. P. Ulri. 

Report on the Tin-bearing Country, Ne 

Wales ; by C. S. Wilkinson. " pp. 
Sydney, 1873). 
Report on Tin-bearing Country, District 

XLIY.. pp. 306, 

Tasmanian Tin ; by J. Borthwick. Ibid. 1874. pp. 
Report on the Vegetable Creek Tin-field ; by G. H. Gow 

and Mineral Statistics, New South Wales, 1874. 
Mount Bischotr Tin Mines. i\ nnia: by J. Hunt. 

Journal, 1874. XLIV, p. 207 
On Tin Ore from Mount Bischoff, Tasmania; by 

Meredith. Proceedings Royal Society, Tu,, n n'ah 

(June), pp. 21, 22. 
Report on Moa " ■ , ps, Tasmania ; 1 

Wickham. Mlnlur, Journal. 1874. XLIV., p. ; 
Tin Deposits of New South Wales j by C. S. Wilkinsc 

1874. Ill, pp. 267, 290, 325. ' J//,,/» 7 ,/„„;■„, 

XLIV, No. 2008 (Feb. 21). p. 200. 
Report on the Mount Bischoff Tin Mines, Tasmania, w 

graphical Sketch Map. pp. 5. (8vo Launceston. 

On Australian Tin. Iron. 1875. V, p. 551. 
Special Report on the Victorian Stream Tin Deposits • 

C.W.Eddy. Mini,,,,.!,,,,,;,,,!. |>75. XIV.. V . 
On Australian and Tasmanian Tin ; bv A. G hm-dish. 

Journal. 1875. XLV, p. 19. 
Note upon a Recent Discovery of Tin Ore in Tasmani 

Gould. Quarterly Journal, (.'cofoub;,!. Snciettf. 1S75. 

pp. 109-110. 
On Mining m Tasmania ; I,y .J. Hunt. J/m,V, JW™« 

XLV, p. 539. 
On the Stanniferous Deposits of Mount Bischoff an 

Ramsay, Tasmania. Mini,,,, Journal. ' 1875.' : 

pp. 39-41. 
Report on the Tin-bearing < 
Wales ; by C. S. Wilkin 
1875. pp. 70-89. (Sec 

Report, Department of .Unas, J.'u- Snath Wale,. 1876. 

p. 110-114. 
Report on the Discovery of Tin and other .Metals in the Burra 

Burra District, between the | ;,„,;„, ;iiu l Laehlan rivers; h ) r 

C. S. Wilkinson. Thrthnr^lulnhr |s76 \ Ser, XIL, 

23rd September. 
On the Stanniferous Deposits of T iMinnia • bv IT S. Wintle. 

Trn„,.,rt;„n* /.'„„„/ V,„.,„„/, llWe. 1S76. IX.. 

pp. 87-95. (With a 

Report on Neighbourhood of Tenterfield, &c; by H. Y. L. Brown. 

Annual Report, Department of Mines, New South Wales. 

1882. p. 149. 
Mineral Products of New South Wales ; by Harrie Wood, Under 

Secretary for Mines. 1882. p. 27. 
General Report on the Principal Deep Leads of the Vegetable 

Creek District; by T. W. E. David. Annual Report, 

Department of Mines, New South Wales. 1883. p. 155. 
Progress Report of Geological Survey ; by C. S. Wilkinson. Ibid. 

p. 148. 

Progress Report for 1884; by T. W. E. David. Annual Report, 

Department of Mines. 1884. p. 153. 
Report on Silver-bearing Lodes of Barrier Ranges ; by 0. S. 

Report on the Geology of the Vegetable Creek Tin-mining 
District, New South Wales ; by T. W. E. David. Annual 
Report, Department of Mines. 1885. (In Dress.) 

Report on Queensland Tin Fields ; by W. 0. Hume. (8vo.) 

The Aboriginal Names of Rr 
Philologically Exan 

By the late Kev. Pktkii M.uTi 

Australia ? To this question there i. s the answer that the simple 
form amu, meaning water, is found in tlie region of the Ballonne. 
At Rockin-haii Ba\ the form h, ,,„ ., is round also meaning 
toater. Here, there' can be no doubt, the same root is concerned, 
although the m is doubled , d by the addi- 

tion of an aspirate at the 1 ; >ria such forms as 

ummut and ammitch for sea are found. Here then are tolerably 
plain evidences that the letter ,„, as a matter of fact, was used by 
the aborigines as in some way specially fitted to occupy a place 

Turning now to the gazetteers and books of Australian travel 

names as Mt '■ In New South 



such cas.'-s. \ 

and Mi-Mi 

and 0om« 



In fanhei 


[ words for 

,n ma. Tin 

, 31 Ut 

tnvia Creek, 

and many 

the banks 

■ ^IZetterj'.- 


other parts of the world. In pursuing this part of our subject, it 
is to be noticed that the form ,,«>, for water, remounts to a very 
high antiquitv, as it was employed by the Egyptians. Closely allied 
was the Phoenician form, ,,,» •" in Hebrew main, is the plural for 
waters. At this point it is not amiss to point out that the letter 
m, especially in its running still more than in its capital form, has 
a pictorial significance in addition to its iitncss to represent water 

hieroglyphic representation of the ripple on the surface of water, 

world. But, still pursuing the subject, it is to be noticed that the 

same root-letter is found in th<- Tungusiun and other Asiatic dia- 
lects. Still farther, wan, means " (Wsh imh-r in the island ot 
Tarawa, while men, means the same in Kotumah; aiitai and 
Who denote the swell of the sea in 3Iaori ; mi is water m the 
Tigre language ; and the root occurs in many more African < i' 1 ' 


its atilnirv fur tlir /,/, which has been introduced to keep it coni- 
Danv but anothei asfcrated: it is 

th.-'lVn-tlu- ■' the initial syllable— the 

feeble Vmvel i. tWtil,' ' 1 aspirate. Now, 

shall s'"' l tj,-~ - Mar- mn,,W 

of streams, as Waiw///. 
. a name as Tmnl)i Islai 
.•t that run; ■■ 


Looking now beyond the boon 

There is in Malay om 


al other streams besides the Ju.ull itself. In the 
iries occur the words ,1/nnuba to //,/■",/• ,>y//-;-, ;;,/,ia>< 
i 6a?/ °/ ^ ie *«"• The foregoing forms, both Malay 

The Latin nimbus, 
It may be noted tl 

deficient in Maori. 

The addition 

Falemba,,;/. whidi is applied to desigi 
• in- watt'i-s of a number ot 
Palembang itself. Malay forms in m } > 
amp limn and / ij ■ /, a //(; r/ Tin ' 
and b<:u if/ remind us not a little of sir 
tralian words. But further : the eupii 
far as they indicate connection with wal 
of Greek, Latin, and (Jut hie stoeks. 'i 
shower, with its near relative in Latin u 

•s as Amain- and Emmer : these 1: 
riginals as Amber and Ember by t 
,t assiniilatii.n. According to th 

s£t ,g 

-appear nmvtly on tlieir own 

Cnnbalonx ('ret k. K'mmbht 

'"ill Springs, 

After finding tributaries to the stream which started 
and also after finding something analogous to ana-branche 
liquids ?, «. r. we now come to a marked division in the \ 
the stream, to the formation of a delta where two or mo 
streams flow separately. For. notwithstanding all affiniti 
can stand alone, and so also can the b. The Brat p 
been already illustrated : and the other comes beiore us 
proof to the same effect.^ _ But more than this, we arctic 
ing the very 

regarding the origin of language, for in m we have an urn 

» signify water, but not so in b cr its phonetic repre: 

The hvmuiii,. ' ■ "' does not p 

nevertheless, as we have seen, the one letter in c 

us to the other. The fact here dev< 

mining how far the influence of the imitative principle a 
in the words of a language. 

Proceeding with our inquiry, we have now i 
fact that root-words in b, p, w for water are ven nun 
although not imitative of the sound of water. B as a labia 

indeed, be regarded as having more softness about it than dentals, 

sibilants, and gutturals. lu that respect it has a fitness for being 
shown to represent water ; still, ir is not to be regarded as having 
the important imitative elmm m in ;my -an-h way as pertains to m. 

variation such < ! ' nidi u iWout Poit Essmgton in the north- 
west. At Cape York there is e r l. meaning jWsli water, and bulla, 
meaning a stream ; still at Ca] ■ Vo I. is >tj « meaning a chain of 
ponds. In Western Australia there is cj>}>", /rater, and in South 
Australia, a pa, a]>i>a, nppv., <'/>//>/. all meaning water. But now 
further, I and p in other languages, by ordinary course of phonetic 

wear and 



n ,lov 

r v. ] 


5f the 


at the r 

e tin 

I then 

naby Creek, Iffun 

,//!'! " 

, native name of 8 


form such example 

V^'Marsh, (Jo..W, 

e of the Murray P 

on, Stelowic Creek 

• x, 'i 

,-/, Creek. Na,w-i« Creek. To 

maybe added Ma a 

ml 1'u 

W/. names of islands, one in South 

alia, the other in 


Maequarie, New > 


Barop, Lennej 

rurning to the gazett 
Lake Macquarie, Merr 

i is Malay .• 

iriir in Maori : DlialafVf. a j""<l i- i 

iii Itniumali. ami tin- tonus hi"-" 
meaning water, ocew In the islands of the Ne* 

11 illustrate,! 

nes of Streams in Bar, Par, 

processes of lengthening ami si... 

i,. ," Although w.. have *v a v/orM-wi.le r.nt i 

rlcer at Lake Hin.lmar>Ii in \ 

including the north, of New 
the form boa ring 

or woor at Cape York for . ■ ; ere is mmfi for 

river. There are wooree, sea, wamvA, An,-. a-arren and waring, 
sea, in Victoria. JHVra is rain at Port Lincoln, in South 

As to root forms represented by Mar: there is momee rain, 
at Port Darwin; ,»orala i.s w« " at Mountmorris Bay; Mara 
is a pool at Port Lincoln, South Australia ; also /nirrara a swamp. 
Murri&n, sea, is also found. 

So far the vocabularies ; now for the gazetteers. Forms in 
Bar are Bara Creek, Baroo Creek, ^arraba Creek, Berico Creek, 
Boren Creek, and dozens more. Forms in Par, Bara Creek and 
river, Parahol Creek : Bamhi (reek, y>,,,v>„ l!iver Prooa Lake, 

Along wii 
or River T, 
River. Als. 

bir, the Arabic form, h 
root form vaJrr, in Arabi- 

it to the Gazetteer of Now South Wah-.s. W« 
by an : in. . Lstak. . up all tli • 

.' ^ ' .;' , ■■,■ • : . 
representative letter now is X one which lias close kinship to M. 

[t is well :;-, as m sets forth 

the hum. In the simple form n, the root-words indicating associa- 

of Port Jack on, It is w1ipii\vi tak. > incoiijum ion with # that 
a flood of illustrations pours in upon us. For, as /,/ has its natural 
affinity for 6, so n lias its natural ailinityfor two classes of letters, 
the gutturals rj, l\ and the dentals d, t, we shall follow out the 
illustrations in conim.-ti..n with the nasal ,i,j and nk sounds. At 
Cape York there is /o* 7-0 ,/»/'?, *"/' n-nt,yr ; m\v>rn r /, lagoon, ahout 
■ to drink, in Kamilaroi, north of 

in" Paver 

X.S.W., a 

nd south 

;:;i;; ;; ,." A J 1 

,ake Man, 

South Wales, upw 
mats nk. 
Creek. In South 

ed for a moment tlia 
md Queensland rende 

Wicki »w. In X.-w South WaI-> th>-re is < >al<, 
mties Ashburnham, Bathurst, Darling, Dudley 

.'. Napier (twiee). Roxburgh, and "Wellington. 

can scarcely be lent that in ail these cases 

oakey simply meant water. 

In now looking beyond H, \- li < ■ t • v the root m k, 
or it, equivalents, is i m I • \t- lively. It occurs in the Latin 
aqua in the former part of the word ; it occurs in the old German 
aha ; and in the first syllable of the Gothic «Ava, water. It also 
appears in the Old French ax. The root is embodied m such 
names as SaUaeh, Wertach. Aachen, the German form of the name 
yUv-la-Chnppeilr.,' illustrates the point at issue. The 
chapel was built ; th< local it v of the mineral waters where 
Charlemagne was buried. The root is widespread also in the 

Polynesian ; ok bar; kau, sea-coast, pokaka, 

a shower, are Maori ; ko, okah, kh<; »« v >h>, ,mter, occur among 
the North American trihe, ; so aho k.nk, rir. r, eukehi, lake, 

indeed the combination of tin- nasal ,i with the de 

Combination of the root* kaba 
re the forms in ha, ffa, *,", there 

as in the 

venture from South An 
ilia. In this last instan, 
■ • with 
frequently exemplified. I 


lia there is 

• loud and joyful rrv to the memhers 
.uhl really and liti-rallv 

mother place where wi 
iraa none. Still a thir 

there was n, >v 
But return 


illustration as we pro 

place fo, 

9 in the gazetteers f the Colonies. One of 
5 the form in bd, bt, with the forms which according to 


now to other parts of the world, we 

find ti 

le forms 

Taro and I 

'••m remounting to a vein 

•rv early 

Kgyptian n 

There i, a 

!, th' 


h-itidi Island: 

miher of 

iear eiul'OuS 

.1 New South Wales. 



the Y,rr, 


River Names i 

, Gong. 

i form which is common 

les as the W: 

,; Mnun- 

tains, Boj/o 

. ;.l M.-unlai 

:ns. theMerri 


,,^.7 lunges. Carcah/e^, and Mum 

-la"'.'/"".'/ ^ r " u 

others. Bi 

irrav of 7 "»' 

the sidt- 

of the wat 

ers. There are Burran 

7,^7, Cu.i-e-/ 

o» t v. r 


u„j Creeks, W-^r,,,,,, T„l 

et, Tra<7o»i7 ( 



Creek. A 

lso the forms in y, Noe 

yW> I^ke. 

>. 'jV'»Z-o, 

Ynu,o. Yo 

ng the moun 

have to see 

re are any i 

valents met 

The vocabti 

ilaries supply 

us at once with 


such words as hung or !,..„;i. meaning water at Moreton Bay, and 
Aojmmi, water on the Peel River. Th- forms <ji",ag and yuang, 
rain, occur at Wellington. /wmoey at Ulawarra means sea ; in 
compound words txn*gung at Port Jackson meant a cra& Nulla- 
konggov in Kainiiaroi mean- a a-./Lrhole. At Illawarra ngait- 
yaw^ is ««;(«/'. X.i//»«// is /w/«?/- at Ceorge's River. These 
materials prove a Is a root-word for water 

water. When we look beyond the Australian area our attention 

the Australian aborigine.*. Tli.- \w>rd <;„,,,., or u »,>gf is the 

The vocabularies here also supply abuiula. 
in kal, gal, yal or their equivalents are ( 

Regent's Lake ': /-/A/,VV,\,,aml / t W/, ,-. <n>7< ,-, in 
is imfer at Lake Maequarie. Kvtimxa, a fe 
GW-70? is the word for a *im\^ as well as t 
When we come to names of streams, we ft 
Cooia Creek, the Oblbola Creek. Moreover, 
for the Lachlan River was CWare; for the Pe 
one of the names of the Darling was CV«wa 
names for the Murray was 6'oo/wa. In all tl 
the Peel, the Darling, the Lachlan, and tin 
doubt that to the inhabitants on the ban 

spellings iu which this word i.s found, there i 
tains the two roots represented I >y A- and '.. Also.,: 
from tin: evidence adduced, that ti, 
which have entered extensively into the name* 
waters over the whole of Australia. Hut, dues th. . 
several roots into one name extend any farther / IW example, 
This is not the 
name of a large river or ocean ; it is the nameof w..- 
sand, at the ii 
l.y Evreon his perilous adventure from S.mth to \\ 

kumbanl After the materials which have heeii reviewed, we have 

little difficulty in identifying //-•-,• as an old friend and near 

relation of th. I 

under our notice. Ben then Jsanotl 

added to ka and int. So also of tin ! 

find it in the vocabulary oi I iatod with water. 

, like the bichje in Hurrumbidgee. 

Now, when we go beyond the Australian tribes, we find that 
other people have done the same thing. Thus, in the north of 
England we have such a stream as W'n.sWk Wafer. Now, wan 
or vand, and bee, are Scandinavian words for water. To the two 
words, each meaning water, the English word water is added, 
making up a repetition of the same radical idea three times over. 

Thus, we know that the little riv.-r Yah; in Norfolk, was called 
Garienus under the Romans, though it has resumed its original 

British Isles. But rlii,additmn uf »a,/,ahn>, rice,; to the primitive 
form gar or ynr comes out more plainly in the case of the Garonne, 

some Australian investigator 
the Australian tribes, at least 

w; fit laratame./^i 

ii island, thus ajjain illustrating what we 

td to the names of islands on the ether 

the longer form hi we have /(';,<? or I imi/t, 
r : li'itii and /em', w<it<r : L mi also the 
, fresh »/v//r/- ; /"i>m, to drink : whx-Hnr, 
>k at the names of rivers, tlic word limih 
ve append rinr to the name hy which the 

Island. The shorter form in / is to l,e s.en in the following 

.h is lt.rlieivlii- Hay :" Movent e ■'■ 
The prevalenceof the root form in / is notable, as it has not come 

Cape Green ; Monatte£ and Komanrai7 
he conspicuous Circular Head ; also, Purr 

i Promontory. 

to the gei 

leral rul( 

3 that root-words for w 
1, headlands rising out 
LdoNv-land. In the pre 

r ater are als 

of thi; w.-sl' i 

; . 

in. :ils.. a .W. More- 

. : ,,,...,., I, • a.ldwlto 
<,<; as ampW.v* <lonhhnl, r ,l. It way 

appears to be tl 

and the Greek/ 
ftoo.t < T on th tr 

i. Many places have names determined by their 
:er. In 8eandina\ ian •■■ 

■lend. zfcceland is w,/ land. In ("Jermanv, forms in 
■adow-lands, as on the banks of rivers. Thus Khciu- 

Root-irordsfor 1\ o!>r and t/oir lenrimj on (ii 
Besides the arrangements win reby root-words 

1 ' " - - 

to the surface ena 

} see how wo! 

state of nouns to 

of prepositio] 

process of generalization see 

I that in 

senteel by the abo 


is simple enough. 


diotis reference tc 

> the pla 

ce where the 

established. Sowi 

tli regi r.i 

n,j place. Nov 

information which 

i we get from the voeab 

extensively concerned in the Australian names on tin 
waterholes, springs, and wells. But we learn that ■ 
become terminational particles added to names, to indica 
suitable as a resting i>Jao. . AW- have seen that the ivate 

is the fit place for t 

-he cm 

lipbvf Or ;v.s/, 

',></ -}Jn 

:ce. W 

Lil. in many 

tin of 

noted by specific i 

are de 

these resting place 


r, beyond doubt, the most 

■e watering \ 


appearance, the ex- 


ion of the r 

s in Western 

Australia ending : 

, Thus, vp 


perfectly with the 

i ,t, ' : 

nation that a 

>ed as terai- 

But we have sec 

. forwater- 

does the same piruliai 

■ity ti u.spir, 

i in c( 


n with any 

more of them? "] 

n.i.s v 

Thus in South Aus 

w! in 

tho vorabulai 

■ loam t 

hit in South 

■r. we ai 

■<; fa 

into the list of pre 
is signified. Heir 

' the 

for the gr 


. As t 



i important word for 

t the rabbis divided it in 

, ill whirl, tl 
tf, and l.v irifft respectively. 

>f 110 cases, while the latter i 
;ases. Here a few possible ovt 
arge volume would make no subs 
places occupied by the classes of i 

take nine forms such as ml mn, air, hi, ht. h,\ vl, vn, wr— 
where we have the liquids and soft labial— and compare' them 
with any such forms as icg, vL v-d, -/, } ,,. j,/,, pd, pt~where these 
are mostly gut . ouitc decisive. 

The former list enters into the names of w rly 4<»0 , r, eks. breams, 
and waters, while the latter li.t l.aivly musters twenty. Of course, 
exhaustive detail would bring out some peculiar points : but there 
is no mistaking the general drift and direction of the figures 
adduced, taking the Gazetteer of New South Wales as supplying 
the area of observation. Out of about 4,700 names of all sorts, 
about 3,000 are aboriginal. Of these, again, nearly 800 are 
names applied to river., creeks, and -u. ii,h generally, as well as 

Summing up, and carefully avoiding swooping gen oral izations 

■ontre of 

\\<- " -tie 7 :.'": n , : , ; ,l tl, .JunU'?^ 
which might take place in languages such as the Australian, 
which are exposed to the operation of certain capricious influences. 
Thus upon the death of a i | ] ie word river 

would u Id nh drop out of us< No. i , tin course of centuries, 
to say nothing of decades of millennia, the changes so pro- 
duced in the vocabulary of a language would be very considerable. 
1 7-'" t ; 1 • ' - II . !. n id ra ions,itisprett Ml lainthatif 
the forefathers ot the aborigines of Australia broke off from aparent 


the lotto 

nv good to them l.v i ussionarv , nt.n-prise, etc. Such b. in- tho 
ase, the forms of words which' seem to have a common origin are 
enorally a. eident il, an 1 must not bo pr. ss< d too much to support 
ny theory. I fullv expected to have found more words in the 
inguages of the Malay Archipelago for water with " m-nv' or 

lie island, of th. AiJiiim h»o I IhmmmihiihI several voeabu- 
mesof tho native tribes in South Australia, and have found 

imythe, with the same result. 

The method of c msultin^ the various <_'.•.'• tteers in New South 
Vales for the meaning of native names is not to be commended. 

a the gazetteer as native, I ist the writer 

of this paper has fallen into the trap. "Farrucabad," near Glen 
from India, as the owner of the Nation iv^.l-d in India for many 

The so-ca 

lied native names 

modified form 

of English i 

vords, and the g 

i-..' h 

-,-•.', i. 

made to gazetteei 


by th i te 

of this pape 


Sir Alfr 

ed Roberts sugg 

ested that tin 

3 paper 

be subject to 

revision bef 

ore being printed 

with the 


■ty's tra 


Mr. J. F. 

Mann pointed 01 

it that in; 

U1V I 

had occurred 

of attempts 

on the part of b 




s nf tl',, 

Huwe an I x 
the ditf.-mit 

windmill. Thena 
, kinds of trees ai 


:. ;'';;:: *z 

This was tl, 

3 case with the pr 

• •fix "yar 

" : -- s ; 

/ot frnjllfilt 



-- '' f 

>h syllable of 

of a [.la. 

Before c< 

mmieneing to j 

n d. 

make cer 

t th.' w 

MacPherson has 

(See "ak 


u-a. paid 

to the n 






mes hav 


: S w;!ni 

well to 

tin. Mr. 

aboriginal* to refer to water, ami then in many cases identities 
this word with one having a similar signification as used in other 
parts <>t' the world, and gives innumerable examples in support of 
his argument. However ingenious tliis thoorv maybe, 1 think 
that it will prove a diilieult one to earrv out. for one will find 

:>ng, known as the 

imple. It is true 

ee Ponds at Goul- 
only heard in the 
rt-hole length flows 
Teas the Mulwarree 

the reverend author 
ives in support of 

Goulburn side of Braidwood. According < 

o my informant, an 

and kurdcur-duc, the bird known by us as the 

This plain was, and probably is now, the re 

sort of this bird, a 

1-gee. Kurkur also 

means "mouth" in the Lake Macquarie ami 

; Newcastle dialects. 

I am under the impression that the terminal 

n will agree with a 

description of the Murrumbidgee River : but 

which syllable refers 


The name Currockbilly or Kurwikbilly is given to a high moun- 
tain in the coast range near Braid wood. Two long valleys in this 

of the resort of this bird. The same name may be found for a 
place near Mittagong. winch p;>.— lUy this bird at one time fre- 
quented. I mention this case also to show that in naming places 
the aborigines were guided l>y circumstance^ adapting the name 
to natural features, the growth of certain trees or flowers, the 
feeding place of animals, birds, etc. 

"Billy-bong" li .-reek, l,m,, means dead, the 

water flowing over tow level land, and occasionally vanishing 

orrectlv to t! 
which flows past TlrnVbyT 
make it a matter of diffic 
On the Bredalhane Plains 
and Mill l.ang or bong. Mil 
or dead eye. I do not km 
names evidently refer to th 
of flat land, and to its hein 
times. The terminal,/;//,/ a 

that the first settlers penetrated 


:or many years 

afterwards known as the new 

Bowral, Bong Bong, Sutton Fore 

for a length ol 

time called the Argyle Road. Thi 

t at the base ol 

this range ; To,,, lluuub Lagoon adjoins 

ng ; then there 

is the Terragong Swamp at Kiam: ' 

the ext 

the head of the C»dgpgong Hi 

But thi 



,p, so that this 

arrangement becomes futile, and 

the s; 


tr cases. 

At page 11 Mr. MacPherson en 

i rather 


idedly that tto 

name Oakey as applied to a riv, 

t or 

evek si, 


v means u-ater. 

. The 

to the native oaks, or casuarina t 

country, and is used in a similar 

and other such things to denote a 

. (This tree is 

in no way allied to Quercus). 

It must be borne in mind th 


only. As he states, he puts forth 


> h ) 

r way of expen 

eaninc of which I do not k 

now. Tl 

le sitr 



ed by 

lp garc'lt-n of Mr. Jas. S. Mitch 

^e lagoon sur- 

les. The 


ra appet 

■vera! places about the Murrui 




mnot attach a swamp or lago 

I'n lid in lt to Sydney from hi 


he did 

:r Thomas sutl'ci'od much annoyance w 

hen pa 

- liudientt,>r 

ay, by numerous small dogs r 

t 1 It ; nl b 

: iiiiii," he named the place "1 

Marking Glen", hi 


as become a permanent name. 

Mr. E. du Fadr remarked that the ori 

Of The 


unhidg.-e River showed name; 

; the words were of eight s 

yllables, t 

md mi 


on i .-.-t.1 

de by 

Mr. Trevor Joxes said that 

ad that the aboriginals cannot 

:e the letter 

■ F, bxt 

r both 

lese letters are often found printed on maps an 

d [.! 

ana in 


Our Lakes and their Us< 
By Fbedk. B. Gipps, C.E. 

The influence of lakes in ! 1 j rt s of t he globe on the river .systems 
in wliieh they are included o r i . arly connected, 

and through their channels, on the wealth and commerce of dift- 
erent nations, can only 1, just! .] i a •• 1 b\ an intimate 
knowledge of their physical features and geographical position, 
but their value i and different industries 

is of sue! i voi -Id ■ . ■ . i u ve st igation 

of the lake system of this Colony should commend itself to more 
than ordinary interest. But for the Nyanza lakes, more than 3,000 
miles distant from its mouth, th- Nile would resemble many of our 
inland rivers I ' ge swamps, or are represented 

in dry seasons by chains of . maries of Egypt, 

for so many centuries celebrated throughout the world, would have 
been unknown. But for -'■ . instead of the 

mighty cities wl inse population, 

which were the centres of I the very cradles 

indeed of civilizati n. ih> ■■•• would ha\e been for all ages a silent 
desolate wildern ' i e Great Arabian 

Desert. The u i ic I . i fter day on arid 

sands on atreeles rinds would have 

blown as a furnace blast. Human life in that dreary domain 
would have been rwise ordained. 

Chiefly through i' die Xyanza lakes, the valley 

of the Nile was ordained from remote ages and through countless 
generations to hold pre-endhv iity. Year after 

year heavy tropical storms. • . ontinuous rains 

pour torrents of and increase their depth. 

This increment i 1 through the channel of the 

White Nile, kee; . whilst its tributaries, the 

Atbara and Blue Nile from the Abyssinian highlands, so swell its 
volume with their muddy streams when in flood, that it gradually 
covers the lower valley. .' — ion the seed is 

germinated and nouridmi. ut b given to the crop-, whilst the yeavly 
deposit of silt accounts for the undiminished fertility of the soil. 
Just as the Nyanza lakes serve as the cisterns of the Nile, so the 
Italian lakes act as balance reservoirs for the Ticino, Adda, Oglio, 

and Mincio rivers. But for the lakes which receive and discharge 
them, these rivers would at tiim - thuiuler dou n through the rocky 
gorges of the snow-capped Alps, v.nd v, ith their resistless torrents, 
sweeping away sontrol them, would flood and 

devastate the whole intervening country to the borders of the 
Adriatic Sea, whilst at other seasons their streams would lie so 
shallow and contracted that navigation and irrigation would he 
impracticable. Instead of contributing to the fertility of the rich 
plains of Lombardy, instead of promoting and sustaining the com- 
merce and pri:i ition, these rivers, 
but for the lakes which control them, would be sources of dread 
and desolation. 1 laving 1 >n ; mrtant functions 
of lakes in different parts of the world, I will now proceed with 

certain suggest! of their waters to the 

advantage of the State. As an appendix to this paper, I have 
prepared a summary of descriptive data of the principal lakes of 
the Colony, as far as the limited reliable information at command 
permitted. On examining this, it will at once he obvious, that 

water has been ;his country, fin 

even oui lai est lakes 1„\V !„ , j , , w „ to dr\ up completely iftei 
piotia. ted dioujit. _ \s ]f, hoy ■ ;, r. to , ornp* ns ite somewhat for 

provided sites for the formation of lar-e ;U -) iticial lake;-, well adapted 
for the impounding of deep and capacious sheets of water. For 
instance, just below the junction of the Indi and Hume rivers, 
which forms the head of the Murray, a dam, ofj feet high, thrown 
across the valley, would impound a reservoir equal to some of the 
Italian lakes in area. Such a lake would receive all the snow and 

Victoria fos 


, rn 

higher than its bed. Suppo • : . . , | . it would rush 

down the steep f i I v expose the bed 

ing its course up the Wollondilly 

River, and which is barely 100 feet higher than its bed. It may 

nt of the lake. The eastern } 

s in the mouinaiii eliain ]<) miles south-east 


for "us"'. 

properties, and add. 

■ .Mine had 

situated near the c 

pregnated with co] 

(.per, that 

i! romph 

not a sufficient can 


from the locality. 

the well water over 

of the water, it m 

dition of the lake, 

that, owin 

sides, that induces ; 

great evapoi 

and to the charactt 

salts would aggreg 

after exceeding Ion 

conditions, and I o 

Maintain you could t 

at all seasons. Bj 

the lake, and by c 

noxious salts wool 

| 'lying the lake are 

drinking water. Even when t 

nd thrive < 

cane grass, which 

stock of a 

1! kind 

aent of vegetati drably fitted for 

In his address, M t her any large 

vater could be • aring64 years 

J greater number of year.-;, the supply of rain war, r 
has not been equal to the evaporation." On reflecting on all the 
conditions conn in the lake, I am led 


to favour rather the pr, 
the remarkabl 

WnorthVo e s!!Mti. il is'! 

<-timatr,l ■ 

wa S o n i ylfoot: , \;,:;;"'.'ai^ l r 

< per cent of th ,, r F , n . snoh 

cubicle ^ 1 " 40 ' 20,490,000,000 

i foot finches 1 1'..' ' ,1; r , - u ::i!!'l!|ln 

cubic feet of wa4 ',' ^ kke drid 

evidence. Here lie" 

Brookes Cvek, at tin- t-'p ,,f rh.- Ya-t 

lands of the Yass Valley. 

depend on circumst£inn\s. iMitnKm'Vv 

of the country can distinctly define, b 

map it will be so tended, it would command 

the towns of Gundaroo, Yass, Bown'inir. Binal >n- UummiUirrali 
Young, Cootamundra, and Temora. It would offer facilities for 
■irallan.l. Withasupplv 
of 10 million ga , yasSi j££ 


them, it would provide 2,600 horse-power, valued at £15,600 per 
annum, which, estimating the gross power of a large mill at 86 
horses, would est) 30 factories, and would after- 

wards be available for irrigation, and water supply. By drawing 
off the lake continuously through the gravel drift, it would be 
perfectly clear, i ;,. !lt ly pU re for the supply of 

towns. Presuming that the drift bed of the lake and adjoining 
swamps spreads over only 100 square miles, then, even after 
surface water had entirely disappeared, : , supply of 50 million 
gallons a day could be ensured n ,r many years u ithout the assistance 

canal from the Moh; n -lo \ib ,-. I,„t owing t. tli enlarge supply of 

auriferous drifts at tlmheadof !;••■,•>'■ ( V ' ■ and lastlv, by eon- 
lake by raising and transporting thousands <.f eubie yards daily 
It would discharge into Lake ! :,7,r u - ( . a1 J lea rv's ( lap. Thus briefly 
told is my view of the --rand p (> . :-dbilit i, s of this present useless, 

towns, it can cover the . . .-. ,,, i;h a contented, 

prosperous, and independent O.-omanrv. 'and lastly it can largely 

• my subject bv descriptions of Lakes 
1 others in the' inn rior, which may be 
istory in future ages, thoug 

Mr. J. F. Mai 

ake George. I 

as a beautiful 

Fifty or sixty years ago, the land of a number of settlers was 
described as being bounded liy the water- of Lake George ; and as 
the waters receded they followed, and thus enlarged their 
boundaries, and obtained about ten times as much land as was 
originally granted. 

It is a curious thing where the fish come from ; I have seen the 
place completely dry, and after a while when it again contained 
water, excellent fishing could be obtained there ; and again the 
lake would be covered with ducks and black swans. 

Mr. H. C. Russell said : I am very glad that Mr. Gipps has 

To me the lake lias see,„ed a valuable index of the character of the 
climate, and one of the best means of determining the evaporation 
from a large quantity of water. About 1865-67 the Government 
Astronomer commenced to lay down the base line at Lake George 
for the triangulation of the Colony, and careful measures of the 
heightof the water were then taken, but this unfortunately was not 
kept up. As far as I can ascertain, the lake was at its highest 
between 1870-71, when it was 12 feet higher than in 1885, 
but the measurement for the intervenine; years cannot be filled up 
exactly. Assuming that the evaporation was pretty regular, the 
lake has lost by evaporation all the rainfall and nearly 1 foot per 
annum besides, or about 40 inches in all per annum. It is rather 
curious that the I the recent heavy 

rainfall all over the country- The average rainfall of the district 
is only about 30 indie-. Mr. Mann has referred to what he calls 
the " puddling" of the lake bottom by cattle, and it is a most 

interesting su esxion but t numbei of ells ha a e been sunk in 

: ■ bese were in gravel. 

When the la k ,. the blacks said that it was 

covered with a forest, and all the water went out through holes in 
the bottom. It was the only way they could account for the dis- 
appearance of the water ; but 1 think we cannot compare Lake 
George with Lake Tirknit/.. That lake is upon a bed of limestone, 
and there are a number of deep holes in the bottom, through which 
it is supposed the water gets away. If there were such holes in 
Lake George at the bottom, one would expect the water to dis- 
appear gradually, but it appears that the water gets away very 
slowly indeed when the lake is full, and fast when it is low ; 
whereas, if there were holes in the bottom, the water would get 
away fastest when there was plenty. 

Lake George does not seem to be affected, except on occasions of 
very great rainfall in its dish anot occur to any 

great extent through such hard rocks as form its bed. 

Mr. T. Whitelegge said that he had examined some specimens 
of water from Lake George, and found in the sediment a number 
of fresh water organisms, and a number of diatoms — eight or nine 

■r-mam being oven alive. There was some- 

by bacteria. 

Dr. Thomas Dixsox said, some time ago it was suggested as 

possible that the waters of Australia possessed medicinal properties, 
and Mr. Gipps has said that (lie waters of Lake George are 
purgative. A number of waters are used medicinally, but, up to 

whether the waters of this Colony have any such properties. At 
Cooma there are carbonated spring; at iVrn'ma and Joadja Creek 

there a 

utlet on the weste: 
aground c 

The lim 

patches hardly extending more than .1 a mile in length; the 

think it is quit*. impovdble for the v\ui r to cm i,„ through tht 
but it must be through an old channel nov> idled with grav 
bometimes there are large supplies of water in wells, and t 
nig become blocked at times, by cutting a few feet, t 
wkmeix have come upon the old channel. I don't think that t 

S^ fomation wiU —' » "v *■* for the leakage 




■ Iry.. 


S 82 2 2 & 8« 2SS-2 &22S2S 

§ 5S 8 2 H £2 RSli-S --2=- = - 


^ s " • •• ■-••• ^S"!*? 


a :. 2 * • o. B .. a .j.* a . 


| J | i i 1 i e* -1 1 1 i J 1 N f 2 




"^■Va.,.;;':';: *■.-"..."■"..■•: 










Notes upon the History of Floods 
River Darling. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., dec. 

Chief f. 

n- Ha 

I'l.rmrs : 

ma 1;; 

the few 



:i ;».ui 

n i. ' M 


in *h* 


v". Bui vali 


cult to 

date tin 

'. L °l,*7 

>7'» ar 

inu ; 

ity, in 


.im l 

an account of 


be of s 

ty years after 

the t 


V ;:;; J 


e Ihiuinoerdn- 
there ; and for 




een 1833 and 

. valuable eon- 



al. I 

•d for many of 
found it diffi- 

known floods, 

floods. Those actually ° me; ur. 1 an shown in black, those 
recorded without ui msui -> by a haded surface. 

question of " summer level,*" which is a point chosen for 
local convenience; general" v it means that the zero used is four 
feet below that h< i-ht < f the ,\ it* i at which steamers . an travel, 
that is four feet of water on the bars or shallowest places. But 
these points have not been, so far as I am aware, connected with 
the sea level until the gauges were put up at Bourke, Albury, and 
by Mr. Melvi ■ y. ■ .:l i • ■ i for i ! •■ \Vat< i t.'oi serva- 


:ero, and in all cases the reco 

form some idea of the pen 

uid 'iM-Li'iu, in~nar..I that mIi 
er level the river is naviga 

the interval five short floods ha 

d passed down the river, in each 

i little. These floods are shown 

iu the diagram as five of the ei 

ght little floods in the interval. 

ration the little floods, there were 

forty months in ten years dun 

ng which it was navigable, and 

during this period the river w 

as praeti-idlv not navigable for 

883, to June, 188G ; but a refer- 

shall be able to show you pre- 


hat during the next ten years the 

>n tlian during the past, although 

dry seasons must always play a 

conspicuous part in the history 01 

The drought of 1 vM ,\ found in \»V2 and 1M3. The iluod of 
1880 appeared in 1SG1. and pruhably M:'. for tliat was generally 
a wet year, although we have no report from the Darling. And 

good 5 seasons of 1871 - 72-7 d ae cour^ nine! 

teen years after the good seasons of 1862-53-54 and 1855, but of 

the corresponding years 1833-34-35-36we do not know very much. 
1833 seems to ha\ .-1 .-.i r ttln r « 1 ry vt ar. i 'in it is said that more 
snow fell in one da\ . r M iy. 1*3 1. ill i d n ii y the whole winter 
of 1832. And: . flood in the Hunter Hirer in 

February, very heavy Hoods in Sydney streets, and in Illawarrain 
April. In June, all the lowlands at Bathurst were under water, and 
in September there was a tremendous storm which left the snow 4 
to 15 feet deep in Maneroo ; this storm began on July 2."uh. and 

lasted with som intermission for tin weeks 1 -.• > - ins to have 
been a dry year, and 1336 a wet one. In July, 1836, all tribu- 
taries of the Murray were in high tl 1 : at Uathurst in the begin- 
ning of July, snow lay a foot thick on the ground, and enough 

winter in the int* '-i"r \\.\- mi} :■■■ v h-nted, and is said by Mr. 
Bonney to have been very wet on the western side of the range; 
and the Murray tributaries were all in high Hood in July, and I 
think there can I as 1834 and 1836 

storm on the Darling in January, 18-<>, had its exact prototype 
in January, 1866, lung known as tin- great January rain, which 
made a rise in the river at Vv ileaunia of 18 feet, and that of 1885 

back through </h EtheiXmS 

thunderstorms which pa • a1 l<> a.m. A smart shower 

began at 1 p.m.; another smart -!,,,,,-. with hail and thunder and 

lightning ; and all ih, ,n, ; r., ; .,, -, ,....,.. . 

a'slorm "hnilar'to those' of 'january.''] 

passed over the Darling or not : hut there seems to be no reason to 

doubt that it did. 1 8 7 U again seems to stand alone. It is very 

kept from the first ; we had, in a much 

better position than we are tion of the Darling, 

and thequestion necessarily connected with that— tie- periodicity of 

> the river was al it- liiji. .-i. 
,\ liter. On July '2't 1„> saw 
( 'astlereagh. There can be 
ling was in flood. 

1844.— Sturt 

tT river smldei 



1845.— Augi 

ist'lS4\ M. Pies 

»: I 

1844, in 

. November the m 

1846.— M. Pies: e I co t jo 


er and part of . 


of watei 

•-holes from Pooncaric 


, 1846, B. Dickit 

E. Mori 

ey, J.P., occupiec 

ion. This and fcw 

1 Eta 

184s.— is is 

was a very wet y 

ear ;i 

1851.— B. Dickinson : Drought all year. E. Morley, J.P. : Dry 

■rood lir.u.l in rli.' ('astlrmi-h, t li* first f..r eleven years. 
B. Dickinson : There was a good deal of rain in 1S52 on the 
Darling, and the river was continually runninga good stream 
until 1855, when I left. 
E. Morley, J. P.: 
1858.— August, 1858 

1859.— January, 1859, Mr. gutter says, t 

4.— Mr. Suitor 
feet at Cultow 
Mr. Quin, Wi 

tended over t 
Water in Ma 
for 7 weeks, 

Bourke in 18( 

1868— J. a. M-In 


1869.— Mr. Tu 

Jo!m Mac! 
used to cai 

Mr. TliIIv a'- : - of 1870 to 1S73, that 

of 1870 was about 1 foot hi-b-r here than t lie present flood 
(1886). September, which was :)7 feet 6 inches. 
Mr. Hat ten : The 1870 flood at Louth was 43 feet ; about 

1.— January ."heavy rains in New England in 1871. 

2. — J. G. MMntosh' Very heav\ i tin ukI < > > Is in the Darling. 

3. — J. G, M'Into.h : Very heavy rains, and floods in the 

1877.— J. G.M'L.tosh 
J. J. Hav.Ioi,, Wi 

the men eagerly descended to quench their thi 

ever forget the cry of amazement that followed their doing so, c 

the looks of terror and disappointment with winch tiny railed on 

On a closer examination the riv.-r appeared to u 

Mr. Hume, with his usual persexer. nee, howev. : 

There was a greai 

: salt ! 

heard of it until 

Sn ' 1 ;' i " 

imt' Li!! u d!lu ( . l- f 


worse, for the riv 

he was obliged to 

turn 1 

iack. i; 



"June 1st, 183 


:rke, and 

proceeded down t 

hard elav ledire. 


so full of rocks fo 

horses next day. .• 



.. In pi; 

ink, and 

in others quite fr< 

: of th- 

At page '1-2G he 

pt in the 

Darling. " 

But "Sir Thomas was ; 

■vithout a 

t effort, 

and in 1836 he tr 

the Murray, only 

. it dry e 

Start also tried 

it a- a 

nd i 

stopped running, 

ie' third 

1845 it had actu 

flow, am 

chain of 



f, m> 

\, E.q.r.L 

turn, Vol 

1, p. 107. 

" The shallow s 

rod muddy wat 

ers of th.e 



at their 

lowest ebb in Au< 

the currei 

3 that I 

doubted if it flowe 

: 'ics 

"The Darling] 


• been in 

the state in which 

we found it fo 

r a great 

length of 


am led to infer from the grassy nature <>f its bed that it seldom 
contains water for anv length of tim.-: if it did. the grass would 
be killed. 24th September, 1Mb After making four days 
journey up the river, and finding abundanc- <>f giass in its bed, 
while the country all round was in In I condition, he says. 

"The banks oft lie river'' (p 111') "wen- covered with :i thick even 

i the morning of the 29th, when we got up it had wholly 
Kinged. In a few hours it had been converted into a noble 
ver, and had risen more than 5 feet above its recent level, 
id its muddy waters weiv c.irryini: everything before them." 
. 1 1!», on the' 1st < " The hailing had 
lan hank high, and some of its Mats w. re eovered with water. 
On 21th February, \s*± a similar sudden rise in the Darling 
i Pooncarie took place, and in four days the water rose 1 1 ftp 
id by the records we knov. 

August, 1844, and December. 1 S t T, : M. pi. .-.,>. in August. Novem- 
ber, and December, lS4.">, and January, 1840 : and Sir T. Mitchell, 
in. I une, bsi)."), and December, IS.'.G. and all found it a chain of 
water holes, or little better, saving one fresh, noted by Sturt. Nor 
is it .surprising that settlers were slow in taking up country which 

taken up 20 miles below Drowarrina,- a^ain. you see, in one of the 
worst droughts ever known, and by a strange fatality, the next 
attempt was at the Wentworth cud. in the great drought 1849-50. 
It is not to be wondered at. then, that from both the report comes 
that the river was dried up to a chain of water-holes. Mr. Dicken- 
son tells us that the river ran during 1S.12, is. -.3, 1854, and 1855, 
until he left. Then' is. however, a little contradiction about this 
period, but I think his statement is correct. 1860 was a very wet 
year all over the Colony, and as far north as Brisbane, and the few 
records we have for New England in that year show heavy rains. 
So that I have no doubt there were Hoods in the Darling then, 
and also in 1861 for similar reasons. At Armhlale that vear the 
rainfall was 25 per cent, in excess of the average ; in 1862 the 
rainfall was very small, and in DO:? the rainfall' at Armidale was 
the greatest on record there, so that there can be no doubt about 
the state of the river then. In 1861, however, the rainfall at 
Armidale was not so heavy; so that the great flood of that year 
must have been due, in great measure, to Queensland rains. 

A small work, called " Ten Years in the Interior," says, " In 
the beginning of 1864 the D s 3 feet in 24 

hours, and as floods were of i , no danger was 

anticipated at first ; but on 15th March the water rose up to our 
house, and on the 18th we could not light our iires. Our house 
stood high above the Darling, where, the blacks said, no flood had 
ever reached, but we had to leave it and go to a sand-bank, where 
we were prisoners for seven weeks, before we could return to our 

In 1864 flood Mr. John Kelley kept the house in Bourke known 

as '• Tattersall's," and had to make an embankment round it 3 
feet high to keep out the water, and in the end was obliged to 
repair the leaks in the embankment with bags of flour, there being 
no more earth dry enough for the purpose. 

J, G, iPIniosh'a Recollections of the Darling River. 
"My experience goes back to 1861, when I first came to Went- 
Avorth. The river was pretty low then, but there had just been a 
flood. In 1862 the river commenced to get very low, and I can 
well remembert wo newstcamers. the-- Lady 1 >;dy "and the "Settler," 
trying to get up the Darling, somewhere about October of that 
year. They both got stuck 30 miles above Wentworth. Their 
goods were discharged, and a large shed made, which I was sent 

f. r that yv; 

you c> 

ould not drink 

;- v M. .- 

- -Utlil 

ig something iu 


i January. ISC 


for tv. 

•o days, but it 


river juivtllinu 

..:• 21st. --'"■''; 

Wo h 

ad no" rain aboi 

from t 

id not Vise. I 


kept so 

until '! 

. is 7. when 

the Queensland' rairs son t it up. and then on the top o£ th« 

, thVriood" th-'',.. 

" The flood h. • M . L^; 7 v,a, far more disastrot 

than the 1864 fl« d in that riv< v. but was not so high by severs 
feet in the Da i .me down with i 






ra a man i 


his family ] 

1 thi 

s Bell Rive 

r washed 

right off hi: 

3 house in thi 

S VI'.-: 

ir. I reinen 


it. The m 

! dan 

a tree, but the mother a: 

Lid nd 

1 the younge 

ie family 

necl. It my 

bridge bein 

g built at \V 



the con- 

asked the it; 

he stated, ] 

; think, that 1 


had been sixteen 

rises in 1 

!ie river 

that winter. 

"The flood was ,o high that at Mr. Bvrie's, below Dubbo, tlie 
over the fences of the paddock. 

"After the flood in 1 - 7 erj muc ^ an di n 

1868 it was very low. All the bars below Bourke were so dry that a 
boat could not cross over them. There was one in sight of bunion 

' ■:' v : ■■'.: that ve 

and April, aim 

"It is a sin- 
1864 flood subs 

0, we had 


e the three 


d was at its highest, 

there must have been a fair that year up to 


"In 1871 there were no January or February rains in Queens- 
land. It was very dry Ml the winter, there being only one slight 
shower about Charleville in July. 

"Out on the Paroo, BuIloo,and Cooper's Creek it was very dry. To 
give an idea of the mildness of the season, in June, on the Bullo, I 
got dishfuls of tomatoes as ripe as tlnn would be in their proper 

"I started out in -May. L ,-71, from < harh-vill. to take the census, 
and travelled right out to Cooper's Creek. All the time I was 

from New England and the Macquarie country, I don't think the 
Darling could be vory high. 

"In 1872 wo had Motions rains in Queensland ; all the rivers 
were flooded. There, were good rains also M.out Uourko ; so that 
there must have been a good fresh in the Darling in February 
and March of that year. 

Darling in Mav. It was prettv'low when I gnfo'n to it. We 

the river \\;is low. Aboul the latter end or that uiontn x 
up the Darling. About the 1st of December I 

nasweek. On the CM-;oa it rain* d vcrv lu-u 
amft down n ' h.onW ' Wh*>n T rrnt across to I 

down. I got across the pontOOO 
rv.'. Next liinrning there was 
the salt-bush country before or 

no doubt the harh'ng v 

in Hay. I Lad 1 

•• Then iver the early part of 1ST 

right up to shearing time Queensland waters kept coming 
and the steamers were able to run up to Brewarrina wel 
the early part of September. After this the river commen 
fall, and got very low. 

"In 187 7 there were i ..1 other place! 

March the Bar won was well over its bank, and all the 
tributaries came down heavily until May. In July riv< 

pretty low 

r again t 

rad kept sc 

., wh< 

•real dry times set in; only 

v.. a- , up 

to the end 


78 the i 

. - , i , i :.. .; 

Dut Coonamble and Dubbo ; 

but it did 

not do much good 

to the Darling. All the Queensland 

tributaries quite . 


tO ,,:, 

:ak of in the Barwon, which 

I walked 

• \\ ;d 

gett in May. Things kept 
took 24,000 sheep belong- 

1 end of ye 

: 4 /-!,-.;» 

,.f >Wn, 

n to the ro: 

plenty of 

a the Birie 


t : .^i. •:■ 

as, If 

<7S, I 

had to go from Coonamble 

to Brend* 


miles of the Queensland 

border, W 


miles. I was detained at 

Brenda ur 

Sand I rode the 100 miles 

that ; 

ill the creeks were dry, and 

" In 18' 

r:» i J 

back to !: 

K- ,.(. 

the Culgoa in April. The 

g very rap 



ri.e. Tlv 



all th ) h h inland 


on t» tie \\a -o tli o 

on to the : 

Par o, 

it there. 

"In 18$ 

<0 tlie I 

110 -i 

vat h 

eight until the winter, v. lien 

In the Appendix will be found note,: of the river, 1838 to 1870, 
and river measures for 1870, kindly given to mo by 3Ir. Suttor, 
which cover p ■.; :odi"s history. 

Recollections of the Darling River. 

Mr. Basil Dickinson says.' under date iStli November :— "I 
hist \isited the I) ln e 1839, and took up a station called 

Yambecoona, 20 miles below LWarrina, tie n -ailed the Fisheries. 
This was the lowest station on the river for many years after that, 

and it was with difficulty v. . the cattle on the 

road from Liverpool Plains to the Darling. That river was then 
a chain of water-holes from Walgett to Yambecoona, and it did 
not run until 1841. In 1846, again, the river got very low, ana 
could easily be crossed on horseback in many places. Again, in 
1 8 li), 1 850, and 1 851 we had a terrible drought on the Darling— no 
grass, no salt-bush, and the river so low that the cattle used to gee 
bogged in it. In 1852 there was abundance of rain on the Darling, 
and the river ,. "' 

I left that district. By that time many other stations had been 
taken up below ours." 

Mr.K. M. .:/■ 

Black Thursday. February 6, 1851, 1 left M-ll 

to the Darling, and travel:. 

forming the station we had to camp with OUT honm in thfl be! of 
the river, as there was not n bite of _: 

The bed of the river was then, an.l hail been for months, <|iiib> 
dry, with the ■ >iisi(lenibl<> dis- 

tance from each other, and around theeeg 
which kept life in our DO- 

- in occupation, but. to my surpi 
seem uneasy about the oondition of 
aljout 150 mil. •- 

1 saw a spring of OOOl, dear water runnint: out of a small hollow 
v bank.'' 
Mr. />. F. Mackay.Mnd 

ra the Darling from Brewarrine u> 
within 50 miles of the junction of the Darling an. i the .Murray. 
Tiie country was ■ perfect desert, and 

: grass on the 
' miles in many places — 


itown (WUcannia)hau stopped running 

• the middle 

' ied cannot reach here for almost two 

months if rain were to fall now in New Kmdand. '.' 

lav mite to the data v'ou an- uccumuiatin-. and from which I trust 
you may in time be .Vole t-> furnidi valuable hints to the dwelled 

- In the'year 1- 16 1 took up the station known as Euston. It 
continued to be the outside station on the Murray until the lat6 
John Mackinlay, some eight months afterwards, occupied country 
lower down. So far as I can distinctly recall the first three 
seasons there, th<-\ miv div. ud xl> i inf.t ' \ robably between 
ches. " 

"In the early part of 1S.1 Messrs Maekhday, M'Cullum, and 
myself went up the Darling beyond settlement in search of new 
country. After a thorough exploration Ave decided on the country 
around Menindie, Parmamaroo. and T'dindionalogie, the latter 
falling to me by lot. The whole course of the river to a point 
about 60 miles above Menindie was then extremely dry. The 
river was in fa : .. in some places miles apart : 

but there was good feed for the horses in the river bed. The 
seasons continued drv until L s -V_\ when splendid rains fell all 
through Riverina. After IS..:', T did not again see the Darling. 
During the early part of 18.32 \ remendx ■ tin blacks coming in to 
report a fresh coming down the river. We had to wait over a day 
before the water reached my station, and a most interesting sight 
it was to watch the living warns filling up each hole, and then 
rising suddenly and silently to a little wall of water between 2 and 
3 feet high, and pass onwards. During mv fifteen years on the 
Lower Murray I can recall only two good 'seasons, in the others 
the rainfall may have ranged from ."> to 1 "> inches. Isold out in 

Wm, Camper, 26 May, 1886. 

" The report that a dray passed over the river dry at Wentworth 
is not true. The Darling River at the present time is about 8 
inches below summer level, and is neither rising nor falling. 
There are many places in this ivei which are fordable, especially 
at sand-banks. The river is dry about 45 miles above Wentworth, 
and also in places about Pooncarie and Menindie. The Darling 
cannot run dry at Wentworth. as it is backed up by the Murray. 
When the Murray is in flood, and the Darling low, the Murray 
vrater runs 35 miles up the Darling. 

" The Murray at the present time is very low — lower, I think, 
than I have ever seen it before, and 1 have lived on it for over 
twenty years. At the jnn< tog to the exten- 

sive sand-banks ; but there would be great danger in fording it, 
owing to the boggy banks, and there is always more or less risk 
of getting into a deep hole. 

" There is plenty of water in the Murray, in many places over 20 
feet deep ; but over the sand-banks and rocks there is often only 
a few inches of water. If the Murray ran dry, as has lately been 
stated, it would l,«. a had day for Australia. 

" For some years past t _ bave been of very 

short duration, owing to the floods in this river taking place when 
the Murray was low. When this is the case, the Darling waters 
run off so rapidly into the M that a rise of # 30 

feet at Wilcannia scarcely i i on the Darling 

at Wentworth. i aide its ordinary 

"During last month I have bad opportanitii 

Murray in many places between Went worth >: . ' 

and. although in many | . . 

river is verv shallow at the sand hanks, in no \\.- . 


Mr. \Y. 11. S Mareh 11th. 

river was bank-high; this ma about : 

Mrs. A. !' I 
at Tapio Station, 1 .'• miles up the river from WYntworth. and re 

surprise, as we had no warning that 

. thing before ii ; bvl I 

i-as a ^ain a el 

bt planes. In thewinta • I t flood in the 

rrav. and it- waters tlowed up tl;e harlim: :.- tar as Pooncarie, 
in October and November the harlim: wat« r came down with 
:rong current, and being hacked up by the Murray water, the 

v I ever saw it. excepting i 
1>o4. the hi- 

out Lack to the great! 
great flood of May ai 

Seasons good, 1863 and 1864. From l^m they grauuady got 
worse until 1868 and part of 1869. They culminated in the most 
disastrous drought known since the settlement of the colonies, an 
immense number of sheep and cattle perishing from sheer starva- 
tion in New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland. Sheep on 
many of the unfenced runs became too poor and week to admit of 
their being shepherded, and had to be turned loose. Many died 
in fenced paddocks in Victoria, where country was thickly stocked ; 

Great drought broke up March, 1869, raining March and April, 
producing good winter feed. 

But no more rain coming, the summer of 1869 and 1870 was a 
terrible one at Cultowa, there being no rain from March and April, 
1869, to April, 1870, heavy enough to make anything grow. 

The lakes were filled by floods in river several times from 18o8 
to 1864. (April 16th, Mr. Suttor says the river up 30 feet 
3 inches and just running into the lagoons). The water-holes at 
Martilli, Oonondoo, and Wongalara during that time were seldom 
empty, and then only for a very short time ; but from early 
1869 to April, 1870, the lakes and water-holes continued empty. 

The highest floods since the Darling was settled were October, 
1863, and March-April, 1864, the former reaching within 16 
inches of the high river bank at Old Cultowa, or nearly 38 feet 
above summer level; while the Litter (known as the "Great 
Flood ") rose 3 feet in the old house, or 42 feet above summer 
level. Towns of Walgett ami liourke Hooded, and others on the 
tributaries of the Darling ; but since the great flood of 1864 until 
that of 1870 then; has only been one flood high enough to run 
out in the billabongs, and that was in May and June, 1867; but 
it only partially rilled the lakes, and fell again rather suddenly. 

The greatest rainfall occurred here in the months of February and 
November, two great falls in the former and one in the ~atter 
(November, 1858, the other years I forget) filling large water-holes 
in the billabongs, and leaving sheets of water in places on the plains. 

There was a tremendous fall of rain on some parts of the river 
and back country (known ever since as the "January Rain ") B» 
January, 1866, which rose the river 18 feet at Menindie, a thing 
unknown from local rains before, and large lakes in the hack 
country, not connected with the river, were filled and lusted three 
years ; but here small water-holes were not filled, although rain 
fell during greater part of three days. . 

Summer temperature very high, averaging 100 degrees in tne 
shade for weeks (and twice it rose to 100 degrees at sunset),, 
extreme, 110 in coolest part of house. Autumn, winter, and early 
spring generally delightful, with occasional frosts in coldest part 
of winter (July or early in August). 

Summer of 1869-1870. Country fearfully dry, most trying. 
March and April rain. ..f IS»;'..» not doing more than provide tiic 
winterfeed. IS.-ll, . ■ ..... -t m . rav u .„„ the parched and naked 
earth, together with clouds of blowing -and and dust, accompanied 
by hot, scorchi. rable; blown sand covering 

up fences about draughting yards. Hot winds and boisterous gales 

unusually pre vale 

four day.. 

completely darkening the atmosphere with clouds of dust, prevent 
ing objects a short distance off" from being seen. Wells pumped 
dry at house every day to try and keep tilings in garden growing. 
Notwithstanding great dryness and absence of rain here to 
Murtee during past summer (1869-70), the seasdn in almost every 
other part of New South Wales magnificent : 
Nelyambo and Walloo there were good falk of rain two or three 
times which quite missed us. whilst at I'.illilla and Culpauline and 
Tintinalogy there were fine rains. 
River Observations made at Cultowa, New South Wales, during 

the month of March. L870. 

S k™ 
















Run in most deplorable state for want of rain ; strange 
this summer should be such a splendid one everywhere 
else, fine rains both up and down the I 
miss the country from here to Murtee. River be !gan ito 


Some light showers last night and this morning, rising 


18 6 


19 6 




ft. in. 

20 6 


21 3 

boat crossing. 


22 1 
22 10 



23 6 


24 4 


h s 


2G 3 

River just over the road at Martilli, Billabong, and 


26 10 

•27 r> 

River justter top of chopped stump, near blacks' camp. 


28 8 


29 3 

The mailman * Bourke, but rising 
again at Walgctt. 


29 10 

The papers report great floods in the Burdekin, and other 

rivers in Queensland. 


30 3 

River just running into lagoon, near wool 

r. [M.rt ,i ?astro s tio ,d : Hawkesbury and Hunter in 
flood, and many other rivers. 


31 3 

■ ■■■ ■ : 


31 8 

day at 30 ft. 9 in. 
River rose 5 in. ; reached Wongalara to-day, through 



From Wentworth to Bourke— eight steaming 

lin last night, showers this morning. 
3hed Wongalara to-day, a week after < 
k Lake and Billabong joined. 

34 3 Water ris 
34 6 Scarcely i 
34 8 No mailm 

ft. in. 

;u id ' 


35 2 

35 4 


Steamer " Maranoa 1 ' returned from Bourkc to-lay. 


35 7 

The mailman reports river fallen at Bourke 3 ft. Con- 


35 10 

River just touching gum-tree root at Old Cultowa. 
Thunder ; no rain. 


35 11 


Fine rain last night and to-day. 


30 2 

Boisterous gales last night. 


3(i 2 

I- , . ,, „t h_ht >h « . y river stationary, just over gum- 


36 3 



36 1 

Two or three flying showers. The mailman seems to 


36 1 



35 11 

gone to Queensland. 


35 11 

Showorv in afternoon. 


35 11 
35 11 

Showery last saturated ; too 
boggy to work cattle or horses. 



Some good pumpkins and other vegetables in garden. 


36 1 



36 3 

Steamer "Jupit ner rising fast, 

and town of Bourke m danger of flood. 


36 4 

HeaYyraln - 




ft. in. 








36 7 

of ' 




,],,-, ).] 

, terete, 

■ ihS'uu\V:\!v 


5 A few drops of rain, thunder : L"ivat tloi 

5h I Thick masses of rain falling. 

8 J Rain began last night ; raining all .lay. 
8!, Rain last night : showery to-.lay. 

30 38 14 Riv. 




ft. in. 


38 2J 


38 4 


38 4J 

River falling at P.-urke : but the is coming down 
a "banker."' 


3 3 

Light showers. 

Bourke: River fallen 2 or 3 ind.e.- : light showers last night. 

38 5| 


3> !-)! 


3S ;>.', 
38 5" 


38 4: 

Light showers. 


3S 3 4 

RiveJ Wallen2 feet at Bourke, and 10 feet at Brewarrina, 

but fl.,0,1. .-„.> • . .1 wi :..■ N ' -i and Culgoa. 


Flying showers and more rain last night. 


K i: 

flZToi wild dueks about, hlaeks got about 300 eggs. 


37 11 ' 

Some smart showers. 

Flying showers. 


37 10 

Light rain. 

37 9 

Light showers. - menes more 
would have flooded Bourke. 

37 8i 


37 :■■ 


37 7] 

•J 7 

37 61 

IwTiver only reached its maximum at Wileannia a 


37 6 


ft. in. 


37 4j 

Raining. Rain set in about midnight, and rained steadily 


37 U 

37 X 

Thunder storm last night. 


37 3f 

Light showers. Strong west gale. 

37 3 


" - 

Light showers. 


37 2.\ 

37 -2\ 


37 2i 


37 l, 

37 lv 


37 lv 


37 2 

Th d n eai r fe a U d ^ St0rm *"* "^ "^ ^^ morainS g00tl 


37 1? 

Boist l'ous W.X.W. gale. 


37 11 

37 11 

Wet day. 


37 11 

Reports from Bourke of all the upper rivers being again in 


37 11 

37 11 

Reports of river rising slowly at Bourke. 


37 11 
37 11 

Raining after dark. 


37 H 


37 q 


37 2 




"evel. Cr 


37 2J 


37 3" 
37 3 

37 3 

37 4 

Strong gales. 


37 'ii 



37 T.'. 
37 1 

Hi— fall^ J.*..,,- P. 


Light showers. 
High wind. 


3t; u\ 

36 11 

36 »i 
36 9 

3(5 S.'. 
( 3(i S.\ 


t in one night. 



Mailman reports river rising at Bourkea 

id Wulgott again. 

Light rain fell 1 
J Lighten with 

! 32 104 

More rain to-day. Rivera 
Heavy rain last night j si 
of house without walki 
Showery morning. 
Rain during afternoon. 


is made at Cultowa, New South W 

the month of November, 1870. 


S i"ul " 

ft. in. 

32 4', 

:;i io. T 

■ ! ' ',' 


SO 3> 

29 !•' 



28 9 


28 7.1 


28 71 R4in this morning. , 

30 7i H«:. lemimr. 


30 6£ 1 

30 7i 


3< i 1 1 i Light passing showers, p.m. 
31 -2> Sprinkling rain. 


31 5| 

31 Si 


31 1U 


32 s! Thunderstorm, with. light shower, this afternoon. 



33 4 I 

33 7 

33 9i 


ft. in. 

Jf^«7or,^-y^/rt/^« mw ^. 

34 2'. 

1 34= 4i 

34 si 

35 ^ 



1 I 

:;:, ,;" 

35 8 t 


35 ll 2 

Bourke mailman reports big flood con 



36 2 2 


:':': '■'') 




36 d 

36 6| 
36 7 



Strong south gale. 

.ling rain. 


36 9 

Rode out to Moongur Sand-hill ; ca 

nuot go further for 


:;.; ii T . 


:!: °i 


Mailman reports river at Bourke falle 

a 1 inch. 



37 l) 


37 -i 

slier report - 
Xo report. See "27th Fel>niarv. 

River Observ 

ations made at Cultowa, New South Wales, during 
the month of February, 1871. 



S ZT \ Remarks - 


ft :.. in - 



Started for WiWia. 


TlmiLlor and wind storm last night, with little rain. 

m by Wil- 


Returned to Cultowa from Wilcannk. 




Sp«nkling rain ; steamer passed down to-day. 

Mailman reports heavy rain about Bourke, and river again 


coming down. ' 





ft :. 

, in ' 

Steamer on her way up to Bourke called he 




Wet night and showery to-day. 





Two steamers passed down to-day. 


Last entry of diary. 




Mr. Snttors journal &■■ ■ < fur February, 

March, and April. Mr. Trader, Telegraph Nation master at 
Bourke, replies to my questions asfolloics:— 

State of the Darling on November 12, 1885. 

Was the river ever SO low before, and if so when! Yes, the 
river has been as low, and lower than it is at present, but cannot 
get the dates. Mr. Bloxham has on two or three occasions seen 
the river quite dry between Toorale and Bourke. 

How far down below Bourke has the river ceased running 1 The. 
Telegraph Station-master at Louth reports, " Can walk up bed of 
river here for over 100 yards." At Tilpa, 70 miles below Louth, 
the Telegraph Station-master reports, " River not stopped running 
but at stony bars there is only small stream running" At Bre- 
warrina the Teh _ | rts, " 1 liver has almost 

stopped running, except I instep across." 

Has the river actually stopped running, i.e., if you throw a 
piece of wood in will it not move, or will it go down stream very 
slowly, indicating that the water is finding its way slowly through 
the rock bars 1 The river has actually stopped running ; no cur- 
rent whatever. Since the receipt of your note I have visited 
several of the stony or rocky bars, and found the rocks from 12 
to 18 inches above the level of the water. Now, at North Bourke 
there is a sandy stretch, immediately below a rocky bar, 300 yards 
long, quite dry. 

When did the river stop running 1 About or between the 25th 
and -1 7th October. 

Where does the present level come to on the river gauges] I 
want to know particularly at what depth below what you call 

perpendicularly 3 feet below the level of the new gauge, and the 
river ceased running 2 feet below it. The river is said to be at 
summer level when below the gauges. 

Is it true that the blacks on the river have been making canoes, 
saving that a very big flood is coming 1 There are very few blacks 
about here, and those that are here know nil abo 1 er or 
anything else, bar rum and tobacco. 

October 30, 1885. The river is lower than for many years, and 
just short of a chain of holes. Three miles down from here it is 
absolutely dry right across, but the water has made a little gutter 
in the sand a few feet wide, through which it is running. It is 
full of fish in splendid condition, and the water is as clear as sea 



Alexander Ferguson w< 

e one Oxley saw in 
over the flat country in a 1 
from 3 to 5 feet deep. M 
flood rode on 


reside on the Castlereagh i: 
! says then 1 was no flood ther 
1 that of 1874. Oxley wen 
jme 30 miles, the water bcin 
3ii and two others in the 187 
i through flood waters from 

Rainfall Observ iti >ns -h !ii hen- to indicat ■ the Rainfall on 

Copies of all the River records 

t Bourke that can be found. In Mr. Bnttot'i n,,tcs will be found the River beigb 
ti. ns of the River Darling, made at Boorfc 

. Wilcannia. 

or part of 1870 and 1871. 

•— * 1 rrf — | »■* ** ■* *■* *■*■ ! »—• 1 •— »■ — - 1 °~^~ 

■ ' .- : 

9 6 


r.— Occasional thunderstorms the whole of this month ; a good deal of rain has fallen. The Queensland and J 



,!-::l ,[- 

own of Bourke y 

inundated, and r 

/ persons compelled to leave their 1 

The greater portion of ■ 

* Observations of the 

River Darling, made at Bourke, New 

South Wales, during the year 1874. 



February. | March. 



July. j August. 






Time 1 


1 T-me 

| Time 







1 Time 



u : ./y; 

f , 

H Rfver° f ^ to 


'j!'" .".''■■ 

l: V J ;'-" L 

. .. ■■.■-". 

l \r\\"' 


■k - 

'h \ 

n, .;-v 

H Rfv e r 0f 

0nGaUS6 ' 

.. >> ...... i- 

^an£! ° nW 

on Gauge., plover 

,. Gau.x 


on Gauge 

a^ya^.. ' 10 ^ 6 


1 r ,. ' 

on Gauge 

" ;V "' : 


on Gang* 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 



32 5 




7 2 


29 3 



3 1 


25 G 

29 6 


31 6 





3 2 

7 3 

30 6 


10 3 





7 5 


30 5 




3 3 


27 5 



7 2 
6 11 


31 1 



28 3 
27 8 
27 2 



9 2 


3 5 
3 6 

3 6 



30 b 
30 2 

20 10 
29 5 



6 3 


31 10 

26 8 

3 8 

2S 11 


:vi 3 


26 4 


3 10 




7 6 


27 5 



6 6 


32 9 


7 3 




25 6 


5 10 


8 1 


33 2 

6 9 




33 4 


25 1 

6 6 

7 10 



10 10 


8 11 




33 6 

24 7 

6 1 

9 11 


22 7 


13 2 




22 7 



33 6 

23 7 



12 7 


22 10 


15 6 

33 5 

23 1 

5 7 


23 1 





33 4 

22 5 


5 6 

15 9 

26 6 

21 8 

6 S 


17 6 



27 9 




23 11 





32 11 

21 1 


5 3 




28 3 
28 6 


32 9 


20 9 
20 3 


5 2 
5 1 


20 11 




24 2 
23 10 



28 10 




4 11 




23 4 


'i-ir.' ..'.ii, 

a July, in November 

* Observations of the R 

voi f 1.1 ;;;._, made at Bourke, K" 
during the year 1876. 

ew Souths 


Feb. Mar. [April. May. |junc. 1 July. Vug Sept. | Oct. j Nov. 









Observations of tne River Darling 
during th 

e year 187 

Bourke, New South W 


■»» | te JM, |m., i^i*,.!*-,!**.!**^! o* |„„. 




23" 5 









tBourke, New South W;il,.?, 



April. 1 May. 




Sept. Oct. 1 Nov. J Dec. 





:: : 










.f th. 

r Darling, made at ] 
during the year 1881 

w South W 


Date. Jan. Feb. Mar. 

Ap ri ,|Ma y .| J u„e.| J u 1 ,| A u,| S ep,|oc,|xo,| D ee. 








during 'ti 


April.| May. | June. 


Aug. 1 Sep. 

C ,|No,[ DeC . 


ft. in. 

ft. in. 

,,. i„ 

ft. in. 

t. in. 

ft in. 


; "o 



6 3 


i/'o ■ 


3 ..° 

I. 9 












"■■" ! 








*.. 3 


n "'° ' 


\. 8 

3 ..° 




7 .. 6 


J I 

: : : 


: :: : 



If f* If -I 

Observations of the Elver Darling made at Bour 

' the River l\ului-\ ma.le at iW. 

Darling, maile at L»ourk( 


Reminiscences In the interim- of Xu- South IVafrs, from the 
autumn of JS6^ to Christmas lS,.' h 1>>j Wm. J. Conder, then 
Licensed Surveyor. 
Towards the end of April, L864, I from the Lachlan 

River, at the confluence : ;." Creek, about 

30 miles below Condoblin, to explore and survey, if practicable, 
the then vacant country between that point and the Darling 
River at (hunderbooka, with a vicv, to pastoral settlement on it 
by some Melbourne speculators. 

The Lachlan v . Eew w&terholes here and 

there. The sup,, h country very uncertain ; 

but with the ass i i nativi - of that part of the 

Colony, sufficient ared. We bad to 

circuitous course. The water \va- found in almost every instance 
in small clay pan-, fi 1 G inch < to a i t i d< tli, and not much 
better than a m^ -nnntity. There was good 

rough feed for the horses. From Mount Marohey, about 60 miles 
from the start, it was found necessary to return for supplies. 1 
rode back in one v »r in a flooded state, but 

:ed; the hoar 'frost in th. 

: . 


P-ate : 

, two 


'}' ua(! 

■d grout : 


■ : tliev had 

t«0 vui.lh- hot-,- * Th,. 



.,.:■;..;, ■,:■;... ■ ■ 


' 'o- we saw s 

iri quite watt 

ah-,-; at th 

we got ii 

vto mulga forest country 

re mallet 

- and 

e grass ; the herbage was 
ill more precarious. Emu 

ait the ^ 

mixed it 

tin - ■ -small clay pans hi 

I 1 £ 

- [. 

'at a 

to the river which was then in a very high Hood; it was 

sible to travel the usual road .-don- its '..aides. ! struck the 

at Gunderbooka, and in going from thence to Xulm Xulta 

the junction of the Whin-ego, I 


judging from the timber, to he a expanse of shallow water, 
suddenly it deepened, and my horse after swimming for a few 

yards sank, and came up again b.-hind me in the shallow part and 
galloped away. 1 was determined to vvt through as my destina- 
tion was only some 5 miles further "on. I swam on until I 
found shallow water again, ami walked the remainder of the 
jourmy minus hoots, which impeded my swimming to such an 
extent that I had t > take advantage ot a e mvenient tree to pull 
them off and leave them there. Soon afterwards I went back to 
the camp and brought it into the Darling, where we stayed some 
six weeks or two months surveying and explo: 

usual custom in the summer months and exceptionally dry seasons. 
There was some sort of agreement or understanding between them 
and the river tribe, as to certain localities mi the river frontage, 
which they could inhabit on these occasions without molestation. 
I think the provisions were very vague and depended on the 
" Vi et armis " more I g them. 


thing like th 

3. Probably 

for I recollect that one of my h.»rs. s Wok. tw > there, and whilst 
riding after him in 12 or IS incites of water he kept me dodging 
about, and 1 nit nil watch jerked out of my pocket, and saw it 

exact spot and was unable to recover the watch. 

Very little, if any, rain fell from the end of April, when I left 
the Ladilan, until the middle of October when I returned there. 
In the summer of 1866 I was surveying in the pastoral district 
of Bligh, which was then in such a" state for want of feed and 
water that it was almost impossible to move about at all. For 
miles around Coonamble and up into the Warrambungle Ranges 
the live stock perished in enormous numbers. Water could then 

be procured in * hi very shallow 

wells in some places, by sera] nly a few inches 

in depth. There were a few good dams, such as the one at 
Beanbah, at Nebea, and a few other places. At Coonamble a 
natural bar at the confluence of Mogmoodine Creek with the river 
dams up a large and permanent supply of water in the creek, and 
has the appearance of a large ornamental lake. I do not think 
this has ever been known to be dry, but I have seen it very much 
reduced in size uv.d very muddy. The large waterhole at 
Gungalgina on the Nedgera Creek I have seen dry. In 1868 
there were some welcome .Ik;-;,; „ r , h. i in Ihey were very 
limited in extent. ] i -meml -r .... , hi -h .Parted the Castlereagh 
River running near Belar Creek, but it did not reach far down. 
At Mundooran, iomo :'■<) ruil, s li,l w there were no trace of it. 

Knai,nof th, .Yptlu,,, .ml \hu 

the waterholes 
e river Varom.i 

In this locality the Uac-ipuuh 
from their proper course by enormous 

wood which in times of flood are i/; 

mail hannel as to I, a lab i 

iiber are jammed together ' 

th< • atcr in cons* m. , 

miles and miles of the flat countrj and £o 


I was on the Talbrayar lliv.r ,; the tim 
flood— I think in tin- ,am«. \ „ 

v heavy fo] 
position of , 


op large dee] 

ears for shee] 

fishing, <tc. 

: wliilsl in other place 

the accident of some trifling obsti 

I once saw an 

Belar Creek, one of the princ-m-i 

which had 

as indicate 

[..S0f trees; 

ilar to the 1 

r to the Hood. 1 siiouh 

had been tilled up long before the d 

t ,tlere:lgh. 

extending from 1864 to 187"), J found it 
great extremes, devastating floods, disastrous 
with vegetation of such luxuriance as I ha 
any other part of the colony. The amount 
away somewhere in the Darling, Maeqin. 
Rivers, if some practicable means could he . 

ample to fertilize and make an immense trac 

31V. ).Lvxxr : nineteen years, 

as stated by Mr. iluss, 11, would be f/r< atlv modified bv the number 
of cattle in the flood district. Tim beds of rivers have been filled 
up and made saudbeds by cattle tracks. Cattle on their way to 
water invariably make tracks: after heavy rains these tracks 
become water- ted. Immense 

gether within the original banks of the river but is carried far 
over the adjacent country. Settlers Lave reached their laud by 
boats. The next year the river on which they sailed has been 
filled up with sand, and the folio v. ;;;- year even the vessels have 
been covered up. 

3Ir. Charles Moore said that the fact of finding grass at the 
bottom of a recent river-bed is not an indication that water has 
not been there for some time. Fifteen months ago he sent a 
collector to Bourke to obti ses, &c He said 

on his return are, all he could see was a few 

trees. About five we-ks a-'o h" was ag in < i;t and brought back 

a splendid collection of plants, not only annuals, but perennials of 
the pea tribe ; they existed there, although there was no appear- 
ance of them on the surface. He proposed to read a paper on 
the existence of these plants at a future date. How they existed 
was beyond his apprehension, because thev have had this drought 
for several years ; the roots are still alive 'in tin- -round. Imme- 
diately the flood cease: the plants spring up : the water does not 
remain long enough m kill the roots, and' us soon as the water 
( : > <ti- ,; i : ' the -rass and plants -row again. 

Mr. Russell, in reply to Mr. Doukin, said that the present 
icient for naviga- 
e the country had been well soaked 
lowing , and, moreover, there had 

what is called " su 

prings were fl< 
t the heads of the 
a yet The riven 

; m n-e alter ram is very rapid. Tlie Darling, at Bourke, r 

ebruary, 1882, 10 feet in the first dav, and 10 feet more : 

■ : - ■. .:.- Darling, at Wile: 

eneral over the Darlis..^ 


■ |83| 1832 IRAS 834 1835 1836 1837 838 1839 1840 184 1842 

1843 1844 1845 

184^ 1847 1848 1849 

! -— - 

iKT Til J Li if ii .. 

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4_ 4_ 


it fl 


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\ MM: i M. ,«i^Pk i !.i. 

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5SI|g!siiH2isigg!asli!kiSS5,M§9gli5iM 5BB8 * 8SiS « 3 ? seg§sfil83li53lgS8§IS383S3SgS8gsl 















lilsllllSBlllls f||§|i5s||j|||sg| 

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Iflfi fi I 1 887 




gja 1 3 5 5 gg§ 8 glig I %. 55 g g J I g 1 ifal? ill I V slgp gl^ 5gglSSl§gB355gg S BglJ 



Diagram for AT Kits seJJjs paper on River Darling Floods 

Notes on the Sweet Principle of Smilax Glycyphylla. 

By Edward H. Renkib, M.A., D.Sc, Professor of Chemistry 
in the University of Adelaide. 

: Australian i ; L! il >iii- plant 

ch "rows al uudanth on the short s of L'ort Jacks, n. is famili ir 
nanv inhabitants of the Colony, on account of the peculiar taste 
;s leaves, somewhat resembling that of liquorice. An infusion 

loaves was published by Dr. C. R Alder Wright, a 

past eight or nine months the examination of this 

Some 75 to 80 lbs. of the leaves raid stems were macerated with 
alcohol, the a! ■•■ .-. nipy residue repeatedly 

extracted with ether. On distilling (r the ether a crystalline 
substance remained, which was purified by several crystallizations 

filtering off the p nd passin-. sulphuretted 

of lead from the still warm liquid, a colourless solution was obtained 
which on cooling deposited a mass of slender, perfectly white 
needles. The substance so prepared is very sparingly soluble in 
cold water, readily soluble in hot water, very soluble in alcohol, 
insoluble w chloroform, b« ana. Itdoesnot 

reduce Fehling's solution, but when boiled for a short time with 
dilute sulphuric acid, a coj . ■ precipitate is 

formed; and when this is filtered off, the filtrate reduces Fehling's 
•solution readily. 

; contains 3 molecules 

obtained from phi ark of the apple- 

tree) by similar treatment. On boiling with strong caustic potash, 
it splits up into phloroglucol and phloretic acid. Both of these 
substances were identified by their reactions and analyses. 

The filtrate from the phloretin, on neutralization by barium, 
carbonate, filtration, and evaporation, yields a crystalline substance 
which when purified has a si n d has the compo- 

sition C B H u 6 . It is, in fact, isodulcite, a substance which has 
lately been recognized as a decomposition product of several so- 
called glucosides. 

Obviously, the sweet principle extracted as above from Smilax 
Glycyphylla i kin, the latter according to 

those who have evamim.-d it, yielding phloretin and a sugar 
resembling glucose. The nature of the relationship remains for 
the present undetermined ; but I am endeavouring to obtain a 
supply of phlorizin, in order to attempt the determination of this 

Notes on the Theory of Dissociation of Gases. 

demonstrated by the experiments of Osborne Reynolds. Most 
gases expand by the same amount as the temperature rises, but 
there are some that do not, ami among the best known of these 
arc nitrogen tetroxide and the vapour of acetic acid. In order 
co explain this abnor! liiv two hyj h< s liavi been advanced, 
one, that the gases in the < sed by a rise of 

temperature, and one, of . purely negative character, that the 
abnormal expansion i.-, to 1 e vnto d to the supposed fact that the 
transition from liquid to vapour i ■:.;.; liaiiy continuous over a 
finite range of temperature. In order to compare these views I 
propose to adopt the following method of discussing the matter. 
Assuming a molecular theory of any kind, whether of the 
vortex atom, or of the ordi the temperature 

must be identified as the mean value of the molecular kinetic 
energy of translation. If the :m an mass of a molecule remains 
constant as is generally assumed, then the velocity must increase, 
as the temperature i im j i \ i u .-< 1' t tli ] t-ue 

is supposed to be 1 akr momentum 

per second against the sides of the containing vessel. If the tem- 
perature rises as the pr --uv • r< mains eo istant, we have to satisfy 
the condition of -.'•• • nd constant loss of 

momentum per unit area of < mtainini: -aula e. If the mean mass 
remains constant then the number of collisions with the sides of 
the vessel must vary inversely as the mean velocity of the 
molecules ; in other words, the mean free path must increase, 
and we have the phenomenon of expansion. Since in most 
gases the expansion is the same per degree of temperature, the 
increase of the : be the same, in gases 

which expand ; . ither the increase of mean 

free path must be in excess of the normal, or the number of 
molecules in the field must increase. But this increase in the 
number of mol. ■ ag op of those previously 

existing, and hence a change of potential energy, while an increased 
free path would occur together with a rise in velocity, if mass be 

sat might be absorbed to an 
uage beat would be absorbed 
either to produce chemical change or to accomplish external work. 
But the ratio of the work - that employed in 

external molecular work probably depends on the complexity of 
the molecule, so that if no ,1."- .....; .; i,,n uk,. s place, either the 
ratio must diminish— i.e., less energy be used up internally— or 
tic observed large absorption of , -g\ must fail to produce any 
observable change in the molecule. Both these hypo! hesea seem 
improbable, and, therefore, one is forced back on the theory of 
dissociation d priori It is with respect to the proof of this 
theory that I dea , fc. Berthelot's tlieory of an 

1,1,1 h,llt " h llll!1 - 1' " >n ,., 1 s „ti ight through every dynamical 

proposition conn , iV f gaseg and ove rturns 

amongst other tilings the fundamentally important law of 


The theory of 

molecules of a gf 

observation or not 

its dbwvi-uinn v, pn,dimt, eh- mically « lUt iii'^'i" 
— ~* ammonhi 

Pebal. In order, however, to 
demonstration, we 

the theory 

observed, accounts for all the change of volume. As far as°I 
know this has never yet been accomplished ; it might be done, 
however, in the following way : Let A B be a tube divided into 
,wo compartments by a diaphragm of poi >u, , L1 imnu i ■ iJa. d 
itC. The part AC is conn „ or}d L . ul . 

pump, whereby the pressure in that port! , b i^.p, ,.. „,,dlv 
small compared with the p. .- , , i : , \) <■. A dissociable gas such 
a* team i iiurodu. 1 into < 1 aid by a suitable 
anvmgmima i,, kept at a constant pressure 
. Lei the temperature 
of BC be gradually raised. \„v, when .team 
nates it forms oxygen and hydrogen, and as 
*i the plate at C, into what 
'; a low temperature the 
will be small, and may 
fraction of the whole 
ough. But the amount 
through will be proportional to the amount 

We require, therefore, to make a series of experiments at 
different temperatures in wind, the ,,ua.ititv of hvdro-en or 
oxygen diffused through the plate per unif time is m.-.smvd bv 
the ordinary processes of gas analysis. 

From other exj ' m theory— but difficult in 

tht- co-cih'cmntsof expansion of 1 
compared with the amount of « 
If the two variables ;uv plotto 

ew of Clau 

t our diffus 



.ents only point 

n certain limits 


i in the case of 

take pi; 

we have as yet 

,ed for 

proving that the 

tettoxid<\ Low- 

the nature 

I of the I 

no proof from 

eally does 

tab place 

at all, still we 

analysis that diss 

have a set of expe 

for steam, tending as I think, to render the hypothesis of 

dissociation very probable. Berthelot and Orgier have recently 

measured the quantities of heat absorbed per degree of temperature 

at different temperatures for acetic acid vapour, and nitrogen 

will deal. 

The specific heats of these gases at different temperatures and 
constant pressun s are enorn isl; y or eighty times 

as great in some cases as the heats of the permanent gases. Now 
I find by comparing the corrected results of Berthelot and Orgier 
for these gases that the heat absorbed over and above the heat 
taken by a norm:,! --as, over ;>. o-iven ranve of temperature is 
practically proponi.v.a! ,. V| rywlerc to the abnormality of the 
expansion. If dissociation occurs we should, of course, expect this 
thermal change. The curves will show how very closely the 
corrected temperative co-efficients of specific heat and expansion 
run together. The evidence 1 i ... , i-.-j othesisof dissocia- 

tion is therefore \ . | > diagram might 

simply point to the ahsoq :..,• the assumed 

increased free path on the :i |- ,-, llt ,. . l iV , i|„,sis; but against 
this theory there av< s veral objections. ' Fi st, the increase of 
energy seems enormously too great for the increase of molecular 
kinetic energy oft nu i .1 Lids being tl cast »ve must assume 
that the well know n though una. tei min. d co-efficient for the ratio 
of external to int. rnd m-hcu! •• work is u function of the tem- 
perature. In other words, tl £ energy must on 
the theory be very great; and this ought to be chemically 
discoverable. But the dissociation theory merely assumes a 
molecular change of a parti. flj e distinction 
between the theories is small when we eon to consider them 

There is another point in connection with this matter which 
seems to me to be of interest, and that is the fact that Begnault 
discovered that the temperature co-efficient of the specific heats of 
gases depends oi . Tims simple gases, and 

compound gases formed from their elements without condensation 
have no temporal . as far as the specific heats 

go. That is the spi • itic heats are independ. at of the temperature. 
But with gases _ formed like steam with a condensation of 
one-third the original volume, Begnault found temperature 
co-efficients— not large— compared with the co-efficients found by 
Berthelot and Orgier, for nitrogen tetroxide and acetic acid 
vapour. The co-efficients are, of course, functions of the 
temperature where dissociation goes on, and will rise to a 
maximum and then diminish when measured over a temperature 
range embracing one definite chemical change. Begnault did 
not attain very high temperatures — not high "enough to observe 
this dependence supposing it to exist in the gases he examined. 
The meaning is however clear. If we assume the variation of 
specific heat as observed by Berthelot and Orgier to be the 

Mr. H. C. IU-ssku. in pivj.^in- a \ote of thank* to Professor 
Threlfall, said : That the Professor Lad taken up a subject which 
is of the utmost importance to .-ill scientific men, quite as much to 

ledge is a contribution to our general knowledge, and at the same 
time helped directly in several difficult investigations tending to 
the increase of our knowledge of the sun. He thought it possible 
to take a view other than that favoured by Professor Threlt'all as to 
the rate of expansion of the gases referred to. We know very 
little of the condition of the gases we find in nature. It had 
occurred to him as feasible that gases are subject to such variations 
of their component parts as are known in regard to matter ; as 
sulphur which possesses different conditions according to the state 
in which it is at the time-being. 

Professor Threlfall, in reply, stated that he considered that the 
more correct way to proceed would be first to obtain reliable 
information as to gases, and afterwards apply the knowledge thus 
gained to solids and not vice versa. 

"Diaoram to accompany Notes on The Theory of Dissociation of Gases 
By Professor ThreKall 
Read before Royal Society of N.S.W.DecT 1886 

Results of the Observations of Comets Fabn 
Barnard, and Brooks (No. i), 1886, at Windsor 
New South Wales. 

By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., &c 

results of my . 

.,!,, A(1 Ml'.-iltioili'd. ' Mv 

Ctrubb equatorial rofiaetoi 

■of S ineh, ^ ,p mue. nut l.einc; a- l-,i I 

for tlif work <>r observatio 

11 at the time of the appearand of 

comets, I was 

ave recourse to the Cooke d^ineh e.,ua- 

unable to follow them for 

any great length of time. 

This comet was discovei 

vd hy M. Fal>ry. a stud : 

Observatory, on the 1st 

Melbourne Ol>ser\atory, n 

on December 8th, but the comet was 

u r,n .i-ably r l ed i „!, 

serration in the southern hemisphere. 

eel from many stations north of the 

ent number of observations had been 

for the calculatio 

in of the orbit, it became evident that 

rject of Deceml 

)er 1st would, towards the close of April, 

have an apparent brillian 

cy several hundred times create;-, and 

would therefore become a 

It was; announced in the < r.s that the comet 

would be well seen in the 

May. So little, however, 


was tiist .,Wr\e,l ur Win 

tlsoronMav 2, and suhsequeutlv on Mav 

3,4,6,7,8,10, 11,12,13, 

It, 20, 21,* 22, 2d, I'd, do, 31. and Juno 

1,5,7. On the first five c 

itimi and .lis! 

ance filar micrometer properly oriented. 

In this way transits of 1 

;he comet and comparison stars were. 

observed across a single position thread of the micrometer, while 
differences of declination were obtained by means of the distance 
threads in the usual way. The comet subsequently becoming 
fainter, and there being no means of illuminating the threads in a 
dark field, I was obliged to have recourse to a square bar-micro- 
meter. This micrometer is the work of Messrs. Cooke and Sons, 
of York, the makers of the telescope itself. It is similar m its 
construction to that designed by Mr. Graham, and employed by 
him in forming the i-\t -n iv ■ Markive Catalogue of Ecliptic 
Stars. The only addition to his design is that of two threads 
stretched across the opposite angles of the square. These were so 
placed by the makers at my suggestion. One of these threads, 
invariably adopt rves as a ready 

means for orient: ment is effected 

by so placing the micrometer in the tube of the telescope that 
while the telescope remains fixed, a <tar not loo far from the 
equator shall 1 1 •: . thread during its whole 

path through the field or - it is made at a 

great altitude, bo may not be sensibly affected 

by refraction, and I at the time of the comet 

observations. It was found, however, that, owing to errors in the 
fcrm of the squ. I s of objects were 

sensibly affected. A careful series of observations were therefore 
made expressly to determine the corrections due to inaccuracy of 
form, and a table was constructed givm- these corrections, the 
arguments being the distances of the object north or south of the 
declination thread. These corrections have been allowed for in 
all the different; but no sensible error arises 

in the results fi ition. I may add, from my 

own experience, that when a square bar-micrometer is treated in 
the way I have described, its results are superior to those derived 
from t lie ordinary ring. The differential measures of the comet 
are corrected where necessary for proper motion, and also for 
refraction, when it is likely to be sensible. The resulting places 
of the comet, uncorrected for parallax, are exhibited in one of the 
accompanying tables. 

Comet Barxard. 
Two days after the discovery of Fabry's comet Mr. Barnard, of 
Nashville, U.S., detected another faint comet near the Equator. 
After a few positions were obtained, it was found that this comet 
would also approach the earth so as to become visible, without a 
telescope, towards the close of May. The telegram which an- 
nounced Fabry's comet to the Australian Observatories also 
brought news of this second discovery. Ample time was, there- 
fore, afforded for the \ re-,ar ion- ,' r oh , r ation. On May 30th 
the comet came sufficiently south to be picked up in the bright 

IVMk- m:1ioo1. \[vr merits as a .pick ami a 


llting Pla 

es of Fabry's Comet, 1886 


Comet-Sta, | 

°S ' : ■.':■■ ';:'r SESE 

'l; 1 ,'; ;;::'::" il 





Resulting Plat 

1 • -met, 1S86. 



]•■'». -Comet still vi-i'Mr in moonlight to the unassisted eye. 
The nucleus was not so small, but was pretty well observed. 
During the 10th comparison, lOh. 49m. sidereal time, the 
nucleus, which hail been directly approaching a star of the 

9th mag., b . and was 

In this comparison the star was 
:!,(• comet. During the superposition the star 
appeared soincw hat fainter. Dv oe, , 


11th magnitude. The approxi- 
r of the 9th mag. was It. A. = 
7h. 16m: 35s., N.P.D. = 122° 5' 23". 

14. — Comet just visible v. ithout a telescope. 

.'< '.— Pretty distinct condensation. The moon rose towards lie- 
close of the comparisons, and the « < in. t was therefore f; int. 

21.— The eon. I. | of fair observation. 

Tl. — Subsniu ., tlte eoniet was super- 

posed on a star of the 10th magnitude. During the upei 

tar which had been noticed to he white became 

23. — Centra] condensation ill-defined. 

liO. — Sky hazy and comet faint. 

faint and difficult of observation. 
Remarks Barnard's Comet. 

May 31 and June 3.— Comet plainly visible to the unassisted eye. 
June 10. — During the7th eoinparhun the comet approached so close 
to a star of the 10th mag. as to he almost coincident with 
it. The star appeared somewdiat fainter during the appulse. 
11. — Slight condensation. 

13. — During the 7th comparison with star No. 8 the comet 
was almost hi, ml- 1 u ith st v No «), ml vas therefore 
excessively faint and difficult to observe. During the 3rd 
comparison with stars No. 9 and 10 the comet again 
approached so close to a star of the 8th mag. as to become 
almost invisible. In the 4th comparison the comet and 
this star were observed as one object. The comet was 
excess; v mparison. 

27 and 29. — Comet excessively faint, and observations very 
July 1. — Comet of the last degree of faintness, and observations 
very unsatisfactory. 
Remarks on the Observations of Brooks' Comet (No. 1). 
July 3 and 4. — Comet 1' ght condensation. 

11, 12, and 21. — Comet hardly distinguishable. 

Stars compared with 

Mr. Russell said he had great pleasure in proposing a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Tebbutt for i utions of these 

recent comets. All of them had been frequently observed at the 
Sydney Observatory, and a more extended series of observations 
had been made with a large equatorial, which had enabled him to 
carry on the observations for several days after those of Mr. Teb- 
butt. It was necessary, he thought, that all the observations of 
astronomers on such matter gether and com- 

pared, and accordingly his notes had been forwarded to England 
for publication some time since. 

Notes on some Rocks and Minerals from New 
Guinea, &c. 

By A. Liversidge, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistrv in the 

for a more favourable time. I ,-ilsn expected to reo 
of the fossils which accompanied tlie rocks from Prof. P. Martin 
Duncan, to whom they were sent for description, but up to the 
present no information upon this point has been forthcoming ; 

Quartz. — In the form of whir, rolled pebbl, with a few imper- 
fect crystals in parts, apparently derived from a vein. 

These were tested for gold by the dry way, but none was 
found to be present. 

Some of the quartz pebbles were very brittle, and had evidently 
been subjected to the action of tire, probably they had been used 
for lining cooking pits. 

Quartzite. — Grey, almost white, tender, glistening, and under 
the microscope most of the grains present one or more crystal 
faces, and many are fairly complete hexagonal pyramids. So 
friable that it can be rubbed down between the fingers. These 
pebbles also have probably been used in fireplaces. They were 
found to be free from gold. 

Also, heavy, hard, and compact quartzite pebbles, containing 
minute disserni: n pyrites; the sp. gr. is 

2-599. The qu ry small ; these were found 

dn minute traces of gold, but only by operating upon largi 
i of the pebbles of quartzite were black, others only blacl 

tli.-,,. from 

the Woolwich beds ; othe 

rs. eontai 


■Minding Egyptian jasper. 

of i 

markings somewhat spongiform in 


e. One 


by a tube about 2 inch 

3S long, c 


a moval 

iii d 

In one c 

xse the flint has a sp. gr. < 

another 2-."5 


rmt,\—A pebble contain 

ng rolled 

quartz, pal 

ar, some show 






A not! 

en, in 

form of a 

I herical pebble 


The spe 

v. Small' pebble of are 
loclase felspar 

!'!,<• exterior of the stone 





of the others, was taken 

r 1 >• 


Iron Pyrites. — In dark liver-coloured ma 

structure i 

In n broken open (Marcs 

site); in 



,. very 1 

Was found on assaying to yield minute traces of gold. 
Liniotiite. — In the form of nodules with a concentric strm 
; others have a loose nucleus or kern 

Also as bright red and yellow ochres- -one specimen w;t 
: i tree bark - -probably 
for use as pigments and personal adornment. 

There are also specimens of ferruginous unctuous days o1 
brown, pink, and giw flours, from the banks of the Katai 
Ely Rivers. 

Liiiit'stcniP. — Compact. > fo»ils, weat 

outside ; evidently from the sea shore, since one piece h 

possc'ssrvl, aixl vhid.'si^WV'AlU'rtis 

Yule Isl.a 
The specimens fiom Yule Islar 
ebbles. Some pieces of white, mon 

:.-iil others o 

t a a-n 

y cole 

rar, one of 

which, evidently coral reef debris, enclosed rolled wh 

and other pebbles. 


.et Island. 

With the above are a fe^v 




?y Island. 

These consist of a black ve: 

lime in the cavitie: 

fragment of a buff coloured tufaceous rock. 

able amount of carbonate of 


of recognisable 

fragments, but most of it diss< 

rixed with 

iron oxide. 

On treating a fragment of t 

he rock wit 

!. hyd 


■ic acid, it 

1 resid 

under the microscope, has tli 

i vole 

abunXnt ° f ^^ ^^ ^ 

3wn and co] 


als, being 

Rolled nodules of wlute ve 


.villi a 


e of grey 

coloured chalcedonic quartz ; oi 

ark gi 

■ey felsitic 

rock ; another specimen is a pc 

sbble of a tbi 

rk colo 

u red v 

cry tough 

dL CWrtiL of impure red 1. 


ing in the 

• the tongue, and scales off i 
hen placed in water with a 

Notes on some New South Wales Silver and 
other Minerals. 

[Read before (he Royal Son^ ~o7x.S. J|\. l*t !>,,- ,„>„,■ IS sc.1 

and is associated with -'aimm and sidm-ite. tin- la vers or scales of 
sllv ( IT lM ' ;n - Cached for the most part <o the galena. 

miles west of Sydney, and la nans from t"he* South '^Australian 
border; but the silver bearing country is said to extend some 
distance round, 30 or 40 miles, and from Mundi Mundi mi the 

Silver chloride.— Specimens are placed on the table obtained 
from the surface of mines in the Silverton district, and from 
various depths in r ; „, j 0l „ e massea f ounc i on 


known by tin- mi ,m as •■-. 1 n^ ~. 


'them or diviner in 

them with a pick they present the 

of silver rUm-ide. b.-i '. 

■ : 

wet, a metallic silv 

- ■ I 

ads, but are usual 

Sample from 21 2 feet level, Broken Hill Mine, Barrier R 
Chloride of silver ... ... ... 81-67 

Bromide of silver 10-19 

The vein stuff is sometimes earthy, at others i 
of chlorite, and in other 
translucent quartz; at times it is mi 


At the Broken Hill Mines also, at the UO feet level, the silvei 
chloride was found associated with chrvsoeolla, i.e., hydrous coppei 
silicate. At the 100 feet and 212 feet levels the vein had s 
porphyrytic structure, and the silver chloride was mixed wit! 
earthy grey copp .:..,. ;1 m1 was associate* 1 witl: 

small crystallised red garnets at tin _M_' 1 . i level cuprite and 

other minerals. 

seem to be present throughout most of the udns, so that smelting 

In some cases the vein has proved to he very rich in silver, 
48 tons of the ferruginous part of the vein at Broken Hill Mine 
yielded :57.iioi) ounces of siher, although by the method of 
smelting followed the loss must have been, as was alleged, very 

have been obtained. In some cases the silver chloride is very 
Hen tallisf I tin o ( toll. Ira tn quit* on< eighth of an inch 

In one vein at the Broken Hill the vein stuff is a white earthy 

•; !l! '.;'.- : ! '' 'iwdliMd ' i snn, ,,r rl/l/i'n T ! ul rLYs of the 

Specimens are sh mmf, th, f .llmun" mines, in addition 
to those from the Broken I! Ml ,„. <•(,, , Mut \ , ,„ , 
Mine, War Dance and Gipsv Cirl Mine. Tharkerhma \orth 

May Bell Mine, Sii I>:,\ [>,, „ ||,.„ ; ..„l Chiekens Mine 

where the silver chloride nmn-» wiih a/mite or blue copper 

Selected specimens, of course, assay very high, one piece of the 
er per ton, and a 
yield of 16,000 ounces has been obtained from surface slims. 

Iodatrgyrite.— Silvei i<x Qoe f S\h has 

been already mentioned. 

Cerussite. — Lead carbonate occurs in association with the 
chloride, galena, A"c, in the Silver! o 
'"' d. Th 

!. The cerussite it .. 
i silver, the latter having bee., deposited 

Broken Hill Mum. \^>n 

ine on the Upper Mnrrav. " 

^Mwife—Eedo local minersforc^ 

>m the Vegetable Creek, New England. 

Xow Kngland, from I imdi 
very good colour, and mucl 

/ ■• ' ■ 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson.: obtained fr,,-,n the Sydney Diamond Mining 
Company, near Inverell. A collection of minerals accompanying 
the diamonds in the Bengonou iv I>iai 1 Mine, is also exhibited. 
Although thes as occur at Bingera there 

are well mark ittbrences. 

On the Composition of some Pumice and Lava 
from the Pacific. 

■...-.• - 

b unfrequently pickei 

arse, a foreign one, 
le of the volcanic ce: 
i the Pacific, but which of them does not as yet appear t 

very pie: 

It is always waterworn, and at times more or less coated with 
serptilffi, and lias evidently been long in its travels across the sea. 
It is stated to be more abundant after an easterly gale, and is 
found more often on the north side of the inlets along the coast 
than in other situations ; in size the pieces vary from quite small 
fragments to pieces 9 or 12 inches through. 

Some of the specimens are black and others are white, or rather 
of a dirty white or grey colour. 

hat the chemical composition might throw some light 
on their source, analyses were made of a specimen of each variety 
with the following results :— 
. — Bondi beach. 

Chemical composition : 

Moisture -147 

Silica 63-630 

Alumina 17 - 994 


. 2-307 at 15°C. in p 

lice. — Bondi beach, much %v 


between their composition and that of the drift pumice, but on com- 
paring fche al > • f the Krakatoa pumice of the 
1883 eruption, a ce seen, although 
there are points in which they differ in composition ; the most 

striking being the absence of any magnesia in the Bondi speci- 
mens. Although the Bondi specimens were collected some years 
before the Krakatoa eruption of 1883, they may possibly have'becn 
drifted across from previous eruptions in that district. 

It would be very interesting to trace the limits of the distribu- 
tion of drift pumice along the Australian coast, and I trust that 
some one will undertake this duty. 

Lava. — Chocolate coloured, from the island of Tanna, very 
vesicular and almost a pumice in structure (See Rocks from New 
Britain and Xew Ireland, A. Liversidge, F.R.S., Journ., Roy. 
Society, X.SAV., 1n-i>); and in speeiiic -ravitv it is just over 10, 
since it slowly sinks in water, but the powder has about the usual 

It also contains small white glassy crystals of felspar. This 
specimen was collected by the late Commodore Goodenough. 

Chemical composition : 


Sp. gr. 2-720 at 21 2T. in powdei 

fauna. This is a 
astro on the freshly 

i' brown, and in the 


there is a considerable difi 
V ° UvaS " Comparativ 

Moisture at KXTC 

Alumina '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. 

ft'erence in the compel 

ScT b : 

'.'.'. 63-30 

o5-o i- 



:::! ™ 

< 2-S2 

Manganese ... 


... 4-00 



.'.".' 5-14 

] -20 


Potash" .'.'.' 

... 1-43 



Soc. 1S84, p. 97 


Mr. G. A. Lloye 

., M.L.A, said it 

importance that sue 

prominently before 

the public. Wh 

California in 1850, 

so it continued for 

several years : but 

gold decreased, and 

silver took its p] 

Nevada recently, he 

the principal rnine-n 

.anag^and ««,i 

pal mine-managers, and wont" through everv portion 
two or thr 

and lead had been brought to market. He fauud the quartz to 
be very much like that found here. Many men in some of the 
American mining districts who hid be n propi it tors of shares in 
silver-mining companies had made fabulous fortunes— became 
silver kings in fact. We were passing through a similar mining 
history to that of America: we beginning to discover the 
silver, and although, up to tlm present we have been inerelv scratch- 
ing the surface, we are getting in this way fair quantities for our 
labour. There is no doubt that the information we are getting 
from Broken Hill an I Sunn} Corner pn s tli it th< re is a great 
future for the . in the colonies. The out- 

puts from the two places mentioned may increase to an enormous 
extent, and any information otitic men cannot 

fail to be extremely welcome. All the members present would 
agree with him that, if by i i , , • knowledge we 

could augment our commercial prosperity, w,- ,!.ou!d achieve some- 
thing quite in accord with the objects of the Society. He then 
suggested that the meetings should be of a more popular character, 
and that lectures similar to those delivered before the societies 
elsewhere would be well received. 

Notes upon Floods in Lake George. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.B.S., etc. 

[/?. t l h-for. '.! U ■!■>' Si. •'■ ' .. A". S*. J)"., / !> , oiler, tSSG.] 

The history of floods in our rivers and lakes, if it could be 

accurately written, would form one of the most important chapters 
in the history of our climate, and probably throw much light upon 
the laws which control the changes in seasons that have such 
prominent effects upon a country like this, almost wholly devoted 
to pastoral pursuits. It is. however, impossible now to find the 
materials for such a history, and the few facts which have 
rewarded me for some considerable time devoted to the enquiry, 
seem under these circumstances of sufficient importance to place 

possible draw from the r. cessi s of nieniori . still iv tive, important 
testimony upon the question under discussion. So far as I have 
been able to gat In i tin oj inii ns i t thos \ ho know most about 
Lake George, they do not seem to have shaped themselves into 
anything like a theory, lits of time, and 

extent to the floo Is \. i i. .1 h iv. from time to time covered up tens 
of thousands of acres of the richest pasture land for years, and 
I have not therefore to detai a ty theory which 

has already been given to the world. And before giving my own 
view upon the subject, I should like to call your attention to the 
fact that the flood, in a lake which has no outlet produce very 
different effects from those we see in rivers. In the latter case 
the water speedily returns to its level and leaves a record for the 
season in which it took place. But in the lake a similar flood 
produces an accumulation of water which takes many years to 
evaporate, and to a certain extent masks the effects of subsequent 
rains, such at least is the case in Lake George, which has no 
t collecting thesi 
future reference, and 
secondly, to see if they would throw any light upon the nineteen 
years period which is so well marked in the floods in the river 
Darling ; but in the lake the accumulation of water seems to 
soften out the eu annot be seen so 

well, and in some cases not at all, and then the history of the 
rising and falling of the lake is too incomplete. 

Only a small ridg ■ di\ id. s the catchment of the lake from that 
of the Hawkesbury River, and we know from rain observations 

made at Goulburn on the Hawkesbury side of the lake, and at 
Gungahleen on the other side, that the average rainfall on the two 
catchments there is about the same. So that very heavy floods in 
the river coincide in time with very heavy floods in the lake. I 
mention this because from it we may reasonably infer the state 
of Lake George i I ! awkesbury during the years 

1816, 1817, and 1818. In the autumn of 1816 there were three 
great floods in the Hawkesbury, while the three preceding years 
had been very <li ; I ifi no doubt that in 1816 the 

lake suddenly rose, as sin \ u in the diagram, for when found in 
1818 it was "full of water." 

I have been working now for many years trying to elucidate 
the sort of myst mg about Lake George, and 

with a view of getting reliable dita as to the rise and fall of the 
lake and other matters, on February 18th, 1885, I erected the lake 
register described duress to the Royal Society, 

May, 1885, and took the til as datum line, 

there being at the time no other available ; the recording pencil was 
made to mark at the zero, so that the water level on February, 1885, 
is the zero of the lake register. Ik.t it was known that careful 
levels had been token of the base line at the other side of the lake, 
and that Mr. Chisholm, Mr. Kenny, a;;d oi Iters liad frequently noted 
the condition of the lake and men-uind tie- depth of the water; 
and it was obviously very desirable to conned all these measures, 
and also the still older ones on the original surveys of the land 
round the lake. These go back to 1828 and are invaluable as 
reliable data amongst much that is unreliable. I began by 
measuring m twelve places, some distance apart, the difference in 
level between the 1874 flood line and the then height of the 
water. Some of the flood marks were black rings on dead trees, 
and others the well defined g igh-water. None 

of these marks were as definite as one could wish; but the 
variation in the different measures was only 1\ inches, and the 
mean of all gave 11 ft. 11 in., which was near enough for my 
purpose. As I collected the records it became evident that to tie 
them all together it would be necessary to do four things. First, to 
take a line of levels from the top of the terminal stone of the base 
line to the water, which would connect the base line datum with 
the lake register datum. Next to take sounding of the lake over 
the same ground that Mr. Chisholm had gone before, and to find 
the deepest place. This would connect Mr. Chisholm's soundings 
with the lake register datum, and collect all notes in which the 
depth of the lake was given ; and thirdly, to find the fall per mile 
at each end of the lake, so that the' surveys and references 
to the size of the lake might be converted into statements 
of the height or rather depth of the water, and thus connect 
them with ail the others ; and lastly, to find the present length of 

"I mayra 




vatoi- to 1 


■r mark 


id 100 c 

The details 

of these levels wi 

nap and 

on the 

section of th 

It Will 1)0 

in the section 

e la 

inded fo 

r 1 mile 

at each end, 

for a short < 

the mid 

die. and 

it has 


1 th 

i> f.-di] 

In taking 


levels Mr. ( 

Uovei- : 


the top 

of the 

Depth of water in deepest r, 
Difference from top of st 

Base Line terminal mark a! 


Bottom of lake to top of south ti'rmin:tl <.f 
1S74 Flood Level below South Ter 

Lake register datum above January, ] 
Lake register datum below base term 

agreement, and make it evident that the connecting links of the 
duleient nifaMin > ,t • mi tin n a in t< for the present 

nd had not then lost the 

<-ptll :!- in .1 



--, ■ : 

823 the Like was as high as it i 
t good authority that the trees es 

killed, 'and had not lo 't\)Z ir 1 . uk, 
at looked as if they had been dead 

that had been 

SdLation^of I tone, except here 

and there, perhap- i.i.<- i;i ,i mlh ; ■ ;in' _,n t on the edge of the 

evidently from the nation of the llood waters on its roots. These 
trees seemed to have lingered on for the ten years, dying by 

could be divided i 

hto l\\ 

recently than tin 


lasting qualities < 

if th- 

not of a durable 


4 ft. long, that h 




• top of- 

s could pull 

examined it and 

i that 

sharpened to a pc 

.int ,'o: 

had been made w 

ith a : 

ihiirp i 

corners as if ma 

perfectly sound a 

away by the actic 

place and presen 

when killed by th 

awn from these that 

■0.— When seen by the Governor in October, 1820, Lake 

George was a splendid sheet of water. 
1— Mr. J. II Styles saw th,- 1 fi in < .voi as Kill, it was 


4.— Mr. H. B 

bark, while there were othf 

looked as if they had beei 

probably about same as 

certainly went as high up 

actuallv killed a few more 

likely that the water was a 
5.— There was no rise this 


none in Lake George. 


7.— Mr. Kenny savs the la 

3 feet ; IS ft" G in. deep. 


is its actual length by rail 

Mr. Dixson's survey shows that when Sir Thomas Mitcheh 
said the lake was 17 miles long, he w is onlj guessing at it, 
and the rece " the extreme length in 1874 

flood was 16 miles. 

1832.— Hoddle's surveyed margin of the lake in August, 183| 
seems to be exactly the same as that of January, 1887 
water was therefore 9 t'r. de< ; . in d< ■; ( 3t ] art of the lake. 

1834.— Mr. John King says, "in 1834 there was a road along the 
western side of Lake George from Bungendore to Collector,' 
at present time, January, 1887, this old road is just uncovered 
and wheel tracks that must have been made before 1870, 
when the lake rose and covered them, look quite sharply cut, 
as if made a few davs since, the lake is now 9 ft. deep, anc 
must have been 8 or 9 feet deep in 1834. 

1835.— Hoddle again surveyed the margin of the lake in 1835. 
makes it at the south end <> chains within the 1832 line ; but 
6 chains by Mr. Glovers levelling is shown to be equal to s 
fall of 1 foot, so that Lake George in 1835 was 1 foot lowei 

1835.— Mr. F. Cooper (Climate). This year the water was nearly 

1837— Mr. Powel (Climate) says the lab 

183S an I ls:39._Mr. A. Chisholm there 

(Climate) the lake was dry enough 
across the middle of it. But in Oct* 
considerable floods, which tilled Ta 
have put water into the lake. (See 
two swamps.) Mr. John King (183 
surface of the lake bed was drv and i 

1840.— Goulbum Herald.— The depth o 
not exceed 3 or 4 feet, this rise w; 
flood in October, 1839. 

1842.— Goulbum Herald.- The lake was 
lagoons. Mr. Kenny says the water 

1*43.— Mr. Massev(Climatc)s.avs the lake 

1845.— Mr. H. Hull (Climate). This 

18 10 and 1S47.— Mr. Kenny says Lake Geor 
pletely in these years, and remained drv in. 
Cooper also says (Climate) Lake (ieor,^ \va 

1850. -Mr. Kenny 'says there was a little shn 

water-line then was 600 fe 
west side the lake falls aho 
600 feet out, which would i 

was a fall of 12 feet ; 40 feet into th.- w : 
in the next llOi tan. -th.! Jt t tnd „ 

1863.— The n ~^ 21 





sounded in the same place 

and found 

14 feel 

: of « 

ater j and 

in the deepest part of the ] 

lake must have been 7 feet 

deq, in. J.-. 

Mr. Kenny says in April, ] 

>7(i the h 

7 fee 

In September, 1870, levels 

were take. 

i at th- 


show that the lake was the] 


571.— In August, 1871, the levels taken 

at the 1 

that the water was 19 feet 


574. — The highest point in the 

flood in L; 

:,- reached 

about 1st November, IS 74. 

Mr. Chh 

ihoim s "" 

that from 

January, 1870, to 1st Nove 

k- re 

- 17 feet 

6 inches, and that in Jann 

arv. is 70 

the v.-s 

.tor ii 

i Cooper's 

. deep at 

measures make the depth o 

f the lake 

. feet 

a difference which is nor ac< 

counted foi 

•, unless 

1 the ] 

ao.hod Of 

— February, lSS"*, lake register star 
oundtobe 11 ft. 11 in. below 1874 flood, I 
eet deep, at deepest place. 

i indebted i 
,-ery great 

available particular about 

men have known it, and probably not for 1 
Although at some distant period it must hav 
ban 20 miles long, with a depth at least 6 
t record. The proof of this is to be found 
. up by it, the extent of flat land at both I 
akable relics of great floods. 

md dates has been made from all the availab 

mile in the middle. The lake bed is, however, so even in its 
inclination that the section may be taken as correct, 

Mr. Licensed-Surveyor T. Kussell says, "In August, 1871, I • 
went with Mr. Surveyor [Setts frequently about Lake George in a 
boat marking thei ides, and we took soundings 

all about the lake with a ipest part of it ; 

the central parts varied in depth from 16 to 19 feet; 19 feet was 
the deepest place we could ; nearly all over. 

I was surprised at this, for I had the impression that it was much 

This work shows the necessity for complete soundings of the 

ble limits of the lake 
which for the same reason must wait completion. 

The letters, etc., which follow contain many valuable statements, 
and throw light on several points. One of the early difficulties in 
collecting data was that the statements were often quite contra- 
dictory, one saying tin- lake was dry at a certain time while the 
other affirmed that the water was .".5 or i feet deep. Mr. Kenny 
shows us that both may be true, i.e., that there might be a dry 
road over the lake whilst there were swamps on either side of it 

Mr. Kenny, 18th August, says : Lake might be dry across from 
a point 1 mile K.W. of Kenny's Point to Geary's Gap, while 
there would still be a considerable sheet of water towards Collector 
about 4 feet deep and another towards Bungendore of the same 
depth, neither of which might be seen owing to Fat Hen and 
other plants growing on the <hy part. This may account for 
making it appear thai the lake bed could 
d, whilst others asserted that it was not dry. 
explains the muddy waterhole so often 

weeks it had fallen 22 im-hes. Probably this was a very dry "time, 

usual rate of fall. Mr. Kaiser also savs thai in March, LS84-, he 
tried with a level and round that the lake had fallen 11 feet 8 

Mr. J. Matthews, under date Lake George Base Line, 22nd April, 
1870, the men have been three weeks removing logs from under and 
on top of bridge. The creek rose 2 feet higher than in previous rains. 

Again, 28th April : We have had the highest flood known for 
twenty years. It rose 2 feet into Mr. Osborne's house (old 
Currandooley), washed away the base line, hrhl-e, and put 2 feet 
of water on to the lower part of the base line. 

Again, 14th May, 1870, the lake is now fj feet above its ordinary 

Probably water in Butmaroo Creek in diagram was considered 
at ordinary level, for it is 6 feet below the bridge. He also 
says the North end of the line is under water. Now by the 
diagram that would make the water f> inches over the bridge at 
Butmaroo Creek. As Mr. Matthew, statements would not depend 
upon levelling, but only what he saw when going about, there seems 
little doubt that the water shown in Butmaroo Creek was the 
level of the lake when the line was hud out ; up to August, 1870, 
therefore, the lake had risen 10 feet. 

>ort of the Commissioner of Enquiry) John 

The water itself . 

ike' is'^omuhT on 
levated from 800 i 

. . the Western side rf ti, 

• Mountains is Mi-on-ly niiirk.-tl l.y the rapidity ami fulln.-> 

, J. B. Th 

I f yey, 31st May. 1861 

J. F. M 

•J'.tth March, 



, block 


Mr. Arnlieim's survey, 2nd March. l^G3, shows edge of ] 
water, then about 300 to 400 feet from Ondyong Point, 
curving thence northwards 40 chains i mile at its extreme n< 

N.S.W. Gazetteer.— -Editor's address is dated March, If 
Article on Lake George was probably written in I860, an 
refers to the rains of last year filling up ih- k 
was the wet year 1864 ; he says it is now (1865) higher i 
over, and 17 feet deep in places. 

Hoddle's survey, 10th July, 1835.— Water 10 chains f 
huh \. .t-r 1 1.1.: .'l .1 hijiwawr mark is abo\e the dead ti 
1 mile north of Butmaroo Creek. 

The Honorable P. G. King says, 


"Sir Terence Aubrey Murray, at one time when the Murrumbidgee 
was a chain of wa't.-rh..!.-. drain -d one of the holes at Yarrow- 
lumla, near Yass, c ught th< ti h and 1 ri. d tin 1 1 (Mi 1 i) cod) 
in a water cart to his creek at Wind"ri'adeen. where the\ multi- 
plied rapidly and became too fat to eat, i believe they na\e 
remained ever since in the ]„k<\ and F think Me- iish were put in 
before 1848. Mr. 8. M. Muwle thinks the lish were put in 
between 1845 and 1816. I am unable to six the date, hut the fish 
are still there, but are now very diriieult to catch. Still one or 
more fishermen make a iiving hy cab-hing them. 

cannot have been quite dry since as i! is stated to have been. 
Mr. A. Chisholm, of Winderradeen, under date 2ml January, 

1878, says : "The following few facts about Lab- G.-orge may he 

of 1874 (say about 1st November, 1874). 

2. At the-, I \pril) it had fallen 

2 feet 9 inches belov. the highest in rk. _ It gained 
9 inches during the winter and spring of 1876. 

3. At the end of the summer of 1877 it had fallen 3 feet 

11 inches below the 187-1 level. During the winter ot 
1877 (say up to 1st November) >t gai 
beginning tins pn-.-.-ni .■niniiai- at 3 feet 5 inches be 
highest mark. 
4 T),^, tins mmmP r so far it has fal',,,, 1 ! inches, making 

3 feet G inches below 1874 i, 
1870, to end of the winter 
risen 17 feet 6 inches. 
On the same date (30th Jun 
Cooper's Bay and along Co 

previous to 1870 the depth 

Mr. Ke-inv's ;«,' -s than deepest. 

is for comparison). In 1826-7 the Length, and breadth 

e * it had receded to the extent of about 1 foot in 
d continued to recede or dry up until it became nearly 
until there was onlv one-fifth of the present area 
■vith water, at which stage it arrived in 1837. With 

•tuations it continued in this state until 1840-41, when it 
holly drv. 1842 or 1843, I am not sure which, them 
ient'rain to cover it with water to about one-fourth of its 

.-iiikin completely 1S4iU7. and remained dry until 1850, 
ut one sixth of the present area was covered with water, 
very trifling. There was little increase in this until 
ing the winter and ' the lake became 

ally Beven-eighths ; r the depth did 

i.l an averag'fof 9 feet ( 1 1 feet in deepest) ; since then it 

has not been dry, ■. two-thirds dry 

1858-59 and 1860. 1861 to 1866 slightly increasing until it 
attained about half its present area. 1866-67-68 drying until it 
was not more tl i 2 fi I in i rag ! . t t < i< < t deepest), and 

the area about 15 miles by 6. mm that time, viz., April, 1870, 
it continued to inci is i , < W— in is foi Lake George — until 
August, 1874, w] b 6 inches higher than its 

t had e vapor. 

may be relied upon, as far as 
tl t 
Mr. J. F. Kenny, of Kenny's 


seasons there is nothing to 
would be difficult to find c 
than is shown by the lake an 

Mi" John Kin:.', Maii-burn. 
says: "With reference to 1 

betwo.-n tlm war- 183-1 and 
the remarks I find in your 

the bed of the lake.' As to the a 
at its singular level surface and a 
pond ; there were of course holes 
the end of Bungendore Creek. A 
the lake proper had no holes. 
"Sir Thomas Mitchell speaks o 

towards the south, all the rest was bare, and in sum: 
of Fat-hen extending all over the dry parts. There wa 
strip of grass I kbout half-a-mile 

"Mr. C. Then be lake was partly full in 

1840, the depth not exceeding 3 or 4 feet ' must also be a mistake 
in the sense that all the 1 there may have 

last part of the lake to be dried up. Either it was the lowest 
ground or the subsoil was more retentive. 

"I first visited Lake George with my fatht-r. late Admiral P. P. 

about 4 miles wide, the depth we could not aseertain. The south 
western side was dry enough to admit 

Collector to Geary's Gap, also to Bungendore. Both north and 
south ends were \aad for cattle. 

The water gradually : : .-.-pd.-d from 1834 to 1838-39 when the 
whole surface of the lake bed was dry and firm ; no^ sign of 

s standing on 

■ projecting points, favouring the idea that 

eno'io/h, lo.w eno •nh. t • allow the tree- to «i 

on the banks, but the entire absence of tree, stump, or root, in the 
bed of the lake < it was never dry long enough 

to admit the growth of timber. As it required several dry .seasons 
to exhaust Luke (leorge, 1 cannot suppose that the subsoil was at 
all porous, indeed it was a long time drying 

it up, and apparently by evaporation. I do not think the state 
of Lake George will determine the rainfall of surrounding country 
as compared with years passed by. In former times both timber 
and grass helped to retain the rain as it fell on the ground, and 
there might be a good average of rainfall during the year without 
its swelling the creeks or reaching the lake, but in years when the 
rain fell heavily and had no time to soak in the lake might be 
considerable smaller without more than an average rainfall. 

" There is also another change constantly at work which may 
alter the condition of such places as Lake George, as cattle tracks 
are formed in nearly every gaily. These become small drains and 
at last work dee rings which start running. 

I am told Bunge red and now runs a strong 

stream, at times, towards the lake. Between 1834 and 1841 I 
never knew e\en a Hood pi— I'-un-endo ,■ i , n-hip at lea-t 3 
miles from the lake. 

"In the Bega country, near Twofold Lay, deep rivers became 
sanded up by the washing from the hills and gullies of the soil, 
the cattle tracks having first become small drains, the absence of 
grass also baring the ground. I have not visited Lake George for 

is much altered, trees dead iun will raise or 

lower water in Lake George remains to be sec,, ]„.tt this ditlerenee 
should be taken into account when the present years are com- 
pared with the past." 

Mr. S. M. Howie, under date 7th May. 1 SS.">, says: "I have 
had much pleasure in reading your account of Lake George, a 
place with which I was familiar during the period between 
1838 and 1852. I first rode along the dry bed of Lake George 
in July, 1838, with Sir Terence Murray, with whom I went on 
a holiday trip from school to the Queanbeyan district. I do 
not think there was any water upon it then, except perhaps, at 
Kenny's or Stonewall Point, on the east side «,f the lake, where it 
trends away to its greatest width 12 miles, and not 5 miles as 
stated. At the northern end of the lake there is a lagoon cut off 
from the lake by a ridge which I now suppose to be of gravel, 
but I never examined it. It is a mistake to think that this 
lagoon always contained water, for I never saw any upon it, and 
frequently crossed it to go up laroo, by a track 

we used to call, 'the marked tree; line.' Sir Terence Murray 

for this purpose from the chain of waterholes which pass the 

nder date 1st June, 1SS-! 

- Mr. Kt-nnv savs of . .verirnr a mj t 

11 portion of tl 

eastern or deepest part. From 184 

diminished, and in 1S.31 I walked 

from Geary's Gap to Kenny's Point, a 

usiderably in 

'urnndooh Point to Kenny's P. nt, u;d stretching out about 
udf wav across toward. Geary's Gup, when driven by the east 
irind. The ' Flooded < Jum,' which crows upon the shores of the 
ake is a very quick growing tree, and does not appear to live after 

1 land .a' mid becomes submerged." 

Mr. W. H. Glover, under date kh May, i^5, says: " I have 
made a careful examination of the dead trees between the water 
and the 1871 level, and cannot detect any difference as to time of 
dying, as at some places the trees nearest the water are most 
decayed, and close by just the reverse occurs, this is noticeable in. 
many places. From the appearance I fancy they were all killed 
at about the same time." 

Scale of Chains 

Com pile <1 in Uif Purveyor teneralfc Office , J8>7. 









Jill! Haiiilllf ? 








TkEWTirili2tT*HM4;ll £ 


-o.l loot IQQO 1AQQ IftQA PQK &QR 

lftT7 1838 IR3Q 1840 184 1 I84P 1843 18**. 845 1846. 1 1847 , . 1 , , Ifi48 ,,,!,, ,1849, , ■ , 1 

?g |Ctg| 15Ji; IQC'O IOw*r . IjQOP -OOP , . — „ 

ii l_ _|__|_L 4^_ _| 1 

L_ -J - 4-hX 

_j_ X ^X ii i_ - - ----- 


! 1 1 X L 

I - 

"-■mmi ihininf ■ "™™"»«raHmiii 

.L .1L.J.- — — r 


an M 1M» M &&miM^^ 













5 g I 5 i g g 1 1 § 1 1|S e a 5 3 ! g 1 5 § I §fg E 3 § i I g § I § g §|g ! a la 1 g 1 a § g sis g a 5 3 1 g g s § Bj§ gjjji|||fJjjB^liiliiB|j 




Diagram fbrAfJZasse tl's paper onlZooajr utXaJt* georye 

TafvofrOUir at SoittHErnt ofLaJce Cevraclaselxn* 
vuuxl as B.M. to C4»ni*ct aievarlous Ju^hts 
of Hi* Water of Lake Csvrye . 

Vertical Section 
Shewing Heialit of Lake Gevrye 

kmfW< mm kM $$tM # Ajjk 



Horizontal so .. Vert/ca l scale I6feet to Iinch ~ 




The Strength and Elasticity of Ironbark Timber 
as applied to Works of Construction. 

{Read before rh- Iloj •' ■• <■! \i <,f X.S. Si'., 1 ' D< c nth,,; 1SSU.] 

It is proposed in the following paper to consider the results of 

some experiments 1 1.- on irnnUik timber, and to compare the 

relative merits of two types of timber viaducts used in New South 

Wales and Victoria with the aid of these results, and of those 
derived from direct experiments on model structures one-eighth 
the full size of the structure they represent. 

These experiments have been made in the Engineering Labora- 
tory of the University of Sydney by means of the testing 
machine. The published data on tli s subject consists of the 
following : — 

1. Experiments on th ransvei- ti ngtli md tiiliies of 
beams of Colonial timber 2 in. -vide by 2 in. deep when tested on 
supports 4 ft. apart, made ai the Sydney Mine, by Col. Ward and 
Mr. Trickett, in 1861. m . 

2. An experiment made by Mr. John V\ lntton, Engineer-m- 
Cliief for Railways, on a beam of ironbark 12 in. by 12 in., when 

, , .. . 

;> _Y U eX1) ,.|.,J ■.:..- 

i,y 12 i it,., Aviien tested on supports 28 ft. G in. apart, by the 

" p some experiments made bv Mr. Thomas Laslett, Timber 
Inspector to the Admiralty, in 1 S 7 - > . and recorded by D. K. Clark 
| .ata for Mechanical Engineers." 
The experiments made at the Sydney Mint, in 1861, furnish 
exact data on 1, :,s of small scantling, and 

when these are compared with the experiments made by Mr. 
John Whitton, and those of the Railway Bridges Inquiry Com- 
mission it is - i the co-efficient 
of strength or modulus of rupture as the case may be, it will be 
safe to use these results in det< running the strength of beams of 
larger scantling. The expei n ts mad. by Mr. Laslett on the 
transverse strength of ironbark beams of small scantling give 
results almost exactly the same as those obtained in the best ot 
the Mint experiments ; but Ins 
,, nstano of ironbark appear to have r~ 
matter will be again referred to. 

when used as beams uf small scantling. Now in the application 
of timber to the construction of the various kinds of temporary 
and permanent structure, it is often necessary to know the direct 
resistances of the materials to direct tensile and compressive 
stresses. Again, in connoting pieces of timber together with 
bolts or wedges, we require to know the pressure that may be 
safely allowed upon the bearing area of the bolts or wedges. And 
in joints such as that between the principal rafter and main tie- 
beam of a roof, the resistance of the material to shearing along 
the grain will be developed as well as the : ' ' 

The data obtained by the various experimenters c 
stn ngth in d stinih - ^ ill b, Hi -t considered. 

Transverse Strength.— It is well known that when a beam is 
subjected to transverse stress it deflects, and the upper fibres are 
compressed and the lower fibres extended. The intensity of stress 
on the extreme upper or lower layer of fibres is greater than that 
on any intermediate layer, and since at some intermediate layer 

vanish at this layer which . neutral layer. 

And the intensity of stress on any layer above or below this 
layer will be proportional to its distance from the neutral layer. 
And the moment of resistance of any layer is the product of" its 
area into its distance from the neutral laver into the resistance of 
Uw layer in question to the stress developed along it, and the sum 
or aU such products is the moment of resistance of the whole 

is, such as tl. 
Where I = breadth of the 

the formula S = ~ h ~ and since in Molesworth's Pocket-1 

s co-efficient is also used for 

mating the ! 

= Mt JR = 4 I 

! modulus of ruptu 

: from the sou 
portions of this lar-e beam 

With regard to the higher ^ 
obtained by the Author for tin 
smaller scantling, it should be mentioned that the smaller 
• M ' ' - ' ' I i -<■ ol v. , seasoning. 

^hile furthei experiments are desirable in order to decide the 
modulus of rupi - Colonial timber, 

the Author advises that u. : ing the modulus 

°t rupture derived the Mint experiments be reduced 25 per 
cent, when applied to timber of large scantling. 
. Y" »«>■"'*> .V/ .■//;,. ,-.,-. . Tie- Miil-i.-ss of abeam or its resistance 
to deflection may be investig 5 manner :— 

i^et r = radius of curvature. 

Then ir ,;m be proved the 

In the 

of a beam supported at each end and loaded i 

«juwe as m uie experiment. Assume the origin at the left hand 
support, then we have M = ^ x, if x is taken to left of centre 
of beam, and M - J (^,), when x is taken to right of centre 

Therefore we obtain by integrating j ? ( | ,) the cmation 
for the slope I == ~E~ f f x d * = -^y ( ,f) x 6' 
When a: = 4 then i = . 

When a: = o, * « o. ■ i! — * 

.". v = „ „ = greatest deflection. 
The modulus of elasticity derived from the earner 

i deflection of 1 "2 i 

In the experiments mail; 1 on transverse elasticity by the 
Raib \ Bride* -1 \ ! l i i 1) delli tionswen t tk< n 

both by mutiplying levers and by reading a graduated staff fixed 
to the centre of beam with an ordinary surveyor's level. In the 
two experiments made by the author with specimens cut from the 
same beam the modulus of elasticity cane' out almost exactly the 
same as with thelar--or expi rinients made l.v the Railwav Bridges 
Inquiry Commission, viz., E = :.\7i:>.Sl:; lb., which may betaken 
as a mean result ->' beams from 

the formula above referred to. 

The .lia-Tain of tie- Kail ' : \ Ih idu-- li.-| dry Commission, tig. 
11, and those obtained by the author, one of which is shown (See 
fig. 3), shows that the deflections are nearly proportional to th 
loads producing them. 

rill now be considered. 

., the author has found 
siderably reduce the section _ along the length 
where the elongations are measured, and to provide ample area in 
the portions held by the clips in the machine, otherwise the 
specimen will bi- ] "t m the reduced portion 

with a stress considerabh i I v the tensile resistance of the 
material. The author has obtained fairly good results from 
ironbark timber when tl < and dimensions 

shown in fig. 1 ; but the best result was obtained by turning the 
specimen in a lathe to the form and dimensions shown in fig. 2 
here the portions held by the clips were concentric with the 
portions tested and the stress d^ch-ped v. .-^ therefore perfectly 
3 obtained from specimens of the form 

shown in fig. 1, was 17,000 lb. per square inch, while the specimen 
shown in fig. 2 • - re inch - In D - K Clark ' s 

" Rules, Tables. Engineers," it is 

stated that the tensile resistance may be calculated from the formula 

Where S = the 1 
It has been sh. 

= 15,000 
the experiment 

/ = 18,994-5 /. S= ~ 

It appears therefore that it the speci 

d be developed the 

square inch. Hence 

The difficulty experienced in making tensile 
tendency of the specimen to fracture at some otl 
that prepared for fracture (due to the stresses d 
non-axial, or an insufficient reduction in prepare 

the joint, rather than in the body of the timber. 

resistance along grain, and the resistance to p 

bearing area of the bolts. 

-May be found by measui 
stress, thus if /; = mod 

along which the elongations are 
produced by an intensity of 

P : E 

v 1 produce with 13,333 lb. per square 

. length of 10 inches, so that 

E = ' * 3,333,9001b. 

elongations and loads producing them 
ten prepared, as in fig. 1. See fig. 4. 

1 "-"■ 

. Lis 

],tt 1 


d the cc 


it w 

; ! 


,r r!i. 


construction bv the use of iron and steel, t 
which iron is 'entirely unsuitable, and wh 

iod, timber is siei 

. that timber wi 

it is liable to the attacks of the teredo. 

In the Wagga Wagga timber viadue 
inspected by the Railway Bridges Inquii 
that, owing to the difficulty of obtaining 

whole structure I rime allowed for its erection, 

other kinds of timber were used for the piers, such as stringybark, 
ash, messmate, apple, box, spotted and white gum of which a large 
proportion had to V was up, instead of during 

the winter months. In con *t *oon appeared 

pipe in some of them, redua setional area. 

There is considerable uncertainty in the time which a timber 
viaduct may be supposed to last in this colony. 

The follow;.; d made in order to compare 

the relative me: ir ■ - used in New 

South Wales and Victoria. In New South Wales for spans of 29 ft. 
G in. and 26 ft. r re used on piers 

formed with rou ■ '-■ 

In Victoria and in Tasmania for spans of 30 ft. a strutted 
timber beam is used on Limber trestle piers, see plate 14. Two 
model compound beams ' one-eighth the 

size of those used in the actual viaduct, we lig. 7. Two model 
strutted beams were also constructed of the same timber, we fig. 

the models is about the same in each, although 
if considerably more ironwork than 

The folio 

nd deflations 




V ;"SI^' 





The compound b< 
a one of the two b 

The followi n g - oads produdH 

them, when the two beams were bolted together without 
transomes (see fig. 9) : — 

















. . 















The equivalent distri 

= the equivalen 

may therefore be taken as ziliL. 
And the breaking central load fo: 

id. The mean central breaki 

pan will be 64 x 2,2S8 = 70 tons nearly, which agrees with 

lie result given in the report of the Railway Hridges Inquiry 

The loads and deflections pro luce J are shown in the following 

* \SSSL 


















2. 590 

1 138* 









2 700 

















2 29 









■ast, three times as strong as 
3 composed. 
t the beam while the above tests 
ispecting the fractured model, it is 
in horizontal shearing resistance, 
can be proved that the distribution of shearing stress on any 
ction of a solid rectangular heam is represented graphically by 
eans of a parabola, whose central ordinate represents the 
itral axis; the 
earing stress vanishes at the extreme fibres. The area of the 
my section per 
tit of breadth, so that if F — the total shearing stress at any 
ction; and x = the central ordinate of parabola; A — depth 
beam, and b = breadth of beam. 

: F = 4- * * • 

.v therefore equals the intensity of shearing stress 
,, th . neutral U xi« «.t tli U „ . If - the case of two 
1„ uns bolted • .itudiual sheai 

will have to be r erwise the two beams will 

not act as a solid beam" of the same depth : there will also be 
considerable bo,, ■ K sedges were driven 

into slots cut half into each beam at the junction (which may be 
considered the neutral layer), the sectional area of the wedges 
beinjv determined with reference to the longitudinal sin aring stress 
! ti, y, t rial of the wedges to shearing 

.stiw tl ,ni!ei . . 1 1 it tla i\ o 1" ms Mould then act 

more nearij ■ same depth. To get the 

maximum Urenath nit < f 1 ,> ' ; i V i-h tramomes between 

beam. The depti "l bj drawiu. 

the parabola of shearing stress as for a solid beam of the same 
depth as the c 'es at the same 

distance from the neutral axis as the notehings. In thi* way the 

200 0-10 

500 017 
700 0-24 
900 0-32 



strut. The 

was only continued up to 
loads and deflections are 

a load of 1,000 lb. on each 
given in following tabic :— 


-ass,. . 

». ! 




o-ii j 

1,500 ii in 

2,000 ! r» 

'he load was then applied at point 
i. on either side of the centre, the be 
:c as before, immediately 

of the two points of ap 
given in the following t 









deflection of th piers moved hori 

the packing pieces at b b had to be removed and repla* 
prepared to prevent the beam sliding horizontally c 
The feet of the piers had also to be prepared to j: 
sliding horizontally. In the actual viaduct there i 
' bending stives on the piers, due to unequal 1 

- will 


Mr. Cowderv, Engi 

for Existing Lines, for their kindness in alh.v ing him to have the 

> lai-e \wi I '.ridges Inquiry 

for testing. 

i, m , una f\ Mii.linn to the Tnh ersity the specin 

Mr. J. A. M 'Donald, A.M.T.C. K.. said:— Hearii 

touching on the question of compound 

ingth of Colonin 

1, ,. f tl is S • ir 1 . intr< lured > 

: ^raphiral method of ■ 

The beam shown on plate 15 

is 29 ft. centres of bearings, 

and is composed of three logs, ea 

h 12 in. x 12 in. bolted and 

keved together as sho wn. The m 

show that if a compound beam 1) 

- correctly designed to take the 

tho compound beam is equal to 

that of a solid beam of the same t 

wide, anJ 29 feet centres, would 1 

load, taking the modulus of 

rupture of ironbark at 12,7G8 lbs. 

The total breaking strength of 

three beams each 12 inches 1 

bolts or keys, would be 57 tons i 

with a distributed load, or onet 

beam. It will be .seen, therefore 

pound beam can vary between one- 

md three depending entirely on 

length of the ordinate at tlmt noiid, as A' 

I) -aui shown. On plate ] 
each key, and the I ' 
neutral axis. The c 

7 remains now to show that the beam is not 
:ing holes for the keys. The curve M Q reprea 
bending moments on the beam, due to an even' 
lof 340 tons; the curve MP represents the 
I for the reduc 
beam at each key; and the line M represents 

cutting the key holes is ample for the stress that comes upon it, 
and that the beam as compounded of three separate beams is 
equal in ^trenirth t > ;i >oiid beam of equal scantling. 

on the paper before the meeting, but he must content himself by 
thanking Professor Warren for his most valuable and interesting 
paper, containing as it does data, which every engineer in this colony 
has felt the need of and been unable to obtain \\ ith accuracy. The 
tests have evidently Keen most carefully made, and the results are 
proportionately valuable. The members will look forward with 
interest to the further paper on this subject which Professor 
Warren has promised them. 

Mr. Ciias. Mooui-: said that the remarks of Professor Warren 
opened out an interesting < - our timbers are 

only valuable in accordance with the way in which they are 
obtained. Timber in this country is cut alfthe year round, which 
is a great mistake. If an oak tree be cut down -when in full sap 
the chances are th it i i twi lve m >:,ths time fungus or dry-rot will 
be found to exist in it. The timbers of the Exhibition of 1862 
were selected by Sir William Macarthur and himself. They took 
care that the wood was collected only at the proper time. Some 
of this timber could now be seen in the Kew Museum. 

longer or shorter 

time, and this is due in a gen itirely to the time 

of year when the tree is felled. Col. Ward in his experiments on 
ironbark stated that he had tried five kinds, and had found the 
white ironbark of Illawarra to be the strongest. 

Mr. Trevor Jones, C.E., said that engineering in this colony 
has been suffering from the want of experiments, there being no 
lack of theories. The experiments of Professor Warren were 
useful as affecting the timbers we are using every day. In erecting 
bridges in the colony for some- nine year- he had allowed for a 
stress of 17,000 1b. per square inch ;~ this estimate was too high 
according to Professor Warren, who had reduced it to 13,000. 
He was sure thai the colony would desire the 

paper to appear in a published form in its entirety. 
[Six diagrams.] 




4LHT1 1 H h H i 

|I | 1 | ! | 1 | | j | | | j i I ' j 

I § 1 1 1 i ii iUUiUJun 

Diagram of Breaking Experiment 


Span t86 clear or l>£ centres , loaded in centre 

HcEfcuxjtal Scale- STona to One 1 

i craucked with 16-5* tons , buL did not 


From Drawing supplied by the Engineer for 
Existing Lin es. _ 


Original Tretde.Ho. 89 Bott of PUm. 

i, Piles, Walings, Braces 


Walings, Braces 
soms, Decking, Balla> 

: --|--p 


Iron in One Span. 

.jr.! "§|5||) 

Timber in 


HeadTtocta, Corbels, Girders 


each Bay.. °6 0*' 14 10 


-Diagram of Experiments made at the Government Yard, 
Clyde, for testing the strength of Timber Girders 


Test of Compound Beam, 29 6' long. 
(With 10ft. Corbels.) (Distance between Beams, 6' 

top* ^t 


%? ^wneal iT'T^i 









Test of Compound Beam, 2tT 


V. 4 \hmiiM 1 ~«*' 



ft J 5 2 








Slack Holta. 

sick Bolto. 


Hate 14. 


Plate 15. 

5ca,/e of timber work 

do « moments 

' shear 

curves BN*TN£ 


a 1 



^ x 


-J ~ J H 

) ) 




^ === ~L === ~~ 




; of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

, I'. li itn. i.t .:v Grant on subscriptio 

, freight and charges repaid 

, commission on cheques remitted 





books aud periodicals . . 

engraving ami foi Journal 

:ing, &c 

housX^r, to 31st Mai 

: ch '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. Z 

£surancnnbooks S and'f 

urnitn're Z Z. Z 

medals for awards 

postage and duty stamps 

petty cash expenses 

refreshments and attend; 

repairs and painting 

interest accrued to 31st March, ISSfi 

By fixed deposit in Union Hank 
,, balance due from Oriental Bank 

Sydney, 22nd April, 1886. 


ROBERT HUNT, Honorary Treasurer. 
Audited- W. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 

W. C. W. BARTEL8, 

P. N. Trebeck. 
Sydney, 22nd April, 1886. 

Messrs. W. A. Dixon and S. MacDonnell were elected Scru- 
tineers for the election of officers and members of Council. 

A ballot was then taken and the following gentlemen were duly 
elected officers and members of Council for the current year : — 



M.D., Brux. 

F.'t.s. F.L. 
A, WRIGHT, M.R.L.-.E..0E 

, Brux. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected < 


v menders o£ 

the Society : — 

Bowman, Arthur, Sydney. 

Dunn, Edward Casey, Ashfieltl 

Bigg, Thomas S. J., B.A., Bydi 

The certificates of two new candidates wen 

:■ read for the second 

time, and of seven for the first time. 

The names of the Committeemen of the 


.t Sections of 

the Society were announced, viz. : — ■ 

Microscopical Section.— Chairman : P. B 
F. B. Kyngdon. Committee : Dr, 

. Pedlei 

,-. Secretarv: 

. Morr 

is, H. G. A. 

Wright, M.R.C.S.E., T. Whitelegge, 

and T. 

F. Wiesener. 

Medical Section. — Chairman : Sir Alfred Roberts 

. Secretaries: 

Dr. Ashburton Thompson, Dr. A. 
mittee : Hon. Dr. MackeUar, M.L.C.. 

.M <■<',, 

rmick. Coni- 

, Dr. T 


Dr. Knaggs, Dr. Chaml^is, Prof. Anderson 

Stuart, M.D, 

Dr. F. N. Manning. 

Five hundred and ninety-four dmiuth.i.s - 

»| boot 

s, periodicals, 

A circular was read from tin- ^-m-tai-v <.i t 

son Science Fund, Boston, I'.S. Am. ,';.,,, 

for grants of money in aid of sri.-ntinV work 

The Chairman' announced that the Coun< 

•il int.- 

tided to hold 

Professor LivKiisii, ( .i:, F.R.s,. LWid.-nt, then read his address. 

Dr. Leibius said he took this opportunity of thanking their 
retiring president for the kind manner in which lie had referred 
to his (Dr. Leibius') past services as one of the lion, secretaries 
during the last eleven years. He had always had great pleasure in 
doing whatever he could to forward the interests of the Society, 
and he felt gratified that Prof.-.-oor Livm.-dd-- had consented to 
resume the duties of an honorary -^« ntarv once more. He 
regretted that living asvav from town comoeled him to resign the 

the very a 

Professor Liyersiik.k, in risin.e; ti) acknowledge tlio eomplimrnt 
just tendered him, said iliat as In- had oecuj.ied so much of their 
time already he would not detain them with lie ox - 
pressed his sense of the gratifying terms in which the vote of 
thanks had been jiroposed. and esj.eeially for the impressive way 

which it had been passed l.y the meeting \ 

honorary secretaries he would 

best to promote the interests of the Socie 

C. Rollestox. C.M.i 
The minutes of the last mef 
The following gentlemen w< 

found in Mad 
South Wales i 

3 of the plant being found 
time the continent of 1 
It was no: 


by currents. Other proofs of the unity of the two places might 
be found in the statement that marsupials, red cedar, and 
eucalypts are the same in both, although our wood is better, 
probably because it grows in a southern part, as it was a fact 
that the farfchei *ce©d the deeper the timber 

becomes. Sir Joseph Hooper is of opinion that the cedar used 
for making cigar boxes I n cedar. 

A paper by the Rev. George Pratt on "A comparison of the 
dialects of E. and \V. Polynesi n, Malay, Malagasy, and Austra- 
lian," was communicated by the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, B.A.(Lond) 

Mr. Gill, after speaking of the high respect with which the 
Rev. George Pratt wa, rcgard.d as an authority on matters 
connect ! with th Sanio n u I othn languages said that he 
wished more study were given to Polynesian dialects by those 
who had a taste : ow, while practicable, they 

might gather up the spoken and unwritten languages of these 


was of opinion that 
race, and that .some i 
be obtained, if the mil 

languages of Now South "Wales. It was true that nearly all th 
coast tribes were extinct, except on the Clarence and a few otlic 
places, but away uvsi of the Darling and west of Queenslan 
there were large numbers of natives yet existing who still spoa 
the dialects in all their purity. Aimm-st these natives a nurnlw 

, many of them, intelHe 

' JULY, 1SS6. 

H. 0. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last me ; confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
»f the Society :— 

Brown, David, Kallara, Darling River. 
Grut, Percival de Jersey, Sydney. 
Heydon, L. F., M.L.A., Sydney. 
Mi'rFarla -. Ivh urd, Bourke. 
Morgan, Dr. Edward, Mount Victoria. 
Provis, John, Sydney. 

Smith, Walter Alexander, A.M.I.C.E., Sydney. 
The certificates of four now candidates were read for the second 
ime, and of seven for the first time. 

One hundred and seventy-two donations of hooks, periodicals, 
:c, were laid upon the tabic 

Mr. Kyngdon read a paper h\- Mr. II. I' Maosks •• Notes on 
the process of polishing and figurii 

hand,, and experiments with Flat Surra,-,-.' 

Forty-three diagrams and twenty five .-..loured lithographic 
bourhood of th.-'.rujVi,,,, ,, r ' Ki-uk.-itlo. ' w.'re' exhibited and 

The following gentlemen Avere duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society:— 

Edmunds, Percy James, Sydney. 

Holmes. SpencM- Harrison'. Allandale, Hunter River. 

Quayle, Edwin, Glebe Point 

Threlfall. Richard, B. A. (Cantab.), Profenor of Pliysics, 


on i 

the Society's n 

On the moti 

late Rev. Petfj 


A discussion upon the subjeet of the paper took place, 
the following eenilemen took part-, viz.: — Rev. Rober 
Sir Alfred Roberts, Messrs. J. F. Mann, E. Du F: 
J. Trevor Jones. 



C. Rollestox, C.M.G 

., President, in the Chair. 

he minutes of the last meeti 

ng were read and confirmed. 

'he following gentlemen \\ en 

3 duly elected ordinary men 

he Society :— 

I'.irker, William Mandrill 


Blaek.-t, Arthur, Svdn<-v. 

CoIlini^voo.I. i.)avi.l, M\[), 

(Lond.), E.R.C.S., Eng, Sur 

MacDonald, John Alexand. 


Xewmarch, Bernard .fame: 

i, L.R.C.P. (Lond.), M.R.C.! 

Saavr, Ivlmund F,. Nvdn.-v 

.!.. M.h.O.u, 

*n'a Univ.,,. Sydney, 

A discussion followed in which the following "vii 
part, viz.: —Messrs. If. ( .'. Kuss.dl J K Mann 'l 1 
C. S. Wilkinson, Dr. Thomas Dixon and tie- Chain.. 

Dr. Leibius, M.A, F.C.S., exhibited and des 
beautiful specimens of gold in calcite, from the Ui 
the lime having been disked in acid, the gold \ 
network of th ti test i u. it im 4 filaments. 

The following letter in connection with the above was 

The quartz was token from 
from Barraba and about thn ,. m l,. s , 
creek locally known as '-Tea-tree (Jr. 

■ast'ot tin'' main 

^ek/' in the Peel and Cralla mining 

we'/e taken from a de[>tli of ,-,!,, it to 

for nearly two years. The specimens 

' A l.att'Jiy' is in coiirse of erection, 

I am ' A * c ;( KMSTRO xG. 

.n, C.M.G.. Pr.-Md-nt : H. ( '. Russell, F.R.S., 
; Robert Hunt, F.O.S., Treasurer; A., 
Secretary; F. F». Kvn»don, Hon. Sec-rotary: 
F.L.S., P. R. ro.lloyi .1. Ashburton Thompson, 

ran- pot plants l.y Mr. ( '. Moore, F.1..S. 

. Director of 

Mr. F. Morley presided at tin- or-an. 

The number of -nests present Mas ben 

The following is a list of the articles e: 

Fairfax, -las. If.-- Collection of coins. 

Salmon, W.— Collection of Australian di 

Flkington ami Co. -Copies of eelebratot, 

ware, shields, plaques, vases, etc. 

Paling, W. H. -Bronzed coloured bus 

Einile Cuillemin. Exhibited in th. 

Walker, P. 13. — 1. Japanese pictures. 

2. .Tapani ■.-..■ 

Phiiip. Dr. Alex.— National Hungarian 

Barff, H. E., Registrar.— Books from U 

Sinclair, Sutherland.— 1 . Old Looks. 2. 

Warrant of King Charles I. 

Minister for Mini s. — < o-ological maps. 

Philip, Dr. Alex. — Oil painting, " Depai 

Contingent," by H. J. C. Mitchell. 

Picturesque Atlas Co. — Series of views 

of Australia 

Amateur Photo, 3 f views near Sydney. 

Selfe, Norman, C.E. — 1. Album of American photographs. 2. Old 

Deffell, G H.— 1. One quarto volume of Cary's new map of 
England and Wales of 179 b 2. A view of London about 
the year 1560. 

Sinclair, Sutherland. — 1. Stereoscope and views of New York, 
River Hudson. 2. Four revolving albums of Scottish 

Russell, H. C, F.R.S.E.— Photos, of the Flood in the River 

Wilkinson, C. S., F.G.S.— Photos, of interior of Jenolan Caves. 
Cox, Hon. G. H, M.L.C. — 1. Ten photographic views of Mount 

Wilson. 2. Eight photographic views of Mulgoa, on the 

Nepean River. 
Jackson, Rev. H. L. — Etchings (unframed). 


Selfe, Norman.— 1. Old prints of London Churches. 2. Copy of 
"EcclesiasticaLondini." 3. Old prints of Hampton Court 
Palace. 4. Old Remter Dish. 5. Leaden bust of Sir Isaac 

Wright, Dr. — Original letter from Lord Nelson, conveying the 
account of the Battle of the Nile. 

Dowling, Judge. — Old map of Sydney. 

Adams, P. P., Surveyor-General. — Shields taken from trees 
originally marked by Surveyors, some in 1830. 

Sinclair, Sutherland.— Figures of animals cut by Esquimaux, in 

Cox, Dr.— 1. Two carved shells from New Caledonia. 2. Collec- 
tion of cloths from the S. Sea Islands, collected on the three 
voyages of Captain Cook. 
Wilkinson, C. S., Government Geologist. — 1. Boomerangs from 
Bourke, N.S. W. 2. < Mi h: isc u 

3. Kava Bowl from Solomon Islands. 4. Warrior's club, 
Santa Cruz. 

Amateur Photographic Socmi v. — Views of New South Wales. 

Cox, S. Herbert— The Diamonds of New South Wales, illustrated 
by lantern views. 

Hewett, T. E.— Experiments, with polarised light. 

Haswell, W. A, M.A,B.Sc. Wax models of the development of 
—1. The serpula (a marine annelid worm). 2. The fresh- 
water crayfish. 3. The chick. 

Hargrave, L. — Flying machines, the motion of lish, serpents, &c, 
based on the principle- of the troehoided plane. 

Ellis, Dr. H. A.— Pure cultivation of micro-organisms, bacteria, 
&c, and apparatus a- described in I>r. Woodhead's book on 
the subject. 

Katz, Dr. O. — Pure cultivation of micro-organisms, bacteria, &c, 
in Sydney water and ensilage. 

Wilkinson, Dr. W. C.— Pure cultivation of micro-organisms, 
bacteria, &c., in solid media, Koch's method. 

Haswell, W. A., M.A., B.Sc. -S.-ries of specimens illustrating the 
marine zoology of Port Jackson. 

Brazier, John, F.L.S. — Ki .v sp.-eimens of recent trigonias. 

Collie, Rev. Robt.. F.L.S. 1. Rare ferns mounted on cards and 
in album. 2. Specimen of tin ore from N. England. 
3. Fossils. 

Whitelegge, T. I . lea collected by. 

Rigg, T. S. J.— Collection i recent volcanic 

Cox, S. Herbert" PCS. -Block of Alunite, I I lu 
manufactured from the itone. 

Makin, G. E.— 1. Silurian and carboniferous fossils. -'. (;pmS 
from Berrima. 

Minister of Mines. — Collection of mine) 

Ratte, Felix.— Crystallized gold from N 
Australian Museum.- 1. Saddle-shaped 

Sandhurst, 2. Tribachyocrinus 

ferous sandstone of Illawarra. 
Livcrsidge, Professor, F.R.S.E.— 1. C 

Tasmania. 2. Gold ore, &c. 

3. Collection of N. S. AY. silver 
Harwell. W. A.. M.A.. li.Se. -1. Ca 

I of pi, 

and manufactured !y exhibitor). J. Theodolite, f, . :;. Level, 

16". 4. Pentairraph (improved). ."». Tin- grinding of optical 

. various stages 

gemhalls in suspension. 
Board of Technical Education.— 1. Tri-unial lantern and slides 

(Mr. Ramsay, operator). L'. Polanscope lantern and slides 

to illustrate the beautiful effects of polarised light (Mr. 

Hewett, operator). 
Amateur Photographic Society. — Lantern slides, views near 

Kingsbury, H. & Co.— Telephones and variou* electrical apparatus. 

Rothe, Dr. R.— 1. Lustrum* -'.at ion of breath, 

weight, height, etc. 2. Improved chairs and desks. 

Madsen, H. F.— 1. A silver on glass reflector, showing magnification 
of objects at the ventre of curvature (mad ■ by the exhibitor). 
2. Flat glasses for measuring minute films of air or silver 
(made by exhibitor). 

Hoff, Dr. Aug.— Hoffs apj - "W larynx. 

Russell, H. C, Government Astronomer.— 1. A new dock, made 
after the model of the Post Office clock. 2. Photos, of 
instruments in the Observatory. 3. A new micrometer for 
comet work. 4. A very old telescope, on universal stand. 
5. Experiments on dilitancy, showing the extraordinary 
behaviour of sand in an india-rubber hag. 

Lichtner, E. F., optician— 1. Photographic apparatus and instru- 
ments used in photography. 2. The miniature detective 
camera. 3. New camera for photographing on continuous 
roll of sensitised paper. 4. Field developing tent lenses, &c. 

M'DonneUand Co., opticians.— A collection of scientific apparatus 
—Electric vacuum tubes, photographs, &c. 

Poate, F— Subtense theodolite bv Tronghton and Sims. 

Selfe. Norman, ( '.E. - Steam olivine indicator forgiving continuou 

Liv. r-idp-. l*i-i .t". — ■ .!-. I' l;>. I' rtable assay balance, improve^ 

by Mr. J. M. Smith, of Sydney. 
"1\ • lm< logi (1 'Shui urn lent an interesting collection of exhibits. 
Etchings of objects of art, 1st series! 

"II Tesora di san Marco in Venezia," 1 vol. 
" The art of the old English potter," 1 vol. 
"Ornaim . ,,f Bungary,"l vol. 

" Ladies' old-fashioned shoes." 1 vol. 
" Portfolios of Art," 26 parts. 
" Journal of Indian Art," 13 Kos. 
" Jeypore enamels," 1 vol. 
The following is a list of Prof. Threlfall's exhibits and demon 

I. An experiment for a rougb 


of the resistance 

of so-called insulating sub; 

The method depends on ai 

i application 

of the induction 


The theory is complicate 

d, but a sts 

ktement will he 

written up near the appai 

The method is still being ex 

I'lerini.-nt.-d oi 

IV A galvanometer, designed i 

o efficient* The 

peculiarities are — 

(«) Sensitiveness is got by an 

(b) The suspended parts are a 

nit the '• moment 

of inertia " may be easi 

(c) Resistance of winding is be 

(d) Co-efficient of self-inductio 


the coils readily 

in the magnetic merid 

co-efficient of the suspe: 

iidincj fibre. 

I. A kathetometer, designed 

by Prof. P( 

>ynting, of Bir- 

mingharn, and manufactured bv 

the "Cambridge 

Scientific Instrument 


The original 

(«) The scale does not suppc 

at any of tl 

ie weight of the 

(ft) The telescope always move 

» parallel to i 

tself because it is 

(c) The object-gla.ssof'tll.'^h-li 



(d) Tbel.ah' 1 is 1I rra!rdi^tlv 


a 'microscope «** 

(/) iCr^ntHfovh,] 

ling are very 

TV. Two reading, 
Lord Rayleigh by 
ment Company." 
adjustment, d-.-i-u 
Darwin, whereby 


Apparatus to 


IX. Two " <■•• 1 by Prof. Tli 

effects ^ in ,n itei (T'l il. pi i ' Mu 


i machine, &c. 
XT. Machine for grinding and polis 

This machine is based on N; 

Dr. H. A . E Ilia ion of pure culture apparatus, 

a- used In iratory. 

The undcrm. duiun] microscopes :— \Y. A. 

Has , V(1 ll, M.A 1- M. •»■ IU .* T. F. Wiesener T. (Jaunt 
& Co.. F. B. Kvnu.h.n. T. Whitelegge, P. R. Pedley, H. O. 
[lit, Thos. S. .1. Rigg, 
, L. Jackson, G. S. 

.sklent., in the Chair, 
ere read and confirmed. 
ily elected ordinary members 
\M., Prince Alfred Hospital, 

Hozier, Charles H. S., F.R.C.S.I, Lie. K. aiv! (,». Coll. Phys. 

(Ireb), Windsor, N.S.W. 
Marshall, George A., M.B., Sydney. 

Martin, Thomas M.. Ul.C.!'. Lii.C.S.. , i- din.), Sydney. 
Scott, Walter, M.A. (Oxon.), Professor of Classics, Sydney 

The certificates of six new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of four for the first time. 

Tin i [airman mnoiinced that th Soeiet s Journal for 1885, 
Vol. XIX, had been delivered to all the members entitled to the 
same. He also stated that one of the members of the Society, 
Mr. Edward Ross Fairfax, had generously promised through 
Professor Liversidge the sum of £200 as' a donation to the 
Building Fund on condition that tin- balanee necessary to clear off 

the end of the year. 

On the motion of the Hon. <!. A. Llovd, M.L.A.. seconded 
by Dr. Leibius, M.A.. the best thanks of rim Society were accorded 
to Mr. Fairfax for his kind and liber;.! ., 

Eighty-nine donations of books and i ;■; ;:<• h were laid upon 

Mr. Dokk 

Professor Liversidge laid upon the table an abstract of a paper 
by Professor E. IF. I! i:\nm:, MA I > Se of the Adelaide 
University, "Notes on the sweet prineij.!,. of Smilax (ilvcvphylW 
and moved that i . although tho 

paper had been published irable that an 

Professor Livkijm ih;f. drew '■■•■ mi ,,, to t) ■• following corres- 

that lie did so on accoui 

existed in correcting an 

account of so 

Dear Sir, 

from;, thiVasI 

indly assmted 


will not bedistm- I tb temporary u.e of them. 

A. Liversidge, Esq. . Sydney. """ 1 " t MURDOCH. 

obliged to you for the opportunity of examining the coins 

from the eash-b 's house at \\ airoa 

. do not show any 

trace of fusion. Qi d tho othertwo 

had been stuck 1 «8» ™» merely 

slightly adherent b; 3oor. mistaken 

;-. .: !.!■.,:■:.■ • - '- '■"•'•' .'• ' • 

a thin film of oxide of eopp< : : 

other parts of the \a * 1 ' ' » ! 

, -- l,.ft. On jdu.m-tv.ohalr 

crowns together and heating them in the flame of a spirit lamp 1 produced 

::.!.i. ;: .,-■ •■ '■. . : ■ 

special wZL t lX probably have 

temperature to ."m.L/i tl «. . opper of the alloy, by 
pparently been cemented together 

D. L. Murdoch, Esq. 



Professor Liversidge, F.R.S., read a paper "Notes o 
illustrated l>y a largo collection of specimens. 

Some remarks were made by Mr. C. S. Wilkinson. 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., read a paper 
Film- Micrometer." 

About thirty members were present. 

C. Rolleston, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society :— ■ 

Bowker, Robert S., L.R.C.P., Edin., M.R.C.S., Eng., Sydney. 
Carey, John R., St. Leonards. 

Crago, W. H., L.R.C.P., Lond., M.R.C.S., Eng., Sydney. 
Haslam, John, Sydney. 
Hutchinson, W. A., Balmain. 
Redfearn, William, Burwood, 
and the following as corresponding member, viz., 

Professor Jules Marcon, F.(i.S, Cambridge, Mass., U.S. 

. The certificates of four new candidates were read f«»r the second 
time, and of two for the first time. 

It was resolved that Messrs. W r . C. W. Bartels and H. 0. 
W r alker be appointed Auditors for tin- current year. 

Professor Tiirelpall, 15. A. 

the Theory of Dissociation of ( 

Mr. Russell made some rem 

other Minerals." «°>. "On the composition of Pumice fro: 

Remarks were made by the Hon. G. A. Lloyd and Mr 

Professor Warren*, A.M.T.C.E., road a paper "On the St: 
iry of Iron-bark Timber as applied to works 

A short di- ;-nessof the hou 

in which Messrs. C. Moore, J. Trevor Jones, and J. A. ] 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., read a paper—" 
Floods in Lake George." 

About thirty members were present. 


(The names of the Donors are in , 

Transaction^ Journals, Repoi 

Aberdeen :— The Aberdeen University Calendar 

Adelaide :— 

Central Board of Health (! 


Kxtraet from the Orders and Regulatio 
3 Aug. -""" 

!-. V.R. No.: 

Typhoid Fever. 1'if C< ntrut hoard , 

Report of the Progress and Condition of the Botanic O: 

< - Li-nmeut Plantation* dnrimi IVSo Th < 

The Forest Flora of South Australia, by J. E. Brown, i.L 

Report of the Board of Governors of the Public Library, Mm 
tGalle. iss 5 -86 

Dtionsa: 1T ^ 
Austral i 

Amsterdam :— Veralaeen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van 

ks3. Deel. I, 1885 

Jaarboek van de Koninklijke Akademie van ^ etenscha ^'2^demy. 

Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde Aflevering IS* G^jjjM* ^ % . _ 

Revue Coloniale Internationale. Tome II, Nos. 2-6, *^rj™*> 1 ^ 86 " 

UAtmdaix % Amsterdam. 

Auckland :-Report of the Auckland Institute and Museum^for ]884-85. 

Ballaabat : -Annual Report of the School of Mines forthe .year JJ*^ 

American Journal of Mathematics. Vol. VI 1. Xos. :) ami 

" " " " IX ' No. 1. 

Am rican Journal of Philology. Vol. V, No. 4. Whol< 

No. 4." Whole No. 24. 

■ ■ - 

(Fourth „ ). Parts 1, 2 
Proceedings of the Trustees of the John F. Slater Fuiu 

Education of Freedmen, 1884. 
Studies from the Biological Laboratory. Vol. II, No. 3. 

TIr' 'Maryland Hist- ,",' «! Society.' Annual'keport of the 

and Committees for 1884-1885. 
University Circular-, Vol. V, Xos. l~>, 10, and 47. 


2, and 3. 

Bostok (Mass.) :— 

American Academy 
Proceedings. ( 

Boston Society of Natural His 

Occasional Papers. 
Proceedings. Vol. 

Colonial Secretary, Queensland - 


The Health Act of 1SS4. Th O.W-./ S. ■;■■ i, 

Report of the Second Ordinaiy M< etini:. Maivh, 1>^',. 

Royal Society of Queensland— 

Notes on Queensland Ants : l.y Hem y Tryon. 
Proceedings. Vol. -\ Tarts I and -'. l>s"«. 
Bristol :— Bristol Xaturalists' Society— 

List of M * ending 30 A 

Proceedines. (New Series.) Vol. V, Part 1. lSSo-0.^ ,^ 


„ IV. „ 1, 2, 3. 18S5-1886. 77/ c Jf«« 
Society Royi Igique— 


1 'i o , \ a Tome XIV il Au_. t . ."> 1> •• .. l^.'o. 
„ XV (9 Jan. to 4 July, 1886). 
Statu (Second Edition-) 1886. TheSoi 

Bucharest : — I] Romaniei— 

St. C. Hepites. 1884. We /«* 

Acad, mi, Xati .n ile des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Caen- 

f India- 
Memoirs (Pala. • 

Series X. Vol. III. 

Vol. XIX. Parts 1 

' , tllltrtl. 

' ' 

srdinand Stoliczka, Ph.D. ; by 

V. Ball, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 


Thr (Jar, m nun: '. of Iwlin. 

Transactions. Vol. I. Parts 1 and 

The Association. 

Cambridge Philosophical Society— 

Proceedings. Vol. V. Part 5. 

Cambridge University Library — 

6. The Library. 

the Zoology at Harvard Col- 

Annual Re;, rt of the Curator for IS 

Bulletin. Vol. XII. Nos. 3, 4, 5, 

0, and Index. 

Aargang. 1885. 
Boletin. Tomo VII. Kntr. . :s 

„ vm. „ ], 2 

.":-A.M l l,ini.Mk-.S,i.. 11( ,.., Arts, .t I'm 1 
Tomo VII I (Serie :;>. I 

1884. rJe ,S ° USC ieU ' Ub ' JUI " '" f, ' L ' S< '"' >yaS 

i-le-n in don J'h^nhiithigcvn von _ Helmst- 
ihei- Urnenfunde in 1 von Dr. J. V. De 

• l.iliivsl„-,i,!,t. Hand IV. Part \\l. |ss.",. 

W-r/riolmis v..n For.M-lieni in wiss, nsrhafth. I,, r s un.I \ .,lk- 
fcunde Mittel-Kuropas ; von I'aul Kmil Riditer. 


Vol. I. 
„ II. 

tions and Proceeding. Vol. XV. Part 1 

- -7 

ivS4.' ] L ' Th, OUs, rmtunj. 

i m. :— v-u< 'knio. r_r>. In Xaturforschende G 

d XIV. Heft 1. 1SS6. 

,me XXVI!. 

Iowa City (Iov.a; :--Io\va Weather Service— 

Report for 1883. The Director qf tht 

■ \v.:..\ :— Medic he Gesellschaft— 

.Idais.h. / UmIi it ' 'i, - \1\ X.F. Ilanu 

Sitzungsberichte. Heft 1 and 2. 1885. 
Ko.virsbebj: I. Pr. :— Konigliehe [•hvsikali.<ci.-..kon..inisci! 
Seliriften. Jahrgang XXVl'. 188& 

■';.' ' ,-■ ■'■. • v . ' . . . , — ... 


2S TomeTl. 1885. 

iNord— _ 

3titute of Great Britain a 

i .-■.;. 

No*. 3 and 1. 

,, XVI. 

No. 1. 


rol. XLII. Nos. 165-16 

>ns. Vol.' XXVII. 1886. 

1. No. I, 18S6. 

"• I£ 


ol. XXI. Xos. 140, 1 

! xxni. 1', 150, u 

Zoology ,' 

, XIX. „ HO to 
, XX. „ 116. 

List'of M 

embers. So 

ssion 1 884-1 8S5. 

" i>. Zh !. 

1 Office— 

" 188 °- 1SS6 - 

eadings. 1S83. Part 3. Official X 

International Polar Ex 



Report of 

ological Council to the I 

\ ■ ." 

r Eenortfof tlS \fon 

January to June, 

1886. ' Official No. 68. 


I Append 
1 to 41 „ „ ^ M »^ 

1 Society- 
T ' ' jf Members. 
ralogical Mag; 
Vol. VI. N«k 31 and 32. 1886. 

The Calendar of the T 

Proceedings. V< 

,1. \ 



!. an is 

Quekett Microscopic 

Vol. 1 

I. N< 


Royal Agi It il S 





Royal Astronomical : 
Monthly Notice; 




Royal Colonial Instil 
Catalogue of the 

; i!ii 




Royal Geographical ! 
Proceedings. \ 




11 ami 

Royal Historical Soc 



. Vol 

i. III. 

Royal Institution of 


fnl Society — 

B. 30 Novemb( 

!>,,„,, lin-s. V..1. \\\1\ 

24-2- '244. 
vice Institution— 
1. XXIX. N... 132. 1SS.X an.l 

. Vol. XVIII. Parts 2-20. 
ary and Philosm 

:— The University— 

V. 1884-85. ThrSocUhi. 

tions, &c. 
People. (Fin 

Order of St. ' John of Jerusalem in England. (Specimen Card 

of Membership. ) 
Pamphk:- ->, Lectures, &c. JSos. 1--1 

inclusive. 1SS3-1S>3. , ^ nl 

Sanitary Alphabet.— Hints on your 1! 

. Victoria — 

; toms and Man 

... a „.iamber.— Di 

ies and Shops Act, 1885." Regulal 

Factories and Shops Act, 
structions, &c, for the 

Plan and Specification of a Temporary Hospital I 
Prevention of Small-pox, and How to stop it from S 
Regulations for the Prevention of the Spread 
Diseases. 31 July, 1884, and 23 April. 1 -■•• 
Regulations made by the Central Board of Health 
ft ix.rts nf the B -ard of Health. 188a,. 18 * 
Scarlet Fever and Measles.— Symptoms and Direct 

\ ictoria, 

Treatment of the Apparently Drowned. 

■ ' 

its Management in the absence oi Medical Aid. 
What to do in case of Snake-bite. The Chief Secretary 

Annual 1' abers, &c 

'apuan Plants. Vol. II. Part ! 

elW, K.V.M.C. F.K.S.. kv. 

r the year ended 1 March, 1886. 

Mining Department- 

Royal Commission „ :i w.. lt , ;: - Sinmly. I'ii-i • 

1885, ;,. bj the Hon. A. 

Deakin, M.P. 

Further Progress Report. 9 July, 1885. . 

Gauging? i 

Gauging* o I the Kiewa «i\ 

Tables s\v: . discharge of Rivera Murray, 

Mitta, and Loddon. 

Tubercul i , rt. 1884. , 

Th * m ion, for Mi,v < «»rf WW. r ***#• 

Public Library— ssfi 

Myoporin.v Part II. Lithograms. i»w>- 

By Baron Ford. v<,:i M ■ ■!Lt K (.' M.C., ■-"'-'• , jjvV( 

itz -.-Vereina fiir Erdkimd, 

lis. Vol. III. Sob.' 

I. No. it. 1 

New Yay.K— continued. 

ember 7, 1884. 

„ vii. „' i:>4, 15(5, 

and 158 to 201 



Naturforscher xt 


id'j. ISV,. 





Catalogue of Canadian Plants. 

etelffi. : 

[Jy Jol 

Macoun, M.A., !'.!..>.. \,-. 

1884. ' 

Comparative Vocabularies of the 1 

ndian Tribes. .t I 

with Map. By W. Fraser 

. 188 

By J. F. Whiteavcs, F.C.S. 

1 BS& 

77,. hh-irtor. 

Thr. SochllJ. 


Bollettino. Anno II. J 
Paris :— Academie des Sciences d 

_i • de Paris— 
liulFtiiis. iS-ric 3). Tunu'VIIl. Fuse. 4. 1885. 

„ IX. „ i, 2, 3. issfi. 

The Society. 

-22, 24-27. 20 43. 

7V " ■ s ''"' ; ' / -' / - 

Bulletin. (sSne'.U 1 fol XI." ISSL '' ' "' The Society. 

Sociele de Geographic— 

„ „ VIL „ 1,' 2, 1886. 

Compte Rendu. Nos. 16, 17, 18, 1883. 
„ 19, 20, 18S5. 
„ 1 to 15, 1886. 

trouvent dans les Alb 
date du 22 Nov., 1S85. 

>- i. t • Fran: iw de Mim-ralogie— 

Bulletin. Tome I to VIII, 1S7S to 1SS5 inclusive. 

„ IX. Nos. 1 to 6, 1836. The Society. 

Society Zoologique de France- 
Bulletin. Tome X. Part 4-6, 1885. 

„ XI. „ 1-4, 18S6. The Society. 

-x v\< k :— Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. 

Transactions. Vol. X. Part 8. 1886. The Society. 

the Town of Fremantle, "*** 
tee of the Legislative Council appoin; 


;rican Entomological Society- 
Transactions, Vol. XI, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 18S4. 

„ „ XXIII, No, 121, 122, 1886. ^^.^ 

Journal, VoL^XI, Nos. 721 to 726, inclusive, 1SS6. 

„ CXXII, Nos. 727 to 732, inclusive, 1886. 

rorts, I, P, P, P, .1. K. K-. K . r J . L, M, M-, M-', >", 0, < 

. . Mi i: !-, l-,'i, r, 

V, V 3 , Z, A A*"*, Part J, T 3 , C 5 . 
ases, I 3 , P, E, A - 1 «i Field, Part 1) ] 

Annual Report 

Annual Report and Transactions, Vol. IX, Par. 2, 

w Loots :— Meteorological Society of biaorithu. 

Mauritius Meteorological Results for 18S4 and ISSo 

Biblioteca Nazionalc Central Vktm-k, Vau . 

Bollettinoilelk-OiH-n Mo.l. > ,,, s t i , , , , , ,, ,,, ., ,, .lalleliiNiot.vlu- 
Jan. -Aug., 188& 
Ministuro ,lei Luvori hiU.I i >' I :. .. , . , ,1 Aivliivio tecnico). 

Giornale del Genio Civile. An:i.» XXIV. iS-ri- I I. Vol. VI, 



Bulletin. 7 [XX, H 2 ®5. 

:; • ■ • ' '; -' ' 

Bulletin TomolV. Xo. S !■>. ^c, 

Jahrgang, XLII, IsstJ. 

Echini, by E. P. Ramsay, LL.D., F.L.S., &c., 1885. 
Hints for collecting Geological and Mineralogical Specimens, 

The Tmtetl, 

- of New South Wales (Public and Private) pane* 
during the Session of 1885-6. Tin Cor, now nt I'rh. '< r. 

luranee Institute of New South Wales— 

The Sydney Record, No. 10, September, 1SSG. Tk> In*r>hit< . 

mean Society of New South Wales— 

i Series), Vol. I, Parts 1, 2, 3, 188G. 

Tho Sorld'J. 

Report, 1884, 1885, (in duj 

Rules and Objectliofthe NewSouth Wales Minim' Institute. 

Sydney University Calendar, 1886. 

Tlie University. 

*^jJ£iS£F* (llth and 12th) of 


Public Library, 


Tokio :-Seismological Society of Japan. 

-transactions. Vol. IX., Parts 1 and 2, 


The So< 

•kt ; i. 

Canadian Institute- 

Proceedings. (Third Series.) Vol. III. 

Fasc. 3, 4, 1886. 

, 1, 1886. 

To clous f. : — 

The Inst 

Academie des Sciences, Inscriptions et Belles 

-Lettres de Toulouse. 

Memoires (8 Serie), Tome VI, Semcstre 1 

Tkkvton fX.J.):- 

The Acad 

m * 

Trenton Natural History Society— 

Journal Vol. I, No. 1, January, 1886. 

The Society. 

iserliche Akade 
Register zu d< 


! h. 1W WXVLNo.1. 1SS6. 
landkmgen, No. 9. 1SS5. 
aturhistorisches Hofmu,eums -_ 

K. K. Zoologisch-! 

. .1. Baml X.XXd) • 

VII, Nos. 9-23, 2 

Annual Report 

Report for 1884. 

Annual Report. 4 Dec., 1S82. 


Annual Eeport for the fiscal ; 
Hyclrographic Office— 

.pril, 1886. No. 31. 

Telegraphic Determi 
The ureof Oil to less 

!'!•■ p ,11<1. ilts. 

... M.A. (Cantab.):— 

List of Members. 

Transactions. Vol. I, Part 1. 1886. E. T. Litton, fl 

i:iar,l, M. Alfred:— 

Deux Epeces d'Entomophthora Nouvelles pour la Flore Francais 
Presence de la Forme Tarichium sur une Museide. 

Notice su ' ..;,.-,]. Mai, IS' 

Xouv-i! ;.,-.-tida. 

s m- le < i' |.- l'mfection des e 

de Lille. 
Sur rembryo'ji'nii! des Ascidie.s du L'eiire Lithonephria. 

' "Ophefiidi 1 (l\ U geme ° yS ° rt IUS ™ CC CS AnDU 

Sur uncurieu.N jiIi.'uoim.ti.- de- pr f.-.-umlatinn, ok- . i-\,- .-he/, une Spion: 

Oroddeck, HerrnDr. von, in Claustlial : 

Hale, Horatio :— 

The Origin of Languages and the Antiq 
Hector, Dr. James, F.R.S. :— 

Recent Volcanic Eruptions, N. Z. Prelin 

• the K.Ttii. 

iephson, J. P., A.M.I.C.E. :— 

Morse, Edward S. : _ 

n "" "iciesofRhvi 

tal Notes on the Pa 

Teale, T. Pridgin, M.A. :- 

The a 


„ VI. „ 7-12. 1885. 
Wedgwood. - dney Cove, by '. 

Whitelog-o, Thomas :— 

Gardener's Chronicle. 

Illustrated Science Monthly. 

i inactions of the Photographic S< 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. 

1 1 Record. 

1 of New York. 

Biedermann. Techniseh-( , heimsches Jjilirl .u>-h. 

ri,;]H»rt, lss:,. 

V..1. XIX. 
n„ i. \ .Is. XX and XXI. 

i, by Oscar Schn 

Comparative Literati 

II>r. t-Yrd. Fischer). 
Mcdi. al ( >fli , rof tlu- L.« ,d Government Board (London). Annual Reports. 

Medico-Chirurgical Society IWuitH.iiJ. \'!.N.' LXVIII, LXIX, ISSo. 

mac, 1889. 
X,-u- Sydenham - X ,1. CXV. 

Notes and Queries. General Index to 5th a I 

.earned Societies of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 1886. 

BiK-kkr's Larv:v of British natt.rtii-s and M«:!-. \ ol. 1. 
Report of the Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H.U.S. 
"Challenger." 1S73-7U. 
Zoology. Vols. XIV, XV. and XVI. 
Royal Geographic. I ry Papers. 

Rotifera or \Vln-, I I 6, by C. T. Hudson, LL.D. 

(Cantab.), and P. H. t , .sse, F.R.S. 

lence Gossip, 1870. 

mac, 1886. 


Grindstone used by the Aborigines for crushing seeds ior tood purposes ; 
10111 Mnml.ltl..m. nth 1. ' Macquarie. H. E. Kater. 

W. H. H. Lane. 
> the 25,000th of an inch, b; 



The Journal and Froc< 


• Prague —*Koniglichbolimiselie Go-, <lh, 

• Trieste— *Socict'i Adriatic* di Seienze 3 

: ■ 

20. Ei0 de Janeiro.— *L'Observatoire Imperial do Eio de Janeiro. 


22. Bordeaux.— *Academie Rationale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et 

23. Caen.— *Acadomie Rationale des Sciences, Arts ct Belles-Lettres. 
21. Dijon.— ^Academic des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres. 

25. Lille.— *Societe Geologique du Nord. 

26. Montpellier.— *Academie des Sciences et Lettres. 

27. Paris— * Academic des Sciences de l'lnstitut de France. 

28. „ *Depot des Cartes et Plans de la Marine. 

29. „ Ecole Rationale des Mines. 

i Prance. 

I'lndustne Mincrale. 

ences Inscriptions et Belles-Lettrc 


56. Bremen.^ + X i* n-, n=c!iai'ili. I , r Ven in zu Bremen. 

57. Berlin— T> italic < 1 . mi-, he Gesellsebaft. 

58. „ k miederWissensehaften. 

59. Bonn.— *2fatur!.i*t..ri<rlier Vcvm dw Pivi.ssischen Elieinlande 

Wcstplmlms in Bom,. 

52. „ *Natiirwis S ,M i M-i i . . ,.■■.'. r \. 

;; CasseL— " Voivin i'ur Xaturkunde. 
'•4. Chemnitz.— *Naturwissenschaftliclie Ges 
'3. Dresden. v Das Statist ische Bur^iu de- 
: - 

:ifrl : .-lu-i- Y 

72. Freiberg (Saxony). T l 

74. Gorlitz.— *Xatuvforschei 

75. Grottingen, - J Kuiii-i;ciH 

76. Halle A.S.-*Die Kai* 

so. Heidelberg. Na:u 

81. Jena.— *3r.-<ii.-ini*i-h 

82. Konigsbsrg. K >ni 

83. Leipzig (Saxony).- 

80. Ketz.-*V«eia far Erdbmde zu Mete. 

87. MnlhOUSe.— ^Industrial Society. 

88. Mnncben.- Liadetnie der Wiss 

89. Stuttgart.- & ndesamt. 


1-.: .: 

93. Bristol.— •Bristol Naturalists' Society. 

91. Camborne -*-Miuiug Association and Institute of Corn* 

95. Cambridge— *Pliilosophical Society. 

09. Dudley.— Di I and Scientific I 

J Field Club. 

100. Leeds— *Concliological Society. 

:'■■.] >oc->tv. ' 

. . Mi:,-. 
vw.f Literature. 

MiddlesboroV- *I«>n ;unl Steel L-t 


158. Plymouth.— *Plymoutl Institution, and 

159. Windsor.— The Queen's Library.' 

Cam of Good IIoi 

160. Cape TOWII— "South- African Philosophi. 

Dominion- o:- Caxad 

161. Halifax (Nova Scotia).-*Nova Scotia 

162. Hamilton (Canada West) .— *Hamilton 

163. Montreal.— Natural History Society of I 

164. Ottawa— *Goolo. ! rical and Natural Histor 

165. „ *R..jal (Society of Canada. 
16S. „ The Ottawa Literary and Scu- 

167. Toronto— "Canadian Institute. 

168. Winnipeg— "Manitoba Historical and Se! 

Port Louis.— Roy 
Sydney— Austraii 

86. Auckland.-*Auekland Institute. 

87. Christchnrch. -Philosophical Inst 

88. Dnnedin.— Otago Institute. 

89. Wellington.— * Colonial Museum. 

90. „ \eu /, u i,i 1 *t 


!li. Hobart.— *Eojal Society of Tasmania. 

!15. Ballarat.— *3chool of Mines and Industries. 
- Nation. 
♦Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

♦Public Library. 

♦Royal Society of Victoria. 
♦Victorian institute of Surveyors. 


L Siebenbiirgeil).— *Directionder 


u'ana dlt alia (Sez'ione Fiorv 
231, Genoa— *Museo Civico di Storia Natui-ale. 
235. Milan— "Realo Istituto Lombardo di Si-ionze Lett ore ed - 
23(5. „ Societa Italiana di Scionzc Xaturali. 

237- Modena.— *Academie Royal' des S>-i 

23s. Naples.— *S . . „ s ,.. 

211. Palermo.— - V> . l< i l'a' ii ma di S onz, Leth or 
243. Pisa.— *Societa Toscana di Seienze Xaturali. 

z : '-~ 

256. Batavia.— K .u. x . i > '^i^ 1 '- 1 ' w " 1,11 -'' " "' 


257. Amsterdam.— *Aca 

260. Harlem.-*Bibliotfi^ 

202. Bergen— *Museum. ^ 

oax t» i + *T„of,-f„f n 1 Mfifceorol 

269. St. Petersburgh.— * 

270. „ •< 

271. Madrid.-ln S tituto g* 

::oIm— *Kongli 

275. Geneva— *Inai 

276. LaTuaane.-*S 

277. NeuchateL— *: 

289. Cincinn: 

290. Coldwater. Mi.Mi,; 

291. Davenport (Iowa).- 

303. Philadelphia— * Academy of Natural Science. 

304. „ *Amr,; 

a ;: fc 

307. „ *Second (ifolo-ica! ^u.n, v of P, n, 

313. San Praild ajafSoieiioe*. 

314. „ •(feliforma <iate Hmv.P,. 

315. Washington— * American Medical Association. 

*Bureau of Ethnology. 

\ ■ :• 


.- artment. 
; Society. 

*Surgeon-General (IT. S. Army). 

*U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey \1V- 

I Survey. 

oriety's Souse, Sydney, 
) September, 1886. 

v> D .W,., 






Preliminary M<ttin,j, hid LJth APRIL, 18SG. 
Mr. P. R. Pedley in the Chair. 
It was decided to hold the meetings on the evening of the B 
Monday in each month. Chairman : Mr. P. R. Pedley. ! 
tarv: Mr. F. B. Kyngdon. Committee j Dr. Morris, 
"Wright, Mr. Whitklewje, and Mr. Weisener. 

Mr. Pedley in the Chair. 

The following were exhibited :-- 

A phot,,,ra, i. <.t iV late R. B. Tolles, the celebrated object™ 
maker of Boston, U.S. (Dr. Wright.) 

Powell and Lealand's new ft horn, objective ^.A. 1-5-161 
(Dr. Morris.) ,, %r , „ 

Swift „ host challenge Binocular Microscope. (Mr. ^a^nuel . 

Powell and Lealand's J horn, objective N. A. 1 -2 9= 1 1 b . <MJ 
Macdonnell.) . v 4 7 -° 

Wintel's Stu I ats' Mi< roscop ■ and r \ horn, objective jn.a. l- 

~DouWe-itea'ned a< Sides of Bacillus of Tuberculosis, Glanders 

&c, and Jordan's staining lluids. ( 1 h: katz.) 

ACorallin, from PortJ* kson. (Mi Macdonnell.) _ 
A fresh-water gathering, rich in pond life. (Mr. 

^!tS a method of readily mounting 

living fresh-svater organisms, such as L'hiu.jwl*, by means of a 

Dr. Wright presented a copy 
Hal-irshaw's Catalogui 

14 JUXE, 1SS6. 
Mr. Macdonnell in the Chair. 
The following were exhibited :— 
Several students' microscopes by London 

A series of slid, 1 College. (Mr. Ramsay.) 

A liat cm t r I ium. ( Mr. Macdonnell.) 
Slides of Hydroid Zoophytes with tentacles expanded; also, 


Mr. Whiteleo bod of mounting Zoophytes 

irith their tentacles expanded by means of the addition of a 

|rn. objeetiv ■ ' ars with Tolles), h 

ngleof 54°, andfii Front. (Dr. Wrig 

. A slide of Bacillus of Tubercle. (Dr. "Wright.) 

Two new Monocular microscopes by a London make 

Olr. WhitoH-.--. 

of diatoms from L: 
. H. H. Laxe presei 
f New York, ruled 


Mr. Pedley in the Chair. 
The following were exhibited :— 
A slide of many diatoms symetrically arranged. (Mr. W hite- 

A partially iinish d M( avula microscope manufactured by 
the exhibitor. (Mr. Weisener.) 

A series of slides of Foramimfera rod diatoms obtaimd from 
Port Jackson, mounted by a gentleman in London. (Mr. 
Kvngdon.) TJ 

Mr. W. H. H. Lane presented to the Society a copy of " Hogg 
on the Mil ro.copo, and live -lid- -, h. tla Cabinet" 

Dr. Morris mm f ml of Cassia as a 

mountiim medium, and questioned the statement in the Journal of 
the R.M?S. (London) for August, 1886, page 717. 
8 NOVEMBER, 1886. 

The following were exhibited :— .. 

A fine gathering of the rare rotifer, Asplanchna Ebbesbornii, 
and a large Ann-'.- from the Waterloo marshes, also a rich 
gathering of Volvox. (Mr. Whitelegge.) 

Dr. Wright in the Chair. 

The following were exhibited :— . „, 

*m,,ral,:id ' l-tmmsdmmalo 

l.v Dr. li-.x^i.-.i Pi-otr iaiim ■■ K., also a slide of 
,</,,,;„ , \ ,/ ,,„,,„;,., taken from a human vaccine pustule. 

^^dls^several Polyzoa from Queenscliff (Vic) (Mr. Wbite- 


A preliminary meeting of members of the Royal >om,ty <A 

New South AValos v,as lmkl for the purpose of resuscitating the 

"tS present Sir Aefree, Roberts M Gtpps C.E Mr. 

J. B. Hexson, C.E., Mr. W. A. Dixon, F.C.S.,. F.I Mr. K. 

Mr. Reuter E. Roth. MR.C.S . England. 

Sir Alfred 1; > u ui. nrtT ,,_.:*.tp P . 

Mr. J. B. Henson, C.E., Dr. Quaife. 

C. K .. Mackellar, M.D., M.L.C., and that the day of meeting 
should be the second Tuesday in the month, at 8 p.m. 

TUESDA Y, 13th JULY, 188G. 
Robert Hunt, Esq., in the Chair. 
The rules formed by the Committee were read and adopted. 
p • ';■ • H \ T™ Presented to the library of the secti 
Pngdm Teale-s " Dangers to Health." 

TUESDAY, 10th AUGUST, 1886. 
Sir Alfred Roberts in the Chair. 
The receipt was acknowledged of the works published by the 
Melbourne Health Society. Sir Alfred Roberts pi, 
copy of a pamphlet on -The purification of the wat„ 
AnWp," by -M^rs. Aiul,**,,, and O-jston. 

Mr. Trevor Jones, C.E., read an into.vslin- paper on "The 

) ^t'latiou of S^vrs. Tl„ lil( ,,ns of 

dia grains. J 


Mr. F. B. Kyxgdox in the Chair 

The paper was illustrated by me I models. 

Sir Alfred Roberts in the Chair. 

The receipt was acknowledged of the various sanitary acts and 

"" " : ""' ' ' '~ - ." - -■ • '.'■: ■■-■' 

'"i; J ^ 11 ' l! ' 1 "'- XV '-'"HA; I .r I ,li,.S.. I1I l 1 Au-«rali :( . and Victoria. 
nn^ ; a pap'-i 1 "i> '■ Seavenaire,'' also a 

! X«" " **" ° n thG -cent'ouWeak of Small-pox on the 

diffr!; F ; H " Qf;UFi: read a paper, "Notes on the Sanitary Con- 
dition of some of the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney." 

TUESDAY, 16th NOVEMBER, 1886. 

Sir Alfred Roberts in the Chair 
t . Mr. Trevor Joxes, C.E., read a paper on « Suburban Sari* 

Reuter E. Rotii, M.R.C.S., England, 
Hon. Secretary. 

ilation of Sewe 
v J. Trevor Jones 

; air of the city or housrh. 

■Id: andn... 

rcover, that it acts 

ny morbific gem 

srwa-'v f 

rom the 

dejecta of fever i 

.aticnts. it 1 

ooomea the duty of 

the Engi 

licer. as the eons tract or of 

3 ns may be disch 

will not 

■ : 

o the compositio 

n of the br 

eathing air of the 

The ei 


i referred to are 1 

L compound 

body, known under 

of "sewer gas". 

Lent parts being, as 

stated in 

Mr. Ba 

Idwin Latham's i 

jlaborate wo 

rk on the subject, 

varying proportions of carbonic 


•etted hydrogen, 


compounds, vapour 

of water 

te health of persons 

■ring their vital 

sutn-r fr. 

"..: \ -.: 

tacks of such ge: 

mis of i'.-vr 

, cholera, small-pox, 

&c, as 1 

aay be projected 
i the sewage fori 

into the se 

lent vehicle for the 

The b 


or tendency to float upward; 

i in atmospheric air, 

of this ( 

I gas varies in th 


that it is composed 

ordinarily it is ! than air. 

From this tend i, s i . . - . r ■' ■ *- :- ■' ^ lower to ^ d 
the higher parts of a sewer, along the crown in a direction con rary 
to that of the flu .ny vent m th. 

crown of the sewn- that mav U- h-it for it : this property is taken 
advantage of by the engineer, who provides a close channel oi 
upcast shaft for it to escape into such space as it will do least 
harm, or where it cannot mix with the air of the streets or 

If not so intercepted, ami direct, d into such spaces that it cannot 
be breathed, it will at times gam sueb expansive strength in the 
sewer that it will force itself through water-traps and other con- 
trivances into the dwelling, to the detriment of the air therein and 
the health of the occupant. 

The occasional introduction into or outbreak of fever, epidemics, 
&c, in a town or city, although they are grie\ 
generally s- i v. on* good put pos< in directing a li\ 
the existence of any filth, to the appliances for s 
ness in the city, and to the suppression of n<»\r 
the environs of the dwelling. 

Sydxey Sewers. 
The sewers, now forming the system in use in this city, were 
constructed at various periods, under different engineers, and 
consequently vary somewhat in design, but generally exhibit 
sound kno,\ led* e in tin 1 , junctions very 

well, if we grant that these duties consist «,f discharging the refuse 
of the city into the harlour. 
present condition, it should be stated, 
to most residents of Sydney 

drainage of the a< ( J v u jii ; w i icn 

It should be mentioned also that the eastern suburbs will be 
accommodated by the same sewer. 

The southern slopes, along with the suburbs that lie between the 

""' Botany Bay, are also in of being provided for by 

rawer, naam fche bed of Shea's 

Botany, where it crosses Cook's River by an in- 

jerted syphon, and discharges up n Webb's grant, a section of 


Inc designers of the older sewers seem to have had in view the 

conveyance of the ston i wat. r tli t falls up . t!u wliole surface 

Creek towards 

When both the works referred to are cc 

modern city as far trunk main sewers are c 

be attained, viz., that the houses connected \ 
any strict supervision was exercised by the < 
lie examined for defects in their house-dra 
secondly, that the sewers themselves should 
means of escape for the gases that are conti 
i contents. 

It is proposed to deal with the question of tin: ventilation oi 

the scwi r first ly givii j, a sh irt e 1 - i-iptio i ol a fi v. of the )n< - 

( ■■. - e ■.' ■■,-,' ;. ' ' 

The first that p 

the pressure of - is in all s> « l\s < 01 miunicating with ir, 

passing through several perorated trays of charcoal at 
placed there to absorb the offensive properties of the g* 

This system was in favour among engineers for a 1 

greater distance than about 300 feet. 

If, therefore, 300 feet be the limit beyond which t 
shafts as ventilm i to nib lfc follows 

would be thegr - wfckb such shaft 

_ .. . : : . - line of sewers; ai 

cost each would probably amount to .£300 at least, their 
along with that of the land on which to build them, woi 
their use prohibitive. 

ance of rows of •»>' suvot ™' uld 

their adoption while any oth. r mode was axadable. ^ _ 

th. pLVwa- ' .tttbir bases (i 

the air for the sustenance of these fires being drawn 


The fire, by en 1 the motion of 

the sewer air, and, furthermore, any germs of disease that might 
accompany the air were effectually destroyed ; but even these im- 
provements did not secure it- cause of the great 
cost of fuel and attendance, and partly because of the danger of 
explosion should an excess of u or other inflam- 
mable gas gain access to the sewer, as a mixture of one tenth by 
volume of this gas with nine-tenths of air is as explosive as gun- 
powder when fired. 

An accident of this kind might affect miles of sewer, and prove 
very disastrous by throwing up streets or buildings. 

Several accidents of this kind have happened in London and 
Paris, and even here one such case occurred in 1883, tearing up 
many chains of a newly constructed line along the Darling Har- 
bour railway. 

It is not necessary to adduce any more proof against the adop- 
tion of this kind of ventilator a-, there is little fear of its being 
selected by the authorities of this city, excepting in very special 

One such case would be an instance, where ; , huw trunk sewer 

judicious, if space is obtainable, to erect one such shaft here to 
obviate the charging of the bram-hes with gas formed in the 
larger sewer. 


When the above objections to tall-shaft ventilation threw it 
out of competition, two things became manifest, viz. : that in 

expansive power to force itselt tin . _h i < i epting contrivances 
into the dwelling, appropriate openings should be provided, and 
that those openings must be frequent along the course of the 

?se requirements i 

t once be effectual 
the plan was adopted of making openings : 
sewer, and bui: , the crown of the sewer 

up to the street surface. 

By this method a series of pits covered with gratings were con- 
structed along each line of sewer, at intervals of from 100 to 300 
feet apart, explaining that if these were at sufficiently frequent 
intervals, the sewer air would be so dilute that it would not be 

To remove another objection, viz., that dilute as it might be, it 
might contain poisonous ,ycrms. the sewer air was made to filter 
itself through charcoal iilt.-rs, for which it is claimed by some of 

the most notable authorities that it is an effectual oxi.ii/.r of 
mophitio cases, and that therefore the air arising out of these 
mid be rendered wholesome and innocuous. 
Hereafter I am about to contend against the use of these con- 
trivances, for reasons that I shall advance ; but before doing so, I 

tion. Their works as well as the stupendous labour and thought 

subject, command my entire esteem. 1 ina\ add. that it is to these 
authorities that I am indebted for most of the improvements 1 
have introduced into the Sydney system, with the exception ol 

such peculiarities as heal conditions have forced on me. 

This mode of ventilation was specilied for the main sewers of 
the southern system for this city by the late eminent engineer, 
Mr. W. Clarke, whose advice was sought in this behalf, and th<' 

Sewers Department. 

The City of Adelaide sewers, designed and carried out by Mr. 
Oswald Brown, are fitted with these ventilators. 

In writing a paper to the Government Board of Health, about 
four years ago, on this same subject. I veiitun d the opinion that 
this method Would not be found suitable for Sydney sewers. 

My objections were based upon the fact that, as a number of 
our capacious sewers discharge in a northerly direction, and that 
the prevailing winds blow from the u.-rth-I-a-t in summer, the 
sewers would receive the wind at th, ir mouths when the tide was 
low, and this would exert a pressure internally tending to drive 
the sewer air outward through every oritice : this, added to the 
fact that sewer a " - e volumes in this warm 

climate in summer, made me conclude that, no matter how frequent 
these gratings were spaced, there would always flow out of them 
an appreciable stream of fu.'t id sewer air. 

Opinions are in conflict as to whether the charcoal fdter would 
be a safe guard against the poisonous nature of these fumes. 

At one time°a large proportion " £ ~ 

being given oil' . "" CWI f , 

not too wide streets with tl, ir high buildings to become charged 

with these inephitie emanations. . 

If merely making numerous openings would ensure that the 
gases would be so dilute as to be harmless, then an open-topped 
be still better; but I nnd 
i the result, remembering 


that the slops and ivfiw li.pii^ of the City of Melbourne are 
conveyed on the water-tables, and it is well known how objection- 
able this lias proved. 

When I was stating my objections to these gratings to the Board 
of Health, I was speaking from theory ; but since the completion 
of the Adelaide system, I have been supplied with confirmation of 
my anticipation, as 1 received a letter from the City Council of 
Ad ! i 1. i 1 i ... t i tin gi ings \ n found intolerable 
in certain localith s, and inquiring of me »vhai the practice was in 
Sydney, which seem. d to * isit »rs so . ti etuul in suppressing smells 

I replied, fmui ice I am about to 

advocate herein, which I am informed is being introduced in that 
city, probably not on account of my letter, but because the 
engineer, in charge of the sewers were perfectly familiar with the 
plan themselves. 

Indeed, the gentleman who d 'signed and carried out the work, 
Mr. Oswald Brown, was a man of European reputation, who 
found the scope for his energies in the Colonies too circumscribed 
and returned to Europe, when he had completed his work in 

As I previously stated, opinions as to the efficacy of charcoal, 
and the durability of its efficacy are somewhat conflicting ; but the 

outer air are desirable there can be no dispute, but my contention 
is that these openings diould not discharge the sewer-air at the 
street surface, under oar mws, so i , va, 1 •■ a: -.u-h elevation 

all, but be dissipated in the surrounding air. 

The plan recommended is neither original nor new, but in my 
opinion the best of recent met!* da, and i si aply this :— 

The house drain after being connected with the sewer is laid at 
the requisite grade to a point near the house ; here is interposed a 
trap known as an interceptor trap. 

The sewer gas will flow up this branch until it arrives at the 

1 the gas 

the wall and conducted upwards to the caves ; or should a 
window or opening be too near the eaves, it is conducted to I 

ridge and their raised a few feet higher. 

Discharged at this altitude it will he so dispersed, dried, a 
oxidized hv the surrounding air as to he rendered harmless. 

Many of the more enlightened arehiterts of Sydney carry . 
this plan now for some of' 'the leading buildings without 
hut the Sydney Improvement J 
adoption of the system, — A 

on the Council. 

It will not necessarily be r 

M'Laurin in Bligh-street, is an excellent example ot tic wa\ m 
which these principles are to be applied. 

Many other pvt mi are simil rl\ mi d. ; ■ 
securing safety for their occupiers, help to relieve the sewers from 
undue pressure of gas. 

The interceptor trap is on the same principle as that known as 
Buchan's, a sanitary plumber of Glasgow, and is a thoroughly wel - 
considered d.-x !../.». .dmiing adaptability to its functions with 
ease of access for repairs. 

The New Zealand Insurance Offices in Pitt-street and several 
other buildings are ventilated by a different method, which dis- 
penses with traps, trusting to the constancy of the upcast uraught 
in the ventilating shaft exh I « a J d ^?^ 

i:.: ■ ^ ^ " : - ■ ; 

street, and with -,ve examined 

So long as the upcast draft can be maintained, there is no douot 
that the efficiency of the contri ai i be ; gained. lhe cui- 

'l induced by a cowl on the principle of the injector pump. 

Cowl ventilators, however, only a 
calm weather they must be inoperative, but, as m >ydno\ a- 
lutely stdl weather is very rare, the above ventilator is generally 
effectual. , , -, • 

In a case where, from the arrangement of the premises it is 

ot the duelling 

to convey the . - » *»» ** J"*J ^ lp it 

lithograph here, 

* to intercept tl ? r t 

not enter in at ai: l&I^W 

might not always prove effectual, as mentioned herebef ore. be* er 


gas sometimes attains such power as to burst through the water 
seal, therefore most modern traps are fitted with a junction for a 
ventilating pipe, which offers an easier out let for the gas than that 
by the seal. 

A great deal of ing a pipe under 

a house floor upon sound foundation in such a manner that the 
ground will not sink under it, a* any settlement in the pipes would 
crack or displace the joint, and thereby release both sewage and 
sewer gas under the floor. 

Flaptraps have been largely used to prevent the reflux of gas 
and storm-water up the house drain, but this contrivance has proved 
useless after a little use, dirt, paper, sticks, straw, bottles, &c, 
getting between the lid and the trap. 

This form of trap depends upon the closeness of its lid for its 
effectiveness. It lias therefore given way in point of adaptiveness 
to the water-trap, which has completely superseded it. Its ten- 
dency to become immovable from rust or to wear at the hinges 
renders it unsuitable. Indeed, any movable piece or part in 
sewer apparatus has tins objection, as sewage has a strong corro- 
sive effect, and is largely charged with gritty substances. 

With respect to that part of the -aibjeet termed the "ventilation 
of the dwellings," 1 have to explain that it has reference only to 
obviating their becoming charged with sewer gas, and not in its 
broadest sense of procuring a free exchange of fresh for vitiated 
air in the chamber, as the title would imply, as that question is 
more than sufficient for a paper in itself. 

There is another feature in connection herewith, viz., the main- 
tenance of the seal in the trap, against the tendency of flushes of 
water in the soil-pipe syphoning the water seal out of the trap; 
but as this is a detail, it is unnecessary to load this paper with the 
ion of it. 
I shall therefore conclude by summarizing the objects of this 
paper, and the methods of so doing : — 

(1.) That the Sydney sewers, for want of legislative enact- 
ment, being .11 ly partly ivli.-\.'-l from the pressure of 
sewer gas emanating from their contents, it is desirable 
that legislative power should he obtained enabling the 
City Council to insist on ailixing upcast v 
to the walls of any houses, where it may be found advan- 
tageous so to do, for the purpose of conducting the sewer 
air to the summit of .such houses, and there to discharge 
it in such a position that it will not again mix with the 
breathing-air of the citizens. Tins pipe would not he 
more unsightly if in front of a house than the rain-water 
(2.) That, owing to the defective manner in which connecting from the city sewers into the dwellings have in 

r is mixed with thai ■ 
tt of the latter for r< - 
s that the City Council ( 

khm,^ s,,M,.iu.i: harsh, it will in 1 

ticent in the interest of l.oth private i 

think, commend itself to the consider; 

It is not a little anomalous that 

air of their chambers, and the reason 
ivadilv be understood that the best h 

■n defectively executed in the 
i shown, the defects have becc 

ery important desideratum in 

official inspection would ne oxn 
odious to householders, proposed 
should require a certitieate Ire 

Whatever form the exarnii ition t k -. and I ^<>ui' ii 
support that which combines efficiency w th tn ' ' i' 1 '" ' 
in- act, it must he clearly seen th : 
one day or other, be brought about by public sentiment. 

The subject, I fear, hasbe ia 
although the 

with other efforts in the mine direction to 

into an enviable condition as to its smut iry artanguiu >. . 

On the Rational Construction of Chairs and Desks. 
By Reuter E. Roth, M.R.C.S., England. 

[Head before th S-n, 'hnu, S. <■>■„„< ,,/ t ', />„ ;/ „r s, ■ ;. t y of X.S. W., 

The following is a resume of the paper :— "Dr. Rotli pi 
that the spine consisted of a jointed column made up of 
bones which we called vertebra?. In early life this cc 
perfectly straight, but later on it assumed four curv 
increased in elasticity and strength. These curves w< 
from above down, cervical, dorsal, lumbar and sacral, tin 
third being convex forward and the second and fourth h 
the curves of the spine, especially the dorsal one, wou 
the healthy shape of the chest cavil y. The more the doi 
was bent the more were the ribs depressed, the capaci 
' adl'ered. If tl 

it required a convexity to rcceh e the hunhar and a concavity to 

case, the lower rail (when present) being concave instead of 
convex, and when absent the Inmbar curve IobI its concavity and 

filled up the vacancy in the chair-back. Sin-h chairs caused a 
stoop in the back, | more or less compression 

of the thoracic and abdominal organ*. Th»> inclination of the 
chair-back should also be considered, hecmisc if the line of the 
centre of gravity of the sitting body fell in front of the axis of 
the hip joint th< )., ,„-, vented from falling 

the knee to the sole of the foot; if greater, the legs dangled 
and the hard edge of tke chair compressed the nerves and 
vessels under the thigh, giving rise to numbness and " pins and 
needles.' This;;; <1 iidgetty after 

having sat for a short period. If the height of the seat were not 
sufficient, the knees became very bent and the legs could not be 
moved without moving the whole body. The depth of the seat 
should correspond with th distance from the backbone to within 
an inch or so of the bend of the knee, because, here again, if 
there were too great a depth the edge of the chair would cut into 

e well supported, yet the thigh 
ng the hamstring muscles inconvi 
there being a liability to compi 
ino- the edge of the desk or table 

', otherwise the healthy sit ting 

i stoop excessively, and the arms, I 
support the weigh' 

case the writer hung i 

.n.i or le- on the edge of 

the ta 

hie by 

i twist his body round and r 


was this injurious position whi 

eh WBfl 

■al curvature, with the right ; " 

its fellow. As long as 

-Ik> \b 

out and higher than 



furniture went in for ornament only, so long woul< 

bodies have to suffer. 

Still, there was no reason 


should not always ha"\ 
one. In most of the 

t a lower convex rail instead of 

■ new tramcars the seats w 


structed, being made 

on anatomical principles. 


! attached to the construction of 

readily seen when it was a 

a rule a good fifth of 

( .,:i lives was spent in a 

Those whose occupatic 

,n, neiewtated their .itrrn. 

■ f " r B 

.any h. 

- :,,:,!,,. though iVminat.U 
for them these defects miuht be counterat I vi'laM 1' ■ 

Dr. Roth sh - ,f chairs !Uk1 f ] (vsk . s , m T 

in aecordance with In- n iew, r,f the tbrm such articles should take, 

Notes on the Sanitary Condition of the Eastern 
Suburbs, etc. 

As I make my ordinary rounds I am frequently met by the 
remark, what drainage you have about here ! I apologise and 
point to the great works we are now carrying out which are to 

carry away all our smells, all our typhoid, etc!, into the Pacific 
Ocean, to be carried a-w v to I guea of polar seas or eaten up, 
as I hope, by mi; .., ,,\ larger creatures. But 

the fact I cannot deny, my sight and smell both inform mo, and 1 
wish to put before you to-night a few examples more shocking 
than the rest, not because you are not familiar with them already 
but because reminder is good and because I think the present a 
time suitable to urge the efficient preparation for better things. 

Even m the higher parts of our suburbs we are met by gutters 
ti,ll °tdark dl-sim-lling and, < p ,,ial!y where the fall is not 

i ; JV aml • ' lries & ,mbined with what 

should be street sweepings, to be blown by the winds into the open 

windows of the houses or even into water tanks, which are 

Mg, . , i( . u t]l „ ]„, HJi aiv ;lll ope ned 

to obtain what cool air may be possible to get, and then we are 
' ! along th. middl of rh ,l,v. tt., a I tiie odours of 
the gutter on either side. A notable example of i his will be found 
in the lower part of Moncur-street, Woollahra. and a portion of 
lomt Piper Road, at the head of Glenmore, also in another portion 
une road on the steep slope- towards Double Bav. The 
• d their wits in trying tempo- 
ares. But the deodorants are fleeting and' the decom- 
posing matters seem eternal. 

If you go along the low part of Glenmore Road across the 
; r i"- b-'idge you will find a sluggish stream winding 
round some land supposed to be a ma-eat ion -round and mean- 
dering through the Chinamen', garden^ below the road < n its way 

to the bay, whoa infully apparent to the least 

sensitive nose. In heavy rains I have seen a cataract leaping 
down into that glen from a el ill 1 , hut it did not sparkle like those 
of the mountain, but was of a muddy brown colour ami consisted 
of the rain carr) in. do-u all (In \\ i 1 ;•> Lth< small streets in 
Upper Paddington. Higher up, the same stream, which for years 
has contaminated the air along Brought 

■ now being tun h -ill for the p ro a an i and 

at the before-mentioned cliff. Another filthy Bl 
Lacrozia Yalley and joins those above 
the Rushcutters' Bay, through the Bridg 

houses on Darling ] 

. wdl see water ooz 

water supply aggravates the 
help to purify those in the 

■' : .- 
rain some time ago 1 was gomg alon: 
estat", {.'ail-lingfou, This' lane wa- 
west, that I had to pick my way alon 


1 along, though one would have thought there was 
everything foul away. The < 
was that the rain had overflowed the tops of some cesspits in yards 

to which they belonged being still lower, and. as is too often the 
ease, the back doorstep being wry low, the diluted filth ran down 
the yards and through the lower floors of the houses to the con- 
sternation and disgust, of the dwellers. 1 had a very bad ease of 
typhoid opposite the very spot in that lane, and I remember that 
she had a veiy bad relapse just after. Can it be wondered at 
that low-lying "places are unhealthy when such things occur, and 
that milk coming from dairies in such low-lying places should be 

Owing to the way in which the land has been subdivided, and 

available, the . ■ ,, • h'.g rid of the liquid 

.lops of the dwelling has b.-n to di.sehar-e thi-'i.i into the nearest 
gutter. Some of the b,rom,i,, hue, I know, bv laws prohibiting 
tins net. but I, , , ilv ,,;„ n ,h.-r. a dead 

the system is the getting rid of the liquids. Where there is a 

be no difficulty h tn Waverley the Council 

works it, but I am informed that it is really worked like the Mel- 
being earnestly made to improve it. For those suburbs at a con- 
siderable distance from r < : h system must be 
used for a long time. but in thosenearer and within reach of it we are 
promised soon the introduction of the water-carnal system by 
means of properly constructed sewers. I trust that this will be so, 
and it is therefore that I wish to impress on the section, and « 
possible, through it on the; authorities and the public that 
immediate steps should be taken to insure the introduction of this 
system in the most perfect way possible. It is a very large 
' " ' 3 dealt with 'in a broad way. ! 

should he 

1 think, be left to eae 

general plan f.,r all th 


adopted. Forthedrai 

Slop. - t- : 


and that would entail greater expense, and possiMv .-■ oitlit-t in-_; 
views. I therefore think that the great matters of water supply 

elected upon it 1 I, certain members 

appointed by the Government, and anions them several scientific 
persons, sueh as an engineer, a sanitary medical officer, and a 
scientific chemist. This Hoard should have power to levy taxes, 
to inspect premises, to carry out work it-it. or see that the proper 
persons did it, raid be compulsory. I find 

that by the Act, 43 Victoria. No, 32, Buch a Board is author- 
ized to be created, and that its powers at present are vested in the 

the large portion of the groat eastern sewer will he available 
from the sea to the boundary of the city, it is time that some steps 
were taken to brin-; this import Lt matter to a practical issue. 
We have in I B \ir_in soil to work on, 

duced in such ai eurso and not a 

blessing. The ignorance of sanitary matters among builders and 
workmen is so great that I feel that we are in great danger of 

I was astonisl bear him say that he could 

only recommend that defects already existing should be altered, 
and I wonder that the power has not been obtained by the City 
Council to com} igementa to be carried out in 

such cases. Only lately, in one of the finest houses in the city, 
occupied by two medical men, one of whom was a sufferer, there 
were several cases of typhu 1. ad it i J found that old untrapped 
and unventilated drains were the cause. 

The Board should take cognis 
of every dwelling from the main 
and should see that all traps and ventilate uv other apparatus 
used are of the latest and most scientific kind. I do not feel 
sure from a short perusal of the Act that power is given by it as 
is necessary to ensure such being the case. 

I trust, gentlemen, that these imperfect remarks may have some 
effect in hastening our deliv a wri nuisances 

sketched out, and in bringing about a system of dramage which 
will be most efficient in warding off disease, and preventing the 
pollution of our streets and premises. 

The recent outbreak of Small-pox on the M.M. S.S. 
" Oceanien." 

T,. . 

is not, perhaps, of very general ini i\ -t : and I feel that some few- 
words of expL ; before I venture to occupy 
your time with the brh i account ■ f the recent case of the "Oce- 
anien," which I propose to submit to you presently. I need not 

regard the whol < f Au trail i i i, a} < von be said, the whole 
Australasia — as one country for this purpose of quarantine, sn: 
it is thoroughly understood and accepted. If, however, the n. 
terestof all the colonies [ u this matter are the same, it follows 
that their practice with r. gard to it should ho id. nth d ; and tins 
view, also, is understood and accepted by the various health offi- 
cers. Moreover, tm d.-Mi- ■ ; :,- identical lines of practice should 
he followed, which is so earnestly felt here, is entettaiued every- 
where else, but no vie re, j erhaps, ;,,,•, ■ arm stly than in Victona 
Yet it cannot ha ■ the course pur- 

sued here in the case I refer to was essentially different to that 
which had been pursued under the very same circumstances, 
only a day or two previously, at Melbourne. At that port tne 
vessel was regarded as clean, aiA -,h,- u... admitted to free pra- 
tique; here, she was regarded a- i ub ct-d. end she was detained 
in quarantine for some days. I do not think that so marked a 
difference of practice, and one so puzzling to shipowners and tfae 
general public, should pass without, comment: and I believe the 
facts of the case may profitably occupy your attention for a f eW 

The " Oceanien," after an uneventful voyage of the usual dura- 
tion from Marseilles, touched at Aden, and on August bth le 
, and on the 
small-pox. The passenger was shut up by himself in an ordinary 
first-class cabin ; the oliieer was shut up in his own cabin, w fllC 
is on the same deck amidships ; and the cook was placed m an 

apartment called the hospii 
away forward, between the 
No doubt, such arrangemen 
tion to the quarters named 
Reunion (which, it will bo 1 
reached on August 16th, an 
requested by the captain to 

any bv 

Crown Colony, was reached on the 21 
from infection. This application wa 

departure, that is to say, not 

until th 

says the patients had recm ere 

replied that he could not cerl 

it'v in 1 

d,'in sh 

with he 

sued, the two remaining patienl 

when the quarters they had occ 


and all their personal effects 

10th. Some cargo was dischar; 

was continued after the captain 

nter ng H 1 >n's Bay. On 1 

;;.;;;, ■'' 

touched, and the vessel was I 

Officer and by a medical memb< 

After due examination, these ol 

thirteen passenger, luggage, o: 

id rgo 

day being Sunday, about 200 v 

15th the vessel touched Port Ji 

i.-ks'-.n. : 

Heads, the captain was ordered 

to hoi-: 

'ort Phillip was 
warding Medical 
Joard of Health. 

Health Officer and myself, direful examination f . 
any present case of small-pox., at 7-:10 sh v, is 1 xn.l 
of the quar ntiue oin ers, and th ' 
was at once begun by the Superintendent of Quar 

lodged on shore, and as many of the crew as could 1 

landed at the laundry, where they 

and luggage. By the afternoon 

operations had been done under the eve of the Superintendent 

and to his ■ • - ' tThi ™, 

the Board of Health. The 

Health Officer wa be release of the 

vessel ; and in this course the Board of Health would have con- 
curred, but during the previous night a case of febiiV disordo r 
had occurred in the person of the ship's butcher. The illness was 
not especially an ere was very strong reason 

from the first to expect that it would turn out to be of no con- 
sequence. But under the circumstances it was deemed prudent to 
defer discharging the vessel for four-and-twenty hours; and she 
was released at last after her arrival, at 1 p.m. 

These are the un -.■. Two questions arise 

in them — First, why was the vessel treated as infected at this 
port, when she was treated as clean in Victoria 1 And secondly, 
if she were infected, why were her passengers not detained during 
the usual incubation period 1 

The first consideration is, that the infection of variola clings to 
inanimate objects with great tenacity ; so that a ship which has 
carried a case of small-pox during the voyage must of necessity be 
regarded as being inf. ted wi h rli . di . is* d ,wn to the time at 
which she is officially declared to have been thoroughly cleansed. 
This is the view taken — but no one disputes it bj the Sanitary 
Conference; and it is expressed in their fourth resolution.* Upon 
this account alone the " Oceanien" would have been treated here 
as infected. But, it may be objected, there is no evidence that 
the vessel in general over was exposed to such infection, because 
the patients were isolated in certain cabins, which there is no 
reason to doubt were thoroughly cleansed after their recovery. 
To this criticism there are several answers. If it be granted that 
the case really was as it represents it to have been, yet the clears- 
mg was done by the captain of the ship. No health authority is 
justified in relying, for the safety of the people whom he is charged 
to defend from imported inr mints of persons 

over whom he has no control. Thus stated, the proposition appears 
self-evident ; but it may be added without offence to captains in 
general, and merely as testing tin l.-al value of the evidence they 
can give upon this point, that tin \ ar< inter. sb d parties— inter- 
ested, that is to say, in pro 3< barge of their 
vessels rather than in protecting the people of an alien country 
from disease. The same objt ct ion does not a\ ply to any evidence 
they might be able to produce, under the hand of an independent 
health authority of whatever country, that careful, thorough disin- 
fection had been done. Xo doubt, a vessel v. 1, ■ h, ha\ ing carried 
cases of small-pox during the voyage, could produce a certificate 
stating that she had been inspected by the Health Officer of some 
port, that she then had no case of disease on board, and that she 

ing the voyage." 

1-pox is one which 1 

had been disinfected by bis own staff u 

ascertain that no further case had oc 
inspection. But, is it tbe ease that th. 
been exposed to infection, but that the 
tbe quarters occupied by the patients' 
as the difficulty of attending to patient 
cuinstances -without exposing tbeir ser 
and I proceed to consider the possibil 
board ship. This the Conference s 

this case has already been demonstrated. I have s 

: was isolated in the hospital. Now, just a year : 

v named Manoni. ^as " isolated" in the very <piart 

the present occasion by the chief cook. That pati< 

: the day after the vessel left Aden, and at the p. 

AiMiaiia vTas readied : all of lla i 

on. But she no sooner touched A> 

clean ; she re Melbourne ; i 

; die had onlvl.een in this port a i 

two other pers 

:.V. v i-i. , .. : . ■ ■ . : ' 

thus proved on - isolation ot Man 

dehWte^op inionT the Conference, winch was based «P°^^ 

similar cases known to the ilUl ! , 

given long before, was thus supported: but it wa^thus si^u. 
that the cook's ragewai J 

untrustworthy, m ,T* thl 

had to be consid< i u 1 if i 1 } ' ' t „ , ,.,,],,. 

here she had not been cleansed to the > An ^^ ;,,,'; s , (0]1(] 
pendent health authority. It still remains^ < > ai.-vj ■ '■ ^ _ 

question— Whv, if the vessel were ml... -to,. \yi< 1 Vl ■ ~liii> 
not detained for the asm .'' Q uarant ine is 

despatched in quarantine : Hm an^\ : ■ persons of 

li''orty, and . '^ V, the 

Its justitication is a reasonable probability that it w . 
imposing country from epidemic disease. In 
should be done vwth thi. v^L therefore, all the cncum.tan 


of the case were taken into careful consideration. Thirteen 
passengers were known to have Ian. led in Melbourne ; 200 citizens 
had visited the infected ship, and dispersed to their homes ; any of 
these might have v before the "Oceanien" 

came into port. Under am eireumsf aces, little of value can 
be done by inland quarantine ; under these circumstances 
especially, nothing' could be d me. If appeared, therefore, that the 
usual detention, if it were enforced here, would be vexatious — its 
hardships would be incommensurate with any advantage which 
could be hoped from it with confidence. The detention therefore 
was not insisted upon. But, had this been the vessel's first port 
of call in Australia, it would certainly have been enforced for 
the reasons already given. 

I am constrained to add, that their seems to have been a dere- 

ne. The Health Service at 

cted with sheer cruelty in condemning some 300 people 

d the ship. 

It was clearly a duty owing l\v,\ to humanity, secondly to their 

. . i 1 tiiirdly to a n ul < i \ i < <-nl di/< 1 1'V their own 

,,<u ' i ii i . ♦- t > 1, \. t k ' i \ j ' , ' ' < '»'■ and 

to have thoroughly cleansed the vessel. Had this course been 

to11 ' ] > d upon th product! n \ -nil;, i ith detailed 

Mvd bav< been regardedhere 

^ h ' 1 ) -i hcyiin li r p, [i-,I ,,i ob-.rvathm at the time of leaving 

[ ;'V' ' ! 1 • .v «M I iv, elapsed bvtm time sh, ai ived at 

lhe matter lS ems to demand 1, attention of the 

French Colonial Office, and 1 am rveiition 

will be sought by th ;. Almost the same 

, but their case is 

by there having been at the date they were appealed 

*° no qaeati ,, ^ !iut merely of 

■li and cleansing. This,' too, was a dutv owing to 

ft appears to m- tl mention of 


is a Crown Colony, no | j take the 

form of commands. The officers at both of these ports seem to 

D to shirk the respon- 

i heir fate to encounter face to face ; and they 

. \ 
:ig failed, even as they did, it devolved upon Victoria. 
As to the latter, I simply cannot no :. ; o :il d ;h.- action taken 
| wss it ever with- ut further remark. At 

A Note upon Scave 
By J. Ashburtox Thompson, M.D. (I 

[Read before the Sanitary Section of th Ho 

The removal of clirt from a single dwelii 

Scavenage is the cleansing' of aggregate 
authority. It can be properly done only 
the inhabitants, and the method to be ado; 
fcion, therefore, especially within the pnwii 
that is, within the province of those raeral 
who are chosen from the whole number to 
co-operation renders available into the 
These forces are means of securing all the 
tingnish town life from camp-life, of whic 
appear to be good water, roads, and seaven 
being now tolerably well provided here, tl 
the necessity for more thorough scavenage 
occasion of my addressing you is the ter 
perceptible in public bodies to seek after 
from economical, methods. 
Scavenage, thoroughly done, is of necess 

something valuable may be reclaimed froir 
individual, are mere exuvioj', is a hope Ion: 
expect that waste, accumulated under the 
city life should support that life in any so 
appears to me thoroughly unreasonable. 1 
selves they hold this view may find, on co 
that it is based upon the general truth that 
I they entirely R 

of collectio 

render articles of much great* 

handling ; and they forge* 

■r -.'- . ■■;:, ' ■ ■ ': ' ' ' 

M of expener 


thus far may be summei 
munity which regards the .™ 

,,, u will not embark 

siderahle sums unless some in • 

' from fa Is > pn misses, and striv* - 

The true premiss is- not that society must make money out of its 
necessities, but — that society must preserve health and useful 
activity under tB< fc has its If created, as long 

as may be. So it comes about that, while removal of refuse 
matters and expense are both conditions of good scavenage, the 
actual cost is but secondary to the urgent necessity for doing it. 

Nevertheless, whatever expense, within reason, might be in- 
curred to secure good scavenage. ultimate profit could be shown to 
accrue. For dirt;, .■ ,.I disease costs money; 

but to cleanse di d therefore to save 

money. The profit is incalculable ; not, however, because it is 
infinitesimal, but for an exactly contrary reason — that it is rever- 
batory or regenerative. The householder, in estimating the ex- 
penses of city life, should s t down a rate for scavenage as much 
as a matter of course as he sets down the rate for water, or for 
gas, or house-rent itself. Yet, just because the profit arising from 
public cleanliness is not calculable at so many sovereigns per cent, 
upon so many sovereigns invested, but even more, perhaps, 
because it does not visibly flow into individual pockets, it may 
be too much to expect that the average householder should be 
eager to pay a sea vei g. rati which floes obviouslv diminish his 
individual banking account. His judgment of the necessity for 
such work, and therefore of tlio amouiitit is worth his while to 
pay for having it done, is likely to he fallacious, in so far as it is 
formed upon the events of daily lite as they appear in the obscure 
and confusing light thrown by half-forgotten memories of inaccu- 
rate observations. Experience has shown that even so indisput- 
able a necessary as pure water cannot be made to appear so 
desirable to all the members of a community that all willingly pay 
their share of the expense of bringing it to their doors. It is 
everywhere found necessary to enact that whenever water is led 
within a certain short distance of a house the owner shall pay his 
share of the general expense whether he chooses to take the water 
or not. How much more likelv is The same experience to follow 
the introduction of systematic scavenage ; and how important is 
it, therefore, that town councils should everywhere be granted 
power to strike a scavenage rate :* 

* This they do not at pre* i I , Wales. They can 

interpreted to Include scaveni . 

Act they can reco-. arre d in removing 

night-soil from premises. But? fines the noiwncM 

"••• 1.5 ; ;e .:■.•-.. .."■-"..-'. 

: ■■'■ <■ '■ '■:.■■■ ..■■-..■>. • ; 

Irate. And the 1 

of amount up to which a rate for levied is now far 

too small to bear tl aire as well 

through its aldermen, provided the operations are subject, in case 
of necessity, to the control of a central authority. Hearing these 

fact that the scavenage of cities has never yet heen made to pay 
its way, much less, therefore, to yield a profit, the proposals "t 
mpanies now before the public may well he regarded by 
5 and aldermen with a coolly critical eye. They all . .llbr 
.- shareholders, one of them venturing to premise >» 
;r cent. Now I do not for an instant intend to dis- 
pute the power of these companies to make a proht, if their own 
terms of contract are accepted ; hut whence is it to come \ Irom 
the manufacture of poudrette? Not entirely, at all events. There 
is not one of them but asks a subsidy in one form or another. 
Sometimes it appears as a heavv charg. t> 1 deodorn iti n s in 
times as a charge, not for < - - -. heih. r that he 

nightsoil or garbage, hut iV receiving it at the compam s ^..rk>, 
after the labour of collection has been 

Hence some of the profits. Buttle chief expense of scavenage 
lies in the process of collection, not of disposal ; co ec 1 -, 

•lone gratis, disposal may doubtless be made a soui ceo pio 
there any chance that a com] 

of profit 'b\ r< dm ing the < xpens. s of collection to a point ,t « hi. a 
it iould become impossible to do it well i In tino, -hen ah th.nes 
are considered, is it not prett; ol. ir that councils would he.-r c-, 
sider ratepayers' interests, both of pockets and health, u tuey 
to undertake r . -"' themselves. 

Sanitation of the Suburbs of Sydney. 
By J. Trevor Jones, C.E. 

The question of tl ; various times 

agitated the resident- th.a of, ,,, far .-„ to 1,-ad to the calling 
together of meetings, having for their object the initiation of steps 
to secure the benefit of .v>ia.> -yst^ni whereby the refuse of modern 
housekeeping and fo . a 1 j. ,•.„!-, k i.d-:ht 1,.- di-nused of in some 
better way than ; - lone at present. 

The city of Sydney set early in its history about securing 
accommodation of this character l.y taking advantage of the steep 

house-refuse and storm-water into the harbour, and more recently 
has undertaken to intercept the hulk of it by a main trunk col- 

lector sewer, so designed as to discharge its 

contents into the open 

ocean; and is .' fcivelj i rrying out a 

for the southern slopes to convey the sewage of those localities to 

the neighbourhood of Botany Bay, where it 1 

s proposed to establish 

a sewage farm for its utilization. 

The adoption of a scheme for the suburbs 

has been retarded by 

ers, the contentions of 

hod of attaining the 

desired result most effectually with the least 

expenditure of labour 

and money, as w-ell as with the least amoun 

The earth-closet, the pan-closet, the Lieurn 

all putting forth their claims to the embaras 

ment of non-technical 

communities, and all more or less contendin 

water-carriage system on account of its was 

efulness of a valuable 

fertilizer, and its property of generating an 

of a character deleterious" to the health. 

The systems advocated by disentients fr< 

system have each their respective claims 01 

adoption, and their 

schemes are the outcome of the labours of th< 

ughtful public-minded 

men, and their allegations as to the objectioi 

s to the water-carriage 

system are based upon fact —that is to sa 

liich, if not excluded 

from the dwelling, renders the bivatliing-aii 


ti IH \ w y?7'' m ""'". 

lengthy details as to 

these acknowledged objes 

of men who have had most experience in Europe ami elsewhere. 
is the only system at present known to meet all requirements ( 
populous cities a- : more e>ptvially, wln-n 

is considered that the above objections can be met by ventilatioi 
and that no other system offers a means of disposing of kitchei 
slops along with the focal refuse of a practical and uuobjection: 

From the above remarks it will be seen that this paper is to 1 

devoted to the advocacy of the water-carriage sysb 
excludes the conveyance of storm-water from the sewers, ami m 
known as the Separate System. 

With reference to the popularity of a system 
experience in the city of Sydney is, that citizens are as import una be 
for sewer accommodation as they are for water, roads, bridge*, fc&, 
and never to my knowledge begrudge the rates. 

Another impediment to the progress of sanitation in the suburbs, 
as well as to the adoption of systems of water-supply, is tlm 
inveterate habit of colonists in New South Wales of looking to 
the Government i initiate ml ei low them with systems, and, 
allied to this, is the assumption that a comprehensive scheme to 
meet all the requirements of the suburbs is at some future day 
about to be entered on by Government. 

I must be alio inveterate practice m New 

South Wales of waiting upon the Government in every emergency. 
Reliance upon Government for works of sewage and water-supply 
acts as a pernicious opiate on the self-reliance of a people. 

Now, with respcci to this latt-r .oiwderatiun, whnV g.-m-rally 
approving of comprehensive schemes for public works, it bj no 
means follows that a compact community should not set aooui 
securing accona: J be so designed 

as to form part and parcel of any general scheme that might there- 
after be initiate ' ~ > V™ ,^ 

•:■ ' ' 

the assumption that it is a costly work (which it is) wi thout gi xng 
its due consideration to the ULlt ' ™ , , 

providing for the convenient ' a ^amy *T 

healthy manner, it is a reproductive work, and that 
desired accommodation of sewage disposal at an immense 

not necessarily presuppose the wasting of a va u ab 1 ml b i : 
be found that a market can be got font butlntoerto a 
to utilize this material have only succeeded in reducing the outlay 
incurred in its treatment for market. Hlization • but in 

Sewage farms have been ^ stltute '\ ^Ytl nf the vear'are wet, 

Saturated with n pollution of streams by the 

inflow of unfiltered sewage into them during wet weather, when it 
cannot be all absorbed. 

Tn Adelaide, however, a fairly .successful sewage farm has been 
established, and. according to information received from the mayor 
of that city quite recently, is doing good work. 

The number of dry clays in Adelaide in the course of a year 
about equals tl. h encourages the hope that 

sewage might prove a blessing here, if a locality sufficiently 
removed from a populous neighbourhood can be secured for its 
application to the growing of crops, trees, and vegetables. 

The consideration of this point will come later on in the course 
of this paper. 

The system n > liiied approval in Adelaide, 

is identical with tJ in, so far as the mode of con- 

veyance is concerned. Jt is called the Separate System, because 
if underground drainage is desired for both storm water and 
sewage, they shall flow in separate channels; as thereby the 
sewage is obtained in a more concentrated form for treatment, 
and also, the conduits aecea n\ t r this -\stem are of small 
dimensions and therefore obtainable at small cost. 

It is designed in this paper to fcreat of the several points here 
adverted to in the following order :— 

s suitability of the water-carriage system < 

2. Outfalls. 

O' J 

3. The praeri system for an isolated 

small community, independently of any proposed com- 
prehensive scheme, and the possibility of adapting to 
any such general hem dl the works constructed. 

4. The reproductive character of a sewage scheme. 

5. Health statistics proving improvement to the health of a 

G. The ventilation of sewers. 

1. The suitability of the water-carriage system over others.— 
Where a water-supply is available, it ensues that the domestic 
slops and refuse greatly exceed in bulk those of localities where 
water is scarce ; hence the street gutters and channels are gener- 
ally in a running condition, and therefore while their contents 
are more bulky, they are less offensive, the sewage being more 
dilute, and the gutters if properly constructed, are better flushed. 
Notwithstanding all this, such gutters are always giving off offen- 
sive odours, as may be witnessed in the Melbourne gutters. 

Into these gutters only kitchen slops are allowed to be thrown, 
all f cecal matter being rigidly excluded. 

These slops contain ing ite the air almost 

equally with fecal refuse, and if allowed to run without filtration 
in the street gutters, present a most objectionably slovenly appear- 
While therefore other i IW more or loss 

effectual in providing for the disposal of the fcccal refuse of a 
dwelling, not one of them shows a practical way of dealing with 
ordinary slops. 

ware drains laid deeply underground receives inditl'erently eitln r 
and all such sewage, as well a proportion of the rainfall. afWdin ■ 
to householders and manufacturers a ready and inoffensive means 
of getting rid of their waste fluids. 

It is true, ashereitdief-i s gases are given 

It is scarcely necessary to enter info any minute, de.criptio, 
a water-carriage system of sewers, it U-mg fully known tha 
consists of >: • v'.nerete, earti 

ware, stoneware pipes. ,ve., laid with proper fall towards the 
fall, laid also so that the 
page at frequent points 
appliances and the usual 
recently-constructed ;-ew> is , I Sydney. _ 

The object of this paper is not to enter into the details of con- 
struction, even i I ," w * , l a , v ,? 
orbs, whereby they 

ea;;;:;:.!:' h*m <&**»<* 

their sewage in an effectual- '' v 4. ^^u 

2. Outfalls.— Nearly the whole of 
.uto the Harbour, Bot; " 
Iliver or some branch thereof, and a 
: d -h ■ . ■:■ ' ' 

This limital ', a r 3™ - . 

deringthe effluent sewage free from 6 

contemplated 1 ft T & A £7v^l?o 

that obtains! 

the local rivers, wherefrom domestic 1 

Instead of discharging 1 * 
InW it i« m«]p to fl<W iuw|s.«— « -— 

fluent is drawr 

tlie lower end, clear in proportion to the treatment it has received 
and to the capacity of the tanks. The tanks are designed of suffi- 
cient capacity to allow of plenty of time for the sewage to precipi- 
tate the solids : ; with some pre- 
cipitating drug, as - dphab of ir m dribbles a proper proportion of 
the drug in siic'i -cwage : this is 
allowed quietly to settle, ;; \ ] when properly 
treated runs off as clear water. 

In a situation win re the v. i- ■ w. : r i' . . . into a branch of the 
Harbour waters the eo t of drue,-, i- numb I - than that entailed 
to render the effluent tit f or < ater river, as the 

purity need not be so high. 

The tanks are req be, in order that 

settlement may i. be drawn off; the sludge 

is then spread in i :'• a nd 1 «com e portable for 

transmission in I g been deodorised 

bv the first process. 

3. At Hertford, England, 3[r. E. O. Moriarty, Engineer-in-Chlef 
of Harbour*, and Hi n ,1 md during the 

proceedings saw t] l b w a glass of the effluent 

and drink it, such was his faith in the efficacy of the treatment. 

To recapitulate, therefore, here we have a process of collecting 
automatically, purihv.Uon by s. or preeipitation, asso- 

been at work successfully for abo ut L6 years, and which can be 
applied for the uses of a small community without sacrificing its 
adaptability to become part of any general scheme thereafter. 

Nevertheb ss, tlie question Las h s ol vei so side, and it must not 
too ha.stily he taken for grante 1 tint all i',,, i accomplished with- 
out considerable , X p. nditure i,i th- lit t place, and the dedication 
of space where dw ■ . , Amoved for obviating the 

experience by the residents of any taint in the air. 

Can this last condition be secured for anv of the suburbs of 
Sydney ? 

The acquisition of suitable land for the above purpose will be 
difficult, but in view , J th. \ tram . ... i ,,; rt ;nce of the question 
it should not be impossible, and when see u red it should be the 
depot for as large an area as can practically drain into it, so as 
not to multiply such establishments. 

In Sydney, we know from experience how the residents of a 
locality within a radius of i :'/ .-ill rise up to object to the 
it of such a depot. 

It is here assumed that the pro, urin<< of land, while it is difficult, 
is not impossible. 

A few days since, I visited the model farm at Rookwood Station, 
and found that since my last visit a stupendous amount of work 
had been done i>. draining, and 


planting; the locality i> elevated and exposed to the sun and 
wind, and therefore liable to suffer in summer from the effects of 
the long dry months. 

The whole area is accessible to the waters of the new supply 
from the Nepean ; but that work could not afford water for the 
irrigation of such an area withou; niacin- the head required for 
giving an ample supply to the Syney reservoir. 

It struck me whib , * i, t! i m<], that i large proportion 
of the sewage of the western suburbs mi;,!it lie utilized here, and 
would form both inc agent it' it 

could be delivered here. 

The site being elevated, it follows that the sewage would not 

cost of a line of pipes for its conveyance of a pumping plant, and 
the labour of pu very great. 

A large tank could be constructed here to receive the sewage at 
the highest elevation, whence it would command the surrounding 
land, and contrivances e aid be designed whereby the sewage 
could be conduci I during the day 

Lieurxur System. 
Tjits system has attracted very considerable attention from the 
public and aut! ial conditions, 

as life in barracks, <fcc. , n ng felt want 

"""t proposes t 

i .;' 


spot, by suction, or to speak ' y exhausting the 

This scheme has procured high encomiums from Belgian, 

circum tances ; bat as it only propo; 
municij d bodies id v - h j i scheme which will 

dispose of both products, viz., house slops and night-soil, therefore, 
the Lieurnur system would icquin to be supplemented and a 
system of the nature of the one I am advocating, would be necessary 
in addition to the Lieurnur's system, entailing immense cost, it 
must suffice to say that it does not meet the requirements of our 
suburbs, notwiti; ; invention a very 

commendable amount of ingenuity and thoughtful labour. 

I have this afternoon rec< ■ Mx. Staytoh's 

report to the Sewers Department on the sanitation of North Shore, 
and I need not perhaps siv that, like all modern engineers, he 
prescribes identically the plans advocated herein for that suburb. 

As I have never exchanged one word with Mr. Stayton on this- 
subject, it serves to prove the unanimity of engineers in England. 

lent as to ; 

Up to the } 

in different localities. "Wr 
whole and not 

i should look 

The adoption of a syste t' se 

has uniformly lowered the 

I have, in a previous paper read in this room, 

advanced my 

opinions on the ventilation of the sewers and the 

_ ; 

5 system then 

advocated is i tion in all the si 

iburbs as well 

at it consists of 

Ii 1 1 i -s .-. -j it 1 1 .-_ i:. •■-■■,>.. r p is at tlie front of a large 

proportion of 

" >< s to the ridg 

;e of the roof, 

where it will get diluted v. it 1 1 t!,e surrounding air." 

I would now conclude with tin- recommendation 

to persevere in effort until tlo-y secure their object, 

which will at 

once lowerthe sickness and death-rate; nottoreqni 

ment to provide for their wants, but boldly to applv 

• themselves to 

the work, remembering that if the < Government did 

the work the 

residents must pay for it in the long run, and ren 

umbering also 

It shoul. 
that to be 

' ' 


"Mr. Tim 

- an isolated community, c 

Id traverse tin- wind.- « 
whole at a general estab 
explained that In' did n 

hich,"' to his personal 1 iiowlrdnr. were in a very pc 

nunp with town rubbish, as is done in some parts. 
Mr. Staytox expressed his satisfaction at being pre; 

suburbs, but could not so early disclose his 
sufficiently advanced his plans. 


Seven meetings of this section were held during tl o of 

1886, under the presidency of Sir Alfred Koberts. 

The average attendance of members was considerably below 
that for the session of 1885, the average number present having 
been sixteen, the I ity-two, and the lowest ten. 

There was no falling off, however, in the amount of useful work 
done, the average number of papers read at each meeting being 
three; in addition to which cts, pathological 

specimens, and models of discus i <• kvU'Ioms, were exhibited. 
The papers attained a high standard of excellence, and were 
remarkable not only for their practical character but for the keen 
interest and seii < h, for the most part, they 

gave rise. 

The section had, during th. the loss by death 

of its esteemed me,, ',.-,■ !)r. W.-di :■ Kawkes Mackenzie, and the 
fifth ordinary genei . Mourned as a mark of respect 

for his memory, am] of cr.iulolenc' v.ith his widow in her affliction. 


SOUTH WALES, 1862-1865. 

> Vcrtebratcd Animals of the Lower rlurray) 

'-v, ami geo^ru- - Gerard Krefft. 

'' riK ' d iu " ;1 - :i,I 'l M ;i ,..m Gardiner. O.K. 
m.s. Paper Xo. 2 ... ... J 

■' l i:^-n'^-^'t odanin Gardiner, C.E. 


of NeW South Wales I B 

On the Defence of Port Jackson ""rBev.\\ 

On the Transmutation of Rocks in Australasia ... | FG . S-j F.R.G.S. 

m Geological j G R < 


laugural Addiess by t 
rticle I.— On Non-Lit 

, Tasmania 

■Herons and other M 

Opening Address by George E. Smaller, B.A., F.E.A.S., Tice-Prosideiit. 
Article I.-On the value of Earth Temperatures .. . J ^^ l^ 7 ' B ' A '' 

„ IL-OntheLnprovement.effeeterlinModern ( G ™ 1 J^ f ^'f 
Museums in Europe and AuMmlu} J.;^, ? ^ 1', ^ . /J. 
„ III.— On the Hospital Requirements of) Alfred Roberts, 

Earthquakes, ;- M.A., F.G.S., 

, V.— On the 


Waks during , Christopher Eoll 

, TIL— Eemarks ., , th. IM L illoxl, a .,1 i 1 

, Till.— On Pau] i \ So. \Va 

past, present, and i'uture J M.R.C.S. 



WALES. 1860. 

Vol. III. 

Artiele I.- 

III.— New The 



VI.— Notes o ■"■} ' a. It Tho 


,k-Kiw < Charles Mayes. 

Tl ' Sv.Iir' 1 ^- Professor Smith, M.D. 

„ XII.— On a new Apparatus tor hoaucme I A Leihius, Phil. Do:-. 
„ XIII.— Remarks on Tables for Cal.-ulatii^O, H c Russe ll, B.A. 


Vol. IV. 
Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President. 
Article I.— OnPost-offio B :, lie ston, Auditor- 


WALKS. 1871 

Vol. VII. 

, VII.— Appendix to ' 

, VIIL-On o°ur Coal a, 
, IX.— The Mammals 

IX.— Some of the Kes 

ot r the Transi 

X.-The Transit of 


Vol. IX. 

Article IV. -Anniversary 



Vn e-lVsiili'iit 


-Notes o 

i Deep 
>. M.A 

Sea Soundings. 

By Rev 



-Facts in 


«t. L. Ben 


rous Deposits of Tasm 

nia (,//-'. 


II. Wintle, Hobart Tow 



nt Wat 

■r M.pph to ^ 

dncy by 

Livei-jidge . 

l Wales. By Professor 



Vol. X. 


(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 

„ III. 

-List o 




Fundamental Eules, By-laivs 
Idivs.s by the Eev'.W. B. CI 

„ IV. 

» VI. 

— 1 f t lV. 


Rev. Dr. Lang 

ag his Opposition 

„ VIL-On^th 


„ VIIL-Ontbc 

■■•-]" l: 

Cteiiodus. 'l'art-l"t«. IV.' 


'v'.Vid^. 1 l'n-t!'i!r l l!f Mim',' 

„ IX. 

-Rrr. 1 

'<■! lip' 

„ XI. 


if <~. b 


AL-iicleXIT.— EflV. 

plates.) By Professor Liwr-id 

. XV.— Proceedings 

, XVI.— Additions to Library 

, XV] L— Donations 

, X VIII.— Reports from the Sections ... 

Papers read before Si 
1. Alacrozamia spiralis. By F. 

„ XIX.— A P ] Meteorological Ob 

„ XX— Index... ' '•■'. ... 

Vol. XI. 

(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 

Article L-Li-t ,.f 'Meer. Fundamental Pules, By-k 

}) n-Anr ! X -T , H. C.Russell, B 

F.R.A.S., F.M.S., Vice-President 

IH.-r traland North 

New England in connection w -itn « -ck- 

M \ |-M1.S.,\ Vi .-1'residenl 

v.-o B °P r ";;" 

s u uC'm-a, -id Hibs a ..IS, des oi Ue. . 
Lh W .1 Parka, M.K.C.S. .. ... 


other Metals from ['• 


X.- Tbe i - if Australian Ter- 


129 to 143 

XII. Chit., „!us. By W. J. 

Barkas, M.R.C.S 

145 to 155 

XIII. AS\ r plaining to 
Hon. J. Smith, CM. G., M.D., LL.D.. M.L.C 

157 to 163 

Phosphat '■ i Mnl lU.nd. H> W. 

165 to 181 

XV. -On son Corali' (7Vo 

plate.-*.) By the Rev. .1. '<]. T< :., F.kG.S 

183 to 195 

XVI. —On ar, :.!..■ -tar in the 

Constellati. n Vra. i \ J. Teblmtt. F.E.A.S. 


V '■ . !. ■ :.. -. ' !:.; .- 

•203 to 207 

XVIII.- \ lav. IV- ,i | 

Olarke', M.A., F.R.S. '...'... ..'. ' ..." 

209 to 212 


ByH. C Ui- !! !J. \.. i'.l: \.S 

213 to 218 

\\. Proceedinffa 




XXIII.-Reports from the Returns 

■_>.-.:] to 27s 


"ByG.D. Hirst .. 

ByH. C. Russell, B.A., F. R.A.I- 

, J :d t 




is by the Society 




Vol. XII. 

(Edited by Prof. 

Liversidge and Dr. 


icle I.- 

-List of Officers. Fundamental Uule* 
and List of Members 

, By-la 

[e II. — Aiu:i\. it pher Rollestoii, 


Value. By Rev. J. E. Temson- Woods. P.t i.S., 


IV.- -The M- : PvtheRev. 
J. E. Tenison-Wouds. K.U.S., i'.L.S 

Polyzoa. ((in. r < f ., \V the Rev. J. E. 
TenisonAVoo.K >'.<;.>., V.\..< 

of the Sydney ( >bservatory. i'.y .iohn Teobutt. 

VII. - -On t)v ' Xi-w South 

inL's, by telegrams to the various Ports, from 

the Ob' en ith, Master 

of the ship " T. L. Hall" 

VIII.— Storms on the Coasl 

(Four <liau>'<imx.) By II. C. Russell. P. A., 

IX.— Some Fa. 

u) By J. P. Joseph- 
nomical Experiment o 

r&c ByH ' 

0. Russell, B.A., F.: 
XL— On the Mttallur^ of NicK-l an.l < o'oait. 

W. A. Dixon, F.C.S., F.I.C 

XII. -The Deep WeU Waters of Sydney. By V 

XIV.— The Rise and Progress of Photography. B 3 

Ludovico W. Hart 


ions to the Library 

XVII. — Donations to the Cabinets ... 

XIX.— Reports from the Sections 

Papers bead before the Sections. 
1. Note on the Planet Uranus. By John Tebbutt, 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S ... ... 

| .John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

4. Note Ton the Star "Brisbane 6183." By John 

Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. ... ... - ■■■ 

5. Notes 

States Pv W. .1. MacDonnell, i.R.A.S. ... 

6. Clark- « 

B.A., F.R.A.S 

7. The Trundle Micrometer. By H. C. Eussell, 

s. > -^;; ,i ;; h [i'. , i t ;^ ' llUi ' 1 ^ hls0pp0Sltl0 _ n ' 18 ' 8 ; 

'" .'■-!. .':':' . -.; 

10. Al.-tia.-t ot the Results of the Ti.uisit ft 

Venus. By H. C. Eussell, B.A., F.R.A.S... 

11. Xotes.m theCieoceiitiieConjunetion of Mars 
By John 

F.R.A.S... ' ... 

-lasses. By II. C. 

13. On a New Form of E 

H. C. Russell, B.A. 


11. Xoteon the Boorook 

Silver Mine. I 

15. Notes on "tile" Inert 

station of the 

16". An Apology for the I 

of Photography in 

Science. By Luehn 

17. On Music. ByMon 




-List of Publications... 

ng. By 

Vol. XIII. 

[e L— List of Citi t H,, il Rules, By-laws, 

II un \ i •. I , • i , 

Smith, (•.).!.<;.. Vire-Pre-i.lent 

III. -The "Cem" Cluster in Argo. B i 

B.A., F.R.A.S. ... ?.. 

IV. — The lute, ologists, Paris, 

VL— On the Anal itb a Mono- 

graph of the Genus. By the Rev. J. E. 

Teni-., .\Y„..,U. r.c.>.. r.'L.S 49 to 6 

VII. -On the Geological Formations of New Ze.dand 
compared By James 
Hed - ... 65to8 

Afriea. By Hyde (Jhirke V. I'.A.L, London 81 to 8 

Article IX.— Photography, its relation to P 

X.-Ottcha piperita, P. v. M. By 1 

K.('.M.(;., M.D., 1MI.1>.. 1 

,, XL— Conipih a ( ^ l<>_u< . • i un 

L.S., F.G.S 

., XIII.— The Wciitwarth Hurricane. 1 
B.A., F.R.A.S 

the "iloteoiologi 

SToS^bjRV^aI ° bben aU 

„ XIX.-List of Publications 

Vol. XIV. 


. (D 


—On the Longitude of th 
By John Tebbutt, F.U 

.A : :'::". yi,> " 


-On the Opposition and 
and Jupiter. By Joh 



—Some new Double Stars, wit 

inaries. By 

n. '. 

F.R.A.S. (TwoDlax 


-The Orbit Elements of 

Cl, 1S8 





—A new methi 1 

I. c. 

vii r 

Sliding Scale for correc 

a 1 


' ings. By H. C. Eu 


-On Thunder and 'Hail 
Russell, B.A., F.E.A 


;v, /; ,!;; 

X-On Borne recent chan 

\r,ro"Dia ( ,rhw«) 


—Remarks on the Coloi 

Ph.D., F.R.S. 



-Notes on the F* ■ 

. By Dr. Ottake 


-On the A id, . ' ili.-X itiv, ( \ 

H. Rennie, M.A., B.Sc. 



„ XVn.-On Si 

W. A. Dixon, F.C.S 

-Water from a ! 1 

1'rofes 01 Liversid»e 


!i..t Spring i-j 



-The composite k 


-On e the a Comp.'' \\ 


„ XXII. 

-The Composition of Coral L 


„ XXIV. 

XXVIII. -' Prospect and 

Sydney. By F. B. Gipps 

XXIX. -On Wells in the Liverpool Plains. By T. 

K. Al.Lott, l'.-M. [Map) 

XXX. -IV,,,,, ,1-,:^ 


XXX11. I. !■> the lioval 

Vol. XV. 

Hon. Professor 

"ll'v. Lin- Roth, 

yiii.-ti,; : 


, : : ■ . ■.■>..■>'■: - 

edings of the Sectioi 

in the Star Lacaille i 

)n the Dei 

Article V. — Hooks from New Britain 

F.R.S., F.C.S 

VI. — TheHawkesburySaixIstone 

ins. By li. 

Diagrams) ...... 

nn. x 


land. By the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods. 
I.e.-.. i ; ... 179 to 192 

XV.— The Aborij J as. By J. 

abstract). By Dr. Andrew Boss, M.L.A., 


Additions to the Library 

.. : j . By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.i 
,' thTTear 1882^" By H. C Russell,' 1 


Act of Incorporation 

By Christopher Eollestoi 

Darling. By Pet, 

des. By the Rev 

Queensland ' ... ... 

VI. -Xotes on the genu ' i 

\ "II.— A list of Double Stars. By H. C. Eu 

IX.— On the discolouration of white hi 


McKinney, M.E., A 
-On Tanks and Weill 

.ssr«:. M. I 

i of New 

By A. 


By Baron vc . 

Ph.D., F.R.S., &e 


„ XIV.- 

he Library 

. ByA.W 




d Presentations made 

by the Ro 

yal Soe 


[lings of the Sections 



bservations. ByH. P. 

.A., F.I 




Vol. XVIII. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge, F.R.S.) 
Rules, List of Members, &c xii 

On t: 

■io Oven-mounds of Aborigine: 


s on the Trochoided Plane. 


w iW„i of A.-tiuometer. Ev ] 

BA., F.RA.S ... 

Notes on some Mineral Localities in 

Di ; 

briefs of X. S. Wales. Br D. 

■ on I>oryantbes. By Cbarles '. 

W \v 

r Supply in the Interior of X. J 


i on a New Sell 


H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 


ryology of the M - ; . 

1 Fell. CailLS Col!. C.l 

cms made b; 

Proceedings of tbe Sectio 

Cases of Mental Disturb 

iry to the Head, wi 

Manning. M.D. *" 

mory. By F. Nort 

Appendix : Abstract of tl 
Svdney Observatory. 


?al Observations at t 

By H. C 

Lisscll, B.A., F.R.A.: 

F.M.S., Government 

Rainfall Map for the J 

ear 1883. 

By H. C. Russell, B.J 


List of Publications 




Yol. XIX. 


(Edited by Prof. Liversidge, F.R.S.) 

Officers for 1884-S5 1X 

Act of Incorporation X1 

Rules, List of Members, &c. xv 

Article I.— President's Address. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 

F.R.A.S l 

„ II.— A System of A '• means 

of long Steel Ribands. By G. H. Knibb.s, 

III— Noi <• Mar- 
grave. (Three plates) « 


grave. (Two plates) 4 ? 


VIII.-The Bin i Eimalaya. 

By Dr. Brandis, F.R.S 

■ h-.. F.R.M.S. Lou. 

XL-Notes on tbe Characters of the Adelong Reefs. 

By S. Herbert Cox, F.C.S., F.G.S 


Additions to the Library 

Exchanges and Presentations made by the Royal Society of New 

Rainfall Map for the year 1884. f'.y H. C. Russell, 15.: 


List of Publications 

■Mi. ."■; 


d Presentations made by 1 
! the Sections 

E. Roth, M.E.C.S.E 

Notes on the Sanitary 0>iuliti,.ii 

the Dwelling. By J. Trevor 
., liv lieuter 

-pox on M.M. " Oceanien 
, M.D. (Brux.), San. Sci 

• J. .\-hburton Thompsoi 

. ntial/bv Profea 
In, -,;_,. J'.KS. _ ... 

'■ of 1 !".!. 1 !r l 

... 1 
..'. 103 
... IS 

r.i..l, .gieal Laboratory, Watson's Baj 

Black pumice from I'.ondi beach 

Hole from Haxter River 

Books purchased in 1880 

Pile's ." ". 

Biulding Fund, donations to _. 

Ross Fairfax ...'.' 


.. 2:;:; 


1 construction of... 338, 

saneshJe!!. 18 




P< isonou 

Plants d 


land ... 

Barnard Co 



w Gta 


- i 220, 

[:■ •:,- ,\ • 1) 18S.5 . "J-". 

\,.vth Queens- _ Co 
220 interior of 

jsponding members . 
3. Herbert, F.C.S., F.G 
i-deposits of N.S.W. 

Clarke medal for] 85 
Desks, rational tonstri 
Dialects of E. and \ 

Malay, Malagasy, am 

22 Iodargyri 

., j.yn 

Floods in Lake George 2 !1, 207 Kathelomcier by Professor I 

„_ the River l)arii-- 135 K. r. - n<- r-lia '.- .'■! N .S. W 

Lava chocolate colour 

Island of Tanna 

Lava from Port Resolul 
Lake G-eorge, floods in 
Lakes in N.S.W. and th 

Mid-hvet Gr-.Vi'na 
Mim-iMb iissomt. 

' , ',' ]■ R.-\ 

].\ lv- . i >r., f.ii.s.. < 
.,'., i'".i;. s., ni 
from the Pac 

LfadsenH.F. Notes on 

of Polishing and Figur 
Glass Specula by hand, 

Medal Clarke 

Medical Section, Proc( 

Members, Correspond]: 

" List of 

Meteorite, Bin-era. X. 
Metallic, Qi 

plants of ^ am '. . .'!!.". . V TT°m, 

n;.„.rvii ■ i-i,".,V rainfall "at Armid'alei 

Observations of rainfall' at" Brisbane, 

Observations of "rainfall' at Burium- 
dulla, 18W-1870 

1886 '. .'.. 191, 

Observations, river, at Cultova, 1870- 

1871 175, 

Occurrence of tin lodes 



Papers relating to Tin-mining Indus- 
Payable Tin! what constitutes''.''."!" : 
'.^^ 1 '" ''^ or le i raiy ^ 
Places, resulting, of Barnard's Comet, 

Phfs" n ultmg, of" Brooks' Comet ' 

(No. 1), 1880 1 

Places resulting, of Fabrv's Comet, 

1886 :.... j 

■Australia.... .75, : 

Poisonous plants, North Queensland, 

Polishing 18-incli glass specula by ' 

Polyglott of rl.epVlynesiau 'languages 1 
Polynesian dialects 45, ! 

Porphyry from New Guinea i 

Port Jackson marine fauna 

designed by ' J 

Pratt, Rev. George, on a compar^on 

of the dialects of E. and W. Poly- 
Presentations and Exchanges ; 

rn-Llem's Address, bv Professor 
Liversidge, F.K .8 *. 

„ Microscopical Section i 

Punnec/whitercheniicai'eomJ)ositioii ' 
of J 

' „ ' the Pacific ....*"'.'.' 235> i 


Quaife Dr. F. H. Notes on the Sani- 

i:A:,r:i Suburbs of Nvdiu.^ .'.. 3:JS, J 

Quartz from New Guinea,..: i 

Quartzite „ „ S 

Queensland North, discovery of 


Rainfall at Ar.uidale, 1859-1870 1 

Brisbane, 1S59 1,872 1 

Burrundulla. 1866-1870... 1 

Rayleigh, Lord, on scientilic education 

- ill \\ i.- 1S61-187I' 1 ■ ■■ . ■- 

Rennie, Professor E.H.,M. A., D.S.C., 

Notes on the sweet principle of 

Sniilax Glycyphylla 211, 2 

Renwick, the late Dr. George J., 

r.-'.m.'v.m.-!:!,! "...'"'.'.!."" .'.'.'.'. 

Eabrv. Barnard, and Brooks (No! 

1), 1886, at Windsor, N.S.W... 219, 2 
Resulting places of Barnard's comet, 

1886 2 

Resulting places of Brooks' comet, 

(No. 1), 1886 2 

Resulting places of Fabry's comet, 

Rhizopnds, method of mounting '•'> 

River Darling, floods in 1 

Bourke 191, 2 

River Darling, observations at Cul- 

Elvers in Au-fi 

■alia, A 


i>-,-i,inalna,a f: 

Rocks, from N £ 

sian Maml* . 

Both, R. E, 

!i'«f el'.an- nii'.l 

upon flood* u 
Russell, II. C. 

upon the hi 
River Darlin 

.0 Wat, 


, B.A. 

George I'll, 

, F.RS, notes 

Russell, H. C.,B. A., FJ 

"Hon. Prof., biopraplii 


Ventilation of sewei 


Ventilators grating 

Volcanic eruptions at K 

A.M.I.C.E. The 

Yule Island, New Guinea, mineral 
specimens from 230 


torvum 71 

Zincitc 233 

/i oplivl, - mclliocl ut mounting . 33G