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The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 as 
the " Philosophical Society of Australasia," after an interval of 
inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed its present title, 
and was incorporated by Act of the Parliament of New South 
Wales in 1881. 


The three Lectures on the " Geology of Australia " which were 
to have been delivered to the Members of the Royal Society of 
New South Wales in November, 1889, have been further post- 
poned owing to the absence of Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, f.g.s., 
Government Geologist, in England on Departmental business. 


The Honorary Secretaries request that authors of papers (to be 
read before the Royal Society of New South Wales) requiring 
illustrations by photo-lithography, will before preparing such 
drawings make application to the Assistant Secretary for patterns 
of the standard sizes of diagrams tfcc. to suit the Society's Journal. 


Sydney Technical College 

. III.— The Aborigines of Australia. By W. T. Wyndham, 

Boyne Island, Queensland 

rV.— Note on the Recent Eain Storm. By H. C. EusseU, 

v.— On the High Tides of June 15— 17th. By John Tebbutt, 

. VL— The Source of the Underground Water in the Western 

Districts. By H. C. Eussell, b.a., r.E.s 

ril.— On the application of Prismatic Lenses for making 
Normal-sight Magnifying Spectacles. By Percy J. 
TSidmunds {with illustrations) 

. VIII. — Flying-machine Memoranda. By Lawrence llargrave 

. IX.— Irrigation in its relation to the Pastoral Industry of 

New South Wales. By H. G. M'Kinney, m.e., Eoy. Univ. 

rrel.,M.i.c.E. {With maps.) 

. X.— The Eruptive Eocks of New Zealand. By Prof. F. W. 

Button, Hon. Mem. Eoyal Society, N.S.W. {One Plate) ... 
. XI.— List of the Marine and Fresh-water Invertebrate Fauna 

of Port Jackson and the Neighbourhood. By Thomas 

Whitelegge, f.b.m.s 

. XII.— The Analysis of the Prickly Pear. By W. M. Hamlet, 

F.C.S., F.i.c, Government Analyst 

, XIII.— On the occurrence of Arabin in the Prickly Pear, 

rOimntia BraziUensis). By W. M. Hamlot, f.c.s., f.i.c, 

. XIV.— Notes on some New South Wales Minerals. By C. 

H. Mingaye, f.c.s 

-Notes on Goulburn Lime. By E. C. Manfred 
—The Australian Aborigines. By Eev. John Mathew, 
., Cobiirg, Victoria {With Plate and Map) 

Abt, XVIT.— Aids to Sanitation in Unsewered Districts : (Pou- 
drette Factories.) By J. Ashburton Thompson, m.d., d.p.h.. 
Chief Medical Inspector, Health Department, Government 
of New South Wales 

Abt. XVIII.— Well and Eiver Waters of New South Wales. By 
W. A. Dixon, f.i.c, f.c.s.. Lecturer on Chemistry, Sydney 
Technical College 

Art. XIX. — The Aborigines of Australia, being personal recol- 
lections of those tribes which once inhabited the Adelaide 
Plains of Soiith Australia. By Edward Stephens, Bangor, 

New South Wales as a Health Eesort in Phthisis Pulmonalis. 
By Dr. Bernard James Newmarch. (Read before the 

Medical Section) 503 

Lecture— The present state of applied Electrical Science. By 

Prof. Threlfall, M.A 511 

„ The Evolution of the Kerosene Lamp. By W. M. 

Hamlet, F.C.S., F.I.C 511 

Eeception to the Members of the Eoyal Societt of N.S.W... 157 

Proceedings 18,45,53,97,159,330,511 

Proceedings of the Medical Section 521 

the Miceoscopicai. Section 522 

E Library 524 

Exchanges and Presentations made by the Eoyal Society 
OF New South Wales, 1889. 

% fflgal ^ackt^ of icto ^oitflj malts. 

OIFIFIOEiaS IFOia 1889-90. 


Prof. WARREN, 

( of Council : 

W. A. DIXON, F.c.g., f.i.c. I H. C. RUSSELL, b.a., f.b.s. 

A. LEIBIUS, Ph. d.. m.a., f.c.s. Prof. ANDERSON STUART. 3 

CHARLES MOORE, f.l.s. | H. G. A. WRIGHT, m.r.c.s.e.. 



rho Joiirnal and Procootlm<,^s of the Eoyal Society of IST S W. foi 1888, 
Vol xxu , lias botn distributed as follo^^s — 

'''l'\c'-!rnt'Ltr..w'to\l"'V'<'! 't^i'i ''\anoVluS b^l^E 'uKl m the Socictj's Annua 

Argentine Republic. 

1 CoRDOB V -= V. uU una N<u lunal do Cieiiuas 


• Naturelle de Belgiqu^ 


iLolof^ique de Belgiqiie 


noiu^ [.niHiiildoKiodo Janoi 




;e Koyale des Antiquaires 


22 Bordeaux 

25 Lille 

26 montpellier 

27 Paris ... 

onale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres 

*Acad6mie Nationale des Sciences, Arts et Belles 
mie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres. 

Idemie'des^Sdence^ et^^I 

*Dep6t des Cartes et Plans d 
Ecole Nationale des Mines. 
Ecole Normale Superieure. 

■ " ' i Polytechnique. 

tere de I'lnstruction Publique. des Beaux 
Arts, et des Cidtes. 
*Observatoire de Paris. 
Societe Botaniqvie. 

♦Societe de Goographie. 

iete Entomologique de Franco, 
iete Geologique de Prance. 
Societe Metoorologique de Prance. 
*Societe Pran(;aise de Mineralogie. 

" iete Fran.;aise de Physique. 
* Societe Philotechnique. 
'" "e Zoologique de Fr;; 

Laboratoire de Zoologie. 

licher Verein zu Bremen 

*Konigl. Prenss. Meteorologisches Institut. 
*Naturhistorischer Vereines der Preussiselien 
Eheinlande,Westfalen8 und des Reg.-Bezirks 

Braunschweig ... *Verein f 

■ Naturwissenschaft zu Braunschweig- 

♦Grossherzogliches Polytecknil 
*Naturwissenschaftlicher Vere 
*Verein fiir Natiirkunde. 

L zu Carlsruhe. 

70 Elbebfeld 

71 Frankfurt a 

72 Freiberg (Sa: 

I Elberff] 

89 Metz ... 

90 Mulhouse 


*Verein fiir Erdkunde zu Dresd« 

■"■"^ ' "orscliende Gesellschaft zu Freiberg, 
orschende Gesellschaft in Gorlitz. 
iche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften i 

*Kaiserlich ] 

) Leopoldinish— Carolinische 

der Naturforcher s 


*Geographische Gesellschaft in Hamburg. 
, *Naturhistorisches Museum. 
, *Verein fiir Naturwissenschaftliche Unterhaltung 

in Hamburg. 
. *Naturhistorish Medicinischer Verein zu Heidel- 

, *MedicinischNaturwis 

iche Gesellschaft der 

♦Gesellschaft zur Befordcrimg der gt 
Naturwissenschaften in Marburg. 

glich Baierische Akademie der Wiss 

ichaften in Miinchen. 

gliches Statistisches Landesamt. 

ein fiir Vaterliindische Naturkunde 

Great Britain and the Colonies. 

.".' * Public Free Library.' 


*Literary and Pliilosophi( 
*Agent-General (two copi 
♦Anthropolomcal Institu 

*Britisli Museum (two eo 
Chemical Society. 
. Colonial Office, Downinj. 

*Iron and Steel Institute. 
Library, South Kensington Museum. 

*Linnean Society. 
London Institution. 

*Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

*Lord Lindsay's Observatory. 

♦Meteorological Office. 
, *Mineralogical Society. 

Museum of Practical Geology. 
, Patent Office Library. 
, *Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 
. *Physieal Society, South Kensington Mus. 
. *Qiiekett Microscopical Club. 
. *rvoyal Agricultural Society of Eugl.ind. 
. *Koyal Asi.itic Society of Great Britain and 1 
. *Eoyal Astronomical Society. 

'oUege o 

*Rn;^.upiral Society. 
Royal Srh.H.l of Mine. 


158 Plymouth ... *Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwal 

Natiu-al History Society. 

159 Windsor ... The Queen's Library. 


160 Cape Town ... *South-African Philosophical Society. 


161 Hali^kax^INova I ^^^^^ g^^^^j^^ j^^ti^^^t^ ^f Natural Science. 

162 Hamilton (Ont.) *Hamilton Association. 

163 Montreal ... *Natural History Society of Montreal. 

164 „ ... *Eoyal Society of Canada. 

165 Ottawa *Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada 

166 „ Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society. 

167 ToKONTO ... *Canadian Institute. 

168 Winnipeg ... *Manitoba Historical and Scientific Society. 


169 Calcutta ... * Asiatic Society of Bengal 

170 „ ... *Geological Survey of India. 


171 Dublin *Eoyal Dublin Society. 

172 „ *Royal Geological Society of Ireland. 

173 „ *Eoyal Irish Academy. 

171 Port Louis ... Royal Society of Arts and Sciences. 

175 „ ... Societe d'Acclimatation de r He Maurice. 


176 Sydney *AuRtralian Museum. 

177 „ * Engineering Association of New South Wales. 

178 „ *Free Public Library. 

179 „ ... *Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

180 „ *Mining Department. 

181 „ *Observatory. 

183 „ *Technological Museum. 

181 „ *University. 


185 Auckland ... *Auckland Institute. 

186 Chbistchurch ... Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. 

187 Dunedin ... Otago Institute. 

188 Wellington ... *Colonial Museum. 

189 „ ... *New Zealand Institute. 


190 Brisbane ... * Acclimatization Society of Queensland. 

191 „ *Royal Geographical Society of Australasia 

(Queensland Branch). 
1^2 „ ... :.. Parliamentary Library. 

193 „ *Royal Society of Queensland. 


194 Aberdeen ... *Dun Echt Observatory, Earl of Crawford and 



. *University 

, *Geological Society of C 

. *Philosophical Society. 



.*Eoyal Asiatic Society. 


21-4 HOBAET ... 

.*Royal Society of Tasmania. 


215 Ballaarat 

. *School of Mines and Industries. 

. •Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

. *Government Botanist. 

218 " '. 

. *Government Statist. 

. »Mining Department. 

. *Observatory. 

221 ',', 

. *Public Library. 

. *Eegistrar-General. 

223 ',', 

. *Eoyal Society of Victoria. 

. *University. 

225 ", 

. *Victorian Institute of Surveyors. 


226 Pokt-au-Pkinci 

Societe de Sciences et de Geographic. 


^^' ■^SSla^Jn, )•---'»■-■-"■■"— • 

228 Zaoeeb (Agrau 

) *Societr AnhcMl..-i<iu.'. 


2*31 Florence 

.. »SM.i,,ta Rnt,.iii..loJ.-;i. Itnliana._ 

233 " 

'.'. *Su!'LetLvfriiaua d' rulia'^i8.'zi!ine i 

234 Genoa ... 

.. *Museo Civico di Storia Naturale. 



Eeale : 

Lombardo di i 

*Societa Italiana di Scienze Natural!. 
*Academie Eoyale de Sciences, Lettres 

*Societa Africana d'ltalia. 
*Societa Eeale di Napoli (Accade: 

Fisiche e Matematiche). 
*Stazione Zoologica (Dr. Dohrn) 

delle Scienze 


cademia Pontificia de 'Nuovi Lincei. 
bUoteca e Archivio Tecnico (Minist. 
Lavori Pubblico). 



*Kon. NatiiurkundigeVereeniging in Nederl 


*Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate." 



* Fredericks Universitet. 


271 Moscow *Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes. 

272 „ *Societe Imperiale des Amis des Sciences Natur- 

elles d' Anthropologie et d' Ethnographic h 
Moscow (Section d' Anthropologie) . 

273 St. Petersbubgh *Academie Imperiale des Sciences. 

274 „ ... *Comite Geologique—Institut des Mines. 


275 Madrid Instituto geografico y ~ ' 



278 Bkrne *Sociote de Geographique de Berne. 

280 Lausanne ... *Societe Vandoise des Sciences Naturelles. 

281 Neiiohatel ... *Societe des Sciences Naturelles. 

United States of America. 

282 Albany *New York State Library, Albany. 

283 Annapolis (Md.) *Naval Academy. 

284 Baltimore ... * Johns Hopkins University. 

285 Beloit (Wis.) ... *Chief Geologist. 

286 Boston *American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

287 „ * Boston Society of Natural History. 

288 Beookville ... *Brookville Society of Natural History. 

289 „ ... Indiana Academy of Science. 

2yO Buffalo *Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. 

291 Cambridge (Mass.) ♦Cambridge Entomological Club. 

292 „ ... * Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 

293 Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

294 Cincinnati ... *Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

295 Coldwater ... Michigan Library Association. 

296 DAVENPORT(Iowa)*Academy of Natural Sciences. 

297 Denver •Colorado Scientific Society. 

298 HoBOKEN (N. J.) *Steven's Institute of Technology. 

299 Iowa CiTT(Iowa) *Director Iowa Weather Service. 

300 Minneapolis ... *Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. 

301 Newhaven (Conn)*Connecticut Academy of Arts. 

302 New York ...* American Chemical Society. 

303 „ ... *American Geographical Society. 

30 1 „ ... "Editor Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery. 

305 „ ... *Editor Science.' 

306 „ ... *New York Academy of Sciences. 

307 „ ... *New York Microscopical Society. 

308 ,. ... •School of Mines, Columbia College. 

ihlcal S 

*American Philosophical Society. 
*Franklin Institute. 

•Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 
•Wagner Free Institute of Science. 
♦Zoological Society of Philadelphia. 


*Esscx Institute. 

*Peabudy Academy of Sciences. 

*California Academy of Sciences. 
*C:iliforuia State Mining Bureau. 

* American Medical Association. 

^Bureau of Education (Department of the Interior). 
*Bureau of Ethnology. 
*Cliief of Engineers (War Department). 
*Chiff Signal Offioer (War Department). 

* Director of the Mint (Treasury Department). 
Library (Navy Department). 

*Xatioual Academy of Sciences. 

*OfKco of Indian Affairs (Department of the 

*Ordnance Department. 
♦Philosophical Society. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

■on General (U.S. Array). 
Coast and Geodetic Sur\ 

S. National Museui 

of Periodicals 

*|lIon. Secretaries. 






By Sir Alfred Roberts, President. 
[Delivered to the Eoijal Society of N.S.W., Maij 1, 1889.2 

It would have been an infinite pleasure and pride to me, 
if, upon this occasion I could have followed upon the footsteps of 
my predecessors, and delivered a Presidential address to you, but 
unfortunately a late serious illness has left me incapable of the 
eftbrt, and I am compelled to satisfy myself with a few homely 
ri.'niarks and a]i expression of my sense of tlie honour you have 
done me, of the great kindness and forbearance T ha\e ever 

T (-.■iniiot, lio\v('\cr, allow tlii^ tlie Cinitennial year of the Coh:)ny 

bi'i>;v ill ISL'I, wh.Mi a S )ciety termed the Philosophical Society of 

Tlii.s apparently had a sliort life, as although souitj excellent ])apers 

An attempt at its resuscitation was probably made in the year 
1 ^•"52 — although but little record is left concerning it. In 1850 a 
more successful etlbrt was made to bring similar materials together 
uiulcf the title of the Australian Philosophical Society; this 
coiiiiiuwiced under more fa\ourablo auspices, but was soon strangled 
by Llie Gold m,uii,i. In 1 8r>r) it made a fresh start under the 
iMiiH! of tl.e PhiloM-.phiral Society of New South Wales, and it 
w;is at this date that I became first associated with it. I recall 
with pleasure these days, when during the Governorship of Sir 

William T. Denison and his presidency of the Society I had the 
honour of acting as its Honorary Secretary. We had then to 
struggle with difficulties, such as only occur in the earliest 
attempts to organise science in a young community in which the 
circumstances of life required devotion of the energies of all classes 
to the essentials of existences and the development of the fii'st 
principles of Government. It was however, also a period in which 
the more thoughtful of the community were awakening to the 
advantages to be attained by the cultivation of science and its 
application to the varied and special features of the Colony. 

At this critical time the training and special qualifications of 
the Governor General and President, Sir William T. Denison, the 
deep interest he took in the young Society, aided by the kind 
geniality of his disposition, were of the greatest assistance. 
Always ready to provide papers when asked, he usually selected 
practical subjects adapted to the circumstances of tlie community 
and calculated to develope the resources of the country. 

It is evident that during the Presidency of Sir William T. 
Denison, the Society quickly attained a considerable amount of 
popularity, for we find that in 1856 ninety-one new members were 
elected, and its income amounted to £316. Of course this sudden 
prosperity could not last, and gradually gave way to varying but 
increasing depression until in 1866, the income had fallen to £43, 
and it became a question whether the Society could be carried on. 
Although notwithstanding the depressing vicissitudes, a large 
number of valuable papers had been read, and a microscopical 
section had been formed and conversaziones established. 

In 1866 the name was changed to "Royal Society of New 
South Wales," and an improvement gradually took place in its 
circumstances. In 1875, Prof. Liversidge and Dr. Leibius were 
appointed Honorary Secretaries, and in that year the Society 
rented the building in which we meet, and which it has since 
purchased. From this date and through the zeal and indefatigable 
labours of these gentlemen, the Society has become more and more 
prosperous. I believe I am correct in saying that from this date 

evory misoii to beIiov(j ilie futuro work of tlie Society ^^ill I 
increasini,fly productive of pr;ictical good, e<|uti]ly in tlie iiiteresi 
of i)ui'e and applied sciojice. Many men hnvi-. tln-diigli it bee 

It is to be hojied that the iniprovemonts made in tlie teachin 
of science at the University may have a Ijeneficial etiect upon th 
progress of science in Australia, since but a comparatively few c 
the rising generation have had the necessary training to enab] 
them to take part in scientitic investigations— certain branches ( 

years of the B.A. course ; the Science and Engineering cnuvM 

students, so that they in 

y 1).- brltrr llrtrd to enter uiK.n the .Ludy 

of the more prof<'.Monal 

Tt is evident that iu a 

vcuin-^ e<,mmunity like ours, pos^^ssing 

great and ahnostunknox 

for their devdopn>ent 

1h> skilful application of science, it is 

necessary that a Society 

dcNOted to the cultivation of science in a 

comparatively small com 

nunity nmst have a wider sphere of action 

whcKe each branch can be dealt with by its separate Association. 
With the view of extending the work of the Society in various 
branches of Science, provision was made in 1876 for the formation 
of Sections, each with its own Chairman, Secretary, and Managing 
Committee. For the first few years the following Committees 
met regularly, and did much useful work, but as time went on 

wo)-k, althou<i-1i ihoro is no reason to suppose tlu 

a-aiu take their part \u the work of the Rocicty. The Sectic 

Section A.— A^tr.inoiay, Meteorology, Physics, JVIatheinati 

and Mec-hanics. 
Section ]J.— Chemistry and Mineraln-y, and their appUcati 

to the Arts and A-riculture. 

Section C. (Jleology and Pakvontology. 

Section 1). Piologv, i.r-., P>otany and Zoology, includi 

Section C. I^iterature nnd Knio Ait^, mcliulmg Arcnitecture. 

SecticMi II.— :\redical. 

Section 1. Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Tn framing the rules for the formation of the sections the 
intention was that members of kindred tastes should have 
opportunities to ineci t..L;eth"r wiHi fcwiM' tuiMiiolit le-, and at more 

upon topics of nun u;d inLrrest, I'.ither than for the I'f.-idmg and 

The great inci-ease in the number of members and the greater 
popularity and usefulness of the Society dates from and was 
doubtless due to the formation of tliese sections, for prior to their 

time, the eHectiv(^ mrmbership of the Soci(>ty was probably less 

for wl, 

but little interest. 

In order that the Society should l^e able to hold property, and 

Parliament was obtained in IbM for its incorporation ^o that it 
now has perpetual succession as a body corporate. 

In the same year the system of offering the Society's medal and 
a money prize of ,£25 for original researches was instituted. 
Although the Society has not been able to award its medal for all 
the thirty-six specified subjects, which have been announced from 
time to time, there have been several original communications 
of sufficient merit, and in cases where the papers have not come 
up to the requisite standard, it is felt that much good has been 
done by directing attention to certain specified matters requiring 
investigation, and it is hoped that when the same subjects are 
again offered, as they will be in due course, papers of sufficient 
merit will be forthcoming, inasmuch as the subjects chosen, are, as 
far as possible, such as are likely to be of interest and value 
to the community. 

During the last twelve or thirteen years special attention has 
been paid to the formation of a library of scientific periodicals, 
and efforts have been made to obtain complete sets of the Journals 
and Transactions of Scientific Societies and Institutions in other 
parts of the world both by exchange and purchase ; on account 
of the comprehensive character of this Society, it was felt that no 
other institution in Sydney was so well fitted to do it, being 
prepared, as it is, to take papers upon almost all brandies of 
knowledge. Accordingly the Society has spared no effort to make 
its library as complete as possible in this respect, and it has, 
considering its limited means, spent large sums for this purposa 
As a reward it has now probably one of the best collections of 
scientific periodical literature in Australia. 

This of course, has not been done without some sacrifice, and 
although it may justly be urged that the Society's library is but 
poorly stocked with ordinary new books, this is a matter of less 
importance, since new books usually become cheaper before they 
become dearer, whereas to procure complete series becomes more 
difficult and costly from year to year ; there are also several 
libraries in Sydney at which the ordinary run of modern books 
upon scientific subjects can be easily consulted by our members. 
It may be said that in 1874 we had no hbrary, for the few books 

which had been presented to us had been handed over to the care 
of the Austrahan Museum, as we had no home of our own, they 
became merged in the library belonging to the Museum, and all 
efforts to trace and recover them were without avail ; but since 
the Society is making exchanges with some 350 Societies and 
Institutions in all parts of the world, the annual increase to its 
library of journals and transactions is very great, and starting 
from in 1874, the library now shews a total, in round numbers, 
of some 5,000 bound books and a very large number of unbound 
books and pamphlets. 

With this cursory glance at a few points in the history of our 
Society prior to the Centennial year of the Colony, we now find 
it through the instrumentality of one of its Honorary Secretaries, 
Professor Liversidge, acting as the starting point from which the 
" Australasian Society for the Advancement of Science " has been 

Having been prevented, by the state of my health, from taking 
an active part in this important Scientific Congress, I am unable 
to describe, from personal observation, the various sectional 
meetings, excursions, &c., which took place during the first meeting 
of the Association held in Sydney during the past year. It is 
fitting however, that I should place on record a brief epitome of 
its development and inauguration in this city. I am indebted for, 
and have epitomised the following facts from the very able address 
of its President : — 

'• Up to the year 1831 no organised Association for the promo- 

had existed in Great 

that year, 

however, Mr. (afterwards ' Sir ') David Brewster, supported by 
Sir Roderick Murchison, Sir John Herschel and others, initiated 
the first Association for tlie advancement of Science. The first 
meeting was held in York, when 353 persons were present. It has 
since won tlie confidence of various Governments who have adopted 
and acted upon its recommendations, and regularly placed in its 
keeping sums of money for the promotion of Science. Its subse- 

quent progress is the history of the advancement of Science during 
the last fifty-eight years. 

" During this time perhaps notliing is more striking than tlie 
wide scope and practical utility of its work. Such varied .subjects 
as the shooting stars, the science of ship building, underground 
drainage and the most intricate chemical questions, i-oceived equal 
attention, and had 'additional light thrown upon them under its 
influence ; while hundreds of other subjects, scientific and practical 
were throughly investigated by the voluntary labours of its 

" By having its meetings in different towns of Great Britain, it 
made their men of science personally known to each otlier, and as 

machinery easily guided from tlie central point. In 1883, or 
1884, it held its meethig in .Alontreal, and at this it was suggested 
that on some future oceasiou it should be held in Australia. This 
idea had previously occurred to Professor Liversidge in 1872, who 
seeing the impossibility of carrying it out at that time, owing to 
the length and cost of the voyage Arc, turned the opportunity to 
advantage in 1886 by advocating the preliminary, practical, and 
important step of establishing in the meanwhile an " Australian 
A.ssociation for the Advancement of Science." 

" From this date, the question appears never to have been absent 
from the mind of Professor Liversidge, but was carefully introduced 
by him to the Public at every favourable opportunity, until finally 
his efibrts were, as we know, brought to a successful issue during 
the Centennial year." 

Although, as I have already stated, I was prevented by the 
state of my health from taking an active part in this important 
festival, and am unable therefore to describe from personal 

place, I know that it was an eminent success, and that it was 
attended by delegates and others of higli scientific reputation from 
all the Colonies who collectively formed a body of men ably 


Universities and 

Failing my personal observation, I again avail myself of the 
most interesting address of the President. From this I find that 
in July 1886, Professor Liversidge wrote to the Presidents of the 
various Australasian Scientific Societies inviting them to appoint 
members of their Councils to represent them at a meeting to be 
held in Sydney at an early date. This meeting subsequently took 
place, drafted rules for the Association, and arranged that the 
first meeting should take place in Sydney in September 1888. 
Under his active supervision and quidance the vi^ork of organisation 
was carried on, and in March 1888, the delegates were called 
together. At this meeting they elected H. C. Russell, B.A., 
F.R.S., President ; Professor Liversidge and Dr. George Bennett, 
F.L.S., Honorary Secretaries; and Sir Edward Strickland, K.C.B., 
Honorary Treasurer. At subsequent meetings Vice-Presidents, 
Presidents and Secretaries of Sections were appointed, and every 
efibrt was made to found the Association upon a broad basis. 
These efforts were so successful that the President was able in his 
opening address to announce that the members numbered no less 
than 750,* and to express his belief " that the Association had 
accjuired an impulse which in the course of time would lead it on 
to the realization of its purpose." 

Sectional Committees were appointed for the following subjects : 
Section A. — Astronomy, Mathematics, Physics, and ^Mechanics. 
Section B. — Chemistry and Mineralogy. 
Section C. — Geology and Palaeontology. 
Section D. — Biology. 
Section E. — Geography. 

Section F. — Economic and Social Science and Statistics. 
Section G. — Anthropology. 
Section H.— Sanitary Science and Hygiene. 
Section I.— Literature and Fine Arts. 

The first General Meeting was held in the Great Hall of the 
University, on Tuesday, 28th August, at 8-30 p.m., when His 
Excellency the Governor took the Chair, and the President 
delivered an address. 

The Sectional Committees assembled in the rooms set apart for 
their use at the University, at 10-30 a.m. each day, until the 
conclusion of the meeting. 

The Sections met at the University at 11 a.m., for the reading 
and discussion of papers. 

The following Presidential Addresses were delivered at 11 a.m. 
on Wednesday, 22th August : — 

Section A. — Astronomy, Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, 
by Mr. R. L. J. Ellery, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Section C. — Geology and Palaeontology, Mr. R. L. Jack, F.G.S. 

Section D.— Biology, by Professor Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S. 

Section F.— Economic and Social Science and Statistics, by Mr. 
H. H. Hayter, C.M.G. 

The following Presidential Addresses were delivered at 1 1 a.m. 
on Thursday, 30th August :— 

Section B.— Chemistry and Mineralogy, by Professor Black, 
M.A., D.Sc. 

Section E. — Geography, by Hon. John Forrest, C.M.G. 

Section G. — Anthropology, by Dr. Carroll, M.A. 

Section H.— Sanitary Science and Hygiene, by Dr. Bancroft. 

Section I.— Literature and the Fine Arts, by Prof. Boulger, M.A. 

Section J. — Architecture and Engineering, by Professor Kernot 
M.A., C.E. 

The afternoons ^ 

vere kept as free as possible for vis 

its to places 

of interest. Public 

Institutions. Botanical, Dredging, 

and other 


The following popular Scientific Lectures were delivered in the 
'Great Hall of the University :— 

Thursday, 30th August, at 8 p.m., " On the Volcanic Eruptions 
in the Hot Lake District of New Zealand," by Sir James Hector, 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Friday, 31st August, at 8 p.m., " On recent discoveries on the 
Pineal Eye," by Professor Baldwin Spencer. 

The railway authorities of South Austraha, Victoria and New 
South Wales agreed to issue return tickets at single fares, to 
members of the Association travelling by railway from other 
Colonies to attend the General Meeting, and the following steam- 
ship companies undertook to convey members to Sydney and back 
at a reduction of 20 per cent, on the ordinary rates : — Australian 
United Steam Navigation Company ; Messrs. Wm. Howard Smith 
and Sons, Limited ; Messrs. Huddart Parker and Co. ; Adelaide 
Steamship Co. The Union Steamship Co. carried members at 

The titles of the 110 papers read and the lectures delivered 
indicate that the work done was eminently useful and interesting; 
and it must be a source of great satisfaction to this Society that 
the meeting went off with unclouded success, aiforded much 
pleasure to a large number of the best class of minds, by affording 
them an opportunity of interchanging thought with kindred spirits 
and generally stimulated the spirit of scientific enterprise. 

I must not fail to mention here, that the annual Conversazione 
of this Society was arranged to take place at the termination of 
the Association's Proceedings. It was held in the Great Hall 
of the University, on the 5th September, under the management 
of a Committee composed of the President, Sir Alfred Roberts, 
H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., one of the Vice-Presidents, the Hon. 
Secretaries, Prof. Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S., and F. B. Kyngdon, 
and Messrs. Charles Moore, F.L.S., P. R. Pedley, Dr. Leibius, 
M.A., Prof. Threlfall, M.A., and Prof. Warren, il. Inst. C.E. 
i^ The TIall and tlie approa(;lu'S were ai-fistical1y drconited with 
flags, shit-l(is, and fi'stoons of uav..,uTy, .-l.;.! Mr. Charh^s :yioore, 
Director of the Botanic (lardcii.-, kiiull\ t'lirni^hcd n ---iijiply of 
palms, fern.-, and rare pot-})laiit.s. 

The Physical Laljoratory was thrown open, and experiments 
were conducted by Prof. Tlirolfall and Mr. John F. Adair, also the 
Medical School of Prof. Anderson Stuart and the Mechanical 

Laboratories and workshops, where the large testing machine was 
exhiliited in work by Prof. Warren. 

The ^Nlacleay Museum and the various Lecture Rooms, were 
also thrown open to the guests. 

Mr. F. Morley presided at the organ, and select pieces were 
played at intervals. 

The number of guests present was about 1,500, the unusually 
large gathering being due to the fact that invitation cards had 
been issued to the members of the Australasian Association for 
the Advancement of Science, the Inaugural Meeting of which 
had just closed. 

Impressed as I am with the importance of this movement, I 
deeply regret being compelled to deal with it in this very meagre 
and cursory manner ; but I must pass on to note the work done 
by the various sections of the Society during the past year. 

In the Medical Section, seven meetings were held, at which the 
attendance was far above the previous average. The papers read 
and the specimens exhibited were also interesting and valuable. 
Dr. Knaggs was elected Chairman, and Dr. MacCormick and Dr. 
Jenkins Secretaries. This Section is gradually developing a 
better form of work, and I look eagerly forward to the time when 
the strain upon the physical and mental powers of its members, 
caused by the arduous duties of general practice, will be diminished 
and they will be enabled to devote more time and greater energy 
to original research. I feel confident also that the stimulus given 
by the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Science 
and the very successful Medical Congress held in Melbourne last 
year, will beneficially affect this section, which is destined to take 
a first place in its special branch of Scientific Research. 

I regret to observe that the Sanitary Section has not yet 
assumed the position which the vital importance of the subject 
requires. It is unfortunate that in this the early stage of the 
development of Scientific Hygiene, it has often to work against 
the unpopularity of the term " Sanitary Reform," which by too 


many persons is associated with Inspectors o£ Nuisances and 
plumber's work. It will not however be denied that the aims of 
medical and sanitary science, or hygiene, are the reduction of the 
rate of mortality by the prevention of disease, and the improve- 
ment of the physique of mankind, both of which must be mainly 
attained through hygiene, based upon scientific principles. When 
I look round and observe the terrible ravages of typhoid, diphtheria 
and other preventible diseases, the deplorable ignorance which 
apparently exists among us, and the melancholy apathy with 
which these evils are tolerated, I can but feel that instead of 
being our weakest, this should be our strongest section, and I 
venture, to suggest that closely related as this subject is to 
medical science, it should in some way be associated and co-operate 
with it. 

The microscopical section has done much good work, and its 
members display an energy and interest wihch augur well for the 
future success of the section. 

The Treasurer has kindly furnished me with the following 
particulars of the present condition of the Society : — The number 
of ordinary members of the Society on the 1st May, 1888, was 
482. Twenty new members were elected during the past session, 
and one was transferred from the list of corresponding members. 
Against this increase the Society has to regret the loss of seven 
members by death, eight resigned, and fourteen were struck off 
the roll in accordance with Rule XIV., so that the present total 
is 474, being a decrease of eight since the beginning of last session. 
The income of the Society has been fully maintained, owing to 
the greater number of members paying the increased subscription 
of two guineas, and the liberality of the Government and Legis- 
lature, who in consequence of the withdrawal of the free printing 
of the Society's proceedings, have generously increased the annual 
subsidy to a maximum of £500 instead of £400, on the condition 
of £1 for every £1 being subscribed by the members. 

The gross receipts were £1,356 16s. 4d., of which £63 was for 
entrance and composition fees, and about £45 for repayments for 

freight and other disbursements. The expenditure 
heavy, and amounted to £1,304 4s. 7d., including £137 for the 
Conversazione, and £100 for the book cases in the hall and library. 
The cost of the Society's Journal was also great, being no less 
tluin £246. 

After transferring £107 2s. to the Building and Investment 
Fund, there remained a balance of £5 8s. 3d. to carry forward to 

The sum to the credit of the Building and Investment Fund is 
£514 3s. Id., and the Clarke Memorial Fund now amounts to 
£276 lis. 4d., of which, however, £30 4s. 9d. is still due from 
the liquidator of tlie Oriental Bank. These sums are invested as 
fixed deposits in the Union Bank at five per cent, per annum 

Tlie balanceofthe Smith Memorial Fund amounting to £ 90s. lOd. 
^\;i.s spent in the purchase of photographs, which were sent to all 
tlie subscribers. In addition to the Reserve Fund of over £500, 
tile Society possesses the premises in which we are now assembled 
together with the furniture and ellects, and a very valuable 
library. There are no liabilities whatever beyond the current 

During the past session the Society held seven Monthly Meetings 
at which the following papers were read : — 

May 2, 1888.— Presidential Address. By C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S. 

June 6— Forest Destruction in N.S.W. and its effects on the flow 

of water in watercourses and on the rainfall. By 

W. E. Abbot, Wingen. 

„ On the increasing magnitude of Eta Argus. By H. C. 

Russell, B.A., F.R.S. 
„ Notes on some minerals and mineral localities in the 
Northern districts of New South Wales. By D. A. 
Porter, Tamworth. 
» On a simple plan of Easing Railway Curves. By Walter 
Shellshear, A.M.I.C.E. 

1 the Anatomy and Life History of Mollusca peculiar 
to Australia. By the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 

rs. By H. C. Russell, 

Aug. 1 — Description of an Autographic Stress-strain Apparatus. 
By Professor Warren, M. Inst. C.E. 

Oct. 3 — Considerations of Phytographic Expressions and Arrange- 
ments. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., 

„ Indigenous Austivalian Forage Plants (Non-Grasses), 
including plants injurious to stock. By J. H. 
Maiden, F.L.S. 
„ Census of the Fauna of the Older Tertiary of Australia. 

By Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S. 
„ The Storm of 21st September, 1888. By H. C. Russell, 
B.A., F.R.S. 
Some New South Wales Tan-substances. (Part V.) By 
J. H. Maiden, F.L.S. 
Nov. 7— Results of Observations of Comets I. and II., 1888, at 
Windsor, N.S.W. By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 
„ The Desert Sandstone. By the Rev. J. E. Tenison- 

Woods, F.G.S. 
„ On a new self-recording Thermometer. By H. C. Russell, 

B.A., F.R.S. 
„ The Thunderstorm of 26th October, 1888. By H. C. 
Russell, B.A., F.R.S. 
Deer. 5 — The Latin verb Juhere, a linguistic study. By John 
Eraser, B.A., LL.D. 
M Notes on some New South Wales Minerals (Note No. 5). 
By Professor Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S. 
At the Council Meeting held 28th November, 1888, it was 
unanimously resolved to award the Clarke Medal for the year 
1889 to R. L. J. Ellery, F.R.S., Government Astronomer of 

At its meeting on 30th May, 1888, the Council awarded the 
prize of £25 and the Society's Medal, which had been otiered for 
the best communication on the " Anatomy and Life History of 
Mollusca peculiar to Australia," to the Rev. J. E. Teiiison-Woods, 
RG.S, F.L.S. 

The Council has since issued the following list of subjects with 
the offer of the Society's Bronze Medal and a prize of £25, for 
each of the best researches, if of sufiicient merit : — 

Series X.— To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1891. 

No. 34. — The Meteorology of Australia, New Zealand, and 

No. 35.— Anatomy and Life History of the Echidna and 

No. 36. — The Microscopic structure of Australian Rocks. 
During the year the Society has subscribed to 45 Scientific 
Journals and Periodicals, and has purchased 55 volumes at a cost 
of £G8 r2s. 3d., including a copy (text only) of the " Geology of 
the United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1828— 
1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., by James 

D. Dana, A.M." This is believed to be the only copy in Xew 
South Wales, and was procured tlirough the kind intervention of 
the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

The donations to the library during the past year have been as 
follows :— 1,205 Volumes, Parts and Pamphlets ; 3 Portfolios of 
Charts; 22 Loose Charts; 11 Photographs; Objective for 
Microscope 2^ inch, and a Powell & Leaknd's -^o Micro-objective 
N.A. 1-5. 

The following is a brief summary of the Essay by the Rev. J. 

E. Tenison-Woods. for which the Society's Bronze Medal and £25 
were awarded. 

Of the premiums offered by the Society for original essays that 
for the essay on " Anatomy and Life History of Mollusca peculiar 
to Australia," was awarded to the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods. 
The essay deals with many subjects, including new and important 
observations on the organs of respiration, circulation and develop- 

ment of well-known species of niollusca from Port Jackson and 
Botany ]3iy 

Tlie author rolatos the clisco\ery of lod ])lood in t\\() of the 
specios Atrn trapezia and SoIpii loaim, \vlnchistlie inoie niteiest- 
1114 i^ the siiMe exceptional peculiirity exists m 1 J^iitish species 
of "^o/t It, md an American species oi Area Theie is also <in 
riccoujit of the micioscopic examination of tlu l,i1] <ip])iiatus of 
the rock ojster, Ostr pa mordax, from a\ hull it ipp* u^ tliat the 
o\aof o\stersarenursedinthegill cli imlx iMiiitil th(\ ne h it( hed 
a fact of <j;r tat importance in oystei cult i\ it ion Otlui m\\ facts 

One matter, howe\er, which occupies the s^reater poition of the 
paper, it. the dibCO\ery of sense organs, especially e\es in the sliells 
and opercula, as well as similar developments u\ tlie '-oft tis-,ues 

Th( ol.^PiMtionsof Di Semper and Pi (.ttw)i M(;m( \ on these 

Trvjonia amongst the bivalves 

But the most singular part of the in\ ( sti^' itions i^ tli it vs hu h 
refers to the genus Ttiyonia The author finds th it eich ot the 

the eje of a fly, and each of the facets has a cornea, lens, retina, 
and optic nerve. 

N'icwcd under the microscope, the outer surface shows ribs and 
niiscd tulxTcles, on each portion of wliich there is a pavement of 
biilliantly-refracting eyes as small and as close as those of an 
insect. A section of the shell shows the nerves of these organs 
uniting in wliat the author believes to be a large nervous centre 
or brain. From this other large nerves are given oft", so that the 


soft tissues of the animal are supplied from it, and are connected 
with the valve by nerve strands at the muscular scars. The author, 
therefore, regards the valves of Triyonia as brain-case containing 
sense-organs above, the brain in the centre, and the nerves 
supplying the soft organs inside. 

If these conclusions are correct, they are of startling import- 
ance. The bivalve shells are classified as having no brain, and a 
very small nervous system in the soft tissues. It is now claimed 
for them to have a large brain and nervous system. They are 
superior to the univalves, in which one of the valves is represented 
by the operculum. No doubt tlie paper will evoke much attention 
from comparative anatomists. 

Another important paper by the same author, on the Desert 
Sandstone, occupies a considerable portion of the year's proceed- 
ings. The author describes the Desert Sandstone as a formation 
spread more or less over the whole extent of the Australian Con- 
tinent. It has been a great puzzle to all geologists, principally 
on account of its broken character, peculiar stratification, and 
the absence of any fossils. Tlie author regards it entirely as a 
volcanic ash, and as belonging exclusively to the tertiary volcanic 
emanations. The evidences upon which these conclusions are 
built up are partly the microscopic appearances of the sands, and 
partly geological considerations, for which the paper itself must 
be consulted, and on which it gives ample detail. 

I trust, gentlemen, that, for the reasons above stated, you will 
kindly accept of these few words in place of a presidential 
address, and that you will permit me to reiterate my warm thanks 
for the honour of having been elected to hold the high office of 
President of your Society, as well as for the great kindness and 

the pie, 

lulness -r 

deration, I wil 

>ffer th.> 

S>x-irty t 

lu> best wishes 

iss, and : 

. your Presidei 





Sir Alfred Roberts, President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following Financial Statement for the year ending 31st 
»Iarch, 1889, was presented by the Hon. Treasurer and adopted : — 


) Two Guineas . 

Entrance and Composition Fees 
Parliamentary Grant on Subscriptio: 
received during 1889 

243 ] 

Eor Books, Freight, and Charges . . . 

Australasian Association 

ment of Science 







Balance on 1st April, 1883 


' 59 

18 6 


14 10 

„ s d £. 

s. d. 


.. 29 l' o' 

Assistant Secretary 

Books and Periodicals ... 

" 180 3 1 


" 137 5 

IVei'ghTcWge^^ & 

Furniture and Effects ... 

".*. 116 4 11 



."." 10 

Carried forward 

.. 816 14 2 


e ° 

G S 9 

Potty Ca 

sh Expenses ... 



and PublishinL' Jou 


24G 6 

Prize Essay Award \.. 



28 2 r. 


ients' etc.. at Meeting 



7 10 2 


1 Payments .. 

1,304 4 7 


to Building and Tnv 

estment Fund 

^^5 8 3 


.n 31st March, 18S9 

^1,416 14 10 



ROBERT HUNT. Honorary Treamrer. 


W. H. WE 



£ s. 

d. £ 6. d. 


on Fixed Deposit : 



from General Ac^co^v 
an 1st April, 18SS . 

107 2 

ED— P. N. TREBECK. i;r)i!KFri' II TXT. 


nt of Fund on 1st April, 1888 


„ H. O. WALKER. W. H. WEBB, Ass 

bTDNEY, leth April, 1889. 



Balance of Fiind on 1st April, 1888 "^^ ^ in 

Photographs and Circulars to Subscribers .£9 O lU 

Audited— P. N. TEE BECK. ROBERT HUNT, Honorary Treasurer. 

H. O. WALKER. W. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 

Sydney, 16tli April, 1889. 

Messrs. J. H. Maiden and D. M. Maitland were elected 
Scrutineers for the election of officers and members of Council. 

A ballot was then taken and the following gentlemen were duly 
elected officers and members of Council for the current year :— 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society :— 

Kowalski, H., Petersham. 
Mestayer, R. L., m.i.c.e., f.r.m.s. ; Sydney, 
The certificates of two new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of one for the first time. 

The names of the Committee-men of the different Sections were 

'' Chairman ... Dr. Crago. 

Secretaries.. Dr. MacCormick and Dr. Jenkins. 

Committee... Dr. P. Sydney Jones, Dr. W. H. Goode, 
Dr; E. Fairfax Ross, Dr. W. Chisholiu, 
Dr. Alfred Shewia, Dr. Knagga. 

MeetiiKjs held on the Third Friday in each month, at 815 p.m. 

f Chairman ... S. MacDonnelL 
Secretary ... Percy J. Edmunds. 
SECTION. 1 Committee... H. G. A. Wright, m.r.c.s.e., A. P. Bedford, 
I T. Brindley, and T. Whitelegge. 

Meetings held on the Second Monday in each month at 8 p.m. 


The following letters were read ; from R. L. J. Ellery, f.r.s., 

&c., acknowledging the award of the Clarke Medal for 1889, and 

from Prof. Ralph Tate, f.g.s., and Capt. F. W. Hutton, f.g.s., 

acknowledging their election as Honorary Members of the Society : 

Observatory, Melbourne, 

January 7th, 1889. 
My dear Sir,— I have to acknowledge your letter of the 14th December, 
accompanied by the Clarke Memorial Medal which has been awarded 
me by the Council of the Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 

Will you kindly convey to the Council my sincere thanks and my great 
appreciation of the honour it has done me in awarding me this medal, 
and of its expression of consideration for my services in the cause of 

the Society my grateful thanks of their high appreciation of my scienti 
labours by electing me an Honorary Member. 

It will be my greatest endeavour to justify this high distinction ai 
to further to the best of my ability and opportunities the interest of t' 

Canterbury College, Christchurch, N.Z. 
18th December, 1888. 

Gentlemen,— I was much surprised and, of course, much pleased to get 
your letter of the 7th instant, informing me that I had been elected an 
Honorary Member of the Royal Society of New South Wales. Please 
convey to the Council my very best thanks for the honour they have 
done me ; which I esteem most highly. 

-Every worker, I suppose, feels occasionally that he has not done so 
much, or so well, as he ought to have done, but a kindly act like this 
encourages him to go on. for he feels that others, well fitted to judge, 
think that his work has been useful. 

Your obedient servant, 
^, ^ F. W. HUTTON. 

-^he Hon. Secretaries, Royal Society of N.S. Wales. 

Sir Alfred Roberts, President, then read his address. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the retiring President, and 
Professor Liversidge, m.a., f.r.s., was installed as President for 
the ensuing year. 

The following donations received since the last meeting were 
^aid upon the table :— 

List op Donations Received from the 6tii Decembek, 1888, 
TO THE 30th April, 1889, inclusive. 
(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 
Amsterdam— Academie Royale des Sciences. Verslagen en 
Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van 
Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natunrktinde, Derde 
Reeks, Deel iii. and iv., 1887 and 1888. Jaarboek, 
voor 1886 and 1887. The Society. 

Society Royale de Zoologie. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 
Aflevering 14, 15. (Gedeelte i. and ii.) 16, 1888. 
Feest-Nummer 1888. 
Auckland — Auckland Institute and Museum. Report for 

Baltimore — Johns Hopkins University. American Chem- 
ical Journal, Vol. ix., Nos. 3— 6 ; Vol. x.,Nos. I and 
2. American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. x., Xos. 

Political Science, Fifth 
ard'T. Ely, Ph.D. Uni- 

tes der Pr,-ussis<-h 


€alcxjtta — Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal, Vol. lvii.. 
Part i., Nos. 1 and 2, Part ii., Nos. 2 and 3, 1888. 
Proceedings, Nos. 4—8, 1888. The Society. 

Geological Survey of India. A Bibliography of Indian 
Geology : being a list of books and papers, relating 
to the Geology of British India and adjoining 
Countries, published previous to the end of A.D. 
] 887.— Preliminary issue. Eecords of the Geological 
Survey of India, Vol. xxi.. Part iv., 1888; Vol. 
XXII., Part i., 1889. The Director of the Survey. 

Cambridge (Mass.)— Cambridge Entomological Club. Psyche, 

Vol. v., Nos. 149—153, 1888-9. The Club, 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Harvard College. 
Annual Eeport of the Trustees, 1861, 1870—73. 
Annual Report of the Curator, 1887-88. Bulletin, 
Vol. I., Nos. 1—13 ; Vol. II., Nos. 2-5 ; Vols, xiv., 
XV., XVI., Nos. 1, 2, and 3; Vol. xvii.. No. 2. 
Memoirs, Vols, i., ii., v., vi., vii., viii.. No. 1 ; ix.. 
No. 1 ; XV. The Museum. 

Cambeidge— Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Vol. vi.. 

Part 4, 1888. The Society. 

Cape Town— South-African Philosophical Society. Trans- 
actions, Vol. IV., Parts i. and ii., 1884-8 ; Vol. v.. 
Part i., 1888. 

Cincinnati— Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Journal, 

Vol. XI., No. 1, April, 1888. (Memorial Number.) „ 

Cordoba— Academia Nacional de Ciencias. Boletin, Tomo 

XI., Entrega 1 and 2, 1887-88. The Academy. 

Dresden- K. Siich. Statistisches Bureau. Zeitschrift, 
Jahrgang xxxiii.. Heft 3 and 4, 1887 ; Jahrgang 
xxxiv.. Heft 1 and 2, 1888. The Bureau. 

Vereins fiir Erdkunde. Festchrift zur Jubelfeier des 

25 jahrigen Bestehens 1888. The Society. 

Edinburgh— Geological Society. Transactions, Vol. v.. 
Part 4, 1888. 
Royal S 


Florence— Societa Africana d' Italia. BuUettino della 

Sezione Fiorentina, Vol. iv., Fasc. 7 and 8, 1888. 
Societa Entomologica Italiana. BuUettino, Anno xx., 

Trimestri 1, 2, 3, and 4, 1888. 
Societk Italiana di Antropologia, Etnologia e Psicologia 

Comparata. Archivio, Vol. xviii., Fascicolo 2, 1888. 
Frankfurt a/ M. — Senckenbergische Naturforschende 

Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen, Band xv.. Heft 3, 

1888. Bericht, 1888. 
Freiberg i,S.— Naturwissenschaftlieher Vereins. Fiihrer 

1888. Mittheilm 

Glasgow — Philosophical Society of Glasgow 
X., 1887-88. 
Society of Glasgow. 
, 1886-87, 1887-88. 
EN — Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 
f-Au^sts- Universitat zu Gottingen. 

Part ii., 1887-88. ' ' " The Institute. 

Hambtjeg — Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft. Meteor- 

ologische Zeitschrift, Nov. and December, 1888, Jan. 

and Feb., 1889. The Society. 

Haklem — Societe Hollandaise des Sciences. Archives Neer- 

landaises des Sciences Exactes et Natvirelles, Tome 

Helsinofobs — Societe des Sciences de Pinlande. Bidrag 
till Knnnedom af Finlands Natur Och Folk ; Haftet 
44. Exploration Internationale de Regions Polaires 
"" " ■-'"1-1884. Expedition Polaire Fin- 
Abstract of Proceed- 

XV., Heft. 3 and 4, 1888. 

Lausanne— Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. Bul- 
letin, 3e Serie, Vol. xxiv.. No. 98, 1888. 

Leeds— The Yorkshire College. Fourteenth Annual Report, 

l«J^7-8. The College.. 

Leipzig— Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig. Mittheilungen 

^^^7. The Society. 

LiKGE — Societe Geologique de Belgique. Annales, Tome 

XIII., Tome xiv., Liv. 1, Tome xv., 1885-88. 

Societe Koyale des Sciences. Memoires, Serie 2, Tome 

London— Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and 

Ireland. Journal. Vol. xviii.. No. 2, 1888. The Institute. 

Geological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. xliv.. No. 

176, Vol. XLV., No. 177, 1888-89. The Society. 

Iron and Steel Institute. Journal, No. 2. 1888. The Institute. 

Linnean Society. Journal, Botany, Vol. xxiii., Nos. 156 
—157 ; Vol. XXIV., No. 164 ; Vol. xxv., Nos. 165— 
169. Zoology, Vol. xx.. No. 121. List of Fellows. 
Session 1888—1889. 

Meteorological Council. Contributions to our Knowledge 
of the Meteorology of the Arctic Regions, Part v.. 
Official No. 34. Hourly Readings. Part iv, Oct.— 
Deer., 1885, Official No. 74. Meteorological Obser- 

The Society. 

vations at Stations of the Second Order for the year 
1884, Official No. 78. Report of the Meteorological 
Council to the Royal Society for the year ending 
31 March, 1888. Weekly Weather Report. Second 
Series, Vol. v.. Nos. 19—38 and Appendix 1, 1888. The Council. 

Quekett Microscopical Chi 

No. 23, January, 18S9. 
Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Joiirnal, New Series, Vol. xx.. Part iv., Oct., 1888. 1 
Eoyal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, Vol. 

XLviii., No. 9, Supplementary Niimber, 1888. Vol. 

XLix., Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 1888-9. 
Eoyal Geographical Society. Proceedings, New Monthly 

Royal Meteorological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. 
xw., Nos. 67 and 68, 1888. The Meteorological 
Record, Vol. vii., No. 28, 1887; Vol. viii., Nos. 29 
and 30, 1888. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal, Parts v., vi„ 

Royal United Service Institution. Journal, Vol. xxxii., 

Nos. 145 and 146. 1888-9. The Insti 

Zoological Society of London. Proceedings of the Scien- 
tific Meetings, Part iii., 1S88. The S 

LuBECK— Naturhistorisches Museum. Jahresbericht, fiir 

das Jahr, 1887. The M 

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N.S. Vol. ix., Nos. 4-6. 



By W. A. Dixon, F.LC, F.G.S., Lecturer on Chemistry, 

Sydney Technical College. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S.W., June 5, 1S89.2 

The two soils forming the subject of this notice Mere from a 
sugar plantation on the Burnett River in Queensland. They 
-were exactly alike in appearance and were described to me as 
forest soil and scrub soil, from the different vegetation growing 
on them, and this was the only recognisable difference to the 
planter. In each, the soil was from fifteen to thirty feet deep, 
the surface indications other than the natural vegetation, were 
similar, and of course the climate was the same. Tlie soils were 
found to differ however, extremely in their behaviour under cane 
crops, as, whilst the scrub soil bore cane well and yielded good 
crops, the forest soil grew plant canes well, first ratoons poor and 
afterwards of no value. 

The reason of this is plainly shown in the analysis ; but befone 
entering on this, it may be well to make a few remarks on soil 
analyses as it is a branch of chemical work which has of late years 
been somewhat discounted as of little value. It may certainly be 

; tlie gi eriter nunibei bv frii of t 

1 il\ SP-, li i\ e not b( ( ii conducted "svith 
( tlu ol))(ct in MC^^ llie foimer 
td, but tlu littLi ( m onh be secured 
, ottm %\ intm^ m tliose to whom the 

, commonly the pi u ti( e to dig up 

It the exciementot i bird containing 
I Nvith isimpk .0 txken would be 
or 1568 lbs per icu, md that the 
fht ^imihrl> 

■lomfu amWide, 

leterred to weie tikcn 1 

U (.N. 1 U 1. *l 11 11 

. 1 V xls of ibout 

,,) .coup %\ r. Ml,\\( 

d into the soil 

^nul, tht -, ction ot -^ 

oil (ould easily 

tt tinougli th. slit 

The difterent 

orouglil> mived md s 

itted must give 

>f the soil ot the <xi( 

. operated on. 

. ition, but without t 


ot only useless but often misleading 

)rsoil inalvso.haMnq 

to some extent 

e xnihsesart not sul] 

hLU ntly rehried 

I number of soil in i) 

,\sts published 

uiied to the second pi 



liods emplo>ed. 

It in m my the hgUH 

. m the second 

he qu mtity of the s 

If th( wdghtof a 
•tcre of soil it one toot deep as ti\e thousxnd (") 000) tons, it wi 
J^ot be fir from the tiuth as an average, md this d( pth may 1 
taken as that, which being subjected to tillage, ciops derne tl 

bulk of their nutriment. On this basis 0-001 per cent, of any 
ingredient would represent 112 ll)s per acre. Again if we take 
the quantities of concentrated artificial manures which are applied 
as top dressing and otherwise, we find tliat a soil analysis requires 
to be carried to the third place of decimals with certainty to be 
comparable with practical results, for some substances at all events. 
For my part I think that this third place is about the limit to 
whicli analyses can be carried with any degree of certainty, and 
to do this it is necessary to carry out to the fourth and take th-e 
nearest number in the third, and this requires that large quantities 
be operated on which require much care and patience. 

The following are a few examples of the quantities of various 
plant foods as they are used in high farming : — 

phosphate, soluble guano, and bone dust are applied with suc- 
cessful results at the rate of from 2^ to 3 cwt. per acre, which 
would be equal to about 961tjs. of phosphoric oxide per acre. 
2nd. Nitrogen. — Two cwt. of sulphate of ammonia containing 67 
It)s. of ammonia, produce marked results on crops, and three 
cwt. of nitrate of soda containing about the same quantity of 
nitrogen produces similar results. 
In both these examples the aii.ihtical results would be lepre- 
sented by 001% At the same tunc it must be boine in nund 
tliat these quantities are in addition to those already present in 
th( soil, and thit they are in a leadilv a\ ulable foim, ii d tli it 

ditieientes but controlled by a check determination, 
one thousand grains, whilst tliose mentioned are 
hundred The weighings -were made on a balance t 
the tliousandth of a grain, so that they were to the tc 
The constituents determined aie those soluble m 

To the main analysis G,000 -rains of soil were treated witli 1 
ti-e of hydrochloric ;icid to which after -i8 hours 50000 of water 
as added, so that of the solution 2r)0cc represented 1,000 grains 
f soil. The silicates insoluble in hydrochloric acid were checked 

cid side by side with the main <juantity. Nitroijen was deter- 

"ere souglit for by treatmejit with a coj^per zinc couple and 

The analyses of the two soils are as follows in air dried soil :— 



lnj:^ of 



A\'. T. W^ 


^v, r>,)yne 

Island, Queensland. 



efore tJ 

u- no,; 



TiiK T:cuu 

ible Tribe ii 


3stcrn Fall of New En- 

from the 


to the Son 

•ereign Riv 

er, take their name 


hich . 


A tnutll t 

ribe whicli joined th. 

the north 


'called (Qi 

lieunible) f 

i-om the word (Quie) 

jneaus No 

. Tc 

. the 

north-west tliev 

were bounded by a 


•h S.'li< 

I (Ya 

^■-a) for N( 

). ^ o tlie south and i 

west by tl- 

le (W; 


) and 

the (Cinnilri) which respective! 

(Wal) Hud 


lil) fot 

■ No. 

The Uc 



^ lia( 

1 a traditioi 

I that they arrived 

country :v. 

tals, a 

heir old me 

n had a great many c 



al, an 

d of that wl 

nch each one said, .-UH 

ir. l^va 11 

in .Ties li 

oolhaiiar K )' • - C v tl u-iv 


r-thanar, ; 

uid Cubbe marries Epathanai-. This 
continues from generation to -rr, ra- 

any one m 

M/es a qir 

i contrary to this order he is (W-nri) 

lawc'd, and 

coukf ] 

)e killed by any one without frnr 

Ul tlie Ci 

nnbos consider themselves brothers, 


he tribe, nor how remote the rc.-lation- 

witli Eva and all th( 

i otliers. The same witli the women. 

interchange wives and steal each other's gins, 


tlie can 

e diH-even 

Th,-v a 

.e of their tights. All the Cun.bos, 
t tril)e.s will help their brothers if 
lu;.N. fought most honourably before 
Inr,.! ^lled dccidod tlie contest. Each 

Many people maintain that the aborigines have no belief in tlie 
Supreme Being, or a futurti state, which I am far from agi'eeing 
with. They have a God whom they call Byamy in Ucumb'le ; He 
is tlie " All Powerful," tlie " Creator," and Supreme Ruler of 
everything. They will not mention His name on any account, 

ided with me in this, 

h(^ allowed iiic;i copy ot it in his 7iotp l)ook and 

Their ideas of a future Kt,'.t( 
for ever they do not belicM- 
111 tlie Xortli, as I Avell k 
perfectly ^vild, fre-juentlv 
look intently out over tlu- I 

'I'Kl ;,.k him\''l,..riH;'xN'i-! 

^•i'o bai<| (l::uu) for Xo, rcuu.l.le, (,)uiruiiil)l 
■*iey made their camps at four ditr.'rcnt e.,aidi 

ii-deof twoor 
f ill nor ciivles, 
oun- in.Mi, T 

Tlio doctors ajul inclicniio men .-ic-tod as prio.ts at 


PL-es of ^ ^ , 

internal red hi)ots. Thes* 
l)i-ofessc(l to inject into an enemy. When a man supposed Jiimself 

the stone from him, .and after chantim,' an incantation he would 
he said had come out of tlu- patient. I myself have been a 


burned a little -while it Mas extin2:ui-,lKd rind the i- 
away, a ne^ opossum iuf]f was (ajefulU put louiid 
then bark Imilt o\er the body, the cracks covtred t i 
grass and the oaith he ipod o\or , after wiids loirs we 
cut about the s inie leri;j;th and piled up m a cii(l< ovi 
tokeepnatnf doos iiid other vermin fioiu iiiti udiiu'', 

werecarxed iii di.iniond pattern round ind loiind t 
bark haxin^f hum pre\iously stripped ^ Xtrcj tlu 

packed up ind cleared awav to another put ot th( ( I h 

burial of <,nn-., except on one occasion wIkii in old 

practiced hx Th( Tcuinbh ind QuiMiitible tribe> and 
WalleiTi i.uth(d 1^ \..;y similar Should anv ot tlu 
this paper b< .nxiou.ti,Me the car^ed trees whf le th 
ar-e buried th( v , m do son. the cemeterx at th( l.u k 

carved trio i ottfn -> it beneath thi shi.l. 
side by sidi' 'lu'tVrk?tV^mti\"d\st.'MV n' 

up the bom > ->. 1 ipe th< in i lean, and c u i \ t 
they go, but F am not so well acquamti d \wi 
Queensland blnks 

; work tha 

them into the proper shape, the ends are then pared rather thin ; 
the peel of some tibi^ous root (generally from a species of licus) is 
used as a thread to sew the bark together ; the two pieces of bark 
are placed on their sides, and the bottom sewn on to them by- 
using an awl, a roll of the paper tea tree plant is used to caulk 
the cracks, two saplings are sewn inside to stiffen the outer rim of 
the canoe all round, and the okka is finished. 

Their corrobborees travel a long distance from tribe to tribe. 
I will describe one witnessed at two places, two or three hundred 
miles apart, and the inference drawn from it. T had taken a mob 
of catth; to the Condamine or Barwon River, a long distance from 

th.-.tliNocHii tl.o u-Mtrr. 1 took no fur 



than i, year afterwards, being on thf 


, bein.t 

tribe th.'^ivinnble. ' nnd'foumT that ' it 


, ' Oil 

Ucund)le trihe as'to what the imaue \ 

they tokl mo it was the (Jul.iLun, uhir 


for the bunvip, warwav, or puimui, ^^\ 

lirh , 

■ill h;n 

Some Htth^Vhile after ■'tins 1 vn. sittii 

■1- d 

<,Nvn %\ 

'>ieu to (haw your own inference. Tlic 
(>alhitn) bits of the nautilus shell and ot 
found with every tribe all through tlie intei 
they knew of tlie Bunya Bunya pine, why 
the crocodih; have travelled down south a^. 
The aborigine's in Central Queensland h 
customs as the tribes in N«3W South Wal 
Keppel Island was taken up and stoeked 

half-a-dozen of the ishmders — the white 
With me could not make them nndei--'i 
cross-legged and smoothing the grouml eac 


■ thn 

> give 

rmt on my s;iyiri,i,' (iNullc tJiul) you ;uk1 me eat, and 
myself, tliry ;it once f(;ll to. I have found both on the mainland 
and tlii-< i-l;nid that the expressions are very similar to those used 
on the .MiL'-iiityre and Big Tlivers, which 1 perfectly understand, 
saxo tli.u ill r.-umble (Ut tee thul) answers for (Nulle thul) ; ut 
t(v 1. <i,.M\,'d from (Utta i/wia) you and me. Thus (Utta) me, 
and (liid;.) you, is used in nearly every tribe, so with many other 
words. K\idently the ditiei-ent languages have been derived 
irom (,n,- <>nginaL The aborigines having broken up, and formed 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S. 

[Read before the Royal Society ot N S W Junp > /ss i 


; tliat tlu; unusually heavy 

would have been about lialf an inch ; but according to tJie ivturns 
of rainfall, it appears that from the 1 1th to the 18th the aNci'nuo 
daily rate was about 1 inch., and this caused the great Hood whi«':i 
culminated at Maitland on the 20th, and whicli rose to 31ft. ;5;u. 
In tlie following month, the highest flood of recent years took })l;u-,', 
and tlic water rose at Maitland, at 1 a.m. of April 26, to :>4ft. 
4in. : and the commission reported, ' We are inclined to tliink 
that during tlio height of this flood the water came down upon 
Maitland faster than during any flood since the settlement of the 
country.' At the same time, we know that a rainfall of 2in. a 
day for five or six days would ? 
a rainfall may occur, and we f 
probably be the effect." " Such a rainfall might raise tlie wa 
at Maitland to the level of the flood of 1820- -that is Gft. higher 
than the flood of April, 1870." " With such an increased eleva- 
tion the quantity which breaks over the banks at Graham's would 
be enormously increased, and instead of passing round through 
the back country, would break into the town, and being joined 
there by the main body of the water, would sweep High-.'^treet 
from one end to the other, and probal)]y leave the town in ruins." 
In 1870 there were but two rain-gauges in the Hunter water-^h.-.l, 
and it is very satisfactory now to find that tlie calculations b.i^'d 
on the rainfall indicated by these two gauges is substantially b. une 
out by recent experience. Now we ha\e 20 rain-<:aiiireh in tlie 
same district, and we find that ;i r;iiufMll which averaged ;i Httle 
more than lin. per day for iouv (l.^v■^, the i(.t;d Iicjiil; '< i>l. made 
in 1889 a flood of 33ft. Gin.; in M^nvli, l>7i), tli.- t-tal r;.in in 
four days was 5-08, and the I1o<mI :51fi. iiin. ; and in Aju-il the 
same year, with a greater rainfall, o-[)S, tlieie was a llood of 3lft. 
4in. Rain, therefore, as heavy ms that which fell about Sydney 
in the recent storm would, upon the watershed of the Hunter, 
produce five times as much water as they had in the recent Hood. 
I am not prepared to say how higti such a flood would rise, but it 

possible appears in the (luotations above. ( )l» atinn-, ,ir SvdneV 

nhabitmt^ to feoek sxtet\ upon higliei giound," but how 
to be done thev did not induAte Perhips tlie stoi\ of 
clicks IS not so improbable as some liiNe supposed They 

Prof. LiVERSiDC.E, M.A., F.ii.s., President, in the Chair. 
Thirty members were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed 
The certificates of two candidates wore road for the third lime 
f one for the second time, and of two for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary member: 
f the Society :— 

Delohery, Cornelius, j.p., c.p.s. ; Sydney. 
Stephen, Arthur Winbourne, L.s. ; Sydney. 
The Chairman announced that the Society's Journal, Vol. XXII 

He also announced that the Council had awarded the Society's 
Medal and money prize of £2;") to :Nrr. Thomas Whitelegge, for his 
" List of the Marine and Frosh-waior luvertelM-atc Fauna of Port 
Jackson and the neighbourhood." 

The following letter was read from :\Iaior Chapman : - 

To the Secretary, Eoyal Society of New S 
.Sir, — Kindly excuse the liberty I take 
Idea relative to the preservation of w Mtu 
before the Royal Society. 

places' tilled ^ith w.iter in the diy bed of a iiver duriny 'tl'iJ' su 

M.. W. A. n.xon, i.r... road a paper on " Analys 
111 the a}'-..Mu.' f.t' the author, the Hon. Secrotary mid fi 

Mr. U. C. liuvsi-ll, K \ 
lain Storm.- 
The tll,ulk^ rrf the Society wore accorded t 

very thin skin has boon molted in its passai^o through tlio Jitmos- 
phere. The fourth one was fjiven to me by John A. V<>()mans 
Esq., of Gilgoin Station near Brewarrina, and the rnetodrite was 
found on Gilgoin Station. It weighs 67^1hs. and \v.i> (uidently 
been a long time upon the earth, for the aflootof rain and weather 

the original skin has disappeared under the action of w ind and 
rain, and in places large pieces have evidently fallen oil'. In this 
respect it differs mucirfrom the two from Barratta Station, which 
do not seem to have suffered from wind and weather and have 
only lost some pieces, which have been broken olF with a hammer. 
As to the chemical composition of these meteor.-, we .it present 
know nothing, but 1 hope our President Profe.ssor Li\er>idge, may 

thetn at least, are obviously what are called stony meteoi-ites. The 
Oilgoin one evidently once contained much iron, and has still 

oxidised since it fell upon the earth." 

A discussion followed in which the follow in- ir. ntl, n.rn took 
part :— Messrs. E. A. Baker, W. A. Dixon, \V. M. IbiPiLt, Judge 
Docker, Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, the Chairman, an<l Mr. lIu.sMl. 

Prof. T. P. Anderson-Stuart, M.i)., evhil.ired .uu\ explained 

ing specially many of the physical phenomena ()r rh-' .nmlation 
of the blood He also .showed tliat a steel hoop h-'M l^etween 

successively reproduce in detail the form of a tran,\ im-m" section 
of the thorax of quadruped, human f.etus and avlults, thus 
demonstrating how largely the form of the che-t dopends on 

The thanks of the Society were accorded to the various oxliibitors. 
The following donations were laid upon the table and 
acknowledged : — 

DONATION'S Received Duinvr; the Month of M vv, 1869. 

Birmingham— Birmingham and Midland Institute. Eeport 
of the Council for the years 1SS5, 1SS6, 18SS. Ad- 
dresses :^" Municipalities," by The Lord Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, P-c, D.D., 30 Nov., 18S5. *'Oui 

20°Sept., 1886. " A Midland University/' t»y Pro- 
fessor J. K. Seeley, m.a., ll.d., 10 Oct., 1887 
" About Music/' by Sir Arthur Sullivan, Mus. Doc. 

Braunschweig — Vereins fiir Naturwissenschaft. Jahres- 
bericht. Vol. in., 1881-83, Vol. iv., 1883-86. 

Eoyale Malacologique de Belgique. 
Annales, Tome xxii.. Fourth Series Tome ii., 18S7. 
Proces-verbaux de Seances, Tome xvii., 4 Feb. to 


Michaelmas Te"rm, 1888. Transactions 
, Part iii., 1889. 

, Nos. 154— loC Feb— ApriF, 181 

che Seewarte. Deutsche Ueberseeischt 
Logische Beobachtungeu, Heft ii., 1885-S 

Bidrag till Kannedom af Finlands Xatur 
Haftet 45, 46. 47, 1887-88. Pinska Ve 

samhet af A. E. Arppe, 18S8. "Ofversigt i 
Vetenskaps-Societetens Forhandlingar x: 

Jenaische Zeitschrift fin- Xaturwissenschaft, Band 
iUHE— Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein. Verhand- 

Irelan.l. Journal, Vol. x\rn , N<. .i, Fob 1SV> The In: 
Meteorological Council. Kcp(Mt to the Voyi\ Society 

tic il Sock t^ of Grt it Brit un J( ui n il 


V:n'^ ISS 

I ondoi 


— ^-^-'^-1 X, 

I^^'^^l W 

n< urn a 

", <^u tv 


ithl, NolKc., \ol 


iiphi ilb^ 



,:■- ^^^^'"tllU 





Ir liM ^ol 







and Philosophical 
imgs. Fourth Seius 

Ihc Society. 


^^°^TiV ^ 



Club of Victoria Ihe 
I ^^osland2,May,Jun. 

The Club. 


X R 111 

' u/u.^ 

01 :' 

inicxl Observation. 

MfM( ^_s ,1 did( untih a Vnt^nn Vl^ato ' Memoria 

r.ui.ii (ml un Numb Due ISSS 
^linotsi N uti hidii'-tiK 11, dc Alulhouse Bulh^tii 

NMit. St 1/1 „ /, 1 ri,i JMitthcilunrcn, Bind Tin 

New York Miei >&copical Sc 

PAiiiB— Obscrvatone Ripport ^ 

Societt de Biologie ( om])t<.' 

Obtiic Tomt i.Nos 11- 

Socittc de Gtojrr iphie C inii 

Bulletin, Tome XII, 
R( nnion du Vendredi, 
Bulletin, Time xi\ , 

listate dalle Biblioteche Pubbliche Governative 

ILADELPHIA— Franklin Institute. Journal, Vol. cxxvii., 

Nos. 759, 760, 1889. The Institute. 

Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. Annual 
Report for 1886, Part iv., and atlas. Atlas, Northern 
Anthracite Field, Part ii. A A. The Board of Commissioners. 

) DE Janeiro — Imperial Observatorio. Eevista do Obser- 

vatorio. Anno iv., No. 1, Jan., 1889. The Director. 

ME — Accademia Pontificia de 'Nuovi Lincei. Atti, Anno 
XXXIX., Sessione la, 30 Dec, 1885. Anno xlii., 
Sessione 3a, 17 Feb, 1889. The Academy. 

Biblioteca e Archivio Tecnico. Giomale del Genio Civile, 
Anno, xxvii., Fasc. 1 and 2, 1889. 

The Minister of Public InstrucHon, Rome. 
Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emanuele di 
BoUettino delle Opere Moderne Straniere 

Societa Geografica Italiana. BoUettino, Serie iii.. Vol. 

II., Fasc. 3, 1889. The Society. 

St. Etienne — Societe de I'Industrie Minfirale. Comptes- 

Eendus Mensuels, Feb., 1889. „ 

Salem— Essex Institute. BuUetin, Vol. xix., 1887. His- 
torical Collections, Vol. xxiv., 1887. Visitors' 
Guide to Salem. The Instittite. 

-Royal Asiatic Society. Journal of the Straits 
Branch, No. 19, 1887. The Society. 

-Australian Museum. Memoirs, No. 2, Lord Howe 
Island— Its Zoology, Geology, and Physical Char- 
acters. The Trustees. 
lean Society of New South Wales. Proceedings, 

„,i <a„«i^„ ^7-„i ,„ T.„„^- ; iQQo The Society. 

f the Col- 
e of Science, Vol, ii.. Part v., 1889. The University. 

Seismological Society of Japan. Transactions, Vol. i. — 

Trieste— Society Adriatica di Scienze Naturali. BoUettino, 

Vol. XI., 1889. 
Vienna — K. K. Geologische Eeichsanstalt. Jahrbuch, Band 

XXXVII., Heft 3 and 4, 1887 ; Band, xxxviii.. Heft 

Washington — Hydrograph 

Nos. 5—11, 1889. 

Treasury Department. 

of the Treasury on ine otate oi tne J< mances lor 
the year 1888. The Secretary of the Treasury. 

BuUetin, No. 8. 

The Superintendent. 

. Geological S 
Atlaa, by S. 

Industry of LeadvUle, Colorado, ^ 

J, Fibrous Plant, 
edited by Sir James Hector, k.o.m.g., m.d., f.b.s., 
(Second Edition) 1889. 1 

(Names of Donors are in Italics.) 
(A., B. and C.) Shewing the locality of the deaths 
in the City for the Six Months ended March 1, 1889, 
prepared by the City Health Officer. 

The Right Worshipful the Mayor. 

By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., &c. 

iRead before the Royal Society of N.S.W., July 3, ISSO.] 

In a brief note published in the Herald of the 21st instant, the 
Crovernment Astronomer has drawn attention to an unusually 
high tide which occurred at Fort Denison in Sydney Harbour in 
the night of June 15th, the water having risen to a point 6 feet 
^5 inches above the zero of the gauge. I may state that ever since 
the establishment of the tide gauge on the South Creek, due south 
of my Observatory, towards the close of March last I had looked 
forward with interest to my own local records of the tides im- 
mediately to follow the full moon of June 1889. In a letter to 
my esteemed friend, the Rev. Dr. WooUs of Burwood, dated April 
11th, I expressed my anticipations respecting the probable magni- 
tude of these tides. I had already remarked that at her opposition 
in June the moon would be within two hours only of her perigee, 
and that a very close one, her distance from the centre of the earth 
V'eing only 55 -99 equatorial radii of the latter body. In addition to 
these two conditions favourable to the production of a large tide 

her point of greatest south declination, 23 degrees, only thirty-one 
hours after the opposition. It will thus be seen that, not only 
yould the conditions for a large tide-wave generally be forthcom- 
ing, but also that the vertex of the tide-wave itself would approach 
close to the parallels of Sydney and Windsor. This circumstance 
would give a high perpendicular section for the wave as it passed 
i of the Observatories. These were my reasons for 

looking forward with considerable interest to the records of the 
tides following the June full moon, but it will been seen from what 
follows that i was rather unfortunate in the results. My tide- 
register after furnishing a continuous trace of the tidal movements 
of the South Creek for about two months had to be removed on 
the 26th May last in consequence of tlie flood wliich occurred at 
the close of that month. Owing to tlie long interval required on 
that occasion for the subsidence of tlie stream the gauge could not 
be again placed in position till about noon on the 1 Itli instant, 
of this date it registered its first high tide at lMi, 

t registered 
\')m., which turned out to be unusually high. The lowest of 

menced its regular records, occurred at 8h. 12in. a.m. on April 

June Uth unfortui 
of the float.'' It wa' 

registered, but that on 
Since this epoch the tid 

the gauge had not lieen s^ 
of extraordinarv tii 
of .such magnitude a u.l 1 
not wholly of an unuu. 

subject of the record(;d hiu 
in his letter draws attentioi 
tide was recorded at 9h. 3C 
water rose to a point 3i 


astronomical conditions at that epoch, I find that tlie moon was 
in opposition at 4h. 44m. p.m. on May 24th, that she was in a 
very close perigee (56-05 equatorial radii)eleven hours subsequently 
and that the vertex of tlie wave passed again very close to Sydney. 
It appears therefore that the astronomical conditions were then 
eminently favourable for extraordinarily high night tides. I may 
very suitably bring my remarks to a close by pointing out that 
immediately after the full moon of July we shall be again visited 
with high spring tides in the night, though the conditions are not 
quite so favourable for height as those which obtained at the last 
full moon. I may also add that after July the tides will not be 
remarkably high from immediate astronomical causes till the new 
moon of December next. The conjunction occurs at lOh. 56m. 
p.m., Sydney time, on December 22nd, the perigee (distance in 
equatorial radii =56-03) thirteen hours later, and the moon's 
greatest south declination, 24°, at 5h. p.m. on the 23rd. The 
highest tides will occur about the 24th and 25th, but on this 
occasion they will be in the day-time. These expectations are of 
course founded on purely 
may be that the magnitude of t 
which are regarded as strictly 
heavy easterly gales and a low 
predicted tides will probably 


Prof. LiVERSiDGE, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Twenty members were present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificate of one new candidate was read for the third tii 
and of two for the second time. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary mem 
of the Society f— 

Mingaye, John C. 11., F.c.s. ; Parramatta. 

In the absence of the author ]\[r. F. B. Kvngdon read a pa 
'•y^JoJin Tebbutt, F.KA.s., " On the High Tides of June 15— 1' 

Some remarks were made by Messrs. H. C. Russell and J. F, 

The thanks of the Society were accorded to Mr. Tebbutt for his 
valuable paper. 

Mr. Kyngdon also read a paper by Mr. Thomas Whitelegge. on 
" The Marine and Fresh- water Invertebrates of Port Jackson and 
the neighbourhood." 

In conveying the thanks of the meeting to Mr. Whitelegge, 'the 
Chairman presented the Society's medal, which together with a 
money prize of £25 had been awarded to him for his paper. 

Mr. Whitelegge duly responded. 

Prof. Stuart referred to Mr. Whitelegge's remarks respecting 
the difficulty he had laboured under, in preparing his paper, from 
the want of certain necessary books upon the subject, which could 
not be obtained in Sydney. He stated that at his (Prof. Stuart's) 
instigation a general catalogue had been made of the various 
scientific periodicals contained in the principal libraries of Sydney; 
this would shortly be published and he had no doubt would prove 
of great service to scientific workers, by showing what books were 
in the city and where they could be found. 

Professor Anderson Stuart showed a modification of the Kymo- 
scope which he exhibited at the Society's last monthly meeting. 
This form demonstrated the phenomena of interference in wave 
motion— one series of tubes had one wave, a parallel series had 
the other and both opened into a common series in which the 
interference was made visible. The two ^ 

ivhich could l 

! from pumps 

iiplitude of the i 

as also the phase in which the waves came togethe 

Mr. Russell congratulated Prof. Stuart upon his very successful 
and valuable invention of the 'Kymoscope' and the chairman 
tendered the thanks of the Society for the exhibit. 

The meeting was adjourned till the first Wednesday in August. 
The following donations were laid upon the table and 
acknowledged :— 

Donations Received during the Month of June, 1889. 

(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 


Aberdken— University. Calendar for the year 1889-90. The University. 

Adelaide— Eoyal Society of South Australia. Transactions 

and Proceedings and Eeport, Vol. xi., 1887-8. The Society. 

Urisbane— Eoyal Society of Queensland. Proceedinffs. Vol. 

VI., Parts ii. and iii., 1889. 
Calcutta— Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal, Vol. lvi . 
Part ii.. No. 5, 1887. Vol. lvii.. Part ii.. No. 4, 1888 
Proceedings, Noa. 9 and 10, 1888. 

um of Comparative Zoology at 
" " ■ ■ , Vol. XVI., (Geological 
Series, Vol. ii.) JSo. 4. Vol. xvii., No. 3, 1889, The Museum. 

EDiNBURan— Eoyal Scottish Geographical Society. The 

Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. v.. No. 5, 1889. The Society. 
FiEENZE— Societ£t Africana d' Italia. BuUettino della 
Sezione Fiorentina, Vol. v., Fasc 1, 2, 3, 1889. 
Society Italiana di Antropologia, Etnologia e Psicologia 

Comparata. Archivio, Vol. xviii., Fasc 3, 1888. „ 

HAMBrRG— Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft. Meteor- 

ologische Zeitschri/t, Mai, 1889. 
Haelem— Societe Hollandaise des Sciences. Archives Neer- 
landaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Tome 
XXIII., Liv. 2, 1889. 
London— Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Journal 
and Transactions, Part 226, April. 1889. 
Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal, Ser. II., Vol. in.. 

No. 24, April, 1889. The Club. 

Royal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, Vol. 

XLix., No. 5, March, 1889. The Society. 

Eoyal Microscopical Society. Journal, Part ii., No. 69, 
April. 1889. 
Melbourne— Public Library, Museums, and National 

Gallery of Victoria. Report of the Trustees for 1887. The Trustees. 
Mexico— Sociedad Scientifica " Antonio Alzate," Memorias, 

Tomo II., Cuaderno Num. 7, 1889. The Society. 

Milan- Society Italiana di Scienze Naturali. Atti, Vol. 

XXX., Fasc 1—4. 1887-88. 
Montreal— Natural History Society of Montreal. The 

Canadian Record of Science, Vol. in.. No. 6, 1889. 
NAPLEs-Societa Africana d' Italia. BoUettino, Anno viii. 

Fasc 3 and 4, 1889. 
NEUCHATEL-Societe des Sciences Naturelles de Neuchatel. 

Bidletin, Tome xvi., 1888. 
NEwcASTLE-uPON-TTNE-North of England Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers. Transactions 
Vol. xxxvin.. Parts i. and ii., 1889. The Institute. 

IfEw York— School of Mines, Columbia College. The School 

of Mines QuaHerly, Vol. x.. No. 3, April, 1889. The School of Mines. 
Paris- Academic des Sciences de I'Institut de France. 
Comptes Eendus, Tome cvin., Nos. 1—19, Jan. 7 to 
Mai 13, 1889. The Academy. 

FeuiUe des Jeunes Naturalistes. Annee xix., Nos. 217 
to 223, Nov. 1888 to Mai, 1889. Catalogue de la 
_ Bibliotheque, Fasc, Nos. 4 and 5, 1888-89. The Editor. 

bociete de Biologie. Comptes Eendus, 9 Serie, Tome i., 

. i^os. 16 to 20. 1889. The Society. 

S ^-'t^ J« Geographie. Compte Eendu, No. 7, 1889, 
ociete Fran(;aise de Physique. Eeunion du Vendredi, 
3 and 17 Mai, 1889. 
i'HiLADKLPHiA— Franklin Institute. Journal, Vol. cxxvn.. 

No. 701, May. 1889. The Institute. 

Pisa— Societu Toscanti di Scienzo XaturaH. Atti, Froco 

, Numoro 11, Nov. 
vOMK- j5^'^^;^^^_^^'j^;/j'J^;.^'^';^^^,'j^;^;^\;;^.^, Modems Str; 

[ Regno d'ltalia. Vol. tv., N 
litato (Jeolo-iro d' Italia. 

Itoiidus MfiiMi 

i'U, 3h 

SlENA-ll. A.-c-ad..nia ■ 

l..i FiM 

Sydney— Five Piil.lir 


University <.f Svh 

H^y. (• 

The Committee. 
X Ttaliana. Bollettino, Seric III., Vol. 
ISSf). The Society. 

de r Industrie Mineralo. Comptes- 

■x, N.Z.— Colonial Museum and Laboratorv. 

nual Report, (23rd) 1SS7-SS. Reports of Geo- 

:i.-al Explorations dnrin>,' IS'^T-SS (Xo. 10). The Din 

■aland ln--tituti>. Tran^a.-t ions and Proceedinirs, 

1 XM , N,.u Srii, .. \,,1 i\., isss The Inst 

Schwa-rer, M. Emile.— Le Mil 

Tate, Prof. Ralph, f.l.s., f.o 

A Supplement to a List of the Lamelli branch and 

Census of the MoUuscan Fauna of Australia. Cen- 
sus of the Mollusca of Australia. The Gasteropods 
of the Older Tertiary of Australia (Part ii.). 
Tebbutt, John, f.r.a.s.— Observations of Phenomena of 
Jupiter's Satellites at Windsor, New South Wales, 

Waters, Arthur W., f.l.s., f.g.s.— On some Ovicells of 
Cyclostomatous Bryoza. On the Ovicells of some 

Medical Press and Circular, 22 May, 1889. Th 

Microscopical Bulletin and Science News, February, 1889. 

Trilhner's Record. Third Series, Vol. i.. Part i„ No. 243, 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S.W., Aiiyust 7, 1889.'] 

In a dry country like the interior of Australia, it is a surprise 
to many persons to find such an abundant supply of underground 
water, and many theories have been propounded about it. The 
highlands of New Guinea, and even more distant countries have 
been mentioned as the source of the water, and when I pointed 
out just ten years since, the remarkable relations existing between 
the rainfall and rivers of the west, I was told by engineers and 
squatters, who knew all the country, that it was impossible that 
my statements could be true. It was most positively asserted 
that no rain ever fell there that would wet the ground IS inches 
deep, much less afford any for underground supplies ; with equal 
confidence it was asserted that what did get into the ground was 
all dried out again by e\ aj)oration, and further, that the greater 
part of the Darling River basin was so flat that water would not 
run upon it ; and that the rain therefore did not and could not, 
any portion of it, hud its way into the river. To these and many 
other statements I felt that it was of no making counter 
statements until facts should be collect(>d that would iri^e ;i fair 
basis for argument. I had stated the results of the first measures 

before speaking again, for 1 
tific as well as practical impo 

ance. I may say in passing that I do not think the question can 
be finally settled yet, but the interval has sufficed to bring out 
important facts which I think should be published. 

First in reference to the opinion that no water reaches the 
Darling from the fiat country, the following fact is sufficient to 
show that that view has been pressed somewhat too far, and will 
have to be modified so as to admit, that in heavy rains water 
does reach the Darling from it : — On the 21st January 1885, a 
remarkable rainstorm entered this colony in the N.W,, not far 
from Milparinka, and travelled at the rate of about seven miles 
per hour, straight across country to the sea in an E.S.E. direction. 
On all the country round Wilcannia from 10 to 11 inches of rain 
fell in about 40 hours. The river had been very low for months 
before, but sufficient water from this rainstorm ran off the com- 
paratively fiat country, to make a flood in the Darling at Wilcannia 
that reached a maximum of 28 feet above summer level ; this flood 
did not subside to the old level until February 26, which was clear 
proof that the rain water not only filled the river, but continued 
to drain into it for several weeks. Certainly, the water did not 
come down past Bourke, which, being in the margin of the storm, 
was but little affected by it ; and the river measures there showed 
that the only rise reached its maximum at 4 feet and was all over 
in four days. There was no other possible way for it to come, but 
off the country about Wilcannia, where the rain storm passed over. 
It was obvious therefore, that the opinion referred to, although 
generally true, must be taken with some reservation, for the 
instance just given shews that the Darling is in times of heavy 
rain fed by the drainage oflf the country below Bourke, and this 
amounts to proof that at times it is fed by other parts of the flat 
country. With reference to the view that the underground water 
comes from New Guinea or even more distant high land, that is 
South America, it seems hardly necessary to answer it seriously, 
it is quite certain however that even if the mountains of New 
Guinea could drain into our western plains the area of them is 
utterly insufficient to afford the supply. 

It is impossible to say exactly how much is lost from the ground 
by evaporation. We could tell approximately how much was 
lost from the rivers, but the investigation of the loss from soil 
is a very difficult matter, for reasons which might easily be 
explained. So long as the surface soil is wet the evaporation 
goes on from it rather faster than from water, but as soon as 
the soil dries down half-an-inch, which does not take long, the 
evaporation from it practically ceases, the layer of dry earth 
seems an effectual covering to the water below, it is obvious then 
that the evaporation from soil does not go on at the rate which 
many persons suppose it does, and I am quite convinced that 

this source of loss does not seriously affect the underground 
supply ; once the water has sunk into the porous soil it is safe. 
This view of the effect of evaporation is borne out by the fact that 
the Murray is subject to similar temperature and wind to cause 
evaporation and they do not there dissipate all the water as some 
have supposed they do in the Darling country. This is a very 
strong argument against the view, so often expressed, that the 
small quantity of water in the Darling is due to the influence of 
evaporation upon the rainfall. 

On the other hand, in reference to my own statements, I freely 
admit that they have been based upon measures that might be 
accurate, if professional men could be employed 

made many years since by officers of the Harbours and Rivers 
Department ; and the assumptions I have made are, that the 
section of the river at Bourke has not materially changed since 
then, and that in floods of the same height, the velocity now would 
be the same as it was then. So far as the measurements of rain 

basin of the Darling to show with some degree of accuracy what 
the rainfall is : and as to the section of the river at Bourke I am 
told that as a matter of fact it has not materially changed since 
the sections were surveyed, and the only recent measures of the 
velocity of the current near Bourke confirm the velocities deter- 
mined 20 years since, that is for the same height of flood water. 
When I first began to compare the rainfall and the river discharge 
of the Darling, I was so surprised that I thought there must be 
some mistake in the velocity and section of the river, and I there- 
fore used a margin for possible error, which more careful investi- 
gation since has proved to be amply sufficient. I am quite sure 
therefore that in all cases, I have rather over than under estimated 
the quantity of water which is carried off by the Darling. 

For the past ten years upon the assumptions just referred to the 
discharge of the Darling River has been taken' as a percentage of 
the rainfall and the yearly amount has varied from 5-81 to 0-09 
per cent., the mean for the ten years being 1-46 per cent.; a startling 
result, and one which I believe to be without a parallel in any 
country in the world. It has been my custom to assume that the 
oasin of the Darling, for this purpose, was just that part of it 
enclosed by the great branches which begin al>ove Bourke 
and spread out towards the mountains like the branches of some 
jnighty tree. I have done this because I admit that there is some 
truth in the statement that no rain-water reaches the Darling 
from the flat country, but as I have shewn, there are remarkable 

intersected by numerous water courses, we are fully justified in 
expecting that a considerable percentage of the rainfall would get 
into the river, an assumption which is fully borne out by observa- 
tion and the sudden local Hoods which occur there, and if our in- 
vestigations had been first turned to the Murray catchment which 
in outward appearance and rainfall is not unlike that of the 
Darling, except that it has perhaps a larger proportion of flat land, 
we should have expected to find something like 25 percent of the 
rainfall passing Bourke, the fact that we only find 1^ per cent. 
is, with the facts of the Murray basin before us, still more 

In Europe from 20 to 50 per cent, of the rain flows away in the 
rivers ; in England about 30 per cent., and here in a river— the 
Murray, with similar basin and rainfall to the Darling, 25 per 
cent, of the rain flows down the river. This remarkable condition 
affecting the dischai;ge of the Darling River is one that calls for 
investigation, because if it be true as I fully believe, and the 
observations prove it, then we must have a supply of underground 
water which is practically inexhaustible for pastoral purposes, 
and in addition, sufficient to irrigate some of the land. The 
mean rainfall on the Darling River catchment for the past ten 
years has been 22-14 inches and of this, as we have seen only 1| 
per cent, or = 0-33 inches of rain passes Bourke in the river. If 
25 per cent, of it, which is equal to 5-53 inches of rain passed 
away in this river as it does in the Murray there would be seventeen 
times as much water passing Bourke as actually does pass ; but in 
addition to the water passing down the Murray we know that a 
certain amount of the Murray rainfall sinks into the ground to 
supply wells there, and hence 26 per cent, of the Murray rain- 
fall does not represent all that is available from it. So'much we 
find in the river, and some more, an unknown amount, is to be 
found in the soil. We should then De perfectly justified by the 
analogy of the two river basins, in assuming that the estimate just 
given of the amount of water which should pass Bourke is below 
the mark, not above it, and we ought therefore to have an under- 
ground water supply at least equal to sixteen times as much water as 
passes Bourke now, and this, or at least a great part of it should 

is to my mind proof that it passes away to underground drainage. 
For some time past I have been trying to get friends living in the 
country to undertake percolation observations with a view of 
measuring what rain actually does sink down into the ground, 
but so far, I have not succeeded ; and quite recently it occurred 
to me that Lake George could be made to give one answer to the 
question which would be much more valuable than ordinary per- 

;olation measures, because the aivn over wliit-li it ( 
arge and is situated on the uiouiitains where in 

Lake George is situated at tlie bottom of a depr 

greatest known flood lias an are;i of sivtr.'u mil(^s 
ive miles wide, but as the lake is shallow its area ■ 
^easous. The basin, including the lak(^ is thirte.^i 

.'estern side particularly are very steep, and in many places 

hose of tlie Darling basin for the rain-water to run oiT, owing to the 

v<'ly Hat portion 
; a considerable a 

other reasons admirahly 

Hain gHuges have been established at ea 
other i)]aces over the catchment, and att 

other places over the catchment, and at the south end a self-record- 

for four and a-half years, this will show a change in level of one 

find thermometers the temperature of the lake and of the air ; 
we liave therefore all necessary means for determining uhat goes 
into as well as what goes out of the lake, except that %\e have no 
direct measure of the proportion of the rainfall wliich sinks into 

tlie method I have adopted for tliis purpose is to examine tht; 
rt^cord sheets after rain and see if tiie lake has risen more than the 
ram gauge shows the fall of rain to havi; ho^m ; if it lias, the 
di<lerence is obviously due to the inflow of water from the hasin. 
it IS a remarkable and well established fact that in all ordinary 
r'lins, and I include in this cateeorv. all up to 1 or 2 inches in the 

•-^M iity-tour hours, the lake only rises as much as tlie rain- 
shows to have fallen, but as might be expected the percent; 

rain which does find its way from the hills to the lake increases 
with the intensity of the rain. 

On 26th of January, 1885, a great rain storm passed over the 
lake, and 8 inches of rain fell in two days, there was of course a 
considerable rise in the lake, but when we came to measure it 
exactly, the net result was 111 inches ; 8 inches of this had of 
course fallen into the lake direct as rain, and the remaining 3| 
inches represents what had come down the hills. Now it does 
not require many figures to find out what percentage of the rain- 
fall in this case found its way from the basin into the lake, and if 
all the rain which fell on it had run into the lake there would have 
been a rise of 96 inches from drainage ; 3^ inches therefore repre- 
sents 3-64 per cent, of the rainfall. 

In 1887 a very wet year, the lake rose from drainage alone 
15-86 inches, and the total rainfall for the year was 42-26, whence 
it appears that only 3-12 per cent, of the rainfall found its way 
from the basin into the lake. 

In 1888 a very dry year, the rainfall was 23-90, and the lake 
rose from drainage alone 5-32 inches, which was equal to 1-85 per 
cent, of the rainfall, but this really is too favourable a statement 
of 1888, for during eleven months of the year there was not a 
drop of drainage, and it was only from the very violent 
rainstorm in December that any water reached the lake from the 
basin ; in December 10-79 inches of rain fell, and in one rainstorm 
3-88 inches fell in one day 1-92 inches in the next, and 1-22 the 
next, and during the heaviest part of this storm 1-59 inches of 
rain fell in twenty minutes. Of the December rainfall 4-11 per 
cent, ran oflF the hills into the lake. Taking the mean between 
the percentage 3-12 of a very wet year and 1-85 that of a very 
dry one, we get 2-48 as the percentage of rain which flows from 
the hills into Lake George. If this had to find its way through 
long river courses it would certainly be very much reduced, and 
probably not be more than we find in the Darling at Bourke. 

It is in evidence given before the Royal Commission for Water 
Conservation that parts of the Darling River basin are exceed- 
ingly porous and allow the water to sink down freely, and the facts 
based upon measurements which I have brought forward to night, 
seem to me to add force to that evidence, for Lake George is in a 
part of the same range of mountains that the Darling drains, and 
fortunately as a check upon the Darling River measures, circum- 
stances here make it possible to see what percentage of the rain 
that falls on this part of the mountains runs off. As I have 
stated just now, only about 3 per cent., equal to 029 inch of the 
great rain storm of January 1885 found its way into the lake; 
as the whole 8 inches fell in forty hours and only 029 say I inch 
found its way into the lake, 7| inches must have been absorbed 


by the soil, for it certainly did not remain on the sides of those 
hills as a sheet of water to be dissipated Uy evaporation. One has 
only to stand at the lake and look at its surrounding mountains 
to be impressed with the impossibility of water remaining there 
unless it sinks into the soil and rocks. 

We have therefore in the measures which have been made at 
Lake George strong evidence of the possibility of rainfall sinking 
rapidly into the mountains as we know has been the case in the 
Darling River basin by the measures made there during the past 
ten years. It is not necessary that I should here refer in detail 
to the many well known cases in which water which should reach 
the Darling has been observed to sink rapidly into the soil. Un- 
fortunately in nearly all cases the circumstances are such as to 
preclude measurements, and I was therefore the more anxious to 
bring the facts about Lake George, which are based upon measure- 
ments before the members this evening, because they shew m a 
more satisfactory way than can be done for the Darling that the 
water must sink into the soil very rapidly on a piece of country 
very similar to many parts of the Darling basin, and go a long 
way towards confirming the statements I made about the under- 
ground waters of the Darling just ten years since. 

It is evident therefore from the measures made at Lake George 
that the rain there does sink into the soil where it falls, very much 
as it has been supposed to do on the Darling basin. It is also 
evident that in very heavy rains a considerable quantity of water 
from the flat country does find its way into the Darling, a fact 
fully proved by the instance just given and many others which 
could be added ; that an enormous quantity of water many times 
what now passes down the river has to be accounted for, after 
making full allowance for evaporation and other causes of loss, 
admits I conceive, of no doubt whatever. When we go into 
figures to see how much it is, we get a surprising result, viz., that 
it is not less than ten-times and probably is sixteen times what 
the Darling now carries away. This result is based upon ten 
years' measures of rain and river, and from these it appears that 
the Darling carries away only 1^ per cent, of the rainfall : while 
the Murray, a river existing under similar conditions of climate, 
wind, rain and evaporation, carries away 25 per cent, of the rain- 
fall. The only diflerence I can see which seems to ofi-er any clue 
to this great disparity in the percentage of rain carried off is the 
extremely porous character of much of the Darling basin. In parts 
of which it is a matter of common observation, that the rain sinks 
into the soil freely and yields little or none to the rivers and 
there seems to be no doubt that abundance of water will be found 
Delow the surface both for pastoral and to some email extent for 
agricultural purposes. 

By Percy J. Edmunds, Esq. 

IRead before the Royal Society of N.S.W., August 7 

Indies from the object. Being normal-sightod, 
prevent any permanent injury to the eyes, T adi 

to tlie loss of perspective following the use of onl; 

The calculations are effected as follows :— 

Problem /.—To find the necessary focal length of the lenticula 

and RN = a = one-half the 

'. get 

ce the distance of the object P = R P = y(p- 
id the distance of the image Q = R Q = s'{(\' 

f ;/(p;+a^) V(q^+a=) 

whence the focal distance necessary (f) 

^- V((r+a^)-./(p^+a^T 
which is the foi-mula required. 

Problem //.—To find the prismatic angle necessary. Sine 
actual pencil of light that enters the pupil of the eye is very £ 
and the ray P R M is the axis thereof, we may consider the 
P R Q as the angle of deviation. 

NowanglePRQ = NRQ - NRP 

.-. tanPRQ = tixn(NRQ - K R P) 

that !>, the angle PR<.) tiir' ^ '_^;^^ 
ind cm l.e found fiom tibl s 1. M,,un<<l i h. pn-nntu m 

of i< 1 1 action) 

Tlie pusiii itic nude dots not iii( in t lie angle BAG foimod 

jdus on( 01 moie lenses, as shown in faguie 3, wheie a bi com 





■K IV. 

:l..-4- is Shown, 

or fi-a 

ire ], 

wliei'O an eqii 


meniscoid sliape 

1^ ,.iven. It is also evidon 
^'na.iged on either or both 

L that the k 
surfaces of t 

he prisi 

power may be 
n, provided the 

toful lell^rtl^ be 


;. In 

other word^ 


to satisfy the re 



= (u- 


= 1- 


V^P^ o, 


,p,Ktaihs — 


u- pov 

\(r ot 

th( se spe( tacles is liii 

Hted (unh^ss tlie 

) by the tact, 

that (h 

spersion of h-'ht 

aue to the prism 


3 coloured l)oi 

del s when the ULismatic 

m^les become e 


e (in( 

• it IDIK us thlt 


-pect I 



1 to .upp] 

IS .ho^ 

vn bv a hst of 

iliJan^de^' "^ 
ei, th« V possess 

^'■iH UM su.'hp, 

r ,n u 

M.r\n.4 .p. a 

l'!l. t,/ll 


r the spect u 1. 
nticulcir pou . . . 




-H.l 1. n^thy 


1^ '. 1.1 

d b> the follow 



optKll p,IM 



magnification is required without sacrificing binocular perspective. 
In fact for many purposes the retention of perspective is of more 
import xnce than meie magnification 

(2) For lemohinq the ohjnt fn a rpentn apparent distance This 
is ettected b) cikuliting the lenticuHi piistii-5 to move tlie object 
from the nor m il dist mce of 1 nu lies to i qi eafpr dist inc o Here, 
although the object is re illy luiffnified as well, tlie mignifi(atiou 

greater distance ]ust coiiipensites foi the evtr i appiieiit si/e 
Theie ire i \erv luge luunbet of pei ons — hud stiidt iit-^ and 
others -%\hose e>es ^i t ANeikened l)v too toiitum uis ,p|,l„ ition 
towoik It whit (toi t(nii)Oiuj puqx.M^) nu^lit U . .n^ddMli 

stiuctui d defect, uid hence OTdi!iu\ sp( . t u l! " d . in )r* hum 
than good The muscles of the txe MinpK 41 1 exhui-tul b\ con 
tinuous contrictioM uid no doubt the letnn dso b. . ome. less 
sensitne I cannot help thinkm- that w. ik sp<(ticle. of the 

often caused b\ too con 
bpectacle-5 would ass>ibt 1 

Tiie onl\ objections \\hich I ha\e heird ad\anced against 
use of such specticlct, seem to be easd\ answered In the 
place, I h ive heaid it st ited thit notmal sighted persons could 
n itui illy rt quae spp( t u h s, and th it to use them must of nece - 
injure the e\( sight Now this objection, ilthouirh at hist s 
pLiusible, breiks down completely ^\hell carefully exami 
Being ess< nti lUv an optical instrument, tht^ cannot, if consti u( 
properly according to the foimulse gi\( n, produce an\ othei ei 
upon the eyesight than would result from the use ot a binOL 
micioscope — w hich experience has slunv n does notiesultin ill eti 

spectadcs would efiectudU 

The argument that th( 
perhaps ha\e some weight 
long known and used in con 
the cure of excessno lont; si 
however the prisms hi\e lie 
prevent the "squint that 

convex or concave lenses alone. After perusing sevei'al leading 
medical text-books on the eye, I have found in all of them that the 
eft'ect of prisms has been only treated of in connection with the 
cure of structural defects of the eye. In one work only is a method 
of calculating the necessary prismatic angle pointed out ; but owing 
to the approximations used and the treatment of the matter in a 
more or less arbitrary manner, and also owing to the fact that the 
niattei lias Ixtn treited solely fiom Aduiual standpoint, there is 
good reison to doubt ^^hethel oculists would mike aiiy piactical 
use of the nuthod In no t(xt book do I hnd thxt the pi actual 
usesfoi uormil sight refen ed to ilxne lia\e betii biouLtht foiwaid 
orad\otited , much less aioaii}- tables mstrttd ^i^ing tJie u suits 



3;= .w..,.. 




11 ,"" 

■^ ^ minimum 15 inches 


11 :: 
i' :: 



II ,'''''' 




2* mch 






By Lawhkxck 


[With Eight : 


\_Read before the Royal SoeieU, 

'^^.s.w., August 7, m 


SiNCK December 1887, .severul de 

selopjnents have taken place in 

the evolution of tivin-'-mac-hiTies v 

-Inch it is proposed 

more or h3ss lucidly iuthispapcM- 

; perhaps the writer over-esti- 

mate., their value, but it is hoped 

that such as they a 

re they wU 

shew some of our uieinbei-b that in 

effect the drud-ery 

is done and 

competition aalone is %v anted to 

bring the matter to 

a pi-actical 

issue. Great efforts have been i 


le motor ; a 

single cylinder vertical engine absorb(^d mucii time 

and labour, 

but want of skill in construction i 

nvolved such an an 

lount of un- 

necessary weight that if it is ever 

completed it will nei 

irlyall have 

to bo re-mad(^ 


til to several curious 


for puUin- the 'crank otf'ti.e cent. 

e, the best of them 

is sliewn in 

Fi-. 1, as it mav be useful to en* 

;in<.«>rs where a fiyxs 


cylinders are inach,.i..ib!o. In tl 

w position shewn b 

oth parts of 

the india-rubber spring ;nv .l,u-k, 

u lu-n the ball-crank 

pin K gets 

between D and Kpulhn 

- th.- main nank-pin L over the top centre. 

When the main cranl 

.-pin L gets to F it begins to .tore power 

through the cord B, an 

(1 continues to store it until L arrives at G, 

this power is given ou 

t between G and H, and pulls L over the 

bottom centre An aii 

• compressor, reducing valve, and Richard's 

indicator were also ma( 

le, but need no special descrii)tion here. 

The next engine con 

structed had a variety of tackle for using 

petroleum ■^pult \aT)oui 

as a niotue power, the only result a^ >et 

being that manual skill 

m bihe. soldering and li-ht engine woik 

wasacquned At this 

time what m.iy be called a most valuable 

invention vvas made, n 

amely the me. li'mnal movement by which 

the wing can be m ul, t 

nd.sM.l.. n4i<lK tlu'luu.eotemhtobserv- 

H ui ,,' ntlnn^^n.^Mni^m-, ape.spectne 

view of the' moll'.'lV .',;,, 2 , h. n... urn nt is applied to 

the three cyhiKh , m^m 

worth by the m.ku so 


As there seemed to 1 

)e consider abU' dithculty in making mtelh 

.ere w-rl riven niriclinu^ otlxM- woi-ker-, iiiiL;lit lie ))rought i 
Id. Tlu'oo \;irieties of uiodeU were made, namely, witli 

jhat tlie tendency of tlie body to rovolve o 
intnxry direction to the screw would caus 
and hwervinjr of the machines, and that 
ti opposite directions would be necesr^ary : 

ilus is tiiou<,dit to show that as pi-opellers the screw and the 
trochoided plane are about (Mjually et!W-ti\e, and that if either has 
the advanta<,a^ competition will brin.y it to the surface ; a feature 
of these machines is the triliin,-,' amount of thrust that moves a 
^f>Tii]),u-atively heavy bo<ly hori/ontally when suy)ported by a large 

The idea was conceived that a tliree cylinder screw ens^ine could 
he made V>y turning the boss of the propeller into an engine, thus 
allowing the cylinders to revolve on the crank-shaft, the shaft and 
crank-pin being stationary and the thrust coining direct on the 

speed, resulting in the production of the predecessor of Fig. o, 
which weighed l of a pound, tliis worked so satisfactorily that 
after some kindred experiments were made Fig. o came into 
existence, weighing only 7.', ounces, and taking the first live 
seconds of the diagram. (Fig' 6) we see that the revolutions are at 
the rate of 4.^6 per minute, the receiver pressure falling from 
IDOlTjs to about 1201hs. The cvlinders are -HS inches diameter: 
the stroke is 1-3 inches and theValve cuts off" at woof the stroke. 
The .screw blades are set .-.t an angle of 20' giving a pitch of U'i 
inches, the diameter of the sci'(;w is 3(5 j inches, and the area of 
«ich blade is 32-7 wjuare inches. 

this ei\gine to far surpass the india rubber driviMi screw as a motor. 

which assume such varied forms in the hands of experimentalists. 

The air receivers for these motors are made of ordinaiy tin- 

.■^inith's tinned iron plate, the thickness of plate in the receiver t'oi' 

along the plate of ()-i,()(K)tT)s pvv s(iuarc inch section of metal -n •"' 

the weight is 29 ounces and ir h.asbi.en pr.-.c,] t„ -.Mi |„,u,Mi- \n'V 


only about 4 feet lonf,' brini^'S the centre of gravity very far aft. 
It is found tliat if more tlian 2-')'"/ of the area is in advance of the 
centre of gravity the models turn up and wreck ensues as a matter 
of course. One remarkable experiment repeatedly made, for w liich 
the writer cannot account is that Fig. 7, whicli is (;alled F morlel, 

pelled IS feet by stretching tlie crossbow \'2 inches ; and another 
model called C, weighing G-,') ounces and having an area of I'yQ 
square inches is propelled 20 feet by tlie same motive power, the 
speed of the latter being obviously slower : it looks as if large 

centre of effort there is no tendency to swerve, the turnin; 
down of the models is entirely due to the distance of the 
of gravity from the forward edge of the body plane. 

On looking into the relative positions of the centres of ; 
and effort of the three most successful machine-, yet m 
appears that the percentage of the areas in advance of tlie 

' ' ' 4SbandL 19-3:/ 

L>1 band H.J.K. ... 20-0/ 

4S band single screw 23-.3 / 

Tlie.-,e positions were arrived at by experience gained by rt 
wrecks when groping in comparative darkness. 

deeply interesting point in all the experiments. It is ol 
that tlie successful flyers maintain a horizontal position d 

l'\"l Mild not tilted up forward iit anything approaching the 

of 14'8 srpiare fe( 


visible under surface of the stationary machine is not the under 
surface of the flying-macliine as it carries along with it and rests on 
a cushion of air more or less wedge shaped : and that the angle of 
this air cushion is self-adjusting for varying speeds within some 
unascertained limits so long as the machine is balanced by having 
from 20 to 25 per cent, of the area in advance of the centre of 

Fig. 7 IS to shew what is supposed to be the state of tlie an- 
on and in which the machine moves. AB represents the vertical 
longitudinal section of the body plane. The circles and arrows 
are sections of transverse horizontal vortices or air rollers 
originated by the friction of the paper surface on the undisturbed 
air ; tliese gradually work towards the tail and come to rest again 
after the machine has passed. There may be one or many layers 
of these anticyclonic vortices, but one is sufficient for this explan- 
ation, and in the figure it is greatly exaggerated, tlie pressure is 
supposed to be highest at the centres of the vortices, and their 
diameters to increase as they pass aft. 

You will observe that the breasts of the inequalities or wa\es 
adhering more or less closely to the paper and marked C, D, E, 
F etc., are steepest when the vortices are small and close together, 

plane supports half the weight, and that the projections of tlie>»' 
declivities represent an approximation to what' is in effect the 
curved bottom of the flying machine LMB. 

Again, suppose the visible under surface to be more uneven, 
and that the air rollers pass very slowly towards the stern, they 
then become, as it were, part of the structure and the lower forward 
parts of their circumferences Z,Y,X &:c. become the bearing surface 
of the machine. The upper surface must be affected in a similar 
way, though it is thought that the vortices would have low pressure 
centres and large diameters producing a less curved invisible top 
JKB to the machine. It will be readily seen tliat if the speed 
increases the vortices have less time to increase in diameter and 
thei-efore both top and bottom curves will be flatter. 

Pttli.ips some of the members have hauled a punt over a flat 
sandy beach and have noticed that when there is a little water- on 
the sand though not sufficient to float the punt, if the bow he 
raised and tlien dropped suddenly on the water and pulled forward 
before the water has time to squeeze out at the sides, a long 
distance may be traver-sed with very little labour. And wliy ? 
Because the punt is on water rollers. This theory may be contrary 

hope to be set right by those wlio can interpret the facts better. 



By H. G. M'KiNxXEY, M.E., Roy. Univ. Irel., M. Inst. C.E. 

[With Maps.] 

Importance of the Pastoral Industry. 
The great benefits which agriculture and horticulture may, under 
favourable circumstances, derive from irrigation are now generally 
admitted. But while in this colony agriculture and horticulture 
are of great and increasing importance, the pastoral industry is. 
likely to maintain the leading position for many years to come. 
The present paramount importance of the pastoral industry is very 
clearly indicated by recent statistics. The total area of land in 
New South Wales is estimated at 196,000,000 acres, and reference 
to the stock returns for last year indicates that of that area 
168,000,000 acres is devoted to pastoral purposes, while the extent 
under cultivation amounts to only 1,042,000 acres. These figures 
show that it is a question of great moment whether irrigation 
cannot be made to assist in the development of the pastoral 
resources of the colony. 

It may be at once stated that the question has already been 
answered by one of the best authorities in Australia, namely, Mr. 
J. S. Horsfall, President of the Australian Sheep-breeders' Associ- 
ation and late Chairman of Directors in the great firm of Messrs. 
Goldsbrough, Mort, k Co. In his speech at the presentation of 
the last annual report of that firm in Melbourne, Mr. Horsfall 
stated that irrigation must play an important part in the develop- 
ment of the pastoral industry and in giving steadiness to it. It 
IS the object of this paper to furnish information in support of the 
opmion quoted, and to give some idea of the magnitude of the 
question and its importance to this colony. In order to place the 
subject to be dealt with in a clear light, I deemed it necessary to 
obtaui from one who had practical experience of station manage- 
ment a concise statement of the risks which Western pastoralists 
have to encounter under existing circumstances. In response to 
my wish in the matter, the following memorandum was very kindly 
supplied to me by jNIr. J. W. Boultbee, who, besides having valu- 
able experience as manager of a pastoral estate, has been gazetted 
as a qualified inspector of stock. 

Present Risks of Pastoralists. 

"In explanation of the necessity for irrigation in the purely 
pastoral districts, it may be observed that so far as stock-carrying 

capacity is concerned these districts differ very widely, and that 
by far the greater area may be classified as poor. As a general 
rule this fact is not due to any inferiority of the soil, but to the 
uncertainty of the seasons and the scantiness of the rainfall. In 
reality, throughout a large proportion of the pastoral lands of low- 
carrying capacity, the fertility of the soil is remarkable. As an 
instance of this, it was found on the Lower Darling by actual 
experiment that land which in its natural state could scarcely 
support one sheep to every 10 acres was capable of supporting 
more than 20 sheep to one acre when it was laid down in lucerne 
and irrigated. In a dry season in such country not a vestige of 
grass can be seen and the leaves of the edible scrub within reach 
of the sheep gradually disappear. The wanderings of the starving 
stockin search of sustenance, and the concentration near permanent 
supplies of water, have the effect of pulverising the surface of the 
ground until the soil assumes a flour-like consistency. An almost 
impalpable dust is raised as the sheep move about, and is often 
carried in a cloud so dense and stifling as to render breathing 
ditBcult, and coating the fleeces with a layer which settles among 
the wool, tinging its snowy lustre and checking its growth. To 
such an extent does this affect the fleece that at shearing time the 
dust is sometimes found in a ridge an inch in thickness along the 
back, making the wool tender and giving it a reddish tinge which 

the ridge of sand necessitating the dismemberment of the fleece, 
until perhaps the only sound portions are those along the flanks 
and coupling. None but those who have experienced droughts m 
the Western district can realise the misery they entail. The loss 
is enormous, not only in actual numbers of the stock, but in the 
failure of increase, and, as already explained, in deterioration in 
the quality of the wool. Efforts are frequently made to avoid or 
reduce those losses by sending the sheep to the mountains, or to 
other localities where pasture is obtainable ; but this course always 
involves considerable expense and much risk, and frequently results 
in the loss of a serious proportion of the sheep. In one instance 
40,000 sheep were sent to the mountains, where the pasture just 
sufficed to keep them alive, and after s]»ending the summer there 
they were started on the return journry. They had over 600 
miles to travel, and the travelling stcek nnites and reserves proved 
to be so completely denuded ot grass tliat hay and chaff had to be 
purchased at very high rates. The outlay in this way reached 
^600 per week ; and, notwithstanding that every possible effort 
was made to save the sheep, they died in thousands, and only a 
small fraction reached their destination. Cases of this description 

are by no means uncommon, and it may l)e inferred from them 
how bad the state of the Western district must be when the 
pastoralists decide on encountering such risks. The sheep which 
remain in the West in a bad season depend almost entirely on the 
scrub, and in a prolonged drought large numbers of men have to 
be employed for the purpose of cutting down the scrub or beating 
down the leaves. It is difficult to imagine anything more dis- 
heartening to a stockowner than the conditions involved in such 
a state of affairs. Sheep are generally in poor condition when 
scrub-cutting is resorted to, and it may be assumed that as a rule 
they become weaker and less able to walk to and from water as it 
continues. Statistics show that in 1877 the actual loss and de- 
crease in the number of sheep amounted to about four millions, in 
1884 about six millions, and in 1888 450,000. In addition to 

cases wliere there was 80 per cent, of lambs marked, not 9 per 
cent, has been weaned, and there liave been cases in which not a 

In 1888 there were about nine millions of lambs, from twenty-two 
millions of ewes, and this on a very moderate estimate meant a 
loss of two millions ; that is, assuming that in an average season 
the return of lambs would be 50 per cent. 

" In the country to which I have been referring, the change 
rroni dearth to excess of vegetation is remarkably rapid. If a 
good fall of rain occurs at the proper season the whole face of the 
country changes within a week. Within a fortnight the grass 
and herbage are edible, the bush revives, and the scrub shoots 
afresh, and within a month the pasture is luxuriant. 

" It is at once evident that under such varied conditions a 
steadiness or uniformity in a clip from year to year is impossible. 
In one year the fleece is sound and clean, in another dirty and 
tender. Prices must vary largely, and a brand of wool so varying 
does not command the attention of buyers equally with a brand 
tliat is not liable to these recurring fluctuations. From these 

amount to a very 

! assumed that on 

hole quantity the diminutii 

^ the nature of the s 
^ve find that the loss under this head alone wouldbe over £427,000 
^tf^rling. Some of the ways in which the wool is prejudicially 
•effected in droughts have already been mentioned, l)ut another 
furious cause of diminished value is the break in the wool which 
IS caused by a sudden change in the character of the season. The 
alteration in the quality of wool which takes place immediately 

piecedm^ \eais Wt even in this c iso it vwll he ^een t 

loni the 

tisrutes dFrrridy given that on a low estimate the ditect 

lo^s in 

sheep and v^ool md in naturd increise, must have f 


£1,110 000 

In these notes Mt Boultbee, v^he^e referring to the l 

detaioration m the value of wool and ot loss im the nun 



v\hen niana<,nn<r a lar^e stition in the di^tiict west of the 



From the foiegom- statement of risk and losses t 

o which 

pastor dists are lial)le it is clear that the leduction and 

mg ot these iisks and losses is a question of gieat inipoit 

xncc It 

IS propos( d to show that this object can in a large lue 

i^ure be 

accomplished hy apiopeily considered s;ystem ot iriigiti 

on, and 

not onl> so, but bv this m<>ans the productiveness and 


capibilitv of an important proportion of the west of th* 

. colony 

< m be matenally increased 

Vt the outset the fact must be recognised that of the 

lan.l in 

tin-, t<)lon\ suitable tor irrigation only a small propoitioi 

1 ( m h' 

iiriirited, for the simple reason that the available supi)l> 

IS very limited Our best nvers by far for migation put] 

thf .Mutiav and the Murrumbidgee, and the district con 


bv tlHse nu hides only the plains between them and a i 

lode I ite 

aiei to the and west of the Muuumbidgee The 


then disdiame thit evei^by stming fl^oodTlte^ whei'eV 

(1 pMC 

tic ible the area which can be irrigated by their waters . 

uirl otlu I ( rops for 

on tlu Lo^vel Mutruml>i(Ur( e, is well as on x niodpi it( ^?x\( on 
theloNvtr pirtsof sp\eril othe.s ot our western nvtr^ I his is 
pncis(lv thesimc pi occss which mii,' itcs and fi itilises tlu \ xllcy 
of t\u Nile by tlie risin^^of the Hood wateis In soiiu <>t Lh< casts 
m \\huh It IS exempliti«d in New South A\ lies tlie imiml ition^^ 

whose lands iie thus nitut illy irrigated bpeci il attention wis 
cdled to thib suh]( ct in my report on "Trri^'ition in Itiverini," 
^^hld, WIS puhhslied with the Find Report of the Ro\ il ( o.n 

of ini^f itinir the nati\e ^i xsses, it is not surpribin^ tint entei 
pusiiii,' men weu to be found to follow the ( \ nnph ihe most 
striknii,' md successful experiments of this 11 1 run in tli >^i wln.h 
luvf been mule on the Lowtr Lxchlm iiul th. T.x\, Mimun, 

J'ul</ee, and partu ularly on the pastor 1 1 <- it(-> ut Mi I -, 

i>''On As geneially happens in the cist ot 1 1\ i^ flow iii_ t In ii,li 

Hunby Mr fjson, md om of th(in ilM, -t .It I,,n M..t 
£U,000 How prohtable iriigition of tli i i n. ,i i . m l)e 

^ tlu tgures supplied t.y Mr J L (twn.Ui M^nduu rh. woik 
of this desciiption done on the Corron,' Kun W itb ui * vpt ndi 
tun of very little over £1,200 Mr (Iwvdir succeakd mu .limiting 
o^or 17,000 icros of grass land duun^r^^erv Hood m the Lxchlan 

annun?, the (ost of i.ri^atiiu' in icn imounted to onl\ three 

ftguresgnenbj M,' Ow uhr,\t^Ll u "th it th< p,ohts")t th( hrst 
y«;vr'boper\tionof the works moM th in ( o\« k d tli« « ntu outliy 

favourable circums 

ances in 

he northeri 


ns of Victor 

pumping plant in such cases 

was electee 

primarily for tl 

tion of crops, but a 

not requirec 
land. The 

crops the supply w 

s turned 

on to the g 


this practice in on 

uired into 

that while 

he pastui 

e land car 


one sheep to 

in a fairly good sea 

son, with 

the watering th 

esamc land 

five sheep to an ac 

e every s 


It is scarcely necessary to state that the circumstances under 
wliich flooding the land is conducted the Lower Lachlan are ex- 
ceptionally favourable, but there are many other similar cases to 
be found in which the profit from irrigation, though, perhaps, not 
so remarkable, would still afford a very satisfactory return on the 
outlay. Such cases exist on a large scale on the Murrumbidgee, 
the Darling, the Macquarie, and the Gwydir, and to some exteat 

From what has already been stated it may be safely concluded 
— First, that the benefit arising from flooding the pasture land 
has been practically demonstrated by nature ; second, that the 
lesson taught by nature has been succe.ssfully acted on by the 

gravitation, and, third, that pumping water for the flooding of 
pasture ' — ' , . . 

The prof 

for debate, 
only point for cousideratio 
he circumstances under which it is practicable. 

Remarks on Rates for Watek for Irrigation. 
t is impossible to lay down a general rule as to the rate at 

•e. In fact, different crops require different quantities of water, 
•hat the Indian system of charging according to the nature of 
crops and the acreage has much in its favour. It may be 
amed that in a fairly well-populated country where a demand 
water exists, iri-igation will, as a general rule be confined to 

taly, Spain, France, and India. In the last-mentioned country 
crops, for which the highest rates are charged, are sugar-cane, 
S and indigo, tliese being the crops which require tlie largest 

icultural pi'uducts, (2) distance from market, (3) a fertile soil, 
small rainfall, (,")) fairly uniform slope of ground, and (6) aB 
ndant supply of water. The first five of these conditions are 
plains, while, a^ 

already pointed out, the last applies to the district irrigal 
the Murray and the Murrumbidgee, and in a less degree 
of the other river districts. In such 

if the land 
lepth of Sin. at a cost oi 

This is equivalent to stating that the actual 
• water distributed over the land will be 10,890 cubic 
re ; but, even with fairly managed works, it may be 
reckoned that the loss in distribution will bring the total quantity 
up to 12,000 cubic feet per acre. It is well known that with a 
good class of pumping machinery, water can be raised to a height 
of from 30ft. to 40ft. at a cost under a shilling for every 12,000 
cubic feet, and it goes without saying that in a properly designed 
system of canals delivering water by gravitation, the cost of water 

quantity c 

would 1 

img per ; 

here assumed as a maximum for the irrigation of pasture land ; 
but there are frequently cases in which a much higher rate could 
be afforded. For instance, during the spring and early summer 
months of last season— that is from August till December of last 
year — when the sheep throughout the Western Division and a large 
portion of the Central Division of this colony were reduced almost 
to the last extremity, after hundreds of thousands of them had 
been drafted otF to the hills at great loss and expense, the 
pastoralists would gladly have paid a much higher rate than that 
mentioned for the flooding of parts of their estates. 

It is a striking fact that whilst the pastoralists of the south- 
western part of Riverina were experiencing a serious drought dur- 
ing last spring, an abundant supply of water was flowing past 
them to waste. So great was the supply flowing past Hay that 
durmg the whole of September and October, and up to the middle 
of No%'ember, sufficient water could have been spared to flood 
«,000 acres per day to a depth of 3 in. In fact, during the two 
former months the available supply was much in excess of that 
mentioned, and a considerable quantity was available in December. 
, It is not too much to say that if the system of weirs proposed 
jn my Report on Irrigation in Riverina, already referred to, had 
been m operation during last year, the area of land flooded by 
that means alone would have exceeded half a million acres. It is 
to be borne in mind that this could have been done without inter- 
fenng with the supply proposed to be distributed in the district 
^tween Hay and Wagga. If a line be drawn due south from 
Way to the Billabong Creek, and another north-west from Hay to> 
Jfie Lachlan River, the district commanded bv the weirs referred' 
to -would lie to the west of these lines, and would extend to a con-, 
siderable distance westward from the Murrumbidgee below itsr 
junction with the Lachlan. The area commanded consists chiefly 

of fertile plains, which can easily be flooded in the manner sug- 
gested. At a rate of Is. per acre for a 3 in. flooding, the direct 
return in such a season as last would be £25,000. The approximate 
estimate of the cost of the weirs was £34,500 ; but if navigation 
as far as Hay Avere provided for, the cost would probably amount 
to £50,000. In other words, the direct return in two such seasons 
as last would be equal to the entire outlay, and in addition there 
would be a great benefit to the navigation. 

Besides the irrigation which might have been done on the Lower 
Murrumbidgee, there was during the same months sufficient water 
to have supplied the proposed canals in the districts on both sides 
of the river between Wagga and Hay to such extent that 2,000,000 
of acres of pasture land could have had a 3 in. flooding after allow- 
ing for a depth of 12 in. over 40,000 acres of crops. These are 
doubtless large figures, and the sceptical New South Wales 
pastoralist may suggest exageration, just as an eminent irrigation 
engineer in India was surprised at the audacity of any one who 
expected him to believe that a single pastoral estate in New South 
Wales frequently includes over a quarter of a million acres. The 
sceptic who is unable to realise what can or will be done in this 
colony in regard to irrigation should visit the canal works on the 
Goulljurn in Victoria. He will there find under construction an 
irrigation canal 110 ft. wide at the bottom, and with slopes of one 
and a-half to one. He will also find under construction a weir 
which is to cost nearly £100,000, and he will be able to ascertain 
that a second canal is to be made on the opposite side of the 
Goulburn from that under construction. The canal in progress 
may, when running full, be reckoned on to flood 12,000 acres per 
day to a depth of three inches. 

The system of flooding the pasture land which has been referred 
to is merely an extension on a large scale of the system carried 
out already on the Corrong and Juanbung runs. In addition to 
the proposed large irrigation works from the Murrumbidgee and 
the Murray, the same system can be followed on a large scale on 
the Darling, Macquarie, and Lachlan, and, in fact, on the lower 
parts of nearly all of our Western rivers. 

Simplicity of Process of Flooding Pasture Land. 

An important point in favour of the irrigation of pasture land 
is the simplicity of the process. Where crops are to be irrigated 
a considerable amount of care and skill is required in the levelling 
of the land and in the construction and management of the laterals 
or minor distributing channels. In the case of the irrigation of 
pasture land, if the main distributaries are aligned in a scientific 
manner, no laterals will be required, the flooding being conducted 
-direct from the distributaries. As irrigation is very imperfectly 

understood by the great majority of our landliolders, this is a 
matter of much importance. 

An important point to be aimed at in a general system of irriga- 
tion for pastoral purposes is to have the country so dotted over 
with what have been termed protected areas that at least all the 
more valuable of the stock can be saved in time of drought without 
removing them to distant pastures. Throughout the whole of the 
plain country between the Murrumbidgee and i' " 

a distanc 

:e of about 30 miles ] 

north anc 

Iwest from the former riv. 

uot only 

• should there be n 

necessity for mo' 

ving stock in a: 

season h< 

)wever dry, but on tl 

,ry that di: 

strict should ha 

a surplus 

; of grass and fodde 

r ava"illl 

>le for sto 


districts, In the 


I Division 


brings fa 
places in 

mine prices and caus 

es serious 

5 losses in 

stock. There a 

which losses in stoc 

:k in dry 

pected to 

. some extent, but 

such loss 

;es may be greatly 'reducf 

while fai. 

.ine prices for hay c 

;an be er 

itirely put 

an end to. 

Production of 


BY Ihrig^ 


in the foregoing, I have shown that under favouraljie circum- 
stances irrigation of pasture land can be carried out with satis- 
factory results, not only by gravitation, but also by pumping. One 
of tlie conditions necessary for the prohtal)le irrigation of pasture 
land IS the presence of an abundant supply of water. This and 
other nuportant conditions are frequently wanting, and the result 
IS that the irrigation of small areas of lucerne or other crop for 
lodder will, in many cases, be the best course to adopt towards 
providing for bad seasons. This also is a matter which has passed 
oeyond the experimental stage. As already mentioned, it lias 
been proved by actual experiment that the produce of one acre of 
irrigated lucerne will feed over 20 sheep. In other words, if we 
take the case of a Westeri " ' 

acres, it has been proved that 5,000 acres of irrigai 
support the same number of sheep as 500,000 acres of tlie land m 
Its natural state. The practical lesson to be drawn from this is 
that the irrigation of comparatively small areas in suitable places 
^I'lU provide the means of saving large numbers of sheep when 
glass IS scarce and of preventing deterioration in the quality of 
the wool. 
^^That the production of hay by irrigation for the use of stock iu 

o the more enterprising of our station managers. The quantity 

^ nay required to keep a sheep in fair condition where water is 

undant is variously estimated by ditierent competent authorities 

some placing it as low as 6oz. per day, but the majority tixing it 

irom lOoz. to lib per day. On this subject there is probably 

no better authority than Mr. George Mair, of Groongal, and that 
gentleman in a recent letter t© me, stated that during the last 
severe drought he fed 40,000 sheep for four months on hay alone, 
the quantity used being equal to about one pound per sheep per 
day. It is only necessary to add that Mr. Mair was perfectly 
satisfied with the course he adopted. Such an experiment suc- 
cessfully carried out by one of the best authorities on practical 
station management in New Sonth Wales speaks for itself, and 
requires no comment. In the case here referred to the hay was 
grown on the station, and was produced by irrigating the land 
with water pumped from the Murrumbidgee, but Mr. Mair adds 
that even if it had been necessary to buy the hay he would have 
had no hesitation in doing so. The latter course was, in fact, 
adopted on a neighbouring run, where the quantity of hay pro- 
duced by irrigation proved insufiicient to meet requirements. 
There are several other pastoral estates on the Murrumbidgee on 
which irrigation is successfully practised, and a similar remark 
applies to the Murray, the Lachlan, and the Darling. Irrigatiou 
Las also been tried with satisfactory results on the Namoi and the 
Gwydir ; in fact it may be stated generally that irrigation is a 
proved success on all our Western rivers of any importance. Bear- 
ing this in mind and taking into account the facts already pointed 
out as to the small area of cultivated land which will provide for 
the sheep which the land in its ordinary state will support, it is 
clear that we have at hand a ready means of enormously reducing 

Utilization of the River Darling. 
The driest and most unproductive part of the colony is that 
situated west of the Darling, and next to this the district between 
that river and the Lachlan. Roughly speaking, it may be stated 
that below Walgett the Darling occupies the position of niaia 
artery to a hundred thousand square miles of dry country. It i^ 
sufficiently near the mark for the present purposes to assume that 
the number of shotp which tins extent of countiy supports in an 
average >ear i«, t* n millions The question of whether all the 
more vdlu.ihle of tliese sheep could not be drafted to the river 

intn«sn!._ and iiiii.n.t Hit one. "if two ''millions of sheep, that is 
onthttli .r t!„ ^h, 1, .umlxt, weie drafted on to the river fron- 

dunru' t< u! ino.nhs m !unn?g Uwt V^*sLep,'"vould'be 100,000 

Huit> to ord> slightly over 71 tons in every 
Aould yield it least four crops of a ton each 
the (juantity of hay re<iuired would involve 

the irrigation of only about 18 acres for every mile of river on an 
average. Regarding the quantity of water required to produce 
the result described, it is safe to assume that for each cutting of 
the crop the maximum quantity of water would not exceed 6 in. 
in depth— that is, two floodings of Sin. each. This is equal to 
21,780 cubic feet of water for every ton of hay produced, so that 
for 71 tons the quantity of water would be 1,546,380 cubic feet. 
This is less than is contained in a mile in length of the river where 
the width is 100 ft. and the depth 3 ft. The conclusion to be 
derived from this is that, with a system of weirs in the Darling, 
the quantity of water stored in the river would be far more than 
would be required for the extent of irrigation here described. 
Hence, even in a dry season, when the flow of the river had 
■entirely ceased, a large margin would be left after providing for 
the irrigation estimated. 

With regard to the cost and results of feeding the sheep on hay 
on the river frontages, it may be safely stated that the cost of 
producing the hay and feeding the sheep should not exceed 4s. 
per sheep for the four months. These sheep would naturally be 
the most valuable, and it would probably be a difficult matter to 
replace them at the end of the drought at less than 14s. per head. 
Hence, the saving of two millions of sheep in this manner in a 
severe drought would be equivalent to averting a direct loss of a 
million sterling, and would mean a gain of much more than that 
amount to the country at large. 

The quantity of hay here referred to is only a fraction of what 
the Darling can be made to produce, and represents the result of 
only one of the methods in which that river should be utilised. 
The most important functions which the river Darling should be 
made to fulfil are— (1) The provision of reserves of fodder for the 
Western district, as already described ; (2) the flooding of large 
areas of pasture ; and (3) the provision of a permanent highway 
for navigation. To effect the last of these objects, a series of 
Weirs and locks is indispensable, and there is no difficulty in 
arranging and designing these works so as to insure the watering 
oHarge areas by gravitation during every rise of the river. The 
j^aising of the water level by means of weirs will also materially 
lessen the cost of pumping for the irrigation of crops. Hence, if 
the Darling were utilised as it can be and should be, it would 
first of all provide the means of tiding over bad seasons ; secondly, 
It would greatly increase the stock-carrying capabilities of the 
country by flooding large areas of grass land ; and thirdly, it 
Would afltord at all times cheap carriage for goods and produce. 

The circumstances of the Darling are extremely favourable, in 
«ome important points, to the construction of works for the 
purposes referred to. The fall in that river throughout a great 

portion of its length is under three inches per mile, so that hy 
the construction of a weir the water would be held back to the 
extent of more than four miles for every foot in height of the 
veir. A low rate of fall means a low velocity— a condition of 
much importance to successful navigation. With a series of weirs 
at suitable intervals, the river at ordinary heights would consist 
of a succession of reaches of almost still water, so that navigation 
would be conducted under highly favourable circumstances. The 
same weirs would also hold up the water in the river to such 
heights that flooding the land by gravitation could be carried out 
m the manner already adopted on the Lower Lachlan. 

Conservation of the Waters of the Macquarie. 
In the Wimmera district in Victoria, the iudicious expenditure 
of £100,000 in the conservation of the waters of the Wimmera 
Elver, raised the value of the land in the neighbourhood of the 
works by a million sterling. Comparing the conditions of this 
colony with those in the Wimmera district, we have more than 
ten times the area of country equally favourable to water 
conservation, and under as good or better circumstances in regard 
to the supply of water available. The Darling has here been 
specially referred to, but the Macquarie, the Namoi, the Gwydir, 
and the Lachlan also present remarkable facilities for water con- 
servation and irrigation. As regards the Macquarie, in particular, 
1 pointed out in a report to the Water Commission in May, 1885, 
after making an inspection of that river and the country adjacent 
to It, that "tlie Macquarie affords remarkably favourable conditions 
for the diversion and storage of floodwater." The report added 
that "In the district lying between the Macquarie and the Bogan 
there is a complete network of creeks, all or nearly all of which 
are well suited for the conveyance and storage of flood supplies." 
The report dealt chiefly with the engineering aspect of the 
question, and mentioned some of the places where weirs could be 
advantageously constructed in the Macquarie, and referred to one 
place where a large quantity of flood water could be stored. It 
might have been added that the land, as a rule, is of the highest 
quality, and that it is remarkably uniform and in every way 
suitable for irrigation. The floods of 1 887 illustrated in a striking 
manner the comparative ease with which the Macquarie district 
can be watered, and the results showed the great benefits arising 
from such watering. On the other hand, the drought of 1888 
and the losses which it entailed showed the necessity for conserving 
and distributing the available supply of water. The Water Com- 
mission m Its second report, dealt with this comparison between 
the cases of the Wimmera and the Macquarie in the following 

'The two 

and western 

branches— which form the river Wimmera above Longerenong, 

illy portion of the Macquarie 

have catchment areas of 790 and 550 square miles respectively. 
Comparing this total catchment with the effective catchments of 
the Macquarie and ISTamoi, we find that it is less than one-seventh 
nsiderably less than one-third of the latter. 

portion of the basin of the 
Xainoi it is nearly 22i in. From the available information, it 
appears doubtful whether the average rainfall on the upper parts 
of the basin of the Wimmera exceeds that on the Macquarie or the 
^ nmoi ; and it may therefore be assumed that, roughly speaking, 
the discharge of these rivers is in proportion to their effective 
catchment areas. The Wimmera scheme, as already mentioned, 
"^vas designed to afford a supply to an area of 2750 square utiles, 
and there is little doubt that expectation on this head will be 
realised if not exceeded. The tract of country between the 
Macquarie and the Bogan, which is at least as well adapted for 
the distriljution and storage of water as the Wimmera district, is, 
roughly, 180 miles in length by 30 miles in width, or equal to au 
area of about 5400 square miles. To supply this area with water, 

great as that which can successfully supply an area of 2750 s<iuare 
nines. In the short period during which the Wimmera works 
have been in operation, they have, as we have shown, increased 
by £1 per acre the value of the land benefited ; and it may 
reasonably be asked why equal results should not be obtained in 
this colony by similar works on the Macquarie and other rivers. 
85upposing that the works in the Wimmera district will cost 
altogether £150,000— and there is no reason to suppose that that 
amount will be exceeded— there is every reason to conclude that 
works can be constructed in the Macquarie District at double that 
amount, which will give double the supply. Judging, then, from 
the result achieved in the Wimmera district, it is a fair conclusion 
that a judicious expenditure of £300,000 in diverting supplies 
trom the Macquarie and distributing them through the district 
between that river and the Bogan would result in increasing the 
yalue of the land by about 3^ millions sterling. The Macquarie 
IS only one of a large number of rivers of New South Wales which 
could be dealt with in the same manner as the Wimmera." 

Progress of Water Coxservation Work ix Victoria. 
^ Such was the opinion given by the New South Wales Water 
ommission in -1886, since which time the development of water 
conservation works in Victoria has proceeded at a rapid rate. In 

vhole subject of riparian rights, and admittedly 


constituted under this Act, the extent of land under their control 
being 848,620 acres. In addition, 1 9 applications for the formation 
of Irrigation Trusts were under consideration at the date mentioned, 
the gross area affected by them being 1,401,780 acres, of which it 
was estimated that 1,122,849 acres could be irrigated. A numher 
of these Trusts have since then been authorised. 

Principal Irrigable Areas in New South Wales. 
In the accompanying map of New South Wales I have marked 
the areas in which irrigation can be carried on under advantageous 
circumstances. The boundaries of these areas are in most cases 
necessarily approximate only ; but they may, on the whole, be 
accepted as substantially correct. It is to be understood that 
only a small portion of these areas could be irrigated in any one 
year ; but even with this reservation inspection of them will at 
once show how discreditable to local enterprise are the famine 
prices frequently paid for hay, and the importation of Victorian 
hay and chaff as far as to the Murrumbidgee and occasionally 
even to the Lachlan. On this subject I may again quote the 
opinion of Mr. Mair, of Groongal, as given by him to the Water 
Commission in 1885. Mr. Mair stated that the conclusion he 
had arrived at as a result of experiments made in the irrigation 
of a number of different crops was " that irrigation might be 
profitably used for producing hay, which is bulky, and consequently 
expensive of carriage ; or for raising potatoes or roots which are 
perishable, or green stuff to feed valuable stock on in time of 

In the light of the facts and opinions referred to, it is abun- 
dantly evident that by a judicious use of the means at hand we 
could, within a few years, enormously increase the productiveness 
of the whole of .the Western part of the colony. On this subject 
the following conclusions were arrived at by the Water Commission 
after a very extended inspection of the country and an exhaustive 
inquiry into its capabilities :— " 1. That on water conservation 
mainly depend the prosperity and the development of the whole 
extent of the Central and Western Divisions of this colony, and 
tliat though less required in the Eastern Division, it will add in 
many places there also in an important degree to the productive- 
ness, and tlierefore to the value of the land. 2. That as the 
laiidholders, as a general rule, are quite equal to the task of pro- 
viding sufficient water for the stock which the land can carry 
under present conditions, Government works for supplying water 
to stock are required only on a limited scale, and generally only 
on travelling stock routes. 3. That the great object of water 

conservation in this colony and particulary in the country west of 
Dividing Range, is for irrigation. 4. That the purposes for which 
irrigation is chiefly required, are (a) to provide fodder and grain 
for horses, cattle, and stud sheep ; .(b) to afford surplus supplies 
to be kept in reserve for saving stock of all kinds in bad seasons ; 
(c) to produce fruit, vegetables, and miscellaneous crops ; and (d) 
to increase generally the productive powers of the land. 5. That 
any well-considered and properly executed project for irrigation 
in the country west of the Dividing Range would afford a good 
direct return on the capital invested, and would be a distinct 
benefit to the colony at large. 6. That legislation on the subject 
of water rights is a matter of pressing necessity, both to protect 
the rights of the State and to foster and encourage local and 
private enterprise." 

The correctness of these conclusions is beyond dispute, and is 
thoroughly borne out by the experience of Victoria, where the 
extension of irrigation is proceeding by rapid strides as already 
mentioned. Competent authorities are of opinion that tlie rapid 
development of the country districts in that colony, and the re- 
munerative returns of the railways, are ' 
and irrigation in a much greater degrt 
stood on this side of the Murray. 

It must be borne in mind that the indirect benefits arising from 
water conservation and irrigation are often far in excess of the 
direct benefits. A severe drought not only occasions enormous 
loss in stock during the time it lasts, but frequently leads to the 
loss of returns for one or even two succeeding years. For instance 
on the first occasion when I visited the Macquarie District there 
^a.s a severe drought, which had left scarcely a vestige of grass, 
with the natural result that the stock had either died or been 
removed elsewhere. On my next visit I found the grass from 1ft. 
to 2ft. in height, but there was no stock to eat it, as store sheep 
and cattle were not to be had at remunerative prices. Cases of 
this kind are by no means uncommon, and they serve to show the 
Importance of the indirect losses arising from droughts, and to 
illustrate the causes of uncertainty of the pastoral industry under 
present conditions. 

Want of Legislation. 

The greatest obstacle in the way of irrigation is the want of 
legislation dealing with water rights. In my report on " Irriga- 
tion^in Riverina," presented to the Water Commission in March, 
1«87, I referred to this question in the following terms :— " As a 
means of stifling enterprise by preventing the utilisation of the 
natural water supply of the country, the British law of riparian 
rights could scarcely be excelled. For instances of the operation 
of this monstrous law, we have only to look back on the records 

of dams which have been constructed and guarded by armed men, 
of otlier dams which, after construction in this way by one armed 
mob, have been cut through by another ; of many cases where 
dams were needful, but were -not built through fear of litigation ; 
and of the purchase of extensive pumping plant which frequently 
lies idle for the same reason." This is still the state of affairs in 
New South Wales ; but as the necessity for ■ legislation is now 
universally admitted, it is hoped that the question will soon be 
suitably dealt with. As matters at present stand nothing can 
legally be done towards utilising the available supply of water for 
irrigatioii. In this matter the people of this colony are placed in 
the same position as the Government and people of Victoria are 
in regard to the River Murray. The interests and the necessities 
of many of our most enterprising western landholders have out- 
weighed tlieir respect for the law, and so it has been with the 
Government and people of Victoria in the case of the River 
Murray. Were it not for this disregard of the law on the part of 
a number of our pastoralists in the Central and Western Divisions 
of this colony it might be stated with considerable reason that 
Australian enterprise in the development of the land is bounded 
on the north by the River Murray. 

Necessity op an Examining Board for Engineers. 
It is very desirable that legislation dealing with riparian rights 
and the constitution of water trusts should also provide for the 
appointment of an examining board of engineers of recognised 
standing, who would decide as to the qualifications necessary for 
engineers to water trusts. A board of this description has been 
in existence for some years in Victoria, and the names of qualified 
engineers are published from time to time in the official reports of 
the Water Supply Department. This arrangement is an important 
measure of protection both to the public and to qualified hydraulic 
engineers. Some time ago we had a Royal Commission to inquire 
into abuses in the medical profession. More recently we have 
read and heard much about abuses among architects, and the only 
reason why we have heard little about abuses among civil engineers 
is that, owing to the existing system of centralisation, private and 
local enterprises are checked and limited, whilst nearly all tlie 
availaljle employment for civil engineers is monopolised by 

style himself "doctor," "civil engineer," "architect," or "surveyor.'' 
or he may even adopt all four designations. Doctors' mistakes do 
not remain in a position to bear damaging testimony, but the 
mistakes of civil engineers and architects afford evidence which 
cannot \ye disputed. In the case of civil engineers, such mistakes- 

act as a deterrent to private enterprise to an extent which 
few can realise. It is therefore, very important that in dealing 
comprehensively with water conservation, the Government should 
adopt some such safeguard as that in operation in Victoria. 
When irrigation began to be extensively practised in that colony 
it was soon found that proper surveys and levels were required to 
show the lines which channels should take, and the best methods 
of distributing the water. Even the holders of farms of moderate 
extent found it greatly to their interest to obtain this information. 
There are in this colony some station managers who are really 
good practical engineers, and who are quite capable of managing 
irrigation work themselves ; but these are only a small minority. 
As a general rule, station owners and station managers know 
little or nothing of the process of irrigation, and this is only natural. 
The greatest mischief to the cause of irrigation is done by those 
who, without reason, imagine that they understand the subject. 
Such persons occasionally launch into a series of reckless and mis- 
directed experiments, and after finding such experiments a decided 
failure financially, they come to the conclusion that the conditions 
of the country are unfavourable to irrigation. It is necessary to 
add that cases of this kind are extremely rare, owing simply to 
the fact, that even with indifferent management and appliances, 

Causes of Backward State of Water Coxservatiox. 

The want of proper legislation has been mentioned as a great 
obstacle in the way of anything being done towards water con- 
servation on a large scale, but the root of all difticulties in the 
matter is the broad and comprehensive ignorance which prevails 
on the subject. The people in the western parts of the colony 
reahse its importance and are practically unanimous regarding it, 
but they constitute a small minority of the population. The great 
majority of even well-informed persons in Sydney and its suburbs 
understand nothing about water conservation in the West, and to 
them it is a much less interesting topic than the Town Hall organ, 
or the General Post Office clock. Nor are the country towns free 
trom blame in this matter. The building of a new post-office or a 
courthouse frequently attracts more attention in a town than 
questions regarding the increase of the productiveness of the entire 
aistrict in which the town is situated. 

The Sydney press has made some creditable efforts to enlighten 
the public on the value of water coeservation and irrigation, but 
With only a very limited degree of success. If a series of articles 
^ere now published decrying irrigation and stating that it cannot 
^>e successfully practised in New South Wales, I believe there 
Would still be found Sydney readers who would go approvingly 

92 H. G. MKINNEY. 

through the series and end off with the remark, " I told you so." 
There was, in fact, much point in the question lately put to me 
regarding the River Murray by a prominent Victorian,—" Do 
you think we in Victoria are such fools as to postpone our works 
for perhaps fifty years till the Sydney people find out the value of 
the Murray ? " There is no vagueness or mincing of matters in 
that question, and the accompanying map (republished with this 
paper by the kind permission of the Hon. Alfred Deakin, Minister 
for Water Supply, Victoria,) will show that the action taken has 
been as decided and energetic as the question would indicate. 

The explanation of the backward state of affairs in this colony 
regarding water conservation is very simple. While the indirect 
results of a national system of water conservation would be enor- 
mous, and would add greatly to the wealth and prosperity of the 
-colony, the number of persons directly affected in the first instance 
would be relatively small. Hence we find that the question is 
• esthe 

<3olony. But the spread of information and the remarkable pro- 
gress made in the Northern Districts of Victoria must soon have 
their effect. Many in Sydney are beginning to see that a drought 
which occasions losses in the interior of the colony to the extent 
of millions sterling, must have some effect on their business, and 
the spread of such ideas cannot fail to lead to action. 
Statistics relating to Losses. 
The following figures, illustrating the importance of the subject 
-dealt with in this paper, speak for themselves -.—Number of sheep 
m New South Wales on December 31, 1886, 39,169,000 ; number 
of sheep in New South Wales on December 31, 1887, 46,965,152; 
number of sheep in New South Wales on December 31, 1888, 
46,503,469. The year 1887 was a good one for pastoralists, and 
1888 unfavourable. Inspection of the figures shows that the 
number of sheep at the end of 1888 was about ten millions less 
than if the rate of increase of the previous year had been main- 
tained—in fact, instead of an increase of that amount, we find 
that there was a decrease of nearly half-a-million. Some idea of 
the proportion carried off by starvation aiid thirst may be con- 
veyed by the statement of a writer in one of " 
who declares from personal knowledge that c 
sheep were lost in this way last year out of 120,000, and on another 
station 80,000 out of 150,000. The same writer estimates that 
the number of lambs shorn this year will be 2,000,000 less than 
last year, on account of the drought, and that for the same reason 
the wool throughout the country north and west of the Lachlan 

will be inferior in quality. The practicability of preventing, in 
an irapoi-tant degree, the recurrence of such losses is not a matter 
of theory or of opinion, but an ascertained fact. 

Judge Docker. — I think Mr. M'Kinney is to be congratulated 
upon the able paper he has read on this important subject ; and 
the pastoralists of the colony ought certainly to appreciate the 
way in which the subject has been treated, being as it is, one of 
such vast importance, not only to them but also to the whole 
colony. Any one who is acquainted with the portions of the 
colony referred to, must appreciate the exhaustive way in which 
Mr. M'Kinney has argued the question out. I am tolerably 
acquainted with a portion of the country he has referred to, and 
consequently his remarks have been of the greatest interest to me, 
and have borne out many ideas which have also occurred to me 
and which I have endeavoured, perhaps imperfectly, to express. 
This part of the colony (referring to the Darling on the map) is 
one that has always had great interest for me ; indeed I regard it 
as the Nile of Australia of the future. I believe from the fertility 
of the land it will be capable of growing almost any sort of produce. 
I am very glad to hear Mr. M'Kinney's calculations as to the 
amount of fodder which that narrow strip would grow for the 
purpose of keeping alive the stock over all the vast district adjacent. 
In addition to the river itself, there are many lakes running 
back from the river which would form reservoirs for Hood 
waters which could be used when the river falls. The river 
Itself in its natural state does not contain a very great quantity 
of water as a general rule. I remeniber hearing of a case in which 
a gentleman at a station was irrigating some land — pumping up 
water from the river by means of a power pump — and after a few 
days' pumping he found he had lowered the river locally by about 
two feet, the country being so level and the flow so low— he had 
actually made a hole in the river as it were. With regard to the 
portion of the colony between the Macquarie and the Bogan there 
can be no doubt, so far as distribution is concerned, this is a most 
favourable part of the colony for irrigating the country, as it is so 
level and there are so many creeks. I remember some years ago 
travelling up the Duck Creek from Bourke to Dubbo, and being 
caught by the flood waters coming down, there not having been a 
proper rain for months. When we were a little way beyond Can- 
nonbar we meta flood coming down the whole surfaceof the country, 
and after waiting a few days we started and travelled I think about 
torty miles up the Macquarie through water three to four inches 
deep. The difliculty was to find any portion of the surface at all 
above the level of the water. The grass showed just above the 


water, so that we could see where we were going, and as I say we 
travelled almost through a layer of water three to four inches 
deep. But what strikes me as a difficulty with regard to tiiis part 

'This vast body of water Hows at irregular times, and tliere would 
require to be some storage to apply the water at the time it was 
required. Whetlier tliere are places which would be capaljle of 
being used as a reservoir in this part of the country I am not 
aware. Probably ]\[r. M'Kinney knows more about that than I. 
Another part of his paper is of great interest to me and I can bear 
out every word of Mr. Boultbee's description of this country. It 
is a most vivid and accurate description of the nature of the 
country, and of what happens in time of drought. But as only a 
comparatively small por'tion of this vast pastoral country can be 
directly benefitted by irrigation, only a small portion being capable 
of being irrigated, various supplementary methods of preserving 
the lives of the stock should be adopted. Of course one obvious 
method is that mentioned by Mr. M'Kinney, that the more 
valuable of the sheep should be brought to the various areas along 
the River Darling and other places where a supply of fodder could 
be procured. Mr. Boultbee mentioned that in some pbucs the 
sheep were taken from the parts suffering from drought to the 
mountains. Tliis is very frequently done, but is not curifd <uu 
in a systematic way at all. As a general rule the shcrji aie kt'l't 
in the hope that rain is coming and grass will be growing until 
they are unfit to travel. They become so weak and tin' load? 
become so utterly bare tliat there is nothing for tlicui t.. v:\t '-n 
route. It has long occurred to me that the system caitied out in 
the plains of Spain sliould be adopted here of moving the sheep, 
not merely in the time of drought, but annually making it a regular 
part of the business to remove them, say, immediately after the 

ligh lands of the colony, where as a rule there i 

plenty of grass. In winter time in tlie New England District the 
sheep suffer from fluke, in some places they cannot remain all the 
year round, but during the summer time there is generally a" 
abundance of grass and water. But then the difficulty arises ol 
travelling sheep such a vast distance, and here is the idea I have 
tried to impress upon many, and had the honour recently to bring 
under the notice of the Minister of Works. My idea is that tiie 
railway system of this portion of the colony should be adapted 
specially with the view of serving the pastoral industry by afford- 
ing fat-ility to carry the stock by train. I think by taking the 
railway from Nevertire, crossing the Macquarie at Warren to 
Coonandjle, from thence to the Namoi and joining at PilHgfi an 
extension of the North-Western Railway, the Western should 1^ 
<;oiinected with the Northern Railway system. The western plains 

>licc[> to the ULTO for the few iiioiitlis it would be ii(!c-css;uy for 
thcui tu 1m' tik(;ii there. Then they coukl be taken buck again 

rain generally being expected about February or 3lai'cli. IJy this 
means pastoral industry would be rendered more of a cvrtaiuty 
and less of a lottery ; and many more sheep to the aci e could be 

niountainous country togetlier — working the two in coiiiunctiou. 
Then of course the system of feeding the sheep on amruMal fodder 
could be most usefully adopted. This has been a mo^t serious 
item during the prevalence of droughts in the D.irhng Ri\or. In 
one place no less than £1,200 was spent during the }e,ii in pro- 
viding food for the horses on the station alone— no .ittempt was 
made to feed the sheep. The cost of bringing cli.itf dimply 
enormous. On one occasion I had to pay for a 4011) b,ig of chatf 
to feed my horses 25s. At another place lower down tlie horses 
were being kept alive on flour. The ri\er cea-ed to Ik tome 
I'.'ivigable, and though flour was selling at £60 a ton it W ih mi.ia 
tliere was a cargo of flour which could not be got thi m tin i imm 
having failed. No teams could travel that distance and tlu- ow u.t 
of the flour sold his whole cargo to the owners ot tho -t it ion it 

make these remarks to call the attention of those inter < -n d to tiie 
necessity of having more than one system in \vorkin<r i 1h p i-toi d 
industry. N"o doubt the irrigation system is the most iii.p.n t mt, 
and if the railway communication of this district wete m.ide to tit 
m with that particular industry it would be rendeied mm li more 
certain and profitable, and especially stock Avoukl l)e ke^it ali\o 
"With a much greater degree of certainty. 

Professor E. H. Rennie.— I listened with a great amount of 
pleasure to the reading of this paper. I would lik«^ to i efer to 
one aspect of the question to which allusion was made, that is to 
the possibility of interference with the navigation of tlie lower 
Murray if these enormous irrigation works are carried out. 
People in South Australia are I know somewhat agitated upon 
this point, and I believe this colony sent a commission into Victoria 
some time ago and some figures were published as to the amount 
of water that would be carried away by Victoria for irrigation 
purposes. I would like to have the opinion of Mr. M'Kinney— 
whether he thinks there is any fear of interference with navigation. 

Mr. Trevor Jones moved a vote of thanks to Mr. M' Kinney. 
We said he hoped the public press would call the attention of the 

public to the points raised by Mr. M'Kinney in his paper. We 
had a splendid territory, but had allowed it to fall almost into dis- 
sequently far behind Victoria in the matter of 
d not think the locking of the Darling would 
i navigation of the lower Murray. He took it 
ver is locked water is kept in it throughout a 
greater portion of the year, He thought that the locking of the 
Darling would tend to keep the waters in the lower Darling and 
the Murray. 

Mr. J. T. WiLSHiRE, M.R, in seconding the vote of thanks said he 
fully endorsed Mr. M'Kinney's remarks with regard to the necessity 
of legislation in the matter. He sincerely hoped that during the 
next session of Parliament a Bill would be introduced by the 

Mr. P. N. Trebeck said the squatters in the Western District 
had tried sending their sheep up to the mountains as suggested by 
Judge Docker, but they invariably came back infected with fluke. 
He therefore preferred Mr. M'Kinney's scheme of irrigation as a 
more practical means of grappling with the difficulty. 

Mr. M'Kinney in reply said he was gratified at the corroboration 
of his opinions by Judge Docker, whose experience of the western 
part of the country probably even exceeded his own. With regard 
to the question asked by Professor Rennie, he would not go so far as 
to say that he thought that irrigation would put a stop altogether 
to navigation, but he thought it would interfere with it to a con- 
siderable extent, as the quantity of water to be taken would be so 
great. In Victoria, however, people were quite reconciled to the 
idea of navigation being seriously interfered with, believing that 
much greater good would result from irrigation. 

Mr. J. Trevor Jones desired to explain that he meant that if 
the Darling and the Macquarie were locked in the manner indicated 
in the paper, that though the pumping would diminish the quantity 
of water in the rivers, yet that the quantity conserved by the 
locking would to a certain extent compensate for that taken away 
by the pumping. 

The Chairman, Professor Liversidge, in thanking Mr. M'Kinney 
on behalf of the meeting for his valuable paper hoped that the 
public press would give that prominence to the subject which its 

Mr. M'I 
Judge Dock 

■ briefly acknowledged the vote of t 

doubt, as stated by Mr. Trebeck, there was a danger of the sheep 
contracting the fluke ; but if they were taken up to the mountains 
during the summer time they were less likely to catch the disease. 
He had always understood too, that sheep which were affected 
with fluke were cured by being taken to tlie salt-bush country. 

The following goiitloinen were duly elected ordinary members 
if the Society :— 

\)e Lambert, J. Labat, m.d., Par!^ : Waverley. 
Hull, Walter, M.i.., /.oh,/., m.u.c.s., E»rj., L.R.C.P., Loud.; 
Sydiu^y Jlcspitai. 
^h: U. C. Ru^M'll. i!.A., F.R.S., read a paper ou "The Source of 
li-' rii(i<iLri-ii!i(l Water in the Western Districts." 

A .li..,;.i-M.>n rnlluwed in which Messrs. H. G. IM'Kinnev, F. B. 
iip!-. l'r..i., S. Pollit/.er. and P. N. Trebeck took 
A ]>:i]M.|- l,v Vint \\ W. llutton, r.f: s., " On the Eruptive 

LfCTL'itK ll.-On llu.^JeJlo^r^s^.nKr Ancient Lih 

-History of 

LErTrRE III— Ontlu' E.on'.mic Geulo^y of Aiistrali 

; Wcdnes- 

day,27thNovexuber,at4 30pm. -^ 

Tho followincr donations were laid upon the 

table and 



V, 18S9. 

(The Name, of the Donors arc in Tfahcs ) 


Brfmi n— Natl^■^\ i^sonsohaftlicher Veruin. Abliandlunsen. 

Han.l X , Heft 3, (Schlnss.) 18S9. 

The Society. 

BiusinN'F-Acdm,ati,ationSo>i.tNnH)n. n 1 ui4 V.nuil 

University. The Edu 
>OA— MiiseoCivicodi St..i 

Leipzio— K. S.uliM- 1 
Physisohe Clas 

Limit kn ^oc 

Paris— Societe de Geographie. Compte Rendu, Nos. 8 and 

9, 1889. The Society. 

Societe Zoologi(iue de France. Bulletin, Tome xiv.. 
No. i. 
PuiLAUELPH I V— Franklin In^^titntt^ Journal. Vol. cxxvii., 

Xo. 7G2, June, 1880. The Itistitute. 

Zoological Sooiotv of Philadelplua. Annual Eoport (17th) 

of the Board of Directort, 25 April, 1889. The Society. 

Kio DE jANEiTto-Tn.pcrial Ol^hervatorio. Kev ista do Obsor- 

vatorio. Anno iv.. No. 4, 1889. The Director. 

lto3iE — Accadeiiiia Pontificia de 'Nuovi Lincei. Alti, Anno 

Sebsi'ono 4o, 17 Marzo, 1&89. ' V/ie Acadeviy. 

Bibliotoca e An-hi\ io Teenieo. Gl»rvale del Genio Chile, 
Anno, xx\ii., Fai,o. 3 and 4, lhS9. 

T/u> MuM>,ivr ufPuhhc Tnstnu lion, Rome. 

Sydney— Observatory — Continued, 

New Method of Printing Barometer and other 
Curves, 1880. Note upon a Sliding-scale for cor- 
recting Barometer Readings to 32° Fah. and Mean 
Sea Level, 1880. Kocont Changes in the Surface 
of Jupiter, 1880. Thunder and Hail Storms in New 
South Wales, 18S0. The Spectrum and Appearance 

President of the Eoyal Society of N.S. Wales, 1882. 
Tropical Rains, 18S2. New Double Stars, 1883. 
The Syduey Observatory, History and Progress, 
1882. Some facts bearing upon Irrigation, 188.3. 
Physical Geographv and Climate of New South 
Wales, 1884. Anniversary Address as President of 
the Royal Society of N t 

upon Floods m Lake 
, 1^80 The Storm of 21:=t Septembei , IsSS. 
. « Self-rMOidmgThetmometer, ISSS The 
.-t< uu of 2bth Octo})Lr, ISSS On a stlf- 
iiiM Tule-(jauge and Electiical Barogiaph, 

Sm-vc> Club 7 he Su, i ujnr, 

V Tito, di Sfi.nze, Lttteie mI Aiti ucLi-uhnne 

a. Urn in/ 1 dal 10 Maggio, 18b'J 
NN\ - \nt!u,pnlogis(he Gc^clLchaft Mitthedungcn, 

l: lu 1 Mv , N P Band ix , Heft 1 and 2, 1880. 
'-HIN,. [c.\ -( oiiiptiollei of the Cmiency Annual Repoit, 

I»<'^mb,'i 1, 188S The 

Diit..(tnr of the Mint. Report upon Pio.luution of the 

Precious Metals m the Lnited States duim- tht 

Calendar Yt-ai 1888 Dvutor 

Hydrographic Office Notices to Manners, Nos 12—20, 

Dana, Prof. James D. — On the Volcanoes : 
Phenomena of the Hawaiian Islands, 
on the Petrography of the Islands, 1 

Canadian Geological Classification 

Mingaye, John C. H., r.c.s. — On the Occurrence of Telltirinni 

in New South Wales. 
Eussell, H. C, B.A., F.K.S.— Papers read at the First Meeting 

-President's Address 

,nd Meteorological 

Tebbutt, John,F.E.A.s.- 
Windsor, N.S.'\ 

The Brewers' Journal, V. 
XXV., Nos. 28G- 

•Eeportof Mr.Teh 

1st Septemb 


r Professor F. W. Hutton, Hon. Mem. R. S. of N. S. Wal 
[With One Plate.] 

Boyal Society of N.i 

, i.S9,9.] 

Rocks are definerl as mineral aggregates. It is : 
for the student to think that when the minerals 
have been accurately determined, the name to 
rock will follow as a matter of course. This however 
means always the case. The minerals composing a rock 
known and yet considerable difficulty may be experie 
deciding by what name to call it. This difficulty arise 
because the relative proportions of the different mineri 

rock-name having 
gists, so that it is difficult to decide whom t 
fusion, indeed, has become so great that some 
names as much as possible and in their plai 

ed to t 

o follow. The con- 
petrologists discard 
,e give a list of the 

minerals composing the rock. This plan has the merit of not 
adding to our confusion, but it will not help us out of it. And 
^^'^^" wo re— 1 of ' Phgi-chs- au:;ite olivine mica R-ck,' or of 
' Felspar p^i()\(ne in igmtir< giruet Jlock, our patience is well 
nigli exhausted 

Nitural Science progressis by the comparison of objects, xnd 

purpose, still tor indexing, so tint an observer may reidil_y find 
desci iptions of simil ir objects foi comparison and tscoitain whit 

studying As books get more and more numcious i uiufoini 
nomenclature bcconifs of moie md moie import uue fiom the 
single point of \iew of indexing, xnd until some unitoinut\ m 

mthesubjKt md fuitlior k low ledge will not les^( 

itns shcwm^tlu composition ot thf miteii 
This, w hu h is tin tin o. v of IJun^en ind Dui 
iti( d h IS led to oui present cl issitn ition ot 
1 iLidic rocks , thit IS to i clissihcition toi 
position llie opposite theoi\ ot >uo\n mc 
; bisic md ^ci he rocks are due to Inju itioi 
lediate composition, also h ids titliei to tin 

^ppirite j;ioup Rut th'^s 1 itt( . method would mimfesth in i 
rofks into (iifhiinr i,ioui)S ' const -jut nth the estabhshmuit of 

\identl} impossible t 

shew all the their relations by a linear series. Under these con- 
ditions every system of rock classification must be more or less 
artificial, and must be devised principally for convenience. And 
the one that is on the whole the most convenient — that is the one 
that eives the most information as to the composition and geo- 
loj,'ical position of a rock, combinf^d with a nomenclature as little 
cumbersome as possible- that system will })e tlie best. 

Tlio present paper includes the results of the microscopic 
e.vamination of about L>r)0 rocks, but it is merely a commencement. 
A rich harvest awaits petrologists in New Zealand, which will 
take many years and many workers to gatlier in. Instead of 
stating what is known or thought about the ago and geological 
position of the rocks, which would have in\()l\ ed much controversy, 
7 lia\H given full references to the reports, papers, and books in 
which they are mentioned. All measurements are in inches or 
decimal parts of an inch. Most of the specimens were collected 
}>y myself, but a few ha\e been given me by friends, particularly 
by the late Sir Julius von Haast! ^ 

Toa\oid adding to the existing confusion in nomenclature I 
have followed Dr. A. Giekie and ^h. J. II. mis Te.ill in the larger 
divisions of rocks, while in defining tlu- <'tnui» T lia\c taken Dr. 
A. (hekie, xMr. Teal), Professor lionney arnl Pn-tes. ,r Wa.lsworth 

l.oiiM,,iH>iit!y T lias.' lu.t telt justifle 

magnesia .attain their maxima at difiereiit parts. Some geologists 
place in separate divisions those rocks which contain nepheline or 
leucite, and those which go by the name of Mica-trap, or Lampro- 
phyres. But while the former of these divisions may conveniently 
be kept separate, the latter appears to be provisional only, and 
will no doubt, be merged into the main sequence. No member of 
the Nepheline-leucite division has as yet been described from New 
Zealand,* but the main sequence is very fully represented. 

Omitting then the Nepheline-leucite Rocks, the Class of Massive 
Eruptive Rocks is here separated into three Divisions by the 
nature of the felspars when present, or by their absence and 
each division is broken up into two or more Series by chemical 
composition. These series are again divided by macroscopic 
texture into Groups to which distinguishing names are given. 
The groups are separated into Species by the ferro-magnesian 
silicates they contain, and, when necessary, these are again sub- 
divided by microscopic texture into Varieties. The name of the 
species is oV>tained by prefixing the name of the ferro-magnesian 
silicate, or muscovite when ferro-magnesian silicates are absent, to 
that of the group ; but for brevity only the most important ferro- 
magnesian silicate is named. Tlie question arises here. Which is 
to be considered the most important ferro-magnesian silicate when 
more than one are present ? I have answered this question by 
selecting the one which is most rarely found in the group, because 
attention is thus directed to it. For example : nearly all the 
andesites contain augite, therefore I limit the species Augite 
Andesite to those andesites which contain no other ferro-magnesian 
silicate ; and when a second is present it gives the name to the 
species. In the Trachyte group hornblende is the common ferro- 
magnesian silicate, and in the Rhyolite group it is biotite. 

In the non crystalline rocks the species depend upon texture or 
on chemical composition Varietal names are usually not indi- 
cated but cm easily be formed by adding the texture name. 
The classification is, theiefore, founded on chemical composition 
and texture, but a chemical analysis is not generally necessary 
for namitiy a rock. Usually its clien»ic,il composition cm lie 
estimated with sufficient accuracy by a knowledge of its muieral 
composition and it', specific gravity. It is only in doubtful cases 

rocks from Diinedin " (Trans.' N. Z. Inst., 
fiption has been published of either. 

proposed, and one that is not open to more objections than 
made to any other. And also it is, I think, the one most 
ally used. To apply it consistently, however, compels the rej 
of binary terms — such as Quartz-felsite — for the groups, and in 
the selection of names to replace them geologists should be guided 
by the rules which have conferred so much benefit on nomenclature 
in Biology. It may be unimportant by what name we call a rock, 
but it is very important that all geologists should call it by the 
same name, and that no new name should be proposed as a substi- 
tute even if the new name be more classically formed. And it is 
the law of priority, so strongly ai ' ' ' ' 


gists, which alone can give us permanency 

.^.., ^- -~--^- No 

should be considered 
is of little real importance. Respect for the law of priority 
only way by which we can escape confusion. Perhaps the 
name suggests the better it is. Many names in I^iology are 

L for tlie felhitic obsidians only. 
Liysis is rarely availal)le as a help towards the clas; 
N<'w Zealand eruptive rocks and T have had 
Titirely on mineral composition and specific gravit 

he place of an altered 

depoiul on the average composition of a large nuiiiher of specimens 
and are types only. 

To prevent amlnguity T give definitions of the terminology used 

good figures' of these textures from ^'ew Zealand roeks, I have 
given references to the plates in Mr. J. H. Teall's " IJritish 
Petrography"; to those illustrating Professor Judd's paper "On 
the tertiary Cabbros, Dolerites, 'and Basalts of Scotland and 
Irolaiid," in tlie Qiiarcerlv Journal of the Geological Societv of 
London, Vol. xuj., p. -t9 ; and to some of the woodcuts in'.AIr. 
Rutley's -'Study of Rocks," and Dr. A. (iiekies "Text Book of 

(^'oiKi ro-j)i>r/)/n/riflr — <rranuh\r au^re^ates with independi 


fTinnuhfu (yhc]ie\Le\\) the quart/ in appioxnuritecl il 
tnomorphic grainb, small, of nearly the same si/p, uA 
independently oriented Teall, pi x"iii , f 1 and -A. 

OpJnhc ripproxmnted grains of a mineial, usually au^nto 

cnstals of anotlxr iniueial usually felspai, ^vhlch ]ia\e 
iiK^uhr lk(n^ltlIu^ lueis f acli la>er founod of ippioxi 

sphp.nhUs PUteMii,f 1 
llCPO(K\Mrtr- irolocijstalhne, the crystals small but clearly 
dehnal Inoithocla'.. locks the crystals lan-e fiom 006 to 
001 inch u>uillv ax er-igine about 00^ Tn pi i<,noclase rocks 
the fcKpits L,ue I ith shaped sections which range from 07 to 
01 null in length whih the augitegiains arc fiom 05 to 006 
in diameter but no strict rule can be laid down Either 
granular or porph>ritic Teall, pi x , f 1 , pi xxix , f 1 , p' 
xxxi , f 2 , pi xxxm , f 1 Judd, pi u , f 7 and 8 Ihe 


't,n<ii,ti suiu as pegniatitic but on a small scile 
pi xxui, f 2 pi xxx^ , f 2 pi xlvu , f ■) 
>>(iimr)stalliiie usually poiphyritic, but sometimes 

composed ot cJoselv comp<icted microlites of different 
, with little 01 no amorphous base The felspar 
-s aie fiom Oil to 001 in length and less The 

r pii 

ms about Oil by OOr., or they 


in diameter Teill, pi xm^ . 

•Subtextuies ire 


Judd) on a small sc lie Judd, 


n I small scale PI mu , f "• 

mall scale Judd, pi v , f '» 


Crystallitic: a glassy base so crowded with crystallites as to be 

turbid or opaque, surrounding niicrolites or small crystals. 

Teall, pi. xxiii., f. 1 ; pi. xxxvi. and xxxvii. Sub-textures are 

Lonyulitic : the crystallites are colourless, or pale coloured 

rods and irregular particles (Micro-felsitic). 

Glohulitic: the crystallites are opaque granules of iron oxides. 

Vitreous: a clear glass, colourless or brown, through which 

crystallites and microlites are loosely scattered. Teall, pi. 

xxxiv., t. 3 and 4 ; Judd, pi. vi., f. 3 to 8. Subtextures are 

Banded : divided into layers of different colours. Teall, 

pi. xxxiv., f. 1 ; Rutley, f. 7ia. 
Damascened : contorted layers and threads of different 

colours. Rutley, f. 75. 

Perlitic : with microscopic curved cracks, sometimes 

between straight crack. Teall, pi. xxxiv., f. 5 ; pi. 

xxxviii., f. 1 ; Giekie, f. 22 ; Rutley, f. 76. 

Sphprulitic : containing spherical bodies with a radial 

fiV)rous structure. Teall, pi. xxxix., f. 1 ; Giekie, f. 22. 

Mi'-ritspltiTuHtic : The same but visible with a microscope 

only. Teall, pi. xxxviii., f. 2. 
A:i-v>]ific : containing elongated bodies, sometimes branched 
with fibres at right angles to the long axis. Rutley, f. 79. 
Microvesicular : containing microscopic vesicles, eitfiei 
rounded f cellular J, Giekie, f. 28, or elongated (pumiceous) 
pi. viii., f. 2, or hair-like (trichitic) pi. viii., f. 3. 
Fehitic : an anisotropic aggregate without definite microlites ; 
either transparent or turbid with crystallites. With or with- 
out a grey and white mosaic-like pattern visible only between 
crossed nicols (petrosiliceous). This is a devitrified* glass, 

Amorphous — Non-crystalline, glassy or stony, non-porphyritic. 
This is the base of the crystallitic, vitreous, and felsitic semi- 
crystalline rocks and it has the same textures and subtextures. 

These various textures pass into eacli other and occasionally a 
rock may be partly of one and partly of another texture. This is 
especially the case with crystallitic and vitreous. 

i \0fi III! ' 1 1 

Dnisioii I— ORTHOCLA^E KOCK-^ 



Caix" Fiiulivind, Bulh.r Co. — A coarse grained, jjfrey rock, with 
biotite rather abundant. Sometimes with porphyritic crystals of 
orthoclase up to two inches in length but allotriomorpliic. S.(t. 
2-Gl to -l-Q-l. Section : Quartz, orthochxso, phigioclase, l)iotite, 
and nuiscovite. The quartz is cliiefly granulicic, the grains about 

mucli of it is reduced to grains -00?) in diameter ; it surr-ounrls 
tlic telspars and biotites. Tlie orthoclase is generally allotrio- 
inorphic ; phigioclase in subordinate quantity only, the biotite 
IS uniaxial ; the muscovite in small quantity. Plagioclase, nuis- 
covite, zircon, and apatite occur as inclusions in the orthocla..e. 

The porpliyiitic orthoclases are elongated in the direction of the 
ortho-diagonal. Thoy consist of narrow alternating layers of 
orthoclase and microcline paralhd to the elino-pinac-oid^ with 
irregular bands of another felspar (probably albite) roughly 
parallel to the ortho-pinacoifl. The polarization colours are lo'west 

meats of much altered clastic rocks, some of which are surrounded 
15. -Without Muscovite. (Granitite.) 

,l;i .1 uu Uuun. Orthoclase up to "13 ; plagioclase is (^uite suboi-dinate. 
C r(i.-,.-hatrhing of microcline is plainly seen on some of tin; felspars, 
wluie others have a coarser structure like polvsyntlictic twinning 
on botli Hlbit(> and pericline types. Sphene" occurs occasionally 
and a litth; clilorite after biotite. 

Lab' 1\„ ,-./„, W, s//,,„./-.x rather line grained, grey, rock with 



The < 


. are rarely 


hmg of , 



- di.tin.-tly. 
There is no 

It.' i. al.undam 

t, from 

'•03 'to 

•Oi ii 

I diameter. 


10 grained rock 

, with ; 

^rey felspar 

of l.ioti 

G. 2-7( 

■ plagioclase, ar: 

a\ biotit< 




•01.>, and shew 

ion. They 

- and liquid-cavi 

ties hi' b 



■^< iitM-ally idioniorpliic and with anomalous extinction. Plagiodase 
IS r;ire. The Inotite is distinctly biaxial. Apatite occurs as an 
accessory and there is a little isotropic chlorite. This rock is 
found on the from Waimongaroa to Denniston and traverses 
sandstones and slates which, from lithological characters, I judge 
to helong to the f Jokanui System. 

Muscovite Granite. 
Lntr/ r IhiUordorijp — A coarse grained rock, passing in places into 
<Ti;int (:Jranito ; of pink felspar, white or sometimes pink quartz 
and large plates of muscovite. S.G. 2-6 to 2-64. Section : The 
quartz contains few fluid cavities and shews pressure granulation. 
Tlie fels{)ars are both orthoclase and plagioolase. Pale brownish 
garnets, about -OOG in diameter, occur occasionally. Forms 

piagioclase and a little muscovite, with centric texture. The 
quartzes are from -08 to -02 in diameter, the smaller ones being 
the commoner ; there is no pressure granulation. The felspars 
go to -or). Apatite is present as an accessory mineral. The 
pseudo-sphcrulites go up to about "3 in diameter. They are com- 
I)osed of irregular radiating crystals of clear quartz and of a pale 
brownish nuneral, which is fibrous, slightly pleochroic and has 
straight extinction. It was considered by Mr. Daintree to be 
prehnite. These pseudo-spherulites are sometimes surrounded by 
a band of translucent brown (quartz, which extinguishes simultane- 
ously and is polyhedral. (Plate viii., fig. 1.) 

This rock occurs in loose blocks on Highpeak, and has not been 
ound in situ. My specimen shews a junction with the rhyolites 
ouiid HI the same range. liaast, Reports Geological Explorations 
/ "-.P- ^^' *"f^ Geology of Canterbury and Westland, p. 288, 
<>>yeiiitic Granite Porphyry). Daintree, Trans. N.Z. Institute, 

|;<l^ others "h,iir-like "cry'i'us ^'lV' 

and apatite occur in small quantities, as well as a little chlorite. 
Forms a dyke on Mr. Henderson's farm, in rocks belonging to the 
Hokanui System. 

Schistose Granite. 

Lower Bidler Gorge — Fine grained brownish-grey rocks, with 

the mica arranged, more or less regularly, into folije. S.G. 2-67 

to 2-76. Section : quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, biotite, musco- 

vite. A large part of the quartz has been reduced to a fine 

pressure granulation and has flowed round the felspars which have 

retained their shape but have the angles rounded. The plagioclase 

is quite subordinate to the orthoclase. The mica is much bent. 



Microgranitic compounds of quartz and orthoclase, usually v 


crystals of quartz and often of orthoclase, mica, ( 
blende in addition. 

Quail Island, Lyttelton Harbour — A finely granular, non-por- 
phyritic white rock, stained yellow-brown in places. Section : 
■Granular, between microgranitic and microlitic, composed of 
felspar microlites and laths from -006 to -008 in length with 
■quartz grains between them. 

Occurs as dykes. A doubtful Elvanite. Haast, Geol. Cant, 
and Westland, p. 348 (Trachyte). 

Jfonnt William, near Westport — A pale grey rock consisting of 
porphyritic crystals of quartz, felspar, and biotite in a small ground- 
mass. S.G. 2'56. It contains fragments of other rocks. Section : 
Ground-mass between microgranitic and microlitic formed by 
colourless anisotropic grains, about -0006 in diameter, with low 
polarization colours, small fragments of biotite and specks of 
magnetite and pyrites in small quantity without any glassy base. 
The porphyritic minerals are quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase and 
tiotite. The quartzes are corroded and contain gas cavities, but I 
5aw none with liquid and bubble ; the orthoclase has the same 
kind of gas cavities as the quartz. These crystals go to -16 inch. 
Given me by Dr. Gaze. I do not know its geological position. 

Lower Buller River — A blackish-grey, sub-vitreous rock with 
distinct grains of quartz and crystals of felspar in a large ground- 
mass. S.G. 2-69, It contains fragments of other rtx-ks. Section: 
Ground-mass abundant between microgranitic and microlitic, 
formed l)y colourless anisotropic grains from "OO-'J to -001 in diameer 
and a few microlites of biotite in a small amount of glassy base. 
The porphyritic minerals are (juartz, orthoclase, plagioclase and 
biotite, from -06 to -08 in diameter. Magnetite is in scattered 


crystals and grains. Pyrite is rare. Apatite in the felspars and 
in the ground-mass. 

Occurs as boulders in the Lower Buller at the ferry. Notwith- 
standing its different appearance, it is closely related to the Mt. 
William rock. It is a doubtful elvanite ; perhaps it is a rhyolite, 
but I have seen no rhyolite with a similar ground-mass. Barrier Island — Dykes of elvanite with idiomorphic 
quartz are found cutting the slates and sandstones in Mine Bay, 
at north part of the island ; but I have no specimens for micro- 
scopic examination. Hutton, Reports Geol. Explorations, 1868-9, 
p. 3 ; Cat. Colonial Museum, 1870, p. 112. 


Trachytic rocks composed of a semi-crystalline or- % itreous 
■ound-mass containing porplivritic minerals which are usually 
lartz* and sanidine with sti.hU «iuantity of some ferro-magnesian 
licate. The name llliyolite ha^ priority of a year over Liparite. 

No ferro-u 
Lakn Taupo—A 
ystals of sanidine 
ix)und-mass moder 
•lourless glass dei 

lagnesian silicate, (a) Wit 
red trachytoid rock witl 
and smaller quart/es. S.(. 
ate in quantity and cry^talli 
rise with h:.'matite gniuul 

h cjuartz 
1 al.und 
J. 2-10. 

ant large 


tTystallitos. The porphyritic minerals are cpiartz, sanidine and 
plagioclase, and scattered crystals of magjiotite. The sanidine 
L'rystals go to -3 inch. Th<> ])lagioclase is subordinate to the .^ani- 

■upo ; it 

. may have 


fron. Tauhara. 

Luft.hon—K pale 

yellowish-grey vesicular rock . 

v-ith conspit 

^ white 


\-U. Section: (xround-.ii 

a..s abundai 


partly m 

ieroiitic and partlv crystaliiti 

;c (longuliti 


with mini 

ute n 

licrolites of felsp,-ir, -Ul 

)2o and le: 


uxion, and 

a litth 

•> magnetite. The porpln 

•ritic miner; 

e sanidi 

fiittie !;!' 


Lse which <'o up to •!.') ii 
UKl secondary ha-matite 

ich in lengt 

lerc, is 

and limonil 


in rh.' 

■ %esicles. An analysis 

by Profess 


of silica. On the road from Lvttelt 

r. 11,1,1-, 

t. -li.i 

US. X.Z. Inst., Vol. II., 

p. :)03, ai 

1 Westland, pp. 332and;: 

\:A; Kolenl 


irl.iuh fu, 

.Ml MCI 

•■•ilogie .tc, 1885, p. S, (T 


Qaull hlaud, L,,tfrlu>n Harhonr-X pinkisli-l)rown rock, much 
AvciitluM'ed to rusty l)r<nvn, not shewing porphyritic luinerals. S.G. 
'l--i\. Section : C round-mass very abunclan't, cry^tallitic, longu- 
litii.\ witli minute specks of linionite, en<;]osin<j felspar niici'olites 
and latl)s up to -O:^ in lenjrth. Porphyritic minerals are })lagioclase 

length. Linionite lias almost entirely replaced the magnetite. 

posed, contniniiig frMgments of pumice and conspicuou.s felspars. 

uc minerals are plagioclase 
The felspar crystals go to 
) is present. Cox, Reports 

'elspar(cliietly sanidii 



Hutton, Rep. (Jeol. Expl. 

p. 40 ; Cox, Rep. Geo!. Expl. 1883-4, p. 84. Analyses are give 
^'V \V. Skoy, Col. ]\[useuin and Lab. Report, Xo. 7, p. 17 ; an 
von Htiuer in Gaol. of Canterbury, p. 285(Quartziferous porpliyry 
-Microscopical examinations have been published bv Daintree^i 
Tians. N.Z. Inst., Vol. vii., p. 459 (Trachytic Rocks) and Co: 
Rep. Geol. Exj.l. 1883-4, p. 107. 

1^. A' itreoub texture. (Vitropliyre in 
Jfti/nru IlUh, S,'h'-i/,t Co.- From dark brown and sub-vitreoi 

colour, more or le^s abundant." S.(.i. 2'40 to i-.')2. "lection 

and the ground-nia 
glah.'ies. 'rhe porph 
a little plagioclase : 

lliey will be found described under tlie name of Pitchstones ; a 
name which T limit to non-porphyritic rocks. 

direction, sub-conclioidal in others. S.G. L>'40. Section : Ground- 
mass very aljundant formed by a brown glass rather closely studded 

cracks which are crossed l>y the margarite-s, and which are narrowly 
margined by clear brown glass. The porphyritic minerals are 
quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, and biotite. The quartz is idiomorphic 
or allotriomorphic about -0 1 in diameter ; the felspars go up to 
■<J8. Plagioclase is subordinate to the sanidine. Biotite is rare, 
goes up to -Ol.-) inch. Haast, Rep. Geol. Expl., 1873-4, p. 11. 

with distinct plane of divis'i 

and shewing scattered crystals of hornblende 

gonal plates ; tiie grey portion more glassy. 

the naked e 


he porphritic minerals a 

I little hornblende, biot: 

•06. The plagioclase is 

ry^ . . a size of -OG. The horn.^.^.xx,^ ..v,. ., — 

■^'>, It IS brown and strongly pleochroic. The biotite is very dark 

quartzes go up to -06. The plagi. 

1,>ne, both reach a size of ■()(). " The hornblende does not 


i greenish. The enstatite is rare ; one crystal, -02 in length,, 
ochroic a and j3 pale yellow-brown, y greenish-brown. Collected 
i the west side of the lake before the eruption of 1886. 

(2) Highly vesicular, almost pumiceous, pale grey. Section : 
Ground-mass very abundant, partly vitreous and partly crystallitic 
and turbid : it contains many longulites and a few elongated 
vesicles, but is not microvesicular like the last. The porphyritic 
minerals are quartz, sanidine and plagioclase with a few small 
fragments (-02) of brown hornblende. The quartz goes to -025 ;. 
the sanidine to -06 ; and the plagioclase to -03. Magnetite is 
rather plentiful ; Ilmenite occurs also. This specimen was thrown 
out of Mt. Tarawera during the eruption of 1886 and was picked 
up at Te Ariki, by the boat party on June 1 4th. It was very hot 
when collected, four days after the eruption, and was roughly 
rounded by attrition. 

Lake JRotorua^ Tauranga Co. — (a) Micro- vesicular variety. — A 
white granular looking rock, with quartz, felspar, and magnetite, 
but vesicular. Section : Ground-mass in small quantity, partly 
crystallitic and partly pumiceous. The elongated vesicles start 
from the porphyritic crystals and do not fold round them. In 
places the ground-mass has become opaque white (kaolinised ?). 
The porpheritic minerals are quartz, plagioclase, sanidine, and 
magnetite with small quantities of greenish hornblende and biotite. 
The crystals are crowded and reach -08 in length. The sanidine 
is subordinate to the plagioclase. From Mokoia Island. Frag- 
ments also occur, not uncommonly, in the cliffs of the lake at Te 
Ngae. It is the ' Nevadite ' of Zirkel in the voyage of the Novara, 
Geol. Vol. I., p. 110. 

(b) Spherulitic variety.— Grey, or pale brown, stony, often 
banded, and with scattered quartz crystals. Spherulites sometimes 

Section, Ground-mass very abundant and generally banded lighter 
and darker ; often irregularly stained with hematite or limonite : 
the lighter portions with their long axes in the direction of the 
coarser banding. With crossed nicols numerous incipient spheru- 
lites, about -004 inch diameter, often appear; while in some there 
are true spherulites from '06 to -08 in diometer. The porphyritic 
minerals are quartz, sanidine, plagioclase and very dark hornblende. 
The plagioclase and sanidine are about equal in quantity. Occur 
as fragments in the cliffs at Te Ngae ; they are very various in 
texture and cannot be described in a single paragraph. 

"amuri, E. I'au]>i> Co — Pale green rooks with fragments o 
; pumice, and scattered gU^sv crystals not \ery tonspicuou 
} naked e>e Section Ground mass pirtly crystallitic an( 

liformly distributed 
gathered into irregular masses, sometimes as curaulites but 
more often with defined edges and transparent bands between the 
pa,tches. Sometimes the base is pumiceous. In some places 
microlites are numerous, in others they are few and scattered. 
The porphyritic minerals are quartz, sanidine and plagioclase, with 
a little brown hornblende and pale green augite in small fragments. 
The plagioclase is subordinate to the sanidine. The felspar crystals 
go up to -0 4 inch. Thomas, Report on the Eruption of Tarawera, 
p. 16. 

Enstatite Rhyolite. 
Lake Taupo—El&ck or dark grey rocks of different shades, often 
banded or damascened and sometimes with a sub-vitreous lustre,, 
occasionally vesicular ; shewing usually scattered crystals of glassy- 
felspar. S.G. 2-35 to 2-40. Section : Ground-mass very abundant 
partly crystallitic and partly miorolitic ; the crystallitic portions 
globulitic and more or less opaque ; the microlitic portions more 
or less transparent. The two textures are variously arranged, 
sometimes in layers, but usually the more opaque portions form 
clouds through the microlitic portion, not sharply defined but 
shading one into the other. Sometimes the layers are very distinct 
and parallel forming the Lithoidite of Hochstetter. The felspar 
"^'"~"'"'" about -00.5 in length. Tht 

_ plagioclas 
crystals, and perhaps a little augite. 1 found no quartz. The 
felspar crystals are from -03 to -08 in length. The enstatite is in 
prisms about -04 to -08 in length, and -01 to-04 in thickness, rarely 
the length goes to -15. It is rather strongly pleochroic, a and ^ 
reddish-brown when thick, yellowish when thin, and y greenish- 
blue ; probably therefore it is hypersthene. 

ihese rocks occur commonly round the shores of Lake Taupo. 
ihe variety called Lithoidite is recorded from Hamaria on the 
eastern side of the lake by Dr. v. Hochstetter, and from the island 
ot Motukaiko by Professor Thomas. It is the most remarkable 
example of banding in a volcanic rock that I have ever seen. 
Hochstetter, New Zealand, p. 385 ; Thomas, Trans. N.Z. Inst, 
^ ol- XX., p. 309 ; Pond, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xxi., p. 349, 
analyses Nos. 7 and 8. 

The pumice so abundant around Lake Taupo is no doubt derived 
jrom these rocks. It contains crystals of sanidine (often mistaken 
tor quartz) and hypersthene, by which it can \ye recognised wherever 
« IS found. The sand on the shore of Lake Taupo contains 
crystals of hypersthene abundantly. It is the Protohypersthene 
«>* Professor Judd. 



earthy fracture. Section 
abundant, consisting of a colourless or pale 

with innumerable crystallites, and chloritic infiltrations. The 

linerals are quartz and sanidine with some plagioclase, 

nd biotite. Pseudomorps of chlorite after hornblende 

and hiotite. Pyrite occurs in all, sometimes in great abundance. 

Hutton, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. of London, Vol. XLiii., p. 184. 

These rocks were thrown out from the Okaro craters during the 

eruption in 1886. They exhibit very interesting examples of 

; remarkably like the changes that have taken place in 

2 I 

the auriferous ro 

cks at the Thames. 

At Okaro the 

rocks are 

rhyolites, while 

it the Thames they 

are andesites, I 

ut in both 

cases the ferro-magnesian silicates hav 

e been changed ir 

to chlorite 

have^fken ^""^ 

jeen produced. At 

Okaro these cha 

nges must 

near the surface. 


t—A compact pale grey rock. S.G. 2-6 

2. Section: 

Felsitic, shewing 

a mosaic, and contair 

ing small angula 


of quartz and cry 

red abundantly t 


The quartz conta 


glass inclusions 


bubble, t;eiierall\ 

it lias only clouds and sheets of minut 

e gas pore>. 

There a.v also pi 

t<;h('s of a 

irregularly tibro 


with aggregate j 

.larization and rathe 

r brilliant colours 

ionally witli gret 

uish inclusions. C 

ground-mass and 

occasionally in larger 

masses which we 


once felspars. 

erous branching vei 

>elow high- 

water mark, a little south of Waioha 

iga Creek. It appears to be 

a Chlorite Rhyo 

ite from which mo 

St of the chlorit 

has been 


Lithoid or stony obsidian with crystallitic texture. 

f,\tNlrr Dnn-ns, A.^iJihiir/oH Co. — Compact rocks of various colours 
red, })urple, pale green, or grey, often mottled, and with sub-con- 
choidal fracture. S.G. 2 23 to 2-35 Section : Crystallitic, longu- 
litic, with scattered fel.spar microlites, sometimes shewing Huxion, 
and often with opaque white specks of leucoxene or kaolin. 

These rocks are identical with the ground-mass of the stony 
rhyolites, or liparit«s. The late Sir Julius von Haast told me that 
he had sent specimens to Vienna many years ago, and that they 


iiad Deen named Palla by the officers of the Geological Survej 
Austria. Hector, Catalogue of the Colonial Museum, Wellingt 
1870, p. 159, Nos. 19 and 20. Cox, Reports Geol. Expl. 187i 


Vitreous or sub-vitreous rocks with a more or less splint 
fracture, and containing from two to eight per cent, of water. 

Jfakehi, Tauranya Co. — A dark brown, sub-vitreous rock, ( 
taining fragments of other rocks. Section : vitreoi 
brown and white, shewing fluxion, and containing minute fragments 
of sanidine. 

May(rr Island— A reddish-brown compact rock, marbled with 
yellowish- and greenish-brown ; lustre resinous. Section : Micro- 
abundant felspar microlites shewing 
vesicles are elongated and pass into trichites. (Plate 

Spherulitic Pitchstone. 

Jiotorna, Tnuranga Co.— Black, lustre vitreous, containing grey 
spherulites, often pink on the outside, up to -15 inch in diameter. 
Section : Vitreous, with scattered belonites shewing fluxion, 
elongated vesicles and trichites, in places almost pumiceous. Most 
01 the trichites are straight, but others are curved or radiating 
trom a centre which is often plainly a vesicle (Plate viii., fig. 3) ; 
sometimes starting from a belonite ; some have rows of granules (1) 
attached to one side. This rock plainly shews trichites to be 
e ongated vesicles. There are also crystallites in tlie form of 
globulites. Also a few very small crystals of (luartz, sanidine, 
and plagioclase so that the rock passes in places into a rhyolite. 
J-he spherulites all shew radiating structure and are brownish by 
transmitted and white by reflected light. They are very opaque 
put the small ones are translucent on their margins, and there the 
interference cross is seen to be parallel to the nicol sections, 
tsuaily, perhaps always, a small quartz crystal forms a centre 
trora which, by reflected light, small black margarites are seen 
radiating outwards on the white general mass. The sperulites 
^vere formed after fluxion movement had ceased. Perlitic cracks 
re rare ; there are none round the spherulites. Hemo Gorge, 
*iotorua. Hochstetter, New Zealand, p. 421 ; Thomas, Report 
on Eruption of Tarawera, Wellington 1888, p. 16. 

Vitreous rocks with conchoidal fracture, and containing less 
than one per cent, of water. 

Mayor Idand—ma^ck. S.G. 2-3.5. Section: A nearly colourless 
g ass with abundance of scattered crystallites and some microlites 

of felspar and hornblende, shewing fluxion. There are no trichites 
nor niicrovesicles. The hornblende microlites are long narrow 
prisms of green colour which extinguish at angles up to 20° with 
their length. 

This obsidian was in common use by the Maories, and no doubt 
the analysis of an obsidian from the Bay of Islands, given in 
Phillips' Mineralogy, by Brook and Miller, refers to it. Silica 
75-20, alumina 6-86, red ox. of iron 6-54, lime and magnesia 3-83, 
soda and potash 7-57 ; S.G. 2-386. 

Taupo District—BUck. S.G. 2-37. Section : A homogeneous 
pale glass with a few small felspar microlites, not shewing fluxion, 
and rarely small crystals of biotite. Vitreous with crystallites, 
chiefly longulites, gathered together into long thin, distant, parallel 
bands; so closely are they crowded that the texture almost 
becomes crystallitic. The rest of the glass is remarkably free from 

Professor Thomas has described a similar obsidia „ -, 

Mr. Cussen from Ngaruahoe, and probably my specimens have the 
same origin. Thomas, Trans. N.Z. Institute, Vol. xx., p. 311. 

Lake RotoiH, Tauranya Co.— A black vitreous volcanic bomb, 
highly vesicular inside, and with a thin cracked vitreous skin on 
the outside. Section of interior portion : clear glass with abundant 
niargarites and longulites, straight or curved, generally lying 
parallel and shewing fluxion, but in places confused ; containing 
occasionally microlites, or small fragments of crystals of felspar. 
From jNlt. Haroharo. 

Devitrified obsidians and pitchstones, with felsitic texture. 

Mataiira District, Southland — Variously coloured, compact, 
hard rocks, pink, white, grey, gr 
scened, sometimes spherulitic. 
Felsiiic texture, some shew a mc 
minute, others shew no mosaic. Some have dark markings 
resembling perlitic cracks. Veins and infiltrations of chalcedony 
Spherulitic Felsite. 

Light grey rocks with spherulites up to a quarter of an inch in 
diameter. With crossed nicols shews a very fine mosaic. The 
spherulites have an opaque white centre surrounded by a broad 
dark brownish-grey ring and without an outer transparent zone. 
Another specimen has numerous small spherulites without any 
ring and shewing an interference cross, in a ground-mass which 
shews occasionally a large mosaic. Occur as pebbles at Waipapa 
Point, near the mouth of the Mataura River. Hutton, Trans. N 
Z. Institute, Vol. xx., p. 269 (Rhyolite). 


ilica 65 to 55 per cent. : iron oxides 2h to 8 per cent. 1 
i and magnesia together are more than half the alkalies, p 
e than one-fifth of the alumina. Soda usually equal to 


Impounds of orthoclase and hornblende or biotite,. 

I augite. Quartz and plagioclase are usually present 
". o^^^.uiimue quantity, but sometimes the plagioclase may exceed 
the orthoclase. 

Muscovite Syenite. 
Preservation InIet~A fine to coarse grained rock, white or pale 
pmk, with small muscovites scattered or in clusters. S.G. 2-64 - 
-■62. Section : Quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase and muscovite. 
The quartz is in small grains, from -01 to "04 in diameter, the last 
not common, but shews no pressure granulation ; the larger grains 
contam fine acicular, transparent, crystals. Orthoclase and 
plagioclase are about equally abundant," and are from -02 to -07 
m length. Pink garnets, about -015 in diameter are common. 
Occurs on the periphery of the pink syenite found in Preservation 
Inlet. An analysis by Professor Liversidge gave 65 per cent, of 
silica ; (Trans. N.Z. Institute, Vol. x., p. 505) so it might equally 
^^ell be put into the Granite Group. 

reservation Inlet, Fiord Co. — A coarse grained pink rock. The 
^*'!'P^'; partly pink and partly white, forms the bulk of the rock, 
J^'ith chlorite and hornblende in greenish black crystals, smaller 
ilian the felspars, scattered tolerably evenly. Quartz in small 
pantity. S.G. 2-635. Section : The Quartzes do not exceed -1 
inch m diameter while the felspars are much larger. The latter 
ij much decomposed, but I recognised plagioclase in the red and 
orthoclase in the white felspar. The last, which is the least 
aeconiposed, has numerous gas-pores in bands, principally in two 
erections. The pink felspar is more abundant than the white, 
ho n '^'^^^'^^^'^ ^y hfematite granules. Cleavage flakes of the 
^ orn ilende are slightly pleochroic,, changing from bluish-green to 
]• 'J^"jsli-green or yellowish-green ; with convergent polarised 
~'fit they shew a distorted optic axis and axial shadow. Most of 
'f- hornblende however is altered to a green or l)rown chloritic 
"neral, cleavage flakes of which are isotropic and shew no inter- 
^rence figure. Hutton. Geology of Otago, Dunedin, 1875, p. 4a 

124 F. W. HUTTON. 

Wet-jacket Arm, Fiord Co. — A coarsely crystalline rock com- 
posed of white felspar and long prisms of hornblende up to an inch 
in length and a quarter of an inch in breadth ; the two minerals 
in nearly equal quantity, S.G. 2-95. Section : The felspar is 
orthoclase in groups of independently oriented crystals from '04 
to -10 in diameter. The hornblende is brown, strongly pleochroic. 
There is a little quartz, not visible to the naked eye. Perhaps 
from a seuregation vein and not a true rock. 

We.^fjjorf — A fine grained greenish-grey rock, the separate 
ciystals hardly visible to the nuked eye. S.G. 2-768. Section : 
Composed of felspar and hornblende with abundant apatite. 
Secondary minerals are chlorite, epidote, pyrites, and magnetite. 
The felspars are much decomposed and can only occasionally he 
made out ; they appear to be principally orthoclase with a little 
plagioclase. They are broad in section and from -02 to -08 in 
length. The hornblende rarely exceeds -04 ; it is brownish-green 
in ordinary light, and pleochroic changing from dark blue-green 
to yellow-brown. The chlorite is blue-green, not pleochroic, and 
partly isotropic. The epidote is the usual colour, and occurs in 
veins and in the hornblendes : it is not pleochroic. Occurs near 
the sea-shore, 16f miles north of Westport. 

2Iackmjs Bluff, Nelsoyi—A fine grained granular rock, greyish- 
green in colour and often containing veins of epidote. S.G. 2-8G. 
Section ; Composed of felspar, quartz, and hornblende, with mag- 
netite in considerable quantity ; there is a little apatite in the 
quartzes, and occasionally some biotite. Secondary minerals are 
chlorite, epidote in bands and patches, limonite in small irregular 
flecks, and magnetite after hornblende. Much of the quartz is 
also secondary. The quartz is in grains up to -02 in diameter, 
with minute gas pores not arranged in bands but scattered with 
tolerable uniformity throughout. The felspars are much altered 
and often impossible xo determine, but some are orthoclase and some 
plagioclase : they are from -03 to -12 in length. The hornblende 
is not more than -03 in length ; it is allotriomorphic and not much 
cleaved, green in colour and strongly pleochroic ; most of it is 
altered into a bluish-green pleochroic chlorite. Hochstetter, Kew 
.Zealand, p. 471. 

Aknroa, Bank^s Peninsula— A rather fine grained pale browisli 
rock, partly decomposed. Section : Composed of orthoclase, 
plagioclase, and hornblende witli some quartz and magnetite. 
Secondary minerals are reddish-brown opacite round the magnetites 
and in the hornblendes, probably a mixture of haematite and 
limonite. The quartz is from -01 to -03 in diameter and tiU^ «P 
interstices Ijetween the felspars. The felspars are from -03 to •!•'> 
in length. The hornblende goes up to "05 in length ; when fresh 
it is greenish and pleochroic, changing from blue-green to yellow- 

green, the polarization colours not brilliant. There is also, very 
rarely, a colourless mineral in hexagonal prisms which appears to 
be either apatite or nepheline. Forms a hill at the south end of 
peninsula in Akaroa Harbour. Haast, Geol. of Canterbury, p. 
'6U, (Granitoid Trachyte). 

7'ekoa, Amuri Co. — A fine grained, pale, pinkish-brown rock 
with black prisms of augite. Section : composed of orthoclase, 
plagioclase, augite, and a little hornblende. There is no quartz. 
The felspars average -10 inch : the orthoclase is subordinate to 
the plagioclase. The augites go up to -0.3 in length ; they are 
green and mostly altered. The hornblendes go to -08 in length, 
and are brown or green, sometimes actinolitic and probably 
secondary after augite. Magnetite and hajmatite are accessories. 
From a spur of Hurinui Peak, running to the Mandamus River. 
Haast, Rep. Geol. Explorations 1870-1, pp.30 and 46, Section 17 
(Diorite); also Geol. of Canterbury, p. 285. Hutton, Rep. Geol. 


(Felsite in part.) 

Microgranitic compounds of orthoclase with some plagioclase, 
hornblende or biotite, and often quartz. Sometimes with porphy- 
ritic crystals of felspar, hornblende, or biotite. None as yet 
described from New Zealand. 


Trachytic rocks composed of a semicrystalline ground-mass with 
felspar microlites, containing porphyritic crystals of sanidine, and 
usually plagioclase, with hornblende or mica, or occasionaly augite 
or enstatite. 


Lyttelton — Greenish-grey rocks with glistening lustre, often 
^esicular, and containing a few porphyiitic crystals of felsj^.ir and 
long, narrow, prisms of hornblende. S.(t. about 2-44. Section: 
ihe ground-mass is very, microlitic, \\ith felspar micro- 
lites and plates from -00^ to "01 in breadth, vMth gianule., of 
niagiietite and infiltrations of chlorite F!n\iou -.tiuctuie is 
puleiit The porphyritic minerals .ue >nn. lini' j 1 i^'im 1 im\ .ind 
'"'Miblende. The sanidine is in carKb.uK .>i nirnji n md up 
' ' 12 in length. The plagioclase goes u}. '.. \\ u\ . : ,tli, mhih- 
'_ '-subordinate to, sometimes predoimn >nt .>\m tl..- ^ i-ndine. 

- d^ there are some nncrolites in the felspai s. There is a little 
Fornix dykes on the Lyttelton and Sumner Roiid. Haast, 

126 F. W. BUTTON. 

Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xi., p. 503, and Geoloj^y of Canterbury, 
p. 337. 

Sugar Loaves, Taranaki — A pale grey, vesicular rock, with 
abundance of sanidine crystals and small black prisms of horn- 
blende. Section : The ground-mass moderate, crystallitic, longu- 
litie, but with numerous felspar microlites from -001 to -002 in 
length, the glass is colourless. The porphyritic minerals are 
sanidine, plagioclase, hornblende and magnetite. The felspars go 
to -25 in length, they are zoned and with inclosures either central 
or zonal ; the plagioclase is subordinate to the sanidine. The 
hornblende is brown and goes up to -15 inch in length. Hector, 
Progress Report Geol. Survey, 1866-7, p. 3. 

This is the rock of which the pier at Taranaki harbour is formed. 
It occurs as a dyke cutting trachytic agglomerate. It sometimes 
cmtains masses of nearly pure hornblende six or eight inches in 

Wha7ujarei~A pale purplish-white rock with rather earthy 
fracture, and with numerous small black specks scattered through 
it. Section : Ground-mass abundant, colourless, and crystallitic, 
but crowded with felspar microlites about -002 in length, and con- 
taining small crystals of brown hornblende. The porphyritic 
minerals are sanidine (-02), plagioclase (-015), hornblende ('06), 
and a little biotite. There is no magnetite. The hornblendes are 
brown, more abundant than the felspars, and shade off into the 
hornblendes of the ground-mass. Brownish chlorite occurs after 
hornblende. Occurs at Mt. Parahaki, a little east of Whangarei. 
■Cox, Reports Geol. Expl. 1876-7, p. 99. 

AuGiTE Trachyte. 

Bank's Peninsula — (1.) A darkish-grey compact rock with 
scattered crystals of sanidine up to -25 in length. S.G. 2-53. 
Section : Ground-mass very abundant, vitreous, crowded with 
felspar microlites in laths and plates from -005 to -01 in length, a 
few green augite microlites and specks of iron oxide. Shewing 
fluxion. Th^ porphyritic minerals are sanidine, augite ,-ind a little 

n colours, scarce, up to "01 5 m 
. rurius a prominent civke on the top of the hill on the 
side of Heathcote Vail. ;>; \\a , T.u,.. X.Z. Inst., Vol. 

^ iMiitt's of plagioclase 
;s„is -01 in length and 
nidine (?) and augite. 
nearly but not quite 

simultaneously, or in square sections which extinguish at angles 
up to 8° with the cleavage. The augite is dark green and up to 
•02 in length. From a dyke on the bridle track between Heath- 
cote and Lyttelton on the Lyttelton side. I doubt its being a 
true trachyte, but it is probably the same rock as that which Dr. 
Kolenko has described as a trachyte from the tunnel in which the 
ground-mass is composed of nearly equal parts of felspar microlites 
and augite prisms. (N.Z. Journal of Science, Vol. ii., p. 552). In 
my specimen the augite of the ground-mass is quite subordinate 
to the felspar. 

3 Pale grey rocks with scattered black augites and a few felspars 
Section : Ground-mass very abundant, microlitic, formed of felspar 
microlites, -005 in length, and augite prisms, -001 to -002 in length, 
■with some magnetite dust ; the augite quite subordinate to the 
felspar. The porphyritic minerals are sanidine, plagioclase and 
augite. The plagioclase is well twinned, the sanidine in binary 
twins up to -08 in length, The augite is pale green, rare, up to 
•02 in length. There is sometimes a little chlorite. Forms dykes 
on the road between Heathcote and Sumner. The sanidine is 
doubtfully identified. 

Enstatite Trachyte. 
Runanga, E. Taupo Co. — A pale grey rock with abundance of 
1»ro\vu spots of enstatite surrounded by a wreath of iron oxide, 
•"id of colourless felspars. Fracture earthy. Section : Ground- 
mass very abundant, colourless, crystallitic, longulitic, with 
scattered felspar microlites -004 in length, shewing fluxion. The 
porphyritic minerals are sanidine and plagioclase in about equal 
quantity, enstatite and small quantities of augite and hornblende, 
with magnetite in crystals and grains. The felspar crystals are 
about 04 in length. The enstatite is in prisms, -03 in length ; 
pleochroic, a and ft pale yellowish-brown, y pale bluish-green. The 
augite is pale green and the hornblende brown. Both are in small 
f^ystals not more than -02 in length. This rock covers a consider- 
"'ie area between Runanga and Tarawera on the Napier Road. 
'"1-, Rep. Geol. Expl. 1870-1, p. 160. 


• -ioclase (excluding microcline) is always present, orthoclase 

- '"sent or rare. Hornblende or augite, or both, generally ac- 

'i"l»'iiiy the plagioclase. Biotite, enstatite, or olivine may or may 

iiot he present. The soda exceeds the potash. 


■^iliea 65 to 55 per cent. Iron oxides 6 to 13 per cent. The 

■ md magnesia together are more than the alkalies. The lime 

i^ less than one-half of the alumina and more than the soda. 

The ferro-magnesian silicates are subordinate to the felspars ^ 
are usually oligoclase to labradorite. 8oda attains its max 
of 3 to 5 per cent. Quartz is often present in the holocryst 
rocks, but in the semicrystalline rocks it is usually absorbec 
the base. S.G. 2-55 to 2'85. 

with a little quartz. The plagio- 
clase is either in broad plates or in broad laths. 


Lower Buller Gorge.— A medium grained dark grey rock shew- 
ing wliite triclinia felspar and quartz with abundance of biotite 
and hornblende. S.G. 2-89. Section : Quartz is tolerably 
abundant in allotriomorphic crystals from -01 to "06 in diameter, 
and contains rather large fluid cavities. The felspars are broad, 
the length about twice the breadth, and are well twinned ; they 
are from -02 to -07 in length. The hornblende is brown, chiefly 
allotriomorphic and up to -05 in length. Biotite is more abundant 
tlian hornblende and in crystals up to -08 in diameter. There is 
a little apatite and blue-green chlorite. Occurs as a dyke in 
gianite, close to the bridge over the Ohika Creek. 


Upper Buller District — Medium grained, black and white 
speckled i-ocks, composed of white felspar and black hornblende. 
S.G. 2-81 to 2-9. Section : The felspars are much altered, but 
polysynthetic twinning is sometimes plain in rather broad bands ; 
the crystals from -02 to -08 in length. The hornblende is chiefly 
allotriomorphic, from -025 to -08 in length. In ordinary light it 
is yellowish-green, but is pleochroic changing from pale yellow- 
green to deep bluish-green. There is also some magnetite. 
Secondary minerals are quartz and chlorite. In some specimens 
there is very little felspar, and that is in allotriomorphic grains. 

prisms Ivmu' in tlie 'pl'uie schistositV. The felspar i« i" ^^^^^"^ 
grains vvlii,|, ^h.-w brilliant; pularization colours like quartz, but 
the L;i;iins .nc soincTinu's cUaN til, often partly decomposed, and 
occasinnally sli.-w pnl ysyni hrti,- twinning. Known only as boulders 

Enstatite Diohite, 

Bluff mil, Southlami—A. tine to medium grained, granular 

rock, speckled black and white, in nearly equal parts. S.G. 2-88. 


Section : Composed of plagioclase, hornblende, enstatite and 
magnetite. The plagioclase is in small crystals, from -025 
to -05 in length, and well twinned. It forms more than half the 
rock. The hornblende is allotriomorphie, green, slightly pleochroic 
clianging from yellow-green to brown-green ; go up to about -06 
or -10 m length. Polarization colours not so bright a^ in the 
oiistatite Tlie enstatite is allotriomorphie, and fornib inter growths 
NMth tlie hornblende. Yellow-green in ordinary light, pleochroic, 
(li.inunng from led to ))luibli-green. Polarization colouis \ery 
bnlhant , buboi-dinate to the hornblende. The magnetite is not 
.ibunclant, it is in masses or in crystaK Hutton, Geology of 
Ot.iiro, p. 41 (Syenite); Hamilton, Trans. X.Z. Inst., Vol. xix., p. 
4:)2 , Park, Ilept. Geol. Expl. 1887-8, p. 72. 


Mt. Charh^, npor Ilerherf, Otaqo — A rather coarsely grained 
light grey rock, composed of plagioclase, augitc and titaniferous 
iron w Inch is largely decomposed to leucoxene. S G. 2 73. Section : 
Textui-e ophitic in places. The felspar is chiefly in broad laths 
from -02 x -015 to -07 x -03, but occasionally in square plates. 
Tlie autrite is in crystals from -02 to -04 in length, of a pale 
brow nisli-yellow colour. Secondary minerals are leucoxene and a 
linlr pyIlte^. Hutton, Geology of Otago (Oamaru formation) p. 
•>0 . McKay, Kepoi-ts Geol Explorations, 1876-7, p. Go. 

Micro-granitic compounds of plagioclase withbiotite, hornblende 

iitic crystals of minoi-ak similar to those forming the gi-ound m.i-,-,. 


f'^^'f Hill, So7ifIihin<{ — A dark greenish-grey, compact rock, 
^^ U h crystals, of black hornblende S G. 2-20. Section : Ground- 
"1 1^^ abundant, mici-ogranitic, formed of felspar grains, hornblende 
'kI chlorite, the cr-ystaK ranging between -003 and -007 in length 
)orr)hvritiu minerals are hornblende and 

lt^■t•ed, but plagioclase is generally recognisable. Tli 
^ P-irtly idiomorphic and goe^ up to '-06 in diame 
•"•vvn colour. Therv is also some magnetite. Chi 

130 F. W. HUTTON. 

by a brown decomposition product. The porpliyritic minerals are 
plagioclase and hornblende. The plagioclase crystals are from -02 
to -04 in length, strongly zoned with negative crystals, and are 
not much decomposed. The hornblende is scarce and is mostly 
decomposed into an opacite, sometimes with chlorite ; it is brown 
and the angle c :y=12°. Magnetite is in rather large grains 
decomposing into limonite. From the island in Omaru Bay. 
Hector, Rept. Geol. Explorations, 1870-1, p. 97, diagram iv. 


Enfield near Oamarw— Dark grey or blackish compact rocks, 
decomposing reddish-brown with white spots. S.G. 2-64 to 2-67. 
Section : Granular, composed of plagioclase, augite and ilmenite, 
with perhaps a little base. The plagioclase is in laths, from -01 
to -04 in length. The augite is in grains about -002 to -003 in 
diameter, partly gregaritic and semi-ophitic. Secondary minerals 
are leucoxene, haematite and sometimes a little chlorite. Hutton, 
Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xix., p. 419. 

Harts Coal Mine, Malvern Hills, Seltvyn Co.— A greenish-black 
compact rock, decomposing reddish-brown. S.G. 2-71. Section: 
Granular; composed of plagioclase augite and ilmenite. The 
plagioclase is in laths -01 to -02 in length. The augite is in grains 
•004 to -01 in diameter. Secondary minerals are brownish-green 
<!hlorite, a colourless aggregate with brilliant polarization colours, 
leucoxene and white pyrites. Haast, Reports Geol. Explorations, 

Olivine Porphyrite. 

Moeraki Peninsula, Otago — A dark grey, rather coarse grained 
rock. S.G. 2-77. Section : Microgranitic ; composed of plagio- 
clase, augite, olivine, and ilmenite. The plagioclase is usually 
between -01 and -02 in length, rarely -08. The augite is brownish- 
yellow, not abundant, granulitic, or glomero-porphyritic in places ; 
the grains about -01 in diameter. Olivine is rare. Leucoxene 

ily. Hi 
N.Z. Institute, Vol. xi: 
ations, 1886-7, p. 839. 

Chloritic Porpiiryite. 

Reefton, Inangahua Co. — A soft greenish-grey, compact rock, 
with dark green, almost black, shining patches of chlorite. S.G. 
2-73. Section : Microgranitic, composed chiefly of plagioclase 
laths, from -02 to -04 in length, and chlorite. Other secondary 
minerals are calcite, leucoxene (?) and pyrites. The plagioclase is 
much decomposed. The chlorite is bright green and feebly 
pleochroic ; it sometimes forms pseudomorphs after augite, but 
usually it k in irregular masses. From Specimen Hill Mine at 


Thames District — 1. A dark greenish-black compact rock with 
small black prisms scattered sparingly through it. S.G. 2-69. 
Section : Ground-mass moderate, microgranitic, of felspar plates 
and laths, from -002 to -006 in length, and chloritic infiltrations. 
Porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, serpentine and chlorite. The ■ 
plagioclase crystals go up to -04, zoned, partly decomposed. The 
serpentine is brownish-green, in small prisms, striated, not pleo- 
chroic. The chlorite is yellow-green, slightly pleochroic, and con- 
tains inclusions of apatite. Magnetite is in fine specks but is not 
abundant. Pyrites, also in fine specks, is less in quantity than 
the magnetite. Forms a dyke-like mass near the mouth of 
Tararu Creek. Hutton, Rept. Geol. Expl. 1868-9, p. 21 (Mela- 
phyre); Hector, ditto, p. 40, No. viii. (Analysis). 

2. Greenish-grey rocks with large white crystals of felspar and 
occasionally black prisms. S.G. about 2-66. Section : Ground- 
mass abundant, microgranitic, felspar plates from -003 to "006. 
Porphyritic minerals are plagioclase and chlorite with opacite after 
hornblende. The plagioclase is much decomposed, and up to '20 
in length. The hornblende crystals have been up to -40 in length. 
The chlorite is green, sometimes pleochroic, changing from yellow- 
brown to dark bluish-green, and with very low polarization 
colours. Pyrite is common. Found as boulders on the beach 
north of Waiohanga Point. 

Trachytic rocks composed of a 
microlites of felspar, containing porphyritic crystals of plagioclas , 
(rarely with sanidine) and augite, often with hornblende or eustatite 
and occasionally with olivine in addition. 

Hornblende Anj)ESITE. — (a) With quartz. 

Thames ZJis^Hci.— Greyish-green rocks with translucent colour- 
lfs.s felspars and black prisms of hornblende thickly scattered 
through them. S.G. 2-62 to 2-76. Section : Ground-mass 
moderate, colourless, chiefly crystallitic but occasionally felsitic, 
^^'ith scattered felspar microlites and grains of magnetite. The 
I'orphyritic minerals are quartz, plagioclase and hornblende. The 
quartz is in small quantity, in allotriomorphic grains, from "02 to 
■U< in diameter, rarely more than one on a slide. The plagioclase 
^'oes to -08 ; it is idiomorphic, zoned, and occasionally shews 
iniiary twins. The hornblende is brown, rather pale, idiomorphic, 
up to -04 in length. Secondary minerals are chlorite, calcite, 
pyrit^js, and leucoxe^e. Hutton, Reports Geol. Explorations, 
1^68-9, p. 21 (Timazite) ; Hector, ditto, p. 40, Nos. x. and xi. 

132 F. W. HUTTON. 

(b) Without quartz. 
Dunedin — A dark grey I'ock with large crystals of hornblende, 
up to -80 X -14, and in places speckled with white. S.G. 2-82-1. 
Section : Ground-mass small, microlitic, including small kaoliniscd 
felspars, chlorite, numerous small graiiis of magTietite, and a little 
htvmatite. The porphyritic mineials are felspar, hornblende 
magnetite and apatite. The felspar is chieHy well t^vinned plagio- 
clase in crystals up to -15 in length, but there is also a simple 
felspar which may, perhaps, l)e sanidine. The hornblende is 
idiomorphic, brown, and usually with a wreath of magnetite 

goes to •12'_in length usually altho. 

igh la, 

•ger c 

rvsbils occur. 

Magnetite is in large gi'ains and ci'j 



apatite is the 

imperfect, but 

sometimes shewim' pyramidal termin 



: viii., fig. ■>), 

sometimes short but usually<. h'n 


'5 the breadth. 

The length is from •02.> to -OG.-) and the 


h fron 

, -OOo to -008. 

^H.PV shew distant, but perfect, basal cle 

avage c 



tudinallv striated by enclosures whic-h 

form b 

ands r 

adiating from 
lese radiating 

th(> chief axis and unequally developed 

[. Eac 

h of tl 

band, is formed })y small black bacillai 

■ inclus 

ions, J 

>laced parallel 

and with their long axis at right am 

.des to 

the ch 

ipf axis of the 

<i \ -tal. Tlie prisms are colourless exct 

■pt where the 

inclosures are 

N'-i V numerous, here they are dark and 
\Vt',rn the nicols are parallel and the .-i 


•tly di, 
the cr3 


at an angle of 45' with them the crysta 



colour. Apatite in the usual needle-shaped cryst; 

lis is also dis- 

tributed through the rock. There is ab 

,0 a litt 

ite. A white 

.secondary mineral fills cavities. 

Bank', Pfmia.^ula—A brownish-gre 

y roc=k 


large white 

rectangular crystals of decomposing fell 

spar an 

d bUu- 


Section : ground-mass abundant, coar- 


felspar laths and plates from -01 to 



with a little 

brown glass and grain, of mnun^etite. 


pliyritic mineral^ an- pla-io<daM.. augi 


1 Imn, 

augite, and magnetite. There is also a little secondary hfematite. 
The plagioclase crystals go up to -04 in length, they are zoned and 
often in binary twins. The hornblende is brown, up to -08 in 
length. The augite is greenish, up to -045. It is subordinate to 
the hornblende. 

Mt. Egmont, Taranaki. — Greyish-brown to red rocks with 
scattered black hornblendes, and white felspars scattered or 
crowded. Section : Ground-mass crystallitic, either moderate or 
small in quantity, globulitic, a colourless glass generally dense 
with granules of magnetite or of haematite, and containing scattered 
microlites of felspar and occasionally of augite. No fluxion. The 
porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite, hornblende and mag- 
netite. The plagioclase crystals are small, not more than -02 in 
some specimens, but usually they go up to -08 ; inclusions are 
abundant, central or zonal. The augite is pale yellowish-green, 
idiomorphic, the crystals large, from -04 to -08 in length. The 
hornblende is brown, idiomorphic, usually with a wreath of mag- 
netite ; it is less in quantity than the augite, but occasionally the 
crystals are -15 x -04, usually they are much smaller. From both 
the north and south slopes of the mountain. 

Mt. Bnapehu — A pale grey rock with scattered black hornblendes 
and white felspars. Much resembles the H. Andesite from the 
feugai-loaves. Section : Ground-mass abundant, crystallitic, 
longulitic, colourless, with specks of magnetite. No fluxion. The 
porphyritic minerals are felspar, hornblende, augite, enstatite, and 
magnetite. There is a little secondary lutmatite. The felspars 
are chiefly plagioclase, in crystals up to -08 x -06, but I saw a 
smgle rectangular simple crystal which gave straight extinction 
and may be sanidine. The hornblende is in long black prisms, 
■0( X -016. The augite is not common ; it is in small green 
crystals about -01 in length. Tlie enstatite is in crystals up to -08 
in length, changing from reddish-brown to bluish-green, and is 
therefore hypersthene. It is quite subordinate to the hornblende. 
i'rom the east base of the mountain. 

Coromandel, Thames District — A pale grey, compact rock, with 
scattered black hornblendes and white felspars. Much like the 
H. Andesite from the Sugarloaves. S.G. 2-4.5. Section : Ground- 

i crystallitic, longulitic, abundant, containing scattered felspar 

■olites and laths, with magnetite in rather large grains. The 

porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, hornblende, and magnetite. 

■ine plagioclase goes up to -10 in length, some crystal; 

posed in the centre, a few shew binary twins. The hornblende is 

hro,„ 1 ... .^^ ^^j^.^g 

/-. .^^., ^^'^ border. Another specimen is darker in colour. 
^- --67. It contains, in addition to the hornblende some yellowis 
green augite, up to -06 in length, and often twinned. 

134 F. W. BUTTON. 

Tokatoka, Kaipara. — A grey, compact, sub- vitreous rock, with 
small scattered hornblendes. S.G. 2-67. Section : Ground-mass 
abundant, microlitic, the niicrolites -003 to -007 in length with 
some magnetite grains. Probably there is no base, but a greenish- 
brown decomposition product makes observation difficult. The 
porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, hornblende, and magnetite. 
There is a little secondary quartz. The felspars go to -04. The 
hornblendes are brown, with a wreath of opacite, and up to "06 

AuctITE Andesite. 

ish-grey rock not shewing porphyritic 
n : Ground-mass forming nearly the 
ess glass usually longulitic but in 
5 plagioclase microlites and laths up 
to -02, and with scattered grains of magnetite and small patches 
of chlorite. The porphyritic minerals are felspar and augite. 
The felspar is allotriomorphic and up to -05 in diameter. The 
augite is purple and slightly pleochroic, absorption y >- a or ^ ; it 
goes up to -07 in length and is margined with grains of augite, 
chlorite, and magnetite. Small black prisms, up to -015, scattered 
through the ground-mass may be altered augites. From the quarry 
at Logan's Point ; it is used for road-metal in Dunedin. 

Cave Valley, Oamaru. — A dark greenish-black compact rock. 
S.G. 2-80. Section: Granular, composed of plagioclase, augite 
and ilmenite in a small quantity of globulitic base. The plagioclase 
is in laths about -01 in length. The augite is in grains from -OOl 
to -002 in diameter and is distinctly gregaritic (Plate viii., fig. '<)* 
the clusters going up to -04 in diameter, sometimes they enclose 
the felspars and so become semi-ophitic. Occurs as a dyke in 
diatomaceous ooze rock. Hutton, Trans N.Z. Inst., Vol. xix., 
p. 419. 

Bank's Peninsula. — 1, A brownish-grey rock with large 
yellowish-white felspars in groups. Section : Ground-mass 
abundant, microlitic, chiefly felspar plates about -005 in diameter, 
with a few laths and some grains of augite and of chlorite. The 
porphyritic minerals are felspar and augite with some magnetite. 
The felspar is chiefly well twinned plagioclase in square sections, 
up to -16 in length, but there is also, perhaps, a little sanidine. 
The augite is green and in small quantity, in crystals up to '02 in 
length. There is also some chlorite after augite. Forms a dyke 
on the top of the hills behind Opawa. Morten's Buildings m 
Christchurch are built with it. 

2. A compact grey rock, the porphyritic minerals few and small- 
S.G. 2-75. Section: Ground-mass very abundant, vitreous or 
crystal litic, clear, with numerous microlites of felspar and augite- 
The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite, and apatite. The 

and not n 

hexapronal prisms occasionally terniinated by pyramids, lengtk 
•005 to -01, breadth -001 to -002. They are distinctly dichroic, 
changing from pale brown to purplish-brown. E > O. A high 
magnifying power shews that they are really colourless but with 
inclusions in longitudinal bands, which make them appear to be 
longitudinally striated. Quarry behind Summer on the Lyttelton 
Road. Interesting from the apatite crystals which are like those 
in the Hornblende Andesite from Dunedin, but are smaller. 

3. A dark grey, sub-vitreous, compact rock, divided into layers 
by parallel, curved narrow pale bands, along which the rock splits. 
S.G. 2-51. Section : Ground-mass abundant, crystallitic, banded 
lighter and darker, the darker parts thick with magnetite dust, 
and crowded with minute felspar microlites which shew fluxion in 
the direction of the banding. The porphyritic minerals are 
plagioclase, augite, and magnetite, there is also a yellow-brown 
decomposition product present. The plagioclase goes up to -04 in 

in length Magnetite is in crystals. Part of a lava stream near 

Coal Creek, Bnngitata.~A black sub-vitreous rock with yellowish 

globulitic, with scattered minute felspar microlites. The porphy- 
ritic minerals are plagioclase and augite. The plagioclase is not 
well twinned, occasionally pseudo-schillerised, goes to "08 in length. 
The augite is brownish-green, sometimes decomposed into an 
isotropic yellowish-green chlorite ; it is not abundant and goes to 
•02 in length. Haast, Geology of Canterbury, p. 279 (Melaphyre). 

Fern Gully, Clent Hills, AsJtburton Co.— A brownish-black rock 
^vith yellowish felspars. S.G. 2-685. Section: Ground-mass 
moderate, crystallitic, globulitic, with felspar laths (-02) and augite 
grains, which are gregaritic. The porphyritic minerals are plagio- 
clase, augite, and magnetite. The plagioclase crystals are not 
abundant, but go up to -09 in length. The augite is pale greenish, 
small, partly altered into a brownish-green chlorite. Haasr. 
Reports Geol. Expl., 1872-4, p. 7, and Geol. Cant. p. 2Sl', 

Ifb/h^'l^.^ks, .Unlvprn IIUh.—A very dark grey rock with 

augite. The plagioclase is in laths up to -15 in le 
augite is in small broken purplish crystals. 

C't-itle II ill, Selwyn Co.— Brownish-black compact 
■^hite or yellowish felspars more or less conspicuous. 

136 F. W. HUTTON. 

2-7. Section : Ground-mass abundant, microlitic with both felspar 
and augite ; the felspars -003 in length, and rather in excess of 
the augite. There is also a considerable amount of chlorite. 
Scarcely porphyritic, but scattered felspar laths up to -015 in 
length, and grains of pale greenish augite, -02 in diameter, often 
glomero-porphyritic. Much of the augite is changed t 
Magnetite and ilmenite also occur. In dvkes. Hutto 
N.Z. Inst., Vol. XIX., p. 403. 

In dykes. Hutton, Trans., 

Tekoa, Amuri District. —A 

pale grey compact rock \a 

spots of decomposing augite. S.G. 2-46. Section : Ground-mass 
very abundant, felsitic, almost colourless, with dark spots of 
magnetite, and yellow-brown spots of a transparent mineral 
aggregate ; shews a mosaic with crossed nicols. The porphyritic 
minerals are plagioclase and augite. The plagioclase crystals are 
much altered but still shew polysynthetic twinning, they go up to 
•08 in length. Augite is very rare, it is yellowish-green and goes 
to -01 only. Associated with slates at the Mandamus River. 
Hutton, Reports Geol. Explorations, 1873-4, p. 35. 

Mount Egmont, Taranaki.—Yery dark grey rocks with large 
crystals of green augite and smaller white felspars. S.G. 2-69 to 
2-86. Section : Ground-mass moderate or small, crystallitic, 
globulitic, a brown glass opaque with magnetite dust. The por- 
phyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite and magnetite. The 
augite is greenish, idiomorphic, in large crystals up to '10 in 
length. The plagioclase crystals are zoned and up to 08 in length. 

Another specimen is grey, granular in appearance, of small 
greyish-white felspars and no large crystals. The ground-mass is 
small, longulitic and contains a little broken brown hornblende 
with opacite wreaths. From the northern slopes of the mountain. 

Rnapelm. — A black, sub-vitreous rock, indistinctly banded and 
with scattered small felspars. S.G. 2-614. Section : Ground-mass 
very abundant, crystallitic, banded with V)lackish and dark grey 
layers, the dark layers with microlites shewing fluxion. The 
porphyritic crystals are plagioclase and augite. The plagioclase 
in crystals up to -035 in length. The augite in small "broken 
crystals only. From the south slopes of the mountain. 

Mount Pirongia. — A brownish-grey rock speckled with white 

quantity, crystallitic, longulitic, the glass brown, with nuniprous 
microlites of felspar and augite. The porphyritic minerals are 
plagioclase, augite, and magnetite. Flugioclase crystals are 
numerous, up to -03, but a few go to '08, thev shew central decom- 
position. The augite is greenish, partly iciionioi-phic, partly in 

in diameter or less. There is a little apatite. Hochstetter, New 
Zealand, p. 314 ; Park, Rep. Geol. Expl., 188.5, p. 140. 

Okaro, Tauranga Co. — A very dark grey, almost black rock, 
-with irregular, angular, white inclusions ; no porphyritic crystals 
visible. Section : Ground-mass abundant, crystallitic, globulitic, 
containing numerous felspar laths up to "01 in length. Porphy- 
ritic minerals are plagioclase, not common, up to -02 in length, 
and magnetite. There is no fluxion structure. Enclosed are 
angular fragments of a white, translucent or opaque, rhyolite, 
between crystallitic and felsitic, perhaps kaolinised. Thrown out 
of the ' Black Crater ' at Okaro, during the eruption of June 1886. 
Hutton, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. of London, Yol. XLiii., p. 184. 

Professor Thomas has come to the conclusion that no Augite 
Andesite was thrown out of the Black Crater during tlie eruption. 
[Report of the Eruption of Tarawera, Wellington, 1888, p. 55.] 
But angular fragments of non-scoriaceous andesite were found, so 
far as I know, only near the Black Crater, and here on the 28th 
June, I found them in abundance. On the 20th June Mr. H. 
Boscawen saw stones thrown out of the north corner of the Black 
Crater, some of which he picked up : two of these he gave to me, 
and they were Augite Andesite. On Professor Thomas' theory 
these stones must have been thrown out of Tarawera into the 
Black Crater during the time it was in violent eruption on the 
1 Gth June, and they must have remained in it for ten days not- 
withstanding constant eruption. Also when I was at Okaro black 
rock could be seen in the crater wall — indeed it was from this 
that it got the name. Professor Thomas did not visit the locality 
until three weeks later, when the black rock was probably covered 
up by mud slips. 

Mt. Tarawera, Tauranga Co.— Black, highly vesicular, angular 
fragments, sometimes containing angular fragments of a white 
rock. Section : Ground-mass very abundant, crystallitic, globulitic 
very opaque. Porphyritic minerals very scarce and small. Plagio- 
clase in broken fragments up to -02 inch. Augite greenish yellow 
in square prisms -02 in length. Contain fragments of decomposed 
hornblende rhyolite passing into pumice. Thrown out of the 
Mountain during the eruption of 10 June, 1886 ; picked up at 
Pakaraka, and Galatea. Much like the last, but the rock itself 
and the included fragments are much more vesicular. 

Te Aroha, Thames Distric 

' greenish, glassy, felspar. 

niass abundant, crystallitic, longulitic, with 
niicrolites, not shewing fluxion. The porphyritic minerals ar 
plagioclase, augite, and magnetite. The plagioclase is muel 
decomposed, and goes up to -06 in length. The augite is idio 
niorphie, pale yellowish, up to -02 in length. Secondary mineral 
are chlorite and calcite. Waiorongomai River, just behind th< 

battery. Cox, Reports Geol. Explorations, p. 16, Sect. No. 2 
(Dioritic Rock). 

^ Komiti Peninsula, Kaipara. — A greyish-black, compact, sub- 
vitreous rock, with scattered small white felspars. S.G. 264. 
Section : Ground-mass very abundant, crystallitic, longulitic, in a 
brownish glass ; crowded with minute felspar microlites and a few 
magnetite grains ; no fluxion structure. The porphyritic minerals 
are plagioclase and augite, the former going to -04, the latter to 
•02 in length. Park, Reports Geol. Expl. 1885, p. 167, and 1886-7, 
p. 220. 

Enstatite Andesite. 

Malvern Hills, Selwyn Cq.—K greyish-black sub-vitreous rock 
with small scattered felspars. S.G. 2-66. Section : Ground-mass 
moderate, crystallitic, globulitic, with scattered felspar microlites 
not shewing fluxion. The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, 
augite, and enstatite. The plagioclase goes up to -07 in length, 
and is partly in ophitic plates enclosing augite and enstatite. The 
augite is allotriomorphic, in large grains only. The enstatite is 
colourless or pale green, and not pleochroic ; it has low polarization 
colours and is not much cleaved, often idiomorphic, the crystals 
going to -04 in length and giving straight extinctions. There is 
also a little chlorite. Snowy Peak. Haast., Rep. Geol. Expl. 
1870-1, p. 12; Cox, I.e., 1883-4, p. 35. 

Siigarloaves, Taranaki. — A fine grained, grey rock, with numer- 
ous small white felspars and scattered small pyroxenes. S.G. 2-69. 
Section : Ground-mass moderate, crystallitic, longulitic, the glass 
colourless ; with scattered felspar microlites and numerous grains 
of magnetite. The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite, 
enstatite, and magnetite. The plagioclase is zoned and goes up to 
•07 in length. The augite is pale greenish, up to -04. The ensta- 
tite is subordinate to the augite ; it goes up to -03 in length ; it 
IS distinctly pleochroic changing from pale yellowish-brown to 

Ruapehu. — 1. A grey compact rock with scattered small 
pyroxenes and occasionally rather conspicuous felspars. S.G. 2-66. 
Section : Ground-mass abundant, crystallitic, longulitic, the glass 
pale; crowded with microlites of felspar and augite shewing 
fluxion, as well as magnetite grains. The porphyritic minerals 
are plagioclase, (-05), greenish augite (-04) and enstatite (-06). 
The last is pleochroic, changing from brown to blue-"reen. From 
the south-east slopes of the Mountain. 

2. Dark grey rock with scattered felspars and pyroxenes, not 
conspicuous Another specimen is reddish-brown with conspicu- 
ous pyroxenes but no felspars. S.G. 2-60. Section : Ground-nui- 
abundant, crystallitic, globulitic, opaque with grains of eith'"- 
magnetite or haematite. The porpliyritic minerals are plagiocla--- 

(•02 to -04), pale greenish augite (-02 to -06) and enstatite (-02 to 
■03). The last is idiomorphic, pleochroic, a and /3 yellow-brown 
to reddish-brown, y bluish-green. From the southern and western 
slopes of the mountain. 

Lake Taupo. — Black sub-vitreous rocks with abundant yellowish 
felspars and less conspicuous pyroxenes. Section : Ground-mass 
abundant, vitreous, a brown or dark brown glass with either 
scattered magnetite granules, or scattered colourless crystallites 
in bands and clusters. The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, 
augite, enstatite and magnetite. The plagioclase is not zoned, 
but sometimes pseudo-schillerised, and up to -15 in length. The 
augite is yellowish-green, up to -03 in length. The enstatite is 
more abundant than the augite, goes to -05 in length, pleochroic, 
changing from brownish-yellow to bluish-green. Fragments 
picked up on the north shore of the lake. 

Mount Horohoro, Rotorua. — A black sub-vitreous rock with 
scattered yellowish felspars. S.G. 2-545. Section : Ground-mass 
abundant, vitreous, a brown glass with scattered magnetite grains 
and minute felspar microlites shewing fluxion. The porphyritic 
minerals are plagioclase, augite, enstatite and magnetite. The 
plagioclase crystals go to -04, they are not much twinned. Tlie 
augite is pale greenish, in small quantity, up to -04. The enstatite 
^ pleochroic changing from reddish-brown to bluish-greeiu 
Hochstetter, New Zealand, p. 403. 

White Island, Bay of Plenty. — A brownish-grey rough rock with 
abundant white felspars. Section : Ground-mass moderate, crystal- 
Iitic, globulitic, with magnetite and haematite. The porphyritic 
minerals are plagioclase, augite, enstatite and magnetite. The 
plagioclase goes to -15. The augite is greenish. The enstatite is 
usually about -04 in length, slightly pleochroic, changing from 
yellowish-brown to yellowish-green. The augite and enstatite 
sometimes form intergrowths. Hector, Trans. N.Z. Institute, 

Thames Gold-fields.— \. Greenish-black, semi-vitreous rocks with 
" ■ " "■ S.G. 2-72. Section: 

, „, „ glass crowded with 

small felspar laths and with rather large magnetite grains. The 
"^ "" ' " srals are plagioclase, augite, enstatite or protobastitfr 

The plagioclase is generally clear and zoned, often 
ary twins, goes up to -Oi. Augite is not abundant, pale 

•o-porphyritio, the clustres -OS in diameter. The enstatite 

Octtis.onally the axiar plane lies i 
Cise the mineral is protobastite. T 

140 F. W. HUTTON. 

Forms masses between Karaka and Waiotahi Creeks. It is the 
miocene dolerite of Mr. Cox, Rep. Geol. ExpL, 1882, p. 19. 

2. Greenish- or greyish-black rocks with greenish-white felspars 
and black pyroxenes. S.G. 2-74 to 2-78. Section : Ground-mass 
small, microlitic or crystallitic (longulitic), often different textures 
in the same specimen, the glass colourless, with numerous felspar 
laths and scattered, rather large grains of magnetite. The por- 
phyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite, enstatite and magnetite. 
The plagioclase goes to -04 in length, it is zoned and often much 
decomposed. The augite is pale yellow, idiomorphic, from -02 to 
•05 in length, often altered into a blue-green chlorite. The 
enstatite is idiomorphic, from -03 to -06 in length, pleochroic, 
changing from yellow-brown to bluish-green; sometimes inter- 
■ ' I augite, sometimes glomero-porphyritic. Often altered 

polarization colours. Apatite is i 
enclosures in the pyroxenes. There is also sometimes pyrites. 
From Karaka and Waiotahi Creeks. Button, Report Geol. Expl 
1868-9, p. 20, (Dolerite); Hector, I.e., p. 40, Table of Analyses, 

^3. A greenish-black rock with abundant small felspars. S.G. 
^•73. Section : Ground-mass small, vitreous, a pale brown glass 
crowded with small felspar plates and grains of magnetite, and 
with chloritic infiltrations. The porphyritic minerals are plagio- 
clase, augite, bastite (after enstatite) and magnetite. The plagio- 
clase IS zoned, goes up to 06 in length. The augite is pale greenish- 
yellow and up to -04. The bastite is idiomorphic pseudcmorps 
after enstatite, an aggregate with maximum extinction parallel to 
the cleavage ; it goes up to -03. Apatite is present a ' ^ '-"" 

m the pyroxenes. O*' — ' 

fiugite, pyrites, and i 

the Prince Imperial Mine. 

These three rocks form a series differing in the amount of 
decomposition they have undergone, and passing into the Chloritic 
Andesites from the same district. 

Pnponga Point, Mannkau Harbour.— \. A brownish-grey rock 
with scattered felspars and occasional pyroxenes. S.G. 2-52. 
Section: Ground-mass moderate, crystallitic, the glass brown; 
crowded with microlites and small crystals of felspar. The por- 
phyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite, enstatite and magnetite. 
Ihe plagioclase goes to -08 in length. The augite is pale greenish, 
to 04. The enstatite allotriomorphic, pleochroic, changing from 
reddish-brown to bluish-green, up to -03 in breadth, generally 
antergrown with augite. 

2. A reddish-brown vesicular rock, the vesicles lined with a pale- 
green mineral. Section : Ground-mass dense with hajmatite dust. 
The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase and enstatite. A chloritic 
mineral infiltrates the felspars and enstatites ; the latter are often 
decomposed into chlorite and a colourless aggregate with low 
polarization colours. The vesicles are lined with a chloritic mineral 
probably delessite, and tilled with a colourless mineral with dull 
polarization colours, probably calcite. Hochstetter, New Zealand, 
p. 261 ; Park, Kept. Geol. Expl. 1885, p. 156. 

IMensville, Kaipara. — A dark brown compact rock with small 
yellowish felspars, not conspicuous, and occasional pyroxenes. S.G. 
2-78. Section : Ground-mass moderate, crystallitic, globulitic, a 
brown glass thick with haematite dust. The porphyritic minerals 
are plagioclase, augite, enstatite, and magnetite. The plagioclase 
is zoned, and goes to -04 in length. The augite is idioraorphic, 
greenish-yellow, up to -06 in length. The enstatite is subordinate 
to the augite, pleochroic, changing from yellow-brown to yellow- 
green, goes up to -02 in length ; sometimes forms intergrowths 
with the augite. 

Komiti Peninsula, Kaipara.— A greyish-black compact rock 
with very small felspars and pyroxenes not conspicuous. S.G. 
2-74. Section : Ground-mass moderate, crystallitic, longulitic, 
the glass pale ; with some felspar microlites and abundant mag- 
netite grains. The porphyritic crystals are plagioclase, augite, 
and enstatite. The plagioclase is in imperfect crystals, rarely 
over -04 in length. The augite is pale greenish, up to -02. The 
enstatite is pleochroic, changing from vellowish-brown to bluish- 
green, up to -03. Park, Rept. Geol. Expl., 1885, p. 167, and 
1886-7, p. 220. 

Whangarei Heads. — A rather pale grey rock with scattered 
crystals of pyroxene. S.G. 2-66. Section : Ground-mass abundant 
microlitic, composed of felspar laths, up to -01 in length, closely 
meshed, with augite in grains and prisms, and magnetite in grains. 
The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite, enstatite and 
magnetite. Secondary constituents are a little quartz and mag- 
netite. The plagioclase crystals are few and much decomposed, 
up to -04 in length. The augite is pale brownish-green, idiomor- 
phic, up to -04 in length. The enstatite preponderates over the 
augite, pleochroic, changing from reddish-green to bluish-green, 
up to -04 in length. 

Olivine Andesite. 

Bank's Peninsula. — 1. A pale grey vesicular rock, witli con- 
spicuous felspars and black hornblendes and ausrites. Section : 
Ground mass abundant, microlitic, of teKpir lath- and pi it( - frt)m 
•0U7 to -01 in length, with grains of augite, .uul m uiu^tit. , and 

142 F. W, BUTTON. 

alteration products. Fluxion very apparent. The porphyritic 
minerals are plagioclase, augite, hornblende, olivine (altered) and 
magnetite. The plagioclase crystals go to -13 in length. The 
augite is greenish-brown, not abundant, idiomorphic, up to -06 in 
length, slightly pleochroic when in thick sections. The hornblende 
is rare, dark brown, in long broken prisms. The olivine is altered 
into a dark brownish-red translucent mineral, probably hfematite. 
There is also occasionally a colourless aggregate. Hoon Hay 
Quarry, above Governor's Bay. Several of the bridges over the 
Avon are built with this stone. 

2. A dark grey rock thickly crowded with white felspars, up to 
•30 m length, the other porphyritic minerals not conspicuous. 
S.G. 2-81. Section: Ground-mass moderate or small, crystallitic, 
crowded with felspar microlites, the isotropic portion generally 
opaque with longulites and containing rather large grains of mag- 
netite in abundance. The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, 
augite, and olivine (altered). The augite goes up to -03. The 
olivine is altered into a red translucent hematite. Secondary 
haematite surrounds the magnetites. Port Hills. Used in build- 
ing Canterbury College and parts of the Museum in Christchurch. 

In other specimens of the same kind of rock from the Sumner 
and Lyttelton road, some of the olivine is unaltered. 

3. Grey compact rocks with scattered felspars and augites. 
S.G. 2-66 to 2-69. Section : Ground-mass abundant, vitreous or 
microlitic with abundant felspar microlites, and scattered mag- 
netite grains. The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, augite, 
and olivine. The plagioclase goes to -10, often not abundant. 
The augite is pale greenish-brown, up to -03. The olivine ie 
colourless, up to -03 ; sometimes altered to red-brown translucent 
haematite. Heathcote and Sumner Road, in several places. 

3fount Egmont.~A grey rock with small felspars and conspicu- 
ous black pyroxenes. S.G. 2-84. Section : Ground-mass moderate, 
crystallitic, longulitic, thickly strewn with microlites of felspar 
and grains of magnetite. The porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, 
augite, olivine, and magnetite. The plagioclase is abundant but 
small, up to -04 but generally less, squarish or in laths. The 
augite is in large yellow-green crystals up to "08 in length. The 
olivine is colourless, scarce, up to -05 in length. From the northern 
slopes of the mountain. 

Chloritic Andesite. 

The whole of the bisilicates changed into hydrous unisilicates. 

Nelson District.—l. A dull pale green rock, compact and 
homogeneous except occasional black patches. S.G. 2-86. Section : 
Ground-mass very abundant, crystallitic, partly felsitic, colourless 
but full of chloritic infiltrations and specks of leucoxene. The 

only porphyritic crystals are plagioclase ; these are much altered 
and tilled with a colourless aggregate shewing rather vivid polari- 
zation colours. They are small, not more than -03 in length. 
Some have infiltrations of a pale green chlorite, which is partly 
isotropic, and partly shews low polarization colours. There are 
also long colourless needles, generally with chloritic infiltrations ; 
it is doubtful what these are as they rarely shew crystallographic 
faces. Interbedded with the Maitai Slates in Brook Street Valley. 

2. Greenish-grey compact rocks, more or less mottled with pale 
greenish-yellow epidote. S.G. 2-85 to 2-87. Section : Ground- 
mass very abundant forming nearly the whole of the rock, partly 
vitreous, partly felsitic ; some specimens with felspar microlites 
(•006 in length) shewing evident fluxion ; others with microlites 
and round balls of a chloritic mineral which is chiefly isotropic. 
A small mosaic is generally apparent in the felsitic portion. 
Magnetite, haematite and leucoxene are scattered in small specks 
through the ground-mass. Felspar, in small fragments, is the 
only porphyritic mineral, and even these are scarce and too much 
altered for determination. Secondary epidote occurs in veins and 
in masses. Associated with tuffs of a similar character at Mackay's 
iiluff, on the south-west side of the syenite. McKay, Reports 
<^eoI. Explorations, 1878-9, p. Ill (Serpentine). 

Haiiraki Gold-fields.— jy^rk or light greenish-grey rocks, some- 
tunes speckled with white, and weathering to greyish-white. 
Hutton, Pro. Australasian Association, 1888, p. 245. 

(A) With pseudomorphs after hornblende and Augite. 
a. With quartz. 
9 }k ^^^k greenish-grey rocks with greenish-white felspars. S.G. 
x'l . .*° '^'^^' Section : Ground-mass abundant, crystallitic or 
lelsitic without mosaic, colourless, with scattered magnetite 
granules. The original porphyritic minerals still remaining are 
quartz, plagioclase, and magnetite. Secondary minerals are 
^ff "^ ^^d magnetite after augite, and either chlorite or calcite 
T J., "ornblende. The quartz is rare, allotriomorphic, from -01 
fo 04 in diameter, corroded. Plagioclase crystals up to -06 in 
length. On the shore north of Tararu Creek, 
b. Without quartz. 
i abundant, microlitic, or crystallitic, partly 

_ 2. Ground-n 

elsitic with scattered grains of magnetite. Original porphyritic 
numerals are plagioclase and magnetite. Secondary minerals are 
ca cite with opacite wreath after hornblende, and bluish-green 
^onte or bastite after augite. The felspars are small and much 
oecomposed ; the chlorite is nearly isotropic, the bastite is pleo- 

144 F. W. HUTTON. 

chroic, changing from yellow-green to blue-green. Apatite occurs 
in the chlorite pseudomorphs. Other secondary minerals are 
quartz, magnetite, and leucoxene. S.G. 266 to 273. From 
Karaka and Waiotahi Creeks. 

3. Ground-mass moderate, crystallitic, Ion gulitic, with numerous 
felspar microlites and rather large grains of magnetite. Original 
porphyritic minerals are plagioclase and magnetite. Secondary 
minerals are chlorite after augite and calcite after hornblende. 
The plagioclase goes up to -08, it is much decomposed but distinctly 
zoned. The hornblendes are filled sometimes with chlorite, some- 
times with calcite and a magnetite wreath. The chlorite in the 
hornblendes is greenish-brown and slightly pleochroic, that in the 
augite is blue-green and almost isotropic. S.G. 2'68. Forms a 
dyke on the shore a little north of Tapu Creek. 

(B) With pseudomorphs after augite only. 

4. Ground-mass abundant or moderate, partly vitreous and 
partly felsitic, rather opaque with small specks of leucoxene, 
colourless but with infiltrations of green chlorite. Original por- 
phyritic minerals are plagioclase and magnetite. Secondary 
porphyritic minerals are chlorite after augite. Other secondary 
minerals are quartz, calcite, pyrites, and leucoxene. Apatite 
occurs in the chlorites. S.G. 2-45 to 259. From Te Aroha and 
Thames district generally. These rocks form the country in which 
the auriferous veins are situated. Hutton, Rep. Geol. Expl. 
1868-9, p. 18 (Trachytic tufa); Hector, I.e., p. 40, Table of 
Analyses ii. to vi. ; Davis, I.e., 1870.1, p. 56 ; Cox, I.e., 1882, p. 
4; McKay, I.e., 1885, p. 192. 

(C) With pseudomorphs after augite and enstatite. 
a. With quartz. 

5. A dark greenish-grey rock, with greenish-white felspars- 
S.G. 2-70. Section : Ground-mass rather abundant, crystallitic. 

(after augite), bastite (after enstatite) and magnetite. The quartz 
is rare, in grains -02 or -03 in diameter. The felspars go to 'Ub 
and the bastite to -03 in length. Waiotahi Creek, 
b. Without quartz. 
G. Ground-mass moderate or small, felsitic, with chloritic infil- 
trations. Original porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, and mag- 
netite. Secondary minerals are chlorite after augite, and bastite 
after enstatite. Other secondary minerals are quartz, calcit^ 
pyrites and leucoxene. The felspars are much decomposed ana 
sometimes have chloritic infiltrations. The chlorite is blue-green 
and partly isotropic, partly anisotropic and slightly pleochroic 

JO 2(,() to 2 72 Founs dvkc hkP mioses in Kuiki and 
Moinituii Cieeks HuLtcii Rqj Geol P:xpl lsf>^ 9, p 20 
(M(Uphvn) Hector, ]c,p \0 T lUe of \nal)SPsXo Mi 

(rT>af hniiu , T-.Jnu<J —Ad uk ^rey compact lock %vith scatteied 
inconspicuous, \vhite f( Isp iis ind small bUck ci^stalb S (i J 73. 
Section (jioundmass ihundant, \itieous, colourless, -with grains 
of magnetite and of chlorite anr] cio^vded with felspar microliter, 
Origin il porphvritic inmerUs are pUgioclase only Secondary 
iiiiMM Us xre chlorite tfter lugite The pUgiochse goes to 06 
an I the c hloritc to 1 TIh 1 itter is slightly pleochroic ch mgmg 
from \( lloNvisli to bluish ^necn, and shews i ithei bright pohii/a 

Silu I ')-) to n p(i cent Iron oxides 8 to 18 per cent The 
iime done is iuok thin the ilkilies more th m half the alumini, 
and equal to oi i itlu r hss tluii the m ignesia The ferromag 
iiesian silic ite;, pi t df),nin it( ()\ f r the felspai s, w hich are L ibradoiite 
to AnoTthite (Quartz is ne\er present as m original miner il 
i-iiii< itl iins its m i^rinum ot 7 to U per cent SO 2 8 to 3 1 

uth Nvluti 'tels^pir 'arid \aeuiisirbklk^'hou! 
I^ii vll^ forming more than hdt the rock S' 
telspar is much altered, but the er eater 

n bro id plat} crista Is froi: 
The hornblende is bro 
dlotriomorphic trom O-i 

146 F. W. HUTTON. 

a little chlorite and serpentine, and radiating tufts of a zeolite 
Hector, Rep. Geol. Expl. 1870-1, p. 49, Sect. 3 ; Haast, I.e. 
1871-2, pp. 26 and 73, Geol. of Canterbury, p. 301 ; Hutton, 
Rep. Geol; Expl. 1872-3, p. 42 ; Daintree, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 
VII., p. 459. 

Enstatite Gabbro. 

Mata River, Waiapu District.— A coarse grained rock made up 
of white felspar and dark brown pyroxenes. S.G. 2-80. Section : 
The felspars all give broad sections ; they rarely shew polysynthetic 
twinning, but cleavage flakes in convergent polarised liglit shew 
an optic axis sometimes on the edge of the field, sometimes well 
inside it ;* the former are bytownite, the latter anorthite. They 
are rarely under -04 in length and sometimes -25 x "25 inch. The 
pyroxenes are all allotriomorphic, and go up to -10 in length. The 
commonest is diallage, but augite and bastite are also present. 
The bastite is pleochroic changing from yellow-green to blue-green: 
cleavage flakes shew a negative bisectrix. Secondary minerals 
chlorite, slightly pleochroic, and a small quantity of pyrites. 
Boulders in the river bed. 

Saussuritic Gabbro. 

Bun Mountain, Nelson.— A coarse grained rock composed of 
saussurite, pyroxene, and some hornblende, in crystals up to -30 x 
•40. Section : The pyroxenes are diallage and enstatite ; the first 
is yellowish, not pleochroic, and cleavage flakes shew an optic axis: 
the second is pleochroic, changing from reddish-yellow to blue-green. 
The hornblende is also pleochroic, changing from yellow-green to 
blue-green ; the angle 7:0=19". Secondary minerals are a little 
chlorite and epidote. Forms a dyke in serpentine. Hochstetter, 
Lectures on the Geology of New Zealand, p. 94 (Gabbro), and 
* New Zealand,' p. 475 (Diallage Rock) ; Hutton, Trans. N.2. 
Inst., Vol. XIX., p. 412. 

Formerly I confused the ferro-magnesian minerals together and 
took them to be anthophyllite ; a second examination of the rock 
has shewn me my error. 

Microgranitic compounds of plagioclase with augite, enstatite, 
olivine and occasionally hornblende. The plagioclase is in laths. 
Sometimes with porphyritic minerals similar to those forming the 
ground-mass. Rarely meteoric. 

Hornblende Dolerite. 

Lyell, Buller Co. — A compact, greyish-black rock, with scat 
porphyritic crystals of black augite and greenish olivine. 

3-04. Section : Ground-mass abundant, between microgranitic 
and microlitic ; formed by plagioclase laths, -005 in length, crystals 
of brown hornblende, -003 to 004 in length, crystals of pink 
augite, -003 and upwards, and grains of magnetite ; the plagioclase 
being quite subordinate. In addition to these minerals there are 
a number of colourless needles often arranged parallel to each 
other, which penetrate tlie felspar laths; probably they are either 
Wollastonite or else Tremolite. The porphyritic minerals are 
olivine and augite. The olivine is not very abundant, and mostly 
changed to serpentine ; when fresh it is of a pinkish-olive colour ; 
It goes up to -08 in length. The augite is idiomorphic, and purplish 
in colour, lighter in the middle and with a broad peripheral zone 
darker ; not pleochroic ; in size up to -06 in length but intermediate 
sizes occur connecting the porphyritic augite with tliat of the 
Forms a dyke in Granite, two miles from Lyell, on 
J TT . , rx, -^2. Inst., Vol. XXII. 

Augite Dolerite. 
Spriuf/Jleld, SeJwyn Co.— A dark brownish-grey rock, without 
porphyritic minerals. S.G. 2-88. Section: Granular ; composed 
or plagioclase, augite and magnetite. Secondary minerals are 

i:» luatite, liiuonite, and a brown decomposition product with 
^^'^^ni^^ate polarization. The plagioclase is in laths, from -02 to 
■"■I la length, and with extinction angles between the lamellae up 
to 40\; it is therefore probably anorthite. The augite is brownish- 
green, chieHy allotriomorpliic, from -02 to -06 in diameter, 
occasionally twinned, in places semi-ophitic. The magnetite is in 
considerable quantity but largely decomposed into limonite. Forms 
a small hill near the Railway Station. Haast, Rep, Geol. Expl., 
l^^'l-2, p. 26 {Kowai Corner) ; Geol. Cant. p. 300. 
Olivine Dolerite. 
Oamaru Cape, Waitaki Co.— Compact greyish-black rocks with- 
out porphyritic minerals. S.G. 2-80. Section : Granular, com- 
posed of plagioclase, augite, olivine (altered) and ilmenite, with 
perhaps a little opaque base. The plagioclase is in laths -03 in 

ength. The augite is either in grains -62 in diameter or in prisms 

^•^ X -001, and collected into bundles ; it is purplish and slightly 
pleochroic, granulitic. Secondary minerals are chlorite and 
terpentine after olivine. Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst.Vol.xix.,p.417. 
Mot^rakx Peninsula. — A yellowish-grey compact rock without 
porphyritic minerals. S.G. 2-88. Section : Ground-mass abundant 

omposed of plagioclase, augite, olivine (altered) and ilmenite. 

.^he plagioclase is in laths, from -01 to -04 in length. The augite 

pale greenish-yellow, in grains from -003 to -01 in diameter, 

«en gregaritic, the clusters up to -08 in diameter. The only 
porphyritic mineral is olivine whioli is altered into a green non- 

fibrous pi oduct %Mtli aj:mp<^ite pol ui/atioy, those pseufloniorphs 

poiph\iitic, in clu^tois 10 m diiinotfr LeucoxtTio i^ i ithet 
abundant Fiom the north side ot the penmsuh Hutton (hoI 
ofOti-o, p (>1 l.ans ^Z Inst Vol \i\ , p 4J^ MlK^j, 
Kept Geol PXpl 1^^6 7, p 2V) 

T nil a) 11— V,}o\\mi,h, or <,ne}ish bl uk \esiculir ro. k-, ^Mt]lOut 
l ot pKijiocl ise, 
. xvitli decompo 

auiiite, oluuie 
sition product 
length 1 1 « 
The olnnie is 
niosth alteied 

p 3ii^ 

nerd Section Gr mul xi, composed 
, macrnetite, and dnunite hlled up 
s The pU-iochseisml.ths, tron 
auutf is in gruns, tioin GOG to 01 
not conspicuous, and msm id ctv.tal 
tobl0^^ns(tpentlne 11 list, Geol 

Uah^in If ill., \.h,y,t Co-\ A 

augite is in grains or angulur fragments, from -001 to -003 in 
diameter; niic-ro-opliitic in places, tiie j)lrit(>s -02.") in diameter ; 
bro\vnish-purj)le and slightly ])leocliroir, changing tVom vellowish- 
brown to purplishd)rown. The olivine, is ooha.rl.^ss and in hrok^'n 
grains. Haast, Kept. Geol. ExpL, ISTO-l, p. [•-> ( Mclaphyre)_; 
OlUlphyre;: ' ' ^ ' ' ^'^ ^"^^^^^ ' 

Cn.fl. IIVK,in Co. — A I'ather coiirse, greyish-black 

jle HiU. 

Gorge of the Selvn/n River, Malvern IliUs.— Greyish-green to 
greenish-grey rocks, without porphyritic crystals. S.G. 2-96 to 
3-65, Section ; Granular ; composed of white saussurite and pale 
brownish-green augite, both allotriomorphic, the relative amount 
varying, but perhaps, on the average in equal quantity. The 
saussurite forms a net work in which lie the augite grains, usually 
•01 in diameter, but sometimes -025 ; often broken, the parts 
sometimes with similar orientation, but usually independent. 
Secondary minerals are leucoxene and chlorite. Haast, Geol. 
Canterbury, p. 276 (Diabase) ; Hutton and Gray, Trans. N.Z. 
Inst., Vol. XX., p. 271. 

Olivine Basalt. 

Oamarn, Waitaki Co. — A black, compact, vitreous rock. S.G. 
2-72. Section : Ground-mass vitreous, a pale smoky-brown glass 
with numerous plagioclase laths, -025 in length, and scattered 
grains of olivine -002 to -02 in diameter. Contains also greenish 
spherulites which shew a fixed interference cross parallel to the 
diagonals of the nicols. Partly decomposed into a yellow-brown 
palagonite on the outside. It is a Magma basalt. Forms a breccia 
with calcareous cement. Also a peripheral layer on dolerite bombs. 
Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Ins., Vol. xix., p. 417 (Tachylyte). 

Geraldine. — A dark grey vesicular rock without porphyritic 
minerals. Section : Ground-mass very abundant, microlitic, of 
plagioclase laths, -007 in length, and grains of augite, -002 to -003 
in diameter, and magnetite, without any glass. The porphyritic 
minerals are augite and a little olivine, both colourless, and not 
larger than -015 in length. Forms a hill at Waihi Bush. Haast, 
Geol. Canterbury, p. 314. 

Hvjh Peak, JMvern Hills, Selvijn Co.— A grey rock full of 

abundant, microlit 



ilmenite in long plates ; in some cases with a little glass. The 
felspar sometimes exceeds the augite, sometimes the augite exceeds 
the felspar. Porphyritic minerals are chiefly augite and olivine ; 

gioclase is occasionally present in laths '035 in length. The 
s usually glomero-porphyritic, the granules from -01 to -02, 

i the clusters about -08 in diameter ; it is pale greenish in colour. 
Uhvine is abundant, colourless, up to -04 in length, some of it 
altered to a brownish-green serpentine. Forms dykes in green- 
sands, &c. Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xix., p. 403. 

Bank's Peninsula.~l . A grey compact rock, with scattered 
small olivines. S.G. 2-93. Section : Ground-mass very abundant, 
microlitic, granulitic, composed of felspar microlites (-005) and 
augite in grains and prisms with little or no glass. Porphyritic 
minerals are olivines only ; they are yellowish, usually about -02 
in length or smaller, but sometimes up to -04. Port Hills. The 
usual road metal of Christchurch. 

2. Dark grey to black, compact rocks, with scattered olivines, 
sometimes altered into iron oxides, augite, and felspar. S.G. 2-92 
to 2-96. Section : Ground-mass abundant, crystallitic with a 
little clear l)ase, crowded witli microlites of felspar and augite, as 
well as ni'aius of magnetite. Porphyritic minerals are plagioclase, 
augite, olivine, and in some cases magnetite. The plagioclase is 

is idiomorpliie or allotriomorpliic, either moderate or abundant, 
colourless, sometimes not above -03, sometimes up to •06 or '08 in 
length, sometimes altered to a briglit, red-brown translucent, 
anisotropic nuneral, probably htematite. Many places in the Port 
Hills. The conspicuous dyke at the Hotel at Sumner is a vesicular 
basalt, and contains idiomorphic olivine. Haast, Trans. N.Z. 
Inst., Vol. XI., p. 449, and Geol. of Canterbury, p. 338, and 
Section 6, f. 7. 

Moimt Eden, Auckland. — A dark grey vesicular rock with 
thickly scattered small olivines. S.G. 3 01. Section: Ground- 
mass a])undant, microlitic, granulitic, composed of augite grains, 
felspar microlites, and magnetite in rather large grains. Porphy- 
ritic minerals are augite and olivine. The augite is greenish-brown 
about -01 in leiigth and generally glomero-porphyritic. The 

i" h'Mirih, cololIrle.^s. From neir'tlu' ].ul. Hoch>tetter, New 
^^alan<l, p. i';U. 

Rm,riu„tn Inland. A>nU,r»d—X h^ht grey \eMcuUr rock ^vith 

<,'ro(;ri, .^lomero-porpliyritic, tlie separate pioces close tou-erlic 
ii (Ma<-ke(l crystal, but indepeiKlently oriented, probablv 
growths of diderent crystals. Th(> olivine is abundant, t-oloi 

S.G.' 2 •91. Sec-tioi 
:, made up of felsp; 

Ml dull fracture, shew- 
alt.'red feKl'vus. aiid, 


Enfield, Wa 

itaki G>.— Brownisli-bkck, sub-rcsiuous, sparkling 

:o crystals. Section : A l)rownisli or glass, 


■, vesicles crowded -001 to -OOo in length. Occasional 

■r;i,yments of ol 

ivine. Hut.ton, Trans. K.Z. Inst., Vol. xix., p. 419. 

Waihno lUo 

,r, Waimale Co.— Greenish-black, dull, with minute 

■vhite CTV.stuls. 

Section : A clear pale tnwn glass, marbled with 

mtches den.e ■ 

Tn:o Brother 

s', rrprrllindsUln /•.—Brown, sub-resinous to dull, 

jontaining itiii 

mte black fragments. Section : A brown -kss, 


•, ^e.ic•les not crowded, round or oval -OUG to -01 

n lenoUi, c-ont 

ains grains of olivine. Haast, Geology of Canter- 

3ury,p.:n3, ( 

'/•,s', Adih/irfnnCo.- Brownish-black, sub-i-esinous. 

5ectioii : A hr 

own glass rather full of crystallites, not \esi<;ular. 

Ca.fh mil. 

>V7/r//n 0>.— Brounish-black, sub-rosinous or dull. 

t^ectiou : A br 

own gloss, dense with (;rystallit(>s, sometimes micro- 

vesicular, tl.e 

Huttoii, Trans 

..'xZ.lurt"'v^-)rxLX.!'p. 402. 



tie n a,'es , <_]( u ige t! ik( J shew an obliciue optic axis. It occupies 
about two thirds of the lock. The bastite is fibrous, brownish- 
yellow, feeblv pl<o(hioic, changing from pale vellow to brownish- 
}ellow when the fib, es are parallel to the siiort diagonal of the 
meol , polan/ition colour^ not brilliant. Forms a dyke in Ser- 

l->rown, strongly pleochroic, 

about equal in size, between -005 

forms the principal part of the rock. It is strongly pleochi 

allotriomorphic, up to -10 in length, sometimes actinolitic or con- 
fusedly crystalline, and is probably altered augite. Apatite and 
a small quantity of magnetite occur as inclusions in the biotite. 
Hutton, Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. of London, Vol. xliv., p. 745. 
Chloritic Pyboxenite. 
Martin's Bay, Fiord Co.— A soft, dark green, granular rock. 
S.G. 2-96. Section : Composed of biotite and chlorite, in plates 

"^ 'r" ■ ■■ " 


short diagonal of the nicol, and blue-green whenlhey are parallel 
to it. Some of the biotite is more altered than this and is quite 
green in colour. The chlorite is blue-green and isotropic. 

Granitic compounds of olivine, enstatite, augite, and sometimes 
hornblende, with generally a little plagioclase, and often biotite. 
Silica 46 - 37 per cent. Iron oxides 10 - 16 per cent. S.G. 2*85 
to 3-1. The magnesia is less in quantity than the silica, but more 
than the iron oxides, or the lime, or the alumina, and pyroxene is 
predominannt over olivine. Not yet known in New Zealand. 

Granitic compounds of olivine and iron oxides, usually with 
enstatite or augite, or both. There is no felspar. Silica 40 - 32 
per cent. Iron oxides 25 - 30 per cent. S.G. 3-21 to 3-8. The 
magnesia is equal to or more than the silica, and greater than the 
iron oxides. Alumina and lime are in small quantity. Magnesia 
attains its maximum of 30 to 47 per cent. Terrestrial or 


A compound of Olivine and Chromite. 
D%m Mou7ifain, Nelson. — A granular, yellow-green to greyish- 
green rock with black specks of chromite. S.G. 3-20 to 3-43. 
Section : Composed of olivine and chromite. The olivine is colour- 
less, allotriomorphic, from -002 to -10 in diameter, with brilliant 
polarization colours, and much cracked. The chromite is in grains 
or in octohedra with rounded edges. Hochstetter, Lectures on 
the Geology of N-Z., p. 94 ; Zeit. Deut. Geol. Gesell. 1864, xvi., 
p. 341 - 344 ; Reise der Novara, Geologie von N.Z., pp. 217 - 220; 

I Pallasite Group. It is 85 by (J 
iron. Crawford, Essay on the ( 

New Zealand, p. 274 (with analysis by Reuter). Skey, Col. Mus. 
and Lab. Report, No. 6, p. 17 (analysis). Davis, Report, GeoJ. 
Expl. 1870-1, p. 110. Renard, Report Challenger Eepedition, 
Narative ii., appendix B, pp. 22-23. For analyses by Schrotter 
and Madelung, see VVadsworth's Lithological Studies, p. 121, 
Table IV., p. xxviii., and Teall's British Petrography, p. 102. 


Altered peridotites, in which the olivine has been changed into 
serpentine, and the enstatite into bastite. 

Dim Mountain, Nelson.— K brownish-black rock, moderately 
soft. S.C 2-.59 to 2-65. Section: Fibrous serpentine with mag- 
netite in crystals and grains, scattered or collected into veins. 
Structure not distinct, but similar throughout. Evidently derived 
from one mineral — olivine— and shewing the same kind of cracks, 
as the olivine of dunite from the same locality. Hochstetter, 
Lectures on the Geology of N.Z., p. 94 ; New Zealand, p. 274 ;. 
Skey, Col. Mus. and Lab. Report, No. 6, p. 17; Davis, Rept. 
Geol. Expl., 1870-1, p. 110 ; McKay, I.e., 1878-9, p. 102. 

Wiwihy Creek, Centre Hill, Southland.— A greenish-black rock, 
moderately soft. S.G. 2-58. Section : Composed of fibrous ser- 

pyrites in small crystsils. Most of the serpentine shews ' mesh 

crystals, greenish-yellow, faintly pleochroic, chau-iiisi from vellow- 
brown to green. Apparently an altered Lherzolite. Forms a 
dyke in Coal Hill. 

Mff Bmj, Lake Co.— Serpentine as well as dunite, is found at 
Red Hill and other places inland from Big Bay. Near Barn Bay 
it contains sometimes an alloy of nickel and iron in the proportion 
2 Ni. + Fe. (Ni. 67-63 -i- Fe. 31-02) which has been called Awaruite- 
by Mr. W. Skey. The meteorite found in Oktibbeha Co. Missouri, 
contauied Ni. .59-69 + Fe. 37 69, which was the highest nickliferous 
alloy previously known. This allov has been called Oktibehite. 
Skey, Trans. N.Z. Inst, Vol. xvill.,'p- 401. 


Crystals of olivine, and often of pvroxene, in a matrix of iron 
which IS usually nickeliferous. The iron is usually metallic, rarely 
as iron oxides (Cumberlandite). Iron 43 to 80 per cent., usuaUy 

usuhUv between 4 and 6. The magnesia is less than half the iron 
and less than the silica. Known chietly as Meteorites. 

Dun }[oH,it<n-i). y»Jsn,t. - A cl.-irk .irrpen colon 
u'l silica 20-0;i per cent. W. Skey, Col. Mu 

iilidut four feet wide, intj-rsecting the serpentiiu 

myself. (Juinberlaiulitf is known from two pi; 

well as from Ironmine J [ill, CumboilancL Rhode 


trOpefcl^ir^^ Alumina, 
:nt. S.G. 5-75 to <^-:3l, 

MLDTISD I}, Al< I SI U, /SS y 

\ ]UchPiiON to the monilxi ^ of the RomI Society of NSW 

A\ IS \hU It till Societ> s House at ^ p iii At tlie iiuitition of 

pn -^ent md spent tlie e\cnin^ plci-,aiitl> in coii\ ersation iiid in 
iii^pcLtiii^ a \ iiiet^ of exliil)its of i snentih( character 

^fr TUissell the ('government \stronomei, loaned in interesting 
cliiit of 16 drx\\in£?sof Jupiter, foui tor each of the yeii^ l^^Tb, 
80 S) and ^9 These it in i}- be mentioned, wete selected ti >iu 
upw irds of two hundied diiwm^s of the phntt made h\ hiin 
since ls76 Eich st t seived to show the maikingb on the wliole 
circumference of the pKnet and displayed in a very stiikin^' w i) 
the 4 It it changes whuh ^'O on in it fiom veir to yeai Tor 
instant in 1871) Mr Russell expl inud tin lo w is a gicat exten 
sion of tin eijuitoiiil belts so much ^o th it the ^'i«at red spot 
wxs included, and foimed as it were a pait of them P>> ISTS 

tluv iud then'.nmnninn evtXt ukT I'm une "^ei y'^l'l" u^H dohned 

oft(n lo)ked like I, ni die of ltd silk In l^^) the> h ul exp iiuh d 
i,'im ovfi half tlu ud spot but w, u chuth rtmukibh fori 

ofduk almost bl u k, pitulu s on tlie m It opj osiu the red spot 


that even though the heart be stopped artificial respiration should 
still be continued, for the movement of the chest in respiration 
not only drew air in but pushed air out of the chest, and also 
exercised an efficient mechanical action upon the heart itself, and 
carried on the circulation of the blood. The lesson to be learned 
from such a model was, he said, that even for a considerable time 
after the heart had stopped artificial respiration should be con- 
tinued in cases of sufibcation from whatever cause. Other exhibits 
by Professor Stuart were models of his own invention, showing 

how the smaller canals were in all probability the under-organs of 
the senses of space. He further had on view Merey's apparatus 
demonstrating that it is better to interpose an elastic medium 
between, say a horse and a waggon, instead of employing a rigid 

By the courtesy of the Mines Department, a number of excellent 
fossils from the Geological Museum were displayed. These were 
in charge of Mr. Carne, and consisted of " lower mesozoic plant 
and tish remains found near Tallragar River." and " remains of 
•extinct marsupials from post-tertiary ossiferous clays near Myafl 
Creek, Bingera," descriptions of which are contained in the pub- 
lished " Records of the Geological Survey of New South Wales." 

Mr. Wilkinson, the Government Geologist, placed on view a 
map prepared by the Department of Mines and Water Supply, 
Melbourne, of " Continental Australia." 

Professor Liversidge exhibited a polished section through the 
Thunda Meteorite from Queensland, and a model of the complete 
Meteorite before cutting. 

Mr, Hargrave exhibited his new type of engine for a screw- 
driven Flying-machine. 

Mr. Hamlet, the Government Analyst, exhibited a new burglars' 

Mr. T. F. Weissener exhibited one of Edison's phonographs, 
and a number of recent microscopic instruments. 

Professor Warren, the recording portion of his testing machine. 

Professor Threlfall, methods of testing the speed of sound waves. 

The following gentlemen also kindly assisted by the loan of 
■exhibits : — Messrs. S. Cornwell, two microscopes and spectroscope ; 
P. J. Edmunds, prismatic magnifying spectacles, apparatus and 
diagrams; F. B. Gipps, photo album. Darling River in Flood; G. T>. 
Hirst, instantaneous photograph of lightning ; E. L. Montefiore, 
■copy of the Observatar published 1683, copy of the London Herald 
Jany. 28th 1797, containing a letter from Botany Bay dated 28th 
Dec, 1795 ; Hon. James Norton m.l.c., eight large photos of the 
Hawkesbury Sandstone ; P. C. Trebeck, twenty instantaneous 

photographs of horse jumping hurdle— one leap only; Royal Society 
of N.S.W., Microscopes, medals and books, including a specimen 
copy of printed catalogue of the Society's Library, Part 1. 

Prof. LivERSiDGE, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-seven members were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The certificates of one new candidates was read for the second 
time, and of three for the first time. 

Mr. H. G. M'Kinney, m.e., m.i.c.e., read a paper on " Irrigation 
in its relation to the Pastoral Industry of New South Wales. 

A discussion ensued in which the following gentlemen took part 
viz., Judge Docker, Prof. Rennie, Messrs. J. Trevor Jones, J. T. 
Wilsliire, m.l.a., P. N. Trebeck and the Chairman. 

The thanks of the Society were accorded to Mr. M'Kinney for 
his valuable paper. 

Sir Alfred Roberts exhibited a large collection of photo-micro- 
graphs taken by the late Capt. Francis. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and 

acknowledged : — 

Donations Received during the Month of August, 1889. 

(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 


Adelaide— Report on the Progress and Condition of the 

Botanic Garden during the Year 1888. The Government Botanist. 
BALTiMORE—Johns Hopklns University. American Chem- 
ical Journal, Vol. x., Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 1888. Ameri- 
can Journal of Mathematics, Vol. x. Nos. 3 and 4. 
1888 ; Vol. XI., Nos. 1 and 2, 1888-9. fmerican 
Journal of Philology, "^ ' 

, 1888, Seventh Series No. 1 
University Circulars,^ 
viii., No. 68, 1888. 

zungsberichte, Nos. 1- 

-Naturhistorischer Vereines der Preuss. Eheii 
Westfalens und des Eeg.-Bezirks Osnabriicl 
handlungen, Jahrgang 45, Folge 5, Band 5 

Cincinnati— Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Journal 

College. Bulletin, Whole , 

(Geological Series, Vol. ii.) No. 5, 1889. The Trustees^ 

boger for nordisk Oldkyndighed 
Aargang 1887, 1888. 
UEGH— Royal Physical Society. Proceedings, 

Royal "Scottish "Geographic 

al Society. The Scottish 
Vol. v.. No. 7, 1889. 

Geographical Magazine," 

FLOKENCE-Societa Africana d' 

Italia. (Sezione Fioren- 

tina) Bollettino, Vol. v. 

, Fasc 4. 1889. 


NOEN-K. GesellBchaft de 


dm 'zu Tottingen''''' Na- 


aEo-Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft. Meteor- 

ologische ZeitschHft, July 


des Sciences. Archives, 

tees Exactes et Naturelles, 

Tome xxiri., Livraisons 


^T-Eoyal Society of Tasi 

nania. Abstract of Pro- 

ceedings, April 16, May 

14, June 11, July 9, 1889. 



Jenaisehe Zeitschrift fui 

XXIII., N.F., Band xvi.. 


-Philosophical and Literary Society. Annual Re- 
port (69th) forl888-9. ' ^ 


N— Anthropological Instit 

ute of Great Britain and 

Appam/i/A l<r;j,,/f. 


Journal Royal Soo^^fyKSW. Vol Mill Hah If. 

.// Snruh\:i\\'\.J \Xil 

<\\.Vni XXllilh,i. IV 


■J 1 



' '^^ 


■,\\V..1 will ['l.ihVlU 











.M -«k 


L - 

TT "-^-'ZjfSl 

kimm W^nii^v ^tttrplg 











-townS Supplied by departmental works shewn by black circle - 



^ .---^ (if: 


'^ .,. 



Hon. Secretaries: 
Members of Council 


i ''"'""" 







London— Eoyal Astronomical Society. Monthly Noticed. 

Vol. XLix., 'So. 7, May, IHS'.i. The Socie 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal, Part iii.. No. 70, 

Jnnc, ISSO. 
Royal United Service Institution. Journal, Vol. 

XXXIII., No. 14S, 18S0. The Institute 

Zoulou-ical Society of London. Procoediniis of the 

Scientific Meotin-s, Part i., 1880. " The Socie 

Melbottrnl— Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The 

Virlon„n XntHml2.,t, Vol. vi., No. 4, Au-., 18S9. The Ch 

Puhliy Lil.iary, Museums, and National Gallery of 

\ icturia. C<italn<riu. „f the Oil Paintings, Water- 

(i.illeiy ut Virtoria, 1880. Natural History of 
Victoiid— Prodrouiu^ of the Zoology of Victoria, 

K— .V..j..'ii,-an (Vograpliical Society. Bulletin, 

York Micro><-upic'al Society. Journal, Vol. v., 
o. 3, July, issn. 

»'ninl,>ffou,rn:,to:^^re,hrineandSurgenj. Vol. x., 
... :5.,Jnl\. l^s.l The Editor. 

U.mI.' \. .!,■:, 11,. ,liS,-i,.n/e,L,'tter..e B.dleArti. 

ings, Parts ii. and iii„ Mar.— Dec, 1888. The Academy. 

American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Vol. 
, No. 128, July— Dec, "'' 

lations of the Magellanic Premium. Rules and 
Regulations of the Henry M. Phillips' Prize Essay 
Fund, Dec. 7, 1888. Supplementary Report of the 

Language. Dec. 7, 1888. 

The Society. 

Franklin Institute. Journal, \ 

i'.'part ii 

II., No. 763, 

The Institute. 


"' 'TethantTorvi., 12 Maggio 1889, pp 

2li-25f ' 

The Society. 

'''''^^'^--s:l:^:^:'Tt:^i ^^o. 


The Director. 

toME— Accademia 


vi Lincei. 

""^he Academy. 

Bihlioteca e Archivio Tecnico. Giomale del Genio ( 

The Minister of Public 

St. Etienne— Soeiete de I'Industrie Minerale. Bui 

Atlases. Comptes-Rendus Mensuels, Avril et 

St. Louis — Academy of Science. Transactions, Vc 

Nos. 1 and 2, 1886-88. 
St. Peteesbcbo — Academic Imperials des Sciences. 

letin. Tome xxxii., Nos. 3 and 4, 1888. 

) Trustees for 
the year 1888. The Trustees. 

ToKio — Imperial University of Japan. Journal of the Col- 
lege of Science, Vol. in.. Parts i. and ii., 1889. The Uni 

ungsberichte, (Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlic 
classe.) Abtheilung I., Band xcvii.. Heft 1 — 5 
1888; Abtheilung Ila., Band xcvii.. Heft 1—7 
1888 ; Abtheilung lit., Band xcvii.. Heft 1—7 
1888; Abtheilung III., Band xcvii., Heft 1—6 

ASHiNGTON— Hydroofraphic Office. Notices to Marie 
Nos. 21—24, 1889. Pilot Chart of the North Atla 
Ocean, June, 1889. The U 

Smithsonian Institution. Beport iipon Internatic 
Exchancfes under the direction of the Smithsor 
Institution for the year ending June 30, 1888. 
Constants of Nature, Parts 3 and 4, 1876-SO. 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Bulle 

No. 9. On the relation of the Yard to the Me 


United States Geological Survey. Bulletin Nos. 4 
47, 1887-8. Mineral Kesources of the United Sti 
Calendar Year 1887, (David T. Day.) 

Geology of Qu» 
Gold Mine. 
The Chemist and Druggis 

By TiiOM^b WniThLM f.^, F R M S. 

[liuid hijoit the Loyal Socuty oj ASH, July 3, i569] 

naterial, which had to be examined before I could proceed, and I 
nay say that the greater part of my time has been spent in work- 
ng out species, many of them very common but never hitherto 

The Foraminifera, Infusoria, Alcyonaria, Actinida-, Hydroida, 
Echinodermata and Polyzoa in the Marine part, and the Rhizopoda, 
Infusoria, and Rotifera in the Fresh-water portion of this list will, 

accomplished in this direction. Besides the un worked material, 
there were a large number of described species recorded as occurr- 
ing in Port Jackson, but they have not been observed since their 
original discovery. As regards these I have made strict search 
in likely localities, and in many cases was successful in finding 
species obtained by some of the early naturalists who visited our 
coast. I have also made many special journeys, so as to be 
enabled to give a definite habitat for some of the more interesting 

nsed by acknowledged 
After each species enu 
to the book or paper i 


Our Marine Infusorian faun;i appears to have been wholly over- 
looked in that I have failed tims far to find any papers dealing 
with them, and the few mentioned in this list are what I have 
recordTd'' ^^'""""'""^ "" '*"" ° '''''' • « ^ 

The Sponge Fauna of Port Jackson has had a considerable 

loiTue of Sponges in the Australian Museum, by Dr. R. von 
L^'iidenfeld, in the various Challenger Reports by Polejaefi; Vos- 
i.iaer, Messrs. Ridley and Dendy, and in the Zoology of the "Alert 
by S. O. Ridley. Most of the Sponges in the Australian Museum 

Institution, who have provided funds for systematic dredging and 
trawling for many years past. These operations under the able 
direction of Dr.' Ramsay, the Curator, have yielded valuable 

results, not only in sponges, but in many other branches of marine 
zoology, and great credit is due to Dr. Ramsay for his efforts in. 
this direction, the material collected by him having provided a rich 
field of investigation to Dr. Lendenfeld. 

The Alcyonarian corals, embracing the Gorgoniasand Pennatulas 
are fairly represented, 29 species being enumerated. What little 
has been done in this order is however very scattered and frag- 
mentary, and the descriptions are imperfect in most instances 
thereby rendering identification very difficult. The same remarks 
apply to the Actinida;, so far I have only seen the descriptions 
■of four species, and great difficulty was met with in dealing with 

some 20 species readily obtainable. 

The corals have been mostly worked out by the late Rev. J. E. 
Tenison- Woods, and considering our geographical position, muster 
very fairly with 13 species, which will, no doubt, be largely added 

I quinaria may be 

Dr. Lendenfeld in publications issued by the Australia 
and there is still room for more workers in this very interesting 
group. During 1886 1 devoted a few weeks to collecting Hydroids 
with highly satisfactory results; amongst those collected were 12 
new species besides some additions to the known fauna. Quite 
recently, I found about seven species new to our coast, and six or 
seven new to science ; this shows that in a field, comparatively 
speaking well worked, there is still a vast amount of investigation 

The Siphonophora, including the Velella and Portuguese Men 
of War are represented by seven species ; the Scyphomedusie, to 
which order the Jelly-fish belong, by seven species and the Cteno- 
phora, by two species. 

The Crinoidea or feather stars are not very numerous five 
species only being known from Port Jackson, two of which are 
common. The Ophiuroidea are well represented by 35 species, 
many of them being fairly common under stones in various parts 
of the harbour. 

The Asteroidea number 30 species, and amongst them are many 
very interesting forms, one in particular being remarkable, m that 
it inhabits the zone between high and low water mark, and is 

exceptional phase in the development of the young, for the eggs 
are deposited under stones in little rock pools and the young when 
hatched out never leave the spot until they assume the adult form, 


thus offering a fit subject for study to the student, in which the 
various stages of development can be easily observed and specimens 
may be obtained in abundance for at least eight months in the year. 

The Echinoidea are represented by 29 species, a few being con- 
fined to Port Jackson, five may be said to be fairly common, and 
the rest are more or less rare. For our knowledge of the Echini 
we are indebted to the late Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods and Dr. E. P. 
Ramsay. The Holothurioidea have only been partially worked, 
and it is probable that there are many more species than the 1 6 
herein mentioned. 

The Marine Worms have been partly dealt with by Dr. Haswell, 

somewhat neglected class. I have to thank him for much valu- 
able information relating to the fauna of Port Jackson generally, 
and the worms in particular, also for his having kindly revised 
the MS. and at the same time added many species to the list. 

The Crustacea have also been worked out by Dr. Haswell in a 
catalogue pul)lished by the Trustees of the Australian Museum : 

additions iiKide chiefiy througli the collections of the "Challenger" 
and ot the ■• Ah^rt," together with some few added by myself . The 

r Repo, 

rts and th 

e total numbei 

• of species 

To Dr. 



is due for 

the Pyc 


or sea-spiders, 

four out of 

ang been 

described by 1 

him in the 

'aVul I'd 

esire to thank Mr. A.'S, 

, Olliff and 

The Mollusca appear to have had more attention paid to them 
than any of the other invertebrates. It would have been almost 
impossible for me to have done justice to this section, had I not 
had the assistance of Mr. John Brazier of the Australian Museum, 
who has afforded very great help in the way of books and papers, 
as well as in allowing me to use his notes relating to synonyms, 
habitats, ttc, in addition to which my thanks are due to him for 
his kindness in undertaking the revision of the list of shells, and 
for information regarding many other branches of marine zoology. 

The Molluscoidea are fairly represented, but there still remains 
much to be done in this group. The Polyzoa have to a great 
extent been worked out by Mr. A. W. Waters, chiefly from 
material collected by Mr. Brazier. 

The Tunicata are not well represented considering the number 
of forms to be seen on our rocky shores. The species enumerated 
are taken chiefiy from the list contained in the "Voyage of tlie Chal- 
lenger," by Prof. Herdman, who has in hand a large collection 

from Port Jackson, tlie detailed descrii)tion of wliich will 
pul;libhed, no doubt add largely to the number of species. 

The freshwater fauna is not very well represented, the Rhi; 
Infusoria, and llotifera are only in part worked out, an 

li.',t. licvond n few evhibits recordecrin the Proc.■edin^^ 
Royal and Linnean Societies of Xew Soutli Wales, there hi 

this paper. The' Planarian., " ()li-(.(-haeta, and other d;: 
tion. The Entoniosti'.-K-a ha\e b'een dt-alt witf. by the" Rev 

uul sent fr 

oni Aus 

.tr^dia to P 

rof. Sar. in 

Norway by oi 


s. The 


■V species t. 

', be found n 

ear Sydney,. 

i^^ain thaid, 


a. id Mu 

•.ra/ier for 

hi. kindnes^ 
habitats he. 


kson. (W.), Species collected by 

Journal of Conchology, Philadel- 

relle des Ani.naux sans Vertebres, 

euni d'Histoire Xaturelle, Paris, 
id .Maga/ino of Natural History, 

■s Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 1834- 

^atalogue of Marine Polyzoa, Ci. Busk, 

Brit. Mar. Poly., British Marine Polyzoa, Rev. Thomas Hincks, 

2 Vols., 1880. 
Cat. Crust., Catalogue of the Australian Stalk- and Sessile-Eyed 

Crustacea, W. A. Haswell, M.A., b.Sc, 1882. 
Cat. Hydroida, Catalogue of the Australian Hydroid Zoophytes, 

W. M. Bale, 1884. 
Cat. Meduste, Catalogue of the Medusje of the Australian Seas, 

Part i. Scyphomedusaj, Part ii. Hydromedusa?, Dr. R. v. 

Lendenfeld, 1887. 
Cat. Echini, Catalogue of the Echinodermata in the Australian 

Museum Part i. Echini, by E. P. Ramsay, 1885. 
Cat. Sponges, Catalogue of Sponges in the Australian Museum, 

Dr. R. V. Lendenfeld, 1888. 
Conch. Cab., Conchylien Cabinet, Martini and Chemnitz. 
Conch. Icon., Conchologia Iconica, L. A. Reeve, London, 20 Vols. 

Conch. 111., Conchological Illustrations, G. B. Sowerby, London, 

1 Vol., 200 plates, 1841-43. 
Coq. Viv., Species Generale et Iconographie Coquilles Vivantes, 

by L. C. Kiener and Dr. P. Eischer. 
C.R., Reports on the Scientific results of the Voyage of H.M.S. 

"Challenger" during the years 1873-76, Zoology. 
The following is a list compiled according to subjects : 
Foraminifera by II. B. Brady, Vol. ix. 

Orl>itolites, by W. B. Carpenter, Vol. vil. 
Radiolaria, by E. Haeckel, Vol. xviii. 
Sponges—Calcarea, by N. Polejaeff; Vol. viii. 
„ Keratosa, by N. Polejaeff, Vol. xi. 

„ Monaxonida, by S. O. Ridlev and A. Dendy, Vol. XX. 

Hexactinellida by F. E. Schulze, Vol. xxi. 
Tetractinellida by W. J. Sollas, Vol. xxv. 

Hydrocorallidae by H. N. Moseley, Vol. 
Siphonophora by E. Haeckel, Vol. xxviii. 
Pennatulidae by A. Kolliker, Vol. i. 
Alcyonaria by Percival Wright and Th. Studer, Vol. : 
Alcyonarian Corals by H. N. Moaeley, Vol. ii. 

Reef Corals, by J. J. Quelch, Vol. 
Crinoidea (Stalked Crinoids) by P. H. Carpenter, \ 
(Feather-Stars) by P. H. Carpenter, Vol. 
Ophiuroidea by T. Lyman, Vol. v. 
Asteroidea by P. Sladen, Vol. xxx. 


Echinoidea by A. Agassiz, Vol. in. 
Holothurioidea by H. Theel, Vol. iv. and Vol. xiv. 
Vermes— Neinertea by A. A. W. Hubrecht, Vol. xix. 
Polycliaeta by W. CMTntosh, Vol. xii. 
„ Gephyrea by E. Selenka, Vol. xiii. 

Myzostomida by L. von Graff, Vol. x. and Vol. xx. 
Crustacea— Phyllocaridea by G. O. Sars, Vol. xix. 
,, Ostracoda by G. S. Brady, Vol. i. 

„ Copepoda by G. S. Brady, Vol. viii. 

Cirrepedia by Dr. Hoek, Vol. viii. and Vol. x. 
Amphipoda by Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Vol. xxix. 
Isopoda by F. E. Beddard, Vol. XI . (Serolis) and Vol. xvii. 
Cumacea by G. O. Sars, Vol. xix. 
„ Stomatopoda by W. K. Brooks, Vol. xvi. 

Schizopoda by G. O. Sars, Vol. xiii. 
,, Macrura by Spence Bate, Vol. xxiv, 

„ Anomoura by Henderson, Vol. xxix. 

., Brachyura by E. J. Miers, Vol. xvii. 

Pycnogonida by P. P. C. Hoek, Vol. in. 
Hemiptera (Pelagic) by F. Buchanan White, Vol. viii. 
Mollusca — Lamellibranchiata by E. A. Smith, Vol. xiii. 
Gasteropoda by R. Boog Watson, Vol. xv. 
Nudibranchiata by R. Bergh, Vol. x. 
Marseniadae by R. Bergh, Vol. xv. 
Polyplacophora by A. C. Haddon, Vol. xv. 
„ Scaphopoda by R. Boog Watson, Vol. xv. 

„ Anatomy of Deep Sea, Vjy P. Pelsenner, Vol. xxvil. 

„ Heteropoda by E. A. Smith, Vol. xxiii. 

„ Pteropoda by P. Pelsenner, Vol. xix., and Vol. xxiii. 

Cephalopoda by W. E. Hoyle, Vol. xvi. 
Caecidae by Leopold Marquis de Folin, Vol. xv., p. 681. 
Polyzoa— Cheilostomata by G. Busk, Vol. x. 

„ Cyclostomata and Ctenostomata by G. Busk, Vol. xvil. 

„ Supplement by A. VV. Waters, Vol. xxxi. 

Cephalodiscus by W. E. M'Intosh, Vol. xx. 
Phoronis Buski by W. E. M'Intosh, Vol. xxvii. 
Brachiopoda by T. Davidson, Vol. l. 
Tunicata— (Simple) by W. A. Herdman, Vol. vi. 

(Composite) by W. A. Herdman, Vol. xvi. 
(Salpiform) by W. A. Herdman, Vol. xxvii. 
Encycl. Meth., Encyclopedie Methodique, Paris, 1782-1824. 
Hist. Nat. Ann., Histoire Naturelledes Anneles, M. Quartrefages, 

3 Vols., im^. 
Hist. Nat. Corall., Histoire Naturelle ties Corailliaires. 4 Vols., 
H, Milne-Edwards 1857-61. 

Hist. Nat. Crust, Histoire Naturelle cles Crustaces. 4 Vols., H. 

Milne-Edwards, 18-34-1840. 
Hist. Poly. Flex., Histoire des Polypiers Coralligenes Flexibles. 

1 Vol., 1816, J. V. F. Lamauroux. 
Index Test., Index Testaceologicus by W. Wood, London. Edition 

by S. Hanley, 1856. 
Infusoria, History of Infusoria, Andrew Pritchard, 1861, 1 Vol. 
Infusoria, Manual of the Infusoria, W. Saville Kent, 1880-1, 3 Vols. 
Jour, de Conch., Journal de Conchyliologie, Paris. 
J.L.S., Journal of the Linnean Society, London, 
J.R. Micro. Soc, Journal Royal Microscopical Society. 
Mag. de ZooL, Magasin de Zoologie, Paris, 1838-1879 ikc. 
Man. Conch., Manual of Conchology by G. W. Tryon, Philadelphia 
P. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 

Science, Philadelphia. 
P. Post, Soc. N.H., Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 

P.L.S., N.8.W., Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New 

e the Royal Society of New South 

P.R.S., Tasni., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 

P.R.S., Aust., Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia. 

P.R.S., Vict., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 

P.Z.S., Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Q.J. Geol.Soc, Quarterly Journal Geological Society. 

Q.J. Micro. Sci., Quarterly Journal Microscopical Science. 

Rotifera, The Rotifera or Wheel-animalcules, Dr. C. T. Hudson 

and P. H. Gosse, 1886. 
Thes. Con., Thesaurus Conchyliorum, G. B. Sowerby, London, 5 

Vols., 1840-1888. 
Trans. Linn. Soc, Transactions of the Linnean Society. 
Univ. Con.. Universal Conchologist, Martyn. 
U.S. Expl. Exp., United States Exploring Expedition, under 

Commander 0. Wilkes, 1838-1842. 
Voy. Astrol., Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, Quoy *k Gaimard, 1832-1835. 
Voy. Coquille, Voyage of the Coquille, Duperrey, 1822-1830. 
Zeits. f. Malak., Zeitschrif t f ur Malakozoologische, Cassel, 1844-89. 
Zeits. fur Zool., Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Leipzig. 
Zool. Alert, Report on the Z.^ological colUn-tions made in the 

Indo-Pacitic ()ce;ui duriii- the voy.^v ci H.M.S. -Alert," 

1881-2, published in 


Part I. Marine Ixvertebratks. 

Sub-Kingclom PROTOZOA. 


Sub-Family Miliolinin.e. 
tJLiNA coiiATA, Brady ; Challenger Report, Foramiriifera,. 
)I. IX., p. 144, pi. iii., f . 9, a-h. 410 Faths. Station, 164 A. 
f Port Jackson. 
'RESSA, (d'Orb.); C.R., p. 145, pi. ii., f. 12 ; 15-17, pL 

iii.,f. 1, 2. Off P.J. 

5. RiNGENs, (Lam.); C.R., p. 142, pi. ii., f. 7, 8. 

IPIROLOCULINA LIMBATA, (d'Orb.); C.R., p. 150, 

Off P.J. 

pi. ix., f. 15- 

1-7. Off P.J. 

!. TENUIS, (Czizek); C.R., p. 152, pi. x., f. 7-11. 


;. IMPRESSA, Tarquem; C.R., p. 151, pi. x., f. 3, 

4. Watson's 

Bay, (W.) 

!. GRATA, Tarquem ; C.R., p. 155, pi. x., f. 1 

6, 17, 22, 23. 

Watson's Bay. 

JiOLiNA SEMILULUM, Linne ; C.R., p. 157, pi. v. 

, £. 6, a. b. c. 

Off P.J. 

rl. OBLONGUM, Monta^u ; C.R., p. 160, pi. v, f. 

4,«./.. Wat- 


1 TRICARINATA, d'Orb.; C.R., p. 165, pi. iii., f. 1 

son's Bay, (W.). Off P.J. 

1 ciRCULARis, Bornemann ; C.R., p. 169, pi. iv 

., f. 3, a. b. c. ; 

pl. v., f. 1.3, 14 ? Watson's Bay, (W.) 

I. AGGLUTINANS, d'Orb.; C.R., p. 180, pi. viii., f. ( 

3,7. OffP.J. 

1. CRASSATINA, Brady ; C.R., p. 180, pi. viii., f. I 

i, a. b. Wat- 

son's Bay, (W.) 

Sub-Family Hauerinin.e. 

)PHTFrALMiDiuM INCONSTANS, Brady; C.R., p. 18( 

), pl.xii.,f.5. 

7, 8. Off P.J. 

Sub-Family PeneroplidiN/E. 

'fa-khoplis pkrtusus, Forskal ; C.R., p. 204, pi 


- 2:1. Very common, Watson's Bay, (W.) 

Sub-Family Pilulinin^. 

many parts o 
Harbour, ^ 

Sub-Family Rhabdamminin^. 

17 HyPERAMMiNA ELOXGATA, Brady ; C.R., p. 257, pi. xxiii., f. 4, 

7-10. Off P.J. 

18 H. RAMOSA, Brady, C.R., p. 261, pi. 23, f. 15-19. Off P.J. 

19 Rhabdammina abyssorum, Sars ; C.R., p. 266, pi. xxi., f. 1-13. 

Off P.J. 

20 Haliphysema ramulosum, Bowerbank ; C.R., p. 283, pi. xxvii. 

A. f. 6. This species is abundant on shells and stones in 
3 of Port Jackson, at low water mark. Middle 
Farm Cove, Watson's Bay, (W.) 
Family LITUOLID^. 
Sub-Family Lituolin^. 

21 Reophax difflugiformis, Brady ; p. 289, pi. xxx., f. 1-5. 

Off P.J. 

22 R. scoRPiURUS, Montfort;? C.R., p. 291, pi. xxx., f. 12-17. 

Watson's Bay, (W.) 

23 R. PILULIFA, Brady; C.R., p. 292, pi. xxx., f. 18-20. Off P. J. 

24 R. NODULOSA, Brady ; C.R., p. 294, pi. xxxi., f. 1-9. Watson's 

Bay, (W.) 

25 Haplophragmium calcareum, Brady; C.R.,p. 302, pi. xxxiii., 

f. 6-12. Off P.J. 

26 H. globigeriniforme, Parker & Jones; C.R.,p. 313, pi. xxxv., 

f. 10, 11. Off P.J. 

Sub- Family Trochamminin.e. 

27 Ammodiscus gordialis, Jones »fe Parker : C.R.. p. 333, pi' 

xxxviii., f. 7-9. ^ 

58 Trochammina PROTEUS, Karrer ; C.R., p. 341, pi. xl., f. 1-3. 

Off P. J. *^ ' ^ 

.29 Webbinia clavata, Jones A Parker ; C.R., p. 349, pi. xli., f. 
12-16. Off P.J. 

Sub-Family Textularid^. 

30 Textularia agglutinans, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 363, pi. xliii, f. 1-3. 

Watson's Bay, (W.), off* P.J. 

31 T. LEUCOLENTA, Brady; C.R., p. 364, pi. Ixiii., f. 5-8. Off P.J. 

32 Gauduyixa pupoides, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 378, pi. xlvi., f. 1-4. 

Watson's Bay (W), off P. J. 

33 Valvulina fusca, Will. ; C.R., p. 392, pi. xlix., f. 13, 14. 

Off P.J. 

Sub-Family Buliminin.e. 

34 Bulimina elegaxtissima, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 402, pi. I., f. 20-22. 

Watson's Bay (W) off P.J. 


35 B. BUCHiAXA, d'Orb.; C.K, p. 407, pi. li., f. 18, 19. Off P.J. 

36 B. WiLLiAMSONiANA, Bradv ; C.R., p. 408, pi. li., f. 16-17. 

Watson's Bay (W), otFP.J. 

37 B. CONTRARIA, Reuss ; C.R., p. 409, pi. liv., f. 18, a.h.c. Off P.J. 

38 B. ACULEATA, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 406, pi. li., f. 7-9. Watson's. 

Bay (W.), off P.J. 

39 B. PUPOiDES, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 400, pi. 1., f. 15, a. b. Off P.J. 

40 B. PYRULA, d'Orb.; C.R., p. 399, pi. 1., f. 7-10. Off P. J. 

41 B. SUBTERES, Brady ; C.R., p. 403, pi. 1., f. 17, 18. 

42 BoLiviNA ROBUSTA, Bradv ; C.R., p. 421, pi. liii., f. 7-9. 

Watson's Bay (W), off P.J. 

43 B. Beyrichi, Reuss ; C.R., p. 422, pi. liii., f. 1. Watson's Bay 

(W.), off P.J. 

Sub-Family Cassidulinix.e. 

44 Cassidulixa crassa, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 429, pi. liv., f. 4, 5. 

Off P.J. 

45 C. L\EviGATA, d'Orb.; C.R., p. 428, pi. liv., £. 1-3. Off P. J. 

46 C. suBGLOBOSA, Brady ; C.R.,p. 430, pi. liv.,£. 17, a.b.c. Off P.J. 

47 C. Bradyi, Norman , C.R., p. 431, pi. liv., f . 6-10. Off P.J. 

48 Ehrembergina serr.^ta, Reuss ; C.R., p. 434, pi. Iv., f. 2-7. 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 


49 CniLOSTOMELLV ovoiDA, Reuss ; C.R., p. 436, pi. Iv., f. 12-2.3. 

Watson'sBay (W.), offP.J. 

Family LAGENIDiE. 
Sub-Family Lagenin.e. 
5U Lagena acuta, Reuss : C.R., p. 474, pi. Ixix., f. 6, a.b.c. Wat- 
son's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

51 L. GLOBOSA, Montagu : C.R., p. 452, pi. hi., f. 1, 2, 3. Wat- 

son's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

52 L. laevis, Monta-u ; C.R., p. 455, pi. Ivi., f. 7-14, 30. Wat- 

son's Bay (W.i off P.J. 

53 L. ELONGATA, Ehreuberg ; C.R., p. 457, pi. Ivi., f. 29. Watson's 

Bay ( W.), off P.J. 

54 L. GRACiLLiMA, Segueuza ; C.R., p. 456, pi. Ivi., f. 19-28. 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P. J. 

55 L. STRIATA, d'Orb. : C.R., p. 460, pi. Ivii., f. 22, 24, 28, 29. 

Watson's Bay ( W), off P.J. 

56 L. LiNEATA, Williamson; C.R., p. 461, pl. Ivii., f. 13. Watson's 

Bay (W.). 
SULCATA, Walker 6: Jacob ; C.R., p. 
33, 34. Watson's Bay ( W.), off P.J 

Reuss; C.R., p. 464, pi. Ivii., f. 33-32 ; pi. Iviii. 
L20{2L Watson's Bay (W.) 

59 L. SEMISTRIATA, Williamson; C.R., p. 465, pl. Ivii., f. 14, 16, 17. 

W^atson'sBay(W.), offP.J. 

60 L. CRENATA, Parker k Jones ; C.R., p. 467, pl. Ivii., f. 15, 21. 

W^atson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 
€1 L. SPIRALIS, Brady ; C.R., p. 468, pl. cxvi., f. 9. Watson's 

Bay (W.). 
■62 L. STRiATOPUNCTATA, Parker Si Jones, C.R., p. 469, pl. Iviii., f. 

37-40. AVatson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 
63 L. Feildeniana, Brady ; C.R., p. 469, pl. Iviii., f. 38, 39. 

Off P.J. 
€4 L. SQUAMOSA, Montagu ; C.R., p. 471, pl. Iviii., f. 28-;5'l. 

Watson's Bay (W.). 

65 L. HEXAGONA, Williamson ; C.R., p. 472, pl. Iviii., f. 32-33. 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

66 L. MARGINATA, Walker & Boys; C.R., p. 476, pl. lix., f. 21- 

23. W^atson's Bay (W.), off P. J. 

67 L. LAGEXOiDES, Williamson ; C.R., p. 479, pl. Ix., f. 6, 7, 9, 12- 

14. W^atson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

68 L. QUADRicosTULATA, Reuss; C.R., p. 386, pl. lix., f. 15. Wat- 

son's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

69 L. Orbignyana, Seguenza ; C.R., p. 484, pl. lix., f. 1, 18, 24 

26. Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

70 L. plumigera, Brady ; C.R., p. 465, pl. Iviii., £. 25, 27. Wat- 

son's Bay (W.). 

71 L. A 

Sub-Family Nodosarin^. 

72 Nodosaria laevigata, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 493, pl. Ixi. f. 21, 22. 

Off P.J. 

73 K soLUTA, Reuss; C.R., p. 503, pl. Ixii., f. 13-16. Watson's 

Bay (W.), off P.J. 

74 N. COMMUNIS, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 504, pl. Ixii., f. 19-22. Watson's 

Bay (W.), off P.J. 

75 N. HISPIDA, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 507, pl. Ixiii., f. 12-16. Watson's 

Bay (W.), off P.J. 

76 N. OBLIQUA, Linne; C.R., p. 513, pl. Ixiv., f. 20-22. Watson's 

Bay (W), off P.J. 

77 N. scALARis, Batsch ; C.R., p. 510, pl. Ixiii., £. 21-31 ; pl, Ixiv., 

f. 16-19. Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

78 Rhabdogonium tricarinatum, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 525, pl. Ixvn., 

f. 1-3. W^atson's Bay (VV.), off P. J. 

79 Vaginulina spimgera, Brady; C.R., p. 531, pl. Ixvii., f. 13-14. 

Off P.J. 

3. Com- 

>'J Ckystellaria convergens, Bornemann; C.R., p. 546, pi. Ixix., 

f. 6, 7. Oft- P.J. 
81 C. GiBBA, d'Orb., C.R., p. 546, pi. Ixix., f. 8, 9. Off P.J. 
S-2 C. ORBICULARIS, d'Orb., C.R., p. 549, pi. lxix.,f. 17. Off P.J. 

83 C. ROTULATA, Lamarck ; C.R., p. 547, pi. Ixix., f. 13, a.b. Wat- 

son's Bay (W.), offP.J. 

84 C. VARIABILES, Reuss; C.R., p. 541, pi. Ixviii., f. 11-16. Wat- 

son's Bay (AV.), otf P.J. 

85 C. Italica, Defrance, C.R., p. 544, pi. ixviii., f . 17, 18, 20-23. 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P. J. 

Sub-Family Polymorphinin^. 

86 PoLYMORPHiN V ELEGANTissiMA, Parker & Jones, C.R., p. 566, 

pi. Ixxii, L 12-15. Watson's Bay (W.), P.J. ^ ^^ ^^ 

87 P. SEGUENZAXA, Brady; C.R., p. 567, pL Ixxii., f. 16, Iv. 

Watson's Bay (W.), P.J. 

88 P. OBLONGA, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 569, pi. Ixxii 

Bay (W.), off P.J. 

89 P. Regina, Brady ; C.R., p. 571, pi. Ixs 

mon, Watson's Bay (W.), P.J. 

90 UviGERiNA ASPERULA, Czjzek ; C.R., p. -^ 

var. ampullacea, p. 579, pi. Ixxv., £. K 
(W), off P.J. 

92 Sagrina collumellaris," Brady; C.R., p. 581, pi. Ixxv., f. 15- 
1 7. W^atson's Bay ( W.), off P.J. 


93 Globigerina bulloides, d'Orb. ; C.R., P- 593, pis. Ixxvii., 

Ixxix., f. 3-7. Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. ^ ^ ^^, ^ . 

94 G. inflata, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 601, pi. Ixxix., £. 8-10. Watsons 

Bay (W.), off P.J. ^ ^, ,^ ,,_ , 

95 G. RUBRA, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 602, pi. Ixxix., f. 11-16. Watsons, 
Bay (W.), off P.J. , r i ^ i 

., Brady ; C.R., p. 603, pi. Ixxx., f. 1-5 ; pi. 
ixxxn., t. .x Watson's Bay (W.), otf P.J. ,^ „^ , 

97 G. helicina, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 60.5, pi. Ixxxi., f. 4o. Watsons 

Bay ( W.), off P.J. r 1 1 1 7 «1 

98 G. sacculifera, Brady ; C.R., 604, pi. Ixxx., f. 11-17 ; pi- 

96 G. 

ixxxii., I. 4. Watsons JDay ^^Y» .y, ".x^.-. •• „i 

100 Pullenia spiiaeroides, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 615, pi. Ixxxiv., f. 
12, 13. Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

101 p. QUiNQUELOBA, Reuss ; C.R., p. 617, pi. Ixxxiv, f. 14, 15 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

102 P. ORLiQUiLOCULATA, Parker & Jones; C.R., p. 618, pi. Ixxxiv, 

f. 16-20. Off P.J. 

103 Sphaeroidina bulloides, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 620, pi. Ixxxiv., 

f. 1-7. Watson's Bay (W.), off P. J. 

104 S. DEiiiscENs, Parker & Jones, C.R., p. 621, pi. Ixxxiv., f. 8- 

11. Off P.J. 

Family ROTALID^. 
Sub-Family Rotalix^. 

105 Discorbina turbo, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 642, pi. Ixxxvii., f. 8, a. 

h. c. Watson's Bay (W.), P.J. 

106 D. VALVULATA, d'Orb. ; p. 644, pl. Ixxxvii., f. 5-7. Watson's 

Bay (W.), P.J. 

107 D. PILEOLUS, d'Orb., p. 649, pl. Ixxxix., f. 2-4. Watson's Bay 

(W.), P.J. ^ 

108 D. OPERCULARis, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 650, p].lxxxix.,f. 8, 9. P.J. 

109 D. VESicuLARis, Lamarck; C.R., p. 651 pl Ixxxvii i i a b c. 

Watson's Bay (W.), P.J. 

110 D. mcoNCAVA, Parker cVr Jones ; C.R., p. 653, pl. xei., f. 2, 3. 

Watson's Bay (W.), P.J. "^ "^ 

HID. ALLOMORPHixoiDES, Reuss ; C.R., p. 654, pl. xci., f. 5, 8. 
Watson's Bay (\V.), RJ. ^ 

112 Thuncatulina lobulata, Walker & Jacob; C.R., p. 660, pl. 
1 . o m ^''"•' ^- ^^ ' P'- ''^"^•' ^- 1' 4, 5 ; pl. xcv., f. 4, 5. Off RJ. 

113 T. Haidingerii, d'Orb.; C.R., p. 663, pl. xcv., f. 7, a.-c. 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

114 T. TEXUiMAROo, Brady; C.R., p. 662, pl. xciii., f. 2-3. 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

115 T. RETICULATA, Czjzek ; C.R., p. 668, pl. xcvi., f. 5-8. Wat- 

son's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

116 T. WuELLERSTORFi, Schwairer, C.R., p. 662, pl. xciii., f. 8, 9. 

Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. " 

117 Anomalixa grosserugosa, Gumbel ; C.R., p. 673, pl. xciv., f. 

1 1« -p *"■'• ^^^^*^«"'« B^y (W-X off RJ. 

118 PULVmULIXA CANARIENSIS, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 692, pl. ciii., f. 

8-10. Watson's Bay (W.), off P.J. 

119 R CHA.SSA, d'Orb. ; C.R., p. 694, pl. ciii., f. 11-12. Off RJ. 

120 R M.cHKUANA, d'Orb. ; aR., p. 694, p]. civ. f. 1, 2. OffP.J. 

121 P. Men'ahdi, d'Orl,. : O.K., p. r,'ju, pl. ciii., f. 1-2. Watson's 

122 P. Paktschiana, dOrb. ; C.R., p. 669, pl. cv., f. 3, a.b.c. 


iiily TiNOPORiN^.. 


i,Lmne; C.R., p. 721, pi. c 
in Port Jackson on shells ^ 


Sub-Family Polvstomellin^. 
UMBiLiCATULA, Montagu ; C.R., ] 



.LA iMPERATRix, Brady; p. 638, 
Bay, (W.) 

pi. ex.. f. 



128 TiiALLASicoLLA AusTRALis, Haeckel ; Cha 

XVIII., pt. i., p. 20. Station 163. 

129 Sphaekozoum octocerus, Haeck.; C.K,pt. 

dl. Report. 
i.,p.44. S 


130 SiPHoxosPH 

AEHiA FRAGiLis, Haeck.j C.R.^ 


: 1. Station 164, surface. 

'M HuxLEYi, Haeck.; C.R., 

, pt. i., p. 
. pt. ii.. p. 
pt. ii., p. 


133 CiELOTHOLUs 'cKucirT''us, Haeck. ; C.Il., 
Station 1G4 A., 1200 faths. 

pt. ii., p. 



134 Ceratium ' 


FRIPOS ? Mull. ; SaviUe Kent, 
, Vol. I., p. 454, pi. XXV., f. 24. 

Manual of the 
Obtained in tow- 

i Bay (VV). 

? Ehrenberg ; SaviUe Kent, I.e. Vol. i., p. 445, pi. 
31. Obtained in tow-net Watson's Bay (W.) 



! "^p. I{f'pr('st'ntati\<>> of this and allied genera 


137 FoLLicuLiXA TimuNDO, ? Saville Kent, I.e. Vol. ii., p. 600, pi. 

xxix., f. 39. On Bugula nerifAna, Ball Head Bay. (W.) 

138 F. sp. On seaweed, Botany. (W.) 



This family is well represented in Port Jackson, I have seen 

examples of the following Genera :—Rhabdostyla, Vorticella, 

Carchesium, Zoothamnium, Cothurnia and Pyxicola. They are 

usually found attached to seaweeds, Hydroids, Polyzoa, and various 


Family ACINETID^. 

139 PoDOCYATiius sp. On the stems of Tulndaria (jracilis, fi-oin 

Piles, Circular Quay, P.J. (W.) 

140 Ophuyodendron sp. On Sertularia off Balls Head. (W.) 




Family ASCONID^. 

3CETTA PROCUMBEN'S, R.V.L. ; P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. IX., p. 

1086, pi. Ixi., figs, la, lb, Ic, Id ; pi. Ixiii., fig. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 
Common on shells, stones, tfec, also on a crab, Cryptodromia 
lateralis, Stimpson, Mossman's Bay; Neutral Bay and many 
other places. (W.) 

Macleayi, R.V.L. ; P.L.S., KS.W , Vol. ix., p. 1086, pi. 
lix.,f. 7 ; pi. lii., f. 8-13. Under stones, Farm Cove, P.J. (W.) 
sCALTis Lamarckii, Haeckel ; Die Kalkschwamme, Band ii., 
Seite 60, pi. ix., f. 5 ; pi. x., f. 4, a-d. P.J. 

3M0DERMA SYCANDRA, R.V.L. j "^ ' "' ^^ " "' 

Sub -Order Heterocoela. 

Family SYCONID^E. 

•J SvcvXDRV VKHOREV, Haockel ; I.e., 8eito 331, pi. liii., tigs, la, 

mark, WaLsoii'6 Bay ; .Middlo HarLour. (AV.)'' 
( L)r. Putmsav.") "'^''' '^ 

Sub FaiDJly Ut 
K v.L. ; I.e., 10 

, Seite :->-">4, pi. xliii., 

Poj.'i.icir; Ch.ilkMi-cr K.^port, Vol. mi., p 
pi. A., f. L>a. 2t. Station 1G3 A. otrP.J. 


under stones, P.J. 
20 L. ME\y])uiNA, R.%.L. ; I.e., p. 112^ pi. K\ii , i 1 1. U. Ot] 
Rairs Head, IS fatl.s PJ. 

Off Shark Island, P.J. 

, Haeckel ; I.e., Band 
xxxiii., f. 3a, 3e ; pi. 38, f. 7, 74. 
Shark Island. (Dr. Ramsay.) 




27 Ianthella flabelliformis, Gray; P.Z.S., 1869, p. 50; R.v.L., 

Cat. Sponges, p. 23. Off Green Point. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

28 Aplysilla rosea, F. E. Schulze ; R.v.L., Cat. Sponges, p. 26. 

Off Ball's Head, 18 fms., P.J. 

29 A. vioLACEA, R.v.L. ; Cat. Sponges, p. 26. P.J. 

30 Dendrilla elecans, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 27. Off Cockatoo Island, 


,31 D. TENELLA, R.V.L. ; 1. 

33 D. ROSEA, R.V.L. ; var. typica. Cat. Sponges, p. 28. Off G 

Point, P.J. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

34 D. DifJiTATA, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 29. P.J. 

35 D. JANTIIELLIFORMIS, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 29. P.J. 

36 D. CAVERNOSA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 29. Ott Green Point, 

Bajalus laxus, R.v.L.; Cat. Sponges, p. 30. 
Ball's Head, P.J. 

Family GEODID^. 

Shark Reef, P.J. 

.L.; I.e., p. 39. OffGn 


Family TETILLID^. 
i\ Spiretta raphidiophora, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 43. P.J. 

42 TetiivopsillaSte\vartii,R.v.L.;1.c.,p.45. P.J. (Dr.Raiusny.) 

Family TETHYD^. 

43 Tethya multistella, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 47. Watson's Bay, P.J. 

(Dr. Ramsay.) 

44 T. corticata, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 48. Neutral Bay, P.J. (Dr. 


45 T.FissuRATA, R.v.L.;l.c.,p.49. Under stones Neutral Bay, P.J. 

46 T. iXFLATA, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 49. P.J. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

47 T. LAEVis, R.v.L. ; I.C., p. 50. P.J. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

48 Tethyorrhaphis laevis, R.v.L.; l.c.,p.52. P.J. (Dr.Ramaiy.) 

49 T. TUBERCULATA, R.V.L. ; l.c, p. 53. P.J. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

50 T. GicANTEA, R.V.L. ; Cat. Sponges, p. 54. P.J. 

51 T. CONULOSA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 55. P.J. (Dr. Ramsay.) 


52 Spirastrella Australis, R.v.L. : I.e., p. 57. Off Green Point, 


53 S. PAPTLLOSA, Ridley ct Dendy ; Cliall. Report, Vol. xx., p. 232, 

pi. xli., f. 5 ; pi. xlv., f. 11, lli,^ P.J. 

54 Papillixa panis, R.v.L.; I.e., p. 58. Off Green Point, P. J. 

(Dr. Ramsay.) 

55 P. KAMULOSA, R.v.L., I.e., p. 59. P.J. 


58 SuBERiTEs DOMUNCULA, Nardo ; R.V.L., I.C., p. 6.-). Watson's 

Bay, P.J. 

59 S. CARNosA, Johnstone, Brit. Sponges, p. 14G, pl. xiii., f. ^-8 ; 

Zool. of "Alert,"p. 165. P.J. 

60 S. PERPECTus, Ridley & Dendy ; C.R., Vol. xx., p. 200, pl. xli., 

61 Plectodexdronelegans, R.v.L. ; R.v.L., I.e., p. CG. P.J. 

62 Cliona sp., R.v.L.; I.e., p. 67. Common off Green Point. Tlie 

Sub Order Oligosilicina 

Fimilv niONTDRlTTTD^^ 

63 Chondrhla. coirifMv Ra I 1( p 70 

64 C 

4lsiu\ii)\ is 


01 Vnn I Alt. MI 

[ se 

I A 


1 -^> (1^7^) 

P J 




U p 71 P) 




R ^ T 1 c p 72 P 






1> II 

1 c p 74 P J 


1 FMFr \ coin CM 

^ L 1 c p 7s 1> J 




Reef P ; 











roi50s\ Rx I 

\ p 

K^ I 

T p -') P I 
p ) Oil Shu 1 Isl 



t 1 

P J 



1 1 ^1 11 



(f MliliKIMI 

1 N 

III 1 

I 1 1 ^ Aliroul.i, 

^ ' 







\ I lU /ool of 



p 397 

8PC Morris RvT 1 ( p ^r AHroubii Bav 


one rem Point P J 

84 PxcincinriNwrvNL-, R\ T Ic p s^ Shukleff 

Maroul.r i I i> 

85 P rni\T\ Ridl«v 7ool of \lort p iOi CR \c 

p '' jl ^ f I pi xhi f 4 P J 
SOP M..\, I Ml sun 1 .(II. ^ V. Dtndy OR A ol xx 

pi V I . II 
8/ P iiN i\iv I ,1' ^ V Duidy CR p 2t pi 6 f 2 

pi xIm f I _ Iddi l.a(h P I 
8^ \Maii{0(n\riN\ dliu R\ f 1 p 90 PF 
89 Plvcooh\linv PUJLNCi F \i \ \u ui i \ C \rtM R\L 

p 91 Often vv ished ashoit it C o< .. « i or di I 




90 P. , var 

. POCULA, R.v.L. ; 1. 

e., p. 91. P.J. 

91 P. , var. 

MOLLIS, R.V.L. ; 1.. 

3., p. 9L P.J. 



; I.e., p. 92. P.J. 


[A, Ridley & Dendy 

; C.R., p. 30, pl. vii., £. 1 ; 

pi. xlvi, f. 

3. OS Ball's Head; Maroubra Bay. 

94 p. spiculife: 

RA, R.V.L. : I.e., p. 

92. P.J. 

95 P. ANxuLATA, liidlev & Deiidy ; 

Anil & Mag. N.K., Ser. 3, 

Vol. XVIII, 

p. 331, (1887) R.v. 

L., I.e., p. 93. P.J. 


iNA AxiALis, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 94. Oft" Green 

Point, P.J. 

97 S. LAXA, Il.V 

.L.; I.e., p. 95. P. 


98 S. TYPICA, R. 

V.L.; I.e., p. 96. ( 

)ffGreen Point, P.J. 


var. ^ICR^POKA, R.^ 

^^L. ; I.e., p. 97. Off Shark 

Reef, P.J. 


i-RUNCATA, R.V.L. ; : 

I.e., p. 97. P.J. 


R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 98. 

Off Ball's Head, P.J. 


L. ; I.e., p. 98. Off Shark 

Ridley: Zool. "Alert," p. 

' Alert," p. 403, pl. 
.L.; I.e.', p. 102. 




qlaris, var. silicata, 

R.V.L.; I.e., p. 134. P.J. 




Maroubra Bay ; P.J. 

var. DURA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 138 




var. mollissima, R.v 

.L., I.e., p. 140. P.J. 



ulata, R.v.L. ; I.e., I 

). 140. Off Ball's Head, P.J. 




I.e., p. 142. 


v": ^ 

•RiMA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 
ECUNi.A, Hyatt; 11. v. 

143. Coogee Bay. P.J. 
L, I.e., p. 144. P.J. 


f<:rtia, Hyatt ; R.v.L., I.e., p. U5. P.J. 


var. M 

ARcaxALis, R.v.L. ; 1, 

•c, p. 147. P.J. 




IDUS, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 

148. P.J. 




.yi, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. : 

149. P.J. 



; I.e., p. 149. P.J. 




.TA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 1 

50. Off Green Point, P. J. 




. ; I.e., p. 152. P.J. 




, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 153 






; I.e., p. p. 1.55. P.J. 



UREA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p 

.156. Off Shark Island, P.J 


Halme n 


L. ; I.e., p. 157. Maroubn 

'OVEA, Polejaeff; R.v.L., I.e., p. 170. Coogee; 

, Hyatt, Mem. of Boston Soc., 11, p. 533. P.J. 

143 HiRcixiA CAMPANA, R.V.L.; I.e., p. 178. Oft'Green Point, P.J. 

144 H. AusTRALis, R.V.L., I.e., p. 180. Ofi' Green Point, P.J. 

145 H. CALYCULATA, R.V.L., p. 180. Ott' Shark Island, P.J. 

146 H. ARExosA, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 181. P.J. 

147 H. (JKJAXTEA, Ridley; R.v.L., I.e., p. 184. Oft'Green Point, P.J. 

148 Cacospongia Murrayi, Polejaeff"; C.R., Vol. xi., p. 57, pi. 

iv., f. 3 ; pi. vi., f. 8. P.j'. 

149 C. vesiculifera, Polejaeff'; C.R., Vol. xi., p. 58, pi. iv., f. 2; 


150 Stylotella DIGITATA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 185. Off' Ball '.s Head, 

P.J. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

151 S. RiGiDA, R.v.L.; I.e., p. 186. P.J. 
^'^ ^' des, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 1S7. P.J. 

153 Rn 


155 I 

;UM, (Lamarck); Ridley & Dendy, C.R., Vol. xx., 
p. -6:3, pi. viii., f. 5, 5a; pi. xix., f. 1—7. P.J. 
15G Gklliodes poculum, Ridley & Dendy ; C.R., Vol. xx., p. 48, 
pi. X. ; R.V.L., I.e., p. 189. P.J. 

157 Gkllius pams, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 189. P.J. 

158 G. HAPiiiDioPiiOKA, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 190. P.J. 

159 G. FiBULATus,(Schiindt); Ridley,Zool.o£"Alert,"p. 424. P.J. 

160 Tedania rubicund.^, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 190. P.J. 

161 T. LAXA, R.v.L.; I.e., p. 191. Ofi" Ball's Head, P..L (Dr. 


162 T. HUBRA, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 191. Off Ball's Head, P.J. (Dr. 


163 T. TENuispiNA, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 192. P.J. 

164 T. DiGiT.vrA, (Schimdt): Ridley ^ Dendy, C.R., p.51,pl.xi., 

f. 3. P.J. 

165 T. , var. fibrosa. P.J. 


166 Phoriospongia, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 193. Off Green Point, 


167 P. RKTicuLUM, (^^larsliall) ; R.v.L., I.e., p. 193. Middle 

Harbour, P..!. 

168 P. , var. ranks, R.v.L. ; I.e., p. 195. P.J. 

169 P. FIBROSA, Ridley; Zool. of "Alert," p. 439, pl. xlii., f. g. 


170 SiGMATELLA AUSTRALIS, R.V.L.: I.C., p. 195. 

1"1 var. TUBARiA, (Marshall); R.V.L., i.e., 187. Shark Reef,P.J. 

l'^ var. fl\bkllum RvL. ; I.e., p. 198. Off Green Point, 

1"3 S. MACROPSAMMA, R.V.L. ; I.e., p. 198. RJ. 
174 8. coRTicvr\ RvL- I.e., p. 199. Off Shark Point, P.J. 
1"5 var. PAPiLLOsv, (Alarshall); R v.L., I.e.. p. 201. Maroubra 

rZool. IM.':!"., p. 116, 
' Polejaeff, C.R., Vol. 

,'.L.'- i!c! ^p. 209. Off Cockatoo Island, P.J. 


OtfiSlmrk Point, P,] 

Ilkkayi, Kidley >>c Dendv ; C.R., Vol. xx., p. G7, pi. 
11, 13, 14, IG, 17, IS ; pi. xiv., f. 1, la. Otf P J. 
OKOSA, Ridley & Dendv, I.e., p. 69, pi. xv., f. 6, 9, 

90 KsPKi. 


DKic, Ridley 




-9, pi. XIX 

a, b, c. 30 


91 Am HI 


iTOSus, Ridle 

y .1' Dendy 


p. 12.), pi 

f. 10,10^, 

pi. XXV., f. G 


f. 2. 


9-J M\ML 

L v Jackson 





een Point 

Middle Harbour 

, P.J. 

93 M. AR 

BOiiEsrKVS, Ridley; Zool. 



' P- "^ 

i,\ pi xl. 

f- ^' 

, pi. xliii., f 

a,a. P.J. 

91 CllELL 

... P.y" 

Pvidley , Zoo 



" p. i 

32, pi. xli. 

9.-) Ci V n 

MUhrriA, R 

^ L.: 




C 1' 

•R^^^^^, IJ ^ 

.. l.cp 222. OtrUroe 


fM2,'l2!'. I 

Mi'itKi, Ridley ct Dendy 
xxxi, f 3, :ia. Otf-P.j 


OKvruM, Carter ; Ann. . 

, Vol MI,p 

37s, (l,sM): Rv L , 1 c. 
^L,lc,p219 PJ 

I']. L 

Kvr«, R.x!l ■, 

e,p 221) OtrCreeul 

Family AULEXTD^.. 
a-l.KN-A LAXA, U.V.L.: I.e.. p. L>L>S. OtY ' 
iJaHs Head, P.A. 



Faniily ('Oil N l' I.A K IID.T:. 

230 COUNCLARIA? Ar>Ti;M.I^. I: ' -i 'i 

231 cZvv?!^"7'i;uli^u'SiK 

16 fms. off Ball's Head, P.J. (W.) 

233 Telesto Smithii, Gray ; Ann. <k Mag. N.H. (4) Vol. iii., p. 
21, figure (woodcut) 1869. Common under rock ledges at 
low water, Vaucluse Point ; Middle Harbour ; and in 16 
fms. off Ball's Head, P. J. (W.) 

:234 Sympodium sp- This species forms thin incrusting patches 6 
to 10 inches in diameter on stones, the colour being bluish- 
grey, whilst the polyps are brown and longitudinally sulcate. 
Rose Bay ; Watson's Bay, P.J. (W.) 

190, pi. XX 

237 Spongodes : 


238 Pteeeoides Lucazii, Kolliker, var. spinosa, Anat.^ Syst. 

Beschreib. der Alcyonarien, 1872, p. 60 - 62, f. 15 - l'> 
and p. 355. OfF Green Point, P.J. 

239 P. SP. Off Ball's Head, P.J. 

240 Sarcophyllum grande. Gray; Proc. Z. Soc, 1848, p. 45; 

Koll., I.e., p. 121 and 364, pi. viii., f. 6Q A, B,a. Common 
off Green Point, P.J. 

f. 8-9, Station 164, ofi'P.J. 


242 V^iK(;uLAKiA ELEGAN.s, Gray; Catalogne of Sea Pens. 

British Museum, p. 15 ; Kolliker, Anat. Syst. Alcyonai 
1872, p. 60-62, f. 15-17, also p. 355. Off Green Point, 1 

243 V. LovEMi, Koll. ; I.e., p. 201, pi, xiii., f. 121, 122. 

Bali's Head, P.J. 

244 V. sp. Off Ball's Head, P.J. 

245 V. SP. Off Shark Island, P.J. 

'aniily CAVERN ULARID^. 

246 Cavkrnularia obesa, Val.; KolL, I.e., p. 338, pi. xxii., f. 

199. 200, 201. Off Green Point, RJ. 
Family LITUARID^. 

247 PoLicELLA AusTKALis, Gray ; Cat. of Sea Pens., p. 33; KolL, 



Family BRIAR EID^. 

249 SuBERiA Gentiii, Wri-ht <^ Studer ; C.R., V^ol. xxxi., p. 

1B;3, pi. xl., f. 1. In .shallow water, orf P.J. 

250 MopsELLA cocciXEA, Ellis & Solander ; Natural History of 

Zoophytes, 1786, p. 107, pi. xii., f. 5. Under rocks and 
stones, Watson's Bay. (W.) 
2ol Parisis austkauh, Wright ct Studer ; C.R., Vol. xxxi., p. 
183, yl. xli., f. 3. Station 163 B, off P.J. There is a 
series of specimens of this species in the Australian Museum, 
also obtained off P.J. 

Section H. HOLAXONIA. 

Family ISID^. 

Sub-Family Mopseix.e. 

252 Mopsea dichotomy Linne • W. ct S., C.R., Vol. xxxi., p. 41, 

pi. ix., f. 10. Off P.J. 30 - 35 fms. 
-3<J Acakthoisis flabellum, Wright it Studer ; C.R., Vol. xxxi., 
p. 45, pi. viii., f. 1. This species is bright red when alive. 
Maroubra Bay (W.); off' P.J. 30 - 35 fms. 
Family PRIMNOID^.. 
254 Plumarella pennv Lamarck; ^ Cricor,oyvia ram.a,M.-Ed. 

Hist. Nat. CoralL, pi. B 2, f. C. Off P.J. 
2-^0 Prlmx^lla GUAXuisQuvMis Wright i Studer; C.R-, Vol. 
XXX.., p. 86. Dl. xvii.. f. 4 : pi. xxi.. f. 1-3. Station 163 A 

257 Plexaub 

:a sp. Oft- Ball's Head, P.J. 

258 Sydella 
f. 7-8. 

Family ? ? 
Australis, Gray ; P.Z.S, 1872, p. 747, pi. Ixiii., 
Described from a drawing (by Dr. Hooker) Sydney. 


259 Paractis 

Family ACTIXIDtE. 
i PAPAVEK, Drayton in Dana, U. S. Expl. Exp., 
fie, p. U3,^ pi. iv., f. 29. Common under stones, 

260 PiiYMACTis VEKATRA, Drayton in Dana, I.e., p. 129, pi. i., I 

Common in Port Jackson and at Coogee Bay (W.) 

261 OuLACTis MuscosuM, Drayton, Dana, i.e., p. 163, pi. v., f. i 

Common in rock-pools, Coogee, Bondi (W.) 

262 Cereus TUBERCUL0SU8,Quoy and Gaimardj Voy. "Astrolali 

p. 159, pi. xi., f. 3-6. On the beach, Coogee Bay (W.) ,; ' 
Green Point, (Dr. Ramsay). 

263 Phellia sp. Under stones Neutral Bay (W.) 

264 BuxoDEs SP. Rose Bay (W.) 

265 Ceriantiius sp. Lives as a commensal with Phoronis A> 

tralis off Ball's Head (Dr. Ramsay). 

266 Adamsia sp. Parasitic on Cellepora off Green Point (W). 
""" " Littoral, Bradley's Head, P.J. (W.) 

Madeeporaria Aporosa. 



p. 431, pi. xxxvii 

Point, P.J. 
C. COMPRESSUS, Ten.-Woods ; P.L.S., N.S.W.,Vol. ii., p. 302, 

pi. v., f. 1 and 6. Dredged at Quarantine Station, P-J- 

(Dr. E. P. Ramsay.) 
DuxocYATHUS PARASITICUS, Ten.-Woods, I.e., p. 305, pi. v., f. 

4 a, b. Dredged ott P.J. (John Brazier). This species is 

imbeded in the base of a species of Polyzoa B'qwra awjrdo- 

yora, Ten.-Woods. (In Macleay Museum.) 

21?, PocTLLOPORA? HP. Long Bay (Ed. Mcintosh.) 

Family ASTRvEID^. 
'2n CvLicrA QUiN-ARiA, Ten.-Woods, I.e., p. 326, pi. v., £. 3 a,b,c. 
Very common under stones, all round Port Jackson, Moss- 
man's Bay, Neutral Bay, Watson's Bay (W.) 

275 C. TENELLA, Dana; U.S. Expl. Exp., Zoophytes, 377, pi. 

xxviii., £. 6, 6a-b. Rare, under stones, Watson's Bay P.J. 

276 Plesiastraea Urvillei, Edwards & Haime, Ann. des Sci. 

Nat., 3 Ser., Vol. x., pi. ix., f. 2, 2a, and Vol. xii., p. 117 ; 
Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. " Astrolabe," Zoophytes, p. 216, 

t " ■""' 

Madreporaria Perforata. 


278 Balaxopiiyllia buccinea, Ten.-Woods ; I.e., p. 339, pi. v., 

f. 5 a, b, c ; and pl. iv., f. f). Under stones Cabbage Tree 
Bay, P.J. (W.) . , 

279 Eudopaciiys Australl^:, Ten.-Woods, I.e., p. 333, pl. vi., f. 

la, ft, c. Oft- P. J., 80 fathoms. , . 

280 Heteropsammia elliptica, Ten.-Woods, l.c.,.p. 339, pl vi., 

f. 3 a, 6. OffP.J., 16 fathoms. , 

281 Dendrophyllia aurea, Quoy & Gaim., Voy. " Astrolabe, 

Vol. IV., p. 195, pl. XV., f. 7 - 11 ; Ed. ife H., Hist. iSat. 
Corall., Vol. 111., p. 130, P.J. 




Family CLAVIDyE. 

282 Clava simplex, R.v.L.; Proceedings Linnean Society N.S. 


283 Ceuatella fusca, Gray; Jiale, C.H.Z,, p. 48 ; P.L.S., N.S. 

Wales, Vol. iii., 8er. 2, p. 748. Coogee Bay (W.) 


284 EuDKNDRiUM PusiLLUM, R.V.L.; I.e., p. .3.52. Littoral, P.J. 


285 Laomedea marginata. Bale, Cat. Hydroid Zoophytes, p. 54, 

pi. i., f. 2. Littoral, on stones Vaucluse Point, and on 
seaweeds Coogee Bay (W.) 

286 L. UNDULATA, Lamx.; Bale, C.H.Z., p. 55, pi. ii., f. 4. P.J. 

287 Laf(ea scandens. Bale, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. in., Ser. 2, p. 

758, pi. xiii., f. 16-19. On SertulareMa divaricata, var. 
suh-dichotoma, off Ball's Head, P.J. (W.) 

288 Halecium telescopicum, AUman, C.R., Vol. xxiii., p. 10, 

pi. v., f. 1, 163 B. P.J. 

289 H. GKACiLE, Bale ; I.e., p. 759, pi. xiv., f. 1-3. P.J. 

290 H. PAUVULUM, Bale ; I.e., p. 760, pi. xiv., f. 4-5. On sponge 

Bondi, (W.) 

291 Lineolaria spi.vulosa, Hincks ; Ann. & Mag. N.H.(3)Vo!. 
VII., 1861 ; Bale, C.H.Z., p. 61, pi. i., f. 10-11 ; pi. xix., f. 

On Zosteria Botany Bay; Middle Harbour (W.; 


Synth E 


, Busk ; Voy. of 

" Ratt 



C.H.Z., p. 8Vpl.i 

x.,f. 11; P.L.S., 


'., p. 767, 

pi. X. 

•ii., f. 1-5. Commo 

in off Ball's Head 

1 and 1 

at Green 


' (^^'O 

293 S. CAMJ 


n ; C.R., Vol. x: 

^iii., p 

,. 78, pi. 

ii., f. 1 a, h. r. Uti' 





RXANs, All.; C.R., 
Off p. J. 

Vol. XXIII., p. 80, 





, Busk ; Voy. of 

" Rattlesnake,' 

Bale, C.H.Z., p. 110, pi. 

iii., f. 9 ; pi. xix. 

, f. 20. 



Off Ball's Head. 






DUBiA,Bale;l.c.,p. ' 
►ULA, Bale, C.H.Z., 

761,pl.xvi.,f. 1-2. 

Bondi Bay(W.) 



p. 106, pi. iii., f. 6 

; pl.x 



., N.S.W., p. 765, 

, pi. XV, f. 3-4. 




Bay (W.) 



n MECA, Bale, P.L.S 

., N.S.W., p. 762, 

. pi. XV 

■i., f. 5-6. 


S. VARI.l 

.HILLS, Bale, P.L.S 

., N.S.W., p. 765, pi. 

XV., 5-9. 


Bay; Coogee Bay (W.) 



DRiCA, Bale, I.e., ] 

p. 765, pi. xvi., f 

:. 7. Off Balis 



302 DiPiiASTA PiN-XATA, Pallas ; Bale, C.H.Z, p. 9.s, pi. ix., f. 

Off Ball's Head, P.J. 

303 D. suncARixATA, Busk ; Bale, C.H.Z., p. 102, pi. iv., f. 1 

pi. xix., f. 1,S. Washed ashore at Maroubra Bay, (W.) 

304 Pasytfika quadhidkntata, Ellis A: Solandcr ; Bale, C.H.Z 

p. 112. pi. N li.. f. :; : P.L.S.. X.S.W.. p. 770, pi. .xiv., f. 6-^ 

305 TiiriAKA LATv.' 'i;',l,.,"(Vir.Z.r].. 120. pi. "vii., f. 1. Maroubr 

Bav: otlJlMir.s llr.ul P..J. (W.) 

306 T. siNLOH-v, Bale, P.L.S., X.S.W., IN^^S, p. 772. Washe 

a.shore at Maroubra Bay, (W.) 

307 T. suBAKTicL-LATA, Coughtrey ; Bale, P.L.S., N.S.W., 188i 

p. 746, pi. vii., f. 4-5. Washed ashore at Maroubra, {A 
J. Coates). 


f. -Iti ; P.L.S NS.W., p' 7M, pi. \x., f. 7-.'^. Middle 
Harbour :'Bondi'Bay,(AV.) 

313 P. SPINULOSA, Bale, C.H.Z., p. 139, pi. xii., f. 11, 12 ; P.L.S., 

N.S. W., p. 783, pi. xix., 11-13. On seaweeds Coogee Bay(^^ ) 

314 P. PULciiKLLA, Bale, C.H.Z., p. 110, pi. xii.. f. 6: pi. xi.x., 

f. 37 ; P.L.S., N.8.W.. p 7^ ! "•• — iw<w.<N BondiBay(\\ .) 

315 P. C0MPRKS8A, Bale, CI! / : ' ■ ^ .;;, f. :i-10; pi. xix., 

f. 30, 40; P.L.8.'. N- : : i^ , ^- ^^- ^^ 

31G P. A^m^; B^'p.iri^, N -^W . \ - . S..r.2,p.784, pi. 

317 P. ARMAT.s!'^Ll!;'c^^V.!l^^?ia^^ pl'il f. -*>. station 

163 off P.J. 

318 P. LAXA Alhnan C.R. Vol. vu., p. 22, pi. iv., f. ;'.-4. Station 

[. LONGIROSTRIS, Kirchenpauer ; Bale, C.H.Z., 
xiii., f. 7 ; pi. xvi., f. 3 ; pi. xix., f. 30. Often 
the preceding species, Coogee Bay, (W.) 

L ASCiDioiDES, Bale, C.H.Z., p. 176, pi. xiii., f. 
Maroubra Bay ; Coogee Bay, (W. 

322 H. KURCATA, Bale, C.H.Z., p. 178, pi. xi 

ii,f. 3; pi. xvi., f. 5, 

Washed ashore at Maroubra (W.) 

323 Aglaopiienia parvula, Bale, C.H.Z., j 

0. 165, pi. xiv.,f. 3. 

pi. xvii, f. 10; P.L.S., N.S.W., p 

. 790. Coogee Bay . 

Vaucluse Point (W.) 

324 A. MACROCARPA, Bale, P.L.S., N.S.W., ] 

p. 791, pi. xxi., f. 34. 

Off P.J. 

325 A. DivARiCATA, Busk ; Bale, C.H.Z., p. 162, pi. xv., f. 7-8; 

pi. xvii., f. 6-7. Bondi, Coogee, Watson's Bay, (W.) 

326 A. PLUMOSA, Bale, C.H.Z., p. 153, pi. xiv., f. 5 ; pi. xvii., f. 

12. On Boltenia, Middle Harbour; Bondi; Coogee; 
Botany, (W.) 

327 A. WniTELEGGEi, Bale, P.L.S., N.S.W., p. 794, pi. xxi., £. 8. 

OfF Green Point, P. J., (W.) 

328 A. siNuosA, Bale, P.L.S., N.S.W., 1888, p. 790, pi. xxi., f. 

1-2. Washed ashore at Maroubra Bay (W.) 


329 Sarsia radiata, R.v.L., P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. ix., p. 583, ph 

XX., f. 31. P.J. 

330 S. MINIMA, R.V.L., I.e., p. 584, pi. xxi., f. 34. P.J. 
3S1 S. SP. On seaweed in rock pools Rose Bay (W.) 
332 EuPHYSA AUSTRALis, R.V.L., l.c, p. 586, pi. ■ " 

p. 588, pi. xxii., f. 36. Sum- 
,, p. 589, pi. xxiii., f. 38-39. 
, p.918, pl.xli., f. 13. Early 


337 Pennaria australis, Bale, C.H.Z., p. 45 ; P.L.S., N.S.W., 

Vol. III., Ser. 2, p. 747, =Pennaria rmea, R.v.L., P.L.b., 
N.S.W., Vol. i.\., p. 594, pi. xxiv., f. 40-42. On piles, 
Circular Quay ; Green Point, (W.) 

338 P. Adamsia, R.vL., P.L.S., N.S.W., p. 595, pi. xxv., f. 45, 

48 ; pi. xxvi., f. 49. P.J. 

Head ; on pilc^s Circuhir Quay, P.J., (AV. 
Family LEPTOMEDl'S^l']. 

Early sprin- P.J. 
: EUCOPE IIYALIXA, R.V.L., I.e., p. \)-20, pi. xli 

Early sprinij P.J. 
Obklia oeniculata, Linne ; Bale, C.H.Z., f 

On seaweed, Middle Harbour, (W.) 
(). ANauLOSA, Bale, P.JL.S., N.S.W., p. 7.V2, 

piles Callari Park, Pan-aniatta River, (\V. 
O. vrhiKALis, R.% .L., P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. i: 

Family CA: 


Vol. M. ; Bale, RL.H 

:VIiddle Harbour, (VV. 
3-"')0 C. sPiNULCsx Bale Ic' 

Head, P.J.' 
•5-Jl C. SEUiuxvrv i;ale Ic 

Head, P..T. ' 


358 S. Maplestonei, Bale, Cat. Hydroida, p. 70, pi. vi., f. 

pi. xix., f. 2. Hunter's Beach, Middle Harbour. (A. 

359 S. MACROCARPA, Bale, Cat. H.Z., p. 80, pi. v., f. 2 ; pi. xi 

f. 11. Hunter's Beach ; Maroubra. (A. J. Coates.) 
3G0 S. OPEKCULATA, Linue ; Bale, Cat. H.Z., p. 67, pi. vi., f. 
pi. xix., f. 3. Hunter's Beach. (A. J. Coates.) 



sp. See P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. x., p. 187. Abi 


on the 

1 beach, (Apri: 

I LSSf)) Coo-ee Bay, (W.) 

32 PiiYSOPii 

A, (Boodwich); Q. cfe G., Yc 

.y. de 



i., f. 14-16 ; Lesson, Zoop. Acephales, 

p. 508 

. P.J. 

33 PnvsALL 


Brandt, Prod. 36; Lesson, 


Acephales, p. 558 ; 

Peron & Lesueur, Voy. Dec 


australis, pi. 

xxxix., f. 1. Common after 



34 P. UTKIC 


.oltz. System der Acalephen, U 

529, p. 

163, p 

1. xiv., f. 2-3 

i. Common after gales, Coogee and 


; P.J. (W.) 

>5 Velella 

CVANEA, Lesson, Voy. Coquille, p. 54, pi. vi., 

f . 3-4. 

^ Coogee 

'. Bay, May 2^ 

i, 1889, (W.) 

\? Esch., System der Acalepl 
Coogee Bay, May 28, 1889, (W.) 
L sp. Coogee Bay, May 28, 1889, (W.) 



Family CHr)RYBl)EID^. 
lanDis FLAOELLATA, Lesson, Prod. 27, and Zoophytes 
lales IS^:;, p. ■2-7S; R. v. Lendenfeld, Cat. Medusa', 
alian Seas, p. Ki. P..J. 

Ki.uily CYANIDE. 
n.iiv i:w.,:\. Quoy .Vr Caimard, 1827, Voy. de 

Family AURELID^. 

VURELIA CAERULEA, R.V.L., P.L.S., N.S.W., A^ol. IX., p. 281, 

Cat. :\[edus:u Austr., p. 22. August-December, P.J. (W.) 
Sub-Order RHIZOSTOM^. 

pt. i., p. 2^. M.uvl, in, ISSO. P.J. (W.) 

i-iiiniiv <i;aam;i:s.sid^. 

374 CuAMiiKssA MusvuN^ (>. >v(;.. \ ov. (lo I'Uranie, p. oG9, pi., 

375 '^'u-! svMHio iicA," k\ . l'!.' I.e. ' p'';3{, and P.'l.s'., X.S.W., 

P.L.S, N.S.W., Vol. IX., p. 305 ; Cat. .Medusa; Austr. p. 


Haockel, Das. Syst. der Meduson, p. 361, 


377 Xeis cordigeka, Lesson, Voy. Coquille, p. 10, pi. xvi., f. 2; 

Los.on, Zoop., p. 97 ; R.v.L., P.L.S., N.S.W., 
Vol. IX., p. !m;s : T.-W., P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. ill., 2 Ser., 
pt. ii,. p. s^ri. .\i;uvli-.Juno, P.J. (W.) 

378 I'.oLiN.v Ciirx,. K.V.L., P L.S., N.S.W., Vol. ix., p. 930, pis. 

-xHv.-xlv., f. 1-,-). August-September, P.J. (W.) 



CRiNus Sempeki, Carpenter, C.R., Vol. 

XXVI., p. 84, pi. 

, f. 7 ; pi. vi., f. 1-3. Oft- P.J. 

->o\ PU.MILA, Dell, Zool. "Al(>rt"'p. 157 

, pi. X., f. 3 a. h. 

the description of tlnssp...i..sth.'tirsti 

,innules are said 

be the shortest, thi.s is in. ,>nv.t. tin- It 

,st pinnules are 

3 longest. Very (,-oinni..M in df'p ual 

er, occasionally 

ind under stones, Taylor r.ay ; NNats^ 

ous Bay. The 

3 A. MACRONEMA, MulL, Monats. d. K. Akad. d. Wiss., IS + H 

p. 179 ; C.R., Vol. XXVI., p. 212, pi. iv., f. 3 a-d: pi. xxxviii.! 
f. 45. Trawled near Sow and Pigs Reef, (Dr. Ramsay.) 

4 A. SPiNiciRRA, Carpenti 

Station lG4,offP.J. 

5 AcTiNOMETRA TRicHOPTERA, Yal; Carpenter, C.R., Yol. XXVI., 

p. 345, pi. v., f. 5 ; pi. Iviii. Common under stones at low 
water, Watson's Bay (W.) 


Family OPHIURID^. 

6 Ophiopeza Yoldii, Lutken, Yid. Meddel, Jan. 1856, p. 9; 

Additad Hist., pt. ii., p. 98, 1859-; Lyman, Bull. Mus. 
Com. Zool. Yol. III., pt. X., p. 221. Off Twofold Bay, 

7 0. pallax, Peters, Monatsb. Konig. Akad. Berlin, 1851, p. 

465; C.R., p. 13, pi. xli., f. 1-3.' Dredged in P.J. (Dr. 
E. P. Ramsay). 

8 O. iEQUALis, Lyman, C.R., Yol v p 1 _' i.l xwii f 7 9. 

Dredged in P.J. (Dr. E. P. l^.a'insn ^ . ) 

9 O. AssiMiLis, Bell, P.Z.S., 1888 p -'.si-pl xvi f "> 

10 Pectinura arenosa, Lyman, C.'r., Yol'. v., p. 15, pi. xxiii., f. 

10-12. Dredged off Green Point, (Dr. E. P. Ramsay). 

11 P. GORGOXIA, Lutken, Addit. ad. Hist. pt. iii., p. 33, 1869. 

Dredged off Green Point, (Dr. E. P. Ramsay) ; under stones 
Watson's Bay (W.) ^' 

12 P. MARMORATA, Lyiuan, Bull. Mus. Com. Zool., Yol. in., pt. x., 

p. 222, pi. v., f . 1-7. Under stones, Taylor Bay ; Watson's 
Bay, (W.) ' ^ ^' 

13 R Rams A VI, Bell, Proc. Z. Soc, 1888, p. 281, pi. xvi., f. 1- 

Dredged (Dr. E. P. Ramsay) ; under stones Taylor Bay ; 
Watson's Bay. 

14 Opiiiolepis anxulosa, M. .\: Troc, Wiegmann's Archiv., Yol. 

VI., p. 328, 1840 ; Aster., p. 89 ; Lutken, Addit ad 
Hist., pt. ii., p. 100, pi. ii., f. 5 ; Lyman, 111. Cat. Mus. 
Com. Zool., No. 1, p. 5S. Dredged in P.J. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

15 OpinoM.v,,,. K,xk,:k,,,. |.ju,>i,MMan ; Lvman, C.R., Yol. v., 

1'. ."i'.', }.i. iv.. f. 7. I)r<-(i-r(l it. P.. I. (I)f. M P. Ramsay.) 

16 O. >n-,.,,s,MNA. I.iuM^, ()„h. \iv. l.{. Kon'r. Akad. p. 307, 

; 0. iKUORAi'v, Lvnuui, C.R , p. 47, pi. ^., £. 7-9. Station 1G4 A, 

off P. J., 400'fin.s. 
0. .JKJUNv, Lyman, C.ll., p. ^2, pi. ^., f. 4-G. Station IGt A, 

off P. J., iOOfin.s. 
I Ophiomusium flaijp:llum, Lyman, C.ll., Vol. \ .. p. 9S. pi. iii., 

OpinoMVMi'.s T...;rr"'iT]L-s, Lyman, C.R., p. 100, pi. siii., f. 
IG hs. Station IGl, offP.J.. DoU fms. 
: Opiiivni^ KFSTUKVs, Lyman,C.H.,p. ll."),pl. NV.,f.7-9. P.J. 

I O. niuru L^m-m, C.R., p. IIS, pi. xx"., f. 1 6. Station 1G4 A. 

oirP..I.,'tOO fms. 
: (). SuK.Mi. .AL .V T., S%st. Ast., p. 95 : C.K., p. IL"). P-J- 
I Ami-hh-kv ruVM'KiCTV, Lvman. CM., p. 1:U. pi. ^^i., f. IMl. 

rn<l,>r .ton.>. \V.itson\ iJay, (^\' ) ■- i'-J- - " 1*^ f'"^"' 

i A. U-\'i\-i Tsars : Lvman, C.R., p. 13G. Station, IG-S, I'iO 

fiu^., (••Cliallcnuc'i. ) 
■ A. i'i:iM'Li:x\ SLimi.M>n Proo. Ara.l. X. Sc. Piiil., Vol. vii., 

(VS, t 

colour hoin- reddish-l.rown speckled with 


are rin-cd' with alternating hands of wh 

Tnder ..tones Watson's Hav ; Taylor Bay, 

310..SP. Asntallhlackspevios. Dredi^^ed in P. J 


32 OPiiiACvvniv stimulkv, Lyman, C.R., p. ^•^^ 

pi. X 

Station 1G4, off P.J. 

33 OpiiiOTiiKix OMOSPiTOHV, Lvman, C.R., p. ^IS 


1 i. P. J., •_' - 10 fms., (Dr. E. P. Ramsay 

34 0. AKiSTULVTA, Lvuian, C.R., p. 223, pi. xxi., 

f. 9-1 

3o 0. sPON(Jici LA, Stimpson, Paoc. Acad. X. Sci. 


p. 3S.>. P.J., (Stimpson.) 

36 0. FUMAKi V, Mull. .V: Trocl.,, Syst. A.t., p. 1 13 

Bull. Mils. Coni. Zool., Vol. III. pt ^. 1 

33 3G. Under stone.s, Watsons lii}. ^ 

water, (W.) 

3< 0. ciLiXKis, M. ^' T.. Sv.t. Ast., p. 1 1 ! "-^ 

t. J'' 

111. Mus. 
.. P.J. 

l.'ii 'vldit' 'id lli^r.. pt. m., p. 99, 
n.l.V^tM.., W.ux.n. Bay,(W.) 


39 GORGONOCEPHALUS AUSTRALis, VerriU, Contribution to Nat. 

Hist, of Kergulen Island, by J. H. Kidder, Vol. ii., p. 74, 
1876 ; C.R., p. 265. Dredged, P.J., (Dr. E. P. Ramsay.) 

40 G. sp. Dredged, P.J., (Dr. E. P. Ramsay.) 



41 PoNTASTKK SUBTUI3EUCULATUS, Sladeu ; Cliallenger Report, 

Asteroidea, Vol. xxx., 1SS9^ p. r);<^ pi. v., f. :3-J: ; pi. xiii., 

42 Plutoxastkr amuigl-us, vSlad^^n. I.e.. p. 0."), pi. ii., f. fy-G ; pi. 

xiil., f. 11, 12. Station 161, oil P.J., 'J.lO fms. 

4.3 AsTKOPECTEN poLVACAXTML-s, 31. .^: T., Syst. Aster, p. 60, pi. 

4G ]',siL\vii;ii \ciM,N-\r(-.s, Sladrn, CAL, V..1. xxx., p. 2 

xl., f. 1-2 : pi. xh-i.,f. 7-S. Station' 164 oifP.J., O-')' 

4/ Luii)iA MACi-LATA? Mull. .t Trochel, System. Aster., 

the Macleay Museum from Jervis Jiay. 

. .Willis Vert., ISin, Vol. 

lopsis, p. 
Exp., Yo 

, (Master P. Jlanisay.) 
KLLAhiKit <.KANULOBL's, Perrier, ilev. Stclhirides, Arch. Zool. 
Exp., Vol. v., p. 43. Xew South Walrs, (" Clialleiif^^er.'') 

s-TiTKNK.v ACUTA, Perrior, Ann. Sci. Naturolles, 1S09, .-) Ser., 
Vol. XII., p. 2S0 ; C.K., Vol. \xx., p. .'UO. Port Jackson, 
G - 1.") fnus. (" Challen,iror."') 
KLWKhCKxs, Perrier, 'Arch. Zool. Exp. J^>vi.s. Stcll., Vol. 

; the exact habitat of A.jlnrr.r 
Faniilv GYMNASTEii 



r'stoiies Chowdei- Bay: Watso 
auiily ASTKRINIDyE. 

,n's Bay, (W.) 


Patih.a cr 
Vol. v., 

Iray, Ann. cV'MH,^^X.H.. 1840 
Ki. Dred-ed at the mouth ( 

: Perrier, I.e., 
jf Lane Cove 

l^iver, ( 

Dr." E. 

P. Ran.say.) 



SP. I 

'iider stones, Vl'atsons Bay, (W .) 


Astkiuxa c 

, Gray, Ann. cV: .Mag. N.H., 

1<S40: Perr., 

Vol. v., 

p. '2 

16. Under atones, very com 

mon, Middle 

Harhour f Coo-ee 13av, (W.) 


A. GuxMi, 

(4 ray, 

Ann. A' Mag. N.H., 1840, p. ! 

>S!) : Perrier, 

p. L>1> 

;. rnder stones, Watson's B. 

ly ; Chowder 

Bay : I 

xv other places ; not so freque 

nt as the pre- 


cediiii. s 



y^. s. v.... . .., p. '. 

>U Hnco^l. 


i<iue, pi. c, £. ;5 ; Perr., I.e., Vol. v., 

p. L>2L . 11ns 

species i 

d between higli and low u=ite 

r mark in the 



,t frequent of 

on btont's in shallow rocky ywols, and 

are to be found from 

Juno to Decenil)er. 'Yhi^v are partlc 

•ularlv AM-11 adapted 

for study, ina.n.uch as after the yoni 

lii leave the eoi^-case 

they do not SNvin. away but remain roi 

Lind a])Out the empty 

egg-cases and ne\ei- leave until they ; 

i..ume the true .tar- 

fish form. The lar^te are remarkabl 

v hardy and may ))e 

kept in confinement without change 

\)f water until they 

have passed through the lar\ al stage-. 

. (W.) A. reqvlaris 

Yerrill, is not found in Port Jackson 

. the" good serie." 

mentioned in the "Alert" Report a 

re ^ery probabh A. 

62 A. PKXiciLLATA, M. ct T., System Aster. 

,18^2, p. t2, Xo. 9. 

Kare, Watsons P3ay; Rose Bav, (W 


G3 A. SP. Allied to the last Imt distinct f 

rom it. Rare, Rose 

Bay, (W.) 

64 NEPANrniv I'.ku unn. P<..rier, 1.. ., Vol. 

v., p. 240 ; " Alert," 

Report, p. 131. PJ. 

65 Sticitastkupolyplw, M.cVtT., Arch.f. Xatur., 1S4;} ; Sladen, 
C.R., Vol. x\x., p. 792. Under stones, Watson's Bay ; 
Chowder Bay; Cabbage Tree Bav. Specimens in the 
harboui- are as a rule very small, those from the outride are 
often much larger. (W.) 

Plectastkh Di:cANL-h, M. .V T., Arch. f. Nat., 1S4:5, Uand i., 
p. 114, figured in the "Sydney Mail," N<)\. -"'rd, L'^^S, p. 
936 ; C.R., Vol. \\\., p. sl 2. Dredged oft Dobroyd Point , 
ofl- George's Head, (Dr. E. P. Ramsay). Under stones, 
Shark Island, (Mr. Hunt); Vaucluse Point (Mr. I.ea). 


Zool. Kxp. HeN.Steil., Vol. 
laSoc. Phy. et Hist. Nat., <; 
4, pi. \ii., f. 12. Very con 
under stones at low tide, Fai 

Chow del' Bay : Rose Bay ; Tayloi- Bay, (W.) 


Kuiuh ( II) VIUDyK 

70 Pri\LL\.rvNriiLS ■vlisiha.lis, U iiiisa\, Citalogue of Echinoder 
iiiata in the Austi ihaii Museum, p 3 and 11, pi i , i.a 
i^outh Jietf G f.iis , P J (1)1 E P. Rani.a%) 

n V. PMiM.Pivts, Ten W cods, P I. ^ , N S W , Vol n , p 28G, 
pl xi\ , f. A B FienuentitTivloi P»i\ Watson's Bav, 
P.T., (W) 

72 GoMonnvKi^ rtnvuiv L mi Anim sins Veit,p -i;, IMG 
CR, Vol HI, p 4<), pl xl, f 1 J-) A41W/, ReMsiOM 
Edunoidea, pait 111, p 397 'i-ft tnis South Ri ef uid ott 

P| ^"1 ' 

in othei places, P J 

P.J , (Di Ranisci) ) 

81 S. ? SP. Under stones, George's Head, P.J., (Ed. Mcintosh). 

82 Amblypneustes ovum, Agass. ct Desor., Ann. Sc. Nat. (3) Vol. 

VI., p. 362 ; A. Agass. Rev. Echin., pt. iii., p. 480, pi. viii.c, 
f. 3-4. Frequent in deep water ; often found under stones 
at low tide, and washed up on sandy beaches Botany ; 
(Joogee ; Chowder; Watson's Bay, (W.) 

83 A. f^KiSEUS, BLainville, A. Agass., Rev. Echin., pt. iii., p. 480, 

pi. xxxviii., f. 20-21. Botany. 

84 A. FORMOSUS, Valenc, Voy. of " Venus,' pi. ii., f. 2 ; A. Agas. 

pt. iii., p. 479, pi. viii.c, f. 1-2. Queen's Beach, Botany. 

85 HoLOPNEUSTES PURPURASCENS, Lutken; A. Agass., Rev. Echin. 

pt. iii., p. 485, pi. vi., f. 25, 25«, pi. viii.c, f. 5-6. P.J. 
(Dr. Ramsay.) 

86 Tripxeustes angulosus, Leske; Bell, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1879, 

p. 6.o7, 661 ; Agass., Rev. Echin., pt. i., p. 135, pt. iii., p. 
501, pi. iv.6, f. 5-6 ; pi. xxv., f. 6-7. Very rare, Shark 
Point, P.J., (Mr. Hunt). 

87 EvECiiiNUS AuaxRALLT., Ten.-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc.,N.S.W., 

Vol. II., p. 167. P.J. 


88 FiBULARiA AusTRALis, Desml., Tabl. Syn., 240 ; Agass, Rev. 

Echin., pt. iii., p. 506, pi. xiiii., f. 9-10 : C.R., Vol. iii-, p- 
119. P.J. 

89 F. ovuLUM, Lam., Anim. Sans Vert., p. 17; Agass., Rev. 

Echin., iii., p. .507, pi. xiii.e, f. 1-3. P.J. 

90 EcmxANTifus testudixarius. Gray, P. Zool. Soc, London, 

p. .S:-), 18.-.1. P..I. 

91 LAr;Axr.M Pkkoxii, Auass., Int. Mon. Scut.. 1841, p. 123, pL 

Family SPATANGID.^. 
lXulata, Lam.; Agass., Rev. Echin. iii., p. 570, 
f. 7-12 : pi. XXV., f. 33-34 : pi. xxvi., f. 21-22; 

, f. 13; pi. .xl., f. 45, 46. P.J. 


95 EcHixocARDiTJM AusTRALE, Gray, Ann. & Mag. K Hist., 

Ser. 2, 1851, p. 131. P.J. 

96 Hemiaster apicatus, Ten.-Woods, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. iv., 

p. 283, pi. xiii., f. 1-5. P.J. 

97 Brissus carinatus, Lam., Agass., Rev. Echin., iii., p. 596, pi. 

xxi.a, f. 1 3, pi. XXV., f. 36-37, pi. xxvi., f. 38. P.J. 

98 Schizaster vextricosa, Gray, Ann. S: Mag. N.H., (2) Vol. 

VII., p. 133 ; Agass., Rev. Echin., iii., p. 6U. P.J. 


Order APODA. 

99 Synapta dolarrifera, Stinipson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 

Vol. VII., 1855, p 386 ; C.R., Vol. xiv., p. 27. Watson's 
Bay ; Neutral Bay, (VV.) 
100 Chirodota Australiana, Stimpson, I.e., p. 386 ; C.R., Vol. 

IV., p. 1( 

and the preceding specie 

found together under stones in muddy places, 
Watson's Bay (W.) 

101 C. Japonica, Von Marenzeller; C.R., p. 17 and 32. Off 

Green Point, P.J. (W.) 

Order PEDATA. 

102 CucuMARiA MACULATA, Semper, Holoth., p. 47, pi. xiii., f. 8, 

pi. xiv., f. 5 ; C.R., p. 100. P.J. 

103 C. MiRABiLis, Theel. ; C.R., Vol. xiv., p. 61, pi. ix., f. 5. P.J. 

104 CoLOCHiRus spiNosus, Q. ct G., Astrolabe, Vol. iv., p. 118, 

pi. vii., f. 1-10 ; C.R., Vol. XIV., p. 120, pi. xiv., f. 3-4.= 
Stereoderma validum, Bell, Zool. "Alert." p. 1;:»0, pi. ix., 
1 E, a-f. Very Common in deep water, P.J. 

105 C. AUSTRALis, Ludwig ; C.R., p. 83 and 122, pi. xiv., f. 5-6; pi. 

vi., f. 6. Under stones, Watson's Bay, P.J. (W.) 

106 0. TUBERCULOSUS, Q. & G., Astrolabe, Vol. iv., p. 131 ; C.R., 

Sub-Family Sporadipoda. 

108 Thyone buccalis, Stimpson, P. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phi 

p. 385; C.R.,p. 136. P.J. 

109 T. OKEM. Bell, Zool. "Alert," p. 149, pi. ix., f. D; 

139. P.J. 

110 PiiYLLOPHORUS PERSPiciLLUM, Selenka, Zeits. fur Zoologie, 

Bd. XVII., p. 352, pi. XX., f. 110-111 ; C.R., p. 150. In 
the Challenger Report there is a query as to wliether this 
species belongs to the genus Orcula or to PhyUophorus. I 
have seen the inner alternating circle of tentacles so that 
it belongs to the latter genus. Off Shark Point, P.J. 

111 P. iMcoMPEirrus, Theel., C.R., p. 97, pi. v., f. 3 ; pL viii., f. 

5. P.J. 

Family DEIMATID^. 

3 Laetogoxe violacea, Theel., C.R., Vol. iv., p. 78, pi. 13. 

Station 164, off P.J. ("Challenger.") 

4 Pannyciiia Moseleyi, Theel., C.R., Vol. iv., p. 88, pi. 17. 

Station 164 off P.J ., ("Challenger.") 

Sub-Kingdom VERMES. 




PoLYCELis AUSTRALis, Schmarda, Neue, Wirbellose Thiere, 

1859, Vol. I., p. 21, pi. iv., f 45. lUawarra. 


TiiYSANOZOON CRUCiATUM, Schmarda, I.e., p. 30, pi. vi., f. 68. 


Phil., 1855, 

AUSTKALE, Stimpson, Proc. 

Acad. Nat, 

Vol. vii., p. 289. Under st 

ones, Taylo 


D. oiiLONca-s, Stin 


MHOiDALis, Stimpson, I.e., p. 390. 

viKiDis, Quoy & Gaim., Voy. Astrolabe, Vol. iv., 
, pi. xxiv, f. 9-11. P.J. 

AUSTRALis, Stimpson, P. Acad. N. Sci. Phil., 1S57, 
. P.J. 
^ very pretty species marked with red and white 


I am not aware of any described species of this orde 
Jackson, but Dr. N. Cobb, informs me that free swimn 
todes are found, and no doubt there are many spt 
worked out. 


Sub -Class Chaetopoda. 


Sub- Order ERRANTIA. 
n Amphivome sp. P.J. 

12 HippoNcE Gaudiciiaudii, Audouin <fe Edwards ; Mcintosh, 

C.R., Vol. XII., p. 30, pi. i., f. 5, pi. iv., f. 3, pi. iii.fl, f. 
13-17. P.J. 


13 Aphrodita AUSTRALIS, Baird, Jour. Linn. Soc, London, Vol. 

VIII., p. 176; Mcintosh, C.R., p. U, pi. vii., f. 6-7, pi. 

vi.a, f. 4-7. P.J. 

Family POLYNOID^. 
U Lepidonotus striatus, Kingberg, Ofversigt af K. Vetensk. 

Akad. Forhandlingar, 1S55, p. 381. P.J. 
}'^ L. Jacksoni, Kinberg, I.e., d. 383. P.J. 
16 L. DicTYOLKPKs, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vn., p. 2b7, 

pi. ix., f. 7-8. JJredged in shallow water, Watson's Bay, 

(Dr. Haswell). 

17 PoLYNOE AUSTKALis, Schiiiarda, Neue. Wirb. ' 

p. 154, Woodcut«, 6, //. P.J- 

18 TuOBMORA ARGUS, Val.; Quartrefages, Hist. Na 


LEPis, Hasw., I.e., p. 292, 
near high water mark, P.J 

(Dr. Hasw 
.iimiATA. Mcintosh, C.R., Vol. xii 



25 PiiYLLODCE DUPLEX, McIntosh, C.R., Vol. XII., p. 167, pi. 

xxvii., f. 8 ; pi. xxxii., f. 9 ; pi. xv.a, f. 1. Station 163, 

26 P. Nov^-HoLLANDi^, Kinberg, Ofversigt af K. Vetensk- 

Akad. Forhandlungar, 1865, p. 241. P.J. 12 fms. 

27 EuLALiA QUADBOCULA, Hasw.. P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. X., p. 748, 

pi. liii, f. 6-9. Dredged in P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 
Family HESIONID^. 

28 CiRROSYLLis DiDYMOiCERA, Schuiarda, I.e., pt. ii., p. 77, pi- 

xxviii., f. 224. P.J. 

c, p. 749, pi. liii-. I- 

Family SYLLID^. 
USCANS, Hasw., I.e., Vol. x., p. 734, pi. 1., f- l-3> 
5. Littoral, extending to 15 fms., P.J., (t>r. 

P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 

p-^iniilv XFRLTD^E 

3& XHIFILM'L-, VMIJ^ODOMV, Schm ircl I, lc,pt 11, p lOG, pi. 

xxxi, f 2tT P T 

39 XFRhis JvcKsoM, Kiuberg, 1 < , LSGl, p 169 Under stones 

-it low tide, P J 

40 N L\N( Lii)\, kinbeig, 1 c , 18G5, p 1G9 12 fms P J 

41 Nevmhks \ ^:vLii, Kmb<rg,lc, K^Gj, p 171 L ndei stones 

It loH tide, P T 

42 PiHiNFKus Xo\ > lloiL\M)i*, Kinberg, Ic, L^G5, p 175. 


l'-/' Anions "^Mu.^e'l? It low tide, ' P jV(I 

HilNf ItMD.P 

Family ARICIID^. 
!s^ov^-HoLLANDi.E, Kinberg, I.e., 1865, p. 252. 

Family OPHELIID^. 

57 PoLYOPHTiiALMUs SP. Off Green Point, P.J. 


58 CiiAETOPTERUs LUTEUS, Stimpson, P. Acad. N. Sci., Phil., 

1854-55, p. 391. P.J. 

59 C. MACROPUS, Schmarda, I.e., pt. ii., p. 17, pi. xi., f. 167. P.J. 


60 CiRRATULUS AusTRALis, Val., Quartrefages Hist. Nat. Ann., 

Vol. I., p. 457. P.J. ? Jervis Bay. 

61 TiMARETE FECUNDA, Kinberg, I.C., 1865, p. 254. Surface, P.J. 
€2 Tratisia lithophila, Kinberg, I.e., 1865, p. 256. P.J., 12 

Family MALDANID^. 
63 Clymene integrinatus, Hasw., P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vii., p. 
634, pi. xii., f. 3-6. Among sand and shingle, P.J., (Dr. 

€4 Ammociiares tenuis, Hasw., I.e., Vol. vii., p. 633, pi. xii., f- 
2. Under stones at low tide (Dr. Haswell). 
Family PHERUSID^. 

65 SiPiioxosTOMA AFFINE, Haswell, I.e., Vol. X., p. 750, pi. liv., 

f. 1-5. Obtained in the trawl, P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 
Family HERMELLID.^. 

66 Sabellaria Girardi, Mcintosh, C.R., Vol, xii., p. 421, pi- 

xlvii., f. 7, pi. xxvii.«, £. 13-15. Off P.J. 

67 Pectinaria antipoda, Schmarda, I.e., pt. ii., p. 46, pi. xxiv., 

f. 199, 199«. P.J. 

<58 Terebella Grubei, Mcintosh, C.R., Vol. xii., p. 445, pi- 

xlix., f. 2 ; pi. xxvii.a, f. 20. Station 163. 
69 T. modesta, Quatrefages, Hist. Nat. Annates, pt. ii., Vol. nM 

p. 365. P.J. 1 Jervis Bay. fl 

20:?. New Soutli Wales Coast. 
T, (Laxice) flabellum, Baird ; Mcintosh, C.R., Vol. xii, 
UG, pi. xlix., f. ;}, pi. 1., f. 1, pi. xxvii.«, f. 22. Ort'Gr 

Family SABf^LLCDy?^:. 

' 8A1JELLA FUSCA, Grube : Mcintosh, C.K., Vol. xii., p. 491, pi. 

Hi., f. 3, pi. xxx.rt, f. 4-6. OtfP.J. 

S. VELATA, Hasw., P.L.S., X.S.W., Vol. ix., p. 671, pi. xxxi., 

f. 8, pi. xxxiv., f. 1-4. ['nder stones 1>.J., (Dr. Ifaswein. 

S. PUXCTULATA, Haswell, I.e., Vol. IX., p. 672. Xear low 

Spiro(;kaphi.s Au.sTKALiKxsis, HhswoU, l.c, Vol. XI., p. 673. 

Watson's Bay, near low water mark, P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 
Family SERPrUDJE. 
SAL.MAC1XA ArsTKALis, Jia.-,well, l.c. Vol. IX., p. 669, pi. 

xxxiii., f. 7-11. Under stone-s, P..)., (Dr. Haswell). 
Eli'oma'ith klk.;ans, Ha.^^^ll, I.e., Vol. mi., p. 633, pi. xii., 

f. 1 : Vol. IX., p. .;r.O, pi. x.xxi., f. -A-i : pi. xxxii.,f. 11-12: 

Sub-Class II. Geit 

, Stimpson, P. Acad. N. 

)SOMA Japomca, (Jrube, .^4th Jahresbericht der Schle- 
;hen Geselleschaft fur vaterlandische Cultur, Breslau, 
(7, p. 73 ; C.R., Vol. xiii., p. 21. Very common under 




91 PoNTOBDELLA LEUCOTHELA, Schuiarda, Neue Wi 

Class lY. ROTIFEPtA. 

AETA SP. Among weeds, Callan Park Je 

Sub-Kincrdom ARTHROPODA. 


I. Entkomostkaca. 


* The following species have been described from South-West 
and West Australia, by Dr. Baird, P.Z.S., London, 1869, p. 
311-313 :— 

Branch r.i.i.iov;. Biiid : .,u Mustelus, King George's 

B. HI \. TATA. \'>:>iv>] : on M vl iol Kitiis, King George's Soumh 

On a turtle. Sharks Bay 
Ivhinobatus, Shark's 
I .species may be idoi 

Family CYPillD^. 
Zealaxdica, Brady ; C.R., Vol. i., 1880, p. 
33, pi. iii, f. 1 a-m. P.J. 

3 PoNTOCYPRis SUBRENIFORMIS, Brady, C.R.,p. 38, pi. XV., f. Qa-a. 

P. J. 

4 Argillaecia badia, Brady, C.R.,p. -tO, pi. vi., f. 3 a-a. P.J. 

5 Macrocypeis setigera, Brady, C.R., p. 43, pi. i., f. 1 a-a. P.J. 

6 Bairdia fusca, Brady, C.R., p. 49, pi. vii., f. 2a-d; Trans. 

Z. Soc, 1865, Vol. v., p. 34, pi. Ivii., f. 9 a-d. P.J. 

7 B. MINIMA, Brady, C.R., p. 53, pl. vii., f. 6 a-g, f. e and^, from 


8 B. viCTRix, Brady, Les Fends de la Mer., Vol. i., p. 162, pl. 

xvii., f. 17, 18 ; C.R., p. 56, pl. x., f. 5 a-d. P.J. 

Family CYTHERID^. 

10 Cytiiere vellicata, Brady, C.R., p. 64, pl. xii., f. 2 a-d. P.J. 

11 C. DEMissA, Brady, Ann. & Mag. N. H., 1868, (4) Vol. ii., p. 

180, pl. xii., f. 12 ; C.R., p. 66, pl. xii., f. 7 a-j. P.J. 

12 C. CUMULUS, Brady, C.R., p. 71, pl. xiii., f. 2 a-d. RJ. 

13 C. CRISPATA, Brady, C.R., p. 72, pl. xiv., f. 8 a-d. P.J. 

14 C. CANALicuLATA, Reuss, Haidingers Abhand. 1850, Bd. iii., 

p. 76, pl. ix., f. 12 ; C.R., p. 73, pl. xiv., f. 7 a-d. P.J. 

15 C. Ker(;uklenensis, Brady, C.R., p. 78, pl. iv., f. 1 a-/. RJ. 

16 C. GouJONi, Brady, C.R., p. 96, pl. xxv., f. 7 a-;/. P.J. 

17 C. DicTYON, Brady, C.R., p. 99, pl., f. 1 «-y. Off RJ. 

18 C. DASYDERMA, Brady, C.R., p. 105, pi. xvii., lia-f; pl. xvm. 

f. 4 a-f. ' P.J. 

19 C. CLAviGERA, Brady, C.R., p. 105, pl. xxiii., f. 7 a-d. RJ. 

20 C. TRicRisTATA, Brady, C.R., p. 110, pl. xxiii., f. 6 a-d. RJ. 

21 Krithe producta, Brady, C.R., p. 114, pl. xxvii., f. 1 a-j. 

Off P. J. 

22 LoxocoxcHA avellana, Brady, C.R., p. 117, pl. xxviii.,f. 1 a-/. 


23 L. AUSTRALIS, Brady, C.R., p. 119, pl. xxviii., f. 5.?/: pl. xxix. 

25 X. cuRTA, Brady, C.R., p. 126, pl. xxxi., f. ii a-d. 

26 Cyttierura curvistriat.v, Brady, O.K., p. 131, 

t 10 a-d. P.J. 

28 Cytiierella pulciir.\, Brady, C.R., p. 174, pl. > 

Family CALANID^. 

29 Calanus gracilis, Dana, U.S. Expl., Crust., 1078, pi. xxiv., 

f. 10 ; Brady, C.R., Vol. viii., p. 35, pi. v., f. 1-6 ; pi. 
xlvi. P.J. 

30 EucALANUS attenuatus, Dana, I.e., pi. ixxv., f. 1 ; C.R., I.e., 

p. 38, pl. vi., f. 1-8 ; pi. ii., f. 8-10. Off P.J. 

31 Pleuromma abdominale, Claus. ; Brady, I.e., p. 46, pl. xi., f. 

1-13 ; pl. xii., f. 1-16 ; pl. xxxi.; f. 13-U. Off P.J. 

32 Leuckartia flavicornis, Claus. ; Brady, C.R., p. 50, pl. xv., 

f. 1-9 and 16. Off P.J. 

33 Undina vulgaris, Dana; C.R., p. 53, pl. xv., f. 11-15; pl. 

xviii., f. 6. Off P.J. 

34 U. Darwini, Lubboek, Trans. Linn. Soc., London, Vol. xxiil., 

p. 179, pl. xxix., f. 4-5 ; C.R., p. 54, pl. xvi., f. 1-4, 6-14. 
Off P.J. 

35 ScOLECiTHRix Dax^e, Lubbock, Trans. Ent. Soc., Vol. iv., 

1856, p. 15, pl. ix., f. 6-9 ; C.R., p. 57, pl. xvii., f. 1-12. 
Off P.J. 

36 EucH.r.TE PRESTAXDRE^, Philippi ; Brady, C.R., p. 60, pl. 

xviii., f. 7-15, pl. xix. Off P.J. 

37 Candace pectinata, Brady, C.R., p. 67, pl. xxx., f. 1-13. Off 


38 C. PACHYDACTYLA, Dana ; Brady, C.R., p. 68, pl. xxxi., f. 2-9. 

Off P.J. 

39 ^TiDius ARMATUS, Brady, C.R., p. 76, pl. x., f. 5-16. Off P.J- 

40 Temora dubia, Lubbock, Tran. Ent. Soc, 1856 ; C.R., p. 79, 

pl. XXV., f. 1-17. Off P.J. 

41 Centropagus furcatus, Dana ; Brady, C.R., p. 83, pl. xxviii., 

f. 1-11. Off P.J. 

42 PoNTELLA ACUTA, Dana ; Brady, C.R , 

43 P. 

Off P.J. 

44 P. PLUMATA, Dana ; Brady, C.R., p. 92, pl 

Off P.J. 

Family CYCLOPID^. 

45 OiTHONA ciiALLENGERii, Brady, C.R., p. 97, 

Off P.J. 


46 CoRYCAEUS VARius, Dana ; Brady, C.R., p. 

47 OxcAKA OBTUSA, Dana ; Brady, C.R., p. 120, pi. li., f. 1-1 L 

Ort' P.J. 


48 Saphieixa splexdens, Dana ; Brady, C.R., p. 127, pi. xlix., 

f. 11-13. Off P.J. 

Family I. BALANlDyE. 
Sub-Family Balanin.e. 

49 Balanus Tixtinxabulum, Linn. ; Darwin, Monograph of the 

Cirripedia, (Ray Society) London, 1851-1854, Vol. ii., p. 
194, pi. i., tigs, a, 1 ; pi. ii., tig. 1 a, o. Sydney. 

50 B. trigoxus, Darwin, I.e., p. 223, pi. iii., tigs, 7 a. 7 f ; Hoek., 

C.R., Vol. VIII., (1883) p. 149, pi. xii., f. 20. P.J. 
•51 B. VESTiTus, Darwin, i.e., p. 286, pi. vii., f. 3a-b. P.J. 

52 B. IMPERATOR, Darwin, i.e., p. 288, pi. viii., f. 4a, 4c. P.J. 

53 AcASTA SULCATA, Liiuiarck ; Darwin, I.e., p. 310, pi. ix., figs. 

2a-2d. P.J. 

54 A. GLAXs, Lamarck : Darwin, I.e., p. 314, pl. ix., f. 5a-.-)c. RJ. 

55 Tetraclita rosea, Darwin, I.e., 335, pl. x., f. 3a, 3d. P.J. 

56 T. RADiAT.^ Blainville ; I.e., p. 343, pl. xi., f. 5 ad. RJ. 

57 T. POROSA, Gmelin ; Darwin, I.e., p. 329, pl. x., f. la-lm. P.J. 

58 Elminus plicatus, Gray : Darwin, I.e., p. 351, pl. xii., f. 2a- 

2f. P.J. 

59 E. SIMPLEX, Darwin, I.e., p. 353. pl. xii., f. 3. P.J. 

60 E. MODESTus, Darwin, I.e., p. 350, pl. xii., f. la, le. P.J. 


Spengler ; Darwin, I.e., p. 85, pi. i., f. 3. 
I shells of Spirnla Peronii, Bondi. 
Darwin, I.e., p. 89, pi. i., f. 5. P.J. ? 

Darwin. On the feet of CUhnnarius 
. ._, ,_ 1 hermit crab). OtF P.J. 
, Hoek., C.R., Vol. vni.,p. 46, pi. ii., f. 2-4. Off PJ. 

72 DlCIIELASPIS ORTHOGONIA, Daiwin, 1.0., p. 130, pi. ii., f. 10. 

Off Ball's Head, on the stem of Virgularia. (Dr. Ramsay.) 

73 Paradolepas neptuni, Macdonald, P.Z.S., 1869, p. 440, pi. 

33-34. On the gills of various craV)s, P.J. 

74 Alepas pedunculata, Hoek., C.R., Vol. viii., p. f^l, p. iii., f- 

10-11. Off P.J. 

). 20.3, pi. iv., f. 9. 
males; it is very 
' and many other 

places. (W.) 

76 Scalpellum Peronii, (iray : Darwin, I.e., p. 246, pi. vi., f. 6. 

Off Ball's Head, P. J. (W.) 

77 Lithotrya cauta, Darwin, I.e., p. 3o6, pi. vii., f. 3. N.S.W. 

II. Malacostraca 

Sub-Order I. Amphipoda. 
Family OUCH ESTI L)yK. 

78 Talorchkstia quadrimana, Dana, T.S. Kxpl. Kxp., Crust. U- 

79 OrcjIkstia Macl'kyana, Haswell. P L.S.,' N.S.W., Vol. iv., 

p. 2.-)0, pi. vii., f. 2 ; Cat. Crust, p. 220, no. 401. Sandy 

na, U.S. 


, Exp., CruH 


p 221, 

no. 403. t 

Vol. IV., I 

pi. viii., f. 1 


,19; Cat. 


,p. 221, 408 




87 C. LiXEATA, Haswell, I.e., p. 321, p. xviii., f. 2 ; Cat. Crust, 

p. 230, no. U7. P.J. 

88 Lysianassa nitkns, Haswell, I.e., p. 255, pi. viii., f. 5 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 232, pi. iv., f. 1, no. 4 IS. P.J. 

89 L. AFFiNis, Haswell, I.e., p. 255 ; Cat. Crust., p. 232, pi. iv., 

f. 2, no. 419. P.J. 
m Glycerixa tenuicornis, Haswell, I.e., p. 256, pi. viii., f. 6 ; 
Cat. Crust, pi. iv., £. 6, no. 422. P.J. 

91 Ampelisca Australis, Haswell, I.e., p. 257, pi. viii., f. 3 ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 235, no. 423. P.J. 

92 Phoxus villosus, Haswell, I.e., p. 258, pi. ix., f. 2 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 236, no. 424. P.J. 

93 P. Batei, Haswell, i.e., p. 259, pi. ix., f. 3 ; Cat. Crust., p. 

237, no. 525. P.J. 

94 CEdicerus fossor, Stimp., P. Acad. N. Sci., Phil., 1855; Cat. 

Crust., p. 238, no. 426. Botany Bay. 

95 (E. LATRAXS, Haswell, I.e., p. 324, pi. xix., f. 1 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 239, no. 427. Bondi. 

96 (E. AREXicoLA, Haswell, I.e., p. 325, pi. xxiv., f. 3 ; Cat. Crust., 

97 VnoTu^ PI 

X(iuis, Haswell, 

I.e., p. 32 

.-., pi. xix.. 

f. 2 ; Cat. 

Crust, p 



' Liim^UA, Has 

^vell, I.e., ] 

.. 327, pi. 

Cat. Cri 

30. Dredl 

^ed, P.J. 

99 Atylus mo 


swell. I.e., 

p. 327, pi. 

xviii., f. 4 ; 

Cat. Crust.. D. 243. no. ^ 

131. P.J. 

100 A. LiPPus 

, Haswell, I.e., ■ 

p. 328, pi. : 

ex., f. 1 ; 

Cat. Crust., 

p. 243, 

no. 432. P.J. 



.well, I.e., \ 

^ol.v., p. 102,,f. 

3 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 244, i 

lo. 433. 

102 A. MAGAL( 

3PHTHALMUS, Haswell, I.e., 

Vol. v., p. 

102, pi. vi., 

f . 4 ; Ca 

,t. Crust., p. 244 
Nus, Spenee Bnl 

, no. 434. 


103 A. AUSTRI 

:e, Cat. Ai 


p. 137, pi. 

xxvi., f. 

4; Cat. Crust., ^ 

435. P.J 

104 Pherusa 

Australis, Haswell, I.e., p. 

103, pi. vii 

;'., f. 1 ; Cat. 


X 246, no.'437. 

Botany Bay. 

lOo EusiRus DUBius, Haswell, 

I.e., Vol. I 

v., p. 331, ] 


var. I.e., 

Vol. X., p. 100; 

Cat. Crust 

., p. 247, n( 

). 43S. P.J. 

106 Leucotho 

Haswell, 1. 

c., Vol. IV. 

. p. 261, pi- 


110 M(KRA RUBRO-MACULLTA, Stimpson, P. Acad. N. Cci., Phil., 

1855; Cat. Crust., p. 254, no. 446 ; P.L.S., N.S.VV., Vol. 
X., p. 105 P.J. 

111 M. iiAMiGERA, Haswell, I.e., p. 333, pi. xxi., f. 1 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 254, no. 447. P.J. 

112 M. viRiDis, Haswell, i.e., p. 333, pi. xxi., f. 2; Cat. Crust., 

p. 255, no. 448. P.J. 

113 M. DENTIFEBA, Haswell, I.e., p. 332, pi. xx., f. 4 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 256, no. 549. P.J. 

114 M. APPROXiMANS, Haswell, I.e., p. 334, pi. xxi., f. S; Cat. 

Crust., p. 257, no. 450. Clark Island, P.J. 

115 M. CRASSIPES, Haswell, I.e., Vol. v., p. 103, pi. vii., f. 2; 

Cat. Crust., p. 258, no. 452. P.J. 

116 Megamocra Mastkhsii, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 265, pi. xi., 

f. 1 ; Cat. Crust., p. 258, no. 453. P.J. 

117 M. .SUBCARIXATA, Haswell, i.e., p. 335, pi. xxi., f. 4; Cat. 

Crust., p. 260, no 455. P.J. 

118 M. B(ECKii, Haswell, I.e., p. 336, pi. xxi., f. 6 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 21, f. 6. P.J. 

119 Wyvillea loxgimanus, Haswell, I.e., p. 337, pi. xxii., f. 7;, 

Cat. Crust., p. 261, no. 458. P.J. 

120 Polycheria tenuipes, Haswell, i.e., p. 345, pi. xxii., f. 8; 

Cat. Crust., p. 262, no. 459. P.J. 

121 P. BREVicoRMS, Haswell, I.e., p. 346 ; Cat. Crust., p. 263, 

no. 460. P.J. 

122 MiCRODEUTOPUs AU.STHAU.S, Haswell, I.e., p. 271, pi. xi., f. -"^ ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 263, no. 461. P.J. 

123 M. MoRTOM, Haswell, I.e., p. 339, pi. xxii., f. 4 ; Cat., 

p. 264, no. 462. P.J. 

124 M. TE.vuiPES, Haswell, i.e., p. 339, pi. xxii., f. 1 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 264, no. 463. Clark Island, P.J. 

125 M. 


LMPHiTiKE quadrimanus, Haswell, I.e., p. 337, pi. x 

Cat. Crust., p. 266, no. 465. Clark Island, P.J. 

, p. 266, J 

Haswell, 1 

129 A. SETOSA, Haswell, I.e., p. 270; Cut. Crust., 

468. Roek-pools, Botany Bay. 

130 Xenocheira fasciat.v, Haswell, I.e., p. 272, pi. 

Crust., p. 268, no. 469. P.J. 


131 Haplocheira typica, Haswell, I.e., p. 273, pi. xi., f. 2 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 269, no. 470. Under stones at low water-mark, 

132 PoDOCERUs AusTRALis, Haswell ; I.e., p. 348, pi. vxi., f. 8 ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 270, no. 471. P.J. 

133 Cyrtophium pakasiticum, Haswell, I.e., p. 274, pi. xxii., f. 1 ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 271, no. 472. P.J. 

134 C. DENTATL-M, Haswell, I.e., p. 274, pi. xxii., f. 5; Cat. Crust., 

p. 272, no. 473. P.J. 

135 C. MiNUTUM, Haswell, I.e., p. 343, pi. xxii., f. 6 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 273, no. 474. P.J. 

136 C. iiYSTRix, Haswell, I.e., Vol. v., p. 104, pi. vii., f. 3 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 273, no. 475. P.J. 

137 CoLOMASTix Brazirri, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 343, pi. xxii., 

f. 4 ; Cat. Crust.' p. 274, no. 476. 2-10 fms. PJ. 

138 IciLius Australis, Haswell, I.e., p. 274, pi. xii., f. 2 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 1'75, pi. iv., no. 477. P.J. 

Tribe Laemidipoda. 

139 Proto N0V.E-H0LLANDI.E, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 275, pi. 

xii., f. 3 : Cat. Crust., p. 310, no. 532. P.J. 

140 Protella Australis, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 276, pi. xii., 

f. 4 ; Cat. Crust., p. 311, no. 53-3. P.J. 
HI P. echinata, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 346, pi. xxii., f. 2 ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 312, no. 535. P.J. 
H2 P. Hasvvelliana, Mayer, in Die Caprelliden ; Haswell, 

P.L.S., N.S.W.. Vol. IX., p. 998. 
U3 HiRCELLA CORNIGERA, Haswell, I.C., Vol. IV., p. 347, pi. xxui. 

f. 5 ; Cat. Crust., p. 313, no. 536. Clark Island, P.J. 
U4 Caprella .^quilibra. Say.; Haswell, I.e., Vol. ix., p. 999. 

OflF Ball's Head, P.J. 
1*5 C. iNERMis, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 348, pi. xxiii., £. 3 ; 

Cat. Crust., 314, no. 537. P.J. 

146 C. attenuata, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crust., p. 817, pi. Iv., 

f. 1 ; Haswell, I.e., Vol. ix., p. 1000. P.J. 

147 C. tenuis, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 276, pi. xii., f. 5 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 312, no. 534. P.J. 

148 C. OBESA, Haswell, I.e., Vol. iv., p. 348, pi. xxiv., f. 1 ; Cat. 

IV., p. 348, pi. xxiv, 
)n piles Circular Quj 

149 Platyisiinopus mirabilis, Stebbing, C.R., Vo 
p. 830, pi. Iviii. 2 - 10 fms., P.J. 






C.R., Vol. XXIX., 

pi. ci 

, pi. 

,cii. station 16.3 B, 

off P.J., 35 fnis. 



, Stel 

jbing, C.R., Vol. 



cxxxi. RJ., -1 

-10 f. 



An-ciiolomera Blossevilli 

I, M. 

-Ed. : Stebbins, C 

> P- 

U33. Off P.J. 

153 Tetkat 



ng,C.R., Vol. XXIX 

pi. 1<^ 


Station 164 A. 

Sub-Order H. Isopoda. 
Family IDOTEID^. 

Family ONISCID^. 

155 Philougria marixa, Chilton, P.L.S., K.S.W., Vol. ix., p. 

463, pi. xi., f. 1-6. In rock-pools, Coogee Bay, (Chilton). 

156 LiGiA AusTRALiENsis, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crust, Vol. 

11., p. 740, pi. xlix., f. 3 ; Cat. Crust., p. 281. N.S.W. 


157 Ceratotiiga imbricata, Fabr.; Miers, Zool. "Alert,"' p. 300. 


158 CoNDONOPiiiLUs ARGUS, Haswell, P.L.S,, N.S.W., Vol. v., 

p. 471, pi. xvi., f. 1 ; Cat. Crust., p. 283. P.J. 

159 Ourozeuktes Oweni, M.-EcI., Crust., Vol. in., p. 276, pi- 

xxxiii., f. 8 ; Cat. Crust., p. 283, no. 488. P.J. 

Family ^GID^. 

160 ^GA CYCLOPS, Haswell, I.e., Vol. v., p. 1 


VERRUCAUDA, White ; Dana, U.S. Expl. 
, p. 779, pi. lii., f. 6 ; Cat. Crust., p. 28S 


I ACULEATA, Haswell, I.e., Vol. 

v., p. 4 

74, pl 


f. 6 ; Cat. Crust., p. 291, no. 502. P.J 

167 CiLiC(EA t: 
xvii., f. : 

enuicaudata, Haswell, I.e., V 
2 ; Cat. Crust., p. 295. P.J. 

ol. v.. 

p. 47. 

■^ pl. 


Cat. Cru 

>SA, Haswell, I.e., Vol. vi., p. 
St., p. 297. P.J. 


pi. iii., 

, f. 3; 

169 C. CRASS A, 

Haswell, I.e., Vol. vi., p. 186 

; Cat 

;. Crust., p. 

298. P.J. 

1-0 C. Latreii 

.LEI, Leach ; Miers, Zool. " Al 

ert," p 

. .308 ; 


Crust., p 

^ 290, no. .501. P.J. 

171 Haswellia 

CARyKA, Haswell, I.e., Vol. v 

., p. 4; 

'G, pl. 


f. 4 ; Ca 

t. Crust., p. .302, no. 520. P.J 

172 Cekatocep 

XVII., p. 

.lALus Ghayanus, White : Be< 
U8. Ott'P.J. 





ELLA TRICOKMS, Haswell, I.C., 

Vol. I 

X., p. 


pi. liii., f 

. 1. Dredged at Port Jackson 


I7i Ampiioroie 
II., p. 78: 

lEA AusTRALiEXSis, Dana, U.S. 
-), pl. Hi., f. 1.3. N.S.W. 

Family ARCTURID^. 




175 Au("ruHus 

r.p.HvicouNis, Haswell, I.e., Vol. vi.. 

p. 19 

5, pl- 

iv., f. 5 ; 

Cat. Crust., .304. P.J.? 

Family ANTHURID^. 

176 Pauaxthu. 

:a ArsTKALis, Ha.w.-ll. I.e., p. 4 

77, pl. 



St., p. .305,''no'. 526.'' p'.j". " 
TA, Haswell, I.e., p. 477, pl. ^ 

s vermIformIs, Haswell, P.L.S., 

i BayV(Dr." Haswell.) 

Family TAXAID^. 

Family ANCEID^. 

186 Anceus ferox, Haswell, I.e.. Vol. ix., p. 1005, pi. lii., f. 1-5. 

P.J., (T. Hewitt). 

Family ASELLID^. 

187 Stenetrium armatum, Haswell, I.e., Vol. v., p. 478 and Vol. 

IX., p. 1009, pi. li., f. 1-12 ; Cat. Crust., p. 308. P.J. 

188 S. INKRME, Haswell, I.e., Vol. v., p. 479, pi. xix., f. 2 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 309. P.J. 

Family SEROLID^. 

189 Serolis Bromleyana, Willemoes Suhm, P.R. Soc., London, 

Vol. XXIV., p. 591, 1876 ; C.R., Vol. xi., p. 53, pi. iv. 
Station 164 C. Off P. J. 

190 S. eloxgata, F. E. Beddard, C.R., Vol. xi., p. 71, OffP.J. 

191 S. pallida, F. E. Beddard, C.R., Vol. xl, p. 74, pi. viii., f. 

6-16. Station 163. 

Sub-Order I. Stomatopoda. 

192 Lysiosquilla Brazieri, Miers, Ann. it Mag. N.H., Vol^v., 

quilla miles, Hess 
f. 21 ; Cat. Crust., 

Sub-Order II. Schizopoda. 

i\uai\. GRACILIS, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crustace-i, 

4, pi. xlii., f. 6 a-o; C.R., Vol. xiii., p. 89, pi. xv., t. 

. Off P J. ("Challenger.") 

VTiFROXS, (>. (). Sars, C.R., Vol. .mil, p. 95, pi. x^\ 

23. OffPJ. ("Challong^T.') 

iprr\Nrv Ai^ikxriN^: <> Sais, C R., Vol. \m. p I 

\xu " 


1{ , Vol. 
" Challen 

un., p. 



, Sais, C. 
>n Sydney 

R., Vol. 
a.ul Wcl 




Sub-Order Decapoda. 
Family GEBIIDiE. 

200 Gebia hirtifrons, White ; Miers, Zool. " Erebus & Terror," 

Crust., p. 4, pi. iii., f. 5. P. J., in the interior of sponges. 

201 G. sp. P.J. 

202 Axius SP. Under stones, Watson's Bay (W). 


203 Thalassina maxima, Hess., Archiv. fur Nat., xxxi., p. 163, 

pi. vii., f. 18, 1865. Sydney? (Hess.) 


204 Trypaea Australiensis, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Val. i., p. 

613, pi. xxxii., f. 4a. Illawarra. 


205 Ibacus Peronii, Leach, Zool. Miscel., Vol. xi., pi. cxix. ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 168, no. 316. P.J. 

206 I. ciliatus, Von Siebold, De Haan Fauna Jap., Crust, p. 

153, pi. xxxvi.-xxxvii., f. 2. There are two examples of 
this species in the Australian Museum labelled P.J. 

207 Palixurus Hugelii, Heller, Reise der Novara, Crust., p. 46, 

pi. viii.; Cat. Crust., p. 173, no. 323. Taylor Bay, P.J. (W.) 

208 P. Lelaxdii, M.-Edwards, Hist. Kat. Crust., Vol. ii., p. 293. 




209 Rhynciiocinetes ru(;ulosus, Stimpson, P. Acad., N. Sci., 

Phil., Vol. XII., sp. 440 ; Cat. Crust., p. 180, no. 337. This 
is a very handsome species ocellated and streaked with 
deep blue, under stones Watson's Bay, P.J. (W.) 
-10 Gnathophyllum fasciolatum, Stinip., Proc. Acad. ^. Sci., 
^^ Phil. Vol. XII., p. 28, Cat. Crust., 181, no. 339. P.J. 

-H Rhynchocyclus compressus, Stimp., I.e., xii., p. 28; Cat. 
Crust, p. 182, no. 340. P. J- 

Family ALPHEID^. 
iALiENSis, Stimp., I.e., XII., sp. 436; Cat. ( 

ip., P. Acad. N. Sci., Vol. xii., p. 
no. 3o9. P.J. 

;., p. 28 ; Cat. Crust., p. 192, no. 
359. P.J 
5. SP. Botany Bay, (W.) P.J. 

ILOPK PAPALis, White ; Miers, Zool. " Erebus & Terror," 
Crust., p. 4, pi. iv., f. 1; Cat. Crust, p. 193, no. 361. 
Common at Watson's Bay, under stones and in rock-pools. 

.KANDER iNTERMEDius, Stinip., I.e., sp. 464 : Cat. Crust., p. 

19.-), no. 364. P.J. 
.. SKiiEXUs, Heller, R. d. Novara, Crust., p. 110, pl. x., f. 5; 
Cat. Crust., p. 19^, no. 365. P.J. 

; Bate, C.R., Vol. xxiv., p. 782, 

Off P.J 

lily PANDALID^. 

[YNCHus, Stimp., p. Acad. N. Sci., Phil., 

Family PENAEIU^. 

227 Penaeus canaliculatus, Oliver ;, Arch, fur Natur., 

XXXI., p. 168, pl. vii., f. 19 ; Cat. Crust., p. 119, no. 370. 

228 P. MONODON, Fabr., = 7^ semisukatus, De Haan, Fauna J»p. 

Crust., p. 191, pl. xlvi., f. \, = r >i8C^dentuH, Has well, Cat. 
Crust., p. 200, no. 374. This is the " Tiger Prawn " of 
the Sydney fishermen. Spence Bate in the Challenger 
Report, Vol. XXIV., p. 250, says that the females alone 
specimen from Port Darwin, there is a well marked groove, 
the specimen is a male. P.J. 

Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W. 
, no. 170. P.J. 
is probably fi 

1 each of the tirst three pairs of legs 

species offered for sale, P. caniculatus unci F , J fadeayi are 
often seen intermixed with it, the last named being the 
rarest of the two. P. monodon appears to be fairly 

231 P. GRACILIS, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., p. 606, pi. iv., f. 7 a-b. 

Off P.J. ("Challenger.") 

232 Sergestks armatus, Kroyer ; Bate, C.R., Vol. xxiv., p. 410, 

? Stimpson ; Cat. Crust., p. 20; 



239 A. ^FKIXI^ 

241 b^riNoPu^ 
100, pi. 


ONh, H 


P.L S., N.S. 

W , Vol. 

:at Cr 

ust., p. -1 no 
W., Vol. HI 

2. P.J. 

ii, r.L. 

>., N.h 

, p. 408, 


o. 3. PJ. 



Acad. Xat 


p. 21S, 

CAt. Crust., 

p. 3, no. 

'• Alert 

" I) If 

S. 5-7 fu 


C.K.. V( 


p pi. i.,f. L> 

Off P.J. 



Japonica, Crust., p. 

Family MAIID^. 


IV., p. 439, pi. XXV., f. 4 ; Cat. Crust., p. 10, no. 17. P.J. 

248 Paramitiirax stkrnocostulalus, A. M.-Ed. ; Cat. Crust., p. 

249 MiciPPOiDES LONGiMAXus, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. iv., 

p. 444, pi. xxvi., f. 5 ; Cat. Crust., p. 19, no. 30. P.J. 

250 Hyastenus diacaxthus, De Haan, Fauna. Jap., Crust., p. 

86, pi. xxiv., f. 1 ; Cat. Crust., p. 20. P.J. 

251 MiciPPA PARViROSTRis, Miers, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 5 

Ser., Vol. IV., p. 13, pi. iv., f. 9 ; Cat. Crust., p. 23, no. 37. 

252 M. sptxosA, Stinip., P. Acad. N. S. Phil., p. 218, 1857 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 26, no. 42. Sow and Pigs Reef, P.J. 

253 Paramicippa spivos.\, Stimpson ; Miere, Zool. "Alert," p. 


255 Gonatonotus ceassimanus, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. 

IV., p. 45.^), pi. xxvi., f. 4 ; Cat. Crust., p. 39, no. 62. P.J- 

Family CANCRID^. 

256 Actaea granulata, Aud., Explication des Planches de 

I'Egypte, Crust., pi. vi., f. 2 ; Cat. Crust., p. 44, no. 70. 
Under stones Neutral Bay, P.J., (W.) 

257 A. AFFiNKS, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crust. I., p. 197, pl. xi., 

f. 3 ; Cat. Crust., p. 45, no. 72. P.J. 
.258 A. Peroxii, M -Ed., Hist. Nat., Crust. I., p. 392; Hess, 
Arch, fur Nat., xxxi., p. 132, pl. vi., f. 3 : Cat. Crust., p. 
46, no. 73. P.J. 

259 Xanthodek notatu.s, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crust. I., p- 

178. pl. viii., f. 12; Cat. Crust., p. 49, no. 78 Under 
stones, Cabbage Tree Bay ; Watson's Bay, P.J. (W.) 

260 X. ATROMANus, Haswell : Cat. Crust., p. 49, no. 79. Under 

stones, Watson's Bay, (W.) 

261 CvcLOXAXTHUs puxcTATus, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vi., 

p. 752; Cat. Crust., p. 50, no. 81. Coogee Bay, (W.) ; 

262 PsEUDOCARCiNUS GiGAS, Lam., Cat. Crust., p. 52, no. 83. 

Lane Cove River, (Trebeck.) 

263 CiiLORODOPsis AREOLATus, M.-Ed., Nat. Hist., Crust. I., p. 

400 ; Nouv. Archives du Museum, ix., p. 231, pi. viii., f, 
8 ; Cat. Crust., 54, no. 88. P.J. 

264 Chlorodius niger, Forskal ; Miers, Zoology of H.M.S. 

" Samarang," Crust., p. 40, pi. x., f. 4, (as C. hirtipei^); Cat. 
Crust., p. 62, no. 103. P.J. 

Family ERIPHIID^. 

265 Ozius TRUNCATUS, M.-Ed., Nat. Hist., Crust. I., p. 406, pi. 

xvi., f. 11 ; Cat. Crust., p. 63, no. 104. RJ. 
'^Q^i O. LOBATus, Heller, Reise der Novara, Crust., p. 21, pi. ii., 

f. 4 ; Cat. Crust., p. 64, n. 105. P.J. 
267 PiLUMNus RwopuxcTATUs, Stimp., P. Acad. N.S., Phil., Vol. 

X., sp. 90; Cat. Crust., p. C>ii, no. 112, Cabbage Tree 

Bay, (W.); P.J. 
^^^ P. VESTiTUs,Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vi., p. 753; Cat. 

Crust., p. 68, no. 117. P.J. 
269 P. PissiFROXs, Stin 

sp. 91 ; Cat. Crv 

(W.); P.J. 
^70 P. GLABHKRiMus, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. VI., p. 544 ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 69, no. 120. P.J. 
-"1 P. iXKRMis, Haswell, I.e., Vol. ti., p. 544 ; Cat. Crust., p. 70, 

no. \1\. P.J. 
2<2 P. LAXATus, Latreille; Miers, Zool. " Alert," p. 220, pi. xxi., 

f. B. 5-7fms., P.J. 
273 P. inte(;er, Haswell, I.e., Vol. vi., p. 545 ; Cti*. Crust., 

Addendft. P.J. 
-'4 PiLUMxoFEUs sEKKATiFROXs, Kinahau. Jour. Roy. Dublin 

^^oc, I., p. 11:}, pi. iv., f. 1, 1856 : Cat. Crust., p. 70, pi. 

Ed., in K 
Crust., p. 7 

Arch, du "Mus., IX.', 253, pi. xii., f.l ; Cat. 
1, no 123. P.J. 

Family PORTUNID^. 

Nkptuxu.s pe 
1766: Cat. 

^>^PTu^us sa; 
p. 161, pi. ■, 


Cat. Crust., 

LAGicus, Linn., Syst. Nat., (ed xii.) p. 1042, 

nn., iigs. 56-57, (1796) ; Cat. Crust., p. 77, no. 

, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vi., p. 547 ; 
p. 78, no. 1S3. P.J. 

979 SCYLLA SERRATA, ForskJil ; A. M.-Ed., Ann. Sci. Is^at., xir., 

4 Ser., p. 252, pi. i., f. H, I860 ; Cat. Cnxst., p. 72, no. 
134. 'Botany; P.J. • ;: o 

980 TiiALAMiT^ PRYMNA, Herbst., Krab. u. K., pi. vu., f- 2, 

Fauna Japonica, Crust., p. 43, pi. xii., f. 2 ; Cat. Crust., 
p 80, no. 137. P.J. 

281 T. siMA, M.-Ed. ; Miers, Zool. " Alert," p. 231. P. J- 

282 T ADMETE, Herbs.; Miers, Zool. "Alert," p. 230. 5fms P.J. 

283 GoNiosoMA CRUCiFERA, Fabr., tSuppl., p. 364 ; Cat. Crust., 

284 NECTOCARciNUS 'iNTEGREFRO^, Latr., M.-Ed., Nouv. Archiv. 

du Museum, x., p. 406, pi. xxxviii., f. 1, a, b c, d_, e, t l«bU ; 
Cat. Crust.. 81. no. 139. This species is often infested by 
a parasitic Crustacean (SaccuUna), see Note by Dr. Has- 
well, P.L.S., N.S.W., 1888. P.J. 

985 LissocIrinus polybioides, Adams and White, Voyage of 

" Samarang," Crust., p. 46, pi. xi., f. 5 ; Cat. Crust., p. 83, 
no- 142. P.J. 

986 Platyoxyciius bipustulatus, M.-Ed., H. K., Crust I., p. 43i, 

pi. xvii., f. 7-10 ; Cat. Crust., p. 84, no. 14.5. P.J. 

287 Elcrate sexdentatus, Haswell, Cat. Crust., p. 86 ; Zool. 

" Alert," pi. xxiv., f. B. Otl- Botany, 4.5 fms. 


288 M^cROPHTiiALMUS CARiNiMANUs, M.-Ed., H.N., Crust. IL, P' 

65 ; Cat. Crust., p. 88, no. 150. P.J. 

289 M sETOSus, M.-Ed., H.N., Crust. II., p. 65 ; Cat. dust., p. 

89, no. 154. P.J. _ , , , 

290 M. PUNCTULATUS, Miers, Zool. " Alert," p. 23*, pi. xxv., i. a- 

991 HF^icius coRDiFORMi.s, M.-Ed., H.N., Crust. II., p. -53^ 
CaTcVust p. 91, no.'l58. Common on mud flats Moss- 
man's Bay, P.J., (W.) ^ ^ 

292 Gklvsimus sionatus, Hess., Arch, fur Nat. Band xxxi., p. 

146 ; Cat. Crust., p. 93, no. 164 P.J. 

293 G. VARiATUS, Hess., I.e., p. 146, pi. vi., f . 7 ; Cat. Ciu.t., p 

294 Ocyp'oda Macleayaxa, Hess., I.e., p. 14.3, pi. vl, f. '^' '^j''^^' 

Cat. Crust., p. 95, no. 167- Bondi Bay. ^ O. '"'' ' ' ^^,' 
and 0. rt'rafopfdhafnin are to be found at ^e^ve,•l^tl^^ I 
Family GRAPSIDiE. 

295 Grapsus VARlK.ATL-s,'Fabr.; Haswell, Cat. Crust., p^ 97, "«• 

170. Bondi Beach, common all round the coast and m P^i 


296 G. iNORNATUS, Hess., Arch, fur Nat., p. 148, pi. vi., f. 11 ; 

Cat. Crust., p. 98, no. 176. P.J. 

297 Nautilograpsus minutus, Linn.; Haswell, Cat. Crust., p. 99, 

no. 78. Among seaweed on the beach. Neutral Bay, (W.) 

298 Heterograpsus sexdextatus, M,-Ed., H.N., Crust. II., p. 

79 ; Cat. Crust., p. 100, no. 179. N.S.W. 

299 Pachygrapsus transversa, Geddes, Proc. Amer. Assoc. Ad. 

Sci., Vol. III., p. 110, 1850. Common under stones. Manly; 
Coogee ; Bondi, (W.) 

300 Cyclograpsus Lavauxi, M.-Ed., Ann. Sci. Nat., 3 Ser., xx., 

p. 187 ; Cat. Crust., p. 103, no. 186. Common under 
stones, Mossman's Bay, P.J. (W.) 

301 Ciiasmagxathus l^.vis, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crust. I., 

p. 367, pi. xxiii., f. 7 ; Cat. Crust., p. 106, no. 193. Com- 
mon under stones, Lane Cove; Mossman's Bay, P.J. (W.) 

302 C. Haswelliaxus. This species was described by Dr. 

Haswell as C. conrexus, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vi., p. 550. 
De Haan described one under the same name ; they are 
however distinct, and I therefore dedicate this species to the 
learned author of the Cat. of Crustacea, p. 196, no. 12+. P.J. 

303 Helice Leaciiii, Hess, Arch, fur Nat, Band xxxi.,p. 153, 
1865 ; Cat. Crust., p. 107, no. 196. P.J. 


305 Sesarma rotuxdata, Hess, I.e., p. 159, pi. vi., f. 9 ; Uat. 

Crust., p. 108, no. 197. P.J. 

306 S. ATRORUBEXs, Hess, I.e., p. 118, pi. vi., f. 12 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 108, no. 198. P.J. 

307 S. siMiLis, Hess, 1 c, p. 150; Cat. Crust., p. 108, no. 199. P.J. 

308 S. ScnuTTEi, Hess, I.e., p. 150, pi. vi., f. 11 ; Cat. Crust., 

p. 109, no. 200. P.J. 

309 S. ERYTURODACTYLA, Hess, l.c, p. 151, pi. vi., f. 10; Cat. 

Crust., p. 109, no. 201. Lane Cove River, left bank above 
bridge, common ; and at Mossman's Bay, P.J. (W.) 

310 S. BiDENS, De Haan, Fauna Japonica, p. 60, pi. xiv., f. 4, 

pi. xi., f. 4 ; Miers, Zool. " Alert," p. 249. 5 fms., P.J. 

31 1 Plagusia TUI3ERCULATUS, Lam., Hist. Anim. sans Vert., p. 

247 ; Cat. Crust., p. 110, no. 202. P.J. 

312 P. GLABRA, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crust. L, p. 371, p. 

xxiii., f. 10 ; Cat. Crust., p. Ill, no. 204. Coogee Bay (W.); 
Bondi (J. D. Ogilby). 

313 P. ciiABRUs, Linn., Syst. Nat, p. 1044, 1766; Cat Crust, 


315 Hymenosoma planatum, Fabr., Ent. Syst. II., p. 446,(1793); 

Cat. Crust., p. 114, no. 209. P.J. 

316 H. VARiuM, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., Crust. T., p. 387. pi. 

xxiv., f. 9 ; Cat. Crust., p. 115, no. 211. P.J. 

317 H. OVATUS, Stimpson, Proc. Acad. N. Sci., Phil., p. 109, 

1858. P.J. 

318 H. Krefftii, Hess, Arcli. fur Nat., Band xxxi., p. 141, pi. 

vi., f. 5, 1865 ; Cat. Crust., p. 115, no. 212. P.J. 

Family MYCTERID^. 

319 Mycteris LONfJlCARPUS, Latr., Encyclop., pi. ccxcvii., f. 

3 ; Cat. Cust., p. 116, no. 214. Common on mud-flats, P.J. 

320 M. PLATYciiELES, M.-Ed., Ann. Sci. Nat., tome xAiii., p. 

154 ; Cat., p. 117, no. 215. Botany. 


321 Leucosia splendida, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. iv., p. 47, 

pi. v., f. 1 ; Cat. Crust., p. 119, no. 224. P.J. 

322 L. POLiTA, Hess, Arch, fur Nat., xxxi., p. 15.5, pi. iv., f. 4; 

Cat. Crust., p. 120, no. 227. P.J. 

323 L. AusTRALiENsis, Miers, C.E., Vol. xvii., p. 323, pi. xxvii., 

f. 1. 3fms.,P.J. '* '^ 

324 Phlyxia crassipes. Bell, Trans. Linn. Soc, Vol. xxi., p. 304, 

pi. xxxi v., f. 2 ; Oat. Crust , p. 124, no. 236. 

325 P. GRANULOSA, Haswell, P.L.S.,N.S.W., Vol. iv., p. 54, pi. vi., 

f. 3 ; Cat. Crust., p. 1 26, no. 242. Dredged off P. J. Heads. 

326 P. Ramsayi, Haswell, I.e., p. 55 ; Cat. Crust., p. 127, no. 

243. P.J. "^ ' ^ 

327 P. uxDECEMSPiNOSA, var. ORBICULARIS, Haswell ; Miers, C.R., 

Vol. XVII., p. 309. Sow and Pigs Reef, P.J. 

328 P. QUADRiDENTATA, Gray, Zool. Miscell. II., 1841 ; Miers, 

Zool. "Alert." p. 252, P.J. ; var. spinifera, Miei-s, C.R., 
Vol. XVII., p. 309, pi. XXV., f. 3. P.J. 

329 Matuta victrix, Fabr., Spec. Ins. II., append, p. 502, (1781); 

Cat. Crust., p. 133. P.J. 

330 M. LAEViDACTYLA, Miers, Tran. Linn. Soc, Vol. i., Series 2, 

p. 247, pi. xl., f. 10-11. 3fms. P.J. 

331 M. LINEIFERA, Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc, Vol. i., Series 2, 

Zoology, p. 243, pi. xxxix., f. 1-3, 1877; Cat. Crust., p- 
134, no. 257. Chowder Bay. 

332 M. picTA, Hess, Arch, fur Nat., xxxi, p. 158, pi. vi„ f. 13; 

Cat. Crust., p. 135, no. 259. P.J. 

333 Ca 

, Cat. Crust., p. 

334 C. Lopnos, Herbst.. De Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crust., 
72, pi. xxi., f. 1, (1837). OrtP.J., ("Challenger.") 

33o C. CRisTATA, Fabr.; M.-Ed., Hist. Xat., Crust., Vol. ii., 
105, pi. XX., f. 1. P.J. 







lALis, Gray, Zool. Misc., p. 40, 1831 ; Cat. 

264. Under stone.s, Neutral Bay, (W.) 

SIS, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. yi., 

t, p. 139, no. 265. P.J. 

>., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil, x., sp. 

p. 140, no. 266. P.J. 

, P.L.S., N.8.W., Vol. VI., p. 756 ; Cat. 

268. Littoral, Green Point, P.J., (W.) 


75.-) ; Cat^' "crusl 
^CAVATA, Stimp 
r ; Cat. Crust., 
:ULPTA, Haswell 
ist., p. 141, no. 


340 Latuaeilla Australiexsis, C.R., Vol. xxyii., p. 24, pi. ii., 

f. 4. Off P.J. 

341 Paratymolus latipes, Haswell, Ann. & Mag., Nat. Hist., 

Vol. v., Ser. 5, p. 303, pi. .\yi., f. 1-2, 1880 ; Cat. Crust., 
p. 143, 271. P.J. 


342 Ranina dkvtata, Latr., Encyclop., Vol. x., p. 208 ; Cat. 

344 PoRCKLLANA DISPAR, Stinip., P. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., Vol. 
X., sp. 297 ; Cat. Crust., p. 149, no. 283. Littoral, Neutral 
Bay, (W.) 





Ts siNUVT 

us, Stinjp., P. Acad 

1. N. Sci., Phil., Vol. 

X., p. 3 

18 ; Cat. 

Crust., p. 153, no. 

288. Under 


in .shells 

. of Tnrh, 

, nndnlatum, Watso 

n's Bay, P.J., 




lOLKPIS, t" 
. P.J. 

itimp., l.c.,no.350; 

Cat. Crust., 

p. 153, 



. VAXA, Henderson, 

CR, Vol. x> 

:vii., p. 

G^, pl. > 

-ii., f. 1. 

Station 163 B, 35 ; 

fms. off P.J. 

AGURUS PAVIMENTATUS, Hilgendorf, Monatsbericlite der 
Berlin, Akad., 1878, p. 816, pi. iii., figs. 1-5. P.J. The 
Port Jackson specimens in the Australian Museum belong 
to this species, and so far Eupagurus setifer is wanting in 


P. STl 



.; De Haan, Fauna Japonica, Cn 


, pi. : 

1. P.J. 


P. PE 


, Herbs 

t.; Miers, Ann. ct Mag. N.I 

5, Vol. V 

., p. 37 

4 ; Cat, 

. Crust., p. 155, no. 293. I 


P. DE 


Ed., An 

n. des Sei. Nat., Ser. 5, Vol 


, pi.' : 

xiii., f. 

4, 4a. 

In shell of Natica, P.J. 



ISIS, Henderson, C.R., Vol. 

p. 7 


'vii., i 

8. 2- 

- 10 fms., P.J. 


DiooEXES : 

Fabr. ; 

M.-Ed., I.e., p. 284, pi. xiN 
, 295. N.S.W., (Dana.) 

:. Crust., p. 

156, no. 


D. CI 



, Cat. C 

rust., p. 157, no. 296. P.J 




, Reise 

figured in the Zoology of the " Erebus "' and " Terror, pi. 
ii., f . 4. In shell of Volufa fusiformis, ofF P.J. 

358 C. sp. In shells of Lampania; Watson's Bay, (W.) 

359 C. sp. In a shell of Turritdla Gunui, off P.J. (Brazier.) 

360 PAOURISTE.S BAKBATUS, ? Heller, Reise der Novara, Crust., p. 

90, pi. vii., f. 5. In the shells of Turbo uudulntnm, 
Watson's Bay, (W.) 

361 P. sp. P.J. 

362 Cancellus typus, M.-Edwards, Ann. des Sei. Nat., Ser. 2, 

Vol. VI.. p. 287, pi. xiv., f. 3, 3a ; Hist. Nat. Crust., Vol. 
II., p. 243, = Gralloc/rajKsn, lifhMmus, Zietz., T. R. Soc., 
Adelaide, 1887, Vol. x., p. 298, pi. xiv. Dredged in P.J-, 
(Dr. Ramsay.) 


363 Calathea Austhalienhis, Htimpson, P. Acad. Nat. Sci^, 




pi. xxi 


Henderson, C.i 
a fms.. Station U 




rson, C.R.,p. 181, 


J IS. 

\ Statio 

n 163 B. 





>A TlAS' 


iderson, C.R., Vo 


f. 5-5b. 

Off P.J., 

('• Challenger.-) 




Nympiion ^quidigitatum, Haswell, P.L.S, N.S.W, Vol. 
IX, p. 1022, pi. liv., f. 1-0. Dredged, P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 
1 Ammothea lonoicollis, Haswell, I.e., p. 1028, pi. Ivi., f . 1-4. 

P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 
' A. ASSiMiLis, Haswell, I.e., p. 1026, pi. Iv., f. 5-9. Clark 

Island, P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 
I AcHELiA L^vis, var. AusTRALiENSis, Miers, Zool. " Alert," 
p. 323, pi. XXXV., f. A. P.J. 

Family PALLENID^l 
Pallene chiragra, M.-Ed., Hist. Nat. Crust, Vol. m., p. 
535. P.J. ; Jervis Bay. 
: Phoxichilidium tubiferum, Haswell, I.e., p. 1032, pi. Ivii., 
f. 1-5. Dredged, P.J., (Dr. Haswell). 
' There is a very common species of Spider found i 
about low water mark, it appears to be cov 
short silky pubescence which prevents the salt water tri 
wetting the body. Watson's Bay ; Taylor Bay, (W.) 

with a 


Sub-Order Trichoptera. 

374 PniLAMsus sp. R. MacLachlan, Entom. Month. Magazine, 

lNf<7 p 154 In rock-pools between tide marks, near 
Mrs.'Macquarie's Chair, (Dr. Haswell); Chowder Bay, 
(A. S. Ollitf.) 


375 Halobates Wulerstorffi, Buchanan White, C hall. Report, 

Vol. VII., p. 40, pi. i, f. 1. Surface, between Broken Bay 
and Port Jackson, (A. S. Ollift.) 


376 CvMPTocLM.iu. CRASS.PEVMS,, P.L.S, N.S.W, 1889. 

An>ong seaweed, P.J., (F. A. A. Skuse.) 

Family TIPULID^. 
DiCRONOMYiA MARINA, Skuse, P.L.S., N.S.W., 1889. Among 
seaweed, Manly, (F. A. A. Skuse.) 

Sub-Kingdom MOLLUSCA. 


Sub-Order Sinupalliata. 


1 AsPERGiLLUM Strangei, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1852, p. 91, pi. 

XV., f. 5. Near P.J. He^tds. 

2 Clavagella Australis, Sowerby ; Reeve, Conch. Icon,, Vol. 

xvm., pi. iii. ; Sow., in Stutchbury's Catalogue, pi. i.,f. 1- 
Watson's Bay, (Strange) (Angas). 

Family PHOLADID^. 

3 Barnea similis. Gray, MS. Brit. Mus. ; Sow., Thes. Conch., 

pi. ciii., f. 12-1 4. Bottle and Glass Rocks, (Brazier). 
Family SOLENID^. 

4 SoLEN Sloanii, Gray, MS. Brit. Mus.; Hanley, Cat. of Bivalve 

Shells, p. 12 and p. .336, pi. xi., f. 18 ; Sow., Conch. Icon., 
Vol. XIX., pi. iii., f. 10. Middle Harlwur. 

5 CuLTELLUS Australis, Dunker, P.Z.S., 1861, p. 443. Dredged 

in Lane Cove River. 


6 Saxicava Arctica, Linn. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xx., pi. 

i., f. 1, = aS. jUiHfraliH, Lam. ; Reeve, I.e., pi. ii., fig. 8 a, b, 

7 S. Angasi, a. Adams; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xx., pi. ii- 

sp. 11. Off Ball's Head, 18 fins., (Brazier;) 
Family CORBULID^. 

8 CORBULA TUNiCATA, Hinds, P.Z.S., 1843, p. 55 ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon.., Vol. II., f. 5. Dredged in 5 to 7 fathoms, Lane 
Cove River. 

9 C. NASUTA, Sowerby, P.Z.S., 1833; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. 

ir., pi. i., f. 1. Dredged in 7 to 10 fathoms, Inner North 
Head, P.J. 
10 C. scAPHOiDEs, Hinds, P.Z.S., 1843, p. 56; Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., Vol. II., pi. iii., f. 24. Dredged. 

11 0. Zelaxdica, Gai til., Astrokbe, Vol. iir., p. .^)11 

Ixx.Kv., f. 12-U. Dredged in Middle Harbour. 

12 C. Smitiiiana, Brazier, P.L.8., N.8.W., Vol. iv., p. 388,= 

cemista, Aiigas, (non Gould) P.Z.8., 1871, p. L'O, pi. i 
29. Sow and Pigs Reef, 3-4 fms. ; Mouth of Lane C 
Kiver, 4 fms., (Brazier.) 

13 Neaera Axr.Asi, Smith, C.R., Vol. xiii., p. 47, pi. ix., f. 2, 

Station 164 B, off P. J., 401 fms. 
U N. Brazier, Smith, C.R., p. 51, pi. ix., f. 3-3h,=X ruy. 

Angas (non A. Adams.) Sow and Pigs Reef. 
15 N. PURA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 20, pi. i., f. 30. Lane C 

"-•- -(Brazier.) 

16 Crvp 

River in sandy mud, 3 fms., ^ 

Family ANATINID^. 

P.Z.S., p. 88, 1850. 


17 Myodora crassa, Stutehburv, Zool. Jour., Vol. v., p. 100, 

Suppl. 43, f. 5-6 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ii., pi. i., f. 1. 

Dredged in Middle Har))Our. 
1^ M. PANDOR.EFORMis, Stutchbury, I.e., p. 43, f. 3, 4 ; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., Vol. ii., pi. i., f. 10. Dredged in Middle 


19 M. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ii., pi. i., f. 4. Dredged 

Vol. II., pi. i., f. 7 a-b. 

Farm Cove, and MossniL 

Myochama ANO.MI0IDES, Stutchburv, I.e., pi. xlii., f. 1-4 ; 

Woodward, Man. Moll., pi. xxii'i., f. 13. Dredged near 

Sow and Pigs Reef. 
M. Stran-gei, a. Adams, P.Z.S., 1852, pi. xv., f. 2. Dredged 

inside the North [iead. 


f- 12. Dreciged between Watsons Bay and 


2* T. Australic.^, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xii. 

, pi. iii., f. 13. 

,, ^ Dredged in'p.J. 

-> T. MODESTA, Angas, P.Z.S., p. 908, pi. xliv., 

f. 3, 18 1867 ; 

-6 T. sPEciosA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1869 p. 48, pi. ii., f 

.^'l2.' Dredged 

off Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 
-' T. Anc.asiana, Smith, Jour. Linn. Soc., Vol. > 

:n., p. 560, pL 

XXX., f. 23. Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

30 T. 

Jacksoxiaxa, Smith, Jour. Linn Soc, Vol. xii., p. 361, pi. 

XXX., f. 24. Sow nnd Pigs Reef, (Brazier.) 

31 T. 

ANGUSTATA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 908, pi. xliv., f . 1 ; 

C.R., p. riS. Dredged inside South Head Reef, (Brazier.) 

32 T. 

KLK(.ANTULA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 908, pi. xliv., £. 2. 

Dredged between Watson's Bay and Sow and Pigs Reef. 


33 A> 

fATiNA CRhxciXA, Yal., IMS. Mus. Cuming. ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Vol. XIV., pi. ii., f. 12. P.J. 

34 A. 

Tasmaxica, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv.,pl. iii.,f. 20. PJ. 

PROLONGATA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv., pi. iv., f. 28. 

Dredged in sandy mud near Spectacle Island, P.J. 

36 A. 

AxGASi, Crosse .t Fischer, Jour, de Conch., 1864, Vol. xii., 

p. 394 : 186.5, p. 427, pi. xi., f. 1. Off Chowder Bay, 10 

fn.s., (Brazier). 

, Family MACTRID^. 

37 M. 

VCTHA coxTRAHiA, Deshnyes, P.Z.S., 1854; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Vol. VIII., pi. xvii., f. 86. P.J. 

38 M. 

PUSiLLA, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1855, p. 226 ; C.R., Vol. xm. 

p. 60, pi. v., f. ,s, ,S' = J/. LNzonica, Angas (non Deshayes) 

Dredged in Middle Haihour. 
. KxiMiA, Deshayes. P.Z.S., 1853 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
Vol. VIII., pi. viii., £.31. Dredged alive in Chowder Bay, 

Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 909, pi. 

6 = JA 

rodncta, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 909, pi. 

uriatUh, Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 20, pi. i., f. 31. John- 

•n s Bay and Parramatta River. 

)RiiULOiDES, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

ol. VIII., pi. xix., f. 103. Rushcutter's Bay. 

KPRESSA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. viii., f. 67 ; C.R., P- 

r. P.J. 2-10 fms., (" Challenger." 

46 L. ACiNACES, Quoy ct Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. in., p. 545, pi. 

Ixxxiii., f. 5, 6 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. viii., pi. iv., f. 
14. Botany Bay. 

47 Eastoni\ ^(;ypti\ca, Gray; Wood's, Index Test., pi. vi., f. 

34. Lake Macquarie. 

Family PAPHIID^. 

48 Mesodesma eloxgata, Deshayes ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. 

VIII., Mesodesma, pi. i., f. 5. Botany Bay. 

49 M. PR.ECiSA, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

Vol. viii., pi. iv., f. 31 ; = ohtusa, Crossed Fischer, Jour. 
de Conch., 1864, p. 350. Sand Spit, Middle Harbour. 

50 Ervilia bisculpta, Gould, P. Bost. Soc, N. Hist., 1861, Vol. 

VIII., p. 28 ; Otia. Conch., p. 166. P.J. 

Family SEMELID^. 

51 Syndosmvv elliptic\, Sowerby, Conch. Icon., Vol. xvii., f. 

223 ; Zool. " Alert," p. 99, pi. vii., f. C, C 1, (as Tellina). 

52 TiiEOHA NiTiD\, Gould, Otia. Conch., 162. Dredged, Lane 

Cove River, 6 fms. (Brazier). 

Family TELLINID^. 

53 Gari togata, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854, p. 318. (Psammobia). 

54 G. 


cana, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. x, (] 


obia) pL 

vi., f. 

42. Dredged, Lane Cove Riv 
IS, Lam.; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

55 G. 

Vol. X 

., £. 29. 



56 G. 


lI,' Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854, p. 
Vol. X.. f. 5. Brisbane Watei 



S Conch. 

57 G. 

MODESTA, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854, p. 
Icon., Vol. X., f. 3 ■, = MeHkeana, Re 


Reeve, Conch. 
tngusta, Reeve. 

58 G. 



>A, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854, p. 
Vol. x.,f. 42. P.J. 
epidermia, Deshaye.s; Reeve 

323 ; 


., Conch. 

59 Hi 

, Conch. Icon., Vol. 

60 H. 


i.,f.3. (Soletellina.) P.J. 
lATA, Wood, Gen. Conch., pi. 


., f. 1 

; Reeve, 


. Icon.. Vol.' X., pi. ii., f. '■ ^ 
DA, Gould, P. Best. Soc. N.H 



61 H. 


., 1846, Otia. 

, Concli., 

62 Te 

Curl Curl Lagoon. 
TRiSTis, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 185^ 
,pl.lxiv.,f.229. Botany B..y 
•:lla, Lam. ; Reeve, Conoh. Ic( 

[ ■ So^v 

'., The^ 

;. Conch. 

63 T. 

,1. XVII. 

, pi. x.xi., 

f . m 

K Broken Bay. 

icA, Sowerbv, Concli. Icon., Vol. xvn., pi. xxxix., 

. Dred^'edni Watson's Bay, 3 fms. 

, Sow., in Conch. Icon., Vol. xvii., pi. xxxix., f. 

C.R., p.lll. Dredged. 

, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854, p. 3o8 ; Reeve, Conch. 

Dredged at Lane Cove. 

)n., Vol. XVII., pi. xxxix., 
and Pigs Reef. 
, Sowerby ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xvii., pi. 
J. Sow and Pigs' Reef, 5 fms., (Brazier). 
iTA, Sow., in Conch. Icon., Vol. xvii., pi. xxix., 

lanley, P.Z.S., 1844 ; Thes. Conch., Vol. i., pi. 
>;■). Dredged at Lane Cove. 

LIS, Sow., in Conch. Icon., Vol. xvii., pi. xli., f. 237. 
5 Bay. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xvii., pi. xvii., 
Bottle and Glass Rocks, (Brazier). 


T. pi 

RNA, Spengler , E 
12 a, b. P.J. 
RiATULA, Lam.; B 


Ol. XVI 

., pi. iv., 

75 T. 8T 

anley, in Sow., 



, Vol. I.. 


255,pl.lxi.,f. 175 

Outer North Head, 1 





gas, P.Z.S., 187 

7, p. 


xxvi., f. 


. OffSharklsland, 12fams., (Br 





4 ^X^'^^ideZ 

.; Reeve, Conch. 
I, Lam. Manly 


Vol. X 



D. K 

VDIANS, Lam.; Re 

ve. Conch. Icon 


via., pi. viii., t. 


a. Berry's Bay 

5 fms. 


D. s 

TiDUS, Deshayes, 

P.Z.S., 18.54, p 

350 , 


, Conch. 


on.. Vol. viii., f. : 

4; C.R., p. 112 

Dredged i 

. Middle 


arbour, P.J. 


80 RuPKLLAHiA MiTis, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1853, p. 5. Botany Bay. 

81 R. CKKN-ATA, Lim. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. i., pi. i., i- "'• 

(as Cyprirar.Ua x.rrata.) P.J. 
83 Choiuhtodon liunmiNosuM, A. Adams tt Angus, P. Z.S., 186.3, 
p. 425, pi. xxxvii., f. 17. Dredged at Watson's Bay, 4 fms. 

Family VENERIDiE. 
83 Venus laqukata, Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol. xi., pi- cHii-, 
f. 15: Reev« 

84 V. STRiATissiMA, Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. it., p. 71S, pi 
clvii., f. 103-105; Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. xxvi., f. i;}') 
C.R., p. 124. Dred<red at Watson's Bay. 

'^5 V. KouoHATA, Hanley, P.Z.8., 1844, p. 161 ; Reeve, Coiioli 
Icon., Vol. XIV., pi. xxiii., f. 113. Dredged at Sow juk 
Pigs Reef. 

86 V. CALOPHYLLA, Philippi, Wiegniann's Arch, fur Nat., 1836 

Bd. I., p. 229, pi. viii., f. 2 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol 
xiy., pi. xxiii., f. 114; C.R., p. 122. Mouth of Lane Cov( 

87 V. LAMELLATA, Lam. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv., pi 

xviii., f. 78. Dredged at Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier.) 

88 V. Jacksom, Smith, C.R., Vol. xiii., p. 123, pi. iii., f. 2, 2c 

P. J., 4-18 fms., (" Challenger.") 

89 V. AusTRALis, Sow., P.Z.S., 1835, p. 22; Thes. Conch. 

Vol. II., p. 719, pi. clvii., f. 111-112. Watson's Bay. 

90 V. pumigata, Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 102, pi. clix. 

f. 152-155. Rose Bay, sandy flats. 

91 V. laevigata, Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 103, pi. clix. 

f. 156-158. Berry's Bay, on sand flats at low water. 

92 V. undulosa, Lam., var.; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv., 

pi. XXV., f. 126 a-b. Dredged at Watson's Bay. 

93 V. Chemnitzi, Hanley, P.Z.S., 1844, p. 160; Reeve, Conch. 

gica?, p. 52, pi. xvi., f. 10, 11, 12, 18.^>8,= V. nlatiis, Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv., pi. xviii., f. 83, - C. niatus, Angas, 
P-Z.S., \i<Ql, = CaJlista Vicfur-uv, Tenison- Woods, RR.S., 
Tasmania, 1876, p. 171. P.J., (Brazier). 

95 V. (Chione) scabra, Hanley, P.Z.S., 1844, p. 161 ; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv. : pi. xxi., f. 97. Sow and Pigs 
Reef, (Brazier). 

96 Cytiierea disrupta, Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 743, 

pl. clxiii., f. 208-209 ; C.R., p. 135, pi. i.. t 4, 4 E. Dredged 
at Watson's Bay. 
9< C. rutila. Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 743, pl. clxiii., f. 
205 ; C.R., p. 133. Watson's Bay. 

98 C. HEBRAE^ 


' ■ Roev Conch 

. loon., Vol. 

xiT., f. 34 ; 

C.R., p. ] 

138, = ( 

;[ Soi>}itr, Angas 

. Cape Solander, Botany 

Qo ^"y- 

99 C. scilPTA, 


: Sow., Thes. Conch., (Circe) 

Vol. II., pl. 

139, f. %t 

i- 42 : ( 

D.R.,p. 141,^m 

*d,itiiui, Laui. 



, Smitl 

raR., Vol. xiH. 

, p. 148, pl. ii 

., f. 4, 4e = 

Gouldia . 

Au^^traH,, Angas. P.J. 

101 SUNETTA ADELINAB, AngaS, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 909, pi. xliv., f. 

5. Dredged in deep water near P.J. Heads. 

102 DosiNiA scuLPTA, Hanley ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. vi., 

(Artemis) pi. ix., f. 52. Dredged. 

103 D. scABRiuscuLA, Philippi, Abbild. und Besch., Conch. 11, 

p. 230 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. vi., pi. iii., f. U. P.J. 

104 D. PUELLA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 990, pi. xliv., f. 4. 

Botany Bay. 

105 D. ciuciNAKiA, Deshayes, Cat. Con. Brit. Mus., p. 9 ; C.R., 

p. 150, pi. i., f. 2, 2c. P. J., 2 - 10 fms., (" Challenger.") 

106 Clementia papyracea, Gray, Ann. of Philosophy, 
"" " ' "ex Test. Suppl. p. f ' 

, f. 410. Dredged a 

107 Tapes infl.^ta, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1853, p. 8, pi. xix., f. 3, 

= T. tnryidula, Reeve, (non Desh.) Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv., 
pi. vii., f. 32. Dredged at Lane Cove River. 

108 T. UNDULATA, Bom., Test. Mus. Caesar. Vindobon. p. 67 ; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xiv., f . 8 ; C.R., p. 115. Parra- 
inatta River. 

109 T. TUR(iiDA. Lam.. Anim sans Vert., Vol. vi.. p. 358 ; Reeve 

water, ^liddle Harbour ; Rose Bay. 

110 T. semirugata, Phil.; How., Thes. Conch., Vol. n., p- 681, 

pi. cxlv., £. 12, = T. polka, Sowerby. Dredged near 
Sydney, 6 fms. 

111 T. FABAGELLA,Deshayes, P.Z.S.,1853, p. 10; Reeve, Conch., 

Icon., Vol. XIV., f. 66. P.J. 


112 Glaucomya angulata, Reeve, P.Z S., 1844; Conch. Icon., 

Vol. 11., pi. i., - - " ' ' ' . - T„„. 

Cove and Pan 

Sub-Order Integripalliata. 
Family CARDIID^. 
ARDTUM PAPVRACRU^f, Chpuinitz. Conch. Cab.. Vol. VI., p- 
190, pi xviu , f 184 , Ree^e, Conch Icon , Vol n , pl » - 
f 9 Dredged in Middle H irboui 

Ti-NLirosr\iLM, , Reeve, Conch Icon , Vol n , P^ 
\, f ")0, CR., p. 1')*) Di edged, Botanv Ba\ 

PLLCiiULl M, (ira>, Dirtenbafhs >ew Zealand, Vol n. 
p 2)2 Reeve, Conch Kon , Vol ii , pl mu , i ^'- 
Dredged inside P J He.ids 

ilpe\e, (Vmcli. Icon.,V( 
ally CHAMID^. 
0(l., Trans. Z. Soc, V( 
Wnp, (onch. Icon, Vc 

Middle H.ubour, (Rev. R. L. Km-). 

119 C'n^Mos'iHi:v \Li5ir>\, L;ini., - Ch-idothnem^ chnmoicks, 

Stutchbury, Zool. .Jour. p. 9i\ pi. xlii., £. o-f* ; Sow., 
Oeneia ot'Shelk, f. 1-3. ^>ar P.J. Heads. 
Family LUCIXIDiE. 

120 Lirivv biMPLKX, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. m., pi. iii., f. 11. 

liotaiu Hav. 

. KLMFK(t\,'Reeve, Conch Icon., Vol. M., pi. i., f. 1. Found 
at low water amongst tlie rocks, Watsons Bay; Middle 

Di edged, P.J. 

-'.!. pi 

XXX v'u, 't -1^ 

. ' Ihedged outside the 


\!^\X:!u V,pl.viii.,f.4S. P.J. 

\. An'4 

tsPz'^, "1^7 

-, p. 17l>. pi. xxM., f. 24. 


Conch. Icon., 

Vol. M., pi. ^.. f. 22. 

127 L. 'ILMIDV, 

. r.LOBosi-M, Forskal; = L. onnn, Reeve. Conch. Ic 

l;il L. RvM.svM, Snath C.R., Vol. xni..p. 174,,f.2,2b. 

P.J., 6-7 fn.s., (-'Challenger ) 
l->2 L. JACKsoviKv.sih, Smith, C.R.. Vol. \ni., p. l^'\ pi. mil, 

11, lib. P.J., 6-:)fms. (-Challenger.') 
133 Mvsrv sphakuici lv, Desha>es, (Diplodonta); Angas, P.Z.S., 

l^^<i7, p. \)-27. Dred-ed in the Parrau.atta River and 

mouth of Lane Cove River. 

134 M. (4L0BUL0SA, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1855, p. 22G. Dredged, 


135 M. Adamsi, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 910, pi. xliv., f. 9. 

Dredged, P.J. 

136 M. Jacksoniknsis, Angas, P Z.S., 1867, p. 910, pi. xliv., f. 

10. Dredged in Middle Harbour. 


137 MoNTACUTA Angasi, Smith, C.R., Vol. XIII., p. 204, pi. xii., 

£. 2, 2 b. P.J., 2-10 fms., (" Challenger.") 

138 Lasaea scalaris, Philippi, Zeits. fur Malak., 1847, p. 72, 

sp. 4. In crevices of rocks at low water. 

139 L. RUBRA, Mont.; Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Mollusca, Vol. n., 

p. 94, pi. xxxvi., f. 5, 6,7 ; =/.. Australis, Souverbie, Jour, 
de Conch., 1863, p. 287, pi. xii., f. 8. P.J. 

140 Kellia rotunda, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1855, p. 181 ; C.E., 

Vol. XIII., p. 202, pi. xi., f. 5, 5b. P.J. 

141 K. sOLiDA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 176, pi. xxvi., f. 25. 

Bottle and Glass Rocks, Vaucluse, (Brazier). 

142 K. CYCLADiFORMis, Deshayes, Trait. Elem., pi. xi.,f. 6-9. P.J- 

143 K. Jacksoniensis, Smith, Zool. "Alert," p. 105, pi. vn., i. 

147 Scintilla Strangei, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1855, p. 181. Ln 

148 S. anomIla, Deshayes," P.Z.S., 1855, p. 181. P.J. 


149 Crassatella fulvida, Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 20, pi. i 

32. Dredged near Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 
Family ASTARTID^. 

150 Cardita amabilis, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1852, p. 102, pi. x 

f. 8, 9. Dredged. 

151 C. excavata, Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1852, p. 100, pi. xvii., t. 

P.J., 2-10 fms., ("Challenger.") 

152 Carditklla Angasi, Smith, C.R., Vol. xiii., p. 217, ph 

f. 9 9a. Station 163 B, otl' P.J., 35 fms., (" Challenge 


Sub-Order Homomyaria. 

Family TRIGONID^. 

lo3 TiiiKONi.v L.\M\RrKn, Gray, Ann. Ma-. Nat. Hist., 1838; 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., A'ol. xii., pi. i., f. 1 a, b, c. Off iJall's 
iread ; off Green Point : Sow and Pigs Reef. 

154 T. Stkam^ki, a. Adanis, P.Z.S., 1852, p. 91 ; Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., A^ol. xti., pi. i., f. 4. LoMg Bay ; off Green Point. 

ccxxix., f. 12.5. J)red-ed in Lane Cove River. 
s. coxsoHKiXA, A. Adanis .t Angas, P.Z.S., 18G:5, p. 427. 
Dredged in Parraniatta River. 

uMHXi, Hani, 
nd Pig. 

cVdan.s, P.Z.S., ISoG, p. ',2. P.J., (Strange). 
" • '^ " ■ l.^Gl, p. 242. Dredged at 


L. RamL-v'vi, Z 
Station 1G4.^ 

i^th,^ C 



). 241 

, pi. XX 

., f. : 


ily ARClDiE. 


Aiicv Fvsri\Tv 


a, P.Z.S 

;., 1844 ; 


h. loon 


pi. XV., f. "99.' 


or .ston 

es and ii 





A.' .l^TmTso' 


, 183:5, p 

. 18. 


on 11 


stone., Watso 

n's ill 

V and : 

Uiddle 11 





■a, Ma-. 

dr Zuol( 

.-ie = 


a, H 

Conch. Icon., 

:., pi. iii 

., f. :'.. 

Hi, ^ery 


'^9 p. i..vr'M.;.T.M, 
'0 I'.''Mmvir!.ui'i^' 

Sub-Order Heteromyaria. 
Family MYTTLID^. 

173 Mytilis hirsutus, Lam. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. 

iii., f. 8 ; C.R., p. 273. P.J. 

174 M. DuNKEKi, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. v., f. 17. 


175 MoDioLA AusTRALLs, Gray, Appendix to King's Yoy.; Reeve 

Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. v., f. 21. 

176 M. GLABKRRiMA, Dunker, P.Z.S., 1856, p. 363; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. viii., f. 48. Parramatta River. 

177 M. CONFUSA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 21, pi. i., f. 33. Lane 

Cove River. 

178 LiTiioDOMUs SPLENDIDA, Dunker, P.Z.S., 1856, p. 365 ; Reeve 

Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. v., f. 31. Off George's Head, P.J. 

179 MoDiOLARiA LANKiERA, Dunker, MS. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

Vol. X., pi. v., f. 30,=-L. harhahhs, Reeve. 

180 M. CuMiXGiANA, Dunker; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. 

ix., f. 63 a-b. Lake Macquarie, (Brazier). 

181 M. vARicosA, Gould, Otia., Conch., p. 176; Zool. "Alert," 

p. 109, pi. vii., f. m, m P. J., vei-v common, (Brazier). 

182 M. cuNEATA, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 176. Sow and Pigs 

Reef; off Green Point; Cook's Liinding-place Botany, 

183 MoDiOLARCA .SUBTORTA, Dunker ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. 

X., pi. x., f. 70. Cook's River, Botany Bay. 

184 Septifer bilocularis, Dunker ; Reeve, Conch. Icno., Vol. 

X., pi. ix., f. 40-42. Cape Banks, (Brazier). 

Family AVICULID^. 

185 AvicULA PULCHELLA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. viii- 

f. 22. Attached to seaweed in deep water, Middle Harbour; 
Botany Bay. 

186 A. FiMBRiATA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. x., pi. ix., f- 2^- 

Found under stones, INliddle Harbour ; Watson's Bay. . 

187 Vulsella Tasmamca, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xi., pi- 1- 

f. 3. Found in Sponges, P.J. 

188 Malleus albus, Chemnilz ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xi-i 

pi. i., f. 1. Broken Ha v. , 

189 M. legumex, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xi., pi. i., f. 2. Hliaf"*^ 

Island ; off Bottle and Class Rocks, (Brazier.) 

Family PINNID^. ^ 

190 PiNJfA Menkei, Hanley ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ^I^H 

xviii., f. 34. Rose Bay, (Brazier). ^^H 

Sub- Order Monomyaria. 

191 Spondvlus tenellus, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix , pi. xviii., 

f. 6-7. Off Green Point, 8 fms., (Brazier). 

192 Plic.^.tula imbricata, Menke ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. 

IX., pi. i., f. 4. Green Point, P.J. 
Family LIMID^. 

193 Lima angulata, Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. i., p. 86, pi. xxii., 

f. 39, 40. P.J. 

194 L. multicostata, Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. i., p. 85, pi. xxii., 

f. 38. Under stones. 

195 L. BULLATA, Born., Test. Mus., Caesar., Vindobon., p. 110, 

pi. vi., f. 8 ; Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. i., p. 84, pi. xxu., f. 
32-33 ; C.R., p. 292. Under stones, Watson's Bay. 

196 L. ORiENTALis, Adams & Reeve, Voy. of " Samarang," pi. 

xi., £. 33 a-b. Dredged near Watson's Bay. 
Family PECTINID^. 

197 Pectex tegula, Wood, Index Test. Suppl., p. 7, pi. ii.; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. viii., pi. xxx., f. 136. Common 
under stones, Mossman's Bay ; Watson's Bay. 

198 P. FUMATUS, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. viii., pi. vu., f. 3l ; 

C.R., p. 307. Lane Cove River. 

199 P. Balloti, Bernardi, Jour, de Conch., 1861, p. 46, pi. i., f. 

1. Obtained in the trawl alive. Neutral Bay, 6 fms., 

Family ANOMIID^. 

200 Placunanomia ione. Gray , Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xi., 

pi. ii., f. 6 a, b, c. Under stones, Watson's Bay ; Taylor 

Family OSTREID^. 

201 Ostrea edulis, Linn.; = 0. A7irja^i, Sowerby ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Vol. XVIII., f. 28, sp. 27. Mud Oyster, P.J. 

202 O. cucuLATA, Born., Mus. Ind., Caes., pi. vi., f. 11-12 ; Reev^ 

Conch. Icon., Vol. xviii., pi. xvi., f. 34 a, b, c. Rock 
Oyster, P.J. ^^ , , 

203 0. 8UBTRIGONA, Sow.; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xviii., pi. 

xviii., f. 38 a-b. Drift Oyster, P.J. 

204 0. VIRE8CEN8, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 911, p. xliv-^ f. 13; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xviii., pi. xi., f. 23. Watsons 

205 0. MYTIL0IDE8 Lam. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xviii., pi. 

xviii.,? f. 3. P.J., (Brazier.) 


Sub-Class Prosobranchiata. 


Family MFRICID^. 

20G Mlkex ACANTiroPTKiu-.s, Lam. ; Aniiii. Vert., Vol. 

p. IGo ; Reeve, Condi. Toon., Vol. in., pi. xvi., f. G4 ; T 

Man. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 85, p. xl., f. r)li>. In sl)ell-& 

INIiddle Hiii])Our; Watson's Bay, (Wr ' ' 

207 M. ANt;\ST, < 


-,, Jour, fie Conch..' 1S(5:',, p. SG, pi. i.. 1 

Tryon, I.e., 

, p. 81 


iJay, (J5ra; 



i50wer])V, P.Z.S., 1810, p. 142; Ko 

Concli. Ic. 

)n.,' \ 

'ol. in.: I\Iurex, pi. iv., f. 20 ; Tryon, 

p. DO, pi. xi 


U«), 147; pl.xxiv.,f.21o; pi. xxv., f. : 

Comnfon u 

luler 5 

Jtones, Neutral Jiay and many other yh 

209 M. Brazikki 
Tryon, i.e., 


gas, PZ.S., p. 171, pi. xxvi., f. 3, 1^ 
32, pi. XXX., f. 289. Dred-od outside 

Heads, 25 fms., (Brazier); in shell .-and, .Middle Ha 
210 Typis Cleuyi, Sowcrby, Thes. Conc-h., Vol. in., pi. cclx 
f. 14; Trvon, Man. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 137, pi. xx.\., 
Ort' J'. J. Heads, 4,^) fms., (Brazier(. 

i., f. 1-2 ; Try 

and Pigs Reef, 3 fni 


i.i-ELis, Watson, Cha 

213 PuKPi-KA srrciNXTA, Martvn. 1 

Trvon, Man. Conch., Vol. ii.. 
AX'atson's liav. 

214 P. STRIATA, :\raityn, I'ni\. Co 

iii., f. 1. Bondi ; Coogee ; A 

218 RiriN-n.A 
50, pi. 
lix., f. 

1,1813; Voy. of "Sulpl- 
c, p. 13G, 1)1. XXX., f. 


■220 Rapana (Latiaxis) modosa, Ad. .^wVngas, P.Z.S., 1853, p. 
93 ; Sowerby, Tlies. Couch., Vol. v., pi. ccccxxiv., f. 1/. 
Watson's Bay. 

Family TRTTONID^. 

221 TkiToy AusTKALK, Lmii., Aiiiiii. sans Yert., A ol. vii., p. 1^9; 

RetJNe. Conch. Icon., Vol. ii., pis. iv.-v , L 12a, Uh. 

222 T. FusiFOKME, Kiencr, Icono^'., Coq. Viv., p. 30, pi. 5 f. 2 ; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. iii., p. H, pL iv-, f. 22. P.J. 

223 T. cosTATU^, Born.; Tryon, M:in. Conch., Vol. m., p. H- p]- 

iii., f. 19 : pi. iv., f. 21; pi. v., f. 27-29; pi. vi., t. 3/. 

221 T. Spexolkri, Chemnft.': Koeve, Couch, icon., Nol. ii., pi. 

22.5 T. BoLTKXiANU.M, A. Adam.., 'P.Z.S., l.-^.-.4, p. 311. Long 

22^ T. DouAUius, Linn.; Tryon, I.e., p. Hi, pi. ix., t t^O. Coa.t 

-27 T. f.Muo^rs^'Woodi Indr^ Test. SuppL, pi. v., f. 18; Tiyon, 

Solander, Botany Bay, (Brazior 
230 T. sPEciosA, An-as, P.Z.S., 1.S71 

at low water Green Point, Wat.on's 

231 T. EVAUATUS, Reeve, T.on., V( 

Tryon, I.e., p. 22, pi. xii., f. 102, 10 

237 F. Paiv^., Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 1864, Vol. xii., p. 278, 

pi. xi., f. 7 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 155, pi. xxxix., 
f. 495. TJnder stones, P.J., (Angas). 

238 F. PAOODOiDES, Watson, C.R., Vol. xv., p. 197, pi. xiv., f. 3. 

Station 164 B, off Sydney, 410 fms. 

239 F. Nov^-HoLLANDi^, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. iv., pi. xviii., 

f. 70, Cape Solander, Botany Bay, (Brazier). 

240 Latirus Stranoei, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1854, p. 316. P.J. 


241 Canthabus Australis, Pease, Amer. Jour. Conch., Vol. vii., 

p. 2, 1872 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. iii., p. 160, pi. Ixxiii., 
f. 269. Cnder stones, Watson's Bay. 

242 C. UNicOLOR, Angas, P.Z.S., p. 110, pi. xiii., f. 2, 1867; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., Vol. m., p. 162, pi. Ixxiv., f. 279. Under 
stones, Camp Cove, P. J., (Angas). 

243 CoMiNELLA Adelaidensis, Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 1864, p. 

276, pi. xi., f. 6. Middle Harbour, (Angas). 

244 C. FiLiCEA, Crosse & Fischer, Jour, de Conch., 1864 p. 346, 

pi. iii., f. 15, 16 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. iii., p. 206, pi. 
Ixxxi., f. 440. Bottle and Glass Rocks, (Brazier). 

245 C. TRiTONiFORMis, Blainville, Nouv. Ann. du Mus., pi. x., f. 

10 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., p. 156, pi. xxxix., f. 491, 488, 
496. Common under stones, Watson's Bay and many 

246 Eburna Australis, Sowerby, Conch. 111., f. 5 ; Tryon, Man. 

Conch, Vol. in., p. 213, pi. Ixxxii., f. 474 ; Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., Vol. v., pi. i., f. 4. Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

247 Nassaria cubta, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 125. P.J. 

248 N. CAMPYLA, Watson, C.R., Vol. xv., p. 405, pi. xivi., £. 12. 

Station 164 B, off Sydney, 410 fms. 

249 Cyllene lactea, Ad. & Angas, P.Z.S., 1863, p. 422. In 

shell-sand Hunter's Bay, Middle Harbour. 

Family NASSID^. 

250 Tbuncaria Australis, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 172, pi- 

xxvi., f. 5 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. iv., p. 9, pi. v., f. 5^- 
Dredged off Sow and Pigs Reef, P.J., (Brazier). - 

251 Nassa glans, var intermedia, Dunker, Voy. "Novara," Moll- 

p. 5, pi. ii., f. 1. Under stones, Watson's Bay, P.J. 

252 N. JACK.SONIANA, Kiener, Mon. Bucc, pi. xix., f. 3. Common 

in shell-sand Middle Harbour, P.J. 

253 N. pauperata, Lam., Anim. sans Vert., Vol. x., p. l^^J 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. viii., pi. v., f. 27. Under stones, 
Watson's Bay, (Angas). 

254 N. PAUPERA, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 70 ; Tryon, Man. Conch. 

Vol. IV., p. 47, pi. XV., f. 246-250. In shell-sand Middle 

Harbour ; under stones, Watson's Bay. 
25.5 N. MAN(iELOiDEs, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. viii., pi. xxiii., 

f. 152 a-b; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. iv., p. 26, pi. xxiii., 

f. 36. On mud flats at low water. 

256 K JoNASi, Dunker, Phil. Abbild. Bucc, Vol. iii., p. 66, pi. 

ii., f. 10 ; Tryon, Man. Conch,, p. 26, pi. viii., f. 20-32. 
Middle Harbour. 

257 N. REPOSTA, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 127. P.J. 

258 N coRONATA, Lam.; Reeve. Conch. Icon., Vol. viii., pi. iii., 

f. 20 a, b, c ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. iv., p. 23, pi. vii., 
f. 7-8. Living specimen obtained on the beach Manly, 


pi. iv., f. 2. Sow and Pigs Reef ; 

260 Neritula lucida, Adams & Angas, P.Z.S., 1863, p. 35. In 

shell-sand, Coogee Bay. 

Family VOLUTID^. 

261 VoLUTA FUSiFORMis, Swainson ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. 

VI., pi. iii., f. 6. Got in the trawl, off P.J. Heads. 

262 V. MAONiFiCA, Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. xi., pi. clxxiv.-clxxv.; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. Vol. vi., pi. i., f. 2. North Harbour; 
Sow and Pigs Reef; off' Garden Island, 10 fms., (Brazier). 

263 V. UNDULATA, Lam.; Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol. i., p. 196, 

pi. xhaii., fig. 29. A worn specimen found at Hunter's 
Bay, Middle Harbour ; Dredged off Sydney Heads, 45 fms. 

264 MicRovoLUTA Australis, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 35, pi- v., 

f. 2. Dredged in 25 fms. outside P.J. Heads, (Brazier). 

Family MITRID^. 

265 MiTRA MELAXiAVA, Lam. ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. iv., p. 

127 pi xxxvii f 118-119. Under stones, Watson's Bay. 

266 M. so'lida, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. n., pi. iii., f- l^! Tryon 

Man. Conch., Vol. iv., p. 20, pi. xxxv., f. 57. Dredged off 
Middle Head, (Angas). 

267 M. Strancei, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. H^; Tryon, M.C 

Vol. IV., p. 136, ^1. xxxix.. f. 157. Dredged in Middle 

268 M. GLABRA Swainson, Exotic. Conch., pi. xxiv. ; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., Vol. n., pL vi., f. 43; Tryon, M. Conch., 
Vol. IV., p. 117, pi. xxxiv., f. 42. Botany Bay. 

269 31. CYLIN 
pl. xiii. 

DKACF.A, Jieeve, l^ 
, ?p. 97. Under s 

tone.s at Doul. 

le Bay, (lira. 


•270 M. luiOD 

lA. lieevo, Conrh. 

Icon., Vol. 11., 

pi. xx^iii.,f 

. 220 ; 


M. C, Vol. IV., p. 

127, pi. 37, i 

:. lU. P.J., 


fiMs., (• 


271 M. PAci^ 

■iCA, Reeve : Sow., 

Thes. Conch.. 

, pt>. xxi.-xxi 

i., pi. 


f. :3S.^. Outer North Head, .-. fi. 

IS., (IJra/.ier.) 


272 Ekato a. 

vGiosTOMA, Sower!) 

v. Conch. Hi., ] 



M.C., ^ 

rol. v., p. 10, pi. • 

iv., £. -U. Oi 

itside P.J. H 


45 fnis 

., (Brazier.) 

273 E. coimi 

■fLVTA, Hinds, MS., 
12: Trvon, M.C. 

Reeve, Conch. 
. Vol. v., p. 

iu"pl. iv.V 



se Bay, sandy nmc 

I, S fms., (Bra; 


271 Makgine 

n.: Reeve, Coi 


pi. viii 

"^X 2l''a!'k'*''ln 'shell-sand, Midc 

lie Harbour. 

27.) M. oLiv,. 

,r.LA, Reeve, Conch 

v., pi. XXV., f 

'. uo 

a-b, 1 f<6.-). Sow iuid Pin> 


27G M. THAN.- 

,LUC1DA. Sow., TlH- 
1. Sow and l>i-. 1 

:. Conch., Vol. 



277 yi.'-vruu 

N\T\. Sow., Tl,('.. 

'conrh., Vol. 

I.. Ma.-inel 

K p. 

281 M., Brazier, MS., Cross 

p. 304 : T.-yon, M.C, Vol. v„ 
and Glass Rocks, (15razier). 

282 M. Metcalfei, Angas, RZ.S., 1 

Sow and Pigs Reef, Brazier). 

283 y\. Stuaxkki, Angas, P.Z.S., li 

P. J., (Brazier). 

284 M. KUFULA, Gaskoin, MS. lieeve 
xxvi., f. 14*J. Outside P.J. lleai 

28G M. orin;\cK\, Angas P.Z.S., 1 

). ■iKHM'h\, Duclos 
M.C.. A'ol. \., p. 


T.NOM, M.C, Vol. 

292 Ancillxkiv M^ucnVATx. Lam. ; Sowerbv 
f. 40-43 ; Ileeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. \ 
Tryon, M.C., A'ol. v., p. 96, pi. x\\i\., 

29.^ A. OHLOX(. V, Sowerby, Sp. Conch , pt. i., p. 
Conch Toon., Vol. \\., pi. \iii., f. 24 i 
P.J. Heads. 


29r, C .VtMiMiis. (.i.ko'.n ]'/ 
V<)l! N ., p. i-lil, pi xhx ] t 

331 c. [vk:v. 

252 THOMAl 

302 C ExiMiA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xi., pi. xxxv., f. 222 ; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. v., p. 150, pi. liii., f. 7-8. Under stones 
at Mossman's Bay ; Bottle and Glass Rocks, (Brazier.) 

303 C. ATTENUATA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. U, pi. i., f. 4 ; Tryon, 

M.C., Vol. v., p. 151, pi. liii., f. 18. Dredged near Sow 
and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

304 C. ATRATA, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 131 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. 

v., p. 169, pi. Ivii., f. 10-17. Under stones, Mossman's Bay. 

305 C. Angasi, Brazier, RZ.S., 1871, p. 322 ; Angas, P.Z.S., 

1865, pi. xi., f. 9, 10 as C interrupta, Angas ; Tryon, M. 
C, Vol. v., p. 128, pi. xlix., f. 11. P.J., (Brazier). 

306 C. LiNEOLATA, Pearse ; Brazier, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. i., p. 

231, 1877 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. v., p. 138, pi. li. f. 53,^(7. 
dermesfoides, Angas, (non Kiener) P.Z.S., 1876, p. 195. 
Shark Island, P.J. 

307 C. FiLOSA, Angas, P.Z.S., p. 

M.C., Vol. v., p. 151, pi. i: 
P.J., (Brazier). 


308 Cancellaria undulata. Sow., Tlies. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 443, 

pi. xcii., f. 12 ; pi. xcv., f. 79. Middle Harbour. 

309 C. antiquata. Hinds, Zoology of "Sulphur," p. 43, pi. xu., 

f. 17-18 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. vii., p. 79 ; pi. v., f. 88. 
Off Green Point, 7 fms., (Brazier). 

310 C. ccsTiFKRA, Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. ii., p. 456, pi. xcv., 

f. 65, 66, 71 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. vii., p. 82, pi- 
vii., f. 12-13. Inner North Head, 8 fms., (Brazier). 


311 Terebra bicolor, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. Ill, pi. xiii., f • 7 ; 

Tryon, M. C, Vol. vii., p. 25, (f. xi., only). Dredged m 
Middle Harbour. 

312 T. AssiMiLis, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. Ill, pi. xiii., f. 8; Tryon 

M.C., Vol. VII., p. 36, pi. xi., f. 1. Dredged. 

313 T. Brazieri, Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 16, pi. i., f. 15 ; Tryon, 

M.C., Vol. VII., p. 13, pi. xi., f. 14. Sow and Pigs Beet, 
5 fms., (Brazier). ^ , 

314 T. venilia. Ten- Woods, P L.S., N.S.W., Vol. iv., p. 23, pi- 

iv., f. 2, 2a ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 21, pi. v., f. ^^^• 
Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). .. 

315 T. Lauketax.*:, Ten.-VVoods, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. ii.,P- 26- 

Dredged off P.J. Heads, 45 fms., (Brazier). 

316 T. TRiLiNEATA, Adams & Angas, P.Z.S., 1863, p. 418, pi- 

xxxvii., f. 13; Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 38, pi. xii.,f. ^*- 
Dredged near the Heads. 

317 T An'^v^t. Tfvon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 38, pi. xii., f. 25-26, 

i--^:.. -. r. .:./;.. /A^ Ads. k Angas, P.Z.S., p. 418, 1863, 

r, i)esh.)=7'. 3razieri, Anijas, P.Z.S., 

xlv., f. n, 5a, (non T. Brazieri, Angas, 

:>,; . iMiT.;.!. Sydney Heads, 43 fms., (Brazier); in 

siieii-saiKi, Muidie Harbour. 


318 Pleurotoma, Watson, C.R., Vol. xv., p. 282, 

pi. xxvi., f. 1. Station 163 B., 30 - 35 fms. 

319 Drillia Oweni, Gray, MSS. ; Reeve. Conch. Icon., Vol. i., 

pi. ix., sp. 70 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. vi., p. 242, pi. 
vii., f. 91. Sow and Pigs Reef, P.J., (Brazier). 

320 D. RADULA, Hinds, Voy. of "Sulphur,'^ p. 16, pi. v., f. 9 ; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vi., p. 242, pi. vii., f. 88, 89, 90. Deep 
water, P.J. 

321 D. VExiLLUM, Reeve, P.Z.S., 1845, p. 115; Conch. Icon., 

Vol. I., pi. xxix., f. 264. Middle Harbour. 

322 D. Metcalfei, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 113, pi. xiii., f. 16. 

Dredged in P.J., (Angas). 

323 D. Coxi, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 113, pi. xiii., f. 15. Dredged 

in P. J., (Brazier). 

324 D. Beraudiana, Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 1863, p. 88, pi. i., 

f. 6. In shell-sand Middle Harbour ; dredged. 

325 D. An(;asi, Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 1863, p. 87, pi. i., f. 5 ; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. vi., p. 187, pi. ix., f. 36-37. 

326 D. tricarinata, Tenison-Woods, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. ii., 

p. 265. Dredged off P.J. Heads, 45 fms., (Brazier). 

327 D. aemula, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 36, pi. v., f. 9. 

328 D. sPADix, WaTson, C.R., Vol. xv., p. 310, pi. xxvi., f. 6. 

Station 163 B, off Sydney, 35 fms., (" Challenger.") 

329 Bela mitralis, Ad. *t Angas, P.Z.S., 1863, p. 420. Dredged 

in P.J. 
530 Clathurella Brenchleyi, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 3*, pi. 
v., f. 12; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. vi., p. 285, pl.xvn f.93. 

331 C. RUFOZONATA, Angas,' P.Z.S., 1877, p. 38, pi. v., f. 13 ; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vi., p. 285, pi. xvii., f. 100. Bottle and 
Glass Rocks, (Brazier). _ 

332 C. puhtulata; Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 38, pi. v., f. 14 ; Tryon 

M C Vol VI I) -'.^5 pi xvii., f. 85. P.J., (Brazier). 

333 C. MODEST V A.i-as P.Z.S., 1877, p. 38, pi. v., f . 15 ; Tryon, 

M.C. V,)l VI % •>,^.5, pi. xvii., f. 92. P. J., (Bra/.ier). 

334 C., P.Z.S.. 1871, p. 17, pi. i., f. 17 ; 

Tryon, M.C.'. Vol v'l., p. 281, pi. xv., f. 46. Dredged m 
Lane Cove River, (Brazier). 


33.1 C. TEN c I u RATA, Aiigu^!, P.Z.S.. 1S71, p. 17. J.!, i., f. IS; T.-yon, 

M.C., Vol. VI., p. L>S1, pi. x\i., i. .V_'. Dn'd-od near Co^it 

Island, P.J., f) fms., ( l'>m/ier). 
33G C. srur-PTiLis, Anir,is, P.Z.S., ISTl.p. 17. pi. i.,f. l<):Tryon, 

M.C., Vol. VI., p. L>^2, pi. .xvi., f. :>1. !),ed,-.d no,ir Sow 

and Pigs Reef, (Bnizier). 

337 C. mcoLOH. Anga.>, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 18, pi. i., f. 20 : Tiyon, 

M.C, Vol. M., p. 282. pi. x\i., f. 61. Dredged near Sow 
and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

338 C. \LROCixcTA. Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 18, pi. i., f. 22 ; 

Tryon, M.C, Vol. vi., p. 28."). pi. x\ii., f. 84. Dredged 

339 C. muNK.VT.v, .\n-as. P.Z.S , ].s71,p.'l8, pi. i., f. 2:i : Tryon, 

M.C.. Vol. M., p. 2>>, pi. xvii., f. 4. Dredged near Sow 
and Pi-s Reef, (lirazicr). 

340 C. liuAZiKHi, Angas. P.Z.S., 1871, p. 18, pi. i., £. 21 ; Tryon, 

.M.C.. Vol. \i.. p. 2**.-). pi. x\ii., t 98. Dredged near Sow 
and Pig. Reef. (Rrazier). 

341 C. ZONTLVTV, An-as, P.Z.S., 1807, p. lU, pi. xiii., f. 17; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vi.. p. 2.s.i, pi. xvii., f. 89. Dredged. 

342 C. fehe<;kina, (Jould, Otia. Concli., p. 134. P. J., (Brazier). 

343 C. REncosTV, Ad. .t Angas, P.Z.S., p. 420, 18G:', : Tiyon, 

:M.C., Vol. VI.. p. 281. Dredged in Middle Harl)0ur. 

344 Daphnella ruE]]KiPLirAT\, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. i., pi- 

xxxiv., f. :}l;i ; Tryon, M.C, Vol. vi., p. 305, p4. xx\i., f- 
94. Dredged in P.J. 

345 CiTiiARA COMPTA, Ad. .^: Aiiga.s, P.Z.S., 1863, p. 119, pi. 

xxxvii., f. 5 : Trvon. M.C., Vol. \i., p. :50(), pi. xxv., f. 19. 
In shell-sand, .Middle Harbour. 

346 Maxgelia picta, Ad. .V: Angas, P.Z.S.. 18G3, ]>. 419, pi. 
xxx\ii., f. 7 : Tr-yon. Man. Cor>ch.. Vol. m., p. 2.-)6, pi- 

; Conch.,!. ^G:),p._42:i, 

.. L^G.-i: Trvon, M-C, 
Vol. VI., p. -Ml, pi. xvii., f. 9!. Drvd-od oti' P..J. : .Middle 

349 M. A\ovoi..\, Ang.iT, P.Z.S., 1877, p. ;il."pl. %., f. 1. (P"'" 
pur-a). In '.iH-ilsand. Middl.' Ha.lKnir, divd^rd outH<l*^ 
P.J. Head^, 2.->tin^., (I".r,./i..r(. 

3.50 M. J.vcKsoN'iKN.s,., An-..., I'.Z.S.. 1-77, y. .■".7. pi. v., f. 10, 
Tryon, .M.C.. \ ol. m., p ■".jl. pi. x^ii., f. 7.i. Dn'<lgefl 

Family CONID^. 
■s, Sowerbv, Tlies. Co.u-li., Vol. iti., pi. xiii., 
nlntu.): Trvon, M.C., Vol. vi., p. 7, pi. vxii., 
IS JJay. 

' ' I ; Conch. Fcon., pi." 



(^ \PLrs 

TKK, Kee%-e, Conch. Icon., 



M.'C, Vol. VI., p. 07, T 

>1. XX 

Solaiider. Botativ Hav. 


C. COOKI " " 

, Brazier. P.Z.S., 1S70, 

p. 10 


■Bav, ■ 


C. Itossi' 
Vol. VI 

VEUi", Brazier, P.Z.S., 187 
.. p. 09. Cape Solandcr, 


C. Jll-TILI 

js, Menke, Moll. Nov. J to! 

1., p. • 

VI., p. -2 

Icon., Vol. 1., pi. xlvii., f. 
1, 1)1. vi., f. 3. Cape Soland 


■'■>0 C. Am.a. 

u, Tryon, Man. Conch., A 

'o'l. ^ 

99, = C 
f. 13. 

. .\fetca//.i, Angas, P.Z.S. 
Sow and Pi-s Reef, (Braz 


m C. Smitm 

I, Ansas, PiZ.S., 1S77, p. 


M.C.. ^ 

rol.VL.p. 24, pi. vi.,f. 4. 




iVEXSLs, Sowerl)y. Thes. O 


dx., f. ( 

;94. Sow and Pi-s Reef, 


Family STROM BTD^. 



LuHUAN-L-;, Linn.; Reev, 

i, Coi 

H!^L,r„.H; ...„ 

f. 10 ; Trvo.i, M.C., V(, 
VaiicliiM' llav. 

1. MI., 


Trvon, M.C., \ol. mi., 



!<. 1 I.IJ.K 

s.. S.uMM-by. Th.... Con.h 

.. Vu] 

, ].l. XXX., f. 170; 
f. 10-n. Cape 

Vyon, yi.C, 

367 Cvj.K.v.v rMHiM('M\." Son..- 

368 C. viTELLUS, Linn; Lister, Conch., pi. dc.^ 

:ciii., f. 40; 


M.C., Vol. vn., p. 182, pi. xiii., f. 72 

-73. Taylor Bay; 

Watson's Bay. 

369 C. cAPUT-SERPENTis, Linn.; Lister, Conch. 

, pi. dcci.-d^ 

49, 50; Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 173, 

pi. vi., f. 98-100. 


370 C. CAPUT-ANGUis, Philippi, Zeitschdft fur 


ogie, p. 

24, 1849. Shark Island, P../., (Brazier; 

371 C. ASELLUS, Linn. ; Brug., Encycl. Meth. 

* pi. ccclvi 


Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. vii., p. 187, pi. xvi., f. 34. 


Bay; Botany Heads, and P.J. 

372 C. CLANDESTINA, Linn. ; Wood, Lidex Test., pi. iii., 

f. 17; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vn., p. 187, pi. xvi., f. 

37-40, 61. 


Beach ; Watson's Bay. 

373 C. CARNEOLA, Linn. ; Lister, Conch., pi. d 

cxliv.,f. 8; 


M.C., Vol. VII., p. 166, pi. iii., f. 26-30. 

Long Bay. 

374 C. EKHONEs, Linn. ; Wood, Index Test., 

pi. xvii., ' 

f. 39; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 183, pi. xiv., f 

: 88, 89, 7. 


375 C. FELINA, Gmelin ; Wood, Index Test. 

, pi. xvii., 

f. 26 ; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 169, pi. iv. 

; t 52-55, 

59, 60. 

North Head Botany Bay, (P>razie.) ; 

Middle Harbour, 


376 C. PIPERATA, Gray ; Sow., Conch. 111., f. 

24 ; Tryon, 

, M.C., 

f. 71-72. P.J. 

378 C. CAUUiCA, Linn.; Lister, Conch., pi. dclxxvii., f. 24; Tryon, 

M.C., Vol. vii., p. 171, pi. v., f. 88, 89, 90. Cape Banks, 
Botany Bay, (Brazier). 

379 C. ANNULUS, Linn. ; Encycl. Meth., pi. ccclvi., £. 7 ; Tryon, 

M.C., Vol. vii., p. 178, pi. xi., f. 57-61, pi. xxiii., f. 70-72. 
Vaucluse Bay, (Brazier). 

380 C. FiMBKiATA, Gmelin ; Wood, Index Test., pi. xvii., f. 26 ; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 168, pi. v., f. 76-78. Cape 

381 C. Isabella, Linn."; Sowb., Thes. Conch., Vol. iv., p. 6, pj- 

xxvii., f. 258 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 165, pi. i.J- 6-'- 
Farm Cove, (W.) . , ,« • 

382 C. HTAPHYLEA, Linn.; Li.ster, Conch., pi. dccviii., f- 5°' 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 196, pi. xx., f. 39-44. Off Bottle 
and Glass Rocks, 8 fms., also Broken F.ay, (Brazier). 

383 C. LUTEA, Gronovius, Zoophvlacium, pi. xix., f. 17: Tryon, 

M.C., Vol. VII., p. 187, i»l. .xvi., f. 35-37. ISIiddle Har»)Our 
(Ed. Mcintosh); Lake Macquarie Beach, (Brazier). 

^ > (' I \i ^S( 1 N>,, (.1 IV Sow , Conch Illus , f 14 , Fi voii, Al. 
C , \ ol \ II , p 1 70, pi \ , f. c^2, h ^, h4 ].akt M icquane 

3^() C scLiiu\, Chemnit/, Conch Cab p 103, pi cxhv ,f 1338, 
Tryon, M C , Vol vii., p 1G5, pi ii , f 19, 20, Jl Broken 
i3a>, (Bra/101 ) 
387 C FT v\LOLi, Linn , So\% , Conch Illus, f 11 , Tryon, M. 
C, Vol MI, p 195, pi xix, f 20, 21, 22 BoUny Bay 
3&b C \A.NTiioi)ON, Giay, Desc , Cat, p 10, 1832, Tryon, M 
0, Vol MI, p IbG, pi XV , f 24, 2') Watson's B^>, 

~.ani , Sow, Conch Illus , f 29, Tr>on, 
20G, pl xMii,f 5 3,54 
lui sans Vert , (Desh , Ed ) Vol v , p 
, Vol MI , p 200, pl XM , f 79, i<2, 83, 

us f U Ttvon, MC, 
Little Bav, (Bri/ier) 

3b9 Trim 4* 

At srii 

VLIb, L 


Aol, V 

390 T oia 

.X, Lui 




M C , 


iJn Tl 

H. C( 

\ol Ml, p 200, pl XX,, 
R{0\e, Condi Icon , A''ol. 

r s \\ \ ol I , p .^ Off 

Family DOLIIDvE. 

400 DOLIUM VARIEGATUM, Lam., Anim. sans Vert., (Ed. Be 

Vol. X., p. 143 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. vii., p. 262, pi. iii 
1.3-14. Middle Plarbour ; oft' George's Head, 17 f 

Family NATICTD^. 

401 Natica SAf-iiTTATA, Menke, Moll. Nov. Hoi!., p. 10, no. 

Philippi, Conch. Cab., (ed. Kuster) p. 108, pi. xv., f. 
Middle Harbour. 

402 N. KUZONA, Recluz, Jour de Conch., 1851, Vol. i., p. : 

pi. xiv., f. 3. P.J., 2-10 fms., (''Challenger.') 

403 N. PLUMBEA, Lam.; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi. ix 

24 a-b ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. viii., p. 44, pi. xviii., f. 78, 
pi. xix., f. 88. Middle Harbour ; Botany Bay. 

404 N. MELOSTOMA, Swainson ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix. 

xviii., f. 78 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. viii., p. 45, pi. xviii., f. 
pi. xix., f. 90 a-b, pi. xxi., f. 8. 

405 N. Strangei, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi. xviii., f. 
Tryon, M.C., Vol. viii., p. 45, pi. xviii., f. 80. P.J. 

^. Dii>YMA, Bolton, MS. : Philippi, Conch. Cab., (ed. Kus 

407 N. CONICA, Lam.; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi. xii., f. 4b; 

Tryon, M.C , Vol. vni.. p. 44, pi. 18, f. 7G, 77. On the 
sand spit, Middle Harl)our'. 

408 N. INCEI, Philippi, P.Z.S., is.-. I. p. 2;'.3 ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Vol. IX., pi. XX.. f. 10 : Tivon, M.C, Vol. viii., p- 
33, pi. X., f. 87-90, pi. xi., f. 95. "Manly Beach. 

409 N. AREOLATA, Recluz, P.Z.8., p. 2U0, 1843; Tryon, M.C, 

Vol. VIII,, p. 25, pi. vi., f. 23. In shell sand. Middle 
Harbour ; Sow and Pigs Reef. 

410 N. EFPOSSA, Watson, C.R., Vol. xv., p. 439, pi. xxviii., f. 3. 

Off P.J., 30 - 35 fms., (" Challenger.") 

411 N. FILOSA, Sowerbv, MS. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi- 

xvii., f. 72 a-b; Tryon, M.C. Vol. viii., p. 51, pi. xxu., f- 
22. Farm Cove, 5 fms. 

412 N. CoLLiEi. Recluz, P.Z.S., p. 206, 1843 ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Vol. IX., pi. xxiv., f. 112 ; Tryon, :\I.C., Vol. viii., 
p. 26, pi. vii., f. 34, 30-33. Parramatta River, 7 fms., 

413 N. UMBILICATA, Quoy & Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ii., p. 2-3*. 

pi. Ixvi., f. 22, 23 ; Tryon, IM.C, Vol. vin., p. 52, pi. xxn-, 
f. 26. Dredged at Sow and Pigs Reef. „ 

414 N. POLiTA, Ten.- Woods, P.R. Soc, Tasmania, 1875, p., ^ 

Off P.J. Heads, 45 fms., (Brazier). M 

Kosivrv Tdi AVoocIs, PLS,NS^\ ,^ 

ol II , p 263. 

(^'((lotfP } 4-)fn]s,(Biizioi) 

fcojs,. Mom III, Ads c^Angas, PZh, 1 

so }, p i->3. 

I«t fetoiKs lN)iiit Piper, (Btaziei) 

ins /owns <,)uoy et G Astiola])e, ^ o\ 

II, p 221, 

IxM, (bis) f 1 i Ti>on, MC, Aol Mil 

^ P "0, pi. 

^ t -.7 PJ , IJotmv iJay 

ims, Hoe^e, Conch Icon, \ ol xv pi i 

X , f 20 ih, 

on, MC,\ol vm,p )S, pi ^^^ , f ^7 


rhptcticlo IsUml 

.UMM\ K(«v<, Conch lum,^ol x% pi 

n,f 17 lb, 

on MC \0\ MH p IS, pi .XV, t 7 

') Ott Fo.t 

i,p 7U,pl xMx,f 

runil> CALYP1R\LII)^E 
-6 (tmffls p.LLiciDis, K((Nt,(onch Tcon,Aol m pi i t 2, 

I<>on, MC^ol v.M,p IJU, p] Kxxn t bObl Vdhet 

mq to do id sluUs in detp ^vater, P J 
-' fNH.M)imiiM (U\i'iR\itouMi>, Lim Rdvo, Conch 

I'on \ol V,, pi lu, t 11 , Tr>on, Mi p 1_J, pi 

x\\^ t <)(, -J<i P J 

-*0 Iryon, M C ' \ ol mIi , p IK^ pi xhii t (. . b(. -ovv 
'iml P^s Reft, 4 tms (H. ^/ur) 
-y Creiidum uiiFviv, (.nielm Tr^on, AI C , \ ol viii,p. 

430 C. UNGUiFORMis, Lam. ; P.rofl., Tnins. Zool. Soc, V^ol. i., p. 

204, pi. \xi\.. f. 4 : Trvon, :M.C., Vol. viii., p. 130, pi. 
xxxix., f. GG-GS ; Rcevp/Conch. Icon., Vol. xi., pi. i., f. 1. 

crab. Watson's Bay, March,' 188S. (W.) 

431 Capi Lus MoiACKus, Angas, P.Z.S., 18G7, p. 114, pi. xiii., 

f. 1'3, Tryon, M.C, Vol. vm., p. 13-_>, pi. xxxix., f. 81. 
Found undci- a stone at low water, Long Bay, (Angas). 

432 HiPPONW vNiK^rvrus, Linn., 12th edit., p. 12.59, no. 762, 

= JLj'vJiacui, C^uov & (Tainiard, Astrolabe, Vol. iii.. p. 439, 
pi. Ixxii., f. 41-4.-) ] Trvon, M.C., Vol. mil, p. 134, pi. xl., 
f. 9.3-99. Under rocks and stones. R.l. 

433 H. sur.iaFus, Sow., P.Z.S., 183."), p. .". : Thes. Conch., Vol. i., 

p. 370, pi. Kxiii., f. 21, 22, 23 ; Trvon, M.C, V>1. mil, P- 
134, pi. xl.,f. 1. P.J. 






Sol ARIL- 



on, Man. (\ 


, , Vol. IX., 

p. 12, 

pl.^iv'., f.'"4.3-44 

-. J)r. 


v-)w am 

I Pios Reef. 

S. R.:ln 

Ki, Hanlev ; S( 

>w., Thes. C 


sp. 16, pi. 

i., f. 9 

.10; Tryon, 

M.C, ^ 

\o\. I 

X., p 

• 1-, pl 

. i\ 

., f. 4MG. 





M.C., Vol u 


lit/. ; 


^, Thes 
ny He. 


>ncli., Vol, 

438 S. LUTEl 

'M, Lam. ; Sou 


( M, 


•_)-). I.l IN.. 

f. .02, . 

U; Trvon. M 

( , \ 


r.', pi 

t. 71 :-'• 

Botany Head-, ; P..J 


* "Tryon! 

DIM, Lam. El 
M.C., Vol. IV. 


, pi ' 

!!', f . 



i., f. •'-<-;; 



'r)-'in ■ 



'Middle Hi 


S. uo.srL 

"TJr^ V ''"'''" 


P- If 


viii.,f. 1-; 

S PlIILlPMNVRUM ^OAV,PZ^ 1M4 Ihe. CoilLh \o] 

I pi vxvii f 1 ] liyou Mi ^ol i\ p GO pi Mil, 
f 1M9 Died^ed in P J 

' "> JLKP«iT\\\ ioibes Append A o\ of R ttl( snake p 
383 1 1 m f 7 Toon AU \ol ix p (,6 pi xn f 
20 Dred^'cd 

f 13t Ir^on ML. \ol J\ { i( pi wi t <)0 Liuler 

stones tniin Cove Min]y U ich 
S \CLrt\JA. Sowerb} PZS 1^11 p P Tins Conch, 

Vol I pt 4 p 86 pi xxxii t >i 37 fix on AFC A ol 

IX p 63 pi xiii £90 91 PJ > 10 tins ( (li ilh n^( i ) 
S ii\ALTN\ Sow, Thes Conch A ol i p ^ > pi \\\n f 

2122 liyon, MC \ol ix p u pi m t )3 1 Sow 

and Pi^': Reef ^ fnis (Biaziet) 
S <HVNLLOs\ (^uoy Sou..l> Ill( ( )n h \ 1 I p 10^ 

II ^\mnr Noith lleYd" 1 > tin M i 'Ji /) 

^^^ ^Pi^'sReef (Brt/ioO 


Thes Conch 

\ol I 

p 10 

1 pl X 

f 115 lU Tr>on 

MC, \ol IX 

P *" 


BdlsHetd, istms 


4^4 S D^LICVT^LV Crosse 

afischei lo 

ui dc 

h l^C 

^47 pi III f 1112 

Tryon M C 

\ol I 

V p 

G9 pl 

f 39 Sou tnd Pi„ 

s Reef, ) fnis ( 




n..s P/S 1 

^-67 p 


pl xh 

U it^on AlC ^ol i\ p ^) t1 

f 4) 

Pi^sRtcf (Bri/iei) 


Aliddh Hi 


1 iniily 


456rA>uHv.Kuun,s L 

mi R(0( ( 

on h 


, \ol 

pl 11 f <)al, r.yo 

n M C \ 1 1 

. p } 

( pl 

IX t 

, , pl X f 6 10 

4'>7I vioL.C.^ Bolton A 

11 p ) MO 

Q > 

-/ , 

Recv., Conch Icon 

Tol Mill 

t 1 I 

h 1. 

ym A 

^Ol IX, p iO pl IX 

f tj 

4»^ I f UULLVTV R(cve 

Comh I on 

vol XI 

}1 1 

l«}on MC, Aol IX 

p 3b pi IX 


uh hi 

Carpenter ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., pi. iv., f. 19 a-b ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. ix., pi. 
X., £. 13. Coogee Bay ; Bondi Bay. 

460 I. ExiGUA, Lam. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Yol. xi., pi. v., f. 

21 a-b ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. ix., p. 37, pi. x., f. 17-22. 
Coogee Bay ; Bondi Bay. 


461 TuRRiTELLA INCISA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. v., pi. xi., f. 

65 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. viii., p. 203, pi. 63, f. 88. Dredged 
in deep water. P.J., (Strange). 

462 T. Sophie, Brazier, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. viii., p. 221, = T. 

incim, Tenison-Woods, (non Reeve) P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. 
II., p. 262, 1877. Ofi'P.J., 45 fms., (Brazier). 

463 T. GuNXii, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. v., pi. ix., tig. 45 ; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. viii., p. 203, pi. Ixiii., f. 86, 87. Otl' 
P.J., 45 fms., (Brazier). 

464 T. sixuATA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. v., pi. xi.,f. 62; Tryon, 
M.C., Vol. VIII., p. 200, pi. Ixi., f. 60. Dredged in Middle 


,r and Watson's Bay. 

465 T. PARVA, 

, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 174, pi. : 

«vi. f; ^ 


M.C., Vol. VIII., p. 198, pi. lix., f. 4 

Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

466 T. ciHciN 

ATA, A. Adams, Ann. k Mag. N. Hist. 

, 1860. Sow 

and Pigs Reef and Balls H.wl. 

467 T. SPINA, 

Cro.sse c^- Fischer, .Jour. d.- Cnnrli., 1 

864, p. 347 ; 

1865, p 

.44,pl.iii.,f. l:lll. Sow.ndPi^sR. 

.ef, (Brazier). 

468 T. Brazi] 

KRi, An-as, P.Z.S., 1^77. i>. Xk ^A. v.. 

f. 5. P.J-, 

(Brazier). " ' ' 

469 T. TORCUi 

LARis, Ten.-Woods, P.L.S., N.S.AV, V 

ol. II., p. 263. 

Off P.J 

., Heads, 45 fms., (Brazier). 

470 Matiiild. 
8 : Try, 

^ ELEHANTULA, AngaS, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 15, pi- ^^^■ 

on, M.C., Vol. VIII., p. 210, pi. Ixv., f. 37. Dredged 

in Lane Cove River, (Brazier). 

Family VERMETID^. 


DECUSSATUS, Gmelin ; Tryon, Man. 

Conch., Vol. 

viii., p. 

181, pi. liii., f. 71-72. P.J. 

472 V. QuoYi 

, A. Adams ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol 

.VIII., p. 1-6. 

pi. li., f 

.46. P.J. 

473 Siliquari 

A LACTEA, Lam. ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. 

vni., p. 191. 

pi. Iviii 

., f. 26. P.J. 

Family CAECID^l 


474 Caecum sp. Cabbage Tree Bay ; outer Man 

ly Beacl^ 

^^.uuily EL^i 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. mil, p. 209, pi. 

476 E. ACicuLv, Gould ; Trvon, M.C , Vc 
fig. 92. l>..i. 



" ''J' 


n V, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, 

oi.Mii,p. ;m,pi.ixxvi. 

^f. V-)'. '* "Dredged 

484 T ' 

M\mK Tm. V 

\ o „k, P.R.S., Tasui., 187.' 
. |, :i:U, pi. Kxvi., f. \-2. 

S p. HI, Tryon, 
I^otdny Head.. 

4^.-, T 

..,1^ P.Z.S, 1.^67, V ill 

:, pi. xiii., f 9 ; 

\\u„, .Mc! \ 


f. 11. Dredged 


486 En 

M.rv, AnoasP./S. ]-; 

r p iiJ,pi ^'/i- 


Reef, (1 


'\\''\u n... 1 



)KV.s. '\V.itM>n, 1 

P.J , 2 

lOfni.. r-ci 


yi. coiic 

Angas, P.Z S 

h., Vol MIL. 



vvatiM. VJ 
. T.\..n, M (• 


0. Pascci 

:i, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 112, 

pi. xii 

li., f. 12; 

M.C., Vol. VIII., p. 362, pi. Ixxix., 

,f. 70. 


in deep 

water, P. J., (Angas). 


0. Kkkfi 

m, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 11: 

2, pi. X 

M.C., Vol. viii., p. 362, pi. Ixxix., 

f. 66. 



water, P.J., (Angas). 


.IGATA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 17 

3, pi. X 

xvi.,f. 11; 


M.C., Vol. viii., p. 310, pi. Ixxiv 

. Botany 

Bay, (Brazier). 



TixcTA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 

15, pi 

. i., f. 11; 


M.C., Vol. VIII., p. 308, pi. Ixxiii., 

, f. 24, 


off Sow 

and Pigs Reef, (Brazier.) 

496 Pyramidella jucuxda, An-as, P.Z.S., 1 

.877, p 

.. 173, pi. 


f. 10: Tryon, M.C., Vol. viii., 

pL Ixx 

iii., f. 92. 

Dredged in deep water, P.J., (Brazier.) 




A SCABRA, Linn. ; Tryon, Man. Conch., "\ 

rol. IX., p. 

243, pi 

[. xlii., f. 18-20. Mangrove Swamps, Parramatta 



L. badia 


, Ten. -Woods, P.L.S., N.S.W., 
>d off P.J. Heads, 45 fms. (Braziei 

Vol. II 

., p. 264. 

499 L. Mauh 

ITIAXA, Lam., Anim. sans Vert., 

' Vol. I 



M.C., Vol. IX., p. 247, pi. xliv., f. 

71, 70 

-75. Very 

n about high water mark, P.J. 

500 Tectauiu 

s NODULOsus, (^melin, = T. p>iro 


, Quoy cfe 

Astrolabe, Vol. ii., p. bS2, ,.1. 

f. 12-lo; 


M.C.,Vol.ix., p...kpl.xl!,.., 

'y\. xlv 

iii. Com- 

1 rocks about hi-h water-in.ivk. V\ 



pi. Ixii 

3, P.J. 

LUTEA, Quoy ct (iaiin.. AstrolalH' 
., f. 8-11; Tryon M.C., Vol ix., ^ 





V, Quoy & Gaim., I.e., p. 274, pi 

. Ixii., 

K n'^A' 


Man. Conch., Vol. ix., p. 262, pi. 


10,11, 12. 




, Quoy & Gaim., I.e., p. 273, pL 1.x 

Vol. IX., p. 262, pi. xiix.. f. i;;. n 

:ii., f. r> 

-7 ; Tryon, 



i PATULA, A. Adams c^ Angas, R, 

Z.S., 1- 

-■' ^''\'\\ 

Family PLANAXID^: 
'rvNvxTv AioLLis, Sowerby, (xonei \ of Shdls, ^ ol ii , pi 

cux , t 2, rryou, M C , Vol ix , p 27<) pi hi , f U, V), 

-"> I ndei stones, Coogee Biy Bondi H.iy 
aviu piivsivMLix, Aii^as, P/S, lsG7, p 1 li, pi xm , 

t is T.yon, MC,Aol i\ , p 2^ ^, pl l"i , * ^-^ l>rpcl,'((l 

in P ,) 

Family CLinniTTDyr 

oObCiUTii.nM li.iODOsTOMV, A Ad mis sow llu 

s ( onch , 

Vol 11, pi cKxx,f 105, Jrxon A! C \ ol . 

x,p Ul 

pi XXMl,t 20 .S0waHdPlf,^sK..t (1., ,/,M) 

509 (J MOia s. Lam , Iviener, Coquillf \ x | ' 1 

\\ t 1 , 

TrvoTi, Mr, Vol IX p ir> il XM t 
T), 57, 40 41, 15,40, pi xx^ ,t >> -7 - < ' 

20 U, 
h P J 

■)10 C MKOIINUM, A AduUb, Jhes (o.uh, \ol 11 

P -bl, f 

102, TivoM, MC, Vol IX, r Ul, pi xxM. 1 

19 P J 

')11 Opkiiiiiopsts ANf,^M, Smpor, Cat Mu. Godc 

tlnn "), p 

lOs, no 6SS2 1874 T.>on, AI ( , Vol ix , { 

) 172 pl 

xxxM,t 49 N,u and Piss Rfct,(l}ri/ui) 

M2 C PI iiPLUt V, An-as, P Z S , 1^77, p 5(i, pi ^ f 

7 Toon, 

\rC , Aol IX, p 17"), pi XXXM, t (>7 l> 

rHU.d off 

shark island (Ei i/iei) 

513 C cuon^, Vu^ras P Z .s , 1-71 p K. pl i,f 1 

-5 Tr>on, 

M( ,Aol IX p 17) pl xxxM,t Ob Dicdgfc 

1 oil Camp 


514 BnnuMMivxuuiM Kiomr, CoqiulU Vn , p 7 

n' P^ n'^ ' 

f 5 Tixon, MC,\ol ix , p r. >, pl xxx , f 

9.S Com 

522 T. LABiATUs, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1851, p. 279. Under stones 

at low water, P.J. 

523 PoTAMiDfc:s EHENINUM, Brug., Encyl. Meth., pi. ccccxlii., f. 

1 a-b ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. ix., p. 158, pi. xxxi., f. 31. Very 
common on mud Hats, P.J. 

524 P. (Lampania) Australis, Quov »t Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. 

III., p. 131, pi. Iv., f. 7 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. ix , p. 166, pi. 
xxxiv., f. 99, 100. Common in muddy places, P.J. 

Family RISSOID^. 

525 RissoiNA VARiEGATA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 113, pi. xiii., 

f. 19; Tryon, 'M.C., Vol. ix., p. 370, pi. liii., f. 4346. 
Dredged in deep water, P.J. 

526 R. Ancasi, Pease, = i?. hirricula, Angas, P.Z.S., p. 114, pi 

xiii., f. 20, 1867. Dredged in deep water, P.J. 

527 R. ciNCTA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 114, pi. xiii., f. 22; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. ix., p. 380, pi. Ixviii., f. 8. Dredged m 
deep water, P.J. 

528 R. FASCiATA, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1851 ; Tryon, M.C, Vol. 

IX., p. 380, pi. Ixviii., f. 7. Dredged in deep water, P.J- 

529 R. CRKTACKA, Ten.-Woods, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. ii., p. 265, 

Dredged off P.J. Heads, 45 fms., (Brazier). 

530 R. CYLiNDRACEA, Ten.-Woods, I.e., p. 266. Dredged off P.J- 
Heads, 45 fms., (Brazier). 

531 R. m 

.NLEYi, Schwartz ; Frauei 

ifeld, Reise d. 1 

n., Moll., p. 10 ; Tryon, Mar 

lual Conch., Vc 

532R.^c2' '^^ ^^ 

vsL; Angas, "P.Z.S., 187 

1, pl. i., f. 16 ; 


IX., p. 378, pl. Iv., f. 20, 

pl. Ixviii., f. G. 

Glass Rocks, (Brazier). 

633 R. FLi 

cxuosA, Gould, Otia. Con 

ch. P.J. 

534 Rissoi 

A Fkauenfeldi, Schwart 

z, Voy. Novara, 

p. 1( 

), pl. ii.,f. 13; Tryon, M 

[an. Conch., Vc 

pi. e 

;8, f. 86. P.J. 

535 R. OLi 

VACEA, Dunker; Frauenfeld, Voy. Novar 


i., f. 14; Tryon, ]\Ian. 

Conch., Vol. IX 

, f. 43. Manly Beach ; : 

Botany Bay ; P 

536 R. sAi 

.EimosA, Frauenfeld, Voy 

. Novara, Moll. 

f. 1.' 

. ; Tryon, Man. Conch., 

Vol. IX., p. 3:^ 

537 R. NovARiENSis, Frauenf., Voy. Novara, M( 

f. 16 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. ix., p. 321 
P. J., (Brazier). 

538 R. FLAMMEA, Frauenf., Voy. Novara, :^Ioll., 

18 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. ix., p. 339, 
Botany Bay. 

539 R. iNciDATA, Frauenf., Voy. Novara, Moll., p. 12, pi. ii., f. 

19; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. ix., p. 339, pi. Ixiii., f. 65. 
Botany Bay. 

540 R. coNTABULATA, Frauenf., Voy. Novara, Moll., p. 13, pi. ii., 

f. 20 a-b; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. ix., p. 341, pi. Ixix., 
f. 50, .^1. Botany Bay. 

541 R. ATROPURPURKA, Frauenf., Voy. Novara, Moll., p. 13, pi. 

ii., f. 21 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. ix., p. 355, pi. ixxi., 
f. 1. Bondi; Botany Bav; P.J. 

542 R. NiTENs, Frauenf., Voy. Novara, Moll., p. 13, pi. ii., £. 22 ; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. ix., p. 355, pi. vii., £. 100. 
Botany Bay. 

543 R. ELEGANs, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 174, pi. xxvi., f. 15; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. ix., p. 364, pi. Ixvi., f. 46. P.J..(Brazier). 

544 R. GRACILIS, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 174, pl. xxvi., f. 16; 

Tryon, M.C., Vol. ix., p. 264, pl. Ixvi., f. 47. P.J.,(Brazier). 

545 R. scROBicuLATA, Watson, C.R., p. 611, pl. xlvi., f. 4; Trvon, 

M.C., Vol. IX., p. 339, pi. Ixvii., f. 80. P.J., 2-lU hm., 
(" Challenger.") 

546 R. BADiA, Watson, C.R., Vol. xv., p. 612. pl. xlvi.. f. 3. pl. 

Ixvii., f. 81 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. i.v.. p. -.yMK pl. Ixvii.. f. si. 
P.J., 2-10 fnis., (" Challenger.-) 
54/ R. AusTRALi.y., Frauenf., Reise d. Xovaia, .Mo!I., p. U. pl. 
n., f. 23 ; Tryon, Man. Conch.. Vol. ix., p. 344, pl. Ixxi., 
f. 81. P.J. 


Sub-Order Podopthalma. 

Family XERITTD^. 

^19 N. ALBiciLLA, Linn.; Quoy & Gaini., A.strolabe, Vol. in., 

Ixv., f. 17-18 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. x., p. 19, pl. 

f. 21-26. Rose Bay, P.J., (Brazier). 
^50 Neritixa Raxgian.v, Recluz, Rev. Zoo!., ISH. p. 339; Rpo 

Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pl. xxxi., f. H2 .i K : Trvon, M. 

Conch., Vol. X., p. 55, pl. xviii , f. >'•':•-. >')^v ukI P 

Reef. (Brazier). 
551 N. SouvEKBiAXA, Montfouzier, Jour, do Cwh., Im;.'.. V 

XI., pp. 75-175, pl. v., f. 5 ; =X /rHfrJ,.rr;,>n,. 

Z.S., 1871, p. 19, pl. i., f. 25. tSovv ,u,.l Piu-. R.vf. 5 tn, 

Family LIOTIID^. 

552 LiOTi.v spEciosA, Aiigas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 19, pi. i., f. 26; 

Tryon, :Man. Conch., Vol. x.. p. 110, pi. xxxvi., f. 5, 7, 8. 
Double Bay, under stones, (Brazier). 

553 L. CLATiiRATA, Keeve, Conch. Icon., (Delphinula) Vol. i., pi. 

v., f. 21 a.b ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. x., p. 109, pi. 
xxxvi., f. 95. Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

554 L. AxGAsi, Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 1S64, p. 343, pi. xiii., 

f. 4a ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. x., p. 110, pi. xxxvi., f. 
4. Dredged in P.J. 

f. 16; Tryon, Man. Conch!, Vol. x.,'p. 107, pi. x'xxv., f. 
83-84. In siiell sand, Botany Bay, (Brazier). 
Family ROTELLID^. 

556 HoTELLA BuAziKHi, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 39, pi. v., f. 17. 

Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 


557 PiiAsiAXELLA vEN-TRicosA, Quoy c*c Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ni., 

p. 237, pi. lix., f. S-9 : Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xni., pi. 
iii.. f.Ga and b : Tryon. .Man. Conch., Vol. x., p. 16.5, pi. 
xxxviii., f. 39-43. In shell-sand, .Middle Harbour ; Long 

558 P. nosEA. Angas, P.Z.8., 1867, p. 114. pi. xiii , f. 24 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., Vol. x., p. 174, pi. xxxix., f. H2. fn shell- 
sand, Coogee Bay. 

559 P. VIRGO, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. li:, pi. xiii.. f, i':» : Tryon, 

Man. Conch., Vol. x., p. 181, pi. xxxix., f. ',<3. lu shell- 
sand, Coogee Bay. 

560 P. Kociiil, Philippi ; Krauss, Moll. Sud. Afric, p. 104, pi- 

vi., f. 4 ; Tryon, Man. Conch. Vol. x., p. 170, pi. xxxvii., 
f. 37-38 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xiii., pi. v., f. 13 a-b. 
Dredged in deep water, P..J . 

561 P. piCTURATT-s. H. .y A. Ad.Muis. Ann. .^- :^Iag. X.H., 3 Ser., 

563 T. UN 

Tryon, Man. Conch.. Vol. x., p. 116, pi. xiii., f. 40. Very 
common, Watson's Bay ; Coogee Bay ; Botany. 

".) i ivvLi.ius \n41s, P/s, 1^77, p 171 p] xxM f is. 
Tin on Mm Conch, \ ol x , p 107 pi Km, f 25 26 
Tipe Solinder JJotaii) Bu, (J3ra/i« r) 
56G T. o, ,M s niiNoriv) pi rr iii krim v, ^Mijas PZS ls60, p. 

5G7 1 imAim', / I,. 1, , ( I \n p 3^)2, pi (XMH f 2 = 

1/ '" \>uis 1'/^ |v, , p 4s pi u t 11 PJ 

56s T Murh IN, X M nl Al II Nn Ho,l p Is Diedcred 

57G T «.L^PTLs, Watson 

Mation 1G4 15, 410 t 
■^M T (ZmPinMs)PoM, 

^)^2 T. KMGLLs, Goukl, Otia. Conch., p. 156. P.J 

r,S.^ T. LKKOsrK.MA, Meiike, Moll. Nov. HolL, p. 1"), Phil, 

Conch. C.ib.. p. l:?8, pi. xxni, f. Ifi. Dredged in deep 

Nv.iter, PJ. 
584 T. i{xT)ius, Wood, Index Test., (Ed. Hanloy) p. 2->l. suppl. 

pi. M, t -tG. P.J. 

'C.R., Voi 'n\ ] p. G7. pi.' i% , t 11 ' P J. ' 

586 T. (CAN'tiixHims) iinKin.NU.s, Ctosse, Jour, de Conch., 186-3, 

587 T. LTVEOLViiis, (lould, Otia. Conch.. 157. ""p J. 

,-)S8 T. (IUxKiM\) Fvsnvrts, Menke. Syi. M-th. Moll , pp ^l 

589 T. LI M mtis. (iould. Otia. Conch., p. 157. P J. 

590 T (TuornofOdiLLx) Zhmkv, Menke , Plnlippi, C 

(Kuster; p 160. pi. xxvi.. t. I. P.J. 

591 T. i'ArKXXAr\, Fischer, (^oquille Viv., p. 3.30, p: 

^Lahio i>or,af>.., A. Adams, P.Z.b., 1851. p 
7'. pon-atu., Phil ) P.J. 

592 T. MULiicvHivviv Cheuu . .Al.inueldeCoiuh, Vi 

593 T. 

o95 T. scv.nai m i l. >, A.l.nns .v At.vMS, P.Z.^ , I.'-' 
KiM-hei, C.;.i. Vn., p .571, pi. cxu , f. 2. In 
-Middle Harl^our. 

596 T. (CLvvrrus) Mm..hui, Wood, Index Test. Suj 
pi. V , f. 27 Fi^chei, Co<|. Vi\ , p. 2l''<, pi. 

G02 T. NODOLiRATus, A. Adauis, P.Z.S., 1851, p. 1G.3. Shark 

Bay, P.J. 
603 T. (SoLARiKLLA) ALi3U<;o, Watson, C.R., Vol. XV., p. 75, pi. 

vi., f. S. P.J., ("Challenger.") 
GO! AusTHALiuM TENTOKiFOKMis, Jonas ; Reeve, Coneli. Icon., 

Vol. XIII., pi. viii., f, 46; Fischer, Coq. Viv.. p. -11, pi. 

xx.Ki.. f. 2, pi. ixxix., f. 2 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. x., 

p. 240, pi. liii,, f. 41, 42. Common at Watson's Bay. 


605 Stomatella imbricata, Lam., Encycl. Meth., pi. cocci., f. 

2 a-b; Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol. ii., pi. clxxiv., f. 1. 
Under stones at low water, Watson's Bay. 

606 S. niora, Quoy it Gaim., Voy. " Astrolabe," Vol. in., p. 307, 

pi. Ixvi., f. 10-12 ; Sowerby, Vol. ii., pi. clxxiii , £. 14-16. 
Common under stones all round P.J. 


607 SCIIISMOPE CARINATA, WatSOn, O.R., Vol. XV., p. 119, pi. 

viii., f. 6. P.J., 6-10 fms., (" Challenger.") 

Phil. Conch. Cab., p. 34, pi. xiv., f. 1-3. 

609 H. coco-radiata, Reeve, P.Z.S., 184(;. p.--; Cnnrh. Icon., 

Vol. III., pi. xiii., f. 46. Under ston.s. W^itson.. liay. 

610 H. Brazieri, Angas, P.Z.S., 1869, p. 4.1, pi. li.. f. 1. ^\ at- 

son's Bay, Vaucluse Point. 

611 H. RoEi, Gray, Appendix to Kings Voy.. Vol. u.. p. 493, 

= H. Hargravesi, Cox, P.Z.S., 18G9. p. 4i». pi. xxvi.. t 4; 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. iii., pi. iv., f. 10. Broken Bay 

612 H. PARVA, Linn. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., V( 

Glass "Rocks, 

Sub-Order Edriopthalma. 
iJXi:\TA. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol 
134-135 =/•' ///r-;. Reeve, Conch. Icon 

•. de Conch., 

P- oi«-s, pi. lii., f. 4-6. Botany Bay. 
^. scuTELLA, Gray, B.:^[. ; Sow., Conch. Ill, f- 34 ; Thes. 
Conch., Vol. III., pi. ccxliv., f. 207. Botany Bay. 

616 F. xiGRiTA, Sow, P.Z.S., 1834, p. 127 ; Thes. Uonch, Vol. 

III., pi. viii., f. 196. P.J. 

617 Emahginula rugosa, Quoy & Gaira., Astrolabe, \ ol. in., p. 

331 pi. Ixviii., f. 17-18, var. aspera, Gould, Otia. Conch., 
p. 12 ; Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. in., pi. ccxlviii., f. 92, 93, 
9.5, 96-102. P.J. 

618 E. HTErxATA, A. Adams, 1851, p. 87 ; Sow., Thes. Conch., 

Vol. in., pi. xiii.. f. 103. Watson's Bay ; Coogee Beach. 

619 E. CAXDIDA, A. Ad., 18.51, p. 85 ; Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. 

III., pi. xi., f. 4.5-46. P.J. 

620 E. PARMOPHOiDEA, Quoy & Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. m., p. 

325, pi. Ixyiil, i. 16-U, = i:. intermedia, Reeve, Conch. 
111.,' pi. cxxxix.' f. 5-6. P.J. 

621 ScuTUS AXATiNUS, Donovan in Rees Encyclopedia, Vol. v., 

Nat. Hist., plates, Conchology, jil. y.yi.,=Farmor])homs 
Australis, Lara.; Reeve, Conch. Syst., pi. cxxxix., f. 2-3, 
= F. conve.mis, Quoy & Gaim., Vol. in., p. 322, pi. Ixix., 
f. 5-16. Common under stones, Watson's Bay. 

Family PATELLID^. 

622 AcMAEA Jacksoniexsis, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. vin., pi- 

xxxix., f. 127 a-b. On the rocks at low water. 

623 A. scABiLiRATA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1805, p. 154. Under stones 

024 A. STKLLAKis, Quoy & Gaimard, Astrolabe, Vol. ni., p- 356, 

625 A.'^VuHrxiiuLATAi Anga''s^RZ.S.'^T8G5, p. 155. On the rocks 

620 A.*'sEPTiFORMiJ, Quoy & Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ni., p- 362, 
p. Ixxi., f. 43, 44. Coogee; Bondi. 

627 A. coxoiDEA, Quoy & Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ni., p. 35a, pi- 

Ixxi., f. 5-7. Sow and Pigs Reef. . , 

628 A. cixxAMOXEA, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 9. P.J., (Brazier). 

629 A. ACULEATA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. vin., pi- xxxu-, t- 

90 a-b, =A. squami/era, Reeve, I.e., pi. xxxii., f. 9^'^-'^' 
Bondi Bay. . 

630 A. ALTicosTATA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1865, p. 56, pL ii., f- l^- ^ ■,• 

631 Patklla tramoserica, Martyn, TJniv. Conch., Vol. i-- 1' ; 

xvi. ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. vm., pi. xiii., f. 9r. *''> 
conniKm on rocks and stones, P.J. . 

632 P. wtellaeformis, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. vin., ?!■ ^^^ 

f . 48 a, b, c. Coogee ; Bondi. 


fi33 CriiTov OLAurus, Gray, Spic. Zool., 1830, p. o ; =C. Qiu>,p, 
Doshaves: Reeve, Conch. Tcon.,A^ol. iv., pi. xiii.J. GS. P.J. 
<JU C. MUKICATUS, Adams, P.Z.S., lS.-,2. p. 91. P..7. 
'i-^' C. SMAiiA(Ji;iNUS, An-as, PZ.S., ISG7, p. llo, pi. xiii., f. 28. 

C;3G C. PKOTKUS, Keeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. iv., pi. viii., f. 111. 
Connnon under stone.s, P.J. 

637 C. .jr<.o.-,us, Gould, Proo. Bost. Soc, X. Hist., Vol. ii., p. 

14-_>, ISIG; U.S. E.xpl. Exp., Moll., Vol. .mi., p. 317, pi. 
xKviii., f. 430. Camp Cove, P.J. 

638 C. usTUL\TUH, Reeve, Conch. Icon., A^^l. iv., pi. xvii., f. 102. 

Under .stones, Watson's Bay. 

639 C. Cakpkxteri, Angas, P.Z.S., 18G7,p. 17, pi. xiii., f. 30. P.J. 
610 C. iNCKi, R(>exe, Conch. Icon., Vol. iv., pi. xvi., £.94. 

Watson's Hay. 

641 C. RL-r;uL0.sus, Angas, P.Z.S., 18G7, p. llo, pi. xiii., f. 29. 


642 C. iiroosLs, Gray ; Sow., Conch. 111., f. 49; Reeve, Conch. 

eve, Conch. Icon., Vol. iv., pi. xx^ 
imith, Znol. ■' Alert," p. 80, pi. vi., 1 

f.E. P.J. 

^ould, Otia. Conch., p. 1. VJ. 

werl)v. Conch. 111., f. 46 ; Reev 
pi. ii::, f. 10. P.J. 
lilai.uillo: Sow., Conch. III., f. G7 

e, Conch. 

; Reeve, 

H. Adams & Angus, P.Z.S., 1864, p. 194. Dredged 


Family PHILINID^. 

659 Philixe Angasi, Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 18G5, pi. ii., f. ^ 

Common on mud banks. 

660 CiiELiDONURA Adamsi, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 110, pi. xiii. 

f. :V2. Found in a rock-pool at low water, Bottle an( 
Glass Kecks, (Brazier). 


661 TORNATINA HOFMAM, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 39, pi. v., 1 

19. Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

662 T. Bkenciileyi, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 40, pi. v., f. 2C 

Dredged outside P.J. Heads, 10 fms., (Brazier). 

663 T. FUSiFOKMis, A. Adams ; Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. iii., F 

570, pi. cxxi., f. 37. Dredged in P.J., 4 fms. 

664 T. APiciNA, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 113. P.J. 

665 Myoma concinna, A. Adams ; Sow. Thes. Conch., Vol. n. 

p. 172, f. 34. Dredged in P.J. 
€66 M. SPECIOSA, A. Adams ; Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. n., pi 

clxxii., f. 24, 25. Dredged in Lane Cove River, 3 fms, 

(Brazier). ^ 

667 M. siNUATA, Angas, P.Z.S., 1877, p. 39, pi. v., f. 18. Sov 

and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 
€68 Leucotina Esther, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 116, pi. xiu., i 

31. Deep water, P. J., (Angas). 
669 ToRNATELLA coccixATUs, Reeve, P.Z.S., 1842, p. 60; Conch 

'. AFFiNis, A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1854, 
Dredged in P.J. 
. NiVKi/s, .\ngas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 19, pi. 

670 R. Al-sti{alis, Crosse, 

de Concli., ISG.-i, p. 4i, pi. ii., 

. S. P.J., l>-ir> fms. 

F.n.u'ly CYLICHNIDy?-:. 
i;lK(.av, Ah-hs, P.Z.S., 1S77, p 
.u Mild Pi-s Reef, (Brazier). 

rs, Wutsoii, C.K., Yc 

Pi.ys Reef, P. .J., 4 fin; 



693 LopiiocKRCus delicatulus, G. H. Neville, Jour. Asiatic 

Soc, Bengal, 1866, Vol. xxxviii., p. 67, pi. xiii., f. 5, 
(Oxynoe). Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

694 AsKERA SOLUTA, Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., Vol. x., pi. xlvi., f. 

1.359 and 61 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xvi., pi. i., f. 
4 a-b. P.J. 
69.5 A. FisciiKRi, Adams & Angas, P.Z.S., 1864, p. 37. Lane 
Cove River, (Brazier). 

Family APLYSIID^. 

696 Aplysia tigrina, Rang., Hist. Nat. de Aplysiens, pi. xiii. 

Middle Harbour ; Coogee Bay. 

697 A. KERAUDRENi,Rang.,Hist. Nat, de Aplysiens, pi. xiii. P.J- 

698 A. EXCAVATA, Sowerby ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol, xvii., pi. 

iii., f. 8. Bottle and Glass Rocks, (Brazier.) 

699 A. HYALiNA, Sowerby ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol, xvii., pi. 

iv., f. 13. Lane Cove River, (Brazier.) 

700 A. Sydxeyensis, Sowerl)y ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. xvil., 

viii., f. 36. 

Sow and Pigs Reef, (Br 

702 A. Norfolk K 

xs IS, Sowerby; Reeve, C* 

pi. X., f. 42. 

. Shark Island, (Brazier 

703 Dolabella «< 

^M'VLX, Martyn, = D. A'n 

Conch. Icoi 

1., Vol. XVI., pi. ii., f. ;•,. 

at low wate 

.■, ParramaltL Riv.r. 

"04 Dolabrifera 

Brazieri. Sowerbv, P 

Bottle and 

Glass Rocks, (Brazier). 


705 PLEUROBRAXCTIU.S AxfJASI, Smith, Zool. " Alert," p. 88, pi. 

vi., f. K, K\ P.J. 

Family rMP.R ELLID^. 

706 Operculatum aiuamum, P.-as.-. American Jour. Conch., 

Vol. III., p. 2.^7, . f ',„A,v //,/ axroufiji. Cabbage Tree Bay; 
Botany Bay. 

Familv ])0RT1)^E. 

707 Doris variabilis, Angls, Journal de Conchy! iologie, (P'f^) 

1864, Vol. XII., p. 44, pi. iv., f. 1. Garden Island, 1-J- 

710 D. ARBUTUS, Angas, I.e., p. 47, pi. iv., f. 4. Coogee Bay. 

711 D. PANTHEEIKA, Angas, I.e., p. 47, pi. iv., f. 5. Coogee Bay. 

712 D. NODULOSA, Angas, I.e., p. 48, pi. iv., f. 6. Coogee Bay. 

713 D. CARNEOLA, Angas, I.e., p. 48, pi. iv., f. 7. P.J. 

714 D. OBTUSA, Stimp., P. Acad. N. Sci., Phil., 1855, p. 389, 

(Vol. VII.) P. J., (Stimpson). 

715 D. EXCAVATA, Stimp., I.e., p. 389. P.J., (Stimpson). 

716 D. PRAETENERA, Abraham, PZ.S., 1877, p. 258, pl. xxx., f. 

10-12. N.S.W. 

717 ACTINODORIS AUSTRALIS, Angas, l.c, p. 49, pl. iv., f. 8, 


718 Angasiela Edwardsii, Angas, I.e., p. 49, pl. iv., £. 9. 


719 Chromodoris Bennetti, Angas, I.e., p. 51, pl. iv., f. 10. 


720 C. Loringi, Angas, I.e., p. 52, pl. iv., £.11. Clark Island; 

Watson's Bay ; P.J. 

721 C. FESTiVA, Angas, I.e., p. 53, pl. iv., f. 12. Vaucluse. 

722 C. DAPHNE, Angas, I.e., p. 54, pl. v., f, 3. RJ. 

723 C. Crossei, Angas, I.e., p. 54, pl. v., £. 1. RJ. 

724 C. SPLENDIDA, Angas, I.e., p. 55, pl. v., f. 2. Watsons Bay, 


725 C. VERRUCOSA, Crosse, I.e., p. 56, pl. v., £. 4. Shark Island, 

727 C. OBscuRA, Stimpson, P. Aead. N. Sci., Phil., 1855, p. 388. 

P.J., (Stimpson). ^ ^ ^ 

728 C. RUNcixATA, Bergh., C.R., Vol. x., p. 76, pl. vi., £. 1-4. 



729 PoLYCERA CooKi, Angas, I.e., p. 58, pl. v., £. C. Botany Bay. 

730 Casella atromarginata, Cuvier, Ann. du Mus., \ ol. iv., 

1804, p. 473, pl. Ixxiv., £.6. 

731 Plocamphoris imperialis, Angas, I.e., p. 59, pl. v., f. 7. 

Vaucluse, P.J. 

Family TRIOPID^. 

732 Triopa Yatesi, Angas', I.e., p. 60, pl. v., £. 8. Watson's Bay, 



733 BoRNELLA Hermanni, Angas, I.e., p. 61, pl. vi., £. 1. Wat- 

son's Bay, P.J. 


734 Melibaea Australis, Angas, I.e., p. 62, pi. 

son's Bay, P.J. 


735 Jakus sanguineus, Angas, I.e., p. 63, pi. vi., 

Bay, P.J. 

Family ^OLID^. 

736 ^OLis FouLisi, Angas, I.e., p. 64, pi. vi., f. ; 

737 M. Macleayi, Angas, i.e., p. 65, pi. iv. P., 

738 M. cacaotica, Stimpson, Proc. Aead. N. Sc 

p. 388. P.J., (Stimpson). 

739 Flabellina ianthina, Angas, I.e., p. 66, pi. 

Family ELYSIID^. 
LYSiA CoooEENSis, Angas, I.e., p. 69, pi. vi., f. 1 
:. Australis, Quoy k Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ii., 
xxiv., f. 18-20. P.J. 

LAUcus sp. Frequent on the beach at Coogee i 
after heavy gales. 
izzoLiA Au.STRALis, Bergh., C.R., Vol. x., p. 2; 

'ORIDOPSI.S X\USTRALIENSIS, Al)raluiins, P.Z.S., 1> 




■A ZON-ATA, H. Adams c\: Angas, P.Z.S., 

ove SuHinps, Cook's River, Botany Bay 

750 O. .sULCATts, U. A<hiins .V' An-as PZS IS-VK p. •>^- 
Pfeitier, Monugraphia AuiiculHci-orum" p. 54. 
O. QuoYi, H. Adams .t Angas, P.Z.8., 1854, p. 34 ; Pfeiffer. 

Monographia Auriculaceorum, 

752 O. IRREGULARIS, Mouss., Jour. de Conch., 1869, p. 6-t, pi. v., 

f. 2. RJ. 
7o3 O. Mixou, Mouss.. Jour, de Conch., 1869, p. 65, pi. v., f. 3, 

P.J. ; Botany Bay. 

"54 Ampiiibola Quoyana, Potiez & Michaud. Galerie des Mol- 

lusques, 1838, p, 288, pi. i.-xxviii., f. 17, 18. Rushcutter's 

Bay ; Cook's River. 
7')5 A. fragilis, Lam.; Quoy & Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ii., p. 201, 

pi. XV., £. 10-12. Banks of Parramatta River. 

756 SiPiiONARiA scabra, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi. i., f. 2. 


757 S. dexticulata, Quoy ik Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ii., p. 340, 

pi. XXV., f. 19,' 20. Common on rocks and piles, P.J. 

758 S. FUXicuLATA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi. ii., f. 6 a-b. 


759 S. BiFURCATA, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi. v., f. 22. P.J. 

760 S. cociiLEARiFORMis, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Vol. ix., pi, vi., 

f. 28. On piles, Watson's Bay. 

761 S. ATRA, Quoy ik Gaim., Astrolabe, Vol. ii., p. 337, pi. xxv., 

f. 41, 42. Green Point, Watson's Bay, (Brazier). 
Family GADINIID^. 

762 Gadina conica, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 115, pi. xiii., f. 27. 

Coogee Bay. 

763 G. Angasi, Dall., Amer. Jour. Conch., Vol. vi., p. 11. Coogee 

B-Ay, =G.pentayoniostoma, Angas, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 220, 
(non Sowerby). 



764 Dextalium lubricatum, Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol. in., p. 

97, pi. iii., f. 56. Off P J., 45 fms., (Brazier.) 
'65 D. ERECTUM, Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol. iii., pi. xiii., f. 55. 

Sow and Pigs Reef. 
766 Cadulus acumixatu.s, Deshayes ; Angas, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 97. 

Dredged in Middle Harbour. 



I', C.R., Vol. XIX., p. 40, 
(Dr. Macdonald). 
Family CLIONTDuE. 

768 Clione caudata, Macdonald, Trans. Roy. Soc, Edin., Vol. 

XXIII., p. 185, pi. ix., f. 3, (non C. cmulata, Gray). Off 
Sydney, (Dr. Macdonald). 

Family T. LIMACINID^. 

769 LiMAcmA ixflata, d'Orbignv, Voy. dans I'Amerique Mer- 

idionale, Vol. v., p. 174, "pi- xii., tigs. 16-19 ; Pelseneer, 
Chall. Report, Vol. xxiii., p. 17. April 3, 1874, between 
Melbourne and Sydney, (" Challenjcer.") 

770 L. Lksueuri, d'Orb., I.e., p. 171, 

p. 24. April 3, 1874, between 

771 L. TEOCiiiFORMis, d'Orb,, I.e., p. 177, pi. xii., figs. 29, 

C.R., p. 29. April 3, 1874, between Melbourne j 

772 L. BULiMoiDEs, d'Orb., I.e., p. 179, pi. xii., figs. 36-38 ; C, 

p. 30. April 3, 1874, between Melbourne and Sydn 


773 Clio (Creseis) virgula, Rang, Ann. de Sci. Nat., Ser. i., ^ 

xm., p. 316, pi. xvii., % 2 ; C.R., p. 48. Station 164 

off Sydney. 
- ' C. (Creseis) acicula, Rang, I.e., p. 318, pi. xvii., fig. 6 ; C 

p. 51. Station 164 A, off Sydney. 
C. (Hyalocylix) striata, Rang, I.e., p. 315, pi. xv., fig 

C.R., p. 54. pi. ii., fig. 3. Oft P.J. 
' C. (Styliola) subula, Quoy and Gaimard, Ann. de Sci. ^^ 

Ser. I., Vol. X., p. 233, pi. viii. d, figs. 1-3 ; C.R., P- 

Station 164 A, off Sydney. 
C. pyramidata, Linne, C.R., p. 63. Figured in Voy 

Bonito, pi. vi., figs. 17-25 (as Cfeodora lanceoluta). Stai 

164 A, off Sydney. 
Cuvierika columxella, Rang, I.e., Vol. xii., p. 323, pi- ^ 

figs. 1-8: C.R., p. 67. Off" P.J. 
' Cavolina THispiNosA, Lesueur. Figured by Quoy .t Gainii 

Ann. S,.,. Nat., Se^. i., Vol. x., p. 231, pi. viii. B, fig«- 

.•.s J/. nu,rr<>n<,tn : C.R., p. 76. Broken Bay. 

Sowerby in Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. xx., fig. 9 ; C.R, P^ 
C. LONciiRosTKis, Lcsueur. Figured in Voy. of Bonito, 
n., p. 152, pi. v., figs. 1-6, as C m,<j,data. 

782 C. GLOBULOSA, Rang, MS. Souleyet, Voy. of Bonito, Vol. ii., 

p. 142, pi. iv., figs. 20-24; C.R., p. 81. Ai)ril :], 1,S74, 
between Melbourne and Sydney. 

783 C. GiBBOSA, Rang, MS. in d'Orb., Voy. dans I'Anier. Merid., 

Vol. v., p. 95, pi. v., iigs. 16-20 ; C.R., p. 82. Port Jack- 
son, (Angas). 
/84 C. IXFLEXA, Lesueur, Nouv. Bull. Soc, Philom., Vol. in., p. 
285, pi. v., fig. 3 ; C.R., p. Sr^. Port Jackson, (Angas). 

785 C. UNCINATA, Rang, MS. in d'Orb., Voy. dansl'Anier. Merid., 

Vol. v., p. 93, pi. v., tigs. 11-15 ; C.R., p. 84. 

786 Cleodora compeessa, Souleyet, Voy. of Bonito, Vol. ii., p. 

181, pi. vi., figs. 26-32 ; C.R., p. 87. Between Melbourne 
and Sydney. 


Sub-Order I. Octopoda. 
Family I. OCTOPODID^. 

787 Octopus tetricus, Gould ; Tryon, Manual of Conchology, 

Vol. I., p. 121, pi. XXXV., f. 46-47. Near Sydney. 

788 0. AusTRALis, Hoyle, C.R., Vol. xvi., p. 88, pi. iii., f. 4-5. 


790 O. picTUS, Brock, Zeits. fur Wiss. Zool., Band xxxvi., ] 

603, pi. xxxvii.. f. 3. Littoral ; Middle Harliour ; \Va 
son's Bay. 


791 Argon.\uta argo, Linn. : Tryon, Manual Conch., p. 13i 

pi. xlvii., f. 111-11.% pi. xlviii., f. 116-119, pi. xlix.,f. 121 
123. Washed ashore at Manly Beach. 

792 A. NODOSA, Solander, Tryon. I.e., p. 140, pi. 1., f. 1 24. Coogc 


Sub-Order II. Decopoda. 


"93 LoLiGO AusTRALis, Gray, Brit. Mus. Cat., p. 71 ; Tryon, l.c 

P- 148. P.J. 
' 94 Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy «fe Gaimard, Voy. "Astrolabe, 
Vol. XI., p. 77, pi. iv., f. 1 : Tryon, I.e., p. 151, pi. Ixi., 1 
201-205. P.J. 

Family SEPIOLID^. 

795 Septola linkolata, Quoy <k Gainiard, Voy. "Astrolabe," 

Vol. 11, p. 82, pi. V, f. 8-13 ; Tryon, I.e., p. 157, pi. IxvL, 
f. 242, pl. Ixvii., f. 240, 241, 243. P.J. 

796 S. SEPiOLA, Linn "^ ^' ^ . , 

Ixv., f. 229, 23 


797 Onychoteutiiis rutilis, Gould, Otia. Conch., p. 234 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., Vol. i., p. 169, pl. Ixxiv., f. 302. Near 

Family SEPIID^. 

798 Sepia apama. Gray, Brit. Mus. Cat., p. 103, 1849 ; Tryon, 

I.e., p. 194. Stranded on the beach at Manly. 

799 S. cultrata, Steenstrup ; Hoyle, C.R., Vol. xvi., p. 133, 

pLxx. P.J. 

800 S. LATiMAXUS, Quoy & Gainiard, Astrolabe, Vol. ii., p. 6S, 

pl. ii., f. 2-11 ; Tryon, M.C., Vol. i., p. 192, pl. Ixxxviii-, 

801 S. CAPENSK, Orb.*; 'Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. i., p. 198, pl 

Family SPIRULTD^. 
02 Spirula Peronii, Lam.; Tryon, I.e., p. 205, pl. xcvi., f. 467- 
469, pl. cv., f. 58.->. Coogee ; Bondi ; Botany ; and 


Class I. POLYZOA. 

Sub-Class HoLOBRAN'CHiA, Eav Lankester. 

Group A. EcT0PR0CT.\. 


Sub-Order Cheilostomata. 

Family ^TETD^. 

1 vEtea anguin.% Linn. ; Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Polyzos, p- 

31, pl. XV., f. 1. Off P.J., (" Challenger.") , ^^ 

2 M. DILATATA, Busk, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2 Ser.. Vol. vn., 

p. 85, pl. ix., f. 14. On seaweed, Coogee Bay, (W.) 

■' ScuuPARiA ciiKLATA, Liiiti., Syst. Ed. 10, 816 ; British 
Museum Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa, by G. 13usk, 18o2, 
p. 29, pi. xvii., f. 2. Littoral, Botany Bay ; very common 
offBall'sHead, P.J., (W.) 

4 DiMETOPiA SPICATA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 35, pi. xxix., f. 1. La 

Perouse, (Brazier); Middle HarLour, (W.) 

5 D. coRNUTA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 35, pi. xxix., f. 2-3. Coogee 

Bay ; Botany, (W.) 


6 Catenicella vkntricosa,, B.M.C., p. 7, pi. ii., f. 1-2, 

pi. iii., f. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Very common on the roots of sea- 
weeds, P. J., (W.) 

7 C. alata, W. Thomson, Dublin, Nat. Hist. Review, 1858. 

La Perouse, (Brazier); Coogee and Bondi Bays, (W.) 

8 C. HASTATA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 7, pi. ii., f. 2-3. ' La Perouse, 


9 C. BusKii, Wyville Thomson, Nat. Hist, Review, 1858, p, 

139, pi. xi., f. 2. Common on Cafe^^ire/la rentrirom, and 

on the roots of seaweeds, P.J., (W.) 
10 C, DELic.\TULA, Wilson, Trans. Microscopical Society Victoria, 

Vol, I., p. 65, pi. iv., f. 2. U. Perouse, (Brazier), 
il L. ELEGAN8, Busk, B.M.C., p. 10, pi. ix., f. 1, 2, 3, 4. Bondi 

Bay, (W.) 

12 C. UMBOXATA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 11, pi. X., f. 4-5. Off P.J., 

(' Challenger.") 

13 C. PULcriELLA, Maplestone, Jour. Micro. Soc. Victoria, Vol. 

I., (1880) p. 64, pi. v., f. 4. 163 B, off P.J. 

14 C. PLAGiosTOMA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 8, pi. v„ f. 1-2. Coogee 

Bay, May 1889, (\V.): offP.J., ("Challenger.") 
'•"» C. FORMOSA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 9, pi. vii., f. 1-2. Bondi Bay, 

16 C. Mar«;aritacea, Busk, B.M.C., p. 9, pi. vi., f. 1, 2, 3, 
Coogee Bay, (VV.) 

1" Calwklua gracilis. Maplestonf ; Mdiill, P.B.S.. Vict.. 1S85, 
p. 158. Farm Cove, with ar;r„Jarif< piwiinisly unknown 
in the genus, (W.) 

Family CELLU LAKI I i),E. 

18 Ckllularia cuspidata, Busk, P..M.C.. y. I'.', pi. xxvii.. t. 1-2. 

Shark Island, (Brazier): oHP.J., (- ChalL^nger.') 

i-^ SCRUPOCKLLARIA 8CKUPEA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 24, pi. xxi., f. 1-2. 

On seaweeds. Middle Harbour, (\V.) 

cxxvi. P.J. 

22 Canda arachnoides, (Lamx.) Busk, B.M.C , p. 26, pi. xxxiii. 

La Perouse, (Brazier). 

23 Cabkrea Boryi, Savigny, Voy. dans I'Egypte, pi. xii., f. i ; 

Busk, p. 38, pi. xvi., £. 4-5. Bondi Bay, (Brazier). 

24 C. ROSTRATA, Busk, Chall. Rep., p. 28, pi. xxxii., f. 4. La 

Perouse, (Brazier). 

25 C. GRAXDis, Hincks, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. o, Vol. 

viii,, p. 2, pi. iii., f. 4, 4 a, 4 b. La Perouse, (J. Brazier). 

26 Menipea crystallina. Gray ; Dieffenbach's New Zealand n., 

293; Busk, B.M.C, p. 28, pi. xl. Middle Harbour; 
Coogee Bay, (W.) 

27 M. cuRvicoRNis, McGillivray, Prod. Zool., Victoria, decade 

VI., p. 34, pi. Iviii. Shark Island, (Brazier). 

28 DiDYMiA simplex, Busk, B.M.C, p. 35, pi. xxxix. Middle 

Harbour, (W.) 

29 Nellia simplex. Busk, B.M.C, p. 19, pi. Ixv., f. 1. Watson's 

Bay. (W.) 


30 Cellaria Australis, McGillivray, P.Z., Vict., pi. xlix. Off 

P.J., ("Challenger.") 
51 C granulosa, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. v., p. 36. Found 
in dredgings, P.J. 


32 Tubucellaria hirsuta, (Lamx.) Busk, Chall. Polyzoa, p. 100, 

pi. xxxvi., f. 18. Shark Island, P. J., (Hunt). 

33 Bicellaria sp. Common under stones, Middle Harbour,(W.) 

34 Stirparia? sp. On a sponge, dredged Middle Harbour, 

(Dr. E. P. Ramsay). 

35 Bugula dentata, (Lamx.) Busk, B.M.C, p. 46, pi- xxxv. 

Otf Ball's Head, P.J., (Brazier). 

36 B. NERITINA, (Linn.) Busk, Chall. Rep., Vol. x., p. 42. Very 

common on piles in P. J., the variety with avicularia under 

37 B. AvicuLARia, (Pallas) Busk, B M.C, p. 45, pi. Hii- Under 

stones, Farm Cove, (W.) 

38 Beania Magellanica, Busk, B.M.C, p. 54, pi. ixvii. VeJ^ 

common on weeds, stones, Arc, ZVIossnian's Bay and n>*|B 
other places, (W.) ^M 

F.iiiih FLLMHTDyE 

42 FiLsiu^ DI..IM1L1S Busk, BMC p •)1, pi 1 , £ 4, 'i, 6, ' 

Bondi BAy, (W ) 

43 V MiLiivRis, Wciteis, Ann .V Mxg Nat Hist , Sei "), Vc 

\\ , |) yi, pi i\ , f 2 Frequent bet\\eon lii^ht ship in 
Bradlejslleia tI,l^^led. (Bi.i/iei), (W ) 

;iv sp Oil BilU Head, P J 

lireon Point, PJ, (Bi i ' ) 

.^^.T^ Hineks Ann . M -- Mi -' ' ^ '^^ ; ; P- 
H>7, pi MX, f G, t.. \\a..^ i. I . ^-n loint, 
p.T n\,.,,^,\ 

\, pi n , f IG. 

MIJKANACKA, Lii.n.: Husk, B.M.C, p. r)6, pi. Ixvii 

^anv iiiul Coo£;ee liiivs, (W.) 

itLKsTKi-M ruKvicoHNK, liusk, H.M.C., p. GO, pi. c, f. : 

NCSA, QiioyA-'ciaini;..-fl Wiitcrs, Q. Jour. Geol. Soc 

58 A. F 


isr.ii, var. 
5, pi. XXV., 


VAX. Dusk. Q. J. Micro. 
1. S<.Nv atul Pi-s Reef, 





-59 Thai. 
€0 T. Au 

^1 DlFL. 


on A MAMM 
, Se.-. .'.. V 
rA, McGill. 
.ed, PJ. 

AHis, Lamx. ; Jlincks, 
VI., p. SS, p. X., f. 9. 
■aiis. Roy. Soc, Victoria. 

, Hutton, Tn.n. Roy. 8u 

, 1st; 

>[cGillivrav, Trans. Roy. 
p. 1, f. 1. Rondi ■'r.av, (Rmzier). 

•62 MiCUOPOHA I'KHKOK.^TA, McCiiU., Procl. Z., Vic 
pi. XXV., f. 1'. Sovv and Pj-s Reef, (Brazier; 

July ISSi), p. ,s, pi. i., f. l'1--Jl>. (;rf«>n Point, (Prt-a/i 
Faniily CRlilRf LINI DyK. 
•64 Chihhilisa monockuos, Busk, B.M.C., p. 7l', pi. N<-iii-. f 

lVIanly,'(W0' '''''"' "'^' "'"'*' ^" " "'^' , , 
-65 C. TL-iJULiFiCK.v, lliacks, Ann. iV Mm- S.U., Scr. :>., \ ol. 


72 M ( osf ivoj'ou \ \ ir vkmvtv, Waters, Qucirt Joui Geological 
Soc , \ol xvvMi, p ni pi x^ ,f 2-) ^\ itets, Ann & 
Ml- NH, N(i b, Julv 18^9, p :>, pi i,t 1 -) Cxieen 
Point, (Br i/ifr) 

'^ \i)H)MiioPsis Visiitviis, MtC ,Tians Rov feoc, A ictoii.i, 
Nov 1^^'), pi 11 , t 2 } Ort Green Point, (W ) 

74 A PMiviPLN( i \, ^\cG , Trans Roj Soc , Vic ton i, Nov lb8\ 

pi 11 , t -4 Under stones, Watsons Bav, (W ) 



75 SCH1Z0P0RFLL\ J^CKSOMLVMS, Busk, CR A ol \ , p 1G4, 

pi XIX, i ] OH P J , (" ChdUenjrer ) 

76 S MAKsLPiiKKV Busk, Chill Rep, Vol \ p 10'), pi \xn , 

t 14 Bottle hkHtLiss Rocks (Bi i/iei ; 

77 fe iKivN(.uLA, Hincks, Ann .wAtHg, Nil ^n '> \ ol mii , 

p GO, pi 11, f 4 ii Sow md Pi^'s Ke(£ i-4 tins, 

78 S AumcTi\rv, Hincks, British Poly/o i, p 2bU pi xMx,f 

3 9 Wateis, A.nn .1 M ig N H , S(i Julv 1^^9, p 9 
Green Point (iiia/ier) ^ , ,^ 

79 S. MLCHOV^rv,Snuth, KlondimBtvo/oi p T. pi mi , t lb9 

Waters, Ann iV M i<,' Nil , ber b, Julv l-^'> p 1<> pl 
11, f 9 Gieen Point, (Bii/iei) 

80 S FiLOCiNCiv, Reuss Waters, Ann iV M )_ N H "^ ' '»» 

July lbb9, p 10, pi i,f 17 1^ (.iMul lilt (Im/u r) 

81 S LUA, McG, Tian Roy hoc, A k t \ 1 m^ 1 ' '- P ' . 

91 S. SIONA 


92 B. OBSTR 


93 S. TUBEl 


A, Waters, I.e., p. 17, pi. iii., f. 4-6. Green Point, 
UCTA, Waters, I.e., p. 18, pi. iii., f . 7-8. Green Point, 

osa', (Reuss), Waters, Ann. & Mag. N.H., Vol. xx., 
, p. 192, pi. vi., f. 9 and 10. Bondi Bay; Botany, 
ler). Very common on seaweeds all round the coast, 

0., Viet., Oct. 1882, p. 191, 

CECiLLii, Savigny, Egypte, pi. viii., f. :? ; Hincks, Brit. 
Polyzoa, p. 2G9, pi. liii., f. G. Very common, Watson's 
Bay, (W.) 

HYALiNA, tinn. ; Busk, B.M.C., p. 84, pi. Ixxxii., £. 1, 2, 3, 
pi. ci., f. 1-3 Common on Zosteria, Botany, (W.) 
BiSERiALis, Hincks, Ann. c<: Ma- N.H., Ser. 5, Vol. xv., 
p. 2.30, pi. vii.. f. 3 ; Waters, Ann. & Mag. N.H., Ser. 6, 
July 1889, p. 9, pi. ii., f. 11. Green Point, (Brazier). 
99 HlPPOTIIOA DIVARICATA, Busk, B.M.C., p. 30, pi. xviii., f. 34 
On old bottles, shells Ac., common Neutral Bay, P.J., (W.) 


101 Lephalia elimata, Waters, I.e., p. 194, pi. v., f. 3, pi. vi., t 

22. Off Green Point, (Brazier). 

102 L. VESTiTA, Hincks, Ann. & Mag. N.H., Vol. xv., Ser. 5, p. 

2.56, pi. ix., f. 9, var. Australis, Waters, Ann. .t Mag. 
N.H., Ser. 6, July 1889, p. 12, pi. i., f. 19. Green Point, 
Sow and Pigs Reef, 3-4 fms., (Brazier). Both of the 
above species are common in dredgings, (W.) 

103 L. TUBEROSA,, Chall. Rep., Vol. .\., pi. xvii., f. 7. 0" 

P.J., "Challenger"; Watson's Bay, (W.. .^ 

104 L. SETIGEBA, Smith; McG., Trans. Roy. Soc, Vict., 188:-, 

pi. i., f . 2. Under stones. Farm Cove ; Mossman's Bay, 

105 L. TORf^UATA? Quoy ik Gaimard, Voy. " Uranie," p. 610, p'- 

Ixxxix,, f. 7-8, Common on shells and stones at low water 
Mossman's Bay ; Fann Cove and many other places, (y-J 

106 L. RECTiLiNEATA, Hincks, Ann. ct Mag. N.H., Ser. 5, Vol 

XI., p. 201, pi. vii., f. .3. Green Point, (Brazier). 

107 L. DEPKKSSA, Busk, Cat. Mar. Polvzoa, Brit. Mus., p- 'f; 

108 L. PoissoNii, Aud., ^.-ir, Waters, I.e., p. U, 

pi. ii., f. 17. 

(Jreen Point, (Br-azier). 

109 CifORizopoRS. Brogxiartii, Savigny, Busk, P 

5.M.C., p. 65, 

pi. Ixxxi., f. 1-5. Oti- Green Point, (W.) 


no PORKLL^ MARSUPIUM, McG., Prod. Zool., Vi( 

;t., pi. XXXV. 

Oft" Green Point, (W.) 

Ill S.M1TTIA LAXD..ROROVII, Johnst., form pn:,on 

afa, Hincks, 

Ann. <\: Mag., Ser. ?y, Vol. xiv.. p. 283, pi. ix. 

,f.3. Under 

stones, Watson's Bay, (Bra/ier). 

112 PoRixv LAHVALia, McG ., Prod. Zool., Vict., l^ 

.-., p. .50. pi. 

xxxxii., f. .-). Bondi B.iy, (I^>razier). 

113 P. ivvKR.^A, Waters, Ann. A- 3Iag. N.H., Vol. . 

.v., Ser. 5, p. 

1 90, pi. iv., f. 23, pi. X ., f . r,. Sow and Pigs Reef, 3-1 f ms., 

(Brazier) ; very co.nn,on in dredgings off(Jree 

n Point, (W.) 

114 MucRONELLA Ellkrii, Mc(t., var. uia\ iculat \ 

, Waters, I.e., 

p. 191, pi. v., f. 9. (Jreen Point, (Brazier) ; 

var. Vlltur, 

Hinck.s, Taylor Bay, (W.) 

115 RinNCHOPORA OREM-LATA, Waters, I.e., p. lO--) 

, pi. v., f. 7-8. 

Otr Ball's Head. 12finb., (3ra/ier). 

l-.iniily CELLHPORTD^:. 

116 Li.:kvimop(>j:v ^^s,•KI^, Mdi., Trans. Roy. So< 

>., Vict., Oct. 

!,-,-> and Nm. 1S^+. Taylor lUy, (W.) 

117 Cku.kpokv mxm.u.m V, Husk, B.M.C., p. S7, pi. cxx., f. 3-5. 

Balls II.Md, 12 tn.s. , \Vat>on-s P>ay, (Bra/ier). 

118 C. .UMMVM^, Bu.k, B.MG.,p. S7, pi. ex.x., f. 

1-2. Mouth 

of Lane Con.' Ruer, 7 f.ns., (Brazier). 

119 C. (,R\NUM, Hinck., Ann. .t Ma-. X.lI.,Ser. ." 

., Vol. MIL, p. 

127, pi. iii., f. S. Tnylor Bay, (W.); Gre-n Po 

int, (Brazier). 

120 C. ovoiDEA, Savignv, Waters I.e.. p. 199, pi. 

xi., f. U-19. 

Botany Bay, (W.): Vaucluse Point, 5 fnis., ( Brazier). 

121 C. Jacksoxiknsis, Busk, Chall Pveport, Vol. ^ ' 

.., pi. XKX., t. 

10. Ort- P.J. , (-Challenger.') 

) otr p J , 


123 C. apicl-l..tI, Busk, I.e., pi. xxix., f. 2. Oti 

P.J., "Chal- 

121 C. nlnlvTicrLvrx, Busk, I.e., pi. xxv, f. ( 

;. otr P.J , 

125 C. u.„mo^ms' Smitt; Busk, C.R., Vol. x. 

Brazier'' '^" 

xxviv., f. 7, pi. vxKV., f 3. Shark Island, ( 


127 Retepora pna:xicKA, Busk, H.M.C., p. 94, pi. cxxi, f. 1 i 

Off Bottle and Glass Rocks, 8 fms., (Brazier) ; Green 
Point, (W.) 

128 R. FORMOSA, McG., Prod. Zool., Vict., pi. xcvii., f. 4-6, and 

pi. xeiv., f. 6. Watson'.<^ Bay, (W.); J^ondi Bay. (Brazier.) 

129 R. Jacksoniensis, Busk, Chall. Rept., Vol. x., pi. xxvii., f. 

4. Off P. J., (" Challenger " ; Taylor Bay, (W.) 

130 R. FissA, McG., Tran. Roy. Soc, Vict., Vol. ix., p. 140, and 

Vol. XIX., p. 291, f. 8 ; Prod. Zool. Vict., decade x., p. 17, 
pi. xcv., f. 12-16. Green Point, (Brazier). 

131 R. POKCELLANA, McG., Prod. Nat. Hist., Vict., decade x., 

p. 15, pi. xcv., f. 1-6. Green Point, (Brazier). 

132 R. PROFUNDA, McGillivray, Tran. Roy. Soc, Vict., Vol.xix. 

p. 193, pi. ii., f. 8. P.J., (Brazier). 

133 R. LONGiROSTRis, Hincks, Ann. & Mag. N.H., Ser. 5, Vol. 

VIII., p. 12.5, pi. iv., f. 7-8. Green Point, (Brazier.) 


134 BiPORA AXGULOPORA, Ten.-Woods, T. P. Soc, Adelaide, 

1879-80, p. 5, pi. i., f. 1 a, 1 b, 1 c ; Waters, Ann. & Mag. 
N.H., p. 199 ; Whitelegge, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. xi , 2 Ser. 
1887, p. 243. Off P.J., (Brazier). 
13.5 B. ELKGANS, d'Orb; Waters, I.e., p. 200, pi. v., f. 13-1' 5 
Whitelegge, I.e., p. 346. Off Green Point, (Brazier); 
Hunter's Beach, (W.) 

136 B. PniLippiNENsis, Busk, Brit. M.C., p. 101, pi cxiii., f. 1. 

2, 3 ; Whitelegge, I.e., p. 341. Off Green Point, (W.) 

137 Selexaria PUNCTATA, Ten.-Woods, Trans. Royal Society, 

Adelaide, Vol. m., 1880, p. 9, pi. ii., f. 8. Off Green 
Point, (W.) . 

138 LuNULiTES PETALOiDEs, d'Orb. ; Waters, Quart. Jour. C 

Soc, 1883, p. 44: 
rare, P.J., (W.) 

Sub-Order Cyclostomata. 
Family CRISIID^. 

139 Crisia eburnea, L. Hincks, Brit. Marine Polyzoa, p- ^ 

pi. hi., f. 5-6. Shark Island, P. J., (Brazier). 

140 C. EDWARD.SIANA, d'Orb.; McGillivray, Prod. Zool. oM ' 

decade iv., p. 37, pi. xxxix., f. 1. La Perouse ; Bot. 
Bay, (Brazier). ., 

141 C. PUNCTiFERA, Ha.swell, P L.S., N.S.W., Vol. iv., P- '^ 

Manly Beach, P. J., (Dr. Haswell). 

142 C. iNCURVA, Haswell, I.e., p. 33.5. P.J., (Dr. Haswell)- 


Family IDMONEID^. 
U3 ToMONKA RADIANS, Lain.; McGiUivray, P.Z., of Victoria, ^ 
p. oO, pi. Ixviii., f. 3. Under stones, Watsons Bay. 

144 J. MiLNEANA, d'Orb.; Busk, Cat. Cyclostoniatous Poly/oa, 

12, pi. xi. Off Green Point, (Brazier). 

145 I. SERPENS, Linn.; Hincks, Brit. Mai. Pol>/oa, p. ir,3, ; 

146 I. INTERJUXCTA, MoGilUvrav, Trans. Roy. s'oc, \'iot. (18j? 

Off Green Point, (Brazier). 

147 I. Pedleyi, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. iv., p. 3ol. P. 

(P. Pedley). 

14b Tlhulipohv hmhkt\. Lam Hmcks, But Maniie Poly/o 

p I4b, pi K,t i Bondi Bay, (Bia/ier) 
1 iiJ r PI iciiP V, Mc(«illn 1 i>, Tr ms "Ro> hoc , Vict , Vol vx 

P ■>-) pi u,t 1 VauclHse Point, > fms , (Bia/iet) 
r^O ^luMVIOPOKV INCU\SSVI\ Siuitt Himks, Biit Mil Polj 

\<>1 vx, {, ]_)7, j,| , t 1 Botth md (.h-s 'Ho.k 

S ^orth Jside of A 

160 L. GRiGxoxKysis, Busk, Craof. Polyzoa, p. 116, pi. xx., f. 4; 

Waters, Ann. <k Man. N.H., Vol. xx., (5 Ser.) p. 267, pL 
vii., f. 1. Off Vaucluse Point, 5 fms., (Brazier); Bondi 
Bay, (W.) 

161 L. ciLiATA, Busk, Cat. Cyclost. Polyzoa, pt. iii., p. 31, pi. 

XXX., f. 6. Common on Fucus, P. J., (Dr. Haswell). 

p. 282, pi. XV., f. 1. ' Green Point, (Brazier). 

163 L. POROSA, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.AY., Vol. vi., p. 354. P.J., 

(Dr. Haswell). 

164 L. coMPLicATA, Haswell, I.e., p. 354. On Fucus, Clark 

Island, (Dr. Haswell). 

165 L. TRiDKNTATA, Haswell, l.c, p. 355. Common on Fucoids, 

P.J. , (Dr. Haswell). 

166 L. HisPiDA, Flemincr ; Hincks, Beit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 473, 

pLlxviii.,£. 1-8.^ 

167 L. A^iCTORiENSis, Waters, Jour. Linn. Soe., Vol. xxii., p- 

Family VES fCULARID^]. 

34, includes this spt'cics with 
query. The species .uv howr 
weed washed ashore at Ma.oi.l 

L TOKTUOSA, Tenison- Woods, P.R.S , Vict., 1880, Vol. xm-, 
p. 89 (figure). Very connnon off Ball's Head,(Dr. Ramsay)- 

L. CORNUTA, Lamx., Hist. d. Polyp. Flex., p. 159, pi- i^-' ■ 
1 a-b. Very common in P.J. and on the outer beaches 
after gales, (W.) , i „= are 


Vol. XX., 1887, p. 264, pi. vi., f. 2.5. Mouth of Lane Cove 
River ; Shark Island, 8 fnis., (Brazier); Chowder Bay, (W.) 

76 ZooBOTRYON SP. On piles and rocks at low water Neutral 

Bay. This species appears to be periodic in its appear- 
ance, (W.) 


77 Cylixdrcecium altumI Kirkpatrick, Ann.itMag. jS^.H., Ser. 

6, Vol. II., 1888, pi. ii., f. 7, 7a. Common under stones, 
between tide marks Neutral Bay ; Middle Harbour, (W.) 

78 Cryptozoox Wilsoni, Dendy, P.R. Vict, 1888, pis. i.-ii. 

Coogee Bay, on Amathia waslaed ashore after a very heavy 
gale, May 1889, (W.) 

79 C. CONCRETUM, Dendy, I.e., pis. i.-ii. Attached to the base 

of asponge washed ashore at Moroubra Bay, June 1889,(W.) 


80 Pedicellina cernua, Pallas ; Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, 

p. .^6.5, pi. Ixxxi.. f. 1-3. Under stones, Farm Cove ; 
Middle Harbour, (W.) 

81 AscopODARiA FRUTicosA, Hincks, Ann. c^' :Mag. N.H., .-) Ser., 

Vpl. XIII., p. 364, pi. xiv., f. ?> ; C.R. Vol. xvii., p. 42, pis. 
ix.-x. Found among scawcccls on tho beach at ^Maroubra 
Bay, (W.) 
^2 LOXO^OIA SP. Attached to I'hu.rJns,,.,,., a., frail,, P.J.(W.) 

Family PHORON 11)^1 
83 Phoronis australis, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vii., p. 
606 and 611, also Vol. ix., p. 1019. Common otl Ball's 
Head, 15 fms., associated with an Anemone (Cerianthns.) 


Arthropomata, Oweu=^CLisTENTERATA, King. 
Sub-Family TKiiKHnxTVuy.y.. 

London, Vol. 

185 Waldheimia flavescens, Lamarck; Davidson, I.e., p. 41, 

pi. vii., f. 6-19. Point Piper, Bottle and Glass Rocks, 
Shark Point, (Brazier); Mossman's Bay, (W.) 


186 Megasella Cumingi, Davidson, I.e., pt. ii., p. 97, pi. xvii., 

figs. 23-22. Sow and Pigs Reef, (Brazier). 

Sub-Family Megerlin^.. 

187 Megerlia PULcnRLLA, Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Vol. i., p. 
, pi. Ixxi., f . 5-6. Oflf Bottle and Glass Rocks, (Brazier). 

Sub-Family Kr 
189 Kraussixa Lamarckiana, Davidson, I.e., pt. ii., p. 124, pi. 
, (Brazier) ; Farm Cove, Moss- 

es, /-u. Uouhle Bay, (B 
5 Bay, Taylor Bay, (W.) 


Family CRANIID^. 

Family LINGULID^. 
191 LiNGULA iiiANs, Swainson ; Sow., Thes. Conch., Vol. i-, P- 
338, pi. Ixvii., f. 4 ; Davidson, I.e., pt. iii., p. 216, pi. xxix., 
f. 12-13. Sow and Pigs Reef ; Outer North Head, P.J-> 


.b-Order Ascidiae Simplices. 

Family MOLGULID^. 
r^r.sii, Hordman, Chall. Report, Vol. 
1. on Shark Point; P.J. 
A, Stunpson, Pro,-. Acad. N. Sci., I 

Family CYXTifllD.^:. 
miFOR.Mis, Herd, I.e., p. 13G, yl. xv., f. 
?, Herd, C.R., p. 141, pi. xvi., f. 13-: 

5 C. COMPLANATA, Herd, C.R., p. 145, pi. xvii., f. 1-9. Off 

Ball's Head, P.J. 

6 C. L.i^vissiMA, Stiiiipson, I.e., p. 387. P.J. 

7 C. SUBULOSA, Stimpson, I.e., p. 387. P.J. 

8 C. DUMOSA, Stimpson, I.e., p. 387. P.J. 

C. PR.EPUTiALis, Stimpson, I.e., p. 387. P.J. 

10 BOLTENIA PACIIYDERMATIXA, Herd, C.R., Vol. VI., p. 89, pi. 

vii., f. 6-8. P.J. 

11 B. spixiFKRA? Quoy >k. Gaim., Toy. "Astrolabe," Vol. in., p. 

617, pi. xcii., f. 4. P.J. 

12 B. AusTRALis, Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. "Astrolabe," Vol. in,, 

p. 615, pi. xcii., f. 2-3. Common on piles in P.J. 

13 Styela gyrosa, Heller, C.Il., p. 155. Off Ball's Head, P.J. 

14 S. E.xiGUA, Herd, G.R., p. 157, pi. xix., f. 5-6. P.J. 

15 PoLYCARPA TiNCTOR, Quoy it Gaim., C.ll., p. 170, pi. xxi., f. 

16. Shark Island P.J. 

16 P. viRiDis, Herd, O.K., p. 168, pi. xxi., f. 7-14. P.J. 

17 P. LOXGisiPiiONiCA, Herd, I.e., p. 177, pi. xxiii., f. 3-6. P.J. 

18 P. RADicATA, Herd, I.e., p. 181, pi. xxiv., f. 3-5. Off Green 

Point, P.J. 

Family ASCIDIID^. 

19 AsciDiA PYRiFOKMis, Herd, I.e., p. 219, pi. xxxiv., f. 1-6. P.J. 

20 A. Sydneiensis, Stimpson, I.e., p. 387. P.J. 


22 Ecteinascidia? sp. P.J. 

23 Clavulina sp. P.J. 

Sub- Order II. Ascidi* Compositae. 

Common under stones, ^\'t 

Family DIDEMNID^. 

; offBair.s Head and ( 



29 POLYCLINUM FUNGOSUM, Herd., l.c, p. 190, pi. xiv., f. 15-23. 

Under rock ledges, Middle Harbour, P.J., (W.) 

30 SiGiLLiNA AusTRALis, Savigny, Mem, Anim. sans Vert., 1816, 

p. 179, pi. iii., f. 2. Off Ball's Head, P.J. 

31 PSAMMAPLIDIUM SPONGIFORME, Herd., l.C, p. 239, pi. xxxii., f. 

1-5. Off Green Point, P.J. ■ Botany Bay. 

32 P. SP. On stones at low water. Chowder Bay, (W.) 

Sub-Order m. Ascidiae Salpiformes. 

33 Pyrosoma sp. Occasionally washed ashore at Bondi and 

Coogee, (W.) 


Family SALPIDS. 
Salpa democratica-mucronata, Forsk. ; Herd., C.R., Vol. 
XXVII., p. 79. pi. viii., f. 1-10. Off P.J. 

Order m. LAEVACEA. 


1 Appendicularia sp. Frequently obtained in the tow net, P.J- 

Part II. Fresii-watbr Ixvkrtebhates. 

Sub-Kingdom PROTOZOA. 


Sub -Order I. Lobosa. 
Amoeba, Ehrenberg. 
A. PROTEUS, Rosel, Insecten-Belustigung, Niirnberg, l"-*-"^' '"] 
622, Tab. ci., fig. a-t; Leidy, Fresh-water Bhizopods o^ 
North America, p. 30, pi. i., figs. 1-8. Frequent on t 
leaves of Le7nna, Azolla, and Utricularia, Shea's Oree , ^ 
and near Cook's River in a fresh-water swamp. 

. VERRUCOSA, Ehrenberg, Die Tnfusionsthierchen, 1838 126, 
Taf. VII., fig. 11 ; Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., p. 53, pi. iii., 
figs. 1-38. This species is rather rare. I have seen speci- 
mens from only one locality. On Sphagmim, Waterloo 

RADiosA, Ehrenberg, Infus., 1838, 128, Taf. vii., fig. 13 ; 
Abh. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, 1830, p. 39 ; Leidy, F. Ilhiz. K 
Amer., p, 58, pi. iv., figs. 1-18. Abundant in nearly all 
the localities mentioned in this list. 

VILLOSA, Wallich, Ann. add Mag. Nat. Hist., 1863, xi., p. 
287, pi. viii. Very common on dead leavesjind decaying 
vegetable matter. The posterior villi are *f ten hidden 
from view by the presence of foreign materials such as 
sand, Desmids, and Diatoms. Shea's Creek, Waterloo 
Swamps, and near Cook's River. 

Pelomyxa, Greefi: 
PALusTRis, Greeft; Archiv. fiir Micros. Anat., 1871, x., p. 
51, Taf. iii.-v. I found this species in abundance on float- 
ing masses of Oscillatoi'ia, near Cook's River, and also at 
Waterloo opposite the end of Elizabeth Street. It attains 
large size, some specimens measuring i;;„inch in 

DiFFLUGiA, Leclerc. 

. GLOBULOSA, Dujardin, Ann. Sc. Nat., 1837, viii., 311, pi. 
ix., figs. 1 a-b ; " Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., p. 96, pi. xv., 
figs. 25-31, pi. xvi., figs. 1-24. Frequent on Sphagnumin 
the Waterloo Swamp, and on Nitella in Parramatta Park. 

. PYRiFORiMis, Perty, Mittheil. Naturf. Gesells., Bern., 1848, 
168 ; Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., p. 98, pi. x., figs. 1-5. 
Var. D. COMPRESSA, Carter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1864, XIII., 3rd series, p. 22, pi. i., figs. 5-6 ; Leidy, F. Rhiz. 
N. Amer., pi. xii., figs. 10-16. Frequent in Waterloo 
Swamps, Shea's Creek, and in Parramatta Park. Var. D. 
CORNUTA, Leidy, pi. xxii., fig. 17. Shea's Creek and in an 
old stone quarry in Moore Park. Var. D. vas, Leidy, pi. 
xii., figs. 2-9. Same localities as the last named. The 
typical form appears to be rare, and T have seen only a 


10 D. ACUMINATA, Ehrenberg, Infus., 1838, 131, Taf. ix., fig. 3; 

Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., 109, pL xiii., figs. 1, 2, 8, 9, 11. 
Plentiful near Cook's River, Waterloo Swamp, Parramatta 
Park, and in Duck Creek, Clyde. Forms like figs. 14 and 
20, in stone quarry, Moore Park ; rare. 

Arcella, Ehrenberg. 

11 A. vulgaris, Ehr, Abh. Akad Wiss. Berlin, 1830, p. 40, Taf. 

I., fig. 6 ; Leidy, 170, pi. xxvii., figs. 1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 25, 26, 
27 and 28. Very abundant, almost everywhere, but a 
very -^ariable species. The numbers of Leidy's figures given 
above indicate forms similar to those I have observed from 
different localities. I have seen forms like figs. 8, 9, 10, 
and 1 1 on pi. xxviii. in Leidy's book, from Shea's Creek ; 

12 A. DiscoiDES, Ehr., Monatsb. Ak. Wiss., Berlin, 1848, 139; 

Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., 173, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
23, 28, 30, 31. This is perhaps the most common of any ; 
it is found associated with A. vulgaris and other species 
in the greatest profusion. 

13 A. DENT ATA, Ehr., Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1830, p. 40 ; 

Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., p. 177, pi. xxx., figs. 10-19. 
This very beautiful species is rather rare. I have found 
it only in two localities, in Shea's Creek and Cook's River. 
In the latter place I found it on UtricuJaria; in the former 
on the roots of grasses, sedges and fioating plants. Accord- 
ing to Leidy's figures and description the number of spines 
is from 9 to 12. The specimens observed by me had from 
10 to 15, but their size and general characters are identical 
with those of European and American examples. The 
figures given in the " Micrographic Dictionary" and 
also in Dr. Carpenter's "Microscope and its Revelations." 
under the name of A. dentata, probably represent the var. 
angulosa of A. vulr/aris. 

14 C. ACULEATA, Ehr., Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1830, p. 40 ; 

Leidy, F. Riz. N. Amer.. 181, pi. xxxi., figs. 1, 3, 4, 12, 
14, 23, 24, 27. A very common and variable species both 
in the character of the materials by which the test is 

Waterloo Swamps, Cook's River, and many other places. 

CocuLioPODiUM, Hertwig and Lesser. 

15 C. BILIMB08A, Auerbach, Zeits. Wiss. Zoologie, vii.. 1856, 3/*, 

Taf. XIX., figs. 1-13 ; Lddv, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., 184, pi- 
xxxii., figs. 1-25. Frequent on L>^mna and Au>na in Shea s 
Creek, and on Utricnlaric near Cook's River. 

Sub-Order H. Filosa. 
EuGLYPiiA, Dujardin. 
ALVROLATA, Du]., lufusoires, 184:1, 252, pi. ii., figs. 9-10; 
Leidy, 207, pi. xxxv., tigs. 2, 3, 6, 11, 12, 13, U, 15. This 
is very common and may be obtained in abundance on 
Sphagnum, in the Waterloo Swamps. 

Trinema, Dujardin. 
Enchelys, Ehr., Infus., 1838, 132, Taf. ix., fig. 4 ; Leidy, 
226, pi. xxxix. This is a very widely distributed species. 
It is very abundant near Shea's Creek and in the Waterloo 

AcTiNOPiiRYS, Ehrenberg. 

18 A. SOL, Muller, Verm. Terrest. Fluv,, 1773, p. 76 ; Leidy, F. 

Rhiz. N. Amer, p. 235, pi. Ix. Common in nearly all the 
localities given in this list. 

Heterophrys, Archer. 

19 Heterophrys sp. 1 I have on several occasions seen a species 

closely allied to, if not identical with, one figured by Leidy 
on pi. xlvi., tigs. 7, 8, 9, 13. It existed in a pool of water 
off Bunnerong Road, which is unfortunately now quite dry. 
In the same place I found also a colourless gregarious 
species resembling Raphidiophrys elegans, but much spialler 
and destitute of silicious spicules. The pseudopodia are 
highly sensitive and the creature retracts them somewhat 
suddenly if disturbed. It also readily assumes an ameboid 
form if subjected to pressure. I hope to re-examnie both 

Raphidiophrys, Archer. 

20 R. elegans, Hertwig and Lesser, Archiv. fiir Mik. Anat x^, 

1874; Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., 250, pi. xhi., figs. 1-b. 
This species is not common. I have seen it from two 
localities only, near Shea's Creek and in the stone quarry 
Moore Park. 

Vampykella, Cienkowski. 
-^ V. L\TKiaTi\ Fresenius Abh. Senck. Naturf. Gesells. ii., 
ls.Hi-,s •>iV Taf X ti<-s 13-19: Leidv, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., 
253, pL ;iv:, H^.' 1046. " Frequent on. VyH..y</m and other 
floating Alga- ;' often free, but usually creepnig over the 
surface of aquatic plants. Localities, Shea's Creek ana 
near Cook's River. 

22 A. EicnHORNii, Ehrenberg, Bericht. Preus. Ak. Wiss., ]8-t0, 

198 ; Leidy, R Rhiz. N. Amer., p. 259, pi. xli. A very 
common species, abundant in the Waterloo Swamp and 
many other places. 

Clathrulixa, Cienkowski. 

23 C. ELEGANS, Cienk., Archiv. fiir Mik. Anat., in., 1867, 310, 

Taf. XVIII.; Leidy, F. Rhiz., N. Amer., 273, pi. xliv. This 
species is very common on Nitella and other tine-leaved 
plants. I have found it in plenty in nearly all the places 
I have visited in search of aquatic life. Australian speci- 
mens appear to be more luxuriant in their growth than 
European or American examples, the branched or compound 
state being the most prevalent, whilst the solitary form is rare. 

BiOMYXA, Leidy. 

24 B. VAGANS, Leidy, F. Rhiz. N. Amer., 281, pis. xlvii., xlviii., 

tigs. 5-12, and in Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc, Phil. 1^75, 124. A 
few months ago this species was fairly abundant in my 
aquarium. I saw altogether about 20 specimens, many of 
which I examined with great attention. When tirst placed 
on a glass slip it often assumes a spherical shape, and 
remains motionless for some time. Then all at once it 
begins to send out pseudopodia from all sides, but ultimately 
they appear chiefly at the ends of the main body of proto- 
plasm. The ramitications, extreme tenuity, and rapid 
movement of the pseudopodal processes are really marvell- 
ous. It is a diflScult matter to trace out the actual termin- 
ation of the branches, on account of their tenuity and ever 
changing movements. The whole organism looks like an 
animated spider's web. I have often noticed rounded 
masses at some distance from, but connected with, the 
main body by very slender threads. In these masses there 
was a continued rotation of the granular protoplasm around 
a large non-contractile vacuole. The time during which 
this semi-isolation continued, varied considerably, but in 
one instance it lasted for over an hour. When the return 
movement commenced tlie granular matter was conveyed 
away tirst, and afterwards the large vacuole broke up into 
a number of smaller > 



KOMOXAS QUADKATUM, S. Kent, Iiifusoria, Vol. I., p. 254, pi. 
xiii., f. 71. On Algje, in the old stone quany, Moore 
Park, June 1889. 

.'TiioPHYSA VK.;KTAV.s,?Muli. ; Kent, Infusoria, Vol. i., p. 
2G7, pi. xvii., f. 1.3-26, pi. xviii., f. 1-10. On Myriophyllum 
in Parramatta Park, August 1886. 

sociALis, From. ; S. Kent, Infusoria, Vol. i., p. 372, pi. 
xvii., f. 9-11. Duck Creek, Clyde ; Parramatta Park near 
the footbridge, Aug. 1886. 

UPiDODEXDRON SPLEXDIDUM, Stcin. ; S. Kent, Infusoria, 
Vol. I., p. 285, pi. xvi., f. 1-3. Wooli Creek, Cook's River, 

Hlxlkvi^ S. Kent, Infusoria, Vol. i., p. 286, pi. xvi., f. 

Common on Nitella, Waterloo Swamps. 

Several families of this order are represented in our fresh-water 
fauna, I have met with examples of the following genera Monosiga, 
Codosuja, Astros i(ja, and Salpinyctca. 



32 Mexoidium PELLUCiDUM,Perty; Saville Kent, Infusoria, Vol. 

I., p. 37-1 pi. XX., f. 15-16. Duck Creek, Clyde. 

Family ASTASIAD.^. 

• S. Kent. Infusoria, Vol. i., p. 
Wooli Creek, Cooks River; 



S. Kriit 

. intasori 

■ i, \ 


li C. 

Kent, 1. 

(-., ]). ;iSL>, 

, pi. 

S. Kent 

. I.e., p. : 



Wooli Civok, Cook's 

36 K. oxYiTKis, Scliuwirchi 


37 E. Acus, Ehr.; S. Kent, ].«•., p. :iS;3, pl. xx. 

Swamps : Wooli Creek ; Moore Park. 

40 P. TUiQUKTKK, Ehr.; S. Kent, I.e., }). 3,S7, pl. x.\.. f. I- ^Vooli 

Creek, amongst clusters of Oscillatora'. 

41 P. LOXGiCAUDUS, Ehr. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 387, pl. xx., f. G-7. 

Waterloo Swamps in Sphagnum pools. 

42 CiiLOuoPKLTis HispiDULA, Eichwald : S. Kent, I.e., p. .S^'*^, pl- 

XX., f. 8-9. Wooli Creek. 

43 Tkaciielomovas yolvocin.v, Ehr. : S. Kent, I.e., p. 380, pl. 

44 T. iiisproA, Pertv 

Waterloo Swan 

3S<i, pl. 

Waterloo Swiunps ; Horse Pond, Moore Pai 
45 T. AHMATA, El.r.: S. Kent. I.e.. n. :VM. nl. xx.. 

-10. Very conunon in Splia-num pools, \ 

:k,o1s, Wa 



■ Cook's. 

Class 11. CILIATA. 

iciUM AURELiA, MuU. ; S. Kent, Vol. ii., p. 483, pi. 
, f. 28-30. Off Bourke Street, Waterloo. 
OHNATA, Ehr.: S. Kent, Vol. n., p. 483, pi. xxvi., f. 
). Wooli Creek ; Duck Creek. 

Family COLEPID^. 
[iiHTUS Ehr.: S. Kent, Infusoria, Vol. ii., p. 506, pi. 
f -ii V.vv r-nmmon. Wooli Creek; Waterloo 

T^hr : S. Kent. Infusorif 

Moore Pari 
grassy pools 

M MELKAGRis, Elir.: S. Kent, I.e., p. 528, pi. : 

iuvc\TELLA, Muller: S. Kent, I.e., p^< 
-± In sli.-iUow grassy pools, Botmy ; >Vn 

, .VMBK;uuM,Ehr.;S.Kent,l.c.,p.58G,pl. 

Wooli Creek, Waterloo Swamps. 


65 Stentor polymorphus, Mull. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 590, pi. xxx., 

f. 10-20. Waterloo Swamps ; Duck Creek ; Wooli Creek. 

66 S. Barretti, Barrett ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 593, pi. xxx., f. 21. 

Duck Creek ; Parramatta on Myriophyllum. 

67 S. IGNEUS, Ehr. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 594, pi. xxx.,f. 1-4. Very 

common in the Horse Pond, Moore Park, on water weeds 
and stones, which are sometimes completely covered with 
this beautiful species. 

68 S. c^RULEUs, Ehr. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 593. Waterloo Swamps. 


69 Strombium claparedi, S. Kent, I.e., p. 634, pi. xxxii., f. 46. 

Among Conferva, Waterloo Swamps, abundant. 

70 Urocentrum turbo. Mull. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 641, pi. xxxiii., 

£. 7-10 Common in stagnant pools, Waterloo Swamps. 
[JABDOSTYLA sp, Common on Cijdops australis, Waterloo 

OKTICKLLA NEBULIFERA, Ehr.; S. Kent, I.e., p. 673, pi. xxxiv., 
f. 20, pi. XXXV., f. 32-34, pi. xlix., £. 1. Common on 
Myriophyllum, Waterloo Swamps. 
73 V. CAMPANULA, Ehr. ; S. Kent, l.c , p. 678, pi. xxxiv., f. 3b. 
Horse Pond, Moore Park. 

ciiLOROSTiGMA, Ehr. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 686, pi. xlix., f. 33. 
Horse Pond, Moore Park. 

pi. xlix., f. 39. Duek Creek, Clyde. ' ^^ 

DILATATA, From. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 681, pi. xlix., t 1^- 

77 Carchesium polypinum, Linn. ; S. Kent, l.c., p. 690, pi. xxxv., 

f. 30-31, pi. xxxvi., f. 1-8. Off Bourke Street, Waterloo, 
at the back of the Public School. 

78 ZooTHAMNiUM sp. Waterloo Swamps. 

79 Epistylis plicatilis, Ehr.; S. Kent, I.e., p. 701, pi. xx.xvui., 

f. ^S, pi. xxxix., f. 12-15. In Alderson's Dam, Redfern, 
on grass leaves, 1884. 

80 Opercularia nutans, Ehr.; S. Kent, I.e., p. 710, pi- xxxix-, 

f. 22-23. W^ooli Creek ; Waterloo Swamps. _^. 

81 O. ARTICULATA, Ehr.; S. Kent, I.e., p. 711, pi. xxxix.,f. ^-*-°' 

82 Vacjinicola crvstallina, Ehr. : S. Kent, I.e., p. 71.'>, F- ■^*•' 

f. 1. On Algas Waterloo Swamps. 

LVATA, Wrishi 

b, S. ] 


I.e., p. 718, pi. iv., 


1^ Wat 



Duck Creek 

:, Clycl. 

JiFER, Hutton 

, Jour. 


, Micro. Soc, Vol. i., 

, woodcut ; S. 


I.e., ] 





, Perty ; S. K. 


Family ACINETID^. 
WPHRVKA FiXA, Mull. ; S. Kent, I.e., p. 813, pi 
■ i'M). On Al-M'. Waterloo Swamps; Parramatt 
f.L()n.;ata, C. '.V- L.: S. Kent, I.e., p. 820, pi. xlvi 
'■-. Wooli Creek, Cook's River. 
MOLLIS, S. Kent, i.e., p. 821, pi. xlvi., f. 53-5G 



1 Spongilla sceptroides, Haswell, P.L.S., N.S.W., Vol. vii., 

p. 209. A green species, abundant in the Water Reserve 
off Bunnerong Road, (W.) 

2 S. SP. Water Reserve, Botanv. 

3 TuuELLA MORA, R. V. l.endenfold, Zool. .lahrl.ud.ern, Band 

II., 1SS7, p. 91, pi. vi., f. l-n. This sp.'cios is not naturally 
black a.s the name ^vould imply ; the spec-ii.HMi described 

, Cook's Riv(M-, (W. 

Park, in a pond uov, 


Family HYDlUD.-lv 


Vol. X., p. 
p. 9G, pi. 

-nb-Ki]!-(l()m VKJtMKS. 

Fcimily DER08T0:^IEA 

VoRihv iu](.o\0(,LLN4, Schni.irda, 1 c, p. 6, pi i., f. 5 Com- 
mon ill lSpha',niuin pools, Waterloo Swamps Tins is a 
■very prett}- ^leenish coloured ^peties 

Dekosiomlm 'iKUNCviuM, Scliinatd.i, Ic, p G, pi i , L 8. 

lea, Cooks Kuer 


r,uiil> COilDID^ 


10 C. s(jrAMMATis, Duj. ; (^ossp, J]\telloctual O'.s 
p. ■)\)i'). pi. i., f. G. WMterloo Swamps. 

Family XATDIDyE. 

12 ^:oLo. 

^<)MA sp. A very pivtty species with salmon coloun 


l.ules in the body ; veryconunon in the Waterloo Swanit 

13 Kais s 

SP. AVaterloo Swamps and at Wooli Creek. 

Family KNC I i YTll AK 1 1 )yE. 

14 Cl.AKl 

()f;\STFK SP Very common on and associated wi 


v.a : Waterloo Swami)S. Fo,- :m account of this gen' 

'Trans. Linn. Soc, Vol. xxm., p. ('..11, pi. xMii-, xli-> 


1 Q. .four. Mirn,. Sci., ISi;-.!, p. -JT-J, hoth by E. R^ 

17 TuniFFA- 

Sub-CIass Hii^n>iM: 

18 HiRUDo QriNQi-ESTRiATA. Schmarda. Ncl 
the Medicinal Leech of the Sydney Ci 


Order I. RHIZOTA. 

unecjual. Veiy coimiion, 'M 

K, EliK nlK 1^' Hudson .v Gosse, Rotifc i 
, Piitchud, Iiifuboiii, I'^Gl, ]) (j7 ) 1 
.■), pi xl , f J-i _'() Near Cook's Ki\ < r 

I ^,'bobic, Ann .V AI i^^ X H , J Sm , \ < 
, pi M , Hudson J. Gosst, Rotitni, p 

Mmndmt on It.iuiUni nei. C o( 

II itta on Al^-iiopli^Iluin ^^ iteiloo ' 

Cubitt, ^^onthly Micio Joui , \ ol 

p ^3, pi 

fuitlur evmnncition 

t 1 Putchiid's Iniusoiii, p 0?:) W ltd loo bw imps , 
Pdii imattd and ne u Cook s Ruer , \ei> conniion on hne 

\MbiGL V, Hudson, Jour Kov Alicro Soc , _> N r Vol ni , 
l^b3 p 163, pi i\ , f 1 Hudson . I (.os<5e, Roti£era, p. 
■)3, pi 1, f J On Utiiculitianeu Cooks Rnti, me 

like ,t !n dulters o£ Alg/on M/noplnllun' m tin lu.r, 

Hudson, fKS, ^vho mfotnis me tint it is piolnbly /^ 
I/^/^u, .1 species A%lnch ha* aKo been found in Canida, N 

1^ norcfet once Oui sp( on s closol> rt m nibles htt-phanocei Ob 
xnd has a shoit rigid footstalk In i pond oti Bunnerong 
Road about one mile 1 eyond the Raiecourst, also in the 

. on the KenMngto 

n Estate 

EiCTiiiORMi, Ehrfn 




'Hudson J. 




found this 

NhC D'HirsVw 

>s tl 

lat he 

has = 

een .peci 

pondm MooiePi 


anul> ML! K KR 



,S. ^.hMuk P. 

It. hi 

,(! li 

s., 1 


m DiKk Cuck, Cl>de, on L 
nutti Park on M>rioph>llu 

J\NUs ICudson J our \{<n Alicro^oc 2 "^er \o 
1881 p 1 pi 1 Hudson .V Gos,e Rotifei x p 74 pi 
£ 1 I found this pocits m ibundan e on Aljnopln: 
in ashmt iiiuofMii isCi.ek it tlu bukofthe \A lU 

although I ha\e repeatedly seirched for it 
rFR\TOPH\in Schiank Prit rnfusoiii pi xxx 
V)2 pi xxxM t 2 Hudson ^ (TO^s^ Rotifua 
Mil Alooie Puk 111 m oUl ston» tiuariv 
.e Stn ( t opposite Forsyth s Rop( A\ oi ks Pai r mi n 

Mil Jfudson V (rosse Rotifeii 
1 Cooks River on I tucuKria rate 
li. Hudson ^ ( t^ss^ Rotifera 

80 pi 

20 CE sP I tound thib sj, 

Cooks Rnei it sonu 

21 a .P Tl is species pow 

25, Pritcliiid, In 
, Hudson ct Go^^e, 

1 wAtcrhole^Upjond 



, Ehr Hudson tV: Gosse, Rotifora, p. 101, 

.1 .ock nool Mooio Piik behind the »hoot 

P KOSROLV, Ehr , Hudson i\: Gosst-, Rotifeni, p 9U, pi it: , t 
4 In ,1 1 ock pool o\ t ilookmir the sp.i .it Cno^^^e 

RoTiK.K M^cuoc,uos, Gos.., Ann .t Mag. Hist 2nd 
Ser,Vol \iii, 1S">1, p -202 Hudson ct (Josbo, Kotittra, 
p 10-1, pi X 't ■> Cl>de, Parramatta. 

i-> Kitlu'i lu^'. . thui the precidin- spf'U(b ,uid ittuh.s 
itsolf to UM<U th. 0-. ot tins form .uo stiikul iiui 
fa^ttmd to thf .tfin^.^f phnts like those of Con m (an 
aiiuitu ni<<r^ ^\hull th \ i. sonible m shape In Duck 
clo'ek nJl, .Ml W I 1 ( 1 .k ntu Cooks Ri^ei 

32 AcTiNURUS NEPTUNius, Bhr. ; Hudson & Gosse, Rotifera, p. 
108, pi. X, f. 6 ; Pritcharcl, Infusoria, p. 704, pi. xxxv., £. 
f. 481-4. Waterloo Swamps ; Wooli Creek, Cook's River. 

Order m. PLOIMA. 

Sub-Order IL-loricata. 


In shallow waterholes behind Mount Steel, Moore Park ; 
rare, Nov. 18, 1886. 


34 AsPLANCHNA Ebbesbornii, Hudson, Jour. Roy. Micro. Soc, 

2 ser., Vol. in., 1883, p. 621, pi. ix.-x. : H. It G., Rotifera, 
p. 120, pi. xi, f. 3. Abundant in the large dam near the 
end of Elizabeth Street, South, Nov. 3, 1886. 

35 A. Brightwellii, Gosse, Ann. .t Ma<r. N.H., 2 Ser., Vol. vi., 

1850, p. 23; H. A G., Rotifera, p. 122, pi. xii., f. 1. I" 
the same locality as the preceding, Nov. 3, 1886. 

Cricket Ground, Oct. 1883, Nov. 1887. It is possible 
this may be A. priodonta, Gosse. 

37 A. MYUMKLEO, Ehr. ; Pritchard, Infusoria, p. 682, pi. xxxui., 

f. 418. This species feeds on Entomostraca. Botany 
Swamps ; and in the dam at the end of Elizabeth Street, 
very abundant, Aug. to Nov. 1886. 

38 Sacculus viridis, Gcsse, Ann. k Mag. N.H., 2 Ser. Vol. viii-, 

1851, p. 198; Hudson et Gosse, Rotifera, p. 124, pi- xi-. 
f. 2. In boggy pools amongst bog-moss (Sphagnum) 
Waterloo Swamps, about a quarter of a mile from the end 
of Elizabeth Street and close to a small creek, Aug. 1, 1886. 


39 Synciiaeta tremula, Ehr.; Pritchard, Infusoria p. 686; 

Hudson k Gosse, Rotifera, p. 1 28, pi. xiii., f- 2. l" ^he 
same locality as the preceding, Nov. 1S86. 

40 Polyarthra platyptera, Ehr.: Hudson A- Gosse, Rotifera, 

Vol. II., p. .3, pi. xiii.,'f. .-.. '"Waterloo Swamps; Botany; 
Parramatta ; common, Au'a to Nov.. 1886. 

II., p. G, pi. xiii., f. (i. Parraiuatta Park; \V atci'i 


li^ JIydatina sknta, Elir. ; Hudson it Gosse, Rotifoi 
p. 9, pi. \iv., f. 1. In shallow pools corner 
.Street and Eotaiiy Road; otf Botany Road _ 
ground near the water-works, August 28, ISS^i 

43 H. ?"sp. Avery conn. ion species having a great r 

structure. Moore Park and many other place- 


p. 199 ; Hudson .t Gossc 



11., p. 1 

pi. XV 

i., f. 12. .Moore Park; 



lips: a 



45 T. SKLENl 

RA,? Gosse, Jour. Roy. ^ 

icro. Soc, 


p. 1, pl- 


f. 1. 

Waterloo Swamps, rare. 


Zeitschrift f 


.sch., Zoologie, Band xx> 

IX., 1883, 

. 30. 

, pi. XX 

f. :^1. 

1 am not sure as to oui 

species be 


l«M-gs. as there is some slight dilierenc 

e po>iti 

of the 

lateral cer\ical eyes, li 



.they a 


ented as being slightly in 
in our species they ai 

advance of 
e a consid 

the ( 

'utral e\ 
> distal 

behind and placed nearer together tlian 


Eckstein. In Sphagnum pools 
quarter of a mile from, but op 

Waterloo t- 
losite the t 



in " The 


Vol. 11., p. : 

1, Mr. Gos.M^ 

states that 

neither 1 

imself, J)r. 

Hudson, no 

Dr. Plate ha 

1 e\ er >een 

the frontal eyes as 
may say that I hav 

described and figured by hckstem. i 
. seen them often in what I take to be 

are very 

., there is no ditticulty ^ 

when^the specimen is see 
at Botany, and in the 

n observing tl.em, u.ey 
e strike the eve of the 
1 from the dorsal surface, 
same locality as the pre- 

ceding s 


Hudson .tG 

>sse, Rotifera. 

Vol. 11., p 

•2-2, ph\ 

ii^f! r^ Moore Park, 1 
s. (; Rotifera, Vol. 

1 the old .ton 
II., p. 2:5, pi. 


•. ; Hudson d' Gosse., Vol. ii., p. 26, pi. 
xvii., f 9. In a pool in the Botanical Gardens. 

51 N. coLLARis, Ehr.; Hudson 6c Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 27, 

pi. xvi., f. 6. In Sphagnum pools, Waterloo Swamps, 

52 N. Weuneckii, Ehr.; Pritchard, Infusoria, p. 683. In the 

tubes of an Algse (Vaucheria sp.), Moore Park behind 
Mount Steel. 

53 N. FORCiPATA, Eln-. ; Hudson & Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. n., p. 

23, pi. xviii., f. 1. Sphagnum pools, Waterloo Swamps. ^ 

54 N. CYRTOPUS, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 22, pi. xvii., f. T. 

Waterloo Swamps, June 1889. 

55 CoPEUS LABiATUS, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. n., p. 28, pi. xvi., f. 1- 

In a short arm of Shea's Creek, Waterloo Swamps, rare. 

56 C. SPiCATUS, Hudson, Jour. Roy. Micro. Soc, 2 Ser., Vol. v., 

1885, p. 612, pi. xii., f. 5 ;, Rotifera, Vol. 
II., p. 29, pi. xvi., f. 2, In Sphagnum pools, Waterloo 
Swamps, rare. 

57 C. PACHYURUs, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 31, pi. xvi., f. 4. 

In pools off Bunnerong Road, at the back of the Race 
Course, July 1886. 

58 C. CAUDATUS, Collins ; Hudson .t Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. n., p. 

33, pi. xvi., f. 5, Duck Creek, Clyde ; Parramatta md 
Waterloo Swamps. 

59 C. CERI5ERUS, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. -"M, p'- ^'•'^■^ ^■ 

Botanical Gardens, -hiK ISMi. 

60 Proales pelts, Ehr. ; Hmlson a- Cnss.^, Kotifrm, Vol. n., P- 

36, pi. xviii., f. 17. Sheas CnTk; \\'at*Mloo SwampS, 
July 1886. 

61 P. PETROMYZON, Ehr.; Hud.son .t (;o.sse. Rotifera, Vol n, P- 

36, pi. xiii., f. 9. In Sphagnum pools, Waterloo Swamps, 
July 1886. 

62 P. parasita, Ehr.; Hudson & Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. n., p- ^Jj 

pi. xviii., f. 11. Botany, near the Water-works, parasitica 
in Volvox, Aug. 1886. 

63 FuRCULARiA forficula, Ehr. ; Hudson Sc Gosse, Rotitera, 

p. 41, pi. XX., f. 1. Moore Park, 

rock pools. 

July 1886. 

64 F. ENsiFERA, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 4:-., pi. xx-, ^- '^■ 
Sphagnum pools, Watf-rloo Swaiuus. ^ 

' ^^xv'iiL^. 16^" In'sin'^Clwi^it u!e'b;uk of Forsytl 
Rope Works. 
66 EOSPORA SP. I have onlv seen a few examples of this speci 
and at the time I was unable to identify them. Botanic 
Gardens; Moore Park, July l.-^SG. 

Sub-order Loricata. 
139 Mastr^ockrcv ruiiwrv, Klu-. : llucKon .v: (xos^o, Rotifera, 
Vol. u.. p. GO, pi. x\., f. 7. Parmmtitta Park ; Wooli 
Creek, "cook's 111% or. 
70 M i:Loxr;vT\, Oosmn RotitVra, Vol. ii., p. G2, pi. xm., f. S. Hwamps, Aui,^ l-'r'SG. 


In Sphagnum pool., 

ioo'swampt J.nio 
ui-nrs, Gos.p, Roti 





, Gl), pl.xx.. f. 21. 

'; "' 

WumU I)]N< 
Li. i,.ciLUM. Kin-, 
i.t 1. Mnon P,ul 




rloo S 

fera,Vol. n..p.71, 
wamps : Botanical 



. u.. 


a. Vo 

1 u.. p. L>->, pi. xxi., 

f. •_>. 



Ucvk pool, Moor. 
Thi^ i^ prol).il.l\ a 
n^ii and from /',>/>jr, 
.ur of tho boilv and 
seen two oxam^ip.sui 
iiV dra%vin-sof the 
U. Wooli Croek, n- 
rmM. N. Sp. Thi 

L th. 


. sp,. 


ii' dirlrr. from D. 
.v,/,., Porty. in the 
of spines. Tha%e 
•ourable conditions 

tcus, Ehr.; H. & G, Rotifera, V; 
In Sphagnum pools, Waterloo t 
:, ? Tatenij Quart. Jour. :\Iicro. S* 
. In Sphagnum pools, Waterl 

Family SALPINAD^. 

85 DiASCHiZA PAETA, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 79, p!. xxii., t 

11. Waterloo Swamps. 

86 D. SEMIPAETA, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 80, pi. xxii., f. 10. 

Wooli Creek, Cook's River. 

87 Salpina eustala, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 85, pi. xxii., f. 

5. Waterloo Swamps, June, 1889. 


88 Euchlanis dilatata, Ehr.; Hudson li^ Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. 

II., p. 90, pi. xxiii., f. 5. Very common, Botanical Gardens; 
Waterloo Swamps ; Parramatta Park. 

89 E. TRiQUETRA, Ehr. ; H. & G., Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 91, P"- 

xxiii., f. 4. In Sphagnum pools, Waterloo Swamps. 

90 E.? sp. A small species, the lorica terminates in a single long 

acute point which is very finely tuberculate. Sphagnum 
pools, Waterloo Swamps. 

91 E. LYXCEUS, Ehr. ; Pritchard, Infusoria, 1861, p. 696, pi- 

xxxiv., f. 445-6. Duck Creek, Clyde. 

92 Cathypxa luxa, Ehr.; H. & G., Rotifera, Vol. n., P- 9^. P'" 

xxiv., f. 4. Frequent, Botanical Gardens; Waterloo 
53 C. sp. The shape of this species is like tliat of C sulcata, but 
it is more depressed posteriorly and without dorsal groove*- 
In Sphagnum pools, Waterloo Swamps. , 

94 MoNosTVLA lunaris, Ehr.; H. ikG., Rotifera, Vol. n-, P- -'^ 

pi. XXV., f. 2. In boggy pools, Waterloo Swamps. 

95 M. BULLA, Gosse, Rotifera, Vol. ii., p. 99, pi. xxv., t. 

Common, Botanical Gardens ; Waterloo Swamps. 

Family COLURID^. 

•96 CoLURUS UNciNATUs, Ehr.; Hudson k Gosse, Rotifem, ^ « " 

II., p. 103. Duck Creek, Clyde. , .., 

97 C. BicuspiDATUS, Ehr. ; H. k G., Rotifera, Vol. n-. P- " 

iDLs (to^^sc, Rotifera, Vol ii p 1' 

unc (xa.flens MooiePirU 

\MH.MM, (Josso Rotiter.i \ ol h 

A UN common, \V,itoiloo ^^v'^mI)., 

TimiU PTLR()1)J^AT)^^. 



Sub-order Branchiop-jda 

th( Austrihan Mustuin, lihdled ^ew Soutli "V\ ile>, 
3 LiMwmv SrAMivvNv, km^^ Pioc Ro>dl Soc risnnmi 

I'^'il: "), p 70 , Itaus Entoin hoc , N S \V , \ ol i p l'j2 

pi VI Coogeo ( Kiiiij) Aroote Pirk (\\) 
i L SORDID!, Kincr, PRS,lisinami, 1^54 ") p 70 1 Entom 

Soc , N is W Pond ne u Boiwh B i>, (kiii^) ^Fooil Pirk 

off Bunneionc: Road, (W ) 
'5 LiMNPTis Micii v\\N\, Wui4, -t'RS, Tis p 70 I Entom 

boc,NbAV , Aol i,p 162, pi m In sli lllo^v poo ^ 

Alooie Puk (W ) Denhaui Couit, Botun, (king) 
h VRl^MIV PKOxnn Km^ PKS, 1 isui , p '70 T Jntoin 

Soc , N b A\ A ol t , p 162, pi XI halt Pans, NevMii.ton 
7 CjimorPU[\ns SI llmo at thiee ex miples m the \u 

tt iliin Alu.eiiH., colUctul b> the late Mi \\ McGil i r i> 

neu Yiss ^ S AA It is distinct fiom tlie Euiope^u 

^ EfciiiLiav sp This ^'enu^ is lepiesented by tuo or thm 
specus, but the> ire from the intenor of the ( olon> 

Km.', 1 c , p 
1? Pu,. Entr 

1 V 


...n. Ki 

'^, Ic, p S-iO, pi 


^. Uehlm 

2 A 

^U MUp 


,1c p.2G0,pl.Mi 


St Leonards, 

^ A 
i A 

it Duiili 


Creek, a 

\!'lvinuj"c p l^GO, pLviii,c 
Kuv^,\i ,p 2G0,pl ^m,D 

K,n,r, l.c.p J61, pi Mil, 
'Ned, (Kinif) 

ck\ss., King, K, p 2G1 
t Dunl.pvod, V.uroville, n 


. Ii 

Inoar Sydney 
r KariM, neir 

MilKim Court, 

27 D 


Kin<r, 1 
u> But 

c, p 1201. pi- ^".' 



d. IxlNud the 

F.iinily CYPRlDiE. 

2^ C 


Nvrv, K 

nir. PI{S,T.ismin 
xnT Com tin A pond 

V 1- 

.1-. , .1 pl 

:x, King,Vl.c, IS.lUsp. ; 

n.' Parran. 

,S? I.e., 1854-5, p. 74. Po: 
I.e., 1854--), p. 74. Denlu 
I.e. Locality? 

rt Stephens, 
iin Court. 

Tribe MACRoruA. 

38 C. r.rTK\. Kin- I.e., j.. ()7. pi. x. .;. in ;i pond irear Sydi 

39 KOTODUO.MUS FKNKl™-r.'kin- r.J., p. fu, pl.ix.A, 1-2, 

40 X. (^TLiKMi, Kin,l,^ I.e., p. (37. Dunlieved," South Creek i 


45 J). CoOKll, Kin- 

Family ASTACIDtI']. 
STACOPSLS SKRKATUS, Shaw, Zool. of New Holland, pi. ^'iii•; 

llaswell, Cat. Crust., p. IGt. Waterloo Suanips ^lo-ss- 

nian's J^ay in the fresh-water Creek, ( W.) 
. Pakhamattensis, Spenco Bat(>, C.R., Vol x\iv., p- 20-' 

pi. XXV ii., f. 1. Parraniatta River. 
. RYnxEVKx.siH, Spence Bate, C.R., Vol. .vxn., p. 204, pi- 

xxii,, f. 2. Sydney. It seems to me tliat the two last are 

only the young of the first whicli is a very variable species. 

i>LEnK.Jus, Hess., Arch, fur Xatur., 31, p. 1G4, pi. vii., *• 

17, 18G5 ; Haswell, Cat. Crust., p. 175. Sydney ? (Hess.) 

MOLLUSC A (Fresh-water). 


Sub-order Integripalliata. 

Family CYRENIID^. 

Lesson, Vo} " TofiuilU Vol ii 
himtli, .) Lmn hoc , London, Vol 
£ 2b 27 Soutli Cuok Nepeai 

I, E A Smith PLS,A'ol km , p 

(peauRnor it Ponntli 

,11th, .1 LS, ^ol xM, p J06, pi 

Sub -order Homoniyaria. 
Family UNIONID^. 
RALis, Lamarck ; Hanley, Recent Shells, p. 192, 
, f. 25. South Creek. 
sus, Lamarck ; = U. cuUelliforniis, Conrad, Jour. 

Sub-Class Prosobranchiata. 

Family RISSOID^. 
Sub-Family Bytiiinin.?:. 
lA AUSTRALis, TryoD, Amer. Jour. Couch., Vol i., p. 
, pi. xxii., f. 7, (Gabbia). Abundant in waterholes m 
ramatta Park, (W.) 

lA Tasmaxica, Tenison-Woods, P.R.S., Tasmania, 1875 
9. Mangi-ove Swamps, Cook's River. 
VTELLA VALIDA, Pfeitter, Monographia Aunoula.'ooruni 
pendix II., p. 184. Within the tidal ^one, iMi/abetli 
f ; Shark Island, (Brazier.) 

^ziEEl, Cox, Mono-raph Aust. Land shells, p. J-i, p^ 
, f. 12 a and b. About one foot above lugh-watci mars: 
ller's Point, (Brazier). 

Sub-order Hydrophila. 
Family LIMN^IDtE. 
Sub-Family Limn^ix.e. 

10 LiMN^A Lessoni, Deshayes, Magasin de ZooL, 1830, p. 16, f. 

1-2 ; Lesson, Voy. " Ck)quille," pi. xv., £. 1. South Creek ; 

11 L. Brazieri, Smith, J.L.S., Vol. xvi., p. 274, pi. v., f. 15- 

Glebe Point on a fiat rock with clear water running over 
them, (Brazier). 

12 Physa Lessoni, Smith, J.L.S., Vol. xvi., p. 277, pi, v., I 21- 

22. South Creek. 

13 P. GIBBOSA, Gould ; Sow., Conch. Icon., Vol. xix., pi. iv., I 27; 

Smith, I.C., p. 278, pi. vi., f. 3-6, var. Adamsiana, Canefri. 
Waterloo Swamps. 
U P. DisPAR, Sowerby, Conch. Icon., Vol. xix., pi. viii., f. 66 a-b. 
Sydney, (Sowerby). 

15 P. BULLATA, Sowerby, Conch. Icon., Vol. xix., pi. xii., f. 97. 

Botanical Gardens, (Brazier.) 

Sub-Family Plaxorbix^. 

16 Segmentina Australiensis, Smith, I.e., p. 296, pi. vii., f. 7-10. 

Common in Shea's Creek at the back of Forsyth's Rope 
Works, Bourke Street. 

Sub-Family Axcylin^. 

17 Ancylus Australicus, Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Australia, 

Vol. III., 1880, p. 102, pi. iv., f. 4 a-b ; Smith, I.e., p. 29*, 
pi. vii., f. 36-37. South Creek, (Brazier). 

18 A. Smithii, Cox, P.L.S., N.S.W., part iii., 1889. On VaUis- 

neria, Port Hacking. 

POLYZOA (Freshwater). 

1 Victorella pavida, I Saville Kent, Quart. J 

rO, p. 34 ; Hincks, Brit. Marine 

Polyzoa, p. 559, pi. Ixxix., f. 4-7 ; Bousfield, Ai 
N.H., Vol. XVI., Ser. 5, p. 401, pi. xii., f. 1-? ' 
water on a species of Nitella in compan 
dwelling rotifer GEcistes sp., Cook's River. 


Vol \ , p.\'Ul. On ^seeds in Wooli Creek', Cook's Ri\('r, 
Wfitcrloo Swamps . Parrainattri 

3 P sp. On the stenis oi lU'.lies in tlie Horse Pond, IMoore 


4 P fep. On the stems of ruslie* and the leaf-stalks ot :\[ar=,ilia, 

Duck Creole, Clyde. 

5 Alc\oxkll\ sp. The statohlasts of thib species lescnible 

thobe of rhimat>lht JruHco^a in shape and are much 

6 LopnoPLb Le\dk\fklT)I, S^). Ridley,' J. Linn Soc, London, 

Vol. XX., p. Gl, pi. ii. T found this species in January 
188G, on tlie stems of aijuatic plants in Parraniatta Park 
near the footbrid^'e in deep ^^ater, and I killed specmiens 
Mith the tentacles faiily extended, some of ^\ huh I ^i(a^eto 
Dr. R. V. Lendenfeld uhen lea\inf,' tliis country, asknii,' 
him to hand them over to Prof AUman for dcsmption 
When he ai rived in London he appe ,.s to haN . pi.-rnted 

name L. L.'^n.b af>hb lias l.r. u ^u.ntou 

7 FRh,i)J..UICKLL\ SP This 1- J.)M-h alllMl h. / w,//-/,-' but 

the statoblasts are no.n ly round and not W m -li iped n 
Shea's Creek, Waterloo S^^anlp-.. alauidaiit m l^M IW 
same or anotlier species is found in Pni it.iatta \\ •■ Mm 
the footbridge. 

172^ „ ■ k, „ pilu 
173. „ 48, „ Ehr 

186,' ,'' iios" ,'.' 'l h.i 

By W. M. Hamlet, F.C.S, F.I.C, Government Analyst. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S.W., October 2, 1889.^ 

The specimens selected for analysis were those of Opuntia hv 
ziliensis in fresh vigorous condition, but the fruit was not qui 
ripe. The prickles having been carefully removed, the follown 
results were obtained from a hundred parts of the fresh plant :- 

Water ... B9-60 

Fat ■^: 

Starch . 
Arabin, Pectose or digestil 
Cellulose (woody fibre) 
t Mineral matter (Ash) 

1 of its value as a fodder plant we e.xcmu. 
the prickles, the prickly pear will he found to possess a nutntne 
value equal to that of the melon or to the common cabbage. 
Ob\iously the chief, but not insurmountable difficulty attending 
its use as fodder for stock is the presence of two distinct sets 
prickles, one being the long hard spines, the other the fine short 
spiculai formed in tufts upon the fruit, both of which combme 
make a very formidable defence to the plant against the approa 

f h rl f+1 • ]...-, ■ . . - 1 rl K tl e latter except 

when hard pressed by hunger in a dry season. m i 

In the Brazils and in some parts of Mexico, horses and ^^^ 
cattle will attack this prickly cactus in a remarkable in^^H^^J^ 
This is accomplished by tlie animals turning round upon the p^^.^ 
and stamping it down with their hind legs until they have s 
ently mashed the leaves and destroyed the prickles, whereup 
they are able to eat it. _ „rnress 

Stock may however })e sa^'ed this labour by the sunple proce ^ 
of burning the spines ott' liy roasting in heaps after cutting 
by bill-hooks or scythes, or by means of a pulping machine 

Nitrogen 0-17. t Containing Potash 92. 

). Thus the prickly pejir 
3f our selectors and sciuntt 
' profitably turned to hcco 

t this plant 
e of nature, 
of drought 


PEAK, fOpi,,>/^ 

)y \V. yi. Hamlkt, F.C.S., 

buwNf; an investigation made A\itli thi^ \ai 

tv of Prickly Pear 



^'iviug a fait.t acid reaction. .Se^erai pounds .e 
chopped line and digested with pure ^vater foi 

ight ot the p(>ar was 
•24 hours. A clear 

glairy jpUv-liko substance %vas ohtauied, %v]>ich 
horny ,.,-anular nwus.e. sonu.vhat rcseu.bling c 
and found to he soluble in ^^ater but precii)it 

ued'by alcohol and 

acid a s"ub''tance'hal-ing\iil the properties ot"d 

ith dilute sulphuric 
xtrinv a. obtained, 
ic.n of a fermentable 

while further livdrolysis resulted in iheproduo 

sugar precipitated by Fehlin- -oiutir.n, (Arabn 

>^-ith nitric acid, the sugar nipi<'.uie nv.i- u-. 

finally into oxalic acid. The .(n.-.u. .-h; 

„„. <.f Til.' > x-rut^ 

became tinted on keeping, .i'-^- '[" -,''''"■ 

!,,!'nU,u;u'dl»i il.'- 

^•olour. Not sutticient of th.- su^ n i.k.- 

stuff obtained from tlu- 'jiroken Jliil di-.trirt, Ilu> 
question yielding on M^say as follows : — 

I. Ochreous felspathic lodc-Mtutl'.— Pl.itinuni ; 

II. Com] 

hvts. lT"r."port!m ■'"'*''' 

of the san<l pi-ocure 
nient made by tha 

sii.'.M.ruf samples of nickel ore 
Drjurtment of Mines, 1878. 



7 per cei 

lit ot plati 


^^as fouiul ' 

uk tliat 

the occuu 


ot platinum 111 

,e of such. 


.ictei isremnl, 


,My oxti.u 


s ,ui open que. 


uKl Mm 


1, Ji 

il> 27tli, l^.^O, 


^•tters of South Anieuui 
^ietected a small (uiaritity c 
-^e^v Houth Wales 

Chatin rletecterl iodine ii 
plants, therefoio .ill watei 
P<>n(ls should urn t.nn tvue^ 

;ilso stales tluit all natural wa1 
* Van Ankum has shown that 
i potable waters of Hollan.l. 


1 IIR country m which this Lime-stone is found has been very 
carefully described by the late Dr. A. iM. Thomson, in article No. 
G. Vol. III., of this JSocietys Journal for the year 18G9, so that 
reference can easily be made thereto for any information of a 

Kiiiijsdale about four miles from < JouU.urn, and althougli quarries 
have l.een opened at Haw Eaw and Rossiville, places almost the 
same distance from Goulburn, and on the .same line of country ; 
they are not at present beiny worked. Large quantities are burnt 
for huilfliuj: purposes, the li'ine l)eing used not only in the district, 

spersed v.-ith white veins, it loses over one third its weight m 
i specific gravity is about ■J-8l>. Tt exists in large 

(luarried to any great deptii, probahly 1 
larry makes the getting too expensi. - 

that'is to^Mv!" the kihiV ar-, 

f'lirnt, cooled clown and then emptied ai 
always used as fuel, although it is now 
probal^ly only a question of time when cc 

An analysis of the stone made by the 
from the quarry, gives : — 

Silica etc 

Iron, Alumina, etc. ... 

The c 

arhonic acid ^ 

vas estii 

iiated several i 

:imes separately. 


iuie is fairly ^ 

.vhite in 

colour after I 

)eing burnt, 



like so white 

lime burnt at 

Lake Hath Its 


gra\ity when 

imrnt i; 

i about 3-25. 

Its tensile 

. strength 

rtar per si^uare inch v 

-as estinnited by making ^ 

.J, various 


on. of quick 

lime and sand by me. 

isure. The 

sand was 

all clea 

n ^^aslK.d, ca 

u'dit on 

a 900 sipv(>,, 

and having 

a specific 

of-J-.VJ. The 


.fter Faija's 



re broke 


. Thus one 

' part lime 

and fou 

r parts sand, 

broke a 

t 2.<.Ut.s. ; one 

> part lime 

and eight 

parts sa 

l.Ubs. ■ 

With less than 

one and four no better 

■MS Ohtahii'd." 

The blocks were all tested ab( 

)ut twelve 


after hein-^ 


A test with t 

wo i)arts lin 

ic and one 

part pla 

st.r of paris, 

the bri 

(luettes a vera; 

ged U-ilb.s.; 


rr at 3:^:^ 

'lbs. All the 

l>riquettes y 

.-fre tested 

chhlo of Dr."Michaeli: 

^ pattern, the 

, lighter wei 

ghts being 

a^cenainedhy using 

only one lever havin<. 

J a multiply 

Ing power 


: classes lime i 

iiortar f ] 

lom bad to good as taking 1 

iO to 50tr3S. 

per squ: 

ire inch, so tli 

,at this 

lime cannot t 

ake a very 


^ ^ ^ ; classed as a 

poor lime having very slight hydraulic properties. When once i1 
has become hard in the air, it resists water fairly well, but foi 
anything like hydraulic work it is utterly unsuitable W ith 2 
fairly coarse sand, such as would be caught on a !)00 sieve, .i 
stronger mortar is obtained than with a finer sand, this bem^ 
pro},ably due to the air being able to circulate through the mortal 
i;K)re freely, on the other hand a better result is obtained with souk 
njie sands than with others, this being probably due to a ditierenc* 
in composition. 

* Portland Cement for Users, by H. Faija, p. 03. 

Taking a sample of portland cement, which gave a strengtii u 
5801T>s. at three months* and with six parts coarse sand 68Bjs. 
then probably a stronger mortar would be obtained at the sami 
cost, with eight to one cement, than with lime mortar ; th 
mechanical difficulty however of using such a poor cement morta 
for anytliing like neat work makes the lime mortar the cheapes 
for ordinaiy work. 


Prof. LiVERSiDGE, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-two members were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of one candidate was read for the third time, 
of three for the second time, and of one for the first tnne. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary member 
of the Society :— 

Gale, Walter Frederick ; Sydney. 

The following letter was read :— 

M. Le President-It will be very kind on your part if you ^'i^.^-^J.^^ 
to Zoology— especially those who possess collections of mainmif era, birds, 
reptiles, insects, shelled or otherwise. For many years I have given my 
attention to Hyhridation—th&t is to say, to the crossings of different 
species, whether so produced either in a state of freedom or in captivity- 
I can only arrive at a satisfactory result by consulting those naturalists 
who have themselves been enabled to observe certain cases, or who by 
means of their connections can refer me to other naturalists, collectors, 
either amateurs or breeders. And if you yourself M. le President have 
any knowledge of any of these facts, whether by study, reading or other- 
wise, I shall be extremely obliged to you if you will let me know, i 
really cannot sufficiently excuse myself for the liberty I am t^king.^n^ 
you wTll^'have the go"dmjs*^ to"S.bM-J" m" TiX ^sv^vL in reply for which 

Proprietaire a Breaute au chateau c 

s not put under water a 

the following p.ippfs :— 1 The Analysis of Priukly Pear, 2 Ou the 
occun-enof of Ai-al)iii in the Prickly Pear, Opunfia JlrasUvjmis. 
Some iv.iur-k- were made by the Hon. L. F. DeSalis, M.L.C., and 

Tile Hon. Secretary (Mr. Kyngdon) in the absence of the author, 
read a paper by Mr. Edward Stephens, on " Personal Recollections 
of the Aboriginal Tribes once inhabiting the Adelaide Plains of 
South Australia." A discussion followed in which Messrs J. F. 
Mann, P. N. Trebeck, the Hon. L. F. De Salis and the Chairman 
took part. 

The thanks of the Society weie accorded to the various authors 
for their valu xh\( paperb 

Professor Liversidge ex:hibited some interesting fungoid growths 
which had foimed in w itei cont lining linely divided gold in sus 

the chloride by"phosphorou^ dis^ohed in ether the mvcehum of 
the fungoid growths had icquued t purple coloui from the gold 
which it had absorbed on moitu rition a si eleton outline of the 
mycelium is left in gold 

The following don itions wore hid upon thi tiblt and 
acknowledged — 

Donations Rfcmm-d dlkivc Tiif Month o* S^PTrMUFR, 1889 
(Tht ^ lui ot th Donoib UL m Italic, ) 
Albant (N.Y )— New \ork St it Libruv \.nnual Rcpoit 

Annual Kcportb (70th 71 t^ 1th iiii tc it th 

fiAt-TiMORE-John^ Hopkins IJun 

Cambridge (Mass.)-' 
Psyche, Yo\. v., 

Denvee— Colorado Sciei 

^ivTno^i! PartU.S'YuL ^ 
atific Society. Proceedin-s,V 




, cier K. Sammlungenfar Kunst und 


:— Royal Dublin 

. Society. Scientific Procet 
Parts iii.,iv., v., vi.. 1888-9. 
ns, (Series II.) Vol. IV.. Parts 


Glasgow— University. The Glasgow University Calendar 

for the year 1889-90. The Unive^ 

Hamburg— Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft. Meteor- 

ologische Zeitschrift, August, 1889. The Soc 

Krakau (Galicia)— Academie 'des Sciences de Cracovie. 

Bulletin International, Nos. 6 and 7, 1889. The Academy. 

Lausanne — Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 

Bulletin, 3e S., Vol. xxiv.. No. 99, 1889. The Soc^ty. 

ONDO^-^e^o_oglc^a^ ocie y^^^^ uai ei y ourna , 

Linnean Society. General Index to the First Twenty 
Portion of the Proceedings, Nov.' 1838 to June 1886, 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Journal and 

Transactions, Third Series. Vol. xix., Part 228, 

June, 1889. 
Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal, Ser. XL, Vol. iv.. 

No. 25, July, 1889. The Cluh- 

Eoyal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, Vol. . 

XLix., No. 8, Jtme, 1889. The Society- 

Eoyal Geographical Society. Proceedings, New Monthly 

Series, Vol. xi., No. 7, July, 1889 
Eoyal Meteorological Society. Quarterlv Journal, Vol. 

XV., No. 70, April 1889. The Meteorological Eecord, 

The Clui- 



Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The 

ist. Vol. VI., No. 5, Sept., 1889. 

, Annual Eeport of the Secretary 

e working of the regulation and 


' Mines ' 



of Mi 

ines and Mining Machinery Act 



year ] 

.888. The Hon. Minister of Mines j 
^ria. Sanitary Condition of Mel- 

s Report of Eoyal Commission to 

liiire int( 

. and report upon the Sanitary Condition 

' The Hon. The Premier of ^ 

SociocUaCunitifiui'- Antonio \l/ato." Mem 
SF— Soci^-t.' Indiistriollo d.- MnliiouM' 15ul 

M'itteirimi;\-on ciul Max von Biiuoinlomd, l^sS. 
Joseph von Fnuinhofor's GesanimeJto Si-hnften, 

New Yoek— Amei-K^an Chemical Society Journal, Vol. x., 

No. 10, December, 1888. The Society 

School of Mines, Columbia Colloi^o. The School of Mines 

Quarterly, Vol. x , No. 4, July, 1880. The School of Mznei 

Oxford— Eadeliite Observatory. Re-ults of Astronomical 
and Meteorolo.vieal Obseivations in the year 1SS5, 
Vol. XLiii. The Radclijfe Trustee i 

Paris— Academic des Sciences de I'ln-titut de France. 
Comptcs Eendus, Tome cix., Nos. 3 - 7, 15 JuiUet 

Feuille des .r.Mtnes Naturahstes. Annee xix., Xo. 22G, 

The Editor, 
Comptes Rendus, Serie IX., Tome 

,ince. Bulletin, No. 13, 1889. 

The InUdute 
and Cornwall 

The Minister of P% 

St. Etiennk— SociV>ti<' de I'lndustrie Miner 
Rendus Mensuels, No. <6, Juin, 1S89 

Santiago— Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Ver< 
lun-en. Heft 6, 1888. 

tion of Water, 1887. 
Linnean Society of N.S.W 

Vol. IV., Part ii., 1889. : 

Tromso— Museum. Aarsberetningfor 1880—1886; Aarshefter 

Vol. I.— X., 1878—1887. T 

Vienna— K. K. Central-Anstalt fiir Meteorologie und Erd- 

magnetismus. Officielle Publication, Jahrgang 

, Ph.D. No!^4 "'^ ^^^' * 
1 South Carolina a 

Herbert B. Adams, Ph.D. No. 4. History of High* 

No. 5. Educatian in Georgia, by Charles Edgeworth 
Jones. No. 6. History of Education in Florida, by 
George Gary Bush, Ph.D. No. 7. Higher Educa- 
tion in Wisconsin, by William F. Allen and David 
E. Spencer. The Comm 

Smithsonian Institution. List of Foreign Correspon- 
dents of the Smithsonian Institution July 1, 1885. 
Additions and Corrections to the List of Foreign 
Correspondents to July 1888. Systematic Arrange- 
ment of the List of Foreign Correspondents, July 
1888. Eeport on Astronomical Observatories for 
1886, by George H. Boehmer. The Ins 

Zagreb (Agram)- Societe Archeologique. Viestnik hrvats- 
koga Arkeologickoga Druztva, Godina xi., Br. 3, 

(Names of Donors are in Italics.) 

io und 18* 

lisch-Geodiitische Arbeiten. I. Ordnu: 

isions-Nivellement der Elbe. 

ment zwischen Anclam und Cuxhaven, 1888. Lota- 
bweichungen in der Umgebung von Berlin, 1880. 

ite. Comptes-Rendus Reunies a Berlin du 27 
,u 1 Nov. 1886. Ki'unie du 21 au 29 Oct. 1887 
. Hirsch. Bibliogruphie Geodesique par Dr. 



louN ^[ATiiKW, M.A., Coburg, 


[With Plate and Map.] 

[Read hefon- the Ro;,nl Society, X.S.U'., December J, JS; 

Pkkfatory Note. 
Obligations have boon ^'enoniliy ackn()v\lo(lg(Hn)y o: 
ences in loco, but the wj-iter desires to express special Iik 
to the work of Ins friend, tlio late Mr. E. 31. Cu.r. 
Australian Race,'" which fnnn its comprehensiveness and 

although some of AFr. Curr's main conclusions have Ix 
different from those enunciated in thi^ essay. 

The Origin ok the Australian Race. 
In entering i 

the common belief correct 

IS their being so called the result of hasty cai t K -. <> 

imperfect knowledge ? To call them the Al .mih ■ 

especially as they have from their iirst appe ..,.,.,. i 
so called, and as they seem homo-ene..u- .mmI 
claimants to the distinction, but with-.ut .uu <!.• 
aepriving them of the title it %v ill be\ to"pi-^ 
not properly belong to them. 

At the time when this southern continent \\as 1- 
^olland its inhabitants were loosely designated J 
«ter British settlement, ()bsei\ers among the u.l 
Panng the natives with typical Melane.ians, . ..uld ,^ 
^ery marked physiological dirterene«'s and MMiie < 
hit upon the hypothesis that the Au.t.ahu... v 
Papuan and Malay blood. The ex ,den.-.> in Mipi.-u- 
geographical position of Austrah:t ..imI the 
people superticially scanned, and vva-, m. .I'mht a 
J_"egation only a bare assumption. How, ^.hru, 
^«on took place, if not in.soluble the solution ua. , 
,JfJ quite recent theory of Dr. Less<m, cleulx .i 
^ted IS almost identical with this dimly o.iKfi> 
V^tter substiintiated. On physiological grourxls 
"Allies that the Australians hfue anything in com 

* I>r.A. Lesson, Lee Folynesiens, Pans, 1880, Vol. i 

If the R.puAns of Xpxv Guin( i nid cf T i.i.i lui . .esix ctnc h be 
cla^sod as dirterent races, I am ii<.t di^pu^ed todiii) d)^ululdy 

whethei they skmbl In d. m ' 
colourod race, the Alfourou-, 

j)H)pinquity of Tasm uu i t. ih m mil md n it in dU ^"--'^'^ ^ 

Many accept this \itnv .ill miki uitlmui ii'Mi_ '''''" '' '^ 
. the objections are \v hi. h IT , us. .. Mi 1) im. - M^" ^"^ ^^. 
lit ou-h Smyth,* indicat(.Ki,U^UMM-( N.imd m tn* ^"^^^ 

• Aborigines of Victoria, Introd. p. Ixx. 

lisHiPinn .imm}. R, 

by people of the same blood. These tirst- 
Austnilian Aborigines, otcupied alJ the ( 
spread right across to the 

Then followed one invasion, if not t^ 

.vo, by I 

much faire 
in the Au: 

r complexion. The un-Pajman element 
stralian race is not the trace of one y 

these the 

the constituents bei,.g Dravid 
Dravidian was tlie tii.t to a 


later, and i 

n a desultory way by ( Me 

It is more 

. <l.'.Mirr. 

as of the s; 

sVi."l)mvidian,''it woulll'l,'. ul 
ime stock as the Dravulian, < 

Central Ii 

tidian. There are features 



iws and indelibly fixed in Au 
il atiinity between the Aust 

rnlians a 

Southern a 

..d Central India. The ditVerei 

Thev \ver( 
the hair of 

bfickwai-ds. If this process cif settlement cuirfsjxdid-. U) f,u 
(mid expect to find greater difierences in app<>ur,iii(c. Itniru.iij 

Tl.. tlH.,„v ,,t ....up, 

Mary. Rive 
brill betvui 

It is freely admitted that the inhabitants of the island were 
unlike those of the mainland in skin-complexion, the diiierence 
however may be easily exaggerated. The Tasmanians were 
uniformly of a deep Ijluish-black colour, while the Australians are 
usually of a brownish-black, sometimes almost copper-coloured 
(especially the children) and invariably of a warm tint. I have 
noticed however, that when an Australian is wet and cold his 

among the natives of the mainland. In this respect again great 
differences are observable both between tribes in different localities 

lands on the east, south and west, the colour in many cases is 

The people of both nations had luxuriant heads of hair. Some 
have called the hair of the Tasmanians woolly, others deny that 
it could properly be so called, and aver that it was rather excess- 
ively curly. The hair of the head was very abundant and generally 
grew in long thin ringlets. The hair of the continental people is 
on the contrary mostly wavy on the head, but often straight, and 
occasionally so curly as to resemble woolly hair, while the beard 
has invariably a great tendency to curl. As telling against the 
common origin of these peoples, a strong point is made of the 
difference in the quality of the hair. Mr. Curr has said * of the 
Au.stralians that their hair is "sometimes straight and at others 
wavy, but never woolly," and in the next sentence that the hair 
of the Tasmanians was woolly. 

As a matter of fact neither race had the hair woolly in the same 
sense as ihe Negro's hair is woolly, and yet the Tasmanian's might 
be called in a sense woolly (or wool-like) and there are cases where 
a kind of woolly hair has been noticed among the Australians. 
To corroborate the latter statement I have only to refer to Mr. 
Curr's own work.f Of a tribe of blacks in the Bunya Mountains, 
a contributor says that there were one or two cases of woolly hair. 
The present writer happens to have known these very persons, 
and the hair of one of them named Warun was so woolly that he 
used to 1)6 tea/ed in conse<iuence and nicknamed " monkey " 
(-,heep) and "wool" much to his vexation 

Mr Jardine ^ (the Explorer T presume) speaks of two types of 
Australians, one ;ipproaHiing a copper colour, the other black. 
He says, rhe tru. abon-nies a.e perfectly black with 
generall) " „nh\f /,,,,/.,, /„,,, lb- spc.iks ,ilso of features of a 
stronj,' .iVxM.h ( 1st about uhkh moie \m11 l)e said below Major 
Mitch. 1' ( I ~iu v)iii. nitnes vMtli ,i M>it of vvoolly hair, and ^U: 

btanbridge speaks * of isolated cases of woolly hair among the 
men. By the courtesy of a friend 1 have in my possession the 
photograph of a black boy whose hair was of the quality generally 
called woolly, his name was Wellington and he belonged to the 
Culgoa River, New South Wales. 

In his " Daily Life of the Tasmanians," Mr. Bonwick says f 
regarding them, that their hair was not woolly nor like that of 
the Negro, he cites the opinion of Dr. Pruner Bev, that two 
specimens examined resembled the hair of the New Irelanders. 
If Mr. Curr can hold that notwithstanding tlie straightness of his 
hair " the Australian is by descent a Negro with a strong cross in 
him of some other race," there should be no difficulty on the score 
of difference of hair in the way of our regarding him as descended 
from the Austral Papuan or indigenous Australian with a strong 
cross of two other races both straight-haired. 

The opinion of the Rev. Geo Taplin, an observer of large ex- 
perience, is very noteworthy. He says,| "there is a remarkable 
difference in colour and cast of features, some natives have light 
complexions, straight hair, and a Malay countenance, while others 
nave curly liair, are very black and have the features Papuan. It 
IS therefore probnhle that there are two races of aborif/ine>i." My 
own theory was formed before I had read this, and besides Mr. 
Taplin merely reiterates ;i supposition based certainly upon personal 
experience, but already propounded by earlier New South Wales 
^vriters, || and apart from difference of appearance just quoted, he 
puts forth no proof of his statement. 

The conclusion of so well-qualified an authority that there are 
pfobably two races of aborigines is in direct conflict with that of 
^I'-- Huxley, Avho thinks that the natives of the southern and 
^•estern portions of Australia are the most homogeneous of all 
savages. Observation is certainly against Mr. Huxley with whose 
ppmion the statement of Dr. A. Lesson .§ may be compared, " the 
individual variations are too great, the study of the crania shews 
typical differences too accentuated for it to be possible to admit 
the unity. and purity of the Australians." 

ihe occurrence of strongly contrasted complexion.s, copper and 
*l»iost jet black in the same tribe is exceedingly connaon. Some 
f ,^^f fairer skins are accompanied by light-coloured hair whether 
faded or natural. At Beemery Station, between Bourke and 

* Mr. R. Brough Smyth's " The Aborigines of Victoria," Vol. r., p. 15. 

t Daily Life of the Tasmanians, p. lOti. 

li ,, X Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 129. 

J A'- Taplin regarded the Narrinyeri a.= descended from Polynesians 

J^^^Papuans, and may have been the first to propound this special 

§ Les Polynesiens, Vol. i., p. 104. Dr. A. Lesson, Paris, 1890. 

Australia let the followin.c,' ^e julded to slieu tli(> cxi.steiKic oi ;i 

i-oasts with a departure from ir laiuluards and iii the north. 

Of .-oine tishiny tiibos .Mi. Carr -^ayst that they havo\ery frizzy 
hair. :\Ir. A. \V. Howitt .sj.eakiiiir of Cooper's Cr^-ek l^lacks siiys, ! 

l.'lark.. thf^r hair i.s,-i' a'lul 1^ r^int-^'uiev aiv sii-liter in 

i ilr. r.ul Forlsch 

all over the bodv so 
on the north coast 
very scanty." I; As 

efrdly"rhe Papuan and 

,u,'r with th(! apex pro- 

p., uuis 111. R(N A\ Kicllev -^p( 

lUof huinji met ^vith th( 

l>sv.~^l. nosea,..oni,the Aubtiahmb 

luks ThetutissoohMou 

tn uu Olio xsho his seen nuiriv ot th. 

nitueb as not to require t( 

. pointed out, nuuh less snpj>o.t 

ull>y quotations And Air 

l5Kkl.ouseohsP^^od , unotu' the 1 


Tsluul, one ospeciilly ^vhoM t. itu 

res hul I JevMsh cist iru 

HiimMledhnuoithopopulu putuu < 

A Vl)tiliun •^otliat be-uh 

cue reLited by the family liki-noss ot 

tlieJowsh Papuan nose 

liii Ai. LMJM >KOM Mmh. 

11 o( N \M) Tii\i>rrnN 

^oii.e mvth^ ha^eb<fMl .oP .c» d, 

tnstapp(ai to Ix Mild nonsuisic d t 

uia-^lnitN lu.h iM .ipd^l. 

ot ilXuititul and iit.on,' i.tnpn 

t.tion u.d 1 ti . isp(cu 

^alue^^henl^htl. tInoNMi up.i. tlu 


The .iborigines ot tin noitln ni pi t^ (. 

Lro%v and the eagle TIkk hid Incn lO 
tiiebc two beings but p( loi wis nude ) 
that the Mur ray bl icks .houid b< dnide 
"^fokw in I (spdl \ nioush ) < i I u'' In^^ 

I'^ir Tli( man with tlu st. n^ht h in he . ilkd lUi lOok i.o< 

There IS dso a myth'.bout [;und)cl (oi Pund)d) the fhst r 
■^nd K.irween (the second man) whom Bundiel made i 
qw luelled about w n t s, but K ir w m n spoke to W lun,' the ci 
^nd asked him to m ik, i ( onoi.on . Vnd many crows cainc 
th^V made a .^r.Mt 1, d,t m tli. m md th< y san^ And t 


birds had possession of it. These birds had as much intelligence 
and wisdom as the blacks, nay, some say that they were altogether 
wiser and more skilful. The eagle-hawk seems to have been the 
chief among the birds, and next to him in authority was the crow. 
The progenitors of the existing tribes, whether birds, or beasts, 
or men, were set in the sky and made to shine as stars if the deeds 
The eagle is now the planet Mars, 


had done 

were m 


ustly so, 1 


also , 

I star. 




. Thisni 

lade the 

crow, caught him and killed ] 
and disappeared. 

The Gippsland blacks vary the legend by saying that the eagle 
ft his son in charge of the mophawk while he himself went 
hunting The mophawk sewed the eaglet up in a bag and left 
him. The eagle was irate, got the mophawk enclosed in the cavity 
ot a hollow tree whence he was able to escape only by breaking 
his leg and using the bone of it to cut his way out. The eagle 
and the mophawk afterwards made a solemn agreement and treaty 
ot peace, the conditions of which were as follows :— the eagle 
should have the privilege of going up into the topmost boughs of 
the trees so that he might from so great a height see Ijetter where 
kangaroos were feeding ; and the mophawk was to have the right 
ot occupying holes of trees : thus ended the disputes between the 
eagle and the moph---' 

„ , Taplin relates some myths of the Nai 

Soutli Australia, similar to the above.* Nu 
wonderful god orchief of this tribe. When he 

J o — v.. v..^i^,i. K,,. i,ni» Lnue. \v nen ne ana iiis toiiowers 
3 down the Murray they found the country around the lakes 
possession of clans of blacks under Wyungare and Nepelle. 
last two of these heroes were translated to lieaven and became 
stars. There is also a legend of a fight about fish between the 
pelicans and the magpies, when the latter were rolled in the ashes 
ot a hre they had made and became black. This myth, like those 
about birds narrated above, will bear a similar interpretation. 

' ■ be made out of these myths 1 Are they tales 
: and signifying nothing," or are they confused 
3 of a real past history ] I take th*..,. f« i.^ +i,^ 

Now wh; 

I the lowei 

3 of rela 

I take them 
•epresenting warfare carried 
d with human faculties, or 
mimals, and men were united 
f these relations 

are men tioned by Mr. McLennan, f such as the Minotau. ^uu u.^ 
t Studies in Ancient History, (London MacMillan& Co., 1886) n 22" 

these relations meant, and suggests that among the Greeks there 
were tribes with totetus—BuW, Boar, Lion, Snake, Ant, and Dragon 
tribes, just as there are tribes named after animals among the 

The prevalence of the designation of men bj- names of the lower 
animals is amply illustrated in the Old Testament scriptures. 
Take for instance the case of Jacob blessing his children* where 
Judah is a " lion's whelp," Issachar " a strong ass," Dan "a serpent 
by the way an adder in the path," Naphtali "a hind let loose," 
Benjamin " a ravening wolf." In the book of Danielf the Empires 
are typified by four beasts. There is also the common appellation 

countries. The eagle has always bee 

scarcely matter of surprise that the king of l)irds so swift and 

fearless should be chosen as the emblem of a conquering people 

Standing in close relation to these myths is the division of 
Australian comnmnities into two classes, represented by the- 
•^aglehawk and the crow respectively, this dual division and par- 
ticular representation being almost universal in Victoria, and 
extending with modifications into New South Wales and South. 
Australia. In central and northern Victoria the eaglehawk and 
the crow are the only names of the two classes. Throughout 
much of the watershed of the Darling and the Murray on the 
authority of Mr. A. W. Howitt,t the eaglehawk is one of the 
pnmary class names, the second name being usually the crow. In 
the Turra tribe in South Australia bordering on the south-west of 
> lotoria the .seal takes the place of the crow. Yukembruk a class- 
'^auie on the Upper Murray and at Maneroo means crow. Bearing 
upon this is the tradition of the blacks on the Lower Darling first 
placed on record by Mr. C. G. N. Lock hart in his annual report 
to the Government of New South Wales in 1852 or 1853, cited 
J-y Mr. Curr.t The tradition is that the first black man on the 
^*rlmg had two wives Kilparra and Mokwarra. The sons of 
the one married the daughters of the other, and the class-names, 
were inherited from the mothers. At King George Sound among 
»■ community of the Meenung blacks, the white cockatoo is sub- 
stituted for the eaglehawk as one of the primary divisions, the 



ind that of die ra-lcluux k u-sult from t 

tlH^ (k 


n^ the K 

urnai/ xsnt<-. Mr a'.' W .' nmvitt/r' 
rvprpuced. he IS n-anled a. the type 

^ioi lie f,-u.e. iuth 

.11^' the littk oul Weieuuottoo 


the OMifinil ooi/mmlli't^niroUsock 

mtf, C 


^^hlch may have impelh-d the Kurm 
<^>aitp ,1 dilh^^enr opinion of the bigi 
tot rned hy the present writci' 


. coniumt Meu- of tho myths of the 

^\id(>pH"id tunencvand iiiiperi.slia>)h' 

of onP 




/Ktonan evidence, ota former xolcanic period, 
nate name, for the soutli east of Australia at U 

The mjthsoi Looein .ind Wiuonderrer suir^^ei 

iliansjod 'loordt into M us, foi his ^ood dec d-^ 

settlement of the island, -which may have been made when it 
was much more accessible than now, no further communication 
took place with the mainland. It is hardly fair to compare the 
weapons of the Tasmanian with those of the Australian, and from 
their dissimilarity to deduce absence of racial affinity in the owners, 
for the isolation of the Tasmanians reduced them to dependence 
for advancement on a very limited number of minds, and tliey may 
have made little or no progress after they crossed Bass Strait, 
whereas their kin on the mainland were overwhelmed hy a race 
bringing with them superior art, which once introduced, only faint 
traces of the work of the primitive inhabitants might be expected 
to linger on. It is futile to ask, whether all the AustraliMi 
implements are represented in Tasmania ? If the implements of 
Tasmania be also found in Australia, although of improved 
manufacture, that should be sutftcient to justify the theory pro- 
pounded here in so far as the argument from such belongings has 
any force. The fact that certain weapons of the continental 
natives are absent from the island forms part of Mr. E. M. Curr's 
reasons for supposing that the Tasmanians were not of Australian 
descent, a method of reasoning which would lead inevitably to 
the conclusion that some of the Australian tribes were not of 

For instance, neither the siiield nor boomerang were kiwwn to 

, . . ,, a people on the mainland. I 

. Currsown work* we read that among the Wonunda Meenii: 

and the: 

*"!^fKi-?^'^'' ^•''"'^ ^^*'^'' "^^"^'^^^ ^"d b^merangs a 

■"'- weapons are unadorned with either carving or colouring." 

Je also resembles the Tasmanians in being without the 

>ssage stick. It is true that for arms the Tasmanian had 

am spear and club but these are universal in Australia 

[lake may be ascribed to the 

influx of a more advanced 


The club of the Tasmani 

people and to the greater scope 

hold for the hand, 

rasped was rougldy notched .so as to afford a secure 
ould apply equally v 

^ , --.. "-^« .jy the blacks in southern 

Queensland which was entirely (' ■• - 

this locality particularly, because I have accurate 
the fact stated, and not because the plain weapon 
use there. ^ ^ 

Mr. Curr does 
■a tomahawk or 

• The Australian Kace, Vol. '. 

had a stone cutting mipleniei 
specimens being beautifully fini 
from inspection. It seeras aim 
of so short a, time we should be unable to determine for certain 
whether the tomahawks of the Tasmanians had handles or not. 
There is some strong evidence that tliey had Thus, e.g., whil« 
Mr. Gunn says* " The tomahawks were held in the hand and 
under no circumstances as far as I know or can learn, were they 
ever fixed in any handle," a Mr. Rollings, in a letter addressed to 
Dr. Agnew, and dated 5th May 1873, says that in his youth he 
was constantly in the habit of seeing the aborigines of Tasmania 
and of mixing with them occasionally, and he affirms that their 
tomahawks had handles which were fastened to them in the same 
way as a blacksmith fastens a rod to chisels, being always weJl 
secured with the sinews of some animal. 

But even if it be conceded that the Tasmanians used their axes 
without handles, the admission does not in the least invalidate 
the present argument as to their origin, for we find that the 
natives of the northern tributaries of the river Darling do not in 
all cases attacb handles to their stone hatchets, but many use them 
in the same manner as the Tasmanians used their rough stone 

3 consequence t 

I the r 

rormmg the large stone tools. In Tasmania they were always 
chipped to an edge, in Australia they were almost universally 
ground and polished. But even here exceptions in Australia 
indicate a former more primitive manufacture. The cliipped stone 
tools of the Tasmanian are Palaeolithic, while the usual ground 
ones of the Australian are Neolithic, but while only the one kmd 
(Palaeolithic) is found in Tasmania, Ijoth kinds are found side by 
side on the mainland, a state of things which indicates in the one 
case the existence of but one human stratum and in the other the 
existence of more than one. " If therefore," saysj Mr. Brough 
Smyth, "all the stone implements and weapons of the Australians 
be examined, one set might be put apart and classed as the 
equivalents of those of the Paheolithic period of Europe, and 
another set as the equivalents of those of the Neolithic, a man ot 
one tribe will have in his belt a tomahawk ground and highly 
polished over the whole of its surface, and not far distant from 
his country a people will use for tomahawks stones made by 
striking off" flakes." 

based upon differeno 


slraii.n nLoriuine., b.^ it is alto- 
nnul, a. tin' ^ ariou.-, marks of inferiority 

mivirtpri/B tin- T; 

.s.nanian. arc found' and tl.on^ on 

•il-ts of Austivilia t 
hor parts tlio ,-,lii("l 

hi- tomlt. u ks are usod\vithou't handles 

do. Tlie clul. wa 

die Au.^tralians do not throw fJodr rhih.i, 
s the proper weapon of the Kabi ti'ibo 

of C.ooper.', Lre(>k were in the halntof t 
T.isi.Mniaiis is that Uiev w.M'e of the 

aost vaiualde flevico should 
I'he material of which the 
^lities in botli countries, but 

The dwell- 

rfect description of the dwe 

iru'Irkl^l'Vby theM'omer., C^, 'polygam. 
trees, .-urumulation of skulls in aMneteries, 
stones for tli(; injiuy of toes and the b.Miefit of 
ing po.sses.sion of an enemy's hair to cause his d 

ned ( perhaps not 
V, l.arikl in hollow 
i.,.UTving of sacred 
fri.MKls, the obtain- 
..•ith, knocking out 
of the body with 
tre(>. by means of 
g to the penalty of 
,^thout .>elf-def("r>ce 

riiereditrry t'cuds, 
ng of kangaroos by 
, list of remarkable 

churcoal^'r'^l oclire and pipe-clay, climbing 
notches and also of a clind)ing rope, submittin 
receixing strokes from a club or casts of spears v 

bea.-,ts of burden and generally illtreating then 
sketching living ()l))ects in charcoal, the hunti 

practices identical in both countries is surely si 


iuVirrkUw' how to 

«a.-, informed that 

they obtained it by rubbing round rapidly in their hands a piece 
of hard pointed stick, tlie pointed end being inserted into a notch 
in another piece of dry wood.* And an ancient ex-bushranger 
tokl Mr. Bonwickf that to produce fire the natives got two pieces 

soft downy inner bark of trees was mixed with powdered charcoal 
and placed in the hole and friction with the other stick ignited 
this and produced a flame." 

Mr. Curr+ denies that the Tasmanians practiced the corroboree 
but there is abundant evidence that they did. Mr. Davies says 

Mr. Bonwick writes " The corroboree in the Tasuianian woods 

moonlight though by no means confined to that season. A great 
corroboree took place at the full moon of November each yean^'i^ 
And Mr. Hill's more precise description of their singing and 
dances is well worth noting. "They sang," he says, ''all joining 
in concert and with the sweetest harmony. They began, say in 
D or E, but swelling "sweetly from note to note, and so gradually 
that it was a mere continuation of harmony ; their dances are a 


e also precis 

ely like what is 


I in 



have heard, 

without parallel 



Another ex. 

imple of the invalidity o 




certain prac 

;tices in Tasiuan 

ia that 

e found 

the following from Mr. Curi 



work. " The 

Tasmanians," 1: 

le says, 

)st excellent 

ned nor dis- 

owelled 1 

tire." In the same work we are told j| that the Muliarra tribe in 
Western Australia place the animal to be roasted on the tire whole 
and take out the entrails when it has been partly cooked. He 
continues " Fire was not made by friction of wood nor cannibalism 
nor circumcision practised." First rate testimony has already been 
adduced to the knowledge possessed by the Tasmanians of pro- 
ducing fire by friction. If we afiinn that they were not cannibals 
we must base our opinion upon our ignorance rather than oui- 
knowledge, but even if they were not, we find in this respect a 
likeness between them and certain Australian communities, as for 

iu resiKH-t of Aust.vilia.: 

noun.* The sain« .statonwiit holds 
> u-ilH-s wi(l(;lv distunt fi-on. this one, 
.n (,f tlH, Uchlan and Murrund.idoeoy 
the Warre.^^o River. ■ That circ^un 

or. Mr. Cun- by provin 
)it;tnts of Australia into no consciuonct! to proNv 
-'too much. _ It would'split upThl- 

Australia i.s limited to the people of 
a hroad central belt crossini; from Jiorth to south. Further on in 
this memoir the partial distribution of circumcision in Australia 
will be accounted for ade<iuatcly. It is \ery clear thertifore that 
the inferences based upon all(!ged dissimilarity of customs are of 
little or no weight, and especially when the numei-ous and striking 

with perfect fairn(>ss conclude that .such peculiar practices as are 


the philologist conclude the former iiiteifeieiu e of a powet 
dibturbinji; cause when he ftnds at a paitiruLu line a sudd 
clianije in thf i,'enius of a lan<!;uai:je The proximate cause of t 
difference just noted appears to be a moie decided lesidual Papu 

Of the latttr kt the Kal.i dialect of Queensland, spoken in 1 

decided palatil ( li md .ott ^ Th. fact is not o^eilooked 
that some writeis ln\i iiiti limi 1 m occasional ' s ' oi '/'into 

'ty'or'ds, tlH '^ 1 
instead of ' ch i, it ^M> 

' polaich or ' poUitch 

hat the Freiu li ' u ' to most English ea 
hat riiMOTig the ^Vustnilian aborigines t 

onted on paper. T have heard in Qm 

of a vowel might only be 
Lowlands of Scotland the 

nent of Mr. .s, li 

(ieo. Taplin .sav-^ that 'I, Nva. soundrd < l.-arly and ; 
no 'LiZT^iiin gn-arHnar'^'was' r°!'r'' c-on'.piledrso tha 

generally true of the Ausirali.-.n (1i;il 

eets. The Tasjiian 

iierals ^voro limited to one, two, tliree, i 

Wand tiye in them 

'ite"l to !>noVm] t 'u).'* Hv Avhi.-h' i. not 'iln 
;es could L-nunt no hi-lMT th.i, ti,r , 


'!M!n!hi,iati!''r.s 'of the Imv!'." u'm'.' iT ' .^ 


only, in uhi.-h ra^e 

i;eri<;il system must iieces^iirily liii\e 

1 (iihtineirterms uj) to tiye i]u•lusi^e () 

ne form howevei' ^^U 

,isM, M.ri.e e<,uiNM,lent of iiye ...ems t 

<) be a I'epetition of 

Tiie neatest a-ive of Queensland 
mooraroo ' on the H. 
motion of the Bareo 

r Wolh.n 

.0,.. ami mngh- 

- ' iidrimC 

^is foun^in the 
terms for ovr, 
' ' marrar ' at the 

At the 1.. 

--r Diantantina 


m' (I'+l) stands 
.unnent form for 

therefore ' polit " I'cpresf'iiting two, ' inea or ' inir may be the 
trace of a term for one okler than 'kaiap' or cotenipoi'ineous with 
it. And the Australian exaniph'-> s\ lu'n uonibitied strongly favour 
the presumption that the Tasmanian ' mara ' the stem of the term 
for owe has a corresponding form on tlw^ continent. 

The Tasmanians had such expressioTis as lr,i.t-l<m>j for laH, and 

-i.y." fear, hun,L'er, fondness, itc, by names which indicated their 
effect upon tlm stomach or th(; eyes : tVature.^ al.-,o of Australian 

m. The Ta.smanians iiM-d dimi.nitiv<... a. for instanc 
/^ 'pu-gettM,' a rhlhi. \\\- n y, told l-v M r. Curr* tha 

rihe. 1- Reduplication wa.^ a f.'utun- of both lanoua-e 
^.mcral iji the AusLrali;.n, perhaps owin- to it: 
Malay as well as Papuan spee.'h. In hoti> Austrahai 

'i:, usually the 

the particular meanings of the Papuan (Australian a 
words are expressed. These analogies show how i 
old language protrudes through the modem Ausi 
primary rocks in mountain regions piercing tluou; 
formations. The first table exliibits Tasmanian w 
widely diffused in Australia, some of them ap]i( 
only at great distances apart, and being unknow 

TABLE I.— (continued.) 

fiiinrk in wost mid uorth-wost of Victoria. In 
1 the Cfipc i?ivei' in Queensland, there are red 
s which the ))Lick^ call ' beera,' altlioucrli the 
is ' l.uka.' Th<- ^^ ord ' boora, (or ^v ord.^ aliiu^st 
tie;, havd in-,/i,Hj,.r.> in the soutli of Queensland, 
-r in New South Wales, and in Gij.psland, 

hat the root -hir' or ' pir' originally ineant 
)r extremity, and heeanie specialized for such 

feature ot Ww \ n-t<jrian dialects distin<,'uishini,^ them from those ot 
Xew South Wales and (Queensland and was also a peculiar feature 
of the;.-,n lan^'uaoe f Mirmi>,ed that a common lineage was 

woi'ds ije<,dnnn,u with ' 1 ' ol.tainahh' by me with Tasmanian wonls 
Jiawn- th.. .,M„e i,iiii;i|, I find so laro,. ,i nund)er in the one .et. 

coi.u. to the , 

."uiiisioji that 'Vi.aorian word, with ' 1 ' initial an 

line.ti d,.s,.en 

It i.^ one , 

>t rhe recognised test, of tlir truth of a hypothesis 


th" doorfof.-u-ts othf, thar> what wa. first discovered 

I'V It I'hi^ 

T( ^t can }je ;)ppl]..d toxerify tlie hypothesis here 

onuneiated r 

-warding this elL of .ords 'hax ing initial ' 1.' By 

its means I h 

aNt' discoNered thatatleasi in Australia, and perhaj)^ 

in Tasmania. 

time confuses 

1 and perhaps coalescin- aiul interchantjeable sounds. 

Prof. .Mmn 

Muller givesT son.e nustances of the '-confusion 

l-et ween two 

consonants in th.> .same dialect" which he re-ards a^ 

.1 rharu-terisi 

u; of the lower stajre.s of human .speech. There seems 

to h.ive l)eeii 

a very ancient confusion of this kind between the 

povv,.,.. of T 

and consonantal - y in Au.stralia,. English 'v " or 

-oiiantal, may \erv .■;isil\ thi-ough defects of liearmg 

or uttf-ranr,. 

^^ar ,-l<,-„-|\ 1 

'-Ml. Exanlpll-s ;uv'',nmmorVnougL Compare 

the huliHii < 

'Huption of Lrs Anuhii. to Yankee, .such fonn.s hs 

M,' 'york; The 

T was a featun-of the onirinal Australian spfec-li as reprpsfiitfd 
V)y Tasinaiiiaii (Halwts. by of Victoria and various other p-irts 

of Tasiiiauiaii is the occurrence of My" in conjuiiction at the bciiin 
ning of a word, e\idencing perhaps an ancient undecided sound 

Avords as ' lyenna " kaiKjai-oo^ ' lyinneragoo ' to forqft, 'Iveninna' 
^'Af^hron-, 'lia' <rnt,',\ serve as illustrations. A Victorian "example 
is met in ' lyarook " n >r<>ia<vn. The case of ' y ' being thus attixed 
to ' r is 1 think Just a particular instance of a feature of Tas- 
niainan phonology not unconnnon in Australia, viz., of what might 
l)e called the furtiAC -y,' for this letter steals in very frequently 
after T 't'" and 'n' especially, forming mo?it//(/ consonants. 

r shall begin the cornparison of Tasmanian and Victorian wor is 
with the particular class whicli first suggested their relationship 
to me, the words with initial '1.' Why should this class of wordu 
be a phonological peculiarity marking a group of dialects in south- 
eastern Australia, spoken in a tract of whicli the northern bound.'iry 
almost coincides with the Afurray ? Why should this group of 
dialects be fiedged round landward l^y others distinguished l)y the; 
absence of this very peculiarity':' Why should words of this 

Papuan inlluence as compared with other pai 
sure proofs of the Tasmanians having had a c 
Victorians than to the rest of the Australian i 


T,.,,.»,«. i 



iii^ - •: 

looi^rVuuYk"f'-i'r-''' ; larU' 




\. . 


Tov^alk 1 




iricilogies iii.iy 

not seem t 

O b( 


^btcibhshed, but (V 

(U it 

tenpu cent . 

vero to be 


.edit(d tor 

wantotceitiint>, t 


still r( mail. 

to attest tl.e kui.hi 

p of ti 

le t\vo Linguvsrcs A l)ii 


or threP moro Tasn. 

uoKlsmay be 

helpful to 


foimsof spcoch I 

u 7is 

m una there u 

ei il 

but vv'uiel) 

dissimilar cK^^p. ot 


1 itioMs toi the 1 

kariiraroo, c 



by such tenns is I 

' 1 ithakar, 

'leii^h,' 'h 

11 ^'U 

the other 

by'terrat, ' t u r in 

rr The font 

ur di.s s< 

nected ^vlth one o 

t thf 

ts of t( nil' 


1 /^y 01 fou' 

< xemphhed b> sucli 

'lath mum Ji,l^ 

anUi won 


III nil 

i ']'"'" /\' 


t P^ 

<ind 'loitvo atCdl. 


fuv u,;ViH 1: 


u,/ rh. 

words for ^/ 
form ' linjro 

oT' ^aI 

iiul reach without othci ^onntHtu.ii rii^'lit ui< 
bouthuaids to clnm km with then TisiM.unii 
initial '1 ' This line ot .ni,aim(nt is poNveifiillv 
the occurrence ot the tollouin- t( nii. foi f/w/. 
b Ran-( in.I A\ ilsh I{i.( 

- - ~ •, 'yungeri at C.ipe Ki\ft 

:, -^t Meiiiiidie ' yango means /eft f/ti'//i, i 
"^ordior t/nyh on the louet Paioo, the Wanet 
terigaonthe Darling All th* >e are eM(lentl\ 
equivalents of 'langiu ' used U the mouth of th( 
What if ' yati ' io (/u be i re) ited ^\ord If so, t 
or 'youngai ' applied to Annt/rnoo thioughout tl 
Western Australi.i may he c ornate Perhaps 
fanciful to pass northwaids to .la\a and conne 
^ords \\ith Ja\anese ' laku, ' lunga,' ' lingar, to 

"'tV " Xit ''"iwimi" hoVl/^nr wJlli ui 

to force itself upon tiie in\ e>,ti4<itor s notice '1 hi 
in the tables aho%e, and Avh.^i comp iied th.-x h .d 
that they aie inter related m both te-ions,' th. 
^^mg ' ta ' or ' tia Alongside of the-,e max h< y. 
part of the ^^ouh meanin- fo mt 'teL'unier. n 

of related 
I" both l.i 
ifU-a-- of M 

ii bucietj ot Vu 

iV'uages gefierally 

iha m connettion 
[•ransiictions nf tht> 


with those of Australia and Tasmania. Pliysical , 
alone would suffice to obtain acceptance for Mr. Huxley's view 
that of all races the Papuan is most nearly related to the African. 
And besides physiological considerations, certain practices and 
superstitions common to the Australians Tasmanians and Africans, 
point to identity of ancestry at some far distant past date, but 
the verbal analogies adduced are rather shaky props on which to 
rest the relationship argument. Mr. Clarke avowedly discards as 
JNIr. Curr does tacitly the testimony from grammatical structure, 
and they both present merely phonetic resemblances which may 
be very misleading as the following considerations will show. 

In the first place there is a number of vocables which may be 
looked upon as universal whether they be of ononiatoposic origm 
or no does not affect the present ai-gument, but the words are as 
much European or A.siatic as they are African and Australian. 
They occur as equivalents for father, mother, breasts, milk, teeth. 

Further, tlie possibilities of speech are limited, all races have 
virtually the same vocal instrument, and there is I believe in 
mankind generally an inherent capacity to name things according 
to the subjective effect which the observation of them produces, 
giving good grounds for recognizing the ding-dong theory as parti- 
ally (and in large part) accounting for the origin of language. 
And therefore, if phonetic likeness alone were to be taken into 

' " ■ " - ■ - ■ ^gf^^ especially if 

it be regarded as one family. The .subjoined short 1 
' the feasibility of proving the descent of Australian 1 

resemblances were not discoveraljle here and thei-o in tlic (jonipared 

no solid reasons for deriving the Tasmanians and ,\.ustr.ilians 
independently from the Africans, if it be right to say that they 
are sprung from the Africans at all. It is perhaps nearer the 
truth to .say that the Tasmanians iji common with other Papuans 
are of the same .-.tock as the Negroes, the connnon ancestry Ijeing 

)ng foreign admixture. 

S^ew Caledonia as the probable 

may be tor ta I Inig in with the .^.-uggestion. In physical appearance 

of New Caledonia like oth<'r dark Papuans bear a strong likcne-^s 
to the Tasmanians. There is no better basis for .Mr. Latham's 
suggestion beyond this likene>,s and tlie surmise that as it seemed 
improbable tl'iat Tasmania hud ])een peopled fmm Australia, its 
inhabitants might po-ssibly have drifted from tlie n<'arest settle 
nuMit of ]*,-ipuans most reseinliling themselves in appearance. Of 

mens given by (Tulielent/. in his Die Melanesischen Sprachen.* 

relatr'd to (Hther Australian or Tasmanian word- indiUbrently are 
'iii!unya."mnndig,' ' muanden,' ' nmala ' im.^r, ' dendan ' to cowfi 
awaij ;uid ' adlieya 'foot. Certainly few and douljtful analogues, 
^ome of tlie New Caledonian diakvt^, have an article, some have 
a plural. Tasmanian has neither, and the same holds good of 
Australian commonly though not invariably. A peculiarity of 
^'ew Caledonian is the use of dirterent forms of numerals accord- 
ing as an object is animated or not. The pronouns in having a 
dual resemble those of Australia and so far as can be known differ 
from those of Tasmania. Yiellai-d mentions that ' -ri ' and ' -ra ' 
are suffixed to substances to indicate /rJiose and irhirh respectively, 
a feature unknown in the Australian and Tasmanian. There is 
no necessity for further compHrison. The conc-lu.sion from the 
only available cvidenc<> is not in favour of atHnity between New 
Caledonian and the other two languages. Its phonetic .system is 

smoother than that of Victoria and Tasmania, but not so fluent 
and musical as that of central and northern Australia, and the 
data instead of suggesting that Tasmanian is more nearly akin to 
New Caledonian than to the language of the mainland, favour 
the very opposite conclusion. 

The writer ventures to affirm that future research will only tend 
to corroborate the opinion which he has here enunciated and 
endeavoured to establish, namely, that Tasmania was first peopled 
from the Victorian shores. The point from which the emigrants 
left the mainland was probably Wilson's Promontory, from which 
a string of islands runs like stepping stones across the strait which 
were perhaps at one time larger and more numerous than they 
are now if they did not form an isthmus. It does not follow, 
however, that the most distinct vestiges of the old Papuan 
Australians should be found at this point. From philological 
considerations it would rather appear that the Lowei' Murray and 
perhaps the Lower Murrumbidgee served for long as a natural 
defence to the Victorian Papuans and that the invaders poured 
into Victoria across the Upper Murray, took possession of Central 
Victoria, pressing those who were being dispossessed back on either 
flank. At all events the most numerous and on the whole the 
clearest verbal analogies with Tasmanian are to be found in north- 
western Victoria from Lake Boga northwards, ajid about Buinbang, 
Tatiarra, and Piangil on the Murray. This markedly Papuan 
class of dialect extends on a line up tlie IVIurrumbidgf-e and em- 
braces a large tract of country between this river and tlie Lachlan 
above their junction. 

Having now demonstrated, beyond all question it is hoped, that 
the Tasmanians were the lineal descend;uits of tlie |)riniitive 
Australian race, that the substratum of the modern Australians 

L'pon the original Papuan stock of Austf.iiia thtTt 
been grafted a very .strong s<ioii from anotlH-r and in s. 
very ditterent stem, .-ukI tli^' union must 1i,i\m ncm ilii 
remote dim past, the stock tVuin uiiicli tlM> -ivit't (•.■inic i 
then altered by piogn-ssivf lUnf-lopmcnt almost ii'\': 
cation. The people who fofined thi.s fresh addition to tl 

and had smaller features and straight hair! \\'hat im 
thither we know not. We are familiar with the idea o 

IGIXES. 371 

waves of population starting from a common centre and being 
arrested only by an uncrossable ocean. History and Philology 
together have related to us how Roman and Teuton followed Kelt 
until the broad Atlantic stayed their occidental march. A Semitic 
population pursued the sons of Tfam bearing the ancestral curse 
of bei vitude into the uttermost recesses of the dark continent. It 
is left on record, both in parchment and in temple ruin,-,, how the 
Ikuldhists wen; dri\on out of India in the seventh century of our 
era and had they not found congenial soil in Java they might 
liave continued their southward course and left their mark on 

continent is an indicntion pci'hajjs of tlie track of the iine of least 

at the cliannel along ^\hich might ha\-e Mowed former streams of 

pressure from tlic north. If were found in Australia, 
tlie route by which it came woukl be easily determined, but resting 
wlieie it did, its course indicates the line which would unite two 

t by the title brother,"* and the Australian practice indicates 
lie siiiiilai-ity of thouglit to this. 

rf so stroiio- a bond unite the aborigines of Central and Southern 
lia with tiie majority of the Australian tribes, among the latter 
■eptioiial departures from tiie prevailing type of relatiouship- 

iplied by the possession of the samt^ social ground-work, 

preferred by the genius of the Australian tongue. Like the 
Dravidian it is extremely siinph- and averse to compound oi' con- 

inadmi^^ible.'' AtUu- begiuniuir, notonlvof the first syllable of 
every %\ ord but also of e^ ery sureeeding syllable, only one eon- 

oouMHUiMtt Hk.' *• gth ' in ''.stn-njtir°aie ,'iVina(lnds" iblV as at the 
beginning, an.l ew-iy word uius? terminate eitht>r iTi a vowel or in 

no ^elf-demonstrative. Logar 

wt^, Ijut H iiiuoli better comparison may be made between ' eunei ' 
ami ' n,i,'Hnna" tlie common Australian form ior vif. Other verbal 

not peculiar to these two ciahKes. It is dirterejit with tlie pro- 
nomina] stems just considered, for in both cases they are distin- 

language wliich teaches a nation to say 'I' and 'thou' must be 
one of its \ery early and mo&t influential pcdagoi^ues. !Mr. Cald- 
well further >,hows agreement between Dravidian and Australian 
in tlie following pai,-ticularh :* the use of post-positions (a feature 
howe\cr on w hich stress should not be laidas itwas very pronounced 
in TasniMnian), the use of two forms of the lirst person plund, one 
imlusiveof the party addressed the otlier exclu.-,i%e (a feature also 
of South Sea • I sland languages), tlic formation of incppti\ e caus,iti\ e 
;iu(l reflexive verbs by the addition of certain syllables to the loot, 
■ind -fenerally the agglutimitive structure of words and the position 

Sionietimes appended to the inflection or natural i,'eniti\e as an 

is formed optionally, the e([uivaletit form 'navolJca unii'lju'i, 

Queensland dialect, and various foi-ms in ' yuck occurring ic 
Victoria and elsewhere. 

The Dravidian languages! Juv destitute of any common term for 
brother, sister, aunt,' etc., and use instead a set of terms wliich 
tombine the idea of relationship with that of age, >\y., elder brother, 
younger brothei-, and so forth. 'J^his applies generally to Aus- 
tralian speeclj. "In the Dravidian languaires the second person 
singular imperative is generally ideuti.-al with the toot or themo 
of the ^erb, this is so freciuently tlie case that it may be rcg/irdwl 
as a characteristic rule of tlie language.',' The same may be ^aul 
of some at least of the Australian dialects. Compare Dravulmn 
'vara ' to come imperative ' va' with Kabi (Queensland) ' baman 
^o rohie imperative 'ba.' Several years ago I wrote of the verb m 
tliis dialect " the simplest part is the imperative which commonly 
consists of oi\e syllable and very rarely exceeds two." '' Tt is a 
'■'^markable feature of the Dravidian languages tliat they have no 

* Cald^vell, Dravidian Gramui.r.', 1- oA, + j.. KT ; Iv '-'"' . !'• ^'-- 

374 EEV. 

speech " The mode in \vh: 
stitutes one of the most di 
character, and one which materially contributes to the determin- 
ation of its relationship."* Tamil forms its preterite by adding 
'd' which for euphony is sometimes preceded by 'n,' owing to the 
Tamil fondness for nasalization says Caldwell. This may or may 
not be the reason for the appearance of the 'n,' but the conmion 
form of the preterite in Kabi^ Wiradhuri and other Australian 
In tlie Dravidian the accent is on the 
This is commonly the case in Australian and is 
by the agglutinating character of both 

It is a most formidable obstacle to the theory of the relationship 
of Dravidian and Australian speech that so distinguished a philo- 
logist as Dr. F. Miiller, who was on the scientific staff of the 
" Novara," should have declared emphatically against it. He says 
that, viewed even apart from the racial difference the glossarial 
affinities are too weak to support the affirmation that the languages 
are genealogically related. There are he adds, certain points 
observable which lead to the conclusion that such connection is 
impossible (unmoglich). Now for his arguments. He asserts that 
if a genealogical relationship existed, it would receive fullest expres- 
sion in the speech of the West of Australia which is geographically 
nearest the Dravidian languages. But this is an unwarranted asser- 
ption that affinity of speech depends upon 


pretty well proven in this essay, that migration was from the 
north not from the west, and that the west was one of the corners^ 
into which the purer Papuan race was forced. Further, he affirms 
that the 'nan-nin' type of pronoun prevails more or less in Thibet 
China and elsewhere as well as in Central India. A good argu- 
ment, but the likeness is not generally so close. He further 
objects to the rules of class-marriage being introduced as evidence 
of relationship, because similar regulations are found in other parts. 
I think however, that the likeness between those of India and 
Australia is most marked. Besides the reasons already adduced 
for affirming a genealogical connection between the people of 
Central India (called Dravidians here be it observed only for con 
venience, aborigines of India would be more appropriate), I have 
fallen upon a cluster of glossarial analogies which joined with the 
other evidence should outweigh Dr. Miiller's awful " uninnglich.' 
Hitherto philology has been baffled in the attempt to establish 
relationship between the Australian numerals and those of 
languages to the north. A conmion Australian term for Uvo 

* Caldwell, Dravidian Grammar, p. 300 

'bulla' is 1 believe a heritage from the indigenous Papuans. But 
there is another term for tim running hi a north and south line 
of varying width, from near the Gulf of Carpentaria to the Murray 
viz. 'barkoola.' I have found what I believe to be the analogue 
of this word in Central India in the Kuri language, and as cor- 
h sides a cluster of corres- 

ponding words as follows : 

Head ... dui ... tiirtoo 

Man koi-A km-na, kore, &c., a common Australian form along the 

line indicated, though displaced immediately 

about the Darling by a local word ' Wimbeen.' 

The Indian words are from Hunter's Comparative Dictionary of Non- 

The last resemblance that I shall mention is the occurrence in 
both Dravidian* and Australian languages of a negative miperative 
or prohibitive particle. For instance in the Kabi dialect, most 
referred to because most familiar to the writer, with the imperative 
when prohibitive the word or particle ' bar ' is used preceding the 
verb, on all other occasions other negatives are employed. This 
is a feature of South Sea Island languages also. If there were 
only one or two resemblances like those enumerated, between the 
two classes of languages they might be passed over as purely co- 

blances kre'too numerous and striking to be so lightly dealt with 
and can only be referred to a strong family likeness. As more 
Australian data becomes accessible there is no doubt t^"^ "" 

be found that Dravidii 
«lly explanatory 

The fnn.u. Vu.t, , 

will well repay for the labour, and it may 
n and Australian languages may be mutu- 

DstTi) Austmlifi's sh<n-( 

uperture with imiv spinil (,n-(K.ves in tho ix-rtor.jtioii Tlu- Hindoos 
belie\e th;it tlics.; fii>pnures ;u-o Lhe traces of Visliuu h u ir.o ( iitPied 
the stones in the form of m reptile It is \v(»Ttli\ ot i oic 

Sahx/rama stones are fouml in the 1..'<1 of th.' ( ut 

idik Rn. 

are supposed by Coleinnn to b. „.ine,.d./. d tos^k o, 

tlu }!e!n 

or Orthoceratite,>. Thr /Jlnhn,,, .t..,,.. t..,u,d n 

River .re worshi,,p.d„s, i,-,; . , r ^n , ! 

'. n'ii n'oi 

Ofsinoothstones w.,uld....,n l,n ,1„ Ann, 

Im'i'.-. Mill 

the Hindoos ami th.-Kanak,-.. 

There may be another .onn.vtm^ In.k b, m , , 

ih. |M ,^ 

and the Australians in the embleinatit u- n^ , i 

daubed <m rocks in various parts of AuMM , . 

caves. Dr. Carroll in an article c<mt.ibur. 1 

Magazine (Oct. lti!Sj<) affirm.s a connection. H . 

\. tht i.d 

"i..tiiUy,Mbolicofthevariou. attnbm. . -r -•. 

, th. Piu 

A^ent;pr o, D.Mroyer of the Hnxlu. A[v ,x 


< nil 1- ,t npiincn that then \ 
qunn. iM the 

1 ll , 1\U lllMc 

s journeys saw three men of n fair race resembling Malays, 
- of lii^ party saw a fourth.* Tills was near the cave where 
,-ere«l some paintinjj^s of clothed people. These four men 

he south of Queen.-,lan(l I have seen several faces distinctly 
ubby and rather 
r)]>per colour. Occi 

The admixture of Malay blood goes far to account f 
should ha\e the hair straight oi- wa^y and not woolly. On 
have transmitted such htraightuesM)f hair to i)()stent\, but 

were of s 


surely be to make tlie spirals uncui-1. 

Mr. Threlkeld who>,e acquaintan.-e with a New South Wales 
dialect seem.-^ to h,i\(' b-ccn \eiy tlioi'ough, deniesf that the 

in reply to uhicli it c.ui l.c .aid nlthough the traces of Malay 

Malay which re<luplioater, to form the i)lural. Often existing .M<lf 

might be moj,i naturally expected, \ ery few are (listing 
in the Cobourg Peninsula as the analogues of Malay 'gigi' 

f the Aboriginal Languages, p. ! 

Mal.v ,l.s,.eur. au,l th. • ' tvpe as 
.vat pnMlnnuna.Kv of Papuan l>luo,l. Thus 

ich'arl tlu-'must pronouncedly Papuaa'ar.- 

f^'li^%'"' mn'va''^nuri!'s 'IXJ^m^ 

^^^"■'■a:i,a ■,„;nari-^is Ka.niln.'i fur '/■/».•-. "at P-rt Mm 

Koran- Civek and tlK.'Twp: 


n'l- riMl, 

miles fn.n, its parent n.<- 

l)een overset ov dissolved. 

There is vet an<.tfier n. 

.t llUlrli 

speech uea/the same qua, 

■tfC and 1 

the uonlf<.r//.W which i 

11 Ma lav 


Hh- liu 

Sy.hiey it was ' kal.ura,' o 


, better t 

is the bulls eye tired at, tlie others are t 
)ably Malav. in whieli 'lan-ua-.- t h',' .■,.■ 

M.rlvMip',M..lrd. Th*' 

* I hiive duubta about 

' 'bulhuii,' ,111(1 lo^pniblin;,^ the :\ri 
) uf the tollouHi- V'okuii, 'hu^'un 
ThpAu.tllhm^^on^<lM <.iliiulv . 

On tin ClniiLuri\ llnt'i emptying into tho Gulf ot C.ii 

Tin uhn -H..n..f .M 

'Mllu untUU' U|.n,l 

Before proceeding t(j a new departnien 
well to i-ecapitulate the view of the origin 

tu I isiii nil mb, and iKo by tlie i u t 
;^ fnngej " 

i'lpum peopk tiinges the co ist tsptci ill\ ..n xin > nah-v.i-^i ujul 
^vest Foi (ximple, Uuie ib m element m tlu \ul<.ii;iii toii-ue 

tollowin ' >vonls , 




On?' ' 


The physical appearance of the natives is subject to considerable 

community, and this as regards stature, muscular development, 
cast of feature and other particulars. Some of these differences 

enee of fnuii ]>!•(»( lucts, ^vhile some are as certainly hereditary racial 
peculiari! i.-^. Tlic \n ivt(;})ed emaciated creature whose bones may 
all be tul.l liiruui,^! his skin although often presented to us as the 
picture of the Australian is not a true picture. Such will be the 
appearance of parties where the food supply is always scant, or of 
others at a time of the year or in an unfavuorable season wlien 
food is much more scarce than usual. It is also true that the 
inhabitants of the interior and the north are more spare, and 
perhaps on the average taller than those in the east, south, and 
west, but men of muscular frame and stout build are common 
enough in the coast districts other than the north. Taking the 
continent all over, the average height of the men will not exceed 
5 ft. 6 in., and of the women 5 ft. There is however, hardly a 
community in which two or three six-footers will not be found. 
As a rule the muscles are not largely developed, but there are 
numerous exceptions. In southern Queensland I have seen a type 
of man about 5 ft. 4 in. in height, thick set and powerfully 
muscular. One man oi this stamp received his name fi-om the 
massiveness of the cahes of his legs. But even the lanker men 
are \ei7 stiuiig and wiry in proportion to their weight, both bone 
and muscle Ijeing excessively tough. 

Tlie colour of the skin is shaded from a dusky copper to a 
brownish-black. The new-born babe is singularly fair but becomes 
gradually darker with age. The natives have a predilection for 
ebony skins as a mark of beauty, a preference which may be due 
to the fact that the substratum of the population was originally 
sooty-black. In those parts of the country which have already 
been particularized as more distinctly Papuan there is usually an 
abundance of hair on the face and breast, a characteristic which 
accompanies increased squareness of build and greater muscularity. 
In the central parts there is less beard and less hair on the breast, 
and in the north, in some parts at least, the body is smooth and 
the beanl very scanty. Throughout the continent the hair of the 
hofid with some notable exceptions is of a glossy raven black very 
re.lundanr .md usually wavy. Where the Papuan blood is most 
prcduiiunanr: the hair is often curly and frizzy and sometimes 
w(xjlly. I knew one blacklwy in the south of Queensland who.-;*' 
hair was «,f a dirty yellowish-brown, and there are several well 
authenticated cases of true nativas having hair that has been 
described, perhaps with poetic exaggeration,^ as golOen yeUow. A 

tlahuv PlJ.UUK ISt, th< 

:ure not excelling o ft. 
,vy locks or tangles, his 

qgy apppar\im This 

,n Papuin tu, i i 1 i, u 1^ ni.t in 
.rti^iit ot a black kn..^^u is OKI Poter 
on on the Cu^'oa Ruer, New South 
pass foi a piesentnipnt ot liidhanm 

influences that blotch the c,'olcl-diggin,i,'s. Althoiioh the eyes of 
ttio Australians are rarely if ever oblique, a face with a decided 
Mongolian cast about the brow, cheek bones and no^e, is not 

There an; certain peculiarities about the average Australian 
head which serve to mark it very distinctly. It, is of .a pyramidal 
shape, the skull is abnormally thick, the cereljral capacitv is al)Out 
the smallest of all races. N^iewed in profih^ rhe tip of t'he no^e is 
the apex of an angle the sides of which recede uitli about ecpal 
obliquity fron» a horizontal passing through tliat j)oint. The head 
is well poised, commonly ii-iving abackward lean, and is supported 
on a neck short and comparatively thick. 

In general appearance the average Australian is svinnietrically 
proportioned. More bone and muscle would undoubtedly be an 

of ankles and wrists are sugge.stive of weakni-ss. I lis hands are 

an erect, free, graceful carnage. As he is so largely dependent 
upon the^ of liis .senses they are sin^culai'ly acute. His 

it IS therefore no wonder that his faculties of sense-perception 

For a people so low in the scale of civil 
exhibit powers of mind anything but des] 
keen ob.sei-vers, of cpiick understanding, 
■cunning, but as Tuight l>e expected neith 
independent thinkers, in schools it has oi 
aboriginal children would learn (luite' as 
children of European parents. In fact, ti 

highest 'of all the stat 

Europeans the range 

aversion to application 
progress of an aborii^ir 
IS usually tlie absencf 

cannot help attending .school, niost natives wlio have l)een taken 
in hand to be taught, liave at Ijest learnwl to read words of one 

vtM-y oJuiiKsy 

^\-hite iiiou they i 
and ho is to all ii' 

Daruhiboi hy 1 

cli;ii';i(tor wliicli may be termed instability. Tt may be said that 
tho ^\ liole fa))ric' of their moral character is^n a position of unstable 
(Miuilibriuiu. The slightest strain will destroy the poise. They 
h IN e a courage ^\ hich tits them to pei-foi m mar\ ellous feat^ of tree- 

dang(T from tlie white man's supei-ior knowledye and strength, 
and for a time at least, qualities them to excel as rough rideis. 
Hut their Imuery is neither steady nor deep-rooted. IS o doubt 
they are very coAetous, but they are also very generous One of 

recklessness with which a black boy %vou!d scatter a'bout among 
his friends the rations or clotlics he liad earned by his own labour 

As a rule the blacks are sympatlu^tic and afloction.ite especially 

men'h'a^'e'l)een treated u ho lia\ e been unfortuna'te enough to l)e 
cast upon their mei< v llel itixes ,.re usually fondly attached to 
each other The nttachm.-nt bet^^een p.uents and their oftspiing 
is \ery strong and exhibits itselt in kindness to the aged who are 
tenderly cared for, and indulgence to little children One case ot 

upen Ligu. 
\N hich W illac< 

n differ 



good hum 

011 red, 

,t The a 


led by 


et-ons no 


make his demands upon her at intervals witli sutiiciont urgency, 
lie may loll on her soft warm bosom at his ease without discredit 
until luiiii,an- compels liim to stir. At light kinds of labour ho can 
work well and if it suits his purpose he can apply himself diligently 
for a while, but as he only has to provide for to-day he does not 
trouble ab<jut to-morrow. He is not invariably and in every 
respect improvident however. If he does not require to rob a 
bees nest to satisfy present wants, he will indicate Iiis discovery 
and assert his ownersliip by marking the tree which the nest is on, 
and will take the Iioney at some future time. In the Bunya 
^louiitains in Queensland it was a connnon pi-actice when the 
Bunyas wdi-c in season to fill netted bags with them, and bury a 
store in the gravel of a creek-bed, to be exhumed when reciuired. 
The blacks of Western Au^^tralia store zamia nuts by burying in 
tlio ground, but without nets.* In these and various oth(;r ways 

plfiut, (although T have known a black to plant a ti-trec in a locality 
where none was growing) but they reap grain and i-oots and fruits, 
preparing them in various ways for consumption. 

Settlement by the lU■iti^^]l has usually proceeded without much 
resistance. Tin; l)lacks lia\(' kimilv assi>.ted in their own dis- 
possession and extenniuHLiou, guiding the aliens through their 

umber of blacks wa 
aughtered by th(; stai 


the l,l;u- 

g Tights 
l)Osom a 

ks were a 
h a feeling 


gentle , 

received tl 

l^e^^er^ forget th 

is disgustin 


;h the nltil 


1 is it to l)f wondered Mt ' The CJ-uolties perpetrated by 

' I.lti- 

^0 polire upon tlieir o^^n kindred in tlie nanie of ku. 

ex(•e.s.i^e.•uld often may be passed o\ er 


eoree of contiict w'.."in!n itabU^ Tmlit'l'ias beeuTlWed 

UN l,uin,l 

ne and competent jud-es, tliat wliere the native police, 

)Ul tllP 1 

.hioks wore exempted from xen-eful and bloodv' attack^ 

>V tlio sc 

ttlers. But woe for the lustful and atrocious c(>n<luot of 


d wliite men, who feeli]i«r secure from legal penalties and 

prisals. outi-a-ed and oppre.^sed and hunted at their will. 

riie snial 

1 MHce.. <,f n.i.ssionary eHbrt with which the unsettled 

ife of th. 

■ ahon-.ine. ha. had n.uch to do, has led many people to 

D\vi:llin(;s, Clotiit\g, iMPLEiir.vrs, Food. 
The lioinc or the blackfcllow is identical with the tract of country 

tiiiM^iest kiiul. A hreakwind of a few boughs proves suliicieut in 
tine wealliei', and in cold or wet he procures two or three sheets of 

lappiujL,' aiioihcr. the lap increasing upwards so as to gather the 
sheets at \h>' wip. The whole leans upon a few light props placed 

end of on(> of \\\r poles.* The size of the house is determined by 
the nunibri' of occupants it will have to acconnnodate in sleeping 
posture. 'Jlu- lloor is the green turf. Thf o})en front serves 
equally for door and window. As tlie tire is lit far enough out to 
allow plcnU of rc^oni for tlie sleeiiers to stretch thenlselve^ with 

.i(hM:.-" coihuiodious enough for 

destitute of clothing. While travelling in tlie north-wc^t Capt. 
George Grey* saw no opossum rugs in use north c>i L".t S. The 
opossum rug serves equally well for mantle and hhiiikiM and forms 
a receptacle on the mother's back in which she can carry lirr infant 
when on the march. 

In making the rugs, the flesh is cleaned thoroughly oil' tlif skins, 

are generally ornamented with rude scratches represenrini; snakes, 
emu's feet, and the like, the figures being coloured witli red ochre. 
The skins are neatly sewn together, kangaroo sinews serving as 
thread. I was told by a black boy that his people in th<^ Wide 
Bay and Burnett Districts, Queensland, were wont fonncrly to 
make the soft papery bark of the ti-tree supply the place of l)lanket.s. 
It appears that the same practice obtains in the neiglihourliood of 
Halifax Bay. t In many parts the females and Jiiore especially 
young girls, wear a fringe suspended from a belt round tlie waist, 
the fringe V)eing made of various materials such as veyetabie fibre, 

of the person, but a few simple ornaments are very generally worn. 
Among tliese may he mentioned chaplets round the head, usually 
painted with pipeclay or ochre, strings of bright yellow reed l)eads, 
and a j.iece of shell-like mother-of-pearl susi)eii(l('(l on a string 

; they are filled with asl 

ise when healed, like a pair of lips. 

ibes the males pierce the septujii of tlu' 

more l)eneticial for infants than washing 
ide of life. On special occasions mk h a- 
•ef>s, and fights, the men smeai- their \uA\> 

arriecl in the hand or siuu'j, u] 
lepositorics of their valuahlcs. 
As rf^,yards weapons, I ^^hall 

ilr. Broujrh Smyth's '* Abonyii 

siderablv larger and heavier and \ 

middle "in the plane of 

close lighting, a kind ' 

proportioned more like a single-lieaded pick. 

leonile of Victoria figured in :NIr. Bnmgh Sm ytl 

tip of the 

iiany parts the spear is launciieci ov i"t- -^'^t ^^ » 
k ' about two feet in length. One end of the ' throjv- 

i the ' throwinir stick is held 
in the hand.' Tliis auxiliary, like the cord of a sling, increases the 
velocity with which the weapon flies. The women ni sonui com- 
munities have a special kind of spear about four feet long, which 
tliey employ either for digging or for feminine duekm vv Inch they 
ttre handled single-stick fa.>,hion, while loud threats and recrnain- 
There are clubs of innumerable designs, some comparatively 
light for the chase, and some v ery heavy for hand to hand encounter. 
The^e latter liave sometimes rows of prominences carved upon 

' 'lib tapers to both ends which terminate in .-haVp points. Wooden 


face Tlio \\ooflfn av capon s riro usuilU more oi less cai\ed ir 
vi( often partially (olouied, (ithei »o(l oj Avlule 

Tli( btone tool^ coni})ri&( jiatclu t-,, chisels, and knives Ti 
t()nla^)^^\k is ^liapal likf i inde Aniencan axe, and i'- ot s 
iii idations of si/(s, fioni wliat inii(lit Ix used In a child to a heu 
^toiu luad some t-s\( ho oi fouitei 11 iiirlies long The most cor 
mon niitdiil is a Muisli i^nen stone which takes a hne polish ai 

fouiifl it plu(s I thousand miles ipait"*^ Iha\eabioken a\ 
h( id Nvhuh 1 found on the l)c ich it Poitarlington, no doul)t tli 

^pe. k, Itl. ho lutitully poh.hf d and that back furth( i from th 

cioscent onlhnf The i\( handle t ipoied almost to a point at tl 
end to 1)0 ht Id m th( liand It ^^ i^ madt either of a tough \ir 
oi put of half I M])linirof suitihU thickness ^^hlch had been spl 
m hahes 1 lu pucf of mho oi ^^ood ^^as doubled In the loo Giubs found 
( 10 snakes bandicoots, 
V, ilesli would be eaten 
vsasroa.tfd A com 

.ec uiu lik( I piece ot tlnn i.i ittiiu' <)i ..Id 1. 1,^111- tuo o. 
(t Mjuiu [t tl.di t( . ^poiuv tu ui.lpa.totit 
flipped m the honev uul xtt« i \\ ucU suck( d l)\ oiu ittei 

^iipph of M-(tibl. tood s .- Mine I) 
^t i^^ ( illfd 'Nudu xva. iis(d 
..t ot .N(u ^outh VNxhs lias , 

uir i,ut u 1' li \u 111 

the branches spread into a beautiful dome-shaped top. The climb- 
ing rope is called into requisition for the ascent which is a difficult 
process, as the bark is flaky and jagged and the leaves prickly- 
pointed. The matured cones as large as pumpkins fall to the 
ground with a tremendous thud, on which occasions provision is 
had by picking it off the ground. About the same neighbourhood 
and probably elsewhere if obtainable, the core of the top of a sort 
of Cabbage Palm forms a very juicy palatable food. Tlie ' Xardu ' 
grass-seed of New South Wales has been mentioned above, it is 
pounded and eaten without separating the husk. 

Along the marshy grounds of the Murrumbidgee and Lachlan 
Rivers a plant grows profusely which is locally known as " Com- 
bungie ' or ' Wangle.' The plants attain a height of seven or 
eight feet. They have a tap-root a foot or eighteen inches in 
length. These roots used to be pulled up and collected by the 
women of a small community. An excavation of circular outline 
was made in the ground, averaging three to four feet deep and 

CO twenty teet across. Half a ton of roots might be gatne 
irge oven and placed in the centre on a great pile of 
On the surface were strewn layers of long grass and li 

sticks. Then the combustibles were kindled and the excavatf 
earth returned as a covering, The time required for cookir 
depended upon the size of the oven, and might be several day 
When the ' Wangles' were thoroughly done, water was continuous 
baled on to the oven until the whole mass was cooled. It w; 
then opened and the food came out almost white as snow and n( 
unlike parsnips or potatoes cooked.* 

This wholesale culinary operation was conducted i 
style of )neat-roasting by the ovens that are so 

Victoria, where I have 

feet in diameter, with i 
sides being rath 
flattened by obvi 

in the following way. A rude paving having been laid, a & 
quantity of stones and earth was heated by being heaped upon f 
huge Are of wood. Then the fire was withdrawn, and the gam* 
centre upon a layer of grass, mon 

• which the aborigines are specially su'' 

mlmonary complaints. These thoutrli aiiH 

itact with the whites, are prob 

Jr. Humphry Davy, Bah-anahi. 

new troubles. Syphilis, introduced by Europeans, has terribly 
debilitated the constitution and corrupted the blood, but the 
scourge which sweeps ott most of the natives is consumption. 
Indigestion and toothache are common, dropsy and heart disease 

attributed to sorcery practiced by an enemy. Tliey possessed 
little or no knowledge of medicine, any remedies being almost 
exclusively externally applied. A common treatment was for the 
doctor or sacred man of the tribe to suck the part affected and 
pretend to extract from it a pebble of the sort used as charms. 
There seems to be efficacy in the sucking, for a friend of mine 
who was suffering severely from an inveterate, inflamed eye, allowed 
a black ' doctor ' to mouth the eyeljall, and the result of the treat- 
ment was immediate relief and speedy cure. SoiMetimes the 
doctor would apply a sacred stone to the part that was acliing 
and profess to extract the cause of pain, from the analogy of a 
similar practice in the New Hebrides this may have been ori^nnally 
a kind of exorcism. 

Wounds were often plastered with clay. In the case of sores on 
the Hml)s, circulation woirid be checked by the fastening of a 
hgature above the sore part. Mange was frequently cauglit from 
the dogs. There was a disgusting monkey-like method of dealing 
with it which I have seen practised. One person using a short 
pointed stick would prick the pustules all over the body of the 
patient who would be reclining in a con^-enient posture and enjoy- 
ing the operation. For headache a l)and was fastened tightly 


re is considerable difficulty i 

n detc 

:rmining 1 

bhe length of life 

of the 

blacks, the gf 



after < 

contact with white people 


on the whole 

very short-lived. F 

Id appear th. 

it forme 

r generations were 1 

Fairly long-aged. 


.t every small 


)uld h; 

ar's of 

ai,^e, and here 



bo met^ 




constitutions of 


e.sent generati 

.on, theii 

althy 1 

labits ari 

sing from a ..oni- 

xvi^h Eu 

les of life, 



; pr:icl 

j.-es, I 

)reclude t 




It seem^ 


at, 1 



vin, 1 

ifty y( 

■ars henc( 



, Law 


•ontr-'ny, wlule vovuitj, the torest in appiront sc.-uritv and freedom 
lis life is very uiic-ertHin, and from his cliildliood lie is sluu-kled 

imm^ followed by penalties wlii.-h always iiivol\ e thf risk of injury 
to the person and often tiie forfeiture of life. The uiniut'-stionin- 

reirulations ih \ ery striking. The cohesion of a coninuinity depends 

derived naturally from age and experience. There is no i ecogni/ed 

body, elective or hereditary. .Men of preponderating intiuence are 
those who are distinguished for courage, strength, and force of 
character. These in conjunction with the elders, generally advise 
as to the public actions of the community, .settle internal disputes. 

ependeiit upon close approMmation of lanLiuaici'. A- m icenerMl 

aughter. The .so- 

Th'is i,oint r/Vtudy ispnrticnlarly 

"'i:.u' in' },ansof'the worhl widely 
'■d ro fin/e universally prevailed iM 
;i.e(i i;t,-..s, at a prehistoric period. 

his sistei s giaiid children is \m11 is Ins l)ioth(ib ,i 

.( considered 

hib grand children and if A he a feni ile, ^Mth the 


the terms ' hrothei s ' and ' sisU i s the proposition i 

Secondly, e\cr> community is constituted l>;y tvvoo 

moj,t commonlv four, and evei y indnidual heirs o 

ne or other oi 

the class names. 

Thitdl^, ctscMit IS throuirh the females and thi 

s IS e.pecially 

muked by the cl iss name of the mothei ch termini 

ng tiie cl.iss 

ane of the child 

Fouithly, inuiia-e uitliin the diss is forbidde 

11 on pam o* 

d^ith, tilt re IS conse<iuently exo-.imy m respect ( 

-)i classes, and 

s ucll 

S>stenls of rTlat!on\hJll"hke\he Aust^^h u'l' hl^! 

l>(*-n nuiiid 

hyMr Aloigui cUssiticatory Begmnin- with ai 

I (Mimiiition 

U the > 

American Indians, he made a comp uison ot oHnr fo 


parts of the %vorld, and came to the ,(.n<luM..u th .r 

'ehtionships vvhich at a hist jr\ mu ipp( u 1 .m Iv 

mil iiMipi > 

Pnatel^ applied are name s of l.Wl tn s, .nd , .d. 

I loniniiiMl 

"urrume, oi i^aoup alhed to uroup it i mo,. p-uMU, 

X. turn lb 

1^ \ igo. ously opposed by ^Ir Mc l.enn in, w ho rf ^ ird 

^hipof the classihcatory s>stem is simply ' 


courtesies and (..remoniil,fs m social 

The discussion of the ments of these U^o h>pc 

■tlieses uould 

leciuire a special nionoirnpli The ^wltel inclnu s t 

that the used m the Aust.ali.a .ystem ot ku 

isjnps (hnot. 

set of Histers, and that 
''ociety to dehboritely 
tUsses with a wew to tb 


Mr. Fison in dealing with the rise of the Australian exogamous 
classes lays great stress upon the Murdoo legend, an aboriginal 
tradition, the substance of which is that the classes restricting 
matrimony were constituted to remedy the bad results of incestu- 
ous marriage. That these classes do pi-event certain close marriages 
is true, but is it logical to conclude therefore that they were 
inaugurated for this purpose ? It seems to me that the Murdoo 
legend is too flimsy to support any conclusion and if the classes 
were due to some other cmise than a conscious reformatory efort, 
their epxts would still he the same. I prefer to" regard them as 
springing f loni natural conditions of life, having a reformatory 
tendency no doubt, but the reformation neither recognised nor 
designed by those who were the subjects of it. The obstacles 
presented to intermarriage of persons near of kin has put enquirers 
upon what is probably a wrong scent. Independently I arrived 
at the view which Mr. McLennan takes, viz., that the matrimonial 
classes are memorials and results of the coalescence of ( 

stocks of people, which were once distinct and exogamous 


, and this view is in harmony wit 
of the Australian people enunciated in this treatise. ±5otn mr- 
Morgan and Mr. McLennan set society in motion under a condition 
of promiscuous intercourse. This is quite an imaginary starting- 
point and reduces mankind to a state of degradation lower than 
the brutes, which in many cases and especially in the case of the 
higher apes go in pairs. If gorillas have sufficient decency to pair 
ott; why may not primitive man have done the same ? With a 
view to accounting for the change of kinship through females to 
kinship through males, Mr. McLennan finds it expedient to make 
polyandry follow promiscuity, and the necessity for polyandry he 
finds in the infanticide of female children and the consequent 
disturbance of the balance of the sexes. But the prevalence ot 
infanticide of female infants is only postulated not proved, and 
although in various countries polyandry has been the rule, and m 
others has been practised to some extent, nevertheless a polyan- 
drous stage of society in all races is far from established. Judging 
from the propensities of humanity as witnessed at the present day 
in savage races, polygyny is a much more favoured form of connu^ 
bium tlian polyandry. And far more may be said in support of 
there liMving bcon ,is a rulo a surplus of females in a community 

sually preserves the females, and then either for the conquerors 
I- the conquered polyandry would seem too unnatural to be dream 
I Pharoah's destruction of the Israelitish male children although 

3 risk to mule life at the hands 



1 a-nation are bound to-ether in 31r 

. .AlcJ.ennan's 

theory l>v 

s of sueeession to inheritnnee, in ot 

her word. l)y 

property, ; 

n-eover the eonditions of life with wh 

deals to ex 


suoces.ion through males are those ol 


peoples a, 

-.Hi property. 

There is a 

further b.iek than this exemplllied 

in Australian 

lile, ; 

.txvl.ieli there is scarcely au-ht but territory to 


ril)al rather than personal property, 

and as for the 

women, w 

ith ex. 

i^amv in regular operation, thoy possess nothing 

beyond a f 

eu liu, nets, baskets, or the like, about • 

Lhe successiOTi 

to which t 

^ likely to 1)C no quarrel. At such a 

stage woman 

possesses j 


■ally nntliini,' but her name and her ( 

•harms, while 

she her.elf is uu 

m's mo.^t precious property. It seei 

Ub to me that 

the priniit 

ive id. 

..ofac<iuiring and holding won>a. 

. as one's own 

property is at tl 

the majority 

of cases ^v 

ould c 

onduco to polygyny rather than to p( 

)lyandry. Let 


lat in the rudest state of society men 

covet women 

iliar poss<^ssion and the following 

results, which 

ol>tain in 


ilia, ensue. The matured males by 

■dint of force, 

and the v\ 


men by the authority of age, will co 

ntrivt> to pro- 

vide then. 

with a plurality of wives while the 

younger men 

must of n. 


y remain single unices they^ procui 

•e partners by 


.vould thus bo 


al del 

land, and exoganTy would be condu. 

>ted first in a 


;|i^;; ;;: 

ul predatory manner and later by Iw 

.rter or agree- 

Fron. 1, 

eing ii 

1 a s(>nse inevitable, exogamy woul 

d become the 

normal in( 

)de of 

nmrriage, and the result would be t 

in a tribe 


[ bo of a dirterent tribe from tin ir 

husbands and 

^vould lia% 

•e tlie 

them. With 


paternity and detinite maternity the el 

lildren ^^ould 

l^clong to the ni 



I name the foreign mothers bore ■ 

.vould also be 

attached to their ottspring, unless the latter received a new special 
name from their hybrid appearance. Thus in process of time a 
homogeneous tribe would become heterogeneous in blood and 
emliraee two, if not more, intermarrying classes and tend to endo- 
gamy fxs iv-,ir<K the tribe, exogamy still characterizing the classes. 
1'He struct ure of Australian society carries us no further. Put 
brielly the -t igrs of social development would be : 

(1) monogamy 

(2) the consanguine family (marriage within the family) 

long scpii ation Lxogainv o( 

(1) recognition o£\vonKn as vilu 

(2) monopoly ot \M\es by iin n of 
lu terogenfous coniuuinity embi 

(2) polygeny 

(^) polyandry 

the difference of system being regul ited by ( xp 


my ^^ould tend to succession througt. 

there u i 

s ut.nno mhentim^ ot cl i.s n urn s 

would lei 


h(r tiibil territory, it first by cipture 

rii^( 1 itJiDi I het< lOgtntous comniui 


>n.l ii^litsm property idmitted, thd 


iti thiough males or fern iks 

Tf tlH 

( M), imous cl iss( sm a tribe be the mi 

ril<s brought ibout by intertribal ill 


\ o c ision for positing the forme r < m>. 


.xceptmthe very restricted form 

M/ , a ^lOLip of brothers in irned to i nun.l t . o 

Ihe ni 

imber ot classes in an Vustiilim com 


I. among the blacks it Mount G iml u 

to ten* xs among the Kan.ilroi, but the mo>t c 

four, and 

there rs good reison for concluding 

were onh 

tuo vvhichhu( been multipl 


communities am ilgim itrng Six ot tl, 


r, 'subViViyions"of° the'txvTVt im u\'" n 

mationof two dirierent tribes W h 

classes til 

ov some times tall into related juir m 

hibited b 

ftvveen the sections m one pu. ,s ,t rh 

cl iss ^^ 1 

nlf fither s((tionof om pan < u 1 

nor Bonda with Dherwen, but either Baraiig or Balkun may 
marry either Bonda or Dherwen. There is this peculiarity to be 
noted about the descent which is perhaps also a proof that the 
four classes are subdivisions of a primary two, that the class-name 
alternates from mother to offspring by a continual recurrence of 
the same pair of names, thus one line of descent will be Barang, 
Balkun and the other Bonda, Dherwen ad infinitum. 

Without postulating a tision of two classes into four, the exist- 
ence of the four may be assumed to be due to the coalition of two 
conmiunities which had each already two classes. Mr. Fison 
suggests* this solution of the multiplication of classes from two to 
four, and the writer thinks that no better can be offered. At 
Port Mackay, Queensland, the names of the two primary divisions 
still survive. The names there are :— 

Primary Divisions. Secondary Divisions. 

Yuncaru i ^"'^^^^ 

xun^aru ^ Burbia 

S Wungo 

^^^^^'■'^ i Kuberu 

Cohabitation between members of the same class is held to be 

grossly criminal, and is in many instances punishable by death. 

The union of individuals belonging to classes that cannot lawfully 

intermarry is equally abominated. Even in cases of rape the class 

rules are respected. The profound regard which the blacks show 

for restrictions fettered upon them by tradition and for which 

they can give no better reason than that such is the practice, 

points to a very powerful originating cause and a sanction derived 

from condign and bloodtln'rsty penalties. To me at least, it is 

liave been d^iliberatefy made by agreement'to a\oid the evils of 
incest for these uould not be easily rfcogni/al»le by nomadic 
savages. Tt seems more Jiarmoiiious witli social de\elopment to 

" And make ye marriages 

with us and give your daughters 

us and take our daughters 

; unto you and ye shall dwell wit 

Had this overture not mis 

.carried, two families might have 

gan.ated and become " o] 

ae people " as was proposed, emb 

cross-marriages would have begun by compact not by capture, and 
subsequent historians or ethnologists might have accounted for 
the rise of the classes by a supernatural wisdom like that which 
characterizes the Murdoo legend. 

Messrs. Fison and Howitt obliterate the Australian individual 
in the distant past, regarding him as merged in his class. The 
class is an entity of which one person is only a fragment and all 
the members of a class have marital rights over all the members 
of the class or classes with which they may intermarry. This is 
the hypothesis founded upon an incomplete induction from several 
practices now extant. It is impossible hereto traverse the whole 
question, but having carefully weighed the arguments in favour of 
group marriage while admitting that there is a good deal in them 
to point to it, I fail to see that communal marriage has been proven 
to exist in the past and it certainly does not occur in Australia 
now, on the contrary, tlie conclusion contains much more than 
there is in the premises. A good deal of weight is attached by 
Mr. Fison to the story of Mr. Bridgeman's native servant, who 
boasted that in going a journey of a thousand miles he could get 
a wife every night all along his route. To most Australian bush- 
men, who are well aware that when a blackfellow crosses the 
boundary line of his own territory he takes his life in his hand, 
unless he be on special business for his tribe or under the protec- 

story c 

3 the scrupulously fenced 


iiong the Kabi, and so fir is T know not hitherto ob^ened else- 
Australia, \\hi(h m IV lie used to suppoit the theor)- of 
■"■■ ^ 1 itlie. nidicate the assertion of a right 

powerful passion with iiio>,t \ 

Tho classes arc most commonly designated hy names of animals, 

here, viz., the mode of naniini,' aommuiiiLics, tlu; iu)m.'nr];itui-(> of 

In New South Wales and (^iieenslaiid especially, lait not ex- 
clusively there, a community derives its own name and the name 
of its language from one of its verbal negati\'es. Unless a iiiore 
reasonable ground for this style of designation can be adduced tlie 
writer would be disposed to account for its origin in the frequent 
repetition of ' no, no,' by persons when addressed in a dialect 
to them. It very frequently 

ot miming to a conmiunity having one speech to be ;i.l.le to gi\e a 
rational account of the origin of naming tribes from their negati\es. 
This certainly involves the conclusion tli;it others attacii our name 

indi\iduals. One tril).\ the i'il<i;ml)ul on the Duniaresque River, 
^^iS Wales, is named tioiii it.s a1iiriuativ(!, the reason for the 
iiuposiiiou of a name from a negative will suffice to explain the 

some word. Other tribes again are named after some animal such 
as the eaglehawk e.y., the Aleebin tribe near Point Danger. 

There must have been a time when all the Australian tribal 
names could have been count(;d on the lingers of one hand. What 
^-as their significance in that primeval day^? It is liardly proba])le 
that they were derived from negative adverbs. It is more likely 
that they were names of animals as appealing vividly to the 
imagination, the echoes of which we still hear in the eaglehawk 
and the crow of the south-east of the continent. There may have 
been cotemporaneous with the animal names, traditional racial 
names such as Koolin with its variants in Victoria, and Murri in 
New South Wales, if indeed these be not themselves animal names 
likewise. If the original tribal names were names of animals, and 
if the gentes are monuments of distinct ancient races the gentile 
names are at once accounted for. There must have been to the 
savage mind a valid reason for the adoption of such names: 
perhaps a fancied resemblance between particular families and 
certain animals, perhaps an attempt to explain human origin on a 
^development theory, at all events the principle of nomenclature 
once adopted, its application could be indefinitely extended, as it 
evidently was. From the vestiges of this system of designation it 

would appear to have beei 

The characterizing of gei 
nifestly rehited t 

t the locality) each individual 
in the tribe bears the name of an animal or plant which is his totem. 
His totem is revered and protected by him. and although he may 
eat of the totems of others he will not injure or eat of his own, 
unless compelled by starvation to do so. Natives of the Narrinyeri 
tribe do not scruple to eat their totems. Among them also the 
bearers of the same totem constitute an exogamous clan. At 
Mount Gambler, Victoria, there are two exogamous classes Kumite 
and Kroki, each divided into live sub-classesf which bear totems, 
and under the sub-classes all natural objects are classified. In 
this case marriage is independent of tlie totem. I believe that 
totemism in a more or less pronounced form prevails throughout 
Australia, even where not recognized l)y Europeans. I remember 
seeing a black boy playing with a little lizard, I thought he was 
cruelly using it and remonstrated. He disclaimed hurtful inten- 
tions and declared that it was a friend of liis, and another black 
boy confirmed his statement. I did not know at the time the 
importance of this admission, or J would have followed up the 
discovery by enquiry, but I am of opinion that this was a trace of 
totemism, the existence of which in the tribe referred to, none of 
the whites had any idea of. 

It seems probable that the clan-name and the totem were once 
identical, but that in certain places they have become ditterentiated 
and the application of the principle of naming after animals has 
become extended. By the Narrinyeri a man's totem is called his 
' ngaitye.' The Rev. G. Taplin refers + to a statement made by 
Dr. G. Turner about a form of Samoan fetichism closely resemblmg 
the Australian totemism. A man's god may appear in the form 
of some particular animal which thenceforth becomes his object ot 
worship and is protected by him, and the name for such animals 
is 'aitu,' i.e. gods, a word bearing a striking resemblance to 

» The article on Tol 
is should be done or : 

ism in the Encyclopedia 

s simply dei>endent upon the wider or m 
'he definition in the article requires ' 
nimal after which the ^oiip is named. 

X Native Tribes of South /. 

'n<rait\e' ^^llKh ni.iy li<)\\c\er be no more thcan coincidental 
What( vor nuiy be the locil pecuharities of totemi^ni it^, wmld ^\l(le 

auu^rr\ ot the now much ditteienti.ited people^:, ^vho if^tAin it, 
cind tliat therefore it is almost ab old ris Addiii, and put ot the 

tacle for spv( 
it to the dan 
had met and 

to engagement. These forms therefore of man- 
by botrotlial, by elopement, by forcil)le al)(hi.-t 
by mutual consent, the practice varying with 

if this were tlie reason tliere would be quite 

The Rvv. L). :\rHci 

* Rev. D. MacDonald. Oceania, p. 181 et seq. 
be Kabi people of Southern Queensland 'nubui-.?' nicii 
lulangtfan' mother-in-law, «-<ran ' or ' gun ' is th.- fciuini: 
30 that 'nulang' designates the relationship on both sidt 
word practically identical, viz., • naluun ' or ' KnuUuui 
iamc relationship. The etvnirdogy of the abori.i^-inal ter 
ble as likely to throw light on this obscure subject. 

know that marriage by capture was not uncommon in iiwciu rimes 

Flora Macdonald.* Tlie Rev. L. Fison mentions llic lictitious 
concealment of certain persons after the death of a Fijian chief. 
In one place the henchman of the chief keeps out of .>i^lit for a 
number oi days after his masters burial. " He is supposed to 

chief, (which pi'obably was oncC the practice) and it any of the 

burial, their term of enforced ret inMiifnt hcitii,' iiMiiii-i.-illy ,i y. ar. 
" They paint themselves black tV.mi to tnof .n •' ipmi' i-tkc 
their walks abroad until after ihrk. 1 1 (uinpcllrd •>,._,, ,,iit>;,lt> 
during the day-time they co\(M- i licriM'Kc- w ith ,i iii.'i .i'-l tiolx-dy 
takes the slightest notice of th. ■in, i;i tu-i 7im1mu|\ i- ■; i..i-,cd to 

or rather non-existent."t The jioinr c,t iiiO'ir-i in i ..Mnples 

n'-.-n-.lrd ;i.nui'urthc\'\,i\V''i:i<l if''!-.'n ,■!..■ n-.r ,. ' ,-.'/. ' The 

' thr cuiM' of ll.',l\<"n UIM.II 

i.ur.r. Th.TXpl.i.i.uin 

.,.. piuvly 

-ctural. It appears that t 

he Efatese wife is pur-l 

parents, an<l that after the 

death of her husband . 

he may be 

>sed of by his, but 

not returned to her par 

refund the price that wa 

s paid for her. Thus t 

he present 

looked for in customs antecec 


cruelty, ;ur..r(liiio- to tlie trilje. The iuitmUon to iiianlin,., 

■tl.-i:..,,,. important ami solemn part'of the cemnouy was 

I. .■<.l. 'I'lie natives had the greatest reluctance to admit 


■UK-e .,iH ,d.ould\.. pVeJent aVtlur'arge circle he^'wouUlubUally 

hv h1)- 

.oU.t.-ly torhidden to appioach the more secret place. Almost 



The neophyte wal gvnelX'' req'urrecrto'keep'serious and 

Mill, ; 

.11 IcNilv bein- strictly prohilnted : he was sometimes ol,liged 

•. ,no ^ariolls d«.s i^e. were emph>yed to test his courage. 

• •' d had been .uccessfuUy submitted to he was eligible 

■ i,.^. At the rite of initiation a chip of wood like the 

i.-i. r uas called into re(iuisition, as were also the sacred 

' Mu 

Tilaii..,,. ,.f Ui.i.l or some cutting of the fiesh are every" 


■ pi.i. ; -i. Tl,. .,. N ,, V ssith different tribes. Piercing the 


inu.i.M.uT the y, urn, men prevails in the central /.me fnmi 

for it 

is'unknouri iWi'e"".'.^ "bsen ed l)v t he aboi-iirin.d ^ "V^^'^!^^^' 


Neu S,',uth Walel, and th.'^'. !' 'r '', p uTl.f ( >n ' ' i' ^i.u.'l t.-'Ui 

the C 

-ast inward. The ab.en<. ,.t .; m 1 ,, i i~ , ...nk ..f the 


■nes. (Jf the inhabitant, of .^un..,t.,, M,,. .d. n ^.. v ^. -The 

boys : 

tlie si 

jcthaml tenth year."'' Jn dealing with Au.M.aban ai t and 


.n, positive demonstration ^^ill l,e given of Snmatran intc- 


• and intluence, and the perplexing question a. to rlu on-m 

of cirt 


•umci.ion in Australia, is m.u T think, .atisfactoriK ..ttlcl. 
b<. . ,,m1> ' nd "„p"„Ik"i? <[\ !."',l'dm' nV. I'i'' p.'e^ al' .n '■ -'*' t''^' 

this rite. This principle is m 

Queeuslaml coast,* a form 
Kanaka. ..f tlie New Hebri( 

occasional crying tit- 

(> N.vv liebnrl, u-i. 3Inr 

Mill.* lb to btutch the (l..ulnn,m 
mil the corpse h.i-, l)e< oinc (1( --idted 
[ IS to pipp.iie tlie IkkIv t<>r mti iiiiLiit 

itel;y ittoi ,i dt ith the cimp ; Whon hist I he.iicl th( 

tho ijieatci put of the i 

I know not how ciodibly oi fiiirhtoiiin- 
iru<,'lit be exp(cte<l the gm^e is wry t,]i illo 
the Burnett Distiict, Queensland, with m 
at the side of it on the which u. 
I ep resent the number ot biotheis tlie dece >- 
by their position relatively to the corpse i 
the brothers resided. 

Unless when the cause of deuth is very o 

cold-blofHl in revenge. Cnpt. Grey testifies that among the blacks 

persuii fruni being pounced upon either in obe<lience to some 
augury or- for satisfaction of spite on the part of a sorcerer. The 
murderer had always to bo sought for-, and somebody would have 
to satisfy the demand. In many triltes tlie corpse is interrogateil 
as tw whu was thr i;ause of his death and responses are obtained 
gpiiei-ally by spells. Wliile in the act of lamentation for the dead, 
the wonien would lacerate their bodies from he;id to foot till blood 
would be streaming from innumerable small incisions. The blood 

was forbidden to the Israelites shews its great anticjuity.* Near 
relatives of the deceased wore some tokt;n oi mourning upon the 
head, the usual practice being to attach tufts of eniu's feathers to 
locks of the hair, and leave them to drop oil' of themselves. In 
some parts clay was plastei-ed over a net upon the head aiul allowed 
to harden until the wliole assumed the form of a skull-cap-f After 


Art, Cohhobouees, Sorceries, Su 
Tlie skill shown in the manufacture of weapc 
noticed. These were often ornanuMited with 
carving. Some of the car\in,iis mi.immi- n. m. 
letters, and perhaps a careful ex..' n -i"" 
specimens may result in an iiw.rj'i. : i.i-M <•( 
characters. A throwing-stick ti-un.i u. .Mr. 
spoken of by T " 

red to again below. ^ . - 

message-sticks are imitations of the ol<l :Malay practi 
ng at least in Sumatra, of writing upon bamboo and ratt; 

* The Abongmts of Victona, "\ 

pi i< . > not ibly ibout the Gult of C upent mi, And rl 

u Ghnel- 

Ki\. , neir the noith >vfbt (oust ot Au^Lrnln A i,ne, 

h is .uuouiKled the i lothed figuies ^,^\m h C ipt Lnoy fouii 


oMthe NMllsot(ivesonth( (xh nel<. Kn o. hi Ion- 

12) 9 E, 

Itt r, -,7i S Wocmimaijineho^vthogtu<h coloured 


p.mnn^rs Avould hoxf, ,b<.ut tho iinigin-itum of tli. 


Th.> ^sMe situ tte<l chiefly m t^^<• c ues about ten or t^^ 

aput ui(Uonipii-,f(Kinir]r tiguies md groups The\ 

vs e. e done 

m hlue, Hd, ^el]o^v, 1,1 .. k, ,nd xvhit. cokmrs One of T 


tigmes had i h do of ^v uv r tv. .bout the lu id hk. t 

fl uno The nio.t import uit no\v, is tli it ^vhKh his fu. 


key to the nitionditv ot the artist in<l the nu ms ot ^ 

])eeu made reguding th( se puntxngs 
Hallr identihes the special hguu ret< 
Cronus, Bill Astult oi Jupitd H^ 

Lamiu,,./. uHl otlH. N^ mU r ... ule out tIk t...itou. 
sppll ' ll.M. M num. 4 t-i -m. siul. num.Io, ., u...^ is 

^cm,m m M nsd'/ns Hm<„v .',t Smnit, .1 llu\ um h ,t^ ui 

Re>ciu<r uulPissumuil. tl.< nso,<1 cl. ^M Mxxp .i.uiMior 
imisibkchssofbcm^s, but . u Iw ouuf v uk,.-.' L.., 
of foiei^rn deiu ition T}.< B .tr is n.l. .b.t .nr. .t the 

noithein end of Sum iti i use rh( uo,d ' d. the 

of B..nif ,) ' deuVtt ih '\u , d? tluM t. mis U m^ n u,i. s t.. exp, e.s 

out Dall^l^IT^l'^e^''ld(4tT7<'>•^'Th/V ti ick, ind tl.^ follouiiiir 

1) AI B AI TA H 

Tlus, chuiLtcisMith raluos assigned o( ^ u. m X^> ]M7/?/>(/i/. 
Lnn,iun,,sux th( folloNvingplicesspeci.dl} but ,.< i . x. 1um.< 1\ b> 
iii\ inc n. 111. tirsti cli 11 ictei cm pp 01 m-l I'M il" - " ' 

Miiid u 1 ,t uisc the fi)ui thou pp '^ii n.d lol .iruitli. il. m 
"•111 ill.A., but ^Mth^al>lng doqi((w.t bliiiirx li, Iti. 
'^lin ..T., 1^ du most doubtful ot .11 Itn.ul.tb .1,., ]. .. 

i"t. imto'dr' The ulentili. . iM, t 1 1,, in, .1 1 i' ^' < iN ult 
""t on p.go ? of V D Tuuk . / I/'.-' ' / " ' ^ ^^ II '«^ 

bimlrtirirtlu'\ims'urn' 't ,' u.Ml'.r.h.' niu ' 1'. ^n ul. r si/c 

^Vl'tuu" 'jl,?,!",,' L'.'J'"'^...".ll"'l^^"ou"'.^^i ^"it /'"/'A 
^I fl.odist College, Japin, tint 'the vsomI ' lUdMii d. ... iv b. . 

of 'T);ii) 

a' (tnuislah 

'd Gmit TliMl.lh 

a) th,. 


by which 

I {U 

ft 'in 

height) is 

thus open ; 

ui alternative «1 

;ion 1)( 


.0. ^Tprefe 

r to derive froii 


irces. It 

nt etymology o 

f the 


lese w(jrd 

■s whicli Sir a 



■ saw are 

ral ])eings also. 

ei-al ot 

■ tliein are 

the style of cu 


; i, .1 

with strictest 


..■1,1 to Ix'flls 

o decipherable. 

^'On "'""' 

the right of the 

ii are lhre( 

3 rows of rings. 


. Adai 

n Clarke 

; among the 

Hindoos is a mystic 

: syml 

,ol of tlie 


of S\diii\. I'll- the followijig })ait.iculars bearing upon these cavc- 
p;uniiii.--. Ue was in tlie locality where they are found, as 
receiu.iy ,i. 1 S,s7 r<. IIu does not appear to have seen the pictures 

tation- <j1' animals. Tlie natives call them pictures of ' Noune,' 

afraiil. Mr. Froggatt thinks the pictures are modern, and done 
by tlie nati\('S, because fresh sketches are added. Jt i& quite 

paiiirin^-, Init theii' icrnoraiKe of the personality of the tirst arti&t 

tin,, . . , 1 .tion.^ The ]),iintings of animals *,een by Flinders 
and 1 1. .... I ,1113, on tl . 10. k- on Chasm Kland, and by Cunningham 
on CI 1 1- - !-iand .ire cv id. nil} l)v artist-, of the same race. Among 
the tmui. s which Flmdei s"^ party saw was a human hand presum- 
ably in ted. Grey found a hand and arm done in black. These 
han<]s OK ur, done sometimes in black but mostly in red, all o^er 
Australia. Mr. Curr has seen the blacks making such impressions 
for pi^iime and he is of opinion that others which ha\e been 
' - ^ ' .1 iii,i\ l)e also modem, and of no special significance. From 
ltd. iHv of these 'red hands' in places very far apart and 
'1 1 . • uliar position and arrangement of groups of them,t 
' . I i . ip concluding that they are in the first instance sacre<l 

..1 io\v('\cr fri\o]ou',ly they may have been imitated by 

I Pamted Eocka of Australia," 

it, he !•=, plunly quite i 

, ^viU heck trimmed 

im rit TIk 111 il( s an usu,illv the sole putoiimMb tlie wuintn 

the\ (()Mt'>j)Oiul to tl 
Its, takes uhjI th<,'hts 

tlio bov dl)<iht((l If.e doctor lus Iw il 
sucking Tlie ol>ioct may be i piece of ^'1 is,s, 

The doctor unght be, ^^ one iiiii,dit si\, 

abunddiice ot thein was i 
and was a d(,ctor of tlie 
i>tep m uhance He 

1 mil)o%v s ihodt Th( I nubou 
fVLhuu't, uifl cl( posit th. Ill in 

full \hu i,rt<c(lv M(utf tioni 

iml sluii<< 1 

Uldlx I ft XV 

would seem to be the result of a kind of realism among the 
natives, whereby a person's ntune became through confusion of 
thought the same as himself. 

The veneration of pebbles has already been noticed. It has 
been remarked that the blacks were exceedingly loth to permit 
white men to see their sacred objects, and they were also con- 
concealed from their own countrywomen. There were local 
preferences for certjiiu kinds of jx'libl's, l)ut in general they api:>ear 

The Rev. J. G. Patou s.Muivd .-i small piece of Avood painted red 

by tiie ^>■w Hebiidcans. 31 r. Tai-)lin describes* a practice of 
sorcery callfd ' n-adtunigi ' followed among the Xarrinyeri, which 
bears u])Ou tlu- si^nitKHiuf of the piece of stick coloured red atone 
end. A bone forming tlie remains of a repast of some native is 
secured and scraped. " A small lump is made by mixing a little 
hsh-oil and /v/ nrhri'. into a paste and enclosing in it the eye of a 
]\lui'ray (^od, and the small piece of the flesh of a dead human 
'.he top of the hone and a covering 

it, and it is put in the bosom of i 

ency by contact with corruption, after it has 
rciii.iiiii'd there for some time it is considered fit for use. Should 

tiiward-; tlir pt ison who ate the flesh of the animal from whicii the 
bniir was taken, he immediately sticks the bone in the ground 
: ' the fire, so that the lump may melt away gradually. The 
iiudting and dropping off' of the lump is supposed to cause 
Could human ingenuity be exercised in a manner more 
iing, horrifying and repulsive? A similar demand for the 
I' ! : lins of food or other refuse, of what a person has used is a 
trait of South Sea Island superstition. Although there is great 
dissimilarity in language between the Polynesians and Australians, 
such common traits as a community in objects of worship bespeak 
a close connection at some time. History proves how easily a 
form of worship may be superposed upon existing forms whereas 
it invariably requires violent causes to change language by the 
substitution of one tongue for another. It might therefore be the 
case tliat such resemblances nught be due to like transitory causes 
or say to the drifting of a few Kanaka canoes to Australian shores 
although from the fact that stones were objects of veneration 
among the Tasmanians fh<^ inference would be that this at least 
was a supei-stition connnon to all primitive Papuans. 

The Australians lia\c what may be termed an apprehension of 
ghosts rather than a belief in them, the relations of the living 

* Native Tribes of South AustraUa, p. 24. 

with the spirits being more or less intimate in different tribes. In 

a term for ghost and believed that there were departed spirits who 
were sometimes to be seen among the foliage, individual men would 
tell you upon enquiry that they believed that death was the last 
of them. In other words, a man's personality died with his body 
and was not continued in his ghost. A ghost was called a 'shadow ' 
and the conception of its existence was shadowy like itself. A 
general feature of Australian mythology is the peopling of deep 
waterholes with indescribable spirits. The Kabi tribe deified the 
rainbow, a superstition apparently confined to this people. He 
lived in unfathomable waterholes on the mountains, and when 
visible was in the act of passing from one haunt to another. Ho 
was accredited with exchanging children after the fashion of the 
European fays. He was also a great bestower of vitahty which 
he imparted in the form of rope (what this rope was I do not 
know) in the manner explained above'. 

Many tribes revered the names of ancient heroes or demigods 
who were credited with certain wonderful exploits, and who 
generally became metamorphosed into stars. The conception of 
a supreme being oscillated between a hero and a deity. Some 
tribes recognized both a supreme good spirit and apowerful, dreaded, 
evil spirit, creation being ascribed to the former. I was once of 
opinion that notions about a divinity had been derived from the 
whites and transmitted amongst the blacks hither and thither, 
but I am now convinced thattliis belief was here before European 
occupation. Although not entertained by every tribe it is never- 
theless held by one tribe or another in the south-east quarter of the 
continent from the coast almost to the centre, and we are justified 
in concluding that it extends beyond the area where it is positively 
known to exist. 

By those who 

example, another instance of the unreliahility niul iiivalulity c 

allied tribes to the ''north of Xew South AVai.s the rlianKter c 
beneficent deity known as Baiame lias been well elalKir.ited. 1 
name, according to the Rev. W. Ridley, is d<M-i\e(l from ' ba 

The Wii'adi'.uri 'reyinlC'(r'hin/'an{UM- a slightly altered nai 

trihe ; at Illawarra he was called Mirirul, on the Murray Noure 
in Victoria he was generally known as Bundjil or Pundyil, .1 
'ilso as Gnowdenont ; the Narrinyeri as we have seen called 1 

„k1 I.vtl.p Piv 

Buddai not as likely to ictVr to 1 )ail);.itHli of th.. l.ol■th-^^ ofet as to 
Budha? Tf Dail)aitah l.ederi\<.d from J;ipan throu-h Sumatra 
then both names nw.y l.e <.el,o..s of Budl.a. ]n Kew Guinea, ac- 

m^v V^'not'le'^XiuJ tkar^'uiam!'' of Te^iv South AVah"'aml 

TT. Southern Division - 1' Middle. 
|:5 Eastern. 
111. T;isiaanian. 

in. Ka.tern ^ " '^''^'^'^''^^ ^'^ '^*»^"'^'' (,)ueeusland, Now S.>uthWa 

I:; l)ialeetso^Victc!i^i•"lndKi^''H^^^ 
IV. TaMnanian. 
Howov er, the ^^ i ite,' is far from bein- .sati-sfied ^ " ' 

Curr'^an-r.^^/'.la'Ttr ''"'*'' 

tion .,t<li„l,rt. Le.uliu- u-onK bU.-li as terin^ fm man. father. 

evidpiice to winding, widespread, wanderings of tlic families which 
The Kurna, Murrai and Winibaja are doubtless among the later 

probably in the order in which they are here named. The seven 
families above enumerated, with perhaps several otluirs have 

distinguish their characteristics and disentangle their original 

etVeeted. let me point out that the Bamma people have generally 

have it <>i the ' mama" type, the Mu 

Kurna except in the 
appi ' type. A large 

types of words being kept in view woul 

ei-y great value. 

Rotable diveisities in words and structun 
lissimilarity of original elements, while tl 

Australia, Victoria and Tasmania on the other. if it be abked, 
wliat view of Australian settlement does a study of lan-uage lead 
to I The reply must be tha.t a general survey of the languages 

geneity of speech in Australia and Tasmania ot Minpl.- structure 
as exhibited in Tasmanian and Western Au^tialian (liali'<ts, but 
that there poured in from the north .stream-. ..t' p(.|.iilati.>ii \Mtl> -^ 
speech more elaborate in construction. Par.iUcl i.niTh aiul south 

the north, and the general l>i-okcnnt'ss (>\ lanuuau'i' aln;i_' tl"' i''>"'St 

Tlie fundamental princij)h.' of wonl-structurt; i.-^ auuiutii 
There is therefoi e a general well-marked relationship wi' 
members of the Turanian branch of human sptiech, with one 

s l.y post-positions, but tli 
uppleniented in many di;i 
/ included pfirticles. Gen 
'\e(\. Certain languages 

speech of Western Australii 
simplicity, a dialect of New ! 

r would no doubt throw 
The phonic system embrac 

European writers. All jx 

: also generally 

^ the En^lisli eli ^ Compile iko the pxit 

characteristic of the dialects named, which thouo;h spoken at places 
five or six lumdred miles apart with difierent dialects intervening 
are evidently of one family. The same type of dialect is spoken 
on the Norman River. 

Xumber is rarely marked save by distinct words. There are 
however exceptions. In the speech of the Narrinyeri (South 
Australia) the plural is indicated by a special terminal intieotion, 
e.g., 'korni' a //*r//,,dual 'kornengk' two men, plural 'kornar' mw. 
In the verb, number receives no sound mark. A fallacious notion 
,videly circulated may here be referred to with the 
"" ' ■ '■ ■■ ■ ■' have no general 

of words in every 
Take the Kabi dialect as an 
example it has a general name for animal, man, tree, stone, creek, 
mountain, and so forth. The only grounds for the delusion referred 
to are the facts that some classesof objects have not been generalized 
and that there is a preference for the special distincti^■e name, even 
where a general one exists. Thus instead of speaking of a tree, 
the native prefers to specialize the particular kind of tree. 

Gender is commonly distinguished by the addition of a word 
signifying male, female, man, mother, or the like, but in special 
classes of words such as the phratric names there are occasionally 
terminations distinctive of sex, as for instance about Brisbane, 
Queensland, ' barang ' a male of the class 'barang,' ' baranggan 
a female of the same class. But the most striking case of phonic 
indication of gender comes from the Daly River. I am sorry to 
be unable to give my informant's name as my information came 
indirectly, but I believe he is a member of the Roman Catholic 
IVIission at that place and I hope he will publish a memoir upon 
the very interesting dialect of which I have received a sketch and 
a vocabulary. In the dialect referred to, which is known as tlie 
Daktyerat and is spoken on the left bank of the Daly Ri^er, 
Xorthern Territory, four genders are distinguished in nouns, 
adjectives, and verbs, 02., masculine, feminine, neuter, and common. 
Tlie general distinctive marks being 'y,' 'n,' 'w,' and 'm,' respec- 
tively, with sometimes a following vowel, and these inflexions ar 
initial in adjectives, e.g., ' yidello ' a hig (man), ' nudello ' - f^^" 
(ivomaii), ' wudello" a big (fhim/J, sex not distinguished, ' ni 
a l.hj fnl,;,rf ufang gender). These marks are probably the con- 
sniiaiitnl radical of the third personal pronouns. In all the 

ecognized. The cases comprise 
e, accusative, aJ)lative (instrui 
ve, locative (wirh distinctions 


ceedingly rich 
16 fact 


MOINES. 429 

The adjective is usually compared bj supplying an adverbial 
^vot•(l witii the sense of very; frequently comparison is eflected by 
nduiilication, complete or partial, the superlative being sometimes 
marked Ijy a reiteration of the duplicated syllable, cf. 'worbrinun' 
/'■/■"/. ' worbrinunun, very tired; ' worbrinununun,' excessively^rp'jularly done* This hanging on a letter or syllable also 
implies continuity or intensity in the meaning of the verb in some 
dialects. Another mode of comparison in adjectives is by singling 
out that object which surpasses the other or others, and saying 
' this big ' 'this good ' and so on. In opposition to the view that 
a word may be a noun or adjective indifferently by tacking on or 
omitting the case endings, and that there is no ditterence in form 
I repeat what I have already remarked, that this is not invariably 
true, that for instance there are certain recognisable adjectival 
terminations such as '-ngur ' in the Kabi dialect although they 
are affixed to only a limfted number of words. This however is 
to l)e observed that in Kabi, nouns may become adjectives by the 
addition of '-ngur' just as in English by affixing -like, in German -ig. 

The system of notation has been already referred to and I only 
mention it here to remark that the term for one varies exceedingly, 
^vhile that for two is very uniform and reducible to about three or 
four different types which may help to tell the tale of origin. The 
tlnv,. main types are in English spelling, ' kootal ' in the west, 
'I'.uknol ' across the centre from north to south, 'boolla ' in the 
(■■^■'t, also reaching from north to south. ' Kootal ' prevails in my 
^Vestern Division ' barkool' and ' boolla ' are both embraced m 
the Eastern, while the form in the Central is not determined. 
'Boolla ' I believe to be of Papuan, ' barkool ' of Indian origin. 

The pronouns are specially remarkable for the almost universal 
currency of certain forms, both of stem and (less uniformly) of 
case-ending, notably those of the first and second persons singular. 
The first and second persons singular are generally of the central 
Indian ' nan-nin ' type (' ngan-ngin ' rather in Australia) m some 
cases the plural has the same base as the singular, with genera ly 
f syllable marked by the letter T to indicate plurality, this also 
■^ing an Indian feature. In the first and second persons there is 
usually a dual, the first dual being, sometimes at least, such a corn- 
Pound as we-thou, the second the numeral Uvo. In the W est 
Australian speech different pairs are indicated by different details 
in the three persons significant of such relations as (1) husband 
and wife or people greatly attached, (2) parent and child, uncle 
and nephew, and the like, (3) brother and sister or a pair of friends. 

,. * Mode used by the Melbourne blacks, vide Smyth, The Aborigines of 

thou<'h liero a<Mii 

idy iited, but witli a petuli.i 

\\(. .r.-nrr.illv tm<l Eni^'lii 

uNe ..eedle.sly 
allyrecfular, so f 

Authofities : Ciipt. (now Sir Georye) Greyf and Mr. G. F. Moore.: 

This l;uifruao;(> i.s spokru iu tlio neiglibourhood of Pprtli, ;iik1 with 

sliglit diversity in the greater part of the .south-west of Westerr 

Australia. So far as appears it i^ tlie most rudimentary and 

J'honic Eh n>.nt. 

^''o o(asiu«o/; 

have a plural form in ' -muii ' if the singular end in a vowel, in 
'-gurra' if the singular end in a consonant; '-raun' is an abbreviation 
of 'uiuuda' aUogether, collecf/tvf'Jjj, '-gurra' is probably derived from 
'garro^ ayain. 'Migalya' is the plural of 'migal' a tear. The 
coniprtiati\e of adjectives is formed by reduplication, the superla- 
ti\e by the addition of '-jil' or '-buk.' The pronouns, besides three 
forms of dual for the three persons, have also a trinal number for 
the first person. Possessive pronouns are formed from the personal 
by affixing '-uk,' excepting in the second person singular. This 
-uk as a sign of possession unites the eastern and western languages. 
This affix effects the same result in compound expressions, where 
however it sometimes changes to '-ung.' 

The verb is exceeding simple. The preterite is formed by add- 
ing '-ga,' the participle present by affixing '-een' or '-ween 'to 
the present tense with the occasional interposition of a vowel at 
the junction thus — 

present indicative yugow stand 

preterite yugaga 
present participle yugoween. 
The preterite has three forms relating respectively to the immedi- 
ate past, the sometime past and the remote past. These are 
distinguished by prefxhuj to the regular preterite the particles 
' gori,' 'garum,' 'gora,' respectively.' There are two futures, a 
IK ;ir and a distant, distinguished by the words 'hoor da.' presently, 
and 'mela' in the future, which follow generally the infinitive 
mood, occasionally the present participle, but are not incorporated 
with tlie verb. The word ' ordak ' signifying to intend, is also 
affixed to verbs to denote that the action is purposed. There is 
likewise a past participle which is not specified. There is no 
phonic mark of number in the verb. The different persons are 
indicated by employing the pronouns. 

This language favours the combining of words to an almost 
indefinite extent. The word connnonly employed to give unity to 
compounds is ' midde ' the ar/ent or agency, and all verbs may be 
rendered substantive by the addition of this word. For example 
' yungar barrang midde ' is the horse, or literally the people-carry- 
iv'j aprnt^^ ' mungyt barrang midde ' the ' mung-yt ' -yettiny-ayent 
or stu-kfor hookiny down the Jkmksia cones. 


Capt. Groy <,'ave to luidju tlie sena.^ of / /'///, but pfolmhly as 
1 other cases it cxpi-csses tl.e agent, a similar remark applies to 

Wond I'rrsoH. 

Third IWsou.. 
Nom. bal, h>>, s/if, if. balgun, bullalel 

Oen. baluk h>u-, buggalong hln balguiiuk 

Ace. ^ balgup 

Dat. buggalo, to him, ballal, lie himself. 

Brother and sistw. wtf. Parent and child, etc. Husband and wife, ( 

2nd person ilubal ilubal 

3rd person boola boolala 

ngaunama we two, (brother, 
Trinal 1st person, ngalata, 

' gain ' or ' kain ' t^me, ' gudjal ' 
Higher numbers are expressed 
IV, I. ' Boola ' is evidently the 
IS it is used for a dual pronoun. 

ngando, ngaiiduiJ, ngin 

The DiYERi Language. 
Authority : Mr. Samuel Gason's, The Dieyerie Tribe of Australian 

The Diyeri language is spoken between Cooper's Creek and the 
north-east shore of Lake Torrens, in South Australia, but not far 
from the Queensland and New South Wales boundaries. Mr. 
Gason's vocabulary does not supply much data for arriving at the 
itructure of sentences, the examples of syntax being unfortunately 

The verb seems to be conjugated very simply and with a suspicious 
regularity. The language is of a very elementary, compounding 
character, and in this respect stands midway between the languages 
of the extreme west and east respectively, being more closely 
related to the latter, with which my cl.ssiti cation joins it. The 
personal pronouns and some of the interrogative words unite both 

llaur- '!fr",o/A!,'l^d.o Diyeri, 
'-ulunni'of Kamiiroi, 'yulaiyu'of Kabi. '-hiu of Lake Macquaiie, 
and 'lana' of VViradhuri, all reciprocal \e.'ljal signs, the Kabi 
and West Australian forms seem to give tlie original type as 
something like ' yulain,' which may be compounded of two pro- 
nouns 'ngali-ngin' we-thee, or tiie like. Diyeri is rich in deter- 
minant elements, easily recognizable and separable, and usually 
but not invariably post-formative. 

Phonic Elements — Vowels. 

e o o (as in English ton) 

binations occur internally !i 
therefore agrees fairly in ] 
generally, but is even smool 

-pROyovvs— First Person. 
Singular. Plural. 

Norn, (agent ?) athu, ali, yana, ■ 

Gen. ani yanani, uld 

..,•1 h>i»f/er, 'piiia 
kurna" hluckjWun; 

Adjectives do not seem to be distinguishable by any vocal sign, 
but comparison is marked by added definitive elements, thus 
'wurdu' short, 'murla' more, 'muthu' most, 'wurdu-murla' shorter, 
' wurdu-muthu ' shortest. 


' Curnu ' one, ' mundru ' ttm, ' paracula ' three. The numeral 
system is virtually binary. Twenty is expressed by 'murrathidna' 
hands-feet, for any number over twenty an indefinite word signi- 
fying multitude is employed. 

The Verb. 

The structure of the verb so far as we can judge is exceedingly 
simple. To indicate the person the pronoun is prefixed unabridged. 
There are simple and reciprocal forms, the latter having the ter- 

and imperative moods, and participles perfect and imperfect. The 
following is the conjugation of the verb 'yathami' to.s;jmA-, parallel 
with which I place the Kabi verb 'yamathi' also meaning to speak 

Diyeri. Kabi. 

yathami, to speak yamathi, to speak 

yatliunaori, has spoken yamarandh ) ■, 

yathunawonthi, had spoken wonai yamathi, have done with 

yathulani, tcill speak yathin, iritl speak. 

yathala, speak ya, .s'jteak 

yathRmarsM, speak (irapera- ya,yamorai (by analogy of other 
tively) Kabi verbs) speak (im- 

yathuna, speaking yathinba (by analogy as above> 

yathamulfena, quarrelling to- yathulaiyu, conversing. 

•adical of the above verb is evidently 

h,' the 
of the 

.vas evidently ' yathamathi,' the medial 'a' being "i^ 

, A/!/o\H'r!,/v.'l!kHhe'^-ecf^nL p^^^^^^^ 
verbs which is did phonetically decayed. Another very 

3iyeri. Kamilroi. Kabi. 

ml wimi, j^ut down womngan { ^j^ 

womngathi j 

■wimarau, put in (ini- wimulla, jnit down woinorai, yire 
perative) (imperative) perative) 

yiiikunmlana, ijioiny wiulunni, tu barter wiyulaiya, to 
each other. chamje. 

In Diyeri 'w 
reciprocal of 'yiii 
to give is probably ' wiyiuiatlii ' or ' wiyingamathi,' 'wi ' or ' wiyi ' 
being the stem. But what is specially noticeable is the close 
agreement of the imperative forms. The Kabi imperative is 
generally the simplest and shortest form of the verb but it has 
also a form in ' -morai ' as here represented, which appears to be 
emphatic and the force of -morai as also of the terminations in the 
other dialects '-marau,' '-mulla' is evidently do. In my contribution 
on the Kabi in Mr. Curr's work this passage occurs, " Tlie ending 
'-morai ' appears in some imperatives given in the table of conjuga- 

seems to me that ' -mpr ' was the stem of a verb now obsolete 
which was almost equivalent to the verb do, and it now exists 
merely as an intensifying ending."* I was not then aware that 

but is it not highly probable that parts of that verb have become 
the regular terminal marks in different parts of the verb in many 
dialects as for example '-ma,' '-mi,' 'mathi,' 'man,' indices of the 
infinitive, and '-morai,' '-marau,' etc., of the imperative, and further 
is it not also probable that these terminations are radically con- 
nected with the Malay 'men' prehxed to words to transform them 
into verbs 1 

The Kabi Language. 
Authority, personal observation. A fuller but less systematic 
notice of this dialect was contributed by me to Mr. Curr s 
work " The Australian Race "f which would illustrate and 
support my remarks here. For two or three points the Kev. 
W. Ridley's account of Dippil is drawn upon. 
Kabi is spoken chiefly in the basin of the Mary River, Queens- 
land. The name is one of the negatives of the language. 1 have 
taken this dialect as a specimen of the elaborate dialects of the 
East Central division, not because it is the most highly developed 
imd richly modified,' but rather because it belongs to that class 
shewin,.^ the various distinctive features of its near relatives the 
Kamih^oi and Wiradhuri, and especially because rather than enter 
upon other men's labours I prefer where possible to tabulate a 
dialpr.^ ...u;,.u u..„ ,.^<- K^^r. =^=t*.ma.t,icallv treated bv any one else. 

1 systematically treated by any ( 


Phonic Elements— Vowels. 

a a a 

e (as in yet English) e e o (as in English ton) o 6 


t d th dh ty (almost like palatal di) y r rr (muffled cerebral) 1 n a ndh 
p b V w m 

Kabi has no words beginning with '1' or 'r' and its terminal 
letters are '1,' 'm,' 'n,' 'r,' 'ng,' 'ndh,' and vowels. Initial vowels 
sometimes occur but very rarely. There are occasionally as initial 
letters of a syllable such combinations as 'pr,' 'br,' 'kr,' but even 
between these a semivowel generally steals in. ' S' occurs only in 
the dog-call ' ise,' 'h' only in one or two foreign words. Writing 
about Dippil, Dr. F. Miiller says, " In the vocabulary of Rev. W. 
Ridley there are indeed words in which 'th' and 'dh' appear, but 
we believe the existence of these sounds in an Australian tongue 
douJ^tful and due to imperfect apprehension."* Dr. Mailer's dis- 
trust is perfectly groundless. An English ear cannot be deceived 

Kabi of which Dippil is the nearest neighbour and almost the paral- 
lel, 'th' is pronounced exactly as in English /a^Aer. The sound of 
'dh' would be best illustrated by the value which would result 
from the 'th' in English that being preceded by a distinct 'd.' The 
Kajji 'v' IS the equivalent of 'b' in some other dialects. Redu- 
phcation of consonants is frequent, each member of the pair being 
distinctly enunciated. 

The Noun. 
^ Number is denoted not by inflection but by an adjective added. 
Gender is not marked by inflection excepting that there is a trace 
of -kan or -gan as a feminine termination in proper names and in 
the term 'nulangan' a mother-in-lau;\ perhaps derived from 
' yiran ' or ' yirkan ' a woman. In all other instances such words 
as man, woman, mother, are required to indicate tlie sex. Case is 
expressed by abundant terminations. Probably the nouns are 
divisible into declensions distinguishable by the stem endings, but 
I am unable so to classify them. In nouns and pronouns the usual 
duplicate forms of the nominative occur, the one denoting the 
subject simply, the other the subject as active agent. 

T employ the word 'yeramin' hor>i>', because it is virtually a 
Kfil)! word although applied to an imported animal, and because 
T iim sure of importajit modiHcations to which it is subject. The 
terminations in this particular word about which I am uncertain 

asterisk the analogies being sup[)ortcd by verified examples. 
Kom. simple yeviwmn, a horsi' iWuikki^, iistoup, 

„ agent yeraniin-do dhakke-ro 

Dat. \^^\ yeraniin-nu* dhakka'n-no. to the rainbow 

\ togororyerannn-go 

Ace. yerauiin-na* nguin-na, the boy (object) 
Abl. because of yeramin-i 

" { SS^"'"' }yc^^^'""'-k'"'i* 01- g'^'"i wabun-gari, on the stump 

. ^ ^ S dhakke-ro, with a stow. 

" '"^trument | kuthar-0, with a club 
Other examples illustrating case are- 

> mdn-.av nfuv/ruu,, thus 'dh.-iu di Jioppil a man oj HoppU. 

The pronoun is abundantlv inrie<-te(l and is of the common type 
1 first and second persons singular and first and third plural. 

Singular. Firxt Person. Plural. 


Dat. uirail)iila ngalfngo 

M. F. and X. Third Permit. 

Noni. simple i.-uiida tlhinabu 

„ agent ngundaro dliinaburu 

Geii. iiguiidaHo dliiriMbuno 

Dat. ngundabola dhinabubola, dliinabunga 

There is no relati\e pronoun. For denionstrati\(' the third 
personal is used, and also tlie words 'karinga" fhi^ on/', 'koradhu' 
thai one. To give a reHexive significance ' initdhi ' self, follows 
the personal pronouns. 

Norn, simple ngangai, n-ho 

„ agent ngando 
Gen. ngafiunggai 

Dat. ngangaibola. (o n-hich place, vhi/her 

lUm: nn'n'rfidnttj, pO'^sihilUy, 

; indeclinable. Tt is generally compared by the help of such 

'><>'L iind s(j OH according to the particular attribute. 

Witli tlic exception of the iiiterrogatives enumerated already, 
nd a few ;id verbs of place terminating in '-ni' and '-na' the adverb 
as no phonic index. Those in '-ni ' and '-na " inay be regarded 

; rarely, ' nga ' answers for and, and if I mistake not another 
lode of uniting ideas is to sustain considerably longer tlian usual 

or bulla kira bulla funr. The enumeration may he conducted 

higher after tlu> same manner, but generally numbers above four 

are expi'essed by 'gurwinda' or ' bonggan ' lunaij. 

Thr V>rh. 

The\erbhas \ari(ms forms a^ ^'///v'/'^ liy i r'-nenl. C,n,.nf,r, 

^vor(l' fnmi"the"sTmple\'orn). Althou-li remil.n- n,a> be 

moods aie distinguishable with well-marked terminations. The 
iiitinitive and indicative may however be said to overlap. Tense 

serving on occasions for present, past, and future time. There 
is a clearly ma.ked preterite which is ^^^^ '^ P^^'^f ';^^^P^j'"^''^JjJ^ 
iiitinitive se'rves as impJrf(."c't pa'rticiple, and there is also a verbal 
noun. The shortest and simplest form is the ^"''P^^'^'^^J'J;^^^.^ J^^lX 

verbal notion is't^pressed by the" infinitive index which i.uMmlly 
'-'"an; '-mathi.' or '-thin.' Some verbs may have an '•^♦"^itnjMn 
two of thesrendin-s, thn. there i. 'yanmnn '"ul x.mmathi to 

to be inferred or the jironoun i 
Conjugation is by Jiieans of pr 
lied iniixes. The prefixes gen 

, tho atiixe.s impart tlie modal, temporal, and participial signi- 
n. and tlu; inlixos ]nay be regarded as possessing formal 

[Miso, oiilv it should be observed that the index of the reciprocal 
is tprminal. 
le following exemplify the use of prefixes—' biyaboman ' to 

tn inak-f, is probaljly derived from 'ban' to bring, and is varied to 

intensifying or prolonging force. Tn 'bidhallnda' fo cau.-^" to think 

or rather help^, to do so for '-li' and '-da' are also ccmcerned in the 
.-h.-uige ' dhathin ' l,eing the vocable meaning fo ,lrink. 

The following are examples of affixes— '-man,' '-math!,' '-thin,' 
regular signs of infinitive, also of imperfect, indicative;, and parti- 
ciple, '-an,' '-un," '-in,' signs of preterite, perfect participle, and 

*-nga,' '-ga,' 'da,' '-ngai,' marks of imperative mood, '-aio,' ' au,' 
distinguish the suppositional mood, '-na," '-ba,'are gerundive arid 
pai'ticipial (imperfect) signs, '-ira,' has the sense of forcing or 

Reciprocal Form, cij., ' baiyi " to nfyik/', ' bai^ 
Infixes — Such terminations as '-man,' ' mai 

Tliis i.^ the usual si^m of the liiU-nsive Fonn, .-yy 

his Key to the Structure of the Aboriginal 
/■emd and caiwied away by a mystic proptMisity 
to the alwriofinal mind particular letters or 

Hiar a 
110 doi 

the rmvu 
ibt th(! 

• .syllable ina 
r('!uahis of I 

V be 

elegantly i 
But such 


need to 
■s or pa 
en dowi 

rticles : 



^ Siu.ple. 





expressed by an adverb of time. 

This niav be; the best place to show the relation which Kal 
bears to tlie other dialects of the Central Eastern class, chiefly 1 
Kamilroi and Wii'udhuri. The very name Kabi is the local eciu 

tribe linnuallv. 'lln- foliowiu" an- particular ;ina!(),-i<- :- - 

Lake Macqviarie. Wiradhuri. Kamilroi. Turriibiil. 
Kom. Agent -to -tu -du -du -d^ 

Dative -ko -gu -go -ngu -n 

Genitive -ko-ba -gu-ba -ngu -nu-ba -n 

Albative -tin -di -di -ti -n 

Locative -ta-ba -da -da -b 

The verbal definitive elements differ considerably, 
parison of interrogative words lead to the same conclu 
-re very closely relai 

that all the members of t 

The Language of the Wimmera District in N.W. of Victoria. 

Uthorities :— Revs. F. A. Hagenauer, A. Hartmann and F. W. 

Spieseke, in contributions to Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria, 

Vol. II., pp. 39, 50, 55, 76. The accounts of the two latter 

contributors fairly agree. Mr. Hagenauer's shows consider- 

t d ty or tch dy y r rr 1 n n 

As in the Central Eastern Division there is a marked preference 
ar consonants at the beginning of words. Any consonant except 
r^ may be initial. There is no restriction as to terminal letters. 

rpk,' 'rmV),' which would not be tolerated in the Central Eastern 

The Noun. 
Difference of number or gender is not marked by sound. For 

is added or the word is reduplicated. The nour 
Singular. Sinj 

Norn, wfitye, a man galk, a stick^ 








wutyukal, h 




wutyel, u-iti 

galko, willedyal, in an opossum 
The Pronoun. 
The Pronoun shows considerable nioditioations. It is subject to 
be attracted to other parts of speech in abbieviated form, >\(j., th© 
possessive pronoun is affixed to the noun 'mam' /«^//«r, thus — 
niam-ek, my fafhpr niam-endak, ourfatJit'r 

mani-in, thy father mam-angngodak, your fat] ler 

mam-uk, hi)< or her father mam-einiak, their father 

Adjectives may become pissive verbs by a similer process, thus 
'katyelang' sick, makes 'katyelang-an' / mn *-icA-, ' katyelang-ar ' 
tho^i art sick, and so on. The importance of the pronominal 
element affixed to the verb will be observed further on. I shall 
show two tables of the pronouns, the first by ]Mr. Spieseke, th« 
second by Mr. Hagenauer, as I think that both are required for 
an explanation of the verb and for a fuller view of the language. 
Personal Prononus— First Person. 
Singular. Plural. 

Norn, ngan ngo 

Gen. ngek ngendak 

Ace. ngerrin ngandank 


Gen. ngin ngodak 

Ace. nganung din 

Nom. ngait ngaty or ngatch 

Gen. nguk ngeannak 

Ace. ngun ngin 

Second Tahle — First Person. 
Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Nom. walunek, nanon walunganuk walungingorak, ngarra 

Ace. walunungek walungungnok wallogingorak 

Abl walugalik, by me walungnungnaluk wallogaringorak 

Mr. Hagenauer also gives a dative singular 'gangek'/or me a.nd 
a genitive plural 'gorak' aurs. 

JSorn. giUa, iio<,'un^, no Ijul-iiiir .i^i-'HV^ 

It will be observed that in the Hi'st and second ptT.-^ons ii 
second table there is an introductory particle, ' walfi,' thi* prol 

this is decapitated the likeness of tlie two tables is rendered 

The article is not present. The adjective 
declined. Conipai-ison is denoted by reduplical 

nonly pre 

(apparently t<rir,-l,ro hnads or hofh f,-et and h.,,., 


Th<: Wrh. 
The verb seems simpler than in must dialects, 

simplicity may be due to want of full informat-ic 

,11 ('-.M 

IS by post-positions. The pronoun alnid-ed is m 


(apparently an Leu.ative case) oftii; pronoun ! 


pas.Mve trom the active voice. The word ' ' 

ance of an au.xiliary v.;rb ()c<-urs alon<,' with the , 

-).-in<T 'i! 

perfect tenses and in the potential mood. ( )i the' 


artix to it, the othl,^s make'it^succeecl 'thVprind, 

seems hardly distinguished save by this word ' 
force of har,- or ],n,i, and l)y a word such as > n.; 

mal\' ' \\ 

ilu\' <V' 

by-and-by and denoting the future. Certainly i' 

11 Mr. >p 

post poMtioMs to chstiii-uisli iiuiiibei and peisoii iii tlu- \et>» 

chanire, .lud h\ tompiiibon uitli thf^ declension ot the peis 
person .sin<,ailrir ot the \erl) in the present iniperfMt md lu 

coirespoudb \Mth that %vhich })ie\.uled at Lake Mat<iu uie, X h 

Actne Voice Pis^se \ oice 

, _ bnur Phil il .su>-ul u PIu. d 

For inipeifect tense of p,issne, 'nviiii /» <>i H „ .n>, i^ u^ed 
throu£rl,out ajul for the futuie ' fiakm /-' > n' - follow td m 
both cases hy the pronominal athxes as above 

haustue hardly needs to he staud ^onie pi Kcues hive I.een 

Pas.edo.e..ithont notice. 

MKh isMiious-anies, thedievvin-of 

the leaves of Pm en rZ>^</>^> 

,>^../Av.'MW.Vsomttinusnnved xvith 


aciiplant md to-ethei h imm- i stmm 

I'^tinc. or nucotic .jualitv Vor does the u liter 

r<^J,'ard his conclusions on ( 

ertam iinpoitint points as tmal hut 

rather ..s a step to.a.ds f 

inalit> There iie dithcult questions 

^Whaie udl uorth nu.c 

h closer attention than thev have^et 

be mentioned the nature of the rela 

:;>Onuhuh subsists betNNeen the Vustralians md the people ot 
Jndia This ,s I knotty (|uestion vvhuh caiuiot be settled oneuay 
^f'lnothei vvitha waxeof the hand The vsritei is himly iin 
Pi-^ssed \vith the couMttion toi uhic h he trusts -ood ^^.oundb have 
>fen j^uen, tliat there is a real i,'f uealo^acal (onnection between 
^"f Australians and the people of Cential and .Southern Jncka, 

1 a l)ettpr explanation of it than is offered here may yet 

in part of the woof he regards as thoroughly demonstrated 
; of opinion that after the Tasmanian and Malay elements 

to disentangle the racial constituents will be the science ot 

Much may yet be done V»y comparing different dialects, to shew 
the original form of definitive endings which have virtually lost 
their identity, and besides explaining their own peculiarities 
Australian dialects may throw light upon some Asiatic languages. 
The sketch of Australian languages here given has been necessarily 
brief, but sufficient it is hoped to show their general features and 
in some measure their mutual relationship. A more thorough 
and extended study of Australian language will amply repay the 
labour of the philologist inasmuch as it forms a very fertile field 
for his science. Many striking examples of metonymy are notice- 
able, such as the characterizing of men and kangaroos by the same 
name, a peculiarity remarked by Mr. E. M. Curr. It is common 
to find a tribe applying to the kangaroo the term which a neigh- 
bouring tribe applies to man, and even within the same tribe 
kangaroo and man are designated by the one name or by naniee 

a{. plication of what is etymological ly the same term to very 
ditterent animals. Thus the word for opossum in one place may 
be the name for doff in another. It is much to be regretted that 
so little of the Tasmanian speech has been preserved, since it may 
be employed as a touch-stone for testing the Papuan element m 
Australian languages, not overlooking the fact that particular 
terms may be common to two distinct races. 

Rev. S. Wilkinson— I should like to know whether there is 
any reference in the paper to the rites of burial of the aborigines. 
I have resided fifty years in Queensland, Victoria, and this colony, 
and J thiiik the burial rites of all others are most deeply interest- 
ing, HUi\ ^Mve us a touch of nature l)eyond anything I have seen 

Mr. C. MooHK— My knowledge of tlie aborigines extends over 
a period of forty-two years. A.s in their natural state they hv© 
in a state of perfect nudity I take it that wherever in *hese 
drawings they are shewn in clothing they must have seen some 

ilGINES. 449 

white person. I know as far north as Rockhampton forty years 
ago men and women were perfectly naked without any covering 
wliatever. Tliis is peculiar, ]>ecause two years before that I went 
through the South Seas and visited the New Hebrides, the Solo- 
mon Group, and New Guinea, and we saw no naked women — all 
had some clothing ; but the men were naked. But in this country 
they had no clothing whatever—they were perfectly naked. 
Therefore, wherever they are represented by a covering that proves 
they must have got the idea from some white person. There is 
another thing T may mention. T do not ever remember an 
aboriginal in this country ))uilding a house for himself. Where 
houses have been found on the northern coast the natives must 
have come in contact with white persons. But so far as I have 
won able to learn the true aboriginal has no permanent dwelling. 
Tnivellers ha\<j found no dwelling— merely a gunyali — because 
they were a nomadic race. As to their corroborees, I lielieve they 

thnt is the information I got in ISoS. In the I'raser Islands 
then; W('i-(> some coiToborees and some of a lewd character, and T 
was informed by some of the early settlers that the natives had 

-^Ir. .). F. M vw -In reference to those corroborees, at a certain 



By J. AsiiBURTON Thompson, M.D, D.RH., Chief .Aledical 

Inspector, Health Depart., Government of N.S.W. 

\_Read before the Royal Society 0/ N.S.W., November 6, ISSO.] 

fiXone ; and it frp({uently hiippt-i 
perhaps especially wlien hyj,'i('nic 

completed or in progress, .is 
recently made for their tixteii- 
the opportunity 1 

Public Wo 
presumption. He has in 

■quarter in whicJi 

tts has learned that first-lesson in 
St be kept ; sees in the waste of life 
•itli the stealthy drip of blood " from 
at, a most potent obstacle to social 
ase, and therefore to national pros- 
his part to do what he may to stop it. 
I <listricts i^ all of it jH.werful to harm 
ilo two ^la^.se^ \\hi( h are distinguish- 

present labour ; 
wasted, for exp, 
alone therefore c 

onlrn-d appanitus. Until I lie 
i<ucli details in some other way 
Parramatta has not vet nvci\< 

of s„ci,.t 
less ill ;.i 



part of t 

hat'i,;'^!' .'ii! 

'.'r' ^^V'u^ <!r ia^'other words dearly 

Hble, it .- 


!ia. ii.uhin- should be loft undone 

The ai 

" dr-rnl-.d ,uv . 'HVted at North Boi 

at New,., 
of consti 


^rU. .Th-v.l.frcM-from each other 
,K,.k..lly. a'^ ihfdia-ranis before yo 


of an acre, and which has frontages to Ricketty and to John 
Streets, in the newly erected municipality of North Botany. The 
machinery is contained in a substantial brick building which is so 
arranged that the crude material is received at a high point whence 
it gravitates, to the retorts placed below. It is approached from 
the front by an inclined road which terminates in a platform 22 

At this point is a brick hoi.d ot- rhumbiT, wliicli may be called 

it is closed in front by slidiiig-doors (Fig. 1a): and it is furnished 
near the wall-plate with a 12-inch tiue through which the air is 
drawn off by a fan and propelled to the boiler-fires. In place of 
floor this chamber has a grating made of wrought-iron bars which 
measure three inches by three-fourths of an inch, which are set on 
edge three inches apart from centre to centre (Fig. 1b). Beneath 
the receiving-chamber is the distributing-tank. This is 20 feet 
deep ■ in shape it is rectangular, and for the first ^ 4 feet f'-o"' ^-^c- 
top its sides ire peipendicuUr , thereafter the foremost side tiends 
bickw ud to meet the ifter side which continues perpendicuhr to 
the bottom Ithxs ipeifoiated ii<m pi ite (Fi- \ c) ^Mthln it 

b\ If vers accessible from above tlie 
be fed and it the bottom of the : 
vshich the fluid strained l)v tl,. i 
solid paits IS xdmitted to th( iiniiu 
The use of this general m iii_. 

. sill of the 

the retorts (Fig la) are sunt I, 
thej stmd lbouth^efeftb,lM^ t)„ 
distributing t ink, the^ lu M,mn , 
inch pips, (Fig lF)eichotvvhuh 
^ ihe iccessible at this level Thfi 
of i.ths steel l)oilerpUte 24 feet 

and funiislied Avitli ii stcMin-jfiukot (Fif?. 1 k) whicli can he. wcrked 

its hmg diameter a square shaft (h) which bears unns (.J. j.) ar- 
rangctl at an aii<,'le so as to act as propellers, which is kept in 
motion by reversible gearing (k). It has also a tube connected 
with an air-pump by means of which a partial vacuum of about 

soil li.-iving been paT-tially strained as described, is admit t(Ml to tfie 

forms a char-ge : the steam-jacket is supplied with steam at a 

dr.iwu otrand passed to the boiler fires where they are consumed, 
the ino(loi-(ms gases produced reaching the outer air by the smoke- 
stack at a height of 70 feet above the ground. The temperature 
of the steam" in the jacket at the pressure mentioned is about 

■<l ,in ,itt,ulimfnt to iliis apparatus — the ammimia still 
tli.'ir ui.ul.l piul);il)ly be no need under a properly coi 

IS c<.mmoniy employed at gas-works, I need not descril: 
Other apparatus employed are one 3o-horse-power boilc 
retort : a lO-horse-power engine supplied from one ( 

ilers, to move the revohing shaft, the vacuum pump, an 


hesl.utt s 




Ipel <>\ 

mn" cTil" 


1 the ^ 


a.Kl th.ou-h tf)e 


tH(l In 1 

he ro< 

>t just 

above these IS.. 


opening v\ 



(» the 

^ flue llie tre 

ot vap.^uis 


mb -llw 

^ sniol 


box CO 

nst.ulud . 

.t U 

.hie buck 


XV hid 


X 7 fet 

t Close t< 

. and 

ii ht 


the e 

e of the lliiene. 

I the t( 

>p of the si. 



1-, .1 W Itfl 

1 ^vi l^ 


h IS scattered tl 

tioughout the chai 


I ^te.nn ). t 


( W It 

ei tails to the 

of the chai 



the organic mat 


t'. d.ToilL 

h I b( 

<1 (.i 

u-etabie chauo 

d thi(( 

- oi toiii ir 



ihu pill.lH> i 

in le 


It is 

kept suppheri 




('f}iri(Mu-v of these two 
ic-,-.l>ilitv'as iv-ai-(lstho 
iiit isthr lu..sil>ilitV(.£ 

i.-^itor may inspect the whiilc plant .ii.d tl 

us powder into which he has freely plunged his hum 
«•^s of these factories more clearly than in the words ju 

way of cleanliness, comfort, safety, and regularity. But, altliough 

by the Local Authority itself, I have by observation and rellcction, 
been brought to think that the public would bo better served if 
the Authoi-ity let this pai-t of town-scavenage to resjionsiblo nianu- 

them, if the change involved no increased charge ujioii the rntch. 
The public would be better served l)ecauHO a c(nni).'inv would 
neglect nothing to ensure success, and l)ecause if the contract 
wei-e car-efuljy ilrawn the latter would be under the most perfect 
and most easily exercised control in case of c(miplaint. For to 
defend themselves they must conduct the whole business from 
>)eginning to end with their ow^n staff, so as to avoid the risk of 
failure involved hi divided responsibility ; they nmst arrang(! that 
the work shall ])e done dui'ing some hours of daylight, because 
they know very well that effective supervision during darkness is 
practically impossible, and l)ecause they know also that house- 

i.ufulerraml. Lastly, to ren. 
• lie contract would ensure n.;, 

.11 umler the headings ' econom 
,tlynH>rein»portant considera. 
the suggested arrangement w.. 
tate of unsewered districts. 


the drier Uh- \vf us^he' recAvel 

1 the less are his expenses. A 

It is nothing less than the ,- 
eather those receptacles, in wli,- 
acted, are little better than w.-l 
more than dirty water; and 
les of a manufacturer's contra,- 
^iml that pails shall b<. suhMJi 

2. SeL'omlly, the disposal of ivfuse on lluMr own (or other poo- 

aiul, without goiiii,' into detail, I now nioutioii that it has 
he can get, therefore ; and he will take care that all i.> secured 

3. Xow, if any householder sliouhl obs(!i-ve that it is just because 

on his own land, T point out in reply the third sanitary 

would use the refuse in its natural state, putivscent, and from 
time to time able U) communicate disease. But the process 

is no longer putrescent, nor even putrescible as long as it is 
kept dry ; and it is incapable under any circumstances of 
spreading specific forms of disease. 

4. And farther touching this s.-nne yu.ini of thoi-ouijfh s<-!»venage: 

is the great difficulty. SniMMth i.'p.n i^ i,i th.' r<>uxr\r\ not- 

to scavenge which in the pocin-r n»'ii,'lit>(iut IhmhU i-, ^o dis- 

inexhaustible receptacle ; it thei-efoiv, n;moves the temptation 
to s>hirk collection which, not infrequently, operates to-day. 

5. Indirect as is the manner in which the foregoing advantages 
accrue, they are none the less valuable. But in handing over 
this work local authorities would have opportunity of making 
many direct stipulations. They would require that receptacles 
be tlioroughly cleansed before being replaced ; that escape of 
effluvium from them should be prevented before removing 
them ; and, perhaps, that they should be disinfected. 

I take advantage of this opportunity to explain something recently 
said as to cleansing, which 1 observe has been misunderstood in several 
quarters and confused with disinfection. A receptacle which is carefully 

30ffis pressure ; in\kilfu[ hands the metal may in this'way be rendered 
as clean (though not as bright) as when it h'ft the maker. But disinfec- 
tion is another matter. This is a .strictly .-;ricntiHo proceeding; that is 
to say there is no such thing as partial ur ai.proximate disinfection— it 
must be done under fixed condition.s, and it must he <lnne completely. 
For the present practical purpose it seem.s to me that there can be no 
choice of agents ; moist heat must be used, and under certain conditions 
both of temnera.tnr». a/nrl fini*^. The reouirement is that every part of 
. and kept at that 

during five clear minutes. This might 1 

more t-xptHlitious plan ; but ili..i((' oould be ni-.uU; only alter trial on the 
practical scale. 

Those seem to bo tlio more iiuportjiiit v\;iys in wliich adoption 

subsoil wliich 1 have alreidy mentioned as indispensable to a 
reduced mortality from sev eral prevalent diseases. T need scarcely 

populous districts which are as yet unsewered. 

Mr. C. Moore — In the process of drying is the charge subjected 

Dr. Thompson — It is subjected in that apparatus to a heat which 
is known, namely— something more than 300 degrees Fahr. 

Mr. MooRE — Because there can be no question about that the 
roasting process destroys the value of it as manure. The City 
Council have adopted the plan of burning the refuse, and it leaves 
little behind it except charcoal. I have tried it in many places 
and find it to be of very little value ; but where the refuse is 
allowed to accumulate and to decompose in bulk then it becomes 
a most valuable manure, and when it is decomposed there is really 
no smell from it. But the smell when it is removed is simply 
abominable. I had a large quantity of the refuse carried to the 
Centennial Park — I suppose something like 1000 tons of it — and 
there was no complaint whatever until it was moved, but the 
moment it was moved the smell was frightful, so much so, that 
the residents in the district petitioned against using it, and I was 
obliged to stop for the time being, and when the winter came I 
used the remainder. It was perfectly astonishing the effect of 
that material placed over the sand. Where I stopped the line of 
demarcation was distinctly marked. Where I did not put that 
stutt^ the grass was very thin, but where I put it there was a fine 
layer of grass. With regard to Poudrette— I had some of this 
Poudrette (I do not know whose it was) to try the experiment 
with, and I set apart a small portion of ground and divided it 
into two. One portion had no poudrette on it, and the other had 
poudrette put on in some quantity, and I am sorry to say that 
there was no advantage at all from the portion which had poudrette 
put upon it. The experiment was simply unsuccessful. I have 
not been asked to give a certificate, but if I should be asked I 
shall have to say that it is of no use. I am satisfied that in the 
■drying process there is some principle by which the fertilising 

pioportios are 

■ desrroe dest 

doubt all ve.e 

table m. 

itter is (lest 

roved in tl 

liisdr'v I) 

and fatty inati 

ter niiol 

It not l)e, bi 


h I have 

had ^ er 

experience of. 

1 had 

it in Went^ 

vorth Pai 

■k, Vict(i 

Zoological Ga 

md in othe 

r places. 

The to 

carted into W 


h Park-tl, 

it-aud men, > 

and childror 


absolutely ua 


in it for n 

lonths an 

d n.onti 

pa,-ticalar poii 

luire if any 


an-are of a sini,de in.t^ 

1) anv one 

■ of these 

and children 

wore at 

fected by tli 

e snudl. 

] asked'of it, if 

it, and he told 

me tha- 

b he did not 

know of ■. 


^^a.s from towi 

1 refu.e 

'. fsuppo-s 

e there is 

. somethi 

not the f. 

.ar to be app 

rehended fron 

many peopl 

e .suppose. 1 

years the 

stuff- into NX- 

flat of th. 

e (l^irdei'I pill 

ace (Ground t 

of town . 

■efuse, and if 

you di- down 

pots, pan 

iV'rock to 11! 

Ike'a lloor fo 

and Mhei 

I the tire took 

place ther. 

I made c; 

irts go for thi 

s refuse, and ; 

of found, 

itioii stutl t< 

3 put o\er it 


er putting tl, 

strong the sn, 
' Palace "J'con 


at of Garden 

to this m< 

excellent w;. 

but I thi. 

ik it would I 

le well to con.- 

% l-Ht C 

•annot in some way be a\ 

X, T merely g 

ive my practic 

Mr. T. 

13. Thkheck- 

-It seems to i 

sole refen 

•nce to night 

soil. There. 

A\ ith refei 

came out of c 

Mr. \\. A. Dixox— I l)a\e sonie practical a^iuamtance with 
this system. Now with reference to the abolition of cess-pith the 
lecturer spoke with regard to the value of the material— looking 
at it from a manurial point of view— the value of the material 
and the cost of manufacture being greater than it should be. But 
the worst point with regard to cess-pits is the extraneous matter 
that is put in ; there are bottles, dead fowls, rags, sticks, banister- 
rails, all kinds of of everv description is put there down 
to kerosene tins. The great trouble in the manufacture of 

devised for 

treating om 

'. particular thiny 

, night-so 

il; an 

d not for 

icks, jam-til 

IS, and all that" 

<ind of th 

And the 

zreat deal < 

e makiiii- 

; of "an 



le nianufaoti 


h regnrd'l 


value it is '^ 

. contained in the 


its tlu 

in huiiifin t( 

)od. Hut w 

ith re-ard to usin- nl,i,d.t-s 

oil or 

a.,y .uch 

material all 

experts in ( 

[ elsewher 


nure; they 

do not )•e<,^ard t 

.gs out of the 


uure. The^y have 

to hemZ 

There are U 

vo processes 

, the natural pro. 

jess of the 


i-heap <»■ 

subjeotiii- it to the san. 


terial for n 

lakins manure/ ' 


of ni^l.t- 

soil process < 
impossible t 

such disgusting CO 

nditions t 

hat it 



and "therefore; the only practical process i- 

tlie Mib- 

jectin.i,' it to 

such In.'at a 

s will cause the < 

lest ruction of -e 

■rms and 

the elin.inat 

ion of noxio 

us odours. By tl 

lie poudrc 

itte ^^ 

^lein ue 

le to earrv the tr 

eatment o 

,n Nvit'l 

lout any 


odou/i.nd ^ 

without anybody 1 


it. ^J'lie only <-ase in wl 

lich a nuisance w 

as occasio 

in.^d V 

.-as sonx; 

It was in consequence; of some man who had purcha.>,ed half a to 

system, 'as th<;y can be m<nvd ami cleaned oiit properly, 
as to his practical ex[)erieiK'e of '"i)()udrette, T think ^om 
perinieiit. Its manurial value is likely to be injured 1 

tion of the ammonia. If Mr. Moore has found b 

y practical 

experience plants will not grow — 

Mr. Mo<,KK -Tl.ev will .row. I .ould not see any ^ 


Mr. F. U. K^^•.,no^ Wl,..,.- Mr. MorMv s... no :u 

!d,l rnnier 

the poudrette rcterr-d to by Mr. Moore had ^no n.anuri 


Mr. Djxun- With n;gard to this (iue<tion of poudr(;t 
iQon quantity to be used is 4 cwt. to the acre -, that is tl 

,te theooui- 
,e quantity 

suggested to be used. As to the great quantity of suulphate of 
iron the night-men will not use more than they can help ; they 
make it last six months if they can. The quantity used is very 
small ] so much so, that in applying 4 cwt. to the acre the quantity 
of sulphate of iron would not be more than 5 or 6 fts. The 
quantity satisfactory is 7 lt)S per ton of the original material. It 
has been found that in all grain crops the application of sulphate 
of iron is very advantageous, and the smaller quantity should 
certaiidy not have any deleterious effect. When tirst this poudrette 
manufacture was started their trouble was in getting a great deal 
of sand. The sand got in there, and the result was the poudrette 
manufactured was poor quality, but lately the materials supplied 
to the work have been of superior quality, and so better poudrette 

Mr. T. B. Trebeck— I can concur with Mr. Dixon's remark 
about sulphate of iron. I have several times lately read that it is 
very valuable manure. 

Mr. Henry Deane— In reference to the conclusions come to 
by Mr. Moore, it would I think be very desirable to know wliat 
process the poudrette he experimented upon had undei-gone. 
Whether it had actually undergone the process of roastiiig, or 
whether it had been produced under the temperature mentioned 
by Dr. Thompson, 300 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Mr. Moore — I cannot say what process it underwent before it 

and I asked my overseer to watch it, and it is quite possible that 
although it had no effect on the barley it might ha^■e somo 
effect on other vegetables, and perhaps growing plants —radish(^s, 
it might have had an effect upon different plants. But when my 
attention was called to the ground not more tliaii a ^\-eek ago J 
could not see any perceptible difference. 

The President— There is one matter stated in the discussion 
I should like to draw attention to. I think Mr. IMoore snid that 
there were no bad effects felt in any way from a large quantity of 
putrescent or more or less decaving matter deposited in Wentworth 
Park and that men, women and children were wallowing in it and 
suffered no harm. That may be, and no doubt is perfectly true 
in this particular case. Still it is not a desirable state of thlngs^ 
There was no harm done in this particular instance, because I 
suppose disease germs happened to l)e absent or m an inactive 
condition. In Sydney some years ago the wjiter was \('ry much 
contaminated by the contents of the soil pans, and it so happened 
I had to examine into this matter, and one of the arguments 
brought forward against my report was it could not have been so 
bad otherwise there would have been some sickness, but my reply 
was that the f cecal matter happened to be healthy. If it had been 


unhealthy the results might have been very disastrous. The same 
too with this garbage that Mr. Moore speaks of. I do not think 

because it so happens that no harm was experienced then. With 
regard to the ferrous-sulphate, I do not think that a small 
quantity of it is injurious, but does the ferrous-sulphate pass out 
in the form of ferrous-sulpliate ! Does it not pass out in the form 
of ferric-oxide 1 We all know ferruginous soils are not particularly 
fertile. It may be that the want of benefit Mr, Moore noticed in 
this particular poudrette was due to the large quantity of sulphate 
of iron. It may be that there was too much, and that the plants 
were over stimulated. After all, these are only surmises. No 
doubt if these poudrettes are properly prepared they are good for 
the land, and a good means of getting rid of a troublesome sub- 
stance. I have much pleasure in conveying to Dr. Thompson the 
thanks of the Society for his very valuable and interesting paper. 

Mr. Moore— If any gentleman here has the slightest interest in 
this poudrette, I will most willingly place a portion of ground at 
his disposal in a very reserved part of the Gardens, in order that 
he may test it in any way he likes, and he shall not be interferred 
with. He can try it under his own superintendence. 

Dr. Thompson— The discussion lias tended to become a discussion 
upon manures. Mr. Moore's remarks upon that subject are no 
doubt of very great interest, but I have spoken solely from the 

value is not within my knowledge. He said that 'men, women, 
and children, wallowed in garbage, and yet did not fall ill. 
Perhaps not; but I can tell Mr. Moore this— that when the 
immense deposits of garbage at Wentworth Park was cut into by 
the Sewerage Department in 1886, there was great difficulty in 
getting the Avork carried on, because the men were repeatedly 
macle ill ; they would work for two or three hours and would then 
be siezed with illness so severe that their lives appeared endangered. 
Even the other day did not some ingenious persons endeavour to 
get permission to bore for natural gas in Wentworth Park 1 There 
was an escape of gas there which I saw ignited ; but it was the 
gas of decomposition arising from the monstrous deposits of gar- 
bage that have been made there. That poisonous gas penetrates 
every house that is built on garbage— at Wentworth Park or else- 
where, and kills the wretched inhabitants. But I can tell you 
something more, of which perhaps you are not aware. What 
were those children wallowing in the garbage for ? In the case of 
that stinkinix accumulation which was made this year at the 
} Centennial Park, which has an approximate depth 
— approximate superficial area of 1,600 square 

of 14 feet and i 

yards, I know as the result of enquiry what they were there for : 
they were there to gather rags, and those rags were subsequently 
torn up into flock without undergoing any previous purification. 
And that flock was sold to furniture makers to stuff" couches and 
chairs — and not inferior furniture alone, but the very best kinds 
as well as the worse. I know all this from enciuiry among the 
trade. Possibly this stuff may be comparatively harmless when 

that may be I lia\e always consistently advocated its destruction 
in furnaces, Ijecause 1 know that wherever it is not so destroyed 
it is always us-:/! to make foundations good, and to make the 
building of inhabited houses easier on irregular sites. There are 
plenty of places where this has been done in Sydney. 

Mr. JMooHK— With regard to the illness of those who worked 
in the sewei-s thei-e the smell was concentrated, and I believe it is 
admitted l)y medical men that a concentrated smell is dangerous. 

Dr. TnoMPSOX— Concentrated arsenic will kill you in three 
hours, and dilute arsenic from the wall-paper will kill you not less 
surely, though it may take three months to do so. 


By W. A. Dixox, F.LC, F.C.S., Lecturer on Chemistry, 

Sydney Technical College. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S.W., December 4, 1889.'] 

Some years since I contributed to the Proceedings of this Society 
a paper on the " Deep well-waters of Sydney," and since then I 
have made a numl)er of analyses of waters from various parts of 
the country. Separate analyses of waters generally are not of 
value for any scientiflc purpose, but when numerous analyses are 
collected they do become of value, and this paper must be taken 
only as a slight contribution towards a knowledge of our under- 

The subject of the composition of waters seems likely to become 
of in>portance before long, owing to the efforts being put 

watering stock may for t 

ultimate effect may be quit 

I have arranged the ana' 

Lted by the encroachnn-nt or popuJ; 

are from springs in the IJluc Mount; 

Water from springs at. P,lackheatl 

Chloride of Sodium ... ^O-CS g, 

Chloride of Calcium ... ) ^.^., 

Chloride of Magnesium ... \ 

Inorganic ammonia per million 0-OS 

Organic Ammonia ,, 0-OS 

Very minute traces of sulphates a 

1888 and early part of 1889, 

May last :- 

Oxide of Iron 
Carbonate of Calciun 

Carbonate of Calcium 
Chloride of I\ra,i;iiesiiiii 
Chloride of Sodium... 

Sulphate of C 

Carl)onate of Calciuui . 
Carbonate of Ma<,'nesiu 
Sulphate of Calcium . 

Water from shallow well near l>elmo; 

Oxide of iron and alumina ... 1" 

Sulphate of Calcium l" 

Nitrate of Calcium ... 7' 

Nitrate of Ma-m-sium S-: 

Nitrate of Sodium l-' 

Nitrate of Pota-ssium ... ...trm 

Chloride of Sodium lU' 

and clear was loaded with nitrates produced by the decomposition 
of nitrogenous organic matter, and it will be observed that whilst 
the inorganic nitrogen is high the organic is low. This indicates 
that the conditions as to presence of basic bodies being satisfac- 
tory the nitrifying ferment had full play. If all the nitrogen had 
been present as ammonia in one form or other, it would have 
amounted to the enormous quantity of over one thousand parts 
per million or more than the average of sewerage. This shews 
that the nitric nitrogen of waters should be taken into account. 
This well is not far removed from the old Devonshire Street 
Cemetery, but there is no visible connection between them as deep 
drainage intervenes. Tlie water is not used. 

Another water from a well at Bourke Street, Redfern, contained 
free sulphuric acid as an impurity, the source of which coyld not 
be accounted for unless there was some underground connection 
with the old Kerosene Works at Waterloo. The water had an 
acid reaction and contained 3-7 grains of free sulphuric acid per 
gallon. Neither nitrates nor nitrites were present. It had been 
used for boilers and destroyed two valued at £700. 

Water from the Hunter River at West Maitland the sample 
being taken when the river was low : — ■ 

Sulphate of Calcium 1-.38 grs. per gin. 

Carbonate of Calcium 2-2cS 

Carbonate of Magnesium ... 3-19 „ 

Chloride of Sodium 9 -71 

Potassium salts traces 

Inorganic ammonia per millic 
Organic ammonia „ 

Nitrates and phosphates minute t 

Water from a well at W^est Maitland i 
most of the population : — 


Oxide of iron with tr 

aces of al 


ina and silica 1-06 

Carbonate of Calcium 


Sulphate of Calcium . 


Carbonate of Magnes 

ium '.'.'. 


Chloride of Sodium , 


Potassium salts and i 



Total i 



ts 22-79 

Inorganic amm 

0-10 parts per mi 

Organic ammor 



[■ from a well at West Maitland near the middle of the town: 

Oxide of iron, alumina and silica 3-40 grs. per gin. 

Sulphate of Calcium 23-98 

Nitrate of Calcium 4-61 

Nitrate of Sodium 15-07 

Nitrite of Sodium 40-59 

Nitrite of Magnesium ... ... 21-79 „ 

Chloride of Sodium 6 43 

Total inorganic salts ... 115-87 

lat referred to above, viz., the ac- 
and nitrites in the underground 
water arising from the excretions of a dense population. Although 
the water of the river is in touch as it were with the underground 
water, it is found that in the first well-water the calcium and 
magnesium salts are increased; doubtless from lime in buildings in 
the neighbourliood, but there not being much population in its 
neighbourhood the nitrogenous organic matter has rather decreased. 

On the otlier hand all the impurities 

have i 

increased where the 

population is dense, and the nitrogenous constituents enormoi 


so. Such water whilst quite unsuitable for domestic use wc 


suit admirably for irrigation, which 


be following out 


practice of the ryots in some parts of : 

India, ^v 

'ho prefer the wa 


of their village wells to even a canal 

water for that purpose, 


preference being traced to the nitrates 

rater which increased 

the crops from their manurial value. 

Water from deep well j 

at Gum 




grs. per gin. 

Oxide "of Iron and Alumina 


Carbonate of Calcium 


Carbonate of Magnesium ... 


Sulphate of magnesium ... 


Nitrate of Potassium 


Nitrate of Sodium 


Chloride of Sodium 


Total inorganic matter 


Of these inorganic matters 19-87 g: 

rains w, 

ere deposited on boil- 

ing for two hours. 

Carbonate of Ciilcium 

. i;w;i 

Carbonate of M.•l,^n^^iu.u .. 

. ir,-2G 

Chloride of Potassium 

Sulphate of Calcium 

.' 'lG-1-2 

Chloride of Sodium 

. 1-2.-) 

Total iuor<,^anic matter .. 

. S9-07 

Nitrates absent, Nitrogen or< 

;anic and inorganic traces. 

These two ^^aters are both used fo 

r brewing and should be very 

suital)le foi' that purpose. The quan 

titv,>f potassium salts in the 

labt is particulai-ly noticeable, as a 

,bout 2-2 grains per gallon of 

potassium sulphate is found in the 1 

brewing water at Burton on 

Trent, at Edinburgh, and in the wal 

.er from a well at Tennant's 

J3rewery, Glasgow. 

Water from spring at 


Oxide of Iron and Alumina 

... h-2 grs. per gin. 

Carbonate of Calcium ... 

... 2-2 

Carbonate of Magnesium 

Chloride of Sodium ... 

2-;'> \\ 


... traces 


Water from a well at 



... 0-s,rs.pergln. 

Carbonate of Calcium". 

Surphate of Mng.'.esiun' 
Sulphate of Potassium. 
Sulphate of Sodium . 
Chloride of Sodium . 

Total inorganic matt 
In neither of these two wa 

fron.t I,,-. •,.-!. 'u.'d'th?- s,' />n 
from it. [t^.M.,usi,rol.,.hl,-th;. 
by filtration throu-h the soil. 
to increase the total saline mn 
that of the creek, whiKt the ino 


].! of Sodium ... 
itlunlina inid oxide of 



Total salts 



cmmmmilu'' ::: 


2 parts per 

Watoi- from 





of 'iron aiid alinniiia 
ate of Calcium... 
,ate of .Maune^ium 
■ of Potassium ... 

0-S6 grs. ] 
6 -09 


all as tested for al)Sorp- 
.er 100-000 in one hour. 
>ntainin,i^ sulphate of 

abundant supply of brackish water was obtained which stood f 
depth of 15 or 16 feet from the surface. The analysis shews t 
it was about equal to a mixture of 10 parts of fresh- water wit 
part of sea-water, the numbers being — 

Sulphate of Calcium ... .\. 3-94 grs. per gin. 

Sulphate of Magnesium ... 1'51 „ 

Chloride of Magnesium ... 28-84 „ 

Chloride of Sodium 223-91 

Sulphate of Calcium 3-46 

Carbonate of Calcium ... 2-.50 

Carbonate of Magnesium . . . traces 

Chloride of Sodium 81-08 

Carbonate of Sodium 49-35 

Nitrite of Sodium ... ... 3-21 „ 


solution and is alkaline, there is nothing to account for its action 
on iron except the presence of nitrite of sodium. Nitrites have 
been found to act injuriously on boiler plates, and it seems probable 
that their oxidation to nitrates by a little permanganate or then 
reduction to ammonia by passing through a hlter bed of granulated 
zinc coated with copper would be beneficial. 

In conclusion I may add the analysis of salt deposited from a 
spring at Queanbeyan : — 

Water 18-26 

Sulphate of Potassium 
Sulphate of Sodium ... 
Sulphate of Magnesium 
Sulphate of Calcium ... 

Mr. C. :VroouE— 1 presume the results of the testing of water 
depend a good deal upon circumstances. For instance I recollect 
some twenty-three years ago a well where tlie men got water, and 


as the season got perfectly dry it became so salt they could not 
use it. Precisely the same thing occurs near to Camden, where 
there is a nursery, and as the season gets dry the water in the 
creek gets so salt it cannot be used for plants, but wlien there is 
abundance of pasture the salt is not perceptible. So it depends a 
very great deal upon the season. I recollect many years ago 
passing over the Liverpool Plains, and the water was so salt they 
could not use it for sheep. This was a very dry season— 1858. 

Mr. F. B. Kyxgdox— I rise to thank Mr. Dixon for his paper. 
It would certainly be a pity if the data he has been accumulating 
should be hidden away. It is more fitting that such valuable 
contributions should find a place from time to time in our Journal. 
I know of two instances in the city where brewers put down wells 
to a great depth in the hope of getting good water, and the deeper 
they went the more salt it became. With regard to the purity 
of the water from the JSTepean, perhaps the heavy rainfall of the 
last few months may have had a great deal to do with the dilution 
of the nitrogenous matter. 

Mr. H. C. Russell— I should like to ask Mr. Dixon if he has 
any analysis of the deep well-waters of the interior? 

Air. Dixon— With regard to :^Ir. Moore's observations, I point 
out in the paper two or three cases in which alterations have taken 
place in the various waters in consequence of the clianges in the 
seasons. No doubt too, a large quantity of water falling on the 
surface of the soil must dilute the water so much that the impuri- 
ties become very much less. And the same remark would apply 
to the case referred to by Mr. Kyngdon in regard to the dilution 

regard to the deep well-waters in the interior, I would like to 

I'got som"^ sa'lts'from soTaHf the salt-water— it was practically of 
similar composition to sea salt ; and this is the case also ^Mtn tne 
deep wells in Sydney. This water probably fiows from the moun- 
tains towards the sea. When you sink down you draw oflHhe 
waters out of the fissures from which the water is escaping to the 
sea. The fresh and salt water mix together to an extent depend- 
ing altogether on climatic changes. As I mentioned m the paper 
it is of great importance that we should know something of these 
deep well-waters in the interior. Many people in speaking of salt 
and fresh water take no account wliatever of brackish wat.n ^ They 

water may contain a proportion of salt, and still .ir tn ^li \\,i ot o 
the taste. It has been found in India, wher- irrigation is carried 
on in places where no drainage takes place, that particular patches 
of ground have been rendered perfectly barren througli the con- 
tinued annlicatinn of water. This fact should be taken into 

11 .in\ irriiration scheme broujjht forward in a oountrv so 
;,ood df .d of ours ib, and wlieie there is a good deal ot sod 
li unap:( >otl»ing at all will grow on the surface of these 
1 therefore T think a chemical examination of the deep 

so that we might be able to judge 'vith some debtee ot 
of their effect for purposes of irrigitioii and cultu ttion. 
MOOUE — Would it not be \\ell to ask the Go\ei)im« iit 

' samples for analysis ' I belie\e it would be dune with 

lightest hesitation 

i of the soil, and tint is th 
freely with salt. I know i 
n the shale twelve feet deep. 

IS far as my experience goes in the Cobar distr-ict there 
s are remaikably salt. Of course th< } are ^ery vague 

Me T can certify to the fact 'that the so called salt water 
lis from Ifillstone and Cobar (ontains a large proportion 
ite of magnesium The tlieory I belie\e is that the soil 
.,nated with these salts and that the lairi has to a certain 
s i-^liMl the salt out of the surface of the soil. If vou are 
' sMrt 1 garden there you will hrid that ])lants will yrow, 

f;u-tniy analyses of the waters. We .should not 1 

in- "them hack a.Jiin. 

The PuivsiDEXT -I should like to ask Mr. I 

the composition of the Nepeai " " ' 

noted the period of the yo^ 

part of the yeai-. Perliap.-, Mr. Dixon can"tell 

two ( 

tinued decrease. With regard to the medicinal waters I have nevo 
seen any waters that could be called medicinal waters here. An; 
waters I have seen have been brackish waters — that is to say sei 
salt perhaps with a little excess of sulphate of magnesium or sul 
phate of aluminium. It seems the surface of the soil still contain 
salt from the surface of the original sea modified to a certain ex 
tent by the oxidising action continually going on. 

Mr. Moore — Have you known of any analysis of what are calle( 
soda water wells. 

Mr. Dixon — There was an analysis of mine published in tli 
" Mining Record " some years ago. 

Mr. Moore — What is the principle 1 

Mr. Dixon— Carbonate of soda. An excess of carbonic acid. 

Mr. J . F. Manx— Have you seen that chalebeate spring a 
Mittagong 1 

Mr. Dixon— I have seen it. There are many such springs 
(Mr. Dixon here explained the composition of the water in spring 
of tills character.) 


Being Personal Recollections of those Tribes which once inhabited 

the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. 

By Edward Stephens, Esq., Bangor, Tasmania. 

iRead before the Royal Society of N.S.W., October 2, 1SS9.] 

I CAN hardly believe it, and yet it is true, that it will soon be 
half a century since I, a lad with my parents, landed in the 
infant colony of South Australia. The rains had been unusually 
heavy, and the country was so flooded, that it was witli great 
difficulty we reached Adelaide, the capital of the young sotth^uient. 
As is usual with new arrivals in any part of the world, wo were 

see a native— a real Australian black-fellow. It was not long 
before our curiosity was gratified. A dog having been killed— per- 
haps drowned in the back yard — two or three of the genuine 


being asked what they intended doing with it, they replied — 
" Plenty bery good dog butter." So, with a piece of glass bottle 
they performed a post mortem, cle\erly extracting the internal 
fat and deliberately smeared their heads, faces, and necks with the 
offensively pungent mess. So strong was the disgusting scent 
that we rushed from their presence into the house, closing windows 
and doors. I do not relate the foregoing as something new, for 
hundreds of persons have seen the like. I only mention it here 
to show how I was Hrst introduced to the noble Australian savage. 
This practice of covering the body with fatty substances is com- 
mon to all savage races, and is intended as a protection against 
the bad effects of extreme heat and of extreme cold, as well as 
furnishing a covering through which the troublesome insect finds 
it difficult to reach with its proboscis, the rich juices which lie 
under the skin of — well, even an Australian native. 

I have lived to see an aborigine greedily devour a crust of 
wheaten bread ; but, I can assure the reader that, at the time of 
which I now write, if some bread and meat were given to them 
they would consume the meat, but on getting a little distance 
from the house, after smelling the bread they would deliberately 
throw it away. At that time also they would not eat bacon nor 
besmear themselves with its fat ; and pork was their peculiar 
aversion. I can say with confidence that, up to my latest acquaint- 
ance with them, never once did I see them eat, in any form, the 
flesh of a pig. It was evidently naturally offensive to them. 

We soon left the little city of Adelaide, for it was really little 
then, and not many thousand people in the whole colony. 
There was no bishop ; Sir Henry Young was Governor. Our 
temporary abode was to the east of Kensington, and not much 
more than a mile to the north of Green Hill. Kensington could 
boast of only one public-house or shanty, which was kept by an 
African, and one small place of worship in which officiated a Mr. 
Strongman. Another gentleman conducted the Sunday School, 
and, I regret to say, that on one Sabbath morning the curiosity of 
some natives prompted them to look in at the door, the said super- 
intendent drove them away and shut the door in their faces. 
There was a store in this village and but a very few other houses. 
The mainstay of the place was the local brickyards and the sawing 
and splitting of timber on the Mount Lofty tiers. Our place lay 
near one of the tracks used by the aborigines in passing backwards 
and forwards from the Adelaide Plains to the Bremer and the 
Murray River. As population increased and the Adelaide natives 
abandoned hunting for a vagrant begging life, they but seldom 
passed over the eastern ranges ; but the Murray blacks would still 
come down, perhaps twice a year. These blacks, even in the 
earliest days of the white settlement, were a race far superior in 

noral plusi.iue to those of th* 
x^acttul litt Ijut f( w of tin in 

piiil\s((n)\ I sliock from u\ electic eel Wli it, llo^^('\(l i 
h\ Kk-^ ot tin pi iins 1 u k(cl in pli>-,Rril lobustiiess was inoi ( tli 

wluu tlu lull tiilxs dfsuiitUd to tin plains, those of the pi i 
.ictuil tnhil lightish ill <is,,ui(\( \vitnoss, ha\«^ soniethm. to - 

ot presents, is tlicse is i^tmrilruJe, onJv tnuK n to ( \< lu ^/ u 
oub> touxuls those %\ho Kuu.d them, and ill conceah d iutnd ot 

tion of t( ir a kind ind m inl\ speech, \m\ the ktcpmi? ol thnn it 

the btalt of hum uuty as some wiiteis ha\e depicted thorn Apart 

and their heads weie comparati\e?\ fiee from veimiii ijoth 


^f my (^xtrciiic youtl», for 1 could i 

ie<iloct tl.roi 
esty I will 

look of ,£jr;ititudo which c'line from her (lying eyes, told 
language more eloquent thmi words, that beneath that d;i 

dying exterior there was a soul which m a 

The following will furnish another illui 
a little amusement on account of its comii 
mcntum ad verecundiam by a black lubra. 
of the living, I use fictitious names, 
a visitor to the colony and the lion 
large scale was arranged in his honour, not a hundred miles from 
Hindmarsh Island. Wishing to give an additional zest to the 
performance, the Hon. Roderick Random requested the black 
women to undrape and perform an antique dance representing 
innocence without her clothes. The reply came sharp and crisp, 
" What for white-fellow wantum black woman dance likeum that ? 
You askum white lubras jump about mid no clothes : you hear 
what she yabber yabber." Mitford, one of Australia's greatest 
humourists, published an apology in words something like the 
following : " It was evidently a misapprehension on the part of 
the native woman, due no doubt to her want of a correct know- 
ledge of the English language. We are in a position to state, 
that the Hon. Roderick did not ask the native women to dance in 
a state of nudity. He simply requested them as a favour to their 
illustrious guest, to kindly dance to a new ditty; hence the unfor- 

Those who speak of the natives as a naturally degraded race, 
either do not speak from experience, or they judge them by what 
they have become when the abuse of intoxicants and contact with 
the most wicked of the white race have begun their deadly work. 
As a rule, and to which there are no exceptions, if a tribe of blacks 
is found away from the white settlement, the more vicious of the 
white men are most anxious to make the acquaintance of the 
natives, and that too, solely for purposes of immorality. The 
native women have hearts to break, and the native men outraged 
honour to vindicate, and these have ever been the chief factors in 
the so called attrocities of the aborigines of Australia. I saw the 
natives and was much with them before those dreadful immoralities, 
were well known. I saw them and was often with them, when 
the old died off and the race no longer propagated itself, and 1 
say it fearlessly, that nearly all their evils they owed to the white 
man's immorality and to the white man's drink. 

As late as 1879, I knew one brave old chief or king, who when 
he could no longer restrain his tribe from yielding to the degrad- 
ing customs of a degenerate white race, retired with his only son 
to spend his remaining years in the seclusion of the Wirrabara 
forests and mountain ranges north of Beetaloo. This case w 
first brought under my notice by Mr. Daniel Kearney, then the 
genial and respected overseer of Booyoolee Sheep and Cattle 

Tliat IS an msUiK e \vhich , 

ibon^iuil ot South Vu^tialia 

> notuid, tint 1h ^^llo tin IK (1 Qufens 
rom hib tribe \\ hat becxme of the 
t T hoird of lum \vis> thit in r(tuin for 

out tabic md de\terou>,l\ ininipulitcd 
iiitt xnd fork kju il to the us i^ts of middle diss life He 

with a number of others, was ;i siij^ht h)inj: to be remembered ; and 
in the success of finding them he never failijd. 

Many persons have given expression to the opinion that their 
religious beliefs were very superstitious and low — in fact they had 
but little or no ideas respecting a futui-o state. Here, I ask, 
would it be just to the whole of Christian England, to estimate 
the nature and value of its theology from an attempted exposition 
of the thirty nine articles, or Atlianasian Creed of the Church of 
England by an ignorant, drunken, and degraded denizen of the 
purlieus of Whitechapel 1 Yet this is precisely what has been 
attempted with regard to the religious beliefs of the aboriginal 
Australian, That their religion was far below Christianity goes 
without saying. But it was far and away more simple and sublime 

and are held in respect for their venerable antiquity. The fact is 
the adult aborigine wottld not converse with the adult European 
about his religious beliefs. Upon this they were specially silent 
and profoundly reticent. What he would often glibly discuss tind 
what white men have understood to be a part of his religious 
beliefs was no more that than the fairy tales of Scandinavia are a 
part of the tlieology of Sweden. An adult native would sometimes 

the children I have gathered a little knowledge upon this question 
which briefly stated, amounts to this : — They believed in a good 
being who sent them good things, and that he specially ruled the 
day. Also in a bad being who brought them evil things, and who 
ruled in darkness or the night. That the moon and .stai> were 
messengers of the good one to see that the bad one did no great, 
injury to them. At death they believed that the thinking and 
talking principle passed away to the east, whence came tiie sun 
and moon ; that there they would all meet at last. And whilst 
possessing great confidence in the good being, that all would turn 

mitting murder, theft, and avoiding Coonyownda, that is the eat- 
ing of tabooed female animals ; they had no idea whatexer of 
vicarious sacrifice, and the utility of prayer. This was the sn'' 
stance of all I could leawn, and 1 believe it was all that they were 

to their limited theology; and .some tliouicht the white man 
only an aboriginal changed in colour on bring i'.m^imI ftom 1 he dead. 
There were audacious Europeans who In.l r >■ u in>-n\} to tell 
them that they, the white meo, had on.r l.-m l.i.nk , Irnl liunted 
on the plains; had actually died and returnr.l from \hr .{.iiit land- 
Such statements as these, 1)acked by diink, ^ift^ of lolxuoo and 
immoral actions, so confused the minds of tlit- nati\es and so dis- 
turbed their ancient beliefs, that when in after years missionaries 

J>egin tlu itt( iiipt to lo^toje thi^ lost Eden, they fouiul tlie nitive 
doctors dernorilised or deid, tlu orhce «,'one, and no ono left ible 
t.\eii It ho ^\Lr( ^\dlln^' to„n\e -Miy elcir idei of the rehgious 
behtts ot his oss n titlu i, ind x^ tut limi^elf he had none to ^'i\e 
i)iunk( nues". vnd d( 1 luchd}. spicid hkc then ow n bush hns, md 
It ^\ lb not untd ti il ( iftn tuhe Let mu ovtim t, th it intelli^rtnt 

md thit most of th(u t. iditions h id pcushid \vith them lh(' 
tiaditions otthe uheiit ot tht htst Uicks weit extiewuly \ uue 
Tho} seeintol) 1il\o th it thex t iiiu ftoni the noith €ist, soon itt( i 

As all the sports hiicI pastimes of youiii? and old had refereiice 
to hunting and iif>liting, in ^n-ar and w;.d(lie throwing formed 

became so perfect aJ it did. To tno«> unacquainted uith their 
habits of life, their speai--thro\\ iiig %\'os a very near approach to 

the south of the grog shan' 
t tiie only 

,<s. wu( tin tuget. thit 


garoo's tul The otliri ( nd ^^as siniplv i knob to 
wonmitri from slipping thiough the hand wlien the a 
mg the spear was complete The point of the tooth 

in the blunt aid of tlu spear, the othpi ( lul ot th( 
vvi^hdilbN th( thud iiid tourtli fmgoi, ot thi ii^h 

like I tliiii^ of lif(, iiid tdl 

.ip poiiit( d spi 11 foi 

the one who threw it. It was a dangerous instrument in the 
lianHs of inexperience ; for altliougli thrown with vigour at a foe, 
it might in its peregrinations, attack your dearest friend. It was 
not long before the climl)ing-sti(;k ga\e place to an iron bar, 
•similarly shaped, and the hatchet, nail, and hoop iron have taken 
the place of flint and the kangaroo's tooth. I have lived also to see 

manufacture of opossum rugs, discarded by the noble savage for 
needle and whity-brown thread ; but the rugs were not improved. 
Unlike the tribes inhal)iting Queensland and the Northern Terri- 
tory, these liad no permanent shields. They only fought in the 

and the bark could be readily taken oiY. Out of this bark they 
made their shields, which were only intended for temporary use- - 
aftei- the battle they were thrown away. To be able to regulate the 
time for war and to divert or control the surging passions of a tribe 
of fire eaters must have seriously exercised the diplomatic skill of 
some minds. That they only fought in spring was nevertheless a 
fact. Strictly speaking tlu^ aborigines were not a fighting race, and 
t they should be. Thatpicturescjuea 

theatre of hills, whi 

ich sentinel like 

guards the plains of Adelaide, 

and situated as it 

is eight or ten n 

liles from the sea, was a safe 

retreat and a natur 

al protection ag^ 

linst an enemy from the coast. 

And. although the 

eastern tribes would be down at times on the 

rampage, there was 

. nothing sufficiently attractive on the plains to 

tin away from tl 

10 luxurious lives which they 

enjoyed on the wat 

ors of the Murra 

rivers. Hence, to 

these tribes of the plain, fighting was not a 

prominent and nece 

ssaryart. Butt 

\w.y could fight, and most efiec- 

i-essity called th 


i-ounds, from an invading force. 

On one occasion 

by some means, t 

•ither with or without her con- 

sent (1 think it wa> 

i the former) a'g 

''otllnn^wordl, a marriageable 

young man of the plains, stole a nice 

young woman of the hill tribes 
war. For days, hooting and 

and the result was 

a declaration of 

y<-l!ing messengers 

imp to camp. Tliis sort ot 

abnriginal ambassadorial, and veil 

ing diplomacy continued for 

iH-.-nly a week without anv satisfa. 

.torv results T suppose the 

blacks of tlie plain were thought to h; 

ive had the best of the bargam, 

because neither kin 

g, priest, fatliei 

•, mother, brothers nor- sisters 

nor the whole frat( 

'rnity of relatio, 
; her gallant l.ei 

,s, could induce the captured 

uHler. So the .Murray blacks 

, they prepared for the contest by stripping the bark from the 

white and blue gums, in pieces of about tliree feet by two feet six 
inches, out of which they made their shields. When finished each 
shield was about two feet six inches long by two feet wide. The 
handle was fixed in the centre from the back, and consisted of 
strong tough pieces of green wood twisted like a rope, with each 
end thrust through holes in the shield and firmly wedged. The 
face of the shield was rubbed smooth with stones and hardened by 
being put in hot ashes over which was placed a layer of live coals. 
When properly "done," it was allowed to cool, after which it 
received a coating of pipeclay or lime, and then was ornamented 
with red bands made of the juice of a small tuber which grew in 
abundance on the virgin soil. The warriors themselves painted 
their faces, arms, breasts, and legs in a manner which gave them 
a most hideous expression, calculated I suppose, to inspire feelings 
of dread in the minds of tlieir enemies ; but as the adornments 
were given to both parties, I sliould imagine that the dread would 


an illustration of the shields, with the devices they 

rally be expected tliat it would be the first to suggest 
was however not the least attempt at producing it, 
jutline, nor were the forms either of bird or of beast 
Among the many styles of embellishment the follow- 
If the reader can imagine 300 or 

morning of the d-iy of 


tho ( ist ot Mr. Gw^rius residence (lie ,i liwyer t!ien,"iii .ifter 
>eirs he 1)r line one ot the Judges of tlie Supicnie Court) On 

e.K'h orlu i, -^tpauited only !;)}■ a spate of not 100 y iids tlu women 

respe'tiw''ly" Then'' followed "Inme' pllu c" oP'v iM.el'Vil.her, 

idicatctheu soil.d 

lionoui ^ 

.lth^^'ld(hc. Ml 

.., Nvhit a SI Jit' 

xiul oh 

frn I socond He 

ockot urns' n 

-lotosquo tint h 


tin coul/coirou( 

oniidi, thou followed 


thut t 

e nKirriage 



I very sini 


; it 


1 in tl 

e l>ri<le,i.roo 

1 giving "^a 


It tap witl 

a wadd 

V to 

the hoxv 

ed hea 

1 of tlie hri 

le— not th 


blow w 

fiction ^ 


have descril 

ed. The 




the volu 



jn tlie par 


le woniaTi, 

to the la 




enian. In 

the early 


the people 

were chaste 


the women were treated with increasing neglect. As an instance 
of the degeneracy of the times I will mention one case. One day 
T saw a native, who had passed the middle age of life, climb a 
tree in search of an opossum. After tapping a hollow limb he 
ascertained ti>e locality of the animals ne.^t. Then, with his 
hatchet, he made a hole sou)e two feet from that spot and nearer 
to the entrance of the hollow limb. Taking a g.T-en stick about 
an inch in diameter and two feet long, after splitting the end 
into several divisions he inserted it into tlie newly-made opening, 
pressed it tiglitly against the animal, at the same time twisting 
the stick, which tlius caught hold of the animars fur and skin so 
that it was helplessly drawn from its resting-place. Catching 
hold of its tail he swung the opossum against the tree, putting an 
end to its life with one blow. Dropping it to the gtound he 
quickly descended, and I had an opportunity of witnessing a 
superb piece of native cookery in the days of native degeneracy. 
The roasting consisted in burning oti" the fur. That being done 
he took the untoothsome delicacy off the embers, and pr-oceeded 
to carve it for his wife and his only son— a lad I should judge to 
have seen a dozen summers. Carving without a knife and fork 
was to him no diflicult feat. Taking the tail near the stun.p in 
his mouth, and grasping each hind-leg with his right and left 
hands, then closing his eyes he forced his arms af^irt, and the 
joint was in three pieces. 'J'he tail, backbone and h('ad h- g^ve 


" Coombaiiee " was a word which meant to roast or fry, 
that is, to expose the object to the direct influence of the fire ; 
but if the object was to bake the joint, the word " Caanyanee " 
was used. Their mode of baking a duck, pigeon, or particularly 
a turkey-buzzard produced highly satisfactory results. The turkey, 
for instance, was enclosed in a thick coating of clay, no feathers 
were taken oif ; it was placed in hot ashes, covered with a layer 
of coals, and when cooked it was taken out ; the feathers would 
adhere to the clay leaving the fowl deliciously clean and appetizing. 

When hunting on a large scale, they would make nets about 
five or six feet wide and perhaps forty or fifty yards long with 
large meshes ; the material used was a kind of native flax, which 
grew abundantly on the Murray and in such swamps as existed 
between Port Adelaide and Holdfast Bay. These nets were fixed 
in a semi-circular form in a suitable opening in the scrub where 

were stationed near the nets to kill the animals as they were- 
caught, after being driven to that point by the other members of 
the tribe. Such game, with emus, abounded on the plains and in 
the smaller scrub from a little north of the Torrens to the 
Wakefie'd. The result would be a huge tribal feast or gorge 
lasting for several days. Instances were frequent where those 
who were uncomfortably full— and that meant an extraordinary 
distension of the stomach — mutual help would be given and 
received for the purpose of obtaining relief. One distended native 
would lie down on his back or stomach while another would roll 
him from side to side, then mounting the prostrate form would 

Although the natives wore extremely fond of dogs, and they 
soon ()l>tained large numliers of poor mongrel and mangy 
descendants of those that had Ijeen imported by the Europeans, 
I do not remember a sinde instance of their training a dingo or 

things which they caught were for purposf 
r with the white-man. Their ornaments wer 
ve description and for temporary use oidy. 1 
feathers of the white or pink cockatoo. This 
til very little trouble they could have prodi 
ments with the varied and brilliant plumar; 
idly coloured parrots which in countless num 
if forests and on the plains. In cases of ill 
ithout simi)le means of cure. Emu oil was i 
eiuiiatic nature ; and for sore eyes or sandy 1)1 
ifvives were an infallible remedy, applied i 

1 do not kuo^\ It tlu\ us(d ^uiu]ei\(s iii their 
lio\\e\ei siy this, th it, )ltlioi]i,h al\\c\\s a\ ilking 

lilhd ind itt liu( 11111111)0 s of sn ikes, lil(^er 
a. ll.m 1( . i.itt.nlMOiK llus ihvu.xpiK ued 


i^ahopduisof his I 


usually uuide of four or the stakes nbout seven feet long, some of 
theni foiked where tliey met in the centiv, the other ends being 
driven into the ground, at distances sulUcient to give a central 
elevation of four or five feet. The^e were covered witii bouglrs 
and bark, and, in some eax'S, with grass or reeds and rushes, and 

tire, tlu^'r- })acks close u> tlie wurley where it touched tlie ground, 
and their he;ids nearly ;it the eentn; of the half circle ; so that if 
awake they had a cle.u- view of the tire and of the ai)pi-oach of 

wurley and use tin- niaterial from it to till up the original doorway. 

make tliat alteration at night. Tiiey were \ery timid in the dark, 
and particularly so, if rain put out their tires, which was often the 
case as their tires were only made of small sticks. Tlieir powers 
of vision at night did not seem to be nearly so i,'reat as those of the 
white man; but in da\ light, their range of sight far surpassed 
tliMt of the European. Tliis wa.^ obsoi-vcd in their simple and 
unexpressivo ge:,turos when pointing to anything a long way oli', 
not that they weni incapable of energetic expression wlien the 
search was minute and urgent. Althoui^h T could make a very 
fair imitation of the aboriginal wurley, and do many other things 
pretty well equal with themsohe^, yet 1 was never able to pit)- 
duce tire in their way. T have trie<l it repeatedly but could ne\or 
get beyond the production of smdce. 

In the performance of their corroborees, more than the usual 
quantity of fuel would be supplied to their ordinary tires ; and 
while the old men, women, and children supplied the vocal parts, 
and beat time by striking their waddies on little mounds of earth 
mingled with grass, the middle-aged and young men performed 
their portion on the other side of the lire— retiring into the dark- 
ness or advancing to the light, as the sentiment required. The 
whole atrair would conclude with a brilliant tableau in which the 
natives showed their agility by dancing, with naked feet, on the 
red coals and scattering" them in all directions. They never beat 
time on skins : such a rough practice would have made it impossible 
for them to have supplied themselves with rugs for necessary wejir. 
The following will give some idea of the musical part of the cor- 
roboree. There was no variation, except in expression and intona- 
tion. The children would sing it first, then the women, after that 
the men, and lastly all together, concluding with tremendous 
" oughs " or grunts. The song : — 

rol ' oi the old Enc;hsli song's, or the " Idl of otu wlio knous 

T hope that none of those uho this brief record ot ni} own 
obseixations amU think F debiie to set n.yself up «^ ai 
authonty <ilio\e all otheis From my earliest cU\> natuu 
t.nour<d me iMth irreit powers ot olw'r'v ation, and a keen M^ht, 
AvhiLh ^\hen put to the te,t has attorded astonishment to my 
f iH nds L\en now m\ po^\els of \ision, in reading the smallest 
pimt or Hi distmguishmi,' ol)]ects at long distances \\ithout aid, often surprise my younger folks Otlurs mIio 
li\ea mote with the aborigines and weie favoured with betti r 
opportunities of obseiving their peculiar habits than I e\ei had, 
ha\e, I regret to say, done little or next to nothing to preser\e 
the memorials of a now almost forgotten race. If I hav e -,uct eeded 
in pieserMiig anything of value lespecting that rac(^ and its 
language, it has been due to a cast of mind which lould not see 
an unusual, howerer tri\ lal an tt\ent, A\ithout makine; i imntil 
note of It, and also, to me, the utter unposiibiht) ot toi getting 
facts and incidents Instead of piesentmg these facts in a hud. 

ot tlie general reader, and to make the mattei more attract 
used a st^le a little more lacy than the dignity of the sub 
might otherwise .illow, and T h.ive introduced mattei not evai 
pertinent at all tunes to the subject di»cusied. My good intent 

Let the reader imagine himself learing Adelaide from the t 
end of Rundle Street, the Park lands unfenced, his coui-«( 
sonth easterly to Ptescots Section, thence due east ha\ 
Kent Town, Norwood, and Kensington on his If ft iinid 
Marryattville on his right the last house he passes is < ni wl 
was occupied m 1847 by Colonel F reading still kMiiiu: ' 
Mr. Shipster's Section on the left and f^urreror F* m - '>" 
right As thirty long years have passed awny sim < 1 '^^ 

next to impossible A few iiundred vaid^ m fiom r\\< "'H' 

in four acts, intended to pourtray the leading events m human 

childhood, the seriousness and absurdities often seen in courtship, 
the excitements of hunting, and the fiery passions of a tierce 
triljal conflict. Unlike the plays of civilization death was not 
mimicked, — that was with them no subject for jest nor even for 
serious conversation, it was for the contemplation of the mind in 
mournful silence. The whole affair was highly instructive, and 
was kept up with interest from shortly after dark until near 

Adelaide. It was specially got up at Christmas time, but oh ! 
what a contrast, " what a falling-ofF was here." The terrible 
scourge of both white man and black, drink, had done its deadly 
work, and the drunken remnants of a broken and non-propagating 
tribe, vainly attempted to perform, with European i 
and European tinware, a villainous compound of ; 
civilized rant and drivel— a hideous insult to their brave old 
forefathers' names and memories ; and all for what ? — tlfe hat was 
passed round for cash to purchase more drink, and they got it. 

Continuing our course still eastward fi'om where we saw the 
first grand corroboree, we pass on our left the house tlicu occupied 
by an old and respected identity, Mr. Nathaiiifl Jhih's. and on 
our right land held by another identity eiiualiy well known and 
loved for his large-hearted benevolence, .Mr. Dean, a London 
brewer. Still continuing the same course we reach a small creek 
just before the road turns off to the right. This portion of 
Mr. Dean's land was unfenced and covered with magnificent 
wattle trees. Mr. Hales' land was also open here, Vjut almost 
hare of undergrowth. On the north side of this road, only a few 

is the western boundary of an anoient native buvyiiiu-ground, 
covering possibly an acre of land ; it was one of thr oldi.vt and 
the most sacred burying-grounds of tlx^ Adcl.iidi' tribe, the 
Westminster Abbey of the aborigines ; it wis sacred to the last 
rest of aboriginal royalty, and the most distinguished men and 
women of tlie tribe. The queen had died away down by the 
Torrens, and some distance north-east from where St. Peter's 
College now stands, I do not know the distance from thence to 
the burying-ground, but I should think it to be at least four miles. 
Devoted men of the tribe— not attended by the women— carried 
the remains of their queen, on a sort of litter, all that distance to 
her grave. The grave was dug by a few men, who used their 

speais ;iiul luuids to remove the earth. Mesbeiigei-s, soemingly 
weighed down with <;rief, often went to and fro between the 
gr<L\e-di<:ifeis and tlic slowly approaching funeral procession. 

niOMMiiiht-, /i-/,ii;iiii; away towaids IMr. TTakA house, wheeling 
and tiiiiiin-. \,ul aTw a^s" getting nearer the place of burial. 
M.\^U\ Ki.d Jlal.^iind 'l were pla\ing together at the time in 
till- \i<iiiit\, and our i uriosity Leing aroused by the strange sight, 
we h id a nio^-t ta\ oufrdjU- opportunity of witnessing the e\olutions. 
On tlip\ (ante, and away they went, mad like in their Tnovements 
lait w iih method in that madne^^ Cios&hig over into the wattles 
on Ml Dean's L.nd, they halted for a moment, started again, 

,i,<ai id innMi.'i. sidex\..\s/around a third. Suddenly 'startingotT 
.u I 1, I , 1 ui hkc ti. lined soldiers keeping perfect step, darting 
oi u 1 iiu'it an^'lc, l)-ii king down tlie hypothenuse, elldea^ curing 
ill the ino'-i luetliodual manner possible to produce the greatest 
possil)le contusion, keeping up all the time a mournful chant 
w^hich could be compared to nothing so well as to the partly 
muffled sounds of distant u^.olian harp, or a ])<r swarm of 
bees. After about half-an-hour of this, they started oli" at a run 

(M^t. in end f)f the l)iii \ mg ground, suddenly retiacing their steps, 
11. n luinm- n-lit iT.out 'and walking for a short distance, 
wh, . Ill ^ a littl(> to 111.' light the> maivhed straight to the open 

a few pi(M e. of b.iik and some loaves were placed on the bottom 
of die graxe ; tlie Ijodv w;us then gently lowered, leaves and bark 
vere placed gently on k, and then the grave was filled with earth. 
With bark and Ijoughs they built a little wurley over the newly- 
made grave, with its open side towards the east. The mourners 
camped that night not far distant. Xext morning the eastern 
sun spread his golden glory down the western undulations of 
those hills. The watchers saw the light kiss the newly-made 
grave of their beloved queen, and, to them, it was a sign that she 
had leached the land of light and of the rising sun. T learnt 
afttiunds that the object of their peculiar and eccentric 
journ. vin-> was to pu/zle the evil one, and so prevent him from 
tolloumg footsteps and catching the queen, before she had 
tnn. to M u h the eastern and sunny land of the good.- -Certainly 
a \ny pr.i(.tic,il means of escape from the devil. 

I will now briefly refer to their language, and furnish a short 
list of the words and j)iirases of those tribes who once inhabited 
the plains of Adelaide. The list is very brief and of course 

incoraplete. The language possessed great flexibi 
capalole of a varied expression. Although its stru 
wanting in art, yet it seemed to be lacking in poetrj 

( Red Indians of America or the inhabitants 
; didieult to give the exact pronounciation 
ent often changed according to the meaning 

words are treated by the elocutionist. It was, like French, a 
language that could not be mastered without a living teacher's 
aid and example. By means of the list which I have arranged 
hereunder, I have made myself understood by those who could 
not possibly have had any intercourse with the Adelaide tribes; 
the difference in dialect not being so marked as that between 
the Cornish and that of East Devon. The language was very 
sonorous, being rich in vowels, and when two natives were having 
what might be termed a pleasant chat at the camp tire, their 
voices were extremely agreeable, and if the listener did not 

not soon tire. There were some sounds tliat the natives could 
not articulate. It was truly laughable to witness the attempts 
of an aboriginal to pronounce " split sixpence." I never knew 
one who could do it no matter how great the reward promised. 
With regard to the pronounciation of native names, I regret to 
know that the present generation has, in several instances, 
departed from the original mode. I will only take one — 
Booyoolee— for example It was always pronounced as here 
written, crisply, as a word of three syllables, with the accent on 
the first. It had real nmsic in it then, but of late years it has 
been altered to Bowley, and actually printed on the State School 
maps of the Colony as Boley ! Let any one look at the words 
thus and say which is best. It looks to my mind like Darwin's 
scheme inverted. 

Boo-yul-lee (pronunciation). Booyoolee. Bowley. Boley. 
In the spelling of native words the early settlers, surveyors, and 
government officials, in nearly all cases, deserve great praise for 
the success which generally attended their efforts to represent, by- 
letters, the spoken language of the aboriginal races of Australia. 
I have done my best to spell the words so as to convey to the 
minds of others those sounds whicli, after the lapse of many years, 
my memory recalls with so vivid a distinctness, that for a time I 
again live over the scenes and circumstances of my early life. As 
a general rule, the names of places in the warmer parts of the 
Colony, which have a like ending of say " owie " for example, 
mean water in the form of creek, spring, or native well ; whereas 
in the more southern districts the ending syllable rather indicates 


y and camping grou 

nds. When wot 

Is a 

(> rvpea 

ted as in 

" Burr 

t Burra," " Para Para," a comparativ 


to the 

s Great Burra or 




in the 

atter case the Europeans have made 



Gawler district thus :— Pa 

ra Para and Litt 



nclusion I express 

the hope that yo 

ang . 

Australia, instead 

of reproducing the name 

of all the cou 




As a general rule for pronunciatic 
possible and be careful to sound tii 
necessarily t 

Bitcha, hmixt qra>i^liOi>p(>r 

COndollee, tvhaJe 

Coorakoe, cockatoo 

Cooraka, laarjpie 

Cooy.'ir, /j.s/t 

Connadna, vallnby (female) 

Cooydunda, unclean aniiaa/s 

Coolyow, ?vhitfi kangaroo 
COngoola, craivjisli 
Curkinya, nparroxi- haivk 
Curca, a small fiah, breaoi 

Adleecoo, for each or In 

Arcoondee, to drink 
Buora buora, by and b>j 
BoOcmarnee, to peel or 
Bookr-en..e, to cut 
Boocarnoe, to swim 
Cooee, come 
Coombanee, to cuok, ro( 

EuyanOf^ fn .fa>/, k>.',> stiU Oodonoo, nof 7r,U 

EudoruKloe, pmh Oodlootindoo, liotv lowj 

If .•.-,...., M,v>.r Oon^x, H-hat? 

Touata, plenty, tlie same as fina 

&c., nearly 
Witou, me 


Booker, old Moonitcha, ,^7/r^// son 

Coodnootcha, third male child Oritcliee, Jic^ or plenty (no oount- 

Cooniandee, one ing above y^i^; 

Coomar, another Pappa {under aye) boy under 21 

Eurertcha, second male child yarn 

Icliertaiuaroo, first male ddld Pooleearta, second daughter 

Xertanya, first daughter 

ls\e(Aiirt&, fourth daughter 

IMeelitcha, y?/i!/i son Poleechee poletchee, four 

Moonarta, third daughter 

Baloureendee, cloiidy 
Balouna, black 
Barcar, the bark of trees 
Barcayoocoo, canoe 
Booca, a j)ustule or jnmple 
Boorcana, ^vhite 
Cackera, moon 

Cooroo, pot 
Cooyapeeree, jish-hooh 
Cooyanooree, fshing line 
Cowee and nearly all words end- 
ing '^owej'^oue,^ ko. water 
Coorla, fire 
Coorndoo, thunder 
Coondoolee, perspiration 
Coodillar, winter 
Epittee, orphan 
Hooyer, small pox 
Hooltinger, night 
Hoongeter, mother (animal) 
lloonkee, female 
Hootawerta, chin 

licharee, friend 
Marcoo, cloiids 
Meedla, spear thrower 
Meeninda, yolk of an egg 
Meenoo, wattle 


]\Ieeree, thunderbolt 
Minpee, fint, hard 
]Mooca, egg 

Moocoota, hills, mountains 
Moodloolar, grandfather 
Mookee, crystal 
]Mookeeooroo, glass bottle 
Moolta, beard (kc. 
^looloota, nose-stick 
Moolootacurla, dry stick 
Mooncara, girl 
Moona, cross cut saw 

ilootcherta, rug 

]M urtpoona, murderer 

Pandahaar,' >,un 
Peeiioo, charcoal 
Penna, rt'd hot 
Pondee, hole in the ground 

PindetOodtameau, sohHer^, police 
Pindinga yerta, another countiry, 
ungaand inga terminals 
for layul, district, &c. 
Pingftreeue, lightning 

Tinyatta, stigar 

Tinguwurlie, a little hough hut 

Pooree, stone 

Pooyoo or Poyow, tobacco 

Tinyara, boy 

Pyetchabooltee, old tconum 

Tooca, clay 

VMvlen, hair, feathers 

Toolta, sister-in-law 


Tooltee, quill 

Taminga, u-hite ffum 

Toonyar, rvido70 

Tandee, tiicker bag 

Toora, waistband for females 

Tapa, road or path 

Tooi-anacarootee, a looking glas 

Tappoo, small Jiy 

Tooroo, icatershed of a range 

Tchiar, spear 

Toorootoon, brother-in-latv 

Teralya, timber 

Tootoondoo, right hand side 

Tindoo, stm 

Turtcha, egg-shell 

Tingue, leaves 

Ummeeyamayaroo, milk 

Tinguwattoo. boughs 

Walteela, fine, calm, peaceful 

Parts of th 

B Human Body. 

Caltoo, heart 

Moota, knee 

€oodoo, breast 

Omitcha, wife, but generally 

Coondee, thigh 


Coora, large bhie gum 

Peeco, eyehnno 

Euree, mr 

Peetee, bowels 

Hootawerta, c/a/i 


Terlanya, tongue 

Meena, eye.s- 

Terpoonree, to kiss 

Mepootee, eye-lash 

Tiapa, mouth 

Miltee, 7a;. 

Tidleecoonboo, bladder 

Milteewerpoo, hip bones 

Tidnapalta, boot 

Mindawerta, navel 

Tidnayerlie, great toe 

Mooca mooca, brains 


Mooltawerta, cheeks 

Tininyawertpoo, ribs 

Umme, breasts (female) 

Moora, hand 

Werta werta, j)rivates 

Moorlauee, dead and buried 

The foregoing list may be regarded with some interest as con- 
taining the fragments of the language of a race of Australian 
aborigines which has absolutely died out. It may even be useful 
to some curious minds who may take pleasure in the study of 
aboriginal philology. I have limited the record of my observations 
and experience to a moderately well defined locality, believing 
that the object which the Royal Society of New South Wales has 
in view would be better served thus than if my descriptions covered 
a larger area, and consequently included scenes and anecdotes of 
savage life of which I might not have been an eye-witness. This 
effort, though feeble in itself, yet, if joined to the efforts of many 
others, in different parts of the great Australian continent, may 

produce, in tlie aof-re-atn, n source of amusement 

, and 


for the next and f 


Mr. J. F. AIan: 

^-Said that what he had just h 

card 1 

read agreed 

very well with ^vh 

lat he had observed of the custc 

id manners 

of the aboriginals 

of Australia. He would like 

to po 

of the reasons wh 

y th(> })]aeks objected to eat tl 

,e flesh of snakes 

which they had lu 

)t themselves killed, or which h; 

id be< 

Ml depri^■ed 

of life by the whit 

es. Jt was well-known amon< 

r bus 

hmen that 

when a snake whs 

; driven into a corner, and it 

no way of 

'-soaping from its 

captors, it would turn round 


bite itself. 

This fact was also 

known among the blacks, and tl 

ley w 

ould refuse 

to eat any portion 

of a snnke that had mot death 

when thoy killed 

a snake they knew whetlior it 

. had 


bitten itself or no 

t, but wlien the reptile had " 


killed by a 

white man they w 

e.-e iiiclined to believe that it 


to its death bv ha 

viiig inserted its fangs into its o 

wn body ere life 

became extinct. Hence the establish. uent or ori-in 



Ho had however k 

nown instances wheii this pre 


coTue, but the l)lacks iirst assured themselves thai 

; the 


been incapacitated from inHicting injury to itself, through its 

raptor ..cvering t 

lie head from tiie body. Wit 

h reg 

ard to tJie 

habit of science a 

inong tlu^ aboriginals of produ. 


fire by the 

agency of a couplt 

! of pieces of wood, a deal of ■ 

>versy had 

been raised but nc 

> satisfactory solution of the na 

irt had yet 

been arrived at. 

In producing fire two pieces 

of ti 

mber were 

always used. One of tliese pie(;es, [iaviu<r a snial 

1 hok 

, in it, was 

laid down horizoi 

daily while the point of the secoiu 

I piece was 

inserted in the sn, 

all opening in the otiier piece. 


t^vo sticks 

were thus fixed at 

right angles, and the natives ta 

:],e vertical 

piece between th< 

^ palm., of theii- hanrls wcmld 


it rapidly 

■vanls, thus cauMng a certain ai 



m was that wlien a n 
1 betake himself to 1 
lach downwards, and : 

dftei-wards himself 


l!\IiUv\M) . vMi-^ ^(\^M\lMr M U CS J:u4 L R C P L.m.l 

experience hxndle the biusli n i^ tin \ iliu ot this pt is .n il ex 
penence which is, sought to n _,lu ^^]un iii\ iu(iii.)i\ u ( ills 
those I hi^e heird told tct ^r,, to Vustiihi toi tlu silc (it tlieir 

A\.dt-, i ^deit 
resort, of XeNv 
Brucks "Aust. 

and there is little (loul)t that it possesses 
adapter! tu the treatment of certain forms of P 

and then see in what way our climates a-nvd 
found to be impossible, M. much dependni- ni 

<lo not sufler from Phthisis, such as the An 
cleai'ly pointed out by Dr. Williams in his n\ < 

C.msumplion, this is not a re]ial)le -.-.undtoNN. 
there N\a. a time wlien the .le;,ths from Plitl: 

iC 'r'.'l !h!t. irt. whi<Vi wa.Vr' 'pa/e.! bv Mr. (V: 

-'. i.ui, aiid kindly lent me by Di. Pi 

! ,i^r_ 1 hnd no (litiiiulty in picking out n 

Thed'Mths'from Plithisi. duiiii- 1.-^7 mm 

the :\io 

June .Stti, L^s'.». In -.peakmi,' on the hereditary property 
he points out that two factors are necessary— the so 

^^h^tI i 

s ^e^y i^ieat The 

: wnrin ,.ue day, it v 

III. TnK Plain 

Good H.-iH. .V.-.. u 

•ill <[.. ;l- w 

•rll if not l.rrirl-'il> 1 1 ir . 


Plains, such nisrs . 

LH.' thos.,' W 

ith .niphyscnna, bronchi. 

.•l,i>is ar 

large secreting ca^ 

/ities. Ill 

L dealing with the mort 

ality fro 

Phthisis in this coi; 

mtry it wo 

uld have been valuable n 

if it. had heeii p^ssi 

.ble to plac 

(> before you the number- 

of ra-^cs . 

Phthisis hniu.rttMl . 

i'd with those natives bor 


»/as sho 

• Phthisis. 
I fear, gentlemen, I have d 

tiltli, th;it is sent out }\ere 
AustraUa, it is perfectly i 

T.^BLE A.-Meteorological Reports 

of Health Re 




b Wales. 












1:^ZU ::: 

Uathur.t . 



^:^n, ;;; 








7>s i; 












M, . 



lamp was used })y the Latin races to-day. Illustrations were 
aiioi-^h'd of these "classic lamps in contras't with the lamp still 
usod by th(^ KMjuimaux, anrl with those improved lamps of to-day 
whos(! illuminating power is fifty times greater. Little alteration 
in foi'm was made in the middle ages. In the 17th century minor 

consisted only of an oil vessel with a rush wick, or a piece of 

of rr\ohitioii. the real develoi)ment of the modern lamp dated. 

lamps for the burning of 
table oils were next mentione 

The changes necessary i 

: features were retained in the lamps of to-day. The 
ling stage of the lecture dealt with the various forms of 
perm, whale, colza, petroleum, &c., and their diri'erent 
:^s, the discovery of liquid kerosene and of keiosene shale, 
L America and New South Wales. The preparati(m of the 
n shale as carried on in this colony was described ; first 
.riiuti\e distillation of the shale, and afterwards the 
:i;d distillation of the crude oil. The evolution of the 
1.' I.n.ip^ was made plain to the audience by means of a 
r of illustrations and examples, showing each progressive 
f improvt-ment. The es.setitial features of modern lamps — 
\ e.-,sel or fount, the burner, the wick, the air draught— 

f's, shades, stands, suspenders, lace and paper ornaments 

The l(;cti 

on of the wi(;k which is in 1 
L tube of thin sheet metal, c 


5. Wicks should be soft and well dried before a tire before 
being inserted into the lamp. They should be of such a size to 
fill the wick-space completely without having to be squeezed in, 
and when first put in should be soaked with the oil. 

Management : — 1. The reservoir must be filled with oil every 
time before using the lamp. 

2. On lighting, the wick should be turned low, and then 
gradually turned up after putting the chimney on. 

3. Common flat wick lamps that have no extinguishers should 
be put out as follows : — Turn down the wick until only a small 
flickering flame is to be seen, then blow a sharp puff" of breath 
ACROSS the top of the chimney, but never down it. In many of 
the modern lamps it is merely necessary to turn down the wick 
and the lamp may be left to go out of itself. 

4. Cans or bottles used for oil should be kept free from water 
and dust, and must be kept closed, 

5. All lamps should be trimmed during the daylight, preferably 

In conclusion, Mr. Hamlet spoke upon the safety or the dangers 
attending the use of the lamps referred to, and upon accidents, 
fires, and explosions. Allusion was made to the Kerosene Act 
and to oil testing, and to the economy of the kerosene lamp. 

A vote of thanks to the lecturer for his interesting dissertation 
closed the proceedings. 

Twenty-one members were present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of three candidates were read for the third time, 
of one for the second time, and of one for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Berney, George Augustus ; Sydney. 
Campbell, G. S. ; Sydney. 
Farr, J. J., J. P. ; Marrickville. 

The Chairman announced that the Clarke Memorial Lectures, 
arranged to be delivered on November the 13th, 20th, and 27th 
inst., had been unavoidably postponed until April or May next, 
on account of Mr. Wilkinson having been unable to prepare the 
lectures through absence from Sydney on Departmental business. 

He also announced* with regret the death of the Rev. J. E. 
Tenison-Woods, f.g.s., f.l.s., who had been an honorary member 
of this Society since 1875, and drew attention to an enlarged 

portrait of tlmt <^ru\]rnum taken sl.ortly l..-f<..v his <leat]i by 
Dr. Wri-ht, and prc^cnrcl to tin" S.-cicTv. 

.Dr. j! A.shlmrton Thon.iw.ii rc.uK-i p-.iu-r ..n -Aids to the 

part : -l"('.w-s! (].'''ihlm'' T. B. TvvU^vk, W.^V Dixon, F. B. 

In the absence of the author, th(^ Hon. SecMvt.ny (Mr.Kyngdo 
read a paper by Mr. E. C. Manfred-" Notes on Goulbu 

Mr. John 0. If. Min-aye, f.c ... re.Ml ;., pup.-,- --Notes - 
some Minerals, etc." The following discussion took place :— 

Dr. Lkiiui'S— I would like to ask Mr. Min-;.y<- with re-ard 
the occurrence of this platinum in liroken Hill: Was it pu 

I separated them. I worked up ;i 
Dr. LiiiMiu.s - And the analysis 
Mr. :\IiN<.vvK Ye.. 

of discussion there, on tlie .ub].-, i ,,t ilir \:<:.\un- 

unless there is 50 or 60 i)er cent, oi platinum, but 
Mr. Mingaye puts upon it I think is rather high. 

Mr. ]\[IXG.VYE -It is a great (piestion whether platii 
separated by concentration. It would not be tw< 

attention to these mattei-s, been 
anything like payable (juantities 

— because as far as I can recolle 

occurrence of these metals, be 
distributed, Imt usually in s 

mineral water. Probably the 

purpobes Then -with legard to the tenente bismuth, I ^v(Ul](l 
like to ask AIi Min^^ lye whether lie tested foi gold ' 
AFi MiNCVi] -I did not tc^t It toi gold but foi sihei 
The th inks oi the Society %vtu accoided to the ^ .nous inthois 
foi then \ iluible pipers 

Th( following donitions A\ere Kid upon the table and 


Beklin K ! 1 11 M\ 1 ^: 1 In tilul ^ k . hni c 


HAMBLm— JJeutscht Mtt i 1 .i lu<. tlKchatt Mde 

oloijische Ztttschnft bcpltmbci IbS'J 
HoBARr— Roj il SociLtv ot TabuiAni i P iptis and Pioce. 

Liege — Societe Geologique de Belgique. Annales, Tome 

XVI., Liv. 1 and 2, 1889. 

London— Linnean Society. Journal, Botany, Vol. xxv.. No. 

171, July 27. 1889 ; Zoology, Vol. xx.. No. 122, 

Aug. 31, 1889. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Journal and 

Transactions, Third Series. Vol. xx., Parts 229 and 

230, July and August, 1889. 

Royal Colonial Institute. Proceedings, Vol. : 

Museum. Jahresbericht, fiir 

The Trustees. 
geological Society. Transactions, 
Vol. XX., Parts i. - x.. Session 1888-89. The Society. 

Melbourne — Central Board of Health. Eeport of the Board 

for the years 1886-7, 1887-8, 1888-9. The Board. 

Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The Victorian 

Naturalist, Vol. vi., No. 6, Oct., 1889. The Club. 

Mining Department. Mineral Statistics of Victoria for 
the year 1888. The Gold-Fields of Victoria, Eeports 
of the Mining Registrars for the Quarters ended 31 
March 1876 and 80 June, 1889. 

The Hon. the Minister of Mines for Victoria. 
Milan— Society Italiana di Scienze Naturali. Atti, Vol. 

XXXI., Fasc 1—4, 1888-89. The Socwty. 

Montreal— Natural History Society of Montreal. The 

Canadian Record of Science, Vol. in.. No. 7, 1889. 
Mulhouse— Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse. Bulletin, 

New York — American Chemical Society. Journal.Vol. xi.. 

No. 2, February, 1889. 
Paris — Academic des Sciences de I'lnstitut de France. 

Comptes Eendus, Tome cix., Nos. 8 - 12, 19 Aoiit 

Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes. Annee xix., No. 227. 1 

Sept., 1889. Catalogue de la Bibliotheque, Fasc 

No. 6, Sept. 1889. 
Societe Entomologique de France. Bulletin, Nos. 15 

and 16, 1889. 
Societe Qeologique de France. Bulletin, 3e Serie, 

Tome xvu., Nos. 5 and 6, 1889. 
Societe Fran^aise de Physique. Seances, Janvier — 

Avril, 1889. 
Societe Zoologique de France. Bulletin, Tome xiv., 

Philadelphia— Franklin Institute. Journal, Vol. cxxviii., 
No. 765, Sept., 1889. T 

Eio DE Janeiro— Imperial Observatorio. Revista, Anno iv., 
Nos. 7 and 8, July and August, 1880. 1 

EoME — Accademia Pontificia de 'Nuovi Lincei. Atti, Anno 

XL., Sessione ia, iia, iiia, 19 Dec. 1886— G Feb. 

1887 (4to). Anno xlii., Sessione va, via, viia, 14 

Aprl— 16 June, 1889 (16mo.) T 

Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emanuele. 

eOpere Moderne Straniere a 
;he Pubb 

dalle Biblioteche Pubbliche Governative del Eegno 
d' Italia, Vol. III., 1888. Indice Alfabetico. The Libra 

E. Comitato Geologico d' Italia. BoUettino, 2a Serie, 
Vol. X., Nos. 7 and 8, 1889. Eelazione sul Servizio 

Societa Geografica Italiana. BoUettino, Serie III., Vol. 

II., Fasc 8, 1889. The Socit 

St. Etienne — Societe de I'lndustrie Minorale. Comptes- 

Eendus Mensuels, No. 7, Juillet, 1889. 
Siena — E. Accademia dei Fisiocritici di Siena. Atti, Serie 

IV., Vol. I., Fasc 6-7, 1889. The Acadet 

Sydney — Mining Department. Annual Eeport for the year 

1888. The Hon. the Minister for Mil 

Observatory. Eesults of Meteorological Observations 

1886-87. The Commis 

Hydrographic Office. Notices to Mariners, Index Nos. 
1—52 of 1888 ; Nos. 25, 21— M, 1889. Pilot Chart. 
North Atlantic Ocean, July and August, 1889. 
Chart No. 1128, Great Circle Sailing Chart of the 
South Pacific Ocean. Chart No. 1149, North 
America, West Coast of Lower California, San 
Diego to San Quentin Bay. Chart No. 1159, Cen- 
tral America, West Coast of Nicaragua, Brito 
Harbor. The U.S. Hydrogi 

-J of July and August, 

The Author 

)rdure and Human Urine in Rites 
r Semi-Eeligious character among 
, (1888). Notes on the Cos) 

Indians of the Eio 

The Author. 

Clarke, Hyde— Gold in India (1881). Note on the Austra- 
lian Reports from New South Wales, (1878). The 
Financial Resources available for the Development 
of our Colonies. The Iberian and Belgian Influ- 
ence and Epochs in Britain (1883). The Picts and 
Preceltic Britain (1887). The Author 

Walters, Arthur Wm., f.l.s.— Bryozoa from New South 

Wales, (1889). The Author 

Photogiaphs and Negative^ of Billv Launy and Tiueinini, 
the last man and ^voman of the lasminiin Ru e 

The Hon J W Agnew, M B 

Enlarged Photo-iiph rftl ^^i V. ^ T E Temson-Woodb 

Pi of LiVMiSIDGr, M ^ , 

T^\elltv one nlel^l)eI^ ^^ou iiie^ent 

Th.' Oeitificitpot one u. u , M.inht ^^ i. .( ul foj the third 

Tlu folhrnm-.^utluinu u , ,1, . 1 ,,, .,i(lm,iiy member 


B.ett, E(hvaid Edmund r |. E ist St Loon irds 

Tt was lesolved thitMe&srs P N Tiobeck ,ind II O Walker 
l)( ippointed Auditor-, for the prosi nt }eu 

ieul> foi di'striljutiori to Fotrii(n Societies, bound copies 
of tlie A(jlume \vould bo foi\\.ii(Ud to niombers when complete. 

Ml W A Dixon, FGS, Fic. leid ,i paper on "Well and 
Rn er W.ite, . of Xew South W ah s ' 

A discus=,ion followed in which th^ following crentlomen took 
parr, M7, Me-,sr^ C Moore, F U K>n^don, H C Kussell, J B. 
Hensun, P R Pedley, Rf \ S Wilkinson J V ^Slann, the 
Chuiman, and the Author 

Ml Mooie swjir.sif^i] tint th. Royal Society shouM bring 

In the ab.sence of the author, the Hon. Secretary (Mr.Kyngdon) 
iad extracts from a paper by the Rev. John Matthews, M.A., 


>ur-, Victori.-i, on " The Australian Alx.ri-iiics," which had 

n awardod the Socie^ty's Medal money prize ot £-i.x 

\. discussion follovv'i.l in which Messrs. C. Moore, J. F. Mann, 

I the livx. ri. Wilkinson took part. 

)n the niolion of the OliairMrin. the tl.;mks of the Society were 

Eoyal S 


Zoological Society of London. Proceedings of the 
Scientific Meetings, Part ii., 1889. 
ILBOUKNE— Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The Vic- 
torian Naturalist, Vol. vi.. No. 7, Nov. 1889. Ninth 
Annual Report 1888-9. List of Members &c. 

Public Library, Miiseum, and National Gallery of Vic- 
toria. Eeport of t 
History of Victori; 
Victoria, Decade Xia., xoau. -L»e i yey/t. 

Eoyal Sanitary Commission. Second Progress Report 
— Water Supply of the Metropolitan Area. Third 
Progress Eeport — Drainage and Sewerage. Th 

■ .rio Meteorologieo Magnetico Central de 
Boletin Mensual, Eesumen del ano de 


Feuille des J times Nafurahstes, Anno 

Octol>er. 1889. 
Sociote de Hiologie. Comptes Rondi 

Societe Entomologicjue de France. 

IS89. pp m)—l7i'>. 
Society Fran(;aise de Physique Colh 

ILADEM-Hi v-Fninkhn In-tituto Joi 

No. 7(;«; October, 1889. 
ME — Bibliotec a e Archivio Tecnico. 

The Minister of Puhhc In^trudi 
tfca N.izionale Centrali' Vittorio Emanuele di 


Sjdne^, N.s\v ' Aug ,in.l ^/I'.t 
Jhnological. Industnal, .iiid ^ .m 

, 1888 ; Tome viii., 
Nos. 1—5, 1889 ; Supplement to Tome viii., (Bibli- 
otheque Geologique de la Eussie 1888). Memoires 
Vol. III., No. 4, 1889, (Allgemeine Geologische Karte 
von Kussland) ; Vol. viii.. No. 1, 1888, (Ueber die 
Eussischen Augellen, von J. Lahusen). The Com 

5TON— Smithsonian Institution. Annual Eeport of 
the Board of Eegents for the year ending June 30, 

Atlantic Ocean, 'Sept., 1889. The U.S. Hydrographer 

Yokohama— Seismological Society of Japan. Transactions, 

Vol. xiii.. Part i., 1889. The Society 

(Names of Donors are in Italics.) 
Dana, Prof. J. D.,LL.D.-U.S. Exploring Expedition. Aus- 

tralian Fossils, Plates 6. 11, 13. The Author 

Wvndham, W. T. — The Aborigines of Australia. 

Frankfurt Zeitunq, No. 192, July 11, 1889. The Publisher 

Wegweiser fiir Sammler, (Leipzig) No. 2, 20 Sept., 1889. 




At the preliminary meeting held in April, the following officers 
were elected — Chaiiman : Dr. Crago. Committee : Drs. P. S. 
Jones, W. H. Goode, E. F. Ross, W. Chisholm, A. Shewen, and 
S. T. Knaggs. 

Seven general meetings were held ; they were well attended, 
but there was a lack of animation and interest in the discussions 
as compared with the previous year. Special mention should be 
made of the excellent and valuable papers read by Drs. ^ ewmarch 
on " The Climate of New South Wales," Dr. Hankins on Wmd 
Instruments," and Dr. Clubbe on "The After-treatment of 

Exhibits were made by Drs. Shewen, MacCormick, Chambers, 
Work all, Watson, Jenkins, and Crago. 


(1) '• On Hydatid Fluid "—Dr. James Graham. 

(2) "A new method of Oplithalnioscopy "— Dr. Schwakzi 

(3) " On Aneurisms "—Dr. MacCokmick. 

(4) " The Climate of New South Wales, in its relatic 

Phthisis " — Dr. Newmarcii. 

(5) " Treatment of Throat Diseases "—Dr. Quaife, Jur 

(6) " The After-treatment of Tracheotomy "—Dr. Club 

(7) " On Cystitis "—Dr. Worrall. 

(8) "A ease of Anaimia "—Dr. Crago. 

(9) "On Wind-Instruments, and their relation to ce 

lung diseases "—Dr. Hankins. 

(10) " On a new Operation for the removal of Eutropio 

Dr. Thos. Evaxs. 

(11) " On a case of Transfusion "—Dr. Worrall. 

(12) " On two cases of Disease of the Lung "—Dr. Siiev 

EDWD. J. JENKINS, M.D....\^ , • 


A preliminaiy meeting of the Section was held ( 
1S89, Mr. F. B. Kyxuoox in the Chair. 

Tlio following olhcers were elected fo.- the eii^ 
Mr. S. .MacDoxnell, Chairman ; Mr. Percy 
Secretary : Dr. H. G. A. Wriotit, MesMS. T. Bu 
Bedford, and T. Whitelegge, Committee. 

Monthly Meeting held MAY 13th, P 
Mr. S. MacDonnell in the Ch, 

Mr. M^ 

England b 

Dr. Wr 

(Pouc41 .v 

cDoNNELL exhibited Slides of Ori 
\ ,AIr. BosTOCK, who is engaged in wi 
.V the Ray Society. 
IGUT presented to the Serti..n a ,' " 
Leland) N.A. l.."). latelv fnn.i m 


Professor Wallace (Edinburgh) was among the visitors present. 
Mr. Whitelegge exhibited specimens of Asplanchna myrmp.leo, 
Hjjdndna senta, Bursaria truncatella (a very large specimen, also 
a. now species of Lascinularia, like L. socially). A microscopic 
plniit ( Pandorina morum) was also shewn. 

Monthly Meeting AUGUST 12th, 1889. 
Mr. S. MacDonxell in the Chair. 
Mr. Whitelegge exhibited a new species of Rotifer (Philodina 
roseola), found in a small rock pool at Coogee. 

Mr. Wiesener exhibited a number of microscope objectives 
and other apparatus, by Reichart of Vienna, including a 
halmometer and a camera lucida (after Zeiss). 

Monthly Meeting, SEPTEMBER 9th, 1880. 

Mr. S. MacDonnell in the Chair. 

Mr. Walker exhibited specimens of Scale insects fAspidiofus 

Mr. Wiesener exhibited two new Microscopes, by Swift 
(London), one being a binocular dissecting microscope fitted with 
the Stephenson prism. 

Mr. Percy J. Edmunds resigned the Secretaryship, <nving to 

Monthly Meeting OCTOBER 14th, 1' 
Mr. S. MacDonxell in the CI 
Mr. MacDonxell exhibited a Fresh-wa 
identified — presumed to \>^ fredprirpUti. 

Pekiodicals Purchased in 1889. 

British Medical Journal. 

Chemical News. 

Curtis' Botanical Magazine. 

Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal. 


English Me'chanic. 

Fresenius Zeitschrift fitr Analytische Chemie. 

Geological Magazine. 

Journal and Transactions of the Photographic Society. 

Journal de Medecine. 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. 

Journal of Botany. 

Journal of the Chemical Society. 

Journal of the Society of Arts. 

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 


London Medical Eecorder. 
Medical Record of New York. 


Notes and Queries. 


Petermann's Geographischen Mittheilungen. 

Philadelphia Medical Times. 

Philosophical Magazine. 

Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. 

Sanitary Engineer. 

•Sanitary Record. 

Scientific American. 

Scientific American Supplement. 

Telegraphic Journal and Electrical Uevie 


Books Purchased i 
I System of Gynecology. 


Encyclopaedia of Surgery. 
Illustrations of Pathology, Faso vii., 1889. {New 8yd. 

Australian Hand Book i 

Barbour, A. H. F., Spinal Deformity i 

Braithwaite, J., Retrospect 
Braithwaite, R., The British Moss Flora, Parts ix.— xii. 
British Association Report, 1888, (Bath). 

Buckler, W., The Larva of the British Butterflies and Moths, Vol. i 
(Ray Society.) 

, Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System, 

Clinical Society, Transactions, Vols. xxi. and Supplement, Vol. xxii., 

Cohnheim Julius, Lectures on General Pathology, Vols, i., ii. (New 

8yd. Soc.) 
Cook, M. C, Rust, Smut, Mildew and Mould ; an introduction to the 

study of Microscopic Fungi. 
Davis, G. E., Practical Microscopy. 
Duhring, L. A., Atlas of Skin Diseases. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Index Volume. 
Fagge, C. H., The Principles and Practice of Medi 

Fox Wilson, An Atlas of the Pathological 
Geological Record, 1880—1884, Vol. n. 
Hanson, W., The Pastoral Possessions of . 
Henoch, E., Lectures on Child 
Hudson & Gosse. The Rotifera or Wheel- 
-- - , J., Syphilis. 

al Scientific Series, Vol. lxvi. 
1 Directory, 1888. 
Jahresbericht Chemischen Technologic f( 
Landolt, E., The Refraction and 
Leuchart, R., The Parasites of Man. 

1 New Zealand— The Scale Insects ( 

Eeynold, J. E., A System of Medicine. (Third edition). 
Eoyal Geographical Society, Supplementary Papers, Vol. 
Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, Proceedings, Vols. i. — vii. 
Society of Chemical Industry, Jovimal of. Vol. vii., 1888. 
Spiegelberg, Otto, Text Book of Midwifery, Vol. i 

Symington, J., The Topographical Anatomy of the Child. 

Watson, Sir Thomas, Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Physic, 

2 Vols. (Fifth edition.) 
Whitaker's Almanack, 1890. 

Seven Kills 

Coal seam near Lake Mao- 

Creek at Wagga Wagga... 

- spring at Blackheath ... 4G(; 

- Katoomba -iCG 

- Queanbeyan 472 

ling. Dwellings, Food 

- well at Cootamundra 

~ Giinnedah 

- Hunter River at West Mait- 

470 I Dravidian Elemei 

469 I — Diyeri Language 


, Kabi Language 

I — ^ Malay Element 

New Zealand 

Apoda ... 

■ Physic 

itralian Race, Origin 
- Eocks, microscopic s I 
kward State of Wat« 
jrvation. Causes of ... 

Basalt Group.NewZealand Eocks li 
Basommatophora ... 278, 3; 

Bdelloida 3! 

Biotite Diorite l; 

Pyroxenite li 

Ehyolite i: 

Books purchased 5: 

Botanical Congress, Paris ... < 

Brachiopoda 2{ 

Brachyura 2i 

Build in g and Investment Fund 1 3, ] 

Burglar*8 Alarm U 

Burial Customs, Australian 

Aborigines 4C 

Bursaria tmncatella 5i 

Council, Officers and Members 

for 1889 20 

Crago, Dr., on a case of Anaemia 522 

Carbacea dissimilis 


Causes of Backward State c 

Water Conservation... 

the Australian Aborigines . 

Diorite Group, New 

Aborigines, Mental and Moral 3 
Chloritic Andesite 1 

Ehyolite ... 



Cilio-Flagellata ... 


Clarke Medal, Awar. 

ations and Donors 22, 47, 

54, 98, 159, 331, 515, 5 
- to Library in 1888 
Dravidian Element, Australian 

Drawings of Jupiter 1 

Driving Clock for Star Photo- 

of Sugar Plantation 
I of Water,' Work 

41, 413 I makim 

Echidna, Anatomy and Life 

History of 

Echinodermata ••• ^ 

Edison's Phonograph ... ■•■ ^ 

cation of Prismatic lenses for 
ing normal-sight magni- 
fying Spectacles ... ^' 

Ellery, E. L. J., awarded Clarke 

< Grammar Outlines of Australian 

Medal ... ... 



Granitic'Textures^ New" Zealand 

Elvanite Group, Ne^ 


Eocks 107 

Eocks ... .. 

Granite Group, N. Zealand Eocks 111 


Biotite with Muscovite 111 

Enstatite Andesite 

Biotite without Mus- 

Diorite ... 


Hornblende ";! '.'.'. 113 

E— ;;; 

Muscovite 113 

Trachvte ... 

Group (N. Z. Eocks) Andesite" 131 

Entomostraca ... 

Basalt 150 

Diorite 128 

Eruptive Eocks of New Zealand 

Dolerite 146 

97, 102 


Elvanite 114 


Gabbro ... •... 145 

Evans, Dr., on a new 


Obsidian 120 

OrthoTili vro 1 2.«; 

onorary Members 
3 Andesite 

Trachyte ... 

Button, Prof. F. ^ 
Eruptive Rocks o 

Hydatid Fluid ... 
Hydatinasenta ... 
Hydromedusse . . . 
Hydro tachylyte ... 

I l^egislat 

i _— "do 

; and Donors' 

22, 47, 54, 9», i&y, i 

Lime from Goulburn, analysis 
I of 329,5 

Magnesia Series, New Zea- 

ts, Australian . 

uportance of the Pastor 
dustry. Irrigation ... 
idigenes of Australia, A 


Jackson and neighbourhood 

Iodine in N.S.W. Mineral Water 327 

Macroufa^ '". "• '■'■'. 2 

Irrigable Areas, principal, m 

Madreporaria ... 1 

New South Wales 88 

Malay"^ Element, Australian ^ 

Irrigation 75,159 

benefitting Pastoralists ... 78 

M^uS'k'c., Notes on GouL ^ 

production of Fodder ... 83 

Mapof Conttnental Australia .' 1 
Marriage, ^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^3 4 

Isopoda 220 

Marine and Fresh-water Inver- 

tebrate Fauna of Port Jack- 


son and neighbourhood 45, 54, 

Jupiter, Drawings of 157 

Matacostraca - ^ 

Mathew, Kev. John, Thc^ Aus- 

tralian Aborigines 97, 335, 


McKinnoy, H. G., Irrigation m 
its relation to the Pastoral 

^^Abor^gTnfr^.': ^'^^^^'':''_ 437 

Industry of New South Wales 

Kerosene Lamp, E volution of 511 

Medal. Society's... lo, 45, 54, 

Kymo^ope Z Z 'i?, 54 

Members. New .'.■.^O, 45', 53, 97, 3 

]M..!t^'Ot■olo^^y of Auslriiiia,, New 



I^T.^m^'Jlo-'Sil Roporis of Heaith 


ii>.se>rts in Now South Wales 509 


Mi.Tuo-i-iinitic Toxtnros, New 

Ori-in of Australian Kace ... 

/.aland Eocks .. lOS 

MicTORropic Siructnro of An^ 

'^"e.uvuZ 'Z\\ ^'""^'^^^^J^^^ 

O.thophyic (Tjonp, New Zca 

Mi.ToseopiLiil Section .. U -)>2 

hnilnaptn Rock. 

Darling, suitability for 

Polyplacophora . 
Polyzoa, Fresh-A! 

Port Jacksc 

Polyzoa sagitta . 

Potash-Soda Series 
Poudrette Factories 


Prickly Pear, Ai 

I Roberts, Sir Alfred, A nniversi 
Collection of photo-micr 

; Lime-Magnesia, ditto . 

i Non-Felspathic ditto . 

I Plagioclase ditto . 

I Eliyolite Group ditto . 

I Kock Groups, tabular view of. 

Prismatic Lenses 

Normal - sight Magnifying 

Pyroxenite Group, New 

Quaife, Dr.W.F.,ont 
of Throat Diseases 

Sanitary Section 

Sanitation in Unsewered Dis- 

\ tricts. Aids to 450, f 

[ Saussuritic Dolerite ^ 

i Gabbro ] 

\ Scaphopoda ••• ' 

Schistose Granite, New Zealand 

Eates for Water for Irrigation 
Reception to Members... 97, 
Eeligious beliefs of Australian 

EhizopodST^^ '.".". '..'. '.'.'. 

Method of Ophthalmoscopy 
I Scyphomedusffi 

ew Zealand 

Australia, Aboriginal 


South A 
Tribes of 

Spectacles, no 

Spelling of Ni 

Sponges (Port Jackson) ... 1 

Sports and pastimes, Australian 

Tracheotomy, the after treat- 
ment of f 

, Trachylyte Group, New Zealand 
' Rocks ] 

Trachyte Group, New Zealand 

Traditions, Australian Abori- 

New England 3G 

eHn W^ 

Stephens, E., Personal r 
tions of the Aboriginal 
once inhabiting the A 

Stomatopoda 2 

Storm, Rain- 

Stuart, Prof. Anderson, Kymo- 


Want of Legislation, Irrigat 
Warren, Prof., Testing Maeh 
Water Conservation, backwi 

Tachylito Group 
Tebbutt, John, on thi 
Tides of June 15 - 17, 


Tentaculif era-suctoria . . 
Testing Machine, autt 

Textures, New Zealand Erup- 

Amorphous ditto ... : 

Trachytic ditto ... : 

Thaliacea ; 

Thompson, Dr. J. Ashburton, 

51 : Creek at Wagga Wagga.. 

305 I . spring at Blackheath 

158 I Cootamundra 

— Katoomba 

— Queanbeyan depositing sail 

. Aborigines... 484 

Weherlite from Mt. Shamrock 

Gold Mine, Queensland ... ; 
Weirs, on the Darling Eiver ... 

Western Districts, underground 

- List of Marine a 

Worrall, Dr., on Cystitis ... i 
Wyndham, W. T., Aborigines 

Journal Ru/al^ Soa^fyN.S. W Vol XXI/I. VMc IX. 


MM S1@1M 

^MAY 25"tO 28" 1883.^ 


Dik^ram for the Rain Report for 1883. 

(Ll)c §o\ui ^odctn of gttu ^mtl) &lalcfi. 

OIFFIGEI^S B^OI^ 1889-90. 
Honorary President; 

^i:iSf-'-'- I ll^rlSili 



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