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-VOX- ,. XX XI. 




The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 as 
the "Philosophical Society of Australasia"; after an interval of 
inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed its present title, 
and was incorporated by Act of the Parliament of New South 
Wales in 1881. 


The Honorary Secretaries request that authors of papers (to be 
read before the Royal Society of New South Wales) requiring 
ns by zinco-type or photo-lithographic process, will, before 
preparing drawings, make application to the Assistant Secretary 
for patterns of the standard sizes of diagrams etc. to suit the 
Society's Journal. 


The Society's Journal for 1897, Vol. xxxi., has been forwarded 
d the same Societies and Institutions as enumerated on the printed 
st in Vol. xxx. (viz. 400), with the addition of the Field 
blumbian Museum, Chicago. 

It is requested that the volume may be acknowledged by 
eturning the Form of Receipt (to be found stitched in the com- 
lencement of the volume) signed and dated in order that any 


„ XXIV. 
„ XXV. 
„ XXVI. 

„ XXIX. 
„ XXX. 


Officers for 1897-98 

List of Members, &c 

Art. I.— President's Address. By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s. 

Art. II.— On the Crystalline Structure of Gold and Platinum 

Nuggets and Gold Ingots. By A. Liversidge, ll.d., f.r.s. 

(Plates i.-xvi.) 

Art. III.— A Contribution to the Study of Oxygen at Low Pres- 
sures. By R. Threlfall, m.a., and Florence Martin 
Art. IV.— Determination of the Orbit Elements of Comet/ 1896 

(Perrine). By C. J. Merfield, f.r.a.s 

Art. V.— Apparatus for Ascertaining the Minute Strains which 

occur in Materials when Stressed within the Elastic Limit. 

By W. H. Warren, wh. Sc, m. a*., soc. ce. m. i»»t. c.e. 

Art. VI.— The Theory of the Reflecting Extensometer of Prof. 

Martens. By G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s 

Art. VII.— The Burbung, or Initiation Ceremonies of the Mur- 

rumbidgee Tribes. By R. H. Mathews, l.s 

Art. VIII.— Totemic Divisions of Australian Tribes. By R. H. 

Mathews, l.s 

Art. IX.— On the Saccharine and Astringent Exudations of the 

" Grey Gum," Eucalyptus punctata, DO, and on a Product 

allied to Aromadendrin. By Henry G. Smith, f.c.s. ... 
Art. X.— On the Essential Oil and the presence of a Solid 

Camphor or Stearoptene in the "Sydney Peppermint," 

Eucalyptus piperita, Sm. By R. T. Baker, f.l.s., and Henry 

G. Smith, f.c.s 

Art. XL— Outburst of Springs in Time of Drought. By W. E. 

Abbott, Wingen 

Art. XIL— The Possibility of Soaring in Horizontal Wind. By 

Lawrence Hargrave. (Plate xvii.) 

Art. XIII.— On a Cor dierite-bea ring Rock 

By J. Collett Moulden, a.r.s.m., f.g.s. 

E. F. Pittmann, a.r.s.m.) 

Art. XIV.— Icebergs in the Southern Ocean, No. 2. By H. C 

Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. (Plate xviii.) 

Art. XV.— Aurora Australis. By H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s 
Art. XVI.— On" Grey Gum," (Eucalyptus punctata, DC.) particu 

larly in regard to its Essential Oil. By R. T. Baker, f.l.s. 

and H. G. Smith, f.c.s 

By Professor Warren, 
m. inst. c.e., m, Am. soo. c.E., wh. sc, and S. H. Barraclough, m.m.e. 

Art. XVIII.— Notes on the Basalts of Bathurst and the Neigh- 
bouring Districts. By W. J. Clunies Boss, f.g.s. 
(Communicated by J. H. Maiden, f.d.s.) 

Art. XIX.— On the Steady Flow of Water in Uniform Pipes and 
Channels. By G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s 

Art. XX.— Experimental Investigation of the Flow of Water in 
Uniform ( 
and T. P. ! 

Art. XXL— Notes on Myrticolorin. By H. G. Smith, f.c.s. ... 

Art. XXII.— A Second Supplement to a Census of the Fauna of 
the Older Tertiary of Australia. By Professor Ralph Tate, 
f.g.s., Hon. Memb., with an appendix on Corals by John 
Dennant, f.g.s. {Plates xix., xx.) 

Art. XXIII.— Annual Address to the Engineering Section. B y 

Art. XXIV.— The Unification of the Methods of Testing Materials 
Used in Construction, and the Precautions Necessary in the 
Accurate Determinations of the various Coefficients of 
Strength and Elasticity. By W. H. Warren, m. i„ s t. c.e.. 
m. Am. soc. c.K. wh. sc. (Plates 1, 2.) 

Art. XXV. — Note on the Cubic Parabola applied as a Transition 
to Small Tramway Curves. By C. J. Merfield, f.r.a.s. ... 

Art. XXVI.— Low Lift Pumping Machinery. By T. H. Houghton 

Art. XXVIL— Belt I 

Brake Absorption Dynamometer. By Herbert E. Ross, lxxj 
Art. XXVIII.— Tramway Rail Joints. By G. R. Cowdery ...xcn 
Art. XXIX.— Note on Mutilations practised by Australian 

Aborigines. By T. L. Bancroft, m.b. Edin 

Art. XXX.— Note on the Occurrence of a Nickeliferous Opal near 

Tamworth, New South Wales. By D. A. Porter x: 

Abstract of Proceedings 

Proceedings of the Engineering Section 

Proceedings of the Medical Section 1 

Index to Volume XXXI (x 

$opl Shot/kg of §fcfo jfcmty Hate. 

OFPICEBS FOB 1897-98. 


Prof. ANDERSON STUART, m.d. | Prof. T. W. E. DAVID, 

J. GRAHAM, m.a., m 
W. M. HAMLET, f.c 

F. H. QUAIFE, m.a. 
H.C. RUSSELL, b.a. 

T. KNAGGS, m.d. I Prof. 

Members are particularly requested to communicate any 
change of address to the Hod. Secretaries, for which purpose 
this slip is inserted. 

Hon. Secretaries, 

The Royal Society of N. S. Wales, 
r> Elizabeth Street. Sydney. 


IJogal Societg of §tefo JSoutj) MvlIm. 

Abbott, The 

. Speaker < 

Abbott, W. ] 

n. Sir Joseph Palmer, Knt., k.c.m.g., m.l.a. 

!>• Legislative Assembly, Castlereagh-street. 
Abbotsford,' Wingen. 
I'., ekett, M. I-:., ' Surbiton,' Holden- 
P. F., < Casula,' Liverpool. 

•street, Ashfield. 
Club, p.r. Broughton Cottage, 

St. James' Eoad, Wav< 

Alexander, George M., Grosvenor Hotel, Church Hill. 

lmoc. m. Am. Boe. c.e., Engineer-in- 
'ublic Works Depart., Sydney. 

Allworth, Joseph Witter, District Surveyor, East Maitland. 

Amos, Eobert, « Kiuneil,' Elizabeth Bay. 

An.l. i- >n. H. C [j., m.a., 161 Macquarie-street. 

Anderson, William. 

Archer, Samuel, b.e. Eoy. Univ. Irel., Eesident Engineer, 
Eoads and Bridges Office, Mudgee. 

Backhouse, Alfred P., m.a., District Court Judge, 'Melita/ 
Elizabeth Bay. 

Baker, Richard Thomas, f.l.s., Assistant Curator, Techno- 
logical Museum. 
£Balsille, George, Sandymount, Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Bancroft, T. L., m.b. Edin., Deception Bay, via, Burpengary, 

Barff, H. E., m.a., Registrar, Sydney Universit 
Barraclough, S. H, b.e., m.m.e., Lecturer i 

Engineering, Sydney University, p.r. ' Lansdowne,' 30 

Bavswater Road, Darlinghurst. 
Bassett, W. F., m.k.c.s. Emu, George-street, Bathurst. 
I! -ixt.-r. William Howe, Chief Surveyor Existing Lines Office, 

p.r. ' Hawerby,' Carrington Aveni 

Bedford, Alfred Perceval, Manager P< 
N. S. Wales, 16 O'Connell-street. 

rnon H., * Eversleigh,' Dun 

b Trustee Co. of 

d., Lyons' Terrace, Hyde Park. 

Bensusan, S. L-, 14 0'( 
Salter, f 

Blomfield, Charles E., B, 

Branch, Public Works Department, Hillston. 
JBond, Albert, 131 Bell's Chambers, Pitt-street. 

. Lond., Broken Hill. 

Boultbee, James W 
Places and Arte 

Bowman, Archer. S., 

Mining Enginee 

Superintendent of Public Waterii 
an Boring, Department of Mines ai 

e., 4 Barncleuth Square, Darlinghurs 

Bank of New 
' Hope Bank,' 

3 Lyons' Terrace, Hyde Park. 

Brennand, Henry J. W., b.a 
, Haymarket Branch. City. 
jJBrooks, Joseph, f.b.g.s., f.b.a. 
j Woollahra. 

Brown, Alexander, Newcastle. 

Brown, Henry Joseph, Solicitor, Newcastle. 
I Brownless, Anthony Colling, Melb., 285 Elizabeth- 
j street, Hyde Park. 

! Bruce, John Leek, Technical College, Sydney. 
i Bundock, W. C, ' Wyangarie,' Casino. 
! Burge, Charles Ormsby, Principal Assistant Engineer, Rail- 
j way Con,t , , 1 1 red-st. N., North Sydney. 

Burne, Dr. Alfred, Dentist, 1 Lyons' Terrace, Liverpool-st. 

Bush, Thomas James, Engineer's Office, Australian Gas-Light 
Company, 163 Kent-street. 

Cadell, Al 

| Callender, James Ormiston, Consultin 
! Equitable Buildings. 

Electrical Engineer, 

Cameron, Alex. Mackenzie, 

Campbell, George S 

Campbell, John Honeyford, Royal Mint, Sydney. 

Campbell, Rev. Joseph, m a., f.g.s., f.c.s., Te Aroha 

j Cremorne-street, South Perth, W.A. 

\ Cape, Alfred J., m.a. 8yd., ' Karoola,' Edgecliff Road. 

Cardew, John Haydon, a»»...-. m. i,..t. c.e., l.s., 75 Pitt-st. 
I Carleton, Henry R., m.i c.e., ' Tarcoola,' Nelson-st. Woollahra. 
I Carment, David, f.i.a. Gt. Brit. % Irel, f.f.a. Scot., Australian 
i Mutual Provident Society, 87 Pitt-street. 
. I'h.tni, .!. S., I,i. -n-.-l Surveyor, Armidale. 

v. Lond., Burradoo. 
j Chisholm, William, m.0. Lond., 139 Macquarie-street, North. 
i Clarke, Gaius, c.e., Land Titles Office, Land Tax Branch. 

Clubbe, C. P. B., l.r.c.p. Lond., m.r.c.s. En.,., mr, Macniari.-- 

, W. E., m.c.e. Melb. Unir., m i . , District Engineer, 
Water and Sewerage Department, North Sydney. 

Codrington, John Frederick, m.r.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. Lond., 
l.r.c p. Edin., ' Holmsdale/ Chatswood. 

Cohen, Algernon A., m.b., m.d. Aberd., m.r.c.s. Eng., 71a Dar- 

Cornwell, Samuel, Australian I 
Ooutie, W. H., m. b., ch. b. Univ. 

bury Road, Petersham. 
Cowdery, George K., Engineer for Tramways, | 

"" "ngton Road, Strathfield. 

Creed, The Hon. J. Mildred, m.l.c, ml 

195 Elizabeth-street. 
Croudace, Thomas, Lambton. 
Curran, Rev. J. Milne, Lecturer in Geology, Techni 

, l.r.c.p. Edin., 

Fred. H., c/o Messrs. Dangar, Gedye, & Co., Mer- 
! Bank Chambers, Margaret-street. 
Dare, Henry^ Harvey, m k . w. m. i^t.c.E., Roads and Bridges 

, Chief Justice, 
3sor of Geology 

Branch, Department of Public 

" Castlereagh-street, Box 409 G.P.O. 
Engineer-in-Chief for Railways, 

Dean, Alexander, 

a., m. inst. c.e.. Engineer-in-Chief 

i Department, 
p.r. • manerne,' Wybalena Ho&d, Hunter's Hill. President. 
;ck, John Feild, m.d. Univ. St. And., l.r.c.p. Lond., m.r.c.s. 
Eng., Ashfield. 
De Salis, Leopold Fane, ' Tharwa,' Queanbeyan. 
Dick, James Adam, b.a. 8yd., m.d., cm. Edin., 'Catfoss,* 
Belmore-road, Randwick. 
xson, Thomas, m.b. Edin., Mast. Surg. Edin., 287 Elizabeth- 

f.c.s., f.i.c. Fellow and Member Institi 
of Great Britain and Ireland, Lectur* 

ed L., ' Nyrambla,' Darlinghurst Road. 

3t B., m.a. Syd., District Court Judge, 


?.r.g.s., Exchange Buildings, Pitt-street. 

fcert Gordon, Roads and Bridges Office, Wollombi. 
— Iwards, George Rixon, Resident Engineer, Roads and 

Bridges Branch, Coonamble. 
Eichler, Charles P., m.t>. Heidelberg, m.b.c.s. Eng., 44 Bridge-st. 
Ehrell,RkulB., 8 t.c.E., M . 
Etheridge, Robert junr., Cui 
Evans, George, Fitz Evan Chambers, Castlereagh-street. 
• reet, North. 
! Everett, W. Frank, Roads and Bridges Office, Muswellbrook. 

:, Edward Ross. S. M. Herald Office, Hunter-street. 
, Geoffrey E., S M. Herald Office, Hunter-street. 
, James B , 8. M. Herald Office, Hunter-street, 
ill, R. L., m.d. New York (Coll. Phys. & Surg.) l.k.c.p., 
i. Lond., 18 Wylde-street. 

! Fiaschi. Thos., m.d., m. ch. Univ. Pisa, 149 Macquarie-street. 
! Firth, Thomas Rhodes, m. imt. c.e., _Engineer-in-Chief, Existii 
i Lines, p.r. ' Glene' ' 

'Hands,' I 
FitzNead, A. 

North Sydney. 

et Court Judge, 
, Walker-street, 

, King's School, Parramatta. 

Gale, Walter Frederick, F.R.A.S., Mem.A.s.r 

; New South Wales, Newcastle. 
Gedye, CharlesJTownsend, c/o Messrs. Dangar, Gedye & 

I Gill, Eobert J., Public Works Department, Moruya. 
Gilliat, Henry A.. Australian Club, Sydney. 
4 Gippa, F. B., c.e., < Elmly,' Mordialloc, Victoria. 
[ Goode, W. H., m.a.. m., Diplomate in State Medicine 
Dub. -, Surgeon Royal Navy j Corres. Mem. Eoyal Dublin 
Society; .Mem. Brit. Med. Assoc; Lecturer on Medical 
I Jurisprudence, University of Sydney, 159 Macquarie-st. 
i Goodlet, John H., 'Canterbury House,' Ashfield. 
U.llm. Walter J., ' Winslow,' Darling Point. 
Graham, James, m.a., m.d., m.b., cm. Edin., m.l.a., 183 Liver- 
i pool-street. 
I Grimshaw, James Walter, m. in-t. c.e.. m. i. m^ i, e„ *c, Australian 
Club, Sydney. 
Gundlach, Louis Richard, a.m.i.c.e., Whistler-street, Manly. 
I Gurney, T. T., m.a. Cantab., Professor of Mathematics, Sydney 
University, p. r. ' Barham,' Forbes-street, Darlinghu 

Sydney ; p. r. ' Westella,' Wonga-street, Burwood. 
>uld, Hon. Albert John, m.l.a., Minisb " * 

Hallomn, Henry Ferdinand, l.s., Scott's Chamber 
5 Hamlet, William M, f.c.s., fix., Member of th- 
I Public Analysts; Government Analyst, Box 16, P.O. 
, George-street, North. 

! Hankins, George Thomas, m.k.c.s. Eng., 'St. Ronans/ Allison 
! Road, Randwick. 

Hanly, Charles, l.s., Resident Engineer, Roads and Bridges 
! Office, Crookwell. 

iJHarris, John, ' Bulwarra,' Jones-street, Ultimo. 
SJJHargrave, Lawrence, .i.r., Stan well Park, Clifton. 
! Haswell, William Aiteheson, m.a.. i«. s... p.r.s.. Professor of 
I Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University, Sydney ; 
I p.r. St. Vigeans, Darling Point. 

! Heaton, J. Henn'iker, ■.P., St. Stephen'.- Club, Westminster. 

Helium, Joshua B.,c.k., Hunter District Water Supply and 
i Sewerage Board, Newcastle. 

,-. ■ « k I'nder Secretary, L'ul.l i. W.rks 


Hood, Alexander Jarvie, m.b., Mast. Surg. Glas., 219 Mac- 

quarie-street, City. 
Hodgson, Charles George, 157 Macquarie-street. 
Houghton, Thos. Harry, m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., 12 Spring-street. 
Houison, Andrew, b.a., m.b., cm. Edin., 47 Phillip-street- 

:;i;mi F., m. inst. c.e., .m. r. m.-,i,. e„ wh. s,.. Mutual Life 
Buildings, George-street. 
ume, J. K., « Beulah,' Campbelltown. 
unt, Henry A., f.r. Met. soc. Second Meteorological Assistant, 

Sydney Observatory, 
utchinson, William, m. but c.e.. Supervising Engineer, Rail- 
way Construction Branch, Public Works Department, 

! Jamieson, Sydney, b.a., m.b., m.b.c.s., l r.c.p., 157 Liver] 
street, Hyde Park. 
Jenkins, Edward Johnstone, m.a., m.d. Oxon., m.r.c.p., m.i 

l.s.a. Lond at, North. 

Johnson, James W., Norwich Chambers, Hunter-street. 
I Jones, George Mander, m.b.c.s. Eng., l.b.c.p. Lond., 
1 Road. ~ 

i; r: i 

Jones, James, 

Jones, John Trevor, _._., 

Jones, Llewellyn Charles Ri 

nes, P. Sydney, m.d. Lor, 

Hyde Park, p.r. ' Lland 

Jones, Richard Theophilui 

t.c.E., 'Moppity,' George-street, 

•Cheverells/ Elizabeth Bay Re 
District Engineer, Hai 
| oours ana Kivers Department, Ballina, Richmond River. 
j Keep, John, Broughton Hall, Leichhardt. 
I Kendall, Theodur ^.s. Lond. lm 2 

College-street, Hyde Park. 
■ II v \v : ,it.„. M ftC DonneU, l.b.c.p., l.r.c.8. Edin.. l.f.p.s 

Glas., 266 

£?!& H x/ ry P'A Bel1 ' 8 Cba mbers, 129 Pitt-street. 

Kiddle. Hug] . Seven Oaks, 

Smithtown, Macleay River. 

King, Chris. nph.r Watkin-. v.,,,, e., l.s., Roads and Bridges 
Bran.!,. ! , ut Sydney. 

King I he Hon. Philip G., m.l.c, • Banksia,' William-street, 

King, Kelso, • Glenhurst,' Darling Point. 

I >avid, Commissioner, New South Wales Govern- 
ment Railways, Sydney. 


Knaggs, Samuel T., m.d., Aberdeen, f.r.c.s. Ire 
Terrace, Hyde Park. 

,5 Lyons' 

Knibbs, G. H., f.r.a.s 

, Lecturer in Surveying, 


of Sydney ; p.r. 'A 

oca House,' Denison Road, Petersham. 

Hon Secretary. 

, ' Fiona/ Bellevue Hill, Double Bav. 

Knox, The Hon. Edwa 

rd, m.l.c, O'Connell-street 

Kopsch, G., 'Saxonia,' 

Boulevard, Petersham. 

Kyngdon, F. B., f.r.m 

s. Lond., Deanery Cottage, 


Lenehan, Henry Alfred, f.r.a.s., Sydney Observatory. 

Lingen, J. T., m.a. Cantab., 167 Phillip-street. 

Liversidge, Archibald, m.a. Cantab., ll.d., f.r.s.; Assoc. Roy. 
Sch. Mines L»,h1. ; k.<\ S ., k.u.s. f.r.g.s.; Fel. Inst. Chem. of 
Gt. Brit, and Irel.; Hon. Fel. Roy. Historical Soc. Lond.; 
Mem. Phy. Soc. Lond.; Mineralogical Society, Lond.; 
Edin. Geol. Soc; Mineralogical Society, France; Cor. Mem. 
Edin. Geol. Soc; Roy. Soc Tas.; Roy. Soc. V 
Senckenberg Institute, Frankfurt; Society d' Acclimat. 
Mauritius; Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc Viet.; 8. I 
K. Leop. Carol. Acad. Halle ajs ; Professor of Chemistry 
in the University of Sydney, The University, Glebe; p.r. 
' The Octagon,' St. Mark's Road, Darling Point. 

Lloyd, Lancelot T., • Eurotah/ William-street, East. 

Loir, Adrien. 

Long, Alfred Parry, Registrar General, Elizabeth-street. 

Low, Hamilton, 32 Cavendish-street, Petersham. 

Low, John S., Business Manager, The United Australian 
Exploration, Ltd., Equitable Buildings, George-street. 

r. John F., m.b., b.s. Melb., 'Ewhurst,' Stanmore 
Road, Stanmore. 
MacCarthy, Charles W., m.d., f.r.c.s. Irel, 223 Elizabeth- 

, Hyde 
BiacCormiok, Alexander, m.d., c. m. Edin., m.r.< 

1 Macquarie-street, North. 

B . m.i:.. o.m. Edin., l>4 G 
! M'Cutcheon, John Warner, Assayer to the Sydn 
the Royal Mint. 
McDonagh, John M., u.\., m.d., m.r.c.p. Lond., 
173 " 
I MacDonald, C. . 

1 1.1. Ebem 
: MacDonald, John A., >■ i.,-, <-.k., m. i„«t. m.e.. m. Am. s.»c. c.e 
MacDonnell, William .7., f.r.a.s., c/o Mr. W. C. Q 
Norwich Chambers, Hunter-street. 
; MacDonnell, Samuel, Union Bank Chambers, 68J Pit 
M. •!>... sail, Herbert Crichton, m.r.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. 

Hospital foi 
McKay, Robert Th.,m;, s i 

I McKay, William J. Stewart, b. sc m.b., ch. «., Cambridge-street, 

Mackellar, Tlie Hon. Charles Kinnaird, m.l.c, m.b., cm. Olas., 
| 183 Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. 

Mackenzie, John, f.g.s , Athenaeum Club, Sydney 
i Mackenzie, Rev. P. F., The Manse, Johnston-st., 

M'Kinney, Hugh Giffin, m.e. Roy. Univ. /,-.-/., m mm . , -..:.. Chief 
\ Engineer for Water Conservation, Athenseum Club, Castle- 


l.d. Univ. St. Andrews, 155 Ma..-.,uario-st. 

, m.l.a., ' St. Kilda,' Allison-st., Randwick. 

M;ids"M. Uiinri. F-, ' lifsscliiinl Uoust-, ' (,)ui-iT.-st., Newtown. 

Maiden, Joseph H., f.l.s., Director, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

Hon. Secretary. 

luincan Mearns, District Surveyor, Armidale. 

Manfred, Edum • . Goulburn. 

I Mann, John F., ' Kerepunu,' Neutral Bay. 
: Manning, Frederic Norton, m.d. Univ. St. And., m.r.c.s. Eng., 
L.8.A. Lond., Hunter's Hill. 

Mansfield, G. Allen, Martin Chambers, Moore-street. 

Marden, John, b.a., m.a., ll.b. Univ. Melb., ll.d. Univ. Syd., 
Principal, Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydney. 

Matthews, Robert Chr., Sheridan-street, Gundagni. 
i Mathews. Robert Hamilton, l.s.. Cor. Mem. Anthrop. Inst. 
{ Gt. Brit, and Irel.; Cor. Mem. Roy. Geogr. Soc. Aust, 
| Queensland. ' Can-unm/ II a-sall-stroet, Parramatta. 

Megginson, A. M , m.b., cm. Edin., 159 Liverpool-street. 

| Miles, George E., l.b.cp. Lorn 
Insane, Newcastle. 

Milford. r\ m.d. Heidelberg, m.b 

Branch, D( partment 

, Chad 

Woollahra. Vice-President. 
Moore, Fred.-; ■-. . Greshani-stn 

Moir, James, 58 Margaret-street. 
M-.n-is. William, Fel. Fac. Phys. and Surg. Olas., i 

Lond., 5 Bligh-street. 
Moss, Sydney, ' Kaloola,' Kiribilli Point, North Shore. 

Mullins, George Lane, m.a. , m.d. Trin. Col] 
P.B.M 8. Lond., No. 2«»:« Klizub.-th-str.vt. 






-President's Address. By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s. 
. II.— On the Crystalline Structure of Gold and Platinum 
Nuggets and Gold Ingots. By A. Liversidge, ll.d e r s 

{Plates i.-xvi.) 

. III.— A Contribution to the Study of Oxygen at Low Pres- 
s. By R. Threlfall, m.a., and Florence Martin 
Determination of the Orbit Elements of Comet/ 1896 

. VI.— The Theory of the Reflecting Extensometer of Prof. 

Martens. By G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s 

FIX— The Burbung, or Initiation Ceremonies of the Murl 

rumbidgee Tribes. By R. H. Mathews, l.s. 

fill.— Totemic Divisions of Australian Tribes. By R. H. 

X.— On the Essential Oil and the presence of a Solid 
Camphor or Stearoptene in the "Sydney Peppermint/' 
Eucalyptus piperita, Sm. By R. T. Baker, f.l.s., and Henry 
G. Smith, f.c.s * 

. XI.— Outburst of Springs in Time of Drought. By W. E*! 
Abbott, Wingen 

•. XII.-The Possibility of Soaring in Horizontal Wind. By 
Lawrence Hargrave. (Plate xvii.) 

. XIII.— On a Cordierite-bearing Rock from Broken Hill. 
By J. Collett Moulden, a.r. 8 .m., f.g.s. (Communicated by 

E. F. Pittmann, a.r.s.m.) 

XlV.-Icebergs in the Southern Ocean, Na*2. By H C 

Russell, b.a., c.m.q., f.r.8. (Plate xviiu) 

XV. — Aurora Australia. By H. C. Russell, b.a. cm a f r's 
XVI—On« Grey Gum," (Eucalyptus punctata,'^.) particu- 
larly in regard to its Essential Oil. By R. T. Baker, f.l.s 


By J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., 

Government Botanist and Director of the Botanic Gardens, 


[Delivered to the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, May 5, 1897.1 
In delivering before you the Presidential Address, on the Seventy- 
sixth Anniversary of our Society, I propose to arrange what I 
have to say under three heads, and I set out these heads, and 
their sub-heads, in the following manner :— 
Part I. History of the Society during the past year :— 

1- Roll of Members "J" 

2. Obituary 2 

3. Papers read during 189U 5 

4. Sectional Meetings 6 

New South Wales 

1- Physiology 

2. Zoology, including some ivtvn 

3- Geology 

4- Chemistry and Metallurgy ... 

7- Engineering and Public Works 
8. Public Health 

: IIr - «om E Botanical Matters:— 

b. Danger of planting inferior species 

e. Industry of seed-collecting 

d. Supply of good timbers not unlimited 

e. Forest-thinning 

/. Ringbarking 

g. Noxious Scrub and Prickly Pear 

4. Australian Timbers — 

a. School of Timber Research ... 

b. Wood-paving 

c. Special uses of our timbers 

5. Botanical Teaching in New South Wales— 

a. The present state of botanical instruction in the 

Colony 60 

6. An institution for botanical research 61 

c. Education of Foresters 62 

6. A plea for a Botanical Survey considered in its relations to— 

a. Pure Botany 64 

c. Forestry 67 

d. Horticulture 68 

Part I.— History of the Society during the past year.— 

1. Roll of Members— The number of members on the roll on the 
30th of April, 1896, was four hundred and nine. Thirty new 
members were elected, but the Society lost by death seven members 
and by resignation twelve, leaving the total number on the roll 
on the 30th April, 1897, four hundred and twenty. 

2. Obituary. — The following is a list of the members who have 
died since the last Annual Meeting : — 

Honorary Member : 

Mueller, Baron Ferdinand von k.c.m.g., m.d., f.r.s., elected 1875. 
Ordinary Members : 

Chambers, Dr. Thomas; elected 1882. 

Eldred, Capt. W. H. ; elected 1876. 

Garvan, J. P., m.l.a.; elected 1877. 

Gill, Rev. W. Wyatt, b.a., ll.d. ; 

elected 1884. 

Nicholls, W. H.; elected 1895. 

Sahl, Carl L.; elected 1875. 

Styles, G. M. ; elected 1883. 

I propose to make allusion to the life-work of Baron von Mueller 
under Part III. of my address. 

Dr. Thomas Chambers was sixty-seven years old at the time 
of his death, which took place on the 24th August. He was a 
native of Yorkshire, and in the year 1858 became a Member of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, England; in 1867 a Fellow of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, and in 1875 a Fellow of 
the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. He became Senior 
Physician in the Chelsea Hospital for Women, as he took a great 
interest in, and during his whole life made a study of, the diseases 
of women. In 1882 Dr. Chambers was compelled by ill-health to 
relinquish an extensive London practice and seek the more con- 
genial climate of New South Wales, and in his adopted country 
lived a highly useful and successful life. For some years he was 
lecturer on midwifery and the diseases of women at the Sydney 
University ; and he was recognised as one of the greatest gynae- 
cological authorities in Australasia. He was an Hon. Physician 
of Prince Alfred Hospital, and in 1892 was Hon. Treasurer of 
of the Intercolonial Medical Congress held in Sydney. The 
deceased gentleman had also occupied the position of President of 
the New South Wales Branch of the British Medical Association, 
a society in which he always showed considerable interest. 

The death of Captain William Henry Eldred, occurred on 
the 17th January. He was in his seventy-eighth year, and had 
ably fulfilled the duties incumbent upon him as Consul-General 
for Chili, though of late he had not figured very prominently in 
public. A genial and hospitable man, he will be chiefly remem- 
bered amongst us for the interest he took in acclimatisation 
matters, particularly referring to plants, spending much time and 
energy in the reciprocal introduction of plants of Chili and 
New South Wales. 

-oy the death of J. P. Garvan on the 25th November, the 
Colony has lost a good man and a distinguished citizen. Mr. 
Garvan was born at Cappa, County Limerick, on 2nd May, 1843, 
and while still a child was brought to Australia. He was educated 

at the Sydney Grammar 
training, although he neve 
able experience in the management of mining companies, and his 
organising ability was also shown in the City Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company, the Citizens' Life Assurance Company, and other 
institutions founded and managed by him. He was a member of 
Parliament for many years and a Treasurer of the Colony. 

Of recent years no member more regularly attended our monthly 
meetings than did the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, b.a., ll.d., a man 
of much charm of manner, and one whose depth of knowledge 
was only equalled by his willingness to impart it. He was one 
of the pioneer missionaries of the London Missionary Society in 
the South Seas, and died on the 11th November last. His 
experience of the South Sea mission field extended over about 
half a century, and his ll.d. degree was conferred in recognition 
of his work of seeing through the press a translation of the Bible 
in the Rarotongan language. Rarotonga was for many years the 
field of his missionary labours, and Dr. Gill's knowledge of the 
dialect was singularly accurate and ample. He was the author 
of several books on folk lore in the South Seas, and a contributor 
of numerous papers on ethnology and kindred subjects to many 
scientific ;w IS. These led him into communion 

with several eminent students on the subject of ethnology, notably 
Professor Max Midler. For several years Dr. Gill was associated 
with Dr. Chalmers in New Guinea, which was the last scene of 
bis missionary labours. His long experience of the natives of the 
South Seas led him to be regarded as one of the highest authorities 
upon the languages, customs, and history of those peoples, and 
his contributions in this respect to the subject of ethnology are 
considered to be of unique value, in so far as they have rescued 
from oblivion what might otherwise have been now quite irrecover- 
able. Mr. C. Silvester Home, in his story of the London Miss- 
ionary Society, tells of Mr. Gill landing at Savage Island in 184(5, 
after several futile attempts had been made by other missionaries, 
and inducing the natives to promise protection to a Samoan 

teacher. " Dr. Gill can claim," writes Mr. Home, elsewhere, "to 
have taken out to the Pacific the first complete Bible issued by 
the Bible Society. He himself was responsible for a revised, 
reference Bible for Rarotonga." Dr. Gill's " Myths and Songs 
from the South Pacific " has especially had a very wide circulation. 

I have also to chronicle the death of another old member, 
Herr Carl Ludwig Sahl, German Consul for New South Wales, 
who died in March last. Herr Sahl was an old resident of Sydney, 
having arrived here twenty-five years ago. He left Germany at 
the age of thirteen, and was for some years a resident of Fiji, 
where he owned considerable property, and he acquired an interest 
in some plantations on the islands. He was senior partner in the 
firm of Rabone, Feez, & Co., general merchants, having risen from 
the position of clerk in the firm's employ. He was one of the 
oldest members of the German Club, Phillip-street, and last year 
was elected president. Twelve months ago he was decorated by 
the German Government with the order of the Red Eagle, a 
decoration awarded for distinction in the Civil Service. Herr 
Sahl was well known and highly esteemed by his countrymen in 
Sydney and by a wide circle of English acquaintances as a 
cultured and courteous gentleman. 

•'5. Papers read in 1896.— During the past year the Society 
held eight meetings at which the average attendance of members 
was thirty-six, and of visitors 4-5. The following papers were read : 

1. President's Address, by Prof. T. W. Edgeworth David, b.a., 

2. On periodicity of good and bad seasons, by H. C. Russell, b.a., 

3. The 'Mika' or 'Kulpi' operation of the Australian Aboriginals 

by Prof. T. P. Anderson Stuart, m.d. 

4. Note on the absorption of water by the gluten of different 
wheats, by F. B. Guthrie, F.C.s. 

•5. On Aromadendrin or Aromadendric acid from the turbid group 

of eucalyptus kinos, by H. G. Smith, F.C.s. 
.6. On the cellular kite, by Lawrence Hargrave. 

7. Note on a method of separating colloids from crystalloids by- 
filtration, by C. J. Martin, d.Sc.m.b. 
• 8. An explanation of the marked difference in the effects pro- 
duced by "subcutaneous and intravenous injection of the 
venom of Australian snakes, by C. J. Martin, D.Sc, M.B. 
9. On the occurrence of a submerged forest, with remains of the 
Dugong, at Shea's Creek near Sydney, by R. Etheridge, Junr., 
Professor T.,W. Edgeworth David, b.a., f.g.s., and J. W. 
Grimshaw, m. Inst. c.E. 

10. Note on recent determinations of the viscosity of water by 

the efflux method, by G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., l.s. 

11. On the constituents of the 'Silky Oak,' Grevillea robnsta, R.Br., 
and the presence of butyric acid therein, by Henry G. Smith, 

12. Current Papers, No. 2, by H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. 

13. Additional remarks concerning Aboriginal Bora held at 

Gundabloui in 1894, by R. H. Mathews, l.s. 

14. On the occurrence of precious stones in New South Wales 

and the deposits in which they are found, by Rev. J. Milne 

15. Sill structure and fossils in eruptive rocks in New South 

Wales, by Professor T. W. Edgeworth David, b.a., f.g.s. 

16. On the presence of a true manna on a 'Blue Grass,' Andro- 
pogon annulatus, Eorsk., by R. T. Baker, f.l.s., and Henry 
G. Smith, f.c.s. 

17. The rigorous theory of the determination of the meridian 

line by altazimuth solar observations, by G. H. Knibbs, 

18. The notable hailstorm of 17 November, 1896, in parts of parish 

of Gordon, by E. Du Faur, f.r.g.s. 
4. Sectional Meetings. — The Engineering Section held eight 
meetings at which the following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Annual Address to the Engineering Section, by Professor W. 


2. The machi 

making, 1 

3. Water conservation surveys of New South "Wales, by H. G. 

McKinney, M. Inst. c.E.* 

4. Lift Bridge over the Murray at Swan Hill, by Percy Allan, 

5. Centrifugal pump dredging in New South Wales, by A. B. 

Portus, Aasoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

6. The present position of the theory of the steam engine, by 

S. H. Barraclough, b.e., m.m.e. 
The average attendance of members and visitors was twenty- 

The Medical Section held a special general meeting in the 
Physics Lecture Room of the University of Sydney (by kind 
permission of the Senate) when Prof. Threlfall, M.A., gave a 
lecture-demonstration upon "The 'x' rays of Rontgen and their 
practical application." 

Three ordinary bi-monthly meetings were also held in the 
Society's Hall, when the following papers were read : — 

1. Some experiences of Skull and Head injuries with their results 

during a lengthy practice in Sydney, by Dr. F. Milford. 

2. Human Fallibility and its relation to accidents on Railway 

and by Sea, by Dr. S. T. Knaggs. 

3. Osteitis Deformans, by Dr. S. Jamieson. 

4. Cardiac Thrombosis, by Drs. C. J. Martin and G. E. Rennie. 

5. Reception— A 'Reception' to the members of the Society 
was held at the Society's House on the 18th June, 1896, at 8 p.m., 
as a house-warming on the occasion of the Society taking possess- 
ion of its recently enlarged and newly decorated premises. About 
three hundred guests were present, including the Honorary 
President, His Excellency the Governor, Lady Hampden, the 
Hon. Dorothy Brand and Capt. Ferguson, a.d.c, the Minister for 
Lands, and the Minister for Justice. 

6. Financial Position.— From perusal of the Hon. Treasurer's 
Financial Statement, it will be seen that the Society has paid its 
"Wjy and has carried forward a balance of £14 6s. lid. 

7. Society's Premises. — All expenses i 
purchase of fourteen feet of land, 
to the Society's premises, together with the necessary furniture 
and fittings have been met, but this has necessitated a loan on 
mortgage of £1,400 at 4|%, and a further loan of £376 7s. 9d. 
from the Clarke Memorial Fund bearing interest at the current 
Savings Bank rates. 

It may interest members to learn the extent and arrangement 
of the accommodation which has been secured to us by the much 
needed alterations in the Society's premises to which allusion has 
been made. Basement: Large room for meetings 40' x 23' 6", 
book room 15' 5" x 23' 6", pamphlet room 15' x 23' 5", lavatory 
15' 9" x 12' 7", vestibule 26' 6" x 12' 7", yard (including latrines, 
&c.) 34' 9" x 13' 5". Ground Floor: Large hall 53' 6" + gallery 8' 
= 61' 6"x24' 9", library and reading room 15' 3" x 24' 10", hat 
and cloak room 7' 10" x 17', office 18' 4" x 13'. First Floor: 
Council room 24' 10" x 15' 7", book room 18' 4" x 13'. Second 
Floor : Housekeeper's quarters. 

8. Library. — The amount expended upon the Library during 
the past year was £235 15s. 4d. viz.: for books and periodicals 
£199 16s. 4d. for binding £86 15s. 5d., and for new cedar book- 
case &c.,. £35 19s. 

9. Exchanges. — Last year we exchanged our Journal with four 
hundred kindred societies, receiving in return three hundred and 
seventy-three volumes, one thousand four hundred and five parts, 
fifty-nine reports, one hundred and eighty-two pamphlets, seven- 
teen hydrographic charts, thirty-eight meteorological charts, and 
two engravings, a total of two thousand and seventy-six publica- 
tions. The following Institutions have been added to the exchange 
list :— Institution of Surveyors New South Wales, Sydney ; Royal 
Academy of Belles Lettres, History, and Antiquities, Stockholm. 

10. Original Researches. — In response to the offer of the 
Society's Medal and a grant of £25 for the best original paper 
on the following subjects : — 

Series XY.—To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1896. 
No. 49— On the origin of Multiple Hydatids in man. 
No. 50— On the occurrence of Precious Stones in New South 
Wales with a description of the deposits in which 
they are found. 
No. 51— On the effect of the Australian Climate on the 
Physical Development of the Australian-born 
No paper was sent in on subject No. 49 ; two were sent in on 
No. 50, and four on No. 51. The Council resolved that no prize 
be awarded to any of the writers of the papers on subject No. 51. 
At the meeting held September 30, the Council awarded the 
prize of £25 and the Society's medal to the writer of the following 
paper :— « On the occurrence of Precious Stones in New South 
Wales with a description of the deposits in which they are found," 
by « Tourmaline "—Rev. J. Milne Curran. 

The list of subjects now offered for prizes is as follows : — 

The Royal Society of New South Wales offers its Medal and 

£25 for the best communication (provided it be of sufficient merit) 

ig the results of original research or observation upon 

each of the subjects, Nos. 52 to 54 inclusive ; and for Nos. 55 and 

56 the Society offers its Medal and £10 10s. 

Series XVI.— To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1897. 
No. 52 — On the Embryology and Development of the Echidna 

or Platypus. 
No. 53— The Chemical Composition of the Products from the 

so-called Kerosene Shale of New South Walss. 
No. 54— On the Mode of Occurrence, Chemical Composition, 
and Origin of Artesian Water in N. S. Wales. 
Series XVII.— To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1898. 
No. 55— On the Iron-ore deposits of New South Wales. 
Series XVIII.— To be sent in not later than 1st May, 1899. 
No. 56— On the life history of the Australasian Teredo, and 
of other species of Australasian wood-eating 
Marine Invertebrata, and on the means of pro- 
tecting timber from their attack. 

Part II.— Progress of Science in New South Wales dur- 
ing the past year. — Before proceeding to a review of work 
already done, let me draw attention to the forthcoming meeting 
of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, 
to he held in Sydney in January next. It will be an event of 
high importance, particularly to Australian scientific men. The 
meeting will take place ten years after the first meeting of the 
Association in Sydney, which deserves strong support, if only for 
the reason that it has done so much to bring the scientific workers 
of Australasia together for both intellectual and social intercourse. 
If our large centres of population were more numerous, and the 
distances between them not so great, there is no doubt that more 
frequent meetings of this character would be welcomed. 

The organization is in full working order for the forthcoming 
Sydney campaign, and Presidents and Secretaries of Sections have 
been appointed. I would recommend all of our members who are 
not yet in possession of information as to the preliminary details 
of the meeting to apply to Prof. Liversidge, ll.d., f.r.s., the 
Permanent Hon. Secretary, and now President elect, at the 
Sydney University. 

1. Physiology. — In the physiological laboratory of the Uni- 
versity of Sydney, in addition to various other works in progress, 
a new contrast phenomenon has been observed and worked out by 
Professor T. P. Anderson Stuart, and an account of the same will 
be published shortly. 

In this department of science, we in Sydney have to deplore 
the loss of a distinguished worker. Our loss is Melbourne's gain, 
and I trust that Dr. C. J. Martin may occasionally favour us 
with the results of work carried out by him. During the past 
year Dr. Martin completed his investigation into the action of the 
well-known Darling pea (Swainsona galegifolia) on sheep. The 
report is in the hands of the Department of Agriculture, and 
many of us look forward to perusal of it. The operation of the 
plant is slow, but it eventually, if consumed for over one month, 
degeneration of nerve fibres near their destinations 

(peripheral neuritis), and consequently interference with both 
sensation and movement. This effect Dr. Martin produced himself 
upon sheep fed under his direction. The same condition exists in 
so called " pea-eaters " and explains all their symptoms. 

Let me remind you of the wide field for research in regard to 
the physiological effects produced, or capable of being produced, 
by the active principles of Australian plants. 

Dr. Martin also completed and published last year an account 
of his molecular filter for filtering off large molecules from smaller 
ones, 1 and a paper on the separation of the two poisonous proteids 
of snake venom by the apparatus. 2 

2. Zoology. — For an account of the work done in this domain 
in New South Wales one will naturally turn to the publications 
of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. At the same time, 
even at the risk of a little repetition, perhaps I may be permitted 
to invite attention to some points of local zoological research of 

Australian Museum. — The very serious discovery having been 
made that white ants had nearly destroyed the roof-framing of an 
entire hall and the floor of another, interfered greatly with the 
labours of the scientific staff. The Local Committee of the "Funa- 
futi Coral Reef Boring Expedition, of the Royal Society of London," 
in charge of Professor Sollas, ll.d., f.r.s., having offered to allow 
one of the officers of the Museum to accompany the expedition, 
Mr. Charles Hedley was selected for the purpose, and left Sydney 
with the expedition in H.M.S. "Penguin," Captain Mostyn 
Field, r.n., on 1st May, and after a residence on the island for 
two and a half months, returned to Sydney on 22nd August. 
During his stay on Funafuti he succeeded in amassing an interest- 

1 A rapid method of separating colloids from crystalloids in solutions 
containing both. -Journ. Physiol., Vol. xx., (Nos. 4 and 5, Oct. 19) 1896, 
P- 364; see also Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. xxx., p. 147, (Aug. 1896). 

2 An explanation of the marked difference in the effects produced by 
subcutaneous and intravenous injection of the venom of Australian 
snakes.— Journ. Roy. Soc. N.8.W. loc. cit. 

12 J. H. MAIDEN. 

ing collection, particularly of invertebrate and ethnological objects, 
together with much valuable scientific information, and although 
no other collecting expeditions have been organised, some of the 
members of the Museum staff have, at various times, been able to 
collect specimens, many of which are of value to the Museum. 
The Curator, Mr. R. Etheridge, junr., had an opportunity of 
be Wombeyan and Yaralumla Caves and other places in 
the interior, from which he procured much interesting material. 
The most important event of the year was the investigation by 
the staff, of Mr. Hedley's collection, still going on. The publica- 
tion of their results form Memoir III., 1 of which parts i. and ii. 
have appeared, part iii. is printed, and part iv. well advanced in MS. 
Professor W. A. Haswell of the Sydney University has been 
chiefly engaged during the year in finishing his share of Parker 
and Haswell's "Zoology" shortly to be published by Macmillan, 
and seeing it through the press. He has, however, been able to 
work out a portion of the material he has had by him for some 
time relating to the development of the Port Jackson shark, and 
has a paper ready for publication giving an account of the stages 
prior to the formation of the mesoderm and notochord. The 
work on zoology already alluded to will be of considerable impor- 
tance to students of the subject, and particularly to Arari 
students, because of the special local knowledge and experience of 
the authors. In this work, in each of the major divisions or phyla 
of the animal kingdom one or several examples are fully described 
and illustrated. Then follows a brief statement of the general 
characteristics of the phylum, with a sketch of its classification 
and an indication of the systematic position of the example. The 
description of the latter, is in this way, brought into relation with 
what follows— \ u.., an account of the general organisation, embry- 
ology, ethology, distribution and affinities of the whole group. A 
general account of the structure and physiology of animals forms 
an introductory chapter, and chapters on the history of zoology, 

1 The Atoll of Funafuti, Ellice Group : 
and general structure, bas< 

ESS. 13 

the philosophy of zoology, and the distribution of animals close 
the book. About three hundred of the illustrations are from 
original drawings by the authors. 

Mr. J. P. Hill, Demonstrator of Biology in the Sydney University 
has, since the middle of the past year, been engaged in working 
up the details of the placentation of the bandicoot. The fortunate 
acquisition of important earlier and later stages since the announce- 
ment of the occurrence of an allantoic placenta in this marsupial, 
has enabled him to work out the main details of its development, 
and to give a fairly complete acccount of the entire placentation 
phenomena. Interesting facts have been brought to light regard- 
ing the mode of parturition, and a detailed examination has been 
made of the female urino-genital organs. These results are now 
almost ready for publication. Important material has also been 
collected for a further study of the development of the platypus, 
and also of the wallaby. He has reported on the collection of 
enteropneusta brought back by Mr. Charles Hedley from the Atoll 
of Funafuti, in the Memoirs now in course of publication by the 
Australian Museum. 

During the first half of 1896 Professor J. T. Wilson was con- 
stantly engaged with Mr. J. P. Hill in writing up the results of 
their joint investigations upon the development of the marsupial 
dentition. These results have just now appeared in the Q. ./. of 
Micro*. Sci. For the rest of 1896 his time was mainly occupied 
with departmental work. 

Mr. A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., B.Sc, Head-Master of Newington 
College, has found time for some important work, the results of 
which are mainly published outside the Colony. The titles of his 
Papers are :— (In conjunction with C. Frost, f.l.s.) 1. Description 
of a new species of Ablepharus from Victoria, with critical notes 
on two other Australian lizards.— ( Proc. L.S., iV.S. W., Vol. XXL, 
P*rt iii.) ; 2. Description of two new species of lizards from 
Central Australia, (includes a new genus of snake-like lizard). — 
(Proc. U.S., Vic, Vol. ix., New Series) ; 3. The lizards of New 
Zealand.— 7V<ms. N. Z. Inst., to be published this year, read last 

July). 4. On some facts in the geographical distribution of land 
and freshwater vertebrates in Victoria.— (Proc. RS., Vic.,Vo\. ix., 
New Series). 

My predecessor announced, in his presidential address, the 
death of Mr. A. S. Olliff, a leading New South Wales entomologist, 
and now I have to chronicle the death of Mr. F. A. A. Skuse, cut 
off in early manhood like Mr. Olliff, whom he succeeded at the 
Australian Museum, and like him, a trained entomologist, one who 
had done excellent work, and one who, it was hoped, had a life of 
usefulness before him. Our scientific men are too few in number 
for us not to feel deeply the loss of two able men, so full of promise. 

The work of Mr. W. W. Froggatt, our Government Entomolo- 
gist, for the past year has been mainly published in the Proceedings 
of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, viz., papers entitled 
"On the bag-shelters of Lepidopterous larvse of the genus Teara"; 
"The entomology of Grass-Trees (XanthorrJuea)"; and "Australian 
Termitidse, part ii." Mr. Froggatt also published an important 
paper on honey ants. 1 

Marine Biological Laboratory and Public Aquarium. — A scheme 
which was discussed some years ago for the establishment of a 
Public Aquarium in Port Jackson, with, in association with it, 
tanks for experiments on iish culture, and a Biological Station or 
laboratory for investigations in marine biology, has lain dormant 
of late. But when the Fisheries Bill, now before Parliament, 
becomes law, the conditions ought to be more favourable for the 
establishment of such an institution. The Director of Fisheries, 
for whose appointment the bill provides, will assuredly demand 
that facilities such as would be provided in the way suggested, 
should V>e afforded, in order to enable him to make any sound 
improvements in the state of the fisheries of the Colony. Such a 
composite institution as that suggested, if placed 
• accessible position, say in the Domain, would 

l Eeport (Zoology) of the Horn Expedition to Cenl 
pp. 385 - 92, pi. 27, figs. 1 - 13. 

Coral-bores.— The subject of coral reefs has been prominent 
during the past year. A brief visit was paid to the Great Aus- 
tralian Barrier Reef by Prof. Agassiz last winter, and though his 
work was brought to an abrupt termination through unfavourable 
weather, Australian students will await with interest the observa- 
tion and conclusions of one so profoundly versed in the coral 
deposits of another hemisphere. More closely connected with 
ourselves was an expedition, first announced to you in the 
Presidential Address of 1895, the departure of which was described 
by my predecessor at our last anniversary. Professor Sollas, the 
leader appointed by the Royal Society Committee for investigating 
coral reefs by boring and sounding, was with his party safely con- 
veyed to the atoll of Funafuti by H.M.S. "Penguin." The* tale 
of his repeated efforts and ill success in penetrating the atoll by 
means of the diamond drill is told by himself in a report to the 
Royal Society. 1 It appears that the substance of an atoll had 
been assumed to be compact and homogeneous rock, whereas the 
diamond drill revealed it as chambered with subterraneous caverns 
full of loose foraminiferal sand. The mechanism in the hands of 
the expedition not having been selected for such a contingency, 
was unable to reach to any considerable depth, and the boring 
was of necessity abandoned. 

So successful however, was the alternate method of inquiry — 
by sounding, — that, although not allowing a demonstration as 
absolute as a handful of ash in a boring tube would afford, it has 
yet given us a probable clue to the structure of an atoll. Uncon- 
nected with other members of the Archipelago, springing alone 
from the abyssal floor of the Pacific, Funafuti towers upwards in 
a cone, from a base thirty miles in diameter to a height of 12,000 
f eet. Such a cone cannot be mistaken for aught but a volcano, 

Mauna Loa. At about one hundred and forty fathoms from the 
surface, an abrupt change in the declivity of the slope occurs, for 
at this point a wall-like rampart rises on all sides of the atoll. 
"It is difficult," says Prof. Sollas, "to resist the impression that 
it is the upper one hundred and forty fathoms which represents 
the true coral reef." It will of course be obvious to you that 
Prof. Sollas' interpretation of the contour of Funafuti as a volcanic 
cone crowned with a coral cap some eight hundred feet thick (less 
if the reef advanced on a coral talus), calls for no great amount of 

During the stay of the boring party the fauna, flora, and 
ethnology of Funafuti were studied by Mr. Hedley, who accom- 
panied Prof. Sollas as naturalist. Mr. Hedley made excellent 
use of his time, and the results of his personal observations, and 
of his own work and that of other specialists on his collections, 
form the subjects of several parts of a memoir which have already 
been issued by the Australian Museum. 

Though unfruitful in the principal object, the voyage of the 
" Penguin " has advanced the study of the subject along other 
lines. Her surveys have suggested to Admiral Wharton an 
original and brilliant hypothesis on the origin of atolls. 1 The 
fact that all atolls stood on the same level was advanced by 
Darwin as a convincing proof of his theory of subsidence. A 
satisfactory explanation of the uniformity of level without invok- 
ing subsidence is offered by the Hydrographer, who points out 
that submarine volcanoes void chiefly ash and such loose matter, 
that at the close of an eruption such a pile is first denuded by 
aerial agencies to the sea level, and then by marine forces to 
whatever depth wave action extends. Proofs are advanced to 
show that submarine erosion cuts deeper than is generally sup- 
posed. The fiat top of the volcanic peak thus ground down he 
considers as the lagoon floor of the future atoll around whose 
rim the coral ring grows up. 

1 Nature, Feb. 25, 1897. 

3. Geology. — In the Geological Department and School of 
Mines at the University of Sydney, research work has during the 
past year been directed chiefly to the radiolarian jaspers, cherts, 
and claystones of the Bingara, Barraba, Tam worth, and Jenolan 
Caves Districts. The results of these investigations by Professor 
David and the third year University students have already been 
communicated to the Linnean Society of New South Wales, and 
they prove that a large proportion of the Devonian rocks of New 
South Wales are composed of shells of Radiolaria. 

An examination with Mr. W. E. Abbott of the " Burning 
Mountain" near Wingen, showed that there was conclusive 
evidence that the coal seam in which the tire is seated belongs to 
the Greta coal measures. There is proof that it has been burning 
for probably about one thousand years. The results of the study 
of the « Submerged Forest " at Shea's Creek, and of the Sills at 
Tam worth have already been communicated to this Society. A 
recent examination of a considerable area in South Australia, 
classed previously as Pre- Cambrian, has convinced Professor David 
and Mr. Walter Howchin that the rocks are of Lower Cambrian 
Age, as remains of Archceocyathince are abundant in a certain bed 
of limestone in this group. This will necessitate a complete re- 
classification of the older rocks of South Australia. 

In connection with the School of Mines' students (or perhaps, 
to speak more correctly, students of the Department of Mining 
Engineering), at the University, it is a matter for congratulation 
both to Professor David and to Professor Warren, that Mr. J. A. 
Watt, m.a., b.Sc, has lately been appointed Geological Surveyor on 
the Staff of the Department of Mines in this Colony ; Mr. T. 
Blatchford, b.a., has obtained a similar appointment in West Aus- 
tralia, and Mr. E. S. Simpson, B.E., has received the position of 
Assayer and Analyst to the Geological Survey of the same colony. 
During 1896 a large amount of routine work was done by the 
officers of the Geological Survey of New South Wales. Mr. 
Pittman, the Government Geologist, made an examination of the 
gold and diamond bearing deposit at Kangaloon ; what appears 

18 J. H. MAIDEN. 

to be a volcanic neck occurs there, but no diamonds have as yet 
been found in the volcanic breccia. The examination of the 
Triassic artesian basin was continued. In company with Prof- 
David, several examinations were made of portions of the southern 
coalfields. The presence of mud springs and Lower Cretaceous 
rocks at Goolibah was noted. A considerable portion of Mr. 
Pittman's time was also taken up in connection with the work of 
the Royal Commission (of which he was a member), on the heating 

Mr. J. E. Came, Geological Surveyor, examined the country 
between Port Macquarie and Cape Hawke, and added Triassic to 
the formations formerly mapped in that district. During the 
greater part of the year Mr. Carne was engaged in an examination 
of the country along the Victorian border. He has added con- 
siderably to our knowledge of those parts, and has succeeded in 
obtaining palseontological evidence to prove that both the Lower 
Silurian and Devonian series occur there, a fact that was not 
known before. He has also made a long report on the Pambula 
goldfield, where there is a large development of felsites, in some 
places nodular, and rhyolites. 

Mr. J. B. Jaquet, Geological Surveyor, made many examina- 
tions of mines, and reports of great economic value. In the 
Kosciusko region he was unable to discover any traces of glacial 

Under the active supervision of Mr. Card, Mineralogist and 
Curator of the Geological and Mining Museum, great progress 
has been made in the arrangement, etc. of the Departmental 
Museum, which contains a unique collection of the colony's 
minerals, rocks, and fossils. 

Large collections of Upper Silurian and Siluro-Devonian fossils 
from the Yass-Murrumbidgee districts have been made. These 
contain much new and valuable material, and have been worked 
at by Mr. W. S. Dun, Librarian and Assistant Palaeontologist of 
the Survey. 

The Rev. J. M. Curran was engaged during the early part of 
the year on the gems and precious stones of the colony, and the 
results of his observations will appear in the coming volume of 
this Society. Mr. Curran has also continued his observations on 
the Mount Kosciusko Plateau, and notes additional evidence to 
support his conclusion (already made known through the Linnean 
Society), that (1) there is no evidence of glacial action in the 
valleys at the base of Mount Kosciusko ; (2) there is absolutely 
no evidence of any extensive Post-Tertiary glaciation on the 
Kosciusko Plateau. During a tour in the Cretaceous area of the 
north-west of the colony, the same gentleman found evidence to 
show that in the north-west, as well as at Coonamble, the artesian 
water is derived from Triassic rather than from Cretaceous beds. 
Mr. Curran was by good fortune on Salisbury Downs in September 
last, when an artesian supply was tapped at a depth of 1,700 feet, 
and amongst the debris brought to the surface by the first rush of 
water was a well preserved specimen of Taeniopteris, together 
with a number of fragmentary impressions of the same fern, and 
this may be taken as conclusive evidence of the water-bearing 
beds being Triassic and not Cretaceous. This discovery is an 
important contribution to Australian geology. 

i. Chemistry and Metallurgy.— The work done by Mr. W. M. 
Hamlet, the Government Analyst, although essentially of a 
scientific nature, largely consists of routine work ; it embraces 
such items as the following which were analysed, examined, and 
reported on during the past year : — drugs, chemicals, articles of 
food and drink, condiments, cosmetics, antiseptics, disinfectants, 
textile fabrics, such as cloth, silk, cotton, blanketing, paints, fuels, 
dyes, soap, sealing wax, patent medicines, sewage effluents, bitumen 
and building materials. Investigations have also been made on 
the subjects of air-pollution, water supply and sewage disposal. 
Mr. Hamlet's opportunities for research during the past year 
»ave been seriously diminished through having to remove his 
laboratory to other premises pending the erection of the Board of 
Health building, a floor of which will be set apart for his impor- 

20 J. H. MAIDEN. 

tant investigations. His accommodation promises to be so 
improved that I hope: hi a of his new laboratory 

will be synchronous with the commencement of a long period of 
important research work. 

The work of Mr. F. B. Guthrie, Chemist to the Department of 
Agriculture, has progressed during the past year, and there is no 
doubt that, under his direction, the new chemical research labora- 
tory at the Bathurst Experiment Farm will produce results highly 
important to agriculturists. The establishment of laboratories at 
the different experiment farms will enable researches to be con- 
ducted where suitable material and conditions are available, and 
must result in great benefit to the colony. Mr. Guthrie's routine 
work has included advice on all matters connected with agricul- 
tural chemistry, the best methods of treatment of soils and most 
suitable crops, based on chemical examination of the different 
soils j analyses of fertilizers, feeding-stuffs, beet roots, and farm 
and dairy produce generally. The routine work occupies the time 
of the laboratory staff piviry fully, and special investigations have 
to be carried out when time permits, and as during the year, in 
addition to the departmental work, Mr. Guthrie undertook the 
duties of Acting Professor of Chemistry at the University during 
Professor Liversidge's absence on leave, this spare time was 
necessarily reduced to a minimum. In addition, towards the end 
of the year, arrangements had to be made for removing the 
laboratory to new premises, and work was consequently entirely 
suspended for a time. 

The investigations in wheat, commenced in 1895, were continued 
during the year, a large number of additional wheats being ex- 
amined, and particularly a number of carefully selected cross-bred 
wheats grown with the special object of improving the class of 
grain grown in the colony. An investigation was undertaken 
with the object of determining the cause of the different power of 
absorbing water which is possessed by the flour from different 
wheats, the result of which was communicated in a paper read 
before our Society during the past year. The work done in this 

i has been largely instrumental in modifying the views 
previously held as to the suitability or otherwise for milling of 
different wheats, and enabled, the Rust in Wheat Conference 
which met in Melbourne in 1896, and to whom Mr. Guthrie com- 
municated his results, to recommend as good milling wheats 
certain varieties of grain which have been found to be rust-resis- 
tant. These wheats were formerly considered less suitable for 
milling than those usually grown, but the result of the above 
investigation has been to clear away a great deal of previously 
existing prejudice, and, as a matter of fact, these wheats are now 
being more extensively grown and with most encouraging results. 

The examination of the wines and timbers of the colony has 
also been continued. Further results on the first of these subjects 
have been published during the year in the Agricultural Gazette, 
and the results of the examination of a number of New South 
Wales timbers, which has proved a more lengthy task than was 
anticipated, are now being revised ready for publication. Another 
investigation, the results of which should shortly be ready for 
publication, is one into the chemical action of lime upon the soil, 
undertaken with the view of ascertaining exactly what chemical 
changes in the state of the plant food are brought about by the 
addition of lime. 

In the laboratory for agricultural chemistry at Bathurst it is 
proposed to undertake almost purely research work. Amongst 
the more important lines of work which will be there taken in 
hand are :— First,' investigations into the nitrifying organisms of 
the soil, with special reference to conditions prevailing in New 
South Wales. Secondly, examination by means of pot-experi- 
ments, of the action of fertilizers on different crops. 

The chemical investigations undertaken during the year by 
Mr - H. G. Smith, Mineralogist of the Technological Museum, 
W been of an important character. The chemistry of the 
n ew substance " Aromadendrin," isolated from a kino belonging 
to the turbid group of Eucalyptus kinos, was brought under 
the notice of this Society in a paper read in August. A paper 

was also submitted to the Society of Chemical Industry, and read 
before the Yorkshire Section of that Society, on the Dyeing 
Properties of Aromadendrin and of Eucalyptus kinos j by subse- 
quent investigation aromadendrin has been found to be a true 
mordant dyestuff like quercetin or maclurin, thus differentiating 
it from catechin, which is not a true colouring matter. The 
chemistry of our Eucalyptus trees has thus been considerably 
advanced during the year. The investigation of the sap of 
Grevillea robusta has probably determined the origin of the deposit 
of succinate of aluminium (as far as the acid is concerned), pre- 
viously described from this tree before the Society. The investi- 
gation of a manna on grass from Northern Queensland, containing 
a large quantity of mannite, was undertaken ; this is the first 
record of material of this character thus occurring, and the results 
have been presented to this Society. 

The recent establishment of the Government Metallurgical 
Works at Clyde, near Parraniatta, is of considerable practical and 
scientific importance. The works are under the direction of Mr. 
James Taylor, the Government Metallurgist. They are regularly 
working, and a steady stream of ores from all parts of the colony 
is being received. As the works are for experimental purposes as 
well as educational, Mr. Taylor does not expect to reach finality 
in regard to them. At present he is not yet running the cyanide 
and chlorination processes, but the necessary plant is being erected 
and it will be shortly in operation. 

Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, Analyst and Assayer, is also at work 
in his new laboratory at Clyde, and has made a large number of 
assays and analyses of New South Wales minerals during the past 
year, in addition to some original research. 

5. Astronomy and Meteorology. — The past year has not been 
a favourable one for astronomical work at the Sydney Observatory 
owing to the dry weather, which always brings a hazy sky, un- 
favourable to telescope work. The regular observations have been 
kept up with the transit instrument and the large equatorial; the 
latter is now devoted to a re-examination of double stars discovered 

ess. 23 

in this observatory; all double star measures up to end of 1896 
have been published, and the next volume of meridian observations 
is now ready for the printer. Photographic work suffers more from 
drought haze than ordinary telescope work, because the hazy sky 
reflects the city light and produces fog on the plates. Mr. Russell 
has, however, obtained three hundred and sixty-eight star photo- 
graphs, with exposures of from thirty to forty-five minutes ; these 
are for the chart of the heavens, and the comparatively long 
exposures limit the number of plates which can be taken. 

As regards Meteorological work, the volume for 1895 has been 
published and that for 1896 is ready for the printer. It contains 
a series of six outline maps of New South Wales, (1890 to 1895 
inclusive), in which the rainfalls of all parts of the colony are com- 
pared with the average, and the result given as a percentage ; 
this proves to be the best method yet tried for estimating the 
value of the annual rainfall. The series has been carried back to 
1880 for publication in the 1896 volume. Another series of 
diagrams, shewing the monthly distribution of rain with special 
reference to agriculture, in the various parts of the colony, is in 
course of preparation; some of them are ready for the 1896 volume. 
The number of volunteer observers in the country is rapidly 
increasing, and every square degree of the colony now contains 
three or more observers, some as many as ten. Amongst the 
recording instruments at the Observatory a long felt want has 
been supplied, viz., an extremely sensitive recording thermometer, 


shows every ripple 

of change in tl 

be temperature 

to h q 

uarter of i 

i degree, 

and shows very clearly that the atmo- 


9, even wh 

len there 

is not a cloud 

in the sky, is 





which an 

3 not equally 

heated. If a 




i over the 

sun, or a shower of ra 

in comes, the 

fact ii 

• duly 

recorded by the new thermometer. 

Besides the work of the Sydney Observatory, Mr. John Tebbutt 
has a record of important work during the year, carried on at his 
Observatory, the Peninsula, Windsor, New South Wales. The 
work which Mr. Tebbutt has done since the close of last May 

comprises the usual routine work for determining the local time, 
and determinations of the positions of Perrine's Comet of November 
1896, together with observations of occultations of stars by the 
moon, and of the phenomena of Jupiter's satellites. Mr. Tebbutt 
has during the same period published a number of papers on 
astronomical subjects in the Royal Astronomical Society's Monthly 
Notices, the Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 
and the Astronomische Nachrichten. 

We have also a band of astronomical observers who form the 
New South Wales Branch of the British Astronomical Association, 
the following particulars concerning which may be acceptable : — 
The inaugural meeting of the branch was held in Sydney on 30th 
January, 1895, and at the second annual meeting held in March 
last, seventy-five members were reported on the roll, and the 
finances in a flourishing condition. The objects of the association 
are (1) the association of observers, especially the possessors of 
small telescopes, for mutual help, and their organisation in the 
work of astronomical observation ; (2) the circulation of current 
astronomical information ; and (3) the encouragement of a popular 
interest in astronomy. During the past two years Mr. John 
Tebbutt, f.r.a.s., was president, and during the present session 
Mr. G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., occupies that position. The section 
to determine the colours of the southern stars finished during the 
past year their survey of all stars to the fifth magnitude, situated 
between 20° south and the southern celestial pole. Several inter- 
esting drawings of Mars and Jupiter were made, and paths of 
many meteors noted by various members. Monthly meetings are 
held at which papers by the members are read and discussed, and 
photographs of the most characteristic celestial objects obtained at 
the leading observatories are projected on a screen and explained. 

6. Physics.— Professor Threlfall has during the year 1896-97 
been wholly engaged in the Physical Laboratory of the Sydney 
University in an experimental study of the losses of electric energy 
which ensue when a dielectric is carried round a cycle of electrifi- 
cation. The investigation was extended to a great many dielectrics. 

J general result was to show that real hysteresial losses always 
ur, and that the properties of a particular sample are perfectly 
nite in this respect, though different samples of the same 
ectric may have widely different properties. Since the com- 
icement of the year he has had the advantage of Miss Martin'l 
an investigation similar to the foregoing, but 
referring to the magnetic properties of substances like sulphur, 
bismuth, etc., is nearly completed. Professor Threlfall has also 
devoted much time to the phenomenon of the electrolytic deposition 
of metals, with the object of ascertaining the cause of the differ- 
ence in the nature of the deposits which occur under varying 
circumstances. So far the results of this investigation have been 
entirely negative. 

In hydrodynamics Mr. G. H. Knibbs, Lecturer in Surveying in 
the Sydney University, has continued, in the Engineering 
Laboratory, his examination of the determination of the viscosity 
constant for water. He has shewn that the corrections for end 
conditions used in even the most recent evaluations require 
amendment. The very extended results available have now been 
entirely re-reduced from the original data, and exhaustively com- 
pared, the more rigorous corrections being applied throughout. 
Mr. Knibbs concludes that the discrepancies between the results 
of different investigators are not satisfactorily accounted for by 
merely dimensional differences in the apparatus used, and if a 
higher order of precision is sought, it will be necessary to consider 
the sources of the discrepancies. In geodetical astronomy Mr. 
Knibbs has fully discussed the method of determining the direction 
of the astronomical meridian by means of solar observations, and 
has obtained expressions for the errors of the methods usually 
employed. The series of tables supplied in his paper greatly 
facilitate the discussion and reduction of such observations. 

?■ Engineering and Public Works.— Our Engineering Section 

» one of which we as a Society are justly proud, and the papers 

tne Section published in our Journal by no means represent 

the whole of the scientific work dealt with at the monthly meet- 

ings of the Section. Following are some notes on recent work 
accomplished, or in progress, by some of our local engineers. 

In the Engineering Laboratory of the University of Sydney, 
Professor Warren has been engaged in investigations on the 
strength and elasticity of materials. He has devised an apparatus 
for testing the strength and elasticity of metals at various tem- 
peratures, and is at present using this apparatus for testing copper. 
A large number of experiments have been made to test the strength 
of the various methods used for staying locomotive fireboxes. A 
special machine is in course of construction for testing the vibrat- 
ing strength of materials in which the stresses alternate between 
tension and an equal compression. This is considered to be an 
improvement on the Wohler and Bauschinger machines, as it 
enables ordinary bars, prepared as in tension specimens, to be 
rotated in the machine under stresses produced with a constant 
bending movement. It is also proposed to use the machine for 
investigating the change in the so called elastic limit, when sub- 
jected to alternating stresses. A series of experiments is also 
in progress on the strength and elasticity of beams, and column* 
of brickwork and concrete. Numerous appliances have been 
added for making minute measurements of strains and for draw- 
ing autographic diagrams, while experiments are also in progress 
to ascertain the flow of water through orifices and canals. 

Railway Survey and Construction Work since May IS OH — 
Following is a brief outline of the work carried out by Mr. Henry 
Deane, Engineer-in-Chief for Railways, our in-coming President, 
during the past year :— Trial survey work done has been as 
under — Condobolin to Broken Hill, completed during the year 
two hundred and ninety-four miles out of a total of three hundred 
and seventy-three and a-half miles ; Woolabra to Collarendabri, 
completed eighty and three-quarter miles ; Singleton to Jerry's 
Plains, completed twenty-three miles ; Galong to Burrowa, com- 
pleted seventeen and three-quarter miles ; Moree to Inverell, 
south route, completed thirty-three and a-half miles ; Belmore to 
Liverpool with alternative junction at Cabramatta, completed 

fourteen miles ; Coolamon to Ariah, completed forty-one and 
three-quarter miles ; Grong Grong to Ariah, completed twenty- 
four and a-quarter miles. The following are in progress: Glen 
Innes to South Grafton (amended route), Liverpool to Mulgoa 
and Koorawatha to Wyalong. The following lines have been 
permanently staked for construction: Tarn worth to Manilla, twenty- 
eight and three-quarter miles ; Nevertire to Warren, twelve and 
a-quarter miles ; Railway connection with Darling Island ; devia- 
tions between Hill Top and Mittagong, Great Southern Railway, 
seven and a-quarter miles ; Berrigan to Finley, thirteen and three- 
quarter miles. The construction of the following lines has been 
completed during the year, and they have been opened for traffic: 
Jerilderie to Berrigan twenty-one and three-quarter miles ; Parkes 
to Bogan Gate twenty-three and a-half miles ; Narrabri to Moree 
sixty-three miles; Locssley deviation, 1 G. W.R. three and a-quarter 
miles; Dargan's Creek deviation, 1 G.W.R. three miles ; line now 
under construction, Bogan Gate to Condobolin, forty miles. The 
following additional deviations have been executed under the 
direction of the Railway Commissioners, deviations between 
Faulconbridge and Went worth Falls, 1 G.W.R. three miles ; Moss 
Vale and Exeter deviation, 1 G.S.R., one and three-quarter miles; 
Katoomba deviation, 1 G.W.R., one and three-quarter miles; 
Blackheath and Mount Victoria deviation, 1 G.W.R., one mile. 

Tramways. — The following is a statement of work done in con- 
nection with tramways. The construction of the permanent way 
of the Mosman's Bay Electric Tramway, Sydney, was commenced 
in June 1896, and the line was completed and opened for traffic 
on the 1st March, 1897. The length of line is one and a-half 
miles, with sharp curves and steep grades, and since being opened 
for traffic has worked satisfactorily. The generator is placed in 
the power-house at Ridge-street, North Sydney, being driven by 
belts off the main cable engines. An accumulator-house is situated 
at Spit Road, which contains two hundred and fifteen cells, 

together with a motor-booster ; the line is worked on the overhead 
trolley system, in the design of which simplicity and unobtrusive- 
ness were specially considered. No trouble has been experienced 
in working, although, owing to the sharp curves, great care had to 
be exercised in carrying out the overhead work. Approval for 
the construction of the Willoughby (Sydney) Electric Tramway 
was given on the 16th December, 1896, when it was decided to 
convert that portion of the Cable Tramway beyond the Power 
House at Ridge-street, North Sydney to electric traction, a dis- 
tance of sixty chains, thence to Victoria Avenue, Willoughbyj 
length of line two miles forty-five chains. This work is at present 
being carried out. The generator will be driven off the main 
engines in the power house at Ridge-street, and an accumulator 
house containing two hundred and fifteen cells erected on a piece 
of land situated about midway between the power house and the 
terminus of the line. The overhead work will be of the same 
type as that used on the Mosman's Bay Electric Tramway, and 
which has worked so successfully. 

Approval for the construction of an Electric Tramway from the 
terminus of the Ocean-street (Sydney) Cable Tramway to Rose 
Bay was given on 19th January 1897 ; the length of the line is 
one mile twenty chains. Preparations are now being made for 
the carrying out of the work. The generators, of which there are 
two, will be driven off the main cable engines at Rushcutter's Bay, 
as a means of using some of the surplus power, these engines 
having proved to be even more economical in working than was 
expected. The overhead construction will be similar to that which 
will be used on the George-street Tramway with the exception of 
the poles, which will be of tallow-wood. A battery of storage cells 
will be erected in the engine room at Rushcutter's Bay, and 
advantage will be taken of lighting the power and car house at 
Rushcutter's Bay by electricity. Arrangements have also been 
made by which the pumps in connection with the Double Bay 
low-level sewerage will be worked by electric motors driven off the 
Rose Bay Tramway. 

Instructions have been given for the construction of the George- 
street and Harris-street Electric Tramway, recommended by the 
Standing Committee for Public Works on May 8th, 1896, and 
assented to by Parliament on the 14th September, 1896. The 
length of the line from the eastern side of the Circular Quay 
to Harris-street, Pyrmont, near the intersection of John -street, is 
three miles twenty chains of double track. Several contracts 
have already been let, and the site for the power and car house 
fixed, which will eventually become the Central Station when the 
conversion scheme in connection -with existing steam tramways is 
carried out. The overhead construction will be of neat appear- 
ance, embodying all the latest improvements, the wires being 
carried on ornamental poles. Special attention has Keen paid to 
the permanent way, a new type of rail having been specially 
designed, and which has since been adopted as the standard rail 
for all future tramway work. The rails will be bonded with the 
Kdison-Brown Plastic Bond, which has proved to be the best 
preventative of electrolysis. The rails throughout will be laid on 
concrete, and the entire surface of the streets wood-blocked. The 
power and car house arrangements will be very complete and 
economical in working. The site chosen, which is between Mary 
Ann and William Henry-streets, Ultimo, and adjoining the rail- 
way, is a very convenient one. Considerable attention has been 
given to a scheme to connect the tramway systems of Sydney and 
North Sydney by means of a sub- aqueous tunnel. The length of 
the line, double track, would be one mile thirty-two chains, of 
which one and a quarter miles are in tunnel. This, with other 
schemes, was subsequently the subject of enquiry by a Select 

Harbours and Rivers.— Tweed River.— On the Tweed River 
about five and a quarter miles of stone walls for the training of 
the river have been constructed, and the channel deepened by 
means of sand pump dredging, the material raised being discharged 
on shore at the back of the walls, thus reclaiming land and deepen- 
ing the channel by the same operation. 

Richmond River. — The internal works at the Richmond River, 
consisting of training walls along the northern and southern shores, 
and the walls for regulating and guiding the waters of North 
Creek, are now completed, and the two breakwaters partially 
constructed, there remaining to be done about one hundred and 
thirty feet and eight hundred and forty feet respectively to arrive 
at the points to which it is proposed to carry them in the first 
instance. The whole of the stone now being used in these works 
is obtained from Riley's Hill, about eighteen miles distant, whence 
it is conveyed to the entrance in punts. A canal, about sixty 
feet wide, two and a quarter miles long, and carrying from six to 
eight feet of water at low tide, has been excavated along the course 
of Fishery Creek, and through the low lying land at the back of 
the town of Ballina to North Creek. 

Clarence River. — The principal work carried out on the Clarence 
River has been the construction of the southern and part of the 
northern training walls. The former is a half tide wall over two 
and a half miles long, extending from the eastern end of Freeburn 
Island to the Heads, the greater length of which has been con- 
structed with stone tipped from a timber staging on piles ; the 
northern wall extending across the North Spit, is about half a 
mile long. These walls were completed in 1896 and have been 
very effective in deepening the channel, there being from thirty 
to fifty feet of water at low tide. Preparations are now being 
made for the construction of a wall about 7,600 feet long, extend- 
ing down stream from the eastern end of G oodwood Island ; also 
the continuation of the northern training wall along the shore 
line at Ballina. The stone for these walls will be obtained at 
Green Point quarry, about four miles distant, whence it will be 
brought by rail to Freeburn Island and punted across to the works. 
Bellinger River, &c— Training walls are also in course of con- 
struction at the Bellinger and Nambucca River entrances, the 
lengths completed being 4,010 feet and eight hundred and fifty 
feet respectively. Tenders have also been invited for a similar 
wall at the Hastings River. 

Macleay River. — In 1893 a flood having broken through the 
narrow strip of land between Spencer's Creek and the Ocean, at a 
point about one and three-quarter miles north of the South West 
Rocks, thereby forming a navigable channel, a scheme was pre- 
pared for fixing the entrance at this place instead of at the Heads 
some five miles distant. The work done up to the present consists 
in straightening up the channel by dredging, protecting the slopes 
of bank with stone, and constructing a portion of the southern 
training wall. 

Trial Bay. — The breakwater at Trial Bay, which when com- 
pleted will enclose an area of about five hundred and fifty acres 
to form a harbour of refuge, has now been extended from the 
shore to a distance of five hundred and eighty-three feet, the 
apparently slow progress being due to the great depth of water in 
which the breakwater is being constructed, and to the height above 
water which, owing to the exposed position, it was found necessary 
to raise the top. Blocks of granite up to thirty tons in weight 
are being used in the construction of this breakwater. 

Manning River. — The work done at the Manning River has 
been the construction of portion of the wall on the northern and 
north-western side of the entrance, the total length constructed 
being 2,070 feet. As the scouring action at the tip head was 
causing a considerable deepening of the water, thereby necessitat- 
ing the use of a much larger quantity of stone in the wall, the 
bottom was coated with a layer of stone deposited from a punt, 
and extending to about 200 feet in advance of the tip, which has 
effectually prevented any further deepening. 

Newcastle Harbour.— Owing to the necessity for an increased 
depth of water at the entrance to Newcastle Harbour, it was 
determined to extend the northern breakwater and construct a 
guide wall at the southern side of the entrance, commencing near 
the eastern end of Newcastle Wharf. Most of the preliminary 
w ork in connection with the construction of these works, such as 
the opening up of quarry, constructing railway lines, gantries, 

cranes, etc., has now been done, and the depositing of stone will 
shortly be commenced. 

The dredging plant in use by the department consists of fourteen 
dredges, fourteen grab bucket dredges, eight suction dredges, five 
combined grab and suction dredges, twenty-one tugs, and ninety 
punts, employment being found on these for about three hundred 
and fifty men, and the cost of working amounting to about £75,000 

The use of sand pump or suction dredges some six or seven 
years ago had had the effect of reducing, by about half, the aver- 
age cost per ton of material raised, and of increasing very largely 
the total yearly output. Indeed, so successful and economical 
have they proved, that it was considered advisable to convert a 
number of the grab dredges into combined grab and suction 
dredges. Five of these have already been altered, and two others 
will shortly be ready for work. The grab has been retained on 
these dredges for dealing with stiff material which could not be 
pumped, lifting snags, etc., but most of the material met with, 
where these dredges are worked, is of a soft nature and easily 
lifted and discharged by the pump. In reclamation works, at the 
heads of bays, behind river training walls, etc., the suction dredges 
have been found very economical, for not only the material at the 
site but that raised by ladder and grab dredges working in the 
neighbourhood is utilised for reclaiming, the latter being brought 
alongside in punts, dumped and pumped ashore through flexible 
jointed pipes to where required, up to a distance of from 2,500 
to 3,000 feet, at a cost of about a quarter of the older system. 

The following shows the areas in Sydney Harbour which have 
been wholly or partially reclaimed in this way : — Rozelle Bay 
(Johnstone's Creek), forty-eight acres, partly reclaimed ; Rozelle 
Bay (White's Creek), twenty-seven acres ; White Bay, twelve and 
a half acres, complete ; Snail's Bay, five and a half acres, com- 
plete ; Neutral Bay, seven and a half acres, complete ; Careening 
Cove, three and three quarter acres, complete ; Callan Park, five 
and a half acres, complete ; Long Cove, fifty-eight acres, partly 

reclaimed ; Homebush Bay, three hundred and sixty-one acres, 
partly reclaimed ; Tarban Creek, eight acres, complete ; Sewerage 
Farm, Parramatta, forty-one acres, partly reclaimed. 

Sydney Water Supply. — Following are some notes on the service 
reservoir in the Centennial Park, Sydney :— Length five hundred 
and eighteen feet, breadth three hundred and twenty feet, depth 
of water twenty-one feet ; capacity 18,000,000 gallons. Site, soft 
sandstone, much fissured and traversed by clay bands, overlain by 
blown sand. Walls, brickwork in cement mortar faced with 
double pressed bricks. Floor, concrete rendered with cement 
mortar. Roof, coke concrete, groined arches six inches thick at 
crown, supported by brick columns twenty feet by twenty feet 
apart, capped with cast iron skewbacks. As it is intended that 
the roof of this reservoir shall be used as a recreation ground, and 
will, therefore, be subjected to unequal loading, the columns will 
be connected throughout to each other, and to the walls, with 
wrought iron tie-rods, which will be protected from rust by a thick 
asphaltic covering. The roof will be covered with a layer of sand 
and turfed. It will be surrounded by a dwarf stone wall and 
ornamental cast iron railing with hollow cast iron pillars at 
intervals. At the centre will be a pavilion forming an entrance 
shaft and ventilation tower. The air will be taken in through 
the hollow railing pillars and escape at the central tower, causing 
a thorough circulation throughout the reservoir. Roof lights are 
provided for inspection and cleansing purposes. The reservoir 
will be divided by a central concrete wall, and each compartment 
provided with inlet, outlet, and scour pipes. Alternative designs 
were prepared for roofing the reservoir with Monier arches, and 
with coke concrete groined arches, and when tested in the open 
market, the latter proved the more economical. 

Bridges.— Tenders were received during 1896 for one hundred 
and forty works, comprising high and low level timber beam 
Midges, truss bridges, concrete and stone bridges, punts, and mis- 
cellaneous works. A considerable item in the expenditure of the 


timber bridges which i 

reported from time to time to be decayed beyond repair. Many 
of these structures have been in existence from twenty-five to 
thirty years, and some even longer still, a fact which speaks well 
for the lasting qualities of our hardwood timbers ; and it is antici- 
pated, with the modern type of structures which are now being 
erected, and with the increased care now bestowed on the selection 
of the timber employed, that even better results will be obtained 
in the future. Among the old bridges which are now in process 
of being renewed are the Berrima bridge, an old truss bridge on 
masonry piers (built thirty -six years back), the superstructure of 
which is now being replaced by truss spans of the latest standard 
type, and the old truss bridge over the Kangaroo River, on the 
road Moss Vale to Nowra, in place of which a new suspension 
bridge is being built in one span of two hundred and fifty-two 
feet, with steel wire rope cables, and a timber stiffening truss. 

During the year new bridges were completed at Inverell and 
Wallis Creek, Maitland, in place of the old structures at those 
places. The former consists of three one hundred and ten feet 
truss spans of a similar type to those recently designed for the 
new Wagga Wagga bridge, and this type is also being employed 
in the large timber truss bridges at Morpeth and Albury, which 
are now in course of construction. Wallis Creek bridge is a 
substantial structure on the road between East and West Ma it land, 
formed of steel girders carrying a tarred metal deck. 

The Swan Hill bridge over the Murray River, was also opened 
for traffic during the year, being the third of the steel lift bridges 
'which have been erected over that river within the past seven 
years at the joint expense of the two colonies of Victoria and New 
South Wales, the work having been designed and carried out in 
each case by the Public Works Department of New South Wales. 
Swan Hill bridge consists of two ninety feet timber truss spans, 
with timber beam approaches and a steel lift span of fifty-eight 
feet four inches, centres of piers giving fifty feet five inches clear 
waterway, and thirty feet seven inches clear headway above the 
highest known flood-level when the span is raised to its full height. 

The lift span is formed of two steel Warren girders, carrying a 
timber deck, the total weight of the span being about thirty-four 
tons. This is counterbalanced by four cast iron balance boxes 
filled with lead, which are connected to the span at each corner, 
and work over large rope wheels fixed in the top of wrought iron 
braced towers. The lift span differs from its predecessors in that 
the span is worked from the deck level instead of from a platform 
at the top of the towers ; and with the new arrangement of the 
shafting and gearing one man can open the span in five and a 
half minutes, through the full height of the lift, which is twenty- 
five feet in this case, as against twenty-one feet in previous bridges 
of the same type. The metal work for Swan Hill bridge was 
manufactured in Melbourne, and the whole of the timber, with 
trifling exceptions, obtained from the northern rivers of New 
South Wales. 

Among the miscellaneous works carried out during the year 
was the wood blocking of portions of the Circular Quay near the 
P. ft O. Wharf, in which blackbutt, tallow-wood and red mahogany 
blocks were used, laid in sections, to allow of the relative wear 
under traffic being observed and compared. At the present time 
the Branch is engaged upon a number of important works, includ- 
ing new bridges over the Tweed River at Murwillumbah, Paterson 
River at Dunmore, Queanbeyan River at Queanbeyan, Stone 
Quarry Creek at Picton, and the Macleay River at Kempsey. 
•ihe design for Kempsey bridge includes four one hundred and 
fifty-three feet timber truss spans of a new design ; these will 
oe the largest spans in the colony constructed wholly of timber. 

For the above information (other than that referring to railway 
aud tramway matters), I am indebted to Mr. R. R. P. Hickson, 
• inst.c.E., Under Secretary for Public Works and Commissioner 
f °r Roads, and to Mr. Cecil Darley, m. mst. C.E., Engineer-in-Chief 
for Public Works. 

8 - Public Health.— In giving some account of the work of 
the Board of Health and of its scientific staff, during the past 
yeat ' xt ls onl y proper for me to point out that duties connected 

with the re-organisation of his department have prevented Dr. 
Ashburton Thompson, the new President, from giving the same 
attention, during the past year, to original investigation in matters 
pertaining to Public Health, that he has undertaken in past 
years. The most important event connected with the public 
health during the past year was the successful passage of a Public 
Health Act. Such a measure had for many years been demanded 
by the public, and formally advocated by successive premiers ; the 
late Sir Henry Parkes indeed went a step further than that, and 
actually introduced a measure in 1886, which, however, was never 
debated ; and it remained for the present premier, the Hon. George 
Reid to place a new and short Public Health Act on the statute 
book. The act is framed to allow the fullest measure of local self- 
government in this respect, and at the same time gives the Board 
of Health effective powers of control ; it provides for appointment 
of medical officers of health, for the notification of infectious 
diseases, for controlling the adulteration of food, and for dealing 
with unwholesome dwellings, which may be either condemned or 
put into habitable condition as may be possible ; it requires 
registrars of deaths to enter the cause of death in their registers, 
and to distinguish between uncertified and certified deaths — points 
which have been carefully attended to for many years past by 
departmental arrangement but which are now for the first time 
directed by law; it furnishes what is expected to prove a direct 
and speedy means of dealing with nuisances ; and it amends one 
or two existing acts in rather important respects. At the same 
time, while the constitution of the Board of Health remained 
unchanged in quality its numbers were reduced, and it was decided 
that for the future the President should be a civil servant, wholly 
employed in discharge of his functions in that capacity, and also 
as the Chief Medical Officer of the Government. 

During the year foundations of a new building for use of the 
Health Department were laid ; this is now rapidly approaching 
completion, and it will aflbrd accommodation for the clerical and 
professional staff of the Health Department on the ground floor ; 

the first floor will be entirely occupied with the laboratories of the 
Government Analyst ; the second floor will be occupied with a 
commodious and well equipped bacteriological laboratory ; while 
in the basement, which, owing to conformation of the site is at the 
ground-level at the rear of the building, will be conducted business 
connected with hospital accommodation for the sick poor, public 
vaccination, and some other matters administered by the Chief 
Medical Officer. At the same time the staff is gradually being 
improved and added to in important respects ; and in the course 
of a year or two there is every reason to hope that the colony will 
at length be found furnished with a Public Health Department 
capable of safeguarding the prosperity of the people in important 
respects, and competent to perform its proper functions. 

During the year the usual routine examinations of specimens 
from diseased animals were continued in the Biological Laboratory 
of the Board of Health, by Dr. Frank Tidswell, bacteriologist to the 
department, being mostly diagnostic examinations for anthrax, 
tuberculosis, etc. Some preliminary observations were made on 
the disease of pigs known to butchers as "pig quinsy," which 
tend to show that the malady in question is a form of septicemia. 
This diagnosis is provisional only, pending the elucidation of details. 
Observations made on a form of ulceration of the cornea of the 
e ye in cattle suggest that in most instances the affliction is of 
traumatic origin. The examinations of bovine tumours were 
continued, the growths specially examined being from the orbit of 
bullocks. The results show that the tumours are sometimes true 
cancer of the form known as epithelioma. Occasional bacterio- 
lo gical examinations of the water supplied to Sydney furnished 
further evidence of its microbic purity. Samples of water from 
*ells yielded abundant crops of bacteria, not always of a harmless 
type. The most important work undertaken in the laboratory 
w as the histo-pathological examination of the organs of lepers 
^ceased during the year. Detailed descriptions were published 
Report of the Health Department on Leprosy in New 
ales, for the year 1895. The report : 

South Wai 

some beautifully executed photomicrographs, and forms a very- 
valuable contribution to the study of leprosy. 

Part III. — Some Botanical Matters — 

1. Botanical Workers. — a. The late Baron von Mueller. — 
My year of presidential office has been sadly memorable through 
the death of Baron von Mueller. For nearly half a century this 
distinguished man had continued to elucidate the structure and 
classification of Australian plants. In 1897, with our luxurious 
steamships and express-trains, our stores, and well-furnished larders 
under hospitable roofs extending over the greater part of the 
continent, our Flora Auslraliensis, Fragmenta, and Census, not to 
mention piles of botanical literature less frequently referred to, it 
is difficult to entirely enter into the circumstances of the young 
German botanist who stepped forth into the wilds, bent on con- 
quest far more glorious than that of Napoleon, whom we style 
" the Great," — just fifty years ago. Mueller was a member of 
the most distinguished trio of explorer-botanists who have made 
Australia the principal field of their labours, and association with 
Robert Brown and Allan Cunningham is high honour indeed. 
These three men were practically contemporaneous with the 
century which is fast drawing to a close ; they are the three 
bright stars around which the lesser lights revolve. 

Geographical and botanical exploration have gone hand in hand 
on this continent, all modern expeditions having had botanical 
collectors attached to them ; moreover, the pioneers of pastoral 
and mining settlement have ever shown their willingness to send 
specimens to elucidate the plants of their districts. There are 
now but few tracts of Australian soil which have not been geo- 
graphically explored ; the result is that there does not appear to 
be scope for another explorer-botanist of the first tank. In other 
words, present and future botanists must win their spurs in a 
different way. But in hinting that Australia has been well 
explored botanically, I do not wish to be misunderstood. There 
are plenty of imperfectly explored regions awaiting attention. I 


can conceive few ways in which the public funds could be better 
applied than by defraying or subsidising, the cost of journeys of 
Australian botanists to regions that could be readily indicated. 
And while such explorations could not result in such abundance 
of new material as Mueller and his predecessors obtained on their 
journeys, yet many plants still remain to be discovered, and many 
problems pertaining to variation and geographical distribution, 
and even more important botanical matters, remain to be solved. 
Just as in the early gold-digging days alluvial very frequently 
gave valuable results with comparatively little labour, so now 
claims are reduced in area and worked deeper. And in this 
laborious working of small areas many prizes have been won, 
and remain to be won. 

I do not wish to push my < 
far as to let it be inferred for a 
have been anything but arduous.. Only his earlier contemporaries 
can recount the troubles and dangers the Baron passed through 
b his early days. Days, weeks, and even months has he passed 
alone in the wilds of Australia — in the inhospitable ranges of the 
Victorian-New South Wales Alps, to wit. He took a slender 
supply of poor food, and his only companion was a pack-horse. I 
suppose his insatiable fondness for a cup of tea dates from the 
time he used to boil his billy in the fastnesses of the Southern 
Alps. Loneliness I am sure he did not feel, for how can a man 
feel lonely when new plants present themselves everywhere to his 
delighted gaze. On one occasion one of these mountain streams 
rose rapidly, Mueller's scanty supply of food was washed away, 
and he himself climbed into a tree to pass the night and to await 
events. He also went on very short commons on some of his 
other trips. 

His Victorian explorations in the early days were as follows : 
!n 1853 he explored the Australian Alps from the Victorian side, 
see his First General Report on the Vegetation of the Colony, 
dated September 1853. During 1854 he examined the Grampians 
and the adjacent ranges ; thence to the Darling, and along the 

Murray. During this year he made a more extended exploration 
of the Australian Alps, as detailed in his Second General Report 
dated October 1854. His other explorations were under the 
leadership of A. C. Gregory in 1856 to explore North-western 
and Northern Australia for traces of Leichhardt, journeying from 
the Victorian River overland to the Dawson, and botanical 
expeditions of an exploratory character to Western Australia in 
1867 and 1877 respectively, the former trip being from King 
George's Sound to the Stirling Range, and the latter to the Shark's 
Bay district. 

The mere recounting of the Baron's works would take up more 
time than can be allowed on the present occasion, but I may 
invite attention to some of the principal ones. His share in the 
preparation of the Flora Australiensis is gracefully told by the 
great Bentham in the Preface to Volume I. of that work. The 
Fragmenta Phytographice Australia, consisting of eleven octavo 
volumes of say, two hundred pages each, written in Latin, forms 
an invaluable supplement to the Flora, while the >' 
Census of Australian Plants, of which two editions have appeared, 
is indispensable to the student, being a cyclopsedia of notes on 
geographical distribution, references to descriptions of species, etc. 
" Eucalyptographia " with descriptions and illustrations of one 
hundred species of Eucalypts, is sufficient of itself to make the 
reputation of any man, and is the standard work on the subject. 
It is one of a series of valuable quartos dealing with various 
natural orders, each work containing carefully drawn figures, with 
abundant detail. Such companion works (differing only from 
"Eucalyptographia" in the absence of descriptive accounts of 
each plant), are the "Iconography of Acacias and Cognate Genera,' 
"Iconography of Australian Salsolaceous Plants," " Descriptions 
and Illustrations of the Myoporinous Plants of Australia," and 
"Iconography of Candolleaceous Plants" (only one decade issued). 
The "Plants indigenous to Victoria," in two folio volumes, with 
beautiful lithograph illustrations, was issued in the sixties, and 
forms his principal work devoted exclusively to plants of the 

colony from which he obtained his official position. It forms the 
basis, (at all events as far as the illustrations are concerned), of 
certain of his minor works on Victorian plants. Then we have 
the "Select Extra-tropical Plants," a compendium of information 
in regard to plants (chiefly economic) worth cultivating, and one 
which has been translated into several languages. 

The Baron did not by any means strictly confine himself to the 
vegetation of Australia and Tasmania. Plants from New Zealand 
and adjacent islands, from the New Hebrides, Samoa, and other 
Polynesian islands, and particularly New Guinea, all engaged his 
attention, and form the subjects of valuable papers. 

I believe that no complete list of Mueller's works exists, and I 
have on another occasion made the suggestion that such a list 
(with bibliographic annotations), would form a very appropriate 
memorial of him. The list should be in strict chronological order, 
with a botanically classified supplement. Such a list would find 
a place on the work-table of every student of Australian plants, 
and would go far to keep his memory green. The value of such 
a publication would be greatly enhanced if there were added to it 
reprints of some of his papers in obscure or rare serials ; at present 
they are lost to most of us. 

It has been suggested that a memorial of the Baron should be 
the publication of an eighth or supplementary volume of the Flora 
Australiensis. The work could contain a steel engraving of the 
Baron's portrait, and some account of his life. Other suggestions 
for perpetuation of the memory of the Baron have been made, and 
are doubtless under consideration of the Victorian scientific 
societies. Those of us in New South Wales who are interested 
m a memorial of the great man await the decision of Melbourne, 
—the city in which he practically spent the whole of his 
Australian life. 

^ Of honours he received many. His Fellowship of the Royal 
Society of London dates from 1861 ; a year or two ago he waa 
elected a Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. The 
King of Wurtemburg created him a Baron in 1871 in recognition 

as a scientific man, and in 1879 Her Majesty 
made him a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and 
St. George. His lesser distinctions (many of them very honour- 
able), form a very long catalogue. 

The story of the Baron's life has already been outlined in 
several publications, and I may refer you to those noted at foot. 1 
I may mention that he was born at Rostock in Northern Germany 
in 1825, and emigrated to South Australia in 1847. Already a 
trained pharmacist, he obtained employment of this nature in 
Adelaide, but very shortly made his way to Victoria, of which 
colony he was made Government Botanist in 1852. This office 
was conjoined with the Directorship of the Botanic Gardens of 
Melbourne in 1857, and the offices were again separated in 1873, 
the Baron remaining Government Botanist of Victoria until his 
death on the 10th October last. 

No man knew the Baron more intimately than Mr. J. G. 
Lii<'hni;ui!i. his assistant for twenty-eight years and now his suc- 
cessor. I lately asked Mr. Luehmann what he considered the 
Baron's strongest or most evident point as a botanist. He at 
once replied, — " His marvellous memory for the forms of plants." 
The Baron had a remarkable power of " spotting " a new plant, 
and hence, when large parcels came to him, he could rapidly run 
through them and lay on one side, with an almost unerring instinct, 
the new forms ; and having made this preliminary selection, his 
descriptions of new species were rapidly proceeded with. I have 
given a few notes on his personal characteristics in the Agricultural 
Gazette for November last, and most accounts of his life work 
refer to such matters. 

I enjoyed the personal friendship of the Baron for fifteen years. 
Sometimes I criticised his nomenclature, and other botanical 

1 Victorian Naturalist, Oct. 1896 ; Chemist and Druggist of Australasia, 
Nov. 1896 ; Melbourne Argus, 12th Oct., 1896 ; Sydney Mail, 17th Oct., 
1896 ; Brisbane Observer, 20th Oct., 1896 ; Agricultural Journal of Cape 
Colony, 26th Nov., 1896; Gardeners' Chronicle, Pharm. Journ., and Chemist 
and Druggist, all of 17th Oct., 1896. Nature, 22nd October, 1896. 

ess. 43 

matters to his face, but always respectfully, for I never lost sight 
of the intellectual greatness of the man. At the recent com- 
memoration of the University of Sydney, I was struck with a 
quotation by His Excellency the Governor, from Burke, who, 
referring to George Townshend, said, « He had no failings which 
were not owing to a noble cause ; to an ardent, generous, perhaps 
an immoderate passion for fame — a passion which is the instinct 
of all great souls." I would apply these eloquent words to the 
memory of Ferdinand von Mueller. 

b. Other Workers.— Mr. J. G. Luehmann has been definitely 
placed in charge of the National Herbarium of Melbourne with 
the title of Curator. It is a matter for congratulation that a 
man so familiar with this fine herbarium should have been 
appointed to succeed Baron von Mueller in charge of it. This 
National Herbarium comes under the ministerial control of the 
Chief Secretary of Victoria, and it is also a matter of congratula- 
tion that Mr. C. A. Topp, m.a., the Under Secretary of that 
department, is also a botanist, and takes a keen interest in the 
welfare of the herbarium. Besides the plants of his own colony, 
Mr. Luehmann has been giving special attention to those of 
Western Australia, of which he has already described several 

Professor Ralph Tate's absence in Europe during the past year 
has of necessity caused his botanical work to be temporarily laid 

Mr. F. M. Bailey, the veteran Colonial Botanist of Queensland, 
has been as actively as ever engaged in the work of his depart- 
ment. In addition to the valuable botany bulletins bearing his 
name, he is far advanced in the preparation of a Flora of Queens- 
land, which cannot but enhance his already high reputation, 
during the year the Botany Bulletins he published for the 
Queensland Department of Agriculture were Nos. 13 and 14 ; 
he also published a paper on Queensland grasses for a pamphlet 
on dairying, for distribution in England. He has now in the press 
a Bulletin on Fresh-water Alga?, which will be larger than either 

of the two former ones, and also a second and enlarged edition of 
his " Companion to Queensland Student of Plant Life and Botany 

Steady work has been carried on at the Technological Museum 
of Sydney during the year. Mr. R. T. Baker has published in 
the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of N. S. Wales a flora of 
the Rylstone and Goulburn River districts, a part of the colony 
hitherto but little known to botanists. The geographical range 
of many species has been extended, and several new species have 
been discovered, seven of which have already been described, viz. : 
Acacia Muelleriana, Helichrysum tesselatum, H. brevidecurrens, 
Daviesia recurvata, Isopogon Dawsoni, Prostanthera discolor, P. 
slricta. Mr. R. T. Baker is an indefatigable worker, and he and 
his colleague, Mr. H. G. Smith, have collaborated in a paper read 
before this Society on the occurrence of a true Manna on a grass, 
Andropogon annulatus. 

2. Agriculture.— a. Green Manuring and cognate matters.— 
Let me allude, if only for a few moments, to the especial necessity 
for nitrogen in our soils, and to the room for experiment and 
research, in this direction, in New South Wales. In many parts 
of our colony we have not the advantage, (from an agricultural 
point of view), of severe frosts, which break up the soil to a fine 
tilth. On the other hand, our sub-tropical rains beat down the 
surface and render it comparatively impervious. Such consoli- 
dated soils do not properly perform their functions, an open soil 
being necessary, amongst other things, to ensure free access of 
atmospheric nitrogen, which may be fixed by the tubercle-bacteria 
of leguminous plants. Free access of air is also of importance in 
providing the conditions favourable to the growth of the nitrifying 
organisms of the soil. The consolidation of the soil referred to is, 
however, to some extent counteracted by the roots of LeguminOMB, 
for many of them are deep-rooted, and their ramifications cause 
aeration of the soil, while their decomposition adds humus to it. 

We cannot entirely follow the precedents of other countries in 
regard to the particular plants to be selected as nitrifying agents, 


but must experiment for ourselves. In the first place, as far as I 
know, but little has been done in regard to the examination of 
indigenous Australian leguminous plants for root-tubercles.- Dr. 
T. L. Bancroft has published a note 1 on the subject. We require 
bulky growing plants of rapid growth which are capable of 
assimilating large quantities of nitrogen from the air, and which 
rapidly disintegrate when ploughed under as " green manure." 
In this respect, also, we are at a disadvantage in comparison with 
northern climes ; our vegetation is, as a rule, more fibrous, and 
our soil is less continuously moist, and thus rapid disintegration 
is hindered. The subject in its many bearings is of great practical 
importance, and perhaps our various experiment farms may take 
up the matter on an even larger scale than they have hitherto done. 

Nor must we lose sight of the great value of many leguminous 
plants as fodders ; they are thus of double utility. While testing 
our native species we require to experiment with as large a variety 
as possible of exotic Leguminosse, not forgetting that we have 
numerous climates, so that if one species will not flourish in a 
district, it is possible it may do so in another. In addition to 
work in this direction undertaken in Government establishments 
I must not omit reference to the researches of Mr. W. Farrer of 
Queanbeyan, who has, at his own expense, introduced many 
Leguminosie for his experimental plots. The colony is extensive, 
and there is room for many more experimenters. 

I would invite attention to a recent paper by Dr. Bernard 
Dyer. 2 on this subject, which gives an excellent resume of work 
in this field, particularly that of Dr. Schultz of Lupitz, Saxony, 
who has, in the course of forty years, converted an estate of poor 
soil (manured with dung procured elsewhere), into one producing 
valuable crops. 

"The basis of this transformation has been the culture of leguminous 
green crops, notably lupines, with the aid of mineral manures— lime, 

1 " Note on bacterial diseases of the roots of the Leguminosa?" Proc. 
Linn. Soc, N.S.W., [2] vin., 51, (1893). 

2 "Green Manuring."— Journ. Roy. Agric. Soc, vn., 773, (1896). 

potash, and phosphates — without the use of nitrogen ; the mineral 
manures being usually applied, not to the leguminous crops themselves, 
but to the non-leguminous crops with which they were alternated. To 
decide what are the best catch crops or green crops to be used for this 
purpose of green manuring, and to trace out the causes of their good 
effects, has been the life work of this celebrated agriculturist." — (Op. cit.) 

Incidentally, one might suggest experiments with lupins as a 
manurial crop in this colony. 

In the excellent article on " Manures and Manuring," by Mr. 
F. B. Guthrie, Chemist to the Department of Agriculture which 
is published in the "Farmer's and Fruit Growers' Guide," recently 
issued by the Department, will be found a resume of work con- 
nected with the inoculation of the soil by pure cultures of nitrogen- 
fixing organisms. Hellriegel and Wilfarth's work in this direction 
reads like a romance, and I only wish that time and the occasion 
permitted me to dwell longer upon the subject. 

b. Some work of the Department of Agriculture. — I would like 
to invite your attention, for a few moments, to some of the work 
which has been undertaken by our Department of Agriculture, 
for I have not time to enumerate all its agencies. Among these 
are Experiment Farms for sub-tropical products at Wollongbar, 
Richmond River, at Bathurst for miscellaneous farming, at Bomen 
near Wagga Wagga, where wheat and fruit growing are the 
specialties, and at Richmond where the Hawkesbury Agricultural 
College has its headquarters. The last institution is presided over 
by Mr. J. L. Thompson as Principal, and it is of considerable 
magnitude. I will proceed to give some account of it and also of 
its aims and objects. 

The college opened in March 1891 with twenty-five students, 
there now being ninety in residence, whilst more than three 
hundred have already availed themselves of the facilities offered. 
Commencing with 3,500 acres of poor bush land, 2,000 acres 
have been cleared ; there are fifty acres under orchard and vine- 
yard, four hundred acres under general crops, and ten acres devoted 
to experimental work. Every branch of a farmer's life is taught. 
Young men are trained in general farming and all the operations 

cultivating and harvesting of crops, 
drying of fruit, wine making, treat- 
ment for insect pests and disease, growing of vegetables, and 
packing of fruit : general dairy, pig, bee, and poultry work ; 
engine-driving, carpentering and blacksmithing. 

The aim of the institution is to give a thorough grounding in 
all matters likely to be of use to the agriculturist of the future ; 
it is clearly recognised that methods must be improved, and that 
practical farming to be successful must be carried out on 
lines. Lectures are given, these with practical work occupying 
alternate days, on principles of agriculture, chemistry, botany, 
and vegetable pathology, insect pests of the farm, and numerous 
other subjects calculated to help the students to a thorough 
knowledge of the scientific principles underlying their work. The 
regular course lasts two years, after which special courses may be 
taken by the student. The college is in the seventh year of its 
existence, and there is no doubt that it will become more and 
more useful as time goes on. If anything is necessary to prove 
its utility, it may be noted that growers are becoming more and 
more interested in its work, and that results abundantly testify in 
favour of careful and thorough, as opposed to careless, work. 
Time will not allow of full details as to the past year's work, but 
it must suffice to say that by means of ensilage cows are kept in 
milk all the year round, while the ordinary products, fruit, cheese, 
etc., have brought the highest market prices when any surplus 
has been disposed of. By means of careful rotation the two main 
seasons give each its crop. The experimental work becomes more 
and more conclusive that proper rotation, constant cultivation, 
careful selection of seed, application of appropriate manures, atten- 
tion to insect and fungus pests, and strict attention to details, pays 
handsomely for the extra cost, the crops being better, heavier, 
and cleaner, whilst cultivation properly carried out tends to 
minimise the drawbacks experienced in our variable climate. 

Students at the college benefit by the accumulated knowledge 
of the world in farming matters. Everything is done that can 

be thought of to improve the methods of work and the information 
conveyed to students. The opportunity is there; it rests with the 
young men themselves whether the country is to benefit or otherwise. 
A new departure has been recently made ; the senior student of 
1896 has been selected to undertake a course of study at one of 
the leading American colleges ; on his return the information 
gained will be made use of in a practical way. Such travelling 
scholarships are highly to be commended, and, provided the scholar 
is capable and receptive, he should be able to impart much that 
is valuable on his return. 

I had the pleasure, a few months ago, of carefully examining 
the work at the Murrurabidgee Experiment Farm at Bomen near 
Wagga Wagga, an institution second only in importance to the 
Hawkesbury Agricultural College. It is not necessary for me to 
enter into detail in regard to the farm, as such particulars will be 
found in the Agricultural Gazette, but I think it is only right that, 
addressing as I am a body of scientific men, I should draw your 
attention to the highly scientific work in regard to the selection 
of wheats proceeding at Bomen. This work is carried on jointly 
by Dr. Cobb, the Vegetable Pathologist to the Department, and 
Mr. George Valder, the manager of the farm. Much pioneer 
work in this direction has been already done. Hundreds of kinds. 
of wheats have been planted under varying methods of cultivation, 
have been harvested, and the grain subjected to milling and other 
tests, and while still in the ear observations have been systemati- 
cally carried on in regard to the period of ripening, tendency to 
shell etc. In fine, the question of wheat cultivation and examin- 
ation of the grain has been attacked in very many directions. 
Farmers have, been shown that the heavier sowing is not necessarily 
followed by the heavier crop, even when other conditions are 
identical. The claims of various kinds of wheats to certain 
reputed characteristics have been investigated, and the wheats 
are classified in regard to yield per acre, weight per bushel, easi- 
ness or the reverse, capability of resisting rust, and so on. This 
farm is distributing "stud wheats" in limited quantities to farmers 


at fixed prices, and the demand for these is so great that it is 
expected that in a few years the institution will be almost self- 
supporting. If the distribution of improved wheats raises the 
yield of the colony but one bushel per acre, what a grand achiev- 
ment that would be ! And the quality of the wheat is being 
improved at the same time, becoming more rust resistant, and of 
improved value for milling purposes. I am afraid I must leave 
this fascinating subject, as further discussion of it is perhaps more 
appropriate to an Agricultural Society than to a Royal Society 
for the promotion of science in general. I would, however, that 
agricultural societies would not entirely devote their energies to 
displays of stock, products and manufactures ; it might be advan- 
tageous to their members to discuss agricultural matters, intro- 
duced by lectures or papers, and important subject-matter for 
many a meeting could be supplied by recounting the aims, 
methods,. and results of the various agencies for the advancement 
of rural pursuits by the Department of Agriculture of New South 

c. Mr. W. Farrer's work with Wheats. — Besides this wheat- 
selection work of the Department of Agriculture, Mr. W. Farrer 
of Lambrigg, Tharwa, continues his work with this cereal ; this 
he has carried on at his own expense for many years. The system 
Mr. Farrer is following is that of cross-breeding between selected 
distinct varieties, followed by selection from the resulting numer- 
ous types, of such as appear to possess, in the highest degree, the 
qualities which are valuable, not only to the farmer, but to the 
miller, baker, and consumer as well,— to the two latter especially. 
Mr. Farrer is paying attention more particularly to the nutritive 
value of the grain, and resistance to rust, in his experiments, 
without neglecting such important matters as productiveness 
earliness of maturity and strength of straw. He is aiming to 
make the good qualities of his wheats normal and stable qualities 
°f new varieties. Such new varieties as he makes in this manner 
he is m the habit of distributing, before they are quite firmly 
fix od, to the Agricultural Departments of the different colonies, 


d. Testing of Seeds.— -This is a subject upon which I again 
propose to touch, but the matter is worthy of special emphasis in 
connection with agriculture. I hope that, before the lapse of 
many years, we shall have a Seed-control Station in connection 
with our Department of Agriculture, where agricultural seeds 
may be tested as to name, germinating power and purity. The 
germinating power of seeds is of course of paramount importance 
to the farmer. Not only do seeds vary considerably in the length 
of time they may be safely kept before sowing, but there is often 
much variability in seeds in the same parcel through admixture, 
and other causes. I cannot do justice to this subject on the 
present occasion, but I venture to refer members to two excellent 
papers, which will well repay perusal. 1 Hardy less valuable is a 
paper by another author 2 belonging to the same department, where 
homely appliances for the testing of seeds are described. 

It has long beeen a matter of surprise to me that seed-testing 
is so little practised by farmers. Of course, as regards the more 
difficult points that present themselves in these investigations, the 
farmer would do well to appeal to the Department of Agriculture 
for help, but, as a rule, with very little practice, and with appli- 
ances to be found in every household, he can test the germinating 
power of most seeds as well as anybody. And if the citizen whose 
purchases of seeds are limited to those required for the horticulture 
of a suburban garden, were to adopt a similar plan, much heart- 
burning would be saved, and the precautions of seedsmen for the 
supply and distribution of good seed would be promptly increased. 

Soc, Feb. 8, 1896. Boston. Rockwell and Churchill ; pp. 
" Pure Seed Investigation," by the same author, reprir 
Year-book of the r Mu re for 1894. The 

is author of Circular No. 6, Division of Botany of the same 
entitled *' Standards of the purity and vitality of Agriculti 
2 A. J. Pieters— " Testing Seeds at Home," Reprinted f 
U.S. Depart, of Agriculture, 1895. 


3. Forestry, etc. — a. Arboretum. — The colony does not at the 
present time possess a single arboretum of the first class. Our 
climates and soils are so numerous that it would be desirable to 
have arboretums in several districts, but even one arboretum in 
a suitable situation could be made of high educational value. We 
possess a number of collections of trees (the Botanic Gardens in 
Sydney being especially rich in species), but no real garden of 
trees. To possess its maximum value for the people of this colony 
an arboretum would require to be at no great distance from Sydney, 
but, in such a case, it would be almost necessary to have a small 
branch establishment in one of the colder regions of the colony. 
The present time is inopportune to suggest fresh expenditure, but 
perhaps it might be possible to set apart a considerable area (say 
two hundred acres), of Crown Lands in a suitable situation within 
forty or fifty miles of Sydney. It might be possible to establish 
within this area a Forestry School, where young men might receive 
education in forestry matters under conditions as they exist in the 
colony, and if the site of the arboretum were at no great distance 
from a natural forest, the educational advantages would be 
greater still. 

b. Banger of planting inferior species. — Whether plantations 
are made by the Government or by private persons, the importance 
of planting only useful species cannot be overestimated. I have 
seen plantations in Australia which should now be revenue-pro- 
ducing, but the timber has no known use, and forms inferior fuel. 
It is, in fact, unsaleable. In re-afforestation operations, by means 
of our indigenous trees, it is necessary to emphasise this point very 
distinctly. This brings me to the seed-question. The selection 
of suitable seed is not by any means a matter resting solely with 
the seedsmen. Customers (official bodies and individuals), ask 
distinctly for seed of species which we know to be inferior. The 
reason of this is in some cases owing to the fact that through the 
confusion of botanical writers in regard to the merits of trees of the 
especially difficult genus Eucalyptus, species have received praise 
which is really not due to them, and planters, observing these 

favourable remarks, have placed their orders accordingly. The 
lesson to be learnt is that grave responsibility attaches to the man 
who, through imperfect information, praises the virtues of a tree. 
The tendency to speak in superlatives as to the excellencies of our 
native vegetation is growing, and should be restrained, as a man 
who is deceived by glowing accounts of our trees is apt to under- 
rate them when the reaction takes place. 

I think I am right in asserting that very few of our land- 
owners have cultivated any considerable number of trees for 
timber. In the northern hemisphere this practice is well estab- 
lished, and it is a matter well worthy of consideration, by many 
of our country people, to what extent the planting of trees will 
afford profitable employment for capital and land. 

c. Industry of Seed-collecting . — Most of the forest seeds collected 
in this colony are those of Eucalypts, trees difficult to discriminate. 
But that does not in any way justify collectors in supplying mixed 
seed, or seed with misleading names. I feel indignant as evidence 
is furnished to me of the carelessness of suppliers of indigenous 
seeds. If a man desires to learn the names of his seeds, dozens of 
botanists will help him without fee or reward. So that ignorance 

named seed of whose origin he is ignorant or careless, is a delin- 
quent of a peculiarly despicable kind, one whose wickedness can 
only be found out after the lapse of years, when perhaps reason- 
able hopes have been blasted. I would like to see the purveyors 
of false seed subjected to the penalties of a draconian law. Human 
nature is much the same everywhere, and our people are not 
greater delinquents in this respect than are those of other lands, 
but I have personal experience in these matters when I say that 
the disastrous effects of the distribution of ill-named or bad seed 
are comparable, as regards agriculture, forestry, and horticulture, 
to droughts and pests. Planters of all kinds have quite" enough 
discouragements of an unavoidable character without being 
saddled with others absolutely within human control. 

less. 53 

For my own part I am doing all I can to establish a seed-control 
station, at all events for indigenous seeds. I am the officially 
appointed buyer of Australian seeds for two countries, and have 
many opportunities of influencing purchases by public bodies and 
private citizens. I am doing all I can to encourage technical 
education in seed-collecting, and shall not rest until a buyer is 
able to procure his seeds under some reasonable guarantee. I 
have used plain language, but I feel strongly in the matter, and 
feel that I am doing right in addressing a body of men the extent 
of whose influence in educating the community cannot readily be 

d. Supply of good timbers not unlimited. — The demand for our 
timbers has been so active during the last few years, and fashion 
has set in almost exclusively for a very few species, that a word 
of caution is necessary, particularly in regard to the timbers 
referred to. We have large quantities of excellent timber, — there 
is no doubt of that, but not so much that we can afford to cut 
recklessly, and neglect conservation of young growths. We must 
not forget that the giant trees, the monarchs of our forests, which 
have yielded large quantities of high-class timber, are being 
rapidly cut out. They have been maturing their timber through 
the ages, practically uninterfered with by the aboriginal lord of 
the soil, and are no more to be replaced than can the nuggets 
which man can do nothing to produce ; he simply reaps a harvest 
which he has not sown. The cutting out of forest without 
replanting or conservation of young forest growths is simply 
living upon capital, and, continuing the metaphor, we should 
seriously ask ourselves if we are establishing an adequate sinking 

«• Forest-thinning. — This is a matter of considerable practical 
importance to us in this colony. It is a subject which requires 
t° be approached with a spirit of respect and caution, as it involves 
P^falls. Because a man can thin out lettuces or verbenas it does 
not follow that he can undertake forest thinning successfully. 
And the greater caution is required because the effects require 

time for development ; we might possibly pay a man for work of 
this kind when it would have been sounder policy to pay him the 
same sum for inaction. I hardly know a forestry operation 
requiring greater skill on the part of the overseer than that of 
thinning. Work of this kind can with difficulty be directed from 
a distance, and empiricism in dealing with a natural forest must 
be done away with as far as possible. If we had a natural forest 
on an absolutely level plain, with conditions of drainage every- 
where similar, soil and subsoil alike in every respect, the winds 
and moisture precisely similar in their effects over the entire area, 
then we could decree that the ultimate thinnings should leave 
the trees so many feet apart, which result could be attained either 
at once, or by so many intermediate thinnings. But such con- 
ditions nowhere exist, and each patch of forest requires the 
individual consideration of the operator. The local conditions 
require careful study in every instance, for the too abrupt 
alteration of the conditions under which a tree is living, by 
ill-advised clearing in its immediate vicinity, may do a tree harm 
rather than good, may retard its growth even if it does not induce 
actual disease. Careless thinning may cause trees to be bark- 
bound, to send out lateral branches, instead of forming a straight 
bole free from knots, and may have injurious effects in other 
ways. I am quite aware that it is difficult to secure the services 
of men who are capable of carrying out such work satisfactorily. 
Men should remember that the taking down of a number of trees 
in thinning operations is different in character to the removal of 
a number of stone or iron columns, and those entrusted with such 
operations must have a knowledge of the physiology of plant 
growth, and shrewd common sense to decide, under all the vary- 
ing conditions of a specific locality, what is the best action to take, 
— how to vary, in different parts of the same forest, the degree 
of thinning. 

One rule in forest-thinning should be borne in mind (i.e., where 
merchantable timber and not merely landscape effects are in view) 
viz., the necessity for keeping the ground shaded asmuch as possible, 

as exposure to the direct rays of the sun and the beating effects 
of the rain, alike diminish the productivity of the forest. Some 
valuable correspondence (although written with European and 
Indian conditions in view), on " What constitutes a thinning," 
has, during the last few months, appeared in the "Indian Forester" 1 
a journal which is not so well known in these colonies as its 

/ Ringbarking. — There is a vast field for enquiry into the best 
methods of destroying tree-growth. It is a matter of everyday 
knowledge that trees are sacrificed unnecessarily, but, when it is 
decided what trees are to be destroyed, there is frequently serious 
trouble owing to the suckering of certain species, (or the ground 
being taken possession of by others whose seeds have been lying 
dormant in the ground). The result, from whatever cause, is that 
ground is taken possession of by scrubby growths which have 
frequently become well nigh impenetrable, and instead of ring- 
barking having resulted in an increased growth of grass, the 
reverse has been the case. So diverse are local conditions that it 
is impossible to prescribe with exactness the time for destroying 
trees in every district. 

If it be thoroughly understood that trees of different species do 
not perform their various functions connected with rest and 
growth, simultaneously, and that our seasons are exceedingly 
""regular compared with those of Europe, on the recorded experience 
of which many of us rely, perhaps too much, we shall have learned 
a good deal. And let it be further noted that we have a good 
deal of pioneer investigation to do yet,— in other words, that 
when a man asks us the best time to ringbark a certain tree, we 
have frequently no precedent to offer him. Because Stringbark 
was successfully ringbarked at Bandaloo in September 1889, it 
does not follow that Box may be successfully ringbarked at the 
same or any other place in September 1897. If we could prepare 
a column of statistics in this way, just as we record physical con- 

1 Muasoorie, India.— Official Organ of the Forest School, Dehra Dun. 

56 J. H. MAIDEN. 

stants, what a boon it would be ! No, we must approach this 
subject, the importance of which is still of such magnitude to New 
South Wales, that outsiders can scarcely understand, in another 
way. We must consider the tree as a living organism, and give 
some attention to the physiology of tree-growth. 

The first thing is to ascertain when the sap is "up" (to use a 
rather loose phrase the meaning of which is, however, well under- 
stood), evidence of which is shown by the facility with which the 
bark strips, and also by the formation of leaves, to be noted at a 
distance by their greater greenness. (In Australia we have of 
course mainly to deal with non-deciduous trees, but nevertheless 
it is usually an essy matter for a careful observer to note the 
extent to which the formation of a new growth of leaves has 
extended, or whether the tree is at rest). For an account of the 
physiology of the processes connected with sap-movement I must 
refer to the text-books. But I may remind you that starch is 
contained in the sap of trees, or a substance from which starch is 
obtained. This starch is separated from the sap and is stored up, 
during the period of active growth, in the wood, and especially in 
the root wood, ready for the formation of buds, (usually leaf -buds), 
which buds usually burst in the spring, but the season of bursting 
forth is exceedingly variable in this colony with various trees, as 
I have already hinted. Every forester, every man concerned in 
the procuring of timber, and every pastoralist, should make and 
preserve records of the periods of " flushes " of leaves on each of 

Now many trees, if the bark be injured, or ringbarked, have 
the power of developing the latent buds which exist under the 
bark, which buds are developed by means of the store of starchy 
matter which we have already referred to as existing in the root- 
wood (and in the stump). In other words we have "suckers," 
those curses of the forester and pastoralist. If information be 
desired as to the relative degrees of suckering of our forest trees 
attention may be invited to an article 1 dealing with the subject. 
' reports). 

The liability of Box (Eucalyptus hemiphloia, etc.) to sucker has 
passed into a bye-word. So here, as pointed out by Farrer and 
others, many years ago, we have, I think, the key to the problem 
of ringbarking. If a tree is to be rung, see that the work is 
done properly, right through the cambium layer all round. Then 
see that it is cut at a period when the particular kind of tree 
operated upon has little or no starch or bud-sustaining material 
left in its roots. In other words, see that it is cut off from its 
base of supplies. Consequently, it may be bad practice to set a 
man to indiscriminately ringbark an area. Ringbarking is, in 
fact, an operation requiring scientific direction, and no land-owner 
should turn a number of axe-men into his property to ring-bark 
without very cautiously directing their operations. 

It is a pity that the operation of ringbarking should be more 
difficult than is usually supposed, but we cannot contravene 
nature's laws without taking the consequences. A favourite say- 
ing of Sir Andrew Clark to a patient, was " Remember that 
Nature never forgives." If a land-owner will pay no heed to 
the science of ringbarking, his pocket will suffer ; if a public 
official directs or sanctions ringbarking at an improper season, 
I would endeavour to teach him better, and if he proved 
incapable or unwilling to learn, I would replace him. If ring- 
barking were conducted on proper lines, that alone would justify 
the existence of a forestry department, for it would result in 
enormous saving to private citizens, and to that great land-owner, 
—the State. Here we have another potent reason for the tech- 
nical education of the forestry staff. 

9- Noxious Scrub and Prickly-pear.— 1 believe that the key to 
the effective destruction of noxious scrub, such as the Brigalow 
scrub, which devastates thousands of acres, and the Prickly-pear, 
(Opuntia), the eradication (or rather partial or non-eradication), 

w hich has given rise to a permanent colonial industry, will be 
found in what I have said on the subject of ringbarking. We in 
****> take a mean advantage of plant-life. We cut the plant's 
head off at a period, carefully ascertained by the study of local 

conditions, when it is unable to grow a new one. I would like to 
see measured areas of brigalow scrub cut on the principles I have 
indicated, and compared with scrub on adjacent land. I have no 
fear of the result, but scrub-cutting carried out carelessly or 
indiscriminately is just another name for pruning, and will prob- 
ably result in a fine healthy crop of suckers which will require 
treatment at a greatly enhanced cost. 

Did time permit, I would like to dwell on the subject of "weed- 
killers," a matter to us in Australia of national importance, how- 
ever strange it may sound to European ears. I look upon weed- 
killers as only of very partial application, as they often merely 
scotch the weed, leaving its vitality practically unimpaired. With 
some weeds, under special circumstances, some (very few) weed- 
killers may be made to do useful work in the hands of carefully 
directed men. In any case weed-killers ought only to be paid for 
by bills having a currency of one, two or three years, provision 
being made to return the bills to drawer in the very probable 
event of the weed-killer not doing its work. 

I think that weed-killers, where large weeds, such as prickly- 
pear, sweet-briar, etc., are concerned, should be placed in the same 
category as mattocks and picks ; they are simply to be used as a 
means for destroying the plant at a period when it can no longer 
draw upon its accumulated nutritive store, its starchy capital in 

4. Australian Timbers.— a. School of Timber-research.— There 
is a vast field for research in the histology of colonial timbers. 
Very little has been done in this direction, and the work is inter- 
esting and full of promise of valuable results. How to get the 
work done is the difficulty, and it is not easy to make suggestions. 
Some of us have been spasmodically engaged in the work for a 
number of years, but it is work unsuited to the attention of men 
with many other claims on their time, and endeavour might perhaps 
be made to interest young University graduates in the matter. 
Students of biology should be well grounded in histology if they 


make use of their opportunities, and no doubt Professor Haswell 
would help his old students who might seek his advice. Many- 
fine illustrations of the microscopic structure of exotic woods have 
been published, and the student could give his first attention to 
these, many of the timbers to which they refer being readily 
available. As regards colonial timbers, the fine collection of the 
Technological Museum would be available. Material inducements 
to enter on the study might perhaps be made by recognising it in 
some way by the University (say as part of a post-graduate 
course), or perhaps the medal of our Society might be awarded 
for good work in this direction. 

b. Wood-paving.— A good deal of attention has been recently 
devoted in the press to the evergreen subject of wood-paving. 
And it is pleasant to observe that every epidemic of letter-writing 
to the newspapers on this matter, shows that the writers have 
become better informed on the subject. At present it does not 
appear to be necessary that those who lay down paving of this 
character should possess much acquaintance with the timbers 
themselves, which is a matter for regret, although the diagnosis of 
Eucalyptus timbers is admittedly difficult. At present, even in 
Australia we see roadways made of timbers which have been felled 
practically all the year round, and timbers of different kinds mixed 
in the same stretch of roadway. The matter is already receiving 
the attention of the Engineering Section of this Society, and it is 
well worthy the attention of scientific men. Our health and our 
pockets are alike concerned, for the sanitary character of a road- 
way depends not only upon the nature of the material, but upon 
the way it is laid, and our pockets suffer in the improper depletion 
of certain kinds of timber, and through anything which prevents 
the maximum life of the roadway being obtained. 

c Special Uses of Australian Timbers.— This is a field in regard 
to which practical men may benefit themselves and the community 
at the same time. Many of our native woods have been recom- 
mended for specific uses. Can those recommendations be endorsed? 
The great majority of our native timbers have been put to no 

60 J. H. MAIDEN. 

other use than as fuel. It is in the highest degree improbable 
that our timbers, so varied in texture, colour and properties are 
unsuitable for many purposes. If not, what are those special 
purposes 1 The uses of wood are infinite, and this enquiry, while 
not of a high scientific character, is certainly work of great 

5. Botanical Teaching in New South Wales. — a. The 
present state of Botanical Instruction in this Colony. — I think I 
am correct in saying that there are few institutions in the colony 
in which botany is practically taught. As regards schools, whether 
the subject is taken up or not depends upon the inclination of the 
individual teacher. It is recognised in the local examinations of 
the University as an optional subject. In the University itself, 
it is taught as part of the Biology course. The great objection 
with which one is met in advocating wider teaching in botany is 
the already (in the opinion of some), overcrowded list of subjects 
taught in many schools. But, bearing in mind the primary mean- 
ing and object of education, — the " leading out " of the faculties, 
it does seem a matter for regret that a place is not found for a 
subject like botany, which is so well adapted for securing the end 
in view. In country schools the plants of the district may be 
made of never-ending interest to the scholars, and they could be 
taught to observe, with objects ever at hand. In towns there 
need rarely be insurmountable difficulty in obtaining a fresh supply 
of leaves and flowers to illustrate a practical discourse. I would 
not press on children, at too early a stage, anything in the shape 
of a course of structural and systematic botany. Rather, I would 
take a few well-known plants, bring out a few points of structure, 
and illustrate their uses wherever possible. In like manner, in 
teaching a child chemistry, I would show him a series of experi- 
ments, in order that he might see the kind of apparatus employed 
and the class of effects produced, that he might, in short feel him- 
self in an atmosphere of chemistry, and so imbibe a love of it, 
before being put to the more serious work of systematic study of 
the science. But where shall we get the teachers ? Well, it does 

not require that a teacher shall have a very profound knowledge 
of the subject before he can give a very interesting (and sound) 
practical lesson to children in botany. If teachers would not 
mistrust their own powers in this respect, they would find their 
own knowledge would grow, for by a kind of inductive action 
between teachers and taught, teachers would find their own 
knowledge develop, and they could proceed to broader views of 
the subject. 

As intellectual discipline, the science of botany possesses merit 
of a high order, while it has the advantage of causing its votaries 
to wander in the fresh, pure air of the fields and woods, never 
without companions although apparently alone, and last, though 
surely not least, the refining effect of a love of plant-life must 
never be overlooked. And if the subject be encouraged in the 
elementary schools, its more ample recognition in higher schools 
and colleges, and by the University, will follow as a matter of 

b. An Institution for Botanical Research.— -We lac 
to do for the botanical student what the chemical laboratory does 
for the chemical student. By use of the term laboratory, I do 
not wish to be misunderstood ; I mean an institution where the 
student may pursue botanical enquiries with facilities for reference 
to abundant fresh and growing material. The need of such an 
institution has been felt in London, and I would refer to an inter- 
esting scheme recently propounded by Mr. W. Martindale. 1 As 
'ar as New South Wales is concerned, an institution of this 
character must obviously be in close touch with the Botanic 
Gardens at Sydney, for no scheme of botanical instruction can be 
complete without practical demonstrations with living plants. I 
a «n not prepared with a working scheme, and will content myself 
at present with a few suggestions. A house in the vicinity of the 
Gardens could be set apart for students. None of them would 

k On the desirability of establishing an institute for the testing of 
p any in the Royal Botanic Gardens " (London), by W. Martindale.— 
arm - Journ - L*] iv., 203, (6th March, 1897). 

be in residence, and the rooms could be fitted up with the appli- 
ances usually found in a herbarium and botanical museum, special 
apparatus and fittings for special work being of course provided 
as required. Intending students would require to give evidence 
of their fitness to conduct research, and a room, or part of a room, 
would be put at the disposal of each for a period, such period 
being capable of extension if found desirable. Students might be 
nominated by the University, — special students who, having 
graduated, desire to take up a special line of botanical research ; 
medical and pharmaceutical students could be nominated by the 
Medical School of the University and by the Pharmaceutical 
Society ; the Department of Public Instruction might nominate 
teachers as students during the whole or part of their vacation ; 
students and cadets from the Technical College and Technological 
Museum might be nominated ; the Department of Mines and 
Agriculture might nominate forests cadets, students at agricultural 
colleges and experiment farms, inspectors of prickly-pear and 
other weeds. Every encouragement could be given to other 
students to take up practical work in connection with the 
physiology and morphology of plants, and to work at problems of 
classification. A student would bring such books and apparatus 
as he could afford, and as regards the rest, he could have ready 
access to the Public Library and the library of the Botanic Gardens, 
to a fine collection of growing plants and a very fair herbarium, 
and to the various conveniences for study (hot-houses, frames, 
ponds, tanks, etc.) which a generously equipped botanical establish- 
ment might supply. For my own part, I desire to see the 
educational opportunities which the Gardens afford exercised to 
their fullest extent, subject only to necessary safeguards for the 
safety of the public collections, and to non-interference with the 
discipline of the staff. I quite think it would be possible to carry 
out some such scheme as I have outlined, without interfering with 
the ordinary work of the Gardens. 

c. Education of Foresters. — Our foresters are some of the best 
abused men in the service, but, if only for the reason that they 

have the oversight of part of the assets of the colony worth a 
very large sum of money, we should do all we can to encourage 
them and further their welfare. Some of the men in our forest 
service are, to my personal knowledge, excellent men for the 
positions they hold, but this is owing to the men themselves, and 
not to the method by which they have been trained. Just as the 
administrators of the public school system of this colony find it 
necessary to train, from the beginning, most of their teaching staff, 
so, I think it would be also a wise policy for the State to train 
foresters for its own service. If the whole, or the majority of the 
forestry posts were awarded to trainees of the State, the State 
would find competition to undergo courses of training keen, and 
better men would probably find their way into the service. 

Some knowledge of the botany of Australian plants (particularly 
trees) should be insisted upon, in addition to the botany of exotic 
plants usually exclusively taught in Australia itself, together with 
knowledge of the physiology of plants, for unless a forester 
possesses such knowledge, his treatment of his tree-charges must 
of necessity be empirical. Apprenticeship for one or two years 
of forestry cadets in the Botanic Gardens and Parks would be 
very desirable, in order that the operations and discipline of such 
establishments might be familiar to them. In fact I would insist 
on such training, and with stringent provisions for the prompt 
termination of a course in any case in which a student did not 
appear to profit by the instruction provided. 

6. A Plea for a Botanical Survey.— The desirability of a 
botanical survey for the Colony is so obvious, that I require only 
to touch upon a few points which suggest themselves, because of 
our special circumstances and environments. In the first place, 
we are frequently asked where this or that plant, or a supply of 
Its P r oduct, may be obtained in quantity, and sometimes we can 
°nly indicate the locality in general terms. The establishment 
of a botanical survey need not involve the expenditure of a large 
8Ura of money, but rather the organization and control of existing 
agencies which may subserve the grand object in view. I feel 

sure that in country districts there are hundreds, nay, even 
thousands o£ private citizens, and officials such as engineers, 
surveyors, mining, land and forest officers, school teachers, post- 
masters, and many others, who would give voluntary aid to the 
furtherance of a botanical survey. Many would, in their spare 
moments, gladly supply information and collect specimens if they 
knew what would be acceptable. But while the work must be 
largely voluntary, it need be none the less systematic. I have 
conducted an informal botanical survey on my own account for 
many years, but my correspondents, although many, do not 
represent the whole of the colony, and their work has been neces- 
sarily of a fitful and unorganised character. 

In time to come we shall not only have geological and mining 
surveyors, but also agricultural and forestry surveyors. I use 
the word surveyor (as regards agriculture, forestry, etc.), not so 
much in the sense it bears as applied to a land-surveyor, for a man 
may be able to furnish valuable information suitable for a botanical 
and agricultural survey, and yet be incapable of using a theodolite. 
To summarise, I would use the term " botanical survey " as corre- 
lative to geological survey, and it would include observations 
applicable to : — 

a. Pure Botany. 

b. Agriculture. 

c. Forestry. 

d. Horticulture. 

Let us touch upon these heads in a little detail. 

a. Pure Botany. — An obvious advantage to the systematist 
would be that material from a wider area would be available, and 
thus he would be better able to define the limitations of species 
and varieties than he is at present. How frequently we have 
to deplore the one-sided description of a species, often prepared 
from one specimen, from one locality, in ignorance perhaps of 
the amount of variation the same plant undergoes a very short 
distance away. A botanical survey will above all things secure 
thoroughness ; its action will be comparable to that of the wide- 


spreading net which sweeps a large area, while our present 
spasmodic efforts in the same direction may be compared to those 
of the patient and stationary angler who must fain be content 
with a bite here and a bite there. The acquisition of more com- 
plete material in many orders will lead to the employment of 
specialists ; many of our local botanists who take up the subject 
broadly, will probably specialise on certain genera and orders. 
Nor, under an improved arrangement, will any orders or groups 
of plants be ignored, as some practically are at present. The 
head-quarters of the Botanical Survey will be practically a 
Botanical Clearing-house, waste and duplication will be minimised, 
and no man who desires material for research need go unsatisfied. 
I may, perhaps, draw special attention to the desirability of 
additional botanists and collectors in New South Wales giving 
attention to I , mosses and sea-weeds. 

Local Floras. — A properly organised botanical survey would 
supersede the special preparation of local floras, or rather, the 
local botanist would have his task limited to the filling in of blanks 
in well defined geographical or geological areas. I have nothing 
but praise to bestow upon the outlines of local floras already 
published for districts of New South Wales, but their authors 
^ould be the first to admit that their observations are incomplete, 
and lack their full educational value for the reason that they had 
to work upon imperfectly defined areas. We have much to learn 
in regard to the range of plants with respect to geological forma- 
tions. The admirable coloured geological map issued by our 
Geological Survey is of the greatest service to botanical collectors 
collecting with the above object in view. 

Flowering Periods of Australian Plants.— A botanical survey 
might also take cognizance of such matters as the flowering periods 
°f indigenous plants, information which would be desirable, on 
the practical side, as indicating when fruits and seeds might be 
probably available. 

b - Agriculture.— The subject of Agriculture is so important 
that it might either have a survey to itself, or the facts having a 

66 J. H. MAIDEN. 

special bearing on the subject might be collated by themselves. 
Of course in dealing with this subject the indigenous plants are, 
on the whole, of inferior importance to exotic ones. The crops 
we raise are practically all exotics J at the same time we must 
never lose sight of the possibilities of our indigenous fodder-plants, 
for instance. The character of the indigenous vegetation is a 
valuable guide to the agriculturist who desires to break up fresh 
soil, therefore a botanical survey should be in a position to furnish 
him with the information. Not that any sensible man would 
buy land without looking at it previously ; at the same time a 
farmer is usually a poor man, and, whether he is or not, we should 
endeavour to supply all information which will facilitate settle- 
ment. The Department of Agriculture is already in possession of 
a vast amount of information in regard to the suitability or other- 
wise, of different districts and small areas, for the cultivation of 
various plants, — an Agricultural Survey would systematise such 
information and render it more readily available to the public. 
The establishment by the department of model farms in different 
parts of the colony, will, besides teaching improved methods of 
farming, furnish the colony with many of the agricultural data 
requisite for a complete agricultural survey. 

The survey will also take cognizance of weeds, of the areas 
affected by the noxious species, of the spread of such plants, of 
various methods for weed-eradication and their results, and all 
matters which will assist in the framing of laws and regulations 
for coping with these pests. 

The Botanical Survey should be in intimate touch with the 
Geological Survey, as we require to know, amongst other things, 
the character of soils and sub-soils, and various matters connected 
with the retentiveness of the soil for water, natural water-supplies 
etc. This information will supplement that of the Chemist of the 
Department of Agriculture on the chemistry and physical pro- 
perties of soils. As regards the desirability of co-operation with 
the Entomologists of the colony, I have only to state the case to 
commend it to consideration^ plant and insect life are indissolubly 

ess. 67 

c. Forestry. — We have much to learn in regard to the geo- 
graphical distribution of even our principal forest trees ; much 
more then, is there scope for enquiry in regard to the distribution 
of those of less frequent occurrence. The matter is of importance 
from a utilitarian point of view, because of the fact that be a 
timber ever so desirable, it cannot be utilized commercially unless 
a continuous supply be available, and to obtain supplies we must 
know the localities of its occurrence not merely in general terms. 
The value of a botanical survey would be most immediately felt 
in regard to our forests. We could by the aid of it take stock, 
as it were, of our possessions, of our standing timber, and prepare 
a scheme for scientific conservation. A general statement to an 
outsider as to the vastness of our timber supplies is at once met 
hy the plain questions, — Where are each of your timber-trees 
found, of what size are they, and in what abundance 1 

Measurements of Trees.— One of the matters to which attention 
would be given by a botanical survey would be that of ascertain- 
ing the heights and trunk-diameters of various kinds of trees, 
different observations being made in regard to the same species 
in different districts. In this way a ready index would be obtained 
as to the climates and soils in which various species flourish best. 
Notes would also be taken of the sizes of abnormally large trees. 

These are of c 

) becoming rapidly fewer 

«f the white man. If the identity of individual trees be noted, 
either by marks on or near the trees themselves in the forest, or 
on the maps, it would be easy to prepare records of the rates of 
growth of our Australian trees, a matter of considerable economic 
importance, and of some scientific interest, but in regard to which 
*e possess very few data at present. 

Rate of Growth of Forest Trees.— This is a forestry matter 
*hich might well engage the attention of a Botanical Survey. 

e nave a few scattered notes on the growth of indigenous trees, 1 

Ut no enquiry of this nature, on a large scale has, to my know- 

1 *'or example, Agric. Gazette N.S.W., vii., 504, (August 1896). 

ledge, been yet attempted. The ascertainment of the rate of 
growth of exotic trees in various districts is also of great practical 
importance, and the data are often more readily available than is 
the case with indigenous trees, as, since as a rule they have been 
planted by man, approximate dates of planting are often ascer- 

Natural Re-afforestation. — A phase of the forest question that 
is not often enquired into is the conversion of grazing land into 
forest growth since European settlement. It is a well ascertained 
fact that, since the advent of the white man, a growth of trees, 
more or less dense, has, without artificial planting, taken possess- 
ion of grass land. Enquiry might be made into the circumstances 

cause of these forest growths. The reason of this change is 
attributed to the overstocking of country, the stock eating down 
the grass, so that bush-fires, (which formerly consumed the seedlings 
of forest-trees), are now less frequent, and devastate smaller areas 
of country, than they used to do. In some cases there is no doubt 
that stock aid in the propagation of trees by trampling the seeds 
into the ground, and even manuring the ground, thus preventing 
the seed being washed away by rain. At the same time one 
must not lose sight of the fact that stock have important influence 
on the formation of natural forest growths, as they eat out (par- 
ticularly when grass is scarce), many young trees. 

d. Horticulture. — Many of our plants are well worthy of culti- 
vation for ornamental and other purposes. The merits of but few 
are known to horticulturists, so that there is room for much 
enquiry. 1 Some desirable plants are sparingly distributed ; in 
regard to these we require full data as to localities, with particulars 
as to soil, aspect, etc., and particularly the season for maturing 

1 See " Some New South Wales Plants Worth Cultivating for Shade, 
Ornamental, and other Purposes." — Agric. Gazette N.S.W., vn., 341, (June 

iess. 69 

County and Parish Maps.— As the results come in, they will, 
after checking, be carefully entered by a draughtsman-clerk (many 
of whom already possess knowledge of plant names), in the county 
and parish maps. The county maps will serve for more general 
records, the parish maps for those in more detail. To accompany 
each map, or group of maps, registers could be attached, where 
information could be recorded which is unsuitable for (either on 
account of its bulk, or for other reasons), the maps themselves. 
Such registers could have printed columns and head lines ; thus 
expense could be saved and neatness and uniformity secured. 

Such is a crude outline of my views on a subject which I venture 
to submit to your consideration. India has for many years enjoyed 
the advantages of a botanical survey, and I trust that no great 
time will elapse before we have a properly organised Botanical 
Survey of New South Wales. 



Professor of Chemistry in the University of Sydney. 

[With Plates I. -XVI.] 

[Re%d before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, October 3, 1894.'] 

A preliminary account of the subject of this paper were com- 
municated in 1894 to the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, and the 
sections of some nuggets were exhibited then and later on, but 
the publication of the paper has been deferred until now, pending 
the preparation of the illustrations ; a brief notice from the 
proceedings of the Society was also published in the Chemical 
News in 1894. 1 

In a paper read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales in 
1893, 2 1 discussed the origin of gold nuggets and reviewed the 
theories which had been put forward to account for their forma- 
tion. One explanation of their origin is that they have been 
formed in situ in the gravels and alluvial deposits in which they 
are found, and that starting with a nucleus they were gradually 
increased in size by the successive deposits of gold from solution, 
i.e., that they were built up of superimposed coatings and were 
analogous in structure to an onion. In that paper I gave various 
reasons to show that this explanation is not justified ; after its 
publication I obtained specimens of gold nuggets, which were 
ground down or sliced through so as to obtain sections; these 
sections were then polished and etched by means of suitable 


solvents, such as chlorine water, aqua regia, a solution of potassium 
cyanide or by a mixture of sodium chloride solution and nitric 
acid; the last was found to be the most convenient because the 
strong solution of salt dissolved off the coating of silver chloride 
which was usually formed, and which prevented the action of the 
solvent from being properly watched. 

As a result of this treatment it was invariably found that the 
nugget did not present any traces of concentric coatings, but that 
the gold was always more or less crystallised, and in some cases 
the crystals were very large and with well defined boundaries; in 
fact the etched surfaces closely resembled those obtained from 
sections of many metallic meteorites, except in the form of the 
crystals — this structure is clearly seen in the illustrations to this 

Some of the nuggets also showed cavities and enclosures of 
quartz, ferric hydroxide and argillaceous matter, although in 
many cases none was visible on the rolled surface of the nugget, 
the non-appearance of the impurities on the surface being due to 
the soft gold having been usually beaten down, by rolling and 
attrition, in such a way as to cover over and hide the enclosures 
or render them less conspicuous. 

It was found also that many nuggets when heated strongly in 
a bunsen burner became blistered, and that these blisters burst 
w ith a sharp report sometimes accompanied by the projection of 
small pieces of gold; they also gave off gases or vapours, which 
issued under considerable pressure and forced out the bunsen 
flame into little blow-pipe-like jets. It was thought that these 
phenomena might be due to the presence of enclosed gases under 
Pressure, but when the nuggets showing these blisters or blebs 
*ere immersed in a solvent and the walls of the blebs slowly 
dissolved away, there was no escape of gas. 

Subsequent investigations showed that the nuggets yielded but 
ve »7 small quantities of permanent gas, when examined at a high 
temperature in vacuo for occluded gases, and it was found that 
the Va Pour given off was mainly that of water mixed with some 

sulphur dioxide and air. The water vapour was probably derived 
from the hydrous oxide of iron and argillaceous matter enclosed 
in the nuggets, and the sulphur dioxide from pyrites or other 
sulphur containing minerals. 

The nuggets examined came from various parts of Australia 
and differed considerably in purity ; the purer ones usually pre- 
sented a much better marked crystalline structure — this is well 
shown in the specimens from West Australia. Plate i reproduces 
a photograph of a nugget from Coolgardie, W.A., enlarged two 
diameters so as to render the external details clearer. The some- 
what rounded and worn points show traces of crystalline form, 
probably that of the octohedron and its derivatives. On the 
whole the nuggets from West Australia which I have seen did 
not possess such a worn and rounded appearance as that usually 
presented by large nuggets from other localities, and I am inclined 
to think that they are less water worn on account of the greater 
dryness of that region. The weight of this nugget was 9 94 oz. 
Troy, and the Mint assay was gold -8900, silver -105. 

The assays given in this paper are those of the average of the 
parcel of gold from which the nugget was selected, the assays of 
the individual nuggets and of portions of the nuggets have yet to 
be made. It is intended to cut out crystals from the sections and 
examine them separately to see if there is any difference in their 
composition. Some of the crystals are much more deeply etched 
than others, that this is the case can be seen from the photographs, 
which by no means give all the details. 

The external depressions of this and other West Australian 
nuggets contained a little clay, which under the microscope 
showed the presence of a few spangles of gold and some small 
particles of quartz with sharp edges and conchoidal fractinvs. 
One small fragment of galena was also detected. Internally the 
nugget was practically free from foreign matter. Plate 2 is from 
a photograph of an etched section of the nugget taken very near 
the median plane. Plate 3 shows the other side of the same 
section but more deeply etched. A few minute cavities can be 

seen in the crystals, but the nugget was remarkably free from 
impurities, the dark parts are due to the way in which the light 
has been reflected from the surfaces of the crystals. Crystals 
which appear black in the photograph in one position, appear 
white or half-tone in another position. The whole of the surface 
was, of course, of a brilliant gold colour. 

When Plate 3 was taken this nugget had been by successive 
filings and etchings reduced to about $ inch in thickness. 

The three preceding plates and No. 14 have been reproduced 
in collotype so as to permit of examination with a magnifying 
glass, the rest of the photographs have been reproduced by process 
blocks for the sake of economy, with unfortunately the loss of 
many details. None of the photographs or reproductions have 
been touched up or the effects heightened in any way. 

In Plate 4, there is a section of another nugget from Coolgardie, 
enlarged three diameters; this nugget weighed 2-96 oz. Troy, and 
was picked out of a large parcel of some hundreds of ounces 
mainly composed of nuggets from two to five ounces in weight, all 
of which were only sub-rolled or water worn, and many pieces 
showed traces of external crystal planes. 

On etching this section with chlorine water its surface became 
Sickly coated with silver chloride ; some of the crystals were 
much more rapidly etched than others— the lines of contact of the 
crystals were also deeply etched. Unless there be a difference in 
imposition or of structure, the differential action of the solvent 
18 difficult to account for; in the case of meteorites we know that 
^e characteristic Widmannstatt figures are largely due to a 
1 erenc e in composition. 

Freshly cut and thoroughly dried fragments of this nugget when 
strongly heated gave off water and sulphur dioxide, the latter 
ble iron sulphide, and it 
us odour similar to that 
off by rock crystal, many 


minerals and rocks. No explosions, however, occurred and no 
blebs were formed. 

The section of a nugget from Orange, New South Wales, repro- 
duced in Plate 5, on heating to incipient redness in a bunsen, gave 
perhaps, the sharpest explosions and the largest blebs of any. 
The weight of this nugget was 1-08 oz. Troy, and the Mint assay 
of the parcel from which it was obtained gave gold -9345, silver 
■0600. No foreign matter was visible in the section until it had 
been etched, when it was found to be studded with minute grains 
of quartz and a little oxide of iron ; the crystalline structure is on 
a much smaller scale than that of the West Australian nuggets. 
The blebs and the cavities left by them are well shown, and Plate 6 
shows the cavities left after the bleb-walls had been dissolved away. 

As already stated, no gas was observed to escape from the blebs 
when the walls were dissolved away by chlorine water, hence the 
blisters were not due to imprisoned liquid carbon dioxide or other 
similar substance, but apparently to water or to a hydrated sub- 
stance such as iron oxide. 

Although the process block shows the structure of this section 
fairly well, yet some of the detail is lost, and nothing is seen of 
certain long and straight well defined lines meeting at angles of 
about 70°; these lines are clearly visible in the section itself, they 
reflect light very brilliantly and appear to be the edges of crystals. 

A nugget from Nerrigundah, New South Wales, also showed 
these long straight brilliant and sharply defined edges ; in both 
cases they were seen on the exterior of the nugget as well as in 
the section. Assay = -9805 gold and -010 silver. 

On Plate 5 there is also the etched section of a nugget from 
Adelong, New South Wales, weighing 4 oz. Troy, Mint assay of 
parcel = -9275 gold and -0650 silver. This section showed the 
presence of much iron oxide and a minutely crystalline structure. 
On heating only minute blebs were formed. 

On Plate 6 there is also the section of a nugget from Queensland 
which shows the gold in the form of veins enclosing much ferru- 

ginous matter ; the lighter coloured parts are the gold. Weight 
•7 oz. Troy ; assay -8795 gold and -1150 silver. Externally this 
nugget showed a foliated structure and the presence of ferruginous 

The first figure on Plate 7, is the section of a gold nugget from 
Wellington, New South Wales, weight -99 oz. Troy, Mint assay 
of parcel, gold -9335, silver -0600. Externally this nugget seemed 
to be massive gold, but the section showed the presence of much 
ferruginous matter ; the bending and welding over of the gold 
thus enclosing the impurity is well shown by the photograph. 

The three following New South Wales specimens also show 
much enclosed ferruginous matter, and a minutely crystalline 

The next specimen on Plate 7 represents a section of particularly 
bright gold from Peak Hill, this weighed -92 oz. Troy, Mint assay 
= gold -9790, silver -0100. No visible impurity was present, the 
black and dark parts are crystals of gold; from the large size of 
the crystals this nugget looks as if it had belonged to a much 
larger piece, but not necessarily so. The crystal sections have 
a satiny sheen, not visible in the illustration, as if made up 
of thin plates. The interpenetration of the crystals is well shown. 
This nugget is purer than usual and such gold generally yields 
larger crystals, this is the case also with ingot gold. 

The nugget from Parkes, New South Wales, Plate 8, shows a 
different structure to any of the preceding ; it is minutely crystal- 
lised and contains rounded enclosures of iron oxide. Weight 54 
oz- Assay = -9265 gold. 

Sections of many other nuggets were made and photographed, 
tut as they did not differ materially from those described herein 
^ey are not figured. A nugget from Hill End, New South Wales, 
showed under a one inch objective a small cavity lined with quartz 
crystals. I n others the cavities were lined with minute crystals 
of gold. 

Platinum Nugget. 

The section of a nugget of platinum weighing thirty-six 
S^mmes, sp. gr. 15-87 was also prepared, polished and etched by 


aqua regia, Plate 9. The structure was found to be much more 
granular than that of the gold nuggets, and the mass readily 
disintegrated into particles of from 1 to 2 mm. in diameter and 
possessing a crystallised appearance with octahedral markings. 

Between many of the granules there were films of a pale buff- 
coloured non-metallic mineral, which requires further examination. 
The nugget was evidently impure and requires to be analysed. 
Copper Nuggets. 

Some nuggets of native copper were sliced and etched, although 
they presented a crystahne structure it was not well marked. I 
hope to shortly procure some silver nuggets for examination. 

Next attempts were made to prepare artificial nuggets by 
electrolytic deposition ; around wires, fairly thick masses were 
obtained, the sections of these showed well defined rings and 
traces of crystalline structure ; the rings or successive coats were 
clearly due to changes in the strength of the current and of the 
solution. Masses of HisimI gold uvre also cut, polished and etched, 
and in all cases a strongly marked crystalline structure was visible. 

In Plate 10 is shown the cross section through the centre of an 
ingot of gold weighing 1,400 oz. and assaying 1,000, i.e., it was 
nominally pure gold. The crystals are seen to be very large and 
well defined and radiating out from the sides, which were in 
contact with the ingot mould, in well-defined curves. The hori- 
zontal lines may be due to the action of the planing tool by which 
the ingot was cut, the tool marks were filed and polished away 
completely, but doubtless the pressure of the tool set up stresses 
and molecular changes, and the effects of these become apparent 
in the process of etching ; the shearing strain must have been 
considerable, for it required a nominal four-horse power engine to 
work the tool when making the vertical groove or cut, although 
the cutting edge was quite narrow. 

The next, Plate n, shows the base of the ingot after etching; 
before etching no crystalline structure was apparent. 


In Plate 12 is shown the structure brought out on etching an 
internal horizontal section of the ingot cut parallel with the top 
and base through the plane A.B. Plate 10, in this also the groove- 
like lines seem to be due to the stress of the planing tool. This 
horizontal section was made by planing away the top of the ingot 
clown to the median line A.B. 

Next a large injrot, weighing 1,203 ounces, of standard gold 
coinage alloy (22 carat or 11 gold to 1 of copper), was cut 
through, polished and etched; this impure gold, as might be 
expected, showed a much smaller crystalline structure {Plate 13), 
and the crystals only radiate inwards a short way. This particular 
specimen was etched for me by Mr. McCutcheon, Assayer to the 
Sydney Mint, as it was found inconvenient to have such large 
masses of gold carried between the Mint and the University 
laboratory. It will be noticed that the stria? caused by the cutting 
tool, (if they be due to that in the softer and purer ingot) are not 
visible in this harder alloy. A I tin audi only two ingots are figured 
and described, several other smaller ones were made and examined, 

The next, Plate 14, is a collotype of, nominally pure and 
standard gold fillets, of the thickness of a sovereign ; the crystal- 
line structure is preserved in spite of the rolling and annealing 
which they have undergone, and in the case of the purer gold, 
some of the crystals are etched so deeply as to throw the others 
U P into such high relief as to yield well defined shadows. It is 
noticeable too, that the large longitudinal crystals (elongated by 
^e rolling process) are crossed, practically at right angles, by 
other smaller but well defined crystalline stria?. Enlarged two 

Plate 15 represents an etched rolled fillet of Mount Morgan 
JH, assaying 1,000, and supplied to me by the late Dr. Leibius 

the Sydney Mint, as a specimen of the purest gold he had ever 
mad e. In this the crystals are still larger. Enlarged two 

A plate of copper was thickly coated with gold electrolytically 
and etched but only a minute crystalline structure was obtained. 

A fillet of nominally pure silver presented a minutely crystalline 
structure, quite unlike the gold fillets. 

I had hoped to obtain and examine a specimen of "brittle" gold 
from the Sydney Mint, but none happened to be produced at the 
time, as its crystalline structure would be of interest and it might 
perhaps afford information which would be of use. 

For comparison an ingot of tin was etched by nitro-hydrochloric 
acid, with the result shown in Plate 16 ; the ingot weighed about 
20 lbs., only a small part of its surface is shown in the plate. 

immediately on moistening with the acid; the etching was continued 
until about one-quarter inch in depth had been dissolved away, 
the outlines of the crystals apparently underwent no change, and 
the surface remained quite smooth, i.e., none of the crystals were 
dissolved away more quickly than the others, and no grooves were 
eaten out along their edges. The gold nuggets, ingots and fillets 
behaved quite differently, that is, grooves were eaten out at the 
junctions of the gold crystals, and some Avere sunken below the 
others so that the etched surfaces of the gold could be printed 
from, and the differences of level seen and felt, nothing of the kind 
happened with the tin ingot. 

I have much pleasure in acknowledging the very great assistance 
I have received from the Deputy Master and the officers of the 
[icing the heavy ingots 
of gold for me, and for their cordial cooperation generally. 

A great deal requires to be done to complete this investigation, 
but as far as it goes it proves that gold nuggets do not show that 
they have been built up of concentric coatings round a nucleus, 
but that they possess a well marked internal crystalline structure 
and that they usually enclose foreign substances, also that a similar 
crystalline structure is shown by gold which has been fused ; I do 


not, however, think that native gold has necessarily been in a 
fused condition, on the contrary I think it has been deposited 
from solution and usually within veins or pockets in rocks, 
although if it had been deposited round nuclei, it might still have 
possessed the crystalline structure which has been described and 
figured in this paper. 

By R. Threlfall, m.a., Professor of Physics in the University 
of Sydney, and Florence Martin. 
[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, June 2, 1897. .] 
When a mass of oxygen is enclosed in a tube and the mercury 
pressure on it continuously diminished, it is found that at about 
0*7 mm., and over a certain range of lower pressures, the gas 
appears to undergo a change of condition. The phenomenon 
may be described in the words of Bohr, its discoverer, 1 "A 
given mass of oxygen is enclosed in a tube and the mercury 
adjusted so as to give rise to a pressure rather less than 
°'7 mm. If the volume of the gas is now reduced by raising 
the pressure, say to 0-8 mm., it is noted that this pressure will 
not remain constant ; but varies more or less with lapse of time. 
In three to five hours the pressure will fall by some 12% of its 
initial value (the volume being constant). After five hours the 
Pressure was found to have attained its steady value, so far as 
observations extending over twenty-four to thirty-six hours could 

-I his curious behaviour of oxygen was also noted by Baly and 

Ramsay,* wno observed that at a pressure of about 75 mm. 

1 Wied. Ann. 27, p. 475. 2 Phil. Mag., 38, p. 324, 1894. 

oxygen becomes unstable as to its pressure volume relation, and 
that the equilibrium condition is not attained until after seventy- 
eight hours rest. The slightest change of pressure or volume then 
upsets the equilibrium, and time has again to elapse before a steady 
state is attained. It appears likely either that the oxygen forms 
an allotropic modification, or that it forms some compound with 
mercury or otner material present and with which it is in contact. 

It will be noted that according to Bohr, the volume of the gas 
tends to increase below 07 mm. indicating that the molecules of 
oxygen are partly split up. In this case, therefore, it would be 
reasonable to infer an increase of oxydising power, and it is 
possibly to this cause that the soiling of the fall tubes of Sprengel 
pumps is to be attributed. It appears worth while therefore to 
try to arrange some chemical test capable of showing the presence 
of active oxygen. 

The two following test solutions were found to satisfy the 
conditions, though one was more sensitive than the other. One 
condition of course is that the test solution must not have a 
vapour pressure comparable with 0-7 mm. The first indicator 
tried was a solution of indigo in pure sulphuric acid. This is 
bleached by ozone, but experiment showed that the reaction does 
not afford a very delicate test of the presence of that gas. 
Another solution was therefore tried, consisting of potassium 
iodide and starch dissolved in glycerin. The glycerin was 
carefully dried at a temperature of 260° C. When cool, some of 
it was mixed with a small quantity of powdered potassium iodide. 
A very small quantity of starch was added to the remainder of 
the glycerin, which was then slowly heated till the starch was 
quite dissolved and the liquid again became transparent. When 
cold, this portion was mixed with the potassium iodide solution — 
a solution so prepared is not affected by ordinary oxygen, but one 
bubble of the gas which has passed through an ozone tube turns 
it bright yellow, and three bubbles give it a dark blue, almost 
black colour. This seemed sufficiently sensitive, and was accord- 
ingly adopted. Of course the starch is not absolutely necessary, 

iodine being liberated in large enough quantities to colour the 
solution, but it was considered to be of some advantage to use it 
as an additional verification. Oxygen was prepared and purified 
in the usual manner, and stored in a gas holder. 

On lea\ing the gas holder, the gas passed through (1) a system 
of purifying tubes containing (a) nitrate of silver, (b) solid potash, 
(c) sulphuric acid, (d) phosphorus pentoxide, (2) a wash-bottle 
containing a small quantity of the potassium iodide solution, (3) 
an ozoniser by which the oxygen could, when required, be 
ozonised without altering any of the apparatus. 

Two diagonal glass taps, in series, allowed the puritied gas to 
pass into the exhausted part of the apparatus. This consisted of 
a glass tube about 0-2 cm. in diameter and 0-30 cm. long, to which 
was fixed a mercury pressure gauge of the U type, 0-1 cm. in 
diameter. In order to prevent a possible loss of active oxygen 
through the action of the mercury in the gauge, the latter was 
connected to the exhausted space by a capillary connection. 

The exhausted tube was connected through a small wash-bottle 
with a Fleuss pump, the wash-bottle containing a small quantity 
of the sensitive solution. A similar wash-bottle, containing the 
same solution, was arranged to stand close to the bottle through 
which the gas was passed in order to enable colour comparisons 
to be made. All the apparatus was, practically speaking, either 
fused together or had joints protected by paraffin and mercury, 
the use of india-rubber being of course inadmissible. The Fleuss 
Pump was worked by an electric motor, and the taps were adjusted 
until a steady stream of oxygen could be passed through the 
apparatus at a pressure of about 0-25 mm. of mercury. 

The apparatus, after having been made entirely air-tight, was 
fi Ned with oxygen and exhausted several times ; a steady stream 
of oxygen, at atmospheric pressure, was then run through it for 

lan 0-4 mm.) with the i 
i of twenty per minute. 


bubble of oxygen on reaching the exhausted tube was therefore 
reduced in pressure over the range of instability. After six 
hours, no change having taken place in the potassium iodide 
solution, the apparatus was filled with oxygen at atmospheric 
pressure and left for several hours. This experiment was repeated 
during three days, that is to say the oxygen was passing through 
the apparatus at a pressure of 0.25 mm. for 17*5 hours altogether. 
At the end of this time, no trace of the ozone reaction being 
observable, it was considered advisable to ascertain whether if a 
very small proportion of the oxygen passing through had become 
converted into ozone — so minute a quantity, at so low a pressure, 
would affect the test solution. With this object, the wires of the 
ozoniser were now joined up, and it was found that in one minute 
a faint yellow colouring of the solution, slight but distinctly 
visible, occurred. Evidently, therefore, twenty bubbles of elec- 
trically ozonised oxygen produce more effect than 21,000 bubbles 
of oxygen which has been simply subjected to the effects of low 
pressure. And even if the experiment described above is not 
considered to prove, with sufficient conclusiveness, that low 
pressure alone has no power to cause the formation of ozone in 
oxygen, it must at least be admitted that the ozone so formed is 
less than - 10 Vo of the quantity produced by an ozoniser in the 
ordinary way in the same volume of oxygen, and as this can 
scarcely exceed 5% of the whole volume, the ozone formed by 
lowering the pressure cannot be so much as '005% of the volume 
of oxygen present. 

"We must not neglect to state that our curiosity in this matter 
was stimulated to the experimenting point by a letter from our 
friend, Mr. W. Sutherland, of Melbourne, who considered, on 
grounds based on the kinetic theory of gases, that allotropic 
oxygen of some kind would most likely be found at about the 
pressure we employed. The soiling of Sprengel pumps, however, 
as well as the experiments of Baly and Ramsay, had previously 
led us, independently, to infer the possibility of a production of 
active oxygen under the conditions we have mentioned. 

COMET / 1896 (PERRINE). 
By C. J. Merfibld, F.R.A.S. 

[Read before the Royal Society ofN.S. Wales, June 2, 1897.'] 
The object of this short paper is to present the Society with a 
detailed account of the calculation of the orbit elements of Comet/ 
1896, which the author has discussed with the best data available. 
This comet, which was discovered by Mr. Perrine of the Lick 
Observatory, California, on November 2, 1896, was observed by 
various European and American Observatories from the time 
of discovery until about the 20th of December of the same year. 
Owing to the comet's position in space, it was lost to view during 
the latter part of December 1896, also during January 1897. 
After the perehelion passage 1897 February 8, the comet, which 
was receding from the earth before this date, again approached 
our planet, and would be well placed for southern observers. 

During the evening, 1897 February 22, Mr. J. Tebbutt, f.r.a.s. 
of Windsor, was successful in obtaining an observation of this 
apparition. From this date and until 1897 April 27, the author 
has been supplied with about thirty observations taken by that 
gentleman. The comet, which did not attain to the brilliancy 
expected, has been faint and difficult to observe, so that Mr. 
Tebbutt was forced to abstain from further observation after the 
27th April. 

Preparatory to this discussion, approximate orbit elements 
were computed from observations taken by Mr. Tebbutt on the 
5 th, 10th and 15th of the month of March 1897, with the follow- 
ing result : 

T = 1897 Feb. 8-168615 G.M.T. 

<» - 172° 25' 1"-14 \ 

8 = 86° 29' 10"-82 I Mean equinox 1897 
« = 146° 11' 3"-78 ) 
Log q = 00263786 

These elements agreed fairly well with those computed by Dr. 
Knopf, and published in the Astronomische Nachrichten 3394, 
that is if ten minutes of arc be applied by addition to the longi- 
tude of the ascending node, as there published. The computation 
of the co-ordinates of the comet showed that this correction was 
necessary to make the given figures consistent, the error being 
evidently a typographical one. 

The elements agreeing so well, the author decided to adopt the 
ephemeris, computed by him from Dr. Knopfs elements, in com- 
3 for the purpose of obtaining normal 

The first normal place was constructed by comparing with 

observatories, taken between the dates 1896 November 26, and 
1896 December 4. These observations were culled from the 
Astronomische Nachrichten, Comptes Bendus de I'Academie, and 
the notes of the Royal Astronomical Society. 

Consulting the table, denoted by the Roman numeral (I.), there 
will be found a complete list of observatories, the observations of 
which have been employed in constructing the first normal. After 
reducing the times to the meridian of Greenwich, they have been 
corrected for aberration of light, and tabulated in column three 
as the day and fraction of the year 1896. The residuals, after 
comparing the observed co-ordinates with the computed ephemeris, 
are given in columns four and five. 

The second normal place was computed from observations, 
taken by Mr. Tebbutt, between the dates 1897 March 5 and 1897 
March 15, some eight observations being compared in a similar 
manner as in the construction of the first normal. (See Table II.) 

In the construction of these normal places, the means of the 
residuals have been applied to the right ascension ( a ), and the 
declination (8), taken from the computed ephemeris corresponding 
to the mean of the times. 

These two normals were computed, anticipating that observa- 
tions would be obtained during the month of June 1897, but as 
previously mentioned this was impossible. 

To complete the necessary data, an observation has been 
employed, that was taken by Mr. Tebbutt on the date 1897 
April 19-89 Greenwich mean time, this position being adopted, 
as the astronomer noted that the star, from which the differential 
measure was taken, is a good one. 

Table I. 







Nov. 26 

■ ™ ■ 






„ 28 






Dresden ... 

„ 29 
„ 29 








Dresden ... 

„ 30 
Deer. 2 

„ 2 
„ 3 







10 observations 


+ 0-93 


Greenwich Mean Time 1897. 


A«° a 


March J fr * A 


2 8 -05 


„ 5 6 9 475 




7 6 17 31-5 




» 10 6 11 345 




» 12 6 5 30-5 




» 13 6 19 4-5 




» 13 6 19 4-5 




» 14 6 19 49-5 







-I — "- 

to the three hundred and thirty- 

f ° Urth da y of the year 1896, the right ascension and declination 

computed with Dr. Knopf's elements equal 
« c = 19 53 50-44 

! referred to the beginning of the year 1897. 
the mean residuals found in Table I., we 

« = 19 53 5K 

S o = + 6° 53' 52" 

Second Normal. — The residuals, that have been applied to the 
computed right ascension and declination for the second normal, 
are found in Table II., the computed co-ordinates being for the 
sixty-eighth day of the year 1897 thus — 

« = 19 42 55-71 

8 = - 35° 10' 23"-2 

Third Place.— After applying the correction for parallax to 

Mr. Tebbutt's observation, taken on the date 1897 April 19-89, 

also referring the co-ordinates to the beginning of the year, and 

correcting the time for the aberration of light, the result is as 

Aprin9 7 8875K - 10 22 35-60 
G.M.T. ( 8 =-66° 15' 49"-46 
j together the separate results we have 

1896 Nov. 300 19 53 51 37 + 6 53 52-5 

1897 March 10-0 19 42 55-71 -35 10 23-2 
1897 April 19-8875 10 22 35-60 -66 15 49-5 

These co-ordinates are referred to the mean equinox of 1897. 

Adopting the ecliptic of 1897, as the fundamental plane, the 
above co-ordinates are changed into longitude and latitude by the 
usual formulse for the purpose. A better check on this calcula- 

The latitude of the sun has been considered, by applying a cor 
rection to the latitudes of the comet, computed from the formula 

d p - - sl ^P 

in which R denotes the radius vector of the earth, L the latitude 
of the sun, and A the distance of the comet from the earth. These 
corrections being applied, the various formulae used in the solution 
of the problem are somewhat simplified. 

The longitudes of the sun, also the radii vectores of the earth 
have been interpolated from the American Ephemeris and Nautical 
Almanac for the given dates, the longitudes being referred to the 
same plane. 

The comet's mean anomalies and radii vectores, together with 
the logarithm of the distance from the earth at the first date, 
have been computed with Dr. Knopfs elements, and are to be 
considered as approximate quantities. 

The complete data employed in the discussion are therefore as 

«- 0-0 A =302 8 55*26 + 27 13 39-73 

*»= 100-0 ^ = 291 25 1-48 ft- 13 36 54-64 

«s= H0-8875 A 3 = 210 2 21-72 ft -64 56 12-90 

©=248 50 28-26 Log. R =9-9937815 

©2=350 12 17-90 „ R 2 = 9-9972915 

© 3 = 30 32 0-73 „ ^3 = 0-0022991 

Approximate Values. 

v = -68 7 59 Log. r =0-1897610 

*> 2 =+35 34 7 „ r 2 = 0-0687598 

?> 3 =+68 29 50 „ r 3 = 0-1916340 

Log. a = 0-2617790 

fining the ratio of the curtate distances of the comet, the 

^plete expression for the purpose has been employed, thus— 

The usual equations have been adopted in finding M' and M"; the 
ratio n/n' of the parabolic sectors, also the quantity p have been 
computed with the values of v, r and A, as given in the data. 

All available checks were applied during the calculation, and 

upon the completion of the work, it was found that the adopted 

ratio "M" required so small a correction that a recomputation 

was not necessary. The computer being guided to the following : 


T = 1897 Feb. 8-08155 G.M.T. 

w = 172° 17' 38"-75 | 

Q = 86° 28' 31"-40 I Mean equinox 1897 
t = 146° 8' 44"-28 J 
Log q 0-0263356 

Middle Place. 

Cos (3, A A 2 = - 3"-3 . A p a - + l"-2 
Equations for the Co-ordinates of the Comet. 

x - [9-9196857] r sin (176° 32' 9"-16 + «). 

y = [9-9796499] r sin (278° 38' 23"-66 + v). 

z = [9-8002836] r sin (211° 16' 58"-43 + v). 
The comparison of the computed middle place with the observed, 
shews a small difference, which may be accounted for by the 
departure of the true orbit from the parabolic form, and the 
uncertainty of the star places. Under these circumstances a further 
refinement seemed unnecessary, so that it was not thought advis- 
able to proceed with another approximation; the above elements 
would be very little altered by so doing. 

In conclusion, the author desires to express his thanks to Mr. 
J. Tebbutt, F.B.A.8., of Windsor, for his kindness in communicating 
copies of his observations, and for the courtesy uniformly extended 


which occur in MATERIALS when STRESSED 
within the ELASTIC LIMIT. 

By W. H. Warren, wh. sc, m. Am. Soc c.e., m. mst. c.e., 
Challis Professor of Engineering, University of Sydney. 

I Royal Society of N. S. Wales, July 7 

Ihe coefficient of elasticity is usually denned as the ratio of the 
stress to the strain which it produces. It is necessary to know 
the coefficient of elasticity whenever it is desired to calculate the 
deformation or strain produced by a given load or stress, or to 
calculate the stress from an observed deformation. Such calcu- 
lations are of frequent occurrence in connection with the design 
of structures and machinery. 

ihe deformations produced by the stresses under normal work- 
ing conditions are exceedingly minute, and require very delicate 
instruments to measure them accurately. This remark is 
especially true in connection with the determination of the elastic 
constants for stone, concrete, and cements, where a stress of one 
ton per square inch may produce a compression of only one hundred 
thousandth part of an inch ( r- VoV) per inch, in which case the 
coefficient of elasticity would be expressed as 100000, the units 
L . s ress being tons per square inch. In the case of a certain 
sandstone, for example, Prof. Bauschinger obtained a 
' of 240,000 with the same units in compression. So 
a a stress of one ton per square inch on this sandstone would 
Produce a compressive strain of one two hundred and forty 
thousandth of an inch. 

n the case of metals the deformations produced by stresses 
re much lar ger, and the elastic coefficients correspondingly smaller, 
g that their accurate determination is more easily accomplished. 
ut ^en in this case it is necessarv to be able to measure strains 

small as one ten thousandth of an inch, and for the deteri 

The apparatus which has been hitherto in use in the Engineer- 
ing Laboratory for the measurement of small strains consists of 
various arrangements of levers or micrometers. The most delicate 
of these are, a, the Lever Extensometer designed by Prof. Kennedy; 
b, the Richie-Yale Extensometer. 

Prof. Kennedy's Extensometer consists of a light frame attached 
to the test piece, and carrying a light lever multiplying the strain 
a hundred times, and giving the mean strain produced on each 
side of the test piece. The scale is divided into tenths of an inch, 
but it is possible to record one-tenth of these divisions, in which 
case the readings are taken to one ten thousandth part of an inch. 

The Richie-Yale Extensometer consists of a light frame attached 
to the test piece, and carrying two screw-micrometers which 
measure the extension or compression of the bar on each side to 
one ten thousandth part of an inch. An electric battery and bell 
are attached to enable contacts to be made with the micrometers, 
with greater accuracy. 

Professor Martens' Mirror Apparatus is far more delicate than 
either of the foregoing, and has recently been made for the 
Engineering Laboratory by Mr. Edward Bohme, instrument 
maker to the Royal Mechanical Technical Experimental Station 
Charlottenburg, Berlin. It is represented in the accompanying 
sketches, Fig. 1-4, and consists of two small prisms k k which 
are held in firm contact with the test piece and the distance 
pieces d d by means of a steel wire spring, the action of which is 
indicated by the arrows s s. Each prism is provided with a stem 
a, which carries a small mirror m held in the frame //rotating 
freely about the stem, and is held in position by means of a spring e. 
At b is a capstan screw for the adjustment of the mirror which is 
held against its point by a small spring not shown in the sketch. 
At a definite distance from the test piece are two stands side by 

side, each carrying j 
scale i which is divided into millimeters. The scale is seen clearly 
in the telescope reflected by the mirror, and as the mirror rotates 
slowly in consequence of the elongation of the test pieces, the 
image of the scale moves in the focus of the telescope and defines 
the tangents of the double angle through which the prisms, and 
consequently the mirror, has revolved. The proportion between 
the elongation of the specimen and the reading of the scales is 
determined as follows :— 

Let r denote the width of the prisms, and R the 

between the 
we have appro 

3 and the 

U be the elongation 

■The mean width of the prisms in the apparatus 
millimeters, and R is made 1135 millimeters 

ow since differences of -jV of a millimeter can be easily defined 
1 the scale, the extension corresponding with this reading is tsW 
: a millimeter, and the total of both readings with T <^<r of a 
dimeter, so that this apparatus is capable of showing elongations 

as small as one two hundred and fifty thousandth of an inch. It 
has the advantage also of not being influenced by the tempera- 
ture of the body of the observer to anything approaching the same 

accurate apparatus yet designed for measuring the small defor- 
mations which occur within the elastic limit of materials. 

The apparatus is illustrated in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, 1 which show its 
application to the testing of a mild steel bar, and a cube of concrete. 

The following table gives a series of readings taken with the 
apparatus for a round specimen of mild steel : — 

1U m 


Readings of 

1 Remarks. 

ill U 


Left j Right 

$ s, 

1 i 

s^o mm - db mm - 

M j 

20 ! 200 




80° i 88° 




120 200 



299 323 




411 j 441 


5 00 





6 00 





7 00 










—Limit of elasticity. 





238 1 







—Yield point 



— Breaking Load. 


Mr. Bohme has also made a pair of Roller Extensometers for 
the Engineering Laboratory, which will be used for ascertaining 
the deflections of beams, and compression of columns. This 
extensometer consists of a dial divided into five hundred parts and 
a rotating index, which has an angular displacement proportional 
to the deformation of the test piece. One revolution corresponds 
with one centimeter deformation, so that readings are taken to 
(-/o mm.) one-fiftieth part of a millimeter, or one thousand two 

i subject, following on. 

' paper o 

hundred and fiftieth part of an inch ; there is no difficulty in sub- 
dividing the divisions on the dial if desired, in order to read in 
t^o mm. The writer has just used one of the instruments in 
determining the elastic deflections of some rails for Western 
Australia, and he proposes to use it in connection with a series of 
tests of brickwork and concrete columns. 


op Prop. MARTENS. 

By G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., 

Lecturer in Surveying, University of Sydney. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, August 4, 1897. .] 

1. Approximate theory sometimes inadequate. 

i extension and scale-reading. 

5. Application of scale-reading correction. 

6. Adjustment of prism perpendicular to test-piece. 

7. Examination of the pivot axis of the mirror. 

8. Parallelism of the rotation axis of the mirror with the knife- 

edges of the prism. 

9. Error due to longitudinal movement of the test-piece. 

10. Error from rotational movement of the test-piece. 

11. Disposition of the apparatus in testing, and general. 

1. Approximate theory sometimes inadequate. — The theory of 
the measurement of very small extensions by means of Professor 
Martens' reflecting extensometer, which was exhibited and des- 
cribed by Professor Warren at the last meeting of the Royal 
Society, leaves little to be desired, when the extensions do not 
exceed the limits contemplated in that description, that is, when 
they are extremely small as compared with the distances between 
the knife-edges of the rotated prism carrying the mirror. And 

although the formula given for finding the extension from the 
scale readings is, as Professor Warren indicates, but approximate, 
it is nevertheless as regards precision fairly satisfactory within 
those defined limits. 

Instruments constructed on the same principle may however, 
be made serviceable with larger extensions than those which 
Professor Warren had in view, but in such cases the theory of the 
instrument requires further development. And moreover, for 
the higher readings of the scale in the instrument exhibited, the 
approximate theory is not quite adequate, for its error, though 
absolutely, is not relatively small, and may be entirely eliminated. 
I propose therefore to consider the more rigorous theory of the 
} it by applications to the extensometer 
ay. Professor Warren has very 

courteously placed 

at my 

disposal for the 

purpose in vi 

2. Description 

of the 

Extensometer. - 

-The folio* 

description of this 

instrument will be nee 

essary in orde 

shaped in transverse section, is held against a specimen of material 

tf^-the I 

opression of which t 

measured— by means of a small contact piece GHE, about 2 c 

3 mm. in thickness, about 9 mm. in breadth, and from 30 to 200 
mm. in length, suitably held in position. Usually there is a con- 
tact piece symmetrically placed on each side of the specimen, both 
being held in place by means of a simple spring clamp, as shewn 
in Fig. 3 illustrating Professor Warren's paper. The other 
knife-edge G of the prism rests in a groove in the contact piece. 
Attached to the prism is a mirror M, which can be rotated on its 
pivots PP' by means of a screw C not shewn, working against a 
Blight spring A, and by means of this mirror a scale TUV, is read, 
the reading being determined by the way in which the sight line 
of the telescope T meets the plane of the mirror. 1 On the appli- 
cation of the stress to the specimen, the prism, and consequently 
the mirror attached to it, are rotated ; the result being that 
the scale reading is altered. The difference of these readings is 
the datum from which may be deduced the amount which the 
knife-edge F has shifted, that is the amount of extension or 
compression which the applied stress has produced. The scale, 
an ordinary millimetre scale with black lines on a white ground, 
is set approximately perpendicular to the sight line of the telescope, 
and can be rotated in that plane through any angle. The 
telescope is of short focus; has an objective of 28-5 mm. clear 
aperture ; its focal limits are 5030 and 868 mm., the conjugate 
focus at the greater limit being about 256 mm., and at the less 
about 348 mm. 2 The ocular of the telescope is an ordinary 
Ramsden or positive, of considerable magnifying power ; the cross- 
wire diaphragm is susceptible of slight rotatory adjustment, so 
that the wires may be set horizontally or vertically. By means 
of slow motion screws the telescope can be moved either horizon- 
tally or vertically through small arcs. Other features of the 
instrument will be referred to when dealing with the question of 

1 See Figures 2, 3, and 4, Professor Warren's paper. 

2 The distances are only roughly measured. The relation ,-^y + rb 
= nes+^ii should hold good. The results are '0041 1 and 00403, the 

3 is evidently satisfactorily. 

3. Relation between extension and scale-reading. — Let one 
terminal of the apparatus be supposed fixed on the test specimen 
E Fig. 1 ; and on the application of the stress S, the other terminal 
viz., the knife-edge F, also touching the test piece, to move from 
F to F', that is through the distance e, which is therefore the 
extension due to the stress. For simplicity also, let the knife- 
edges EG of the rotated prism, be supposed to move from the 
position of adjustment, that is from a line perpendicular to the 
test piece, and to take up the position F'Q' in consequence of the 
extension e. It is obvious that as the point E moves toward F', 
the point G will move in the arc of a circle whose centre is E. 
Then since EG = EG'— the distance between the knife-edge G and 
the points being, as indicated, invariable— we shall have, E denot- 
ing the length EF of the test piece, the extension of which is to 
be determined, I the distance between the knife-edges, and w the 
angle of rotation of the line joining them, 


ich by expansion and transposition gives 

*-*sin»(l + _?_sin«»- 




e final term can never be greate 

r than one hundred-thousandth, 


ice it may be at once rejected, f 

md the expression 

thus reduced 


urately denotes the relation 1 

between the extern 

jion e and the 

ation of the prism. 

If the knife-edge occupy the position F", Fig. 1, instead of F', 
We ma 7 re gard FF" as negative, as also the rotation angle o> : in 
other words, if the point ^move toward F" it is a minus extension, 
or a compression instead of an elongation. In such a case the 
formula still holds good, e and sin u> are negative, and the term in 
l pE is numerically subtractive from unity, instead of additive as 
W the preceding case. The formula may therefore be regarded 

H the scale TXJ be supposed parallel to the test piece, 1 that is, 
lf ^ be parallel to FF' Fig. 1, and if the distance between the scale 

and the mirror M before rotation, be denoted by L ; then the 
distance L' to the point M," where the telescopic sight-line TM— 
assumed to be identical with FG— will strike the mirror after 
rotation, will be 

L' = L± - (vers to + sin to tan w) ± -= sin 2 ojtan w— etc (2) 

the minus sign being taken when the contact piece GUE is on the 
opposite side of the test specimen, the mirror however, facing as 
in the illustration Fig. 1. 

A little consideration will shew that in any case, the term in P 
can never be sensible, because neither the measurement of the 
distance L, nor the reading of the scale can even approximately 
attain to the order of precision involving its retention. Hence it, 
and all higher terms may be rejected. Again, for the same reasons, 
the circular functions enclosed within the brackets may be written 
as f sin 2 , f arc 2 , or | tan 2 , without involving sensible error. 
Reducing the above expression in the manner indicated, and mul- 
tiplying by tan 2w, so as to obtain the distance TU, which is the 
difference R of the scale readings before and after the stress is 
is applied ; we have 

J R = itan2 w (l ± A^tan 2 w ) (3) 

an equation which accurately defines the relation between the 
reading of the scale and the original distance of the mirror there- 
from, in terms of the prism rotation. Remembering that powers 
of to higher than the second may, when multiplied by a small factor 
like IfE or l/L, be certainly rejected as insensible, we get from 
these equations expressing the values of e and R, viz. from (1) and 
(3), after some slight reduction, 

i-n^ 1+ »* , "ix*— > (4) 

Similarly for a negative reading of the scale, we may simply regard 
R and to as negative and leave the signs unchanged. 

When to is so small that its cosine may be taken as unity, and its 
sine as zero, this equation is reduced to the approximate formula 
given by Professor Warren, viz., 

~r = 2L a PP roximatel y ( 4a ) 

which may be employed whenever the extension or compression is 
very small, and when therefore R is very small in relation to L. 
When however R is not relatively small, the approximate formula 
is clearly unsatisfactory, since it is easily shewn that 

ih.l-j**"*-* (5) 

L' being the actual distance from the scale to that point on the 
mirror where the sight line meets it, see (2). 

This last equation indicates in a general way the order of the 
error committed in accepting the approximate formula. Although 
the value of w is not directly afforded by the instrument, but has 
to be derived from R and L\ little is gained by the expansion in 
a series of convergent terms, because in extreme cases the con- 
vergence is not sufficiently rapid. The most convenient method 
of dealing with equation (4), is to find a correction x to be applied 
to the reading R, such that the corrected reading R' will be 

R = R+ x (6), 

and so that we shall have with precision 

t? = 4z m 

x will of course be a variable correction, to be obtained with the 
arguments R and E, from a table of double entry constructed for 
the lengths L; for positive values of o> it will be generally negative. 
Then with this corrected reading, the convenient relation expressed 
by formula (7) may be used rigorously. 

*. Construction of tables of corrections to scale-readings. — In 
order to construct tables of corrections, the dimensions of the 
extensometer apparatus must be taken into account. The contact 
bars 1 EHG, Fig. 1, supplied with the apparatus, and which deter- 
mme ^e length E the extension of which is required, are of the 
following reputed lengths, viz., 30, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mm., in 
order to meet the requirements of different sizes of test piece. 
1 See also Figs. 3 and 4 of Professor Warren's paper. 

100 G. H. KNIBBS. 

In order to check the values assigned by the maker for the 
distances between the knife-edges of the rotation prisms, they 
were carefully measured by means of a Brown and Sharpe Manu- 
facturing Company's micrometer gauge, with vernier reading. The 
results compare very well with those given by Boh me, the manu- 
facturer, as the following schedule of the measurements will shew. 
Distances between knife-edges. 
No. 1 0-17875 in. = 4-5402 mm. By Bohme 4-5403 mm. 
No. 2 0-17875 45402 4-5396 

No. 3 0-17870 4-5389 4-5415 

No. 4 0-17875 4-5402 4-5393 

Mean By me 45399 4-5402 

If the mean result, say 4-5400 mm., be accepted as the true 
value of each prism, the greatest error arising from such an 
assumption will be only about one four-thousandth, which may be 
regarded as quite negligible. The distances 1135-0 mm., and 
2270-0 mm., are respectively 250 and 500 times the width between 
the knife-edges, or L = 2501 in the first instance, and 5001 in the 
second; and since the doubles of these distances lie within the 
focal limits of the telescope, by means of which the reflection of 
the scale is seen in the mirror, they are suitable as standard 

instrument into position for an observation. The scale, graduated 
in millimetres, ranges between - 50 and + 500, and is numbered 
5, 4, 3,... 1, 0, 1, 2,... 49, 50. At the shorter standard distance, 
viz., 1135 mm, the maximum value of 2a> will be about 23° 46' 30" 
—or more accurately 23° 46' 10"— so that w will be about 11° 53'. 
From these data the following tables of corrections, conformably 
to formulae (6) and (7), have been computed by means of formula 
(4). The results are given to two places of decimals of a milli- 
metre in order to facilitate the formation by interpolations of a 
more extended table of corrections for practical use. In the work- 
ing tables, the corrections would be expressed to the nearest tenth 
of a millimetre, since that is the unit obtained by estimation, in 
reading in the mirror the reflection of the scale ; and since also 

the graduation of the scale itself hardly warra: 
further refine the measurement. 

Table I. 
Corrections to Scale-readings, the zero beinj 
adjustment, L 1135 mm., and I 4'54 mm. 

Scale Approx. Distance E between contacts 
Reading. Angle. millimetres. 

* 100 5-2 

* 150 7-32 

t 350 17-8 
t 400 19-25 
t 450 21-38 
* 500 23-46 

+ 15-59 

+ 5-62 +5-02 

-5-82 -6-67 

+ 9-24 +8-39 

-9-50 -10-64 

+ 14-07 +12-93 

-14-37 -15-84 

+ 20-23 +18-77 

7 si 

+ 25-99 
- 30-26 

Note.— The upper signs are to be taken throughout ii 
e lower in compression tests ; and the sign of the 
relation to the sign of the correction. That is to say, I 
numerically reduces a minus reading. 

When the mirror is on the further side of th 
extension causes a reduction instead of an increase 
from the point where the sight-line meets the min 
That is to say MM" instead of being positive as s 


is negative. For this case the values of the 
very small alterations which amount to 
x 3 / a „ cos 2w 

These very small quantities are given in the following table. They 
are to be added with their attached signs to the corrections in 
Table I. 

Table II. 
Secondary corrections to be applied when the mirror is on the 
side of the test piece remote from the telescope. 

SC ^m^etrfs ^ 15 ° 200 25 ° 300 350 400 45 ° 50 ° 
Cot P t°sion-- ± -01 ± -02 ± -03 ± -05 ± .07 ± -09 ± -12 

A similar table with the argument L = 2270 = 500Z may also 
be required, as it may be sometimes convenient to use the instru- 
ment at that distance. It may be readily formed with sufficient 
precision from the preceding table by multiplying the upper five 
horizontal lines by 2 throughout, with the one exception of the 
angles 2«. These must be left as they stand. This simple method 
of obtaining the corrections for the other length depends upon the 
fact that the term t 31 tan 2 «/ ' ih is really insensible throughout 
for the values of « in question. 

This latter distance, viz., 2270 mm. is about the maximum at 
which the scale may be placed from the mirror, forasmuch as at 
greater distances it would be beyond the focal limit of the telescope. 

5. Application of scale-reading correction. — In order to readily 
obtain accurate results it is essential that the face of the scale 
should be at right angles to the sight-line of the telescope. Then 
if the zero of the scale be placed in the plane containing both this 
line, and as the case may require, either the vertical or else the 
horizontal diaphragm wire used in reading the scale, the mirror 
attached to the prism may be rotated until the zero of the scale 
seen by reflection therein becomes approximately coincident with 
the cross-wire ; when the final adjustment to the zero exactly, 
may be conveniently made by means of the slow motion screw 


rotating the telescope. This last fine adjustment may be regarded 
as not sensibly altering the indicated condition of perpendicularity 
as between scale and sight-line. In such a case the correction x 
is at once applied to the reading. For the first reading R x say 
will be 0, and to the second R 2 the correction x must be applied 
so that the corrected value R is given by the equation 

x being the tal 

But if for any reason it is inconvenient to make the zero thus 
coincident with the plane containing the sight-line and reading- 
wire, then R = R.,- R u and we must employ 

R' = (R 2 -R 1 ) + x 
x being the tabular correction for R = R 2 — R v It is perhaps 
hardly necessary to point out that the difference of the tabular 
correction must not be taken in the form x, - x u that is to say, 
the total correction is not the difference of the corrections for the 
two readings. In the preceding observations it is of course 
assumed that the initial position of the line FG is vertical to the 
test-piece EF Fig. 1 . 

When two scales are read and give different results, the correc- 
tion x should be for the mean of the differences of their readings, 

6. Adjustment of the prism perpendicular to the test-piece. — The 
table of corrections in § 4 indicate the necessity of starting the 
measurement of an elongation, or of a compression, with the prism 
in the position of adjustment, whenever very accurate results 
are desired. In Fig. 3, 1 a small bar BB' is shewn passing through 
the centre of a small brass cylinder forming a handle for the 
mirror apparatus, its length being 30 mm. On releasing the small 
screw S in this brass handle, the bar and handle may be rotated 
with respect to the line joining the knife-edges of the prism— i.e., 
the line FG— and consequently may in this way be placed exactly 
at right angles to the knife-edges. This is conveniently effected 
1 Fig. 3 in Professor Warren's paper. 

104 &. H. KNIBBS. 

by suitably grasping the edges in grooves in two opposed positions, 
one with the handle toward the observer, the other with it from 
him, and rotating the handle till its direction remains unchanged, 
or is identical in either position. 1 The handle then becomes a 
director, by means of which the prism can be set perpet 
to the test specimen. This setting can be done with care to about 
0-1 in the 30 mm., which is equivalent to 11 J' : with the most 
ordinary care there is no difficulty in setting to 0*2 mm. in the 
distance mentioned is to 23'. By means of the column of values 
of 2w in Table I. it is easy to evaluate the uncertainty in the 
result, due to the uncertainty of this adjustment. For example, 
suppose the uncertainty in setting be ± 20' and the readings at 
the 1135 distance to be and 400 ; then it is easy to see from 
the table that the error of reading would be roughly about -7 mm. 
for extension, or about 1*1 mm. for compression. This 
the importance of the adjustment when extreme precision is 
desired, and at the same time points out one of the limitations of 
the instrument. The difficulty in this respect, however, can be 
met by reading extensions up to 200 mm. on the scale, and then 
g the prism at right angles for a second series, remem- 
bering of course, that this second series are not, in terms of the 
original length, but of the length Ef(E + e^ practically E-e 1 since 
the extension is very small in relation to the original length E. 

7. Examination of the pivot-axis of the mirror. — In order that 
no error shall be introduced by rotation of the mirror about its 
pivots, it is necessary that the line joining them should be at right 
angles to the axis about which the mirror turns, and which as 
already pointed out, should be parallel to the two knife-edges. 
This may be tested as follows : — Suitably clamping the handle, so 
that the axis, parallel to the two knife-edges, shall be approximately 
coincident with the sight-line of the telescope, place the mirror 
face approximately at right angles to this axis or line, and rotate 
till the line joining the pivots is parallel to the scale. Then by a 

slight rotation about the pivots the scale will be seen in the field 
of view of the telescope, and a reading may be taken, which say- 
is R x . Then rotating the mirror and pivots about the axis so that 
the two pivots exchange positions, and the line joining them is 
consequently again parallel to the scale, a second reading R 2 is 
obtained. If then t denote the angle between the line joining the 
pivots and a plane at right angles to the axis, and since i is so 
small that the distinction between sine tangent and arc ceases to 
be significant, it is easy to see that 

R^-R, , 9 , 


L as before denoting the distance of the scale from the mirror. 

In this way it was found that the € 

srrors of the line joining the 

pivots were as follows :— 

Number of Apparatus 1 

2 3 4 

Angular Error - 1' 

+ 2£' -7' +16*' 

Absolute error in 14 mm. -004 

•010 -028 -067 ram. 

The plus sign, when the handle is downward and when also the 
observer is looking into the mirror, denotes that the standard 
carrying the right hand pivot is too long. The absolute error 
given is for the width of the mirror, viz. for 14 mm. The fact 
that it is nowhere 0-1 mm. is evidence of the excellence of the 

8. Parallelism of the rotation-axis of the mirror to the knife- 
edges of the prism.— When the angle t referred to in the last 
section has been obtained, the relation between the rotation-axis 
ot the mirror and the axis of the knife-edged prism may readily 
be found by reading the scale by reflection, say with the pivots 
and scale parallel to the knife-edges : then turning the knife-edges 
round through 1 80° and reading the scale again. A second similar 
set of readings with pivots and scale at right angles to the knife- 
edges is necessary to determine the defect in both planes. After 
allowing for the difference 4i between the readings, the residual 
difference if any , B say, will furnish the required inclination y of 
tt>e axes. The formula obviously is 

y-^z < 10 > 

L being the distance of the scale. This examination may be made 
at the same time as that referred to in the previous section by a 
routine of readings which is sufficiently obvious, from what has 
been stated. 

9. Error due to longitudinal movement of test piece. — If the 
scale be parallel to the test piece, and if in the application of the 
stress to the piece of material being tested, it be moved longi- 
tudinally only) it is evident that the correction to be applied to 
the reading may be determined from the absolute longitudinal 
movement of the point E Fig. 1. This may readily be measured 
by means of a small piece of millimetre scale, attached to the 
specimen, with a suitable pointer not subject to the motion of the 
specimen : this pointer may of course be the cross wires of a 
telescope. Let the longitudinal movement be denoted by s and 
reckoned positive in the direction marked by the arrow in Fig. lj 
viz., in the direction EF. The the effect will be to increase the 
reading on the scale — since the distance therefrom to the point 
where the sight line meets the mirror is increased — by the amount 
8 tan en tan 2ft». Hence the correction y to the reading will be 

>-*^r = * S(£~l£ + «"-> (11)1 

The lower sign is to be taken when the mirror apparatus is on 
the opposite side of the test piece to the telescope. For 10 mm. 
movement the values of this correction are the following :— 

Table III. 
Corrections for longitudinal movement of test-piece : L = 1 135. 
Scale reading in mm. 100 200 300 400 500 

Correction 10 mm. shift t -04 mm. -15 -34 -60 '85 
The results indicate how little effect the absolute movement of 
the test-piece has, for the position of the instrument illustrated by 


Fig. 1. If however the apparatus be disposed as shewn in Fig. 3 
of Professor Warren's paper, that is to say, if two mirrors both 
facing the same way are read, the error is cancelled in forming 
the sum of the two results, consequently the disposition of the 
apparatus shewn in his illustration is to be preferred. 

10. Error from rotational movement of test-piece. — Although 
test-specimens are so held that they shall not be subject to rotation, 
yet to the order of small quantities under consideration, they can- 
not be regarded as incapable of such movement. Let p denote a 
Bmall angle of rotation of the test-piece, in the plane containing 
its longitudinal axis and the scale, p being considered positive 
when in the same direction as the mirror, and let z denote the 
scale-reading correction due to this movement following on the 
application of stress, then 

z = * 2 P L' sec 2 2 W = * 2p(L'+*g) (12) 

the minus sign applying to the case for the mirror on the remote 
side of the test-piece. The following series of corrections for a 
rotation of 10', equivalent to a movement of about ■& inch in the 
axis of a 12 inch specimen, will give some idea of its significance. 

Table IV. 
Corrections for rotational movement of axis of test-piece : L = 1 135. 
Scale-reading 100 200 300 400 500 mm. 

Correction 10' rotation t 660 6-66 6 81 707 7 -43 7-88mm. 
As in the preceding case these corrections can be eliminated 
*>y disposing the apparatus as shewn in Fig. 3 of Prof. Warren's 
Paper, for the variation of these corrections is not rapid. 

1 1 . Disposition of the apparatus in testing and general. — In 
order that defects in the construction of the apparatus may have 
110 appreciable influence on the results it affords, and that the 
application of the scale-reading correction treated in § 4 should be 
rigorously accurate, it is desirable to adopt, in testing, the dis- 
position of the apparatus hereinafter indicated. 

(a) Arrange the contact pieces on either side of the test-piece 
and parallel to its axis, with the mirrors at the same end 1 — as 
shewn in Fig. 3 in Prof. Warren's paper — and so clamped that 
the stems of the mirrors shall be vertical in all directions when 
the test specimen is horizontal, or horizontal and parallel to one 
another when it is vertical. 

(b) Set the handle-bars BB' Fig. 3, above mentioned, parallel to 
the longitudinal axis of the test-piece. This will fix the prisms at 
right angles thereto, if the handle-bars have been adjusted as 
described in § 6. 

(c) Set each scale parallel to a plane, passing approximately 
through the pivots of the mirror, and at right angles to the stem 
and prism, and let the scale be also approximately parallel to the 
test-piece. The centre of the object lens of the telescope, and the 
longitudinal centre line of the scale, should lie on either side of 
this plane, and while being placed as near as possible to it, should 
be equidistant from it. This last disposition of the apparatus 
eliminates any errors which might arise from pivot errors. 

(d) So arrange the zero of the scale that a plane perpendicular 
thereto, containing the zero line shall pass through the centre of 
the mirror, the stem and the prism j and let the telescopic sight- 
line be as nearly as possible coincident with this plane and directed 
to the centre of the mirror. Then by rotating the mirror about 
its axis and about its pivots PP,' the zero of the scale may be 
seen, and the small adjustment thereto may be perfected by means 
of the slow motion screw. The scales are set in opposite ways, 
that is the reading runs say from left to right in one scale, from 
right to left in the other, this of course is not essential, nor is it 
necessary that the initial reading be zero ; but the arrangement 
facilitates the application of the c 



the very small additive corrections, indicated in Table I. for the 
reading 50 mm., with contact pieces of 30 mm. and 50 mm. 

With the corrected reading the formula (4a), of § 3, becomes 
absolutely exact, hence if IjL be 1/250 the extension is 

. « = po*' < 13 > 

so that if we add the corrected readings by the two scales we have 

" = i4<*'' + ^ <"> 

that is to say, the sum of the corrected readings expresses the 
extension in thousandths of millimetres. Since one-tenth of a 
division can be estimated, the result is given to 00001 mm. or 
about 1/250000 inch. Consequently twice the largest correction 
in Table I., shews that the neglect of the exact theory can lead to 
a maximum error of about -08 in 30 or 1 in 375 with the shortest 
contact piece, or of about 1 in 2500 with the longest. Since the 
larger defect would not be likely to occur, we may say generally 
that the error of the approximate theory is after all only of the 
order of about 1 in 1000 at the most. When the corrections are 
applied, I infer from the few opportunities I have had so far of 
judging, that the real error is likely to be about one division of 
the scale or -001 mm. 

It ought perhaps here to be added that it is more rigorously 
exact to apply the correction x to the mean of the readings. Hence 
if the mean of the differences of the readings of the scales be R m 

" mo B - +2 > : < Ua > 

It should not be forgotten that the length E, for which the 
extension is measured, is from the knife-edge of the prism to the 
edge of the contact piece. By measuring from the angle of the 
groove to the sharp edge of the contact piece, that is from G to E 
Fi g- 1, E can be readily determined. Calling the distance EG, 

E = F - — very approximately (15) 

The Auctions for the five lengths of E are respectively -343, 


•206, -103, -069 and -052. It is difficult to rely upon measure- 
ments of F to less than say -05 mm., corresponding to an error of 
from 1 in 600 to 1 in 4000, according to the length of the contact 
piece. Again if the director be set to - 2 mm. as mentioned in 
§ 6, the prism is set to ± 030, so that from this cause there is an 
uncertainty of about the same order as that arising from defective 
measurement of the test-piece. And further the distance of the 
scale from the mirror, viz. L, cannot easily be fixed to within 
0-25 mm., nor can the right angle condition be very perfectly 
satisfied, so that here again an absolute error of the order of about 
one four-thousandth also exists. 

It is evident from what has been educed that this Extensometer 
will give extremely accurate results so far as relative extensions 
or compressions are concerned, but the relation of these to the 
absolute length of the test-piece is not of the same order of accuracy. 
By lengthening the handle-bars, the setting of the prisms could be 
made more exact, and by making the grooves less deep and finish- 
ing them more carefully the value of E could be ascertained with 
greater accuracy. In this way, and by fixing the relations of 
parts of the apparatus which require to be relatively adjusted, 
allowing only for small adjusting movements, the absolute results 
can be made more nearly comparable in precision to the differential 
ones, in which a very high order of accuracy has been already 
reached, thanks to the very ingenious contrivance of Professor 
Martens, and the excellent workmanship of Herr Bbhme. 

necessarily be parallel in two planes to the test-piece ; hence after 
defining the plane in which it is important it should be carefully 
adjusted, I have said that it should be made merely " approxi- 
mately parallel to the test-piece," see (c) this section. Even were 
the scale at right angles thereto, it is evident that the mirror 
rotation would be similarly registered. When however the vari- 
ation caused by this rotation in the length of L, and the errors 
due to the shifts of the test-piece, are considered, it will be seen 
that the position indicated is the best. 


In conclusion it may be remarked that with the aid of this 
extensometer, the behaviour of materials under stress may be 
studied with a thoroughness, that heretofore was very difficult if 
not practically impossible. The elasticity, solidity, plasticity and 
nachwirkung of materials may in the future be examined in larger 
specimens than have generally been used in the past. A series 
of exhaustive investigations in regard to these, to the effect of 
temperature, and to the influence of the duration of the applied 
stress, in determining the resultant deformations, ought to afford 
results valuable alike to the physic 



By R. H. Mathews, Licensed Surveyor. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, July 7, 1897.-] 

Introductory. The Main Camp and Burbling Ground. Gathering the 
Tribes. Arrival of Contingents. Daily Ceremonies at the Camp. Taking 
away the Boys. The Thurrawonga Camp. Ceremonies in the Bush. 
Return of the Boys. Finishing Ceremonies. Conclusion. Explanation 
of Wood Cut. 

Introductory. — In two papers contributed to the Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain, 1 1 gave a short account of the Burbung 
of the northern section of the Wiradthuri tribes, who occupy the 
country commencing somewhere about the Barwon River, and 
extending southerly up the Macquarie, Castlereagh, Bogan, and 
other rivers, to the sources of the Lachlan, New South Wales. I 
also communicated a paper to the Royal Geographical Society of 
Australasia, 2 Queensland, on the initiation ceremonies of the tribes 

" ^ Burbung of the Wiradthuri Tribes."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst. 
• x% ■• -"■>•> - 3 18. Ibid., xxvi., 272 - 285. 

—t>" Th £ Ini tiation Ceremonies of the Aborigines of the Upper Lachlan.' 
^oc. Roy. Qeog. Soc. Aust., (Q.), xi., 167- 169. 


located upon the upper portion of the last named river, 
previously stated, 1 the articles referred to were the first ( 
published describing the details of the Burbung of the Wiradtl 
tribes; in short, practically nothing was known respecting 
ceremony until the first of these articles appeared. 

In the present paper it is proposed to deal with the south 
portion of the Wiradthuri community, whose initiation i 
differ in many respects from those of their northern brethren. 
These people occupy the Murrumbidgee River from Jugiong to 
Hay, extending southerly to the Murray ; and reaching -northerly 
up the Lachlan River to about the effluxion of the Willandra 
Billabong, where they join the northern section above referred to. 
It will be seen therefore that the present communication, read in 
connection with my former papers, deals with the Burbung cere- 
monies of the entire Wiradthuri community, comprising the 
numerous tribes spread over a wide zone of country stretching 
from the Murray almost to the Barwon, a distance of about four 
hundred miles. The Wiradthuri language is the most widely 
spread of the aboriginal tongues of New South Wales. 

On the eastward of the southern half of the Wiradthuri com- 
munity are a number of adjoining tribes scattered over the coastal 
district of New South Wales from Two-fold Bay almost to Sydney, 
anion.-,' whom the initiation ceremony is known as the Bunan, a 
description of which has been furnished by me to the Anthropo- 
logical Society at Washington. 2 Among the tribes who adopt the 
Bunan form of initiation, there is an abbreviated ceremony 
termed the Kuringal, which has been described by my fellow 
worker, Mr. A. W. Ho-witt, 3 and is further illustrated and 

2 " The Bunan Ceremonj 

3 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., 

4 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., 

Darkinung tribe 1 occupied the country from the Hunter River 
southerly to about Sydney or Botany Bay, and reaching westerly 
to the Wiradthuri boundary. 

Adjoining the Wiradthuri on the north are the numerous tribes 
of the great Kamilaroi community, who occupy a wide tract of 
fertile country reaching from the Upper Hunter River in New 
South Wales to somewhere beyond the Queensland boundary, 
embracing the region watered by the Namoi, Gwydir, Macintyre, 
Barwon, and subordinate rivers. Comprehensive descriptions of 
the Bora, or initiation ceremonies of these tribes are contained in 
papers communicated by me to the Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain, 2 and the Royal Society of Victoria.' 

To the east of the Kamilaroi are various tribes spread over the 
table-land of New England and the country situated between 
there and the Pacific Ocean, comprising the districts watered by 
the following large rivers and their numerous affluents : — the 
Hunter, Manning, Macleay and Clarence. In these tribes the 
initiation ceremonies are of the Keeparra type, of a highly inter- 
esting character, and are described with some fulness of detail in 
my papers published by the Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain,' and by the Royal Society of Victoria. 5 The Keeparra 
type contains some abnormal or modified forms, which in some 
cases so much alter the character of the ceremony that they are 
called by a different name. These are only a probationary form 
of initiation, and the youths who enter the ranks in this manner 

^ l&e Eurbung of the Darkinung Tribe."— Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, 

"The Bora or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kamilaroi Tribe."— Journ. 

hrop. Inst., xxiv., 411 - 427. Ibid., xxv., 318 - 339. 

"The Bora of the Kamilaroi Tribes,"— Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, ix., 

"The Keeparra Ceremony of Initiation."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., 

i. 320-338. 

"The Burbung of the New England Tribes."-Proc. Eoy. Soc. Vic- 

il - '*, -VS., 120-136. 

"The Dhalgai Ceremony."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxvx., 338-340. 

114 R. H. MATHEWS. 

have subsequently to attend the fuller ceremonial of the Keeparra. 
Among the tribes inhabiting the country between the Clarence 
River and Point Danger, including the area watered by the 
Richmond and other rivers, the initiation ceremonies are known 
as the Wandarral, which I have described in a paper contributed 
to the Royal Society of Victoria. 1 

It will be seen, therefore, in the various papers contributed to 
different learned institutions, on the Bora, the Burbung, the 
Bunan, the Keeparra, the Wandarral, and the subsidiary cere- 
monies connected with them, that I have given tolerably compre- 
hensive descriptions of the types of initiation ceremonies practised 
by a number of large and important tribes occupying about three 
fourths of the total surface of New South Wales, and reaching 
some distance into Queensland. This vast extent of country is 
comprised approximately within the following limits, namely, from 
Twofold Bay westerly to Moulamein in the county of Wakool j 
thence northerly to Barringun in the county of Culgoa ; thence 
easterly to the Pacific Ocean, and thence by the sea coast back to 
the starting point at Twofold Bay. A reference to the map of 
New South Wales will enable the reader more thoroughly to 
understand this description. 

The Main Camp and Burbung Ground.— The site for the cele- 
bration of the Burbung ceremonies is usually chosen in some part 
of the tribal territory where water and fuel are plentiful, and 
where there is a sufficient supply of game to meet the food require- 
ments of all the tribes who are expected to be present from other 
districts. The people who belong to the district in which the 
Burbung is to take place, whom I shall call the local tribe, are of 
course the first to arrive on the ground and erect their camp. The 
other tribes who arrive later, take up their position around the 
camp of the local mob, each in the direction of the district they 

"The Wandarral of the Clarence and Eichmond River Tribes."— Proc- 

MONY. 115 

During the time that the other tribes are assembling, the local 
mob are busy preparing the ground. A suitable site is selected 
close to the camp, where a large ring called the burbung, about 
twenty-five yards in diameter, is marked out, and cleared of all 
timber and grass. The surface of this is levelled, and is surrounded 
by a wall 1 about a foot high, composed partly of the loose earth 
scraped from within, and partly of soil scraped off the surface for 
several yards outside the ring. 

The Burbung ground described in the following pages has not 
been used for upwards of twenty years, and that is why I have 
chosen it, because all the works connected with it are on a more 
extensive scale than Burbung grounds of more recent times. It 
is situated between twenty-five and thirty chains easterly from 
the eastern boundary of Portion No. 1 1 of seventy-eight acres, in 
the Parish of Waddi, county of Boyd, New South Wales. 

The large ring, (burbung) was about three hundred yards from 
the left bank of the Murrumbidgee River. Its boundary, which 
was composed of a raised earthen embankment, is still distinguish- 
able, and measures twenty-five yards in one direction, by twenty- 
three yards in the other. In the southern wall of this circle an 
opening about three feet wide was left as an entrance, from which 
a pathway, called dharambil or mooroo, now grown over with grass, 
led away in a direction bearing S. 5° W. for a distance of fifty-five 
and a-half chains, 2 to a cleared circular space called the Budtha 
(roonang or Goombo. This space was not surrounded by an 
embankment like the Burbung ring, but the loose soil scraped off 
its surface in levelling it formed a sort of boundary around it. 

Within this boundary were four heaps of earth about two 
feet high. These mounds were oblong in shape, three of them 

1 In one instance I saw a Burbung ring defined by a nick cut in the 
ground around its boundary. The nick or groove was three inches deep 
and four inches wide, cut out with tomahawks or sharp sticks.— Journ. 
Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 299. 

2 The goombo was a little under seventeen chains from the Burbung 
at Bulgeraga Creek,— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 299. 

being nine feet long and four feet broad ; the remaining one, 
■which was opposite to where the mooroo or track entered, being 
ten feet by five feet. These mounds were built up by first laying 
on the ground a number of pine logs, about five or six feet in 
length, and covering them over with loose earth. These four 
mounds formed a quadrilateral, the side of which were nine, eleven, 
twelve, and eleven yards respectively. Approximately in the 
centre of this quadrilateral, a log of wood, with a fork on the 
upper end, was inserted perpendicularly in the ground, projecting 
above the surface about two and a half feet. 1 About six yards 
beyond the goombo a fence composed of forks and boughs was 
erected, about twenty yards long and four or five feet high, known 
by the native name of gar eel or gheerang. 

The pathway, mooroo, from the Burbung to the Goombo passed 
over a black soil flat very lightly timbered, for the first half mile, 
and then entered a scrub of pine, box and undergrowth. At this 
point some saplings were bent over the track so as to form a kind 
of arch. From this point to the Goombo, a distance of fifteen 
chains, was higher ground, and consisted of a reddish sandy clay, 
well suited for carving or raising figures on its surface. At the 
time of my visit all the figures on the ground had disappeared, 
and most of the marked trees had been rooted out and burnt, 
owing to the occupation of the country by the white people. 
Fortunately the ground for a few chains around the goombo had 
not been interfered with. 

I was accompanied by some of the old black-fellows who had 
attended the last Burbung held here, from whom I obtained the 
following description of it. On both sides of the pathway between 
the archway referred to and the Goombo, numerous devices and 
figures were formed on the ground. The outlines of some of them 

1 In the Burbung ground at Bulgeraga Creek, there were two inverted 
stumps of saplings inserted in the ground at the goombo, which were 
smeared with human blood.— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 301. See also 
" The Burbung of the Darkinung Tribes." — Proc. Eoy. Soc. Victoria, x., 

were defined by a groove out into the turf by means of flat sticks 
sharpened at one end to form a kind of spade ; others were com- 
posed of the loose earth heaped up so as to resemble the horizontal 
image of the required object. 

Amongst these drawings on the ground were the following : a 
large figure of Baiamai and the imprint of a gigantic human hand; 1 
a kangaroo; a mallee hen's nest; a canoe with a paddle beside it; 
a spear, boomerang, waddy and tomahawk. Interspersed amongst 
these drawings were masses of yanununyamun or yowan patterns, 2 
always met with on Wiradthuri and Kamilaroi initiation grounds. 
In a forked branch of one of the trees, twenty or thirty feet from 
the ground, an imitation of an eagle-hawk's nest 3 was formed of 

On one side of the path, not far from the goombo, an image of 
Dhurramoolun was formed of mud or clay about four or five feet 
high, having only one leg. In order to give it greater stability, 
this mud figure was propped against a tree. Between this image 
and the goombo was a tire (woongonyalbilj. It was kindled on 
top of a low heap of earth built up for the purpose, and any of 
the men who happened to be near it replenished the fuel when 

An incident occurred in connection with the last gathering 
which took place on this Burbung ground, which is of consider- 
able interest, inasmuch as it shows the course pursued by the 
natives when any unforseen event occurs to make it necessary to 
abandon the Burbung ground during the progress of the cere- 
monies. On that occasion very heavy rains had fallen on the 
sources of the Murrumbidgee River, causing a flood, which spread 
over all the low lands around the camp, and tilled the watercourse 
(see sketch) between the Burbung ring and the Goombo. All the 
tribes present then shifted from their quarters near the Burbung, 
and went about six miles farther down the river to a place where 
the re was some high dry ground, and erected a new camp. 

118 E. H. MATHEWS. 

Instead of preparing another Burbung ground like the one they 
had been obliged to abandon, they selected a clear space of well 
grassed land near the camp, and formed a ring about seventy feet 
in diameter by binding the tops of the grass together around its 
boundary, but the grass growing within the ring was not cleared 
away. On the following morning the people mustered around 
this grass ring (ngyendool), and the whole of the procedure in 
taking away the novices was the same as described farther on in 
this paper. 

Gathering the Tribes. — The headman of the tribe whose turn it 
is to muster the people for the Burbung, and who may be called 
the initiator, sends a messenger, accompanied perhaps by another 
man, to one of the neighbouring tribes in which he has some 
relatives or friends. A message stick, (dharral), on which some 
symbols were carved, would be handed to the messenger, and their 
meaning explained to him. This stick would have a long string, 
made of opossum fir, twisted around it. The purport of this 
message would be something to the effect that the sender knew 
of a place in his country, (ngoorumbang), where there were plenty 
of kangaroos, birds, iguanas, and other game. The bearer of the 
message on arrival near the men's camp in the tribe to which he 
was sent, would sit down, and some of them would go to him. He 
would then be conducted to the rigooloobul, or private meeting 
place of the men, and introduced to the headmen of the tribe, to 
whom he would hand the message stick, and deliver the oral 
message which he had received with it. The headman would 
understand by his friend reporting that he knew of a place where 
there was plenty of game, that he was ready to gather the tribes 
into his hunting grounds, for the purpose of initiating their boys, 
if they were agreeable to his doing so. 

A consultation is held among the men present as to the time 
that would be most convenient for them to accept the invitation. 
They then give the messenger several tails (burran), some bunches 
of feathers, and a bunch of grass tied up, for distribution among 
the initiator and his friends. The messenger is then sent back to 

his own people, and on his return he would hand the bunch of 
grass 1 to the headman, a tail to one of the other headmen, a bunch 
of feathers to another, and so on. The bunch of grass conveys 
the meaning that the party sending it is agreeable to the proposal, 
and that he wishes the initiator to proceed with the preparation 
of the ground. On receiving this reply, the camp would be 
removed next day to the place where it was proposed to hold the 
Burbung, and the men would commence making the ring and 
other parts of the sacred ground. 

The initiator would then send another messenger to the same 
tribe to which the first messenger was sent. On this occasion the 
messenger, who would have another man witli him to keep him 
company, would be furnished with a bull-roarer, (mudjeegangf 
and several tails (dhullaboolga). On the arrival of this messenger 
at the camp he was directed to summon, he would be conducted 
to the ngooloobul, where he would hand the bull-roarer to the 
headman, and the tails would be distributed to the men to whom 
they had been sent by the Initiator. The time and place of hold- 
ing the Burbung would also be stated at this meeting. In the 
course of a short time after the arrival of this messenger, all the 
men would pull small green bushes, and having taken one of these 
m each hand, would start away from the ngooloobul in a serpentine 
line, their headman in the lead, and would run into the women's 
camp, uttering gutteral noises like " birr ! wah ! " as they went. 
They would then form into a group in a clear space and dance 

their ngoorumbang, 

after which they would throw down their bushes and break up, 
and walk away to their camps. 

After the evening meal the young men would paint themselves 
a *id get up a corroboree in honour of the arrival of the messenger. 

, they would not give the u 

At the conclusion of this corroboree, one of the single men, who 
had gone away unobserved by the women, would sound the bull- 
roarer within hearing of the camp. The procession of the men, 
and the noise of the bull-roarer, are done for the purpose of mak- 
ing the women aware that a message has been received to attend 
a Burbung. The mothers of the boys who are old enough to be 
initiated are glad to hear this announcement, because their sons 
will be admitted to the rank of men of the tribe. 

In the course of a few days— or if the time were short, perhaps 
the next day — after receipt of the message, the tribe would make 
a start towards the place where the Burbung was to be held. 1 On 
the journey thither, wherever the tribe camped at night a cor- 
roboree would be danced by the men, after which the bull-roarer 
would be sounded in the proximity of the camp. This journey 
would be performed by easy stages on account of the women and 
children and aged people haying to accompany the rest. The 
entry of this mob into the main camp will be described under the 
heading "Arrival of Contingents." 

This is the only tribe which will be summoned directly by the 
local man, whom I have designated the initiator of the proceedings. 
There are now two mobs assembled on the Burbung ground, — the 
tribe of the initiator and that of the headman who sent the bunch 
of grass. It is now the turn of the latter to summon the next 
tribe, which he does by sending out a messenger bearing a bull- 
roarer and a few tails to the headman of some tribe in the com- 
munity in which he may have friends or relatives. This messenger 
would be one of his own men, but a man of the other tribe may 
go with him to keep him company. The headman of this third 
tribe adopts a similar course in summoning a fourth tribe ; and 
this procedure will be followed until all the tribes whom they wish 
to be present are gathered at the Burbung camp. 

Arrival of Contingents.— When a tribe gets within a day's 

journey, or perhaps a less distance, of the Burbung camp, the 

1 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 304. 

men and women paint themselves in whatever style is customary 
among them, and decorate their hair with feathers. In the tribes 
I am referring to, the painting consisted of stripes and daubs of 
pipeclay on the limbs and upper parts of the bodies, and on the 
face. The boys ( eeramooroong ), who are to be initiated are painted 
red all over their bodies. On coming in sight of the main camp 
the men disencumber themselves of their rugs and other effects, 
leaving them in charge of the women. A shout is now given, 
and on this being answered from the camp, all the men form into 
single file and march on in a serpentine line, each man being about 
a yard behind the man in front of him. 

The headman is in the lead holding the lower end of a spear in 
his left hand, the other end of the spear pointing outward from 
his left shoulder. Instead of a single spear he may have several 
in a bundle. On the side of the spear, close to the end which he 
holds in his hand is tied the bullroarer (mudjeegang), which had 
been sent to him by the messenger. 1 The bullroarer is wrapped 
in a piece of the skin of some small animal, and in order to con- 
hand. In his right hand he carries another small bushy bough, 
which he shakes at every few steps. 

Each of the other men who are following have also spears and 
boughs exactly like the leader, but no bullroarer. The proba- 
tioners, who will be referred to presently, carry a bough only. 
The messenger who has escorted the tribe is in the procession, a 
short distance behind the headman. On the left hand side of this 
sinuous cortege, but near the rear, the novices who are to be 
initiated, belonging to this tribe, and their mothers, are marching 
along. Each mother and her novice would march abreast of one 
of their male relatives in this procession. The other women of 

1 On the Loi 
end of the ape* 

Macquarie and Bogan Eiver trib 
ower end of the spear, and a burr 

the tribe, together with the children and perhaps some of the 
infirm old men, would remain at the place where the men had left 
their superfluous effects. 

As soon as the men of the local tribe hear the shout of the 
strangers approaching, they proceed to the ring, accompanied by 
the men belonging to all the contingents who have previously 
arrived at the Burbung camp. 1 They all sit down near the ring, 
on the side opposite to that from which the new tribe are coming, 
and commence beating their boomerangs together. 

When the men of the new mob reach the Burbung ring, they 
run in single file once round the outside of it, and then enter it 
through the opening in the embankment, and march round inside 
until all the men are within the circle. The novices, painted red 
all over, with their mothers halt a short distance from it, and do 
not enter with the men, but go back and join the other women of 

All, or nearly all, the tribes who arrive, will have with them a 
greater or less number of young men who were inaugurated into 
the rank of manhood at the three consecutive burbungs which 
took place previous to the present one. On the arrival of a con- 
tingent, these probationers are mixed among the wavy line of 
men, each of them walking behind the man who was his guardian 
on the occasion of his initiation. Each probationer has a large 
bush, which he holds with folded arms, against the front of his 
body. These young fellows enter the ring with the other men, 
and at once proceed to the centre, where they stand in a group. 
The men then form a cordon round them, and call out the names 
of several of the chief localities in their own ngooranbang or 
country. After this the men walk out of the circle and throw 
down their boughs beside the embankment. The neophytes follow 
them, still carrying their boughs in the way described. 

1 " The Burbung of the New England Tribes."— Proc. Boy. Soc. Vic- 
toria, ix., N.S., 123. •' The Bora or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kamil- 
aroi Tribes."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 321. 


The men of the local tribe and all those who are sitting down 
with them, then get up and step into the ring, dancing round and 
forming into a group, and call out the names of places in their 
respective districts. These men, who may be designated the hosts, 
now go away to the camp. The men of the newly arrived con- 
tingent then return to the place where they left their women and 
swags, and all of them march on into the main camp, and com- 
mence to erect their quarters on the side facing the direction of 
the district from which they have come. 

After the new comers have had a short rest, they join the men 
of the hosts at the ngooloobnl, or place where the initiated men 

small boughs, which they carry in the right hand, and a boomerang 
in the other. The hosts then start in single file, walking in a 
winding line towards the ring, and are followed by the new arrivals, 
the men of each tribe keeping by themselves. When the man in 
the lead reaches the ring he steps over the bank and walks round 
near the circumference followed by the other men, until they are 
all within the ring, perhaps forming a spiral of several laps, if 
there are many men present. They now dance round several 
times, shouting out the names of a few places in their country. 
The hosts then start away along the track towards the goombo, 
halting at all the principal figures on the ground and on the trees, 
at each of which they shout in unison, and are followed by the 
strangers. When the hosts reach the goombo, a number of the 
men go and crouch down behind the bough-fence, (gareelf men- 
tioned in the description of the Burbung ground, with a small 
bush in each hand. Four of the old men skilled in magical lore 
(Weearthooree) now stand at the four heaps of earth and commence 
their performances. By this time the strangers have arrived at 
the goombo, and sit down in front of it as spectators. The men 
who were hidden behind the screen of boughs, now come dancing 
°ut, one after the other, waving the small bushes which they hold 
ln their hands, and mix with their comrades. 

The men who are at the heaps of earth change places, running 
from heap to heap, and while doing so are exhibiting rock crystals 
(goonabillang) or other substances in their mouths. They run 
after the men who are gathered round them, and the latter get 
behind the weearthooree and put their hands on his shoulders, so 
that he cannot turn round and catch them. When these per- 
formers get tired, some of the old men belonging to the strange 
tribe go and take their turn standing at the heaps, and running 
after the men of their own tribe. When the men have had 
sufficient play, they go back in file along the track, clapping their 
hands, to the burbung, which they enter, and shout out the names 
of places, waterholes, totems, etc., as usual, after which they go 
away to their camps. 

The young fellows whom I have called "Probationers," to 
distinguish them from the full men, go to the ngooloobul with the 
men of their own tribe, where each lays his large bough on the 
ground and sits down on it. When the men start for the ring, 
as described in the last paragraph, the probationers start direct 
from the ngooloobul to the goombo, as they are not allowed to 
enter the ring except on the occasion of their arrival, as stated in 
a previous page. The boys who were initiated at the last Burbung 
have now an opportunity of looking at the image of Dhurramoolun 
— the yowan on the ground, the marked trees, and all the sur- 
roundings, for they were not permitted to see any of these things 
at the time of their inauguration, the particulars of which will be 
described under the head of " Taking away the Boys" When 
the men have finished their performances at the goombo, the pro- 
bationers proceed from there to the camp, while the men return 
by way of the ring, as already described. The probationers left 
their boughs at the ngooloobul ; and always when they assemble 
there with the men, they sit down upon the boughs. When they 
get too dry for use, they are replaced by fresh ones. 

That night, after the evening meal is over, the young men of 
the local tribe, or perhaps the young men of one of the other 
tribes who have arrived previously, paint themselves, and dance 


a corroboree on a cleared patch of ground close by, which is used 
for this purpose, the women belonging to their own tribe sinking 
and beating time for them. 1 At the conclusion of this corroboree 
a man swings a bullroarer in the direction of the goombo, and all 
the men go into the Burbung carrying boomerangs, waddies and 
other weapons in their hands, where they dance round and call out 
the names of remarkable places, after which they retire to their 
respective camps for the night. 

The foregoing description will apply to the arrival of every 
contingent, except the last mob who are expected to be present 
at the ceremonies, who make their appearance in the following 
manner. The painting of the men, women and novices, and their 
march when approaching the camp are precisely the same as on 
the arrival of previous contingents, but the leader of the serpentine 
cortege, instead of having a bullroarer, has a piece of burning 
bark (weenduri boygara), in the hand which holds the spear, and 
a bush in the other. Each of the other men carry a spear and a 
bush, but no fire. Their entry into the ring, and subsequent pro- 
ceedings, are the same as already described. After the new- 
comers have erected their camp, the hosts and other tribes start 
away to the ring and are followed by the strangers. From the 
ring they proceed as usual along the track towards the goombo. 
When the man of the new mob who is still carrying the burning 
bark 2 reaches the fire, he throws the bark upon it, and leaves it 
there. The remainder of the formalities are the same as on 
previous occasions. 

Daily Ceremonies at the Camp. 3 — From the time of the arrival 
of the first tribe of visitors, until the main encampment is broken 
up, there are eorroborees and other performances almost daily. 

1 Journ. Anthrop. last., xxv., 30(5. 

2 Instead of the piece of smoking bark, the tribes in some parts of the 

upon the fire. Every one in the camp knows, on seeing the leader carry- 
ing a firestick or a bunch of grass, that this is the last tribe which is 
expected to attend. 

3 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 307 and 325. 

About daylight every morning the bullroarer is sounded by one 
of the single men in close proximity to the camp, and when this 
is heard the men raise a shout. 1 

During the early part of the day the men and youths would go 
out hunting for the purpose of obtaining food. The women would 
also go out in search of such game and roots as they are in the 
habit of procuring. Infirm old men and women and young children 
would be left in the camp. By about two or three o'clock, most 
of the people would have returned from the bush, some coming in 
at one time and some at another, according to their success in the 

About two or three hours before sun-set, the men of the local 
tribe, with their head-man in the lead, would proceed to the ring 
in a serpentine line, with a bush in each hand. Some of the men 
might have a boomerang in one hand and a bush in the other, or 
perhaps a boomerang in each hand. This would be a signal for 
the men of the other tribes, who would also start, and join the 
assemblage, the members of each tribe keeping by themselves. 
This procession would march round and round inside the ring 
until all of them had entered it. The headmen of the local tribe 
would then call out the names of camping places, etc., and this 
example would be followed by the headmen of the other con- 
All the men would then come out of the ring, and throwing 
down their bushes, would start away along the track towards the 
goombo, the local men being in the lead. A stoppage is made at 
the image of Dhurramoolan, the fire, and all the principal figures 
on the ground and on the trees, the men dancing and shouting as 
they come to each one. 2 On arriving at the goombo, any of the 
clever men, who want to display their magical powers, stand at the 

1 "The Burbung of the New England Tribes."— Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic- 
toria, ix., N.S., 121. "The Bunan Ceremony of N. S. Wales." — American 
Anthropologist, ix., 333, 334. 

2 " The Bora, or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kamilaroi Tribes."- 
Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 323. 


heaps of earth and run after the other men who race about so as 
to get out of their reach. On these occasions there is no detach- 
ment of men hidden behind the garreel, or screen of boughs, that 
formality being gone through only on the arrival of a new mob. 

At the conclusion of the proceedings the men return along the 
track to the ring and dance round, shouting the names of camping 
places, waterholes or the like, in their respective districts, after 
which they go to their camps. At these daily performances, the 
probationers go direct from the camp or ngooloobul to the goombo, 
and are invited by the old men to take particular notice of all the 
performances, and of everything on the ground and trees, so that 
they may be able to reproduce them on future occasions. When 
the men start back to the ring these probationers go to the camp 
direct from the goombo. 

Later in the evening, if it were not wet or the men too tired, 
the usual corroboree would be danced by the tribe whose turn it 
was to do so. After that the bullroarer would be sounded in the 
adjacent forest, which would be answered by shouts of the men, 
and the women singing the usual burbung songs. 

At the daily meetings of the headmen at the ngooloobul, or 
men's council place, the kooringal, or band of strong active men, 
who are to perform all the pantomimic displays in the bush are 
picked out ; and also the men who are to act as guardians to the 
novices are chosen at these meetings. 

Pieces of bark, called munga or dhoorung are stripped from 
trees somewhere adjacent to the goombo, where they are kept 
ready for use on the morning of the final ceremony, to be described 
presently. These strips of bark are about two feet and a half in 
length, and six inches in width at one end, but tapering smaller 
at the other in order that they may be gripped in the hand. 1 

On the evening preceding the taking away of the novices there 
» the usual corroboree, and afterwards there is considerable sexual 

1 For an illustration of one of these pieces of bark, see plate xxvi., fig. 

license allowed between the men and women, whether married 
or single. This liberty is accorded only to those parties who 
would be permitted to marry each other in conformity with the 
tribal laws. This license would not be extended to the novices. 

Taking away the Boys. — When the morning arrives on which 
it has been determined to take the novices away into the bush, 
some of the men leave the camp unobserved by the women a short 
time before daylight, and proceed to the goombo and light the 
wcongonyalbil fire. When the day dawns these men sound the 
bullroarer (mudjeegang) somewhere within the sacred ground. 
When this sound is heard in the camp, the men shout in unison 
and the women commence to sing and beat their rugs. All the 
men who have remained at the camp, pick up each a burning 
stick from their camp fires, and run in single file into the Burbung, 
the leader entering it by stepping over the embankment and is 
followed by all the rest. They dance round inside the ring a short 
time, waving their fiery sticks in the air, shouting and naming 
places in their ngoorumbang, after which they return to their 
camps, and throw the burning sticks into the fires from which 
they have been taken. 

The women and children, all quite naked, are now mustered 
out of the entire camp, and are brought close to the Burbung, the 
women of each tribe keeping by themselves, and sit down on the 
side which faces in the direction of their respective districts. 
The mothers of the novices are in the front, close to the embank- 
ment bounding the ring, the other women being behind them. 
The mothers are painted on the face and chest with marks of red 
ochre and pipeclay, the relatives of the boys and other women 
being also painted. 

The youths who form the subject of the ceremony are now 
separated from the rest, and each is taken charge of by the guardian 
(goomahn), who has been selected for this duty. These men a*" 6 
the brothers actual or tribal, of the women from among whom 
the novices could, when old enough, obtain a wife in accordance 
with the tribal laws. These guardians do not for the present 


take a prominent part in the proceedings, but get some of their 
brothers, who may be called their assistants or surrogates, to act 
for them until after the women have been covered up. 

Each novice's female relatives, consisting perhaps of one of his 
sisters and a sister of the guardian, now paint him red all over 
his body and limbs, and ornament his hair with feathers. 1 During 
the progress of the painting of the novices, some of the men cut 
green boughs for use in covering the women presently, and a 
number of rugs and blankets are gathered throughout the camp 
for the same purpose. 

The men are sitting down by themselves, in a state of nudity, 
a hundred yards away, and as soon as the novices are painted 
they are taken by their mothers towards where the men are sitting. 
When the men see the novices and their mothers coming, they go 
and meet them, and the latter run back to the camp followed by 
the men, who now take charge of the novices. Each group of 
hoys is then taken by their male friends to the men belonging 
to a neighbouring tribe, who invest each novice with a man's 
attire, consisting of a belt or girdle round the waist, to which are 
attached four tails or kilts ; a headband ; and a band or armlet 
round each arm between the elbow and the shoulder. The group 
of novices are then taken back to their friends, and the men who 
had invested them in their regalia now take their own group of 
novices to the men of another tribe to have them dressed in a 
similar manner. 

To make this matter more easily understood it may be supposed 
that the tribes from Hay, Narrandera, Gundagai, and Hillston 
are present. The novices of the Hay tribe, for example, would 
be invested in the garb of manhood by the Narrandera men ; the 
Narrandera boys by the Gundagai men ; the Gundagai novices 
*ould be dressed by the Hillston men ; and the Hillston boys by 
the Hay men. That is to say, the novices belonging to one tribe 

x "The Burbungofthe Wiradthuri Tribes."— Joura. Anthrop. Inst., 

Soc. V: 

308. "The Burbung of the New England Tribes." 

are always dressed in the regalia of a man by the men of one of 
the other tribes present at the general Burbung gathering. 

When these decorations have been completed, each novice is 
taken by his friends into the ring, and is placed sitting down on 
a piece of bark laid on the embankment forming the boundary. 
All the novices belonging to each tribe are placed in a row on the 
side of the ring which is nearest their own ngoorumbang. There 
would therefore be as many groups of boys as there were tribes 
present, assuming that each tribe had brought some novices for 
the purpose of initiation. One of the sisters of the man who lias 
been appointed guardian to the novice now enters the ring, and 
places a green leaf in the boy's mouth, after which she squirts 
pipe-clay out of her mouth into his face, and then retires among 
the other women. Each novice is treated in a similar manner by 

The selection of the site to which the women will remove the 
camp 1 after the boys are taken away is the next business to be 
disposed of. Two old headmen enter the Burbung, one on each 
side, facing each other. One of them walks a few paces, and 
sticks his spear into the ground, and sitting down, says, " This 
would be a good place for the thurrawonga camp," at the same 
time mentioning the name of the locality. The other man then 
advances a few steps, and sticking his spear into the ground, sits 
down and calls out the name of another place which he thinks 
would be a better site for the new camp. Then the first man goes 
on a little way farther, and goes through the same deportment, 
and names another locality. Perhaps half a dozen different places 
may be suggested in this way, until one of them mentions the 
name of a place which they both approve of. Then the other old 
man approaches and sits down beside him, and both of them call 
out the name of the locality. This finally settles the matter, and 

1 " The Bora, or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kamilar. 
Anthrop. Inst., Lond., xxv., 327. " The Burbung of 
Tribes."— Proc. Eoy. Soc. Victoria, ix., N.S., 124. 


A yamstick is then stuck into the ground just outside the 
embankment bounding the Burbung, and a man, who may be 
called No. 1, catches hold of it in one hand, say his right. Another 
man then steps forward, and the first man lets go the yamstick, 
which the other man catches in his right hand — at the same time 
with his left hand catching hold of the right hand of the first man, 
who moves on to make room for him. A third man now steps up 
and the second man releases his hold of the yamstick, which is 
then caught by the right hand of No. 3, who, with his other hand 
catches the right hand of No. 2. Fresh men are continually 
added in this way until there is a complete ring of men with their 
hands joined all round the Burbung— the first man, No. 1, having 
again reached the yamstick, which he catches in his left hand. 1 

A man then runs once round this ring of men, singing as he 
goes, and when he gets back to the point from which he started, 
he hits the ground once with a nulla-nulla or piece of bark. All 
the men then let go their hands, and fall face downwards on the 
ground.-' The man again runs once round and hits the ground as 
before, and all the men who are lying on the ground roll over on 
their backs. The man once more runs round, and strikes the 
ground in the same way, which is the signal for all the men to 
nse to their feet. They then step back from the ring, some of 
them going to one side and some to another, but most of them 
mustering near the side from which the pathway issues. Having 

mence beating them togethe 

The old men then bend down the heads of the novices,* and 
dl rect them to keep their eyes cast upon the ground at their feet. 
The mother of each novice is brought up near the embankment, 
immediately behind her son, and lies down in such a position that 

1 " The Burbung of the Darkinung Tribe."— Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, 

2 "The Buuan Ceremony of N. S. Wales."— American Anthropologist, 
Ix -. 335, 336. 

3 Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, ix., N.S., 125. 

she can hold in her hand one of the tails which are attached to 
the sides of his girdle. The other women and children are also 
told to lie down, and the men cover them all over with the rugs 
and bushes which had been got ready for that purpose. A few of 
the men stand on guard with spears in their hands to see that 
none of the women or children attempt to remove their covering 
or look up. Little children who cannot speak are not covered up, 
but are allowed to remain standing or sitting among the women, 
because they are not able to report anything which they may see. 

When all the necessary preparations have been made, the 
principal headman gives the signal, and two men approach from 
the direction of the goombo, sounding bullroarers, one man taking 
up his position on one side of the burbung, and the other man on 
the opposite side. Three or four other men also make their 
appearance, each having in his hand a piece of bark, dhooroong, 
already described under the head of " Daily Ceremonies at the 
Camp" These men enter the Burbung and go round once beat- 
ing the ground with the dhooroong, but not shouting, and then 
run away quietly towards the goombo. 

It not unfrequently happens that small pieces of the bark used 
by the men in beating the ground, break off and remain in the 
ring, or rebound over the bank amongst the women. Some of the 
young men standing around watch for these fragments, and very 
carefully pick them up immediately, at the same time obliterating 
the imprints left on the ground where struck by the mwtgas. 
These precautions are taken so that the women, when they get up 
presently, may not be able to obtain any clue to the cause of the 
terrible thumping sounds produced in this manner. They are 
persuaded that it is caused by the trampling of the Evil Spin* 
when walking about taking the boys away, and that the noise 
made by the bullroarer is his awe-inspiring voice. 

While the bullroarers are being sounded, and the men are beat- 
ing the ground with the bark, the other men who are standing 
1 These pieces of bark are also called munga and barrung barrung. 

MONY. 133 

outside the ring keep up a shout. During this din the guardians 
step forward, and take the novices by the arm and lead them 
noiselessly away along the dharambil or pathway. As each novice 
rises to his feet, the dhallaboolga or tail which is held in his 
mother's hand separates from his girdle, and is kept by her for 
the present. 

During the clamour produced at the ring while the novices are 
being taken away, some of the men pick up a few articles belong- 
ing to the women, such as dilly bags, yam sticks, or the like, and 
scatter them about, some of them being thrown into the ring, and 
others hung on saplings. 1 Burning sticks taken out of the fire at 
the camp are also thrown close to where the women are lying. 
The men who are walking about also catch hold of some of the 
little boys who cannot talk yet, and make a few marks of pipe- 
clay on their faces. Perhaps one of these little fellows is placed 
sitting in the fork of a tree close at hand. 

When the procession of guardians and their charges have 
advanced along the dharambil and have passed through the arch- 
way, a halt is made somewhere in the vicinity of the goombo. The 
novices are placed lying down on the ground, and rugs thrown 
over them. During this stoppage the kooringal and other men 
who are to accompany the novices into the bush have time to 
collect their weapons and other belongings, and overtake the 
guardians at this place. All the men present then beat their 
weapons together and keep up a vociferous noise for some minutes, 
a bullroarer being sounded close by. The men who were using 
the dhooroong in the Burbung ring are also here, and again beat 
the ground. These noises can be heard by the women at the 
camp and will be referred to presently. After this the kooringal 
Paint their bodies jet black with burnt grass or powdered charcoal, 

-In order to make the subsequent 
easily and thoroughly understood, it 
"The Bora of the Kamilaroi Tribes."-Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, «., 

134 R. H. MATHEWS. 

will be desirable at this stage to describe how the women and 
children are released from their imprisonment at the Burbung, 
and the removal of the camp to a new site, which may be distin- 
guished as the " Thurrawonga Camp." 

As soon as the novices and guardians are out of sight of the 
Burbung, the covering is taken off the women, who, on getting 
to their feet and seeing the boys gone and their things strewn 
about on the ground, chant a kind of lamentation, especially the 
mothers and sisters of the novices. 1 About this time they hear 
the shouting and other noises made by the men around the boys 
near the goombo. All the mothers then go to a log, or stem of a 
fallen tree, lying on the ground somewhere near the Burbung, 
half of them standing on one side and half on the other side of the 
log. The mothers standing on the one side then throw their 
yamsticks horizontally and end on, across the log, to the mothers 
on the other side ; the latter return the yamsticks over the log 
in the same way. Bunches of green leaves are tied to one end 
of these yamsticks to make them ornamental, and the mothers 
sing during the performance. This throwing of the yamsticks to 
and fro across the log is continued until the shouting of the men 
near the goombo ceases, and is done for the avowed purpose of 
inducing the evil spirit to show clemency to their sons. 

All the women and children, and a few of the old men who 
have been left in charge of them, then gather up their effects and 
start towards the locality which has been settled upon for the 
erection of the new camp. On arrival there the people of each 
tribe take up their quarters on the side facing their respective- 
districts — the camp of the local tribe forming the initial point. 

It not unfrequently happens that one of the tribes who are 
expected to attend the ceremonies are unable, from some cause, to 
reach the burbung ground before the camp is broken up, but 
arrive a day or two afterwards. In order that this late mob may 
know where to go, a messenger is sent to meet them and escort 

them to the Thurrawonga Cauip, where they take up their quarters 
on the side next their own ngoorumbang. 

Before leaving the burbung, the mothers of the novices provide 
themselves with pieces of burning bark, called bunnang, which 
they carry in their hands wherever they go. The bunnang con- 
sists of two pieces of bark laid together and placed in the fire till 
sufficiently ignited ; it is then taken out, and smoulders as long 
as the bark lasts, when it is renewed by fresh pieces. Wherever 
the mothers rest to light a tire for the purpose of warming them- 
selves or to cook their food, they cover the fire over with earth 
before leaving it, so that no other person may use it and so bring 
mischief upon their sons. 

At the Thurrawonga Camp, the mothers of the novices belong- 
ing to each contingent occupy quarters by themselves a little 
distance from the camp of their own tribe. Every mother has a 
fire of her own, and no one else is permitted to use it. These 
separate camping places are called dhunda. Their sisters, or 
mother's sisters, or some of the elder women provide them with 
food, and attend to their wants generally. These women are 
collectively known as yanniwa, and none of the other women or 
the children are permitted to interfere with them. 1 Each mother 
eats the whole of the food brought to her, as it would bring evil 
upon her son if she gave any portion of it to the other women 
present. All the mothers are, however, very abstemious with their 
food whilst their sons are away. 

The tails, dhallaboolga, retained in the hands of the mothers on 
the morning their sons were taken from them, are fastened to the 
upper ends of spears, and these weapons are stuck into the ground 
beside the quarters of the mothers to whom they belong. Every 
morning and evening the mothers pick up their spears and run, 
quite naked, a distance of about a hundred yards towards the part 

1 "The Bunan Ceremony of N. S. Wales."— American Anthropologist, 
J* Ul I " The Burbung of the Darkinung Tribes."— Proc. Roy. Soc. 
victoria, x., N.S., 7; "The Keeparra Ceremony of Initiation/'-Journ. 

136 B. H. MATHEWS. 

of the district where their sons have been taken by the old men. 
They sing and shout and wave the spears with the tails attached, 
in that direction, and then run back to their own camp, inserting 
the spears in the ground as before. Their yamsticks, with the 
bushes attached, are also kept stuck in the ground in a similar 
manner. If one of these spears or yamsticks should fall or be 
accidently knocked down, it is considered a bad omen, forewarning 
danger to the son of the owner of the weapon. 

Every man or woman who has been out hunting during the 
day is met by one or more of the mothers on returning to the 
camp. They run towards the new arrival as he approaches, and 
wave the spear with the dhallaboolga attached to it, quite close 
to his face, and then run back to the dhunda. 

Some of the old men remain at the new camp to see that all 
the tribal customs are strictly carried out. Communication is 
kept up between them and the men who are out with the novices; 
and the day the latter are notified to return, a bough yard, called 
thurrawonga or cudthalderry is erected a short distance from the 
camp, towards the quarters in which the ngoorang is situated. 1 
This yard is semi-oval in shape, being about forty feet across the 
open end, and about twenty-five feet from there to the back wall 
The walls of this enclosure, which are five or six feet high, are 
built of saplings, forks, and bushes, placed close together, so as to 
form a dense screen. One or more narrow openings, arched over 
the top with boughs, are left in the convex end, through which 
the contingent from the bush will enter on their arrival, as 
described farther on. Around each side, within this partial 
enclosure, a platform is erected by placing sheets of bark on top 
of logs laid around for the purpose. 

About nightfall, all the women, accompanied by such of the 

men as may be in the camp, proceed to the thurrawonga, inside 

of which the men light a fire. The mothers of the novices are 

painted with marks of pipeclay and red ochre about the face, chest 

l Journ. Anthrop. Inst., Lond., xxv., 309. 


their necks. They light 
a fire outside the open end of the thurrawonga, and wait there. 
When the kooringal and boys are heard coming, the men cover 
the rest of the women over with rugs and bushes, as on the previous 
occasion at the Burbung. The reader will understand this para- 
graph, when he comes to the section on "The Return of the Boys" 
Ceremonies in the Bush.— I must now return to where the 
novices were left lying on the ground, with their guardians and 
the kooringal around them. When the shouting and other noises 
have ceased, the guardians catch hold of the novices by the hands 
and help them to their feet, their faces being still bent towards 
the ground. They are not at any time permitted to put their 
hands on the ground for the purpose of assisting themselves to 
rise, but must wait until helped up by their guardians. A rug is 
now adjusted over each novice's head in such a manner that there 
is only a narrow opening left at the face, through which he can 
see anything to which his attention may be directed by his 

In the meantime a number of the kooringal have arranged 
themselves in a row, standing a few feet apart, with their faces 
towards the novices. Between each pair of these men a man is 
lying horizontally, his head resting on the shoulder of one of the 
men, and his feet on the shoulder of another. This will be made 
clearer by an example : Suppose A, B and are three of the men 
standing in a line ; another man, D, is laid horizonthlly between 
A and B ; his head rests on A's shoulder, and he maintains that 
position by putting his arms round A's chest. His legs are on 
B's shoulder, one leg being round each side of B's neck. Another 
m an, E, has his head on B's shoulder, and his feet on the shoulder 
°* C, and keeps his hold of both men in the same way that D 
does. Perhaps a dozen men may be laid horizontally in this way, 

" The Burbung of the New 

England Tribes."— Proc. Eoy. I 

and, when all is ready, the novices are told to raise their heads 
and look at the tableau before them, which is intended to repre- 
sent a streak of black cloud resting on the shoulders of the men. 
The kooringal walk slowly towards the novices, and if a breeze is 
blowing they move gradually with its current, to convey the idea 
of a cloud drifting with the wind. The kooringal now let the 
men down off their shoulders, and all of them jump about before 
the boys. 

The guardians now take the novices away several miles to a 
camp in the bush, being accompanied by some of the principal 
headmen, who have charge of the ceremonies, and a number of 
initiated men, called the kooringal, selected from the several tribes 
present at the Burbung gathering. The fathers and other relatives 
of the boys are also amongst the company. The blankets are kept 
over the heads of the novices in the manner already described, 
and they have to walk along with their eyes cast upon the heels 
of the man in front of them. All the men and boys walk along 
at a leisurely pace, and the latter are not permitted to speak or 
to gaze about them. 

On arriving at the place where they intend to stay for the 
night, a space is cleared of sticks and other loose rubbish, and 
the boys, with their guardians, occupy one side of it, a little way 
from the men. The kooringal and other men camp round this 
cleared space, the men of each tribe keeping by themselves. The 
novices are placed lying down with the blankets on their heads as 
before, some of the guardians being continually with them. 
During the evening the kooringal play the wyang or night-owl. 
They have white rings painted with pipe clay round their eyes, 
and mud plastered on their posteriors, on which feathers are 
fastened. They file past the fire to and fro a few times imitating 
the owl, the novices sitting on the other side of the fire looking 
at them. If it is a fine night more than one pantomime may be 
played. When they become weary or sleepy, the boys are taken 
to their own quarters, and all hands retire for the night. 

Some time before daylight the following morning all the people 
are roused out of their slumbers by the old men. 1 The men and 
boys are divided into a number of little mobs, each mob marching 
away from the ngoorang or main camp in different directions, for 
a distance of 100 or 150 yards. It is not necessary that each 
section should go the same distance from the ngoorang; this matter 
is regulated by the suitability of the ground for camping purposes. 
The novices, each being accompanied by his guardian, are taken 
away in these groups, some going with one group and some with 
another. Care is taken, however, that every novice is taken 
away from the ngoorang in the direction opposite to that in which 
his own country is situated. Some of the mobs would, perhaps, 
consist of men only, owing to their being no novices from the 
district located in the contrary direction. Each of the groups 
light a fire at their respective camping places, which are called 
bunbul, where they remain till after daylight, and have breakfast 

After the morning meal has been disposed of, all the little mobs 
re-unite, and clear another corroboree ground contiguous to the 
one they prepared the previous evening. The kooringal then 
select some animal as the subject of the play, and when all is 
ready the novices are permitted to look at the performance. Their 
heads are then bent down as before, and they are taken back to 
their respective bunbuls from which they have just come, where 
they remain with their guardians during the day. The novices 
are called budthandooree during their sojourn at the bunbiil camps. 

The kooringal then go out into the bush hunting, in order to 
provide food for the novices and guardians, as well as for them- 
selves. On their return to the camp in the afternoon some of the 
game caught during the day is cooked and given to the novices. 
The bones and sinews are taken out of the meat which is prepared 
for them, and some of the old men go round to see that their food 
is dressed according to rule. 

} Upper Lachlan." 

As the young fellows are generally eager to participate in the 
plays enacted in the bush, they leave their women at the new 
camp, and start out to join the kooringal, having received 
directions respecting the locality from some of the old men at 
the camp, or perhaps some of these men es'cort them to the 
ngoorang. On the way out they paint their bodies with charcoal 
and grease, and on nearing the ngoorang, one of them climbs a 
tree and shouts in a peculiar manner, which is answered by the 
kooringal. The latter then gather up their weapons, and 
having mustered all the novices, take them to the quarter from 
which the man's voice has been heard, where they find the fresh 
arrivals, who are called goory, sitting down in a group, with 
bushes in their hands. The kooringal place the boys standing in 
a row looking at the new men, round whom they form a semi- 
circle, dancing and shaking their weapons. 1 The heads of the 
boys are now bent down by their guardians, and they are taken 
back to the bunbiils— the goory joining the kooringal. These 
arrivals at the ngoorang generally take place late in the after- 
noon, or early in the morning. 

At the close of the day all the men and boys camp at the same 
place as the night before, and similar pantomimic performances 
are indulged in. In the morning all hands are called up by the 
old men, and radiate away from the ngoorang as on the previous 
morning. On this occasion they do not go to the same place as 
before, but each little mob selects a fresh camp at which to light 
their fire and remain till morning. After breakfast another cor- 
roboree ground is cleared, at a different place to that used yester- 
day, and another play is performed by the kooringal. Different 
animals are represented each night and morning, and all the dances 
and performances are as usual largely composed of abominable 
and obscene displays, which cannot be described in a paper like 
the present. The kooringal renew the black paint upon their 

shmond and Clarence 


It is not essential that the men and boys should remain at the 
same camp every night ; they may stay one or more nights at the 
same place, or a fresh camping ground may be reached every night. 
When taking the boys from one camp to another, the rugs are 
kept over their heads, and they are under the vigorous surveillance 
of their guardians. When walking along through the bush, the 
kooringal and guardians are joking with each other all the time. 
If any of them see an iguana going up a tree, they say he is com- 
ing down ; if a small bird is seen they say it is very large ; if the 
day is cold, they remark that it is hot, and so on. At each of 
these statements, which is always the opposite of the truth, a 
shout is given, and all the men laugh. The novices are not per- 
mitted to laugh at anything that is said or done, no matter how 
amusing or preposterous it may be. 

Human ordure 1 was given to the novices on more than one 
occasion during their stay in the bush. The sound of the bull- 
roarer would be heard in the adjacent forest shortly before sunset 
and some of the guardians would say to the novices, " Here comes 
Dhurramoolum to feed you with excrement." Preparations for 
this ceremony had been made during the afternoon. Small pieces 
of bark had been cut, about six inches square, and slightly charred 
in the fire, and on each of these a small portion of excrement was 
deposited by the old men. These pieces of bark with their contents, 
were now brought and placed before each novice as they sat at 
the camp fire, and they had to eat the ordure without a murmur 
in the presence of the headman. They were also compelled to 
drink urine collected in a coolamin for the pupose. 2 

On the third or fourth day after leaving the Burbung one of 
the middle front teeth of the upper jaw is taken out of each of the 

1 "The Burbung of the Wiradthuri Tribes."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., 

2 " The Burbung of the New England Tribes."— Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic- 
toria, ix., N.S., 128. 

142 R. H. MATHEWS. 

novices. A clear patch of ground is selected somewhere near the 
camp, from the surface of which all loose rubbish and grass is 
removed. Along the centre of this cleared space a row of holes, 
about afoot long and four inches wide are dug into the ground to 
the depth of six or nine inches, according to the nature of the soil. 
The number of these holes is regulated by the number of boys to 
be operated upon, there being two holes for each individual. In 
some cases, however, where the ground is very hard, one pair of 
holes may be used for several boys. These holes are about a foot 
and a half apart, so that the boys when standing in them have 
their legs extended. In the bottom of each hole a layer of green 
leaves is strewn to keep the boys' feet off the ground. 

About an hour or two before sunset the novices are brought 
out and placed standing with their feet in the holes, all their faces 
being in one direction. Each guardian now kneels down behind 
his novice, and puts his head between the boy's legs, which have 
been kept wide apart for this purpose, so that the boy rests on his 
guardian's neck and shoulders. The principal headman now walks 
along in front, and takes the rugs off the novices, at the same time 
shoving their heads up straight. Another man then comes behind 
each boy and catches him by the top of the head with one hand, 
and with the other holds the boy's chin to keep the mouth open. 
Sometimes the man holds one hand on each side of the boy's head, 
the fingers of one hand being on the chin. A piece of tough stick 
is placed across the boy's mouth to prevent his shutting it. A 
number of men accustomed to the work of extracting teeth are 
standing in front of the boys, and the headmen are walking about 
giving such directions as may be thought necessary. 

The modus operandi in extracting the tooth is as follows. 1 The 
man who is to operate upon the boy steps up to him, and with his 

1 Compare with descriptions of this operation given by me in "The 
Bunan Ceremony of N. S. Wales."— American Anthropologist, ix., 338; 
«' The Burbung of the Darkinung Tribes."— Proc. Koy. Soc. Victoria, x., 
N.S., 7- 8; "The Burbung of the Wiradthuri Tribes."— Journ. Anthrop. 


finger nail pushes back the gum from the tooth to be extracted. 
He then puts his own lower teeth under the tooth and pulls out- 
ward and upward — the stick which is across the boy's mouth pre- 
venting him from biting the man's lip. This is done with the 
professed intention of loosening the tooth, and blackfellows have 
told me that occasionally it comes out under this treatment. If 
not, this is accomplished by placing one end of a narrow piece of 
wood or stone, called wallung, against the tooth, and hitting the 
other end with a stone or wooden mallet used as a hammer. The 
tooth is then taken out of the boy's mouth with the man's fingers 
and the gum pressed together. As each tooth is produced and 
held up, all the men present shout " Wir-r-r!" in unison. While 
the ceremony is going on, a bullroarer (mudjeegang) is occasion- 
ally sounded in the bush not far off. The blood flowing from the 
wounded gum is swallowed by the boy. The guardians now assist 
the novices to withdraw their feet from the holes, which are then 
filled up, and the surface of the ground strewn over with rubbish 
the same as it was before being cleared. The boys are freed from 
wearing the rugs over their heads from this time forth. 

The novices are then conducted back to the camp and after 
supper they are taken a little way into the bush with the men 
under the pretext of looking for water to allay their thirst. When 
they have walked some distance, one of the men who has gone 
away unobserved by the boys, whistles, and calls out " I think 
there is water over here." The men and boys then proceed in 
that direction but go too far. The man then again whistles and 
they turn back and find him sitting down, apparently perishing 
from thirst, and he tells them he has not found any water. The 
kooringal then corroboree round him and shout. 

After that they all go back to the camp, and the boys are 
placed lying down in their own quarters. In a short time the 
men pretend to quarrel among themselves about something, angry 
words being mutually exchanged, and the men get their weapons 
ready. The novices think a conflict is imminent, but after some 
further recriminations peace is apparently restored. A detach- 

as he lies in his camp, and sing Dhurramoolun's song 1 over him, 
beating their boomerangs together while doing so : — 
Ghee'- bul, ghee-' bul, oong- o- ga' ga- la'- bi- an, 
Bah'- wan- bah' goo- rar' nga- dahn'- tha bay'- an. 
This chant is repeated a great many times without intermission. 
As the men finish singing over each novice they raise a shout, 
" Heh ! Wah ! " and when the ceremonial is concluded, both men 
and boys retire to rest for the night. 

Next morning the whole camp is roused up as usual, and the 
men and boys divide into little groups, each going away in differ- 
ent directions as before. Two or three men are despatched to the 
women's camp to inform them that the kooringal and boys will 
return that evening. The kooringal go away a short distance out 
of sight of the camp, where they clear a portion of the surface of 
the ground of all sticks and loose rubbish. Pieces of bark, barung 
barung or dhooroong, similar in size and shape to those used at 
the Burbung when the boys were taken away are prepared 
ready for use. They also light one or more fires, and burn green 
bushes on them to make a smoke. The smoke, being charged 
with moisture from the green leaves, partakes somewhat of the 
nature of fog, and does not ascend as readily as ordinary smoke, 
but hangs about near the ground. 

When these preparations have been made, the guardians march 
the novices, with their eyes cast down, towards the cleared space, 
telling them that Dhurramoolun is going to burn them at a big 
fire which he has ready, and their attention is opportunely directed 
to the smoke hovering around them, but they are not permitted 
to raise their heads. 

In hilly districts, as on the Upper Murrumbidgee about Gun- 

dagai, where there is rocky country, the kooringal heat a few large 

stones in a fire at some place near to which the novices will be 

1 "The Keeparra Ceremony of Initiation." — Journ. Anthrop. Inst, 

xxvi., 333 ; " The Bora of the Kamilaroi Tribes."— Proc. Eoy. Soc. Vic- 

brought along. When the boys are passing, a large hot stone is 
started rolling past close to their feet, so that they can see it, and 
as it rolls along it scorches the grass. A little farther on one or 
two more stones may be rolled past in the same way. Other 
larger stones are thrown heavily on the ground or against rocks 
a little way off to make as much noise as possible, and terrify the 
novices, who are told that this is the work of Dhurramoolun. In 
level country where there are no rocks, as in the district around 
Hay, this stone rolling part of the performance is necessarily 

As the guardians and novices approach the cleared space 
referred to, about a dozen men with the barrung barrung commence 
to beat the ground. These men, who are called wundang, are 
fantastically disguised by having small bushes, pieces of bark and 
grass fastened in their hair and in their belts. They are sitting 
in a row, and strike the ground in front of them with the barrung 

standing near each end of this row swinging a mudjeegang. The 
novices are brought up in front of the wundang, and are told to 
raise their heads and look. The men who are swinging the bull- 
roarers then place one foot on top of the other to give them the 
appearance of having only one leg, like their mysterious prototype, 
Dhurramoolun. The remainder of the men, including the relatives 
of the boys are standing around the cleared space. 

lhe headmen and other armed warriors now step out with 
uplifted spears and tomahawks and warn the novices that if they 
reveal what they have just seen, or any of the secret ceremonies 
which have taken place in their presence in the bush, to the 
women or uninitiated, their own lives and those of the persons to 
whom they may confide the mysteries, will be required at the 
hands of the tribe. 

Return of the Hoyn.— At the conclusion of the important cere- 
monial of showing the boys the bullroarer, they are taken back to 
ngoorang, and everything is packed up, after which a start is 
made for the Thurrawonga camp— described in previous pages. 

The kooringal 

engage in hunting as they 



to provide something for d 

[inner. The 

boys wa 

Ik wi 

guardians, hav 

ing, as before 

stated, been 



the rugs over < 

;heir heads, bu 

t are forbidden to look in ar 

tion except straight ahead. About midway a waterhole is reached, 
where a halt is made, and the game caught by the way is cooked 
on fires lighted for the purpose. This camp is called Bidjerigang. 

At this halting place, the men and boys have all the hair singed 
off their bodies, and the hair of their heads is also singed to make 
it shorter, after which the men go into the waterhole and wash 
off the black paint. 1 The guardians sit with the novices on the 
bank, and when the kooringal come out they mind the boys while 
the guardians perform their ablutions. None of the novices go 
into the waterhole. After this, the boys are painted with white 
spots on their faces, arms and chests. The guardian chews the 
end of a piece of tough green stick till it frays out like a kind of 
brush, which he dips in wet pipe clay and applies to the skin of 
the novice. These white spots are put on top of the red ochre 
with which the bodies of the novices ha\e been kept painted dur- 
ing their sojourn in the ngoorang. All the men are painted in 
the way customary in their tribe, and boys and men wear their 
full dress. 

The journey forward is then resumed, and on going some 
distance farther on a halt is made for the purpose of giving the 

each of the latter having a small bush in his hand. The kooringal 
form into a semicircle several paces in front of the row of novices, 
and some of the old men, who are relatives of the boys, are deputed 
to name them. These old men stand out by themselves in front 
of the kooringal, and call up a certain guardian, who steps for- 
ward, bringing his novice with him, and both of them stand in 

1 "The Burbungof the New England Tribes."— Proc. Eoy. Soc. Vic- 
toria, ix., N.S., 131. "The Bora or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kamil- 
aroi Tribe."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 336. 

2 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 310; Ibid., xxvi., 281. 

MONY. 147 

front of the semicircle — the boy shaking the bush which he carries 
in his hand. The old men then deliberate what name shall be 
given to him, and when this point has been decided, the name is 
called out, upon which all the men present shout " Wir-r-r ! " in 
unison. The boy and his guardian then retire and stand on one 
side. Another guardian and his novice are then called out in a 

retire, and stand beside the previous pair. This procedure is 
repeated until all the novices have been named, and are standing 
in a row at a different place to that at first occupied by them— 
the bushes which they carried being thrown down. Some of the 
armed men then step out in front of the neophytes and repeat 
the caution as to the consequences which will ensue if they divulge 
any of the secret ceremonies which they have passed through in 
the bush. 

Another start is now made towards the women's camp, and on 
nearing it, the men whistle and keep repeating " Bir-r ! Bir-r ! 
and are answered by the mothers of the novices. On getting 
within about a hundred yards of the appointed place the guardians 
halt for a few minutes, and take the novices on their shoulders, 
and start on abreast till they get within twenty or thirty yards of 
the thurrawonga, where they again come to a stand. The 
kooringal are behind the guardians, and in the rear a bullroarer 
is sounded by one of the men. While the guardians are getting 
the boys on their shoulders, 1 a number of the kooringal file into 
the thurrawonga through the archway, and stand in rows along 
the wall to the right and left. 

T!„. , 

s then enter the thurrawonga, and step up c 

platform, keeping the boys on their shoulders. The mothers, who 
are standing near the fires, then advance, each having a spear in 
her hand, to the upper end of which is attached the dhullaboolga 
or tail which she took from her son's girdle the morning he left 
the Burbung. She raises the end of the spear towards the boy, 
1 "The Bunan Ceremony of New South Wales."— American Anthro- 

148 R. H. MATHEWS. 

who catches hold of the dhullaboolga and pulls it off, and then 
slides down from his guardian's shoulders out of sight of his 
mother. 1 The latter at the same time also turns her back towards 
her son. The same course is followed by all the mothers simultane- 
ously, after which the covering is taken off the other women, who 
are lying down a few paces back from the open end of the thurra- 
wonga, and then all the women go away back to the main camp. 

The men who have charge of the proceedings at the thurrawonga 
then throw green bushes on the fire, which produce a dense smoke 
into which are gathered all the men who have been out at the 
ngoorang, as well as the boys, where they stand round the fire 
until the old men consider that they have been sufficiently fumi- 
gated. The guardians and novices camp all night in the thurra- 
wonga, and early next morning go away into the bush to a suitable 
camping place, accompanied by some of the kooringal and old men. 
The women also remove their quarters, and go to another camp. 

The men and boys stop away for a few days. It may be that 
they camp at the same place all the time, or perhaps a fresh camp- 
ing ground is reached every night. The camp is not broken up 
into bunbul sections every morning, and the boys go out hunting 
with the men during the day, being now under no restrictions, 
except that they must eat only such food 2 as has been sanctioned 
by the old men. 

At the end of this term of probation, the men and boys again 
go back to the main camp, stopping at some suitable place by the 
way to paint themselves, and put on their full dress. This return 
of the novices, which completes the process of inauguration, is 
called ngoorango gooratvalgaree (bringing back to camp), and is 

i Among the Wiradthuri tribes further to the northward, the mother 

him on the breast with a boomerang, or with a small narrow piece of bark, 
ornamented with paint for the occasion.— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxv., 
310; Ibid., xxvi., 282 and note 2. 
2 " The Dbalgai Ceremony."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxvi., 339. 


also known as minbin mumbilla. A platform, (goolay), about a 
foot high, composed of pieces of bark laid on logs, is erected by 
the men somewhere near the women's camp. The mothers of the 
novices, decorated as at the thurrawonga, and all the women of 
the tribe are present at this platform, but none of them are 
covered over on this occasion. Each boy's mother lays on the 
platform a rug or blanket, beside which she inserts her yamstick 
in the ground, and sits down on the other side of the platform. 
All the mothers then commence to sing doleful chants, because 
their sons will not be allowed to camp with them any more, but 
must now stay with the single men, and take their part as men 
of the tribe. 

When these preparations have been made, at a given signal the 
guardians and novices approach, followed by some of the kooringal 
beating boomerangs, but the mudjeegang is not sounded. On 
getting near the platform each guardian points out to the boy his 
mother's yamstick, and directs him to sit down on the rug which 
is beside it. 1 The mothers, who are sitting down on the other side 
of the platform, immediately behind the boys, then put their arms 
around them for a few minutes. The guardians then catch the 
novices by the hand and lead them away to a camp in sight of 
the men's quarters, all the women at the same time returning to 
their respective camps. From the time the novices were taken 
away from the Burbung their mothers have been required to carry 
a piece of burning bark in their hands when travelling from place 
to place, but they are now released from this obligation, and these 
firesticks are left at the goolay. The next day the mothers of the 
novices go into a waterhole or running stream near the camp, and 
wash the paint off their bodies. 

Finishing Ceremonies.— As soon as all the fundamental rites 
have been concluded, the strange tribes are eager to get back 
to their own districts, and generally start away the next day, or 

at any rate in the course of a short time. The local tribe also 
shift to another part of their ngoorumbang, the food supply of the 
present camping ground having been exhausted by the large 
t the tribes who have 

Each tribe takes charge of its own novices, who are kept under 
the control of their guardians or relatives. They are not permitted 
to talk or laugh loud until they reach the age at which they 
develop the voice of a man. They are allowed to lodge near the 
main camp, and may come in sight of the women, but must 
not speak to them. They are gradually brought nearer and 
nearer to the men's quarters until they eventually come right in 
among the single men. A white stone, (quartz crystal) called 
goonabillang or ngullang, is given to the neophytes by the old men. 
A boy must attend at least three burbungs before he is admitted 
to the full privileges of a tribesman. 

The mother of a novice is likewise required to comply with 
certain tribal regulations. Any food which she collects herself, 
or which is given to her by others, is eaten by her alone, as it 
would be unpropitious and fraught with evil to her son if she 
were to give any food to another person, until her son acquires a 

It will be interesting to give a brief outline of the formalities 
connected with the disposal of the teeth of the novices. When 
the old man extracts a boy's tooth in the manner described in the 
preceding pages, he hands it to the guardian, who takes care of it 
until he has an opportunity of giving it to the father of the boy. 
Before all the people disperse, the father hands over the tooth to 
the headman of one of the tribes in which he may have relatives 
or acquaintances, who takes it away with him to his own country. 
This headman may send the tooth farther on to another tribe, or 
he may keep it amongst his own people. 

After a time, which may be only of a few months duration, or 
it may be a much longer period, the headman who took the tooth 


away sends messengers to the tribe to which the owner of the 
tooth belongs, stating that it will be brought back at such a time. 
On receipt of this message, preparations are made to meet the 
strange people at the time appointed. On these occasions it is 
the custom for each tribe to make presents to the other, which 
takes the form of exchange or barter. Supposing for example 
that there is plenty of suitable stone for making hatchets 1 and 
whetstones in the country belonging to one tribe, they will 
exchange these commodities with the men of another tribe, in 
whose country there may be suitable wood for making spears and 
other weapons. People who have coloured clays will exchange 
them for skins of animals not plentiful in their own country. 
Others will have string made of the bark of certain trees, richly 
coloured feathers of rare birds, reeds for making light spears, and 
bo on, which they exchange for other articles. It may be that 
some of the men and women exchange exactly similar articles 
with the people of another tribe merely as mementos of their 

At these gatherings, the hosts arrange themselves in a line, 
with their presents and other commodities lying on the ground 
near them. The visitors advance and form into a row opposite 
the hosts, and display their presents in a similar manner. The 
headman who has brought back the tooth returns it to the boy's 
father, who subsequently hands it over to his son. After some 
time it is buried in the ground. 

Conclusion — With the exception of a short paper on the Bur- 
bung of the natives of the Upper Lachlan River, 2 this is the first 
detailed account of the initiation cerei 
tribes published in any of the Australian 

first account of the Burbung of these t 

been published in England is that contained in two short papers 

1 See my paper on •« Stone Implements used by the Aborigines.' 
Roj- Soc. N. S. Wales, xxvm., 301-305, Plate 43. 

2 " The Initiation Ceremonies of the Aborigines of the Upper I 
— Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. Aust. (Q.), xi., 167 - 169. 

I regret that in the present paper, as well as in the previous 
articles to which reference has been made, considerations of space 
have compelled me to omit many particulars which I would have 
liked to describe more fully. It will be observed that I have con- 
fined myself as much as practicable to descriptions only, without 
offering explanations, or submitting theories for the present. I 
have a mass of information bearing upon the reasons of many 
parts of the ceremonies and their meaning, gathered in conversa- 
tions with old headmen of different tribes, which it is hoped will 
be found of interest to those who study the customs of aboriginal 

Explanation of Woodcut.— ¥ig. 1 is a plan of the Burbung 
ground, showing everything in its correct position in regard to the 
north point, which is marked upon it, The scale is 16 chains to 
one inch, a is the Burbung circle; b is the goombo; and the 
dotted line from a to b is the pathway mooroo, leading from one 
to the other, a distance of 1225 yards, or about 55 J chains — nearly 
three-quarters of a mile, c is the archway through which the men 
passed in going along the track ; a to c is low lying level ground, 
with a deep, crooked watercourse running through it, which is 
liable to be inundated by the overflow of the water from the 
Murrumbidgee when that river is in a state of flood. From c to 
b, the path ran through scrubby land, considerably higher than 
the land at the Burbung. This scrub has, as stated in the text, 
been cleared away, and part of the land is now under cultivation. 
The space from c to b, enclosed by broken lines, is that which 
contained all the figures and carvings in the soil and on the trees, 

Fig. 2 shows the Burbung ring, twenty-five yards by twenty- 
three yards, averaging twenty-four yards in diameter ; a is the 

1 :»:$ 

opening in the emhank- 
ment, from which the 
path led away towards 
the goombo. The em- 
bankment is continued 
outward a few feet on 
either side of the track 
where it leaves i lie ring. 
The camp of the local 
tribe was about one 
hundred yards to the 
north of this circle, and 
the other tribes were 
encamped adjacent, 
each on the side facing 
in the direction from 
which they had come. 
Water for camp use 
was obtained from the 
M uiTuiiibidgee River, 
which was close to the 

**g. 3 is an enlarged drawing of the goombo or budtha goonang 
-«, b, c, d, being the four heaps of earth ; e is the position of the 
arked stump ; l f i s the screen of boughs, garreel, a little way 
•ypn<J the goombo. The dotted line is the track leading to the 

.•;,],. of I 

nd 3 is eighty feet t< 
rawings the reader i 

of the Burbung ground 

mi.' I ly digging two saplings out of the 

£ l ""'" tin. has... '['lit? 
inserted perpendicularly in th 
lhey were stain.-l with 'hum.-,,, 
tnem on ceremonial oecasions.- 

I the position 
? were then 

By R. H. Mathews, Licensed Surveyor. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, July 7, 1897.'] 

The first reference to the divisions of Australian tribes of which 
I am aware is contained in the works of Sir George Grey. In 
the years 1837-39, when exploring in Western Australia he found 
that the aborigines there were " divided into certain great families, 
all the members of which bear the same names. . . Each family 
adopts some animal or vegetable as their kobong, as they call it." 
He also noticed that "a man cannot marry a woman of his own 
family name, and the children always take the family name of 
their mother." 1 He was acquainted with the totemic divisions of 
the North American Indians, because he quotes from the Archceo- 
logia Americana, published in 1836, describing the divisions of 

in his investigations respecting similar customs among the abori- 
gines of Australia. Sir George Grey says, " The family names 
are common over a great portion of the western coast, extending 
between four and five hundred miles in latitude." 

The Rev. Wm. Ridley is the next writer on this subject. At 
different times between the years 1853 and 1875 he published the 
results of his enquiries in regard to the divisions of the Kamilaroi 
tribes on the Namoi and other rivers in New South Wales. Like 
most investigators on a new subject, which was moreover a com- 
plicated one, he arrived at some erroneous conclusions at first, but 
on going into the district on subsequent occasions, and pursuing 
his enquiries, he was enabled to correct some of his former im- 
pressions. His last work, published in 1875,* although incomplete 
5 and 228. 

B8. 155 

in certain particulars, gives a tolerably good outline of the divis- 
ions of the tribes of which he treats. 

Sir John Forrest, when he visited the north-west coast of 
Western Australia in 1878, found that the aborigines of Nichol 
Bay were divided into four classes, two of which intermarried with 
the other two, and the children followed the mother's family. 1 

In 1880, Mr. A. W. Howitt and the Rev. L. Fison published 
their joint work " Kamilaroi and Kurnai," in which the last 
named author commented upon the structure of the Kamilaroi 
tribes as laid down by Mr. Ridley, and also added details of 
similar tribal divisions in other parts of Australia. A few years 
later Mr. A. W Howitt contributed two papers to the Anthropo- 
logical Institute on the " Class Systems of Australian Tribes," in 
which he included the Kamilaroi system, and described others of 
the same character, particulars of which had been furnished to 
him by correspondents in different parts of the country. 2 Besides 
the publications referred to, both Mr. Howitt and Mr. Fison have 
done much useful work in regard to some of the customs of the 
Australian aborigines. 

Mr. Edward Palmer, in 1884, 
containing the results of his ow 
Anthropological Institute, in which amongst other native customs, 
he gave particulars of the names of the divisions of several tribes 
on the Kamilaroi basis in New South Wales and Queensland. 3 
Other writers could be referred to, but my object is merely to 
draw the reader's attention to some of the earlier workers in this 

In 1894 I contributed to the Royal Geographical Society of 
Australasia at Brisbane, a paper on the Kamilaroi divisions, in 
*hich I briefly showed how tribes of that type are organised into 

1 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., ix., 356-357; Austsn. Assoc. Adv. Sci., «., 
653 - 654. 

2 Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xn.. 496 - 512: Ibid., xvm., 31 - 70. 

families, groups, and communities, with some remarks on the 
rules of marriage and descent established in relation to these 
divisions. 1 In 1896, this paper was followed by another to the 
Anthropological Society at Washington, U.S.A., in which I gave 
a short outline of the structure of the Wiradjun system of tribal 
divisions and marriage laws, with the intermarriages and descent 
of the totems. 2 In both these papers I pointed out that our 
knowledge of this subject was incomplete and unsatisfactory, and 
drew attention to the necessity for further investigation. 

Since writing the memoirs referred to, I have extended my 
researches, and have gathered additional information among the 
Kamilaroi, the Wiradjuri, and other tribes in different parts of 
New South Wales, which Avill, it is hoped, enable me to place the 
subject of the totemic divisions of these people, with their laws of 
marriage and descent, more fully before the reader than has been 
accomplished hitherto. 

In the present article an attempt is made to dispense with the 
terms " class" and "sub-class," which I have always looked upon 
as misnomers, although in the two former papers I adopted the 
names given to these tribal divisions by Mr. Ridley and the other 
writers who followed his nomenclature. For the names thus 
discarded I have substituted the terms " totemic group " and 
" section," which it is hoped will be considered more appropriate. 
Another innovation which I have introduced is in making the 
name of the totem more important than that of the group or 
section. It is proposed in the following pages to deal first with 
the structure of the Kamilaroi totemic divisions, and then to 
describe the divisions which obtain among the Wiradjuri tribes 
in the Murrumbidgee district. 

The Kamilaroi System. 

At some time in the history of the ancestors of the Kamilaroi 
people, all the members of the community were segregated into 

es. 157 

two groups, 1 but whether this division of the people was adopted 
for the purpose of imposing marriage restrictions is a debatable 
question, the discussion of which is beyond the scope of this short 
article. As every man, woman and child bore the name of an 
animal, or some other natural object, one moiety of the community 
comprising various totems, were grouped together under the 
collective name of Dilbi ; and a corresponding variety of totems 
adopted the distinguishing name of Kupathin. None of the totems 
of the Dilbi group were included in that of the Kupathins, but 
entirely different totems were incorporated in each division. It is 
not necessary that each of the groups should have the same number 
of totems ; and it has also been observed that some particular 
totem name will be borne by a considerable number of people, 
whilst the members of another totem will be numerically few. 

A totem may consist of any animate or inanimate object — as 
animals, plants, the heavenly bodies, the elements, thunder, the 
seasons, etc. Among the Kamilaroi tribes the word signifying 
totem is dheeh. Names selected from the animal kingdom are far 
the most numerous ; next come the names of plants ; and after 
that all the other totems are more or less rare. A man's totem is 
supposed to watch over his welfare, and forewarn him of the 
designs of his enemies. If any of his friends are away in a different 
part of the tribal territory, and sickness or death overtakes them, 
or they meet with a serious accident, his totem appears in sight, 

kangaroo totem told me that when his mother's brother, who was 
absent, died, a large and remarkable kangaroo hopped past his 
camp at great speed. 

Among the group of totems, or dheeh, to which the name Dilbi 
was applied may be mentioned the eaglehawk, black-duck, pada- 
melon, ground iguana, pine-tree, carbeen, bumble, pelican, bower- 

1 I have described the Bora of these tribes in the following Journals : 
Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxiv., 411-427; Ibid., xxv., 318-339; Journ. 
Roy- Soc. N.S.Wales, xxvm., 98-129; Ibid., xxx., 211-213; Proc. 
R >v. Soc. Victoria, tx., N.S , 137-173. 

bird, jack-ass, moon, sun, sandal-wood, bandicoot, locust, crow, 
porcupine, opossum, salt-bush, white cockatoo, pleiades, fish-hawk, 
wood-duck, ants, jew-fish, brown kangaroo, scrub-turkey, water, 
sparrow-hawk, bony fish, white butterfly, pee wee, yellow-bellied 
fish, tibi-bird. The totems belonging to the Kupathin group 
include the following: — emu, native-bee, carpet-snake, red kangaroo, 
codfish, kurria, wallaroo, plain-turkey, bream, common fly, wattle- 
tree, native-companion, gum-tree, box-tree, centipede, brigalow, 
belar, goonhur, death-adder, native-cat, galah-parrot, rainbow, 
swan, jew-lizard, quail, coolaba, reddish butterfly, night owl, 
curlew, black snake, ring-tail opossum, bubbar snake, water mole, 

Each group would provide the other with wives, and would 
theoretically stand in the mutual relationship to each other of 
" brothers-in law." For example, a Dilbi man who married the 
sister of a Kupathin, would be related to the latter as his "sister's 
husband," and the Kupathin man would be related to the Dilbi 
bridegroom as his " wife's brother." Therefore it is evident that 
the Dilbi's are the brothers-in-law of the Kupathins, and the 
Kupathins of the Dilbi group. 

With this filial relationship among a primitive people, there 
might also be some form of regulated sexual promiscuity between 
the members of certain totems in one group with a number of 
totems in another, which would have the effect of rendering the 
paternity of the individuals born in these families more or less 
uncertain. 1 There would, however, be no uncertainty respecting 
a child's maternity, and therefore it would be safe to give it the 
group and totem name of the mother. On the other hand, it is 

l During the Bora ceremonies of these tr 
siderahle sexual license is allowed between 1 
married or single, with the condition that tl 
ticipated in by those persons who would be 
in accordance with the tribal laws. It is 
children would occasionally be born as the 1 
paternity of whom would be uncertain or 
Victoria, ix., N.S., 153; Journ. Anthrop. Inst 

is. 159 

quite reasonable to suppose that the children might be called after 
their mother, because during their infancy and tender years they 
are always with her, and everybody knows they are her children. 
If the old men married young wives, as they do at present, the 
latter would survive them, and consequently have charge of the 
children. Again, the father might be killed in a tribal war, or 
otherwise lose his life, leaving the family to be brought up by the 

Among the Kamilaroi tribes descent is always reckoned on the 
female side, the group and totem names of the father not being 
taken into consideration in this matter. For example, if a Dilbi 
man of a certain totem marries a women who is a Kupathin carpet- 
snake, the children are always Kupathin carpet-snake, the same 
as their mother. The children of the daughters of this marriage 
will also be Kupathin carpet-snake, and so on ad infinitum. The 
same rule applies to all the other Kupathin totems, and likewise 
to all the totems of the Dilbi group— that is, they have perpetual 
succession through the women of their own group. 

It has been stated previously, that the Dilbi and Kupathin 
groups mutually supply each other with wives — the women of 
one group becoming the wives of the men of their own generation 
in the other group. As the children of both sexes take the name 
of their mother's group, as we have just seen, it naturally follows 
that the men of one group are the fathers of the men and women 
of the next generation in the other group, being that from which 
the mothers have been taken. This may be summed up in the 
brief statement, that the Dilbis are the fathers of the Kupathins, 
and vice versa. This paragraph will not, of course, apply to any 
relationship under the family regulations explained farther on. 

The individuals forming the Dilbi and Kupathin groups do not 
collect into certain localities separate from each other, but are 
scattered indiscriminately throughout the whole territory— mem- 
bers of each group, and consequently of the totems also, being 
found in all the local divisions of the tribe. 

In course of time a further segregation of the Kamilaroi 
ancestors took place. The Dilbi group was divided into two 
sections, called Murri and Kubbi, and the Kupathin group into 
two, called Ippai and Kumbo. There appears, however, to be no 
evidence as to whether this subdivision took place simultaneously 
with the separation of the community into two groups, or at a 
later period. The divisions into groups and sections are matters 
which have happened so far back in the past, that the natives of 
the present day have no traditions respecting them. The names 
assigned to the women belonging to these sections are different to 
those borne by the men : the sisters of Murri and Kubbi are 
Matha and Kubbitha respectively, and the sisters of Ippai and 
Kumbo are named Ippatha and Butha. These names will be 
understood more clearly by referring to Table A. This bisection 
of the original groups did not apply to the totems, who continued 
to be designated as Dilbi and Kupathin as before, which seems to 
favour the suggestion stated farther on, that the sectional divisions 
may have been inaugurated for the purpose of a distinctive nomen- 

Under this second bisection of the community a Dilbi man still 
marries a Kupathin woman, but it becomes necessary that she 
shall belong to one of the sections, Ippai or Kumbo ; and the name 
of this section is determined by the section of the Dilbi group to 
which he himself belongs. If he belong to the Kubbi section he 
must marry an Ippatha, but if he is a Murri his wife must be a 
Butha. Similarly, if a Kupathin man wishes to marry, and he is 
an Ippai, he selects a Dilbi woman of the Kubbi section, but if 
he is a Kumbo, he must marry a Matha. 

The descent of the children under this new method of division 
is somewhat modified. If a Kupathin man of the section Kumbo 
marry a Matha eaglehawk, the children will be Dilbi eaglehawk 
the same as before, but they will not be Murris and Mathas like 
their mother. They will take the name of the other section in 
the Dilbi division, and be called Kubbis And Kubbithas. In 
examining the rules of marriage and descent as stated in this and 

the preceding paragraph it becomes apparent that the old law 
already stated still holds good, namely, that the Kupathins are 
the fathers of the Dilbis, and vice versa; and also that the Dilbis 
and Kupathins reciprocally give their sisters to each other for 

It has been shown that Matha is the mother of Kubbitha, and 
vice versa, and it will appear farther on that Murri is the uncle 
of Kubbi. It is therefore possible, that the group Dilbi was 
divided into Matha and Kubbitha to distinguish the mothers from 
the daughters ; and that the terms Murri and Kubbi were adopted 
to provide names for the uncles and nephews of their respective 
generations. These remarks will equally apply to the men and 
women of the Ippai and Kumbo sections. Whatever may have 
been the origin of these divisions into groups and sections, they 
have the effect of preventing consanguineous marriages, by furnish- 
ing an easy test of relationship when the tribe has become so 
numerous or widespread that kinship could not otherwise be well 

Although marriages generally follow the laws above stated, 
there are family regulations to which I referred in my former 
papers on this subject, 1 under which a Dilbi man of a certain 
totemic family may marry a Dilbi woman of a different totem 
belonging to his own section, and a Kupathin man may avail 
himself of the same privilege. These family regulations are so 
widespread that they are found more or less in all the tribes of 
the Kamilaroi, Wiradjuri, and most of the other tribes having 
the Kamilaroi organisation with which I am acquainted. They 
were, perhaps, introduced to meet some inconvenience, arising in 
certain circumstances from the observance of the marriage laws 
already explained ; but whether their adoption preceded or 
followed the division of the groups into sections, or whether they 
were in force before the division into groups took place, is a 
controversial point which need not now be discussed. 


Under the group laws it is impossible for a Dilbi or Kupathin 
man to marry a woman bearing the same totem name as himself, 
for the reason that such a totem does not exist in the division 
from which he is bound to select his wife. But when persons of 
the same group were permitted to marry each other, it became 
necessary to promulgate a law prohibiting marriage between 
individuals belonging to the same totem. All such persons are 
supposed to have sprung from a common ancestor, and to be 
connected by ties of blood. Under no circumstances, for example, 
can a padamelon marry a padamelon because they are considered 
as brother and sister, or else as " mother's brother " and " sister's 
daughter," according to their respective ages in the generation. 
If a Dilbi man wishes to marry a Dilbi woman, he must conform 
to the rules regulating the inter-marriage of certain totems within 
that group. For example, a man of a Murri padamelon family, 
can marry a ground iguana, but she must belong to his own 
section ; that is, she must be a Matha. She cannot be a 
Kubbitha, because that is the section to which Murri's mother 
belongs. The same course would be followed mutatis mutandis, 
in regard to the marriage of a Kubbi, an Ippai, or a Kumbo, with 
a woman within their own respective sections. 

These alliances may for convenience of reference be called 
"family marriages," a few examples of which will be given. 
Among the Dilbi totems who can marry each other may be 
enumerated the following examples : — The padamelon marries the 
ground iguana, or jewfish. The opossum marries the ground 
iguana, bandicoot, or jewfish. The ground iguana marries the 
opossum, padamelon, bony fish, yellow-bellied fish, or bandicoot. 
The jewfish marries the opossum, padamelon, or bandicoot. The 
bandicoot marries the jewfish, opossum, or ground iguana. The 
bony fish marries the ground iguana. The yellow-bellied fish 
marries the ground iguana. 

The undermentioned Kupathin totems are amongst those who 
can intermarry. The emu marries the ring-tail opossum, black- 
snake, wallaroo, native bee, or galah. The bubbar snake marries 

the red kangaroo. The bream marries the black snake, or native 
bee. The codfish marries the galah, red snake, red kangaroo or 
ring-tail opossum. The plain turkey marries the red snake, or 
ring-tail opossum. The black snake marries the bream, or emu. 
The galah marries the codfish or emu. The native bee marries 
the emu or bream. The red kangaroo marries the codfish, or 
bubbar snake. The ring-tail opossum marries the plain turkey, 
eodfish, or emu. The red snake marries the plain turkey, or cod- 
fish. The wallaroo marries the emu. 

Having given a cursory outline of the structure of the Kamilaroi 
totemic system, I will now pass on to illustrate the rules of mar- 
riage, descent, and relationship established in accordance with 
the tribal laws. The names of the divisions, showing how they 
intermarry, with the names of the respective divisions to which 
the children belong, will be readily understood by referring to 
Table A. The names which are affected by what I have called 
the " family regulations," and the descent of the children there- 
under, are printed in italic, immediately under the others. 


A Man | Marries j Children are 

tnd Hatha 
Ippatha I Kumbo and Butha 
Matha Kubbi and Kubbitha 

Butha Ippai and Ippatha 

Butha Ippai and Ippatha 

Matha | Kubbi and Kubbitha 

Ippatha j Kumbo and Butha 

Kubbitha \ Murri and Matha 

An inspection of this table shows the group and section into 
which a man of any given section may marry, together with the 
group and section to which the offspring belong. Taking the 
Dilbi group, it will be observed that Matha's children, no matter 
whether she marry a Kumbo or a Murri, are always Kubbi and 
Kubbitha. Her daughters, these little Kubbithas, on arriving at 
womanhood will marry, but it is immaterial whether their husbands 
are Ippais or Kubbis, their children will be Murris and Mathas. 

164 R. H. MATHEWS. 

The little Mathas will grow up to puberty, and in turn produce 
Kubbis and Kubbithas. It is therefore apparent that the section 
Matha produces Kubbitha, and Kubbitha produces Matha in the 
next generation, and so on continually, hence the group Dilbi has 
perpetual succession through the Dilbi women. Again, if Matha 
be of the totem padamelon, her children will be Kubbi and Kub- 
bitha padamelons; and the little Kubbithas, on arriving at woman- 
hood will likewise have children who will be padamelons, showing 
that the totems are perpetuated in precisely the same manner as 
the group to which they belong. If an Ippatha or a Butha had 
been taken for the above example, it could have been similarly 
demonstrated that the Kupathin group, with the totems attached 
to it, has perpetual succession through the Kupathin women. 

It is obvious that the Dilbi totems are common to the two sections 
Murri and Kubbi, and are independent of the dual naming of the 
group. In other words, a man of the padamelon totem may be a 
Murri or a Kubbi, according to who his mother was, but he is 
always a Dilbi, the name of the group to which his totem is 
attached. For example, the padamelon belongs to Matha in one 
generation, and to her daughter Kubbitha in the next, therefore 
this totem must be common to these two divisions. This applies 
to all the Dilbi totems. In a similar manner it can be shown that 
any Kupathin totem is common to the Ippai and Kumbo sections, 
particulars of which the reader can work out for himself. 

Although as before stated the name and totem of the father is 
not directly considered in naming the children, it is nevertheless 
necessary to show his important position in the genealogy. By 
referring to Table A it will appear that if Murri marry Butha, his 
children are Ippai and Ippatha ; but if he select a Matha as his 
wife, his children will be Kubbi and Kubbitha. We find by 
table A that Ippai and Kubbi are the only men who can marry 
a Kubbitha, and as Murri is the father of these men, as just 
shown, it is evident that he provides husbands for the women 
belonging to the other section in his group. The children of these 
women are the grandsons of Murri, and also belong to his own 

section. The application of this rule to the four divisions can be 
readily understood from the following table : — 



Son's Wife. 

Children of Son's Wife. 


Ippai or Kubbi 
Kumbo or Murri 
Murri or Kumbo 
Kubbi or Ippai 


Murri and Matha 
Kubbi and Kubbitha 
Ippai and Ippatha 
Kumbo and Butha 

It has been stated in an earlier page that under the original 
group division, the Dilbis are "brothers-in-law" to the Kupathins, 
and conversely. This applies to the men of their own level in the 
generation, but on tracing the relationship of these men to the 
children we find that the Dilbi men are the lathers of the 
Kupathin boys, and the Kupathin men are the fathers of the 
Dilbi boys. Both these relationships also hold good under the 
sectional divisions. Murri and Kumbo are related to each other 
as brothers-in-law, and Ippai and Kubbi have the same mutual 
affinity. The Kubbi men are the fathers of the Kumbo boys and 
the Ippai men are the fathers of the Murri boys— this relationship 
being of course reversed in the next generation. (See table A.) 
Although the boys only are mentioned, children of both sexes 

Again, Murri provides wives for the young men belonging to 
the other section in his division. We have seen by Table A. that 
if he marry a Butha, his daughter is Ippatha, and if he marry a 
Matha his daughter is Kubbitha. Ippatha and Kubbitha are the 
women who are eligible for marriage with Kubbi. It is eviden t 
therefore that Murri's daughter becomes the wife of Kubbi, and 
Murri takes the daughter of Kubbi as his wife. In a similar 
manner it can be shown that Ippai marries Kumbo's daughter, 
and Kumbo claims the daughter of Ippai. 

In those cases where a man is allowed to marry a woman within 
his own section, Murri is the father of Kubbi, and so on for the 
men of the other sections, as exemplified in Table A. Accordingly, 
the children of a Dilbi father are Dilbi, and t 

father of Kupathin children. Moreover, a Dilbi man selects a 
Dilbi wife, and a Kupathin marries a Kupathin. It has already 
been stated that a Dilbi woman is the mother of Dilbi children, 
and a Kupathin woman produces Kupathin children. Therefore, 
the group Dilbi is self-supporting, because it contains within 
itself the fathers and mothers — the husbands and wives — of its 
members, and the Kupathin group is exactly in the same position. 
A man's children are not necessarily of the same group and 
section, or of the same totem. If a Kubbi marry two wives, 
which is permissible, one being, for example, Ippatha brigalow 
and the other Kubbitha pine, his children by the former will be 
Kumbo and Butha brigalow, and by the latter they will be Murri 
and Matha pine. In this example, the sons of one of Kubbi's 
wives could marry the daughters of the other, because Kumbo can 
marry Matha, and Murri can marry Butha. In order to prevent 
such a close marriage, however, every tribe has strict social 
customs, founded upon public opinion, which will not tolerate the 
union of a man with a woman whose blood relationship is considered 

A few remarks on the degrees of kinship existing between the 
members of the different divisions will be interesting. A careful 
study of the foregoing pages will show that the pair of sections, 
Murri and Kubbi, are more nearly related to each other than to 
the members of the other pair, Ippai and Kumbo ; and that the 
latter are more closely connected between themselves than with 
the Murri and Kubbi people. The Murri and Kubbi sections are 
related to each other as " mother's brother " and " sister's son," 
according to the generation to which they respectively belong. 
If Murri be the elder, he is "mother's brother" to Kubbi, and the 
latter is his " sister's son " ; but if Kubbi be the elder of the two 
this relationship is reversed. The Ippai and Kumbo sections are 
connected with each other in a precisely analogous manner. The 
importance of this family tie is shown by the fact that if a man be 
killed by an enemy in any way, it is his " sister's son " who is 
charged with the avenging of his death. 

A few examples will serve to illustrate more clearly the relation- 
ship I have been endeavouring to explain. Let us take a man of 
the section Ippai and totem emu. All the young men of his 
generation who belong to the section Ippai and totem emu are 
reckoned his brothers. All the brothers of Ippai emu's mother 
will be Kumbo emus, and will stand in the relationship to him of 
what we call uncle, buc which is expressed in the blackfellows' 
genealogy as "mother's brother." Moreover, these "mother's 
brothers " will look upon Ippai emu as their " sister's son," which 
is known among us as nephew. And when his sister Ippatha 
gets married, he will in turn become the " mother's brother " of 
the Kumbo boys which may be the issue of the marriage, and 
they will be his "sister's sons." All the emus in that locality 
will be Ippais and Kumbos, and will be related to each other 
either as uncles, brothers, or nephews, always remembering to 
attach to these terms the meanings above explained. This may 
be called the totem ic or blood relationship, all the members of 
which are considered of the same blood and descent. 

Again, all the Ippais and Kumbos scattered throughout the 
entire community, although of many different totems, consider 
themselves bound together by the broader ties of group brother- 
hood. Ippai emu, for example, would take a wider view, and look 
upon all Ippais, regardless of their totems, who belong to his own 
generation, as his tribal brothers, and all the elder Kumbos as his 
uncles, whilst he would regard the younger Kumbos as his nephews. 
This may be called the group or tribal relationship. 

In the following examples the totems are omitted in order that 
these remarks may be applicable to any Ippai, and so make the 
relationship tribal instead of the full blood. Ippai's mother's 
tribal brother is a Kumbo, and will marry one of these Kubbithas, 
who would be the daughter of his " mother's brother," or uncle. 
But if Kumbo, instead of marrying a Matha, had married a 
Butha, which he was entitled to do, by the family regulations 
already described, the children would have been Ippai and Ippatha. 

The Ippai whom we have taken as an example could also marry 
one of these Ippathas, who would likewise be the daughter of his 
" mother's brother " — a tribal brother being understood in both 
cases. So that whether Ippai marry a Kubbitha or an Ippatha 
she is a woman who is the daughter of his " mother's brother.'' 
Either of these women would be the cousin of Ippai, bearing in 
mind the wide difference between our meaning of this relationship 
and that of the aboriginal. 

In examining the marriage laws, as stated in earlier pages, it 
is seen that the mother of a man's wife, and also his daughters, 
belong to the same section, and therefore his marriage with that 
section is prohibited. Neither can he marry into the section to 
which his mother belongs, although a woman might be found, in 
either case, who is in no way connected with him. Therefore the 
Ippai of our example cannot marry a Matha, for she is his possible 
daughter, and also because she is the mother, collaterally, of his 
wife Kubbitha. Neither can he marry a Butha, because she is 
his tribal mother, and the mother of his wife Ippatha, and is, 
moreover, his potential daughter by the last mentioned wife. 
(See Table A.) 

The Kamilaroi type of totemic divisions extends over a large 
proportion of New South Wales, but as we should expect among 
tribes at a distance who speak other languages, the names of the 
divisions are different in different tracts of territory. I will 
conclude this part of the paper with a few brief particulars of the 
sectional names of three tribes in the north-eastern portion of the 
colony which have not hitherto been recorded. 

The Anaywan tribe, occupying the New England district 1 have 
a totemic system which is the same in principle as the Kamilaroi, 
but the names of the sections are different, as will be seen by the 
following table : — 

New England Tribes."— Proc. .Roy. Soc. 

Irpoong Irrakedena | Irroong and Patyang 

Marroong ! Patyang j Imboong and Irrakedena 

Irroong Arrakan Irpoong and Matyang 

Imboong I Matyang | Marroong and Arrakan 

Irpoong and Marroong are the equivalents of Murri and Kubbi; 
and Irroong and Imboong correspond to Ippai and Kumbo respeo- 

On the north-east coast there are a number of tribes divided 
into four sections framed after the Kamilaroi type. They occupy 
the country from the Hunter River northerly to the Clarence, 
and extend from the coast inwards almost to the main dividing 
range, where they join the Anaywan people. These tribes 
comprise the people speaking the Wattung, 1 the Dhangatty, the 
Koombanggary, and the Bunjellung languages, with some other 
dialects of less importance. The names of the divisions are as 
follow :— 

A Man 


The Children are 



Wirroong and Wani^an 
Womboong and Wirrakan 
Kurpoong and Kooran 
Marroong and Karragan 

Both in the New England and in the coastal tribes, tabulated 
above, the rules of marriage and descent are precisely the same as 
among the four sections of the Kamilaroi already explained, and 
the intermarriage of certain totems within their own section also 
obtains among these people. 

There is a group of totems common to Kurpoong and Marroong — 
or as they are called on New England, Irpoong and Marroong— 
among which may be enumerated the native bear, flying-fox, 

^ 1 The initiatory rites of these tribes are described in my papers on 
"The Keeparra Ceremony of Initiation."— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxvi., 
320 - 338 ; " The Dhalgai Ceremony."— Ibid., 338 - 340. 

170 R. H. MATHEWS. 

plover, ground iguana, black opossum, emu, bee, native companion,, 
yam, pelican, porcupine, perch. 1 

The Wirroong and Womboong sections — called on New England 
Irroong and Imboong — have the following totems amongst others : 
kangaroo, dingo, jew lizard, turtle, carpet snake, crow, white 
cockatoo, platypus, eaglehawk, locust, death-adder. 

Kurpoong corresponds to Murri, Marroong to Kubbi, Wirroong 
to Ippai, and Womboong is synonymous with Kumbo. In com- 
paring the above totems with those of the Kamilaroi, it is noticed 
that some which belong to the first pair of sections, are found 
inserted in the second pair of the Kamilaroi, and vice versa. I 
specially drew the attention of the blacks to this difference at the 
time I collected the details, but they could not give any explan- 
ation of it. I have before found that certain totems which 
belonged to one section in a certain district, were stated to belong 
to another section among a tribe occupying a different part of the 

Oh the south of the Hunter River, extending thence to the 
Hawkesbury, we find scattered remnants of the Darkinung tribe, 2 
whose territory embraces the country watered by the Colo, Mac- 
donald and Wollombi Rivers, with their numerous tributaries. 
This tribe has uterine descent, and is divided into four sections, 
whose names correspond with those of the Kamilaroi, with the 
exception that Murri is called Bya :J :— 

Butha Ippai and Ippatha 

Ippatha Kumbo and Butha 

Kubbitha Murri and Matha 

Matha Kubbi and Kubbitha 

vers have told me 
3 father, but they 
of their mother. 

ung Tribes " is described by me in Proc. 

3 Bya was also used instead < 
the tribes from Wollombi aim. 
hundred and fifty miles. 

ss. 171 

The undermentioned are some of the totems attached to Bya 
and Kubbi : — scrub opossum, native bee, emu, bandicoot, eagle- 
hawk, stingaree, wallaroo. The pair of sections Ippai and Kumbo 
have the following totems amongst others :— grey kangaroo, 
diamond snake, wombat, black snake, wallaby. Among the inter- 
sectional or family marriages in this tribe, Kubbi bandicoot could 
marry Kubbitha stingaree. 

The Wiradjuri System. 

Some tribes of the Wiradjuri community who occupy a wide 
tract of country on each side of the Murrumbidgee River from 
about Jugiong to Hay, are divided into four sections, the names 
of the men and women composing which are identical with those 
of the Kamilaroi, with the exception that Oombi is substituted 
for Kumbo. The rules of marriage and descent are, however, 
somewhat different, thus :— Murri marries lppatha, and the sons 
and daughters are Kumbos and Buthas ; Kubbi is united to Butha 
and their issue are Ippais and Ippathas ; Ippai takes Matha for 
his wife, and the children are Kubbis and Kubbithas ; Oombi is 
married to Kubbitha, and their offspring are Murris and Mathas 
respectively. 1 

Whilst travelling amongst these people for the purpose of study- 
ing their customs, I discovered a distinctive feature in the rules 
of descent of the totems, 2 which has not been recorded by any 
previous investigator. A mother possessing any given totem 
name produces children whose totem is different to her own. For 
example, lppatha mallee-hen is the mother of Butha common fly. 
In the next generation Butha common fly is the mother of lppatha 
mallee-hen, and so on continually. The children therefore take 
the section and totem name of their mother's mother. As the 

1 The Burbung or initiation ceremonies of the Wiradjuri tribes are 
described by me in the following publications :— Journ. Anthrop. Inst., 
xxv., 295 - 318, plates xxv. - xxvii. ; Ibid., xxvi., 272 - 285. Proc. Roy. 
Geog. Soc. Aust. (Q.), xi., 167 - 169. Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxi., 

2 Among these tribes, the word jin means totem. 

172 B. H. MATHEWS. 

offspring belong to the section Ippai and totem mallee-hei 
generation, and to the section Oorabi and totem comm< 
the next, it necessarily follows that each section must 
own independent group of totems. In other words, a 
group of totems must be known by the general name of Ippai ; 
another group must be called Kumbo ; another group Murri, and 
another Kubbi. This is different to the Kamilaroi type, in which 
a group of totems is common to the pair of sections, Ippai and 
Kumbo, and another group to the Murri and Kubbi pair. 

In the Wiradjuri tribes Murri and Ippai of the same generation 
stand in the mutual affinity to each other of " brothers-in-law, 
and the same relationship subsists between Kubbi and Oombi. 
Murri and Kubbi are connected reciprocally as "mother's brother" 
and "sister's son," — or using our own equivalent names — as uncle 
and nephew, according to their place in the generation to which 
they belong ; and Ippai and Oombi stand in the same mutual 
relationship. The nominal relationship subsisting between a father 
and his family is the same as already described in regard to the 

The totemic regulations to which I referred in dealing with the 
Kamilaroi tribes are also found among these Wiradjuri people, by 

including his own, under certain totemic restrictions, the effect of 
which will be seen on inspection of the following table, which 
shows the intermarriage and descent of four totems belonging to 
each of the four sections. 

The wives allowed by the sectional rules, " Murri marries 
Ippatha," &c, are first given, followed by the women a man is 
permitted to marry under the family regulations before described. 
It is apparent by this table that one totem is always the mother 
of a certain distinct totem bearing a different name. 

The Children a 

( Ippatha eaglehawk Butha grey kangaroo 

I Ippatha opossum Butha goonhur 

i Matha brown snake Kubbitha porcupine 

Kubbitha native bee Matha ground iguana 

Murri red kangaroo J ^ J-J—,, I = ^'J^ 

( Ippatha opossum \ Butha goonhur 
Murri brown snake-' *?P atha ea S lehawk Butha grey kangaroo 
j Matha emu Kubbitha fly. squirrel 

( Kubbitha native bee Matha ground iguana 

Murri ground I Ippatha mallee-hen ' Butha common fly 

iguana • Ippatha jew lizard Butha codfish 

( Butha codfish Ippatha jew lizard 

f Butha goonhur Ippatha opossum 

Kubbi flying ) Butha grey kangaroo Ippatha eaglehawk 

squirrel'} Butha codfish Ippatha jew lizard 

( Kubbitha porcupine Matha brown snake 

/ Butha grey kangaroo Ippatha eaglehawk 

Kubbi bandicoot J !? u ^ a -°^ h " r *PP a ;!; a ?P 08 f. um . 

\ Butha codfish ! Ippatha jew lizard 

\ Kubbitha porcupine Matha brown snake 

( Butha codfish Ippatha jew lizard 

Butha grey kangaroo Ippatha eaglehawk 

Kubbi porcupine J Butha goonhur [rel Ippatha opossum 

| Kulibitha Hyingsquir- Matha emu 

' Matha red kangaroo 

Ippatha mallee-hen 
Butha codfish 
Kubbitha fly. squirrel 

1 kul.l.itha bandicoot 

l Butha common fly 
) Ippatha jew lizard 
J Matha emu 
' Matha brownsnake 

Ippai mallee-hen ) "J** fc T™? 
\ Kubbitha bandicoot 
( Butha codfish 

Matha emu 
Matha red kangaro 
Ippatha jew lizard 

Matha emu Kubbitha fly. squirrel 

I Matha brown snake Kubbitha porcupine 
I Matha red kangaroo Kubbitha bandicoot 

[ Ippatha eaglehawk ; Butha grey kangaroo 

/ Matha emu j Kubbitha fly. squirrel 

J Matha brown snake Kubbitha porcupine 

\ Matha red kangaroo Kubbitha bandicoot 

( Ippatha opossum j Butha goonhur 

fly— Kubbitha native bee 

Butha grey kangaroo 

! Kubbitha porcupine 

Ippatha mallee-hen 
I Butha goonhur 

[ Kubbitha porcupine 

Kubbitha fly. squirrel 
( Kubbitha bandicoot 

Matha red kangaroo 
Matha emu 
Matha brown snake 
Ippatha eaglehawk 

Matha red kangaroo 
Matha brown snake 
Butha common fly 
Ippatha opossum 

Matha emu 

Matha red kangaroo 

The use of this table will be better understood by giving an 
example. Let us take a man of the section Ippai, and totem 
opossum. According to the sectional marriage laws already stated, 
the wife of an Ippai of any totem should always be a Matha j but 
owing to the family regulations previously explained, he is 
permitted to marry certain Ippathas provided there are no 
disabilities arising out of nearness of kin. Moreover, in either 

section name. Persons of the same totem may not n 
have sexual intercourse with one another; and further, 

A careful study of the table will enable us to determine what 
woman any given man may marry, as well as the section and 
totem names of his children ; but of course before we can do this 
it must be necessary to know the section and totem names of the 
woman he selects as his wife. Assuming that the Ippai of our 
example wishes to marry, it is found by Table B. that he has the 
choice between, (1) Matha emu; (2) Matha brownsnake ; (3) 
Matha red kangaroo ; and (4) Ippatha eagle-hawk. If he marries 
No. 1, Matha emu, a reference to the table will show that the 
children will be Kubbi and Kubbitha flying-squirrel ; if he chooses 
No. 2. the offspring will be Kubbi and Kubbitha porcupine ; if 
he selects No. 3 the children will be Kubbi and Kubbitha 
bandicoot ; and, if he marries No. 4 the issue will be Oombi and 
Butha grey kangaroo. 

In these tribes a ma 
his wives belong to dif 
vary the names of his offspring. There would, in such a case, be 
sons and daughters of the same household who would belong to 
different totems, as well as to different sections. The children of 
a Matha are always Kubbi and Kubbitha ; those of Kubbitha 
are Murri and Matha ; those of Ippatha are Oombi and Butha ; 
and the children of Butha are always Ippai and Ippatha. There 
is matriarchal descent, and in all cases the children take the totem 
name of their mother's mother. 

The rules of marriage and descent set out in Table B. applies 
more particularly to the Wiradjuri tribes on the upper portion of 
the Murrumbidgee River, and as we go down that stream we find 
that the pecularity of one totem being the mother of a different 
one is less marked ; and on going north to the Lachlan, Bogan, 
Macquarie, and Castlereagh Rivers, it is observed that the totems 
have the same descent as in the Kamilaroi tribes— that is, each 
totem produces itself. It may be stated here that the Wiradjuri 

dialect is the most widely spread of all aboriginal tongues in New 
South Wales. 

Owing to the gradual disappearance of the aborigines before 
the white population and the consequent extinction of many of 
the totems, it is now difficult to find a native who can remember 
all the totem names, and he will be rather doubtful in regard to 
those with which he has never had any connection. Although I 
have exercised all possible care in trying to get reliable details 
respecting the intermarriage of the totems given in the tables 
and also in regard to the lists of totems attached to the groups, 
it is possible that some mistakes may have been made ; but 
even if such should be found to be the case, it cannot alter 
the general principles on which the rules of marriage and descent 

I wish to express my thanks to Miss Baker, daughter of Mr. 
W. T. Baker, Inspector of Police at Kempsey— whom I met when 
following up my investigations respecting the customs of the 
aborigines on the Macleay River some years ago — for her labours 
in gathering further particulars of their totemic laws, and also in 
defining the boundaries within which certain dialects were spoken. 

Before preparing this article I requested Mr. Chas. A. Brewster 
a Police Trooper at Mungindi, on the Barwon River, to check a 
list of Kamilaroi totems tabulated by myself in that district a few 
years back. I also asked him to gather such additional examples 
of irregular or family marriages as he might consider trustworthy; 
place on record the promptitude and care with 
lifficult subject. 

In this article I have endeavored not to vitiate my descriptions 
of the tribal divisions by the incorporation of inferences derived 
from mere conjecture, but have left the formation of theories, 
and all controversial points, respecting this subject, until further 
particulars have been collected over a wider field. I shall feel 
myself sufficiently repaid for my exertions if I should be fortunate 
enough to induce a student here and there to continue the work 
of investigating and describing the totemic systems of different 
tribes in various parts of Australia. 


and on a Product allied to AROMADENDRIN. 
By Henry G. Smith, f.c.s., Technological Museum, Sydney. 
[Read before the Royal Society ofN.S. Wales, August 4, 1897.] 
During the latter part of January 1897, I found at Belmore, 
near Sydney, several substances exuding from the bark of trees of 
the Grey Gum, Eucalyptus punctata, DC. The appearance of the 
large white patches of exudation was occasionally so marked that 
the trees looked as if they had been whitewashed. Closer examin- 
ation shewed that a considerable inroad into the bark had been 
made, apparently by the larvae of insects ; from the injuries thus 
caused, a quantity of the several substances about to be described 
was found. The white material was composed of a substance 
sweetish in taste ; the thicker portions somewhat resembled the 
■well known Eucalyptus manna. When exuding it must have 
been liquid as it had run down the tree; in some instances for a 
considerable distance, and from continued coatings good sized 

the same time, was obtained a more abundant exudation, also 
sweetish, much darker in colour, and which when flowing must 
have been even more liquid than the white substance ; in some 
instances this had run down the trunks of the trees for seven or 
eight feet to the ground, and tears of a considerable thickness 
had accumulated in places. I succeeded in obtaining about six 
ounces of the more abundant darker material, as free as possible 
from bark and debris, the fine particles of wood and (writ with 
which the exudation was more or less contaminated, were produced 
l>y the larva of an insect. 

exuding, were seen a great number of large &nts ( Campoiwtus up.) 

packed so closely that hardly any space separated them ; they 
were feeding on the liquid as it exuded from the hole in the bark. 
In no instance were the ants eating the darker exudation, nor 
did they appear to be partial to the white when it had solidified, 
only one or two stray ones being near it when in that condition. 
The darker substance contains both tannic acid and eudesmin, 
which I presume is the reason why it is objectionable to them. 
The punctures or bores into the bark were often small, and 
appeared to be directly inwards towards the centre of the tree. 
From the same tree from which both the white and dark saccharine 
materials were obtained, some pure kino was also found exuding 
at the same time. It is remarkable that three substances differ- 
ing so much in composition, should be exuding from the one tree 
at the same time, and I set myself the task of attempting to 
solve the problem. From the specimens taken from the trees, 
it will be seen that :— 

(a) When the puncture has not penetrated entirely through the 

bark and a flow is set up, the exudation is quite white and 
consists largely of raffinose (melitose). 

(b) When the puncture has just penetrated through the bark 

the exudation is contaminated with tannic acid and eudes- 
min, showing that eudesmin is present in the cells of the 

(c) Also, that when the puncture or boring of the larva has 

continued into the wood of the tree, pure kino is produced, 
providing the sugary sap of the bark is not exuding at 
the same time. 
This indicates that the kino is not obtained from the bark 
directly, but from the wood of the tree, and that the sap of the 
bark of this tree does not contain tannic acid, but consists prin- 
cipally of the sugar raffinose (melitose). Although tannic acid 
could not be detected in the white manna, yet, when the bark 
was boiled in water, a small quantity of tannic acid was found in 
the solution. In all instances it was seen that, whenever kino 
was exuding, it was coming directly from the wood of the tree 

through an opening in the bark. It is well known that in some 
of our Eucalyptus timbers objectionable portions are found, known 
as "gum veins"; these are usually seen following the annular 
rings, and are more or less distinct and symmetrical. 

Now, why is it that there is no record of manna being obtained 
from any of the Eucalypts belonging to the Eenantherce ? The 
kinos of this class of Eucalypts, as far as examined (always 
excepting E. microcorys), and I have examined most of them, all 
give a kino entirely free from either eudesmin or aromadendrin, 
and it appears that it is only those trees that can produce manna, 1 
the kinos of which contain one or the other of these bodies. This 
fact is far reaching, and is being followed up as the results may 
be of some commercial importance. 

A product allied to aromadendrin. 

Although our knowledge is fairly complete as to the constituents 
of the exudations or kinos of the Renantherse, yet, our information 
concerning the occurrence of eudesmin, aromadendrin, or like 
bodies in other portions of the trees belonging to this group, is 
somewhat meagre. Of the Eucalypts belonging to the Renanthene 
I can speak definitely as yet only of E. macrorhyncha. I have 
found that the yellowish crystalline substance existing in fairly 
large quantities in the leaves oiE. macrorhyncha, is in some respects 
allied to aromadendrin obtained from some Eucalyptus kinos, and 
more directly to the group of natural colouring or dyeing substances 
to which quercetin and morin belong. That a yellow colouring 
matter existed in the leaves of E. macrorhyncha was known as 
long ago as 1887, it being announced by Mr. J. H. Maiden to 
this Society during that year. 2 

At that time I interested myself in the preparation of a pigment 
from it, and obtained a yellow-lake of some promise. A water 
colour was obtained by precipitating an alkaline solution with 
baric hydrate, drying the precipitate and -rinding it with gum- 

water. I submitted this pigment, thus crudely prepared, to Mr. 
Fletcher Watson, a well known Sydney artist, who painted a 
sketch, the base colour of most of the tones being this yellow- 
lake. The sketch he kindly presented to me, the colours are 
still quite fresh and bright and apparently unfaded. He was very 
pleased with the colour, often spoke to me about it, and in a letter 
to me on Nov. 18th, 1887, expressed himself as follows :— « I con- 
sider that when properly prepared it will be a most valuable 
pigment and supply a yellow long wanted by water colour artists, 
capable of producing a range of clear sober greens at present with 
difficulty obtained." Acting on Mr. Watson's advice I prepared 
some oil colour and submitted it to Mr. Samuel Brooks, who had 
a studio in Wentworth Court. He wrote as follows : — " The 
colour you submitted to me is a charming and very pure yellow. 
The absence of any tinge of red — so fatal to most yellows— is 

well with any colour and many fine combinations can be produced 
with it." 

My investigations' on aromadendrin, and on its dyeing properties, 
submitted to the Society of Chemical Industry (Nov. 1896) and 
the subsequent determination of its probable affinity to maclurin 
or morin, suggested to me by Mr. A. G. Perkin of Leeds, again 
directed my attention to the colouring substance contained in the 
leaves of this tree (E. macrorhyncha ). This is obtained by boiling 
the dried and powdered leaves in a large quantity of water several 
times repeated, boiling for a long time and filtering through calico; 
on cooling a yellowish crystalline precipitate separates out. This 
is contaminated with a small quantity of inorganic salts, principally 
the alkalis, which combine with the substance as it crystallises 
out. By repeated crystallisation from water and alcohol the 
greater portion of the inorganic salts are removed, but it does not 
appear possible to obtain the substance absolutely pure by ordinary 
recrystallisation. When again dissolved in boiling water, filtering 
and cooling, it is obtained in yellowish microscopic hair-like 
1 Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxx, p. 135, 1896. 

REY GUM. 181 

crystals exactly like aromadendrin in this respect. By decompos- 
ing with water the crystalline compound formed by hydrobromic 
acid in boiling acetic acid, the substance is obtained in a pure 
state and quite free from inorganic salts. 

I have already obtained data in regard to this colouring matter 
which enable me to state that this substance gives every indication 
of being a valuable dyeing material, and probably belongs to the 
quercetin group of natural dyeing substances. It forms yellowish 
to slightly orange crystalline compounds in boiling acetic acid 
with mineral acids ; alkalis dissolve it with a yellow to orange 
colour; nitric acid dissolves it very energetically to a bright 
crimson colour, aromadendrin becoming crimson only after a short 
time with this reagent : in alcoholic solution ferric chloride gives 
an olive-brown colour not altered by heating : the lead precipitate 
in alcoholic solution is yellowish to orange : it is almost insoluble 
in cold water and not very readily in boiling water : it is soluble 
in a small quantity of boiling alcohol, not readily in cold alcohol : 
it is practically insoluble in cold ether, and only slightly soluble 
in boiling ether, and it does not appear possible to remove it from 
an aqueous solution by ether; it differs in this respect from aroma- 
dendrin which is readily and entirely removed from aqueous solu- 
tion by ether : it dyes alumina mordanted calico a bright yellow : 
when heated in fused alkali to 200° C. for half an hour the pro- 
ducts of decomposition are found to be protocatechuic acid and 

Many of these reactions are those of quercetin itself, and from 
the above results, particularly its forming crystalline compounds 
with mineral acids in acetic acid, and its dyeing properties, there 
appears little doubt but that this yellow substance is allied to 
quercetin. This product has perhaps great commercial possibilities 
because the raw material can be obtained in any quantity, and is 
at present unutilized, and being in the form of leaves, can be 
readily dried and powdered, and the dyeing material can be easily 
separated if required, so that tannin bodies need not interfere in 
any way. E. niacrorhyncha is found over a large portion of the 

colony, and it is probable that this species is not the only 
one in which this yellow substance exists. As my work on the 
Eucalypts proceeds, it appears that although well marked indi- 
vidual substances continually present themselves, yet, I have little 
doubt but that some system will be found to run through the 
whole of them. That there are characteristic chemical groups 
has long been known, but although aromadendrin, for instance, 
does not appear to exist as such in those trees belonging to the 
Renantherae, yet this yellow substance and aromadendrin resemble 
each other very much in some respects. The similarity of the fine 
hair-like crystals from both these bodies when obtained from 
boiling water is most marked, yet no difference whatever between 
them can be detected under the microscope ; they both give 
similar products of decomposition in fused alkali ; their reactions 
with reagents are similar ; their dyeing properties are also similar, 
but aromadendrin does not give crystalline compounds with mineral 
acids in boiling acetic acid, and thus according to the researches 
of Mr. A. G. Perkin, 1 does not belong to the quercetin group, as 
that reaction appears to be characteristic of the group of the 
natural non-nitrogenous yellow mordant dye-stuffs at present 
known to exist, of which quercetin forms the type. 

I purpose naming this yellow crystalline substance obtained 
from these leaves Myrticolorin, as I think it is the first natural 
dye-stuff from our colonial Myrtacea? which promises to have a 
commercial future. 

1. The Saccharine Exudations. 
From the results of this research we may consider that the 
white saccharine exudation from E. punctata is almost identical 
in composition with the ordinary and well known Eucalyptus 
manna, and may be considered representative of the material on 
which the whole of the previous investigations have been carried 
out. It consists very largely of the sugar raflinose or melitose, 
and also contains a small quantity of reducing sugars, its solution 
1 Journ. Chem. Soc., 1896, p. 1439 &c. 

REY GUM. 183 

reducing an alkaline copper solution more readily than the ordinary 
white Eucalyptus manna from E. viminalis, etc. The only 
mention that I can find of manna from this tree, is, that the Rev. 
Dr. Woolls noticed that occasionally melitose manna dropped 
from E. punctata} 

Previous work on Melitose and Raffinose. 
Attention was called to the peculiar saccharine substance 
obtained from Eucalyptus viminalis, and known as "manna," by 
Thomson- early in this century, and by Virey 3 in 1832. In 1843 
Johnston 4 chemically examined this manna, and distinguished it 
from the Ornus-manna or manna of commerce. In 1855 it was 
further examined by Berthelot, 5 who named the sugar it contained 
" melitose," and who found that its aqueous solution was dextro- 
rotatory, and that when heated with dilute sulphuric acid it was 
altered into two sugars, one of which was fermentable, while the 
other was not; to this latter he gave the name of "eucalyn" with 
the formula C 6 H 12 H - It was not until 1884 that the sugar 
melitose (raffinose) was found existing in any other substance 
except the manna from the Eucalypts of Australia, although 
Loiseau 6 had discovered a sugar in 1876 in molasses to which he 
gave the name of "raffinose." Melitose (raffinose) was then found 
by H. Ritthausen 7 to exist in the residues from pressed cotton 
seeds. In 1885 B. Tollens 8 described a sugar which he had 
obtained from molasses, and then indicates that raffinose and 
melitose may be identical, although he was not satisfied on the 
point at that time, but expresses a doubt whether his sugar and 
the raffinose prepared by Loiseau from molasses were identical. 
In 1885 H. Ritthausen with others 9 again further describe the 
sugar from cotton-seed cake and prove it identical with "plus- 
sugar" from molasses, and also with Bohm's "gossypore," 10 and 

1 Eucalyptographia, art. E. viminalis. 

2 Organic Chemistry, Vegetables, 642. 3 Jburn. de Pharm. [2] 18, 705. 
4 Mem. of the Chem. Soc. i., 159. 5 Compt. Rend, xli , 392. 

6 Compt. Rend. lxxxii., 1058. T Journ. Prakt. Chem. [21 xxix., 351. 
8 Ber. 1885, p. 26. 9 Bied. Centr. xrv., 132. 
*• Journ. Prakt. Chem. [2] xxx., 37. 

184 H. G. SMITH. 

Loiseau's "raffinose." The identity of raffinose with plus-sugar 
and gossypore was confirmed by C. Scheibler, 1 who points out 
some of the causes whereby different results had been obtained by 
different observers when working on like material. The presence 
of raffinose was afterwards determined in barley by C. O'Sulliv.'ur 
who confirmed the formula previously given by Loiseau as 
C 18 H 32 16 + 5 H 2 0, and gives the specific rotation as [a] j + 135. 
P. Rischbieth and B. Tollens 3 here undertook the careful investi- 
gation of the properties of raffinose from both molasses and cotton 
seed, confirmed their identity, and also made full researches into 
the composition of raffinose. While agreeing in the main with 
the formula given by Loiseau, yet, they suggest that the results 
would agree better if the molecule was doubled, or that the formula 
be C :w H M 3i + 10 H 2 0. B. Tollens also makes at this time, a careful 
investigation of about 22 gnuns of Km-alyptus manna forwarded 
by Baron von Mueller. He obtained 10^ grams of perfectly 
purified melitose (raffinose) from this, and he found the percentage 
of water to be 14-67 and the specific rotation [a]„ + 104-00- 
104-44 at 20 = C. He then states that the identity of raffinose 
and melitose is thus proved, and that the older name "melitose" 
may now be applied to the sugar from all these sources. We 
have thus arrived at the stage when "raffinose" and "melitose" 
cease to exist as different sugars, and although by priority the 
term melitose is entitled to endure, yet, we find that it has been 
superseded by the more recent one of raffinose. 4 I have not been 
able to obtain access to all the papers referred to, but copious 
extracts are to be found distributed through the pages of the 
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. 


The amount of white exudation or manna, from E. punctata at 

my disposal was small, and as it was required for permanent 

exhibition in the Museum, I did not consider that an exhaustire 

• Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry, Morley and Muir, i 

investigation was needed, as it differs but little from the Eucalyptus 
manna already worked out. The principal sugar was found to be 
identical in both the white and dark exudations, and as the latter 
was a compound of substances, its investigation might, I thought, 

on these exudations from E. punctata, nor on like material to this 
dark exudation from any of the Eucalypts. 

After preliminary tests as to the best method of proceeding I 
adopted the following: — The material was heated with 80% alcohol, 
the whole of the sugary portions were thus dissolved with other 
substances. A rather large quantity of debris was left on filter- 
ing, consisting of fragments of bark and wood, indicating that 
portions of the bark had been eaten. The filtrate was evaporated 
to a pasty consistence, and absolute alcohol added. A whitish 
gelatinous precipitate was thus obtained ; the very dark filtrate 
was set aside for further investigation, and the precipitate pressed, 
boiled in and washed with fresh alcohol. The precipitate was 
then dissolved in alcohol sufficiently dilute to dissolve the pasty 
mass, and set aside to crystallise. It took some days before 
crystals commenced to form, when they appeared in small nodular 

quite granular. These crystals were washed with strong alcohol, 
filtered, dried on a porous slab, repeatedly crystallised and treated 
in the same way until the dilute alcohol ceased to be appreciably 
coloured when the crystals were redissolved in it. They were 
finally dissolved in water, alumina added, filtered, evaporated 
down at low heat on water-bath and allowed to crystallise, the 
liquid being perfectly clear and colourless. If sufficiently recrys- 
tallised from dilute alcohol, and the crystals drained on the slab 
repeatedly, the rafhnose thus prepared, when crystallised from 
"water, does not reduce Fehling's solution to any degree on boiling 
before being inverted. Although it was difficult to obtain the 
crystals when the solution was so impure, the sugar often taking 
days to crystallise, yet, as the crystals became purer they were 
obtained much more rapidly. The material thus obtained was 

perfectly white, and crystallised in globular masses of radi 
crystals, always taking that form when crystallised | from wa 

The determination of the water of crystallisation was found 
to be of some importance as by heating at different temperatures 
the results did not always agree. When heated to 95° 0. until 
constant, 14-53 per cent, of water was driven off, (mean of two 
determinations), but when heated to 100° C. (the loss remained 
constant at near 15-1 per cent., four determinations on different 
material giving 1513, 15093, 15091, 15-11); this is very near the 
theoretical amount required by the recognised formula for raffinose 
viz., C 18 H ; , 2 16 + 5 H 2 which requires 15-15 per cent, of water. 
On raising the temperature to the melting point (118° 0.) the 
weight still remained the same. By 

alteration had taken place, as Fehling's solution was slightly 
reduced on heating, although the same sugar did not Ho so before 
it was melted ; on continuing the heating at the same temperature 
the alteration of the sugar becomes more pronounced. It appears 
therefore, that the sugar required to be heated to 100° C. to 
satisfactorily remove the whole of the water of crystallisation, 
and that it is not necessary to heat beyond that temperature. 
The different formula? that have been assigned to raffinose or 
melitose by different chemists are to a certain extent partly trace- 
able to the different percentage results of the water of crystallis- 
ation obtained by them. Ritthausen found but 13-64 per cent, 
of water and judged the formula to be C 12 H 22 O n + 3 H 2 0, whilst 
Loiseau obtained 15 per cent., or corresponding to the formula 
C 18 H 32 16 + 5 H 2 which is the present one given to this sugar. 
Berthelot 1 found that when crystallised from dilute alcohol the 
sugar could be obtained containing six molecules of water. 
Scheibler 2 has pointed out these difficulties and advises that the 
sugar be dried partly over sulphuric acid and completely on the 
water-bath. I found no difficulty in obtaining concordant results 
when the sugar was heated in the air bath at 98 - 100° C. until 
constant, reaching that temperature by slow degrees. 

An aqueous solution of the pure sugar prepared as previously 
described, was found to be strongly dextro-rotatory and the specific 
rotation for a ten per cent, solution at a temperature of 20° C. 
was found to be [a] D + 104-25. 

The melting point of the sugar also required to be carefully 
determined. When tested in a tube closed at the end, and heated 
ln a liquid, the sugar from which the water of crystallisation had 
not been removed melted at 80° C. When slowly heated in the air 
bath the water is removed at 100° O., and on slowly raising the 
temperature the sugar melts at 118° G. (uncorrected). If the 
mercury rises too rapidly the melting point is irregular. When 

1 Compt. Read, cix., 548. 2 Ber. loc. cit. 

188 H. G. SMITH. 

heated with nitric acid, mucic and oxalic acids were formed. When 
heated with dilute acids, reducing sugars were formed, only part 
of which were fermentable with beer-yeast when the temperature 
was well below 20° C. When treated with beer-yeast the sugar 
slowly fermented, and the tempez-ature being kept between 20° 
and 30° C. the whole was destroyed after some days. 

From the above result it appears certain that the sugar exist- 
ing in the bark sap of E. punctata is raffinose, and is identical 
with the raffinose obtained from beetroot, and that it differs in no 
respect from that obtained from other Eucalypts. 

I am indebted to Mr. T. Steel, f.c.s., of the Colonial Sugar 
Refining Company, for kindly revising the portion of this paper 
relating to the sugars, and also for some pure raffinose from 
beetroot. In its character and reactions it differs in no respect 
from that obtained from the exudation of E. punctata in its 
different melting points under different conditions, its percentage 
of waterof crystallisation, its rotatory power, the form of the 
crystals, its reactions with acids, and also with yeast. 
Determination of the uncrystallisable sugars. 

The extremely dark coloured solution, being that portion first 
removed from the precipitated raffinose when absolute alcohol was 
added, as previously described, contained tannic acid, eudesmin, 
and some sugars. After concentration it was dissolved in water, 
and the eudesmin removed by agitating the aqueous solution with 
ether. After removal of the ethereal solution, the remainder was 
evaporated down, water added, and the solution placed with some 
well washed hide-powder, well agitated until the tannins and 
colouring matters (which belong to the tannins) were removed, 
this being completed as rapidly as possible. The hide powder was 
squeezed in calico and the liquid filtered through paper; the 
solution being then but slightly coloured, was found to be dextro- 
rotatory, and reduced Fehling's solution copiously, indicating that 
dextro-rotatory reducing sugars were present. When evaporated 
down it formed a sweet syrup, showing no signs of crystallisation. 

SEY GUM. 189 

After long evaporation on the water bath, under boiling, it was 
still a thick syrup and was hygroscopic ; constant weight was 
obtained, however, by long heating when the loss was found to be 
101 6 per cent. When heated at a higher temperature, the sugars 
slowly decompose, becoming very dark, and the caramel odour most 
pronounced, the loss when heating for half an hour at 130° C. on 
•4 gram sugars being about -01 gram for eacli of six determinations, 
the decomposition thus proceeding at an uniform rate. 

When fresh beer-yeast was added to a solution of this syrup, 
fermentation set up at once and proceeded rapidly. After the 
fermentation had ceased, the solution was found to still contain a 
sugar that appeared to be unfermentable while the temperature 
was about 16 J to 18° C, and the solution of which was dextro- 
rotatory, and that reduced Fehling's solution. 

A quantitative determination of these sugars was then made 
with the following result : — -231 gram of the dried sugars (allow- 
ing 10-16 as the percentage of water), evolved -0667 gram CO., or 
equivalent to -1364 gram of fermentable sugar considered as 
glucose, thus leaving -0946 gram of an unfermentable sugar 
at the temperature used : or, decomposed 59 per cent, and un- 
decomposed 41 per cent. By the method of precipitation used, it 
is to be supposed that a small proportion of raffinose might be 
present, which would partly ferment, and thus prevent a correct 
quantitative result being obtained ; but I think we may assume 
that the experiment shows these sugars to be present in about 
equal proportions, indicating that natural alteration of the 
raffinose had taken place corresponding to that undergone by this 
sugar when treated with dilute acids. It was not thought desir- 
able to adopt chemical precipitation, so that alteration could not 
arise from that source. 

The whole of the remaining sugars 1 had obtained were then 
treated with yeast, so that the decomposable sugar might be 
removed by fermentation. The remaining sugar that was unfer- 
mentable at the temperature used, was then carefully prepared for 

the polarimeter, the rotatory angle taken, the solution evaporated 
down and allowed to absorb moisture to constant weight. From 
these results the specific rotation was found to be [a] D + 53-82. 
This sugar was a thick sweetish syrup and reduced Fehling's 
solution. Eucalyn is described as a syrup containing one molecule 
of water, and, according to Dragendorff, has a dextro-rotatory 
power of [a] T 65°. This sugar, therefore, obtained from this 
exudation, may be considered to be that previously obtained from 
Eucalyptus manna by inverting the melitose (raffinose) with dilute 
acids, and that was considered to be unfermentable, and to which 
Berthelot gave the name of Eucalyn. 

According to 0. Seheibler and H. Mittelmeier, 1 who have carried 
out researches on the inversion products of raffinose (or, as the 
authors name it melitriose) find that the inversion of this sugar 
by means of dilute acids takes place in two stages, in the first of 
which levulose and melibiose are produced, and that melibiose is 
the sugar previously known as eucalyn. The authors find that 
invertin acts upon their melitriose (raffinose) in a similar manner 
to dilute acids ; melibiose and levulose are first formed, the former 
being further converted by prolonged treatment with invertin into 
galactose and dextrose. Loiseau' 2 found that raffinose was com- 
pletely fermented by the action of yeast, and Berthelot 1 also 
arrived at the same conclusion. 

The action of beer-yeast on the uncrystallisable sugars from 
E. punctata ceased before forty-eight hours, no further action 
taking place during the lapse of a week, the temperature during 
most of that time being under 20° C. The eucalyn (melibiose) 
thus freed from the other sugars was separated, evaporated down, 
dissolved in water and some very active beer-yeast added; it was 
found that it slowly but entirely fermented under these conditions; 
the temperature requires to be above 20° C. the action appearing 
to entirely cease when it was as low as 18" C, but commenced 
again when increased to above 20° C. We thus see that the 

i Ber. xxii., 1678 and 3118. * Compt. Rend, cix., 614. 3 Loc, cit. 


whole of the sugars in this exudation are fermentable under certain 
conditions, and it appears that the natural alteration of raffinose 
is exactly the same as when artificially treated. 

Ordinary Eucalyptus manna, as usually seen, is in small white 
opaque lumps. When in solution it reduces, to a small extent, an 
alkaline copper solution when heated, but when treated with acids 
a large quantity of reducing sugars are at once formed. As we 
have seen that tannic acid does not appear to exist in the sap 
circulating through the bark of E. punctata, and as other acids 
are absent in this manna, we naturally expect to find the product 
fairly pure. Ordinary Eucalyptus manna is probably derived 
from punctures in the bark that have not penetrated into the cells 
of the tree containing tannic acid. In the darker saccharine 
exudation from E. punctata we find that tannic acid is present, 
and this probably accounts for the presence of the reducing sugars, 
these being derived from the crystallisable sugar by inversion, 
brought about probably by the presence of the tannic acid. The 
tannins of the Eucalypts tend to rapidly form anhydrides ; that 
such are present in this darker exudation is indicated by the dark 
colour of the material, and the fact of its removal from the solution 
by hide-powder. The question arises, can we account for the 
presence of these sugars in this exudation, to the formation of 
anhydrides of the tannins by elimination of the molecules of 

The darker saccharine exudation from E. punctata, therefore, 
contains : — 

Raffinose (melitose) 

Tannic acid and anhydrides. 


Eucalyn (melibiose) 

And an easily fermentable reducing sugar. 

As levulose has been stated to be one of the products of the 

inversion of raffinose, it would be interesting to determine 

definitely whether that sugar is really present in the natural 

exudation from E. punctata, and next season if sufficient material 

entirely from the trees, so that they can only be obtained in 
quantity after a period of hot, dry, weather. 

2. The Astringent Exudation. 

This exudation or kino was found to belong to the " turbid 
group " of Eucalyptus kinos, and the crystallisable substance con- 
tained in it was determined by the method previously adopted for 
the extraction of these new bodies from Eucalyptus kinos. 1 The 
ethereal solution when distilled as much as possible to dryness, 
did not deposit crystals, and when the residue was dissolved in 
absolute alcohol it was with great difficulty that crystals were 
obtained, the alcoholic solution standing some days before the 
substance crystallised out. But the crystals when obtained were 
large and well developed, being rhombic prisms with basal plane 
terminations. Although the forum!;;' -iveu for eudesmin 2 were 
obtained from microscopic crystals, yet, now that macroscopic 
crystals have been obtained, the only addition is the O P plane to 
those previously given. The faces of the brachypinakoids are but 
slightly developed and are often entirely absent ; minute faces of 
the niacrodome are seen on most of the crystals. The prismatic 
angles are almost identically 110° and 70°. The crystals thus 
obtained are from f> - mm. in length. The accompanying 
photograph shows them the natural size. :! 

The colour reactions, melting point, and other physical charac- 
teristics determine these crystals to be " eudesmin." 

Aromadendrin could not be detected in this kino, so that now 
we are able to divide the "turbid group" of kinos into three 
sub-groups, based on a chemical classification, viz.: — (a) those that 
contain aromadendrin alone, of which E. calophylla is a represen- 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1895, p. 32, and Journ. Soc. Oheui. last. 
November, 1896. 

2 Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1895, p. 33. 

3 I am indebted to Mr. Connelly of the Technological Museum for this 
photograph and also for the previous one of raffinose. 

tative; (o) those thi 

is a type; and (c) those ( 
of which E. hemiphloia 
that from my present knowledge, it appears to me that the 
presence or absence of these bodies (eudesmin and aromadendrin) 
in the kinos of the Eucalypts, will eventually be found to have a 
direct bearing upon the commercial value of their products in 
more ways than one. I look forward to the time when a few 
chemical tests of certain parts of the tree, t6gether with examin- 
ation of the anthers, cellular and other portions, will suffice for a 
decision as to the possibilities and products of the tree, and indicate 
with some certainty what the constituents of the various products 
will be. My colleague Mr. R. T. Baker, f.l.s., to whom I am 
greatly indebted for much botanical assistance in this present 
research, is working at this side of the question. 

Besides the eudesmin, the kino of E. punctata contains tannic 
acid and its derivatives, all of which are absorbed by hide powder, 
no other constituent being detected. They were, therefore, 
^'termined by this method after removing eudesmin. 

The eudesmin was removed from an aqueous solution of the kino 

by agitating with ether, separating this, evaporating the ether, 

and weighing. The following is the percentage analysis of this kino 

Tannic acid and its derivatives = 66-05 

Eudesmin 4-45 

Moisture ... ... ... ... 16-20 

Ash 0-72 

Debris, (or residue) wood, bark, etc. 12-36 

The residue from the first solution of the saccharine exudation 
consisted largely of debris, wood, bark, etc., this was boiled with 
water, a small quantity of gum was obtained, also a little tannin, 
but no other constituent was detected likely to be of importance. 

The principal results arrived at from the foregoing research are 
as follows: — 
. (a) That the manna is derived from the bark of E. punctata. 

(b) That the kino is derived from the wood and not from the bark. 

(c) That the principal sugar in these exudations is raffinose 

(melitose), and is chemically the same as that investigated 
from other Eucalypts and from other sources. 

(d) That the dark saccharine exudation from this tree contains 

at least two other sugars besides rafhnose, one readily 
fermentable, the other not so readily. 

(e) That those Eucalypts not containing eudesmin etc. in their 

kinos do not give manna. 
{/) That some of the Eucalypts belonging to the Renantherae 

contain a yellow dye in their leaves allied to quercetin, 

and in some respects to aromadendrin. 
(g) That the kino of E. punctata contains eudesmin but not 


On the ESSENTIAL OIL and the presence of a SOLID 



By R. T. Baker, p.l.s., Assistant Curator, and Henry G. 

Smith, f.c.s., Mineralogist, Technological Museum, Sydney. 

[Read before the Roval Society of N. 8. Wales, August 4, 1897.] 

(b) Botany of E. piperita. 

(c) Description and Chemistry of the Oil. 

(e) Prohable Therapeutic Properties of the Oil. 

An exhaustive research is now being conducted at this Museum 
on Eucalyptus oils of undoubted botanical origin. Previous 
workers in this field of science have expressed regret at the 
difficulty experienced in obtaining leaves true to name, as there 
are few persons who can distinguish the species amongst the living 
trees of this most difficult genus. In our case each oil is distilled 
from leaves and terminal branchlets of trees selected by ourselves 
in the bush, and flowers, fruits, wood and bark are preserved, so 
that the botanical derivation is beyond dispute. The oils are also 
distilled at the Museum under our own supervision, and every 
datum connected therewith is carefully noted and recorded. 

Dr. R. N. Morris, the Superintendent of Technical Education, 
is giving us every assistance in our researches on these oils, and 
we are also indebted to Mr. Owen Blacket, Lecturer in Engineer- 
ing, and Mr. F. Camroux, Teacher in Applied Mechanics, for 
valuable help in the management and erection of the still and its 


the genus Eucalyptus. In White's Journal of a Voyage to New- 
South Wales, 1788, p. 226, the oil is thus referred to:— "The 
name of Peppermint tree has been given to this plant by Mr. 
White on account of the very great resemblance between the 
essential oil drawn from its leaves and that obtained from the 
Peppermint (Mentha piperita) which grows in England. This 
oil was found by Mr. White to be much more efficacious in remov- 
ing all cholicky complaints than that of the English peppermint, 
which he attributes to its being less pungent and more aromatic. 
A quart of the oil has been sent by him to Mr. Wilson." 
(b) Botany of E. piperita. 

This species as above stated, was first described by Dr. Smith 
in White's Voy. N.S.W., 226, 1783, and is also referred to again 
in transactions of the Linnean Society, m., 286 ; F. v. Mueller's 
Frag. Ph. Aust., n., 64 and 173 ; DC. Prod., 217 (E. ?acervula, 
Sieb.); Eucalyptographia, F.v.M. Dec. in. In the last named 
work neither the fruits nor the seedling leaves are quite correctly 
delineated. There is another species (E. amygdalina, Labill.) 
which is widely distributed over the eastern districts of this 
colony, and is also known under the name of " Peppermint," we 
therefore think it advisable to point out some of the characteristics 
of the species under consideration. 

In the Sydney district it is a tall tree, with a somewhat fibrous 
bark on the trunk and larger branches, but on the dividing range 
and other localities only the trunk is covered, whilst the larger 
and ultimate branches are quite smooth. The leaves on the seed- 
ling, unlike those of E. amygdalina, are alternate. 

Like E. amygdalina it belongs to the group having reniform 
anthers, but its chief points of difference from that species are in 
the seedling and sucker foliage, and the shape of the fruits, which 

the orifice giving it an urn-shaped conformation, whilst in the 
mountain form they are quite elongated. They measure from 
two to four lines in diameter, the pedicel varying in length from 
one to three lines. The orifice is thin edged, a distinctive character 

that at once distinguishes it from E. eugenioides, Sieb., and E. 
capitellata, Sm., its allied species. The valves are not exserted. 

Hab. The whole coast district and eastern mountain ranges of 
the Colony. 

(c) Description and Chemistry of the Oil. 

Our oil was without doubt obtained from the same variety as 
Dr. White's, viz., the coast or type form of E. piperita. As we 
are more directly concerned with the economic side of the question 
we endeavoured to carry out our distillations on lines we could 
recommend to the commercial world, consequently we made no 
attempt to collect only leaves, as it does not appear to us to be 
payable to treat these solely, in the face of the present market 
rate of labour ; so we had only the ultimate branchlets with their 
leaves collected. These were placed in six wire baskets in a still 
capable of holding 200 to 250 lbs. of material, and a low pressure 
applied; about 80% of the oil obtained came over in about one 
hour and a half. Commercially we do not recommend the distill- 
ation to be continued longer than two hours. 

The oil is very light in colour and had a distinct peppermint 
odour, which however diminishes after a few weeks. As distilled 
it has a specific gravity of -9096 at 17° C, and a specific rotation 
of (a) D - 2-97. The levo-rotation is perhaps partly due to the 
presence of the terpene phellandrene, as this substance was readily 
detected by the usual methods, although it is not present in large 
quantity. The amount of Eucalyptol in the fraction boiling 
between 172-4° and 182-8° was found to be 24-5 per cent, using 
the phosphoric acid method. 

The first rectification of 100 cc. of the crude oil gave the 
following results :— 

The fraction of oil distilling between 1 170-3 - 172-4°C. = 19% 

„ „ 172-4- 177-6 =40 

,' 177-6-182-8 =18 

182-8- 193-2 - 9 

266-7-272 - 8 

Allowing for a few drops (partly aldehydic bodies) coming 
over under 170-3° C. and also that portion distilling 

between 193-2° and 2667° C = 1 

Residue above 272 0° C = 5 

The second rectification of 100 cc. of the crude oil gave the 
following results: — 

Fraction distilling between 1 170-3 - 172-4° C. = 18% 
172-4 - 177-6 - 43 
177-6 - 1828 = 18 
1828 - 193-2 = 8 
266-7 - 272-0 - 9 

Residue above 272° C - 4 

The first three fractions entirely evaporated when placed in 
watch glasses ; the fourth contains a small quantity of resinous 
bodies which prevents entire evaporation of this fraction and yet 
shows no signs of any crystalline body. 

(d) A new Solid Camphor or Stearoptene. 
The fifth fraction forms well marked crystals on the slow 
evaporation of those portions which are volatile in the air, so that 
we shall have little difficulty in obtaining the crystallised sub- 
stance in this way, provided we do not succeed in isolating it by 
an easier method. It was not possible to crystallise it out from 
its fraction by freezing at a temperature of 10° below zero. 

We were first attracted to this new substance by detecting its 
presence as a white crystallised body around the cork of the bottle 
in which the oil was placed, as well as on wooden benches on 
which it had been dropped. No method has so far been found to 
completely separate it chemically from its fraction. The best 
method whereby we have obtained the crystals is to saturate a 
large cork with the oil, when after some days the camphor crystal- 
lises out upon the surface as seen on the specimens submitted. 
1 These temperatures are corrected. 

The best crystals are obtained by saturating any substance that 
will absorb the oil, such as a porous tile, wood, etc., but as cork 
is perhaps less likely to contaminate the crystals, we have used 
that in preference. The crystals are well developed, acicular, and 
polarise light, extinguishing parallel to the principal axis, and so 
probably are rhombic. The crystals obtained upon a porous tile 
appeared to be free from adhering terpenes, and were found to 
have a melting point of 74-75° C. — each of four determinations 
being between those degrees of temperature. 

The greater part of the fraction distilling between 266-7° and 
272° C. comes over between 269-9 and 272° C. Provisionally we 
state the melting and boiling points of this camphor at the tem- 
peratures given. We purpose naming the solid camphor from 
this oil " Eudesmol," in allusion to Robert Brown's name for the 
genus Eucalyptus. 

In consideration of the fact, that the boiling point of this solid 
camphor is as high as 270 - 272° C, it will be seen that by any 
ordinary system of rectification this would remain with the residue 
and thus be removed from the bulk of the oil. 

The therapeutic value or otherwise of this camphor must be 
decided before this oil can be recommended for either external or 
internal use. One is inclined to regard it as a rubefacient in 
view of the fact that other solid camphors such as menthol and 
thymol derived from volatile oils are so used. 
(«) Probable Therapeutic and other Properties of the Oil. 

The result of our work so far on this oil is: — 

1. The yield of oil is good, being -784 per cent, an average of four 

distillations on leaves with branchlets. 

2. In the crude state, owing to the presence of the camphor it 

may very possibly be an excellent rubefacient. 

3. The oil rectified below 190° C. is free from this stearoptene, and 

the fraction between 170° and 190° C. could, if required, be 
used internally, but as it contains phellandrene, and only 25% 

of eucalyptol, it is not recommended for that purpose, as so 

many oils are obtainable exceedingly rich in eucalyptol and 

also free from objectionable bodies. 

Of the thirteen specific oils examined by us this is the only one 

that so far has given a solid camphor or stearoptene, and we 

believe it is the first solid camphor obtained from Eucalyptus 

Specimens of this oil were distributed, accompanied with a 
request for a report on its rubefacient properties. We are pleased 
to state that in every instance where it has been so used the result 
has been highly satisfactory. Thorough investigation will be made 
as to the composition and properties of this camphor, and when 
completed the results will be submitted to this Society. We shall 
be glad to receive medical opinion as to the probable value of this 
oil for medicinal purposes. 

[Added 10th Nov. 1897.]— We have since discovered that this 
body (Eudesmol) exists in large quantities in the oil obtained 
from the leaves of the "Red Stringy Bark " Eucalyptus macro- 
rhyneha, F.v.M. It can be readily separated from this oil and 
easily purified. 


By W. E. Abbott, Wingen. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, September 1, 1897.'] 

Thk outburst of springs, and, as a consequence, the increased flow 
of water in creeks and rivers without apparent cause, just at the 
climax of along continued and widespread drought, has occasioned 
a good deal of interest in New South Wales ; and many theories 
have been offered in explanation through the press. As the 

Wingen in May, up to which time there had been a rainfall of 
only about four inches, I carefully noted what was taking place, 
with the object of arriving at the immediate cause of the outburst, 
hoping by this means to be in a position to say whether it is or is 
not an indication of the termination of drought conditions in the 
area affected. I do not propose to deal with all the theories 
offered in explanation, but will endeavour to clear the ground 
by getting rid of those, which, from the position of the men 
by whom they have been put forward, or from other causes, 
have been most widely accepted ; and which yet do not accord 
with the facts, as they have come under my own observation, both 
now and in former droughts, and which are well known to many 
people long engaged in pastoral pursuits in Australia, pursuits 
in which the occurrence of drought is a factor of prime importance. 
First we have the explanation offered by Mr. Clement Wragge 
of Queensland, that the recent outburst of springs is a result of 
the late earthquake disturbances, having their centre in South 
Australia. This I think is untenable, because we who have had 
to suffer many droughts by which large pecuniary interests were 
affected, know that the increased flow of springs and creeks at 
some stage of a general widespread drought is almost, if not quite 
invariable, while earthquakes in drought or at any other time are 
exceptional. That this fact was probably unknown to Mr. Wragge 

have the theory that the increased flow of water is 
changes. Apart from the fact that Mr. H. C. 
Russell has shown that in the Bathurst and Orange districts, 
where the phenomena were very pronounced, there was no baro- 
metric change, it has always seemed to me that the explanation 
is inadequate. As far as my observations go, and I think they 
will be borne out by those of other observers, the increased flow 
invariably begins in creeks that have a drainage area of from a 
few hundred yards to a few miles in extent, and though it ultim- 
ately affects the larger creeks and rivers, this secondary effect is 
produced by the accumulated flow of the many little creeks work- 
ing down gradually from the upper watershed, and does not begin 
in the main creeks or rivers in their lower courses. 

In considering how barometric changes of pressure could pro- 
duce an increased flow of water, it will be clear that there must 
be a high pressure at the source of the spring and a low pressure 
at its outlet. A low or high pressure which was the same at both 
could produce no effect, and as it is impossible that there could be 
innumerable areas of high and low pressures at distances of only 
a few hundred yards or a few miles apart all over the country, 
and continuing permanent for weeks or months, I think this 
explanation is disposed of. Of course it is possible that a high 
and a low pressure following each other across the country might 
effect the source of supply and outlet of a spring alternately in 
some cases, but even then, I think the pressures would have 
changed long before the effect could be transmitted from the source 
to the outlet. 

Another explanation which has been put forward with some 
authority, is that the increased outflow of water is the result of 
the cracking of impervious dams of clay by which bodies of water 
had been held back in the gravels and sands of the smaller 
creek beds. The theory is that the long continued dry weather 
has caused these clay formations to crack to a point below the 

water level, and so released the water dammed back, which then 
made its appearance as a running stream lower down. At first 
sight this explanation seems feasible ; but to those who, having 
been in the habit of storing water above the surface in artificial 
dams made of clay, have noted what takes place in dry weather, 
its inadequacy is apparent. Even in a surface dam, no matter 
how dry the weather, and even though the dam be exposed to 
wind and sun for a length of time, it never cracks while there is 
any water on the upper side ; nor is it possible that it could do 
so, because as long as the water remained it would be kept moist, 
when it cracked there would be no water to flow through. Some 
other explanations which have been offered, such as the action of 
cray-fish, supposed in extremely dry weather to undertake the 
sinking of artesian bores on their own account, seem to me to be 
too fantastic to be worth consideration. 

The theory, which seems to me to cover all the facts that I 
have observed or seen recorded in the papers, is simple enough, 
but I do not claim for it any credit on the ground of originality, 
as I believe it is held in a vague and indefinite way by many of 
those who have been in a position to make a close and continuous 
observation of what takes place, not in one, but in many droughts, 
when, as stated, creeks and springs have at various times shown 
an increased outflow of water in the absence of rainfall. That 
this increased outflow of water at some stage of a general drought, 
of which we have heard so much lately, is not exceptional, but 
may be seen to a greater or less extent in every drought, is proof, 
I think, that it is in some way a result of what may be called 
drought conditions. The most notable of these is the extreme 
dryness of the atmosphere. For many months, sometimes extend- 
ing into years over large areas of Australia, we find dry winds 
blowing, no dew, no rain, all vegetation parched up, and the 
ground cracked to a depth of many feet. Even when at the sur- 
face the ground is reduced to fine dust by the trampling of stock, 
at a little depth the soil is divided up by a network of cracks 
extending many feet downwards, and allowing evaporation to go 

204 W. E. ABBOTT. 

on freely even as far down as five or six feet, or possibly in places 
even still further. This I recently found to be the case when I 
attempted at the height of the late drought to irrigate a small 
area of old cultivation land shewing no surface cracks. When 
the water was turned on through an eight inch pipe, after spread- 
ing a few yards, it broke through the old cultivated surface and 
disappeared at once in cracks from three to four inches wide, 
without effecting the surface in any way. In a time of general or 
pronounced drought we do not usually have extremely hot weather, 
but fairly cool nights and bright clear days ; anything like excep- 
tional heat, more particularly at night, is a sure indication that 
the drought is but local and likely to be of short duration. A 
dry, clear, and not abnormally hot atmosphere, is the invariable 
accompaniment of a general and prolonged drought, and it is the 
extreme dryness of the atmosphere which I regard as the indirect 
cause of increased outflow of water in springs and creeks, always 
observed at some stage in such droughts, and so noticeable in the 
drought which now seems drawing to a close. To understand 
the apparently uncaused increase in the flow of water in many, 
but not in all of our creeks and springs, occurring in most cases 
towards the close of a general drought, it will be necessary to 
refer to the character of the sources from which the flow of such 
creeks and springs is derived in normal seasons when they are 

The generally accepted theory of springs found in all books on 
the subject, is that on high ground there is an underground 
reservoir with very free openings to the surface, through which it 
is kept full by the rainfall. Then there is a narrow or restricted 
opening, not unlike a pipe line ; which may be of any length, con- 
necting this reservoir with the outlet of the spring. The reservoir 
being filled by rainfall much more rapidly than it is emptied by 
the spring, gives the spring a permanent outflow not affected by 
the seasons. The Prospect Water Supply with its reservoir 
and pipe line to Sydney is an artificial reproduction on the surface 
of this kind of spring, but when we come to examine the sources of 


supply of the creeks and springs, which after having dried out or 
dwindled down in the late drought, suddenly and without apparent 
cause began to flow again, we find that the generally accepted 
theory, though applicable to some of our permanent and unvari- 
able springs, does not apply. 

The creeks and springs, of which I have carefully examined a 
considerable number, are fairly permanent in their flow in ordinary 
seasons, though many of them were not so until after the natural 
growth of Eucalyptus timber on the upper part of their watersheds 
had been ringbarked from twenty to thirty years ago. In all of 
them the source from which the water flowing in their channels 
is derived is a quantity of porous and somewhat spongy soil, of no 
great depth, resting on impervious strata of rock or clay, with a 
slope more or less steep in the direction of the creek or spring. 
In some cases this spongy soil is only a few hundred yards in 
extent, and in others a few miles ; nowhere, as far as I am aware,, 
is there any holding back of the water by an impervious bar or 
dam of rock or clay. In normal seasons the sponge is filled to the 
point of saturation by the inflow of the rainfall from the surround- 
ing hills, and as it is held back like the water in an ordinary 
sponge by capillary attraction and friction, it escapes slowly at 
the lowest level into the channel of the creek, thus maintaining 
an even and regular flow from one rainfall until the next. When 
the country is suffering from one of our general droughts, the 
characteristic of which is an atmosphere of extreme dryness and 
an almost total absence of rainfall for many months, evaporation 
of course proceeds very rapidly over the whole surface of the 
sponge which forms the source of supply of these little creeks and 
springs, until at the lower levels, which are generally quite shallow, 
the rate of evaporation is so great as to dry it up, down to the 
impervious underlying strata. Then the water disappears from 
the creeks and the springs dry up, but all the time the water 
stored in the upper and thicker parts of the sponge which have 
not yet been dessicated, is still moving down slowly along the 
slope* towards the creeks or outlet of the springs. The rate of 

evaporation, however, is sufficiently great to exhaust it before it 
reaches these channels and outlets. All at once from causes of 
which as yet we have no accurate knowledge, the atmospheric 
conditions are changed. The whole country is covered with a 
moist atmosphere in which evaporation almost, if not wholly, 
ceases. Then the conditions are reversed in the spongy sources 
of our creeks and springs. Evaporation having ceased, the water 
from the upper and thicker parts of the sponge soon works down, 
ward and resaturates the lower shallow parts and consequently 
reappears in the creeks and at the outlet of the dried-up springs. 
This explanation seems to me to embrace all the facts covered 
by my observation, but whether the breaking out of springs and 
increased flow of water in creeks in time of drought is an indica- 
tion of the near approach of its termination or not, is a matter 
which cannot be decided oft' hand. That an extremely dry 
atmosphere is a characteristic of drought periods, we know, but is 
it the cause of the drought 1 We also know that in a general 
drought which covers half or all Australia there are always small 
areas not suffering therefrom, and the situation of these areas vary 
in different droughts. For example, that Bourke, which has not 
suffered this time, will also escape in the next drought is very 
unlikely, from what we know of the past. What I would be 
inclined to infer is, that when the outburst of springs and increased 
outflow of creeks is confined to a small area of the country in a 
general drought, it is not an indication of a break up as small 
local changes are common to every drought. When however, the 
outflow of water covers a wide area or the whole of the drought 

near approach of the end, since the most distinctive characteristic 
of a general and widespread drought — an extremely dry atmosphere 

has disappeared. 

[With Plate XVII.] 

[Read before the Royal Society of X. S. Wales, September 1, 1897.] 

There is a publication called the Aeronautical Annual, edited 
by James Means, Boston, Mass. In No. 2 and 3 of that work, 
Mr. Octave Chanute goes exhaustively into the question of sailing 
flight, and specifies every letter and article that bears on the 
subject. This paper may be said to take up the running where 
Mr. Chanute leaves off. My reasons for not writing to that 
periodical straight, are that publication would be delayed for 
many months ; and the state of the art is such that at any moment 
someoneof the many who are investigating this subject may drop 
on the facts stated in this paper, take out a master patent which 
would rule the construction of all future flying machines, and tax 
us all round for our good as the protectionists say, thus throwing 
our work back for years. I therefore, with your permission, read 
this paper and show the models that work as I describe, and 
thereby destroy the novelty of the invention for all time. 

The point of doubt has been, how to account for the phenomenon 
of soaring in a horizontal wind. There is no difficulty in soaring 
• if we assume an upward trend in the wind such as a cliff, build- 
ing or sloping hill will produce. But when we see birds soaring 
in light wind and storm something beyond our knowledge is 
recognized as being at work. 

Mr. Chanute shows the profile of a number of soaring and non- 
soaring bird's wings, and points out the downward projecting lobe 
at the front edge of the former, and also that there is a sharp 
curve just abaft the lobe on the under side. (Plate 17 fig. 1) 

A few experiments have been made at Stanwell Park to show 
how this affects the effective direction of the wind when soaring, 
with the result as I previously surmised, that it was found to 
create a vortex, and that the direction of the air current beneath 
the wing was that indicated by the arrows in {Plate 17, fig. 1). 

The apparatus used was a small bellows, a bent piece of sheet 
aluminium and a candle. The centre of the vortex was found to 
be approximately at the centre of the curve of the fore part of 
the aluminium sheet {Plate 17, fig. 2). The candle you observe 
is not masked by the leading edge. 

The quasi- wing was then bent like {Plate 17, fig. 3), and the 
candle flame was blown in a manner showing that in this case the 
vortex was elliptic. The pressure at A must be greater than at 
C or the candle flame would blow parallel to the blast. As a first 
attempt to show that the pressure at A was greater than at B, I 
cut a small hole at B and gummed a tissue paper valve opening 
towards B. I could not be certain that air was passing through it. 

A portable forge was now arranged to deliver air through a 
two inch horizontal tin tube, and various devices were used for 
hanging things in front of the blast. Among others an old and 
rough gull's wing showed the loose feathers blowing towards the 
front edge {Plate 17, fig. 4). 

When a piece of the wing was cut off and hung at eleven inches 
from the blast with a negative angle of about 28°, it at once began 
to revolve in an elliptic orbit, the feathers on the under side of 
the wing being ruffled back at positions A and B {Plate 17, fig. 5)- 
When attempting to repeat this experiment the wing could only 
be made to revolve in a contrary orbit to that shown in the figure. 
A piece of aluminium without a bulb would only swing very 
slightly in the line of blast. 

A piece of tin folded with a bulb at the forward edge and some 
pieces of down gummed on the concave side, was set at a positive 
angle of about G c , the down at the bulb blew strongly in the direc- 
tion of the arrow {Plate 17, fig. 6). 

Thirty-two three-quarter inch square holes were cut in a curved 
piece of aluminium (Plate 17, fig. 7), and each hole was fitted 
with a tissue paper valve lifting on the curved side. When the 
chord of the curve was at about zero, A and B sets of valves lifted 
tangential to the leading edge, and C and D sets of valves were 
fluttering with the blast. 

A level sheet of glass with a little water on it was placed in 
the line of blast, and the curved tin (Plate 17, fig. 6) standing in 
the water with a sprinkling of red ochre shows the vortex at a 
negative angle of about 30°. The tin was set at zero, but the 
after edge was slued round to 30° by the rotation of the vortex. 

This is all very well as far as it goes, but something is wanted 
that would eliminate errors of direction of the wind, and some of 
the uncertainty as to the angles, and also to compare the curve 
with the plane surface. So I fixed a horizontal wire on a stand 
and pointed it towards the blast. A sleeve was on the wire 
revolving freely. On opposite sides of the sleeve I attached a 
bulb ended curved piece of aluminium and a piece approximately 
flat, with set screws to fix them at any angle with the direction of 
blast. There was a lead weight for balancing in the plane of 
rotation. There was nothing to stop the sleeve from slipping 
along the wire, which it did not do. 

You will observe that with this apparatus if my personal 
equation gave any advantage to the curve it would be eliminated 
when the sleeve revolved 180°, and that both surfaces received a 
blast of equal intensity, and that placing the two surfaces on 
opposite side of one axis is equivalent to weighing their respective 
lifting powers in a pair of scales. 

The plane and chord of the curve were first set at a slight 
positive angle (Plate 17, fig. 8). In this case the curve easily 
rotated the sleeve against the lift of the plane. There might 
possibly be no vortex under the curve, and the stronger rotating 
force might be due to the greater angle of slope of the after part 

The plane and the chord of the curve were next set parallel to 
the line of blast {Plate 17, fig. 9). In this case the lifting force 
opposed by the plane to the curve was nothing, although its resis- 
tance was that due to its area and the velocity of the blast, and 
the lift of the vortex under the curve easily overcame this. 

In {Plate 17, fig. 10) the plane was left parallel to the blast, 
and the curve sloped at a negative angle, this angle was increased 
to at least 10° and the lift of the curve still rotated the sleeve 
against the resistance of the plane. 

In {Plate 17, fig. 11) the plane was put at a positive angle of 
6°, that is, 16° between the plane and the curve. The plane was 
now able to rotate the curve against the vortex. Figs. 12, 13, 14, 
15, show the stream lines of the air when it meets a curve set at 

To recapitulate, the experiments show — 

1. That the profile of a soaring bird's wing and pieces of metal 
of a somewhat similar curve generate vortices on the concave 
surfaces when the chord of the curves makes a negative angle 
with the direction of the wind. 

2. All the concave surfaces are in contact with air moving 
towards the mean direction of the wind. 

3. That the mean pressure on the concave surface is higher 
than on the convex side. 

4. That the chord of the curved metal may make a negative 
angle of 10° with the direction of the wind and still have a higher 
pressure on the concave side than on the convex. 

And the direct inference is that gravity can be entirely counter- 
acted by a volume of disturbed air moving in a horizontal direction; 
and that flying machines of great weight can be held suspended 

of any container 1 motor force. 

£ Having put matters so that anyone can easily repeat my experi- 
ments and elaborate them to the last degree of precision, we now 

see why the best soaring is done in steady winds. The answer 
is, the bird is less liable to lose its vortices by a sudden gust and 
have to take a flap or two to balance itself on a fresh pair. The 
difference between flying and soaring is that the air in contact 
with the underside of the wing is moving towards the bird's head 
when soaring and towards the tail when flying. A soaring bird's 
wing is a shield dividing two currents of air moving in contrary 
directions. The vortex draws towards the shield and pushes it 
into the low pressure above the wing. 

There is a very similar experiment described at pages 79, 80, of 
this Society's Journal for 1893, but I then failed to see the true 
cause of the phenomenon and thought the air currents were those 
shown in the flying wing {Plate 17, fig. 1) whereas the currents 
were those of the soaring wing. 

Mr. Chanute says that, "Dr. Thomas Young, the great physicist, 
showed in 1800 that a curved S-like surface suspended horizontally 
by a thread advanced against an air jet impinging upon its upper 
surface." If this S-like surface proves to be like Plate 17, fig. 16, 
and he explains the cause to be the vortex shown therein, it is only 
another proof that there is nothing new under the sun. The 
turn-up tail is now being experimented with, as I think it provides 
automatic stability in a fore and aft direction. 

Having experienced much of the monotonous process of repair- 
ing broken models, I have now devised and am using a method of 
experimenting that practically enables me to avoid all breakages. 
The apparatus used is well shown in Figures 17 and 18, which 
I think will advance the art of aerial navigation more than 
any amount of laboratory experiments. The two poles are twenty- 
four feet high and forty-eight feet apart. There is a cord between 
the tops of the poles, and the string of the soaring kite is tied to 
the middle of the cord at a sufficient height to prevent it striking 
the ground. I stand to leeward of the poles and start the soar- 
ing kite at a positive angle, it then flies as an ordinary kite to 
near the zenith. The vortex then forms under the curved 


aluminium surfaces and draws the apparatus at the full stretch 
of the string and cord, through the 1 80° of arc to windward of 
the poles. The flag shows the wind to be horizontal, and the 
string that is plainly visible in the photograph shows the soaring 
kite pulling about 20° to windward of the zenith. The wind was 
blowing at twelve or fourteen miles per hour, which was inadequate 
effect the best pull the affair is capable 

The projected area of the two < 
nd eighty-nine square inches, and the weight is < 

and a half ounces. The cylindrical aluminium tail is a serviceable 
construction. As yet I have been unable to make the kite stop 
when at or beyond the zenith, but the wind has been remarkably 
light for many weeks and few trials have taken place. 

A very few trials will convince the most sceptical that if we 
are not soaring in moderate breezes before the end of the century 
it will not be from ignorance of the way to do it. 

It is obvious that soaring sails for marine propulsion have a 
vast future before them : and it is probable that craft so rigged 
will make better weather with a gale in their teeth than our 



(Communicated by E. F. Pittman, a.r.s.m.) 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, October 6, 1897.'] 

Whilst engaged in collecting a series of rock specimens in the 
field, illustrative of the Broken Hill district, prior to making a 
number of rock-sections for microscopical investigation, I happened 
to come across an exposure of rock, on the rounded and weathered 
surfaces of which some dark, irregularly-fissured crystals were 
apparent. After breaking hand-specimens of this material, I 
recognized the mineral as cordierite, and upon testing it chemically 
and microscopically, found that my field observation was confirmed. 

The occurrence of cordierite as a rock forming mineral, in a 
perfectly unaltered condition, has not, to my present personal 
knowledge, been yet noted in Australia, but whether it has or has 
not, I have ventured to hope that, from what I have subsequently 
discovered, viz. : — that it has a somewhat extensive development 
in the metamorphic rocks of this district, the matter would be 
sufficiently of interest to geologists in this country, to warrant my 
bringing it under the notice of this Society. 

Cordierite — also variously known as iolite and dichroite — is a 
silicate of alumina, iron, and magnesia, which crystallizes in the 
rhombic system. It occurs as a constituent of certain granites, 
gneisses, and granulites — notably in the granite of Bodenmais in 
Bavaria. It occurs, too, as the result of contact metamorphism, 
and as an original secretion from the magma in certain andesites. 

The clear transparent variety, found in Ceylon as rolled masses, 
is known as 'saphir d'eau,' and is cut and used as a gem. Where 
it occurs as a rock constituent, it alters somewhat easily to pinite 
and other ill-defined minerals, and in those forms is common in 

the quartz porphyries (elvans) of the Auvergne district in France 
and of Cornwall, from both of which localities I have gathered 

Field Occurrence. — I am not, at present, prepared to describe 
generally the mode of occurrence of cordierite in all of the localities 
around Broken Hill, in which I have been fortunate enough to 
find it. I propose, therefore, to take the example primarily 
referred to and describe it more in detail. About half a mile 
south-east by south from Block 14 Mine, Broken Hill, there are 
two parallel exposures of a granulitic rock which appear to be 
parallel veins. They are separated from one another by twenty- 
seven feet of a decomposed ferruginous schistose rock, highly 
quartzose, and containing also biotite and felspar. It is mostly 
covered with the surface soil, and where it shows at surface is of 
vague character. These veins strike due east and west, and are 
traceable for about three hundred yards in length. They appear 
to have a high northerly dip, as also have the other rocks close at 
hand, but these observations of strike and dip are purely local 
and are not those prevailing generally in the district, which are 
respectively north-east, and 70° to the north-west. One of these 
granulitic veins is about twenty-seven feet wide, while the other, 
the one nearest to Block 14, is somewhat less, about twelve feet. 
The rock itself is a hard, light-grey granular material, which when 
weathered, has a light reddish crust upon its exterior surface. It 
shows a tendency to concentric weathering, hence the rounded 
masses. These exposures are by no means prominent, and are 
often obscured in places by the soil. 

When a freshly fractured surface of the unaltered rock is 
examined macroscopically, it is seen to be moderately fine in tex- 
ture, and felspar, quartz, biotite, a little pyrite and cordierite are 
visible to the unaided eye. It breaks, when in an unweathered 
condition, with a smooth and somewhat conchoidal fracture. It 
has a specific gravity of 2-66. In some parts of it large felspar 
crystals are developed, and more particularly is this the case on 
the outer edge of the northern exposure. In conjunction with 

the felspar, large crystals of cordierite have been developed, some 
of which measure from one and a-half to two inches in length. 
Right through the rock, nevertheless, cordierite occurs in greater 
or lesser amount, which fact becomes more apparent during the 
process of grinding sections for microscopical examination, for 
then, whilst the sections are still of moderate thickness, the 
mineral in transmitted light appears of a bluish or purplish-blue 
colour. In the finished section it is perfectly transparent and 
colourless, and resembles the quartz rather closely. 

The cordierite, as observed in hand specimens of the rock, occurs 
mainly in the form of irregular grains which break with a con- 
choidal fracture, and have a vitreous lustre. Their hardness is 7 
or a little over. Idiomorphic crystals do however occur— one in 
particular, on the weathered face of a boulder of the granulite, 
was eight sided and an inch and a-half long. I have also seen 
crystals of pinite, pseudomorphous after cordierite, in the more 
altered portions of the veins. The outer edge of the southern 
vein is somewhat schistose, and contains a fair amount of silli- 
manite in colourless thin prisms, transversely jointed in the 
manner so characteristic of that mineral. It is adjoined by a 
band of schistose amphibolite 1 similar to those commonly occurring 
in the neighbouring district, and which I am, after field and 
petrographical investigation, led to regard as a greatly altered 
basic intrusive rock of the gabbro type. This band is not less 
than twenty-nine or thirty feet in width, and it contains in places 
secondary quartz veinules. 

The outer edge of the northern vein passes somewhat abruptly 
to a schistose rock containing biotite, quartz, and a good deal of 
sillimanite. It is upon this edge of the granulite that the larger 
porphyritic crystals of cordierite have been developed in conjunc- 
tion with felspar. When weathered, the former appears quite 
dull and black with numerous irregular cracks. 

Veins of pegmatite occur not far distant, and the rocks generally 
in the neighbourhood are the highly metamorphic schists and 
gneisses, with intercalated amphibolites, 1 typical of this portion of 
the Barrier Ranges. Rocks of a granulitic type — both acid and 
basic — have been pretty extensively developed around Broken 
Hill, but garnet-granulite is the one most commonly met with, 
and cordierite-granulite the rarest, but it is quite possible that, 
unless the cordierite is in large crystals in the rock, the cordierite 
rock is not so often noticed as the garnetiferous variety is. 

Cordierite may be found forming the centre of the felspar 
"augen" of an augen-gneiss, close to its junction with a basic 
eruptive rock, at a locality about three miles and a half to the 
east of Block 14 Mine. In that case the resemblance of the 
felspar knots to "eyes" is most strikingly accentuated by the 
cordierite forming, as it were the dark "pupils." 

Petrographical Description. — I have prepared several sections 
of the granulite under discussion, for microscopical examination. 
Some of them were taken hap-hazard from flakes struck off with 
a hammer, others were cut, with a lapidary's slitting-disc of soft 
iron charged with splinters of diamond, so as to include crystals 
of cordierite recognisable as such in hand specimen. The rock is 
a perfectly compact holocrystalline-granular one, in which the 
minerals are allotriomorphic. Its texture is, on the whole, rather 
fine, almost saccharoidal in parts. Its strong coherence admits 
of the production of large and thin sections with ease. 

The component minerals are as follows : — 

Felspar s~(a.) Orthoclase is fairly abundant throught the rock. 
Microcline (herewith included) is likewise abundant, and these 
two are the predominating felspars. The orthoclase is fairly 
fresh, and shows the common twinning on the Carlsbad type. 
The microcline shows the peculiar "cross-hatching" between 
crossed nicols, due to multiple twinning. In some cases, however, 
it presents only a series of twin lamella? of microscopic d 

(b.) Plagioclase is present in much smaller proportion than the 
foregoing, and is exactly similar, save that between crossed nicols 
the twin lamella? are broad and distinct. All of the felspars con- 
tain numerous inclusions of zircon, apatite, and small indetermin- 
ate colourless needles having a definite orientation. 

Quartz is very abundant, and is of the ordinary granitic type. 
In some cases small grains form a " mosaic " area. It contains 
numerous fluid inclusions, in many of the smaller of which, 
beautiful examples of spontaneously moving bubbles are shown. 

Cordierite is likewise abundant, mostly in irregular grains, 
though sometimes in rudely prismatic forms. The grains vary in 
size greatly. It is colourless and transparent in good thin sections 
and shows no pleochroism. It resembles quartz closely in having 
irregular cracks, a low refractive index, and a low index of double 
refraction, hence the polarization colours are low, and vary from 
the grey and white tones to the yellow of the first order on the 
Newtonian colour scale. Alteration has set in around the edges 
of the grains and along the cracks, giving rise to an illdefined 
granular clouded material of greyish-white colour, which has a 
fairly high index of refraction, and, in consequence, often imparts 
to the unaltered cordierite a false appearance of relief. Inclusions 
of zircon are very common, and show pleochroic haloes when the 
section is cut in a direction other than parallel to the basal plane 
of the cordierite. Biotite also occurs as an inclusion, and occurs 
too, as a wreath, in conjunction with chlorite, around the crystal 
edges in such a manner as to suggest that it arises from the alter- 
ation of the mineral. I have observed, between crossed nicols, 

interpenetrations, which I am rather at a loss to understand so far. 

Biotite is present in varying amount in the form of wisps and 
plates, some of which include small zircons. 

Zircon, in the form of grains and small colourless prisms, is very 
abundant as an accessory constituent, and nearly every crystal of 
cordierite contains one or more inclusions of this mineral. 

Apatite in small colourless needles and stouter prisms is present 
to a small extent, as also is iron pyrites in rounded grains, while 
ilmenite either partly or wholly altered to sphene and leucoxene 
is somewhat more abundant. All of the essential mineral com- 
ponents of this rock, with the exception of biotite, polarize in low 
colours, and for this reason thin sections of it are not particularly 
striking when viewed between crossed nicols. 

The felspars and quartz show strain phenomena in the form of 
wave extinction, and the whole appearance of the rock seems to 
indicate that it has suffered somewhat from the effect of natural 
stress. In the development of the cordierite, the rock upon the 
southern side of the exposures seems to have played an important 
part, and field observation certainly leads one to the conclusion 
that it has arisen as the effect of contact-metamorphism, coupled, 
perhaps, with the general regional metamorphism which has so 
profoundly influenced the rocks over the whole of this district. 
The rock referred to as existing upon the southern side of the 
exposures, is now a rather felspathic amphibolite, more or less 
schistose in character, and it appears to be a typical case of the 
common alteration which certain basic eruptive rocks — e.g. dykes 
of gabbro or pyroxene diorite — suffer when subjected to more or 
less intense metamorphism. 

The nomenclature of rocks is in itself a "rock" upon which 
many of the ablest of our geologists and petrographers have split, 
but few, I respectfully venture to consider, after due examination, 
would urge any strong objection to the rock, which I have had 
the honour of bringing under your notice, being termed cordierite- 

This photograph was taken from a thin section of the rock. The 
minerals represented are cordierite, quartz, felspar, biotite, and 
zircon. The cordierite shows in three grains — the large central 
one shows the false appearance of relief due to its border of more 
highly refracting decomposition product. It includes two zircon 

Microphotograph of Cordierite in the Granulite, X 32. 

Objective l£". Eyepiece C. Light, ordinary transmitted 
Actual diameter of visual field = -090". Dimensions (actual) o 
large grain of cordierite = -079" x "030". Exposure, three minutes 
Light, paraffin lamp. Plate, Paget. Developer, 


By H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. 

[With Plate XVIII ] 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, October 6, 1897.'] 

The following note about recent icebergs is intended to be taken 
as a continuation of my first paper on this subject. 1 The reports 
of icebergs which follow have been collected from several sources. 
(A) from the logs which have been sent to me by the commanders 
and masters of sixty-two vessels trading to Sydney, without whose 
aid it would be impossible to carry on the work. (B) Some reports 
of ice have been taken from the Nautical Magazine, and (C) from 
the daily press. All of them have been collected since July 1895 
when my first list closed, although a very few refer to an earlier 

It is remarkable, and as we shall presently see, important, that 
during the three months following July 1895, not a single report 
of icebergs was received. The next month, November, two vessels, 
and in December five vessels reported icebergs. In January 1896 
the icebergs again disappeared from the track of vessels coming 
to Australia, and not a single report of icebergs in January, 
February, March, or April 1896, reached me. May brought 
three reports of icebergs ; June not one. Then every month to 
the end of the year brought reports of icebergs, and in January 
1897 they came faster than ever during the six years included in 
these records, and twenty vessels reported ice during that month, 
twelve reported ice in February, and seven in March ; then all the 
icebergs again disappeared from the track, and up to the end of 
September 1897 only one ship has reported ice. 

1 Journal Roy. Soc. of N.S.W., Sept. 4, 1H95. 

Table shewing numbe 

r of ships reporting ice in 

each month of 

past six years : — 

Years Jan. j Feb. 

May | June July 

Aug. Sept. 

Oct. Nov.! Dec. 

1892 1 

'1893 12 5 
1894 1 2 

3 | 5 

5 10 2 
1 1 

I Z 

9l 2 2J 
1 ' 2 2 ! 

1 1 — 

1895 1 3 
1896 — : 

5 10 

1 6 10 
3 3 

5 1 

1897J 20 | 12 

7 1 1 j j 

The black bar represents no ice, and the figures give the number 
of ships that reported ice. Thus in January twenty ships reported 
ice, February twelve ships, and March seven ships ; then April, 
May, June, July, and August without a single report of ice. 

This motion of the icebergs into and out of the track of vessels 
coming here seemed to me so remarkable, that I at once looked 
for a cause which might produce it ; and in doing so I remembered 
that in the latter half of 1895, the number of current papers 
received had been very small, and that, when I examined the 
weather charts, it became evident that the most marked feature 
of weather in Australasia was the prevalence of strong north-west 
winds : and it seemed extremely probable, that these winds had 
forced the bottles southwards, so that they could not reach the 
south coast of Australia — where many of the bottles put into the 
sea, find a resting place — and they were in this way passed on to 
the eastward never to be seen again. 

It seemed very probable that icebergs might also be affected by 
the prevalent winds. Looking again at the weather charts, I 
found that southerly winds had reasserted themselves in November 
and December 1895, and concurrently a few icebergs were seen. 
Referring to the tabular statement of the number of ships in each 
month reporting ice, it will be seen that not a single iceberg was 
reported during the first four months of 1896, and the weather 
charts shew strong and persistent north-west winds. 

In July 1896 icebergs were again reported each month to the 
end of the year. A reference to the weather charts shewed that 


concurrently southerly winds had asserted themselves. In Janu- 
ary 1897, twenty ships reported ice, and the charts shew strong 
southerly winds, and during February and March icebergs and 
southerly winds were concurrent, but from the end of March to 
the end of September 1897 strong north-west winds have been 
prevalent, and only one ship, in September, has reported ice. 

This is too short an experience to settle the question, but so far 
as the records go, we find that when there is a prevalence of north- 
west winds no ice is reported, and with southerly winds plenty of 
ice is reported. The fact that these icebergs are about 3000 inlies 
distant from Australasia where the winds were observed, must 
not be overlooked, and therefore the experience just given may 
shew an accidental relation between the position of the icebergs 
and the direction of winds. I do not however think so, because 
some years since, I investigated the winds between the Cape and 
Australia, and found that the atmosphere as a whole, was moving 
to the eastward at the rate of about five hundred miles per day, 
carrying storms and change of wind with it ; so that a storm, in 
the iceberg area travels to Australia in six or seven days. The 
probability that the iceberg area has the same winds that we 
have in Australia, only a few days earlier, is very strong indeed. 
I have no doubt that winds of the same general character effect 
the two places, Australia and the iceberg area shewn on the map 

We must have a longer experience before it can be considered 
proven. Meantime it would materially aid the proof, if any 
vessels sighting icebergs on a fine day with strong northerly or 
southerly winds, would stop the engines and watch the berg care- 
fully for three or four hours to see if it does move with the wind. 
As soon as the motion with the wind is definitely determined by 
actual observation of the bergs, it will be possible by careful study 
of the winds in South Africa and Australia to forecast the positions 
of icebergs between Africa and Australia with some degree of 

It seems unnecessary to urge upon those most interested, the 
importance of the experiments suggested. My investigations 
have convinced me that the icebergs do drift with the wind at a 
very appreciable rate, and there certainly are many risks, much 
anxiety and loss of time which might be avoided if my suggestions 
prove to be facts as I think they will. 

It would be a very useful addition to the information usually 
put in a ship's log, if every vessel made an effort to keep count of 
the number of icebergs seen every day. If would be difficult and 
perhaps impossible to count them all, but to know how many they 
could count in each case with a statement, that it was only a 
quarter or half of those seen would be a great help to estimating 
the number that are actually floating about in the track of vessels 
which would be very useful in studying the reports. In very 
many logs no reference is made to the number of icebergs, no 
doubt because they seem to be innumerable ; but it appears from 

large icebergs, and in others the sea is almost covered by small 

In the following pages 7,429 icebergs are recorded, but No. 170 
counted 4,500 icebergs, No. 177 saw 977 icebergs, and No. 158 
reports 37 G, and so on. There is another point which might be 
added to the reports and would increase their value, and that is, 
the relative density of the numbers passed from day to day. For 
instance, the " Hebe " — log 190— passed through 1,600 miles of 
ice: the 'Matalua" from Nov. 9 to 14th 1896, passed through 
ice for 1,600 miles : the "Otarama"— log 158— in November 1896 
passed through ice for 1,100 miles. If in such cases it could be 
said there was a berg in every square mile or in every ten miles 
square of the ocean and so on, it would add much to the value 
of the record. 

The following table shews the number of icebergs recorded by 
each vessel in the list at the end of this paper : — 

List No. 


List No. 


List N., 

[,-.i „■-_-* 

List No. 
































































• 5 















































2 1 9 
















































i shews the number of ships that reported 
o 50° inclusive, without regard 

to longitude. The majority is 

which the safety track cuts the longitude of I 

the iceberg i 

densest part of 

49' 50' 

I Latitudes ...|40 u 41 o |42 o 43 o |44^|45 o |46 o |47°|48 o |49 o ;49 u i 50' 

I No. of ships that F ' ■ f" 

^reported ice | 2 2 [ 8 j 17 ! 27 | 35 | 24 | 14 [ 7 | 1 I 2 | 3 

>V hen steaming along the safety track and surrounded by an 
apparently unlimited icefield, it was pertinently said by the 
captain of one of the regular Sydney traders, that " with such 

226 H. C. RUSSELL. 

experience as ours, the reports of ships to the north of us would 
be interesting." It so happened, that as he spoke there were three 
vessels taking a course a little north of the safety track, and 
could he by the aid of some new telegraphy without wires have 
consulted their captains, the replies would have been, "Come 
north, in less than sixty miles you will be in open water." Had 
he known it then, five hours steaming would have taken the ship 
out of danger, and he would have wholly avoided four days and 
nights of great anxiety and risk to ship, passengers and crew. 

I have already pointed out in this paper, the possibility, per- 
sonally I would rather say the probability, that by continuing the 
united labours of sea-going and shore observers in regard to ice- 
bergs, it may be in the near future, possible to attempt forecasting 
the latitude in which icebergs will be found ; and it really seems 
probable that electricians will ere long place in the hands of 
sailors, the means of consulting unseen but neighbouring vessels. 

The diagram shews the track of the s.s. Thermopylae in Sept. 
1896, which passed through ice all the way (See report 147 in 
following list), also the tracks of the Woolloomooloo, Gulf 'of ' Siam, 
and Patriarch, tracks in which no ice was seen. We may turn 
now to the full account of the ice seen by the Thermopylae in her 
next voyage, February 1897. 

Special account of the Icebergs seen on voyage of the s.s. " Ther- 
mopylae" Capt. A. Simpson, with attendant phenomena. (Cape 
Town to Melbourne) February, 1897.— About 3 p.m. on February 
20th, extra special lookout being kept for icebergs, as I anticipated 
seeing some in this neighbourhood, a very large iceberg was 
observed almost right in the ship's path. Unfortunately we had 
only a small camera (Kodak) on board, but I decided to make the 
most of it, and steered the ship to pass four cables length to the 
south of the berg ; this would make sure of being clear of any 
part of the iceberg that might be submerged, its position would 
approximately be in Lat. 45° 32' S., Long. 46° E. Three officers 
were told off to take frequent and careful angular measurements, 
while the sea-water temperature and the dry and wet bulb ther- 

I i- 



i 4 




3 \ 


Ji L 




1 f 

II _> 


J ^ 


T~ i 





i * T 


-r M 1 ' * 1 j t 1 'A 

mometers were taken every five minutes, (that is every mile as 
we approached and as we receded from the berg) ; beyond a fluc- 
tuation of perhaps half a degree, no definite variation of tempera- 
ture occurred. A mean of the angular observations gave three 
hundred feet high by seven hundred feet by one thousand and 
fifty feet as the dimensions of this berg. 

In this particular part of the ocean the icebergs almost invari- 
ably have table tops which are corrugated and generally yellow, 
the colour being due to numberless birds probably resting on them 
at night. The top of this one being a long way above the line of 
spray even in a very heavy gale. Notwithstanding the long heavy 
swell it showed no signs of rolling or rising to the sea. The debris 
of broken pieces formed a line almost directly to the leeward of the 
berg, in fact every berg we saw had the debris drifting almost 
directly to the leeward of the berg. It would therefore, appear 
to be safer for a sailing ship or steamer, if possible, to go to the 
windward of an iceberg and get clear of the large pieces which 
are in many cases large enough to injure a vessel in case of collis- 
ion. Large flocks of the blue petrel or whale bird seem to enjoy 
flitting about amongst the broken water around; these birds 
require large quantities of food, but their food must consist of 
animalcules which abound on the surface of the sea, as they seldom 
take to swimming on the water. It cannot be the scraps that go 
overboard from a ship that feed the hundreds of large birds now 
following in the wake of the ship. They seem to keep on the 
wing all day without being seen to pick up food of any kind. 

I particularly wished to know if a ship could pass close to an 
iceberg with safety, as I have read so often about ships striking 
against the perpendicular sides, and large masses of ice falling on 
their decks. In every berg with a flat table top there is apparently 
deep water up to the perpendicular sides. The breaking sea 
apparently wears this perpendicular part away quickly. If in 
any part the water is shallow it is clearly discernible, being of a 
milky blue appearance. A sharp loud detonation was heard on 
passing this berg, but no particular attention was given to it as I 

thought it might be some noise on board, but I found that these 
noises were continually occurring, as they were distinctly heard 
from several other bergs we passed fairly close to. They were 
also heard one evening and night proceeding from bergs that had 
not come within our range of vision. I also wished particularly 
to know how far off they could be seen at night, their colour etc. 
in varying atmospheres, and if they would be distinguished from 
breaking seas. During the next five days I had ample oppor- 
tunities to find out, and do not wish another such experience. 
Two able seamen were placed forward, one on each bow, and a 
certificated officer on each side of the bridge besides myself. The 
watch were also alert, and as a matter of fact we saw everything 
that was lying in our direct track and avoided it in ample time, 
but I am quite certain that we must have had several close shaves. 
At one time sixteen bergs were in sight in the darkness, the night 
was starry with passing showers of rain, but with a good lookout 
there was no danger of collision. Of course in foggy weather 
they cannot be seen even in daylight, and fogs prevail on the 
western side of the Crozets due to the cold antarctic ice stream 

At 4 p.m. on February 25th, during the heaviest burst of a 
hurricane which the ship was scudding before, it was barely 
possible to see beyond the length of one wave, and as the sea was 
a white seething mass of spindrift, we were astonished to see a 
high bluish mass towering up a quarter of a mile off four points 
on our port bow, and between it and the ship a large mass half 
the size of the ship above water, but completely buried in spray. 
This could not have been seen at night, as it was exactly like a 
breaking sea, Two more pieces were seen before darkness came 
down on us, but only for a minute or two, on our starboard side. 
I reduced speed to as slow as the ship could go and steer, and put 
my trust in Providence, and at the same time kept a good lookout. 
I think we could then have safely negotiated anything coming in 
the way, it gave us time to observe whether it was a breaking 
wave or a stationary piece of ice. Towards 10 p.m. the weather 

continued to mend, and at our slow speed the risk was greatly 
reduced ; by two in the morning I was able to go ahead again full 
speed, no more ice being seen after this. The position of these 
last pieces were approximately Lat. 47° 30 S. and Long. 80° E. 

From the Crozets eastwards in Lat. 46° S. the icebergs seen by 
me on the last four or five voyages, are apparently breaking up 
fast, and are weather and water worn. They lose the table top 
shape and are either rounded off on the ends or have high pinnacles 
springing up from a broad base awash by the sea. The sea 
temperature almost invariably rises a few degrees five hundred 
miles east of the Crozets, and I have several times noted quite a 
well defined hot stream which the ship will steam over in five or 
six hours in this neighbourhood. At 2 p.m on the 22nd February 
the sea temperature rose to 50° Fah., and continued at 49° for 
over seventy miles, this current undoubtedly sets the ice south 
which had been previously deposited by the antarctic stream into 
Lat. 44° and 45° S. and to the north of the Crozets. The sea is 
apparently not so deep to the north of Kerguelen, and I doubt 
very much if some of these large masses would have water enough 
to pass east unless they were north of Lat. 47° S. 

February 21st, fine clear weather and fresh breeze prevailing, 
I steered for Hog Island, one of the Crozet Group, and sighted it 
at five in the morning, I steered within two miles of the island, 
and coasted along its northern and north-eastern shores. It was 
really a lovely sight, the beautiful autumn tints of green and 
yellow in the morning sunlight were similar to the views of the 
islands on the west coast of Scotland. Snow was lying on the 
top, probably about 2,000 feet above the sea. Albatrosses or molly- 
hawks were nesting all along amongst the grass on the lower parts 
of the island, while on other parts of the island penguins were sitt- 
ing in thousands. There were fewer seals and sea-elephants on the 
beaches, than what I have observed on former visits earlier in 
the year, but still great numbers were on the beaches and around 
the ship. The hut in which the stores are placed for shipwrecked 
sailors seemed intact, and groups of penguins were sitting fear- 


lessly alongside of it, thus showing that no human being was in 
the vicinity. I did not haul the ship out towards the Twelve 
Apostles' Rocks because I was afraid of submerged dangers. I 
examined the tower constructed by the survivors of the British 
ship "Strathmore," and observed the oars still on it, but no signal 
to call any attention was visible by my telescope. I then steered 
for Possession Island and passed abeam of the perforated rock at 
12-25 p.m. Coasting along the northern shores, distant probably 
from one to two miles, we examined the hut containing stores in 
America Bay. The penguins here again, with an occasional seal 
were the only visitors. Snow covered the highlands, and lovely 
streams and waterfalls were in sight in the ravines. I did not 
steam so far round as Ship Cove, where another hut with stores 
is placed, as it means the loss of nearly one hour, and on the north- 
east corner of the island a field of kelp stretches a good bit off the 
point, thus showing that there may be rocky prominences which 
it would be prudent to avoid. A course was set to pass two miles 
off East Island on its northern side ; beyond birds and seals 
nothing else appeared to disturb the solitude. Large masses of 
ice were ashore in most of the bays in nearly all the islands and 
in the offing great numbers of bergs appeared like a continuation 
of the Twelve Apostle Rocks. 

We traversed over 1,500 knots, and if the weather had always 
been clear, we probably would never have been out of sight of ice 
in this long journey, we saw about three hundred bergs over fifty 
feet high altogether, and of course broken masses dangerous to 
shipping were around in all directions. 

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By H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S. Wales, Novembrr 3, 1897.'] 
Within the last few years associations of persons interested in 
the study of auroral displays have been formed, in the countries 
which surround the North Pole, with the common object of inves- 
tigating the phenomena presented. Many new and important 
facts have already been brought to light, and something has been 
done towards connecting the phenomena about the North and 
South Poles. I have done a little by collecting and publishing 
the reported Aurora Australis, but I feel that what has been done 
is not enough, and that if these records are published in our 
Society's volume they will reach a much wider circle, and further 
will, I hope, lead all those who see the Aurora Australis to report it. 

Sailors generally believe that the Aurora is a sign of coming 
bad weather, and they are keen observers. Nearly all the infor- 
mation about displays come to me in ships' logs, but we want also 
the help of those on shore who are in good positions for observing. 
Two of the auroral displays in April this year were unusually 
magnificent, and one of them which I want to bring before you 
this evening was the finest ever seen in the southern hemisphere, 
so far as I have been able to ascertain. 

This was observed by Capt. Campbell Hepwortb, r.n.k., of the 
R.M.S. Aorangi, who sent me the following description of what 
he saw, which reads much more like the description of an aurora 
seen in the far north by arctic observers, than what we should 
expect to be seen between the Cape of Good Hope and Australia, 
where the Aorangi was in 96° East and 47i° South, when the 

light, from this light flashes or rays soon shot upwards, and in 
every direction increasing in length and brilliancy, until at 7 30 
p.m., they were shooting across the sky to within 30" of the 
northern horizon. Cones and circles of light travelled rapidly 
over the whole sky, and flashing beams of intense light darted 
from one to the other. This continued until 8 30 p.m. 

A remarkable change then occurred, the sky being cloudless, 
moon and stars shining brilliantly; an arch of bright green light, 
fading off into yellow, formed over the southern horizon rose 
rapidly to a higher and higher altitude, and was followed by 
similar arches in regular succession, until there were six arches 
quite distinct, their apices being from 10" above the southern 
horizon to 60" above the northern horizon ; these arches appeared 
to be formed of vertical bars of light side by side, thus building 
the arches of light, which varied in width from 5 1 to 20° each, 
and all of them were bright green and yellow at the tops of the 
arches, and of a rosy hue where they touched the horizon. Sub- 
sequently these arches changed their shapes in all parts of the sky, 
forming remarkable bands of light, and in some cases patches of 
light, which in all cases seemed to be fragments of the original 
arches, from the curves they presented, with the exception of two 
places, where the bands seemed to meet at right angles. 

Up to 830 p.m. the flashes of light which came from the 
southern centre of action seemed to shoot along the eastern horizon, 
and then rise up like bands of light on hinges at the north and 
south points of the horizon, sweeping across the sky to the west ; 
after 8-30 the flashes of light seemed to shoot vertically upwards. 
A. circle of light about 30° in diameter now formed about the 
zenith, and the rays of light before referred to seemed to rise up 
to the circle, but did not touch it exactly at right angles, but 
slightly tangential, so much so that they suggested the picture of 
a cyclonic centre with winds blowing tangential ly round it. 1 

Pendent overhead one could see the cloudless blue in the centre 
of the ring-shaped tassel of coloured light. Later a spiral cord of 
light, shewing three perfect coils formed at the zenith, and like 
the ring of light, travelled to westward, while two patches of 
brilliant light, spiral in form like a waterspout, were flaring in 
the west. 

The barometer had been for forty-eight hours prior to the 
display abnormally low, between 28"90 and 28"80 (Board of Trade 
Barometer) and the wind from W.N.W. strong. A fresh to 
moderate gale had been blowing previously. 

In the midst of the grand display just recorded, a remarkably 
bright meteor, starting from Canis Major in the north-west, 
travelled slowly across the sky to the south-west, discharging at 
intervals fragments of colour, and thus adding to the splendour 
of the scene. A special feature of the display must be mentioned. 
It was that all parts of the display had a motion to the west like 
a changing panorama. After 9*15 p.m. the aurora was less 
brilliant, but burst into greater activity a few minutes afterwards, 
more especially in the northern semicircle. The display lasted 
until 9-45, gradually fading after 9*30 p.m." 

This short account was prepared by Commander Hepworth 
hurriedly, while he was getting ready for the first voyage in the 
new service with the Aorangi. He expressed his intention of 
sending a fuller account of the aurora to the Royal Meteorological 
Society, London, as soon as he could find leisure to write it. 

In the mean time the third officer of the Aorangi, with the 
permission of the commander furnished me with the following 
account based on his own observations while on deck, and those 
of the chief, third, and sixth engineers who were very much 
interested in the aurora. 

Mr. Bayldon, third officer, says, "Herewith I send you our account 
of the aurora. It is compiled from the notes I made at the time 
whilst actually watching the scene, and from an account written 
next day, and it has been overhauled by our chief, third, and 

sixth engineers, who were all interested spectators, and nothing 
in the account was allowed to pass unchallenged." 

In conference with Mr. Bayldon before he wrote the account 
for me, I asked him if possible, to compare what he saw with the 
pictures given in " The Aurora Borealis," by Alfred Angot (1896 
London), and the references are to the plates in that work. 

He says, " If the arches in the frontispiece were more regular 
they would fairly well represent the rising of our arches, but ours 
were much farther apart, and were most perfect when near the 
horizon. Figures 2 and 3 resemble the bands of light which we 
noted before 8-30 p.m., but ours were much fainter, and moved 
from east to west as if they were arches pivotted at north and 
south points. Figure 6 resembles many conditions we saw after 
830 p.m., while figure 7 fairly represents the rays we saw radiat- 
ing in all directions from the southern horizon, though with us 
they did not radiate with anything like the regularity and pro- 
fusion shewn in the diagram. Figure 8 resembles very many 
patches of auroral light which we saw after 8 30 p.m., excepting 
the dark lines, which we did not see. The lower point of No. 8 
might answer to what we have called a water spout. Figures 12, 
13 and 14 (without the hook) were many times illustrated, especi- 
ally in the circle and spiral chord, which we have described, 
though we saw nothing approaching figure 13 in grandeur. 

"There is one feature of the illustrations which strikes us all as 
very different from what we saw, and that is they all shew the 
lower edge of the arches as defined and the upper one as shading 
off into drapery. In all that we saw, this was reversed ; with us 
the upper edge was defined and the lower edge shaded away into 

"The aurora first became visible at 6-30 p.m., on April 20th, 1897 
(apparent time at ship), as a bright diffused light in the southern 
horizon, above a heavy bank of cumulus, the sky being perfectly 
clear elsewhere and stars shining brightly. Soon separate and 
distinct beams of light flashed from this diffused light in every 

direction— horizontally, vertically, and obliquely — like electric 
search lights increasing in length, breadth and vividness until, at 
7-30 p.m., the vertical beams reached to within 10° of the northern 
horizon. Faint beams of light during the same time also formed 
in the east, and swept rapidly across the entire sky from east to 
west, passing through the zenith and reaching from the southern 
to the northern horizons. Cones and patches of intense bright 
light also appeared in all directions, discharging beams and flashes 
of light incessantly from one to the other, like electrical discharges 
or lightning. This continued until 8 30 p.m. The moon rose at 
7-18 p.m., and every particle of cloud disappeared, the night being 
very bright and clear with moderate north-west breeze. Barometer 

"At 8-30 a most remarkable change occurred ; until then the 
aurora had been simply composed of white light of homogeneous 
structure, now colours and hues of every description appeared 
suspended vertically in the sky. A narrow arch — the upper 
edge perfect in outline as a rainbow, the lower edge serrated 
and fringed, owing to the difference in length of the beams or 
bars of which it was composed — suddenly appeared 15° above 
the southern horizon of rich green and yellow hues, and rapidly 
rose to a higher altitude. Another of the same description formed 
and followed it, others followed in similar order until there were 
six distinct arches of drapery, the first tier then being about 60 
above the northern horizon. They were long narrow arches from 
5° to 2CT wide and made up of vertical stripes and streams of light, 
like Mr. Angot's frontispiece, w lm-h were suspended in a pendulous 
position in the sky, the upper half of the drapery being bright 
green and yellow, while the lower half was of pink and roseate 
hues. Rapidly the arches changed and contorted into fragmentary 
scrolls of many shapes; in all parts of the heavens other such 
formations appeared cloud-like and evanescent to north, south, east 
and west, in some cases lasting only a few seconds, in others for 
a minute or two ; all of the brightest green, yellow, and roseate 


hues, changing their shape and position with almost inconceivable 
rapidity. Dark arches also were visible. 

" When any such drapery appeared directly overhead, only a 
gorgeously bright, very narrow, sinuous line was presented, but 
when viewed obliquely, the fringe-like depth of the scroll, with its 
different shades of colour was most beautifully apparent. Every 
formation was arranged in some sort of curve or spiral (excepting 
two which formed two distinct right angles); every one directly 
it appeared darted away to the westward, and in every one there 
appeared to some observers to be a rotatory movement amongst 
the coloured particles of which the drapery was composed, whilst 
to others this movement appeared to be wave-like ; horizontal 
flashes continually darted from one nebulous mass to another. To 
add to the splendour of the scene, at 9-10 p.m. a remarkably bright 
meteor slowly passed across the western horizon from Canis Major, 
bursting into many coloured fragments and passing underneath 
several of the fragmentary parts of the aurora. 

"In such an extensive and ever changing panorama it is impossible 
for one observer to accurately describe the many interesting aspects 
which so continually presented themselves, and so rapidly vanished. 
Each one would catch a glimpse of something different, and could 
only form a very general idea of what actually took place. How- 
ever three formations were so brilliant as to be noted by all — 
First, at 9 p.m., when a magnificent circle of light appeared 
directly around the zenith, with a diameter of about 20° formed 
as before of draped rays of beautifully tinted light. Looking 
upwards through this circle it was plainly seen that these rays 
were not strictly perpendicular, but slightly slanting downwards 
from left to right, and the rotatory or wavelike movement of every 
particle was most apparent. Secondly at 9-5 p.m. when a spiral 
scroll of three chords arranged itself round a nucleus a few degrees 
to the northward of the zenith. Thirdly, at 9-15 p.m., when two 
forms of exceptionally bright light appeared like waterspouts 10' 
high in the western horizon, which was probably a perspective 
view of a sinuous line of drapery reaching below the horizon. 

"After 9-17 p.m. the scene lost much of its brilliancy only to 
burst again into magnificent activity at 920 p.m., being brightest 
and most intense in the northern semicircle, and lasting until 9-30 
p.m. After this the splendour gradually faded away, though 
occasional discharges of bright flashes or the appearance of clouds 
of diffused light continued until 9 - 45 p.m., again being of homo- 
geneous nature. 

"Generally throughout the display, first magnitude stars were 
visible, shining through the aurora, though at times its brilliancy 
was so radiant as to totally absorb their light. The moon was 
bright with no halo around. After 10 p.m. the sky rapidly 
clouded over with cirro-cumulus and cumulus, and slight rain fell, 
the breeze falling very light. Throughout the previous day (April 
19), the weather had been cloudy and unsettled, with a fresh 
north-west gale, which gradually moderated on the 20th. During 
the night of the 20th, moderate to light north-west breezes until 
midnight, and then variable southerly breezes prevailed. At 8 
p.m. on the 21st the wind rapidly freshened to a moderate south- 
west gale, which continued until the evening of the 22nd." 

A second display of the Aurora Australis was witnessed 
from R.M.S. Aorangi throughout the whole of the night of April 
23rd, 1897, from 7-15 p.m. until 4 a.m. April 24th, the ship being 
in Lat. 45° South, Long. 119° to 121° East; barometer 3025; 
thermometer 45° F. Owing to the sky being very cloudy, with 
cumulus and showers occurring at intervals, but little could be 
noted of this aurora. A diffused light prevailed over the southern 
horizon throughout the night. At 9 p.m. two arches of more 
intense light appeared above the former southern horizon at the 
altitudes of about 20° and 45°, they were of a pale greenish hue. 
At 11 p.m. bright flashes in a vertical direction were apparent for 
a few minutes, all of a homogeneous structure. Throughout April 
23rd, the wind was gradually moderating from a fresh south-south- 
west to light southerly breeze at midnight. At 8 a.m. on the 
24th it again freshened to a moderate south-south-west gale which 
continued until noon of the 25th. 



. - 


Au ? . 21, 1896 


48 2 

100 21 

Aurora austral is at 

.» 22, „ 

48 1 

101 20 

„ 23, „ 

no other particu- 




46 44 

114 6 

At midnight the 


Jan. 2, 1897 

Damascus .. 

48 9 

107 10 



73 49 

Ditto ditto. 

ol 34 

93 53 

Ditto ditto. 

51 42 

Ditto ditto. 


April 20, " 


47 25 


Ditto ditto. 


A "g- 1. " 

Damascus " 


108 40 

At 8 p.m. cloudy, 
Aurora australis 




By R. T. Baker, f.l.s., Assistant Curator, and H. G. Smith, f.c.s., 
Mineralogist, Technological Museum, Sydney. 

I. — Introduction! 
Schiramel & Co. in their pamphlet under date April 1896, make 
the following statement :— " N^o reliable information of any kind 
can be given concerning the botanical origin of the Australian oil 
which we supply, as it is notorious that the leaves of the different 
varieties of Eucalyptus are no longer kept separate during the 
distilling process in Australia." It is the desire to remedy the 
state of things implied in the above paragraph, that has actuated 
us in entering upon our Eucalyptus oil research, (the first of which 
was read before this Society at its July meeting 1897), and as far 

as New South Wales is concerned, we hope to bring under the 

reproach, at present surrounding the Eucalyptus oils produced 
and exported from Australia. There can be no doubt from the 
above quotation, that the desideratum of future productions of 
the oil is that the botanical origin be authenticated. 

Each species investigated is vouched for, and botanical material 
(leaves, buds, fruits, bark and timber) of the trees, from which 
the leaves were collected under our supervision, are placed in the 
Museum herbarium, for future reference, and to determine any 
botanical queries that may occur. This plan will be adopted 
throughout the series, and with the botanical material each oil 
will be shown in juxtaposition, in the Museum essential oil court. 

In Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Queensland, dis- 
tillations of E. globulus, Labill., E. oleosa, F.v.M., E. Risdoni, 
Hook, f., E. rostrata, Schl., E. cneorifolia, DC, and E. maculata, 
Hook. var. citriodora have been carried on with more or less success. 
In regard to New South Wales very little has been done to 
develope the eucalyptus oil wealth. We hope to show that there 
is one widely distributed species at least in the coastal area of this 
colony, yielding on oil equal in quality to any yet known in 
Australia. Our reasons for dealing with E. punctata, DC, so 
early in the series is, that of the twelve or' more species distilled, 
this one proves so far to be the best. 

To the suggested divisions of the genus Eucalyptus, depending 
upon structural differences, we feel disposed to add another based 
on the chemical constituents of the several trees. 

II.— Histological Notes. 

As our chemical determinations on the oil of this particular 
>pecies resemble those of JS. globulus, Labill., we have histologic- 
al}' compared the leaves of this species with those of E. punctata. 

Had we at first thought to examine the leaves microscopically 
>efore the distillation we should not have been surprised at the 
arge yield of oil, for of the dozen species so investigated not one 

' thoroughly honeycombed " (if 
' glands as this on 
l dried specimens than fresh ones. 

We have almost invariably found that the oil glands are always 
attached to the under side of the upper cuticle of the leaf, so that 
when the two surfaces of a leaf are drawn apart the lower one is 
quite destitute of these organs. To this fact we are inclined to 
account for the singular character that eucalyptus leaves have of 
twisting on their petiole— a fact of which we have long been 
cognisant, but of which we could not hitherto advance any 
explanation. It seems to us very probable that in order to 
prevent the upper surface of the leaves being always exposed to 
the sun's rays it is turned from them by a mechanical contriv- 
ance, the lower surface thus being brought round to bear the 
brunt of the heat, and so protect the oil glands. 

There is, perhaps, little to add to the explanation of Figs. I - 5 
The cuticle shown so distinctly over the oil glands, with Fig. 2 
and 3, is very possibly stretched or extended over that body, and 
thus the cellular walls are more emphasised than in the more 
opaque parts of the leaf, although of course the same structure 
pertains over the whole leaf, but not so easily detected owing to 
the presence of the chlorophyll. In a dried leaf (the drawings 
are from a fresh one) the walls of the chlorophyll bodies are very 

In E. globulus the texture of the leaf is much thicker, the 
palisade layers being much more numerous, and consequently the 
oil glands are not too prominent, nor are they so numerous. The 
cuticle is apparently structureless as compared with that of 
& punctata, the cell walls of which, as delineated, form irregular 
Polygons (mostly hexagons and pentagons). 

Sections of the leaf of E. globulus are given by Baron von 
Mueller in his Eucalyptographia, so that we have not figured our 

own preparations of that species, as our work corresponds in 
almost every particular with his observations. 

The stomata of E. punctata are much smaller than those of 
E. globulus, and require a higher power objective to discern them. 
The transverse section of the leaf requires no further remarks 
than are given in the explanation of the plate. 

Habitat. — The species has a much more extensive range than 
is generally supposed. It extends along the whole coast district 
from Queensland to near the Victorian border, or at least to 
Cambewarra and over the Dividing Range, very possibly well 
into the level country, having been collected by one of us beyond 
Rylstone. Of course for a species to occur over such an area 
as this, one expects to find it designated by several local names, 
but on the whole "grey gum" seems to be its general vernacular. 

III.— The Chemistry of the Essential Oil. 

(a) General remarks. — We submit this research on the oil of 
E. punctata as the first of several good oils obtainable from com- 
mon specie3 of Eucalypts, growing plentifully in this colony, and 
which give an oil comparable with that obtained from E. globulus. 
We wish it to be understood at once, that we have no intention 
to disparage in any way the oil from E. globulus, and we admit 
its excellence ; but this species does not occur to any extent in 
this colony, so that as far as we are concerned, it is not for our 
consideration, except for comparison. But the impression that 
E. globulus, is the only Eucalypt from which a first class oil can 
be obtained is not correct. 

This investigation deals more fully with the products of several 
distillations than will perhaps be necessary in future papers, but 
it enables us to say at once, that the "grey gum " of the Sydney 
district, E. punctata, gives an oil every way equal to that obtained 
from the leaves of any Eucalypt, the composition of whose oil has 
been determined, and we think we shall be able to show that it is 
quite as rich in eucalyptol as that obtained from E. globulus. 

Tin' time has arrived when it is imperative that the percentage 
of eucalyptol in an oil must be of the highest. It is usually con- 
sidered that the therapeutically active agent of eucalyptus oil is 
eucalyptol, and commercially eucalyptol is the constituent required, 
and the value of eucalyptus oil is determined on the amount of 
that body present. Besides, the demand for pure eucalyptol is 
increasing considerably, and everything points to the fact that 
the inferior eucalyptus oils, or those consisting principally of 
terpenes, will become less and less in demand where the oils are 
judged on scientific principles and in an open market. We hope 
that the distillation of these inferior oils for medicinal purposes 
will cease. By these researches we hope to be able to direct 
attention to those trees from which good oils can be obtained, 
and to point out those species that are to be avoided. 

We think that this is the first attempt to obtain an oil from 
the leaves of the "grey gum," E. punctata. It is perhaps 
remarkable that this species should have escaped so long, but 
although much has been done in regard to the oil obtained from 
some of the eucalypts, E. globulus, E. amygdalina, etc., yet, but 
comparatively few species have been touched. Our researches 
justify us in stating that other trees besides E. punctata will 
prove of value as oil yielders. The yield of oil is good, but we 
have made no attempt to treat leaves only, but have taken the 
leaves with terminal branchlets, as described in our previous 
paper on E. piperita. 

The amount of work that has been undertaken in the investiga- 
tion of the essential oils obtained from the eucalypts is very great, 
and the literature on the subject is enormous. Mr. J. H. Maiden, 
F.L.s., has brought together references to most of this in Ins 
Bibliography of Economic Botany, 1 so that it will be unnecessary 
for us to reproduce it here. The severe remarks often made 
respecting eucalyptus oils should be seriously considered. Schimmel 
and Co., in their semi-annual reports, write strongly on this 
l Government Printer, Sydney, 1892. 


matter, and their statements are important, because of their 
reputation. It is not, perhaps, necessary to refer to their earlier 
remarks on eucalyptus oil, so we only quote a few of the state- 
ments made during the last five years. In the 1892 April report 
appears the following : — "We, therefore, for several months, have 
only sold and quoted rectified eucalyptus oils, and guaranteed to 
contain 60-70 per cent, pure eucalyptol, crystallising at - 1 °C. On 
buying eucalyptus oil in the future not only the name but also 
the percentage of eucalyptol should be taken into consideration. 
Eucalyptol is to be considered as the constituent of eucalyptus 
oil, to which its medicinal action must be ascribed." The October 
report of the same year contains the following : — " The opinion 
always maintained by us that the value of commercial eucalyptus 
oils must be determined according to their percentage of eucalyptol 
(cineol), and not by their origin and source, has recently been 
supported also by English experts. A specimen was sent to us 
from another house in Australia under the name 'Oil of 
Eucalyptus crude,' which proved completely worthless. It pos- 
sesses a sp. gr. of 0.8616, boils between 160 and 195°C, contains 
a large quantity of phellandrene, but only small quantities of 
cineol in the highest fractions. The optical rotation is - 52°." 
In October, 1893, they report as follows : — "Under the circum- 
stances the variation in quality of the Australian distillates which 
has once more shown itself lately is more and more fatal to those 
varieties. After a careful sounding of the London market we 
come to the conclusion that about one-half of the oils there 
offered were quite destitute of cineol (eucalyptol), or only con- 
tained the substance in feeble proportions." In April, 1897, the 
following appears : — " In the prevailing brisk competition in the 
supply of this oil between Algiers and Australia the latter seems 
to meet with increasing success. The choice in the purchase of 
this commodity requires some skill and experience, inasmuch as 
the various brands show considerable variations in the percentage 
of eucalyptol. This alone is the sure criterion for the quality and 
value of the various brands, no matter of what botanical origin 
they may be." 

We have quoted the above remarks to give an idea of the exact 
position of the industry, and to show that it is futile to continue 
distilling oils, that by their want of eucalyptol, are of little 

(b) Chemical investigations. — We submit herewith the results 
of the investigations of the oil of ten distillations from the leaves 
of the various trees of E. punctata, and under varying conditions. 
We have taken the leaves of the largest trees in the district 
obtainable, and we have divided the leaves taken from one tree 
into two equal parts, and thus obtained two distillations from the 
leaves of one tree. We have taken the leaves from young trees 
from twenty to thirty feet in height, and in fact under almost all 
imaginable conditions. We have also distilled the oil from the 
leaves taken from "suckers," 1 called by us "young leaves." 

1. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, Sydney, 6th May, 
1897. Distilled 7th May. 
Oil light in colour; odour pleasant; yield 11 9 per cent., or 
100 lbs. of leaves with branchlets gave 19 ounces of oil; specific 
gravity as obtained -9192 @ 17°C; specific rotation [a] D + 2-19. 
On redistillation of 100 cc. a few drops only were obtained 
below 164-2°C. This portion contained aldehydes, the thermo- 
meter then slowly rose to 170 4 o C., when the distillation proceeded 
steadily. The temperatures were read to whole degrees, and 
have been corrected to the nearest decimal. [See table.] 

First fraction, specific gravity = .9127; specific rotation + 3-61. 
Second „ „ „ =-9187 „ „ +1*9. 

Eucalyptol in the crude oil = 60.8 per cent. 
„ „ second fraction = 78 5 „ 

This is an excellent oil, and was from a fair sized tree, all 
leaves being also from one tree. 

was taken to obtain them from the remains of undoubted "grey gums, 
judging from the bark, etc. 

2. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, 5th May, 1897. 

Distilled 7th May, 1897. 
Oil rather dark in colour; odour fairly pleasant; yield -75 per 
cent., or 100 Bbs. of leaves and branchlets gave 12 ounces of oil; 
specific gravity as obtained -9142 @ 17°C; specific rotation [a] D + 

On redistillation of 100 cc. the oil commenced to distil below 
168-4°C, at which temperature five per cent, had been removed. 
This contained aldehydes. [See table.] 

Second fraction, specific gravity -9172; specific rotation + 1-9. 
Eucalyptol in the crude oil = 50 -65 per cent. 

n » second fraction = 67 per cent. 

These leaves were taken from a large tree. 

3. Oil from leaves collected from "suckers," Canterbury. Col- 

lected 10th May, 1897. Distilled 12th May. Mentioned 
in this paper as "young leaves." 
Oil light in colour ; odour pleasant ; yield -63 per cent., or 100 
Bm. of leaves and branchlets gave 101 ounces of oil ; specific gravity 
as obtained 9169 @ 17°C.; specific rotation [a] D + 4'44. 

On redistillation of 100 cc, a few drops only below 161°C, 
when the thermometer slowly rose to 170'4, by which time twelve 
per cent, has distilled. [See table.] 

The residue in still was more fluid, and less dark than was 
generally the case. 

Second fraction, specific gravity -9181 ; specific rotation + 4.35- 
Eucalyptol in the crude oil = 54-4 per cent. 

n >, second fraction = 74.7 per cent. 

From the above it is seen that the young leaves give an 
excellent oil. 

4. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, 11th May, 1897. 

Distilled 13th May. 
Oil darker in colour than usual, tint brownish-yellow inclining 
to orange ; odour pleasant, but not so much so as the lighter oils; 


yield -885 per cent., or 100 lbs. of leaves and branchlets gave 14£ 
ounces of oil; specific gravity as obtained -9205 @ 17° O.J specific 
rotation [a] D -0-92. 

On redistillation of 100 cc. a few drops only below 167-3° C. 
[See table.] 

Second fraction, specific gravity -9185; specific rotation - -92. 
Eucalyptol in the crude oil =51-6 per cent. 

„ „ second fraction = 67*2 per cent. 

Leaves were from a large tree. Although the specific gravity 
is high, the oil is not so good as those that are less dark, and 

5. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, 12th May, 1897. 

Distilled 13th May. 

Oil rather dark in colour, odour pleasant ; yield -75 per cent., 

or 100 lbs. of leaves and branchlets gave 12 ounces of oil ; specific 

gravity as obtained -9129 @ 17° C; specific rotation [aj„+ 1-37. 

On redistillation of 100 cc. more drops came over below 167-3°C 

than usual. [See table.] 

Second fraction, specific gravity -913 ; specific rotation + 126. 
Eucalyptol in the crude oil =48-9 per cent. 

„ „ second fraction =52-9 per cent. 

These were mixed leaves from old trees. Most of the terpenes 

remain in the large fraction, thus reducing the value of that portion. 

6. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, 13th May, 1897. 

Distilled 14th May. 
Oil but slightly coloured ; odour very pleasant ; yield -844 per 
cent, or 100 lbs. of leaves and branchlets gave 13 J ounces of oil; 
specific gravity as obtained -9164; specific rotation [a]„ + 0-54. 

On redistillation of 100 cc. only two or three drops came over 
below 164-2°C, at 1663 commences to come over somewhat 
rapidly. [See table.] 

Second fraction, specific gravity 9183 ; specific rotation + 1 -09. 

Eucalyptol in the crude oil = 64-5 per cent. 

,, „ second fraction = 784 per cent. 

This is an excellent oil, and was from young trees from twenty 
to thirty feet in height. 

7. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, 13th May, 1897. 

Distilled 17th May. 
Oil rather dark coloured, odour pleasant ; yield -734 per cent., 
or 100 Bbs. leaves with branchlets gave 11| ounces of oil ; specific 
gravity as obtained = -9166 (w, 17° O; specific rotation [a] D + 54. 
On redistillation of 100 cc. below 168-4° 0. three per cent, had 
been obtained, this was removed. It contained aldehydes. [See 

Second fraction, specific gravity -9185; specific rotation + -87. 
Eucalyptol in the crude oil =58-4 per cent. 

„ ,, second fraction = 75-5 per cent. 

Mixed leaves from fair sized trees. 

8. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, 8th June, 1897. 

Distilled 9th June. 
Oil almost colourless ; odour quite pleasant; yield -66 per cent., 
or 100 lbs. of leaves and branchlets gave 10£ ounces of oil.; 
specific gravity as obtained -9164 @ 15° C. ; specific rotation 
[a] D + 0-66. 

On redistillation of 100 cc. only two or three drops came over 
below 165-2° C, the mercury then rose rapidly to 167° C. [See 

First fraction, specific gravity = -9072; specific rotation + 1-71. 
Second „ „ „ =-916 „ „ +0-982. 

Eucalyptol in the crude oil - 56-6 per cent. 

„ ,, second fraction = 67 -2 per cent. 

These leaves were taken from a fair sized tree. The rotation 
of the terpenes in the first fraction is small. 

9. Oil from leaves collected near Canterbury, 8th June, 1897. 

Distilled 10th June. 
Oil rather dark in colour, in fact the darkest of the whole of 
the specimens; yield -72 percent., or 100 fts. of leaves and 

branchlets gave 111 ounces of oil ; specific gravity as obtained 
•9122 @ 15° C; specific rotation [a] D - 2-52. 

On redistillation of 100 cc, a few drops only to 1652° C, but 
more than usual to 170-4° 0. [See table.] 

First fraction, specific gravity -9034 ; specific rotation - 3-04. 
Second „ „ „ -9112; „ „ -1-92. 

Eucalyptol in the crude oil =46*4 per cent. 

„ „ second fraction =53-8 per cent. 

These leaves were from a very fine tree, they were divided into 

two parts. The oil from the other part had the same specific 

gravity, specific rotation, and contained the same amount of 

eucalyptol in the crude oil. 

10. Oil obtained by mixing equal volumes of each of the nine oils 

investigated of Eucalyptus punctata, DC. This was done, 

the better to compare the oil from this tree with that of a 

commercial sample of the "blue gum," Eucalyptus globulus, 

received from the Tasmanian Eucalyptus Oil Co. Specific 

gravity at 16° C. = -9153. Specific rotation [a] D + -927. 

On redistillation of 100 cc. a few drops came over below 

167-3° C. It commenced to distil at that temperature, and 

slowly rose to 170-4° C. [See table.] 

This oil is but little coloured, brownish yellow in tint. 

First fraction, specific gravity -910; specific rotation + 2-36. 
Second „ „ „ -9156; „ „ + 1'2. 

Eucalyptol in the crude oil = 55-11 per cent. 

„ second fraction = 626 per cent. 
This oil does not contain phellandrene, but with the nitrite test 
the oil becomes an emerald green colour. It differs in this respect 
from the oil of E. globulus. 

11. Oil obtained from the "blue gum," Eucalyptus globulus, 

Platypus brand. 

Oil light in colour, yellowish in tint; specific gravity, as 
received, -9185 @ 16° C. ; specific rotation [a] D + 3-48. 

On redistillation of 100 cc. a few drops only came over below 
107-3° C. These contained some aldehydes; this portion was 
removed, and the oil then commenced to distil rapidly, fifteen per 
eent being obtained below 1 7U4 C. [See table.] 

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From these results we are enabled to make the following 
announcements, and what is true of the oil of this tree we consider 
to be true of any species of this class of Eucalypt, because we are 
slowly obtaining evidence that the Eucalypts are divisible into 
classes as regards their oil and its quality, as well as into classes 
based on the composition of their kinos, or by their anthers. 

1. Optical rotation of the oils. — The action these oils have on a 
ray of light is not constant, except the leaves be taken from one 
tree. We find that both dextro-rotatory and levo-rotatory oils 
are obtained from trees growing near each other and in the same 
soil. The specific rotation varies from [a] D + 0-54° to +4-44° 
and from -0-92° to -2-52°. The rotation was dextro-rotatory 
in most cases, but the activity was not great in any case. It was 
also found that when the original oil was dextro-rotatory, that 
the first two fractions were also dextro-rotatory, and that when 
the original oil was levo-rotatory that the first two fractions were 
also levo-rotatory, and that the increased rotation of the first 
fraction was that of the original oil, whether levo- or dextro- 
rotatory. The readings were taken in a 200 mm. tube and the 
temperature was near 17° C. The determinations were usually 
made two days after the oil had been obtained. Although the 
oil from the leaves of each individual tree has the same rotation, 
yet, owing to the want of constancy in the rotation of oil from 
several trees as experienced by us in these determinations, we are 
forced to admit that the specific rotation is not of much value 
except for scientific investigation. 

2. Specific gravity of the oils.— -The specific gravity of the 
several oils is not constant, except when obtained from leaves 
growing on the same tree. We distilled oil from a fine tree in 
two separate parcels, and we found the specific gravity of the oil 
to be -9122 in both cases. The oil from another fine tree had a 
specific gravity -9192, while that of another was -9205. The 
specific gravity of the oils from various trees not kept separate 
was about -9165, while that obtained by mixing together equal 
volumes of the oils investigated, was found to be 9153. The oil 

from the young leaves had a specific gravity -9169. The specific 
gravity was taken in a delicate Sprengel pyknometer holding 
about ten grams. From the results of the specific gravity deter- 
minations, as well as the rotations, we find that the oils obtained 
from various trees of one species are not constant. 

3. Yield of oil.— The yield of oil from the several trees is not 
constant, ranging from 1-19 per cent, from the leaves of one tree 
to -63 per cent, from the young leaves. Leaves and terminal 
branchlets were used in all cases, and therefore the results are not 
strictly comparable, because some might have contained less 
branchlets than others, but not sufficient to account for the 
differences obtained. The yield from the 'young leaves' was the 
least obtained, this being contrary to the generally accepted theory. 
The average yield of oil of nine distillations was -796 per cent., 
and the whole weight of leaves taken was 1377 pounds avoirdupois. 

4. Removal of the terpenes. — The terpenes in these oils, both 
dextro- and levo-rotatory, are largely removed below 172-4° C. 
An oil which had a specific rotation [a]„ + 2-19 when redistilled 
gave the following results .-—The fraction (24%) boiling between 
170-4 and 172-4° C. was found to have a specific rotation +3-61° 
while the fraction (60%) boiling between 172-4 and 179-7° 0. had 
a specific rotation + 1 -9° in the same tube. As the distillation 
was stopped at 179-7° C. a portion of the eucalyptol, as well as 
another body whose rotation was also nil, remained in the still, 
and which would have reduced the rotation in the large fraction. 
We thus see that although the dextro-rotatory terpene is largely 
removed below 172-4° C, yet, it is not possible to remove it by 
the one fractional distillation, and the same remark applies with 
almost equal force to the levo-rotatory terpene. 

To account for these different terpenes we advance the follow- 
ing: — The dextro-rotatory terpene is first formed, as the oil from 
the young leaves had a specific rotation +4-44°, but as the age of 
the tree advances this terpene gives place to the levo-rotatory 
form, as the oil obtained from a very fine tree, of a good age, had 

of constancy in tl 

The fractions boiling between 182-8 and 193-2° C. when mixed 
together were found to have no rotation. The redistillations of 
these oils were all made in a small metal still holding about 130 cc. 
the outlet being 1 40 mm. above the surface of the oil, the bulb of 
the thermometer being just below this outlet. The heat was 
obtained from a small bunsen impinging on the bottom of the still 
and the whole enclosed in an outer casing of metal plate. It was 
possible to regulate the temperature with this arrangement 
accurately to one degree, between 170 and 180° C, by careful 
watching and regulation of the heat supply. The temperatures 
were corrected, 2-4° being added to the reading of 168° C, and 
2-8° to that of 180° 0., and 3-2° to 190° C. 

5. The eucalyptol in the oils. — The eucalyptol content of the oil 
is not constant unless the leaves are taken from the same tree. It 
is perhaps remarkable that the oils from E. punctata that are the 
least coloured are the richest in eucalyptol, and as a rule they 
contain the greatest percentage of dextro-rotatory terpenes, and 
the amount obtained when redistilled coming over below 182-8° C. 
is greater than is the case with the darker oils. One oil, a very 
light one, gave 77 per cent, between 170-4 and 182-8° C. while 
another light oil gave 76 per cent, between 170-4 and 179*7° C. 

The percentage of eucalyptol is greater in the fraction boiling 
between 172-4 and 182-8° C. than in that distilling between 171-4 
and 182-8° C, as much as 15 per cent., distilling in some cases 
between 171-4 and 172-4° C. The percentage of eucalyptol ranges 
from 4G-4 to G4-5 in the crude oils; one that gave 608 per cent, 
of eucalyptol gave a fraction boiling between 172-4 and 179-7° 0. 
(60 per cent, of the whole) from which 785 per cent, of eucalyptol 
was obtained, while a crude oil giving 64-5 per cent, of eucalyptol 
gave a fraction between 171*4 and 182-8° C, from which 78*4 
per cent, of eucalyptol was obtained, the difference being accounted 
for by the presence of 15 per cent, boiling between 171'4 and 
172-4° 0. in the latter oil. 


We find that the specific gravity of the oil is r 
the amount of eucalyptol present, as the oil giving the highest 
specific gravity -9205 gave only 51 - 6 per cent, of eucalyptol, while 
an oil whose specific gravity was -9164 gave 64-5 per cent, 
eucalyptol. "We regret that our researches on this oil prevent our 
endorsing the applicability of the ingenious method for the deter- 
mination of eucalyptol in an oil by taking advantage of its physical 
determinations as worked out by Mr. W. Percy Wilkinson. 1 

It is most probable that the Eucalyptus oils are divisible into 
groups, the members of which contain certain specific constituents, 
other than eucalyptol in varying quantities, the physical constants 
of which are not yet worked out. If eucalyptol and one terpene 
were the only consituents present in these oils, their investigation 
would be much simplified. The fraction boiling between 182-8 
and 193° C, and which varies from two to seven per cent, of the 
original oil, contains only a small quantity of eucalyptol, 2 28 per 
cent.; it has no action on light, and probably consists largely of 
an ester partly decomposed by distillation, as an odour of acetic 
acid is readily detected. It will be further investigated. 

It appears to us at present not to be advantageous to rectify 
this oil beyond 183 J C. as the fraction between this and 193° C. 
would tend to lower the eucalyptol content of the large fraction. 
The determinations of the eucalyptol were made by the phosphoric 
acid method, a powerful letter press being used to remove the 
adhering terpenes etc. Most of the determinations were made in 
duplicate, and the more important ones in triplicate, the mean of 
these results being given. 

Determinations under exactly the same conditions were made 
on a sample of the oil of E. globulus, kindly sent to the Museum 
by the Tasmanian Eucalyptus Oil Co., the manufacturers of the 
" Platypus Brand." Three determinations of eucalyptol on this 
oil gave 49-6, 49 8, and 49-9 per cent., while the lowest determin- 


ation with the oil of E. punctata was 46 -4 per cent. As the 
sample of E. globulus was a commercial one, it was of course 
obtained from several trees. The eucalyptol present in the crude 
oil of the nine samples in the table, obtained by adding together 
equal volumes of each, was 55-112 percent., or five per cent, 
better than the sample of E. globulus. The calculations were 
made according to the formula Ci H 18 O, H :! P0 4 . 

6. The colour of the oils.— The oil which was found to be only 
slightly dextro-rotatory, came over at the original distillation 
darker in colour than that which was more dextro-rotatory, this 
being but slightly coloured ; but the oil which was the most levo- 
rotatory was the darkest of any of those obtained. None of the 
oils however were very dark, the darkest being about the colour 
of pale ale, and it was possible to easily take their readings in a 
polarimeter with a 200 mm. tube. We were very much concerned 
at first at obtaining these different coloured oils, as it appeared to 
us unaccountable, as no matter what the pressure of steam, the 
results were the same with the same oil. It is hardly possible, 
therefore, to obtain a colourless oil from mixed leaves of E. punctata 
when distilled commercially by steam, although it may be obtained 
but slightly coloured from some trees, but this is no defect, as all 
oils should be rectified before being used medicinally, and the 
colour remains with the residue, the first two fractions being 
almost " water white." 

We think the colour in some of these oils may be accounted for 
by the presence of two substances boiling between the tempera- 
tures 219 and 261° C, and it appears probable that one of these, 
most likely the larger portion, other than the aldehyde, is derived 
from the alteration of the dextro-rotatory terpene, as this appears 
hardly to exist in the darker oils. 

The residues of the several distillations boiling above 193° C. 
were collected, and 50 cc. taken for further distillation ; only a 
few drops were obtained below 219° C, (these were removed). 
Between this and 240' 0. } cc. was obtained. 

From 240 to 245° 0. 4 cc. had been obtained 

N 245 „ 251 7 

„ 251 „ 256 8 

» 256 „ 261 10 
The mercury then continued to fall although the heat was 
increased. We have thus obtained nearly 10 cc. boiling between 
240 and 261° C. from 50 cc. of original residues which represent 
from 800 to 1000 cc. of the original oil, so that these bodies are 
present to the extent of about one per cent, in the original oil 
taken collectively, and as we consider that the colour of the oil is 
partly due to these bodies, and as the colour is almost absent in 
some oils, we think that they are present in greater quantity in 
the older trees. 

The specific gravity of this distillate was found to be 9361. It 
was treated with acid sulphite of soda, when a small quantity of 
a crystalline compound was obtained, showing the presence of an 
aldehyde. The mixed bodies have somewhat the odour of cumin 
oil, which is much more pronounced in the regenerated substance. 
As cuminic aldehyde boils at 237° C, we think we are justified in 
stating that this substance is present in a very small quantity in 
this oil. 

The remaining body removed from the aldehyde has a very 
pungent odour, and when diffused sufficiently not at all unpleasant. 
This odour becomes less marked after some time, further altera- 
tion evidently taking place. It is of a deep orange brown colour, 
is an oil, and no signs of crystallisation are apparent. We hope 
eventually to obtain sufficient material to further investigate it. 
As there is a connection between the constituents of the species 
of the genus Eucalyptus, we may perhaps obtain it in larger 
quantities from the oil of other species. We hardly think it can 
be closely connected with the other constituents of the oil, as the 
differences in boiling points are too distinct, very little oil being 
obtained between 193 and 240° C. 

As the levo-rotation of the oil increases the eucalyptol appears 
to exist in less quantity. 

The best fraction for eucalyptol content appears to be that 
obtained from the lighter coloured oils, consisting of about 60 per 
cent, of the crude oil, distilling between 172-4 and 182-8° C, but 
as from 10 to 15 per cent, distils between 171-4 and 172-4° C, 
much of which is eucalyptol, it is questionable whether this could 
be dispensed with commercially. If added to the large fraction 
the eucalyptol content would certainly be diminished, and this 
also applies to that portion boiling between 182-8 and 193-2° C, 
although this would increase the specific gravity, it having a sp. 
gr. -9253 at 16° 0. The greatest quantity of this latter, however, 

obtained, so that the loss would not be great if this portion was 
discarded. That portion boiling below 171° C. should not be 
added to the rectified oil because of the predominance of terpenes 
boiling at a low temperature, and because of the presence of 

The product of crude distillation of all eucalyptus oils should 
not be used medicinally as such, but the oil should be rectified, 
principally for the following reasons : — 

1. Aldehydes appear always to be present in a greater or lesser 
amount in the oil as first distilled, and these bodies are considered 
very objectionable, are cough producing, and in affections of the 
respiratory organs should not be used. They are not difficult to 
remove, as they generally boil at a lower temperature than that 
of the principal constituents of the oil, and can thus be readily 
got rid of. 

2. A portion of the terpenes boiling below the temperature 
required to distil eucalyptol can also be removed, thus consider- 
ably increasing the eucalyptol content in the portions boiling at a 
higher temperature. 

3. The higher oxidised portions boiling above 193° C. are 
removed ; the colouring matter of the original oil is also retained 
in the residue, so that we obtain by rectification a clear, almost 
colourless product. The residue also retains those portions of a 

sticky nature that are not volatile. The distillate boiling below 
193° C. is entirely volatile, while the crude oil is not so. 

4. The large fraction, consisting of about 60 per cent, of the 
original oil of E. punctata, is, by such rectification, improved to 
such an extent as to consist very largely of eucalyptol. This oil 
does not contain phellandrene, and is practically as good as it is 
possible to obtain eucalyptus oil commercially, and removes the 
necessity, to a large extent, for the use of pure eucalyptol, parti- 
cularly when the expense of the latter has to be taken into 

IV.— Explanation of Figures. 
K punctata, DC. 
Fig. 1— Part of a leaf with the lower surface removed, showing 
the oil glands— some with the oil globule and some 

„ 2— An oil gland under a higher magnifying power than No. 1, 

the cell being empty. 
„ 3— A portion of No. 2 still further magnified ; the sphere 

represents the oil globule enclosed in the cell. 

„ 5— Transverse section of a leaf. a. epidermis, upper surface. 

(empty), d. lysigenous oil cell containing globule of 
oil. e. stomata. /. palisade layers. g. spongy 
tissue, h. small vascular bundles. 
Acknowledgments.— We beg to tender our sincerest thanks to 
the following gentlemen who have assisted us in various ways in 
the preparation of this paper :— Dr. R. N. Morris, Superintend- 
ent of Technical Education, for every assistance by placing the 
resources of the Technical College at our disposal; Rev. J. Milne 
Curran, f.g.s., for the micro-photographs of timbers ; Mr. C. E. 
Finckh, for section cutting of the leaves; Mr. M. Connelly, for 
photographical work ; Mr. O. Blacket, for timber tests : Mr. F. 
Camroux and Mr. H. T. Gould, Manager Tas. Euc. Oil Co., for 
sample of E. globulus oil. 


~Ectr28 cj&e ^a4^^J^ ^tmda/d ,^c^i4> 


By Professor Warren, m. inst.c.E., m. Am. soc. c.E., wh. So., and S. H. 


[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, November 3, 1897.] 

1. Object of the present tests.— The series of tests described in 
the following paper were undertaken with the view of determin- 
ing the effect which temperature has on the tensile and compres- 
sive properties of copper. The tests were made on specimens of 
hot-rolled copper 1 kindly supplied by Mr. W. Thow, M. Inst. c.E., 
Chief Locomotive Engineer to the N. S. Wales Government Rail- 
ways, under whose directions the test pieces were prepared in the 
Eveleigh Workshops. The dimensions and relative proportions 
of the test pieces are shown in Fig. 1 . 

2. Apparatus and methods adopted.— In arranging for the tests 
the two conditions to be complied with were— (a) It should be 
possible to conveniently vary the temperature over a large range, 
and to keep it constant at any part of the range for a considerable 
time, (b) The apparatus used should not interfere with the truly 
axial application of the stress, especially in the compressive tests. 
These conditions seemed to be best met by the adoption of a cast 
iron bath of considerable capacity, having at each end a loosely 
fitting stuffing-box, through which the necessary connection could 
be made with the test piece in the bath. The general appearance 
of the bath for the tensile and compressive tests is shown in Fig. 
1 and Fig. 2 respectively. The tests were made on one of 
Greenwood and Batley's machines of 100,000 lbs. capacity. To 
secure the axial application of the stress in the tensile tests special 
spherical bearings, as illustrated in fig. 3 were designed for this 
machine by Prof. Warren, for the purposes of these tests, and the 

1 See Appendix. 

same end was attained in the compression tests by the use of an 
ordinary cup bearing. 

The oil used in the majority of the tests was a very heavy 
cylinder oil guaranteed not to "flash" at 700° F., and which proved 
in every way satisfactory. For a few of the tests at the lower 
temperatures the oil was replaced by a mixture of ice and water, 
or ice and salt. The actual range of temperature attained was 
from 25° F. to 535° F. The temperatures with the exception of 
those in the neighbourhood of the freezing point were measured 
by means of a mercurial thermometer, graduated to two degrees 
and reading to 600° F. The readings of this thermometer up to 
410° were compared with those of two mercurial thermometers pro- 
vided with Kew certificates, and it was found to have a small 
negative error in the neighbourhood of 100° diminishing to zero 
at about 300°, and increasing to a small positive error in the 
neighbourhood of 400°— the maximum error being two degrees. 
From 420° to 500° it was compared with a nitrogen thermometer 
reading to 900° F., but not certified. As however the relative 
readings of the two were uniform over this range, there is no 
reason to suspect the presence of any errors, but such as are 
negligible for the purposes of these tests. 

The extensions and compressions in the majority of the tests 
were measured by a special modification of Kennedy's well known 
lever-extensometer. This instrument is provided with a scale 
reading nominally to -0001 inch, but it was calibrated by com- 
parison with a Brown and Sharpe micrometer calliper, and the 
scale values so obtained were used in plotting the stress-strain 
curves. In three tests, c 
the strains were measure) 
meter reading to -0001 mm. This instrument and its proper 
method of use have already been brought before the Society. 1 The 
autographic diagrams were obtained by means of the apparatus 
attached to the Greenwood and Batley testing machine. 

The general method of making a test was as follows : — the 
specimen having been placed in position in the bath, a slight load 
(approximately 200 fibs.) was applied in order to keep everything 
"taut" and in line. Then the extensometer or autographic 
apparatus was attached, as the case might require, and the bath 
was filled with oil to within a short distance of the top. By 
means of two gas kettle boilers the oil was heated to the required 
temperature — a process occupying from some twenty minutes for 
the lower temperatures, to three hours for the highest. It was 
found possible in the majority of the tests, by regulating the gas 
flames to maintain the temperature of the oil practically constant 
at any point, the variation not being more than one or two degrees 
on either side of the mean. The oil being thus maintained at the 
required temperature, the load was uniformly increased, and the 
readings of the stress-strain apparatus were taken at equal 
intervals of load. In those tests in which the specimens were 
actually broken, the gas was extinguished a little before the 
ultimate stress was reached to avoid the risk of some of the hot 
oil being thrown into the flame by the shock. 

3. Expansion of test piece by heat. — It was easily observable by 
the gradual raising or lowering of the " floating" lever of the testing 
machine, that during the heating of the bath the initial stress, 
referred to above, was markedly increased or diminished (in the 
compressive and tensile tests respectively) by the expansion of 
the test piece, and this more especially of course at the higher 
temperatures. A rough measure of the coeificient of linear expan- 
sion of copper was obtainable by observing the variation in the 
reading of the extensometer-lever, as the temperature rose. This 
could of course be only of the nature of a rough approximation, 
since the extensometer frames could not be kept at a constant 
temperature. No alteration in the total stress applied to the test 
piece is caused by this action ; it will only modify slightly the 
rate and method of application of the stress at the lower loads. 
A slight error is introduced by the expansion, inasmuch as the 
dimensions of the specimen when being tested at a high tempera- 

ture differ from those actually measured at the ordinary tempera- 
ture. Taking the extreme case, in which the increase of tem- 
perature is 500° F., and assuming the linear coefficient of expan- 
sion, per degree Fahrenheit, of copper to be -0000095 or -00475 
per 500°, the following statement shows the error involved in the 
particular case of compression pieces 13 - 25, and will serve as an 
illustration for the whole series. 

Original 5 000 1-375 1-485 

Final 5024 1-381 1-498 

This error being negligible for the purpose in hand, and being 

the greatest that can occur, will not be further referred to in the 

following enquiry. 

4. Temperature and ultimate tensile strength. — The variation of 
the ultimate tensile strength with temperature is shown in the 
following table, and the results are plotted in Fig. 3. 

In the above table No. 1 is not included, as the dimensions 
of the test piece differed altogether from those of the other tests. 
Nos. 41-36 were tested without any re-heating or re-stressing. 
Nos. 3 and 31 were tested in air ; the mean value of the two 
tests is indicated on the diagram. The remaining four, Nos. 7 - 
4, were first stressed beyond the elastic limit, then their temper- 
ature was brought back to the normal, then they were re-heated 
(or cooled) and stressed to the breaking point. They are not 
shown in the diagram, but it will be found that they confirm 
fairly the position of the curve as shown. 

It is evident that, at least within the temperature range covered 
by the tests, the tenacity may satisfactorily be represented by a 
straight line curve whose equation is approximately 

/ = 32000 - 21 t 
where/ is the ultimate strength in lbs. per square inch, at a 
temperature t° F. Prof. Unwin states 1 that he has found approxi- 
mately that 

/= 33,150 - -03136 (t - 60) 2 
but as the data upon which the equation is based are not supplied, 
no comparison is possible. The well known experiments made by 
a Committee of the Franklin Institute 2 between the years 1832 
and 1837 embraced a range of temperature of from 100° to 1100°F., 
and the results obtained, although somewhat irregular, may be 
approximately represented by a straight line curve, a portion of 
which is shown in Fig. 3, for purposes of comparison. The 
rate of decrease of tenacity with increase of temperature does not 
differ greatly from that obtained in the present series of tests, 
although the absolute tenacity of the material was slightly greater. 

Evidently the straight line curve if continued, will cut the axis 
of temperature at a point some 500° below the melting point of 

__ r „atures Fahr. 

Abscissae — Ultimate strength lbs. per sq. inch. 

Curve A.— Present Series. 

Curve B.— Franklin Institute Series. 
copper ; hence the above expression for the tenacity at any tem- 
perature can only be used for temperatures within the range 
covered by experiment — i.e. up to 500° F. certainly, and, relying 
upon the Franklin Institute results, up to 1000° F., probably. 

5. Temperature and percentage elongation. — Before being tested, 
the working length of test pieces, Nos. 32-38, and 41, 42, was 
marked off into quarter inches, and the general elongation was 
thus distinguished from the total, according to Tetmaier's method. 
In the other tensile tests only the tota" ' 
The following table summarises the r 
Table II. 

:>ngations were obtained. 

:J ~ 88 86-4 8*0 81 57 508 

42 500 I 30-0 277 

[t is evident from these figures that besides temperature, there 
other, and probably uncontrollable, conditions which affect 
s elongation. Although the curves (Figs. 4 and 5) of total and 

general elongation are consequently but ill-defined in position, 
they yet indicate the probable presence of a maximum elongation 
at a temperature of approximately 200° F. It would not seem 
possible however to specify any particular percentage of elongation 
which a test specimen of copper should comply with. 

6. Temperature and contraction of area. — The contraction of 
area as measured on test pieces, Nos. 1-11, varied from 37 to 
63 per cent., but the method of variation with temperature was 
exceedingly irregular, it being impossible to deduce any simple 
relationship between the two quantities. As in the case of the 
percentage elongation, the results when plotted appeared to 
indicate the presence of a maximum contraction of area at a 
temperature of 200° to 250, but the conclusion could not be relied 
upon with any degree of certainty, and for that reason the curves 
are not reproduced. 

7. Temperature and rate o'f permanent elongation. — Autographic 
diagrams were taken in tests 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 41 and 42, and 
these are reproduced in Fig. 6, with the exception of 2 and 3, 

in which the autographic apparatus failed, and also of 8 in which 
the test was stopped before the piece broke, for the sake of 
obtaining a desired museum specimen. The rate of permanent 
elongation evidently increases rapidly as the temperature rises, 
and the ' yield point ' shows a corresponding diminution. Since 
the abscissa of the final point of each curve gives the elongation 
for the corresponding test piece, a curve drawn through these 
points would correspond approximately to the curve of elongations 
referred to in >< 5. 

8. The elastic limit in tension. -The stress-strain curve for a 
tensile test, No. 31, obtained by means of Marten's mirror extenso- 
naeter, shows clearly the el id by the point of 

departure of the curve from proportionality of stress and strain 
(Fig. 7, curve C). This limit occurs at about 5,400 lbs. per 


^ Tf 

4 Z - 


i i - 












: s' 


' i 




'2 r 









. •/" / 







in 7 





\ \_l 




i r ».. 

square inch. It being impossible to use the Marten's apparatus 
for tests in the oil bath, tests 32-38 were carried out with 
Kennedy's apparatus at temperatures ranging from 33° to 518°, 
(see Table I.), in order to determine the relation between tem- 
perature and elastic limit. These tests gave negative results, 
inasmuch as they failed to show, with certainty, any simple 
relation between the two quantities, and for this reason the tables 
and curves are not reproduced. From four of the above tests the 
inference would be drawn that the elastic limit decreased regularly 
with increase of temperature (as would probably be expected), but 
since all the tests were made with equal care, and since the 
remainder of the tests do not confirm the inference, the only con- 
clusion to be drawn is that the elastic properties of copper differ 

particular set 

Temperature and per- 

corresponding autographic 
diagrams obtained, on cylin- 
ders of the dimensions stated 
below, in order to determine 
the effect which a change in 
the temperature has upon 
the permanent compression 
produced by any particular 
stress. The autographic dia- 
grams are reproduced in 
Fig. 8. 





1-1 CO 

















•198 02 [ 

41830 -943 

It is evident that the copper is rendered much 
the increase of temperature. The 'yield point,' or 
departure of the autographic diagram from the ve 


by increase of temperature, but it is not possible* to deduce from 
the curves the exact relationship between the two. The behaviour 
of a metal such as copper, under gradually increasing stress, is 
well illustrated by Fig. 9, which is the autographic stress-strain 
record of test 18. In this test the load was first increased up to 
a point, a little past the elastic limit, at which marked plastic 
deformation, corresponding to permanent shortening of length and 
increase of area, was evident. The load was then removed and 
re-applied, but no further change in the test piece took place till 
the maximum load previously applied was reached, the previous 
increase of area being sufficient to reduce the stress per unit area 
to a value lower than was necessary to produce plastic flow. 

10. The elastic limit in compression. — Two compressive tests, 
Nos. .53 and 54, were made on cylindrical test pieces approximately 
five inches long and an inch in diameter, with Marten's mirror 
apparatus, to determine the position of the true elastic limit and 
the shape of the stress-strain curve at low loads. The observations 
as taken are given in Table IV., and the corresponding curves 
are plotted on Fig. 7, B and C. 

On examining curve B, the position of the points at the lower 
loads would indicate that the stress-strain line was curved con- 
tinuously, and that there was therefore no definitely marked elastic 
limit. To check this, test 54 was made, in which the load was 
reduced at different points of the test, and observations were taken 
as to whether the test piece perfectly recovered itself. As will 
be seen in the table, the recovery up to a load of 1500 fi>s. was 
perfect ; beyond that load the matter is doubtful, as the point "c" 
at a load of 2000 lbs. appears to show a slight permanent set 
(which may however, be due to an error of observation), whereas 
the point "c" at 3000 lbs. shows an apparent perfect recovery 
(which again may be due to an error of observation). The uncer- 
tainty is however confined within fairly narrow limits, so that the 
elastic limits as shown on curves B and C are probably not subject 


r = e 9^ h °remperit e 



-Length of Tw*i 
= -997. Temperature of air 

file Readings. 

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/ of Results.— The results of the investigation may 
be summarized thus :— (a) The relation between the ultimate 
tensile strength and the temperature may be very closely repre- 
sented by the equation / = 32000 - 21 t, where / is the tensile 
strength expressed in pounds per square inch, and t is the temper- 
ature expressed in degrees F. (b) Temperature does not affect 
the elongation or contraction of area in any regular manner : and 
at any one temperature the variation in these two quantities is so 
great for different specimens that no particular percentage 
could be included in a specification for the supply of copper, (c) 
The elastic limit in tension occurs at about 5,400 lbs. per square 
inch at a temperature of 57° F.: this limit probably decreases 
rapidly with increase of temperature, but the differences in the 
behaviour of individual specimens are so great as to prevent the 
determination of the relationship between the two quantities, (d) 
The elastic limit in compression occurs at about 3,200 lbs. per 
square inch at a temperature of 57° F. : it decreases with increase 
of temperature, the relationship between the two being more 
regular than in the tensile tests, (e) The rate of permanent 
i increases rapidly with increase of tem- 
i by the autographic s 

By W. J. Clunies Ross,,Jo«d., p.g.s. 
[Communicated by J. H. Maiden, F.L.8.] 
[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, November 3, 1897.'] 
All residents in Bathurst are familiar with the Bald Hills, which 
form a prominent feature to the south-west of the city. They are 
the sources of the blue metal used for making the streets, and the 
columns of basalt are used for kerbs for gutters and for corner- 
posts. Being so well-known as basalt-capped hills, they have not 
escaped the notice of geologists. The late Government Geologist, 
Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, alluded to them, and said that the basalt 
came from Swatchfield. The Rev. J. M. Our ran has described 
the petrological characters of the rock in his paper dealing with 
the geology of Bathurst, 1 and also in his prize essay " On the 
Microscopical Characters of New South Wales Rocks." 2 Lastly, 
the writer dealt with their character in his paper "On the Geology 
of Bathurst." 3 

Although, however, a good deal of work has been done in con- 
nection with the petrological characters of the basalt, very little 
attention seems to have been paid to the chemical composition of 
that or of the other Bathurst rocks, especially in the way of com- 
parison with those of other centres. 

Now the microscopic characters of a rock are very important 
for giving one a knowledge of its structure and mineral constitu- 

1 "A Contribution to the Geology and Petrography of Bathurst, N. S. 
Wales."-Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, ser. 2, Vol. «., pp. 173-234; 
sep. copies pub. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1891. 

2 "A Contribution to the Microscopic Structure of some Australian 
Eocks."— Sep. copies, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1892. 

highly desirable that the knowledge thus gained 
1 by a chemical examination. I therefore 
determined, about two years ago, to commence a series of analyses 
of the various rocks of the district and also to have microscopic 
slides prepared from the same specimens, so that there might be 
no mistake as to the rock to which a particular analysis referred. 
A collection of rocks was sent to England to be cut by a very 
skilful workman, and I commenced my analyses of the pieces which 
I retained. Owing to the pressure of official work, however, I 
could only give a limited amount of time to analytical work, and 
as rock analysis is rather tedious, I found it would be a long while 
before I should be able to obtain anything like a complete series 
of analyses. I therefore decided to drop the granites and similar 
rocks for the time, and to confine myself to the basalts. 

The results obtained so far appear to be of considerable interest 
and worth placing on record. Basalts have been examined from 
various parts of the Bald Hills, from Mount Apsley and Mount 
Pleasant, two outliers in the neighbourhood, and from Rock 
Forest, a locality on the Macquarie River, about twelve miles 
below Bathurst. For comparison with these, sections of basalt 
from Oberon, thirty miles south-east ; Orange, thirty-six miles 
west ; Blayney, twenty miles south-west j and Kiama, have been 
obtained and at any rate partial analyses made. For the most 
Part, T have confined my attention to determining the silica, 
alumina, oxide of iron, lime, and magnesia, these being the con- 
stituents of most interest in a basalt. 

In order to give a clear idea of what has been done, it will 
perhaps be well to describe briefly the various rocks examined, 
and then consider some of the questions which arise in connection 
with them. In order to render one's remarks intelligible it will 
be necessary to give some particulars which have already appeared 
in print in the various papers to which allusion has been made. 
Mode of Occurrence of Bathurst Rocks. 

To commence with the rocks in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Bathurst. It will be seen from the sketch map that the main 

mass of basalt is of considerable extent, about three miles in 
length by about a quarter to a third of a mile in breadth, having 
a general north and south trend, with a bend to the west at the 
northern extremity and a smaller one in the same direction at 
the southern end. It forms a connected whole, except for a small 
interruption where the road from Perth to Evan's Plains crosses 
the hills, and there are two small pinnacle hills with a thin cap 
of loose boulders of basalt, in the direction of Mount Apsley. 
The base of the basalt undulates gently round the hills, but is on 
the whole tolerably level, although it is difficult to determine the 
exact junction with the drift which underlies it, owing to loose 
earth and boulders having rolled or been washed down the sides. 
At the nearest point to the city, the base of the basalt is about 
four hundred and fifty feet above the Bathurst Court House, 
which has been taken as a datum level. The Court House is 
just about fifty feet above the Bathurst Railway Station, which is 
two thousand one hundred and fifty-two feet above sea level, so 
that the datum is, roughly, two thousand two hundred feet above 

The highest part of the Bald Hills is from six hundred and fifty 
to seven hundred feet above the datum, making the thickness of 
the basalt at least two hundred feet over much of the hills. The 
upper part is more or less weathered into large blocks and irregular 
columns, with earthy matter between, and the basalt was once 
probably considerably thicker than it is now. The lower part is 
columnar wherever it can be seen, but is only visible in quarries 
as a rule. There are fortunately, however, quite a number of 
small quarries around the side of the hills between Perth and 
Bathurst. By far the most extensive exposure is that at the 
quarry opened by the Corporation of Bathurst in order to obtain 
"blue metal" for the streets. This has only been opened a few 
years, but already there is a fine face about fifty feet in height. 
The upper part of the face is columnar, but the columns are much 
weathered and broken, only about sixteen feet at the bottom 
shewing tolerably perfect specimens. The floor of the quarry is 


four hundred and seventy feet above datum and does not reach 
the base of the basalt. A photograph of this quarry is exhibited. 
Another very interesting section of the basalt is that exposed 
in the shaft sunk by Mr. James Dewar, with aid from the pros- 
pecting vote, to test the underlying drift. The shaft is not far 
from the Corporation quarry, but at a higher level, about five 
hundred and sixty feet above datum. The following is a list of 
the rocks passed through in sinking : — 

Decomposed basalt 25 ft. 

Solid basalt 66 „ 6 in. 

Columnar basalt ... ... ... ... 15 „ 

Total basalt 106 ft, 6 in. 

Beneath basalt— White sandy clay ... ... 5 ,, 

Very fine white sand ... 5 „ 

Tough yellow clay ... ... 2 ,, 

Conglomerate 1 „ 

Wash, carrying fine gold ... 2 ,, 

Total depth of shaft to granite ... ... 121 ft. 6 in. 

A tunnel has been driven from the bottom of the shaft to th 
south-east. This commenced in granite, but the drift was after- 
wards met with and, after driving seventy feet on the level, it 
was carried in a sloping direction, following the wash down. The 
gravel is coarser than at first and still carries fine gold but is not 
payable as yet. The drive has since been continued and is now 
(October, 1897) one hundred and thirty feet from the shaft. The 
drift has been followed to a depth of one hundred and fifty feet 
from surface and is a coarse red gravel. 

Beneath the basalt there is drift all round the hills. It is of 
variable thickness, and composed almost wholly of well rolled quartz 
pebbles. At Mr. Dewar's shaft it is fifteen feet thick and becomes 
deeper in the tunnel. Good exposures are uncommon, but about 
a mile to the south of the Corporation quarry a tunnel was driven 


about twelve years ago. This cut the drift at some distance from 
the opening, but the roof fell in, and although attempts have since 
been made to reach the lowest layers of drift they have not been 

Near the top of the saddle-shaped hill above Perth (A), on the 
Evan's Plains side, there is a very compact conglomerate, with 
siliceous cement. It occurs in large massess on the hillside, but 
cannot be followed far, as both basalt and drift have been denuded 
away from the depression where the road from Perth to Evan's 
Plains crosses. On this same hill the granite occurs at a height 
of over five hundred feet, but a short distance away the basalt 
appears to be in situ at a much lower level. On following the 
five hundred feet level round towards Bathurst one again meets 
with the compact conglomerate, but again only for a short 
distance, and, as blocks of it may be found on the other side of 
the hills, it probably passes across as a band under the basalt. 

Although the basalt in some quarries appears to be lower than 
the drift close to it, I have never found basalt underlying drift, 
or any evidence of successive flows of lava at considerable in- 

Mr. Curran mentions 1 the varying number of sides shewn by 
the basalt columns, and measured the angles. So far as my ex- 
perience goes, regular hexagons are rare. He did not find any 
instance of the ball and socket arangement of jointing, so well- 
known in some basalts. It is certainly uncommon, but a column 
in the Bathurst Technological Museum shews a very fair ball 
joint, and the corners seem to indicate the tenons also well known 
to occur. After twelve years searching, 1 have been unable to 
Hnd a fossil of any kind, except specimens of silicified wood, in 
any of the Bathurst drifts. The silicified wood is dull and opaque. 
T have not seen any examples of opalised wood, although good 
specimens are obtainable from Orange. 

On following the basalt in its westerly trend, at the northern 
end, one passes off the basalt for a short distance, and then 


reaches the conical hill (G) with a thin capping of basalt. Beyond 
this there is another similar hill which has lost its cap. There is 
then a gap of about a mile, and, after crossing the Blayney road, 
one comes to another outlier of basalt at Mount Apsley, or 
" Cherry Tree," as it is often called. This is rather an interesting 
hill. The top is about five hundred and twenty feet above datum, 
and the basalt is from fifty to one hundred feet thick. The drift 
underlying it may be well seen in two tunnels which have been 
driven in the hope of finding gold. As usual the pebbles are of 
quartz, well rounded, and there are also some large floating boulders 
of granite, several feet in length, but much decomposed. Only 
fine gold was found in the tunnels, but from some of the neigh- 
bouring gullies very fair gold has been obtained. 

Beyond Apsley, to the south-west, there is a conical hill with a 
capping of drift, but only a few boulders of basalt. Following 
the same line we pass over an undulating country, and after about 
two miles reach the last outlier of basalt in the neighbourhood of 
Bathurst. This is generally known as « The Mount," from the 
well known residence of Mr. James Stewart at its foot. It is 
also called Mount Pleasant, although the village of that name is 
shewn on the parish map as some little distance away. There is 
a considerable descent from Apsley to the mount, the top of the 
latter being only about two hundred and fifty feet above Bathurst. 
The basalt is very compact, but, as no quarries have been opened, 
it is difficult to obtain fresh specimens, or to be confident about 
its thickness, especially as the drift appears to be very thin. It 
may be estimated as about one hundred feet thick. 
Petrological Characters. 

Macroscopically the basalt is a blue-black, fine grained rock, 
but varies somewhat in texture, the basalt from some of the lower 
quarries and from Mount Apsley being the coarsest. There are 
nests of crystals of a green colour in some specimens, which T 
should have taken for olivine, but Mr. Curran appears to consider 
them as augite. A good nuini>< r of mud 11 zcolitic spots are seen 
in some of the quarries, but they effervesce freely with acid and 


are probably calcite. Under the microscope the rock is uniformly 
micro-porphyritic. The porphyritic constituents are augite and 
olivine, with a few moderate sized felspars. Most of the felspar, 
however, exists as very small lath shaped crystals scattered 
through the ground mass. They are gathered round the larger 
crystals and shew flow structure beautifully. Mr. Curran has so 
well described the crystals in detail that it is unnecessary to 
repeat. He considers the magnetite, which is abundant, to be a 
primary constituent of the basalt, it having been one of the first 
minerals to crystallise out from the magma. It occurs enclosed 
within the augite and olivine crystals, and occasionally, in the 
larger felspars. Much of it, however, is scattered through the 
ground mass. I am inclined to think that it may have a patho- 
logical significance, and be a result of alteration in the rock. It 
certainly appears to me that the crystals in which magnetite is 
present are clearer and lighter than those in which none appears. 

There appear to be no cases in which felspar is actually included 
in the augite or olivine, although in some cases felspar and one of 
the other minerals have mutually interfered with one another's 
development. The basalt cannot be considered of the ophitic 
type, but rather of a granulitic character. Professor Judd 1 
considers that the ophitic type of structure is characteristic of 
basalts which have solidified with perfect internal equilibrium, 
while the granulitic type indicates internal movement during 
consolidation. The flow structure being so well shewn in our 
rock, this view of the granulitic structure is confirmed. 

Mr. Curran has had thirty slices cut from the Bald Hills and 
Mount Pleasant basalt, and mentions the localities from which 
his specimens were obtained. My own specimens have been 
obtained from different localities and mainly from those marked 
B, C, D, and E on the map. Locality B, is at the highest 
part of the Bald Hill, near Perth, about seven hundred feet 
above Bathurst. A shallow quarry exists there and the freshest 



specimens were chosen for examination. The rock is a good deal 
weathered, but presents the usual appearance of a porphyritic 
basalt under the microscope. 

C. This is one of the quarries in the columnar basalt, at a 
height of five hundred and twenty feet. It is much fresher and 
rather coarser grained, otherwise it resembles the rock from B. 

D. This is the site of the Corporation quarry. The specimens 
were taken from near the floor of the quarry, height about five 
hundred feet. Most of the rock is much weathered and it is 
difficult to obtain good pieces for section cutting. General 

E. At the north-west end of the hills, at the part nearest 
to Mount Apsley. Specimens were obtained at a height of 
about 600 feet. While generally resembling the other sections, 
the felspar crystals in the ground mass are larger and the rock 
bears more resemblance to that found at Apsley. All these 
specimens are remarkably similar and approximate very closely 
in appearance to those figured by Mr. Curran.' 

Passing now to Mount Apsley, we find a distinct change in the 
microscopic characters of the rock. Mr. Curran does not seem 
to have examined sections from this locality. He mentions 
obtaining them from the Bald Hills, near Perth, from the 
Pinnacle Hill (G), and from Mount Pleasant. As one notices 
the various outliers it appears so obvious that the basalt must 
have flowed from the Bald Hills, via Pinnacle to Apsley, and 
thence to Mount Pleasant, that it would hardly appear necessary 
to specially examine the Apsley rock. I was therefore astonished 
when, having had a section cut, I found it to be very different 
from those from the Bald Hills. Instead of a porphyritic rock, 
with a ground mass of small felspars and granules of other 
minerals, one finds a comparatively coarse-grained basalt of 
tolerably uniform texture, the felspars in particular forming an 
l " Geology of Bathurst," pi. 14. " Microscopic Structure of Aus- 


3 of fair sized crystals. Mr. Curran mentions 
how readily a slice of Bathurst basalt may be distinguished from 
that from Orange, even when the slice is still comparatively thick. 
This is certainly the case when we are making a section of Bald 
Hills basalt, but it is by no means so when the Apsley rock is 
compared with the Orange basalt. On the contrary, they are so 
much alike that one would think they came from the same place, 
and when I received the slides I at first thought a mistake had 
been made in labelling them. Subsequently obtaining sections from 
fresh pieces of Apsley basalt, it was found that they were all 
alike, and all differed from the Bald Hills rocks. In each case, 
as soon as a slice was thin enough to transmit light, one could at 
once say whence it had been obtained. Slides 1, 2, and 5, and 
the microphotographs similarly numbered, accompanying this 
paper, will shew what is meant. 

So marked a distinction between rocks obtained close together, 
naturally led one to try and account for the difference. The first 
idea that suggested itself was that the Apsley basalt might belong 
to a different flow of lava from that which covered most of the 
Bald Hills. Specimens collected from the most widely separated 
parts of the latter, have so far, however, failed to supply anything 
really like the rock from Apsley. Moreover, in chemical com- 
position and specific gravity the two series of specimens agree 
very closely. The most probable explanation of the difference 
appears to be that it is due to different conditions of cooling. The 
felspars in the Apsley rock, besides being much larger, can be 
seen to intersect the olivine and augite crystals. There is a good 
deal of rather coarse magnetite between the other crystals, but 
in the Bald Hills rock, and scarcely any within 



structure. The rock on the whole appears to reserut 
type of basalt, as figured by Professor Judd, 1 rat 
granulitic, and the difference may be due to the 
having solidified with little or no internal movemen 
1 Q.J.G.S., Vol. xlii. (1886), pis. v. and vi 


Passing on to the Mount Pleasant rock, there is not much to 
say. It is finer grained than the Apsley and than most of the 
Bald Hills basalt. Mr. Curran describes and figures it as a micro- 
porphyritic rock similar to that of the Bald Hills. He says he 
has about ten sections. I have only one good section and that is 
somewhat weathered. It is not decidedly porphyritic and shews 
only slight indications of flow structure. It rather suggests a fine 
grained edition of the Apsley rock. In view of Mr. Curran's 
greater experience of the rock, however, it is possible that my 
section is not typical. 

Chemical Composition. 

The only analysis of the Bathurst basalt with which I am 
acquainted is a very complete one by Mr. Mingaye, of the Mines 
Department, quoted by Mr. Curran. 2 My own determinations 
agree fairly well with his, except that I make the percentage of 
silica rather more, and that of the alumina rather less. My 

From the Bald Hills, Corporation Quarry, I obtained silica 
47*75 per cent. From the small quarry near Perth, at about seven 
hundred feet, 47-55 per cent. Mount Apsley, mean of three 
determinations, gave 48-2 per cent. Mount Pleasant gave a 
higher result, 49-8 to 50 per cent. 

Alumina, Bald Hills, 18-5 to 19 per cent. Apsley 17-5 to 18 
per cent. Mount Pleasant 15*5 per cent. 

Ferric oxide, Bald Hills, 12-5 to 15 per cent.; Apsley 14-5 per 
cent.; Mount Pleasant 14-5 per cent 

Lime, Bald Hills, 8-4 to 10-6 per cent.; Apsley 1008 per cent.; 
Mount i-'li asant 75 per cent. 

Hills, 7-5 to 9-2 per cent.; Apsley 6-80 to 7-56 
per cent , Mount Pleasant, I did not obtain a satisfactory result. 

Considerable variation was noted in the percentage of bases, 
and this is only what one might expect in a porphyritic rock, as 

eology of Bathurst, p. ! 

it is unlikely that various specimens selected for analysis would 
all contain the same proportion of constituent minerals. A 
specimen rich in olivine would be likely to show a high percentage 
of magnesia and iron ; one with an excess of augite would probably 
be rich in lime, while a large amount of felspar would bring up 
the alumina percentage. 

Specific Gravity. 

The Bald Hills rock gave results ranging from 2-9 to 305. 
That from Apsley was nearly the same, about 29. The Mount 
Pleasant rock is lighter, three specimens all giving about 2-68. 
Comparison with other Centres. 

One naturally desires to find out the source of our Bathurst 
basalts. Around Bathurst itself there arc no indications whatever 
of old craters or volcanic necks from which the basalt might have 
been erupted, but within a radius of forty miles there are three 
districts where basalts and allied rocks occur under conditions 
which render it likely that they were once centres of volcanic 
activity. These are, 1. The Blayney-Carcoar area, 2. The Orange 
district and, 3 That of Swatchfield. Map 2 shews the relative 
position of these centres, and it wilt be seen that all are at 
considerable, and not very unequal distances from Bathurst. If 
we take Carcoar as a possible centre, that is about thirty miles 
away. The Canoblas, near Orange, are about thirty-six miles, 
and the Swatchfield area is about thirty-five miles distant. 

Blayney— This town is rather over twenty miles from I'.athurst 

repay detailed geological study, which would, however, entail long 

of the town, granites sending veins into the altered contact rocks, 

various types, with beds of limestone carrying fossil corals. 
There are also veins of copper ore which have been worked to 
a considerable extent and, what is of more immediate importance, 
intrusive dykes of basic igneous rocks, together with basaltic 

cappings to some of the hills. If we travel south, about ten 
miles, we reach Carcoar, another interesting locality, where there 
are dense holocrystalline, coarse-grained, basic rocks, which may 
be classed as gabbro. A section of one of these, obtained from a 

plagioclase felspar, together with a green mineral in large crystals 
but without a definite outline. The rock appears to be a good 
deal weathered and one feels rather doubtful about naming the 
latter mineral. It is probably an altered pyroxene, and appears 
schillerized but does not shew the strong cleavage of diallage 
very clearly. It is strongly dichroic and may be passing into 
hornblende. Mr. Curran mentions obtaining sections of an 
apparently similar rock from Carcoar. 1 

Near Blayney, in a cutting on the Oarcoar line, a dyke of a 
fine porphyritic rock occurs, having white prismatic crystals of 
felspar scattered through it. A similar rock, in microscopic 
character, is well known at Dripstone, near Wellington. I have 
not a section of either of these, and one from a similar rock 
obtained near Carcoar is very much weathered. Mr. Curran 
mentions similar rocks as occurring near Cowra and calls them, 
and also the "Wellington rocks, diabase porphyrites. This is the 
name which I applied provisionally to the Blayney rock before 
seeing his paper. The specific gravity of a specimen was 2'36. 

The nearest approach to a true basalt was obtained from the 
top of a hill near the Blayney cemetery. It is a close-grained, 
black rock, which under the microscope is seen to be an aggregate 
of rather coarse crystals, much weathered, and of quite a different 
type from the Bathurst basalts. From two or three determina- 
tions, the silica was found to be forty-nine or fifty per cent. The 
alumina was not as satisfactorily determined but appeared to be 
fully 20 per cent., ferric oxide 13*5, lime 6-72, magnesia 486. 
The specific gravity varied in different specimens from 2 8 to 3. 
Blayney is on the Belubula River, which belongs to the Lachlan 

1 "The Microscopic Structure of Australian Kocks," p. 46. 

system. The water parting between the Belubula and the 
Macquarie appears to be near King's Plains, north-east of Blay- 
ney. The country is considerably higher than Bathurst, Blayney 
being 2,840 feet above sea, but there does not seem to be any 
evidence that the Bathurst basalts are related to the Blayney- 
Oarcoar series. 

Near Orange igneous rocks are extensively developed. The 
Canoblas hills appear to be almost wholly volcanic and the 
summit of the Pinnacle is a coarse grained, apparently plutonic 
rock but so much altered by weathering that it was useless to 
have a section cut from specimens which I collected. Near the 
foot of the hills there is plenty of tolerably fresh columnar basalt. 
The Rev. J. M. Curran has numerous slices of Orange basalt, which 
are so much like mine, that there can be no doubt that they are 
practically the same rock. I find it microscopically to be a coarse- 
grained rock largely made up of felspar, with augite and a little 
olivine. There is not much magnetite, but the section (5) and 
microphotograph shew a very perfect octahedron of that mineral 
in the very centre of a crystal of augite. The rock appears to be 
rather of the ophitic type, and, as already mentioned, it resembles 
the Mount Apsley rock in microscopic characters. Examined 
chemically, however, there is a marked difference. The silica 
obtained ranged from 5575 to 56 per cent., alumina about 15 
per cent., ferric oxide 10*1 per cent., magnesia 7'5 per cent., 
lime 7-3 per cent. Specific gravity 2-74. 

It is evident that this differs considerably from any of the 
Bathurst basalts, and macroscopically, in hand specimens, it has 
also a distinct character. The country around Orange is much 
higher than Bathurst, Orange itself being 2,844 feet above sea-level. 
Pinnacle, Canoblas, by aneroid, is 1,150 feet above Orange. The 
hydrography of the district would have to be very different from 
what it is now, however, to allow of lava flowing down a river 
channel from Orange to Bathurst. On all grounds, therefore, it 
is unlikely that our basalt was derived from Orange. 


a geological map and partly described it. 1 He shows several out- 
crops of basalt, and mentions that a creek at Swallow's Nest has 
excavated a channel two hundred feet deep in solid basalt. He 
was of opinion that the Bathurst basalt was poured out as lava 
stream in that district. Swatchfield itself is the name of a large 
parish, about thirty to thirty-five miles from Bathurst. It is 
some miles south of the township of Oberon and not far from the 
sources of the Fish and Campbell Rivers, which rise near together 
but afterwards separate widely, finally uniting to form the Mac- 
quarie. Swatchfield is thus on the river system that drains the 
Bathurst area, and, assuming that the drifts below the basalt were 
brought down by a river which followed approximately the course 
of the present Macquarie, there can be little doubt that we have 

desirable, however, to obtain confirmation of the assumption, if 
possible. A specimen of basalt from the neighbourhood of Oberon 
was therefore very welcome, and it has been cut and analysed. 
(Slide and micro-photograph, No. 6). The rock is much weathered 
but its structure may be made out. It is a distinctly porphyritic 
rock and carries large crystals of olivine, much corroded at the 
edges and crossed by cracks filled with serpentinous matter. Apart 
from these, the crystals are clear and shew little or no included 
magnetite. It appears probable that they were brought up by 
the lava in a solid form and were not formed in the rock itself. 
The ground mass is much decomposed, but small crystals of felspar 
similar to those in the ground mass of the Bald Hills basalt may 

analysed, the silica was found to be from 4675 to 47*75 per cent. 
The alumina 19-2 per cent.; ferric oxide 14-5 per cent.; lime 7 -84 
per cent.; magnesia 8*2 per cent. The specific gravity 2-83. 

This similarity of character is a strong point in favour of the 
view held by Mr. Wilkinson. The township of Oberon is about 
3,500 feet above sea level, so that there is a fall of about eight 

1 Report of Department of Mines, 1877 (Sydney 1878) pp. 200 to 205, 

hundred feet from there to the base of the basalt near Bathurst. 
If the basalt flowed from Swatchfield, it must have been a very 
extensive lava flow to travel so far and arrive at the site of the 
Bald Hills with a thickness of over two hundred and fifty feet. 
Equally extensive flows of lava are known, however, in modern 
times, as, for example, that of Skaptor Jokul, in 1783. 1 It is 
rather remarkable, however, that there appear to be no outliers of 
basalt along the valley of the Campbell or Fish Rivers. The 
whole of it appears to have been denuded away, except in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Swatchfield. 

It is true that boulders of basalt have been several times reported 
as existing near the lagoon, about ten miles from Bathurst, As 
this would be on the line of flow of the basalt, the lagoon being 
close to the Campbell's River, I was anxious to obtain a specimen. 
At first I failed to find them, but afterwards Mr. Woolley, who 
has charge of the Public School at Lagoon, and knew the country 
well, kindly drove me to some boulders of dark rock, which were 
the only ones he knew in that neighbourhood. They proved' to 
be near the summit of a hill, at a height of about four hundred 
feet above Bathurst, and were of several types. Some were 
moderately coarse grained rocks, probably diorite or dolerite. 
Others were more like basalt, and a slice was cut from one of 
these. Although not a satisfactory section, it is sufficiently clear 
to shew that it differs essentially from any of our rocks hitherto 
examined, and is hardly a typical basalt. A determination of the 
sihca gave 55 per cent. Specitic gravity of two specimens 27 
and 2-8. These results indicate a basic rock, but not ft Bathurst. 
basalt. It is hoped that the origin of these bould< 

<J, ana indeed, the country between twenty a 
Bathurst offers a fine field for investigation. 

naturally like to find out where they 

went to after passing Mount Pleasant. For some distance dow 

the Macquari 


Forest, about six or eight miles below the Mount, there are some 
basalt-capped hills, where attempts are now being made to test 
the underlying drifts for gold. Not being able to visit the locality 
personally, I am indebted to Mr. J. J. Sullivan, of Rock Forest, 
for specimens. The rock is very compact and fine grained ; under 
the microscope it somewhat resembles the Mount Pleasant rock. 
I obtained 52-5 per cent, of silica, and found the specific gravity 

For comparison with our western rocks, a section of Kiama 
basalt may be interesting, and one is exhibited. An analysis 

magnesia 4*68. It is evidently a much weathered rock, but 
microliths and larger crystals of felspar are visible. 
It has been shewn that the basalts of the Bald Hills are similar 
in microscopic and chemical character wherever obtained ; speci- 
mens having been tested from places three miles apart, and at 
heights ranging from five to seven hundred feet above Bathurst. 
The detached outlier of Mount Apsley is found to differ consider- 

The difference may be due to different rates, or 
varying conditions, of cooling. At Apsley it may have filled a 
deep pool in the river, any lava which followed having passed over 
it. The Mount Pleasant basalt is rather richer in silica and of 
lower specific gravity. Lower down the Macquarie there is 
another exposure of basalt at Rock Forest. It is of similar 
character and probably belongs to the same flow as the Mount 
Pleasant rock. The attempt to prove the existence of several 
distinct flows of lava has, so far, not been successful. 

As a result of testing basalts from neighbouring districts, it has 
been proved that the Orange basalt has a higher percentage of 
silica than the Bathurst rocks, although it shews a curious 
ture to the Apsley basalt. The 

• . >- . ; » i > - 

Blayney basalt appears to be quite different in structure from 
either of the others. It is not likely that our basalts have been 
derived from either of these districts. 

At Oberon, there are basalts closely resembling the Bathurst 
rocks in chemical composition, and also not unlike them micro- 
scopically. Swatchfield, in the same district is on the Macquarie 
River system, and, as conjectured by the late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, 
is probably the locality from which our rocks were derived. The 
old lavas probably flowed down the valley of what is now the 
Campbell's River. The exact centres of eruption have not yet 
been determined. It appears likely that the Blayney-Carcoar, 
the Orange, and the Swatchfield areas formed distinct centres of 
eruption, and the lavas may be of different age. Of the exact 
age there is very little evidence available as yet. They are 
probably late Tertiary, and newer than the present drainage 
system of the country, but beyond that one can hardly speak with 

In conclusion, I desire to express my indebtedness to Mr. A. 
Page, for preparing microphotographs, and to Mr. W. Pascoe, for 
grinding rock sections. 

By G. H. Knibbs, p.r.a.s., 
Lecturer in Surveying, University of Sydney. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, December 1, 1897.'] 

2. The motion of water in a pipe or channel. 

3. Velocity in elliptical pipe with steady rectilinear flow. 

4. Values of the ' fluidity ' and ' viscosity.' 

5. Instability of rectilinear flow in pipes. 

6. The rationalization of Reynold's formula for rectilinear flow in 


7. Hagen's discussion of linear and non-linear flow in pipes in 1853. 

8. General conception of the turbulent regime. 

9. Defects of the ordinary velocity formula?. 

. Experimental proof of St.Venant's law, viz., that U u x I for pipes. 

. On the determination of k" in the expression 17" = k"I. 

■ Experimental proof that the temperature function is /« ; / being 

. Keynolds' supposed law, that q = 2-n 


varying respectively with n and R 
. Proof that 17 » x (g p /8yj l + >' for either 
. The general equation for flow in circnl: 

20. The so-called hydraulic radius. 

21. Corrected hydraulic radius for ellipse : 

. The 

) probably a function 

. The index of the hydraulic radius varies with the radius. 

. Dissimilarity of flow with varying hydraulic radius, and dissimilar 

1. Introduction. — Though the problem of the motion of water 
in pipes and channels, said by St. Venant to constitute a hopeless 
enigma, 1 has received some attention from mathematical physicists, 
even its empirical solution cannot yet be said to have been satis- 
factorily reached. The formulae used by engineers are in general 
either those furnished by MM. Darcy and Bazin, or the very 
ingenious modification by which MM. Ganguillet and Kutter 
endeavoured to embrace every possible case of flow in uniform 
channels. The degree of precision to which results, founded upon 
such formulae, are usually expressed, indicate how imperfectly 
their limitations are appreciated : it will be shewn in the course 
of this paper, that even in respect of their mathematical form 
they are systematically defective. 

2. The motion of water in a pipe or channel— In a pipe or 
channel of uniform section the steady motion of water — denned 
by the condition dujdt = 0— 2 under the action of an accelerating 
force such as gravity, involves the recognition of an equal and 
equally constant retardation ; which must be conceived as arising 
from the internal friction of the fluid, in some cases largely 
influenced, however, as to the mode of its action, by boundary 
conditions. In a uniform and horizontal pipe there is always a 
fall in pressure from point to point, in the direction of the motion 
of the fluid within, due to the internal friction. 

The part played by friction was perhaps first clearly recognized 
by Mariotte in 1686, :i and following him, by Guglielmini, Couplet, 
D'Alembert, Bossut, and DuBuat. Nevertheless it was not till 

17'- t 

i satisfactory attempt "* 

expression for it. The course of the investigation of t 
—the viscosity constant for water— together with a re 

and a fresh reduction of the whole of the experimental data, has 
been given at length in two earlier papers, viz., that of July 1895, 
and of September 1896, read before this Society. 1 In obtaining 
the value of the constant, a rational solution of the problem of 
flow in circular, and elliptical cylinders, and slightly tapering cones, 
was reached, for the case of non-sinuous motion, i.e., motion such 
that each particle moves parallel to the axis of the pipe. 

The viscosity was defined in the paper above referred to, 2 as the 
ratio of the tangential resistance between parallel strata of fluid 
moving with different velocities, to the rate of variation of the 
velocity measured perpendicularly to the direction of motion. Thus 
it may be regarded as a measure of the 
ons or shear, involved by the c 
e shewn that the velocity of i 

; and that the fall in pressure from point to point of a 
horizontal pipe is wholly the consequence of the resistances 
between the surfaces of the elementary coaxial cylinders into which 
the whole volume of the liquid may be conceived to be divided, each 
one of which is moving more and more rapidly, as the axis of the 
pipe is approached. This type of motion may be described as steady 
and rectilinear. "When the motion is non-linear, but otherwise 
steady, that is to say, when equal volumes pass each section in a 
unit of time, the velocities of translation must be in some sense 
periodic, although the periodicity may, and really appears to be, 
somewhat irregular. When the mean velocity of translation past 
any section is constant, the flow may be called steady non-linear 
or uniform turbulent flow. 

3. Velocity in elliptical pipe with steady rectilinear Jlow.—Vfhen 
the viscosity coefficient for a fluid is known, the mean velocity U 

1 The History, Theory, and Determination of the Viscosity of Water 
by the Efflux Metm d.— U. II. Knibbs, Journ. Royal Society, N.S.W., 
Vol. xxix., pp. 77-146. Also, Note on Recent determinations of the 
Viscosity of Water by the Efflux Method.- Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 

in a pipe of elliptical section may be readily found, if the flow be 
as just described, i.e., if the motion of all particles be parallel to 
the axis of the pipe. The following expression for mean velocity, 
or rather its equivalent, was deduced from Navier's equations 1 and 
justified in my paper before referred to. 2 

in which g is the acceleration of gravity, p the density of the fluid, 
by means of a column of which, of the height H, the difference 
of the pressures, at two sections of a horizontal tube, the distance 
L apart, is measured, B and C are the semiaxes of the ellipse, 
and t) is the viscosity of the fluid. 

If the units are O.G.S. throughout, the viscosity factor— a func- 
tion of the temperature — is fairly well represented for water, by 
the formula 

1 = 55-89(1+ 0-0325 r + 0-0005 r 2 ) (2) :! 

from to 8° C; and by 

1 = 55-89(1+ 003395 t + 0-000235 r 2 ) (3) 

from 0° to 40° C: t being the temperature in Celsius degrees. 
Instead of pg H, its equivalent P may be written, P being the 
difference of pressure in dynes per square centimetre, at the two 
sections. For more accurate results the value of 1/ij may be 
taken from the table hereinafter. (Table I.) 

For pipes of circular section the final factor B*C*jh{B* + C a ) 
becomes of course R 2 . The ratio per unit of length of the fall in 
pressure, measured by a column of the same temperature as the 
fluid in motion, i.e., H/L, will be denoted hereinafter by /. This 
quantity is often called the slope or hydraulic gradient. 


3 The factor 00325 is wrongly written 00225 in the "Note on recent 
terminations &c." previously quoted, see p. 191. The proper quantity 
is however used throughout in the calculations. 

For engineering requirements, pg/8r)„ may be put as a single 
factor, g being taken as 980-6, and p as -999. Hence for centi- 
metre units for velocity and radius, and for metre units, we have 

U em = 6844 //i?l (4) 

U m = 684400 //#» (5) 

f denoting the relative fluidity, viz , the quantity expressed in 
brackets in formula; (2) and (3). The results by these formulae 
would be excessively great if they were generally employed, that 
is if they were used where the flow is non-linear or turbulent ; for 
it is this latter condition that usually exists in cases with which 
engineers are concerned. 

4. Values of the fluidity and viscosity. — In all computations the 

results of which are subsequently given, the following values of 

the fluidity, and of the reciprocals of the viscosity are used. Both 

the natural numbers and their logarithms are entered so as to 




1-000 -0000 

55-89 1-7474 



•2 180 





oi n 

57-74 1-7615 






59-64 1-7756 


1 -87)8 







61-60 1-7896 






63-61 1-8035 








65-68 1-8174 







67-80 1-8312 

•J 6 




J -05(58 




69-92 1-8446 








7205 1-8576 







7417 1*8702 






76-30 1-8825 



■3 173 



I so:; 

•1 171 

78-42 1-8944 



■3 5 i;c, 





80-54 1-9060 






82-72 1-9176 






■IS Hi 

84-90 1-9289 





2-13 10 


l -.-,:, VI 

87-14 1-9402 






89-43 1-9515 



■10 12 

1 10-80 

2-1 18(5 

1 .ill 


91-72 1-9625 

2 7)70 

■■J D99 

143 -65 



9407 1-9735 




1 05-55 





96-47 1-9844 






facilitate either natural or logarithmic computation. The table 
is based upon the assumption that the viscosity at 10° 0. is 
0-013107, and that the relative fluidity at that temperature is 
1-365, that at 0° being unity, tj is consequently 0017891. 

The following supplementary table of values of the fluidity from 
40° to 100° C. is based on the mean of Slotte's (1883) and Thorpe 
and Rodger's (1894) values. These have been so adjusted that 
the differences progress regularly, but since Slotte gives for the 
higher temperature 5-983 and Thorpe and Rodger 6-282, the 
fluidity must be considered as very uncertain for the higher tem- 

Temp. r. 40°C. 45 50 55 60 65 70 

Fluidity/. 2-72 2-97 3-23 350 3-77 4-05 4-34 
Log./. -435 -473 -509 544 -576 -607 -637 
Temp. t. 75°C. 80 85 90 95 100 

Fluidity/. 4-63 4-92 5-22 5-52 5-82 6-13 
Log./. -666 -692 -718 -742 -765 -787 
5. Instability of rectilinear flow in pipes. — It has long been 
known that the circumstances of the motion of water in pipes 
and channels are subject to characteristic differences, the general 
cause of which was indicated by .Stokes in 1842.- Hugen in 
1853, while investigating the influence of temperature, 3 distinctly 

1 See Journ. Koy. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. xxx„ p. 193, 1896. 

2 On the steady motion of incompressible fluids. — Trans. Camb. Phil. 
Soc., Vol. vii., pp. i;?t - Wj[ ;m d Wo, IS 12. On the analytical condition 
of the rectilinear motion of fluids etc.— Phil. Mag. Vol. xxi., pp. 297 - 
300, 1812, and Vol. xxn., pp. 55, 56, 1843. 

3 Ueber den Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Bewegung des Wassers 

id 10th Nov., 1853. The f 


g passage illi 

: — '• Mi. 

sraus ergiebt sich, <las.-= die 


•eicht, und die Vermuthung 

li.-t »i 

die mi 

ttlere Geschi 

, ■, 1 .jk, it in 

:er Erwiirmung des Wassers sich 

rkleinert. Die bisher mit c 

I bezeichnete Geschwindigkeit ist 

320 G. H. KNIBBS. 

recognised the critical change, which takes place, as the velocity 
of flow increases, and he further observed that the regime follow- 
ing the break-down of the rectilinear condition, was turbulent 
or eddying. 3 The change was witnessed in glass tubes specially 
employed for the purpose, and its significance justly appreciated 
and interpreted. As recently however as 1883, Reynolds, who 
gives no indication that he was aware of Hagen's work, but on 
the contrary claims to have been the first to realize experimentally 
the two regimes, repeated the observation of Hagen, and apparently 
found that the velocity beyond which it is impossible to maintain 
the rectilinear regime, varies with the dimensions of the tube in 
which the flow occurs. 1 This velocity according to Reynolds, may 
with great care reach a certain maximum amount, depending 
upon the radius of the tube ; and this maximum he calls the 
critical velocity. Ordinarily the rectilinear regime breaks down, 
in his view, before the critical velocity is reached. Both Hagen 

nihnlich aus der ausfliessenden Wassermenge hergeleitet ; sie ist daher 
nur in Kiehtung der Kokrenaxe gemessen und bezieht sich nicht auf die 
innern Bewegungen und Wirbel. Sie stellt daher keineswegs die ganze 
Bewegung des Wassers dar vielmehr nur denjenigen Theil derselben, 
der das Portschreiten der ganze Masse bezeichnet. Besondere Beobach- 
tungen, die ich mit Glasrohren anstellte, zeigten beidcn Arten der Bewe- 
gungen sehr deutlich. Indem ich durch dieselbe Eohre zugleich mit 
dem Wasser auch Siigespahne hindurch treiben liess, so bemerkte ich, 
dass dieselben bei geringen Drucke nur in dem Richtung der Eohre fort- 
schritten, bei starkem Drucke dagegen, von der einen Seite zur andern 
geschleudert wurden, und oft in wirbelnde Bewegung geriethen. . • • 
Diese Vergrosserung giebt sich sehr deutlich in der Ergiebigkeit der 
Eohrenleitung zu erkennen, so lange die Bewegung nur der Eohre 
parallel ist. Sobald aber die Widerstande sich soweit vermindert haben, 
dass die Spanmmg aufhort und das "Wasser, indem es dem Impulse frei 
folgt,' dem Drucke ganz entzogen wird, so hindert nichts das Entstehen 
der innern Bewegungen, welche durch jede kleinste Unregelmiissigkeit 
der Eohrenwand, oder vielleicht auch schon durch das Eintreten in die 
Eohre veranlasst werden. Diese Bewegungen nehmen einen Theil der 
einwirkenden lebendigen Kraft auf, und schwiichen dadurch die fort- 
schreitende Bewegung, die allein gemessen werden kann." See pp. 80, 81. 
i An experimental investigation of the circumstances which determine 
whether the motion of water shall be direct or sinuous, and of the law of 
resistance in parallel channels.— Phil. Trans., Vol. clxxiv., pp. 935-982 


and Reynolds clearly recognise that as the so-called critical velocity 
is approached the condition of flow becomes unstable. Hagen is 
not committed to any definitive doctrine as to the limits of stability 
of the rectilinear regime, but Reynolds has given an expression 
for the velocity, beyond which that regime cannot, he supposes, 
be maintained. His expression has however, certainly not been 
tested between sufficiently wide limits to .justify the conclusion he 
makes from his experiments. For centimetre units, Reynold's 
formula may be written 

Bi- 1 -^? w 

U, being the alleged critical velocity, /the relative fluidity, (ljP 
in Reynold's formula) and A* the radius of the pipe. The numerical 
coefficient is for glass pipes, and great steadiness. In Darcy's 
experiments the highest velocity of the rectilinear regime is only 
about one-sixth of the above amount, when it passes into the 
so-called second regime, so that the coefficient in (G) would require 
to be reduced to about is to apply to harey's pipes. 

velocity, discoverable in hi- formula, is questionable. Lord Kelvin 
in papers on "The steady motion of fluids," 1 says :— " It seems 
"probable, indeed almost certain, that analysis similar to § 38 and 
"§ 39," of his papers, "will demonstrate that steady motion is 
stable for any viscosity however small," and that practical 
unsteadiness is to be "explained Jy the limits of stability becoming 
narrower and narroicr t.h> ^ituiih-r tii> ci*o>*tiyr Although the 
force of these observations was hardly admitted by Lord Rayleigh, 3 
they are strongly endorsed by Rudski. 1 Perhaps the best way of 

272-278; 842-885. 
- The italics are mine. 
3 Lord Rayleigh's papers on the subject are :-(«) "On the Instability 

»itfht pipe."— Phil. Ma< 

of flow when they are such that one may establish either regime 
at will. The ease with which the rectilinear regime may be 
disestablished increases with increase of velocity and with increase 
of fluidity. The variableness of the relations between velocity 
and ' hydraulic gradient ' (/) in the region lying between what 
may be called— speaking relatively — the stable linear and stable 
turbulent regimes — admirably illustrated in Hagen's curves of 
velocity, and by Reynold's experiments also— is a further indica- 
tion that the view of Sir Wm. Thomson is correct. 

6. The rationalization of Reynold's formula for rectilinear flow 
in pipes. — Reynolds has given in his paper, before referred to, an 
alleged general formula for flow in pipes, which may be written 

Mf*RU={NfRUy (7) 

M and N being constants for all classes of pipe, f the relative 
fluidity, and R and U having the same meanings as before. 1 This 
he says, holds for every pipe and every condition of water : a 
statement which demands further examination. Considering for 
the present only the case for rectilinear flow, the exponent n is 
then unity ; hence, since HjL = /, the above expression may be 

U-*f-fIB* (8) 

nbering that ]J7 1 =fjrj , we see 

T-Vi < 9 > 

If these expressions were identically equal, the rationalization 
would be complete : but they are not so : the factors M and N 
are merely empirical. Thus while (1) is a rational, (7) and (8) 
are only empirical formulae. 

Proceeding to the testing of Reynold's ratio, it may be remarked 
that for engineering purposes the variations of density (/>) and of 
gravity (g) may be generally neglected, and consequently M/J 

1 Af = HA, and N = 2 B, and/ = ljP i n Reynolds's formula. 

treated as a constant, which strictly of course it is not, b 
function of gravity and of the density of the column of flu 
means of which the difference of pressure at two points i 
supposed-horizontal pipe is measured. Accepting the results 
in Table I., taking the value of g for latitude 45° and sea 

the density being regarded as -999173 at the latter tempera- 
ture. Reynolds gives for } M the value 67-70 and for \ N 0-03963, 
both reduced for the centimetre unit. Hence according to him, 

which, though sensibly t 

as that above (10), is very probably slightly under the truth. The 
difference, 0-18%, is quite negligible from an engineering point of 
view. The logarithm of 6145-6 is 3-8354 : obviously the compu- 
tation of (1) or (8) logarithmically, leaves nothing to be desired 
on the score of simplicity. 

In the rationalized form, the formula for rectilinear flow in 
circular pipes is not Reynold's, but Neumann's : it was given some 
time prior to 1860. Had Reynold's expression really held for 
both regimes, then although empirical, its generality would have 
commended it. The question of its general correctness will be 
hereinafter examined. 

7. Hagens's discussion of linear and non-linear flow in pipes, 
in 1868.— Am already remarked, Hagen, as far back as 1853, 
observed that fluids were subject not only to a rectilinear, but 
also to a turbulent or eddying condition of flow ; and that in the 
latter case some of the energy was ineffective in the production of 
motion parallel to the axis of the pipe, since it was expended in 
the eddying agitation. The tabulated results and diagrams by 
means of which his treatise was illustrated, shewed very clearly 
the significance of the change from the rectilinear to the non- 
rectilinear regime. Hagen's experiments were made mainly wit* 
three tubes of sheet brass soldered into the form of pipes, their railti 
in centimetres being A -14083, B -20242 »nd C -2974 at 15* X, 

assuming the zoll to be 2-61544 cm. Unfortunately the pressures 
were small and were determined by measuring the height in the 
reservoir of supply, instead of manometrically at two sections in 
the pipe itself ; so that although the experiments are numerous, 
their value for the purpose of very accurately ascertaining the 
form of the temperature function, and the laws of flow generally, 
is not high. The reduction of the head for the circumstances at 
the influx end of the tube is subject to some uncertainty as I have 
previously shewn from Poiseuille's and Jacobson's experiments, 1 
and as is generally known. Consequently the fall in pressure per 
unit length of tube—/ or dPjdL— is doubtful, and variable in 
amount, and the velocities opposite each temperature therefore 
require corrections in order to make them comparable. 

Hagen in discussing his results, treats independently the 
velocity law for the two main branches of his curves shewing the 
relation of hydraulic gradient to velocity. The first branch he 
recognises as kx >lo [near regime and analyses it 

by the formula 

H=sU+tU* (11) 

s and t depending on the temperatures of the water, and on the 
dimensions of the tubes. The term in U— the large term— is the 
Poiseuille's law term : that in U- is the loss of head at the influx 
end of the pipe. 2 Passing over the intermediate regime, Hagen 
obtains by logarithmic methods, exactly as St. Venant did before 
him, the relation of the resistance head to the velocity in, and to 
the radius of, the pipes. Employing the formula* 

h = kU", whence log h = log k + n log U (12), (12«) 

he finds for the three tubes the following values of n, viz., for 
A = l-7949 ± -0690; for B 1-7393 ± -0181; and for C 1-7987 * 
•01 68, taking the mean as 1 75. He further discusses the relatioa 
between n and the exponent of R and finally proposes for the 
fcurbulent regime the formula 

A-*£* ™U™ ( 15) 

in which h is the resistance head, and k is a coefficient varying, 
for the one class of pipe, only with the temperature : he gives 
values of the coefficient k. 1 

This in 1853. It is remarkable therefore to find Reynolds in 
1883, asserting without qualification, that no previous experimenter 
had discovered the law I cc U n , and that without exception they 
had employed either the relations /x U\ or / oc (U + BU*). 
St. Venant in 1850 mentioned 2 that DuBuat had long ago observed 
that the exponent n was too great (probably in the latter's 
Principes d'hydraulique, Paris 1786). In 1869 Hagen referred 
to the fact 3 that Woltmann had first employed the expression n = £■ 
—doubtless toward the end of last century— and also that 
Eytelwein 1 had used H or 2, which latter, he says, Darcy accepted 
while St. Venant selected V. Even as far back as 1850, St. 
Venant 4 employed the graphic method of plotting the logarithms 
of the related quantities, by which means he said, the conviction 
that the variation is as U n t (n being less than 2) was easily 
reached, and he assigned the values ii for canals and V for pipes. 
He moreover clearly perceived the state of turbulent agitation 
("l'etat torrentueux" p. 583), and its signal influence upon the 
coefficient of internal friction. 5 In 1872 he described the state of 

2 His words are :— " bien que cette expression " (viz V 3 ) " soit contraire 
" a ce que l'experience a appris et fait dire depuis longtemps a Du Buat, 

3 Ueber die Bewegung des Wassers, etc.— Abhand. Akad. Berlin 1869, 
(2) Math. Teil. pp. 1 - 29. See in particular p. 6. 

4 Memoire sur des formules nouvelles pour la solution des problemes 
relatif aux e iux courantes.— Comptes rendus t. 81, pp. 283 - 286, 581 - 583, 
1850. St. Venant says :— On en acquiert facilement la conviction en 
prenant les logarithmes, ce qui donne log (RI) = log c + m log U et en 

tog R et pour ordonnees celles correspondantes de log (iU) fournies par 

on voit que chacun de ces deux ensemble affecte une direction rectiligne, 
sauf les anomalies attribuables aux erreurs d'observation. 

5 Sur Fhydrodynamique des cours d'eau.— Comptes Rendus, t. 74, pp. 

326 G. H. KNIBBS. 

turbulent agitation, and discussed the manner in which the problem 
of flow might be attacked." Gauckler also, in 1867, used a 
monomial expression, and recognised that the law of flow for very 
small slopes required a separate formula. 1 Reynolds has therefore 
been anticipated five or six times. 

8. General conception of the turbulent regime. — If, the rectilinear 
regime being established, say in a glass pipe, its stability be over- 
come by increase of pressure, or temperature, or by unsteadiness, 
a condition supervenes of which the first indication is a waviness 
of the stream lines, as shewn by the motion of coloured threads 
of liquid in Reynolds' experiments. This is followed by the 
development of vortices in great numbers, so that when the 
turbulent or vortex condition is well established, the liquid may 
be said to constitute a tangle of vortices, the tangle having a 
motion of translation along the pipe. In the rectilinear regime, 
the evidence shews very conclusively that there can be no velocity 
at the boundary, 2 the rugosity of which does not in such a case 
affect the flow, since there is no slipping of the water past it, such 
as might be supposed to call into action some species of friction— 
nor is there any disturbance therefrom across the pipe to interfere 
with the continuity of the motion of translation parallel to its axis. 
In rectilinear flow, if we consider the particles of water distributed 
at any instant of time, across a right section of the pipe, then at 
any later instant the same particles will lie on the surface of a 
paraboloid, the axis of which is that of the pipe , and whose base 
is the right section considered. 

In the turbulent regime it is extremely probable if not certain, 
that the water actually in contact with the boundary also has no 
velocity. Again considering the particles at any moment in a 
right section, these will move in all directions owing to the 
agitations, but they will on the whole be subjected to a motion of 
translation parallel to the axis of the pipe. If then we imagine 

i Etudes theoriques et pratiques sur Tecoulement et les mouvement des 
eaux.— Comptes rendus, t. 64, pp. 818 - 822, 18G7. 

a series of fictitious particles the movements of which, parallel to 
that axis are the means of the similar movements of particles in 
the same relative position, these fictitious particles will lie also 
on a conoidal surface but not that of a paraboloid, the conoid 
being much flatter at the apex, see Fig. 1, in which the points at 
one-third and two-thirds of the diameter are plotted from the 
mean of Darcy's experiments. 

The problem of turbulent flow was attacked by Boussinesq in 
1872, in his incomparable "Essai sur la theorie des eaux courantes/' 1 
His method of analysis is as follows :— The real velocities are con- 
sidered to rapidly and abruptly change from point to point in any 
section, and thus to produce a degree of friction of quite another 
and greater order of magnitude than can occur in the rectilinear 
regime. The mean action across any fixed plane element is 
measured, not merely by the mean local velocities or by their first 
derivatives defining the rate of shear of the fluid, but also by the 
intensity of agitation at the point considered. The causes of 
the agitations having been ascertained, the coefficient of internal 
friction is made to vary with them. As equations of motion are 
selected, not those which express, at a given instant, the dynamic 
equilibrium of different elementary volumes of the fluid, but the 
mean of these during a short but sufficient time : so that one is 
able to call them, the equations of the mean dynamic equilibrium 
of the fluid particles which successively pass any particular point. 2 
This statement of part of the great problem, to the solution of 
which Boussinesq applied himself, presents a definite conception 
°f the nature of the movement. The analysis of the problem now 
attempted has for its object, the discovery, without reference to 
Boussinesq's deductions, of the mathematical form in which the 
results of observation can be consistently expressed, so that they 
will really represent the observed phenomena. 
1 Mem. des Savants etrangers, t. 23, pp. 1-080, 1877. 

U= k ,<(RI) (14) 

an expression which seems to have served as a mould for the great 
majority of evaluations of velocity, and which is generally known 
as the " Chezy formula." 

Darcy 1 and Bnzin's'' nifulili. at ion of this, in view of an obvious 
defect in a formula proposed by de Prony, :1 was 

a and (3 being coefficients which varied with the roughness of the 
surface of the pipe or channel, a factor wholly ignored by de Prony. 
Both Darcy and Bazin recognised that this expression did not 
represent the phenomena in all their generality, but regarded it as 
a sufficient approximation for practical purposes. 

The limitations of this formula were studied by Ganguillet and 
Kutter, 1 who, in order to embrace all sizes of pipe or channel, 
developed, in a most ingenious manner, the empirical expression 

in which a, b and c are constant for every case, and y is a coefficient, 
depending upon and increasing with the roughness of the boundary, 
and R is the hydraulic radius = \ R in the case of a pipe. F° r 

1 Recherches experimentales relatives au movement de l'eau dans les 

— tor the smoothest possible channel — and "055 for a channel with 
irregular banks, covered with aquatic plants. Not one of these 
formula? recognises the influence of temperature. 

For a pipe subject to flow at constant temperature but under 
different pressures, we have from (14) and (15), since the radius, 
and the roughness of the boundary, are constants, 

U* = kl (17) 

A denoting k' R* in the Chezy formula, and R*j(a R + p) in the 
Darcy and Bazin ; that is to say k is a quantity which does not 
vary with either U or /. Hence this expression affirms that the 
rate of fall of pressure— that is the slope, or hydraulic gradient- 
varies as the square of the velocity. 

In Kutter's formula, as it is generally called, let us put 

so that A, a and v are absolutely constants in the case of any pipe, 
then we shall have from (16) 

f '- b ' /':: 5/ < 18) 

which implies that the hydraulic gradient varies as the square of 
the velocity only when A = /a, that is when /R = b, or expressed 
in centimetres, is 10. It is obvious that any sensible deviation 
from the law expressed by either of these formulae, viz., (17) or 
(18), is a sufficient reason for rejecting them as empirical express- 
ions representing the relation of the mean velocity to the rate of 
fall in pressure. Further it will be quite unnecessary to discuss 
the latter somewhat complex relation, if it be shewn that U n x. I, 

easy to examine whether in the case of a pipe of 100 cm. 'hydraulic 
radius,' or 200 cm. actual radius, the velocity varied as the square 
of the hydraulic gradient. Ganguillet and Kutter lay great stress 
upon their discovery of this relation, which implies that the index 
of U varies with tin- niJins, though this consequence was not 

330 G. H. KNIBBS. 

Now as previously pointed out, when shewing that Reynolds 
was in error in stating that he was the first to recognise the law 
U n ce 7, it has long been known that for pipes n is, at least generally, 
less than 2 ; if it differ sensibly from that number there appears 
to be no cogent reason for adopting it. 

10. Experimental proof of St. Tenant's law, viz., that U u x. I for 
pipes. — We are here concerned only with the proof that this law 
holds for the second or turbulent regime, that it holds for rectilinear 
flow is beyond question, n being in that case unity. Reynolds 
has given the following values for the index, as the result of his 
investigation of his own and Darcy's experiments, viz. — 
1-723 Perfectly jointless glass tube. 
1-746 Lead and bituminous pipes. 
1-79 Glass and lead pipes. 

1-82 Varnished lead, new cast iron and glass pipes. 
1-91 Cleaned iron pipes. 
1-92 Cast iron pipes. 
2 00 Incrusted iron pipes. 
See however the values deduced later on, herein. 
The best available material for the discussion of the question is 
Darcy's, because his experimental work was carefully conducted — 
it is incomparably more accurate than the general run of hydraulic 
experiments— and in a great many instances he gives temperatures! 
Reverting to St. Venant's and Hagen's equation, it may, for 
any particular pipe, be put i n the form 

Z7"= VI (19) 

provided the temperature of the water, be kept constant. Hence 
taking the logarithm of both sides, and dividing by n 

]o % U = l ° g n + n ] °Z* (20) 

the equation of a straight line, determined by plotting the values 

» It is greatly to be regretted that he failed to do this always : at the 
time it was thooght unessential. A very little relative increase of the 
expense these experiments might have been made to furnish all the 


of log / as abscissae, and the corresponding values of log U as 
ordinates : and — will be the tangent of the angle which the line 
makes with the axis of abscissae. There are slight variations of 
temperature in Reynolds' and Darcy's experiments, hence the 
velocities must first be corrected to the one temperature, which I 
have taken generally to be about the mean for the series. For 
this purpose, Reynolds' formula— see (7) § 6— has, after some 
partial justification, been asumed to be true in so far as its theory 
of temperature correction is concerned ; and the very small required 
correction 1 has been applied from approximate values of n, in the 
manner indicated in the discussion of this question hereinafter. 
It may be remarked that on the scale of the figures, the effect of 
the temperature correction is hardly noticeable. 

On looking over Figs. 2 to 6, it will be observed that not only 
is the relation evidently linear; but the precision of that relation 
is very remarkable. Moreover, it is evident that it is not possible 
to make the index of U, 2, without involving appreciable error, 
except in three instances, viz., those of lines H, 18 and 20 of 
Table A. hereinafter, in which all the results are entered for the 
sake of easy reference. 

Again, the practical difficulty of computing the velocity of flow 
is rendered apparent, since for the same material and class of pipe 
there are sensible differences in the index n. It appears to be 
certain that n increases with the roughness of the pipe, but it 
varies between wide limits, as for example in lead pipes, from 
1-695 to 1-784 : in new cast iron— rejecting 1-861 as a doubtful 
case— from 1-917 to 1-957, and in incrusted cast iron from 1908 
to 1-985. In the light of this evidence it is beyond question that, 
in calculations of velocity from fall in pressure, precision depends 
upon a nice discrimination of the roughness of the boundary, so 
as to correctly estimate the value of «. 

11. On the determination of k in the repression U n = k"I. — 
Resuming equation (19) we have, on taking the logarithm of both 
sides, and transposing, 

log/t"= nlog U-los I (21) 

hence log A;* may be found for each observation made, by multiply- 
ing the logarithms of the velocities by the proper value of n, and 
subtracting the logarithm of the 'slope.' The mean for each series 

e quantity given in Table A, log k" is of course tl 
; /when log U=0, and therefore gives the 'slope'- 






'^222^^^^222^ f: 2 


n-rrTTTn -T ■ ■ ■ = = =1 = n I 

r ,: r 

i — i : iJ — i - ■ 


at which the velocity would be unity. 1 cm. — and it defines the 
point at which the n lines Fig. 2-6 intersect the axes of abscissae. 
An examination of the values of the coefficient k'\ shews that 
not only is it a function of the radius of the pipe, but also of its 
rugosity. It may also be assumed to be a function of the temper- 
ature, and therefore of the fluidity of the water. Hence, if the 
index n be treated as itself a function of the roughness of the pipe, 
or rather of the degree of vortex agitation which is set up in the 
fluid by the agency of the boundary conditions, then we may put 
as certainly true, k" = </>(/ R), and as probably true k" - <f>(f.n.R). 
12. Experimental proof that the temperature function is /", 
/being/ the [fluidity.'— In his 1853 experiments previously referred 
to, Hagen obtained a formula expressing the flow in his pipes, 
which may be written 

U n = c R'"I (22) 

in which n was on the average about T774, but was taken as 175, 

and m as 125. The values of the logarithms c — the reciprocals 

of Hagen's (m) quantities— for the temperatures given by him, 

expressed in Celsius instead of Reaumur degrees, are as follows:— 

Table B. 

Temperature C. 18f° 314/ 43 £° 62|° 814/ 

Values of log/ -234 359 463 -591 -698 

Value of log c 44854 4-5185 45414 4-5756 45985 

The values of log /"are taken from Tables I. and II.; and for the 

higher temperatures are practically a mean of Slotte's (1893) and 

Thorpe and Rodger's (1894) corrected values. 

From the above equation it is obvious that the U n cc c' when 
R m I is constant: consequently c' is a function of the fluidity. 
Now since the increase of fluidity of any liquid flowing through a 
tube, facilitates the intensity of the internal agitation, very much 
in the same manner as increase of velocity would intensify it, 
"when once the stability of the rectilinear regime has been over- 
come, it may be supposed likely that the relation 
'-«/' (23) 

will hold good, or will at least very approximately represent the 
facts; hence taking logarithms, in order to test the relation, we have 

the equation of a straight line, determined by plotting log/ as 
abscissa; and log c as ordinates. Fig. 7 (a) shews the result : and 
q, the tangent of inclination with the axis of abscissa 1 , proves in 
this case to be 0-244. The experimental justification of the 
assumption is remarkably exact, as the figure shews, and as the 
following values for log c also indicate : — 
No. log c. Diff. 

4 314 - 20 

5 282 + 12 

More recently Mair 1 has also investigated the influence of temper- 
ature—between 13-°9 and 71 1 C— with a brass tube -£ inch radius 
and 25 feet in length. His manometer was 1 foot from the tank of 
supply, and apparently he regards this as giving the total fall in 
pressure for the 24 feet between the manometer and efflux end. 
Mair observes that the plots of the logarithms of the heads and 
velocities give n = 1-795 for his pipe throughout, the lines being 
parallel for all temperatures. The measurements are however not 
sufficiently exact to allow much weight to this assertion, since for 
example, I find from plotting his results for 13-°9, 48-°9, and for 
54-°4 C, the values respectively of 1782, 1-790, and 1*772. 
Accepting however the coefficients which he himself deduces for 
the several temperatures of his observations, we obtain 


from which q appears to be about 0-274. The consistency of the 
results is not quite equal to Hagen's. See Fig. 7 (b). 

Again, Unwin, 1 in his experiments on the friction of discs 
rotating in water, obtained results which indicated that the 
moment of resistance //. of the disc, varied as the 1-85 power of 
the rate of revolution, V say : that is c fi = V 11 . His experi- 
ments treated as above give 

Table D. 
Temp. Celsius 5-°l 117 21-3 54-7 

Value of log/ -071 -155 -262 -542 

Value of log c' x + -9U -939 -955 1-000 

from which the value 0-170 is deduced for q. See Fig. 7 (c). In 
these three instances there is no indication of any systematic 
departure from the relation, which we set out to test, viz., Z7 n x/«. 
13. Reynolds' supposed law, that q = 2-n, not experimentally 
justified.— Reyno\ds' formula (7) § 6 herein, asserts that C n x/ 9 - n 
which leads to this very remarkable result, viz., that when the 
roughness of the channel involves the velocity -and-' slope' relation 
U" 1 x /, temperature has no influence on the flow, as remarked by 
Lord Rayleigh, 2 and as is immediately obvious from the formula 
itself. Moreover if n should exceed 2, increase of temperature 
and the consequent increase of fluidity would actually diminish 
the flow. If this be so, it is necessary to suppose that the general 
decrease of the resistance to tangential stresses and consequent 
acceleration of velocity is more than compensated by the quantity 
of internal agitation facilitated by this decrease itself. Since 
there is no reason to regard the condition as unstable, such a 
supposition seems in opposition to the law of least action, and 
to be wholly improbable. It is not very clear from Reynolds' 
paper, on what experimental, to say nothing of theoretical, grounds 
he justifies a formula leading to such remarkable consequences. 
Examining it in the light of the results reached in last section, we 

1 Plow of Water &c.-The Engineer, V..I. lxi, p. 1, Jan iss.i 

Table E. 

* 1-750 » = 1-795 n= 1-850 
By Reynolds' theory Hagen -250, Mair -205, Unwin -150 

By calculation § 17 formula (35) -242 -222 •!»» 

These results can hardly be regarded as conclusive, for though 
Hagen's and TJnwin's lend some colour to the view that the 
influence of temperature diminished as n increased, Mair's are in 
direct opposition to that assumption. The law of diminution if 
true, must be left to future experiments to decide. The mean of 
the three results is 0-23, which perhaps ought to be used until the 
question has been decided. We shall however, return to this 
question later, vide § 17. 

14. Correction of k", or U n , or of U for temperature. — From § 
12 it is evident that we may represent the actual observations by 
the expression 

U»=k' f*I (25) 

in which k' is function of the radius, and possibly of the roughness. 

V-VF (26) 

The average of the temperatures in Table A. is about 14° C, and 
since the value of q is uncertain, we may calculate it by Reynolds' 
formula, the application of which will at any rate partially correct 
the results furnished by experiment, to that mean temperature. 
And since the greatest difference is 10°, the correction will be a 
small one. Logarithmically k{ may be determined from fs%, and 
similarly with regard to U n and U, thus : — 

log*" - log A;' + q(\ogfi = log/ a ) (27) 

logCT 1 »=log*7 3 » + ^log/ - log/ 2 ) (28) 

log 27; = log 0,+ J (log/ - log/) (29) 

formulas which are very readily applied, k" has to be increased 
if expressed for a higher, diminished if for a lower temperature, 

15. Reynolds' theory that U n cc N~ n R 3 -" inconsistent with 
experiment. — Reynolds' general formula (7) may, by putting M' 
for Mf\ be written 

M'R*-*N— = k" = ^ (30) 

from which it is evident, by taking logarithms, that 

£ = logF-(3-n)log. R = \og M' -log N(n) (31) 

a linear equation. 

The values of £ can be formed from Table A. ; if then they be 
plotted as ordinates and the corresponding values of n as abscissae 
the result will evidently be a straight line, provided Reynolds' 
formula be correct. The values of £ arranged in the order of 
increase of n are as hereunder, the number above denoting the 
horizontal line in Table A. 

Table F. 
Calculated values of £ by (31). 
Line Table A. 1247593 10 68 
100 £ = 463 466 464 460 463 467 474 468 468 475 
Line 11 13 17 12 19 15 16 14 20 18 

100 £ = 450 480 481 479 463 501 504 506 488 470 
It may be supposed that the required linear relation would more 
conspicuously appear, if the means of a large number of observa- 
tions be taken. In order to test this also, the mean results of the 
bottom of Table G. hereinafter, are used for the evaluations of £ 
The results arranged in order of n are 

100 n = 179 185 186 188 189 190 191 
100 £ = 465 468 481 471 481 485 475 
Neither of these series represent a straight line, nor do they 
indicate any law of progression whatsoever. Reynolds' theory of 
the variation of velocity with the radius of the pipe is consequently 
shewn to be inconsistent with the results of observation ; and his 
assertion that his general formula holds for all pipes and all veloci- 
ties, proved to be without sufficient justification, As his formula 
is purely empirical, inconsistency with experiment is a sufficient 

reason for its rejection : other considerations indicated 
section, will lend a still stronger sanction t 

16. Proof that the parabolic relation U n oc R m is experimentally 
justified for flow in pipes. — In order to ascertain whether the 
variation of velocity with the radius of the pipe, depends also on 
the index n already found— though not in the way stated by 
Reynolds — and generally to see at a glance, if possible, the relations 
of k" and R, the following table, shewing the values of k n for 
different pipes of the same radius, 1 was formed from the results 
given in Table A. The quantities marked * are taken directly; 
the others arc logarithmically interpolated from the nearest 
quantity, after ascertaining that the logarithmic homologues, the 
.coordinates of which are log k" and log R, do not appreciably 
differ from straight lines. Since the interpolations are small, this 
process is not illegitimate. 

Table G. 

TaMeA. n L °g R L °g k U Pi P e - 

k n Log B Log fc'j 


2 1-710 9-845 4-460 Lead 

1-808 0-612 5 

4 * 1-784 „ 4-555 

1-957 „ 5 

11 1-828 „ 4-369 D.Iron 

1-908 „ 5 

4 1-768 0127 4-792 Lead 

1-778 0-973 5 


1-938 „ 6 

C. Iron 

12 1-879 „ 4-92S D. Iron 

1-982 „ 5 

1-803 1085 5 

5 1-775 0296 4-599 Lead 


1-938 „ 6 

13 * 1-855 „ 5138 D. Iron 


1-982 „ 5980 

I. C Iron 

18' 1985 „ 5005 I.C.Iron 

C. Iron 

Values of R 0-70; 134 ; 1975; 

; 9 40; 1216; 25 C 

Mean log k" 4461; 4-823; 5046; 5 

5-924 ; 6-042 ; 6-404 

Mean n 1-774; 1-850; 1-872; 1 


; 1-899; 1-908; 1861 

The table shews many anomali 


ut indicates clearly 

of course, 

an increase of k" with R. In o 


to find whether tl 

en- is any 

evidence of a progression of th 

lue of k" with n, th 

e sums of 

lines, with approximately the s 


value of n, are taken from 

each radius series. These sumn 

ns are (a) 3 . * + I 


(b) 11. 12. 13. 19. 16; (c) 11. 


18'. 14.20. r 


means of 


the slope index and of log k" so deduced are, — 

Mean n (a) 1-783 (b) 1-882 (c) 1-948 
„ logF 5-132 5-162 5-145 

The differences from the mean— 5-146— are too small to lend much 
force to the supposition of an increase of k" with n, though 
undoubtedly such a supposition would minimise the inconsistency 
between theory and experiment so far as these three values them- 
selves are concerned. It will also later appear that there is a 
sufficient reason for regarding k" as increasing with n. 

If with several series of pipes— each with surfaces identical in 
character, but different in the different series, and each series 
comprising pipes of identical radii but covering a wide range- 
one could obtain results shewing either no variation, or a systematic 
variation of n with the radius of the members of each series, the 
problem of finding the relation of k" to the radius would be simple. 
But the anomalous nature of the results in regard to n, shewn in 
Table A., and in regard to k", shevvn in Table G., make it clear 

completely satisfactory solution is 

existing experimental data, and one is inclined to dismiss the 
matter as hopelessly enigmatical. 

There are, however, three ways in which these tabulated results 
may be tentatively examined. We may (i.) either take pipes of 
the same category with values of n as nearly as possible identical, 
and see whether the law of variation of k" with R, changes 
systematically with the category itself : or (ii.) we may select 
pipes of any description with the same radius, and from the mean 
values of k" (or of some other function thereof) endeavour to 
ascertain for each series with that radius, the variation of k' with 
R, supposed in such a case to be quite independent of the category, 
and therefore also of the magnitude of n, the mean value of which 
varies with the category : or yet again (iii.) we may endeavour to 
ascertain whether the variation is one that involves ii! itself. 

-Since the loci of points, whose 

d R, giv( 

least very nearly 

straight lines, it may 

with propriety be assumed 

that, very approximately, 

k" = k'R™ 


whence log 

k" = \og k' + m log R.. 


and consequently 

if k' be constant 

log k 2 - log k x 

= log^-nogi^ •• 


Should there be 

a small variation of m 

with R, it 

will appear in 

the changing values of to, as the values of the radius are changed. 

The results of the application of this 

last formula, viz., (34) are 

shewn in Table H. 

Table H. 

Calo. Mean 

Table A. (mean) 

Nature of Pipe. 


1- 2 1-700 

Lead, Reynolds 


1-39 047 

4-5 1-771 

„ Darcy 


1-21 1-70 

3-4 1-776 


0-84 1-02 

3-5 1-780 


0-98 1-37 

7-9 1-775 

Tarred Iron, Darcy 


1-30 5-57 

8-10 1-805 


1-09 9 IS 

11-13 1-841 

Drawn Iron, 


1-74 1-29 

12-13 1-867 


1-24 l-6£ 

15-16 1-927 

New Cast Iron, „ 


1-14 S-U 

14-16 1-947 


1-04 6-7. 

18-20 1-983 

Incrusted Iron, „ 


1-23 6-9£ 

Means 1834 


1-20 4-0 

The values of 

to in the table do not 

afford defin 

ite evidence o 

a regular variation either with the value of n — a conclusion pre- 
viously reached — or with the class of pipe. Further, the absence 
of any systematic relation between to and 3 - n indicates the pro- 
priety, if not of wholly rejecting Reynolds' relation, at least of 
: ;is not yet proven. 
To test the next method, (ii.), we resort to graphics, using the 
mean values of log k" given in Table G.: the result is shewn in 
Fig. 8, and gives as a mean value for to, 1-27 ; while the mean 
value of n is 1 -834, whence 2 - n = 1 -166. The difference though 


not large, is adverse to Reynolds' theory, which therefore may be 

The means of the experimental results, in which alone the real 
relation may be supposed to be disclosed in the presence of 
apparently hopeless anomalies in individual cases, indicates an 
average relation, h" <x B 1 ' 27 , as generally interpreting the experi- 
ments within their own limits ; and this in the mean with a 
precision that could hardly have been anticipated. That this 
index is well determined cannot of course be alleged : experiments 
will have to be made with a far higher order of precision than in 
the past, before either the general constancy of the index can be 
really assured, or its exact value or law of variation accurately 

From some considerations it might seem probable that m would 
vary with B itself (case iii.,), and indeed also with n, the latter 
implying perhaps, that the roughness must be considered in rela- 
tion to the dimensions of the pipe; a view from which there seems 
to be no escape, if extreme cases be contemplated. This view how- 
ever is not supported directly by the order of the variations in 
the values of n— that is with the measure of roughness — shewn in 
Table A., excepting perhaps in line 17; but here the individual 

value of n derived therefrom. As however, there is some evidence 
that m is not constant, this question will be further considered, 
viz., in the section next following, § 17. 

It is not unimportant to remember that a limited number of 
experiments may, through errors of observation, often suggest a 
relation, which a larger series will shew to be quite accidental. 
For example in considering the value of m, it might appear from 
Darcy's experiments with lead pipes, that m increases with B, see 
Table H. 3 - 4, 3 - 5, and 4 - 5 ; or from those with iron pipes, 
that it diminishes with B, see 7 - 9, 8 - 10; and 11 - 13, 12 - 13; 
and so on. This may possibly be accounted for by the fact that 
»i is a function both of n and B, which at any rate must be 
admitted if a general formula is to be reached. No matter how 

344 O. H. KNIBBS. 

these observations are arranged, whether according to the categories, 
to the values of R, or of n, they fail to disclose any very striking 
indication of a regular variation. Hence there seems to be no 
alternative, but to base the law, as has been done, upon the mean 
results at the bottom of Table G. 

It may be noticed that St.Venant puts m = 1, in his 1850 paper, 
while Hagen in his experiments in 1853 obtained 1-25, agreeing, 
it will be observed, with Reynolds' definition, m = 3 - n ; i.e., 

17. An empirical generalization of the indices q and m con- 
sidered as varying both with n and R. — Returning to the question 
of possible variations in the indices q and m, it has already 
been noticed that q seems to diminish with the increase of 
internal agitation — in other words when n is large — and also, 
that there is a suspicion that m diminishes as R increases. First 
in regard to q. Any attempt to generalize the value of q, must 
take account of the fact that when n = l, q = \. If Hagen'a, 
Mair's, and Unwin's experiments be relied upon, the values of q 
determined by them must be systematically included. And if, as 
I feel convinced is the case, q is always positive, it must not vanish 
for any value of n. This may be effected by putting it in some 

shewn in § 1 3. So that the temperature f u 


and this is true for either regime. 

It is obvious that when n = 1, q = 1 ,- when n = 2 q is -15, and q 
does not become zero till n = co. When accurate values of q, 
determined for tubes with different values of n, are obtained, there 
will be no difficulty in adjusting (35) to them, by suitably choosing 
x, a and z. The results by the formula are shewn in Table E. § 13, 
for comparison with Hagen's, Mair's, and Urn 


A perfectly analogous method may be followed in regard to m, 
supposing it to vary with R : case iii., § 16. It may be noticed 
from Fig. 8, that there is a very slight indication of decrease in 
m with increase of R. This may be seen in Table H., and also in 
the following way :— Let the mean be taken of all the small radii, 
i.e., under 2 cm., and of the correspondent values of m : and 
similarly also of all the larger, i.e., between 5 and 10 cm. The 
results are:— for B ~ 1 -25, m =» 1 23 and fori? = 7"32, ro = M6. 
This decrease with increase of R is distinctly confirmed by the 
position of the point R = 25 cm. in Fig. 8, and though, as already 
remarked, there is intrinsic evidence that the precision of this 
series of observations is not high, it has to be remembered that 
there is confirmatory evidence in the case of open channels, as will 
be shewn in § 24 hereinafter. If then the formula is to be made 
to accord more exactly with the results, shewn in the figure, a 
second-degree curve must be made to pass through the points 
whose radii are 1-34, 4-095 and 25-0, and will then well represent 
the whole series. By a rough calculation the tangencies or values 
of m at the extremities and middle thereof are obtained, as shewn 
hereunder. Now in regard to these, the values seem respectively 
rather high and low at the extreme limits, though they are well 
within the range of the results shewn in Table H. If we are to 
have generality, then when R is zero or extremely small, its index 
must be 2, because the first regime must then exist. Then again 
at the radius, the logarithm of which is the mean of the two 

for R = 5-78). And finally it seems likely that when R is very 
great its index is unity, the index assigned by St. Venant. These 
conditions will be satisfied by putting 

346 G. H. KNIBBS. 

Hence the observations are not only better represented by making 
m a function of R itself, but the formula attains to greater gener- 
ality, and empirically expresses the observed results on giving 
that function the form 

U n Kfi( 1+ 77+7it) (38) 

It is easy to see that by suitably choosing x and z, the expression 
(37) may be made to represent a large range of observed values 
of m ascertained by future experiments. At the same time it 
should be noticed that for m to be entirely general, it must remain 
2 as long as n remains 1. Hence the complete expression for m 
must have some such form as 

-- 1 + . + » ( »"-d**- <37a) 

and the application of this latter or any similar formula might 
perhaps be considered when exact experiments are to hand. 

It is, very probable I think, that careful experiments will shew 
that m is after all, as implied in this last equation, a function of 
the roughness. In further discussing the solution of the problem 
it is essential to keep in view the fact, that the only simple way 
in which the observed velocities can be accurately represented, 
with the fall in pressure as argument, is by the expression V" = 
k"I, and that the only simple general relation by which all the 
observed velocities can be approximately defined, with the argu- 
ments, radius and fall in pressure, is by the formula TJ= k'R m I, i n 
which k" and k' are the quantities in Table A., and m = 127 or is 
determined by (37) - (38). But as already remarked in regard to 
the law of variation of the velocity with the radius, the table 
itself presents many anomalous features, and it seems to be 
impossible to accurately represent all the observations by formula} 
of the preceding type, or indeed by any formula whatsoever. The 
real general problem may therefore perhaps be regarded as taking 
the form, not of determining an expression which will absolutely 
reproduce the experimental results— that seems to be impossible— 
but one which shall represent them in their generality, and which 

therefore will not systematically deviate from the relations sub- 
sisting between them. The geometry of this analysis, by means 
of which the preceding formulae have been deduced, will make 
obvious what is meant by this statement. The defects of the 
Chezy, of the Darcy and Bazin, of the Ganguillet and Kutter, and 
of the Reynolds' formula, is that each systematically departs from 
what may be called the general trend or indication of the experi- 
ments, upon which it is founded, as the course of the present 
investigation seems to shew. 

Assuming that the radius function and its index m have been 
correctly ascertained, it may be eliminated from the values of log k" 
by means of equation (33), m being taken either as 1-27, or as 
determined say by (38). In forming the values of log k' u , Table A., 
the constant value for m has been assumed. As already remarked 
in § 11, the quantities log k' must be regarded as possibly functions 
of n, since the values of k" are so, from which they are derived ; 
an obvious fact when it is considered that each value of ** is 
determined by the intersection of the "n" lines— Figs. 2 to 6— 
with the axis of abscissa?. 1 Their arrangement according to the 
categories, in the order of the radii, or in the order of the values 

t very definite relation. 

What indication 

there is of variation, is in favour of the assumption that k' varies 
with n, which after all is tantamount to a variation with the 
category. This indication may be noticed when the results of 
Table A. are plotted, or when the mean of series are taken, as in 
the table hereunder (K) and shewn in the illustrative plot, Fig. 9. 
The values k' u (a) are calculated with m constant : (6) with it 
variable : only the (a) results are shewn in the figure. 

n. 1-70 1-77 1-78 1-81 1-84 1-87 1-91 l'i 

log*' (o) 4-63 4-61 4-62 4-65 4-G4 4-70 4-74 4-J 
log*V(6) 4-74 4-80 4-61 4-70 4-70 4-82 4-75 4-i 


3 logarithm is zero, i 

348 G. H. KNIBBS. 

The mean of these is n = 1-831, log k' u (a) = 4-664, (b) 4-735 
Of the whole series (A) „ 1840, „ 4-674 

It should be noticed here that the value of k' is greatly affected 
by the index m of the radius, and inasmuch as the value of that 
index is very uncertain the satisfactory numerical evaluation of 
k' is impossible until m and its variation-law have been ascertained 
by sufficiently accurate experiments. In order to learn how far 
the slight indication of progression in Table K. is affected by 
considering m constant, formula (33) was applied to the values of 
k", m being determined by the general formulae (37), (38), with 
the results above shewn, indicating no progression. If however, 
the results be taken from Table A. in groups of five, arranged 
with increasing values of n, the means of the very divergent 
results are as follows : — 

Table L. 
Mean n 1-754 1-796 1-866 1-956 mean 1-843 

„ log# 14 4-651 4-705 4-679 4-768 „ 4-701 

indicating very distinctly an increase with n. These results are 
shewn by crosses ( + ) in the figure. Accepting the mean values 
in the above table, and reducing by formulae (35) and (36), § 17— 
q for n = 1-843 being 0-202— we find log k' has the value 4-664, 
while when n = 1 its value is 3-836. Hence in order that the 
general formula may shew the progression above indicated, and at 
the same time be true for the first regime, we may put 

log*;= [l + -256(n-l)]log(fjJ (39) 

or putting s for 2 56 and k for gp/Sy io 

empirical. The value of k for p = 1 is 6851 with the centimetre 

Until more accurate experiments are to hand, the relations 
between p and q cannot be satisfactorily studied. It may possibly 
be desirable to omit the /term and substitute */ for t/ . 


19. The general equation for flow in circular pipes, — Summing 
up the results now reached, we may write for the mean velocity 
of the flow of water in a circular pipe under either regime, at 
any temperature, and with any radius, 'slope,' or material of pipe, 

u= [(-if) 1+P/ * Iimfl r < 4l > 

in which n depends upon the roughness of the channel, and can 
be set forth in categories, p and q are functions of the roughness 
expressed in n, and m is a function of the absolute dimensions of 
the pipe, sensibly, though perhaps not wholly independent of its 
roughness, but must be always taken as 2, while »= 1. The values 
of p, q and mare given in formula; (39), (36) and (38) respectively. 
Reviewing the general result it seems evident :— (i.) That n is 
in some sense a measure of the intensity of the internal agitation 
developed by the rugosity of the boundary, or a measure of the 
integrated shear in a section, (ii.) That the decrease of the efficiency 
of fluidity in producing velocity parallel to the axis of the pipe, 
arises from the fact that the efficiency of the boundary condition in 
promoting internal agitation increases with fluidity : this is prob- 
ably an asymptotic relation, for it seems certain that increase of 
fluidity continually promotes flow, though in less degree as the 
rugosity of the boundary increases: this view seems more obvious 
when a highly viscous liquid is studied : (iii.) That the variation 
in the index of the radius implies that the surface roughness is 
relative to the sectional area, throughout which it is the agent in 
promoting agitation. It may therefore be found, when sufficient 
exact experiments are to hand, that m is a function of both n 

The following are the mean values of ft deduced in the preceding 
hsTestigation, and values of q and q n corresponding. 

The values in Tables IV. and V. are subject, the latter especially, 
to very great uncertainty as already pointed out ; and it has yet 
to be shewn by experiment that q, in the temperature function/ 4 , 
is always positive, that is even when n is greater than 2. 

Values of the Index of Rough 
fluidity q. 

Very smooth lead pipes (Reynold 
Lead pipes generally 
Sheet iron pipes coated i 
Jointed glass pipe 
Drawn iron pipe ... 
New cast iron pipe 
Incrusted cast iron pipe 

n) and of the index of 









Table IV. 
, and of the index of fluidity, 1 etc. 

•694 -681 -669 -658 -648 -638 -628 
•269 -242 -220 -199 -182 -166 -153 

•108 -096 -085 -076 

Radius m and of m/q for diflerent 

2-0 3-0 5-0 10 20 

m/2 1-00 -74 -68 -66 

Kutter's formula has been objected to by engineers on the 
ground that the estimation of his coefficient of roughness is practi- 
cally difficult and subject to a wide range of uncertainty. The 

mental data are not yet to hand 1 

i exact amount o: 

a function of n. 

case of the genera] formula (40) is no better. It is impossible, in 
view of the results shewn in Figs. 2 to 6, to escape from the 
recognition of the difficulty of estimating the roughness; and 
evidently, even under apparently identical conditions, it has 
sensibly different values. Hence all practical computations of 
velocity are subject to a considerable margin of doubt ; for which 
there appears to be no remedy. 

20. The so-called hydraulic-radius. — In hydraulic formulae it is 
generally assumed that the resistance to flow, propagated from the 
wetted surface of a pipe or channel, may be always expressed as 
a function of the hydraulic-radius merely — i.e., as the quotient 
formed by dividing the area of a right section by the wetted 
perimeter, a quantity which we shall denote by R or r 1 — and that 
in this way the flow in any form of pipe (or channel) is immediately 
comparable with the flow in a circular pipe. If the use of the 
hydraulic-radius wholly eliminated the influence of the jorm of 
the channel, the assumption would be entirely satisfactory : but 

21. Corrected hydraulic-radius for ellipse: rectilinear flow. — 
"W ith rectilinear flow in a pipe of elliptical section, the semiaxes 
being B and C, the variation of velocity with size of pipe— all 
other circumstances remaining the same — may be expressed by 

klT= B*C*J$(B*+C*) = £say (42) 

The hydraulic-radius analogue of this quantity, S denoting the 
area of the ellipse and E its circumference, is : — 

{mE)* =B*C*H\B-\JBC + \C)*= x**J ( 43 ) 

this last expression being exact up to and inclusive of the sixth 
power of the excentricity of the ellipse. 2 


soth R = H^ + C)and € = ( J g-C)/( J B + C) (44) 

B= R(l+€)andC=R(l-<), (45) 

1 We use these letters to distinguish the quantity from the radius of a 

2 The term is 5e e /256. For this approximation see Boussinesq, Comptei 

the ratio of the former expression to the latter, becomes identically 
R2 (l_3 e s + 4e* -4 

j R.(l-3c»+4«*-4€»...) 

Consequently this last quantity is a correcting factor to be applied 
to the square of the hydraulic radius for the case of rectilinear 
flow, or taking its square root the hydraulic radius R, of an ellipse, 
requires to be multiplied as in the following expression 

R = R(l-if +*€*-* «•...) (47) 

R denoting what might be called the corrected hydraulic radius. 
It is evident from these last equations that different forms of 

the hydraulic radius, or to express this otherwise, — the simple 
function called the hydraulic radius is not adequate, when precision 
of a high order is required. If there be a marked departure from 
the circular form, the hydraulic radius must be modified. The 
following table will perhaps more clearly illustrate the significance 

= R (1 +x) for pipes of elliptical 

Value of e 05 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 
„ a: — -0006 -0025 -0055 -0095 -0144 -0200 -0258 -0320 
22. On the investigation of the law of flow in channels. — Un- 
fortunately the magnificent series of experiments made by Bazin 
on flow in channels, were with a few exceptions, made with rec- 
tangular instead of with triangular channels ; consequently the 
results for different hydraulic radii are not immediately comparable, 
inasmuch— as is evident from the preceding section— the unknown 
correction to the hydraulic radius systematically changes through- 
out any series of experiments. The only exception to this is Series 
23, with a wooden triangular channel, and these, made with the 
one slope, permit of the law of variation of velocity with increase 
of hydraulic radius being determined. In order to find the law of 
slope, it is necessary to have experiments in which the radius is 
kept constant and the slope varied. These can only be obtained 
from Bazin's experiments by interpolations. 


23. The index of roughness (n) probably a function of the slope 
(I) in open channels. — We may test this as above indicated. From 
an extensive series of interpolations from series 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 
18, 19 and 20, of Bazin's experiments with channels formed of 
ordinary boards, after very small corrections for hydraulic radius 
and temperature, I have taken the following results :— 
Form of channel = depth/breadth = ■&; log R 2-867. water 11° C. 
log / 3176 3-318 3-690 3771 3-916 3-924 
log U 1-757 1-862 2-081 2-133 2-213 2-219 
This gives as a mean result n = 1 -643, but there is some indication 
of n increasing with /. 

Again, Series 6, 7, and 8 were made at the temperatures 7, 8£, 
and 8£° C. respectively, the breadth of the channel— 199 cm.— 
and materials — boards — being the same in each case. Forming 
by logarithmic interpolations, the values of log U for the three 
slopes, for the hydraulic radii whose logarithms were 1-00, 1-14, 
1-08, 1-21, 1-26, 1-28 and 1-29, we find no indication of variation 
with the hydraulic radius. It is therefore legitimate to take the 
mean of the differences of the logarithms, which gives the follow- 
ing results :— 

(a) log / 2 - log /, - -327 log /, - / 2 = -226 
{b) mean diff. log U = -222 -120 

n = say a/b = 1-47 1-88 

The slopes are -00208, -00490 and -00824 so that apparently n 
increases with I. A similar indication is also given by series 9, 
10 and 11, in which the breadth of the channels and material are 
the same. 

The very small range of slope in Bazin's experiments, and the 
want of a sufficient number of experiments throughout that range, 
points out the <! ig as to the assumption that 

n varies with the slope in channels though not in pipes. Experi- 
ments in order to determine this point are necessary. They 
should of course be made, as pointed out, preferably with triangular 

hydraulic radius throughout anyone series of slopes. The best 
slopes for the sides would be 1 to 1, so that the angle included 
would be 90°. 

24. Proof that the index of the hydraulic radius varies with the 
radius.— On plotting the logarithms of the velocities and hydraulic 
radii of Series 23, respectively as ordinates and abscissae, to which 
reference has already been made (§21), it is quite evident that the 
points lie in a curve, Fig. 10, convex upwards. Hence m, the 
value of d (log R)jd (log U) diminishes as R increases. This index 
would require to be multiplied by n to be comparable with M in 
the formula for pipes. It is evident therefore that the law of the 
indices, m and n, must be thoroughly ascertained in order to 
deduce anything like an exact expression for velocity of flow in 
open channels. 

25. Dissimilarity of flow with varying hydraulic radius and 
dissimilar forms of channel. — It might be anticipated that when 
the boundary of a channel is very rough, the dissimilarity of the 
law of flow with dissimilarity of form of channel, would be most 
striking. This is well shewn by Bazin's Series 30 and 31— slopes 
•0081 and -0152, breadth of channel (lined with canvas) 10 cm., 
temperature 10° C.— from which the following results are deduced. 

Hydr. Rad. 1-16 1-69 205 239 2-91 
Log U x 1-338 1-530 1-607 1-662 1733 

Log J7 2 1-387 1-595 1-694 1-760 1-833 

Alog//AlogC5-6 4-2 3-1 2-8 2-7 
These final figures corresponding to the values of n in the investi- 
gation of flow in pipes, indicate that the general formula developed 
for pipes will perhaps fail when applied to open channels. It is 
however likely that an analogous derivation of a formula will be 
practicable : this however I have not yet thoroughly examined. 

26. Indications for further experimental investigation with pipes 
and channels : conclusion. — (1) The law of velocity as related to 
temperature with at least two, better three, pipes of very different 
roughness requires further experimental investigation, especially 

e influence of temperature 


when n is very nearly 2. (2) The variation of velocity with respect 
to the radius of pipes also needs investigation : this evidently should 
be done with at least three series, having widely different degrees 
of roughness, so as to ascertain the influence of the roughness upon 
the variation, in other words to determine m as a function of both 
n and E. 

(3) In channel investigations it is to be hoped that the triangular 
shape will be adhered to throughout : the law of flow may then 
be discovered, and the influence of form constituted a subsequent 
subject of inquiry. 

In conclusion I wish to say that the main object of this paper 
has been to indicate a scheme of empirical analysis of, and to 
develope a type of formula for, the flow of water in pipes and 
channels, especially the former, rather than to determine, with the 
last degree of possible precision, the constants of the formula itself. 
By means of tables the general expression supplied, can be rendered 
easy of manipulation for the purposes of practical calculation. Its 
general factor gpj8y ot is based on the deductions of rational 
mechanics, and the empirical constants supply the apparently 
hopeless defect which inheres in the complete mathematical solu- 
tion of the problem. That there must necessarily be variations 
of the constants from time to time, as more exact experimental 
data come to hand, goes without saying. If a formula free from 
systematic misrepresentation of the observations has been educed, 
the object of the investigation has been completely attained : it ia 
believed that the formula supplied will be found capable of being 
so adjusted, by giving proper values to its constants, to the results 
of new and more exact experiments, that is to say it is substantially 
a general formula. 

Added 24th December, 1897. 

A further reduction, see Table A.— by applying formula (35) 
and assuming m= 1-27 — of the values of log k' gave for the con- 
stant in (39) § 18 the value 248 instead of 0-256. The plot of 
values of log *" with interpolations for radius (E) and for rough- 
ness ( n ) gave very little indication of a variation of m with R 
itself. More accurate experiments are needed. 

University of Sydney. 


By S. H. Barraclough, b.e., m.m.e., and T. P. Strickland, b.e. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, December 1, 1897.'] 

ment of the quantity of water flowing th 

. Method of making an experiment. 

. Reduction of observations, and degree of precisio 

. Relation between slope and velocity. 

. Relation between hydraulic radius and velocity. 

. Relation between temperature and velocity. 

1. Introductory. — In a paper 1 read before the Society, entitled 
*'The steady flow of water in uniform pipes and channels," 
amongst other things the question of the flow of water in open 
channels is touched upon, and the applicability generally of certain 
formula? proposed by Prof. O. Reynolds, 2 is discussed. The 
experiments described in the following paper form part of an 
investigation undertaken with a view of tilling in an hiatus 3 in 
the existing series of experimental results, so as to admit of a 

Knibbs. — Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. xxxi., p. 314. 
2 Phil. Trans., p. 949, 1883. 
•SeeMr.Knfib :,. For Gansniillet and Kutter's 


more satisfactory determination of the degree of accuracy with 
which such, or similar formulae, may be made to represent the 
velocity of flow in channels, when the conditions are varied over 
a wide range. The suggestion of this investigation is due to Mr. 
Knibbs, and was the result of his critical study of the history of 
the subject, and analysis of the deductions of earlier investigators. 
We take this opportunity of acknowledging our indebtedness to 
him not only for the fullest access to all his notes, but also for his 
generous cooperation and counsel in planning and carrying out 
the experiments. The experimental work itself was made possible 
by the kind assistance of Prof. Warren, who, when the need of 
the work was discussed, at once undertook the suitable equipment 
of his laboratory for the prosecution of these and similar hydraulic 
experiments. For this, and for his cordial assistance and counsel 
during the whole course of the work we desire to place on record 
our grateful thanks. 

2. Objects of experiments.— -The conditions which may be 
assumed as having the most marked influence on the rate of flow 
in open channels are— (a) slope, (6) hydraulic radius, (c) tempera- 
ture, (d) roughness, and (e) form of channel section. The present 
experiments were carried out in one channel so that the last two 
conditions were constant (unless it be supposed that roughness 
must be considered in relation to the absolute dimensions of the 
channel) and the first three only were included in the enquiry. 
The objects in view may be thus stated :— 

i. While keeping the temperature and hydraulic radius as 
invariable as possible, to determine the relation between velocity 
and slope, over the greatest attainable range of slope. 

ii. At certain fixed slopes and with the temperature as invari- 
able as possible to determine the relation between velocity and 
hydraulic radius. 

iii. At certain fixed slopes 
invariable as possible, to deten 

Of these three, the first was the point under immediate investi- 
gation, the second and third being more especially required for 
the purpose of correcting the velocities in the first, for small and 
unavoidable changes of hydraulic radius and temperature. 

3. General plan of apparatus. — When the object of an investi- 
gation is the determination of the law of variation of some par- 
ticular quantity, rather than the magnitude of coefficients or 
constants required for practical use, there are decided advantages 
to be gained by planning the apparatus on a small scale, so that 
the various conditions of the experiment can be easily controlled. 
For this reason it was decided to use a comparatively short 
channel, made of planks the full length of the channel, and to 

attaining its uniform regime within a short distance from the 
entrance. The general disposition of the apparatus is indicated 

supply into the supply tank, whence it passed by one or more 
orifices to the tin-lined inlet box at the channel entrance, then 
along the channel to the gauging tank, where its amount was 
accurately determined, and finally into the drain. For the 
temperature tests the water in the tank was heated by the conden- 
sation of steam from a neighbouring boiler, the steam being lead 
into the tank by steam piping, not shewn in the figure. The slope 
of the channel could be readily altered by raising or lowering its 
supporting trestles. For convenience of observation and compu- 
tation the metric system was used, as far as possible, throughout 
the investigation. 

4. Supply and control of the water—The details of the supply 
tank are shewn in Fig. 1. It consists of an ordinary 400 
gallon tank with part of the top cut away, and having strong 
wooden stays bolted to the interior sides to prevent bulging. The 
water discharges itself from the main horizontally through a rose, 
and this, together with the series of baffle plates fixed across the 
tank, effectually checks any disturbance due to influx. Throughout 
the whole of the experiments nothing in the nature of an oscillation 


of the surface was observable. In the bottom of the tank was 
fixed a stuffing-box through which passed an iron overflow pipe, 
2" in diameter, filed to a sharp edge at the top, and discharging 
through a canvas hose into a drain below. In each experiment 
the pipe was so arranged, that, with the necessary head on the 
orifice, the water flowed over the overflow under a head of about 
5 or 6 mm. A slight change in the level of the water surface in 
the tank, due to a change of pressure in the service main, has, of 
course, a vastly greater effect on the discharge by the overflow 
than on the discharge through the orifice, and in this way a very 
convenient automatic regulation of the head is obtained. Any 
variation in the head was found to take place very slowly, rarely 
amounting to 2 mm., and being as a rule very much less. The 
following table, representing the times and the heads observed 
during the course of experiment 7, Series II., and which was not 
exceptional in any way, will serve to illustrate this point. 

Table I. 

H r- 


H c" d - 


":: L 

J 8 im min. ^f 

2 43 

8255 1 

2 50 

Si> ■.-,!• 

3 04 


3 20 

as .-,-, 

2 45 


2 52 


3 08 


3 21 


82 52 

2 55 


3 12 


3 23 



3 00 


3 15 


These heads were observed by means of a gauge-glass about 
12 mm. in diameter, and an attached boxwood millimetre scale, 
fixed to the front of the tank. The zero of the scale was above 
the centres of the orifices by the amounts shown in the table below, 
so that the observed heads have to be increased by these amounts, 
in order to obtain the height of the water surface above the 
centres of the orifices. There is probably in addition a small error 

heads are not required in the investigation, this is a matter of no 
moment. There are four orifices by one or more of which the 
water may be drawn from the tank, but the largest of the four 
was not required. When not in use the orifices were closed by 

means of metal discs faced 
edges of the orifices. 

ubber to prevent injury to the 

5. Entrance conditions. — The orifices discharged into a tin 
vessel with a wire gauze bottom, through which the water fell on 
to a piece of wood floating on the surface of the water in the 
back compartment of the inlet box, shewn in Fig. 1. From 
this compartment the water rose under the partition, and thus all 
disturbance due to influx was prevented. In the front of the box 
a triangular notch was cut to carry the channel, a watertight and 
yet flexible, joint between the two being obtained by means of 
sheet indiarubber. This joint allowed of the slope of the channel 
being varied through a wide range, without straining the channel 
in any way. To the top end of the channel and flush with its 
surface, was attached a piece of sheet tin • splayed out ' in the 
shape of a semi-conical funnel, through which the water entered 
the channel smoothly, no ripples appearing on its surface for a 
distance of about two feet down the channel at the higher slopes, 
and for greater distances at the lower slopes. By means of bands 
of coloured liquids it could be seen that the flow was continuous 
at the top, no vortices being observable. 

6. The experimental channel. — The experimental channel was 
constructed of two carefully planed kauri pine planks l£ inch 
thick in the rough, neither of which showed the slightest defect 
in the way of cracks or knots. These planks were simply screwed 
together at right angles without any special form of joint, and, 
after the water had been flowing for a short time, proved to be 
perfectly water-tight. 1 The channel was about six metres long 

and the sides were 13 cm. deep. At intervals of 75 cm. along 
the channel notches were cut in the edges of the planks, to carry 
cross bars which were fixed at right angles to the axis of the 
channel, and having two opposite faces perpendicular to this axis. 
On the down-stream face of each cross-bar was fixed a paper 
millimetre scale, a horizontal line on which was taken as the zero 
line for measuring the distances to the surface of the water. These 
measurements were made by means of a boxwood scale 20 cm. in 
length, having a hole drilled in one end and a needle glued therein. 
A guide block (illustrated in Fig. 2) was constructed to enable 
this scale to be slid up and down perpendicularly to the axis 
of the channel in any position across the channel. Since the 
surface of the water was, in the nature of things, covered with a 
multitude of small ripples, it was assumed that the surface of the 
water had been reached when the needle point was immersed as 
often as not in the course of a few seconds. It was found possible 
generally to observe the ordinate to the water surface to -01 cm. 
As will be shown subsequently, the error involved in measuring 
the cross sectional areas is a small one. The stations at which the 
cross-bars were fixed are lettered A, B,...H, but observations were 
rarely taken at either A or H, as doubtless the conditions at these 
points would be considerably affected by the proximity of the 
channel entrance and exit. During the course of the experiments 
readings were frequently taken down to the sides of the channel 
m order to detect any change that might have occurred in the 
cross-section of the channel due to warping or any other cause. 
In addition to the support at its upper end, the channel was 
carried in notched standards attached to trestles and capable of 
being adjusted to any desired height, so that its slope could be 
easily and rapidly changed. As the lower end of the channel 
warped slightly in an approximately vertical plane during the 
course of the experiments, a weight of 28 lbs. was hung on the end 
of the channel in the later experiments, and the supports adjusted 
so as to make the slope as nearly uniform as possible, this latter 
being estimated by means of an ordinary hand level. The channel 

a perfectly accu 
section and is evidently of small importance. At the lower end 
of the channel the water discharged without loss into an auxiliary 
channel through which it passed to a small vessel situated 
immediately above the gauging tank. From this vessel it could 
either flow directly into the gauging tank, or, by means of a shoot, 

7. Measurement of the quantity of water flowing through the 
channel. — The gauging of the water was done in a second 400 
gallon square iron tank, situated below the floor-line, as shown m 
the figure. To the sides of this tank also were bolted strong 
wooden stays so as to prevent any tendency towards bulging. The 
water was conveyed through a down pipe, from the small well on 
the top, almost to the bottom of the tank. A couple of air vents 
were left in the top of the tank. The water was discharged into 
a conveniently situated drain, through two valves fixed in the 
bottom. A gauge-glass and boxwood millimetre scale were 
attached to the side of the tank, in the same manner as already 
described for the supply tank. The cubic capacity of the tank 
throughout its entire depth was determined by means of a standard 
cubic foot, manufactured by Sugg for gas measurement. This 
was placed near the tank and connected with the water supply- 
It was alternately filled and discharged into the tank, a reading 
of the scale being taken before and after each cubic foot was run 
in. This work was done on perfectly calm days as it was found 
that any breeze produced slight oscillations of the water surface 
in the gauge-glass, and so prevented accurate readings being taken. 
To reduce cubic feet to cubic centimetres the multiplier 28,316 
was employed. The zero of the scale was several centimetres 
above the bottom of the tank, but this was of no importance as in 
any gauging it was the difference of two readings, and not an 
absolute reading, that was used. Each cubic foot produced an 
average elevation of the water surface in the gauge-glass of 1*91 

cm., and it was possible to read accurately to -01 cm., correspond- 
ing roughly to -„± 5 of a cubic foot, or say J of a pound of water. 

The temperature of the water was carefully observed through- 
out the entire process, but it varied very slightly from 12° C, it 
being at the time mild and settled winter weather. Any readings 
which gave differences, not in close agreement with neighbouring 
differences, were subsequently checked by taking several additional 
readings over that portion of the scale. By interpolation, Table 
III. was finally constructed from the observed readings, giving 
the number of cubic feet in the tank up to any reading on the 
scale, the zero being taken at 98 cm. To measure the mean rate 
of flow for any experiment it was then only necessary to observe 
the reading of the scale before the water was turned into the tank, 
and after it was diverted to the drain, and to note accurately the 
length of time the water was flowing into the tank. For the 

Table III. 

Mean temperature = 

12° C. 




13-053 48 



39 232 










14-619 45 






1 1-371 







it; i7o 













30791 11 




i 38 

31314 13 


32-367 ! 11 

15 12 



32-893 j 10 

10- ISO 





33-421 ; 9 








2^0 12 31 

86-000 6 



IS -01 



10 :;s7 






21-523 26 

37620 ! 1 


25-015 25 

38157 ; 


25'503 . 21 


earlier experiments the times were measured with a stopwatch, 

pendulum clock marking seconds, was substituted and its rate 
determined by daily comparison with the time ball of the Govern- 
ment Observatory. As an alternative method of measuring the 
rate of flow the coefficients of discharge at various heads for the 
three orifices were determined, as detailed below, and as the method 
was found to involve at least in the case of orifice 2, which was 
the one used in the great majority of the experiments, only a 
small, and quite negligible error, it was adopted in many of the 
later experiments and provided a useful check on the earlier ones. 
In the following table h is the head on the orifice in centimetres, 
and c is a coefficient representing the value, at the respective 
heads, of the expression cnb - cm " P er second - 

Onfiee 1. 







34-00*1 218-5 





62-03* 217-6 







83-66-H 217-5 

In one or two of the experiments at the greatest hydraulic 
radii and slopes, it was found necessary to open two of the orifices 
together, in order to supply sufficient water, and it was assumed 
in reducing the results fcr such cases that the orifices did not 
appreciably interfere the one with the other. 

8. Measurement of slope.— At each station down the channel 
from B to G, bench marks were established, 749-5 millimetres 
apart, immediately over the centre of the channel, and levels were 


taken to these marks with an 8" theodolite by Troughton and 
Simms, which was placed very nearly in line with the channel so 
that the telescope had to be turned only through a small arc. A 
level staff was constructed of a boxwood millimetre scale, a metal 
pin being attached to its end, and a plumb-bob and thread at the 
back to ensure its being held vertically. It was found possible to 
read the staff to -01 cm., so that as will be shown more fully in a 
subsequent paragraph, the error in the determination of the slope 
is a satisfactorily small one. At least two sets of readings of the 
levels were taken for each experiment, usually by two different 
observers, and the results in nearly every case proved to be practi- 
cally indentical. If any discrepancy occurred between the two 
sets of readings, they were always repeated. The vertical distance 
from the bench mark to the zero line of the scale from which the 
distances to the water surface were measured, is as follows : — 

Distance (mm) 5-6 55 67 5-8 6-15 56 6-3 63 

9. Method of making an experiment.— The routine of an experi- 
ment may be described in general as follows. The channel 
was adjusted to about the required slope, was approximately 
levelled in a transverse direction, and any slight lack of uni- 
formity in the gradient from section to section, as revealed by 
the hand-level before referred to, was as far as possible removed 
by minor adjustments of the supports. The appropriate orifice 
was then opened and the water allowed to rise in the supply-tank 
till the necessary depth was att.n «•>! in the channel, when the 
head was adjusted by means of the overflow pipe and by a corres- 
ponding regulation of the inlet valve. A set of levels was then 
taken, during the course of which the head on the orifice was 
frequently noted in order to detect any tendency to fluctuation. 
The actual experiment was now begun hv reading the scaleof the 
£>'••■• n inner tank and then turning the water so as to flow into it, 
carefully noting the time at the same moment. The distances of 

366 s. h. i 

were then read at each centimetre graduation of each section, 
and the side readings to the edge of the stream were also taken. 
At the conclusion of a set of readings at any cross section, the 
time and head on the orifice were observed. A second set of levels 
was then taken, the temperature of the water was observed, and 
supposing the gauging tank to be nearly full, the stream was 
diverted to the drain, the time being again accurately noted. A 
final reading of the scale on the gauging tank completed the 

10. Reduction of observations, and degree of precision attained. 
— The quantities to be determined from the observations are (1) 
the mean velocity = U, (2) the mean hydraulic radius = B, (3) the 
average slope = /, and (4) the temperature = T. Of these quantities 
if A be the mean area, P be the wetted perimeter, and Qjt the rate of 
discharge, the velocity and hydraulic radius will be respectively 

u= r^A RndE = 7> 

To determine the velocity therefore Q, t and A have to be measured. 
The method of measuring ( 


that an error corresponding to -01 of a cubic foot is made in read- 
ing the scale on the gauging tank, and remembering that on an 
average 30 cubic feet of water were run into the tank for each 
experiment, the error involved is about 1 in 1500. The time, t, 
during which the water was running into the gauging tank varied 
from ten minutes at the greatest slopes to one and a-half hours at 

the smallest. If it is assumed that 

an error of one second was 

made in the measurement of the tin 

le interval an assumption 

probably erring considerably on the 

right side— the degree of 

uncertainty involved varies from abou 

1 1 in 600 to about 1 in 5000. 

In calculating the area, A, at each 

section, it was considered as 

consisting of a series of trapezoids (one centimetre wide) together 
with three small triangles, viz., one at each side of the stream, 
and one at the bottom which was constant for any section. This 
latter area was obtained from an accurate plot of the cross section 
of the channel at the stations B, C, D, E, F and G. The ordinates 


to the water surface, for determining the area, were obtained 
probably to -01 cm. (as explained in § 6) so that, on the extreme 
assumption that the errors were made on the same side all along 
the surface, the resulting error would be about 8-0 x -01 = -08 
in the case of Series I., and about 6-0 x 01 = -06 sq. cm. for Series 
II. The average areas for these two cases are approximately 
20 sq. cm. and 7 sq. cm.; hence the degree of error involved 
on the above assumption, in determining the area would be about 
1 in 250 and 1 in 1 20 respectively. The actual errror is probably 
less than this. The quantity subject to the most uncertainty in 
the investigation is the wetted perimeter, owing to the difficulty 
experienced in deciding exactly where the mean edge of the stream 
occurred. This difficulty of course decreased as the slope was 
diminished and the corrugation of the surface consequently was 
less marked. The average error in the side reading would not be 
greater than -3 mm. corresponding to an error in the wetted 
perimeter of about one per cent. The wetted perimeter itself 
was determined by scaling from the plots of the channel sections 
previously referred to. The hydraulic radii were then determined 
for each section, and the velocities were reduced to a common 
radius of 15 cm. in Series I., and 1-0 cm. in Series II., by means 
of the law obtained from Series A and B. 

The slope, /, was assumed to be that of the water surface, the 
levels to which were obtained as described in §8 to -01 cm. In 
nearly every case the slope was taken over a distance of 300 cm., 
so that the error of slope involved is about -000033. The lowest 
slope used in determining the law of variation of slope with velocity 
was about -007 the degree of uncertainty in which is therefore 
33 in 7000, or a little less than 1 in 200. As the slope increases 
the degree of error diminishes, it being reduced to 1 in 2000 at a 
slope of -066, which was the greatest slope used. The temperatures 
were obtained by means of two mercurial thermometers graduated 
in degrees Fahrenheit and provided with Kew certificates of date 
June, 1893. The readings were then reduced to degrees centigrade. 
» be applied to the thermometers was 

•2° F. or approximately -1° C, and it is thought that the tempera- 
tures as given in the tables may be relied upon to -2° C. 

11. Relation between slope and velocity. — Two series of experi- 
ments (1. and II.) were made with nominal values of the mean 
hydraulic radius of respectively 15 cm. and 1 cm., and with a 
wide range of slopes, in order to determine the method of variation 
of velocity with slope. As Series II. is the more complete and 
extensive of the two, it will be considered first. The following 
table summarizes the essential quantities. The velocities as given 
Table V. 

Series II. — Mean hydraulic radius = 1-00 cm. Mean temp- 
ature = 16-2° C. 


.,\ : '; :::.,, 










E, F 















E, F 






J), E,F 












E, F 








In Fig. 3, curve 

In the above table experiments B and A n 

in the second column have been reduced to a co 
radius by the formula obtained in § 12, and to 
temperature by the formula obtained i 
"II" in the lower half of the diagram shows the method of vari- 
ation of velocity with slope under the conditions obtaining m 
Series II., and its logarithmic honiologue is shown by the curve 
marked " II " in the upper half of the diagram. From the fact 
that there is a linear relationship between the logarithims of the 
slope and of the velocity it is at once evident that the function 
connecting these two quantities is exponential in form. The 
inclination of the straight line is approximately "46, so that if U 


iv x 



be the velocity : 

md / the slope we have 

where k is a constant. The degree of accuracy \v 

itli w 

hich this 

simple expressi 

on represents the experimental r 



it unnecessary t 

o enquire whether any other form 

of e: 

could not be us< 

Fig. 3. 

Curves marked " I " correspond to Series I. 

"II" „ Series II. 

Curv f e or 7 n a u r 1 k a 

, of Kutter and Ganguillet to Series II. 


applying t 

Log of Slope. 

As previously stated the stream did not attain a steady con- 
dition of flow immediately on entering the channel but was 
subject to a marked acceleration for some distance from the 
channel inlet. In the case of Series II., where the cross section 
of the stream was small, this distance proved to be comparatively 
short, the flow being practically steady at Section B, and, except 
at extremely low slopes, it appeared to be but very slightly 
affected by the slope. The distance in which the acceleration is 
complete depends however on the size of the section, and in 
Series I., where the mean hydraulic radius varied from 1-5 cm. 
to 1-7 cm., the velocity was found to slightly increase throughout 
the length of the channel. On the assumption, probably justi- 
fiable, that each experiment would be subject to the same 
percentage error, the line obtained in the logarithmic plot will 
remain parallel to the true line, and hence the index of the slope 
in the foregoing expression so obtained, will be almost, if not 
quite, correct. The necessary quantities for Series I. are given 
in Table VI., and the two curves marked " I " are shown in the 
lower and upper portions of Fig. 3, as already described for 
Series II. In this case, as in Series II., a straight line curve 

Mean temperature 


ver, the results obtained in Series II. are, as has been 
shown, more reliable than those of Series I., and since if curve "I" 
were drawn parallel to curve "II" it would represent the plotted 
results almost as accurately as in its present position, it will 
probably be most correct to assume the index to be -46 for the 
conditions of the present series of experiments. 

12. Relation between hydraulic radius and velocity. — As it was 
impossible to maintain the hydraulic radius absolutely constant 
throughout the series of experiments on the effect of slope, an 
auxiliary investigation was made to determine the method of 
variation of velocity and hydraulic radius. Owing to the acceler- 
ation of the rate of flow at the higher value of the hydraulic 
radius, as described in the preceding section, it was not feasible 
to make use of a wide range of values, and hence the expression 
arrived at from these experiments is to be considered, not in the 
light of a general expression showing the relationship between the 
hydraulic radius and velocity, but merely as a sufficiently good 
approximation for purposes of correction. As will be made evi- 
dent by the accompanying curves (A and B) the approximation 
obtained is a very close one. Two series (A and B) of experi- 
were made at slopes of -0663 and -02213 respectively. 
Table VII. 

The results : 

Table VII. 
i A.— Slope = -0663. Tempei 

= 18° C. 


«** I*ffi3» 

Lo, R | Sections. 

II. 11 






1-0686 D, E, F, G 

1-8055 „ , 

T-0009 ; „ „ „ n 
1-9464 1 Interpolated 

717 TN555 

of the inclinations of the logarithmic curves for 
B is approximately -685, but for the present pur- 
; will be sufficiently accurate to assume this 
to be -7 ; hence the relationship between velocity and hydraulic 
radius may, within the range of values covered by the experiments, 
be approximately expressed as 

and this is the expression that was employed in reducing the 
velocities in Series I. and II. to common hydraulic radii of 
1'5 cm. and 1 cm. respectively. 

13. Relation between temperature and velocity. — The tempera- 
ture of the water being subject to slight variations during the 
course of the investigation, the following experiments were made 
with a view of observing in the first place whether the velocity 
was appreciably affected by changes of temperature, of only a few 
degrees, and, if it were so, of determining approximately the 
relationship between the two quantities. The highest tempera- 
ture attained was about 42° C, which is considerably above any 
temperature occurring in the experiments of Series I. and II., 
but which does not provide a range of values sufficiently wide for 
the precise determination of the above-mentioned relationship. 
As will be evident from the following table a comparatively small 
change of temperature produces a distinctly noticeable effect on 
the rate of flow, and the expression deduced from the observa- 
tions, although necessarily only roughly approximate, on account 
of the considerable degree of error involved in each measurement, 
is yet probably quite accurate enough for the small corrections 
that have to be made. It was assumed that the change in the 
coefficient of discharge of the orifice with increase of temperature 
^ould be inappreciable, 1 or at least considerably within the range 
of experimental error. Further, assuming the coefficient of super- 
ficial expansion of brass to be -000038 per degree centigrade or 
•00076 for the range of temperature adopted in the experiments, 

2-00 2-10 2-20 

velocity and the temperature of the water, the relative fluidity 1 of 
the water for each experiment is stated, since it is preferable to 
introduce the fluidity, rather than the temperature, into an 
expression for the rate of flow. In the experiments of this series 
the mean hydraulic radius was in each case almost exactly -9 cm. 
and the velocities have therefore been reduced to that common 
value instead of to an hydraulic radius of 1 cm. 

The logarithims of the velocity and the fluidity are co-ordinated 
in Fig. 4, and the relationship between the two quantities may be 
represented roughly by a straight line curve having an inclination 
q - - 3 approximately, or in symbols 

This was the expression made use of in reducing the velocities in 
Series II. to a common temperature. 

15. Comparison of results obtained by the use of the formula 
of Kutter and Ganguillet.— Since the formula of Kutter and 
Ganguillet is probably that most used for the determination of 
the velocity of flow in open channels, an interesting comprarison 
may be made between the actual results of the present experi- 
ments and those compiled by means of the formula. 

In the formula 

U=c S(RI) 
the coefficient is, in metric measure, 

1 -00155 

23 + 

n + I 

1 + (: 

-00155 x n 

The value of the coefficient of roughness, n, in 
may probably be assumed to be -009 for the circumstances of the 
present experiments. On this assumption, the velocity has been 
determined at various slopes throughout the range embraced 
by Series II., and the resulting curve is shown in Fig. 3, (K 
and G). 

It is directly comparable with the curve marked " II." Evi- 
dently the formula indicates velocities considerably below the 
actual ones when applied to conditions such as obtain in the 
present series. By arbitrarily choosing a smaller coefficient of 
roughness for the purpose, the discrepancy could be diminished, 
but the coefficient here selected is justified by the results of 
experiments made on channels similar to the present one, as set 
forth in the tables published in " The Flow of Water in Rivers 
and other Channels," by Kutter and Ganguillet. 

16. Experiments at small slopes. — In carrying out Series IL, 
three experiments (Nos. 8, 10 and 9) were made with slopes of 
•0025, -0020, and -0012 respectively. Unfortunately the results 
are not reliable (and are therefore not reported) because the water 
dit not attain any steady condition of flow. At times the surface 
of the stream would be "glassy" smooth almost the whole length 
of the channel, but the slightest disturbance caused it to break, 
the section increasing, so that the water came down in a series of 
waves making it impossible to obtain the area with any degree of 

going paper was written, a second series of experiments 
change of temperature on the rate of flow, has been 
the following table summarizes the results : 

It will be seen at once that the effect of change of temperature is very 
appreciable, but the rate of increase of velocity is considerably less than 
found in § 13 above, indicating that the correction there determined is 
too large. The absolute correction is however so small a quantity as to 


By Henry G. Smith, f.c.s., Technological Museum, Sydney. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, December 1, 1897.'] 

In a paper 1 read before this Society on the 4th August last, I 
announced a true dye material found existing in the leaves of the 
" Red Stringy Bark," Eucalyptus macrorhyncha, Having found 
by the preliminary examination that the material belonged to the 
quercetin group of natural dyes, I named it myrticolorin, believing 
it to be the first possible commercial dye-stuff obtained from the 
natural order Myrtacese. In the abstract of the paper published 
hy the Society, it is stated that " it can be obtained in abundance 
and with a minimum of trouble, and hence its discovery may be 
of commercial importance." 

The object of the present notes is to amplify the above with 
the following statements :— 

(a) That myrticolorin is a glucoside of quercetin. 

(b) That it is to be obtained in large quantities. 

(c) That the mode of extraction is extremely simple. 

(d) That in this product Australia has a material of great 

value, and probably able to successfully compete with 

quercitron bark from Quercus tinctoria, and fustic. 

We will consider these statements in the above order. 

(a) That myrticolorin h a glucoside of quercetin is proved by 

the fact that on boiling in dilute sulphuric acid it breaks up into 

quercetin, proved by its reactions, particularly its acetyl derivative, 

sugar or sugars belonging to the glucoses, this being readily 


»y yeast, reduces Fehling's solution on heating, 

sweetish in taste and partly crystallises from water in microscopic 
transparent prisms, probably monoclinic. It therefore differs 

from rutin obtained from Rue fRuta graveolens), the sugar from 
that substance being rhamnose. 

After making the announcement to the Society, I forwarded a 
small quantity of myrticolorin, and quercetin obtained from it, to 
Mr. A. G. Perkin in England, who is so well known as an authority 
on the natural yellow dyes ; he informs me that myrticolorin is 
certainly a glucoside of quercetin, and that it is quercetin is proved 
by the formation of acetyl quercetin melting at 189 - 191° C. He 
also suggested that from its greenish tint it might be identical 
with rutin ; the greenish tinge, however, is not constant, it being 
wanting in some material I obtained later when this was entirely 
purified from water. To Mr. Perkin for the assistance so readily 
given me, and also for his advice and promised help towards 
making the product commercially known, I wish to tender my 

(6) That it is to be obtained in large quantities is indicated by 
the extent of the range of this species of Eucalypt, it extending 
over a large portion of this colony and Victoria ; and particularly 
from the fact that the dried leaves contain no less than ten per 
cent, of myrticolorin. This is the result of quantitative deter- 
minations on material obtained from near Rylstone in this 
colony. As myrticolorin contains from forty-eight 

quercetin, the actual content of quercetin 

i the dried 

3 may be taken as near five per cent. As only this substance 
use for dyeing purposes, the value is of course judged on the 
nt of quercetin present. 

(c) That the mode of extraction is exceedingly simple may be 
understood when it is stated that all that is required is to care- 
fully dry and powder the leaves, boil the powder in water and 
pass the boiling liquid through a filter cloth. As the water cools 
the yellow substance crystallises out, and when cold it is again 
filtered through a cloth, the yellow myrticolorin remaining behind 
while the tannic acid and other substances in solution pass away. 
The myrticolorin can then be washed with clean water, pressed, 

and dried, and if desirable powdered. If required it may be 
purified by dissolving again in boiling water before drying and 
treating as before. It is most necessary to powder the leaves, as 
by so doing the extraction is more complete and much quicker, 
and the finer the powder the more satisfactory the yield. When 
whole leaves are boiled, little of the material is obtained. As 
myrticolorin is not very readily soluble in water, even on boiling, 
it will be necessary to use a good quantity of water ; three extrac- 
tions appear to be sufficient to remove the whole of the substance 
providing the leaves are finely ground. 

(d) That in this product Australia has a material of great value 
can be readily seen when we consider the commercial importance 
of quercitron bark and fustic. Quercitron bark is worth in 
England £6 10s. per ton, and fustic £1 10s. per ton. The quan- 
titative content of quercetin in quercitron bark has not, it appears, 
yet been determined, but Mr. Perkin thinks it to be about two or 
three per cent,, and when we consider the difficulty of grinding 
bark in comparison with dried leaves, and the increased percentage 
of quercetin in the leaves of this Eucalypt, the advantages in 
favour of eucalyptus leaves are apparent. If the yield of quercetin 
is taken at three per cent, in quercitron bark, that equals 6 7 lbs. 
quercetin per ton, while one ton of dried leaves of E. macrorhyncha 
would give 224 lbs. of myrticolorin, or over 100 Bis. of quercetin. 1 
It appears, therefore, that the prospective value of these eucalyptus 
leaves is very good, and at present they are put to no use whatever. 
Myrticolorin, too, is easily obtained in comparison with the pre- 
parations from quercitron bark. The manufacture of flavin (a 
dried extract from this bark) appears to be somewhat complicated, 
and the use of chemicals must necessarily increase the cost of 
production, while the preparation of myrticolorin can be carried 
out practically without capital, the only outlay necessary beyond 
the utensils usually found upon a small homestead being a mill 

1 Myrticolorin contains seven per cent, of water, it probably crystallis- 

be forthcoming. Ir 

Although in this industry as in may others, superior advantages 
are to be gained by carrying out the extraction on a large scale, 
yet, there is no reason why it should not be done in a small way 
also. Myrticolorin when dried is not liable to change, so that it 
is an ideal material for collection and export. The quantity of 
this class of dyestuffs used annually must be very great, although 
I have been unable to obtain definite information on that point, 
but in the Board of Trade Journal for 1894, page 474, it is stated 
that the export of fustic alone from Mexico, known in that country 
as "palo-moral" or " palo-amarillo," reaches 9,000,000 kilogrammes 
a year. This is exported to England, France, and Germany. 

It is not to be expected that E, macrorhyncha is the only 
Eucalypt containing myrticolorin in payable quantities in the 
leaves, and it would be well to bear this substance in mind is 
future experiments with eucalyptus leaves. It appears necessary 
for the formation of myrticolorin in the leaves that they be care- 
fully dried, no heating or fermentation being allowed. A few 
pounds of myrticolorin will now be obtained and forwarded to 
England for experiment. My thanks are due to my colleague at 
this Museum, Mr. R. T. Baker, for botanical assistance in the 
determination of the species. 

By Professor Ralph Tate, f.g.s., Hon. Member. 

With an Appendix on Corals, by John Dennant, f.g.s. 
[With Plates XIX. -XX.] 
[Read before the Royal Society of N.S. Wales, December 1, 1897.'] 
Since the publication of my supplement to a Census of the Fauna 
of the Older Tertiary of Australia, in the Proceedings of the Society, 
there have appeared several important contributions to Australian 
Tertiary Paleontology. These are :— Cossmann's " Essais Pala?o- 
conchologie," parts i., andi i., 1895-6 ; British Museum Catalogue 
of the Australasian Tertiary Mollusca, part i., by G. F. Harris 
(1897); McGillivray's "Tertiary Polyzoa of Victoria"; 1 Part iv., 
"Gastropods of the Older Tertiary of Australia," by the writer, 
including Naticidse, Hipponycidae, Oalypfcraeidee, Turritellidte and 
Vermetidsef also the "Opisthobranchs" by M. Cossmann;' whilst 
miscellaneous additions to the fauna have been published by 
Howchin, Pritchard, and others. 

M. Cossmann's "Essais," as concerns Australian Pakeontology, 
are classificatory revisions of the families Terebridw, Pleurotomidse 
and Conidaa ; and his numerous references to Australian species 
are based on the study of actual specimens. 

Mr. Harris's "Catalogue," which is limited to the Gasteropoda, 
Scaphopoda and Lamellibranchiata, is largely a reproduction of 
the diagnoses of species described by McCoy, Tenison-Woods, and 
myself, sometimes amplified and accompanied by well-executed 
illustrations, more particularly of the embryonic shell, which for 
the gasteropods is therein called the protoconch and for thelamelli- 
branchs the prodissoconch. Thirty-six species are illustrated, 


some of them described as new ; though I do not agree with the 
determinations of a few of them, e.g. — Actceon scrobiculatus, this 
is not the species of Tenison-Woods, but represents A. distingu- 
endus, Cossmann ; Ringicula lactea is not Johnston's species, but 
is E. Tatei, Cossmann; Leptoconus Xewtoni, n. sp., is L. extenuatus> 
Tate; L. convexus, n. sp., is L. acrotholoides, Tate ; and Drillia 
oblongula, n. sp., is Buchozia hemiothone, Ten.-Woods (Columbella). 
In Scaphander tenuis and Umbraculum australe, the author fore- 
stalls S. Tatei and U. australensis of Cossmann. Moreover Mr. 
Harris replaces many generic names of long standing by others in 
accordance with the strict rules of priority, or on the ground of 
preoccupation; as most of such rectifications are generally accepted 
by the leading palaeoconchologists, I shall indicate these and other 
proposed innovations in their proper places. 
Class Gasteropoda. 
Family Muricid^e. 

Sistrum, Montfort, 1810, has priority over Ricinula, Lamarck, 

Family Lampusid^e. 

Triton and Tritonium are names that have been in prior use in 
other departments of zoology, and the application of the priority 
rule by Mr. R. B. Newton has led him to suggest the employment 
of Lampusia, Schumacher, 1817, in which he is followed by Coss- 
mann, 1896; whilst Mr. Harris advocates Lotorium, Montfort, 
1810. So also Colubraria, Schumacher, 1817, has priority over 

Genus Plesiotriton. 
This genus was instituted by Fischer in 1884, uniquely repre- 
sented by Cancellaria volutella, Lamarck, of the Parisian Eocene. 
The form is that of Epidromus, the canal is short and deeply 
notched, and there are plications on the columella. The type has 
three principal columellar plaits, but the Australian representa- 
tives have only two. I recognise two species in the Eocene strata 
of Australia, namely, Cantharus varicosus, mihi, 1 from Aiding*, 
and P. Dermanti, n. sp., from Cape Otway. 

i Trans. Roy. Soc, South Australia7l887, t. 8, fig. 10. 


Cossmann, 1 states that my Epidromus citharellus " est absolu- 
ment identique au Plesiotriton vclutella "; this opinion is based 
on my figure and description, and not by actual comparison. 
E. citharellus is, however, correctly placed, it being without 

I believe it is generally admitted by my co-workers that, what- 
ever ages may be assigned to the main mass of the Older Tertiary, 
the basal beds of the Aldinga section are Eocene, and the occur- 
rence of Plesiotriton in the Aldinga and Cape Otway deposits is 
one of many evidences of their approximate contemporaneity. 
Plesiotriton Dennanti, spec. nov. (Plate 19, fig. 1.) 

Shell elongate conic ; pullus relatively small, papillary, of one 
and a-half smooth turns. Spire-whorls five, moderately convex, 
closely tessellated by flattish spiral and axial riblets, a little 
nodulose at the intersections of the primary riblets, slender axial 
threads crowd the whole surface. The earlier spire-whorls have 
about seven to ten spiral riblets, and with the revolution of the 
spire an intermediate riblet appears between them. There are 
from one to two varices on each whorl. Aperture elongate-oval, 
rounded behind, narrowed at the front and extended into a short 
slightly recurved and upturned canal; outer lip varicially thickened 
externally, crenately dentate on the inner margin ; a thin callus 
covers the parietal wall ; columella with two stout spiral plaits, 
situated in about the posterior one-third. Length 28, breadth 12, 
length of aperture 17. 

Eocene, Cape Otway, Victoria. The species name is in com- 
pliment to my coadjutor who brought it to my notice as a species 
of Plesiotriton. 


species differs from P. varicosus by more elongate 

S and in the details of ornamentation. Intheorigin.ii duMJMp' 
of Cantharus varicosus, no reference is made to the columellar 
tions which were concealed by matrix ; subsequent develop- 
has revealed two stout plaits. 

1 Ann. Geol. Univ., Vol. v., p. 1089, 1889. 

Family Fusid*:. 
Genus Columbarium. 

In my synopsis of the species of Fusus, 1 the reference of ce 
of them to Columbarium was indicated, though I then thoug 
"convenient to include them under Fusus." However, the |B 
offers good characters for generic separation, 
argues for the retention of Columbarium in Fusidse, whilst Mr. 
Harris* refers it to Pleurotomidse. 

Genus Streptochetes, Cossmann. 

Mr. Harris 4 has referred my Fasciolaria exilis to the above 
genus, but between it and the type-species of the genus I see no 
resemblance, or also between it and S. incertus, with which Mr. 
Harris compares it. My criticism is the result of comparison 
with authentically named specimens. However, I would transfer 
the Australian fossil to Laliro/usus, because of its long, straight, 
almost closed canal and by the possession of one or two transverse 
i moreover present great analogy with 
i L.funiculosus. 
Genus Latirus. 

When referring a number of our Australian fossils to Peristernia* 
I had recognised the uncertain value of the differences which 
separate Latirus and Peristernia — the long recurved canal of the 
majority of the species influenced me in using the latter name. 
M. Cossmann" and Mr. Harris, 7 applies the former one to those of 
our species, which they had for study ; in this step I follow them, 
but rather on the ground only of the priority of Latirus, because 
the intermediate characters presented by many of our species 
render the selection of either name open to dissent. 

Peristernia approximate and /'. jmrpuroidet are conchologically 
referrable to Latirus, but their analogy to the recent Trophon 

Paivce (which has been quoted under Urosalpinx, Fusus i 
Peristernia, and lately retransferred to its original generic locat 
.nds) ma i : ■ tew them • 

Subgenus Latirulus. 

M. Cossmann 1 remarks that my Peristernia actinostephes 

resembles Latirulus subajims, D Orb., and consequently, P. 

apicilirata must also be removed thereto. 

Family Buccinid*:. 

Genus Tritono fusus, Beck, 1847, 

This name replaces Sipho, Morch, 1852, adopted from Klein, a 

pre-Linnean author. The Australian species, diagnostically known, 

are reduced to T. crebrigranosus and T. labrosus, by removal of 

Sipho asperulus and S. styliformis to Siphonalia, the former 

under the changed name of S. Tatei, Cossmann. 

Genus Phos. 

Subgenus Loxotaphrus, Harris, 1897. 

The above name is proposed for a new group with Phos (?) vari- 

cifer, Tate, as its unique type. When describing the species'- I 

discussed its affinities with Phos and Nassaria; the differences of 

the aperture and protoconch being dealt upon. In Phos the pro- 

toconch is typically turbinate or even conical, of three or more 

whorls, whilst in Loxotaphrus it consists of one and a half turns, 

the earlier portion being inflated and implanted obliquely. 

Family VoLUTiDiE. 

In my arrangement of the thirty-two fossil species of Volutes* 

no attempt was made to throw them into groups consonant with 

those employed for the recent and tertiary species, though 

incidental references thereto were made as regards a few species. 

Mr. Harris in his Cat. Brit. Mus. has grouped fifteen of our 

species into the following genera and subgenera : — 

Genus Volutilithes includes spp. 29 and 30 j 1 this generic refer- 
ence had already been implied by the author of the species. 

Genus Voluta, subgenus Aulica includes spp. 5, 15, 22, 24, 31 
and 32. 

Subgenus Volutoconus includes sp. 10 as referred thereto by me. 

Subgenus Amoria includes sp. 17 as referred thereto by me. 

Subgenus Pterospira, this is a new group established for the 
reception of sp. 1. 

Genus Scaphella includes spp. 11, 12, and 14. 

Subgenus Eosephcea includes spp. 21, 25 and 26. 

This classification does not meet all the requirements, and I 
venture to regroup the species. In the first place the subgenus 
Pterospira, which is characterised by a wing-like expansion of the 
outer lip and by an enormous globose protoconch, is unnecessary; 
as otherwise other new groups would require to be established 
for V. macroptera and V. Mortoni, which have an alate expansion 
of the lip but have very dissimilar protoconchs. The section 
Mamillana might receive V. Hannafordi, as its type has a similar 
protoconch and an incipient winged outer lip ; so also may the 
other winged species be distributed in a section already constituted. 

Genus Volutilithes. 
Characterised by its small acute protoconch, contains V. antt- 
scalaris and V. anticingulatus, both of McCoy. 
Genus Voluta. 
Protoconch mamillate, relatively large. 

Section Vespertilio. 
Protoconch turbinate, crenulated. Examples V. Macdonaldi 
and V. unci/era. 

Section Aulica. 

Differs from the foregoing by more conic and smooth pullus. 

Examples, V. ellipsoidea, V. lirata, V. costelli/era, V. Weldii, 

V. strophodon, V. cathedralis, and V. tabulata. 

l These figures accord with the enumeration of my synopsis of the species. 

Section Amobia. 
Shell smooth and polished, protoconch turbinately conic. Ex- 
amples, V. Masoni and V. capitata. 

Section Volutoconus. 
Shell oblong subcylindrical, protoconch depressedly conoid. 
Examples, V. conoidea and V. limbata. 

Section Mamillina. 
Protoconch globulose and large, the tip lateral. Examples, 
V. Hannafordi, V. heptagonalis, V. alticosta and V. Stephensi. 

V. ancilloides, V. Mortoni, and V. Atkinsoni. The last recently 
described by Pritchard. 1 

Section Leptoscapha, Fischer, 1883. 
Shell small, oblong-fusiform ; protoconch mamillated, outer lip 
variced. Example, V. crassilabrum, which, by comparison of actual 
3 much analogy with the type species, V. variculoaa, 
n Eocene. 
Section Scaphella. 
Smooth shells with a mamillary protoconch. Examples, 
V. Maccoyi and V. polita. 

Section Eosephjea. 
Shell more or less mitraeform, transversely striated and usually 
longitudinally ribbed ; protoconch papillary smooth with the tip 
exsert and pointed. Examples, V. macroptera, V. AUporti, 
Johnston, 2 V. lintea, V. cribrosa, V. sarissa, V. pagodoides, and 
V. Taleana. 

The differences which separate the typical members of this group 
and Aulica are somewhat bridged over by V. cathedralis, connects 
ing through V. pseudolirata to Aulica, and making an approach 
to V. sarissa in the section Eosephaea. 

V. macroptera and V. Allporti have the characteristic proto- 
conch of this group, and it is only the early spire-whorls that have 
the spiral ornamentation ; apart from differences of shape, V. 
macroptera is winged, though it is almost impossible to separate 
young examples of the two species. 

Family Mitrid^e. 

Mr. Harris locates thirteen of our twenty-four described species 
of Mitra as follows : 

Genus Mitra. 

M. alokiza, M. uniplicata, and adds a new species M. multi- 
sulcata. I would add M. dictua, M. varicosa, and ? M. atyplia. 

Subgenus Gancilla. 
M. atractoides. 

Genus Uromitra, Bellardi, 1887. 
M. leptalea, M. paucicostata, M. exilis, If. semilcevis, If. terebri- 
formis, M. clathurella. Three of the foregoing had already been 
referred by Cossmann (1889) to Fusimitra (auctores, non Conrad). 
And 1 add M. biornata, M. sordida, M. escharoides, M. subcrenularis 
and M. citharelloides. 

Genus Conomitra, Conrad, 1865. 
M. othone, M. Dennanti, 31. ligata. And I add M. conoidalis, 
M. cassida, and M. complanata, Tate, and M. anticoronata, 

Family Cancellarid^e. 
Genus Cancellaria. 

Cossmann 1 distributes our species as follows : 

Section Cancellaria : — C. Wannonensis. 
Section Bivetia : — C. gradata and G. ptycotropis. 
Section Sveltia :— C. epidromiformis and C. exaltata; these 
species have a conic embryo, not planorbulate, and there- 
fore do not belong to JJxia. 
Section M erica :— C. modettina. 

1 Ann. Geol. Univ., Vol. v., p. 1091, 1S89. 

Section Narona : — C. turriculata, C. Etheridgei, C. caperata, 

C. capillata, C. micra, and C. semicostata. 
Section Bivetopsis :— C. cavulata, and C. laticostata; the last 
name being preoccupied by Kuster, I had altered to 
C.platypleura, 1893. 
C. alveolata is wrongly placed in the genus. 

Family TEREBRiDiE. 
M. Cossmann 1 passes under review some of our Australian 
fossil species, classifying them as follows : — 

Genus Terebra, sensu stricto. 
Example, T. platyspira, Tate. 

Section Noditerebra, Cossmann, 1896. 
A new section, characterised by nodulose whorls, diagnosis 
established after the type species T. geniculate, Tate, of the Aus- 
tralian Miocene. 

Subgenus Hastula. 

Includes T. angulosa and T. crassa, Tate. 

Genus Euryta. 

Subgenus Spineoterebra, Sacco, 1891. 

Here are transferred by Cossmann, Terebra subspectabilis and 

T. convexiuscula, Tate. 

Family CyprjEIm:. 
Harris arranges, some of our fossil cowries as follows : — 

Genus Cyprcea. 
Includes C. scalena and C. farallela. 

Subgenus Bernayia, Jousseaume. 

Characterised by a visible spire and large anterior excavation 

of the columella. The species of this group are all Eocene, of 

them C. subsidua and C. contusa are Australian. 

Subgenus Luponia. 

Here are placed C. brachypyga, C. pyrulata and C. leptorhyncha; 

and there may be added C. subpyrulata and C. Murraviana. 


Subgenus Erosaria, Troschel. 

This name is in substitution for Aricia, Sowerby, 1832, non 

Savigny; it includes G. gigas, G. platypyga, G. consobrina, 

C. gastroplax as indicated by McCoy, also G. dorsata, Tate. 

Subgenus Umbilia, Jousseaume. 

Includes as already indicated by me, G. eximia, Sow., C. sphoB- 

rodoma, Tate, G. toxorhyncha, Tate. 

Subgenus Gaskoinia. 
This is an additional member of the family now recorded for 
the first time. 

Gaskoinia bull^eformis, spc. nov. {Plate 19, fig. 5.) 
Shell globosely oval, smooth ; spire concealed ; aperture as long 
as the shell, with slightly produced extremities, relatively wide, 
somewhat narrowed and rounded behind, truncate in front with 
a wide shallow sinuosity ; outer lip broadly thickened all round 
on the inner margin. Length 44-5, breadth 30 mm. 
Eocene, Muddy Creek (one example). 
Excluded species, C. ovulalella is transferred to Trivia. 
Genus Erato. 

Family OvulidjE. 
The name Ovula is for the present expunged from our list and 
Sxmnia (Neosimnia) takes the place of Calpuma, one species is 
described from the Victorian Eocene. 

Family Cassidid*:. 

Genus Morio, Montfort, 1810. 

This name is in substitution for Gassidaria, Lamarck, 1812. 

Family Strombid^e. 

Genus Strombus. 

Mr. Harris describes a fossil from the Fowler Bay district of 

South Australia as Strombus denticostatus; the horizon is unknown 

1 Trans. Koy. Soc. South Australia, p. 217, 1890. 

t is probably Older Tertiary. The genus is new for beds of this 

Family Struthk 

Genus Pelicaria. 
Harris states that Buccinum scutulatum, Martyn, is not the 
type of Gray's Pelicaria, but B. vermis, Martyn ; and that there- 
fore Pelicaria falls in synonymy with Struthiolaria ; he proposes 
Tylospira as the generic name. 

Family CoNiDiE. 

Genus Conus. 

Messrs. Cossmann and Harris have attempted to bring some of 

our Eocene Cones into subgeneric groups as under : — 

Subgenus Stephanoconus, Morch. 1852. 

The shells of this group are distinguished from Conus, s.s., by a 

more elongate spire, crowned by obtuse tubercles near the superior 

suture. Example, C. Hamiltonensis, Tate. 

Subgenus Lithoconus, Morch. 

Distinguished by the absence of sutural crenulations, by the 

aperture dilated in front and with a rather deep posterior sinus. 

Examples, C. Dennanti, C. pullulescens, C. cuspidatus. 

Subgenus Chelyconus, Morch. 

Spire elevated, last whorl convex near the suture, rounded at 

the shoulder, posterior sinus not very deep. Example, C. Ralphii, 


Subgenus Leptoconus, Swainson, 1840. 

Examples, C. heterospira, C. extenuatus, C. acrotholoides, 

G. Murravianus, and C. ptychodermis, C. ligatus, Tate. 

Genus Hemiconus, Cossmann, 1889. 

Hemiconus Cossmanni, spec. nov. (Plate 19, fig. 1 1.) 

Shell biconic, spire about one-third the total length ; embryo 

relatively large of one and a half smooth whorls, apex obtuse 

hemispheeric, the tip somewhat lateral. Spire-whorls five, the 

first and second concave by the development of a spiral rounded 

border at each suture, on the second whorl an interstitial thread 
appears contiguous with the anterior band. The third and fourth 
whorls are flat, except for three spiral bands, which ornament it; 
the two thick marginal bands are rudely crenulated, the medial 
smaller one is smooth. Last whorl with antesutural angulation, 
the sutural slope with two spiral ridges, the posterior one is the 
larger; the anterior surface carries about twelve elevated angulated 
spiral ridges, which are somewhat unequal in size and not very 
regularly disposed, the larger ones with coarse blunt crenulations ; 
the whole surface sculptured with somewhat sigmoid closely-set 
striae of growth. Length 9, breadth 4-5 mm. 

Eocene, Muddy Creek, Victoria (one example J. Dennant). 

Among the few European species referred to this genus by 
Cossmann, which I have had under examination, Conus scabriculus 
Solander, is the one to which our fossil shows the greatest resem- 
blance. It differs from the European species by thick spiral ribs, 

relatively shorter spire and larger pullus. The species name is in 

compliment to M. Maurice Cossmann, who has so ably advanced 

our knowledge of Australian Tertiary mollusca. 

Family Pleurotomims. 

Subfamily Pleurotomin^e. 

Operculum with an apical nucleus. 

Genus Pleurotoma. 
Sinus upon the keel, canal long. Example, P. perarata, Tate, 
ms. (apud Cossmann) - P septemlirata, Harris. 

Subgenus Hemipleurotoma, Cossmann. 
Canal short, embryo conic. Examples, P. Samueli and mwm- 
dahana, T. Woods, apud Cossmann. 

Genus Drillia. 

Sinus near the suture, canal short curved and emarginate; 

labrum subvaricose. Examples, Drillia integra, D. stiza,D. Trevori, 

Pleurotoma sandleroides and P. pullulescens, Tenison- Woods, 

D. mxumbtlicata, Harris. 

Genus Bela. 
Canal short truncate, sinus nearly absent, columella flattened. 
Examples, Daphnella tenuisculpta, Ten. -Woods, 1 ( Bela pulchra, 
Tate, 2 Daphnella pulchra, Tate); 3 Bela Woodsii, Tate, 4 (ComineUa 
cancellata, Ten.-Woods, 5 name preoccupied); Bela sculptilis, Tate, 6 
(Pseudotoma sculptilis, Cossmann, 7 Daphnella sculptilis, Harris); 8 
Bela crassilirata, Tate, 9 (Pseudotoma crassilirata, Cossmann, 
Daphnella crassilirata, Harris). 10 

Subgenus Buchozia, Bay an. 

Shell oval, spire very short, embryo subglobose. Examples, 

Buchozia hemiothone, Ten.-Woods (sp.) Syn.:— 1879 Columbella 

hemiothone, Ten.-Woods; 11 1893 Pusionella hemiothone, Tate and 

Dennant; 12 1896 Buchozia hemiothone, Cossmann; 13 1897 Drillia 

oblongula, Harris; 14 Daphnella columbelloides, Tenison- Woods. 

Subgenus Daphnobela, Cossmann, 1896. 

(Teleochilus, Harris, 1897). 

Canal wide, truncate. 

The type is Buccinum junceum, Sowerby, of the 
Eocene, and therewith Daphnella gracillima, Tenison-Woods, 
been associated by Cossmann and Harris ; these 
the group. Of the latter species Cossmann rem 
labrum nearly straight, no sinus, no plications int€ 
shorter, the columella margin thinner, etc. 

Subfamily Borsonin^:. 

Columella plicate or subplicate. 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasm., p. 106, 1877. 

2 Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., Vol, ix., t. 4, f . 2, 188 1 

12 Trans. Roy. Soc, S. 
* 3 Essais Palseoconch. 
14 Brit. Mus. Cat., Ter 

Genus Borsonia. 

Sinus near the suture, columella plicate, canal long. 

Borsonia protensa, spec. nov. {Plate 19, fig 6.) 
B. protensa, Tate, m.s. 1 

Shell narrowly fusiform ; aperture about equal, more or less, to 
the spire in length. Embryo globulose of one and a-half smooth 
whorls, the tip small somewhat depressed and lateral. Spire- 
whorls eight, the first five roundly costated below the fascial band, 
most markedly so on the third and fourth whorls, the costation 
gradually fading away with the revolution of the spire and the 
whorls becoming more flatly convex. All the spire-whorls closely 
spirally lined, and more coarsely so transversally. Last whorl 
ornamented as the penultimate, but with close-set threadlets on 
the attenuated front portion. Aperture narrow elliptical, narrowed 
in front into a long straight widish snout, just perceptibly twisted 
to the right at the tip. Columella straight, with two stout 
approximate oblique plications, just behind the base of the snout. 
The fascial band is broad and indicates a shallow sinus at the 
suture. Length 44, breadth 11 mm. 

Eocene, Cape Otway, Victoria. 

This species is very typical of the genus, simulating the long 
snouted species of Surcula, but having a slightly different embryo 
and a biplicated columella. 

Borsonia Otwayensis, spec. nov. (Plate 19, fig. 4.) 
B. Otwayensis y ms. op. cit., id. Cossmann. 2 

Shell fusiform, aperture slightly longer than the spire ; embryo 
as in B. protensa. Spire- whorls seven, angulated post medially 
and broadly costated on the anterior slope (sometimes obsolete on 
the body-whorl), there are about eight on the penultimate whorl. 
All the spire-whorls sculptured with spiral threads (increasing to 
about twenty), crossed by slightly arcuate finer threads. Aperture 
trapezoidal-elliptic, widest behind, narrowed in front into » 
1 TranB. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., 1893, p. 111. 

relatively short straight open canal. Columella with two oblique 
plaits just behind the origin of the snout. The sinus of the lip is 
broad and shallow ; the fascial band occupies the whole antesutural 
or post-carinal slope. Length 21, breadth 7 mm. 

Eocene, Cape Otway, Victoria. 

This species is distinguished from the foregoing by its stouter 
build, angulated and costated whorls, and by more pronounced 
spiral sculpture. 

Borsonia polycesta, spec. nov. (Plate 19, fig. 2.) 
B. polycesta, Tate, ms., op. cit. 

Shell fusiform, aperture as long as the spire : spire-whorls 
costated and otherwise like B. Otwayensis, except that they are 
convex, the costations more nodulose and the body-whorl not so 
abruptly narrowed at the front. Length 13, breadth 4-5 mm. 

Eocene, Cape Otway, Victoria. 

Borsonia balteata, spec. nov. (Plate 19, fig. 10.) 

Shell fusiform, aperture a little longer than the spire. Embryo 
globulose, rather large, smooth, of one and a-half turns. Spire- 
whorls four and a half, medially angulated, distinctly constricted 
in front of the anterior suture giving rise to the appearance of a 
narrow convex rib margining the suture. First two nobulose- 
costated smooth, the costs© evanescent at the antesutural band ; 
gradually the backward extension of the costse become restricted 
to the anterior slope, and traversed by spiral threads, and the 
posterior slope by arcuate threadlets. Last whorl, the ornamen- 
tation consists (1) on the post carinal area, which is slightly con- 
cave, of arcuate threadlets, more or less duplicate on the sutural 
hand, and anterior thereto by three or four spiral threads, and of 
(2) on the antecarinal area of a crenate-dentate keel, and about 
twenty spiral threads, the posterior four or five crossed by axial 
threads which produce slight nodulations at the intersections; the 
axial threads are continued to the front in much reduced strength; 
the spiral threads are crowded and weaker at the extreme front. 


Aperture elongate piriform, columella with t 
Length 7, breadth 2-5 mm. 

Eocene, Belmont, Victoria. 

Genus Cordieria. 

Sinus near the suture, two or more colur 

(Plate 19, tig. 12.) 
Thala marginata, Tenison- Woods. 1 
The transference of the Table Cape species, described by Tenison- 
Woods as Thala marginata, to either Borsonia or Cordieria renders 
a change of specific denomination. Borsonia marginata was 
described by Deshayes in 1864 and was included by Cossmann, 2 
in his section Phlyctcenia, which was subsequently recognised by 
him to be synonymous with Cordieria; in M. Cossmann's 3 work 
it is listed as Cordieria marginata. 

C. eonospira has considerable analogy with C marginata, 
Deshayes, both agreeing in having a conic embryo and thus diner 
from other congeneric species, but otherwise it is nearer to o. 
turbinelloides, Deshayes ; apart from its much larger size, C 
eonospira differs particularly by finer costation and the possession 
of three to four oblique plaits at the anterior part of the columella. 
The embryo is conic and consists of four moderately convex, 
smooth whorls ; the first spire-whorl is rather closely costated. 
An average sized specimen measures long. 12, lat. 4'5 mm., but 
an extreme form has long. 17 and lat. 7 mm. 

Eocene : This species occurs abundantly at most of its localities. 
Table Cape, Tasmania; Muddy Creek, Mornington and Gellibrand 
River, Victoria ; River Murray Cliff's, South Australia. 

tot of Conomitra, the 
1 two strong plaits which do not extend inwards ; 

l Proc. Roy. Soc., Tasmania, 1877, p. 108. 
2 Cat. 111. Coq. Fobs., iv., p. 248, 1889. 
» Essais Palaeoconchologie, 11., p. 100, 1896. 

My opinion regarding the generic location of certain fossil species 
herein referred to is the result of a comparison with many speci- 
mens of Columbella alba, Petterd, a recent species in Southern 
Australia, which has a very close resemblance to Mitromorpha 
lirata, A. Adams— the type of the genus. 

Firstly, there is a distinct, though small, sutural sinus, which 
demands the relegation of the genus to Pleurotomidse. Secondly, 
the columella-ridges are inconstant in number, and though two 
are usually present, one or both are not infrequently absent. 
The development of columella-ridges, and denticles on the inner 
aspect of the lip, belongs to the senile stage of growth, so that 
immature specimens will not exhibit these characters; but whether 
or not, the plications and denticles are always produced at the 
adult stage, I have no means of judging as there are no external 
developments which might indicate that that stage had been 
attained. One diagnostically known species, among others, of the 
Australian Eocene is here referred to the genus, it is :— 
Mitruniorpha daphwdloidt'*, Ten. -Woods (sp.). 

1879 Mitra daphnelloides, Tenison- Woods; 1 1893 Raphitoma 
daphnettoides, Tate, 2 list name. 

This species has for an analogue Buchozia cancellata, Dantz, 
and Dollfuss, of the Miocene of Touraine, but differs, apart 
from more conoid shape and details of ornamentation, in having 
usually two oblique ridges on the columella, though some 
specimens of M. daphnelloides apparently adult, have the ridges 
obsolete. However in one of the two specimens of the Touranian 
species, which I possess, two plaits are discernible, clearly, there- 
fore the two species are congeneric. These determinations prolong 
the range of the genus into Miocene for France, and Eocene for 


Genus Bathytoma, Harris and Burrows, 1891. 
(Dolichotoma, Bellardi, 1875, non Hope 1839). 
Columella twisted ; sinus removed from the suture, enbryo 

The species of Genotia described in the first supplement of a 
Census, &c, belong to Bathytoma, this position was antecedentally 
assigned to them, as list names. 1 In my former paper, Genotia 
was used in the belief that Dolichotoma might be synonymous, 
that view being based on the similitude of G. atractoides, Watson, 
with certain of our species of Bathytoma ; the reconciliation of 
these discrepancies is made good by Boettger, who affirms that 
the living species described and figured in the " Challenger 
Gasteropoda" belongs to Dolichotoma. Genotia is classed by 
Cossmann in Conidse near to Conorbis. 

The following are diagnostically known : — Genotia fontinalis, 
decomposita, Pritchardi, and angustifrons, Tate; PleurotoiW 
paracantha, Tenison- Woods. Pleurotoma rhomboidalis, Tenison- 
Woods, has no specific characters, it represents the tip of a 

Genus Asthenotoma, Harris and Burrows, 1897. 
Oligotoma, Bellardi, 1875 (non Westwood, 1836). 
Columella with one plication, canal short, sinus large. 
Examples, Pleurotoma consutilis, Ten.-Woods, and Asthenotoma 
Tatei, Cossmann. 2 

Subfamily Mangilinin^e. 
No operculum ; sinus at the suture, embryo papillary. 

Genus Clathurella. 

Outer lip varicose, internally plicate ; canal short, columella 

wrinkled. Examples, Mangilia bidens, Ten.-Woods, and C. obdita, 

Genus Mangilia. 
Outer lip varicose, labrum and columella smooth, sinus distinctly 

No typical species have yet been described from the Australian 
Tertiaries. M. bidens, T. -Woods, is transferred by Cossmann to 
Clathurella, and M. gracilirata of the same author belongs to 

Subgenus Cythara. 

Columbelliform, labrum more or less denticulated within. 

Examples, Mangilia obsoleta and M. (Oythara) glabra, Harris. 

Family Naticim:. 

Genus Natica. 


This i 

Subgenus Stigmaulax. 
Includes Natica (Naticina) limata and arata, Tate. 

Sigapatella is included in Calyptraa. 

Family Solariid^. 
Genus Heliacus, D'Orbigny, 1842. Syn. Torinia, Gray, 1847. 
Example, Solarium Wannonensis, Ten.-Woods. 

Family Vej 
Genus Thylacodes. 
;ies are referred to this genus by me in Trans. Roy. Soc. 
L893, including Vermetus conohelix, Ten.-Woods. Ver- 
nknown in our Older Tertiaries. 
Family Eulimim:. 
ia is in substitution for Leiostraca, if it be worth retain- 
ibgenus of Eulima. 

Family Turbonillim:. 

le accepted amended spelling of Odostomia. 
according to Dall, 1892, is only entitled to subgeneric 


rank. Actceopyramis olivellcdformis, 1 is transferred to Actaon in 

Family j 

Genus Eulimella. 

Four minute species are known to me from the Eocene of 

Aldinga, Shelford, Gelibrand River and Belmont. 

Family Littorinid;e. 

Genus Fossarus. 

Fossarus refractds, spec, nov. (Plate 19, fig. 9.) 

Shell minute, turbinate, minutely perforate, test thick not 

nacreous. Embryo of two whorls, the first papillary, the second 

rather flatly convex. Spire-whorls two and a half, antemedially 

augulated, the posterior slope somewhat steep, the anterior one 

nearly perpendicular ; ornamented by rounded relatively high 

threads, which on the posterior slope are nearly at right angles to 

the keel, thence backward inclined to the suture ; inter-spaces 

between the axial threads about twice as wide as the width of the 

distant and slightly 

Last whorl with a semi-circular contour 
modified by the four strong keels which enc 
thirds of the base. The keels are ineqi 
serrated by the crossing of transverse threads ; the first and 
second are in alignment with those visible on the penultimate 
whorl, the second peripheral ; the second, third and fourth about 
equidistant. The transverse threads are slightly backward-curved 
between the suture and the first keel, abruptly bent back between 
the first and second, thence with a slight backward curvature to 
the umbilical fissure. Aperture polygonal, peristome entire, 
outer lip simple ; columella concave ; umbilical chink minute, 
bounded by an elevated ridge which joins the basal lip at its 
junction with the columella, there forming a slight insinuation. 

Eocene, Table Cape, Tasmania. 

This fossil recalls Trichotropis by its umbilical border, but it 8 
thick test and absence of distil 
1 Proc. Roy. Soc., N. S. Wi 

therefrom ; whilst some species of Fossarm offer such similitudes, 
e.g., F lamellosus, Montrouzier, recent, New Caledonia with which 
our fossil presents much analogy. 

Family LacuniDjE. 
Genus Streblorhamphus, Tate and Cossmann, 1898. 
Etymology : Streblos, twisted ; rhamphos, a beak ; in allusion 
to the twist of the columella. 

Type : S. mirulus, Tate and Cossmann (spec, nov.) ; Eocene, 
Muddy Creek, Victoria. (Plate 20, fig. 4.) 

Shell very small, short, turbinated, subulate ; embryo obtuse ; 
whorls five, hardly convex, separated by an indistinct suture J 
surface smooth and shining. Body whorl equalling three-fourths 
of the total length, oval at the base which is perforated by a 
narrow umbilical chink, circumscribed by a prominent rim. 
Aperture oval, angular behind, terminating in front by a short 
narrow snout upon which the umbilical rim is decurrent ; peris- 
; labrum arched and deeply insinuated at the 

front : 

very arched abruptly and feebly 

front, the twist forms the margin to the 1 

aperture ; columella-border narrow and callous, making an angle 

at its extremity with the border of the beak. 

Streblorhamphus differs from the typical Lacunae by the anterior 
torsion of the columella, which is not a tooth placed low down as 
m Lacunophyxis ; it has the beak and insinuated basal lip of 
Entomope and the bourrelet of the typical Lacuna. The embryo 
is that of the Lacunidte. 

Streblorhamphus obesus, spec, not., Tate. (Plate 19, fig. 8.) 

Differs from S. mirulus by more convex whorls, body-whorl more 

inflated and relatively very much larger, and is altogether a broader 

squat shell. Length of four and a-half whorls 3, breadth 2 mm. 

Eocene, Mornington, Victoria. 


Genus Dissochilus, Cossmann, 1888. 
Dissochilus vitreus, spec. nov. (Plate 20, fig. 5.) 

Shell very small, conical, with an obtuse slightly flattened 
summit ; spire whorls five and a-half, semitransparent, shining, 
slightly convex, separated by a superficial suture, ornamented by 
engraved spiral lines (twelve to fifteen on penultimate whorl), 
equal, equidistant, and indistinctly punctate. Last whorl a little 
more than half the total length of the shell. Aperture oval, 
acuminate behind, a little dilated in front ; peristome continuous; 
columella-border truncated in front, arched, simple, slightly re- 
flected, bordered externally by a narrow umbilical groove which 
is circumscribed by a thickish rim decurrent at the extremity of 
the columella; outer lip feebly thickened and slightly arched. 
Length 3, breadth 1-25 mm. 

Miocene, Muddy Greek, Victoria. 

Except that there is no parietal plication, this fossil has consider- 
able analogy with Dissochilus conicus, Cossmann ; it is evidently 
a member of the Lacunidaj, and is tenatively referred to Disso- 

Dissochilus eburneus, spec. nov. (Plate 20, fig. 6.) 

Shell ivory-white, smooth and shining, whorls five and a-half. 
Diners from D. vitreus by greater size, more prominent umbilical 
bourrelet, and aperture not so dilated. Length 3 25, breadth 

Eocene, Muddy Creek, near Hamilton, Victoria. 

Family CerithiopsidjE. 

Genus Neiotoniella, Cossmann, 1893. 

Syn., Cerithiella, Verrill (non. Geritella, Morris & Lycett, 1850); 

Lovenella, Sars, 1878 (non. Hicks, 1869); Newtonia, Cossmann, 

1891 (non. Schlegel, 1866). 

Examples, Cerithium Salteriana et G. cribarioides, Tenisou- 
Woods. But there are a threat nnmW nf series, belonging to 


several subgenera and sections, some of which are yet to be 

Genus Cerithiopsis. 
Cerithiopsis Mulderi, spec, not: 
Shell minute. Protoconch styliform of four slightly convex 
smooth whorls. Spire of four flat whorls, forming a cylindroid 
insists of two equidistant stout spiral ribs 
ill one at the posterior suture), nodulose at 
weaker axial ribs. Suture linear, but 
apparently channelled by approximation of the adjacent spiral 
ribs. Last whorl with two nodulose ribs, a smooth rib at the 
basal angulation and two smooth slender ones on the base. Length 
of protoconch 3; length and breadth of spire 15 and -4 mm. 
Eocene, Fyansford (several examples). 

This species of a genus new to the Eocene fauna of Australia, 
as previous records belong to Newtoniella, is named in compliment 
to Mr. Mulder, whose untiring researches among the minuter 
mollusca of the Geelong Eocenes, have yielded such large results. 
C Mulderi resembles C. ridicula, Watson, recent in Southern 
Australia, but it has a longer protoconch, has two primary 
revolving ribs (instead of three) and has fewer ribs on the base. 

Family Rissoid^e. 
Genus Chileutomia, Tate and Cossmann, 1898. 

Etymology : Chilos, lip, eu, well, and tomos, a cut. 

Type : C. subiaricosa, Tate and Cossmann ; Eocene, Victoria. 

Shell conical, variced ; embryo orthostrophe with an obtuse and 
oblique nucleus. Aperture expanding at the front, with a contin- 
uous thick peristome. Labrum notched at the inferior angle and 
varicosely thickened at the exterior. Columella slightly excavated ; 
columella-border callous, reflected and detached from the false 

Differs from Rissoina by the notched labrum, effuse and rounded 
front aperture, and by the umbilicus. Besides the type, there 


exists another species in the Pliocene of Gourbesville (Manche) ; 
this species (C. Tatei, Cossmann, ms.) has not yet been described, 
but its form is a little more squat, its whorls less numerous and 
narrower, its labial notch is a little broader, etc. 
Chileutomia subvaricosa, T. and C, spec. nov. (Plate 20, fig. 3.) 

Shell small, pyramidally conical ; embryo orthostrophe of two 
and a-half whorls with an oblique nucleus. Spire-whorls six of 
rather rapid increase, somewhat depressed around the posterior 
suture, thence slightly convex to the front suture ; ornamented 
with oblique growth-lines coincident with the imbricating varices 
which are about one to each whorl. Last whorl large ; aper- 
ture oval, angular behind and expanding to the front with a 
continuous thick peristome; labrum arched, notched at the 
inferior angle and varicosely expanded ; columella slightly exca- 
vated ; its border callus, reflected and forming a false umbilicus. 
Umbilical groove bordered by an obsolete rim. Length 8'5, 
breadth 2 5, length of aperture 3- mm. 

Localities: Muddy Creek, Mornington, Ourlewis and Fyansford. 

Family Trochid*:. 

Genus Infundibulum. 

Infundibulum latesulcatum, spec. nov. (Plate 20, fig. 10-) 

This fossil appears to belong to the Section Infundibulops, 

Pilsbry, 1 which is distinguished by the thin straight columella 

Shell widely conical, false-umbilicated ; whorls almost planulate, 
suture not impressed. The sculpture consists of six rounded 
spiral ridges, narrower than the concave interspaces, ^ose 
concave, with eight spiral ridges similar to those on the upper 
surface. Length 15, breadth 20 mm. 

Eocene, Table Cape, Tasmania (one example). 

I Man. Conch., Vol. xi, p. 8, ! 

Genus Phasianotrochus, Fischer. 
This name is in substitution for Elenclius. 

Family, Fissurellid^. 
Genus Lucapinella, Pilsbry, 1890. 

Example, Fissurella nigrita, Sow. Recent Australia and 
Miocene at Muddy Creek, Victoria. This generic name takes the 
place of Fissurella in my Census. The genus is founded on 
anatomical characters, though conchologically some indication is 
afforded by the elevated ends of the shell. Fissurella as restricted 
by Pilsbry is not represented in our Older Tertiary. 
Genus Subemarginula, Blainville. 

Shell like Emarginula, but the anal slit is more or less obsolete 
and there is no slit-fascia. 

Subemarginula occlusa, spec. nov. {Plate 20, fig. 9.) 

Shell patelliform, summit a little behind the middle; apex 
directed backwards, spiral of one and a-half turns, slightly turned 
to the right. Basal edge of shell approximately level, oval in 
outline, crenulated. Ornamentation of numerous acute subequal 
radial ribs, studded with crenatures which are produced by the 
crossing of imbricating lamellae of growth ; there are about twenty 
ribs on the anterior half, and about ten primaries with alternating 
secondaries on the posterior half of the shell. In the young shell, 
the interstitial ornament is of the usual fenestrated pattern and 
the ribs are surmounted by denticles. The anal notch is very 
short in young shells, but obselete in the adult, though the slit 
band is traceable on the interior. Height 7 5, diameters 20 and 

Eocene, Muddy Creek (very common) ; Mornington. 

Subgenus Tugalia. 
Example, T. crassirecticulata, Pritchard. 1 
Eocene, Table Cape. 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc, Vic, 1896, p. 125, t. 3, figs. 4-5. 

Genus Puncturella, Lowe, 1827. 
Puncturella hemipsila, spec. Tiov. (Plate 20, figs. 8 a, b.) 
Shell patelliforra ; summit subspiral, recurved posteriorly j anal 
slit in front of the apex, internally separated by a vertical septum 
from the apical fossa. Basal edge level, oval, plain. Ornamenta- 
tion of about seven narrow radiating riblets on the posterior half, 
the rest of the surface smooth. Anal slit narrow elliptic. Height 
2, diameters 4 and 2 5 mm. 

Eocene, Table Cape, Tasmania (two examples). 
This fossil resembles very much P. Harrisoni, Beddome, a living 
Australian shell, but is distinguished by much finer radial orna- 
ment, and by the more compressed lateral areas of the shell. 

The distribution of Puncturella is largely circumpolar and in 
deep water, and a few fossil species are known dating from the 

Family Scutellinid^e. 
Genus Scutellina. 
Sad/- 1 'Una up. Eocene, Muddy Creek. 

A single example only, but too much mutilated for specific 
determination ; it, however, is clearly referable to the genus by 
the posterior direction of the apex. 

Order Pulmonata. 
Genus Siphonaria. 
Example : One specimen, referable to this genus, I have from 
the Miocene, Gippsland. It has the shape and ornament of the 
living species S. diemenensis, Quoy & Gaimard, but the ribs are 
not so elevated, and the external ridge corresponding with the 
pulmonary groove is obselete. These differences may eventually 
prove to have specific value. 

Order Opisthobranchiata. 

M. Cossmann, in his monograph of the representatives of this 

order in the Older Tertiaries of Australia, 1 distributes them in 

1 Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., Vol. xxi., 1897^ 

the following genera :— Adeem (this name takes the place of 
Tornatella), six spp. ; Semiactceon, one sp. ; Triploca, one sp. ; 
Tornatina, three spp. ; Volvutella, Newton, 1891, instead of 
Vohula, H. Adams, 1850 (non. O'Ken., 1815), two spp. ; Sca- 
phander, one sp. ; Bullinella, Newton, 1891, instead of Cylichna, 
Loven, 1846 (non. Burmuster, 1844), ten spp.; Boxania, four spp.; 
Cylichnella, one sp.; Bingicula, three spp.; and Umbrella, one sp. 
(Harris employs Umbraculum, Schumacher, 1817, as antecedent 
to Umbrella of Lamarck. 

Order Nucleobranchiata. 
Genus Atlanta. 
The only fossil examples of this Order so far known to me from 
book-knowledge are : — Garinaria, three species, Miocene and 
Pliocene of Italy, and Eo-atlanta spiruloides, Lamarck (Cyclo- 
stoma), Eocene of Paris. The extreme delicacy of the tests of 
these gasteropods renders their preservation in a fossil state a 
matter of extreme improbability. The above-named species are 
founded on the shell, and it is of interest to be able to record a 
member of the Order in the form of an operculum in the Vic- 
torian Eocene. 

Atlanta fossilis, spec. nov. (Plate io, fig. 7.) 

Operculum irregularly trapezoidal, nearly flat, but slightly 

elevated at the two ends ; nucleus nearly marginal and apical, 

hemisphaeric of one and a half smooth turns; the expanded 

surface smooth and shining, but covered with broadish concentric 

folds. Under-surface with a broad thickened margin extending 

nearly the whole length of the left side, around the apical margin 

and half-way down the right side ; there is an umbonal depression 

corresponding with the nuclear elevation. Length 7 -5 mm. 

Eocene, Gape Otway, Victoria (one example). 

Class Pteropoda. 

Genus Carolina. 

nple of a species of this genus has occurred to me m the 
ys at Mornington, but is now too fractured to admit of 

Class Lamellibranchiata. 

Genus Pecten. 
Subgenus Pseudamussium. 
Examples, Pecten Tahlensis, T.-Woods, and Pecten Hochstetteri, 

Genus Lima. 
Subgenus Limatula. 
Examples, Lima Jeffreysiana and polynema, Tate. 
Genus Plicatula. 
Plicatula ramulosa, spec. nov. 
Test stout, peripheral outline rhomboid-rotund ; attached valve 
somewhat convex, surface of attachment relatively large; free 
valve flattish ; attached valve ornamented with seven prominent 
augular ribs, some of which bifurcate at about half way to the 
front; free valve with similar ornament, the umbonal area, corres- 
ponding with the attachment surface of the other valve, without 
plications except at the margins. Plicse crossed by foliar lamella?, 
raised here and there on the plicae into squamose scales or into 
nodulations. Interior unknown, umboventral diameter 13, 
anteropost. diameter 17 mm. 

Eocene, Table Cape (a single example of closed paired valves), 
J. Dennant. 

The fossil resembles the living P. ramosa, Lamarck, by com- 
parison of actual specimens, but differs by dense lamellation and 
closer plications which are a few more in number. 

Magaritifera, P. Brown, 1789 (Meleagrina) Lamarck. 

Nuculana, Link, 1807, (Leda, Schumacher, 1817). 

Axincea, Poli, 1791 (Pectunculus, Lamarck, 1799). 

Axinus, Sowerby, 1821 (Gryptodon, Turton, 1822). 

Mylitta, D'Orbigny and Recluz (Pythina, auctores, non Hinds). 

Meretrix, Lamarck, 1799 (Cytherea, Lamarck, 1805). 

Sunetta, Link, 1807 (Meroe, Schumacher, 1817). 

Gari, Schumacher, 1817 (Psammobia, Lamarck, 1818). 

Hemimactra, Swainson, 1840. Example, Mactra howchiniana, 

Anapella, Dall, 1895 (Anapa, Gray, 1853, non Gray, 1847). 

Cuspidaria, Nardo, 1840 (Neara, Gray, 1834, non Robineau- 
Desvoidy, 1830). 

Glycimeris, Lamarck, 1799 (Panopaa, Menard de la Groye, 

Solenocurtus (emended from Solecurtus). 
Genus Martesia. 

Young shell like Barnea, the valves becoming closed anteriorly 
in the adult ; one large accessory valve. 

Martesia elegantula, spec. nov. (Plate 20, figs. 7 a,b.) 

Elongate-conoid, inflated and obtusely rounded in front, atten- 
uated behind ; valves closed in front (the gap of the young shell 
being arched over by a subcallous growth), slightly gaping behind. 
Exterior of each valve unequally divided into two dissimilar 
ornamented portions by a perpendicular furrow, extending from 
the umbo to the ventral margin ; the external furrow is reproduced 
internally as an obsolete rib. The anterior side is further divided 
into a trigonal area, occupying the extreme front, which is the 
supplemental growth of the adult, this area is ornamented with 
fine striae of growth coincident with sinuate front margin of the 
adolescent shell ; and into a second larger and highly ornate area 
bounded posteriorly by the antemedian transverse furrow and 
anteriorly by the sutural line between the two growths. The 
ornamentation of the second area consists of regular sigmoid 
acute retroverted lamellae-like folds, coincident with the margin 
of the adolescent shell ; the superior margin of the lamellae closely 
crenulated, the crenulatures passing into granules ; in addition 
there are about ten plica? radiating from the lunular area, rendered 
conspicuous by carrying small granulations in place of crenulatures 
at the intersections with the concentric folds. The part of the 

thickish growth- 
undly oblong, 
, posterior margin truncate, slightly con- 
: and smooth on the outside. Antero-posterior diameter 16, 
r of closed valves 
l sulcus 5 mm. from the front. 

Miocene, Grangeburn, near Hamilton, Victoria ; burrowing ■ 
coral ( Plesiastrcea). 

From figures and description this fossil pholad comes near to 
Martesia elegans, Desh,, of the Parisian Eocene ; but M. elegantula 
has a longer posterior side, which is not so finely and regularly 
ridged, and the accessory valve is of a different shape. 


The voluminous monograph by McGillivray already referred 
to is almost entirely responsible for the very large additions to the 
genera and species comprised in our Eocene fauna. The census 
of the class is now eighty-four genera and four hundred and forty- 
four species representing a gain of forty-seven genera (many new), 
and two hundred and twenty-nine species. The additional genera 

Order Cheilostomata. 
Liriozoa, one specimen ; Bigemellaria, one sp. ; Stenostomaria, 
one sp.; Strophipora, one sp.; Microstomaria, one sp.; Caloporella, 
sixspp.; Glaviporella, fourspp.; Ditaxipora, onesp.; Scrupocellaria 
one sp.; Plicopora, one sp.; Beania, one sp. ; Craspedozoum, one 
sp.; Jmphiblestrum, eight spp.; Farcimia, three spp.; Oaleschara, 
one sp.; Ihalamoporella, two spp.; Macropora, two spp.; Met* 
broniporella, two spp.; Oorbulipora, one sp.; Hiantopora, four spp.; 
Tessaradoma, two spp.; Adeona, six spp.; Bulbipora, one sp.; 
Plagiopora, one sp.; Gemellipora, two spp.; Haswellia, two spp- ', 
Bipora, two spp.; Adeonella, one sp.; Gucullipora, one sp.; Pachy 
stomaria, one sp.; Phylactella, one sp.; Bracebndgia, one sp.; 
Aspidostoma, onesp.; Tubicellaria, two spp.; Prostomaria, onesp.; 
Bitectipora, one sp.; Schismopora, five spp. 

Order Oyclostomata. 

Filisparsa, one sp.; Stomatopora, two spp.; Liripora, three spp.; 
Tecticavea, one sp.; Discofascigera, one sp.; Heteropora, two spp.; 
Frondipora, one sp. 

Retihornera is merged in Hornera and Pustulipora in Entalo- 
phora; Bimulticava and Carbasea are expunged. 


Genus Cidaris. 
Subgenus Stereocidaris, Schutte. 

Example, Cidaris Australiae, Duncan. I have compared 
Duncan's type, which is a single interambulacral plate, with 
complete interambulacral zones of a Gidarid from Aldinga and it 
is matched with the largest of the tuberculated plates of the 
Aldinga specimens. These latter belong to Stereocidaris and 
indicate a conic test, the broad base being nearly flat, to about 
one half the total length of the arc, thence roundly bent backward 
at about 60° ; the basal half consists of four plates in each row 
having areolar areas, the posterior ones of which are the largest ; 
the four or five posterior plates in each row are without areoles 
or one or two may show traces of them. 

The fossil which has been listed as a widely distributed species 
under Duncan's name is not that species, but is an undescribed 
Ooniocidaris. Stereocidaris Australia is only known to me from 
the glauconitic limestone of the Aldinga Cliffs ; the type is 
reported from Cape Otway. 

Genus Echinobrissus. 

An examination of the type of E. amtralice, Duncan, proves it, 

as was long suspected, to belong to Cassidulus. The genus is, 

however, not to be deleted from our list, as E. Vincentinus, Tate, 


Genus Plesiolampu. 
Example, Conoclypeus rostratus, Tate. 1 
ubsequently acquired permit me to affi] 
;irdle is present, and as a consequence the 

Subgenus Macropneustes. 
Example, Eupatagus decipiens, Tate. On the authority of Dr. 
A. C. Gregory, this species is transferred to Macropneustes. 


The following additional genera have been recorded by Mr. 
Howchin, 2 which bring the total of genera to sixty-three and of 
species to two hundred and nine. 

Nubecularia, one specimen ; Siqmoilina, two spp.; Glavuliruk 
two spp.; Pentellina, one sp.; Trillina, one sp.; Orbiculina, one 
sp.; Bhabdogonium, one sp.; Haplophagmium, three spp.; Bdelr 
loidina, one sp.; Pavonina, one sp.; Calcarina, one sp.; Orbit-aides, 


By J. Dennant, f.g.s. 

Class Anthozoa. 

Suborder Madreporakia. 

The late Professor M. Duncan published descriptions and 

figures of a few Australian Tertiary corals in the Annals and 

Magazine of Natural History for 1864 and 1865, and in the 

Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society for 1870, he dealt 

systematically with an extensive collection forwarded to him by 

the Victorian Geological Survey, publishing upwards of thirty 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S. Wales, 1893, p. 194, t. 13, f. 1. 

2 Trans, Roy. Soc., S. Australia, 1893, p. 14 ; Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, 
Vol. v, 1894, pp. 352-361. 

species, including those he had already named. Subsequently the 
late Tenison- Woods, not only diagnosed a number of additional 
species, but instituted several new genera, the majority of which 
have been accepted as valid. With his decease, the records of our 
Tertiary coral fauna have been allowed to fall into arrears, a single 
species only having been since described, and that by my colleague 
in his previous paper on " Unrecorded Genera," read before this 

As a result of the persevering manner in which the Tertiary 
beds of the southern colonies have been searched during the last 
decade, there is an accumulation of material on hand, which in 
the absence of other workers I have undertaken to examine. As 
unrecorded genera for the Australian Tertiary, the following are 
represented by the species now described. 

Family TuRBiNOLiDiE. 
Genus Paracyathus. 
Paracyathus supracostatus, sp. nov. {Plate 20, figs. 2 a, b.) 
Corallum almost straight, and gradually tapering from both ends 
to the slightly constricted middle portion. The base is broad and 
spreading, and has evidently been attached to some foreign sub- 
stance. The costae, which correspond with, and are continuous with 
the septa, are prominent at the calicular margin, with tolerably 
deep intercostal spaces in which the wall is visible j they gradually 
diminish in size to the middle of the corallum and are thence just 
traceable to the base as faint, scarcely raised lines ; towards the 
calice they are finely granular. Epitheca pellicular and complete. 
Hepta stout but diminishing gradually in size from the primaries 
to those of the highest order. Systems six, with four cycles. In 
the figured specimen one system is short in regard to the fourth 
cycle. The laminje are very granular with irregular outer edges. 
The columella is fascicular and highly papillary. There are stout 
pali before all the septa except those of the last cycle, the youngest 
reaching higher in the calicular fossa than the secondaries, and 
these again than the primaries. The tertiary pali are also usually 


broader at their superior extremity than the rest. All are granular 
and much lobed. They are connected with the septa and usually 
also with the columella by thin, short, and deeply sunken processes. 
At the extremity of the pali described, and united to them by these 
processes, a few smaller and more central ones are, I think, separ- 
able from the outer papilli of the columella. The calice is slightly 
elliptical and regularly concave with a tolerably deep fossa. Owing 
to the stoutness of the septa and pali, as well as to the prominent 
papilli of the columella, the calice has a crowded appearance. 
Height of corallum 21, length of calice 8, breadth of calice 1\ 

Locality : -Very rare in the Eocene beds at Red Bluff, Shelford. 
Collected by Mr. Swan, to whom I am indebted for the well pre- 
served example figured. 

This coral is wholly unlike any species hitherto described from 
the Australian Tertiary, but from a comparison of actual examples 
I conclude that, though much larger, it is nearly allied to P. 
Turonensis of the French Miocene. 

Some corals lately collected by Professor Tate and myself at 
Table Cape, Tasmania, though differing slightly in the shape of 
the corallum, agree with the present species in calicular arrange- 
ment. There are two varieties from that bed, each of which may 
represent a distinct species of the genus. It is proposed to 
describe them shortly. 

Family Astraeid;e. 
Genus Montlivaltia. 

MONTLIVALTIA VARIFORMIS, spec. HOV. (Plate 20, figs. 1 «, &■) 

Corallum simple and variable in outline from flatly convex to 
roundly conical ; the figured specimen is an intermediate form. 
There is usually a more or less slight constriction towards the 
middle of the corallum, but in some examples this becomes so pro- 
nounced as to form a neck between its upper and lower portions. 
The base also varies from broad and s 

but in all cases evidence is presented of former i 
calice is circular, open and very shallow, with a small axial space. 
In adult examples this is occupied for a portion, but not the whole 
of the distance to the base with trabecular, which unite the septal 
ends and form a false columella ; in young specimens these are but 
little developed, the septa almost joining in the centre of the calice. 
The septa are slightly exsert at the margin, denticulated, and 
have an irregular outer surface. There are at least five cycles in 
six systems, some of which are incomplete. The first three orders 
extend to the central fossa, and owing to the primaries and 
secondaries being equally stout the calice really shews twelve 
main subdivisions. The tertiaries are slightly thinner, and the 
quaternaries bend towards and usually unite with them at no 
great distance from the centre : nearer the wall these again are 
occasionally joined by septa of the highest order. 

The endotheca is variable in quantity, some specimens shewing 
numerous dissepiments, while in others there are scarcely any. 

Epitheca thin and seldom complete, usually existing only as 
transverse irregular folds, between which the costse are very 
prominent ; these are also traceable in some examples across the 
banded epitheca. 

The costae are subequal and correspond to the septa, but only 
the principal orders are at all regularly continuous on the wall, 
the others sometimes breaking off and reappearing, or not, lower 
down. There is generally abundant exotheca between the costse. 
The peculiar latticed appearance of these corals, especially when 
much worn, is due partly to the exotheca, but chiefly to the narrow 
ribbon-like bands of epitheca which cross the costse. 

Dimensions : — Height of type specimen 10, diameter of its calice 
U millimetres. Height of a taller specimen 15 mm. Diameter 
of calice in a large flatly convex example 18 mm. 

Locality :— Abundant in the Eocene at Table Cape, Tasmania. 
Coll. Tate and Dennant. A much worn coral picked up some 


years ago on the surface of the Eocene at Spring Creek is probably 
an example of the species. 

By its septal arrangement and false trabecular columella, this 
species is linked with Montlivaltia Viqnei, of the Eocene (or 
oligocene) of Sind. 

A coral from Muddy Creek was in 1878 referred to this genus 
by Tenison -Woods as Montlivaltia discus, but, as Duncan pointed 
out in his "Revision of the Madreporaria" (1884), incorrectly so. 
As shewn in Wood's drawing, synapticulae are present, and 
Duncan therefore properly placed it with the Fungidse under 
Moseley's new genus of Baihyactis. A similar coral, and from 
the same locality, had however, been previously described by 
Duncan himself, viz., in 1865 and again in 1870 as Antillia lens, 
the synapticulae, if his specimens shewed any, not being noticed. 
Concerning the identity of Woods' and Duncan's species there 
can now be no doubt, and by the rule of priority the coral should 
therefore be known as Bathyactis lens, Duncan. 


Itennanti Fig. 8. Streblorhamphus obestis 
Borsonia polycesta „ 9. Fossarus refractus 
Plicatula ramulosa „ 10. Borsonia balteata 
Borsonia Otwayensis „ 11. Hemiconus Cossmanni 

Borsonia protensa aspect; b, embryo and 

Atlanta fossilis— a, exterior, first spire- whorl; c, side 

b, interior aspect. view of body-whorl 


showing two systems, highly magnified. 
Paracyathus supracostatus—a, corallum 15 diam.; b, calice much 


front view ; b, lateral aspect of body- 
Tont view; b, basal view of body-whorl. 

Martenadegantula—i, l.'ft 

valve ; b, accessory valve, 
le view ; b, seen from above. 

4 1 

Jour. Roy. Soc, N.S.I 

Jour. Roy. Soc, N.S.I 

. ni i:i.\>i \.\i>. I'm: haki 

Gold Nugget, Parkes, N.S.W. Etched Secti. 

Jour. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1897. 

Etched Sw pion enlarged 5 i 

Jour. Roy. Sec., JV.S.I 

* * 

Journal Royal Society,]?.- S. Wales; IU.XKXLJS97. rialclM. 




ud m \ 


'<» I 

I i 



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Journal Royal Society, N.S.Wales; Vol 

XXXI 1897. Plate XVIII. 

~$:*8 wkf s 


1895 6L7 

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I I 4 4 



§op! j&ocietg of gUto jSoutj) Males. 


The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5, Elizabeth-street, North, on Wednesday 
evening, May 5th, 1897. 
The President, Mr. J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., in the Chair. 
Thirty-seven members and one visitor were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following Financial Statement for the year ending 31st 
March, 1897, was presented by the Hon. Treasurer, and adopted: 

Eeceipts. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

( One Guinea 118 13 ) 

Subscriptions J Two Guineas 346 10 I 533 8 

Entrance Pees ' 54 12 

Parliamentary Grant on Subscrintions received during 1896 526 3 

Interest on Mortgage 

Office Boy 

Petty Cash Expenses 

Postage and Duty Stamps 


Printing and Publishing Journal 
Prize Essay Award 


Refreshments and attendance at Meetii 



for the Advancemen 

t of Science- 

Balance of Mortgage 

of £1,400 

Clark..- Memorial Fund 

Dr. P. H. Quaife (Donati 


Legal Expenses 

Contractors balance of ac 

count for additions ai 

ad alteratior 

Payments — continued. 

Brought forward 



Decorating Hall 

Furniture and Effects 

Interest on Mortgage 

Repayment of Advance from General Account 31st Mar. 1896 29 
Advance to General Account 31st March, 189V 8 


Interest on Fixed Deposit 

Amount of Fund on 1st April, 1896 

The above amounts to bear interest at current rates from date of loan. 
Audited, H. O. WALKER. 
Sydney, 24th April, 1897. 

H. G. A. WRIGHT, Honorary Treasurer. 
W. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 
Messrs. P. N. Trebeck and J. T. Wilshire were appointed 
Scrutineers, and Mr. C. W. Darley deputed to preside at the 

s then taken, and the following , 
i and members of Council for the current year : 
Honorary 1 

HENRY DEANE, m.a., M. Inst. C.E. 
„,„._ Vice-Presidents: 

CHARLES MOORE, f.l.s., f.z.s. I Prof. THRELFALL, m., 

Peof - ANDERSON STUART, m.d. | Pbof. T. W. E. DAVID, i 

H. G. A. WEIGHT, i 
Hon. S< 
G. H. KNIBBS, f.r.a.s., l.s. 

C. W. DAELEY, M.Inst.C.E. 
J. GEAHAM, M.A., M.D., M.L.A. 
J. W. GEIMSHAW, M.Inst.C.E. 
W. M. HAMLET, f.c.s., f.i.c. 
S. T. KNAGGS, m.jd. 

H. A. LENEHAN, f.e.a.s. 
Prof. LIVEESIDGE, m.a., f.k 
F. H. QUAIFE, m.a., m.d. 
H. C. EUSSELL,b.a.,c.m.g.,f.i 
Pkof. WAEEEN, M. Inst. C.E., V 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society :— 

Gould, Hon. Albert John, m.l.a., Minister of Justice, Sydney. 

Portus, A. B., Assoc, m. inst, c.e., Sydney. 
The certificates of three candidates were read for the second time. 
The following announcements were made : — 

1. That a « Reception ' or 'at home' would be held at the Society's 

House, probably about the second week in July at which 
smoking would be permitted. 

2. That the Council had decided to send, on behalf of the Society, 

a congratulatory address to Her Majesty The Queen, on the 
occasion of Her Record Reign. 

3. That the following Sectional Commit** had been elected for 

the ensuing Session and the dates fixed for their meetings : 

Engineering— Wednesday May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. No*. I**- 

(8 p.m.) 19 16 21 18 15 20 17 ^ 

Medical— Friday, (815 p.m.)... 21 23 17 l9 


Section H.-Medlcal. 
Chairman— John Ashburton Thompson, M.D.Jim.-., D.P.H.Camb.,M.E.C.S. Eng. 
Hon. Secretaries— J. A. Diet, B.A. Syd., M.D. FAin., and F. Tidsvrel , 

Section K.- 

Secretary and T 

T. H. Houghton, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., W. Thow, M. Inst. C.E., 
H. R. Carleton, M. Inst. C.E., J. M. Smail, M. Inst. C.E. 
Past Chairmen, ex officio Members of Committee for three years : 
R- R. P. Hickson, M. Inst. C.E., B. C. Simpson, M. Inst. C.E., and 
Prof. Warren, M. Inst. C.E., Wh. Sc. 
Meetings held on the Third Wednesday in each month, at 8p.m. 
Mr. J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., then read his address, which was 
arranged under the following heads and sub-heads : 
Part I. History of the Society during the past year :— 

1. Roll of Members. 2. Obituary. 3. Papers read during 1896. 4. 

Sectional Meetings. 5. Reception. 6. Financial Position. 7- 

Society's Premises. 8. Library. 9. Exchanges. 10. Original 


Part II. Progress of Science in New South Wales during the 

1- Physiology. 2. Zoology, including some reference to the Funafuti 
Expedition. 3. Geology. 4. Chemistry and Metallurgy. 5. 
Astronomy and Meteorology. 6. Physics. 7. Engineering and 
Public Works. 8. Public Health. 
Part III. Some Botanical Matters :— 

1. Botanical Workcrs-a. The late Baron von Mueller. b. Other 

2. Agriculture- a. Green Manuring &c. b. Some work of the Depart- 

• * ">' >w ,,, fa —a. Arboretum, b. Danger of planting inferior species. 
* Industry of seed-collecting, d. Supply of good timbers not un- 
limited, e. Forest-thinning, f. Ringbarking. g. Noxious Scrub 
and Prickly Pear. 

• Australian Timbers-a. School of Timber Research, b. Wood- 
Paving. c. Special uses of .our Timbers. 

• Botanical Teaching in New South Wales-a. The present state of 
botanical instruction in the Colony, b. An institution for botanical 
research, c. Education of Foresters. 

4 plea for a Botanical Survey considered in its relations to— a. Pure 
Botany, b. Agriculture, c. Forestry, d. Horticulture. 

» the retiring President, and 
;., was installed as President 

Mr. Deane thanked the members for the honour conferred 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged :— 

(The Names of Donors are in Italics.) 
Annapolis— U.S. Naval Institute. Proceedings, Vol. xxn., No. 

4, 1896 ; Vol. xxin., No. 1, 1897. The Institute 

Birmingham— Birmingham and Midland Institute. Address 
by Rt. Hon. G. J. Goschen, m.p., P.O., 22 October, 1896, 
" International Prejudice," Report of the Council for 
the year 1896. 
Boston, Mass.— American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Pro- 
ceedings, N.S. Vol. xxin., O.S. xxxi., 1895-6. The Academy 
Brisbane— Colonial Secretary. Annual Report on British New 
Guinea from 1 July 1895 to 30 June 1896, with appen- 
dices. The Secretary 
Department of Agriculture. A Companion for the Queens- 
land Student of Plant Life and Botany Abridged (2nd 
Edition) by F. M. Bailey, f.l.s. The Department 
■ Geological Survey. Bulletin No. 5, 1897. The Survey 
Bristol— Bristol Naturalists' Society. Proceedings, N.S. Vol. 

Society of Bengal. 

2-4, Partiii., No. 1 

Cambornk— Mining Association and Institute of Cornwal 

Transactions, Vol. iv., Part ii., 1895. T) 

Cambridge— Cambridge Philosophical Society. Proceeding 

Colombo— Royal Asiatic Society. Journal of the Ceylon 1 

Vol. xiv., No. 47, 1896. 
Dublin— Royal Irish Academy. Proceedings, 3 Series, V 

Edinburgh— Botanical Society. Transactions and 

Vol. xx., Parts ii., iii.. 1894-6. The Society 

Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. Transac- 

actions, Vol ix.. Fifth 8 . : : 

Royal Physical Society. Proceedings, Vol. xni., Part ii., 

Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Scottish Geographical 
Magazine, Vol. xn., Nos. 11, 12, 1896; Vol. xin., Nos. 

Scottish Microscopical Society. Proceedings, Vol. n., No. 1, 


The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5, Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, June 2nd, 1897. 

The President, Henry Deane, m.a., m. Inst, c.e., in the Chair. 
Twenty-nine members and three visitors were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society: — 
Cardew, John Haydon, Assoc M. Inst, c.e., Pitt-street. 
Low, John S., George-street. 

Marden, John, m.a., ll.d., Principal, Presbyterian Ladies' 
College, Sydney. 
The certificates of two candidates were read for the first time. 
the following papers were read : — 
1- " A Contribution to the Study of Oxygen at Low Pressures," 
by R. Threlfall, m.a., Professor of Physics, Sydney Uni- 
versity, and Florence Martin. 
There is known to be a pressure (about 0-7 mm. of mercury), 
at which oxygen becomes unstable in its volumes and pressure 
relations. This instability may plausibly be attributed to a change 
m the chemical nature of the gas, and during the period of change 
lfc is possible that ozone may be temporarily produced. An 
experiment was made with the object of investigating whether 
oxygen can f orm ozone simp i y by v i r tue of a reduction of pressure. 
A suitable indicator having been discovered, an experiment was 
satisfactorily carried out showing either that no ozone at all is 
formed, when the pressure falls to from 0-4 to 0-1 mm., or that, 
if such formation does occur, it is to an extent less than 0-005% 
of the volume of the gas employed. 

2 - " Determination of the Orbit Elements of Comet / 1896 
(Perrine)," by C. J. Merfield, f.r.a.s. 
The author explained that his deductions were based on obser- 
vations made in various American and European observatories, 

and also on observations made by Mr. John Tebbutt, f.r.a.s., of 
Windsor, New South Wales. The elements as determined by 
him agreed substantially with those determined by Dr. Knopf, 
and would not, in his opinion, be sensibly varied by further 

Mr. F. N. Quaife, 
of the action of Ron 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged :— 

(The Names of the Donors are in Italics ) 
Fort Monroe— United States Artillery School. Journal, Vol. 

vi., Nos. 2, 3, 180S. The School 

Geelong— Gordon Technical College. ' The 1 

xxvn., 1895-6. 

te • 


> Society 

HorTOH (Mirfield)— Yorkshire G 
Society. Proceedings, N. 
Vol. XI., Paris i., ii., in., 
iii., 1892-93 ; Vol. xin., P 

S. Vol. x., (1837 
1888-90; Vol. x 
art i., 1895. 

-1887) 1889; 

Kew— Eoyal Gardens. 

Vol. vi., Parts i., 


i Icones Plantarum, 4 Ser., 


Kingston— Institute of Ji 

Journal, Vol. n 

., No. 3, 1896. 


Leeds— Yorkshire College 

!. Annual Eeport, (22nd) 1895-6. The College 

Liverpool— Literary and 
Vol. l., 1895-6. 

Philosophical Society. 



London — Anthropological 


te of Great Britain and Ire- 

land. Journal, Vol. : 

^logical Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. lii., Part iv 
No. 208, 1896 ; Vol. mi., Parts i., ii., Nos. 209, 210, 189' 
General Index, Vols. i. - l., Parts i., ii. Geologic; 
Literature added to Library during 1896. ! 

ititution of Civil Engineers. Minutes of Proceeding 
Vol. cxxvi., Part iv., 1895-6; Vol. exxvn., Part i., 1896-' 

Institute. Journal, Vols. 


Nos. 164. 165. 1896. Proceedings, Nov. 1895 1 
1896. List of Fellows, 1896-7. The Society 

Meteorological Office Report of the Meteorological Council 

for the year ending 31 March, 1896. The Office 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Journal, Fourth 

1384 - 1 407^ 1897. Calendar 1897.' 
Physical Society of London. Proceedings, Vol. xiv.. Parts 

x. - xii., Nos. 73 - 75, 1896 ; Vol. xv., Parts i. -iii., Nos. 

76-78, 1897. 
Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, Third 

Series, Vol. vu., Part iv., No. 28, 1896; Vol. viii., Part 

i., No. 29, 1897. 
Royal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, Vol. lxi., 

No. 10, Supplement 1896; Vol. lxii., Nos. 1-6, 1896-7. 

General Index, Vol. xxx. -lii , 1869 - 1892. 
Royal Geographical Society. The Geographical Journal, Vol. 

vu., No. 4 ; Vol. viii., Nos. 4, 5, 6, 1896 ; Vol. ix., Nos. 

Royal Meteorological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. \:-:n., 
X... 10(i. ls'tij , Vol. xxiii., No. 101, 1897. The Meteor- 
ological Record, Vol. xvi., Nos. 61. 62, 1896. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal, Parts v., vi., Nos. 114, 
115, 1896 ; Parts i., ii., Nos. 116, 117, 1897. 

Royal United Service Institution. Journal, Vol. xl., Nos. 
22i - 226, 1896 ; Vol. xli., Nos. 227 - 229, 1897. The In: 

Sanitary Institute of Great Britain. Journal, Vol. xvn., 
Parts iii., iv. ; Vol. xvin., Part i., 1896-7. The 1 

Society of Arts. Journal, Vol. xliv., Nos. 2292 - 2295, 1896 ; 

Zoological Society of London. Proceedings, Parts iii., iv., 

Geological Society. Transactions, Vol 
, 1895-6 ; Vol. xxv., Parts i. - ~ 1S 
Literary and ! 
oceedings, Vol. xli., Parts L- 
of Members and Officers, 1781 - 1896. 

Melbourne — Australasian Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. xi., No. 

132, 1896 ; Vol. xu., Nob. 188 138, 1897. The Editor 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Reports an 
Accounts for Half Year ending 30 Nov 
Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The Vid 

Vol. xiii., Nos. 8-11, 1896-7; Vol. xiv., Nos. 2, 3, 
1897-8. The Club 

Eoyal Society of Victoria. Proceedings, Vol. ix., (New 

Series) 1896 ; Vol. x., (New Series) Part i., 1897. The Society 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne— North of England Institute of Mining 
and Mechanical Engineers. Transactions, Vol. xlv., 

American Geographical Society. Bulletin, Vol. xxviii., 

No. 3, 1896. 
New York Microscopical Society. Journal, Vol. xn., No. 4, 

School of Mines, Columbia College. The School of Mines 

Quarterly, Nol. xviii., No. 1, Nov. 1896. The School 

OxFOBD-Radcliffe Library Catalogue of Books added during 

tA— Academy of Natural Sciences. l'i 

i ii., 1896. The < 

a Entomological Society. Transactions, Vol. : 

Vol. xxxv., Nos. 151, 152, 
Franklin Institute. Journal, Vol. cxlii., Nos. 851, 852, 

1896 ; Vol. cxliii., Nos. 853 - 855, 1897. The Institute 

Perth, W.A.— Department of Mines. Gold Mining Statistics 

for 1896. The Department. 

Scranton, Pa. -The Colliery Engineer Co. The Colliery 

Engineer and Metal Miner, Vol. xvn., Nos. 2, 3, 4, 

Sydney— Australian Museum. Memoir III., Parts i., ii., iii., 

1896-7. Records, Vol. m., No. 1, 1897. The Museum 

Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Gazette of N.8.W., 
Vol. vii., Part xi. and Index, 1896; Vol. viii., Parts i. 

The Department 


The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5, Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, July 7th, 1897. 

The President, Henry Deane, m.a., m. Inst. c.E., in the Chair. 

Twenty-seven members and three visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of two candidates were read for the second time* 

The President announced that the council of the University 
Medical Society cordially invited the members of the Royal 
Society to attend a lecture to be delivered on the 9th instant by 
Professor Krause, of the University of Berlin, on " The Remains 
of 'Pithecanthropus erects' (Dubois) recently discovered in Java." 

The President called on Mr. R. H. Mathews to read his papers. 

Mr. H. G. Smith raised the point of order that Mr. Mathews' 
papers not having been announced at the previous meeting could 
not, under Rule xx, be received, and that while the President 
might under that Rule vary the order of business, he could not 
allow the reading of Mr. Mathews' papers to be proceeded with. 

The President asked (a) if Mr. Smith intimated that section 14 
of Rule xx. prevented the reading of Mr. Mathews' papers, and 
(b) whether Mr. Smith was aware of any rule prescribing that 
notice of the reading of papers should be given at a previous 
meeting 1 

Mr. Smith having replied to (a) in the affirmative and (b) in 
the negative. 

The President decided that as the rule in question prescribed 
the order of business only, and as no rule existed requiring that 
notice of papers should be given at the meeting previous to that 
at which it was intended the papers should be read, Mr. Mathews' 
papers were properly before the meeting, having been submitted 
to, and accepted by, the Council as required by Rule xxvi. 

Mr. R. T. Baker stated that he desired to read a paper by him- 
self and his colleague, Mr. H. G. Smith, the title of which he had 
forwarded to the Hon. Secretaries. He and his colleague were 
unaware that the rule relating to the submission of papers to the 
Council would be enforced. 

The President, after pointing out that the provisions of Rule 
xxvi. were in the interest of the Society, decided that the paper 
would not be received, as it had not been submitted to the Council 
as required by that rule. 

1. "The Burbung, or Initiation Ceremonies of the Murrumbidgee 
Tribes," by R. H. Mathews, l.s. 
The paper described the burbung of the aboriginal tribes 
occupying that portion of the Murrumbidgee River which is 
situated between Jugiong and Hay. When it has been decided 
to hold a burbung for the purpose of inaugurating some of the 
youths into the status of manhood, the head man of one of the 
tribes sends out messengers to the chiefs of adjoining tribes form- 
ing the community, inviting them to participate in the ceremonies. 
Each of these tribes will probably have a few boys to be initiated. 
When the whole community has thus been gathered at the 
appointed place, the boys are separated from their mothers, and 
are taken away into the bush by the head men. During this 
ceremony they are taught the sacred traditions of their fore- 
fathers, their duties and responsibilities as tribesmen are incul- 
cated, and they are instructed in the laws relating to the totemic 
divisions of their tribe. An important part of the ceremonies is 
the extraction of one of the central pair of upper incisor teeth of 
each youth. The feet of each boy operated on are inserted in 
small holes dug in the ground for the purpose, and a man stands 
beside him to hold him steady. The tooth extractor then places 
a hard wooden chisel against the tooth and gives it a smart blow 
with a mallet, which forces it out. Each youth is warned that if 
he reveals any part of the secret ceremonies to women or the 
uninitiated he will be punished with death. 

2. "The Totemic Divisions of Australian Tribes," by R. H. 
Mathews, l.s. 
The paper dealt chiefly with the Kamilaroi and Wiradjuri com- 
munities. These natives are divided into four sections, called 
Murri, Kubbi, Ippai, and Kumbo. Every man and woman in 
the tribe is born under one or other of these four sections. Each 
section is composed of a number of families bearing the names of 
different animals, such as kangaroo, iguana, emu, codfish, grass- 
hopper, &c, which are called totems. The descent of the children 
is reckoned on the side of the mother only— the names of the 
father having no influence in the matter. The paper concluded 
"with numerous examples of the rules of marriage, descent and 
relationship, established in connection with the tribal divisions 
above stated. 

Professor W. H. Warrex, wh. Sc, M. Inst, c.e., read a note on 
" The apparatus used for ascertaining the minute strains which 
occur in materials when stressed within the elastic limit." He 
stated that the coefficient of elasticity was usually defined as the 
ratio of the stress to the strain which it produces. It is necessary 
to know the coefficient of elasticity whenever it is desired to 
calculate the deformation or strain produced by a given load or 
stress, or to calculate the stress from an observed deformation. 
Such calculations are of frequent occurrence in connection with 
the design of structures and machinery. The deformations pro- 
duced by the stresses under normal working conditions are 
exceedingly minute and require very delicate instruments to 
measure them accurately. This remark is more especially true 
in connection with the determination of the elastic coefficients of 
brittle materials such as stone, concrete, and cements, and involves 
measurements as small as l-10000ths in. He then explained 
the theory of the measuring instruments in use in the engineering 
kboratory, and exhibited two very delicate appliances made by 
Mr. Bohme, instrument maker to the Royal Testing Laboratory 
m Berlin, for the Engineering Laboratory at the University of 

Sydney. Both these instruments were invented by Professor 
Martens, of Charlottenberg. In one known as the Martens' mirror 
apparatus it is possible to measure deformations as small as 
l-250,000ths in. with certainty. The other instrument is a roller 
extensometer, and measures l-2500ths in. 

H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.e.s., exhibited a series of records 
by a new Thermograph. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 


(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 
Sydney — Department of Mines. Eecords of the Geological Sun 

and Parts 
The Wealth and Progress 

ot IN. S. wales, lSVJ5-t>, Vol. I. The Goventmfiit Slut 

Institution of Surveyors, N. S. Wales. The Surveyor, Vol. 

ix., No. 12, 1896 ; Vol. x., Nos. 1 - 7, 1897. The Insi 

Linnean Society of New South Wales. Proceedings. Vol. 

xxi., Part iii., No. 83 ; Part iv., No. 84, 1896. Abstract 

of Proceedings, March 131, April 28, May 26, June 30. 

July 29. The 

New South Wales Medical Board. Eegister of Medical 

Practitioners for 1897. The 

Observatory. Eesults of Eain, Eiver, and E 

' >1 MmrfttkHU made in New South Wales during 1895, 

by H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.b.s., Government 

Astronomer. The Government Astr 

Eoyal Geographical Society of Australasia. Journal, Vol. 

vi., Nos. 3, 4, 1896. The 

University of Sydney. Calendar for the year 1897. The Um 
United Service Institution of New South Wales. Journal 

and Proceedings, Vol. vi., 1894; Vol. VTII., 189 
TAiPiNG-Perak Government Gazette, Vol. ix., Nos. 25-30, 

and Index 1896; Vol. x., Nos. 1 - 14, 1897. The Se< 

Tokio— Imperial University of Japan. Journal of the College 

of Science, Vol. ix., Part ii. ; Vol. x., Part i. The Vw 

Washington— Navy Department. 

General U.S. Navy 1896. 
lb i. l.gical Survey. Anr 

A "reception " was held at the Royal Society's House, No. 5 
Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday, July 14th, 1897. 

The hall and staircase were decorated with ferns, palms, <fcc, 
kindly supplied by Director of the Botanic Gardens. 

About one hundred and fifty guests were present ; there were 
but few exhibits, inasmuch as the principal object of the gathering 
was to bring members and their friends together for a kindly chat 
and smoke. 

Professor Threlfall delivered a short lecture on the electro- 
lytic deposition of zinc at the Cockle Creek Sulphide Works ; 
some plates were shown illustrating the process. Acetylene gas 
illumination, and the calcium carbide from which the gas is pro- 
duced were shown by the Technical College. A large number of 
samples of etched gold and sections of nuggets showing the 
crystalline structure of the metal, were shown and explained by 
Professor Liversidge, who also exhibited a series of photographs 
of the etched sections. 

Mr. Hamlet shewed a spectroscope for use in chemical analysis, 
and gave demonstrations of the spectra of the rarer or more 
interesting metals. 

Professor Haswell's biological exhibit illustrated some features 
of more than ordinary interest to biologists. 

Photographs of the moon, taken at the Lick Observatory, at 
the Paris Observatory, and by the Bruce telescope at Harvard 
College, Cambridge, were shown by Mr. Russell, illustrated and 
rare botanical works by Mr. Maiden, and an autograph letter of 
Lord Nelson announcing the victory of the battle of the Nile, by 
Dr - H. G. A. Wright. Mr. Lawrence Hargrave exhibited 
one of the latest forms of his cellular kite, and explained the 
recent developments in aeronautical science, and the results of his 
Jater experiments. Messrs. Willoughby and Lane exhibited 
one of the latest phonographs and microphone, the performances 
of which were much appreciated. 

Mi. Henry Deane, m.a., m. Inst, c.e., President, presided. 

The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5 Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, August 4th, 1897. 

The President, Henry Deane, m.a., m. int. c.e., in the Chair. 
Twenty-nine members and one visitor were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Boucher, Arthur Sackville, Sydney 
MacDonald, C. A., Sydney. 
The certificates of two candidates were read for the first time. 

1 . " The Theory of the Reflecting Extensometer of Prof. Martens, 

by G. H. Knibbs, f.b.a.s., Lecturer in Surveying, University 

of Sydney. 

When the extensions measured by this instrument are large, 

the scale-readings require corrections which become considerable 

toward the end of the scale. If e denote the extension resulting 

from applied stress, R the scale-reading, I the width of the prism, 

L the distance between the mirror and scale, m the rotation of the 

prism, and E the length of the contact piece, then it is shewn that 

e I cos 2a. n I . 3 L . . v 


The factor following the 

. may be 

treated as a cc 

erection of the 

approximate expression 



Tables ar 

e supplied with 

the arguments R and E. 

It is shown 

that the di 

isposition of the 

apparatus, indicated by Prof. Martens, eliminates errors due to 

longitudinal shift or small rotations of the test piece. The best 

disposition and proper adjustment of the apparatus is discussed. 

2. " On the Saccharine and Astringent Exudations of the ' Grey 

Gum,' Eucalyptus punctata, D.C., and on a product allied to 

aromadendrin," by Henry G. Smith, f.c.s., Technological 

Museum, Sydney. 

The principal sugar contained in some of these exudations was 
found to be raffinose (melitose), and is identical with that obtained 
from beet. Naturally formed Eucalyn was also found. The 
new substance " Eudesmin " was isolated from the kino in line 
crystals 5-6 mm. in length. Aromadendrin is not present in this 
kino. A true mordant yellow dye-stuff was isolated from the 
leaves of the " Red Stringy Bark " of N. S. Wales, Eucalyptus 
macrorhyncha, F. v. M., and has also been investigated. The 
author has named it My rticolorin. % It is somewhat allied to 
Aromadendrin found in some Eucalyptus kinos. Myrticolorin 
belongs to the quercetin group of natural dyes ; it can be obtained 
in abundance, and with a minimum of trouble, and hence its dis- 
covery may be of commercial importance. 

3. " On the Essential Oil and the presence of a solid Camphor or 
Stearoptene therein, of the Sydney 'Peppermint,' Eucalyptus 
Piperita, Sm," by R. T. Baker, f.l.s., Assistant Curator of 
the Technological Museum, and Henry G. Smith, f.c.s., 
Technological Museum. 
This is the commencement of a projected research on the oils 
of each species of Eucalyptus in New South "Wales. The essen- 
tial oil contains 24-5 '\ of Eucalyptol, a rather low percentage 
compared with that of E. globulus, and much less than that of 
E. punctata. An important discovery concerning this oil was the 
presence of a stearoptene or solid camphor in the fifth fraction 
boiling between 265° and 270° C. It was detected first on the 
corks of the bottle containing the distilled oil. The stearoptene 
crystallises in acicular forms, and most probably belongs to the 
rhombic system. It has not yet been isolated chemically. This 
species is the Eucalyptus from which Eucalyptus oil was first 
obtained, viz., in 1788, by Dr. White, of the first fleet under 
Governor Phillip. That officer spoke highly of the therapeutic 
properties of the oil. The yield of oil is good, -784 per cent, being 
obtained from leaves and branchlets. The oil is tevo-rotatory 

1. Mr. Lawrence Hargrave exhibited some models and made 
a preliminary announcement of a discovery of importance to aerial 
navigation. He had, he intimated, made experiments that 
showed — (1) That the profile of a soaring bird's wing, and pieces 
of metal of a somewhat similar curve, generated vortices on their 
concave surfaces when the chord of the curve made a negative 
angle with the direction of the wind. (2) That all the concave 
surfaces were in contact with air moving towards the mean direc- 
tion of the wind. (3) That the mean pressure on the concave 
surface was higher than that on the convex side. (4) That the 
chord of the curved metal might make a negative angle of ten 
degrees with the direction of the wind, and still have a higher 
pressure on the concave side than on the convex. The direct 
inference was, he said, that gravity could be entirely counter- 
acted by a volume of disturbed air moving in a horizontal direc- 
tion, and that flying machines of great weight could be held 
suspended in a horizontal wind, and rise vertically without the 
expenditure of any contained motor force. 

2. Mr. R. T. Baker exhibited specimens of " Oliverian " oil 
obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum Oliveri, Bail.— a species 
of Cinnamomum he has recently recorded as new for this colony, 
and which has now been shown to extend over a large 
coastal district from the Tweed I 
centage of oil from the bark was 
It is a light golden-coloured oil, \ 
highly aromatic and persistent, 
eugenol, together with other cons 
bilities are favorable. Botanical specimens of the species and 
fungus Melampsora nesodaphnes were also shown. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and ackn 
ledged :— 

(The Names of the Donors are in Italics). 
Des Moines— Iowa Geological Survey. Annual Report, 1895, 

the Illawarra. The per- 

nearly 1 %, an excellent result 

la specific gravity of 1-00105, 

ontains cinnamic aldehyde, 

lents. Its commercial possi- 

Florence— Societa Italiana di Antropologia, Etnologia &c. 
Achivio, Vol. xxvi., Fasc. 2, 3, 1896. Classification 
Decimale per Biblioteche, Schedarii &c. The Society 

Port Monroe, Va.— U. S. Artillery School. Journal, Vol. vn., 

Nos. 1, 2, 1897. The School 

London— Mineralogical Society. Mineralogic 

e— Faculte des £ 

, Fasc. 1, 2, 3, 4. The Faculty 

ural History Survey of Min- 
: the State Zoologist, Zoo- 

Naples— Societii Reale di Napoli. Rendiconto dell' i 

delle Scienze Fisiuhe e Mateinatiche, Ser. 3, Vol. ii., 

Fasc. 8 - 12, 1896 ; Ser. 3, Vol. ill., Fasc. 2-4, 1897. The Society 

New York— American Chemical Society. Journal, Vol. xix., 
Nos. 1 - 6, 1897. 
American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin, Vol. viii., 

1896. The Museum 
New York Academy of Sciences. Annals, Vol. ix., Nos. 4, 

5,1897. Transactions, Vol. xv., 1895-96. The Academy 

New York Microscopical Society. Journal, Vol. xm., No. 1, 

1897. The Society 
Paris — Academie des Sciences de l'lnstitut de France. Comptes 

Rendus, Tome cxxiv., Nos. 4-26; Tome oxxv., No. 1, 

1897. The Academy 

Ecole d' Anthropologie de Paris. Revue Mensuelle, Annee 

vi., Nos. 10- 12, 1896 ; Annee, vn., Nos. 1 - 6, 1897. The Director 
Ecole Polytechnique. Journal, Serie n., Cahier 1, 1895- 
La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes. Revue Mensuelle d' 

Histoire Naturelle, Ser. 3, Annee xxvil.Nos. 313-321, 

1896-7. Catalogue de IS -21, 

1896-7. The Editor 

Ministere de ^Instruction Publique. Bibliographie des 

Travaux Scientifiques ' 

physiques et naturelle 

savantes de la France, 1 
mniat^te dee Travaux Publics. Statistique de l'Industrie 

Minerale et des appareils a vapeur en France et en 

Algene pour l'annee 1895. 
Mu^u m d'Histoire Naturelle. Bulletin, Nos. 1 - 7, 1896. The Museum 
Observatoire de Paris. Rapport Annuel pour 1' 
Bevue de l'Aeronautique. Annee vi., Liv. 4, 1893 ; Annee 


Mr. Charles Moore, p.l.s., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-eight members and two visitors were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed, 
o candidates were read for the second time, 

1. "Outburst of Springs in time of Drought," by W. E. Abbott'. 
After briefly noticing the principal explanations which have 

been put forward, the author indicated his own opinion, based 
upon frequent observations, extending over a large number of 
years, of the phenomenon. The theory advanced was that the 
exhaustion by capillary action, and rapid evaporation, occurring 
through the characteristic dryness of the air in prolonged drought, 
of the water in underlying water-bearing strata, prevents it ever 
reaching the terminal ends of the strata, at which discharge on to 
the surface takes place. When the condition of dryness of the 
air passes away, the evaporation diminishes and the exhaustion 
indicated does not continue, hence the reappearance of water on 
the surface. Variations of barometric pressure are, in themselves, 

2. " The possibility of Soaring in Horizontal Wind," by Lawrence 

This paper deals with some experiments connected with those 
perplexing observations that have received the name of " Aspir- 
ation." Many careful observers have noted birds of various kinds 
moving through the air and ascending when no movement could 
be detected in their wings. This has often been seen where the 
conditions were such that no upward trend in the mean direction 
of the wind could possibly exist. It is therefore correct to say 

that birds of certain form ascend when there is a horizontal wind, 
whereas according to their weight and the velocity of the wind 
they ought to descend. The act of ascending is termed "Aspir- 
ation." Numerous sections showing the profile of wings have 
been published from time to time, and Mr. 0. Chanute, C.E., of 
Chicago, U.S.A., has pointed out the distinction between the 
soaring and flying wing profile. The writer, whilst experimenting 
with metal bent similarly to a soaring wing, has discovered— 
1. That the profiles of a soaring bird's wing and pieces of metal 
of a somewhat similar curve, are such that they generate vortices 
on their concave surfaces when the chord of the curve makes a 
negative angle with the direction of the wind. 2. All the con- 
cave surfaces are in contact with air that is moving towards the 
mean direction of the wind. 3. That the mean pressure on the 
concave surface is higher than that on the convex side. 4. That 
the chord of the curved metal may make a negative angle of ten 
degrees with the direction of the wind, and still have a higher 
pressure on the concave side than on the convex. The practical 
effect of these discoveries is that birds, and therefore flying 
machines of suitable form may rest on an air current, generated 
by their shape, that is ascending and moving towards the mean 
direction of the wind ; and that the aggregate normal pressure 
exerted by the wind on a soaring wing is not upwards and inclined 
to leeward, but upwards and inclined more than 10° to windward. 
3. "On 'Grey Gum,' Eucalyptus punctata, DC, particularly in 
regard to its essential oil," by R. T. Baker, f.l.s., Assistant 
Curator, and.HENitv G. Smith, f.c.s., Technological Museum, 
The paper deals with several forms of this species of Eucalyptus, 
^hich extends over the greater part of the coastal districts and 
also over the Dividing Range. In addition to the economic and 
systematic notes the histology of the leaf was also given and 
illustrated. The essential oil, obtained by the authors was 
shown to be of excellent quality, whilst the yield was also very 
good. It contained (unrectified) 46 to 64% of Eucalyptol and a 

fraction from a first class sample, representing 60% of the crude 
oil, gave 79% Eucalyptol : the average the whole oil distilled 
(nine samples) was 62% of this principle. The authors pointed 
out that the results of their research on this oil were of importance 
to the commercial world, because of the very high character of 
the oil, which does not appear to have been previously obtained. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged :— 

(The Names of Donors are in Italics.) 
Aachen — Meteorologische Station I. Ordnung. Ergebnisse der 

1896. The Director 

Adelaide — Royal Society of S< uisactions, 

Vol. xxi., Part i., 1897. The Society 

Baltimore — Johns Hopkins University. Circulars, Vol. xvi., 

Nos. 127, 129, 130, 131, 1896-97- American Chemical 

Journal, V 

torical an 

Vol. xv., Nos. 1, 2, 18 
Paris— Societe d'Anthropolog 
Tome v., No. 10, 189 
1895 ; Serie 4, Tome 
Serie 3, Tome i., Fasc 
1, 1896. 

s. X..S. 1 

32, 1897. 
Societe d'Encouragement pour l'lndustrie Nationale. 

letin, Serie 4, Tome x., 1895. 
Society Entomologique de France. Annales, Vols, l: 

lxiv., 1894-5. 
Societe Francaise de Mineralogie. Bulletin, Tome 

Nos. 5-8, 1896 ; Tome xx., Nos. 1-4, 1897.' 
Societe Francaise de Physique. Bulletin Bimensuel, 

19, 1896 ; Nos. : 

i Geologique de France. 

:s Seances, 3 Ser., Tomes : 
logie. Tome u 

de France. 


The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5, Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, October 6th, 1897. 

The President, Henry Deane, m.a., m. Inst, c.e., in the Chair. 
Twenty-seven members were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary Members 
of the Society : — 

Callender, James Ormiston, Sydney. 
Fell, David, Sydney. 
The certificates of two candidates were read for the second time, 
and of one for the first time. 

The President announced that the Council had set apart the 
front room on the first floor as a • Smoke Room ' for the use of 

The following letter was read :— 

Government House, Sydney, 17th Sept., 1897. 
Sir,— I have the honour to inform you that His Excellency the Governor 
has? been advised by the Secretary of State for the Colonies that Her 
Majesty has received an Address from the Royal Society of New South 
"Wales, on the occasion of the completion of the Sixtieth Tear of Her 
Seign. 2. I am to add that Her Majesty has commanded that Her 
cordial thanks are to be conveyed to the members of your Society for their 
%al and dutiful Address, which she gratefully appreciates. 
I have, etc., 

A. P. H. FERGUSON, Captain, 
Private Secretary. 
The President of the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, 
Elizabeth-street, Sydney. 

!• " Note on mutilations practised by Australian Aborigines," by 
T. L. Bancroft, m.b. Edin. 
Anyone having read through Professor Anderson Stuart's paper 
"The "Mika" or "Kulpi" operation of the Australian Aborigines," 

(read before the Society on June 3rd, 1896), would, in all proba- 
bility, have gathered " That the operation did not appreciably 
limit the population ; its object was doubtful, and it could scarcely 
be regarded as practised from a Malthusian standpoint. The 
"kulpi" took precedence over those who were not "kulpi" and 
were privileged to appear in the nude state before the women, 
and further were intrusted with matters of moment to the tribe." 
Now having had the opportunity, during 1892, of travelling over 
the watershed of the Cooper, Diamantina, Georgina, and Mulligan 
Rivers (over the whole of which territory the "kulpi" obtains). 
and having taken some interest in the mutilations practised by 
the aborigines, I hope it will not be considered presumptuous of 
me to state to the Society what conclusions I have formed, 
although these differ so greatly from what might be inferred from 
Professor Stuart's paper. The mutilation of the sexual organs of 
both sexes is apparently practised to limit population ; it is un- 
doubtedly severe, but infinitely better than that of castration, for 
the men, at least, do not lose their virility. I cannot agree with 
those, who regard the practice as barbarous, and believe that it 
might with advantage be imitated by the more civilized races of 
mankind. In each camp that I visited, there were one man and 
two, or sometimes three, women upon whom no operation had been 
performed ; they appeared to be the chief and his queens, and 
were evidently regarded with very great respect by the mutilated 
members. Those, who have considered "that the "kulpi" oper- 
ation could not be regarded as practised to limit population on 
account of scarcity of food," have probably done so after having 
visited the country in a good season, when there was abundance 
of food, and in ignorance of the fact, that dry seasons, during 
which great scarcity of food prevails, follow upon good seasons. 
In 1892 there had been a drought for two years, and had it not 
been that the camps of blacks contained few members, I am afraid 
the whole race would have become extinct from starvation J few 
as they were it was as much as they could do to exist. It appears 
that sexual mutilations are practised in those parts of Australia 

shew their mutilation, feeling much ashamed of 
themselves and their inferiority to men in whom the parts are 
normal. During micturition they squat down, avoiding as far as 
possible being seen by the white man in the act. In the cases in 
which I was permitted to view the parts operated upon, the 
urethra had been slit open from the meatus to the scrotum, and 
there was in no instance any prepuce, so that I supposed circum- 
cision had also been performed, although the natives themselves 
did not lead me to understand that such was so. Those, who 
have had much experience of the blacks, will bear with me in 
stating that it is extremely difficult to get information of a reliable 
character from them ; they either do not understand the question 
thoroughly, or conclude that you are in some way making ridicule 
of them, and purposely deceive you ; they are always reluctant, 
even to white men who have learned to speak their language, to 
impart information concerning their private affairs. So far as I 
was able to ascertain from the civilized blacks at the stations, as 
to what had been done to the women to prevent their child bear- 
ing, it would appear that it is during infancy that an operation is 
performed upon them by introducing a rough grass stalk into the 
uterus, twisting this round and round until it has firmly grasped 
the walls, when the organ is dragged down, but whether the uterus 
is then cut away or only the grass stalk forcibly pulled out, carry- 
ing with it the mucous lining, was not known to them : all they 
could further tell me was, that the operation was done by a par- 
ticular man of the tribe and caused great loss of blood. 

Mr. R. H. Mathews said that as far as his investigations m 
reference to the "mika" operation had gone, he was of opinion 
that it was not designed to prevent procreation, since there are 
well authenticated cases of mutilated men being the fathers of 
families. The custom was in force in districts where food was 

atively plentiful, and was not found in many parts of the 
i which were more or less sterile. Infanticide, also prac- 
tised by these tribes, was an effective method of controlling the 
population. As regarded the mutilation of females, he thought 
that from the ignorance of the aborigines about castration, it was 
unlikely that they would understand the more difficult operation 
upon the female. In some tribes, however, the vagina is lacerated. 
The practice of circumcision, and other mutilations of the genitals, 
probably had their origin in ancient rites of an initiatory or 
religious character, and are still carried on in accordance with 
long established custom. 

2. "On a Cordierite-bearing Rock from Broken Hill," by J. 

Collett Moulden, Assoc. e.s.m., p.g.s. (Communicated by E. F. 

Pittman, Assoc. E.S.M.) 

This is believed to be the first time that cordierite has been 
recorded in Australia. It has a somewhat extensive development 
in the metamorphic rocks of Broken Hill, and is described in 
detail from two parallel exposures of granulitic rock about half 
a mile S.E. by E. from Block 14 Mine. The cordierite occurs in 
large crystals and also in grains through the granulite. A descrip- 
tion of the physical and optical properties of the mineral is given, 
and reference made to the other constituents of the rock, which 
it is decided to name cordierite-granulite. Mention is also made 
of the occurrence of cordierite as a nucleus to the felspar "augen" 
of an augen-gneiss three miles and a half east of Block 14 Mine. 

3. "Note on the occurrence of a nickeliferous opal near Tarn worth, 

N. S. Wales," by D. A. Porter. 
Several years ago, a specimen of opal brought to the writer, was 
said to have been obtained in the " Never-never " ranges on the 
head waters of Attunga Creek, and not far distant from Mount 
Gulligal, Parish of Attunga, County of Inglis. Some little while 
ago, being in the vicinity, Mr. Porter found the locality and 
secured a few small specimens, one of which he forwarded to 
be exhibited before this Society. The mineral occurs in the 
form of small veins in serpentine rock, and is accompanied by 

veins of a pinkish or salmon-coloured chalcedony, exhibiting a 
porcelain-like texture and broken surfaces. The veins of opal 
vary from ^g" to £" or more in thickness, and in colour from the 
palest to the deepest apple-green. A fair proportion of the mineral 
is translucent, but much of it is clouded and opaque. The 
powdered mineral— selected fragments of the deepest colour — 
gave a strong nickel reaction. The veins of opal and associated 
chalcedonic veins have as yet been opened only for about eighteen 
inches from the surface. 

Some observations were made by Professor Liversidge. 
4. "Icebergs in the Southern Ocean, No. 2," by H. C. Russell, 

This paper was prepared as a continuation of one read before 
the Royal Society, Sept. 4, 1895. It deals with the reports of 
icebergs seen since the end of July 1895. One hundred anfl two 
ships have reported ice in the interval, nearly the whole of the ice 
so reported, was within the area enclosed between 40° and 86° 
east longitude and 40° to 62° south latitude ; very few reports of 
ice outside that area have been received. It was shewn that the 
Thermopylae steamed for 1,000 miles amongst icebergs, and that 
the ocean was clear one hundred to one hundred and twenty miles 
north of this track. Some idea of the number of icebergs may be 
gathered from the fact that the officers of one ship counted 977 
bergs, and those of another ship 4,500. This and the previous 
paper cover a period of six years, and it was shewn that at times 
the icebergs come into, or leave the track of vessels in a few days; 
three instances in which there had been sudden disappearances 
were shown to be coincident in point of time with the advent in 
Australia and the ocean between the Cape and Australia of strong 
north to north-west winds. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged :— 


(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 

Albany— New York State Library. Annual Report (108th) of 

the Regents of the I j. i VwYork, 

Vols. i. and n., 1894; Annual Reports (<2nd and 3rd) of 

the Examination Department 1894-5. The Regent* 

i. — Directeur de II I'- Unites et de 

l'lndustrie aux Indes Neerbr 

logique de Java et Madoura par Dr. E. D. M. verbeei el 
t,\ Femiema,Toine i., n., and Carte geologique ex. Fcinlles 

Koninklijke Natuurkundige Vereemging i 

ar JNederlands 
v.. 1897. Bc„ 

The Society 

e, Deel lvi., Negende" Serie, Deel v., 1897. Boek- 

Bergen— Bergens Museum. An acvoi 

Norway by G. O. Sars, Vol. i., Isopoda, Parts Hi., iv.. 
1897 ; Vol. u., Isopoda, Parts I, ii., 1896. Bergens 
Museums Aarbog for 1896. The 1 

Berkeley— University of California. Department of Geology, 
Bulletin, Vol. I., Nos. 12, 13, 14, and Index 1895-96; 
Vol. ti.. Nns. 1. 2. 8. 1896 Library of the University 
., 1889-90. Register 
President 1894-96. 
f the Hoard of State Viticulture! Coni- 
, Appendix E. to Report i 

California, 1892. The Vineyards of Southern California 
1893. The Vineyards in Alameda County 1893. The 
White Wine Problem 1895. On the Correlation of Ele- 
mentary Studies by Prof. G. H. Hovvison 1896, Special 
University Edition of the Berkeley Daily Advocate. 31 
October, 1896. Th» Una: 

Berlin — Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde. Verhandlungeu. Hand 
xxiii.. Nos. 6-10, 1896; Band xxiv., Nos. 1,2,1897. 
Zeitschrift, Band xxxi., Nos. 3 - 6, 1896. The S( 

Koniglich preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sit- 

zungsberichte, tf os. 40 - 53, 1896 The Aca 

Koniglich preussische Meteorologische Instituts. Ergeb- 
nisse der Beobachtungen an den Stati.-nen n. and in.. 

Berne— Department de 1' Interiem- de la < 'mif ('-deration Suisse 
iV.tKiel. ii n ii,\ ImI ,( - <■( . ,-■ Darstellnng 

der Lufttemperaturen und der Niedersehlagshohen. HI. 
i., ii., in., 1895. Graphische Darstellung des schweizer- 
ischen 1 . v 
1896. The Depart 

Bologna— R. Ae.-ademia delle S.-i.-nze dell' Istituto di Bologna. 

Memorie, Serie 5, Tomo iv., 1894. The Aca 

Bonn — Naturhistorischer Verein der preussischen Rheinlande, 
Westf alens und des Reg.- 1 -!. ■/, irk s < >sna 1 ,n 'i. -k Verhand- 
lungen. .Iain-am; ui., H din- z, ls'.tr, : Jahrganir Liu., 
Lliilfte 1, 1896. The S< 

Niederrheinischen Gesellschaft fur Natur-und Heilkunde. 
Sitiungsberichte, Heft 2, 1895 ; Heft 1, 1896. 

Boston, Mass.— American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxxn., Nos. 1 - 14, 1896-97. The A. 
Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings, Vol. xxvn., 

Bbkmen— Meteorologische Observatorium. Ergebnisse der 
Niederschlags-Beobachtungen im Jahre 1894. Ergeb- 
nisse der Meteorologischen, Beobachtungen, Jahrgang, 
in., 1892 ; Jahrgang vn., 1896. The 1 

Brisbane— Colonial Secretary. Annual Reports (6) on British 
New Guinea from 1 July 18S9 to 30 June 1895. 

1897. The Mm 

Buenos Aires— Direccion General de Correos y Telegrafos. 
Jurisprudencia Postal y IVL-i-fua. Vol.'vnr, i~S95. 

Institute Geografico Argentino. Boletin, Tome xvn., Nos. 

Caen — Academie Nationale des Sciences, Arts et Relles-Lettres. 

Memoires, 1895, The Acad 

Calcutta— Geological Survey of India. Records, Vol. xxx , 

Part ii., 1897. The Su 

Cambridge— Cambridge Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 

Vol. ix., Part v., 1897. 
Cambridge (Ma: 

ii.-. .logical Series, Vol. in.) Nos. 2, 3, 1896 ; Vol. xxx., 
Nos. 1-6, 1896-7. Memoirs, Vol. xx. - xxn., 1896-7. The Museum 

Cape Town— South African Philosophical Society. Transac- 
tions, Vol. vn., Part ii., 1896. The Society 

Carlsruhe— Grossherzoglich-Badischen Technischen Hochschule. 
Programm I'm- i - studivin In- 1896-7. Eleven (11) 

Cassell— Vereins fur Naturkunde. Abhandlungen u. Bericht, 

xli., 1895-6. The Socwt y 

Chemnitz— Naturwissenschaftlklu- Gesellsohiift. 


ago Academy of 
Geological and Nature 
Report (39th) for 1896 

Zoology— Tu: 

xxiv., Botany— Protophyta 1897. The Editorial ( 

Cincinnati— Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Journal, 

Vol. xix., Nos. 1, 2, 1896-97. The Society 

Copenhagen — Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord. Memoires, 

Cordoba— Academia Nacional de Sciencias. Boletm, Tomo xv., 

Entrega la 1896. The Academy 

Cracow — Academie des Sciences. Bulletin International, June, 
July, Oct. 1896 ; Jan. 1897. 

Denver— Colorado Scientific Society. Papers read Feb. 3, Oct. 5, 

Nov. 2, Dec. 7, 1896 ; Jan. 4, Feb. 1, April 3, 1897. The Society 

Dijon— Academie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres. Memoires, 

Dresden— K. Siichs. Statistische Bureau. Zeitschift, Band 

xlii., Heft 1 - 4, Jahrgang 1896. The Bureau 

Vereins fur Erdkunde. Jahresbericht, xxv., 1896. The Society 

Edinburgh— Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Scottish 

schaft. Abhandlungen, Band xxiii., Heft 1, 2, 1896-7. 

Freiberg (Saxony)— Koniglich-Siichsische Bergakademie. Jahr- 
buchfurdas Berg- und Huttenwesen lid Iv<>nigreiehe 
Sachsen auf das Jahr 1896. The A 

Giessen— Oberhessische Gesellschaft fur Natur-und-Heilkunde. 
Bericht, Band xxxi., 1896. The 

Gottingen— Kbnigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Nachrichten, Geschiiftliche Mittheilungen Heft 2, 1896; 
H.'ft 1. JMI7. Matli.-plivsik. Kht.sse Heft 3, 4, 1896 ; 
Heft 1,1897. 

Haarlem— Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem. Bulletin, March 
1896 ; June, July 1897. Handleiding . . door H. Veen. 
TijdsL-hrift <l-r .V-n.Tim.i-. h,- M schappij ter bevor- 
dering van Nijverheid Nieuwe Reeks, Deel I., Feb. - 
July 1897. ' The 1 

Musee Teyler. Archives, Ser. 2, Vol. v., Part ii, 1896. 
Societe Hollandaise des Sciences. Archives Neerlandaises 
5, 1896-97; Ser. 2, Tome I., Liv. I,'l897. The 

Halifax, N.S.— Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Proceedings 
and Transactions, Vol. ix., Part ii., Session 1895-6. The 1 

Hamburg — Deutsche Seewarte. Archiv der Deutschen Seewarte, 
Jahrgang xix., 1896. Deutsche Ueberseeische Meteoro- 
logische Beobachtungen, Heft vu, ] 890-93. Ergebnisse 
der Meteorologischen Beobachtungen, Jahrgang xvni., 
1895. Ergebnisse der Meteorologischen Beobachtungen 
fiir das Lustrum 1891-1895. Jahres-beri.-ht uber die 
Thiitigkeit xvni., fur das Jahr 1895. The Obse 

Geographische Gesellschaft in Hamburg. Mi- 
Band xiii., ISI'7. The 


The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5, Elizabeth-street, North, on Wednesday 
evening, November 3rd, 1897. 

The President, Henry Deane, M.A.. m. Inst. C.E., in the Chair. 

Thirty-three members and three visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary Members 
of the Society: — 

Ronaldson, James Henry ; Darlinghurst. 
Russell, Harry Ambrose, b.a.; Ashfield. 

The certificate of one candidate was read for the second time. 

1- "The effect of temperature on the Tensile and Compressive 
properties of Copper," by Prof. Warren, m. Inst, c.e., and Mr. 
S. H. Barraclough, m.m.e. 
This inv< stigation was carried out on some fifty copper test 
pieces supplied by Mr. W. Thow, M. Inst, c.e., Chief Mechanical 
Engineer to the N. S. Wales Government Railways. The test pieces 
were immersed in a very heavy cylinder oil, contained in a cast iron 
bath, which was provided with a loosely fitting stuffing box at 
each end to allow of the necessary connection being made with 
the test piece. The temperature range attained was from 25° F. 
to 535° F., the temperatures being measured by certified mercurial 
thermometers. The extensions and compressions were measured 
by Kennedy's lever extensometer and Martens' mirror apparatus. 
■The chief conclusions arrived at were : — (a) The relation between 
the ultimate tensile strength and the temperature may be very 
closely t(pn ,sented by the equation /= 32,000-21 I, where «f is 
the tensile strength expressed in pounds per square inch, and t is 
the temperature expressed in degrees F. (b) Temperature does 

not affect the elongation or contraction of area in any regular 
manner : and at any one temperature the variation in these two 
quantities is so variable for different specimens that no particular 
percentage could be included in a specification for the supply of 
copper, (c) The elastic limit in tension occurs at about 5,400 lbs. 
per square inch : this limit probably decreases rapidly with 
increase of temperature, but the differences in the behaviour of 
individual specimens are so great as to prevent the determination 
of the relationship between the two quantities, (d) The elastic 
limit in compression occurs at about 3,200 lbs. per square inch: it 
decreases with increase of temperature, the relationship between 
the two being more regular than in the tensile tests. («) The 
rate of permanent extension and compression increases rapidly 
with increase of temperature. 

2. " Aurora Australis," by H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., p.R.s. 

This paper contained a list of auroral displays in the southern 
hemisphere during 1897, also a detailed account of one which was 
observed by the captain and officers of the R.M.S. " Aorangi," on 
April 20th, 1897, when the ship was in Long. 96° W. and Lat. 
47|° S. It was first seen as a diffused white glow over the 
southern horizon at 6-30 p.m.; shortly after this, white rays shot 
out from the white glow in all directions, many of them along the 
eastern horizon, and it was observed that these rays rose above 
the horizon and drifted across the sky to the west. Closer inspec- 
tion revealed the fact, that every ray and patch of light, including 
the zenith ring that was seen later was drifting to the west. 
Every part of the auroral light, rays and patches was white up 
to 8-30 p.m., then suddenly the white gave way to colours, and 
every ray and fragment of light was tinted with brilliant shades 
of red, green, and yellow. Then an arch appeared above the 
southern horizon, brilliant with yellow and green in its central 
parts and roseate hues near the horizon. As this arch rose higher 
another followed it until at last six of these beautifully coloured 
arches spanned the sky from the southern horizon to within 60 

of the northern horizon. These again broke up into fragments 
in all parts of the sky, and electric flashes darted from one to the 
other, making with all the colours a magnificent display, all of 
which was moving to the west like a panorama, with varying 
intensity the aurora lasted until 9-30 p.m. 

3. "The Basalts of Bathurst and the neighbouring districts," by 
W. J. Clunies Ross,, Loud, f.g.s. (Communicated by 
J. H. Maiden, f.l.s.) 
In this paper the character of the basalt occurring in the 
neighbourhood of Bathurst, on the Bald Hills, and other hills in 
the vicinity, is described. Specimens from various localities have 
been obtained, microscopic sections cut from them, and chemical 
analysis made. It has been found that there are some differences 
in the microscopic structure of the rocks from hills close together, 
but the chemical analysis shews them to be all closely related. 
The silica was found to be about 47 per cent., but reached 50 per 
cent, on Mt. Pleasant. The alumina, oxide of iron, lime, and 
magnesia were also determined. For comparison with the Bathurst 
basalt, which no doubt originally flowed as a lava from some 
centre of volcanic activity, and in order to trace the source from 
'which it came, specimens were examined from all the places 
within forty miles of Bathurst, where basalts are known to occur. 
There are three such localities— (1) Blayney and Carcoar, (2) 
Orange district, (3) Oberon and Swatchfield. The rocks from 
blayney and Orange were found to differ considerably from the 
Bathurst basalt, the Orange rock yielding 55 per cent, of silica. 
The character of the country also renders it unlikely that a lava 
would flow from either district to Bathurst. Oberon and Swatch- 
field, on the other hand, are on the Macquarie River system, 
upon which river Bathurst is situated. It was, therefore, inter- 
esting to find that basalt from Oberon agreed more closely in 
chemical composition with the Bathurst rocks than either of the 
others did, and was of the same type microscopically. The late 
Mr. C. S. Wilkinson was of opinion that the Bathurst basal* 

came from Swatchfield, and this v 

tigations of the writer of the paper, 

Bathurst, has also been found lower down the Macquarie, at 

Rock Forest. 

Mr. Hedley, who had just returned from New Caledonia, 
exhibited a few articles of ethnological interest which he had 
collected there. The Kanakas use there an implement called by 
the French a " doigtiere," and by the Owbatche tribe the 
" hooeng," which is almost, if not quite, peculiar to the island. 
It consists of a cord about six inches long, with a ball at one end 
and a loop at the other. The loop is fitted to the forefinger of 
the warrior, who holds the spear with the remaining fingers, the 
palm upwards, and the ball end is passed round the spear and 
caught under the cord. Whereas the womerah of Australia is 
used to increase the velocity of the spear, the "doigtiere" merely 
imparts a rotatory motion to the projectile, adding little to the 
speed but much to the aim. 

i warfare is the sling, in the 
ins are most expert. Their 
ammunition consists of ovate stones, an inch and a half long, 
ground to a point at either end. These are carried in a woven 
pouch tied by a belt round the waist, the belt itself being a 
knitted sack capable of holding additional ammunition when 
necessary. Any European who has crossed mountain and jungle 

ledge that the kanaka's mode of carrying his sling stones excelled 
ours of carrying cartridges in rough and broken country. 

The method of handling both sling and " doigtiere " was 

The following donations were laid upon the tabic and acknow- 

(The Nam?s of the Dono . 


1898 ; June, J ■ . . door H. Veen. 

Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Maatschappij ti-r lw..r- 
dering van Nijverheid Nieuwe Eeeks, Deel L, Feb. - 
July 1897. The . 

Musee Teyler. Archives, Ser. 2, Vol. v., Part ii, 1896. 
Societe Hollandaise des Sciences. Archives Nterlandsisea 
des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles. Tome xxx., Liv. 3 - 
5, 1896-97; Ser. 2, Tome I., Liv. 1, 1897. Tlie 

Halifax, N.S.— Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Proceedings 
and Transactions, Vol. ix., Part ii., Session 1895-6. The 1 


r Meteorologischen Beobachtungen, Jahrgang xviii., 

95. Eiv iM.hen Beobachtungen 

fiir das Lustrum 1891 - 1895. Jahres-bericht iiber die 

Thatigkeit xviii., fiir das Jahr 1895. The Observatory 

Geographische Gesellschaft in Hamburg. Mittheilungen, 

Band xm., 1897. The Society 

Xatiirhistori.sehcs Mu igangxni., 

1895. The Museum 

Hamilton (Ont.)— Hamilton Association. Journal and Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xii., Session 1895-96. The Association 
Havre- Sncu'te Geologique do Normandie. Bulletin, Tome xvi., 

HosART-Mines Departmei 

K N iK-SocieteArch6ologiq 

God ii., Br. 3, 1891 
Konigsberg— Physikalisch-okonomische Gesellschaft. Schriften, 

Jahrgang xxxvu., 1896. 
La Plata— Facultad de Affronomia y Veterinaria. Revista, Nos. 

20, 21, 1896. The 

Parte 2, 1896. 
, 1896 ; Anales, 

Paleontologia Argentina, Part iv., 1896. The I 

Lausanne— Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin, 

4 Ser. Vol. xxxn., Nos. 121, 122, 1896 ; Vol. xxxiii., 

Nos. 123, 124, 1897. The 

LEi PZIG _ KSnigl Sachsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften.,., Math-phys. Classe, Nos. 2, 3, 5, ii. 1S96 ; N"S. 

1, 2, 1897. 'Zur Fiinfzigjahrigen Jubelfeier, 1 July, 1896. 
Vereins fur Erdkunde. Mitteilungen, 1896. Die Insel 

LifcjK— Societe Geologique de Belgique. Annales, Tome xxiv., 
Liv. 1, 1896-97. 
Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege. Menioires, Bfcfe -'■ 

§ Geologique du Nord. Annales, Tome xxiii 
sity of Nebraska. Bulletin of the Agrici 

London— Institution of Civil Engineers. Minutes of Proceed- 
ings, Vol. cxxviii., Part ii., 1896-7. Report of the 
Council, Session 1896-7 (27 April, 1897). 77m Inditutwn 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Pharmaceutical 
Journal, Vol. lviii., Fourth Series, Vol. iv., Nos. ] 408 - 
1422, 1897. The Society 

Physical Society of London. Proceedings, Vol. xv., Parts 
iv. - viii., Nos. 79 - 83, 1897. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal, Ser. n., Vol. vi., 

No. 40, April 1897. The CM 

Eoyal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, Ser. 3, 

Vol. vin., Part ii., No. 30, 1897. The Societi 

Eoyal Astronomical Society. Monthly Notices, Vol. lvii., 
No. 7, 8, 1897. 

Eoyal Geographical Society. The Geographical Journal, Vol. 

uarterly Journal.Vol. xxiii., 
Meteorological Eecord, Vol. 

Journal, Part iii., Nos. 118, 

i poem by Queen 
Margaret of Navarre, made in 1544 by the Princess 
(afterwards Queen) Elizabeth, then eleven years of age. 

pal United Service Institution. Journal, Vol. xli., Nos. 
231 - 233, 1897. The Ins 

nety of Arts. Journal, Vol. xlv., Nos. 2322 - 2340, 1897. 

; Britain and Ire- 

-iii., No. 12, 1897. 

Shells found at Sutton 

triaaenac] I xu., Abth. 7, 1895. 

Sitzungsberichte, Jahrgang, 1894, 1895. 
Melbourne— Australasian Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. xn., Nos. 

139 - 142, 1897. The Editor 

Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist, 

Vol. xiv., Nos. 4-6, 1897. The Civ* 

Royal Geogi ia). Trans- 

actions, Vol. xiv., 1897. The Society 

University. Calendar 1898. The University 

Mexico— Institute Geologico de Mexico. Boletin, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 

Ano xvii., 1897. Boletin, No. 1, 1897. The Observatory 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate" Memorias y Revista, 

Tomo x., Nos. 1-4, 1896-97. The Society 

lan — Eeale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. Rendi- 

i Italiana di Scienze Naturali. Atti, Vol. xx 
sc. 3, 4, 1896 ; Vol. xxxvn., Fasc. 1, 1897. Men: 

Montreal— Natural History Society of Montreal. The Cana- 
dian Record of s. ■]. ■„, •,., Vol. vn , Nos. 1-4, 1896-7. The Society 

Royal Society of Canada. Rroceedings i 


plement, 1895 
Societe Imperiale 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1896. Menioires, Vols, xiv., Nos. 2, 4, 1896 ; 

Vol. xv., No. 2, 1896. The 

Mulhouse— Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse. Bulletin, Aug. 

- Deer., 1896 ; Jan. - June, 1897. Programme des Prix 

26 May, 1897. 
Naples— Societa Reale di Napoli. Rendiconto dell' Accademia 

delle Scienze Pisiche e Matematiche, Ser. 3, Vol. in., 

Fasc. 5-7, 1897. 
Zoological Station. Mittheilungen, Band xn., Heft 3, 1896. 

Neuchatel— Societe Neuchateloise de Geographic 

Tome viii., 1894-5. 
New York— American Chemical Society. Journal, Vol. xix., 
Nos. 7-9,1897. 
American Geographical Society. Bulletin, Vol. xxvm., 

No. 4, 1896 ; Vol. xxix., Nos. 1, 2, 1897. 
New Fork Microscopical Society. Journal, Vol. xm., Nos. 

2, 3, 1897. 
School of Mines, Columbia College. The School of Mines 
Tol. xviii., Nos. 2, 3, 1 
;ological Survey of Canada. . 
es. Vol. vn., 1894, with Maps. 
iladelphia -Academy of Natural Sciences. 1 
Part iii., 1896 ; Part i., 1897. 
Franklin Institute. Journal, Vol. cxliii., No 

Zoological Society. Annual Report (25th) of t 

Pisa— Society 1 

Conferenz der Permanenten Commission der Interna- 

jssung in oZ u-rail iireit<' vnn urrenwicn ins 
Heft ii., 1896. Bestinimung der Polhohe 
nnd der Intensitat der Schwerkraft auf 22 Stationen von 
der Ostsee bei Kolberg bis zur Schneekoppe, 1896. 
Jahresbericht des Dir April 1896. 

The Im 
me — Accademia Pontificia de Nuovi Lincei. Atti, Anno xlix., 

Sess. 5-7, 1S96 ; Anno l., Sess. 1-6, 1896-7. The Act 

i bograflco Italiano. Atlantc Scolastico per la 
Geografia, Fisica e Politica. di Guiseppe Pennesi. The Im 
l.'ubblici. Giornale del Genio Civil.', 

e Accademia dei Lincei. Atti, Serie Quinta, Rendiconti, 

., Semestiv 2, Fuse. 7-12, 1896 ; Vol. ' 

1, Fasc. 1 - 12 ; Semestre 2, Fasc. 1 - 5, 1897. The Acaaemy 

R. Comitato Geologico d' Italia. Bollettino, Vol. xxvn., • 

Trimestre 3, 4, 1896. The Committee 

Revista Geografica d' Italiana. Annata m., Fasc. 4-7,9, 

Societa Geografica Italiana. Bollettino, Ser. 3, Vol. ix., 

Fasc. 10-12, 1896; Vol. x., Fasc. 1-8,1897. Memorie, 

Vol. vi., Part ii., 1897. The Society 

Salem — American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Proceedings, Vol. xlv., 1896. Meeting at Buffalo, N.Y. 

on, Pa.— The Colliery Engineer Co. The Colliery 
Engineer and Metal Miner, Vol. xvii., Nos. 6 - 12 ; 
Vol. xviii., No. 1, 1897- The Propneto 

>rews— University. Calendar for the year 1897-8. The Universi 
ersburg — Academie Iniperiale des Sciences. Bulletin, 
Serie 3, Vol. xxxv., No. 4, 1894 ; Serie 5, Tome hi., Nos. 
2 .-,. is!».->; T..M1.- iv., N..s. i. -r,. is:t.:. Tome v., Nos. 
1-2, 1896; Tome vi., Nos. 1 - l>, tv»7. Mo moires, Classe 
Historico-Philologique, Vol. i., Nos. 1,2, 1895. ("lasso 
Physico-Mathematique, Vol. i., No. 9, 1895 ; Vol. ii., 
Nos. 1-9, 1895, Atlas of Meteorological (Charts to Vol. 
ii., No. 4; Vol. in., Nos. 1 - JO, 1895-6 ; Vol. iv. Nos. I 


The General Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the 
Society's House, No. 5, Elizabeth-street North, on Wednesday 
evening, December 1st, 1897. 

The President, Henry Deane, m.a., m. inst. c.e., in the Chair. 

Thirty-four members and two visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary member 
of the Society :— 

Webb, Frederick William, c.m.g., j.p., Clerk of the Legis- 
lative Assembly, Sydney. 

Messrs. C. R. Walsh and David Fell were appointed Auditors 
for the current year. 

The President announced that a Conversazione would be held 
at the University on the 14th January 1898, and that members 
not in arrears with their subscriptions would receive cards of 

A letter was read from the Mueller National Memorial Com- 
mittee, inviting subscriptions. 

*• "On the steady flow of water in uniform pipes and channels," 
by G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., Lecturer in Surveying, University 
of Sydney. 
The paper dealt generally with the nature of the two regimes 
under which flow takes place, and of the instability of the recti- 
linear flow in pipes. In the first or linear regime, the velocity 
formula for a pipe of elliptical cross-section is, 

u=-l£-K £ * c * (1) 

in which g is the acceleration of gravity, p the density of the fluid, 
b y means of a column of which the height H— the difference 
°f the pressures, at two sections of a horizontal tube, the distance 

xlii. ABSTKAC 

L apart— are measured, B and C are the semiaxes of the ellipse, 
and rj is the viscosity of the fluid. Tables of the values of viscosity 
and fluidity were given. 

It was pointed out that Prof. Reynolds had, in respect to the 
witnessing of the two regimes in glass tubes, been anticipated in 
1853 by Hagen, who recognised exactly the influence, on the 
velocity of translation parallel to the axis of the pipe, of the 
internal agitation that succeeds the condition of minimum shear — 
the first regime. Reynolds' factors, in his empirical and supposed 
general formula, were shewn to lead to 
formula above given, which is based on i 

That the index 2 in the expression U 2 cc I, the latter denoting 
HjL, was too great, was proved to have been recognised by DuBuat 
Woltmann and Ey telwein at the end of last and beginning of this 
century, as also by St. Venant, Hagen, and Gauckler, in 1850, 
1853, and 1867, so that Reynolds' direct statement in 1883, that 
no one had recognised the law U lx ccI, was not supported by fact. 
Not only was that so, but St. Venant in 1850 had employed the 
method of logarithmic coordinates, as also Hagen in 1853 and 1867. 
Prof. Reynolds' supposed general empirical formula given in the 
Phil. Trans, in 1883— which might be written 

Mf*R*I=(NfR Uy (7) 

M and N being constants for all classes of pipe, /the relative 
fluidity, and R and JJ the same meanings as usually— was shewn 
not to be experimentally indicated for the second regime, while it 
it might be replaced by the simpler rational formula, already given, 
for the first. 

It was shewn that U» oc /", and also that U" cc R m , but that 
q and m were not respectively 2 - n and 3 - n, as required by 
Reynolds' formula. For these indices the following were proposed 
as sufficiently interpreting experimental data, viz. 

* - .<.-")•+, < 36 > 

in which a - 1, x = 0-18, and % - 3, and 

= about 0-77 and % = \. In order that m however, 
ntirely general it is necessary to give it some such form as 


x + b(n- iy 

so that it may be always 2 when n = 1 exactly. Experiment may 
therefore shew that it is always a function of the roughness. 

The general formula proposed is, for the mean velocity of the 
flow of water in a circular pipe under either regime, at any tem- 
perature, and with any radius, « slope, 7 or material of pipe, 

*-[(#>*-']* < 41 > 

in which n depends upon the roughness of the channel, and can 
be set forth in categories, p and q are functions of the roughness 

the pipe, sensibly, though perhaps not wholly independent of the 
roughness, but must be always taken as 2 when n = 1. The value 
of p is 0-256 (w - 1); or more generally p = c (n - l) w . The 
defect of the Chezy, of the Darcy and Bazin, of the Ganguillet 
and Kutter, and of the Reynolds formulas, is that each systema- 
tically departs from what may be called the general trend or 
indication of the experiments upon which they are founded. 

The hydraulic radius is shewn, even in the case of the ellipse, 
not to be an absolutely satisfactory function in regard to eliminat- 
ing the influence of the form of a pipe or channel. What may 
be called the corrected hydraulic radius, is for the ellipse, 

R - R (1 - i «• +-A c* - A <"...) (47) 

in which 

< = (B-C)!(B+C). 

The general method of analysis of the flow in open channels 
^as indicated, and the fact noticed that in this case n seems to 
increase with /. It is also noted that m increases with R which 
is clearly shewn in Series 23 of Bazin's 


In regard to the type of the general formula, the author believes 
that it will be found capable of being so adjusted, by giving proper 
values to its constants, as to represent not only all old, but also 
new observations of flow in pipes, that is to say, it satisfies the 
requirements of a general formula; and that probably an analogous 
analysis will yield an equally general formula for flow in channels. 
The paper was accompanied by tables for the purpose of facilitating 

2. " Experimental investigation of the flow of water in uniform 
channels," by S. H. Barraclough, b.e., m.m.e., and T. P. 
Strickland, b.e. 
This investigation was suggested by Mr. G. H. Knibbs, as a 
result of his examination of the work of previous investigators, 
an account of which appears above, and the experiments were 
carried out in the laboratory of the P. N. Russell Engineering 
School, with the cordial co-operation of Prof. Warren. Its main 
object was to fill in an hiatus in the existing series of experimental 
results, by determining the effect of change of slope upon the 
velocity of flow, when the slope is varied over a wide range. Since 
in making these experiments it was impossible to maintain the 
temperature and hydraulic radius absolutely constant, two sub- 
sidiary enquiries had to be undertaken to determine approximately 
the effect which these two quantities have upon the velocity, in 
order to allow of corrections being applied to the observations in 
the main series of experiments. The apparatus used included (1) 
a four hundred gallon supply tank, fed from a water main, and 
having a special device for automatically maintaining a constant 
head; (2) a wooden channel having a triangular section, and 
provided with means for ensuring undisturbed entrance conditions; 
(3) a four hundred gallon gauging tank, the capacity of which at 
various points throughout its depth was carefully determined by 
comparison with a standard cubic foot. It is estimated that the 
experimental error involved was less than 1%. The chief con- 
clusions arrived at were that (a) the expression v 2U oc i represents 
very accurately the relationship between velocity and slope for 


this particular channel ; (b) other conditions being the same, the 
velocity increases as H r , where R is the mean hydraulic radius; 
(c) the velocity increases with increase of temperature, this indi- 
cates (when taken in conjunction with (a) above, where rc = 2-14) 
that the exponent (2 - n)jn in Prof. Reynolds' formula is inappli- 
cable to the present experiments, since it would make the correction 
for temperature negative. The propriety of this formula had 
been challenged by Mr. Knibbs, and the value 2 - n shewn not to 
be supported by existing experiments when n was less than 2. 
Tins result disposes of any uncertainty that might be conceived 
to have remained. 

3. "Current Papers, No. 3," by H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. 
(This paper will be printed in Vol. xxxn., for 1898.) 

4. " Notes on Myrticolorin," by Henry G. Smith, f.c.s., Techno- 

logical Museum, Sydney. 
In the abstract of proceedings for August 4th, a paper by Mr. 
Smith is noticed wherein is announced a new dye-stuff obtained 
from the leaves of the "Red Stringy Bark," Eucalyptus macro- 
rhyncha. This material, which in some respects is allied to 
aromadendrin, was stated to belong to the quercetin group of 
natural dyes. It was named by the author Myrticolorin as it 
was supposed to be the only true dye substance obtained from 
the Myrtaceie. This note amplifies previous statements by 
recording the results arrived at since the announcement above 
referred to. Myrticolorin is a glucoside of quercetin, and it breaks 
«P on boiling with dilute sulphuric acid into quercetin and a 
sugar. Quercetin is proved by its reactions, and the formation 
°* acetylquercetin 189 - 191° C. It has also been proved to be 
quercetin by Mr. A. G. Perkin of Leeds, the well known authority 
on the natural yellow dyes. The sugar belongs to the glucoses, 
it partly crystallises in microscopic transparent prisms, probably 
monoclinic. It is readily and entirely fermented by yeast, and 
reduces Fehling's solution on heating. Myrticolorin contains 48 
- 50 per cent, of quercetin, and quantitative 


leaves from near Rylestone in this colony, proved them to contain 
no less than ten per cent, of myrticolorin, or about five per cent, 
of quercetin ; one ton of dried leaves, therefore, gives two hundred 
and twenty -four pounds of myrticolorin, and this crystallised with 
seven per cent, of water over one hundred pounds of quercetin per 
ton. As quercitron bark probably does not contain more than 
three per cent, of quercetin or sixty-seven pounds per ton, the 
advantages are decidedly in favour of these Eucalyptus leaves, in 
the increased percentage of quercetin, in the ease with which the 
leaves may be ground, and the simplicity of extraction. The 
powdered leaves are boiled in water to remove the myrticolorin, 
and this crystallises out on cooling, and may be thus easily 
removed. Myrticolorin may be obtained in large quantities, as 
this particular species of Eucalypt extends over a large portion of 
New South Wales and Victoria. It is not to be supposed, how- 
ever, that this species is the only one containing myrticolorin in 

5. "A second supplement to a Census of the Fauna of the Older 
Tertiary of Australia," by Professor Ralph Tate, Hon. 
Memb.; with an appendix on " Corals," by John Dennant, 

Professor Tate begins his paper by giving references to the 
principal contributions to Australian Tertiary Paleontology which 
have appeared since the publication of his first supplement in the 
Journal of this Society for 1888. He notes a number of genera 
hitherto unrecorded as being represented in Australia, notably 
Plesiotriton, represented by two species from the Eocene, viz.:— 
one from Aldinga, S. A., and the other from Cape Otway, Victoria. 
P. Dennanti (a new species) from the latter locality, is then 
described. Also Gaskoinia, represented by a new species (bulUt- 
formis) from the Eocene of Muddy Creek. Prof. Tate also records 
a new species of Hemiconus (H. Cossmanni) from Muddy Creek. 
The genus Borsonia is represented by no less than four species, 
viz.: B. protensa, B. Otwayensis, B. polycesta, all from the Eocene, 
Cape Otway, and B. balteata, from the Eocene, Belmont, Victoria. 

Tenison- Woods' Thala marginata from Table Cape is transferred 
to Cordieria, under the name C. conospira, the name Porsonia 
(Cordieria) marginata being preoccupied. The species occurs 
abundantly in the Eocene in Tasmanian, Victorian and South 
Australian localities. Fossarus refractus is a new species from 
the Eocene of Table Cape, Tasmania. Dissochilus vitreus is a 
new species, described from the Miocene of Muddy Creek, and 
D. eburneus, from the Eocene of Muddy Creek, near Hamilton, 
is also described for the first time. Infundibulum latesulcatum 
is a new species from the Eocene of Table Cape. Subemar- 
gmula occlusa is a new species from the Eocene of Victoria 
(Muddy Creek and Mornington). Puncturella hemipsila is 
described as new from the Eocene of Table Cape. Atlanta fossilut 
is described as new from the Eocene of Cape Otway. The genus 
Plicatula also has one species, viz.: P. ramulosa from the Eocene 
of Table Cape. Martesia elegantula is also described as new. It 
is from the Miocene of Grangeburn, near Hamilton, Victoria, 
burrowing in coral (Plesiastrcea). 

In the Polyzoa, a synopsis is given of McGillivray's work, this 
author being almost entirely responsible for the very large additions 
to the genera and species of our Eocene fauna. Prof. Tate also 
intimates that he has discovered a representative of Cerithiopsis, 
a genus not hitherto represented in our fauna. The following 
genera are described as new -.—Streblorhamphus, Tate and Coss- 
mann — S. mirulus, from the Eocene of Muddy Creek, Victoria, 
and S. obesus from Mornington being described. Cheleutomia, 
Tate and Cossmann — the new species described being C.subvaricosa 
from the Eocene of Victoria (Muddy Creek, Mornington, Curlewis 
and Pyansford). 

Mr. Dennant's appendix is prefaced by a brief resume of recent 
work on Australian Tertiary Corals. He then proceeds to record 
two hitherto unrecorded genera for the Australian Tertiary Corals; 
these are represented by the species now described for the first 
time, \\z.;~Paracyathus supracostatus, from the Eocene at Red 
fi haff, Shelford, Victoria. Montlivaltia variformis, from the 
Eocene of Table Cape, Tasmania. 

Prof. Liversidge exhibited some mineral specimens. Amongst 
them was a sapphire from Ceylon, which is of a fairly deep red or 
amethyst tint by candle or gas light, but of a blue colour by day- 
light, by the electric light and by magnesium light. The change 
in colour was exhibited to the members. These gems are being 
sold atColombo as blue alexandrites(chrysoberyl). Many sapphires 
show this dichroism ; but good specimens are not common. He 
also showed the strongly marked fluorescence of some green fluor- 
spar (chlorophane) permeated with plates of native copper, col- 
lected by Mr. Edgar Hall, f.c.S., from the Bald Nob Copper Mine, 
Emmaville, which he is working. Mr. Hall states that the native 
copper occurs at a depth of about eighty feet, where the fluor is 
two feet wide. At lower depths the fluor carries molybdenite and 
above the fluor it is a deep blue colour carrying red oxide and the 

gangue of quartz and felspar ; but it is there quite free from 
copper and copper minerals. Also some very good crystals of 
mispickel from New England, collected by Mr. D. A. Porter of 
Tamworth, and other specimens. 

Mr. E. F. Pittman, Government Geologist, exhibited a number 
of specimens of "telluride ores" from Kalgoorlie, and gave a brief 
description of the geology of those parts of Western Australia 
recently visited by him. The Perth artesian basin was described 
as consisting of deposits of very porous calcareous sandstone of 
aeolian origin. The basin is a one-sided one, sloping from the 
flanks of the Darling Ranges on the east to the sea coast on the 
west, the total width of the section being about fifteen miles. The 
rain water collected in these porous rocks evidently leaks into the 
ocean. The Perth basin also differs from most other known 
artesian basins in that the porous rocks are not overlain by 
impervious beds. It appears therefore that the rising of the 

The Collie Coalfield (about one hundred and thirty miles south 
of Perth) presents but few opportunities to the geologist, as the 
coal measures have suffered much from denudation, and are not 
now exposed at the surface. The coal has been obtained by boring 
and sinking, and the best seam is said to be about thirteen feet 
thick. The coal contains about eleven per cent, of water, and 
does not form coke. In character it very much resembles the 
Clarence River coal of New South Wales. The coalfield forms an 
artesian basin, and water under pressure is flowing from all the 
bores which have been put down. This fact taken in conjunction 
with the appearance and quality of the coal, point to its being of 
Mesozoic Age. Fossil plant remains are very scarce, but portions 
of two were obtained, and Mr. R. Etheridge, junr., after some 
hesitation, pronounced them to belong to the genus Sagenopteris, 
thus confirming the impression that the measures are Mesozoic. 

The Darling Range lying twenty miles to the east of Perth 
attains an altitude of 1,000 feet, and beyond this the country 
gradually rises to an altitude of 1,400 feet at Coolgardie and 
Kalgoorlie. The geological formation of this elevated tableland 
is granite and crystalline gneiss, with occasional belts of meta- 
morphic schists. At Coolgardie there is a considerable develop- 
ment of hornblendic rocks (amphibolites, diorites, &c.) and near 
the junction of these with the granite occur auriferous quartz 
reefs, such as Bayley's and the Londonderry. At Kalgoorlie the 
gold occurs in micaceous schists, which, in depth, pass into quartz 
felsites (?) containing veins, splashes and pockets of calaverite 
(telluride of gold) and native tellurium. It appears that the 
matrix of the tellurides is an intrusive dyke of felsite (?) which 
has been much crushed and foliated, and that the micaceous schists 
at the surface (which contain free gold) are the result of the 
decomposition of this crushed intrusive rock. The felsitic rocks 
a re themselves intruded by dykes of diorite, and fissures or reopen- 
mgs in them have also been filled by quartz. No lithological 
distinction can be observed between the rich and the barren por- 

tions of the dykes, and consequently, the boundaries of the so 
called "lodes" can only be defined by assay. 

Extremely salt water occurs at a depth of about two hundred 
feet in the mines, owing to percolation of rain water through the 
zone of oxidised or porous rocks. The quantity is however small, 
and the want of a water supply is one of the most serious diffi- 
culties in connection with this rich and remarkable field. 

The following donations were laid upon the table and acknow- 
ledged :— 


(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 

Aberdeen— University. Officers of the Marischal College and 

University, 1593 - 1860. Catalogue of the Books added 

e Library in Marischal College. 1874 -1£~~, - 

e Celtic 

The Observatory 
—University of the State of New York. Annual Report 
(48th) of the New York State Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Parts i., ii., iii.. 1894. Annual Report (77th) of 
the New York State Library. State Library Bulletin, 
Additions, Nos. 3, 4, 1891-96. State Library Bulletin, 
Legislation, Nos. 7, 8, 1896-97. The University 

Sectie, Deel v., Nos. 
Sectie, Deel v., Nos. 4-10; 2 Sectie, Deel II. 

" Year 1896-97. The Academy 
Nederlandsche Maatschappig ter bevordering van Nij verheid. 

Tijdschrift, Nieuwe Reeks, Deel i., Sept., Oct. 1897. The Association 
Annapolis, M.D — U. S. Naval Institute. Proceedings, Vol. 

xxm., No. 2, Whole No. 82, 1897. The Institute 

Bergen— Bergen Museum. An account of the Crustacea of 
Norway by G. O. Sars, Vol. n., Isopoda, Parts t. - viii., 
1897. The Museum 

Berlin— Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde. Verhandlungen, Band 
■ - '■ 

1897. The Sockty 

KSniglich preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sit- 

zungsbenchte, Nos. 26 - 39, 1897. The Academy 

Koniglich preussische Meteorologische Institut. Bericht 
ub.-i- .a,- Tiuti-kfir im Jaiir.. 1S96. Ergebnisse der 


Berne— Department de l'Interieur de la Confederation I 
(Section des Tra vaux Publics) . Table de Recapitu 
des Principaux Resultats des Observations hydrometri- 
quos suisses pour l'annee 1890. The Departm 

Bonn— Naturhistorischer Verein der preussischen Rheinlande, 
Westfalens und des Reg.-Bezirks Osnabriick. Verhand- 
luniren. Jaln-gang liii., Ualfte -', 18tHi The Sod 

Niederrheinixl., <-• ■ Heilkunde. 

Sitzungsberichte, H&lfte 2, 1896. 

Boston, Mass. — American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. xxxii., No. 15, 1897. The Acade 

Brisbane — Department of Agriculti 
Flora of Queensland by F. 
land Agricultural Journal, 1 

Geological Survey. Bulletin, Nos. 2, 3, 6, 1895 - 7. Reports 

on the Hodgkinson Gold Field, by R. L. Jack, 1884; 

Eidsvold Gold Field by W. H. Rands, 1887 and 1895, 

C.A. 31 ; Hoit 

69, 1896; Deep (Tin) Lead, Herberton by S. B. J. 

Skertchly, C.A. 88, 1896; Croydon Gold Field b 

Rands, C.A. KM 

S. B. J. Skertchly, C.A. 5, 1897. .Notes on two Traverses 

of the Buns nia Gold 

Field by R. L. Jack, C.A. 76, 1896. The Survey 

Royal Geographical >-i.fv <>r Australasia. Proceedings 

and Transactions of the Queensland Branch, Vol. xn., 

1896-7. The Society 

The Home Secretary. Ethnological Studies among the 

North- West-Central Qi X Walter 

E. Roth, b.a., M.R.C.S., &c. The Secretary 

Brookville— Indiana Academy of Science. Proceedings, 1894 

and 1895. The Academy 

Bucharest— Institutul Meteorologic al Roumaniei. Annales, 

Tome xi., Annee 1895. The Institute 

Buenos Aires— Instituto Geografico Argentino. Boletin, Tomo 

xvni., Nos. 1 - 6, 1897. » " 

Calcutta— Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal, Vol. lxv., 

Part iii., Special No. 1896 ; Vol. lxvi., Part i., No. 1, 

Part ii., No. 1, 1897. Proceedings, Nos. 1 - 4, 1897. The Society 
, Part iii., 

The Survey 
-, Do* 

Library Syndicate for the year ending 31 Dec. 1 
Cambridge (Mass.)— Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 

College. Memoirs, Vol. xix., No. 2, 1897. The Museum 

Cape Town— Geological Commission, Colony of the Cape of 

Good Ho] 

Commission 1896. Bibliography of South African 

Geology, Parts i. and ii., 1897, compiled 
South African Philosophical Society. Transactions, Vol 

Chicago— Field Columbian Museum. Anthropological Becks, 

Vol. i., N ion 16, 1897. Geological 

Series, Vol. i., No. 2, Publication 18, 1897. Zoological 
Series, Vol. i„ Nos. 6, 7. Publications 19, 20, 1897. The Mus 

Christiania — TJniversite Royale de Norvfige. Jahrbuch des Nor- 

wegischen Meteorologischen Institutsfiir 1893-95. The Unive 

Davenport (Iowa)— Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Proceedings, Vol. vi., 1889 - 1897. The Acao 

Denver— Colorado Scientific Society. Ferric Sulphate in Mine 

Dresden— K. Sachs. Statistische Bureau. Zeitschri 

xliii., Heft 1, 2, 1897. 
Dublin— Eoyal Irish Academy. Proceedings, 3 Sei 

TiN.iKN Konigliebe Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Nachrichten, Math.-physik. Klasse Heft 2, 1897. The 

.rlem— Musee Teyler. Archives, Ser. 2, Vol. v., Part iii., 
1897. ' Ihe 1 

,le— Kaiserliche Leopoldino-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie 
der Naturforscher. Nova Acta, Band lxv., lxvi., lxvii., 
1896. Leopoldina, Heft xxxii., 1896. Katalog der 
Bibliothek, Lieferunff 7, 1896. Kepertorium, Graesel, 

(N.F. xxiv.) Heft 1, 1897. 
Kingston— Institute of Jamaica. Annals, Vol. i., No. 1, 

Journal, Vol. n., No. 4, 1897. 
La Plata— Bureau General de Statistique de la Provinc 

Buenos Aires L'Agriculture l'Eleva^.' llnlu-tr 

le Commerce dans la Province en 1895. Le Dir 

Museo de La P.ata. Anales, Anthropologic Part ii., 1897 

)N-don— Aeronautical K.u-iVtvnf Great Britain. The A 
Journal, Vol. i., No. 3, 1897. 
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain 

Journal, Vol. xxvn., No. 1, 1897. 
Geological Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. 

Institution of Civil Engineers. Minutes of 

Vol. rxx.x., Part iii., 1H90-7. 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Proceedings, No. ! 

Iron and Steel Institute. Journal. Vol. li., No. 1, 189 
Rules and List of Members, 1897. Tt 

Linneau Society. Journal, Botany, Vol. xxxi., No. 2 Li 
Vol. xxxiii., No. 228, 1897 : Zoology, Vol. xxvi., No 

Meteorological Office. 

Stations of the Seco 
Pharmaceutical Society ot Ut 

Journal, 4 Ser., Vol. v , Nos. 1423 - 1426, 1897. The Society 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, 3 Ser., 

Vol. vin., Part iii., No. 31, 1897. 
Royal College of Surgeons of England. Calendar, July 29, 

Royal Colonial Institute. Proceedings, Vol. xxvm., 189(5-7. 

J he Institute 
Sanitary Institute of Great Britain. Journal, Vol. xvi., 

Part iv. ; Vol. xvn.. Part i.: Vol. x vi if.. Part ii., 1890-7. „ 

Manchester Geological Society. Transactions, Vol. xx' 

Parts vii. - xi., 1896-7. 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. Memo! 

* leld Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The \ 

Vol. xiv., No. 7, 1897. 
Public Library, &c. Report of the Trust 
Mexico— Institute Geologico de Mexico. Bol 

Moscow— Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes 

Tome x., No. 4, 1896 ; Tome xi., No. 

Mulhoube— Societe Industrielle. Bulletin, J 

Munich— Bayerische Botani 

es— SocietaRealediNapoli. Atti, Series 2. Vol. rai ,18 

Stazione Zoologica di Napoli. Mittheilungen, Band 
Heft 4, 1897. 

New York— An i ty. Journal, Vol. xix., 

No. 10, 1897. The Society 

I Natural History. Annual Report and 

List of Accessions for 1896. The Mus 

I Mining 1 
Contents a 

lust it ut.' of Mining Engim 

inclusive. The Institute 

Ottawa — Geologic il Survey of Canada. Annual Report (New 

Series) Vol. vm., 1895, and Maps. The Survey 

Paris— Aoademie des Sciences de l'lnstitut de France. Comptes 

Rendus, Tome cxxv., Nos. 2 - 15, 1897. The Academy 

Ecole d' Anthropologie de Paris. Revue Mensuelle, Annee 

vii., Nos. 7-9, 1897. The Director 

La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes. Revue Mensuelle d' 
Histoire Naturelle, Ser. 3, Annee xxvn.. Nos. 322 - 324, 

mestre 1, 1897. Comptes Rendus des Seances, Nos 
14, 1897. 
Socich' ]•'.;! n-.-iise de Physique. Bulletin Bimensuel, 

101, 1897- Seances, Pasc. 1, Annee 1897. 

Societe de Speleologie. Spelunca, Tome in., Nos. 9- 10, ] 

rth, W. A.— Department of Mines. Gold Mining Stati; 

for the half year ending 30 June, 1897. Output of i 

— Kalgoorlie to Sept. 30, 1897. [The Kalgoorhe Mi 

The Depart 
Entomological Society. Transactions, 
1895; Vol. xxiii., No. 4, :™"* 

The Society 

No. 154, 1 
Franklin Institute. Journal, Vol. cxliv., No. 862, 1897. The 

Plymouth— Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall 
Natural History Society. Annual Report and Transac- 
tions, Vol. xii., Part iii., 1896-7- Th 

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Toulouse— Academie des Sciences, Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 

Teencsin— ft aturwissenschaf tliche Verein des Trencsiner Komi- 

tates. Emleklapok, 22 - 25 August 1897. The Society 

Trieste— Osservatorio Astronomico-Meteorologico di Trieste. 

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K. K. Zoologisch-Botanisehe Gesellschaft. Verhandlungen, 

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for the year 1895. The Association 

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with introduction by John C. Branner. The Author 

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Year Book of Scientific and Learned Societies, 1897 





At the provisional meeting held 14th April, the following 

officers were elected for the 1897 Session :— Chairman : C. O. 

Bubge, M.inst.c.E. Secretary and Treasurer: Percy Allan, 

Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C.E. Committee : C. W. DARLEY, 

m inst. c.e., T. R. Firth, m. iust. c.e., T. H. Houghton, Assoc M.inst. 

C.E., M.I.M.E., W. THOW, M. lust. C.E., M.I.M.E., H. R, CARLETON, 
M. Inst. C.E., J. M. SMAIL, M. Inst C.E. 

The Hon. Treasurer presented the balance sheet showing a 
credit of £2 16s. 6d., in connection with the Reporting Fund, 
which after being audited by Messrs. Nangle and Ward, was 

Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 
Thirty members and visitors were present. 
The Chairman then delivered his presidential address. 

Monthly meeting held June 16. 

Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 

Sixteen members and visitors were present. 

Professor Warren read a paper on "The Unification of 

Methods of Testing Materials of Construction and precautions 

necessary in the accurate determination of the various Co-efficients 

of Strength and Elasticity," the discussion being adjourned to the 

Monthly meeting held July 21. 
Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 

Twenty-three members and visitors were present. 

Mr. T. H. Houghton read a paper on "Low Lift Pumping 

The discussion on Professor Warren's paper on " The Unifica- 
tion of Methods of Testing Materials of Construction and pre- 
cautions necessary in the accurate determination of the various 
Co-efficients of Strength and Elasticity," was opened by Mr. 
Deane, and continued by Messrs. Haycroft, Shaw, Selman, Barra- 
clough, and Sinclair, and adjourned to the next meeting. 

Monthly meeting held August 18. 
Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 

Twenty-one members and visitors were present. 

The discussion on Professor Warren's paper on " The Unifica- 
tion of Methods of Testing Materials of Construction and pre- 
cautions necessary in the accurate determination of the various 
Co-efficients of Strength and Elasticity," adjourned from the pre- 
vious meeting, was continued by Messrs. Selman, Barraclough and 
Knibbs, and replied to by the author. 

Mr. C. J. Merfield then read a paper on "The Cubic Parabola 
applied as a Transition to small Tramway Curves," the discussion 
being adjourned to the next meeting. 

The discussion on paper by Mr. T. H. Houghton on " Low 
Lift Pumping Machinery," was adjourned to the next meeting. 

Monthly meeting held September 13. 
Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 
Fifteen members and visitors were present. 
Mr. Houghton moved and Mr. Grimshaw seconded the follow- 
ing alteration in the date of election of officers : — 

i. That the Engineering Section elect their Committee and 
Officers for the Session 1 898 and subsequent Sessions, *t the 

meeting to be held in December ; such Committee to take 
office from the first day of the following January. 

ii. That in the case of the death or resignation of any 

member of the Committee, or of his ceasing to be a member 

of the Royal Society, the Committee may elect another 

member of the Section to the vacant place on the Committee, 

such election to be confirmed at the next Sectional meeting. 

Mr. Haycroft moved and Mr. Ross seconded "that the mode 

of election of officers be altered so that the ballot papers be sent 

out without any recommendation being made by the Committee, 

leaving to individual members the nomination of Committee." 

lhis was ruled out of order by the Chairman, and the motion 

moved by Mr. Houghton was then carried with the substitution 

of the word "shall" for "may" in par. ii. 

Mr. Herbert E. Ross then read a paper on "Belt Power 
Transmission, with some Notes on a new form of Brake Absorption 
Dynamometer," and the discussion was adjourned to the next 

The discussion on paper by Mr. Houghton on "Low Lift 
Pumping Machinery " was opened by Mr. Norman Selfe, a letter 
from Mr. Pridham on the subject of the paper was read, and Mr. 
Grimshaw having contributed to the discussion, the author replied. 

The Chairman opened the discussion on paper by Mr. C. J. 
Merpibld, on "The Cubic Parabola applied as a Transition to 
small Tramway Curves," and after Mr. Shaw had spoken the 
discussion was adjourned to the next meeting. 

Monthly meeting held October 20. 
Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 
Thirty-four members and visitors were present. 
Mr. H. R. Carleton then read a paper on "Light-houses in 
New South Wales," the discussion on which was adjourned to the 

The discussion on Mr. C. J. Merfield's paper on "The Cubic 
Parabola applied as a Transition to small Tramway Curves," 
adjourned from the previous meeting, was continued by Messrs. 
Cowdery and Knibbs, and replied to by the author. 

The discussion on paper by Mr. Herbert E. Ross, on " Belt 
Power Transmission, with some notes on a new form of Brake 
Absorption Dynamometer," was adjourned to the next meeting. 

Monthly meeting held November 17. 

Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 

Sixteen members and visitors were present. 

The Chairman announced that the Committee would be pleased 

to receive suggestions from the members as to nominations for the 

new Committee, any suggestions to be sent to the Hon. Secretaries 

Mr. G. R. Cowdery read a paper on "Tramway Rail Joints," 
and the discussion was adjourned to the next meeting. 

The adjourned discussion on Mr. H. E. Ross' paper on "Belt 
Power Transmission, with some notes on a new form of Brake 
Absorption Dynamometer," was then resumed, Messrs. Ludowici, 
How, Deane, Grimshaw, Barraclough, and Houghton, taking part 
in it; the author then replied. 

A conversational discussion then took place on Mr. Cowdery's 
paper, Messrs. Ross, Deane, Houghton, How and the Chairman 
taking part in it; Mr. Cowdery replying. 

Monthly meeting held December 15. 
Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 
Nine members were present. 

Messrs. Cowdery and Ross were appointed Scrutineers to con- 
duct the ballot for the election of the Officers and Committee for 
the following year. 

Mr. Haycropt proposed that the formality of a ballot be dis- 
pensed with, but the Chairman decided that according to the rules 

a ballot was necessary, and it was accordingly proceeded with. 
The ballot having been taken the Chairman announced that the 
following were duly elected :— Chairman : T. H. Houghton, 
Assoc, m. Inst. c.E., m. Inst. m.e. Secretary and Treasurer : S. H. 
Barraclough, m.m.e. Committee : H. Deane, M.inst.c.E., T. R. 
Firth, m. i ns t. c.e., W. Thow, m. inst. ex., M. inst. m.e., H. R. 

CaRLETON, M. Inst. C.E., NORMAN SELFE, M. Inst. C.E., M. Inst. M.E., 
PERCY ALLAN, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C.E. 

Mr. Haycroft moved and Mr. Ross seconded that it be noted 

I the meeting that eight (8) : 

the ballot. The motion i 

The Hon. Treasurer's balance sheet, as audited by Messrs. Rosa 
and Cowdery, was read and adopted. 

A discussion then ensued on Mr. G. R. Cowdery's paper on 
"Tramway Rail Joints," the following members taking part :— 
Messrs. Haycroft, H. E. Ross, Barraclough, Grimshaw, and the 
Chairman. Mr. Cowdery replied. 

Before vacating the Chair, the Chairman congratulated the 
Section on its having had a more than ordinary successful Session. 

Mr. Grimshaw proposed a vote of thanks to the retiring Chair- 
man (Mr. C. O. Burge), which was carried by s 


The First General Meeting of the Session was held in the Large 
Hall of the Society's House, on May 21st, 1897, at 8 p.m., when 
Dr. Robert Scot Skirving, the retiring Chairman, presided. 

The following members were elected to the various offices 
according to the By-laws .—Chairman : John Ashburton 
Thompson, m.r.c.s. Eng., m.d. Erux., d.p.h. Camb. Honorary 
Secretaries : J. Adam Dick, b.a. Syd., m.d., cm. Edin.; Frank 
Tidswell, m.b., cm. Syd., d.p.h. Camb. Committee: W. H. 
Goode, m.d., d.s.m. Dub.; G. Lank Mullins, M.A., m.d. Dub.; 

George E. Rennie, b.a. Syd., m.d. Lond.; R. Scot Skirving, 
m.b., cm. Edin. 

The dates of the meetings of the Section were fixed. 

Dr. E. J. Jenkins, exhibited a patient showing Freidreich's 

Dr. 0. P. B. Glubbe showed a patient with Charcot's Joint 

Dr. Sydney Jamieson exhibited several pathological prepara- 
tions preserved in formalin glycerin. 

The Hon. Sees, exhibited numerous radiographs of surgical and 
medical interest, taken by Mr. F. Schmidlin. 

The Address from the Royal Society to Her Gracious Majesty 
the Queen, congratulating her upon the sixtieth year of her reign, 
was on view and was inspected by the members. 

Second General Meeting. 

The Second General Meeting was held in the Large Hall of the 
Society's House on Friday, July 23rd, at 815 p.m. The evening 
was very stormy and wet. Present: Drs. Ashburton Thompson, 
(in the Chair), W. J. McKay, W. H. Goode, Frank Tidswell, 
J. Adam Dick. 

Dr. McKay requested leave to withdraw his paper, " Notes on 
Fifty Cases of Abdominal Section " from the business sheet of the 
Section. Agreed. 

Third General Meeting. 

The Third General Meeting of the Section was held in the Large 
Hall of the Society's House, on Friday, September 17th, at 815 
p.m. In the absence of the Chairman of the Section, Dr. P. 
Sydney Jones was elected to preside over the meeting. About 
thirty members and visitors were present. 

Dr. E. T. Thring exhibited a fresh specimen of Carcinoma 
Uteri and explained the operative procedure necessary for the 

removal of the uterus and the neighbouring glands. Drs. Neill, 
Crago, and Sydney Jones discussed the method of operation. 

Dr. C. P. B. Clubbe read a paper "On Fifteen cases of Intus- 
susception." 1 

Drs. E. T. Thring, and J. Adam Dick discussed certain points 
in the paper. Dr. Clubbe replied. 

Dr. G. E. Rennie read a paper "On a Clinical and Pathological 
Criticism of Hereditary Ataxy, and Locomotor Ataxy." The 
paper was illustrated by numerous micrographs, and by slides 
prepared for the microscope. 

Dr. Crago, and others discussed the paper. Dr. Rennie replied. 

Dr. Sydney Jamieson exhibited several specimens from the 
Sydney University Museum of Morbid Anatomy. 

Fourth General Meeting. 

The Fourth General Meeting of the Section was held in the 
Large Hall of the Society's House, on Friday, November 19th, 
at 8-15 p.m. There was an attendance of about forty members 
and visitors. The Chairman of the Section, (Dr. J. Ashburton 
Thompson) presided. 

Dr. W. H. Goode exhibited several prepared tubes displaying 
the application of "Wright's modification of Widal's test for 
Typhoid Bacilli." 

Dr. Sydney Jamieson exhibited several interesting recent 
additions to the University Museum of Morbid Anatomy. 

Dr. J. Ashburton Thompson, the Chairman of the Section, 
read a paper entitled, "A Note on the Application of the Tuber- 
culin Test to Bovine Animals. '"-' 

Copies of a table « 
of Health for use ii 


The subject was discussed by Drs. J. Adam Dick, W. Camac 
Wilkinson, Frank Tidswell, and G. Lane Mullins and others. 
Dr. Ashburton Thompson replied. 

Dr. George E. Rennie read a paper entitled, "Some Recent 
Work on the Cerebellum, its Connections and Functions," 1 with 

Drs. Frank Tidswell, Spencer, Scot Skirving, and others dis- 
cussed the subject. Dr. Rennie replied. 

A paper entitled "Notes on an Interesting Cerebral Case," by 
Dr. J. Adam Dick was postponed owing to the lateness of the 
hour and the sultriness of the weather. 

l Vide "Australasian Medical Gazette," December 20, 1897. 


By C. O. BURGE, M. Inst. C.E. 

Gentlemen,— My first duty is to thank you, not only for electing 
me to the chair for the ensuing session of this important section 
of the Royal Society of New South Wales, but also for providing 
me with the assistance of a strong Committee and Secretary. I 
hope that the ordinary members will add their strength to the 
section by furnishing suitable papers, and by good attendance and 
discussion. It must not be forgotten that the youngest of members 
can help us in the submission of papers, as these not only help 
other younger members, but frequently the elder ones also Any 
one who has looked through the students' papers, contributed to 
the minutes of the Institution of Civil Engineers, can see that 
information is often given in them which is valuable to older 
members, who may possibly have missed the particular experience 
which they illustrate. 

I find myself confronted, as my predecessors have been, and as 
my successors will be, no doubt, with the difliculty of finding a 
suitable subject for an opening address, and I have decided that, 
as a definite step forward has been taken this year towards the 
Federation of the Australian Colonies, it would be appropriate to 
refer to engineering works recently completed, in progress, and in 
more or less immediate contemplation, in those colonies. 

Though one of the smallest in population of the group, Western 
Australia stands one of the first in the importance of the works 
coming under these heads — the two great breakwaters at the 
mouth of Swan River at Freemantle, more than a mile in aggre- 
gate length, are complete, and, when this is combined with the 
extensive deepening of the river itself now in hand, it is anticipated 

that Freemantle will supersede Albany as the port of call for the 

The Coolgardie water supply about to be begun is also a large 
work. A concrete dam one hundred feet high will impound 
3,300 million gallons at Greenmount Ranges, near Perth, three 
hundred feet above sea level, from whence the water will be 
pumped to a distance of three hundred and thirty miles, and to a 
height of 1,400 feet to a service reservoir near Coolgardie. This 
project is probably the most remarkable referred to in this address, 
owing to the combination of the great distance between source 
and delivery, and the height of the latter. Suppose Wyalong, 
which is eight hundred feet above the sea, raised to double that 
height, and supplied by pumping from Prospect, and you have an 
idea of the magnitude of the work. It is to cost two and half 
millions. The confidence in the permanency of Coolgardie which 
is implied by this undertaking, is also a noteworthy feature. 

In railway extension this western colony is progressing rapidly, 
three hundred and fifty-seven miles of new lines were estimated 
in the railway report of June, 1896, to be opened between that 
date and December 1897, and certainly, if results in the past are 
to be relied upon, enterprise in th liable, as the 

existing Government railways have been paying the unprecedented 
dividend of 12|% on the capital invested. 

In South Australia the only important work to be mentioned 
is the Adelaide water supply scheme, which is just finished. It 
consists of a weir across the Onkaparinka River, from which the 
supply is drawn, a tunnel from thence through the Mount Lofty 
range, over three miles long, a storage reservoir at the Happy 
Valley, of four hundred and forty acres water surface, retained 
by a dam over half a mile in length, and seventy-two feet in 
height, and finally an outlet tunnel and steel main to Adelaide, 
the whole distance covered being nearly sixteen miles. 

Coming to Victoria, the only really large work is the sewerage 
of Melbourne, which is well advanced, all the larger tunnels being 

finished or nearly so. The northern suburbs direct railway, largely 
m tunnel and viaduct, though at present only in the form of a 
project, will, no doubt, be carried out in the near future. The 
proposal for narrow gauge branch railway feeders recently favoured 
by the Victorian Standing Committee for Railways, does not seem 
to have advanced much. Notwitnstanding the volume of evidence 
before them, perhaps because of it, this Committee do not seem to 
understand the question. Isolation from workshops for ordinary 
repairs to their rolling stock is one of the great objections to short 
narrow gauge branches to a broad gauge line, yet the Committee, 
by their report, seem to think that repairs are only wanted in the 
exceptional instance of an accident, and, therefore, that this 
objection is trivial. They seem to think that a locomotive, for 
instance, is like a human being who, if fed, watered, and exercised 
will keep his own organs in ordinary repair, and not, as it really 
is, like a pair of boots, continually wearing and requiring new 
soles and patches. 

In Tasmania, there is being constructed, in connection with the 

Turning to the mother colony, harbour engineering is very active. 
Important works at the Tweed, Richmond, Clarence, Bellinger, 
Nambucca, Macleay and Manning Rivers, also at Trial Bay, and 
at Newcastle are being carried out, while at Hastings River, 
Darling Island in Sydney, and Port Kembla, large works are in 
immediate prospect. Light railways from Jerildewe to Berrigan, 
Narrabri to Moree, Parkes to Condobolin, Berrigan to Finley, 
Nevertire to Warren, and Tamworth to Manilla, are either just 
finished, in hand, or about to be begun. These represent about 
two hundred miles. There are also considerable improvements, 
by deviations being made in grades and curves, on the Great 
Western and Great Southern main lines. 

I really do not know whether I ought to include or not, as 
"upending, the extension of the railway into the city of Sydney, 
and its suburban connections. The proposal seems to crop up 

periodically like our Astronomer's weather cycles. This is a 
matter which should be settled on the evidence of special experts 
in the departments of engineering, traffic, and property valuation, 
and only those of them who have practical acquaintance with city 
work in these branches ; more than this only serves to darken 
counsel and delay results. When, therefore, we find that over 
forty witnesses were examined and thirty-five different schemes, 
by all sorts of projectors, were considered by the Royal Commission 
in 1891, besides what has been done since, and no result arrived 
at, we must come to the conclusion that the Horatian maxim, so 
often followed in modern times, interdum vulgus rectum videt, is 
not applicable to the city railway question. 

Four electric tramways in Sydney and suburbs, as well as the 
conversion of several steam tramways to the same system, are in 
the category of recently completed or authorised works. In con- 
nection with this matter, I might mention, incidentally, that out 
of three hundred and ten miles of proposed light railways in Great 
Britain, forming the first batch lodged with the Commissioners 
under the new English Light Railways Act, no less than one 
hundred and eighteen miles are to be worked by electricity. The 
large works at Cockle Creek near Newcastle for the treatment of 
Broken Hill ore by the sulphide process should also be mentioned. 
The lock and weir at Bourke on the Darling now in hand presents 
some novel features, and is certainly important enough to be 
referred to in the present summary. As to Queensland, a large 
railway bridge is being constructed over the Burdekin River. 
Another large one over the Bremer River at Ipswich is complete, 
while the contract for another at Rockhampton has been let. 
About one hundred and fifty miles of railway are under construc- 
tion, and the Brisbane horse-tramways are being converted to 
electricity as a motive power. 

The railway gauge question is one that will before long come 
before the public, with particulars as to what it will cost as a 
more or less complete scheme, together with the corresponding 
estimated gain. To some people the alteration appears to be only 

a matter of shifting a rail, and to them the whole difficulty is 
over when an agreement is come to by the various colonies, and 
an order issued to give effect to it ; but to those better acquainted 
with the subject it is a very different affair, requiring much con- 
sideration. The matter now stands thus — Queensland has the 
3' 6" gauge, New South Wales the 4' 8|", generally called the 
standard gauge, Victoria has the 5' 3", and South Australia has 
partly the 5' 3" and partly the 3' 6", while Western Australia has 
adopted 3' 6". Tasmania being separated from us by sea need 
not be considered. 

There appears to be a consensus of professional opinion that the 
future assimilated gauge is to be the standard one of 4' 8 J", which 
is that of New South Wales. Not only is this gauge preferable 
as being that of the greater part of the world's system, but either 
of the other possible alternatives, viz. adopting the 5' 3" of Victoria 
and part of South Australia, or the 3' 6" of Queensland, and the 
rest of South Australia, would be objectionable, because in the 
former case, increasing a gauge is a very much more expensive 
process than decreasing it, and in the latter, though for the reason 
just mentioned the cheapest, the capacity of the 3' 6" gauge would 
be insufficient for main line traffic in the larger colonies. As the 
whole of the colonies concerned in the alteration must pay for it, 
the question of the most suitable gauge need not be hampered by 
other considerations than those of general ultimate economy and 

The non-adoption of a uniform gauge in Australia, originally, 
was undoubtedly a great blunder, (and I understand it was done 
in spite of professional advice) but it having been made, and 
thousands of miles of railway having been since constructed and 
rolling stock provided, it does not necessarily follow that the 
entire correction of that blunder is now commercially advantage- 
ous. The principal evils of break of gauge are as under : 
1. Cost of transhipment of goods and live stock, and demurrage 
of rolling stock while transhipment is going on. 

2. Separation of rolling stock from repairing shops other than 

those situated on lines of its own gauge. 

3. Inconvenience arising from inability to transfer rolling stock 

of one gauge to the lines of another one in case of a temporary 
local pressure of traffic. 

4. Delay in transfer of troops and material in time of war. 

Now in the case of local branches of a main line, which it has 
been occasionally proposed, in Australia, to construct on a smaller 
gauge in view of apparent economy, all of these four evils would 
operate to a greater or less degree, but in the question now under 
consideration, where one large system on one gauge consisting of 
thousands of miles of lines, meets another of similar magnitude 
on another, transhipment and demurrage, as regards goods and live 
stock in time of peace, and delay in transfer of troops and material 
in time of war, would be much more important than the isolation 
of rolling stock. The cost of the latter, though impossible to put 
into figures, would be certainly appreciable, even in large systems, 
as its abolition would enable a temporary extra demand for trucks 
etc., at one locality to be satisfied, without limit as to direction, 
by a possible superfluity in another, but it is not likely that the 
whole area of a colony would be under pressure of this sort at 
one time, and if not, there would be generally sufficient area to 
draw from, without going outside of it. Apart from the military 
question, transhipment and demurrage, therefore, are the mam 
evils arising from allowing the present breaks to remain. 

According to the official evidence given before the Victorian 
Committee of 1895 on narrow gauge railways, the average cost of 
transhipment in South Australia is about four pence per ton, and 
taking the value of the time of delaying trucks of average loading 
while transhipment is going on, deduced from the evidence of the 
Victorian Locomotive Superintendent and Acting Commissioner 
of Railways, the demurrage will be about another fourpence per 
ton ; adding another fourpence for extra shunting, isolation, etc., 
we cannot be very far wrong in taking one shilling per ton trans- 

terred, as a rough estimate of the amount to be gained by assimil- 
ating the gauges of two large systems in Australia. 

Taking Queensland first, and its southern system only, which 
is alone at present connected with the general Australian group, 
1,375 miles would have to be altered and corresponding new 
rolling stock provided. Mr. Horace Bell, M.inst.c.E., Consulting 
Engineer for the State Railways of India, who had the spending 
of nearly £4,000,000 in such work, is a good authority in this 
matter, and, though he is referring to an alteration from 3' 3" to 
5 ' 6" gauge as against the lesser change now in question, this 
difference does not affect the matter so very much. 

He says in his work on " Railway Policy in India," "The con- 
version from the metre to the standard (5' 6") gauge has so far 
shown that the cost, exclusive of rolling stock will be from £3,000 
to £3,500 per mile, allowing for the sale, in a very limited and 
decreasing market of the metre gauge material ; the operation is 
one, therefore that cannot be lightly entertained." 

A rough estimate based on Australian rates and allowing for 
rolling stock would show that £4,000 per mile is the least that 
should be allowed. The cost would at this rate, for southern 
Queensland alone, be £5,500,000, and the interest at three and a 
half per cent. £192,500, so that to pay the interest alone, no less 
than 3,850,000 tons at one shilling per ton, saving in transhipment 
etc. would have to be assumed as crossing the border annually. 
H we turn to the New South Wales Railway Commissioners' last 
report, we find that the whole of the goods and live stock loaded 
U P in this colony for the year was about 4,000,000 tons, so the 
supposition that anything like that amount would cross the 
northern border annually is absurd. The merest glance at the 
figures show that the alteration even of the southern Queensland 
system is not within measurable distance. It might be said that 
the main connection Brisbane to the Border only, two hundred and 
* Thia is corroborated by the evidence of the manager of the Silverton 
Tramway Co. before the Public V 
Proposed Broken Hill extension r 

inverted ; but there is very heavy 
; the Little Liverpool Range, with 
numerous five chain curves, and the cost would be probably be 
over a million J moreover, it would only be shifting the break to 
another place. Should this connection ever become worth the 
while on a uniform gauge, a better way would be to connect the 
colonies at Tweed Heads, the present Queensland lines running 
south from Brisbane being in easy country, and the New South 
Wales connections being partly already made, while the missing 
links in both colonies have been approved for their own sake 
independently of the gauge question, so far as to have reached the 
stage of survey and estimate. 

Mr. H. Stanley, Engineer-in-Chief for Queensland Railways, 
told me some years ago that he did all he could to persuade his 
Government to adopt the standard gauge, at all events south of 
Brisbane, in view of ultimate connection with the mother colony, 
but to no purpose. 

Coming to Victoria, the alteration would be much less costly 

than 3,122 miles, including the conversion of rolling stock, a great 
deal of which mileage, especially the Melbourne suburban system, 
which of course has necessarily a very large rolling stock, would 
gain very little by the change— the amount of this suburban roll- 
ing stock is a very serious factor in the question, and may be 
judged by the fact that in the Sydney suburban system, the rolling 
stock, according to the latest returns in which it is shown apart, 
cost about £30,000 per mile. Even taking a very low mileage 
cost for the conversion, including rolling stock, of the whole 3.122 
miles, it would take a border traffic of dimensions that could hardly 
be realized for many years to come, to save sufficient on tranship- 
ment and demurrage to pay the interest alone. And the same 
would apply to a greater degree if the four hundred and ninety 
miles in South Australia of 5' 3" gauge were converted, and this 
would still leave the South Australian narrow gauge lines, 1,231 

miles, isolated, a mileage nearly as great as the Southern Queens- 
land section already referred to. 

Another scheme would be to convert, to the standard gauge, the 
Albury to Melbourne main line, but this would be only to destroy 
the one break at the border, while creating new ones at the 

Victorian North Western system, thus hampering a large pro- 
portion of Victorian local traffic. It would be robbing Peter 
to pay Paul. 

If then the complete unification of the gauges is nothing but a 
happy dream, impossible now of practical realization, the probable 
trend of traffic under future conditions will chiefly be the guide 
in estimating where, and to what extent, partial unification 
should be carried out, leaving such breaks as are unavoidable 
in any partial scheme, in as unobjectionable places as possible. 
There are serious constructional objections to a mixed gauge, 
especially when the two are so much alike as the 4' 8|" and 5' 3" 
— 6i" only being the difference, while there are others connected 
with the working which are of importance ; nevertheless, owing 
to the future direction of the traffic, I am convinced that in this 
mixed gauge lies the best present solution of the question. When, 
after Federation, the traffic is absolutely unhampered by border 
duties, preferential rates and unequal import duties at Sydney 
and Melbourne, which now chiefly operate in obstructing inter- 
course between the south and west of New South Wales and the 
city and port of Melbourne, a third rail southwards from Albury, 
and from Deniliquin, to Melbourne and its harbour, will abolish 
the break of gauge as regards this large and, no doubt, increasing 
traffic. Of course trade between the places away from these two 
main Victorian lines and New South Wales, would still have to 
be transhipped, but rather than pay the large amount of annual 
interest on the outlay necessary for the conversion of over 3,000 
miles of Victorian railways and rolling stock, it would be better 
for the general treasury to pay the extra tonnage rates incurred 
by the transhipment of this comparatively speaking small traffic 

The principal difficulty in the mixed gauge project is the run- 
ning of the 4' 8 1" line through the points and crossings and inter- 
locking work of the larger gauge, and probably the least objection- 
able way of overcoming it would be to divert the standard line 
round the back of the present stations, clear of all points, and by 
making annexes (and this would be the difficulty of the proposal) 
which would be practically new stations on the 4' 8|" gauge, at 
Melbourne and its port, to deal with the intercolonial traffic. 
This standard gauge line would not pick up any goods traffic 
intermediately in Victoria, and no intermediate sidings would be 
required, except for passing places, and access to engine sheds, etc. 

A great deal of the through traffic thus dealt with would be 
that diverted from traffic now going to Sydney, so that, as far as 
that is concerned, new rolling stock would not be required, it 
need only be transferred — traffic expenses on the new line also 
would be, to a great extent, a diverted, and not an additional, 
item. This proposal would also be an instalment of future more 
complete unification. 

As to the approximate cost, allowing £600 per mile for the 
third rail and partial conversion of rolling stock, for three hundred 
and ten miles, alterations and resumptions at nine large stations 
at £6,000 each, fifty smaller ones at £2,000 each for the devi- 
ations etc. referred to, and £160,000 for extra terminal accomo- 
dation, the total would be half a million, the interest on which 
would be undoubtedly saved by the avoidance of the break. 
This arrangement would do away with the through passenger 
break at the border, but not that for other intercolonial passenger 
traffic, but the question is not really a passenger one ; it is incon- 
venient no doubt, to oblige people to change carriages, but most 
branch line passengers, as a rule, have now and will always have 
to do it, and, commercially speaking, it is not likely that the rail- 
way administrations would lose a single passenger by not making 
unification complete. 

The military aspect of the question, being a matter which can 
only be dealt with by a military expert, is beyond the scope of 

this address, but it is evident that even a partial 

would get rid of many of the defects, from this point of view, 

now existing. 

Of course much more data would be required, and an accurate 
estimate of cost and result made, which I understand is now 
being done, before any determination could be come to, but enough 
has been said to show that such a modified scheme, as has been 
just sketched out, is worthy of consideration. 

It is universally conceded that, as mentioned before, whatever 
is expended in the matter should be at the charge of the entire 
Commonwealth, if established, and as a complete unification of 
gauge will no doubt be found to be financially impracticable, the 
only apparent fair way of dealing with the question would be to 
carry out at the general expense the partial change, whatever it 
may be, which is financially justifiable, and also to charge the 
central exchequer with the annual additional working expenses 
caused by the breaks remaining elsewhere. When, if ever, this 
latter charge, by increase of traffic at any break, shall become so 
great as to exceed the interest on the cost of abolishing it, the 
alteration might be made and complete unification would be 
advanced another stage. 

As to the past, there may have been some justification for 
Queensland wholly, and South Australia partially, breaking away 
to a smaller gauge, owing to pressing necessity for cheap extension, 
but, even without the present feelings of Federal gush and brotherly 
We, which are supposed to animate us at present, it is incon- 
ceivable, either for the sake of the slightly increased capacity of 
the extra six inches on the one hand, or the infinitesimal economy 
of reducing the gauge by that amount on the other, that Victoria 
and New South Wales should have deliberately adopted a differ- 
ence which has resulted in no practical advantage whatever to 
either of them. 

I have dwelt in this address perhaps, too largely on the gauge 
question, but the explanation is, besides its immediate importance 

at the present time, the fact that one naturally leans to matters 
familiar, and a connection of now nearly forty years with railway 
construction of nearly all the gauges from 2' to 5' 6" gives me 
some authority to speak on this subject. 

In conclusion, though I do not represent specially here the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, still, as a large majority of the 
Section belong to it, I think this a good opportunity to put on 
record the thanks of the Institution to the Royal Society, for their 
courtesy in lending the use of these premises for its meetings. 
One of our past chairmen, Mr. Deane, is the chief representative 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers in this Colony, and he is also 
this year President of the Royal Society, I would suggest there- 
fore, that he, in the former capacity, thank himself in the latter 
capacity, for the favour I have mentioned. With this I shall end 
this address, wishing the Section a prosperous session, and hoping 
that with your assistance and co-operation it may end with still 
greater vigour than that with which it has begun. 


MATERIALS used in CONSTRUCTION, and the Pre- 
cautions Necessary in the Accurate Determinations 


By W. H. Warren, m. inst.c.E., m. Am. Soc. ce., wh. Be, 

Challis Professor of Engineering, University of Sydney. 

[With Plates 1 and 2.] 

[Read before the Engineering Section of the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, 
June 16, 1897.2 

The importance of establishing a uniform system of tests for 
construction materials is now fully recognised in all civilized 
countries. In America an attempt has been recently made under 
the auspices of the Society of Mechanical Engineers, to secure the 
adoption of uniform methods of testing materials A similar 
attempt was also made about the same time in France, but prob- 
ably the most important Society established for this purpose is 
that which was originated by the late Prof. Bauschinger, which 
held its first meeting in Munich in 1884, under the title " The 
International Union for the Unification of the Methods of Testing 
Materials." The scope and importance of this society at present 
is due largely to the energy and ability of Prof. Tetmaier of Zurich, 
who was the president for last year, This year the meetings are 
to be held at Stockholm, and in the year 1900 they will beheld in 
Paris. So far the matters dealt with are fundamentally important 
and have done much to place the testing of materials upon a 
a scientific basis. 

The author proposes in future papers to publish the most 
important of the investigations made at the University Engineer- 
ing Laboratory on the materials of construction, so that this paper 
is intended to serve as an introduction to those which are to follow. 

It is proposed to consider the nature of the mechanical tests 
rather than the results obtained, and generally to deal with the 

subject in regard to the data which it is sought to obtain in the 
tests, and the precautions to be taken in order to eliminate dis- 
turbing influences. It is also proposed to endeavour to establish 
the sizes and proportions of test pieces which are most suitable 
for the particular test in question, with reference to the data 
which it is the object of the test to furnish ; and, moreover, to 
secure uniformity in the results, and render their comparisons 
with those obtained in other countries much more satisfactory 
than at present. 

Tensile tests are by far the most general i 
the commercial testing of construction materials, and, when they 
are correctly made, furnish reliable data for the determination of 
the quality in regard to the suitability or otherwise of the material 
in guestion. It is essential that the following points be accurately 
determined : — 

a. The tensile strength per unit of area. 

b. The yield point. 

c. The ductility as measured by the percentage of elongation 

or construction of area after rupture. 
For accurate scientific testing, the limit, and coeflicient of 
elasticity should be also determined, as well as the distribution of 
the elongation over the tested length in order that the general 
extension may be separated from the local, and that the elongation 
may be corrected when fracture occurs on one side of the centre 
of the tested length between the reference points. When the 
fracture does not occur in the centre the elongation is doubled for 
a distance equal to half the length of the test, counting from the 
section of rupture on the side, where it is possible to measure it, 
in such a manner as to render the same conditions as would have 
obtained had the rupture occurred in the middle of the test piece, 
and had the elongation been produced freely on both sides. This 
result increases slightly the effective elongation measured directly 
on the real test piece. The method is rather troublesome as the 
test piece should be marked before testing in £" or £" spaces 


between the reference points, and the result is only approximate, 
as the elongations are produced, during the course of the test in 
an irregular manner along the length of the test piece, and are 
probably not necessarily uniform at the ruptured section, even 
when that is in the middle of the test piece. The resolutions of 
the Conventions recommend the rejection of all test pieces which 
break outside the middle third of the distance between the refer- 
ence points, which appears desirable in accurate testing unless 
some such expedient as the foregoing is adopted. 

Dimensions of test pieces. — The Conventions agree that the test 
length should be proportional to the square root of the cross- 
section, but the American Society adopt for circular sections an 
area of test piece of 600 square millimeters for a useful length of 
200 millimeters, which gives a diameter of 27'64 millimeters, 
whereas, the European standards give lengths respectively of 100, 
150, 200, and 250 millimeters for diameters of 10, 15, 20, and 25 
millimeters. These standards are recommended for all metals. 
In English measure these proportions become lengths of 4", 6", 8" 
and 10" for diameters 0-4", 0-6", 0-8" and 1-0" respectively, i.e., 
the length should be ten times the diameter. It is also provided 
m order that the proximity of the heads shall not interfere with 
the observed results, especially in the measurement of elongation, 
the actual length of the cylindrical portion of the test piece should 
be increased by at least 10 mm., it was formerly made 20 mm. 

In testing plates or pieces of square or rectangular cross section, 
the law of similarity of form should be applied as far as possible, 
but with due regard to convenience of preparation. It is there- 
fore desirable to make the width constant in each series, and to 
vary the length and thickness thus :— For plates between 4/' and 
1" in thickness, the width should be 1-2", over l"in thickness, the 
thickness should be considered as breadth, and the width made 
0"8". The useful length or that over which the elongations are 
measured should be 8" for a standard section of 1-2" x 0-4". 

For testing thin plates under £" in thickness, such as are now 
frequently used for water pipes, the law of similarity probably 

does not apply, and the useful length should be 4." Plate i, figs. 
1 to 6. Test pieces cut from plates should be taken from the 
longitudinal and transverse sides, and when uncut plates are used 
at least 1" in width should be cut away to waste. The skin left 
by the rolls in plates should not be removed, and with rails the 
bars detached should have square sections, and contain the exterior 
fibres of the rail. The foregoing rules for the sizes and proportions 
of test pieces are almost exactly the same as those adopted by the 
various Conventions which have considered the subject, the slight 
alterations made being necessary in consequence of the reductions 
from the metric system used in Europe, these are represented 
more fully in Plate i, figs. 1 to 6. 

In regard to the accuracy of the machines and the errors per- 
missable, the Conventions state that they will accept an error of 
one-tenth of a kilogramme per square millimeter corresponding to 
the elastic limit and to that of rupture, which is 142232 pounds 
or 0635 of a ton per square inch. This necessitates accurate 
testing machines and skilful handling. 

All authorities agree that the test piece should be accurately 
placed in the axis of the machine ; this can generally be more 
easily accomplished with round than with rectangular specimens, 
and in all cases the rectangular specimens held by a pin passing 
through a hole in the heads of the test piece is preferable to the 
ordinary serrated wedge holders. Again the threaded ends Plate 
i, figs. 4 and 5, are not so good as the standard form for round 
pieces shown in tig. 3. 

In regard to the rate pf testing, the Conventions while admit- 
ting its importance, recommend further study before establishing 
rules. The American Society consider that the duration of the 
test should be in a certain measure, a function of the volume of 
the test piece, and recommend that the time should be from one 

The use of autographic apparatus for drawing a diagn 
3 generally recommended, and the Conventions require 

area should be calculated up to the limit corresponding to rupture. 
Where such diagrams are not used, it is recommended that as 
many observations as possible should be made during the test 
from which diagrams may be plotted. In specifications intended 
to govern the supply of steel for works of construction, it is usual 
to specify an upper and a lower limit of tensile strength, and to 
state also the minimum percentage of elongation. It generally 
happens with ductile materials that high tensile strengths are 
accompanied with smaller elongations, and that the lower tensile 
strengths give correspondingly greater elongations. 

In order to express the value of a material under these circum- 
stances, Prof. Tetmaier has proposed a coefficient of quality which 
is based upon the following considerations : — 

Plate i. fig. 10, represents an autographic diagram such as would 
be produced in testing a piece of mild steel, but somewhat distorted 
from o to e and e to y in order to show more clearly the charac- 
teristic points in the diagram. The loads are represented as 
ordinates and the elongations by abscissa?. The point e indicates 
the elastic limit, and the line is straight from o to e ; from e to y 
the line curves slightly from the straight portion and then takes 
a horizontal direction ; indicates the yield point or the com- 
mencement of the permanent elongations, i.e., the commencement 
of the plastic state of the material. The test piece elongates con- 
siderably and the point m denotes the maximum load supported, 
local contraction of area then occurs as shown by the line mr, 
after which rupture takes place. 

Let Le denote the load sustained at the elastic limit 
" Ly ,» „ „ » vield P oint 

Then these areas may be expressed as follows : — 
A, = \LeM 4 
A 2 = aLm^-M) 
A 3 = p Lm (Al^-AlJ 
Where a and p are coefficients depending on the shape of the 

The total work applied to the test piece up to the moment when 
fracture occurs is— 

A=A 1 + A. 2 + A 3 = %LeAZ / + Lm (M ti -M) + P Lm (M tll - M,) 
The elastic elongation A/ y is very small, and moreover does not 
depend upon the ductility of the material, i.e., it has no reference 
to the total elongation at rupture, it may therefore be neglected. 
Again (M ni - AIJ is not large even in ductile materials, and 
approaches zero as the material becomes more brittle, hence we 
may write approximately — 

M t = M /t = M and Lm = Lr 
The expression for the work done then becomes — 

If I denotes the length of the test piece i 
le area of the section in square millimeters, the work done per 

where (5 is the load per unit of area of section and A the elonga- 
tion per unit of length. Now a can be determined experimentally, 
and Professor Tetmaier has proved by a numerous series of experi- 
ments that for the same class of materials the value of a is very 
sensibly constant. It follows then that the 


is proportional to the work done upon the test piece per unit of 
volume. The values of c enable us to classify the various kinds 
of ductile materials upon their capacity of work, and the factors 
fi and A are determined in the ordinary testing of materials. If 
we adopt the English ton, and the inch as units in the place of 
the kilogramme and the metre, we may express Tetmaier's 
coefficient in the following manner. Let /3 denote the tensile 
strength in tons per square inch, and let A denote the percentage 
of elongation measured on a length of 8", then— 

represents the coefficient as before in inch tons per unit of volume. 
For thirty-two ton steel giving 20% elongation, the coefficient 
becomes 64, or we may use the coefficient to determine the elon- 
gation, having decided the tensile strength of the material before- 
hand. The author proposes to introduce the coefficient in his 
reports of tests in order to enable engineers to judge of the quality 
of materials when the strengths and elongations vary. In specify- 
ing the quality of steel, however, the upper limit of strength 
should always be stated in order to prevent the use of too great a 
percentage of carbon in the manufacture, but the lower limit need 
not be stated if either a coefficient of quality or the elongation be 

Tetmaier's coefficient of quality was first adopted, on his recom- 
mendation, by the Swiss Government, about twelve years ago, it 
was afterwards adopted by the Austrian Government, and last 
year, also by the Committee of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers. It applies to compression and transverse tests as 

This Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers 
recommend for all grades of structural steel from 56000 to 74000 
pounds per square inch, i.e., 25 to 326 tons per square inch, 
shall have the following elongations and reduction of area at 

Per cent of elongation in 8" = 1500000 

id a 

ultimate strength in lbs. 
es for 28 tons per square inch an elongation of 24% nearly 
ontraction of area of 44-6%. Tetmaier's coefficient of 
becomes 6-72 inch tons per unit of volume of the test 

ent specification by the Association of American Steel 
3turers (Aug. 9th, 1895) is as follows :— 

Name of Grade. 

Tensile Strength. 


Soft Steel ... 
Medium Steel 

52000 to 62000 
60000 to 70000 


The product 62000 by 25 is 1550000, and the product 70000 
by 22 is 1540000. 

If we prefer to use the English ten instead of pounds then the 

Per cent, of reduction of a 


strength in tons per sq.i 
The pound is however, a better unit than the ton, and the latter 
is only introduced in order to render the results more in accord- 
ance with British practice. 

The following table gives Tetmaiers system of recording the 
various coefficients of strength, elasticity and quality: — 

Tests of Elasticity and Tensile Strength made on a round 
specimen of basic ingot iron (fer fondu). 

Diameter of 



d = 25m 

n. Sectional Area F= 49 1 mm. a 

1 Test. 





?f E 

s a 

.2 a 






H 8*3 










Dimensions of the rup- 
tured section 
d, = 15-1 mm. 
F e = 879 mm. 2 



'"4 : 25 


Mean elastic elongation 
under a load of lOOOkils 




M = 0-01415 mm. 
Coefficient of elasticity 




e = 21590 k. per mm. 
Coefficients of work cor- 




responding with — the 
limit of elasticity y = 




19-4 kg. per mm. 3 
the yield point <r = 27-7 




at rupture /3 = 41'2 




Elongations measured 




after rupture upon — 
100 mm. A 1 = 32-0% 
200 mm. A 2 = 22-0% 







Yield Po 

Contraction 6 = 63-5% 



ement o 


Tetmaier's Coefficient of 

lent elong 



n Load. 

c = /?A = 91kg. mm. 


Load at 


In regard to the Elongation. The usual way to record the 
elongation is as follows :— The total length of the test piece before 
and after the test is measured between the reference points, the 
latter is subtracted from the former, and the result multiplied 
by the length first measured and divided by 100. This method 

gives the percentage of elongation, which it is the custom to 
record in test reports on materials in ordinary commercial testing. 
The error in the method and the divergence in the results when 
made on test pieces of different lengths is now well understood, 
the percentage of elongations increasing as the length of the 
specimen decreases, for the same diameters. The method of 
expressing the true percentage of elongation has been investigated 
by Mr. J. H. Wickstead in 1890, also by Professors Dwelshauvers, 
Derry, and Tetmaier, and it is generally admitted that the elon- 
gation up to the point of maximum load supported by the test 
piece should be used, and the local elongation or 'necking' which 
occurs afterwards should be rejected as it has nothing whatever 
to do with the length of the specimen, increasing with the 
diameter in circular sections, and with the ratio of breadth to 
thickness in rectangular sections. In Plate i fig. 10, the exten- 
sion up to the point m is proportional to the length of the test 
piece, but the portion between m and r is the local extension or 
necking. The true extension per unit of length may however be 
obtained from the test piece in the following manner : — 

Let the local extension be denoted by Mo, the elongation per 
unit of length by Xo. Then for a test piece of length I = 8" and 
total elongation Al 2 we have : 

AZ 3 = Mo + 8 Xo (1) 

If now we measure the total elongation over a length of 4" in 
the same test piece (or over any other convenient length contain- 
ing the local elongation) we have : 

M x = Mo + AXo (2) 

From these two equations we can find the two unknown quanti- 
ties Mo and Xo thus : 

Mo = 2 M, - M 2 (3) 

and Xo - ^~ ^ (4) 

The elongation at rupture is therefore for a length of 8" : 
M = 8 Xo = 2(M 2 - M x ) (5) 

This method, which is due to Prof. Tetmaier, gives the true 
elongation independently of the length of the test piece. The 
test piece should be divided along its useful length into spaces £" 
apart to facilitate the measurement of A^ and this has been the 
practice for several years in the Engineering Laboratory of Sydney 
University in all tests in which the author has not been restricted 
by the specification of tests accompanying the test pieces. 

It can be shown however, that the total elongation measured 
in the usual way may be made to give approximately uniform 
results in diverse sections, if the length is suitably chosen thus : 

Let the following proportions be adopted for a useful length of 
8", viz., 0-8 diameter for circular sections, and b : t = 3 for 
rectangular sections. Then to find the length of test piece which 
will give the same value for the total elongation divided by the 
length as the normal section, we assume that the local extensions 
are proportional to the diameters in circular sections, and to the 
ratio of the breadth to the thickness in rectangular sections. 

Experiments on different proportions of test pieces for the same 
material show that this assumption is practically true. Hence 
the following method may be used : — 

Let x be the useful length over which the elongations are 
measured, then — 

x Xo + Mo = M 2 
Al »- ~ Al ° 

The general expression for the elongation after rupture is— 

x Xo + Alo = M 
For a test piece of normal proportions having a length of 8" we 

Imposing the condition- 

But ^y-r is proportional to the diameters in circular sections, 
and to the ratio of b to t in rectangular sections, hence we have 
the following proportions : — 

Circular Sections — 

Diameter d = 0S" 0-4" 0-5" 0-6" 07" 0-8" 1-0" 

Useful length between 

reference points ...x= 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" 10' 

Rectangular Sections — 
Ratio 6 tot ■ ... b t =l'0 1*8 2-0 2-5 3 4 5 

Useful length ...x= 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" 8" 10" 

Compare these results with Plate i, figs. 1 to 7. 

For the determination of the elastic limits and yield point the 
French Commission recommend a diameter of 27'5 mm. (600mm 3 
in cross section) with 100 mm. of useful length. The American 
Society suggest that the length should be from 10 to 20 diameters. 
For the resistance to crushing the French Commission suggest 
cubes or short prisms 25 mm. side, and the American Society 
cylinders 1" in diameter and 2" high. 

In regard to the test of long pieces which fail by buckling, the 
Commission recommend that the ratio of length of the test piece 
to the minimum radius of gyration should be constant, and they 
propose a value which shall be multiples of 5 or 10, Plate i, figs- 
7 and 8. They recommend that the tests shall be made under 
well defined conditions, either complete clamping or perfect hing- 
ing. It appears to be preferable to adopt the latter method as 
clamping is unsatisfactory. 

Prof. Bauschinger has expressed the compression strength of a 
test piece by the formula — 

i which a and /? are constants to be determined by expe 
is the sectional area, and I the length. For prisms of dis 
oss sections, he proposes the following formula — 

here u is the circumference of the cross section. 
Prof. Martens after investigating these experiments has deduced 
ie following formula? for cast iron of the same quality but differ- 

rw , p 

±or rectangular sections <r = 4400 

sides a and b 
For square sections ... <t - 4220 + ^ 
For circular sections ... tr = 4320 + — -- 

For hollow sections , _ 

«„* M - j- j- Aoon , 1380 /rf-rfj 
outer and inner diameters cr = 4zoU + v — -^ — 

rf and o?j respectively 
n = _J_ Prisms and cylinders of similar geometrical form have 
J f the same strength. 

Experiments by Rondelet on different kinds of stone proved 
that the total strength of similar geometrical test pieces varies as 
the square of the homologous sides. The strength of a prism of 
square section is 0-98 times that of a cylinder of the same height 
and sectional area. In testing building stones it is necessary to 
cut it into the desired shape, otherwise the results will not be 
uniform. Chipping will affect the strength of small cubes more 
than large. All tests of this kind should be made on accurately 
Prepared specimens with the opposite surfaces exposed to crushing, 
rubbed to true parallel planes, and one of the bearings should be 
spherical to ensure uniform distribution of stress. This applies 
to cements, concrete, bricks, etc., but the true planes may be pro- 
duced by applying a thin coat of plaster of Paris. 

The strength of cubes placed one on the other varies with the 
number of cubes, thus : for one, two and three cubes Rondelet 
found in one series the strengths to be 1 : 0'61 : 0-5 respectively 
in another series 1 : 0-80 : 075 respectively. 

In tension, compression, and transverse tests made on ductile 
materials there are three successive changes of state more or less 
clearly defined, which mark the limit of elasticity, the commence- 
ment of the plastic period, and the limit of cohesion or completion 
of the plastic period. The first. change shows itself in tension 
tests and in compression tests, when the pieces are sufficiently 
long, by the elongations or shortenings of the specimen ceasing to 
be proportional to the loads producing them, and by the disappear- 
ance of the deformations when the loads are released. In trans- 
verse tests of beams the first change is marked in a similar manner 
by the deflections ceasing to be proportional to the loads producing 

The second state is marked in tension and in transverse tests 
by the commencement of the permanent elongations, and deflec- 
tions respectively ; but in compression tests this change is shown 
by the commencement of the swelling of the piece in the form of 
a barrel, termed by the French refoulement. It is not necessarily 
however, the limit of cohesion. In order that it may be developed 
in the test piece the length must not greatly exceed the diameter 
or buckling will be produced. 

The third change marking the limit of cohesion is shown in 
tension by the rupture of the specimen, in transverse tests of 
beams also by rupture, unless the material is so soft and ductile 
as in some kinds of mild steel, that the beams fail to support 
the loads by bending. In compression of short pieces the third 
change is shown by a decided swelling of the piece, although the 
load is perfectly supported. 

The following shows the details on one of the tests made by 
Prof. Tetmaier on ingot iron, and is given as a specimen sheet for 
recording the results made to determine the relative elastic com- 


test piece 200 mm. in length, 32-8 mm. in diameter. 

i I La 









1 1U--1 


s for a load 



of 1000 kilogrammes 

0-81 mm. 






Mean elastic 




Compression for a load of 



1000 kilogrammes. 





Al = 0-0082 mm. 
Coefficient of elasticity 




e = 21560 kg. per mm 3 







Coefficients of work 





corresponding with 



Limit of elasticity 



7 = 21-9 kg. per. mm 2 






Maximum load supported 





/?=25-l kg. per mm 3 







This load v 

pported and rupture occurred by 


. ii 


ade to determine the 
i piece (refouleraent) and the 
of the same quality as in 

Test piece 20 mm. 

in length 

and 20 mm. 

in diameter. 

















20 2 


0-05 | 




000 1 





1-2 1-20 



Commencement of 
4-8 4 80 bulging. 



cr = 23-lk.permm 3 



3-4 ' 3-40 



72 3-60 



Resistance to com- 

7-0 | 4 00 pression 



/3 = 39-8 k. per mm 2 





12500 | 
14000 j 
17000 ! 





The author would like to have included some considerations on 
tests of columns by excentric loading, but he has decided to leave 
this for a future paper. 

Transverse Tests. 
In regard to castings, the Convention recommends that bars be 
used 110 centimeters in length by 3 centimeters side, giving a 
useful length of 100 centimeters. (Plate i, fig. 9). The faces of 
the bars should be left in their rough condition. The resistance 
to flexure should be measured up to the point of rupture, and the 
corresponding work on three pieces. The American Commission 
recommends that the faces of the bars should be shaped by a 
machine, and the edges rounded by a file, also that the time of 
testing should be comprised between one and two minutes. The 
sizes of the test bars are recommended to be 2" on a side, or 2}/ 
in diameter and the useful length of 16" or 20". The large size 
is used to avoid the effect of superficial quenching. 

The usual test bar adopted in New South Wales, namely 2" x 1", 
*ith a useful length of 36" would be improved by making the bars 
2" square, the length of 36" or 40" as recommended by the Con- 
vention is immaterial. If rectangular bars are used the coefficient 
of strength will be lower as the section is larger, and a wide bar 
gives a higher coefficient than a deep bar. The same span may 
be adopted for transverse tests of spring steel, taking care to test 
the steel plate after it has been prepared under the same conditions 
as to quenching and annealing as the springs. It is important to 
observe that the deflections should be measured from a fixed and 
invariable base, and that the load applied should be exactly in 
the middle, and normal to the axis of the piece. 

In regard to tests on finished or whole pieces there is a differ- 
ence of opinion as to the intensity of the test, but it appears to 
the writer that the maximum working load should be applied, 
and the deformation due to that load should be accurately 
measured. The working conditions may be represented by a 
steady pressure or by shock, but in either case it should be applied 

as nearly as possible in accordance with these conditions. In 
testing beams, axles and rails, the loads necessary to produce this 
elastic limit and commencement of the permanent deformation 
should be determined, as well as the elastic and permanent 

Impact Tests. 
The importance of impact tests are fully recognized by the 

recommended. The standard weight of hammer adopted by the 
Conventions is 1000 kilogrammes, but in certain exceptional cases 
hammers of 500 kilogrammes are permitted. The striking sur- 
faces should be of forged steel, the vertical axis of the hammer 
should be perfectly symmetrical with the plane of the leads, and 
the guided length should be at least double the clear width 
between the guides. The weight of the anvil block shall be at 

shall be inelastic. The American Society however, recommend 
that the weight of the anvil block alone or embedded in solid 
masonary should form a solid mass of at least fifteen times the 

plumbago, and the fricti 

In order to determine the etfect produced by various heights of 
fall the work done by the hammer upon standard copper cylinders 
should be carefully studied. The maximum height of fall recom- 
mended is six metres. A sliding scale should be used, arranged 
so that the zero coincides with the level of the top of the test 
piece. It has been suggested that a short flexible cord or chain 
should be fixed between the detaching device and the hammer. 
The point of suspension should be on the vertical axis passing 
through the centre of gravity of the hammer. Impact tests are 
used at present in connection with the testing of tyres and axles, 
also for rails, but the apparatus used is rough and the results 
necessarily inaccurate. At the same time they give a good, rough 
indication of the suitability of the material for the purpose 
intended. Systematic tests made with apparatus designed to 


record accurately the effect of the shock would furnish most 
valuable information not merely on railway axles, tyres, and rails, 
but on nearly all materials used in construction ; they would give 
information which could not be obtained in any other way, and 
they offer a very promising field for scientific investigation. 

Superficial penetration and perforation by shock are recom- 
mended by the various Commissions, also tests of hardness by 
scratching and by resistance to wear and tear, but the methods 
most suitable have not been definitely decided. 
Torsion Tests. 

Torsion tests should be made with machines arranged in such a 
manner that all disturbing influences such as transverse stresses 
and longitudinal tension should be prevented. The test pieces 
and the collars or holders should be concentric cylinders, and 
key ways should be cut in the test piece at each end to secure it to 
the holders, which should be capable of sliding longitudinally 
when the piece is under stress. Very delicate observations on 
the elastic twist may be made by means of a telescope fixed to the 
test piece reading on to an upright scale placed at some distance 
from the telescope. Mixed tests (shearing and punching) are 
recommended by the Commissions for study — they say mild steel 
and ingot iron should not be punched. 

Folding, curving, and bending tests are recommended, in which 
strips 250 x 40 millimetres are used, excepting in the case of 
copper and its alloys, in which the length may be reduced to 150 
millimetres. The apparatus should be slow moving, and expose 
clearly the weakest portion of the test piece, and the bending 
should be made round a mandrel 25 mm. in diameter. The test 
pieces cut from plates should have a width of three times the 
thickness with rounded edges. One American society recom- 
mends that the diameter of the mandrel should be twice the 
thickness of the plate. 

These tests may be made upon the material cold or heated to a 
standard temperature, or after quenching from a red heat in water 

of a certain temperature, they may be applied after cold harden- 
ing, or after cutting. Closely allied with the foregoing tests are 
those made by forging, stamping, bending into hooks, boring, 
pressing, flattening, welding, and enlarging upon mandrels. 
Special Tests. 

ropes, chains, pipes, t 

In the case of wire ropes the wires should be tested in tension, 
folding, winding, and torsion. The folding should be done on a 
mandrel, twice the diameter of the wire, by bending the wire 
alternately in opposite directions. Tests of the wire rope should 
also be made to ascertain its strength and flexibility, and the 
Commissions have suggested also a shock test applied along the 
axis of the rope. Tests of chains are of two kinds. — First : A 
gradually applied load continued up to the point of rupture, 
stopping merely to obtain measurements of the elastic and per- 
manent deformations. .Secondly: A proof load equal to the 
maximum working load, with careful examination and measure- 
ments to ascertain the change in form of the links under stress. 
Tests of pipes, tubes, and boilers should be made with hydraulic 
pressure up to the maximum working loads, and the deformations 
under stress should be carefully measured. 

Temperature tests are very important and further experiments 
are necessary, but time will not allow of their consideration in 
this paper. The author hopes to be able to discuss these tests in 
a future paper. 

unification of methods in tes' 
Mr. Deane said he fully recognised the great value of the paper 
contributed by Prof. Warren, that there should be a uniform 
method of testing materials adopted was a matter of deep impor- 
tance. The paper was worthy of careful study. He was thoroughly 
in accord with Prof. Warren in the main points brought under 
notice, but it appeared to him (Mr. Deane) that one thing had 
been omitted, and that was the chemical tests of materials, of 
which no mention was made in the paper. It might be said that 
we can do without chemical tests ; but he could not agree to this. 
We wanted to be safe on all sides. We might specify certain 
tensile stresses and tensile strength, but if not subjected to 
chemical tests, we could not be certain as to the quality of the 
material we were getting— he referred specially to steel rails. 
Some steel for instance, was practically nothing but iron of a 
certain kind, and carbon, he might also mention nickel steel, and 
other descriptions which were really manganese. He supposed 
Prof. Warren would not object to make some reference to the 
question of chemical tests ; he (Mr. Deane) would like to hear his 
views in regard to the same in connection with steel. He could 
not regard a specification as complete unless provision were made 
for chemical tests. As regards the drop test and deflection — it is 
of course very interesting to know what the deflection would be 
under certain conditions, but what is more important to the rail- 
way engineer is to be certain as to what his rail will stand in 
respect of the hammering to which it will be subjected. In a 
specification which he had been preparing recently in conjunction 
with Mr. T. R. Firth, they had adopted the drop test without 
deflection. He recognised the fact that more information was 
needed on these subjects, as comparatively speaking, in the history 
of mechanical engineering, steel was almost a new substance. He 
should very much like to see some uniform method of testing 
adopted, and should be highly pleased if Prof. Warren's recom- 
mendations were adopted by the Public Works Department and 
the colony at large. 

Mr. J. I. Haycroft said that though every engineer did not or 
could not possess a testing machine, still he should be as far as 
possible conversant with the details of testing, as treated in the 
paper, in order to be in a position to write a sensible specification. 
At the outset, he might point out that the sequence, as set out in 
the paper, of the various bodies investigating this subject might 
be improved, as follows : the idea originated in 1884 at Munich 
as stated, the same technical convention meeting in subsequent 
years at Dresden, Berlin and Vienna. The American Society 
then took the matter up, and within the past two years a Com- 
mission of Research was authorised to make investigations in 
France. Not a single step in this forward movement had, as is 
usually the case in such matters, been taken in England, either 
by the Institution of Civil Engineers or other scientific bodies, 
though valuable individual research has occurred, and one could 
not look to the Board of Trade for any help in this matter. 

The investigations of the Commission of Research in France, 
were in his opinion, by far the most important of the several that 
have taken place, due both to the well known scientific character 
of the nation, the eminence of their professional men, and lastly, 
but most important fact, to their having analysed the proceedings 
of the former conventions held elsewhere. 

He wished to add to the paper some facts gathered from the 
French investigations, not in any way criticising the manner in 
which the paper has been compiled, or indeed in supplying what 
might be termed deficiencies, but with the object of making the 
members of the section acquainted with facts, and thereby adding, 
if possible, further value to the already valuable paper of the author. 
As regards dimensions of test pieces, the author stated that the 
American Society adopted for circular sections an area of test 
piece of 600 square millimeters for a useful length of 200 milli- 
meters, which gives a diameter of 27-64 millimeters. This mode 
of procedure should have been credited to the French Commission 
who, in order to make a comparison of the total elongations taken 
after rupture on circular test pieces of different design, decided to 

establish a fixed relation between the transverse section and the 
useful, or test, length of the piece. This relation, deduced by the 
law of similarity, shewed that the test length should be proportional 
to the square root of the cross section ; this law, as t 

out that the convention and the French Coi 
value of the coefficient, but the Americar 
formula?, in as far, that they preserved 
length of test piece. The French formula 
the convention formula was L= 113 Ss; the former ga 
of 27-64 millimetres for a test length of 200 millimetres, 1 whilst 
the latter gave 20 millimetres for same test length, or a propor- 
tion of 10 to 1 as stated by the author : the latter formula recom- 
mended itself on account of its simplicity due to the above men- 
tioned proportion, but the former or French formula had this 
advantage, that the area, the first item deduced in using the 
formula, was a simple number (in the present case 600 square 
millimeters). Now in order to simplify calculations, the adoption 
of a simple number to express the area of cross section which is 
the function used in calculations of strength, was more advisable 
than simplicity in expressing the diameter, the difficulty of 
measuring which was always the same. The American Society 
on the other hand used the dimensions credited by the author to 
the Conventions or rather European standards. 

The French dimensions were as follows— test lengths of 70, 100, 
HI, and 200 millimetres ; cross sections of 75, 150, 300 and 600 
square millimetres; and diameters deduced from above of 9-77, 
13-82, 19-55, and 2764 millimetres: the convention standards 
were those where the proportion of length to diameter is as 10 to 1, 
the length ranging from 100 to 250 millimetres. The American 
Society, as previously mentioned, preserved a constant test length 
of 8 inches, thus i^norin^ the difference wh 

by the American Society, as well as the decimal part of an inch 
diameters, for the purpose of approaching as nearly as possible 
the measures of the metric system. 

As regards the accuracy of machines and errors permissible, 
the American Society made no recommendation, but the French 
adopt a rule not quite so exacting as that suggested by the Con- 
As regards the rate of testing, it was the French Commission, 
not the American Society, who considered that the duration of 
the test should be, in a certain measure, a function of the volume 
of the test piece; the Convention, whilst making no recommenda- 
tion on this subject, strongly urged the necessity of noting with 
what rapidity the diagram was traced. The resolutions of the 
Convention and the American Society provided for the use of 
diagrams similar to that exhibited by the author, but the French 
Commission did not consider them necessary, at least in current 
practical tests with a view to ascertaining the quality of the 
metal tested from a determination of the useful surface they pre- 
sent, and this is the opinion of some English scientists, amongst 
others Prof. Unwin. This remark of course only applies to 
diagrams taken by one or other of the autographic recorders. He 
uses diagrams however, which are plotted from the known stresses 
and the various observed elongations. 

Under the heading of compression, the author for the first time 
referred directly to the results of the French Commission ; the 

concerned, but the mention of cubes or prisms of 25 millimeters 
a side should have been given as a recommendation of the Con- 
vention and not of the French Commission, whose recommendations 
on this head were that the diameters be reduced to 19 56 milli- 
meters equal to a cross section of 300 square millimeters, and the 
useful length to 20 millimeters. As regards tests on long pieces, 
which fail by buckling, the Convention had issued no instructions, 
but the French Commission recommended the requirements as 
stated by the author, but the reason for which he omitted, said 


reason being that that condition was all that was necessary to 
to make two tests comparable on bars or rivetted pieces. The 
American Society in this class of tests required that the process 
should be the same as in tensile tests dividing the useful or test 
length into small sections in such a manner that the loss in value 
sustained, might be determined from its elements, and that the 
calculation of the modulus and coefficient of elasticity should be 
made under like conditions. 

As regards mixed tests (shearing and punching) the Convention 
was silent, but as stated by the author, the French Commission 
recommended further study ; the Convention only recommended 
that certain plates, such as those for boilers, of wrought iron, 
should be submitted to the punching test, but claimed that such 
a test was useless for plates of mild steel or ingot iron, neither of 
which should ever be punched. 

The author stated, inter alia, "it is proposed to consider the 
nature of the mechanical tests rather than the results obtained, 
and generally to deal with the subject in regard to the data which 
it is sought to obtain in the tests and the precautions to be taken 
in order to eliminate disturbing influences." The author then 
proceeded, under the clause headed " Tension," to enumerate the 
various points which it was essential should be accurately deter- 
mined in connection with the commercial testing of materials of 
construction, and enumerated under the sub-head (b) " the yield 
point," adding in a further paragraph as apparently distinct from 
being essential that for accurate scientific testing the limit and 
coefficient of elasticity be also determined. 

On this point, Mr. Haycroft could not agree with the author, as 
he considered it was much more essential to know the limit of 
elasticity than it was to know the yield point. He was of course 
aware of the considerable difference of opinion which existed 
amongst engineers with regard to this branch of the subject, and 
was of opinion that it merited further and very careful consideration. 
It was well known that great difficulty has always existed in deter- 
mining on a stress diagram the exact point where the limit of 

elasticity was reached, and where permanent deformation com- 
menced. Just to illustrate the differences of opinion which existed 
amongst engineers as to the elastic limit, he would bring under 
the notice of members the following facts corroborating his 
opinion on that point. The French Commission made use of 
three terms :— 

(1) The elastic limit or the unit stress beyond which a portion 

of the deformation remains as permanent set. 

(2) The proportional elastic limit, corresponding to the point 

where the deformation ceases to be proportional to the loads. 

(3) The apparent elastic limit corresponding to the point where 

the deformations increase rapidly without any increase in 
the force exerted : all these points lay between e and y of 
the author's diagrams. 
The Conventions required that during the elastic period there 
should be sought the yield point and the limit of proportional 
elongation, appearing to admit that these two limits were blended. 
The American Society required the determination of the same 
information, insisting especially upon the importance of the yield 
point, which measurement it claimed should be made with the 
greatest precision. The American Society did not however seem 
to be very sure as to their actual requirements, as it defined the 
yield point as the load which produced a modification in the rate 
of elongation, thus seeming to identify it with the proportional 
limit of the French Commission ; but further on in the American 
Society's report, in an illustration, it required that the limit (yield 
point) should be determined by noting the point at which the 
elongation was suddenly augmented, thus identifying it with the 
apparent limit of the French Commission. 

Prof. J. B. Johnson of Washington University in his recent 
book on " Materials of Construction," went very fully into this 
matter with a view to put an end to these differences amongst 
professional men. The Professor referred to was a recognised 
authority, and the very fact that he had made upwards of 40,000 


tests on timber alone for the United States Government, was 
sufficient guarantee that he was reliable. Professor Johnson in 
dealing with the definition of the French Commissions shewed 
that none of them could be used in practice, and that they were 
absolutely indeterminate or wholly dependent on the delicacy of 
the measuring apparatus rather than on the qualities of the 
material tested. W hen the most delicate apparatus was employed, 
several specimens from the same bar of the most uniform material 
might give elastic limits of either of the first two kinds which 
differed widely from each other, and hence were materially con- 
tradictory. In other words, such delicate tests were worthless for 
practical purposes, the results obtained not being characteristic. 

The third definition, that of apparent elastic limit was also 
indefinite since it remained a question which load was to be taken, 
the higher load at which the first great permanent elongation 
occurred, or the lower load under which this elongation continued 
to spread throughout the entire length of the bar : these often 
differed by as much as from 11 tons to 3 tons per square inch. 
Prof. Johnson was also seized with the want of knowledge on this 
subject, and stated : " The fact is something must be done in this 

an explanation, which explanation is not usually given. 

Prof. Johnson proposed as a way out of the difficulty, the 
adoption, in the future by members of the profession, of an 
arbitrary definition which he styled the " apparent elastic limit," 
and defined as being that point on the stress diagram where the 
rate of deformation was 50% greater than it was at the origin. 
This point, in all tension stress diagrams, would be found to mark 
a well defined point, whose coordinates were practically fixed and 
constant for the same material. Although this point was slightly 
beyond the true elastic limit it would mark a point corresponding 
to a permanent set much less than could be measured on any scale 
by the naked eye and hence might be regarded as the true elastic 
limit for commercial purposes. This point also served to classify 
material as to the maximum loads they could resist without receiv- 

ing deformation which would injure them for continued service, 
being the real " ultimate loads " for all practical purposes. It 
marked therefore, the most valuable and important property of 
all engineering materials. It was thus the most essential charac- 
teristic point on the stress diagram. After this last opinion surely 
the author of the paper would make an alteration where he put 
the value of the yield point in priority to that of the elastic limit 
as regards essentiality of determination. It may be very interest- 
ing to know the so-called yield point of a certain material, or its 
percentage of elongation, but Mr. Haycroft was of opinion that 
definite information as regards the limit of elasticity alone, was 
of infinitely greater value to a professional man when >1 
and marked its most valuable and important property. 

Members of the profession who took an interest in this subject 
could not do better than read Prof. Johnson's book and the various 
Continental and American reports, from which latter the paper 
and these remarks have been freely compiled. In conclusion he 
was of opinion that the use of the decimal system was more appro- 
priate for physical measurements, such for instance as those 
mentioned in the paper, than the duodecimal or English method, 
and would be glad to see it more generally used in the future. In 
connection with this matter he might state that a paper on " The 
decimal system in engineering methods " had been read before the 
Institution in London last May, and a bill was being put through 
the United States Senate making the use of the decimal system 
compulsory in the United States from the commencement of the 
Twentieth Century, in all transactions, except land measurements. 
It existed at present in their coinage and in measurements of the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mr. Selman said he had carefully perused the recommendations 
of both the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the 
French Convention in regard to the testing of materials, from 
which sources the author had drawn so largely in compiling his 
paper, and to those interested in this matter he commended for 
study a recently issued American State paper dealing with the 


whole subject, and the various decisions arrived at. Although 
no formal action of a similar character had yet been taken in this 
matter in England, still a very large amount of attention had 
been given to it both scientifically and commercially, and he failed 
to discover in the recommendations anything that was not well 
known and in many cases the practice there for the last ten years 
or more, he could not see how Professor Warren's paper had in 
any way improved matters other than from an educational point 
of view. The author had stated in the paper that it was essential 
to accurately determine three factors in each tensile test, one of 
which was the " yield " or " breaking-down " point, but nothing 
had been said as regards the determination of an apparent limit 
of elasticity, though several purely physical points had been 
touched on. Mr. Selman, however, contended that the "yield 
point " was a very unsatisfactory criterion of the elastic properties 
of materials. If was true that it was generally a well defined 
point on the diagram, and by no means diificult of fairly exact 
determination ; but as the range of its exact position, as regards 
its distance from the limit of elasticity was so very variable, it 
was no safe indication of the exact value or position of the latter. 
Notwithstanding that a number of most elaborate instruments 
had been designed, having for their object the determination of 
the elastic limit, yet the writer believed that it was still an inde- 
terminate quantity, and that the only practical solution of the 
difficulty would be to adopt some definite and convenient point 
lying between the true elastic limit and the yield point. 

Quite recently in America, Professor Johnson, an authority on 
this matter, had proposed an " apparent limit of elasticity " based 
on the determination of a tangent point on the diagram at which 
the rate of elongation was 50% greater than what it was at the 
origin. No doubt this was a practical step in the right direction, 
but the writer had found the method difficult of application from 
the uncertainty of being able to locate the exact position of the 
tangent point on account of the personal error and the smallness 
b the tangent point. Mr. Selman proposed as a 

" standardising limit of elasticity " the point of intersection of the 
stress diagram with a line making an angle with the axis of stress 
whose tangent was 5% greater than that due to the rectilinear 
portion of the diagram. 

Such a point was exceedingly easy of determination and always 
lay between the true elastic limit and the yield point; being 
sufficiently near the former in most cases to ensure that the 
rate of elongation was not more than 5% above its normal value. 
All difficulties as regards errors of observation would practically 
be removed, and he was of opinion that such a '• limit " would be 
found very uniform in all tests from the same bars, and sufficiently 
near the commencement of the plastic action for all engineering 
purposes. Such a standard limit would be fair both to the engineer 
and the manufacturer, and probably prevent materials from being 
unfairly condemned. He had known materials rejected by one 
engineer as bad and accepted by another as of good quality, simply 
through a descrepancy in the tests. 

He had applied his proposed " standardising limit " method to 
the test of the bar of basic ingot iron given in the paper in illus- 
tration of Tetmaier's system of recording a test, by plotting the 

It would be seen that the apparent limit of elasticity as given 
by Tetmaier was about 9,000 kilogrammes, and the yield point 
about 13,000 kilogrammes; the standardised limit being abou 
11,400 kilogrammes with a very slightly augmented rate o 
elongation above the normal value. These values in tons pei 
square inch were Tetmaier's limit of elasticity about 11*3 tons 
standardised limit of elasticity about 14 5 tons, and the yield poini 
abopted by the author 16-7 tons. Mr. Selman was of opinion 
that the 11-3 tons was much too low. For similar iron a numb 
of Bauschinger's tests gave an average of about 13-5 to 14 to 
per square inch, a result strikingly in accord with that given 1 
the method proposed by himself. It was quite easy for inertia in 
the testing machine to give abnormal values near the elastic limit, 
and this may probably have been the case in the present instance. 
It would also be noted that the differences of elongation as given 
in the table referred to were very small and fairly regular, except 
at 6,000 kilos., until about 1 1,000 kilogrammes was reached when 
there was evidence of the commencement of plasticity, the differ- 
ence being 2-16 against 168 for the previous loads. This also 
confirmed his contention. There were many other points in the 
paper open to discussion, but he regretted that he had not had 
sufficient time at his disposal to criticise them. 

Mr. Shaw said he would like to make a few remarks with 
regard to the " impact test." Prof. Warren makes use of copper 
cylinders for regulating the strength of blow. He had a drawing 
of a small testing machine he had designed some time ago, which 
might be of interest to some of the members. This was designed 
for testing steel cylinders subject to very high strains such as are 
used in ordnance. The ram shown was turned to a very accurate 
fit, and fitted with a copper bush, and had a chamber containing 
the main body of the water round this bush. At the base of the 
pedestal there was another ram sealed by a small copper disc 
which acted on the top of the copper cylinder. The copper 
cylinder was of known size, diameter and length — the weights 
were allowed to fall on the disc and it in turn acted on the 

cylinder — an aperture, as shown, being left to admit of the free 
entry of air, as the blow fell. The copper cylinder was then taken 
out, measured , and a piece from the same bar taken and cut from 
the original put into the machine, and tested to the exact length 
as it was when it came out — giving the exact momentum of the 
blow. The machine is of course only useful where high concussive 
strains have to be dealt with. 

Mr. Sinclair said that one point that appealed to him in the 
paper was in reference to the " test load " as applied to tubes and 
boilers— he (Prof. Warren) only recognised " maximum working 
load." He (Mr. Sinclair) thought that this data would be of little 
value for getting out any alterations that would take place in the 
boiler for showing any weakness of the boiler, cylinders, etc. He 
thought in this case no deformation would be produced, although 
a slight deformation was anticipated in such structures — it might 
for instance come in an unstayed end. The Board of Trade and 
kindred bodies in the old country, in dealing with this question, 
allowed a hydraulic test of 1J, although a great many engineers 
still adhere to twice the working load : and in one instance that 
came to his mind, he had to put a boiler up to 3 20, not due to 
any weakness of the boiler, but through a faulty joint. It would 
be a great advantage if something uniform could be decided upon 
in regard to the maximum test stresses to be put on structures. 

Mr. G. H. Knibbs said that the behaviour of materials under 
stress might be treated either from the point of view of the 
physicist or from that of the engineer. As however, approach 
was made to exactness, the former or theoretical view became 
more and more important, and when questions like the limit of 
elasticity were touched it was necessary to have regard to facts 
which might have otherwise appeared purely theoretical and of 
little practical moment. An ordinary rough stress-strain diagram, 
it was true, shewed a trace, which for some length was sensibly 
straight, and hence this portion might be taken as sensibly repre- 
senting that portion of the deformation which was proportional 
to the applied stress, and moreover independent of the time during 

which the application of the stress was continued. But experi- 
ments shewed that in addition to this, there was a secondary 
deformation depending upon the time during which the stress was 
maintained, but which appeared to approach a limit. Consequently 
the trace in the stress-strain diagram was not exactly straight 
anywhere ; and its curvature would slightly vary with the time 
of stress-application. A proposal therefore to produce the straight 
part of the curve, and adopting an arbitrary increase of the tangent 
or arc, to draw a second line, the intersection of which, with the 
trace, was to be taken as the arbitrary elastic limit, could not be 
regarded as having any distinct advantage over Professor Johnson's 
proposal, viz., to draw a tangent to the curve with an arbitrary 
increase on the ratio of the deformation to stress. And his method 
had very little advantage over the older practice of marking 
the point where the trace commences to sensibly curve. The 
difficulty of ascertaining the point where the molecular constraints 
resisting deformation were so relaxed that the rate of plastic flow 
becomes very large, relatively to the elastic extension, was a 
difficulty inherent in the behaviour of the material and one which 
could not be avoided. Probably a higher order of accuracy of 
measurement now possible by such instruments as Prof. Martens' 
extensometer, would, when thermal changes due to the stress were 
measured and discussed, indicate the solution of this question. It 
might be of interest to mention that in a test made to-day by Mr. 
Barraclough and himself with the instrument referred to, disposed 
as recommended in the paper recently read by the latter to the 
Royal Society, the evidence of plastic flow was noticed even in 20 
seconds and in 30 seconds. The loads in thousands of pounds, and 
the differences of the deflections in ten-thousandths o 

■oad 5 7 9 11 i:J 15 17 19 21 22 23 

>iff. Extension 116 126 123 123 124 123* 138 18 if 145 310 

niform, plastic flow appeared to have occurred. In conclusion, 

he would like to say that the continuation of i 
'yield point' was desirable, because although the phenomena of its 
occurrence might not be fully elucidated, they were worthy of 
study, since it marked a critical change in the behaviour of the 
material. In general it was desirable that the results of testing 
should be of value not only from the view of the engineer but also 
from that of the physicist. 

Mr. S. H. Barraclough said the discussion had largely centered 
around the question as to what point on the stress diagram should 
be chosen as a measure of the elastic properties of the material 
under test. The whole question was, in the present state of our 
knowledge, almost entirely a matter of personal opinion. He 
could not agree with some of the previous speakers in their 
opposition to the use of the yield point as a satisfactory measure 
of the elastic properties for all "practical" purposes, and he 
thought that in attempting to altogether discredit the worth of 
this point a rather unjustifiable use had been made of Professor 
Johnston's lately published book, for on page 306 of that work it 
was stated that "in practical or commercial testing it will be 

found sufficient 

to observe the third one 


. . ." i.e., the yield 



the fact that the stress-s 

3 diagram obtaioed 

from a 

test of certain materials such as a 

>n and some grades 

of steel 

did not 

show any yield point, w 

argument against 

its use 

for such 

materials as did show it. 


examination of the 

results of tests made at the University for some years past would 
show that in the great majority of cases the yield point is well 
marked, and constitutes a thoroughly characteristic point on the 
diagram. The yield point is of course considerably above the 
elastic limit, and, as the author of the paper states, should always 
be called the yield point and not the elastic limit, when reporting 
a test. To illustrate the positions of these two points and of the 
two arbitrary elastic limits which had been proposed during the 
course of the discussion, the speaker had prepared two stress-strains 
diagrams representing the results of tests made with the aid of 
Marten's mirror extensometer, by which the extensions of the test 

pieces are measured to four millionths of an inch. It would be 
noticed that the limit proposed by Mr. Selman was considerably 
higher than that of Prof. Johnson, both of course being above the 
so called true elastic limit. There was no apparent advantage to 
be gained by adopting the limit proposed by Mr. Selman. It 
was simply a question as to how nearly parallel you could draw 
two lines and still have a definite point of secancy. At the 
previous meeting Mr. Selman had proposed that the one line 
should be made to slope ten per cent, more than the other, at the 
present meeting he substituted five per cent., and there seemed 
nothing to prevent some one else using three per cent, or one per 
cent. It was merely a question of draughtsmanship. 

With regard to Prof. Johnson's proposed "apparent elastic 
limit," it was to be regretted that a more detailed c 
was not given in his book of the reliability of the s 
when the apparent elastic limit is located in the manner directed 
" it will be found at practically the same point on all tests of like 
kind on similar materials. It is therefore characteristic of the 
material" Judging from some of the figures given in the book, 
{for example fig. 249), this particular elastic limit was subject to 
about the same variation as were the others. Prof. Johnson 
probably used the term " characteristic " in a somewhat loose and 

Professor Warren in reply to the discussion, said, in answer to 
Mr. Deane that in regard to chemical tests, it had generally been 
accepted that, if the physical tests as fixed by the specifications 
were satisfied, then, also, would the chemical composition be satis- 
factory, but this was not universally true. At the same time it 
was desirable to interfere as little as possible with the province of 

accordance with the requirements of the physical tests specified, 
which should be sufficiently comprehensive in character to develope 
the real nature of the material as applied to the particular purpose 
for which it is intended to be used. There were however, some 
few exceptions to this rule, such as for example in the case of 

steel rails, where the physical tests should be very thorough if 
they were to be relied upon entirely, such as the careful determin- 
ation of the elastic limit in cross-bending, and the exact measure- 
ments of the strains within and beyond the elastic limit, which 
should be compared with standard deformations under stresses in 
rails of a known satisfactory quality similarly tested. In this 
way the hardness and durability of the rails when laid in the road 
would be sufficiently accurately determined. Again the drop test 
carefully conducted with measurements of the deflections produced 
by the blows of the hammer, and also of the elongations produced 
by the bending of the rail on the tension side, would give reliable 
data as to the quality of the rails. 

Prof. Tetmaier, who had devoted considerable attention to the 
subject, recommended that the rails should not take a permanent 
set with less than 19-35 tons per square inch at the most strained 
fibre, and he gave a formula for rails tested on supports and loaded 
in the centre. Reduced to English units his rule would be thus- 
Let W= the load in the centre which will not produce a perman- 

fibre stress of 19-35 tons per square inch 
I = the span in inches 
Then W=4^ 

After removal of this load the rail should spring back to its 
original shape. The load was afterwards to be increased up to a 
fibre stress of 32 25 tons per square inch, using autographic 
apparatus, on plotting the various deformations to scale. For 
comparisons as to relative hardness, the formula for the load up 

This should be increased until the rail became permanently twisted 
and deformed, but it must not fracture. 

In the case, of some rails recently tested at the Engineering 
Laboratory, weighing 45 and 58 ft>s. per yard respectively, the 


For the 45 lbs. rail M=±± = -j-^ /"=3-96/ 
For the 58 lbs. rail M= 1||1 /- =6-86 / 
The spans for each rail were 67 and 33| inches. 

At the elastic limit where / = 19-35 tons per square inch 
.-. W = LK = ,j^6x 19-35 xj = 4 . 56 tons for the 45 ftg> rail 
and IF - 6-86x19-35x4 = 7 . g2 tQng for the 5g ftg> rail 

For the 33J inches span the results were proportional. The rails 
were carefully loaded and the deflections measured until the elastic 
limits were reached in each case, which occurred with loads of 4-5 
and 5 tons for the 45 and 58 lbs. rail respectively. Hence the 
58 lbs. rail was considered to be too soft. Pieces cut from the 
heads and flanges and tested in tension, as well as the results 
obtained by testing the rails under the drop hammer, confirmed 
the bending tests. There was no doubt that physical tests could 
be thoroughly relied upon to give reliable data as to the quality 
of all construction materials, provided that the testing was properly 
conducted and suitable tests were chosen. 

The question raised by Mr. Deane did not however, apply to 
the reliability of physical tests in the determination of the quality 
of any material, but rather how this was governed by the chemical 
composition, and as to the most reliable method which an engineer 
should adopt in ordering a quantity of rails in order to ensure 
that the quality should be suitable for the purpose. The chemical 
composition governed the quality of the material as delivered to 
the rolling mills from the furnaces in the shape of ingots or blooms, 
The reheating of the blooms, and the design of the rolling mills 
influenced the resulting product ; it was desirable also that the 
rail should be finished at as uniform a temperature as possible 
throughout its length, and that the metal should be practically 
uniform in quality. No doubt these requirements were fully 

realized and more or less obtained in a well organized establish- 
ment ; if it was not, the rails would be of unequal hardness. This 
would be more likely to occur where a high percentage of carbon 
was used, which was very desirable in order to secure durability 
in the road and resistance to deformation. 

It appeared therefore that the practice of the American 
engineers was the best to follow in regard to rails, and this was 
well exemplified in the specifications of Mr. Walter Katte, 
Engineer-in-Chief of the New York Central and Hudson River 
Railway, to whom the author is indebted for the following par- 


I 65 lbs. 70 lbs. 75 lbs. 

80 lbs. 

100 lbs. 

Carbon |o-45 to 0-55 0-47 to 0-57 050 to 0-60 


Silicon 015 to 0-200-15 to 0-200-15 to 0-20 

0-15 to 0-20 

■ ' - 

Manganese ... 

0-80 to 1-00 

0-80 to 1-00 

0-80 to 1-00 

0-80 to 1-00 

080 to 1-00 

SUlP e X X c r eed t * 






Phosphorus not 

to exceed.. 






Eails having 

will be rejec- 

ted ... ... 



Kails having 

Carbon above 

will be rejec- 

ted ... ... 






Test ingots were also cast from each heat from which bars about 
18" long and half an inch square were rolled, these were afterwards 
bent cold through a right angle of 160°. These test bars should 
not fracture, and the elongation on the stretched side should be 
12% per inch. The rails were tested on supports three feet apart, 
under the drop hammer weighing 2,000 ft>s., the heights being as 
follows : — 

Weight of rail in pounds per yard 60 Height of drop 16 feet 
65 .. „ 16 „ 

Height of drop 20 feet 

100 „ „ 20 „ 

Ninty per cent of such tests should stand without fracture, and 
when fracture occurred the rails must show 5% elongation on the 
most strained inch on the tension side. The high percentages of 
carbon and manganese used would be considered too great by 
English engineers, but the results obtained by this specification 
so far have been very satisfactory. In the case of railway tyres 
and axles, also propeller shafts, armour plates, guns, etc., the 
object aimed at was to produce a material of the greatest strength 
and elasticity consistent with sufficient ductility to enable it to 
resist the shocks and general rough usage to which it was subjected. 
Chemical composition must be carefully attended to by the manu- 
facturer in such cases and subsequent treatment, but it did not 
appear wise for the engineer to fix the proportions of the ingredients 
which were necessarily better understood at the works, more 
especially as the quality can be completely ascertained by suitable 
physical tests. Moreover, the mechanical processes to which the 
ingot is subjected differed in the various steel works, to such an 
extent, that if the chemical composition were the same in each 
case, the resulting products would be by no means uniform. The 
subject of physical tests of steel and chemical composition was 
now attracting considerable attention, and the effect of carbon, 
manganese, silicon, phosphorus, and sulphur, on the strength, 
elasticity, and ductility of the metal was fairly well understood. 

Mr. Cunningham has given some results of Mr. Campbell's 
investigations as to the strengthening effect of the various com- 
ponents of steel, 1 which are of considerable interest in regard to 
the question of chemical and physical tests. He says that, the 
strength of pure iron, as far as it can be determined from the 

1 Proc. American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. xxm., No. 5. 

strength of steel is about 38,000 or 39,000 lbs. per square inch, 
and the formula for acid steel is — 

38600 + 121 carbon + 89 phos. + R = tensile strength 
For basic steel — 
37430 + 95 carbon + 8-5 mang. + 105 phos. + R = tensile strength. 

The carbon manganese and phosphorus are expressed in units 
of 0-001%, and the value of R given in accordance with the 
conditions of rolling and the thickness of the plates or pieces. 
The formulae were derived from experiments on structural steels 
ranging from 0-02 to 0*35% of carbon, and probably do not apply- 
to steels of harder quality or special alloys. 

Mr. H. M. Howe, a high authority on this subject says, " The 
structure and physical properties appear to depend chiefly— 1. On 
the ultimate chemical composition. 2. On the mechanical treat- 
ment it has undergone. 3. On the conditions under which it has 
been heated or cooled, i.e., its "heat treatment" which may 
induce the ultimate components of the mass to regroup themselves 
in new combinations, thus causing one set of minerals to give 
place to another. Just as the character of granite rock may be 
judged from the character of its mineral constituents, as proximate 
chemical compounds, and very imperfectly from ever so exact a 
determination of its ultimate elements, so we must learn to rely 
with less assurance on the ultimate chemical analysis of iron and 
steel, and more on the proximate chemical compounds formed 
therefrom. Unfortunately these latter are diflicult of determin- 
ation, or even of identification, and hence we know very little 
about them. It is for this reason that we are as yet unable to 
infer with any great assurance the mechanical properties from the 
chemical analysis." 

The author considered that the form of the cross section of rails 
was very important, and that the relatively thin flanges adopted 
by English engineers were unsuitable for steel containing a high 
percentage of carbon. The American section appeared to be much 
more satisfactory in every way. 


In reply to Mr. Haycroft's thoughtful discussion of the paper, 
only those points would be referred to in which he appeared to 
differ from the author. Since the paper was read, an excellent 
book on materials had reached this country written by Professor 
Johnson in which many of the points under discussion were fully 
treated. Mr. Haycroft appeared to prefer Prof. Johnson's pro- 
portions on test pieces, and his method of locating a so-called 
elastic limit to the recommendations of the author. After care- 
fully reading Prof. Johnson's views on these points, the author 
was unable to alter his opinion or modify it in any way for the 
following reasons. In regard to the proportions of test pieces 
pieces shewn in Figs. 1 to 6. The object of the paper as expressed 
in the title was to secure unification of the methods of testing 
materials, and the proportions given have been shown to give 
uniform results by Prof. Tetmaier and other eminent authorities, 
and have moreover been endorsed by the practise of the majority 
of the laboratories in Europe. Professor Johnson proposed pro- 
portions intermediate between those of the French and Germans, 
which have not, so far at least, been adopted by the International 
Union, — necessarily the highest authority on these matters. 
Until this was done the author saw no reason to modify these 
proportions, as they were so simple that they could readily be 
remembered by anyone interested in the subject. 

In regard to the term Elastic Limit. A definition of this was 
given in the paper, and there can be no question that it was of 
more importance to determine this point than the yield point, but 
it was absurd to expect to locate it accurately on an ordinary 
autographic diagram. 

Professor Kennedy had succeeded in making an appliance which 
drew the stress-strain diagram for the elastic period fairly well 
Mr. Olsen, of Philadelphia, had showed the author, about eighteen 
months ago, a very fair piece of apparatus for producing a similar 
diagram in connection with his testing machine; it was illus- 
trated on page 349 of Johnson's book. The Grey 
apparatus on some of Mr. Richie's machines was i 

Probably the most perfect apparatus for producing this part of 
the diagram would consist of mirrors attached to the test piece, 
whose angular displacements were proportional to the deforma- 
tions, and the light from which was focussed by means of a camera 
with the sensitised plate made to slide at a rate proportional to 
the stress on the test piece. Such an instrument could easily be 
constructed, and its advantages over every other so far construc- 
ted were obvious. Professor Johnson proposed, however, to locate 
a point on the ordinary small scale autographic diagram which he 
had defined as the relative elastic limit, thus adding another kind 
of elastic limit to the three referred to by Mr. Hay croft. Such 
autographic diagrams are exceedingly useful and instructive, and 
should be drawn for every test which is continued to the point of 
failure, but it appeared to the author undesirable to push the 
data so obtained too far. The yield-point was perfectly well 
defined on such diagrams for ordinary ductile materials, and it 
was usual, although incorrect, to record this point as the elastic 
limit. The author proposed to record the yield-point, as the yield- 
point or commencement of the large plastic deformations, as he 
considered the practice of recording it as the elastic limit is mis- 
leading, also that it was preferable to any arbitrary point such as 
Professor Johnson's, which lay somewhere between it and the 
elastic limit, which latter is very imperfectly defined on an ordi- 
nary autographic diagram. If the elastic limit were desired — and 
this should always be obtained in an important test — then it was 

exhibited by the author at the June meeting of the Society— 
"The Martens mirror apparatus." It was absurd to say that fine 
measurements were useless for such a purpose, and that rough 
ones are preferable. None of the methods described by Professor 
Johnson, in conjunction with American tests, were as exact as the 
records produced by Professor Martens' apparatus. 

The subject of impact tests have only been referred to by Mr. 
Shaw, who explained a very ingenious application of the use ot 
copper cylinders in connection with such tests. 

In reply to Mr. Sinclair on the tests of pipes and boilers by 
means of hydraulic pressure, the author recommended the test to 
be continued up to the working loads, as he considered that the 
practice of testing a boiler to double the working load might pro- 
duce permanent strains j but he saw no objection to one and a 
half times the working load if ordinary care is used in making the 
test, or even a higher pressure if care is taken to avoid overstrain- 
ing. As the paper was not intended to deal with boiler tests, the 
remarks should have been restricted to pipes. 

In regard to Mr. Selman's remarks, the author was astonished 
at the statement referring to the practice in England ten years 
ago. The object of the International Union for the Unification 
of Tests had been sufficiently explained in the paper, but accord- 
ing to Mr. Selman there would appear to be no necessity for such 
a society, or of the various other societies in America and France, 
he appeared to have misunderstood the paper in various particulars. 
In regard to his remarks on the elastic limits and yield points, it 
was incorrect to say that no reference had been made to the 
apparent elastic limit. There is also no justification for the state- 
. ment in which he implied that the author considered the yield 
point a criterion of the elastic properties of the material. Surely 
no one reading the paper carefully could draw such an extraor- 
dinary conclusion as to the meaning of the author. The state- 
ment as to whether the elastic limit is determinate or not should 
have been explained more fully, as it was not clear enough for the 
author to reply to. The standardizing limit proposed by Mr. 
Selman appeared to be decidedly inferior to the relative limit 
proposed by Professor Johnson. In regard to his reference to 
Professor Tetmaier's tests, the author wished merely to state that 
Professor Tetmaier was acknowledged to be one of the most 
eminent authorities on the testing of materials, and had a world- 
wide reputation. 


Introduction. — In a paper by the author, published in the Pro- 
ceedings of this Society during the year 1895, 1 it is shewn how 
the cubic parabola may be applied as a transition curve for con- 
necting the straight to the circular curve. Appended to the 
discussion there are tables to facilitate the field operations, the 
abscissa having a fixed numerical value. 

If the angle <f>, contained between the abscissa and the tangent 
to the curve at the point of contact with the circular curve, be 
made constant, then other tables may be constructed by simply 
taking a suitable multiple for the case required. 

On tramways it is often necessary to use small radii curves 
when connecting the straights. The shock received by the rolling 
stock, due to the sudden change from the straights to these shaqp 
curves, is very noticeable even at low rates of speed, but this 
concussive motion is reduced to a minimum, by adopting a curve 
of varying radius to connect the straights with the circular curve. 
Theoretically all circular curves should have transitions applied, 
but usually in practice, transition curves are not used, when the 
adopted elevation of the outer rail of the circular curve is small. 

It is the object of this note to demonstrate how the method, 
explained in the previously mentioned paper, may be easily ex- 
tended to any case required, by the aid of three tables. 

Method of preparing t/te tables. — The three tables appended are 
computed from the equation 


A numerical value is given to the coefficient m so that the radius 
of curvature of the curve represented by this equation, will be 
the same as the circular arc at the point of tangency. 

The method of deriving this coefficient, so that the above con- 
dition shall be fulfilled, has been explained by the author in the 
paper referred to, but the following abstract will be compatible 
with this note, the same notation being adopted as formerly. 

From the equation to the curve we have 

tan 4> = Smx 2 = dyjdx 3 

and if this be substituted in the equation 


it will be found after reduction that 

x/2p - sin<£cos 3 <£ 5 

Making p equal to unity and adopting a suitable value for sc, 
denoted by x c and which should not exceed 0-68... p, then putting 
ft in place of xJ2 and writing u for sin </>, the above cubic becomes 

u>-u + ft = a 

from which u may be found, and hence sin <£. The angle </> may 
then be obtained from a table of trigonometrical ratios, as well as 
the tangent of this angle. Using the adopted value of x c and 
tan <£ just found, we can obtain the necessary value of m from 
equation (3). 

Referring now to the diagram 1 it will be seen how the various 
quantities given in the tables are obtained, and how the curve is 
applied. A complete explanation is given in the former paper, 
so that it is here unnecessary to enter into the details. 

The length of the transition curve may be computed from the 
following series 

* = x(l + _^ tan 3 <f> - I tan* <j> + -^ tan a <£ - ...etc.). 

Method of using the tables.— Having decided upon the value of 

P, which is taken equal to R the radius of the circular curve, we 

1 See Plate 10, Journal Royal Society of N. S. Wales, Vol. xxix., 1895. 

multiply all quantities, given in either of the tables, by this value 
with the exception of <£, also K arid log. m. The quantity K is 
simply the circular measure of 2<£. The value of log. m may be 
found for the radius R, by subtracting twice the logarithm of R 
from the tabulated value of log. m. A practical example will 
perhaps make the preceding remarks more explicit. 

Let R equal 4, then if we multiply each value of x in the first 

column of Table I. by four, we obtain the several lengths along 

the axis X, where the ordinates y of the second column are to be 

set out, these values being also multiplied by four ; thus — 

R = 4 

0-20 0-00018 


0-40 0-00149 


0-60 0-00503 


x c = 2-00 y c = 0-18664 


We also have the following 

«£ = 15° 38' 24"-50 

x' = 1-07837 80 

H = 0-03853 52 

* = 2-01550 96 

k = 0-54594 38 

Log. m = 8-36791 52 

Should a longer transition be required, then i 

se Table II. or II 

so that with the above value of R we have 

the choice of thr 

transitions namely 

R.S.— Cubic Parabola 2 

0-60 x 4 = 2-40 

0-68 x 4 = 2-72 
and similarly in other cases. It is not necessary that R be integral, 
but any value may be taken. 

Limits of application. — The angle of deflection a of the straights 
must either be equal to or greater than 2</>; if less than this angle 
then the transitions will overlap, this will be inadmissible ; when 
2</> equals w, then the circular curve disappears, the points c and c' 
becoming one and the same, and such a case is admissible. 

Further, it is not desirable that the radius of curvature at any 
point on the transition should be less than the radius of the 
circular curve. It is for this reason that the application of the 
cubic parabola, as a transition curve is limited. If this were not 
so, then it would be admissible to eliminate the circular arc in all 
cases. This could be done by taking the angle w/2 and a value of 
p, hence obtaining x c and the coefficient m, but it will be found, 
if a certain limit is exceeded, that the radius of curvature will be 
less at some point on the parabola than at x c y c . 

This limit is reached when "H " has a maximum value and may 
be obtained thus 

H = y - y 1 = mx s - R + fi cos <f> b. 

Eliminating mas", also putting R equal to unity and reducing, we 

H = | sin 2 $ cos <f> + cos <f> - 1 c 

from this equation it will be observed that H has a maximum 
value when Js~ 

The angle </» corresponding to this cosine is 24° 5' 41"-45 and the 
congruous value of x e being 0-6804... p. It is therefore advisable 
not to exceed this value of the angle <f>, or the objection mentioned 

Remarks.— When eliminating mx 3 from equation (b) it will be 
noticed that a very useful form of the original equation is obtained 

y = $ 22 sin* * eos ^ d 

we have also at the same time 

x - 2R sin $ cos 2 <p 5 

By this method of procedure \* 
curve, ,in(l hence the angle </> 1 
exceed the limit previously mentioned. The solution of the 
equations (d) and (5) will give the rectangular cartesian co-ordin- 
ates of the point c relative to the axes of the parabola. The 
remaining quantities required being obtained in a similar manner 
as explained in the paper previously referred to. 

H% !!i! 

0-00000 00 
0-00004 02 
0-00032 20 
000108 67 
0-00257 60 
000503 12 
0-00869 38 
0-01380 55 
0-02060 76 
002934 17 
0-04024 93 
0-05357 18 
0-06955 08 
0-08842 77 
010124 53 







Z © © © o 

0-00000 00 
0-00004 17 
000033 36 
0-00112 58 
000266 86 
000521 21 
0-00900 65 
001430 20 
0-02134 87 
0-03039 69 
0-04169 68 
0-05549 84 
0-07205 21 




%\ 8 «ll 

ip ■<* eo t~ en \ j O <o eo cs <X> <M 00 5 O IQ C 

l.*8» • i( ooooooooo 

Mr. C. O. Burge said that the adaptation of the cubic parabola 
to transition curves had been first brought before the Royal Society 
by Mr. Walter Shellshear, m. inst. C.E., about nine years ago. Since 
then, the author of the present paper had communicated a paper 
on the subject, with tables, which had been adopted by the Rail- 
way Construction Department, and he would like to explain how 
these tables were utilised in the Government Railway surveys, all 
curves of twenty chains radius and under being transitioned. 

There were usually two surveys for every line : first, the trial 
survey, on which the estimates were based, and secondly, the per- 
manent staking, on which construction was carried out. Formerly 
the trial survey was very sketchy in character, and the final selec- 
tion was left to the later one. Now, however, the trial survey 
was carefully aligned, and the second one was in many cases more 
or less of a mechanical operation. In the trial survey, however, 

of straight was left between the sharper reverse curves. This 
gave room for the insertion afterwards, in the permanent staking, 
of a four chain transition to each curve, half of each transition 
being absorbed by half of the straight, and half on two chains of 
the circular curve. The four chain transition was adopted almost 
without exception for all the curves dealt with. 

Mr. Burge was of opinion, however, that though it was a good 
thing to have the simplicity gained by a uniform length of transi- 
tion, this length was not enough for main lines where high passenger 
speeds were to be expected, and that, if the Department had to 
deal with such lines, the transitions should be lengthened. It 
should be remembered that, at high speeds, four chains would be 
passed over in less than four seconds, and the sudden oscillation, 
above the springs, set up by the rise in the outer rail, in the four 
chains, would be very severe. In a short curve the fresh oscilla- 
tion set up by the descent of the rail, at the end of the curve, 
might synchronise with the original one, and thus intensified 

might go on for a considerable time, to the detriment of the roll- 
ing stock and the discomfort of the passengers. 

The ideally perfect curve would be one in which the centrifugal 
tendency would be met by a uniform rise in the outer rail from 
the springing to its maximum at the centre of the curve, and a 
similar fall to the end. The minimum of oscillation above the 
springs would then occur, there would only be the gentle rise and 
fall in the whole vehicle due to the flat gradients of the outer rail. 

This would only be completely gained by lengthing the transi- 
tions so that they should meet, absorbing the circular curve 
altogether, and though this would be probably impracticable in 
very long curves, the ideal ought to be approached as nearly as 
possible in high speed lines. Complete parabolic curves were in 
use on the little two feet gauge Festinnog lines, on the extension 
of which he had been employed, and though the great lateral over- 
hang of the rolling stock, due to the narrow gauge, promoted 
oscillation, and the curves were exceptionally sharp, and the speeds 
high, he never travelled on a smoother line. 

The present paper referred to small tramway curves, but what 
he had said would, to a large extent, apply to these, because though 
the speed was much less on tramways than on railways, the curves 
on the other hand were much sharper. 

Mr. P. W. Shaw said the necessity of easement or transition 
curves, on both railways and tramways, had been more fully 
recognised by engineers in recent than in former years, when they 
were left to be put in by the platelayers, and came to be known 
as " platelayer's curves," which curves may be all very well for 
large radii, but when dealing with small ones, something more 
definite is required to minimise the shock on the rolling stock, 
and there can be little doubt but that the cubic parabola will be 
found to answer that purpose in most cases to the fullest extent. 
He was sure the excellent papers the author had communicated 
to this Society on the subject, would be the means of bringing 
that particular curve into more general use. On tramways, where 

the curves employed were frequently as small as from 50 Iks. to 
100 Iks. radius, requiring superelevations of between 2" and 3" the 
necessity of transition curves becomes very apparent, but the 
selection of the best transition to fulfil the requirements was not 
always an easy matter. About four years ago he pegged out what 
he believed was the first transition curve on tramways in this city, 
adopting the system so much in vogue in America, viz., the spiral 
curve, but has used the cubic parabola in preference ever since 
the author's paper on that subject in 1895. Spiral curves are 
made up of radial arcs with increasing radii from the point of 
contact with the curves to the point of contact with the straight. 
The number of radii, and the length of chord employed, determine 
the character of the transition. In practice six or seven arcs are 
generally used, with equal chords 4 Iks. to 10 Iks. in length, accord- 
ing to the requirements, and they can be set out on the ground, 
either by offsets or angles, as may be found most convenient. 
Some very good examples of spiral curves were published in 
October 1895 in the Engineering News and American Railway 
Journal, by C. A. Alden, C.E., in which he gives tables, ranging 
from 30' to 1,700' radius, with short transitions 15' to 43' in 
length. He had plotted down the first three examples given in 
that journal for a curve of half chain radius, against the three 
given in the author's paper to the same radius, to show the com- 
parison between the two systems, when the ratios were similar. 
The two systems agreed very closely in the first and second, but 
in the third example shown, there was a considerable difference, 
one of which was, the distance between the two main curves, 
amounting to about 2' 6", which would be of great value, when 
endeavouring to keep away from the kerbing, on the convex side 
of the curve ; which could not be attained by using the cubic 
parabola, as it would require a length of transition greater than 
•68 of the radius, which the author has shown to be inadmissible. 
One great advantage the cubic parabola has over the spiral, is 
that neither the radius of the main curves R, nor the length of 
the transition x c have any appreciable effect on the curve at the 

P. of C. with the straight, the nominal radius at that point 
always being very large, giving an extremely easy entrance to the 
curve ; whereas in the spiral, shortening x c without introducing a 
great number of radii, has the effect of bringing the curve to more 
or less an abrupt termination, as in the case of No. 1 on the 
diagram shown, the radius at P. of C. with the straight is only 
3-18 chains, giving a curve which in itself might be said to require 
a transition. In America he found engineers seldom made the 
transitions on tramways longer than about 60 Iks. for curves up 
to about 9 chains, but he considered 80 Iks. a very good maximum 
length for the cubic parabola on curves over 1-5 chains radius 
where it could be used, but often found it was not a matter of 
choice, but rather one of necessity, in using the one which would 
comply with the conditions. 

Referring to the author's tables for tramways, while fully 
appreciating the work done, he would like to have seen them 
worked out somewhat on the principle of the author's first paper 
on transitions, viz., with fixed lengths of transitions for different 
radii. The tables given, were very limited in their usefulness, 
because the length of the transition x 9 increased in proportion 
with the radius R, making it too long to use in most cases, also 
as the angle of deflection ta must be greater than 2 <f> = 31° 16' 
before the tables could be applied. A greater variety of trans- 
itions and curves was required on tramways than on railways, to 
enable the engineer to comply with the limited conditions. 

By T. H. Houghton, a.m.i.c.e,, m.i.m.e. 

The question as to which is the most suitable pump to adopt, is 
one that has to be carefully considered by any one proposing to 
raise water for irrigation, on a large scale, and the author has in 
the following paper ventured to bring before the Society, the 
results obtained with various types of pumps, and the cost of 
installing and working them. 

It may be taken for granted, that except in a few places, a 
maximum lift of 100' is, as high, as it is profitable to raise water 
for irrigation purposes, and the author does not propose to discuss 
pumping machinery in general, but only such types as are suitable 
for lifts not exceeding 100'. The selection of a pump is governed 
not only by the engineering problems involved, but by the number 
of days a year it has to work, cost of fuel, and first cost, these 
latter constitute the financial problem, and frequently have more 
influence upon the selection than the engineering one. 

Seven different types of pumps will be considered, viz. : — 

a. Scoop wheels. 

b. Archimedean screws. 
c Chain pumps. 

d. Rotary pumps. 

e. Centrifugal pumps. 

/. Direct acting reciprocating pumps. 

g. Flywheel reciprocating pumps. 

Each of the first three types of pumps, is suitable for pumping 

water to only a very moderate height, the next two have been 

used for lifts of 100', but not with economy, the height to which 

the last two types will raise water is only limited by the strength 

e most economical 

pump is naturally that one which turns the greatest amount of 
the power put into it into effective work, and in Figure 1, are 
shewn the efficiency curves of various types for different lifts, from 
this it will be seen that although the reciprocating pumps are 
very economical as regards power wasted at lifts greater than 30', 
yet at lower lifts the centrifugal pump gives better results, and 
for lifts up to 1 5', a well designed scoop wheel has about the same 
efficiency, as the centrifugal pump. The first three typ